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Aj I'/'-l-.i.iS 











** Stmm winter trallet on that anirpicioiis IUin«, 
Tb« fields lira florid with unfading piMbe; 
From the bleak pole no windii Inclement blow, 
Mold the round hail, or flake the fleecy «now ; 
Rot from the breesy deep the land inhales 
The fragrant murmun of the western galea." 




/.i^/fi-^- S' 


Balerad taMnliD( b> th* Aol of CoDgreu, In tbi jMr 1800, bj 

0. a. EVAHB, 

Ib Ihi Clwli'i Ofle* oT tk* DUtriel Coort for th* BmUtd Dittriat of 




To GsoROE G. Evans, Esq. 

Sir: — ^This manuscript of ''Letters from the Soath/' 
wliicli I send you for your perosal, lias been, as you will see, 
Tery carefully and plainly written out for the press, by a young 
Governess of this State, who diffidently declines to give her 
name in connection with the work. 

It is true that the authorship of what has been composed 
from materials mainly by another hand, cannot be wholly 
claimed by either party : the work, therefore, if published by 
you, must go unaccredited and upon its own intrinsic merits. 

Thirty years' residence at the South, chiefly at Natchez, 
NashTillc, and Mobile, enables^me to form, perhaps, a correct 
estimate of the accuracy of a work professing to relate the 
experiences of a stranger from the North, sojourning in the land 
of ** tobacco, cotton, and sugar." 

The writer has chosen to give the materials collected from 
experience and observation in the attractive form of familiar 
letters, addressed, by request, to an intelligent literary gentle- 
man and editor in the North. 

Wliile presenting accurate pictures of " homes in the Sunny 

Soath,'' there is skillfully interwoven, an interesting narrative 

embodymg the most romantic features of Southern rural life 



on the tobncco, cotton, and sagar estates : the three forms under 
which true Southern Life present itself. 

The tone of the Book is strictly conseiratiTe and national; 
presenting the impartial viev vUch an intelligent, unprejndiccd, 
and highly cultivated Northflra Iftdy would take of the 3oath, 
her temporary and agreeable homo ; and the prcaentatioo of 
snch a work, though neither profound nor political, (hut adaplcd 
for light, summer- perusal, when one covets pacific and pleasant 
reading,) at the present time, will, without doubt, be an accept- 
able gift to the reading public; especially, when hitherto so 
mmh ia relation to our people and institutions is misunderstood 
aiid misinterpreted by those who have no penonal knowledge 
oither of Southerners or of Southern life. 

This work has not been penned merely to naet any recent 
erents. The letters composing it were commenced seven years 
ago, and leisurely produced in a period of three ycais, the lost one 
having been completed in 1856; and were not written with any 
intention of ever liking a book form. Some of them appeared 
in ISKM, in the Saturday Courier, a popular paper once pub- 
lished in your city, betuing the nom de plume of " Miss Kal« 

In consenting to commend them to yonr attention, I feci 
that I am contributing towards the publication of a work which 
will render more familiar " Southern Life at Home" to North- 
ern minds, while its scenes, incidents, and characters will 
agreeably interest the reader. 

If the publication of this lettor will be of any service to the 
work, and contribnto towards your ^vorahlc decision, I checr- 
ftilly give you pemiisaion to append it to the volume. 
Very truly yonrs, 

J. H. Inqbabam. 

Rote Cottagf, near Natckex, Minmippi. 


As most of the Letters embraced in this volume were written 
for the Editor of the late American Courier, and appeared 
therein, from time to time, the writer thereof has not seen fit 
to alter the local allusions, the style of address in the Let- 
ters, or the appellation of "Needles," by which they were 
originally designated. As these Letters were commenced, and 
many of them published before Mrs. Stowc's Uncle Tom waa 
written, its pictures of South-western life have no reference to 
that work nor were influenced by it. These epbtles are not 
replies to any attacks on the South, but a simple representation 
of Southern life, as viewed by an intelligent Northerner, whose 
opinions are frankly and fearlessly given. 

The object of this work b to do justice to the Southern 
planter, and, at the same time, afibrd information in an agree- 
able form to the Northerner ; and if these objects are obtained 
in any degree, the writer, in consenting to its publication as a 
volume, will be fully rewarded. One important fact ought not 
to be overlooked, which is, that ninety-nine out of every hun- 
dred of the governesses, tutors, professional men, and others, 
who flock to the South, " ten thousand a year," for the improve- 
ment of their fortunes, remain, (the young ladies, if they can 
obtain " Southern husbands,") and identify themselves fully with 

the Southern Institutions. 





Titles, how Mieoted — Their ralae to a hook — The diffioultj of choof- 
ing of a good title — ** Dots and Lines" — Seisflora and Needles — Fe- 
male Aathonhip^Woman's pen-trials — The Author's hsppiness — 
Amhition lobe in type 19 


A western home — Cole — Beautiful scenery — Cotton and tobacco fields^ 
Shelter — Mail coach— -J#ions — Dores and childhood — Negro quarters 
The orerseer's house— The Cumberland rirer 25 


The planter and his retinue — The African serrant and his dog — The 
hunters* departure — The slave girl, Edar— The numerous servants in 
a southern house— The difference between the field and house slave.. 81 


The hunters' return — The two strangers — The authoress' story — The 
Tillage and the widow — The brothers — The beautiful Ida— The mis- 
chievous boy and minister's horse — The authoress — The normal 
school — The private equipage — Col. Peyton and daughter — The sur- 
prise 87 


Touring among the mountains— The letter — The struggle— The opposi- 
tion — The little invalid scholar— The parting at the school-house— 
Sjnpatbj— The tour west— Arrival in Nashville— The « Lodge"...... 45 




^ ¥Mmm 

Aathor'i looki — Camerfbair pencils — The plantation bell — Waking 

boun — The mint-Jnlep — The luxury of a domestic — The breakfast 

Terandah — The dinner — The erening ride — The drawing-room — 

Hours of retiring ^ 50 


Fox-hunting — Kate's courser^ The youna^ Tennessee hunters — The 
separation — The master and his slares — Reflections — The Peacock 
and mule — The fight — A race, bat not a fox-chase— The catastrophe. M 


The morning start— The rarine and dogs — The negroes' invitaUon to 
Reynard — The baying — The flight of the fox — The conflict and leap 
—The entanglement — The reil and the death — Kate presented with 
the brash — 61 


The nmU ebapel — The gray-baired pastor — The authoresi attends 
eburch — Qroup of Madonna and child — The singing of master and 
sUres — The mistress and her senrants — The ebony baptisms. M 



NasbTille — Its approaches — The Hermitage and tomb— The eapitol — 
President Polk — Fashion and gayety — Authors— Poets of the west 
—French in newspapers — Candidate for authorship 71 


Enlisted as eontribator — Gratitude— The hopes and fears of anthorsblp 
— Lore of poets for their rerses — Love of self — New»paper poetry — 
What is immortality— The fame of the year A.M. 0,000 77 


The InritatioD — The intelligence of the horse— Ninereb — The nobiHiy 
of man — The scenery of the woods — Squirrels — The old negro and 
««lprit— Charms — The Indian banter — The story of the old warrior 
—The hospitable planter— Kato pays toll SS 


The foo4 and tro*— Kals's brnTsry doabled — Tho old naosloii — Di 
VoniOB rifillod^BospitaUty la silTsr goUels—Tha portiait and 



•hineter of JMkion—HUi mercj— Tht deierter— Wftr-relios— The 
■J^or*! war-ho ne T ht deer-«Uuid« — ^MiliUiy poitinf— The deer in 
flfht— FtrO»— The ihoi. ^ 91 


The pet fiiwii — ^Bnek tad wolf— The nproAr in the kennel — The eanine 
tpieiiree and Mabi' Daphn^f — Old George and hit fiddle — A slare 
Tillage by moonligh(^True muie — Young Africa— Com danoe-^ 
Riding a bnll for a wager— Songi of the people. 102 


The ecwwy abeoi the lodge— The Polks— The " needlea^ in dangei^— 
The bloodhoand — A reteae and the dirk — Aunt Phillisy — The aged 
Afriean — Care of southemera for the old ilarei — Conversation with 
CbsImi^ — Comparison between the Indian and African— Female politi- 
ciaas and patriotism— Cli^ and Webster.. 112 


Emerson and his thoughts — Female writers — ^The colonel reads no hook 
written bj a lady — Shirley — Ooldsmtth — Shakspeare — Fame and 
Tom Moore — Opening an Indian mound — Disco rery of idols — Ge- 
ology en amateur — Thunderbolts — A lorer's quarrel — All owing to 
a prescription — A story proposed 121 


The Kashrille eonrention — The site of the city— Two South Carolini- 
ans — An old Roman — The party attend conrention — Politeness in 
poblio assemblies — Madaase de Stael upon honor and duty — South 
Carolina orators — The handsome mayor — Speeehes of Virginia dele- 
gation— Hon. Wm. Colquitt— General Pillow— W. H. Polk— Self- 
laadaiioo — ^A^joarament of eonrention — Thanks to the ladies— A 
gift from Seath Carolina 129 


A nysterions letter — Not a declaration— The fame of the authoress at 
a premiam — Inritation to write— A tale proposed — The master and 
slare — An African wedding — Brilliant costumes — The supper — Ethi- 
opUM geatiHty^The sea-eapUin— New Africa ignores Old Afirica— 
Tka eaptaiA ridea.. 142 


ThaBBthorMi wrilu k Ula— A ward to edilon — iMbal ud th* wODiidwl 
■oldio — A Dobl* nply — Orthogiaphj and wum lieart*— Ad wItm- 
tar* with a Baagal tli*r— Tht ptrilou lilutiDn ot tbt bdiw— Tba 
powar of miuio OT*r braUi — The n*CD> — Th* duth — Blrdj, aad 
uoDkiT*, ud UtUa B*gniei!f, 1 

nahloc — CMtoaw for tlw wood* — lubtl In bMomlng ktlin — Hsa'* 
hkti uid womea — Th* pis-nle-bMlitt — A bttrif *1 of rad Maliog-wkz 
— A meTTj ptrtj — Thi uptun'i end — Towing into port — C(mId| — 
The roruC brook— Tha loran— Leuana in fltfalac— Tba dinnar in th* 
for*it — Old Hiokarj'i mtiDorj » „.. 1 

lUlph Wild* BmartoD— HI* pbilowpbT— A orltiqa*— Whcra hli phi. 
iMopbj li dtfHtiTt — School Tor foong italaimaD — Collage for diplo- 
mat* at WiihingtoD — ?or«<gn Bilnlitan to b* abl* to ipaak foraign 
lugucai — Dickana mi hia booka — Mtt. Fudj Otgood ud her 

Sc more book — Propoa«d dapartura to tha Bpringi — The e*ni*f* ead 
ho* it waa atoned— The eaviloada, not omitting Dickon and hii boot* 
— Th* lad hon* and baanlirul ninl* — Unlet ■riatoeralio animala — 
Na(ro*i' nd miration for new ahoaa— Oentlanwn'a bata— A angceition 
to promote conTinalion in tha parlor-^An aipreuion ol thankt In ■ 
PJ- ™.. i; 

n* w tu t — Vialt to Colambia— Tha birlb-plao* and molhar of a pn^ 
dant— Th* Oothle inatitot*— Th* profeitor ud bia balU— Th* ewi- 
odtj of > b**7 of (Ida— A lloii***— Tha nnlaeky poat— Kate'* in- 
dignation — Th* MloD*ri iBrprb* — Tha pDniahmant — Th* TorglTaneM 
—The dreaded potm. ll 


Tha Kdan of Tenna ia aa The editor'i •icuraloD—Dook rirer, Or, what 

U 1b a nana }—A baaBtifDl TiUa and ground*— Biabop Olej at U« 

hOBe— Beflaetiobi npoB deaib- BaaatiTa] aawwy Th»art of anek- 

Ing — A b* famUilna inggMiion* and eritlaUaa on anoking sigan... 1i 



1 wBtariag piaoe— Its Mivoi— The Uit reioii— Deieription of Ui« 
p b e> N oon-day foeoM — Tht fldiisg lawyer «nd hia hone — The &t 
fnUeown end his eetsftrophe— An alann— Oenend wekisg up — ^ 
Diaaer-bell — ^The^onhommie of the 4»to — Unbroken fomt — An 
BthiopJMi dinner — ^Nighi nnd ita eoondS. 200 


Tb« hoar end pen for writing— The return home— The Tillage of Moont 
Pleennt — Ken Hill end scholarly men — Donald M'Leod — The no- 
gleet of edaeation — Oonnt Meolia-^Bonboni — The delights of home 
— Keep moTing — A propoied trip to New Orleans — The power of 

Lind 212 


Tbe noTolty of lovth-weitem life— An enumeration of objects of in- 
terest — Tbe yonng soatheroer — The fair maiden of the sunny south 
— Rnn-a-way matches — Sargent's song — Bats in the room — Terror 
of young ladies — The battle and victory — The colonel lectures on 
bats — They derour musquitoes, not maidens 222 


The baggage— Partiog at the park— Pets— The mystery of brute life— 
geenery — Arriral at the steamer— The noble America — The beauty 
of the rerandahs — Elegance and luxury — Tbe promenade — State- 
rooms-^Beparture of the boat — The last bell 233 


The beanty of the Ohio— The pirates' cave — The rirer robbers — The 
good old keel-boat times— Life on tbe river fifty years ago— Tbe grave 
beneath the sycamore — The old pilot's story — The assassination — 
Revelations of the future — The exquisite and his hat — The deserters 
shot — The pilot house — Father of waters. 241 


Entrance Into the Mississippi — Meeting of tbe waters — The dark river 
— >Tbe dangers of the Mississippi— Beautiful sun-set — Chain of lakes 
Night on the water—The woodmen's fires — The captain's story — 
SigMl fires and the ruse— Barthquakes— The bear and alarm. 251 

12 C0NTBNT8. 



Th« eity of BAtebti— lis •leguic*— Tbe bMaty of itf tabarbf — Ita 
polUbtd |Mople->Tha magDoliM — Drive fron town — ^A auporb vUU 
— Vifit » oharmiAf ^ardoii — A lovely proepeei— Southern flowere— 
The nighi-bloonU^f oereoe— The frave of *' good old Peier"^RoAee- 
Uoof upon " faithful lenrantf*'^ 25 


The old family — The ponitioo of goTernetsea in the aoath — Of tutora — 
The eril of Borthera interfereaee with the aouth— The meeting of 
Kale with a fkiend — The edoeaiion of aontbem boya — ^Tbe dead abot 
— The Indian ehief and Sharp'a rifle— The Indian grave and the 
Cbriatiaa ohapel— Sabject for a poem 26 


Loat needlea— The old pareon — The earafhlly entraated package— Let. 
ter from the editor naming the loaa — Refleetiona upon miaaing MSS 
— Two paroela loat — ^Value of manuaoripta to authora — " To be pre- 
aerred" 27 


In Louiaiana — Lettera from the prairiea— Narratire reaamed — The 
ateamer in aight—Fort Roaalie — Qo on board— Waving of kereh iefa 
— The fawn'a leap— Opulence apoila authora — ^The elegant ateamer — 
The myatorioM pa a een g er SS 


Interior of a packet— The ilne old aoutbem gentleman — Happy world 
— Wandering pen — The intereating invalid — Superb piano performance 
of a atranger — Operatic atarv — Not Jenny Lind — Who ia ahe? — Mu- 
aical geniua of aoutbem women — Biacaccianti — Parodi ~ Lettara from 
Louiaiana......* 28 


The lower Miaaiaatppi — Scenery on the ahorea — A vaat eotton fleld—- 
Wealth of cotton -plan ten — ^The way to get rich — Baton Rouge — 
The home of Qeneral Taylor — Old Whitey- Ladiea of Baton Rouge 
— ^Membera of the legialatare— Voyage reaumed 29 


The old pHot — The red pole — A eonalr of Loulaian — The old tlmei of 
riTor bueeanttn— A hint for a itory writar— The pirata'a death— TIm 



goTinor*! bride— A bit of romance— Senator Benjamin — ^Hia ap- 
ptuaoee— Ditenaaion and talent — The intellect of the Jeirt — Their 
aiibUioii— Pieaide&t of the United SUtei 308 


Tbt npr wtate— Chateau and qnartier — Sacrerie — Coat of opening a 
n|tf wtate — An enchanting scene — Signal firei — The two conrents 
— Bdeeatioo of girla therein — Bame Ursala and her legendt — The 
inlviOM of eoBFenta over the minda of pnpili — Bomaniam — Prajen 
vA ptdta. ^ ^ ~ 309 


DtMBdants of the Freneh in Louisiana— View from a balcony — Pass- 
isf itaamers — Sugar fields — A Louisianian chateau — The slave Tillage 
— Sugtr house — M. de Clery's son — ^A secret — Proposed visit to New 
OrlesBs — An engagement — Lovers to be chosen for their good 
teorper. 816 


MoiK bj night — laabel — ^ Musquito-bars— The carriage road — The 
Itrte— Danger of the dwellers on the *' coast" — What a crevasse is 
—How it begins and is stopped — The authoress guardian over a lover 
—The midnight tocsin — A conflagration — A prayer for those in 
diager. - 322 


lint impiessiona of a city — The foreign aspect of New Orleans— The 
Indian war-whoop— The conductor and the old lords of the soil— The 
poodle-dog — The Frenchman and his bird — The cake — The conversa- 
tion with the prisoner in the cage— The grandpa meets hia family — 
The joy of the household — The escapade — The consternation and pur- 
sait^ 328 


Approach to the city — Gardens and villas — Arrival at the depot — An 
Irisli haekman — Chinaman with kites — Handsome bouquet seller — 
The parrot omo — Lridore bays a bouquet — The drive to the St Lonia 
— Ita palaos like aecommodationa». 334 




The leree at New Orleans — Ride along the qoaj — The thipa of Sweden 
— Jenny Lind, Thorwaldeen, and Fredeiika Bremer — The half- 
masted flagt — The ehips of England, Franee, and Spain— >Wharf for 
■teamen-^The glorj and iplendor of commeroe^The fate of all an- 
cient oommeroial cities 83 


The model hotel-proprietor— -Diplomas — Hotel -keeping an art and pro- 
fession — The French part of the citj — Shops — The old cigar-smoker 
— Indifference to obserration of the French — New Orleans compoeed 
of two cities — Children eren speak French — An exile — A Oerman 
prince— -nearly all languages spoken in the city 84 


The peculiarity of the streets — Young ladies taught philosophy — The 
Place d'Armes and its gay scenes — Visit to the cathedral — Veiled 
lady— The confessional — Secret of power — The picture of the Pas- 
sion — Mariolatry — Reason for it in the inseparability of the Madonna 
and Child— St. Patrick's cathedral— 111 bnUt church 8S 


Betum to the country — Correction of error caused by misplaced notes 
— Nicolene — Who is she? — Friendship without sight — A greeting to 
the lored unknown — A wedding In prospect — Taxes upon taste— Isi- 
dore— Aunt Cloe icing cakes — Bosting-way 8( 


Danger of postponement of wedding — Objections now to the nuptials 
—Isidore in despair — Kate the consoler — Colonel Peyton condemns 
all fashion — A new idea — M. de Clery is charmed with it — Whipping 
around the stump — The excitement of preparation — What daughters 
exchange for husbands — Blessings on the happy pair.^ 8( 


A wedding— Men's curiosity— The dogs, birds, and ssble urchins r^olee 
— Old Bonus — A howling dog supposed to be an ill omen — Mnssled 
—The Tisll to the ehapel— The parson and his mul e Bea u ty of 
seenery Tha ohapel— The graTO— Reflections upon life and death 
—Parting with the bride flUs her heart with lenrs. 81 

OONTS2IT8. 15 



Tbt oortBgt — ShtTe oostiiin*— The wreath of oimDge bloMomt — Beftu- 
tifil girli— Twentj^onr brideuDaidf— The weddlof— The kiMing^ 
Tbt eoBfimtoliUioiie— Setom to the ebatean — ^Dinner perty — ^Loit 
and woi h e e r te B etreyel of e secret— Intended departure for New 
York— An old maid of two and twenty 876 


Priptfatioss for HaTanna— The dignity of Webster— A letter to Charley 
— Tb« onfledged bine bird — The troable of its parents — Congress of 
t^ foTMt dwellers — The efforts of the friends of the nnfortonate— 
Kate's eompassion — ^A ladder and cotton— Moral to little boys 888 


BMecDding the Mississippi— The Balise — Singular appearance of the 
▼etwtf— The beauty of the first night on the gulf— The splendor of 
Orioo and Pleiades — ^Were there ever seren stars? — The natire 
poetry of children 888 


HanoB»-.Tho More Castle — A line of battle ship — Tlie scenes in the 
lUMts of Haranna— The Britiih flag — The glory of America— The 
•Bpirt of repnblics— The Triamyiri— Who takes their place ? 894 


Vtw Tork— >Neptane — Calm seas — The Hying heart under the sea- 
Vessels met in the ocean — Oar passengers of ten nations — The Is- 
nelite — What is a Jew 7 — Has he a country — The future commeroial 
iplendorof the Israelites. 899 


As departure orer sea — Leaye the city — Cars to Boston — M. de Cressy 
—The aspect of Boston- Literary society — Germon — Mrs. Psrtington 
—Her literary ambition and failure — Homeward bound — Quiet of the 
soantry 405 


My natiye Tillage— The scenes at home — The Tisits of neighbors — The 
dsaeon inquisitiye — Bible trees— The new dresses — Buttonhole and 
his seven suits — The proposition to print a book — The proposed title 
^Dildeoee of the authoress— Farewell to literature 419 



A rannin — Marriagt of K»te atarly three yean ago^Letter from her 
fiitnd* theoditor — Letten to be reramed — Little Harry — Little needlea 
— Conaeiit to wrile— ^eiet and elegant hoaM — Knte n ■ontheni 
mntron. ^.^ 41 


Miftaken for another — The European Miu Con jngham — Letten nn- 
written of a tonr^The route to Thibodeaoz — Bayoiu and boat-fail- 
ing — Sugar fieldi — Cuitomf of the people — Saturday gatheringa— 
The bargea of the planters — A charming country 49 


niawaUa er Lover's Lake — Beantifnl lawns—The hooee and grounds 
— Lsaginary letter of the editor — Description of a southern horn*— 
Kate's eritieisms— Homee and heaven— Wh«t constitatea a home— 
The worda of Jesus— Cities the results of the fall— Raee with a deer 
— The Indian lover's death 43 


Tba pietore— Anat Winny — Florette and Harry — Annt Winny's ezpe- 
rienee— The voice and silver trumpet — The old slave's argument 
about tongues— The vision — The prtnoher and baptism — The miracle 
and superstition of the slave — Reflection upon negro conversions — 
An answer to an inquiry^ 4J 


Shopping — The new fashion — Chloe and the mode — Dissertation upon 
hats and fashion generally — An academy of fashions — A suggestion 
to the ladies of America — A good result flrom an American court of 
modes — Preparation for a picnie 44 


The commissariat's department — Harry and the doctor — The basketi 

and pareeb — The Xebee— the floating bondoir— Undo Ned ihm 

steersman— The two aiste is Louie the lever — Harry not Cnpid — Thm 

beyen— BrenkflMt en voyage— Aeeses le n to the party— The geed 

r's aMompUshamlB. ^ 41 



tfeftattrt ptofl—Thibodwox— Enter La ITovroba — TIm rojMgt Utgfui 
— Tht tonh-Ufht fanaral of the nan — The goddeai Marj— The 
fnplMej end » little theology—The f ogar estate— The laTaiumhi — 
kim-~An elUgetot^The Onlf, ho L. ^.. ...... ......••• MS 


iitbn tad MOB^y^The sight of the Golf— Hoist sail— The sugar y 
iloof-Oalf trade— Children's speeehes— The eondition of the slare 
— Kortbem interferenoe— Sonthem hnmanity — When a blaek Moses 
h wutad, HeaTOB will send him — The anchoring— Tent pitched — 
iBilsrm 471 


Uiitity of anthors — Speoolationi— Pen — Names — Onr tent lodgings 
— Tks Rerenae Cutter — Sneoessfnl sport— Visit to Barrataria Bay 
—TIm spparent Foleano at sea — The sphericity of the earth— The 
■Ndlc and light-ship— Lafttte's Fort 482 


TW ismoMr resort of Looisianians — The Roman Chapel — *' Mary and 
Pul"— Adoration of the mother— Tlie marqnis — The post-mistress 
tsd her brare father — Captain Heam — Oentility — The mound and 

warrior — Bathing and swimming 491 


Uvn the Pass — The Oregon — Lake by moonlight — The beauty of the 
••a by night — Meeting a Teasel— Grass Patch — The Fleet Anchorage 
The Cutter— Captain Douglas Ottingeri inyentor of the Life Car — 
Mobile — Its bay and watering places— Hotels 500 


Ae Southern elime— Society in Mobile — Beauty of suburbs — Soeiety 
Madame Le Vert — Absent in Europe— An adTcnturer of the female 
lez — "Noble friends"- The Jewelry discovery — Flight of the 



Lsave the hospitalities of Mobile— Its pleasant people and fine driTOS 
SaB up the Alabama— Montgomery— Ring left at the hotel— Con- 
deelor's promise— Augusta— Columbia a Paradise — Charleston and 

Carolinians— The Triumviri.... .« 51S 






An old YbfiBia loB-^FInt Pftailiot— Walter lUldgh— SMirary of 
Virgin]* — TIm wmi of aobloo— Tho Inn pnrlor — Snnptaona tnblo — 
Trip to Boropo— FartwtU ^ .^ 5Sl 





DiAR Mr. : 

Not that you are very " dear" to me, for I never 
saw you in all my life, but then one must begin their 
epistles, and as everybody says dear^ and don't mean 
any thing by it, I say dear too, and don't mean any 
thing by it, so don't flatter yourself in the least ; for, 
if it were the fashion, and the whim hit my fancy, I 
should just as likely have written " Bear." You edi- 
tors presume so much, you need to be put down. 

I was going to begin my letter by saying why I call 
my letters " needles." Not, you may rest assured, be- 
cause they are likely to be sharp and keen, for I have 
no doubt that they will be vastly duU, but one must 
have a titles and what must one do for one? Simple 
^^ Letters*' would never tempt the eye. The pill must 
fce gilt. You would, no doubt, laugh very good-hu- 
inoredly if I should confess to you that I have been 



THE SUNNY south; OR, 

botliering my poor litth* head for three liours to-day 
for a title. A celebrated author once told me, — for I 
have seen such lions in my day, and talked and flirted 
with these lords of the quill, too, — that he thought more 
of his ^Hitles" than of the matter of his books, and 
that was no slight matter either! He said lie had 
sometimes written out on a long paper, (like a subscrip- 
tion list, I suppose,) a score of names, and then carefully 
studied them, fancied how they would take the eye of 
the lounger in the book-stores, or the passer-by, who 
should glance at the big poster : he even used to go so 
far as to set the title up in type, an amateur fount of 
which he kept by him for this purpose, before he fully 
fixed upon his ^^ claptrap.** 

Now, I can imagine all this to be very necessary, and 
1 give this author credit for no inconsiderable knowledge 
of human nature. Half the novels are bought by their 
titles by half the world. I used to buy them so. 
When I took this weighty fact into consideration, I was 
sore perplexed. ^^ Letters" I was resolved not to have. 
^^ Epistles" looked like the New Testament, and I felt it 
too sacred a word for me to make light use of; for I was 
very properly brought up to reverence any thing about 
the Scriptures. I thought of '^ Pen and Ink" sketches — 
a nice title, but Mr. Willis had invented and used it : 
happy gentleman with a gift for happy titles ! for his 
^^ Pencillings by the Way" is another that came into my 
head, and I tried every way to parody it, but I couldn't 
manage it at all, and gave it up. I thought of ^^ Dots 
and Lines," but somebody had got it before me, and no- 
thing seemed left but Dot and go One; when, in my 
troubles I pricked my finger with a needle that wmi 


IB mj needle-book, which I was taming and turning 
in mj fingers while I was cogitating about my title. In- 
ittntly the idea flashed upon me, and the words, ^* Nee- 
dles from my Needle-Book !" I seemed to read in the air 
before my eyes. For fear I should forget the happy 
eombination, I scribbled it down on the spot, and deter- 
nned to adopt it. 

No doubt you will expect to find something short 
and shrewd, ascetic and attic in my articles, but I pro- 
mise you that you must look for nothing of the kind ; 
tet it only takes great authors to write books that have 
nothing to do with their titles, nor their titles with them. 
The only defence I can make of my caption is that it is 
Tery appropriate to my sex, being a fair weapon either 
of offence or defence, as well as the glittering shuttle 
of female industry. Would you believe it, sir, my pupil, 
a wicked rogue of a beauty of sixteen, (for you must 
know I am a governess, and but nineteen and a little 
oveTy myself,) she has seen my title, and says I had bet- 
ter put, " Scissors" to it? Scissors and Needles ! Dear 

OS, Mr. ! what would you have thought to have 

opened my package, and had this title met your asto- 
nished editorial eyes ? 



You have had in this specimen a touch of my South- 
western pupiFs mischief, and you shall know more of 
her by-and-by, perhaps, if you print this letter and don't 
say any thing saucy about it ; for editors, who have lady 
correspondents, ought to be exceedingly well-behaved and 
mannerly, and appreciate the honor done them. Now, 

22 %TiiE SUNNY south; or, 

havinir introduced mv title to vou, liow .shall I introduce 
myself anil all the subjects I intend to let my pen run 
on about ? I shall not give you my name, nor give you 
any doe to it, if yoa should be never so carious to find 
it out; for men have jo much curiosity! even where 
there will be; as in my case, nothing worth the trouble 
of finding out, for I am not so vain as to fancy I shali 
ever be worth asking after. It will take more ink and 
^per than I shall ever destroy, to make a lady who 
would be ^' literary*' singled out of the iraupeM of bm 
bleu that fill the land like the golden-winged butterfltes 
in May. But I will do what I can to please, for my 
poor, innocent pen has got to travel a weary length, and 
I long to make happy more than one dear heart in this 
world. Authorship is not woman's sphere by nature, 
but by circumstances only. Oh, how many a gmtle 
lady has the needle of poverty pricked on to seiie, with 
trembling fingers, the awe-inspiring pen ! and dip it into 
her heart, to write out its life for bread ! Weary, oh ! 
weary is the path to woman's little feet — ^the path fur- 
rowed deep by the ploughshare of penury. In the fur- 
rows she drops the seeds of hope, and waters them with 
tears. It is a rough way this path amid types, and in 
the hustle for popularity and pennies, the sex is not 
spared by the ruder ones, and the critic's iron point, 
that maddens the strong man, pierces to the heart the 
timid woman ! Yet, once started, she must write or die ; 
or, worse still, be dependent ; and tAt«, to a proud wo- 
man, is the firtt death of this world's deaths. 

Do not think I am going to charge my palette with 
■ombre tints, from these few sentences foregoing, or that 
I am in tears because I am for the first time taking up 


fte feaifiBl pen to write for ooiiu o£ nhrer. I am yonng 
ifid frill of hope, and my Iraart bomicb with cheerful 
dHnightfl. I do not qpeak in allusion to myself^ there- 
five, when I say that it is a sad lot for a woman to be 
mqfelled to toil with pen and ink for her bread; for 
the prospect before me is a pleasing one. The very 
idea that probaUy I shall see in priiU what I am 
writing, (if it please your pleasnre, sir, to print it, 
ttoBgh little worth it, I fear,) fills my bosom with an in* 
definable sensation of joy, slightly mingled with a timid 
apprehension. I am dying to see myself in type; not 
in the place where marriages are noticed ; don't naughtily 
misconceive my meaning, sir ; for I am not going to be 
married till I enjoy myself sensibly as a ^^ young woman,*' 
a little longer yet. My situation here is a happy one, 
and if I only lived for myself I should not put pen to 
paper; for I am blessed with all I require to make me 
contented and grateful. The timid apprehension, I feel 
when I look forward, arises from a creeping doubt which 
once in a while coils itself around the tree of hope in my 
heart, touching the acceptance of my communications; 
for this doubt insinuates, with very serpent-like wicked- 
ness, that I shall not be proved to be clever enough to 
write any thing worth the printing. But "hope, and 
hope on," is the motto of my adoption, and I shall not 
despair: I never could despair. It seems to me that if 
I stood alone, the last one alive, upon a burning wreck 
in the mid Mediterranean, I should not despair, but be- 
lieve that rescue would come. 

This letter is only an introductory needle, a sort of 
antorial probe, to feel the way; or rather like the first 

24 THB SUNNY south; or, 

needle placed in an electrical battery, to be increai 
afterwards in number, as the patient will bear. 

Yonr correspondent, 


Dated raoic Otsbton Park, bxtovd thx ALLxonAif ixs. 

P. S. In mj next, I will tell you something about < 
Manor-house, and how this West-south land strikes 
eye of one, cradled as I have been, among the Qm 
Mountains of the Pilgrim Land. 



i It would no doubt please you, Mr. , to learn 

f iooething about ub here at Overton Lodge — ^for this is 
j the name of the fine old Western Homestead for whidi 
I haye exchanged my cold, yet warm-hearted northern 
clime. Overton Lodge, then, please to know, is a large, 
commodious mansion of brick, square and stately, with a 
double storied portico in front, from the upper gallery 
of which is one of the finest landscape views a painter's 
eye— even the eye of the deathless Cole — would care to 
banquet on. In Tennessee? you will say, with a quizzi- 
cal movement of the under lip, and an incredulous drop- 
ping of the outward comer of the nether eyelid. Yes, 
in Tennessee, sir, for Overton Park is in this Western 
Empire State. But, to my sketch — and don't interrupt 
me sir, for any doubts about the verity of my writings, 
for I never romance ; ladies can write something besides 
romances, sir! 

From this upper portico the view stretches for miles 
and leagues away, to a blue range of boldly beautiful 
hills, that, when the atmosphere is a little hazed, seem 
to be the blue sky itself bending down to repose upon 
the undulating sea of forests, at their base. Between 
these azure walls that bound our horizon westward, and 
the mansion, lie belts of noble woodland, intermingled 
with green intervals, through which wind transparent. 

86 THi sfJNHT south; OB, 

rock-channeled rivulets, (thej would call them rivers 
England,) bordered by fringes of maple, sycamore, t 
oak trees, opulent with verdure. 

Nearer the house, comprising the first breadth of vl 
a mile and a half in width, stretch right and left the r 
cotton and tobacco fields, like, in the distant coup di 
lakes of blue and green water, slightly ruffled by 
breeze ; while their level surface is relieved at pretty 
tervals by islands of trees — half acre clumps grouped 
groves, and left by the overseer for shade, where sla 
can retire in the fervid noon, to eat their coarse 
abundant dinner, doubtless to them eavotj as Paris 
cuisinerie. The picturesque aspect of these grote-isla 
is enhanced by the white walls of a negro-shelter-l 
which is built upon columns to afford protection from 

The "Lodge," being placed with an eye to the ca 
bilities of the surrounding prospect, upon a gently ris 
eminence, which is clothed with gardens to its foot, 
a very imposing appearance, as it is approached alonj 
winding carriage-way, that leads to it from the st 
road. This is at least a league off, and its place can 
indicated on dusty days from the house, by clouds 
reddish brown dust rolled into the air and curling ah 
the hedges, disturbed by the heavy wheels of the n 
coach, or the lighter progress of some planter *s carrii 
on its way from town. 

It seemed to me when I first came in sight of 
mansion, that was to be (I don*t know how long) 
home, that I was approaching the mansion of s( 
English Baronet, at least ; and the scenery of this { 
of Tennessee, I am told, bears a striking resemblanoi 


dutin the best part of England; and I can bear teati- 
monj that the neighboring gentlemen are vying in taste 
tod wealth with each other, to make this country one of 
the most lovely in the land. For you must know that 
this is an opulent district, and the planters here count 
their estates rather by miles than acres. 

I have described only the yiew in front of this stately 
edifice, from which I am writing you. From a little 
hilcony that opens from my chamber window south, I 
get a view of a yale and upland, dotted with sheep and 
etttle, tended by a blind negro boy, who whistles all 
day, and I have no doubt sleeps soundly all night; who, 
with his' dog, complete a very nice picture of its kind. 
The crest of the upland is topped by a wood, out of 
which, just where the acclivity dips eastward, stares a 
huge, bald, gray rock, in shape as much like a lion's head, 
as either of the heads of those lions on your Exchange 
steps in Philadelphia, for which I am credibly informed 
that a famous dog, belonging to a Monsieur Gardel, a 
talented gentleman of your city, sat; and very good lions 
they are — ^very like lions ! If I recollect right, this dog, 
who sat as a model for a pair of lions, was called '* Nep- 

I remember once seeing him at West Point, and falling 
in love with him, (with "Nep," not Monsieur G.,) when 
I was about — about — ^let me see — thirteen. 

But let me finish my scenery. This lion's-head rock 
hangs over a deep tam^ where at mid-day, the water is 
black and polished as glass ebon ; and near the tarn, not 
five yards from its margin, rises thirty feet in height, a 
green pyramid, one of the sepulchral mounds of the noble. 


brave, mysterious Indians, now wasted, as McLellan, one 
of the New England poets, says, 

" Like April snows 
In the warm noon," 

before the bnrning radiance of the sun of ciyilisation. 
On the east side of the mansion, there is quite a different 
view from either I have described. First, the eye rests 
on a vast vegetable and fruit garden, a score of good 
roods broad, crossed by wide graveled walks, dotted 
with hot-houses, and enclosed by a white paling, hal^ 
concealed in a luxuriant hedge of the thorny and beautiful 
Cherokee rose. At two comers of the garden erected 
on high places, is perched a monstrous pigeon house, to 
and fro, above and about which its soft winged tenants 
are flying in clouds at all times, like the scriptural dovea 
to their windows. 

Of all birds, I love the dove, the home dove, with its 
blue and brown breast, its affectionate, trustful glance^ 
and its musical, happy coo. I have loved them in the 
streets of my native town from a child, and stopped and 
watched them till I forgot school hour, and dinner hour, 
as they fluttered, hopped, sidled, and pranced about the 
fallen oats under the farmer*s cart, or crowded about the 
shop doors. 

I never failed to have my pocket filled with grain and 
crumbs for them, and I cannot now but smile at the re- 
collection of myself, at twelve years old, seated on a 
curb-stone, surrounded, and lit upon, and run over, and 
almost had my eyes put out by their wings, as they 
eagerly shared my bounty out of my hands and lap. 
Many a black mark at school for tardiness, and many a 


Molding at home have I to lay to the account of the blue 
doTM. Yet I love them still ; and ere long they will find 
out— these in the dove-cotes — ^that thej have a friend 
near; and I dare say in my little balcony, ere I have 
been here a month, will be enacted the street scenes of 
mj girlish days. 

Beyond the garden is a large pond or lake, and on the 

deelinty of the opposite shore appears, half hid in the 

trees of its pretty streets, one of the most novel and 

itriking towns I ever beheld. It is the ^^ Quartier" or 

African village of the estate, the Negropolis of the slave 

population. It is composed of some thirty dwellings, 

white-washed, one story high, arranged on two streets 

that follow the margin of the pond. Each cottage is 

neat and comfortable, vrith a small garden patch behind 

it ; and in front are rows of shade trees for the whole 

length of the street, growing near enough to each house 

to afford shade to the roofs. The streets themselves are 

green sward, intersected by well-trodden footpaths which 

lead from door to door. 

Overlooking them all, and a little higher up the gentle 
ascent, is a house of more pretension, built of brick, with 
a belfry at one end, containing a bell as loud as a 
church bell, which I hear rung every morning at day- 
break, and at noon, and at nine o'clock at night. This 
bouse belongs to, or rather is occupied by, the overseer, or 
manageVj as these gentlemen prefer being designated. 
Over this house rises a majestic range of mountainous 
heights, of great beauty, from the summit of one of 
which, three miles off, and which is designated by a 
tingle scathed tree rising from a bosom of foliage, a view 


can be obtained, with a good glass, of the city, six 
leagues or thereabouts to the north ; and also of one of 
the shining windings of the romantic Cumberland, as 
it, for a mile or two, leaves its embracing clifis to roll 
gloriously along in the cloudless sunlight. 



You will have formed some idea, Mr. j from 

the descriptions in m j last, of the characteristics of the 
phee from which I write these oommonications. You 
vill perceive that I am domiciliated in one of those fine 
old mansions of the West where the lordly proprietors 
lire more like feudal nobles than simple farmers. In the 
lK)iom of this beautiful scenery which I have endeavored to 
picture to you, and within the walls of this hospitable 
tbode, I hope to make my home, at least for two years 
to Gome. 

Perhaps you would like to know something about me 
before I came here to assume, at the age of nineteen, the 
gnve and responsible position of governess. I am quite 
willing to gratify your curiosity. But first let me de- 
scribe to you what is now passing beneath my window, 
for I write within full sight of the lawn. There I can 
we Colonel Peyton, the father of my pupil, seated upon 
I finely formed bay nag, a rifle laid carelessly across his 
Biddle, and two fine deer-dogs standing by his horse's 
forelegs and looking up wistfully into their master's face. 
He has upon his head a broad-brimmed, white beaver, 
tmme<l up in front, something after the fashion of the an- 
cient cocked hat, a manner of wearing it that lends him, 
with his Ibanly features and silver gray locks, a decided 
military air. Over a brown linen hunting frock is slung a 

32 THK .<UNXV SOITII; (m, 

leather belt, appended tu ^^llicll is his powder-horn aii'l 
shot-bag; and with his boots drawn d la Hussar^ over hi* 
trowsers, and armed with silver spurs, he sits accoutred fur 
the field, a handsome specimen of an American Weaterm 
gentleman preparing for a hunt. Standing just in front 
of his stirrup is a negro fifty years of age, (about his 
master's,) his old straw hat in his hand and his head bent 
forward in an attitude at once respectful and attentive, 
listening to orders from his master. 

'^ You hear, Pete, that as soon as the young gentlemen 
arrive, you are to mount the filly and bring them to the 

^' Yiss, massa !'* and Peter bowed like a thorough-bred 
gentleman, so courteous was the air with which he bent 
his head. 

" You will find me either at the Crow's Pine, or else 
about the Salt Lick. See that they bring their guns.** 

" Yiss, massa I'* 

^'And don't let that noisy whelp of yours,** here the 
colonel cracked his whip-lash at a wretched, shaggy 
monster of a dog that crouched, as if fully conscious of 
his bad reputation, behind the legs of the negro ; ^^ don't 
let him come into the forest again ; if he does, I'll hang 
him. He spoiled our sport last Thursday.** 

^^I know he did, mass*. He berry ignonim dog, some* 
time ; he nebber hab much telligencts like odder genunen 
dogs, massa; but Injun shan't come di$ time.** 

The colonel now pointed with the end of his riding 
whip to a gate, which Peter hastened to open ; standing 
bare-headed till his master rode through it; and then 
closing it he returned to the house, the villainots-looking 
dog Ii\jun capering about him, as much overjoyed at 


leinj^ released from the awe of the coloncVs eye, as d 
ngiririi Bchool-boy when the *^ master*' steps out. 

"Yoa might J grad, Injun, aint you?" I overhear 
Peter say to his companion, ^*but you better keep quiet 
lid min' you* business at home, or sure 'nuff massa 'i 
hh you hang*d. You a'n't fit hunt deer like de gem- 
iia's genteel dog, you nigger you; all you do is frighten 
'em away from de stan', and keep massa and oder gem* 
men from gettin' shot at 'em, you scar'crow! Massa 
ttnre you right he shoot you, Injun !" 

Peter's Toice was lost as he went with a limping shuffle 
tround the house. I can see the noble form of the 
eokmel as his horse bears him along the arenue, and so 
oat across the green dell at an easy pace. Now he stops 
to speak to the poor blind shepherd boy, who raises his 
cap, and seems happy to be noticed. The sheep start 
and bound away before the horse's feet, and the lazy kine 
slowly give him the path. Now he winds about the base 
of the lion's head cliff, and is now lost to sight in the 
dark grove of elm and maple that half conceals the tarn. 
Above his head wheels the black-winged vulture in ap- 
proaching circles, as if he well knew that there was 
always blood to be found in the hunter's path. 

I will return to my room, and resume — ^myself! But I 
tm again interrupted. The ajar door of my elegant 
apartment opens, and a negress of sixteen enters with a 
silver cup of water, upon a silver salver. She is bare- 
footed, and her head is bound with a gay handkerchief 
tastefully and uniquely twisted into a sort of oriental 
turban ; for the taste of these daughters of Africa is in- 
stinctively Eastern. A blue cotton gown completes her 
simple attire, save a pair of bright brass ear-rings, and 


a ooaple of bnun and one silver ring upon her ahapd 
fingers; for her hands, and ingers, and finger nail 
though the former are brown as a chestnut, are exquiaitd 
shaped. Ugly hands seem to belong to the Anglo Sai 
ont, I think, especially to those of cold climates; for tl 
farther we go south, the more elegant the female hand. 

The name of the African maid is Eda, which ia, 
suppose, a corruption of Edith. She was giyen to m 
charge as my waiting-woman, on the first eyening of m 
arrival here ; and by night she sleeps on a rug at th 
door of my chamber. At first, I was shocked an 
alarmed to have a negress sleep in the chamber with mt 
but now, I am so accustomed to her presence, and she i 
so willing, so watchful, so att itive, so useful, that I ai 
quite reconciled to having I *• *^ Missis, glass wate] 
please?'* she said, curtseying, and dropping her larjg 
lustrous eyes with habitual submission, as she presents 
the salver. 

I had not asked for water, but I find that it is th 
custom for some one of the servants to go over the hooi 
several times a day to every person, wherever they hq 
pen to be, whether on the portico walking, or in 111 
library reading, or even pursuing them into the garde 
to offer them water. This is a hospitable, and in lb 
hot weather of this climate, a refreshing custom. SoutI 
emers are all great water drinkers. At evening, whs 
we are seated on the piazsa, enjoying the beauty of th 
western skies, sherbet, water, fruit, and even ice creaa 
have been brought out to us. In4eed, there seems to h 
some useful person continually engaged in some mysU 
rious corner of this large , pr ipg luxuries t 






I Sifme through the day to the inmates^ and to chance 
ymtony of which there are not a few. 

Wh^ I first arrived here, and it has been scarcely a 
wmtli — ^I was amazed at the number of servants. There 
^' are no less than seven in the house, and full as many 
aore connected with the gardens, stables, and for out- 
door domestic duty, beside the two hundred plantation 
iuHb that work always in the field as agriculturists; for 
the domestic slaves and the field slaves are two distinct 
dasBes on an estate like this, and never interchange 
kbor, save indeed, when a refractory house servant is 
sometimes sent into the field, to toil under the hot sun 
IS punishment, for a week or so. And the difierence is 
not merely in employment, but in character and appear- 
ance. The field servant is heavy, loutish, and slow ; his 
features scarce elevated in expression above the mule, 
which is his co-laborer. The domestic servant is more 
sprightly, better clad, more intelligent and animated, 
apes polite manners, and imitates the polished airs of the 
well-bred "white folk." By contact constantly with the 
family, they use better language, have their faculties 
sharpened, and, in a dozen ways, show their superiority 
to the less favored helots of the plough. This superior- 
ity they love to exhibit, and I have been amused at their 
assumption of hauteur when they had occasion to hold 
intercourse with any of the "field hands," sent to the 
house on an errand. 

Altogether the house servants are very difierent crea- 
tures. Four of them have intelligent faces, are excel- 
lent pastry-cooks, laundresses, dairywomen, and seam- 
stresses, and seem, really, to take as much part and 


lively interest in bonsehold mstten u the Buttron, 

"Can 70a read, Eda?" I asked of my little l^ml 
mud, as I replaced the silver tumbler on the n 
"Xo, Mtsas," and her large velvet-black eyes darn 
their iride pearly spheres, as if she thought it ironic 
fine thing to know how. 

" Z know spell my name, misus. Miaay Bel teai 

In my nest yon shall, certainly, have a little ac 
of myself; bat I feel myself of bo little importance 
the least thing tempts my pen away from the egot 

Tours respeetfblly, 



• • 



JiFST M I was about to drop mj pen into mj ink- 
stmd to commence this epistle, the clear, startling cry 
of a hnnter'a horn in the forest drew me to the window, 
wkidi overlooked the south, and the cliff called the 
Lion's head. Just emerging from the wood was a caval- 
eade, that reminded me of something of a similar de- 
acription Scott has in one of his romances. First, there 
rode the colonel, our ^Mord of the manor," bare-headed, 
his gun laid across his saddle-bow, and his hunting skirt 
open at the collar, and thrown negligently back over his 
shoulders. By his side were some half dozen dogs, 
trotting along with their red tongues lolling out and look- 
ing, for all the world, thoroughly beat out with the day's 
chase. Behind the colonel came a negro, mounted, with 
a wounded dog laid across the neck of his horse. Be- 
hind the negro, riding on elegantly shaped horses, cantered 
two young men, one of them very handsome, but dressed 
m a frock coat, and gaiters of blue cottonade. His rifle 
wms slung at his back ; he was belted, and a knife and a 
powder flask were in his girdle. His companion was 
more fashionably dressed, and instead of a rifle carried 
only a light bird gun. In the rear followed two negro 
men on foot, bearing between them a slain deer, slung 
by the fetlocks to a newly-cut branch. Two or three 
African boys, and some half dozen more dogs completed 

88 VHB BUVKT south; OB, 

the cortege. One of the young men (the handsome oii< 
in the kerseys) carried a horn, which, ever and anon, h* 
wound cheerily to give notice at the Lodge of their mp 
proach. So I will leave them to make their way to till 
house, and fulfil the promise made in my last, to let yoi 
understand why a Yankee girl finds herself a dweller in 
the far South-west. 

Shall I begin in the true romantic vein, Mr. ^ or 

in the style biographique? I think I will, for the sake 
of trying my forte that way, assume the manner of the 
tale-writers ; for perhaps one of these days, who knows! 
I may get to the dignity of being a story-writer to die 
Ledger or magazines, a distinction (all things being equal 
— ^that is, the quid being equal to the quo as my brotbei 
used to say) I should feel highly honored, I confess, tc 
arrive at. Now to my own story : 

Once upon a time there stood in a New EnglaBJ 
village, not far from Portland in Maine, a little cottage, 
white, with a portico trellised by honeysuckles, and i 
little gate in the paling in the front of it. The cottage 
stood upon a quiet street, near the outskirts of du 
village, and was so near the river-bank, that I, who wai 
cne of the ^^ cottagers," could toss pebbles into its liieic 
bosom from my window. It was a quiet spot, this villagi 
with its garden-buried houses, its one tin-plated spire 
shining in the sun like a silver ^^extinguisher,'* its greei 
river shores, and pleasant woo< [lands where the boys hai 
famous bird's-nesting of Saturday afternoons. 

My father, a naval officer of name and honor, fel 
sick and died on a foreign station, leaving my mothei 
with six little mouths to feed, and six little backs to keef 
warm, and six little heads to fill with learning. To aid 


W to do all this, she receiyed a narrow pension allowed 
ker for her widowhood. It was a sore struggle for the 
mother to guard and nourish and cover her large brood 
vith such narrow wings. Her widowed feathers would 
lutfdly cover us all, and some of us always were suf- 
ferers, either for supper, a pair of shoes, or may be a 
frock, or jacket, or a necessary school-book. 

But Providence takes care of the widow, and so none 
of us perished ; nay, were ever sick, and what with kind 
neighbors, (oh, how many kind neighbors there are in the 
world !) what, with presents of Christmas-days, Thanks- 
giving-days, and the blessed Common-school where we all 
went without cost, we managed to weather the beginning 
of life bravely. 

Charles, my elder brother, through the kindness of 
the member of Congress from our district, had his name 
presented to the Secretary of the Navy for a midship- 
man's warrant ; but, none offering, soon the same kind 
influence placed him in West Point as a cadet, and now 
he is a lieutenant, and won, though it is a sister's praise, 
a distinguished name on the fields of Mexico. If I dared 
name him, sir, you would at once bear testimony to the 
truthfulness of my eulogy. 

The second child, a daughter, after as good an edu- 
cation as the village school offered, was chosen at the 
age of sixteen as its assistant, and after three years she 
married a young minister, near Norfolk, Va., who sub- 
sequently went abroad as a missionary, and is now a 
resident in a far, far land. 

The third child was a son, who, inspired by the tales 
of his father's exploits on the ocean during the war, 
went to sea, before the mast, as he said, ^Ho win a 

40 THS smnnr south; ob, 

name." SeTeo yearn hsTe el^Med aince liis departon^ 
and he baa not been heard from, and I fear thai we ahaU 
meet no more in thia life. He was a noble, bold, duval- 
rona boy, and mj mother's joy ! If he ia aliTe, I know 
that he is yet worthy of our loTe and pride. 

The foorth child is yonr humble correspondoit, of whoa 
I will speak when I hare dismissed the remaining two. 

The fifth is a girl ; bat alas! she is an invalid, baring 
a lame hip, which confines her to the boose. She ia the 
loveliest flower of our family parterre ! NeTor were audi 
deep, dark, glorious eyes as hers ! They speak ! Hfli 
&oe is exquisitely shaped, every feature as soil and spi- 
ritual as the gentle angel faces we see in dreams ! I 
can behold her now — the enchanting Ida, seated by mj 
mother's knee on her favorite stool, her heavenly iaee 
of pure intelligence blended with love, upturned with a 
smile. She is now sixteen, but there is so much wisdon 
in her eyes, so much gravity in her manner, the reanll 
of suffering, that she seems twenty. But her figure ii 
child-like, and faultless as that of the chiseled GredK 
Slave ! Noble Ida ! If thy eyes should rest on these 
lines, acoept, sweet sister mine, this tribute of love and 
memory ! She is my mother's second self, the partnei 
of her hours, the confidant of her heart's secrets, the 
angel of her presence. 

The sixth is a boy, a buoyant, laughing, rollickin| 
boy, with spirits enough in him for half a dosen girla, 
of whom, however, he is as shy as if he had no fine, 
handsome face to commend him to the romping hoydena 
lie is fourteen years old, and the balnf! He has nd 
idea of books, and never could bend his fingers to pen- 
holding. His genius lies in kite-flying, fishing, rabbit' 


Hiring, bird's-nesting, boating on the riyer, and in rid- 
iag the minieter's old blind horse to water, full gallop, 
tSeit, (that is, the galloping,) the minister could never 
■coeed in getting out of him. This brother is his mo- 
ther a other joy ; or, rather, Ida is her joy, and Preble 
(lo named by my father after the gallant commodore) 
is ber admiration. 

Now, if you haye listened as becomes you to listen 
then a ^'fayre ladye" speaks, you know all about my 
fiuaily and myself. No— not myself. Be patient, and 
joa shall have your ignorance enlightened on this score. 
Shall I describe myself? or shall I leave you to guess 
that my height is five feet four, that my hair is a dark 
brown, and worn smoothly so as to hide both ears like a 
eoif, and knotted behind in very abundant folds ; that 
my cast of beauty is brunette ; that my eyes are said to 
be like my sister Ida's, only less, that is to say, a little 
ittore saucy in their brilliancy ; that my nose is a very 
good nose as noses go ; that I have a good month and 
very fine teeth, which I don't show too much when I 
smile ; that I usually dress in white in summer and ma- 
roon in winter, and that my hand is — is — like too many 
of the hands of northern maidens, better looking in a 
^ve than out of one? I do not sing at all. I never 
¥ts taught the piano, for you must by this time be aware 
that our little cottage had no room for such a costly 
iffair, though somehow the instrument does seem to find 
room in a great many houses too umaU for it ! I do not 
dance, for we had no dancing-school in our village, and 
our mother was too sensible to have sent mc to one if 
there had been. She knew that there were temptations 
enough in this naughty world to surround young people^ 


name." Seven years have elapsed since bis departure, 
and he has not been heard from, and I fear thai we shall 
meet no more in this life. He was a noble, bold, chival- 
roos boy, and my mother's joy ! If he is alive, I kmm 
that he is yet worthy of qqt love and pride. 

The fourth child is your humble correspondent, of whoa 
I will speak when I have dismissed the remaining twa 

The fifth is a girl ; but alas! she is an invalid, having 
a lame hip, which confines her to the house. She is tht 
loveliest flower of our family parterre ! Never were soeh 
deep, dark, glorious eyes as hers ! They speak ! Her 
face is exquisitely shaped, every feature as soft and qii- 
ritual as the gentle angel faces we see in dreams ! I 
can behold her now — ^the enchanting Ida, seated by ay 
mother's knee on her favorite stool, her heavenly fiieo 
of pure intelligence blended with love, upturned with % 
smile. She is now sixteen, but there is so much wisdma 
in her eyes, so much gravity in her manner, the reaoU 
of suffering, that she seems twenty. But her figure if 
child-like, and faultless as that of the chiseled Gredc 
Slave ! Noble Ida ! If thy eyes should rest on these 
lines, accept, sweet sister mine, this tribute of love and 
memory ! She is my mother's second self, the partner 
of her hours, the confidant of her heart's aecretai the 
angel of her presence. 

The sixth is a boy, a buoyant, laughing, rollicking 
boy, with spirits enough in him for half a dozen girls, 
of whom, however, he is as shy as if he had no fine, 
handflome face to commend him to the romping hoydens. 
Ho is fourteen years old, and the ftafty/ He has no 
idea of iKHiks, and never could bend his fingers to pen* 
holding. His genius lies in kite-flying, fishing, rabbil> 


miring, bird's-nesting, boating on the river, and in rid- 
ing the minister's old blind horse to water, full gallop, 
a feat, (that is, the galloping,) the minister could never 
ncoeed in getting out of him. This brother is his mo- 
ther's other joy ; or, rather, Ida is her joy, and Preble 
(so named by my father after the gallant commodore) 
is her admiration. 

Now, if you have listened as becomes you to listen 
irben a '^fayre ladye" speaks, you know all about my 
fkmily and myself. No— not myself. Be patient, and 
roa shall have your ignorance enlightened on this score. 
Shall I describe myself? or shall I leave you to guess 
that my height is five feet four, that my hair is a dark 
brown, and worn smoothly so as to hide both ears like a 
eoif, and knotted behind in very abundant folds ; that 
my cast of beauty is brunette ; that my eyes arc said to 
be like my sister Ida's, only less, that is to say, a little 
more saucy in their brilliancy ; that my nose is a very 
good nose as noses go ; that I have a good mouth and 
very fine teeth, which I don't show too much when I 
smile ; that I usually dress in white in summer and ma- 
roon in winter, and that my hand is — is — like too many 
of the hands of northern maidens, better looking in a 
glove than out of one? I do not sing at all. I never 
was taught the piano, for you must by this time be aware 
that our little cottage had no room for such a costly 
affair, though somehow the instrument docs seem to find 
room in a great many houses too small for it ! I do not 
dance, for we had no dancing-school in our village, and 
our mother was too sensible to have sent me to one if 
there ha<I been. She knew that there were temptations 
enough in this naughty world to surround young peoplC| 

42 THE suKVT south; or, 

without adding to them the love of dancing, trhkk 
tempts many a sweet, good girl into many a follj, after- 
wards bitterly repented of. Parlor dancing, in the home 
circle, where grandpa joins in it, that is the only dine* 
ing that is truly innocent and cheerful. I draw, for my 
mother taught me ; I sometimes sketch, and color ny 
eflforts ; I speak and write French, being taught this by 
my brother when he came home at intervals from West 
Point. I have mastered German and Italian, and know 
enough of Spanish to pronounce correctly the names of 
all our victorious battle-fields, — a no mean acquisition in 
itself, they are so numerous. Lastly, I am a governess, 
and am aiming, with all modest diffidence and deference 
to your decisions, dreadful sir, to be an authoress* 

When I had attained my fifteenth year, I also was ad- 
vanced to be assistant in the school where I had beea 
educated from a child. After two years' pleasant toil, 
I heard that in Massachusetts there were institutions, 
called Normal Schools, where young females were eda> 
cated to be teachers. Having some money, the fruits of 
my teaching, I applied to be received into this noble 
school, and after due time I received my diploma, attest- 
ing my qualifications to teach. I soon obtained a school 
in a considerable town, and had no expectations of doing 
any thing else than growing gray in my vocation, wben, 
about a year and a half after I had come to the town, as 
I was locking up my castle one evening after my day's 
duties were over, my attention was drawn to a handsome 
private carriage rolling along the road. In it sat a fine- 
looking man, with the unmistakeable air and aspect of a 
Southerner, and by his side was a young girl of fifteen 
or sixteen, with that rich olive cheek and Italian form 


of face whicb distin^ishes the maidens of our more 
Bonny South. 

My Bchool-honse was a yerj prettj one, with a hand- 
some poiticOy green blinds, granite steps, a grassy yard, 
tnd neat, snow-white fenee, while trees shaded as well 
M adorned the premises. I saw him cast his eyes over 
tbe whole with a pleased look, and then his gaze fell 
upon me. I dropped my eyes, and taking out the keys, 
put them in my bag, and was turning to go homeward, 
when I saw the carriage stop. The gentleman, who was 
a man of fifty, with a fine bearing, and gray and brown 
locks mingled about his forehead, raised his hat, and 
oomteously beckoned to me to approach. 

'^Pardon me. Miss," he said, in that half apologetic 
tone which marked the thorough-bred gentleman, ^^ May 
I take the liberty to inquire if you are a teacher?" 

I bowed affirmatively. 

" You will excuse the liberty I take, but I am desir- 
ous of obtaining a teacher to go south-west with me, 
tnd having applied to the Normal School, I was directed 
to this town by the Principal, who told me that there 
was a young lady here whom I could, no doubt, succeed 
in employing. As he spoke so highly of her, and gave 
me her address, I have driven here to have an interview 
with her. You will be likely to know her abode, and 
will oblige me by directing me to it." 

"What is her name, sir?" I inquired. 

<^ Miss Catharine Conyngham," he read oflf from the 
back of a letter. 

I started with surprise and pleased confusion. He 
saw my embarrassment, and read plainly the secret in 
my tell-tale face. 


<< Perhaps," he added, with a look of gralifiea 
<< perhaps I have the pleasure of addressing the 
person — ^Miss Conyngham herself 7" 

I informed him that I was that person, when, i 
changing a glance of satisfaction with the young 1 
he handed me the letter, and requested me to reai 
but first that I must get up into the carriage an 
down, but this courtesy I declined, and breaking 
seal I read as follows : — ^But I will defer the letter t 
next, as I am inyited down to look at the slain de< 
the back gallery. 




I HAVB to apologize to jou, sir, for not keeping jon 
I ^Needles," and I hope you will not say any thing 
97 naughty, because you haye not heard from me so 
Dg. I have been trayeling, and could not devote any 
me to my pen. You know that it is the custom for 
inters to leave their homes for the summer months, 
A tour it; and, being governess, I, of course, accom- 
mied our family, in order to keep up my pupils in their 
)ok8, though little book was learned, be assured, either 
the mountains or the springs, for young folks have 
much to tempt them at these places to con lessons. 
After a pleasant summer jaunt, we are once more in 
ir lovely home, and I trust I shall be able to continue 
write you in my leisure. Perhaps, one of these days, 
may give you a description of our three months in the 
)imtains of Cumberland, and at the Springs of Vir- 
lia. I will now resume my "Needles" where I left 
, which, perhaps, you will remember was when I had 
(t shut up my village school, and broken the seal of 
Mer handed to me by a strange gentleman in a car- 
je. The letter was as follows, written by the super- 
mdent of the State Normal School: — 

Normal School 

AR Miss Coxyngham: 

The bearer is Colonel Peyton, a planter of intelli- 
ce and fortune, who wishes a governess, who will be 

46 THB SUi^NY 80UTH; OB, 

charged with the education of his daughter. The poiU 
tion seems to be a very desirable one, and I would r^ 
commend you to accept it, if he should, after seeing yoii| 
oflfer it to you. 

Truly your friend, 

B. W. 

Upon reading this epistle, I looked up and saw the 
eyes of both Colonel Peyton and his daughter fixed UfOtL 
my face, as if trying to divine the effect it had upon me. 
The gentle eyes of the maiden, who looked earnestly at 
me, as if she hoped I was not going to say ^'no,*' and 
the gentlemanly, agreeable manners, and the fine expres- 
sion of the father*8 face, decided me at once. ^^ If the 
place is offered to me,'' said I, mentally, ^^ I will not 
refuse it. I know I shall be happy with such persons 
as these." Yet I hesitated and could not speak; for I 
thought of my little pupils, some of whom had entwined 
themselves around my heart; and I felt reluctant to 
leave them. 

While I was thinking between hope and sorrow what 
answer I should make — an answer that would perhaps 
govern my future destiny — Colonel Peyton was pleased 
to say kindly : 

^^ I fear. Miss, that you are going to disappoint us. 
The high terms in which you have been spoken of to mei 
are confirmed by seeing you. Are you willing to acoepi 
the situation alluded to in the letter?" 

I hesitated. My eyes filled with tears — ^tears at the 
thought of parting with my school — tears of gratitude^ 
that I was thought worthy of so much confidence. 

''Oh, do not refuse — do say yuy'* cried his lovely 

Tfll 80UTHSRN8B AT HOMB« 47 

iter, extending her hand, and clasping mine warmly 
r own. ^^ You shall be my eldest sister, and I will 
yoa as happy as I can. Please, say yon will go 


csnnot refnse," said I, smiling at her enthusiasm, 
roor father wishes, I give my consent," answered 
boat a thought about terms : for I felt that I could 
ppy to be one of the inmates of the family, and 
leh excellent persons '^ friends." My heart seemed 
. like a daughter*s heart towards Colonel Peyton, 
srtainly glowed with sisterly love towards IsabeL 
he matter is settled, then," siud Colonel Peyton, 
nimation. '^ We are more fortunate than we anti* 
1. Come, Miss Katharine, let me drive you to 
esidence, and then leave you to make preparations, 
we remain at the hotel." 

en I alighted from the chariot at the door of the 
in which I boarded, there were a great many heads 
neighboring windows, to see the fine ^^ Boston 
^," as they called it ; and when they soon learned, 
cries of three or four little girls, my scholars, that 
come to take me far away to the South, there was 
•ommotion than I dreamed such a body as I could 

m I made known to my landlady and to the neigh- 
irho flocked in to hear the news, my prospects, 
congratulated me, but more said they would not 
ith their '' school-mistress," that it would break 
Idren's hearts ; and the children, inspired by their 
began to cling round me, and take on so dread- 
hat I was near sending over word to the tavern 

48 THE siiyiTY Fourn; or, 

to Colonel Peyton, withdrawing my consent to go with 

In half an hour I succeeded in convincing the meet 
zealous of my friends, that it would be greatly to mf 
advantage to go with the Southern family, and, by bed* 
time, all opposition, save in the form of a lovely little 
lame scholar of mine, was appeased. This child, t* 
which I was very much attached, would not kmve thi 
house to go to its home, but, creeping up stairs, ehmg W 
my pillow, and bathed it in tears. Her little prayers ft 
entreaty had nearly conquered me. The result of al 
was, however, that the succeeding afternoon, I bade fare> 
well to all my village friends, and left the town by th^ 
road passing the school-house. Here, to my surpriss^ 
and to the increase of my grief, I found all my sdio- 
lars, some forty in number, drawn up to see me fbr 
the last time. They had reached the school-house by a 
path across the fields. Colonel Peyton stopped the car* 
riage, and every one climbed up to kiss me^— some put- 
ting wreaths upon my head, and others placing in ny 
hands little tokens to remember them by. 

^^ Don't forget me, Miss Kate !" cried a score of little 
voices. " We'll never forget you. Miss Kate !" called 
out others, as we once more drove on. My little, lame 
pupil was not among them, for I had left her sobbing as 
if her heart would break, up stairs on my bed. As the 
carriage turned and hid the town, we heard a shout of 
** Good-bye, Miss Kate ! Good-bye ! Come back again, 
won't you ?" 

Their voices no longer heard, I gave vent to my feel- 
ings in a gush of tears. Colonel Peyton did not distorb 


tkern. Isabel nestled her hand in mine, and I felt her 
teus dropping warm upon it. 

The same evening, we reached Boston, and in a few 
dijs afterwards were en route to the West, by the way 
of Philadelphia and Pittsburg. 

I will not detain you by describing our journey, but 
dose this letter by saying, that after a delightful trip of 
tbee weeks, we reached the elegant, interior city of 
VssiiTille, firom which a ride of two hours and a half 
ko^ht Colonel Peyton and his daughter home, and me 
lo what will be *^a home" for me two years to come. 

In my next, I will resume the description of things in 
the West, which I have interrupted to give you the his- 
toij of my first coming thither. 

I am, sir, yours, respectfully, 
4 Eats. 




I HAVB seen in yoar paper a litdenodoeof mylallM 
by some lady, (I am sure it was a female,) who taksiM 
to task for writing about mjf%t^. She says it does Ml 
Inatter what the color of an authoress's eyes ar% or 
whether she have small or large hands, or feet; and ihl 
takes it upon herself to box my ears for talkiag ahMI 
myself. Now, Mr. *— ^, I think that a great deal on 
be learned about an authoress, by knowing the hito rf 
the eyes, and the number of the shoe or glove she hid« 
foot or hand in. It don't matter much, perhaps, wheths 
a man who writes an arithmetic, or a woman who wriltf 
a geography, have gray locks or red, long noses m 
short, beards or no beards, for I have seen, (ah, shook* 
ing!) women with beards, and they always seem to bo 
proud of them, the way they cherish them! While I 
write, I recall a '' lady" with four moles on her chin, each 
of which is tufted with a respectable camel's hair peneiL 
Do not such monsters know there are such inventioM 
as tweesers? 

When one writes to interest, and writes one's thoii|^il8^ 
then it is agreeable to the reader to know something 
about the writer's person. I am sure (now don't oall ms 
Tain, lady critic severe) that my readers will not like ms 
any thing the less for the description I have given eT 


self. I see also that one of your readers wishes to 
>w the address of the '^ Yankee Girl," and that you 

Une giTing it. Very good, Mr. ; and pray, who 

e it to you? How coolly you decline to give what 
do not possess; for I am sore yoa could not tell how 
neadi me by a letter, if you wished to do so. But 
of diese days, if I see a paragraph in your paper, 
ing that after my ten trial '^needles" are written, 
win engage me to perserere in authorship, I will 
I renoTe the reil. 

hmwe already described to you the hi^piness I enjoy 
■y new and stately home, the appearance of things, 
the beautiful scenery with which the villa is sur^ 
tided. I will now give you some account of the man- 
in which we pass the day on the plantation, and 
■y day is pretty much the same, save when Sunday 
SB, or a party of visitors from town, or from some 
^boring plantation arrives. About half past four in 
morning, I am regularly awakened by a bell, as loud 
k college or chapel bell; which is rung in the belfry 
he overseer's house, to call the slaves up. Its clear 
ly peal continues for about three minutes. I open 
eyes, see that all is dark, and then sink to sleep 
in. Or if I lie awake, I soon hear the tramp of the 
iffers passing along the avenue, and the jingling of 
le chains, as the horses and mules are led by to the 
L All is soon again still as midnight; for the plan- 
m bell does not disturb the domestic servants in the 
le, who generally indulge in bed a half hour longer. 
lieve that I am the only one in the house that the 
distorba ; yet I do not begrudge the few minutes' 


loss of sleep it causes me, it sounds so pleasaaily m te 
half-dreamy morning. 

About six o'clock I am awakened for the day, by At 
soft footstep of my pretty negress Eda, who steals to Wf 
bedside to whisper — '^ Missy Kate, six o'clock, missy," 
and next goes to withdraw the curtains, and let in lli 
glorious sumbeams, to gild the atmosphere of the rooB. 
She then brings me a layer of cool fresh water from lli 
spring, and snowy napkins; and for the first thrce or 
four mornings after my arrival, she brought me a 
mint julep. Yes, sir, a regular mint julep! And 
I refused it, spite of its delicious taste and aroma, (fior I 

am a Daughter of Temperance, Mr. ^ she opcMl 

her large eyes with wonder, saying, ^^Why, missy, dij 
nebber so nice !" Her assurance, that it was the 
of the house to guests, never moved me, though I 
confess they looked very tempting. When she tami 
that I was not to be tempted, she brought me eoffM^ 
black, and clear, and fragrant enough for a Turkish EU- 
tana. But I had been raised in the plain, simple, Yankai 
way, and so had no use for such luxury, and have 
ished both julep and coffee before f get up in the 

My sable maid aids me in my toilet, combs and 
my long hair with the grace and art of a Parisienne, aad 
makes herself most usefuL Indeed one does not know 
of how many uses a servant may be, till one has one, as 
I have now for the first time in my life. How differeady 
brought up are we Yankee girls from the Southern girlsi 
who never do any thing themselves, being always at- 
tended by a shadow of a little negress, or an andent 
mammy ! For my part, I find it very pleasant :— ^Edai 


igla88 of water;" or, ^^Eda, bring me such a book from 

the parlor below;" or, ^'Eda, hand me my fan;" or, 

'^Eda, a doien other things." Oh, it is very convenient ; 

lid I do believe a Northern girl in these cironmstances, 
tiO, in a year, render herself more helpless than even a 
Southerner to the manor bom. 

At seven, a clear*ringing, silver table bell calls all from 
dttir rooms to the breakfast apartment, which is a 
l|iaekMis, oool piassa, shut in by green blinds, and adorned 
with cages of mocking and canary birds, which sing all 
the meal time. 

Breakfast usually consumes half an hour. Four or 
tve varieties of warm bread load the table, with succotash, 
lod hominy, and ham always. Two men and two 
legresses, all well dressed and in white aprons, wait on 
able, and anticipate every wish. The colonel always 
isks a devout blessing, all being seated, and all respond 
I loud ^^Amen." Two noble dogs generally crouch 
litber side of the colonel's arm chair, and a monstrous 
Maltese cat, having taken a liking to me, seats herself 
>y my chair with a wistful look. After breakfast the 
solonel lights a cigar at a coal brought him, unbidden, 
ij a negro boy, for he knows his master's habits ; and 
mother servant holds a ready saddled horse at the 

The colonel mounts him, and rides away to overlook 
lus estate, sometimes accompanied by Isabel and me, 
irhen we have brave gallops home alone. About nine 
I'dock we take to our books or our needles, and sit 
irherever we choose ; in our rooms, in the breezy hall, on 
the piazxa, or in the drawing-room. At eleven an at- 
tentive servant brings refreshments, when studies and 


needles arc dropped, and we have gossip, music, and 
sometimes jump the rope, swing, or play at battledore. 
If we haye caUs to make, the carriage is ordered at half* 
past eleveD, and i^ter a drive of two hours or three, w« 
return to dine at two o'clock. 

The dinner table is placed in the large central hall of 
die house, and everj dish el^antlj served. Above the 
table is a huge silk covered fan, the breadth of the taUt. 
Tassels are attached to it, and it is fringed with erimioa. 
From rings in the comers lead red cords, which an 
pulled to and fro by a little negro, all dinner timSi 
This regular and ceaseless movement of the fan above 
our heads creates an agreeable breeie, which in this 
dimate is most luxurious. The dinner consists of maay 
courses, with wine and dessert of fruit, sweetmeats, icei^ 
nuts, domestic grapes, and black coffee. The ladies 
then leave the gentlemen at the table to smoke, and ra* 
tire to their own rooms to sleep till the cool of the day. 
The ^'lords'' sometimes at hunting dinners sleep at A$ 

Towards evening all is animation. Saddle horses an 
ordered, and away we scamper, now to the tarn, or to 
climb the lion's head, or to canter along the turnpike. 
We generally get back by twilight in fine spirits. Tea 
and coffee arc handeii to us whenever we choose to have 
it, no table being ever set for the evening repast. It 
takes three servants to hand it. One comes with a waiter 
of napkins first; another follows with coffee and si^ar; 
a third with cakes of all sorts, and sometimes a fourth 
with purple finger glasses. In the evening wo all a»» 
semble in the brilliantly lighted parlors, where we have 



rat BovTwrnxniiB^ ax whb. Q6; 

f nsic, plaj at chess, (the colonel and I take a game at 
I kdcgammon nsually,) read, or talk. Bj ten we all re* 
f tire; and soon the house is buried in the repose of mid- 
I aight So pass the happy days at Overton Lodge. 






Hats yoa ever been fox hnntmg? If yoa haf% 
jou have seen yery respectable, rough and tumble tfr 
joyment ; if yon haye not, there are yet before yon eeflrii 

I haye already spoken of the fine, broadly spredi 
landscape, yisible from the portico of Oyerton FM 
Lodge. In the late autumnal months when the crops 
are well gathered, and there is nothing to trample dovn 
in the fields, this wide landscape is conyerted into a 
fox hunting ground, full eleyen miles across. By 
cert the neighboring planters open their fences wi& 
many a gap across the country, and so a dear ride of 
ten or twelve miles is left free to the adyentnroot hmt^* 
man or huntswoman. 

Two evenings ago as I was about to mount my boaati 
ful dapple mule, (don't laugh at my mule, for it is dw 
dearest little fellow with ears like velvet, and feet aad 
fetlocks like an antelope's, a special gift to me for iti 
beauty and gentleness, from Colonel Peyton,) to paee 
down the avenue to the turnpike, I was surprised to aee 
suddenly appear in sight a party of seven young gentle- 
men. They were riding at top speed, and in great glee, 
and all came dashing up toward the villa at that rapid 
rate the Tennesseean loves to ride. 


^Ah, my boys," cried the colonel, who was about to 

ride out with me, removing his foot from the stirrup, 

while I hesitated whether to remain on the flight of steps 

or fly from such a battalion. ** Don't go. Miss Kate. 

They are only some of the young fox hunters come over 
to make preparations." 

And before I could escape-^ 

^^liiss Conyngham, gentlemen!" 

The young men, who drew up their horses on seeing a 
Uy, lifted their caps and hats, and I was struck with 
thor general appearance; four of them being fine-looking, 
yet dressed in blue linsey-woolsey, with boots pulled on 
orer their pantaloons ; and the other three in thick coats 
and caps, or broad felt hats slouched behind — a very 
common head covering in these parts and not unpictu- 
resque. Every young man was armed with a gun, and 
attended at least by two dogs, and beautiful creatures 

some of them were — ^not the young men, Mr. , but 

the hounds. 

" Well, colonel, we have come over to settle upon the 
day," said one of the young gentlemen. 

**That is right! I like to see the rising generation 
prompt to engage in such noble sports. I think that the 
day after to-morrow we will give Reynard our compli- 
ments in person. I will have my men ready, and if you 
will meet me at the edge of the wood, by the lion's head 
clif^ at six in the morning, we will do our best for a day's 

"We'll be there, colonel," was the response; "and 
then we shall stand a chance of bringing down a deer or 
two," added one of them. "I saw one on the ridge by 
the creek as I rode over." 


'* No (loul>t wo shall soo plenty of sport. And you nn^t 
accompany U8, Miss Kate," added the colonel turning to 
me, as I stood with the bridle of my mule in my hand« 
trying to check his restive movements, for the pruidng 
horses of the yoong men fired his ambition to prtBM 

After suffering myself to be urged a little by two of 
the young gentlemen, I consented to join the patty, if 
other ladies did so. The cavalcade then escorted vs to die 
gate of the main road, and the horsemen separated eaek 
to his own home ; while the colonel and I took a foreil 
road, that, after a league's windings, came out near the 
Tilla. As we rode, the colonel entertained me with a 
great many anecdotes of hunting, from Bruin to the 
Hare. As we approached the mansion on our retant 
the avenue was temporarily blocked up by not leaa thaa 
fifty slaves of both sexes ; for it was now twilight, aad 
they had just completed their day's work, and wen 
wending their way to their village, or quartier. 

The women carried hoes upon their shoulder8| and 
trudged along, some dull, and with expressionless faoes, 
others laughing and singing. The men, I remarked, were 
more cheerful than the women, and had more lively 
countenances. One and all were clad in their ooane 
white cloth, known as negro cloth — ^the men with straw 
hats and the women with handkerchiefs upon their headSb 
I have not yet seen a negro woman wear a bonnet Oft 
Sundays, it is only a gayer kerchief. 

As we passe<l, they drew up on each side of the narrow 
road for us to pa88 — the men all taking off, or toaohing 
their hats, and replying with a smile to their master's 
salutation of *' Good evening, boys!** and the women^- 


nme of them, slightly nodding, but without the emilo. 
One of them had a huge cotton basket upon her head. 

^^Peep into it," said the colonel, as I rode by. I did 
00, tod beheld four little cunning black babies! — ^they 
rae nestled together, and quite naked. These babies 
iad been taken by their mothers to the field, and while 
tkj were at work, were placed under the care of the girl 
vb had them in charge. 

I am already gettmg reconciled to slavery, since I find 

tbt it does not, in reality, exhibit the revoltiug horrors 

I was tanght in the North to discoyer in it. There are 

amy things to admire and to interest one in the social 

and domestic condition of the slaves, and I am almost 

reidy to acknowledge that the African is happier in 

bondage than free! At least one thing is certain: nearly 

all the free negroes I have ever seen in the North were 

miserable creatures, poor, ragged, and often criminal. 

Here they are well clad, moral, nearly all religious, and 

the temptations that demoralize the free blacks ii^ our 

northern cities are unknown to, and cannot approach 


As we drew near the front of the villa, my mule, not 
liking the shrill cry of a superb peacock, which conceived 
the idea of welcoming us with a song, and a resplendent 
unfolding of his prismatic-eyed tail, started to run with 
me at top speed. I am a tolerable rider, and as I could 
not fall far if I were thrown, the mule being so little and 
low, I did not feel half the alarm the colonel manifested 
for my safety, who began to ride after me ; when finding 
hi« horse only gave fresh impetus to the speed of my 
mule, he drew rein, and called to a negro man to stop 
mj career. But the mule was not to be stopped. In- 

60 THE suNXY south; or, 

stead of taking the carriage-way, he bolted across tin 
lawn, and made straight for the stable. To stop him 
impossible. I found I might as well pull at a granite? 
column as at his jaws. The door of his stable was opea^ 
and I saw that he would only stop at his crib. I measured 
the ground to spring to it, but the dreadful idea that m^ 
skirt might entangle with the horns of the saddle, de* 
terred me. In another moment the stable was readied! 
The door was open. I threw myself forward, clasped 
neck and mane, and stooping low went safely in wA 
him. The suddenness with which he stopped at Uf 
manger, tossed me into the rack, out of which I was takm 
unhurt, and with many a joke and laugh upon my mile 
race. But a mule race is not a fox hunt, you say ! Kdi 

a wee, sir. 


m MUXBmvsR at home. ai 


1m my last, I said I would give you an account of a 

bu'lami, Imt ended my letter with a mule-race. Bat I 

will now redeem my pledge. Early in the morning, the 

diy bat one after the party of yoong men called at the 

lodge, we all were up with the ringing of the overseer's 

belL By six o'clock we were assembled in the hall, 

vhere a lanch and a cup of hot coffee awaited us. By 

hilf-past six, ten of us in the saddle, including three 

kdies, were cantering at a brisk rate down the avenue, 

in the direction of a gate which led into the wide cotton 

fields, spread a league away beyond the villa. Not less 

than seven Africans, mounted, or on foot, brought up 

the rear of our cavalcade. 

Reaching the gate, which one of the impatient young 
gentlemen opened almost at a speed, managing his horse 
adroitly the while, we dashed through, and emerged in 
the old hickory grove, the smooth grass of which glittered 
with dew-drops. The woods echoed with the tramp of 
our horses, and the laugh and merry talk of the young 
men and ourselves, not excluding the white-locked 
colonel, whose cheerful voice rose above all others. 
After a spirited gallop of half a mile through the grove, 
we emerged upon an open field, where once com had 
grown, but which, having been harvested, left a desolate 
waste. In the midst of this field was a ravine, thickly 

62 THE srxN'T sorin: or, 

prown with l)iislu's, wlilch was known to ])0 a favorite 
haunt of Reynard. The negroes, who had followe<l u* 
with the dogs, were now called up, and ordered to ap- 
proach the thicket, and stir up such gentlemen of the 
red brush as might sojourn therein. The order to ad* 
yance was obeyed by the negroes and dogs with emukNH 
alacrity. It was, for the first hundred yards, a laughable 
race between quadruped and biped; but the Imst were 
distanced, and the dogs reaching the covert, daalwd lata 
it, a dozen in all, in perfect silence of tongne. But iki 
negroes kept up an incessant yell as they neared IIm 
bushes, which they began to beat, uttering loud ahooti 
and challenges to master Keynard to ^^come out and 
show hisself like a gemman, and not to be 'fraid of wlttM 

Reynard, however, did not feel inclined to respond to 
their polite and repeated invitations. The dogs, in tkt 
meantime, were busy in the ravine. We could hear 
them crashing about over the dry sticks, but not a singlt 
bark from them. 

" They know the fox is there, or they would be noiay/* 
said the colonel, as he watched the copse. 

^^Now, Miss Kate, we shall soon have sport. Haikl 
hear that! Isn't it music?" 

And music it was, such as I had never before listened 
to. The whole pack, taking the deep short bark of om 
of them as their cue, suddenly opened in full vcnce frat 
the ravine. A doxen sonorous canine voices were buy* 
ing at once. The noise was singularly exciting. It 
made my puke bound, and my heart tremble with ex- 
pectation. If you should hear the burst of the full 
tones of a pack of hounds, you would never forget tbe 


ma MUTuaAHKK at hoke. 6t 

wiM mi startling mnsio. My spirited horse cangbt the 

excitement, pricked up his slender ears, and stamped 

impatiently with his forefoot, yet obediently Boffere<l 

Iiiwelf to be restrained by the light pressure of a finger 

vpon his rein. The barking of the dogs set the whole 

ptrty on the qui vwe! Every eye was strained to watch 

for the i4|>pearance of Reynard, when he should emerge 

from the rayine. Some of the yoong gentlemen galloped 

''like mad'* to the south of it, while others swept round 

t9 the north of it. I kept at the colonel's side, who 

remained in ''our first position," as Monsieur Cheffier, 

the dancing master, says. '^Look! There he goes!" 

diouted half a score of eager voices, and the fox appeared 

IB full view to all eyes, scampering out of the thicket, 

tnd taking a direction straight for us ladies ! 

''Your whips — lash him as he passes!*' shouted the 
colonel to us. "We must turn him back, and not let 
him get into the wood, or the sport is up. The fox came 
gallantly on, as if either he did not care for us, or did 
not see us. The colonel kept urging ''us to whip at 
him," and turn him. We three ladies, therefore, placed 
our horses right across the only way by which he could 
reach the wood, and prepared to do battle bravely, we 
being the only persons on that side of the field; the rest 
of the party having spread themselves over the field, ex- 
pecting the fox to emerge from cover in a different 
direction from that which he took. 

I must confess I felt some trepidation as I saw the 
fox, which was a large one, making as straight as an 
arrow for my horse. My riding whip was not very long, 
but I prepared to use it as valiantly as I could. 

C4 THE suNNV south; or, 

''He makes for yon^ Miss Kate! Don't let him pass 
under your horse," shouted the colonel. 

In three leaps the fox was within six feet of my slet^ 
and was passing, or rather aiming to pass undar U%r 
when I hit him smartly with my iyory-hancUed wIhiii: 
The blow had the effect of checking his leap, so far at !• 
give it another direction, and that was mver the 
A snarl — a showing of teeth — a dreadful horrid 
ble with sharp daws, right up the flank of m j lion% 
and over my saddle — a sweep of his brush in my faea*; 
and he was off upon the ground on the other side, witk 
my green veil entangled about his head and forefeet! 

^' We have him ! You've fought bravely, Miss Kale. 
He's meshed !" shouted several of the gentlemen. ^ Waf 
any thing ever done handsomer ? Never saw a boUUr 
leap than that in a fox !" 

The fox was indeed fairly meshed ! the veil blinding 
and fettering him so hard that he did nothing but roll 
over and over, spit and snarl, like twenty cats tied Wf 
in a sack ! The colonel leaped from hia horse and ap- 
proached him with his whip. The other gentlemen did 
the same as fast as they reached the spot. The n^roes 
yelled and laughed with obstreperous joy at the pidde 
*^ Massa Fox was in." But Reynard was not yet cap* 
tured. He now began to tumble and struggle for life so 
fearfully, that he released one foot from my po<^, ton 
veil, and, thus relieved in part, he managed, by the moal 
extraordinary somersets, to travel at a pace difficult for 
the gentlemen to keep up with, laughing, too, as they all 
were, at his perplexity, which was comical enough. The 
progress of the fox was a one-legged lope, a roll, and a 
somerset, alternately, varied by a yelp at everj new 


TK)^ ioimanviR at hoiub. 66. 

flktnge in his extraordinary locomotion. He got a dozen 

blows with the whips, but still marvclously kept ahead 

of kis porsners, till at length he tumbled blindly into a 

deep hole, oat of which a tree had been taken, when the 

dogi plunged in upon him and strangled him. The 

hnah was brought to me as a trophy, the gentlemen de- 

ckring that I was his captor. I, however, referred that 

iKNior to my poor veil, which was torn and soiled most 

ptifid to behold. The colonel has, since that adventure, 

dsbbed me aa «' The lady of the veiled fox." 


66 THE SUNNY soiTn; OR, 



Mt dear Sir : — 

I do not recollect irhether in my fonner kttcTiI 
haye mentioned the mral little Qothic chapel which m 9k 
the estate. It was erected at the prirate expense rftk 
noble-hearted Christian gentleman who is its proprietor. 
The model is borrowed from an exquisite chapel whiA 

the colonel saw on the estate of the Earl of G j whci 

he was in England. The situation of our chapel is ro- 
mantic ; and, being seen from all parts of the plantatioa, 
is an interesting feature in the scenery. It is aboil 
fifty-fiye feet long and built of stone ; with turrets uA 
mullioned Gothic windows of stained glass, and a floor 
of Tennessee marble. Its site is upon the verge of a 
green plantation, which overhangs the brook, and is, ia 
its turn, overhung by a projecting spur of the lion's 
cliff. Majestic oaks embrace it, and ivy is trained up its 
walls. A broad lawn, crossed by graveled paths, sor* 
rounds it. These paths lead: one to the villa, one to the 
next plantation, and one to the African village where 
the slaves reside; for, be it known to you, that tlus 
beautiful chapel, the cost of which was $3000, has been 
built for the slaves of the estate. The body of the chapel 
is reserved for them, while in a gallery above the en- 
trance are four pews, two on each side of the organ, in 
which the colonel's family, and sometimes the families 


of one or two of the neighboring planters, sit daring ser- 
vice. This is performed every Sabbath morning by a 
gnj-headed gentleman, who acts as lay reader, and on 
^k days occupies himself in teaching the classics to 
two sons of a gentleman who Uyes two miles off. For 
lui senrices on Sunday the colonel gives him a salary. 

The second Sunday after I came here I was invited to 
attend service in the chapel with the fEunily. Upon 
entering it, I found the body of the floor occupied by the 
bkek men and women of the plantation, seated in chairs 
tith the utmost decency and quiet, and all neatly and 
deanly attired. We took our seats in the gallery, while 
iatbel placed herself at the organ to play a voluntary. 
Jntil the old gentleman who officiated entered, I had 
inie to look at the interior of this bijou of a church. On 
be right of the chancel was an exquisite group of statuary, 
leeuted in Italy expressly for this chapel by the colonel's 
rder, at an expense of $800. It represented the Ma- 
mna and her child. The design was full of taste and ar- 
Stic excellencies. On the opposite side was a table of the 
irest white marble, surmounted by a dove with its wings 
ctended. It was a memento of the death of a little son 
r the colonel. There were no pews in the body of the 
lurch, only low chairs of oak, a chair to each worshiper, 
ith an aisle between. 

The service was very solemn ; and my Puritanic ob- 
ections to praying from a prayer-book, have been 
holly removed by this day's experience. The singing 
as very remarkable. The African women all sing well, 
aving naturally soft voices ; with the organ, and full 
hj fine voices swelling in harmony with it, the effect 
as very fine. ^'Is it possible," I asked myself, ^^that 

08 THE siNXY south; or, 

thrsc aro slaves '.'' Is it j)Ossil;le that tliis rich \o'\ce 
which leads in such manly tones is their master's ? L$ it 
possible that the fair girl who unites, by an accompani- 
ment upon the organ, her praise with theirSy ia one of 
the ^ haughty daughters of the South V" 

The responses were all full and timely ; for the slaTfi 
soon learn words by ear ; and many of them go throng 
thQ whole service, save the psalter, without & miiitake. 
The sermon, which was printed, was read well by tk 
elderly layman ; it was simple, suitable, and practkiL 
After service, the gray-headed old slaves stood reqMcU 
fully without the door, and, with uncovered heads, bowel 
to the colonel and ladies, the latter of whom stopped to 
speak to some of them, and to make kind inquiries of tko 
old ^^ aunties," as all old female slaves are affectionatdy 
termed, as the term ^^ uncle" is applied to the old mttu 
I have seen a good deal of the African race since I havo 
been here, and I am persuaded that they are far more refi* 
giously disposed than the lower and middle class of whites. 
There are but four negroes on the colonel's plmntalioB, 
that are not ^^ members" of the church, and who do not 
try to square their lives with the precepts of the Oospd 
so far as they understand them. This is the case, I learn, 
on all the neighboring plantations, and I am infomed 
by intelligent persons that it is more or less so throng 
out the whole South. It would thus seem, that God, ia 
his providence, has permitted slavery to be the instnuMiit 
of christianizing Africa, by brining Africa to Christian 
shores ; and colonisation by re-action on the shores of 
Africa, is completing the mysterious dispensation. 

I have an amusing incident to relate of which ov 
chapel was last Sunday the scene. The annual lisitfr- 

ndi sovTHiRinB at houb. 89 

tfwi of the Bishop being expected, the venerable lay- 
reader got ready gome twenty adults to be confirmed, 
and forty children to be baptized. The Bishop duly 
urired, accompanied by two clergymen. Oar little 
cimpel, you may be assured, felt quite honored with the 
presence of such distinguished visitors. There were 
wreral neighboring families present, who, with ours, 
quite filled the gallery. 

When the time came to baptize them, the marble font 
being filled with fair water, the black babies were brought 
np hj their ebony papas. The colonel stood sponsor for 
the boys, and his sister, an excellent and witty maiden 
lady, for the girls. 

^* What is his name?" asked a clergyman who was to 
baptize, taking in his arms a little inky ball of ebony 
infancy with a pair of white, shining eyes. 
^'Alexander de Great, massa!" 
I saw a smile pass from face to face of the reverend 
gentlemen in the chancel. The babe was duly baptized. 
**What name?" he demanded of another Congo papa. 
*^ General Jackson, massa !" and by this name the lit- 
tle barbarian was duly made a Christian. 

"What name?" "Walter Scott!" "What name?" 
"Peter Simple!" "What name?" "Napoleon Bona- 
parte !" Splash went the water upon its face, and an- 
other ebony succeeded. His name was "Potiphar." 
Another's was "Pharaoh." Another was christened 
"General Twiggs;" another " Polk and Dallas;" another 
"General Taylor;" indeed, every General in the Ame- 
rican army was honored, while "Jupiter," "Mars," 
"Apollo Belvidere," and "Nicodemus," will give you 
a specimen of the rest of the names. The female in- 

70 THE suHinr soittr; oSy 

fants receiyed suoh names as ^^ Queen Yietorimi** ^^l^ij 
Morgon/' ''Lady Jane Grey," ''Madame de Stad," 
"Zcnobia," "Venus," "Juno," "Vesta," "Miss Mtf- 
tineau," "Fanny Wright," "Juliana Johnson," anl 
"Coal Black Rose." The water in the font, gretqr 
and blackened by the process of baptizing so maij 
black babies, had to be twice removed and replaced \j 
fresh. The Bishop could scarcely keep his conntenaMe 
as name after name was given, and the assistant dotgy- 
man twice had to leave the church, I verily believei li 
prevent laughing in the church. The whole of thii 
scandalous naming originated in the merry brain of tb 
colonel's sister. Of course, the clergyman had to bsp- 
tise by the name given, and the whole scene was im- 


■KB gmgnMw^ AV Mftinr M 


Skat Sib: 

Om 8atiirda.j last we all xode into tiia d^, wiiioh, 
M I have toid yon, ii about two and a ludf Itonra* ftat 
draviag firom (herUm Piurk* Tkb road is a smooth 
teapikoi and runs throogh a beantifol comitrj of ileld 
•ad woodbuidy hill and dale. The landscape is con- 
itaotly ▼aried and constantly interestiag. Nmnevoos 
]>retty Tillas lined the road, which being much used, was 
thronged with carriages and horsemen. 

The number of gentlemen we found on horsebadc 
woild be matter of svrprise to a Northerner, who usually 
rides only in a gig. A Southerner seldom trusts him- 
self inside of a carriage. K his wife rides out in her 
iindy-appointed barouche, he canters well-mounted by 
the carriage window. I believe the Tennessee gentle- 
man looks upon it as decidedly effeminate to be seen 
taking hts esse in a cushioned carriage. 

On the way we passed the site of an old fort, where 
the army of Jackson encamped before marching to New 
Orleans. A few yards from the ramparts, the place 
where a man was shot for desertion, was pointed out to 
me. It is a sweet-looking, green spot, and calls up any 
other associations than those of bloodshed. 

The Hermitage whare Andrew Jackson, jr., now re- 
sides, was not many miles firom us. It is a good-looking 


^'He mmket for you, Miss Kate! Don't lei Mat ^ 
under your horse/* shouted the oolonel. 

In three leaps the fox was within six feet of mj staid 
and was passing, or rather aiming to pass under himi 
when I hit him smartly with my irory-handled wh^ 
The hlow had the effect of checking his leap, so Cmt aa k 
giTo it another direction, and that was ov^r the horaa 
A snarl — a showing of teeth — a dreadful horrid Bcca» 
ble with sharp claws, right up the flank of my hom^ 
and over my saddle — a sweep of his brush in my fiM)a— 
and he was off upon the ground on the other side, witk 
my green veil entangled about his head and forefeet! 

*' We have him ! YouVe fought bravely, Miss Kate. 
He's meshed !" shouted several of the gentlemen. *^ Wai 
any thing ever done handsomer ? Never saw a boldir 
leap than that in a fox !" 

The fox was indeed fairly meshed ! the veil blinding 
and fettering him so hard that he did nothing but ndl 
over and over, spit and snarl, like twenty oats tied up 
in a sack ! The colonel leaped from his horse and ap- 
proached him with his whip. The other gentlemen did 
the same as fast as they reached the spot. The n^;nMi 
yelled and laughed with obstreperous joy at the pickk 
*^ Massa Fox was in.*' But Reynard was not yet cap- 
tured. He now began to tumble and struggle for life so 
fearfully, that he released one foot from my poor, ton 
veil, and, thus relieved in part, he managed, by the mosl 
extraordinary somersets, to travel at a pace diffioult foi 
the gentlemen to keep up with, laughing, too, as they afl 
were, at his perplexity, which was comical enough. TIm 
progress of the fox was a one-legged lope, a roll, and a 
somerset, alternately, varied by a yelp at every mm 


eknge in his extraordinary locomotion. He got a doien 
blows with the whips, bnt still marvelously kept ahead 
of Us pursuers, till at length he tumbled blindly into a 
deep hole, oat of which a tree had been taken, when the 
dogs plunged in upon him and strangled him. The 
bnsh was brought to me as a trophy, the gentlemen de- 
cltfrag that I was his captor. I, howeyer, referred that 
boner to my poor reil, which was torn and soiled most 
ptifid to behold. The colonel has, since that adventure, 
dibbed me as ^' The lady of the veiled fox." 


66 THE SUNNY south; or, 



Mt dear Sir : — 

I do not recollect whether in my former lettefil 
hare mentioned the rural little Qothic chapel which m m 
the estate. It was erected at the priyate expense of tk 
nohle-hearted Christian gentleman who is its proprietor. 
The model is borrowed from an exquisite chapel whiek 

the colonel saw on the estate of the Earl of C j irhm 

he was in England. The situation of our chapel is ro- 
mantic ; and, being seen from all parts of the plantatioa, 
is an interesting feature in the scenery. It is about 
fifty-fiye feet long and built of stone ; with turrets aad 
muUioned Gothic windows of stained glass, and a ioor 
of Tennessee marble. Its site is upon the Terge of a 
green plantation, which overhangs the brook, and is, ia 
its turn, overhung by a projecting spur of the lioB*s 
cliff. Majestic oaks embrace it, and ivy is trained up its 
walls. A broad lawn, crossed by graveled paths, snr^ 
rounds it. These paths lead : one to the villa, one to the 
next plantation, and one to the African village where 
the slaves reside; for, be it known to you, that this 
beautiful chapel, the cost of which was $3000, has been 
built for the slaves of the estate. The body of the chapel 
is reserved for them, while in a gallery above the en- 
trance are four pews, two on each side of the organ, in 
which the colonel's family, and sometimes the familiis 

ram Mirramnn at hohe. 67 

of one or two of the neighboring planters, sit daring ser- 
vice. This is performed every Sabbath morning by a 
gray-headed gentleman, who acts as lay reader, and on 
veek days occupies himself in teaching the classics to 
two sons of a gentleman who lires two miles off. For 
liis services on Sunday the colonel gives him a salary. 

The second Sunday after I came here I was invited to 
ittend service in the chapel with the funily. Upon 
entering it, I found the body of the floor occupied by the 
Uiek men and women of the plantation, seated in chairs 
with the utmost decency and quiet, and all neatly and 
detnly attired. We took our seats in the gallery, while 
Inbel placed herself at the organ to play a voluntary. 
Until the old gentleman who officiated entered, I had 
time to look at the interior of this bijou of a church. On 
the right of the chancel was an exquisite group of statuary, 
executed in Italy expressly for this chapel by the colonel's 
order, at an expense of $800. It represented the Ma- 
donna and her child. The design was full of taste and ar- 
tistic excellencies. On the opposite side was a table of the 
purest white marble, surmounted by a dove with its wings 
extended. It was a memento of the death of a little son 
of the colonel. There were no pews in the body of the 
church, only low chairs of oak, a chair to each worshiper, 
with an aisle between. 

The service was very solemn ; and my Puritanic ob- 
jections to praying from a prayer-book, have been 
wholly removed by this day's experience. The singing 
wts very remarkable. The African women all sing well, 
having naturally soft voices ; with the organ, and full 
fifty fine voices swelling in harmony with it, the effect 
was very fine. ^^Is it possible," I asked myself, ^^that 

08 TiiK srxNY south; or, 

these are slaves 'i Is it j)Ossil>le tliat tliis rich voice 
which leads in such manly tones is their master's ? Ib it 
possible that the fair girl who unites, by an accompani* 
ment upon the organ, her praise with theirs, is one of 
the * haughty daughters of the South ?' " 

The responses were all full and timely ; for the sIatm 
soon learn words by ear ; and many of them go throogk 
th^ whole service, save the psalter, without a mistake. 
The sermon, which was printed, was read well hj the 
elderly layman ; it was simple, suitable, and praeticiL 
After serrice, the gray-headed old slaves stood reqMCt- 
fully without the door, and, with uncovered heads, bowed 
to the colonel and ladies, the latter of whom stopped ts 
speak to some of them, and to make kind inquiries of ik 
old ''aunties," as all old female slaves are affectionatdy 
termed, as the term ''uncle" is applied to the old Boa. 
I have seen a good deal of the African race since I hava 
been here, and I am persuaded that they are far more reh* 
giously disposed than the lower and middle class of whites. 
There are but four negroes on the colonel's plantaftioa, 
that are not "members" of the church, and who do not 
try to square their lives with the precepts of the Gospd 
so far as they understand them. This is the case, I leuVy 
on all the neighboring plantations, and I am infomed 
by intelligent persons that it is more or less so throng 
out the whole South. It would thus seem, that God, in 
his providence, has permitted slavery to be the instrument 
of christianizing Africa, by bringing Africa to Christiaa 
shores ; and colonization by re-action on the shores of 
Africa, is completing the mysterious dispensation. 

