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Vol. XXVI. 




Oct. 19, 1888.] - [Sargent. 





VOL. XXVI. JANUARY TO JULY, 1889. No. 129. 

Portions of the Journal of Andre Michaux, Botanist, written during Jiis 
Travels in the United States and Canada, 1785 to 1796. With an Introduc- 
tion and Explanatory Notes, by C. 8. Sargent. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, October 19, 1888 ) 


The younger Michaux, in the year 1824, presented to the American 
Philosophical Society the manuscript diary kept by his father during his 
travels in America. The first parts had been unfortunately lost in the 
wreck of the vessel in which Michaux returned to France from America, 
and no record is preserved of his travels in this country from the time of 
his arrival in New York in September, 1785, until his first visit to South 
Carolina in 1787. 

Reference is made to this Journal by Deleuze in his biographical memoir 
of Michaux, printed in the fourth volume of the Annales du Museum in 
1804, and, doubtless, he had access to its pages, as without them he could 
scarcely have followed the footsteps of the French botanist through the 
wilds of the American continent. The first notice of the Journal which ap- 
peared in this country is found in a paper by Prof. Asa Gray, entitled 
Notes of a Botanical Excursion to the Mountains of North Carolina, pub- 
lished in the American Journal of Science, in 1841, in which some account of 
Michaux's American travels and discoveries, with short extracts from his 
Journal, appear. A more detailed account of those parts of this document 
which relate to Canada, with notes upon Michaux's Canadian plants, was 
published in 1863 by the Abbe Ovide Brunet under the title of Notice sur 
les Plantes de Michaux et sur son Voyage au Canada et a la Baie Hudson. 
These brief extracts directed the attention of botanists to this record of the 
travels of one of the most interesting and picturesque figures in the annals 
of botanical discovery in America ; and for many years the feeling has 
existed among them that the Journal which furnishes an important chap- 
ter in the history of the development of American botany should be pub- 
lished. The American Philosophical Society having shared in these views, 


Sargent.] & [Oct. 19, 

a copy of the manuscript has been placed in my hands for publication. 
It is now printed as Michaux wrote it by the light of his lonely camp-fires, 
during brief moments snatched from short hours of repose, in the midst 
of hardships and often surrounded with dangers. The character of the 
man appears in this record of his daily life ; and any attempt to correct or 
extend his words would destroy their individuality and diminish the his- 
torical value of his diary. 

The Journal is something more than a mere diary of travel and botani- 
cal discovery. The information which it contains in regard to various 
plants first detected by Michaux is valuable even now ; and his remarks 
upon the condition of the remote settlements which he visited in the 
course of his wanderings are interesting and often amusing. They record 
the impressions of a man of unusual intelligence a traveler in many lands 
who had learned by long practice to use his eyes to good advantage and 
to write down only what they saw. 

The duty of preparing the Journal for the press has fallen to me not 
from any especial fitness of mine for the task, but rather because no other 
hand was available for it. And it is to my old friend, Mr. John H. Red- 
field, of Philadelphia, who has aided me in this work constantly and un- 
tiringly, and not to me, that should be given the thanks of botanists for 
placing within their reach the story of Michaux's researches in a field 
which they have cultivated since his time with so much zeal and success. 
For without his assistance the publication would never have been begun, 
and could not have been finished. 


Arnold Arboretum, BrooJdine, Mass., December, 1888. 


Andre Michaux will be remembered as long as North American plants 
are studied or cultivated. He was the first botanist who ever traveled 
extensively in this country, although it must not be forgotten that John 
and William Bartram, his predecessors by several years in the same field, 
did much to prepare the way for his wider and more detailed explorations. 
The first connected nnd systematic work upon the flora of North America 
was based largely upon his collections and bears the impress of his name, 
while it was by his efforts that many American plants were first made 
known in the gardens of Europe. 

Michaux was born at Satory, in the neighborhood of Versailles, on 
the 7th of March, 1746, on a farm situated in the public domain, and 
carried on by his father. His early training was all directed to preparing 

* This sketch of Michaux's career is based largely upon the memoir by M.Deleuze, 
published in the Third Volume of the Memoires du Museum National d'Hiatoire Naturdle 
Paris, 1804. 

1SSS.] [Sargent. 

him for the simple and laborious life of a farmer of the middle class, and 
his schooling ended in his fourteenth year. His father died three years 
later, and Andre and his brother became joint managers of the farm. 
This arrangement lasted for four years, during which the self-reliance and 
power to resist hardship and fatigue, which later distinguished the explorer 
of the Persian deserts and of the trackless wilds of the Carolina forests, 
were no doubt acquired and developed. 

Michaux married, in 1769, Cecil Claye, the daughter of a rich farmer 
of Beauce, who died a year later in giving birth to a son, Franqois Andre 
Michaux, the historian of the forest-trees of North America. The sudden 
termination of his married life made a more active and exciting occupa- 
tion necessary to him and ended his agricultural career. Fortunately one 
of his neighbors, devoted to horticulture and botany, became interested in 
the young man and directed his attention to these subjects ; and he soon 
became inspired with a desire to travel for the purpose of bringing back 
to France the useful plants of other countries, especially those of the 
Orient. This idea became so fixed in his mind that he gave up his farm 
and devoted himself to the study of natural history and languages, and 
having the good fortune to make the acquaintance of Bernard de Jussieu, 
at that time in charge of the gardens of the Trianon, he passed some time 
with him there, and afterwards at the Museum in Paris, in perfecting 
himself in botany. Michaux's first journeys were made at this time. He 
visited England and studied the English collections of plants, and English 
methods of horticulture, and in 1788 was invited to join a party of botan- 
ists, including Lamarck and Thouin, in an excursion to the mountains of 
Auvergne. The zeal, activity and enthusiasm of the young collector were 
the admiration of the party, and led no doubt to his selection shortly after- 
ward to accompany tfie French consul, Russeau, to Persia. The royal 
treasury supplied the money for this journey. 

Michaux left Paris in 1782 for Aleppo and Bagdad, which he reached after 
a journey of thirty days across the desert ; here he separated from the consu- 
lar party for the purpose of exploring the country between the Tigris and the 
Euphrates. He traveled extensively and mastered Persian, even writing, 
one of his biographers tells us, a dictionary of that language. This journey 
nearly cost Michaux his life at the hands of a party of marauding Arabs who 
seized and stripped him and were about to end his days, when he was 
rescued by the English consul at Bassora, who supplied him with the 
means of continuing his journey to Ispahan. Two years were then 
devoted to the exploration of the little known region between the Indian 
ocean and the Caspian sea. From this long and arduous journey Michaux 
returned to Paris early in 1785, bringing with him a valuable herbarium 
and a large collection of seeds. The hardships and sufferings which he 
had endured only served to stimulate his love of adventure and remark- 
able energy ; and he had scarcely arrived in Paris before he was planning 
another journey which was to embrace the country east of the Caspian sea 
and to extend into Cashmere and Thibet. Fortunately, however, for the 

Sargent] 4 [Oct. 19, 

United States he was unable, through a lack of financial support, to carry 
out these plans. 

Michaux was not destined, however, to remain long in France. The 
government was anxious at this time to introduce into the royal plan- 
tations the most valuable trees of eastern North America, and Michaux 
was selected for this undertaking. He was instructed to explore the terri- 
tory of the Uniied States, to gather seeds of trees, shrubs and other plants, 
and to establish a nursery near New York for their reception, and after- 
wards to send them to France, where they were to be planted in the Park of 
Rambouillet. He was directed also to send game birds from America with 
a view to their introduction into the plantations of American trees. 

Michaux, accompanied by his son, then fifteen years old, arrived in New 
York in October, 1785. Here, during two years, he made his principal 
residence, establishing a nursery, of which all trace has now disappeared, 
and making a number of short botanical journeys into New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, and Maryland. The fruits of these preliminary explorations, 
including twelve boxes of seeds, five thousand seedling trees and a num- 
ber of live partridges, were sent to Paris at the end of the first year. 

Michaux's first visit to South Carolina was made in September, 1787. 
He found Charleston a more suitable place for his nurseries, and made 
that city his headquarters during the rest of his stay in America. Michaux's 
journeys in this country after his establishment in Charleston are detailed 
in the Journal. They cover the territory of North America from Hudson's 
Bay to the Indian river in Florida, and from the Bahama islands to the 
banks of the Mississippi river. His ambition to carry out his instructions 
was equaled only by his courage and industry. The history of botanical 
exploration records no greater display of fortitude and enthusiasm in the 
pursuit of knowledge, than Michaux showed in his journey to the head- 
waters of the Savannah river in December, 1788, when his zeal was re- 
warded by the discovery of Rhortia, or in the return from his visit to 
Hudson's Bay. The hardship of this last journey even did not satisfy his 
cravings for adventure and discovery ; and shortly after his return he laid 
before the American Philosophical Society a proposition to explore the un- 
known region which extended beyond the Missouri. His proposition 
was well received. The sum of five thousand dollars was raised by sub- 
scription to meet the expenses of the journey ; all arrangements were 
made and he was about to start when he was called upon by the Minister 
of the French Republic, lately arrived in New York, to proceed to Ken- 
tucky, to execute some business growing out of the relations between 
France and Spain with regard to the transfer of Louisiana. It was this 
suggestion of Michaux, no doubt, which led Mr. Jefferson, who had re- 
garded it with great favor, to send a few years later the first transcon- 
tinental expedition to the shores of the Pacific. 

This political journey, and a second made into the far West, occu- 
pied Michaux for nearly three years longer. He returned finally to 
Charleston in the spring of 1796. His nurseries were in a most 

1833.] [[Sargent. 

flourishing condition; they were stocked with the rarest Americin 
plants collected during years of labor and hardship ; and with many 
of those plants of the old world which Michaux was the first to intro- 
duce into the United States. His services to this country in this \i ay 
were considerable. The tallow tree, Stillingia sebifera, now often culti- 
vated and somewhat naturalized in the Southern States, and the beautifi 1 
Albizzia Jalibrissin, were first planted in the United States by him. The 
possibility of improving the condition of this country by the introductit n 
of the Olive and other foreign trees was a subject which always deeply 
interested Michaux, and his knowledge of botany and of the agriculture 
of the Old World was in variably placed at the disposal of the people among 
whom his travels carried him. It is said that he first taught the settlers 
in the Alleghany mountains the value of the Ginseng, and showed them 
how to prepare it for the Chinese market a service which gained for him 
a membership in the exclusive Agricultural Society of Charleston. 

El is movements for several years had been impeded, and the success of 
his journeys interfered with by the lack of financial support from the 
French government, and Michaux found, on his return to South Carolina, 
that his resources were entirely exhausted. An obscure botanical traveler, 
almost forgotten in a distant land, had little hope of recognition from Paris 
during the closing years of the last. century, and it was now evident that 
he could depend no longer on support and assistance from France. He 
determined, therefore, rather than sell the trees which he longed to see 
flourishing on French soil, to return to Paris. 

Michaux sailed from Charleston on the thirteenth of August, 1796. The 
voyage was tempestuous and ended in disaster. On the eighteenth of 
September the vessel encountered a severe storm off the coast of Holland. 
She was blown upon the shore and the crew and passengers, worn out by 
exposure and fatigue, would have perished but for the assistance of the 
inhabitants of the little village of Egmont. Michaux fastened himself to 
a plank and finally was washed ashore, unconscious and more dead than 
alive. His baggage was lost, but his precious packages of plants which 
were stored in the hold of the vessel were saved, though saturated with 
salt water. He remained in Egmont for several weeks to regain his 
strength and to dry and rearrange his plants, and did not reach Paris 
until January. He was received with great distinction and kindness by 
the botanists of the Museum, but a bitter disappointment awaited him. 
An insignificant number only of the six thousand trees which he had sent 
to France during the eleven years he had passed in America remained 
alive. The storms of the Revolution and of the Empire had swept through 
the nurseries of Rambouillet, and Michaux's American trees were de 
stroyed or hopelessly scattered. 

This was the greatest disappointment of his life, but he was not discour- 
aged. All his influence was employed to secure from the French govern- 
ment another commission to return to America for a fresh supply of 
material for the Rambouillet nurseries. He was not, however, to see the 

Sargent.] [Oct. 19, 

New World again. His salary had not been paid for seven years, his per- 
sonal resources were exhausted, and the government was unwilling or 
unable to assist him. 

Baudin wag ahout to sail for New Holland on his voyage of discovery, 
and Michaux was given the opportunity of accompanying him as natu- 
ralist. He finally accepted this offer, somewhat unwillingly, for his 
thoughts and his longings were all directed towards America, and only on 
condition that he might leave the vessel at the Isle of France, should cir- 
cumstances seem to make it desirable for him to do so. Baudin sailed 
on the 18th of October, 1800, and touched at Teneriffe, where Michaux 
was able to make valuable botanical collections, and reached the Isle 
of France on the 19th of February, the following year. Here after a 
stay of six months, in which Michaux made his first acquaintance with 
the vegetation of the real tropics, he left the party for the purpose of 
exploring the island of Madagascar, which seemed to offer a more useful 
field than New Holland for his labors. 

Helanded on the east coast, and at once set about laying out a garden in 
which he hoped to establish, provisionally, the plants he intended to bring 
back from his journeys in the interior. Impatient of the delays caused by 
the indolence of the natives he had employed to prepare the ground, 
Michaux, in spite of the warnings of persons familiar with the danger of 
exposure and over-exertion under a tropical sun, insisted upon working 
himself day after day. He was soon prostrated with fever, but his vigor- 
ous constitution and indomitable will enabled him to resist the attack, and 
his health being partially restored at the end of four months he was ready 
to start for the mountains. His preparations were all made, but on the 
eve of his departure, late in November, 1802, he was attacked again with 
fever, and died suddenly. 

Andre Michaux was only fifty-six years old, still in the prime of life 
and possessed of all his powers, when his useful career was thus suddenly 
brought to an end. Personally little is known of Michaux beyond what 
may be learned from the perusal of his Journal. No portrait of him is 
now known to exist.* He is said to have possessed a frank though some- 
what taciturn nature, a not uncommon character in men who have passed 
their lives in solitary wanderings or who have been long exposed to the 
hardships and the dangers of the wilderness. His tastes were simple, and 
the independence of his character was only equaled by his modesty and un- 
ostentatious kindness to all persons with whom his wanderings brought 
him in contact. 

Michaux's cultivation and literary ability, judged by his Journal, , were 
not great ; and his reputation as an author is due to the fact that his name 
was printed upon the title page of the classical " Flora BorectH- Americana," 
which Richard drew up largely from the plants collected by Michaux in 

* According to Deleuze, the administration of the Museum voted in 1804 to place a bust 
of Michaur in the garden in recognition of his services to natural science. It does not 
appear, however, that it was ever made ; at least the botanists of the Museum have 
now no recollection of it, and I have been unable to find any trace of this or of any 
other portrait of Andr6 Michaux. 

1888.] [Sargent. 

North America, and upon the " Histoire des Chene8deVAmerique t "vf\\\ch, 
if Richard did not write, he or some author of greater literary skill than 
Michaux possessed must have recast and corrected. The work upon the 
Oaks did not appear till 1801, when Michaux had left France for Mada- 
gascar, while the Flora was not published until 1803, a year after 
his death. Two shorter memoirs are ascribed to the pen of Michaux an 
article upon the Date Palm and its Cultivation, read before the National 
Institute of France and published in the Journal de Physique, and a paper 
containing the results of his observations upon the Ginseng communicated 
to the Agricultural Society of Charleston. 

The reputation of Michaux, however, does not depend upon his literary 
attainments and achievement ; he worked in the field and in the forest 
and not in the closet. Not one among the self-sacrificing explorers and 
collectors of the plants of this continent better deserves the gratitude and 
appreciation of the world of science. No one of them has ever seen more 
clearly, or has endured more willingly and uncomplainingly the perils 
and hardships of the frontier and the wilderness. His eye always detected 
the rarest and the most interesting plants the ambition and long the 
despair of the plant-hunters who have now for a century been following 
in his footsteps.* 

c. s. s. 



Pendant pies de onze ans que mon Pere a presque chaque annee visit 4 
une partie de 1'Union, il n'a cesse d'eprouver dans ses voyages la bien- 
veillance la plus marquee de la part des habitants des endroits ou il faisoit 
quelque sejour. Le plaisir qu'il en ressentoit 6toit du a la bonte* de son 
caractere et a sa severe moralite". Partput on ne cessoit d'admirer son zele 
ardent pour aj outer aux progres des sciences naturelles et plus particu- 
lierement de la Botanique. 

Campant presque toujours dans les bois, c'etoit la nuit a la lueur du feu 
que mon pere ecrivoit les reuiarques qu'il avoit faites dans le jour. 

Si ces journaux que j'offre a la societe Philosophique de Philadelphie 
(a la quelle j'ai 1'honneur d'appartenir) ne renferme rien qui soit utile aux 
Botanistes Americains a venir, au moins ils pourront 8tre assures d'avoir 
sous les yeux, les notes tracees par la main d'un homme qui consacra une 
grande partie de son existence au progres de la Botanique : L'existence 
qu'il perdit (si je puis m'exprimer ainsi), les armes a la main dans des 
laborieuses recherches, sur les c6tes de Tlsle de Madagascar. 


Paris le 15 Janvier , 182%. 

P. S. Les deux cahiers de 1785 (septembre) a 1787 ont ete perdus dans 
son naufrage sur les cdtes de Hollande. 

* It is only two years since Shortia was discovered in or near Michanx's original locality. 
His other plants have, I believe, all been found, with the exception of lllicium parvi- 
florum (since collected, however, by Charles Wright in Cuba). 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 


2d CAHIER. 1787. 

Avril, 1787. 

Journal de mon Voyage. 

Jeudy 19 Avril venu de Chariest, a la Plant. 

Le 19 Avril 1787 parti de la Plantat. et venu coucher a Ashley ferry 10 M. 

Le Venredy 20. Styrax angustifol. et latifol. en fleur, Nyssa aquatica 
en fl. et Sarracenia lutea altera species. Venu a un Mille ou deux de Par- 
ker's ferry distant de Charleston de 32 Milles. 

Le 21. sur les bords de la rivierre en entrant dans le bois ; a main gauche, 
avant de passer le ferry nomm Parker's ferry sur la rivierre Eddisto, 
trouv6 un Gleditsia . . . trois esp. de Mespilus et un arbriss. lai- 
teux fleurs en grappes non epanouies et quelques fruits de 1'annee der- 
niere resseniblans aun Tithymalus (Stillingia),* plus un pin a 2 feuilles.f 
En continuant la route pour passer a Ashpao ferry j'ai trouve" plusi. Pins 
a deux feuilles. Nous somuies venus coucher a deux Milles au de la de 
Ashpao ferry. 

Le Dimanche 22. passe le ferry nomme Combahee bridge situe a dix 
Milles du precedent sur Combahie riv. Un peu avant d'arriver a ce 
ferry entre la PI. de M. Dais recueilli une Plante bulbeuse fl. en Spathe 
(Pancratium mexic.J) au nombre de 2 communement. Cal. tubule partage 
regulierement en 6, six e"tam, dont les filets etant tres longs sortent de 
1'extreinite d'une espece de corolle (blanche) nectarife ; pistille long, 
germe inferieure. Apres avoir pas^e le ferry a la distance de q ques milles 
on trouve assez abondamment le Nyssa a larges f. dentees. 

Le 23 notre marche fut de 13 milles et nous passames . . . Nous 
traversames plusi. prairies steriles ct humectees continuellement par la 
Mer, ne produisant que des joncs. 

Arrive au lieu du campemeut je recueilli une Verbena longiflora Cal. 
5 partit. laciniis subulatis. Coroll. presque irreguliere, tub. long. Entree 
de la Cor. velue et le tube audessous des etarn. aussi velu. Etam. 4 dont 
il y en a 2 plus courtes. Pist. germe a 4 angles style de la longeur du tube. 

Fleurs en Epi. ; f. oppos. pinnatifides. 

Le 24 Avril. notre marche fut de 12 Milles et nous campames a 7 Milles 
de dist. des Tow| Sisters. Notre marche fut toujours dans les bois, nous 
vimes seulment trois plants, situees a q qu. distances de la route et sur 
des lieux bas et moins steriles. En general on lie peut voyager dans un pays 
plus sterile. Les bois sont compos de Pins. Dans les parties humides, 
je vis des Nyssa aquatica Cupressus disticha et Gordonia lasianthus. 

Le 25 nous fimes une traite de huit Milles et nous vinmes loger a la 

* Stittingia ligustrina, here noticed for the first time. C. S. S. 

t Probably the Pinus glabra of the Flora, Caroliniana, published one year later in Lon- 
don, by Thomas Walter. C. S. S. 
J Pancratium rotatum. C. S. S. 
\ Verbena aubletia. 
U Two. C. S. S. 

