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Full text of "The supervision of instruction"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 






RIVERSIDE TEXTBOOKS 

IN EDUCATION 
EDITED BY ELLWOOD P. CUBBERLEY 

PROFESSOR OF EDUCATION 
LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY 




THE SUPERVISION OF 
INSTRUCTION 



HUBERT WILBUR 



PROFESSOR OF EDUCATION AND DIRECTOR 

OF TEACHER TRAINING, OHIO 

WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY 





HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO 

<Ebc SUtitrfiDe ptrtf {Cambridge 



COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY HUBERT WILBUR NUTT 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



Vfet ibtr*(br 

CAMBRIDGE . MASSACHUSETTS 
PRINTED IN TUB U. S. A. 



Ed./PsycH* 
Library 



%0 



TO 

THE TEACHING PROFESSION 





EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION 

THE following discussion and analysis of the elements 
of the supervisory process, and statement of the tech- 
nique and professional standards for the supervision of 
instruction, will be read with interest by those who are 
concerned with the work of school supervision. The 
author of the volume is a school supervisor of experi- 
ence, who has been unusually successful in training 
young people for the teaching service. Training nov- 
ices for success in teaching is even more difficult work 
than that of a school principal or superintendent in 
initiating new or poorly experienced teachers into the 
work of a city-school system. Out of his experience he 
has worked out the following analytical discussion of 
the principles underlying classroom supervision, and 
the devices and technique which should, and which 
should not be employed. 

The fundamental purpose of all school supervision 
is to increase the efficiency of the classroom teacher. 
School supervision is worthy of the name only when 
it results in such an increase. Supervisors who con- 
ceive their function to be that of an inspector, and who 
go about checking up work accomplished and locating 
those who do not follow directions, are worth little. 



viii EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION 

Such service is unintelligent service, and requires but 
little preparation or thought. To be constructively 
critical and helpful, though, requires a good under- 
standing of both the purposes and the technique of 
supervision; and the fundamental principles and meth- 
ods underlying such helpful and constructive service 
the author of the present volume has here set forth. 

The treatise should be read with interest and profit 
by city-school supervisors and training-school direc- 
tors generally, and should find a place for itself in 
training-school work. 

ELLWOOD P. CUBBEBLET 

March 31, 1920 



PREFACE 

THE rapid growth of training schools for the training of 
teachers, and the development of supervision of actual 
teaching in the public schools, has emphasized more and 
more every year the necessity for training supervisors spe- 
cifically for the "job" of supervision. Moreover, skilled 
supervision on the part of the principals and superintendents 
is becoming a most important factor in their success. Train- 
ing in supervision cannot be adequately accomplished until 
a definite body of psychological and pedagogical principles 
that apply specifically to the problems of supervision has 
been discovered and formulated. These principles must be 
discovered by experimentation, and by analysis of experi- 
ences that have been accumulated in supervising teachers in 
training and teachers in regular service. The writer under- 
took, about two years ago, to formulate some of the princi- 
ples that seem valid on the basis of experimentation and 
extended experience. The results of this undertaking were 
set forth in A Handbook for Supervisors of Student- Teachers. 
This handbook, which is little more than an outline or brief, 
was published by the State Printer of Kansas and as a bulle- 
tin of the School of Education of the University. It was 
intended not only for the supervisors of the Oread Training 
School, but also for supervisors, principals, and superin- 
tendents in the State, who might find it suggestive and 
helpful. 

The kindly consideration that this booklet received and 
the many requests for supplementary discussion-material 
based on the outline led the writer to believe that a some- 
what detailed formulation and discussion of the principles 



x PREFACE 

set forth might prove helpful to those who are interested in 
the specific undertaking of training supervisors, and also be 
of direct service to those who are engaged in the actual work 
of supervision. The purpose, therefore, of this book is to 
set forth such a formulation of the problems and principles 
of supervision as may serve as a basis for classroom discus- 
sions, individual study, and experimentation. If the book 
proves serviceable in contributing material ready-to-hand 
for intensive study and discussion and in making fruitful 
suggestions, the writer feels that his efforts will not have 
been in vain. 

The writer is indebted to the supervisors of the Oread 
Training School for critical discussions of the material and 
helpful suggestions. He is also greatly indebted to Dean 
F. J. Kelly, Professor R. E. Carter, and other colleagues for 
critical reading of the manuscript and helpful suggestions as 
to form and content. 

H. W. NUTT 
UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 

January 15, 1920 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER!. INTRODUCTION 

1. The need for trained supervisors Composition of the 
teaching force Lack of professional training Need for pro- 
fessional supervision The training school and supervision 
Administrators need supervisory training. 

2. Is there danger of formalism? The formality of technique 
Transforming technique into habits Why teachers fail in us- 
ing technique Is there a formal stage in all training? Train- 
ing and attaining efficiency Meaning of the formal period 
Supervisors, too, must master technique Formalism eliminated 
by mastery. 

3. The problem of training supervisors Two questions in- 
volved The plan of this book The greatest weakness of su- 
pervision Details vs. generalities Chapter summary. 



PART I 
THE JOB OF SUPERVISION 

CHAPTER II. SUPERVISING ACTIVITIES 23 

Laying the basis for cooperative teaching Selecting and or- 
ganizing the subject-matter of courses Teaching for purposes 
of experimentation and demonstration Directing systematic 
observation of expert and inexpert teaching performances Di- 
recting teaching activities Checking up pupil progress Meas- 
uring progress and efficiency of teacher Measuring the effi- 
ciency of supervision The supervisory job of the administra- 
tor Chapter summary Class exercises. 

PART H 

PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE SUPERVISION OF 
INSTRUCTION 

SECTION A 

SUPERVISORY METHOD 

CHAPTER III. THE FIRST PRINCIPLE OF METHOD ... 35 

Necessity for common knowledge Teaching a cooperative 
enterprise Chapter summary Class exercises. 



xii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER IV. PARTICULAR BASIS FOR COOPERATIVE TEACHING 
IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 88 

1. The elementary school as an institution The purpose of 
the elementary school The place of the elementary school 
Curriculum of the elementary school. 

2. Pupils of the elementary school Dominant physiological 
characteristics Psychological characteristics Relation of 
these characteristics to schoolroom procedure Social status 
of children Chapter summary. Class exercises. 

CHAPTER V. PARTICULAR BASIS FOR COOPERATIVE TEACHING 
IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL ........ 45 

1. The secondary school The purpose of the secondary 
school The purpose stated negatively The place of the 
secondary school The beginning stage of adolescence The 
second period of adolescent development The third stage of 
adolescence The curriculum The psychological approach 
The purpose of the studies Thinking in terms of the student. 

2. The pupils of the secondary school Traits and tendencies 

Physiological traits Psychological characteristics Social 
status and outlook Physical conditions and adolescent devel- 
opment Adolescent embarrassments Other physiological 
disturbances Adolescence and habit formation Instinctive 
backgrounds Mental maturing through experiences Erratic 
behavior; rules of procedure Pupil to choose freely Door of 
opportunity not closed Teacher not to worry Teacher and 
supervisor in agreement Importance of frank dealings Ado- 
lescence and the religious instinct Catching interests at the 
crest Keep the pupil in the center of the stage School should 
provide social opportunities Socializing subject-matter 
Make the social situations accurate and true Chapter sum- 
mary Class exercises. 

CHAPTER VI. GENERAL BASIS FOR COOPERATIVE TEACHING 
m EITHER ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY SCHOOL ... 75 
Other necessary common ground The principles of method 

Problems in teaching and method Devices and their use 
Teaching technique Agreements as to teaching procedure 
Teaching standards Proper teaching relationships The pur- 
pose of supervision Chapter summary Class exercises. 

CHAPTER VII. OTHER PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING SUPERVI- 
SORY METHOD 83 

1. The second principle of method Anticipatory teaching 
Value of the anticipatory process Observation of teaching 



CONTENTS xiii 

Actual instruction Directed teaching Practice to form right 
habits Teaching habits to be made automatic. 

2. The third principle of method Breaking up incorrect 
habits Finding out things for and by one's self Application to 
teacher training Breaking bad habits; training schools ta. city 
schools. 

8. The fourth principle of method Developing initiative and 
independence Summary of the section Class exercises - 
Selected references for Section A. 

SECTION B 
DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

CHAPTER Vllt. PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE SELECTION OP 
DEVICES 97 

Devices should be economical General instructions to senior 
teachers Instructions to regular teachers Saving the time 
of the teacher Conservation of materials Economy a rela- 
tive matter Devices should be effective Devices should be 
usable Devices should not be too numerous Devices should 
not be too meager Devices should bear a logical relation to the 
end they are to aid in accomplishing Devices should be a 
means Devices should be classified Chapter summary 
Class exercises. 

CHAPTER IX. DEVICES THAT ILLUSTRATE PRINCIPLE ONE OF 
METHOD 113 

The problem Facts as to educational situations Value of 
printed forms Section summary Class exercises. 

CHAPTER X. DEVICES THAT ILLUSTRATE THE REMAINING 

PRINCIPLES OF METHOD 117 

I. THE SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF SUBJECT-MATTER 

1. The courses and instruction Subject-matter in perma- 
nent form Purpose for which the subject was organized Pur- 
pose for which taught Changes going on in the subject Unit 
of credit Range of subject-matter to be covered Content 
and formal subject-matter in course Essential facts and prin- 
ciples to be mastered Body of habits to result from study 
Prerequisites Sequences Divisions of course Class pe- 
riods Outside preparation Laboratory studies Class of 
pupils for whom pitched Class given full credit Items in 
pupil records Range of marks Material to be covered in 
each part of course. 



xiv CONTENTS 

2. Textbooks and their use Instructions as to textbooks 
Instructions to teachers as to their use Relative emphasis of 
parts Relative time to presentation and drill Sources of 
supplementary material Notebooks and other necessary ma- 
terial Specimen assignments and reports Chapter summary 

Class exercises. 

CHAPTER XI. DEVICES THAT ILLUSTRATE THE REMAINING 
PRINCIPLES OF METHOD (continued) 138 

II. DEMONSTBATION TEACHING AND DIRECTED OBSERVATION 

1. Demonstration teaching The purpose Aim of the les- 
son to be seen Taking notes Critical discussion afterward 

Examples of the process Typical outlines Section sum- 
mary Class exercises. 

2. Directed observation of teaching Preliminary observa- 
tion Critical observation Observation assignments Two 
plans for this assignment Critical evaluation Judgment- 
forming Use of the assignment Typical assignments Pur- 
pose and use of these observation assignments. 

3. Observation to evaluate teaching Prerequisites for this 
type of observation Evaluation outline Use of this type of 
observation Section summary Class exercises. 

4. Emergency demonstration teaching Use and purpose of 
this Examples of Situations that justify supervisory inter- 
ference Section summary Class exercises. 

CHAPTER XII. DEVICES THAT ILLUSTRATE THE REMAINING 
PRINCIPLES OF METHOD (contimted) 163 

III. DIRECTED TEACHING AND SUPERVISED STUDY 

1. Directed teaching What this involves Outline for 
Choice of specific habits of skill Definite detailed lesson plans 

Differences between teachers The requirements in making 
lesson plans Weekly lesson plans Forms for Daily lesson 
plans Value of these Do not lead to mechanical work 
Clarify thinking for the beginner Relative recitation time to 
oral and written work Quizzes, and their character Prepara- 
tion of lessons Section summary Class exercises. 

2. Supervised study The recitation The lesson assign- 
ment The recitation demands Study during the recitation 

Supervised study period Literature on study Training in 
use of tests and scales Value of in grading and promotion 
Standardized tests and standardized skills Section summary 
Class exercises Selected references for Section B. 



CONTENTS xv 

SECTION C 
TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

CHAPTER XTTT- PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE SELECTION OF 
TECHNIQUE 193 

The purpose of supervision Supervision to develop inde- 
pendence and efficiency Constructive work a necessity 
Supervisory technique not unvarying Technique should be 
economical Chapter summary Class exercises. 

CHAPTER XTV. SELECTED FORMS OF TECHNIQUE . . . 199 

Technique and devices. 

1. Visiting the teacher at work When should the supervisor 
begin visiting? Answer in the light of purpose Entering the 
classroom Position in classroom Leaving the room Mak- 
ing comments on the recitation Delivering the written notes. 

2. Criticizing the work of the teacher Outline form of notes 

Rate of procedure in supervision. 

3. Conferences and checking up of work Types of confer- 
ences with teachers Checking the work of the pupils taught 
Assigning grades and marks to pupils Chapter summary 
Class exercises. 

CHAPTER XV. ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF THE TEACHER . 214 

Considerations in estimating success The rating of teachers 

Suggested outline for rating of General scholarship Special 
scholarship Ability to express thoughts Teaching ability 
Mastery of the principles of method Intelligence and resource- 
fulness Lesson planning and skill in following Skill and re- 
liability in technique Ability to secure desired results Abil- 
ity to test and grade well Ability to manage and discipline 
A philosophy of school discipline Personal appearance Qual- 
ities of leadership Professional attitude Type of school 
fitted for Type of community 6tted for The critical point 

Chapter summary Class ext rcises. 

CHAPTER XVI. ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION . 231 

The advent of supervision Taking stock as to supervisory 
efficiency Two steps involved in measuring supervisory effi- 
ciency. 

1. The principles involved in measuring supervisory efficiency 

Set up definite attainable goals Designate definite types of 
objective data Secure designated types of data Study the 



xri CONTENTS 

supervisory performances The consideration of principles gives 
psychological perspective. 

2. Programs for measuring supervisory efficiency. 

A. Measuring the supervisory activities of the superin- 
tendent Limit the undertaking to tangible goals Defi- 
nite goals suggested Types of data to be secured 
Sources of valid data Consideration of the supervisory 
activities. 

B. Measuring the supervisory work of the assistant super- 
intendent, the supervising principal, and the building prin- 
cipal. 

c. Measuring the supervisory activities of the special 
supervisor Definite goals for special supervisor Types 
of evidence that indicate the efficiency of the special super- 
visor Sources of valid evidences Consideration of 
special supervisor's performances. 

D. Measuring the efficiency of supervisory activities car- 
ried on by the supervisor in a training school Goals to be 
attained Types of evidence of supervisory efficiency 
Sources of evidences Devices for securing objective data 
Chapter summary Class exercises. 

INDEX 267 



THE SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION 



THE SUPERVISION OF 
INSTRUCTION 



CHAPTER I 
INTRODUCTION 

1. The need for trained supervisors 

Composition of the teaching force. A critical survey of 
the teaching body of the elementary and the secondary 
schools reveals one impressive, outstanding fact. This ob- 
vious fact is that the teaching force from year to year is 
a rapidly changing group. A little further careful study 
shows that the force is not only changing rapidly, but that 
it is to a great extent a body of workers with limited profes- 
sional training. The significance of these two important 
facts is best seen by noting the make-up of the teaching 
corps of almost any city in the country. 

Every city of any size finds itself each year with a number 
of new teachers in its ranks. These new teachers are of at 
least two, and very often three, types. The first type is the 
one that is usually thought of when one mentions a new 
teacher; namely, the teacher who is new to the profession, or 
who is just beginning to teach. The second type is the 
teacher who is new to the particular system of schools that 
one might be surveying. The third type of new teacher w 
the one who is new to teaching some particular grade or to 
teaching some particular subject or subjects to which he has 
been assigned. This third type may include teachers who 
are old to the profession and old to the system in which they 



4 THE SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION 

are employed. The fact that a considerable number of 
teachers in the force are new either to all or part of the teach- 
ing situations that must be met each year, gives rise to the 
need for setting up some agency that will most adequately 
direct the work of all the teachers in the system, so as to im- 
prove the efficiency of individuals and to harmonize the 
work of the entire body. The problem of harmonizing the 
work of experienced and inexperienced teachers, who are 
dealing with the same grades or lines of work in the system, 
requires quite as much attention to the old teachers as it 
does to the new. 

This changing from year to year in personnel of the teach- 
ing force is not confined to the ranks of city and town teach- 
ers. It is also true of the county corps of teachers in the 
rural schools. In fact, if there is any difference, the country 
schools suffer most in this regard. Many teachers who are 
beginning to teach for the first tune every year enter the 
rural schools. Then, too, many experienced rural teachers 
are new each year to the particular schools in which they 
teach. This fact increases the demand for more adequate 
supervision of the teaching forces of the rural schools, and is 
gradually bringing about an organization of counties into 
systems of units that are small enough to make adequate 
supervision possible. This type of organization gives the 
county superintendent a corps of supervisors similar to that 
which the city superintendent has who provides for assistant 
superintendents and supervising principals for the different 
wards in his system, and it surmounts one of the chief admin- 
istrative difficulties that has so seriously handicapped the 
rural schools. 

Lack of professional training. There is still another very 
important reason why supervision of teaching is an absolute 
necessity in order to improve the efficiency of the teaching 
forces. This is the fact that out of the large number of 



INTRODUCTION 5 

teachers who enter the ranks each year a very great many 
are not professionally trained in any true sense of the word. 
Moreover, many of the older, experienced teachers who are 
already in the profession have not been sufficiently trained 
for their work. If, therefore, the great body of teachers, 
which is as yet so largely unprofessional, is to become more 
efficient from year to year, as it should, then certainly some 
supervising agency must be set up whereby teachers in serv- 
ice may be systematically trained in connection with the 
performance of their regular teaching duties. The main 
effort of this supervising agency should necessarily be ex- 
pended on that part of the teaching force which is newest to 
the profession and which is least adequately trained pro- 
fessionally. The attention to the remainder of the teaching 
body should be simply that which is needed hi order to har- 
monize the work of the entire group. 

If an adequate supply of teachers could be sufficiently 
educated and thoroughly trained professionally before en- 
tering the ranks of the profession, then there would be little 
need for any provision for such thoroughgoing supervision 
as has been indicated by the above discussion. Under such 
ideal conditions, a good execution of the administrative 
functions that superintendents and principals should be 
performing would no doubt be all that would be necessary 
to develop and maintain any school organization at a high 
standard of efficiency. But such conditions do not exist 
and such ideal conditions cannot exist for years to come, if 
they can ever be secured, so that the necessity for training 
supervisors for the specific job of supervising the teaching 
activities of teachers, and especially beginning teachers, is at 
hand and must be met if genuine progress in professional 
efficiency is to be secured. 

Need for professional supervision. The need for such 
supervision as has been referred to above has been realized 



6 THE SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION 

to a considerable extent by city superintendents, and they 
have made a fair beginning in providing for the supervision 
of teachers in the elementary schools. Rural schools in 
some States are also now beginning to attack this vital prob- 
lem. The future should and will doubtless see a rapid de- 
velopment in provision for adequate supervision of elemen- 
tary city, town, and rural schools. Meanwhile, practically 
no attention has been paid to the needs for supervision of 
teaching activities in the high schools. The rapid growth 
of high schools demands a large increase in the number of 
teachers every year. All that has been said in regard to the 
shifting, unprofessional character of the teaching body as a 
whole can be said truthfully with double emphasis in respect 
to the body of high-school teachers. Normal schools have 
been turning out a goodly number of elementary-school 
teachers yearly for a long time, and these teachers, compared 
to the rank and file, are fairly well trained professionally. 

On the other hand, the attempt to train high-school 
teachers is of recent date, and the schools that are equipped 
to do the work are not nearly so numerous as the normal 
schools. The result is that only a very small part of the 
number of high-school teachers who begin teaching each 
year has been anything like professionally trained. The 
high schools are vastly worse off than the elementary 
schools, and in fact as bad if not worse off than the rural 
schools, when it comes to the professional efficiency of its 
teaching force. Therefore, all the arguments that have 
been advanced for the need for making adequate provision 
for the supervision of the teaching activities in the elemen- 
tary city and rural schools hold most emphatically for the 
high school. The only way to escape the necessity of mak- 
ing provision for thoroughgoing supervision of high-school 
teachers is to provide enough agencies for training high- 
school teachers to supply an adequate number of trained 



INTRODUCTION 7 

teachers to keep the ranks full. The day when that ideal 
condition will be reached is far in the future; hence to-day 
must take care of itself and even provide for the many to- 
morrows that must come before that ideal condition can be 
even approximated. 

The training school and supervision. The discussion 
thus far has been directed to pointing out the conditions hi 
public schools that make necessary the development of a 
comprehensive and thoroughgoing science of supervision of 
instruction, and the training of a body of supervisors who 
shall be competent to do this distinct service in education. 
If, as has been suggested above, an adequate supply of 
trained teachers could be provided so that no teacher would 
ever enter the ranks of active service until thoroughly com- 
petent to teach, independent of other than ordinary admin- 
istrative guidance, then supervisors for public schools would 
be for the most part unnecessary; but the problem and the 
job of supervising teachers and training them during and 
through their actual teaching activities would merely be 
concentrated in the training schools organized and main- 
tained for this specific purpose. The science of supervision 
would remain the same and the problems that the supervisor 
must solve would remain the same, for training schools must 
provide genuine teaching situations that are similar to those 
found in ordinary public schools. The training school is 
merely a setting-apart of a limited school population and 
facilities for the purpose of tram ing teachers instead of tak- 
ing the whole public school system for that purpose. 

If the problem of training teachers could be adequately 
solved through the establishment of a sufficient number of 
training schools, then the problem of providing supervisors 
who are competent to take charge of the supply of beginning 
teachers and develop them into efficient teachers would be 
greatly simplified. There would still be the need, however, 



8 THE SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION 

for the development of the science of supervision, and the 
training of an adequate supply of supervisors for the train- 
ing schools. This condition regarding a supply of trained 
teachers does not exist, hence beginning teachers must be 
trained in both the public schools and in the training schools. 
Therefore a large number of supervisors needs to be trained 
for this specific job of supervision in both of these fields. If 
agencies do not already exist that are adapted to accom- 
plishing this work, then such agencies should be devised and 
put into operation as rapidly as it can possibly be done. The 
natural agencies for doing this line of training are evidently 
the teacher-training institutions. In these institutions, 
just as the teacher in training can see expert teaching dem- 
onstrated and also teach under expert guidance, so can the 
supervisor in training see expert supervision demonstrated 
and also supervise under expert guidance. 

The newest function, then, that thoroughly established 
training schools and colleges should undertake to perform is 
that of training a supply of supervisors for the public schools 
and for training schools as well. In order to meet this grow- 
ing demand for trained supervisors, the science of supervi- 
sion must be developed and formulated so that the subject- 
matter of supervision may be studied in as definite and as 
thorough a fashion as the student of teaching studies the 
principles of method, devices, and technique. Then, just as 
the student-teacher is given ample opportunity to practice 
teaching under careful supervision, so must the student- 
supervisor be given ample opportunity to practice supervis- 
ing under careful, competent supervision. 

Administrators need supervisory training. The tendency 
to-day is to regard the chief function of school administra- 
tors as that of dealing with the subject-matter of instruction 
and the process of instruction. The clerical work, the finan 
cial details, and general business routine are taken over now 



INTRODUCTION 9 

almost entirely by the business manager and clerical assist- 
ants. As these business matters are taken off of the super- 
intendent or principal, he is expected to give more attention 
to improving the efficiency of instruction. The tendency is 
to bring about improvement by securing the best teachers 
available, and by improving the work of the weaker ones 
through supervision. 

The fact, then, is perfectly obvious that since in many 
school systems the superintendent, assistant superintend- 
ent, supervising principal, and building principal, as the 
case may be, must undertake the task of supervising the 
teaching, the success of the administrator is being measured 
more and more to-day by the improvement he brings about 
in courses of instruction and in the efficiency with which the 
courses are taught. The more thoroughly the administra- 
tor is trained for the specific work of supervision, the more 
successful he will be in carrying on this work in connection 
with his other duties. The more successful he is in carrying 
on any phase of the supervising activities, the better able 
he will be to show the value of having the work of super- 
vision thoroughly done. He can show not only the value 
of supervision, but also the impossibility of doing all that 
could and should be done, without adequate assistance. 
This assistance may be in the line of more clerical help that 
will enable him to devote more time to supervision, or it 
may be in the provision of supervisory help. In any case, 
the administrator who is trained for supervision has a great 
advantage over the one who is not so trained, and he has a 
wonderful opportunity to make such a contribution to the 
work of public education that it will not go unrecognized. 

S. Is there danger of formalism? 

The formality of technique. One criticism that has been 
made on the training school is that it tends to become too 



10 THE SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION 

formal in its organization and administration, due to the 
fact that it attempts to make the study of teaching inten- 
sive. The same criticism will no doubt be made against the 
proposition to train supervisors through intensive study and 
practice in training-school institutions. At first thought 
the organization of any school or class for the purpose of 
carrying out the training of supervisors according to the 
principles, devices, and technique set forth in the following 
discussions would seem to be a pretty formal sort of an or- 
ganization. A careful examination of the whole situation, 
however, reveals the error of such a conclusion. 

First of all one must set up a definition of formalism. The 
usual idea of formalism seems to be that it is carrying on a 
performance in keeping with some fixed rule or standard 
that exists in and for itself without respect to the particular 
situation in which the performance is carried on. For ex- 
ample, a teacher in the training school studies the art of 
questioning. While he is studying the art of questioning, he 
is concerned with the form of his questions, with the number 
of questions, with the speed of asking them, etc. He studies 
the performance of the expert teaching supervisor in asking 
questions and notes the form of the questions, number, etc. 
Then he goes out into the public schools and tries to follow 
the exact form of questioning that he saw used and perhaps 
used himself in the training school. Very often the results 
are very unsatisfactory, and the failure is blamed on the 
formal training that the teacher received in the training 
school. The criticism is that the training-school situation 
was made too formal in order to teach the student-teacher 
the art of questioning; hence, when the teacher gets out into 
a real school situation, where no one is concerned about the 
art of questioning for its own sake, he cannot use his train- 
ing-school stuff and has to acquire real teaching experience 
through trial and error, main strength and awkwardness, etc. 



INTRODUCTION 11 

Some even go so far as to say that the sooner the teacher 
forgets the formal stuff that he got in the training school, 
the better off he will be and the sooner he will get down to 
practical teaching activities. 

Transforming technique into habits. There is truth in 
the statement that teachers go out from the training school 
acd blindly follow the formulae that were demonstrated in 
their training, and as a result fail in their teaching. The 
reason, however, that such teachers fail is not because they 
received formal training in the training institution, but be- 
cause they did not continue their training long enough to 
become masters of the formulae. The training-school teach- 
ers who demonstrated these formulae would not have made 
the failures that the student-teachers made had they been 
placed in the same teaching situations that confronted these 
student-teachers when they went into the public schools. 
This is an important fact that the critics have overlooked, 
and it is the fact that gives the answer to the whole question. 

Why would the expert training-school supervisor not have 
failed where the student- teacher failed? The reason is that 
the supervisor has mastered the principles of method, de- 
vices, technique, and management so thoroughly that they 
are to him merely the tools with which he works in the busi- 
ness of educating the pupils in his classes. He has passed 
through the necessary stages of habit formation, so that he 
is no longer engrossed with induction, deduction, art of 
questioning, etc., as aspects of teaching in and of them- 
selves, but they come readily to mind in the most appropri- 
ate form in which they can be used to meet particular teach- 
ing situations. The expert supervisor is free to give his 
attention to analyzing the educational needs of the pupils 
and depends upon his habits to take care of themselves in 
enabling him to meet successfully these needs. 

Why teachers fail in using technique. Why, then, does 



12 THE SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION 

the teacher fresh from the training school often fail? The 
reason is that he has not got beyond the stage of learning 
where he can ignore the art of questioning, induction, etc., 
as existences in and of themselves, and depend upon them 
as efficient habits. He must stop to decide whether the 
inductive or the deductive organization of subject-matter 
should be used. Moreover, when he has decided that in- 
duction, for example, should be used, then he becomes 
engrossed with getting the material into the inductive form 
and in so doing often loses sight of needs of the pupils. The 
result is that he gets his lesson presented in a formal induc- 
tive organization, but fails to accomplish the desired re- 
sults. What this teacher needs is more and yet more of the 
study of the formal nature of the tools of teaching, and more 
and more practice in using them under the wise guidance of 
an expert, so that finally he ceases to be concerned with 
these tools in and of themselves. When this stage of formal, 
habit-forming training has been reached, the teacher will be 
able to forget his formal training and can trust it to take 
care of itself in the form of definite habits when he is en- 
grossed with the vital needs of the pupils whom he is teach- 
ing. This kind of a formally trained teacher will not fail. 
The trouble is that teachers are turned out of the training 
school at the time when the most fruitful part of their train- 
ing is just ready to begin. A whole year given entirely to 
teaching under expert supervision would be short enough 
time to accomplish satisfactory results. 

Is there a formal stage in all training ? The question thai 
is now valid to raise is whether a teacher can ever under any 
conditions become a successful, efficient teacher without 
passing through this so-called formal phase of training 
Must not all teachers form habits that enable them to use 
the tools of teaching effectively if they ever succeed as 
teachers? Can habits of teaching be formed more effec- 



INTRODUCTION 13 

lively and more economically through accidental, haphazard 
experiences than through systematic study and training? 
Can the teacher study the tools of teaching better in the 
midst of the complexities of the actual teaching situations 
than he can study them when they are taken one at a time 
and thoroughly analyzed for his particular benefit until he 
has mastered all of them? Cannot the teacher bring just as 
much initiative and individual genius to the study of the 
tools of teaching when they are brought before him by an 
expert teacher of teaching as he can when these same prob- 
lems are presented incidentally and accidentally in the 
course of his untutored teaching experiences? 

The answers to all of these questions and to other ques- 
tions of similar character that might well be asked are cer- 
tainly obvious. No teacher can escape passing through the 
stages of habit formation that have been termed formal 
training, no matter whether the habits formed are good or 
bad. And certainly no one will argue that important habits 
can be formed more economically and more thoroughly by 
accidental, spontaneous means than they can be formed by 
thoroughgoing systematic study and practice. Such an 
argument, if valid, would settle the whole question most 
effectively, because, if people acted in keeping with it, there 
would be no schools and no teachers would be needed. 

Training and attaining efficiency. One more question is 
valid in this connection, and that is as to whether a teacher 
who has been trained in this so-called formal way, although 
seeming to fail at first, will not become more efficient in time 
and in a much shorter time than will the teacher who enters 
the ranks without such training, taking for granted that all 
other things are equal in the two cases. The answer that is 
furnished by the testimony of competent school people is in 
favor of the training-school-teacher product. This fact, 
and the fact that teachers must under present conditions 



14 THE SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION 

leave the training school for active service before anything 
like such mastery of the tools of teaching as has been sug- 
gested above can be accomplished, make it all the more im- 
perative that provision be made for adequate supervision of 
instruction in the public schools as well as in the training 
school. Such supervision will hasten the completion of the 
training of the training-school product, and also take care 
of the untrained forces that still crowd the ranks from year 
to year. 

Meaning of the formal period. A final most vital point 
that should be noted is that it is not the fact that one is 
studying his teaching performance in a training school under 
the direction of an expert supervisor, or the fact that he is 
studying his teaching performance in a public school with- 
out the help of any one, that makes his training formal or 
otherwise, but it is the fact that one turns his whole atten- 
tion to the study of the tools of teaching and makes, for the 
time being, their essential characteristics his whole concern. 
This taking time off from the job of teaching, in either case, 
in order to master the tools with which to do the job most 
efficiently is formal study and formal training. In each 
case the teacher studies the tools for their own sakes, and 
tries them out until he discovers how they work and why 
they work, then practice soon puts them in the realm of 
habit and the teacher is freed from the formalism of his 
training. 

How does the training school compare, then, with the 
public school as to formality of organization? The answer 
is not far to seek. The training school is no more formal 
than the public school so far as the work of the pupils is con- 
cerned. The trained supervisor, while he affords opportu- 
nity for the student-teacher to study the tools of teaching 
systematically and thoroughly, at the same tune keeps these 
tools adapted and adjusted to the teaching situations so that 



INTRODUCTION 15 

just as practical and thorough results are secured as can be 
secured under any school conditions. In fact, the training 
school in the hands of highly efficient supervisors is less apt 
to suffer on account of formalism than is the public school 
whose teacher is passing through the formal stage of his de- 
velopment on his own initiative without guidance. The 
reason is that such a teacher will not always by any means 
keep the tools adapted and adjusted to the teaching situa- 
tions while he is in the process of mastering them. Whether 
the teachers be trained in schools designated as training 
schools or in the regular public schools, the schools them- 
selves can be saved from all the dangers of formalism by 
providing an adequate force of competent supervisors to 
carry on the training work. 

Supervisors, too, must master technique. The training 
of supervisors demands that they, too, must master the 
tools of supervision. Then supervisors, like other teachers, 
must study the principles of method, devices, and technique 
of supervision for their own sakes until they have thor- 
oughly mastered these tools and can trust them to take care 
of themselves in the form of efficient habits, leaving the 
supervisors free to give then* whole attention to the needs of 
the supervising situations. This formal phase of training 
cannot be escaped on the part of the would-be supervisors, 
and candidates for this most important service in education 
should not stop their training until thorough mastery and 
high efficiency is reached. This training can be successfully 
completed in a well-equipped training school, or it may be 
begun there and finished in the public school by provision 
being made for training of supervisors while they are en- 
gaged in the active duties of supervision. That is to say, 
just as provision needs to be made for improving teachers in 
service, so provision needs to be made for the improvement 
of supervisors in service. 



16 THE SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION 

This need is all the more pressing because of the fact that 
just as training schools cannot as yet turn out an adequate 
supply of thoroughly trained teachers, so they can supply 
only a small part of efficiently trained supervisors that are 
needed. Some cities have already undertaken to do some- 
thing in this direction through extension courses, profes- 
sional lectures, and the study of educational literature. 
These means are helpful, but they are far from adequate to 
accomplish thoroughgoing results. Some agency must be 
set up whereby competent direction of the work of the su- 
pervisors is systematically carried on throughout the school 
year. 

Formalism eliminated by mastery. The final suggestion 
that needs to be made in closing this part of the discussion 
is that formalism in the training of supervisors can be elimi- 
nated only by thoroughly mastering the principles which 
comprise the tools of supervision. Merely studying the 
subject-matter of supervision until one comprehends what 
the principles are will not suffice. The study must be con- 
tinued until the principles become a coherent unity and 
form the basis of efficient habits intelligently practiced. 

3. The problem of training supervisors 

Two questions involved. The problem of training super- 
visors involves two fundamental and distinct questions: 
(l) What are the activities that supervisors in training 
schools and in public schools carry on in the performance of 
their duties? (2) What are the kinds of training that best 
prepare supervisors to perform these duties? The answer 
to the first question is obviously the starting-point in de- 
termining the answer to the second, for one must necessarily 
know what the job of supervision is before one can formu- 
late a practical program of training that will prove adequate 
in preparing supervisors for the specific job of supervision. 



INTRODUCTION 17 

A satisfactory answer to the second question means a pretty 
definite solution of the large problem of supervision. 

The plan of this book. The organization of the material 
of this discussion is based upon the two questions just pro- 
posed. 

Part I is devoted to the task of defining the job of super- 
vision and to setting forth, in some detail, the activities that 
supervisors in training schools and in public schools cany on 
in pursuance of the purposes for which they have been 
employed in their respective fields. 

Part II is given to the solution of the problem of train- 
ing supervisors adequately so that they may perform, most 
efficiently, the activities set forth in Part I. 

The material of Part II is divided into three sections, ac- 
cording to the fundamental aspects of the pedagogical prob- 
lem involved namely, method, device, and technique. 

These three aspects of the problem are practically of equal 
importance, but considerable of emphasis has been given to 
the discussion of the principles of method, and especially to 
the first principle. This emphasis upon method seems, in 
the mind of the writer, to be justifiable on the basis of defi- 
nite facts concerning supervision. 

The greatest weakness of supervision. The first fact 
that justifies the emphasis placed upon method is the fact 
that the greatest weakness of supervision is its proneness 
to be largely a matter of devices and technique. Definite, 
recognized principles have been lacking. Such principles 
are the very foundation of the whole procedure in carrying 
on the work of supervision; hence it seems worth while to 
spend a considerable amount of time in an intensive study 
that will make possible a thorough mastery of the essential 
details. Supervisors and teachers in general have given 
little or no consideration to the facts set forth under princi- 
ple one, and this is one of the principal reasons why the work 



18 THE SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION 

of supervision has been so inadequate and so unsatisfactory. 
The refinement of the supervising activities, and of the de- 
vices and technique employed in carrying on these activities, 
can be brought about only by setting up definite principles 
of method and then adhering to them strictly at all times. 
Details vs. generalities. The amount of details that are 
given, not only in the section on method, but also in parts of 
the section devoted to the discussion of devices, seems justi- 
fiable on the basis of the general tendency to stop with gen- 
eralities. The tendency to agree upon the generalizations 
and to take the details for granted is one of the rocks upon 
which a good many pedagogical crafts have been wrecked. 
Mental agreement upon a principle never appreciably af- 
fects the procedure of supervisors and teachers unless the 
details that are implied in the principle are set forth defi- 
nitely, are mastered, and are kept clearly in mind at all 
times. For example, the reader may agree with the writer 
that the supervisor and the teachers who work under him 
should have common knowledge concerning the psychologi- 
cal characteristics of adolescents, but, if the writer had not 
set forth the details of the body of common knowledge that 
he had in mind, the reader would not know exactly what 
facts the writer thought ought to be so thoroughly mastered 
and held in mind that they would be readily recognized at 
any tune that they appeared in the behavior of the pupils. 
Moreover, the reader would likely have followed the natu- 
ral tendency to be satisfied with a vague idea of what these 
facts might be, and would not have taken the time and the 
energy to work out a set of details for himself and commit 
them to definite form. The more one commits himself to 
the details that embody a concept or idea of a principle, the 
more one refines his thinking in that particular connection, 
and the more he refines his behavior in getting control over 
the situation. 



INTRODUCTION 19 

Chapter summary. The shifting, unprofessional charac- 
ter of the teaching body makes the provision for competent 
supervision of instruction not only desirable, but necessary. 
The danger of formalism in training of supervisors can be 
met by thorough mastery of the comprehensive body of 
principles that comprise the tools of supervision and ade- 
quate practice in their applications. The undertaking of 
training supervisors involves the setting-forth of the job or 
activities of supervision, and the organizing of the means by 
which supervisors can best be trained to perform their du- 
ties. The remainder of this discussion is devoted to this 
undertaking. 



PART I 
THE JOB OF SUPERVISION 



CHAPTER H 
SUPERVISING ACTIVITIES 

THE activities that are carried on by the supervisor in a 
training school and the activities that are performed by the 
supervisory official in a public school are fundamentally the 
same. Some modifications in emphasis upon this or that 
activity may be necessary in the one field or in the other. 
Such modifications as seem important to note will be indi- 
cated and discussed in the light of their importance in each 
field. In general there seem to be at least eight forms of 
activity that are carried on to a greater or less degree in both 
fields. 

Laying the basis for cooperative teaching. The super- 
visor should realize first of all that he makes his contribution 
to the education of the pupils who are being taught through 
the work of the teachers who teach under his direction. In 
order to make a valid, definite contribution to the education 
of the pupils, the supervisor must secure the hearty coopera- 
tion of the teachers in carrying out his ideas. On the other 
hand, the supervisor must cooperate most heartily with the 
teachers in the performance of their duties so that their in- 
dividual efforts in carrying out his ideas will be most effec- 
tive. In other words, both supervisor and teachers should 
feel that the teaching of the pupils is a mutual undertaking 
to which each must make his contribution in harmonious 
cooperation with the other. 

The first objective, then, that the supervisor should strive 
to attain is the securing of the proper attitude of his teachers 
toward his work with them. He is responsible for working 
out and establishing the definite basis of mutual under- 



24 THE JOB OF SUPERVISION 

standing regarding the duties that he is to perform and the 
duties that the teachers are to perform, so that on the basis 
of common knowledge and common purposes the teachers 
may enter into their work in a spirit of hearty support and 
cooperation. A detailed account of what the supervisor 
may do in laying a definite basis for cooperative teaching 
will be given under the discussion of the first principle of 
method in the first section of Part II. 

Selecting and organizing the subject-matter of courses. 
The supervisor in a training school usually has a fairly free 
hand in shaping the courses under his charge to conform to 
what he thinks these courses ought to be. Even where 
quite definite courses of study are already mapped out by a 
state department of education, or by a department in the 
training institution, the supervisor still has the responsibil- 
ity of adapting the work to the particular groups of pupils 
that are being taught. The supervisor has not only a great 
responsibility in solving the problem of selection and adap- 
tation of subject-matter, but he has also a great opportu- 
nity. In order to make the most of this opportunity, the 
supervisor must know thoroughly the needs of the respec- 
tive groups of pupils who are taught under his direction, and 
he must also know accurately and thoroughly the value of 
the various types and phases of subject-matter that may be 
employed in meeting the needs of the pupils. 

The supervisor who works in a public school system very 
often has the entire responsibility of making up the course of 
study in the line or lines of work that he supervises. If, 
however, the course of study is already mapped out by the 
state department, or by the head of the system in which the 
supervisor works, then, as has just been suggested in refer- 
ence to the supervisor in the training school, the supervisor 
still has the responsibility and the opportunity of adapting 
the subject-matter to the particular groups of pupils who 



SUPERVISING ACTIVITIES 25 

are being taught under his supervision. In any case, the 
supervisor must possess a thoroughgoing knowledge of the 
needs of the pupils and adequately comprehend the value of 
the kinds of subject-matter that may best minister to these 
needs. Moreover, the supervisor must know the limitations 
of the pupils' abilities to accomplish work within the time 
limits of the recitation periods that the school program 
makes possible. 

This task of selecting and organizing subject-matter is a 
very vital one, and the supervisor who does not acquire a 
high degree of skill in carrying out this phase of his work 
will never become a thoroughly efficient and independent 
director of teaching activities. The attainment of a satis- 
factory degree of skill in this line of service demands indus- 
try, insight, and a vast amount of time and energy. The 
supervisor must become conversant with the literature that 
bears upon this problem and he must also become ac- 
quainted with the practices in modern schools in regard to 
problems of curriculum-making that are similar to those 
that he is called upon to solve. If he as a supervisor does 
not have the authority to make needed changes in the 
selection and arrangement of the subject-matter in the 
courses under his charge, he is at least responsible for under- 
taking to convince those who are in authority of the validity 
of the changes that he deems necessary to make. There- 
fore> the supervisor must not only have definite convictions 
concerning curriculum-making, but he must have skill in 
the technique of working out courses in great detail, and he 
must be able to produce evidences in support of his point 
of view in respect to the selection and the arrangement of 
subject-matter. 

Teaching for purposes of experimentation and demon- 
stration. The supervisor, whether he works in a training 
school or in a public school system, should be an expert 



26 THE JOB OF SUPERVISION 

teacher of the lines of work that he undertakes to supervise. 
One of the functions that the supervisor should perform is 
that of bringing about an improvement in the teaching 
process. In order to contribute to this end, he must not 
only be able to see the possibilities of making improvement 
through modifications in the procedure of teaching, but he 
must be able to set up experimental conditions and to carry 
out the actual experiment in a satisfactory manner. The 
supervisor must not only be able to tell others how to do an 
excellent job of teaching, but he should be able to demon- 
strate by actual performance the sort of teaching efficiency 
that he is striving to develop in those who are working under 
his direction. For example, if the supervisor believes that 
the teaching of spelling can be accomplished best by the 
project plan of procedure, then he should be able to set up 
the conditions and to carry on the teaching of spelling by 
that plan for a sufficient length of tune fully to demonstrate 
the validity of the plan and to give the teachers a good ex- 
hibition of skillful teaching of spelling in the form of a proj- 
ect or projects, as the case might be. This means that the 
supervisor must plan to do more or less of teaching, and that 
he should keep in practice so he will not lose his skill and 
efficiency as a teacher. 

The supervisor needs to teach, not only for the purpose of 
experimenting and of demonstrating, but also for the pur- 
pose of discovering the actual difficulties and possibilities 
that exist in the particular teaching situations with which 
he has to deal. He needs to carry on this activity to an ex- 
tent sufficient to enable him to keep a true perspective of 
actual things that the pupils face in pursuing their studies, 
and the things that the teachers face in carrying out their 
duties. In no other way can the supervisor keep himself so 
well in a helpful attitude toward his teachers. 

Directing systematic observation of expert and inexpert 



SUPERVISING ACTIVITIES 27 

teaching performances. This activity is carried on more 
extensively and more intensively in training schools than it 
is in public school systems. More or less of observation 
work, however, is carried on in many of the larger public 
school systems and much more of it could profitably be done. 
The people who do the observing are cadet teachers, supply 
teachers, and even regular teachers who have not had ex- 
tended experience or who desire to improve their work. 
The observing that is ordinarily done in the public school is 
usually general and rather indefinite. The observers are 
left too much to their own devices and not trained system- 
atically in observing definite phases of teaching perform- 
ances. Teachers "visit" schools and carry away only very 
vague general impressions, or at most, perhaps, they copy 
a few devices that seem to be new and novel. 

The supervisor in any case cannot direct the work of ob- 
servation so that it will result in practical development and 
training of teachers unless he himself is a keen, accurate ob- 
server of teaching activities. In addition to this he must 
acquire skill hi directing others in their study of teaching 
performances so that they too will acquire skill in observa- 
tion. In order to accomplish this result, in training teach- 
ers to observe the supervisor must master two vital skills 
that have to be carried on at the same time. The supervisor 
must be able to see what is going on in the teaching perform- 
ance, and he must at the same time know pretty definitely 
what is going on in the minds of the observers. 

The observation, on the part of the supervisor, of the 
observation performance of the teachers is by far the most 
difficult of the two skills. The difficulties that are experi- 
enced by the observers in making a discriminating study of 
the teaching performance must be discovered and overcome 
by proper guidance and practice. A detailed analysis of 
this problem will be given in a later discussion. 



28 THE JOB OF SUPERVISION 

Directing teaching activities. This may be of student- 
teachers, or of regular teachers in public schools. This is 
one of the most obvious of the duties that the supervisor 
must carry out. It is also the activity that makes the most 
searching test of his skill and efficiency. The primary idea 
in the work of supervision is that the supervisor is a director 
of the teaching activities of teachers. Therefore, he must 
seek to discover all the practical phases of the actual teach- 
ing performance that may be materially improved through 
adequate supervision, and then strive to acquire the highest 
degree of skill in directing these activities in such a way as to 
secure the best results. 

Checking up pupil progress. Checking up the progress of 
the pupils who are being taught by the student-teacher, or 
by the regular teacher, and seeing that the work of the pu- 
pils is up to a satisfactory standard, is a fifth important form 
of activity of the supervisor. He is responsible to a large 
extent for the progress that the pupils make under the teach- 
ing that is done under his supervision. The supervisor 
should keep systematic records of the work of the pupils, 
and he should study both the pupils and the teachers as 
they work together, so that ultimately he may be able to 
estimate accurately the actual progress of both pupils and 
teachers. Protecting the welfare of the pupils is a large re- 
sponsibility, and the supervisor must prepare himself to 
meet this duty in a highly satisfactory manner. 

Measuring progress and efficiency of teacher. The 
measurement of the progress and efficiency of the student- 
teacher, or of the regular teacher who teaches under the di- 
rection of the supervisor, is one of the most difficult phases 
of the supervisor's work. He is in the best position of any 
person connected with the work of the teacher under his 
charge to measure intelligently and accurately the actual 
accomplishment of the teacher. The student-teacher must 



SUPERVISING ACTIVITIES 99 

depend upon the fairness, justness, and reliability of the 
supervisor's judgment in determining his grade, credit, and 
recommendation for a teaching position. The regular 
teacher in a public school system must depend upon the re- 
liability and fairness of the supervisor's judgment for his 
grade in success, his recommendation for reemployment, 
and his recommendation for promotion in rank and salary. 
This duty of the supervisor is one of the most far-reaching 
in its results; hence it is one of the most responsible activi- 
ties that he must perform. Therefore the supervisor must 
study faithfully to master a set of practical standards that 
may be used validly in measuring the work of the teacher, 
and he must strive diligently to acquire skill in employing 
the standards. 

Measuring the efficiency of supervision. The supervisor 
should make as careful a measure of his own work as he is 
able to do. This matter is just as important as the measur- 
ing of the work done by the teacher who works under his 
direction. The supervisor should be willing to submit his 
work to the same kind of objective measurements that he 
applies to measuring the work of the teacher. Therefore 
he should master practical standards for measuring his su- 
pervising activities, and he should seek to attain skill in 
applying these standards to his own case. 

The goal of supervision, when the supervisor works in a 
training school, is the making of efficient teachers. When 
the supervisor works in a public school system it is to im- 
prove teachers in service and to secure efficient teaching re- 
sults. The scope of activities performed by the supervisor 
should be the same hi each case. The relation of these ac- 
tivities to the goal he is trying to attain is readily recognized. 
For example, the supervisor could not have much freedom in 
training teachers, or in directing them, if he could not have 
a considerable degree of control over the selection and 



30 THE JOB OF SUPERVISION 

organization of the subject-matter of the courses supervised. 
The same thing is true in reference to the other activities. 
He cannot do a complete piece of work if any of the activi- 
ties enumerated are omitted. The relation of each of these 
activities to the finished product of each of the two types of 
supervisory situations will become more and more apparent 
as the method, devices, and technique are worked out in 
definite detail. 

The supervisory job of the administrator. The fact that 
the superintendent, assistant superintendent, supervising 
principal, and building principal, as has already been 
pointed out, will have to undertake in many school systems 
whatever is attempted in the way of supervision, makes 
clear at once the impossibility of any one of these officials 
carrying out so comprehensive a program of supervising 
activities as has been set forth above. The administrator, 
in such cases, must necessarily select those activities that 
are most important and possible in the particular situation. 
Then, by concentrating upon a few things, he will be able to 
make a material improvement in the work of his teachers. 
If the same teaching force is retained practically intact year 
after year, the administrator can work intensively upon 
different supervisory activities each year. This plan will 
accomplish much better results than can be secured by un- 
dertaking to carry on all of the activities each year, and by 
so doing give only a meager amount of time to each. 

Another plan may be followed in systems where the teach- 
ing force remains relatively the same year after year. This 
plan is that of supervising closely the work of one group of 
teachers one year and that of another group the next, and so 
on around. For example, the work of the first three grades 
might be supervised one year, the intermediate grades the 
next year, and the junior high school the next. The plan 
would need to be modified according to the size of the school 



SUPERVISING ACTIVITIES 31 

systems. In a fairly large system each grade group of teach- 
ers might be as large a group as could well be worked with 
during a year. In smaller systems the teachers might very 
well be handled in two groups in successive years. 

Another plan would be to divide the teachers into groups, 
as has just been suggested, and then work intensively a 
month with each group in succession throughout the year- 
There could also be grouping within the grade groups so 
that those who most needed the help of supervision would 
get the most. The best-trained teachers, for example, and 
those who had worked longest with the administrator, would 
likely need less of supervisory assistance than the others. 

A still further plan would be that of undertaking the su- 
pervision of the teaching of certain subjects one year, and 
other subjects another year, and so on. For example, the 
teaching of geography and history might be given the great- 
est emphasis one year, reading and spelling another year, 
language and grammar another year, arithmetic and man- 
ual arts another year, and the other subjects another year. 
This plan might be combined with one of the above plans 
according to the size of the school system. For instance, in 
some systems the supervision of reading and spelling hi just 
the primary grades might well be all that could be under- 
taken seriously during a year. 

The administrator who is trained thoroughly for the job 
of supervision will be able to determine the best plan to fol- 
low in his particular situation and to initiate a constructive 
program of supervision that will extend over several years. 
He can then set forth his program to his school board and to 
his corps of teachers. By undertaking each year only that 
which can be reasonably accomplished, and by intensive, 
thorough work, he can demonstrate the value of the super- 
vision undertaken and show genuine progress toward greater 
efficiency in the schools. 



32 THE JOB OF SUPERVISION 

Chapter summary. The supervisor must carry out eight 
distinct pieces of work. He must lay the basis for effective 
cooperative teaching; select and organize the subject-mat- 
ter of courses of study; teach for purposes of demonstration 
and experimentation; direct systematic observation; direct 
the teaching activities of his teachers; check up the progress 
made by the pupils; measure the efficiency and progress of 
his teachers; and measure the efficiency of his own super- 
vising performances. The performance of these various 
pieces of work demands thorough training pointed specifi- 
cally to these distinct activities. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Make a list of points of contact between the supervisor and his teach- 
ers that demand cooperation. 

2. Construct a set of suggestions that would help one in justifying his 
selection and organization of subject-matter in any subject. 

3. Name five teaching possibilities or problems that supervisors might 
well experiment with in their teaching. 

4. Estimate the amount of time that should be distributed to each of the 
eight supervising activities daily, weekly, monthly, yearly in an ele- 
mentary school. 

5. Estimate the amount that should be distributed to each of the eight 
supervising activities daily, weekly, monthly, yearly in a secondary 
school. 



PART II 

PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE SUPERVISION 
OF INSTRUCTION 



SECTION A 
SUPERVISORY METHOD 

CHAPTER III 
THE FIRST PRINCIPLE OF METHOD 

Necessity for common knowledge. The first principle of 
method is that the supervisor and the teachers who work 
under his direction must possess common knowledge, aiid 
hold common points of view concerning the school situation 
in which they are working together. 

The most important general aspects that are found in any 
school situation are suggested below. 