I have an amusing incident to relate of which o« 
ehapel was last Sunday the scene. The annual Tisita- 


tion of tbe Bishop being expected, the renerafck by^ 
resder got ready some twenty adnlts to* Ut efmbm^, 
ind forty children to be baptized* Tbe BMk/^ 4ntj 
arrived, accompanied by two clergyineii. 0«r Wut^ 
chapel, you may be assured, felt qaite hf0uond with tk^ 
presence of such distinguished rmUim. TlMt^ w^e 
sereral neighboring families present, who, with 4«n, 
quite filled the gallery. 

When the time came to baptise then, the »arMe foat 
being filled with fair water, the black babies were hr^mfiet 
op by their ebony papas. The eokmel tUifod w\/mm00f for 
the boys, and his sister, an excellent a&d wiuy maoA^^ 
lady, for the girls. 

^* What is his name?" asked a clergymark whior wan Vp 
baptize, taking in his arms a little inky ball ^A ^^^ffttj 
infancy with a pair of white, shining ey^. 

"Alexander de Great, massa!'' 

I saw a smile pass from face to fa^je </f the rererend 
gentlemen in the chancel. The babe was daly baptized* 

"What name?" he demanded of another Oyngo papa* 

" Greneral Jackson, masna !" and by tbiA narne tbe lit- 
tle barbarian was duly made a Chrij>tian. 

"What name?" "Walter Scott:" "What name?" 
"Peter Simple!" "What name?" "Xajioleon Bona- 
parte !" Splash went the water upon \x% fzc^^ and an- 
other ebony succeeded* Ilis name was "Potiphar." 
Another *s was "Pharaoh." Another was chrixtened 
"General Twiggs;" another " Polk and Dalks;" another 
** General Taylor;" indeed, every General in the Ame- 
rican army was honored, while "Jupiter," "Mars," 
** Apollo Belvidere," and "Nicodemus," will give you 
a spedmen of the rest of the names. The female in- 

70 THE siTiffirT south; OB, 

fants reeeiyed such names as ^^ Queen A^iotoriai** *' JmAj 
Morgan," '^Ladj Jane Grey," ''Madame de Stael," 
"Zcnobia," "Venus," "Juno," "Vesta," "Miss Uu- 
tineau," "Fanny Wright," "Juliana Johnson," and 
"Coal Black Rose." The water in the font, gres^ 
and blackened by the process of baptising so many 
black babies, had to be twice removed and repkfOed bj 
fresh. The Bishop could scarcely keep his coantenaue 
as name after name was giyen, and the assistant ekigy- 
man twice had to leave the church, I verily beUere, !» 
prevent laughing in the church. The whole of tUi 
scandalous naming originated in the merry brain of tfci 
coloners sister. Of course, the clergyman had to hif- 
tise by the name given, and the whole scene was im- 

Your friend, 

«sa flomquEiunvE isr miol 91 



Qv Sfttordaj last we all xoda into tiia ci^, whUk^ 
as I have told yon, ii about two and a kalf h mmB * §mt 
UfiBg firem ChrerUm Park* Tkb lead m m — eetii 
taBpike, and nma through a beantifal toma^ of iild 
mi woodland, hill and dale* The landicape it eoB' 
alaiilly varied and constantly interestiag* St 
pretty villas lined the road, which being moch used, 
thronged with carriages and horsemen. 

The number of gentlemen we found on horseback 
woild be matter of surprise to a Northerner, who asaatly 
rides only in a gig. A Southerner seldom trusts him* 
self inside of a carriage. K his wife rides out in her 
inely-appointed bM'ouche, he canters well-monnted by 
the carriage window. I believe the Tennessee gentle- 
man looks upon it as decidedly effeminate to be seen 
taking his ease in a cushioned carriage. 

On the way we passed the site of an old fort, where 
die army of Jackson encamped before marching to New 
Orleans. A few yards from the ramparts, the place 
where a man was shot for desertion, was pointed out to 
me. It is a sweet-looking, green spot, and calls up any 
other associations than those of bloodshed. 

The Hermitage where Andrew Jackson, jr., now re- 
sides, was not many miles from us. It is a good-lodung 

72 THl 8U5NT south; OB, 

mansion with a portico, and snrronnded by lawns wai 
gardens. At the foot of the garden is risible, through 
foliage, the snow-white tomb of the hero and statesmaiu 

I was charmed with the beauty of the scenery si 
both sides of onr road. The whole landscape undahtel 
like a mighty green sea. About two miles from Nsih- 
ville a hill commands a fine view of it. We stopped Is 
gase upon it as it rose, crowning a sort of loffy idtid 
amid a valley, the Cumberland flowing on the east sida 
The view was exceedingly fine and imposing. For eroy 
roof there was a tree, and what with alternate 
of foliage and porticoes, with the domes and spires 
aboTe all, I was so struck with admiration that I 
for a painter's pencil to transfer the noble pictore ts 

The highest portion of the city is distingnished hj a 
large mansion cresting it like a coronet. This was ths 
residence of the late President Polk, now occupied \fj 
his estimable widow, who, I am told, has shut herself ifs 
a prey to inconsolable grief ever since the death of hsr 
dbtinguished husband. From the distance at whidi we 
were viewing the house, I could see that the large ee- 
lumns were craped with black. 

Nashville has been celebrated for its gaiety, its wealA» 
its luxury, its sociability, and the beauty of its fenakiL 
I was not disappointed in the latter. As we approa^sd 
the city, we met at least fifty carriages driving out lor 
the usual evening ride, for which these people are ss 
famous. In nearly every one of them I beheld one sr 
more lovely faces. We met also a large cavalcade of 
school girls mounted on pretty ponies, and every &es 
was handsome. So it was after we entered the city, and 

THS**0OinnnftvsB at bomi. Tt 

, ttBoiig the sbops. All the girls we aiel irere 
:j; and especially, we noticed an unusual number 
enteel, lordj widows; for men lire feuier than wo- 
, and die early. 

be eqoipagea of the city are nomeroas, and some of 
I liaadsome. They drive fast, and nsnally in open 

rfbre leaving the city, which carries elegance and 
) to a high d^ree, we paid a visit to the Capitol, 
h u one-third completed. It is a majestic new ndn 
fas present aspect, and by moonlight must remind 
ekra firom Italy of a R^iman temple, half dismantled. 
Wm. Strickland is the architect. It has been four 
m in building, and will not be completed in five more, 
cost will be $2,000,000. The material is a white 
stone, with delicately *^ watered" veins. When com- 
id it will be the finest edifice in the Union, without 

rowning a ells' that rises like an island rock from 
beart of the city, it will have very mnoh the appear- 
I of the Castle at Edinbargh, and be a distin- 
hed mark for the eye for leagues around. I was 
sr more disappointed than I was in the air and style 
he city. Everything indicates taste, and the uses 
rsalth. There is as much fashion here as in New 
k; and the ladies dress far more than anywhere else 
,ve been. Jewelry is much worn, even in the street, 
eq>ecially at church. Riding on horseback is very 
ionable, and the costume d cheval is elegant and re- 
di^. The dwellings are richly furnished. One 
te I passed, built after the plan of the Borghes^ 
^oe at Rome, is furnished throughout with furniture 

74 TUE SUNNY south; or, 

made to order in l*aris, and is adorned with Europetn 
pictures and statuary. 

The churches of this city arc not handsome or impo^ 
ing. And who do you suppose I heard read the Mrrie^ 

the last Sabbath I was in town ? Mr. H ^ once ai 

author, who has been for two years past studying lor 
orders in the church. He is also principal of an Acadeay 
for young ladies in the city, a position which he ImUi 
temporarily, imtil he shall be ordained. I trust be wA 
be eminently useful as a clergyman. 

Speaking of authors, what a change has come em 
the literary sky ! Star after star disappears or falls hm 
it; Mellcn is dead; Bryant writes not; Halleck vil 
write no more ; Hoffman has changed his poet's pea Is 
an accompter's ; Bird is a politician ; Simms has bceoM 
an editor and historian; Poe, poor Mr. Pee, ie imil 
Hastings Weld has taken orders. Willis has ahMl 
ceased to ¥rrite, except editorially, and Tery hastily at 
that; for, give Mr. Willis time to polish and adom, prvM 
and shape his sentences, and put in the pretty thmi^ii^ 
and his articles are faultless. No one can excel has 
therein. But let him write eurrente ealamo^ ae tke est 
lege men say, and he is not so interesting. Morris M 
editor, too. I hear his songs sung everywhere u thi 
West. He takes the pianos in fair rivalry with Tev 
Moore. If he wants to know what posterity will tUik 
of him, let him come out West. Willis too, is a faverile 
this way. In a girl's school the other day, I heard two 
of his pieces recited by two lovely girls, in a maimer thit 
would have made the gentlemanly author feel^ had he 
been present, that he was well repaid for the time aad 
care of their composition. I heard, at t eeme tiM, 



% daiic-ejed Gredaa looking maiden recite, with pathos 
and fine taste, Halleek's Marco Bozsaria. The voice of 
the West is the echo of posterity. 

There are no poets among the men West, save Pren- 
tiee; and few females who write. There is much said of 
the plajfiil genius of southern women, and the fertile 
imagination of the men; but these produce but few au- 
thors. Amelia of Kentucky is almost the only one 
known. There is far more poetical talent in cold New 
England, than in the sunny West. Portland is pecu- j\ 
liarly favorable to this development, I have heard. It 
has produced Mrs. Stephens, Mrs. Elizabeth Oakes 
Smith, the most imaginative of American poetesses; 
Longfellow who will long be remembered by his noble 
"Psalm of Life;** Mellen, the forgotten, and others. 
What country colder than Sweden — what genius greater 
than that of that sweet writer, Frederika Bremer ! 

It seems to me that the American press is putting 
forth nothing new from American authors. Our writers 
eecm all to have turned Magazine writers.'*' 

By the way, French is much studied here, and forms 
a part of every young lady's education. It strikes me 

Mr. J that if you would add a French department to 

your other headings in your paper, it would be very well 
received by the thousand school misses into whose hands 
your paper falls. I would suggest the regular publication 
of well written moral French tales, or letters, with an 
exactly literal translation in the opposite column. It 
would be quite as acceptable to numerous contributors, 
as charades, and aid them in their French, while it will 

* These letters were written from 1852 to 1855. 


improve their minds. I think it would be an interat* 
ing, as well as a new feature in your colnmna. 

This being the last of the test letters I was to write 
yon, to see whether yon should judge me fit to be a eon- 
tributor *^ on remuneration." I shall write no further 
till I learn the decision of your august tribunaL 




Ml. : 

Tour very kind letter of the Ist inBt., oonyeTing to 
ae the unhoped for, hut weleome intelligenee, that yon 
k?6 decided to enlist me among your corp9 of oontribn- 
ton, was dnly reoeired* I know not how, adequately, to 
excess to yon, the deep gratitude of my heart, for this 
dedtton; for I feel that it was giyen rather through your 
kmd generosity, than through any merit which my un- 
ledged pen could lay claim to. I shall, therefore, do 
Bjbest to show you how deeply I appreciate your good- 
Beai, and resolve that my ^^ Needles" shall be always 
disrp withal, that you shall neyer have cause to regret 
four decision in my favor. 

My simple goose quill already begins to feel its dignity, 
idd in an authoress's fingers ! It bristles its snowy mane 
nd curves its polished neek with the pride of an Arabian 
Mirser. It realizes its importance. It feels that it is 
oesible that one day it may be knocked oflf at an auo- 
on of ^*' rare curiosities," for not less than ten golden 
igles, as authors' stump pens have been before to-day. 
[y inkstand, which is a lion couchant, with the ink in 
is ears, seems to raise his majestic head with unwonted 
ignity as he yields it to the thirsty pen. The very 
qier is eloquent in its spotless robes, and seems to say: 
Bemember thou art an authoress, and be careful what 


jou trace upon^me, for thy words may be immortal!'* 
Oh, the sweet, trembling, timid, happy feeling of author* 
ship ! How the heart bounds at the sight of our jM 
thoughts, which we know (yet hardly realise it; havt 
been made visible to the eyes of other in type! We 
think little of seeing our own ideas wriUen; hatpfwkdi 
they create sensations indescribable, half delight^ hiV 
awe, a mingled state of bliss and fear, that none lAt 
have not been '^ in print," can ever experienoe. 

I suppose the young merchant, who, for the jEnt tiB% 
sees his name heading his showy advertisement in Ai 
morning paper, or gazes from the opposite side of Ai 
way upon it painted upon his sign in gold letters^ npoa a 
blue ground, experiences pleasure, novel and strangSt 
But this emotion is not to be compared with that of ths 
author, who, for the first time, sees the copy of the deep^ 
hitherto unspoken, unconfided thoughts of his sool legiUi 
in type to every eye ! His thoughu thus made pnblie^ 
are more than a mere painted name, they are a paH sf 
himself, a ray of the outgoings of his spirit! It is liks 
beholding himself with an introverted mirror ! Therefim^ 
the poet ImtB his verses, after has subsided his first awi 
and surprise at beholding them in print, (which a littk 
time before he had found dwelling in the bottom of Ui 
soul*8 deep being,) loves them as a man, with all his fSudtSi 
loves himself! 

Who then will laugh at the dullest rhymer for bcnf 
enamored with his own verses? We might as well lai^ 
at him for loving himself. He thinks his verses as good 
as his talk, and what man was ever persuaded that hi 
did not talk well ; or else all bad talkers would be lor 
ever silent ! When we can convince a poor talker tlMl 


ke «i • poor tilker, then will appear the^Bglith ironder, 
th: a poor poet ooiiTmeed that he is a poor poet. Hie 
peotij, fiko hia eonyersation, is hhneelf, and himself 
iko China on the ^'Celestial*' map^ is the eentre of the 

Kow from ivfcat I hare said, good Ifr. » yon irill 
he lUrfy peranaded tiiat, mite I erer so stupidly, it irill 
la i sel eas in yon or anybody else, to attempt to impress 
i^on my mind a healthy sense of stupidity. This is, 
tfwr e fo r e , throwing down the gamtlet to yon and the 
critiea, (if such a little bird as I be worthy of their aim,) 
Mt to make the attempt to enlighten my intelleetnal 
tviHgfat. I hare to thank some friendly pen for a letter 
ad d r es s e d to me in yoor eolnmns; although it appears to 
some from a juyenile author, it is, nerertheless, worthy 
ef my attentiye recognition, as an eridence that some 
warm heart seeks to express its approving sense of my 
brief literary attempts. I hare also seen a pretty poem, 
addressed to me, which, albeit, something bold and 
aohool-boyish in its audacity, yet it is frank and hearty in 
its tone, and the writer merits my thanks for his kind 
wishes. Speaking of poetry, reminds me how little true 
poetry there is written now-a-days. Some one has said 
that there are fifteen hundred papers printed in the 
Union ; in most of these, weekly, appear one or more pieces 
of mignuU poetry, say twelye hundred perpetrations 
rhythmical, per week, which multiplied by 52, the num- 
ber of weeks in a year, would giye the amaiing number 
of 80,000 pieces of original poetry, printed in our news- 
paper eolnmns in a year! Of these not more than sixty 
annnally are worth preserying or republishing, that is, 
one in a ihonsand! What a despairing computation! 


I am half afraid that, by daring to haye made it^ I ak 
be tlfe innocent cause of driving some hundreds of thai 
ambitious poets to running themselves through the hm 
with their steel pens, or taking ink inwardly. 

I have been recently looking over the ^^ Male and V 
male Poets of America," and I cannot lay my finger i 
a score of poems of which I could unhesitatingly w 
'^ That is imperishable !" Most of the poems of oar bee 
poets, like the editorials of editors, have fulfilled tht 
destiny when once in print. Longfellow has written ti 
pieces, his Psalm of Life, and the noble verses in wUi 
the Union is finely metaphored as a builded ship of M 
and iron, which will weather all time. Bryant's Thaa 
topsis, (if he will revise and strengthen by condensing 
here and there,) will never cease to be admired so Im 
as men arc born to die. llalleck*s Marco Boisari% 
seems to me, holds in suspension the elements of vmt 
ing life. Simms in the South is a noble poet. One < 
more songs of the lyric poet, Morris, and two or thn 
of Willis's sacred pieces, are imperishable so long i 
nature and veneration remain the same as they now ai 
in the human breast. Besides these, I can find hm 
that give promise of surviving the ages to come ! H 
have written a great deal for the nineteenth oentn; 
but scarcely any thing for the twenty*fi{Ui ! What 
literary immortality ? Do our poets know what it meao 
that each expects it? It is the thoughts of one or ti 
individual men surviving the oblivion of 800,000,0( 
of men, their contemporaries. For of every genwatii 
of 800,000,000 of men in all ages past, but two or th 
have left their names or works to us ! It is but a two 
minutes' task to enumerate all the immortal writers < 

til MtioM, ftma I b o a i to (ftagegr* ThqrMB bsfdly 
at Bwiy for SOOO jwrs m appear ia iho MailUj p«b* 
liked lifli 0f lettan m a oHy newqiap«r I Iheyaro^M 
EfiBg mau to • hnadrad auUioiia dM^I Who^ tkp^ 
ikall dart ta prapkeqr ftr Up prodwotiwii or fey lua 
imipitali^t Wlio afaall ko ao vaia a# to iifta 
il ia foaationed if alk«r Um 90Q,OOO^OOQ 
HA aardi haiva Jkaaa 4rvo tlamaad yaaia daad^ M 
Ihwrifi «r aafbfe duil Jbe baa viiltaa, Ifaongli ka bo 
]« GrinroU'a f'DooBMday Spak," ak41 ko 
{ Ibmoitoli^l Parpatoitf of laeaMcj » 
Ika kaaitoef Ike mjmdaef the migb^fiitwal Far 
nkoae aiiigle brow, now on earth, shal) tke maa af tke 
year 8009 wvealk tlie laureled crown? Whose name, 
of Ikaae milliona of men who walk the dtj streets to- 
lay, shall the joaths and maidens to be bom twelye 
kmdred years hence, haye familiarly on their lips, aa 
ve haye the names of Homer, of Virgil, of Shakespeare, 
of Hilton, of Dayid? Immortality ! How few under- 
Hand thy meaning when they speak of thee ! Ton will 

lae, dear Mr. , that I haye yery little hopes of being 

iaunortalixed through my pen ! I confess the chances 
tre againat me, 800,000,000 to 1. Tou haye, therefore, 
tke unique satisfaction of haying a contributor who neyer 
•Kpeeto to be quoted by the literati of the year 6000, 
A* K. There is an immortality, howeyer, which all may 
gain — ^wkieh springs from the heart, not from the intel* 
leel — ^wfaieh looks to the approbation of angels, and not 
of men — to a world that shall exist when the last year 
of die laat century of this earth shall haye closed foreyer 
upon all human hopes, compared with which immortality, 

that of tkia world is but an echo. 

88 THE suKXT south; OB, 

The colonel has just laid on mj table IScknor's 
nish Literatnre, and Emerson's "Nature/* I 
therefore, feast for the next three days. If I fim 
thing that strikes me as Talnable in either of 
books, jou shall hare the benefit of my reading. 

I hare heard rifles or shot-gnns cracking all the ) 
ing in the forest oyer by the tarn, and therefore ^ 
the game to be abundant. To-morrow I am going 
hunting ! I don't mean to be so cmel as to kill 

can shoot, Mr. j and Ati^ too !) the pret^ i 

breasted does, or the majestic stag, with his pron 
tiered head tossing in the air ! Yet, I am all cur 
to witness a hunt. 

Good-bye, mr^ 




Imr fir, did yoa erer shoot » deerT But I 
roa don't hare deer to shoot in Lidependenee 

Bo yon think it would be cmel to kill one if 
ban there? One week ago I was innocent of 

of any one of these pretty, brown animals ; 

I am sorry to confess that I hare shot a deer 
«t wrote yon, and although it is not dead, I 
lly as if I had wounded a helpless, human be- 

reproachful, pleading look, as it turned its 
diligent eyes upon me, I can never forget ! I 
on how it happened. 

lonel had been invited to ^^ Chestnut Bidge," 
es from the Park, by an old military friend, 
keen a sportsman as Nimrod ever was, to hunt 
le invitation was accepted, and Isabel and my- 
taken along with the gallant colonel to witness 
! Sad tpart to see the innocent animak that so 
glade of the green forest slaughtered ! Bising 
lawn, we took an early breakfast, and mounted 
a just as the sun, like a wheel of gold, rolled 
St. I was no longer mounted on the spirited 
J little mule, which played me such a runaway 
t November, but rode a handsome black pony, 
ig tail and a magnificent mane, and the smaUest 


ears concciyable. His pace was as gentle as a cradle^ 
and he stepped over the grass, as if he trod on Telvet 
in a drawing-room. The colonel rode a noble charger, 
of a dark-bay color, with a neck arched and proud, like 
a war-horse ; and such he was, for the colonel had rid- 
den him into many a battle strife on the fields of Meziea. 
The superb animal, as he pawed the earth and praneed 
along through the woodlands, seemed still ^ to smell As 
battle afar oflf, and the thunder of the eaptuns aad tht 
shouting." What grace and strength were united in hia! 

Next to man, the horse is unquestionably the noUvl 
created thing. But of all majestic forms oonoeiT^le Is 
human imagination, I haye never seen any thing thil 
equals that mighty tri-formed figure to be found pais 
trayed in Layard's Nineveh. I mean the sublima ionn 
composed of a body of a lion, of the wings of an €agis^ 
and of the face of a man. No one can gaie upon k wiA* 
out admiration and awe. It represents strength, ias^ 
ness, and intelligence embodied, and the reank is a 
creature that rivals in dignity, majesty, and gloiry, and 
symmetry, man himself! 

But I am running away from my party. Isabd, the 
beautiful, Spanish-looking Isabel, rode by her fathor^s 
left hand, mounted upon a mottled palfrey that 
formed especially for herself. His small head, his 
parent, pink nostrils, his slender fetlocks as neat ■• a 
lady's ankle, his dainty footfall, as his deerlike hosb 
picked out the smoothest way for his mistress, wen aB 
characteristics of the Arabian race, from which it ckimad 
lineage. What decided aristocracy there is in the Iioim! 
They differ as widely from each other as men do^ and 
how widely these are separata in ezcellenej of lintigt! 


Tkare is nobililj of ImtUi m there is ynlgtri^ of birth I 
There are fratlemen who ere gentlemen by nature. 
I am not a belief«r in the axiom that all men are bom 
mfmif aad that ednoatioii, or the want of it, makes men 
efnaL There is gentility and refinement of feature that 
idaeatioa eauoi gire, and there is Tnlgarity of feature 
Aal ed n catJon eannot ennoble. When a double-headed, 
dontdejointed plough-horse^ or any of its kith, can be 
edmcated to win a Derby cap, then I shall beUere that a 
lalgar mind and a ynlgar face can, by edocation, be re- 
ined and ennoUed. We had a merry ride of it through 
the grand woods ! How we landed till echo laighed 
•gain. One can be as noisy as one pleases in the coun- 
try. There was a white frost on the ground, and the 
crisp grass crashed and crackled as we pressed its crystal 
ipears. The birds (for many birds dwell in the forest 
here all the year round) were singing to the morning with 
gladness in their tiny breasts; the squirrel bounded 
from limb to limb, or raced with nimble feet across the 
sward, and darted up some tall trunk, going higher and 
higher, and carefully keeping on the side opposite to us; 
tat they are a cunning wee thing, with their bushy tails 
arched oyer their round backs, and their twinkling, pretty 
eyes as watchful as weasels. There was no regular forest 
path, but we threaded the wood at will, for the trees 
grew far asunder, and the total absence of underbrush 
made it like park-land. The surface of the country 
was undulating and picturesque. At one time we would 
descend to a gurgling brook rushing hoarsely away from 
the rocks in its bed, and, fording its translucent waters 
at another time, find ourselves at the top of a ridge that 
opened to us a far spread rirer view. 

86 THE SUNNY south; or, 

In our ride of five miles we met but three person?. 
One of these was an old African with a head as white u 
iooolj and a face, venerable and lined with age, and a snowy 
beard. His appearance was striking, and reminded as 
of a black patriarch, especially as he wore a gray blanket 
OTer his shoulder like a mantle. And let me remaik; 
that a blanket completes a negro's winter costvM 
here ; sometimes it is made into a coat, but more fte^ 
quently, for the advantage of having it as a e o ter i ^ 
at night, worn entire, like a shawl, or a Spanish /Mndbi 
The African was leading a tall Congo stripling, half-nakid 
to the waist, who had a hanging countenance, as if ki 
were an offender of some sort. 

^^ That is old Juba with his grandson Tom, tied," aid 
the colonel, as they drew near. ^^Tom has been playnig 
the runaway in the woods these three weeks. So, imdi 
Juba," added the colonel in the kind, familiar tone ia 
which masters here, who arc gentlemeny address their oH 
slaves ; " so you've caught Tom ?" 

^*' Ees, mosse, me cotch de berry bad boy! He neUcr 
raise heself for noting good uf he get de habit ob nmnin' 
'way dis way ! Old Juba feel berry shame ob him. Me 
gib him frashun, me git him home. He disgrace to de 
family ! Come 'long, you nigger, a'n*t you shame yoosalt^ 
run off in de wood like a dog-tief ?" 

With this appeal, the old man gave the thong a jerk, 
and, touching his old hat in respectful homage to Ui 
master and to ourselves as ^^ young mississes," dragged 
his ragamuffin grandson of eighteen years on the way 
back to the plantation. 

*'That old negro," said the colonel, as we rode on, 
'^ has been in my family seventy-eight years. He wv 


hi by mj grand&lher before the Berehtioii from 
ifrieui tnder thftt cune into Jamestown with » load 
kwm from the coast of Africa. He was then a lad 
arteeD, and is of course now ninetj-two ; yet he is 
r idle, is aetiYe and faithfnl, and is a sort of patri- 
arer the rest of the slaTes, half of whom are his 
andaata. He has not yet forgotten his African lan- 
[s^ which he still speaks when he is yezed^ nor has 
ro|iped his heathenish superstitions. Hewearsabont 
lack frJl half a dosen eharm$ of one sort or another^ 
is ft finn bdicTer in the dcTil, whom he says he has 
bodily a hundred times. His influence orer the 
twa is yery extraordinary. They stand in awe of 
His grandson, you see, is a tall, stout fellow, and 
It get away from him ; but he would as soon think 
briking the old man as resisting his authority. 
^e had not ridden more than a mile after parting 
. Juba and his captive, when we saw a figure standing 
lotionless as a statue in the forest ahead of us. The 
nde was free and commanding, and a nearer ap- 
ich showed us that it was an Indian. Ho was lean- 
on his rifle. He wore a sort of coronet, made of 
S| encircling his crow-black bead, and ornamented 
; crow and eagle's feathers. He was dressed in a 
fit>ck, trimmed with tarnished gold lace, and belted 
» to his body by a stout leathern cincture. Hanging 
I his brawny chest were scTeral silyer medals. On 
jeft wrist were five hoops or bracelets of brass, close 
iher, and being riveted on whole, were evidently 
Qt to be worn till his death. He wore deer-skin leg- 
, the seams fringed, and his feet were encased in 
) ]iand8<miely ornamented moccasins, which had s^eii 

88 fUM nmwt south; ox^ 

Mrrice. In Vm belt were a powder-horn, • hmg 
in a sheath of serpent's skin, a povch for balls, ffiats^ fa^ 
and another large one for miseellaaeons artadea. Si 
rifle was rerj long, slender, wiUiont anj grogfis steJt 
for the barrel to rest in, and had a flint lode. I hsd 
time to observe all these particnlars, for we s top ped 
held some minutes' ^^talk" with the warrior; for 
he was, baring fought under General Jackson leng 
agone; and two of the medals suspended from feia Beck 
were bestowed upon him, the colonel said, by tka '^ksra" 
The Indian was full sixty years of aga^ b«t tiiM hsd 
soarcely whitened a hair of his lofty bead. Plmri, slv% 
dignified as a king, he neither mored nor r^ardod m si 
we rode up to him. 

^^Good morning, Ciqitain John," iaid the eokMid; "a 
fine day for the deer! You seem to be on the 
well as we !" 

The Indian chief smiled at hearing the 
bland words of the colonel, and answered in a deep bai^ 
tone, that completely came up to my idea of a ^ 

*^Ya, white chief! Good mom'! Deer not 
plenty! Good day hunt, but deer not much pkalj! 
White man leave no more deer for Indian rifle!" and hi 
slowly shook his head, cast his eyes sadly to tha 
and remained silent. 

^^Why do you and your people not remora 
chief?" asked the colonel. ** You will flnd raat 
grounds there — no white man will intrude upon 
you can there be happy and powerful !" 

** Indian never more be great, white chief!" reepondsA 

THV ■aamnannr at wome. W 

ikb old murmr, irith » heavy do«d dMloeiiii^ the noUe 
wilint of Ui Wniringtoa like feetmes. 

As he spoke, he turned md strode away with the air 
md b e atiug of Fomst ■• Ifetamwmy sare that the one 
JtiiMtatian, and die other nature. 

«« Who ia that noble hN>hing eUeH" I inqnired of 
fte oohwd, for his snllen pride and solitary ooaditaon 
hi Bspirsd an with a enriosity to know his history. 

«'Tfaal is tfio oslebrated Gredk chief Nehtftora," was 
Im replyy as we resimed our ride^ while the chief disq^ 
pnnd m die depths of the woodland. ^^ He was an ally 
tf Jadcaon's in the Indian wars, and was of great assist- 
laee to the cause. The encroachments of dvilisation 
ipon his hunting grounds, which were once a hundred 
Idles ia extent through this region, have compelled most 
of his tribe to remove to the west of the MissisaippL 
Bat he and a few of his friends refuse to go. He has 
svom, I am told, upon the graves of his fathers, that he 
will never desert them, but remain to protect and die 
mpmt them ! And he will keep his word. Sometimes he 
is seen a hundred miles south of this, but he is never 
long absent from the central seat of his tribe, which is a 
beautiful valley thirty miles to the east and south of us. 
I have before met him in the forest, but he refused all 
offers of » hospitality, and will cross the threshold of no 
white man. Crockett and this chief were once like 
brothers, yet he never sat at the American hunter's 
board. Three years ago, Nelastora was seen standing 
by General Jackson's grave at the Hermitage, regarding 
it in silence; but when he was approached, he haughtily 

By the time the colonel had ended this history, we 


were winding np an avenue that led to the mi 
house of the old soldier, whom we had riaited fc 
purpose of hunting deer with him. 

On either hand, the ancient woods were r^lac 
broad cotton fields, which at this season were unpli 
A quarter of a mile from the house, a white gate, tl 
open by half a dozen little shining-ejed negroes, 
ducted us to the grounds more immediately oonli 
with the house, viz : a wide rolling lawn, adorned 
tervals with native fruit trees. We approachei 
verandah of the house at a hard gallop, and wei 
ceived by our military host with a hearty old-faak 
hospitality, that could only be exceeded by the po 
courtesy of his manners. He kissed both Isabc 

me! But then, Mr. , he was full fifty-nimi 

gray whiskers, and — and he always made it a poi 
kining all pretty young ladies that came to see him. 
unless you are fifty-nine, and have gray 
mustn't presume upon this circumstance to 
think — ^you may end the sentence yourself, if yoa p 

Good bye, 



BkAi Hb.«— ^ — : 

PuASB inre§eiit mj nmling thanks to your talmted 
(KTespondent ^ RiutieiM," of Wilmington, for his graoe* 
a venes addreeeed to me. I feel flattered by his e(»n* 
hseBts, while I blush that I am not more deserring of 
Mm. The thooght is singularly pleasing to me, that 
le cmde efforts of my untutored pen find readers who 
mpathise with and understand me. These kind per- 
ns are all my friends henceforward ! I see them with 
e eyes of my spirit, and embrace them with my heart, 
se day, if not on earth, we shall meet in heaven, and 
cognize each other, and be friends in sweet communion 

When I by chance meet here, in this poor world, a 
tidred being, whom to know and love is happiness, I 
ink how many such gentle and good ones the world 
ntains, whom I shall never see on earth ! When this 
ought comes over my spirit, I feel sad that we must 
ss away unknown to each other ; but the bright worid 
en by faith beyond this reassures me, and I take cour- 
e and rejoice, believing that in the spaces of eternity 
who are shaped in the same mould of love will find 
?!h other, and so the beautiful, and good, and lovely 
earth, though on earth I meet them not, are not for- 
ir lost to me. Is not this a thought to make the lone 

92 THX 8UX5T south; or, 

heart strong? But I must tell jou about my deer-lmt 
Rusticus seems to question the truth of the aocomit ef 
the fox-hunt, but if he had spent a few days in this r^ 
gion of adventure, he would not hedge in his credalitf 
so closely. Pray, why may not a lady hare adTentsra^ 
and dashing ones, too, as well as the ^^ Lords?" Bi- 
shrew me, but the etprit du camp is not all under thi 
round hat ! I know a young lady not six miles finoalli 
Park, who is a celebrated tamer of young steedsi is^ 
mounted upon their backs, whips them bravely int^ isk 
mission. Di Vernon is a tame maiden ocmpAred vilk 
her. She can shoot a rifle, hit a rose-bud at teu pasa 
with a pistol, and take a partridge on the wing. I wil| 
perhaps, talk about her at another time. I must wm 
make myself heroine. Mr. Rusticus Doubtful^ I lUI 
rap you over the knuckles, sir poet ! 

I have told you, Mr. ^ how we were met by thi 

old soldier when we drew rein at his gallery. The ham 
was a long, low, rambling edifice, such as is peculiar to 
the plantations in the South, with a light gallery i^ 
ported by slender columns extending along the froat 
A wide, natural lawn, dotted with huge forest-trees, <x> 
tended around it, smooth as a green plush-carpet. Oa 
it were four or five beautiful horses cropping the swfcl 
grass, two gentle-oTod, tame deer, a heady-looking gosi 
with a beard like a Jew, a little innocent lambkin with s 
broken leg which was neatly splintered and bandaged by 
the old soldier's own hands, and a strutting turkey-go^ 
bier with pride enough for the Autocrat of all the IlusBi«» 
and scarlet enough f<ir a Cardinal's cap. It was a prcCtJi 
quiet scene, with the golden Imrs of sunshine laid akwg 
between the o|)enings among the trees, and the hiidi 


wi Bgm g in the bnuidMt, whidi the nomiiig wild 

VftTing and stirring with the motion of life. The old 

w hiteh whiakered warrior escorted ns into his spsdovs 

AnnriBgHnoem, holding Iwbel by one hsnd and me with 

the other, like a gallant gentleman of the old sehool as 

ha was. We were no sooner seated, one on eadi side 

df IUIB9 than a serraat entered with a qaatemion of 

■InijfdepSy in tan silfier tamUerSy a golden straw of wheat 

inojeding from eadi verdant pyramid a4op. ]f othing 

wrndd do but that Iwbel and I dumld take one« The 

eU gandeaian woold not be said JV!qr. He was one of 

llmt daas of men who fimoj that <'no*' means ''yes," 

when qK>ken by yoang ladies ; nay, he eren went so far 

aa to assererate as mneh. I bad to take the jolep. 

Aast imagine me, Mr. , seated with a riding-whip in 

one hand, and a mint-julep, piled np like ^^ Ossa upon 

Pdion," in the other, oommonicating with my lips by 

Ae hollow tube of straw aforesaid, and imbibing like a 

smoker his tobacco, the perfnmed nectar of the distilled 

and delicate compoond. I most confess it was delicions ! 

]>on't tell the good temperance folks that I say so for 

die world ! but it was truly refreshing. I didn't wish 

to sip enough to get into my head; so, after five or six 

charming sips, I phused the silver goblet, still full, upon 

the salrer. Do you not admire my self-denial under the 


I spent an hour admiring the pictures and cnrioaties 
in the old soldier's handsomely-arranged rooms. Over 
the mantel was a large, full length of the H^o of New 
Orieana, at middle age, in the uniform of a odonel. It 
was an odmiraUe head, and struck me as the personifi- 
of wnrgy of will, a quahty for which the '^ Qeo/^ 

94 THE suNxv south; or, 

ral" was afterward distinguished abore all other 

^^ You admire the Hero ?" said the host, as he observel 
us closely studying the expression of the face of thi 
Iron Man of the New World. 

" Greatly," I answered. 

'^He was a great man, Miss Kate!" responded tb 
soldier and companion in arms, with a liquid apaiUi 
visible in his eyes. I love to see tears in brave nMi*i 
eyes ! 

''You knew him well, major?" I said, interrogatitd^. 

^' We were as brothers, or rather as father and son, ftr 
though I am gray, he was twenty years my senior. Hi 
was a lion in battle, and an eagle in pursuit. He vai 
born to command. He read men as I read a child's 
book. They have said he was cruel. It is not trw! 
He loved to exercise mercv. Let me tell vou an aac^ 
dote to illustrate his character. A soldier had deaerlri 
his post to go home to a dying father. He was amsUi 
kneeling at his father's bedside receiving his dyiag 
blessing. He begged to be permitted to remain ti 
close his eyes, 'when,' he said, 'he would ready/ Hi 
was taken to the camp, then in Florida. He 
tried by a court-martial, and condemned to be 
The General signed his sentence of death on 
head. I saw him do it, and I saw a tear drop, like a 
drop of falling rain upon the hollow drum*head« Bal 
those who saw not the tear, but marked only the ilcn 
lines of his face, thought hfm unfeeling !" Here the m^sr 
frowned, and looked fierce to hide and keep baek thi 
liquid drops that had been growing larger every 
too large for bis eyes to hold; bat spite of his 


raws, ihej found their ehanneli and roDed, peftrb of 
neej mdown his battle-browned cheeks. What are 
e«rB? Can any tell what and why are tears? 

^ The poor man was at length led forth to ezecntion/' 
■eaiimed the major, who had canght <me of his tears slyly 
Mt the baek of his hand, while the other broke, as he 
Ihonght onobsenred, upon the marble hearthstone; ^the 
iatanhment which was detailed to ezecate the sentence, 
was drawn np aboot fifty paces from the goieral's tent. 
The whole army were drawn np in line to witness the 
laath of the deserter. The general remained in his tent. 
Ha was pacing np and down calmly and thonghtinlly. 
Ihere wanted but a minnte to the signal for death, when 
suddenly he ordered the deserter to be brought before 
him. The man was led blindfolded as he was to his 
tent. 'Lamham,' said the general to the deadly pale 
man, 'you have forfeited your life by the laws of war. 
I therefore signed the warrant for your execution. You 
have merited life by your filial obedience ; I therefore 
repeal the sentence of the court martial and pardon you; 
and may every son be as worthy of the name as you have 
proved yourself to be!' The poor man fell at the 
geaeral's feet and embraced his knees, and the army 
withoot hurrahed as one man ; for the filial piety of the 
deserter had found a responsive chord in every heart, and 
the pardoning act awakened its echo." 

There was a stand of colors in the comer of the room 
whidi the m^^or had carried at the head of his battalion ; 
and there were many omametits around, consisting of 
war-hatchets, bows, quivers, wampums, crests of eagle's 
ftatfaers, pai nted deer skins, fringed and embroidered, all 
presents trc i Indian chiefs. The major showed me m 

96 THE SUNNY sorTii; OR, 

war club which was fringed with human hair, and which 
he said had kiHed many a warrior in its day. But ttie 
sight of it was revolting to my imagination. But he had 
paintings of favorite horses and hounds, of gsM 
hunting scenes, and the candelabra of hit roooia 
deer's antlers, with silver tops terminating the 
to hold the candles. One homed branch held 
sockets, which he called his Federal ChandeUer. fli 
took us to one room which was literally hang 
with rifles, old, long, and short, and of all siaea ; 
fowling pieces, deer's antlers, powder flasks and 
game bags, dried game, game in glass cases, and all 
of things which I could not imagine th^ use o^ hM 
which he gravely declared were all essential te iht 
making up of a good hunter. 

He would take us to his stables too, to see his bSil 
war-horse. We found the venerable steed occ«pjii|g t 
neat brick cottage opening into a green paddoak M 
which he was grasing. As soon as he heard hia maslv'l 
voice he pricked up his aged ears and came trottiagakm 
till he was within two yards, when he stopped and Ml 
his way to the gate with his feet. We patted him 
spoke kindly to him, and he licked salt out of my 
His teeth were all gone, and his eyes were as while •• 
those of a fish. How pitiable was the noble wieA! 
He had been through the Alabama and Florida wei% 
and bore a scar on his left shoulder from the blow of • 
tomahawk. His master talked with him as if he wot e 
human being, and as affectionately as if he were e eoB' 
rade. It was a fine picture ; the white-headed apHisr 
leaning upon and talking kindly with the aged 


seen better dajR, but had now grown old to- 
ith his master. 

we retmmcd to the house we found all ready for 
;. Our horses were saddled and at the door, 
d by an African. We were soon a-saddle, fol- 
r four serrants a-foot, two of whom led a leash 
k^piece. How the hounds' intelligent eyes spoke 
pated sport ! Our party consisted of our colo- 
old soldier, Isabel, and myself, of the Saxon 
the four negroes, and a fifth, half breed, who 
"t of forest-keeper to our host. He was a man 
he major told us, in every kind of wood-craft, 
» be matched for a deer in all Tennessee. He 
nted on a nag that looked like a half breed, 
head like a bull dog, a mane like a buffalo, and 
nane on each fetlock. He was shaggy as an 
rug, black, and ugly in temper. Our elegant, 
tic jennets shied away from him if he chanced 
ear either of them, with a proud flash of their 
a haughty whinny of their nostrils, 
length reached a noble wood extending to a 
)m which there was a precipitous path leading 
tntic stream that emptied into the Harpeth which 
its waters to the broader Cumberland. In this 
5 deer usually feed, and, crossing the ridge, de- 
j winding path to the water side to drink, 
getting through the wood, we took up our posi- 
tt the ridge, between the forest and the water. 
»re four deer paths leading across it, near each 
stood an oak of enormous breadth of branches, 
nks like colossal columns of Thebes. We dis- 
on the ridge, and giving our horses to the 


Africans, who led them away to a distant emiiieiiee^ 
each of us took a position behind a tree. I 
have preferred standing by the ooloneVs side at his trei^ 
but he and the major insisted that Isabel and I AaM 
each have our tree, *'so that," said they, ''the fav 
paths leading from the forest to the river might be «» 
manded." So for the sake of a military dispoaitiM rf 
their forces by the two old soldiers, I had to take pot 
behind one of the huge oaks. Next to me was the rnqVy 
fifty feet off to the south; and on the north of me lii 
Isabel, with the colonel on the north flank. For ftm'i 
sake we were both armed. (Isabel and I with small M 
guns, London make, and exquisitely ornamented vilk 
silver inlaying.) These guns were curBy — ^New Yeir'i 
presents from the colonel, who regularly gave us 
in the science of shooting, averring that every 
lady ought to know how to take sight and pull a trigger. 
Now, when I took the post assigned me, I bad no mon 
malice aforethought against any deer of the fo iMt> 

Mr. , than I have against that ^^dear gaielle" tk 

song sings about. I was as innocent of any intentioa 
of firing, as a timid young gent who has been dragged 
into a duello by his '^ friends" would be likely to have. 
: The tall half-breed had left us some time before w% 
reached the ridge, and turned off into the depths of tht 
forest with the dogs, about a dozen of them in alL We 
had hardly well taken our '^stands*' when, from the 
bosom of the old wood, came to our ears the low bant 
baying of the hounds, sounding full a mile off. 

^* There, they wake them up, girls!" cried the m^or, 
with eyes sparkling with something of their old battle 
fire. *^ Stand firm and keep your trees when they eome. 

sovTHnunm ja mn. fl§ 

idaiaiiad poll trigger wbea jemwmiSm 
ejM. Th^ will be iq> in aboaft fre 
lyiBg of the honndii now grew n e nr e i 
rt inlerfik with the flfariU, hoHui ay ef Ae 
rer. From the ooknd I ndenleoi Ant Ae 
i doobled round the deer m they wero fnda|^ 
I dbEvrini; tiiem towards the rid^ nUdi Aqr 
Mm fly aoroMy to daah for Ae rirer. Beam 
er, and wilder was die iqiroar in the fonat! Ihe 
i«tha of a doaen dogs, dieered 4m hj Ae kdC^ 
Dad tiie woods with a eontinnoiia roar. Seea 
ffd ekwe at hand the eraahing of brancfaa aad 
of kavea, as the antlers of the deer lirashid 
their mad ue€^pade. Then came the qnick pat- 
Dofs, and the rush of the air like the ^noise of 

k! see! they are in sight!" cried Isabel, her 
» sparkling like a spirited yoong knight's, when 
sees his foe adyandng against him, lanee m 

Jiey were in sight! First, a noble stag, leading 
of the flight; then half a dozen graceful does; 
^ or three smaller stags; then a coninsed crowd of 
of all sises. With heads laid flat back on their 
iSi they came np the ridge side with incredible 
s. As they approached oar stands, they divided 
r beaten paths, and came on like a rolling sea, 
ft fleet of antlers. Behind them, following hard 
r flanks, coursed the dogs, with their heads in 
and their deep bay deafening the ear. 
i a moment of intense excitement. It was like 
commencing, with the foe charging ! I did not 


feel fear, but excitement! My pulae bounded! Mj heal 
leaped with heroic springs ! My spirit caught the viU 
inspiration of the scene ! 

'^ Stand firm !" eagerly whispered the colonel to ui, ai 
they got so near that we could see their brown, wonuily 
looking eyes. 

'^Draw your sight coolly, girls," cried the major. 

The next moment they were upon us ! The leadof 
stag dashed like a race horse past the oak where InU 
stood, four or five following him at top speed. Bit I 
had no time to observe others. My eyes were bent wA 
a stern energy (my brow is hardly yet restored to ill 
natural smoothness) upon a phalanx that was mshing K^ 
wards me like the wind. An instant, and they pans^ 
leaving a hurricane in the air of their track followi^ 
them. I shut my eyes involuntarily. (Crack! crack! 
went rifles on each side of me!) As I opened then 
again, I saw the last of the party making for my ttm 
like a launched javelin. (At this instant IsabeFt gpi 
was heard.) It was a beautiful doe, and as I had, in thi 
bewildering moment of the exciting scene, stepped a litdi 
out, and exposed myself unconsciously to her attai^ 
she came leveling her frontal battery unerringly to bitl 
me over. I saw my danger, and was paralyied at it! 

^'Fire, or you are killed," shouted the colonel, in i 
tone of horror. 

''Fall down, and let her bound over you!" hallood 
the major. 

Instinctively I levelled my pretty bird gun and fired 
I saw the beautiful animal leap into the air, the rc4 
blood pouring down its snow-white breast, and plunge 


heftdlong at my feet. I sunk, almost insennble, 

) wmrm body, Bcarcely hearing the cries. 



iek from Isabel, who believed me womided by the 

wby and who flong herself by my side, recalled 

I the momentary stupor which the mingled emo- 

my danger and my escape, and my horror at the 

the bleeding breast of the deer, had produced. 

) my happiness, Mr. y when it was foimd 

) doe was not mortally wounded. The major, at 
■eaty, said it should be taken to his house and 
for me till it recovered. This was done, and I 
B pleasure of assuring you that it is rapidly con- 
g, and it seems to be grateful to me for riding 
sry day to see how it fares, 
result of the day's '^ sport" was two stags, three 
id one rabbit, which Isabel caught alive on our 
me, after running it down on horseback. She 
unded a deer, which escaped from her. 
, then, you have a veritable account of my deer 
When you make your promised tour of the Union, 
Resident," and come to this garden of the West, 
lee, we will get up a hunt especially for your 
ion, fox, deer, or rabbit, as may chime in with 


Yours, respectfully, 




My wounded deer has quite recovered. Ton 
imagine mj joy at this result. If it had died, I sbcdil 
have carried the poor, affectionate, mild-eyed crestnc'i 
death upon my conscience to my last hour. It alrealf 
knows my voice, and suffered me to lead it by my Btddl^ 
horn yesterday, from the major's to the Park ; thm^ 
to confess the truth, it came twice near bounding awij 
from me when it discovered a herd of deer, whidi, semi 
at our approach, went scampering down the glades. Bit 
a gentle word and a pat upon the neck re-assured ui 
quieted it. The worst part of bringing it over was to 
keep two hounds, that always ride out with Isabel, frofli 
tearing it in pieces. They could not comprehend the 
mystery why man should one day hunt deer down and 
slay them, and the next, pet and protect one. BralM 
are not very able logicians, and are beyond the compre* 
hension of mixed motives. No doubt a great deal of the 
conduct of their intelligent masters puzzles them Tasdy. 
Brutes follow instinct never deviates from a strai^ 
line, while intelligence is unconfine<L Buck and Wolf 
could not be reasoned with, so I used my whip smartly; 
and, thus seconded, at length got my proteg^ aafelj 
housed at home. What splendid orbs the mild creatare 
has for eyes ! Their expression is soft and pleading, with 
a slight glitter of timidity. I have seen a beautiful 


"^roman irho had just such exes aff mj dwr lias. To 
Iceep my treasure from the dogs, I hare Am h up in the 
paddock for poultry, which has a high fence arovmd it ; 
I have had to whip the houuds half a aoore of tamef t/> 
teach them not to stick their black noses thnwgh the 
palings and yelp at it, half terrifying it to death. 

By the way, talking of hounds. I was awakened this 
morning at sunrise by a great uproar in the kenneL iHbere 
mt least twenty hounds are kept. Ererr dog wac in full 
howl, and such a noise! It was not the clear, heart- 
atirring bay they utter when they are in chase« but a 
aselancholy, cross, snappish wailing and bowling, as if 
aome hitherto unheard of tribulation harl befallen them 
generally and individually. The whole bouse was roused. 
The colonel first reached the scene of the canine tur- 
moil, and, upon inquiring, ascertained from a black wo- 
man, that they were *^mad because $he baked their corn- 
bread for dem." 

It appeared that old, purblind mam' Daphny, who 
does nothing but cook for the hounds, was sick in bed 
^^with the rheumatics," and delegated her duties to 
another for the day. The hounds, whose alimentary 
tastes, as well as olfactory nerves, are keenly sensitive, 
had detected the new and less skillful hand ^' at the bel- 
lows," and BO bellowed forth, in the fashion I have 
described, their grief and rage at this innovation upon 
established usages. They left the corn-bread untouched, 
and would not eat until old aunt Daphn v — good-hearted 
Congoese^— crawled out of bed, and made up a *^ batch** 
which was no sooner placed before the epicurean quad- 
rupeds, than they devoured it greedily. It takes as much 


good bread to keep these hounds as it does % doieB m- 
grocs. They, the dogs, are dainty wretches. 

I was witness, yesterday afternoon, to a ^oaie ^ 
afforded me infinite amusement. The negroes had pis- 
sents all round at Christmas and Newyear's ; but, «■ 
Washington's birth-day, old George, a favorite and VM^ 
rable slave, whose father once belonged to Waahingtai 
argued that he ought to have a special present ! Ik 
colonel therefore sent into Nashville and bought him s 
new violin. A more acceptable gift could hardly ban 
been made to him, as he has a fine ear for muaici and ii 
the Orpheus and '< Ole Bull** of the plantation. It his 
been his custom of evenings, after the day*s work is ont^ 
to seat himself upon a bench beneath a large elm thtl 
grows in the centre of the African village or Quartio'. 
Here, at the sound of his fiddle, would gather the wkob 
ebon population to dance. At such times he gives fv- 
ffular lessons to the young negroes in dancing to thi 
banjo, and teaches their juvenile voices the classic aiit 
of Mondango and Guinea ; hereditary tunes, that havi 
been brought from Africa, and which are now spread cm 
the land to such words as ^'Juliana Johnson, don't yoa 
cry," " Old Dan Tucker," " Long Time Ago," kc 

We had just risen from the tea-table, last ereniB^ 
when old George made his appearance at the stepa of 
the gallery, and, baring his bald head, he bowed with a 
politeness that Lord Chesterfield would have envied, aid 
made us this speech : 

'' Young Missises and Massa colonel ; old George 
take de liberty to *vite you to come to de dance ovt 
door by de ol* elm. Massa hab giv* mc new fiddle^ 


and I takes pleasure to giv' de white folks a consart, and 
show de young ladiescs how my scholars dance/' 

We accepted George's polite invitation, and as the 
sioon was full we went over to the village. We were 
guided to the tree by the bright light shed from half a 
dozen pine torches, held in the hands of as many Afri- 
can animated statues, whom George had conspicuously 
stationed to throw light upon the scene. 

■ Am I approached the spot, I was struck with its no- 
Teltj, for I have not yet been long enough here to be- 
come familiar with all plantation customs. I have told 
ymk that the negro village of the estate is picturesquely 
disposed on the borders of a pretty merey a few hundred 
yards from the house. We crossed the water, by a 
wicker bridge, and had most of the dwellings of the 
slaves in full view, occupying two streets and three sides 
of a square. The lights of pine-wood flung a red and 
wild glare upon their fronts, and upon the lake, and 
upon a group of more than a hundred Africans of both 
Bexes, who were assembled about the tree. It revealed, 
also, here and there an old man or woman, helpless 
through age, seated in their hut-doors, in order to enjoy 
as much of what was going on as they could. 

We already found the dignified George seated upon 
his bench, fiddle in hand. On his right stood a short, 
fat negro, holding a banjo, and on his left was another 
slave, with eyes like the bottoms of China cups, holding 
two hollow sticks in his hand. Behind George was a 
toothless negress, having before her a section of a hol- 
low tree, shaped like a drum, with a dried deer-skin 
<h-awn tightly over it ; in her shining fist she grasped a 
wrt of mallet. Chairs, assiduously provided, were placed 


for US, and the buzzing of pleasure, ooeanoBed amiag 
the numerous company of Ham's posterity, hariag idk> 
sided, at a majestic wave of George's fiddle-bow, tk 
concert began ! The first tune was a solo, and new to 
me, and so beautiful and simple that I made old (katf 
play it for me to-day in the house, and I cofiti tb 
music as he did so. He says his father taught it toU& 
Certainly the negroes hare striking native airs, diane* 
terized by delightful surprises and touching simplieit^ 
Their chief peculiarity is cheerfulness. 

George having first played a soft strain, the loji 
struck in a second ; then came the hollow sticks, like as* 
tanets, but five times as large, hollow, and more muicd; 
and, lastly, the old negress thumped in a base on kr 
hollow drum. The perfect time, the sweet harmony, tk 
novelty of the strange sounds, the singular eombiiwtiia 
enchanted me. I must confess that I never heard tm 
music before ; but then I should acknowledge I have Ml 
heard any operatic music in an opera-house. Bel ^ 
not smile if I say that I believe George and his tkit 
aiders and abettors would be listened to with pkass^ 
able surprise, if they should play as I heard them pby, 
by a Walnut street audience. Heal African eonecit- 
singers are not, however, in fashion. White men blamed 
are only comme ilfaut. Is it not odd that a citj aafr 
ence will listen to imitation negroes, and yet deepise ft 
concerto coniposetl of the Simon pures? After Gceqp 
had played several pieces, one of which was ^*Lacj 
Long,'* as I had never heard it before, and had received 
our praises, he said, always speaking with the dignitj 
of an oracle : 

^^Now, if massa and de young ladiesee pleeae, vs 

BCMTmnsrsE at home. 19t 

de nnll-fiy show demselTe ! Come, taiid o«t here, 

fitly mggen ! Skofw de irtiite folk how yoa daaoe 
Mm danoe !*' ^ 

lieraqmi ft aeore of little darides, from fi?e yoMrs 
ige to ft donB yetn, prh and boys together, qiraog 
a the erowd, and phoed theiiiBel?es in the ipaoe in 
it of US. Half of them mare demi-dad, tliooe that 

ahirta not being troubled with an j saperflnons ap- 
dy and thoee that had tromiera being ahirtlees ; in a 
d, not a black skin was covered with but one spedea 
;annent, and this was generally a yery short and rery 
y, coarse camtsa. 

' Now make de dirt fly !** shouted George, as he stmck 
I brisk air alone — banjo, hollow sticks, and dram be- 

!he yoanglings obeyed the command to the letter. 
y danced like mad ! The short-skirt flaps flew np 

down, the black legs were as thickly mixed np as 
le of a centipede waltzing ; woolly heads, white eyes, 
l&nng teeth, yells and whoops, yah-yahs, and won- 
0, all united, created a scene that my shocked pen 
taes to describe. The little negroes did fall credit to 

George's skill, and he evidently felt it. He sawed 
J desperately till the sweat rained from his furrowed 
w. He writhed, and rose, and bent over, and stood 
and did every thing but lie down, playing all the 
le without cessation, and in a sort of rapturous ecs- 
r. Banjo caught the inspiration, and hollow sticks 
ted after, while drum pounded away like young thun- 

yelling a chant all the while, that, had her grand- 
ber anng it to Mungo Park, would have driven him 
I the shelter of her hut to the less horrible howls 


of the desert. The little Africans danced Iiardar ind 
harder. Their parents caught the spirit of the moment, 
and this one, dashing his old cap downf sprang into the 
arena, and that one, uttering a whoop, followed, till M 
fifty were engaged at once. I ncyer enjoyed any thing 
so much ! I could fancy myself witnessing some hea- 
then incantation dance in the groves of Africa ! Th$ 
moonlight shining through the trees, the red glare of thi 
torches upon them, their wild movements, their strsnge 
and not unmusical cries, as they kept time with thdr 
voices to their quick tramping feet, their dark fonaii 
their contortions, and perfect abandany constituted i 
tout ensemble that must be witnessed to be appreciated. 
Suddenly, in the height of their diversion, the planta> 
tion bell began to strike eight o'clock. When the fint 
stroke was heard from the turret of the overseer's hovM^ 
there was a burst of mingled surprise and regret. They 
shouted to each other to ^^do their best;" and between 
the first and eighth stroke, take my word for il| 

Mr. J more dancing was done, and harder, and 

faster, and noisier, than was over done before in so smsll 
a limitation of time. It seemed they were all determined 
to heap as much pleasure into this fleeting space as it 
could contain. With the last stroke, every man, woman, 
and youngling, uttered a yell, gave a final leap into the 
air, and with the dying vibration of the bell's sound, all 
was quiet. George even was arrested with his bow ia 
the air, in an attitude of expiring delight, as if 

" D}*iug of a tunc in Orpheanic pun," 

^^(lood night, boys,** said the colonel, in the cordial 
frank way he has when he speaks to his people; ^'yoi 


re enjoyed jovmIvm, and bo hmre wc Geoi^ge, jour 
pila, young and old, do yon credit," 
u Xankee, Vimrr Coknel ; I know'd yon'd be beny mnch 
fttify. I hope de yoong Imdieses is ^ally charmed." 
««We are channed, Greorge," I answered; at which he 
ide me a superb bow, when we took onr departore. 
M filaTes ^1«^ retired each to his own cabin, the torchef 
ve extinguished, and before we reached the house, 
[Unesa r^gned in the green moonlit square of the Afri- 

n quarter. 

^Now let us hare some of yoicr music, Bel,'* said her 
ther, as we entered the dining-room, which was ridily 
ghted with a solar sphere of ground glass. As my 
res fell upon the superb furniture, the gorgeous carpet, 
le luxurious drapery of the windows, and the golden 
irp and rosewood piano, and the peerless beauty of the 
oung girl seated at the costly instrument, I could not 
elp contrasting the refined character of the whole en^ 
mMe with that we had just borne a part in. It ap- 
eared like a transition from one world to another! 
Babel's voice is surpassingly rich in compass and sweet- 
ess. She sings much like Biscaccianti, and warbles in 
er throat in the same dulcet, dove-like manner. She 
in soar too, to the same lark-like notes, taking the soul 
ir up on the wing of her song, to the very skies, till it 
lelts into heaven. Don't think me extravagant, but 
lusic ever needs adequate language to describe its effects. 
?jpes, transpose them into any shape of words, fail to 
xpress the impression music makes upon the soul. 

While I was looking at the African dance, and listened 
their voices, which went to the tune of the dance in a 
ontinuous chant, I was led to the reflection that the 


of the desert. The little Africans danced harder and 
harder. Their parents caught the spirit of the momeiity 
and this one, dashing his old cap downf sprang into the 
arena, and that one, uttering a whoop, followed, tiU fiiD 
fifty were engaged at once. I never enjoyed any thing 
so much ! I could fancy myself witnessing some hea- 
then incantation dance in the groves of Africa ! The 
moonlight shining through the trees, the red glare of the 
torches upon them, their wild movements, their strange 
and not unmusical cries, as they kept time with their 
voices to their quick tramping feet, their dark fonnii 
their contortions, and perfect abandon^ constituted i 
tout ensemble that must be witnessed to be appreciated. 
Suddenly, in the height of their diversion, the plant»> 
tion bell began to strike eight o*clock. When the fint 
stroke was heard from the turret of the overseer's ho«K| 
there was a burst of mingled surprise and regret. Thcj 
shouted to each other to ^'do their best;" and between 
the first and eighth stroke, take my word for il, 

Mr. , more dancing was done, and harder, and 

faster, and noisier, than was over done before in so smsO 
a limitation of time. It seemed they were all determiiied 
to heap as much pleasure into this fleeting space as it 
could contain. With the last stroke, every man, womsBi 
and youngling, uttered a yell, gave a final leap into the 
air, and with the dying vibration of the bell's sound, aD 
was quiet. George even was arrested with his bow in 
the air, in an attitude of expiring delight, as if 

" Dying of a tune in Orphcanio pain/' 

^'Good night, boys,** said the colonel, in the cordial 
frank way lie has when he speaks to his people; ^yoi 


e enjoyed yoimelveB, and so have we. George, your 
Ills, young and old, do you credit." 
* Tankee, Maasa Colonel ; I know'd you'd be berry much 
^y. I hope de young ladieses is ekally charmed." 
^We are charmed, George/' I answered; at which he 
de me a superb bow, when we took our departure, 
e slaves also retired each to his own cabin, the torches 
re extinguished, and before we reached the house, 
Iness reigned in the green moonlit square of the Afri- 
i quarter. 

^'Now let us have some of your music, Bel," said her 
her, as we entered the dining-room, which was richly 
hted with a solar sphere of ground glass. As my 
iS fell upon the superb furniture, the gorgeous carpet, 
) luxurious drapery of the windows, and the golden 
rp and rosewood piano, and the peerless beauty of the 
iDg girl seated at the costly instrument, I could not 
Ip contrasting the refined character of the whole en- 
Me with that we had just borne a part in. It ap- 
u-ed like a transition from one world to another! 
ibel's Toice is surpassingly rich in compass and sweet- 
is. She sings much like Biscaccianti, and warbles in 
r throat in the same dulcet, dove-like manner. She 
1 soar too, to the same lark-like notes, taking the soul 
' up on the wing of her song, to the very skies, till it 
Its into heaven. Don't think me extravagant, but 
isic ever needs adequate language to describe its effects, 
pes, transpose them into any shape of words, fail to 
press the impression music makes upon the soul. 
While I was looking at the African dance, and listened 
their voices, which went to the tune of the dance in a 
itinuoua chant, I was led to the reflection that the 


(lanco, oven in our asstinhlios, is ;i barbaric relio, aij'l 
that civilization in retaining, has only rejected the vocal j 
feature which characterizes it among all barbftrons pe<> i 
pie. We dance mtUely; Indians and Africaiis Mingii^ 
Who shall judge between us? 

Since I wrote the above, I have seen the gentlcBM 
who rode the bull six miles on a steeple chase, half 
across the country ! He called to see the colonel on 
business, and was presented to us. He is a young 
resolute, and rather dissipated looking; and I disoemid 
the butt of a small pistol sticking out of his pocket, wbidi 
did not prepossess me favorably, for it strikes me tint 
a brave man will not go armed day-by-day. Carryiag 
weapons is a sign either of a quarrelsome temper, or t 
cowardly heart ! After our visitor left, the colonel told « 
that three years ago he laid a wager that he would ride t 
funous fierce bull twice around a pasture. The bet wm 
taken, and the young man managed to get astride tk 
bull with only a stout whip in his hand. The baD, ai 
might be expected, at being thus taken "s-ba^" 
plunged, roared, pawed, and set off at full speed. At 
the first dash he broke through the fence, and laid Ui 
mad course straight across the country. The yooig 
man, putting his whip in his teeth, and grasping a hon 
in each hand, held on for his life. Unable to guide the 
enraged brute, unable to check him, and fearing to throw 
himself off, he committed himself to the creature's will, 
which led him two leagues to the Cumberland, into wliidi, 
9an9 peuTj the bull plunged headlong, and so gare kk 
involuntary rider liberty. It is needless to say he won 
^'the stakes." 

Can you tell me, Mr. , if General Morria hat 

mc smnrr south; ob^ 111 

tUSj pnbliahed mny new piecee ? Next to Tom Moore's, 
is songs are sdmired in the West. If the gallant gene- 
il should oome out here, he would have a pretty fair 
lOtMm of what jmmC mortem fame is; for the appreciation 
rhich aa author receiyes in a strange land, as I have 
md, is equal to the Toiee of posterity. 





My dear Mr. 

I CAN convey to joa no adequate idea of the pi^ 
turcsque character of the scenery of this estate. It k 
made up of groves, uplands, cliffs, grotto-like spriags 
level, green meadows, and undulating fields. In vbil* 
soever direction we ride or walk, there arc intercctiig 
features to please the eye. Our drives from the fiBi 
are all charming. Eleven miles in one direction, caifi^ 
ward, wc come to the venerated tomb of Jackson, at tk 
Hermitage; in another we find ourselves, after tkm 
hours' ride, in the beautiful and wealthy city of NashTiIbi 
A longer ride, south, brings us to the handsome TiDagi 
of Columbia, where President Polk was bom and livc^ 
and where is one of the most eminent collegiate instilt- 
tions for females in the United States; and bey<Mid, n 
hour's ride farther, lies Ashwood, the princely dooaii 
of the four brothers Polk, whose estates extend for nikfl, 
in continuous and English like cultivation. Of this lofdj 
region I shall write you by and by. A shaded roady 
leading four miles north of us, terminates on the pebUj 
shore of the romantic Cumberland, where, as we ait tqMB 
our horses, we can watch the steamers pass, and the kcd 
boats and huge barges floating down with the eurreat 
Here, too, we sometimes catch fish, and have a rare pi^ 
uic time of it. 


Be sure of it, Mr. , you ner^T will hzr^ ^^rj^A 

life till you come to our Park. If I dared tell tfce ^r/I^r./;! 
*vhat I was doing, he would heartily m^iUi ym tWr^m^ 
ne; but I would not let him know for the w^M tha« I 
am ^^takin* notes an* printin' 'em/' so pray d/m't !ien<4 
jour paper to him. He doesn't read rniicfa. mre yAiti^. 
or I should tremble lest, when he ridesi t/> th^ ftty. k^ 
should fall in with my ^^ Needles." But, thm. I Wzr^, 
not said any thing in them Tery nao^drtyt 1>*^^ h ^^' 
--^? I am sure all is lore and kindneiis tikat I writ^ ; 
at least, I see them in my inkstand wkm I dip »y p/m 

My deer follows me like a greyfaoond. It ha* a fc«irt 
that holds gratitude as a full cap holds rieh vtb^^. Wkm 
I look into its intelligent eyes I seem Uf be Wikmf d/yvn 
into a pair of deep, shadowy wells, at the l^AUmi *A wlneh 
I see Tisible the star of its spirit. It se<i»i t/# haire 
almost a human soul ! It lores, and u grateful, and is 
dependent like a woman ! Nothing pl^a^es it so mnefi 
as to haye me talk to it. It listens, m^^e^ its grae«rfql 
ears, and smiles out of its eyes, its calm yfj\ ^ What," 
asks Emerson, ^^what is a brute?" Who can answer? 
What a mystery they are! 

By the way, I nearly lost my life defending my pet 
yesterday. I had walked down to a spring that gushes 
out of a cayemous rock in a lorely green glen, a short 
distance from the house. My deer followed me. As I 
sat by the spring and read ^^ Willis's People I bare Seen," 
— a Tery readable book, by-the-bye, my deer ambled off 
to a little emerald knob, and began to browse. It was 
a quiet scene, and the idea of danger neyer entered either 

of our fooliBh heads. All at once I heard a wolf-like 



htLj from a deep throat ; then a swift mshing of a blood- 
hound so closely past me, that I felt the warm brcitk 
of the animal upon my face. The next moment he ww 
within a bound of my deer ! With a cry of wami^ 
I thoughtlessly hastened to the rescue of the deer, mUA 
no sooner saw its danger than it sprang into the aii^ 
completely over the dog, as he crouched eouduM tt 
pounce upon him, and flew to me. The bloodhooi 
doubled and came back after him. The deer stqipel 
and stood trembling at my side. I threw myself toh 
ward, and endeavored to intimidate the red eyed monittf 
by shaking Willis at him ! But, I know not from what 
influence, he turned aside from me and leaped up<Mi tk 
animal's shoulder. The helpless deer sunk upon ill 
knees, uttering a piteous cry. At this my courage WM 
roused, and grasping like a stiletto the steel inlaid papcf- 
cutter I had been using, I was in the act of driving il 
into the fiery eye of the savage brute, when a loud voki 
caused the dog to release his hold, and me to suspend thi 
blow. With a growl like a bear robbed of his prey, the 
bloodhound slunk away, evidently fearing to enoonnts 
the owner of the voice, who proved to be the overseer. 

^^You had an escape, miss," said the man, pdil^y 
raising his broad black hat. ^'I did not know any OM 
was in this field, or I should have kept him close by Ba 
It was the deer he was after. I hope you were boI 

^'Only frightened for my poor deer," I answendL 
"Her shoulder bleeds, sir." 

^^It is only a tooth mark through the skin. Let bn 
see that dirk, if you please. If you had stuck him with 

xn eoxnBBBmm at hoxe. 116 

n the eje joa would have killed him ovtright. It 
ttle, bvt tare weftpon/' 

t if ft paper-CQtter, sir/' I said, mortified to think 
raid tnppoee I carried a dirk. 
; is as good a eatter aa a knife. I am glad yon did 
riko the dog. He is worth a round hondi^ and 
oUarSi and he is the only one we have. They will 
a footstep for miles," he added ; ^^ and the negroes 
wm so, that one on a plantation is enough to keep 
firom running away. I keep this ugly fellow more 
refentiye than really to hunt them. Gome, Tiger," 
i, calling the dog ; and in a few moments I was 
kme with my wounded deer. It was not, fortun- 
badly hurt, and in an hour was as lively as ever. 
my way home, I called at a neat hut, built under 
y catalpa tree. A clean, broad stone was the door^ 
rhite half-curtains were visible at the small windows, 
I air of neatness pervaded the whole. Before it 
small yard, in which grew two *' Pride of China" 
for shade, and a cabbage and gourd plat were on 
side of the doorway. In the door sat old Aunt 
y, a negress withered to parchment by extreme 

says she is over a hundred years old, of which I 
10 doubt. She is African bom, and still retains 
words of her native dialect, with a strange gibber- 
broken English. She was smoking a pipe, made 
i-cob, and rocking her body to and fro in the sun- 
in pure animal enjoyment. ^ Her husband, old 
Cuaha, who was nearly as old as his wife, was 
on a low stool in the room, but where the sun 
an him. He was the most venerable object I ever 

116 THE suNinr south; or, 

beheld, in his way. He was stone blind, his heftd htU 
and shining like burnished copper, and his beard wbil 
as fleeces of wool. His hands were folded npon U 
knees, and he seemed to be in silent commuiiion with ik 
depths of his own spirit. These two persons had w 
labored for years, and their master was providing fb 
them in their old age. On every plantation you will tm 
one or more old couples thus passing their deelinii| 
years, in calm repose, after the toils of life, awiitii| 
their transfer to another state of being. The care tak« 
of the aged servants in this country is honorable both tn 
master and slave. 

I had often seen Mammy Phillisy and old Daddy Coih 
— as Isabel, who was attached to them, almost enr 
day brings them, with her own hand, ^^ something nict' 
from the table. The first day I took dinner at thePiMl 
I noticed this noble girl setting aside several dainties, in 
directing the servant in attendance, in a whisper, to phi 
them on a side table ; and I was led from it to bdiei 
some person, some very dear friend in the house, mm ■ 
invalid. But I soon found that they were for Aunt PhiUiq 
Aunt Daphny, and Father Jack, and other vencrakl 
Africans of the estate, whose age and helplessness 
thus tenderly regarded by the children of the 
they had once faithfully served. 

^' Good morning, Aunt Phillisy," I said* 

'^ Eh, goo* momee, Mishy Katawinee," answered tt 
old slave, with a brightening expression, *'howee di 
Mishy ?" 

^^ Very well, Aunt Phillisy," replied I, "I hope joam 
old Cusha are doing well." 

^< Yeesha, Mishy, we welly weUee. Takee eeetei 


MLshy," slie said, rising and handing me a wicker chair. 
So I sat down and had a long chat with them. Old 
Cusha could recollect when he was taken prisoner in 
Afirica. He said his people and another tribe fought 
together, that his tribe was beaten, and he, and his mo- 
ther, and brothers, and sisters were all taken by ^^ de 
oder brackee men for gold backshee ; den dey put me 
board de leety ship," continued Cusha, ''and, by'm by, 
we come to land, and dey sellee me in Wirginny. Oh, 
it long time 'go, Missee!" 

Aunt Phillisy's memory traveled no farther back than 
''the big blue sea." Her life in a slaver seemed to have 
made such an indelible impression upon her that it had 
become the era of her memory. Before it, she remem- 
bered nothing. Her face, breast, and arms were tattooed 
with scars of gashes, as were those also of her husband. 
While I was talking with them, one of their great-grand- 
children came into the cabin. It was as black, as thick 
of lip, as white of eye, as long of heel, as thick of skull, 
as its genuine Afric forebears ; which proved to me that 
the African loses none of his primal characteristics by 
change of climate and circumstances, nor by the progress 
of generations. The reflection was then forced upon my 
mind that these familiar looking negroes, which we see 
every day about us, are indelibly foreigners ! Yet what 
Southerner looks upon his slave as a barbarian, from a 
strange, barbarous land, domesticated in his own house, 
his attendant at table, the nurse of his children ? Yet 
no alien in America is so much a foreigner as the ne- 

What a race they are ! How naturally they fall into 
the dependence of bondage ! How familiarly they dwell 

118 THE suxNT south; or, 

in Sonthem households ! How intimately thej are 
ciatcd with the inmates ! How necessary to the happi- 
ness and comfort of the beautiful daughter or aristocntie 
lady of the planter, is the constant presence of an Afri- 
caness, black, thick-lipped, and speaking broken Engliih, 
— a black daughter of Kedar — whose grandmother nay 
have danced the Fetish by the fires of human bones, and 
whose father sacrificed to idols more hideous than them- 
selves ! How little, I say, does the Southerner retliM 
who and what the negro is ! Yet these descendants of 
barbarians and wild Afric tribes are docile, gentle, affee- 
tionate, grateful, submissive, and faithful ! In a word, 
they possess every quality that should constitute a good 
servant. No race of the earth makes such excellent do- 
mestics. It is not in training ! They seem to be bom 
to it ! Look at the American Indian, and contrast him 
with the African. 

In the early history of the United States, many of 
these were forced into bondage, but soon pined and died! 
In the West Indies the Spaniards would have made the 
native Indians slaves, and did compel them to toil, hot 
in what island of the West Indies are now to bo foond 
any of their descendants in bondage? Perished all! 
The proud spirit of the Indian will not brook vassalage. 
His will l>ends not, but breaks ! A few months' subjec- 
tion to imprisonment broke the great heart of Osceola ! 
Oh, when I think on the base act of treachery (and by 
an American officer, too) by which that gallant and 
chivalrous chief was inveigled into the hands of the 
Americans, my pulse throbs cfuicker, and I feel my 
cheek warm ! It is the darkest act that stains Ame^ 
rican history ! And our government connived at it ! 

ma MuiHiBinDi ax hoxb. 119 

Oar gOTemment, which, next to God's, should be su- 
preme in greatness and glory, justice and mercy, over 
the earth, our government availed itself of the treachery, 
and so made it its own ! Shame on the American arms ! 
Infamy on the name of an officer, who, under a flag of 
truce, could thus violate every principle of honor ! 

There is just now a good deal of talk about the disso- 
lution of the Union.* We ladies even engage in the 
discuflaion, and, if not with ability, at least with warmth 
and patriotiam. With but one exception, I un glad to 
find all the Tennessee ladies I have met are firm union- 
ists. This lady said she hoped to see thciJ^ North cast 
off,'* Nashville the capital of a new republic or kingdom, 
when Charleston would rival New York, and New Or- 
leans would be the Constantinople of the world ! How 
my heart pitied her ! Dissolve the Union ! It is to ex- 
patriate ourselves. It is to blot the name of America 
from the scroll of nations. I have no patience with 
such talkers. They know not what they say. What a 
speech Mr. Clay has given the nation ! Last and migh- 
tiest effort of all. As he advances in years, his intellect 
seems to catch glory from the splendor of the world to 
which he is near approaching ! His speech will be re- 
membered through all time. 

Why should such a man as Mr. Clay or Mr. Webster 
wish to be President? This position can add no new 
lustre to their names. As Presidents they would be 
lost in the long list of Presidents that is to be unrolled 
along the tide of time ; but simply as American Sena- 
tors, (titles, than which none are more dignified on 
earth,) they will descend to posterity as the Cicero and 

* Written in 1852. 



My dear Mr. 

I CAN convey to you no adequate idea of the pk- 
turesque character of the scenery of this estate. It ii 
made up of groves, uplands, cliffs, grotto-like sprii^ 
level, green meadows, and undulating fields. In wha^ 
soever direction we ride or walk, there arc intereitiiig 
features to please the eye. Our drives from the villi 
are all charming. Eleven miles in one direction, cait> 
ward, we come to the venerated tomb of Jackson, at thi 
Hermitage; in another we find ourselves, after tfcret 
hours' ride, in the beautiful and wealthy city of NaahviDft 
A longer ride, south, brings us to the handsome Tilb|l 
of Columbia, where President Polk was bom and lif«d| 
and where is one of the most eminent collegiate instit^ 
tions for females in the United States ; and beyond, ai 
hour's ride farther, lies Ashwood, the princely doBtii 
of the four brothers Polk, whose estates extend for nikt> 
in continuous and English like cultivation. Of thia lovely 
region I shall write you by and by. A shaded roidi 
leading four miles north of us, terminates on the pdAly 
shore of the romantic Cumberland, where, aa we ait npaa 
our horses, we can watch the steamers pass, and the ked 
boats and huge barges floating down with the eorrent 
Here, too, we sometimes catch fish, and have a rare pi^ 
nic time of it. 


Bo sure of it, Mr. , you never will have enjoyed 

life till you come to our Park. If I dared tell the colonel 
what I was doing, he would heartily invite you through 
me; but I would not let him know for the world that I 
am ^'takin' notes an' printin' 'em/' so pray don't send 
your paper to him. He doesn't read much, save politics, 
or I should tremble lest, when he rides to the city, he 
should fall in with my ^^ Needles." But, then, I have 
not said any thing in them very naughty, have I, Mr. 
? I am sure all is love and kindness that I write ; 
at least, I see them in my inkstand when I dip my pen 

Mj deer follows me like a greyhound. It has a heart 
that holds gratitude as a full cup holds rich wine. When 
I look into its intelligent eyes I seem to be looking down 
into a pair of deep, shadowy wells, at the bottom of which 
I see visible the star of its spirit. It seems to have 
abnost a human soul ! It loves, and is grateful, and is 
dependent like a woman ! Nothing pleases it so much 
as to have me talk to it. It listens, moves its graceful 
cars, and smiles out of its eyes, its calm joy! "What," 
asks Emerson, "what is a brute?" Who can answer? 
What a mystery they are! 

By the way, I nearly lost my life defending my pet 

yesterday. I had walked down to a spring that gushes 

oot of a cavernous rock in a lovely green glen, a short 

distance from the house. My deer followed me. As I 

sat by the spring and read "Willis's People I have Seen," 

— a very readable book, by-the-bye, my deer ambled off 

to a little emerald knob, and began to browse. It was 

a quiet scene, and the idea of danger never entered either 

of our foolish heads. All at once I heard a wolf-like 


haj from a deep throat ; then a swift mshing of a blood- 
hound 80 closely past me, that I felt the warm brettk 
of the animal upon my face. The next moment he wu 
within a bound of my deer ! With a cry of warnia^ 
I thoughtlessly hastened to the rescue of the deer, whid 
no sooner saw its danger than it sprang into the aiTi 
completely over the dog, as he crouched e&ueiant tt 
pounce upon him, and flew to me. The bloodheol 
doubled and came back after him. The deer stopped 
and stood trembling at my side. I threw myself tat- 
ward, and endeavored to intimidate the red eyed monitcr 
by shaking Willis at him! But, I know not from whil 
influence, he turned aside from me and leaped upon thi 
animal's shoulder. The helpless deer sunk upon ili 
knees, uttering a piteous cry. At this my courage was 
roused, and grasping like a stiletto the steel inlaid paptf- 
cutter I had been using, I was in the act of driiiiig it 
into the fiery eye of the savage brute, when a loud toim 
caused the dog to release his hold, and me to suspend thi 
blow. With a growl like a bear robbed of his prey, thi 
bloodhound slunk away, evidently fearing to encoantcr 
the owner of the voice, who proved to be the overseer. 

^^You had an escape, miss," said the man, p<^td|y 
raising his broad black hat. ^^I did not know any one 
was in this field, or I should have kept him close by na. 
It was the deer he was after. I hope you were boI 

^^Only frightened for my poor deer," I anawend. 
"Her shoulder bleeds, sir." 

*^It is only a tooth mark through the skin. Let BS 
see that dirk, if you please. If you had stuck him vitk 


thst in the eye jon would have killed him outright. It 
is a little, but sure weapon." 

^' It is a paper-cutter, sir/' I said, mortified to think 
he should suppose I carried a dirk. 

^^ It is as good a cutter as a knife. I am glad you did 
not strike the dog. He is worth a round hundred and 
fifty dollars, and he is the only one we have. They will 
track a footstep for miles," he added ; '< and the negroes 
fear them so, that one on a plantation is enough to keep 
them from running away. I keep this ugly fellow more 
as a preyentiye than really to hunt them. Come, Tiger," 
he said, calling the dog ; and in a few moments I was 
left alone with my wounded deer. It was not, fortun- 
ately, badly hurt, and in an hour was as lively as ever. 

On my way home, I called at a neat hut, built under 
a shady catalpa tree. A clean, broad stone was the door- 
step ; white half-curtains were visible at the small windows, 
and an air of neatness pervaded the whole. Before it 
was a small yard, in which grew two " Pride of China" 
trees, for shade, and a cabbage and gourd plat were on 
either side of the doorway. In the door sat old Aunt 
Phillisy, a negress withered to parchment by extreme 

She says she is over a hundred years old, of which I 
have no doubt. She is African bom, and still retains 
many words of her native dialect, with a strange gibber- 
ish of broken English. She was smoking a pipe, made 
of corn-cob, and rocking her body to and fro in the sun- 
shine, in pure animal enjoyment. Her husband, old 
Daddy Cusha, who was nearly as old as his wife, was 
seated on a low stool in the room, but where the sun 
fell upon him. He was the most venerable object I ever 


beheld, in his way. He was stone blind, his head ball, 
and shining like burnished copper, and his beard while 
as fleeces of wool. His hands were folded upon hit 
knees, and he seemed to be in silent communion with thi 
depths of his own spirit. These two persona had aol 
labored for years, and their master was providing fiir 
them in their old age. On every plantation you will fiil 
one or more old conples thus passing their dediniag 
years, in calm repose, after the toils of life, awaitiag 
their transfer to another state of being. The care takoi 
of the aged servants in this country is honorable both to 
master and slave. 

I had often seen Mammy Phillisy and old Daddy Otths 
— as Isabel, who was attached to them, almoBt eveiy 
day brings them, with her own hand, ^* something Biee** 
from the table. The first day I took dinner at theFuk, 
I noticed this noble girl setting aside several daintieSi anl 
directing the servant in attendance, in a whisper, to phet 
them on a side table ; and I was led from it to bdievt 
some person, some very dear friend in the house, waan 
invalid. But I soon found that they were for Aunt Phillisy, 
Aunt Daphny, and Father Jack, and other venerafch 
Africans of the estate, whose age and helplessneaa 
thus tenderly regarded by the children of the 
they had once faithfully served. 

^^6ood morning. Aunt Phillisy," I said. 

^' Eh, goo' momee, Mishy Katawinee«" answered Ihi 
old slave, with a brightening expression, ^^howee do^ 
Mishy ?" 

'' Very well. Aunt Phillisy," replied I, '' I hope you anl 
old Cusha are doing well." 

^^ Yeesha, Mishy, we welly wellee. Takee eeatet^ 


Mishy," she said, rising and handing me a iiid:er chair. 
So I aat down and had a long chat with thenu Old 
Cusha could recollect when he was taken prifODer in 
Africa. He said his people and another tribe fon^i 
together, that his tribe was beaten, and he, and his mo- 
ther, and brothers, and sisters were all taken bj ^de 
oder brackee men for gold backshee ; den dej put me 
board de leetj ship/' continued Cnsha, ^^and, bj'm bj, 
we come to land, and dej sellee me in Wirginn j. Oh, 
it long time 'go, Missee!" 

Aunt Phillisj's memory traveled no farther back than 
^^ the big blue sea." Her life in a slaver seemed to have 
made such an indelible impression upon her that it had 
become the era of her memory. Before it, she remem- 
bered nothing. Her face, breast, and arms were tattooed 
with scars of gashes, as were those also of her husband. 
While I was talking with them, one of their great-grand- 
children came into the cabin. It was as black, as thick 
of lip, as white of eye, as long of heel, as thick of skull, 
as its genuine Afric forebears ; which proved to me that 
the African loses none of his primal characteristics by 
change of climate and circumstances, nor by the progress 
of generations. The reflection was then forced upon my 
mind that these familiar looking negroes, which we see 
every day about us, are indelibly foreignerB ! Yet what 
Southerner looks upon his slave as a barbarian, from a 
strange, barbarous land, domesticated in his own house, 
his attendant at table, the nurse of his children ? Yet 
DO alien in America is so much a foreigner as the ne- 

What a race they are ! How naturally they fall into 
the dependence of bondage ! How familiarly they dwell 

118 THE srNNT south; or, 

in Sonthem households ! How intimately they mre 
ciatcd with the inmates ! How necessary to the happi- 
ness and comfort of the beautiful daughter or aristocratic 
lady of the planter, is the constant presence of an Afri- 
caness, black, thick-lipped, and speaking broken English, 
— a black daughter of Kedar — ^whose grandmother nny 
have danced the Fetish by the fires of human bones, and 
whose father sacrificed to idols more hideous than them- 
selves ! IIow little, I say, does the Southerner realiM 
who and what the negro is ! Tet these descendants of 
barbarians and wild Afric tribes are docile, gentle, afe^ 
tionate, grateful, submissive, and faithful ! In a word, 
they possess every quality that should constitute a good 
servant. No race of the earth makes such excellent do- 
mestics. It is not in training ! They seem to be horn 
to it ! Look at the American Indian, and contrast him 
with the African. 

In the early history of the United States, many of 
these were forced into bondage, but soon pined and died! 
In the West Indies the Spaniards would have made the 
native Indians slaves, and did compel them to toil, but 
in what island of the West Indies are now to bo found 
any of their descendants in bondage? Perished all! 
The proud spirit of the Indian will not brook vassalage. 
Ilis will bonds not, but breaks ! A few months' subjec- 
tion to imprisonment broke the great heart of Osceola I 
Oh, when I think on the base act of treachery (and by 
an American officer, too) by which that gallant and 
chivalrous chief was inveigled into the hands of the 
Americans, my pulse throbs quicker, and I feel my 
cheek warm ! It is the darkest act that stains Ame- 
rican history ! And our government connived at it ! 


Oar goycnnnent, which, next to (rod's, should be su- 
preme in greatness and glory, jnstice and mercj, over 
the earth, oar goYemment availed itself of the treachery, 
and so made it its own ! Shame on the American arms ! 
Infamy on the name of an officer, who, under a flag of 
truce, could thus violate every principle of honor ! 

There is just now a good deal of talk about the disso- 
lution of the Union.'*' We ladies even engage in the 
diflcusaiony and, if not with ability, at least with warmth 
and patriotism. With but one exception, I am glad to 
find all the Tennessee ladies I have met are firm union- 
ists. This lady said she hoped to see thcL.^^ North cast 
off," Nashville the capital of a new republic or kingdom, 
when Charleston would rival New York, and New Or- 
leans would be the Constantinople of the world ! How 
my heart pitied her ! Dissolve the Union ! It is to ex- 
patriate ourselves. It is to blot the name of America 
from the scroll of nations. I have no patience with 
such talkers. They know not what they say. What a 
speech Mr. Clay has given the nation ! Last and migh- 
tiest effort of all. As he advances in years, his intellect 
seems to catch glory from the splendor of the world to 
which he is near approaching ! His speech will be re- 
membered through all time. 

Why should such a man as Mr. Clay or Mr. Webster 
wish to be President? This position can add no new 
lustre to their names. As Presidents they would be 
lost in the long list of Presidents that is to be unrolled 
along the tide of time ; but simply as American Sena- 
tors, (titles, than which none are more dignified on 
earth,) they will descend to posterity as the Cicero and 

* Written in 1852. 


DemoBthenes of the early ages of the repablie. I wovU 
say to them, ^^ Senators, if you wish to be great for all 
stime, lie down in your sepulchres with the senatorial 
mantle folded upon your breasts." 

You must pardon my bit of politics, Mr. ^ hd 
the Tennessee ladies are all politicians, I belicTe the laoat 
sealous to be found anywhere, and I have caught thdr 
spirit. It strikes me that every true American woBBi 
should understand the affairs of govemment, poGtieal 
motives, great men, and exciting questions of poUie ii- 
terest. So did the Roman matrons, and, doubtlessi ikB 
Roman maidens. 

But, my paper tells me I must dose. 

Respectf uUy jours, 



Dear Mb. 

I HAVE JQSt finished reading EwmM^t gnsac Wwfc, 
<<Natare." What a weU of thoaida k itf Wbac * 
wonderfiil man he is to write aadi w^ttAeriUl duaip^I 
He is a metaphysical anatomist. He laji 4pm tfae aai^ 
Terse to the sool's eye. He is one of thosi^ fev wrmn 
that pat in words for ns, oar own mhayJk/itk ih^mgJKVi, 
those great thoughts that come uf^m Ǥ m tbe wtk'mf^ 
hours of night, and in the still, holy h/jmr </ tvifi^fhc 
How many thoughts that I nerer imaatA *A ^^zurin^ 
not dreaming they could be written in w^/rd*. umv^ I 
been startled and pleased to find m this by>k I He 
seems to comprehend the mystery of life, and t^meh u 
what and for what we are. The que^rtions which a child 
asks, and which puzzle a philosopher to answer. thU 
philosopher answers with the simplicity of a chil'L He 
delights us, because we feel that he ha« felt, and tk</q;;ht, 
and wondered, as we hare felt, and thought, and won- 
dered ! His book must make iu way to the heart* of 
all who think ; of all who look at the stars, and ponder 
with awe and solemn curiosity thereupon; of all who 
look downward into their own spirits, and meilitate upon 

the mvsterv thev are ! 

• . • 

Mr. Emerson calls the visible universe the sccria of 
tyiriil He says, that all spirit has a tendency to visi- 

122 THE sn:7NY south; or, 

bilitj — ^hencc result the visible world, the hcaTeni^ aal 
the earth. A visible creature is the ultimatum of spirit 
The physical powers of Deity are visible in the grandcv 
of creation — the moral were made visible in the pertoi 
of Jesus Christ, who was the *^ Godhead visible." ThcM 
are wonderful sayings to think upon. They help vastlj 
towards unfolding the mighty thoughts that rush upon tk 
soul at times. Mr. Emerson's must delight all right 
minds. The whole scope of his Christian philoeophj, 
however, I can not accept. He stops short of revelatMi 
and all true philosophy should point to the Chiisliia 
doctrine of the cross. 

Ticknor*s chanuing and elaborate work on Spanisk 
literature, I have just completed. How shall I ezprM 
my thanks to this laborious and elegant scholar, for tht 
delight and instruction I have been recipient of from iu 
pages! How little have the best Spanish atadenU 
known of Castilian literature! The educated world, bolh 
sides of the sea, are under infinite obligations to Mr. 
Ticknor for this l)o<ik. The only fault I can find witk 
it, is the obscurity in which he has left the qocstioa 
touching the authorship of that fascinating work, Cron- 
salvo de Cordova. I have two books with this title, bit 
am at a loss to know which it is he describes, whether 
the one commencing '^Castas musas,** or another. Bit 
one fault is a spot (m the sun. I have no doubt Mr. 
Ticknor's work will create a taste for Spanish literature. 
There is none that surpasses it. The best of it is still 
in MS., and some of it remains locke<l up in the Arabic 
character. It is odd that the hulk of Spanish litcratort 
should consist of cometlies, when we reflect that the 
Spaniards are the gravest people in Europe. The 

IVench, wlio sre the Egfctesc wfntft. ^%ai 
tragedy ! These ftcts need iniwniinL fcr. 

Last erening Inbel reail to «i mK 
ftidj ooneeiTed and gncefidlT 
vere all charmed with it, aad the e aii idL 
who thinks ladies are good far wrikim^ \m '^ wmol 
sew, play the guitar and piaao. msarwii '^vtm: 
eoald write so welL" He eves ipwff w &r n iu» fe^^ 
jodice as to refine to read a Va«fk wnaas W a 
Inbel read Madame de StaeTs "-< 
Idtty lately, and he wasai 
eoold haTe desired. He woaU 
n^ and cigar after dimier. to 
to listen. We hare a cfflmiiiJ 
he shall yet confess that hosks 
only books worth reading. 

We are somewhat pozxled to kaow who wrote ^Skir- 
ky/* a man or woman! / am aatufed it ic a woama« 
It is a well told stonr. bat di^/^ ik<c di^^Mrre haJf the 
praise that has been lavished a|X)tt it. Mrs. Ann & 
Stephens has more talent, and eta write bnter than the 
author of ^'Shirler." If this book had been trimmed 
of fiill one hundred and fifty pajr«« of provr rerbia;^, 
the balance wooM hare entitled it to a pbce by the »de 
of the ''Vicar of Wakefield ;*' bat a£ it is. it will not lire 
two years, — it will never become a library book. Poor 
Goldsmith ! What a pity he is not alire to enjoy the 
simshine of his posthnmons popularity! Last week I 
saw a copy of Shakspeare, saperbly illustrated. It cost 
$150. I sighed that "^ Witty Will'* was not liring to 
read his own works in such splendid drapery. How 
Boch things mock all human glory ! Great men live aad 


struggle, and toil, not for thcmsclycs, but for the fatmn. 
They die ignorant that they leave an imperishable 
on the earth. How few men have cotempo] 
fame! Washington Irving, Bryant, and Tom Moar% 
have it ! and they say poor Moore has become imbedk 
I mentioned this to a young lady whom I heard singim 
one of his songs. 

^^Is he?*' she replied, in a half inquiring, half indifa^ 
cut tone, and went on with her song. 

^^Such,*' thought I, ^^is immortality! Such iahuma 
glory! A great man dies — ^a great poet becomes n- 
sane — and the world says, ^Is he?' and rolls on ai 
before !" 

I have been for a couple of days past on a visit to a 
neighboring estate. Upon it is a large, green moond, 
which the proprietor excavated for our entertainment 
The result was the dishumation of several beaatiful rum 
of lemon-colored clay, baked like porcelain; arrow headi^ 
beads, bones, amulets, and idols. One of the hil 
weighed seventy pounds, was the size of a boy six yean 
old, carved out of limestone. It was seated d la Twri^ 
and had a hideously ugly face. It, nevertheless, proves 
that the Indians had notions of sculpture. It is prc^ 
cisely like the pictures of such deities in Stephens' book 
on Central America. It is to be sent to the celebrated 
cabinet of Professor Troost, in Kat<hville, a collcctiea 
not Hurpa^setl in the Union. T)ie do<*tor is a venerable 
Dr. Franklin looking man, is an enthusiastic geokgisli 
and is polite to the ladies, especially the young and 
beautiful, for though he lias seen eighty-one yean, he 
can distinguish #/>cn/iiriM in that way. 

A young friend of ours, who lives not far distant, and 


is a frequent visitor at the Park, after paying a visit to 
this cabinet, was seized with the cacoethes of geologizing. 
He passed two weeks in the woods and hills, and wander- 
ing along rivnlets, till he loaded himself and two slaves 
down with specimens. With them he made his waj to 
the presence of the worthy doctor, whom he intended 
both to gratify and surprise with his rich donations to 

The venerable professor received him and his treasures 
with his characteristic courtesy, and when he under- 
stood that the specimens were destined to enrich the 
cabinet, his fine old Franklin face brightened with de- 
Ught. I will describe the scene in our friend's own 

*^ The first rock he took out he glanced at, and tossed 
it aside, with some indistinct sounds I could not under- 
stand. I thought it was German. The next rock, which 
I took to be a fine agate, he tossed away with the same 
muttering. So he went on till he had thrown away a 
dozen, each one with looks of increased disappointment 
ind unconcealed contempt. 

** * What is that you say about them, doctor V I asked. 

"* Vater vom — all vater vom.* 

** * Water worn ? What is that V I asked. 

"*Wom smoot'; not'in' but bebbles. Dey goot for 
not'in', if dey all de same!' 

***They are all the same,' I replied, chop-fallen. 

"*Den dey all good for not'in*.' 

<^I told the boys to shovel them back into the bags, 
•nd as I saw a shy twinkle in the professoif's eye, I dis- 

Perhaps no state is so rich as Tennessee in geology. 


A bare inspection of this cabinet will show this. Hm 
doctor has some rare diamonds and jewels, which hi 
takes great pleasure in showing to the ladies; and bii 
collection of polished stones will shame even the aort 
brilliant show-case of your much extolled Bailey k (k 
Among the curiosities is a bowie-knife wrought oil 
of a thunderbolt, (magnetic iron,) which fell in tliil 

The iron of this description is beautifully crystaliied, 
unlike any thing belonging to terrestrial geology. Thi 
"water worn** specimen collector, above mentioned, 
not a groat while since, the subject of an amusing h 
dent. He has been for some time an admirer of a consa 
of Isabers, a belle and a fortune: and it was settled they 
were to marry. But one evening when he called, he ' 
found her unaccountablv distant and cold. She would 
only answer him in monosyllables, and with scarcely h 
opening in her lips. If he drew near her, she wovU 
draw back ; if he demanded an explanation, she replied 
only l)y silence. At length he arose and left, and sht 
silently bowed him "good night.*' Unable to accoimt 
for such conduct, and wondering how he could have 
oifeniled her, he early next morning came riding at 
spur-speed to the Park, to unfold his distress to his fair 
friend, Isabel, and beg her intercession to heal the 

He had hardly got through his story and received 
Isabers promise, l)efore her cousin was announced. She 
entereil, arraye<l in an elegant green riding costume, 
with a snow white plume pending to her shoulder. She 
looked earnest and anxious. But, seeing her lover, she 
was about to smile and address him in a frank and 


maiHiar, when hia cold bow and hraghty sir dbOled 
bar. She turned »way, and, embracing her cousin, 
■alked through the folding doors into the farther room 
vith her. Here she told her how she had offended her 
betrothed, and had ridden over to get her to explain 

^Ton mnat know, Isabel, that the doctor prescribed 
for my sick-headache, yesterday, six onions, cut fine, 
eaten raw, with vinegar, popper, and salt. Well, I fol- 
lowed the prescription; and I assure you they were very 
aiee; and they cured my head. So I went into the 
parlor to practice a new waltz, when, without my know- 
iig he was in the house, Harry entered the parlor. I 
instantly remembered the horrid onions and felt like a 
edprit ! I would have fled, but it was too late. What 
should I do ? I had to remain and entertain him. But 
mercy! I dared not open my mouth, lest my breath 
should betray the fatal secret ! So I monosyllabled him 
— kept as far off from him as possible; and at last ho 
went off, his handsome eyes flashing like two stars. 
Now you must go and tell him how it was, and make 
it up." 

You may be sure, Mr. , that with two willing 

hearts the reconciliation was not long in being effected; 
and the lovers rode away together perfectly happy. 
Poor Harry ! water-worn pebbles, and onions with vinegar 
and pepper, are now his abhorrence ! 

I have half a mind to try my pen at a tale for you, 
Mr. • Mrs. Lee Hentz's beautiful stories have in- 
spired me with a desire to attempt something in the 
same way. I feel diffident of my ability to adventure 

128 THE SUNNY 801TTH; OR, 

into the higher field of literature— bat I can trj. If i 
will not pass ^Hhe ordeal of your critic's eye/' you halt 
only to call it ^' water worn;" and throw it away with 
other pebble9. 



10 MOnBRmER AT H<nf B. 120 


My dear Mr. : 

When jou hear I have been to the great ^^Nashyille 
Convention," I fear me you will have no more to do with 
me. It was cnriositj that tempted me, and, being a 
^^Tankee Girl," I felt the greatest desire to be present 
at a meeting which was drawing the attention of the 
whole Union, if not of the whole world. The colonel 
is a true Southern man in interests as well as feeling, 
tnd, at breakfast table on the morning of the 8d inst., 
lie said, in his badinage manner : 
'' Kate, what say yon to going to the Convention ?" 
"The Nashville Convention, sir?" I exclaimed, with a 
start of innate horror. 

" Yes ; it begins its session to-day. It is but three 
hours* drive into town, and I am going in to see what 
they are going to do. Isabel is desirous of being pre- 
sent, as ladies are especially invited to grace the assem- 

" I thought they were to meet with closed doors, colo- 
nel," I said, in my innocence, having the ghost of the 
Hartford Convention before my eyes. 

"No ; they will do all open and fearlessly, Kate. If 
vou can overcome your scruples enough to be of the 
party, we should be delighted to have you go." 

After a few moments' reflection, I concluded to con- 


sent, though I must confess with some compunctioni rf 

conscience, Mr. , for I religiously believed the 0«> 

vention to be traitorous in its spirit, in its views, aiidii 
its tendencies. 