1888.] 9 [Michaux 

maison du ferry sur la rive gauche de la rivierre Savanah, situee a tine dis- 
tance egale de Parisbourg et de Abicorn. 

Pendant cinq ou six milles, le terrain continua d'etre aride ne produi- 
sant q. des Pins et dans les lieux humides des Cypres. 

Trois milles avant d'arriver au ferry, il parut argilleux et ensuite nous 
trouvames un sol sablonneux. mais inegal et forme en collines produisant 
beaucoup de plantes que je n'avais pas vu prece Jemment. Je recueillis 
deux especes de Lupins, scav. Lupinus perennis et le Lupin, pilosus ;* 
deux especes de Verbena scav. Verbena . . . et Verbena carol iniana. 
Deux especes d' Asclepias. Plusi. espe-jes de Tythymalis. Dans les swamps, 
le Nyssa a f. dentees, Stillingia sylvatica. Une espeee d'Annona.f etc. 

En arrivant sur le bord de la riv., je vis la Sideroxilon toinax.t Un 
Ligustrumg (monospermum?). 

Annona 2 especes. Magnolia grandif. 

Dans les lieux submerges et couverts Betula papyrifera, || Platanus, Gle- 
ditsia, Nyssa, etc., etc. 

Je tuai le matin un tres beau serpent a bandes jaunes, noires et rouges, 
ces coul. etoient bien vives et bien marquees. Je tuai trois serpents de 
1'espece appel. Mocassine, Tun etait de 3 pi. 9 pouces de long et 8 po. 
de circonf. Mon fils tua une autre espece appelee Black Snake, serp. noir. 
Celui-ci est 1'ennemi du serpent sonnette et quoiqu'il ne soit pas veni- 
rneux, il reussit a le faire perir uniquement par sa vitesse et la rapidite de 
sa course (si Ton pent nommer course 1'action progressive d'un animal 
qui n'a point de pieds). Le serpent sonnette se traine pesemment et 
s'eloigne rarement du lieu de sa retraite qui est ordinairement les cavites 
forme*es par les racines et la terre d'un arbre pourrrou renverse. Lorsque 
le serpent noir rencontre son adversaire, it court avec rapidite sur son 
corps et passe au de la, il revient avec la mme vitesse et continue jusqu'a 
ce que le serpent sonnette paries efforts reiteres pour mordre son enuemi, 
se mord lui me me et se donne ainsi la mort par le venin de sa morsure. 

Le 26 apres avoir visite environ un Mille sur cette riv. nou passames 
dans un bateau de 1'autre c6 e de la riv. que nous descendimes pendant 4 
Milles jusqu'a un endroit borde de collines et couvert de bois ou je re- 
cueillis le Dirca palustris, Kahnia qui differe un peu du latifolia par la 
couleur des fl. Uu Azalea coccinea^ dont la couleur est un rouge fonce 
dans toutes les parties de la fleur. Quoiq. cette couleur ne soit pas tres 
vive, cet arbrisseau sera un des plusagreables pourl'ornem't des Jard. II 
paroit avoir du rapport av. 1'Azalea nudiflora. 

Je recueillis laSilene Virginica, je vis beaucoup de Chionantlius Un Mag- 

* L. villosus, Willd. C. S. S. 

t Asimina parviflora Dunal, a common plant in this region. C. S. S. 
% Bumelia tenax.C. S. S. 
\ Olea Americana. C. S. S. 

I No doubt B. nigra, the only species found near the coast of the Southern States. 
C. S. S. 
H" Rhododendron nudiftorum Torr. (Azalea canescens, Michx.). C. S. S. 


Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

nolia en fleurs cle la grandeur et de la forme de celles du Magnol. tripetala, 
odeur tres agreable au lieu que dans le Magn. tripet. L'odeur de son 
bois est agreable mais celle des fl. ne Test pas ; il differe du Magnol. par^ 
ses feuilles qui sont petiolees de la longueur de deux pouces et cordi- 
formes a 1'insert de la feuill. qui est longue et terminee par une espece 
de 3 angles.* Un tres grand arbriss. que je crois 1'Andromeda arbo- 
rea, il n'etait pas en fleur, mais les grappes de sem. de 1'ann. preced. 
et le gout acide des f. me firent jugerque ce peut etre 1'And. arborea. Nous 
passames le ferry vers les 2 h. apr. Midy et nous trouvames les chem. si 
mauvais que no. f imes seulemt deux milles in 5 heures de temps. II fallut 
passer de la hauteur des jambes des chev. dans la Vase et qq. f. dans 
1'eau. Dans un endroit ou le pont avoit ete rompu il fallut que les chev. 
passassent a la nage. 

Le 27 nous retrouvames le sol assez aride, mais dans les ravines ou ruis. 
d'eau qui ne coule pas continuelleint. je recueillis 1'Azaleaf couleur de 
feu. La couleur de cet Azal. qui est dans toutes les parties de la fl. aussi 
foncee, Corolle, Etam. etPistille, est celle de 1'Hemerocallisfulva, mais dans 
les lieux plus decouverts et rnoins ombrage*s cet couleur est encore plus 
forte. Apres avoir marche pendt Milles nous arrivames a une espece de 
mauvais hameau appele ici ville, compost seulement de 4 ou 5 maisons. 
Ce lieu est nomme Ebenezer. A un Mille de ce lieu, touj. en suivant la 
route de Savanah dans des lieux bas convert de Betula papyrifera:}: et pi es 
d'une rivierre nominee . . . je recueillis la Gleditsiag capsula ovali 
unicum semen claudente, j'y recueillis plusi. Plantes rernarquables ; une 
espece d'Asclepias|| a f, oppo. eiroites, tig. tres menues, grirnpantes, les 
fl. ne paraissoient pas encore, mais les siliq. de 1'annee precedente etoient 
rassembl. en bouquets, tres longues et menues ; je trouvois q. ques sem. a 
aigrettes dans les Siliques. Je recueillis dans ce lieu un autre arbriss. 
grimpant ayant beaucoup de rapport au Bignonia senipervirens. Un 
Polygala rosea? Un Astragalus, etc., etc. Arethusa divaricata et Are- 
thusaTJ" ophioglossoides et une autre espece que je nomme Limodoruna. 
(Nota : ayant trouve 1' Arethusa bulbosa aupres de New York, outre que 
j'ay complette" les trois especes indique'es par Linn. , j'ai aussi acquis une 
4me.) Nous couchaines dans une Plantation habitue par une Hollandaise 
qui nous fournit plusi. provisions et la permission de visiter ses Bois ou je 
trouvai une varie*te du Halesia nommee par q.q. une diptera. 

Le 28 Nous marchaines pendant douze Milles. 

Le Dimanche du 29. notre marche fut de neuf Milles et nous vinrnes 
camper aupres de Savanah. 

Le 30, nous restames a Savanah. Le Matin je fis une herborisation, je 

* Magnolia Fraseri, Walt. C. S. S. 

t Rhododendron calendulaceum, Torr. (Azalea calendulacea ; the var. a.flammea of Mich- 
aux's Flora, i, 151). C. S. S. 
t B. nigra.C. S. S. 
I Oleditsia monosperma.C. S. S. 

|| Apocynum cannabinum. (Perhaps a species of Gonolobus.C. S. S.) 
fl Pogonia. Calopogon, pulcfiellus.C. S. S. 

1888.] [Michaux. 

vis une espece de* Palmier different du Chamserops de Caroline ayant 
une tige au lieu que celui des environs de Charleston est sans tige, ses 
feuilles sortent de la souche interi. aussi bien la tige qui porte la fructifica- 
tion, de meme que dans 1'Osmunda cinnamomea. Les feuilles different 
aussi et j'en parleraycyapres. Je revins bientot a la ville et je passay la 
journee a des visiles. 

Le premier May 1787, la journee fut employee a faire les provisions 
necessaires pour continuer notre voyage. La ville de Savanah est com- 
posee d'environ cent cinquante maisons situees pres la rivi. de ce nom, 
sur une hauteur forme's par des sables que les vents ont accumules. La 
ville est trace"e regulierement, mais le peu de maisons qui y sont constru- 
ites, n'y font pas apercevoir cette regularite dont se vantent les habitants. 
Les rues sont tres larges et le sol qui est forme d'un sable mouvant aug- 
mente la chaleur et l'incommodite que Ton eprouve dans ce climat qui est 
toujours tres chaud. 

Le 2. nous marchames pendant douze milles et la pluye nous obligea de 
coucher dans une petite maison inhabitee qui se trouva pres de la route. 
Je vis plus de Magnolia grandiflora que je n'en avais vu precedement. 
Des Nyssa fol. acute dentatis et un Tradescantia umbellata florib. roseis. 

Le 3 May nous marchames pendant seize milles. Nous passames Oge- 
chee ferry situe" sur la rivierre d'Ogechee et un mille avant d'arriver a ce 
ferry je trouvay la Nyssa- Ogecheef de Bartram. Get arbre pourrait tre 
regarde comme un arbrisseau s'il ne differe point de grandeur dans 
d'autres lieux. II a beaucoup de rapport av. la Nyssa foliis acute dentatis, \ 
mais les feuilles sont ovales et tout a fait entieres, velues par dessous. 
Sur les bords de cette rivierre aux lieux innondes et parmi les roseaux je 
recueillis la Zizania palustrisg 6 etamines dans les fl. J\ et les fleurs 9 
separees, mais sur le rnenie pied. Au meme lieu, je recueillis le Pancra- 
tium mexicanum parmi les roseaux, les endroits les plus humides et meme 
q.q. fois submerges. 

Le 4, notre marche fut de huit milles et je ne vis rien de tres remarqu- 
able. Le pluye de la nuit precadente avoit retarde notre depart. 

Le 5. notre marche fut de six milles et nous trouvames abondamment 
un Andromeda que je nommeray ferruginea, un Kalmia ? repens dont les 
feuilles sont poi ues. Les fl. sont tres tardives. A force de chercher je 
trouvay une sorte fl. dont les etamines different de celles des autres An- 
dromeda. Je recueillis un Arum a tige maculae, mais le Spathe aussi blanc 
que la fleur d'un Lys. Je recueillis une autre plante de la famille des Annon. | 
Cal. 3 phyll. Pet. 6, 3 interiorib. Nectariferis st. plurima Germina 5. 

* Chamoerops recurvata caule. (Sabal sernilata, R. & S. C. S. S.) 

t Bartram's name of Nyssa Ogeche adopted by Marshall in his Arbustum, published in 
1785, may properly supersede Walter's name, N. capitata, which was not published 
until three years later (1788). Following the common spelling of the name of the river, 
it should, however, be written Ogeechee. C. S. S. 

J .V. uniflora Walt.-C. S. S. 

g Zizania miliacea. Michaux, Flora, i, 74. 

I Annona lanceolate. (One of the dwarf species of Asimina. C. S. S.) 

Michaux.] 12 [Oct. 19, 

Le 6 May nous sejournames a Sunbury et nous essayames les mo} T ens 
d'aller a St. Augustine, mats nous revinmes a 6 milles House. Ce meine 
jour mon fils partit avec un domestique et un autre voyageur anglois pour 
aller visiter les bords-de la rivierre Altamaha et moi je vins sejourner dans 
une auberge situee a 6 milles de Sunbury a cause d'un mal de la jambe qui 
empiroit depuis plusieurs jours. Ce mal fut cause par la piqure d'un insecie 
dont les bois sont remplis et le frottement continuel du cheval sur cette 
partie produisit un abses et une inflammation considerable. 

Le 7. Je visitay a pied les environs, je m'occupay a decrire plusi. 
plantes que le temps ne ni'avoit pas permis les jours precedents. Le 8 fut 
employe aux mgines occupations. 

Le l> ni Sines occupations et je tiray par ecrit le nombre des plantes 
recueillies, je rangeai mon herbier par ordre. 

Le 10. Je me mis en route pour Augusta et notre marche fut de vingt 
cinq milles. Nous passames la riv. Ogechee. 

Le 11 nous marchames pendant vingt cinq milles et nous vinmes cou- 
cher a Fifteen milles House, quinze milles de distance de Savacah. 

Le 12 May, notre marche fut de six milles et nous avons canipe a vingt 
et un milles de Savanab et environ quatre milles d'Ebenezer. Une petite 
rivierre qui passe cet endroit au bas de la prairie ou nous avons campe. 
me procure, la recolte d'un Halezia diptera dont j'avois toujours doute 
jusqu' alors; je recueillis le Populus heterophyl. un arbrisseau a f. oppo. 
les fruits murs et tombes la pi u part avoient la ressemblance de celui 
d'un Viburn. Un Mespilus? ties grand arbriss. a fruits tres rouges* sur 
la colline qui borde cette rivierre. Le Zizania palust. Chelone glabra, Gle- 
ditsia aquatica Vinca lutea ? Vers le soir sur un creek qui borde la maison 
d'une Veuve Hollandoise, je vis plusieurs Halezia diptera, grand arbris- 
seau et dans ce Creek boucoup de Zizania palust. 

Le Dimanclie treize May, nous avons fait quinze milles et nous avons 
campe sur la chaine de Collines qui borde la rivierre de Savanah vis a vis 
du ferry appelle Two Sisters (les deux soeurs). Je retrouvay en cet en- 
droit 1' Andromeda arborca piet a fleurir. 

Le 14. notre marche fut de neuf milles. Nous passames chcz le capit. 
Prevott fils d'un ancien franc, >is. II me mena dans une partie de bois qui 
abonde en Annona dont il faisoit avec 1'ecorce des cordages assez forts en 
la faisant rouir. 

Le 15 au matin, nous nous apercumes que nos chevaux avoient e.e voles 
depuis une heure. Selon 1'usage, lorsque 1'on trouve de bonne prairie et 
que Ton est trop eloigne des habitations, on campe aupres d'une source et 
1'on met a chaque cheval une sonnette. J'avois pratique" toutes ces pre- 
cautions. Outre cela, j'avois coutunie de me lever plusieurs fois dans la 
nuit, je les vis a 3 heures du matin et a 4 heures un quart ils etoient dis- 

Nous les cherchames toute la journee et nous envoyames de tous les 

* This could only have been Cratasgus asstivalis, Torr. & Gray, as no other species could 
have had red fruit the month of May. C. S. S. 

1888.] [Michaux. 

cotes pour avoir des informations. Les habitants du lieu, nous dirent 
qu'ils avoient e:e voles. Nous rencontrames deux particuliers qui cou- 
roient armes apres un certain Capitaine connu dans les environs pour voler 
les chevaux. 

Le 1G. nous fumes occupes aux rnSmes recherches et nous \inmes cou- 
cher seulement a quatre niilles de distance, dans une auberge. 

Le 17 nous envoyames des Lettres aux differentes parties du District, 
particulierement chez le capitaine Major Revots et a Savanah. Enfin je 
lesolus de continuer avec mon fils le voyage a pied etnous ^nmes couclier 
seulement a trois milles de distance de 1'auberge. Le maitre de 1'auberge 
ou nous passames la nuit, nous promit, moyennant une recompense de 
faire tous ses efforts po. les retrouver s'ils etaient seulement egares et la 
18. nous passames une partie de la journee a les chercher. Nous vinmes 
cependant coucher a quatre milles de distance du lieu d'ou nous etions 

Le 19. notre marche fut de quatorze milles et nous campames pres d'un 
pont sur la rivierre Beaver Dam Creek. Un pen avant d'arriver a Beaver 
Dam je recueillis sur la route, etant alors a 60 milles de distance d' Augusta, 
un Rumex*arbriss. que je uommeray Lapathum occidentale, grand arbriss, 
de 25 a 30 pieds de haul, il se trouve aussi pres. de la rivierre Altamalia. 
d'ou mon fils me 1'avoit apporte les jours precedents. 

Le Dimanche 20 May, nous avons fait une marche de quatre milles et 
nous couchames dans une petite maison situee pres de la route, a cause de 
la pluie. Le sol est tres sablonneux et sterile. 

Le 21. notre marche fut de 10 milles et nous campames pres une auberge 
situee a 45 milles d'Augusta. Le sol change en ce lieu et est une argile 
melee de sable ; dans quelques parties, ferrugineux. II est garni de q. ques 
collines sur les quelles je reconnus le Calycanthus et le Robinia hispida. 
Nous eumes le certitude en ce lieu que nos chevaux avoient ete voles ; un 
particulier des lieu ou ils furent pris, ayant perdu deux des siens, courut 
apres un certain capit. connu dans les environs po. voler les chevaux. 
II 1'atteignit et le tua. Son complice qui s'etoit empaie des notres, echappa 
et pris la route de la Nation Creek. 

Le 22. nous avons marche 1'espace de dix milles non compris les courses 
que nous etions oblige de faire hors de la grande route, lorsque nous ap- 
percevions des collines ou des swamps ou d'autres variations de sol qui 
fournissent differentes Plantes. 

Le 23 nous avons marche seulement Tespace de deux milles et en de- 
scendant une colline, une roue de la voiture qui nous servoit a transporter 
nos recoltes et nos provisions fut brisee. 

La journee du 23 May et du 24 furent employees a visiter plusieurs col- 
lines de ce District et je reconnus en ce lieu la Trillium cernuum et sessile, 
Cypripedium calceolaria flore luteo, Calycanthus . . . Zanthoriza ou 
Marboisia & ... 

Le 25 nous avons fait douze milles en approchant d'Augusta. Nous 

* Brunnichia cirrhosa, Banks? C. S. S. 

Michaux.] - [Oct 19, 

vines un sol aride et sablonneux a 1'exception d'une partie ties humide 
que nous ffiines obliges de traverser dans 1'eau jusqu' aux genoux et le 
reste se trouva un torrent qu'il fall ut traverser sur un arbre moyen a fleur 
d'eau au risque d'etre attaque par les alligators qui abondoient en ce lieu. 

Le 26 nous avons fait dix milles et nous passames une petite rivierre dont 
le pont ayant etc rompu par le debordement des eaux, il fallut travailler 
dans 1'eau pour le reparer de maniere a y passer avec une voiture. Nous 
arrivames enfin a Augusta. Les Alligators ou Caimans abondent dans les 
ruisseaux, torrents et swamps de la Georgie et mme de la Caroline. Nous 
cessames d'en voir ici et nous aurions ete tres embarrasses, ayant passe plus 
de 3 heures dans 1'eau po. reparer le miserable pont ou il falloit passer. 

Le Dimanche 27, nous sejournames a Augusta. On est si scrupuleux 
en Am. q. Ton n'ose pas sortir ni m@me se promener le Dimanche dans 
les grandes villes. 

Le 28 j 'allay visiter le Colonel Le Roy Hammond dont 1'habitation est 
situee a 3 milles cl' August a dans la Caroline du Sud. parce que Ton est en 
Carol, aussitot que 1'on a passe la riv. de Savanali sur laq. Augusta est situee. 
Je revins le meine jour parceque le Colonel n'etoit pas chez lui, quoique 
jc rcQusse toutes sortes de civilitesde sonepouse. Jevisaussi deux demoi- 
selles ses nieces qui etoient ties aimables et cette maison me parut tres 
distinguee a tons egards pour les bonnes man ie res, la richesse et 1'elegance. 
Uu avocat de Ninety Six se char^a de me donner une lettre de recomman- 
dation pour le District de Kiowi ou je me proposois d'aller. Je suivis tou- 
jours la riv. po. revenir a Augusta et je recueillis un Pavia (spicata). Un 
nouveau Vaccinium . . . Aquilegia ? . . . 


Annon. . . . 

La ville d' Augusta est une des plus agreablement situees de toute 1'Am. 
Sept., mais composee de peu de maisons. II y a trois ans on en comptoit 
seulement douze et actuellement il y en a cent vingt, on y manque me me 
des denrees les plus necessaires aux voyageurs parceq. les habit, font leurs 
provis. seulement po. eux memes. Les habitants la plupart sont oisifs, 
joueurs et adonnes au Rum don't les habitants de tout age et de tons 
rangs en Ameriq. boivent avec extes. 

Des negociants anglois y tiennent des entrepots ou magasins po. le com- 
merce des objets necessaires aux habitants des parties recules derrieres de 
la Caroline et de la Georgie. 

Le 29. la pluye nous obligea de rester toute la journee sans pouvoir partir 
d'Augusta. Nous fumes informes a Augusta qu'un certain Mr. Fraser* 
Ecoss. envoj'e pour recueillir des arbri?s. d'ornement au compte des 
Fepinieristes anglois, avoit perdu ses deux chevaux. Get homme etoit 

* John Fraser, a Scotchman, made several visits to North America between 1780 and 
1810, for the purpose of collecting plants and seeds. A sketch of his botanical career, 
accompanied by his portrait and a list of his principal discoveries and introductions, ap- 
peared in .he Companion to the Botanical Magazine, Vol. ii, p. 300. The value of his con- 
tributions to English gardens has, perhaps, never been surpas&ed by those of any botan- 
cal traveler. C. S. 8. 