I. The school as to its 

A. Fundamental purpose 

B. Place in the educational systems and 

C. Curriculum 
II. Pupils as to their 

A. Dominant physiological characteristics 

B. Psychological traits and characteristic tendencies; and 

C. Social status and outlook 

HI. General principles of method of teaching; and 
IV. Method of teaching the particular subject or subjects 
V. General principles of devices 
VI. General principles of technique 
VII. Standards for judging the results of teaching 
VIII. Relations that the teacher and supervisor are to bear to the 
pupils being taught, and to the administrator in matters of 
management 

IX. Relations that should exist between supervisor and teacher; 
that is, the purpose and service that the supervisor is to 
accomplish 

Teaching a cooperative enterprise. The validity of this 
first principle is grounded in the idea that teaching under 



36 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

supervision is a cooperative enterprise; therefore each party 
to the undertaking must possess the means by which genu- 
ine cooperation may be accomplished. Teacher and super- 
visor must come to think in similar terms, and to talk the 
same language in the interchange of ideas. That is to say, 
they must see, think, and talk about the same points or 
problems. They cannot well do this if they do not start out 
together with a definite understanding of what they are 
seeking to do, and agree as to exactly how they will under- 
take to get it done. 

If the student-teacher, or the regular teacher, is lacking in 
knowledge of fundamental facts and principles, he cannot 
understand the suggestions of the supervisor, and very often 
the criticisms will seem quite harsh and unjust. On the 
other hand, if the Supervisor does not know what the teacher 
has in mind, he cannot have a sympathetic attitude toward 
the teaching performance. If the teacher holds one point of 
view and the supervisor holds one radically different, then 
very little beneficial results can come from the work of the 
supervisor. The teacher will teach in accordance with his 
point of view, and the supervisor will criticize the teaching 
from his point of view. The result will be unsympathetic, 
caustic criticisms on the one hand ; and resentful, prejudiced 
antagonism on the other. Neither the teacher nor the su- 
pervisor should be groping around in the dark as to what 
the other has in mind at any time, and most of all they should 
never be working from different points of view or at cross- 
purposes. Therefore both teacher and supervisor should un- 
derstand the full significance of this first principle, and they 
should seek assiduously to make its realization the founda- 
tion upon which their whole cooperative endeavor rests. 

The validity of this principle and the necessity for get- 
ting it thoroughly established and fully realized will be 
brought out more clearly and forcibly by a somewhat de- 



THE FIRST PRINCIPLE OF METHOD 37 

tailed discussion of the fundamental facts and points of 
view that may well be taken as the basis for cooperative 
teaching in an elementary school, and those that may be 
taken for the basis of cooperative teaching in a secondary 
school. 

Chapter summary. The first principle in supervision is 
that the supervisor and the teacher must possess common 
knowledge concerning the school as an institution, the im- 
portant characteristics of the pupils, general and special 
principles of method, principles of devices, principles of 
technique, standards for measuring the results of teaching, 
relation of teacher and supervisor to management, and the 
specific function of the supervisor. The supervisor is chiefly 
responsible for securing the realization of this principle in his 
work. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Give two or more cases from experience in which the teacher and su- 
pervisor held antagonistic views concerning the purpose of the ele- 
mentary school. State the effect upon their work. 

2. Give three or more cases from experience in which the teacher and 
supervisor held opposite points of view concerning certain psychologi- 
cal traits of children. State the effect upon their work. 

S. Give two or more examples from experience of the results upon the 
supervisor's work of not having clear distinctions in mind between 
general principles and special principles of method. 

4. Give two illustrations of the results upon the work of the supervisor of 
not having a definite idea of his relation to problems of school man- 
agement. 

5. Give two or more illustrations of the results upon the work of the su- 
pervisor of having an autocratic idea concerning his relation to mat- 
ters of management. 

6. Give three cases from experience in which neither the supervisor nor 
the teacher had any clear-cut conception of the function of the super- 
visor. What were the results? 

7. Give two cases from experience in which the supervisor regarded his 
work as that of an inspector, and assumed no responsibility for the 
improvement of his teachers. What were the results? 

8. Give two cases from experience in which the supervisor regarded his 
work as setting tasks for teachers to perform. What were the remits? 



CHAPTER IV 

PARTICULAR BASIS FOR CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING 
IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 

1. The elementary school as an institution 

The purpose of the elementary school. The purpose of 
the elementary school is to administer to the needs of child- 
hood. These needs are intellectual, physical, moral, and 
social. The intellectual need is a thorough mastery of the 
fundamental tools of learning, and an accumulation of use- 
ful bodies of knowledge. The physical need is stimulation 
of normal, healthy growth of the body, safeguarding the 
vital sense organs against undue strain and development of 
defects, and the discovery and correction of physical de- 
fects. The moral need is a setting-up and maintaining of 
recognized standards of conduct and insistence upon obedi- 
ence to rightful authority. The social need is an organiza- 
tion of group activities of every kind that belong in the life 
of the public school, that will afford opportunities for in- 
dividual responsibilities and individual contributions to the 
activities carried on, and that at the same time unify the 
efforts of all hi the final accomplishing of group purposes. 

This conception of purpose, as stated in detail, will enable 
the teacher and the supervisor to point their efforts to spe- 
cific educational problems in attempting to meet the needs 
of children. This conception will become clearer as one 
studies the characteristics of childhood that are set forth 
below. The importance, however, of stating and agreeing 
even tentatively upon the specific aspects of purpose is 
obvious. 

The place of the elementary school. The place of the 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING ELEMENTARY 39 

elementary school, as has been indicated by the statement 
of purpose, is at the beginning of the scheme of systematic 
education. The elementary school is the school for chil- 
dren. The home is the school of infancy. The infant is 
helpless and requires parental care. Infancy gives way to 
childhood as the activities of the individual become more 
and more controlled and self -directed. Finally the individ- 
ual reaches the stage of development where he can profit by 
systematic efforts and organized means of assisting him in 
acquiring experience and training. Children of four and 
five years of age are ready for a modification of the abso- 
lutely free, spontaneous life that they have been leading, 
and can profit by such systematic organized means as the 
kindergarten affords for the gradual change toward a well- 
ordered regime of conduct. 

The kindergarten is the first stage of the elementary 
school. It should be adapted to administer to the detailed 
needs, already set forth, of children of ages four and five. 
The second stage of the elementary school is the primary. 
It is the stage in which the systematic mastery of the funda- 
mental tools of learning is emphasized. Definite stages of 
mastery are marked out and their accomplishment seriously 
undertaken. In fact, the child is not expected to pass on 
to the next stage until the primary stages of mastering the 
elements of knowledge are satisfactorily completed. The 
third stage is the last division of the elementary school of 
the present time. That is to say, the general trend at least 
of educational reorganization is in the direction of a seven- 
or eight-year elementary school, beginning with a kinder- 
garten of one or two years and ending with what is ordina- 
rily considered the sixth year of the elementary school. This 
last stage, then, covers what are usually designated as the 
intermediate grades, or grades four, five, and six. This 
organization of the field of the elementary school is based 



40 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

upon the psychological evidence that childhood is giving 
way to adolescence, or the secondary period of human de- 
velopment, at about eleven years of age. The elementary 
school, therefore, should complete its training by the end of 
the present sixth grade; that is, by the time the child reaches 
twelve years of age and is passing rapidly into the adolescent 
stage of development. The secondary school, as will be 
shown later, should begin normally at this age. 

Curriculum of the elementary school. The curriculum 
of the elementary school, as has been indicated by the state- 
ment of purpose and place, should include at least three 
important aspects of subject-matter. These types of sub- 
ject-matter should be emphasized in the order in which 
they are enumerated, as follows : fundamental tools of learn- 
ing, fundamental bodies of knowledge, and fundamental 
manual arts. The tools of learning are reading, arithme- 
tic, writing, spelling, and language, which includes compo- 
sition and grammar. The fundamental bodies of knowledge 
are American history, geography, history and current knowl- 
edge of trades and industries, agriculture, physiology, and 
hygiene. The fundamental manual arts are manual train- 
ing and household economics or home-making. The selec- 
tion of the subject-matter for each of these phases of ele- 
mentary education should be determined by the mental 
characteristics and capabilities of childhood, and by the 
degree of mastery attained in each grade over the funda- 
mental tools of learning. The subject-matter that is to be 
employed in giving the pupils mastery over these tools of 
learning should be very carefully selected and graded so as 
to give it a progressive development of complexity and 
difficulty. The subject-matter of the other two aspects of 
training should be selected according to the degree of mas- 
tery attained over the fundamental tools of learning, so 
that they can be employed to advantage in mastering the 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING ELEMENTARY 41 

fundamental bodies of knowledge and manual arts, and the 
subject-matter of these divisions should also be selected 
according to the mental characteristics and tendencies of 
childhood. 

2. Pupils of the elementary school 

Dominant physiological characteristics. The dominant 
physiological characteristics of childhood are as follows: 

1. Rapid growth of the brain mass, which is practically full grown 
at ages nine and ten. 

2. Rapid development of reflex motor coordinations. 

3. Rapid development of voluntary motor coordinations. 

4. Spontaneous motor reactions to stimuli. 

5. Active sensory processes. 

6. Sense organs easily strained and injured. 

7. Relatively rapid changes in growth of the cartilaginous portions 
of the bones into osseous tissue, and corresponding tendency to 
derangement of articulations and normal bone formation due to 
excessive strain. 

8. Susceptibility to colds, and to the so-called children's diseases. 

9. Acute sensitiveness to pain, and to variations from normal tem- 
perature of atmosphere. 

These physiological characteristics have a profound bear- 
ing upon the problems of length of school sessions, length 
of recitations, frequency and length of play intermissions, 
playground activities, lighting, heating, and ventilating of 
schoolrooms, seating, use of blackboards, intensive straining 
drills and exercises, measures of discipline, retardation in 
mental work, acceleration in mental work, and other prob- 
lems of the more general management of the school. 

Psychological characteristics. The dominant psychologi- 
cal characteristics of childhood are as follows: 

1. Extreme suggestibility of the physiological and motor types. 

2. Impulsive, spontaneous action before reflection can take place. 

3. Shifting interests. 



42 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

4. Certain instincts more strongly active than others. The most 
characteristic ones are: 

a. Imitation, particularly of unconscious type. 

b. Curiosity. 

c. Self-satisfaction or selfishness. 

d. Fear. 

e. Play, which manifests three types, namely, individualistic, 
cooperative, competitive. 

/. Gregariousness, or gang spirit. 
g. Fight. 

h. Approbation and friendliness. 
i. Jealousy. 

5. Imagination of fanciful type very active. This is often mis- 
taken for vicious, premeditated lying. 

6. Credulity very great. 

7. Volition vacillating and easily influenced. 

8. Emotions easily excited, but impressions fault and fleeting. 

Relation of these characteristics to schoolroom procedure. 
These psychological characteristics have a definite relation 
to the problems of length of recitations, selection of devices, 
general management, and selection and organization of sub- 
ject-matter. Take imitation for example. The teacher 
and supervisor should utilize this instinct through the em- 
ployment of devices that will not only stimulate uncon- 
scious imitation, but also provide for opportunities con- 
sciously to imitate correct performances. Moreover, they 
should be careful that, particularly in the moral field, the 
pupils shall have worthy models and standards to imitate. 
The example in conduct set by the teacher and supervisor, 
for instance, should be of the character that stimulates imi- 
tation, and that when imitated leads to wholesome results. 
Many opportunities arise in the teaching of the elementary- 
school subjects for utilizing imitation through proper de- 
vices, and through the technique of the teacher. The 
teacher and supervisor should not only have these psycho- 
logical characteristics definitely in mind, but they should 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING ELEMENTARY 43 

also have a definite understanding as to the specific ways in 
which these various traits and tendencies can be utilized in 
teaching. The supervisor should work out a detailed list of 
such possible utilizations, according to the grade, and the 
subject-matter of the subjects being taught. This will give 
the teacher an opportunity to understand the supervisor's 
point of view and to work in agreement with it. 

Social status of children. The children of the elementary 
school are dependents. They are not called upon by society 
to perform social activities of real vital significance. In 
fact, society tends to foster helplessness and dependency in 
childhood by providing everything for the children and giv- 
ing them nothing to say about what shall be provided. The 
school affords an opportunity for stimulating personal re- 
sponsibility and for giving individuals social problems to 
solve. The right of childhood to social recognition can be 
provided for in recitation work, on the playground, and in 
general group life of the school. Teacher and supervisor 
should agree upon the definite types of social situations that 
the particular school situation affords, and agree upon the 
provisions that should be made for according children whole- 
some kinds of social recognition. 

Chapter summary. The particular basis for cooperative 
teaching in the elementary school involves: an agreement 
that the purpose of the elementary school is to equip pupils 
with the fundamental tools of learning; that the place of the 
elementary school is that of the first or childhood school, and 
that the curriculum should include the fundamental tools of 
learning, fundamental bodies of knowledge, and fundamen- 
tal manual arts; an understanding of the important physio- 
logical and psychological characteristics of childhood, and 
the social status and outlook of children during this period. 
These principles must be applied to concrete individual 
cases in order to make them effective in dealing with children. 



44 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Name at least five group activities that normally belong to elemen- 
tary-school life, and indicate their essential characteristics. 

2. What are some of the first lines of training that should be taken up 
systematically in the kindergarten? 

8. Name at least five reflex motor coordinations that are developed fully 
in childhood. 

4. Name five voluntary motor coordinations that are developed during 
the period of childhood. 

5. Give in detail two illustrations of spontaneous motor reactions of 
children, that have come under your observation. 

6. What proofs can you give that the child's sensory processes are very 
active? 

7. Give at least two examples of injury to children's sense organs, that 
you have observed, that could have been avoided. 

8. Give specific examples of malformations of bodily growth that have 
been due to improper school conditions. 

9. Give two examples of childish conduct that were due to physiological 
suggestion. 

10. Give two examples of childish conduct that were due to impulsiveness 
and lack of reflection. 

11. Give three examples of how childish interests shift. 

12. Give two examples of the use of unconscious imitation in school work. 
Give two examples of the use of conscious imitation. 

13. What types of play are most emphasized in childhood? Give exam- 
ples. 

14. How can the gang spirit be capitalized to good advantage in the ele- 
mentary school? 

15. How can the instinct to fight be used to advantage in teaching the 
elementary-school subjects? 

16. Give five examples of children's lies and explain the psychology in- 
volved. 

17. Illustrate some of the ways in which teachers unintentionally play 
upon the credulity of children. 

18. What is the chief problem presented to the teacher by the vacillating 
will of the child? 



CHAPTER V 

PARTICULAR BASIS FOR CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING 
IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL 

1. The secondary school 

The purpose of the secondary school. The purpose of the 
secondary school is to administer to every phase of growth 
and development of adolescent boys and girls during their 
secondary period of existence. In other words, the second- 
ary school is the chief agency for maturing adolescent hu- 
man beings mentally, morally, and physically. The needs 
of these young people are determined primarily by the 
dominant mental traits and tendencies and the critical 
physiological changes which come during the secondary 
period of human life; and their needs are determined second- 
arily by the present and future demands made upon them 
by society as productive, reliable, useful citizens. Fortu- 
nately the good of the individual and the good of society are 
not antagonistic. Therefore, the best welfare of the indi- 
vidual and the best interests of society can be secured simul- 
taneously by the proper selection, organization, administra- 
tion, and teaching of subject-matter that meets the needs of 
adolescent boys and girls. That is to say, adolescent boys 
and girls can be brought up to fully developed and well- 
balanced maturity in such a way that they will live sane, 
productive lives, and at the same time under the same train- 
ing they can be prepared to take on some form of specialized 
training in college, if they so choose, or to enter some useful 
occupation. 

The purpose of the secondary school may be stated some- 
what more definitely by comparing it with the purpose of 



46 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

the elementary school and the purpose of the college or uni- 
versity. The purpose of the elementary school is to give 
children the fundamental tools of knowledge. The college 
or university is to give students a rather highly specialized 
training that will fit them to do certain specific things with a 
high degree of efficiency. The secondary school is to de- 
velop every physical, mental, and moral faculty of adoles- 
cents to such degree that they may find their greatest possi- 
bilities, and make an intelligent selection of their work for 
life. It is the laboratory in which the human material for 
future society's building is to be thoroughly tested, accu- 
rately selected, and to a considerable extent vocationally 
directed and trained. 

The purpose stated negatively. The purpose of the sec- 
ondary school may also be stated negatively, in order to get 
away from certain traditional conceptions on the one hand 
and certain modern conceptions on the other. The second- 
ary school is not a preparatory school for colleges and uni- 
versities. Graduates of the secondary school, however, 
should be able to take care of themselves in colleges and 
universities if they choose to enter these institutions. 
Again the secondary school is not a trade school. Gradu- 
ates, however, should be able to enter certain trades and in- 
dustries with little or no further special training. Finally 
the secondary school is not a place in which individuals are 
to follow haphazard, one-sided lines of study. Human life 
is complex and interests are manifold; hence the develop- 
ment of minor traits and tendencies is as necessary as the 
development of the most promising talents that individuals 
possess. The secondary school must seek to organize the 
growths and developments of the many aspects of human 
activities into definite, matured results; hence it must not 
be an opportunistic school. Natural interests and native 
Capacities should, however, be given opportunity for de- 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 47 

velopment along lines of least resistance. The secondary 
school, then, is no one of these types in particular, but it is 
all of them with equal emphasis. 

The place of the secondary school. The place of the 
secondary school in the whole scheme of education is, as in- 
dicated by the statement of purpose, between the elemen- 
tary school, on the one hand, and the college or university, or 
entrance into some vocation, on the other. It is the school 
for adolescents, and since the range in age for the adolescent 
period is approximately from eleven or twelve to twenty or 
twenty -one, it should cover a period of at least six years, and 
possibly seven or eight. This means that the secondary 
school should begin at the close of the six-year elementary 
school, and continue through a period that shall be long 
enough to bring those who graduate from its courses up to a 
desired degree of maturity and to prepare them for entrance 
into some higher school for special training, or to enter upon 
some useful vocation. Under present conditions a six-year 
period seems to be fairly adequate. As the elementary 
school succeeds more and more in equipping the pupils, who 
complete its curriculum, with the fundamental tools of 
learning and gives more and more thorough mastery over 
essential bodies of knowledge, and as the secondary school 
succeeds in bringing its pupils up through its courses with- 
out loss of time, the time will soon arrive when practically 
all of the graduates from the secondary school will have 
completed the required fifteen or sixteen units of credit be- 
fore they have reached full mature development. This 
fact, and the fact that the first two years of college work are 
general in character and intended to help students find 
themselves in order that they may make a wise selection of 
some line of specialization, seem to point in the direction of 
an extension of the time spent in the secondary school to a 
period of seven or eight years, or, in other words, so that 



48 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

the first two years of college work will be included in the 
curriculum of the secondary school. 

Agreement upon this point of view is important, espe- 
cially for the reason that it enables the teacher and super- 
visor to determine definitely the kind and degree of training 
that may reasonably be expected from the elementary 
school as a basis for taking up secondary-school subjects. 
It is also important in keeping constantly before the teacher 
and supervisor the various future possibilities of the pupils 
after they have reached mature years. This point of view 
broadens the perspective of those who undertake really to 
educate adolescent boys and girls, and helps to keep atten- 
tion centered on the boys and girls themselves. If this 
point of view is clearly comprehended and strictly adhered 
to, then the efforts of both teacher and supervisor will be 
properly placed at all tunes. The secondary school will 
neither assume the role of the elementary school in its first 
years nor the place of the adult school in its upper years, but 
it will properly place its efforts in dealing with beginning 
adolescence, distinctive adolescence, and maturing adoles- 
cence. 

The beginning stage of adolescence. This extends ap- 
proximately from eleven to thirteen inclusive. The boys 
and girls during this period manifest many of the tendencies 
of full adolescence. The school must adjust its require- 
ments in scholastic attainment to meet both of these phases 
of the pupil's nature. The traits of childhood should disap- 
pear under the training of the school, and the growing tend- 
encies of the more fully developed adolescent individual 
must be recognized and utilized to the best advantage. 
These pupils must be given sympathetic consideration when 
they do absolutely childish things, and again they should be 
given courteous, respectful treatment when they try to act 
like older people. They will have their times of feeling very 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 49 

wise and important. They should be consulted to a suffi- 
cient degree to make them feel the thrill of personal respon- 
sibility. On the other hand, they should not be given too 
full rein and not too much consideration for fear of spoiling 
the effect of proper social recognition. 

The second period of adolescent development. This ex- 
tends from about fourteen to seventeen inclusive. This is 
the period of deepest stress and strain. The individual is 
for the most part very little inclined to feel like a child, but 
is practically all the time seeing his relation to the world in 
terms of adult responsibility. The adolescent youth does 
exhibit very many childish points of view in meeting situa- 
tions that arise, and is far from having the adult conception 
of most things, but the individual must be given much the 
same recognition that would be accorded an adult under 
similar circumstances. In other words, the adolescent at 
this period of development should never be treated as a 
child. This does not mean that he can or should be left 
entirely to his own devices, and allowed to make his own 
choices and decide all the issues that come up. Indeed, 
quite the contrary. The youth must be kept face to face 
with the fundamental problems. While he should be held 
responsible to do things, the teacher and supervisor are re- 
sponsible to see that he is made responsible and also that he 
meets his responsibility. This seems like a paradox, and yet 
it is true that the youth must be made responsible for his 
conduct and at the same time he must be made to fulfill his 
responsibility. 

The third stage of adolescence. This extends from eight- 
een on to twenty or twenty-one inclusive. This is the stage 
during which the responsibility can and should be shifted to 
considerable degree to the individual himself. The young 
man and woman at this period should begin to have definite 
ideas about their future work and training. They should 



60 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

be given very large opportunities to seek advice and obtain 
definite information concerning the different electives and 
the things toward which they lead. Moreover, the subjects 
that are adapted to pupils of this stage of development 
should have tangible values that are readily recognized and 
worth while. One of the problems of secondary education 
is to define every subject in the whole curriculum in terms 
of definitely recognized values, but especially does this need 
to be done in regard to those subjects that are offered only 
to upper-class pupils, and the subjects that now constitute 
the preliminary college courses for the first two years. The 
school should begin, through giving opportunities for choice 
of subjects, to test the maturity of the pre-adult youth. 
Definite indications of maturity of purposes, maturity of 
thinking, and maturity of behaving should be manifested by 
this group of adolescents, and the school should show that it 
expects to find these evidences in its own product. 

The curriculum. The two demands set forth above, that 
are insistent upon the secondary school, can be realized 
only by proper selection, organization, administration, and 
teaching of subject-matter. The selection of fields of sub- 
ject-matter or subjects should be guided by at least four 
considerations; namely, the character and extent of the ele- 
mentary-school training that may be reasonably pre-sup- 
posed as a foundation for secondary-school education, the 
character and extent of the special lines of training from 
which the students may choose upon entering college or 
university, the lines of industry and vocations upon which 
one may enter without making extended special prepara- 
tion, and the dominant mental, moral, and physical traits 
and tendencies of adolescents at the three recognized levels 
of adolescent development. 

This means that practically every phase of manual, lit- 
erary, linguistic, scientific, and artistic training should i be 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACfiWG 'SECONDARY 31 

found in the curriculum of the; secondary sehooh The or- 
ganization, administration, and teaching of the subject- 
matter within each subject should be determined almost 
wholly by the central purpose for which the human race has 
brought the subject-matter into existence, and by the domi- 
nant characteristics and- tendencies df adolescence at what- 
ever level of adolescent development the group studying the 
subject may be 1 . ' Young people should ultimately dome to 
an? understanding and an appreciation of the 'Conventional 
significance which attaches to all subject-matter! They 
should approach this conventional* Value; -however, psycho- 
logically rather than historically or otherwise. 

The psychological approach. The approach to the con- 
ventional significance -of subject-matter must proceed from 
the point of view of the immature mind as the starting- 
point, and, through carefully graded steps of increasing diffi- 
culty and complexity, develop the thinking of the individual 
up to the mature or conventional point of view. This de- 
velopment of the maturing mind through the conventional 
significance of the subject-matter should come as a growth 
and development of the thinking of the individual, and no 
attempt should be made to force the adult point of view 
upon the adolescent mind. The psychological approach, 
then, means beginning with the interest that the immature 
individual has in the problem, and with the simpler, more 
fundamental aspects of it that fall within the range of ado- 
lescent experience. The problem is to extend this experi- 
ence until the adult or conventional point of view is inter- 
esting and natural to assume. 

The road over which the adolescent youth of to-day may 
travel to reach the mature appreciation of the value of things 
need not be the same road of actual sequence or experiences 
through which the race has passed. Modern conditions 
short-cut the route to many things. Many problems that 



52 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

engrossed the attention of the race for years are now taken 
as a matter of course by the youth. Therefore the historical 
approach to many modern problems is tedious, and not only 
uninteresting, but even valueless. The principles involved 
in many problems are the same as those involved in the 
same types of problems of past decades, but the conditions 
under which these problems now arise are so vastly changed 
that the old or historical approach is not of interest or value. 
By psychological approach, then, is meant the most direct 
road over which the adolescent individual may grow from 
an immature appreciation of the values of subject-matter to 
a full understanding and appreciation of the values that are 
now conventionally accepted as of most worth. 

The purpose of the studies. The curriculum of the sec- 
ondary school must be regarded as a means to an end, and 
not the end itself. The study of any subject should contrib- 
ute to the education of the student; that is, to the maturing 
of the student's mental habits. The study of French, for 
example, should result in the maturing of one's linguistic 
habits. French thus becomes the means of education, and 
not the end. If teacher and supervisor hold this point of 
view they will be more anxious about the maturing of defi- 
nite linguistic habits than about the development of the 
subject. The matter of covering so many rules and princi- 
ples in grammar, or of reading so many pages of literary 
material in the foreign language, will no longer be the guide 
and standard that impel the hurrying along in order that 
the traditional ground may be gone over. On the contrary, 
the question that will be uppermost all the time will be, 
What is the study of French doing to the linguistic habits of 
the student? The fact is that the future intelligence of the 
student will not be greatly affected by the failure to remem- 
ber French vocabulary and grammatical rules, and that the 
student who acquires but little facility in the use of the 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 53 

French language will, in a very large number of cases, make 
as much use in after life of the education that he received 
from the study of the language as the best student in the 
class will make of the education he receives from the study. 
The important question is whether or not each student 
acquired the fullest amount of mental development that 
was possible for him to receive from the study of the lan- 
guage. If this has been accomplished, then the teaching of 
French has resulted hi the education of both types of stu- 
dents. 

Thinking in terms of the student. The importance of 
holding to this point of view, not merely agreeing to it, can- 
not, in the writer's judgment, be too strongly emphasized. 
Teacher and supervisor are inclined to think in terms of the 
subject instead of in terms of the student. Subject-matter 
has been standardized instead of the stages of mental ma- 
turity of students. The teacher and supervisor have been 
dealing with the subject so long that it has become a familiar 
acquaintance; hence it has become more or less a sacred 
thing. The subject has become a habit with them; it is re- 
garded as something permanent and abiding; hence to leave 
out any of the sacred facts seems almost sacrilegious and 
criminal. On the other hand, the student is transient. 
Students come and students go; hence to leave the student 
out is justifiable. In fact, leaving the student out may be 
getting rid of an unappreciative butcher who haggles and 
mangles the sacred subject most horribly in his attempts to 
find food for mental maturing. The relief that is usually 
manifested by teachers and supervisors when the student 
who is not " getting on " in the subject drops out is a defi- 
nite indication that the subject is more important to them 
than is the student. Whenever teachers and supervisors 
begin talking about education by means of the subject 
" getting on " in the student instead of the student " getting 



64 4 , , T ..., SUPERVISORY METHOD ., ,.,,. 

on " in the subject, then a radical change will come about in 
the teaching in secondary schools. 

i ''> i i '** ' ' * ' * 

2. The pupils of the secondary school 

Traits and tendencies. The points that require common 
agreement are those concerning the dominant physiological 
and psychological traits and tendencies of adolescent boys 
and girls and their social status and outlook. The teacher 
arid supervisor must not only recognize the "fundamental 
facts as to what these traits and tendencies are, but they 
must see the direct bearing that they have upon the educa- 
tional activities of the secondary-school pupils. The sig- 
nificance of the three sets of facts for educational practice 
can best be realized by enumerating them in separate lists, 
and then discussing the most important bearings that they 
have upon the work of the teacher and supervisor. 

Physiological traits. The most important physiological 
traits of adolescents are as follows: 

1 . Rapid functioning of higher brain centers. 

2. Excess of energy and restless, excessive physical activities at 
v- times, and extreme Sluggishness and averseiiess to any sort of 

physical effort at other times*, ,,..;.:, v ... 

8. Alternate periods of lpw bodily grpwth, which are attended, 
respectively, by relatively, slow and rapid, mental progress. .;_, 

4. Completion of practically all of tfre coordinations that the in- 
dividual will'^ver possess. 

5.> -Extremely awkward, Ungainly, and bungling general coordina- 
' .tions, but great .facility for forming specific finer, coordinations. 

6. Enormpus increase, in the. size pf the heaijt.an,d jji ^Jood pressure. 

7. Profound, organic changes due to the maturing pf the sex organs. 

* Psychological characteristics. The significant psycholog- 
ical characteristics are as follows: -> > 

11 Mental, 'embtional, moral, and motor habit formation, rela- 
tively rapid and permanent. 
2. Manifestation and; relatively rapid development of many in- 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 55 

stincts which take on new significance for the individual during 
this period. The most important of these are: 

a. Self-assertion and individuality. 

b. Social recognition and prestige. 

c. Attraction toward the opposite sex. 

d. Rivalry and emulation. . 

e. Spirit of romance and love of adventure. 
/. Pugnacity and love of combat. 

g. Acquisition of material possessions. 

h. Leadership and fellowship. 

t. Display and desire to attract attention, and their opposites. 

j. Tendency to tease. 

k. Play of the motor, intellectual, emotional, and volitional 

types. 

8. General uncertainty of intellectual, emotional, and moral be- 
havior, which is manifested by their: 

a. Uncertainty of choices of subjects and future vocations. 

b. Tendency to follow what seem to be the lines of least re- 
sistance. 

c. Rashness in deciding important matters upon very meager 
and insufficient data. 

d. Fickleness of purpose and vacillation of will power hi the 
face of difficulties. 

e. Extreme stubbornness at times, and at other tunes un- 
usual meekness, 

/. Tendency to be hysterical hi critical situations, or to be 
exceedingly cool, indifferent, and self-contained. 

g. Tendency to be bold, to bluff, and to take long chances, or 
to evade, to prevaricate, conceal, and use soft solder. 

h. High susceptibility to suggestion and vivid power of imag- 
ination, which often leads them to make very erratic in- 
terpretations of the conduct and motives of others. 

4. General mental alertness and interest in the dominant qualities 
of things. 

5. Philosophical turn of mind and tendency to question the valid- 
. ity of practically every phase of fact and truth. 

6. Dominant interest fluctuating between theory, principles, and 
abstract truths on the one hand, and actual experience and 
practice in mastering material things through the application of 
theories and principles on the other. 

7. Religious attitude. 



56 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

Social status and outlook. The important items con- 
cerning the social status and outlook of the pupils of the 
secondary school cover the following range of conditions : , 

1. Present social status economically. 

a. Total dependency for food, clothing, shelter, and spending- 

money. 
6. Partially self-supporting. 

c. Self-supporting. 

d. Self-supporting and contributing to the support of others. 

2. Outlook for future economic social status. 

a. Total dependency for indefinite period of time due to eco- 
nomic resources of parents. 

6. Partially self-supporting at close of secondary school a 
necessity. 

c. Wholly self-supporting at close of secondary education a 
necessity. 

d. Self-supporting and contributing to the support of others 
at close of secondary education a necessity. 

3. Present social activities make very few demands for use of 
scholastic attainments in particular subjects. These activities 
are such as: 

a. Social functions; that is, parties, picnics, etc. 

6. Church activities. 

c. Civic enterprises. 

d. Home life. 

e. General affairs of school life, such as: 

(1) Assemblies. 

(2) Literary societies, clubs, etc. 

(3) Athletics. 

4. Future social activities, such as social functions, church activi- 
ties, etc., make few specific demands upon scholastic attain- 
ments in particular subjects. 

5. Future social activities of an economic and industrial nature 
demand specific scholastic attainments in particular subjects. 

The vital question to raise at this point is what beneficial 
effect will the agreement of teacher and supervisor upon 
these various items concerning the physiological, psycho- 
logical, and social characteristics of adolescent boys and 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 57 

girls have upon the process of cooperative teaching? In 
other words, what bearing do these facts have upon the 
education of adolescents, so that by knowing these facts one 
may be able better to adapt his procedure in dealing with 
the teaching problems in the secondary school? The exact 
influence that each of the above-enumerated items has upon 
the intellectual, emotional, moral, and motor activities of 
adolescent individuals is not at all definite and accurately 
known, but their bearing in total is readily recognized and 
should not be ignored by those who undertake to direct the 
educational activities of youth. 

Physical conditions and adolescent development. What, 
then, are the general effects of the combined physical con- 
ditions of the secondary period of development? One im- 
portant effect is the general instability of the central nervous 
system, and another is the enormous burden placed upon 
the circulatory system. These two should be thought of to- 
gether because they are so much affected by the same condi- 
tions. The nervous system is easily excited, and accelerated 
circulation of the blood accompanies this excitement. Even 
very simple situations may arouse such a condition of ex- 
treme nervousness and rapid circulation that the individual 
is for the time incapacitated to make a satisfactory normal 
reaction. The teacher may be ignorant of this fact, or he 
may be unobservant of the indications of the actual physical 
strain and confusion that the pupil is undergoing. The re- 
sult is that he deals with the case in such a way that the 
strain and confusion are increased instead of being relieved. 
Stimuli are multiplied right at the time when they should 
be decreased, and the pupil is relentlessly pursued when he 
should be sympathetically led and guided. The ignorant 
teacher not infrequently imposes physical conditions, such 
as standing at the blackboard to do a piece of work, or stand- 
ing before the class while grilling questions are asked in 



68 , ,,,, , SUPERVISORY METHOD 

rapid, confusing, third-degree fashion, when instead the 
pupil needs a few moments of calm repose in order to clear 
the disturbed neural pathways and restore circulation bal- 
ance. 

The supervisor may be as ignorant or as unobservant, as 
the teacher. If this is the case, then no remedy will come 
through the advice and guidance of the one who should oe 
ekpert in such matters. But if the teacher and the super- 
visor both know the significance of these physical tenden- 
cies, then the supervisor at least should be able, to diagnose 
the situation correctly and the teacher will be able to ap- 
preciate his suggestions and to profit by them in dealing 
with similar cases in the future. 

Adolescent embarrassments. Another effect is the em- 
barrassment that young people feel during the periods of 
rapid bodily growth, and the tendency to extreme sluggish- 
ness of physical reactions. This effect should be considered 
along with the fact that many of the general coordinations 
are awkward and ungainly, while many of the finer coordi- 
nations may be quite facile and expert. The teacher often 
takes the slowness to action to be perverseness*, and hags at 
the boy or girl to get a speed of response that is not natural. 
Again, the pupil's awkward, ungainly movements are taken 
to be indications of unwillingness to do what is asked. - This 
is very apt to be the case when the youth undertakes tb hide 
the embarrassment he feels because of his clumsiness by say- 
ing or doing something to turn attention sCwafy from His 
bungling performance. 

Again, the pupil may do his very best to perform the ta!sk 
as directed, but the more he tries, and the more the teacher 
insists that he do better, the more confused he becomes and 
the more impossible it is for him to do the thing skillfully. 
The teacher often compares this bungling performance with 
some skilled performance of the same individual and con- 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 69 

eludes that the pupil is simply showing off and trying to get 
out of doing the task right. He has failed, perhaps, to note 
that the two performances call for two totally different 
types of coordinations, and that skill in eon trolling one set 
of coordinations does not give skill in control of the other 
type. If the teacher had understood the situation he might 
have handled the matter in such a way that the boy would 
not have been embarrassed by his effort, and he would not 
have felt the need of trying to escape the' discbmfiture of 
being laughed at by doing something that would cause the 
other pupils to laugh with him. 

Other physiological disturbances. The effect produced by 
the maturing of the sex organs is subtle and yet observable. 
The mental blankness that often occurs is largely due to the 
sudden deep-seated organic disturbances that throw the 
whole organism in upon itself. The whole being gropes for 
understanding of its own mystery, and the organism strug- 
gles to readjust its forces. The result is that for the mo- 
ment the outside world is shut out, and, when tfce individual 
turns attention once more to external stimuli, mental con- 
nections must be reestablished before the gap of blankness 
disappears. Again, 1 the individual often suffers sb intensely 
from organic shock that life holds little of Interest -for the 
time being. As a result -the individual seems morose; dis- 
tracted, depressed; --and unable to dd anything with satis^ 
faction. ~ 4 f 

Summarizing briefly the bearing that physiological tenden* 
cies of adolescence should have upon educational proced- 
ure, one may rightfully say that the teacher and supervisor 
should regard these physical conditions as the barometer 
which indicates the varying kinds of pressure that affect 
the atmosphere of the classroom. Readjustments should be 
made in the light of the barometric readings, so that difficul- 
ties may be lessened and damages reduced to the minimum. 



60 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

Adolescence and habit formation. How can the teacher 
and supervisor capitalize their knowledge of the funda- 
mental facts concerning the psychological characteristics of 
adolescents? The first great fact that can and should be 
capitalized is that adolescence is the supreme period of habit 
formation. Habits of thinking, habits of knowing, habits of 
feeling, habits of willing, habits of acting are all being formed 
at a relatively rapid rate and tend to become permanent. 
This fact should help those who undertake to educate youth 
to keep the development of the individual constantly before 
them as the goal of all their endeavors. The question that 
should be asked about any body of subject-matter is, What 
habits will it contribute to and how may it be made to con- 
tribute to them most effectively? The teacher should view 
his own performance in the light of how effectively it con- 
tributes to the process of habit formation in the pupil. In 
other words, this fact held in mind should give the teacher a 
proper perspective of the purpose of the secondary school, 
and enable him to see the secondary educational life of the 
adolescent youth as a constant struggle between conflicting 
habit-formation tendencies. 

Instinctive backgrounds. The knowledge concerning the 
dominant instincts that manifest themselves during this 
period should enable the teacher to discover the motives 
that pupils have for doing many of the things that they do 
with no plausible explanation of why they do them. These 
instincts may also be made the basis for consciously moti- 
vating the work of the pupils, although the pupils them- 
selves may not recognize the fact that their instincts are be- 
ing appealed to. The appeal to instincts must be subtle, 
and must seemingly be natural interest in some concrete ob- 
ject or goal. The understanding of instincts also helps the 
teacher in classifying pupils according to the degree to 
which certain instincts are dominant. For example, one 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 61 

type of pupil desires to be in the limelight of public notice; 
another desires to escape public attention; one type craves 
adventure, while another is satisfied with commonplace 
affairs, etc. Tact is largely the knack of intuitively recog- 
nizing these instinctively prompted groups and of dealing 
with them so as to capitalize the instincts in the form of 
motivation. Most of all, however, the understanding of 
these instincts enables the teacher to appreciate the con- 
flicting impulses and instinctive desires that struggle for 
expression in the behavior of the adolescent youth. 

The habit of analyzing conduct to discover its instinctive 
background will go far toward making the teacher broad- 
minded enough to be sympathetic, charitable, and imper- 
sonal in his dealings with his pupils. The great impatience 
that older people hi general feel with regard to the foolish 
behavior of youth must give way to an abiding patience 
that is based upon faith in the outcome of rational educa- 
tion, and which keeps one on the alert to discover, in the 
midst of what seems to be chaos, a definitely forming body 
of conduct which ultimately becomes the character of the 
adult. The teacher and the supervisor who do not have 
this faith, who do not possess this patience, and who do not 
find in the instinctive reactions of adolescent boys and girls 
the most absorbing opportunities for understanding human 
life, are out of place in the secondary school. 

Mental maturing through experiences. How can a 
knowledge of the facts concerning the general uncertainty 
of intellectual, emotional, and moral behavior be of value to 
teacher and supervisor in carrying on cooperative teaching? 
On first consideration one is inclined to think that the very 
nature of the facts seems to preclude the possibility of 
formulating any definite plans for procedure in dealing with 
the adolescent pupils. If, however, one keeps in mind the 
purpose of secondary education, a knowledge of these facts 



62 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

enables one to formulate some- very definite Tides for guid- 



ance. 



A careful analysis of the causes of these uncertain, erratic 
forms of behavior discloses the fact that they are 1 due to 
three fundamental causes? naniely * disturbed physical , con- 
ditions that ihave already been described, -conflicting im- 
pulses and tendencies as has just been pointed out, and lack 
of experience or lack of data Upon which to base judgments. 
The last cause gives the key to the whole problem. .Give 
the immature individual experiences that will bring about 
maturity of his various physical, mental, and moral traits 
and he will acquire .stable physical conditions and definite, 
dependable instinctive tendencies; and, finally, the acquisi- 
tion of experiences with the resulting mental maturing will 
lay a foundation for rational, reliable choices of conduct. 
The pupil must be brought back from his erratic wander- 
ings to things that do not change with his change of purpose 
or point of view. While subject-matter should not become 
sacred, it should be stable and organically dependable. 
While the development of the subject is not the prime ob- 
ject, the subject should not be made to correspond to the 
erratic mind-wanderings of the immature pupil. After all, 
it is not how many rules and principles or how many pages, 
etc., that the pupil studies, but the coming-back to the con- 
sideration of the thing that remains organized that finally 
brings about order in the behavior of the individual. Sta- 
bility of purpose on the part of the teacher in dealing with 
subject-matter, and patience of endeavor in keeping the 
pupil face to face with definite problems that are reasonable 
and possible for him to solve if he sticks to the task, must be 
among the safeguards of secondary educatio'n. 

In other words, the school must be stable enough to pre- 
sent the opportunities for rational behavior on the part of 
the pupil; then, when the pupil has his moments of normal, 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 63 

instinctive promptings and his moments of rational choos- 
ing of conduct, he will be in harmony with the program and 
efforts of the school. On the other hand, the school must 
be flexible enough that, when the pupii wavers into erratic 
forms of behavior, he can come back to the stable path again 
without undue stress and strain over the errors, and without 
too much emphasis being placed on the atoning for the mis- 
takes. Many times it is better to ignore the errors entirely 
and start with a clean slate, so as to catch at its fullest swing 
the impulse to go right and let it carry the individual as far 
on the right road as possible. Neither the fulfillment of the 
letter. -of the law, nor the license of total disregard of law 
should 1 be contended for in secondary education. This is 
especially; true in matters of discipline, but it is also a valid 
point in regard to behavior in response to subject-matter. 

Erratic behavior; rules of procedure. Another way of 
stating the rule of procedure is that the school should be 
stable in its organization, reasonable in its requirements, 
but steadfast in having its requirements reasonably met, 
patient in its offering of opportunities, waiting for the er- 
ratic behavior of youth to wear itself out by futile endeavor, 
then starting on again as though the error had not occurred. 
The result of such procedure is that the youth stays longer 
and longer on the steady track each time he comes back and 
gets the right kind of a new start, until finally he can be 
trusted to hold himself to recognized standards or rational 
behavior. 

Pupil to choose freely. . Another rule 1 that is sound is that 
when the pupil chooses an erratic form of behavior, let him 
choose it freely, but make hurt fully responsible for the re- 
sults of his choice of conduct. The youngster who, through 
a stubborn impulse, has set himself to resist: some require- 
ment and suddenly finds that his stubbornness has nothing 
to combat, but -that his failure to meet the requirement will 



64 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

mean a certain loss of some recognizable value, concludes 
that he was foolish and hasty in his decision. He expected 
a fuss over his action, and he has defeated himself and is 
glad to get back in line. In other words, the individual gets 
an overdose of his own medicine. Another way to put the 
point is that the pupil is made responsible for his own choice, 
while at the same time he is made to realize what the fruits 
of a stable form of behavior would be. He realizes that the 
choice of action is freely his, but the fruits of a stable form of 
action are out of his control. Moreover, he must bear the 
blame of his own loss. 

Door of opportunity not dosed. Another rule is that the 
school must not be vindictive in dealing with the erratic 
behavior of youth, and it must not treat the erring individ- 
ual with suspicion when he is given a new opportunity. 
The school must be candid and frank in its attitude toward 
the erratic individual. And a still further rule that is closely 
related to these two is that the door of opportunity should 
never be closed to any individual as long as the individual 
makes a sincere, reasonable effort to make use of the op- 
portunity when it is offered. On the other hand, a rule that 
is just as important is that unappreciated opportunities 
should not be forced on the individual. This does not mean 
that individuals must never be held to doing things that are 
irksome and uninteresting, but it means that the individual 
should be made to realize some degree of appreciation of the 
value of the opportunity, even though the appreciation has 
to be in the negative form. For example, the pupil may 
have a negative appreciation of the opportunity to do a piece 
of work because he realizes what his loss or discomfiture 
will be if he does not avail himself of the opportunity. 

Teacher not to worry. Another rule is that the teacher 
should not become worried over the erratic interpreta- 
tions of his behavior toward the pupil. He must be broad- 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 65 

minded enough to go more than halfway to set the pupil on 
the right track. Again, he must calmly ignore the erratic 
impression and treat the pupil just the same as if the pupil 
made the right interpretation instead of a grossly erratic 
one. In other words, the teacher must not be unduly sensi- 
tive to the criticisms that pupils make of his conduct toward 
them. He must be willing, however, to dispel their false 
impressions by showing them that he did not mean to give 
them any such impressions. He must be willing to take part 
of the responsibility for the error and hi this way get the 
personal influence that will broaden the pupil's point of 
view. The teacher must not strive unduly to vindicate his 
own position but rather to give the pupil the benefit of the 
doubt. This attitude will usually lead the pupil to question 
his own interpretation of the situation and to doubt the re- 
liability of his judgment. This attitude on the part of the 
pupil soon leads to the formation of the habit of considering 
such situations from different angles before forming and 
expressing definite conclusions. 

Adolescent boys and girls are living through the most 
highly suggestible period of their whole lives. They are 
bound to make errors of conduct, and to do very many an- 
noying things. Many if not largely all their actions are 
prompted by suggestions. Usually these suggestions are 
immediate, spontaneous, and impelling. The action fol- 
lows so closely upon the suggestion that reflection is not 
possible. One of the problems of secondary education is to 
replace this spontaneous behavior with controlled behavior 
that is based upon meditation. The one important fact 
that stands out during the development of the individual 
from a condition of spontaneous behavior ruled by sugges- 
tion to a condition of habitual reflective behavior, is that 
the motives of the adolescent are usually not malicious. 
The fact that the actions are due to suggestion and not to 



66 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

premeditation should lead one to seek for the suggestions 
that may have led to the conduct, instead of charging the 
individual with vicious intent. This point of view does not 
condone irrational behavior, but it does help the teacher 
and supervisor to keep a proper perspective and to analyze 
the situations accurately. To hold the pupil responsible 
for his erratic behavior is right, but to charge him with vi- 
cious motives and premeditated mischief, when he has only 
yielded to impulse, is wrong. 

Teacher and supervisor hi agreement. There is perhaps 
no point in the whole list of items upon which teacher and 
supervisor should possess common knowledge, and hold 
common points of view, that is of more importance than 
this. The development of stable habits of behavior cannot 
be brought about by divided counsels and opposite attitudes. 
If the teacher regards the act of the pupil as an outrage and 
a disgrace that should be severely dealt with because of the 
meanness of the offense, and the supervisor sees only a typi- 
cal expression of a spontaneous, instinctive impulse, then 
the teacher is likely to think the supervisor is upholding and 
excusing the pupil. 

On the other hand, the supervisor is apt to think that 
the teacher is pettish, narrow-minded, and needs discipline 
quite as much as the pupil. Teacher and supervisor should 
cooperate so that the pupil gets the impression that they 
both have the same attitude toward him. This is practi- 
cally impossible unless both teacher and supervisor hold the 
same point of view concerning the suggestibility of adoles- 
cent boys and girls. Both should hold to the idea that a 
careful analysis will account for the causes of errors in con- 
duct just as truly as an intelligent analysis will reveal the 
causes of errors in solving problems, translating language, 
or any other sort of mental performance. 

Importance of frank dealings. What influence on the 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 67 

teacher's procedure in dealing with adolescent boys and 
girls should the fact have, that these young people are 
beginning to philosophize and to question the validity of 
things? One very important effect should be that the 
teacher will be very careful not to get caught up on the 
things in which he can and should be accurate and reliable. 
Moreover, if he should happen to get caught, unprepared to 
give accurate information, he should be honest and not at- 
tempt to bluff the matter through in order to avoid the ap- 
pearance of being ignorant. Pupils will respect the teacher 
if he says frankly that he is not prepared to give the correct 
answer, and that since it can be found out definitely there is 
no call for guessing about it. He can volunteer to look the 
matter up, or ask some one else to do it, with the under- 
standing that the results of the investigator are to be ac- 
cepted and verified. If, however, the teacher is continu- 
ally confessing to ignorance on matters about which he 
should be informed and about which he could be informed 
through study and consistent preparation, then pupils will 
soon lose confidence hi his reliability. 

The teacher who attempts to play upon the credulity of 
adolescent young people will soon come to grief. Moreover, 
the teacher must have a great deal of patience with the 
skepticism of youth, and not always try to convince the 
pupil that he is right, or to be too much concerned about 
disproving the fallacious philosophy of youth. Respect the 
pupil's point of view, and he tends to become more tolerant 
of the point of view of others. 

Adolescence and the religious instinct. Another aspect 
of this philosophical attitude of youth is the religious tend- 
ency of adolescence. The youth is greatly impressed by 
the mysterious readjustments that are taking place within . 
his own being, and by the dawning consciousness of the 
great mysteries of life in all its manifestations. The senti- 



68 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

merits, the overwhelming emotions that well up within the 
youth in the presence of those things which symbolize the 
mystery and power of God, and those intangible promptings 
of the soul which surge through his whole being when in the 
presence of those things which symbolize his social relations 
and obligations to his group, rule his conduct. 

The teacher who sneers at these lofty emotional reactions 
of youth can never hope to make a lasting impression upon 
the real character that is being built. The teacher who can- 
not sympathize with the consuming emotional responses of 
youth should not be permitted to hold a responsible position 
in a secondary school. One who would lead youth must 
capitalize the surging emotional forces by expressing some 
sentiment, patriotic or religious, that will become the 
watchword to loyal and moral forms of conduct. The more 
objectively these sentiments can be expressed or symbolized, 
the stronger the appeal they will make to the emotional 
natures of adolescent youth. The teacher who is cold, 
worldly-wise, and blase in respect to those situations which 
afford the opportunity for using the religious tendencies of 
youth to advantage in building character should have no 
place hi the secondary school. 

Catching interests at the crest. The fact that the domi- 
nant interests of adolescents fluctuate between the mastery 
of theory and the application of theories to practical activi- 
ties should be of great value to teacher and supervisor in 
adapting the subject-matter of courses to the groups study- 
ing them. Each interest caught at its crest will greatly 
facilitate the mastery of the subject and promote the devel- 
opment of the individuals. All coui-ses in the secondary 
school have tended to become too theoretical. Bodies of 
principles and facts are organized with little provision for 
the using of the principles and facts in the solving of practi- 
cal problems that enable one to get on in the world. The 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 69 

result is that the secondary pupils get fed up on theory until 
they rebel. The rebellion is not always open, but usually 
takes the form of neglected preparation of lessons, inatten- 
tion in class, and other equally annoying manifestations 
of disinterest. Even manual-training courses have been 
known to consist very largely of the study of principles of 
construction, use and care of tools, uses of different kinds of 
materials, etc., with very little opportunity to make useful 
objects the making of which would involve the use of the 
materials studied, the use of tools, and the application of the 
principles of construction. 

Such sciences as physics, chemistry, botany, etc., have 
been almost wholly concerned with the study and demon- 
stration of principles. Even the laboratory work in these 
sciences has been theoretical rather than the application of 
principles to the solution of useful problems. When the 
courses in history, language, and English are considered, the 
case is even more damaging. These courses are stuffed with 
facts and theories, while the opportunities for applying the 
facts and theories to interesting problems and situations are 
very meager. In other words, the general theory and prac- 
tice of secondary education has been that of stuffing the 
pupils as full of facts and theories as possible. The applica- 
tion of these facts and principles is left to be worked out by 
the individual after he leaves school. Facts and principles 
must necessarily be the core of any subject that is taught, 
but ample provision must be made for the using of the facts 
and principles hi the actual doing of things. The facilities 
of the school are limited for giving the pupils opportunities 
to apply the facts and principles learned to problems outside 
of school or to similar problems in school, but the most 
should be made of the facilities that the school does have at 
its command. 

Keep the pupil in the center of the stage. The facts con- 



70 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

cerning the range of conditions existing in the social status 
and outlook of the secondary-school pupils should enable 
the teacher and supervisor to keep the pupil in the center of 
the stage, instead of making the subject the center of atten- 
tion. The pupil, who is partially or wholly self-supporting 
during his period of secondary education, is entitled to con- 
siderations that the pupil who does nothing toward his own 
support does not need to have accorded him. The educa- 
tional effect of the outside school work may be equally as 
great as the mental maturing that results from the study 
of subject-matter included hi school courses. Such a pupil 
may miss recitations at times without serious loss to the net 
results of his education, although he may not cover all of the 
subject-matter prescribed in a course. The main point to 
keep in mind is what the study of the subject can contribute 
to the different individuals according to the future social de- 
mands that will be made upon them, as well as the present 
conditions Under which they are working. 

School should provide social opportunities. Another 
phase of this problem is that of giving these adolescent boys 
and girls social opportunities in the school. They are con- 
tributing very little in the main to the activities of the 
larger public social group. They must necessarily feel that 
they are dependents. They desire social independence and 
individual recognition. The school should give them op- 
portunities for making individual and group contributions 
to the general life of the classroom and to the life of the 
school at large. Social responsibilities and personal obli- 
gations must come to the adolescent youth through proper 
associations with his fellows who are on the same social foot- 
ing as himself. Every recitation is a social situation. 