The carriage was at the door as soon as breakfSutiM 
over, and, after three hours' drive, we entered Naakv3% 
a city, as I have before remarked, presenting the wm 
charming aspect to the approacher of anj inland towak 
the Union. The tall, Egyptian towers of the Preabft^ 
rain church, the Gothic battlements of the Epis€opaIii% 
and the pointed turrets of the Baptist, the fortresi>Iki 
outline of the half-finished Capitol, and the dome ct ikk 
Court house, with the numerous cupolas, gallerM^ 
groves, and bridges, together form a coup dcei tbn 
enchants the eye. On our road, we had overtaken m 
open traveling barouche, containing two South Cav^ 
linians, on their way to the Convention. One of thai 
being known and recognized by the colonel, we hadqvl 
an animated conversation, as we rode side by side. 

Arrived in town, we stopped at an elegant 
the abode of a relation of the colonel, where we 
made as much at home as we could have been at tiM 
Park. We found the city thronged with strangers froB 
all the Southern states, and the houses of the beat fiuai- 
lies were hospitably opened to entertain them. Upoa 
expressing my surprise to an eminent whig jurist opposed 
to the Convention, that he should have thrown open the 
largest and best rooms of his house to the members of it| 
he remarked that '^ he could never forget the laws of 
hospitality, and that it was his opinion that atrsngvn. 
visiting the city should be received with kindness sad 


cirility." I honored the venerable gentleman for i£.'.A 
specimen of old Roman feeling. 

The Convention at first convened in the Odd Fello-v.^' 
Ball, a large and beautiful edifice, but not being found 
convenient for the accommodation of spectat/ira, esp^ 
oally the ladies, the McEendree Church, which in the 
moat spacious in the city, was ofiere^l to it and a/^c^pt^. 
.Ab we entered the vestibule, which waa throri;?^ with 
gentlemen, I noticed a placard, reading in Urge letters 
«8 follows : " The pews on each side of the church on the 
How, reserved for ladies ; and no gentleman without a 
lady to be admitted on the floor unless he iii a member. 
This rule will be strictly enforced." 

Upon entering, we found the hoa% filler], the mem* 
lers occupying the body of the church, the la/liefi, 
like borders of flowers, (that is a gallant delegate*ji 
figure of speech,) enclosing them on each tlfU:, and the 
galleries packed with lookers-on and lo^>kerA-^lown, some 
of them with their hats on their hearb*, for there are 
gome men that don't know when they ought to keep their 

hats off". Through the politeness of General , a g':n- 

tleman as distinguished for his patriotiiim as for hij 
politeness, we were escorted to an aflvantageou.s «eat near 
the platform, although we did not turn any gontlcman 
oat of his seat in order to get places for ourselves. 

I know of nothing more uncivil or worthy of being re- 
buked, than that rudeness so common among ladies, which 
lea<is them to make a gentleman sacrifice to them a scat, 
which, perhaps, he has with much difiiculty obtained for 
himself. It is the duty of every man coming into a 
crowded room with ladies, to fitui places for them without 
dUcommoding other men. I saw two '' ladies" come in and 


Stand before a pew, and look steadily at an elderly g» 
tleman in it, as if they were resolved to look him oilrf 
his seat, though his wife and daughters were with Una 
the pew ; but the height of impertinence is for a Hi 
with females under escort, to ask another gentleaaa ti 
rise and give his seat to the ladies ; yet, during the 
of the Convention, I saw this thing done 
Madame de Stael says, in her admirable **CoriiiM:f 
'M'idde que les grands seigneurs de Rome ont de l*h» 
ncur et du devoir, c'est d4 ne pas quitter d'nn pss ■ 
d'un instant Icur dame." I fully subscribe to this ki 
of manners in its application to the present pnrpoMu 

When wo entered, Mr. Hammond, of South CaroliBH 
was addressing the chair, which was filled by a dignifii^ 
Andrew Jackson-looking man, who, I learned fitm As 
colonel, who knows almost everybody, was Judge Shaik^^ 
of Mississippi. Mr. Hammond's head struck me as Y«f 
fine. He is of a pale, intellectual aspect, with m W^ 
forehead, white and polished; indeed, his whole hm 
was almost as colorless as alabaster, and seemed 
out of marble. What he said was moderate and 
vative, and what particularly surprised me throqglMl 
the nine days sitting of the Convention, was the eitaii 
dignified, and impassioned attitude taken and hdd \f 
the South Carolina delegation. They spoke little, giv- 
ing the lead to others rather than taking it thimsiliM, 
yet it was perhaps the most talented, Missisaipfu alans 
ezcepte<l, <lelegation in the Convention. Barnwell Bhsli 
of South Carolina, spoke during the day, and made a 
favorable impression. He is a strong-minded man, wilk 
a head something like late Attorney-Oe**''ral L^arf^ 
and a manner highly courteous in debate; and this 


finished courtesy seems to me characteristic of these 
Carolinian gentlemen. Mr. Barnwell (since chosen 
United States Senator in place of Mr. Elmore) also 
mmde a short reply to one of the delegates. He is a 
strong man, and holds rank with the leading intellects 
of the South. His intellectual weight will be felt in 
the Senate. Mr. Cheves, of the same delegation, is a 
hale, white-headed old gentleman, with a fine port-wine 
tint to his florid cheek. He has a high reputation, I 
belieye, bat daring the session he said but little. The 
most eloquent man of this delegation is Mr. Pickens. 
He made a speech on the sixth day that surpassed any 
thing in the way of forensic eloquence I ever imagined. 
He has a face like one of the old Roman emperors, which 
I have seen on a coin, Nerva, I think, and his oratory is 
worthy of the Forum. By turns, calm and tempestuous, 
gentle and strong, witty and withering, logical and ima- 
ginatiTc ; at one moment, the audience would be startled 
with the thunders of the rock-beating surges ; and at 
another, soothed by the soft zephyrs of a summer sea. 
His rhetoric was profusely ornamented with figures and 
metaphors, like an exquisite mosaic. Altogether, he is 
one of the most finished orators it has been my good 
fortune to listen to ; and the colonel says, his speech on 
this occasion was worthy to be compared to the most 
noble efforts of Wirt and Patrick Henry. South Caro- 
lina, in truth, sent her jewels hero, and their talents have 

won them golden opinions. Be assured, Mr. , that 

the sentiments of this state have been misrepresented. 
Throughout the Convention, her sons were models of 
conservatism and healthy patriotism. Seated near them 
was the Mayor of Charleston, called ^^tho handsome 


Mayor," Mr. IT , a worthy descendant *of CoIomI 

Hutchinson, of Cromwcirs time, and of the Mrs. Hvtiip 
inson, whose memoirs are so well known. He iM 
pointed out to me hy a lady with : '* Don't yoa think li 
IS the handsomest man in the house?" He is not ai^ 
legate, but only a " looker-on in Venice." He has ha 
to the Mammoth Gave, near here, within a few d^l 
past, and his description of it to me I must give 70«,k 
is so truthful : ^' The sensation," said he, <* on beholA| 
it when standing beneath the main dome is precisely St 
that experienced in gazing upon Niagara ; it i$ Ifiagmi 
in repose." 

The Virginia delegation took a very active part in il 
the debates. It was, if possible, more ultra than uj 
of the rest. The Hon. Beverly Tucker, a half broAff 
of John Randolph, spoke often, but what he sud did Mt 
please me. He is, moreover, past his vigor, and cnto^ 
ing his dotage. His speech was exceedingly bitter, aal 
out of temper. It was the only one that was recrini- 
nating against the North ; for a spirit of forbeftraiiee ia 
this direction has peculiarly marked the whole bodj. 
The North is alluded to as ^^ our northern brethren,** or 
*^ our sister states," &c., and there is almost, as I have ssd, 
a total absence of vituperation. Mr. Tucker, howertr, 
something in the spirit and something in the numner of 
Randolph, of Roanoke, let out his bitterness, and wai 
sometimes forgetful that ladies were present. He is a 
venerable and gentlemanly-looking man, and bean a bigli 
reputation, I believe, but it is rather for what he bai 
been. The most able and patriotic member of the Tir* 
ginia delegation was Mr. Gordon, who spoke always well 
and to the purpose. He has something of the maaBve- 


SB of Webster in his manner of speaking, aa^i waa 
wajs listened to with deep interest. The sereral dele* 
itions from the several states, (nine states in all.; were 
ated each by itself. The two places of honor, the 
ont pews on each side of the broad aisle, direct! j in front 
' the President's chair, were giren to South CaroHna 
id Mississippi ; on the right of the latter was Vrrgrnia, 
scnpying two pews ; on the left of Carolina was Florida. 
I the rear of South Carolina was Alabama, and in th« 
dur of Mississippi were placed the Georgians. The Ten- 
laaee delegates, among whom was General Pillow, in a 
ilitary white vest, and Major W. H. Polk, the late Pre- 
sent's brother, occupied the side pew on the left of the 
dpit. In front of the pulpit is a carpeted platform, 
ithin the chancel-railing, on which a dozen little green 
bles were placed for editors and reporters. 
In the centre, before the desk, sat Ju^lge Sharkey and 
,e vice-president, Gov. McDonald of Georgia, supp^irted 
r their secretaries. AVhat, with the vast aii»emblage 
ffore them, and the reflections upon the imp^irtant sub- 
KTt which had convened such a House, the whole scene 
u imposing and solemn in the extreme. Perhaps 
Qce the meeting of the Signers of the Declaration of 
ir priceless Independence, no Convention has been as- 
;mbled in the Union, so fraught with profound and 
^ber interest as this. It was no assemblage of young 
>liticians, ambitious for notoriety. Everywhere, as I 
oked over the house, my eyes fell on gray heads vene- 
ible by wisdom. The majority of the members were 
en whose names arc known to the world with distinc- 
on^ — ^men who are the pride, and glory, and honor of 
le South. Governors, Judges, ex-members of Congress, 


eminent jurists, and distinguished orators, eo m posed lb 
assembly. Dignified in its character, cahn, and ddft^ 
rate in its debates, — as if impressed with the 
nit J of their combined attitude before the eoontiy 
the world, — ^they struck me as forming, for the 
being, the true Congress of the country ; for the 
tutional assemblies at Washington seemed to be n^ 
pended in action while this one was in session, as if wvl- 
ing for the result of its deliberations. And there is ilp 
tie doubt but there was as much talent in this Conpai 
as in that. All its proceedings were marked bj As 
severest parliamentary etiquette; and I heard gentleiMi, 
who dined at the house where we were guests, say Asl 
the whole tone and temper of the proceedings sal 
discussions were not unworthy of the United StalM 
Senate. You see I am getting to be quite a SoothsrMr 
in feeling. But I must describe as I saw, and write si 
I feel. Opposed as I was to the Convention, I eaimat 
withhold justice where it is due. At first the dtisas 
of Nashville were opposed to it; but day-by-day, as ill 
sessions advanced, it grew into favor. The gallcrisi 
(the people sovereign) thundered applause, and the UBis 
smiled approbation. 

The members beguiled the tedium of the readuig of 
the resolutions in going from pew to pew, chatting with 
the beautiful women, and the sessions were thns Taiisd 
by some interesting flirtations on the part of the hand- 
some widowers, and married men, too, to say nothing of 
bachelors, who seem to live single in order to flirt 
Brilliant parties had been given nearly every evening to 
the delegates, and dinner parties were the order of the 
day. The whole city, all the time of the session. 


^tfbl excitement; and fair widows and beautiful 
} reigned in all their splendor and power. Many a 
rt was losty — and some of the most firm disunionists 
i^it oyer to the opinion that one kind of union is 
east Tery desirable. Probably Nashville has never 
i so gay a fortnight as that during the sitting of this 
liant Convention. 

"be most talented and active member of the Mississippi 
gation was a Mr. McRea, a young man, but who 
made himself a man of mark, by the display of his 
nts for debate on this occasion. The most exciting 
soh made, was by the Hon. Mr. Colquitt of Georgia. 
18 athletic, short, compact, and iron-looking, with a 
[c intellectual head, thick with wiry, gray hair, grow- 
erect all over it ; a jutting, black brow, and a firm 
ith, the whole man and the whole face being stamped 
1 a rough, fiery energy. He rose to reply to some 
lerate member, against the Compromise, I believe, — 
. growing excited, ho jumped from his pew into the 
ad aisle, to have more space. Here he spoke with 
(ect abandonment! His voice rung like a bugle ! He 
dd rapidly advance, sometimes five or six steps, as if 
at to leap the chancel railing at a bound, and then 
>ping full, terribly gtampj 9tamp his right foot, and 
iharge his artillery-like thoughts, which seemed 
sting for more vehemence than he could give them ; 
1 never man had more ;) at another time he would rc- 
it step by step, speaking slowly in whispering irony, 
r down the aisle, when suddenly le»iping into the air, 
voice would explode like a shell, and electrify us all. 
V he would turn round and appeal to this delegate — 
r fiice an opposite one; now he would advance like a 


skirmiBher, and utter hoarse, denunciatory whispcn to 
the President in the chair, as if for his especial ear. Ii 
a word, he made a most extraordinary speech, in wUch 
the manner of all the best orators of the land was mixed 
up with that of some of the worst. It was in oratoij, 
what a medley would be in song ! It was wild, fiene^ 
terrible, dreadful, mad — ^jet most wonderful to listen to. 
It was eloquence tied to the back of a wild horse, lb- 
zeppa-like ! 

General Pillow also spoke several times, and spoko 
well. I had the greatest curiosity to see him, hafiag 
heard so much of him. He lives in elegant and cqnikal 
retirement, not far south of Nashville, and is very popular 
in this state, and may be the next governor. All thoto 
foolish stories told about him by the papers, hare beet 
proved to have no foundation, and ought to be dismisoed 
from the public mind. He is in the prime of life, de- 
cidedly a handsome man, with a marked militaiy air. 
There is a smile in his eyes, and which generally plajs 
about his finely shaped firm mouth, that renders the ex- 
pression of his countenance singularly pleasing. He 
looks like a gallant and chivalrous gentleman, and his 
speeches were all patriotic and to the point. This dis- 
tinguished man has been called vain, because some sop- 
pose he wrote a self-commending account of the battle in 
which he had fought so well. 

There is classic authority for such a sentiment, whidi 
I believe is not an unworthy part of human nature. 
Pliny says, in his nineteenth letter, book ninth, to Rofo: 
^^ In my opinion, every man who has acted a great, a 
distinguished part, deserves not only to be excused, bat 
approved, if he endeavors to secure immortality to the 


fame he has merited, and to perpetuate an 
remembrance of himself." Frontinos forbade a monii- 
ment to be erected to him, saying, ^The remembr a nce 
of me will remain if my actions desenre it V* Some men 
call this modest in Frontinos, but in my opinion it is the 
perfection of vanity; for he is so impressed with the cer- 
tainty that his actions will be remembered, that he pro- 
claims it to the world. I think every man who performs 
noble actions, should take pains that they are set right 
for the eyes of posterity; and if snch a course be vain, 
then is Caesar the vainest of men, as he was among the 
bravest and wisest. 

Why is it, Mr. , (listening to the debates has led 

me to the reflection,) that men talk to one or two per- 
sons, but declaim to a hundred? You see the absurdity 
of making a loud and oratorical harangue to a single 
auditor, yet let another and another be added, till there 
is an assembly, and the conversation is elevated to ora- 
torical declamation. Pliny, who is a great favorite with 
me, speaking of the same subject, says : 

" The reason I imagine to be, that there is, I know 
not what dignity in the collective sentiments of a mul- 
titude, and though separately their judgment is, per- 
haps, of little weight, yet, when united, it becomes re- 

Major Wm. 11. Polk spoke two or three times early 
in the session. He has a remarkable voice, deep as a 
volcano. He is a handsome man, but is bearded like 
an Ottoman chief. His manner of delivery is striking, 
from his emphatic enunciation. With every word, he 
makes an energetic nod forward, and the vowels are all 
enunciated with the precision of an elocutionist, in 


pvticnlftr the terminatioiiB ian^ which he 
round and full in two distinct syllables, like a Spaaiaid 
speaking his own sonorous tongue. He always spoke te 
the purpose, and with great boldness. 

To show you how little popular applause can be ap- 
pealed to as a criterion of opinions, I heard the gaDeriei 
one hour applaud a suggestion of ^^ non-intercourse^" and 
the next hour a defence of the Union. After passing 
their series of resolutions and ^^ Address to the Soothera 
States," on the ninth day the Convention adjourned to 
meet again at Nashville, where tbey have been ao 
agreeably entertained, the sixth Monday after the ad* 
joumment of Congress, if the action of that body prove 
'hostile to Southern interests. Moderate men regard this 
as an imprudent challenge, and perilous to be taken jotf. 

After a few local resolutions, voting thanks to the 
citisens of Nashville for their hospitality and to ''the 
ladies for their smiles," the president made a neat five- 
well speech, and the house adjourned. The gallant 
Charleston delegation won high favor by making a pre- 
sent to the church of a superb carpet to compensate for 
the wear of that which covered the floor during the see> 
sion. These South Carolina gentlemen have a thought- 
ful $awnrfaire way of doing just what ought to be done. 

Now, Mr. ^ I have given you a sketch of my impres- 
sions of this famed Convention. I hope you will not deem 
it treasonable to publish it. What the result and infli- 
encc of the action of this body will be, is not for a fe- 
male pen to venture to say, but I believe firmly that it 
will have a tendency to consolidate the Union* The 
whole temper and tone of the proceedings cannot fail to 
command the respect of the North ; and I hope and 


\rtilj pray that the end of this unhappy difference will 

to settle npon a firmer basis, the noble political institu- 

18 which command the admiration and homage of the 

ions of the earth. 





My dear Mr. : 

I HAVE a secret for your especial ear-tnunpet, but, 
perhaps you are not old and deaf, and so don*t use i 
trumpet ; but the only two editors I ever saw, werebotk 
deaf, and kept clapping their ear-trumpets to their tjnh 
pana, like two sportsmen bringing Colt's rifles to thdr 
eyes. The secret is this : Last evening, Juba, who bringi 
our mail from town, placed a letter in my hand, ad- 
dressed, ^^Miss Catharine Conyngham, care of Col.— > 
&c." I thought the hand-writing was my brother's, tkt 
midshipman, and tore the seal with fingers trembling 
and heart bounding. But it proved to be from an editor 

— ^yes, Mr. , a real editor, and publisher of a weekly 

literary paper. And what do you think was the pur- 
port of it ? I dare say, if I left it to you to say, yoe 
would be wicked enough to reply, ^^A declaration of 
love." It was no such thing ! It was a very polite re- 
quest that I would contribute some ^^ Needles" to hit 
paper, and if I could not furnish him with a series of 
^* Needles," to oblige him with a series of ^^ Talcs." 
Tales ? I, who have not the least grain of ™^nstiw, 
write tales ! My reply I shall defer, till I hear from yoe 
and have your permission ; for, I do not feel that I ess» 
in justice, contribute to any other colunms without yosr 
/mA consent — ^for you are my literary god-fSnther, Mr. 


-- — . Suppose I write a tale for jfoti. I will try. 
Perhaps it may turn out a simple affair, in that case you 
iron't publish it, and so no harm will be done. It is one 
hmg to write sketches, and quite another thing to write 
k thrilling tale. In a week or two, I will see what I can 
Oy and send you the first fruit of my venture into the 
orld of fiction. ^^ Perhaps it may turn out a song, 
Kfhaps turn out a sermon." 

You will be interested to know that I have not heard 
blow struck on this estate, and the colonel says he has 
i punished one of his slaves in seven years. It is 
■e all men are not like the good colonel, yet for the 
!>st part the planters are kind and considerate towards 
eir slaves. They often give them Saturday afternoons, 
id all day Sunday, when they appear in holiday attire, 
yest of the gay. They are all great lovers of going 
meeting, and delight in hearing preaching, and their 
Led and earnest attention in church, might be an ex- 
aple to their superiors. Marriages are performed by 
e planters themselves, with great show of ceremony, 
r gravely reading the service from the prayer-book, 
'e had a wedding last week ; Jenny, the sempstress, a 
*etty mulatress, being married to Charles, the ebony 
^achman of Dr. Bellman, who lives three miles from us. 
At seven o'clock, the whole party made its appearance 
the great hall, at one end of which stood the colonel, 
abel, myself, and several friends from the neighboring 
antations. Dressed in white — a white satin petticoat, 
ith book-muslin robe worn over, and with a wreath of 
>wers, which Isabel had gathered from rare plants in the 
»nservatory upon her head, with a high comb, and long 
ce veil, ear-rings^ bracelets, and satin, shoes with span« 

144 THB suNinr south; or, 


glee, the brido first entered, attended by her two brideV 
maidB— -one of these, my handsome negress, Eda. The 
bride's-maids were both dressed very richly, Isabel haTiag 
given one of them one of her beautiful dresses, and loaned 
her diamond pin and ruby bracelets. I also decked oil 
my Eda in a figured white muslin, two braceleta, a iiedb- 
laoe and brooch, and she really looked superb, with her 
large, fine eyes and graceful figure. From the neigh* 
boring estates were several females, handsomely dressed, 
and wearing their mistresses' willingly loaned jewels, lo 
that, at this wedding of slaves, shone more jewels (thai^ 
to the kind indulgence of masters and mistresses) than 
are often seen in more elegant assemblies. 

The hall was soon filled, and as far as I could see into 
the piazza beyond, was a sea of woolly heads, of ^ed- 
Icred" gentlemen and ladies. Dr. Bellman, a hale goh 
tleman of the most frank and cordial manners, while 
hair, ruddy cheeks, portly form, and always langfaiag^ 
and telling some funny story — ^he himself '^gave away the 
bride." The colonel read the sen^ice for the ceremony 
in a clear and solemn voice; and all passed off with the 
utmost decorum and gravity. The bride was not kissed 
by the colonel ! The marriage ended, the whole party, 
full three hundred Africans in all, went to the lower gal- 
lery that half surrounds the house, and is full one hu- 
dred feet long, by eighteen wide, and here they fmi e d 
into cotillions. The gallery, enclosed by Venetian blind% 
was lighted up for the occasion, and three fiddlers, and 
a banjo, and castinets, were perched upon a platform al 
one end, where they played with a zeal and nnwearinem 
that I had never seen equaled. At eleven o'clock, thsj 
were invited by the colonel to supper, which was kid ii 


the gallery of the kitchen, itself a long siru c iur e, en- 
dosed by a broad piaiza. We all stood by and enjoyed 
the happiness of the Congoese festivity. One yoong 
^eollered gentleman," brother to the bride, and some- 
thing of a Bean Bnimmel in his way, remarked to me, 
with a low bow, and with his hand on his heart — 

^'Nebber see, young missis, nebber see so moch beauty 
afore, at no weddin'. De ladies looks splendid, spedally 
de party Miss Edy ! She de belle ob de party!" 

Throoghont the supper the utmost order prerafled — 
nay, poHUnen reigned! Give me ^'cullered gemmen" 
ftt a ^^cullered" party for your true and genuine polite- 
ness ! The white gemmen are not one half so courteously 
polite to us white ladies, as they are to their '^fair sec!" 
Bows and smiles, and Brummellian bends of the body, 
displayings of teeth, and white perfumed pocket hand- 
kerchiefs, and glances of adoring white eyes, were the 
chief features of the scene. 

In the course of the evening, a strange, odd, amusing 
sea captain dropped in. He had been all over the 
world, and lived longer on a ship than on land. He was 
now on a visit to his sister, who was married to a planter 
who lives near us, and where we visit intimately, and 
whom he had not seen in twenty years past. Among 
other curiosities which he brought her, and which in- 
cluded two live monkeys, to say nothing of ugly-faced gods 
of all the heathen nations on earth, was a Bengal tiger ! 
The animal had been given him when a cub, for some 
service he had performed for some Rajah, and he had 
kept it as a pet till it had got nearly its full growth, and 
too large to stay in his ship. Indeed, he said that it 
had, on the voyage home to l^ew Orleans, nearly killed 

146 THE SUNNY souxn; OB, 

one of hi8 seamen. So he brought him up to Ti 
in a cage, and his monkeyn in auuther, and some half 
Bcore of splendid foreign birds in a third. No woodov 
as he laughingly says they did, that they took him kt 
a menagerie exhibitor. His sister was delightad wiA 
the birds ! amused with the pranky monkeya ! and horri^ 
fied at the Bengal gentleman in velvet! 

This famous captain, having, as he said, ^^boardad ■ 
in the midst of the sport," after looking on awhile, eaas 
to the resolution to show us a regular built ^^Ghiinea Coast 
fandango dance/' which he said he had often witBCHcd 
on the coast of Africa. Never was any thing so ridici- 
louB as the scene which now took place. The captain, 
having selected eight of the genteel '^cullered puasoiis," 
four men and four women, the former in white wais^ 
coats, the latter in white muslins and net gloves, pto- 
ceeded to explain the dance to them with amwaing nb- 

He seemed to be much surprised that they showed so 
little aptitude to learn, expressing it as his opinion thil 
the dance ought to come to them natura^. Bit ho 
soon found that the fashionable African gentlemen and 
ladies, whom he was trying to initiate into the kealhai 
mysteries of their ancestors, had no more penekaai to* 
wards such outlandish doings, than other emUaed people. 
Indeed, the cullered circle upon which he would have 
forced this '^old country" cotillion, felt their fediDgi 
hurt by the insinuation which his efforts conveyed. He 
civilized negro is very desirous to bury his pagan JMba- 
jumping ancestors in oblivion. He wishes to forget Us 
heathen origin ; and the more removed he is from tlMB, the 
moro aristooratio he is. A newly-imported AfUean k 


iccidedly Tiilgar! The merry eapUin at last gave vp 
bia pupiiB in despair, and entertained na for an hoar 
ifter we reached the drawing-room, with graphie and 
irdl giTen atoriea of what he had seen in fur landa, ^b^ 
food the rifling place of die mm" 

At twehre the party broke np, and the invited goesti 
from other plantations moonted their ploogh horses or 
miss, loaned for the purpose, and sought their' own 
dwellings, galloping away in the moonlight, and langh* 
tng and talking like children on a holiday, till they were 
imt of hearing. 

I forgot to say that the supper had been gotten op 
by Isabel and myself, and that it was both handsome 
ind costly. A dozen frosted cakes, jellies, preserved 
fruits, pies, custards, floating island, blanc mange, and 
dther nice things too numerous to mention, were upon 
the table. In the centre, and at each end, was a pyra- 
mid of cake, wreathed with flowers. Indeed, had the 
Dolonel given a party to Isabel, her supper could not 
bave been much more elegant or expensive. 

The captain, who accepted the coloners hospitality for 
the night, caused a great deal of sport this morning by 
trying to ride ! He absolutely knew nothing about a 
korse ; hardly can tell the stirrup from the bridle ! With 
s horse-block to aid him, he got into the saddle, but the 
liorse had not trotted six steps before he was out of it 
on the ground, having lost his balance. After three 
ittempts, each of which ended in his being tossed out 
if his seat, by the motion of the horse, he insisted on 
l>eing tied by the feet, or ^^ lashed under the keel," as 
le called it. Peter, the black hostler, always accustomed 
eo obey? gni^fied him by performing this favor for him^ 


and thus firmly secured, he gave the animal fhb Vk 
and a blow with his fist simultaneously on the hamtk 
The consequence was that Arab, who is a spirited feUov, 
set ofi* with him at full gallop, and as the park-gate wm 
fortunately not open to the forest, he swept with Ima il 
fiill speed round and round the circular carriage-way rf 
the lawn. Isabel and I were already in our saddles^ kt 
we were going out on a morning gallop, and we begaB It 
feel some anxiety for the worthy captain, who pasiM m 
bare-headed, his teeth set, and his hands grasping Arab's 
mane, while the reins flew wildly in the air. If the 
Topey by which his feet were tied, had parted, he woaU 
have been dashed to the earth. As it was, he began to 
slip, and hang sidewise upon the horse's neck, and I 
really believe if the colonel's commanding voice had not 
caused Arab to stop, the captain would the next miniti 
have been underneath the horse, with his feet bottm 
upwards over the saddle ! 

^^ I would rather ride out an equinoctial gale, lashed 
to the fore-top gallant cross-trees !" cried the captain, 
as he was relieved from his perilous situation, ^thaa 
mount a live animal again ! Nature never intended the 
critters to be backed !" 

I like the captain, because I have discovered that he 
saw and spoke with my recovered brother in the Medi* 
terranean, where he visited his ship ; and I felt with hm 
in his defeat, and declined to ride. 

IIow necessary it is that we should behold men in tkor 
proper position and pursuits, in order to know and give 
them due honor ! 0%U of them they are often ridieolMik 
helpless, and ignorant. Here is a man who could baltb 
with a storm on the ocean, and ride npoa the iri^gi eC 


mniemiBj its master ! who would nnerringlj gnide a 
itj ship acron the pathless waste of waters, and 
bj his skill, had belted the round earth ; whose 
igeoos ^e had met fearful perils without quailing, 
whose manly voice had given courage and rekindled 
in the sinking bosom of the timid — here was this 
en kmdf in unfamiliar scenes, surpassed and laughed 
r the least, ragged, blac urchin that can bestride a 

Yours respeotfull J, 

160 THE SUNNT south; or, 


Dear Me. : 

YoiJ will remember that I promised to write a tabi 
or rather to make the attempt. I have written one, ml 
will send it to you for your decision. I hope joa iriD 
be very severe with it, and reject it at once, if it ii 
wanting in the points that go to make np a ^^ thrilling 
story." Do not let any consideration for my Tanity 
(what woman is without vanity, especially one who writes 
for printers?) prevent you from judging and condemniag 
impartially ; for candor on t/<mr side may save me oe 
my side from many a foolish perpetration in the literaiy 
way hereafter. If editors would show more courage uA 
candor, there would be fewer scribblers, and more 8tcr> 
ling writers. So, if they complain that periodical lite- 
rature is at a low ebb, they ought to blame their own 
indolent criticisms, and not fasten the guilt upon poor 
literateurs, who only live upon the nod of the editorial 
tribunal. It depends wholly on you editors, sir, whe* 
ther our manuscript sees print or lights candles. Yoa 
will now understand, Mr. — — , that I am honest in 
wishing you to be so ; for if you, in the goodness rf 
your heart, and because ^^I am a lady,*' publish mj 
story, and it is a poor one, I shall write nothing else 
but just such poor tales all my life ! There is my fore- 
finger up with the caution. Do you know that Iiabd 


&a0 a very neat talent for writing? I hare some of her 
MSS. which would delight you, and if yon will never tell, 
I will send you some of it, but you must not publish it 
for the world, if you like it never so moeh, for it is a 
^^dead secret." 
I have a beautiful story to tell you of IsabeL A few 

days since she went to C j twenty miles distant, in 

the stage. Among the passengers was a white-headed, 
poorly-dad man, with his arm in a sling, and lame from 
a ballet in his knee. He was pale, and seemed to suffer, 
yet was cheerful, and related to her deeply thrilling 
stories of his war scenes in Mexico, where he received 
the wounds which now disabled him. He had been for 
some months in a hospital, at New Orleans, and was now 
just returning to his family, after two years' absence, and 
moneyless. At the inn, at Columbia, he alighted with 
difficulty, and appeared so ill that Isabel told the land- 
lord that if he would send for a physician, and have him 
well attended to, she would be responsible. Isabel was 
then driven to the elegant residence to which she was 
going on a visit. After tea, she took a bundle of com- 
forts, and in her friend's carriage drove to the inn, 
sought out the old soldier, who was very sick in bed, 
bathed his temples, and even assisted the doctor in ban- 
daging his arm. She remained nursing him two hours, 
and then left money to hire an attendant. After an 
illness of a week, every day of which saw Isabel at his 
bedside, the old white-headed soldier recovered so as to 
pursue his journey, his expenses paid from the purse 
of this benevolent and generous girl, who is as good as 
she is brave and beautiful. How few girls of seventeen 
would have thought a second time of the old soldier 


after leaving him at the inn ! When Isabel wu sdni 
by a fashionable friend, ^'how she conld do so?" she aa* 
Bwered like a true Tennessee girl, ^^ Soldiers fight thelsU 
ties of our country, and the least we can do is to cheriik 
them in their helplessness, and bind up their wooda 
Every true American woman, who loves her countiyaid 
the defenders of its glory and honor, would have dons ti 
I did/' 

Her father heard this spirited yet modest reply, ui 
taking her in his arms, he kissed her on both cheehii 
and smiling with pride called her a ^^tme soldiflr*i 

A letter came this morning from the old man, to ImM^ 
and every line is glowing with praise of her, and wva 
with grateful words — though some of them are qidbd 
wrong. But the heart has little heed of orthographj. 
I know a lady who always slips in her spelling, whA 
she writes a letter under any deep emotion. I do nofcgs 
so far as a certain matter of fact, but warm hearted 
doctor, whose early education had not been done fall 
justice to, whose maxim was '^ correct spelling and a eool 
head go together ; but a warm heart don*t stop to pkk 
letters." If the old soldier had not written so heartily, 
therefore, it is very likely, we see, that his orthogr^ihy 
might have been less erratic. 

You recollect that I allude<l to a Bengal tiger, in BJ 
last. I have quite an incident to relate of which he was 
the hero, and I one of the heroines, alas ! a poor heroias 
you will say when you hear the story. 

Three days ago, the colonel, Isabel, and I, were invited 
to spend the day and dine at the plantation of Mr. Henry 
Elliott, the gentleman who is husband to our riding 


ih's sister. After half an h6ar*8 delightfnl drive in 
jrriage, along a picturesqae road, with a brawling 
on one side, ninning at even pace with the horses, 
roods and^ rocks overhanging on the other, we 
sd the tasteful, English-looking mansion which was 
minate onr drive. 

er dinner, while Isabel was standing by a marble 
looking over a superb copy of Boydell's Shaks- 
^ by her side, Harry Elliott, a handsome young 
ian, at home on vacation, admiring her rather than 
ctnres to which she was drawing his attention, and 
I was seated in a lounge, reading Simms' last novel 
s. Elliott ; and the colonel, and ^^ the captain," and 
ost were smoking their cigars on the front portico, 
nly, with a bound as noiseless as that of a cat, the 
al tiger entered through an open window, and 
;ed into the drawing room. Mrs. Elliott sprung to 
»et, and pointed in speechless horror at the terrible 
»eautiful creature, as it stood for a moment where 
ched the soft carpet, and gazed slowly and fear- 
around as if selecting its victim from one of us. 
1 and her young friend had not yet seen him, their 
I being towards the window. As for poor me, I sat 
k statue, motionless and without power of motion. 
>lood froze in my veins ! I caught the glittering 
of the tiger, and, for an instant, was fascinated ; 
[ do not know, if he had not turned away his look 
dignified contempt, that I should not have risen up 
idvanced irresistibly, like a charmed bird towards 
srpent. He moved a step, crouching. I looked at 
Elliott. I saw courage coming into her eyes, and 
aid to me, whispering, " If I catch his eye, I can 


(Irtaln an<l oowor liiiii." I^it cro slic could catch it, tlo 
tiger advanced three fearful bounds, and then Isabel, for 
tho first time, beheld him ! Harry Elliott no sooner 
saw him, than he laid one hand on the wrist of Inbd, 
who seemed to gaxe more with wonder than mth Cht 
upon tho mottled Bengalese, and pointed with thi 
other to the piano. 

'^ To the piano, Isabel ! Play, quickly ! Musie, or 
ho will do mischief — music, quickly !*' 

The tiger now slowly sunk down ctmchant upon tk 
oarpet, and I could see him unsheath his cnrTed wUli 
claws, and his eyes burned as if fires were kindled ia 
their orbs. He seemed about to spring upon Hcnnr, 
who fixed his gaze resolutely upon him with s courage I 
could not but admire, terrified as I was at such a draw- 
ing-room companion. My fears were not lessened by tke 
recollection, which just then came upon mc, that I hiA 
been told that day as one of the feats of the *^ captain*! 
pet" that he would snap off a cat*8 head at a bite, and 
make nothing of it. I always knew my head was sbmD, 
and I felt that it was now smaller than ever. The hor- 
rid creature gaped all at once, as if to increase BJ 
apprehensions, and I was now certain he would make u 
sure of my head as a guillotine would do it. 

Isabel glided backward, pale as snow, and as cold,— ' 
glide<l backward, step by step, so as not to seem to re- 
treat, and reached the piano. Running her icy, ooU 
fingers over the keys in a fearfully brilliant prelude, ibe 
commenced a sui>erb cavalry march, — a new Ilnngariaa 
piece — with a world of war music in it. The tiger, u 
soon as she began to play, rose from his crouching atti- 
tude, and moved with a sedate step to the piano, aal 


ISm ttead hj Inbel, t so n tluit Ii«r wncmf 
m the riflhed to the keys, would nearly 
I Us gkwj shoolder. We re a$ eUU ae deatht 
mgaa to 1iat6 fiuth in tl , seeing lluit he no- 
il m bo marked m mam , for he stood aa if liaten- 

Uto aa a Medieian atatne, yet Isabel played on. I 
Btad each instant to see her fall from the mnsie 
t or panse in pure terror, when I felt confident the 
t of the terrible creature would be buried in her 
a. Yet we dared not give the alarm! The Toioes 
» three gentlemen oould be heard on the gallery, yet 
ared to call for aid lest we should draw the tiger to 
g upon us. So silent, and nearly dead with awful 
we waited the issue, trusting to Providence, or the 
ij for a diversion in our favor, 
nry Elliott, in the meanwhile, leaving Isabel play- 
itole out of the room, unseen by the tiger, and 
ling the portico, made known to the gentlemen, in 
dy articulate words, the state of affairs in the 
ing room. Mr. Elliott would have run for his rifle, 
lie colonel was calling for pistols, when the captain, 
ining for them both to preserve silence, hastened to 
sene of danger. When I saw him enter I felt inez- 
ibly relieved, for I believed in him that he could 
OS. He moved noiselessly across the room, and 
ig round at the end of the piano, he faced the 
il, and bending his glance upon him, he caught the 
ring eye of the tiger full with his own ! The effect 
I fixed and commanding gaze upon him was won* 
L The monster gradually dropped his body upon 
ftonches, and sank quietly into an attitude of sub- 


mission at Issbcrs feet The captain then placed iSmiM 
at a bound between her and the animal, and 
him by his jaw, he spoke to him in a tone bo 
and bold, that he rose and suffered himself to be led til 
of the room like a hound, and locked np in his cage it 
the poultry yard. lie had no sooner disappeared tbi 
Isabel, who had not ceased to play, dropped to the flsa^ 
but half-arrested in her fall by her father's em ha ai g 
arm. Mrs. Elliott fainted outright* As for mjad(I 
did nothing but cry for half an hour, I was so happj wi 
had all escaped so well. Even the courageooa Hany'i 
voice trembled two hours afterwards when he was en- 
gratulating me on my escape. 

And was it not an escape, Mr. ? To be edU 

upon by a gentleman tiger, and only saved from heag 
eaten up by him by treating his lordship with nmaaa h 
appeared, on inquiry, that the captain had let his ^pei** 
out for air, and tied him to a chestnut tree that 
in the centre of the yard, from which freeing 
he had taken the liberty of bounding into the 
through the window which opens directly upon the hnnk 

You may be sure, we, and Mrs. Elliott in partieokri 
gave the captain a good rating for bringing such a fd 
into a peaceable neighborhoo<l, frightening yoong kditf 
out of their senses. Mrs. Elliott roundly informed kr 
brother that the monster must be shot, or she should aol 
sleep a wink all night for thinking he might get into Ai 

The captain, who had been terribly alarmed at o« 
perilous situations, promised he should be shot, but ttii 
he could not have the heart to be the death of his M 
friend. It was dccideil that the negro driver of thi 


should kill him, but the black objected from gome 

M^ientitioiis feeling, when Uarry Elliott proposed that 

hm altoold be turned loose in the forest and hunted down ! 

Ikis propoeition, so promising of a new kind of sport in 

A» wmj ot Western hunting, was warml j accepted, and 

vodd, no doubt, haTe been carried out, if some one had 

BOt atarted the objection that he might not be easily shot 

k the diase, and if left to roam the park, might do some 

fiital mischief. Whereupon, Mr. Elliott went out and 

ikot the handsome, wild brute through the head, with a 

rifle, mt fire paces. The captain would not see the deed 

done, and remaining in the house, jammed his fingers in 

his ears, to shut out the report of the gun that sealed the 

fiite of his friend. The poor tiger died instantly, and 

«e all went out to look at him as he lay on the green 

grass, now quite harmless, yet looking strong and terrible 

in death. He was a beautiful fellow, with the glossiest, 

silkiest hide, barred and spotted brown and black. The 

captain says it shall be made into housings for Isabel's 

saddle and mine. Moreover, he has given me two 

monkeys and a superb bird of paradise, his sister, Mrs. 

Elliott, having been made so nervous by the late tiger 

adventure, pointedly refusing to have any more of the 

outlandish citizens of earth or air on her premises. Two 

monkeys, Mr. ! And merry, ugly, little men they 

are, wrinkled as a negro a hundred years old, and mis- 
chievous as two imps satanic. They are both with chains 
round their bodies, fastened one at one pillar and another 
at another pillar of the gallery, so that they can run up 
and down at pleasure, and all the little ^^ miniature 
humans" do, is to take their pleasure. 
They have done nothing all day but eat nuts and cakes. 


mow and chat together, and make faces at the nepoci. 
The old Blaves 8eem to look upon them vrith an evil eje 
and a spice of fear. Our old African says thej an 
^^Croobah — no good — ^hab old one in 'em!" The ywag 
fry among the blacks — ^the little niggers — go mad with 
delight at witnessing their pranks, wonder at their haTing 
tails, and seem to regard them as in some sort oomb- 
germans of their own race, mysteriously tailed, an adfr 
tion which they evidently look upon with envy. My 
magnificent bird of paradise has a disagreeable voieSi 
like a creaking cart wheel, and yet his plumage ia splendii 
beyond description ! With all his prismatic glory, ths 
little brown mocking-bird that sings under my windov 
half the night long, by moonlight, is worth a score of 
them. The eye soon wearies vrith the monotony of 
beauty, but the ear never with the harmony of aoond. 

Yours respectfully, 



I M&. : 

Did yon ever go a fishing? If y<m haTe not, I ad- 
jon to bay a rod and line, and start brookward on 
an adventure; if you have been, yon will know 
to appreciate my happiness yesterday, when I tell 
hat I spent it in fishing ! Early in the morning my 
maid, Eda, stole softly by my bedside, and waking 
mtly, as if half afraid she should wake me, reminded 
lat "we were all to go fishing to-day." I was soon 
ed in my stout pongee habit, which I wear when I 
to the forests, and which just fits my figure. Eda 
rht me a broad-brimmed leghorn, which I put on, 
the brim flapping over my eyes, and shading me 
an umbrella, — a sort of man's hat, which the 
el's care for our "fair complexions" had provided 
3th Bel and me. I also wore a pair of masculine 

; real Wellingtons, Mr. , but made of the 

jt calf-skin, and setting to the foot like a glove, 
ligh heels added full an inch and a half to my sta- 
whereat I was not a little vain. Upon descending 
e hall, I found Isabel all ready, in man's hat and 
, and a jockey looking tunic of green cloth, elegantly 
jidered over the bust, to which it was charmingly 
led by a broad, glazed, black belt, "clipping the 
BT waist," and secured by a silver buckle. Her 


small feet looked perfectly bewitching in her hniiar-like 
boots, and slie wore her sombrero with such a dashing, 
don't-I-look-like-a-very-pretty-boy air, a little tippii 
over her left ear, that, with her fine Spanish eyei ni 
expressive face, she looked bewitching enough to fall a 
love with. 

How is it, good Mr. , that pretty giria alwm 

become additionally attractive in masculine coatime! A 
woman never looks so young as in her riding coflOM, 
and for the reason that it is partly copied from the dm 
of the other sex. And have you never been struck widi 
the youthful look a boy*s hat, worn upon the side of Aff 
head of a woman of thirty years old imparts to ber, giv- 
ing to her face the juvenility of a handsome lad of nx- 
teen? Solve me this mystery, sir Editor, for editon 
are, of course, supposed to be able to solve everything! 

The colonel was in his brown linen hunting coat, wiA 
six pockets therein and thereabouts. Having coiqifi- 
mented us upon our good looks and becoming costoM, 
he escorted us to the room, where a nice hot breakfast «« 
awaiting us. After a hearty meal, partaken of in higk, 
good spirits, we prepared to mount our ponies. Two 
servants were already in attendance upon the gallcrj; 
one of them with long rods, for each of us, full twcntj 
feet in length, with hair lines neat]y affixed, and boxfi 
of bait — writhing ground worms ! The other was Isdca 
with a basket of provisions, nicely covered with a snow* 
white napkin, in spite of which, peeped out the red-wazcd 
neck of a claret bottle, and also there was just Tiobk 
the wire-tied cork of a champagne bottle! Bat don*t tdl 

the tcmjwrancc pcoj)le, ilr. ! You know, or if yss 

don't know, you know now, that nobody can go fishipg 


without such mystic appurtenances in the dinner-basket — 
at lea^t in these parts. All being a-saddle, and in high 
pulse, we started on our expedition to war against the 
innocent fishes. We proceeded in the following order. 
First, astride a half-broken colt, as shaggy as a bear, 
rode a young negro urchin in a torn straw hat, and with 
naked feet. He was pioneer to open the several gates 
that lay in our road across the plantation. Next rode 
the colonel, smoking a cigar, and gaily talking with Isa- 
bel and myself upon the probability of our being joined 
by the ^^ tiger captain'* and young Harry Elliott at the 
Seven Oaks, and questioning whether the former could 
be prevailed upon to mount a horse ! Behind us came 
the gray-headed servant who carried the basket and bait, 
mounted upon a horse as venerable as himself, and 
whose ribbed sides he ceaselessly thumped with his two 
heels, keeping time thereat with every step made by his 
Bozinante. He was followed by black John, so called 
to distinguish him from another John on the estate, who 
is not quite so dead a black as the ^^ black John." He 
rode a sober, long-eared mule, and carried the slender 
fishing rods on his shoulder, which as he trotted, bent 
with the motion like whale-bone. The mule had an odd 
fashion of throwing out his left hind leg at every third 
step, which created a rolling motion to his rider, that 
was infinitely ludicrous. 

What a merry ride we all had! The colonel sang, 
and his manly voice made the old woods ring again. 
Isabel laughed to listen to the laughing echo, and I 
shouted! The Africans were delighted in our delight, 
and laughed after their fashion, and the little ragamufiin 
Peter, our gate opener, who always takes liberties, and 

162 THE suxxY south; or, 

is notably saucy, whooped and turned someraets on )k 
pony*s back from excess of animal spirits. 

Three miles from the house we crossed the tompib 
road which leads to Nashville. A stage coach was gQP| 
by at the time, and the passengers looked at us wiA 
hard curiosity, and seemed to be amused at the appew- 
ance of our motley cavalcade, the rear of which I oo^ 
to have said was brought up by three dogs, one of whoB 
was a majestic full-blooded Newfoundland. Not far be- 
hind the stage, came a handsome traveling carriage, fioi 
the window of which a gentleman hailed the colonel. Ai 
we rode up he was presented to us as a General P— ^ 
one of the most distinguished officers whose valor ia 
Mexico elevated the military glory of our RepobGa 
After some conversation we separated, ho to drive on Is 
his princely estate, a few leagues southward, we to eiit« 
the forests and wind our way to the stream. Half a 
mile from the pike we came to the Seven Oaks, a noUt 
group of forest trees standing by themselves in an opa 
area, where several woodland roads meet. We had hardlj 
reached it when the colonel shouted — 

"Here they come! Voild the captain.*' 

Looking in the direction he indicated, we beheld Henry 
Elliott riding by the 8i<Ic of an old doctor's sulky, in 
which was harnessed, a tall, long-lxMlied steed, which •• 
it drew nearer, proved to be stone-blind. At first we 
could not distinguish whom the ark-like vehicle contained, 
but a loud shout to us like Neptune hailing a war*ahip ia 
a high wind, left us in no doubt as to the personality ef 
the occupant. Harry, mounted on a superb hunter, and 
dressed with picturesque effect, but without foppiahMSli 
which he is too handsome and sensible to be guilty of, oo 


sring «i kft his oompanion tnd giDoped forward 
I US. How superbly he rode ! yet with the euo 
itnral attitade of a Oomaneho ehkf. He was 
ig as he eame on, and weD might he hnf^ 
mSkj was shriddng in anguish al eroy refohi* 
ha rattling wheels; the horse reared hehind aad 
llefbrewiih adoable-jointed, qMsmodieloeoiBotioiiy 
^ok the captain from his seat within at every jetk, 
ibiclBj the horse, the solky, and the wheels had 
aereral and independent motion of progffssiony 
Four being combing produced a eompoond move* 
f the whole, unlike any thing on the earth, or iin* 
e earth, or in the sea. We all shouted! The 
I reached ns and then tried to stop his headway; 
^ ancient horse had an iron jaw calloused by long 
at no bit wonld twist or hurt, and it was plainly 
nt that, once nnder weigh, and propelled by the 
X motions of the entire machinery, he conld not 
he wonld. 

ast heaving ahead! Luff! — Luff you beast!" 
1 the captain, with stentorian energy, as he was 
I ns, polling at the reins. ^^This land craft is the 
»t clipper I ever g-g-got a-a-bo-ar-d-d of!'' cried 
I last words being jolted out of him by one of 
tr motions. ^^'Vast there and heave to! What 
ir-fer-na-nal $ea is running! — Co-co-co-co-col-on- 
save ns a rope! Bear a hand here, some of yon 
I, or I shall soon be hull down and out o' sight to 


colonel rode ahead of the blind and still dea» 
y*plunging-forward animal, and had no sooner 

164 THE 80NKT soum; OR, 

touched his head lightly with his whip thui ke sUmI 
stock still. 

^^Thank'ee, colonel, thank*ce/' said the old ■riiMi, 
as he scrambled over the wheel to the ground; ^Ihil 
craft is the hardest thing I ever steered! Catch m 
aboard of one of your land craft again, if I can 
You see this mad-cap nephew of mine wanted to 
me to ride a horse; but I hare had enough of ikl 
Don*t laugh, girls, — ^but it is true. So, cnusing abut 
the stables, I run athwart this old lugger, stowed V^ 
and dry, and covered with dust and cobwebs. SDiitt 
said it had belonged to a doctor who once lived al ths 
plantation, and it was now condemned as nnaeawortlj* 
But 60 long as it didn't leak, and the span were 
I didn't care. So I had her hauled out into the 
her old rigging overhauled, and this blind hone o' aj 
own choosing, out of a score o' faster and better OMi H 
tow it along. And here you see me, with my innttdi 
shook out, because I forgot to put ballast aboard to hmf 
her trim ; and then, for yawing wide before the wiai, I 
never saw the equal of that blind beast; and as for short- 
ening sail or coming-to off port, he doesn't know wbt 
that means." 

We all enjoyed the captain's professional aeeoont cf 
his voyage^ and, as the stream was yet a mile ofl^ we art 
forward, the captain once more aboard his land enft,te 
with the precaution of having one of the n^ro men Itad 
the blind horse along, with his hand on his head-stalL 
Relieved **by this towing," as he termed it, froai thi 
direct command of the vessel, the captun lighted a 
cigar, lolled along and smoked as well as he oodd for 

THii sonnoaunai at home. 165 

the rough sea produced by the resumption of the quadru- 
plex motion of the whole apparatus. 

We at length reached the creek, though Isabel and 
were somehow loiterers, and always were, mnnehaWf 
mch occasions, and did not come up till we had 
•lighted. What a delightful spot it was where wc stopped 
to prepare for our sport! Mighty trees overshadowing 
w$j a limpid stream eighty feet wide at our feet, its clear 
waters sparkling over snowy sands, and gurgling and 
msliiiig around and between gray mossy rocks lying in 
its bed. 

Higher up was a waterfall, with a constant murmur, 
and to the left of us the bank receded, leaving a dark, 
deep pool, in the depths of which, the darting fish, in 
their silvery armor, gleamed like meteors in a lower 
sky. Just where we alighted was a verdant carpet of 
soft thiok grass, with three or four fine old rocks scat- 
tered over it like granite lounges, which use we made 
ci three of them ; the fourth having a shape somewhat 
tabular, being converted by us into a table for our pic- 
nic dinner. Altogether, the place was romantic, secluded, 
and still, and would have delighted dear good Izaak Wal- 
ton, whose shade we invoked as we prepared our lines 
for the sport ! Sport ! ah, poor Pisces ! what was to 
be sport to us, was death to you ! But so goes life, 

Mr. ; one half of God's creatures, both brute and 

intelligent, pursue their pleasure at the expense of the 
other half. 

The tiger-captain attached himself assiduously to me 
for the day, no doubt seeing that Isabel was well provided 
for in young Elliott's devoted attentions, and taking pity 
upon a lonely demoiselle. He taught me how to cut 

166 THB sumrr south; ob, 

ballets half throtigh, and affix them to the line for nakoi; 
he gave me a lesson in making and fitting a quilkd eoifc; 
initiated me into the mysteries of ^^ bending on a hook,** 
which good Mrs. Partington could do, as it is dont If 
knitting stitches upon the shaft, as one woold npoi i 
needle ; and he gave me a horrid lesson in the ait of 
scientifically putting a worm upon the hook. The sqmnj 
creatures, how they did curl about my fingers ! yet I vm 
afraid to incur the captain's contempt by eren BhfMkg 
or throwing them from me. But isn't it a emel Bnvfa, 
sir, to cut in three sections a living worm, and Aa 
thread longitudinally your barbed hook with one of iht 
soft, cold, twisting pieces ? But a lady who goes a iih- 
ing with a sea-captain who has tigers for pets, mnsthm 
no ner>'es. I found the captain an admirable instraeHi^ 
He showed me where to find the deep pools, and hawh 
cast my line thirty feet outwardly at a sweep, withoit 
bungling or lodging it in the branches OTcrhesd. Hi 
instructed me how to watch the little green and red 
painted cork, and how to spring the line when it boUcd 
under — in a word, he proved a valuable comrade fbr i 
tyro in fishing like mc, and an unexceptionable bcai, 
except when I once let a largo trout drag my hook, fiio, 
pole, and all out of my grasp, and dart awmy with it 
down the stream like a rocket, when he *^ made a gnat 
swear," as I heard an Indian say of another great per- 
sonage. With this nautical exception, the tiger-eqiCaiB 
was a delightful companion on a fishing picnic 

After three or four hours of various successes, daring 
which some eighty-five fish were caught by the whole 
party, negroes included, one of the servants euuioaneod, 
*^ Pio-nic ready, Massas and Misseses !" 

As the eaptun tnd I, after winding np our lines, has- 
tened to the spot, I passed the little n^ro Pete squatted 
€B a rock, fishing, holding a huge stid^ for a pole^ with 
tmue for line, and, for bait-box, the c^gMmmmridikU he 
mads use d his encmnoiis month, which he kept foil of 
Hfe worms ready for nse ! Oh, shocking, Peter ! 

It took some time to find Isabel and Harry, who, at 
Jeagth, made their appearance finmi np the stream, bat 
.with only three fish between them. I suspect they paased 
Aeir time so pleasantly in eadi other's society, that they 
jdMNVgfat little of the little fishes. The captain rallied 
them on their ill luck, and made them both blnsh* We 
;had s oaptal feast under the trees, with the grass for 
our seats, and a rock for onr table. I placed a diance 
,eopy of the Picayune before me for a table-cloth, and 
tlras, reading and eating, I enjoyed ^^ a feast of rea- 
son," as well as a more substantial one. We had ham, 
sandwiches, pickles, cold-chicken, cold broiled pigeons, 
salad, pic-nic crackers, Scotch ale, champagne, and 
daret. The two negro men waited on us with the pre- 
cision and etiquette of the dining-room. Our horses, and 
ponies, and mules, picturesquely tethered around us, 
cropped the grass, or stood, meditating, doubtless, upon 
onr conduct, our laughter, our toasts, our uproarious be- 
hayiour, so in contrast with their sedate gravity, which 
noTcr departs from its propriety. Especially the cap- 
tain's blind horse looked melancholy and lonely, tied to 
the wheel of the sulky, with a basket of corn hanging 
at the end of his venerable nose. At every Borcau 
burst of quarter-deck laughter from the captain, he 
would crop his overgrown ears, and roll his white, fishy- 
looking eyes about as if in bodily apprehension. 


We toafitedy in lady-liko sips of the ieed wme, Aft 
President, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and Jenny lini 
and, in silence, drank to the memory of the wmnior-MfB 
of the Hermitage, who sleeps not many honra' ride froa 
where we were. It would be difficalt to impress penou 
out of Tennessee with the veneration with which tk 
green memory of the Hero of New Orleans is held by il 
Tennesseans. Through the rolling ages, his secfailii 
tomb will be the fane of pilgrimage for the sons of Ai 
state. We intend shortly to pay a second riait to ik 
Hermitage, of which I will give yon an mcooont ate 

After our pic-nic dinner was over, the table-nM& wa 
vacated to the servants, and the gentlemen laid at kngd 
on the grassy bank, smoked, and entertained nairid 

J9 H0MB. lUt 


I HAYB htd ft mind to make this a Kterary ^Needle'' 
iaf talk book; for I hmre lately been reading bo many 
Migbffiil authors, that, like the hxuj bee, the wings of 
mj soqI are laden inth their sweets, and I mnst, per 
Jmnetj make hon^. The last work I have lud down, is 
'■merson's Representative Men/' How soggestire is 
Aii book! How it teems with thought, and food for 
Aooglit! How deep he goes down into the being of 
man, and how he walks among the stars ! What a faculty 
he has for putting mind into type! He touches nothing 
that he does not find a kernel in it, where most other 
writers and thinkers see only a husk. He beholds with 
the eye of the poet, and the contemplation of the sago, 
the '^splendor of meaning'' that plays over the visible 
world, and by its light, he looks down, down into the 
human heart, and then tells us with terrible strength of 
word, all he discovers there! We tremble before the 
man who thus boldly drops his plumb-line into the abyss 
of our being, and reports to us its depth. 

Mr. Emerson has a great mind. Ghrave errors of 
theory he has, but new and hitherto untold truths so 
bum in his pages, that his discrepancies are lost in their 
light. His sentences are a "carved thought," every one 
of them. He uses words for the frame work of his pre- 
cious thoughts with the economy of a jeweler, his gold 


in setting precious stones. Every page is mn btdb^ 
tual pabulum on which the intellect of a man maj be 
nourished. He seta you thinking, and thinking, aid 
thinking ! He has the rare talent of expressing to ike 
eye the deep and unbroken musings of the spirit of an 
about God, about Nature, about the mystery of the psH, 
the awe of the future, the riddle of life, the infinitude of 
the Universe — musings that all indulge, but never imyirt 
the secret of what they think. Mr. Emerson puts nek 
twilight and star-light thoughts into shape, and startki 
us at recognizing them, as much as if we had seen oar 
own ghosts rising from the misty emptiness of spaet! 
We all love to discover that our own speculations upoa 
the mysteries that surround us, have been the spccala- 
tions of another mind ; and if that other mind will kod 
us farther than we have gone, we follow with a chanacd 
awe, confident in his pilotage, though he lead us into thi 
unfathomable ! 

Some of Mr. Emerson's propositions and opinions 
savour of Swedenborg, of Grecian philosophy, of Jewisk 
skepticism, of German transcendentalism, neither of 
which by itself complete, yet in combination they pro> 
duce a synthetic whole, that is the just representative of 
the modem mind of philosophy. If Mr. Emerson oonid 
only combine a fifth element in his circle, the hnmUe 
faith of the New Testament, his philosophy wooid be in- 
destructible. How so great a mind can approach so 
near the Cross and not see it, and be daisied by its 
glory, is to me a cause of the profoundest mar^'el. Aside 
from this radical defect in his philosophy, his book ii 
laden with the richest intellectual ore which the wise 
searcher will gather, and know how to free from the 


ilegr. Did Mr* Bmera i lire in the days of Flito, he 
vorid have fovnded an Academy of Philosophy, to which 
tiM jovtli of thai eUanc land would have flocked to learn 
wiadotti Why do not our learned and wise men now 
lieeonie te a ehe t s like the old philoeophers f Snoh a 
Man m Emenon might crowd his mral retirement with 
iaidaetiial young moi, 1 establish a school of thought, 
that would produoe a pc ive effect upon the age. 

But rather let our able divines become such teachers 
in Christian Philosophy, such men as — but I will not 
give the names that come to my pen, lest it should seem 
invidious; if these able doctors of divinity would open 
their homes, they would be filled with disciples. If emi- 
nent retired physicians would receive young men as 
discipuli, how many would avail themselves of the privi- 
kge! If retired lawyers and statesmen would thus be- 
come teachers of legal and political philosophy, how 
many talented youths of our land would become rivals 
Ibr these inestimable advantages ! Suppose it were un- 
derstood that Henry Clay (God bless him) or Daniel 
Webster (all honor be to his mighty mind) would, the 
one at Ashland, the other at Marshfield, receive a limited 
number of disciples, to instruct them in "the things of 
their wisdom," what price would be counted by ambitious 
young Americans, if they could attain to the honor of 
ttitting at their feet? Schools of politics are needed in 
our country, where statesmen should be graduated ! 

Dear me ! Mr. ^ how boldly I am making my pen 

write! Only a young woman, perhaps I ought not to 
touch upon such weighty matters; but please permit me 
to suggest that there aught to be a Diplomatic College 
at Washington, where our Foreign Ministers, Charg6^ 


&c., should be educated, and take oat diplomat, eerlifp- 
ing their qualifications to hold those important poutkiu, 
bj the incumbents of which our country is judged hj iB 
nations. The requisites should be a thorough knowledge 
of international law, of the elementary principles of oar 
Federal Constitution, and those of the thirty Stales, if 
the history, products, resources, and commerce of dM 
country, the history of political parties, and the inteml 
operation of our domestic institutions. Lastly, as a 
fine qua noHj they should write and speak Aeadl 
fluently, the ignorance of which in nearly all our tanigi 
ministers renders them incompetent, and often ridka- 

There, Mr. , I've done on this hobby. 

Another book I have been reading is Dickens* *' Co^ 
perficld." I do not read noyels often, nor do I nad 
them ever for the story or plot, but for the thougbtt 
which the writer may string upon it. Dickens' sloriei 
seldom haye any but the most indifferent ploi$. Hs 
neyer inycnts surprises, but writes you a story as tra»> 
parent as gossamer. Nobody looks for plots in this 
charming writer, but for his witty sparklings, his qaisi 
humor, his inimitable sketches of character, his pis> 
tures of evcry-day people, whom we afterwards do not 
so much seem to have read about as to have known. 
This deficiency of plot, which characterises Dickens' 
stories, and their wealth of original ideas, is what ren- 
ders young people somewhat indifferent to reading them, 
and more mature heads fond of them. Like Emerson, 
he is an analyser, but Emerson builds theories on what 
he discovers, while Dickens works his discoveries into 
practical life. Like Emerson, in his knowledge of the 

springs of onr being, Dickens is a pkiksopfer, Ivt 
rsther of the hesrt than cf the intdlect. Emen0m 
viD udodk the ftbjss and vnTcfl to n» As ftmmkitimm 
of the nmTorsey and even the qwriMwrM lijsni, Die* 
kns win take ns to these bcii^s^ and sake i 
and loTo them. Emerson vodd tiplsin Ae 
Diekens wooM present to jon the n esship ei s , maid and 
and mother, child and patriarch, Ae poor vidflsr vidi 
her mite, and the han^iij Pharisee* EsMriMi's pea 
nooids disooveries in the world of tho^ijhts; Dirkins^ 
pen records experiences in Ae world of heartsL 

I hare hesrd of the death of Fannjr Owsed widi 
rnneh and deep sorrow. She was a hr^^ V"^ ^ndi 
a noble natnre and taste odtirated in the U^hesf de> 
gree. I once met her, and Ae rcaMmbranes of that 
ia ierficw , short as it was, will eter be htA; wtjoaij 
nigret was the feeling that I had not known her inti* 
mately. If she had lired, for she has led the earth 
joong, she would hare dmie great deeds with her pen. 
Bat God be thanked, there is a worid cf reanion, iriwre 
death will no more intrude his serering sqrthe, where 
the poet's immortal mind shall haTO scope measoraUe 
with ha immortali^. 



After the literary letter which I sent jon Ink 
month, you will no douht feel particularly gratefol to 
my learning, if it will dispense with such lofty writmg 
in future, and give you something more in the deeciip* 
tive and gossip way. It isn't every day I get my Imd 
crammed with ^^ book/' but when I do, it most be emp- 
tied ; for, as you have before been informed by me, my 
head is a very little one, and won't hold a whole library. 
Having relieved its fulness in my last, I now begin pcr> 
fectly in vacuo (this Latin my brother taught me) to 
write you, solemnly averring to you that I havn*t real 
a book through for a month. This epistle will, thcr^ 
fore, be about what 1 have seen, and of that of whid I 
have been " a part." 

Last week it was resolved, after several daya of d o d H- 
ing and of deliberation, that we would all go and apcnd 
a couple of weeks at Beaver Dam Springs, in thia state, 
not that we wore any of us invalids, but as all our neigh- 
bors had gone packing either to the North or some of 
the watering-places, we had to imitate them, in self-de- 
fence, to get rid of the loneliness of the neighborhood. 
One mornin<r, for instance, we would take a gallop over 
to Kenton Hall, only to be told that '^ Massa, and Missas, 
and all de young people had gone to de Nort\" Or, in 
the evening we would canter to Bell Park, to find ertry 

^)ul away, and the noble fcalb m '^harx^ if ui Xfrrjin 
hoosckeeper. In a word, the a mnir ' j wvt i^wryifL vui 
as one might as weD be oat of the wnrU m int 'if ':aK 
&hion thereof, the order waft as length ^^i»sl 5ir 4«r 
departure also. 

It seemed to me a grest phj to <p£c tie ^lezsat: JLoau- 
tioTkj and beaatifnl grounds, aivi fwe^ r*CT*mifTit; if 
Orerton Park, for unknown nMo&Timiiauwf tf ntvmt n- 
comfortable and crowded waterx&g-pbite. Vis m luAef 
insisted that there would be a grssc suoj foe lesa 
there, and dancing, and all thsct. I wast mwiut3i/ttl &v dut 
diange ; for, though I don't cacre moA ikhrjm Vwcz vS 
they hare got a little graj, and therefore a Stde w^^jrun 
withal, and seldom dance except with the csIrjoeL ^jf :3ut 
tiger captain, at a parlor remmfm, j^ I kisefw «Le wjM 
be verj happj there, and fo I tsRMfi kt iqcibi hkt^ 
smiles for her sake, and went cfK^rfiiRT V/ w^ pMkrsg. 

Mr. ^j did you ever pack a trznk? If yjfi hssre n6t, 

and resolutely intend nerer to park ^-^e. j^^ are an e&- 
Tiable gentleman. The great art. e^piwanT ra fixing 
away for the springs, is to cram ;Le c^^nte&ts of foor 
large trunks and a wardrobe into o&e fmall trunk : at 
least, this was the system I§abel and I went to work 
upon, for the colonel said, rery po?ic:Tf^!y. that we mun 
hare all baggage put into two trunk*, for the trareling 
carriages wouldn't carry any more. More than once in 
our stowing processes I wished for the aid of the cotton- 
press, and believed, at last, we should have to send the 
trunk to the gin, to be placed underneath the cotton- 
bale screw, in order to consolidate the contents. But, 
as this would utterly haye demolished cologne and rose- 
water bottles, mined silks and lawns, and generaDy and 


miscellaneouBly annihilated every thing, we caUad it 
two stout African dames from the laundry, and, nakiai 
them stand together upon the top, we caused two n^pi 
boys to draw the straps, one at each strap, and 
to watch the opportunity, when the women on top 
up in order to make the cover go down, to torn the kij 
in the lock. But the efforts of the latter were cndn^ 
unsuccessful, and with the trunk only strapped and h&h 
kled by the extreme ends, we pronounced that it voaU 
do, no rogue would know the difference. The next 
question was, what should we do with oar hale! Iki 
colonel had forbidden bandboxes, and yet we most canj 
our bonnets in some way. It was in vain the colonsl 
assured us we should have no need of bonnets at tb 
springs. We did not know what might happen, and ds- 
termined to take them. The bandbox finally was uUj 
smuggled under the feet of Phillip, the driver, the 
mer-cloth scarcely covering it. This important 
being arranged, we took an early breakfast, and set bffth 
on our journey, which was to occupy us two daja. 

You should have seen our cavalcade, Mr. > LH 

me describe it to you. First and foremost rode ChailM^ 
the colonel's intelligent and well-dressed senriog-i 
well mounted on a serviceable traveling horse, and 
ing by the bridle his master's noble battle-steed, iriuoh 
he still keeps as his favorite riding-horse. The hone if 
a large, finely-formed animal, and with hb g O ig eoM 
Spanish saddle half covered with silver, and hia plated 
bridle, half of which was massive silver-chain, he mofcd 
on his way, tossing his head, and stepping off as if hi 
^'smellcd the battle afar off." Next came our fiuailj 
coach, a large, Philadelphia-built carriage, aa roonj st 


aomforUble leaia, that < 
fhflre wore ft down poefceli fli Ike 
iMte erammad lor the o 
iHA'BewqMpevB, to tomI ob tfce 
fifb of oadi olibfetf ftr Ika 
IMiMt praiaewortiij lug— ciijy 
firavefing. Ow of Aa ottata 
Md aaodmr Ooa^itfidljr 
liea, the foraai|^ of Aa 
tovtalad vitii u&t amtrai 
bavkovto auke <*«yie fine 
mUan waa lons aMl samv^ 
dgara^ to bo ttmwmkmlif ia 
Haljr aoMilur ia oar parlj ; Hm 
Uka oonfortaUa" bog icCeraUa to the attaliaB of 
Chariea, lAo waa w /a& m all lUa^ ■ppiiiiiaia^ to 
Uanaater^a iHAita. A mxA fodut, m ihe tnmt, tm- 
taina a box of lacifar mitrfcfa, to G|dbt tie €%afa aridk; 
and from a aerenth pngeeted llie bfaaa top of a anal 
qyj-glaaB, widi whidi to Tiear diaCaat p toa pacia aa ana 
rode through the ooantoj. la each oonMr avaag a hril- 
fiaaft fisadier fra, ready fer oar we, and m a raek orar 
laabd'a head waa a aihrer eap with vhieh to drink froai 
tte apringa or raniiDg brooka. There waa aa additioMi 
ewilri f a Dce to the carriage I have never aeen m aay 
oChar; thia waa an arrangement bja^ddi the kwar half 
of the front eoidd be let down nnder the haauaerefeth^ 
and ao attke room for an extenaion of the feet of an in- 
valid to redineat lei^th; a hurarythat the inddenoa 
of TolaptnomBiaai^ rather than the co mfo rt a of indiqpoai- 
tion, miginated Bdund oar earriage rode a little 


latto of fourteen, who is taken along as a pupil to iiutiate 
him into the mysteries of his future duties, as body-a^ 
Yant to the colonel i^hen Charles grows gray : he is n 
intelligent lad, and has a thirst for books that it is hj 
delight to gratify, and it is amusing to witness the ei- 
pansion of his large, handsome eyes at every new Urn 
his little books give him. He thinks there is no oai 
like Missy Kate, and says to me frequently: ^Wka 
you get marry. Missy Kate, me wait on you' husband 
me loye b'long to you. Missy." 

Beyond being in ttfe possession — ^the property of $$m§- 
body — ^the bom slaye has no idea. Like the busalifil 
daughters of Circassia, who look forward to a harea ss 
the crowning honor of their sex, and the completim if 
their happiness, the Afric youths in slavery, of both 
sexes, contemplate only, as a second or rather their fink 
nature, the condition of servitude: so strong are habili 
and the influence of education. The little fellow is ia 
raptures with his journey and at every thing he sees, p«t» 
ting his smiling orange-tawny face round the ooniflr of 
the coach to speak to me in the window, to point out to as 
something strange to his optics, but familiar enough to oani 

In the rear of the carriage, at a suflScient ^istanitt ts 
avoid our dust, and not to lend us theirs, rode on ^"^M^ 
nags two female slaves, one of them Isabel's maid, who 
attends her every where, and Edith, who has 
stalled from the first, as my factotum. It 
for me to say that I did not wish to take her along, that 
I could do without her. 60 she must, first beeanaa I 
should need her; secondly she wanted to go and have As 
pleasure of the trip; and thirdly, Jane, Isabel's naii^ 
uould be lonesome without her companion to goseip with; 


and serrants are better contented when they are together. 
So I had mj maid. They were both dressed in well-fit- 
ting pongee riding-dresses, were mounted on sidensaddles; 
and at the horns thereof hang the neatlj tied bundles that 
contained their respective wardrobes. Thej paced along 
mde by side after us, as merry as two young black crows 
in a com field, and made the air ring with their mirthful 
and not unmusical laughter; for musical erer are the 
Toices of the dark daughters of Afric ; and I am not sur* 
prised to hear that there is a prima donna of this race 
in Paris, filling it with wonder at the richness of her 

I can name half a score of negresses, on the estate of 
th6 Park, whose voices are charming, and, with cultiva- 
tion, would surprise and enchant the cultivated listener. 

In the rear of these two ^^ ladies," who only cease 
their talk with each other, to switch up their nags, comes 
the coachman's boy, a fat-faced, oily, saucy-lipped son 
of Ham, black and brilliant as a newly japanned boot. 
He is the coachman's page, and boy of all work about 
the stable and horses ; and rubber-down and hamesser-up ; 
the polisher of the stable plate and the waterer of the 
horses; for your true ^^gentleman's coachman," is a gen- 
tleman in his way, and there are the ^^ meaner things" 
of his profession, which he leaves to the ^^ low ambition" 
of such coarser colored clay as Dick. In a word, the 
theory of division of labor is completely carried out into 
practical working system on a southern estate with its 
hundred slaves. The carriage-driver must not only have 
his deputy ostler, but the laundress must be waited on 
by a little negress, to kindle her fires, heat her irons, 
and do every thing that the dignity of the ^^ lady" in 

180 THE BVfnxY south: or. 

question deems it '^derogatoram" for her to pot iMr 
hands to. The chief washer-woman has from two tofov 
ebony maids, who do the grosser work while she doa 
the ^^ fancy washing." The cook must hare a atra pp h g 
negress, with eyes like anthracite, to peel and pidt; i 
strapping lad, with feet like two copies of Ifildidri 
School Atlas for breadth, to chop the wood, bring wM9, 
and be at hand whenever he is wanted ; and two or Am 
small fry to catch the ponUry, torn the spit, and itad 
all they can. The gardener has his aids; the '*mu» 
nurse" hers to tote the children; the housekeeper hen; 
and all this army of juveniles are thus in full traniingti 
take the places, by-and-by, of those to whom Umj ait 

Thus every negro child is brought up (edueated ikil 
I say?) to one thing, and comes to understand thatptf- 
ticular branch perfectly by the time it gets to he a naa 
or a woman, hence the admirable, the perfect aerfaali^ 
one always finds on a well-regulated plantation* te 
of their particular province they know nnthinfl ahn 
lutely nothing; and no judicious master ever thinks rf 
exacting of them, duties out of their regular wotk 
Dick, the ostler's boy, doesn't know horse-radidi froB a 
pumpkin-vine ; and Bob, the gardener's boy, oooM nhf 
a problem in Euclid as easily as he could plaee As 
harness on the carriage horses. The cook never entoi 
the house, and the nurse is never seen in the kitchen; 
the wash-woman is never put to ironing, nor the 
who has charge of the ironing-room ever put to 
£ach one rules supreme in her wash-house, her ironing- 
room, her kitchen, her nursery, her housekeeper's rooa; 
and thus, none interfering with the duties of the othsr. 

• a— i«e8t« 


^^Jpl^OB ^^^^^ jyickin^ •» ^® 

one of ^^^":. -- tnigbt sbine *i» ^„^ m tbe 

■^ ^^'' '^^ aSt tbe eyes, and Ub^ „ on 

^""; t ibis vanity, D>cVon y« ^^ „,^ ^ts 

^^""^ ..are more pleased tntbap ^^^^.^^n 
the trbole race «^ •„„ of ap^e^ Cbrist- 

,,.boe.tb^-y ; „,„^6- tbe Virginia 
l>»^^"^*'''vlrCalk baU tbe d^^^. ^ .^eetin bus 

'"-^'^tS^tb^bey-t^'^f-^icic -d span. 
fence, » ^^'Z ^, of tbeir brogans «»F l^at, 

Ub the M*-"- .^1 tetteve, tbink mort^ » ^^,^ ,,4 
^^** " ?t^Sie from tbe babit ^^ ^"^.iootbing if 
if <me t^8^,^^ tbey ^ ^'^^'^ ^ kid glove, and 

r- u« ge»tl« f rr^ritb tbeir P-^» ;\,\hen it is t^*^' 

:.- i««av coat dowu protect u» ^ 

' iTfealoosy -itb ^b.cb tbey P 


from all soiling. The new coat may ait down in a dartf 
chair without much compunctious yisitinga to tha trca- 
bling conscience of the wearer ; but did any lady ervMt 
a gentleman deposit his hat upon a table barely anaoeptilli 

of dust ? Between us, Mr. j fear of such contact with 

its immaculate ebon causes gentlemen to keep tlicir fall 
in hand in parlor yisitations, protesting, with a hypocrifr 
cal smile, if you try to deprive them of it, that it is rally 
the fashion ! Bless me ! If the fashion shonld diangei 
what would be the substitute ? There can be none ; for I 
have seen fine beaux use their castors as if they wen pet 
kittens, stroking down and stroking down the soft fir 
with affectionate endearment, as if it were a baby, tip- 
ping and smoothing its glossy crown, as if it were a fti, 
with which to cool their be-whiskered faces, or a pockat 
handkerchief, to hide a temporarily missing tooth, «r 
wine-tainted (more's the pity) exhalations of breath, 
or an escritoire to pencil a letter upon, and as a wiaiHiag, 
to put one in ! — as a weapon of war to driye a waq^ or 
a bat out of the room, as an indiyidual fire-acreen, and 
for illustrating any ideas in conversation : as, for inatanoei 
I have seen a hat calleil (only for the sake of illnatratioBv 

Mr. ,) a steam boiler, a new novel, a chnrch, the 

Mexican general Santa Anna; while the coal-scuttle stood 
for General Taylor, Mount Vesuvius, the tomb of Ma- 
homet, A patent coffee-mill, a newly invented horae-ahoe, 
and a negro*s head. It has enabled many a <itliiil^t 
gentleman to retain his self-possession, and give a nee 
for his hands for a whole evening, who, otherwise, wmM 
have suffered excruciatingly from the embarrassment of 
being alone with himself. You might as well aak 

if jwahoddtekttdMvkwlLMto 

boocnimtOBMi^lfr. ^tbmtimlyqBedmgkmitei 

pvCset the dnviag-nam Iwt. Hit idea hm ben 
to ay aiBd Boie tliea enee, vheA I hero eeeA 
dni^ e peste m tlie ounietee tiea^ geee eb* 
eetedlj dovB ieto tlie reoeaeee of their eMton^ee if 
gr were tiyi^g to dieoowcr stars at neon^y in a vdL 
eideeiatlik: llatiathe next iwie of faAiomiMe 
m by year touik mrtuie$, Oakford cf CSieetiiet aHeel^ 
Geaiii of Broadway , tbere abonld be ekigaDtfyinaerted 
hm the erowi^ where the maker a iiaiae wnally ia 
■id, a small mirrcH*, endrded by the mamrfaetarer'a 
■e.^ Ladies hare them in their fans, and the hat is 
I gentleman's fan. Such an arrangement woidd meet 
di &Tor, I hare no doubt. The gentlemen at a loss 
* ideas conM catch inspiration from the depth of their 
Iters ; for what will inspire a person with snch a flow 
agreeable ideas as the contemplation of himself? 
The introdnction of this hat would be prodoctiYe of 
I highest social benefits, and impart a charm and 
racity to drawing-room conversations that cannot now 
properly estimated. Dear me ! Let us go back to 
ck<m, whom I have fairly taken for my text; for 
lat I understand by a text, is 8ome point which gives 
» preacher a starting vantage, like the starting pole to 
ft foot-racer, who, once leaving it at his back, never 
pects to behold it more. 

But we won't lose sight of Dickon, nor of his brogans. 
hen we came near any dwelling, to the front of which 
y of his sooty brethren might be drawn to gase on US| 
* This has since (1853) been done. 


he would throw out his legs horisontally, in eider li 
display the full glorj and splendor of his pegged dhocii 
the soles of which were three-quarters of an indi k 
thickness, and the leather of which thej were made, m 
thick as the hide of a rhinoceros ; yet they filled kii 
dark soul with delight, and he rejoiced in them as if tkey 
had heen as beautiful as the slippers of Cinderella. 

He led by the bridle Isabel's riding horse, tlie hand* 
some creature I have before described| fully 
and fTty beautiful mule, accoutred with Mexican 
ficence. These accompany us in order thttt, wben ws 
are tired of the carriage, we can ride, and abo for mt 
convenience while at the Springs. My mule is a perCBd 
beauty ! He is none of the Sancho Pansa donkey raee^ 
but as symmetrical as a deer, with an ankle like a hind 
of the forest, or like a fine lady's ; with hide as glossy si 
that of a mouse, ears not too large, and well cot; a 
pretty head, a soft and affectionate eye, with a littb 
mischief in it, (observable only when Isabel would tiy to 
pass him,) and as swift as an antelope, and thirteen and 
a half hands high. It comes at my voice, and does not 
like for any one but me to be in the saddle. The vaht 

of this mule, Mr. , is three hundred dollars. Yos 

have no idea of the beauty and cost of these nsefnl CRfr 
tures in this country, and how universally they are used. 
Out of nine private ciirriages at the Church last 8a^ 
bath, four of them were drawn by beautiful spans of 
mules. Even our own traveling carriage, which I hatt 
described to you, is drawn by a pair of large mules, oil* 
teen hands, and which the colonel has been offered OM 
thouHand dollars for. It is only the rich that can afbrd 
the luxury of the use of these elegant animals. So 

THfl'fioirrHSBKm at hoiIb. 189 

lon't smile at my nddled mole, which I haye named 
^ Jcmy land." 

HftTing now introdaed you to our trayeling party, 
Ifr. , I will in my next give you some acoomit of 

ribat erents took place on our joomey. 


F. 8. Many thanks to kind editorial people who 
Mtt been pleased to trea ' faults as a writer so leni- 
■ily, and to eneonrage m w snoh words of apjuroba- 
I will do my best to k their esteem. 



Mr. : 

Mt Dear Sir, — ^It is all up now ! Ererybody knom 
it ! The secret is out, and I am distressed beyond im^ 
sure. I wouldn't for the world it should haTe beat 
known I write these letters; and I haye donemybni 
that it shouldn't be suspected ; and if it had not been ftr 
certain over-wise busy bodies, the colonel and IsaM 
would have been none the wiser; for they never see yov 
paper — I have taken nice care of that. I will tdl yoi 

iiow it was, Mr. . You must know that on the erah 

ing of the day we left the Park for the Springs, we 
rcachc<l the village of Columbia, where there is a eefe- 
brated Institute for Young Ladies, romantically sitvated 
near the town. Isabel had a friend or two there, and 
proposed to call and pay them a visit. The colonel said 
he would accompany us; and off we set on foot throegh 
the principal street. On the way we passed a one storj 
white cottage house, with a little shaded green yard ia 
front. This, the colonel tohl us, was the residence of 
Mr. Polk, when he was calleil to occupy the Whits 
House. It is wholly unpretending, and might rent Ibr 
one hundred and fifty dollars per annum. In ooming ts 
<^ohmibia, six miles out, we had passed a small oonatiy 
dwelling, of the humblest aspect, which we were toU 
his birth-place. 


After looking a moment at the plain dwelling on tho 
street, and reflecting from what various positions of so- 
ciety our Presidents spring, the abode of Madam, the 
reaerable mother of the late President Polk, was shown 
to me — a two story brick honse, without ornament or 
grounds, and approached only by an uncomfortable look- 
ing side-walk. She is greatly beloyed, and is said to be 
both an intelligent and witty old lady. Near her resides 
lifs. Dr. Hays, a sister of the late President, and said 
ilrikingly to resemble him in talents and appearance. 

At length we came in sight of the Gothic turrets and 
Korman towers of the battlemented structure towards 
vhich we were directing our steps. It is truly a noble 
Bdifioe, commandingly situated, and complete in all its 
if^intments to the eye. Its color is a grayish blue. 
It is approached through imposing gate- ways, by wind- 
ing avenues that bring the visitor soon upon a green 
plateau. The entrance is spacious, and hung with pic- 
tures. We were ushered by a well-dressed female slave 
mto a parlor on the left, handsomely furnished, but not 
» single book to be seen in it. This showed that the 
proprietors regarded books as tools in that place, and 
kept them for the sfiop — that is the study-room. The 
colonel sent up our names to the Rector; for the Institu- 
tion, which numbers three hundred pupils, is Episcopa- 
lian, and is under the charge of a clergyman of tho 

A gentleman shortly made his appearance, dressed 
with the nicest care and attention to his personal appear- 
ance. He was rather a handsome man, inclined to gen- 
teel corpulency, wore gold rimmed glasses, nankeen 
trousers, white vest, and full whiskers accurately trimmed 


to a hair. He was the beau ideal of preocptor-in-chief 
of a large and fashionable boarding-school of youg 
misses. lie was the most polite man I ever saw. Lofd 
Chesterfield would have embraced him with demonitn* 
tions of enthusiasm. Yet, with all this formality of 
courteousQcss, which the head of a ladies' school nml 
of necessity get into the habit of exercising towards aDi 
his face bore the impress of a scholarly mind. I ahiaji 
note with great particularity the peculiarities of thou 
who educate youth, for so much depends upon i*T«iqJf^ 
and is learned by involuntary imitation. The joang 
ladies, whom Isabel had sent for, soon made thor a^ 
pearance, both dressed plainly in white, and I obsonrtd 
that they both eyed me askance and curiously in 
liar way, and then both whispered to Isabel, and 
looked mysteriously again at me harder than before. 

At length, we rose to accompany the courteoos 
over the vast establishment which calls him lord. I wtf 
amazed at its extent, at the number of its rooms, at As 
profusion of its pictures and maps, hanging from all As 
walls, at the crowd of girls, so many of them, and so 
full of the promise of future loveliness, and the perfect sr* 
der and system which prevailed throughout. Bat if that 
gratified me, I did not a little marvel at finding nyielf 
waylaid and watched by knots of juvenile belles, with 
rosy lips buzzing, and their lian<lsome eyes flaahing aad 
staring at me as if I was a '^show** of some kind, vkik 
Isabel and the colonel were scarcely noticed. **Wkit 
can have happened' to me?*' I asked myself, and ia^ 
gined I had in some way disfigured my face, and so 
u fright and sight of myself; but happening to 
mirror, and finding my ^^ beauty** unimpaired, and mj 


•ppearanoe as it abmdd be, I was excemvelj aimoTed 
•ad duiouB to know why I was stared at and whispered 
about so. It was not done mdelj, however, but dTilly, 
and with a sort of pleased reverenoe. 

I did not diseorer the secret of it all until we bad re- 
ttaned to the inn, when a gentleman, who is a poet, bat 
I b^oTO has never pnblii anj thing, called and sent 
IB bis card for me, bis nai written gncefnll j in a scroll 
kdd in the bill of a doi i done with shining black 

When be was admitted, be approached me with a doien 
bows, and said he was happy to baye the honor of wd- 
canung me to Colmnbia. He had just heard from some 
yoang ladies of the Academy that I had honored it with 
a visit, and he begged to assure me that I was appro- 
dated, in the most distinguished manner, by all intellec- 
tual persons who had had the pleasure of reading my Let- 
ters from Overton Park, published in the Model Courier. 

** I trust I have also the honor," here the young gen- 
tleman turned and bowed low to the amazed colonel, ^^ of 
seeing the celebrated colonel whom your pen has immor- 
tallied, and this" — and here he made two very low bows 
to the puzzled Isabella — ^^is, without doubt, the bold 
and beautiful Miss Peyton, whom I have learned to ad- 
mire, though I have never before had the happiness of 
paying my respects to her." 

Mr. ! can you appreciate, have you nerves and 

sensibility enough to appreciate my position at that aw- 
ful moment? I felt that the crisis bad arrived ! I did 
not open my lips, but pale and motionless I sat and 
looked him into annihilation, and then I moved my eyes 
towards the colonel and Isabel, in a sort of belpl 


despair, to sco the effect of this eofidniemf% upon tki 
unsuspecting minds. 

<< What is this, Kate, eh? What is it the gentktt 
would say?** he asked, in an amusingly bewildered «i 

'^ I can explain, dear father ! Don't look so like t 
white lady in wax, dear Kate !" added Isabel, nnifii 
^^ I heard something of it at the school, and the gi 
all wondered I had never heard of it before, espeda 
as I was spoken of in the Letters." 

<' What letters, Bel?" asked her father. <' Tea b 
tify me ! I heard something once, I now recolledi 1 
it passed from my mind." 

^^ Why, sir, the truth is, there is a spy in the eai 
dear father," answered Bel, with an arch smile, i 
glancing aside at mc, ^' and this gentleman has been 
good as to let the poor kitten loose in sight of everybo 
Kate has been writing letters to a paper in Philadelpl 
which have been printed, at least, so I was told at 
Academy, a score of them, and every one of them da 
at Overton Park, and descriptive of every thing that 
saw or experienced there that she thought would be il 
resting ; an<l in these letters she has been so naught] 
to speak of both of us, at least so I was told, for I hi 
not seen one of the letters, but I am dying to do ao.' 

<' Nor I, " said the colonel. ''So I so ! Then we h 
a literatteuriste in our family, ' takin' notes an' prin' 
'em' too, i' faith! You sly rogue, Kate," he add 
turning to me, '^you have got the advantage of ma. 
you have been making us all sit for our portraits, p 

''But she has not written one word, she would 
afraid to have us read, that I know," said IsabeL 

THK sorTHmm it wnoL m 

''That ril TOQch for, Kate! fo i/mz \tA m UmA^ 
"That she ha«n't, sir/' ^fcw^KH- excSizaDft] A? 

vretched poet, as if he were eager tf> asr;«M- Pw ic» /mx 

Mf. ^'Dearme! I didn't knov b«i — civs — €-r«rrV»lT 

oew— -or — ! But sir! bat. Mis! jom 

liat not a word is written, ikat, 

' ])yiDg, flke woald wkk to UoL' 

he has allnded to joa in erenr inslaaee in tlie 
lincelj, and affectionate, and respeetfnl — ^ 

^My Tery good sir," interrvpted tbe eolonel, '^Ae 
dy needs no apologist. We knov well die liaa not. 
ow, Kate, if I had these Letters, I woold, as a pvnisli- 
ent to yon, make yon read erery one of them aloud to 
I when we get back to the Park/* 

^It would be a punishment," I said, smiling and 
king heart again, at the kind and affectionate manner 
i which the discovery had been receired by my two 
sar friends. ^^Bnt if it will be received in fnll atone- 


"Full — complete," answered the coloneL 

"I have most all the Letters, sir; seventeen in nnmber« 
r, np to the last week," eagerly remarked the poet ; 
they are at your service, sir !" 

"And so, sir," said I, half angrily, "you would com- 
[ete the mischief you have involuntarily done by a 
>luntary proposition to contribute to my punishment." 

"Ten thousand pardons, Miss Kate — I beg pardon, 
nss Conyngham — I will withhold the Letters, then." 

"Nay, since you have them," said I, "and are willing 
) part with them for a time, (they shall be returned to 
onr address again,) I will accept the offer; for, Colonel, 


I wbh yon to sec all that I have written, mod ikb 
my mind will be relieved." 

'^I am full of curiosity to read them/' aaid ImM 

Thereupon the blabbing poet departed to bring thM| 
when the colonel and Isabel, feeling for my tf%iffTL 
succeeded in reconciling me to myself; and when At 
miserable youth came back with the bale of Goorien Wh 
der his arm, I was in a mood to receive them vitk • 
merry laugh, though still a tear or two of 
trembled in my eyes, that the discovery had 
and I heartily wished I had neyer written a line. Bi% 
who ever dreamed of my Letters being read 
Wut, or being thought of a week after they were 
You know, sir, how insensibly they were drawn ont 
paper to paper, and increased to their present 
almost without my knowledge. 

''If I had reflected," as I now said to the eolonel 
Isabel, ''that what is published in an Eastern 
read as well in the West as if it had been printed 
for newspapers circulate everywhere, I ahonld nol 
written, or written less freely in my use of 
places. I did not then understand that 
sent out from Tennessee, to a widely circolatiqg 
in Philadelphia, will as certainly come back to T 
and be read by all the next door neighbors of the 
as certainly as if they had been printed in his own towa- 
I did not understand, as I now do, that newspapera ait 
without geographical limits and boundaries, but that thdr 
voice$^ like those of the stars, 'go into all lands, and their 
words to the end of the world!' that to them bek^ 
neither climates nor latitudes; that the same joonal 


di is read «rouid the elegant fireside of glofwing 
icite in Wslnat street, is also read, word for word 

eolmnn for eolnmn, before the light of the log fire 
he woodman's hut on the MississippL" 
have decided to eontinne to write my Letters, Mr* —»-, 
IhA colonel and Isabel hare read all whidi I hara 
;teii,(this being the third day since the discorerj,) and 
MPthing that I should not hare set downySaTanaoies^ 
\ #a they say, giving them both better characters thaa 
r desenre. I shall therefore resome my ^* jcnmey" 

gife yon an aoeount of a delightfnl day passed at 

wood, en route to the watering plaoa, seren nilca west 


1m nnlncky poet felt so badly at the scrape be had 

ittingly got me into, that in the morning, when we 

the inn, he came to the carriage, and bidding me 

1 bye, begged me to pardon him, a request which I 

r dieerfhlly complied with. The last I saw of him, 

he carriage turned the comer, was standing fixed to 

spot where I had charitably shaken hands with him, 

hat raised, and his body bowing, with his left hand 

itically placed on his heart. 

Er. , if you receive a piece of poetry from these 

a, addressed to me, ^* On meeting me*' in Columbia, 

i^ore you not to insert it, for I saw the mad phrensy 

■di an act in his eyes as I parted with him, and he 

be sure to perpetrate the deed there fore-shadowed. 

Bespectfully, yours, 


194 THE srxxY ji'orTH; t)R, 


This letter, my Dear Sir, is addreosed to jim 
the loveliest region of this state, and from the ** 
of Eden** of this loveliest region. Manrj oonnlj, (|» 
noimced here Murry,) you must know, is the gcai rf 
Tennessee. It contains the most beautifiil hilk^ tie 
clearest brooks, the prettiest vales, the statelieil tm^ 
the handsomest native parks, the richeat fanM^ lla 
wealthiest planters, the most intelligent populAlioB, At 
best seminaries of learning, and the loveliest ladies 
Tennessee ; at least the good people of Maury aay 
and who should know so well as they, pray ? Thcj 
boast of having given a President to the United 
and its greatest astronomer to it — Lteutenaiit 
of the Observatory at Washington. So far as isjy 
periencc goes, I am ready to endorse all the good 
say; for Ashwood, which is the 9Mmg in the nag sf 
Maury, and where I now am, is enough in itself Is ^se 
grace to a much more inferior country. I will 
Ashwood to you. 

Fancy yourself, Mr. j (where yoa may be vk 

son whenever you take it into your ambulatory brain tt 
ramble tliis way,) seated in our roomy and luzumi 
carriage, by my side, if you arc not too stout, and don't 
fill up too large a space, for, of all things, I love to riii 
comfortably; or by Isabels side, — ^but then sbe is is 

THi^ soirnamnnt at h^ms. U6 

e, I dare sa j jaa would rather rit epponle to 
re yea eonld watch the intelligeDt play of her 
featoree; or, perhaps, better stilly imagine jonr* 
Mmebadi, ridiiig by our window, with no object 
lel your Yiew of the country; this will be best» 
— eqwcaaDy as yon are supposed to be trayding 
d print the country; for I conoeiye that erery- 
Hewed by an editor — ty|»ca% — not as it resDy 
ow it will look in type— how many sqnares or 
hs it will make! Fancy yoorself thns ddketfol, 
ig by oar coach windows as we sally forth horn 
{e ^ Colombia, with its one Inroad, rodcy, side* 
street. On yonr right yon will not fail to notice 
BT cottage abode of the late President Polk, and 
eft, the plain residence of Madame, his aged 
JO both of which I haye before drawn yonr at- 

minntes farther will bring you opposite the 
d edifice known far and near as the Colombia 
, where I had ^Hhe honors" paid me the day 
ad where is preserved a conservatory of loveli- 
A virgin flower awaiting her torn of annoal 
iting into the great wilderness of the world. 
! if yoo knew the storms and cloods, the sad* 
id sorrows, the cares and angoishes, the biting 
i chilling winds that wither the heart and blight 
t in the open world, you woold hog yoor pre- 
ter, and long linger,— dreading and shrinking 
th, — ^within its protecting and safe embrace ! 
eflection is supposed to be made by yoorself, 
-, in the philosophical mood which becomes an 

vayagt to see the earth he lives upon. After 


losing flight of tho Institute, yon will come to ithb tap rf 
the hill, and glance back to take a parting look of At 
village of Columbia, which is nestled pietnreaqwly wmii, 
trees, with a tower or two peering above then, eD At 

banks of the romantic Duck ! Yes, Mr. ^ tlie tiamm^ 

and erudite, and scholastic Columbia ia situated 9m lie 
^^Duck riyer." "What is in a name?" yoa ask 

'^ Duck, or Doddle, or Dunkins, or Domplina; all my 
good names in their way, if they mean good. A rosaly 
any other name would no doubt smell like 
Suppose a rose were called "Quashee," would 
your lovely daughter Quashee ? Ah, Mr. ^ 

fancy your smiling babe looking as sweet with tlie 
of Quashee indelibly fixed upon her, as she now dta! 
One of these davs, we have no doubt that the 
polish of the Columbians will lead them to see tlie 
ity between Duck and Quashee, and at least adorm 
rock-cliffcd river with a more euphonious name. 

After losing sight of the village, yon will find 
pacing smoothly along a level and broad pike, 
roughened by even a pebble to disturb the even leB sf 
the carriage wheels. The fields on one side are ffom 
and undulating — on the other is a fine wood. In a inr 
minutes a dark brown villa meets your eye, somedklanDi 
from the road, on the left hand, with a neat gate^qr 
opening into a well-kept carriage-way, that sweeps 
somely round a lawn up to its portico. The 
are ornamented, well kept, and neatly enclosed, and At 
whole place has an air of scholarly seclusion, ttmUmd 
with the most enviable domestic comfort. This is ik 
abode of the Right Rev. Bishop Otey, of the T 
Diocese of the American Episcopal Church. This 

• b a* MM «r « 



.mUayimagtat Ji^fcrrr, Ac fjfcrf h<rft^«^ 
t^wJMthMrcceMly miffttlfcep— CTrtfctw 
Biore beutifbl obo. Ii » «^ Ae kifv ti As 
■tnn tliat en tbwaf^m amd hiM ly A» kwt 
«B 17 Rick li«T7 wtnktm m Aem. Odte 1^ Wf 
idenoe in s life htjtmd tke Xavi, vkcn Ae «««ni 
diaJl entwioe ia eack «tker*» mtnee, hvly^ 1^ to 
H^ loTing bewt to krn^ Wart, — eaa aalj lca4 <•- 

tfast hope, vbat a bottoHka pit of fnAe4 iAetioM 

W road now diTidea a green and verdant liadnrapo, 
» woodland than SM, imt made np of bodi, with 
and there a tenement of some nnaD pixyrietor. 
aie pleased with the beaaQr of the trees, the height 
■ajmtj o( the silTer-trnnked sjeaiaoTK, oTenhadov- 
MHM rock-boond crystal spring, or by the graeaM 
lings of a group of willows bordering a riTnlet ; or 
ba bre«dtb of the broad-armed oak on the aumj hjU- 
; cr by the feathering and atately elegance of the 


Indian salez ; or the columnar altitude of the 
marking the site of some hidden cottage. 

I sec you gaze with admiration into the Biiii-da|ipU 
forests, whose broad patches of light and ahade look Hn 
scenes in Claude Lorraines's pictures, and renind jn 
of them. You wonder at the green award beneadl As 
trees being to green and soft, as if it had been ike 
of trained English gardeners ; when the extent of 
lawn like forests convinces you that they are as nalvt^ 
gardening left them. I see you stretch your n&tk to wm 
where the deer are. They seldom come near the roaii 
and in the vicinity of towns are rarely seen now. Tkoe 
are few or no doer in this county of Maury, bat Am 
that are tamed and kept for gentle adornment to the vi- 
cinage of some villa. 

Did you ever trot over a smoother road, air? For As 
last three miles, not a stone the sice of your watek ml 
has been encountered by the polished wheel-tire. Dm 
not the stately span of mules move with a tmly 
bravery and speed 7 I see by your eye, aa yoa are 
ing their pace, that you mean to have a pair for Bmi 
street, or whatever other avenue you Philadelphia gf■d^ 
men make a fashionable driving thoroughfare. The col- 
onel offers you a cigar out of the window. Don't refose it, 

Mr. . They were brought from Havana by the ti^ 

captain, and are pronounced nonpareiL I love to ate s 
gentleman smoke who knows how to smoke ; bat, blm 
me I when they do not know how, what filthy work thiy 
make of it ! The awkward way they embrace the cifsr 
with the unskilled lips, as if it were an nnusoaUy Ivp 
stick of bitter barley candy — ^the jaundice-colored emb- 
tiona of juioe, which must be expectorated twiee is emj 


innie — the— bat maagli: if tkeae wmj aoi be wiittoi 
Mmt by pens polite, lioir eea the spectacle be la^liied 
I it is by bundreds of polite ejm end poliie nenree 

Okl ye nxmetrotttiee of smokeni— ye evieiterirti of 
c%ariliea loxnry — ye UMMMneifid imitaton of the 
liwiteble!— chew tobacco at onoe, bst don't— don't joim 
igether in one operaticm what waa erer intended to be 
tfl aennder. I aee yon amoke yonr agar like s tme 
noker^Mr.— — b Ton vae it aa fSuniliarly aa the joduy 
ia whip, or the fine lady her fan« Yon handle it aa 
dieately aa if it wore made of goeaaacr, yet pof it aa 
Igoronsly aa if it were of the conaiatency of gotta perduk 
m do not so much Mmake aa inqiire and exhale azurd^ 
-aa if it were as natural to you as to breathe ordinarily, 
on neyer remove it from your mouth, save to laugh, for 
on conyerse with it as if it incommoded you no more 
lan your lipe or teeth, and then you touch it delicately 
id regard it affectionately. An admirably finished and 
idnrable smoker ! Such smoking is not unlawful, and 
in neyer be indicted as nuisable. Cokmel, please 

ind Mr* another cigar. 