1878.] .[Michaux. 

parti de Chariest, avcc moi et avoit jure de me suivre partout ou j'aurois 
e e". J'avois accepte" sa compagnie parceque etant anglois, j'avois espe*ie* 
qu'il auroit plus de ressources po. se procurer les objets necessaircs dans 
ces parties me*ridionales si peu peuplees. Mais son pen de connaissance 
en hist. nat. dont il vouloit s'occuper particuli. a 1'egard des Insectes et en 
Botaniq. lui faisoit recueillir en abondance des objets de peu de valeur et 
ties connus telsque le Prinos glaber, Ceanothus . . . Styrax. 11 
perdoit un temps piecieux qu'il auroit pu employer a recueillir des objets 
plus interessauts, s'il avoit su les connoitre. Quoique je fusse continuelle- 
ment fatigue de ses questions et de son ignorance qui jointe au peu de con- 
fiance, le portoient a recueillir une infinite de productions monstrueuses 
dont les plantes sont chargees infiniment plus en Am. que clans 1'ancien 
continent a cause de la temperature humide. J'avois touj. voyage avec lui 
en bonne intelligence, mais ayant perdu mes chev. 12 jo. avant d'arriver 
a Augusta, je profitay de cette circonstance po. lui dire qu' aj r ant 1'inten- 
tion de chercher mes chev. il ne devoit pas m'attendre plus long temps et 
continuer son voyage. Des ce moment nous nous se'parames. 

Le 30 nous somtnes partis d' Augusta et nous avons fait seulement cinq 
milles a cause d'une pluye qui dura toute la journe'e. Je n'avoio aucune 
affaire a Augusta, mais la difficulte de trouver des provisions nous avoit 
oblige d'y rester trois jours. II y a un seul Boulanger et il ne fut pas pos- 
sible de la re^oudre a nous cuire du pain pour q. qnes. jours parcequ'il 
craignoit lui mStne en manquer. II ne voulut pas non plus nous vendre 
de la farine. Nous n'en trouvames pas chez aucun Marchand et il ne fut 
pas possible de trouver a acheter du Mays po. le cheval et de la farine de 
mays po. notre provision a nous me me. 

Le 31 nous avons fait douze milles par un chemin rempli de souches et 
nouveau au travers des bois. Nous rencontrames plusieurs plantations 
dans les quelles nous demandions a acheter de la farine de Mays, car on 
ne peut se procurer d'autre pain. Un Planteur honnte a 5 milles d'Au- 
gusta nous en ceda un demi boisseau. II se nommait Mr. Pece et nous 
rec,ut avec beaucoup de civilites parceque no. elions franqois. II nous 
regala gratuitement de laitage et autres menues provisions. 11 nous dit 
que le grand nombrc de cultivateurs arrives de la Virginie du Maryland et 
autres parties sept, pour s'etablir dans ces parties recule"es de la Georgie 
avoit tellement fait hausser le prix du mays que Ton craignoit une dis- 
ette. En effet cette denre"e est ici de premiere necessite et Ton y voit point 
de pain de froment. Les auberges y sont rares et Ton est oblige de cou- 
cher dans les bois. 
' Le ler Juin nous avons fait neuf milles. 

Nous passames Scot's ferry sur la rivierre de Savanali situe"a vingt-et un 
milles d' Augusta. Apies avoir passe la rivierre, nous avons fait cinq 
milles sans voir une seule habitation et le chemin peu fre*quente au travers 
des bois. 

Le sol est argilleux rougeatre et Ton trouve frequement des blocs de 
Quartz pur ; il se trouve des parties de mica et une seule fois je reconnua 

Michaux.] , [Oct. 19, 

du schite argilleux. A deux milles de distance de la riv. le sol est humide 
et souvent submerge, mais on y voit pas d'Alligators. 

Le 2 Juin nous avons fait douze milles sans voir une seule habitation et 
sans trouver d'eau. Le chemin etait a peine frave. Je tuai deux ecu- 
reuils noirs et deux oiseaux : 1'un etoitune Pic et 1'autre un oiseau qui me 
parut du genre des Pincons gros bees, mais plumage jaunatre, je trouvay 
dans son gesier des debris de Scarabejs. 

Je ne trouvay aucune nouvelle plante. Les bois etoient composes de 
Pins a 2 feuilles.* Chenes noirs blancs, Diospyros etc. 

Je rencontray dans un endroit humide 1'Andromeda arborea ; un ruis- 
seau qui s'y trouva nous engagea a y souper et a y passer la nuit. 

Le Diraanche 3 Juin. nous avons fait dix milles. Le difficulte que nous 
eprouvames a passer un torrent d'eau, nous y retient plus d'une heure et 
demie, e"tant oblige de decharger la voiture et de transporter sur le cheval 
lous les effets, livres, herbiers &c. Nous passames sur 1'etablissement 
franQois appele la nouvelle Bordeaux. Les habitations sont si ecarlees les 
unes des autres que je n'en visitay qu'un seul. Les franqois de cet etab- 
lissement sont generalement estirnes po. la probite et les bonnes moeurs. 
Le sol est bon lorsque Ton arrive au lieu de leur (Itablissement, il est gen- 
eralement argilleux, de couleur rougeatre etl'on trouve des blocs de quariz 
adherent a la terre au lieu que le jour precedent ceux que je vis paroisoient 
Isolds et ne pas faire partie du sol ; en formantune masse generale. Dans 
les ruisseaux il ne se trouva que du quartz et du mica. Je trouvay sur les 
bords des ruisseaux la Dirca palustris et 1'Andromeda arborea. 

Le 4 nous avons fait seize milles ; nous avons vu un pays peu habile et 
mme deux plantations abandonnees, nous fumes cependant assex heureux 
de trouver une femme dans une pauvre Plantation qui nous vendit trois 
liv. de Beurre, nous regala de lait et nous fit du pain avec de la farine de 
mays que nous avions po. notre provision. Elle y ajouta de la farine de 
froment et du levain, de sorte que nous eumes de ties bou pain. Le soir 
nous approchames d'un lieu plus peuple nomme , . . 

Le sol se trouva ferro-argileux communement et ne produit pas d'herbe 
de sorte le cheval souffroit beaucoup ; les bois ayant e;e" biu es partout ou 
nous passames. Nous arrivames enfin dans un lieu ou il se trouva de 
1'herbe et une source d'eau. Nous recontrames plusieurs habitans qui 
revenoient de 1'eglise. Us nous dirent que nous allions trouver un pays 
plus habite, que nous ne devions pas craindre de perdre des chevaux en ce 
lieu, les habitants dece lieu ayant tous des principes de probite, des bonnes 
moeurs et de la religion, que ce meme jour, 300 d'eux avoient recu la com- 
munion sacramentale et qu'ils ne souffroient pas des etrangers et des 
avanturiers sans moeurs, s'etablir parmi eux. II y avoit parmi eux un 
riche Planteur nomme L'Esquire Coohm qui 6toit tres respecte des autres. 
Je trouvay pies de la source d'eau beaucoup de 1'Andromeda arborea, et 
j'en mesuray un qui portoit deux pieds six pouces de circonference a 3 
pieds de terre. 

* Pinus mitis.C. S. S. 

1888.] 1* [Michaux. 

Le 5, nous nous levames a 3 heures du matin po. plier bagage et nous 
mettre a 1'abri sous la voiture afin d'eviter un orage et une pluye ties con- 
siderable. Le temps devint beau vers midy et nous fimes quatres millcs. 
Nous arrivames a la Plantation du generale Andrew Pickens pour qui 
j'avois eu une lettre du Colonel Le Roy Hammond pres Augusta, il nous 
requt tres honnetement et nous couchames cljez lui. 

Le 6, nous avons fait dix sept milles. Nous passames chez le capit. 
Middle a sept milles de distance du Gen. Pickens. Je fis arrangement avec 
lui po. avoir des Dindons sauvages et il me promit que d'apres les informa- 
tions, a mon retour nous conviendrions du prix. 

Nous vinmes coucher chez un Planteur nomme* Th. Lee pres Rocky 
river. Le sol se trouva argill. et les pierres ou roches qui se rencontroient 
etoient de Quartz. Je trouvay q. quefois du granit compose de Quartz, de 
mica, de schorl et de mineray ferrugineux. J'appergus un hibou de la 
grosse espece comme tous ceux de la Caroline et 1'ayant tue, il tomba avec 
un serpent noir de 1'espece Veep-Coach (fouet de cocher). 

Le 7 nous avons fait 15 milles et nous vinmes coucher a Deep-Creek. 
Le sol fut un peu plus montagneux. 

Le 8 nous avons fait 15 milles et nous vinmes a Seneca. 

A dix milles de distance, nous traversames un torrent (Creek) sur le 
bord du quel je reconnus 1'Epigea repens, Kalmia latifol. Panax quinque- 
folia Je me promenay des le meme soir sur le bord d'une rivierre qui 
passe aupres du Fort Seneca, actuellemt le Fort Rutlege. Cette rivi. est 
appelee Kiwi-river ;* elle est profonde en differents endroits et d'autres 
sont remplis de rochers a fleur d'eau ; je recueillis 1' Hydrangea arborescens 
et je remarquay le Cornus alternifol. Kalmia latifolia, Zanthorhiza ou 
Marboisia, Panax quinquefolia. 

Le 9 Juin, nous allames av. un franqois nomme M. Martin qui s'toit 
etabli Planteur dans ce lieu po. engager deux sauvages a m'accompagner 
dans les Montag. qui separent 1'Etat de Caroline des nations sauvages 
Cherokees, Creek, Chickasaw, etc. . . . 

Les sauvages furent ties difficiles a consentir a m'accompagner, et non 
seulement pour le prix qui e*toit exhorbitant, mais aussi ils voulurent avoir 
un cheval po. eux deux. II fut encore plus difficile d'avoir un Interprete 
et je me resolus a aller seulenit avec un jeune homme et les deux sauvages 
que je clesirois. Je leur donnay Rendez-vous au lendemain po. conclure 
le traite, et po. les engager a me tenir parole, je leur promis un demi gallon 
de Rum. Je passai par un lieu abandonee des sauvages et qui avoit ele le 
lieu de la ville nomme Seneca. Je remarquay le Gleditsia dont ils se 
nourrisoient, des Pchers, des Pruniers sauvages. Je recueillis un chene 
noir que je n'avois vu dans aucun autre endroit de Carol, et Geo. 

Le Dimanche 10. les Sauvages vinrent avec un chef et plusi. autres de 
la nation. Apres leur avoir bien fait comprendre que je voulois visiter les 
sources de la riv. Kiwi et de la riv. Tugelo qui r unies, forment la riv. 
Savanah ; celles qui forment la riv. Tanase que se perd dans 1'Ohio ; et 

* The Keowee, the principal eastern fork of the Savannah river. C. S. S. 


Michaux.] lOct. 19, 

que je voulois aller jusqu' a Tanasce ; ils me dcmanderent cliacun une 
couverture et un Petticoat, la valeur de six dollars cliacun po. 12 j. que 
devoit durer le voyage. Je leurs promis, mais il fallut payer la moilie 
d'avance parceque disoient-ils beaucoup d'autres Blancs les avoient 
trompes. Je leur promis en outre que si je revenois content de mon voy- 
age je leur rernplirois le ventre de Rum. Ils furent tres satisfaits et me 
dirent qu'ils attendroient le lendemain le moment que je voudrois partir. 

Le 11 Juin, plusieurs honnetes habitants du lieu qui s'iuteressoient a 
nion voyage me fournirent des Provisions, 1'un me fit cuire du pain, fit 
moudre de la farine de mays, 1'autre m'envoya du mays, me pie;a un 
equipage de cheval &c. Je partis avec un jeune liomme qui avoit reside 
cinq mois chez les sauvages pour le Rendez-vous q. j'avois indique ct a 
inidi, nous nous mimes en route avec les sauvages que j'avois fourni de 
poudre et de plomb. Ils rne conduisirent alternativement par des mon- 
tagnes et des torrents que Ton appelle Creeks. Nous passames des en- 
droits tres escarped ce meme jour et nous traversames une petite riv. nom- 
inee Little river, elle est extieoiement rapide et je fus effraye lorsque je vis 
qu'il lalloit passer sur des roches qui etoient a un pied q. quefois deux 
sous 1'eau. Le courant etoit si rapide que tout autre qu'un sauvage 
auroit e;e entraine. Ces roches etoient en pente et couverles d'une mousse 
gluante. Je craignois la chute d'un de nos chevaux, mais il n'y avoit pas 
d'autre chemin et les sauvages ne sont pas assez complaisauts pour ecou- 
ter les reflections que Ton peut faire dans ces circonstances. Les torrents 
profonds et les bords de la riv. etoient converts du Rhododendron maxi- 
mum. Notre journee fut de douze milles. Les sauvages profiterent du 
jo. qui restoit po. aller a la chasse, mais n'ayaut rien tue tout le pain qu'on 
nous avoit prepare fut mange ce meme jour. 

Le 12, les deux sauvages allerent ties la pointe du jo. a la chasse et 
n'ayaut rien tue nous mangeames de la farine de mays bouillie dans 1'eau. 
A midy on fit une petite halte pour refraichir les chevaux et pour boire 
dans un ruiss. dont 1'eau etoit la plus pure et la meilleure q. 1'ou puisse 
boire en- Amerique. Pour nourriture a 1'exemple de mes deux sauvages, 
je trempay la farine de mays dans cette eau et cela fut notre diner. La 
mauvaise chere et les mauvais chemins ne me chagrinoient pas tant que 
le d6plaisir de ne trouver aucune plante interessante depuis le 8 May et je 
m'occupois souvent du deplaisir d'un tel voyage sans fruit. Nous fimes 
quinze milles ce jour par des montagnes remplies de roches ou il falloit 
passer par des ruisseaux profonds, par des endroits niaricageux et remplis 
de Smilax horriblement epineuses qui enveloppoient continuellement le 
visage, le corps ou les jambes. Je vis au long de la riv. des plaines d'une 
grande fertilite. En trois endroits diflerents, les sauvages me montrerent 
les situations de 3 villes abandonnees dont ils me dirent les noms. 

Le 13 Juin. un peu avant de traverser la riv. Kiwi que nous avions 
touj. suivi a notre droit en la remontant un des sauvages tua une Dinde 
sauvage et a 10 heures je trouvay un arbrisseau dioique dont le fruit est 
en forme de Poire, calice superieur a cinq feuill. tres courtes ; il n'etoit 



pas forme encore, mais il etoit assez avarice po. reconnoitre interieurement 
un noyau. Je dis que cet arbriss. est dioiq. parceque je vis plusi. des ces 
arbriss. dont les fleurs etoient passSes aux quels il ne restoit que la grappe. 
Les individus 9 portoient aussi leurs fruits au nombre de 4 ou 5 sur la 
menie grappe.* Je vis quelques Magnolia acuminata, ce fut la Ire fois 
que je vis cet arbre en Amerique. 

Les sauvages tuerent un Cerf et tandis qu'ils le depouillerent, je visitai 
les lorrens ou jc reconnus en abondance la Kalmia latifol. et le Rhodo- 
dendron maximum. 

Cctte journee nous avons fait neuf milles et nous etions tous trop 
affames po. continuer a marcher, ayant fait line si bonne capture. 

Le 14 Juin, nous continuames touj. ayant la riv. a droite et alternative- 
ment il falloit passer sur des roches ajamber des arbres monstrueux ren- 
verses sur des buissons epais et ou a peine on voyoit a se conduire par 
1'epaisseur des buisse. des hautes nioutagnes rapprochees et de I'obscurite 
que produisoit en ce lieu un temps sombre et des brouillars qui me parois- 
soient une nuit profonde nous envelopper. Le trouble et la confusion 
etoient augmen'es par le bruit des chutes des eaux de cette riv. sur les 
roches et celui de plusi. torrens qu'il falloit franchir jusqu'aux genoux. 
La rapidite av. laq. les deux sauvages traversoient les torrens, tantot 
dans 1'eau, tantot sur des arbres qui nuisoient a notre passage, parceque 
le jeune homine et moi ayant des chevaux a conduire, nous obligeoit 
d'abandonner nos chevaux po. courir Tun de nous, apres eux et sqavoir ce 
qu'ils etoient devcnus, car il n'y a dans ces licux d'autres passages que 
ceux frayes par les Ours et q. quefois par des Sauvages. A 1'inquietude 
continuelle de maicher sur des serpents j 'eprouvois des redoublemens d'une 
frayeur horrible lorsqu'il falloit passer sur des gros arbres qui se trouvoient 
si pourris qu'ils manquoient sous les pieds et 1'on eloit enseveli a demi 
dans 1'ecorce et les herbes qui les environnent. Enfin arrives a un endroit 
ou la rivierre n'avoit pas plus d'un pied ct demi de profondeur sur un glacis 
de roches, nous la traversames et je reconnus le Pinus Strobus sur les 
bords, le Sapin ou Sapinettef aft. & ff. un nouveau Magnolia que je norn- 
nie Magnolia (hastataf). Une grande Aristolochia scandens. Nous ar- 
rivames enfin au- lieu ou la riviere Kiwi commence son lit. Cet endroit 
ressemble a une baye, etant une Plaine de plus d'un mille environnee de 
plus hautes montagnes, extremt rapides et le contour etant ties regulier. 
Nous y restames plus de deux heures po. rcposer nos chevaux et manger 
des fraises qui s'y trouvent en abondance. Notre journe*e fut de dix 
milles et la pluye nous obligea de camper sous une cabane d'ecorce d'arbre 
abandonees des sauvages qui etoient venus chasstjr en ce lieu, ce que nous 

* Pyrularia oleffera, Gray. C. S. S. 

t Michaux's Sapinette may well have been the Carolina Hemlock (Teuga Caroliniana), 
which, however, he never distinguished. It is common in all this region. C. S. S. 

t Magnolia Fraseri, discovered by William Bartram in the same region 12 years earlier. 
C. S. S. 

I A. Sipho, L'Her. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] 20 [Oct. 19, 

reconnumes par les ossements des animaux qu'ils avoient tues et manges 
et les echaflauds qui leur avoient servi a faire boncanner la viande. 

Le 15 Juin, les sauvages nous conduisirent par des montagnes hautes 
mais peu dangereuse po. les chevaux et malgre une pluye continuelle, 
nous arrivames sur les hauteurs de la riv. Tugelo. Je reconnus dans 
plusi. torrents une nouvelle espece de Clethra* tres grand et la tige de 
quatre pouces de grosseur en circonference, une violette, dont j'eus le bon- 
heur de recueillir q. ques semences, a feuill. hasiees. Je vis tres frequem- 
ment la Magnolia (hastata) q.q. plantes nouvelles dont la fl. etant passee, 
je ne pus determiner le genre. Notre marche fut environ de 12 milles et 
peut-etre davantage et nous campames a quatre heures entre des montagnes 
si profondes qu' a peine on voyoit le jour. 

Le 16 Juin, nous traversames plusi. montagnes dont les torrents (on 
Creeks) se perdent dans la rivierre Tenasee et ne trouvant dans ces lieux 
que le Magn. hastata et un Vaccinium \ (ou Arbutus) nouveau dont les ours 
sont tres friands, ce que les sauvages me firent remarquer par les debris 
de leur digestion. Je resolus malgre la pluye qui continuoit depuis 3 jours 
d'aller jusqu' a la riv. Tenasee en evitant toutes les branches qui forment 
cette riv. et nous fimes environ dix huit milles cette journee. Nous cam- 
pames pres la rivierre qui en cet endroit coule dans les roches qui la divi- 
sent en trois ou quatre parties de maniere que Tori peut la traverser sur 
les roches, mais au dessus et a dessous, la largeur est d'environ 60 pieds. 
Je trouvay en abondance cet arbriss. dont le fruit est Pyriforme et un 
Azalea a fl. jaunes. 

Le Dimanche 17 le jeune homme qui entendoit un peu la langue des 
sauvages, me dit qu'ils ne reconnoissoient pas eux-memes le chernin et 
qu'il e"tait impossible de continuer dans les montagnes traversees par cette 
riv. Nous resolumes d'aller dans q.que. villes des sauvages pour acheter 
de la farine, car nous etions las de ne manger que de la viande sans pain. 
Ay ant trouve" heureuseinent la sentier des (Traders) M d8 - qui font le com- 
merce des peaux, nous resolumes de revenir et nous passames sur des 
montag. qui n'6toient nullement escarpees, touj. remplies de cet Arbu- 
tus des ours. Notre marche fut de 15 milles. Nous eumes po. la pre- 
miere fois beau temps et la clarte de 1'air produisoit sur certaines montag. 
des Aspects charmants. 