Sometimes people talk about the socialized recitation as if 
a new device had been discovered in teaching. Their dis- 
cussion seems to indicate that recitations are usually not 



CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 71 

social unless some extraordinary technique of procedure is 
followed. The fact is that recitations cannot be anything 
else than social situations, but the opportunities that indi- 
viduals have for contributing to the occasion may vary 
greatly according to the technique of procedure that is fol- 
lowed hi directing the performance. The one vital point 
that must not be overlooked is that the school must recog- 
nize the equality of the social status of its pupils, and op- 
portunity must be accorded to each pupil without being in- 
fluenced by the economic conditions that may figure in the 
social status of families hi the larger social whole. In other 
words, the spirit of the school must be truly democratic, and 
the attitude of the teacher and the supervisor toward the 
pupils must be genuinely democratic. 

Socializing subject-matter. The present social status of 
the pupils of the secondary school and their future outlook 
make clear that one of the vital problems is to give as great 
opportunity as possible to adolescents to become acquainted 
with the social conditions of the present time. One of the 
most fundamental ways hi which this can be done is by in- 
troducing such subjects as economics, commercial geogra- 
phy, commercial law, sociology, and political economy into 
the secondary-school curriculum. Another very important 
and far-reaching means, however, is to socialize the subject- 
matter of all courses in the curriculum to a much greater de- 
gree. This can be done by bringing into each subject its 
social usefulness and adaptations. 

Take mathematics, for example. It has its scientific side 
as a coherent scheme of principles, and also its social side in 
various commercial transactions and industrial activities. 
Dry measure as a scheme for counting is scientific in charac- 
ter, but when the scheme is used in such a transaction as a 
fanner makes in marketing his potato crop, the situation is a 
social one which makes use of the counting scheme as a con- 



72 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

venience. Take English, for another example. When the 
pupil studies the rules of grammar and rhetoric, he is dealing 
with a science, but when he stands before an audience to 
read a paper upon some topic of interest, he faces a social 
situation. 

The important problem psychologically is that of deter- 
mining when to center the attention of the pupil upon the 
mastery of the science, and when to direct his attention 
wholly to the mastery of the social situations in which the 
science may prove serviceable. Whether the scientific facts 
should be alternated with social facts, or whether the scien- 
tific facts should be largely mastered before taking up the 
social facts, or whether the scientific facts and the social 
facts should be presented simultaneously in the same sub- 
ject-matter is the vital problem and one that cannot be 
answered conclusively without careful and thoroughgoing 
experimentation. The chief danger that should be avoided 
is that of thinking the pupil is learning the social facts 
because they happen to be present hi the subject-matter, 
when he may be entirely engrossed with mastering the sci- 
entific facts. For example, the pupil in arithmetic may be 
so concerned about getting the right relations between the 
quantities involved in the problems, and in carrying on the 
right operations to reach a correct numerical result, that he 
gives no thought at all to the social factors. 

Make the social situations accurate and true. The most 
important aspect of the problem of socializing the various 
subjects of the curriculum is that of making the social situa- 
tions that are created in the school as accurate and true to 
actual social conditions as is possible. The social situations 
may be used as practice material, or opportunities for mas- 
tering the scientific rules and principles through use, but 
they should do more than that. They should develop an 
understanding and mastery of actual social behavior. The 



COOPERATIVE TEACHING SECONDARY 73 

different subjects should thus give the pupil an appreciation 
of actual social obligations, and an insight into his own so- 
cial obligations. In addition to this, such socialization of 
experiences, along with the study of the social sciences, 
should give the pupil an outlook and definite point of view 
concerning the obligations of society as a whole and the in- 
terrelated duties and obligations of groups within the larger 
social group. The whole vital problem may be summed up 
by saying that the secondary school should seek in every 
way to give its constituency a potential social status that 
will be practically certain to function in the future activities 
in which these young people engage. In other words, while 
they are largely dependent socially, make them potentially 
independent. 

Chapter summary. The particular basis for cooperative 
teaching in the secondary school involves: agreement that 
the secondary school is the school for adolescents; that its 
place is to cover the gap between the elementary school and 
the college; that its curriculum should be extensive in range 
of subjects; an understanding of the important physiological 
and psychological characteristics of adolescents, and their 
social status and outlook. Specific application of these 
principles must be made to concrete cases hi order to render 
the knowledge of them effective in dealing with adolescents. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Give an illustration from any high-school subject of the difference 
between the psychological and the historical approach to subject- 
matter. 

2. Give three examples of slow bodily growth attended by rapid mental 
development, and three in which rapid bodily growth was attended 
by slow mental growth. 

3. Name some of the finer coordinations that adolescents form with 
facility. 

4. Name some of the general coordinations that adolescents do not form 
readily. 



74 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

5. Give two specific cases of conduct that were due to the instinct for 
social recognition and prestige. 

6. How may the instinct of attraction toward the opposite sex prove 
troublesome to the teacher? How may it be capitalized to bring 
about good results instead of trouble? 

7. How may the spirit of rivalry and emulation be used to advantage in 
school work? 

8. What types of play should be emphasized during the adolescent pe- 
riod? 

9. Give three cases of conduct that manifested fickleness of purpose in 
adolescents. 

10. Give two cases of the same individual in which stubbornness was 
manifested in an extreme degree in the one case, and unusual meek- 
ness in the other. 

11. Give examples of hysterical reactions in both adolescent boys and 
girls. 

12. Give example of unreasonable emotional explosions in the conduct of 
adolescents. 

IS. Give three examples of erratic interpretations of the conduct of the 
teacher that adolescents have made, due to suggestion. 

14. Does the present secondary-school curriculum adequately provide for 
the fluctuation of interest between theory and study of principles and 
practice or doing things? What changes in the curriculum should be 
made to meet this psychological fact? 

15. What problems for the teacher and supervisor arise on account of the 
fact that some of the secondary-school pupils must make part or all of 
their living? 

16. Give an example in which letting a pupil choose an erratic form of be- 
havior freely resulted in a realization on the part of the pupil of his 
own responsibility. 

17. Give an example of a case in which the teacher dealt with the pupil in 
a vindictive spirit. 



CHAPTER VI 

GENERAL BASIS FOR CO-OPERATIVE TEACHING IN 
EITHER ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY SCHOOL 

Other necessary common ground. So far the considera- 
tion of facts and principles upon which common agreement 
is essential for successful cooperative teaching has dealt only 
with those that help to give a proper perspective of the hu- 
man materials that are involved in elementary and in sec- 
ondary education, and the attitude that should be con- 
stantly assumed by those who undertake to mould these 
human materials through a rational procedure in elementary 
and in secondary education. The next facts and principles 
pertain to the active processes of bringing the child mind 
and the adolescent mind and the subject-matter of particu- 
lar subjects together in the recitation. When teacher and 
supervisor face the task of assigning and teaching lessons, 
they need to have in mind the same fundamental facts con- 
cerning the definition of method, the principles underlying 
method, the problems of teaching growing out of an under- 
standing of method, the principles and problems underlying 
devices, and the principles and problems involved in decid- 
ing upon the technique that should be practiced. The 
supervisor cannot make definite, pointed, clear-cut sugges- 
tions, and the teacher cannot appreciate such suggestions 
when they are made, unless both have in mind the clear dis- 
tinctions that should be made between these various phases 
of the whole performance of teaching. A detailed treat- 
ment of these distinctions is hardly in point in this discus- 
sion, but a rather brief statement of the point of view that 
might well be taken as the ground of common agreement 
between teacher and supervisor for guidance, in either ele- 



76 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

mentary or secondary teaching, will be given to make clear 
the types of pedagogical material that are involved and to 
emphasize the argument. 

The principles of method. Method is the characteristic 
mental procedure of the mind of the learner in attending to 
any object that is brought before it for consideration. This 
characteristic mental procedure is as follows : The mind first 
sees the object as a vague whole; it then analyzes the object, 
noting its prominent characteristics; it discovers some domi- 
nant characteristic, and reorganizes the object around this 
dominant characteristic; this same form of analysis and reor- 
ganization takes place whenever this object, or one similar to 
it, is present before the mind, until it becomes the habitual 
form of reaction of the mind to such an object. This pro- 
cedure of the mind in learning is always the same, no matter 
what the type of object may be that is presented for consid- 
eration. 

The principles of method are the psychological laws gov- 
erning the mental processes that are active during the men- 
tal movement of analysis and synthesis. Analysis and 
synthesis involve sense perception, imagination, memory s 
judgment-forming, and reasoning. One is dealing with a 
principle of method when trying to determine the way hi 
which sense perception should be employed in the analysis 
of a particular type of object. Again, it is a principle of 
method that is involved in discovering the type of memo- 
rization that is most effective in making a synthesis of par- 
ticular material that has been analyzed, etc. 

Problems in teaching and method. Problems of teaching 
that grow out of an understanding of method and its princi- 
ples are numerous. A few typical ones may be mentioned. 
One of the most important is the problem of deciding 
whether the subject-matter in a particular course should be 
organized predominantly hi the form of inductive problems, 



GENERAL BASIS 77 

or predominantly in the form of deductive problems, in or- 
der to facilitate the pupil's acts of analysis and synthesis in 
learning the subject. The interrelation between the induc- 
tive and deductive organization of subject-matter in any 
course is also of vital importance. These organizations are 
never isolated or independent of each other, but always co- 
exist in varying degrees of emphasis which makes the one 
or the other most obvious. Another one is the problem of 
organizing the subject-matter of the whole subject so that 
the pupil will readily get a fundamental comprehension of it 
as a whole at the outset, and then be able to analyze it into 
its large divisions and important subdivisions as the study 
of the subject progresses. Still another problem is that of 
determining the types and extent of subject-matter wholes 
that should be taken as the units for memorizing. And still 
another problem is that of determining the degree to which 
the different mental processes of sense perception, imagi- 
nation, etc., should be employed in mastering the various 
divisions and subdivisions of the subject. 

Devices and their use. A device is a means that may be 
used to bring objects before the mind of the learner. Ques- 
tions are a device. Pictures are a device. Devices are both 
intellectual and material. They are innumerable. Devices 
should not be confused with method, or with principles and 
problems of teaching that are based on method and its prin- 
ciples. One of the vital problems of teaching is to select 
devices that are valid for the teaching of a particular subject 
hi a particular school situation. This is a problem in which 
teacher and supervisor will be greatly helped by coming to a 
common agreement, based on the principles underlying the 
selection of devices. 

These principles are as follows: 

1. Devices should be economical as to time consumed in prepa- 
ration and in actual employment relative to the results se- 
cured by their use. 



78 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

2. Devices in general should be of such a character as to appeal 
to at least seventy -five per cent of the class. 

3. Devices should be varied enough to appeal to the entire class 
individually. 

4. Devices should be of such a character as to be readily acces- 
sible when needed. 

5. Devices are not good in and of themselves. They must be 
adapted to meet specific situations. What is good at one 
time may be actually bad at another. 

6. Devices must be of such a character that they do not attract 
attention to themselves. 

The teacher must not be absorbed in the manipulation of 
devices, and they must not become a task for the pupil. 
History outlines and science notebooks are cases in point. 
These devices very often become the chief task of the pupils 
instead of being welcome aids. Having agreed to these 
principles, the chief problem for teacher and supervisor is to 
agree upon the extent to which such devices as blackboard 
outlines, notebooks, graphs, maps, lectures, questions, etc., 
should be used hi teaching the particular course or courses. 
When ineffective results are secured the criticisms should be 
based upon these principles. 

Teaching technique. Technique is the body of actual 
performances or the various activities put forth by the 
teacher in conducting the recitation. The asking of ques- 
tions to develop a point is a device, but the number of ques- 
tions asked, the speed with which they are asked, the form 
of the questions, the attitude of the teacher manifested in 
asking the questions, etc., are points of technique. The 
technique of the teacher is perhaps the one phase of the 
teacher's training that can be most effectively developed 
through supervision; hence the vital importance of teacher 
and supervisor having a definite understanding of the defini- 
tion of technique, and of the principles underlying the de- 
velopment of a rational body of teaching acts or skill. 



GENERAL BASIS 79 

The determination of technique should be guided by the 
following principles: 

1. The acts of the teacher should be natural. 

2. The acts of the teacher should be as inconspicuous as possible. 

3. The acts of the teacher should occupy as little time of the 
recitation as possible. 

4. The teacher should set a good example in all those things that 
are asked or required of the pupil. 

5 The acts of the teacher should be premeditated, as a rule. 

6. The acts of the teacher should be adapted to the environment 
of the school, the nature of the subject-matter, the dominant 
characteristics of the pupils being taught, and the purpose for 
which the lesson is being taught. 

7. What is good technique at one time may be bad at another 
time, and vice versa. 

8. The nature of devices must determine to considerable extent 
the technique that should be employed in using them. 

9. The skill in the technique practiced determines almost wholly 
the effectiveness of the devices used, and furthers or hinders 
the method of the learner. 

10. Skill hi technique saves time and energy of teacher and pupils. 

11. The effectiveness of technique is largely determined by the 
personality of the teacher. 

Agreements as to teaching procedure. After getting 
these principles of technique well in mind, the teacher and 
supervisor should agree upon a fairly definite body of acts 
such as asking the question and giving time for thinking 
out the answer before naming the pupil who is to respond, 
bringing each pupil into the recitation frequently, etc. 
that are considered as usually being good technique. They 
should also agree upon a number of acts such as repeating 
the answers of pupils, asking questions that can be answered 
by yes and no, etc. that are considered as a rule to be bad 
technique. The criticisms of the supervisor can then be 
based on definite principles and pointed to a definite prob- 
lem which the teacher must work out in his own procedure. 
The teacher will have a basis for appreciating the sugges- 



80 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

tions of the supervisor, and also a definite guide in planning 
in advance for the recitation. 

Teaching standards. Another matter upon which teacher 
and supervisor should have a definite understanding is the 
standards by which the teaching performance is to be 
judged. These standards should take into account the 
status of development of the pupils at the time the teacher 
takes charge of them, the purpose for which the subject as a 
whole is being taught, the purpose for which the individual 
lessons are being taught, the skill of the teacher in handling 
the class and in presenting the subject-matter of the recita- 
tion, and the results secured in the minds of the pupils. 
These standards may be more or less arbitrary according to 
the point of view of the supervisor, but, whatever they are 
to be, the teacher is entitled to know at the outset on what 
points and on what types of evidence his teaching will be 
judged. If teacher and supervisor agree to have the same 
understanding of the types of evidence that will be taken as 
the criteria for judging the success of the teaching perform- 
ance, then the teacher can recognize the validity of criti- 
cisms and can study intelligently the suggestions made by 
the supervisor as to how he can improve his teaching. 
This agreement will go far toward creating the genuine spirit 
of cooperation which is so essential to securing good results 
from the work of supervision. 

Proper teaching relationships. Another point upon 
which a clear understanding between teacher and supervisor 
is necessary is that of the relation each is to bear to the pu- 
pils being taught, and to the director of the school in matters 
of management. The teacher should be given as full re- 
sponsibility and authority as conditions make possible, but 
whatever the basis of cooperation in management is to be, a 
definite understanding must be had in order to prevent con- 
fusion and unintentional criss-crossing of decisions and ac- 



GENERAL BASIS 81 

tions. This agreement must not only cover the relations 
that are to exist between the teacher and supervisor and di- 
rector, but it must also include the standards of discipline 
and the items that are considered in general as constituting 
good management of the general affairs of the classroom. 
The teacher should know to what extent he can exercise his 
authority in dealing with these problems, and he should 
have some definite idea of the measures that are considered 
as unwise or at least exceptional. The difference between 
emergency conditions and those that are normal in the life 
of the school should be matters of common understanding. In 
other words, a comprehensive perspective of the whole field 
of management should be mutually understood at the outset. 

The purpose of supervision. A final point which should 
be mutually understood is the purpose of supervision. The 
teacher and the supervisor must agree that the teaching 
under supervision on the one hand and the supervising of 
teaching on the other must contribute to the accomplish- 
ment of two definite ends, namely, the attainment of insight 
and skill on the part of the teacher, and the efficient educa- 
tion of the children or adolescent boys and girls who are 
taught by the teacher. The teacher must see quite as 
clearly as does the supervisor that the education of the pu- 
pils in either the training school or the public school must be 
thoroughly safeguarded. On the other hand, the supervisor 
must recognize the fact that the efficient training of the 
teacher must be carefully safeguarded, and in order to do 
this the teacher must be given as full and free opportunity 
as possible to overcome weaknesses as well as to strengthen 
strong points. 

The supervisor must realize that he has a great respon- 
sibility to meet in making the teacher skillful and reliable as 
a teacher. He must regard the success or failure of the 
teacher as his own success or failure in very large degree. 



82 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

On the other hand, the teacher must regard the work of the 
supervisor as a supreme opportunity for learning how to 
teach, and for being trained in the skill of teaching. The 
supervisor must be regarded as a sympathetic helper from 
whom consolation, encouragement, insight, and wise direc- 
tion may be secured. Every suggestion and action of the 
supervisor must be welcomed as being for the direct benefit 
of the teacher. In fine, one may say that the teacher and 
supervisor should feel that their welfare is mutual, and that 
they succeed or fail together. 

Chapter summary. The general basis for cooperative 
teaching in either the elementary or secondary school in- 
volves: clear-cut definitions of method, device, and tech- 
nique, and an understanding of the fundamental principles 
underlying each; an understanding of the standards that are 
to be used in judging the teaching performances; an under- 
standing of the relations the teacher and the supervisor bear 
to the pupils and the director in matters of management; 
and an understanding of the exact purpose of the work of 
the supervisor. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Compare the definition of method given in this chapter with the defi- 
nitions given by other pedagogical writers. 

2. Give two devices that might be used in the teaching of geography that 
satisfactorily meet all the principles set forth above. 

8. Show how the making of history outlines and the keeping of science 
notebooks may become merely additional tasks for the pupils to per- 
form, instead of being valuable aids to the pupils in mastering the 
subjects. 

4. Make a list of fifteen items of technique that are ordinarily considered 
to be good. 

5. Make a list of ten items of technique that are ordinarily considered to 
be bad. 

6. Make a list of the types of evidence that you would secure as a means 
of judging the success of the teaching performance. 

7. Show how the success of the pupil being taught by the teacher, the 
success of the teacher, and the success of the supervisor are mutually 
interdependent. 



CHAPTER VH 

OTHER PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING SUPERVISORY 
METHOD 

1. The second principle of method 

THIS is that one learns to teach by teaching. This is the 
fundamental principle upon which rests the idea that teach- 
ers can be efficiently and economically trained in the science 
and art of teaching under the supervision of expert teachers 
in a training school. While this principle is psychologically 
correct, it must be interpreted in terms of the various activi- 
ties that the teacher must put forth in learning how to teach 
and in acquiring skill in the actual performance. 

Anticipatory teaching. The first interpretation of this 
principle is that one learns not merely by doing, but by cor- 
rect doing. What, then, is the first step in correct doing? 
The psychological answer is that one takes the first step in 
correct doing when he goes through the mental performance 
of doing the act in anticipation of the actual performance of 
the act. This mental doing of the act is carried on first 
through the mastery of the theory or the principles involved 
in the correct doing of the particular act. When the 
teacher plans the teaching of a certain lesson, he should 
teach that lesson in imagination in keeping with the princi- 
ples involved in the correct teaching of that particular sub- 
ject or phase of subject-matter. Therefore the first form of 
teaching that the teacher should practice is that of teaching 
in anticipatory imagination. 

This anticipatory mental teaching is an essential part of 
the whole performance of teaching. The teacher should 
master this aspect of teaching as rapidly and as thoroughly 



84 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

as possible. This phase of correct teaching is the point at 
which the active work of supervision begins concretely. 
The supervisor and the teacher work together in setting up 
the teaching situation in advance of the actual recitation. 
The teacher, with the guidance of the supervisor, analyzes 
the situation thoroughly and goes through the recitation in 
imagination. The supervisor directs the doing or teaching 
in imagination according to his standards of correct teach- 
ing. He must see to it that the mental performance is as 
nearly correct and as thoroughly standardized as possible, 
in order that it may be used as the measure for guiding and 
improving the actual teaching performance. 

Value of the anticipatory process. This phase of learning 
to teach correctly by correct theoretical teaching cannot be 
too strongly emphasized. The teacher who attempts to 
learn to teach by actual teaching acts, without a period of 
mental, imaginative teaching, has no standard or back- 
ground against which to project the actual teaching per- 
formance; hence he has little opportunity for knowing when 
he is improving and when he is deteriorating. When the 
teacher has no training in anticipatory imaginative teach- 
ing, the supervisor has very little opportunity for making 
constructive suggestions; hence he must try to construct the 
standard of correct teaching out of the present immediate 
teaching experiences of the teacher. These experiences 
themselves are so engrossing that the teacher has great diffi- 
culty in seeing beyond them or through them to the princi- 
ples involved in the situation. 

The teacher in this situation is like the individual who 
undertakes to learn to ride a bicycle by means of the actual 
performance without any antecedent imaginative, mental 
riding of the wheel. The result is that, as the bicycle rider 
is wholly engrossed with trying to keep the machinery going 
in an upright position and somewhere in the road, so the 



OTHER PRINCIPLES 85 

teacher is absorbed in the task of keeping the recitation 
moving and somewhere in the direction it is supposed to go. 
The memory of what one actually does on such occasions is 
a very poor means of checking up the teaching performance 
so that it can be analyzed and made the basis of learning 
how to teach correctly. On the other hand, the teacher who 
is constantly going through a warming up period of imagina- 
tive, mental doing of the teaching performance becomes 
saturated with the principles of correct doing, and can read- 
ily recognize how well the actual act of teaching measures 
up to the more perfect imaginative standard. His actual 
teaching can thus be made the starting-point for an im- 
proved performance in the future, and the improvement can 
be secured rather rapidly. The value of the work of the 
supervisor hi guiding the training of the teacher in anticipa- 
tory imaginative teaching is at once obvious. 

Observation of teaching. A second phase of correct theo- 
retical, mental teaching is that which one goes through 
when he alertly and intelligently observes the correct teach- 
ing exhibited by the expert in the particular line of teaching. 
The observer in this case carries on the mental doing of the 
teaching act under the direct sensory stimulus of the actual 
act going on at the same tune. This sort of imaginative, 
mental performance of the teaching act enables the teacher 
to acquire the habit and skill of measuring the actual act of 
the expert teacher as it progresses, by means of the more 
perfect imaginative standard. The observer has an oppor- 
tunity to acquire a true perspective of both performances. 
Practice in measuring the actual teaching in comparison 
with the more ideal performance will lay the foundation for 
practice hi reversing the process. 

Finally, then, the teacher should acquire a fair degree of 
skill in carrying on the actual act of teaching, and at the 
same time keep the more perfect imagined performance or 



80 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

standard clearly enough in mind to be able to check up the 
actual teaching against the standard, somewhat during the 
recitation itself, but particularly after the recitation. The 
suggestions of the supervisor will be one of the means by 
which the teacher may be helped in doing this. The out- 
come of intelligent observation should be also a direct con- 
tribution to the development of a clear conception of a high 
standard of the actual teaching performance. That is to 
say, the teacher should possess both an actual standard and 
a more perfect imaginative standard. 

Actual instruction. The third phase in learning to teach 
by correct teaching is that of performing the act of teaching 
by direct, conscious imitation of the standard performance 
of the supervisor, and at the same time making a keen, in- 
telligent analysis of the processes being imitated. The bet- 
ter the teaching done by the supervisor and the more per- 
fectly this teaching is imitated by the teacher, the more 
efficient the teacher will become, provided, of course, that 
the teacher analyzes accurately the standard he imitates and 
finally discovers the principles that underlie the standard 
performance. In fact, the type of imitation that is meant 
here is the imitation of the application of principles to the 
problems of teaching rather than the mere mimicking of the 
specific acts of the expert teacher. In this sense one cannot 
imitate unless one analyzes the validity and full significance 
of what is imitated. The teacher should not ape the super- 
visor; that is, should not mimic his specific acts. 

The result of studied imitation of the type just suggested 
is independence and finally initiative on the part of the 
teacher. The teacher who can analyze an actual teaching 
performance to discover its excellent points that are worthy 
of imitation, and can then successfully imitate that same 
skilled performance, or even approximate it in an actual act 
of teaching, has gone far on the road toward success and 



OTHER PRINCIPLES 87 

efficiency in teaching. The teacher who can reproduce an 
actual performance in teaching that equals or even approxi- 
mates a standard of actual teaching will soon become effi- 
cient in imitating in his teaching the more perfect theoreti- 
cal standards that he sets up in making intelligent lesson 
plans. The more skill one acquires in imitating or even ap- 
proximating the theoretical standards of teaching, the more 
skilled his actual teaching will become, for one can always 
theorize better than he can practice. Conscious imitation, 
then, of correct teaching is a definite road to efficiency in 
teaching. 

Directed teaching. Another step in learning to teach by 
correct teaching is that of teaching by following specific di- 
rections and instructions in an intelligent manner. One 
cannot carry out instructions efficiently without accurately 
interpreting the meaning of the directions. Accurate inter- 
pretation of teaching instructions is a severe test of the 
teacher's intelligence and resourcefulness. The teacher who 
cannot understand intelligent directions and carry them out 
successfully will not be likely to make very intelligent plans 
on his own initiative. On the other hand, the teacher who 
can readily comprehend and follow instructions literally will 
be able to plan and to carry out intelligent schemes of pro- 
cedure without help. Following specific directions that are 
given by an expert in the particular line of teaching is an 
excellent way to acquire valuable experience and to attain 
skill in doing things definitely. 

Learning to do definite things and learning to do things 
definitely are highly valuable phases of acquiring skill in 
correct teaching. As the teacher acquires skill in interpret- 
ing and following specific detailed instructions, the super- 
visor should modify the instructions so that they become 
more and more general. This process of modification will 
leave more and more details to be worked out by the teacher, 



88 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

until finally the teacher will be thoroughly competent to 
plan entirely on his own initiative. The supervisor can now 
become merely an adviser and make suggestions for the im- 
provement of the directions which the teacher himself sets 
up for his own guidance in teaching. 

Practice to form right habits. A final step in the process 
of learning to teach by correct teaching is that of practicing 
with the attention or whole conscious effort centered upon 
the forming of right habits. The teacher finally arrives, 
through the training that comes from the various steps of 
learning to teach correctly, at the place where he is fully 
aware of what the habits are that he should make perma- 
nent in his training. He must now have opportunity to 
plan for the practice upon certain definite habits and then 
consciously to attend to the process of putting them into 
practice. This is a vital aspect of teacher training. The 
significance of it is that every habit practiced has to pass the 
test of conscious attention. If one gives close attention to 
the thing he is doing, he is apt to discover whether it is good 
or bad ; therefore, undesirable habits are not so apt to creep 
in unconsciously and become set. 

Teaching habits to be made automatic. Another inter- 
pretation that should be made of the principle that one 
learns to teach by correct teaching is that one must continue 
the correct teaching until the habits of correct teaching be- 
come automatic. Otherwise the process of learning does 
not pass beyond the stage of mere comprehension. Correct 
habits of teaching must pass beyond the stage of mere com- 
prehension and become automatic before the teacher attains 
freedom in doing things spontaneously upon his own initia- 
tive. The teacher who has had no supervision in the form- 
ing of correct habits of teaching, and who goes into a public 
school system to teach where little or no systematic super- 
vision is provided, may seem to have a great opportunity to 



OTHER PRINCIPLES 89 

exercise initiative. This is true, in a certain sense, but such 
a teacher has the best opportunity in the world for forming 
many incorrect habits of teaching which will be very diffi- 
cult to break, even after the teacher becomes aware that the 
habits are bad and desires to get away from them. 

There is a vital difference between initiative that is based 
upon the unconscious utilization of habits that have been 
formed in keeping with sound principles, and initiative that 
means merely the freedom to learn things by the trial-and- 
error plan of doing. Such initiative is not really freedom, 
for the teacher is a prey to his own ignorance and lack of 
skill in teaching. If one wishes to arrive at a definite goal in 
the shortest time possible, one must travel on the road that 
leads most directly to the goal. The most direct road to in- 
telligent initiative hi teaching is that of imitating and fol- 
lowing specific directions of an expert teacher, and of prac- 
ticing, with conscious attention upon the task of forming 
right habits, until a reliable body of correct habits has been 
rendered automatic. The danger is not that the teacher 
will become too automatic in his habits, but that he will not 
become automatic enough. In other words, habits that have 
not become thoroughly automatic require too much atten- 
tion of the performer, so that the purpose that the practice 
of the habits is to further is largely lost sight of in the recita- 
tion. The more automatic the habits have become, the 
more unconsciously they are performed ; hence the attention 
of the teacher is fully free to consider the real goal of the 
recitation. 

2. The third principle of method 

Breaking up incorrect habits. Incorrect habits of teach- 
ing can be largely if not wholly avoided and prevented, by 
practice under the consistent and intelligent guidance and 
advice of the supervisor, especially during the early attempts 



90 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

of the teacher. A second aspect of the principle is that in- 
correct habits can be discovered and broken up before they 
have become at all fixed or automatic. This is a funda- 
mental point. Many people hold the idea that one has to 
make errors in order to learn the correct way to do a thing. 
They argue that one learns as much from his mistakes as he 
does from the things he gets right. A common expression is 
that "One has to find things out for himself." This is un- 
doubtedly correct according to the psychology of learning, 
but, while one must find things out for himself, he does not 
have to find them out by himself. The intelligent human 
being can learn from the advice and explanations of one who 
knows what is right and what is wrong without committing 
the error. 

If this is not true, then the whole psychology of appercep- 
tion is false, and imagination is a. rather useless mental proc- 
ess. The individual who lacks the apperceptive basis that 
would enable him to understand an explanation of why a 
certain habit is not good is hardly ready for teaching under 
supervision. Such an individual will take too much time 
acquiring the basis if he has to acquire it from practicing 
mistakes. 

Finding out things for and by one's self. What, then, is 
the difference between finding things out for one's self and 
finding them out by one's self? The psychological explana- 
tion is this; if a person really knows a thing, he must possess 
the mental elements and put forth the mental processes that 
are necessarily involved in the knowing of that thing. No 
other person can do this for the individual. This being 
true, then the problem resolves itself into determining the 
kinds of agencies that may stimulate the mind of the indi- 
vidual to put forth the necessary mental processes and or- 
ganize the essential mental elements. If the learner is so 
situated that he must find the agencies for stimulating his 



OTHER PRINCIPLES 01 

mind to put forth the mental processes and to organize the 
mental elements in his own immediate acts, then he learns 
what is wrong or right, for himself and by himself. If, how- 
ever, the learner is stimulated to set up the mental processes 
and to organize the essential mental elements by the advice 
and explanations of another person, then he learns the thing 
for himself, but not by himself. He has learned for himself 
what the race or some other individual had to learn by him- 
self. In other words, the individual has learned for himself 
so that he knows full well, by the aid of the supervisor, the 
mistake or error, without going through the actual per- 
formance of making the mistake. 

Application to teacher training. This is one of the most 
important arguments that can be brought to bear upon the 
point of view that some hold that practice schools cannot in 
any true sense train teachers by giving them genuine experi- 
ence. In fact, it is the basic argument upon which the whole 
idea of education by means of schools must rest. If it will 
not hold, then the present generation cannot profit by the 
wisdom of the past, and "book-lam in'" is an empty sham. 
That being true would mean that schools are a sham, for 
they must necessarily deal with a vast amount of "book- 
larnin'"; or, to put it less harshly, they must engender a 
great amount of learning from and by means of books. To 
point the argument back again to the problem under dis- 
cussion, one may rightly say that if schools in general are 
justified agencies of education, then training schools are 
certainly justified agencies for educating teachers. And, 
finally, if the training school is a justified agency for train- 
ing teachers, then teacher-" larnin' " or, better, supervisor- 
"larnin"' is valid. Furthermore, the work of the supervi- 
sor in keeping the teacher from practicing incorrect acts of 
teaching is just as valid as that of directing the teacher in 
putting forth correct performances. 



92 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

Breaking bad habits; training schools vs. city schools. 
The problem of breaking incorrect habits is much more 
prominent and perhaps more difficult in case of the city 
supervisor than it is in the case of the supervisor hi a training 
school. The teacher in the public school has usually had 
some experience in teaching, and very often has formed a 
number of habits in technique that in general are bad. The 
teacher is often satisfied with his technique, no matter how 
faulty it may be, and tends often to feel resentful toward the 
criticisms and suggestions of the supervisor. 

The first objective that the supervisor should attain is 
that of securing a receptive attitude toward suggestions and 
constructive criticisms. The next objective is that of 
eliminating the faulty habits of teaching and establishing 
correct ones in their stead. This objective can be reached 
most effectively by attacking one or two of the most vital 
incorrect habits at a time, and continuing the attack upon 
them until they are thoroughly broken up. This plan in- 
sures a steady and definite progress in the elimination of bad 
habits. 

If too many bad habits are attacked at once, slow progress 
will be made in breaking them up. This slowness of prog- 
ress is due to less concentration of attention than can be se- 
cured when only one or two habits are under consideration 
at one time. The fact that slow progress is made in break- 
ing up a number of habits that the teacher recognizes as bad 
tends to discourage the teacher and makes him still less effi- 
cient than he would otherwise be. The success attained hi 
dealing definitely with one or two bad habits at a time en- 
courages the teacher and strengthens his appreciation of the 
value of the work of the supervisor. The teacher gains con- 
fidence in his ability to improve, and the effect of this atti- 
tude of the teacher toward his own work is inestimable. 



OTHER PRINCIPLES 93 

5. The fourth principle of method 

Developing initiative and independence. The fourth 
principle is that the teacher must ultimately be given ample 
opportunity to plan and cany out regular teaching work, 
and be responsible for every phase of it, without suggestions 
or help of any kind from the supervisor. This stage of the 
training should develop the habit of attacking new problems 
and working out their solution independently. Initiative at 
this stage should mean, as perhaps never before, the habit of 
going into things thoroughly and intelligently. Up to this 
time the teacher has consulted the supervisor before attack- 
ing new problems in order that he might acquire most rap- 
idly the insight into correct principles of teaching and be 
safeguarded against forming incorrect habits. Now, how- 
ever, the teacher comes to the final test as to whether the 
training given under the guidance of the supervisor has laid 
the foundation for thoroughgoing initiative. 

The supervisor must now keep hands off, and keep out of 
the teacher's way. The time has now come for applying the 
standards by which the work of the teacher should be judged 
and finally ranked. It is also the time for the supervisor to 
apply the standards that should be employed in measuring 
the effectiveness of the work of supervision. The work of 
the supervisor at this stage of the training is that of a sym- 
pathetic visitor, who is anxious to see the teacher at his best 
and who is looking for the best that the teacher exhibits in 
his work. 

Summary of the section. The method of supervision is 
based upon four fundamental principles: First, the teacher 
and supervisor must possess common knowledge and hold 
common points of view concerning the school, the pupils, 
the subject-matter, the principles of method of teaching, 
principles of devices, principles of technique, the standards 



04 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

by which teaching should be judged, the responsibility and 
authority of each in matters of management, and the pur- 
pose of the work of supervision. This basis enables teacher 
and supervisor intelligently to understand one another in 
everything that they do in cooperation. Second, one learns 
to teach by correct teaching. Third, errors are not neces- 
sary to further the learning process, and incorrect habits 
may be avoided and prevented through the advice and guid- 
ance of the supervisor. Fourth, the test of guided teaching 
is whether or not it lays the foundation for independent 
thinking and initiative in discovering and solving new prob- 
lems. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Give five examples from daily life to show that one goes through the 
mental performance of doing things in anticipation of being called 
upon actually to do them. 

2. Give a description of your mental performance that went on in antici- 
pation of your first day in the schoolroom as a teacher. 

8. Describe your actual performance on that first day of school, and 
check it with the anticipatory mental performance to see how nearly 
they coincide. 

4. Analyze as accurately as you can your mental performance on your 
first observation of an expert teacher's presentation of a particular 
lesson. To what extent were you able to anticipate the successive 
acts performed by the teacher? Did the ability to foresee the acts of 
the teacher develop with practice in such observation? 

5. Give five illustrations of actual imitative performances that were as 
exact copies of the original performances as the imitators were able 
to make them. 

6. Give two illustrations of actual imitative performances that followed 
the same principles that underlay the original performances, but 
adapted the acts or steps to suit the particular situation. 

7. Give four or five illustrations from your experience that show how 
difficult it is to give a set of directions that will be proof against mis- 
interpretations. 

8. Make a set of directions that would enable another person to go, 
without loss of time and without securing other aid, to a certain place 
in a particular city, or large town, or country; to a certain room in a 
large building; to secure a certain book from a shelf in a particular 
library of some size. 



OTHER PRINCIPLES 95 

9. Give five examples from your own experience of the effect upon habit 
formation of concentration of attention upon the steps of the habit. 

10. Give as many examples as you can from your own experience of teach- 
ing habits that have become automatic. 

11. Give five examples from your own experiences, outside of school, of 
errors that you have avoided by being advised ahead of time. 

12. Give five examples, from your own experiences, of errors that you 
have avoided by being advised by some experienced individual. 

13. Give five examples, from experience, of faulty habits that were read- 
ily broken up through advice and supervision in the first stages of 
their formation. 

14. Give one or more examples in which the supervisor hindered the 
development of the teacher by failing to put the teacher on his own 
responsibility at the proper time in his training. 



SELECTED REFERENCES FOR SECTION A 

Ayer, Fred C. Eighteenth Yearbook of the Society for the Study of Education; 
chap, v, "Present Status of Drawing with respect to Scientific Investiga- 
tion." 

Discusses principles of method. 

Belts, George Herbert. Classroom Method and Management. 

Excellent discussion of general problems. 
Charters, W. W. Methods of Teaching. 

Splendid discussion of method from view point of function. 
Charters, W. W. Teaching the Common Branches. 

Good discussion of special application of principles of method. 

Freeman, Frank N. Eighteenth Yearbook of the Society for the Study of 
Education; chap, i, "Principles of Method in Teaching Writing, as De- 
rived from Scientific Investigation." 

Excellent account of the findings and conclusions drawn. 
Freeman, Frank N. How Children Learn. 

Splendid analysis. 

Gray, Wm. S. Eighteenth Yearbook of the Society for the Study of Education; 
chap, ii, " Principles of Method in Teaching Reading, as Derived from 
Scientific Investigation." 

Excellent discussion and interpretation of the findings. 

Hall, G. S. Adolescence; Its Psychology and its Relations to Physiology, 
Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education. 2 vols. 

Valuable for the concrete data accumulated. 

Horn, Ernest. Eighteenth Yearbook of the Society for the Study of Education; 
chap, in, " Principles of Method in Teaching Spelling as Derived from 
Scientific Investigation." 

Excellent discussion of principles, which are well stated. 
Judd, C. H. The Pm/c.hology of the High-School Subjects. 

Excellent and stimulating discussion of application of psychological principles to con- 
crete teaching problems. 



96 SUPERVISORY METHOD 

Kendall, Calvin N., and Mirick, Geo. A. How to Teach the Special Subjects, 

Good practical discussion of elementary-school teaching problems. 
King, Irving. The High-School Age. 

Stimulating discussion of adolescent life. 
Kirkpatrick, Edwin E. Fundamentals of Child Study. 

Comprehensive discussion of most vital issues. 

Monroe, Walter S. Eighteenth Yearbook of the Society for the Study of 
Education; chap, iv, "Principles of Method in Teaching Arithmetic as 
Derived from Scientific Investigation." 

Excellent account of experiments and summing-up of principles. 
Parker, S. C. Methods of Teaching in High School. 

Principles thoroughly discussed and amply illustrated. 

Thorndike, Edward L. Educational Psychology, vol. in. " Mental Work 
and Fatigue, and Individual Differences and their Causes." 

Comprehensive account of experimental data and discussion of principles thug 
derived. 

Wilson, H. B., and Wilson, G. M. The Motivation of School Work. 
Gives concrete data and very helpful suggestions. 



SECTION B 

DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 
CHAPTER 



PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE SELECTION OF 
DEVICES 

THE significance of the principles involved in the selection 
of devices will be more readily seen by again getting clearly 
in mind the definition of device. A device is any means, 
other than subject-matter itself, employed by the teacher in 
presenting subject-matter to the mind of the learner. 

Devices should be economical. One of the important 
phases of economy is the saving of time for the supervisor. 
A device may require a considerable amount of time to work 
it out thoroughly and completely in the beginning, but, if 
the device is a permanent one that may be used for a long 
time and with very little modification from time to time, 
then the device is an economical one. By economy of time 
for the supervisor, one should consider the ultimate amount 
of time, and not the immediate amount that is required for 
the preparation of a thoroughgoing, permanent device. 

The idea of permanency of devices should be emphasized. 
Devices have been poorly selected if they have to be dis- 
carded when the same situation is to be dealt with again and 
again. For example, a set of general instructions to begin- 
ning teachers is a good device. If these instructions are 
thoroughly organized and clearly stated, then printed forms 
may be used for a number of years without any changes be- 
ing necessary. The working-out of such a set of instructions 
would require some time and care, but the permanency of it 



98 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

would save the time and energy of the supervisor in the long 
run. The following is an example of such a set of permanent 
directions: 

OREAD TRAINING SCHOOL 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO SENIOR TEACHERS 

Caution. 

1. Read these instructions carefully. Be sure that you under- 
stand them. Go over them each day before going to class 
until you have thoroughly mastered them and can carry 
them out automatically. 

Conferences. 

2. Confer with the supervisor of the course before beginning 
the work. 

S. Teachers' meeting every Wednesday, at 8 A.M. This is a 
part of the teacher's work, and absence from these meetings 
will count the same as absence from the teaching hour. 
Absence. 

4. When absence from any of the work is unavoidable, the 
teacher must notify the director and also the supervisor of 
the work in ample time for provision to be made for the class. 
All requests for absence must be made to the director of the 
school. 

Class schedule. 

5. The Oread class schedule: (a) All classes meet five days per 
week; (6) all sciences have double periods for laboratory two 
days per week; (c) all classes begin and close according to the 
schedule of hours that governs the University classes; 
(d) whenever University classes are set aside for convocation, 
holiday, or special occasion, the Oread classes are set aside 
for the same periods of time. 

6. Do not dismiss the class before the end of the period. Do 
not permit students to leave the room before the end of the 
period on quiz days. 

Lesson plans. 

7. Weekly lesson plans are required from the beginning. In 
making out the advance lesson plans on blank A, give the 
full outline of the assignment as it will be given to the class. 
Blank B should give the exact order of procedure and the 



THE SELECTION OF DEVICES 99 

work actually done. Both blanks are due in the director's 
office on Monday before the class period, the A blank for the 
week just beginning, and the B blank for the week just past. 
These must be in on time to be of value and to be fully 
credited. 

8. A copy of all quiz questions must be filed in the office at least 
one day before the quiz is to be given. 

Class records. 

9. Enter the names of students in the class record in alpha- 
betical order, giving the surname first. 

10. Enroll only those who have class cards properly signed. 

11. Keep the class record according to the following system of 
marking: E for entered; W for withdrawn; X in lower half of 
square for present; T for tardy; A for excused absence; 
A/O for unexcused absence. 

12. Require each student to present an excuse signed by the 
director for each absence or tardiness. Sign the excuse. 
Return it to the office if you are the last teacher who should 
receive it. 

Reports. 

13. Report all absences and tardiness each day before leaving 
the building. 

14. Report unsatisfactory work at once to the office. Have a 
conference immediately with each student who is doing un- 
satisfactory work. Report each conference to the office with- 
out delay. Use the regular blanks provided for these reports. 

15. Report cards are issued to the students at the close of each 
nine weeks. Get these cards from the office on Monday of 
the ninth week. Issue them to the students on Wednesday. 
Take them up and return them to the office on Friday. 

Grading of students. 

16. Enter a grade in per cent for each week. This grade is the 
summation or average of all the items of work required. 
Enter a final grade in capital letters at the close of each nine 
weeks. This grade is the summation or average of class work, 
oral and written quizzes, notebook, etc. Enter also a final 
grade in per cent for each item that goes to make up the 
capital letter grade. Indicate what part each item is of the 
final grade. The capitals used are: A, B, C, D; and F ior 
failure, Cond. for conditioned. State the terms of the con- 
dition. Use "No Ex" for not examined. 



100 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

Conferences with students. 

17. Encourage students to come to you voluntarily for confer- 
ences about their work. Set a regular conference hour that 
will enable the students to meet you. Give them your name, 
telephone number, and street address, and encourage them to 
call you up about their work, especially when they are ab- 
sent from class. Indicate the time when they can be surest 
of reaching you. 

18. Decide what kinds of work can be made up by the student 
when he has missed the recitation and what kinds cannot be 
made up. Have a definite plan for the making up of each 
kind of work. Set a definite time within which the work 
must be done. 

19. Watch the bulletin board daily for announcements. 

The following list of instructions to teachers which might 
well be used by a supervising principal or a superintendent 
in a small school system is another example of such a perma- 
nent set of directions: 

INSTRUCTIONS TO REGULAR TEACHERS 

School sessions. 

A. First day of school. 

a. Assemble the pupils promptly at the regular time for 
beginning the school day. 

b. Secure the names of the pupils. 

c. Determine positively that each pupil belongs in your 
room. 

d. Give the pupils the list of books and other materials that 
they need. 

0. Dismiss the pupils for the day. 

/. Devote the remainder of the day to arranging your pro- 
gram and organizing your work for the week. 

B. Regular school days. 

a. Keep the school full time unless instructed to dismiss 
earlier. 

b. Provide in your program for two ten-minute intermis- 
sions during each session. 

C. Holidays. 

a. School will not be in session on Labor Day, Thanks- 




THE SELECTION OF DEVICES / 101 

xj?^ *^ S 

giving Day anaT^^d^Oltft^Ut^lJ^om.Ji'fiaay before 
Christmas until theOTWitejiEteHWHig, New Year's 
Day, Washington's Birthday, Columbus Day, Decora- 
tion Day. 

D. Last day of each semester. 

a. The pupils will come for their reports at the last hour in 
the school day. 

E. Teachers' meetings. 

a. Meetings will be held at the central building every two 

weeks on Friday at 3.30. Dismiss at 3 on those days. 
SuppZiw. 

A. Send an accurate itemized estimate of all supplies needed for 
the following month to the principal on Monday of the last 
week of each month. 

B. See that supplies are not wasted or destroyed. 
Records. 

A. Keep accurate daily records of pupils' grades, absences, and 
tardiness. 

B. Keep an accurate record of the amount of each kind of 
material used per pupil for the year. This is important as a 
basis for estimating the amount of supplies needed for the 
succeeding year. 

C. Keep a record of parental visits to the school. 
Reports. 

A. Report all absences to the principal at the beginning of each 
school session. 

B. Report promptly concerning any school property that needs 
looking after, such as broken windows, damaged window 
shades, etc. 

C. Report promptly when the temperature of the schoolroom 
is too low for comfort and health. If the condition cannot 
be satisfactorily remedied within an hour, dismiss school for 
the remainder of the half-day session or whole-day session 
according to the conditions. 

D. Report promptly any seeming indications of possible break- 
ing out in school of contagious diseases. 

General management. 

A. Teachers in charge of playgrounds, halls, and toilet-rooms 
during intermissions will have control over all pupils under 
their supervision. 

B. Allow only one pupil to be abse^ frow^'e rbom\t a timo ^ 
during class hours. 



(i 






10* DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

C. Instruct pupils to report all found articles at the office, and 
to inquire there for lost articles. Do not permit pupils to go 
from room to room to inquire for lost articles or for owners of 
found articles. 

D. Be alert to respond to the fire alarm at any time. You will 
not be notified as to whether it is for drill or actual fire. 

E. The teacher should, except in very extreme cases, handle all 
matters of discipline without appealing to the principal. 

F. Keep luncheon pupils in the room until the others have passed 
out of the building, then send them to the lunch room. 

G. Pupils should not remain in the room during intermissions 
except in special cases. 

H. Pupils should not enter the building before the time for class- 
work to begin, except in inclement weather, and special indi- 
vidual cases. 
I. Supplementary books furnished by the school should not be 

taken from the building. 

J. Pupils should be assembled and dismissed in orderly fashion. 
K. Home study should not be assigned to grade pupils. 

Saving the time of the teacher. Another phase of econ- 
omy is the saving of the time of the teacher. The use of the 
device ought to save time according to the results to be se- 
cured. Take again the example just mentioned of the 
printed instructions to beginning teachers. This device 
gives the teacher an opportunity to study the instructions 
thoroughly and to keep looking them over until their signifi- 
cance is thoroughly understood and the duties they enjoin 
are made habit. If the teachers had to receive these in- 
structions verbally from the supervisor, they would have to 
take the time to copy them before they could be mastered. 
Errors in copying would occur and confusion on important 
points would result. Count up the amount of the teachers' 
time that would be consumed through giving general in- 
structions orally and it will certainly convince one that a 
device should conserve the teachers' time. 

Conservation of materials. Another form of economy in 
devices is that of the conservation of materials consumed. 



THE SELECTION OF DEVICES 103 

Economy of the materials must be judged in the light of the 
results obtained. The printed instruction sheet, for exam- 
ple, would be economical compared to oral instructions in 
the light of the results obtained. The sheet itself may be 
planned in such a way as to save space without decreasing 
the effectiveness of the device. If the print is too small, the 
conservation of material cripples the effectiveness of the de- 
vice and no genuine economy has been effected. Here again 
comes in the idea of permanency of the device. A device 
that can be used only once, or a very few times at most, 
wastes materials to no good purpose. For instance, a 
printed form for a daily lesson plan would be wasteful and 
ineffective if the items in it were changed every semester, or 
every year or two, so that the old forms not used up would 
have to be discarded. This conservation of materials should 
be taken into account in working out devices, so that the 
greatest care will be exercised in making the devices as per- 
fect and permanent as possible. 

Another phase of economy of materials used is the cost of 
permanent materials. The first cost of hectographed or 
mimeographed sheets of instructions, for instance, would no 
doubt be less than the cost of printed sheets, but the printed 
sheets are of better material, or should be, and in the long 
run they are more economical from a cost standpoint. Take 
the course of study in a subject as another illustration. A 
printed course will be more durable and serviceable than a 
mimeographed outline, although the first cost will be greater. 
The point, then, is that for permanent devices the economy 
is not in the cheapness of materials, but in securing the most 
satisfactory and usable materials. 

Economy a relative matter. The principle of economy in 
devices is a relative matter, as has been shown by the above 
discussion, and it must be worked out in relation to the other 
principles that are important to consider in the selection of 



104 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

devices as well as in keeping with the four aspects of econ- 
omy that have just been set forth. The dominant idea that 
should determine whether the devices used by the supervisor 
are economical or not is that of the time saved in getting 
things well done. Devices that are effective in saving time 
for both supervisor and teacher must necessarily eliminate 
the waste that is entailed by the inefficiency of a device that 
consumes time to no good purpose. In other words, to save 
time and yet do a piece of work thoroughly and efficiently, 
one must do only necessary things; that is, one must deal 
with just the essentials. The value of learning to do things 
definitely and concisely is very great. One cannot do things 
concisely without having a definite, clear-cut goal in view. 
Therefore, the working-out of devices that economize time 
insure a clarity of thinking and direct attack upon specific 
problems in training and directing teachers. 

Devices should be effective. One criterion of the effec- 
tiveness of devices is the immediate results that come from 
the use of the devices. The value of the immediate results 
should be commensurate with the time, energy, and cost in- 
volved in the use of the devices. The giving of general in- 
structions, for example, in printed form consumes little time 
and energy on the part of both supervisor and teachers. 
The immediate results are perhaps as great as could be se- 
cured from the use of any other form of device. If these 
same instructions are given orally, the supervisor can dis- 
cuss the points and illustrate the significance of the various 
instructions. This might mean that the immediate results 
are more effective than they are when the printed instruc- 
tions are used. The difference, however, in the immediate 
results that are secured by the oral device and those secured 
by the printed instructions is not commensurate with the 
difference in time and energy consumed by the use of the 
oral and printed devices respectively. Moreover, the im 



THE SELECTION OF DEVICES 105 

mediate results secured from the use of the printed device 
are highly satisfactory. 

Another criterion of the effectiveness of devices is the ul- 
timate results that are secured through their use. The ulti- 
mate results, likewise, should be commensurate with the 
time, energy, cost, and immediate results involved in the 
use of the particular devices considered. The ultimate re- 
sults of one device should also be compared with the im- 
mediate and ultimate results of other devices. The ulti- 
mate results of the printed instructions, for example, far 
surpass both the immediate and the ultimate results of the 
oral instructions, for they afford a longer period of study and 
they can be consulted again and again in the face of actual 
situations that call for their application. The ultimate re- 
sults of the printed devices also greatly augment the im- 
mediate results and build directly upon them. This not 
only makes the printed device more effective, but also more 
economical from the standpoint of permanent habit forma- 
tion. 

Devices should be usable. One criterion of the usability 
of devices is the frequency with which they may be employed 
to advantage. Other things being equal, the more fre- 
quently the devices can be used effectively the better they 
are. The printed instructions measure up satisfactorily in 
this regard. They can be used term after term without 
modification or extra effort in preparing them for use. A 
device that could be used only at long intervals must be 
found valuable for other reasons than the frequency with 
which it may be employed. 

A second criterion of the usability of devices is the extent 
to which they can be employed in different subjects and 
situations. Take, for example, a detailed plan for daily 
recitation. A well-organized plan should be usable for 
practically every day's lessons and for all subjects. Such a 



106 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

form should be inclusive so that the essential items that may 
enter into any recitation will be definitely considered. The 
items that do not happen to come into a particular recita- 
tion can easily be left blank. The fact that the form con- 
tains all the essential items that are necessary to be included 
in recitations at different times renders the device all the 
more effective because of the suggestiveness of such a con- 
stant reminder of the points concerning which decision must 
be made when making a detailed daily lesson plan. 