200 THE SUNNY south; or. 



Mr. : 

Mt Dear Sir, — ^There is probaUj no purnaln r y ' 
earth (for purgatories abound in this world) bo 
conducive to penitence and repentance as i 
place. If good cannot come out of evily nor li^t oal rf 
darkness, nor laughter out of sorrow, neither em aj 
thing interesting proceed from a watering place. Hcrtv* 
theless, I have to fly to my pen for solace. I have md 
till reading is insufferablj tiresome — ^I have walked til 
I could walk no longer — I have talked till I an tM 
hearing my own voice and the voices of others— 1 halt 
jumped the rope till I have blistered the aolea of wj 
feet, and made my hands bum — I have drunk the 
until I shall never bear to hear water mentioned 
I have danced under the trees, and looked on in Ae sH 
dancing-room, till dancing is worn out — I have yawati 
till I have nearly put my jaws out — and I have sat t3 
I could hardly keep my eyes open, looking at the tmi» 
the hot walks, the listlessly-wandering-about people, thit 
look as if they could take laudanum, hang themsehfti 
or cut their throats, ^'just as lief do it as not," if it 
were not so impolite and wicked to shock people's ncnci 
by perp<'trating such dreadful things ! I have slept till 
my eyes won*t hold any more sleep, and are swelled sal 
red like two pink pin-cushions. I have rolled 


ro ncmrly broken my arm with the heavy balls ; 
too hot to sew, to knit, to net, to do any thing 
t! This I can do when all other things fail* 
ite off a headache, write away care, and bnry 
t thoughts in the dark depths of my inkstand. 

), Mr. , I fly to my ueritaire for relief 

tedium which eyerywhere snrronnds me. 
list half-past twelve in the morning. Let me 
to you what I see from the open window, before 
nite. Directly in front is a broad lawn, inter- 
every possible direction by foot-paths, some of 
id to the dining room, others to the bowling 
lers to cottages and cabins, others from these to 
gs. This lawn is now hotly waving in the nn- 
of the heated atmosphere. The sides and roofs 
ibins are also trembling with the quick waves 
1 air, vibrating along their sun-heated superficies, 
■y negress, in a blue frock, — for most of them 
blue check, — is slowly gliding along the path 
spring, with a jar of water balanced upon her 
her mistress. She is singing in a low, musical, 
pble tone. She is the only moving object visible. 
!>ot of the lawn runs, in a shadowy coolness, a 
brook, now flowing like a melting mirror over 
, flat rock — now gurgling in a dozen mimic falls 
foam — now rushing hoarsely between narrow 
— and now whirling and hissing in eddying 
K)ut the roots of a tree that have temporarily 
its progress. 

d this romantic brook, the sight of which is 
) cool a fever, ascends irregularly a green bank, 
ith beech and birch trees, to the summit of a 


ridge, along which winds the road bj 
the Springs. The whole scene before ns is ratiey fpiit, 
and wild, and would have been prononnoed a pcrfeol 
wood-scene by good old Izaak Walton; for not cica 
trout are wanting. There sits an elderly lawyer, vilk 
his back against an oak, a long rod in his hand, tlw hA 
at the extremity of which has been baitless tor the hA 
hour, while the angler sleeps with his month wide opa; 
and I fancy I hear his sonorous snore mingling not «- 
harmoniously with the guttural noise of the brook. Ifal 
many paces from him is stretched, in ponderens leigfc 
a huge brown horse, his head a little oast to one aide^ m 
if he were eagerly listening; but it is all a deeeption; a 
little closer scrutiny will show yon that his large fP/m 
are both shut, and that he is also as sound 
the old lawyer, only he doesn't hold his month 
Brutes always sleep, I have obserTed, with dignity. Aa 
eastern sage has said that men and beasts are on a Imd 
when they sleep ! There is, doubtless, something itnf 
lying under this observation, if we could think it ei*; 
but it would take other heads to do that ! The bowliBg 
alley is in full sight. Its thunder is silent — ita thndhf 
bolts repose. The negro boy who sets up ia now lyi*g 
down upon the broad of his back, in the ann, and aaeM 
to be enjoying sleep as only an African can. On ths 
benches are stretched gentlemen in variooa pi eii aa q at 
attitudes, some sleeping, others smoking, and idly eon- 
versing. The air is so still, the bulling of the iieB ii 
heard in the sunny air, like the distant mnrmnr ef a 
busy spinning-wheel. The mosquitoes are the only thiap 
that seem to be taking time by the fore-lode. Iksn^ 
under an opposite gallery, reclines a fat gendeman in aa 

mrv^-<hwir, and doing his best to get to sleep, in order to 
forget that he is at these horrid Springs. Now he slaps 
■t a moeqnito with his right hand, then he hits at another 
wiih his left, his ^es both shut all the while ; now he 
Inriiiga his fleshy palm down upon his forehead, with a 
ilap kNid enough to wake the ancient lawyer with the 
fidung«rod; and now he grumbles out a half-choked 
nfth, md throws his great red silk-handkerchief OTor his 
iaeeu But I see they bite through this, for he kicks out 
Us short legs in a kind of frensy of desperation. I can 
JM the EtaaJike tip of his nose pointing upwards under- 
mmA, the handkerchief^ a fiur mark for a sharp pro- 
Ikms. a shrewd mosquito has found the place vulne- 
rable^ and the yictim, seising the ead of his nose, wrings 
k as if he were wringing off the head of a chicken ; at 
die same time being bitten on the knee, the fat gentle- 
roars and kicks fiercely out, and the chair, which 
nerer manufactured for such trials of strength as 
this, refuses longer to sustain him in his freaks, and dis- 
■olres into its primitive parts, every round and 1^ unglu- 
ing and separating from its bed, and letting him down 
bodily amid the wreck like a huge globe fallen from its 
sphere. What a change ! Presto, how the Springs are 
idive ! The crash, heard all around, starts fifty sleepers, 
one hundred and fifty idlers, two hundred dozers, black 
and white, and all run to the scene of disaster, to see 
what has happened ; for, at the Springs, an meident is 

worth five hundred dollars, Mr. ^ if it is worth a 

dime. The fat gentleman finds himself the cynosure of 
all eyes, and the butt of all possible inquiries of — 

^Whatisit? How did it happen? VHio's hurt or killed? 
Biess me, my dear sir, are any of your bones broken?" 


The latter inquiry conld neyer have been nitisiiMlQii^ 
responded to by the fat gentleman, aa, withont donbl, hi 
had lost sight of his bones many years before, lmdc^ 
neath the masses of superincumbent flesh which lay laiM 
eight fingers deep thereupon. 

There is no describing the effect this little incideBfcki 
produced upon the whole circle of animated life. Ik 
bowlers, once aroused, are playing at mimio thmjg 
again — ^the ancient barrister has shut his huge mum/kt 
opened his eyes, put on his spectacles, and leaum a d hii 
occupation of fishing for subaqueous clients. The oU 
brown horse has thrust out his two fore-legs on thegna^ 
and pulled himself heavily up from his hannches to Ui 
hoofs, and begun to crop the sward. The cabinSi laldj 
so quiet, resound with the laughter of young girls, sad 
the octave voices of ladies calling to their maids to pif^ 
pare them for dinner, for the hour of this im] 
event is at hand. In half an hour the dancing-i 
will be filled with beaux and belles, papas and 
buzzing, and walking, and gazing, and waiting for ths 
dinner-bell. We shall have a dinner, such as it may bc^ 
but luxurious enough for people who will leave pleasMl 
homes to go to watering-places! 

Tur o*CL0CK, P. IL 
The day is past; and as it is our last day at tht 
Springs, therefore rejoice with me, Mr. , I am ia- 

patient to be back once more to my dear, familiar room^ 
with its thousand and one comforts. I want to see mj 
pet deer, my doves, my squirrel, my flowers, my book% 
my own looking-glass, for I don*t look like myadf 
in these at the Springs, which look as if they bad 

A9 moan. 

made wlule a stiff breei e was rippling across their molten 

I write to the measure of the dance in the hall, and 
ikm merrj jingle of violins and castanets* The yonng 
folks are enjoying themselyes while they are yonng. 
Ike happiest persons I saw in the ball-room, howerer, 
the blacks. Yon who Uto in a free State, hare no 
of the pririleges this class are permitted in a slare 
State by the white people. Thqr stand in the doors and 
otfwrwise vacant places of the ball-room, and langh, and 
aM aa modi at home as *^massa and missis." They go 
aad eome around or across it as they please; a fiiTored 
smty win even ask yon, ^^Flease, missis, stand dis way 
little bit, so I can see!" and ^missis" complies as 
readily aa if a lady had asked her. 

One reason of this is that the system is so intimately 
interwovMi with domestic arrangements, and associations, 
aad habits, that, to all Southerners, slaves are necessary 
qypnrtoiances in all places. If they see not their own 
skves, th^ see those of others, and pay no attention to 
their goings and comings. The slave will even attend 
her mistress with her umbrella or cloak to her pew, and, 
leaving them, go out again down the broad aisle, no one 
noticing her. I have seen slaves sent from one part of 
a church to another, during service, without attracting 
observation; nay, even into the pulpit, to restore the 
clergyman his pocket-handkerchief, which he had let 
fall. But in the North, who would tuffer ^^ negroes" to 
appear in such places? A Southerner never objects nor 
thinks of objecting to the presence of a servant any- 
where. I might travel with Edith in a stage from Mem- 
to Savannah, and not a Southern gentleman in it 


would speak of it, or think of it; while from a llewBi^ 
land coach, she would be ejected. Tell me, Mr. ^^ 
why is this so? How is it, as it is certainly the/KC, 
that the Northern people haye a positive rhsMb fa Al 
negro? But I will not discuss this question. 

These Springs have only within a few years attnslil 
attention. They are embosomed in the depths of a «l 
demess far from village, or civilised habitation. The nal 
by which we reached them after quitting Monnt Pkasali 
a pretty and dirty village this side of Ashwood, lay fa 
twenty-eight miles through a forest, which was scaralf 
invaded by the woodman's axe. For fifteen miles wi 
did not see a habitation. The solitude was grand. Iks 
surface of the country was undulating, and we oooU m 
long vistas into the depths of glens, where I imigJMiJ 
lay the deer in covert, and where once crondied the viU 
beast in his lair. It seemed at every winding in ev 
road that we should come upon some Indian haaMt 
But the red man was not there. Wasted **like ths 
April snows in the warm noon," he had disappeared W 
fore the sun of civilization. Now and then a aqoiml 
would cross our path, or a gray-plumed woodpecker slsv- 
tle the echoes with his busy knocking at the doois ef 
the insects' homes, in the bark of the trees, for them li 
come out and be eaten. Once a huge black snake lay 
directly in our path, and would not stir till Charisi 
lashed him with the whip, when he moved off as delikv- 
atcly as if he did not care for us, — a spice of the eU 
Eden pride of power left in him. Of all things why 
should a serpent have been made use of by Sathanaa is 
tempt Eve? It were more likely to frighten her. Ftf- 
hsps, however, that to Eve, before the Fall, all Ihi^p 


of Ciod's crefttnres) were bevitifiil, — for it is rin onl j 
; deforms and brings deformity ! 
Imt Ere is not sorprisi d that the serpent has aTmee, 
because she and Adam spoke, and it was natural for 
to suppose, mutil experience taught her to the con- 
jj that all bmtes were likewise gifted with speech, 
see her erince no amasement at the vocal powers of 

>ear me ! if I had been Ere — bat nobody knows what 
idj wonld have done, had a body been Eve ! — the pro- 
ility is, that I shonld have eaten two apples instead 

*he arriyal of our cavalcade at the Springs produced 
ensation, as new arrivals always do, — but nobody 
oed to notice its size and variety. Indeed, since we 
e been here, quite a dozen of arrivals quite as formi- 
le in largeness of retinue have occurred. Nay, one 
Bg lady had a wagon bringing up the rear containing 
harp and guitar. Some of the parties brought an 
ra wagon for baggage. 

jast Saturday, quite a horse troop of lads and lasses, 
n the adjacent country, broke in upon us like a foray 
Highlanders upon the lowlands. Some of the young 
1, every soul of whom was full six feet tall, brought 
ir rifles, and the girls an extra pair of shoes for a dance. 
ae of the girls were handsome, but bold looking, and 
li very fine figures. They actually took possession 
he hall, and danced half the day ; and then the young 
I went down to a level meadow and passed an hour 
oting at a mark at fifty and eighty yards ; and excel- 
t marksmen, I am told, these Tennesseans are. They 
brave men too ! There is a look of quiet resolution 


about them that gives indications of that martU 

vrhich the trumpet of war so readilj awakes ia Aor 

bosoms. General Jackson was not so much cne MdUhil 

as he was the representative man of Tennessee. Al 

true born Tennesseans are more or less like him b is- 

pectf build, courage, and indomitable resolotioa. Ikf 

take a pride in him ! They teach their children to iai- 

tate him! His name was the most stirring war-erj«rf 

by the Tennessee legions in Mexico. Not long mm 

Isabel was at a party where, during the evening, ths 

bust of General Jackson was brought out and phwd 

upon a pedestal in the hall. It was hailed with thns 

cheers by the lads, and crowned with flowers by ths 

girls, who hand in hand danced around it, and sang with 


''Hail to the Chief!" 

The days at the Springs are passed pretty rnvdi alikt; 
— the three meals being the most important points ef 
interest. What, with bowling and quaffing the 
dancing and walking, sleeping and talking, dreaaing 
eating, fighting the mosquitoes, and watching what 
do, we manage to kill each day, but are half killed in 
our turn. To-morrow we leave. All ia extiUmm^ 
among our party. Dickon is in ecstasies, and when hs 
runs he turns a somerset at every third step. 
looks happy. Philip's serene face shows his 
Edith expresses herself heartily tired of the plaoa, 
she has been the belle here. Do not think, Mr. 
that the ''darker shades" of our party do not fii 
^'reliefs." Probably there are here two hundred mh 
vants, belonging to the various families. Now aa peopis 
generally travel with their body servants, whieh are dt 

tviee m to look at ttf Kot 
one handle d lfttio|Hm aad Ndbiaa kdieo aad 

m tke pbeeo oecfwd aa hoar More by 

oad ■iiiimm The enfract were ooa* 

UfmA. Thcrewereeenraiiteof^de lower 

aad oetlen, boot-Ueeks end idlere» to 

The order, ooorteey, dyilitj, and pn^ 

ebeored at the table, ooeld not ha?e 


wait on 



been surpassed at a dinner at Windsor Caada: ea Iks 
contrary, they were more polite than people at a Bsjri 
dinner. The bowing and handing across the taUe to As 
ladies — ^the ^^ Shall I help yon to a pieoe of ds 
loin;Missee CindereUa?" <<WiU yon take % 
Mistress Betty?" ''Thank yoo, Ifister Thorns, Iwl 
if yon pleases." ''Here is a nice slice of the bn^ d 
de turkey for you, Missy Arabella." "Thankee 1 
obligated; it berry nice. Blister Napole<m 
"Ladies and gcmmen, here de health of our Maass sid 
Bfissesses, and may dey nebber die till dere 
an' den lib forebber." 

This toast being drunk in the residue of olareli 
was a more positive set-to upon the yiands. And so 
black rogues dine every day ! I say to yoo, trnthfiDyi 

Mr. ^ the slaves in this state seem to be quite m 

well content as their masters ; in fact, are only 
to them in all that they enjoy. I am becoming 
and more reconciled to the system ; but I don't tUik I 
could charge myself with the responsibility of etmny s 
slave. Not that I think it wrong. The Bible allowi it 
But to feel that a human being was mme ! that I was so- 
countable to him for his happiness and comfort here, aad 
to God for his souFs weal hereafter ! This is, I tUak, 
one of the most responsible features of domestic s e i f it ait . 
"I feel," said an intelligent Christian lady to me,"! 
feel more deeply the weight of responsibility whidi the 
ownership of the slaves my father has left me, photf 
upon me, than I do that of my own children. I trsBbk 
at the reflection that God will ask their soul's Hves si 
my hands !" 

The sound of the feet of the dancers baa ocascd, sal 




poee reigna in the hall bo lately the seme of mcmnifiit. 
ght is hushing all sounds. FIctc aci] there a itlar can 
seen, twinkling down through the opening in the treed, 
m murmur of the brook reaches my ear like an andible 
ioe. Some sleepless Ot^heas is now waking the m- 
ice with an ill-toncbed Bote. IHgtant laughter of 
<a&g men, at eards, or wine, comes from jondcr cabin, 
baby is crying in the room neit to mine ! I hear the 
«py father's growl, and the patient mother's low 
iiiah." A mosquito sings in my ears, and another 
Id wretch has bitten me on the hand. These are wam- 
^ for me to retire, especially u we are to make an 
rlj start homeward. So, good-night. 


212 THB suNinr south; ob. 


Mb. : 

Once more in my own room, at my own 
eseritoircy with familiar objecta, I resume my p 
dress jou. How much what one writea depen 
character upon the place in which it is pen 
write at ease, I must hare CTerything abont i 
have been accustomed to. I must hare my 
ranged in just such a way, so that a soft radianc 
ing everything in the room, shall fall npon i 
just distinctly enough for me to see, yet not stro 
to distract my attention by glare. I most ha' 
quiet, too. I can write best by lamp-light, 
lamp, with the light thrown softly upon the pa] 
rainy day my thoughts flow freest. I must ha 
fashioned goose-quill. I cannot accustom m; 
steel pen. It trips me up, and I have an awk 
of bearing on when I write that a steel pen w 
to with sufficient flexibility. Half the peop 
country write on ruled paper. This is my al 
I don't stop to notice lines, and so if I can't gf 
ruled paper, I write as often between the lii 
them. I was taught, fortunately, to write a 
9chool; and so were all my schoolmates ; and, 
I supposed everybody oould write on imml 



tiM Spring Weil, ve £1 lesre tke 
Bg, trnking vp car fine of trvrd, in diei 
vrnTmnisii aiaitner in niuck we had eoae. 
vmrds ereniiig, mfier s eool dmy's lide dmMgli tht 
^ before described, ve reached the little lewA of 
t Hettmnt, wUeb is sitvaled amid the lotcliesi 
rj possible. Here ve remained all nigbt, pitting 
kh indifferent aooommodations. This Tillage oaght 
the prettiest in the state. But its popnlatioift 
to hare no taste or pride. They let enormous 
with noses like plonghshares, turn up their streetSi 
the rain converts into bog holes; they neglect to 
or, at least, white-wash their fences; they pay no 
ion to the neatness of their front yards; they are 
at passable side-walks, and destitute of shade trees* 
if the scores of idlers we saw lounging about the 
and tavern, would go to work for a week, in earn* 
key might make their town truly a Mount Pleasant, 
onble the value of it. 
w dirty some of these Western towns are kept. I. 


feel as if I wanted to take up the people and ahi 

the New England villages, as th^ show childn 
don. I am told the citisens are intelligent moi 
respectable; how then can they sit down in so n 
tidiness? Why is it that they don't know thai 
barrel hoops, rails, old shoes, old hats, boot 1^ 
broken crockery, and such trash, disfigure a str 
would mar the finest avenne that ever ran throQ| 

lage? The worst of it is, Mr. ^ Western 

don't care one fig for the opinion of strangen 
Northerners live, as you may say, for the eyes oi 
Hence the attention of the one to the looks of ew 
about his house and town, and the indifferenoc 
other to those things. 

After leaving Mount Pleasant, our road lay th 
sweet valley, along the margin of a romantie 
The scenery was charming. In the ooorae of ai 
ride, Isabel selected fifty superb sites for viUaa; 
has a pmchant for looking out pretty places to bnil 
and, for that matter, so have L But as I am 
heiress, I fear the only house I shall ever call mi 
be one of those ^'mansions" spoken of in the goo 

About nine o'clock we passed Ashwood school, 
beneath the wooded cone of Ken Hill, and wen 
tunate as to meet at the gate the learned Profi 
Belles Lcttres, Donald McLeod, Esq., of Glasgc 
versity, — a gentleman well known in the liters 
stellation of our land. He is said to posseas om 
most scholarly minds in this country. How is 
all Glasgow, and Dublin, and Oxford men that 
are so much l)etter eilucnted than Harvard and Ya 
Is the American system superficial? One wool 

IW motk dtfqvent scholar I reoolleet e?er to hare 
% gndaale ci the Uniyemty of. PnUm. I 
an American, e?en a PMTcMory who 
taently in Latin, or write Grade proae 
ttnaGlj; jet I have aeen many from the abore Uni- 
da both. Ae for the young men here in the 
yfm^ their edaoation is acarody deaenring of the name, 
ie not a edl^e in Tennesaee of mneh hif^ier rank 
» Mev Wngland Academy, and amhitioaa yonng 
«a«r taking degrees at these Western ''CoUegis^'' 
^Hta'Harfard, and enter Sophomore. Perhqia a ssnior 
HwfMd man would have to enter k»w at Oxford! Whe 
k|i*WBt The education (^ girls West is far beyond that 
of the yonths. Expense is not taken into aeeoont where 
ikjdmighter ia to be educated; but fothers seem to think 
monegr is thrown away in educating boys. Tennessee 
baa no common sdbool system in operation, and in her 
capitnl, hundredi ci children are growing up tdiolly 

]fr. McLeod was accompanied by a short, little^ for* 
eign-looking old gentleman, with gray whiskers, and a 
deau-military air, who was over-dressed like a French 
pdU maUre of the andent schooL He was mounted on 
a large gray horse, which he managed with a skilled 
hand. He was presented to us as ^^ The Compte Neolis." 
He bowed to his saddle bow, and lifted his eiapeau with 
dignified and smiling politeness, and said he was ^^ our 
Mfy humble servant" 

^Ne(^" said I, thoughtfully, ''There was a Oover- 
ner ot Borne of that name, sir 7" 

'*Tee," he answered; ''that is me, at your service, 
Hiss," he responded, bowing. 


I gaied on him with cnriomty, for I iKMr nedlidti 
mind that General Neolis of Rome, was ciomiMaiiff if 
the Grarde Mobile, which was composed of KaigbiU; mi 
that ho held Rome against the Spanish troops. Ha 
warrior was then, in person, this old Knight of s tim < | 
now before me, riding by the side of the euriagSi Ui 
riding whip and bridle in one hand, and hk opcB ssiA 
box in the other. As we passed a eart whioh was da- 
charging stone, the noise alarmed the old C!oinit*s 
and he had an opportonit j of displaying his 
horsemanship, by skillfnlly restraining the firo of Ui 
animal ; bat in the caracolling, a paper was rdeasadflw 
the rider's gaping coat pocket, which bnrstiDg aa it ieit 
Btrewed the ground with candy and bon-bons. Thai hs 
dismoonted carefully to gather them np, ■■■iH^g goed 
humoredly at the mishap, and telling ns that he alwijs 
carried them when he went to the school, ^^pmmr Jbt sa* 
fanti." We found him social and amosing, and 
a gallant hommc, and really regretted his 
when he took leaTe of us at the marble gate*wmy of 
mouth, the residence of Mr. A. Polk, where he 
When he left us, he bowed to his horse's 
slowly rode up the avenue, as if he regretted to qpHl 
such good company as Isabel and me. Mr. McLeod kft 
us previously, to call at St. John's Chapel. FroB tke 
colonel I learned that the Count was an old ttmA 
exile; that he was a nephew of Marshal Ney, and had 
been a distinguished officer under Napoleon. Thalhs 
had been many years in this country, had tavght at 
Qermantown, and a few years since was invited to taks 
the chair of Modem Languaf^es in the CH**niibia Insti- 
tute ; but that, being now almost too old to teaoh, Mr. 

VAi^iridi gtnnB»-.S(ntfh«m^ho«piUlitj,,bMUite0d him 
»baiNB» am tua*t»of bia hovae, when be hM giTM 
OB * boa* lor liAk 

riBhe Oonnl is a man «f exoellent aiiuftbilitj,,u)d • 
M^/dMd otmmf3«aij o£ eharaetar; hut hit £nendl-M!)S 
f of past •reata fiuls^ he draws aiIittle''OB 
i ikej sgraetimea mn him aoBewhat 
■id ifoa fakTing aaid be wm at two pitoee onthe sam^ 
i^lrUahware fire himdred mile* *pvct, doing- gaad 
\fitiBg at both. Bat the Count takes the qaiiiing ia 
imi fiart, dimga his shoulders, i^es his sanfi^ aBdaa 
tt^bif, and saTB, "Maybe, jentihaen, I na mistake 
Ma^. But rera good ! Yon may laugh, I laugh next 

-ISie CooDt is food of otuldren, for whom be alwaya 
aa his pockets full of cakes or candy; he is a good 
^urchman," and occasionally still teaches the French 
Ims en amaUur at Ken Hill School. May he lire a 
hoaaand years! if his generous host has no objections. 

After passing the Aehwood gate and post-office, we 
mrre rapidly into Columbia, a distance of seven miles ; 
ad by three o'clock in the afternoon, we once more be- 
mU the roofs and chimneys of Overton Hall towering 
Iwre the oaks which environ it. How delightful the 
eaaation of realizing that one's wanderings have ceased, 
lad that one is at home agun ! It is worth enduring 
be discomforts of a watering-place a short time, to en- 
toy tbia feeling. Every thing seems to be more beanti- 
al here than before. And how many dumgea ban 
^en place in the few weeks we have been absent ! The 
teaches have ripened ; the apples are becoming roi^ 
ed ; a new set of flowers have made their appearanoe. 


and instead of the little eggs which ire left in the 
ing-bird*s cage are three innocent little things that look 
something like mice, on the eve of feathering. Thtt 
the canaries were so glad to see us, sending forth the 
wildest and most joyous carols from their tiny tliiorti 
for very happiness. The rabbits frisked aboai u, aal 
all the dogs, ** Tray, Blanche, and Sweetheart^" acted as 
if they would shake their tails off with their nNi|^ aal 
gyratory welcomings, running around and around m, 
and then around the house, chasing each other in M 
race, and tumbling and rolling over the grass, firom ahev 
excess of spirits. Then the old blind war-hone pricked 
up his ears, when he heard my voice, and gave thra 
great whisks of his heavy tail, ending with a low wUm 
of joy. But you should have seen my pet deer, the 
once wounded invalid. I had no sooner entered the 
green paddock where it was, then it came bonnding to- 
wards me with long, graceful leaps, and would fairly 
have run over me, if I had not stepped aside. Am it 
was, it gave me a rough and honest-hearted welcoBey 
rubbing its nose against my shoulder, and almoet, nay, 
I very believe, the rogue tried to kiss me, bat tkia nh* 
tation I adroitly escape<l, and hugged my pet about the 
neck in lieu thereof, and patted its shoulder. Bnt this 
was too quiet a way of expressing its joy at seeing aw 
again ; so it broke from me, and began to caper aboat 
the paddock, flying around it, then across it at ri^ 
angles, then from comer to comer, and then miBceUan^ 
ously in every direction, all at once, and finally tci^ 
roinating this mikra mania by suddenly eronching al 
mv feet. 
But the best welcome of all was that from tlw wtih 


ants. They flocked aronnd the carriage, every dark 
ice radiant with smiles, and exhibiting ivory enongh 
3r half a mile of piano-keys placed in a row. Jenny 
lind's reception in New York was a trifle compared with 
ors. I thought they would shake our hands off*. After I 
ad been a little while in my room, in came Aunt Winny, 
16 fat cook, in her Sunday fix, having rigged up to 
elcome me, being too particular to come in, in her work- 
ig dress. She seemed so glad to see me, and said it so 
lany times, that I did not at all regret a trip, the re- 
am from which could be productive of so much simple 
id hearty joy. She then told me how they had all 
issed us, and *' 'specially the deer, Missy Kate," she 
Ided, ^^ it acted just like a human a'ter you went away, 
id cried a'ter you like a baby, and wouldn't eat noffin' 
»r de fuss two days, and I had to cook it someat nice, 
id coax it, and then 'twouldn't eat till I made Jake put 
1 your old rainy cloak and old sun hat and come and 
and by me, to make b'lieve it's you, you know, and the 
mple t'ing begin to eat right off"!" 

At the idea of seeing the black imp Jake, her long-heeled, 
lick-lipped son, personating me, I burst into a hearty 
t of laughter, but I did not fail to compliment Aunt 
rinny's sagacity, and to reward her solicitude for my pet. 

All is now as it was before we left. I have Isabel at 
»r piano again before breakfast, practising Jenny Lind's 
mgs ; the colonel goes galloping a-field ere the dew is 
r the grass, and I am at my morning studies in Ger- 
an as before. There is, however, some prospect that 
"e long we shall make another excursion, but not to 
ly watering-place. The colonel will have to visit New 
rleans to arrange for the sale of his cotton and tobacco, 


in October, and ho has invited us to acoompuy Vau 
The trip will be a delightful one, the first two hudn4 
miles being down the dark flowing Cumberland, wUck ii 
described as one of the most beautiful of Western rifcn, 
then on the Ohio, and thence launched upon the Miwii- 
sippi, we shall keep its mighty current for a thousttd 
miles. The idea of such a voyage in the superb steanat 
that float upon these western waters is pleasant, and I 
have no doubt that we shall greatly enjoy oondfSk 
Yet I sigh at the prospect of once more quitting ov 
retreat. But in this world, says the wise man, **No- 
thing is in one stay.** Every thing, indeed, is moving. 
The earth races round the sun, the moon around the 
earth, which rolls around itself; Mars and Jupiter cfaaai 
with Venus, and the sun itself, say the astrononen, 
marches at a dignified pace around some unknown cen- 
tre of the universe. ^' Keep moving," then, being the 
watchword of the planets, how can we inaignifieut 
dwellers thereon but follow the example of our bettcn! 
So we shall go to New Orleans. 

Whether I write you again before we are en fvnfr, 
will depend on circumstances. I promised you a letter 
from the Hermitage, and this you shall have, if posaiblei 
OS next week we ride over there, it being but a short tvt 
hours* gallop across the country. 

I am glad to find the Americans received Jenny Lind 
with so much enthusiasm. A love for music is common 
to men and angels. It allies us to them in nympathica 
the more we delight in song. It is a divine talent, and 
if we believe the Bible, it will go with us beyond tht 
^ravo : for the happy boin^^s in Paradise are represented 
na singing now the *^ Song of the Lamb,*' and now the 


^New Song,"' to the sablime aoeompaaimeBt of ten 
dH>ii8aiid thiiefl ten thoussnd angeb striking their harps 
rf gold, sajmg: 

^ Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to recaye power, 
and riehea, and wisdom, and strengUi, and h<mor, and 
l(l<Hrj, and blessing; and every creatare whidi is on the 
Mrth, and nnder the earth, heard Isaying, Blesnng, and 
honor, and gloiy, and power be nnto Him that sitteth npoA 
the throne, and nnto tiie Lamb forever ;" andAeyended 
Aia eelestml ehoms by casting their glittering erowns 
before the throne of ECm who lireth forever and ever. 

It 18 a hopefiil thing for a nation to rue np as one 
man, and do homage to this personification of earthly 
nrasic. They do not so mndi worship her, as reeogniae 
the existence in her of the perfection of that which be- 
longs to humanity en mas9e, but is vouchsafed to but 
one in a generation. To see them doing homf^ to her 
kindles hope for the elevation of our country, just as 
following in the chariot-wheels of a conqueror, with his 
garments rolled in blood, would darken hopes of the ad- 
vsncement of humanity. One thing only is wanting to 
complete the halo of glory which encircles the modest 
brow of Jenny Lind. It is to consecrate her voice by 
singing therewith one Hymn to the Being who endowed 
her with it. Let her pour forth in the sacred ohaunts 
of the princely David, or the queenly Miriam, that thril- 
ling voice, and our souls would soar on wings of her 
songs to the very gates of Paradise. Then, indeed, 
would she be able to prove to the world that music is a 
*^gift of God wherewith to praise Him." 

Tours respectfully, 



Mb, : 

Dear Sir, — ^A residence on a large plantatjen ii tt 
a Northerner rich with subjects of interest. Efoy 
thing is so different from what he has been accustoti 
to, his curiosity is continually excited by the nofdtisi 
which are brought before him, or which he is nmug 
his face against. First, there is the slaye himself^ Uf 
condition, his cabin, his dress, his manners, his labQi% 
his amusements, his religion, his domestic relataons ; thca 
there is the plantation, with fences a mile apart, prcsotfr 
ing in one broad enclosure land enough to make a soon 
of Yankee pastures ; then there is the cotton-plant, viA 
its rich, pure, white, fleecy treasures, hanging to the gfr 
thoring hand ; then there is the tobacco-plant, with iM 
beautiful, tender, green leaf in spring, and its broad, 
palmetto-looking leaf in autumn, green lined with braws; 
then there is the cotton-gin, with the negroes at work is 
it, the snowy cotton flying from the wind-fans in Isscj 
showers that mock a December snow-storm ! then thin 
is the baling and screwing, the roping and marking with 
planter's name, all objects of interest to witni 
there is the planter himself, so different in his 
tastes, education, prejudices, notions, bearing, fedingii 
and associations, from the New England man ; then tk«f 
is his Isdy, accustomed to have slaYes attend upon thi 

glance of her eje fram ehildhoofl/oomnuuidmg a&d £rect- 
Uig her large domestic eBtabliwliinent, where the food, 
dokhingy comfort, and health sometmeB of a hondred 
ibfiee depend iqKm her managing care; dien there is 
the Mm, who is raised half-honter, half-nutie, with as 
modi book learning as his psstimes in the field and wood 
vill allow him to torn his attenti<m to— the idol of the 
old negroes and the hope of the younger ones — who has 
aefor seen m cdtj, but ma j one day walk B^roadway, or 
Ohcattrat street, ^a fine yonng Sovthem blood,'* with a 
fcrtniM to spend, high-spirited, duTalrons, qnidc to re- 
SHit an insoh, too inrond to giro one, ready to fight for 
Ids lady-lore or his country ! prone to high living and 
horse-radng, bnt at home conrteons and hospitable as 
beeomes a trae eoontry gentleman ; then there is the 
ds^ghter of the house, too, a lovely girl, with beautiful 
lumda, for she has never used them at harder work than 
toning her harp, (and hardly at this, if she can trust her 
maid,) who rides like Di Vernon, is not afraid of a gun, 
nor, dee ! a pistol, is inclined to be indolent, loves to 
write letters, to read the late poets, is in love with Byron, 
sings Jenny Lind's songs with great taste and sweetness, 
has taken her diploma at the Columbia Institute, or some 
other conservatory of hot-house plants, knows enough 
French to guess at it when she comes across it in an 
English book, and of Italian to pronounce the names of 
her opera songs ! she has ma's carriage at her command 
to go sad come at her pleasure in the neighborhood, re- 
ceives long forenoon visits from young gentlemen who 
come on horseback, flirts at evening promenades on the 
piassa with others, and is married at sixteen without 
bring courted ! 


The manners and customs thus enimiersted » 
different from those at the North. Let me deaerili 
of the more striking differences a little in detmiL 
ever sees an old gray-headed gentleman, mou 
horseback, and a spirited horse at that, gallo|nng 
the road with a cigar in his mouth, in New £■ 
Yet we never ride out that we don't meet one o 
gray-headed planters, booted and spurred,— aon 
with a cloth cap on when the day is windy,— trot 
or from town at a slapping pace ; and followed 
or more dogs. You might ride all over the at 
Connecticut or Massachusetts without seeing tli 
There they drive about in chaises, or buggies, or 
alls. Where at the north would we meet elegant i 
with plaited harness, and all the appointments ri 
complete, drawn by a pair of mules V Yet here i 
every day occurrence to see them, for mules h( 
highly esteemed. Where in the North would fash: 
ladies ride mules? Yet here it is by no means nno 
for a handsome mule to be preferred, especially b 
persons. To what rural church on the SabbatI 
every family come in its own carriage? Yet s 
carriage stands outside of our church for every 
in it. 

The customs, too, are different in respect to the 
given to daughters. In the North the young lad 
alone with her beaux, and pa and her ma retire. 
South it is deemed indecorous for them to be lefk a 
themselves, and the mother or some member of the 
is always in the room ; and if none of these, a femai 
is seated on the rug at the door. This is a relie 
Spanish duenna system. Young girls are kept i 


Strict bouncb by mammas in this respect; and I was tokt by 
a married gentleman, a few days since, that his wife never 
t«N>k his arm till she took it to be led to chorch on her 
wedding day; and that he never had an opportunity of 
kissing her but twice while he was addressing her, (they 
were six months engaged!) and in both cases by means 
of s stratagem he resorted to of dragging a peach with 
hndannm which he gave to the attending servant, and 
thereby pot her into a sound sleep. To this custom is 
to be attributed so many runaway matches. If the girls 
were confided in by their mothers, and suffered to see 
and become acquainted with those who address them, they 
would hardly elope. Freedom of intercourse would put 
an end to these clandestine marriages. I like, of the 
two customs, the Northern best; but both of them are 
carried too near the extreme. I know several young 
ladies in this vicinity who have told me that they were 
never for two hours out of sight of their mammas. 

This watchfulness, by and by, defeats its own aim. 
The lover is piqued, and begins to regard the whole 
matter as a fair field for strategy ; and instead of looking 
upon the mother of his future wife with respect and affec- 
tion, he beholds in her an enemy, whom it would be a 
victory to circumvent. The daughter soon begins to look 
at it in the same view, and away they fly together to 
some Gretna Green. 

But runaway matches seem to be marked with Divine 
displeasure. I have never heard of a happy one. Not far 
from us resides a widow lady, who eloped from an excel- 
lent mother, when she was young, with a worthless young 
man. She is now the mother of three grown daughters, 
e?ery one of which has eloped and left her, the youngest 

226 TiiK srxxY south; or, 

only last June, at fifteen years of age, and .she i^ l.f: 
desolate and broken-hearted ! Thus is the example of 
the mother followed by the children ; and whom can ik 
blame but herself? But the worst remains to be tdi 
The eldest has already been deserted by her kiuhuid| vis 
has gone to California, and she last week IismI to seek 
shelter in the home of her childhood ; the second ili^gk 
ter is suing for a divorce, though she has not beca tU^ 
teen months married. Ah, girls ! never in an orfl 
place your hand in that of the young man wlw 
counsel you to desert your paternal home ! It is 
to deprive those who have nourished you, and with 
hope looked forward to the happy day of your hononUt 
marriage beneath their own roof; it is cruel to robtken 
of the enjoyment of this happiness. It ia tieir rigbt ^ 
give you to him who is the choice of ycur heart. It ii 
their blessed privilege to bless your union, and ailam 
your and your husband's joy. How can you then rok 
them of their participation in that joyous bridal, towarli 
which they have been so many years locking forwarff 
Daughters who elope, wrest from their parents Ikl 
crowning joy of a father's and a mother's life— 4hegi^ 
tification of seeing their daughter married at their evi 
fireside! A bridal elsewhere is unnatural, and Gefi 
blessing will not follow it. 

There is a custom here of kissing when ladies mssli 
that seems to me quite a waste of the ^^ raw materialf'* 
as some envious gentleman has remarked, doubtleasome 
bachelor editor. You might sec in Boston the m<rti^ 
of one hundred pair of young ladio;9 during the day, ui 
not seven couple would salute eaob o^bpr op the lipa 
Yet in Tennessee all females kiss, old pLai yoipig, rvM if 


bej see esoh other mb often as every day. 1 am ac- 
nainted with s teacher of young ladiee here, who says 
Iwt his scholars all kiss when they meet in the morning; 
^ he has seen them when they enter late, in going past 
mreral gids to their seats, kiss erery pair of. lips they 
Ml €» rauU* At church doors of a Sunday there is 
p^ ufiuHade of this small arms. There is a warmth 
f jfeeling, s heartiness of affection, a tenderness of 
|n|mthy in the Southern ladies, that is the cause of all 
bik The Northern ladies are cold, without question. 
%Bj are also better scholars where mere ^^book" is con- 
flmed. They have more comprehensive minds, and are 
Mre intellectually clever. Southern girls, from all ao- 
mmts, make but poor book students. They have, how* 
Ter, so much imagination and feeling, that they converse 
ith brilliancy, appear well and under an indefinable 
raoe, peculiar to them, can veil every scholastic defect. 
It is only when a lady takes up her pen that her real 
eficiencies of education are perceptible. If I were 
d^ to judge of the acquirements of a young lady, I 
oold say, '^Let me see one of her letters!" I know 
beautiful girl who confessed to Isabel the reason she did 
ot answer a letter that she wrote to her from the Springs 
ms, that ^' she did not know how to write a letter fit to 
e seen !" The truth is, the young lady was always in- 
olged at home ; went or staid from school at her will ; 
cached fourteen without being able to spell correctly ; 
ras then mortified to have her defects made known to 
er schoolmates, and refused to go to school longer. 

ler father is the Honorable Mr. , and she b exceed- 

Qgly beautiful and interesting, and now eighteen years 
f age. The pen is all that will discern her deficiencies, 


and this she will probably never take in liar httdi! 
Being brought up in a family of intelligent penoitti iki 
talks well ! Poor girl ! what mortifications wit bcfai 
her ! If she is engaged to an intelligent man, sad h 
should address her a letter during an absence, wkst d- 
cuse can she offer for not replying? If she marry Ui^ 
and he discover her imperfect education, bow morliU 
will he be ! How humiliated she ! Yet it is her own ftak; 
and scores of girls in this country are waUdng ift tti 
same path. 

Last night, we were seated in the drawing room, Bl* 
tening to Mr. Sargeant's fine song to Jenny land, mg 
by Isabel, and also set to music by her, when there vai 
a sudden commotion among two or three yoang hSn 
present, and dodging, and screaming, and throwing hsal' 
kerchiefs over their heads! A bat was in the rocm! 
Isabel was too much occupied to know it, and kept fli 
playing, while the velvet-winged bird of dusk darltd is 
elegant curves through the upper air of the room wilk 
arrowy swiftness. It was almost impossible tofonowUi 
gyrations with the eye. Two young gentlemen p r ewil 
sat very stifily as if they expected to be hit; and atM 
the bat darted directly across the piece of mnsie bcftif 
IsabeFs eyes. In an instant she was in the middle cf 
the room, with a handkerchief thrown over her hair, sal 
uttering exclamations of slight terror. Here then wcft 
four ladies with their heads picturesquely covered witk 
their lace kerchiefs, and two of the number hiding be* 
hind chairs, and a third behind the harp. 

'^ Bless me !" cried the colonel, *^ is it possible, ^ril^ 
you are afraid of this bat ?" 

^' To be sure ! Do call some one to drive it oat P 


liis flDKnoent a second bat made iu ttUreS^ and be- 
fche two, I thought the girk would go wfld« Ii*' 
sing her parasol, caught it, and opening it qnietlj 
m under it upon a low stool, awaiting the iifiie* 
tej Are harmless!" cried the colooeL ^Thcj do 
in here to eat jou, but mosquitoes, which tbcj 

1, air, they light upon the head,'* said the prettf 
te^ behind the harp; ^^and if thej onee get in the 
; all has to be cut off before it ean be detadbed 


ey have barbs all over their wings and ebwi, 
, indeed they have," said a blue-ejed girt, who 
neealcd under the piano coTer; — ^^and if tbej — 
I" she shrieked out, as one of the bats swept past 
ehead; and she quickly drew in her face, without 
I to finish what she was saying, 
lere were you, Kate?" I hear you ask, Mr. Li- 

id been reading a story in the Knickerbocker 
ine, before Bel commenced singing; and still held 
ik on my lap ; but I neither ran, screamed, nor 
I my head ; for I had frequently receiTcd in mj 
nch twilight visitors, and at first was a little ner* 
18 I had heard such terrible accounts of their 
; in the hair, and never being got out till the hair 
it off; but as I never take marvelous stories on 
f, I one evening, seeing that they did not harm 
tched the motions of three bats that were together 
ing themselves in my chamber. I saw, after a 
antes* observation, that their movements, instead 
ig erratic and uncertain, and aimed to annoy me^ 

230 Tin: srxxY soltii; or, 

wore «^<)vorno(l ])y some direct object in view. A lir';-? 
closer scrutiny enabled me to see that they were in pur- 
suit of mosquitoes, which flew about the room, and tint 
every time they made a dart they caught one in their 
mouse-shaped jaws. 1 was greatly relieved from po^ 
Bonal apprehension when I had achieved this disoofcrr; 
and I continued my writing as if they were not there, 
and soon forgot their presence. At length, when I kd 
completed the letter I was writing to my midBhi|iBU 
brother in the I^Iediterranean, I looked for my '^biidi,'* 
and found that they had quietly disappeared. Sm 
then I am a philosopher when a bat is in a room. 

The young latlies, however, being convinced that liati 
are animated combs flying about for a head to frstoi in, 
would not be persuaded of the innocencj of their intcft- 
tions. The colonel, therefore, had to call in two flf 
three servants, to drive them out, with brooms, lidbp 
whips, and what not! But this only made the nattff 
worse. The poor things, interrupted in their mosqvts 
hawking, became terrified at these belligerent mamleita* 
tions, and sailed low to avoid the blows mimed at Ikoi 
in the air. In these escapades they darted nnder Ae 
piano, as a shriek from the blue-eyed hider testified; wai 
even beneath IsabeVs parasol, as a sudden nrrram froa 
her bore witness. The girls were now in despair. Ihe 
colonel and I sat laughing and looking on. At lengtk 
it was resolveil, as bats are said to follow lights, to take 
the two astral lamps out upon the piassa. Tlie drawisf- 
room was darkene^l in vaih. It was the mosquitoes, not 
the l:ini|>s, that attractcil them, and, if any thing, the 
idea of their flying about in there in the darlt, only is* 
creased the terror of the terrified girls. Stir oat 

die pili 

e kid km, 


dke dMd 

, mud oosHdo jo« 
[ere lie heU 19 a Wx 1x» Ae 1^ Wks 

gs. The S3^t cf it made Use cres crmirl, aad tke 
iiette litter aa exprenoiB €f desesttikft. ItiruWik 
r and iM-etty — iu wiap bdng traaffamat, aad de- 
tly ecmstracted. aad its hoij Eke tkat ot aa <»ver-fed 

e. Its head vas caiall, like a Bicaee*fi, aad t^ 
Qel, opening its ja vk, tboved its flkaqi teed^ aad a 
e pile of moaqnitoeB ander its tongae. ^Yoa aee 
t its food is!" he said. "The teeth aie aharp, bvl 
month is so small it couldn't Ute erea a dild*s finrcr* 
r look at its claws. Thej are sharp and cnrred, to 
g by; but the curve instead of being barbed, is a half 
le; and whatever the claw grasps can easily be re- 
ed from it." 

But its wings. Look at the horrid thing's wings!" 
laimed blue eyes. 

Well, let us examine its wings," said the colonel 
ing. "You see that each angle where the joints 
ndate, is defended by a small hook— one on each 


wing. These hooks are but the curve of three qmrtm 
of a circle ; and if a bat should light upon anj one of 
your heads, and hang there bj these two hookas he coild 
easily be disengaged without sacrificing one ailken itnuid 
thereof. Let me try it, Bel!'' 

But Isabel fled, and so did the rest. A negro boy'i 
wooly caput being at hand, the colonel plaoed the kt 
upon his crispy poll, and having made the wings likt 
their strongest hold, he showed us how eaaily tke hsU 
could be removed, even from such tangled locks. ^Iks 
use of these hooks/' he added, ^^ is for the bata to haag 
to each other by in winter, when they swarm together 
like a cluster of bees, and in huge masses, maay btk 
in circumference, remain in torpid saapenaioB mil 

The young ladies at length professed themsdvw 
fied, and the colonel made each one pledge h^velf 
to run from a bat, or cover her head again if a bal 
into the room. 

Mr. Sargeant's beautiful and patriotic song 
resumed and finished, and many others, and the 
which had been so ludicrously interrupted, passnil sf 
without further incidents. 

Yours respeotfiilly. 


ktod of* 

prefiiees, I finr viB 
4eeided at tiie Pttrk. 
leaUed in the eokHMTs 
Ncfw Orlasas, 

Toa mwt know, tkat 
jrear to this grtmi 
tales of his oottos 
him some dajs^ hot he 
easion, howerer, dwse 
Orleans, sadi as it or 
in an age. Jenn j Liad vaa te he 
Hierefore, Isabd von her Ctther t 
coaxing and pretty tfaiing, a»L so I 
of anj partj of pleasure, ^Ksae mast jpv m^ 

It was a propitioos moniajr 
droYe np to the portieo of the 
and, I was going to add, 
10 enormous in magnitnde, the htfgpig^ ef t^^ firt^ 
diat old blade Peter with two mnlsa hantesed imu^ Im 

vf ihiC ^ 



red wagon, took it to town in advance of ns^-l 
started at the peep of day. All the house serranta 
out and gathered round the carriage to see us off. 
colonel shook hands with all the old ones, and 
kissed Aunt Nannie, her old African nurse, and al 
mother's nurse before her, while tears filled the ba 
eyes of the maiden, at the genuine grief of the old i 
at parting with her. 

*^Take good keer o' your dear blessed self, 
Bella," she said, sobbing as if her ebony heart 
break in two, ^^ an' don't forget old aunty what In 
better dan she lub de life in her own ol' body. 
fall into dc ribber, and may de Lord bring yw 
massa and Missy Katy all back to us safe an' souii 

There was an interesting parting aside, be 
Charles, the colonel's body servant, who was mo 
on a fine horse to follow us, and his young wife 1 
and also a tender leave-taking between Isabera dn 
maid, Clara, and a dark Bomeo, to whom ahe wi 
trothed, and for her marriage with whom Isabel hm 
mised to purchase her a wedding dress in New Orl 

After the parting with the servants was over, Gi 
the coachman, at a signal from his master, flourisb 
long lash over his horses' ears, and away wo went 
ing rapidly from the door along the smoothly-gn 
avenue. The very birds seemed to sing us *^good 
as we trotted down the glades of old trees which 
vocal with their notes. The last thing I caught 
of was my pet-deer thrusting his meek face over the 
dock, looking wistfully after the carriage, and eri^i 
having an intelligent understanding of the whole m 
that I was going away to leave him for a long 

erliapfl, Kowvfcr, I kal fidEr mrib 
lis before I ga/t bdo dhr 

le morning 1 1 

^ndiing leftTe, (don't t9k %e- m 

It. ^^dlmrftBt. I 

7 squirrdB, fei 
laggy nedco^ 
rge bkck dog, widk 
Tebeter, and a roiee Gk» a 
id I do befiere tkat dhr fmr. 
rge brown cjei flkd vsk 
' my Toice. He 
be bmd been a 

re. He rubbed bsi wifae &r 
Ilowed me to the gase. aitti loai I one x 
tere was a look of sorrow 3l Ids 

What a mTnenr a brae «*a&ic» x! Bnwi -^m^ 
len a horse, or a deer, 'sr a ia^ as «f jf a 
ere whhin its bodr. and aZ laac wm -mmoM ^mm 
it of speech to expreai a lii<i>h. mA 
VOL with all the tenden^ai v( isitsuimin ^ 
iman form to be toot UiASwL «tk. m^i 
id companion. I cannrx VsKe-t^wcsibfi^^Mte ^ 
nish forever ! God eve irmidtsw itsii^t: ^ 4umi 4^ 
iradise fitted for their esVifTSiaiL iHii ifOnyM^ 'K ft^*' 
ighest capabilit J of lu^fCMssf. TV Kiui^ mk 4ii»iii<|i/ 
dd, '' God shall sare both &hl wf v^Mt ' 
Are there not among the ^/nd«i» ^1^11*^1 Vf Mm- «Mi# 
I the boundless space of Ae 3£bussIu>: wm^ara*'; flm^ 
id space for all God's eieaUwet t^ Imr aNi4 W fclffy 
I? Shall not the noUe bone:, <kwwl t« <te la4i Mil 


dray all his life, have compensation in » nniTwae nM 
by a God of equity ? Wise men say that this etrdi, 
and all things thereon, from man down to the loweit 
form of life, is a type of Heayen. If, then, in theirorU 
to come, there are *' spirits of men/* there most be ^'aook 
of brutes," and a spiritual form of eyeiything matcriiL 
But this is too profound a theme for a yonng womau'i 

pen, Mr. ; but if my words here written will only 

cause some to look more kindly upon brutes, I shall be 
glad that I have given my ideas ^^ shapes and m* 

I have already written of the beautiful scenery whid 
spreads away, on either hand, from the turnpike thit 
conducts to the city ; of the pleasant villas, noble, na- 
tural parks in all their aboriginal grandeur, and swfft 
cottages here and there embowered in foliage by the road* 
side. I have, also, in a former letter, spoken of Nash- 
ville, of its architectural elegance, of the beauty of itt 
females, the bevies of lovely school-misses that throng 
the streets, the chivalry of the gentlemen, and the hos- 
pitality of all. I shall, therefore, not detun you thei«| 

Mr. , but drive you at once to the superb steamer 

^^ America," which, on our arrival in town, was lying at 
the upper landing, awaiting her passengers. If you have 
never seen a Western boat, you have yet to behold the 
most majestic and comfortable river-steamer afloat 
Thoy are constructed and arranged on a plan entirely 
diflferent from the boats on the Eastern waters. They 
are all, aUo, high pressure ; and our steamer was, at in* 
tervals, bellowing and roaring from her escape pipe with 
a muttering and condensed power, which showed how 
terrible is the strength of pent up steam. Haviif 

reaehed tlie qavf 

iemdB of tbbace^ 

getting fliaii 

Beans of iroD 

ronr of 

irorld over, widk ill 


net at die kafiag 

tAo, with tlie 

ediin. This m Ae 

onboard of^and 

was no doubt TiaUe i 

the boat, not as in Ae 


We were then eondaeSKd if a if t Jitfji ' if 
the upper deck, which w a tgmctv 
to the forward salooiL His pn^aoA. if 
as it 18 called, is a fiw 
irithal, room enough in H^ oesesk if 3e 'ft 
a parapet of tnmks, whid nK Ife a 
in halves. We thenee resenA 4ut wmgu mid 
glittering ''bar" on one sids:. mii a rv^ if 
for the captain and his derks. vl 'm ifMff^ ^ 
iqp with elegance and taste. BeT'Obi 4^ 5«r a ««c iLn^ 
tance, extended the main eabin. wid^L. m «^ » 4 i w<jtjw< 
it, seemed to be endless. Ob es^^r nffe si<»% M<id»^<nii 
doors, placed at regular interrak.kaiSiAr 3004* tfiiiut^vift^ 
The whole was richly carpeted, hoa^ widk M^fiiH ^^mm^ 
deliers, and adorned wtdi the aDc^et 4«iSt jTiniMMr. 
After we had walked about a lraBdr»4 fees, m f AvkM 
gaess, we, at length, throng a fast of V/hj Mfiai^ 4Mrf^ 
reached the ladies' cabin, which was fdl <«iMltfr4 flMr 

230 Tin: srxw sottii; or, 

were irovernod bv some direct oln'cct in view. A 1:*:'. • 
closer scrutiny enabled mc to sec that they were in pur- 
suit of mosquitoes, Avhich flew about the room, and tliat 
every time they made a dart they caught one in their 
mouse-shaped jaws. 1 was greatly relieved from per- 
sonal apprehension when I had achieved this discoreiT; 
and I continued my writing as if they were not there, 
and soon forgot their presence. At length, when I had 
completed the letter I was writing to my midshipman 
brother in the Mediterranean, I looked for my ** birds," 
and found that they had quietly disappeared. Since 
then I am a philosopher when a bat is in a room. 

The young hulies, however, being convinced that bttj 
are animated combs flying about for a head to fasten is, 
would not be persuaded of the innocency of their inten- 
tions. The colonel, therefore, had to call in two or 
three servants, to drive them out, with brooms, riding- 
whips, and what not! But this only made the matter 
worse. The poor things, interrupted in their mosqinto 
hawking, became terrified at these belligerent manifesta- 
tions, and sailed low to avoid the blows aimed at then 
in the air. In these escapades they darted under the 
piano, as a shriek from the blue-eyed hider testified; mi 
even beneath Isabel's parasol, as a sudden scream froa 
her bore witness. The girls were now in despair. The 
colonel and I sat laughing and looking on. At length 
it was resolved, as bats are said to follow lights, to take 
the two astral lamps out upon the piazza. The drawin|r- 
room was darkened in vaih. It was the mosquitoes, noC 
the lamps, that attracted them, and, if any thing, the 
idea of their flying about in there in the dark, only in- 
creased the terror of the terrified girls. Stir oat them- 


AreB the girk would not. The jonng gentlemen, in 
lie meanwhile, were nsing their hats to try and knock 
lie enemy down. Twice in the dark I felt the wind of 
beir noiseless wings upon my cheek. The lamps were 
rdered back, and with a hard battle two of the enemy 
rere laid low, and the residue driven forth. 

^Now," said the colonel, after the girls had been 
wdye times assured that the bats were hors du combat^ 
nd incapable of acting as combs, either fine or coarse, 
ide comb or back comb, and holding up to the lamp one 
f the dead mosquito hunters, — ^^I wish to conyince 
'on that these delicately-winged animals are not after 
ou, and could do you no harm." 

Here he held up a bat to the light by its extended 
rings. The sight of it made blue eyes crawl, and the 
mnette utter an expression of detestation. It was both 
j^j and pretty — its wings being transparent, and ele- 
lantly constructed, and its body like that of an over-fed 
lole. Its head was small, like a mouse's, and the 
olonel, opening its jaws, showed its sharp teeth, and a 
ttle pile of mosquitoes under its tongue. ^^You see 
'hat its food is!" he said. ^'The teeth are sharp, but 
lie mouth is so small it couldn't bite even a child's finger. 
Tow look at its claws. They are sharp and curved, to 
ling by ; but the curve instead of being barbed, is a half 
ircle; and whatever the claw grasps can easily be re- 
iased from it." 

^^But its wings. Look at the horrid thing's wings!" 
xclaimed blue eyes. 

^^Well, let us examine its wings," said the colonel 
miling. '^You see that each angle where the joints 
jrticulate, is defended by a small hook— one on each 


iring* These hooks are but the curve of three qnarteit 
of a circle; and if a bat should light upon any oae of 
your heads, and hang there by these two hooks, he ooald 
easily be disengaged without sacrificing one silken stnad 
thereof. Let me try it, Bel!" 

But Isabel fled, and so did the rest. A negro boj's 
wooly caput being at hand, the colonel placed the btt 
upon his crispy poll, and haying made the wings take 
their strongest hold, he showed us how easily tke hold 
could be removed, even from such tangled locks. ^Hm 
use of these hooks,*' he added, *^ is for the bats to hn§ 
to each other by in winter, when they swaitn together 
like a cluster of bees, and in huge masses, many fesi 
in circumference, remain in torpid soapension ntil 

The young ladies at length professed themsdvea 
fied, and the colonel made each one pledge herself 
to run from a bat, or cover her head again if a bat 
into the room. 

Mr. Sargcant's beautiful and patriotic song was 
resumed and finished, and many others, and the eveningi 
which had been so ludicrously interrupted, passed iff 
without further incidents. 

Yours respeotfiillyy 



Mb : 

Mt Dear Sir, — Ab you were so kind as to express 
ft wish Uiat I should write for jou a series of trayeling 
letters on m j route South, and during m j sojourn in the 
land of '* mocking-birds and sunnj skies," I commence 
dien my first letter, which like all *^ first letters" and 
prefaces, I fear will be wofully dull. It having been 
decided at the Park, some weeks ago, in full council as- 
sembled in the colonel's library, that we should all go to 
New Orleans, preparations were forthwith set on foot. 

You must know, that the colonel takes a trip every 
y^ear to this great Southern emporium to look after the 
sales of his cotton and tobacco, which generally precedes 
bim some days, but he usually goes alone. On this oc- 
casion, however, there was to be an attraction in New 
Orleans, such as it or any other city could have but once 
rn an age. Jenny Lind was to bo there in February ! 
Therefore, Isabel won her father's consent by dint of 
coaxing and pretty teazing, and, as I am never left out 
[)f any party of pleasure, "Kate must go too." 

It was a propitious morning when the family coach 
drove up to the portico of the mansion to receive us, 
and, I was goiDg to add, "our baggage." But that was 
&o enormous in magnitude, the baggage of two girls, 
that old black Peter with two mules harnessed into his 


red wagon, took it to town in advance of lu— baving 
started at the peep of day. All the house serrants came 
out and gathered round the carriage to see us off. The 
colonel shook hands with all the old ones, and Isabel 
kissed Aunt Nannie, her old African nurse, and also her 
mother's nurse before her, while tears filled the beantifsl 
ejes of the maiden, at the genuine grief of the old womin 
at parting with her. 

^^Take good keer o' your dear blessed self, Um 
Bella," she said, sobbing as if her ebony heftrt voahi 
break in two, ^^ an' don't forget old aunty what faib yoi 
better dan she Inb de life in her own ol* body. Boo't 
fall into de ribber, and may de Lord bring you and 
massa and Missy Katy all back to us safe an' sound!" 

There was an interesting parting aside, betwcci 
Charles, the colonel's body servant, who was mooitcd 
on a fine horse to follow us, and his young wife Haiy; 
and also a tender leave-taking between Isabel's draaiDg 
maid, Clara, and a dark Romeo, to whom she was be 
trothed, and for her marriage with whom Isabel had pro- 
mised to purchase her a wedding dress in New Orkaitf* 

After the parting with the servants was over, George, 
the coachman, at a signal from his master, flourished his 
long lash over his horses' ears, and away wo went roll- 
ing rapidly from the door along the smoothly-graveled 
avenue. The very birds seemed to sing us **good bye" 
as we trotted down the glades of old trees whidi were 
vocal with their notes. The last thing I caught eight 
of was my pet-deer thrusting his meek face over the pad- 
dock, looking wistfully after the carriage, and eridmlj 
having an intelligent understanding of the whole matteri 
that I was going away to leave him for a loiig tiae* 


Per1iftp8, however, I had faUy made him to comprehend 
tl^ before I got into the carriage; for the first thing in 
the morning I went ronnd and took a ceremonions and 
touching leave, (don't you be so hard*hearted as to smil^ 

Mr. )f of all my pets. I said a few kind words to 

my squirrels, fed and patted my rabbits, embraced the 
shaggy neck of, and almost kissed, old Bruin, a famous 
large black dog, with an eye and a graviQr like Daniel 
Webster, and a voice like a lion ; and the deer I did kiss, 
and I do believe that the poor, gentle-hearted animal's 
large brown eyes filled with tears at the farewell tones 
of my voice. He seemed to comprehend as clearly as 
if he had been a human being, that I came to say good- 
bye. He rubbed his white face against my shoulder, and 
followed me to the gate, and when I shut it against him, 
there was a look of sorrow in his eyes that deeply moved 

What a mystery a brute creature is ! Have you not 
seen a horse, or a deer, or a dog, act as if a human soul 
were within its body, and all that was wanted was the 
gift of speech to express its love, and hands to embrace 
you with all the tenderness of friendship ? — nay, only a 
human form to be your faithful, true, and loving friend 
and companion. I cannot believe that the souls of brutes 
perish forever ! Grod must doubtless have for them a 
paradise fitted for their enjoyment, and adapted to their 
highest capability of happiness. The Bible has certainly 
said, ^^ God shall save both man and beast." 

Are there not among the countless worlds of stars, and 
in the boundless space of the illimitable universe, place 
and space for all God's creatures to live and be happy 
in ? Shall not the noble horse, doomed to the lash and 

286 THE suxNY south; or, 

dray all his life, have compensation in a univone nkd 
bj a God of equity ? Wise men say that this earth, 
and all things thereon, from man down to the lowest 
form of life, is a type of Heayen. If, then, in the worid 
to come, there are *^ spirits of men/' there most be "soub 
of brutes," and a spiritual form of eveiything matcriaL 
But this is too profound a theme for a young woman's 

pen, Mr. ; but if my words here written will only 

cause some to look more kindly upon brutes, I shall be 
glad that I have given my ideas ^'shapes and sen- 

I have already written of the beautiful scenery which 
spreads away, on either hand, from the turnpike thst 
conducts to the city ; of the pleasant villas, noble, na- 
tural parks in all their aboriginal grandeur, and swert 
cottages hero and there embowered in foliage by the road- 
side. I have, also, in a former letter, spoken of Kasb- 
ville, of its architectural elegance, of the beaaty of its 
females, the bevies of lovely school-misses that throng 
the streets, the chivalry of the gentlemen, and the hos- 
pitality of all. I shall, therefore, not detain you there, 

Mr. , but drive you at once to the superb steamer 

^^America," which, on our arrival in town, was lying at 
the upper landing, awaiting her passengers. If you have 
never seen a Western boat, you have yet to behold the 
most majestic and comfortable river-steamer afloat. 
They are constructed and arranged on a plan entirely 
diflferent from the boats on the Eastern waters. They 
are all, also, high pressure ; and our steamer was, at in- 
tervals, bellowing and roaring from her escape pipe with 
a muttering and condensed power, which showed how 
terrible is the strength of pent up steam. Haviif 

ntf jMiuVMUum at vome. 28T 

reached tbe quay, which was covered with enonnons hogs- 
heads of tobacco and cotton-bales, which the negroes, in 
getting them on board, handled with great dexterity by 
aeaiis of iron hooks, — ^making our way through this up- 
roftr of commerce, for commerce is rery noisy, all the 
world over, with its thundering wheels and ^^heare-o- 
yeo V* we gained the stage which led on board. We were 
met at the landing by s polite and handsome clerk, 
who, with the utmost courtesy, escorted our party to the 
cabin. This was the first large steamer I had been 
on board of, and my surprise at its vastness and splendor 
was no doubt visible in my face. We first entered 
the boat, not as in tbe East, near the stem, but at the 

We were then conducted up a broad flight of stairs to 
the upper deck, which was a spacious portico or vestibule 
to the forward saloon. This portico, or ^^ forward guard,'' 
as it is called, is a fine spacious promenade, and has, 
withal, room enough in the centre of it to accommodate 
a parapet of tmnks, which rose like a wall, dividing it 
in halves. We thence entered the saloon, and passed a 
glittering ^* bar" on one side, and a range of state-rooms 
for the captain and his clerks, on the other, all fitted 
up with elegance and taste. Beyond this, for a vast dis- 
tance, extended the main cabin, which, as we traversed 
it, seemed to be endless. On either side were handsome 
doors, placed at regular intervals, leading into state-rooms. 
The whole was richly carpeted, hung with superb chan- 
deliers, and adorned with the most costly furniture. 
After we had walked about a hundred feet, as I should 
guess, we, at length, through a suit of lofty folding doors, 
reached the ladies' cabin, which was full one-third the 


length of the main cabin, and more taatefnllj adonel* 
Sofas, a piano, lounges, rocking-chain, marble taUai^ 
chandeliers, and candelabras, made up the fievenl deUik 
of the whole. Still farther beyond were doors opaing 
upon a noble verandah, the breadth of the whole stern ef 
the boat, and overhanging the water. 

This verandah, as I afterwards saw, extended qiitt 
around the boat, on both sides, and uniting witk the poi^ 
tico on the bow, made a continuous and delightfiil pro- 
menade, broad and roomj, for several hundred Sseti 
entirely around the whole extent of the boat* It is these 
verandahs which add such comfort to the Western bostik 
and make traveling on them so delightful. In deseend- 
ing the rivers, one can sit or lounge on them all dsj, 
watching the scenery, instead of being enclosed m tk 

There is another agreeable peculiarity of these boati, 
which, as we arc to travel together some days on one, I 
wish you to understand: it is that the cabins are aU 
above the main deck, raised on double rows of colvmai 
high above all the freight, and all the ^^disagreeables** 
of those parts of the boat where the hands and the emi- 
grants stay. 

There are properly on this upper deck three distinet 
cabins, all on the same floor, opening one into the other 
by folding doors; the forward one, ^*the Social Hall," 
or smoking cabin, where the card-playing, wine-drink- 
ing, and politics, go on. The next is the main cabin, 
used as a drawing-room and dining-room; and the third 
is the Ladies* cabin. In the day time, these three cabins 
are thrown into one, by rolling back the broad leaves of 
the suits of doors, and the coup d asS from one end to 

lie iilkar isTorj 

|e emn hmrdl j reeoguse 

Tbe interior of 
id polished ae 
>WB of piketen witk g^ded 
r irideh is a richly 

le cabin into it, bat a door that 

raad Tarandab, or gaaid, that 

rrangement is werj 

ISO of danger. At ercmng it 

alked up and down the long n 

ants of the state-rooms ntting in their doon^ 

r looking at the scenery, like dwellers on a fiihioaihle 


Besides this extensire walk, there are stairs that gire 
oeess to the ^^ hurricane deck,'' which is the rwf of the 
rhole boat, and as it is but rerr slightly conrex, and 
iiolly nnobstmcted by freight, and eor e red with a 
ater-proof composition, which is sanded, it forms one 
r the most desirable and diarming twilight promenades 
Qe can well imagine ; and what is more, a |vomenade in 
dl motion, and nnder weigh, passing erery moment new 
matures in the landscape. 

Ton will thus perceire that, so far as accommodations 
nd comforts, to say nothing of lomry, is concerned, 
DC of these first class Western steamers affords the 
ery perfection of interior royaging. I hare not yet 
poken of oar state-rooms, which were not so much state- 
ooms as superb apartments with broad-curtained beds. 


and marble and mahogany furniture, anil aa co Mp ht i tt 
rooms in a ^'firflt rate" hotel. ^1^ 

It was on board this floating palaee that our f^lj 
took passage for New Orleans, nsnally a aiz or tefci 
days' voyage, the distance being about fifteen handre^ 
miles. It was late in the day when the last pasNBger, 
the last bell, the last clerk, and the laat plank, cane si 
board, and the dashing of the monster wheefa, aa they 
revolyed in starting, took the place of the a a tl ef i ^ g 
thunder of the suppressed steam, and the signal toDof 
of the heavy bell, which for an hour had risen above, yil 
mingling with all the other sounds and uproars of tk 
quay. We are now fairly under weigh, and I bid 701 
"good night." 

Bespectfolly, yovsi 



IfrDBAmlfr. : 

Timk ov tlMdbj 
ttis mode of tgmnSmgj, 
! The 
like thst of so maa j g acm m a 
joa immgme one iostzi^ 4«yvm tk* .Beflr Bmiertj wm tke 
French miBsionaries, who fim bvKbefi their fight chmks 
upon its tide, pictnresqnelT dfagnitrd the Ohio. B«i I 
hsre lemmed the tnie Indtaa naine for the lircr, vhieh 
is far prettier than that giTen bj the good father Hen^ 
nepin. It is Ohi-o- ke - p ee^dunn, or, p«t together, Ohio- 
lepechin. It sounds sweetly and mnsieally, and it means 
exactly what the French name does, ^Birer of Beauty.** 

Not far aboTc ns is the celebrated Pirate's Care on 
the bank, its dark month half-<»ncealed by OTer-hanging 
trees. It is a romantic q>ot, and with the adjacent 
Bcenery of cliff, woodland, and rirer, woold form a pio- 
tore, if jostioe were done it, striking enough to hold no 
mean rank in the galleries of yoor Art Union, that enor- 
mous Beaox Arts Lottery. 

This cavern had in former times a rery nanghty repu- 
tation* Some romantic fellow, with a score of reckless 
followers, held possession of it for many months before 


the introduction of steamers on the riTer, and leiiei' 
mail on all the descending and ascending trading 
Many a tale of hard contests between the 
in the vicinity, and some of these legends are 
stirring and wild, to have captivated even the 
pen of Cooper. 

The shores of the river are varied as we deeeaiid froa 
the Cumberland, by rock and woodland, and manys 
lonely nook where one would love to dwell in soBeevnt 
cottage was presented to the eye as we ntnemrJ ptit 
Towards noon we approached the month of the QUa 
The river now widened and expanded its boeon eioy 
league, as if it would give the Father of WateiB^ it k 
neared him, a false idea of its greatness, aa small wi 
always stretch up and stand on tip-toe when thsy talk 
with a tall man. 

'^ You've never sailed down this river afore, Um^ I 
guess," said, respectfully, an elderly man, with kifr 
gray hair floating over the shaggy collar of his 
blue overcoat, who was standing near me on the 
deck, as I was gazing upon the shores, and atrainiBg wtj 
vision to behold the distant Mississippi. 

^^ This is the first time, sir,*' I answered* 

^^ So I thought the way you look at every things Mali" 
he answered. ^^ I have been up and down too ofken ta 
find any thing new in the 'Ilio, or Masaiasipiii 
for that matter. The first time I was on thia river 
in eighteen hundred and three." 

'' So long ago !" I repeated. '' Thia waa befiM Ae 
time of steamboats." 

** Lor' bless you, Miss, steamboats wasn't then tke^gM 
on. We used to go in them days in keelboala and 

tjr jmn time it took ne u ■lifci to 4^; Aai k, 
l^MBM iq» firam CMmb0 to LowffflcL fitom is a a^ijktjr 

Hem the oU pOot^ ftr eMh ke vh, took e im eoke 
of tobooco froni kio pedrct, wnppee vp s s ekngy fieee 
of oO-delh, ^ to keop tke otia^ ii^" 00 ke eoidl, ton a 
Jofceof JleffwitklMOlkaMkoaiiMifciftii oiikaokiB- 
M but iadflooribokle ainiMWit of Ike koiid, tkwt it 
lato m jewO| ond tidihriilf It letoned tke coke to kio 


It seot koTe boon oofo wml pleoooni r€j9gag 
those doys," I roDorked. 

<«Tee, MiOB, it woo tornUe. Bot it woo 9%ktj 
olow. nien we hod our dongno to nui. Thor woo tke 
aaogo, ogen which oar boot would oo u ie tia eo iwn and 
get tamed over or eaak ; thore woo tke bon we'd get 
eaio, and lay there till tke boat rotted ; tkore woo tke 
wild Yndiano, oo ooaietiaieo need to ohoot ao off whca we 
roa too near the shore, oad then down in the low eoon- 
try thmre woo them Sponioh oad French deoperat^o, oo 
used to dort oot of the creeko aad bayooOi twaity blodc- 
lookin' diapo in a long onakioh-lookaig boat» all amed, 
aad attads ao and rob no if we didn't fight herd to oa?e 
oar plunder. Then a'ter a three laoatho' Toyoge down, 
we*d be took with the yoller fever in Orleeno on' die, or 
we'd loee oU oar money a gomblin', for we bootnea them 
dayo played cordo dreodfol bod, aad loot a aunt o' mo- 
ney in Qrleens." 

^ You moot prefer oteoorixmting, then, to tkio old vaj 
of tiadin^" I ooid. 


'' Wall, I don't know 'bout that, Mias ! I Eke 
on 'em, but if had ray choice I'd rather keel 
Old times, to my notion, is the best times. I don* 
! as men or the world is any better for steamboats, sad 
railroads, and the telegraphy, and such things. Ont 
.thing I know, it's a mighty deal wickeder world thai 
when I was a boy !" 

Here we passed a few houses forming a hamleCy aal 
landing, on the right bank. Upon asking mj oommni- 
cative friend what place it was, he answered : 

^' That, marm, is Trinity, six miles from the nunrtk 
Do you see that tall sycamore, the tree with the bark 
white as your handkerchief eenamost, that stands joft 
under that bank?" 

^' Yes ; it is a very large and noble monaroh of the 
forest," I answered, as I gazed upon one of the noit 
magnificent trees I have ever seen, beneath the shade 
of which a regiment might have reposed. 

^^ I don't know about monarchs. Miss ! This is a free 
country, and we don't 'How even our trees to hare kings. 
There is a grave beneath that tree !" he added, impres- 
sively. ''You can't see it, nor I nuther, for it*s sll 
smoothed and over-growcd long ago ; but right under it 
lies buried a young woman, which I never see that tree 
without thinking of her, and wonderin' who she was. 
She was not more nor twenty, but she had seen sorrow 
and trouble enough for a lifetime. We took her on 
board forty years ago it will be next month| at Louis- 
ville. She was dressed as a young lad, but none of as 
guessed she was a woman. She spoke broken Englisk, 
said she wanted to work her way to Orleens. 60 we 
put her to cookin'. She was so gentle and kind-spoken 

Iflced liiB, I UMB ier. Bai 

ridqr broketi j«ii as we were §mimg Jkmm alg it krc^ 

feaad ker Ijing deMi tm ilm fnm^ jml ef liie Vm^ 
niUi a daggnr buried ni kor Wart, b ww a HMdl dh|K* 
BVi wilk a sflter hOt, ndi ae I Ind eeta ia QrieM 
•iiOiig Ibem pedqr %Maierda. WeAda'tkaoiwwkadHl 
it. Bat we buried ber diere. I dag tfce giaee wkjwM^ 
There was fool plaj sc s a e a b ge, Om ef 
laid be bad beard something saiaauBg ab sa i Ae 
m the dark, hot sq^Kwed it was a dear craaaag dbe 
river, as tkqr often did ia Aeai dqrs, aad tibsse was 
prints of a man's wet feet vpon dbe boards of dbe dedk, 
and I always beliered some enemy bad Mkwed ber 
down the riyer, and swum off and mardered ber. Bat 
it*s always been a mystery to me; bat no doabt itH all 
tarn np, marm, at judgment-day !" 

Here the boat romided to for the parpose of taking oa 
board some passengers, and the {nlot left me; bat I stood 
and gaxed long and silently and sadly upon the green 
grare of the beantifal stranger, whose secret, ss the jnlot 
had said, was locked op widi God. It was a qaiet, 
shaded spot. A wild grape rine had festooned itself 
above the grassy bed of the wanderer, and a few wild 
flowers grew npon it. Ah! indeed, bow many secrets 
will the judgment day reveal ! 

How profoundly the unknown slept ! The hoarse roar 
of the escaping steam, the shonts of tiie voices of the 
crew, the oadis of the mate, the dashing of tiie fange 
wheels into the water, the hurry, bnstle, and oonfarion — 
how they all contrasted with the nnlnroken stillness of that 
green spot, which death had made sacred! As oar boat 
resumed bar way, I lingered with my eyes npon the 


grave, above which, perched npon the grape Tine, a nUi 
Iiad alighted and was singing. Sweet sufferer of aftnMr 
day ! Thongh forty years have passed, thoa art not far- 
gotten ! Thy memory, cherished in the rough boMB ef 
the old pilot, shall live in many hearts to whom my fctkli 
pen shall relate thy brief, sad histoiy. Many a lofing 
heart and sympathising bosom shall feel and beat ia 
kindly sympathy for thee, as thou reposest in tbj kmdy 
grave beside the mnrmnring tide of the Biver of Buaaiy. 

At this moment, while I was still gating on the anowy- 
armed sycamore, a fashionable yonng gentleman, wh$ 
had been made acquainted with ns, approadhed me^ aal 
said, with a glance of contempt towards the old pilot: 

^^What rude fcUar was that. Miss Conyn^iam, Ail 
presumed to address you without an introdnctioo, as I 
presume you had not the honor of his aeqnaintanoet 
You must pardon the ignorance of these Weatem mm! 
They are quite beyond all forms of good society ! DUmt 
he annoy you excessively?" 

^' On the contrary, I was much interested in Ida 
vcrsation," I answered, with some point in my 
'' He hua ideaar 

''Ah! ideas?" repeated the exquisite, who had 
enough to comprehend what I wished him to appi^ 
^cnd, ''you are inclined to be severe, Miss rnnjuflhm 
But, Miss Isabel says you are a wit." 

" Indeed ! You should be obliged to her for giving yot 
'vhe information, for you know wits are very danpaem 
Deople to some folks." 

, " Yes, I'm afraid of witty people," he answered, fingo^ 
ing his glossy whiskers, and then smoothing the ^oisy 
silk of his hat. "Do you know. Miss Conyngham, thai 


is * mm 9$yle off hU conng ibIo CmUmiT n^ 
tiraA ii to be M iMh wido' than tU»--^ribi^ 
ityio^ and H is to torn vf aH^^ktij^ JMt die leeet bit m 
tbs iroild, ftU roimdy evoi in finmt! And the bead is to 
be fan tire iMlies wide. Yoe see what sa efeel this 
wffl' prodeee! This bead is bnl an inek sad e qeerter. 
Aiadtheiitiiehefcistobeneiitfansitketop! bstrikes 
me that it will be a superb affiyr. Bat more than aO, it 
ie made of sueli material as to eontraet or ezpaad to die 
bead of tiie wearer, fitting eaeh bmnp perCeetly, ae ae to 
gtf% no imeasinem; but, so far as that is eoneemed, I 
never experieneed any m te as i nem from this: my Jhead m 

nieeiy bahaneed. Dr. Dr. what's his name? 

— 4moe passed his fingers orer my head, and pronouneed 
it a model of eqoilibriiim. K I hare one bump, Miss, 
more prominent than another, I eoneeire that it is — is 
oombctiTeness. Yes, I hare a great belligerent pro- 
pensity. But it is kq>t in check by an equal amoont of 
pmdence; otherwise, I hare no donbt, I shonld hare 
fought not one less than forty duels in my life! I see. 
Miss, you are admiring my watch seal," (which the ex- 
quisite was twirling and trying to make me notice). ^' It 
is of Oalifomia gold, solid! So is the chain. Had it 
made to order! — This massire ring, too, is — " 

Here the old pUot returned, and said abnq)tly, without 
taking any notice of the person talking to me, 

*^You see, Miss, that little clump of trees on that 
VmU to the left?" and he pointed with his large, brown 

The fop looked daggers at him ! But there was a calm 
self-possession — a certain native dignity about the rough- 
coated old pilot, that commanded his respect and frer- 

248 THB SVKSY south; ORy 

awed his combativeness, or I don't know whst konii 
scene might have ensued, unless the bumpof pradsMi** 
should come in to counteract the prediapoution to «» 
bativeness. Prudence dul its duty! The exquMli^ 
after trying to annihilate the old river Neptane with a 
look which was lost on him, turned away with aa eq«l 
contempt in his equally-balanced mind both for ■• ni 
the pilot. 

<' Ill-bred ! Vulgar tastes !" I heard him mvttar, m 
he moved off, — terms of his indignation, wkidi wm 
doubtless intended to be divided equally between BJ 
friend in the shaggy pilot coat and myself. 

The clump of trees were peculiar and marked by thdr 
isolated position, standing in advance of the reel of thi 
shore, quite down into the water. 

**^ I see them, sir!" I answered. 

*^ There is a different story I could tell yon iboil 
them ;*' he said, as if alluding mentally to what he lii 
narrated about the sycamore tree. 

I should like to hear it !" I replied* 
It ain't a long one. Few words and to the poinC 
he answered, as he pulled off a fresh flake of tobaees 
from the diminished mass which he carried wrapped q>ia 
the oilskin. ^' I saw three men shot by the shortest sf 
them trees ; under that ere limb that hangs partly ercr 
the water." 

Shot !" I repeated, with horror. 
Nothing less, Miss ; it was during the war wilk ths 
English. Some troops were going to New Orleana It 
help Jackson, and three of 'em deserted and were oai^gkti 
tried, and shot there, all in one hour, by Col. Mead, ths 


THB sormssn <r i 

t ikml «mrir 4» a 

buried nniler thu red ban 

iMre lad ! He pnjiii far 

Oiwst God sbtrre waoU ^ 

apm, and then, iride cb« t 

Wred htfl white bt««t ■• A 

111 ballets were t«anagiy riw naAv^Ai^MM-AaM^p 

into bU bQdr. Ue fefl *i^r Bmc «w ^ 4v «t«« 

iMpfd bin bcigfat inc* tbe mr «iAsAa(W aaft.flif 

Am rui for th* litw •» jaay i»= fcwfcrftiAHtf -w 

lliegnn. Amiiii,na»<yi«»ifc»| Ij fiij 

dump of tree* 1Mb mtm, iiit *■ hi* »itm^mfi^ m, 

bkdn't been toU. ^^mitm^wmmrWi^hmmmmmm:. 
You see a man wtSiam^ f m t l^ t . ami wttt • mtmif |^ 
ind eye among bii lefawa; hacif kr riiMMvAvwa^ 
be had gone tbniagh i* bii 4af, ^m 9tiM a«r «h«, 
tboogh there are fitiint j^wc* Wk« m hm ihem, aM4 
tbe Urds sing in the*, a 
would make oa aad if the;- 1 

"But, ICsa, hete we a«« ckae at «be mmA 4C«he 
(Hiio. and in a few miaateB wfl W <■ 1^ Mmmmmu 
Ifjoa'dliketogcta better Im4 ^ tke^mUm^^ 
tbe tseetin' of the twe gr eat ei t riveis ie A^cnrn, T««'4 
better go forwanl, and w^ iato the pOeC hoMc, <w it ie 
tbe higbeat part of the boat, sad j«« csa we wider wad 

I thanked mj new friend, and atadi^ tm laahd and 
the eolonel, I wu eaeorted by the hardy eU mm ■«■, 
with a poGteneaa that exqaintea au^ imitate, to the 
elevated throne, ataiwCng ^k>b which the hehaaman g»- 


verns the movements and directs the ooone of ovnightj 

In my next, I shall endeavor to give joa my inprci- 
sions of '' The Meeting of the Waters." 




Dkab Mr. : 

How ihall I deseribe to yon the profoimd bnpnnioD of 
snblimit;, so tlut yon may harre some sdeqiute oono^tion 
of it, Vhict the eight of the "meeting of the vaten" had 
npon me yesterday ? To see the onion of the Minis* 
lippi and Ohio is worth a voyage thns far. It ig one of 
the sablimest Bpectadee a traveler ohaooes to meet with. 
Everything was propitiona to present to our view the 
jonction in all its grandest features. Both rivers were 
of eqaal height : the MissisBippi dark and turbid, the 
Ohio clear and of a green tint. As our steamer entered 
upon the last mile of the Ohio, I could see with a glass, 
with which my good friend, the pilot, provided me, the 
line which marked the boundary between the two 
waters. As we drew nearer and nearer, and at length 
passed out from between the arms of the Ohio into the 
bosom of the Father of Waters, I was surprised and de- 
lighted to find that wc still were borne on the tide of the 
former, althoogh fwrly within the shores of the latter. 

For nearly two miles after we had entered the Missis- 
sippi, we Icept in the green waters of the Belle Riviere, 
which, pushing and compressing the murky flood of the 
other to half its breadth, contested the right of way to 
the mile-brood channel with it. The line between the 
waters that flowed from the Alleghoniea and those which 


bad come from the Rockj Mountains was distinctly pre- 
served for a long distance by tbeir different bnes ; and 
in order to gratify Isabel, the helmsman, at one tiae, 
steered so that we sailed directly on the line of demariu- 
tion — the green tinted waves of the Ohio being on ov 
left, and the muddy, brown waves of the Mississaj^i bcbg 
on the right — the keel of our steamer dividing then 

But after we had descended about two miles, the sepe- 
rior strength of the Mississippi began to show itselL 
The old Father of Rivers, as if he had merely o«t of 
courtesy suffered the Belle Ohio to oceupj his ebmanel 
for a little while, now began to assert his claims to tks 
whole breadth between the banks. Here and there tks 
turbid under current would force itself up to the sorbeo 
of the waters of the Ohio, and exhibit evexywhere grnt 
circular patches of floating mud. These soon flowed to- 
gether and commingled ; and at length the green evncBt 
of the Belle Riviere became all muddy and turbid, lost its 
individuality, and was absorbed in the mighty roHing 
flood, whose domain it fain would have held in eopart* 
nership. It was full a league below the month befcn 
the union was so complete that we lost the last tnoe of 
the peculiar tint of the lesser and clearer stream. It 
was wonderful to see how completely one vast river had 
been swallowed up by another ; and yet neither had ths 
huge gormandizer grown larger, widened his banks, or 
deepened his channels; and so this mammoth of riven 
goes on to the sea, a thousand miles southward, taking 
in a score of rivers at a yawn, and never showing signs 
of his voraciousness ! 

''Now, Miss,*' said the old pilot, who seemed grcallj 

THB SOtmnntKBB at HOKE. 268 

to enjoy mj admiration of the spectacle, '^now ve are 
fairly on the liississippi ! You'll find it a wild water, 
viarm; and the shores al'ays keep the same as you see 
^em now, — forests, and nothing else. Fire hundred 
miles farther down you'll see no difference. A picture 
tf the river taken here, and one after we >e sailed on 
H three days more, will look both exactly alike; it would 
take a man pretty well used to the rirer, if he was taken 
up from one place, and put in another a hundred miles 
farther down,\to know he'd changed places." 

The sun set with a splendor that I hare never before 
beheld. The river at the time was flowing west for fuU 
tve miles in a straight line, and the whole distance, 
illumined redly by the sun at the end of the vista, shone 
like a burnished lake of gold; while the black forests on 
either shore formed a fine frame to the whole. These 
"reaches" and bends of the river, which it forms every 
few leagues as it flows now west, now east, now doubling 
back northwardly, gives the Mississippi the character of 
a chain of lakes, each from three to seven miles long, 
and always the unvarying breadth of about four thou- 
sand feet. 

There is something terrific, as well as majestic in this 
vast moving flood. Its surface is never quiet. Repose 
it knows not. It is agitated by myriads of whirlpools, 
and here and there rushes along without any apparent 
cause, with additional velocity, and a roar like rapids ; 
yet there are nothing like rocks in its bed, and its depth 
is fearful everywhere. I had heard that a person falling 
into it, would never rise again. I therefore questioned 
my friend the pilot upon this interesting point. 

^^They do say so, Miss," politely answered a hale old 


man who was steering, and removing liis qvid firem kii 
mouth out of respect to me, and thrusting it for nfc 
keeping into the cuff of his drab jacket, the staucd kwk 
of which showed that it was an ordinary reoeption pliee 
for such things; ^^but it an't al'ays trae, 'oepi iB ki^ 
top floods. Then I*d be sorry to fall overboard. Mait 
usual there is an under current as sw^ a nui ligkt 
down, and before he can battle agen it and get «p to tk 
top, its all over with him. Besides, the water iB al'ip 
so muddy, it chokes up a man 'maiin' qiiiek. Bit ii 
low water, why a man can swim tolerable fair ia tUs 
river; but its better to keep on board if he can, and Mt 
tempt it; for old Massassap is a mighty ugly enatOBMrli 
trust oneself to, at any time, — 'maiin' treaeheroos ad 

Although the evening shades fell, and the supper kD 
rung, I could not leave the deck. The western sky wm 
a paradise of glory, a heaven tinted witk every baa «f 
beauty. Amid a clear space of pure green^ the eveniag 
star hung like an amethyst set in emerald. The watoi 
shone like living gold. The gloomy shores grew daikff 
and more mysterious. The stars came out ovcrheai 
From our two tall black chimneys rolled, billow on bil- 
low, sable clouds of smoke mixed with sparks, whieh, •§ 
they covered the skies over us, gave one an idea of the 
heavens on fire, and the stars loosened from their sphsra. 
The regular boom of the breathing engine eehoing from 
shore to shore, the dash of the monstrous wheels 
a continual foaming cataract, which, mingling 
formed a mad wake of whirlpools — ^the onward, KffhKhr. 
ever-pressing-forward motion of the swift steamer, wUsk 
carried me with two hundred other souls throngjh all Ais 

gceae of novel besaty and stnmge grandeur, bound me 
to the deck, and forbade my thoughts and seid tsming 
ti^^a^thuig elee. 

• Jl^ lengdi night, in all the gfittering ffimy of her 
itirry beauty, reigned. Leaning iq>on tiie arm of ihd 
lOokmd, while leabel hnng iq>on the other, I walked ihd 
*«^per deck till a late hour. Showore of qMika wero 
wjllafi^ away in tiie air every numiMit, uid tome of them, 
4mepng tibeir Imightnefle longer than othen, we loired in 
■nagiiiii ehooting stars, which they eloeely reeembUL 
Jbay woald descMOid in gracefiil cnnrea to the sorfium of 
ikm lirer ftr astern, and, Ughting npcm it, be at onee 
iSOEliagnished. Others would asoend and inove in a 
jpiral path lugher and higher, as if they ftin woold soaie 
heaven, and take their place among the fixed stars, 
irideh looked no bigger than ibej. We also amused 
enrsriyes in watching the Vroodmen's lights on the diore 
—large fires lituilt at the points where wood for steam- 
ers was to be found. These signal fires, whidi were 
visible on both sides firom a mile to a league apart, 
had a fine effect upon the imagination. It seemed as if 
our midnight way was voluntarily lighted by scnne kind 
beings of the main who wished us ^^good luck" on our 
voyage, and desired that we should prosecute it in safety. 
The pilot related to the colonel a very remarkable use 
whidi he once made of these lights on the shore. 

^We were coming up from Orleans in a thick fog," 
said he. ^' The night was dark as pitch. We could not 
land in safety, as it blew hard. Our only chance was to 
keq[> in the middle of the stream and run for it. These 
woodmen at that time did not lij^t their signal fires till 
they heard a boat ring her bell, as a token that it wanted 


wood. Yoa would then Bee a seoreof fires 
a stretch of four miles or so. We could discern so fm 
to guide us, or tell us where either shore was; so I nig 
the bell as a signal for wooding. The next miinrtsa in 
biased up through the fog on the left hank, qnartsr d s 
mile ahead ; and a half a mile above upon tlie other ihm» 
shone another like a star in the dog-days. B7 tksie st 
were enabled to steer; and every quarter of ao horn I 
tolled my bell, as I ascended the river, and fire aftv iit 
would blaze up, one on this shore, one on that. Li lUi 
way we ran all night, full a hundred miles, lighted Ij 
these signal fires, which we made these poor fidksi 
kindle, supposing we were coming in to take in wood; 
but the rogues ought to have done us this service^ ssthij 
live and get rich by steamboats." 

It was late when we left the deck to return to s« 
state-rooms. During the night I was awakened hy thi 
noise of a steamer passing us. Looking from my slsl^ 
room door, I saw its red-mouthed furnaces glare thros^ 
the gloom, lighting up half the river's breadth, the itA 
figures of the firemen looking like so many denees m 
they cast the fuel into them. It was a magnificent aif^ 
and a fearful one, to see the huge, roarings 
booming, thundering monster go past, with noil 
to awake the Seven Sleepers, while the shores and tko 
sides of our vessel re-echoed and redoubled the 
uproar. The next moment she was past, and 
and a rocking motion succeeded. I observed at the bow 
of the boat two fiery red lanterns, elevated am hi|^ 
which serve as guides to the pilot, and to show the psn* 
sition of the boat to other pilots in the night. Ov koel 
has a blue and a crimson one. Unaoonstomed to ihi 

THiMorasnirsE at home. 26Z 

notion and working of the machinery, it was long past 
midnight ere I was able to fall to sleep. 

Tkia morning we found oarselvefl at New Madrid, onoe 
Ae capital of the Spanish empire of the West, bnt now 
m hamlet of a few houses. The plaoe has been destroyed 
by ao earthquake, and what remains of it is falling into 
iim riyer by detachments. Street after street has broken 
off and gone, until bnt one remains. The whole countij 
k deq^ly fissured by the shocks which occur every few 
wada. We learn that ten days ago there was so severe 
a ono that an acre of the front of the town fell into the 
river, and chairs and tables in houses were thrown down. 
Such, however, is the force of habit, and ^^ getting ao- 
onstomed to shaking," as the man said who had the ague 
twenty-four years, that the citizens do not mind these 
shocks; but take them as they come, as they do the 
slorms and wind, and the other ordinary phenomena of 

We had a very amusing scene occur this morning, just 
before day! There is a young bear on board, belonging 
to a Missourian, who is taking him down to Arkansas, to 
his sweetheart, he told me. The ^^ exquisite*' had evinced 
tome apprehension about him, and expressed it to me 
more than once, that he feared he might "get loose and 
perpetrate some mischief.'' 

Well, sure enough, at daylight this morning, the whole 
cabin was aroused by such an uproar and screaming as 
you never heard! "The bear! the bear! the bear is in 
my state-room!" was shrieked in tones of mortal horror. 

Upon flying to the scene of terror and to the rescue, it 
proved to be, that a gentleman, who from a paralytic 
stroke has not for several years been able to speak, was 


now on his way to the Hot Springs to endeayor to elect 
a cure. But there are times when, if he attempts to 
laugh he sends forth the most appalling spaamodie sounds, 
between a yell and a howl, with a sprinkling of awful gnniu, 
all mixed up together in one, — sounds unearthly snd 
terrific, and therefore enough to alarm anybody of stovt 
nerves. This poor gentleman was put into the lower 
berth of the state-room, which my exquisite occupied. 
Towards morning, the paralytic being awake, heard his 
neighbor in the next state-room, in stepping out of bed, 
put his foot into his wash-pitcher, and at the accident 
swear so oddly that it excited his risibles to an 
governable extent. The result was a laugh that 
compound of the roar of a bear, the howl of a wolf, and 
the yell of a hyena, which, the more he tried to mx pfitt m 
it, the worse it became. The young fop was positiTe 
the bear had got into his room, and calling on hiBi in 
his best vernacular, to prepare to be eaten up. 

When the facts became known there was a good hearty 
laugh at the young man's expense, but the paraljtie 
gentleman being, as the colonel observed, malidooily 
tempted by the enemy of our race to join in it, prodoccd 
a second and improved edition of his vocal performancety 
that filled all who heard him with consternation. 

To morrow, we expect to be at Memphis. 




SuBimM ov Katoiu. 

DiAB Mb. : 

Wb have at length reached Natchez, uid I write 
moe more from a plantation, but one situated in Mii- 
Bierippi instead of Tennessee, and in the bosom of the 
tnoet opulent and cultivated portion of the South. I haye 
ilready spoken of the town of Natchez, which possesses 
sll the charming features of a tropical city. Its streets 
lined with the Pride of China tree, now in full flower, its 
Terandah-ornamented residences, with their wide, airj 
balls and piazzas; the sweet gardens that fill all the 
atmosphere, even in the business streets, with the per- 
fime of flowers; the quiet repose and comfort of the 
whole place ; the indolent luxury of the nothing-to-do air 
of the citizens, who like all Southerners, never btuUe 
ftbout ; the half foreign air descended to it from the old 
Spaniards, who first dwelt here, give to Natchez a tatU 
m9emhle^ wholly difierent from a Northern town. 

Then there are the handsome suburban villas embedded 
imid flower gardens, their white columns glancing here 
ind there, from openings in the foliage of the umbrageous 
rees that shade them. 

Many of the more wealthy cotton planters, whose 
states lie on the river where it is unhealthy to reside, 
live in the vicinity of Natchez, in country houses, on 

260 THE PUNXT south; or, 

which they lavish taste and expense without limit. TImr 
is, therefore, a beautiful wilderness of architectnnl and 
horticultural elegance around the citj. The pletsut 
drives carry you winding along among these tafitefal 
homes now rolling over a graveled lawn-road, now tra- 
versing hedges enclosing gardens that contain nearly aB 
the tropical plants; now catching sight of a 
house, now of statuary, and on all sides beauty. 

It is in these homes, which extend a league or 
around the town, that arc to be found the families that 
have given to the society of Natchez so much eelebrity. 
Here arc to be found persons who have traveled abroad, 
and cultivated their tastes by European discipline. Their 
parlors are adorned with pictures from pencils of the fint 
masters. Their halls are not deficient in fine statuary. 
Their private libraries are often large and well chosen. 
The furniture, equipages, and style of living are all it 

In Natchez itself there are but few wealthy persons; 
but the society is exceedingly good, and every stranger, 
who has enjoyed its hospitality, will have a gralefnl r^ 
collection of their tasteful and pleasant homes. 

Natchez is the diocesan residence of Bishop Green, 
the Bishop of Mississippi, and also of Bishop Chance, the 
Roman Catholic Prelate. The Cathedral is a noUe 
building, in the Gothic stylo of architecture, and its laD 
white spire can be seen for many miles around. Althoogh 
I am more than two leagues distant from it, I have it ii 
sight, vi.sible over a rich undulating country, with here 
and there the chimneys of a villa rising above the sea of 
foliage. The Episcopal Church in Natches is said to 
have the most opulent parish in the South-westers 


eoiaatryy wliieh is doubtless the case. The Ronum 
Cfttholics are not nmneroiis here, yet they have a Female 
Boarding-school or Nnnnery, under the charge of Mad'lle 
Marcellus, a lady formerly from Baltimore, and who^ in 
her infancy, irith her mother, was one of the few who 
escaped the massacre of St. Domingo. This school is 
siq^rted mainly by Protestant pnpils, who in almost 
erery instance leave the school with a decided bias 
towards the Boman Church, if not actually Romanists. 

The appearance of the country from the plantation 
where I am now sojourning for a few days, is very bean- 
tifiily diversified as it is to the eye with woodlands, broad 
cotton fields, and country seats in the centre of sur- 
rounding estates. The magnolia is here the pride and 
glory of all trees. Within sight is a ridge that is thickly 
forested with them, and such a spectacle of green mag- 
nificence I have never beheld. When the sun at a 
certain angle glances upon the polished surface of the 
large leaves, every tree seems as if encased in emerald 
armor. Then the grand, huge flowers, that glitter here 
and there amid the masses of foliage like large silver 
stars, fill all the air around with their fragrance. Some 
of these trees rise to the height of ninety feet — ^tall, 
proud cones of beauty that seem to be conscious of their 

The Southern ladies are all natural gardeners. The 
taste with which they lay out and arrange their par- 
terres would delight and surprise a Northern eye. The 
garden of this house where we are now visiting, though 
by no means regarded as the finest in this vicinity, I 
wiU describe, and it will give you some idea of others 


here. But first let me describe our dritv JiiUMr£am 

After we had driven half an hour amid the most kn- 
riant hedge rows, which extended miles farther, we CMse 
to a white gateway, set in the hedge. It was ihft m- 
trance to the estate. Passing through it, we rode s 
quarter of a mile beneath the majestic branches of ai&e 
old forest, and then emerged into an open road, which 
was bounded on both sides by cotton fields, in which 
gangs of slaves in their white and blue cotton draxs 
were at work, under the eye of a mounted overtcer. 

The villa, or ^^ great house," was visible half a mileoC 
fairly embowered in an island of the deepest verdore^ for 
an island it seemed, surrounded by the ploughed* brown 
fields of the plantation. As wo advanced, wc cosld Citch 
sight of a column between the trees, then of a wing, aad 
get a glimpse of the portico. At length, after two or 
three times losing sight of it as we wound round the 
undulations of the fields, we emerged full in front of its 
handsome arched gateway. The enclosure was maaj 
acres, entirely shut in by a hedge that was ^Mttgled with 
snow white flowers. A slave opened the gate for our 
carriage. We drove through, and found ourselves within 
a horticultural paradise. The softest lawns, the lovdisit 
groups of trees of the richest leaf, the prettiest walks» 
the brightest little lakes, with swans u])on their bosoiitf» 
the most romantic vistas, met our enraptured gut. 
Through this lovely place we drove over a smooth aveiUKi 
at one time almost in complete darkness from the em- 
arching limbs interlaced above ; at another rolling in sen* 
light upon the open sward. 

At length we <lrew near the mansion, which was sn 

mr sdmsiBKBR at mnx. M8 

Ilaliaii Tilla dT tlie poFest stjk, elevated so as to lie 
aaeended by a bread flight of steps. There were itti- 
wmkBt yasesy three feet tall, standing in front, just where 
tile eye of taste would have them, eontaining West 
fiidian plants, with gorgeous leaves, and flowering qplen- 
fiffly, the names of whioh I do not know. The color of 
Hm edifloe was a shade nnder the lemon tint, which re- 
8eved finely the foliage about it. Ln the centre were 
Woad folding doors, which were thrown open, and pre- 
sented tb prospect^ through a noble central hall witli a 
polished oak floor, of the garden in the rear of the 
hoose. Standing in the door of this hall, we could oom- 
mand the main avenue of the garden, which descended 
in a succession of terraces to a small lake glittering at 
the extremity. This lake lay in deep seclusion beneath 
a grove of overhanging oaks and sycamores, of magnolia 
^rees, elms, and orange trees. The south piazza com- 
manded the whole garden, which was a labyrinth of 
beauty and floral magnificence. Upon descending into 
tiie garden, one passed through an avenue of tropical 
plants, many of which I had never seen, nor could have 
believed they ever existed, their loveliness and grandeur 
were so novel and extraordinary. In some of the 
flowers it seemed as if ^' the Angel of flowers'' had trie4 
to see how beautiful a thing it could make. Such ex- 
quisite forms and colors ! Ah me ! how beautiful, 
thought I, as I gazed on them, must things in Heaven 
be, if things, their shadows on earth, are so lovely! 