Le 18 notre marche fut de vingt sept milles par une pays assez uni et 
facile a 1'exception de q. ques torrents q. les pluyes precedentes avoient 
grossis. Nous passames dans un village sauvage compose d'environ 60 
families et nous arrivames le soir a Seneca, rendu de fatigues. Cinq milles 
avant d'arriver a Seneca, je reconnus le Magn. acuminata sur le bord d'un 
torrent appelle Cane Creek. 

Le 19 Juin je me reposai et me preparay a partir po. Charleston car il 
avoit justement deux mois qe j'en eiois parti. 

* C. acuminala. Mich., probably discovered at this time. C. S. S. 

t Probably Vaccinium erythrocarpum, Mich. The very juicy, abundant fruit of this 
species is greedily devoured by bears. C. S. S. 

1888.] - [Michaux. 

Je recueillis en herbier le Zanthorhiza et je remarquai derriere la mai- 
son du Colonel Henderson beaucoup d'Annona. 

Non seulement j'eus le desagreinent de trouver peu de plantes nouvelles 
dans ces montagnes, en coraparaison de celles recueillies precedemment 
dans la Georgie, mais je ne vis pas un seul oiseau interessant. Les rochers 
que Ton voit dans les montagnes sont composees de Quartz, et 1'on 
trouve du Granit compose de Quartz, de mica et d'une argille ferrugineuse. 
Dans la partie des montagnes qui appartient aux sauvagesle terrain est touj. 
meilleur de plus en plus. Dix milles au de la de la riv. Kiwi, la ligne de 
separation a e e tirea entre cette nation et 1'Etat de Carol, meridionale 
rnais plusi. villages se sont eloignes et je vis les vestiges de cinq villes 
dans le peu d'etendue de pays que je visitay. Cette nation est une des 
plus noinbreuses apres celles des Creeks qui habitent 1'etendue de pays 
situe entre la Georgie et 1'Ohio. J'appris a mon retour la nouvelle des 
hostililes commencees entre la nation Creek et les Georgians. Les habit- 
ants qui demeurent dans les campagnes aux environs de Seneca, s'etoient 
assembles po. construire un fort et s'y retirer. On craignoit que les Cher- 
okees qui n'ont point de chef chez eux queceux qui gouvernent chaq. vil- 
lage, ne se joignissent aux Creeks. 

Le 20. je partis de Seneca po. Charleston, notre marche fut de vingt 
deux milles. 

Le 21 notre marche fut de vingt milles par le mme chemin que nous 
avous fait precedemment. 

Le 22 notre marche fut de cinq milles ayt eu un de nos chevaux e^are 
pendt toute la matinee et nous vinmes coucher chez le general Pick- 

Le 23 notre metne cheval fut encore egare et nous partimes de la maison 
du Genl. pour venir coucher a 3 milles seulement (espere d'arriver avaut 
le 10 proch, a Charleston). 

Le Dimanche 24 nous vinmes coucher a Hard Labour Creek 14 milles de 
marche par un cheinin nouveau au travers des bois ; Vu plusieurs Mag- 
nolia acuminati. 

Le 2-") nous avons fait dix-sept milles en passant par Turkey Creek. 

Le 26 nous avons fait neuf milles et nous avons ete surpris par un orage. 

Le 27 nous avons fait dix neuf milles et nous avons quitte les collines 
dont le sol est argilleux et les roches de quartz. 

Le 28 nous avons fait vingt et un milles dans un terrain uni sablonneux 
et sans eau. Nous avons catnpe pres de plusieurs sources d'eau ou 1'on 
trouve la Sarracenia tubifolia. 

Le 29 nous avons fait onze milles par un terrain sablonneux et humide ; 
rencontre souvent la Sarracenia tubif. et le Cupressus disticha. 

Le 30 nous avons fait 15 milles, la pluye fut continuelle et nous vinmes 
camper a un mille de distance de la rivierre Eddisto. 

* La Capit. Vedle me promis de me fournir des Dindons sauvages en pr<5venaut tous 
les habitans du District. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Le Dirnancbe, premier Juillet nous avons fait seize M. Je vis au long de 
la rivierre des swamps reraplis de Cypres et de Nyssa, elles sont pres de 
la route d' Augusta et abondent tellem. en jeunes plantes q. je resolus de 
revcnir 1'hyver prochaia, la distance n'etant que de 80 a 100 milles de 

Le 2 nous avons fait dix huit milles. 

Le 8 nous avons fait seize milles. 

Le 4 nous avons fait vingt un milles. 

Le 5 nous avons fait dix milles et nous arrivames a 1' habitation. 

Le 6 j'arrivai a Charleston et je fis dix milles. 

Le 7 Juillet 1787 je visitay 1'habitation et les ouvrages clu jardinier. 

Le 12, 13, 14 et 15 Juillet je fus obliger de rester a Charleston pour ter- 
miner les affaires concernant 1'acquisition du terrain pour le Roy en Caro- 
line. Je me preparai aussi au voyage de New- York et je fus oblige de 
m'embarquer sur le paquebot de Philadelphie. 

Le 16. Je m'etnbarquai. 

Le 27 au soir, la navire entra a Philadelphie. 

Le 27 Juillet arrive au soir Philadelphie. 

Le 28 Visile le consul de France. 

Le Dimanche 29 occupe a ecrire. 

Le 30 voyage chez Bartram,* et dine chez le consul. 

Le 31 voyage par le stage New-York. 

Le ler Aoust arrive* a 1'etablissenient du Roy dans le nouvean Jersey. 

Le 2 arrive a New-York. 

Le 3 occupe a faire la liste des grain es apportees de Caroline. 

Le 4 dine chez le charge d'affaires de France et * * * 

Le Dimanche 5, VisiteTEtablissement du Royavec M, Roland inge*iieur 
de le marine. 

Le 6 passee la journee a New-York po. y recevoir de 1'argent et compte 
avec M. Delaforest. 

Le 7 visite le jardin et fait le releve des arbres fruitiers et des arbres 
americains pour les envoyer en France. 

Le 8 emballe mes livres et herbiers p3. les envoyer en Caroline, compte 
et paye le jardinier. 

Le 9 6crit a M. le Compte d'Angiviller, M. 1'abbe Nolin a M. Le Mou- 
nier, M. Chouin (a M. Desaint po. lui annoncer traite de 1200 a I'ordre de 
M. Delaforest). 

Le 10 parti de New-York et * * * 

Le 11 arrive a Philadelphie et le metne jour embarque po. Charleston, 
le rnme jour tire sur M. Dutartre pour la s e de trois mille livres a 1'ordre 
de M. De Marbois Consul de France a Philadelphie. 

* It is probable that this was not Michaux's first visit to the Botanical Gardens, founded 
by John Bartram, and continued by his son, William. A first visit to this famous estab- 
lishment could hardly have been made without a fuller entry in the Journal ; and 
Michaux \vould naturally have sought the advice of William Bartram, who, twelve years 
earlier, had reached the headwaters of the Tennessee river from the Atlantic seaboard, 
before undertaking the journey he has just described. C. S. S. 

1888.] 23 [Michaux. 

Le Dimanche 12 passe clevant Chester. 

Le Dimanche 19 nous depassames le cap. Hatteras. 

Le 20 nous eprouvames le vent du N. O. si considerable que vers le soir 
Ton amena toutes les voiles et niemes les vergues superieures des deux 
mats ; nous eprouvames pendant la nuit une pluye presq. continuelie, ac- 
compagnee de tonnere, eclairs et vents furieux. 

Le 23 et 24 nous eumes des Calmes. 

Le 24 a cinq heures du matin le thermom. expose a 1'air marquait 2t| 
deg. de Reaumer, 1'eau de la mer marquoit 21 D, Temps tres c<ilme. Led. 
jo. a micly 23 D. Led. jour au soir 18. 

Le Dimanche 26. calme de in. q. les jours precedents. A 3 heures 
apremidy il s'eleva une brise et nous eumes esperance de hater notre 

Le 27 vents variables. 

Le 28 Aoust arrive a Charleston ayant e*te dix-huit jours de Philadelphie 
a Charleston. 

Le 29 requ avis de 1'arrive des * * * caisses d'arbres envoyees par 
le Capt. Clark le * * * et arrivees a Bordeaux le 20 May ; le me me 
jour ecrit a M. le Compte Dangivill. po. lui annoncer la traite sur M. Du- 
tartre. Ecrit a 1'Abbe Nolin. Ecrit a M. Marbois. Ecrit a Saunier. 

Le 30 continue a ecrire et fait plus, visites. 

Le 31 rec,u des visites, et le soir parti po. la Plantation. 

Le ler Septembre sejourne, enregistre les differcntes recoltes faites par 
mon fils. 

Le Dimanche 2, achete un cheval. 

Le 3 herborise aux environs de la Plantation et greffe. 

Le 4 et 5 voyage au de la de la riv. Cooper po. reconnoitre les Palmiers, 
trouve le Sideroxilon tomax. Ligustrum monospermum, et Magnolia 
grandiflora en abondance. 

Le 5 achete 7 moutons po. avoir du fumier po. le jardin. 

Le 6 seme dans le jardin des graines de lauriers * * * aestivalis,* &c. 

Le 7 seme plusieurs graines differentes, seche et visile toutes les graines 

Le 8 laboure et seme. 

Le 9. seme. 

Le 10. alle a Charleston, j'ay loue une autre chambre, j'ay rec,u des let r 
tres de New-York, j'ai ecrit a Philadelphia. 

Le 11 * * * 

Le 12 j'ay retire des caisses venues de New-York et je suis retourne a 
la Plantation. 

Le 13 recueilli sernences de Gledit. triacanthos et commence la con- 
struction d'un grenier po. les semences. 

Le 14 recueilli Cassia chamaecrista et Cassia nictitans, Cacalia atriplic. 

Le 15 seme des graines. 

* A word is here made illegible by the cutting away of the margin of the paper. 
C. S. S. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Le 16 seme. 

Le 17 piepare une caisse de semences po. envoyer en France. 

Le 18 j'ay etc a Charleston. 

Le 19 revenu a la Plantation. 

Le 20 fait labourer. 

Le 21 et 22 seme des graines de Caroline. 

Le 24, 25, 26 j'ay ete a la ville. Envoye deux caisses de sem. pour Bor- 
deaux. Ecrit a M. Dangiv. M. 1'abbe N. Le Mounier Tb. M. Nairac et a 
* * * fkit embarquer les 8 canards. 

Le 27 et le 28 occupe a la Plantation. 

Le 29 et 30 j'ay ete avec mon fils a la recolte des Sideroxilon tomax sur 
Cooper River. 

Le ler et deux Octobre j'ay e*te avec mon fils au de la de Dorcbester 
a la recolte du Gletditsia aquatica. 

Le 3 dud. j'ay e"te a Charleston. 

Le 4 j'ay ete avec mon fils et un negre recueillir des Magnolia grandi- 
flora au de la de la riv. Cooper. 

Le 5 et 6, labouie et seme des graines. 

Le 7 recueilli une grande quantite. 

Le 8 envoye mon fils a Charleston et rec,u des lettres par la voie de New 
York de M. Dangivill. de M. 1'Abbe Nolin. 

Du 8 au 15, envoye rnon fils a la re*co'lte des Magnol. grandif. Cyrilla, 
Juniperus, Quercus phellos, Liriodeudron, et moi a extraire journal denies 

Depuis le 18 jusqu' au 30 les fievres ont continue" a mon fils et moi, 
j'ay ete incommode de Rhumatisme. 

Du 25 au 31 visile les semences recueillies et prepare un envoy. 

Du ler Novembre jusqu' au 4, continue a remplir les caisses de graines. 

Le 30 Oct.* 

Le 6 Novembre je restay a la ville po. ecrire les lettres, faire 1'envoy 
compose de 7 caisses de graines et une cage de huit canards d'Eie. 

Der 7. 8. 9. 10. 11 et 12. occupe a 1'envoy cy-dessus et a ecrire des 

Le 12 observe dans le jardin de Watson un Crinum rubrum dit on origi- 
naire du Mississippi. Spathe 2-phylle, deux a 3 fleurs. Corolle tubulee 
et a 6 divisions. Une Plante a fl. aggreges Cal. * * * Cor. tubulee. 
5 Etam. mse"rees sur la Coroll. Pist. Stigm. simple Caps, velue a une seule 

Du 13 au 14 visite les graines et paye les neg. occupe les jours prece- 
dents a recueillir les graines. 

Du 15 au 16 passe au de la de Cooper riv. po. 1'Olea aniericana. 

Le 18 et 19 j'ay ete a la ville po. recevoir une caisse d'arbres de New- 

*The entries made in the Journal on this and the six following days are confined to 
readings of the thermometer. C. S. S. 

1888.] 25 [Michaux. 

Le 20 j'ay e*te occupe jusqu' au 28 a planter les arbres et a semer plus, 
especes de graines. 

Le 29 et 30 voyage a Monks corner po. 1'Olea americana et Sarracenia 

Le ler Decembre, plante les arbres rapportes et occupe a preparer 1'em- 
placement d'une cloture po. les cerfs nains. 

Le 2 visite les graines et prepare un envoy de graines. 

Le 12 remis 1'Envoy au paquebot de New-York. 

Le 15 Decembre voyage dans 1'interieur de la Caroline pour les 
Gleditsia monosperme, Stewartia &c., arm d'avoir un envoy complet pour 
un navire annonce directemt de Charleston po. le Havre de Grace. Depuis 
ce jour jusqu' au 27 Decembre occupe a arracher les arbres, les encaisser, 
et a F envoy des graines, a ecrire les lettres &- &-. 

Le 27 dud. remis les caisses et les canards d'Ete au navire destine pour 
le Havre de Grace et recommande a Mr Limousin, negociant. 

Le 28 Decemb. 1787. J'ai travaille a faire le compte de ines depenses 
et regie les comptes avec les personnes et les ouvriers a qui je dois de 

3RD. CAHIEB 1788. 

Le Jeudy 14 fevrier 1788. je me suis prepare a m'embarquer. J'ai 
achete un petit negre au prix de- cinquante pounds et j'en ai loue un autre 
po. un skill, par jour. Ernbarque" a midy et demi po. snt Augustine en 

Le 15 Temps calme et vent contraire ; nous avons resle" a 1'ancre en de- 
dans de la Barre de Charleston. 

Le 16 il s'eleva dans la nuit un vent considerable, plusieurs navires chas- 
serent sur leurs ancres. Une goelette vint donner contre celle ou nous 
e"tions embarque, mais sans aucun dommage. On parvint a les degager. 
II survint de la pluye, onesperoit qui le vent tourneroit du sud au Nord, 
mais il continua et le soir nous allames nous mettre a I'nbri du vent au 
dessous de 1'isle de Sullivan en vue de Charleston 

Le Dirnanche 17 fevrier 1788 nous restames a 1'ancre et j 'allay herbor- 
iser sur 1'isle de Sullivan. Je ne reconnus que peu de plantes dignes 
d'etre reinarquees, parceque cette petite isle, dailleurs assez sterile a cause 
de son exposition aux Vents est incendiee tous les ans selon la coutume 
des Ameriquains qui mettent annuellement le feu dans toutes les forets. 
Les Anglois, pendant la derniere guerre ont coupe tous les grandes Chamae- 
rops; il n'y en reste que des jeunes qui ne fructifient pas ; je remarquai un 
arbrisseau dont la fructification indique gtre un Croton et un gramen. 

Le 18 le vent se calma mais il ne fut pas favorable. 

Le 19 on leva 1'ancre et nous de"passarnes la Barre, mais le vent con- 
traire nous obligea de rentrer. 

Le 20 on envoya un Cannot a % la ville et je profltay de 1'occasion. J'y 


Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

allay tant pour renouvell, les provis. consumers pendt le malheureux sejour 
ties vents contraires que dans 1'esperance d'y trouver des nouvelles de 
France par la voie de New-York qui devoient 6tre arrivees. II se trouva 
uu schooner destine po. New-York et je regrettay d'autant plus amcre- 
ment les huits jours perdus par les vents contraires, que si je fusse reste 
en Carol, j'y aurois execute" un envoy pour le 24 fevrier auquel etoit fixe le 
depart de ce schooner et de mSnie si le vent eut ete assez favorable po. 
aller a Snt August, j 'aurois pu faire un envoy ties interessant par ce 
schooner, dont le depart e*tant fixe au 24 fevrier de Charleston auroit pu 
arriver aisenient avant le 10 Mars suivant po. la depart d'un paquebot de 

Le 21 nous restames encore a 1'ancre et sur le soir il s'eleva un vent 
considerable accoinpagne de pluye. 

Le 22 1'agitation de la mer et le vent e*tant cesses, nous eumes 1'espe- 
rance d'avoir le Vent du Nord qui nous devoit etre favorable. 

Le 23 le vent fut tres favorable, mais toute la journee fut employee a 
retirer une-ancre qui se trouvoit tellement engage que 1'on resolut plusi. 
fois de 1'abandonner, mais sur le soir, par le secours d'un autre batiment 
dont la force etoit superieure on parvint a la retirer. 

Le Dimanche 24 fevrier 1788, nous mimes a la voile avcc un vent tres 
foible, mais assez favorable. 

Le 25, nous eumes un vent du sud qui etoit contraire ; il dura ainsi 
jusqu' au lendeniain matin. 

Le 26 et le 27. nous restames en mer et enfin vers le soir, nous recon- 
nurnes les cotes de la Floride. 

Le 28, nous eutrames dans le Port Snt Augustine et nous debarquames 
a une heure apres midy. 

II vint a bord des offlciers du Gouvernment qui demanderent ce que je 
venois faire et si j'avois apporte des marchandises : Je repondis que je 
venois uniquement po. observer 1'hist. naturelle de la Floride et que 
j'avois auparavt obtenu la permission de son Excell. le Gouverneur. Aus- 
sitot on me dit qu'il falloit aller s'y presenter. Je lui (disais) que je 
n'avois d'autre objet que 1'hist. nat. et que lorsque je serois prepare pour 
aller visiter les differentes parties de la contree, j'en inforrnerois son Ex- 
cellence et que jelui ferois hommage des Decouvertes les plus interessants. 

II me dit que j'etois le bien venu et que tous les services qu'il pourroit 
me rendre, il le feroit. II me fit beaucoup d'honnetetes et envoya ensuite 
dire a 1'endroit ou j'avois pris mon logement que Ton ait beaucoup 

Le 29, la journee se passa en visites. 

Le ler Mars 1788, j 'allay faire un herborisation et je reconnus un An- 
dromeda de nouvelle espece No. 1, 2 & 3. 

Le Dimanche 2, nous allames a 1'Eglise et nous entendimesla Messe a 
laquelle fut present son Excellence le Gouverneur. 

Le 3 Tnerrnometre a 9 Deg. de Reaumur a 6 h. du matin, audessus de 0. 
Nous allames a 5 milles de distance, mais un orage accompagne de tonnere 

1888. | ^ [Michaux. 

ct d'eclairs, nous percja et nous baigna entitlement, et nous ramena sans 
rapporter aucune plante int 'ressante. 

Le 4, le vent accompagne de pluie dura toute la nuit, le therm, fut 
a 5| d. la tempete fut un peu moins violente pendant la journe'e ; 
nous allames a plus de 6 milles de distance et nous ne vimes que les arbriss. 
inieressants trouves le ler Mars savoir No. 2 et No. 3. Je recueillis aussi 
uu arhrisseau inconnu qui avoit le port d'un Andromeda No. 4 mais qui 
en differoit totalement par la fructification. 

Le 5 Vent du N. O. Th. 2 des le matin, au dessus de 0. La journee 
employee a lire la description de la Floride et a verifier cette description 
avec une carte qui me fut pretee. 

Le 6 consul te plusi. habitans sur les moyens d'aller faire une herborisa- 
tion au sud de la Province. 

Le 7 j'achetay un canot et loue deux homines pour la manoeuvre. 

Le 8 achete les provisions pour le voyage et beaucoup de poudre et de 
plomb afin de tuer du gibier, car les parties que je me disposois a visiter 
sont inhabitees, et seulement frequent ees par les sauvages. 

Le 9 Dimanche regie toutes choses pour le voyage. Thermometre le 
matin a 5 deg. 

Le 10. Th. le mat. a 5 D. . Vent du N. O. 