A third criterion of usability is the accessibility of the de- 
vices when they are needed. The printed instructions for 
beginning teachers and printed forms for daily lesson plans 
are good examples of devices that are readily accessible 
when needed. Suppose the supervisor depends upon giving 
instructions, as they seem to be needed, through the device 
of teachers' meetings, then the device is not readily accessi- 
ble, for such a meeting cannot be held at just any and all 
times. Accessibility, then, is an item that should be given 
very careful consideration hi planning and selecting devices. 

Devices should not be too numerous. The number of de- 
vices employed by the supervisor, especially to accomplish 
the same purpose, should not be multiplied needlessly. One 
carefully selected device that has been highly perfected will 
accomplish more than several devices more spontaneously 
selected and less thoroughly organized and perfected. Sup- 
pose, for example, the supervisor undertakes to use teachers' 
meetings, bulletin board, hurriedly written mimeographed 
sheets, announcements in classrooms, and individual verbal 
notifications as devices for giving instructions. The very 
multiplicity of devices is confusing to the supervisor and 
even more confusing to the teachers. The supervisor makes 
hurried decisions as to which device to use for a particular 
kind of instruction, and often chooses the one that is least 
effective for that particular situation and time. The teach- 



THE SELECTION OF DEVICES 107 

ers are confused as to what form is to be looked to for im- 
portant information. They get to relying on one form and 
miss the instructions when they are issued in another form. 

If, on the other hand, the supervisor depends entirely 
upon a printed sheet for giving all general instructions, and 
perfects this device until it includes all essential items, well 
organized and classified, then there is no confusion on the 
part of either teachers or supervisor. The supervisor knows 
when the full instructions are in the possession of the teach- 
ers, and the teachers know how to keep fully posted as to 
their general duties. 

Devices should not be too meager. The work of the su- 
pervisor may be seriously handicapped if the number of de- 
vices is too meager. While a multiplicity of devices is apt 
to be confusing, a paucity of them is likely to be deadening. 
Take the problem of coming to a common agreement upon 
the dominant mental traits of childhood or adolescence, for 
example. Here the supervisor might first give an oral dis- 
cussion of these mental characteristics. Then he might 
give the teachers definite references to books on psychology 
that would give these same mental tendencies, and finally 
he might put printed or mimeographed copies of a well-or- 
ganized list of these dominant mental traits and tendencies 
into the hands of the teachers. Each device has brought the 
materials before the teachers in a different form, and in this 
way has secured prolonged attention and study with the 
interest that comes through comparison, verification, and 
completeness of knowledge. Any one of these devices alone 
would not have accomplished the same results. Paucity of 
devices, then, may readily lead to indifference and ineffec- 
tive or partial mastery of very important subject-matter. 

Devices should bear a logical relation to the end they are 
to aid in accomplishing. For example, putting a printed 
list of the dominant mental traits of childhood into the pos- 



108 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

session of the teacher is logically related to the aim of secur- 
ing a body of common knowledge concerning children. The 
use of the bulletin board as a means of giving specific in- 
structions to individual teachers is using a device that is not 
logically related to the end it is to further. One does not 
naturally look to a bulletin board for other than general an- 
nouncements; hence it is not a good medium for giving de- 
tailed information to a considerable number of people. On 
the other hand, the bulletin board is a logical device for dis- 
seminating general news and emergency information. 

Devices should be a means. The devices used by super- 
visors should never become an end in themselves, but should 
always be the means of accomplishing definite ends. There- 
fore the devices should not attract attention to themselves, 
but they should be the means of centering the attention of 
teachers upon the things that are to be mastered, and they 
should make the mastery of these things more readily and 
effectively accomplished. This point should be clear and 
emphatic in the mind of the supervisor. The supervisor 
should not become so engrossed in the problem of inventing 
devices that his attention is more upon the devices than it is 
upon the results to be obtained by using the devices. In 
other words, the manipulation of any device ought not to 
detract the attention from the consideration of the matter 
that is being presented by means of the device. 

Take, for example, the form for a daily lesson plan. The 
device is to aid in securing a systematic, definite preparation 
and thorough organization of the lesson in advance of the 
recitation. The supervisor may become so engrossed with 
getting just certain items such as the five formal steps, 
for instance put down in a regular order in every plan 
that he loses sight of the purpose for which the device was 
invented. Then the device gets in its own way and the best 
results cannot be secured. The matter of chief concern to 



THE SELECTION OF DEVICES 109 

the teacher is that of getting every item down just so. That 
is to say, the teacher is engrossed with manipulating the de- 
vice so that every cog of the machine is there, whether it is 
of any service in the particular lesson or not. A form for a 
daily lesson plan is a good device that will train teachers in 
the ability and skill to do things thoroughly and definitely. 
Such a form, however, should be suggestive and not manda- 
tory. It should be inclusive, but adaptable. The teacher 
should be free to bend the device to the helpful purpose it is 
intended to serve. 

Devices should be classified. Supervisors may be greatly 
aided in their thinking about devices, and especially in mak- 
ing clear distinctions between principles of method and de- 
vices, and between principles of technique and devices, by 
working out definite classifications of all devices. Any 
classification of devices must be more or less arbitrary. If, 
however, the definition of device that was given in a former 
part of this discussion is adhered to, then the main idea that 
should dominate in classifying devices is that of inclusive- 
ness. That is to say, every type of means that may be em- 
ployed in the work of a supervisor should be included in an 
adequate scheme of classification. 

The following scheme of classification is intended to sug- 
gest the various types of devices that may be helpful in this 
field: 

I. General devices. A general device is one that constitutes 
a part of any well-equipped school, and one that may be used 
by many people for a variety of services. General devices 
are of two kinds : 

a. Material. A bulletin board is a general device of the 
material type. A printed sheet of general instructions 
to teachers is a general device of the material sort. A 
material device, then, is a device which renders its serv- 
ice by virtue of its material form of existence. 
6. Intellectual. An intellectual device is one that renders its 



110 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

service by virtue of its intellectual form of existence. 
A discussion, a lecture, and a series of questions are 
intellectual devices. 

c. Material and intellectual. A device may be both materia' 
and intellectual. For example, the supervisor may give 
the teacher a list of questions that the teacher must an- 
swer in working out a lesson plan, or a list to be used in 
dealing with problems of discipline. In such cases the 
material device is employed to make the intellectual de- 
vice available. A clear distinction should be drawn be- 
tween such cases as these and the printed sheet of general 
instructions. The material device in the printed sheet 
of instructions is for the purpose of presenting subject- 
matter. When the teacher reads this subject-matter he 
has received what the device was used to accomplish. 
This is not the case in the list of printed questions given 
to the teacher in reference to the lesson plan. In this 
case the material device presents a form of subject- 
matter that is a further device for assisting the teacher 
in acquiring the ultimate form of subject-matter that the 
supervisor wishes to have mastered. That is to say, the 
form of the questions is not the goal of learning, but a 
device to stimulate learning. Clearness of thinking on 
this point will prevent the intellectual device from be- 
coming the center of the supervisor's attention instead 
of simply a means of centering the teacher's attention 
upon the real goal of learning. 

2. Special devices. A special device is one that has been 
invented for use in a particular situation, or for use in con- 
nection with a particular subject, or some particular phase of 
a subject. Special devices are also of two kinds: 

a. Material. A series of graphs showing the distribution of 
grades of the pupils in the particular subject or subjects 
for former years would be a special device of the material 
type. The point that was made in the discussion of 
general devices should be kept in mind in making this 
classification. The material form of this graph is for the 
purpose of presenting definite subject-matter that is the 
goal of instruction, and not for the purpose of making an 
intellectual device available. 
6. Intellectual. A demonstration lecture on the art of ques- 



THE SELECTION OF DEVICES 111 

tioning in history would be a particular or special intel- 
lectual device. Special forms of questions that are 
adapted to stimulate certain types of teachers to an 
appreciation of their needs is a special intellectual device. 
Every supervisor should make a careful study of such 
devices and be resourceful in inventing them. 
t. Material and intellectual. The special device that is both 
material and intellectual possesses the same character- 
istics that were set forth in the discussion of the general 
device of this same type; that is, its material form is 
employed to make its intellectual form available. A 
printed list of questions that are adapted to making 
teachers of a certain type realize their weakness would 
be a good example of a special device of the material and 
intellectual type. 

Chapter summary. The principles involved in the selec- 
tion of the devices of supervision include the following char- 
acteristics: devices should be economical, effective, usable, 
not multiplied needlessly, not too meager, logically related 
to the ends they are to further, not an end in themselves, 
and classified according to well-defined distinctions. Su- 
pervisors and teachers should study these principles thor- 
oughly, and the selection of all devices should be made in 
keeping with the bearing these principles have upon the 
goals to be attained through the use of proper adequate 
devices. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Criticize the list of "General Instructions to Senior Teachers," given 
at the beginning of the chapter, as to organization, completeness, 
or excessiveness of details, etc. 

2. Make an estimate of the amount of time actually saved for the 
administrative officer by the use of the printed instructions, instead 
of giving the same instructions orally to a group of thirty teachers. 
Estimate the additional time saved for ten supervisors, who would 
necessarily have to supplement and repeat the oral instructions given 
by the administrator. 

8. Give an illustration of a device that, otherwise good, would involve 
such expensive materials or other expense that it should not be used. 



DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

4. Give an illustration of a device that would be valuable just for the 
immediate results it would secure. 

5. Give an illustration of a device that would be valuable chiefly for the 
ultimate results it would secure. 

6. Give three or four devices that show marked differences in usability 
as to frequency, in different subjects, and accessibility. 

7. Give ten examples, from your experience, of the employment of too 
many devices. 

8. Give an example, from experience, in which too few devices were used. 

9. Give three illustrations of logical devices. 

10. Give three illustrations of illogical devices. 

11. Give two examples, from experience, of devices that were made ends 
instead of means. 

12. Criticize the classification of devices given in the chapter as to help- 
fulness, consistency of organization, completeness or excessiveness of 
details, etc. 



CHAPTER IX 

DEVICES THAT ILLUSTRATE PRINCIPLE ONE OF 
METHOD 

THE devices that are herein given have been used by the 
writer and supervisors working under his direction and 
found valuable as measured by the principles involved in 
the selection of devices, as just stated, and as measured by 
the extent to which they further the application of the prin- 
ciples of method previously stated as underlying the science 
and art of supervision. The primary point of departure in 
working out the problems of selecting devices is the princi- 
ple of method that is to be applied. The secondary point 
of attack upon the problem is the set of principles under- 
lying the selection of devices. The writer has already indi- 
cated how the application of this set of principles may be 
employed as a criterion for determining the selection of ade- 
quate devices. Therefore, in this discussion and description 
of devices, only the primary point of attack will be raised. 
The reader will raise the secondary point of attack and pass 
judgment as to how far the devices described measure up to 
the criteria set forth in the preceding chapter. 

The problem. The problem here is to invent devices that 
will aid the teacher and supervisor in understanding the 
same facts and holding the same points of view concerning 
the educational situation in which the cooperative teaching 
is to be carried on. The educational situation involves the 
school, the pupils, the course of study, the science of method 
of teaching, management of the teaching situation, judging 
the results of teaching, and the purpose of cooperative teach- 
ing. The goal may be stated in simple form as follows: To 
give teachers and supervisors common understanding and 



114 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

points of view concerning the educational situations in 
which they work together. 

Facts as to educational situations. The first fact that is 
perfectly obvious is that the teacher and supervisor must 
canvass the facts that each knows about the different as- 
pects of the educational situations that confront them, and 
come to an agreement as to the essential facts that shall be 
accepted as valid. These facts can then be held in mind and 
referred to as a basis for departure in the solution of teach- 
ing and management problems. The most reliable means 
of getting a comprehensive body of facts together is to set 
them down in printed form. Since the supervisor is to be 
the leader hi the process of cooperative teaching, the super- 
visor should commit his knowledge and points of view of the 
educational situation to printed form, so that it may be used 
as a ready means of getting the whole body of data before 
the mind of the teacher. Nothing clarifies one's thinking 
more effectively than the committing of one's ideas to defi- 
nite and permanent language forms. 

For example, the supervisor may have the psychological 
principles of the psychology of childhood and of adolescence 
fairly well in mind. The teacher may also have these prin- 
ciples quite well in mind, as a body of psychological facts. 
The truth is, however, that these facts of psychology will 
have very little influence upon the teaching and manage- 
ment performance unless they are translated into definite, 
detailed items of application, and illustrated by cases of 
actual behavior of school pupils. 

A second fact that is quite as obvious is that when one has 
committed his point of view to a permanent form, he has an 
anchor that keeps him from drifting about when the peda- 
gogical stream becomes turbulent and muddy. One forgets 
what he has said and thought and done if he has no witness 
whose evidence is unimpeachable to put the record before 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 115 

him. The supervisor cannot make the mistake of giving the 
teacher one point of view to-day and a radically different one 
to-morrow if he has committed his point of view to printed 
form, and if the teacher has agreed with the supervisor upot 
that point of view. This printed form also serves as an an- 
chor for the thinking of the teacher, once the teacher has 
agreed to its validity. Then the teacher cannot plead ig- 
norance as an excuse for the things that he does, and he can- 
not attempt to justify his procedure on the validity of a 
point of view different from the one upon which they had 
come to a satisfactory agreement. 

Value of printed forms. The first suggestion, then, is 
that the supervisor shall put printed material, concerning 
the aspects of the educational situation upon which he 
should come to common understanding and agreement with 
his teachers, into the hands of the teachers at the very be- 
ginning of their cooperative undertaking. The second sug- 
gestion is that the supervisor will not take for granted that 
the mere reading of this printed material will bring the 
teacher into harmony with his own thinking, but that he 
should go over this material in personal conference after the 
teacher has studied it thoroughly. The teacher should be 
held responsible to accept or to object to the various details 
of the material, and to give valid grounds for accepting or 
rejecting each item. And, finally, a definite and mutually 
satisfactory understanding should be reached before the 
first cooperative class recitation is held. Then teacher and 
supervisor should get into the habit of coming back to defi- 
nite data upon which they have agreed as the point of de- 
parture in interpreting and meeting the actual conditions 
and circumstances of the schoolroom. 

The suggestive printed material that supervisors might 
use as the device for getting the data concerning the school, 
the pupils, general principles of method, principles underly- 



116 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

ing the selection of devices for classroom instruction, prin- 
ciples of technique, and a statement of the relations that 
might well exist between teacher and supervisor in the proc- 
ess of cooperative teaching, has already been given hi suffi- 
cient detail to render the repetition of the data unnecessary. 
The devices, then, that have proven most adequate in ap- 
plying the first principle of method are: definite detailed 
printed data placed in the hands of the teacher, and per- 
sonal conferences, either group or individual, or both, until 
the desired agreement is reached. 

Section summary. The best means for enabling one to 
know what he really thinks and believes is to set one's ideas 
down in printed form. The supervisor and the teacher can 
best come to an understanding and common agreement upon 
their mutual educational problems by committing their 
ideas and beliefs to printed form, and then conferring upon 
them until agreement is reached. The things upon which 
they agree should be committed to printed form and held by 
each as the guide to common practice. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Make a list of ten concrete cases of actual behavior of pupils that 
exhibit principles of child psychology which teacher and supervisor 
should understand in common. 

2. Make a list of ten concrete cases of actual behavior of pupils which 
exhibit principles of adolescent psychology that teacher and supervisor 
should understand in common. 

3. Give two examples, from experience, in which failure of teacher and 
supervisor to see the same principles of child psychology involved led 
to friction and inefficient handling of the cases. 

4. Give two examples, from experience, in which failure of teacher and 
supervisor to see the same principles of adolescent psychology involved 
led to friction and inefficient handling of the cases. 

5. Make a list of instructions that you think would be helpful to a teacher 
in handling a particular group of pupils on the first day he is placed 
in charge. 

6. Select some teaching problem and commit to written form your views 
concerning it. Note the effect that the procedure has upon rejection 
of first ideas and satisfactoriness of final selection of ideas. 



CHAPTER X 

DEVICES THAT ILLUSTRATE THE REMAINING 
PRINCIPLES OF METHOD 

I. THE SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF SUBJECT-MATTER 

PRACTICALLY all the devices that are now to be given 
further the remaining principles of method, hi varying de- 
grees; hence they will be given without attempting to iden- 
tify them specifically with the principle or principles that 
they may seem to further most adequately. To attempt to 
do so would entail a great deal of repetition of discussion 
without materially increasing the value of the suggestions. 
The reader will be able to place the devices in their proper 
relations to the principles of method that they further. The 
connections of the devices suggested with the last seven 
activities that the supervisor should carry on are obvious 
enough to make a statement in each case unnecessary. 

1. The courses and instruction 

Subject-matter in permanent form. The selection and 
organization of subject-matter should be worked out in per- 
manent printed form. The supervisor should work out a 
comprehensive, detailed statement for each course that he 
supervises. The complete course should be placed in the 
hands of each teacher, and each teacher should be held re- 
sponsible for knowing the relation that the part of the course 
he happens to teach bears to the whole course. A complete 
statement of a course should include the items discussed 
below. 

Purpose for which the subject was organized. The 
teacher should know definitely the conventional significance 



118 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

that attaches to the subject-matter he is attempting to 
teach. This should have been and probably has been learned 
in the special course in method of teaching, but the repeated 
coming-back to the statement will be of great value in keep- 
ing the ultimate end of the learning of the subject clearly 
in mind, and will enable the teacher to keep a proper balance 
between the conventional purpose and the immediate pur- 
pose for which the subject is being taught. 

Purpose for which the subject is being taught. This 
statement requires the greatest care and most thorough con- 
sideration. After one has got the conventional significance 
of a subject hi mind as a science, and has also in mind the 
psychological needs of the child, or adolescent, then he is 
ready to decide on what grounds any particular subject 
should be taught to any certain group of children, in either 
the elementary or secondary school. 

He can decide what phases of the science as a whole, and 
what degree of complexity of these phases should be or can 
be taught to advantage to the particular group of children. 
The immediate purpose, then, involves a definite stage of 
progress toward a mastery of the conventional significance 
of the subject, and a realization of the psychological needs 
of the pupil through the proper stimulation and develop- 
ment of his normal tendencies and capabilities. The state- 
ment of immediate aim or purpose for teaching the subject 
to the particular group of pupils has a great influence upon 
the daily work of the teacher. This part of the statement 
of the course of study should, therefore, be made very clear 
and explicit. It should be clear enough and explicit enough 
to show what the particular subject will do that no other 
subject will do toward the education of the pupil. 

Changes going on hi the subject. The accumulation of 
human knowledge has become so great that many modifica- 
tions and changes are going on hi most subjects to meet 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 11Q 

changing social and psychological needs of pupils. Changes 
are also necessary in many subjects for the purpose of solv- 
ing pedagogical and administrative difficulties. The state- 
ment of the course should make clear whatever changes are 
going on in the subject as a part of the elementary- or sec- 
ondary-school curriculum, and why these changes are taking 
place. 

Define the unit of credit in the subject. The outline of 
work for each period of four, six, nine, or twelve weeks of the 
course as suggested below define the unit of the course to 
some extent. A more definite detailed statement, however, 
will be of advantage in determining the problem of granting 
a certain amount of credit for work completed. A thorough 
consideration of the unit of credit, or half-unit of credit in 
any subject, involves a number of items. These items are 
as follows: 

1. The range or scope of subject-matter that should be cov- 
ered. Take a course in seventh-grade arithmetic, for exam- 
ple. The problem of scope determines what topics will be 
included in the course. These topics may be percentage, 
applications of percentage, mensuration, etc. There may 
be a large number or relatively small number of topics in- 
cluded in the unit. Take elementary algebra for another 
example. The topics may be fractions, factoring, simple 
equations, etc. There is a tendency at present to cut down 
the number of topics in the algebra course. Whatever the 
number may be is determined by the solution of the problem 
of scope of subject-matter of the unit. 

2. The quantity of both content and formal subject-matter of 
the course. The relative amount of each type of subject- 
matter is highly important. Most courses tend to over- 
crowd the content side of subject-matter. A definite state- 
ment of the approximate amount of formal material that 
should accompany a certain body of content matter will be 



120 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

of advantage in working out the outline suggested under 13 
below. The tendency to-day is to cut down the content 
subject-matter by restricting it to what is considered as ab- 
solutely essential and practical, and greatly to increase the 
amount of drill or formal material that will make possible a 
thorough mastery of the application of the content that is 
presented. Every elementary- and secondary -school course 
is undergoing careful, discriminating criticism, and super- 
visors should be able to make intelligent, accurate state- 
ments concerning the courses under their charge. 

3. The body of essential facts and principles that should be 
thoroughly mastered and remembered. Some phases of con- 
tent subject-matter are necessary in developing the usable 
facts and principles. They are not necessary, however, 
when it comes to the application of the fundamental content 
material of a course. Therefore a statement of the scope 
and quantity of content subject-matter does not give the 
teacher a clear criterion and definite guide as to what should 
be learned temporarily and what should be learned perma- 
nently. The importance of making this distinction is obvi- 
ous, and the discussion of the unit of credit should include 
such a statement. 

4- The body of habits that should result from the study of the 
course. The statement of habit should be specific and de- 
tailed. One of the weaknesses of educational thinking is the 
tendency to keep in the realm of broad generalities. For 
example, it is not enough to say that the study of a subject 
should develop accuracy. The important point is to de- 
termine the specific form in which accuracy should be mani- 
fested. It may be accuracy in adding numbers, making let- 
ters, describing objects, interpreting language, judging 
appropriateness of conduct, etc. The statement should in- 
dicate those forms of accuracy that the study of the subject 
is intended to develop. The more detailed the statements 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 121 

are in regard to the habits that are to be formed through the 
study of any particular subject, the better and more helpful 
the statements will be. They will not only be more helpful 
to the teachers, but also more helpful to the supervisors 
themselves. 

5. The prerequisites to the course, in the same subject and in 
other subjects. The statement of prerequisites should show, 
first, those subjects that are essential for one to have studied 
in order to profit by the study of the particular course. In 
addition to this, the statement should point out the helpful- 
ness of other courses that are not required or considered as 
absolutely necessary to precede the particular subject. The 
statement should do more than merely enumerate the pre- 
requisite subjects. It should point out the specific correla- 
tions that exist between these various bodies of related ma- 
terial. 

6. The courses in the same subjects to which the particular 
course leads. One of the things that a pupil needs to know 
before he takes up the study of a specific course is whether 
the outcome of the study is largely within the course itself, 
or whether, in addition to certain immediate outcomes, 
there is the definite opening-up of opportunities that would 
be closed to one without the study of this particular subject. 
The statement of the lines of study or of occupations to 
which a particular subject leads should not be a mere enu- 
meration of subjects or occupations, but it should point out 
the definite, direct connections that exist between the sub- 
ject and the opportunities to which it leads. Every subject 
should have some educational or vocational appeal, and the 
definition of a unit in the subject should state the outlooks 
that will appeal to pupils. 

7. The shortest periods into which the subject can be organ- 
ized. One of the problems that puzzles teachers is the ques- 
tion of recording credit for any amount of work less than the 



122 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

unit or half -unit according to the length of the course offered 
in the subject. Most schools will not record credit on a per- 
manent record for less than a half -unit of work. Some 
schools organize their courses so that permanent credit will 
be recorded for periods of six weeks where they are on the 
quarter system, and others for nine weeks where they are 
on the semester system. Still other schools record perma- 
nent credit for six weeks of work even though the school is 
on the semester system. In all of these schools, however, the 
course must be completed before any of it can be counted 
toward graduation. The length of period for which credit 
may be recorded and carried forward for the student must 
be decided by the organization of the subject-matter. If 
the subject is of such a nature that a complete division or 
definitely organized part of the material can be completed 
during each six weeks of the time during which the course is 
offered, then it is not only feasible, but fair and just to both 
the pupil and the school as well, that permanent credit 
should be recorded for the work completed. 

It is perfectly feasible in some subjects for the pupil to 
fail, or miss the first six or nine weeks, as the case may be, 
and go on successfully with the next six or nine weeks. He 
may even miss or lose out on the next six or nine weeks and 
go on successfully with the next blocks of the subject. In 
the end he might have, let us say, credit for the second and 
fourth periods of nine weeks and be lacking in the work of 
the first and third nine-week periods. These two blocks of 
work could be made up without the pupil taking the entire 
course over again. Whatever the possibilities are of organ- 
izing the subject so that definite parts of the unit may be 
completed and permanent credit given before the comple- 
tion of the entire unit, the supervisor should know and 
should commit some definite scheme of organization of the 
subject-matter to permanent form for this purpose. The 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 123 

organization of subject-matter into definite blocks of unified 
material for periods of six, nine, or twelve weeks will have an 
excellent effect upon the teaching of the subject. Most sub- 
jects are less effectively taught than they should be on ac- 
count of lack of definiteness. 

8. The length and number of class periods. By this is 
meant the length and number of class periods per week for 
which any fractional credit toward the unit and for which 
whole-unit credit should be given. This problem should be 
determined by the size of the class, the experience and skill 
of the teacher, the amount of personal supervision given to 
each pupil's work, and the number of subjects the pupils are 
taking. A large class taught by a skilled teacher of consid- 
erable experience can cover the subject-matter of a course 
thoroughly and yet more rapidly than a smaller class taught 
by a less skillful teacher. If the pupils each receive a great 
amount of individual attention from the teacher, regardless, 
of the size of the class, then more work can be thoroughly 
covered in a shorter period of time than would ordinarily be 
required to do the same amount of work. If pupils are 
carrying only a normal amount of work, or if they are car- 
rying less than the normal load, they can complete work in 
a shorter period of time and yet do it thoroughly. All of 
these considerations should be taken into account and defi- 
nite analyses of actual situations should be employed in de- 
termining the amount of actual class time that, under the 
varying conditions, will insure a successful completion of the 
work. 

9. The amount of time required in study preparation outside 
of class. This is not a problem that can be settled by tradi- 
tions. It must be determined by a careful consideration of 
actual practices and conditions. The amount of time will 
vary with different pupils and with different subjects. The 
most important point is the development of the habit on the 



124 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

part of the pupil of making a definite preparation of the les- 
son assigned. If the beginning lessons only require fifteen 
minutes of intensive study, and the pupil gets the habit of 
studying intensively and mastering the lesson, then a 
twenty-minute lesson, and a twenty-five-minute lesson, and 
a thirty-minute lesson, etc., may be assigned and the pupil 
will continue to prepare his lessons thoroughly, just because 
he has got into the habit of getting the assignment. Ulti- 
mately in this way a reasonable standard of time require- 
ment for outside preparation will be established in the habits 
of the pupil. The reasonableness of this final standard of 
time should be determined by the maturity of the pupils, 
the nature of the subject-matter, and the length of the reci- 
tation period. The longer the recitation period, the less 
time required outside in the study of the lesson, and vice 
versa, relatively speaking. The relation between the length 
of the recitation and the length of outside study should be 
definitely worked out by each supervisor and stated in the 
form of a workable standard. 

10. The amount of laboratory and recitation time in subjects 
requiring laboratory work. The number and length of recita- 
tion periods per week, and the number and length of labora- 
tory periods per week, should be determined by the size of 
the class, the experience and skill of the teacher, the amount 
of individual attention given each pupil, and the number of 
subjects the pupils are taking. The amount of laboratory 
time in relation to recitation time is usually two double peri- 
ods of laboratory to three single periods of recitation. The 
relation, however, is traditional, and in many cases results 
in the isolation of laboratory experiments from the class dis- 
cussions. The relation between recitation and laboratory 
should be that of complementary devices, each of which 
furthers the study of the subject. Recitation and book 
study may at times continue for several days in order to get 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 125 

a good grasp of certain laws and principles from mere mental 
analysis. Then a week or two of intensive laboratory work 
might well follow as the means of mastering the applications 
of laws and principles. However the relation between the 
two types of study devices works out, it should be on the 
basis of definite, consistent progress in the subject, and not 
on the traditional basis of so many times per week to use the 
one device and so many to use the other. Even the idea 
that laboratory work should be for double periods and reci- 
tations for single periods is traditional. Proper method, 
adequate devices, and efficient technique may change the 
whole idea of the amount of time needed for thorough labo- 
ratory work. 

a. Experiments to be performed by the pupil. This is 
merely another item of this same problem. The number of 
laboratory experiments that should be required of each pu- 
pil or group of pupils must be considered. The number of 
such experiments in science courses has been determined al- 
most wholly upon the basis of the number of double labora- 
tory periods there would be during the year. The experi- 
ments should bear some direct relation to the realization of 
the purposes for which the courses are being taught. They 
should further the mastery of truths and comprehension of 
principles, and they should promote the development of 
definite habits. The number, therefore, may vary with 
different classes and with different individuals. The defini- 
tion of the unit of the course should give the types of experi- 
ments that should be performed and range in number that 
would meet the varying conditions. 

b. Experiments to be performed by the teacher. This is still 
another item of this same problem. Here, again, the num- 
ber to be demonstrated by the teacher should be determined 
by the purposes of the course. The demonstrations should 
be directly related to the mastering of truths and compre- 



120 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

hension of principles on the part of the pupils. They should 
especially relate to those phases of content material that are 
to be learned only temporarily as a means of developing a 
thorough mastery of those phases of content that are to be 
learned permanently. Demonstration experiments should 
relate to the problem of supplementing and enriching the 
fundamental body of content material. The exact relations 
that demonstrations are to bear to the various phases and 
aspects of the courses taught under his supervision is one of 
the important problems for the supervisor to solve. He 
should work out a definite, detailed statement of these rela- 
tions and the types and relative number of demonstrations 
that he thinks should be employed in the teaching of the 
course. 

11. The doss of pupils for whom the course is pitched. 
This is usually not a difficult problem for supervisors of 
work in elementary schools. There are cases, however, even 
in the elementary schools, where different grades and sec- 
tions of grades are thrown together for music, drawing, etc. 
The same conditions prevail in such cases in the elementary 
school as are found in secondary schools in the teaching of 
elective courses. Pupils of different ages and of different 
stages of school progress are thrown together in the same 
course. The problem is, shall the course be pitched to the 
pupils of lowest stage of school advancement, or shall it be 
pitched to those of the highest stage of school advance- 
ment? The supervisor should determine this point and 
indicate in the definition of the unit the exact status of the 
course as it is to be taught with reference to the maturity 
and school progress of the pupils who may be allowed to 
take the course. 

12. The classes of pupils to whom, the course is open for full 
or fractional credit. This is a much-mooted question to-day, 
especially in the secondary school. The question of giving 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 127 

full credit to a senior for a language, or a history course, or a 
science course that ordinarily is taken in the freshman or 
sophomore year, has been argued pro and con for some time 
and the solution seems to be as far away as ever. The ques- 
tions of the class of pupils for whom the course shall be open 
for full credit, and the pupils to whom it shall be open for 
fractional credit, are all part of the same problem; namely, 
the problem of offering a course in such a way that it will 
further the education of every class of pupils taking it, and 
of measuring the amount of development, brought about by 
the taking of the course, in terms of units and fractional 
units. The problem presents a number of difficulties, and 
the supervisor is very apt to pass them over by simply fol- 
lowing the traditions of the school hi which he works, or the 
ruling of some association that is working in the interest of 
uniformity of practice in dealing with this problem. How- 
ever this may be, the definition of the unit of a course should 
contain a definite statement of this point, so that teachers 
may know the plan of administration at the outset. 

13. The items that shall determine the pupil's record and 
credit in the course. The definition of the unit should con- 
tain a statement as to the relative amount of emphasis that 
should be given to the different items that are considered to 
be the most reliable evidences of the realization of the pur- 
poses for which the course is being taught. The degree of 
emphasis given to these items will vary with the nature of 
the subject. The number of the items may also vary ac- 
cording to the nature of the subject. In general, however, 
these items fall into four groups, as follows : 

1. Achievement in knowledge of subject-matter. 

2. Faithful, consistent effort in pursuing the study of the subject. 

3. General habits in technique of organization and manipulation 
of subject-matter, materials, and apparatus that will be help- 
ful in the further study of the same subject, or in the study of 
some related subject. 



128 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

4. Specific habits of study and habits of attacking subject- 
matter, which show initiative and power to analyze new 
subject-matter and new situations, and to apply knowledge 
to the solution of new problems. 

A course that is largely informational should place a high 
degree of emphasis upon item 1, above. On the other hand, 
a course that is largely developmental should emphasize 
points 2 and 4. Some courses will no doubt emphasize 
points 1, 3, and 4 to about the same degree. Point 2 is open 
to a good deal of question, but it certainly deserves most 
careful consideration. This point demands a decision upon 
the negative results of education, as well as recognition of 
the positive results. Points 1, 3, and 4 are not usually satis- 
fied without point 2 also being satisfied. There are cases, 
however, when point 1 in a course that is very largely in- 
formational is satisfied without 2 being satisfactorily met. 
Then there are the most perplexing cases of all, those in 
which point 2 is satisfied and none of the other points are 
satisfactorily met. 

If education is to help pupils find their capabilities, the 
question of giving credit for having discovered through 
faithful efforts the things that one cannot do successfully is 
pertinent. Moreover, many times the individual who finds 
he has ability in a certain subject may never use that attain- 
ment for any special purpose in life. The mental maturity, 
and the quality of character that is being developed in the 
individual who is learning the bitter lesson that no amount 
of effort and industry will enable him to attain efficiency in 
a certain field of subject-matter, may be vastly more valua- 
ble to society than the maturity and character that develop 
in the individual who attains a high mark in a subject with- 
out half trying. Why not give credit toward graduation, 
then, to both types of individuals, or rather for both types of 
results? The seeming negative outcome of education be- 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 129 

comes positive when viewed in relation to the future of the 
individual instead of circling it round with the immediate 
little scholastic circle of an educational institution. Teach- 
ers need guidance on this problem of determining the final 
reward of the pupil ; hence the supervisor should have a defi- 
nite solution of the problem in reference to the administra- 
tion of the courses under his charge, and he should not only 
commit his solution to definite form in defining the unit of 
credit, but he should also define the crediting of the unit to 
pupils. 

14. The range of marks that shall be used in indicating 
credit in the course. First of all the standard mark should 
be indicated. Second, the range of marks above and below 
the standard or passing mark should be given. Third, the 
method of computing the final mark should be explained. 
If, for example, point 1 above is to count two thirds of the 
final mark, and point 3 and 4 each one sixth, then it should 
be so stated and the method of determining the final mark 
should be shown. If standard tests are to be used in de- 
termining the degree of attainment in a subject, then these 
tests should be indicated and instructions given as to how 
they are to be used in administering the final outcome of the 
course in determining the credit that shall be given. 

15. Quantity of material to be covered in any fraction of the 
course. One of the most difficult problems for beginning 
teachers, as well as for teachers who are teaching a subject 
for the first time or teaching a subject with which they are 
not very familiar, is the problem of assigning a reasonable 
amount of subject-matter for each daily recitation. This 
definite problem of the daily recitation cannot well be got at 
without working out the whole course hi a definite way for 
certain blocks of time, such as the quantity of material to be 
covered in each four, six, nine, or twelve weeks of the course. 
The supervisor should be able to do this much more accu- 



180 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

rately than the teacher; therefore one of the important serv- 
ices that the supervisor can render to both the teachers and 
the pupils being taught is that of placing a detailed organiza- 
tion of unified blocks of subject-matter in the hands of the 
teachers. The teachers will acquire accuracy and insight 
into this phase of curriculum-making from then* practice in 
accomplishing what the course lays out to be done. Granted 
that the supervisor has made a reasonable allotment of sub- 
ject-matter to each period of time, then one of the critical 
tests of teaching efficiency is that of getting the designated 
work thoroughly and satisfactorily completed. Finally the 
teacher should be able to organize the course quantitatively 
on his own responsibility to meet a particular teaching situa- 
tion. 

2. Textbooks and their use 

Instructions as to textbooks. The supervisor should give 
definite instructions concerning the weaknesses and the ex- 
cellences of the textbooks that are to be used in the course. 
Beginning teachers, and teachers who are beginning the 
teaching of a subject, are largely dependent upon textbooks 
in determining the arrangement of material and the empha- 
sis that should be given to each phase of the subject-matter. 
Textbooks are not often organized as courses of study, but 
usually as compilations of subject-matter. Nearly every 
text has some weakness that must be offset by the under- 
standing and skill of the teacher in using it. The supervisor 
can render an important service to the teachers by showing 
them how to bridge over the weaknesses of the texts so that 
they can be used to best advantage as a means of furthering 
the purpose for which the course is being taught. The su- 
pervisor should also undertake to set up a standard or crite- 
rion for determining the characteristics of a high-grade or 
standard text for the course. Teachers are usually very 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 131 

much at a loss when they are called upon to select text- 
books. 

The texts selected, even by State Textbook Commissions, 
afford ample proof that standards for judging the usability 
of textbooks are badly needed. The fundamental considera- 
tions that should guide in setting up such standards are as 
follows: 

1. Is the text organized in keeping with the purpose for which 
the course is being taught? 

2. Is the text adapted to the specific school field in which it is 
to be used? For example, is it a strictly high-school text, OP 
has it been compiled with a view to filling both a high-school 
and junior-college demand? Too many textbooks have been 
prepared for commercial purposes; hence they are not the 
best for any one specific field. 

3. Is the text organized as a device, and as such does it measure 
up adequately to the principles and criteria for determining 
the selection of devices? 

4. Is the text organized in the form of clearly conceived problems 
of method in teaching? If so, is its organization psycho- 
logically sound as to the type or form of method problem that 
is adapted to the particular group of pupils that will use the 
text? 

5. Is the text made of the kind of paper and is it printed in the 
kind of type that enable it to meet the sanitary standards of 
favorable visualization? The statement of the supervisor 
should give a critical resume of the weaknesses and the excel- 
lences of the textbooks used, in the light of the above prin- 
ciples. 

Instructions to the teachers in the use of textbooks. 
Textbooks may be used by pupils in preparation of lessons 
as the most economical agency that the pupils can use in 
securing valid material for the study of the particular sub- 
ject. They may also be used as an economical means of 
getting definite data before the class during a recitation. 
The idea that books should be closed when pupils come to 
class has prevailed so long that books are often closed when 



132 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

they should be open. The recitation as an activity does not 
demand that books be closed or open. The teacher must 
learn to use textbooks to the best advantage in furthering 
immediate ends of the recitation, and the ultimate ends for 
which the subject is being taught. 

Relative emphasis or importance of the divisions of the 
course. One way of indicating the importance of one divi- 
sion as compared with the importance of another division is 
the amount of time that is allotted to each of the divisions. 
This criterion, however, is not an absolute one. A division 
may be of equal importance as compared with another and 
yet be more difficult to master. Therefore another way to 
designate the importance of the divisions of subject-matter 
is to set up a standard, or state the degree to which they 
should be mastered. For example, in composition the rules 
for capitalization of letters is perhaps of equal importance 
with the use of the comma. Both are necessary in accurate 
written expression. The rules for capitalization can be 
learned in less time than it takes to master the rules for using 
the comma. Therefore to designate twice as much time 
for mastery of the comma as for mastery of capitalization 
gives a fair comprehension of the relative difficulty of each 
of these topics, and some idea of then* relative importance. 
A statement of the degree of accuracy to which each should 
be mastered would establish the conception of their relative 
importance. 

Relative time to presentation and drill. The supervisor 
should definitely indicate the relative amount of time that 
should be given to the presentation and demonstration of 
content subject-matter, and the amount of time that should 
be given to drill. This problem is correlated with point 4, 
above, and goes into the distinction between content ma- 
terial and formal drill material. One of the weaknesses of 
modern education is that of overcrowding courses with con- 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 133 

tent subject-matter and devoting too little time upon the 
practice material that would render the content material 
thoroughly usable. A knowledge of rules and principles 
should be followed by attainment of skill and accuracy in 
applying them. Pupils may learn clearly the meaning in a 
recitation of a rule that would require a week of practice to 
attain accuracy in its use. The correct balance between the 
time needed for learning how, and the time for attainment in 
doing the thing, is one of the critical problems involved hi 
curriculum-making. The teacher must master this prob- 
lem, and one of the most economical ways for this to be 
done is by f ollowing a properly organized course of subject- 
matter, and clearly recognizing the effective results that are 
secured through a proper balance between presentation of 
content and practice upon formal application of the con- 
tent. 

Sources of supplementary material. The supervisor 
should also indicate the amount and sources of supplemen- 
tary material that will be used in connection with the course. 
The amount and nature of the supplementary materials that 
should be used hi connection with any course should be de- 
termined by the usability of the textbooks, character of the 
subject, and the maturity of the pupils. If the textbook is 
an excellent one and has been compiled with a view to fur- 
nishing ample material for the study of the subject, then little 
or no supplementary material is necessary. Mathematics 
and language texts usually need considerable supplementary 
drill material. Histories usually need to be supplemented. 
Books in chemistry, physics, and most of the biological 
sciences need relatively little supplementing. The supple- 
mentary material in science is largely laboratory experi- 
ments. Most of the supplementary materials for the ele- 
mentary school are for practice and drill, or for the purpose 
of enabling the pupils to use an acquired skill as a means of 



134 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

enjoyment. Hence supplementary readers, supplementary 
arithmetics and story books are needed. High-school pu- 
pils should be able to make use of supplementary material to 
advantage in pursuing many of their subjects. 

Notebooks and other necessary material. The kinds of 
notebooks and other materials that will be used in connec- 
tion with the course should be made clear. Notebooks for 
the different science courses have been largely standardized. 
There is advantage, however, in selecting for particular 
situations, and some notebooks are more convenient than 
others. The supervisor having several classes in the group 
finds uniformity of notebook and other materials desirable. 
Uniformity in quiz papers and all written work makes for 
economy of time on the part of the teachers and supervisor. 
Teachers who use such selected materials soon realize their 
advantage, and recognize the validity of the grounds upon 
which they have been selected. The time saved for the 
teachers, by the supervisor's indicating the materials to be 
used, in getting the teaching situation well in hand is an 
important consideration. 

Special assignments and reports. Finally, the supervisor 
should give specific directions as to assignments and reports 
to be given by individual members of the class. The nature 
of special assignments to individual pupils should be de- 
termined by the nature of the subject and the maturity of 
the pupils. Even elementary-school pupils can employ 
their reading skill to advantage in reading interesting sto- 
ries, geography, and history material, etc., and give the rest 
of the class the results of their reading. High-school pupils 
should do a good deal of this kind of individual work in al- 
most every subject. A definite plan of having such reports 
given, and of insuring that the class profits by the reports, is 
essential. The supervisor should be able to give the teach- 
ers an efficient body of devices and technique for doing this 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 135 

kind of work. The teacher then will soon be able to modify 
the plan to suit varying conditions. 

Chapter pyrnimary. The selection and organization of 
subject-matter in a course should be worked out in definite 
form. This should show: The purpose for which the subject 
came into existence, and why it is being taught; the changes 
going on in the subject; unit of credit in the course, involv- 
ing content, outcomes, prerequisites, courses to which pre- 
requisite, time in length of class periods, study preparation, 
and number of weeks, class of students for whom adapted, 
to whom open for full and partial credit, and standards for 
grading and range of marks; quantity of material to be cov- 
ered each four, six, etc., weeks; weaknesses of textbooks; 
instructions on use of textbooks ; relative importance of each 
division of the course; relative amount of time given to con- 
tent material and to drill; amount and sources of supple- 
mentary material; notebooks and other materials needed; 
and directions on special assignments. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Select two fundamental elementary-school subjects, and write out a 
statement of the purpose for which each subject came into existence, 
and the purpose for which each is now taught in school. 

2. Select two required high-school subjects, and state the purposes for 
which they came into existence, and the purposes for which they are 
now taught. 

8. Select one fundamental elementary-school subject, and state the 
changes that are going on in the subject, and the reasons for the 
changes. 

4. Select one required high-school subject, and state the changes -that 
are going on in the subject, and the reason for the changes. 

5. Make a topical outline for an up-to-date sixth-grade arithmetic course. 

6. Make a topical outline for an up-to-date elementary algebra 
course. 

7. Take one topic in sixth-grade arithmetic, and outline in detail the 
content material and the formal-drill material. 

8. Take one topic in the elementary algebra course, and outline in detail 
the content material and the drill material. 



136 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

9. Make an outline of the essential facts and principles that should be 
mastered in sixth-grade arithmetic. 

10. Make an outline of the habits that the sixth-grade arithmetic course 
should develop. 

11. Make an outline of the essential facts and principles that should be 
mastered in elementary algebra. 

12. Make an outline of the habits that the elementary algebra course 
should develop. 

18. State definitely the prerequisites of the elementary algebra course. 

14. State definitely the courses to which elementary algebra is a pre- 
requisite. 

15. Give reasons why credit should or should not be given for periods of 
four, six, nine, twelve, and eighteen weeks in sixth-grade arithmetic; 
in elementary algebra. 

16. Compare the length of class periods and the number of periods per 
week that would be necessary for an elementary algebra class of thirty 
under an excellent teacher, with that of a class of ten under a begin- 
ning teacher. 

17. Estimate the amount of time that would be required, in outside prepa- 
ration of an elementary algebra lesson, in mastering the first content 
assignment in simple equations under the expert teacher with thirty 
pupils in the class. 

18. Make a list of the laboratory experiments that you think ought to be 
required in the first nine or eighteen weeks of the course in physiology, 
or general science. Estimate the time it will take each pupil or pair 
of pupils to work out these experiments. 

19. What range of pupils would you permit in a beginning language course 
for equal credit? Why? 

80. Criticize the list of items given in the chapter for grading the attain- 
ment of pupils, as to practicability of measurement, completeness, or 
excessiveness of details. 

21. Criticize the range of marks suggested in the chapter, and give con- 
crete illustrations in which the range below passing would have been 
of decided advantage. 

22. Criticize the suggestions on judging the value of a textbook, as to 
practicability and completeness. 

23. Select a recent textbook in one of the fundamental elementary-school 
subjects, and make out a detailed set of instructions to teachers in the 
use of the book. 

24. Select a recent textbook in a high-school subject, and make out a 
detailed list of instructions in the use of the book. 

25. Make a topical list of the content subject-matter for the first nine 
weeks of a course in plane geometry, and state the amount of time 
that should be given to the presentation of each topic and the 
amount of time given to drill. 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 137 

26. Make a careful outline of the amount and sources of supplementary 
material that would be needed, in using any particular American his- 
tory text, for the first month's work in a high-school class. 

27. Make an outline of the essential characteristics of a notebook for use 
in a general science course. In a history course. 

28. Make a general outline that you would use in giving pupils instructions 
in the preparation and presentation of special assignments. 



CHAPTER XI 

DEVICES THAT ILLUSTRATE THE REMAINING 
PRINCIPLES OF METHOD (continued) 

II. DEMONSTRATION TEACHING AND DIRECTED 
OBSERVATION 

1. Demonstration teaching 

The purpose. The chief purpose of demonstration teach- 
ing is to exemplify the use of sound method, show what de- 
vices are effective and how to employ them, and to exhibit 
the results of good technique. Demonstration teaching 
should also be done for the purpose of experimentation. 
Critic teachers and supervisors should attempt to discover 
new applications of the laws of learning, so that ultimately 
the profession of teaching will be guided by concrete illus- 
trations of what has and can be done to make education 
more effective. The greater part of demonstration teach- 
ing, however, should be for the purpose of exhibiting so 
much of the science and art of teaching as has thus far 
proved sound and worthy of mastering. Such teaching 
should afford excellent opportunities for the beginning 
teacher, and for the teacher beginning the teaching of a sub- 
ject that is practically new to him, to go through the mental 
theoretical performance of teaching under the stimulus of 
the actual expert teaching performance that is going on. 
Demonstration teaching can be made a very effective de- 
vice, but it should be very carefully planned and conducted. 

The following suggestions are based upon actual practice 
and have been found to be effective. 

Aim of the lesson to be seen. Meet the group of teachers 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 139 

who are to do the observing of the demonstration, before the 
recitation begins, and set forth clearly the method, devices, 
and technique that are to be demonstrated. See that the 
group have a definite outline of the points that are to be 
exhibited and a clear comprehension of their significance. 
In other words, have a mental, theoretical rehearsal of the 
pedagogical play that is to be staged for their benefit. This 
point is a very important one. The observer who is not left 
groping in the dark of his unfamiliarity with pedagogical 
procedure will receive vastly greater benefit from his ob- 
servations. The observer who knows what is coming has 
some chance of keeping pace mentally with what is really 
going on, and in consequence gets a unified impression of the 
demonstration. He should be required to check up men- 
tally his recognition of the points that were to be demon- 
strated, and even to make some notation of the points on 
the outline. If for any reason the demonstration should 
fail to include all of the points, the observer should be able 
to account for the omission. In order to do this effectively 
and systematically the next point is suggested. 

Taking notes. Require the observers of the demonstra- 
tion to take careful and rather complete notes of the actual 
performance of the demonstration. These notes should be 
complete enough to furnish the basis of a thorough discus- 
sion of the demonstration. They should describe the per- 
formance fully enough to enable the observer to point out 
the part of the performance that demonstrates a particular 
principle, device, or point of technique as the case may be. 
These notes should be checked with the outline of points 
that were to be demonstrated to see how successfully the 
demonstrator carried out his announced plan. 

Critical discussion afterward. Meet the group after the 
demonstration for a thorough discussion of the points as 
they have them identified in their notes. This discussion 



140 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

should be a critical one. The observers should be critical 
in checking up their notes to see how much they are in agree- 
ment, and the supervisor should critically check the notes 
against the actual steps of the demonstration. 

If the above suggestions are put into practice, they insure 
two abstract and one concrete intensive mental performance 
of the pedagogical play or procedure. Such intensive prac- 
tice soon develops keenness of insight, alertness of recog- 
nition, and completeness of comprehension of a particular 
pedagogical situation. The number of group meetings 
necessary for carrying on such intensive demonstration 
studies may be cut down by having the period for discussion 
long enough so that the notes taken on the past demonstra- 
tion and the outline of the next demonstration may both be 
discussed quite thoroughly. 

Examples of the process. The following examples will 
illustrate the process of demonstration teaching : 

I. Outline of a demonstration lesson in elementary arithmetic. 

1. Purpose of the lesson. The purpose of the lesson was to teach 
the pupils how to multiply one fraction by another fraction. 

2. Purpose of the demonstration. The purpose of the demon- 
stration was to show : 

a. How the purpose of the lesson may be realized by pre- 
senting the subject-matter in the form of an inductive 
problem. 

b. The effectiveness of material devices that appeal to the 
sense of vision. 

c. The effectiveness of material devices that guide the 
mental processes of the pupils in the selection of relevant 
facts and ideas. 

d. The effectiveness of definite technique in presenting 
subject-matter in the form of an inductive problem. 
Adequate technique involves : 

(1) Selection of representative examples or cases. 

(2) Vividness of illustrations. 

(3) Ampleness of cases considered. 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 141 

(4) Thoroughness of practice hi analyzing cases. 

(5) Definiteness of statement of the generalization or 
rule. 

e. The effectiveness of definite technique hi employing both 
material and intellectual devices. Such technique 
involves : 

(1) Variety of forms. 

(2) Thorough preparation of forms. 

(3) Wise choice of form or forms for any particular 
case. 

(4) Skill in manipulation of forms. 

The above outline was thoroughly discussed until the 
teachers had a definite conception of what the demonstra- 
tion should exhibit if it at all adequately realized the pur- 
pose of the lesson and the purpose of the demonstration. 
Careful notes were taken on the demonstration lesson, and 
these were made the basis of a follow-up discussion. 

II. Outline of a demonstration lesson in plane geometry. 

1 . Purpose of the lesson. The purpose of the lesson was to teach 
the pupils the fundamental definitions on pages 1 and 2 of 
Schultze and Sevenoaks' Plane and Solid Geometry. 

. Purpose of the demonstration. The purpose of the demon- 
stration was to show: 

a. How the purpose of the lesson may be realized by pre- 
senting subject-matter in the form of a deductive prob- 
lem. 

b. The effectiveness of material devices. 

c. The effectiveness of intellectual devices. 

d. The effectiveness of definite technique in presenting the 
subject-matter in the form of a deductive problem. 
Adequate technique involves : 

(1) Beginning with clear statement of each definition 
or generalization. 

(2) Thorough analysis of each definition or generali- 
zation. 

(3) Use of typical illustrations of the application of 
the generalization. 

(4) Ampleness of typical illustrations. 



142 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

(5) Thoroughness of practice in making applications 

of the generalizations. 

e. The effectiveness of definite technique in employing both 
material and intellectual devices. Such technique in- 
volves: 

(1) Variety of forms. 

(2) Thoroughness of preparation of forms. 

(3) Wise choice of form or forms for any particular 
case. 

(4) Skill in manipulating forms. 

The above outline was handed in in the same way as the 
one previously given, and was discussed in a similar way. 

Section summary. Demonstration teaching should have 
a definite goal. This goal should be clearly known by the 
observers before the performance begins. The observers 
should take careful notes during the performance. These 
notes and the performance should be thoroughly discussej 
with the observers by the demonstrator, after the perform- 
ance is completed. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Make a detailed assignment to a group that is to observe a demon- 
stration lesson in sixth-grade geography, which you are to present. 

2. Make a detailed assignment for the observation of a demonstration 
lesson in elementary algebra. 

8. Make a definite plan for conducting the discussion of the group's 
observation notes on each of the above assignments. 

4. Criticize the illustrative assignments given in the chapter, as to 
organization, completeness or excessiveness of details, and practi- 
cability. 