Which way soever one turns her steps in wandering 
through this magical garden, new and ever varied scenes 
open upon the eye. If I should partkulaarize, I would 


but give you a catalogue and description of tlie phUf . 
A bed of violets, sixty feet square, as blue and brilliant 
as a paved floor of turquoise, and fragrant as all Anbj ; 
bordering one side of a walk, a bank of Terben■^ ODf 
hundred feet in length and seven feet broad, comfMtA 
of every shade of the varied color of this flower, looked 
like a mosaic aisle, surpassing description for its gngtim 
brilliancy. There were strange looking flowers, the 
leaves of which appeared as if they had been cat oat of 
crimson silk velvet, while fringes of golden flowers seeaed 
to hang pendant from them. 

In the winter months, the large galleries of the hoMe 
are shut in with glass casements, and the rarest flowcn 
removed from the garden thither ; so that one caa kiok 
from the parlor windows upon flowers, or, opening tkoa, 
promenade among them in a pleasant atmosphoe; for 
these winter conservatories are kept at an equal tenqponp 
ture by furnaces beneath. 

Many of the tropical plants require in this elimale 
this protection from the first of December to the first of 
April ; though all the winter the gardens look green tod 
beautiful, so numerous arc the plants that can ronsia 
out. Our charming hostess told me she used fomcrly 
to bring in the Agave Americana every winter, not 
thinking it would live otherwise, till at length some of 
them grew too large and heavy to be removed, even by 
four men ; and she sorrowfully let them remain, sappooing 
the winter would kill them, when, lo, to her sarpriic, 
they were not touched; and many of the corCi that are 
usually sheltered, will endure the winter abroad. I wsi 
shown by her a night-blooming cereus, preserved is 


akioliol, wbidi she oat off in the height of its bloom. 
TliiB 18 probably one of the most delicate and beautiful 
lowers created by the hand of Him who made this world 
of beauty. It is the custom here, when a lady has one 
of these plants on the eve of blooming, to send a senrant 
to all her friends on the snrrounding estates, inriting 
diem to the spectacle. The gathering at snch times is 
a pleasant one. Carriages roll, and saddle horses come 
galloping np the avenue, bearing youths and maidens, 
and gray heads, and children; and a merry frolic it is, 
with a fine supper at the close, and an exciting gallopade 
back a eheval by moonlight, or star-beams. 

There is here a touching custom of having bur^ng 
grounds on the estates. Nearly all plantations hare a 
private cemetery. These places of buried affection, 
where hope and faith wait the resurrection, are often 
gems of funereal beauty. Some secluded but sweet 
spot, not too remote from the mansion, is selected. It 
is enclosed by a snow-white paling, or a massive wall of 
brick; ivy is taught to grow over it; elms, willows, and 
cypresses are planted within the inclosure. White mar- 
ble tombs glisten among the foliage. Perhaps over all, 
towers a group of ancient oaks, subduing the light be- 
neath, and lending to the hallowed spot a mournful 
shade, a soft twilight even in the sultry noontide's 

Snch is the family burial-place on this estate. Not 
far from it, in a place scarcely less picturesque, is the 
cemetery for the slaves, enclosed by a neat white-washed 
walL The affection of the poor Africans has planted the 
rose and the lily, the violet and verbena, upon many 


of the graves. I was struck with the inscriptioii ipon 
a slab at the head of one of the green moandi of 





« Well done good and tklthfal mmn% rator tlKm Into tW Joj oTtty IflA" 


I learned that he had been in the family three geiun* 
tions, and that for the last thirty years of his life he had 
been exempt from all duties, except such as he Aott 
voluntarily to perform. lie had served futhfully Ae 
father and grandfather of our present host, who had 
raised this tribute to his memory. 

''A faithful servant," mused I, as I fixed my 
those three words. Who can ask for greater 
tion? In his narrow and humble sphere he served faidh 
fully, and has entered into his rest. Oh! that I, alto, 
may have it inscribed ufK>n my tomb, that I have beea 
'^a faithful servant" in my sphere wherein my Maker 
has pliicetl me. It is praise enough for a king; for, 
monarch or nlavo, we arc all servants to '*one Blaster, 
who is in heaven." I left the grave of "good old 
Peter" with a healthy lesson impressed upon my heart 


Katharine Coxtrgham. 

Dbab 1^ 

Thib wffl be Ae kit kttv I 
tiiifl stale, ms to — ■ wm we TB-emkmA wl 
Toyage to Hew Orif im latUskfterli 
an interestii^ mdqeel, — gpfitfJ ij a vHt wUck we aD 
made jesterda j to a ii ei gM w wia g getite ta 
at the resideDoe of one of the old fwiiif j 
can origin dates back to the fipiwish toMa. Etcfjtknig 
iTBS in the most nnexoqitiooable s^rle. Bat there vaa 
one thing which I did DOt like, and will tdl joa fnaeMj 
whatitwas. IknewthatintfaeCuailjwasajomgladyof 
great mental aooorapUdnBeBts and p ers ona l beaaty, fron 
tiie North, who was a goremess, or, as it is termed here, 
^teaeher" in die famflj, aad having known her in New 
England, I was anticipating no little pleasure in wj^**^ 
her on this occasion. Not semig her at dinner, iqion 
inqoiring of the ladj of the mansion for her, she an- 
swered me that '^she was in her study-room, and that 
she never came to the taUe when gnests w^e present. 
She at SQch times takes her meals in her rocmt." 

Here then I found an edocated girl of twenty, whoae 
grandfather has left a ghnioas name <m the page of 
American history, whose father has been a member of 
Congress, treated as an inferior, placed on a leftl with 


a housekeeper, because left a destitute orphaD, she dioM 
rather to teach than be dependent on relativefl. 

*^I will send a servant for her if you wish to see her," 
added the lady coldly. 

"No," I said, " I will see her in her room." 

I was escorted by a servant across a noble hall hmg 
with fine pictures, and supported by Corinthian colamnii 
to a wing of the villa. He knocked at a polished walnvt 
door. It was opened by my lovely friend, who, oi re- 
cognizing me, almost shrieked with joy, and dasped Be 
to her heart. The door was closed, and we were mnom 
engaged in conversation. Upon my expressing my re 
grct at the false position which she held there, she imikd, 
(sadly, I thought,) and replied — 

"It is not altogether disagreeable, as I do not wish to 
mingle in society where the ladies, however polite, woiU 
regard me as not their full equal ; so I prefer dining ia 
my room : though to tell you the truth, I am never in- 
vited at the dinner parties; nor when invitationa are sent 
for the family am I included ; and if I go, it ia expected 
I shall keep an eye on my two sweet little pofBik 
Teaching here is by some families looked upon as be 
neath 'position,' as the phrase is* But I am eonteat 
to endure all this neglect for the emoluments, which are 
seven hundred dollars per annum, which enable me to 
send four hundred dollars yearly to my mother, who bsi 
need of all the aid I can render her. With the balamwi^ 
save what I absolutely re<|uire for my own nse, I mm 
paying a debt left by my father. For these advantagft 
I am content to hold an apparently inferior poaition. I 
have no pritle, dear Kate. Reverses have nuMle W0 
humble." Such is the true position, Mr. ^ of tk 


^rneBS in the more {Suhionable Southern familiee. 
in some she is regarded as an equal. Usnallj she 
B a place midway between the lady of the mansion, 

the overseer's wife. Too far aboye one to be her 
panion, and too much beneath the other, she has an 
kted position, under which the spirits of the most 
irfbl girl will by and by give way. Eren her papils 
themselves her superiors. She can neyer marry here ; 
iie gentleman would not address ^^a teacher," and 

her education and refinement she can marry no one 
lath a gentleman. This line of distinction between 
governess and the mother of the young children she 
hes is more strongly defined in the older and more 
;ocratic families. Indeed it is in some of them quite 
istinct as in the families of the nobility in England, 
re, all readers of romance have learned, the gov- 
88 never associates on terms of equality with the 
ly. But there are many families of planters who 
lot live in so much style and exclusiveness, where a 
her would feel at home, and be treated with afiection 
respect; but she is the ^^ teacher" still, in the eyes 
he neighborhood. A plain planter's family is the 

to teach in, let me say to such aspirants for places 
governesses as may read this letter. To be sure the 
S of being in a very rich, stylish family, in a large, 
Tbly-furnished mansion, is a temptation that en- 
es the inexperienced ; but let me tell such that, the 
ler the fashion of the family, the lower will be the 
ion of the governess, and the more she will be made 
'eel her position. Much, however, depends on the 
ig lady herself. True refinement will always find 


respect; while vulgarity or bmsqneness of WMamet wSk 
meet its level. 

There are, however, in all pnrsmts and svooUioM 
^' disagreeables." No condition of indnstrj is frvefitM 
them; and this is one of the privations and 
those young ladies who seek sitoationa in 
families must take with the situation. Teaching hen i 
looked upon as a trade, both in males and femakt. tm 
a Southern lady to teach as a governess, she loaea 
with many, though not, of course, with the nensiUe 
right minded. I know a lady with two grown danghtei 
who has a school not far from Yicksburg, who will not 
let her daughters assist her in teaching, leat it shooU kt 
an obstacle in the way of their marrying en reghm TUs 
woman understands the character of the people. Nov 
in New England, teaching is regarded directly the r^ 
verse. Our teachers there are a part of the ** leapoefe* 
ability" of society. Our professors are aiistocrata 
Some of our first ladies have been teachers when gtris. 
In a word, a New England mind can scarcely 
hend how teaching youth can be looked upon as 
ing vocation. 

The gentlemen who teach in the South as private 
tutors, are placed exactly in the same position as ths 
governesses. I am told that a gentleman, who has siaes 
left a brilliant name for genius behind him, was tutor ftr 
two years in a distinguished private family near New 
Orleans, and in all that time was never an invited gncel 
at any dinner party in the house. When the phntsr 
lias furnished him a room, a horse, and hia mealsi, and 
paid him his salary, all obligations are considered dii* 
charged towards the ^^ teacher.** Professors in colleges 


m the Sostk are often oalled ^^teaeken,'' and HmrmlB 
of a prendent ia bat the ^ teacher's irife^*' In a irord, 
lialmtj ia really ariatocratic but the wmttixj eotton* 

Hie number of private tutors of both aezeathron^Mmt 
the Sooth ia rery great The diatanoe at idueh planlera 
dwdl firtmtomis raiders itinonmbent onthemtoenqdoy 
taaehers at home. The aitnation ia pleasant or nnplea> 
mnt aceording to the family and the diapoaition of the 
tator. tf he or she, for the sake of layingnp aomething, 
11 willing to endure privation, and even ^^ to loee poeiti<m,'' 
tar a year or two, why these trifles can be borne. The 
oaoal salary for ayonng lady is four hundred and fifty to 
five and six hundred dollars with board. Some receive 
more, especially as in the case of my fair friend, if music 
and French be included. Latin is sometimes required, 
but not often. In general, the planters keep their daugh- 
tera under governesses till they are fourteen, and then 
send them to some celebrated school. North or South, 
to remain a year or two to graduate. The sons, also, 
at eighteen, and often earlier, are dispatched to Northern 
colleges. Few daughters ^*- finish off" at home. Since 
the recent agitation upon the slavery question, the Mis- 
siaaippians are disposed to be shy of Northern teachers, 
and fewer will be employed. 

In one county here, at a public meeting, resolutions 
were passed that no teacher should be employed who was 
not bom South, or was not a Northern man with Sontfa- 
em principles. The good people of New England have 
contributed to close an avenue to preferment. South, for 
their educated sons and daughters, by their iigndieioua 


interposition between Southerners and their institatioi.^ 
It will be difficult, indeed, to find Sonthem born yomg 
ladies and gentlemen who will teach, and that prefcil 
the necessity of depending on the North ; bat there will 
be, for a long time, a reluctance to employ New En^tad 
teachers ; and thousands, who would have found employ- 
ment on the ten thousand Southern plantations, will k 
excluded. It will be one benefit to the South* Its yestk 
will prepare themselves to be teachers, and this deqHitJ 
vocation will become honorable. 

In my own case, I have not felt the sense of iaferior- 
ity attached to a governess. The family in which I bavt 
so long dwelt at Overton Park have too mnch reine- 
ment, education, and good sense to think any leas of ■§ 
for being a teacher. Indeed, I am as agreeably ntoatel 
as if I were an honored relative, and feel like a danghlir 
rather than a governess. If the situation of all wkt 
teach in families was like mine, teaching woold be thi 
most delightful occupation one could choose. 

Great attention is paid here to the manly edncatM 
of boys. They are taught to ride fearlessly and Bk a 
horse well. The two sons of the gentleman, eleven sal 
thirteen years old, where we are now visiting, ride up to 
Natchez three times a week, to take fencing lessons, bas- 
ing lessons, and lessons in dancing. They are also taaght 
pistol and rifle shooting. The eldest son, who has j«t 
turned his nineteenth year, has displayed to me for mf 
amusement, some surprising exhibitions of his skilL With 
a pistol, I saw him shoot three humble-bees on the wingi 
at six paces distant, lie will do this all daj withstf 
scarcely missing a shot. AVith a double-barreled shol-gsii 

MVritt<'n ill 1ffr>3. 

TH«>#01XfBSB]IBIl AT HOlfB. 279^ 

I lull* 0e«t him rqiiBatedly, Unlay, bit two ovpnges 
irVkk he threw int^ the air together, firing right and 
IflA^ aftd patting balk through both before they touohed 
tte gnNuid. He haa an old gnn which he ea}b ^^8haiy -a 
v§fB/-milkk wUoh | eaw hkn i^oot and biing to the groiq^ 
il-mritfr^ that was lying bo high, it seened no. bigger 
tihan # ipanraw^ I was admiruig the plnniage of a bean^ 
tild red bird whieh was peiMshed on tiie top of an oak, 
wImii he seat in for his rifle, and before I cod^ preveiit 
him he had taken its head off with a rifle ball and broagljit 
it to me saying, qoiotly, ^ There it is— you see it is a caiw 
di»aL" I£ he goes oat shooting, he dipdains to kill birds 
street; but first starts them up and assuredly brings 
them down on the wing. This eyening, he threw np two 
(^aarter-of-a-dollar pieces, and hit them both in the air with 
s donble-barreled pistol. Yet this thorough-bred marks- 
man is an intellectual, pale, oval-faced young man, with 
long, flowing hair, a slight moustache, and the elegant, in- 
dolent manners of a Chestnut street lounger. His eye is 
quiet, and his demeanor gentle, and one would hardly sup- 
pose, to look at his almost effeminate form, that it would be 
oertaiil death to stand before him in a hostile rencontre. 
It is this training which won for the immortal Mississippi 
Bifles, in Mexico, their great celebrity ; when a corps of 
three hundred of them checked the adyance of six thou- 
sand Mexican cavalry, and turned the tide of battle. 

I have just seen an Indian chief. He came to the 
house, bringing five wild turkeys which he had shot. Ht 
is a Choctaw, and yet bears in his independent carriage 
some traces of his former free and wild life. He was 
grave in aspect, and said but little. His rifle was tied 
upon the stock with thongs of deer's hide; and had 

274 THE suxNT south; or, 

a mstj flint lock. He had a powder-horn and ifaottig 
of deerskin slung at his side ; wore fringed leggings, moo> 
casins, and a blue hunting shirt. His black, coarse hsir 
was bound by an old red sash. He seemed to listen with 
deep attention to the piano, but no change of coantansaee 
betrayed emotion. He was much taken with my yomg 
friend's ^^ Sharp's rifle/' which he examined with gresl 
care ; and then made him a sign to shoot with it. Two 
hundred and fifty yards distant, a crow was pcrdied 
upon a dead limb. The young man leyeled his gun: 
the Indian watched the result eagerly, yet with a slight 
smile of incredulity. The crow fell to the earth simol- 
taneously with the report. The Indian clapped the rifle 
on the barrel with a grunt of praise, and, taking the 
marksman's hand, pressed it in token of fellowship is 
hunter's skill. He fairly fell in love with the rifle, ssd 
finally putting it down, walked away sadly towards the 
forest where he had his camp. 

I was then told by our host a very striking and touch- 
ing incident associated with him. A chapel was sbost 
to be erected on a neighboring estate. The walls were 
commenced, but the work of the first day was polled 
down in the night by an unknown hand. They were 
recommenced, and the same thing occurred thrice. Ihii 
chief confessed that it was his act. 

'' You have covered with your prayer-house the gran 
of my wife !" was the abrupt and touching reason be 
gave. He was threatened if he interfered again. Bil 
a fourth time the walls were destroyed, and, at kngth, 
the sensibilities of the Indian were respected, and the 
church erected a few feet farther south, when tliA devoted 
husband gave no further molestations. What a aalgcct 

TB^ BowxsmLsn AT mn. 17V 

tor ft poem from the pen of Amelia^ or some of oor ftmale 
poeteeses, or Prentice, or Park Benjamin ! 

Mj next letter will be written en vcyage on our way to 
Kew Orleans, where we hope to be bj the day after t(^- 
1^ then, adien^ 

Yonrs respedliilly, 

276 THE SUNNT south; OBy 


Drab Mr. : 

It is with a certain misgiTing and want of cardinal 
faith in mail-bags, that I sit down to my purple, TeITe^ 
topped writing-desk and take up mj jeweled gold pen 
(a New Year's gift from the colonel) to commence bv* 
nishing up a ''Needle" for you. One paper of six 
shining needles, sharp as thorns — ^I mean the thom 
that guard rose-buds — I sent to you last May, nieelj 
sealed, and addressed to you in a plain, fair hand, that 
could not be mistaken for any thing else. 

I placed the package carefully in the hands of tk 
village post-master of the rural town near which I wu 
then visiting, in Mississippi. I was on horseback, and 
riding up to the door with the parcel in my hand, I 
placed it in his possession, saying, " Parson," (for be ii 
an ex-Metlio<list preacher, with gray locks, and a vene- 
rable, General Jackson-like aspect, with his wiry bur 
brushed hard back from his knotty forehead,) '^ my dear, 
good parson/* said I, in my most entreating tones, *^I 
entrust to you this little package, to go by mail to Phi- 
ladelphia. I wish you would see that it is certainly 

'^ Yes, Miss, it shall go to-night. Is there any noncy 
in it?" he asked, looking at its four comers, peering at 
the seal, and balancing it on his two fingers, as if to test 
its avoirdupois. 

T9t 809fnBtN9R M ffKMKB. <7f 

<< They ttre utedles," I baM, smiMng, << and tiiej m«Bta'^ 
get wek" 

^^ Needles ! Bliss, thlm ; I'm 'fraid its hardly mailable 
Blatter/' and he held the parod more lightly in his grasm 
as if he were apprehensive of pricking his fingers, shoidd 
•ay of die eharp points p^^rate the pap^. 

^* Weigh it, sir, and <Aiarge postage aooordm^ : k 
will be paid in Philadelphia," I answered ; and reo^vinl; 
a renewed promise frcftn the snowy^ieaded old po8tma»- 
ter^ who is kiwwn by no other title <Mr name than ^^ Par^ 
son," in mil the town, I rode away at fnll canter, to rtgoin 
Isabel and the handsome young plimter, Edward, who 
were slowly walking their horses along the green path 
that woond by the brook which flowed past the Tillage. 

This package you received in due Ume, just as yon 
were on the eve of departure for Europe, Mr. , as 

I learn from a letter, and after your departure it appears 
to have vanished. Doubtless, in their humility, they 
modestly withdrew themselves into some obscure comer 
of your domicilium, to give way to the glittering silver 
needles with which you were about to favor your readers 
from the lands of the rising sun over the blue water. 
This is the true secret of their invisibility, and I have 
no doubt, that by a diligent search beneath the bundles 
and packages of old MSS., which fills the comers and 
crevices of your editorial room, the missing, modest, 
retiring, eclipsed needles will be brought to light. 

But, I fear, so long a burial in obscurity will have 
rusted them and rendered them unfit for use ; so, wh^ 
ther found or lost, they are to be regarded among the 
things ^^ that were." 

Not seeing any of them make their appearance in^youlr 



Dear Mr. : 

It is with a certain misgiying and want of ear^nal 
faith in mail-bags, that I sit down to mj purple, rehH- 
topped writing-desk and take up mj jeweled gold pen 
(a New Year's gift from the colonel) to commence bv* 
nishing up a '^Needle" for you. One paper of six 
shining needles, sharp as thorns — ^I mean the thom 
that guard rose-buds — I sent to you last May, nieelj 
sealed, and addressed to you in a plain, fair hand, that 
could not be mistaken for any thing else. 

I placed the package carefully in the hands of the 
village post-master of the rural town near which I wu 
then visiting, in Mississippi. I was on horseback, and 
riding up to the door with the parcel in my hand, I 
placed it in his possession, saying, *^ Parson,** (for he is 
an ex-Mothodist preacher, with gray locks, and a vene- 
rable, General Jackson-like aspect, with his wiry hair 
brushed hard back from his knotty forehead,) '^my dear, 
good parson," saiil I, in my most entreating tones, ^I 
entrust to you this little package, to go by mail to Phi- 
ladelphia. I wish you would sec that it is certainly 

*^ Yes, Miss, it shall go to-night. Is there any money 
in it?*' he asked, looking at its four comers, peering at 
the seal, and balancing it on his two fingers, as if to test 
its avoirdupois. 

am BowoBumm, at «omx. 87T 

** They are needles," I said, smiling, " and they mustn't 
get wet." 

" Needles ! Miss, then ; I'm 'fraid its hardly mailable 
matter," and he held the parcel more lightly in hks grasp, 
as if he were apprehensive of pricking his fingers, should 
any of the sharp points penetrate the paper. 

^^ Weigh it, sir, and charge postage accordingly: it 
will be paid in Philadelphia," I answered; and receiving 
a renewed promise from the snowy-headed old postman* 
ter, who is known by no other title or name than ^^ Par^ 
son," in all the town, I rode away at full canter, to rqjoin 
Isabel and the handsome young pknter, Edward, who 
were slowly walking their horses along the green path 
that wound by the brook which flowed past the village. 

This package you received in due time, just as you 
were on the eve of departure for Europe, Mr. , as 
I learn from a letter, and after your departure it appears 
to have vanished. Doubtless, in their humility, they 
modestly withdrew themselves into some obscure comer 
of your domicilium, to give way to the glittering silver 
needles with which you were about to favor your readers 
from the lands of the rising sun over the blue water. 
This is the true secret of their invisibility, and I have 
no doubt, that by a diligent search beneath the bundles 
and packages of old MSS., which fills the comers and 
crevices of your editorial room, the missing, modest, 
retiring, eclipsed needles will be brought to light. 

But, I fear, so long a burial in obscurity will have 
rusted them and rendered them unfit for use ; so, wh^ 
ther found or lost, they are to be regarded among the 
things " that were." 

Not seeing any of them make their appearance in your 

278 THK suxxY sorTir; or, 

columns, wlilcli ^lione stoadilv with the lustre of v-ir 
own lively epistles, I came to the conclusion thit thej 
had been disgraced — ^had been quietly sent to thst bourne 
of all rejected communications — ^^ the tomb of IIm Gi* 

"Requiescat in pace," I sighed, as I thought of tte 
parcel, and submissively bowed to your better jndgmeiit 
I heard of its loss in this way. A letter from yoor cfr 
tor pro-tem, asking me for more letters, eune seqaiiil* 
ing me with the fact of the ^^ mysterious disappesmee'* 
of the six I had sent. Upon reading this, I remaiiied a 
moment quite stupefied. If a poor hen had Ben a 
wicked hawk at one swoop dart into the height of thi 
clouds with six of her little, golden-colored ehickeiM ia 
his talons, and disappear with them forever from n^ 
she could not have been more confounded than I was iC 
this intelligence of the disappearance of my six qnnka 
At length a hea\'y sigh relieved my heart; and half i 
dozen tears (one for each needle) fell pattering vpoa lb 
letter I was reading. I could not help weeping, I mi 
vexed, and angry, and grievously sorry. I thooght «f 
all the thoughts which I had drawn from my heart, tr 
kindled at my brain, interwoven in their linee! It mi 
as if they, like Noah*s dove, had gone forth from thi 
ark of my mind, seeking rest in other hearta and 
(those of your dear readers, my many frienda, for 
I wrote them all in sweet, though unseen, 
with them,) and were driven back, ruffled, wing-wouidcd, 
to rest in my own soul again — the ark from which they 
so hopefully went forth ! 

None but an author can sympathize with me* Neai 
but the author who writes— eomtn^ hi§ heart aa ha wriici 


•— wbo wrilet with all his inteDectnalilj modte — ttndvaft 
hHfjge lave for aU thote unkiunan ime9j the good, and wise^ 
ind beaotifii], for whom he writes — and whom, aa hk 
{len flows oTor the q>otleBS page, he sees a noble and ap- 
predating audience assembled before him — none but an 
authwr who writes thus can feel all I felt. To such 
among your readers, those dear firiends, whmn haying 
not seen I loye, I look for that sympathy which can only 
atone for the loss of 90 much of mjfMe^j which I had 
poured out from the full fountain of my bebg into theirs 
.•-Hit least, which I belieTed I was pouring into thdn, 
but which has only been poured out upon the earth and 

It is true, the lost MS. was but sixty pages of letter 
paper ; but it is not the abundance, but that it is ourself, 
a part of owr%df that is gone, that makes the loss. One 
would grieve for a finger amputated, as well as for an 
arm. Until now, I knew not the maternal love which 
an authoress cherishes for her literary offspring. Per- 
haps, if I am to be an author, it was best I should pass 
through all an author's phases, and experience all an 
author's experiences. I therefore made up my mind 
patiently to endure the loss; but I felt like a blind 
orator, who has been eloquently and touchingly address- 
ing for an hour a large audience supposed to be before 
him, when he is afterwards told that he had been cruelly 
deceived, and had been pouring out his heart, soul, and 
spirit to empty seats — to an unpeopled void! 

The end of a writer is the mind of the reader; and 
while writing, in imagination beholding his readers, 
reading his thoughts and lines of fire and love, he has 
his reward, though he never sees to his dying day one 


of them. But when he is told that hia thooghti r 
no living mind, that they were ad<lrc88ed to s pec 
Yoid — by the destmction of hia MS., before h i 
the press, — he feels an aching void — a tumultaow 
ward ebb into his soul of all that had gone forth, • 
like an overwhelming torrent, at first to proatra 
despair ; but not finally destroy his energies. If 1 
sesses true genius, he will rally, and he will tr 
more; but he can never again put forth thi 
thoughts. Their freshness is gone, their foree 
their beauty impaired by repetition. He will 
new field, and what is lost, is lost irrevocably, i 
the nature of that sort of genius of which autlM 

made, Mr. , and such is authorship in one 


Well, I went to work again, but I did not, oh, ] 
not write over the same letters, and so I let th 
and resumed where the last of the miming on 
ended. The six lost, described our voyage do^ 
Cumberland from Nashville; adventures on the 
scenes and incidents upon the Mississippi ; life 
river ; habits of the boatmen ; wooding by torchli 
tornado; a collision; a shipwrecked steamer; an 
quake; the city of Memphis; its population, habi 
manners; the city of Vicksburg; the city of N 
and many things too numerous to mention. Dc 
what a loss ! And this is not all. Another paidi 
a new series is gone. 

Tlie seventh letter of the new series was date 
plantation near Natchez, where I was sojonminj 
weeks. It, and five more, described society in thi 
try, in the town; deer hunting, fox hunting; m^ 

iii IfKHftii fllh^ sad tenple: a We 
a wounded csTalier; s joomcj to tfe 
maid, and an a d f CBit e repkle wi& wmmmm. Tkm 
td^iiiftlt letter doaed as we were ia dia fnim 
Irice Written wUle die pailgf af ear parljr 
lii^ a deer for dimier. TlMse kttcia were pai mio db^ 
ttdS in two pareeb at Ae aeit pMt ofcg. 
' ^e postmaster waa a joaaig awa widb a 
lifte, It 1>ladc, atiletto-Gke efcv aad ke kept 
a kg^eabin tliat was liatffroeerjr. He waa l*nguJ| y 
)»oBte,aada8 he extended Ua knd to take d» 
ke betrayed tbe batt of a bowie-kaife ia 
He said the stage woaH paas ia a tew ariwatea, aad 
deed, I nw it come m^ a sort of dry-goods box oa two 
wheels, driTen by a yeflow-fiMed yo«& of aeveateea, kis 
fiiiidiead and eyes buried ia a aio asUu a u baSdo-cqs ^ 
hrge as a hnxxar's, while his feet were bare, aad oter 
Ids shoolders he wore a green blanket with a hole ia the 
centre, throngh whidi he had thrast his head. In this 
box was a leathern mail-bag, into which I did see my 
parcel safely deposited and locked up, the postmaster 
with the mustache returning the key to his own pocket. 
They were the only letters that went that day ; and now 

after four months you hare receired neither, Mr. . 

It is a shame, and enough to try the patience of any 
body to be so peculiarly unfortunate. I suppose they 
hare added ere this fuel to the flames of the hecatomb 
of wandering epistles that monthly biases in the court- 
yard of the General Post-office, at Washington. It is 
said they sare only letters with money! Ah, young 
gentlemen, or you good gentlemen with gray hair, who 
superintend this dreadful fire which destroys so much 


that sprung from immortal minds and loving hearts, if 
you had known the valut of my two parcels, which, 
doubtless, passed through your hands, yoa would have 
had mercy upon them ; I feel that you would have spared 

them from the flames, and sent them safely to Mr. ; 

and if this should be so unfortunate aa to fall into roar 
power, grand Inquisitor of the Dread Inquisition of 
Letters, called dead, yet being filled with thoughts, can 
never die — spare, oh spare this, my poor epistle,* ni 
all others that come after it, and send it on its way ^^ 
joicing, and, as in duty bound, I ever will pray for yov 
happiness, health, and peace forevermore. 

Your humble petitioner, 

Kate Coxtnoha^ 

* By a late law, the words " To be prcflerred," writtrBOwl 
the seal, insures the preservation of the letter at the Ikmk L* 
ter office. 

The letters ^pres.^* ^'^^ *«^"™ ^**® return to the writer cf 

all MSS., which are equal to money to author and puhliAir 




Cbavbau ds CLBmr, lou 

Mir DsAR Mb. : 

Mt last letter, dated from, this beautiful TiOa, a 
sugar estate, eleven miles above the city of New Orleans, 
detailed to you my grief at the loss of the round dozen 
'^Needles/' and my reluctance to rewrite; indeed, my 
ina^lity to write them a second time. I, therefore, must 
briefly state in this that the space covered by the twelve 
letters was three months, and that the twelfth found me 
on the prairies near the capital of Mississippi, traveling 
in a sort of caravan-fashion with the colonel and a large 
party, going to look at some Indian lands which they 
had purchased. We soon returned to the hospital man- 
sion near Natchez, where we had been a few weeks so- 
journing, and the following week embarked for New 
Orleans. From this embarkation I resume my letters, 
aided by copious notes which 1 took while descending the 
river. The city of Natchez has a romantic site, being 
situated, like Quebec, upon an elevated table, which on 
the verge of the river forms a perpendicular bluff of 
nearly two hundred feet. Along the edge of this preci- 
pice is a green mall, or promenade, with seats sociably 
placed underneath the trees, upon which idlers can sit 
enjoying the fresh breeze from the river, watching the 
ascending and descending steamers that pass a score 


a-day, or looking at the horsemen cantering through the 
level streets of the opposite village of Concordia. Ob 
our way to the landing we stopped a few moments to 
admire the wide view. It was grand and ocean-like, m 
plane and illimitable is the level sea of foliage thii 
recedes westward to the even horison. Four mika abon 
the city the mighty Father of Waters emerges from tU 
great valley of vast forests, and expands before u lik 
a lake, and flows sweeping past with the aspect of m 
sistible power, and, five miles below, loses himself agu 
in the bosom of this cypress desert-sea. 

Our boat was not yet in sight, but a tall oolmaa d 
smoke, in form like that which went before Israel, «■ 
pointed out to me, full twelve miles northwardly, ryi^ 
skyward from the level surface of the emerald oona d 
forest. The river itself and the steamer borne npea hi 
were invisible, being hidden within the heart of the • 
vannah ; but we could trace the unseen course and Uit 
tuous windings of the flood by the onward motion ef tk 
column of smoke. At length, after watching it half m 
hour above the trees, and seeing it come nearer, Ai 
column, tlie steamer, and the river simultaneously dMI 
out from the embracing trees a league off. Oh! itm 
a grand sight to behold the noble steamer plough ik 
powerful prow through the turbid flood, taming adib 
like straws in its path, floating trees that would hsw 
made masts for line-of-battle ships, while the nskiil 
of the waters cleaved by her bow, and torn up by hv 
wheels, mingling with the hoarse double-note of her M 
escape-pipes, loudly reached our ears. As she ^0 
nearer, she fired a gun from her bow, and the nft^ 
echoed from the clifi*, and re-echoed from Fort BtwiF^ 


e old min, orerhanging tbe lower town, sank growl- 

&way among the hilb. 

e were soon on board, and in poawsaioD of hmuiiiua 
srooms, richly carpeted, and eontaining efegaol beda, 
rbly hnng with drapery, marble laTcr ataoda, Tdnei- 
*ed lonnges, and every htxnry that taateeoold inTinit. 
n*t wonder now that the people trarel ao mud here 
boat is a regular packet between Yidkaborg aad 

Orleans, and being always filled with wealth aad 
on — for the trarel np and down the rirer of the 
ten and their families is immense— the aaloona of m 
ner are like a continual Ler^. 
it we did not long delay in our gorgeous state-rooma, 
ing as they were; — Isabel and I, taking theeoloneFa 
, and making him a secure prisoner — ^he surrendering 
iberty gracefully — went to the upper deck<, to take 
rewell view of Natchez, that hospitable, wealthy, 
polished town, which has so often been spoken of by 
Jers, as the most charming place in the sunny South 
testimony to which I freely add my own. We had 
iear friends there, and we could see some of them 
Qg their handkerchiefs or hats from carriage-windows 
I horseback, which signals of friendship we answered 
mg as we could distinguish the flutter of a hand- 
6 were delighted with the scenery — ^with the fine old 

broken into precipices of the most romantic shapea 
irildest beauty. The spires and towers of the city 
ared with striking effect above the cliff; but the 
prominent object of all was the green parapet and 
B of Fort Panmure, or Rosalie, as the French 
ntly termed it. 


This truly picturesqne fort hu been the aoeneof niftMj 
a thrilling romance. The pens of Gnfilh, of Monctte, 
of Dupee, have invested its site with associatioot eC thi 
deepest interest. Above its now verdant embraannethai 
floated the golden-hued flag of Spain, the lily of FVanee, 
the double-cross and blood-red ensign of England, ni 
more lately the cheerful stars and stripes of my ovi 
country ; and it is my patriotic prayer that no J^ftk baaBcr 
wave above it, till '^time shall be no longer." 

Twenty miles below Natchez, we passed a congeries of 
precipices frowning above the river, called the '^VUtt 
CliiTs.'' They arc broken and cloven by the sapping rf 
the river into the hundreds of fantastic shapes; sadii 
the strata are varied by the most brilliantly*tinted s^ 
gillaceous soils, the appearance of their lofty fiMSS is ex- 
tremely beautiful. A rainbow seemed to have baa 
driven against it by the w^inds, and left fragments of 
every dye staining its sides. One of the elifis staadi 
alone, and from the shape of its summit, which secnw to 
be crested with a battlement, it is called *^The Castk." 

It was proposed by Isabel, that it should henceforth 
be named '^ Castle Kossuth," which suggestion was carried 

by acclamation. Please, therefore, Mr. , make tiio 

whole world and ''the rest of mankind'* advised of this 
addition. Isabel is quite carried away with the gnst 
Magyar, and has named fifty things after him; and I 
fear, if he were a single gentleman, she would not liesitale 
the turning of a silver three-cent piece to be hersdf 
also named after him. I wonder Madame Kossatk isa't 
jealous! I wouldn't like my husband— but no matter. 
In my next I wilt tell you what I think abont Mr* Koa^ 
suth ; for one lady's opinion of one of the other aas, Mr. 


ut worth tbttt of fifty men. We women see and 
uidavtaiid inBtinctively. Ton men cogitate, reason, 
Wm, and haw, and then — judge wrong always. Ah, if 
gentlemen in boainess would ask their wives' opinions of 
mdi and sudi men they deal with, be sure they would 
wre them a great deal of loss and vexation. The good 
oM Bible term, ^^help meet," means vastly more than the 
'^krds matrimonial" ever guessed at. But, dear me 
— One of the cliflb is divided, leaving a pair of pinnacles. 
From one to the other an Indian girl, pursued by a 
^«Dge(iil lover, leaped, and saved her life. It was a 
ftarful gulf across which she bounded; and only wings 
of fear could have compassed it in safety. The incident 
has drawn from the graceful pen of John T. Griffith, Esq., 
a planter in the vicinity, a charming story, called '^The 
Fawn's Leap." 

It was first published in one of the earliest, if not the 
earliest numbers of the old '^ Atlantic Souvenir." I read 
it when a child with great delight. I wish you would 
discover it and republish it. Mr. Griffith is a native of 
Princeton, N. J., and cousin of Commodore Stockton, and 
in him one of the first American writers has been spoiled 
by opulence in estate. If Mr. G. had been eampeUed to 
write as an author, he would, now in his fiftieth year, have 
stood at the head of American writers. 

As evening drew near, we descended from our elevated 
promenade to the ladies' cabin. It was lighted by clus- 
ters of chandeliers of the richest description, resplendent 
with a thousand trembling prisms. Six chandeliers at 
equal distances revealed a series of connected saloons, 
with the intervening folding doors thrown back, fully 
two hundred feet in length. Along the centre, extended 

2.^S THK srxNY south; or, 

inr ('i;;]ity iVct, sttmd a table for .suj»|ht, that, in it- |-r- 
fect and sumptuous arrangements, rivaled that at ihf 
" Irving/' " Girard," or any first rate hotel. Indeed, the 
first class steamers now are first clasi hcieb /lomtmg! I 
am not surprised at the gentleman, who, for three or fbv 
trips, retained his stateroom, never going on sliore it 
either port, until, being suspected of being some mTtt^ 
rious character who had designs forbidden by the cightk 
Commandment, he was questioned by the captUL Li 
reply, he said : 

'* My dear sir, I find your boat so confortaUe^ 
table so luxurious, your officers so polite, your 
so attentive, and such varied company enli?«i 
cabins, that, being a person of leisure and fortiM^ I 
prefer residing with you, at least till the St. Charics ii 
rebuilt. I trust you will have no objection to m p if s 
nent passenger!'* 

The vanity of the gallant captain took the plaee of 
his apprehensions, and, bowing politely, he left this (•- 
tieman of good taste to enjoy himself as he plcaaai i 
privilege which I will now allow to all my good ftiflwh 
who have read thus far in this poor letter, whieh I wi^ 
givingly tend to the tender mercies of all pnst lasstfrt. 
maiUcarriers, and mail-bags on the route betweem Ail 
place and your fair city. 

Very respectfully, 

I am yonr friend, 




Mr DEAR Mb. : 

My last '^Needle" left me a Tojmger iqMm tke Ifie* 
Mtippiy on my way to New Orletns, on board one ef tii» 
elegant packets that ply between tbat «ty and Natdiof • 
lir yoa have never been a goeet on one of tbeae noUo 
Teaeels diat constantly plow the bosom of the monareh 
of waters, you can form no idea of the variety of interest 
and entertainment to be drawn from a trip on one of 
theuL. Let me describe the interior scenes of our cabin 
the first evening after leaving Natchez. In one comer 
of the snperbly-lighted saloon was a group oomposed of 
three lovely, dark-eyed Southern girls, a handiome young 
man, and an elderly gentleman, with a fine, General 
Washington head, who was dressed in a blue coat, white 
vest with gilt buttons, and drab pantaloons, terminating 
in polished boots — a real fine old Southern gentleman, 
with princely manners. They are all engaged in seem* 
ingly very interesting conversation, and the girls laugh 
a great deal and merrily, and seem to refer everything 
with a charming familiarity, yet respectful affection, to the 
snowy headed gentleman, who seems to be in the moat ad- 
mirable humor. His full, hearty, cheery laugh does one 
good to hear, especially when one sees his fine face lighted 
up with benevolence and kindliness. 

The three girls seem to be teasing him to consent to 


some request, while the handsome young mui looki M 
and enjoys the scene. I don't hear a word they say, ImK 
I know they are all happy, and I sympathiie with thor 
joy. Oh ! how many ten thousands of happy groafi 
there are in all the world as happy, whose Toiees I an 
only do not hear, but whom I do not see, and nefcrsUI 
see, nor know, (until I get to Heaven,) that they etcr 
existed ! Every hour there is a world full of joy fck tj 
millions, whose hearts beat like mine, and if all the bapfij 
laughter that at this moment, while I write this Use, 
could be heard at once thrilling through the air, we 
should think all the stars of God were shouting for joj, 
and all the music of Heaven to be floating arooiid the 
earth ! Indeed, this world is a happy world, and if ton 
of thousands of hearts in it daily beat 

** Funeral inarches to the grave," 

tens of thousands of other hearts bound with aD At 
delight of joyous life. 

I have often thought, when I reflected upon the avwl 
and gentle characters of the dear friends I find wheiefcr 
I go, and learn to love ere I part from them, that there 
must be in this God's good world, in thousands of plan 
where I never have been, nor ever shall be, gknioai 
armies of as sweet and gentle, of as intelleetnal sad 
loveable ones, whom, if I knew them, one and all, I 
should love, and they would love me. I sigh to tUak 
that I live on the same green earth, a life long wiA a 
legion of loving spirits congenial with mine, and nefcr 
see them face to face, and that all of us will go down Is 
the shades of death, ignorant that the others had been 
created. But, when I begin to regret this, ChriatiaBity 

THB souTHnursE jx mma. 391 

afokb to my eye of fiuth, the woiU of moipBg fife b^ 
yond the tomb; and I eonsole mjidf with the tho«|^ 
that «< There I shall see them and know them all, and be 
known and loved of them! There the reO iriiich aefa> 
lalea na oongenial ones in this life will be remofed, aad 
I shall see and know them all ;ff0CMKi!fiisaBMBia|pi( 
U lie aiker$ ikarer But my pen is a great tnasty Mr* 
■ ■ , It will not so modi follow fS^ts aa wander aftsr 
thoughts. It is like the ""busy bee," 

*^ Gathering honey all the da/. 
From ereiy opening flower.'' 

In the opposite comer of the saloon nts, or rather in- 
elines a little out of the shade of the chandelier, yet so 
that the light falls in soft transparent shadow open her 
transparent features, an invalid lady of thirty years! 
Kneeling by her footstool is an Africaness, with a scarlet 
kerchief bound about her crispy brow, who looks np into 
the pure intelligent face of the lady with watchful solici- 
tude, while with a gorgeous fan of peacock's feaUiers, 
she slowly and gently creates a zephyr-like air about 
her. There is something in the countenance of the in- 
valid that is touchingly beautiful. It is a face that looks 
IS if it were spiritualized by suffering. Her dark, intel- 
ligent eyes, unnaturally large and bright, uneasily wander 
about the saloon. The presence of strangers seems to 
alarm and distress her. Yet her looks are peaceful, 
calm, and resigned, like one whom sorrow hath chaa> 
tenod, and who hath learned to say to pain, '^Thon art 
my sister!" 

I feel a deep interest in her, and will approach her, 

292 THE suxNT south; or, 

and speak gently to her, and offer my aenrma; for ihi 
seems to be alone, save her faidiful atteDdaat. 

Hark! pulse-leaping music rolls from m gmdpoM 
through the noble saloon. A tall, grace f ul, bh i a c i U 
lady, whom, with her husband, we took on board it a 
wood-yard an hour ago, has seated herself at the iiitoi- 
ment, at the solicitation of several gentlemen wd hSm, 
who seem to know her, for on these Southern botfi 
everybody seems to know everybody, and feels as Hick 
at home as on their own plantations. What superb 
melody her magic fingers draw from the ivory keys! I 
cease writing in my note-book to listen at a perfect 
April-shower of harmony — sun-shine, rainbows, thunder, 
singing birds, and ringing rain drops, all bewilderiamij 
and joyously heard together! The ^^fine old SoviWa 
gentleman" first pricked up his ears, and then rose laA 
advanced; the three graces forgot to tease him, and half 
breathlessly over the piano. The lady oommenoed mf 
ing Casta Diva. The invalid raised her gkruMdy 
bright eyes, and her pearl-hued cheek flushed with s 
tint as delicate as the reflections of a rose-leaf; and with 
parted lips she seemed to drink in the melodious waw 
of air, and receive them into her very soul. How ss- 
raphically she smiles as she listens ! Oh, muuc ia lieai« 
bom ! Music can reach the soul of the dying when it ii 
deaf to the voice of earthly love ! Onoe I watched il 
midnight by the bedside of a loved and dying maidfii 
whose brow the day before had been bleased with At 
waters of baptism. 

*' Sing to me, dearest Kate, — sing to me," aha liU^ 
pered. ^* I am dying. Sing to me, and lei ma hsff 
your voice the last sound of earth ! I feel that ny sail 

npr jyVfvnnR ix howl S9$ 

k gmng ahme. Alone, into the vast void that stretches 
between time and eternity. Oh, sing to me as you find 
mj spirit departing, that my wandering soul may have 
pasM floiind of earth to cling to as it lannchea into that 
draad unknown!" 

So I sang to her, and her soul took flight on the 
vingp of the aweet words, 

" I would not live alway — ^no, welcome the t(Hnb ; 
Since Jesns hatk lain tkere^ I dread not its gloom. 
There sweet be my rest, tiU he bid me arise, 
To hail him in trinmph descending the skies." 

The graoefiil stranger who had taken her seat at the 
piano, soon gathered about her not only all the ladies 
and gentlemen in our cabin, but the gentlemen in the 
great salo<m left their politics to advance and listen, 
others laid down their books and newspapers, and even 
parties rose from their cards to come nigh her! There 
was a perfect jam about the cabin entrance — tiers of heads 
beyond tiers of heads I I myself was perfectly entranced 
by the syren. Without apparent effort she would pour 
and pour, and pour forth from her superbly-shaped throat, 
liquid globules of melody, that intoxicated the ear of the 
listener with hitherto unknown pleasure. She brought 
tears into many eyes by the tenderest pathos, and again 
dispelled the tears by successive outbursts of the liveliest 
strains of wild, rich, song. Now she would fill all the 
saloon with a storm of notes, gorgeous and grand, and 
unearthly beyond conception; torrents of music, musio, 
music, loud, wild, and terrible, seemed to be roaring 
around us in one continuous overwhelming cataract; and 
when we could bear no more, a sudden and instantaneous 

294 THK srwY south; or, 

cessation of kevs mid voice would be succeeded l»v a «'f: 
gentle, loving air, as simple and clear m that of a binl. 
This bird-like air warbled in her throat, would seem to 
ascend and ascend, and mount and soar, and atill aieni 
far upwards, rise higher and higher, higher uid higher, 
growing sweeter and fainter, ascending, and still asenrf- 
ing, until, breathless with enchantment, we listened til 
we lost the far oif voice of the lark-like notes in tke 
skies — dying away at length into a sacred sikMCi 
Every heart suspended its beating! With lips psitdi 
eyes raised upwards, and ears intent, stood ereiy one of 
the eager and bewitched listeners, as if an uigel U 
gone singing up into heaven, out of their sight. 

A sudden crash of music startles the silenee, as if 
thunder had burst from the skies upon our heads! Itii 
one grand sweep of the fingers of the charmer OTcr eiffj 
key of the instrument, in an overpowering finale, whoi, 
rising from her seat, she seeks blushingly and modeiilj 
her husband's eye and arm, amid the most rapturoos uA 
prolonged applause. 

^^Who can she be? It must be Jenny Lind! or itii 
certainly Kate Hayes!" said fifty voices. But it wu 

neither of these ! All musical talent, Mr. ^ is noC 

displayed in concert rooms. In private life, among 
American ladies, especially among the highly-edncated 
Southerners, to whom music is a native air, there is si 
much talent as is possessed by Miss Lind, or Miss Hayes* 
or Madame Parodi. This sweet stranger and noble pv- 

former was a Mrs. W ^h, a young married lady, whose 

husband's plantation was near the point where dicj sb- 
barked, not many leagues below Natchei, of which she ii 
a native. Miss Cole, formerly of New RodieUe, iEm 


WmtaoOf of Nathrille^ and many others, I can name, sing 
CSaota Diva and a score of other operatic pieces, with as 
Much effect and feeling as any cantatrice that ever ap- 
peared before a public assembly. America has more 
Musical talent and skill buried in the retirement of her 
Soathem plantations, or adorning her Northern drawing- 
looms, than Sweden, Italy, or Germany possess, in all 
their Talleys and amid all their romantic scenery* 

Should circumstances call them to make use of their 
talent and genius as a means of support, our ladies could 
*^beat" Europe in operatic music as our gentlemen have 
lately done in yachting. Biscaccianti — ^withal her Italian 
husband's name substituted for her own — ^is an American 
girl, with whom I once met in her school! This intel- 
lectual and soul-full Biscaccianti has not at present her 
equal in opera song. She has the key to our Joys and 
tear$* I learn that she has lately sailed for California, 
to awaken there the echoes of the '^Golden Gtate." 
Should it '^ grate harsh thunder" before her approach, at 
the sound of this songstress' silvery voice, it will swing 
wide, like Milton's Celestial portal 

"On harmonious hinges turning/' 



P. S. I have dated this and two preceding letters firom 
<^ Chateau de Clery." This is the sugar estate of a 
French gentleman of this name, where I am sojourning 
for a few weeks, and from which I shall write you some 
accounts of life in the villas of the opulent Louisianaises. 



Mt Dear Mr. 

How shall my feeble pen describe to joit tlie 
of the scenery of the Lower Mississippi ! K the nwtlMm 
portion of this mighty flood, as it rolls forerer and fw 
amid its dark wildernesses, is gloomy and awe iaipiri^ 
the southern arm is infinitely more beantifU. Oat or 
two of my lost letters have been deroted to a akcteh rf 
our trip from Natchez towards New Orleana. It k it 
Natchez that the wild forest-like charaoter of the ]fi» 
issippi begins to assume the more cheerful featwvi rf 
varied scenery, and cultivated savannahs. 

Natchez itself sits like a queen crowning a 
looking cliff, and extending her sceptre over the 
plains and smiling valleys of Louisiana. Then tvntj 
miles below this city frown down upon the voyager the 
craggy peaks and tower-like walls of *^ Ellis Clifi." 
From that point till Baton Rouge comes in aight, tht 
shores become more open, and the banks more interesting 
with cliff, upland, and many a green spot of matie loteli- 
ness, where the blue smoke curling upwards amid d»tf 
foliage, betrays the secludeil home of the planter. 

A few leagues above Baton Rouge, the ootton fields 
cease, and for these snow-white acres is beheld the tall, 
straight sugar-cane waving to the breeze for manj a 
league. Until I came in sight of the first anger 


I was not ftwire of the distiBetBHi mA vUdk the 
of climate that mark the loeidilj of oar c mmiMy* B US' _ 
ferent staples can be diieemed. In imemHag iIm 
TTpper MLssiMippi, the last wheat idd «aa taken hmm 
of at the same moment the int cotton plantataan «aa 
pmntedowttome; and after aaiKnge^fjjhtd^gineilhianfch 
the cotton latitodes, the hat cotton piantmfinn ani the 
Brat angareatate meet not far aboTc Baton BonggJ fag" — 
A)0 adTance with majeatic prngwaaian en ana of tiheM 
SMnnMth ateamera down throogh the ktilndea^ haa in it 
iiaigthiag of the anblime. Bnt I ngret to kaan the 
pnro, white phuaa of apotkaa cotton ieece, than wUdi 
nothing can be more diamung to the cje. I ahaU never 
foi^et when one mcnming aa I roae from breakfiMt^ at Lake 
noTideace, the gmtleman, at whoae honae we were 
gnats, cned, 

^ Come, Mias Kate, ride with me, and I wiU ahow yon 
a sight worth going aeroaa the ocean to ace, and which 
beats all John Bull has got m the Crystal P^kce." 

After twenty minntea' gallqi along the arrowy ahorea 
of the lake, we drew rein on the Tcrge of a cotton^eld. 

''Now hold by that branch, and atand nprigiht in year 
•addle, Kate, and look before yoo," he aaid. 

I did so, and beheld a level expanse, containing eleren 
hnndred acrea in cotton, withoat fence or ridge to break 
the beantifol spectacle. The pknt was in foil boll, hang- 
ing to the hand of the picker in the ridiest loxurianoe. 
A small army of slaves, whose bbck faces contraated 
oddly with the white fields, were mardiing onward 
through it gathering the white wreaths, and heq»ing 
therewith their baskets, while the loud mvncal choroa 
of their leader'a voice, to which their own kq>t tme^ 


as he sang ^^ the picker's song/' fell cheerfnlly oa ay 

'^ That field alone," said the major, with a qMiU&g 
eye, "is worth $60,000." 

Oh, the wealth of these cotton-planters, Mr. ! 

But if they are rich, what shall be said of the ownoi 
of the sugar estates, which are far more profitabk to 
cultivate than cotton plantations! Oar New Knght^ 
farmers have no conception of the riches of these Soit fc 
em people. Let me give you an instance of the maiMr 
in which money accumulates here. A young gcntkis, 
whom I know near Natchez, received, at twentjHNM 
years of age, thirty slaves from his father, and fovtca 
hundred acres of wild forest land on the Misaiqili 
lie took his hands there, and commenced deviigi 
Thirty axes do vast execution in a wood. As he deaifd 
he piled up the cloven timber into fire-wood length, sad 
sold it to passing steamers at $2 50 a cord. The first ycir 
he took $12,000 in cash for wood alone. The leeoad 
year he raised 80 bales of cotton, which he sold at |S0 
a bale, and he also sold wood to the amount of $14,000 
more. The third year he sold 150 bales of eotton, sad 
cleared by wood $10,000, which, with $8,000 his cottoa 
sold for, brought him an income of $18,000. Oat of 
this the expense for feeding and clothing his thirty slam 
per annum was less than $1,800. The young man, BSl 
yet twenty-nine, is now a rich planter, with a himdrc4 
slaves, and ia making 500 bales of cotton at a crop. 

Excuse these business-looking figures, Mr. ^ b«t ia 

these da^'s ladies are expected to know about such thii^ 
you know, and if I have learned such facta it ia no ham 
for me to write them. If I were writing from T^phad, 


I should, perhftps, tell 70a bow mamj reindeer'^ 

went to make a young girrs marria^ portioou 

It was half an hour before ranset wW« we 
Bight of Baton Boage, the capital of \\mm%m% Tim 
state-house, large and white, looaed fonmHj wf^ utd 
OTortowering the town belittled it so that its best hsmcii 
seemed no bigger than cottages. Tbe |riaee is smiH» 
but flanked by United States Barrsdks on one mi^ sad 
by the Capitol on the otha*. The ttMr-^pmnf^ed Immmat 
was flying at the top of the goremneiit isf-staf^ sad 
flaunted sancily in the breexe. 

'' There is General Taylor's house," cried the 
of oar steamer, who, by-^the-way, is a great bdy^s 
and the civilest spoken gentleman to be a rovgh^ 
ther-beaten ^lississippi commuid^T I er^r ki»ev^ 

He directed my gaze to a small, white dw^ellifig 00 tbe 
Terge of the parade-grouid, with its garden descending 
to the water-side. It was an hnmble home, and wo«ld 
not hare been too fine for the sergeant to lire in^ I 
gazed upon the spot with those in^lescribaUe emotaotts 
with which we always gaze upon localities with wiaA 
oninent men have once been associateiL 

^^ From that unpretending abode he went (orth to the 
conquest of Mexico," said Colonel Peyton, addresmg 
Isabel and me, ^^and from it a seer/nd time he was called 
to preside over the destinies of the Union." 

^^ His body lies buried beneath the trees there," said 
one of the passengers. 

^^ No, answered our captain, ^ his reaains were taken 
to Kentucky." 

^^ There is old Whitey," exchumed a beaotifal yoong 
girl near me, one of those who had come on board at 


Nfttches. *' Dear old Whitey ; he desenres that tlia giita 
of Baton Rouge should every day crown him with flow- 
ers, and interwreath his mane with the gajeat riUNML*' 

Sure enough I saw the ancient war-horse himsdt Ha 
was grazing quietly on the slope of the parade-grond; 
but at the noise of our passing boat, be raiaed hii aged 
head to regard us philosophically! He looks TenenUc, 
but has not lost his symmetry; and they say that at tlia 
sound of the morning and evening gun he pricks up hii 
ears, tosses his head, flings his gray mane abroad, and 
canters into the smoke, snuffing it up, and neighing like 
a trumpet. 

I walked through the four or five pretty streets thit 
constitute Baton Rouge. It is a French looking town yet, 
though French manners with the language have gircn 
way to a highly-polished American popolation. The 
streets are prettily shaded; the houses hare rerandab; 
ladies were in the balconies; beautiful olire-diceked 
children, with hair dressed a la Sm$$ej promenaded tht 
sidewalks; servants were indolently occupying the doo^ 
sides, and a few carriages drive through the streets. I 
was on the whole agreeably impressed with Baton BoogCi 
and think it would be a charming residenoe. It is one 
hundred and thirty miles above New Orleans; and from 
this point begins the superb scenery of that part of the 
river called ^^the Coast."* The moon was up whca 

'*"*Thc portion of the river Mississippi, which lioa low&rdi 
the Mexican Gulf, for a distance of two hundred and fifty miks 
aljove \U mouth,, has iKH^n called the ' Coast,' from the eariiol 
hettleuient iif the country- The reason why this misBOOMT \m 
been thus ^von to the banks of the SoQtheni Hi 
unknown/' — HiMiorif of Jmuhiana. 

W6 left JfalOM 

ike addition lo« 
tlie LcgiahlMg^ 

ndea, we 

Wiahing joi^ 



My Dear Mr. : 

If jou see a report going the rounds of oertua kr- 
barous journals that I am married, I forbid jour oopjbg 
it, and command you to contradict it. It is ft dme 
how some of these bachelor editors will make use of t 
young lady's name. If one protests, thej say, '^It ii 
only a paragraph," and each one scissors ftwfty and irti 
up his type, without caring who is hurt, so that \m 
paper is ^^ racy." I am not married ; and when I aa, I 
desire it to be properly announced, under the head of 
Marriages, like those of other people, and not blasoned 
en paragraphe in an editor's column. Why, the. toe 
idea of being thus paragraphed, is enough to ppevcnt 
any modest young man from proposing, much less BS^ 
rying, at such a venture. 

So, please, Mr. , don't paragraph my marriage, 

even should you hear of it ; and if you catch that ugly, 
little paragraph about me going the rounds of those efcr- 
lasting echoing country papers, put your finger upon h, 
and annihilate it. It originated somewhere in OktiUw^ 
haw county, in a paper called tho Independent Bile 
Ranger, the editor of which is the intelligent flfnthinisn 
who took a telegraph wire, stretched across the eomtry, 
to be the Tropic of Cancer. 


In my last we were just quitting Baton Bonge, the 
mrtl and Franoo*American capital of Looisiana. The 
name of this place (Bed Pole) originated in a Tery pretty 
buccaneering cnatom of the olden times of this romantic 
comer of the New World. 

*' Yon see, ma'am,*' said our old pilot, who told me the 
story, — for these ancient riTer-gods of the Ifississippi 
are tremendous story-tellers, (I don't mean fibbers, Mr. 

^) and they always hare a grand, great story abont 

trery bend, point, island, bloff, and pass in the rrrer,— * 
^yoa see, ma'am, in them old Frenchified times, folks 
didn't care 'masin much 'bout law, nor gospel nrither. 
If a man killed another, why, if there was any relatire 
oi the killed man, he'd take it up, and shoot the other; 
and so it went, every man his own lawyer. Well, there 
was no steamboats them days, and heelers nsed to float 
down from up country, filled with peltry and sich goods 
for the Orleans market. There wasn't many men on 
board to man 'em — ^pr'aps seven or nine; but they kept 
well cot in the middle o' the stream, at long shot from 
the Indian's arrers, and the Frenchman's gun. But 
there was a regular band o' pirates lived on the river 
where Baton Bouge now is, and they had a captain, and 
numbered fifty men or more — awful rascals ; every one 
on 'em — ^had done enough murder to hang seven honest 
Christians. This captain was the essence on 'em, all 
biled down for deviltry and wickedness; and yet they 
say he was young, almost a boy, plaguy handsome fel- 
low, with an eye like a woman, and a smile like a hyena; 
and his men were as afraid of him as death. 

'^ Well, he lived in a sort of castle of his own, over on 
the little rise you see, near the town, and people said he 


had, begging your pardon, ma'am, as many wivM as old 
Captain Bluebeard, and killed 'em as easy. Well, be 
had a lookout kept on the point just in the bend, and 
there had a rod pole raised to hoist a flag on. Whan hk 
men saw a boat coming in sight, they'd hoist a green flag 
to the top o' the pole, and in the night a green lantern; 
for he was a great friend to green color, and wore greet 
velvet himself like a foreign lord. 

^< When he'd see the light or the flag, he*d wind bis 
silver bugle and collect his men to the boats, and wbci 
the keelcr would get nearly opposite, he'd shoni like 
twenty heathens, and dart out with his seven barges npoa 
the descending craft. It was short work they made tken. 
A rush, and leaping on board, a few pistol shots aad 
cutlass blows, and the crew were dead or overboard. Tk 
prize was then towed into the cove beneath the castle, 
and plundered, and set on fire. Them were rough and 
bloody times. Miss !*' 

The pilot, finding his cigar had gone out, drew a loes- 
foco match from his vest pocket, ignited it by dmwing it 
across his horny thumb-nail, relighted his cigar, and 
began to scan the appearance of the sky, which looked 
fitful. But I was too much interested in my Green Cor- 
sair of the Rouge Baton to let his story end there ; so I 
said : 

^* Please tell me, Mr. Bedlow, what became of tikis man 
and his crew?" 

'^ Some say he was shot in the Public Plnia, in New 
Orleans, by the Spanish Governor ; bat I heard an old 
pilot say, that he was assassinated by a young woman be 
had captured ; and that is likely by all accoonts.'* 


" How was it ?" I inquired, seeing that the old man's 
eje looked communicative. 

" On one of the craft captured there was a young girl, 
the skipper's wife, who had been married only the day 
afore the keeler left Pittsburgh, and Major Washington 
(afterwards General) they say was at the weddin', and 
gave away the bride ; for she was mighty pretty, and 
General Washington, like a true soldier, always had an 
eye to a handsome face. Well, this pirate took the craft, 
and killed or driv' overboard all hands, and he made the 
bride prisoner. He took her to his castle, and was dread- 
ful in love with her. But she saw only her husband's 
blood on his hands, and, taking a pistol from his belt, 
she shot him dead, and escaped in a boat to New Orleans, 
where the Governor gave her a thousand crowns, and 
afterwards married her. They say he took her to Spain, 
and presented her to court, and that she became one o' 
the greatest ladies in the Spanish land. That's the story 
I hearn, ma'ara, but I won't vouch for its Bible truth, for 
it's mighty hard reckoning up things happening so long 

So the old pilot left me, being called to the wheel, 
while I pondered on the story I had heard, and gazed on 
the shores about Baton Rouge with deeper interest — so 
wonderfully do associations fling charms about locality. 

What a nice story some writer of imagination might 
make out of this rough-hewn narrative of the old pilot ! 
Cooper is dead, Simms a Senator, Kennedy, a politician, 
Mrs. Lee Hentz an editress. Who shall we get to write 
it ? All the old novelists have left the field, and if we 
do not have more new ones come into it, there will be 

806 THE SUNNY south; oe, 

no more novels. I^crhaps the world would be wiser and 
better. Who knows yes ? Who knows no ? 

Among the passengers who eame on board at Baton 
Rouge was the newly elected Senator from Lonisiana to 
Congress, Mr. Benjamin. Having heard much of him, 
I scanned him closely. He is a small man, bat made with 
a certain compactness and dignity, that makes one forgfi 
his stature in his bearing. Ilis face is very fine, datk, 
healthy, full, and pleasing. He resembles General G. P. 
Morris, as this latter gentleman was some years ago; he 
has the same smiling eyes, agreeable mouth, and banhamk 
air. His eyes are dark and expressive, and his whole 
face indicates rather good-natured repose and amiable in- 
dolence than that high order of talent which has won for 
him, at little above thirty years of age, the high distiiw- 
tion of representing the proud state of Louisiana in the 
U. S. Senate. 

The more I looked at Mr. Benjamin, the more I was 
puzzled to divine why he should have been chosen to thia 
high position. I could see in his face only qualities that 
would attach him to his friends, make him a loving 
father, and a husband greatly beloved by whatever lady 
might bo so happy as to hold the holy relations of wifo 
to him ; but I saw no indications of that ruling and marked 
mind, which I took it for granted he ought from his 
fame and rank to possess. While I was observing him, aa 
he sat reading, some gentlemen approached and entered 
into conversation with him, upon the subject of the an* 
ncxation of the suburban town of Lafayette to New 
Orleans. His opinion Mas referred to. His eyes opened 
and lighted. His face changed its whole character, and 
for half an hour I listened to his conversation with 


inoreasmg delight and faecination. I fww and heard 
the man of talent! I discorered in his close reasoning, 
his acute manner of analysis, his calm self-command, 
his thorough knowledge of his subject, his fluent and 
graceful speech, the causes of his elevation above the 
men about him. 

His voice is not good, and his size is against him; and 
when he shall first appear in the American Senate he 
will not attract any eye, save the glance of wonder at 
his youthful appearance, for he does not look above 
twenty-five. But they will find him their equal — an 
eagle among eagles. ELis eloquence, wisdom, and know- 
ledge of affairs will make him tell in the Senatorial 
Hall. It was Mr. £enjamin, who, in speaking of the 
progress of the age, gave utterance to this fine sentiment 
in one of his speeches in the Legislature of Louisiana: — 
'* The whistle of the locomotive is finer music than the 
clarion of war, and the thunder of its wheel, than the 
roar of artillery." 

Mr. Benjamin is an Israelite. His election, therefore, 
is a practical illustration of the free institutions of our 
happy land, where theological disabilities are not known. 
It is surprising how the Jews, I mean the educated and 
talented, place themselves in the highest rank of society 
always. There is inherent in them an element of great- 
ness that irresistibly finds its noble level. We see in 
them the blood of David and Isaiah, of Abraham and 
Solomon, of Joseph and the Maccabees; their princely 
lineage is not extinct. How odd it would be if we should 
have a Jew to be President of the United States. And 
why not? Mr. Benjamin is a Senator. He is a rising 
man. He may one day hold the highest office in the 


^'fb of the nation. Would any man refuse to rote for 
him because he is a Jew? Bat I am adventuring bejond 

my depth — so, good night, Mr, . 

•Yours truly, 



My dear Mb. 

This wfllbethe hft lesser I Amnwamrjm 
thiB plmnUtion, where I hrvt 
in the most mgrecaUe socksx. Onr 

emrlv on the morning ifter Imiur 
M. dc Clery, the proprieior rf liiii* nuuit 
is a relative of the Coloxkd'fi. ud -uit tpv 
great friends. 

But before I saj anr thixng mUmi wr jevitac tivMe. 
let me describe to you the wa^wT rf a* -tswMi:' vi^ 
tween Baton Ronge and New (.^riaua. J^riMaii ^a^ fvm 
mind*8 eye a moving lake ^ duk. uiik<aii0gi -WMsr. 
rolling onward nearly a brc^d auk witk. «aiC vjoiitti^r 
league after league through an ilihuSAtii: ymlMnj. wt 0^*^. 
as a billiard table, and as even aS annud nii^ irtr»iii< ^m 
is the edge of the sky-maeu&g onstou Jbtnivut wfit 
banks lined with wide sugar fiiMiiXmMMt txvagixn^ t^ntX' 
ward, from a mile to a league, gr«si wiUi iMr i^urvlic^ 
leaves of the young cane, and border^ im liU^ f «iir Vjr 
impenetrable forests. 

In the bosom of each of these estaUss yp% aw % itui^y 
villa, its chateau-like roof towering abw^r a fp*/^^f mA 
surroundcil by colonnades, which are b«dg«:4 in by *nimpt 
and lemon trees, the rich, golden fhiii baii|piiK wJtIiMi 


reach of the hand from the drawing-room nindowB. On 
one side of these chateaux, or else in the rear, glitter the 
white walls of a score or two of African cottaget, wliidi 
compose the village of the slaves, each with its fittle 
garden plot, and shaded by a roof-tree. In the nidit 
of this neat and pretty Ethiopian village^ rises a tower, 
on the summit of which is swung a plantation bell, which 
at day dawn rings up the slaves to commence their labor, 
rings them to their meals through the day, and to their 
quarters at night. Not far from this negro TiUtpt 
standing massive and alone in the midst of tke sagv 
fields, rise the high brick walls and tall, ateeple-likff 
chimneys of the mierMej or sugar-house, where the caM 
is ground up, and goes through its various proeenei, 
from gross molasses to the purest white cryatnlisatioQ. 
Some of these sucrdries are of great siic, looking like 
universities, or some public edifice ; and they cost so mach, 
that, with the other expense of establishing a sngir 
estate, it is common to say that a *'man must be a rieh 
cotton planter before he can commence as a poor sagar 
planter," the expense of starting a cotton plantatioB 
being very small compared with that for the latter; but 
the sugar planter has the advantage of striding on to 
opulence in proportion to his outlay. 

This description which I have given of a sugar estate, 
with its vast, level fields, like enierahl plains, ita stately 
sncrdrie, its snow-white negro village, its elegant cha- 
teau half buried in trees, will answer for that of the 
hundreds that continuously line the two shores of the 
Mississippi, between liaton Rouge and New Qrleani. 
The Htenmer, therefore, as she moves down, seems as if 
passing tlirough a majestic canal, with a street of tiUas 


on cither shore. A few yurds from the water mmi » 
beautiful road, level and Binooth, bordered on one aide 
by gardens and houses, and on the other bj the rirer* 
Xhis road is always enlivened by carriages, horsemen^ 
<Hr foot-passengers ; for the whole line of shore, for the 
one hundred and fifty miles, is a continued unbroken 
street. When our steamer ran near one shore or the 
other, we could look in upon the inmates of the booses^ 
and see them at their meals, and as we sailed past by moon* 
light, the voice of song, the thrum of the guitar, or the 
soft cadence of the flute, would float off to as from the 
piazzas or lawns, or some bower buried in the shadows 
of the garden. The atmosphere was laden with the fra- 
grance of flowers, and the mocking-binrs joyous and 
varied melody filled the branches, to our iroaginatiz/n, 
with a whole aviary of singing bircls. Ah, it was per- 
fect enchantment, Mr. , sailing through these lovely 

scenes beneath the broad shield of the moon casting its 
radiance of burnished silver over all. The very river, 
usually in its mildest mood, champing and growling like 
a chained lion, flowed almost uurufBe^l^ like a moving 
glass surface, mirroring the light with dazzling brilliancy. 
Below us, and above us, the red and green sigiul lights 
of other boats, ascending and descending, added to the 
changing beauty of all, while the bright flames kept 
burning all night at the wood btations, along the shores, 
casting their long, blood-red columns far along the sur- 
face of the stream, added a certain wildness to the gene- 
ral features of the whole. 

I remained on deck to a late hour, wrapped well in 
my shawl, to guard against the dews, and enjoyed the 
novelty of the time and place, with emotions that were 


new and delightful. Occasionally the sombre tower of 
a Roman chapel, or the gray walls of a convent, (for ve 
were passing through the heart of a Roman CalhoKc 
population,) came into view. One called the CoiiTCiit 
of the Sacred Heart, '^ Le Sacre Coeur/' was one of tlie 
most lovely objects I ever beheld, lighted up as its kmg 
corridors were by moonlight, casting half its front ikc^ 
nately into light and shade. 

This, I am told, is a remarkably good school of cdaes- 
tion, and many of the ^^ first families" in the Sonth hivo 
their daughters educated there, or at the Ursnline Coe- 
vent in New Orleans — Convent des Ursnlines. 

There is no doubt, Mr. , that these Roman Cs- 

tholic schools for girls are among the best we have. I 
have seen, in the South, several estimable ladies vko 
were educated at this Convent, and certainly I Mftr 
met with more intelligent, well-informed, interesting 
persons, more thoroughly accomplished ladies. 

"Ah, yes," you say objectingly, "but they are ii 
danger of becoming Roman Catholics." 

Of these ladies but one is a Roman Catholic, and she 
is not very strongly grounded in that faith, usaalW 
attending the Episcopal church with her husband, and 
bringing up her children in this church. The dangfr, 
if girls are well instructed first at home, is very slight 
of their being won over to the Roman faith in these 
schools. There is a certain romantic fascination coo- 
nectcd with this religion, which, for a time, has its infln> 
ence on an imaginative temperament, but it soon wears oC 
I know and love an interesting lady, who, from her thir^ 
tei'nth to her seventeenth year, was a pupil at the Ursa- 
line Convent. She came out a romantic Roman Cathofet 

Inrt M now ft caMMBOBt rf 

She says she ^^devir Wved tbfr kini 

they were gntle ad 

rit up with one €H 

Ghristmas tfanei, 

nuraeles p e iCw eJfcf 

all of whidi good 

and pionsl J befiercd 

and touched her Aetk wiA 

toothache ;" how St. Ursdi. 

one of the nsten ob Ae am 

BO that the mark, in At Aapeof: 

at this hour ; how she lad seoi thehhM«i frn dbe 
of the picture of Christ crma&sfL «wer ffe- afcar. wh^ 
fall in great drops to the fioor. and ^m^ if dMsie fc i f n, 
which she canght on her 'kerchiet »he 4mm^ wm^ trtt 
crossing herself and me with the s^cb» <if Att fxmm 
backwards and forwards ! B«t Ae fCorr dbtf «#iiic 
tivated me was how (as she was watchinfT V»fef« ffe-aiur 
one Good Friday ere) she saw the in£niC Wy l^^w Iimnb?: 
the arms of his blessed mother^ dusre is tW f«!t«r<e;. aarf 
fly with golden wings to the great pietnne fM ObrM «r»- 
cified, on the right of the akar. and, wtA Uan. wi^ 
the blood from His hands, and feeC aa#l mA^ mA uiM 
to stop its flowing, with many bawntatmui ! Al ikm/* 
added the intelligent lady. " I fe»ly Mirr^dl, %m tWy 
produced upon me no religions fnpr^swMi^ I % m ^jf i M 
to them just as I read Mrs. Baddife'a Iwrri t fc lat«« ^ 
dungeons and blee^ng nuns. Oor timmiifm was ftni 
committed to this good, crednloos dane^ do mti nn\fptmtt^ 
but there were ladies in the Codrent of t\m tmmt eUnimi 
manners, of the most accurate edocation^ ai»4 luillds 


every way aecoinpli»hed ; ladies of rank, who had Mi 
the brilliant society of European cities to devote thi-n* 
selves to heaven. My chief teacher was Sister Therfee, 

who had been in France the Countess do ^ and vho 

is said to have loved Napoleon, the King of Borne, and 
at his death had retired from the world. All the nimi 
were French ladies." 

When I asked this lady if she still felt attached to tbe 
nuns, she answered, ^^ Oh, yes ; I never visit New Orkani 
that I do not go and see them and they receive me in the 
most affectionate manner ! If I should ever meet vitha 
reverse of fortune, and lose my husband and chiltL I 
should, I have no doubt, seek the calm repose and hi»ij 
shelter of that home of my childhood ; for, when I lefi 
them, the »Superior said, as she wept on my shouMer. 
" Daughter, if the world is adverse to thee, remi»nU.T 
thou hast here alwavs a shelter from its storms." 

I am not advocating, Mr. , the habit of rtlucatinf; 

Protestant girls in Roman nunneries ; all I can say in 
their favor is, that they Jo bestow thorough educatiiin« 
upon tlieir pupils; and if the Itoman Catholics woalJ 
only give up their wicked additions to Christianity* their 
worsliip of Mary, their prayers to Peter and Paul, their 
eonfi'ssional, tlieir idolatry of the mass, their merchan* 
dize of sins, and their other excrescences, which thor 
have heaped upon the Gospel, till it is almost lust sight 
of, thiy would be the best teachers of youth in the world. 
]>ut holding on to these errors, they will always keep at 
a distaiioo the many who would patronize them. 

Tiie Kpisoopalians are now taking the place once to 
prominently occupied by the Ki»nian Catholics, as teachers 
of youth ; and the f^'Uiale schools kept by Episcopal 

TUB eovTBMBsmm MY mmoL tti 

dergjmen, are admovled^pc^ erca W 

tionSy to be the best tchixAB in tLe> Uaxted Sttlei* 

I forgot to 8sy that mj mteliijpett frxad imtgnmsi 
that good old Aimt Unala atvajs ksult 4»vm viifc ifce 
soles of her bare feet fiaed «p P» tine frcu vfcai rike 
said her prayers, in order that tkerwi^bt^ vide AevRM 
praying and telling her beads, get niee aai4 warm bdone 
she jumped into bed. I hare heard dbas '^prsjers mmi 
provender hinder no man's joamer;** b«t Jbmt Cmla 
knew that to say one's prayers, and wsnsase** toes tlie 
whilst, hindered not a holy nnn*s devotaoMu 

Yovrs respeelfidly. 



■ATBAU mm CuiTiU. 

My Dear Mr. : 

As these letters have been mainly descriptiTe o( 
scenes and voyaging before I reached here, thii vill be 
mainly descriptive of the scenery at the Chateau. It vill 
give you some idea of the domestic arrangements of the 
opulent French [ilanters, than which nothing can be more 
agreeable. No people know so well how to enjoj this 
world as the French ; and par excellence their dcaeend- 
aiits in Louisiana, which offers to their pleasure the di- 
mate of Eden with all its fruits. — with the "tree of 
knowledge of good and evil/' I fear; for with modi 
luxury, there is nmch evil in the world ; and, nnfortoD- 
ately, one cannot live magnificently^ indulging all tk 
goods of the earth, without ^^ sin/* 

*' Luxur>' and pin 
Jn Kdc-ii did begin.*' 

The Chateau do Clcry, where Talleyrand, Lonis PhiV 
lippe, and Jackson have been guests, is a large, imposiiigt 
French-looking mansion, with almost an acre of roof, 
situated on the banks of the Mississippi, and embowered 
in n grove of magmdia trees. inters|>ersed with liTe-oaki 
and orange trees. The house is vast in width, and made 
very long, with piazzaed wings, and all around it mns a 

>road colonnade wiiuiiniit i?" 

^ring plmnts. 
The riew Bit ^» mmmr lainDK. at: -woua: all 

)arlor8 open li^ Tfanscoa. "vsncirapnb. ki'errlgBiB&i^ 

:o the eye of a fgi— ^ Me3i se iq^gc af 

n the e iU tm m, 

iar as the eje ci 

ienson with the gRcn lolkm^ if 

leaTee. The aiip c Mi ^ &it ^ m cutf^fidi 

being Terj ttiinilT to ^os 

leaf, before it bcgsas M» 

gase from the t 

lawn in front of the tSb fi&§ tae <i 

live-oak trees, its grorcs «f 

of lemon and magnolias. Fran la^ \jnmi stcfs «f the 

entrance to the portico to the rircr fade exicsdf a atUe 
carriage-way, bordered on each »de bjr fireNoaka. A 
fringe of orange trees now all aroand a nagnifieeM gar- 
den on the left, bat the seyere frosta of last winter 
have rendered them leafless ; and there they stand, grmj 
and fruitless, wholly destitnte of foliage, striking eontrasia 
to the rich vegetation ererjwhere risiUe anrand them. 
The majestic Mississippi flows past in front of the lawn 
a furlong distant, and confined to its banks by the green 
levee, inside of which runs smoothly the carriage-road 
down to New Orleans, and along which horsemen or car- 
riages are constantly passing up and down. There is 
scarcely an hour in the day in which a steamer is not 
visible, ploughing its huge path along, with the deep roar 
of its escape-pipes and comet-like trails of black smoke 
rolling along the air astern, darkening the waves beneath| 
like the passing thunder-cloud. The opposite shore » 


mile off, is visible, vrith. its pretty villas, its gmnrcs vA 
parks, and its African villages white as snow, and the 
imposing turretcd sugar-houses beyond, with their tall 

I am perfectly charmed with the scenery of this region. 
Once I fancied that no landscape could be pretty with* 
out hills or mountains in the distance; but the beaotifal 
shores of Louisiana have led me to change my opinion; 
and, although I was born in sight of the White Hills, I 
can sec much to admire in the richness of these scenci^ 
where there is not an eminence of any sort — not a mok 
hill. All is one vast ocean-like level ; but so diversified 
by cultivation, so ornamented by taste and art, so ded^ed 
with noble seats, so enriched by groves, gardens, fise 
roads, and avenues, so variegated by the countless worM 
of flowers, and the splendor of the foliage, and graeefil- 
ncss of the forms of the forest trees, its atmosphere so 
colored by the purity of the azure and golden heaveu 
of morning and evening, with the ever changing glorj 
of the moving river, that I forget the absence of moim- 
tains, and give my heart up to the full enjoyment of the 
paradise around me. 

You will never behold the finest portion of the Union, 

Mr. , until you have visited the *^ coast of Sminy 

Louisiana.'' The people, too, whose lot is cast in the 
midst of this mighty Eden of a hundred miles in extent, 
can appreciate the charms of their scenery. Vast weahh 
has begotten education and taste; and refinement, and 
mental accomplishments adorn most of the elegant man- 
sions that border the river. 

There are seventeen rooms in the Chateau de Qcij, 
most of them of a magnificent description. There sie 


two parlors, a large drawing-room, a vast hall, larger 
than any room in the hoiisc, and which is the general 
rendezvous of the family after dinner and tea; a sitting 
room for the ladies; a nursery, several bath rooms, a 
library, and a study room near it, for the governess and 
children; besides numerous bed-rooms and dressing- 
rooms. These rooms, the parlors and all, open out into 
the piazza, which encircles the whole mansion. They 
are all upon one floor, and every window is a glass door, 
opening with leaves. The whole edifice is raised ten 
feet from the ground, on brick pillars, leaving beneath 
the pile numerous servants and store-rooms, concealed 
firom the eye of persons approaching the house by a lat- 
tice-work, covering the whole front of the lower area. 

The house is stuccoed, and tinted lemon color, while 
the numerous columns are painted white, and being 
usually enwreathed by vines, the whole effect is very 
fine. Carriage ways, strewn with shells, surround the 
mansion, and terminate at the stables — ^which are hand- 
some edifices, beneath the shade of two enormous live- 
oaks. From the rear of the gallery is visible the snowy 
houses of the African village, sixty-eight in number, 
forming a long street, bordered by trees, with a small 
garden in the rear of each dwelling. In the centre of 
this picturesque village, every house in which is the ex- 
act pattern of the other, rises the taller roof of the over- 
seer's mansion, above which still rises the tower of the 
plantation bell, which peals out many times a day to call 
to work and to meals. 

Beyond this attractive village for slaves, where neat- 
ness and comfort prevail, rise the tall walls of the suc- 
r^rie, or sugar house, half a mile off, towards the centre 

820 THE SUNNY south; or, 

of the estate. It has the aspect of a huge mamdiutoij. 
It is two hundred feet long, has three Tut chinmevis 
one of ivhich is seventy feet in height, and twenty feet 
broad at the base. Tlie whole structure is white, and 
looks from the house, as Isabel describes it, like MWie 
handsome convent. From the villa, a Bmooth road (of 
course level as a floor) runs to it, and indeed, passing: iu 
extends to the cypress forest two miles beyond it. ThLi 
road is line<l with hedges of the flowering Cherokee rote, 
and is our favorite morning gallop, as the Leree road, 
along the banks of the Father of Waters, is our faforite 
evening drive. 

To-morrow we leave this lovely place for the city; and 

I will tell you a secret, Mr. , which yoa mnsta't 

breathe for the world. The eldest son of M. De Clerr, 
who has only hist year returned from Paris, has blka 
in love with Isabel, and they are to be married. We ft 
to the city to select the bridal apparel and gifts, &e. 

The young gentleman is extremely handsome, fov- 
and-twenty years old, with a cultivated mind, and a good 
heart, and unexceptionable temper. This last qualifica- 
tion is the most im[)ortant. If a husband is not amiabli*, 
dear me! what a wretched woman his bride most be! 
Girls should see if their suitor is ffood tempered^ and if 
he is not, have nothing to say to him. If a man is bad 
tempered to his sister or mother, be 9ure he will be still 
more so to his wife, because his wife is more completely 
in his power. As a young man treats hia mother ami 
his sister, he will treat his wife. Young ladies! take 
this us an unfailing test, from yimr friend, Kate. 

M. de Clery has a fine temper ; and as he is also vetr 
rich, and a sincere believer in Christianity, Isabel will 


make a good match, and doubtless be yerj happy in the 
dangerous lottery of matrimony. Bat I am in tears as 
I write, at the thought of losing her; and the dear 
colonel looks through tearful eyes upon her, and kissing 
her, bids *' God's blessing on her." It is a hard struggle 
for the father, though he desires the imion. 

The marriage of Isabel will change all our plans for 
the summer. The whole wedding party will proceed, 
soon after the nuptials, to the North, and the bridegroom 
and bride will embark for Europe. You ask what will 
become of me? A yery sensible question, good Mr. 
. With Isabel's engagement yesterday, my voca- 
tion as governess went. The future is all before me 
where to choose. But the question of the future remains 
to be settled after we return from the city, where, as I 
said, we go to-morrow, to be absent a week. It* is pro- 
bable I shall accompany the bridal party North, and 
take the opportunity of visiting the humble home of my 
childhood, amid the green hills of New England — ^for, 
with all my attachment to the South, and the warm- 
hearted Southern people, my heart, 

" Dear New England, turns ever to thee." 

P. S- My next letter will be from New Orleans, from 
which I hope to write you something interesting. 
21 Kate. 



My Dear Mr. : 

This is the first moment which I esa mH "bj 
own," since I arrived in this splendid bedlam of a city, 
the diurnal roar of which, although it is nearly ekica 
o'clock at night, has not yet ceased. Carriaget are 
swiftly rattling past, over the rocky streets, taking tkes- 
tre and party-goers home; the iught-polieeiiiaB*s staff 
echoes hollowly on the banquette, as he signalises to kii 
fellow-guardians of the city ; the wild song of a groap of 
bacchanals swells not unmusically up into the aifi sad 
penetrates my open window; while from an opposle 
drawing-room comes the rich soprano voiee of mmt 
maiden singing at the piano— perhaps to a latit-lingfTiif 

Fatigued with the sweet excitement of the day in 
choosing her bridal attire, Isabel sleeps softly within tk 
snowy foldrt of the lace niusquito bar (which guards crcry 
bed in this climate) ; and as excitement always render! 
me wakeful, I embrace the hour till midnight to girt yon 
some idea of this great city of the South— this msgaifi- 
ficent key of the Mississippi, which stands, as Conslaati- 
nople at the entrance of the Bosphoms, the gale of i 
commercial interior, the value of which **no man Gsa 

cm- BomrBninat at hoice. 

In my last letter, dated at the sugar estate of M. de 
Cler J, I briefly stated the happy engagement of my dear 
pupil Isabel to young Isdiore, his son, and that we were 
to come to the city to make preparations for the wed- 

At first it was determined that we should go down in 
one of the handsome packets that daily descend the 
river; but it was finaUy decided that we should take the 
carriages, and drive down by the Levee road, the dis* 
tance being easily accomplished in two or three hours* 
At six o'clock in the morning, therefore, the horses were 
at the door, and as we had breakfast early, in order to 
take advantage of the cool air of the early day, we were 
Boon on our way, rolling smoothly along over one of the 
most delightful of roads. 

I have already mentioned the novelty and beauty of 
both of the green shores of the Mississippi, — how a ver- 
dant embankment five feet high borders each side, to 
prevent overflows; and how within this embankment is 
the river-road, following in and out every curve of the 
embanked shore, and level as a race-course track. Thus, 
one riding along this road has constantly the green 
bank, or Levee, on one side, with the mile-wide river 
flowing majestically by, bearing huge steamers past on 
its tawny bosom. On the other hand are hedges sepa- 
rating gardens, lawns, cottages, villas, and emerald cane- 
fields, with groups of live-oaks, magnolias, lemon, and 
banana trees interspersed. For miles, all the day long, 
the traveler can ride through a scene of beauty and ever 
lively interest. At no moment is he out of sight of the 
water, with its moving fleets, and the opposite shore 
beautiful with residences, groves, and gardens ; at no mo- 

824 THE suNirr sourn; ob, 

ment is he not passing the tasteful abode and graads 
of some planter, bordering the road-side. 

If this drive is so attractive to one on the land, 
"what must the scenery appear to the eyes of the paMyp- 
gers on steamers sailing from sunrise to sunset thxoogh 
it ? But I cannot attempt to convey to you a just eon- 
ception of these gorgeous river coasts of Louisiana. It 
is not the charming landscape alone that lends them 
their attraction to a northern eye, bnt the delidou 
climate, >vhich bathes every thing, and in which ercrj 
object seems to float. 

You may judge that our ride towards the city was 
greatly enjoyed by me. I could not help, at the time, 
feeling a sensation of awe steal over me, as I looked from 
the carriage window and saw the level of the rirer kig^ 
than we were ; for we had to rise up in the carriage as 
we rode along to overlook the Levee, when we coold 
see that the river was within a foot even with it oa 
tlie outer side, while the road over which onr wheeli 
rolled was four feet lower than its surface on the inner 
side ; in a word, we were riding with a wall of water, 
kept from overwlielming us, and the fields, villas, and 
whole country, only by the interposing bank of the Le- 
vee, from four to six feet in height, and yet tlua gnard 
of heaped earth was for hundreds of leagues enongh to 
confine the monarch of waters within his bounds, so that 
the people dwelt in security upon his borders. 

There are, however, times of terror, when the Tast 
river, swelling to unwonted height, presses with irresis- 
tible power against some weaker part of this barrier, 
ami forces a passage into the road beneath. At first, 
the breach may not be larger than a stream of 


from a hose, and can easily be stopped with cotton-bales, 
or .bags of earth, if at once applied. But when at night 
one of these crevices (which they call here " crevasses," 
when they become large) begins to form unseen by any 
watchful eye, it rapidly enlarges, till what at first could 
have been stopped by a schoolboy's dam, in half an hour 
becomes strong enough to turn a wheel, and in an hour 
phmges a roaring cataract twenty yards wide, rushing 
like a mill-race, and deluging road, gardens, fields, and 
pastures. The thunder of its fall, at length, awakes the 
planter or his sleepy slaves ; the alarm-bell is rung out, 
as if for fire, and the whole coast is soon awake and alive. 

One plantation bell after another takes up the note 
of terror, and for miles is heard their affrighted clamor, 
accompanied by the shouts of hundreds of slaves, hasten- 
ing from all quarters to the scene of danger; for the 
peril of a crevasse is a common peril to aU^ for only stop- 
ping the incipient Niagara can save the whole region 
down to the Gulf, for a thousand square miles, from 
overflowing and ruinous devastation. 

The scene at the stopping of a crevasse is only equalled 
by that at putting out a conflagration. The constant 
arrival, spurring at mad speed, of planters, foUowed by 
gangs of half-naked Africans, armed with spades and 
gunny-bags filled with dirt, the loud commands, the louder 
response, the tramp of hoofs and of men's feet, the 
darkness of the night, the glare of torches, and the roar 
of the ceaselessly plunging and enlarging torrent, as 
described to me by Isidore de Clery, must be both su- 
blime and fearful. Imagine the reservoir on Fairmount 
to burst its sides some fine night, and the scenes that 
would follow in the neighborhood of the path its wild 


waters would make, in the efforts of the people to ilop 
them, and yon will be able to form some pictore ia you 
mind of a crevassej and its destructive effects in the lenl 
country of Louisiana. 

Not long ago a crevasse opened in the Levee Bit (u 
from New Orleans, and became so alarming that stcamcni 
laden with hundreds of men, sailed from the eity for tke 
place, and it was not finally stopped until fifty Icoguci 
square of the richest portion of the country had bccoiM 
submerged, and a hundred sugar planters mined. 

Nevertheless, in the face of all these facts, we rode 
calmly and securely on, with the river wall four feet 
higher than our road, thinking of any thing bat €tt- 
vasses, and enjoying the scenery that was ever diaopng 
its features, and increasing in beauty at every diange. 

Our cort^^ge consisted of two carriages, in one of whiek 
rode the colonel, Isabel, and the senior M. de Clefj, aal 
Mademoiselle Marie Victoiro La Blanche, hia nieee, s 
beautiful, olive-cheeked, dark-eyed Loiusianaiae^ who im 
to bo one of IsabeUs bridesmaids. In another earriage. 
which was an open phseton, was Isidore, the happy sod 
handsome affianc^ and Miss Conyngham. Why they 
placed this young gentleman under my eharge, separai- 
ing him for the drive from Isabel, I can't tell ; mitm it 
was a pretty piece of tyranny, allowable, periiaps^ At 
any rate, it was the plan of M. do Clery, the aenior, who 
said, ^^ The young folks will be enough in eadi elhcr*i 
society after they are married, so let them ride in diliB^ 
ent carriages now. Miss Kate will be so kind aa to keep 
the young gentleman in proper decorum." 

Dear me ! I-— a young, giddy girl of twenty sevedy, 
to be selected by two gray-headed gentlemen to be tho 

THU aqmBnuiiE at bomb. 827 

guardian of a jonng gentleman of three-and-twenty, as 
handsome as Adonis ! So, what with answering Isidore's 
hundred and one questions, all about what I knew of 
Isabel ever since I had known her, and looking at the 
seenery, I was kept very busy, — for the scenery con- 
stantly challenged my attention, and the lover would 
constantly talk of Belle. By the time we reached the 
city I was half in love with him myself; and I then re- 
collected how that Isabel had said to me, smilingly, when 
I was seated in the carriage, 

^^ Take care of your heart dear Kate !" 

But I hear an awful clamor throughout the city that 
compels me to stop. A deep-mouthed tocsin is ringing 
out ^^Fire! fire! fire!" as plain as a human voice could 
utter it; and a score of lesser bells reply, even as a huge 
bannlog, alarmed in the night by a prowling burglar, 
opens his deep-mouthed bay, while Tray, Blanche, and 
Sweetheart, and all the little dogs, in every key, chime 
in, in confused, discordant uproar ; so are all the bells 
of the city clamoring, and the streets, which had begun 
to sink into midnight quiet, are once more thundering 
with the artillery-like wheels of engines, hastening, amid 
a Babel of voices, to the scene of conflagration, the light 
of which, reflected from an opposite tower, already glares 
redly and balefully into my window. 

I will now say ^^Grood Night," but not without a 
heartfelt prayer for those who shall be made houseless 
and destitute by this fire, which rages more and more 
terribly, lighting up all the city roofs like a burning 


K. 0. 

328 TUB SUNNY south; OB, 


Nbw OsLBAa^ La. 

My Dear Mr. : 

The impressions ivbich are made upon one's nind 
and memory on first going into a large city, are indel- 
lible. I shall never forget mine on approaching the city 
in our carriage, about three hours after leaving Chateau 
de Clery. 

New Orleans is wholly unlike any other Amerieu 
metropolis. Its aspect is foreign, and French deddedlj. 
When within six miles, we entered the pretty anbnrbs of 
Carrolton, where the road is a continuona atreet until 
lost in the labyrinth of the city avenuea. 

Instead of continuing along this road we alighted at 
the railway depot, leaving our carriages to retnm home 
with the coachmen, our intention being to go back by 
the river. The cars run to the city every half hour, and 
our party had no Hooner got seated than we were off like 
an eagle shrieking as he flies. Oh, what dreadfnl noiscf 
those horrid steam whistles make! So shrill and load 
and terrific, that I did not wonder to see cowa, hones, 
mules, dogs, ducks, geese, and chickens turn, aeanper, 
fly, trot, gallop, and scatter to the right and left in con- 

There were three Indians in the next car, one of 
whom, in an old scarlet frock coat, fancifolly firingcd^ 

xn sounxursE at homx. 

placed his hands to his month in rapid snccession, and 
echoed the cry of the engine whistle almost as shrillj. 
We all looked into the car to see what it was. He stood 
up and repeated the cry, saying with an air of tipsy 
satisfaction — 

" War-whoop ! Me war-whoop— A« war-whoop." 
What more he might have said was abmptly cat off 
by the conductor pushing him by the shoulder, and 
thrusting him with a huge oath roughly into a car still 
farther forward; and driying two patient-looking Indian 
women laden with baskets after him. Ah, for the poor 

'' Like April snows in the warm noon, 
He melts away ! Where once he trod, 
Lord of the earth and free as ur, 
He now creeps cowering like a cur, 
Scorned, whipped, spit upon, abased. 
Cursed of the white man, and not where 
To lay his head where once he reigned a king." 

The Indian is every where the same from Maine to 
Louisiana. They look alike, their pursuits are alike, 
their degradation equal. These were wandering rem- 
nants of the Choctaw tribe; for many linger about the 
scenes of their father's deeds and resting places of their 
bones, and support their precarious existence by fishing 
and basket-making. I have seen many of them in the 
city since, going about selling little bundles of sassafras 
root or herbs gathered in the woods. The women never 
ttmile, look sickly and suffering ; while the men are gaily 
dressed and keep in a state of lordly drunkenness, the 
only affinity to ^^ nobility" left to these poor lords of the 


I fear America has much sin lying at her door fbr kr 
neglect of her Indian children. 

Our car contained a strange medley. Directly in front 
of me sat a handsome yellow ^Mady/' her head rar- 
mountcd by an orange and scarlet plaid handkcrdiief, 
bound about it Turkish-turban fashion ; a style that pre- 
vails here among the Creole servants. She had in her 
ears a pair of gold ear-rings, as large as a half-dollar, 
plain and massive ; she wore a necklace of gold beads 
hanging from which was a cornelian cross, the most 
beautiful thing I ever saw ; upon her neck was a ricUv* 
worked black lace scarf ; her dress was plain colored 
silk, made in the costliest manner. Her olive hand«. 
which had very tapering fingers and remarkably oval 
nails, were covered with rings, chiefly plain gold ones. 
In one hand she held a handsome parasol, and the other 
fondled a snow-white French poodle upon her lap, said 
poodle having the tips of its ears tied with knots of pink 
ribbon, and a collar of pink silk quilled, and made like 
a ruff, while the end of its tail was adorned with a bow 
of blue ribbon, in the tastiest style ; and, as if his ptKH 
dleship were not sufficiently decorated to be taken to the 
city to visit its town cousins, it had a nioe bow of red 
satin ribbon tied about each of its four ancles. This 
luxurious little fellow took it quite in high dndgaoa 
that I should scan him so closely, and putting his littk 
pink feet upon her shoulder, he shot fire out of his deep- 
set black eyci^, and began to yelp at me moat outrsge^ 

*M basj Fulekj fi done!*' exclaimed his mistress, ia 
certainly one of the most musical voices in the worM ; and 
gently patting the ferocious little aristocrat on iW 

ler, she tried to qmtH its 
ds me. Findiiig tint it wovU 
ig romid, mud fcmig wptm mm a 
ftnd s face of aarpraag 
trmnge md indeMribttble sort sf 
^^irdon, Mm'Mdle! Im htu •' 
s Tons. Trsnqsillies ^oa 

re she kissed her 8|Ntefid fitlie £nnovita^ 
oothed its irsscibilitj ; b«t it woald 
theless, gknce st sie sospieaoadf , sad vtter %ptiiU 
in its little white fleecy ilmMit. Tlie seat en a^ left 
ined a French gentieoiaii, ajred and tkia, wi& % 
gray moastache OTershadawii^r his large flMWth* 
rore a long nankin blouse (a sort of loose frodc-ooat) 
k yellow Test with bright buttons, gray trowsers and 
gaiters — altogether a peculiar costume, especially 
his hat, which had a brim so narrow that two flies 
. not walk arm-in-arm aromid it, whfle the gray, 
ler-wom crown rose upward into the air abore him 
I rusty store-pipe. The intense gr a r i ty of hk eoun- 
ice attracted my attention. He was as grare and 
fied as a whole bench of supreme judges ; yet he 
ed in a little paste-board box, with slits cut at in> 
Is therein, a little, half-fledged mocking-bird ; car- 
it as tenderly as a little child would hare done ; 
bed and guarded it against the jolts of die ears, the 
line in the window, and the draught of air when the 
was left open by the conductor. His whole heart 
ed to be wrapped up in that miserable little bird, 
h sat trembling in the cage so pitifully, that I lelt 


like asking him to let me take it out andnestkitbeCwcca 
the palms of my hands. But hear him talk to it ! 

^^ Pauvre petite ! Ah, bonne, bonnette ! Voos %m 
bon voyage. Voyez vous les arbrea ? Voyca yobs ki 
jolis champs ? Voyez voua lea bels oiaeaux V* 

He would then hold the little wretch up at the window 
and point out the trees, and fields, and flying birds to it, 
exactly as if it could understand every word he said, and 
vastly enjoyed the ^^bon voyage" and the sight from the 

The cage had evidently been made by him, impronpCi, 
with his penknife, and was a very ingenious nffSur ; and 
in the top of it was stuck a small rose-bud and sprig of 
thistle. The little bird was evidently his pride and joy. 
He had perhaps caught it in the fields, and was taking i( 
home to his grand-children, or had purchased it for some 

It was an interesting sight to see a tall, warlike, mu- 
tachioed man thus giving his whole mind to such a Ixttb 
thing as the poor, chirping, crying young one in the cage; 
but it was beautiful to contemplate the scene. It showed 
a good heart and kind ; that he was affectionate and do- 
mestic, and must love children and all others of God'i 
creatures that are helpless. I regarded him with respect 

Finding the little bird did not seem to enjoy the 
scenery, he took a piece of cake from his pocket and 
began to tempt it to eat a crumb from the end of his 
finger, which he thrust into the cage. ^^ Manges, pe- 
tite ! Mangez le bon gateau !" 

In a few minutes the cars stoppeil at his place, and bt 
arose, and covering the cage carefully with his llandke^ 
chief, left the cars with it ; and, as we started on, I saW 

Tfll 80TJTHBRNXR AT HOm. 888 

him approach the gate of a pretty Creole cottage, half 
hidden in grape vines. Several children and their youth- 
ful mother came to meet him. " Voyez, voyez !" he cried, 
with great glee, holding up the cage. ^^ Voila Toiseau, 
mes enfants. Nous chantons comme les anges V and, 
opening the little cage, he was showing them his prise, 
when the prisoner made a spring from between his thumb 
and finger, and fluttering its little winglets, went sailing 
through the air four feet from the ground, and tiireaten- 
ing to knock itself against it every minute. 