Un ouvrier fut occupe a coudre la voile du canot et a faire q. ques re- 

Le 11. Therm, le matin a 4 Deg. f au dessus de 0. Vent du N. O. 
La voile et autres fournitures du canot n'etant pas preparees, j 'allay vitsi- 
ter le terrain d'un particulier po. y etablir un depot d'arbres. 

Le mercredi 12 nous partimes de Snt Augustin dans le cauot qui con- 
lenoit cinq personnes savoir monfils & moi, deux rameurs et le negre que 
j'avois ammene de Charleston. Le vent etoit favorable, mais la maree 
contraire formoit des vagues qui entroient dans le canot et nous reso- 
lumes de nous arrgter a la maison d'un respectable vieillard etabli depuis 
52 aus. sur 1'isle de Snte Anastasie. Get homme le plus laborieux et le 
plus industrieux de toute la Floride avoit rendu son sejour un Paradis non 
obstant les differents pillages des Corsaires auxquels il a ete expose et les 
revolutions qu'il a eprouvees deux fois par le changement de domination, 
cette Province ayant passe depuis son sejour au pouvoir des Anglois et 
de nouveau au pouvoir des Espagnols. 

Therm, le mat. a 12 Deg. 

Le 13 nous cotoyames 1'isle de Snte Anastasia ; nous nous arrtames a 
environ 14 milles de distance de Snt. Augustin et je reconnus sur la rive 
deux especes d'arbres * * * appelus par les Anglois Mangrove* et sur 
q. ques parties de cette isle, le Zaniia. 

Nous arrivames le soir au fort Matanse sttue sur cette isle. J'em- 
ployai le peu d'heures qui me restoit a herboriser a peu de distance de ce 

* Rhizophora Mangle ; not included in Michaux's Flora. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Le 14 nous essayames de passer la barre de Hatanqa* distante de 20 M. 
de Snt Aug., ou se termine 1'isle de Snte Anastasia, mais le vent qui venoit 
de la mer formoit des vagues qui eniplissoient le canot ; nous resolumes de 
nous arreker chez un Farticulier Minorquain qui demeuroil a 3 milles de 
distance sur 1'emb. de N. West river et a 24 milles de distance de Snt. 

Therm. 14 Deg. 

Le 15 le vent toujours venant de la mer nous retint a 1'habitation du 
Minorquain. Je visitai les environs et je ne reconnus que la plupart des 
productions de la Carol, et de la Georgie. sc/avoir : Magn. grandiflo. 
Quercus phellos, Pinus taeda, Myrica cerifera, Bign. sempervir. Juglans 

Le Dimanche 16 Mars, therm, le matin a 14 Deg. Nous avons pris un 
cheval et un guide pour remonter la rivierre du Nord appelee N. West 
river. Nous avons fait 22 milles et remarque seulmt. outre les produc- 
tions communes de la Carol, et de la Georgie, tels que le Magn. grand i- 
flora, Gordonia lasianthus, Acer rubrnm, Laurus borbonia, Cup. distic. 
Myrica cerifera &c &c. Outre ces arb.' je vis au long de cette rivi. qui 
ne doit etre nominee qu'un ruisseau, Andromeda arborea, Zamia pumila 
Chamserops repens et un arbuste legumineux a ieuill. terneesf No. 17 et 
un autre arbriss. inconnu. No. 18., un Halesia tetraptera a petites fl. deux 
especes d'Annona & &c. , 

Le 17. nous suivimes toujours cette rivierre, a peu de distance je vis le 
Viburnum cassinoides, Ziziphus scandens,^ Lupinus pilosus flore ceruleo. 

Je recueillis beaucoup de sentence de 1'arbuste No. 17 et un nouvel 
And. Enfin voyant un sol touj. aride sans productions interessantes je pris 
le parti de retourner sur mes pas. 

Le 18 je ne recueillis aucune nouvelle plante, mais je reconnus au bord 
de N. West river et au long de la Rivierre de Matanse un Andromeda a f. 
d'amand. d'environ 10 a 12 pieds de haut, il formoit des tiges creuses et 
tres droites dont les Indiens, dit-on, se servent pour leurs Calumets. Je 
ne le vis pas en fleur, mais je crois qu'il est celui que Bartrarn m'a de- 
signe sous le nom d' Andromeda formosissima.g 

Le 19 les deux rameurs que j'avois envoye avec mon negre, n'ayant 
point donne le signal dont ils etoient convenu avec nous, je resolus d'aller 
sur le lieu & j'appris par un soldat du Fort Matanqa qu'ils avoient trouve le 
vent favorable po. passer la Barre et que le maree les avoit oblige de par- 
tir sans avoir eu le temps d'alluiner du feu po. faire le signal convenu. En. 
revenant je visitai un lieu abondant en oranges a 2 m. de dist. & j'y trou- 
vai plusi. arbriss. interessants. 

Le 20, le Mahonois chez qui nous etions loge, me donna trois chevaux 

* Matansas Inlet. C. S. S. 
t Perhaps Erytfirina herbacea, L. C. S. S. 
I Berchemea volubilis, D C.~C. S. S. 

Leucotfwe acuminata, Don. In the Flora, Michaux calls it Andromeda laurina. 
C. S. S. 

18S8.] [Michaux. 

po. aller rejoindre DOS Rameurs. parceque la Mer est si houleuse sur la 
Barre de Matanc,a qu'il auroit ete imprudent de la passer avec notre 

Nous partimes a 7 heures et nous marchames jusqu' a 6 heures du soir 
sans nous arreter. Je vis le pays le plus aride de la Floride, dans toute 
cette marche, a 1'exception d'une Plantation ou nous arrivames a 5 heures 
du soir, qui avoit appartenu au Gouverneur Moultrie dans le temps q. les 
Angl. possedoient la Floride. Enfin a 6 heures nous arrivames a 1'em- 
bouchure de Tomoco Creek et nous campames sur le Bord du Lagoon 
(c'est un canal forme par des Isles qui se prolongent sur la cote d' Ameriq.) 
Lorsque ces Isles sont interroinpues alors la Mer vient briser sur le rivage 
et la navigation pour des Bateaux est dangereuse lorsque le Vent vient de 
la Mer. On peut naviguer avec des petits Bateaux depuis la Caroline 
jusqu' au cap. de la Floride et cette Navigation s'appelle Navigation de 
1'Interieur (inland navigation) et les differents bras de la Mer formes par 
les Isles qui se prolongent ainsi se nomment Lagoons qui prennent differ- 
ents noms selon les lieux et les Isles qui les resserrent. Nous tirames un 
coup de fusil et nos rameurs nous repondirent aussitot par un autre coup 
de fusil. Us y etoient arrives la veille sans autre danger que celui d'avoir 
eu deux fois le canot renverse par les vagues et d'Stre ainsi baigne, mais 
ils etcient tres experimentes. 

Nous etions alors a environ 40 milles de distance de S nt Augustin en 
ligne droite.* 

Le 21 nous passames sur la rivn gauche de ce Lagoon ou il y avoit une 
habitation abandonnee. Je vis des Grangers charges de fruit et j'y recue- 
illis plusi. arbriss. interessants. Nous vinmes le soir camper a 1'Isle des 
Grangers a 4 milles de distance de 1'habitation de M. Penman mais qui 
etoit abandonnee. Dans 1'intervale, nous visitames plusi. habitations 
qui etoient abandonnees et qui etoient assez considerables pour avoir ete 
nommes un Village. 

Le 22 nous essayames une pluye considerable qui avoit commence pend- 
ant la nuit et qui dura jusqu' a midy. 

Notre navigation fut de 6 milles environ et nous campames sur la terre 
ferme a 4 Milles de distance avant d'arriver a 1'embouchure de Spruce 
Creek. J'y trouvai le Carica papaya. f 

Le Dimanche de Paques, 23. le vent fut assez favorable et nous vinmes 
camper entre la Barre de New Smyrne et les ruines de cette ville qui y 
avoit ete fondee du temps des Anglois. Get etablissement avoit ete con- 
duit par le Docteur Turnbull aux frais d'une Compagnie dont il etoit le 
Regisseur. Plus de 1200 personnes, hommes femmes et enfants, la plu- 
part de Minorque, avoient ete seduits et ammenes de leur patrie. La durele 
et le Despotisme oriental avec lesquels ce barbare conduisoit sa Colonie, 
faisoit encore le sujet du conversation des habitans de S nt Augustin pen- 
dant le temps que j'y fus. Ce lieu est designe dans une Nouvelle Carte 

* Et un mille de 1'embouchure du Tomoco Creek. 

t Early introduced from the West Indies into Florida by the Spaniards C. S. S. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

de la Floride publiee a Londres depuis q ques annec-s par le nom de Mus- 
keto shore (cote des mosquitos). 

Le 24 thermometre de Rheaum. a 7 Deg. au dessus de zero, Vent de N. 
O. ties sensible. 

Nous vinmes camper sur les mines de New Smyrne, j'y remarq. plus 
de 400 Maisons detruites. il n'en restoit que les cheminees parceque les Sau- 
vages qui vient. visiter ce lieu pour les Grangers qui y subsistent touj. 
malgre leurs incendies annuelles detruist aussi les boiseries dont ces 
maisons sont composees pour se chaufer. 

Le 25 Th. a 5 Deg : gelee blanche, je visitay les lieux humides et les en- 
virons de cet Etablissem 1 qui avoit ete tres florissant du temps des Angl. ; 
mais je n'y remarquay d'autres plantes que celles qui m'avoient interesse 
les jo. precedents. Nous etions alors a 75 M. de S nt Augustin. 

Le 26 notre navigat. fut de 12 Milles et nous nous arretames sur les 
mines d'une Plantation qui avoit appartenu au capit. Besy, dans un lieu 
tres fertile qui me donnoit envie d'en visiter les Swamps. 

J'y trouvay seulement une espece de Pancratium et une Plante annu- 
elle de 12 pi. de haut dessech. dont je recueillis q.q. semences. 

Le 27 nous navigames touj. entre des Isles de Mangles, (Rhizophora 
Mangle) et nous vinmes diner au pied d'une colline nominee Mont Tucker. 
Je recueillis plusieurs arbriss. et pi. des Tropiques. Le soir nous vinmes 
camper sur les mines de 1'habitation du capit. Roger. 

Le 28. je traversay dans les Marecages qui composoient autrefois cette 
habitat, ou Ton avoit cultive des Canes a Sucre et enfin sur les midy, nous 
vinmes la riv. Indienne (Indian river) et par q. ques uns Aisa hatcha c. a. d. 
rivierre des Cerfs et pour les Espagnols Rio d'Ais. 

Cette habit, etoit la plus merid. que les angl. ayent etabli en Floride. 
Nous allames camper 4 milles plus loin. 

Le 29 Mars, notre navigation iut d'environ six milles parceque le vent 
contraire est tres fort, les rameurs avec beaucoup d'effort faisoient peu de 
chemin. De plus mon fils et moi nous allions sur la rive occidentale pour 
tacherde decouvrir 1'endroitle plusresserre entre la rivierre Indienne et le 
Canal ou nous etions. Sur les onze heures de dessus les arbres on dis- 
tinguoit aisement les deux Bras de la Mer c. a. d. celui ou nous etions 
appele par les Anglois . . . et la Rivierre Ind. ainsi nommee par les 
Angl. qui n'est nullem 1 un Riv. mais un Bras de la Mer tres resserre comme 
tous les autres par une chaine d' Isles qui se prolongent du Nord au Sud 
depuis la Carol, jusqu' au Cap de la Floride. Nos deux rameurs descend- 
oient a terre et nous parcourumes tout le territoire afin de trouver un passage 
moinspenible po. transport, le Canot. Vers les quatre heures du soir nous 
revmmes au Camp avec 1'esperance de pouvoir transporter le Canot. Nous 
desirions d'autant plus nous approcher de la terre ferine que depuis notre 
Depart de la Nouvelle Smyrne nous n'avions que de 1'eau saumatre. La 
provision de Rum po. nos rameurs etoit consommee et ils ne desiroient pas 
moins quitter ce lieu ou nous etions devore des Moustiques. Quant a 
moi il ne presentoit alternativeni 1 que des eteudues considerables de Jones 


1888.] [Michaux. 

et de Palmels* a dents de scie (Chamserops inonosperma fronde acute den- 
tiitis radire repente). 

Cependt. je trouvay parmi les arbres qui composoient une partie de Bois 
situe sur la Uiv. Indienne unf figuier a f. oblongues et entieres, un nou- 
veau Sophoraf et deux autres arbriss. inconnus. Cela augmenta mes 
esperances pour les expeditions q. je me disposois a faire les jo. suivants 
sur cette Rivierre. 

Le Dimanche 30 Mars nous avons ete occupe toute la journee a rouler 
not re Canot par terre, 1'espace d'un Mille au travers de Jones et de Brous- 
s lilies. II fallut coper des arbres, mais la plus grande difficulte etoit 
lorsque nous avions a traverser des espaces de cent toises toutes couvertes- 
d'un Clmmrorops a dent de scie qui non seulem* coupoient nos Bottes et 
nos Jambes mais resistoient par la durete de leurs tiges aux bons instru- 
.menls dont nous etions fournis. En effet, un ouvrier tres habile que j'avois 
loue po ce voyage disoit qu'il himoit mieux couper un Chou-palmier de 
60 pieds de haut qu'un de ces arbriss. parceque la tige qui est rampante est 
souvent entrelasse d'autres tiges ou branches de la m^me grcsseur qui 
passent les unes sur les autres. Enfin sur le soir, le Canot fut passe et tout 
le bagage transporte sur la rive de a Rivierre Indienne. 

Le 31 Mars, nous etions dispose a partir a lapointe du jour. Mais 1'endroit 
ou nous etions etoit une espece de Golphe qui (au jugement de nos ra- 
meurs) formoient avec la rivierre une etendue de six milles de large. Le 
vent etoit contraire et il y a si peu d'eau dans toute la partie de ce Golphe 
que notre Canot ne pouvoit avancer quoique mon flls et moi nous ayons 
fait plus de quatre milles dans 1'eau qui ne venoit qu'a mi-jambes. Lorsqu' 
il y avoit de 1'eau trop profondement, nous montions dans le Canot, mais 
alors les Vagues entroient dans le Canot de sorte que vers midy nous nous 
arretames pres d'un marecage rempli de Mangliers. Ne pouvant camper sur 
ce lieu qui etoit une vase tres humide, nous retournames au lieu d'ou nous 
etions parti, mais il s'en fallut peu que le Canot ne fut submerge par la 
quantite d'eau qui y entra de sorte que nos provis. furent toutes mouillees. 

Le Mardy l cr Avril 1788 le nieme vent du Sud qui nous avoit ramene 
nous retint au mme lieu. II soufla avec plus de violence meme q le jo. 
precedent Nos rameurs en profiteront po. secher le Ris et le Biscuit qui 
avoit ete tout trempe" le jo. precedent. Us allerent a la pche et nous rap 
porterent deux Poissons qui pesoient plus de 18 livres chaque. J'allay 
herboriser apres avoir seche mon Bagage qui avoit ete aussi submergi la 
veille et je recueillis le Pteris lineatag et le Polypodiuin Scolopendroides|| 
qui croissent communernent sur la tige des grands Chamserops. Je trou- 
vay aussi 1'Acrostichum aureum dans les lieuxtres humides et rnme parmi 

* Sabal serrulata, R. & S. C. S. S. 
t Ficus aurea, Nutt C. S. S. 

t Probably S. tomentosa, L. Neither this nor the Ficus appear in Michaux' s Flora. 
C. S. S. 

Vittaria lineata, Michx. (V. angusttfrons, Swartz). C 1 . S. S. 
1 Blechnum serrulatum, Michx. C..S. S. 

Michaux.] 32 [Oct. 19. 

les Mangliers qui bordent les marecages immenses de ce fleuve. Nous 
vinmes des oiseaux aquatiq. de plusi. especes et mon fils en tua ce jour 
plus de 12 d'un coup de fusil a plusi. reprises. Nous coupaines desChou. 
palmiers po. epargner le pain qui diminuoit et nous nous mimes a la ra- 
tion de deux Biscuits par jour pour cinq personnes que nous etions. 

Le 2 Avril nous profitames d'un calme pour traverser la rivierre du cole 
de la Terre ferme. II y avoit au moins six milles de distance et vers midy 
nous primes terre. Le vent qui s'etoit eleve considerablement empecha 
de continuer la route Tapres midy. Je trouvay sur la Terre ferme en 
abondance le Sophora* occidentalis, bel arbriss. j'en recueillis abondamm 11 
des graines et un bel epi de ses fleurs me confirma que c'etoit un Sophora 
dont la fleurest tres agreable. Je recueillis quelques autres plantes que la 
nuit m'empcha de decrire . . . Tine nouvelle espece de Spigelia, line 
autre plante qui a affinite avec . . . 

Notre marche fut evaluee a douze M. 

Le 3 Avril notre marche fut de quinze milles et au lieu de plantes inter- 
essantes et nouvelles qui m'excitoient (dont 1'esperance m'excitoiO a sur- 
monter les obstacles, (car je voyageois touj. a pied po. soulagerles rameurs 
qui avoient le vent contraire). Je ne retrouvois que des arbresou arbriss. 
de la Georg. et de la Carol. Magn. glauca. Gordon ia. Acer Rubrum. 
Cependant je recueillis deux Annon. 1'un d'eux nouvelle espece avec des 
fl. blanch, tres larges et feuillesf . . . L'etendue de ce Canal qui avoit 
de 4 a 8 milles de large en plusi. endroits epouvanta nos rameurs et nos 
rameurs eux memes jugerent qu'il etoit plus convenable de profiler de la 
situation du vent pour revenir de sorte que nous primes la resolution de 
profiler du calme qui avoit lieu tous les jours avant le lever du soleil j usque 
vers neuf heures du matin. En eflfet le 4 nous etant embarque avant le 
jour et le vent favorable, nous eumes le bonheur de avoir traverser le Lit 
le plus profond avant huit heures et sur le soir nous nous retrouvames sur 
la rive orientale de la rivierre Aisa hatcha. 

Tous les soirs nous voyons de notre camp les feux que les sauvages fai- 
soient sur Tautre rive de cette rivierre, mais depuis notre depart de S nt 
Augustin, nous n'en avions pas encore rencontre et nos rameurs nous con- 
seilloient d'eviter leur visite a cause des importunites aux quelles on est 
expose de leur part afin d'avoir du Rum dont ils sont au moins aussi pas- 
sione que pouvoient 1'gtre nos Rameurs qui d'ailleurs etoient les plus sobres 
que j'ai vue en ce genre. 

Notre navigatio n fut evalue a 24 milles. 

Le 5 la journee fut toute entiere employee a transporter le Canot et a le 
rouler de la nieme maniere que nous avions fait le Dimanche precedent. 

Sur le soir je profitay d'un petit interval de temps pour une collection 
de plusieurs arbriss. et arbres que j'avois remarque sur le bord de cette 
Rivierre et que je n'avo s pas vu precedemment. Je les emballai de maniere 

* ?. toireutosa, L. tC. S. S. 

t Perhaps Anona Imrifolla, Dunal.C. 9. S. 


1838.] [Michaux. 

a pouvoir les transporter jusqu' a Charleston pour les y planter et tout 
lut dispose pour retourner a S flt Augustin des le lendemain. 

Le Dimanche 6 Avril avant quitter cette partiela plus Meridionale de la 
Floride ou j'aye pu m'avancer, je re-olus de visiter une Isle ou je voyois 
des arbres differents de ceux [autres q. des mangles les seuls] qui se trouvent 
communement sur ces Isles et je ne perdis pas mon temps ayant recueilli 
la Guilandina bonduccella,* le Mangrove a fruits comme ceux du figuier 
de Catesby . . 

Un arbre inconnu et un Phaseol ou Dolichos a gros fruits. 

Notre navigation fut de . . . et nous vinnies camper sur les ruines 
de I'kabitation du capit. Roger. Cette habitat, etoit la plus meridionale 
que les Angl. ayent eu en Floride. On y avoit cultive du sucre, mais les 
sauvages ont detruit toutes les Canes. 

Le 7, le vent qui soufloit du sud depuis plusi. jo. et qui nous etoit tres 
favorable po. le retour, nous poussa jusqu' a la Nouvelle Smyrne dont il 
n'y a plus q. des Ruines comme je 1'ay deja remarque. Notre navigat. 
lut de . . . 

Le 8 nous vinmes coucher sur une Isle a dix mille de distance de . . . 

Nous etions sous la latitude de . . . 

Le 9. nous eumes le vent en poupe et malgre les differentes relaches 
notre navigation fut de vingt quatre Milles. 

Nous vinmes camper a 1'embouchure de Tomoko Creek, latitude de . . . 