2. Directed observation of teaching 

Directed observation. The demonstration teaching that 
has just been described is one form of directed observation. 
Another form of such observation is that in which the teach- 
ers are sent to observe the work of an expert teacher or the 
teaching performance of one of their own number. This 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 143 

form of observation should be carried on somewhat differ- 
ently from the directed observation of demonstration les- 
sons. Systematic observation of this character may be 
carried on for several purposes. The plan for carrying it on 
and the specific directions to the teachers who do the ob- 
serving will vary, according to the purpose or purposes for 
which the observing is being done. Various purposes and 
suggestive outlines of directions, which have been taken 
from actual practice, are given below. 

a. Preliminary observation 

Observation for a few days for the purpose of becoming 
acquainted with the class and its work and its surroundings 
before taking charge of it to teach. 

This type of observation is usually carried on in training 
schools in connection with practice teaching. The assign- 
ment for such observation is ordinarily of the following 
character: 

OBSERVATION ASSIGNMENT 

1. Study the names of the pupils in the class. 

2. Note the seating arrangement. 

3. Note the physical conditions; that is, ventilation, tempera- 
ture and humidity, lighting, etc. 

4. Note personal characteristics of pupils and their general 
tendencies. 

5. Observe the general spirit and procedure of the recitation. 

6. Make special note of conditions that you think should be 
improved and submit your plans for making the improve- 
ments. 

b. Critical observation 

Observation for the purpose of making a critical study of 
the teaching and management performance of any teacher, 
whether expert or otherwise. 

This type of observation is quite different from the ob- 



144 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

servation of demonstration lessons and different from that 
given above. This type is used in connection with method 
classes in training schools, and in public schools when teach- 
ws are sent to visit other schools. The assignment for this 
type of observation varies according to the situation in 
which it is carried on. The work is important, and requires 
a careful organization and direction of the observing group 
in order to make its efforts effective. Assign only a few ob- 
vious aspects of the teaching and management performance, 
at the outset of such observation, at any one time. 

The following suggestions are the result of experience, 
and may be helpful in developing insight and skill in mak- 
ing a critical study of the work of a teacher. 

OBSERVATION ASSIGNMENT (I) 

(Note. Write the name of the school, grade, name of teacher, 
date, and your name. Hand your notes in as you leave the room.) 
1. Note the physical conditions of the room. 

a. Ventilation. 

(1) Satisfactory. How secured? 

(2) Unsatisfactory. Could it be made satisfactory? 
How? 

b. Temperature and humidity. 

(1) Satisfactory. How secured? 

(2) Unsatisfactory. Could it be made satisfactory? 
How? 

c. Lighting. 

(1) Satisfactory. How secured? 

(2) Unsatisfactory. Could it be made satisfactory: 
How? 

d. Condition of walls and ceiling. 

(1) Papered or painted. 

(2) Clean or dingy. 

(8) Pleasing effect or displeasing. 
(4) Pictures and other decorations. 

e. Condition of floors. 

(1) Oiled or unoiled. 

(2) Clean or littered. 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 145 

/. Blackboards. 

(1) Amount of space: Adequate for the room or in- 
adequate. 

(2) Light good on boards from all parts of room or 
otherwise. 

(3) Good surface and usable order or otherwise. 

(4) Clean and in good usable order or otherwise, 

(5) Clean chalk trays or otherwise. 

(6) Clean erasers or otherwise. 
g. Condition of pupils' desks. 

(1) Undamaged or otherwise. 

(2) Rickety or substantial. 

(3) Adapted to size of pupils or otherwise. 

(4) Arrangement in relation to light and blackboards. 
h. Apparatus. 

(1) Maps: Well placed or otherwise, and condition. 

(2) Globes : Well placed or otherwise, and condition. 
(8) Charts : Well placed or otherwise, and condition. 

(4) Supplementary books : Well placed or otherwise, 
and condition. 

(5) Dictionaries: Well placed or otherwise, and con- 
dition. 

(6) Other items of apparatus-placement, and condi- 
tion. 

i. Displays of work. 

(1) Kinds. 

(2) Placement 
j. Pupils. 

(1) Number in room. 

(2) Races and number of each. 

(3) Number of each sex. 

(4) Clothing: fitness, adequacy, cleanliness. 

(5) General appearance: cleanly, healthy. 

This assignment contains a number of items, but they are 
simply the details of the physical conditions under which 
the teaching is going on. An alert observer should be able 
to check up on all of them during a fifty-minute period of 
observation. A good device for saving time in checking up 
these details, and thus stimulating the alertness of the 



146 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

observer, is a printed form with blank spaces opposite each 
item, so that the results of the observations can be noted 
briefly and quickly. 

Two plans for this assignment. Two plans have been 
followed in doing this assignment in observation. One plan 
is to make the assignment for the first one or two days that 
the observers visit a room. Usually a course in systematic 
observation includes a number of regular visits to several 
different grades or classes, made in some definite order. For 
example, the observation class in an elementary training 
school will probably visit a primary grade for three weeks, 
an intermediate grade for three weeks, an upper grade for 
three weeks, and a rural school three weeks. If the above 
assignment is given for the first two days in each room vis- 
ited, the class would make eight such critical observations 
of the physical conditions that exist in the various rooms. 

A second plan is to visit each room in succession for proba- 
bly two days to each room, the entire time for the first eight 
days of observation being devoted to the above assignment. 
This plan has some advantages, but many disadvantages; 
hence it is not commonly used. The plan favors rapid habit 
formation in the observation of physical conditions. It does 
not link the observation so readily, however, with the effect 
of these conditions upon the recitation work that would be 
observed during the working-out of the subsequent observa- 
tion assignments. The plan may also involve administra- 
tive difficulties that are not easy to offset. For instance, 
the matter of transportation may not be as readily met as 
it can be when the class goes regularly to the same school 
for as long a period as it will visit that particular school. 
The matter of seating equipment may also be more advan- 
tageously handled by the first plan. 

Critical evaluation; judgment-forming. When the first 
plan is followed, the discussions that are held on the physi- 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 147 

cal conditions of each of the succeeding rooms visited should 
involve comparison of the different physical conditions ob- 
served, and the corresponding effects upon the class work. 
The habit of critical evaluation of what is observed is just 
as important as the habit of alertness in seeing many details 
in a given situation. In fact, unless such a habit is formed 
the habit of alertness in seeing existing things will be of little 
value. The habit of taking everything in quickly and ac- 
curately, however, must come first in order that the observer 
may have the basis for exercising critical judgment-form- 
ing. If the observer does not see important details in the 
physical situation, he has very little to evaluate. The more 
he can see in each situation studied, the more basis he has 
for making valid comparisons, and the better opportunity 
he has for relating the observed items to the items of sub- 
sequent observation. 

The advantage of starting observation work with this 
type of an assignment is that the physical conditions are the 
most obvious and most readily observed. Then, too, the 
observers are doing a type of observation that is more or 
less familiar, and in which they have had considerable gen- 
eral practice. The matter, therefore, is relatively simple 
for them so far as seeing things is concerned, and they can 
devote most of their energies to acquiring technique and 
skill in writing down the things that they observe. This 
point is a very important one. The use of the printed de- 
vice suggested above, however, facilitates practice and the 
technique of taking brief accurate notes is soon fairly well 
acquired. 

OBSERVATION ASSIGNMENT (II) 

(Note. Write the name of the school, grade, name of the 
teacher, your name, and date. Hand your notes in as you leave 
the room.) 



148 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

1. Note the devices employed by the teacher in the presentation 
of the lesson; classify them as indicated. 

a. Physical devices. Note each device and the extent to 
which it was used. 

(1) General. 

(a) Blackboard. 

(6) Books. 

(c) Writing materials, etc. 

(2) Special. 

(a) Particular objects. 

(b) Special drawings, charts, graphs, etc. 

b. Mental devices. Note each device and the extent to 
which it was used. 

(1) Lecture. 

(2) Questions. 

(3) Objective presentation of facts. 

(4) Correlations, etc. 
JL Critical comments. 

a. Were the physical devices well chosen, and were they 

used too much or too little? 
6. Would you suggest physical devices that were not used, 

but that might have secured better results? 

c. Were the mental devices well chosen, and were they 
used too much or too little? 

d. Would you suggest mental devices that were not used, 
but that might have secured better results? 

e. Were all devices thoroughly prepared and ready for use 
at the right time? 

Note. If the question device is used, write down as many of 
the questions in complete form as possible. 

Use of this assignment. The note-taking on this assign- 
ment may be greatly facilitated by placing printed forms, 
with ample blank space under each type of device, in the 
hands of the observers. The more time and energy the ob- 
server can give to seeing things, and to writing them down 
under proper headings with the least amount of actual writ- 
ing, the better. The observers will see more and get it down 
in more usable form than they can possibly do if they have 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 149 

to make their own headings and classifications in the midst 
of the activity of observing and recording their observations. 
This assignment logically follows the assignment of the 
first type. Devices are more obvious and more readily ob" 
served than the items of the teaching performance that are 
given in the next assignments. If plan one as outlined above 
is followed, then the assignment on devices will be given 
about the second or third visit to each room, and the same 
assignment continued until the class acquires insight, accu- 
racy, and skill in observing the use of devices in teaching. 
At least four or five assignments of the second type should 
be given for each room visited. 

OBSERVATION ASSIGNMENT (EH) 

(Note. Write the name of the school, grade, the teacher's name, 
your name, and date. Hand your notes in as you leave the room.) 
1. Note the technique of the teacher. Note each item of tech- 
nique that was prominent and when possible note the number 
of times practiced. The following items are suggestive. 
Extend the list as the situation demands, 
a. Repeating answers of pupils. 
6. Asking too many questions, or too few. 

c. Failing to state questions clearly, and in the fewest pos- 
sible words. 

d. Excellent statement of questions. 

e. Clear explanations, or the opposite. 

/. Naming the pupil who is to answer before asking the 

question. 
g. Asking question first and then naming pupil who is to 

answer. 
A. Not giving sufficient time for thinking out the answer 

or discussion before naming the pupil who is to recite. 
i. Automatically saying "all right," "correct," "yes," or 

any set indication that the answer is satisfactory, 
j. Indicating the answer by the form of the question. 
k. Breaking the subject-matter up into too small units. 
/. Not breaking the subject-matter up into small enough 

units. 



150 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

m. Teacher's voice: Pitch, modulation, quality, power. 
n. Teacher's attitude : Enthusiastic, sympathetic, or oppo- 

sites. 
o. Teacher's bearing: Natural, dignified, self-reliant, or 

opposites. 

2. What is the effect of any particular item of technique upon 
the class and the recitation? 

Use of this assignment. The use of a printed form for 
this type of observation assignment is highly essential if the 
observers are to get anything down systematically and ac- 
curately. The mere writing-out of the various headings or 
items of technique that may be observed during forty or 
fifty minutes would take all of the observer's time, so that 
little or no check could be made of the recurrence of items 
that should be noted accurately. Accuracy and fairness 
should be insisted upon. Sometimes it is best to assign only 
a part of the above items at a time, and so develop a sensi- 
tiveness to some of the best and some of the worst forms of 
technique. All of the above and possibly more items should 
be included in the assignments before this type of assign- 
ment is discontinued. At least five or six assignments for 
each room visited should be made before taking up the next 
type of assignment. 

The discussions that are held on this type of assignment 
should lay a great deal of stress upon the results of particular 
items of technique, as shown by the reactions of the pupils. 
The fact should be made patent that an item of technique 
in itself is neither good nor bad, but that its use in a particu- 
lar connection makes it good or bad. Observers should be 
cautioned and trained to discriminate accurately between 
effective and ineffective use of the same item of technique. 

OBSERVATION ASSIGNMENT (IV) 

(Note. Write the name of the school, grade, name of the teacher, 
your name, and date. Hand your notes in as you leave the room.] 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 151 

1. Note the application of method to the organization and pres- 
entation of subject-matter. Indicate as fully as possible the 
organization under the appropriate headings. 

a. Inductive type of organization. 

(1) Number of cases presented. Note as many com- 
plete cases as possible. 

(2) Representativeness of cases. 

(3) Vividness of appeal of cases. 

(4) Ampleness of material. 

(5) Thoroughness of practice. 

(6) Clearness of generalization. 

b. Deductive type of organization. 

(1) Generalization presented. 

(2) Typical illustrative cases. 
(S) Ampleness of cases. 

(4) Thoroughness of practice. 

2. Critical comments. 

a. Was the type of organization selected well adapted to 

the subject-matter of the subject? 
6. Was the type of organization selected well adapted to 

the mental maturity of the class? 

Use of this assignment. The items on this assignment 
are not so readily observable in the recitation as are the 
items of the previous assignments. For the first two or 
three observation assignments of this type, the observers 
should have the teacher's assignment of subject-matter and 
the plan for its presentation before they visit the class. This 
will give them an opportunity to study the application of 
method that is intended by the teacher. Then the period of 
observation can be devoted to observing critically the ap- 
plication of method that is actually made in the recitation. 
Finally, however, the observers should be able to analyze 
the recitation performance accurately enough to be able to 
say definitely that the one or the other type of organization 
of subject-matter was employed throughout, or that one 
type was used in part of the recitation and the other type 
was used in another part. 



159 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

Purpose and use of these observation assignments. The 
purpose of the above types of observation assignments is 
obvious. The aim is to develop skill in observing groups of 
items that become more and more difficult of observation. 
It also aims at attacking specific problems in the teaching 
performance. The ability to separate the method em- 
ployed, from the devices and the technique, is highly im- 
portant. Practice in giving attention to these different 
aspects of the teaching performance in turn will finally 
develop the ability to study all three in parallel during a 
recitation and to take accurate notes upon them. The dis- 
cussions on these assignments should seek to develop con- 
structive criticisms and positive suggestions. Observers 
should get the point of view that to see what takes place 
is not enough, but that one must see how improvement 
could be made. 

The following rules as to the use of observation assign- 
ments will prove helpful if followed: 

1. Continue each assignment of the above sort until the ob- 
servers have acquired skill in observing these aspects of 
school work. 

2. Gradually combine these groups of points into larger groups 
until the observers are able to note accurately all the aspects 
of teaching and management that are exhibited during their 
visits. 

3. Require detailed notes to be written during the period of 
observation and handed in before leaving the room. 

4. Meet the group for a discussion of their notes on the same 
day. The director of the observation should go over the 
notes carefully before the discussion period, and be prepared 
to discuss the various types of errors and weaknesses in skill 
of making critical observations that the notes reveal. Con- 
structive suggestions as to how these defects can be remedied 
should be made. In order to do this effectively the director 
or supervisor of the observation work should follow the next 
suggestion. 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 153 

5. Accompany the class on every observation visit that is to be 
discussed at a later period. The director should observe the 
same performance, and make accurate mental and written 
notes of the things that the class has opportunity to observe. 
This is the only accurate basis upon which a constructive 
discussion of the observation made by the class can be 
carried on. 

3. Observation to evaluate teaching 

Another phase of observation is that in which teachers 
study the total teaching performance for the purpose of 
writing a critical evaluation of it. This type of observation 
is a test of the effectiveness of the work that has been done 
under the preceding type. The practice of first observing 
small groups of points, and later of observing larger and 
larger combinations of these groups until finally all the 
points in teaching and management that are important are 
included in each assignment, will finally develop a degree of 
mental alertness and accuracy that is dependable in taking 
in all the important points exhibited in any teaching per- 
formance. As soon as this skill has been developed to a sat- 
isfactory degree of accuracy, then the teacher is ready to re- 
ceive training in evaluating the teaching and management 
performance. 

Prerequisites for this type of observation. The observer 
cannot make an accurate and fair evaluation of a teacher's 
work without knowing what purpose the teacher has in 
mind and how he plans to accomplish the purpose. The ob- 
server should not only know the teacher's purpose and plan 
for accomplishing it, but he should also have a thorough 
knowledge of the subject-matter that the teacher expects to 
employ in the recitation that is to be observed. Therefore, 
in order to carry on this type of observation so as to develop 
skill and fairness in evaluating the worth of a teacher's 
classroom performance, the observer should be required to: 



154 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

EVALUATION OBSERVATION OUTLINE 

1. Study the subject-matter of each lesson that is to be observed. 

2. Have a copy of the teacher's lesson plan for the recitation 
that is to be observed, long enough before the recitation to 
make a careful study of it. 

3. Take notes on the recitation under the headings : 

a. Application of method or form of subject-matter organi- 
zation employed. (That is, inductive or deductive.) 

b. Devices used. 

(1) Physical: skill or lack of skill in manipulating each 
device. 

(2) Mental : skill or lack of skill in manipulating each 
device. 

C. Technique, or habit practiced. 

(1) Right habits: number of times each was used and 
effect upon the results of the recitation. 

(2) Wrong habits : number of times each was used and 
effect upon the results of the recitation. 

d. Critical comments. 

(1) Did the recitation accomplish the purpose stated 
in the lesson plan? 

(2) What knowledge was definitely acquired? 

(3) What habits were positively furthered? 

(4) Was the lesson plan followed completely? If not, 
were the changes hi procedure justifiable? 

(5) What could the teacher have done to render the 
recitation more effective? 

(6) In what phase of teaching was the teacher strongest ? 

(a) Application of method? 

(b) Selection and manipulation of devices? 

(c) Technique? 

4. Rank the performance as a whole, based upon the specific 
acts of the teacher and the reactions of the pupils. 

a. Superior. 

b. Excellent. 

c. Good. 

d. Fair. 

e. Poor. 

/. Very poor. 

6. Hand the written notes on the whole procedure in before 
leaving the room. 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 155 

Use of this type of observation. The director or super- 
visor should visit the same performance that the class of ob- 
servers visits, and make a critical evaluation of the recita- 
tion according to the above suggestions. The group should 
meet for discussion of the notes they have taken and handed 
in. The supervisor should go over these notes before the 
discussion period, and prepare a constructive discussion of 
their excellences and their defects. If possible, the teacher 
whose work was observed should be present at this discus- 
sion. The teacher observed should have an opportunity to 
defend his procedure when he feels that the criticisms are 
unjust or in error. He should have the opportunity to profit 
by valid suggestions and intelligent comments on his work. 
Often there are conditions and influences that the teacher 
cannot control and for which he is not responsible. These 
conditions and influences may go far toward defeating the 
most skillful teaching performance. The teacher should 
not be judged without opportunity to give information of 
this character, for observation may not reveal these factors. 

The critical test of the ability of teachers to observe teach- 
ing discriminatingly is the accuracy and completeness of the 
notes they take on all the observable aspects of teaching and 
management exhibited in a single recitation. The thor- 
oughness with which they classify the observed items ex- 
hibited, under the distinct aspects of the situation that 
is, under physical conditions, devices, technique, and 
method is a fair criterion of the intelligence with which 
the observing is carried on. A last test of the results of this 
observation training is the ability of the observers to dis- 
cover the particular phases of the teaching performance that 
are responsible for the success or failure of the recitation, so 
far as it can be determined on its face. Special emphasis 
should be given to this item in the critical comments that 
are required in the above outline. 



156 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

Section summary. Directed observation should develop 
skill in evaluating teaching performances. Such observa- 
tion should begin with a study of a few of the most obvious 
physical aspects of the classroom, and progress to a study of 
the most obvious aspects of the teaching performance, then 
to the less obvious, then to the least obvious aspects, and 
finally to a study of all aspects of the classroom and the 
teaching performance, during each observation period. 

The plan of administration may be to carry the study of 
each type of assignment through all the classrooms that are 
to be visited before taking up the next type, or it may be to 
take up each type of assignment in one classroom before 
going to another room. The assignment should be clearly 
understood by the observers before the visit to the recita- 
tion is made. They should take detailed notes on the as- 
signment during the period of observation and these notes 
should be discussed with the observers after the observation 
period. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Make an outline of the observation assignment you would give a 
teacher to help him in becoming acquainted with a particular class 
and classroom. 

2. Make a blank that would be economical for observers to use in noting 
the physical aspects of a teaching situation. Study critically the 
outline for such an assignment given in the chapter, and try to im- 
prove upon it in making the blank. 

3. Make a similar blank for use in noting the devices employed by the 
teacher in a particular recitation. 

4. Criticize the assignment outline given in the chapter for observing 
devices used, as to practicability, completeness or excessiveness ol 
details, formalism, and organization. 

5. Make a blank form that will be economical for use in noting the tech- 
nique of the teacher in a teaching performance. 

6. Criticize the outline given in the chapter for observing technique, as 
to practicability, completeness or excessiveness of details, and organi- 
zation. 

7. Make a blank form for use in noting the principles of method used by 
the teacher in the presentation of a lesson. 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 157 

8. Criticize the assignment outline given in the chapter for the observa- 
tion of method, as to organization, and completeness or excessiveness 
of details. 

9. Make a blank form that will include the fundamental items from all 
the types of observation assignments made in the chapter. Make a 
list of instructions that will guide the observers in using the blank, 
systematically and economically, in taking observation notes on all 
the aspects of the teaching performance during a single recitation 
performance. 

10. Make an outline of the procedure you would follow in discussing the 
observation notes of the various types with the observers, after the 
observation period is over. 

11. Criticize the outline given in the chapter for making an estimate of 
the efficiency of the teaching performance that is observed, as to 
organization, completeness or excessiveness of details, and possibility 
of accuracy in judging each item. 

12. Make a plan for conducting a discussion of the observers' evaluation 
of the teacher's efficiency, with the teacher being criticized present 
and participating in the discussion. 

4- Emergency demonstration teaching 

Use and purpose of this. The main idea in directing the 
work of teachers is to anticipate the pitfalls and instruct the 
teacher in the science and art of avoiding them. If this idea 
is carried out thoroughly, the further development of the 
teacher can be accomplished through corrective suggestions. 
As a rule, therefore, the teacher should be undisturbed 
throughout the recitation. There are times, however, when 
the supervisor should, in the interest of the teacher and in 
the interest of the class being taught, take up the recitation 
in its midst and conduct it for a part or for all of the remain- 
der of the period. Such cases should be very adroitly and 
diplomatically handled, so that the class will be safeguarded 
in its learning and so that the teacher will be prevented from 
making serious errors. The teacher must be enabled, how- 
ever, to sustain his dignity before the class and to retain 
authority over the situation. 

The two purposes of this type of demonstration teaching 
should be held clearly in mind by the supervisor, for they 



158 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

determine when the situation warrants the interruption of 
the teacher's procedure. A brief description of typical 
cases will bring out both the sorts of situations that are 
meant and the technique of making the transition of the 
leadership or teaching from the teacher to the supervisor. 

Example i. A pupil in a plane geometry class was trying 
to apply a theorem to the solution of a practical problem. 
He was experiencing difficulty in getting the data organized 
into the correct series of steps that would lead to a valid con- 
clusion. The teacher attempted to help him by asking 
questions concerning certain facts and principles that were 
involved in the solution. The pupil continued to flounder 
around and was obviously not getting any help from the 
teacher's questions and suggestions. The supervisor recog- 
nized both the difficulty of the pupil and the difficulty of the 
teacher. Time was being lost, and neither pupil nor teacher 
was gaining any ground in the solution of the respective 
problem. The pupil was trying to learn the connection be- 
tween the practical situation presented in the problem and 
the principles of geometry that he had learned. The 
teacher was trying to discover the difficulty of the pupil and 
to find the best line of procedure in guiding his thinking so 
he would correct his errors. The supervisor realized two 
responsibilities; namely, that of helping the pupil to learn 
the thing he was trying to master, and to help the teacher 
to discover why she was not succeeding in her attempts to 
extricate the pupil from his difficulties. 

The supervisor allowed the situation to develop to the 
point where both teacher and pupil realized they were not 
succeeding. He showed by his attitude that he was inter- 
ested and in sympathy with both teacher and pupil. Fi- 
nally he said, " Miss B , may I ask L a question? " 

The teacher gladly consented. Then the supervisor by a 
series of questions led the pupil to visualize the parts of the 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 159 

figure that had been used in developing the facts and prin- 
ciples of the particular theorem. He then directed the at- 
tention of the pupil to the clear visualization of the practical 
situation presented in the problem. As soon as the pupil 
visualized the two situations clearly, he could readily recog- 
nize that the same logic applied in both cases, and the solu- 
tion of the particular problem was easily reached. 

The result for the pupil of the intervention of the super- 
visor was an intensive effort that netted him a definite men- 
tal gain. The result for the teacher was that she recognized 
that her failure was due to directing the attention of the 
pupil to the logic of the two situations, without first having 
the visualization of them clearly established as the basis for 
the application of the proper logic. In other words, the 
pupil learned something about applying geometrical prin- 
ciples to practical situations, and the teacher learned some- 
thing about how to teach a pupil to learn how to apply prin- 
ciples to practical problems. As soon as the pupil had 
arrived at a clear solution of the problem upon which he 
was working the supervisor dropped into the background, 
and the teacher went on with the recitation. 

Example 2. A pupil in a beginning Latin class was called 
upon to translate an English sentence into Latin. The 
sentence involved a difficult construction in the indirect 
discourse. The teacher by suggestions and questions led 
the pupil to work out a translation that she accepted. The 
translation, however, contained a rather serious error. The 
teacher was evidently accepting the error because she did 
not know that it was an error. The construction in point 
would come up in subsequent lessons, hence the supervisor 
hesitated a moment as to whether or not he should interfere. 
The wrong impression upon the minds of the pupils was 
likely to be difficult to counteract if they were allowed to 
take the case in hand as a good illustration of the particular 



160 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

construction. The supervisor quickly decided that the 
situation demanded correction then and there. Since the 
teacher was proceeding, through lack of accurate knowledge 
of the subject, to teach something that was incorrect, the 
situation was somewhat embarrassing. The emergency, 
however, seemed to warrant running the risk of embarrass- 
ing the teacher and even the risk of making the pupils doubt 
her reliability in the future. 

The supervisor said, " Miss B , may I hear the trans- 
lation of that sentence again? I am not sure that I heard it 
all the way through, particularly that expression" nam- 
ing the expression " on which I have to watch myself very 
closely to keep from getting it wrong." This statement put 
pupils and teacher on guard to study the difficult part of the 
sentence as it was translated. It also made the pupils feel 
that even for the teacher to make an error on that construc- 
tion was no reason to condemn her, for the supervisor ad- 
mitted the probability of almost any one, no matter how 
expert, making a slip in trying to express it in Latin. The 
supervisor then proceeded to raise questions about the con- 
struction, and soon led both teacher and pupils to see what 
was correct. After the point seemed to be satisfactorily 
settled, he suggested that they all watch for that particular 
construction and see how many examples of it they found in 
the succeeding lessons. He then dropped into the back- 
ground, and the teacher went on with the recitation. 

Situations that justify supervisory interference. The 
situations that seem to justify the interferences on the part 
of the supervisor are those in which the pupil is not learning, 
and the teacher is not learning how to help the pupil to learn, 
and those in which the teacher is teaching something that is 
incorrect. In the first type of case the teacher was not lack- 
ing in knowledge of the subject, but was lacking in insight 
and skill in teaching. In the second type of case the pupils 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 161 

were learning and the teacher was succeeding in helping 
them to learn, but the thing being taught was wrong. These 
two types cover practically all the emergencies that will 
arise. The third type of case necessarily would be a com- 
bination of these two; namely, a situation in which the 
teacher was unsuccessfully trying to teach something that 
was wrong, but was not succeeding on account of not realiz- 
ing just what the mental difficulties of the pupils were. The 
pupils in this case would not be learning the thing they were 
trying to learn, because they would be failing to carry on the 
proper mental activities that would be involved in learn- 
ing even the incorrect form of subject-matter. Such a case 
would not involve any different procedure on the part of the 
supervisor from that given above. 

The supervisor should know what the assignment is and 
the teacher's plan for teaching that assignment before he 
visits the recitation, if he is to be in a position to judge wisely 
as to how long he should continue the emergency demonstra- 
tion teaching. If the crucial point is not likely to be seri- 
ously involved throughout the remainder of the recitation, 
as was the case in the illustrations above, the supervisor can 
readily drop into the background and let the teacher go on 
alone. In fact, the supervisor really has appeared in the at- 
titude of a member of the group, and the teacher has re- 
mained in his position as leader so that his authority and 
control over the class has not been interfered with. If, 
however, the crucial point is seriously involved in the re- 
mainder of the recitation, and the supervisor feels that he 
will likely have to keep breaking in with suggestions in order 
to help both teacher and pupils, then the supervisor had 
better teach the rest of the lesson. 

Section summary. The supervisor should take the teach- 
ing situation out of the hands of the teacher only when a real 
emergency exists. Such an emergency exists when the 



162 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

pupil is not learning, and the teacher is at a loss to know 
what to do to help him; and such an emergency exists when 
the teacher is succeeding, but is teaching something that is 
incorrect. The supervisor should handle the situation in 
such a way as to uphold the dignity and authority of the 
teacher, and to strengthen his future work. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Give five cases, from your own experience, in which there was a de- 
cided gain to pupils and to the teacher through the emergency teach- 
ing of the supervisor. 

2. Give five cases, from your own experience, in which there was a de- 
cided loss to pupils and to the teacher through the failure of the super- 
visor to intervene in the recitation with emergency teaching. 

3. Give five cases, from your own experience, in which there was a de- 
cided loss to pupils and to the teacher through the untimely emergency 
teaching of the supervisor. 

4. Give two or more illustrations, from experience of the emergency situ- 
ation in which the teacher was at a loss to know what to do to help 
the pupil learn. 

5. Give two or more illustrations, from experience, of the emergency 
situation in which the teacher was successfully teaching something 
that is incorrect. 

6. Give two or more illustrations, from experience, of the emergency 
situation in which the teacher was trying to teach something that was 
incorrect, but was not succeeding. 

7. Give an example of an emergency situation in which the supervisor 
should take charge of the recitation for only a short time. 

8. Give an example of an emergency situation in which the supervisor 
should take charge of the recitation until the end of the period. 



CHAPTER XH 

DEVICES THAT ILLUSTRATE THE REMAINING 
PRINCIPLES OF METHOD (continued) 

HI. DIRECTED TEACHING AND SUPERVISED STUDY 

1. Directed teaching 

What this involves. The direction of actual teaching 
work of student teachers and regular teachers, means direc- 
tion of all the activities that are involved in preparing for 
and conducting each daily recitation that the student or 
regular teacher is to hold. Hence the supervision of teach- 
ing must begin before the teacher enters the classroom to 
teach, as well as to direct the work of the teacher in the reci- 
tation. The knowledge involved under I, II, III, below, 
should have been mastered by the student teacher in other 
courses prerequisite to the teaching, but the supervisor 
should check them up to the teacher, as indicated below, for 
convenient reference during the course. 

The act of teaching and managing a class involves three 
fundamental factors namely, the method, the devices, 
and the technique that most adequately motivate the 
work of the pupils and secure mastery of the subject. Ef- 
fective supervision must take into account the distinctions 
between these factors and instruct the learning teacher in 
the principles of method, make the teacher acquainted with 
the devices, and train the teacher in proper efficient tech- 
nique. 

Therefore the supervisor should give the teacher an out- 
line somewhat as follows: 



164 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

OUTLINE FOB DIBECTED TEACHING 

I. As to method 

1. Whether the subject as a whole can be developed best in the 
form of inductive problems, or deductive problems. 

2. What parts of the subject can be developed best in the form of 
inductive problems, and what parts can be taught best in the 
form of deductive problems. 

3. The technique of presenting subject-matter in the form of 
inductive problems, which is as follows: 

a. Use striking representative cases first, then less striking 
cases, and then still less striking cases, etc., until the gen- 
eralization seems to be mastered. 

6. Make the illustrations appeal as vividly as possible to both 
the sensory and mental experiences of the pupils. 

c. Use an ample amount of material. 

d. Practice upon the material thoroughly. 

e. Require a definite and accurate statement of the generali- 
zation. 

4. The technique of presenting subject-matter in the form of 
deductive problems, which is as follows: 

a. Begin with a clear statement of the generalization or 
definition. 

b. Use typical illustrations of its application. 

c. Use an ample number of applications and practice thor- 
oughly. 

II. As to devices 

1. To what extent such general devices as blackboards, maps, 
encyclopaedia, dictionary, charts, lantern, lecture, questions, 
correlations, etc., are essential and helpful in the presentation 
of the subject. 

2. To what extent devices special to the subject or to certain phases 
of the subject, such as objects, models, outlines, graphs, special 
apparatus, special correlations, special types of questions, etc., 
are essential and helpful in the presentation of the subject. 

3. Technique in using devices, which involves the habit of: 

a. Deciding when making the daily plan exactly: 

(1) What physical devices will be used and the extent 
to which they will be used. 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 165 

(2) What mental devices will be used and the extent to 

which they will be used. 

6. Working out each device carefully and fully preparing it 
before class time. Technique in manipulating devices 
should give special attention to the art of questioning and 
of lecturing. The outline below suggests important habits 
that should be formed : 
(1) Questioning: 

(a) Preparing careful list of questions before reci- 
tation rather than depending upon spontane- 
ous questions during the recitation. 

(b) Adapting the kinds of questions to the nature 
of the subject-matter, the development of the 
pupils, and the purpose of the recitation. Such 
adaptation will include: 

(6 l ) Thought-provoking questions, demand- 
ing interpretations of subject-matter. 

(b 2 ) Fact questions, demanding memory. 

(6 3 ) Developing questions. 

(b *) Pivotal questions. 

(6 6 ) Questions answered by yes or no (at 
times). 

(6 ') Questions that answer themselves (at 
times). 

(c) Regulating the number of questions by: 

(c l ) The nature of the subject-matter and 
the amount that is involved in the 
answer. 

(c *) The size of the class and the maturity 
of pupils. 

(c s ) The length of the recitation. 

(d) Regulating the speed of asking questions by 
the purpose of the lesson as to whether for: 

(d l ) Review. 
(d 2 ) Drill; or 

(d s ) Discussion of new material. 
() Having pupils : 

(e l ) Question one another on the interpreta- 
tion of the subject-matter; and 
(e *) Question one another about their dis- 
cussions. 



168 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

(/) Guarding against: 

(/ J ) Repeating the answers of the pupils. 
(f 2 ) Asking too many questions, or too few. 
(/ 3 ) Breaking subject-matter up into too 

small fragments. 
(/ 4 ) Failing to state questions clearly in the 

fewest words. 
(/ 5 ) Indicating the answer by the form of 

the question. 
(/ 6 ) Naming the pupil who is to answer 

before asking the question. 
(/ 7 ) Not giving sufficient time for thinking 
out the answer or discussion before 
naming the one who is to recite. 
(/ 8 ) Automatically saying "all right," "cor- 
rect," "yes," or any other set indica- 
tion that the answer is satisfactory. 
Train pupils to weigh answers, and to 
learn from what follows whether or not 
the answer is satisfactory. 
(2) Lecturing: 

(a) Give a brief summary outline of the organiza- 
tion of the lecture at the beginning. 
(6) Outline in detail the argument under each 
large point in the lecture, as it is taken up in 
turn, before giving the illustrated discussion of 
the argument. 

(c) Take each detailed point in the argument in 
turn and amply illustrate the discussion. 

(d) Have all charts, drawings, graphs, and ap- 
paratus of any sort that is to be used for mak- 
ing demonstrations fully prepared and con- 
veniently arranged for use at the proper time. 
(Be sure to test apparatus and all mechanical 
devices near enough up to the time for the lec- 
ture to know that they will work satisfacto- 
rily.)- 

(e) Require pupils to take down the summary and 
the important detailed points of the argument 
and at times to hand them in at the close of the 
lecture. 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 167 

(/) Stand or sit in a commanding position, so that 
every member of the class can see and hear 
distinctly the entire lecture. 

(0) Face the class and catch the various physical 
reactions and facial expressions that indicate 
the attention and interest of the pupils. 

(A) Modulate the voice and regulate the force of 
utterance according to the size of the room and 
the size of the class. 

(1) Be sure that graphs, charts, etc., are placed so 
that every member of the class can see easily. 
(Note. Lecturing in elementary and high- 
school classes should be employed chiefly in 
making demonstrations in science, and in in- 
troducing supplementary material that is not 
readily accessible in any other form.) 

c. Carefully testing the mechanics of devices to insure suc- 
cess in their use. 

d. Arranging devices conveniently for use at the right time. 

m. As to technique 

1. General habits that apply to all teaching. The following items 
are suggested : 

a. In reference to teaching: 

(1) Thorough preparation for each day's recitation. 
This involves the mastery of the subject-matter to 
be taught and a detailed plan for its presentation. 

(2) Promptness in beginning and closing the recitation. 

(3) Correcting the errors in the English of the class. 

(4) Addressing questions to the class and not to the 
book, the blackboard, etc. 

(5) Facing the class when explaining or discussing a 
point. 

(6) Requiring the pupils to do most of the reciting. 

(7) Bringing each pupil into the recitation frequently so 
as to give all an equal opportunity and to stimulate 
interest. 

(8) Requiring each pupil to recite for the benefit of the 
whole class. 

(9) Sticking to the lesson and not being sidetracked, es- 



168 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

pecially by keen-witted pupils who have not prepared 
their lessons. 

(10) Respecting the individuality of the pupils. 

(11) Modulating the voice well; enunciating clearly; using 
good English. 

b. In reference to discipline: 

(1) Holding up clearly high standards of conduct, good 
order, and work. 

(2) Deciding quickly and acting promptly. 

(3) Meeting pupils in personal conferences in order to 
bring about a definite understanding with them as to 
what is expected of them. This is one of the best 
ways of making the pupil feel his responsibility to the 
school and also of establishing a close friendly tie be- 
tween teacher and pupil. 

(4) Seeing and hearing everything that goes on hi the 
room, in the halls, on the playground, on the street, 
and in public places where the conduct of pupils 
should be observed. 

(5) Dignified, firm bearing; attitude of sureness of self 
and just what is going to be done. 

(6) Controlling temper; keeping cool in emergencies. 

(7) Alertness and accuracy in interpreting the acts of 
pupils, so as to anticipate their conduct and to start 
counter-suggestions to prevent undesirable behavior. 

(8) Not having a chip on the shoulder; not supersensi- 
tive; not easily upset by aggravating things. 

(9) Willingness to go more than halfway in meeting a 
pupil who is being disciplined. 

(10) Looking upon the misconduct of pupils as an oppor- 
tunity to do a piece of real vital work in education; 
remembering that it is the character of the individual 
and not personal satisfaction or justification that is 
to be sought in discipline. 

(11) Making the punishment the logical consequence of 
the act. 

c. In reference to self: 

(1) Regular hours for all activities; conserving one's best 
energies for school work. 

(2) Not letting whims or peculiar habits interfere with 
the work. 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 169 

(3) Genuine enthusiasm for the subject and for the ado- 
lescent boys and girls. 

(4) Sympathy with the pupils in their study difficulties 
and in the mental, physical, social, and domestic 
stresses that they have to meet each day. 

(5) Cheerfulness and optimism; faith in the final results 
of the teacher's work. 

(6) Sincerity and straightforwardness; not affected in 
speech or in manners. 

(7) Model personal habits; moderation in dress; good 
postures in sitting, standing, and walking. 

(8) Willingness to give up any habit that may mislead 
pupils, or that may mislead the public in forming its 
opinion as to a teacher's true character and motives. 

d. In reference to the classroom : 

(1) Noting the temperature at the beginning and during 
the recitation. 

(2) Noting the condition of the air at the beginning of 
the recitation and regulating the ventilation so as to 
keep the condition as nearly right as possible. 

(3) Noting the light at the beginning and during the 
recitation, and regulating it by proper adjustment of 
window shades and other means that may be avail- 
able. 

(4) Noting the general physical condition, such as ar- 
rangement of chairs, and their condition as to dust, 
cuttings, markings, etc., cleanliness of floor and black- 
boards; position and condition of the equipment, 
such as maps, dictionary, etc. 

(5) Noting the physical condition of students as to dress, 
colds, skin eruptions, etc. 

(6) Seating of students in systematic order, but so as to 
provide for individual difficulties in hearing and see- 
ing, and so as to be able to shift the class from their 
chairs to the blackboard with facility; seating stu- 
dents so as to avoid disciplinary problems. 

(7) Keeping the teacher's desk in neat, orderly condition. 
. In reference to the use of the textbooks : 

(1) Examining the textbook thoroughly from preface to 
index before attempting to make assignments from it 
or to use it as a source of information. 



170 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

(2) Mastering the author's point of view and organiza- 
tion of subject-matter before attempting to use the 
book. 

(3) Evaluating the materials of the book in the light of 
textbook standards and the purposes for which the 
subject is being taught. 

(4) Being definite and very specific in directing the pu- 
pils in the use of the text for the purpose of preparing 
lesson assignments. 

(5) Marking for the class at the beginning of the course 
all material that is not important. 

/. In reference to the use of reference works: 

(1) Giving author, title of book, title of chapters to be 
read, topics, and pages. 

(2) Giving the title of the article, author, title of the 
magazine, page, month, and year. 

(3) Giving the library, the room, and whatever specific 
directions that will enable the pupils to secure the 
use of the references, without loss of tune and energy. 

g. In reference to one's superiors, one's colleagues, and the 
school : 

(1) Prompt and willing performance of all duties. 

(2) Making efficient service one's chief concern. 

(3) Loyalty to the ideals and policies of the administra- 
tive forces. 

(4) Loyalty to one's fellow teachers in their work. 

(5) Keeping still on the outside of school concerning 
matters that are discussed in teachers' meetings or 
the office, as school family affairs. 

(6) Boosting the school as a whole; boosting the work of 
the superintendent, the supervisors, and one's fellow 
teachers. 

(7) Loyal support to musical, literary, and athletic or- 
ganizations and enterprises. 

(8) Active participation in the social affairs of the school. 

Choice of specific habits of skill. The supervisor should 
indicate the specific habits of skill that are particularly effec- 
tive in teaching the particular subject. Some subjects can 
be taught most effectively by skilled technique in the art of 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 171 

questioning. Others may be taught well by use of lectures 
or by conversation. And still others may be taught best 
by skillfully manipulated apparatus and materials, and the 
efficient management of a laboratory, etc. Whatever forms 
of technique are most effective should be outlined in detail 
as they apply to the teaching of the subject-matter of the 
particular subject. 

Definite detailed lesson plans. The supervisor can safe- 
guard the welfare of the pupils who are being taught, and 
further the training of the teacher, by giving the beginning 
teacher, or the teacher beginning the teaching of a new or 
relatively unfamiliar subject, definite detailed lesson plans 
that the teacher is to follow. The teacher should follow 
these plans carefully and thoroughly. If the plans are 
rightly made, the teacher should be able to accomplish in 
each recitation the work that has been laid out to be done. 
The mastery of such lesson plans involves keen, intelligent 
interpretation of the meihod involved, the devices employed, 
and the technique to be practiced. The teacher who can 
accurately interpret the plans of the expert teacher or super- 
visor has taken the first step toward independence in making 
lesson plans on his own initiative. Intelligent interpreta- 
tion must be followed by effective technique in carrying out 
the plans. 

The better the teacher understands the plans, the more 
likely will he be to carry them out in an effective and thor- 
oughgoing way. Therefore the study and teaching of les- 
sons according to excellent plans develops insight and skill. 
The teacher may soon acquire such intelligent insight into 
the nature, extent, and form of effective plans for teaching 
the subject, and such reliable habits in carrying out definite 
detailed plans, that he can be entrusted with doing his own 
planning, subject to the approval of the supervisor. The 
teacher who has not the intelligence to interpret and follow 



172 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

the carefully worked-out instructions of the supervisor 
not be able to make plans of his own that will be effective. 

This device, then, is one of the most searching tests that 
can be applied to the teacher to determine his possibilities 
at the earliest period possible in his training. The teacher 
who fails in this regard will likely fail in meeting the further 
tests of independence and initiative. The person who can- 
not exhibit genius in carrying out a set piece of work will not 
have the genius to set a piece of work to carry out. 

Differences between teachers. Some teachers can carry 
out detailed directions that have been set for them better 
than they can set definite directions for themselves to follow. 
Such teachers will always do their best teaching when they 
are working under close supervision, or following a very 
detailed course of study. They are not hindered, however, 
by the following of expert detailed plans for a number of 
lessons at the outset of their teaching, in their development 
toward the highest degree of independence and initiative 
that is possible for them to attain. They will be able by 
the use of such plans to pass the first test of an intelligent 
teacher, and to prove themselves worthy of being given 
further opportunity. They may fail to meet the test satis- 
factorily when thrown upon their own responsibility. The 
fact that they have passed only the first test in a satisfactory 
manner enables the supervisor to classify them as skilled in 
interpretation and execution, but weak in initiative and 
independent organization. Accurate classification of teach- 
ers on this basis will enable the supervisor to make an intelli- 
gent statement concerning the type of teaching position for 
which the particular teacher is best adapted. 

The requirements in making lesson plans. Two types of 
lesson plans should be required of teachers who teach under 
close supervision, either in the public schools or in a training 
school. The first type is the weekly lesson plan. The pur- 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 173 

pose of the weekly lesson plan is twofold; namely, to train 
the teacher in planning ahead work that can actually be 
done thoroughly, and to train the teacher to do what is 
planned out to be done. The weekly lesson plan should be 
gone over by the supervisor and revisions suggested before 
the work of the week is started. 

Two forms of the weekly plan may be used. The first 
form should be for the work planned a week in advance, and 
the second form should be for the work actually accom- 
plished during the same week. The first form may be desig- 
nated as the A blank, and the second as the B blank. These 
blanks as filled out by the teachers should be kept on file in 
the supervisor's office. The progress of the teachers will be 
shown by the lessening difference between the data on the 
A and B blanks for the same week until they are practically 
identical. The accumulation of B blanks for successive 
years in the same subject will afford an excellent basis for 
determining the quantity of subject-matter that can be 
taught in the subject to a certain age or grade group of 
pupils. 

Weekly lesson plans. The more carefully the weekly 
plans have been prepared, the more reliable they will be 
as an objective basis for determining the unit of subject- 
matter. A reduced copy of each form that is used in the 
University of Kansas Training School is given herewith. 
The actual size of the forms is nine and one half by eight 
inches, and only one side of the sheet is used. 

The daily lesson plan. These represent a second type of 
plan, and should be worked out in detail and submitted for 
approval before the recitation. The teacher should have 
time to make any revisions that seem necessary for the im- 
provement of the plans. These plans should be made in 
duplicate, so that the teacher and supervisor may each have 
a copy during the progress of the recitation. The super- 



174 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

WEEKLY LESSON PLAN 

(Form A) 

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 

Work Planned for the Week 1919. 

A 
Subject Teacher 



Mon.. 



Tues.. 



Wed. 



Thur.. 



Fri.. 



Remarks : . 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 175 

WEEKLY LESSON PLAN 

(Form B) 

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 
Work Completed for the Week. 1919. . . . 



B 

Subject Teacher. 



Mon.. 



Tues.. 



Wed. 



Thur.. 



Fri.. 



Remarks : . 



176 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

visor should give the teacher a definite outline to follow in 
making the daily lesson plans. Such an outline should be 
inclusive, so that no items will be omitted that ever occur 
in recitations. The teacher should understand that not all 
of the items on the outline will enter into every day's plan. 
Some recitations, however, will involve all of the items to 
some extent. The outline should be practical rather than 
pedagogically ideal. The following plan is suggestive, and 
has been found to be usable and practical: 

DAILY LESSON PLAN 

Class and subject Teacher 

1. Assignment of advance lesson Number of minutes. 

a. At beginning or close of period? 

b. Outline. 

2. Review Number of minutes. 

a. Ground to be covered. 

b. Definite questions or outline. 

c. Distributed through the recitation, or all at one time? 

3. The day's lesson Number of minutes. 

o. Purpose. 

b. Quizzing the preparation of the pupils. 

(1) Definite questions or outline. 

c. Development of points that the study of the pupils war 
not expected to give. 

(1) Outline. 

(2) Devices. 

d. Introduction of new or supplementary material. 

(1) Outline. 

4. Drill Number of minutes. 

a. Special points to be practiced. 

b. Devices. 

c. Materials. 

Value of daily lesson plans. The practice of making de- 
tailed daily lesson plans is one of the important means of 
training teachers to accomplish what they plan to do. A 
great deal of time and energy is lost through poor teaching, 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 177 

and one of the chief causes of poor teaching is lack of defi- 
niteness. The teacher who plans definitely what is to be 
done during a recitation and holds rather strictly to the 
plan will refine his teaching performance many fold. He 
will not be easily sidetracked, but will bring everything to 
bear upon accomplishing what he set out to do. 

Another effect of the practice of making detailed lesson 
plans is that of developing the habit of having a worth-while 
goal. The very fact that one attempts to work out a defi- 
nite procedure in teaching a lesson impels him to have a 
definite goal toward which he will work. Therefore the 
assignments that the teacher makes will become more and 
more definite. This will be especially true if the teacher 
prepares the detailed lesson plan for teaching the lesson be- 
fore the assignment of that lesson is made. The teacher 
who plans the details of the recitation, before making the 
assignment of the lesson, will not be so likely to assign too 
much or too little to be accomplished in the recitation period. 
The more definitely the teacher has planned the teaching of 
the assignment, before making it, the more definite will be 
his instructions to the pupils in directing them in their study 
of the assignment. 

Lesson plans do not lead to mechanical work. The mak- 
ing of detailed lesson plans does not make mechanical 
teachers. The teacher who follows the practice soon be- 
comes skilled in anticipating the reactions of the pupils, and 
will find little need for modifications of the planned proced- 
ure during the recitation. When modification is needed, 
however, the teacher who has worked out a clear, definite 
scheme of procedure is better prepared to make the proper 
modification in the face of the recitation situation. In the 
first place, the teacher has something definite to modify, and 
can, therefore, make a definite modification to meet a definite 
situation. The teacher who is capable of making an intelli' 



178 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

gent, detailed plan for teaching a lesson will be intelligent 
enough to make intelligent modifications of the procedure 
as the recitation situation may demand. 

The practice of making detailed daily lesson plans will not 
make the reactions of the pupils mechanical or rob them of 
their spontaneity. In other words, the pupils will not be 
sacrificed for the plan. The teacher plans for the pupils in 
making her program of procedure in teaching. The various 
possible reactions are anticipated, and the plan undertakes 
to set up a scientific psychological handling of all the fac- 
tors involved in the recitation, so that a definitely attainable 
goal may be most effectively reached. The more definitely 
the teacher plans, the less likely he will be to lose sight of 
the vital interests of the pupils. 

They clarify thinking for the beginner. Finally, then, 
one may say that making detailed lesson plans clarifies 
one's thinking and gives a perspective of teaching problems 
that cannot be got in any other way. One must get away 
from the generalities of pedagogical principles, and get down 
to the specific details of actual procedure if he is to make any 
progress in becoming skilled and efficient in conducting the 
recitation. A comprehension of general laws and principles 
is essential, but specific applications or exhibitions of these 
laws in particular acts, in the teaching of particular lessons, 
is the only process by which the teaching performance can 
be refined and rendered effective. The teacher who thinks 
in broad, general terms of pedagogy in planning a lesson will 
not discriminate sharply between the essentials and the non- 
essentials. Such a teacher may keep in the general direction 
and may make a good deal of a show of the recitation per- 
formance, but he never knows surely and accurately when 
he has arrived. On the other hand, the teacher who com- 
mits his pedagogical ideals to definite subject-matter form, 
to definite forms of devices, and to systematic technique, 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 179 

will know quite accurately when he has accomplished a 
specific piece of work. 

Relative recitation time to be given to oral and to written 
work. This varies according to the subject, the size of the 
class, and the length of the recitation. Either device may 
be used too exclusively for securing the best results. The 
tendency to fall into the habit of relying almost entirely 
upon the one form or the other makes it important for the 
supervisor to suggest the value of each form and the relative 
emphasis that should be given each. 

Time for quizzes, relative number and character of ques- 
tions. The time for holding quizzes may vary according to 
the amount of emphasis that the supervisor wishes to give 
to this phase of the teacher's work. Short quizzes may be 
held at the completion of definite phases of subject-matter. 
They may also be held at stated periods, such as every six, 
nine, twelve, or eighteen weeks. Whatever practice the 
supervisor desires to have followed, he should indicate 
clearly in these instructions to teachers. 

The relative number of questions and their character 
should also be indicated. Teachers tend to ask too many 
questions for the length of time the pupils have to write. 
They also tend to ask questions that are too largely memory 
tests. The character of the questions should be determined 
by the nature of the subject, the purpose for which it is 
being taught, the maturity of the pupils, and the relative 
emphasis that has been placed upon content material and 
formal material in presenting the subject. 

The supervisor should also indicate the procedure in 
grading quiz papers. This should be determined by the 
nature of the subject and the purpose of the quiz. If the 
quiz contains different types of questions, such as memory 
questions, reasoning tests, tests of application of principles, 
etc., it is likely that the types should have different value 



180 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

on the basis of one hundred points for the whole quiz. The 
amount of value that should be attached to the form of the 
answer, and the value that should be given to the intelli- 
gence or correctness of procedure, should be definitely de- 
termined and indicated. 

Preparation of lessons. The length of time that the 
pupils should spend in the preparation of the different types 
of lessons, such as the lesson demanding the mastery of new 
subject-matter, and the lesson demanding practice upon 
material that is understood, will of course vary. As a rule 
the lesson demanding practice upon material already under- 
stood should take more time than the one demanding the 
mastery of new subject-matter. The reason for this is that 
the pupils are better prepared to carry on this type of study, 
and can work longer with less danger of falling into errors and 
becoming discouraged. The lesson demanding mastery of 
new subject-matter may be developed very largely through 
the recitation period. Therefore the preparation for such 
a lesson should usually demand less time, but more concen- 
trated effort. 