One general outcry escaped the confounded group, 
one double deep base mingled with altissimos; and as 
the cars were whirling us beyond view, I saw the whole 
party, headed by the tall, gray-headed French grandpa^ 
start in full cry after the hopping and flying truant. 

But I reserve the rest of the ride into the city for my 
next. Till then, faithfully 


884 THB suinrr south; ob. 


St. Lovii HonBif Hbw Ouu» 

Dear Mr. : 

Mt last I closed somewhat abruptly, m j«m pff- 
ceived, in the midst of a description of our railroad rile 
to this city. I will now resume the notes of my jovacj 
where I broke off, as I wish yon to have a distinci ib- 
pression of the scenes in the entrance to New QriMDi, 
by the cars. 

As we approached the city through a lerel landaeape, 
level as a lake, we flew past now a garden on this sde, 
now a Spanish-looking little villa on that, the gardens 
richly foliagod with lomon and banana trees, and far 
over-stretching verandahs shut in by curtains to ktrf 
out the sun from the piazzas. Such gardens and Tilltf 
one after another in great numbers we passed for a aik 
or so, when tlie houses grew more numerous, the gardens 
narrower and narrower, and shops and small tenements 
wore crowding together, where once had stood the orange, 
lemon, and banana tree. Side-walks of brick, as we 
darted forwanl, now took the place of green way-side 
paths by walls and fences, and stone pavements were 
substituted for natural dirt roads. People began togrov 
more numerous on the walks, carts laden with brick and 
lumber, carts laden with vegetables and butcher's meat, 
bread carts, and ice carts, and omnibuses (those vd- 


Biglitlj yehiciilar monstrosities) rolled, gtllappedj rstded, 
thundered, raced, and rumbled past, and erotSHrtreet 
wise, making it impossible almost to hear one's self speak 
for the noise. Onward our car wheels bore us, deeper 
and deeper into the living heart of the citj. Nothing 
but small shops were now to be seen on either hand, with 
purchasing throngs going in and coming out of them, 
while myriads of children seemed to swarm about the 
doors, crawl along the curb-stones, paddle in the gutters, 
and jell miscellaneously everywhere. I never saw so 
many children in my life. Some were Uad^ some not so 
black, some yellow, some golden skinned, some tawny, 
some delicate milk and gamboge color, and some pure 
white, at least, such spots of their faces as the dirt suf- 
fered to be visible, seemed to promise an Anglo-sazon 
complexion underneath. The major part, however, were 
olive brown, and plainly of French extraction; and I 
could hear the bright black-eyed little urchins jabbering 
French, to a marvel of correct pronunciation that would 
have amazed a school girl. 

At length the houses grew more stately, the streets 
more genteel, the crowds more elegantly attired, and the 
cars stopped, and we were in New Orleans ! 

In an instant we were besieged by a very great num- 
ber of polite gentlemen with whips in their hands and 
eager visages thrust up to the window. 

" Fiacre, madame!*' "Hack, sir!" "Carriage, ma'am." 
"Will yer ladyship's bright eyes jist look at my iligant 
haack?" insinuated a snub-nosed son of Ghreen Erin, 
with an old fur c^ cocked on his head, the visor behind, 
giving him a superlatively impudent look. 

Seeing me apparently hesitate, he added with an elo- 


qncnt intonation in his rich brogae. ''It is vilTit 
kushioncd, m'im, and glass windies intirelj, Miss, ftnd 
I've got the naatcst tame dat'U take ye where ye wist in 
no time at all, at all !" 

At this juncture Isidore came to condact me to a 
carriage with the rest of our party. As we deaoaidcd 
the steps of the car, a Chinese, in his small teft-eq> of a 
blue cap, presented to my irresistible temptation, ■§ he 
thought, some beautiful kites made of blue, yellow, green, 
and crimson tissue paper in the shape of superb butter- 
flies. They were two feet across the wings, and dc- 
gantly constructed of light wire bent into the desired 
shape, and covered with the paper* lie asked but 
twenty-five cents a piece, and they looked so inTitingly 
pretty, that I was half tempted to buy one for myseU^ 
recollecting my girlish days, when I used to fly kites, 
fish, and play ball with my brothers; but before I made 
up my mind to this speculation, a slender sloe-eyed 
quadroon girl of sixteen, with a superb smile, offered me 
a delicious bouquet, from a basket filled with them, which 
she was adroitly balancing on her head. The rival John- 
China-man interposed one of his handsome kites between 
my eyes and the bouquet, and while I was bewildered 
which to choose, a Frenchman thrust nearer my face 
than all, his forefinger, on which was perched a splendid 
parrot, with a nose like the Duke of Wellington's. 

"Puy do kitee, Meesee! twenty-vive cen'," eagerly 
urged the Chinese. 

^^Mussier ne veu* 'pas le bouquet pour mamselT' 
softly and musically entreated the girl, of Isidore, in her 
Creole patois. 

•* Buy i)retty Police. Achetez uion joli oiscau !" 


^PoDy wiatee eracker/* screamed the parrot in my 

Thanks to the carriage-step at hand, by which I was 
enabled to secore a flight from the scene; and Isidore 
laughingly handed ne the booqnet, which he had por- 
chased of the quadroon, who thanked him with a bril- 
liant smile. 

HsTing psrdiased one of the perse rer in g Chinaman's 

beantifiil kites to take North, as a corkNri^ for Yankee 

boys, and implored the parrot-man to take his noisy, 

sqnalling, crooked-beaked, sancy-qrod, knowing-headed 

Imrd out of my sight, the carriage, at length, mored cm 

oat of the throng; and after a few minntes* rattling 

throngh rough paved streets, narrow and foreign-look* 

ing, we reached the St. Loois hotel, an edifice that 

looks like a superb Parisian palace— and a palace it is, 

as we experience in all its internal appointments and 

comfortable elegances of arrangement. 

Bespectfnlly yours, 




Dear Sib : — How shall I describe to 70a tlus cikt, 
BO as to convey to you any thing like an adequate idn 
of it ? It is unlike any other city in the Union, bang 
foreign in air, in customs, and mainly in popnlation. 
Level as the water level of the river, above the avfaee 
of which it is elevated but a few inches, it extendi for 
five miles along a grand bend of the river, which, doa- 
bling on its course, sweeps at this point northward, and 
then southward again, forming a majeatio yoke, or leCtar 
U, and hence its name Crescent City. The front ef tke 
city is defended from floods by the Levee, which ia raised 
a few feet higher than the general plane of its nte. 
This Levee is the grandest quay in the world. Tjn 
nor Carthage, Alexandria nor Genoa, thoae aferetiBe 
imperial mctropoles of merchant princes, boasted no qaay 
like the Levee of New Orleans. 

Picture to your mind*s eye an esplanade or open front, 
a quarter of a mile broad, shaped like a new moon, iu 
two horns four miles apart! Behold this noUe apaee 
built up on one side by blocks of lofty brick or atone* 
stores, warehouses, steam-presses, hotels, cotton and 
sugar magazines, in which the mightiest enogieo, talents^ 
and riclies of commerce have their fields of dmily actirity. 
Interminably, farther than the eye can follow then, in 
their recession in the distance, they extend. 


ceeding to range. Opposite tbis league-front of stores 
lie the various vessels which are the winged servants of 
the princely merchants, who oecnpj these commercial 
palaces. The whole Levee bank, from horn to horn of 
the magnificent crescent, is lined with shipping and 

First are the cotton ships, which extend three in a 
tier for a mile and a half in unbroken line, their inter- 
mingled masts presenting the aspect of a wintry forest 
stripped of its leaves. I have been along the whole 
Levee in a carriage, and seen all this with my own eyes, 
and as I gased I wondered at the sublime spectacle. A 
half league mass of ships, those proud ocean eagles 
which swept the clouds with their snowy crests, whicK 
rose defiant to the down pressing storm, tossed the ocean 
spray upon their necks, as the horse of the desert flings 
his mane, whose path has been sublimely held amid tem* 
peets and displays of the Almighty's power, whose swift- 
ness, glory, and beauty of motion and form mocked that 
of the sea-bird — ^to see these once free and independent 
creatures, (ships to me always seem living things with 
life in them, like the wheels in Ezekiel's vision,)— to see 
those superb ocean messengers stripped of their white 
plumage, tied by the bit to wooden wharves, like newly 
captured elephants to strong stakes — ^to see them secured 
and motionless, fast boimd in chains of iron, prisoners 
and captives, all their winged swiftness and their late 
ocean freedom changed into captivity, made me feel sad. 
I gazed on them with pity and sympathy. Yet, cap- 
tives as they were, tied in threes as I beheld them, 
divested of their white wings as they were, there was 
still left much of the spirit of their former grandeur. 

S40 THB sniorr south; ob, . 

Their dark hulls, hnge and maasire, riaing high oot of 
the water and overtopping the Levee houaesy and irhidi 
I had to gaze up at, their curving bowa and tall bil* 
warks, their noble outlines and vast proportions still 
lent them a dignity which commanded respect* 

^'Ah, brave ships," I said, ^^ though boondfaat now in 
port like caged lions, the day will come again, when, laden 
with the silvery fleece of this sunny land, and the glit- 
tering crystals of its emerald sugar fields, ye will oiiee 
more spread your broad wings to the breeie of heavcii, 
your now motionless keels will once more cleave the 
blue waves of the illimitable ocean, and again you shall 
try your oaken strength with the tornado, and do mightv 
battle with the billows. Conquering and still conquer* 
ing your pathway, you shall traverse the farthest 
some of you penetrate the icy Baltic, to lay your 
Burcs at the feet of the Russian Csar; some of yon past 
beneath the frowning shadow of Gibraltar, and win your 
way to far Egypt, and unlade your precious burden on 
the quay of the city, where once reigned Joseph and the 
Pharaohs ; some of you less ambitious, shall follow the 
curving shores of our yast republic, and paaaing the 
Vineyard and the Capes of New England, shall fold your 
canvass within sound of the church bell of my mother's 
native town. 

As wo rode slowly along, gazing on the poor tied up 
ships, I noticed that they bore flags of erery land; for a 
sea captain had died that morning, and all the Yeaaeli in 
port had their colors at half mast, a rery tooching ex- 
pression of nautical sorrow; for a flag not completely 
hoisted, is, in the symbolic language of aeameni ia- 
verted, a signal of distress at sea, of sorrow in port. My 


old friend, the Bengal captain, (who has gone to sea 
again, and is now away off in India,) carried this half 
masting idea so far, that being in mourning for a rela- 
tion, with black crape on a white General Jackson hat, 
he always wore the strip just half way np his hat, (half- 
mast, as he called it,) with a streamer half a foot long, 
floating oat behind. The dear good old tease of a Ben- 
gal tiger! I wonder if he will ever write me that long 
letter he promised me he would do, and tell me all about 
his adventures in those far away lands and seas. If he 

does keep his promise, Mr. , the letter is yours to 

put in print. 

Some of the ships were Swedish, blunt, square-bowed, 
high-shouldered, buffalo-looking hulks, with whito-headed 
and fair-skinned men on board, in blue and red woolen 
caps. Their pretty flag was a white cross on a blue 
ground, with a scarlet field in the upper corner, orna- 
mented with a small white St. Andrew's cross, (the let- 
ter X.) I thought of sweet Jenny Lind, as I looked at 
the flag of her country, which 1 felt would have brought 
tears of joy into her eyes, to have seen it here, so far 
away from her home-land. 

How much Sweden owes to Jenny Lind in song, Miss 
Bremer in letters, and Thorwaldsen in sculpture! But 
for these three gifted children of her hills, Sweden, as 
before their birth, would be obscurely known to the 
florid. But they have placed her first in music, first in 
letters, first in art ; so that now she takes her proper in- 
tellectual rank with the cultivated nations of Europe. 
If three persons can give glory to their native land in 
the eyes of the world, how carefully ought every indi- 

842 THB 8 cry NT south; oe, 

vidual to live, that he may poradventiire reflect honor 

upon his own nation ! No one is insignificmnt. 

There were four Swedish ships, and two Korwegian 
barques, showing in their flag a large bine crora on a ltd 
ground, the flag of Ole Bull's land. A Portngnete brig, 
with her pretty green and white striped oolora, I tbo 
saw. There were half a dozen Russian shipe, with tlwir 
flags striped with red, white, and blue. The most part 
of the vessels displayed the star-spangled banner, flaaluBfr 
and glittering above the Yankee deeks, as saucily aa thoo^ 
it felt itself at home on its own soil. The red, sangiuDarT- 
looking ensign of old England, with its double croti is 
one eorner of a blue ground, floated proudly and glooDih 
above full a hundred ships ; for, next to the comai ercf 
of our own ships, that of England stands confinaed. 
The tri-colored flag of France was visible here and tkere, 
and the yellow and red colors of Spain flaunted abore 
inferior-looking vessels. 

Of the Yankee ships, nearly all were from New York, 
and ports north of it, the half being from New Englaad. 
The handsomest ships which I saw were from Bath. 
Maine; and a captain, to whom the colonel spoke, tokl 
mo that the best ships in the world are built on the Ken- 
nebec river in Maine. Those which I saw and adnired, 
wore certainly models of grace, majesty, and strength. 
Thoy looked like peaceful frigates, tamed down, and 
broken into the merchant service. After leaving the 
long range of ships, we came to the part of the Le^ee 
whore the Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, and all Northern 
and interior steamers moor. For half a mile it was a 
grand display of snow-white hulls, round-topped vherl- 
houses, tall, black, iron chimneys, some belching forth 

clvT^* *? unrkv ^moke. rimt r^Rml aad n>lleil ovrr f.h« 
c::v -..jr**»ct-mn^ ranmiur-cioiitb, only moro awful- 
l<K»kinr. i aev*g: saw anvthin^r *> dreadfully mihlft m 
the?^ T«i>Lam*f?f n ^moke. wiiieh rjjt; from farnaceii cramnrM»/l 
with i>tc* 'd*}^ ami aur-barn»l». 

After :!!•* ftemnlxmte* come the small Spaniiih t%M 
Creole C3a*cer?* and toe Texa5 and FlDridii triiiliny 
schooner?, wbioh are very aumer^os^ with Hwartliy /•.r^w4 
in red fhirt^. knife in belt, and with huge hmrtln, TIm^ 
we came to the <!K!ean steamers, tha^c mammrith mfn^Atts^^ 
dies that so steaming about the world 8mokin;r th<Hr r$ta / 
sheet-iron cizars. and leading a very fnnt lifn. mn^, , 
the scantial of the sober-going merchAntm'^i ;' ^^ 
steamer^, with their jet-black aM|K;ct, and '^^u-j^ » ^^ 
shark-headed bows and huge dimcnj«ionM. h;ir* ^ .^ . .^ 
moniacal appearance; and if I had Ur«;r, * *.»^i y^^.^^.. 
at all, I should have hesitated al^Mit i*^^t.\f .,f • . ^ 
their capacious power, recollerting \iu-m J\^^str. -r^^ ^^^ 
too near a sea-monster of a similar ?:f>*:r>» ^.wt #^ ^. . 
lowed whole. 

Nevertheless we went on l^^ard : ';%\ ttr ..^^ . ,..,. ^^ 
ing in coal with scores of ^\\*z*\-'/kjff\-ri »---.:..,., 
dusty, noisy, and disagr^.-^raLi*: : v^'. jisai.*^,. ^ _ ^ 
work in the cabin, all thi/i^* »*-•» u>*-..i* 
a New England scouring 'i*v. ^r. r> ,.^, ^ ,^ ^ 
continued our ride two mi.j^*. f •..•■:..*:* ^^.^^,, 
a chain of ships nearly a« fv.*-i-iirM .• : ^ ,. , , 
seen ; both sides of th<r ci*. v >-:i,^ tu»*i...^- ^ ; ^.,^ . . > , . 
marine walls and for*:*ti* •.»* uuu*-r 

Imagine every Klip i"!.^!.!:.;*. ,. *«';,., ^ -.-»•.., 
every steamer diM:Laf;;u.;i «..f .u*....; , ;. .,..^ ^. 
sengers, and ^shts it:?ju uu*. nr.ui.,- /r -^^^^ «,.^. ^^ 

844 THE SUNUT south; OBy 

belching smoke ; while steamboats constantly arrire 
from the river above, and round to and land, or depirt 
amid the roars of escape pipes, and the clamor of belk 
Imagine four thousand drays aiding in loading and un- 
loading these thousand vessels, and moving in all direc- 
tions along the Levee, till its whole surface is alive with a 
ceaseless maelstrom of motion, accompanied by a noiae 
of hoofs, wheels, and voices, almost deafening in their 
aggregated thundcrings. Imagine one broad field of 
such commercial life, four miles in unbroken extent, and 
you will have some idea of the ^^ Levee** at New Orleaai. 
No city on earth can present such a striking scene,— tad 
all at one glance of the eye ! No quay-view anywhere 
could convey such an impression to the mind of the ob- 
server, of the power, and might, and action, and energy 
of commerce. 

But as I gazed upon all this, I could not help recalfing 
the terrible chapter in Revelations addressed toBabyloD, 
^^ that great city wherein was made rich all that had 
ships in the sea, by reason of her costliness.'* 

Por her luxuries and sins, Babylon was terribly jndflcd! 
Will this city remember God, and glorify Uim ** who 
maketh the merchants of the earth to wax rich,*' when 
they say, ^^ What city is like unto this great city ? Shall 
she also be made desolate, and her crown be removed 
and cast into the dust ? Uod forbid ! Let Religion go 
hand in hand with, and sanctify Commerce, and this city 
need not fear what otherwise it should apprehend,— 4he 
doom of all those hitherto which have forgotten from 
whose Hand '^ cometh all prosperity." 

Your friend^ 



Dkar >Ir. 

This isdiebscdaTveare toreauimtUtFi 
American Metropolis of tke Sovtk. WIwtvitkikoppiBg 
with demr Bell, in Medsdng her im ik«g htidil |nb>- 
chmaea — ^with riding at nriligiit on the Bagnifioent *"thell 
road," with lisiting the caihedralfl, and chnrdbcs, and 
public edifices, and above all, for interest, die Ml oeoio- 
teries of the city, m j time has been fnUj oeaqiied. 

Oar hotel is in the French qoarter of the eitj, and a 
grand, French Tnilleries' locJdng affair as it is. It is 
under the snperintendance of Mr. Madge, who is a native 
of New England, was formerly a drj-goods merchant in 
Portland, and being ansaceessfiil in basinets, came oat 
here many years ago to make his fortune, and, unlike 
many who go from home for this purpose, he has emi- 
nently succeeded. From being only a salaried assistant 
in the office of the St. Charles, he rose by his probity, 
industry, talents, and genius, to become its proprietor ; 
and now is manager temporarily of this until the St« 
Charles is rebuilt. He is a gentleman of fine manners, 
a pleasant countenance, and has a most interesting and 
charming family. To manage a hotel now-a-days, re- 
quires very much the sort of talent requisite in a com* 
mander of a man-of-war or a military officer, and this 
ability Mr. Mudge possesses. Hotel managing is a pro* 


fession, and a highly honorable one. It reqiures tniwiifr, 
talent, naj, genius. The first hotel started in the Unii«4 
States, on the modem plan, was the Tremont. Its clerki 
became managers of others, till now, in ail the best hoteh, 
the managers have either been educated to their oSee at 
the Tremont or Astor, (which sprung from the TrenoDt 
under Mr. Stetson,) or by gentlemen who graduated at 
one or the other of the " Hotel Universities.'* ThoK 
large establishments are now regular colleges, and sbodd 
issue '' diplomas" to their graduates. It is not now, la 
it was formerly, that a man, who is not fit for anj other 
business, can keep a hotel. 

All this knowledge I have got from hearing a convfr* 
sation between the colonel and one of the proprietors of 
the house. Nothing can be more recherche, more m- 
perb, more in perfection, than every appointment aboat 
this noble house. It strikes me that Queen Victoria 
could not entertain us better in Windsor Castle, thaa 
Mr. Mudge does here. 

I love to walk through the French streets, and look 
into the prettily fixed-up shops, or sit in the drawing- 
room window, and gaze out upon the streets, watehmg 
the passers-by, and the people in the neighborhood. 
Two-thirds of them are French, the gentlemen with mus- 
taches, which seem to be worn universally here, and the 
ladies in Parisian hats, and long lace veils, with dresses 
very short, to exhibit their pretty feet, 

" Like little iiiic*c ]N%ping in and out/' 

as they trip along the banquette; which, by the way, is 
the ordinary name here for side-walk. The IVnek are 
a very oild people. They don*t scorn to know or ears 


that anybodj looks or listens. They talk and gestieu^ 
late in the most extraragantly ridicoloiis manner, and I 
am infinitely amused a hundred times a-day at what 
passes before me. 

One old man comes out and sits in an arm*chair on 
the banquette, and does nothing but make little paper 
dgars and smoke them, and read an old torn book, 
through a pair of enormous, round-eyed, iron spectades. 
No matter who goes by, what goes on around him, there 
he sits, the crowd passing and repassing him, as quiet 
and unconcerned as if he were alone on Robinson Cru- 
soe's island. At eleven o'clock, a little n^press, in a 
bright red 'kerchief bound tastefully about her brows, 
brings him out on a waiter a bottle of claret and a little 
tumbler. He drinks three glasses, and she retires, while 
he resumes his smoking and reading the old book. Once 
I saw a priest stop and address him. The old man rose, 
bowed politely, crossed himself, offered the priest a cigar, 
which was accepted; the priest bowed and went on, 
while Monsieur, crossing his breast, bowed and reseated 
himself, with a half smile on his old visage, as if the 
brief interview with the priest had gratified him. 

Not far from this person sits from morning to night, 
in a shop door, a sallow, thin lady, engaged in working 
a piece of embroidery. She has her soup and garlic 
brought to her by a child, and eats her dinner in face of 
the world with perfect indifference. 

The French seem to love "out doors." They turn 
themselves, the whole population, from their doors at the 
close of the afternoon, and sit on the banquette till bed* 
time, talking, laughing, singing, and even eating their 
suppers, if the banquette be wide enough. They are, 


all say of the French, a gay, happy people, and mcb to 
bo quite divested of all care for the morrow. It ii oar 
American undue care for to-morrow, that makes the t<v 
day always so heavy. They make it bear ita own weight 
and to-morrow*s, a double burden which our SaTioar 
wisely forbade us to put upon ooraelvefl. A prSmmi ii 
the life of the French. 

Tliero are two distinct cities that make up New Or- 
leans — the American and French. The former ii 00 
much like a Northern city that I did not remain in it 
much, although the most superb portion; but I took 
kindly to the latter for its very novelty. In the Frendi 
part, few of the population speak English. Their lan- 
guage, manners, customs, are preserved; and a X^arisifta 
would think himself in a citv of France, if he did not 
cross Canal street, which is the Rubicon that leparaM 
the American quarter from it. 

In walking tlirough tlie French municipality, or dis- 
trict, I could hardly realize that I was in my native 
land. French names to streets — Rue Bien-ville, Rae 
Royal, Rue Chart res ! French signs above the 8torea« and 
within mustachod Gallic visages of men, and dark-eyed 
foreign-looking women, with smooth, raven hair dressed 
a ht SatHHr ; French architecture everywhere, and the 
French tongue constantly heard by ohl and young, bj 
African and freemen! All these peculiarities made it 
alnio.<t inipossiliie for me not to fancy myself in Europe. 
ir I entered a shop J>eH Motlett^ I was addressed in French 
by a snuling dame, or a polite Monsieur. If I asked a 
direction in the street, I was answered in the saaa 
tongue. If I entered u book store, I found in ereiy 
Volume I took up the native language of Lafayette. Ths 


yellow fiaere^men called to their horses in a' paltiis of 
the same language, and a woman at the comer of the 
street offered me Boston apples, with a ^'Mam'sel, Tent 
elle des pommes ce matin?" 

If I passed two gentleman conyersingy I heard French; 
and the children shouted to each other in the same nni* 
versal speech, much to the amazement undisguised of 
Edith, who attended Bell, Monsieur Isidore, and me, in 
our perambulations, and who could not ccnnprehend how 
little barefooted wretches of six and seren years could 
talk the language which ^^ Missy Bella" had be^i three 
years in learning with masters at an expense of hundi^ds 
of dollars. 

It seemed to her ignorance of things quite an unequal 
distribution of gifts of Proyidence. On her return she 
will probably excite the wonder of the whole Ethiopian 
population of the plantation, by asseverating that she 
heard in New Orleans little children talking French. I 

do assure you, frankly confessing it, Mr. j that it 

made me quite indignant to hear the little imps so inde- 
pendently speaking the language without ever having 
looked into a horrid grammar, and being wholly innocent 
of dictionaries, who had never conjugated avoir nor fairej 
and knew no more of ^tre than they did of the 119th 
Psalm. I felt like giving every one of them a good 
whipping, thinking how many wakeful hours I had spent 
on grammars and dictionaries, to learn what came to 
them, as their walking did, by nature. We found that 
the French spoken to us in the shops was not a little 
different from the Parisian pronunciation. I noticed that 
the Orleanois clip their words, do not speak the ni^ 
termination so full and distinct, and have a shriller u^ 


tonation tliroiigliout. I sboiild judge that the JM h im eB 
in pronunciation between them and the VmnrnMOM to be 
greater than between New Englanders and cdvntcd 
Englishmen. As these are easily diatingnished tnm one 
another although saving the same words, so are the 
Louisiana French to be easily distingaished from the 

There are a good many French gentlemen here tt 
present who have taken prominent parts in the politm 
of France, and who find French soil unsafe for their feet 
just now. One of these expressed himself to me at table 
yesterday with great animation about this oonntrj tad 
the society of New Orleans, with which, he said, he vm 
perfectly charmed. ^^ There is a naivete and lupie 
grace in the ladies," he remarked, ^^that we see not in 
France, at least not exactly like it. They are gentle, 
yet proud ; independent, yet, like the vine, seem to look 
to the sterner sex for support; intelligent, yet indolent; 
not much learned in books, yet irresistibly captivating 
in conversation. They seem to combine," he added, 
^'thc splendor and haughty bearing of the Spanifh 
women, with the tender loveliness of the Italian, the 
bonhomie of the French, and the discretion and repose 
of the English : a noble combination which would con- 
stitute a perfect national character.*' 

I agree with Monsieur de B so completely that 

I give his description of the Louisianaise as my own. 

Yesterday I had pointed out to me a large, heaTy, 
gigantic-looking personage, in a blue frock-coat and gny 
trowsers, as the Prince de Wurtemburg, who is traveling 
ii^ the United States. lie is a fair Saxon in aspect, 
with a flashy countenance, blue eyes, and double 

s thorongli liesfy 

liim, not beeamo be wm a fmat, Mr. w leeHst aD 

our young Ameneaat of **T4aBfr AmtenaT 
born, — but from die fiKt tkat ke is a IbmI 
of that good Doke of Wvtmfcavg 
friend, and wboae adhffaf la die 
snch impetns to tbe BefonsadnL. 

Tbere are aoorea of die aid aatkaae af Vtamm Ctiag 
bare in qmet and 

gentlemen atill, odien aa fiAricaiean af 
ke. Here also are to be fnaai eskm af al 
and men of desperate tmimmu. aclf-expalriateC ' Bmuj 
language of the OTiExed vorld earn be beatd m tltia citjr 
in a day's ramble throo^ its tboroagbCmaL 




Dear Mr. : 

The more I see and understand this Fnnoo-Ameri- 
can city, the more I am pleased with it. The noTchy 
of its being a perfect plain, level as a chess-board, is oae 
of its striking characteristics, in a northern eye. Kexl 
is its foreign air, then there is the magnificent cMp imi 
of its league-long quay, the majesty of its moving river, 
the massive grandeur of its public edifices, in which Ncv 
Orleans surpasses northern cities, and the pictnrcsqne 
variety of costumes in the streets. Even the water in 
the streets, after a heavy shower, runs awag bom the 
river towards the rear of the town, instead of naming 
into the river, as it aught to do in all well-rcgvlated 

The cause of this latter peculiarity is that tlie rim 
is higher than the level bottom on which the city stands, 
and from its shore the land gently inclines for s mik or 
two, until a dead level is reached where the waters fie 
immovable. Like all rivers through an aUovial rcgioD, 
the Mississippi flows grandly and loftily along on a ridge 
of its own making, and which it continnes to elevate by 
every muddy overflow. 

But I leave these matters to Sir Charles LyeD and 
Professor Forshay, and will write less learnedly, albeit 
learned ladies are now the mode, and all our female 
boarding-schools arc transmogrified into CM&yJole IsBti- 

*■ ' W' * ♦ * • 

ly and eJkg B i pheii •Off^HS 
the joong UEia jppynfinimnF jl nwiHig jhk 
\ing^3eimg w^pptsaarxHstu mnx7nTt^rmtmr,mMuppmt^ 
^eeiea^ iiMfsai^ Inii'Tug su& iinlmng. nm i n^g Aica 
mending eMBmam^t, ui. util jil. juu. 20^^ tbm in ja»- 
ig tlie iiiMfArfT f 2BUp^Lmiuf»i siic^iinni^ air 
Tie b nu ctj; in iiMiMiiii'infc -atf dcgi&'ftfs^fnHHrj 
idniy, and tenoBy firinnniiBtf; iu A— ii n^ ska 
In traprrinai in tiae Jifsk oT <AdfBi Jaam 
ing TafKir, and fiphmm^g ^&t Jiuvdaj 
De, and f<3r/At^ fkii£Bi3' 'irisk tiic- 
nunent, and can ifWLittntte 3i<r fuiij ' juhl bA Ik^ 
iof Dr.EaelSd: 

hare UMiaj pnafied tir& iiovTE. ffiridei fc unmn 

of the gremi Kontazi CitdkC'Ik dtmc^ei hcfl«^ ane 

rUch, on Plaee* oAnbefe. if a caihednl, bjr^iUdk 

I I nnderssaxid tl«e ciinrdb vLeran the RiAnp or 

bbish<^ himself preadL«eE. 

^e went to the cuLednJ fiirt. whidi fronts^ vith tho 
e goTemment affice§k a §Teet poblic gazden, adorned 

anow-white staines, a2iid in^erlaoed bj lorelj walkf ; 
lasiB of taste in the Terr Lean of noisj oommeroe, 
a gentle thought in a ba^l maii'fe breast. This sqoaio 
>t large, but it i? a l»<m ton of squares, for its neatneas 
attractive air. On one side the massiTe walla, tover« 
turrets of the cathedral look protectirelj down upon 
on two other sides stand the noble ranges of edifices 
id the Montalban Buildings, constructed alike, and 
)g each other on opposite sides of the Plain. The 
th side is open to the quay and river, at the point 
re the magnificent ocean-steamers lie, to repose a 
e from their stormy voyages from dime to clime. 


854 THB Bumnr south; ob. 

The walks in the square were Urdj wtth nmes ut 
children, while lazy fellows wiih mustaches ]mj adeep oi 
the lazorious grass, or smoked cigars. This sqaaie hi 
been for more than a century the parade-groond of th 
troops of the several nations which hare held New Oi 
leans : Spanish, French, English, and now Ameriew 
It was formerly the place of public ezecotiony and frn 
it is fired at nine o'clock the cannon which we have hesr 
every night at that hour shake the city, and atart Issbe 
and me, and other unsophisticated country girl% frm m 

The cathedral has an imposing and costly air. Il i 
the old cathedral, that ancient, time-honored straetore, of 
which 1 have read in novels, and the very sight of wUd 
creates a romance in the imagination. But moden 
taste has veneered all this antiquity, and out of the oU 
pile has produced a very elq^t temple of wonUp 
We made our way along the front of the go ven u acsl 
offices, between massive columns supporting a eorridor 
and a row of cabriolets, which are the *' hacks*' of Nei 
Orleans. The cabriolet is a handsome, chariol-skapei 
vehicle, that is too pretty to be confined, aa it is, ce 
tirely to the hack-stand. These eai$j as they are cab 
"for short," are driven by Irishmen, or by colored mm 
the latter of whom sat half asleep on the bozeS| mhH 
the sons of Erin were alert, and extended to us vcr 
pressing and polite invitations to sufier them to have th 
" honor of dhrivin' our ladyship and our honors to sa; 
part of the city." The front doors of the ealhsfci 
were closed, but M. de Clery, our attendant, t«med wit! 
us down a narrow avenue, which had *^e wall of th 
cathedral on our left, and a row of Fn looking baiU 

ings on our ng^ht, lAUk^ 

the priests; sad of 

seeing two skdc sad 

pleasant rissges, sittiag a 

dgar in his fips, sad Ae 

small, greasy hook ; Ihum 

de94ooldng pmst in 

to his heels, who vas si tte 4ifir <tf 

diasingy with a saik sad m 

peaches firom a iMskcC hdbassi 40 1mhm44f a^ ^ ^tdli^ 


We prooeeded shoal Mtfym4^4tfm^iUmmmftfififiim 
we came to a side door, wteii sa rl'ss a rfy ili^ f u i l s ^ K fa tf 
female was in the set of jpfwir ^ |» Jk- lo i lh »» M^ 
litelj held the door for herss^at. soiC f i fmrnttt ^mwifn 
a second cloth door iato tier »^r/uf. Jki<Mr ktMum^ 
marble bann, containing «MHN!«sfac^ iKi*(r^ AIQl^i^ftMk^MM; 
veiled lady dipped the ^ ^mt iimb^^^^mSy: ^st^W^r 
roond to the shrine of the Vjrim. ^mm4 tMmcftif <m«4SU 
forehead and bosom H^ tsaui; 1iiw«i; imnt tfai / 
her head in the act of sAwirtuvnu tW tiDM» iii^ «*4k 4^/ 
touching the forehead, the W»Mt llMr >fe ^AMtMnr^ 4iMi 
lastly the right, in qnaek sagiuo s w w a trjolii ItUr #ti|^ fi«K^' 

The door by which we emuia^ im«^ «s iiMtv IAm; 
Cathedral, close to the ihraM; of JffL ^ t ^ mf it^ mmr ^ 
chanceL The extme hesaly 4t Hm^ itMsti^i tim m4kf 
mellow, lemon-toned tint of the onibf asid prf ssw i i^ li« 
rast height of the frcsovaifenabd ^Mne ; dUe wmM^f of 
fine arcfaitectnral forms into whkh the walls orwHid as 
and the ceiling were shaped; the lilefal air of spaee sad 
expenditure apparent ererywhere ; the siqwrb altar, with 

THi souTsnunm ja momm^ tSt 

Uadk^^ed difld polled d<mB on ito beef ^ ker ttde, Iwt 
ill ahining eyes always tamed arooid and fixed on ns« 

There were several confessional boxes. Seeing tibe skirt 
of a robe protruding from the aleore by tibe side of one, 
I mored in that direeti<Hi, and behdd tibe graerfU laij^ 
whom I had for a few times lost si^ ol^knesfiag bsfbfw 
the Iftttioe blind, with her month dose to it, and ponring 
into the ear of the nnseen priest, shot wp widnn, her se^ 
erets and her sins ! 

That she was penitent, I fek sore, for iiMre were 
"tesrs in her Yoioe," as its slow soonds reached ay he- 
retical ears. Sorrow always c on i msMs rereresee. I 
tamed away, leaving her to her hmniliating work, and 
wishing to say to her in the language of in^riradon, 
^ Daughter ! None forgiveth sins, bat God only V Ah, 
this confessional ! It is the secret of Roman power orer 
the consciences of her people. ^' Tell me yoor secrets, 
and yon are my slave," was said two thousand years sgo, 
by a Greek writer; and it is true to-day, and Borne 
practically asserts its truth. 

I observed that over the door of each of the confes- 
sionals was printed in gold letters, the name of the father- 
confessor ; so that the penitent knows (posmbly if no mis- 
chievous and evil-minded young priest steal in, or jealoos 
husband unawares to priest and penitent) to whom she 
is unfolding the secret intents and thoughts of her heart. 
I should hardly be willing to tell my husband everything, 
(if I had one, Mr. ,) less so to one of these jovial- 
eyed, good-natured, bald-headed padres ! and much less 
to a handsome young fellow of a priest, whom I saw cross 
the chancel, in at one door and out of the other, half 
bending his knee before the crucifix on the altar, as ho 


passed bj it, not without half an eye caai ipoA our 
party ! The confessional alone would frighten Be from 
ever being a Romanist. 

K you have ever been in a Roman ehnrdiy you nasi 
have been struck with the three great »ltan or ahiiiiM 
which are invariably in all of them, at the cast end of 
the church. The centre one is the High Altar, with tbe 
crucifix, holy, vessels, &o., and is the shrine of Jciu! 
On the right of this, at the same end, is the shrine ef the 
Virgin with her altar, and the objects associated with her 
worship. On the left of the High Altar, at the same 
end, is the shrine and altar of St. Joseph, the hvibsad 
of Mary. 

These three altars take up the whole of the ssit end 
of all Roman churches. The three are equally woi^ 
shiped, or rather the shrines; and the Virgin alwaji 
has the greatest number of Totaries. Her altar is hmfti 
with the freshest flowers; and three kneel before kcr 
shrine, where one kneels before the high altar of "tlie 

The religion of Rome is Mariolatry. The Mothsr of 
Jesus is the supreme object of the worship, honage, 
adoration, and supplication of Romanists. Jesas is wor- 
shiped and adored not as '' the ascended Lord," bat ai 
the infant in arme. He is a peculiarity of the Bomia 
worship. They are so accustomed to think of, and to be 
hold Jesus in the arms of His Mother, that they lose sigbt 
of Hun as ''the Man Christ Jesus;" and the habit of 
seeing Him only as an It^fant leads them to look upon 
the Blessed Mother alone in the light of protectress and 
guardian of the Holy Child. Thus they associate with 
her a maternal influence and maternal power in rdatios 


to Hiiiiy which 10 the foimditioii of dieir whole eystem 
of « Prayers to the Virgin." 

Christ in the arms is the centre of Soman wonfaip: 
Christ on the cross, of Protestant. It is natnal there- 
fore that the worshiper of the babe dioiild transfier a 
part of adoration to its mother. 

After half an hoar spent in the Cathedral, we de- 
parted as we came, and taking one of the cakiolets, 
drote toSt^ Patrick's Church; of my visit to which I 
win not trouble you with an aocoont, as it interested me 
less than that to the CathedraL On our way we passed 
at Christ Church, the richest Episcopal Chnrch in this 
city. It is a low, ill-planned slruclure for its archi- 
tectoral pretensions, looking, as if the main body had 
sank some six feet nnder ground, after being built, and 
the spire had sunk as many feet down into the bosom of 
the tower. The whole wants eleyation, and up-lifting 
into the air. 

The interior I am told is very rich; but gates and 
doors were locked, — ^for, I regret to say, the Romans 
are the only people who ''shut not their gates" to the 
foot of the wayfaring worshiper, who, at all times, 
should be able to enter the ''courts of the House of the 
Lord, and worship towards His holy temple." 

Very respectfully, 




Dear Mr. : 

This letter's date shows jou that I am once wan 
an inmate of the charming abode from which I haTe so 
frequently written you. My last was dated at New 
Orleans^ where we had been to purchase the hmidred 
little elegancies for Isabel's bridal, which haring done to 
all our satisfactions, we returned homo on Taeaday bit 
I see by one of your papers that I hare been so dih 
tingxmhed as to find a critic. 

Dear me ! I had no idea, not the remotest, that anj 
thing coming from my pen could be worthy of the notice 
of any other pen, especially such a graoefnl one as that 
of your New Orleans correspondent. If I use ^Needkii'* 
her pens are pointed with gold, and sharpened whl 
diamond dust. Present to her my most gracioos eon- 
pliments, and sny to her that she is right in supposing I 
had made a mistake in giving to one railroad terminal 
some descriptive sentences which really belonged to tb 
other! I thank her for the correction and especially for 
making it so pleasantly. liut who could be expected to 
have their heads perfcethf clear, Mr. , (I ask ym^ 

who are a married man, and ought to know ahont saeh 
matters,) when they were shopping with a bride-ebeli 


attended by a handsome young man, and half in love with 
him myself? 

I do not mean Isabel's affiane^ Isidore, bnt a friend 
of his, who escorted us; for Isidore is too diffident to go 
a-shopping with Bel, on 9uch an occasion. Now, having 

told you the secret, Mr. , you are not surprised. I 

feel confident that my head was a little giddy, and that 
I mistook my notes about one railway at one end of the 
city, jotted down when I came from a day's trip to Pass 
Christian for those made for the other railway at the 
other end ; and I trust that this explanation will make 
me friends with your correspondent. And talking of 
such contributors to your columns, pray who is "Nico- 
lene?" She writes with taste to be sure, and does me 
great honor, in her graceful humility, to furnish such 
exquisitely woven threads for my "Needles." But I do 
her injustice to call them thread — they are the finest 
silken floss of the richest and most brilliant tints. How 
intimately one can know an unknoum one by means of 
the magic press ! This " Nicolene" and I are already 
friends, stitched as closely together as twin-sisters, by 
means of our "Thread and Needle." Shall we ever 
meet in this green world under the sunny blue sky, hand 
in hand, and friendly eye looking into friendly eye? or 
if not, and we cross one another's bright path in celestial 
fields, shall we know who one another is; and shall we 
then be to the other as the "thread" to the "needle:" 
two but one in aim, and in all things? 

Perhaps, too, I have many friends — ^many kindred 
spirits, who have become acquainted with me through 
my "Needles." I sometimes love to fancy myself visit- 
ing, incognita, some of the firesides where they are read| 


and where I am loved through them;* and to imgme 
the dear welcome I should receive from smiling ejes and 
pressing hands, when I told them who I was. Thns, mj 
dear sir, my pen has become to me the key to open iDanj 
hearts, who think and speak of me, as if they had seen 
and talked with me face to face. They will continne to 
be my friends, forever, and I to be theirs; so that I have 
two sets of friends in the world ; those whom I have seen, 
and whose voices are familiar to my ear; and thorie 
whose forms, whose faces, whose voices, whose names, 
whose homes on earth, are all unknown to me ! To them 
I send love and greeting. To them I send wishes of 
happiness and heaven; for them my prayers ascend; to- 
wards them my pleasantest thoughts wander, when in 
the still twilight I give them free wing over the shadowy, 
half-star-lit world. 

In this letter, dear Mr. ^ I meant to have giTcn 

you a description of the great preparations which an 
making for Isabel's bridal, which takes place on Tkun- 
day morning next ; but I have not time now, everybody 
is hurrying everybody so ; for one comes and urges me 
to lay down my pen, and entwine a wreath of flowers for 
some statuette; or another runs and asks me my opinion 
of such an ornament for the chandeliers; Isabel sends 
the pretty golden skinned slave, Enmia, to ask me if aha 
ought to wear any rings at all during the ceremony, and 
fohichy one or ones? and then my taste is in demand for 
the best mode of dressing the chancel of the little gothie 
chapel, where the ceremony is to take place; and what 
with trying to keep Isidore within proper decomm, eon- 

* A great number of letters and poems were addnsssd Is thi 
authoress. — Editor. 


Bidering he is 80on to become a grave husband, and show- 
ing Aont Chloe how to frost cake ^' Bosting-way/' as 
she calls it, I have enough to do ; so good bye for this 

day, good Mr. • In a day or two you shall have 

fall particulars of the wedding. 

Your true friend, 




Cbavsav »■ Clbbt, La. 

Dear Mr. : 

The wedding of Isabel had like to have been pot off 
for at least a whole month, just for a point of etiquette! 
And what do you suppose it was? * 

Why, you know, that my sweet pupil, Inbel| who for 
two years past has grown into the charming grace of in- 
tellectual womanhood under my eye, had captivated the 
calm, elegant, retiring Isidore do Clery, while on a Tisit 
at his father's with her own father, Colonel Peyton. 
When it was perceived that lovers they were, and mar- 
ried they would be, why the dear, good colonel gave his 
consent, and proposed that the party should go to the 
city to purchase the wedding dresses, jewelry, and ew 
so many and so forths! 

Of course Bel did not object; M. de Clery, senior, did 
not object, but was perfectly enraptured at the prospect 
of having such a lovely daughter-in-law; and Isidore did 
not object by any means. So the wedding, it was de- 
cided, should take place at the Chateau de Clery. 

But now, only think of the tyrannies of fashionahb 

propriety, Mr. ! After we had returned from New 

Orleans to the Chateau, a certain very precise* very 
starch, very ancient old lady aunt, who was invited from 
her sugar estate to the wedding, took it into her antiquated 


head ^Hkat it was most becoming for young maidens 
to be married (whereflomeyer thej may be courted) at 
their paternal mansion; and that it would not be e<mmte 
U faut if Isabel were married at the house of the father 
of her intended husband ! that the bridegroom should go 
to the house of the bride elect after his bride, and take 
her home! — at least that was the custom in her day!" 

which was entre nau$j Mr. ^ when three brothers, 

named Shem, Ham, and Japhet, got their wives, I am 
quite satisfied. 

Now to the plain Tennessee manners of the colonel, 
to the unsophisticated ignorance of poor Isabel, to the 
want of $avoir faire, pardonable in a Green Mountain 
Yankee girl, this idea never occurred to us before. The 
old aunt's brocade and farthingale notions prevailed over 
the better sense of the colonel, and he absolutely told 
Bel that she had best be married at home, in Tennessee, 
and that wo would return on purpose for the next boat ! 

Bel came to me with her large, glorious, brown eyes, 
overrunning with tears, and told me all. I was sur- 
prised and indignant. I wished all meddlesome antedi- 
luvian aunts a league beyond sundown, and telling Bel I 
would see what I could do for her, and not to spoil her 
pretty eyes with crying, I left my room and went to the 
colonel. On the way, in the salon, I encountered Isi- 
dore. His face was pale, and his whole aspect perfectly 
wretched with an expression of despair. He met me 
with extended hands. 

" Sweet, good Kate, you must reverse our fate ! Tou 
can do any thing you attempt. Influence the colonel to 
change his mind. It is absurd ! Why can we not be 
married at my father's as well as at Bel's? I wish her 


aunt had been blown up ** (no— not so bmd as that,** 

I said, patting my finger on his lips) '^ well, annk to the 
bottom of the Mississippi ere she had come here to nir 
our felicity. For Bel's sake, as well as mine, do some- 
thing in our behalf!" 

I promised Isidore I would see what eoold be done, 
and, followed by his blessings, I sought Colonel Peyton, 
whom I found walking up and down the piaua on the 
shady side of the house, looking as gloomy as if he had 
the toothache. 

'* Well, Kate, I see you have heard the news,** he said, 
approaching mc. *' Bel will cry her eyes out, and Isi- 
dore will blow out his brains ! But, bless me, what eoold 
I do? There is my precise sister, with her old, Reroln- 
tionary-War notions, says it will be ' an absolute scsn- 
daF if I suffer Bel to be married here, and that sach i 
thing was never heard of, and that — that— the— d—! 
would generally be to pay ." 

('' Fie, colonel !" I said, trying to stop the word it 
the syllable, but it was no use — out it came with a hearti- 
ness that was resistless.) 

'^ Well, Kate, it is enough to make old General Tsylor 
swear I 

" What does Monsieur de Clery say?" I asked. 

** lie, you know, is so excessively polite that he ean't 
gainsay a woman, so he bows, and bows, and smiles, and 
outwardly ac<|uiesccs to my sister, while I very well knov 
he would be most happy to administer chloroform to her 
for the next nine days to come. But, if scandal is to 
come of it, Bel must be married at home, as I have tdd 
her. Confound fashion, Kate." 

Here the colonel gave such a petulant fling to Ut 


dgar, that it went like a rocket throngh the air, and 
lighted upon the thick woollj pate of old Aunt Elise, 
igniting the unctuouB crisp to the sudden consternation 
of the old dame, who screeched so loudly, with her apron 
OTer her head, and ran so madly, yelling '^ Fire !" that 
the colonel burst into laughter, and his anger evaporated, 
for he is too good-natured to hold ill-humor. 

'^ Well, Kate, I will be guided by your good sense, 
and if it offends my sister we must bear the brunt. 
What do you propose in order to keep these lovers from 
dying with despair? for, I confess, that to put off a mar- 
riage a whole month, which was to take place to-morrow 
night, is a pretty trying affair ; don't you think so?" 

'^ I do not know any thing about such matters," I an- 
swered, very quickly ; " but if the good lady is not to 
be pacified, I propose that you suggest to M. de Clery 
that he invest you with the proprietorship of Chateau 
de Clery for a day or so. Do you understand me, 

" Upon my word I do not, Kate," he answered, thought- 

" I understand her, colonel," responded the cheery 
voice of M. de Clery, who overheard me, and now joined 
us. *^ It is a good idea. Bon, ban!" 

^^ A ffood idea will be the most acceptable to me just 
now," answered the colonel, with a blank look. ^' What 
would Miss Kate be at?" 

^' I do not wish to offend so respectable a person as 
Madame, your sister," said M. de Clery, with a smile, 
'^and as her prejudices touching where a Demoiselle should 
be married are not to be easily overcome, I herewith in- 
vest you, my dear colonel, for three days, with the sole 


proprietorship of this chateau, serranta, and aH it eoa- 
tains, and for that period, Isidore and I will lia?e the 
honor of being your happy guests !" 

At this the colonel burst into a hearty laagh, and, 
shaking M. de Clery by both hands, tamed to me and 
kissed me, looking the uproarious picture of aaUsfaetioa 
and delight, and began calling for '^ Bel,*' at the top of 
his voice ! 

The matter was soon arranged. Bel smiled agpin, 
like an April sun coming out from behind showwj dmids; 
Isidore said I deserved to be married to an emperor, 
and the colonel would have kissed me again, if I hadn't 
adroitly glided from the reach of his hospitable 
The prim aunt was but half and half content. She 
how felt as if somebody had been whipped aroimd tki 
stump for her especial benefit; *'she oonldn't ezBcdj 
see how it was, but she hoped it was proper." 

It would have amused you, Mr. ^ to hafe sees 
how amazed the servants were when they saw the €b^ 
teau so suddenly change hands. M. de Clery reaigaiag 
his place at the table to the colonel, and all giring <f 
orders. It was a merry time we had, and all was es^ 
ried forward with commendable gravity, greatly to thi 
edification of the antiquated lady, who presided at thff 
tea-table, with inexpressible majesty. 

To-night the wedding takes place. All are in a Inttff 
and excitement. You would think every soul on the plaee^ 
black and white, was going to be married, instead of thi 
blushing, trembling, trying-to-be-oomposed-IsabdL Seek 
showing of ivories, on red and black groond, from hsll 
to kitchen, such Ethiopian merriment, such good hvDQr 
and activity generally, never was before. 


One Bervant runs to the garden to gather bouquets for 
the pier-tables and mantles; another gathers ripe fruits; 
another wreathes flowers; another goes by laden with 
frosted cakes; another flies this way; and another that; 
till all know not whether they are on their head or their 
heels. For my part, I never was more excited, and don't 
believe that if I were going to be married myself, I 
should be half so fluttered, and my heart so tumultuous. 

Tet with all my joy for Bel, there is mingled inex- 
pressible sadness ! To night she ceases to be my beloved 
pupil — ^to night she is no longer her father's, but an* 
other* 9! The fond, paternal arms which have encircled 
her for so many years in prideful affection, are to be re- 
placed by those of a stranger. Every relation which she 
has held to those she has loved, will, to-night, change! 
She passes from us to revolve in another orbit, around 
another sun than that which has warmed and lighted the 
world of her young heart. 

Ah, what a risk a young girl runs to marry ! What a 
lottery is wedlock ! How untried, untH he is triedj the 
man for whom she so courageously and confidingly leaves 
father, mother, brothers, sisters, home, and all things 
familiar and fondly loved! Will Jie he to her aU these? 
Will he weigh down in life's unequal scales even weight 
with these? But I will not moralize! Blessings be on 
the pure head of dear Isabel ! She is noble and worthy to 
be happy; and may all that heaven loves to shower on its 
favored ones fall upon her through life. Be fragrant 
flowers about her path, and singing birds around her 
steps, and pleasant skies above her. My blessings go 
with thee, my prayers surround thee, dearest girl ! 

And thou, lordly Isidore ! strong and manly in thy 

870 THB 8UNHT 80UTR; OB, 

princely beantyy take this gentle doT« into llij lownif 
and shelter it with thy tendereat care! The tendrits of 
the fragile vine, that thou haat ondaaped from the pater- 
nal oak, teach kindly to enfold aboat thy own heart, 
each BiiBtaining and binding one to the odier in an im- 
periahable union ! 

Good bye, Mr. 



Dear Mr. : 

Isabel is married! Hj dear pnpfl is to-day hafled 
with the matronly and dignified title of Madame Isidore 
de Clery. The wedding took place yesterday erening, 
at 4 o'clock, in the little brick chapel, which nestles in a 
grove of sycamores, a mile from the chateao. 

As I know you men have a great deal of cariosity 
about everything, though you try and hide it, as well as 
you can, behind the shadow of your beards, I will give 
you some account of the ceremony, and how it came off. 

The day was as fine as if it were the first day that 
morning had ever broken upon, the skies were of so 
** heavenly a blue," as Mrs. Hemans describes the pecu- 
liar azure of the cerulean and transparent autumnal at- 
mosphere. There was but one cloud visible, which floated 
over the east, like a bridal scarf, graceful and undula- 
ting, as if borne onward by a company of invisible fairies, 
by and by to descend and cast it over ^Hhe bride of the 
day." The birds, all of them, blue and gray, orange- 
colored and scarlet, brown and black, were all on the 
wing, and singing quite beside themselves, as if they 
well knew there was a grand holiday. 

The little army of sable urchins, that always appertain 
to a planter's domestic establishment, were arrayed in 
their ^^ Sunday best," and with great fragments <^ com 

872 THE suim bouth; ob, 

bread, sweetened with molasses, in their haadi^ were 
tumbling, rolling, somerseting, galloping orer tke green, 
and as generally beside themselTes with joy, m the iMids 
were. Then all the dogs — Tray, Blaiiche, Sweetheart, 
and old Bonus — seemed to have inhaled ezhilaratiBg gu. 
Such wagging of tails short, tails long, tails shaggy, and 
tails genteel ! such extravagant demonatratioiia of joy 
were never before known among the canine family of the 
chateau. Every particular dog seemed to delight hiB- 
self in chasing his own tail around and aroand a cirde, 
and the whole yard seemed to be oonrerted into a sort 
of animated orrery, the orbits in which they rerdfcd 
having old Bonus for their central sun, and Bonus, like 
the sun, made slow and majestic revolotiona on his azia^ 
and, unlike .the sun, would once in a while elevate ik 
toothless jaws, and, opening his huge mouthy send forth 
towards the heavens a doleful and horriUa howL Poor 
Bonus! it was his best. He would have yelped lad 
laughed, like the younger dogs, if he could; bnt all thit 
ho could do towards approaching a proper ezprenioB of 
the common joy were the hoarse, guttural notes, mHA 
from time to time reached the ears of Isabel, and Bale 
her turn pale with apprehension. *' It is an evil osmd, 
dear Kate," she said, trying to laugh* 

^'It is old Bonus' best mode age has left him to hail 
your bridal day," I answered. "Yon should take itsf 
a compliment from the old dog, BeL Hear him! It 
do€9 sound wofully doleful, but let it not annoy yon. I 
will have him muscled. But pardon his "'^■Tfiial eiflil^ 
ment, considering the occasion." 

But Bel was troubled, and I had to order Pierre to 
put a muxile on the howling patriarch; and no 


had lie obeyed, than all the litde dogs eeased their rero- 
lutioiftB after their taila, and eame and stood aronnd him, 
gazing open him -with looks of cariosity and canine sym* 
pathy, and CTidently were doing their best respectfoDy 
to console the old patriarch. 

Noon at length passed, and I went in the carriage to 
the chapeU to see if it were all dressed for the bridaL 
On the way I met Dr. S , the clergyman, in his 
black coat and white stock, jogging along on a big, 
handsome mnle, which was 'his faTorite riding hone. 

^Good day. Miss Conynghame," he siud, bowing with 
courteous kindness. *'Toa will find the chapel all ar* 
ranged with taste, by my daughters, and sereral other 
maidens. How is Miss Peyton ? " 

"Well, sir," I answered. "Isidore was wishing to 
see yon, to ask some questions about what he should say 
and do in the ceremony." 

"Yes, yes," he said, smilingly. "Young people feel 
a little nervous at such times. I must drill him to the 
tactics for the day. Good-bye." 

So he thrust his left heel thrice into the left flank of 
his mule " Columbus," and went pacing off up the Levee 
road, at an enormous gait. 

I soon came in sight of the chapel. It was prettily 
and rurally situated, in a fine grove, a hundred and fifty 
rods from the road. It faced the river, and, with its 
little cemetery about it, glittering with white marble 
monuments, formed a picturesque feature in the scenery. 
But all was beautiful everywhere the eye fell, the whole 
mile from the chateau to the chapel, and for leagues be- 
low it. The river road was bordered with gardens, 
and villas, and lawns, and groves, on one side, and on 


the other was the green elevation of the Lerce, with the 
ever-rolling tide of the dark brown flood of the liiMis^ 
sippi, the other side of it; while npon its broad bo0om 
were pleasure boats, and row-boats, croasing this wav 
and that — ^fishermen suspended motionlesB above the 
deep, in their light red canoes, and in the distaaee, the 
majestic forms of ascending and descending ateamcn 
marked their paths above the trees by long trains of 
dark, chocolate-colored smoke. All was be»iitifid and 
grand, with the splendid sun shining obliquely down oa 
all, tesselating land and water with a mammoth monic 
of light and shadow, copying on the ground, ^'in ahadc^" 
the forms of all things it shone upon. 

The little chapel is an ancient and very small edifice, 
brown and ivy-grown, with signs of age in its steep, 
moss-covered roof, and weather-brown doors. It kaf 
two narrow painted windows, on each side, a t^pl^ 
lancet window above the chancel, and a lower one oddly 
shaped, surmounted by a red spire, crowned by a eroff. 
which had once been gilt, but was now bronsed bj ei- 
po8ure. Two immense sycamores stood before the lov 
Gothic door of the tower, and rising far in the air, spread 
their broad, wlute arms protectingly above it; while in 
their rear ^rew ehns, and a majestic live-oak, that over- 
shadowed the altar- window, and a lowly grave beneath. 
Shade, repose, and holy seclusion marked the spot 
One mi^rht for;ret there, it would seem, that aroaad. 
though out of sight, rolled the great wieked world, sad 
that sin was but a dream of the past, but for the grsvce 
about, and the recollection of the fearful words, ^Deitk 
came by 8in." 

Yes, even there, in that sweet, secluded, ahat-oiit ipt 


>f peace, the gnTes — wbick added to its mlemm Ifoutj^ 
ukd gave it an air rf repose — fpiftfce ef jm/ S » ■o 
irhere on earth can we escape die f M tMU H Jt id h, or id 
to memoriak : it is onlj in that Wif^ world, Icjond 
the glittering conateflatioiMa that fttwe tho ioer ef tho 
^mansions of God," that peace oad ndcflneai are 
uown. '^ There shall be no nore sin.'' 

All things on earth eptak of death. Its saUe seal is 
mpressed upon ererything below. The lower kidSp 
>looms, diffuses ito fragrance, and wilhiii awajr. This 
s de4Xth. The lordly oak dccajs with sfe^ and fidb lo 
ningle with the dost from which it sprang: ond iki$ is 
leath ! The day fades into twi^kt, and kocs itself in 
he shades of night: and liiit is death! The greenifwii^ 
irhich blooms through aD the svmBer, in antnisn tarns 
^y and sear, and casts its dry kares vpon the earth: 
uid thie is death! The new moon folky and wanes, and 
;eases to shine: and thU is death ! The stais leare their 
tpheres, glitter for a brilliant moment, and disai^>ear in 
iarkness : and this is death ! 

The seal of death is truly impressed upon all thin^ 
>eneath the shining son. ^^ Nothing remains in one stay." 
Btcu the nuptial tow before the altar was edioed from 
he white marble monumento of the dead, thai glared 
nto the windows upon the bridaL 

But, my dear sir, this is a sad conclnnon for a letter 
upon a '*' wedding." But it is the reflection of the sha- 
low upon my heart. Isabel's marriage has made me 
Nreep more than smile, for she is lost to me, and ere many 
lays elapse, we separate — perhaps forever. 

In my next, Mr. , I will describe the wedding, for 

really I have no heart to do it to-day. 



Now OnmMMB, L*. 

Dbar Mr. : 

In this letter I will redeem my promise, to write i 
description of the wedding at Chateau de Clerj. We ire 
now — the whole wedding-party — ^in this city, wmitmg Ibr 
the Crescent City, in which we are to embark by way of 
Havana for New York. 

The hour for the nuptials was 4 o'clock on Thurriij 
last. At half past three, the ccriSge^ in foor open ew- 
riages, started from the villa for the chapel, a mile down 
the river-road. There were outriders, yovng gentknci 
of the vicinity, on prancing steeds, and at least two bn- 
dred well-dressed slaves following on foot, and in the 
greatest glee. The scene, the Levee-road exhibited, wis 
novel and interesting, with its varied population and gay 
apparel, — for the negro women invariably wore acarkt, 
or orangc-colorcd, or sky-blue headkerchiefs, and the 
men sported red or yellow waistcoats. 

Isal>el and her father, Isidore and myself, rode in the 
first barouche. The bride looked charmingly, amyed 
in the richest white, embroidered crape, with a eoronit 
of pearls upon her brow, and bracelets, and neeklace of 
pearls. C>ver her head was thrown a veil of the porift 
Mechlin lace, as superbly elegant as if woven of rihcr 
gossamer and lilies interwined. iShe looked so hsppy* ^ 


jet trembled bo, that I thought one might compare mar- 
rying to being drowned in Cologne-water, or hanged with 
a perfumed cambric handkerchief! Isidore also looked 
deadly pale, and then fearfully rubicund, and said, in that 
short ride of a mile, more siUy things than, I dare say, 
he will say again, if he lives to be as old as Methusaleh. 
Isabel kept silent, and feared to meet his eyes, which I 
obeenred he never took off of her. 

How simple going to be married makes a person look ! 
I am glad that I have yet escaped this nonsense, Mr. 

» By the way, the handsome young man whom I 

saw in New Orleans on our former visit, intends taking 
passage in the Crescent City to New York. He is cer- 
tainly a very modest and unassuming person, to be so 
handsome and wealthy as he is; — ^and so intelligent and 

highly educated. If I ever marry, Mr. , (dear me ! 

what am I writing about ? Oh ! Isabel's wedding! Peo- 
ple can*t always keep from having wandering thoughts, 
though one prays never so hard against them). 

As I was saying, Isabel looked very lovely and was 
very silent. Old Bonus suddenly was heard howling 
behind, trying, with all the other dogs of the family, to 
keep up with the carriages. This doleful sound made 
her look uneasy, and she glanced at me. At this mo- 
ment, the coachman, in giving his long, new whip a flourish 
at some tame doves in the road, accidentally curled the 
green silken lash about the neck of one of them, and, 
with the backward movement of his hand, it came into 
the carriage and directly into Isabel's lap ! It was as 
white as the driven snow, with a pink bill, and olive- 
brown eyes. It was dreadfully frightened, but Isabel, 
who looked upon it as a good omen against the bowlings 



of old Bonus, smiled, and drow it to her bosom ■oothiBglTy 
stroking its cream-pure plumage with her white^gloTed 
hand. We all pronounced it a *^ good omen," and Isih 
dorc said, ^' lie would have a cage of gold made for it, 
put rings on its fingers and bella on its toes, and it should 
have music wherever it goes." 

We all laughed at this absurd speech of Isidore, know- 
ing that he was too happy in his foolishness to know 
what he said, and he had wits enough left to laugh, alao 
when he reflected a moment. 

^^ Never mind," said the colonel, '^itis his wedding 
day ; and the most sensible men then smnetimes plaj tbe 

Isidore smilingly bowed to the compliment, and ve 
drove up to the church, the dove being transferred to tbe 
possession of the footman, who had instructions, botli 
from Isidore and Bel, to keep it with the tendered 
care, and take it to the chateau after the wedding wu 

We found the front of the church thronged with tbe 
guests, and in the background, the groups of carious and 
happy servants, that mingle in all Southern scenes. Bot 
how shull I describe to you the unlocked for reoeptioo 
of the bride before the church ! 

The carriage stopped at the outer gate, fifty yards 
from the entrance of the chapel. The gravel path was 
lined with twenty-four young girls, dressed in pore white, 
each having a wreath of white blossoms in her hsir. 
Each maiden carried a basket, filled with the Umva of 
roses — heaped up. At the gate stood two tall, lovely 
girls, holding aloft an arch wreathed with flowers in tbe 
most magnificent manner. 


Beneath thii arch the bride and bridegroom pawed, 
and as they moved onward, the twenty-four mudens pre- 
ceded them and strewed the way with rose-leaTes, so that 
Isabel's foot touched not the earth, only flowers from the 
gate to the chapeL Before the door stood two other 
maidens, holding a chain of flowers, and, as the bride 
and groom passed between them, they encircled them in 
one flowery bond. Within the vestibule stood a beantifnl 
girl, who held two crowns in her hands, one of laorel- 
leaves, the other of orange blossoms; and with them, she 
preceded the bride and her twenty-four bridesmidds for 
all these lovely girls were Isabel's voluntary brides- 

Arrived at the chancel, they knelt before the altar, in 
front of which stood the venerable Dr. , in his sur- 
plice, the prayer-book open at the place ^^ Matrimony." 
The bridesmaids knelt, twelve on each side, in brilliant 
crescents; and above their heads the two tall graceful 
maidens held the arch of flowers. 

The ceremony, that of the Episcopal Church, was 
deeply impressive ; and as the colonel, who was a Presby- 
terian, said, 

^^ It ties a couple together so fast and firm, that a 
blacksmith's hammer and anvil couldn't unrivet them." 

After the ceremony, the venerable clergyman (and for 
venerable, very old clergymen it is well enough perhaps) 
kissed the bride; and, before Isidore could do so, I had 
her sweet cheek ; and then her father, and then the four- 
and-twenty bridesmaids, ^^all in a row." When Isidore 
at length got his turn, I thought he would never have 
taken away his naughty lips from her pretty, ripe mouth. 
Dear me ! what a difierence just marrying makes ! 

880 THE 8UNHT somtH; OB, 

I forgot to say that the maiden who hdd IIm vrath, 
crowned the pair as they rose from their knees. The 
<^ happy couple" had no sooner left the chureh, than the 
maidens commenced a lively channt; the alnTes crowded 
round, and showered blessings on "handscHiie mam and 
missis;" the birds in the old sycamorea sang mora 
noisily and sweetly, and twenty times more livdy than 
ever before; the little dogs scampered and yelled with 
joy, running under every lady's feet; old Bonus howled 
most appallingly in his efforts to bark his eompUments; 
and the very horses of the carriage into which Isidon 
and Isabel stepped, tossed their small heads more prondlj, 
pricked their delicate triangular ears with vani^, asd 
arched their necks with infinite pretension. 

They were but a few minutes, the beantifnl stag4ioo(cd 
bays, in conveying us back to the chateau, at whidh tbe 
whole wedding-party alighted, just as the son went don 
in a pearl-shell sky. A superb wedding-dinner, at 7 
o*clock, came off, in a magnificently lighted hall, with 
sixty guests, planters, their wives and daughters, from 
the neighboring estates, two-thirds of whom were French, 
which language was almost wholly spoken at the table. 
In the cvoniiig there was a grand ball, in a true Creole 
style, with a great deal of dancing and imbibing of 
cliamparrne. A fnsilade of corks was kept up with great 
spirit till midnight; arrows were shot from black eyet 
into exposcMl hearts ; and there was a great taking captive 
of unsophisticated youth. Every orange-bower echoed 
softly with the whispers of some stolen away pair; the 
rc'cosHos of the piazza betrayed gontlo forms half en- 
circled by a manly arm ; and — but I won't tell talcs, Mr. 
, for I should tell one ou myself — for the elegant 


jonng French gentleman, from New Orelans, was at the 
wedding, and somehow or other I saw a good deal of 
him in the comrse of the evening, and we had a charming 
walk together on the banks of the dark, star-lit river! 

Well, the third day after the wedding, we all started 
for New Orleans, where we are now. We embark to- 
morrow for New York in the Crescent City. After a 
brief stay there, M. Isidore de Clery and his fair bride 
prooeed to Europe by the steamer. They have invited 
me to accompany them, but my mission is done. Isabel 
is no longer a pupil — at least not mine ; how mneh soever 
she may be her husband's — (for I believe all young wives 
are, for the first two or three years, under tutelage, till 
they learn and fall into their liege lord's ^^ways") — ^I 
shall not undertake to say. 

After they leave for Europe, I shall return to my na- 
tive hills in New Hampshire, and settle down a village 
old maid of twenty-two, and with the reputation, among 
the simple folks, of being a great traveler. 

Yours truly, 


882 THB Bjmn mmra; ob, 


Dbar Mr. : 

To-day we embark for Hayana, that dtj towards 
which 80 many filibustering ejee are at this time directed. 
The bustle and hurry of packing and getting oar tranb 
on board is over, and there are yet three hours to spare, 
in which quiet and a pen would be^'by contrast with the 
turmoil of the hotel, a great luxury. But as I wrote 
you only yesterday, I will use my leisure and ny pen 
for the purpose of writing a letter to my Yankee bro- 
ther away in the hills of New Hampshire, those glorieis 
snow-capped pillars of the clouds upon whose snmitt 
the intellect of Webster has enkindled a blase that shaD 
light the remotest posterities. Wrapped in his senato- 
rial gown, he has laid down to rest among the mighty 
dead of the past, himself one of the mightiest of them all 

But my poor pen is too humble and impotent to speak 
of such a man. Ilis peers only should attempt it» and 
where, at this day, are they to be looked for ! 

My little brother, of whom I speak, is my regnhr 
correspondent, or rather I write to hbn regularly, and in 
return I receive certain hieroglyphics in the shape of 
very crooked pot-hooks and trammels, crossed in Tarioas 
directions by bold, independent strokes, which no doahC 
show energy, but arc quite incomprehensible. In a word, 
my brother is too small yet to know how to write^ hot he 


18 too gallaiit % Hide fellow to leave a lady's letter imaii* 
Bwered, and so sends me the best fist he oan adueve. 
As it would gratify him very mueh to hare a prinied let- 
ter, Mr. y I will just write to him through your 

columns, and let his sister read it to him when it reaches 

<< My dkab littlb Chablst : — ^There is some satisfac- 
tion and pleasure in writing to you, as I know you eanH 
write in return, and that your little heart will dance with 
gladness to get a letter from your sister Kate all in jprmf. 
You remember, Charley, I said to you, in my last letter 
from that French gentleman's house, Mr. Be Glory, that 
the blue-birds had built a nest in the piassa. Now I 
hare a story to tell you about these same birds. 

'^ One day the sun was shining very warm, and Isabel 
wanted to make a grass wreath for the colonel's hat, so 
we walked out to gather some pretty green grass, and as 
I walked along what should I spy but a little, tifijf blue- 
bird, that was not old enough to walk? There he lay, 
roasting in the hot sun, and no one near him ! Poor 
thing ! he soon would have died, but I took him up, and 
he nestled down in my hand just like a little baby on its 
mamma's lap. I thought if dear little Leila, your sister, 
should fall out of doors, how grateful I should be to any 
one who would take care of her. So I took the little 
bird, and laid it in the shade in some nice grass, so that 
its mother might see it, and know it was alire. I then 
went away a little distance and watched it. After a 
while two old blue-birds flew to the tree, and began to 
flutter and chirp in great trouble, and they then talked 
to each other, and afterwards I saw them fly down on 
the grass, and try and coax the poor little bird to follow 

884 THE 8VNVT 80UTH; OB, 

them. The father took a wonn in his numtli, aad hop> 
ping down, fed it, and then running awaj a few ilcpe, 
chirped and coaxed, but the little thing oonld not tj. 
Then the old bird went away, and told his neighbon and 
friends of his trouble, while the good motlier nl hj, 
soothing and comforting her baby. 

^^ In a short time, the old bird came back with troopi 
of friends — ^yellow-birds, robins, moeking-birds, orioha, 
sparrows, and black-martins. They all took the deepest 
interest in the unhappy little thing, and would fly down, 
around it, and oyer it, almost touching it with their soft 
wings, all the while chirping in the greatest exdteDMst, 
but the little baby-bird sat quiet and trembling in Ae 
little bed of grass I had put it on, its eyes half dosed. 
Then two young blue-birds, which, I gneas, were its 
cousins, went and gave him a pink-colored wonn, wluck 
it ate as if it were very hungry. Bach Mngi*^ and 
talking as were now heard in the tree yon hare no idflBi 
for new friends kept coming, and the sorrowfid parcats 
had to tell each new comer their pitiful tale. I thfaiki 
dear Charley, that birds can talk as well as duMica, 
though we cannot always understand them. Tbssa bods 
seemed to say : 

^^ *' Poor birdie ! you are to be pitied. Ton are so littk^ 
and you have fallen out of your mother's nest, and ws 
can't put you back. Don't yon think yon can ass yov 
little wings, and fly up 7' 

" < See me,' says the yellow-bird, ' see horn IJIgF sad 
away it went from bush to bush. 

^^ ^ Now,' says the mother, from a little, low stoqi, * jsil 
hop here. You can soon do it, and we will get yimbssk 
to the nest where you fell from.' 

*' Still the little binl never stirred, only lifting its ejes 
pitifully, and moved not a feather of its half-grown 

** Presently hopped along a gronnd-aparrow, in his 
neat gray coat, and said, smartly : 

^^ ^ Come, little fellow, hop after me ! Hop ! one- 
two— three — right into the tree ! Hop first, and then 
yon will fly! Gome, now— one hop, two Im^m, three 
hops, and then away go we !' 

'^ And away went master sparrow, but alone by hio^ 
self^ for birdie moved not an ineh. 

^^ Then all the birds got on one tree near by, and held 
a great confab, and by the way they chattered, they 
seemed very much distressed that they coold not, with 
all their coaxing, get the little bird up into the nest 
again. Then I went into the house, and took my little 
work-basket, and lined it softly with white cotton-wool^ 
and went softly to it and laid birdie down carefully in it, 
as nioe as bird could wish to be, for the night was com- 
ing on, and the ground was cold and damp. The birds 
looked on, and did not fly away, but seemed to know the 
little fellow had found a friend, and by their chirping, 
after I had done, they seemed right pleased that it was 
80 well cared for, for I tucked the cotton in all round 
its sides, leaving only its little head peeping out, just as 
I have seen you when you were a baby, tucked into your 
crib under the 8now-white sheets. 

*^ When I went into the house, I told the colonel and 
Mr. De Clery the story. The kind, good French gentle^ 
man then got a servant to bring a step-ladder, and went 
up to the nest, and I reached up to him the wee birdioi 
to put into it with his three little brothers and sisters, 


who were all safe in bed, tacked under tkeir mKamk% 
wing. You never saw any thing so happy as the mothtr 
looked when the little runaway was nestled again under 
her feathers, and all the rest of the birds seemed to 
rejoice with her ; they chirped and sang so loudly ind 
noisily. I think tho little bird was very glad to get 
back again into its warm nest, and will be rery careful 
not to fall out again. I suspect he disobeyed his mo- 
ther, and leaned too far over the edge, just as some lit- 
tle boys stretch their heads out of the window, wbea 
their mother tells them not, and then away they faU out. 
But little boys do not live when they fall, as they strike 
the hard stones and are killed ; and, if that little bird 
had struck on a stone, instead of the soft grass, he too 
would have died. When you and little cousin Fred get 
np to the windows, remember the little blue-bird and be 
careful not to lean too far out. 

^^ Now, good-bye, dear Charley, and remember the lit- 
tle blue-bird and his fate, and take warning, and I shall 
be more than repaid for writing the history of his mii^ 
hap. Be a good little fellow, and kiss your ma, and mj 
little sister, and cousin for me over and over again, and 
tell mamma that sister Kate will soon be at home, after 
her three years' absence. 

^' Your loving sister, 

" Kati." 

Now, Mr. , I know a letter to a child u not tbe 

wisest piece of composition that ever was penned, but 
Charley is a fine little fellow, and may be an editor him- 
self one of these days ; so, if you will be ao good u to 



int the letter, I will be very mnch obliged to yov, 
d send an extra paper containing it to Charley him- 
[f. The signal to embark is now heard, and I must 

Yonr friend truly, 





Stbammi CaMMCEMTg GnF 99 Maamtk 

Dear Mr. : 

If the penmanship of this letter be • littk vitt, 
and old Stephen Ilopkins-like, you must attribate it to 
the unsteadiness of the ship, which goes pnuieiiig nd 
bounding across the great green waves like m hhA wwh 
horse, breathing smoke and fire from his nostrils. 

We left New Orleans day before yesterday, with a 
large number of passengers, and in a few hours were 
past the Balize on the bosom of this inland sea* The 
run down the one hundred and twenty miles of riw wit 
very interesting. The shores were lined for many lesgiM 
with the lemon-colored or snow-white villas of the epdal 
sugar planters, half hid in groves of oak, elm, and orange 
trees, the latter bearing still the scathing marks of the hH 
frost, which laid their emerald and golden glories in the 
dust. It was pleasant, as we steamed along, to see the 
families upon their piazzas, watching ns with spy-gknci 
or waving kerchiefs (the gentlemen red silk and the ladici 
cambric) to friends on board, who waved kerchiefs, sad 
hands, and hats, and scarfs back again ; the F^rcndi peo- 
ple sending kisses shoreward from the tips of their la- 
gers — a very graceful feat, and requiring some skill m 
archery to send them straight at the mby lips for which 
they are aimed ! 

I amiiBed myself, as we steamed down, in watching the 
fishing canoes of the negroes, and coast luggers, manned 
by Spaniards and by French Creoles, which were either 
reposing on the water or moving in all directions across 
the dark, buff-colored surface. The shores were con- 
stantly beautiful, and with bordering roads as leyel as a 
church aisle for leagues. The ^^ English Turn" is a re- 
markable bend, in which the river doubles back upon its 
course, and runs northwardly for a few miles, and jthen 
as abruptly shears off southwardly towiurds the Ovlf, as 
il ought to do. But great rivers must have their vaga- 
ries, Mr. , as well as other folks,-— and the Father 

oi Waters, considering his age and experience, may well 
be allowed one in his course through the world. But 
this one^ it is said, sorely puzzled some English boats, 
onoe upon a time, ascending the stream ; for when they 
found by compass that they were running south again, 
they imagined they had only been following an mna of 
the gulf, and so turned about, and went back the way 
they had come, and thus saved the then French city of 
New Orleans from a hostile visit. Hence the name of 
the place — at least so said a nautical-looking gentleman 
who stood near Isidore, and his bride, and myself, and 
kindly volunteered this piece of information ; but tra- 
velers sometimes get their ears filled with strange tales, 
hence so many veracious Munchausens printed from year 
to year by authentic tourists. Dear me ! K I should 
believe one half I Jiear in my travels, I might publish out 
of the selection a very interesting volume of travels, new 
edition, with wood-cuts, beautifully colored, and a por- 
trait of Mr. Gulliver, jr. facing the title pago. 

You may depend, Mr. ^ upon all I teU^youassober 

890 THB 8UN1IT south; OB, 

trath, even the tiger story, that some iiMighty penoB hu 
been so uncivil as to throw doubt upon. Pleaio tdl Um 
never to doubt a lady's word. When we had got about 
fifty miles below the city, wo had passed the ranges of 
sugar estates, and the shores were in the iinciiltmted 
wildness of Nature. They were level to the horison, lad 
from the wheel-house, one gased over a vast aavaBBik 
of eternal green — a sea of foliage — amid which, like a 
huge, brown, shining serpent, the Mississippi womd and 
interwound its tortuous course. 

It was novel to see the masts of invisible diips aseoid- 
ing and descending far across the green level, a kagst 
off, in another portion of the bending river, while at ia- 
tcrvals, from the bosom of the savannah, woM riM 
columns of black smoke, indicating the passage of a 
steamer, the hull of which was invisible below the leftl 
of the tree tops. The sun shone magnificentlj, and tht 
air was like that of May in New England. On board, 
our party was in fine spirits, and Isabel seemed in hsr 
enjoyment of the trip to forget that she was a '* named 
lady," and ought to put away such jnvenilitics as dsp 
ping her hands at anything striking or pretty she saw 
on the shores. Her extreme beauty, and the noble in- 
telligence in all her face, caused her to be mndi observed 
and greatly admired ; while the young gentlemen looked 
as if they would like to throw the handsome, 1^^V7 ^' 
dorc overboard. 

How is it that most men always have a larking dislike 
towards a man with a handsome wife? The oolond savfl 
it is so, and he ought to know I suppose. Now, if I see 
a lady with a perfect Adonis of a husband— poh! I don't 
think of feeling envious of her — not I ! I only fisd glad 

«n< Munaounai ax home. 801 

for him— -if he looks like a fine-hearted and generous 
fellow — that he has got sach a handsome wife. But you 
men are never half so amiable as we are. 

Th$ French gentleman from New Orleans, is on board, 
a passenger, and I think he is one of the most agreeable, 
modest young men I ever saw. He has somehow read 
some of my letters, and has taken quite a fancy to talk 
with me. I don't mean to say that he talks love— oh ! we 
are both too sensible for anything of that kind. We 
talk of literary men and women, of the literature of Ger- 
many and Spain, with which he is perfectly familiar; we 
talk of nature, of the universe, and its infinite grandeur 
and beauty; of the spirit world and of Qod, the centre 
and source of all. Though raised in the Boman faith, 
he is, I have discovered, more of a philosopher than a 
Christian, and seems to have a religion of his own, which 
is based upon his love of the beautiful and good in the 
world. He says that if we adore nature, we adore God 
who made it. In a word, his piety is intellectual, not 
moral; meditative, nothing more; and we have keen ar- 
guments upon the faith of the New Testament. He said 
to me to-day, 

^'I understand God, but I do not understand Jesus. 
I do not see the need of Him : He is an incomprehensive 
enigma to me." 

Ah, me ! I fear I was a poor theologian to argue with 
an educated mind like his; but I did my best to show 
him the true nature and design of Christ's advent; and 
he listened with great attention, and has promised to 
read some books I am to lend him. 

Before night we came in sight of the Balise, or ^^ Bea- 
con," at the outlet of the river, and launched amid the 


glories of an antumnal erening, npon tlio mrare boMS 
of the Mexican Sea; the gleaming lantern of tko PlMnt, 
at the mouth of the pass, sending afker na a long pea- 
ciled line of glittering light* 

And such a night npon the sea! Oh! Ikhw maireDou 
the nniverse above, illimitable and nnfathoamUe in its 
splendid stellar mysteries! The delidons breoaea Uew 
off land, and gently raffled the bosom of the Gulf. Thffs 
was a strange light over all the sea, and filling the hea- 
vens and the air. There was no moon, and it aost hais 
eome from the myriads of bright Stan reteefeed back 
from the sea, multiplied in nnmbera faj the nieetiin. 
Earth absorbs the star-rays, bat the sea seema to reeeivt 
them mirror-like, to r^-light the sky with* It was ss 
light as dawn, and yet it was near midnight^ aa I gaicd 
from the deck upon the starry infinity. In the aeath, 
Sirius hung like a great electrie globe, ^^■vBug the qre 
like a lesser sun; Orion walked down the weat, avorl- 
armed and belted, flashing like a warrior; and, abeie 
him, Aldebaran beamed with those mystie mji which 
have foretold the fate of empires to astrologera; hi^cr 
still hung the Pleiades, like a cluster of grapce, and 
scintillating with a splendor truly oelestiaL I never be- 
fore saw the stars shine so brightly. 

In the north-east, I beheld iVrcturos rivaling Siras 
in the south, in stellar magnificence; and aroond the 
solitary Polar Star (in this latitude, low in the north) 
paced the (jreat Bear with majestic stridca. Ah! there 
is nothing in this world so beautiful as a atanj night en 
the 8oa. Heaven above — heaven aroond— heftvcn re- 
flected beneath. There is such a tranaparenej in the 
atmosphere, that the skies seem within the ranch of the 


snn. A tranqmllitj unspeakable reigns in the upper 
air, and the heart is attracted gently upward, and the 
thoughts irresistibly dwell on heaven and God, and the 
great eternity, of which the skies are a visible emblem. 

Speaking of the Pleiades, was there ever a seventh? 
and if not, what becomes of Mxb. Heman's sweet address 
to the "lost Pleiad?" 

I have always loved the stars — ^loved them more than 
the moon. When I was in Tennessee, I was walking 
with a little fellow, of four years, on the piasta, who had 
juBt recovered from the measles. He looked up, per* 
haps for the first time suffered to be up so late, to see 
the stars, and said to me naively, and as if he had made 
a discovery, 

"Dear Miss Katy, the sties dot the measles!" "No, 
buddie," cried his sister, two years older, "they are only 
aU freekUdr 

Both words are descriptive — ^and the last decidedly 
poetical. It was the same little girl who, looking out 
of the window one foggy morning and seeing nothing, 
said — 

" It looks as if there were no world !" 

What can be finer than this? If the sayings of chiUU 
ren were printed, they would make a book surpassing aU 
others for naturalness, poetry, truth, and originality of 

It is past midnight on the sea! 


K. C. 




Orv Hatasa. 

Dear Mr. : 

With the queen city of Woetem Ind juit diMp- 
pearing from sight, and the Castle of the Moro Tisible 
like a gray speck against the back-ground of tke bhe 
bills of Cuba, I retire to my state-room to collect my 
thoughts, and write you a few pages of a letter. 

The scenery, which is yet visible from the port by 
which I sit, is beautiful exceedingly. The amre outline 
of the sunny Isle reclines in majestic repose, like a 
mighty lion, his form half concealed in the green bowm 
of the sea. About the frowning Moro floats the sowke 
of cannon, fired to salute an American ship-of-war, wbkk 
entered as we passed out. 

Around us are the white sails of full thirty TeSMhi 
ships, and brigs, and schooners, steering in all vayi; 
though most of them, like ourselves, are just cot of 
Havana, and are stretching away to the northward sad 

You will expect me, I dare say, to give you some ac- 
count of what I saw in Havana. But the ^' letter writers" 
have filled the papers with everything, until HsTmna is 
now as well known to Americans as New York. If I 
spoke of my brief visit, (for it lasted but a day,) I 
write of pure, soft skies of mingled gold and 


delightful breezes— of tall cocoa and palm trees like 
kings and queens of the vegetable kingdom, standing 
gloriously upon hill tops and upon the crests of cliffs, and 
-waving their superb feathers in the passing breeie— -of a 
great castle, gray and old, and dreadfully frowning, 
hanging from a rock like a giant's eyebrow, with cannon 
beneath, flashing like eyes — ^and long lines of open* 
mouthed guns belching forth fire and blue smoke— of 
dark visaged soldiers, dressed very much in red, and 
fierce with terrific moustaches — of police-boats, boarding 
us, filled with blue-coated, black-eyed Spanish officers, as 
polite as French dancing-masters in bodily gesticula- 
tions, but looking very dislikable and disliking out of 
their eyes — of narrow streets — of half-clad Ghiinea 
negroes crowding the pier — of guards and military dis- 
play—of huge-wheeled volantes and gaudily-harnessed 
mules and postillions, with boots a yard high— of small- 
sised Spanish generals — of thin-visaged Spanish colonels 
— and of great pomp, and show, and trumpets, and guns, 
and cigar smoke, and cigar shops, everywhere — &c., &c. 
The ladies rode out three on a seat, in open, odd- 
looking carriages (volantes), wore no bonnets, but had 
their hair superbly dressed, while they were richly at- 
tired, as if for a ball. I did not see the ^^Paseo*' outside 
of the city, where everybody rides and walks — the 
'^ Battery" of Havana — as we had no time; but I had 
pointed out to me the fortified hill '* Antares," on which 
the devoted Crittenden — ^who will yet be remembered as 
the Pulaski of Cuba — with his fifty companions in arms 
met his dreadful fate. Oh! what a fearful responsibility 
in taking away the life of a man which Qod gave ! Qod, 
on one side, giving; man — ^little, insignificant man, on 

894 THi smnnr south; ob. 


Orv Hatasa. 

Dear Mr. 

With the queen city of Woetern Ind joit diMp- 
pearing from sight, and the Castle of the Moro wible 
like a gray speck against the back-ground of tlie bhe 
bills of Cuba, I retire to my state-room to colleet my 
thoughts, and write you a few pages of a letter. 

The scenery, which is yet visible from the port by 
which I sit, is beautiful exceedingly. The asnre ovtline 
of the sunny Isle reclines in majestic repose, like a 
mighty lion, his form half concealed in the green boeom 
of the sea. About the frowning Moro floats the sowke 
of cannon, fired to salute an American ship-of-war, whkk 
entered as we passed out. 

Around us are the white sails of full thirty TeSMh, 
ships, and brigs, and schooners, steering in all vmyi; 
though most of them, like ourselves, are just ovi of 
Havana, and are stretching away to the northward sad 

You will expect me, I dare say, to give yoa sane ae- 
count of what I saw in Havana. But the '* letter writcft" 
have filled the papers with everything, until Havana is 
now as well known to Americans as New Toric If I 
spoke of my brief visit, (for it lasted but a day,) I 
write of pure, soft skies of mingled gold and 


delightful breezes— of tall cocoa and palm trees like 
kings and qneens of the vegetable kingdom, standing 
gloriously upon hill tops and upon the crests of cliffs, and 
-waving their superb feathers in the passing breese— -of a 
great castle, gray and old, and dreadfully frowning, 
hanging from a rock like a giant's eyebrow, with cannon 
beneath, flashing like eyes — and long lines of open- 
mouthed guns belching forth fire and blue smoke— of 
dark yisaged soldiers, dressed very much in red, and 
fierce with terrific moustaches— of police-boats, boarding 
us, filled with blue-coated, black-eyed Spanish officers, as 
polite as French dancing-masters in bodily gesticula- 
tions, but looking very dislikable and disliking out of 
their eyes — of narrow streets — of half-clad Ghiinea 
negroes crowding the pier — of guards and military dis- 
play—of huge-wheeled volantes and gaudily-harnessed 
mules and postillions, with boots a yard high— of small- 
sised Spanish generals-— of thin-visaged Spanish colonels 
— and of great pomp, and show, and trumpets, and guns, 
and cigar smoke, and cigar shops, everywhere — &c«, &a 
The ladies rode out three on a seat, in open, odd- 
looking carriages (volantes), wore no bonnets, but had 
their hair superbly dressed, while they were richly at- 
tired, as if for a ball. I did not see the ^^Paseo" outside 
of the city, where everybody rides and walks — the 
'^ Battery" of Havana — as we had no time; but I had 
pointed out to me the fortified hill *' Antares," on which 
the devoted Crittenden — ^who will yet be remembered as 
the Pulaski of Cuba — ^with his fifty companions in arms 
met his dreadful fate. Oh ! what a fearful responsibility 
in taking away the life of a man which Qod gave ! Qod, 
on one side, giving; man — little, insignificant man, on 

396 THE SUNNY south; or, 

the other side, taking awaj I To destroy what we caiiiii-; 
replace is a weighty matter. To destroy, when we knuw 
not what we destroy, is the act of madneas and foUj. 
Who knows what he does when he killa a xaan! Who 
knows what life is? I think all killing, whether by the 
assassin or by the law, equally dreadful. Wby kill a 
man to punish him ? It is no punishment to the dead. 
I do hope that the day is not far distant when komamty 
will rise superior to this relic of barbarism, '^execatioa 
of wrong-doers," and that they may be permitted to 
live in confinement until they ^e ^' by the TJaititien of 

The city of Havana has a veiy intereating aapeet to a 
Yankee eye. It is 90 foreign, and nnlike any thing ve 
have in the United States. One mnct certainly go from 
home to see the world — ^but at Havana, one not only aees 
the world, but more, too ! 

The warlike appearance of the entrance to tho harhor 
reminds mo of a pair of bull-dogs, croiidung and ahoving 
their teeth at all comers. What a grand aight a war- 
ship is, with its rows of cannon looking so meaningly 
forth from the yawning port-holes, her tall blaok maati, 
and yards, and lofty battle-walls of oak ! One passed 
us two hours ago, and seemed to move as if she wsn ths 
very empress of the sea. Over her qnarter^bdc floated 
the red flag of England, with its double-cross-^a fiBarfid- 
looking ensign when I recalled its assoeiationa. Oms^ 
to American eyes, that flag was the flag of the foe and 
hateful and detested. Against it, Paul Jonca the brave 
hurhni his iron phot — and tho gallant PreUe, and Ferry, 
and Hull, and Bainbridge, fought against and nonqisfnil 
it. As the insignia of conquerors, it waved nbo'va ths 



of tke oU Stete Bi 



briDiaat ilan wl «it^«m^ ■ tfe 

bomded witk priie. a^ I oNid Mt kd^ 

trophiziiig die red lag of Great 

— ^^Thoa kaat kitkerte rakd tke 

the day is 

only orer tlieaeaBaf tlie gl e W, balaiarili 

tinents, and the icg[iti e a of the aitioae ahall da 


Oh! who eaa predict the glory of oar wi^tf 

of repubiies, Kr. ? Ajmelajetb! addaate! aawaid 

and forward for erer u its destiay, if its nJers ISmt CM, 
and the people are f irtaou s and trae to lhf.iaiwlfes> It 
is said by some one, that histcny always re fo h es ia eir- 
cles; at each Tsst rerolotioii of centaries bringing bask 
again the same or like scenes, e?ents, cireaiastanesB, and 
issues. No doubt this is true, and diat the ni%hty cir- 
cle of American histcny will bring roond its ^daeay and 
fall of the American Republics" in the coarse of tlHMi 
Soothey has said finely, bat I hope not traly, that ^the 
Republics of the United States are splendid fragamits 
out of which future kingdoms and empires are ta ba 

Speaking of the destiny of my country, fbroes upon 
my mind the recollection of Clay, Calhoun, and Web* 
ster ! Living, they formed a large portion of our glory 


and honor as a nation before the nationa. Deid, we 
have fallen before the nations, just so far as their grett 
names, and deeds, and splendid fame raised na. Alis! 
for my native land! Who can wield the helm of state, 
or fill the Senate with wisdom needed, surpassing thtt 
which Borne or Greece ever knew? Who shall be Web- 
ster? who shall be Clay? who shall be GalhoimT — in the 
next Senate, and the Senates after? Far down the de- 
files of time the voice of inquiry shall pass, ere echo an* 
swers, '^ Behold him here!" 

Has it ever occurred to yon, sir, that these three 
mighty men — these three intellectual **Sons of Anak*'— 
represented, personally, mentaUy, and in all things na- 
tional, the three great divisions of the Union? New 
England and the North were embodied in Webster! the 
West was personified and incarnate in Clay! tlie South 
in Calhoun ! Thus, the North, South, and West, were 
personated by an intellectual incarnation of its own peca- 
liar character in these three men. Each showed the 
characteristics of the division of the Union firom lAkk 
he sprung. The South could never have prodneed Web- 
ster — nor the North, Calhoun — nor the West, either ef 
them — nor either of these. Clay. This idea is worth 
reflecting upon, and would be a good theme for some 
eloquent pen. 

But I am making a long letter; and as ewening is 
coming on, and as every body is exclaiming abowt tte 
Bahama Islands being in sight, I must stop, and go to 
see these pearls in the belt of old Neptune. 




Ibtdm Hoimi^ Haw T«BX» 

DsAB Mr. : 

From the date of this letter joa see that I am al last 
in the London of the New World. From HaTana to 
this city, we had a delightful nm; the genii of the wei^ 
ther heing in the best of humors, and Neptune so hat 
asleep that we only knew that he was alive by the regOr 
lar, deep pulsations of his broad oceanic heart. 

To my surprise, I learned that when the sea is per- 
fectly calm, and its surface glitters with the polished gla- 
ciery of a mirror, the outUne of its surface is neyer at 
rest. So far as waves are concerned, there are at such 
times none; but there is a vast, grand heaving of the 
sea, as if a mighty, living heart were regularly moving 
and lifting it from beneath. The whole ocean seems to 
breathe ! and its limitless bosom to rise and fall like that 
of a sleeping man. And this motion of life has been 
from ^' the beginning !'' Six thousand years it has moved 
thus in its mighty pulsations, and its heart will continue 
to move and beat thus after the pulses of the millions 
that now live will be silent ! What an emblem of eter- 
nity — a life of six thousand years ! 

On our voyage, we passed a great number of white- 
sailed vessels, some going, as we were, northwardly, and 
others steering towards the warm South ; while others 


met us transversly, coming out of Baltimore and Pli'i i- 
(Iclphia, bound ocoanward, or else from Europe, seekin;; 
those ports. We also saw three ocean steamers, whoee 
black hulls and trailing clouds of murky smoke, nade 
them seem, as they moved among the vessels with snowy 
sails, like a sort of demcms, sancily intmding into the 
company of good angels. 

It is very pleasant on the sea, nevertheless, in one of 
these same ^^ diabolical" looking steM&ers. Oar ssbias 
were magnificent, and we enjoyed every shore hzwy. 
They are ^^ Irving Houses" afloat; and «e live fretty 
much as persons do at " springs" in a iminy day that 
keeps everybody within doors. There are books in va- 
riety for the literary, pens and ink for the e|iistolarisB, 
cards for the play-loving, chess for tlie qniec, badc-gsm- 
mon for the noisy, sandwiches and ale for the kngiy, a 
smoking-room for the smoky, sofss and loangea for ths 
idle and lazily disposed, couches for the doepj, pnm» 
nades for the restless, and good dinner and jknUj of 
champagne for everybody. 

Our passengers consuted of about forty people^ wbo 
represented no less than nine nations : a Chineoe, a FoK 
a Mexican, several Englishmen, several 
Cuban ladies and one Cuban gentleman, fonr 
a Spaniard, and a Grerman traveler with* red 
who was called by his valet '^ Baron." There 
a handsome young man who was a Jew ! 

Has the Jew a nation ? — ^if so, then we had Urn 
represented in our cabin. How extraordinary tkal 
can always tell a Jew ! or rather, let me eall dMSS "^Is- 
raelites," which is the honorable name eonferrad 
them by Jehovah, and by which they like to be 


I — ^the term ^^Jew*' being qvite as repakife to them 
aa <' Yankee" to the New Englander. Tbat this wonder- 
fbl people bear tbe impreaa of their Oriental origin to 
this day, after aeyenteen hundred jeara of exile and dia- 
peraion, is a continued miracle. The Jew of Chatham 
atreety in this cit j, is, in ereiy lineament^ the Jew if 
Jerusalem of to-daj,and of the Jews of thedajsof Jesna* 
In what this pecnliarit j consists, it is diflieolt to deter* 
mine precisely, though an artist, who stadies eloaely the 
characteristios of feature, might be able to explain. 

It is chiefly in the style and exprearion of the ejss I 
think. It is not becaose the eyeis Uadc — for thonsanda 
of Americans haye black eyes, whidi are wholly different 
in expression from the peculiar Jewish eye. The Israel- 
ite eye is very slightly almond-shaped, the npper lid 
droops over about one-seyenth of the iris of the eye, and 
gires an indescribable expression ; while the lashes curve 
backwards, and have the effect of a fringe, more than any 
other lashes of any other people's eyes. The expression 
of the whole eye is sad, yet sparkling — dewy, yet brilliant 
— a sort of April-sky eye. Dear me ! how difficult it is to 
put ideas into words — ^to find the words that exactly 
paint that which we are endeavoring to describe. Words 
are very important dresses for thoughts. But if you 
have ever observed tbe eye of the Children of Israel, you 
will be able to understand the peculiarity I would de- 

How wonderful the presence of this people among us 
and other nations ! A people^ yet without a country ! a 
religion, yet without altar, priest, or temple ! a God, yet 
punished by Him with a dispersion of one thousand seven 
hundred years ! Their present state is a living teatimonj 

402 THE srxxY south; or, 

to the truth of tho Bible, wherein it is pmlict(<l, rn v-ll 
also, their future restoration to their own coantry ! 

Perhaps, in connection with them, the fact that their 
number is still, 8,000,000 of souls, will be deened not 
the least extraordinary. This number eame est of 
Egypt with Moses — ^this number conquered the land of 
Canaan — ^this number constituted the nation when Darid 
and Solomon were its kings — ^this number was carried 
captive to Babylon — and the same nmnber restored again 
to their land at the re-building of the temple, — the nme 
number were taxed by the Roman conqnerora when tibej 
brought Judea into subjection — and the same nnmber 
paid tribute to Csesar — ^the same number, su btr act in g the 
million which perished at the taking of JemsalcBB, were 
cast out among the nations at the destmetioa of fhm 
city by Titus, in the first century, when eoenMBCcd 
^Hhe dispersion among the nations of the earth,'* which 
still continues in so remarkable a manner; and Ae kte 
census of their people shows that theur nnmber is itiD 
8,000,000. This, then, is a nation in itself; thoi^ a 
broken one, separated by continents and oceans, fragment 
from fragment — ^yet one in feature, one in langoage^ mm 
in religion, one in pursuit, one in all things that hsTS 
ever given them individuality as a nation. Their nm- 
ber is equal to that of the population of the TUrtecn 
Colonies at the Declaration of our Independence— A um- 
ber large enough, as our history and the testimoiiy of 
the world shows, to lay the foundation of a mighlj 

For what is this remarkable and ear^fid 
of the Israelite? Ever dwelling among the 
yet never commingling with them, they never 


nationality. For what reason this preservation of their 
original numbers? Without question to be ready to obey 
the command that shall one day fall upon their awaiting 
ears: ^^Up, Israel, and go into thine own land, for I 
will make of thee a great nation. The glory of Jerusalem 
ahall fill the whole earth, and the kings of the earth shall 
bring their glory and honor into it, and I will make thy 
name glorious among the nations." 

And what a spectacle will be presented when they ariso 
as one man to obey the voice of Jehovah ! It will be a 
second march, like that forth from Egypt. Every land, 
every city, every town, almost every hamlet, where men 
trade and do commerce with men, will give up this people 
among them — and this "nation of merchants," laden 
with gold and silver, the spoils of the Gentiles, shall 
direct their way towards Jerusalem, the city of their love 
and pride. From every sea-port will sail ships laden 
with the sons of Israel, steering for Palestina, and from 
every inland town go forth wealthy caravans taking the 
road towards the City of David. The present exodus to 
California and Australia, for gold of the Gentiles, in a 
thousand ships, will give a faint idea only of the mighty 
movement that shall draw the eyes of the world when 
Israel shall arise in her numbers, and elevating the 
standard of the "Lion of the Tribe of Judah," gather 
her outcasts beneath its shadow for the march. 

And when the land of Canaan shall once more shake 
with the tread of returning Israel — when the thousand 
cities of her green vales shall be rebuilt — when Jerusalem 
shall lift up her head from the dust of centuries, and 
dazzle the world's eye with her regenerated splendor — 
when the ports of Tyre, Jaffa, Sidon, and Cesarea shall 


once more extend their marble piera into the m 
brace the commerce of the world — ^then will the 
take his true place among the nations, and, 
geographical position, command the avenues of t] 
commerce. At her feet, on the east, the Gulf < 
and the Euphrates will pour the wealth of Indii 
lap-— on the west, the Mediterranean will enrich 
a thousand fleets — on the north, from the B 
Caspian, she will receive the tributes of merd 
and from the south, from Egypt and the Red 
will lay her hand upon the wealth of Ethi 
Australia. She will sit enthroned in the true co 
centre of the earth, and, from the vast wealth 
people will carry to her from the nations wha 
have been dispersed, they will be able to coi 
commercial empire of the whole globe; and t 
wealth will enable them to make Judea a land 
that will rival all those of other lands, and ren 
country the very heart of luxury, and of tho 
and power of the earth. 