Le 10 Nous montames la rivierre de Tomoko qui est veritablement une 
Riv. bien qu'elle soil nommee Creek par les Anglois qui ont eux mSmes 
bien peu connu la Floride dans le temps qu'ils en etoient en possession. 
Le Vent se trouva tres favorable et nous trouvames sur le soir une Isle 
couverte de bois. Nous campames un peu au dessus et notre navigat. fut 
d'environ 18 milles tout au plus. 

Je recueillis un Annonaf a grandes flours blanches que je crois Annona 
palustris fit Annona glabra qui me paroit une variete du triloba. Les pro- 
ductions qui se trouvent sur cette riv. sont : Acer rubrum, Cupr. disticha, 
Fraxinus .... Magn. grandiflora et glauca, Pinus foliis binis. 

Le 11 nous montames environ cinq miles et la rivierre qui etoit remplie 
d'arbres empechoit le Canot de passer de sorte que je resolus de dejeuner 
en ce lieu, d'y faire une herborisation pendant q. Ton pre paroit le dejeuner 
et d'en partir aussitot apres. 

L.e soir nous revinmes coucher a 1' Embouchure de la rivierre Tomoko. 

Le 12 un homine partit pour aller chercher des chevaux afln de trans- 
porter le Bagage qui ne pouvoit etre transporte dans le Canot, afin de re- 
passer la barre de Matanc,a. 

Le Dimanche 13 Avril celui de nos homines que j'avois envoye a Thabi- 
tation du Mahonois po. avoir des chevaux, arriva sur le soir et il apporta 
des vivres qui nous rnanquoient. 

J'avois employe le jour precedent et celui-ci a visiter les Bois et les 

* Cxsalpinia Bonduc, Benth. & Hook. C. S. S. 

t Anona laari/olia, Duiial ; here at its northern station in Florida. C. S. S. 


Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

marecages qui couvrent les environs du lieu ou j'etois, mais il ne se pre- 
sentoit aucune plante interessante en ce lieu ties desagreable par les 
Caymans et les Serpents qui abondenl et les Mosquites dont nous etions 
tourmentes sans pouvoir reposer pendant la nuit. 

Le 14 nous nous mimes en marche a la pointe du jour et nous n'ar- 
rivames q. t'res tard le soir a cause des detours que nous lumes oblige de 
prendre a plusieurs fois au travers des Chamserops a dents de scie qui 
couvrent la surface du sol, car les bois sont tres clairs. Nous fumes, dis- 
je, oblige de prendre un tour considerable parceque les bois avoient ete 
incendies les jours precedents. Us biuloient encore et le vent qui venoit 
a notre rencontre portoit 1'incendie avec unerapidite extreme. On n'a pas 
d'idee en Europe de 1'etendue considerable des bois qui sont annuellem. 
incendiees en Amerique soit par les sauvages soit par les habitants Ameri- 
quains eux-n: Sines. Us n'ont d'autre motifs les uns et les autres que 
d'avoir par ces Incendies de 1'herbe nouvelle depourvue de Fherbe seclie 
de 1'annee precedente. Je suis persuade que c'est la principale cause de 
deperissem* po. chasser pi. aisement les Cerf et po. nourrir des Bestiaux 
des bois dans toute 1'Amerique septentrionale.* 

Le 15 nous attendimes les rameurs qui etoient alle par Mer passer la 
Barre de Matancu. 

J 'allay faire une herborisat. dans les bois et je reconnus 1' Andromeda 
que j'avois vu precedemment pour etre vraim* une nouvelle espece, ayant 
assez de ressemblance avec FAndronieda arborea, mais differente a plusi. 
egards particulierem 1 par la disposition de ses fleurs et . . . 

Je reconnus aussi un Andonaf et la Stillingia silvatica. Je recueillis de 
tous les arbriss. et arb. rares pour completer une caisse que je me propos. 
de porter av. moi a Chariest, a tous hazards parce que la saison etoit alors 
trop avancee. 

Le 16 nous partimes de ce lieu po. revenir a S ni Augustin et nous vinmes 
camper a deux miles de distance du fort Matanqa. 

Le 17 nous nous mimes en route a deux heures du Matin et nous ar- 
rivames a S nt Augustin (le vent etant tres favorable) a Midy. 

Le 18 j'allay rendre visiteau Gouverneur Espagnol et je visitay M r - Les- 
lie agent pour les affaires des Indiens et pour me concerter avec lui sur les 
moyens de voyager chez les Indiens. 

Le 19 je fus engage a diner chez M r - Leslie. 

' Le Dimanche 20 Avril je recus la visite du Gouverneur qui vint voir mes 
Plantes et autres Collections que j'avois recueillis dans inon voyage, en 
oiseaux &c. Je fus engage a diner chez lui et 1'apres midy se passa 
dans les jardins de Son Excellence avec les Dames aimables de sa famille. 

Le 21. 22 et 23 j'ai fait des herborizations aux environs de S nt Augustin 
et j'ai envoy e un homrne sur la rivierre S Dt Jean pour retenir un Canot afin 
d'abreger ce voyage en evitant d'y entrer par 1'embouchure. 

* This deplorable custom is still continued throughout the entire extent of the mari- 
time Pine Belt of the Southern States to the great injury of the forest. C. S. S. 
t Anona? C. S. S. 

1888.] 35 [Michaux. 

Le 24. 25 et 26 j'ay ecrit a Mons r le compte d'Angivill pour lui rendre 
compte de mon voyage au sud, de mes Recoltes et pour lui annoncer la 
traite de 2000f. a 1'ordre de M r De la Forest sur M. Dutartre. 

Ecrit a M. 1'Abbe Nolin pour repond. a sa lettre regue ici et pour lui 
marquer les observations sur les Plantes que j'envoye." 

De plus je lui ay demande laRacine de Disette et de la graine de Veron- 
ique male pour Mr. le capit. Howard. J'ay ecrit a M. De la Forest pour 
lui envoyer les Jett. de change sur M. Dutartre par triplicata pour em- 
ployer les fonds au service de 1'etablissement pres New-York. 

J'ay ecrit aussi a M. Dr Marbois consul de France a Philadelphie pour 
lui recommander le paquet a 1' Address de Mr. le Cte. d'Angivill. 

Cette semaine j'y decrit plusieurs gramens et Carex, Scirpus et autres 
plantes qui croissent aux environs de S nt Augustin. 

Le Dimanche 27 Avril, redige les Listes et les Descriptions des Plantes 
recueillies dupuis mon arrivee montant a 40 especes dont les genres et les 
especes me sont bien connues. 

Le deuxieme cahier contient 36 dont les genres me sont bien connus, 
mais les especes doutantes ou inconnues. 

Et le 3 me Cahier contient 29 dont la plupart sont inconnues ou ne pou- 
voient tre determinees faute d'en voir la fleur. 

En tout 105 Arbres ou plantes recueillis depuis le l er Mars jusqu' a ce 

Le 28 Avril achete les provisions et prepare a partir pour aller visiter 
le lac George au dela de la rivierre S nt Jean. 

Rernis les lettres ecrites precedemm* au capit. Hudson qui devoit partir 
pour aller a S te Mary prendre son navire et aller a New-York en relachant 
a Savanah. Ecrit par la mme occasion a M. Ferry Dumont. 

Adresse le paquet a M r De la Forest ainsi que les lett. de ch. sur M r 

Observe sur 1'habitation de S nt Roquet en abondance des Annona gran- 

Le 29 Nous sommes partis pour aller sur la Riv. S*- John. 

Le 30 nous sommes arrives a 1'habitation de M. Wigin situee sur cette 
riv. a 40 Miles de S nt Augustin par terre. 

Le jeudy l er May 1788, j'ay herborise aux environs et recueilli en fleur 
1'Androm. formosissima. Le Canot etant prepare le 2 May, nous nous 
sommes embarque et nous avons passe" par le Magazin etabli pour le com- 
merce av. les Sauvages situe a 10 miles de distance. Nous avons campe 
plus loin et nous avons fait seize miles de navigation sur cette Riv. 

Le 3 May nous avons fait de 14 a 16 Miles ayant tpuj. le vent contraire 
et nous avons campe dans unlieu nomme Camp des Indiens, qui paroissoit 
avoir ete cultive autrefois. J'y reconnus le Sapindus saponaria,* des 
Grangers et un joli Convolvul. dissectus ? &c. 

Le Dimanche 4 May nous avons fait quatre miles seulem* et nous avons 

* Probably S. marginalus, Willd. C. S. S. 

MiVhaux.] [Oct. 19, 

campe sur une Isle a 1 'entree du lac George sur la rive oricntale vis a vis 
un lieu norame la pointe des Alligators. Le vent qui etoit contraire et tres 
fort nous obligea de rester en ce lieu ou je reconnus 1'Erythrina, de nou- 
veau ligneux et le Sapindus Saponaria. Les bois etoient remplis d'Oranges 

Le 5 May, nous vinmes en entrant dans le Lac George une grande Baie 
profonde a main gauche c. a. d. a 1'Ouest et apres avoir dirige notre route 
au fond, nous rencontrames dans une riv. que Ton n'appercoit pas avant 
d'y arriver a la distance de vingt toises seulenient. L'embouchure 
(29 D. 5' Lat.) de cette rivierre est tellement reraplie de sable qu'il fallut 
trainer le Canot 1'espace de vingt cinq a 30 toises. En suite on trouve plus 
de 15 pieds de profondeur. L'eau en est saumatre et plus degoutante que 
celle de la riv. S nt Jean et celle du lac G. Apres avoir remonti pendant 
plus de trois miles, nous trouvames la source qui sort de terre en for- 
mant des Bouilloas qui s'elevent a plus d'un demi pied sur la surface. 
L'on voit le fond a plus de 30 pi. de profondeur. Au tour du Bassin 
forme par cette source, nous reconnumes I'lllicium. Le sol est compose 
de sable noirci par les debris de vege*taux et de Coquillages. 

Les autres arbres qui abondent en ce lieu, ainsi q. par tout ou Ton trouve 
I'lllicium* sont les Magnol. grandiflora et glauca, Ilex cassine, Olea amer. 
et Laurus Borbonia. Cette rivierre abonde en Poiss. si prodigieusem 1 
qu'ils se heurtoient contre le Canot a mesure que nons avancions. Notre 
course fut de cinq miles jusqu' a 1'einbouchure de cette Rivierre. 

Le 6 May nous remontames en suivant le rivage et comme j'allois sur 
le sable tandisque le Canot continuoit, je reconnus a un Mille de distance 
du lieu ou nous etions parti, c. a. d., de I'emboucliure de la rivierre salee, 
une source d'eau, la plus pure et la meilleuie que j'aye bu cy-devant en 
Floride. Nous nous y aritamcs pour dejeuner, car nous etions tous altere 
et degoute de la mauvaise eau q. nous buvions depuis plusieurs jours. Un 
mille plus loin je reconnus encore rillicium et il se trouva en abondance 
a la pointe meridionale de la Baye. Apres avoir depasse la baye (29 Deg. 
3' de latitude), nous vinmes camper a la Colline des Oranges pour nous y 
mettre a 1'abri d'un Orage furieux qui alloit fondre sur nous. Au bas de 
cette Colline est I'Embouchure d'une rivierre assez large dont 1'eau n'est 
pas aussi agreable q. celle de la precedente. Je remontai cette riv. en- 
viron deux miles et je reconnus dans le bois le Sapindus Saponaria. Une 
espece de Coffea qui j'avais observe cy devant a Moskito shore et deux 
autres arbres que j'y avois vu mais qui m'etoient reste inconnu. Je vis 
aussi la Crinum americanum. Notre course fut evaluee a 15 miles. 

Le 7 May 1788, notre navigation fut de huit miles. Nous passames le 
Lac George et nous entrames dans la Rivierre qui est au dessus et nous 
campames dans un Lieu abondant en Grangers. Nous arrivames aussi 

* This ig probably the rare Ulitium parviflorum, which Michaux found "juxta amnem 
V. Joanms," but which has not fiuce been found growing wild in North America. It 
was detected in the Island of Cuba by Charles Wright. C. S. S. 

1883.] M [Michaux. 

tot po. construire une Cabane de feuilles des Palmier sauvage Chamcerops 
. pour nous garantir d'un orage. 

Le 8 May, notre navigation fut de 10 Miles et nous eprouvames un 
orage plus considerable que celui de jour precedent. Nous vinmes un 
Lieu frequente par les Sauvages. II y avoit un Canot qui leur apparte- 
noit au bord de la rivierre et une Marmite. Je fis mettre quelques Bis- 
cuits, des haricots et des Oranges donees dans cette Marmite et nous con- 
tinuames notre chemin. Nous entendimes tircr deux coups be fusil ce 
qui prouvoit q. les sauvages etoient a la cliasse de ce cote la. Nous pas- 
sanies un lieu si abondant en oranges que je fis plus d'un demi mille dans 
1'interieur du Bois en largeur sans trouver d'autres arbres. Ce lieu avoit 
plus d'un Mile de long. Nous soinmes venus camper sur une colline ou 
je reconnus la Rivina humil. un Asclepias arbriss. & &- le Gledisia mont 
osperma au bas de colline et le somrnet couvert d'Orangers. 

Le 9 May notre course fut evaluee a 12 miles seulem* quoiq. les 
Rameurs ayant travaille toute la journee, mais depuis notre depart avec 
le courant qui etoit oppose, puisq. nous remontions une rivierre, le vent 
fut toujours contraire. Pendant plus de huit miles, il ne se trouva autre 
des deux cotes de la riv. que herbes joncs, et peu d'arbres, le sol y etoit 
touj. bourbeux. La rivierre etoit bordee des deux cotes d' Alligators ou 
Caimans qui avec leur figure horrible etoient d'une grandeur et grosseur 
enorme. On les approchoit de 6 pi. a 10 pi. de distance. Leur forme es- 
celle d'un Lizard, mais ils sont noirs armes tout le long du dos de grosses 
pointes qu'ils herissent quand ils sont en colere. On ne peut les tuer 
qu'on chargeant le fusil avec des balles et en visant au bas du Cou. Le 
Nez est plus retrousse que celui d'un cochon la tete applatie de deux pieds 
quatre pouces & q. que fois davantage en longeur. Les yeux sont tres 
rapproches du sommet de la tete. Ils ont soixante douze dents a la Ma- 
choire. Ils avalent aisement les Chiens les Cochons et les jeunes Veaux, 
mais au moind. mouvement d'un homme, ils se precipitent dans 1'eau 
avec un grand fracas. Ils sont amphib. et venoient tous les matins nous 
rendre visile po. avoh les debris du Poisson dont nous etions bien fournis 
sur cette rivierre. Nous elions regale aussi de leur Musique dont le bruit 
ressemble a un Ronflem* plus fort et plus continue que le Mugissem* 
du Taureau, situe dans une vallee a un mile de distance. Les sauvages 
en mangent q.q. fois la partie inferieure, mais seulem* lorsqu'ils manquent 
d'autre gibier. 

Le 10 May notre navigation fut de 15 miles ; nous remontames jusqu' a 
la source une rivierre qui sortoit de terre. L'eau en etoit saumatre et ren- 
doit une odeur insupportable, quoique Ton en voyoit le fonds a plus de 15 
a 20 pi. de profondeur. Nous eumes beaucoup de difficulty's a passer sur 
des arbres qui couvroient le fonds et q.q. fois embarrassoient la superficie. 
II n'y a point eu d'habitations plus reculees du temps de Anglois que celle 
sur les ruines de la quelle nous avons clejeune ce meme jour. Je trouvay 
a 1'endroit le plus recule ou nous nous somrnes avance une espece de colo- 
quite sauvage. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Le Dimanche onze Ma} T , nous avons fait onze Miles toujouis en remon- 
tant vers centre le courant de la Rv. qui paraissoit de plus en plus ein- 
barassee et se perdoit dans des Marais converts de Jones. Je recueillis 
un Ipomoea* dont la fleur etoit parfaitement blanche et le tube six pouces 
de long. Cette plante me paroit annuelle et croit aux lieux humides, les 
feuilles sont entieres, cordiformes. Voyant pen de Succee a rontinuer 
mon Voyage, je fis retrograder et nous revinmes coucher au lieu d'ou 
nous etions parti ce m me jour. 

Le 12 May, le vent etoit favorable a notre retour et nous fimes vingt-sept 
Miles. Nous avons campe a la Colline des Grangers. 

Le 13 May, le Vent et le Courant furent de meme tres favorables & 
nous arrivames sur le bord du ruisseau dont 1'eau etoit si agreable et si 
belle. II est situe a un clemi mile seulem* de la rive d'eau saumatre aussi 
dont 1'eau est aussi mauv. q. celle du ruiss. est bonne. J'y eprouvay de 
plus la satisfact. de recueillir a seulem* quatre vingt toises de distance 
I'lllicium. II est a remarquer que cet arbriss. se trouve dans les lieux ou 
croissent le Magn. grandifl. Annona grandifl. Olea americana, Ilex cassine 
&c. &c. mais plus particuP ou Ton trouve aussi 1'Aralia spin, et un Gra- 
men appele Canes] qui croit a dix pieds de haut ce qui indiq. touj. un bon 
terrain mais sablonneux et frais. Notre course fut de dix huit a 20 Miles 
ce jour la. 

Le 14 May notre navigation fut de . . . et nous arrivames a 1'habi- 
tation de S r Wigins . . . 

Le 15 May nous nous mimes en route par terre pour revenir a S nt Au- 

Le 16 May, nous arrivames a S nt Augustin a deux heures apres Midy 

Le. 17 j'allay rendre visile a son Excell. 1 Gouverneur &c 

Le Dimanche 18 May, je redigeai mes collections. 

Le 19 je fus invite a diner chez le capit. Howard. 

Le 20 et21 J'allay herboris. a 1'extreniite* de 1'Isle St. Anastasia. 

Le 22 jour de la ite de Dieu assiste* a la Prossesicon. 

Le 23 pris conpe de son Exc. le Gouvern r & de plusi. personn. de dis- 
tinct, desquelles j'avois recu un accueil favorable. 

Le 24 remis au Governem* un detail des observations faites en Floride 
pendant mon sejour. 

Le Dimanche 25 May parti de S nte Augustin pour le Poste S* Vincent 
et nous avons couche a Ttcenty- Miles house. 

Le 26, nos chevaux ayant ete egares pendant la nuit, nous les avons 
cherche le lendemain. Le Sergent de ce Poste qui s'etoit charge de nos 
chevaux nous fit conduire par deux Soldats et deux autres chevaux jusqu' 
au Poste S* Vincent situe a 40 miles de S* Augustin. 

Le 27 nous nous embarquames dans notre Canot qui etoit venu par Mer 
nous attendre au Poste S nt Vincent parceque nous avions profite d'une 
petite navire qui faisoit voile pour cette partie de la Floride. 

* I. Bona-nox, t. C. S. S. 

f Arundinuna gigantea, Chapm. C. S S 

1838.] [Mijhaux, 

Le 28 May 1738, nous navigames entre des Isles de Jones et nous 
avons canape vis a vis la Barre de Nassau river. 

Le 29 May, nous arrivames a 1'embouchure de la riv. S nte Mary qui 
separe la Floride de la Georgie et nous avons campe sur le territoire de la 
Georgie. L'endroit ou nous traversames cette riv. a environ deux rallies 
de large. 

Le 30, nous avons cotoye 1'isle de Cumberland qui a plus de . . . miles 
de long et nous avons campe sur 1'isle meme. A cause des detours con- 
siderables que nous avons ete oblige de faire dans le canal qui regne entre 
la grande terre et cette Isle, nous arrivames a 9 lieures du soir au lieu du 
campement. La partie de la grande terre, en Georgie, vis a vis de cette 
Isle, se nomme Cambden county. 

Nous vimes plusi. habitations sur cette Isle, des habitants de la Georgie 
qui s'y e*toient refugies pour eviter les ravages des Indiens Creeks qui 
avoient detruit leurs bestiaux brule les maisons et tue beaucoup plusi. 
d'entre eux. 

Le 31 nous avons continue notre route dans le Canal qui se prolonge au 
long de cette Isle et a onze heures nous avons passe" le Sond S nt Ander 
qui a plus de cinq milles de traverse dans la partie la plus etroite. Plu- 
sieurs rivierres y ont leur embouchure. Nous avons ensuite continue 
notre route au long de S fc Simeon Island et a dix heures du soir nous avons 
traverse le Sond S* Simeon. 

Le Dimanche l er Juin 1788, nous sommes parti a deux heures du matin 
et nous arrivames sur les dix heures a Frederictown. Je remis des 
lettres a differents particuliers et je dinay avec mon fils chez M. Spalding 
ou il se trouva des dames de la famille du General Maclnstosh et plusi. 
personnes de consideration. 