Section summary. The supervisor should begin to direct 
the thinking of the teacher in preparation for his teaching 
performance as well as during the progress of his teaching. 
The fundamental points upon which the teacher's thinking 
should be directed are: The important distinctions that set 
off method, device, and technique from each other; the 
essential characteristics of method, device, and technique 
that should be thoroughly mastered; the making of weekly 
and daily lesson plans; the relative emphasis, in the recita- 
tion, of the oral and written work; the holding of quizzes; 
and the demands upon pupils in preparation of their lessons. 
Carefully prepared detailed outlines are the most economi- 
cal means that the supervisor can use in accomplishing this 
task systematically. 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 181 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Select one of the fundamental elementary-school subjects, and make 
an outline that indicates the points as to method, devices, and tech- 
nique according to the suggested outline given in this chapter. 

2. Make an outline of specific habits of skill that apply to the teaching 
of the subject selected under 1, above. 

3. Select one of the high-school subjects, and make an outline as under 1, 
above. 

4. Make an outline of specific habits of skill that apply to the teaching 
of the high-school subject under 3, above. 

5. Make a blank form that you would recommend to teachers for use in 
making weekly lesson plans. 

6. Criticize the daily lesson-plan form given in the chapter, and make 
a form that you think would be more helpful to the teacher. 

7. Select one elementary-school subject, and determine the relative 
amount of time that should be given to oral and written work in the 
daily recitation. 

8. Select one high-school subject, and determine the relative amount 
of time that should be given to oral and written work in the daily 
recitation. 

9. Make an outline of the suggestions that you would give the teacher 
of a fifth-grade arithmetic class, as to the time for holding quizzes, 
and the relative number and the character of quiz questions. 

10. Make an outline of the suggestions that you would give the teacher 

of , a high-school subject, as to the time for holding quizzes, and 

relative number and character of quiz questions. 

11. Select an elementary-school subject, and determine the amount of 
time the pupils should spend in the preparation of a specified new 
subject-matter lesson. Determine the amount of time that should 
be spent in preparation of a lesson on practice material in the same 
subject. 

12. Select a high-school subject, and determine the amount of time the 
pupils should spend in the preparation of a specified new subject- 
matter lesson. Determine the amount of time that should be spent 
in preparation of a lesson on practice material in the same subject. 

2. Supervised study 

Supervised study is used here to mean every phase of the 
teacher's work that aids the pupil in the mastery of subject- 
matter, formation of study habits, putting forth consistent 
effort in the study of the subject, and in developing power 
of analysis, technique of organization of subject-matter, and 



182 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

ability to apply knowledge to new situations. The chief 
ways in which the teacher may effectively supervise the 
study of pupils are as follows: 

The recitation. The recitation as an effective means of 
directing the study of pupils should involve at least three 
important items. 

1. The lesson assignment. The assignment of the lesson 
should be clear and definite. The assignment should enable 
the pupils to know what to do and how to go about it. The 
pupils should be required to take full notes on the lesson 
assignment, so that they will not depend upon memory for 
guidance in their study. The assignment should include 
instructions in the use of textbooks and other helps that the 
pupils should use in the preparation of the lesson. 

The definiteness of the assignment should be emphasized. 
The pupils should have clear-cut problems to attack, and 
they should realize fully what they are to accomplish by 
their study. They should also know what they must do to 
accomplish these definite results. In other words, the as- 
signment should indicate the procedure that really consti- 
tutes study of the subject-matter assigned. 

2. The recitation demands. The recitation should make 
such demands upon the pupils that they will be compelled to 
prepare the lesson in the way that they have been directed. 
This means that the recitation must deal with the subject- 
matter assigned for that particular recitation, and it must 
be dealt with in the way that the assignment indicated it 
would be taken up. The recitation should not introduce 
new demands for which the pupils have not prepared. This 
does not mean that new points may not be developed, but it 
does mean that the development of new points must demand 
the use of the preparation that was made in studying for the 
recitation. 

One important item is that the recitation should keep 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 183 

up with the assignments. Teachers sometimes make such 
erroneous plans for their assignments that they keep falling 
farther behind with the recitation until the recitation never 
gets to any of the lesson assigned the day before, and even 
does not touch on any of the lesson assigned two days be- 
fore. In such cases the teacher usually goes on assigning 
the advance lesson as if the recitations were keeping right 
up with the assignments. The result of such a condition 
is that the pupils soon cease to study the assignment with 
any degree of seriousness. They do not know when they will 
get caught up with the game, so they take things easily. 
Teachers should be cautioned against falling into such a 
habit. They should be advised as to the best way in which 
to extricate themselves in case they do get caught in this 
unfortunate situation. Careful study of the proposition 
that the recitation should make such demands upon the 
pupils that they must study in the way that they have been 
directed will enable the teacher to avoid this unfortunate 
situation. 

3. Study during ilie recitation. The recitation should be 
a continued study of the subject, rather than a mere quizzing 
for facts which have been memorized in preparation for the 
recitation. This should be true especially when the recita- 
tion involves the study of new subject-matter. Some reci- 
tations must be for drill, and others for reviews. Most 
recitations, however, that demand study at all on the part of 
the pupils should be genuine group-study periods of the 
cooperative type. This idea of the recitation needs to be 
emphasized. The more that teachers plan to use the reci- 
tation as a means of directing the study of the pupils, and 
of leading them farther into the subject-matter than the 
individual study of the pupils will take them, the more effec- 
tive the teaching will be and the better the study habits of 
the pupils will be. 



184 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

One important point that can and should be brought out 
in the study recitation is that of indicating clearly to the 
pupils the subject-matter that should be learned and memo- 
rized just temporarily, as a means to an end in study, and the 
subject-matter that should be learned permanently. Pupils 
should be guided in their memorizing practices so that each 
type of subject-matter will be learned most economically. 
The teacher should guide the study of the pupils in such a 
way that the pupils will know when they are ready to spend 
time upon the thorough memorization of a unit of perma- 
nent subject-matter. Outlines and other devices should be 
given the pupils that will take the place of memorization 
during the development of the unit of subject-matter that 
is to be permanently memorized after it has been thoroughly 
worked out. 

Supervised study period. Some schools have adopted a 
plan of double periods for the classes in which they desire to 
carry on supervised study. The teacher conducts recita- 
tion for half the double period, and guides the study of the 
same group for the other half of the period. This plan as- 
sumes that every day the group should or will be assigned a 
lesson that requires study of the analytical, interpretative 
sort. Therefore the teacher is to supervise the study of the 
lesson, and later have the recitation that tests the results of 
the study. If the suggestion that has been made above is 
followed, namely, that the recitation should be a continued 
study of the lesson rather than a mere testing and quizzing 
of the pupils on the facts studied, the supervised study period 
as something set apart from the recitation will be unneces- 
sary. Whether the regular recitation period is utilized for 
a supervised study performance, or regular periods other 
than the recitation are set aside for such supervised study, 
the procedure of the teacher should be practically the 
same. 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 185 

The following outline is suggestive of the technique that 
may be practiced : 

Group study. 

1. Raise specific problems. 

2. Suggest relevant subject-matter that will aid in the solution 
of the problems. This should include the kinds of materials 
and the source of the materials. 

8. Suggest means of sifting and selecting relevant facts, princi- 
ples, laws, etc. 

4. Suggest means of testing and verifying results. 

5. Indicate subject-matter that is to be used purely as a means 
and subject-matter that is to be learned as an end. 

6. Give special attention to individual differences that are due 
to: 

a. Sex. 

b. Age. 

c. Stage of mental and physiological development, 
rf. Previous t raining and experience. 

e. Influence of economic and social conditions. 
/. Status of health. 

Individual study conferences. The teacher should have 
individual study conferences with every pupil who is not 
getting along well in his work. These conferences should 
follow some definite technique of procedure. The following 
suggestions may be helpful: 

1. Seek out particular weaknesses. 

2. Vary the point of attack upon subject-matter to meet the in- 
dividual needs of pupils. 

S. Raise specific problems. 

4. Suggest relevant subject-matter that will aid in the solution 
of the problems. This should include the kinds and the 
sources of materials. 

5. Suggest means of sifting and selecting relevant facts, princi- 
pies, rules, etc. 

0. Suggest means of testing and verifying results. 

7. Stimulate initiative and secure maximum effort. 

8. Indicate subject-matter that is to be used purely as a means, 
and subject-matter that is to be learned as an end. 



186 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

9. Give special attention to individual differences that are due 
to: 

a. Sex. 

b. Age. 

c. Stage of mental and physiological development. 

d. Previous training and experience. 

e. Influence of economic and social conditions. 
/. Status of health. 

Make-up work. Teachers should have a definite plan for 
guiding pupils in making up work that has been missed. 
The following items are suggestive of the technique that 
might well be adopted. 

1. Technique in handling make-up work is important and should 
involve: 

a. A definite assignment of problems and materials. 

6. A definite form in which the work is to be submitted. 

c. A definite time for the work to be completed. 

d. A definite means of testing the efficiency of the work. 

The teacher should have an ample supply of supplemen- 
tary material that may be used for make-up work instead 
of the material that was used in class while the pupil was 
absent. The same problems should be presented and the 
same habits and skills required as have been given to the 
class . Presenting the same problems with different materials 
avoids the possibility of the pupil's copying another pupil's 
work instead of really making the work up. 

Literature on study. The teacher should put literature 
into the hands of the pupils which gives practical informa- 
tion and suggestions as to habit formation and self-govern- 
ment. Supplement this literature with a definite list of 
habits that will be helpful in learning how to study the par- 
ticular subject. 

Conferences. Two types of conference are suggested as 
good devices for keeping in close contact with the develop- 
ment of teachers; namely, group conferences and individual 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 187 

conferences. Both types are important and essential to good 
supervision. The technique of directing these conferences 
will be discussed in some detail in Section C. 

Training in use of standard tests and scales. Standard 
tests and scales have been thoroughly enough established 
now so that they may be used to great advantage in deter- 
mining pedagogical problems. The use of such tests and 
scales, however, is accompanied by certain dangers which 
can be avoided only by a thorough understanding of the 
purpose and nature of these tests. 

One of the most important points that should be given 
careful consideration is the fact that anything that is stand- 
ardized is necessarily limited in its function. A standard is 
designed to measure a certain thing and nothing else. A 
standard test only tests that for which it has been designed; 
hence it must not be taken as a measure of other things. 
The silent-reading tests, for example, are designed to test 
the speed and accuracy with which the pupil reads assigned 
material. They do not test the pupil's ability to appreciate 
and enjoy what he reads. Neither do they test his ability 
to work out the meanings of new and difficult words, and to 
choose appropriate meanings where more than one con- 
struction might be put upon the words. In short, these 
reading tests are limited to measuring just a small part of 
the mental results that training in reading should develop in 
the mind of the pupil. This small part of the mental re- 
sults is highly important, however, and it should be meas- 
ured in the thorough way that these tests enable it to be 
measured. The frequent use of these tests will enable the 
teacher to locate definitely the individual needs of the pu- 
pils in silent reading. The range of individual differences 
in this respect can be accurately established, and this will 
enable the teacher to distribute his time and energy to best 
advantage in bringing all the pupils up to the desired stand- 



188 

ard of efficiency. Moreover, the use of the tests enables the 
teacher to measure the relative value of the various devices 
and technique that he may employ in endeavoring to ac- 
complish the desired results. 

On the other hand, the teacher must employ other means 
than the standard silent-reading tests in the measuring of 
the other mental results that are desirable to secure in read- 
ing. If standard tests are available for measuring any of 
these other results, they should be used for measuring those 
particular things, but if no such tests are at hand, then such 
unstandardized means as experience has proved best must 
be used. 

Value of tests in grading and promoting. A second point 
that is of great importance is the relative value of the stand- 
ard tests and the unstandardized tests in determining the 
grading and promotion of pupils. If the mental results that 
are measured by the standard tests are the most important, 
then the tests may be used very largely for the purpose of 
determining promotions, but the teacher should be very 
sure that these results are not given more weight than they 
really merit. The mental results that have as yet never 
been standardized may be the most important ultimately, 
if not now, and they should be duly evaluated in determin- 
ing grades and promotions. After all, it is only the formal 
aspects of training that best lend themselves to standardiza- 
tion. The enriching, the broadening, the character-making 
aspects of education are much more difficult to standardize. 
Nevertheless, as ultimate outcomes of education, they are 
more important than any form of standardized habit or skill. 

Standardized tests and standardized skills. What, then, 
is the pedagogical relation that should exist between the 
standardized skills and the unstandardized outcomes of edu- 
cation? The relation is that of means to an end. The 
standardized aspects of training should be the means of 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 189 

furthering the unfonnalized processes of mental develop- 
ment. They should free the mind of the learner from the 
consideration of its formal development by becoming so 
thoroughly habit that they function automatically. The 
great danger is that these standardized aspects of training 
will be made too much the end of education, and that so 
much time will be given to these tools for their own sakes 
that the more vital issues will be neglected. In other words, 
the danger is that education will end with the mastery of 
formalized, standardized habits and skills when it should 
just be beginning. These standardized skills must be mas- 
tered, and the standard tests are the best means yet devised 
for knowing when they have been mastered to a satisfactory 
degree, but education to be highly effective must always go 
beyond the stages of attention to formal things for their own 
sakes. 

Some knowledge of their use a necessity. Not only 
teachers, but supervisors and administrators, need to know 
the limitations of the functions of standard tests. The 
supervisor can be greatly aided in measuring the efficiency 
of his teachers, in respect to securing results hi those aspects 
of education that can be formalized, by the use of standard 
tests. The administrator can likewise use these tests in 
measuring the efficiency of his school system hi respect to 
these formal aspects of education. The supervisor can de- 
termine definitely, by use of these tests, what teachers need 
most help in dealing with the standardized phases of sub- 
ject-matter. The administrator can use the tests to locate 
the particular schools or grades in his system that are weak- 
est in respect to formal training. The danger is that the 
efficiency of teachers and the efficiency of the school system 
as a whole will be measured too much by the results secured 
by the administration of standard tests, whereas these tests 
should be used to discover the time in school progress at 



190 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

which to stress the other aspects of education, and to use 
other valid means than these tests in measuring the effi- 
ciency of teachers and the efficiency of the system as a whole 
in attaining the more vital outcomes of education. 

Skill in using standard tests and scales should be made an 
important part of every teacher's training. The technique 
of administering these tests can be acquired only through 
actual practice. Ample opportunity for such practice 
should be provided, and it should be carried on under very 
careful supervision until the desired skill has been attained. 
The results secured should be utilized to the fullest possible 
extent in locating individual needs, and in measuring the 
value of the various devices and the forms of technique em- 
ployed in the teaching of the subjects hi which the tests are 
given. 

Section summary. The teacher should be trained to di- 
rect the study of his pupils chiefly through : definite, clearly 
understood lesson assignments; recitation demands that 
utilize and capitalize the preparation the pupils have been 
directed to make; and making most recitations a continued 
study of the lesson. Where a separate period is used for 
supervised study, the teacher should master the technique 
of directing group study. The technique of directing in- 
dividual study through personal conferences should be mas- 
tered, and this should include a definite plan for handling 
make-up work. The teacher should place literature on 
How to Study in the hands of the pupils. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Make an outline that will help the teacher in making lesson assign- 
ments definite and clearly understood. 

2. Make out in detail lesson assignments in two or more elementary- 
school subjects, in keeping with your outline. 

8. Make out in detail lesson assignments in two or more high-school sub- 
jects, in keeping with your outline. 
4. Give detailed suggestions as to the demands in the recitations in 



ILLUSTRATIVE DEVICES 191 

geography, arithmetic, and reading that would compel the pupils to 
study in the way they were directed, in order to get along well in the 
recitation. 

5. Give detailed suggestions as to the recitation demands that you would 
make in high-school classes in history, algebra, Latin, English litera- 
ture, and one of the sciences, in order to control the kind of study 
preparation made by the pupils. 

6. Make a detailed study recitation plan for a lesson in one of the ele- 
mentary-school subjects. 

7. Make a detailed study recitation plan for a lesson in one of the high- 
school subjects. 

8. Criticize the suggested outline given in the chapter for the direction 
of group study, as to definiteness of organization, completeness or 
excessiveness of details, formalism, etc. Try to improve the outline 
for your own use. 

9. Criticize the outline for individual conferences, and make a more 
usable plan. 

10. Select an elementary-school subject, and make a definite detailed plan 
for handling make-up work in it. 

11. Select a high-school subject, and make a definite detailed plan for 
handling make-up work in it. 

12. Select two or more books on How to Study that would be suitable 
to place in the hands of high-school pupils. 

IS. Make a set of instructions that you would recommend for grade 

pupils, to aid them in studying all lessons. 
14. Make a set of instructions for one subject that you would recommend 

for grade pupils to aid them in preparing lessons in that subject. 

SELECTED REFERENCES FOR SECTION B 
Betts, Geo. Herbert. The Recitation. 

Good discussions of methods, devices, and technique of recitation. 

Belts, Geo. Herbert. Classroom Method and Management. 

Much helpful data on organization of subject-matter in elementary-school subjects. 

Breed, Frederick S. " Measured Results of Supervised Study," in School 
Review, March and April, 1919. 

Gives experimental data and valuable conclusions. 

Hall-Quest, Alfred L. Supervised Study. 

Important discussions of principles, practices, and good account of experimental data. 

Hall-Quest, Alfred L. The Textbook. 

Good discussion of standards for judging textbooks and suggestions as to their ue. 

Jones, L. H. "The Relation of Observation to Practice Teaching in the 
Preparation of the Young Teacher"; in Proc. N.E.A.. 1908, pp. 728-32. 
Makes helpful distinction between observation and practice teaching. 

Maxwell, C. R. The Observation of Teaching. 

Good discussion of the details of observation with helpful outline*. 



192 DEVICES OF SUPERVISION 

McMurry, Frank. How to Study and Teaching How to Study. 
A very readable and valuable book. 

Monroe, W. S. Measuring the Results of Teaching. 

Very valuable to the teacher as a description of the use and importance of the stand* 
ard tests. 

Sandwick, Richard L. How to Study and What to Study. 

Discussion of " What to Study " especially helpful to pupils. 

U.S. Bureau of Education. Practice Teaching for Teachers in Secondary 
Schools. Bulletin 29, 1917. 

See particularly page 41 for a brief description of completely organized system* of 
practice teaching. 

Watt, H. J. Economy and Training of Memory. 
Contains excellent summary of rules. 

Whipple, G. M. How to Study Effectively. 

Excellent discussion of principles, and good summary of rules. 



SECTION C 
TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

CHAPTER XIII 

PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE SELECTION OF 
TECHNIQUE 

The purpose of supervision. That the supervisor exists 
for the sake of the teachers who work under his direction, 
and for the sake of the pupils who work under the direction 
of the teachers, may be stated as the first important prin- 
ciple in good supervision. This is a fundamental point of 
view, and every supervisor who holds this point of view will 
render more efficient service than he could otherwise do. 
Supervisors too often look upon teachers and pupils as a 
means of exploiting their ideas about the teaching of their 
particular line or lines of work. They seek to show off their 
own performance and to attract attention to themselves. 
The progress of the teachers under his direction should be 
the immediate concern of the supervisor, and indirectly the 
progress of the pupils being taught by these teachers. 

This might be stated just the opposite way and yet the 
meaning remain the same. That is to say, the supervisor 
is interested directly in the progress of the pupils being 
taught, and indirectly in the progress in teaching of the 
teachers who are teaching pupils. In other words, the su- 
pervisor cannot secure the progress desired on the part of 
the pupils being taught without securing the desired prog- 
ress in teaching on the part of the teachers being supervised. 
Therefore the efforts of the supervisor should be centered 
upon the teaching performance of the teacher primarily as a 



194 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

means of accomplishing definite desired results. Keep the 
teacher in the foreground, then, should be the motto of the 
supervisor. 

This point of view gives the supervisor a large responsibil- 
ity in the training and directing of the teachers. The suc- 
cess or failure of the teachers is to a considerable extent the 
success or failure of the supervisor. The supervisor should 
make the teachers realize at the outset that he is there for 
the purpose of helping, and that their interests are mutual. 
The teachers should be encouraged to regard the presence 
and efforts of the supervisor as an opportunity for them in 
becoming more efficient and successful as teachers. They 
should feel free to consult the supervisor at any and all 
times, and upon any phase of their work upon which they 
feel the need of assistance. In other words, the teachers 
should be made to feel that they should study diligently to 
discover the ways in which the supervisor can serve them 
most. 

Supervision to develop independence and efficiency. 
That every act of the supervisor should be for the purpose 
of making the teachers under his direction independent and 
efficient, may be stated as the second fundamental principle 
in good supervision. One of the prime objects is to develop 
independence on the part of the teachers. This independ- 
ence must come through the formation of right habits and 
the acquisition of skill in applying these habits to the prob- 
lems of teaching. The supervisor must not let his technique 
of supervision get in the way of the process of developing in- 
dependence and initiative on the part of the teachers under 
him. The teachers must not only become independent and 
acquire the habit of taking the initiative, but they must be 
efficient and reliable in their independence. 

Teachers, though, may easily initiate ideas that will not 
lead to good results. Therefore the supervisor is responsi- 



THE SELECTION OF TECHNIQUE 195 

ble for the development of reliability of judgment as well as 
the habit of initiative. In other words, the habit of under- 
taking new experiments to meet situations that is, initia- 
tive must be checked by the practice of proceeding upon 
some definitely accurate basis that is significant. The 
teachers must not be encouraged to dash into things spon- 
taneously in order to exhibit initiative and originality. The 
technique of the supervisor should tend to develop the relia- 
ble type of initiative and dependable independence rather 
than the spontaneous trial-and-error sort of independence 
and haphazard form of initiative that undertakes new 
things, but seldom makes anything out of them that is 
worth while. 

Constructive work a necessity. That the technique of 
the supervisor should be constructive, and not destructive, 
may be stated as the third fundamental principle hi good 
supervision. This is of fundamental importance, and 
should be followed in selecting the technique of the super- 
visor. It is likewise one of the most difficult principles to 
follow. All criticism tends to be destructive. One must 
not lose sight of the fact that often before one can build one 
must destroy that which stands in the place of what is to be 
built. Destruction, therefore, may be the preliminary step 
of real constructive procedure. As a rule, however, the de- 
struction of the undesirable is brought about best by the 
substitution of the desirable. In other words, the processes 
of destruction and construction are simultaneous, instead of 
consecutive or alternative. 

A really destructive criticism, then, would be one that 
merely destroys or attacks an existing practice without sub- 
stituting anything in its place. Such criticism is never help- 
ful, and never has a good effect upon the relations between 
supervisor and teachers. Such a destructive procedure is 
not only not helpful, but it is even dangerous for the super- 



196 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

visor. The supervisor who finds fault, picks flaws, and cen- 
sures without showing clearly the practice that should be 
followed, and without showing what the results of better 
practice would be, will soon lose the confidence of his teach- 
ers. Any one can find fault, but who can show how to mend 
the defect? That is the critical point for the teacher, and 
the supervisor should practice such technique as to meet 
this critical test fairly and satisfactorily. 

Supervisory technique not unvarying. That the tech- 
nique of supervision should be modified to meet the varying 
conditions under which the work of supervision is carried 
on is a fourth important principle of supervision. No act of 
technique is in and of itself either good or bad. The value 
of each act must be measured by the conditions under which 
it is put forth and the character of the results secured. In 
other words, the supervisor should select his technique in 
keeping with the satisfactory outcome of his performance, 
and not according to some preconceived notion of what 
ought to constitute good technique. If the supervisor puts 
forth acts merely because they conform to some concept 
that he has of how the work should be done, but fails to 
modify his performance in the face of unsatisfactory results, 
he will look upon his work as being well done, and with per- 
fect complacency he will lay the cause of failure to obtain 
desired results to other factors, elements, or conditions than 
his own acts. Since his own acts were religiously performed, 
and with a regularity and definiteness that are practically 
perfect, he is apt to feel that the unsatisfactory results can- 
not possibly be due to such seemingly perfect technique. 
Therefore, instead of looking about for new points hi tech- 
nique that may possibly remedy the situation, the super- 
visor shifts the responsibility upon the teachers supervised, 
or upon conditions, etc. 

The technique of supervision should be economical. This 



THE SELECTION OF TECHNIQUE 197 

may be given as a fifth important principle in the supervi- 
sion of instruction. The acts of the supervisor in directing 
the work of teachers should be of such a character that they 
will enable him to accomplish a maximum of results with a 
minimum of time and energy. This economy of time and 
energy must be measured by the ultimate results of the su- 
pervisor's work, and not merely by the immediately obvious 
results. Immediate results that are good usually lay the 
foundation for ultimate results that are satisfactory; there- 
fore technique that secures excellent immediate results is for 
the most part fundamentally correct. Sometimes, however, 
the immediate results may be meager or even unsatisfactory, 
and yet the technique practiced prove eventually to have 
been correct because of the ultimate results that were not 
apparent from the immediate outcome of the supervising 
activities. Ultimate results are the final test, for they bear 
fruit after the activities of the supervisor are no longer car- 
ried on in connection with the work of the teacher and the 
efforts of the pupils. Therefore, in selecting technique on 
the basis of its economy, the determining criterion should be 
the ultimate results of the supervising activities, and these 
results must be established by experience rather than by 
mere theory. 

Chapter summary. The supervisor exists for the sake of 
his teachers; hence he should make every act further their 
independence and efficiency. His technique should always 
be constructive instead of destructive, and modified to meet 
the conditions under which the supervision is carried on, 
and in such a way as to render the technique most effective 
and economical. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Give three or more cases, from your experience, in which the super- 
visor did not exist for the sake of his teachers. 

2. Give three or more cases, from your experience, in which the super* 
visor did exist for the sake of his teachers. 



198 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

8. Give two or more examples, from your experience, in which the 
supervisor made his teachers independent. 

4. Give two or more examples, from your experience, in which the super- 
visor stifled the independence of his teachers. 

5. Give five illustrations of destructive criticism of teaching perform- 
ances. 

6. Give five illustrations of constructive criticism of teaching perform- 
ances. 

7. Give five illustrations of how the same point of technique may be 
good in one situation and bad in another. 

8. Give two or more cases, from your experience, in which the technique 
of the supervisor was not economical. 

9. Give two or more examples, from your experience, of economical 
technique in supervision. 



CHAPTER XIV 
SELECTED FORMS OF TECHNIQUE 

Technique and devices. The discussion of technique will 
involve some discussion of devices which are so closely in- 
volved hi the technique itself as to be difficult to treat sepa- 
rately and yet be practical. These devices were omitted 
under the regular discussion of devices in order to avoid 
needless repetition. In like manner and for the same pur- 
pose some degree of discussion of technique was given in the 
discussion of devices. Some few phases of devices and tech- 
nique have necessarily been given under both discussions. 
This fact, however, will merely serve to emphasize their im- 
portance. In actual practice the supervisor must practice 
good technique in manipulating devices, and he must em- 
ploy good devices that enable him to execute efficient tech- 
nique. In other words, sometimes the technique must be 
adapted for the sake of securing the best results from the 
device, but for the most part the device exists for the sake of 
the technique. 

1. Visiting the teacher at work 

The supervisor must visit the teacher at work in the class- 
room in order to become acquainted with his strong points 
and his weaknesses. This aspect of the supervisor's work 
presents several important problems. These will be taken 
up in order and discussed in some detail. 

When should the supervisor begin visiting? The teacher 
is given charge of the class, and is now to be held responsible 
for conducting it for a definite period of time. The super- 
visor has given the teacher full instructions concerning the 



200 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

various duties that he is to perform, and, let us suppose, has 
also placed detailed lesson plans in the hands of the teacher 
to guide his work for the first few days. Now comes the 
question as to whether the supervisor shall begin visiting 
from the very outset, or shall stay away for a day or two 
and give the teacher some opportunity to get the situation 
somewhat in hand so that he will not feel so self-conscious 
when the supervisor is present. 

This question may be answered satisfactorily by weighing 
all the factors that should be considered in deciding that the 
teacher is ready to take up the active work of managing and 
teaching a class. Presumably the teacher should be able to 
get along for a few days without the presence of the super- 
visor. If the teacher cannot be trusted to this extent, there 
is certainly a large question as to the advisability of putting 
him in charge of a class at all. On the other hand, if the 
teacher is capable of handling the class independently and 
without danger of serious results for the class, then the 
teacher cannot be seriously disturbed by the presence of the 
supervisor from the very first day. The actual facts are 
that practically everything depends upon the personality 
and attitude of the supervisor and the temperament of the 
teacher. Some teachers find it very difficult ever to become 
accustomed to visitors of any character whatsoever. Such 
teachers will always feel more or less self-conscious when- 
ever the supervisor is present in the classroom. Again, 
some teachers feel perfectly free hi the presence of one super- 
visor, and are badly flustered and ill at ease in the presence 
of another supervisor. How, then, shall the answer to the 
question be determined? 

Answer in the light of purpose. Every supervisor must 
settle this question in the light of ah 1 the facts in each case. 
The suggestion that seems valid, however, is that the more 
visiting the supervisor does, the better it is for both super- 



SELECTED FORMS OF TECHNIQUE 201 

visor and teacher. The more they work together, the better 
they will come to understand one another and to appreciate 
one another's individual characteristics. The more timid 
and self-conscious the teacher is, the more he needs to be 
visited in order that he may have ample opportunity to 
overcome his weakness. The time that the supervisor has 
charge of the work of the teacher is all too short at best, and 
every day that passes is that much opportunity gone for- 
ever. Therefore the logical time to begin visiting the work 
of the teacher is the very first recitation that the teacher 
conducts. The visits should be for the whole period, and 
they should continue, as time permits, until the teacher has 
thoroughly mastered the situation. The visits may then be 
less frequent, but they should continue to be relatively fre- 
quent, as long as there is possibility of assisting the teacher 
in overcoming faults and in establishing new habits of effi- 
cient teaching. The main point for the supervisor to keep 
in mind is that the performance of supervision must seek al- 
ways to further the development of the teacher, and never 
to really get in the way of this development. That is to say, 
all things considered, the teacher and the pupils under the 
teacher should be better off because of the presence of the 
supervisor in the classroom during the recitation. 

Entering the classroom. The supervisor often has to en- 
ter the classroom after the beginning of the recitation. He 
should enter in such a manner as to attract as little atten- 
tion as possible. The supervisor should not intentionally 
become the center of attraction as soon as he enters the 
room. The writer has seen a supervisor come bustling into 
the room, hi the midst of a recitation, interrupt the whole 
procedure to say, "Good-morning, boys and girls," and 

" Good-morning, Miss X ." Then would follow a few 

minutes of animated consultation with the teacher or some 
gtagy fussing around the teacher's desk before finally set- 



tling down and allowing the teacher to go on with the work 
that had been interrupted. 

Presumably the only justification for such a cyclonic per- 
formance was an attempt to create a social situation and 
teach the children good manners. The real effect, however, 
was that of making it apparent to every one that the super- 
visor had arrived, and his majestic presence must be prop- 
erly greeted and recognized before the work in hand could 
proceed properly. His show of enthusiasm and his fussing 
around before the pupils were all for effect. He wished to 
seem important and to make his visit seem to contribute 
immediately something noticeable to the life of the school. 
The real fact is that he contributed little else than a diver- 
sion. Diversions may be good things occasionally, but 
much better devices than well-paid supervisors could be em- 
ployed to create highly interesting diversions. 

Position of the supervisor in the classroom. The super- 
visor should sit in an inconspicuous place in the classroom, 
but so as to be able to observe both the teacher and the en- 
tire class. Rooms that are to be visited regularly by super- 
visors should have desk chairs conveniently placed for them 
These should usually be in the rear of the room, but they 
may be near the front if the rooms are so arranged that the 
passing to the rear would attract more attention than would 
otherwise be the case. Most schoolrooms are so arranged 
as to have an entrance at the rear from a cloakroom or hall. 
When this is the case the supervisor can easily enter quietly 
at the rear and attract no attention other than that the 
pupils become aware that he is present. The supervisor 
should not sit at the teacher's desk unless he intends to con- 
duct the recitation, and has come primarily for that purpose. 
The reason is obvious. The supervisor at the teacher's desk 
is more conspicuous than the teacher, and pupils cannot give 
undivided attention to the work of the recitation. More- 



SELECTED FORMS OF TECHNIQUE 203 

over, the teacher is placed in an awkward position, and finds 
it difficult to offset the feeling that the supervisor has as- 
sumed a critical attitude and a judicial air. The teacher 
cannot help feeling that he is on trial before the high court. 
Not all teachers would feel this embarrassment, and not all 
supervisors would create such an impression, no matter 
where they sat during the recitation, but many teachers will 
feel this embarrassment; hence the best plan is to follow a 
technique that precludes the forceful suggestiveness that 
comes from taking the seat of authority in the classroom. 

When the supervisor sits in the rear of the room, or in 
some equally inconspicuous place, the teacher is made to 
feel that the supervisor is for the time being a member of 
the class. The teacher in presenting the lesson to the pupils 
is also presenting it to the supervisor. Moreover, the super- 
visor and teacher can develop a sort of team work that will 
enable them to communicate with each other without the 
pupils being aware of the fact. For example, the room may 
need a little ventilating, or adjustment of light, etc. The 
teacher may not notice these items until a glance from the 
supervisor directs his attention to them. The teacher can 
then tactfully look after them in such a manner as to create 
the least possible disturbance, and so lose the least possible 
time. Other suggestions may also be conveyed to the 
teacher without attracting the attention of the pupils. The 
possibilities of utilizing the place in the room to direct the 
recitation in this way should not be neglected by super- 
visors. 

Leaving the room. The supervisor often finds it neces- 
sary to leave the room before the end of the recitation pe- 
riod. Whenever this is the case, the supervisor should with- 
draw in such a manner as to attract as little attention as 
possible. The supervisor who was mentioned above always 
made his departure as conspicuous as his arrival. He must 



04 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

say, "Good-bye, boys and girls," and "Good-bye, Miss 
X ." Then he would go sweeping out with a royal dig- 
nity that held the attention of the pupils until he was out of 
sight and hearing. The supervisor who is attempting to do 
constructive educational work through training and direct- 
ing the teachers will find no advantage or benefit in such 
spectacular, grand-stand performances. The departure of 
the supervisor should not be an event in the life of the school, 
unless, perhaps, it is a permanent departure. That would 
certainly be worth celebrating if the supervisor were like the 
one mentioned. 

The arrival of the supervisor, the place he occupies in the 
classroom, and his departure should all be in keeping with 
the first principle of technique; namely, that the supervisor 
should exist for the sake of the teachers and pupils. The 
greater the power and efficiency of the supervisor, the less 
conspicuous his presence needs to be in visiting the teachers 
in the classrooms. The person who resorts to making a 
spectacular display of his performance of visiting has little 
to commend him, for he lacks valid means of making his 
work felt. In other words, it is just a form of bluffing to 
hide inefficiency. Here, as in most cases, the person who 
seems to do the least is usually doing the most, and vice 
versa. 

Making comments on the recitation. The supervisor 
should make a good many notes on the recitation. This 
should be done in such a manner as not to attract the atten- 
tion of the pupils and not to disconcert the teacher. The 
teacher will have some difficulty at first, no doubt, La over- 
coming the tendency to self-consciousness that the writing 
of notes by the supervisor on the recitation during its prog- 
ress will produce. The character of the notes and comments 
will have much to do with helping the teacher to become 
accustomed to the note-taking, so that he will no longer be 



SELECTED FORMS OF TECHNIQUE *05 

distracted or made anxious by it. The notes should be an 
accurate account of what actually takes place and the com- 
ments should be suggestive rather than critical. Many of 
the notes should be in the nature of diagnoses of the indi- 
vidual difficulties of pupils, as shown by the actual reactions 
during the recitation. These diagnoses will be very helpful 
to the teacher, and will give him a basis for modifying his 
subsequent procedure. Such a concrete basis would be very 
difficult if not well-nigh impossible for the teacher to secure 
during the progress of the recitation. An expert teacher 
should be able to do this sort of diagnosing in the midst of 
the recitation, but it cannot be expected of the teacher who 
is working under supervision. 

Delivering the written notes and comments. If feasible 
a conference between the teacher and supervisor should fol- 
low the class to discuss it in a way that would be most help- 
ful to the teacher. If circumstances do not permit this, the 
supervisor should, as a rule, leave the written notes, com- 
ments, and suggestions in closed form; that is, so that a 
glance at the outside will not disclose the contents. This 
should be especially true when the notes must be left in the 
room upon leaving. If possible, the notes should be left in 
the office, or in a place prepared for that purpose, such as a 
box of pigeon-holes marked alphabetically and conveniently 
placed for the use of the teachers in receiving written com- 
munications. This plan will avoid curiosity that may be 
aroused in the minds of the pupils and the anxiety that may 
be caused in the mind of the teacher. All written notes and 
suggestions should be in duplicate or triplicate form, so that 
the teacher and supervisor may each have a copy. 

As a final suggestion it may be well to add that all visita- 
tion, supervision, and inspection of the work of the teacher 
should be open and at the same time inconspicuous, as has 
been suggested above. The visits of the supervisor should 



206 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

never be of the keyhole-inspection type. The results of the 
inspection or visit should always be submitted to the 
teacher. The teacher should always have an opportunity 
to explain conditions for which he is not responsible, and 
these explanations should be given due consideration in 
evaluating the worth of the teacher's work. 

2. Criticizing the work of the teacher 

Outline form for notes. The supervisor should take care- 
ful and accurate notes on the recitation, and base sugges- 
tions and criticisms upon the actual acts of the teacher and 
reactions of the pupils. The work of taking notes may be 
greatly simplified by using a regular printed form that con- 
tains practically all of the points that the supervisor needs 
to check up on the recitation. This printed form should be 
so made that a carbon sheet can be used. This will enable 
the supervisor to give one copy of his notes and suggestions 
to the teacher, and retain a copy for his own reference. The 
following outline is suggestive of the points that might well 
be included in such a form: 

SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOE NOTES 

J. Physical conditions. 

1. Temperature of room. 

2. Quality of air. 

3. Posture of pupils. 

4. Good housekeeping. 

5. Discipline. 

//. Method. 

1. Defects and errors in the application of the principles of 
method. Description of actual procedure should be 
given as the basis for pointing out defects and errors. 

2. Suggestive outline for correct presentation of same les- 
son or phases of subject-matter, or for presentation of 
the succeeding lesson if it employs the application of the 



SELECTED FORMS OF TECHNIQUE 207 

game principles of method. This outline should be in 
considerable detail, and should contain very definite 
constructive suggestions as to the application of the 
principles of method. The key to the principles of 
method that are applied in the teaching of the lesson is 
found in the mental procedure of the pupils. This is an 
important point, and one that should be consciously in 
the mind of the supervisor as he studies the progress of 
the recitation. 

III. Devices. 

1. General. 

a. Lack of effective ones. 

b. Wrong use of good ones. 

c. Wrong devices used. 

d. Good devices used. 

2. Special. 

a. Lack of effective ones. 

b. Wrong use of good ones. 

c. Wrong devices used. 

d. Good devices used. 

The supervisor should be careful to get quite full data 
on the actual use of devices. Constructive suggestions 
should be made as to how the good devices that were 
wrongly used should have been used. 

IV. Technique. 

1. Quantitative data. 

a. Number of times each fault of technique was com- 
mitted during the time the supervisor was in the 
room. For example, the teacher may repeat the 
answers given by the pupils twenty or thirty times 
during a single recitations. The supervisor should 
make accurate observations and record them. The 
teacher will usually be greatly astonished to learn 
he is practicing such faulty technique in so auto- 
matic a manner. 

6. Number of times each good point of technique was 
practiced during the time the supervisor was in the 
room. This might not be regarded by some as a 
criticism. It is, however, a form of positive criti- 



308 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

cism that should not be overlooked. The supervi- 
sor will do well to try to match every negative criti- 
cism with a positive one that needs to be retained 
and perfected. 
2. Qualitative data. 

a. Effect of specific acts of the teacher upon the recita- 
tion. For example, the constant repetition of the 
answer of the pupils invariably leads to inattention 
and indifference on the part of the pupils. It also 
tends to slow up the recitation, and thus decrease 
interest. It also consumes a great amount of valu- 
able tune. 

The supervisor should be careful to warn the teacher re- 
peatedly against thinking that because an application of a 
principle of method, a use of a device, or a bit of technique 
is wrong in a particular situation, it is always wrong. On 
the other hand, the teacher should also be warned against 
thinking that because an application of a principle of 
method, a device used, or a bit of technique practiced is 
right in a particular situation, it is always right. For ex- 
ample, the repetition of the answer of the pupils by the 
teacher is not always a wrong practice in technique. Its 
practice, however, in general tends to produce detrimental 
effects such as were pointed out above. Take as another 
example the asking of the question first before naming the 
pupil who is to answer. This practice is in general right. 
There are times, however, when it is perfectly good tech- 
nique to name the pupil before asking the question. In 
other words, the situation, the group of pupils, and sur- 
rounding conditions modify the practice in technique and 
determine very largely whether it is right or wrong. The 
suggestive criticisms and suggestions of the supervisor 
should be consistent and persistent in breaking up wrong 
habits. This should be especially true in regard to the habits 
of technique. 



SELECTED FORMS OF TECHNIQUE 209 

V. Subject-matter. 

1. Lack of knowledge. 

2. Errors. These should be carefully tabulated in order 
that they may be brought to the notice of the teacher. 

VI. Results. 

1. Accomplishment of ami stated in the lesson plan. 

2. Knowledge definitely acquired by the class. 

3. Habits positively furthered. 

VII. Adherence to lesson plan. If changes-were made, were they 
justifiable? Criticisms of the lesson plans should be made 
orally, and preferably they should precede the recitation. No 
criticism of the teacher's work should be made orally during 
the recitation or in the presence of the pupils. 

Rate of procedure in supervision. The supervisor will 
find it to be of great advantage to attack only a limited part 
of the above points at a time. The selection of a few of the 
most obvious and very vital points at a time, and careful 
consideration of these before taking up another group of 
points, will bring the best results. The teacher cannot 
think and watch all the many points in technique and ap- 
plication of principles of method at the same time. If he 
tries to become master over a small group first, and then an- 
other small group, etc., until all the vital and fundamental 
points have been rounded up and practiced upon, the best 
progress will be made in habit formation and the most effi- 
cient permanent results will be secured. 

3. Conferences, and checking-up icork 

Types of conferences with teachers. The supervisor 
should hold two types of conferences with the teachers; 
namely, group conferences and individual conferences. A 
definite technique for conducting these conferences will go 
far toward rendering them effective. The following points 
may well be characteristic of these conferences: 



210 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

NATURE AND PURPOSE OP CONFERENCES 

/. Group conferences. 

1. Meet the group of teachers at fixed times, and for a defi- 
nite period. 

2. Make the teachers feel that the conference is an oppor- 
tunity, and not just a requirement. 

3. Encourage the teachers to raise the problems that have 
come to them in their work. 

4. Throw each individual's question and problems open for 
free discussion by the group. Stimulate the exchange of 
ideas and comparison of experiences in dealing with the 
questions and problems. 

5. Present general suggestions and constructive criticisms 
in the form of questions based upon data accumulated 
during classroom visits. 

6. Stimulate discussion of the suggestions and criticisms, so 
that the teachers themselves determine the correct an- 
swers and formulate the procedure that should be fol- 
lowed in setting up more efficient practices. 

II. Individual conferences. 

1. Meet each teacher for a personal conference at a definite 
time, preferably each week, to go over the lesson plans 
for the entire week. 

2. Where feasible, meet each teacher for a short conference 
each day to go over the detailed daily lesson plan for the 
next recitation. 

8. Encourage the teachers to come individually to talk over 
their difficulties and to consult for advice on special 
problems. Let them ask for such conferences and ar- 
range the time. 

4. Encourage the teachers to come for individual conferences 
regarding the written notes and comments made on par- 
ticular recitations. Stimulate the teachers to answer the 
problems that are based upon these written data so that 
they become their own critics. One of the important out- 
comes of supervision should be that of making the teach- 
ers critical of their own performances. 

5. Present specific suggestions and constructive criticisms in 
the form of questions and problems based on the above 
data. 



SELECTED FORMS OF TECHNIQUE 211 

6. Encourage the teachers by specific suggestions to individ- 
uals to take the initiative in discovering and solving prob- 
lems of teaching. 

Checking the work of the pupils taught. This is to be 
done as a basis for constructive criticism of the work of the 
teacher, as a means for guarding the welfare of the pupils in 
their progress in the subject or subjects taught, and to in- 
sure justice and uniformity in giving marks and assigning 
the credit that should be given the pupils at the close of the 
work. 

The supervisor should carry out a definite program of 
procedure in checking up the work of the pupils. The fol- 
lowing items are suggestive of what may be done to good 
advantage: 

1. Note the character of the responses made by the pupils in the 
recitation, as indicative of motivated interest in the subject. 

2. Note the individual differences of pupils as to general ma- 
turity of physical and mental development, background of 
knowledge and experience that is helpful in the study of the 
subject, and rate of progress in mastering the subject. Is the 
teacher adapting the course to meet these differences? 

8. From time to time make a record of marks that should be as- 
signed to the pupils, and compare with the marks given by 
the teacher for the same piece of work. 

4. Examine all quiz questions before they are given; examine 
and mark a set of examination papers of the pupils, and com- 
pare marks with those given by the teacher. 

5. Give recognized standard tests at appropriate times during 
the course, to discover whether or not the pitch of the course 
is standard and the rate of progress up to the normal possi- 
bilities. 

6. Test ability of the pupils to learn new subject-matter in the 
same field and in allied fields. 

7. From time to time secure information as to the actual length 
of time spent in the outside preparation of the lessons. 

Assigning grades and marks to pupils. The assigning of 
grades and marks is a very difficult problem, and requires 



212 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

excellent technique to insure accuracy and fairness. There- 
fore the supervisor, in carrying out the suggestions outlined 
above, should work out definite, detailed technique for 
grading and marking the work of the pupils. Such tech- 
nique should involve a number of standards. 
The following suggestions have proved practical: 

I. Standards of achievement, which designate: 

1. A definite number of fact units. 

2. A maximum and minimum of speed, accuracy, etc., in 
special habits and skills. 

3. A definite evidence of achievement in general habits and 
skills. 

II. A range of marks which extends as far below the minimum or 
passing mark as it does above it. For example, if D is pass- 
ing, the marks should range from A to G. The marks, E, F, 
G are just as significant in showing how far below the mini- 
mum the pupils fall as are A, B, C in giving the upper range. 
HI. A scheme of grading, that gives definite weight to: 

1. Form, and 

2. Content, according to the nature of the subject and the 
phase of achievement that is being tested. 

IV. A scheme of recording marks that shows the achievement: 

1. Phases (facts, habits); and by 

2. Units within the phases. For example, in arithmetic 
the pupil might have a mark of A in knowledge of com- 
mon fractions, and a mark of D in decimals. Likewise 
he might have a mark of B in speed of adding whole 
numbers, and a mark of E in accuracy. 

The supervisor should make every effort to eliminate the 
influence of physical condition, mood, prejudice, partiality, 
over-enthusiasm for the subject, over-sympathy for the 
pupil, etc., in grading and marking the tests. 

Chapter summary. The supervisor should visit the 
teacher at work almost daily from the very beginning. He 
should enter and leave the room in an inconspicuous man- 
ner, and occupy an inconspicuous position while in the 
room. He should make detailed notes on the work ob- 



SELECTED FORMS OF TECHNIQUE 213 

served, and deliver these notes to the teacher in such form 
and manner as not to distract or embarrass the teacher. 
The criticisms offered upon the teacher's work should cover 
points in method, devices, and technique, but they should 
be focused at first upon a few of the most vital points, and 
be gradually extended as the teacher develops. The super- 
visor should encourage the teacher, through conference, to 
discover and solve his own problems. He should safeguard 
the work of the pupils by checking up their work from time 
to time, and grading them on their work. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Give examples, from your experience, of incorrect technique of enter- 
ing, leaving, and position occupied in the room practiced by a super- 
visor when visiting a teacher at work. 

2. Give examples, from your experience, of good technique in classroom 
visitation practiced by a supervisor. 

3. Make two visits to different classes at work and hand in copies of the 
notes taken during the visits, in the same form that you would submit 
them to the teacher visited. 

4. Make a blank form for the supervisor to use in criticizing the work of 
his teachers. Criticize the outline for criticism of the teacher's work 
that is given in this chapter, and show how it can be improved. 

5. Make five visits to different teachers, and hand in copies of lists of 
the most obvious vital points in method, devices, and technique that 
might well be attacked first by the supervisor in developing these 
teachers. 

6. Plan in detail a group conference with teachers you have visited, and 
show how you would lead them to raise the teaching problems and 
carry on the discussion of them. 

7. Make a suggestive outline that you might give to teachers to help 
them in becoming critical of their own performances. 

8. Visit a class at work, report in writing the motives that seem to influ- 
ence the pupils, and give the types of responses upon which you deter- 
mine the motives. 

9. Visit a class at work, and make a written report of the kinds and 
ranges of individual differences discovered during the recitation. 

10. Visit a class daily for a week, and grade and assign marks to the class 
according to the suggestions given in this chapter under "Assigning 
grades and marks to pupils." 



CHAPTER XV 
ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF THE TEACHER 

Considerations in estimating success. The estimate of 
the success of the teacher is based upon two large considera- 
tions which are so related as to make the relative emphasis 
that should be given to each very difficult to determine. The 
one consideration is the success of the teacher in mastering 
the principles of method, his resourcefulness in inventing 
devices, his success in acquiring skill of technique, and his 
independence of thought in analyzing new teaching situa- 
tions and of action in meeting them. The other considera- 
tion is the results of the teacher's work, which are shown by 
a careful checking-up and measuring of the work of the pu- 
pils who are under the teacher's charge. This second item 
is the gauge that is used ordinarily by school people and the 
general public in deciding the success of the teacher, and 
very often the teacher is held responsible when the pupils 
and other individuals should bear the blame. The teacher 
might be highly successful from the standpoint of the first 
consideration, and still fail to accomplish the desired results 
in the work of the pupils because he is too consciously ab- 
sorbed in achieving mastery over the items of mere teach- 
ing. If, however, the teacher has such mastery of the sci- 
ence of teaching that he subconsciously adapts it to the 
achievement of desired results in the work and lives of his 
pupils, the failure of the pupils can surely not be charged to 
the teacher. Conditions over which the teacher may have 
no control may obtain to the degree that the most expert 
teaching cannot succeed in accomplishing the desired re- 
sults. Conditions may be such that the pupils themselves 
are not to be blamed for failure. 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF THE TEACHER 15 

On the other hand, the teaching may be poor, and yet the 
pupils show very satisfactory results when their work is 
checked. That is to say, the pupils may be getting outside 
of school from other sources the training that the teacher is 
supposed to be giving them. Hence, judging the efficiency 
of the teaching, without seeing and carefully studying his 
work, by the tests which the pupils may be able to pass, is 
not sound practice. The conclusion seems evident that in 
order to place the correct relative emphasis upon these two 
considerations in deciding the success of the teacher, the 
supervisor must check his measure of the performances of 
the teacher against the results shown by tests given to the 
pupils, and at the same time account for the other factors 
that in any given situation have had much to do with de- 
termining the effectiveness of the teacher's work. 

The rating of teachers. The rating of the teacher as 
measured by the first consideration just set forth requires a 
most careful study and accurate analysis of the teacher's 
classroom performances, in the light of a definite set of 
standards. Vague generalizations and broad guesses must 
give way to scientific analysis and accurate measurement. 
If a set of definite standards cannot be set up, by means of 
which the efficiency of the teacher can be reliably measured, 
then the rating of teachers should be abandoned altogether. 
The standards that are used must involve many detailed 
points, but each point must admit of definite measurement. 
That is to say, each point must be objectively exhibited in 
the performance of the teacher. If other points than those 
that can be objectively measured seem desirable, these 
points should be given under the head of general impres- 
sions and personal reactions. 

A number of schemes for rating teachers has been devised. 
These have been used with varying degrees of success. The 
main point that must be kept in mind in the use of any 



210 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

scheme is that of carefully analyzing the evidences secured 
in valid ways and basing all estimates upon the results of 
such analysis. The outline that follows in this discussion is 
merely suggestive of the sort of detailed analysis the su- 
pervisor should make of the teaching performances of hif 
teachers. 

Suggested outline for teacher rating 

Intellectual ability. The future growth and development 
of the teacher is largely dependent upon his native intellec- 
tual ability. The present efficiency of the teacher is also 
greatly determined by the ability that he has to grasp the 
various situations presented from day to day in the school- 
room, and to think intelligently about them. Since the 
supervisor is concerned with both the present performance of 
the teacher and the promise it holds for his future efficiency, 
he should make a careful study of the various evidences that 
come under his observation and estimate this factor of in- 
tellectual ability as accurately as possible. The employ- 
ment of standardized intelligence tests may be the most 
reliable means of determining this factor, but such tests 
should be given only by experts. Even then the check of 
practical observations of the teacher's keenness of intellect 
is desirable and invaluable in determining the rank of the 
teacher in this trait. 

General scholarship. One very important item in the 
efficiency of the teacher is his general scholarship. The in- 
dividual who possesses a wide range of knowledge, and es- 
pecially an intelligent acquaintance with many fields of 
modern activity, will be able to present the specific prob- 
lems in any particular subject in their relations to broader 
problems and fields of subject-matter. The supervisor 
should check up the range of the teacher's general training 
and experience, including high-school, even elementary- 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF THE TEACHER 217 

school work, college courses, and industrial, professional, 
civic, and social activities that the teacher has engaged in 
specifically and definitely. He should study the influence 
that this background of training seems to have upon the 
teacher's efficiency, and be able to advise him as to the lines 
in which he needs to extend his general equipment and 
development. 