And this is no visionaiy speculation. It is 
to pass in the years that are before ns, for ; 
hath spoken the word. It is from many hours' < 
tion with the youthful Israelite, our fellow-pi 
that I have become so interested in his nmtioi 
my enthusiasm in the foregoing pages. 

Very sincerely, your frien 



Mt DiAB Sir: 

You win find me, after having been so near jon as 
New York, receding again firom jon, and my next letter 
win be from the bosom of mj natire hills, in the north 
of dear New England. My last was written from New 
York, where we arrived seven days ago, by the Crescent 
City, as I have already stated. 

The fifth day after reaching that Babel of confusion of 
tongues and of omnibuses, Isidore and Isabel embarked 
for England in the steamer. During their brief stay in 
New York they visited every place of interest, I being 
in their company, with the addition of Monsieur de 
Cressy from New Orleans, who had fairly attached him- 
self — not to me — no, no, — but to our party. 

It was a sad parting that, between Isabel and myself. 
I accompanied her on board the steamer, and again took 
leave of her to return to the city. I shed more tears 
that day than ever I did before, and my eyes still over- 
flow when I reflect that I may never see again the sweet 
lovely girl, who for three years has been my pupil, and 
who as a married woman is now fairly launched upon 
the stormy billows of life. That she will be happy I 
have no doubt, for M. de Clery is very devoted, and 
seems every way worthy of her. My only consolation 
is now in the prospect of letters from her, as she has 


promised to write me ererj two weeks wbik 
abroad. The colonel intended to have acoompai 
accomplished daughter, but the day before they m 
received a letter informing him of the death of h 
seer, and of sickness among the slaves upon hii 
in Tennessee. He accordingly delayed only to m 
embark, and the next day, after acoompanying 
the New Haven and Boston cars, to bid me go 
started for the West, sad at heart, with parting 1 
beloved a child as Isabel had ever been. When h 
me by the hand to speak ^'good bye,*' his ^c 
with tears; and he said, 

^^Be a good girl, Kate! Next to Bel, yoa are 
mc. Write to me often, for in your letters an 
remain my only solace now; and look you, deal 
don't fall in love and marry somebody or othi 
can't appreciate you. Write and tell me all abon 
self, and give my love to your dear good moth 
kiss the little folk for me, and don't forget to g^i 
the presents!" 

He then whispered in a low tone, "Don*t hM 
heart, Kate, to De Creasy." 

He then — ^kissed me, Mr. , and I hid t 

with my thick veil to conceal my tears; and so 1 1 
dear good colonel no more ! The best of heaven 
sons be upon him ! 

I was not alone in my journey to Boston* 
placed in charge of our Member of Congress froi 
nessce, who, with his lady, was taking a trip to 
Yankee Capital, and purchase a few Yankee not 
curiosities for their children at home. There i 
sides, in the cars by chance, M. de Creasy, the hai 


yjmg New Orleans gentleman, who was on hia way to 
iontreal. He was very civil and kind, and did all be 
mid to make me cheerful, and pointed out the pretty 
ta of scenery. The ride to Boston was very doll, all 
At he ooold dO) and I fear I was very poor company 
¥ any one. At length we came in sight of the massive 
nae of the state-house, crowning the city, to whidi 
iree years before I had bidden adiea on my way south; 
id before I could believe the fact, I found myself in the 
Mut of the city, opposite the United States HoteL 

We are at the Revere House, a very elegant establiah* 
ent, kept in the finest way. Boston is an odd-looking 
ty, with inexpressibly tortuous streets, and narrow; 
bile the habitations usually are the plainest structures 
lat brick, mortar, and stone can erect. The door en- 
mnces are, half of them, mere square cuts in the brick, 
holly destitute of ornament or grace. The public 
lildings are very grand and massive: but as a city, 
oston is surpassed by New York, Philadelphia, and 
altimore. But as to intellect, for great men, for jup 
sts, statesmen, and princely educated merchants, no 
ty is its peer. 

I have visited to-day old Fanueil Hall, through which 
le mighty voice of Webster has reverberated; also the 
d State-house, associated with the early Colonial his- 
•ry of the Commonwealth ; also the place of the British 
assacre in State street; the site of the famous ^^Liber^ 
ree;" the wharf from which the tea was thrown into 
le harbor; the house where Washington lived; and 
unker's Hill, upon which the monument of enduring 
-anite rises like a gigantic needle, hundreds of feet into 
le blue ether; 'Hhe first object to catch the beaQia of 


the rising san, which tremble last upon Hi Bky-fieremg 

These Boston folk are very aristocratio-— more lo and 
more English than other AmericaiiB. Thej are tctj 
literary, too, and among them are a large immlMr of 
scholars of both sexes. The Conntesa d' Oaaoli, so qb- 
happilj lost at sea, was a noble specimeii of these Bos- 
ton literary women. (German is a great deal studied 
here, and where it is not studied, its knowledge it 
affected. No person here is considered at aD fitcnvj 
without German! and the possession of thia, wittoat 
much brains, is a passport into the ''Book Socielj." 

The Boston people dress very primly — the men am^ 
more so than the ladies. The latter liaTO a horrid ftsh- 
ion of bundling up themselves in cloaks and mula in Ao 
winter, that is monstrous. They look ezaedy like Kaa- 
schatka merchants waddling about. I had not seen a 
muff for so many years that they looked pcifeetly hdi- 
crous to me. I don't wonder the green UissHBippi 
medical student wrote home that ''all the girls in Bos* 
ton carried young bears in their hands when tksj west 

The churches here are very tall and numoroaa, mi 
nice looking; but none very elegant. Trinity ia a gray 
massive pile of architectural rock, imposing and fmlus s- 
like. St. PauFs is a (rrocian temple; Park Street a 
spire after the old Puritan pagoda fashion, 
a succession of white porticoes, one elevated, admj 
upon another, till it ended ''into nothing,*' aa the Hon. 
Mr. Slick once graphically described the same skmctars. 

Every body goes to Church here, and it ia wided tt 
be seen in the streets in church hours, on Svnday, es« 

eept for doctors. Tiffing mett I beEere so longer go 
about at such times with loog rods ^seeking whom thcj 
may deToar," thml is, smeh sbmII gaae tm Kttk bojB pby- 
ing truant from their seats in the pews. 

I hare not yet had the pleasure of seeing dear good 
old Mistress P^urtington. ETerrbody seems to be wM 
acquainted with her, but nobody seems to know where 
she *'puts up." AH I can learn is, that her maiden 
name was Green. As soon as I sarfrtsJBi I intend to 
eall apon her and paj mj respects; for sneh an honor to 
Boston literature shoold not be igktly passed bj* Tha 
good dame I understand is Terj tUa, hafing loot mncii 
of her flesh in trjing to master the German laagaage, in 
Older to be admitted into the ""Bhe-Stoddng Chd» of 
Literary Ladies," the motto of whidi is "« Nulla Comeina 
sine Germano." The unhappy old lady, it is ramoredy 
disloeated her jaw the third lesson, in trying to pro- 
nonnce ^^Ich," which it is said has contributed to her 
leanness, from inability to take only liquids. 

There is a probability of my learing to-morrow for 

home, dear Mr. , and when I am once more in the 

quiet seclusion of my native Tillage, I shall hare nothing 
of interest to giro occupation to my pen; for the history 
of one day there is the history of erery day in the year. 
I shall therefore send you but one letter more, informing 
you of my safe arrival amid the cherished scenes of my 

Your friend, very truly, 

410 IH£ SU2INY south; OBy 


My Dear Sib: 

Once more I find myself seated at the hmnbk old 
fireside, beneath my mother's roof. Once more I see 
about me old familiar faces and familiar objectB, ercry 
one of which carries me back by some ■asooiation to my 
childhood. There is the tall mantel-piece, with the 
bright brass candlesticks, which hare been in nae 
I remember anything, placed symmetrically one on 
end ; the mahogany clock in the comer, with a fidl 
rising above its round visage in blae clonda, and with face 
and eyes exactly like my dear old grandmother, whose 
t*niooth countenance was as round and goodHDatnred as 
any full moon you ever saw. There are the two ailhoo* 
ettc profik*s in the jottest black of my venerated father 
and of my mother, facing each other, over the little look* 
ing-glass between the windows ; my father with a qneie, 
uud my mother with a preposterously short waiat and 
high ca|>— objects that I used to gase upon with adnir^ 
tion when a child, only wondering why thejr were m 

There is also in one corner my little red cricket, on 
which I used to sit ut my niother*s knee, and learn the 
old Puritan ca tech ism, and the dreadful story of John 
Jtogers who was represent rd in a famous wood-CQt, tied 
to a stake, burning, and his wife and nine children. 

TBI MClBDEram JCf flHB. -til 

at the brctsty 

soldier stirring 

torn, dirty, vitk wrfJtwfcang is^ 

my mother's 

There sitssj 
ing-ehair, vhcxe 

since m j earfiest TttmSktsinitk^ widk tie 
little stand hjharm^y^hM 
book, and bjniglft scaade. 
comer/' as the ow ipiriin wed t# be called ^ 
B^/' and adairing wmj 5cv Task kat, 
**how fiuhiooa il» _ 
the same pvre tamtflmsm of 
same mild, motherlT, kimd ere ; ifce 
almost holv. smile! Bat I csmmc deeeire mj bring 
gaze by denying thmt At icas dbanged sinee I left her. 
Her soft brown luir is streaked vith slrcfy threadi^ and 
crosswise her forehead I cittcem lines that lime has en- 
graven there with his relentless burin. She will be fifty 
years of age next Christmas, and yet so gentle has been 
her disposition, so qoiet the flow of the rirer of her daily 
life, that she looks (excepting the eross lines and silrer 
hair) not more than fire-and-thirty. She looks happifr 
now than ever ; and once in a while I fed that^ as I 
write, her eyes rest lovingly upon me, with a mother's 
deep love — while gratitade for my return in safety and 
health fills her soul heaven wardly. 

My little brother and sister are seated <m the floor, 
enjoying the nomerons presents whidi I broof^t them, 
and which filled a trunk by themselves; for not only the 
colonel sent them many, but dearest Isabel and laidfare 
ako. My letter to Charlie, which you printed so kindly, 


was received by him with uproariouB joy. It wu the 
village wonder for a week. All the good dames came in 
to read, or hear my mother read, a real printed letter in 
the "noospapers'* to a little boy. 

"Do fell !" Well, who'd ever ?" "Now only think T 
"A*n*t it carious ?" were the exclamations of the good 

But if my letter in print created such a sensation 
among our kind, unsophisticated neighbors, what must 
have been the sensation produced, think you, sir, at my 
return home ? It would be difficult to describe the scenes 
of welcoming which I passed through. Everyhodjf came 
to see me, old and young, for a mile about ; and for three 
days I have been holding a levee; and have had to do 
talking enough for a three volume-book of travels, in 
order to gratify their homely curiosity about the South 
and the ^' black slaves,'* and cotton, and sugar, and 
oranges growing on trees, and how there was no snow, 
and the mocking-birds, and everything which was diffirr- 
ent from what thoy had in New Hampshire. 

*' So you've sern fig-trees," said old Deacon Starks, 
lookin;: at me with great respect. ^' Zaccheus climbed 
up into one; and you have seen jist sich a tree? And 
the Master went to one to get figs, and finding none, 
curst it. Wall, IM liked to a seed somethin' with my 
own eves as is in the KiMe." 

**])<► you think th<» leaves is ])ig enuf for aprons. Miss?" 
respectfully nskcd an old maid, a stranger and new-comer, 
who had been introduced as Miss Tape. 

*' And you say ynu see puinmegranates on trees," ob- 
served the deacon, perseveringly ; "well, them are Bible 


firuits, because as they made the seven eandketielDi like 
pmnmegranates. " 

^^ And does every South woman sleep with a gun under 
her pillow, to keep from bein' killed by the black slaves 
in the night ? I wouldn't trust myself among the krit- 
ters. I never sees one here but I feel skeared, they are 
so bUck." 

*^It's a marcy you ever got back safe," said old 
grandam Ford, who was as deaf as a door, and never 
waited for or expected replies. 

Eveiy dress I have has been borrowed, and my trunks 
are empty, the contents going the rounds of the neigh- 
borhood. The truth is, I am the lioness of the village 
just now ; and I expect that I shall have as many as a 
dozen offers before New Year's, for it is reported I have 
** made my fortin teachin' down South," a pedagogical 

miracle, Mr. , which you can vouch for was never 

yet done on the earth. All the beaux are getting mea- 
sured for new suits at little Billy Buttonhole's, the tailor, 
who has promised to make seven complete suits by Sa- 
turday night, when the little Shears knows very well, 
that with his whole force of one woman and a white- 
headed lad, Tommy, he can't finish one. One thing is 
very fortunate, that it is not known here that I am an 
authoress at all, otherwise I have no doubt that Mr. 
Font, the village editor of the Democratic paper, "A 
Voice from the Mountains, and White Hills Democratic 
Investigator," would be annoying me with the honor of 
soliciting a contribution for his " Poet's Comer." 

This letter ends my literary career, Mr. . It has 

been brief and obscure, but nevertheless has been plea- 
sant to me. Monsieur de Cressy (who chanced to occupy 

414 THE ST'NNY south; or, 

tlic same car with mo as far as the <lopot nonr tlii- \'.\- 
lafo, and then continued on to Montreal.) insists tlia: 
my letters be collected and published in a volume. Dear 
me ! I write a bound book ? The idea is alarming. I 
fear my letters, which may do well enough for a news* 
paper, would make a sorry figure between coTers. But 

they are yours, Mr. , and if any of your readen 

(those dear friends whom, having not seen, I esteem and 
love) express a desire to have them put into a Tolmie, 
I yield my own views to yours and theirs. If tkcj 
should merit the honor of appearing in a book-fimn, I 
would like, if it were not too presumptnona, to eall the 
book: — 





I suggest this title because the letters embrace a little 
romanceroy as you have perceived from the beginning U 
the end, of which Isabel (not Kate) is the tme heroine. 

Good-bye, Mr. , I thank you for your eondeson- 

slon in admitting my poor writings into yoor cofannns, 
and I feel grateful to those dear friends who havo qiokea 
kindly of them. 

With blessings on you all, I remain. 

Your sincere friend, 

Katb CoimraHAii. 



My dear Mr. : 

I KNOW not how, patiently, to reply to your saucy 
letter to me ! Indeed, you write as if you fancied that 
" a correspondent once** is a correspondent forever of 
your Journal. And then to intimate that my UtUe iNee- 
die possibly may stand in the way of your getting large 
Needles for your paper ! How did you find out that I 
was married? and how did you learn where the quiet 
corner of the South is where I have been for nearly two 
years a happy wife? 

Your letter took me quite by surprise, and my sharp- 
eyed little Needle, Harry, as I was reading it, snatched it 
with his fat fist, and nearly tore it into fifty atoms, before 
I could rescue it from his fierce gripe. It was well for 

your sake it was not your head, Mr. . And you 

have the coolness to say (I read after I had smoothed 
and put the pieces together as well as I could) — the cool 
effrontery to all married dames to say, that you do not 
think " that my having got married will lessen aught the 
interest of my 'Needles* if I will kindly contribute an- 
other series!'* For tJiat speech, in pen and ink, you 
deserve that every married lady should stop your paper. 
Indeed ! My being married has not upset my wits, nor 

quite made a fool of me, Mr. , though if you should 

sometimes chance to overhear me talk to Harry in a 

410 THK srxxY soi'th: or, 

lantruago "vvliicli has neither ilietiunary, grammar, r* " 
meaning, you would asseverate that I was for tht tiiiic 
a little out ! 

But baby-talk is a young mother's priTiIege. Yoa 
men may growl at the cherubs in monosyllables, bul yon 
can't talk baby ! Harry opens wide and wider his frr^t 
black eyes at all the pretty things I tell him aboat 
^'horsey eaty corney; cowey moo-moo-mooey; ifOfgj 
barkey boo-woo-woo; chickey crowey doo-dk-dooHw; 
turkey (which baby calls ^daggins') gobble, gobUe, 
gobble;" and so on, giving extraordinary, and, in bt 
own estimation, very respectable and praiseworthy imi- 
tations of the noises of animals, especially the barfciag 
of Bruno, our huge mastiff; at which I feel aasued I an 
very successful, for the deep notes always set my littk 
Keedle to puckering his woful lips, and ending the imi- 
tation by a genuine bellowing of his own; and the ery of 
a child thirteen months old is no trifling affair, especiaDT 
if mamma is out of sugar-candy. 

In such cases nothing stops the dear little angel of a 
boy but my blowing tremendous blasts upon a tin tmmpcti 
on the homoeopathic principle of like earing like; and 
his astonishment at the superiority of my tin tiump c t 
performance to that of his own lungs is so great, that he 
pauses, and gives in — ^fairly beaten. 

These ^Mittle Needles knows a heap," aa Annt Chloe, 
his old black nurse, said to me this morning, aa Harry 
knocked over a little wooloy-crowned blaek baby, Chloe's 
grandson, which had crawled near him, and htguk to 
amuse himself by sucking an India rubber tootb-bitcr. 
^^Mass Harry make little nigga know hi' plaoe!** 

I could not help laughing at the old woman*! renaik; 


il the same time eould not but feel its truth. The white 
nfsnt on m plantation very early understands, as if by 
nstincty its superiority ; while the African child tacitly 
'eoognises it. This African element infused into our 
tmnamty ia a great mystery. 

Excuse this blot, Mr. ; Harry has pulled at my 

ileeve in trying to walk round my. table, and upset my 
■ksland shockingly. And while I shake my finger at 
um, he shakes his wise head from side to side in a 
nnning way, as much as to say, ^^No — ^no, you won't 
rhip baby!" and then he smiles with enchanting confi- 
lence, looks up into my face with eyes full of love and 
on, and ends by putting up his little mouth for a kiss ; 
or the rogue is conscious that he has done a great mis- 
hief, which he so often perpetrates in some shape or 
>ther through the day, as to be quite familiar with my 
eproying exclamation of ^^Ah! naughty Harry!" 

Dear little fellow ! I would not lay the tip of my finger 
ipon his beautiful body, in retribution for all the blots, 
rork-baskets turned topsy-turvy, books torn, and all 
is miscellaneous misdoings generally. I would not for 
ndia's wealth arouse in that dear little heart of his, fear 
f his mother ! There is so little pure affection on this 
mrth, let it be found sacred and unmarred between the 
oung mother and her heaven-given babe ! 

You should have seen poor little Harry when he was 

hristened, Mr. . He was then ten months old, 

nd a stout, strong, rosy rogue, with a laughing face 
bat seemed to over-run at the bright eyes with the light 


But when the minister took him into his arms, Harry 
X)ked up into the stranger's grave face with a stare of 


wonder and a slight inkling of fear; the first shadov of 
which I ever saw pass across his sonny brow. The deep 
voice of the clergyman in its solemn tones seemed to 
make a strange impression upon the child's s ea siti fs 
nature. All at once he put np his rosy mofiitliy swectlj 
open like a yoang robin's, and with a half-timid, half- 
coaxing look, polled the minister by his bands, and drew 
his face down close to his that he might kiss him! It 
was beautiful and touching! The dear, half-fnghtened 
child evidently wanted to conciliate and win his cnenT 
over by love ! 

The good man paused in the service, and with a fine 
smile bent down to the little open month, and kissed him 
so affectionately, and then patted his cheek so kindlv. 
that Harry at once took coorage and confidence, daspcd 
his little fists together, a smile like heaven lighted «p 
his face, and he nestled in the arms of the cle igjam 
with a confidence and trostfolness, in singular ooatiast 
with his doubt and timidity a moment before. 

Oh ! how powerful is love ! It is thoa that Ood wooU 
have us lift up our lips to Him in prayer, and thus He 
will bend down and bless us, making oa happy and it 
peace with the assorancc of His tender affection. Harrr 
received the cold baptismal rain upon his early head 
without a change in his smiling face. With **the croM 
upon his brow," I received my child back froan God'ft 
altar, where I had thus dedicated him ; and like a Crasader 
bearing the cross, I trust he will be to his life's end s 
faithful soldier in the host of the Captain of his saha- 

How can a mother clasp to her heart froin week to 
week an unconsecrated child, remaining as it was bora. 

nt sMmnKSB 19 sons. 418 

tmsanctified by the living waters of tlie churcli'fl fonn- 
tains? It was the little children Jesas took up in His 
arms ; it was the little children He commanded mothers to 
bring to Him! Since the christening of mj dear Harrj 
I love him far more, and I lie down with bind in peace^ 
knowing that, should he be called from my arms, he was 
first placed by me in the arms of Jesus, in the bosom of 
His church. 

But to your letter, Mr. , desiring me to do you 

the favor to renew my letters, or "Needles," which you 
kindly say "were not only well received, but are yet 
much inquired after!" I am not ungrateful for the kind 
interest my poor epistles have awakened in the hearts 
of many, whom I shall never know in this world. For 
their pleasure, I am ready to b^n a new "paper of 
Needles;" but now, that I am married, these dear readers 
must expect that my little Needle, "Harry," will figure 
a good deal in them. 

I am living very retired, with but few subjects of in- 
terest, other than domestic ones. My house is a para- 
dise of love and peace. My husband seems to think 
only of me and Harry — to forget himself far %u! In 
my next letter I will describe my home in the Sunny 
South, and, perhaps, I may find subjects enough around 
me to give some interest to my Needles. But I have 

first a word to say, Mr. , before I fairly consent to 

be your correspondent. I do not wish you to alter my 
letters, or, in your masculine dignity, cut out any 
"baby-talk," or baby afiairs, that may be in them; for 
my nursery is my world just now, and Harry the most 
important personage in this little world of cradle and 

420 THB Bumrr bouth; ob, 

painted toys! Perhaps in that greater nmerj, \ 
WOBLD itself, bearded men are quite as mnch, 

" Pleased with a lattlei and tickled with a straw," 

as Harry in the lesser one. 

Farewell^ Mr. ^ 

Your friend, 

Kits ni C. 



My Dear Mr. : 

How proYoking it is to be nuBtaken for somebody 
else besides one's self! Until a few days ago I was not 
aware that the celebrated Miss Conyngham of England, 
who traveled through Italy and Austria distributing 
tracts, for which she was imprisoned, was thought to be 
me! I really hoped that my thousand dear friends who 
knew me through my pen, had a better opinion of Kate 
than to suppose she could give herself up to such a 
fanaticism as marked the wild career of the Miss Conyng- 
ham who frightened Austria, and like to have set Eng- 
land and its Emperor by the ears ! 

It is true, our party went to Europe after Isabers 
marriage, where my husband and I joined her, and we 
were traveling at that time; but while Miss K. Conyng- 
ham was in prison in Austria, Miss KaU Conyngham as 
a bride, was climbing Ben Nevis in bonnie Scotland, 
leaving none but her own tracJcB (French No. 2's) in the 
heather. This I wish to be distinctly made known; for 
though I have no objection to be a tract distributor, yet 
I hope I have common sense enough not to court martyr- 
dom as my namesake seems to have had a fancy to do. 

I do not know but that I shall be compelled, Mr. 
, to send you a full account of my travels, to show 

422 THB BVNNT south; OBy 

you I never was arrested by Austrian police, but in all 
my journeyings behaved myself like a nice yoong wife, 
who has no taste for dungeons, except in Mrs. Raddiffn 
novels, and who has a perfect horror of a diet of drr 
bread and water. If I should send yon my travels, I 
should write about the wonders of oar voyage: the tkinp 
I saw in England, what I saw in France, the adventured 
we met with in Spain ; of our sojourn in Florence and 
Naples; our yachting cruise over to Malt*, and the 
various escapes and marvelous incidents which gave icst 
and romance to our tour ; and I should be sure and aot 
forget to tell all about my marriage, and how I saw aad 
spoke with the Queen by an odd accident, with all iortt 
of things besides. 

But as I have promised to give you in thia letter i 
description of my dear home in the South, whence I 
write these letters, I will here fulfill my promise, and 
leave my ^^Tour to Europe" for subsequent **Ke6dlci " 

If you will take the map and find New (Meana, jm 
will soon learn where I am by following the noble Father 
of Waters up as far as Donaldsonville, twenty-five kagaes 
north from the city. At this pretty Freneh village, 
which sleeps half buried in the foliage of China ahade 
trees and Acacias, is the mouth of the lovdy atrcam 
called Bayou La Fourche. A bayou ia not, howeter, 
exactly a stream, but a sort of nahural canal going 
laterally from one piece of water to another, uniting 
both ; as for instance, a stream flowing from the Delaware 
straight across to the Schuylkill, would be a bajou. In tki» 
part of the world, where the green land ia aa level as the 
blue sea, these intersecting branches form a net-work of 
internal navigation, as if the whole land were out np inio 


winding canala. This feature of the country makes it 
Tery beautiful, as oaks, and ehns, and laurels, fringe 
their banks; and in their graceful curves thej embrace 
now on one side, and noir on the other side, crescent- 
shaped meadows waving with sugar cane, and dotted with 
najeetic groves like islands of foliage resting on the 
boeom of the pleasant land. 

For thirty miles in the interior this lovely region is 
level as the sea, and islanded by dark green groves of 
oak, at intervals of a half mile or mile apart. The boat 
passes villas inunmerable, whose gardens touch the water, 
and old French villages half hid in shade, while in the 
distance, for every half league, tower the turreted sugar- 
houses, like so many castles. 

It would require a highly poetical pen to picture justly 
the beauty of such a thirty miles trip into the luxurious 
heart of Louisiana. At length four hours after leaving 
the Mississippi, appear, over the woodlands of a fine 
estate belonging to an eminent judge, the spires of 
Thibodeaux, an old French town, extremely quaint and 
picturesque. Here the steamer stops to land its pass- 
engers, who are mostly French, and will also land you, 
Mr. , if you are on a visit to see me. 

Standing on the Levee, you will see the steamer move 
on again further up the pretty bayou, and still for an 
hour, when ten miles off, its black pillar of smoking 
cloud can be discerned, ascending along the horizon like 
the jet from a far-off volcano. If the steamer you have 
left continues on her winding course west and south for 
five hours, she will reach the Gulf of Mexico, and so 
passing round the Gulf coast re-enter the Mississippi, at 
its mouth, and so get back to New Orleans, thus com- 

424 THE srxxY south; or, 

passing, bv the ai<l of river, bayou, and piilf, a complete 
circle aromul the citv with a radius of a hun«lre«l n:il»>. 
Planters often make use of this mode of communicni' n 
to ship their suf^ar to schooners anchored at the Gulf 
mouth of the bayou. If the English had been ae<juaint'>i 
with this inland water route thev would have reachdl 
New Orleans, surprising it by a descent from up riror 
upon it. 

It was to Lafitte they made such magnificent offers to 
pilot them through such a bayou, that of Barataria: 
which, outlaw as he was, he nobly refused. Parties on 
excursions from plantations frequently, in their pleasure 
boats, go down to the Gulf and spend a week or two; 
living a sort of wild and romantic gipsey life on tho 
green islands that gem the shore of the Gulf. One of 
these parties I recently joined, and may some time give 
you a description of its pleasures and famous adven- 

But I will not leave you standing any longer with 
carpet-bng in hand on the Levee of Thibodeanville, Mr. 

, but <lirect you up the tree-bordered bayou bank t'> 

another l)ayou, which comes into the larger one close bj 
the chief vilhige street. It is a pleasant walk. You 
will find little French negroes rather troublesome* a^kini; 
"mass, f*)r tote he sad<lle-l>:»g;'* but you are an oM 
traveler, sir. and have escaped alive from the Iandin>* 
place at Calais — a dreadful place, and which I shall 
never forget. 

The pretty walk along the water bank will, in five 
minutes, brin«: vou to the bayou, Tekre Box5E. Its 
course is at right angles i^ith the bayou La ForRCHE. 
TiiiBODKAix village stands right in the angle between 


o, one being in front, the other on the west side. 
jon come to this bayou you will see that it looks 
canal, rather than a natural stream. A small 
crosses it, and leaning over its railing you will see 
eaded old Frenchmen fishing, and boys catching 
« in nets. Trees bend over them, the water 
38 below, brown creole laundresses are singing as 
ash their clothes in the water, and altogether it is 
fcy scene. Near the bridge you will see four or 
rges or market-boats, with brown lateen sails, and 
irith yegetables and fruit. They are manned by 
' three sable-skinned slaves, usually by an aged, 
eaded African and an iyory-toothed urchin. They 
»ome that morning some five miles, some fifteen, 
;heir master's plantations, to sell marketing, and 
purchases for home. These boats are constantly 
up and down this narrow bayou, Terrb Bon|^, 
lows through a rich and populous sugar region of 
est sugar estates in the South, and forms their 
ater communication with the villages and towns, 
you will be likely to see, moored about in the 
?s of the bridge, one or more pleasure yachts, in 
some members of the family have come up from 
plantations, situated where the sky and level hori- 
5et. Perhaps one of them brought down a freight 
sly girls and their noble dark-eyed mamma, and 
ooking aunts, to shop among the treasures of dry- 
jewelry, and millinery, of the fashionable stores 
ibodeaux ; or, perhaps, a plantation household of 
children are come up to the village to see the cir- 
id especially that wicked, good-for-nothing Dandy 
ide the pony ; the boys of the party going home 


again, to turn the lawn into an arena, and all the shag^ 
ponies into circus steeiUj, compelling some plantation 
native Dan Rice, jr., to be clown." 

Or, perhaps, you will see there the elegant jacht of 

the two rich brothers, M. Louis and M. Adolphe , 

who have come up from their estate, two hours' Mil 
down the bayou, to pass an afternoon, playing billiards, 
and to meet the young girls that happen to be in to«a 
shopping, from the neighboring estates, for on cenain 
days (usually Saturday, by general consent), everyboiiT 
goes to town, and anybody that wants to see anybody U 
likely to find everybody on the street. Indeed, for the 
surrounding planters, the village is an *' Exchange'* on 
that day, not only for young fellows and maidens to ex- 
change glances, and, perhaps, hearts, but for their papis 
to get money for their sugar, or see to its shipment, ind 
lay in their stores. 

If it should be on Saturday that you arrive, Mr. , 

you would see many a cushioned barge lying in the bayoa 
waiting for its fair occupants to return to their homes. 
Also, you wouhl find no lack of handsome carriages ind 
capari.<oned saddle-horses under the care of aerrants; 
for along the bayou winds, at one with A in all its mean- 
dering.s, a summer road, level as a bowling-alley, bordered 
by wooilland oaks, orange groves, country-aeata, flower- 
ing gardens, fields of waving cane, bending with a bil- 
lowy motion to the overpassing wind, like the aurface 
of an enuTald sea. If you wish to reach my home early 
in the day, you had best take the road, for the land 
route will bring you much sooner. But if you are it 
lei^«ure, and enjoy a m(»onlight sail, you will take one of 
the boats. But as they are all private barges, 70a will bs 


80 kind as to step on board that one whioh yon aee is 
painted green, with plum-colored cushions and a little 
flag pendant over the stem, on which, when the wind 
Uows out its asure folds, you will read " The Isabel." 

That is my yacht, and I know your good taste will 
admire it very muoh, and thank me very kindly, as you 
aiq>pose, for sending it for you. But I did not send it, 
being ignorant wholly of your visit, Mr- ; never- 
theless, step into it, and tell ^^ Zephyr," which is the 
name of the respectable-looking negro pilot you will see 

in care of it, that you are Mr. ! That name will 

be a talisman ! You will see his eyes shine, and his lips 
open wide, with a quiet laugh of internal satisfaction. 
^^Ah, bress my soul! Missy Kate mity proud to see 
Mass' Editum. I berry grad to hab dat honor miself !" 
and Zephyr will take off his straw hat and make you as 
superb a bow as a king's, nothing less dignified, and he 
will then look around upon the other boatmen with an 
air of triumph, as much as to say, ^^ Go *tpay ! Here's 
Mass' in dis boat here ! De greatest gemman in Philla- 
mydellfum ! Back you oars, niggas ! you got notin' to 
do in dis bayou!" 

Such would be Zephyr's probable salutation. But he 
will not at once set off with you. He will tell you he 
expects Massa and the ladies, and in a few minntes you 
will see a gentleman and two lovely girls approaching, fol- 
lowed by two servants laden with their purchases. The 
gentleman has a very dark, handsome countenance, lighted 
up by fine hazel eyes. His complexion is a ridi, warm 
brown. He wears whiskers, no mustache, but his coal- 
black hair flows long and in very slight curl to his shoul- 
ders. He wears a huge broad-brimmed sombrerOi and % 

428 THE BUNST south; OB, 

complete suit of white linen. He has the quiet, lelf- 
poesessed air and gentle bearing of a man of edncauon 
and taste. You will see that he is a ^^ gentleman," and 
you will take a liking to him at sight ; he has sodi a 
frank smile and so handsomely shows his splendid tcctL 

Gaess who he is, Mr. ? You woold not soppose 

that ho was more than seven and twenty, but his intd- 
lectual and thoughtful brow gives the appearance of 
three or four years more. Not to keep you in raqMnae, 
as he and his beautiful companions are dose upon yoi, 
I will introduce you. 

« My husband, Mr. !" 

I see you look surprised, and bow imperially, with s 
little snip of jealousy, for I know you were never recon- 
ciled to my getting married! Somehow yon editors 
fancy that your lady contributors are betrothed to yon, 
(editorially,) and that the Journal is their husbandi! 
Dear mc ! what an idea ! 

When Zephyr shouts out your name, my husband, who 
has already known you by reputation, will give you a 
right down hearty and hospitable welcome ; and introduce 
you to his sweet cousins, who will express thdr delight 
at seeing you ; and so they will take you prisoner into 
the boat, and you will have one of the most charming 
boat rides you ever enjoyed, for five hours at four mild 
an hour. You will be rowed when the wind lulls, and go 
under sail when there is any stirring. You wiU wind 
round sugar fields, you will pass between gardens, yos 
can talk with the people as they sit on their piaiiaa, and 
perhaps pacing along the bank road, will be two or three 
cavaliers who ride by the side of the boat as it moves on, 
as they would by a carriage, and chat with yoo. Nighl 

irith its stsn md aherj mofm CbA jo* rtQI 
•loDg unid the boMn of tfae li* m rfal Wcl IhhI, wUck, 
in the obeeiiTitj, wHk ha gnvps af gnmt tnoi, aecBi Eke 
ft dftrk Ks studded witk lommAti idea. 

Twentj milee froa t»w« ^na readh l aet Wr hi7««, 
flowing westwd. A ieagme fimkcr, aeedf ^mbs t^ 
^igantie trees of & Lowiai— fbrtot, aad jmr koet coaes 
mddenlj into an open lake, a afle wide aad l^eu adH 
MDg, a gen of : > . - 

iotely land. A k 

|»er near a gan 

yoor hand and ■ ^ ..: _,_, _._._. 




My Dbak Mb. : 

In my last letter I took yon, will yoa nill 700, ont 
journey to my forest-embmied home. TiMiding jot 
safely upon the pier, at the gate which enters the lawa 
of live-oaks, that stretches between the hoioee and tk 
beautiful expanse of water in front, I gave yon a wira 
and hospitable welcome. The same welcome I wOl jor* 
fully extend to any of your friends, who think enough of 
me to turn out of the way of the great Father of Watcrii 
to seek me out amid the heart of this lovely region of ^ 

I will describe to you my home, or rather, as yon hsie 
been here, (haven't you ?) I will imagine yoa writing s 
description of what you saw home to your wife in some 
such sort as follows : 

" Dear Wife :— This epistle is written at « newalla,' 
or ' Lover's Lake,' which is the translation of the soft 
Indian name. It is the romantic and charming home of 
my old correspondent, * Kate, of the Needles.* I cmnnot. 
with my prosaic pen, begin to present to your mind's eje 
the peculiar beauty of this retreat. On my way vp from 
New Orleans to Louisville, I determined to stop and see 
my fair friend, in her own home ; and having obtuned 
the direction, I embarked at New Orleans on board tlw 
bteamer * Dr. Beattie,' for Thibodeaox. 

flWvnaunE m wbo. 4SL 

^<We steamed vp the Mississippi to Donaldsonrilley 
eighty miles, and thence diverged into a narrow stream, 
called Bajou Lafourche. Along this winding water we 
sailed thirty miles more, through a lorely land of grores, 
aogar-fieldSy meadows, rillas, and Tillages. At Thibo- 
deauz, I embarked upon another bayou, crossing the level 
eoontry, and two hours after the rising moon, reached 
the abode of Kate, situated picturesquely on the green 
shore of a small Indian lake, that one can row around in 
an hour. The shores are fringed by noble trees, and bor- 
dered by a belt of the purest sand. Silence and beauty 
reign there. One fine feature of this land is, that the 
forests have natural lawns, beneath Uke the lereled sward 
of an English park. Hence it is pleasant to roam on 
foot or ride through them, and one can gallop all around 
the lake amid the forest trees without checking bridle. 
This lake is fed by a living fountain in its pellucid depths, 
and so clear are its waters, that the trout, pickerel, and 
other angler's finning game, can be seen darting far be- 
neath the surface in glittering lines ; while, in the still- 
ness of the night, their splashing leaps at intervals break 
the starry silence. 

^^At length, I approached the house. Vases of large 
size, containing rare West Indian plants, stood on each 
side of the spacious steps, filling the air with delicious 
odors. Crossing the noble piazza, which was broad 
enough for a company of soldiers, fourteen abreast, to 
march round upon it, I, as the chief guest, was ushered 
by ' Kate' into a wide and high hall adorned with exqui- 
site statuary and noble pictures. The drawing-room 
opened into it. This was furnished with light and elegant 
furniture, chiefly of Indian*cane and rosewood. Every- 

432 THE suNXY south; or, 

thing had that undcnfiabic air of taste and comfort, vitii- 
out ;;arish show, which a poetic mind loves to dwell ia. 

'*I passiMl a deli;^htful evening. I felt perfectW v, 
homo. Col. C, the husband of Kate, seemed to vie vi:h 
her in making me feel so. The library opened from tLo 
drawing-room, and when I say its walls were wholly con- 
cealed by carved oaken cases, filled from floor to ci'ilir.g 
with all the wealth of a real scholar's book-treasurt'S in 
all tongues, you will understand how elegant and tempt- 
ing a place it is. 

'Oly sleeping apartment opened from this plea.«aD: 
library, and also looked out upon the lawn. So dtli-riii- 
fully situated, I could not resist the temptations which tn- 
vironed me. Instead of retiring, I lingered till midni^L: 
in the library, gazing over the rare volumes which ihtiu 
for the first time, met my eye ; and when I resolve*! lo 
go to bed, a glimpse of the lake through my window, 
shimmering in starry brightness, chained me to it for half 
an hour, listening to the leaping fish, the distant uoM 
of a mocking bird, or contemplating the calm beauty of 
the scene. It was past midnight when I sought my pil- 
low, thankful to the Creator of the world that thero 
lin;rered yet on earth many such fragments of our L^.-'t 
l\ira<li^c in ¥Avn ; and inwardly determining to find ?*vni 
for myself such a piece of paradise as this one, and uuAvt 
my own oaks, <lwell at peace, far from the roar of ilu* 
drays of commerce, and the din of town. 

'•Your afteclionate husband, (and all that.y* 

There, Mr. , there is vour letter! — ^You certainir 

•- ■ 

deseril»e pretty well, but permit me to say, that I havr' 
no objections to your letter, except that you did not mJ 

TBttwoimnaanaL At home. 488 

ene ward about my hahe! Now if you were a bachelor, 
I could easily account for this silence ; for it is, to be 
nre, beneath the dignity of old bachelors to allude to 
s«ch subjects. But as you are a married man, and have, 
I don't know how many, roguish mouths to kiss and feed, 

your silence is quite shocking. The truth is, Mr. , 

you have never forgiven me for taking a husband ; now I 
can assure you I can write just as well, as when I was a 
spinster, and perhaps a great deal better; for I shall be 
able to draw on my husband's fine mind for ideas when 
my poor brain runs shallow. 

Now that you and my dear thousand friends know 
where I am, and all about my home, I will, for the rest 
of my '* Needles," say little more about it. I only wish 
yon all to know that I am charmingly situated, happy 
as I deserve to be, and only wish that all for whom I take 
such pleasure in writing these letters, were as happy. 
Home is heaven's type. What place this side heaven, 
besides ^^home," a home of love and confidence, resem- 
bles the Paradise above? Jesus, to express his desolate- 
ncss, said touchingly, ^^I have not where to lay my 

Among the myriads of elegant and happy homes of 
earth, not one was His ! There can be no more eloquent 
expression of human desolation than His sad words con- 
vey. And to throw a sanctity about earth's homes, 
(which were not for Him,) He calls heavm a place of 
" homes." " In my Father's house are niuiy mansions." 
There we shall not be wanderers through the infinite 
spaces of the heavens, but shall have Aomes, where we 
can gather around us all the loved and lost of earth I 
Let us, therefore, love our earthly homes, and make 

434 THE suxxY south; or, 

them as much like heaven, m love^ as wc can, tha: w# 
may be better fitted for the heavenly habitation? ;'i.a: 
adorn the golden streets of "the city of God." Wrl- 
out love there can be no true homi'j without hoxte ii-i 

A Jtome in the countrv is the loveliest of all ear:i*!v 
ones. One is more with nature? One communes m:!: 
the stars, the clouds, the trees, the water, the biri-! 
Man was not made for towns I Adam and Eve vv:.- 
created and phiced in a garden. Cities are tlie n-*--'? 
of the fall. The first thought of the sinful men af:*: 
the flood was, " (io to I Let us build us a citv !" If n.f :. 
had remained in a nomadic state, the race wouM hre 
been far better and happier, that is, if cultivatt«i rv 
arts, letters, and religion. Cities are the effects uf ?i: . 
There is no greater truism on record than this, iLjI 
"(lod made the countrv, and man made the town." 

When I ride out of a morning, instead of threaiiir;^ 
my way through crowded and noisy streets, I ca^:*: 
witli joy and frt'cdom along a beautiful lane two mlw< 
long, wiili waving fields of sugar-cane on either .M-i^ 
ami hedges (►f Cherokee rose bonleriug the wav, a:-i 
shade trees meeting ahnost over my head, their luw a: : 
far-reaehing branches sometimes compelling me to s^u> y 
to the punnnel, as I dart like a deer beneath. Sc.*- 
times, in<leed, I have a race with a deer or stag, wiiu;., 
caught browsing in tl»e green hint*, and set-ing mt- c-il- 
ing, darts off like an arrow, a challenge which *• llu-'- 
cleugli," the name (»f my han<lsome brown horse, ithou^rh 
c:ille«l ** Huek" for >h<»rt,) never refuses to accept, ii««r 
bis niistre>s either ; l»ul we are always beaten, of cmufm". 
for the stag seems fairlv to flv. and soon losefl himsv'.: 


to sight in the shady recesses of his native woodland ! 
Some mornings I rise with the crows, (for thej are the 
•ftrliest risers of all the winged fowls,) and take a can- 
ter around my Lake, upon the white, hard sand-belt 
that enriches it. It is a three miles' complete ride 
round, and the only sound heard in the stillness is the 
patter of the hoofs of Buck upon the beach. On the 
bofiom of the Lake float flotillas of wild swans, fleets 
of black ducks, and the long-legged heron wades far out 
from the shore to catch his morning's breakfast. As I 
advance, I awake all the birds, startle the squirrels, and 
pot life into the groves that border the Lake. 

Now is not all this far better than any thing a city 
can give? And then I can ride in what costume I 
please. I can hang my bonnet on the pommel of the 
■addle by the strings and gallop bare-headed ; and, if 
I want to sing and shout, I can do so, as loud as I 
please, and nobody to say a word about ''propriety" and 
<« becomingness," and all that primness ; nobody but 
Mr. Echo, who always joins in with me, and shouts as 
loud as I ! A merry and social solitary gentleman of 
the forest he is, who never ventures into cities, but keeps 
all his accomplishments for the country ; but then he will 
always have tfie last ward ! 

A favorite termination of my ride is a little mound, 
green and flower-besprent, about half round the Lake 
and close to the water. It is called the grave of 
Norkamah and Anama, two Indian lovers of hostile 
tribes, who, rather than be separated, walked one moon- 
light night, their arms folded about one another, slowly 
out into the Lake, singing as they went, their death- 
song. This was their doom, to which the chiefs con- 

486 THE suimT south; om, 

demncd them, unless they would cease to love ! CetM 
to love ! How little those stem warriors knew of the 
hearts of the young ! how little knew what yonthfnl lore 

is ! Cease to love ! True lore nerer ceases, Mr. ! 

It is immortal ! As well might these chiefs say to th« 
rose-tree, Cease to blossom ! to the full fountain. Cease 
to flow ! to the stars, Cease to shine ! as to the yoosg 
heart, " Cease to love !" 

So they could not cease to love, Norkamah and Aas- 
ma, and with hand clasped in hand, and singing, thcj 
walked down in the water. Their song ceased only when 
their lips were kissed by the limpid waves that opened 
to make within their deep bosom a grave for love ! 

Hence the Lake is called IllewaUa, or Lover's Lake. 
Their spirit-forms are said to hover about the place 
where, on the banks, their bodies are buried in one 
grave, above which the Indian youths and maidens 
erected the green mound that now marks the qwt. It 
is said that on the anniversary of the night of their 
death, they are seen coming up out of the water, toge^ 
thcr, as they went down into it, arrayed in pure white, 
with a star upon each brow, and that they are heard to 
sing not their mournful death-song, but a song that tells 
of never-dying love ! and that all the sing^g birds take 
up the sweet refrain from every tree, and thi^ the whde 
shore of the Lake is vocal with 

" Love, love, never ceases I Oh, love never dies V 

A pretty idea, Mr. j and I wish some one of yoar 

talented poetic correspondents would put the words into 
a song. Very truly yovn, 



DsAB Me. : 

This evening, about an hour before sundown, I was 
seated in the library, looking over a port-folio of superb 
engravings, which my ever attentive husband had brought 
with him from New Orleans, as a birth-day gift to me ; 
for he is very good to remember every anniversary in 
any way associated with me, or my happiness. One of 
these engravings was a large representation of ^^The 
Descent from the Cross." While I was sadly contem- 
plating it, and trying to realize that such a scene had 
actually passed on earth, I heard behind me an exclama- 
tion from my old black nurse, "Aunt Winny," "Bresa 
de Lor' ! dat am zact imago ob de Lor' !" 

I looked round and beheld the eyes of the good old 
African woman fixed steadily and in a sort of adoring 
wonder upon the pale, majestic face of the pictured Sa- 
viour. In her arms struggled little Harry, with hands 
and feet outstretched to get at the picture, for he has a 
great fancy for engravings. 

"Sure, de young Mass' Harry shall see it! Look, 
Missis, how he lobe dc Saviour 'ready !" and she held the 
child so near that it put out its little rose-bud mouth and 
kissed the face of Christ ; for the little fellow is full and 
running over with love, and kisses everything that pleases 
him, sometimes his toys and bouquets ; and once, I caught 


linn kissing witli groat delight his own little, chubby. iViin- 
ple<l arm. 

'' De niarcy ! Did you sco dat, Mis?y Kate I" ex- 
claimed Aunt Winny, with araazement and joy. **!*:* 
cliir good nuflf to go rite up to Ileaben ! who ebber w-e 
de like V 

Aunt Winny, with her Nubian-eved dan^rhter T**W 
was a present to me from the colonel, Isabid'? fath»T. 
wliom I trust you have not forgotten. Isabel iff livir.j 
near Mobile, on the Lake Ponchartrain, in an ele;rant 
villa, in siglit of the sea ; and as I shall soon pay her a 
visit, you will hear from her through my gossiping: pen. 
She is a dear, good, old, pious soul, (I mean Aunt Winny.' 
and looked up to by the rest of the servants as a sort of 
saint, vn silhouette, 

*' Aunt Winnv, how came you to say this face in th^ 
picture is that of the blessed Lord V* I aske<l : for I 
knew that there was a devoutly believeil tradition in the 
colored part of the family that " she had seen Jesus in » 
vision :" and I presumed her remark had in some ^ly 
reference to this. 

"^ Coz, Missy Kate, I hah de fabor of habbin see 'le 

Lor\" answered Winnv, with a solemn air. 


** How was it. Aunt Winny, and when ?" I aske<I. 

''Ah, bress de baby ! If he wos on'y quiet one minate. 
and not kick so like a young bear, I'd gib you mv 'xpt^ 

'* I would like to hear it of all things," I answered. 
*' Flnrctte shall take Harry down to the Lake to see Set- 
tune swim." 

So the noisy little felhnv was tran.«»ferred to a prettv, 
little, <lark-('yed, Creole maid of fifteen, who speaks only 


French, and which my husband's mother presented to me ; 
and who acts as a sort of sub-nurse to Aunt Winny, Eda 
being as formerly my tasteful dressing maid. 

^ Well, Missy Kate, de Lor' is good ! I hope to lib 
to see dat Mass' Harry a grand Bishop. He know'd de 
Lor' soon as he seed him on de pictur' ! Sartain de c^il' 
did. But den babies is so little while ago come from the 
Lor' up in Heaben, dat dey a'n't had time to forgot him. 
Dat de reason Mass' Harry 'member him and kiss 

" This was a good reason, no doubt, Aunt Winny," I 
said ; ^^ but now to your experience. While I am finish- 
ing this piece of crochet-work, you tell me your whole 

The dear, good, old woman, whose face is the very 
picture of human kindness, (done on a black ground,) then 
clasped her hands in a pious way and rolled her white- 
orbed eyes solemnly to the ceiling — a queer expression, 
which little Harry, who imitates eyerything, has caught 
to perfection, giving it with the drollest precision. She 
then heaved a long sigh and began : — 

" You sees, Missy Kate, I wos com* from ol' Wirginny 
to Tennessee, an' I had a heap o' troubles leavin' my 
folks, an' two childer, an' everybody I know'd way 'hind 
me. So I felt drefful bad-like, and took on miserable 
about it ; an' after we'd got into Tennessee, and moves 
to Big Barren Creek, I cried many a night about it ; 
and went 'bout mazin' sorry-like all day, a wishin I was 
dead and buried !" 

Why, Aunt Winny !" 

Tiss, I did, Missis! I wasn't 'ligious then, and 
didn't know how to take troubles. Well^ one day aa I 

440 TUE SUNNY south; or, 

YfSLS gwino down to de spring in de hoUor, I beam a roioe 
right ober my head. It say, 

'''What you do now? You got nobody care for yoi 
in dis wir country! Whar you get friend but Je*us 

^^ Bress de Lor\ Missis, it made me look up skearnl 
eenamost to nothin', coz there wasn*t no tree nor nothin' 
it could come from ober head, on*y de open blue sky." 

''But did you hear a voice?** I asked with a lone ex- 
pressive of my full scepticism. 

""Hear? bress de heart! to be sure, Missy Kate, I diil 
hear dc voice ])lain as I heard you speak dia blec^J 
minute. It sounded like a silver trumpet speakin' to 

"Where did you ever hear a silver trumpet speak!" I 
asked wickedly of the good woman. 

''Nebber, Miss, but den I hear read bout 'em in der 
Bible, and knows how I tink dey sound.** 

This was emphatically said, and silenced me. 

" This voice I knowM was Master Jesus Chriat bimself 
talkiii'," resumed the old nurse with dignity. **It nude 
me feel mi;:;hty bad, and I determined from dat minnet 
I'd ;ret deligion! Well, Missy Kate," continued Aunt 
Wiiiuy with a si^h, '*I was four long montlia fightin' 
hard wid de Debbil." 

'-What, have you seen that gentleman in black?** I 
asked of my nurse, with a ^rave face. 

*'lle any ting but ^emman, Missy/' answered the 
African lady with a look of indignation; ^^and he an't 
blaek, but red as a coal <»b firt* — ^ist a fireman all ober. 
iSeen him. Missis? I seen him fifty times, and ODCt I 
had 'mazin* hard fi;:ht wi<l him! He wos use to gib 



me mortal trouble when I woe tryin* to git deligion, bat 
whensomebber J seen him comin', I sot to prajin' despat, 
an' he pat off wid hesef, for de Debbil can't stan' a 
prajer, no haw! He get out ob de way rite off/' 
How did he look. Aunt Winnj ?" I asked. 
Oh, dear sus ! I couldn't tell ye. Missy Elate, but he 
was drefful ugly beas', an' hab cloyen hoof and sebben 
horns, and a switchin' tail. But, bress de goodness! he 
don't come near me now ! He han't troubled me for good 
many year since I gat deligion. He loBt one, when he 
lo6' tne r 

This last sentence was enunciated with great unction 
and emphasis; and accompanied by a look of pious satis* 

"Well, Missy Kate," resumed the old nurse, "I wor 
four months tryin' hard to git deligion an' I couldn't." 

"And why, Aunt Winny?** I asked gravely. 

"Because you sees, I wosn't born agen. Nobody can 
git deligion," she added with reverent looks, "till dey is 
born ob de Sperit ! Don't you 'member. Missis, how ol' 
Nicodemus was stumped on dat kwestion ? But I didn't 
know bout de Bible den as I does now. Now I can read 
ebbery word ob it." 

^^jRead the Bible, Aunt Winny?" I exclaimed with 
surprise, knowing she could not read at all. 

"To be sures I ken, Missis," answered Winny with 
dignity. "I reads it by de eye ob faith. Bress your 
dear heart, Miss Kate, when we is bom'd agen, we can 
read Scriptur' doctrine jis de same wid de eye ob faidi 
as white folk can wid de eye ob de flesh if dey isn't 
bom'd agen. Didn't de 'postles speak languages dej 
nebber larnt when de Holy Sperit descended 'pon dart 


heads ? Sure dey did, sure. It teach me all de Scrip- 
tur' doctrin' since I was bom de last time I Well, 
Missis, I didn't know nothin' bout Scriptur' doctrin' in 
dem days, poor ignorum black woman, an* so I pravfJ 
and kept on pray in', and it didn't do no good, and jia^ 
coz I wosn't baptized." 

" And how did you find out you ought to be baptiied ':" 
I intjuired of the good old lady ; and here let me insort 
that I have taken down this conversation actually as i: 
occurred ; and that I record it, not with any irreverrn«'* 
for such a sacred subject, but to show how religion «f- 
fects tlie mind of the thoughtful slave. Dimbtlf^.* 
thousan<ls of the poor pious negroes can relate expt'ri- 
cnces and operations almost precisely similar: 
hence the deep interest which attaches to a fair recital 
of one of them, as in the case of Aunt Winny. Xoarlv 
all negroes, according to themselves, are converteil \*j 
some great miracle. This is the test of their being n- 
ligious with each other. A conversion without a " mar- 
vel" in it goes for nothing among them. 

'*I foun' out in dis way, Missis," answered Aunt 
Winny. ''You see I pr.iyed all de time I could git. I 
wos in a wild countrv, and had no *lations nor kin of n-» 
kind dcre, and I felt lonely like, and I knew if I ci»ul'i 
get Jesus Christ to love me, he'd be *lations, an' frien'l!', 
and childcr, an' ehberv tin<r to me. So, one dav, as I 
was a-pr:iyin' *hind a bush, I felt a hand laid rite on do 
top of my head, dis a-wayl (here Aunt Winny suite«l 
the action to the w«>rd,) and a voice sed, * Sinner, wh^n 
are you gwine to he baptize?' Dis was nuff! I seed Jen 
Wot 1 wanted I So I went rite off and told the preacher 
(his name was Petitt, Miss) now as I wanted to be bap- 


tise. Well, de branch was op wid a oberikyw, and he 
wouldn't do it den ; an* when de brandi got km he was 
took rick, and so it was three week afore I codM get 
baptize. But oh, I saw Jesus an* de angels in dem free 
weeks!" she added clasping her hands in a sort of deyo- 
tional ecstasj. 

**How was that, Aunt Winny?" I asked, laying 
down the crochet-work I was npon, and looking her 
some surprise, full in the face. 
I was comin' home from a neighbor's whar I'd been 
on a narran*. All at onct I seed de hebben open — ** 

** Over your head?" 

'^No, Missis, not 'sactly ober my head, bvt in de east 
like — ^right ober in de east quarter; an' dere I see Jesus 
Christ standin' up in hebben, wid he arms stretched out, 
dis a-way," (here she suited the action to the word,) 
*^and smiling on millions ob thousand ob angels, dat 
were lookin' so happy, an' smilin', and praisin' God; 
you nebber see any ting so b'u'ful, Missis! an' I see de 
line ob mark, straight as a clo'se line, drawn across ober 
de hebben to separate de bad folk from de good people 
ob de Lord." 

"Then you saw bad folks in heaven. Aunt Winny?" 

"No, Missis, not in hebben, but kind o' one side like 
— on de lef ban*, an' de line keep 'em back ! Oh, no, I 
seed no bad folks dar, dey couldn't come dar at all! dey 
couldn't get ober dot line! De Lor' an' de angels wos 
all clothe in clouds." 

"In clouds. Aunt Winny?" 

"Yes, Missis; in de brightest clouds ebber was! 
Ebbery one ob dem hab a star shining on he forehead, 
and a splendimos' cloud, like de rainbow, floatin' 'bolt 

444 TUE scNKY south; OB, 

dcr bodies like de robe ob righteoasness. Ah, Missis, it 
wos de handsomest site ebber any body see!" 

'^ Did you see any black folks in heaven among the 
angels V 

''Plenty, Missis,'* answered Winny, vith cmphwi5. 
"But dey wasn't black rfere, — not one ob 'em, bat white 
as de angels, an' der faces shine like Moses' face, tn' 
dcy liab shinin* clouds 'bout 'em too ! / expec* to be dere 
one ob dose days, bless God ! Black ? no, no ! Xo Wk-i 
skin dcre — all white as de light!" 

''And have you seen heaven since then, Auni 

'* Oh, dear sus ! Whenebber I feels happy, I can «y 
hebbcn any time. Eye ob faith see any ting! Don't I 
know my Saviour? I seen Him too often not to know 
II im as (|uick as I knows you, Missy Kate. An* now I 
tell you 'bout my baptism! Soon as I was put under 
water I seed Iiel^ben agen, an' hear de angels shoutin* 
ober head, 'Glory!' an' soon as I wos lifted out again, de 
Sperit lit rite on my shoulder, like a little bird, an 
wliispored in my ear dese words, and I heam 'em as 
j)lain as I licarn you speak jus now : he say — 

''^^D^} whom I am well pleasen!'" 

''Said what?" I asked, with amazement^ and not 
fully comprehending the first word. 

'* * Do whom I am well pleasen,' he said to me/* an- 
swered AVinny, with marked decision. **'\Vol], I know'd 
den I was horn a^renl I felt happy as I could live! I 
Went home a-shoutin' '(ilory an' amen!' an* I seemed to 
hear all <le birds in de woods singing * glory* too! De 
next mornin', when 1 p>t up afore day, to go into de 
field, I saw a light fill de cabin, an' when I look, I sec 



TBtt sotonnvn Ast Hon* 449 

it sliinin* ont of my hand. When I look, I sec writ in- 
side ob it on de palm de name dat no one can read but 
dem aa is bom agen, an' dej has it writ on dere palms 
an' on dere hearts." 

^^Ton must be mistaken, Annt Winny, about seeing 

writing," I said, with manifest incrcdnlitj. 

No, I wosn't. Missis! I seed it plain as eber I seed 
de writin' you make wid you pen at dat writin' desk, 
ony dis wos gold writin*. When I shet my hand it was 
dark in de room ; when I open de palm, it was bright aa 

Could you read the writing. Aunt Winny?" 

Tes, sure and plain enough, by de eye ob faith, an' 
soon as I'd read, it just faded out, and went up my arm 
an' into my heart, and dere it was 'grayen on my heart, 
and dere it is now, an' Jesus Christ will read it dere at 
de last day, and know who am his !" 

But what was the writing, Winny?" 

Dat can't be read nor know'd but by fcnth. It's 
writ on my heart — dat's all /want. Missis," answered 
the old black lady, (for a lady Winny is, as well as a 
pious good soul,) with a solemn air, and an expression 
of inward hope and faith. 

Some further questions and answers of no particular 
moment terminated our conversation, and Aunt Winny, 
making me a low courtesy for my kindness in listening 
to her, left to look after Harry. 

This whole "confession" was so extraordinary — it 
came so unexpectedly, from such a staid, quiet old body 
as Aunt Winny — it was such a complete and continuous 
history of religious experience in an uncultivated mind- 
it gives such an insight into the alleged modu9 operandi 

446 THE suNXT south; or, 

of conversion among our African population — it pre- 
sents, altogether, such a history of mingled truth via 
error, faith and superstition, that I could not result pin- 
ning it down at once for your perusal and reflection. 

It was told, too, in tlie most serious and earnest niAn- 
ner, with such sincerity of look and 'tone of voice, ai. i 
such absence of fanaticism or excitement in telling :', 
that I could not hut respect her "faith;" and I Lav* 
more than once asked myself, "May it not be pn?*!^';.,- 
that God has " hid these things from the wi*f," atl 
"revealed them unto babes?** 

The whole '* experience'' furnishes subject for profoui : 
and serious meditation. There can be no doubt of AuM 
Winny's ju'di/. She is a good Christian woman in a'.', 
her daily walk and conversation. She would n«.ii «> 
fully speak an untruth. She is not given to '• ni:::*- 
flights ;" but, on the contrary, is usuall}' staid and sioUr- 
minded. How do we know that God does not vouch-afr 
special and peculiar revelations to the ignorant, wi:0 
cannot read His word? May He not, to the poor Afri- 
can, who otherwise cannot know Ilim, reveal what t" tht 
winter is cnnt'eah'd.- for the wiser may have access dirtcily 
to (lod's word. 

These iileas slia[)e themselves into questions uini^ r 
my pen, and (juestions they must ever here remain: I'-r, 
in this world, thev will find no answers. Not kni'wii.j 
all the '* seerets (jf (lod," we ought not to despise • iii* 
of these *' little ones," who believe in Ilim, and "»b"v 
aii«r('ls alwavs beludd the face of the Father." 

The assertion that negroes are highly imaginativ'*. 
an<l that all negroes have similar notions, does uut lo- 
Ben the impression which such an ^'experience** as iLe 


mboTO makes upon the mind ; bnt, on the contrary, Berres 
to render it more striking. The uniYersal experience^ 
from their aum confession, that thej have snch revela- 
tiona, would lead irresistibly to the condnsion that they 
do have them. 

I now hear yon, Mr. , putting the question point- 
direct — 

'* Do you. Lady of the Needles, believe Aunt Winny 
saw all and heard all she says that she did?" 

Now, my answer to this very inquisitive interrogatory 
from you, whereby you desire to commit me, you will 
please find in Proverbs, zxix. 11. 

Tours respectfully, 




Dear Mr. : 

I HAVE ])cen down to the great city since I Ix«t 
wrote you. Leaving my quiet Lake home early in the 
morning, on Monday last, we reached Thibodeaux village 
in time to take the steamer down the La Fourche, which 
brought us in sight of the city just at twilight. It wx« 
a superb and bewiMering spectacle, as we steamed in the 
gathering darkness past a thousand lights from ship«, 
and streets, and buildings, and the roar of the city came 
off to my ears across the water, like the sound of the 
surge of old Ocean. 

For a country lady, like myself, the bustle of the city 
completely confounded my poor head when, the next diy, 
I walked about shopping, for I had not been beyond the 
noise of the woodpecker for twenty months. What rar- 
])risod my rustic head was first the new fashions. I saw 
the ladies not only did not wear their bonnets still en 
their heads, but on their shoulders, and that the style of 
walking was to lift the skirts and display an extraordi- 
nary surface to the eyes of passers-by of intensely white 
]>otticoat ! At first, I thought it was accidental in the 
fair promenader to escape a pond of tobacco saliva on 
the walk, and I was only assured of its being *Mhe 
fashion*' by a remark from Chloe, my waiting woman, 
who was walking behind me, dresscil in a neat black silk, 


and a crimson handkerchief tied turhan-wiBO upon her 
head, the usual head-dress of the colored aristocracy. 

^^ Do see. Missus ! Did ebber know de like V* 

« What is it, Chloe ?" 

''All de ladieses holds up de dress mightjlugh, I link 
it fashum. Missy Kate !*' 

Its prevalence convinced me that Chloe was right* In 
half an hour more, what should I see but old Chloe step- 
ping along with her skirt in her hand, looking as faahion- 
able as any of them? Imitation is one of die moat 
remarkable features of the negro race. They originata 
nothing, imitation is nature in them and irresistible. 
How absurd are fashions ! How they can destroy deli* 
cacy, and even modesty ! At the house of M. de 8 , 
where I passed the evening of the day, I saw two yonng 
ladies, who wore their dresses so low in front as to mak« 
me blush for them, who, a year ago, would have blushed 
and felt deeply mortified and ashamed to have been 
caught by a gentleman in this nude dishabille ; yet now 
they were smiling, and talking, and ^emmgJy as uncon- 
scious of immodesty, as if they were not compelling the 
venerable Roman Catholic Bishop, whom they were talk- 
ing with, to drop his eyes to the floor.* 

American girls arc, I believe, purer and more maidenly 
delicate than those of any other nation. I pray that 


* [Having seen, perhaps, considerably more of the world 
than oar much esteemed correspondent, ''Dear Kate" must 
excuse us if wc differ from her in the assumed and sweep- 
ing conclusions at which she arrives, and also as to the utQit^ 
of printing all her conclusions in reference to the doubtless in- 
nocent votaries of that very changeable, and, to say the Iciasti 
oflimes most imprudent goddess, Fashion. — Sd. A, C,\ 



they may continae to merit this distinction. B«t m kmg 
as they slavishly copy the fashions set by cormpt eouru 
— by ladies in France and England — and ontwardlj wetr 
the livery of vice, they will forfeit a pre-eminenee that 
they have hitherto enjoyed. These fashions are moallj 
started by women who have no character ; indeed, thi 
Mtjfle of the fashion shawM haw impure the mind woe lid 
originated iL If gentlemen see ladies following neb 
fashions, they have a right to suppose that they are bo 
better in heart than in dress; and have characters of the 
same value with the inventors of these immodest sad vn- 
lady-like fashions. Upon my word, I have no patience 
with my fair countrywomen, when they let milliners and 
mantua-msikers lead them by the chin at their pleuore. 
If the Amazonian custom of dropping the dress from the 
left shoulder entirely to the waist were introduced, I fear 
that there would be found foolish girls enough to adopt 
it, throwing delicacy overboard, for the sake of fiuhioa, 
as they now do in their immodestly low dresses. 

And then the way the bonnets have been, and are still 
worn ! hanging almost down the back ! What should ve 
think of a gentleman wearing his hat in such a style? 
But the girls say : ^* There are no other sorts of boimett 
made, or to be had at the milliners' !" 

Without doubt they speak the truth. But what right 
have milliners to compel the wearing of such bonnett 
that tpont stay on the head? American ladies pat 
themselves too submissively into the hands of these Met- 
dumes dc la Mode! The only way to destroy their 
bondage, and have liberty and independence, is for the 
real haut ton ladies to form a '^ Club of Fashions," — an 
Academic des Modes— choose a President and twenty-fov 

m somraiRinER it hokb. 461 

directors, and appoint committees on the fashions as they 
come out, and alter, and add, or take away, as their taste 
dictates, before it receives their seal and signature! 
They also should have the privilege of originating fa- 
•hions. As we are politically independent of Europe^ 
lei us be so in fashions. Let this ^^Glub of Fashions" be 
established in the principal cities, with inter-communica- 
tion continually kept up by interchanging ^^ reports ;" 
let it meet four times a year to decide upon the fashions 
for each season, both of hats and of dresses, for Winter, 
Spring, Summer, and Autumn. Let them issue a Qw^ 
lette of fashions, to be published quarterly ; and let the 
American ladies yield graceful submission to this Ameri- 
can Congress of Modes, and so emancipate themselves 
from the corrupt fashions which great ladies, of doubtful 
position, in Europe, and milliners of uncultivated taste, 
force upon the good sense and pure taste of American 
women. Such a club would give a tone to fashion that 
it is sadly in want of; and if fashions must rule, let them 
rule with authority, dignity, and grace, in the hands of 
our lovely, and modest, and tasteful American dames. 

I wish you, my dear Mr. , to advocate this mea- 
sure with all your talent and skill. I fear you will think 
this Needle is rather more keenly pointed than usual ; 
but go into a ball-room and see if it is not merited — ^that 
is, if you are not too modest to see. 

There is something very amusing in the imiversality 
which an absurd fashion speedily attains. On the first 
day of May, 1854, ladies appeared on Broadway with 
their bonnets resting on their necks. Three weeks 
afterwards girls rejoiced in hanging bonnets by their 
combs in Portland, Maine, and in New Orleans, and in 

4r>2 THE srxxv PorTii: or, 

St. Louis; and in two months more the pirU of >an 
Francisco bared the tops of their heail?; to the mk; ;i! i 
rain; and bv this time this ridicuhms fashion is in v ■,•"..• 
at the Sandwich Islands! Twenty years atro then- »«:?-. 
in New Orleans, (so an elderly gentleman tells me. m- :•? 
veils seen in the streets than bonnets; and even nowir-:' 
sees this graceful ornament of the heail without ii-^ 
bonnet. AVhy not drop the bonnet altogether, sinie i: 
it is of so IMt' use, and wear the veil a la Espan'.'a*: 
Ladies would lose nothing and gain every thing in grax.^ 
and elegance. 

Our object in going to the city was to lay in rtores 
and clothing for the plantation, and for my hut<band to 
dis])ose of his sugar, and also to purchase a few luxurie*. 
among wbich was a rocking horse for Harry, and oir.rr 
])laythings. We did not forget all the late publicatitm*. 
some of which I will give you my unasked opinion of. 
when I have read them. 

We are preparing for our pic-nic to the Gulf, to be gone 
ten days. The party will consist of eleven of ns, not 
inc'hnling servants. We start the day after to-morrow. 
The young gentlemen who are to join us are ba<y iii 
])reparing their guns and fishing apparatus. Champas;n<\ 
and fruits, and delicacies of all sorts, have been ordtTi-l 
fur the occasion : and we anticipate a merry and ad- 
veTiturons time. In my next, I will give you an aco^unt 
of our expeditiiui in full. It will be a sort of campaiirn: 
as we go provided with tents and every eonvenieni-c f'r 
campaigning out upon the island which we intend to 

Your friend, 



Mx DsAB Mr. : 

I HAYB opened my writing-desk and taken a nioe 
new pen to give a fall description of oar excursion to the 
Onlf. Ab Harry is in bed fast asleep, and ^^dreanung 
about the angels/' as Aunt Winny says all babies do^ I 
shall be able to write you an hour without interruption. 

It was a busy time with us all, for a day or two before 
we were ready to start. The gentlemen had to get their 
fishing lines, dip nets, guns, and rough-weather coatSy 
and hats ready, and we ladies to fit ourselves with plain 
substantial dresses, chip hats, stout shoes, and all things 
needful for a campaign so formidable; but the gentlemen 
were most concerned that we should haye plenty of good 
things to eat, of which department I was imanimously 
appointed commissary. 

Early on Monday morning, two weeks ago, we were 
roused at day-dawn by the pre-concerted signal — a gun 
fired off by Scipio Africanus, my husband's chief boatman. 
We were soon alert, and the whole house was activity and 

^'Kate, don't forget the marmalade; and are you sure 
you put up the guava jelly ? and did Dick pack the basket 
of wines?" 

These inquiries were made by my lord and hnsbandy 

iCA THE SUNNY south; or, 

who, as you may jml^o, is something of an epicuro. ir. 
his wav. 

''Aunt AVinny — don't forgot thehahy!" I Pcrcam'^L 
Boeing her leaving the house without Harry. 

'' Lor, bless us, Missus, Mass' Harry done gnnc down 
to do boat on do Doctor back I" 

"All well aboard," cried my husband as he harii'-l 
mo in last ; for I had delayed to give my orders t«» • '.\ 
Chloo, my housekeeper an<l factotum, and to tell hor :li: 
if .inv of our friends came while wo wore absent, i j t-- 
tortain them with the best the house held, and trv »r.i 
keep them till wo returned; and in order that she mijh; 
carry out this hospitality, I left her in possession ••f all 
mv kovs. 

It was fairly sunrise when we wore safelv on l>oar 1 il.*' 

• • 

yacht and away from the shore. And a lovelv moniinj 
it was. The eastern sky looked like a broad lake of pfii 
and irreen, stretchini: awavinto heaven and decke<I ^\ii. 
purple islets i»f clouds. >J^ot a breath moved the sortLi; 
air or disttirbed the jilacid surface of the wattT, vwt 
which we glided to the music of the rippling ketl ahi 
drif)])ing oars of two of our slaves, whose red i?aracii*:c 
turbans, blue shirts, aiid whilf full trowsers, gave ihini. 
with tln-ir dark faces, a picturesque appearance. Ai. i 
for that matter, we were all picturescjue-looking enou::::. 
to ]»leas<' tlie fancy nf any nmiantic sehtud-girl. *»ur 
bar-rc itsrir was a Inn^:, ;rraeeful, xcbec-niodeled craft •■:* 
tlircc tons burthen, :i tall tapering mast (»f the li:::.: 
brt»\vn tint nf aiubt-r, terminating, twrntv feet from ih- 
<b'ck, in a \\\\hr tnp-mast. crowned i»ilh a gill arp.**- 
To a very bui;: ]i]iant yanl >lung acn»>s it, was su.'ipt'iiut'U 
a broad latteeii sail, the shape of a swallow's wiii^:- 

TH#0OVTHmKm AT HOMX. 401^ 

Ifever was a more bird-like looking boat, and wben it 
iras racing before a wave-capping wind across the lake, 
it looked like a swift albatross winging his way to his 
coTert, amid the dark shades of the forest beyond the 

In the after part of the boat is a deck that coYers an 
i|>artment which sailors call a cabin, or cuddy, large 
enough to hold six persons ; if they are very fleshy they 
will be somewhat pinched for space, and if very tall, 
they will have to stoop as they sit down. On each side 
ware two berths, and a table in the centre. The whole 
place is beantifally finished off with rosewood and gilding, 
rich bine drapery conceals the sleeping places, and a 
Turkish carpet and lounges add to its comfort. It is a 
lady's boudoir afloat. Last, not least, it contains a little 
eupboard, which holds a complete dining set for six, and 
tea sets to match. The forward part of the xebec has a 
covered forecastle for the steersman, two oarsmen, and 
steward. The length of the whole vessel is thirty-two 
feet. In the space between the forecastle and cabin, are 
seats cushioned, where we sit by day, as we sail along ; 
and if the sun is hot, an awning is drawn over our heads, 
but not so low as to prevent us from seeing the scenery 
on both sides of the boat. 

As for our party, it consisted of my husband; two fair 
Louisiana belles, his cousins, of whom I have before 
spoken, who are on a visit to us from their father's sugar 
estate, near New Orleans; and young Dr. Louis de 

F , who has just returned from Europe, and lives on 

the next plantation to ours, and who is very much in 
love with Mathilde, the eldest cousin, a splendid dark* 
eyed queen of a girl, who loves him back again with all 

456 THE SUNNY soiTu; ou, 

her >Yarm and gonerous heart, and wliat can a hwr z-k 

more, Mr. ? I make the fifth member •-: r 

party, and histly, and the most important perju-iuij- '" 
all, is Master Harry, my haby. Then there i- j i 
old Aimt Winny, whose "experience" I sent you. Tt I 
cannot stir without her, as i*he is Ilarrv's arnhula:.;*.-, 
and there is Petit Pierre, a slight, polden-s*kinned. i;;:*.- 
ish looking lad, who is my page in general, and al?-^ 
waits on tahlo, draws corks for the gentlemen, bait* f-'ir 
hooks, and amuses Harry; a miscellaneous usi-ful iiti;- 
fellow, with a smile full of sweetness, and eyes .«iuf>er .j 
large and expressive, like the eyes of a gazelle. ILs 
projjer appullatiiui is Pierre, but he is so slight and un-itT 
sized, that evt-rv one calls him *' Petit" aUo, lo 
name he usuallv answers. 

Now let me sketch you our party, as we move along in 
the morning sunshine across the blue lake, towards t':.e 
narrow, tree-sha(h»wed outlet of the bayou, into niiicix 
we are sonn to en tor. 

At the helm stands the steersman, Uncle Ned, a u'.i. 
grave, ])ioiis Maek man, wli(»se true name is Sauii- ■. 
Jlis vis:ige is jet ]>l:iek, honest and ^en^ihle in its expr^*- 
sion. :inil witlial Innnble and dt-ferential. Ho would l.iv 
<lo\Mi Ilis life i'nr his muster, who 1 believe would as ria«i:!v 
lav down liis life for him. When mv hu>band was a chili, 
Sambo, t!ien a lialt'-lc'oke plantation urchin, carried Liin 
in hi.> :inn>, and iM-eanie his out-ilnor nur>e. Tlu-v jrrw 
up tngriiK-r. aiiil \\\u'H the child l>eeanie a man, and iw 
l»<»v-ninsi- :i Mivant in iiis iamilv, the attaehiiient, %vh!«.*i 
tiny iiaiiirally maiiil't >tei], was lieautlful. At pre*>* ii' 
I nele Nrd lias lln' n >|»nn:-ibility <»t' the whole party, aiil 
his gra^e lace >hi»w?. tliat he feel.'' it. His « hole heart 



IS npon his datj. His head is snrmoanted by a broad- 
brimmed white hat, with a streamer of black crape far 
pendant behind; for Uncle'Ned has recently lost his help« 
meet, Dinah, and shows the depth of his grief by the 
length of his mourning weed; for yonr true African re- 
joices in a craped beaver; and I verily believe the grief 
«t the loss of their kindred is compensated, in a measure, 
by the idea of ^^the black craped hat/' Uncle Ned has 
gray, military cut whiskers, and a white cravat closely 
tied about his neck. 

(}enteel negroes like Uncle Ned affect ^^ white ties." 
He wore a black coat and white vest, and snuff-brown 
finsey-wolsey trowsers, and looked the character he was 
on the plantation of a Sunday, ^^a colored clergyman/* 
Yet he was a good coachman, a better boatman, as well 
as a true gentleman, at heart and in sentiment. Old 
Ned's only dissipation was his pipe. This he never was 
without, out of doors, if ^^ de ladies would let him smoke 
de pipe in dere presence.** 

The two girls, Mathilde and Marie, were dressed in 
closely-fitting spencers, which set off their superb figures 
splendidly, and made the elder, who is just nineteen, 
look like a Southern Di Ycmon ; and her dark tresses, 
stealing out beneath her wide straw hat, laughed in the 
winds. Marie was a fair blonde, with an eye of blue, 
like rich turquoise set in pearl, or to use a soft and ten- 
der simile, ^Mikc a violet cupped in a lily." The elder 
was Juno, the younger Euphrosyne. One captured 
hearts by the lightning of her glorious sunrise-looking 
eyes; the latter won them with gentle influences, as the 
moon attracts towards itself the beauteous lake, that re- 
flects its image. The two lovely sisters, in their flapping 

458 THK si'NXY south; ok. 

Panama liats, and ^my pic-nir liahits, and jaunty, hi!'- 
pi]>sy air, looked romantic enough for Mr. Alfxa:. :•- 
Smith; who is the moon's own bard, and who, hri'i !•-'•; 
boon no moon, no poot had boon. 

Tlie liandsome Louis, who stands amidsliips. p* ii/r • 
out to Marie a ilight of birds, is dressed like a bTierarj-:. 
and I believe intended to be Mr. Lafiite for the pr**!.: 
expedition only, inasmueh as we were bound to tin* i;»:j!.- 
borhood of this celebrated sea-kin;r's island i^f II im- 
taria; nay, we ex]»eeted to pay it a visit in our al'>»:"'. 
Louis has a fine face, but its beautv all comes fn«iii !.:• 
heart, which is otic of the nobk-st, anil kimlest, an»l !!..t:.- 
best that ever beat. His features are not reir'ilar .- 


funned, and his forehead is too low, but when «>ne kj.'iw* 
him well, ainl knows what a pure siml he possose^, «Ks: 
superior intellect, and commamling talent, one love* ai: i 
honors him without anv reservati»»iis. 

Then, there stands mv husband 1 Of course lie i« r.« t 


to be parallt'ltMl or comT)ared. He mav be Uijlv: !»:i: ::" 
he is, 1 don'r know it, for mv love throws a jrohKn ^' i 
over every defect, and illumines every feature with if:o 
li;rht of beauty, not beautv such as woman has, but :*•• 
beautv <)i' a m:in — who stands out eummandinirlv :i. • 
iuniL'*' of his Maker. 

1 >:iv tliat mv hus]):iml, Mr. . jutiff be iiirlv. ■■•:: 

to nu' h«' is piM'fcrt. His hazrl evrs bram on ni»^ ♦•r=:v 
\sh]{ lovr Mii'l ])rido, and husbandly ti'n«bTn<>* : b:-: 
mouth speaks ti) me only the kindot and most pli.a*ar- 
ablr thiriL's, his voicr, wlu-u In.' turns to a'ltln'.-"! n:t. 
eliaiiL'''S it^ toin' fro!!i that he ^ivrs to others, and f-ill* 
uiioii mv far lik«* some mvstrri«»us music, that thriii.' 
and moves the hrart, the <lear listener know,** not how .tr 

TMM mmanaanoL ja wnoL 489 

why. The roice may be harsh, the month nnhandflame, 
the lips withoat regularity, the eyes without beauty, but 
to me they challenge comparison with the eyes, lips, and 
Toice of Apollo, or any admirable Crichton of them all. 

There ! my heart's confession is made, Mr. ! 

Yon see I am not ashamed of my good husband, and I 
don't intend to be; on the contrary, I mean all my 
readers shall think of (I was going to say hve) him as 
well as I do. As to losing him (I mean the fiur girls 
who read this), I would simply hint that I hare a mono- 
poly in him, and don't intend any body shall lore him, 
or look at him even sidewise, but me. Even the superb 
Mathilde, cousin as she is, sometimes makes me feel Uko 
pulling her ears, when I have seen her hok as if she 
loYed him more than a cousin ought to lore a cousin ! 
Harry I will not describe — ^he couldn't be described! 
Imagine a perfect Cupid, (I mean, of course, sir, with a 
pretty plaid frock on, tiny gaiter boots on his charming 
feet, a Scotch cap and feather set aside on his curly 
head, black eyes full of fun, rosy cheeks, chubby arms, 
chubby hands, chubby bare legs, and lips like the rosy 
lining of twin sea-shells,) and you have " Mass' Harry," 
and with him the whole " ship's company." 

We moved delightfully along the shores of the tree- 
fringed lake for a half mile, when visible right ahead, 
was the opening of the bayou, for which we were steer- 
ing. We soon entered, all at once, losing sight of the 
sun-bright lake of my villa-home. The bayou was about 
as wide as Chestnut street, with just room for meeting 
boats to pass. For the first mile we moved on beneath 
mammoth trunks of old live-oak trees, that threw their 
gnarled arms far across from side to side. Wild vineSi 


gay with strange and beautiful flowers, prew close to the 
water, and winding their serpent-like folds about ibc 
trees, climbed up and along the branches, and formeJ % 
thousand festoons from bank to bank, beneath which we 
glided, and using them to propel us onward, instead of 
the oars, we darted swiftly beneath, leaving far astern a 
wake of gurgling waves, agitated by our keeL A deer, 
startled by our shouts of laughter, (for people in the 
woods somehow arc always more noisy than when it 
home,) plunged into the stream, and after a dozen of 
vigorous strokes with his hoofs, dashing the water high 
above his antlers as he swam, landed on the wild-wood 
side of the bayou. Louis raised his rifle with a true 
hunter's instinct. Mathilde, with a ** No, Louis, doni I 
Let the poor fellow live and enjoy the freedom of his 
forest home, gently laid her hand upon the gun and di$« 
armed him. 

"It is your deer. Mademoiselle Mathilde," he said, 
gallantly," "and when I return I will ensnare him and 
present him to you alive.** 

At tliis moment, we emerged from the entangled foro?t, 
and on each Mo extended the level sugar fields a mile 
brojid, waving like the "green and laughing com," '^r 
ratluT looking like an undulating emeraldine sea. In 
the distance ahead, rose the lofty towers of the sugar- 
house, or "* sucr(5rie," and amid a grove of tropical shade 
trees, half a mile to the right, were visible the roof and 
eiipola of the mansion, where we were to receive an ac- 
eession of two more boats to our party. 

ill an hour after leaving the lake, we reachetl this 
luxurious abode of refinement and wealth, were welcomeil 
by a happy group upon the green bank, and eaoortai 


I great trinnipli &nd rejoicing to the honse where 
ikfut wu vaiting for us ; for it WM in carU of the 
th&t we were to dtyevner here. By nine o'clock we 
e once more on bo&rd, and with the addition of two 
e ladiee and three gentlemen, we royaged a-down the 
on, a merry fleet, steering the whole forenoon amid 
w fields that kissed the wave, or pnst villits where we 
e cheered by groups of friends, who followed ua as 
as they conld be heard, with " Bon voyii[ie, bon voy- 
, an revoir!" while little Hairy, held high in air, by 
ad Annt Winny, would prettily smack his fat bands 
toss an imaginary kies, (an accomplishment which 
father had taught the little rogue,) back to the joy- 
throng. The remainder of my narrative, I will de- 
Mr. , for another letter. Until then, adieu. 

Youra respectfully, 




My Dear Mr. : 

You know when one sits down, pen in hand, and with 
kindly feelings, to write about what one has seen, and 
wishes one's readers to see with the same eyes, that the 
subject grows, enlarges, expands under the ready pen, 
until what was meant for a letter only, becomes a book. 
So, under my pen, enlarges my narrative of our excur- 
sion, which I expected to stitch up for you with one nee- 
dle full of thread, but which I see will take two, and 
perhaps three of them. A lady with a talkative pen is 
([uite as much a horror, I confess, as one with a talkative 

My last Needle left our little fleet of pleasure-barges 
winding our pleasant way down the bayou Terre Bo52^ 
southwardly, towards the pretty village of Thibodeaax, 
wliich })loaso turn to your map and find in the bosom of 
tlie deliglitful sugar region of Louisiana. It was a bright 
autumnal day, and we all gave full rein to our wild 
spirits, awaking tlie echoes of the groves, past which we 
sailed, and causing the groups of slaves in the fields to 
pause, leaning on their long-handled hoes, and gaze upon 
us with shining eyes and glittering teeth ; while Uncle 
Ned at the helm drew himself up in the presence of the«e 
''colored folk," with all the dignity which his responsi* 
bility as helmsman of our yacht entitled him to assume 


before barbaiian ^^fi^ niggos,'' as Ike aritloentie 
hoase-serr&nt terms tlie eallxTalefB of Ike foiL 

At noon, we remched the eghrte of & friead ; vkere we 
landed and dined beneadi tlie trees on tlie bank ; tlie 
hospitable family, seeing we woald not go ia, added all 
sorts of loxnrieSy whidi half-«-doacB skvea bioi^^ o«t 
to ns upon waiters. It was saaaei when we readied the 
outlet of the bayou at the TiDage of Thibodeaax ; bat as 
the moon rose fall and ^orioas before darkseas eoold 
begin to draw its starry Tefl orer the sky, we leadTed 
to continue on our way and UTOoae for the ni^it at the 

plantation of M. M ^ a rdatire of oiy hasbaad's, who 

had been notified of our coming down upon him ^in 
force/' So we left the narrow bayou, pasnng beneath 
the old French bridge that crossed it at its mouUi, near 
the end of the Tillage street, and pulled out into the 
broader and deeper current of the Bayou Lafourche, on 
which the village stands. There was a soft haze settled 
over the town, above which the spires caught the moon- 
beams like minarets of silver. 

When oar whole fleet had got out into the broader 
waters of Lafourche, there was a council of war held by 
the gentlemen of the several boats, and it resulted in my 
husband being chosen Admiral of the Fleet; and our 
boat was therefore made the flag-ship, out of compliment 
to me, a grace at their hands, which I here publicly ac- 
knowledge. We, therefore took the lead, and the other 
four boats followed joyously astern ; for besides the two 
yachts which joined us en vcyage^ we had two ^ trans- 
ports,*' boats containing our tents, nets, fishing-poles, 
guns, provisions, and dogs, and every possible extra, 
that a campaign of ten days might require. 


As the town, with its sparkling window-lights uid 
with here and there the distant mnsie of a skiUMlr 
thrummed guitar, receded, we drew near the Cathcdnl 
church, about half-a-mile below the village. Its beDvu 
heavily tolling across the water, and we saw a proeessioo 
coming forth with torchlights ; and winding its way be- 
neath the trees towards the cemetery. The soksa 
chanting of the service of the dead reached our ears whn 
we had gone far down the bayou, and, what with the 
hour and associations, it all deeply impressed ns. We 
learned, on our return, that it was the funeral of a yoimg 
nun who had died the week previous, at the Convent dt 
Sacrd Cocur, and her body having arrived late at her 
former home, had been the same night conveyed beneatk 
the pure moonbeams to its last resting place by the 
church in which she had, as an infant, received holy bap- 

There is something, to my imagination, extrenely at- 
tractive in the sesthetics of the Roman Catholic religioD; 
but not to my reason nor to my heart. I could neffr 
bend my knee to the " Virgin Mother,*' nor use wordf 
of prayer to the '^ holy saints*' asking their intcroessioD, 
while there stands in my Protestant Bible these words : 
^' There is one intercessor between God and man — the 
man Christ Jesus.** Theirs is a romantic, imaginative, 
and touchingly superstitions faith, and is only received 
fully by an imaginative people. 

Americans can never be Romanised. They are too 
practical — too u/iimaginative, too little disposed to d^ 
votion at all, to connnit themselves voluntarily to a bith 
that is ever genuflecting, ever going through the ex* 
ternals of worship. A |>eopIe who find it hard to ae- 

Itnowledge and pray to one God will hardly pray to a 

So the Pope and his council have decreed that the 
mother of Jesus was a Divine Person, and therefore deny 
that she is a woman ! What a monstrous doctrine ! and 
it 18 decreed, too, by the papal ^^bull," that it is heresy 
to deny it. Do you not remember a verse in the First 
Bpistle of John, chapter fourth, second and third verses; 
ako the Second Epistle of John, seventh verse, whidi 
a^s, ^^For many deceivers are entered into the world, 
who confess net that Jesus Christ is come in the fie$h* 
This is a deceiver and Antichrist?" Now, if Jesus' 
mother was a dmne and sinless being, she was net m 
^^woman." But the prophecy was that Christ should be 
the seed of the woman — ^bom of a woman. If Mary was 
not a woman, (but a soi^t of divine goddess as the Papal 
decree makes her,) then Jesus was not bom of woman; 
and hence he is not the Christ; as he was not that ^^num 
Christ Jesus*' foretold; for he could only be nutn by 
being bom of a woman. The establishing, therefore, the 
dhrnity of Mary, destroys the manhood of Jesus, and 
ignores his having ''come in the flesh." But this is a 
question for theologians, yet it is one that every Chria- 
tian may freely discuss. 

Our voyage down the bayou under the splendor of the 
gorgeous southern moon was delightful. Every half 
mile we glided past a villa either on one hand or 
the other. At one place we were serenaded, in passing, 
by a party in a garden, who sang superbly and with fine 
effect: — 

'' The bonny boot with yielding sway 
Bocks lightly on the tide,'' Ac. 

466 THK srxxY south; or. 

The gentlemen and ladies of our party rospon-H ly 
8in<»in<^ in full chorus the (^aiiadian hnut s'^nc : — 

*• R<iw, hr(»tluTs, row, the >tri'aiii niii> la^t. 
The rapids are noar, the daylii:ht's i»ast." 

About nine o'clock we came in sijxht of ihe plaRtav. r. 

of M. yi , my husbaniVrt relative. We saw W^r-^ 

movin«r upon the landing-place, for we ha<l >i^nar.t-i u: 
near approach by a gun lired by Louis ilo F . 

Here we were welcomed with great i-nihu>ia>:R. a:, i 
when Monsieur M. saw our large force and t\»ruii i;*'' ".- 
armament (for we had not less than seventeen giiii?-! 
all sorts and sizes), he playfully made grave tdijeoti' n? :. 
our landing, asseverating that we hatl, no doub:, t n- 
to invade and, ])eradventure, couijuer his thimaiL; '? -: 
being assure<l that we were IhiuimI t»nly against p:*c..: - 
rial foes, he sufleretl us to debark, at tlie same tim»- 1..:.:- 
ing that we were evi«lently on a secret Cuban expoii::- :.; 
and y«)ur ailiuiral (my husbanil) will be emper«»r. a:, i 
** your fair hnlv Kate." he aiMed, as he a-^sisteti iii?* : 
the pier, ''will be eiupress. I much fear I shall r*. 
calh'd to account bv mv governor for aidinir and abelliLj 
a foreiirn inva.sion if I barbor vou to-ni;:lit," 

V\'e pa<S(Ml tlie night at this j»rineely home of on-? ■!' 
the Ix'st bearteil southern ixentlenien it was ever mv !• t 
to iiie«*t ; and resi>tiiig his j>res>ing appeals to us to re- 
main auotlH-r day and night, \\c took our tifparrurc 
taking Mon-i«-nr M. with us; "for," he haid, "if !.v 
Could not dttain >ueh good cum|Kiny, the good cumpaLV 
should retain biin." 

We arriv«'d, at nine o'ehjck at tlio estate of aNtw 
Orleans gentleman, who was a non-resident. In l> 

nft wotMiuaat at boxe. 4ffr 

%eantiffil garden, which the waters of La Fonrche haye, 
we spread our morning meal, and never a pic-nic gather^ 
ing had so mirthful a repast. After breakfast we re- 
embarked, and, under the cheering command to the 
rowers, " Giro way heartily, boys I" we moved rapidly 
down the bayou, the wide savannahs of the level sugar 
fields stretching away on either hand to the horizon; the 
vniformity of the immense surface of waving cane, re- 
lieved here and there by dumps, or by single live oaks, 
hj groves concealing residences, and by the tall ^^ Be* 
gasse chimneys," of the sugar houses^ which made these 
Imge brick buildings look like convents. 

About eleven o'clock a pleasant wind arose. I oould 
see its effects, as I stood upon the deck of the yacht, a 
mile before we felt it, in the sea-like motion iHiich it 
communicated to the tall tops of the sugar cane, idiich 
heaved and swelled beneath its invittble power like a 
green, billowy sea. 

To a northern eye, the best idea of a field of sugar- 
cane here, will be conveyed by imagining a perfectly 
level country, leagues in extent, without a fence, covered 
with com, just as it is ready ^^to tassel," and if he 
imagines through this vast domain of level savan- 
nah a river, half the breadth of the Schuylkill, flowing 
almost level with the land, with here and there a group 
of trees dispersed over the green extent, and every mile 
or two a villa and a tall, tower-like chimney and sugar- 
house rising near it, a good idea of the country, throuj^ 
which the ^^ La Fourche" winds will be obtained. 

When the breeze came to us we hoisted sail, and o«r 
black oarsmen rested. Under the wing-like eanvae our 
little fleet flew cheerily onward; and as we drew neater 


the Gulf the country became less picturesque, the >iiji: 
fields less numerous, and the abodes of planters uriLtr 
and farther apart. At length "we came, about two ;:. '.it 
afternoon, to the last tree that stands on the coa^t ':-;• 
tween it and the Gulf, twelve miles distant. Tlils irtr 
was a venerable live oak, and seemed to have stood iL-rrr. 
the monarch of the savannah, for centuries. Its 1/.;:- 
arms were broad enou;;h to shelter five hundred n. :.. 
Its situation was " sublimelv lonelv and solitarilvcraLl. 
as one of the young gentlemen of our party, vho wr/.-^ 
poetry, said. 

As we came near the oak, we startled two detr fr r: 
beneath it, which, after surveying us for an instant. :■ • * 
to fli^rlit, and wore lost to the eve in a niomt'nt in :":.i 
high gulf grass that grow close up to the tree, wL;:l 
stood on a little island of its own, for arountl it was tlv 
saline marsli that now took the place of the cultivaiii 
suirar fiolds. wliich we had left behind. 

It was decided bv the "Admiral" that we should nsr-.-r 
our fleet boneath the tree ami here dine. 

You should have seen the bustle of preparation. Mr. 

. Our pjirty consisted, all together, of doscendaii:^ 

of Jnpliot, fourtoon, and of descendants of Ham. nino, ::i 
all twtiity-throo porsons; for to such a size had wo in- 
creased by vuluiiteors from tin* estate.'* we took in our 
way. Wo wore all frionds, and knew one another wi!!. 
so that, I vorilv boliovo, evorvbody called evervlK--:v 
(niarriod or not) by their first name. Dignifieil marrini 
ladv as 1 am, thov evorv soul called me '*Kate," as if I 
ha<l lioc'u evoryboily's sister, or at least •*coiLsin." 

While we wore dining at tables beneath the tree, wiib 
servants in waiting, and every thing as nice and rechercht 


nfli^ MumftM MA jx HcntB. 409 

M if we were in a dining-room, Petit Pierre, who was 
drawing a cork from a bottle of Chateau Margaux, and- 
denly uttered a formidable screech, dropped the bottle, 
ttd fled yelling for the tree ! We ladies, of course, were 
all alarmed, and the brave gentlemen sprung to their 
ibet ; when Uncle Ned, from the boat, called out, 

^^Big alligator, master!" 

True enough, not fifty feet distant, a monstrous alli- 
gator was seen swimming across the bayou, just above 
as, to our side of it. Guns were in requisition ! Dogs 
were alert — and for a minute or more all was intense 
excitement. Bang, bang, crack, bung, ping! went off 
all sorts of fire-arms ; but the king of the marshes did not 
wait to contend matters, for he no sooner discovered into 
what a snare he had inadvertently put his royalty, than 
he made a queer noise like an elephant when teased, 
and dived down out of sight. Close watch, with guns at 
aim, was kept for his reappearance, but we saw him no 
more. Petit returned from the tree to terra firma and 
finished drawing the cork, and we resumed our meal, 
which was interpolated by alligator stories, told by the 

After we had well dined, about four o'clock, we re-em« 
barked. The wind was fair and free, and our five boats, aU 
under snowy canvas, went careering onward towards the 

In about half-an-hour one of the young gentlemen in 
another yacht, who had climbed the mast, called out, 

"Gulf, ho!" 

At this sound we were all upon our feet, for some of xm 
had been taking siestas in our berths; but on going out 
all I could see was the tall sea-grass spreading for miles 


around as; and even the old oak being no longer Tisible; 
nothing but an ocean of brownish green grmM eipht 
feet high, that tossed in the wind like a waye-moTiD^ 
sea. But in a little while a bend in the bayou opened 
the Gulf full before us, and with clapping hands and ex- 
clamations of delight at its broad blue expanse and greea 
islands, we hailed the welcome sight. 

But another letter must take up my narratiTe. Till 
then, farewell. 

Truly your friand. 



Mt Dkab Ma. : 

Thb kind compliments which the newspapen and some 
of yoor correspondents have paid my poor ^^ Needles/' 
not only encourage me and inspire me to try and deserre 
their commendations, but make me grateful* Nothing 
makes me so happy as to make happiness for others; and 
if the perusal of one of my letters has beguiled a half 
hour of any one, I am well repaid. The greatest reward 
of a writer is the happiness to which his pen has con- 

To be sure, he must be paid in money to buy ink, and 
pens, and paper, but those are to enable him to write; 
and money, also, is a very nice thing when one wants a 
new pair of shoes, or a shawl in cold weather, or bread 
and butter, and tea. True, authors are not so much 
paid for what they write, as that they receiye 7nea$i9 to 
enable them to write ! The writing is given, but the 
bodily strength, the ink and paper, the table to write on, 
the floor on which the table stands, the roof oyer head, 
the window or lamp for light, the fire to keep him warm, 
his breakfasts, dinners, suppers, — ^the editor and pub- 
lisher gives him money only to pay for these ; supplies 
the fuel '' to keep up the steam," to use a plain AmerioaQ 

But I will not stray away from the propttf subjOQt of 


this letter, which is a continuation of the journal of ^nr 
romantic expedition to the Gulf ami its green islan-i*. 
^ My last closed just as our fleet of pleasure yachts 
came in sight of the hroad horizon of the Mexican Gwlf. 
on the afternoon of the second day after leaving; Lake 
lUiwalla in the interior, our course by the bayouis baviLg 
been nearly one hundred miles altot^ether. 

The sight of the gulf was hailed by us with !?hou:*. 
We had to go yet six miles before debouching into i: 
from the bayou, which glided like a tortuously movins 
and shining serpent between the borders of tall reddi?h 
grass. This grass was the size of a quill and seven fe^i 
tall, and grew not of visible soil, but out of mud under 
the water. 

As far as the eye could extend there waa one vt*! 
plain of grass, level as the sea: but there was not anv- 
where visible a foot of laml, not a place where NoaL i 
dove could rest its poor little weary feet. 

The sable oarsmen now pulled cheerily to their oars, 
as we intended to gain an island a league off the c«>i5t, 
which was visible like a pale green streak of cloud, 
asleep on the ht>rizon. Near this i>land, a.*5 we ap- 
proaclu'd the nmiith of tlie bayou, we disc*»vtTed at 
anclior a small sloop, wliieh tlie gt-ntlemen said was 
waiting for a wind Xn run up the bayou we were in, :■> 
loa«l >\itli sugar from tlip plantations, and take it duim 
«n<l ronml tn New Orleans, fur many of the plantfR 
send thrir staple to niarkf't in this way rather than up 
the baviMi, past TliilxMlfaux, and so across into the Mis- 
sissippi and to New Orleans. This present mode had 
the a«lvanta;:e bnih of eennoniv ami seeuritv. 