Le 2 Juin nous sommes venus jusqua la pointe meridionale de 1'Isle 
nommee Little Saplo Island et nous avons campe apres avois passe le 
Sond. nomme Frederic sound. 

Le 3 Juin nous avons passe deux Sound ou Barres et nous sommes venus 
camper sur 1'Isle S ate Catherine. 

Le 4 nous avons passe a 7 heures du matin le Sound S nte Catherine. 
Le temps etoit calme, la largeur est plus de 4 miles et nous trouvames 
quatre courants tres rapides qui non obstant le calme qui regnoit alors, 
donna une grande peine a nos rameurs et nous exposoit au danger ou de 
ne pouv. le vaincre, ou d'etre submerge* au moindre vent qui se seroit 

Le 5 Juin notre navigation fut evaluee a 22 miles et nous arrivames sur 
le soir a Savanah. 

Le 6 nous avons sejourne a Savanah. 

Le 7 nous sommes parti par un Navire qui etoit destine pour Charleston. 

Le Dimanche 8 Juin arrive a Charleston et j'y ay reste jusqu' au lende- 

Le 9 j'ay e*te* a 1'habitation. 

Le 10 j'ay visile le Jardin et les Pe*pinieres. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Le onze j'ay e"te" de nouveau a Charleston pour retirer mes effets du 
navire et faire transporter les caisses de Plantes a 1'habitat. 

Le 12, 13 et 14 j'ay plante les arbres rapportes de la Floride. 

Le 15 et 16 occupe a semer les graines rapportees de la Floride et une 
grande quantite d'autres especes. 

Le 17 je fus de nouveau a Charleston. 

Le 18, 19 et 20 Juin, les ouvriers de 1'habitation ont ete occupes a ar- 
racher 1'herbe dans les Pepinieres. 

Le 21 herborise et recolte du Fothergilla Gardeni.* 

Le Dimanche 22 revenu a 1'habitation. 

Le 23, 24 et 25 travaille au jardin. 

Le 26 j'ay e"te" a Charleston. 

Le 27 je suis revenu a 1'habitation. 

Le 28, 29 et 30 travaille" au jardin et continue* avec plusieurs negres la 
recolte du Fothergilla Gardeni.* 

Le mardy l er Juillet, la recolte du Fothergilla gard. s'est trouvee monter 
a quatre Boisseaux. 

J'ay ecrit a M r le Cornte d'Angiviller et j'ay fait un Envoy des Graines 
de la Floride. J ; ay aussi ecrit a M. L'Abbe Nolin par M r Leyritz. 

Le 2 je suis revenu de la ville. 

Le 3 j'ay ete avec mon fils a la recherche du Stewartia. 

Le 4 Juillet 1788 occupe alternativement au jardin sur 1'habitation a 
difterens voyages vers les rivierres Santee et Cooper &- &- . . . Oblige 
aussi a plusieurs voyages a Charleston jusqu' a la fin de ce mois. 

Remarque a peu de distance de Monk's corner le Zizania palustris. 

Le 2 Aoust 1788 Remis au capit. Elliot une boite de graines a 1'adresse 
de M. le Comte par la voye de New-York. 

Le 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 et 9 dud. occupe sur 1'habitation n'ayant pas etc" con- 
tent du jardinier precedent. 

Le 10 jusqu' au 14 Aoust, voyage" vers Monk's corner et au dela vers 

Le 15 attaque de la fievre. 

Le 20 tire sur M. Dutartre po. le service de 1'Etablissement a New-York, 
une Lettre de Change de 2000 Ivs a 1'ord. de M r De la forest Consul de 
France a New-York. 

La fievre a toujours continue et je pris le parti d'apres les avis de plusi. 
personnes de venir a Charleston po. etre a portee du Medecin et des secours 

Le 7 Septembre, 1788, n'ayant pas eu de fievre depuis plusieurs jours, je 
revins a notre habitation de la campagne. 

Le 13 et les jours suivans la fievre etoit revenue et je fus oblige de 
retourner a la ville., J'y restay jusqu'a la fin du mois. Dans le courant 
du mois, je fis plusieurs voyages a 1'habitation, particulierement pour la 
recolte des graines de Chinquapin, Styrax &- <fe- 

* F. alnijolia, L. C. S. S. 

1888.] [Michaux. 

Le 7 Octobre, 1788, je retournay a 1'habitation. 

Le 8 dud. Pluye toute la journee 

Le 9 dud. Pluyes continuellcs. 

Le 10, nous avons ete a la recolte du Stewartia et remarque un Populus 
heterophy. dans la Plantation du nomine Willimon. 

Le 11 prepare un envoy de graines pour le service du Departement par 
la voye de New-York. 

Le Dimanche 12 continue a travailler a 1'envoy et a ecrire les lettres. 

Le 13 Octobre j'ay ete a la ville po. delivrer les caisses au Navire, j'ay 
ecrit a M r le C te 'a M. 1'Abbe, a M r De la Forest, au S Saulnier, j'ay rec,u 
une caisse d'arbres dePhiladelphie, achete des Planches. 

Le 14 dud. je fus oblige de rester a la ville. 

Le 15 je revins a 1'habitation apres avoir terniine mes affaires a la ville. 

Le 16 plante les arbres recjus et seme des Chinquapins. 

Le 17 voyage a Dorchester po. la revoke du Gleditsia aquatica. 

Le 18 seme graines de Magnolia glauca. et Magn. tripetala. Chionanthus, 
Stewartia, Alaterne de Carol. Zanthoxil, Styrax, Halesia, Fothergilla, 
Magnol. acuminata, Viburnum dentatum. 

Le Dimanche 19, elague les arbres du jardin et prepare le chassis du 
petit jardin, remis les vitrages. 

Le 20 October, 1788, j'ay fait faire un abri pour garantir les Illicium 
floridan. des Vent du Nord et des Pluyes du N. Ouest. 

Le 21 dud. j'ay en voye une caisse au capit. Marshall po. qu'il me 
rapporte des arbres de S* Augustin en Floride. Vent du nord et thermom. 
le matin a 10 d - 

Le 22 thermometre le matin a 9 cleg, seme dans une cloture particuliere, 
Chinquapins, Persimons, Fothergilla, Magn. glauca, Styrax, Juniperus, 
&& . . . 

Le 23 therm, le mat in a six deg. 1-2 au dessusde O. Recolte Pinuspalus- 
tris et Fraxinus palustris.* 

Le 24 October, 1788, recueilli comme le jour pieced 4 Graines de Pins, 
& il s'est trouve plusieurs arbres dont la graine etoit deja tombee, quoique 
1'annee soit plus abondante qu' a 1'ordinaire, un arbre de un Pied et demi 
a 2 pi. de diametre ne produis* qu' environ un Peck ou tout au plus un 
demi Boiss. de Cones. 

Le 25 recueilli Gr. de Pins et mis en ordres les graines recueillies prece*- 
dem 1 - 

Le Dimanche 26 recueilli graines de Pin et mis en ordre mes Collections 
precedentes de graines. 

Le 27 Octobre, 1788, mon flls a accompagne les negres a la recolte des 
graines de Pins et j'ay travaille avec le jardinier a faire un fosse po. 
detourner les eaux des Illici. 

Le 28 j'ay e"te a Charleston et j'ay ete oblige de rester jusqu' au lende- 
main pour avoir de 1'argent dur pour du papier Monoye. 

* F. platycarpa, Michx. C. S. S. 


Michaux.] |- Oct . 19> 

Le 29 je suis revenu a 1'habitation. 

Le 30 recolte" Baccharis et plusi. autres sortes de graines. Le 31 seine 
des graines. 

Le l er Novembre 1788 recolte des graines de Bignonia sempervirens et 
couvert de feuilles les arbrisseaux de la Floride. 

Le Dimanche 2 Novembre, recolte graines de Nyssa dentata, et piepare 
au voyage au de la d' Augusta. 

Le 3 dud. recolte graines d' Andromeda nitida, And. racemosa, Clethra. 

4TH CAHIER. 1788 & 1789. 

Le l er Novembre 1788, recolte" les graines de Bignon. sempervirens et 
couvert les arbriss. de la Floride pour les guarantir des gelees de 1'hyver. 

Le Dimanche 2 dud. recueilli les graines de Nyssa a gros fruits & pre- 
pare a mon voyage pour la Georgie, requ un billet de M. Petry pour me 
recommander de ne point aller en Georgie au sud de Savanali, a cause des 
Indiens qui ont recommence les ravages. 

Le 3 Novembre, 1788, j'ay envoye a la recolte du Bignon. crucigera,* 
de 1'Andromeda nitida, du Clethra et arracher du Spigelia Marylandica qui 
avoit e"te demande" particulierem fc dans les dernieres lettres de M. 1'Abbe 

Le 4 envoy6 a Charleston relativement a 1'arrivee de plusi. navires 
arrives de New-York. 

Le 5 parti de 1'habitation pour Augusta et je vins coucher a Givham's 
ferry en passant par Dorchester. 

Ce jour je fis 36 milles en evaluant cette marche comme si j'e"tois parti 
de Charleston me me cy 36 M. 

Le 6 Novembre 1788, diner a Stanley house, 26 M. et coucher a People 
house pres le ferry Dantign. trente cinq Miles cy . . .35. 

Le 7 Dejeuner a Bruton-house 6 M. faisant la moitie du chernin evaluee 
entre Charleston & Augusta. Je vins coucher a Chester house cy . . . 30. 

Le 8 diner a Robertson house ou White Pound, 15 M. Ici la Route de 
Long-cane se reunit a celle d'Augusta. De Roberts, a ... house 10 
M. cy . . . 25. 

Le Dimanche 9. traverse des Pines barrens et dejeune* a 12 M. de Dis- 
tance et enfin arrive a Augusta apres une marche de 10 M. cy. 22 M. 
Total de la distance 148 M. 

Le 10 Novernbre 1788, visile plusieurs personnes a qui j'avois etc" 
adresse, pluye toute la journee. 

Le 11 j'ay ete a 1'habitation du Colonel Stallion et reconuu sur les bords 
de la riv. Kalmia latifolia, Rhododendron . . . , Padus sempervirens, f 
Halesia . . . , Annona . . . , Acer . . . 

* B. capreolata, L. C. S. S. 

t Prunus caroliniana, Ait. C. S. S. 

1888.] [Michaux. 

Le 12 revenu a Augusta. 

Le 13 j'ay ete a la recolte du Pama* spicata flore parvo, albo, nova spe- 
cies: et trouve sur les bors un arbre nouveau a f. oppos. observe 1'auuee 
dern. en Georgie sur les bords des rivierres. 

Le 14 j'ay ete a huit Miles d' Augusta pour recueillir un arbrisseau f qui 
a le Port de Erica, et rapporte aussi environ deux cent de Epigea repens. 

Le 15 Novembre 1788, parti D'Augusta pour aller sur la route de 
Savanah de 1'annee derniere, j'observai plusi. Plantes rares particuliere- 
ment le Lapathum occidentale. Dine chez la F e Brown, maison situee 
entre deux Etangs 27 Miles et couche chez le S T Lambert 37 Miles; trouve 
le Calycanthus pres de son habitation. 

Le Dimancbe 16 passe 1'habitation du nomme Bel taverne a 42 Miles. 
Ensuite trouve dans uue Pine-barren de 12 Miles de traverse le Ceanothus 
floridanusj et un arbuste a grosses racines tracantes de la fam. des Euph. 
et af. de cbne. Trouve ces deux arbustes particulierein* pres de 1'habi- 
tation de Freeman 54 M. 

Continue ma route jusqu' a Beaver-Dam 60 miles d' Augusta et revenu 
coucher pi es de 1'habitation de S r Bel. 

Nota (La roue de la voiture 1'annee derniere fut brisee dans une colline 
a 25 milles d'Augusta) 

Le 17 Novembre 1788, revenu coucber a Augusta et recueilli toutes les 
Plantes les plus remarquables. Mon voyage pendant ces trois jours a ete 
de 120 Milles. 

Le 18 Encaisse les Plantes recueillies depuis mes courses aux environs 

Le 19 j'ay ete recueillir des jeunes Plantes d'un Rhododendron nova 
species et d'un Kalmia qui a beaucoup de rapport au Kaluiia latifolia. 

Le 20 j'ay e;e recueillir des Plants de 1' Andromeda arborea et de 1'An- 
nona triloba. Ensuite 1'apres midy j'ay encaisse ces Plants, j'ay remis 
les Caisses contenant onze cent soixante huit arbres ou Plantes au S r Inca 
pour les envoyer par Savanah a Charleston. 

Le 21 Novembre 1788 je suis parti d'Augusta et j'ay passe par Beresfort- 
town composed de 4 a 5 maisons situee a 3 M. d'Augusta. Cinq miles plus 
loin en continuant la Route de Wilks County on trouve plusieurs maisons 
pies d'un Creek et au de la du Creek Ton pourroit recueillir plusi. milliers 
de Plants du Calycanthus. 

La Maison du S r Grays est a 15 Miles d'Augusta et on peut y loger. 
J'ay couche chez la V e Marchall dont 1'habitation est situee a 20 miles 

Le 22 j'ay eie" si tourmente par un mal de Reins quo j'ay fait seulem* 
douze miles. J'ay traverse Little river et a 4 miles au de la je suis venu 
coucher chez le Colonel Graoe virginien. 

* jEsculus parvittom, Walt. (M. macrostachya, Michx.) C. S. S. 
t Probably Ceratiola ericoides, Michx. C. S. S. 
J C. microphyttus, Michx C. S. S. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Le Dimanche 23 je suis arrive a Washington-town situe a 46 ou48 Miles 
d' Augusta. Nota (Washington est la capitale de Wilks-county) 

Le 24 Novembre 1788 j'allay voir un Mcdecin franqois e"tabli dans le 
Pays, il me donna des remedes et il rn'ordonna le repos. Je reconnue 
pies de Washington, le Magnolia acuminata que je n'avois pas vu daiis 
ce voyage depuis mon depart de Charleston. 

Le 25 et 26 la fievre jointe aune autre incommodite" m'empcha de con- 
tinuer le voyage que j'avois resolu sur les Rivierres Broad river & Tugelo 

Le 29 je fus un peu retabli et je partis de Washington. Je visitay a 
Washington un franc,. M r Terundet tres considere. Mon logem* fut 
chez le Colonel Stablerfield. Je vins coucher chez le Colonel Gains dont 
1'habitati. est situee sur Broad river a 20 M. de Washington. 

Le Dimanche 30 Novembre 1788 je ne pus voir M r Meriwether qui de- 
meure pres de Colon. Gaines et je traversay Broad river. Daus cet endroit 
la riv. avoit des roches qui rendoient le passage difficile pour les chevaux, 
sur tout apres les pluyes. II y a un ferry nomine . . . sur Savanah 
riv. e*loigne de cet endroit de cinq milles. Meriwether passe pour un Bot- 
aniste il s'attache a connoitre toutes les Plantes de la contree et je regret- 
tay de n'avoir pu le voir. Je dirigeai mon voyage vers Tugulo riv. et je 
vins coucher chez. le Capit. Richardson a 15 miles de distance du Passage 
sur Broad river. J'avois dine en passant chez I' Esquire Tets. 

Le l er Decembre je traversal plusieurs Creeks, le l er Beaver dam situe a 
un mille et demi du Capit. Richardson. Un autre Creek Cool Water 
Creek situe a cinq milles du l er pres 1'habitation du Colon. Cuningham. 
Je passai Cider Creek a 8 mi. de distance du 3 e et je vins coucher sur Log- 
Light wood Creek a 1'habitation du S r Freeman. Je fus rec,u av. beaucoup 
de civiliies par la maitresse de la maison dont le mari etoit absent. Cette 
femme etoit jeune, tres belle, mais tres devote et occupee continuell nt des 
differentes manieres de penser entre les Methodistes, les Anabaptistes et 
les Quakers. La conversation sur ces matieres dura depuis 7 h. jusqu' a 
10 ; je commencai alors 3, en tre ennuye malgre 1'honnStete et les agre- 
ments de cette femme et j'allay me coucher. Le Creek sur lequel cette 
habitation est situee se rend en cet endroit dans la riv. Savanah a 15 Toises 
au dessous de la maison. Cette journee mon voyage fut de 20 M. 

Le 2 Decembre 1788 je laissay le confluent de deux riv. Tugulo et Kiwi 
pour remonter le cours de Tugolo et je vins coucher chez le S r Larkin 
Cleveland Esq r 19 M. 

Le 3 dud. je traversay la riv. Tugolo par 1'endroit seul usite pour le 
passage. II etoit si dangereux que deux de nos chevaux furent en danger 
d'etre noyes. Je vins dejeuner chez John Cleveland de 1'autre c6ie de la 
rivierre. L'on me dit qu'il n'y avoit plus d'habitations et je traversay un 
pays convert de bois de meme que toutes les provinces du Sud, mais il 
etoit de plus tres montagneux et j'arrivay le soir au coucher du sol. a 
Seneca apres une marche de 19 Miles. 

Le 4 Decembre 1788, il gela assez fort. On trouva de la glace d'une 

1888.] [Michaux. 

ligne d'epaisseur et plus. A la pointe de jour j 'allay visiter les bords de 
la rivierre et je reconnus le Zanthoriza, Rhododendron* nova species, Kal- 
inia latifolia, Hydrangea (glauca), Abies spruce, Acer negundo, Carpinus 
fructu , . . Annona triloba, Halesia tetraptera, C.ornus alternifolia, 
Ciilycanthus . 

Le 5 je continual mes recherclies, tandis que mon Negre etoit occupe 
a arracher les arbres que je lui avoit montre. Je clierchai un Interprete 
et un Indieu cheroquois pour aller dans les montagnes kabitees par cette 

Le 6 Decembre 1788 je partis pour les montagnes et je vins coucheravec 
mon guide dans un village Indien. Le chef du village nous recut avec affa- 
bilite. II nous dit q. son fils qui devoit revenir de la chasse le mme soir 
nous conduiroit dans les montagnes aux sources du Kiwi. Mais il no 
rcvient pas et ce vieillard qui paroissoit avoir environ 70 ans s'offrit a 
m'acconipagner. Get homme qui etoit ne dans un village vers les sources 
de cette Riv. connoissoit parfaitement les montagnes et je souhaitai q. son 
fils ne revint pas. II nous fit servir a souper de la viande fraiche de Cerf 
bouillie et du pain de farine de Mays dans lequel on avoit mledes Potates 
clouces (Convolvulus batatas). Je mangeaia vec mon guide qui sqachant 
parlerSauvage me servit d'lnterpiete. Le Chef mangea avec sa femme sur 
un autre bane, cnsuite la mere de sa femme et ses deux tilles, 1'une mariee 
et la plus jeune d'environ 14 a 15 ans vinrent s'asseoir autour de la chau- 
diere ou elles avoient fait bouillir la viande. Ces Dames etoient nues 
jusqu' a la ceinture, n'ayant d'autre habillemens qu'une seule jupe 

Le Dimanche 7 Decembre, la maitresse de la maison fit rotir du mays 
avec de la Cendre passee au tamis dans un Pot de terre. Quand il fut roti 
un peu plus qu'a demi, on le retira du feu ou passa le cendre qui etoit 
melee. On le porta ensuite au mortier et etaut pile on le passa dans un 
tamis fin pour s6parer la farine fine que Ton init dans un sac po. notre pro- 
vision. Lorsque Ton est fatigue on met environ trois cuillerees dans un 
verre d'eau, on y ajoute souvent du sucre brun ou Cassonade. Cette 
boisson d'ailleurs ties agreable est un Restorant qui repare les forces dans 
1' instant. Le sauvages ne se mettent jamais en voyage sans une provision 
de cette farine qu'ils appellent . . . 

Notre marche fut d'environ quatorze milles quoiq. depuis 7 h. et demie 
qu matin jusqu'a 6 h. du soir. Nous ne nous fussions arieie qu'une heure 
po. diner. Nous camparnes sur les bords du Kiwi au pied des montagues, 
parini les Rhododend. de 2 especes. les Kalmia les Azalea, & &-. 