Special scholarship. The item of scholarship that most 
immediately and most noticeably affects the teacher's effi- 
ciency in the classroom is his special knowledge of the sub- 
jects he is teaching, and his knowledge of the science of edu- 
cation, particularly his mastery of the science of teaching 
these particular subjects. The supervisor needs to know 
the range of training that the teacher has in the subjects he 
is teaching, and the training he has received in subjects 
closely allied to them. Moreover, he should know the gen- 
eral degree of success with which the teacher has dealt with 
these bodies of subject-matter. The supervisor should in 
like manner know the range of professional subject-matter 
studied by the teacher, and the degree of success with which 
he has pursued these studies. 

The efficiency of the teacher in dealing accurately with 
the facts in the subjects he teaches should not only be care- 
fully checked up, but inefficiency at any time should be ac- 
counted for as far as possible in terms of the teacher's train- 
ing in these special subjects. The supervisor should be able 
to judge whether or not the present inaccuracies of knowl- 
edge exhibited in the teacher's work will likely disappear 
with experience as the specific training in the subjects has 
more and more opportunity to be used, or whether the 
teacher needs more specific training and study in certain 
aspects of his special lines of work. The supervisor should 
keep in mind the important fact that he is not only estimat- 
ing the present efficiency of the teacher's knowledge, but 



218 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

that he is also predicting the future efficiency as indicated 
by the range of training and present measure or rank. 

Ability to express thoughts. The most important item in 
expression of thoughts is fluency and correctness of English. 
The teacher who lacks command of a vocabulary that is not 
only appropriate to the subject being taught, but that is 
also appropriate to the language ability of the pupils being 
taught, is not an efficient teacher, no matter how fluent and 
correct his speech may be. The test of ability to express 
thoughts, then, is in what the pupils get readily and clearly 
from the language of the teacher. All other things being 
equal, fluency of expression will no doubt contribute to the 
readiness with which the pupils grasp what the teacher says, 
and correctness will have an influence upon the language 
habits of the pupils. 

A second factor in expressing thoughts is the quality and 
control of the voice. The teacher may use appropriate 
words and fluent, correct sentences, and yet fail to make his 
ideas clearly and readily understood because he has such 
a shrill, explosive, rasping, muffled, or other disagreeable 
quality of voice. Not only the quality of voice, but its con- 
trol, has much to do with the readiness of comprehension on 
the part of the listener. A monotonous or lifeless tone of 
voice does not carry thought as does the well-modulated yet 
vigorous voice. The power of the voice must be regulated 
to suit the size of the room and the character of the discus- 
sion, as well as the age of the pupils. Young pupils may be 
frightened by the too loud, or be soothed by the well-regu- 
lated force of the teacher's vocal expression. ,The teacher 
needs to know both his present effectiveness and his future 
possibilities in regard to his voice as a factor in expressing 
his thoughts. 

Teaching ability. This item should be confined to those 
factors that bear immediately upon the preparation and 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF THE TEACHER 219 

presentation of subject-matter. A number of details figure 
in this, and they should be critically studied over a consid- 
erable period of time in order to get an accurate measure 
ment of each point. As many concrete evidences as possi 
ble should be accumulated under each point suggested in the 
following discussion. 

1. Mastery of the principles of method. The test of effi- 
ciency on this point is in the recognition the teacher gives ta 
the mental procedure going on in the minds of the pupils 
during the recitation, and the degree to which he anticipate* 
what the mental procedure will be in the study preparation 
of the pupils. The mere fact that the teacher organizes 
subject-matter in the form of inductive or deductive prob- 
lems does not indicate a mastery of the principles of method. 
The attempt of the teacher to have pupils memorize ma- 
terials by the "whole method" rather than by the "part 
method " does not show that he understands the pedagogi- 
cal principles involved. The crucial point is, does the 
teacher have an intelligent conception of what the minds of 
the pupils are doing in the learning of whatever it is he is 
undertaking to teach them? This test cannot be applied by 
mere observation of the classroom performance. Critical 
discussions with the teacher before the recitation, and also 
after, to get definitely what he anticipates will happen and 
what he realizes did happen, are necessary in making an 
accurate measure of the teacher's efficiency, so far as it is 
indicated by his mastery of method. 

2. Intelligence and resourcefulness in selecting and adapt- 
ing devices. Devices are invented, and no set of inventions 
that fits one situation or one type of situation just exactly 
fits another situation or type. The teacher should show 
that he knows what each pupil needs to further his learning, 
and when to discard devices that l>ecome tasks rather than 
aids to the pupils. The fact that the teacher can enumerate 



220 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

glibly the general range of devices that have customarily 
been used in teaching a subject or any phase of a subject, 
and the use of these devices in his teaching, is not necessa- 
rily evidence of his efficiency. The supervisor must get into 
the thinking of the teacher and find out why he made this 
selection or that selection of devices, this modification or 
that modification, and why he failed to modify or even dis- 
card this or that device in the face of a given situation. The 
observation of the devices used by the teacher may disclose 
accidental success or failure when the data are checked up 
with the teacher and carefully analyzed. The objective 
data secured by keen observation are absolutely necessary 
in measuring the efficiency of the teacher in respect to de- 
vices, but the data must be evaluated and not just taken at 
face value. 

3. Definiteness of lesson planning and skill in following the 
plan. This is largely a matter of habit, and the supervisor 
cannot measure it by scrutinizing a few written plans and by 
visiting a few recitations. This habit must be studied as it 
manifests its efficiency in all types of subject-matter and 
various recitation situations. It involves a clear conception 
of the aims of education and the specific purposes for which 
the subject is being taught. Definite planning must mean 
worth-while planning as well as ability to organize a plan of 
action and then to carry it through. The supervisor must 
get an insight into the teacher's thinking about the purposes 
the teacher is trying definitely to realize in his teaching, ul- 
timately and immediately. Knowing this the supervisor 
can judge how definite the teacher's plans are and how thor- 
oughly he realizes them. Then, upon a sufficient amount of 
objective data in the way of written plans and teaching per- 
formances based on these plans, a reliable measure can be 
made of the degree to which the habit has been formed. 

4. Skill and reliability of technique. This item of effi- 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF THE TEACHER 221 

ciency is a highly important one, and the supervisor should 
secure a vast amount of objective data that reliably shows 
the degree to which typically good habits have been well 
formed, and the extent to which typically bad habits are 
practiced by the teacher. A large number of visits, that in- 
sures the witnessing of the teaching of different types of 
materials and teaching under different conditions, is essen- 
tial to discover the many points in technique necessary to 
the highest degree of efficiency that should be expected of 
the teacher. Good days must be checked against bad days, 
good conditions against poor conditions, etc. The ability to 
adapt his technique to suit conditions, rather than following 
supposed typical good forms of technique blindly, should be 
taken as one of the chief tests of the teacher's efficiency in 
technique. 

5. Ability to secure desired results. This factor in the 
teacher's efficiency must be measured by a somewhat defi- 
nite standard or set of results that can be objectively demon- 
strated. The supervisor can secure such objective data 
only by the most careful study of the reactions of the pupils 
during recitations and study periods. All formal results in 
the way of skills and knowledge of facts may well be tested 
by means of standardized tests, and examinations. The 
following list of results is suggestive of what might well be 
taken as the basis for judging the teacher's ability to secure 
measurable results: 

1. Motivated interest in the subject or subjects taught. 

2. Faithful consistent effort in pursuing the study of the sub- 
ject. 

3. Achievement in knowledge of subject-matter. 

4. Special habits and skills, according to the nature of the sub- 
ject. These habits may be speed and accuracy, such as are 
demanded in mathematics, shorthand, typewriting, etc. 

5. General habits and skills, such as : 

a. Technique of organizing subject-matter and of using 



222 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

books, materials, and apparatus in the solution of prob- 
lems. 

6. Habits of study and methods of attacking subject-mat- 
ter with initiative; power to analyze new situations and 
new subject-matter; and power to apply knowledge to 
the solution of new problems. 

c. Habit and power of concentration of attention for long 
periods of time. 

6. Ability to test and grade definitely and accurately the 
work of the pupils. The fundamental aspects of this factor 
are, the ability, first, to devise fair and reliable tests and 
examinations for measuring the attainments of the pupils, 
and second, to evaluate accurately the data secured from the 
pupils on their tests and examinations. Such tests and ex- 
aminations must be adapted to the maturity and develop- 
ment of the pupils in any particular grade or class. The 
teacher must demonstrate his knowledge of the principles 
underlying all forms of tests, his ability to devise good de- 
vices for administering them, and his skill in technique in 
devising, administering, and evaluating the tests and the re- 
sults secured from them. The supervisor must study the 
teacher as he carries on all these phases of the testing per- 
formance, and base his measurement of this factor in effi- 
ciency upon a considerable amount of objective data. 

Ability to manage and discipline. This ability involves 
two general problems of management; namely, the manage- 
ment of the classroom and the management of the pupils. 

The management of the classroom includes the orderly 
arrangement of chairs, maps, apparatus, and other physical 
equipment, according to the purposes of the recitation, and 
the routinizing of attention to such matters as ventilation, 
temperature, and light. 

The management of the pupils may be analyzed into a 
number of very definite points, which can be measured on 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF THE TEACHER 223 

the basis of concrete evidences. The following items are 
suggested as worth considering and measuring definitely: 

1. Understanding of proper standards of conduct, according to 
the age of the pupils and the school conditions. 

2. Understanding of rational measures of discipline that are 
adequate to maintain the standards set up. 

8. Conception of the purpose of discipline, which involves the 
idea that discipline should be constructive education for the 
development of character through social behavior, as opposed 
to the idea that it is a form of penal atonement for wrong con- 
duct. 

4. Understanding and appreciation of the different types of 
pupils. 

5. Ability to adapt the measures of discipline to the different 
ages and types of pupils. 

6. Ability to select the measures of discipline, for each case, that 
are logical in relation to the nature of the offense and the con- 
structive results that are to be secured through discipline. 

7. The ability of the teacher hi administering disciplinary meas- 
ures to be impersonal, businesslike, and self -controlled instead 
of personal, haphazard, flustered, timid, and unreasonable. 

The supervisor should study the teacher's performance in 
handling a number of cases of discipline, in order to secure 
concrete data on as wide a range of types and individual 
cases as possible. The general estimate of the teacher's 
efficiency in managing pupils should be based upon a careful 
measurement of each detailed point set forth alwve. More- 
over, the teacher's whole conception of discipline as related 
to human behavior should be got at through critical discus- 
sions, based upon some well-defined philosophy of education 
by means of constructive discipline. 

A philosophy of school discipline. The supervisor may 
be helped in getting a definite philosophical basis for judging 
the efficiency of the teacher's ability to administer disciplin- 
ary measures, as a form of constructive education, by study- 
ing the suggestions given below and by getting his teachers 



224 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

to adopt them as the guiding point of view in their disciplin- 
ary procedure. The suggestions cover not only the funda- 
mental principles of a philosophy of discipline, but to some 
extent important devices and forms of technique. The 
writer has found these suggestions very helpful in this par- 
ticular form, hence they will be submitted without further 
detailed discussion of them. 

A MODERN POINT OF VIEW OF SCHOOL DISCIPLINE 

1. No act of discipline and no form of punishment should ever 
be administered as a penalty for the offense committed, but as 
a means of making the offender realize that the real wrong is 
his attitude of mind, his willingness to commit such an act, 
and that the only amelioration of the offense is to change his 
attitude. 

2. No act of discipline and no form of punishment should be ad- 
ministered in such a way as to make the offender an example 
before the school, but in such a manner that the offender is 
made to feel he is given an opportunity to redeem himself by 
personal help and advice of the teacher, without his weakness 
being paraded before public gaze. 

8. Rules and regulations should be clearly set forth at the outset, 
and the function that they are to serve in promoting the wel- 
fare of the school as a whole carefully explained; but there- 
after each offender should be talked to individually, even 
though several may have committed the same offense at the 
same time. Seek the confidence of the individual, and make 
him feel that his integrity in facing the situation fairly can be 
trusted. 

4. Make pupils feel that the teacher's presence and watchful- 
ness are just as helpful in overcoming weaknesses of conduct 
as in overcoming difficulties in his other lessons. 

5. Look upon misconduct of pupils as an opportunity to do a 
piece of real work in education, remembering that it is the 
character of the individual and not personal satisfaction or 
justification that is to be sought in discipline. 

6. Hold up clearly high standards of conduct, good order, and 
work. 

7. Meet pupils in personal conferences in order to bring about a 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF THE TEACHER 225 

definite understanding with them as to what is expected of 
them. This is one of the best ways of making the pupil feel 
his responsibility to the school, and also of establishing a 
close, friendly tie between teacher and pupil. 

8. Never hold up one pupil as a model to another, and never dis- 
cuss the conduct of one pupil with another. Hold up ideals 
of group welfare, and seek the cooperation of each pupil in 
realizing the ideals. 

9. Be alert and accurate in interpreting the acts of pupils so as to 
anticipate then- conduct, and to start counter-suggestions to 
prevent undesirable behavior. 

10. Decide quickly and act promptly. 

11. See and hear everything that goes on in the room, in the halls, 
on the playground, on the street, and in public places where 
the conduct of pupils may be observed. 

12. Have a dignified, firm bearing, attitude of sureness of self, and 
just what is going to be done. 

13. Control of temper; keep cool in emergencies. 

14. Do not have a chip on the shoulder; be not supersensitive, 
and not easily upset by aggravating things. 

' 15. Be willing to go more than halfway to meet a pupil who is be- 
ing disciplined. 

16. Never announce in advance what the punishment will be for 
any offense, and never threaten what will be done in any case. 
The pupil is sometimes led to commit an offense because he 
has contempt for the punishment. 

17. Make the punishment the logical consequence of the offense. 

18. Do not talk to people outside of school about disciplinary 
problems and measures that have been administered. 

Personal appearance. The appearance of the teacher is 
affected by two factors, namely, physical development and 
health and dress and carriage. The supervisor should note 
the effects of these two factors during a sufficient period of 
time to enable him to know quite definitely whether the 
teacher has the strength to keep up a vigorous program of 
work, and whether his habits of dress are in keeping with 
school work and school conditions. Good looks are so much 
a matter of personal taste that the supervisor cannot meas- 



226 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

lire them and rate the efficiency upon them with any degree 
of assurance. If the supervisor feels that he should make 
some statement in regard to looks, he should give the state- 
ment as merely his own personal judgment and impression. 

Qualities of leadership. This is an important item, and 
the supervisor should secure definite data on the recognition 
that is accorded the teacher by his fellows, and the people 
with whom he associates in different lines of activity, and 
the recognition he receives from his pupils. The efficiency 
of the teacher in leadership is shown not so much by mere 
popularity as by the number and kinds of demands that are 
made upon him in assuming the lead in carrying on worth- 
while group enterprises and activities. Another evidence of 
leadership is shown in his ability to initiate ideas and ideals, 
and to influence people to adopt them. An abundance of 
concrete cases should be the basis for measuring this factor 
in the teacher's efficiency. 

The ability of the teacher to direct and to participate in 
the social activities of the school, such as assemblies, par- 
ties, commencements, etc., affords an excellent opportunity 
for measuring leadership by concrete evidences. Note 
should be made of the critical situations that arise in which 
the teacher was able to take the initiative, and to keep it in 
the face of difficulties. The measure of the degree to which 
the teacher is able to assert leadership, as shown by such 
evidences as have been suggested, is important, but the char- 
acter and quality of his leadership and influence should also 
be given consideration. Granted that the teacher will lead, 
then his moral and religious habits and tendencies will de- 
termine the character of his leadership. This point should 
not be made an orthodox one, but just one of good common 
sense, and the supervisor should have more than a mere im- 
pression of what the quality of any teacher's leadership will 
in all probability be. 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF THE TEACHER 227 

Professional attitude. This factor is shown by the spirit 
of cooperation with which the teacher enters into his duties, 
and the promptness with which he performs them. Another 
evidence of professional spirit is the earnestness with which 
he makes efficient service his chief concern. Another item 
is the loyalty shown to his fellows and his superiors, through 
keeping still on the outside of school concerning matters 
that are discussed in teachers' meetings, or in the office as 
strictly school affairs; boosting the school as a whole; boost- 
ing the work of the superintendent, the supervisors, and his 
fellow teachers; supporting the musical, literary, and ath- 
letic organizations and enterprises; and taking active par- 
ticipation in the social affairs of the school. A still further 
manifestation of professional attitude is the extent to which 
the teacher reads recent educational books, magazines, and 
daily newspapers; attends teachers' institutes, associations, 
and other educational meetings; attends public lectures and 
general gatherings of public interest; and participates in 
parent-teacher oganizations and other civic enterprises. 

Type of school in which the teacher would be most effi- 
cient. This is one of the important points and is recognized 
to-day as an important responsibility of the supervisor. 
The teacher who is well adapted to kindergarten and pri' 
mary grades may be a very indifferent teacher in the in- 
termediate or upper grades, and vice versa. A good sen- 
ior high school teacher may be a failure hi the junior high 
school, and vice versa. A teacher poorly adapted to teach in 
the senior high school might be a very successful teacher in 
the junior or senior college, or in a normal school. The best 
means for determining just what type of school the teacher 
is best adapted to would be that of trying the teacher out in 
each type of school. This cannot always be done; hence 
other means will have to be employed. Having the teacher 
visit the various types of schools and make careful reports 



228 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

of their observations, and discussing these reports with the 
teacher to discover his own idea as to what particular school 
situation appeals most to him, may be made a very helpful 
means of determining the right placement of the teacher. 
Whatever means the supervisor may have at his command 
for deciding this point should be used as fully as possible, 
and whether these means happen to be ample or meager 
the supervisor should make some decision as to the field 
or fields for which he would recommend the teacher with 
assurance. 

Type of community in which the teacher will be most 
efficient. Determining the type of community hi which 
the teacher would be likely to do his best work is quite as 
important as deciding the type of school or the particular 
grade of work for which he is best fitted. The rural district, 
the small town, the small city, and the large city each pre- 
sents conditions that differ widely in the demands they all 
make upon the teacher. Not every individual possesses the 
power of adapting himself to such a wide range of conditions 
to the extent that he would be successful in any or all of 
these types of communities. Even a teacher well adapted 
to teach in a large city might be successful in a native-popu- 
lation ward and a failure in a foreign-population ward, and 
vice versa. Here again the supervisor needs to employ about 
the same means that have been suggested above for deter- 
mining the type of school in which the teacher should be 
placed. 

The critical point. The critical point in the measuring of 
the teacher's efficiency is that objective data and thorough 
analysis of all the elements involved must take the place of 
subjective impressions. Objective data and careful analy- 
ses cannot be secured through a few hasty inspectional trips 
or visits to the teacher's classroom. The rating of teachers 
on inspectional data and impressions is educationally un< 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF THE TEACHER 229 

scientific, and the practice should be replaced by that thor- 
ough supervision which can guarantee reliable measurement 
of teaching efficiency. 

Chapter summary. The worth of the teacher can be esti- 
mated only by a careful study of the actual teaching per- 
formances, and by accurate measurement of the attainments 
of the pupils which can be accounted for in terms of the 
teacher's work. Objective data must be the basis for all 
of these estimates and measurements. Definite standards 
must be set up that shall include only such items as admit of 
objective measurement. The large items of such standards 
might be: intellectual ability, scholarship, ability to express 
thoughts, teaching ability, ability to manage and discipline, 
personal appearance, qualities of leadership, professional 
attitude, and type of school and type of community to 
which the teacher is best adapted. The rating of teachers 
cannot be adequately done through hurried inspectional 
visits, but must be accomplished through adequate super- 
vision and scientific measurements. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Give ten illustrations, from your experience, of practical evidences of 
intellectual ability. 

2. Make a list of the subjects that would make the best general back- 
ground for all elementary-school teaching. 

8. Make a list of the special subjects, including the professional training, 
that would adequately prepare elementary-school teachers. 

4. Make a list of the subjects that would make the best general back- 
ground for junior or senior high-school teachers. 

6. Make a list of special subjects, including the professional training, 
that would adequately prepare junior or senior high school teachers. 

6. Give two cases, from experience, in which the teacher failed to make 
himself understood on account of failure to employ a vocabulary 
adapted to his pupils. 

7. Give two cases, from experience, in which the teacher's fluency or lack 
of fluency of language contributed to or hindered the readiness of 
comprehension on the part of the pupils. 

8. Give two concrete caaea to illustrate how the quality and control of 



230 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

the teacher's voice materially aided or interfered with making his 
thoughts readily understood. 

9. Give two examples of actual teaching performances that showed the 
mastery of the principles of method involved. Give two examples 
that showed the lack of such mastery. 

10. Give two examples of actual teaching performances that showed mas- 
tery over the employment of devices. Give two cases that showed 
the hick of such mastery. 

11. Give two cases of actual teaching that exhibited good technique. 
Give two cases that exhibited much poor technique. 

12. Give concrete illustrations of reactions of pupils that demonstrate 
properly-motivated interest in the subject. 

13. Devise a set of standards that you would employ in measuring the 
teacher's ability to test and examine pupils. 

14. Give ten concrete disciplinary cases of the kind you would take as 
evidence of the teacher's ability in disciplining. 

15. Give two cases to illustrate how dress may affect the teacher's effi- 
ciency. 

16. Give six concrete illustrations of the sort of leadership that is desira- 
ble in teachers. 

17. Give five illustrations of unprofessional attitude on the part of teach- 
ers. 

18. Construct a score card that can be used over a long enough period of 
time to accumulate accurate measurements of all the items you would 
include in your standards for grading the teacher's efficiency. Com- 
pare this card with those that have been devised for use on inspectional 
visits. 



CHAPTER XVI 
ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 

The need of evaluating supervision. Supervision has 
come into the public schools and into training schools in re- 
sponse to a pressing demand for the improvement of teach- 
ers during then* period of service and for the better training 
of teachers before they enter the teaching ranks. It has 
come in, however, as most things have come into the educa- 
tional field, on broad general ideas and theories. Gradually 
the work of supervision has become more and more specific 
and less and less general, until to-day it is recognized as a 
definite educational science distinctly set off from the job of 
teaching, on the one hand, and from the job of administra- 
tion, on the other hand. The growth and development of 
this relatively new science will be determined by the wortli- 
whileness of the contribution that it makes to the training of 
teachers and to the improvement of the work of the public 
schools. Moreover, the value of the contribution that is 
made to education by supervision can be determined only 
by definitely and accurately measuring the results of the 
various supervising activities. The results of the supervis- 
ing activities cannot be adequately measured without the 
employment of a set of standards that are based upon objec- 
tive data. Therefore the chief purpose of this closing chap- 
ter is to set forth what seem to be the fundamental prin- 
ciples that should underlie any program of procedure in 
attempting to measure the work of supervision adequately. 

Taking stock as to supervisory efficiency. One of the 
first facts that must be recognized is that just as poor and 
inefficient teachers have come into the profession, and con- 



232 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

tinue In the profession, just so have poor and inefficient su- 
pervisors got into the profession and continue hi it to the 
detriment of both the science of teaching and the science of 
supervision. Hence, when the results of supervision begin 
to be accurately and adequately measured, the natural out- 
come will be the disclosure of very glaring deficiencies. This 
was exactly the case when the work of teachers was submitted 
to anything like a critical test and measured objectively in- 
stead of taking mere subjective impressions as the criterion. 
The schools were not closed, however, and the teachers were 
not discarded as unprofitable means of promoting the edu- 
cation of the rising generations. Quite the contrary. 

The very fact that the teaching activities could be objec- 
tively measured disclosed the possibility of overcoming the 
deficiencies and of removing them through training. The 
same result can be expected with regard to supervision; 
namely, that the very fact that supervision can and will be 
measured objectively will disclose the possibility and the 
opportunity for improving the science of supervision. 
Therefore the more thoroughly and in detail the work of 
supervision is measured, the sooner these weaknesses will be 
eliminated through training. Another fact which is supple- 
mentary to the fact that has just been discussed needs to be 
kept in mind. This is the fact that just as poor teaching 
may make the work of poor pupils still poorer and interfere 
with the progress of the better pupils, just so may poor su- 
pervision make poor teaching poorer and interfere with the 
progress of the better teachers. The true worth of the 
teacher as a means to the education of pupils, however, 
came to be recognized beyond the shadow of a doubt 
through the excellent work of individual teachers. These 
good teachers, scattered here and there throughout the pro- 
fession, have been the leaven that has saved the whole pro- 
fessional lump from falling flat. What has been true of the 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 233 

teaching ranks can be predicted with full assurance of the 
supervisory ranks. Despite the presence in the field of 
many poorly prepared and ineffective supervisors, the work 
of the ever-increasing number of excellent supervisors will 
save the day and secure the establishment of supervision as 
an absolutely essential part of the educational machinery. 
This fact is another reason why supervisors and administra- 
tive officers should be vitally interested in the development 
of a definite set of standards for measuring the work of su- 
pervision, and all should be concerned with making the find- 
ings of such objective measurements known to the educa- 
tional public. 

Two steps involved in measuring supervisory efficiency. 
The problem of measuring supervisory efficiency resolves 
itself primarily into two definite steps or divisions; namely, 
the setting-up of a set of fundamental principles and the 
organizing of a program of procedure based on these princi- 
ples. The principles involved in the measurement of super- 
vision must necessarily be the same for all cases and for all 
educational situations hi which supervisory activities are 
carried on. On the other hand, programs of procedure that 
may be employed in applying these principles to the meas- 
urement of supervisory work will vary according to the con- 
ditions prevailing in the various school situations. The 
establishment of a set of general principles requires common 
agreement, while the organization of a program of procedure 
must be largely a matter of individual judgment. The first 
objective, then, in this discussion is to set forth a body of 
principles or fundamental considerations that may very 
well be accepted as a guide in establishing programs of pro- 
cedure in measuring supervisory efficiency. The second ob- 
jective is to suggest programs of procedure that may be 
helpful in measuring the work of supervision in different 
types of educational situations. 



834 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

I. THE PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN MEASURING 
SUPERVISORY EFFICIENCY 

The fundamental considerations that should guide all 
administrators and supervisors in measuring the work of 
supervision carried on in their schools are necessarily few in 
number. They will be stated as concisely as possible and will 
be discussed somewhat briefly. The ultimate interpreta- 
tion of each principle must necessarily rest with the individ- 
ual superintendent, principal, supervisor, and director who 
works out the application of these principles in the form of a 
program of procedure that is practicable in his particular 
school situation. 

Principle One: Set up definite attainable goals or out- 
comes that are to be realized by means of the supervisory 
activities. This principle seems quite obvious from the 
mere statement of the point. It involves more, however, 
than appears at first thought. The setting-up of definite 
outcomes that are to be realized through supervisory activi- 
ties requires a definite recognition of the status of these out- 
comes at the outset of the undertaking. For example, sup- 
pose that the superintendent desires to improve the work in 
penmanship in his schools and secures a special supervisor for 
that purpose. The superintendent needs to have some defi- 
nite evidences as to the status of handwriting in his schools 
when the supervisor takes charge of the work. He must 
also have a clear idea of what may reasonably be accom- 
plished through effective supervision. Then, when he 
checks the status of handwriting at the close of the year 
against the status at the beginning of the year, he has a 
fairly accurate idea as to the extent to which his expecta- 
tions have been realized. 

Principle Two : Designate definite types of objective data 
that may be taken as evidence of supervisory efficiency. 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 9S5 

This principle is a very important one, for it aims at getting 
away from general impressions and subjective influences. 
Then, too, it is highly practical. The work of supervision 
ought to secure tangible results that can be expressed in 
concrete form. These concrete evidences ought not to be so 
difficult to secure as to make the application of this principle 
at all impossible or to any extent impracticable. 

Principle Three: Secure designated types of objective 
data from as many accurate and reliable sources as possible. 
The types of objective data and the reliable sources from 
which they may be secured will vary according to the con- 
ditions prevailing in the various educational situations in 
which supervisory work is undertaken. It must be recog- 
nized that the extent to which this principle can be applied 
in any program of procedure in measuring the results of su- 
pervision will be determined largely by the time limitations 
forced upon the administrator by his many other adminis- 
trative duties. The validity of the principle, however, is 
unimpaired by the fact that existing conditions often make 
it physically impossible to do much toward embodying it in 
a specific program of administration. The important point 
is that the administrator should recognize the validity of the 
principle and employ the best devices and technique that 
are possible and practicable in applying it to his particular 
situation. If the administrator recognizes types and sources 
of securing objective data that* would in his judgment be 
worth while, but which are impossible for him to secure un- 
der present conditions, he may find it possible to make his 
school board realize the situation and thus secure such pro- 
visions for administrative assistance that he would be able 
more effectively to apply this principle in the measurement 
of supervisory efficiency. Very much depends upon the 
worth-whileness of the attainable goals set up to be realized 
through the supervisory activities. If these outcomes are 



236 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

of far-reaching importance in the future growth and devel- 
opment of the schools, then the administrator might feel 
justified in expending a great amount of time and energy in 
securing ample evidences of their realization. If, however, 
these outcomes, while highly valuable, do not outrank a 
number of other outcomes that must be secured by other 
means, then, to be sure, they can claim only a due portion of 
the administrator's time, and excessive provision cannot be 
made for demonstrating their realization. Considering all 
these points, it becomes clear that the interpretation of the 
word " possible " must rest with each administrator who 
undertakes to inaugurate a specific program of procedure 
for the measurement of supervisory efficiency. 

Principle Four: Study the supervisory performances 
themselves as evidence of the efficiency of supervision. 
The application of this principle involves, first, a quantita- 
tive study of the duties performed by the supervisor, and, 
second, a qualitative study of supervisory performances. 
The quantitative phase of this study is most readily accom- 
plished and is one that the administrator is not likely to 
neglect. He depends upon it to a great extent as the means 
of determining whether or not the supervisor has faithfully 
attempted to accomplish the outcomes for which he was 
employed in the schools. Take the example of the writing 
supervisor given above as an illustration. The adminis- 
trator wants to know what instructions have been worked 
out by the supervisor and put in permanent form for the 
teachers; what details of instruction have been given 
through a series of conferences with groups of teachers; how 
much time the supervisor has spent in each classroom either 
teaching the class or directing the work of the teacher; etc. 
In other words, he wants to know as fully as possible all the 
duties performed by the supervisor and the extent to which 
each duty has been performed. If in his judgment these 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 237 

various performances are worth while, he has some basis for 
believing that the improvement in writing that may be ap- 
parent at the close of the year has been largely due to the 
work of supervision. Moreover, he has some basis for be- 
lieving that particular cases that show little or no improve- 
ment may be accounted for on some other ground than that 
of inefficient supervision. The very quantity, then, of su- 
pervisory performances may be taken as one of the valid 
evidences of the efficiency of supervision. 

The qualitative study of supervisory performances is not 
so readily accomplished and is dependent largely upon the 
time limitations and geographical conditions under which 
the administrator works. The qualitative study can be 
made only by actually observing the supervisor at work 
with the teachers and in the schools. If the administrator 
has several supervisors in his schools, the possibility of ob- 
serving the work of each is necessarily very limited. This 
fact, however, does not invalidate the principle. Every 
administrator will no doubt agree that to judge adequately 
the quality of supervisory performance one must have suffi- 
cient opportunity to study the actual performances. The 
fact must be recognized, however, that no matter how im- 
portant the administrator may consider the qualitative 
study of supervisory activities, he is often so limited by 
time and distance that he cannot apply this principle to any 
great extent in a specific program for measuring the effi- 
ciency of supervision. The important point is for the ad- 
ministrator to determine the importance of this study as 
compared with the other principles and to make whatever 
provision is possible for its application, and finally to make 
its application just as effective as conditions permit. 

The consideration of principles gives psychological per- 
spective. The value of psychological perspective is in gen- 
eral recognized as meeting one of the essential needs in 



238 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

establishing good practice. The above body of principles 
furnishes such a perspective to the administrator who is un- 
dertaking to establish a constructive and progressive pro- 
gram of procedure in measuring the efficiency of supervision. 
These principles present a coherent scheme, a definite back- 
ground against which any particular supervisory situation 
may be projected to determine the limitations of the pro- 
gram or plan of measurement that is practicable in that 
particular situation. The projection of particular situa- 
tions against such a background of principles insures that 
whatever is undertaken in the plan of measuring supervisory 
efficiency will be psychologically sound. This will be just as 
true of a brief program as of the most detailed and exten- 
sive program. In other words, the difference between 
measurement programs will be that of extent and detail and 
not a difference in content or principle of procedure. Fur- 
thermore, if programs of procedure in measurement of su- 
pervisory efficiency are constructed on such a body of prin- 
ciples, they may be expanded and developed without change 
of basis as changing conditions in school situations make 
possible the development of more adequate facilities for 
conducting the work of the supervision of instruction. 

II. PROGRAMS FOR MEASURING SUPERVISORY EFFICIENCY 

The fact has already been stated that the ultimate inter- 
pretation of the above body of principles will rest with the 
individual administrator who undertakes to measure the 
work of supervision systematically and definitely . Each 
administrator will necessarily be limited in his formulation 
of a plan by the conditions prevailing in his particular school 
system. This fact makes it impossible for any program to 
be outlined that would exactly fit any situation other than 
the one upon which it is based. The only helpful thing that 
seems feasible to do is to outline programs that have proved 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 239 

effective in the various types of supervisory situations and 
to suggest possible modifications according to the conditions 
prevailing in the particular system hi which any of these 
plans are adopted. 

Measuring the supervisory activities of the superintend- 
ent. There are many school systems in which the only pro- 
vision yet made for the supervision of instruction is that 
afforded by allowing the superintendent part time for the 
visitation of classroom work. The superintendent in such 
situations usually teaches part time in the high school and 
divides the remainder of his time between the necessary ad- 
ministrative duties for which he is responsible and the visi- 
tation of teachers at work. As a rule the superintendent 
desires under such conditions to give all of his time to ad- 
ministrative and supervisory duties. This conception of 
the superintendent's function is growing, not only in the 
minds of superintendents, but also in the minds of school 
boards; hence the tendency to-day is for superintendents to 
seek more and more relief from clerical and other routine 
administrative duties, on the one hand, and entire relief 
from teaching, on the other, and to give more and more 
time to the supervision of instruction as the best means of 
developing the work of the public schools. In order to se- 
cure the maximum of opportunity for doing supervisory 
work, the superintendent must convince his board that the 
supervision of instruction is of more importance than cer- 
tain administrative details that might very well be taken 
care of by competent clerical assistance or by board com- 
mittees. The most convincing evidence that can be pre- 
sented to any board is that of tangible improvement in the 
work of the schools that is due directly to efficient supervision. 
Therefore the superintendent in this type of situation needs to 
formulate a plan that will enable him to measure the results of 
his supervisory activities and to present them to his board. 



240 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

Points to be kept in mind. The first point that the super- 
intendent should keep in mind is the wisdom of limiting his 
supervisory undertakings to very definite and tangible goals 
that are sure of attainment. For example, the superintend- 
ent may realize that his schools are below the standard of 
other schools in the teaching of arithmetic. A survey of the 
status of the case may convince him that this condition is 
due to a poorly constructed course of study and to inferior 
teaching. He can now proceed with some assurance to 
formulate a plan for measuring the supervisory activities 
that he plans to carry on as the means of bringing about the 
desired improvement. 

The following plan is suggestive of what might well be 
undertaken in such a case and will prove economical as well 
as satisfactory: 

A. Goals or outcomes to be attained. 

a. A course of study adapted to the needs of the schools 
and in keeping with the modern aims of public school 
education. 
6. A higher standard of scholarship or efficiency in the 

learning of arithmetic. 

c. A higher standard of efficiency in the teaching of arith- 
metic. 

The status of each of these goals should be definitely es- 
tablished before the work of supervision begins. A survey 
of the course of study will readily disclose how many pages 
of material there are that are obsolete or poorly adapted to 
each grade, and how many pages of really worth-while usa- 
ble material the course contains. These results can be 
tabulated grade by grade on a chart and graphically pre- 
sented to the attention of the board and the corps of teach- 
ers. The chart should be so constructed that the status of 
the course of study at the close of the school year can be 
tabulated on the same chart in contrast to the status at the 
beginning of the year. 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 241 

The status of the second goal can be shown readily by 
plotting the monthly averages in arithmetic grade by grade 
for one or two preceding years. Standard tests in arith- 
metic may also be given and the grade averages plotted on a 
single graph. All this tabular work can be done by clerical 
help or by the aid of the teachers, so that the data can be 
economically and yet accurately compiled. Here, again, 
the charts used should be so constructed as to enable the 
tabulations of similar data at the close of the year to be re- 
corded on the same charts in contrast with the first data. 

The status of the third goal cannot be so readily estab- 
lished at the outset, and in the end it is necessarily bound 
up with the second outcome. Nevertheless, it will be well 
worth while to set up some basis of contrast other than that 
afforded by the standing of the pupils. The most feasible 
basis, perhaps, is that of the teachers' general success grades 
or ranking marks. If arithmetic is one of the most poorly 
taught subjects, then no doubt the general success grades or 
ranking marks are a fair measure of the teachers' success in 
teaching arithmetic, for it seems fair to assume that the suc- 
cess of the teachers in teaching arithmetic must have had a 
good deal to do with determining their success grades or 
ranking marks. One of the purposes of the supervision of 
instruction should be to improve the teaching to the extent 
that ultimately all the teachers will be in the highest rank. 
It is not only possible but desirable to have wide ranges of 
individual differences in a group of E teachers. A general 
plot of the preceding year's success grades or ranking marks 
of the whole corps of teachers may be made at the outset 
and a contrasting plot made upon the same chart at the 
close of the year when the new success grades or ranking 
marks have been issued. 

Types of data that will be accepted as proof of supervisory 
efficiency. In this case practically all the essential forms of 



242 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

data have been designated in establishing the status of the 
objectives at the beginning of the school year and in provid- 
ing for the contrasting data showing the status at the close 
of the year. Other types of data might be employed, but 
the general results would not be materially changed by their 
use; therefore the use of such data would consume time and 
energy that would be largely lost. 

Sources from which valid data may be secured. Here, 
again, the establishment of the status of the goals at the be- 
ginning of the year and the provision for the tabulation of 
the contrasting status of these goals at the close of the year 
have practically determined the sources from which all the 
necessary data will be secured. Nothing worth while will 
be added to the general results by securing more detailed 
data from various other sources, such as individual records 
of pupils, etc. Moreover, the securing of data from other 
sources would likely require too much time and energy to be 
of practical value in the whole undertaking. 

Consideration of the supervisory activities. This is an 
especially important point in the case of the superintendent 
who is seeking to secure the maximum of opportunity for 
doing supervisory work. He cannot very well present an 
estimate of the quality of his supervisory performances, but 
he can give a very accurate account of the actual duties per- 
formed and the time spent in doing them. Such an account 
will hi a considerable degree be an indication of the efficiency 
with which the work has been done. The account should be 
a graphic one and largely mathematical, since it is a quanti- 
tative measurement. The account should include the fol- 
lowing items: 

a. Number of teachers' meetings held for the purpose of dis- 
cussing the course of study and the teaching of arithmetic, and 
the amount of time spent in such meetings. A very good plan 
would be to divide the teachers into two or three groups and 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 248 

meet each for an hour every two weeks. This could be done 
by meeting the primary group (first-, second-, and third- 
grade teachers) on Wednesday, the intermediate grade 
teachers (fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-) on Thursday, and the 
upper-grade or junior high school teachers on Friday. If 
these meetings are held systematically throughout the year, 
the time spent would be fifty-four hours. Each group 
would constitute a committee on the course of study for 
their grades with the superintendent as chairman and leader. 
He would present to each group a tentative outline of ma- 
terials covering the course for the following two weeks. The 
group would discuss the outline and suggest modifications. 
Agreement would be reached as to the exact body of mate- 
rials to be used, and then the superintendent would lead the 
discussion on the teaching of the particular subject-matter 
of the course that had been decided upon for the following 
two weeks. 

A second item that should go along with this one is that 
of a mathematical estimate of the number of hours spent in 
the preparing of these course of study outlines that are pre- 
sented at these group meetings. A conservative estimate 
would be two to three hours spent in preparation of the ma- 
terial for each group meeting. This would mean one hun- 
dred eight to one hundred sixty-two hours of individual 
work on the part of the superintendent. 

b. The number of hours spent in individual conferences 
with teachers to discuss the actual teaching observed by the su- 
perintendent. These conferences will likely be short and 
more or less spontaneous as the character of the work seems 
to demand. The superintendent need not necessarily keep 
an exact mathematical record of these conferences, but he 
should make a fairly accurate estimate at least each week of 
the amount of time so spent. These amounts could then 
easily be totaled for the year and recorded in hours. It 



244 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

would be a good plan to give, in addition to the total time 
spent in individual conferences with teachers, the average 
amount of time each week per teacher spent in such confer- 
ences. 

c. The number of hours spent in actual classroom visita- 
tions. This is a very important item and should be accu- 
rately and graphically recorded. The superintendent 
should keep a daily record of this time and should show the 
final record by weeks; the average number of hours per day; 
and the average number of hours per teacher each week. A 
grand total may also be given, but the significant picture 
for the school board will be the graphic representation of 
the time spent each week per teacher and the average time 
spent daily in such supervisory capacity. The actual record 
of how the superintendent has spent his time will be rather 
tangible and convincing evidence of his efficiency as a su- 
pervisor. 

The above items practically cover the ground of super- 
vising activities that are worth while recording and present- 
ing as a measure of the efficiency of the work. They are 
only suggestive of a rational plan that might well be fol- 
lowed in realizing the goals set up. The superintendent 
who successfully carries out such an undertaking will un- 
doubtedly convince his board that supervision is worth 
while and that he should be given more time and opportu- 
nity for such duties. He could follow up this piece of work 
with similar goals in regard to other subjects. Reading or 
language, for example, might be undertaken next and dealt 
with in much the same manner as has been suggested for 
arithmetic. A general improvement in the teaching of all 
subjects might be the undertaking. The training and devel- 
opment of beginning teachers might well be the chief task 
to be accomplished through supervision. The exact under- 
taking in each case should be determined by the particular 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 245 

conditions and the most urgent needs of the schools. The 
main point is that the undertaking should be limited to a 
possible program. Then some such plan as has been sug- 
gested above will enable the administrator to present ob- 
jective evidences of the results of his supervisory activities. 
Measuring the supervisory work of the assistant superin- 
tendent, the supervising principal, and the building principal. 
The supervisory activities carried on by the assistant super- 
intendent, the supervising principal, and the building prin- 
cipal are similar in character to those carried on by the 
superintendent under the conditions just described above. 
These school officials may be employed to give practically 
all their time to the supervision of instruction. As a rule, 
however, they are held responsible for certain administra- 
tive duties, hence they do not give quite all their time to 
supervision. The conditions under which they work are so 
similar to those under which the superintendent works, in 
such a system as has just been described, that the same sort 
of program will prove adequate and practical to meet their 
needs in measuring the efficiency of their supervisory per- 
formances. Just as the superintendent can account to his 
board for his supervisory endeavors, so can the assistant 
superintendent, the supervising principal, and the building 
principal account to the administrative officer or officers, as 
the case may be, under whose direction he is working, and to 
whom he is accountable for the success of his work. The 
important point in any case is that the supervisor shall be 
responsible for a sufficiently limited district or area to en- 
able him to set up definite attainable goals. These goals 
may and should vary according to the needs of the schools. 
The program for measuring the efficiency with which the 
goals have been attained can be relatively simple, as the plan 
set forth above indicates. The superior administrative offi- 
cer may, if he so desires, devise other means for checking 



246 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

up the efficiency of the supervisory work carried on by the 
assistant superintendent, supervising principal, and build- 
ing principal, but as a rule he is so occupied with important 
administrative duties that he cannot afford to take the time 
for devising and administering a detailed scheme for check- 
ing the work of supervision. Furthermore, the objective 
evidences presented by the plan suggested above are relia- 
ble enough and detailed enough to establish the worth and 
efficiency of the supervisory activities. 

Measuring the supervisory activities of special super- 
visors. This type of supervision was one of the first to be 
introduced into the public schools and it is one of the com- 
monest now in practice. Most school systems of any size 
have special supervisors of music, writing, drawing, etc., 
while the larger school systems have multiples of such spe- 
cial supervisors according to the number of times their 
school areas duplicate the smaller school system areas. That 
is to say, when the supervision of instruction is undertaken 
seriously in a large school system, it must be divided into 
districts similar in size to that of a smaller system in which 
the entire corps of teachers can be adequately supervised in 
a special line of work by a single supervisor. This being the 
case, a program of procedure that will prove adequate for 
measuring the efficiency of supervision in one system will 
prove just as satisfactory in any other system in which such 
special supervision is carried on. The following plan is 
relatively simple and yet sufficiently detailed and objec- 
tive as thoroughly to establish the worth of the supervisory 
activities: 

Definite goals set up for the special supervisor to attain. 
These goals will usually be the organization of a course of 
study in the special subject that will be adapted to the needs 
of the particular school system and to the development of 
the teaching of the subject. If the line of work is just being 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 247 

introduced, there will be no previous course of study with 
which to compare the one worked out by the supervisor. In 
this event, the course may be compared with well-estab- 
lished courses in the same subject that are offered in other 
similar school systems. If this does not seem practicable, 
the course can be judged quite accurately on its own merits. 
If the course is to be judged on its own merits alone, it should 
consist of what has actually been done throughout the year, 
and should not be the theoretical course that may be pro- 
posed by the supervisor, but not actually accomplished. 

The problem of developing the teaching of the special sub- 
ject ordinarily resolves itself into two phases, especially 
when the line of work is new to the system. These two 
phases are : the training of the teachers in actual knowledge 
of the subject-matter of the subject, and the training of 
the teachers in method, devices, and technique of teaching 
the subject. The status of the teachers in knowledge of the 
subject and in teaching skill in the particular subject may 
not be on record; hence, in respect to these two items, the 
status of the teachers at the close of the school year will be 
the chief evidence upon which to judge the efficiency of the 
supervisor's work in securing good teaching. 

Types of evidence that indicate the efficiency of the spe- 
cial supervisor's work. These have for the most part been 
set forth in determining the status of the goals that are to be 
attained. Another type of evidence, however, that should 
be considered is the scholastic attainments of the pupils to 
whom the special subject is taught. If there are scholastic 
records of the standing of the pupils for the year or two just 
preceding, these should be plotted showing the average 
monthly standing by grades. Then the monthly averages 
for the current year can be compared with these to show the 
relative efficiency of the work done under the special super- 
visor. 



248 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

Teacher's judgment on course of study. Another type of 
evidence that should be considered in reference to the course 
of study is that of the judgment of the teachers as to the 
quantity and fitness of the material outlined by the super- 
visor and assigned to the teachers to be taught. This evi- 
dence can readily be secured by a simple questionnaire form 
that can be filled out easily and accurately by the teachers, 
and which can be easily checked up by the administrative 
officer. The following form might be used very effectively: 

INFORMATION CONCERNING THE COURSE OF STUDY 

In , for the year 

Teacher Grade Building 

1. Was the amount of subject-matter assigned to be taught too 
great or too small for the length of the recitation periods? 

2. If the amount was too great, how much extra time did it take 
or would it have taken to cover the ground? 

3. If the amount was too small, how much more could have been 
done in the allotted time? 

4. Was the subject-matter assigned to be taught too difficult or 
too easy for the pupils in your grade? 

5. State the chief grounds or evidences upon which the answers 
to the above questions are based. 

The chief reason for securing such data from the teachers 
is that special supervisors are often well trained in the 
knowledge of the subject, but have had little or no experi- 
ence in teaching the subject to the various grades of pupils. 
The regular teachers very often know the limitations of the 
pupils much more accurately than does the supervisor, and 
with even a limited knowledge of the special subject, they 
may be better judges of the quantity of material that can 
well be covered and also better judges as to the relative 
difficulty of the material for their respective grades. At 
any rate, their judgments are worth checking against the 
course of study that is proposed and many times insisted 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 249 

upon by the supervisor regardless of the protests of experi- 
enced teachers. 

Sources from which valid evidence should be secured for 
measuring the efficiency of the special supervisor's work. 
The sources have already been indicated with the exception 
of those that will be given under the next item in the pro- 
gram, namely, the supervisor's record of the quantity of 
supervisory activities carried on, and the qualitative study 
made of these performances by the administrative officer. 
Summed up briefly, the sources from which objective evi- 
dence of supervisory efficiency may be secured are : teachers' 
records of scholastic attainments of pupils; administrative 
records of success grades or ranking marks of teachers; 
printed form of course of study actually taught; judgments 
of the teachers on course of study; supervisor's record of 
quantity of supervisory performances; and administrative 
records of the quality of the supervisory activities. 

Consideration of the supervisory performances in them- 
selves as a measure of their efficiency. The first considera- 
tion should be the mathematical measure of the actual time 
spent in carrying on the various activities. The chief items 
that should be included are as follows : 

a. Number of hours spent in group conferences with teachers for 
the purpose of teaching the subject-matter of the course and 
for the purpose of instructing them in the method, devices, 
and technique of teaching the course to the pupils. 

9. Number of hours per week spent in individual conferences 
with teachers, and the average amount of time per week given 
to each teacher in such conferences. 

c. Number of hours per day spent in classroom visitations, and 
the average time per week spent with each teacher in such 
visitations. 

d. Number of hours per week spent in preparation of subject- 
matter for the course of study. 

The special supervisor can easily keep an accurate record 



250 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

of these items and submit a graphic presentation of them to 
the administrative officer. They are certainly one type of 
objective evidence of the efficiency with which the special 
supervisory work is being carried on. 

Quality of special supervisory activities. The second 
consideration is that of the quality of the special supervisory 
activities. The quantity of such activities may be sufficient 
to stand for a high degree of efficiency, provided the quality 
of the performances is of a high or even fair standard. The 
only way the administrative officer can determine this point 
with any assurance is by actually visiting the supervisor at 
work and by observing keenly the things that the supervisor 
does. No rule can be laid down as to how many times the 
administrator needs to see each kind of supervisory activity 
performed in order to satisfy his mind as to the degree to 
which the supervisor is using sound method, employing good 
devices, and practicing proper technique in the performance 
of the various supervisory duties. A regular blank contain- 
ing these items or such items as the administrator desires to 
check will enable this study of the quality of supervision to 
be carried on systematically and economically. The main 
point is that the administrator should base his estimates on 
concrete data even though he does not attempt to record 
such data in any detail on the blank. The measurement 
cannot be objective unless it gets away from mere subjective 
impressions and personal reactions that may be unduly in- 
fluenced by accidental conditions. 

Measuring the efficiency of supervisory activities carried 
on by the supervisor in a training school. This type of 
situation calls for a much more detailed program of measure- 
ment in order to demonstrate objectively the worth-while- 
ness of the detailed attack that the training-school super- 
visor should make upon the problem of training teachers. 
The following program is one that can be thoroughly prac- 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 251 

ticed and is one that will contribute vitally to the develop- 
ment of the science of supervision. In other words, it is a 
program that provides for the measurement of a genuinely 
professional performance of the supervisory functions: 

A. Goals or outcomes to be attained through supervision. 

a. The development of teaching skill in applying the prin- 
ciples of method, employing good devices, and practic- 
ing appropriate technique in the teaching of a particular 
subject or subjects. 

6. The maintenance of a high scholastic attainment on the 
part of the pupils taught by the teachers being trained. 

c. Organization of a well-balanced course of study. 

Other goals might be set up in addition to these, but these 
three call for a thoroughgoing program of measurement. 
This is especially true of the first goal if it is undertaken in 
any serious fashion. It is the focal point of the supervisory 
functions in the training-school situation, and it should be 
attacked in a thoroughly analytical and scientific manner. 

B. Types of evidence of supervisory efficiency under the training- 
school conditions. 

a. Lesson plans of teachers, which show the development 
of ability to apply the principles of method to the or- 
ganization of subject-matter, the selection of good de- 
vices for its presentation, and the formulation of a pro- 
gram of technique that seems suitable to the particular 
situation. 

6. Skill in actual teaching as shown by the last two or 
three weeks of the practice teaching of each student 
teacher. 

c. Final grades given teachers on their practice teaching. 

d. Judgments of teachers as shown by a questionnaire 
score card indicating the items in which they have been 
materially helped by supervision. 

e. Scholastic records of pupils being taught by the student 
teachers under supervision. 

/. Quantitative record of the supervisory activities carried 
on by the training-school supervisor. This should in* 



252 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

elude all kinds of outlines issued to teachers and the 
course-of-study materials formulated by the supervisor. 
g. Qualitative study of the supervisory performances as 
made through personal contact of the administrator 
with the supervisory situation. This type of evidence 
should be given in detail and each item should be based 
on concrete data. Especial attention should be given to 
the technique of the supervisor in visiting teachers at 
work, in making constructive criticisms, etc. 
C. Sources from which the types of evidence should be secured. 
These have already been indicated in stating the types them- 
selves. Briefly restated, however, they are student teachers, 
supervisor, school records of pupils' grades, records of teach- 
ers' practice teaching grades, and the administrator or direc- 
tor of the school. The matter of securing the objective data 
from all these sources should be carefully worked out so that 
the data will be compiled systematically and in sufficient 
quantity to afford a reliable basis for determining the degree 
of efficiency with which the supervisor has performed his re- 
spective duties. The use of such devices as are suggested be- 
low will facilitate the accumulation of the necessary data. 

Devices for securing objective data. A detailed daily- 
lesson-plan form, such as has been presented in a previous 
discussion in this book, and a weekly-lesson-plan form simi- 
lar to that heretofore described, will enable the director to 
secure very definite evidence as to the development of the 
teacher's professional knowledge and his skill in applying 
this knowledge to teaching problems. The teacher can 
readily furnish such lesson plans as are desired by the super- 
visor and director by using carbon sheets, so that no extra 
work need be involved in meeting this particular part of the 
administrative program. 