When within a mile of the m'Uith, a breeze caught uur 


Kttle flags, and we hoisted sail and gaye our rowers rest, 
though thej showed no fatigue. Indeed, the endurance 
of the African slaves is marvelous. They will row hour 
after hour, and at the last are as brisk and livdy, and 
sing their songs as cheerily as in the outset* There 
■eems no tire to a negro; no end to his good humor -- 
when he is on a party of this kind, for they enjoy it 
^te ks much as ^^ massa and missus." Such delightful, 
willing, apprehending, anticipating-your-want servants, 
never were as this race of bondsmen. They seem in 
servitude to be where they wish to be, for they are by 
nature dependent, and they love to look up to some one 
who '^ takes the responsibility;" and for this responsi- 
bility they are ready to give in return their labor and 
life-service. Certainly /rg€ negroes are the worst possi- 
ble servants, and for want of healthy authority, and some 
stronger head to think and do for them, they become 
very degraded. I have just seen a book called "A 
South side View of slavery," by Rev. Dr. Adams, of 
Boston, which every man and woman north ought to 
read. It is the only reply that has been made to " Uncle *-■ 
Tom's Cabin," lately published without intending to be 
a reply to it. ^If our northern friends would read this 
book, they would leave slavery to the south and to the 
Providence of God for the final adjustment, of all vexed 
questions it has given rise to. The south feels the re- 
sponsibility as profoundly as the north. The Christians, 
and wise, and thinking men in the south have this sub- 
ject at heart, and will be the instruments (not the north- 
ern abolitionists) chosen of Grod for the amelioration and 
final emancipation of the race, if God ordain that they 
shall ever be free. But every step made by the north to 

474 THK suNXY south; or, 

coerce, is nnturally met ])y southerners (who are cjuItv as 
liiiminie as rrcntlemen, Jin*! gentle as laflioi^. as iht- ii"ri.- 
crncrs,) with harriers and defences, and more furui.iu ■ 
entrenchments thrown up ahout their in.stitutiun^. Tin—., 

Mr. , are the views of a northern woman, who L^> 

dwelt h)ng enough in the south to see thintrs as thi'V arv. 
Ahide God's time ! AVait for the Moses of the Li^ri ti- i 
of Hosts! All the eflbrts of supposalde philanthropic::* 
in Egypt could not have hastened one day sooner the 
deliverance from hon«la^e of Israel: nav. the firM mi^t- 
meiit towards it of Most'S liiuiself, only causecl Pharaoh 
to heaj) ailditional burdens upon them, fc^uch ha-* ':».•. n 
the result of the mere hummi movement of the nortinrTi 
fanatics; thev Iiave taken awav the straw fn»m ihi* ..i- 
borers, and made firmer their bonils. In Gi.Hr> ilnif H > 
Moses will be found borne uj)on the waters* t»f tinif. an i 
(Jod, and not man. if the slave is to be fn-e, will \i.x\ 
Africa, as once he diil Israel, out of the Ilou-c •: 

II<»w shall I clescribe the beautiful spectacle our lltriv 
l]<*et ])n'scnte<j, with sails all a-sprrad, as wc «larted Lki* 
a llork of ;:ulls out from the Imurh*' of the narrow bav.u 
int«» the open expanse (»f the gulf! The sun was al- :: 
half an hour high, and c«»vering the waves with gold a:.-! 
orange, ^Nliih- the ln-aveiis in llie west, where he wa> j--- 
ing <lo\Mi. \v<Mo goigi'iiii^i wiih green, purple, and crini*«:i, 
beyond pa:nlrr'> j»i'neil <»r poet's prn. No w.»nih'r \\x 
huliaii, in ills frr>h iniaginatiiin. believed the we>iirii 
iM'aveU'* tn be the gat<' to his celestial hunting grouh«i*.' 
A littk' ehild once ''azini: on >uch a j»kv of I'lorv. >'a'A 
to nie : — 

•'Aunt Kate, heaven i:> so full of light and pretty 


eolon, that irhen Grod opens its gate at sun down to let 
the son go in, they burst out, don't they?" 

I0 not that pretty, Mr. ? Children's sayings are 

ao firesh and original, often so wonderful, that if parents 
t^oold preserve eil their speeches in writing, a lorely book 
ooidd be made up of them, of the greatest interest. 
What mammas will recollect and send to you for a comer 
of your paper, all the pretty thoughts outspoken by 
their little ones ? A little girl of five years, whose at- 
tending ears had heard talking at home about High and 
Low Church, was taken to a church where the pulpit 
was unusually lofty. While they were singing she 
whispered to her ma, ^* That minister, ma, must be very 
high church, as high as the Communion of Saints!" 

But while I am chattering about little people, our 
yacht begins to 

" rock lightly on the tide," 

and curvets and rears like a cantering pony to the un- 
dulating waves, which ever and forever roll and unroll 
themselves in the deep sea. The motion is, however, by 
no means unpleasant; but we have to look after move- 
ables, and whoever tries to walk, goes toddling about not 
half so gracefully as my little Harry, whose natural gait 
being a roll, is quite at home as he moves about the 
cabin, his roll, meeting the yacht's roll, counteracts it, 
and he goes about straight as an Indian. The weather 
is always delightful at this season, and never was a 
lovelier evening than that, amid the roseate and golden 
beauties of which we sailed across the channel to the 
island, which lay like a huge emerald upon a sea of silver 
ronSe, to gallicise a word. 


When about a mile from the island, and ju?t a« t!i* 
pun descended into the deep, all the pentlemon to^rtl-r 
fired off a feu dr jnic. At this loud fusilade, ten thou-ianl 
ducks that were reposing upon the surface of the waur 
near the i.sland, rose like a black cloud into the skv. an-l 
flew round and round in a wild vortex, about a hundrei 
feet in the air: while herons, pelicans, and frul].«. tl.i: 
were in the covert of the island-shore, startled from ihtir 
propriety, scattered in all ways and in the utmost alan::. 
With the spy-glass, an alligator, a rare visitor in salt 
water, was seen to plunge into the water ; and laj^t, yri 
not least, the sloop which was moored about a mile fn-m 
us, close under the island, hurriedly slipped her caM»\ 
hoisted her mainsail and jib, and fairlv ran awav fMra 
us, no doubt believing our merry and peaceful pic-nic 
party, a piratical expedition; or at least of such •■ques- 
tionable shape," as not to be waited fori Thereup« a 
the bearded ones of our company set up a wild and l-'»ii'i 
huzza, and cheered the flying sloop with the greatest 
good humor imaginable. 

'* Doubtless," said my <|uiet husband, "that skipper. 
when h(» n-aches New Orleans, ^lill report having >efn 
and bctMi fired into, and hotly pursued by a flotilla "f 
seven arine(l Imkiis, full of men, off the mouth (»f Bavca 
La lM)urcheI and that be and his crew only escaped, ly 
slipping bis cable and jiutting to sea." The result 
showed that my busliaml was in the right. 

The wind left our canvass as we drew near the island* 
which the S|>aniar<ls call *'lsla <le Hoca," but the old 
Frenelinien, '*1>I<' des Oiseaux," or Isle of Birds. It is 
abf»ut a lfa<;ue in length and half a mile wiile, with 
clumps of live oaks >prinkled over its i<urface, which is 


dry and elevated, but without any variation of its 
perfect level. The rowers pulled into a little cove, 
where we moored our fleet; and by the light of the rising 
moon the gentlemen landed in the small boats, and 
began to look out a place for the servants to set np ihe 

On board the admiral's vessel — that is in my ship— - 
the ladies all assembled to take tea by invitation while 
the gentlemen superintended and assisted in landing the 
paraphernalia. We had a pleasant time and a langl^ 
ringing one, at our supper, which was gracefully handed 
round by Petit. In less than an hour the great tent or 
'^markee" was erected, and lifted its white pyramidal 
walls in the soft moonlight like a palace of pearl. lii 
the centre was suspended a swinging lamp, that brightly 
lighted the interior. Camp-stools, a table, lounges, and 
all the furniture necessary to make it a handsome draw- 
ing-room, were placed within. There were five other 
tents smaller than this, two of which were exclusively 
for the ladies' abodes ; though one or two of them, from 
fear of horrid alligators, imaginary lions, tigers, wolves, 
and bears, to say nothing of dreadful elephants, de- 
termined to keep their quarters in the cabins of the 

Hammocks and iron-framed bedsteads were provided 
for those who chose to sleep in the tents. The spot 
where our little snow-white city was thus magically built 
was very picturesque. A crescent shaped cove of spark- 
ling sand was in front, where the yachts lay moored, 
bows outward, in a half-circle, like a fleet protecting a 
harbor ; overhead spread the interlaced branches of three 
great oaks, and near was a well of pure water, which the 


buccaneers who had once resorted to this island, bad dug; 
for this island is not far from Barrataria Bav and Lie, 
where ^'Lafitte'* had his rendezvous before the last war 
with England; and in the sweet place where we pitcktd 
our camp, Theodore and Constanza had doubtless walked 
and sighed and loved beneath the same golden moon iLii 
shone on us. 

"Suppose/' said one of our romantic young Udie* 
"that there should be buccaneers here now, and that thfj 
should suddenly appear in one of their terrible long, low. 
black schooners opposite our cove, and come in and fi^ht 
with our defenders, conquer them, and carry us all off to 
some remote isle, where in some splendid cavem they 
live like kin*rs and lords!*' 

The pretty Marid ejjiculated, "Not for the world!'* 
The noble Mathilde smiled and said, " How romantic it 
ivould hcV* Grace Lyndall, one of our belles, clapped 
her beautiful ha nils and exclaimed, 

" Of all things how I should like it I" 

" Don't speak of such things, I beg of you," said the 
young and charming Madame Dumont, who with her 
husband had joined us, the evening before, from their 

" The tents are all pitched and ready for occupatioD, 
fair dames all," said Monsieur M. from the shore, "but 
what are you talking about? — the pirates?" 

"Yes, colonel, and we were wishing that a nice, long, 
low, black, saucy-looking schooner, would pav us i 
sudden visit, and carry us all off," tuiid Grace; and this 
girl had the richest voice, that I ever heard from 
woman's lips ; every sound that music knowa were min- 


gled with a surfeit of sweetness in the golden alembic 
of its tones. 

We were soon all on shore, and were perfectly charmed, 
with the preparations which the taste and attention of. 
the gentlemen had made for us. The green sward^ the 
bright moon, a violin which Scipio (one of our boatmen) 
was tuning, and the joyousness of ike occasion tempted 
us to dance; and for an hour we outdid Queen Mab and 
her fairy ball. Suddenly, while we were in the midst 
of our gaiety, a long, low, black, ominous-looking yessel 
poked her sharp nose around the point, and as her tall 
sails became visible in the broad moonbeams, Graoe. 
Ijyndall, who first espied it, as she was splendidly schot- 
tisching with her cousin Louis, uttered the loudest and 
most terrified shi'iek, that I ever heard or ever hope to 
hear ! 

It transfixed us all like statues, and Scipio's music 
froze stiff* on the strings of his fiddle bow. Grace endect 
her scream in total imconsciousness, for she became 
instantly insensible on Louis' arm. The rest of the 
ladies, beholding the same dreadful vision, took up the 
key-note, and screamed ^^most musically," each clinging 
to one of the gentlemen. 

Mari^ gasped to my husband, "Save— oh — save ma!'* 
As for myself, I was petrified with bewildering asto- 
nishment. That it could be a buccaneer, I could noli 
for a moment believe; but reflecting where we were, 
and what the island had been, I began to wish littl^ 
Harry and myself and husband and all of us safe at home 

The younger gentlemen ran for their arms; b^t bcH 
fore any defensive steps could be taken, the whole 


hull of the schooner came in open Tiew, not three 
hundred yards distant, and from her deck cvne a 
hoarse hail, that nearly killed out what little courage I 
had left. 

''Ahoy! what boats are those?*' 

And with the words we could see a lighted fusee in 
the hand of a man who was standing by a cannon thit 
was pointing towards poor us. 

"Pirates without question !** said my husband gravely ; 
" and we must make the best battle we can !*' 

" Oh, no— no 1** cried the ladies; "it cannot be so bid 
as that !" 

" Ahoy, ashore ! Give an account of yourselres, or 
we fire into you !*' was again thundered from her deck. 

"A pleasure party,'* answered the colonel; "nothing 
more I Are you the surveying Revenue Cutter?" 

" Yes," answered the officer on deck, laughing so thai 
we could hear him; "beg pardon for disturbing you. 
But we were informed by the skipper of a sloop, an hour 
ago, that hailed us on the south side of the island, thit 
he had been chased by a fleet of armed boats. Tbe 
ladies will please accept my apologies and regrets for 
alarming them." 

We were now all mortification and laughter. The 
captain of the cutter was hailed, and invited to land, 
which he did in a four-oared boat. He was a fine- 
looking young officer, and enjoyed our fright vasilr, 
when the gentlemen — to two of whom he was knoim 
— informed him of our table chat about "Lafitte." 
We invited him to dine with us next day, as he grace- 
fully took his leave of us, and in a little while w« 


saw the yetsel which had caused us such a terrible fright 

gHding slowlj and beautifully away until she was lost in 

the distant haze of mist and moonbeams. 

Yours truly, 


488 THS 8UVHT bouth; OBy 


DsAB Mr. : 

It seems to me very strange that people will not 
take folks as thej are, and not amnae themaelTca witk 
guessing that somebody is somebody elae. Now I hetr 
and see from certain editorial notices of my poor 
Needles, that Izmnat Kate Conyngham at all, but thit 
this is a nom de plume^ a mere masque to conceal mj 
true features. Another saucy fellow of an editor ii- 
sorts that I am not a Mm at all, but that I am a IGtUr 
W.y or Mister D., or some other geitidtman. Dear me! 
What can there be so masculine in my poor Naedka as 
to give rise to such a hint ? Eren those sage persoos 
who belieye me to be a lady declare that I am Miu 
Pardoe, the authoress ; some, that I am the fiair daughter 

of the Rev. Mr. of Mobile ; and some, that I tm 

a younger sister of ; and somebody says, I dare 

say, that I am nobody at all. 

Now, Mr. , I protest against all this skepticiiiB. 

Have I not been for five years, or more, yonr correft* 
pendent ? Can you not bear testimony to my persoa- 
ality and alleged identity ? Have you not seen my let- 
ters, and have you not, at this moment, my dagoerrco- 
type ? I call upon you to bear witness to my hariag 
been Miss Katharine Conyngham, and no other lady elM^ 
and that, though I am now a married dame, I am entilkd 


to that former name, if I choose to retain it as an aa« 
thoress. Because the talented Fanny Fern, Grace Green- 
wood, and other brilliant autorial ladies, have noms 
de plome, is no reason that every one should have ! 

Please say to these naughty editors that I am myself, 
and nobody else, and that I am not a mere shadow, au 
^^ umbra umbrarum^*' — if that is bad Latin recollect it 
is lady's Latin ; and that ladies can decline Bonus better 
than a certain western member of congress, who once 
gsTe, as the relic of schooldom, the following toast :-— 

^ The ladies — Bonu9y bonioTy bimimmuB! good, better, 
best ! The Lord bless 'em !" 

But to our pic-nic campaign ! I ended my last letter 
with an account of our visit from an imaginary buccaneer. 
That night we slept as safely in our tents as we diould 
have done at home ; and as the gentlemen took turns, 
two at the time, in standing guard to see that we were 
not intruded upon by mischievous animals from land or 
water, we felt perfectly secure. I recollect falling asleep, 
soothed by the sweet melody of a guitar and a fine manly 
voice. It was the cavalier, Louis, serenading outside her 
tent the fair Mathilde within. 

In the morning we were up bright and early, and, 
finding breakfast all prepared by the willing servants, 
we were soon ready for the day's adventures. The 
order for the day was, that the ladies who chose to do so 
should accompany the hunters in the largest yaoht, as 
the former rowed around the island, in search of game ; 
and that they should fish, crochet, read, and amuse 
themselves as they pleased, while the gentlemen landed 
and pursued their sport. 

We had a delightful row around the point, to the south 

484 THi suKVT south; OB, 

of the island, where we agun saw the cottar which we 
had taken for a buccaneer. It was a heaatifnl object, iD 
grace and symmetry, her white wings spread, and kr 
taper masts diminishing to mere waada. 

With all her lightness and grace, her black hnD nd 
warlike guns gave her a battle air that made me think 
of sea fights, and all the horrors of naval warfare. 

Far away to the west we saw two other veaaela, one of 
which was the runaway sloop; hot she was now trying 
to regain the mouth of the Lafoorche, no doubt aatifficd 
that, as the revenue cutter did not moleet na, we wen 
harmless people, with all our fusilading and hiusaing. 

But I win not take up your time, Mr. , in making 

you read a complete journal of our ten days* stay in ths 
islands of the Gulf, for we did not confine oiuaelTes to 
the Isle of Birds, but on the fifth day, during which vo 
had charming weather, the gentlemen got up an ezpc£- 
tion to Barrataria Bay, a few leagues eastward. They 
had got weary of killing ! Birds of all wings, alligatocii 
deer, and fish of all fins, had rewarded them and ear 
praiseworthy efforts ; and a change, for the sake of 
variety, was gladly welcomed. We, therefore, left a 
guard of two servants with our tents, and, having pro- 
visioned our boats for three days, we all embarked in the 
sunny, bright morning on our coasting expedition. At 
this season of the year the weather is all nnbrokcnlj 
fair, and rain was no more to be feared than an earth- 

It was a delightful voyage along the enrving Gulf 
shore, from which we did not venture more than four or 
five miles. Now and then we could see a diatant sail 
that lay low on the horizon, and looking no bigger than 


ft lady's finger^naiL About noon I discoTered, with my 
'^sliarp'' eyes, a brown smoke, seemingly rising from 
Ihe sea. I pointed it oat to Marie, and she ezdaimed: 

^' A volcano at sea !" 

Whereupon ererybody looked from all the boats. 

^' It is a steamer, bound from New Orleans to Chd- 
yeston," said my husband, the admiral of our fleet, 

^^ But we see no vessel, only smoke," remarked Ghraoe, 
^Ting to steady a spy glass, which Louis was holding 
with both hands to her eye. 

^^ The boat itself is under the line of the horison," said 
Colonel M. 

*^ The periphery of the earth conceab it beneath the 
curved line of the arc of the convex horizon," said one 
of the young men who had lately left college, and was 
entitled to talk learnedly. 

The sight of a column of smoke, actually rising from 
beneath the level sea line of the horizon, was a novel 
sight. With the spy-glass we could see the smoke rolling 
and rolling skyward, as if not more than a mile apparent 
distance, yet no sign of chimney or masts discernible ! 
There it ascended from its invisible smoke-pipe, for all 
the world like a volcano belching itself up out of the 
Gulf. We followed it with our eyes until it graduaUy 
receded westward, and disappeared in an hour fiur below 
the horizon's arc. 

It is a very strange sight to see smoke traveling along 
the sea in that style, without any apparent cause ap» 
pended. What a visible proof of the earth'ii spherici^ 
it is ! I recollect when we passed Portsmouth, ia 
England, the masts only of the British fleet were visible^ 
looking like a forest in the water, the hulls being bdoiT 


the curro. The truth is, that there can bono ladi tUng 
as a perfectly straight line on this globnloos earth! Stcb 
the yardstick is but a curved wand, to be sure the an 
it makes is not perceptible; and the floors of our houses 
if extended far enough, would form an are of the evA*! 
circle of more or less degrees. The term levd is % 
misnomer — ^it does not exist. There is nothing kfd or 
plain — sphericity possesses all things terrestrial. 

One wouldn't suppose that such a big world as om 
would betray its roundness, in so short a distanee as by 
between us and the steamer. I hare no donbii with 
proper data to start with, that the height of a steamer's 
chimney being known, and also her exact distanee from 
the eye, a calculation could be made which woald resck 
a figure that would show the earth's circmn fe renee is 

Last summer, while at the beautiful watering plaee si 
Pass Christian, I made a curious and pcriiqis new 
calculation of ascertaining the distance of an olgcct 
There is a light-ship moored nine miles off the town. I 
found that by placing a small needle at ann's IsngA 
horizontally until the needle and ship a p pemnd to be ex- 
actly the same length, which is when the needle eorsit 
the ship's length completely, that I could Terify the db- 
tance to be nine miles. I did it in this way: Iflnt flxed 
the needle horizontally by striking it in a postletd with 
xny eye. I then stepped back until the needle and ship 
were blended in one another exactly. I then measured 
the distance between my eye and the needle in inrhrs 
As I knew the length of the needle and of dM ehim with 
these three known terms, I obtained aeenralriy^ tht 
fourth unknown one. Perhaps the prooesa is knovn Is 


inatliemftticiaiiB; if so, I will not take oat a patent. I 
wish gome of your ^^ great cypherers" would verify thia 

Bat I am getting too learned, and moat go back to oar 
pio>mc. All that day we coasted along the level green 
flhores of the Gulf, with not a tree visible for two and 
three leagues inland, and then they looked like round Uoe 
clouds. No shores can be more tame ! 

At length, just as the lovely day was closing, we <Aune 
into the mouth of ^^ Lafitte's Bay," as it is termed, and 
on our right saw the island Barrataria, where die bocoa- 
neer had his rendezvous. Now it looked peaceful enough. 
A few fishermen and a fleet of oyster boats were anoh<Hred 
around it, plying their fishy trade ; and we could discover 
above a group of trees the roof of a mansion where resides, 
or did reside, a planter, who had a sugar plantation on the 
island. The gentleman's name I believe is Bennet, and 
he has fair daughters, whose presence throw a grace ov^ 
the scenes of ancient buccaneerdom, that disassociates 
the island of all its former renown, as the home of the 
pirates. We remained on board our boats all night; and 
such a star bright night never was ! The atmosphere a{h 
peared to be full of light. The splendor of the fixed stars, 
and the milder lustre of the planets were unsurpassed. 
The heavens seemed to come nearer to us. Every star 
above had a star beneath it on the sea; and when the 
moon arose about eleven o'clock, there was a pavement 
of silver across the water from our feel to her very 

The next day we wandered over the island, and pio- 
nic'd on the grassy glacis of the ruined fortress whidi 
Lafitte fortified to defend his island home against eruifleiv. 

488 THE si.NNV .surni; or, 

A larjro oak stood near, boneatli which ho had hi* vr:. 
which, says tradition, was more liixuriouslv fiim"--'l 
than an Oriental prince's. AVo were shown hyar. ■'.': 
French fisherman, who knew Lafitte, a pun that n. •• 
belonged to his vessel ; and as the old man, who c •'!! i 
not have been less than seventy, loved to talk "f tii*' 
famous smup:^ler, we let him relate liis stories t^ wi::«'h 
we listened — heing on the ground itself of the ^ceLl• — 

with lively interest. 


Louis reail ah>ud several jin^res from one of th*^ r- 
mances, and we sought to verify all the dt»scri|»tions : ^-it 
novelists cannot always make use uf jdarid and It v-l 
scenery, and they remove mountains and jdace t:-:!; 
where they want them ; and gardens, watrrfalls, va]*-* 
and groves, cliff's ancl rivuh'ts. all obey the wavin:: '.f 
their wand, and prrnto ! apprar when lliey ivimmari 1. 
But we found mainly the novel and the scone in gratify- 
ing harmony, one with the other ; and where there was 
a flifference, was evidently f)wing to the changes pr»'»- 
duceil by time and circumstances. ()ur visit was a m'»>l 
satisfactory one, an<l we re-embarked at eveninsr, de- 
lighted with our cxcursimi over the Pirate's I>le. 

On the evciiini; r)f the thinl day we readied our en- 


cain])m<'nt >vitli(»ut mishap. an«l found all safe. Tie 
next iiinriiiug we struck t»*nts, and, with our boats filKl 
with game and its trnpliics, we set >ail, with a fine land- 
i^artl ^\ind, for iIm* mmith of T.a I*\>urche. As vou al- 

ready know ihe senirrv of that bavou, Mr. , I will 

• • • 

n<»t drsrrihc inir \ov:ii:t' ln^nie, whieh we reached I'n tii»» 


tliird dav, all wi-ll, and niarvehiuslv sun-bn»wned ; liH>k- 
in^r like S(» manv iri|'*ie>. As for mv llarrv, the little 
fellow's cheeks are as brown as a chiufjuapin; but he hafl 


;aiiied fuD four ponnds, and is more sancj and handsome 
ban ever. 

I was charmed to be once more at home. Not all the 
^eaatiful cabins and pretty yachts, and fishing and 
lamping out under markees, can compensate for one's 
»wn home. Home is home, and nothing else could be 
Lome ! I would rather live in a cabin of logs, and feel 
bat it was my home ; that there was a peg for my hus- 
band's hat ; a place for his chair in one comer, and my 
rork-stand in the other ; on my right band my little tea 
mp-board, and on the other the stand with the large 
Kble, the cat on the rug, and old Buck, the house-dog, 
chained in his kennel ; my milch-cow and her calf in the 
leat yard, and nobody to molest or rule over us, as one 
inds it even in the best of boarding-houses. 

There is a wretched and unhappy custom in vogue, for 
roung married couples to go to a hotel or boarding- 
louse ! When should husband and wife love to be by 
hemselves in their atan home, if not the first months 
ind year of marriage ? It is a miserable life, garish, 
lollow, artificial, love-killing, heart-withering life, this 
hoarding, for young couples ! Girls, better wait a-wee ! 
>etter delay than be married and put under the peculiar 
lystem of keen-eyed espionage and authority common to 
warding-houses. JBoarders have no souls of their own 
—that is, they dare not say so ! Keep house — if only 
n one room ! Tou will be happier, and your husband 
«rill love you better, and it will be far better for you 
)oth. A boarding-house life, for the fresh young hearts 
)f new married folks, is, with all deference and respect 
ibr all lady-like, and good, kind landladies, like a killing 


frost upon the young buds of spring. One never Utti 
that boards ! One only stays and endures ! 

But, good-bye, Mr. 

Your friend, 

Kate, and nobody else. 


My Dear Mb. : 

I AM, for a few days, sojooming in this lovely Bhore* 
side village of villas, Pass Christian. It is, as tlie nmp 
will, or ought to show you, on Lake Pontchartrain, where 
the soutl^ border of Mississippi is washed by the waves 
of the salt sea. The ^^ Pass," as it is familiarly called, 
is celebrated for its pure and salubrious air, the beauty 
of its site, the elegance of its private mansions^ the re- 
finement and wealth of its citizens, its excellent academy 
of education for young misses, and its military school ; 
moreover, it is the favorite summer resort of the mo^ 
opulent New Orleanois, many of whom have built taste- 
ful abodes along the shore facing the lake, where gar- 
dens and lawns, porticoes and verandahs, enchant the 

There is properly only one street comprising the town; 
but this street is four miles long, open one side to the 
breezes of gulf, and on the other bordered by baMsome 
villas, most of its length. 

A little brown Roman Catholic chapel lifts its croMi 
amid these mansions, its front adorned with two statuet, 
one of the Virgin, and another of St. Paul, in a niche 
high above the entrance. There is appended to tlM lat- 
ter, this inscription : — 


"DOCTORI oextiam;" 

So, to tlie Teacher of the Nations^ this chapel is 4t-V> 
cated, while ''Mary," like the goddess Diana, (fortw 
blessed Virgin is now made a goddess by the P«^{h*.i 
stands upon a pedestal above, to receive the homage an«l 
worship of her votaries. Jesus, being always repre- 
sented only as a little child, is quite cast into the s^haie 
by His mother. The Romans, in their adorations, never 
seem to contemplate Christ as a man, but only as the 
*' child Jesus" in the mother's arms, and hence transfer 
all their worship to the mother, whom, it ironld seem, 
they believe more capable of appreciating it than a babe. 
I think this, as I have before remarked, is the secret of 
their Mariolatry. 

Nevertheless, it is a pretty little chapel, and in keep- 
ing with the place ; but its worshipers are chiefly of the 
humble class of Creole fishermen, and descendants of 
the old French families ; for the Pass was once wholW 


French. Here the Marquis of Ponchartrain once so- 
journed, an<l buried his only daughter, who, report say?* 
died of love for an Indian Prince. Her grare is beneath 
three live oaks that stand on the verge of the beach, not 
far from the chapel ; but the head-stone haa long since 
disap]>oared. It was this nobleman who gave name to 
the lake. The residence of the Marquis, who was one 
of the most aimmplished courtiers of the French court, 
and sent by Louis to govern this Province, is now marked 
only by the site of the light house, which stamls in d 
Ifiirden : a lovely object, }>eering above the trees, and 
singularly contrasting with the usual desolate look of 
such ediflces, standing alone and treeless upon some 



orm-beaten lieadland. In the same garden with th& 
low-white tower, which, after sunset sends its brilliant 
ght far out upon the waters, guiding the mariner home^ 
I the Tillage post-office ; a snug little cottage nestling 
Oder its walls. The post-master is a ^^adj," and the 
anghter, if I mistake not, of the famous Captain Heam, 
rliOy in the last war, beat off a British vessel that was 
QBoJiig in to fire the town ; or he did some equally brave 
et, for which, goyemment at this day rewards the 
anghter by an office, as it did the father. A son of 
his sea-fighter commanded the superb steamer, Cuba, in 
rhich we came over from New Orleans ; and, though a 
urge, rough looking man, he has a great and generous 
leart, and is as true a gentleman as ever took off his hat 
a lady ; and looks as, if there were any more fighting 
o do for his country, he would not be found wanting. 
IHien I was quite a young girl, I used to think no man 
onld be a gentleman who did not dress in the ^'fashion," 
rear kid gloves, a nicely brushed hat, and polished boots, 
rith one ring at least, and a gold watch. But that was 
he folly and ignorance of girlhood, which thinks all lov- 
ers should be knights in helmet and buckler, and that no 
'oung knight was fit for a lady's love who had not killed 
tis rival and her otfier lover in a " wager of battle." 

Dear me ! I have had time to reverse my decision 
ince then ; and mtich dressed men I always suspect ! 1 
ave found in the world that the truest merit is without 
ffectation ; and that a right down gentleman thinks but 
ttle of fashion ; and so I have met with as noble and 
^ue gentlemen in rough linsey-woolsey garb, as in 
iroadcloth. In a word, I do not now form a precon- 
eived opinion of a man from his dress or appearance. 

4M THE BtJNirT south; OBy 

The most eminent men that one fiJls in iridi m to- 
yeling, are the plainest and simplest in dre« ud 

The Pass, as I have said, oonusts in one long street, 
that winds and bends with the graoeful cnrre of the hkf 
shore. About the centre of this is the 1»i*«lmg plue, 
where passengers embark and disembark for MeUeor 
New Orleans; these cities being about eqm-diataat (or 
seven hours' sail) on each side of the P^as. 

About half a mile from the pier, westward, u the 
Lake Institute, at the head of which is the Rector of the 
church here, Rev. Dr. Savage, the gentleman who «u 
pioneer in the Cape Palmas mission, and who remainfd 
nine years in Africa, which owes more to him than tosnj 
other man living, for her religious prosperity. The 
doctor is a scientific man, and is a member of sefenl 
foreign and cis- Atlantic Academies of Science ; and, is 
a naturalist, he stands in the front rank. I was ehanaed 
with a visit made yesterday to his school, which is a 
large southern-built mansion house, facing the lake, froai 
which it is separated by a spacious lawn, tastefvU j oraa- 
mentcd. The trees of a pine grove form a daric, rich 
background to the house and its dormitories and stndj 
hall. This school is the best in the South, and deserrcdlj 
has a high reputation. It numbers about sixty pnpik. 
which, I believe, is its full limit. It is patronised chieflj 
by Mobile and New Orleans ; and of the former city I 
saw at least a dozen fair girls, whose beanty gives one a 
favorable idea of female loveliness in that city, whidi we 
are soon to visit. 

So great i^ the hostility of the northern aboUtioBists 
against the South, that southern )mrents are beconuag 


more and more reluctant to send their sons and dangh* 
Un there to return with hostile opinions to create dis- 
cord and confusion at home. For self-protection they 
ore rallying around their own Colleges and Female In- 
tlitates ; and all that has been wanting was this union 
•f purpose, to raise schools of learning to the highest 
•eiiolastic rank. Northern teachers are r^arded with 
MBpicion, though ^nployed. Lately Professor Silliman 
has struck a death-blow to the sending southern young 
nen north, by asserting in a public lecture : ^^ We do 
not want your southern youth ! We can get along with- 
out them !" It will be a bold Southerner that sends his 
ton to a northern college after this. 

Even the school-books published in the North are to 
be expurgated, ere they will be introduced into Southern 
schools, for instance, in a geography now before me, 
printed in New York, occurs a sentence which says ^^that 
the negroes will yet one day rise against the Southern 
planters and destroy them;*' and fifty other such things 
are in Northern school books. The result will be, that 
unless Abolitionism cease its hostility, the South will 
separate itself from the North virtually, by having its 
own teachers, schools, clergy, mechanics, literature, and 
books of education. 

The church, of which the Rev. Dr. Savage is Rector, 
is near the Institute, in a grove of oaks and pines. It 
is a picturesque Gothic edifice, and the very bean ideal 
of a rural church. In the rear is the cemetery, with a 
handsome arch above the gate- way, and contains several 
tasteful tombs. A Sabbath holiness and quiet reigned 
over the spot when I visited it yesterday. I was shown 
there the grave of a wealthy young South Oarolinian, 

496 THE suinffT 80UXH; ob, 

who had heen a dissipated man and » aecp tic J«t k^ 

fore he died he desired ten acres to be purdnnd tf 

government in the wild forest beyond the town^ sad a 

grave to be dug in the centre, wherein he diraelBd Us 

friends to place his body; and after filling the grafSi Is 

smooth it level with the sonroonding earth, ai 

all signs of sepulture, let the grass and the 

up and conceal it from human searbh; and in order Ihsfc 

it might be forgotten, the land was nerer to be 

by his heritors, but to revert to the goveniB 

wild land. 

This Will — ^the expression of a soul dark and dsaokl^ 
without the hopes and promises of the Goapdt vUch 
make the grave a hallowed rest, aboTe wUoh Hofe em 
hovers on golden wings, waiting the reanrreetMNi ■en 
this Will was, of course, not carried out. Hia body was 
conveyed to this secluded cemetory, and here inlSRedp 
with all the respect that the living owe the dead. 

Upon leaving this solemn home of the dead of earthy 
our steps took us in the direction of » movnd near the 
village blacksmith's dingy shop. Already I knew the 
story of this green mound of earth ; bnft an old Mgn, 
'^ Uncle Tom," at the shop, gravely and politely^ with 
his hat in his hand, informed my husband, ^Dial it was 
de fort General Jackson fiAil the In^jnna firois." Gen- 
eral Jackson however never ^*fout" at the Paia. 

The mound is now much worn away; but treaa grew 
upon it showing its age. It is an interesting rdioof ths 
past. By the French it was called the '^Toimg Kaf'i 
Tomb/' The tradition is, that when the Indian dasf 
heard that Eugenie, the daughter of Marqoia FonlehBr- 
train, had wilted and died like a blighted floncr^ he 

refused to eat, broke his spear in two, buried bis arrows, 
and sat day and night upon ber grave singing bis deatb 
long. At lengtb be was found cold and dead one sun- 
ike, bis bead laid upon her grave. The warriors bore 
his body to the place where bis father was buried, and 
entombed him with bis arms, beneath a mound which 
tlieir affection raised to bis memory. Not far distant is 
another mound, not so high, where repose the bones of 
Tamala, bis father. The sound of the forge and the 
anvil alone break the stillness of the spot. 

As we turned away to resume our loitering about the 
Pass, a man walked slowly by, whom a lady, who was 
with us, pointed out as the son of a celebrated buooaneer 
wbo used to rendezvous here. 

Afterwards I saw this man, now a peaceable citiien, 
part fanner, part fisherman, who not only verified the 
assertion, but from him I learned that bis brother, wbo 
dwelt upon the coast, had in his possession a package cS 
papers and a chart of an island in the Gulf, which directed 
where exactly to find buried a great treasure. This 
treasure consisted of the spoils, be said, of Spanish sbips^ 
and had been buried on one of the Tortugas' ; but no man 
bad yet been to search for it. He has promised to get 
the papers, which he said are written in French, and a 

copy of the chart. Hear that, Mr. ! The next I 

shall hear of you, may be, that you are commanding a 
schooner in search of this hidden treasure ! 

There is no doubt about this man having ^^the papers," 

I am told by a gentleman here ; but as such researches 

have so often proved failures, no attention has been paid 

to the fact. You shall be duly informed, Mr.— — ^ whem 

I discover the bidden gold. 

498 TUE suNNT south; OB, 

This was once a famous haunt for buccaneers, and if^*'? 
cruisers broke up their '* dreadful trade," tlicy «rf?:t:»l 
down here in quiet occupations ; and among ilic I'lmV.e 
French citizens, are found their descendants — inoffi-iiiive 
people enough, who subsist by ii»hing and coastin^r. 

There is a Military Academy here under the conimaai 
of Ashbel Green, once a hiwyer in I'hiladelphia, anil .-"n 
to a former President of Princeton College. It i?. I 
understand, a very efficient school, with about tiftj 

There is an amusing peculiarity of water scenfrj 
here at the Pass. Every house on the shore has ::s 
private bath-house. The water being shoal, ihey ar^ 
erected at the etid of a wharf projecting sometimes a 
thousand feet out into the lake. Thus, when one hv*kj 
up or down the shore in front of the town, the eye is 
filled with the spectacle of one or two hundred narrow 
bridijes and bathing-houses, built on the water. At rvrn- 
ing ami other bathing-hours, these bri<lges " in the ?oa*'»:i * 
are lilled with ladies and children and servants, g«.»iriir m 
and from the baths; the former grotesquely arraye-l in 
loiii: waistless robes of calico or ffin«;ham, and their t^io*-* 
concealed bv horrid hoods or veils. At such h "ir*, 
irentleiiien are tabooeil the baths; but thev hare ib'-ir 
time too. Nothing is thtmght (tf, or spoken of in suniinr, 
but bathinir. *'llave vou bathed tiMlay?" takt-s tho 

a • 

])laee of *' lidW do you do?" in other places. Not to 
bathe daily is to be voted out of society. 

The scliool-girls go to the bath in merry parties at 
day-dawn, ami frights they look in their awkward, W«* 
bathing gear. I am told these misses swim like duck?, 
and have been out as far as a buoy in the chmnnei, a 


quarter of a mile beyond the bath house. But this is 
now forbidden, as a young Udy from Mobile, last summer, 
being too venturesome, and not yet as skillful a swimmer 
IS her companions, in following them out became wearied 
ind sank. Two of her companions, both a year younger 
than herself, but good swimmers, brarriy dove down and 
broQght her to the surface, and sustained her until they 
regained footing. 

It must be laborious swimming in those heavy saturated 
robes which the bathers wear. I never had c<nQrago to 
p> beyond the latticed fence of the bath house; and 
lluen I am afraid that some ugly fish, erdb, or ^^fidcQtr*' 
will bite my feet! Tet bathing is a luxury; andsomo 
of the citizens bathe before every meal, all stumaer 

We remain here a week longer, and then proceed to 
Mobile on our way north to pass the summer. 

Yours truly, 


500 _ THX smnnr sooth; ob. 


My Deab Mr. ; 

This lovely Soathem inebt>polis has been oar aigom 
for a week past, and has presented so many a t lrac th i 
both to me and my husband, that, were wo not desinwi 
of being in New York early in June, we ehonld yield Is 
the solicitation of many kind friends and ovr own wUieii 
and enjoy its refined hospitality for some days longer. 

The Mobileans are genoine Sonthemers by birth sad 
feeling ; that is, this city is not made np, like Now OrlesBi^ 
of strangers, but mainly of those who are ''to tbe msenr 
bom." It reminds me more of Charleston, Booth 
Carolina, m this respect; and gives^ like thai dc gs at 
city, a true representation of Southern manners. 

We left the delightful watering place. Pais ChristiaB, 
and by a reverse course towards New Orleans met and 
boarded another steamer, the Oregon, at the Lake wharf^ 
and 80 came hither, running across the lakes by nooa 
and star-light. We passed late at night Boond Island, 
celebrated as the rendezvous of the Filibusteroa tkrse 
years ago. It now lay huge and black upon the koriaoa, 
a league off, looking like Behemoth asleep. Aromd M 
gleamed three or four light-houses, penciling the wnlBr's 
rippling face with slender lines of golden threads. Onr 
us glittered the thousand worlds of glory, whick wo eaU 
stars. In the west, Orion had just sheaUied in As voio 


Ids bright, star-gemmed sword. The moon walked in 
brightness high above the horizon, and seemed to glory 
in her beauty and parity. 

My husband and I walked the deck till late, enjoying 
the sea-wind, for one never takes cold at sea. Such a fresh 
breeze on land would have chilled me to the heart. But 
bimnetless and shawlless, I continued on deck till mid- 
night. As we were about to go to our room, a dark 
abject, over which seemed to hover a cloud of snow, was 
visible ahead. As we came nearer,^! made out the shape 
of a schooner, her white sails shining in the moon, while 
her black hull was in shadow. 

^' Helm-a-port !" was the quick order from some one 
on deck. 

The steamer abruptly changed her straightforward 
course, and steered round the vessel, but so near as to 
create no little commotion on board of her. We passed 
so near that I could have tossed my fan upon her quarter 
deck, where stood a man with a pipe, uttering strange 
oaths, instead of blessings at his escape. In a few 
minutes, the little vessel was mingling with the ob- 
scurity of night in the distance, and soon disappeared 

At four o'clock in the morning I was aroused by per- 
sons talking on the ''guard,'' near our window; and on 
looking out found we were moving through a narrow 
pass, and close to us was a dwelling house, built on a 
small island of sand. The cocks were crowing, (among 
them^ horrid, hoarse, bellowing Shanghai,) dogs barking, 
men shouting, and the water dashing and splashing against 
the little island as we slowly shoved our way through. 
The chambermaid told me that this picturesque place, this 


<' Half-way House," in the Oalf, was nlkd ''Gnis 
Patch." I wondered at the appellation, since blade of 
grass on this sand-bank there was not one ! But the 
captain the next morning enlightened as, bj csIKdi; it 
*' Grant's Pass," so named from the proprietor. We hvl 
a pleasant langh, of course, at the tnmsmogrifieatioD ef 
the name in the mouth of our kind and Tery cItQ cham- 

Just at sunrise we came in sight of the shipping in 
the *' Lower bay" — for you must know that Mobile eity i» 
thirty-five miles up from the Gulf, on a narrow ^ IMa- 
warc-sort-of-a-bny" of its own. This bay being too 
shallow for largo cotton ships, they anebor below here m 
the ^' Roads," and their freight is brought down to then 
in tug steamers, or Bay boats. This fleet eonsisted of 
nearly a hundred ships and barks, and had a fine ap- 
pearance, extending for a mile or two in length. To aw! 
from its anchorage plied the smoking Bay steamers, sad 
among thorn sailed a graceful cutter, the vigilant waleher 
of the coast. We subsequently met the captain of the 
latter, Douglas Ottinger, in the city, where lus dianaia^ 
family reside. Ho is a remarkably **fine appearance 
of a man," and an accomplished gentleman and saikw. 
He is well known to the world by his hnmane inTention 
of the Life Car, commonly called ^' Francis*s," which ban 
saved so many liundre<ls of the lives of the shipwrecked. 
To have invented and left this " car of life" to the worU 
is litmor enough for any man to achieve. F^wieis wis 
only its builder. It should bo called **T1ie OHi a p r 
Car ;" for Congress has formally recognised bis right as 

Our trip up the Bay of Mobile was troly ddiglitiaL 

The moming was cloadlesa, the wind cool from the Mwth, 
the shoret green, And dotted here utd ther« with Tilla« ; 
-the water lively with veseeli of all kindt, moving on 
every possible coune, and our ateamer fleet, and paaaing 
•rerytbing with a sort of quiet indifference, that made 
■B fee) like conquerors. 

These lake boats from Mobile to New Orleans are sa- 
pertor to any I have sailed on, either in Europe or this 
country. The two I have been on, the Gab* and (^vgoe, 
•re elegant and commodious, with attentive servants, 
"excellently good liTinp." that would gnitify Moos, 
Ude. The captain's rivii courtesy to us all most t'avora* 
h\j impressed me, ami h'd me to reflect how littio civility, 
and smiles, and courtesy oast, and how long thtiy remain 
upon the memory, and make a bnnt popular; while the 
absence of these bus ii i/ontrtiry effect. 

The captain is a Maine man— one of those eaterpria- 
ing Portland seamen who have carried the atar-spanglsd 
banner into the farthest comers of the globe. HiM fine 
&ce, his respectable gray hairs, and a&ble manner, pre- 
sented as fine a portrait of an experienced captain (sailor 
and gentleman in one) as we ever enooonter. 

After broakfast we came in sight of Mobile, l^e 
captain, as we sailed up, was kind enough to point oat 
to my husband the several watering places in the shores, 
such as " Point Clear," the CiPl Mat of the Soath ; 
kept by Chamberlain, formwly of the Bevere House, 
BoetoD, and a resort of the klitb of Mobile ; Hollywood, 
a charming looking retreat, crowded in rammer ; faoitdsf 
others equally beautiful. I marrel, with snoh ddi^tfal 
retreats so near their city, that the Mobilcuw ^hooU 
ever go North ! It is ao homage the Sondi paji the 

504 TUB 817NMY SOUTH; OR, 

North uselessly ; and this year few will proceed North, 
I am told, as hard times have rendered lallipatian pones 
indispensable, jingling with gold dollars instead of etgles. 

The appearance of Mobile from the steamer did not 
strike me as interesting. Its approach is disfigured by 
marshy land, covered with old logs, and the forests crowd 
close upon the city. But, as we drew nearer, the towen 
and spires had a pretty effect ; though the outward ts- 
pect of the city, from its level site, is far from giving a 
stranger a just idea of its real elegance and many at- 
tractions. There was a good display of shipping at die 
wharves, vessels of light draughts, and % fine view of 
steamers, taking in and discharging cotton, the gnat 
staple — the mighty pivot upon which the business of this 
city of 30,000 inhabitants revolves. 

We took lodgings at the Battle House, which a wed's 
experience assures me equals the favorite '^New York" 
or the Revere House. In a word, it is » first rank 
American hotel. The only drawback is Irish servants. 
I can never understand them, nor they me, and this ir- 
ritates their natural quickness, and they sometimeB become 
exceedingly disagreeable. Southerners do not know ex- 
actly how to address servants of their own color; and 
being unaccustomed to them, prefer hotels where they 
are not. But hero they are better drilled and more civil 
than I ever knew them to be. The price of the bire of 
colored servants here is so great that, probably, white 
servants are employed from motives of economy. The 
proprietors have been very assiduous and polite to aaks 
us comfortable, and we feel as much at borne as if wa 
were prince and princess in our own palace. 

For the present, an reToir. 


My Dear Mr, : 

There is an indescribable softness in this Sonthem 
clime, a delicious indolence in its atmosphere, that, with 
as bright suns and as soft zephyrs, are unknown in the 
Korth. This dreamy air indisposes one to exertion; tod 
even to dress for dinner is an heroic effort. 

A dozen times I have approached my escritoire, and 
taken up my pen, to lay it down again, as if it were too 
heavy for my fingers. When I do not go to my desk, I 
sit and look at my paper and pen, that await me, and 
reproach my idleness. It is so difficult to oyercome this 
inertia. If I could only muster resolution of mind enough 
to make a beginning, I could go on very nicely to the 
end ; but the first word — the breaking of the ice — hie 
labor est 

I put this Latin in on purpose to take the occasion to 
inform you that in my last but one "Needle," you printed 
the inscription over the church door in Pass Christian, 
all wrong, and make me (if I am a lady) responsible fcnr 
the barbarous word which your printer substituted for 
what I wrote. Perhaps the mischievous urchin thought 
any thing would do for lady's Latin. Please let your 
readers know that the word should read, 


"DocTORi gentium;" 

The word printed in place of the last may be Jap- 
anese, but it is not Latin — even feminine Latin. 

We leave here to-morrow en route to Montgomefj^tbe 
elegant capital of Alabama. This city has been kv de- 
scribed than any Southern one, yet posaeaaes attraetioni 
few possess. I am delighted with the society of Mobile. 
The refined hospitality and cordial attention my hoaband 
and myself have received from its ciUxens hareqvile woa 
our hearts. Mobile is peculiar as being a truly Soathern 
city, its principal families being bom here; aod, also, far 
being a strictly commercial metropolis. The ** aristo- 
cracy'* here, as this word goes, consists of its merchsBi 
princes and their families. The merchant here is '*a 
lord.** The superb villas, the palatial mansions liaing 
its noble streets, the elegant country seats that adora 
the suburbs, are occupied almost exclusively by mcr^ 

In other Southern cities reside many opulent planten, 
whose estates lie in the interior. These gcntlsmen 
usually give the tone and take the lead of society in such 
cases; and this is particularly so in Charleston and 
Savannah. But the principal pursuit here being cooh 
mcrco, like the merchants of Genoa, the commercial nen 
of Mobile are the princes of the social empire. Yon will, 
of course expect to find among them intelligence, edi 
tion, refinement of manners, and all the social mnmrfm 
of the higher order of American society. You will net 
be disappointed. 

We have found the Mobileans among the moat okpwt 
people we have ever associated with. Many fi^i^pi— it 


is mj happiness to know are not surpassed in high- 
breeding and truly elevated character by the beet class 
of £nglish society; and this is saying a great deal; for I 
look upon the best society in England as the best in the 

The medical profession and the bar and the pulpit 
liaTe also prominent men, and exert t^eir influence; but 
these members combined are a fraction compared with 
the mercantile gentlemen who, of course, gire tone to, 
and lead society. 

The maritime position of Mobile, with one foot upon 
the Gulf, and one hand grasping a quiver of rivers-^tiie 
Alabama, Bigbee, Warrior, and lesser ones — detenBines 
its commercial character. These rivers flow finr hundreds 
of miles, through the richest cotton region of the South, 
«nd bear annually to the quay of the city, cotton from 
£ve to six millions of dollars in value; while half that 
sum in amount is returned by her merchants in supplies 
to the planters and towns along their banks. In the 
bay, a fleet of from sixty to a hundred cotton ships 
carrying the flags of Great Britain, Bremen, France, 
Sweden, Denmark, await to take on board this vast 
amount of cotton, and convey it to the ports of their re* 
spective nations. 

Cotton is, therefore, the circulating blood that gives 
life to the city. All its citizens are interested in this 
staple, from the princely merchant, to whom the globe 
with its ports is a chessboard on which he is ever maldng 
his intelligent moves, to the poor cobbler, whose round 
lapstone is his world. A failure in a crop of cotton, 
would cast a cloud over every brow in this city ; for the 
great cotton merchant, lacking his princely gi^ais, oodid 


not build, nor employ, nor pay ; for the merdiaiit ii the 
fountain of money — ^the source of dollars and eati, 
that flow down from the stream of his own prospcthj 
through all the lesser channels, as a reserroir «pon la 
elevation communicates its fulness to a himdred pipei» 
and these to a thousand lesser ones, till, at tlie fiuthcH 
extremity, the slave at the hydrant fills lus govid aid 
quenches hb thirst. The merchants are the reaerroini 
and if they are not full, all suffer below them* 

There is one of the finest streets I hare ever sees 
which intersects this city for two miles. It ia a broad, 
smooth, almost imperial avenue, lined chiefly by the 
abodes of the '^ merchant nobles/' In odc of these re^ 
sides Madame Le Yert. At present she is "^nking the 
tour of Southern Europe, and will visit Constantinopk^ 
and, perhaps, 'Mook in" upon the Crimea ere she re- 
turns. This lady is the daughter of a former goveraor 
of Florida, and was celebrated as Miss Octavia Walton, 
before her marriage with Dr. Le Vert, an eminent phy- 
sician of this city, for her rare beauty of mind and 
person. Without question, she is one of the most se- 
complished women of America, with powers of pleasing 
and winning hearts and captivating all who know her, 
that is rarely possessed. Lady Blessington was emi- 
nently gifted in this way, and Madame Le Vert if 
scarcely less wonderfully endowed, if the half I hear of 
Iier ))c true ; but, perhaps, I ought not to compare with 
such a person as the Countess of Blessington— knowing 
her life as we do-— a pure and elevated charaeter Hks 
Madame Le Vert. It is only in their personal 
tions an<l varied accomplishments, that thmr 
should be placed on the same page. Here ^^nsfnr Le 

Vert seems truly to be idolized. This is her hotnej and 
all know her and speak of her in the most enthosiastic 
and affectionate manner. Even the ladies seem to be 
wholly without envy when they mention her, and oheer^ 
folly accord to her the high social position she holds. 
The Mobile gentlemen all seem to speak of her with 
pride, and a feeling of personal regard, that I was de-^ 
lighted to witness. Truly she must be a happy woman 
who thus wins all hearts, disarms envy by her sweetness 
of disposition, and commands homage by her talents. A 
French gentleman, speaking to me of her, said, witii 
rapture : — 

'^ She can speak five languages well, and I haye seen 
her converse at the same time with a Spanish, Oerman, 
and French gentleman, around her, answering, question* 
ing, and holding lively conversation with each in his own 
tongue, and with a precision of pronunciation and ele- 
gance of phraseology remarkable.*' 

To the poor, I am told, she is very kind; and stops in 
the street to speak with the humblest widow, and affec- 
tionately inquire after her needs. To end my account 
of her, I will say that of fifty people I have heard speak 
of Madame Le Yert, I heard not one syllable of envy, or 
one word unkind. She seems to have the art of making 
every body love her. Every body regretted we could 
not see her ; for, not to see Madame Le Vert, they seemed 
to feel was not seeing Mobile. I am told that an amus- 
ing incident occurred here, of which the heroine was m 
very accomplished person, who came here, representing 
herself as an English lady of high rank, with letters of 
introduction to Madame Le Vert, from some of her 
noble friends in Enghind. The ^^lady" played Wosrd 

610 THi sumrr soim; ob, 

well for a few days, fairly imposing upon tke kospfedUe 
frankness of this Southern people, (who are the bmI de- 
ficient in suspicion of any people in the world,) aad re- 
ceiying no little attention. But detected in mmnb peca- 
lation of jewelry from a fashionable jeweler's, and bor- 
rowing money from half a doien gentlemen and hdici, 
her true character was speedily developed, and leafiag 
behind several fashionable calls nnretumed, she aaddealy 
disappeared on board of a vessel boond to New YorL 
She was highly accomplished, played wonderfully on tba 
piano, sang like Sontag, and danced in the eztraM of 
fashion. She said she knew Lamartine, Dickens, Bat 
wer, D'Israeli— every great personage; passed awedc 
at Idlewild with Mr. Willis ; three weeks at the house of 
the millionaire, George Law, as his guest ;— ^deed, she 
was traveling through the United States with the intea- 
tion of writing an impartial book, whioh wonld eomel 
the erroneous impressions her fiiemdn^ '* the nobility is 
England" held towards this wonderful empire. 

Her letters of introduction proved to be forged, as 
was apparent, I was told, on comparing her handwriliBg 
proper with these epistles. How degrading to ow sex 
to see a woman, evidently highly educated, and oapsbia 
of conferring honor upon it, descend so low as to go from 
one fashionable hotel to another through the land as a 
swindler — a chevaliere d'induttrie! This woman, who 
was about thirty-five, spoke French fluently, and played 
so well, that Gottschalk, who was, at the tinie^ in the 
same hotel, hearing her in the drawing-room, pronouMsd 
her performance on the piano superior to any woman's ks 
ever hoard! With such talents, which, rightly 
would command an independent income, how 

Ava dec^ve and vickedly act ? for I hsTs kIts^ asao- 
«iat«d with edneation and talents at least the feeUngs and 
dtUMter of a true lady. 

' Doabtless this "CotmCess" Madane Whyte* frill yet 
be heard of in "Sew York, where **diBtiiigaiihed tot- 
rigners" are sought after with m perseveranoe and 
kmnage quite in antagonism with ike gemiu of repnUi- 

The environs of ifobile are chnrming. Some of the 
roads for a leagne vest arc linod with country houses 
■domed with part«rre8 ; and few houses are without the 
greateflt varietj of shade trees. Orange trees abound; 
bat the lire oak everywhere rears its majestic Alp of 
ftttiage, casting beneath shade broad enough to shelter 
from the sun a herd of cattle. This tre»ie alwaji "• 
picture" in the scenery—* studjfor the artist. It oei»- 
bines the grandeur of the English oak with the grso* of 
the American elm. There are superb groupa of thwfe ia 
and about this city. They shade the lawns and gm 
dignity to the mansions that lift their roofs abore them. 

The drives to Spring Hill and the Bay Ko«d are the 
favorite avenues of the Mobileans. The former leads lo 
a Sne elevation, two leagues Arom the aty, and com- 
manding a view of it and of the bentiftd bay. II ie 
covered with the suburban retreats of the Mobile mer- 
chants, whose families generally retire here for the 
summer, if a northern tour does not tempt them. The 
Bay Road is a delightful drive for four miles, with the 
open bay on one side and villas and woodlands on the 
other. Wc enjoyed both of these drives very mneh. 
We constantly met or passed carriages, containing ladiee 
'Snbseqnentljappe&redasthe AnthoTMiof JohnHsH&x. Elk 

512 THE suxNY south; or, 

without bonnets, and also saw a great number of eques- 
trians ; for Southerners arc more fond of the saddle than 
a seat in a carriage. The beauty of the ladies is shovn 
to best advantage on an evening drive; and I must sav, 
that I have never seen so much true ** Southern" loveli- 
ness, of the sunny dark eye, oval face, golden brown 
hair, and indescribably rich complexion, (rich without 
color,) as here. 

This city is deservedly celebrated for its beantifnl 
women, and especially the beauty of its girls under six- 
teen. The men have made a favorable impression upon 
me for intelligence and frank manner; and they drcM 
well, especially the middle-aged citizens-^even better 
than the young men. The ladies dress with the most 
lavish expense, and yet with taste, never following a 
fashion to its excess, but stopping within it; and thii 
good sense and taste is a IBne trait in Southern women. 
Many Northern ladies are apt to keep by the side of 
Fashion, if not to get a step ahead of her. Wealth 
without refinement always dresses as far as Fashioa 
dresses her lay-figure ; but refined wealth stops this side 
of the extreme. 

I shall write one more letter from this charming city 
and then we proceed northward. 


XHB MtmaaxMB, ja mmM. 408 


Ah Ini Of ViMiau, Jub% IMIb 

Mt Dsab Mk. : 

This is written in an old faahioned oonntry Inn, in 
the heart of the Old Dominion, where we are sojooming 
for a week. It is now ten days since we left the plea- 
sant city of Mobile, which I shall always embalm in my 
memory with the sweetest spices of affection, for the 
kindness I received there from so many dear friends. 
If I were disposed to be personal, I could make my letter 
brilliant with the names of those esteemed people who 
extended towards me the hospitable conrtesies and grao^- 
fal amenities of which I was the unworthy object. My 
husband is charmed with the place, and has half a mind 
to live there during the winters, which I am told are de- 
lightful. In Mobile I had the pleasure of seeing the 
celebrated Dr. Nott, who, in conjunction with Mr. Cairo 
Gliddon, has published a work to show that the arithmetic 
of Moses was not creditable for a school boy. I hear 
that the work has not overthrown the Bible, although 
bigger than the Bible, and written almost by as many 
men. It overshot itself, and from its very bulk and cost 
will never be read, except by students — and what book 
ever convinced a student? Learned men read books 
only to be confirmed in what they previously beUerad 

they knew. 

514 THE SUNVT bouth; oe. 

Dr. Nott yery justly^ for be is bj no mem an midil, 
repudiates the infidel portions of this book (*^ Types of 
Mankind"); and says he is responsible only for tk 
scientifically anatomical and physiological oontribotioBi, 
and complains that his confrere, Gliddon, aorreptitioailj 
inserted, after the MS. had left his hands, into the bodj 
of the work his own sceptical theories. Bnt Dr. Kolt, 
like all persons found in suspicious company, uiforta- 
nately has to sufiler for his companionship. He ia at the 
head of the medical profession here; a Soatb CaroKniaB, 
a man of fine intellect, agreeable mannera, and with the 
finished air of a thorough-bred and bom gentkBaBi 
I liked him yery much the few momenta I waa in hii 

We left Mobile for Montgomery at the doaa of s 
loyely day, and in forty-six hours, after a pleasant sail 
up the romantic Alabama riyer, reached the atately capi- 
tal of Alabama, Montgomery. It reminds me aomewhat 
of Albany, in its location and eleyated aspect. Oa 
board the boat was the ycnerable Bishop Cobbs, a large* 
heayy man, and advanced in years, but with a faoe full 
of the spirit of benevolence. He has all the simplidtr 
of a pure child, united with the dignity of a Christiaii 
minister. He resides in this city, and waa on his reCuni 
to his family, from whom he had been some time absent, 
on his apostolic mission of " confirming the chnrehea.*' 

After a day agreeably spent in Montgomery, we took 
the cars for Augusta, Georgia. Our ride waa foil of ia- 
terest. I was annoyed, the first hour or two after atartiag, 
at having left hanging on a projection of the toilet ataad, 
in our room at the hotel, a valuable ring, which cncirckd 
many dearest associations within its golden puriphfy- 


Mj husband made the fact known to the condaetor, who 
pledged himself that, on hb return to Montgomery, in 
the next train, he would go to the hotel and get it, and 
•forward it to Washington city by mail. As he would be 
back to the hotel in three or four hours, I consoled my- 
-self with all that was left me, hope, and now hope to find 
it in Washington, when we reach there, on Monday! 
But I mistrust my hopes; and that the large eyes of the 
Ethiopian maid, who waited on me, haye discoyered the 
jewel, and that it last Sunday dassled the eyes and won 
the heart of some sable Ceeswr or Pompey 1 What is 
forgotten at hotels falls natural prises into the hands of 
the chambermaids, who begin their foray of disooyery 
about the room before the lady has reached the last stair 
in her descent to the coach. ^ 

It is so provoking to leave (and, of course, lo9e) things 
traveling. I never yet took a journey without such a 
misfortune. It was either a book half read, and I dying 
with interest to finish it — or a parasol, or a reticule, or 
a glove, (and one can't easily replace glaveSj traveling,) 
or a veil, or a ring ! If all ladies leave and lose in the 
same way, lynx-eyed chambermaids in some hotels on 
the great routes of travel can, in a year, obtain stock 
enough to set up a magazin de9 varieties. I half-suspeot 
the minxes of misplacingy in order that travelers may 
not see and so forget ; but yet so misplace, that if they 
are searched or asked for, they may easily be found, and 
all seem to be " accidental." 

My husband quietly says : 

'' Kate, it is your fault ! You are careless, and doB*t 
take proper care, I fear, of your things. Literary peo- 
ple are proverbially indifferent [a great scandal] abeiit 

516 THB Bumnr boiith; ob, 

xnundane mattors. If jm, don't forget and loie Hmj 
on the way I shall be content. It would not be lo msj 
to have him mailed on to Washington wm your ring, aid, 
touching said ring, wife, I am very well antisfied jbi 
will never see it again." 

*^ But the conductor pledged bia word and wai lo ih 
eiroufl of serving me !" 

^^ He may do hii duty! but the landlord mny not tdb 
the trouble to go to the room for it. Yoa know loai 
landlords care little about guests a hundred mika away 
on a railroad. If he ask the servant, she will an^y 
say, ^Lor', massa, I neber seed no ring in da roonr 
and 80 the matter will end !" 

^' I hope it will be found!" I said, quite kopeksdy; 
and I yet hop; it will, for it was the jlnt ring given to 
me by my husband ; and a woman valuea tkmt gift above 
all others. 

The scenery increased in beauty as we flew on, and I 
soon forgot my loss. As we entered Geoigia, we saw 
finer towns, richer agricultural diatrieta, and mm 
mountainous scenery. We passed one moontain, like a 
mighty pyramid, lifting its great head more than a Aoa- 
sand feet above the level country, and Tiaible fiir hom 
before and after we passed it. The city of Augaata ii 
a handsome metropolis, with broad atreeta, a beaatifiJ 
river (the Savannah), fine churches, but hoteb indiler- 
ent. Every city should have a Tremont or Aator. Ihasa 
hotels have rendered their like, neceentiea eretywkara 
cIhc. Most of the hotels South, except in the large 
cities, ore overgrown inns or large tavema. YThj^ there 
is as much difTerencc between a '^ hotel" and a ^taven" 
as between a *^ yacht*' and a *' fishing amack!" 


We were pleased with Augusta, but made but a sbort 
staj. Columbia is the paradise city of the South. 
Here resides the distinguished novelist and poet, W« 
Gflmore Simms, to whom we had letters, but unfortu- 
nately he' was absent. We regretted we could not pay 
oor respects to a man of genius, who has conferred such 
distinction on the literature of the South, and of the 
whole Republic. One has to unpack and repack to 
stay in a place two or three days, and it is so much 
trouble to ^^ dress" for a day's sojourn, that one often 
Irarries forward, where it would be agreeable to linger 
for a few days, as it would have been here. On 
our way from Augusta we delayed a day to Tisit » 
friend's rice plantation, and thence took the cars to 

This is a city Southerners are yery proud of, and with 
good cause. But it is the people more than the bouses 
and ** scenery" that makes Charleston so agreeable to 
strangers. The Battery is a charming promenadci but 
there are few handsome streets. 

The residences have a respectable, substantial, hom^ 
like air about them, and universally are buried in the 
shade of tropical trees. The finest building is the 
Military Academy, erected for training South Carolina 
youth to the chivalrous accomplishment of arms. *^Nul» 
lification" is a word fast growing into disuse^ as it 
has ceased to have meaning. This State is as true to 
the Confederacy as the brightest star in our Federal 

The proposed superb monument to Bfr. Calhoun (the 
Demosthenes of the New World) is not yet ereetedt 
Much as cotemporaries admire a migh^ genina riraig 


and culminating within their own horison, they are never 
the people who raise the noblest mementoes to him! It 
is the succeeding generation which is the true edio of i 
great man's fame. Fifty yean hence, Webster, Gsj, 
Calhoun, will be more honored than they now are, ud 
that age will erect to them the colossal plinths which 
the men of their own day neglect. Centuries after Otob- 
wcll and Joan d'Arc lived, even at this day, magnifiem 
statues are erected to their fame. 

As the glories that surround the heads of the noUe 
Triumviri, '^ Calhoun, Webster, and Clay," increase ia 
splendor with time, the higher and grander will rise the 
monuments that men will build up of stone and marble, 
to their mighty names ! Whatever South Carolina does 
now in honor of her idol, the whole Republic will kler 
do mare nahly as a national tribute to his iBtdleetml 
greatness ; and what our mighty Inter-oceanic Bcpd^ 
will do, will later still be done by the whcrie ctriliasd 
world ! for the glory of the names of these three 
like those of Cicero, Demosthenes, and Cuius 
shall be claimed as the common heritage of the ronud 
earth ; and in Paris, London, Naples, Vienna, St. Petcrf> 
burg, and Constantinople, statues and monuniettts shall 
likewise be erected to them; for godlike genius likethctn 
has no country, no other bounds than those of the glebe's 

We left Charleston with regret, after a day's sqean, 
and part of which was spent in a visit to SuUivau's 
Island, un hour's sail down the harbor. TUa is a 
charming spot for air and bathing and beeeli"gaIlo|HBg, 
but its ^' grass** is sand. Several cnltivaled fiimi*^^ 
pass the summer here, and the hotel is a fiae structurej 


it looks like a theatre turned inside out, with the gal^ 
leries running all round its exterior. Commander In- 
l^aham's fa mily res ide here. I felt like paying my 
respects to a man who has contributed abroad so much 
honor to our national name ; but I let propriety subdue 
eorioBity, and only satisfied myself with passing his 
house, hoping to get a glimpse of the ^^ great man of his 

The young and rich South Carolinians have a peculiar 
manner. They move about quietly, are self-possessed, 
silent or rather taciturn, love to sit and read, are well 
educated, polished in behavior, dress well, cultivate the 
moustache, afiect small feet and white hands, and are 
somewhat dilettanti, but yet manly and well-informed ; 
are lovers of the poets, have fine libraries, faultless 
riding horses and equipage, wear wide-awake hats, and 
love indolence and ease. Most of them have seen 
Europe, but prefer South Carolina ! They are proud and 
aristocratic, and do not feel particularly honored to shake 
hands with a traveling lord, and in England are haughtier 
than England's nobles. 

They are expert fencers, superb billiard-players, 
splendid riders when their indolence will let them put 
their blooded horses to their full flight; fond of hunting, 
unerring with the rifle, have practiced with the duelling 
pistol, and have knowledge of military matters ! Under 
all their calm and indolent exterior, lies all the fire 
and energy of their prototype, Calhoun; and to insult 
them is infinitely perilous, though they never seek a 
quarrel. I think they are the most Jamhed gentlemen 
(when they reach middle life) in the world ! My husband 



says he will write for me (perhaps) a description of the 

Wo leave this Inn direct for Washbgton ! Shall I 
find my ring there ? 




Mt Dear Me. : 

My last letter ttm dated from " an old Inn" in Vir- 
ginia. Since then ve liave come on to this city of 
"magnificent edifices;" for the old " mugnlficent di&- 
tancea" are snperbly filled up with noblo buildings. 

I must say a word about that old Yirgiuia Inn. It 
was the most comfortable "home," not to be in one's 
own, I ever dwelt in. It stood in a broad, green valley, 
many miles long, and from the Inn the country geaHy 
sloped to circumenclosiug hills, wooded all orer with 
massive masses of green forest. The Tale itself waa s 
valley of farms, large, and wealthy-looking, with hoft* 
pitabl-eappearing farm-houses in the bosom of each, and 
each with its park of woodland ; and the stage road to 
the Sulphur Springs, (the " Sustoga" of Bonthem aris< 
tocracy) of a light brown color, and smooth as a raO0 
course, wound meanderingly through its bosom. 

The Inn stood in the centre of this agricultural tome. 
It was a large, rambling, old Yirginia mansion hoose, and 
once belonged to a family of the old rSginte, one of tho 
proverbial (and in this case truly bo) " FIRST FAMI- 
LIES" of Virginia. The original proprietor was a 
cavalier of Charles the Second, and was a larga land- 
holder under the crown. But the reTolati(m, irhkh d»* 


Btroyed the stately law of primogeniture, dirided and 
subdivided among half a dozen equal heirs his regal do- 
mains, until Avithia the present generation, the once no- 
ble estate, diminished to two hundred acres and a hand- 
ful of slaves, and the lands worn out, came into the handi 
of the long baronial line of the Bodleys. The gentle- 
man inheriting, finding his harvest would not i g^ i g tAin 
the estate, and that money must be realized in some way 
from his patrimony, had the good sense (refined and eda- 
cated a Virginian as he is) to convert his paternal man- 
sion into an ''Inn." Situated on the greftt road of 
travel, and oficring from its imposing exterior, (anciem 
yet respectable,) temptations to the comfort-loving traveler, 
it soon became the aristocratic resort of tearing Virgin- 
ians, and the excellent proprietor (the descendant of * 
lord become a landlord) has become independent. 

Happy would many a Virginia gentleman of the "firrt 
families" be, if he could turn his decaying mansion into 
an Inn of profit ! Numerous, very, are the old estate! 
gone to decay, scattered over the Old Dominion, vherein 
genteel poverty dwells, with the pridefol recollections of 
ancestral name and honors. The improvident manner 
in which the old Virginia proprietors wasted their lands 
with the soil-consuming tobacco, has impoverished half 
of their descendants. The present proprietors, nnabk 
to maintain their aristocratic estate, part one after an- 
other with their family servants, whose price goes to 
maintain what the wretched crops ought to do, or thsj 
leave their barren heritages, and with their servaiiti leak 
the West or South, and there buying new land at gov- 
ernment price, build up a new, young ^^ Yirginift faauly** 
in Texas, Alabama, or Mississippi. 


So necessary is the annual decimation of slayes by 
sale to support these old decayed families, that it has be- 
come a settled trade for men whose occupation is to buy 
slaves, to travel through the ^' Old Dominion," from es* 
tate to estate, to purchase the negroes that the necessi- 
ties of these genteel families (who have nothing left of 
their ancestral glory, but the old mansion, half in ruins, 
and the wide, barren fields scarcely yielding bread) 
compel them to dispose of, whenever opportunity of* 
fers. The slave-buyer is seldom disappointed, however 
grand the exterior of the baronial looking house to 
which he rides up. ' Here he gets one, there anodier, 
and in a few weeks he enters Lynchburg, Alexandria, or 
Richmond with a hundred or more, whom the necessities 
of the first families have compelled to be sold. Hun- 
dreds of such buyers are ever traversing the state, and 
the markets of the South and West are almost wholly 
supplied with slaves, through the re$ anguata domiy in 
the Old Dominion. 

From this view of the facts (and facts they certainly 
are), it would appear that Virginia is gradually coming 
to free farming and the slow abandonment of slOT^ ^- 
tivature. As it is, slaves are raised here more M a 
marketable and money-returning commodity than for 
their productive labor. 

It is one of the most beautiful states in the Union* 
Its citizens, with truth, boast a nobler ancestry from 
England's halls, than any other ! Its character for in- 
telligence, genius, hospitality^ and refinement^ is aofe sur- 
passed anywhere. A Virginia gentleman (poor, tad 
living on starved lands though he may be) tt tA^ .geii^> 
man of the age ! Washington, her son, has,.fi»s 


more, ennobled her as the birth-plmce of heroes. She 
has given to the Republic the majority of hw presidenti! 
and to the National Legislatiye halls, the nobkst minds 
of our race. The grand scenery of her Talleys, moon- 
tains, forests, and smiling fields, the dirersitj off her 
climate, the noble character of her dtisenSy oa|^ to 
make her ^'the Paradise of Americai" as Sir Walter 
Raleigh called it, and therefore named it, in honor off his 
worshipful ^' Eye," (Queen Bess,) Yirginia I 

Our Inn is worthy of haying for its host a desoendaiit 
of the chivalrous Borderleighs, (now modernised in spd- 
ing to Bodleys,) one of the old North of England noUss. 
He loses none of his Yirf^ia stateliness or self-re^eei 
in playing Boniface. He retains his self-respeet and is 
therefore still a gentleman; and we fed that he is one. 
His vast parlor is hung round with old portraits of his 
Virginia and British ancestors. The bed-rooms look se 
respectable with their black oak and carred Ibmitm^ 
the panneled wainscotting, old-fashioned testersi andofsl 
mirrors, that one seems to be carried back into the days 
of William and Mary. Some of the furniture is two hm- 
dred years old, and was brought oyer to Jamestown 
England. A beaufet is in the dining room, 
shaped and canred, which belonged to Sir Walter BaWghj 
he who sacrificed a cloak, hoping to get a erown. Qaesn 
Bess was a terrible fiirti She had more joy in ^jrann- 
nizing over the noble hearts of the braye moi abont hsr^ 
than in reigning oyer her realm of England. 

There is a portrait of her all begrimed with smoks^ in 
the sitting room, which our courteous and hi^ bom hsst 
says, once belonged to the ancient Claib<nrne or Ghjbsn 
r, a race of statesmen and soldiers. 


From the Inn one has a delightful prospect of fields, 
iroods, intervales, mountains, and a shining river. A 
broad lawn is before the house, across which is a smooth, 
half-moon shaped road, along which the stage-coach 
dashes up to the door. 

Such a table as one has here ! Never were travelers so 
banqueted. At breakfast, coffee and cream like liquid 
gold; six kinds of bread, each hotj as bread always is in 
the South, and all delicious with butter rich as honej; 
amber-colored honey also, with a firagrance as if gathered 
from the flowers that bloom on Hymettus ! Then steaks, 
$0 juicy and flavorable ; broiled chickens just deKcatdy 
crisped and more delicately buttered; fresh fish from a 
pond, nicely browned to a turn; ham the tint of a blood 
peach ; sliced bread and butter, and I know not what 
other delicacies. Our dinners are unapproachable by 
any city ^^Astor;" and for tea 9ueh sweetmeats, such 
blackberries and cream, such delicious bread ! — but you 
will think I am an epicure truly if I go on. Suffice it 
to say that we remained there a week (for my husband 
is a quiet epicure in his way), and took stage for a town 
where we could strike the railroad. 

We flew through Petersburg, paused to breathe in 
Richmond, which has flowing at its side a wild, rock- 
filled river of a hundred rapids, which we crossed at a 
dizzy height, looking down upon it from the car windows 
with that thrill of the nerves which gasing from a great 
height irresistibly causes. 

We ascended the Potomac and passed Mount Vernon* 
I was previously told that when we came opposite to it, 
the bell of the boat would be struck thirteen times, not 
only in homage to thf Great Deliverer of the ** Thirteen 


Bepublics," but also to notify panengen when tba loit 
came near the political Mecca of Americana. But no 
bell sounded — ^no notice was taken bj tbe ateamer of 
the spot, which no British war-ship passes witboat 
lowering its colors and firing a salute. We Americani 
seem to be destitute of all suggestire imagination and 
reyerential associations. 

We shall remain in the Capital a few days, and thenee 
hasten to New York to hit the steamer; for we reside 
the next two years abroad. This is the last Needle* 
therefore, you will receive from me, Mr. , andwiudi 

must terminate forever our correspondence. The reqnest 
of so many of my friends I feel must be cheerfiillj eonn 
plied with ; and while in Philadelphia, I shall make (if 
possible) arrangements with a publisher, to imiemy poor 
writings in one or two volumes under the title of 

Bt Kate Contitoham." 


Published by G. G. Evans, 

439 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. 



fbt IbDowfaic Bookf art bj T. 8. AmniyB, lh« wtO-kBOWB «ifkor» if 
llhMbMnMid,*'tliatd7liiph«hafBotwritlM a word k» wmIA wii^ It 
•KM*.* Thf J art wofthj ofia plaoa la traij hooMhokU 


An octaro Tolome of over 400 ptget, beaiidfiill)r lOuttimtedy tad 
bound in the best English muslm, gilt. Price 9s.oo. 


With an Aatobiognphy and Portnut of the Author. Over 500 
pages, octavo, with fine tinted Engravings Price $2.00. 

TEN NIGHTS IN A BAR-ROOM, and what I saw trab. 

This powerfully-written work, one of the nsr hy its popular 
AUTHOR, has met with an immense sale. It is a large isroo.^ 
illustrated with a beautiful Mezzotint Engraving, l^ Sartaia; 
printed on fine white paper, and bound in the bat B^^liih 
muslin, gilt back. Price, fi.oo. 


Bound in gilt back and sides, cloth, with a beandfid 
engraving, iimo. Price $i.oo. 


lamo., vnxh Mezzotint engraving. Price $i.oo. 

** Our pnrpoM if to sbow, la a tariw of LUb Plolaiii^ whal 
u vol! for good as for § tIL" 

Cbch, lamo., with Mezsotint engraving. Price $i.00b 

tut OP Boou munuD mr 


[flM fbUowimc four TOlaBW MBtaim Mulj 6M y f — * 
tntod with fin* MtssoUnt engraTingi. Bowid la tha 
■old teparatelj or in mU. They htkw h—n laCrodoatd tan* $km DiiliH 
gabhoth School, and other UhnrUa, and an OMuMMad €■• if rihi tal 
•eriei of the Author.] 


Containing Maiden, Wife and Mother. Clodi» is 
zotinc engraving Price, $l.oo. 
^'Thii, by many, If coMidered Mr. Arthar^ heel 


Containing Lovers and Husbands, Sweethetrti tnd Wivci^ 
Married and Single. Cloth, ismo., with Mc noua t 
Price $>. 

" In thli rolame may be fovad $Qmm valaabla Uati ftr wltw 
bandi, ae well a« for the yonnf ." 


Containing Bell Martin, Pride and Principle* Miij BDii^ Paadijf 
Pride and Alice Melville. Cloth^ Itmo., with Mfilti**— 

engraving. Price $ i ,oo. 

** Tble Tulume gives the ezperleaoe of real lUSs hy aaaf wW taai Ml 
their ideaL" 


Containing Madeline, the Heiress, The Martyr Wife awl Rained 
Gamesttr. Cloth, lamo., with Mexzotint eqgraviag. $i.oa 
*'Contaiiu tereral eketohee of ihrilUag latereek" 

A Book of Startling Interest. A handsome 1 2010 vqIiiibc^ $i.oa 

** Fn thi««xrit{o|^ f'ory. Mr. Arthur has taken hold of the 

with a more ibau luually vigoruut greap, and heepe him ahMtWd to Ite 
ef the ▼ulutre." 

And OTHEa tales. Cloth, 1 2mo., with eqgraviiig. Price $l joa 


AivD OTHER Talis. Cloth, ixmo., with M 
Pri»e, $i.oa 

SOT Of BOOK* PimUIHID KT O. O, miH- | 


A Seriet of Home Stories for American Women, izrao. ti.ooa 

With 14, Spirited lUuatrations. iimo., doth. Price $1.00. 

Tk« nog* of nhjeoU la Ihii book tmbrkM the grara tad initnellTC, m 
«*L M tta* (gTMalitt •nd *Eiiuaing. No Lkdjr niider ikmlliw with Ihs triali 
iBd parplaiidu iaotdant to BouMkMplDg, cui fkiJ 10 reoogitiia 111U7 of bw 
•VD (iptriaoeM, fur areiy plotors bara prsientad bu bagu ilnwa from IKk 


With fiae Mezzotist Frontispiece, izmo., Cloih. Price $1.00, 

TUi wo(k hu fona through itiemt «dlUoiK la EogUnd. kltbgogh pnb- 
Bibad bat a abort tliao, aad hu b«4 the Dwt flatMring aatioag from Ika 

A Series of l^y Sermons for Coaveru in the Great Awikaung. 
1 21110., cloth. Price (i.oa 

Ok, Ljfb Triad of Jeuii Lomno. txmo., doth. Prio^ 9i.oo. 

Lai^ iimo., with Sac Mezzotint Frontiijuece. Price, '9i. 00. 

Lirge timo. With 30 illiutratioiu ind ited plate. Price |t.O(k 
" It Inaladai uma of Iha baft hnaonu ikatahM af tta aatknr." 

itmo Cloth. Price $t.oa 

"la tha prapantlon of thti Tolmna, •• bara 
whaUrar taadi to i'*"' — ~-^ — .■-.„ .^___ 
baaafit ai wall aa a 

whaUrar taadi to awakan oar ariapa^iM UvMdi alkar^ la ■■ laH i MMl 

SPARING TO SPEND; o», rai Lorrom un 
iimo., cloth. Price $1.00. 

Tba pnrpoM of thla Toluia li to a^Ml th* nlli Ihil i 
•OKmoo laijk of pradaooa. 

UflT OP BOOO NBUmiD Bl «• O. IT^ 


isnio. Cloth. Price $i.oo. 
Thlf Book if dMiffned to aid la tkiwork of ittf iiMlt wi«l ii til 

•iligkv tkfti hoBM light! wMj diipol koao ihadowi. 


lama Clotki Price $i.oo. 
Tklf if a fowoifUly writtmi Bool^ diowlBg tho M^ if 



And other Distinguished Americtn Ezploren. ladodiqg Ledjrifda 
Wilkes, Perry, &c. Containing narratives of their roeaicha 
and adventures in remote and interesting portions of the Glob& 
By Samuel M. Smucker, LL.D. With a fine M^^^^f pQ^. 
trait of Dr. Kane, in hb Arctic Costume. Price $i.oou 


By S. M. Smucker, LL.D. Large iimo., with Poitiwt. Over 

400 pages. Price $1.25. 


By S. M. Smvckbr, LL.D.» author of " life and Reign of NiAoh 
hu I., Emperor of Russia,* &c., &c. Large 1 amou of 400 pv^ 
Cloth. With fine Steel Portrait. Price $i.S5« 


Emperor of Russia. With descriptions of Rusnan Society waA 
Government, and a full and complete History of Ae war ■ 
the East. Also, Sketches of Schamyl, the Circasrianp and otho 
Distinguished Characters. By S. M. SiniCKn, LLJX Bi auclMf 
Illustrated. Over 400 pages, brge ismo. Price $I.a5. 



By Gbn. S. p. Ltman. i2mo., cbth. Price $i.oow 

THE HAsm irnrr or thi aoi. 

With Biognphtcil Notices of hli mail Diitinguiihed Ministen, 
Geoerali tad Fivorittt. By S. M. Smucxu, LL.D. Thii :o- 
cemting and Tiluibte work is embcllithed with iplendid ited 
platei, done by Sartain in hii best itylc, including the Emperor, 
the Empreaa, Queen Horiense, and the Coiuteu Cutigliane. 
400 pagei, iimo. Price I1.25. 

The cclebrtted French Conjuror. Translated from the French. 
With a copiona Index. By Dr. R. Shelton Mackenzie. Thii 
book is full of interesting and cnlcrtximng anecdotes of the grc«I 
Wizard, and ^ves descriptions of the manner of performing 
many of his most curiouE tricb and iramformadons. iimo., 
cloth. Price li. 00. 


Written by himself, with Notei and Additiona. Splendid^ IHoh 
trated with engravings, from oriniud deugaa. B7 Gsouib G. 
White. i2mo., cloth. Price fl.oa 


Including an account of the Early Settlement) of Kentnc^. By 

Cecil B. HAXirnr. With tpleodid iHuatradoni, from or^uid 

drawings by Gcot^ G. White. I imo.> cloth. Price $1.00. 

Together with Biographical Sketches of Simon Kenton, Benjimin 
Logan, Samuel Brady, Isaac Shelby, and other disdnguished 
Warriors and Hunten of the West, By Cecil B. HAiTLar. 
With splendid illustration, from original drawings b/ Georga 
G. White, iimo., cloth. Price |i. 00. 


The Hero of the American ReTolation t ^ng iiill itimwri at 

his many periloui advcntnrei and hair-breadth CKapca unonpt 

the British and Tories in the Southern Siatei, dnriug dw tawf^ 

for liberty. By W. Gilvou Sium. lamo., dodu $l.eo. 



The Hunter, Patriot, and Sttteaman of Texts. With nioe SW 

trations. i2mo., cloth. Price $i.oo. 



Comprising a History of the War in the Southern Deptrcmest of 
the United States. Illustrated, iimo, doth. 9i.oo. 


Compnsing Thrilling Examples of Courage, Fortitude, Deroced- 
ness, and Self-Sacrifice, among the Pioneer Mothers of tk 
Western Country. By John Frost, LLJ). Price $i.oo» 


A Narrative of facts Stranger than Fiction* By Mitta Vtcioau 
Fuller. i2mo., cloth. Price $1.00. 


Containing tne Empress Josephine, Lady Jane Gray, Bca'ria 
Cenci, Joan of Arc, Anne Boleyn, Charlotte Corday, Zenobia, 
&c., &c. Embellished with Fine Steel Portraits, iimo., chth. 
Price $1.00. 


Handsomely illustrated, i vol. Cloth. Price $i.oa 



With Colored and other Engravings. Handsomely booKl m oar 
volume. 1 2mo., cloth. Price $1 .oa 


Comprising Lives of Genera] Francis Marion, General WBfini 
Moultrie, General Andrew Pickens, and GorenMir loka 
Rutledge. By Cecil B. Hartlit. Illnstratcd* laaio., dod^ 
Price $1.00. 
















Baptism m Jordan to bis CrgqfixiiM $n CmIvmtj^ 



One T^rge iimo. tolume. Cloth, f 1.25. 

k4hE same work IN GERMAN. One Tohme i 

cloth. Fricb $i.oo 











PRICE, $1.25. 

'* The Pillar op Fire," is a large 1 2ino. voltune of 6oo 

Illustrated, and contains an account of the wondeiiol 
the life of the Son of Pharaoh's Daughter, (Moses,) from his jootk 
to the ascent of Sinai : comprising as by an eye-witness, his 
Miracles before Pharaoh, Passage of the Red Set, mud die i c i e p ioB 
of the Law on Mount Sinai, &c., &c. 

LMT or BOOK! PCBLUHIB «r «. Q. ITMI*' f 


Containing ihe Military and Financial Cormpondence of dittioa 
guishcd officers: names of the oIL^crs and priviles of regimenti, 
companies and corps, with the daces of their eommisiioni and 
entistments. General orders of Wiihtngcon, Lee, and Green ( 
with a list of distinguished prisoners of war ; the time of their 
capture, exchange, etc.; to which u added the half-piy acts of 
the Continental Congress ; the Revolutionary peniion laws ; and 
a lilt of the ollicers of the Contincncal array who ictjuired tlM 
right to hair-pay, commulation, and land*, Sk. By T. W. Sai>- 
PILL. Large i2mo., $1.2;. 

Being a history of the penonal adventures, romantic incidents and 
exploits incidental to the War of Independence — with tinted 
iUuiirationi. I^rge iimo., ti.35. 

4 tale of the dayi of Herod. l2mo., cloth, with Steel 
tions. $t.oo. 

A collaciion of Sketches. By Misa ViaanriA F. Towmnm,^ 
Large i2mo., with line Keel portrait of the author. Bound ia 
cluth. Price 1 1. 00. 

W« migbt isr mtaj thing) In Utot of thla dclfghtfU pabUwHaa, Wt W* 
dMm it anneceiiarr. Unaliandi (hosld bay it for Ihalr wIvN : Iotm* abmU 
baj ii for ibeir awctt-bMrta : WndiakoBM bsjlt tat ibtii MmJ».- ■Oa J if'a 

By ViKGiKiA F. TowNiEND, author of " Lmnft and Loving.'* 
lino., cloth. Price 9i.oa 

THE ANGEL VISITOR j oa, Voicw or m Hbart. 
Itmo., cloth, with Mezzotitit Engrxving. Price $1.00. 
"ThtmlatiDaoftUiniliimtlKaBid ia lolaf gvol to tk«M tBalMlMi* 



limo.y clothy with Mezzotint Engraving. Price ti.oo. 

" Th«8« ptigtB are submitted to the pnblie with the eooBMl of the 
and best of all ages, that amid the wilej arU of the AdTertaiy, we ehoold ettic 
to the word of Qod, the Bible, as the oaly safe and ialUlibla goida pt latak 
aad PracUce." 

THE MORNING STAR ; or. Symbols of Crutt. 

By Re\ Wm. M. Thayer, author of ** Hints for the Hoasehold,* 
*' Pastor's Holiday Gift," See, 8cc, 1 2mo., doth. Price $i.oo 

" The symbolical parts of Scriptures are inrested with paeoliar attraetioiii 
A familiar acquaintance with them can icareelj fail to iaeroaso reipeetaal 
lore for the Bible." 

SWEET HOME ; or. Friendship's Goldbn Altai. 

By Frances C. Percival. Mezzotint Frontispiece^ 1 21110., doth, 

gilt back and centre. Price $1.00. 

" The object of this book is to awaken the Uemoriea of Hoaa— to itaiBd 

Of of the old Scenes and old Times." 


Or, the Wanderings op an Oxtfcast. By Paul CuTTOir. i2iiio.« 

cloth. Price $1.00. 

** An interesting story, which might exert a good tnflneiiea la aoflc&lBg tit 
heart, warming the affoctions, and eleratiog the tooL" 

ANNA CLAYTON; or, the Mothbi's Trial. 

A Talc of Real Life. i2mo., cloth. Price $1.00. 

" The principal characters in this tale are drawn from real llfli IimisIm 
^on cannot picture deeper shades of sadness, higher or more o^ivirittjefi^ 
than Truth has woven for us, in the Mother's TrlaL" 


Br Metta V. Fuller. Mezzotint Frontis{»ece« i amo., bound m 
cloth. Price $1.00. 

U*r or MOEt I 


Prom the Cradle to the Grave ; adHpced exclusively to her iiutrafr- 
don ia the Physiology of her lysiem, and *!I the Discaaa of her 
Criiica! Periods. By Eoward H. Dixon, M.D. iimo. Prioo 



One volume, iimo., cloth, fine edition, printed upon superior 
paper, with numerous illustrations. Price $t.i;. Cheip edi- 
tion, price $i.oo. 

Thia is * work at thrilliog wlTCDtarei sod hair-breftdth laonpel amnnK 
nrags bcMli. lod mare tartgs mgn. Dr. LiTlngitons vu olane. luil uaaid- 
tdbyuty whim man. trBvolinj onlj with Afriran aitfndsou.amuog ili5fr«ii» 
tribe* and cntinni. all rtrange M blm, and man; of them boiLil*. nad alM- 
gtthtl forming Ibe ino«l MWnisliing bmik of traTeLi the world baa »I« 
•Ma. AU aaknoHiedgc it ii the moil roadabU bouk puUUbed. 


Giving accounts of many P^^'oui Adyenturet, uid Thrilling In^ 
dents, during Four Yean' Wanderinp in the Wildi of Sooth 
Western Africa. By C. J. Akdhuson, LL.D,, F.R.S. With 
■n Introductory Letter, by J. C. Fumokt. One volume, ifmo.^ 
cloth. With Numerou) Illustration), represeating Sportiiig 
Adventures, Subjects of Natuial History, Devica hi DcMroj- 
ing Wild Animals, etc. Price |i.i;. 


Comprising a Complete History of Hindooiian, from the eir!ie0 
limes to the present day, with full particubri of the ReceM 
Mutiny in India. Illustrated with numcrr>us engr«vi(i|», By 
Henhy FKEDMEOt Malcom. This work has been gotten op 
with great care, and may be relied on ai Complete and Ami- 
rate ! making one of the most Thrillingly Interesting books pub- 
lished. It contains iUustrations of all the great Baltics and 
Sieges, making * large lamo., volume of about 450 page*. 
Price »i.^j. 

II lut of boou pvbushid nr o. o. cr. 


A Narrative of Seven Yean* Explorariont and Advcnturei • 
Oriencal and Western Siberia, Mongolia, the Kir his Scej^pOi 
Chinese Tarury, and Part of Centnd Aais. By Thomai 
William Atkinson. Withnumerooilllustnuioiia. iaiiio.jCktli« 
price $i.25« 


Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa^ being i 
Journal of an Expedition undertaken ondei the autpioei of 
H. B. M/s Government, in the years 1849-1855. By Hdckt 
Barth, Ph. D., D.C.L., Fellow of the Royal Geographical and 
Asiatic Societies, See, &c. lamo., cloth, price $1.25. 


During the years 1853, 1854, 1856, including a joorney to the 
Capital ; with notices of the Natural History of the Country 
and of the present Civilization of the People, by the Rev. Wm. 
Ellis, F.H.S., author of Polynesian Researchea." lUuttrattd 
by engravings from photographs. &c. lamo., cbch. $l.25, 

One volume, iimo.. cloth. Price $1.00. 


Conuining a collection of over One Thousand Laughable Sayiap, 
Rich Jokes, etc. iimo.. cloth, extra gUt back, f i.oou 

" Nothing is fo well calenUted to pnmrr% tha htmlthM acliaa cf lit 
kamaa •ostein m a good hawty langfa." 


Being a collection of Original. Altered and wdl-ielected Tiagediak 
Comcdica. Dramas. Farces. Burlesques. Cha^Bde^ Comic Le^ 
tures. etc. Carefully arranged and specially adapted for Pkiratt 
Representation, with full directions for Performance. By SiLaa 
S. Steele. Dramatist. One volume. i2mo..dodi. Pficc$ljoa 

uwt or Boou PDausMtD BY o. 0. mum*- tj 



Giring the caOKs of the War, with Biographical Sketches of Sov- 
eieign), Staiomen and Miiirary Connnanders; Deicriptions and 
Statislin of the Country; wiih finely engraved I'uriraiu ofLouil 
Nkpoleon, Emperor of France Francei Joseph, Emperor of 
Aiulria ; Victor Emanuel, Kmg of Sardinia, and Garribaldi, the 
Champion of Italian Freedom, Together with the official ac- 
counts of the Baul» of Montt^bello, Patescro, Magenta, Maleg- 
nano, Solfcriuo, etc., etc., and Maps of Italy, Austria, and all 
the adjacent Countries, by 


With an introduction by Dr. R- Shelton MACKENzir, one volume, 
iimo., cloth, price »i.2S. 

Frrm tki Nan York Cburltr md Emfvtnr, 
" Tbia )• an able. laureiUng and IWtlf >e«cin>it of the Wu aad lln aliw 
•tuicFi cwiinecUd »ith it. The antbor'a raddtnot In KnroH haa fiTM b«* 
bcilitid for prepuing ttas Tolams wbioh add mush la lU tiIb*. 

" tint ontf d<HSi ihe give a deicriptioa of Italy in genaial, bst of MDh 8«T> 
•relgnty. and Sute, ihuwing the BiMdI, KanaroH, Powar and PotlliMtl A^ 
oition of each. Thronghont Ibe Tolnma an bnod AnaMktM, BmoUmMcM, 
and «v*D Omtiti, which oonlHbaU to iti loterok* 


Beinga compendium of the belt Sentimental, Comic, NqTD,Nitio&- 
sl, Patriotic, Military, Naval, Social, Convivial, and Pathetic 
Balladt and Melodies, as sung by the mott celebrated Opeu 
Singers, Negro Minstrels, and Comic Vocaliin of the 6mj, 

One volume, iimo., cloth. Price $1.00. 


Or, Housekeeping made easy, pleasant, and econmical in aU it* 
department:. To which are added directions for telling out 
Tables, and giving Entertainment i. Directions for Jointing, 
Trussing, and Carving, and many hundred new Receipts in 
Cookery and Housekeeping. With 50 engravings. ianw.| 
cloth. Price •i.oo. 





Specimens of the best and most Ilumorocis Prodactioiis of die 
popular American and Foreign Poetical Writers of the day. 
By the author of the " Book op Anecdotes ahd Budgit or 
Fun." One volume, i2mo., cloth. Price $1.00. 

From tht Philad^hia North 

" This collection includes sp«cimeDS of the Hamoroos Writirngt of ■■gfIA 
and American authors, and the preference is giren to oontemporariea. TiM 
compiler has aimed to produce a volume in which erery {>ie«« shomld prerokt 
' a guod hearty laugh.' In one thing he has certainly shown n wiadoB wbkk 
might bo imitated by compilers of more pretension. Hr 4oc« not cUim that Ui 
work represents the ' entire humorous literature of tbe Uagnagt^' Iwit a ooi- 
leotion of poetical effusions, replete with wit and hamor.** 


The World in a Pocket Book. 





This work is a Compendium of Useful Knowledge and General 
Reference, dedicated to the Manufacturen, Farmers, Merchants, 
and Mechanics of the United States— to all, in short, with whom 
time is money— and whose business avocations render the acqui- 
sition of extensive and diversified information desirable, by the 
shortest possible road. This volume, it is hoped, will be fbwui 
worthy of a place in every household — in everjr famOv. It 
may indeed be termed a library in itself. Ltije 1 21110.9 Vl«2S* 

uvr or mooxa raaUMum by g. < 





Embroidery, Applique, B rai J ing, Crochet, Knitting, Netting 

Tatting, Quilting, Tambour and Gobelin Tapestry, 

Brodcrle Anglnise, Guipure Work, Canvass Work, 

Worsted Work, Lace Work, Bead Work, - 

Sbtching, Patch Work, FrivoUte, 

etc., ete., etc. 









Pint Series, published under b special arnrngement with die tndiOBi 
With a Biographical introducuon ^ Db. R. Shbltok MAOUBSii 
With B splendidly engraved Steel PortrBit. One rol.. 414 ptp^ 
12010., cloth. Price $i.oo. 

Mr. Brown's leoturei flU an ini|M>rtaai ]ilaaa« ftr wklth wt havt ■• ¥km 
book. The ttjle ii elear, the ipirit le kind, tk« reaiwlat mtMU ami the 
ergnment eonolueiTe. We are pertnaded thai thle book will mder »trt 
good than an j book of aermonf or leetnrai tkai kava beta pbHihtd la lUi 
19th oentnry. — IAvirp§ol Merturf, 


Or, The Laws and Means op Physical CuiTURiy adapted id 
practical use. Embracing a treatise on Djrspepaia, Digestioi^ 
Breathing, Ventilation, Laws of the Skin, CSDmamptioB, hov 
prevented; Clothing, Pood, Exercise, Rett, &c. Bjr W. A. 
Alcott, M. D. With ^1 illustratioiity Larye 121110. Pkioe^ 


PiRST Wife op Napoleon I. Illustrated with Steel PortnitB. •tf 
J. T. Laurens, author of "Heroes and Patriott of die Soodb 

i2mo. cloth. Price, $1.00. 



Comprising the Lives of Washington and hb Genenkp Hm 
Declaration of Independence. The Consttcudon of time United 
States. The Inaugural, First Annual. and Farewell Addrcaa 
of Washington. With Portraits. iiino.yClotL Price $1.00 

COLUMBA; A Tali of Cobjica. 

By Prosper Merimeb. As a picture of Corsican fife and ■ — —t ^ 
Coiumba is unequalled. In one handsome vohuBei Frict $l*O0 


Bj S. H. Eujorr. One volmne, iimo., cloth. Price $i.oo. 

" Thia li a waU-wri»«D, bigblj iDttrnsIJTa book. It la a alot; or tb« Ufa. 
lMBhiii|i, and lih-trialt oT a good man, wb-'H graat aim *u la nlFrau, 
MOcbUj and inuLlMM^I;. bit rslloH.inen. Lika muir of bit nature anj 
lamparamaat, aoma of bia vioxi aero Utopian. But bii iiitceiaoi and 
[ailuttt, vith Ibi Mona of theaa, us painMd witb a maatarlj band. Thar* 
la onnaaal ilranglh aad yilaJiijr in Uiii Toluma." 


On, THi Pekiu of Fast Living. A Warning (o Voung Men. 
By Chai. BuRDrrr. One volume, i2mo., cloth. Price |l-oo. 

•'Th* atjls of thU book ia direcl and <ff»tiT«, puticuUriT fltUns Hia 
ImpnatioD vbiob nob a atur; sbguld mako. tt ii a Ttrj tpiriiad and i&. 
■truellva tale, laaviiif ■ guod impnailoD boUi upon tba readai'i tauibiUUef 
kod morala." 


Oft, Tales fok the Fweside. By Janb C. Caupbell. One 
volume, iimo., cloih. Price $1.00. 


Oft, Prose akd Poetry o? ths Woods and Fielm. By Hakrt 
Pekciller. One volume, clolh, iimo. Price )l.OO. 

" BeantifBl landaoapaa, funilj aaanaa and sunTaraatioaa, nral ikat«ba) of 

voodi and Talaa. of tba boAutiaa of rardant fiald* and rneraal fluwara, rf 
' --^' -' '■ I arl^lnilaDd aa- 


Ak Avtobiographt. By Anna Lelamd. One volume, lamo., 
cloth. Price Vi.oo 

"Thia la on* of the mmi beanliriil dunaitis ftortti vs baTs aitr raad. 
tetanaal; ln(araiUng, with a natural flow and rvlnr'a whlob Ua^li tl>a raid-r 
Impareaptiblj on M tha sloaa. and Iban l«a*aa a rafral thai lb« ul* I* ■uDa.,'* 


A Tale of Southern Life. One volume, iimo.^ doth. Piiei 

$1 GO. 

** This Tolume eon tains the storj of a French Emirrmat, wbo Inl 
lo England, and afterward settled on a plantation in Loniaiaaa. It i» cki 
Ingly told, and the strength and endoranee of woman's faith wall illaitnia4* 


Or, Lights and Shadows op Northern Life. By Jehimt Loubw 

One volume, i2nio., cloth. Price Si.oo. 

TThis is a work illustrating the passions and pleasar«% the trials aad tei- 
umphs of common life; it is well written and the interest is admiraUj si^ 


A Tale of Life in the South. By James S. Pbacock, M.D., 

of Mississippi. One volume, i2mo., cloth. Price $l.oow 

"The stjle is fluent and unforced, the description of ehaimcter well 1!»asi, 
and the pictures of scenerj forcible and felicitous. There is a aataral eoa- 
Tcyance of incidents to the d^noutmtnt^ and the reader elosee the velmflM wilh 
an increased regard for the talent and spirit of tho aathor.** 


Or, the Three Apprentices. By A. L. Stimson. One Toiume^ 

i2mo.. Cloth. Price $i oo. 

" This is a very agreoable book, written in a dashing independent stjIe. The 
inci<icnts are numerous and striking, the characters Ufe-Uke* and the plet 
sufiiciently captivating to enchain the reader's attention to the end of the 



Or, the Adventures of a Witch Finder. One Tolume, lamo., 

cloth. Price $i.oo. 


Harvard College WIdener Ubrary 
Cambridge, MA 021 38 (617)495-2413