The data on skill in actual teaching can be secured only 
through visiting the teachers at work a sufficient number of 
times to accumulate an adequate body of facts upon which 
to base a valid judgment. The director may secure such 
data economically by using a detailed blank which contains 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 53 

the items suggested in the chapter on the measuring of teach- 
ing efficiency. If he so desires, he may use fewer items, or 
he may extend the number of points to suit his particular 
point of view and present purposes. The main point is that 
some definite form of observation notes should be taken and 
the estimate of the teachers' efficiency based upon them. 

The final grades of the teachers and the standing of the 
pupils can be secured from the usual school records that are 
kept for this purpose. These may be charted for conven- 
ience in making comparisons from term to term, and practi- 
cally all of this tabular work can be done by clerical help. 
The graphic representation of such data is so common that 
no special form need be suggested here. The simpler the 
form the better as long as it shows up the essential items. 

The questionnaire for securing the judgments of teachers 
needs to be prepared with care and it should contain the main 
items of teacher training that are supposed to be contrib- 
uted to through the work of the supervisor. A score-card 
form is very convenient and can be easily varied to include 
as many or as few items as the situation seems to warrant. 
The form should be different for elementary- and secondary- 
training schools on account of the difference in the number 
of subjects supervised by each supervisor. The accom- 
panying form (see page 254) is suggestive of what might be 
used to advantage in an elementary-training school. 

Use of the score card. The student teachers should be 
carefully instructed in the use of this score card. A score of 
from one to five should be entered in each square of the en- 
tire card, and the averages entered for each teacher-training 
item and for each subject. The director can accumulate 
these cards during the year and have the summation aver- 
ages of all the data recorded graphically by subjects and by 
teacher-training items. The tabular work can be handled 
by clerical assistance so that the administrator needs only to 



254 



TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 



TEACHER'S RATING OF SUPERVISORY AID RENDERED BY 
SUPERVISOR. . . .IN MASTERING: 





























i? 


t 




rm. Enter 















>v 




^ 








'*. 






i score of 1- 
5 in each 
square 


Arithmeti 


.3 


t 

1 





I 


Language 


Grammar 


Geograph 


I 

= 


jo 

*OD 
> 




_o 

a 


Drawing 


! 


Domestic 


Nature sti 


! 


rposes in 
































;eaching 
































Common 
































































































ganization 
































































sthod 
































































Good habits 
































































Bad habits 

































































































Teacher. 



See Chapters IV, VI. 

study the final tabulations to determine the value of the 
evidence. 

The score card that would be adapted to rating the super- 
visors in a secondary-training institution would be much 
simpler in form. It might well contain the same teacher- 
training items as are given in the above form, but these 
would refer to only one or possibly two subjects, since each 
student teacher usually teaches only one subject in his prac- 
tice period. 

The administrator should be careful in evaluating these 
scores so as not to give them too great weight in judging the 
efficiency of the work of a supervisor. This source of evi- 
dence, however, should receive a fair amount of considera- 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 255 

tion. The person who takes the treatment is in a position 
to pass judgment on the results from an angle to which 
no other person has access. The practice of going to the 
recipients of education courses to get testimony as to their 
practical value is becoming more and more common to-day 
in the educational world. The results of such an inquiry at 
least serves as a balancing check against the evidences pre- 
sented from other sources on the efficiency of the supervisory 
performances. 

Supplementing the questionnaire. Another type of evi- 
dence that the teacher can furnish in the program for meas- 
uring the worth of supervision is that of giving a descriptive 
account of ways in which the supervisor has contributed to 
his training. The teacher, knowing his difficulties in at least 
a general way, and realizing when and how he has been actu- 
ally helped, can very readily render an accurate descriptive 
account of the help given. The teacher must be consistent 
in recording such descriptive data in order to be of real serv- 
ice in measuring the efficiency of the supervisory activities. 

Examples of supervisory helpfulness. The teacher may 
be handicapped in his work on account of lack of certain 
lines of general training, which he might readily overcome 
by individual study under wise direction. If the supervisor 
discovers this source of the teacher's difficulty, points out 
the remedy, and directs the teacher in removing the defect, 
the teacher knows quite definitely and in what degree the 
supervisor has rendered valuable service to him. A brief, 
concise statement of the amount of time spent by the super- 
visor, and the kinds of suggestions, discussions, and helpful 
acts performed in rendering the service, should be set down 
in the proper place in the record. Every time this sort of 
assistance is given the teacher an accurate record should be 
made. 

Another general handicap that the teacher very fre- 



256 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

quently works under is that of having a very vague concep- 
tion of the aims of education and the specific purposes for 
which the various subjects are taught. This defect usually 
involves a lack of knowledge of the psychological and physi- 
ological natures of the pupils in the particular type of school 
in which the teacher is working. This handicap may be 
largely overcome in many cases through the work of the su- 
pervisor. He may put literature into the teacher's hands, 
and through discussions and suggestions greatly aid the 
teacher in interpreting the points of view and principles thus 
presented. The result will be a greatly changed teacher, 
and the teacher can be fully aware of the advantage that 
has come to him through this change. Therefore he should 
keep a faithful record of the important acts performed by 
the supervisor in this connection. 

The problems of general management of the classroom 
and the problems of discipline are some of the hardest diffi- 
culties for a teacher, as a rule, to overcome. These prob- 
lems are very definite and concrete. They arise in such a 
way that the teacher realizes quite fully his lack of ability 
to cope with the situation. Therefore he realizes just what 
advice and suggestions from the supervisor have enabled 
him to deal with his problems more successfully than he 
could possibly have done on his own responsibility. The 
concrete cases should be recorded in complete enough form 
to show the essential ways in which the direction of the su- 
pervisor was highly valuable. The essential help may have 
been the clarifying of the teacher's understanding of the 
principles underlying the particular piece of pupil conduct. 
It may have been the suggesting of a device or some point of 
technique in dealing with the case. Whatever it may have 
been, the essential point or points can always be set down in 
definite form. 

Starting the teacher along right lines. The one aspect 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 257 

of the teacher's work in which he meets many difficulties 
and in which he looks most of all to the supervisor for mate- 
rial assistance is that of teaching subject-matter in particular 
subjects. The teacher may not always realize that the point 
of difficulty is one primarily of method, device, or technique, 
but he should realize quite fully the difference that the work 
of the supervisor has made in his ability to meet the teach- 
ing problems successfully. If the supervisor is successful in 
rendering constructive service, the teacher will know that it 
was a clearing-up of a point in method, or the selection of 
better devices, or the forming of correct technique that en- 
abled him to improve in his teaching. The teacher may 
have some very bad forms of technique that need to be 
broken up and replaced by good technique. He may fully 
realize that this is the case, and yet be unable to accomplish 
the task alone. When this is true he knows thoroughly just 
what the supervisor contributes to his success in mastering 
the situation. All of these points come out in connection 
with concrete teaching situations. Therefore the teacher 
can set down accurate data, in brief form, that show the 
value of the supervisor's work. 

The teacher often lacks initiative and independence. He 
needs to have opportunities thrust upon him for acquiring 
this much-desired power. If the supervisor succeeds in giv- 
ing the teacher such opportunities, and by wise direction en- 
ables him to develop initiative, the teacher knows just what 
has taken place so far as the essential features of each case 
are concerned. The specific situations should be recorded 
with enough details to objectify the service that the super- 
visor has rendered to the teacher in each case. 

Value of objective records. The teacher not only knows 
when he has received material help in respect to the various 
points that have been set forth above, but he also knows 
when he has been hindered rather than helped. Therefore, 



258 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

in connection with each of these different types of difficul- 
ties, he should make an accurate descriptive record of the 
negative effect of the supervisor's work whenever there is 
just cause for so doing. The teacher may not understand 
just what the reason is for the negative effect, but if he sets 
down a reliable account of the supervisor's performance and 
the apparent results and submits these data to the adminis- 
trator, that officer may be able to analyze the situation thor- 
oughly enough to locate the defect. The trouble may be a 
failure to apply some principle of method in supervision, a 
poor selection of devices, or a matter of faulty technique. 
The difficulty may be just a matter of personality or an un- 
fortunate temporary attitude and bearing on the part of the 
supervisor. Whatever the defect may be, the teacher will 
have discharged his responsibility when he has made an ac- 
curate, honest record of what actually took place and has 
placed the data at the disposal of the administrator. 

The keeping of such a record as has been suggested in this 
discussion may seem to be too detailed and laborious to be 
practical. The actual amount of time and labor involved 
in doing the work is not great, provided a good form is used 
to systematize the data and reduce the amount of writing to 
the minimum, and provided the teacher forms the habit of 
checking up on the items periodically and making whatever 
records are essential to the success of the scheme. One 
thing is certain, and that is that the only way to make relia- 
ble scientific measurements of the supervisor's efficiency is 
to accumulate worth-while objective data of the sorts that 
have been set forth, and the only way to secure such an ac- 
cumulation of facts is to invent good devices and practice 
proper technique. No measurement should be attempted 
at all if it has to be based on mere subjective impressions and 
superficial evidence. There would be nothing wrong, to be 
sure, in asking a teacher for his impression of the value of 



259 

the supervisor's work, but such an impression should not be 
taken as a substitute for objective evidence. If this is the 
only kind of data at hand upon which to make an estimate 
of the supervisor's work, then let this fact be stated frankly 
and let no pretense be made of giving the supervisor a defi- 
nite rating upon such a basis. 

Consideration of the supervisory performances in them- 
selves as a measure of the efficiency of supervision. The 
supervisor should be ready and willing to supply data on his 
own activities that can be used in checking up the other data 
secured by the administrator. Moreover, he should be in- 
terested in accumulating as much objective data as possible 
on his performances, in order that he may study them ac* 
curately and in perspective. The supervisor who can re- 
view his own actual doings in concrete form at the end of a 
year, half-year, or any period whatever, is in a much better 
position to discover his defects and his strong points than he 
can possibly be if he depends upon memory and general im- 
pressions. The actual amount of time and labor that would 
be consumed in the accumulation of essential data will not 
be great when the supervisor has once formed the habit of 
doing it systematically. The work of recording some of the 
forms of data, as will be shown, can be largely done by 
stenographic and clerical help. And, finally, the supervisor 
ought, more than any other person connected with his work, 
to be interested in having his efficiency measured by an 
abundance of objective data rather than by brief inspection 
and subjective impressions. 

One of the important forms of data that the supervisor 
should furnish the administrator is that of typewritten or 
mimeographed copies of all the kinds of materials that he 
puts into the hands of the teachers for their guidance and 
direction. These materials should include outlines of sub- 
ject-matter, suggestive forms for lesson plans, outlines on 



260 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

method, devices, and technique especially adapted to partic- 
ular subjects, suggestions on testing and examining pupils 
in particular subjects, general instructions on management 
and discipline, instructions and suggestions on supervised 
study, forms to be used by teachers in taking observation 
notes, and general instructions to teachers on handling 
make-up work. There may be other printed materials that 
the supervisor has worked out for special purposes and 
placed in the hands of the teachers. Whatever they may 
be, copies of them should be furnished to the administrator. 

Plans for supervisory work. A second very vital form of 
data that the supervisor should submit to the administrator 
is that of definite plans of supervision. These plans should 
show how frequently the supervisor expects to visit the work 
of each teacher, when these visits are to occur, and how 
much time will be spent on each visit. This should, of 
course, be flexible, but a definite program of distribution of 
time will be helpful to the supervisor and be valuable to the 
administrator. The supervisor should plan definite prob- 
lems in method, device, technique, etc., as the case may be, 
upon which he expects to be working in the direction of each 
teacher's work day after day and week after week. These 
plans can very well be made for a week at a time without 
unduly burdening the supervisor, and without reducing 
them to a mere formal task. These plans should be flexible, 
but the supervisor will do much more effective work with 
each teacher if he has definite points in mind upon which to 
work daily until something definite has been accomplished. 
The working-out of good forms to be used in making these 
various plans will save much time and energy and will be an 
indication of the supervisor's efficiency. 

Notes on visitation. A third type of data is that of defi- 
nite notes, taken during visits to the teacher at work, and 
written suggestions given to teachers concerning the specific 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 261 

problems upon which the supervisor is working at any par- 
ticular time. A good form may be used in taking detailed 
notes that will reduce the labor involved to a minimum. 
Carbon sheets can be used, and thus readily supply as many 
extra copies from one writing as may be desired. These 
notes will not only show just what the supervisor is under- 
taking to do, but they will enable both administrator and 
supervisor to discover the most common defects of teachers 
in particular subjects. They will also show quite definitely 
the range of differences in the time taken by individual 
teachers to overcome this or that particular defect, or to 
make some specific adjustment to a problem. 

Reports of conferences. A final form of data should be 
that of definite statements and information concerning the 
conducting of conferences with teachers. This should in- 
clude the time spent in individual and group conferences, 
and should give in brief, concise form the essential points 
concerning the matters discussed, with a statement as to the 
apparent results. A well-worked-out blank form for this 
purpose will reduce greatly the time and energy consumed 
in keeping an accurate record. The accumulation of such 
data will be as helpful or even more so to the supervisor than 
it will be to the administrator. It will enable him to study 
his own performances in conducting such conferences, and 
be the means of improving method, devices, and technique 
of doing such work. The more the supervisor, as well as the 
administrator, gets away from mere memory and subjective 
impressions, the more effective he will become. The at- 
tempt to secure objective data will mean definiteness in 
everything connected with his work, and definiteness all 
round will go far toward eliminating waste and bringing 
consistent improvement in the supervisory performances. 

Qualitative study of supervisory performances. The 
second phase of considering the supervisory performances in 



262 TECHNIQUE OF SUPERVISION 

themselves as a measure of their efficiency is that of de- 
termining the quality of these actual performances. This 
study cannot be made on any other basis than that of actual 
personal contact with the supervisor's work. The adminis- 
trator must see the supervisor in the schoolroom, directing 
the teacher, in conferences with teachers, teaching demon- 
stration lessons, conducting observation groups, testing the 
work of the pupils, and measuring the work of the teachers 
in order to have any adequate conception of the supervisor's 
skill. Moreover, these visits to the supervisor's work must 
be more than inspectorial glimpses. They must be frequent 
enough and extended enough to enable the administrator to 
analyze thoroughly the extent to which the supervisor has 
mastered the principles of method in supervision, has exer- 
cised good judgment in selecting and adapting devices, and 
has acquired effective technique in performing all phases of 
the supervising activities. If the administrator does not 
have the time or opportunity to make any such thorough- 
going study as has been suggested, then he is not in a posi- 
tion to pass judgment upon the worth of the supervision 
from the standpoint of what the supervisor has actually done 
in the way of performance. If this is the case, the justness 
with which the work of the supervisor is measured will de- 
pend upon how carefully the results as set forth above have 
been checked up. 

Need for definite plans and systematic work. The ad- 
ministrator who undertakes in a serious way to make a 
thorough study of the work of his supervisors should have a 
definite plan in mind and carry it out systematically. He 
must take accurate notes on his observations when visiting 
the work, and he must discriminate sharply between princi- 
ples of method, devices, and technique of supervision. He 
should not rely too much upon the mere appearance of 
things, but should have conferences with the supervisors be- 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 263 

fore and after his visits in order to get into their thinking on 
points of method, devices, and technique. He will in this 
way learn whether or not the success of the supervisors at 
any time was accidental, and whether seeming failure was 
merely a temporary matter that will in all probability come 
out right later. He should study the plans that his super- 
visors make for their own guidance, and note the extent to 
which these plans are realized in their work. Moreover, he 
should not only note deficiencies, but should account for 
them in terms of failure to apply the principles of method, 
lack of good judgment in selecting and adapting devices, or 
deficiency in skill of technique. 

The work of the administrator in observing supervisory 
activities will be greatly facilitated by the use of a regular 
blank which includes all the essential items that should be 
studied through such observations. Concrete data should 
be accumulated under each item and a final rating of effi- 
ciency in each item made from these objective data. The 
general headings on such a form should be: Method, De- 
vices, and Technique. There should be a space for miscel- 
laneous notes and comments. The exact form that may 
be used is immaterial. The important point is that when 
one systematically accumulates data of this sort, he becomes 
much more definite and certain in his procedure. This very 
habit of getting down to definite, detailed data will insure a 
high degree of accuracy in estimating the real worth of su- 
pervision. 

Chapter summary. The work of supervision must justify 
its existence by establishing adequate objective evidences of 
its efficiency. These objective evidences may be secured 
through first setting up a body of guiding principles, and 
then, by formulating a program that will enable the admin- 
istrator or supervisor, as the case may be, to apply the prin- 
ciples to the measurement of any particular type of super- 



264 TECHNIQUE OP SUPERVISION 

visory situation. The ultimate interpretation of principles 
and the formulation of the measurement program must rest 
with the individual administrator. Suggestive programs, 
however, based upon definite supervisory situations may be 
helpful; hence they are worth studying. 

CLASS EXERCISES 

1. Make a list of goals or outcomes that would be suitable for a superin- 
tendent, in a city of 5000, to undertake to realize through his own 
supervisory activities. 

2. Describe the status of a particular course of study, in either an ele- 
mentary- or secondary-school subject, that needs revision. 

3. Select some subject that is usually introduced into the schools under a 
special supervisor and make a list of appropriate goals that may be 
attained by efficient supervision. 

4. Select two appropriate goals to be realized through the supervisory 
activities of a supervising principal, and designate the types of objec- 
tive data that would well establish the efficiency of the supervision. 

5. Give a brief descriptive account of three or more ways in which you 
have been helped by a supervisor. 

6. Give a brief descriptive account of two or more instances in which you 
have been handicapped by poor or insufficient supervision. 

7. Give three examples of cases in which special supervisors have de- 
manded too much of the teachers under their supervision. 

8. Make a blank form that the administrator could use to advantage in 
securing reliable data on his observations of the actual performances 
of supervision. 

9. Make a graphic record of the quantity of supervisory duties per- 
formed by a particular supervisor whose work you have known. 

SELECTED REFERENCES FOR SECTION C 

Boyce, Arthur C. Fourteenth Yearbook of the Society for the Study of Edu- 
cation. Part n, "Methods for Measuring Teachers' Efficiency." 
Good presentation of data, and excellent analysis of practical standards. 

Elliott, E. C. "A Tentative Scale for the Measuring of Teaching Effi- 
ciency"; in the University of Wisconsin, Twelfth Yearbook, part I, p. 68. 
Gives 1910 edition of the scale. Cubberley, E. P. State and County 
Educational Reorganization, Appendix, gives 1914 edition of the Elliott 
Scale, and also two State of Indiana scales. 
Good standard to compare with Boyce's scale. 



ESTIMATING THE WORTH OF SUPERVISION 265 

Hall, J. W. Twelfth Yearbook of the Society for the Study of Education. 
Part i, Appendix, p. 97, "Supervision of Beginning Teachers in Cincin- 
nati." 

Sets of notes, taken by supervisors during visits to teachers, given in full. 

Monroe, Walter S., DeVoss, James C., and Kelly, F. J. Educational Testa 
and Measurements. 

Comprehensive presentation and discussion of standard tests, and interpretation 
of experimental data. 

Monroe, Walter S. Seventeenth Yearbook of the Society for the Study of Edu- 
cation. Chapter m, "Existing Tests and Standards." 

Gives all tests for elementary and high schools up to 1918. 

Morehouse, Frances. Practice Teaching in the School of Education, Uni- 
versity of Illinois School of Education, Bulletin No. 7. 

Helpful discussions on conferences with teachers, and criticism of teachers' work. 
Rugg, Harold Ordway. Teachers' Marks and Marking Systems. 

Excellent presentation of both fields. 

Seashore, Carl E. Eighteenth Yearbook of the Society for the Study of Educa- 
tion. Chapter vi, "The R61e of a Consulting Supervisor in Music." 
Helpful suggestion* on technique. 



INDEX 



Administrator, should be trained in 
supervision, 8, 9; the supervisory 
job of, 30, 31 ; must plan for meas- 
urement of advisory efficiency, 
238; must see the supervisor at 
work, 261, 262; must have definite 
plan, 262, 263. 

Adolescence, the beginning stage of, 
48, 49; the second stage of, 49; 
the third stage of, 49, 50; the su- 
preme period of habit formation, 
60; religious tendency of, 67, 68. 

Adolescents, physiological traits of, 
54; psychological traits of, 54, 55; 
social status and outlook of, 56; 
effects of combined physical con- 
ditions on development of, 57, 58; 
embarrassments of, 58, 59; effect 
upon, of development of sex or- 
gans, 59 ; actions of, usually due to 
suggestion, not to premeditation, 
65, 66. See Pupils. 

Algebra, scope of subject-matter of 
unit of, 1 19. 

Analysis, 76. 

Anticipatory teaching, 83, 84; the 
value of, 84, 85. 

Arithmetic, scope of subject-matter 
of unit of, 119; elementary, out- 
line of a demonstration lesson in, 
140, 141; meetings to discuss the 
teaching of, 242, 243. 

Assignments, to individual pupils, 
134; observation, 143-51; pur- 
pose and use of observation, 152, 
153; of lessons, should be clear 
and definite, 182; recitations 
should keep up with, 182, 183. 

Assistant superintendent, must 
sometimes supervise, 30; measur- 
ing the supervisory work of, 245, 
246. 

Building principal, must sometimes 



supervise, 30; measuring super- 
visory work of, 245, 246. 
Bulletin board, 108, 109. 

Capitalization, 132. 

Checking up work of pupils, 211. 

Childhood, dominant physiological 
characteristics of, 41; dominant 
psychological characteristics of, 
41-43. 

Children, social status of, 43. 

Circulatory system of adolescents, 
57. 

Class, amount of time to be devoted 
to study outside of, 123, 124. 

Class periods, length and number of, 
123. 

Classroom, the supervisor's manner 
of entering, 201, 202; the super- 
visor's position in, 202, 203; the 
supervisor's manner of leaving, 
203, 204; management of, 222; 
visitations of, by superintendent, 
244. 

Comma, use of the, 132. 

Conferences, individual study, 185; 
group and individual, 186, 209; 
points characteristic of, 210, 211; 
of superintendent with teachers, 
243; reports of, 261. 

Conservation of materials in devices, 
102. 103. 

Constructive and destructive criti- 
cism, 195, 196. 

Cooperation between supervisor and 
teachers, to be aimed at, 23, 24, 
35-37 ; importance of, in regard to 
conduct of pupil, 66. 

Cooperative teaching, laying tho 
basis for, 23, 24; particular basis 
for, in the elementary' school, 38 
44 ; particular Iwais for, in tho sec- 
ondary school, 45-74; hearing 
upon, of agreement concerning 



268 



INDEX 



characteristics of pupils, 56, 57; 
bearing upon, of knowledge of un- 
certainty of behavior of pupils, 
61-63; general basis for, in either 
elementary or secondary school, 
75-82; selection of devices in, 113. 

Cost of materials, a phase of econ- 
omy, 103. 

Courses, selecting and organizing the 
subject-matter of, the duty of the 
supervisor, 24, 25; detailed state- 
ment with regard to the selection 
and organization of the subject- 
matter of, 117-30; should be 
put in hands of teacher in com- 
plete form, 117; facts in regard 
to subject-matter of, which should 
be made known to teacher, 117- 
19; unit of credit in, 119-30; 
the scope and quantity of, 119, 
120; the body of habits that should 
result from the study of, 120; the 
prerequisites to, 121; other courses 
in the same subject to which they 
lead, 121; organization of, into 
shorter or longer periods, 121- 
23; length and number of class 
periods necessary for complet- 
ing, 123; the class of pupils for 
whom they are pitched, 126; the 
classes of pupils to whom they are 
open for full or fractional credit, 
126, 127; the items determining a 
pupil's credit in, 127-29; the range 
of marks in indicating credit in, 
129; quantity of material to be 
covered in any fraction of, 129, 
130; relative emphasis or impor- 
tance of the divisions of, 132. See 
Sub j ect-matter. 

Credit, the amount of, to be given to 
different classes of pupils in the 
same course, 126, 127; the items 
determining a pupil's, 127-29; 
the range of marks in indicating, 
129. See Unit of credit. 

Critical evaluation of teaching, 143, 
146, 147, 153-57. 

Criticism, destructive and construc- 
tive, 195, 196. 

Curriculum, of the elementary 



school, 40; of the secondary school, 
50, 51; of the secondary school, to 
be regarded as a means to an end, 
52, 53; introduction of social sub- 
jects, such as economics, com- 
mercial geography, into, 71; the 
socializing of the courses of, 71. 
See Courses, Subject-matter. 
Curriculum-making. See Courses. 

Daily lesson plans. See Lesson plans. 

Deduction and induction, 76, 77. 

Demonstration and experimentation, 
supervisor should teach for pur- 
poses of, 25, 26. 

Demonstration teaching, purpose of, 
138; aim of the lesson should be 
seen beforehand, 138, 139; notea 
of lesson should be taken, 139; 
should be critical discussion after 
the lesson, 139, 140; examples of, 
140-42; emergency, 157-62. 

Demonstrations, 126. 

Destructive and constructive criti- 
cism, 195, 196. 

Details vs. generalities, in training 
for supervision, 18. 

Devices, denned, 77, 97; and their 
use, 77, 78; should be economical, 
97; permanency of, important, 97, 
103; examples, instructions to 
teachers, 98-102; for saving teach- 
er's time, 102 ; conservation of ma- 
terials in, 102, 103; cost of mate- 
rials in, 103; principle of econ- 
omy, in, a relative matter, 103, 
104; the saving of time the im- 
portant matter in, 104; should be 
effective, 104, 105; criterions of 
effectiveness of, 104, 105; should 
be usable, 105, 106; criterions of 
usability, 105, 106; should not be 
too numerous, 106, 107 ; should not 
be too meager, 107; should bear 
a logical relation to the end they 
are to aid in accomplishing, 107, 
108; should be a means, 108, 109; 
should be classified, 109-11; classi- 
fication of general, 109, 110; ma- 
terial, 109, 110; intellectual, 109, 
110; material and intellectual, 110, 



INDEX 



269 



111; classification of special, 110, 
111; the selection of, 113; outline 
for directed teaching, as to, 164- 
67; and technique, 199; intelli- 
gence and resourcefulness in se- 
lecting and adapting, 219, 220; 
for securing objective data as to 
teacher's efficiency, 252-54. 

Directed observation of teaching, 
forms of, 142; purposes of, 143; 
preliminary observation, 143; ob- 
Bervation assignment, 143-51; crit- 
ical observation, 143; critical eval- 
uation and judgment-forming, 
146, 147; purpose and use of ob- 
servation assignments, 152, 153; 
to evaluate teaching, 153-57. 

Directed teaching, a step in learning 
to teach by direct teaching, 87, 88; 
what it involves, 163; outline for, 
164-70; choice of specific habits of 
skill, 170; definite detailed lesson 
plans, 171; differences between 
teachers, 172; weekly and daily 
lesson-plans, 172-77; lesson-plans 
do not lead to mechanical work, 
177, 178; lesson-plans clarify 
thinking for the beginner, 178; 
time to be given to oral and writ- 
ten work and to quizzes, 179; ques- 
tions, 179; preparation of lessons, 
180. 

Discipline, in outline for directed 
teaching, 168; the teacher's ability 
in the matter of, 222, 223; a phi- 
losophy of school, 223-25; a mod- 
ern point of view of, 224, 225. 

Discussions, 110. 

Double periods, 184. 

Drill, 120, 132, 133, 183. 

Economy, saving of time for the su- 
pervisor, a phase of, 97; saving of 
time for the teacher, a phase of, 
102; conservation of materials a 
form of, 102, 103; cost of materials 
a form of, 103; a relative matter, 
103, 104; as result of technique of 
supervision, 196, 197. 

Education, modern, a weakness of, 
132, 133. 



Educational situations, 113, 114. 

Efficiency, training conduces to, 13, 
14; supervision to develop, 194; 
supervisory, see Supervision; of 
teacher, see Rating. 

Elementary schools, composition of 
the teaching force of, 3, 4; particu- 
lar basis for cooperative teaching 
in, 38-44; the purpose of, 38; the 
place of, 38-40; curriculum of, 40; 
pupils of, 41-43; general basis 
for cooperative teaching in, 75- 
82. 

Embarrassments, adolescent, 58, 59. 

Emergency demonstration teaching, 
157-62; use and purpose of, 157; 
examples of, 158-60; situations 
that justify, 160, 161. 

English, the socializing of, 72; flu- 
ency and correctness in, necessary 
for teacher, 218. 

Evaluation, critical, of teaching, 143, 
146, 147, 153-57; observation 
outline, 154. 

Examinations, 222. 

Experiences, mental maturing 
through, 61-63. 

Experimentation and demonstra- 
tion, supervisor should teach for 
purposes of, 25, 26, 138. 

Experiments, to be performed by the 
pupil, 125; to be performed by the 
teacher, 125, 126. 

Finding out things for and by one's 
self, 90, 91. 

Formal stage, in all training, 12, 13; 
meaning of, 14, 15. 

Formalism, definition of, 10. 

Formality of technique, the, 9-11; 
training school and public school 
as regards, 14, 15; eliminated by 
mastery, 16. 

Forms, for lesson plans, 108, 109, 
173-76; concerning educational 
situation, 115; for observation 
assignment, 146, 148, 150; for 
supervisor's notes of teachers' 
classroom work, 206-09; for in- 
formation concerning course of 
study of teacher, 248. 



270 



INDEX 



Generalities vs. details, in training 
for supervision, 18. 

Geometry, plane, outline of a dem- 
onstration lesson in, 141, 142 
example of emergency demonstra- 
tion teaching in, 158, 159. 

Goals, the habit of having worth- 
while, 177; superintendent should 
have definite, 240, 241; set up for 
the special supervisor to attain, 
246, 247; of supervision, 251. 

Grades and marks, assigning of, 211, 
212. 

Grading and promoting, value of 
tests in, 188. 

Graphs, 110. 

Group conferences, 186. 

Group study, 185. 

Habits, transforming technique into, 
11 ; adolescence the supreme period 
of formation of, 60; practice to 
form right, in teachers, 88; of 
teaching, should become auto- 
matic, 88, 89; of teaching, break- 
ing up incorrect, 89-92; the body 
of, that should result from the 
study of a course, 120; of studying 
intensively, 124; of skill, specific, 
for different subjects, 170; of 
study, 186. 

Hectographing, 103. 

High schools, unprofessional charac- 
ter of teaching in, 6. 

Imitation, teaching learned by, 86, 
87. 

Independence in the teacher, 93; su- 
pervision to develop, 194. 

Individual conferences, 185, 186. 

Induction and deduction, 76, 77. 

Initiative, 89, 93; supervision to de- 
velop, 194, 195. 

Instincts of adolescents, importance 
of knowledge of, 60, 61. 

Instruction. See Courses. 

Instructions to teachers, printed, a 
good device, 97; examples of, 98- 
102; a time-saving device, 102; 
compared with oral instructions, 
103; compared with hectographed 



or mimeographed instructions; 
103; effectiveness of, 104, 105; 
usability of, 105, 106; no con- 
fusion due to use of, 107; a gen- 
eral device of the material sort, 
109. 

Intellectual devices, 109, 110. 

Intelligence tests for teachers, 216. 

Interests of pupils should be caught 
at their crest, 68, 69. 

Judgment-forming, 146, 147. 

Kansas, University of, weekly lesson 

plan of, 174, 175. 
Kindergarten, the, 39. 

Laboratory and recitation work, 
amount of time to be devoted to 
each, 124, 125. 

Language texts, supplementary ma- 
terial needed with, 133. 

Latin, example of emergency dem- 
onstration teaching in, 159, 160. 

Lectures, 110; outline for directed 
teaching, as to, 166, 167. 

Lesson assignment should be clear 
and definite, 182. 

Lesson-plans, daily, 108, 109, 173, 
176; form for, 108, 109; weekly, 
172-75; should be given by super- 
visor and followed by teacher, 171, 
172; value of daily, 176, 177; do 
not lead to mechanical work, 177, 
178; clarify thinking for the be- 
ginner, 178; should be definitenesa 
in, 220; for records of teacher's 
efficiency, 252. 

Lessons, time to be devoted to prep 
aration of, 123, 124, 180. 

Make-up work, 186. 

Management of classroom and o! 
pupils, 222, 223. 

Manual arts, 40. 

Manual training courses, have some- 
times been too theoretical, 69. 

Marks, the range of, 129; assigning, 
211, 212. 

Material, conservation of, in devices, 
102; supplementary, 133, 134; 



INDEX 



271 



notebooks, 134. See Subject- 
matter. 

Material devices, 109, 110. 

Mathematics, how it may be social- 
ized, 71; much supplementary drill 
material needed in, 133. 

Meetings, teachers', 242, 243. 

Memorization, 184. 

Mental development to be aimed at, 
53; through experiences, 61-63. 

Method, first principle of, super- 
visor and teachers must have 
common knowledge and hold com- 
mon points of view, 35-37; de- 
nned, 76; principles of, defined, 
76; problems in, 76, 77; second 
principle of) that one learns to 
teach by teaching, 83-89; third 
principle of, incorrect habits of 
teaching can be broken up under 
supervision, 89-92; fourth prin- 
ciple of, teacher must be given op- 
portunity to do regular work, 93; 
outline for directed teaching, as 
to, 164; mastery of principles of, 
219. 

Mimeographing, 103. 

Nervous system of adolescents, 57. 

Notebooks, 134. 

Notes, should be taken to estimate 
teacher's efficiency, 204, 205, 253, 
260, 261; outline for, for super- 
visor, 206-09. 

Observation, of teaching, 85, 86; 

of demonstration lessons, 138-42; 

directed, of teaching, 142-53, see 

Directed observation; to evaluate 

teaching, 153-57. 
Oral and written work, relative time 

to be given to, in recitation, 179. 
Oread Training School, example of 

general instructions to senior 

teachers in, 98-100. 

Periods, shorter or longer, organiza- 
tion of subjects into, 121-23; class, 
length and number of, 123; super- 
vised study, 184; double, 184. 

Permanency of devices, 97, 103. 



Physiological characteristics, of 
childhood, 41 ; of secondary-school 
pupils, 54. 

Physiological disturbances of ado- 
lescents, 57-59. 

Plans for lessons. See Lesson-plans. 

Plans for supervisory work, 260. 

Preparation of lessons, time to be 
devoted to, 123, 124, 180. 

Presentation and drill, relative time 
to be devoted to, 132, 133. 

Primary school, 39. 

Principles, definite, have been lack- 
ing in training of supervision, 17, 
18. 

Printed forms, instructions. See 
Forms, Instructions. 

Problems in teaching and method, 
76, 77. 

Professional training, lack of, 4, 5. 

Promoting, value of tests in, 188. 

Psychological approach to subject- 
matter, 51, 52. 

Psychological characteristics, of 
childhood, 41, 42; of secondary- 
school pupils, 54, 55; of adoles- 
cents, ways of capitalizing knowl- 
edge of, 60, 61. 

Public school, and training school, 
compared as regards formality of 
organization, 14, 15; curriculum- 
making in, 24, 25. 

Pupils, of the elementary school, 41 
43; dominant physiological char- 
acteristics of, 41; dominant psy- 
chological characteristics of, 41, 
42; relation of characteristics to 
schoolroom procedure, 42; social 
status of, 43. 

Of the secondary school, 54-73; 
importance of knowledge of traita 
and tendencies of, 54; physiologi- 
cal characteristics of, 54; psycho- 
logical characteristics of, 54, 55; 
proper attitude of school toward 
erratic behavior in, 63-66; should 
be allowed to choose freely erratic 
conduct, 63, 64; door of opportun- 
ity not to be closed to, 64, 65; im- 
portance of frank dealings with, 
66, 67; religious and emotional 



272 



INDEX 



tendency of, 67, 68; interests of, 
should be caught at the crest, 68, 
69; social status and outlook of, 56; 
effects of combined physical con- 
ditions on development of, 57, 58; 
embarrassments of, 58, 59; effect 
upon, of development of sex or- 
gans, 59 ; are in the supreme period 
of habit formation, 60; instinctive 
backgrounds of, 60, 61; to be re- 
garded more than the subjects of 
instruction, 69, 70. 

The class of, for whom the course 
is pitched, 126; the classes of, to 
whom the course is open for full or 
fractional credit, 126, 127; the 
items that determine their record 
and credit in a course, 127-29; 
management of, 222, 223. 

Questionnaire, for securing judg- 
ment of teacher, 253. 

Questions, outline for directed teach- 
ing, as to, 165, 166; on quiz pa- 
pers, 179. 

Quiz papers, uniformity in, 134; pro- 
cedure in grading, 179. 

Quizzes, time for, 179; number and 
character of questions in, 179. 

Bating of teachers, should be sub- 
ject to definite standards, 215; 
suggested outline for, 216-30; in- 
tellectual ability, 216; general 
scholarship, 216, 217; special 
scholarship, 217; ability to express 
thoughts, 218; voice, 218; teach- 
ing ability, 218-22; master of the 
principles of method, 219; intelli- 
gence and resourcefulness in se- 
lecting and adapting devices, 210, 
220; definiteness in lesson plan- 
ning and skill in following the 
plan, 220; skill and reliability of 
technique, 220, 221; ability to se- 
cure desired results, 221, 222; abil- 
ity to test and grade definitely 
and accurately the work of the 
pupils, 222 ; ability to manage and 
discipline, 222, 223; a philosophy 
of school discipline, 223-25; per- 



sonal appearance, 225; qualities of 
leadership, 226; professional atti- 
tude, 227 ; type of school and com- 
munity in which the teacher will 
be most efficient, 227, 228; the 
critical point, 228. 

Reading tests, 187. 

Recitations, socialized, 70, 71; co- 
operation necessary for proper 
arranging of, 75; the device of a 
plan for daily, 105, 106; and out- 
side study, relation between times 
devoted to, 124; and laboratory 
work, amount of time to be de- 
voted to each, 124, 125; amount of 
work to be assigned to, 129; and 
the use of textbooks in, 131, 132; 
taken up and conducted in part by 
supervisor, 157; relative time to 
be given to oral and to written 
work in, 179; means of direc*- 
ing study of the pupil, 182-84; 
should deal with the subject-mat- 
ter assigned and in the way indi- 
cated, 182; should keep up with 
assignments, 182, 183; study dur- 
ing, 183, 184. 

Records should be based on definite 
evidence, 258, 259. 

Reference works, 170. 

Relationships, proper teaching, of 
teacher and supervisor to pupils, 
80, 81. 

Religious tendency of adolescence, 
67, 68. 

Reports by pupils, 134. 

Reviews, 183. 

Rural schools, composition of the 
teaching force of, 4; in some 
states, attacking problem of su- 
pervision, 6. 

Scales and tests, training in use of 
standard, 187, 188. 

Scholarship, general, of teachers, 
216, 217; special, of teachers, 217. 

Schools. ' See Elementary, Rural, 
Secondary; Training. 

Sciences, little supplementary ma- 
terial needed in, 133. 

Score card. See Form. 



INDEX 



273 



Secondary education, to define sub- 
jects in curriculum in terms of 
definitely recognized values, 50; 
one of the problems of, to replace 
spontaneous behavior with be- 
havior based upon meditation, 
65; has been too theoretical and 
not sufficiently practical, 68, 69. 

Secondary schools, composition of 
the teaching force of, 3, 4; particu- 
lar basis for cooperative teaching 
in, 45-74; the purpose of, 45-47; 
the place of, 47, 48; the curriculum 
of, 50, 51 ; the curriculum, to be re- 
garded as a means to an end, 52, 
53; the student, not the subject- 
matter, in, the important thing, 
53; the pupils of, 54-73, see Pupils; 
should be stable, though flexible, 
62, 63; proper attitude of, toward 
erratic behavior of pupils, 63-66; 
should provide social opportuni- 
ties, 70, 71; general basis for co- 
operative teaching in, 75-82. 

Silent-reading tests, 187. 

Skills standardized, and standard- 
ized tests, 188, 189. 

Social opportunities, should be pro- 
vided by school, 70, 71. 

Social status, of children, 43; of sec- 
ondary-school pupils, 56. 

Socialized recitations, 70, 71. 

Socializing subject-matter, 71-73. 

Standard tests and scales, training in 
use of, 187, 188; and unstandard- 
ized, 188; knowledge of their use 
is necessary, 189, 190; uses to 
which they can be put, 189. 

Standards, teaching, should be un- 
derstanding between supervisor 
and teacher as to, 80; necessary for 
measuring supervisory efficiency, 
231, 233. 

Student, thinking in terms of the, 53. 

Studies of secondary school, purpose 
of, 52, 53. 

Study, outside, amount of time to be 
devoted to, 123, 124; supervised, 
181-90, see Supervised study ; dur- 
ing the recitation, 183, 184; su- 
pervised period of, 184; group, 185; 



conferences, individual, 185; lit- 
erature on, should be put in hands 
of pupils, 186. 

Subject-matter, the psychological 
approach to, 51, 52; though not 
sacred, should be stable, 62; the 
pupil not to be sacrificed to, 69, 
70; the socializing of, 71-73; of 
courses, should be put in perma- 
nent printed form by the super- 
visor, 117; teacher should know 
why it was organized and is being 
taught, 117, 118; statement should 
be made of changes going on in, 
118, 119; unit of credit in, 119-30, 
173; the problem of scope of, 119; 
the relative amount of each type 
of, 119, 120, 132, 133; content, and 
formal, 120, 132, 133; the funda- 
mental content, 120; to be learned 
temporarily and to be learned per- 
manently, 184. See Courses. 

Success of teacher, considerations in 
estimating, 214, 215. See Teachers. 

Superintendent, principles by which 
he can measure supervisory effi- 
ciency, 234-38; supervisory activ- 
ities of, 239; should have definite 
goals, 240; should give account of 
duties done and time spent in do- 
ing them, 242; consideration of the 
supervisory activities of, 242-45. 

Supervised study, 181-90; what is 
meant by, 181; the lesson assign- 
ment, 182 ; the recitation demands, 
182, 183; study during the recita- 
tion, 183, 184; supervised study 
periods, 184; group study, 185; 
make-up work, 186; literature on 
study, 186; conferences, 186; 
training in use of standard tests 
and scales, 187, 188; value of tests 
in grading and promoting, 188; 
standardized tests and standard- 
ized skills, 188, 189; some knowl- 
edge of the uses of standard tests is 
necessary, 189, 190. 

Supervising principal, must some- 
times do supervisory work, 30; 
measuring supervisory work of, 
245, 246. 



274 



INDEX 



Supervision, administrators should 
be trained in, 8, 9; for the training 
school, needed, 14; the greatest 
weakness of, 17; training for, de- 
tails vs. generalities in, 18; super- 
visors measure the efficiency of, 
29, 30; the goal of, 29, 30; plans of, 
for administrator, 30, 31; the pur- 
pose of, 81, 82; must begin before 
the teacher enters the classroom, 
163; the purpose of, 193, 194; to de- 
velop independence and efficiency, 
194, 195; the technique of, should 
be constructive, 195, 196; the 
technique of, should be capable of 
modification, 196; the technique 
of, should be economical, 196, 197; 
rate of procedure in, 209 ; the need 
of evaluating, 231; efficiency of, 
taking stock as to, 231-33; two 
steps involved in measuring effi- 
ciency of, 233 ; principles involved 
in measuring efficiency of, 234-38; 
programs for measuring efficiency 
of, 238-63; exercised by super- 
intendent, 239 ; superintendent 
should have definite goals, 240, 
241; types of data that will be 
accepted as proof of efficiency 
of, for superintendent, 241, 242; 
sources from which valid data may 
be secured, for superintendent, 
242; considerations of activities of 
superintendent, 242-45; measuring 
work of assistant superintendent, 
supervising principal, and build- 
ing principal in, 245, 246; measur- 
ing work of special supervisors in, 
246; special supervisor should 
have definite goals, 246, 247 ; types 
of evidence that indicate efficiency 
of special supervisor, 247; sources 
of evidence for efficiency of special 
superintendent, 249; time spent 
by special supervisor in, 249 ; qual- 
ity of work of special supervisor in, 
249; of supervisor in training- 
school, 250-52; devices for secur- 
ing objective data concerning, 
252-55; examples of helpfulness 
in, 255-57; may sometimes hinder, 



267, 258; definite plans of, should 
be furnished by supervisor, 260; 
qualitative study of, 261, 262. 
Supervisors, trained, reasons for 
need of, 3-7; need of training 
schools for, 7, 8; must master 
technique, 15, 16; two questions 
involved in the problem of train- 
ing, 16, 17; should aim to bring 
about cooperation between them- 
selves and the teachers, 23, 24; 
have the duty of selecting and or- 
ganizing the subject-matter of 
courses, 24, 25; should teach for 
purposes of experimentation and 
demonstration, 25, 26; direct sys- 
tematic observation of expert and 
inexpert teaching performances, 
26, 27; direct teaching activities, 
28; check up pupils' progress, 28; 
measure progress and efficiency of 
teachers, 28, 29; measure the effi- 
ciency of supervision, 29, 30; 
should work out list of utilizations 
of traits and tendencies, 43; and 
teachers, should agree on definite 
types of social situations offered 
by the school, 43; work in deter- 
mining the place of the secondary 
school, 48; and teachers, should be 
in harmony as regards conduct of 
pupils, 66; should be in harmony 
with teachers as regards lessons 
and recitations, 75; should agree 
with teachers as to teaching pro- 
cedure and teaching standards, 
also as to teaching relationships, 
79-81; direct teaching in imagina- 
tion according to their standards of 
correct teaching, 84 ; as directors of 
teaching, 87, 88; work of, in keep- 
ing teacher from incorrect acts, 
91; work of, in breaking bad hab- 
its, 92; work of, as sympathetic 
visitors, 93 ; should put in printed 
form their views of educational sit- 
uation, 114, 115; should put in per- 
manent printed form the subject- 
matter of courses, 117; should 
give instructions concerning text- 
books, 130; must consider the 



INDEX 



three factors involved in teaching, 
163; exist for the sake of teachers 
and pupils, 193, 194; should en- 
deavor to make teachers inde- 
pendent and efficient, 194; must 
vit the teacher at his work, 199; 
the question of when they should 
begin visiting, 199-201 ; manner of 
their entering the classroom, 201, 
202 ; their position in the classroom, 
202, 203; their manner of leaving 
the classroom, 203, 204; should 
make notes on the recitation, 204- 
06; manner in which they should 
deliver the written notes, 205; 
should always do their visiting 
openly, 205, 206; outline for notes 
of, 206-09; special, measuring su- 
pervisory activities of, 246; defin- 
ite goals set up for them to attain, 
246, 247; types of evidence that 
indicate their efficiency, 247; 
sources of evidence for efficiency 
of, 249; time spent by, 249; qual- 
ity of work of, 250; in training- 
school, measuring supervisory ac- 
tivities of, 250-52; ways in which 
teacher may be helped by, 255-57 ; 
may sometimes hinder, 257, 258; 
should themselves furnish data to 
administrator, 259, 260 ; should fur- 
nish definite plans of supervision, 
260; notes on visitation to be made 
by, 260, 261; reports of confer- 
ences to be furnished by, 261; 
must be seen at work to be judged 
properly, 261, 262. 

Supplementary materials to text- 
book, 133, 134. 

Synthesis, 76. 

Tact, 61. 

Teachers, need of training schools 
for, 7, 8; trained, should trans- 
form technique into habits, 11; 
why they fail in using technique, 
11, 12; must pass through stages 
of habit formation, 12, 13; cooper- 
ation between supervisor and, 
necessary, 23, 24; progress and 
efficiency of, measured by super- 



visor, 28, 29; not to be worried 
over erratic interpretations of their 
behavior [toward pupils, 64, 65; 
and supervisor.'should be in har- 
mony as regards conduct of pupils, 
66; should be frank with pupils, 
66, 67; should not try to play upon 
the credulity of pupils, 67; should 
be in harmony with supervisor as 
regards lessons and recitations, 
75; should agree with supervisor 
as to teaching procedure, and 
teaching standards, also as to 
teaching relationships, 79-81 ; and 
supervisor, unite on anticipatory 
teaching, 83, 84; supervision valid 
for keeping them from incorrect 
acts, 91; general instructions to 
senior, 98-100; instructions to 
regular, 100-02; saving the time 
of, a device for, 102 ; should have 
statement in printed form of sub- 
ject-matter of courses, 117; should 
know why subject-matter was or- 
ganized and is being taught, 117. 
118; differences between, 172; 
should seek service of supervisor, 
194; visited by supervisor in class- 
room, 199-206; work of, criticized 
by supervisor, 206-09; considera- 
tions in estimating success of, 214, 
215; the rating of, should be sub- 
ject to definite standards, 215; 
suggested outline for rating of, 
216-30; intellectual ability, 216; 
general scholarship, 216, 217; spe- 
cial scholarship, 217; ability to 
express thoughts, 218; quality of 
voice, 218; teaching ability, 218- 
22; mastery of the principles of 
method, 219; intelligence and re- 
sourcefulness in selecting and 
adapting devices, 219, 220; defin- 
iteness of lesson planning and skill 
in following the plan, 220; skill 
and reliability of technique, 220, 
221; ability to secure desired re- 
sults, 221, 222; ability to test and 
grade definitely and accurately 
the work of the pupils, 222; ability 
to manage and discipline, 222, 223; 



376 



INDEX 



a philosophy of school discipline, 
223-25; personal appearance, 225; 
qualities of leadership, 226; pro- 
fessional attitude, 227; type of 
school and community in which 
they will be most efficient, 227, 
228; the critical point, 228; judg- 
ment of, concerning course of 
study, 248; devices for securing 
objective data as to efficiency of, 
252-54; form of questionnaire for 
securing judgment of, 253, 254; 
ways in which supervisor may 
help, 255-57; may be hindered by 
supervisor, 257, 258; meetings, 
242, 243. 

Teaching, cooperative, laying the 
basis for, 23, 24 ; a cooperative en- 
terprise, 35-37; problems in, 76, 
77; to be learned by teaching, 83; 
anticipatory, 83, 84; anticipatory, 
the value of, 84, 85; observation 
of, 85, 86, 142-53; learned by imi- 
tation, 86, 87; directed, 87, 163- 
81; teachers should endeavor to 
form right habits of, 88 ; habits of, 
should become automatic, 88, 89; 
breaking up incorrect habits of, 
89, 90; initiative and independ- 
ence in, 89, 93; demonstration, 
138-42; observation to evaluate, 
153-57 ; emergency demonstra- 
tion, 157-62; three fundamental 
factors involved in, 163; lack of 
definiteness one of chief causes of 
poor, 177. See Cooperative teach- 
ing. 

Teaching force of schools, composi- 
tion of, 3, 4; lack of professional 
training in, 4-6. 

Teaching procedure, agreements as 
to, by supervisor and teacher, 79. 

Teaching relationships, proper, of 
supervisor and teachers to pupils, 
80, 81. 

Teaching standards, 80. 

Teaching technique, 78, 79. 

Technique, the formality of, 9-11; 
transforming, into habits, 11; why 
teachers fail in using, 11, 12; su- 
pervisors must master, 15, 16; 



teaching, 78, 79; principles by 
which the determination of, should 
be guided, 79; one purpose of 
demonstration teaching to show 
good, 138, 139; in demonstration 
lesson in elementary arithmetic, 
141; in demonstration lesson in 
plane geometry, 142 ; in evaluation 
observation outline, 154; in out- 
line for directed teaching, 164, 
165, 167-70; of supervision, should 
develop proper kind of initiative 
and independence in teachers, 195; 
of supervision, should be construc- 
tive, capable of modification, and 
economical, 195-97; selected forms 
of, 199-213; and devices, 199; vis- 
iting the teacher at his work, 199- 
206; criticizing the work of the 
teacher, 206-09; conferences and 
checking up work, 209-12; skill 
and reliability of, 220, 221. 

Tests and scales, training in use of 
standard,*! 87, 188; standard and 
unstandardized, value of, in grad- 
ing and promoting, 188; standard- 
ized, and standardized skills, 188, 
189; knowledge of their use is 
necessary, 189, 190; uses to which 
they can be put, 189 ; intelligence, 
for teacher rating, 216; teaching 
ability evidenced by devising fair 
tests, 222. 

Textbooks, instructions should be 
given regarding, 130; standards for 
judging the usability of, 131; in- 
structions as to the use of, 131, 
132; use of, in recitations, 131, 132; 
character of, determines in some 
measure amount of supplemen- 
tary material needed, 133; outline 
for directed teaching, as to, 169, 
170. 

Time, of the supervisor, saving the, 
97; of the teacher, saving the, 
102; required in study preparation 
outside of class, 123, 124; to be 
given to oral and to written work 
in recitation, 179; for quizzes. 179. 

Training, in supervision for admin- 
istrators, 8, 9; there is a formal 



INDEX 



277 



stage in, 12, 13; conduces to effi- 
ciency, 13, 14; of supervisors, two 
problems involved in, 16, 17; for 
supervision, details vs. generalities 
in, 18; in use of standard tests and 
scales, 187, 188. 

Training schools, for teachers and 
supervisors, 7, 8; criticized for be- 
ing too formal, 9-11; and public 
schools, compared as regards for- 
mality of organization, 14, 15; cur- 
riculum-making in, 24, 25; justi- 
fied agencies in educating teachers, 
91 ; comparison of city schools with, 
in the matter of bad habits, 92; 
example of set of instructions for, 
98-100; measuring activities of 
supervisor in, 250-52. 

Unit of credit, consideration of, 119- 



30; scope of subject-matter of, 
1 19 ; relative amount of each type 
of subject-matter of, 119, 120; the 
fundamental content subject-mat- 
ter of, 120; the habits its subject- 
matter should form, 120; value of 
weekly lesson plans in determin- 
ing, 173. 

Visitation, notes on, 260, 261. 
Visiting the teacher at his work, 199- 

206. 
Voice, good quality of, necessary for 

teacher, 218. 

Weekly lesson plans. See Lesson 

plans. 
Written and oral work, relative time 

to be given to, in recitation, 

179. 



RIVERSIDE TEXTBOOKS 
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