Le 8 Decembre 1788, a mesure que nous approchions de la source du 
Kiwi, les cheinins devinrent plus difficiles. Notre marche fut de . . , 
et deux miles avant d'y arriver je recounus le Magnolia montanaf qui a 

* R. punctatum, Andr. (R. minus, Michx.) C. S. S. 

t M. Fraseri, Walt. The specimen labelled Magnolia cordata by Richard in Michaux'a 
herbarium, is clearly a form of M. acuminata, with broad leaves, cordate at the base. It 
seems to confirm my opinion expressed before I had an opportunity of examining this 

Michaux.] 46 [Oct. 19, 

e"te nomine M. cordata ou auriculata par Bartram. II y avait en ce lieu 
une petite cabanne habite"e par une famille de sauvage Cherokees. Nous 
nous anetames pour y camper et je courrus faire des recherches. Je 
recueillis un nouvel arbuste * a f. dentelees rampant sur la montagne a 
peu de distance de la riv. Le temps changea et nous eumes de la pluie 
toute la nuit, quoique nous fussions a 1'abri d'un gros Pinus Strobus, nos 
habits, nos couvertures furent trempes et traverse's. J'allai vers le milieu 
de la nuit dans la Cabane des sauvages qui pouvoit a peine contenir la 
famille composee de huit person nes, hommes et femmes. II y avoit de 
plus six gros chi ns qui augmentoient la malproprete de cet appartement 
et rincomrnodite. Le feu etoit place au milieu sans ouverture au haut de 
la cabane pour laisser sortir la fumee, il y en avoit cepend* assez po. rece- 
voir la pluye au travers la couverture de cette maison. Un Sauvage 
m'oftrit son Lit qui etoit une Peau d'Ours et vint prendre ma place aupres 
du feu. Mais enfin incommode par les Chiens qui se inordoient continu- 
ellem* pour avoir leur place au feu, je retournay au camp, la pluye ayant 

Ce lieu que Ton nomme la source de Kiwi est ainsi improprement nomme, 
C'est la jonction de deux autres rivi.f ou gros Torrents qui viennent se 
reunir en ce lieu et n'ont pas ete noinmes sinon Branches de Kiwi. 

Le 9 dud, nous partimes guide par mon sauvage po. visiter les plus 
hautes niontagnes et aller a la source de ce torrent qui me parut le plus 
escarpe. II fallut passer des precipices et des torrens couverts d'arbres 
ou dix fois nos chevaux s'enfoncerent et furent en danger de perir. Nous 
remontames jusqu* a une cascade \ ou le bruit de 1'eau en tombant resseru- 
bloit a des coups eloignes de Mousquets. Les sauvages disent que Ton 
voit paroitre en ce lieu des feux la nuit. Je desiray y camper, mais la 
neige qui survint et le vent etoit si froid que nous cherchames le bas d'une 
montagne moins exposed au froid et un lieu plus garni d'herbes po. nos 
chevaux. La nuit fut horriblement froide, il n'y avoit pas en ce lieu de 
bois de Pin. po. entretenir le feu qui bruloit mal a cause de la neige qui 
tomba a plusi. reprises. Nos couvertures couvertes de neige devenoient 
roides de gelee peu apres avoir e;e chauffees. 

Le 10 Decembre. Je visitay plusi. montagnes, sur la pente et dans les 
lieux bas nous arrachames le Magnolia cordata, la journee fut employee 
plus particulierem* a la recherche de cet arbre. 

specimen, that M. cordata, as now known in gardens, must be considered a variety of M. 
acuminata, from which it may be distinguished by its smaller flowers, with bright yellow 
petals, and by its more uniformly cordate leaves, often quite tomentose on the lower sur- 
face. The M. cordata of this Journal is probably always M. Fraseri. For further remarks 
upon this subject see an article on Michaux's Journey to the Carolina Mountains, in 
December, 1788, in lh& American Journal of Science, Vol. XXXII, December, 1886. C. S. S. 

* The indications that this entry refers to the plant afterwards described by Dr. Asa 
Gray, under the name of Shortia galacifolia, are pointed out in the American Journal of 
Science, in the article referred to above. C. S. S. 

f Now known as the Horsepasture and the Toxaway Rivers. C. S. S. 

I The beautiful Falls of the Toxaway. C. S. S. 

1888.] 47 [Michaux. 

Le onze dud. il gela considerablem* et 1'air fut clair et ties vif. Je 
remarquai une suite de hautes montagnes* qui se prolongeoient de 1'Ouest 
a 1'Est et ou la gele"e s'Stoit fait peu sentir a 1' exposition du soleil. Je 
recueillis un Juniperus (repens) que je n'avois pas encore reinarque" dans 
les parties meridionales des Etats-Unis ; mais il faut observer que je vis 
sur ces montagnes plusieurs arbres des parties septentrionales telsque le 
Betula nigra, Cornus alternifolia, Pinus Strobus, Abies Spruce &c. Nous 
traversames un espace d'environ trois miles dans les Rhododendrons max- 
imum, t Je revins camper avec mes guides a la Tete du Kiwi (head of 
Kiwoe) et je recueillis une grande quantite de cet arbuste a f. dentele"es 
trouve" le jour que j'arrivay. Je ne le rencontray sur aucune des autres 
montagnes. Les sauvages du lieu me dirent que les feuilles avoient bon 
gout etant machees et que 1'odeur en e*toit agreable en les froissant, ce que 
je trouvoi effectivement. 

Direction pour trouver cet arbuste. 

La T6te du Kiwi est la jonction de deux Torrens considerables qui cou- 
lent par cascades des hautes montagnes. Cette jonction se fait dans une 
petite plaine ou il y avoit autrefois une ville ou plutot un village de Chero- 
kies. En descendant de la jonction de ces deux torrents ayant la rivi. a 
gauche et les montagnes qui regardent le Nord a droite, on trouve a 
environ 30 a 50 toises de ce confluent un senti.J forme par les chasseurs 
sauvages, il conduit a un ruisseau ou Ton recon.noit les vestiges d'un vil- 
lage de Sauvages par les Pchers qui subsistent au milieu des Brouss. En 
continuant ce sentier on arrive aussitot sur les montagnes et Ton trouve 
cet arbuste qui couvre le sol avec 1'Epigea repens. 

Le 12 Decembre 1788. Je visitay les montagnes exposes au Sud en 
revenant, car les provisions 4toient si avances, qu'il y eut un Dejeuner 
tres sobre. Je recueillis beaucoup de Magn. cordata en un meilleur etat 
que ceux des jours precedents. 

Nous cotoyames la riv. et nous viines plusi. troupes de Dindon sauvages. 
Notre guide sauvagetira dessus mais le fusil qui n'avoit pu etre garanti de 
la pluye q. ques jours auparav* manqua a plusieurs reprises. Ainsi notre 
souper fut de q. ques chataignes q. notre sauvage avoit rec,u d'un autre de 
sa nation. 

Notre marche fut de dix-huit miles. Le temps fut tres clair, la gele*e se 
fit sentir des le soir mme et apres avoir demande a mon sauvage les noms 
de plusi. Plantes dans son Langage, j'e"crivis mon journal au clair de la 

Le 13 Decembre, j'essayai a la pointe du jour de tuer un Dindon sau- 
vage do. il y avoit abondance en cet endroit, je ne pus y reussir et nous 
decampames sans Dejeuner. Nous dirigearnes affames notre route vers un 
Camp de Chasseurs sauvages et quoique les Montagnes fussent moins 

* The Balsam Range of Mountains. C. S. S. 

t This Rhododendron thicket, the most extensive and impenetrable in all this part of 
the country, still exists. C. S. S. 

t This path still exists very much in the same condition, probably, as Michaux fouijd 
it a hundred years ago. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

escarpees il etoit uno hcure apres midy quand nous y arrivames apres une 
inarche de six heures qui ne fut evaluee que quinze miles de cheniin. On 
nous fit cuire de la Viande d'Ours coupee en petits niorceaux et frite dans 
la graisse memo d'Ours. quoiqu. (il) fut tres abondaute en graisse nous 
fimes un tres bon diner et quoique je mangeai beauco. de la partie la plus 
grasse de cette viande je ne fus pas incommode. La graisse d'Ours n'a 
pas de gout et ressemble a la bonne huile d'Olive, elle n'a pas rnme 
d'odeur quand Ton a fait rotir q. ques mets avec elle ne se fige que lorsqu' 
il gele. L'apres diner notre Marche fut de seizes Miles et nous arrivames 
le Soir a Seneca. 

Le Dimanclie 14 Decembre 1788 on me donna avis qu'il devoit partir 
le lendemain un chariot pour Charleston. J'envoyoi chercher deux Din- 
dons sauvages que j'avois achete a trois miles de distance de cet endroit, 
etje recueillis plusi. especes d'arbres Rhododendrons . . . , Nyssa, 
Montana . . . , Mespilus des Montagnes &c &c, . . . 

Le 15 je payai mon sauvage qui m'avoit accompagne" dans sa nation, je 
travaillay a 1'encaissage des arbres, j'en arrachai de nouveaux et je fis 
recueillir des graines. Recueilli le Pavia (lutea) (?), le Quercus glauca, 
&-&- . . . 

Le 16 j'ay travaille pendant toute la journe*e a encaisser des arb. et j'en 
ay arrache plusieurs especes que j'avois reconnu aux environs. 

Le 17 j'ay termine" 1'Emballage des arbres, regie le compte des Depenses 
pendant mon Sejour et prepare toutes choses po. mon Depart. 

Le 18 je suis parti de Seneca, un des Dindons sauvages que j'avois 
achete, mourut a environ deux miles de distance du lieu ou nous etions 
parti et le deuxieme mourut en arrivant au lieu de campernent. Notre 
inarche fut de quinze miles a cause que Ton fut oblige plusieurs fois de 
s'arreter pour reparer les deux Cages qui etoient sur un cheval et qui par 
les efforts de ces oiseaux penchoient d'un cote ou d'un autre. Nous 
campames dans les bois faute d'habitation. 

Le 19 nous mangearnes le Dindon sauvage qui mourut en arrivant au 
lieu de campein* ayant jete celui qui mourut le premier et n'ayant pas 
dine ni soupe la veille. Je vins coucher a Rocky riv. 26 miles de Seneca 
et je nc fis que 12 M. a cause du mauvais temps. 

Le 20 Decembre le froid fut excessif et je vins coucher a la Plantation 
du General Pickens situee a 45 M. de Seneca. Je fis seulement 20 Miles 
cette journ. ayant visile les environs de Little river pour chercher le Mag- 
nolia acuminata. j'y reconnus le Magn. tripetala, 1'Annona et le Magnolia 
acuminata aux env. de 1'habitation Pickens dans un sol argilleux et d'un 
rouge brun. 

Le Dimauche 21 Decembre 1788 le froid fat encore tres considerable. 
II fallut passer plus de vingt Creeks considerables et je vins coucher a 
Turkey Creek* chez un americain-Taurisf qui me dit en arrivant qu'il 

* Un peu avant de passer le Creek est 1' habitat. a main droite du Colon . . . ou 
1'on doit piustot loger. 
t Tory. C. S. S. 

1888.] 49 [Michaux. 

me tueroit si je passois la null chez lui, et je lui dis que je ne craignois pas 
cela, n'etant pas assez gras ni ma bourse non plus. II voulut me badiner 
sur ma nation, mais j'avois asses a lui repondre et il se contenta de ine 
faire payer cher le logement. Je fis cette journee vingt neuf miles. 

Le 22 Decembre 1783 le froid continua et vers 1'apres midy il y cut de 
la pluye tres froide. ' Je vius coucher chez le Capit. Baudet. II se trouva 
la deux voleurs de chevaux. Les habitants des environs etoient assembles 
pour leur faire leur proces. Us renvoyerent un d'eux et 1'autre fut bat- 
onne. A cette occasion ils s'etoient tous ennivres de Rum et toute la nuit 
je fus importune et fatigue de cette desagreable Cornpagnie. Mon voy- 
age fut cette journee de 28 Miles. 

Observe sur une Colline dont le sol est calcaire et argilleux 1'Epigea 
repens en abondance. II est rare de rencontrer un sol calcaire dans les 
parties basses de la Carol. 

Le 23 je partis de cet endroit et vins dejeuner a deux Miles de distance 
a main droite chez un horn me tres honnete.* Ensuite il fallut passer uii 
bois sterile (Pine barren) de 18 M. de long et j'arrivay a Robertson house. 
je fis encore 12 M. en tout 32 M. cette journee. Je vins coucher chez 

Le 24 je passay par Chester house situee a 4 miles de distance et je vins 
coucher a la maison du S r - People. Cette journee je fis 34 Miles. 

Le 25 je passay par Stanley house situee a 9 miles de distance et je vins 
coucher a Guiveham's ferry, f Notre marche fut cette journee de 35 

Le 26 Decembre 1788, je partis de Guivesham ferry et je vins coucher a 
1'habitation. La distance de ce ferry est 35 M. de Charleston. 

Le 27 je plantay une collection des arbres qui avoient ele apportes sur 
un cheval. 

Le Dimanche 28 je visitay les graines qui avoient ete recueillies pend- 
ant mon absence &c. Le 29 j'ay ete a Charleston. 

Le 30 j'ay appris la destination d'uu navire pour Le havre de Grace et 
je suis revenu a 1'habitation pour preparerun Envoi d'arbres et de graines 

Le 31 Decembre 1783 j'ay encaisse plusi. especes de graines et j'ay 
envoye a Charleston pour apporter trois caisses d'arbres que j'avois re- 
cueillis dans mon dernier voyage et qui me sont arrives par le voye de 

Le l er Janvier 1789 j'ay ouvert les caisses, j'ay trouve les arbres en bon 
etat, mais un peu de vegetation ayant developpe les bourgeons, ils avoient 
pousses et pour prevenir le froid et mSme un peu de gelee qu'il y avoit 

* Nota : po. coucher un autre voyage dans cet endroit. 

t Entre le ferry et la maison situ6e dix miles plus loin en allant a Seneca on trouve 
plusi. (Ponds) 6tangs ou il y a abondam' un Ilex|| a feuilles 6troites et tres petites. Lea 
voyageurs peuvent s'arrSter la nuit dans cette Mais, (situee a environ 45 de Charleston.) 

|i Probably IlexDahoon, var. myrtifolia, Chapman. (I. myrtij'olia, Walt.) C. S. S. 


Michaux.] 50 [Oct. 19, 

alors toutes les nuits, j'ay retire les arbres de la mousse (Foil ils etoient 
envelop, au milieu de jour je les ay trempe immediatement dans un Baquet 
d'eau que je tenois aupres de moi et apres les avoir bien immerse je les ay 
tenu sous de la mousse mouillee jusqu' au moment de les planter : j'ay 
aussi couvert de mousse ceux qui avoient les bourgeons developpes. 

Le 2 Janvier 1789 j'ay envoye pour s'informer si les arbres j'attendois 
etoient arrives. 

J'ay continue de planter les arbres recus de Georgie que je reserve pour 
le jardin afin de les envoyer successivement. 

Le 3 j'ay envoye les Caisses preparees au nombre de cinq a Charleston, 
j'y ay ete moi-mdme aussi et je suis revenu le mme jour. 

Le Dimanche 4 continue 1'encaissage des graines. 

Le 5 Janvier 1789 Encaisse des graines pour le jardin de New-York 
afin de profiler d'un Batim 1 destine pour ce Port. Ecrit a M. De la Forest 
et au S r Saulnier. 

Le 6 continue le nigtne ouvrage concernant les graines. 

Le 7 Idem. 

Le 8 Envoye a Charleston pour sqavoir le jour du Depart du Navire et 
j'ay appris que TArmateur ne vouloit pas charger a fret quoique ce fut 
sur son navire. 

Le 9 j'ay ete a Charleston et j'ay obtenu avec M. Petry que j'enverroi 
dix a douze caisses. 

Le 10 Janvier j'ay complette 1'Envoy des Arbres et des Graines. 

Le Dimanche onze j'ay ecrit mes Lettres a M. le C u Daugivill a M, 
1'Abbe, M. Le Monnier, M. Thouin &c. 

Le 12 Envoye Treize caisses a Charleston et j'y ai ete ce meme jour. J'y 
suis reste jusqu' au 15 dudit tant pour faire garnir de cercles ces caisse& 
que pour les faire enibarquer. 

Le 15 je suis revenu a 1'habitation. 

Le 16 j'ay fait et prepare un Envoy de graines pour le jardin du Roy a 

Le 17 j'ay continue le mme travail. 

Le Dimanche 18 Janvier 1789 j'ay prepare un Envoy d'oiseaux pour 
M. Dantie a 1'adresse de M. le Baron D'Ogny: j'ay mis en ordre la collec- 
tion des difterents Yaccin. et j'ay envoye a M r L'Heritier. J'ay ecrit lea 
Duplicata de lett. a M r le C te D'Angiv. &c &c. 

Le 19 j'ay ete a Charleston et j'ay fait enibarquer 1'Envoy d'oiseaux et 
les Vaccin. sur un navire pour Nantes. 

Le 20 j'ay complette 1'Envoy pour M r 1' Abbe Nolin qui avoit ete differe 
par le capit. du navire. 

Le 21 Pluyes orageuses et travaille au merne Envoy. Ecrit a M r - Beau- 
din a M. Plane et a M. Bartram a Philadelphie. 

Le 22 j'ay ete a Charleston pour faire embarquer cet Envoy. 

Le 23 Janvier Envoye pour apporter deux Cerfs nains a 1'habitation et 
travaille a faire un Envoy pour le Havre de Grace, ayant ete informe le 
jour precedent d'un navire destine pour ce Port. 

1888.] 51 [Michaux. 

Le 24 requ ma collection d'arbres des Montagues faisant six caisses et 
un Paquet d'arbres. 

Le 25 Dimanche continue a travailler a 1' Envoy pour le havre et plante 
une partie des Arbres recus. 

Le 26 j'ay ete a Charleston faire einbarquer plusieurs Caisses et j'ay ecrit 
plusieurs Lettres. 

Le 27 Janvier 1789 je suis revenu a 1'habitation. 

Le 28 j'ay plante les arbres arrives des Montagues et j'ay ecrit plusieurs 
Lettres pour la France et une Lettre de Change sur M. Desaint a 1'ordre 
de M. Petry. 

Le 29 j'ay ete a Charleston, j'ay remis mes Lettres au Capit, du navire, 
&c. &c. Je suis revenu le moie jour a 1'habitation. 

Le 30 j'ay seme des graines. 

Le 31 Jauvier recueilli des fleurs de 1'Alnus, N l er Alnus Amentum 
imbricatum squamis 3-floris . . . Cor. minima 4-partita 9 Ament. 
imbricatuin Pistillum styli duo, nonunquam 3. 

Le Dimanchq l er fevrier 1789 j'ay encaisse des Arbres et des Graines pour 
1'Etablissement de New -York. 

Le 2 et 3 fevrier meme travail. 

Le 4 j'ay etc* a Charleston et j'ay parle au Capit. du navire pour aller 
aux Isles Bahama. 

Le 5 je suis revenu a 1'habitation. 

Le 6 j'ay fait labourer dans le jardin. 

Le 7 continue" le meme travail. 

Le Dimanche 8 fevrier, 1789, seme* des Graines d'arbres et d'arbrisseaux. 

Le9j'ay etc" a Ch. 

Le 10 je suis revenu a 1'habitation pour me preparer au Voyage des 
Isles Bahama. 

Les 11, 12, 13 j'ay seme des graines et regie toutes chosea po. mon 

Le 14 j'ay etc" a Charleston. 

Le Dimanche 15 je restay a Charleston en attendant le vent favorable. 

Le 16 fevrier 1789 je m'embarquay sur le Schooner The Hope Capit. 
Weeks pour les Isles Bahama. 

Je restay dix jours en iner et je debarquay le 25 dud. a New Provi- 

Je fis quelques visiles ce mme jour. 

Le 26 je visitay My lord Dunmore, Gouverneur des Isles Bahama. 

11 me fit un accueil favorable et me pria de lui donner q. q. graines et 
des Echantillons de Plantes po. envoy er a M. Banks sc: Cedre, Ebene &c. 
Elathera cortex. 

Le 27 j'allay herboriser et je reconnus les Plantes suivantes: Vinca 
lutea, Annona glabra, Laurus persea, Laurus indica fol. perennantib. vel 
Cornus fol. salicis laurese acuminatis, florib. albis, frutex Sassafras. Catesb. 
Calceolaria? foliis integris, Psydium, Tamarindus indica, Catesbaea 
spinosa, Bursera gummifera, Coccoloba &c. &c. &. 

Michaux.] " [Oct. 19, 

Le 28 je continual mes herborizations. 

Le Dimanche l er Mars 1789 herborisations continuees. 

Le 2 Mars herborisations continuees: reconnu un Gardenia,* vulgaire- 
ment The seven years apple. . . . 

Le 3. 4 et 5 j'ay continue" mes herborisations. 

Le 6. 7 et 8 j'ay arrache des arbres pour envoyer au jardin de Charles- 

Le Dimanche 8 Mars 1789 j'ay complette ma collection de huit cens 
soixante arbres parmi lesquels se trouvent Amyris etemifera Winterania 
Canella, Croton cascarilla, Gardenia nova species, Chrysocoma nova spe- 
cies, Annona glabra, Annona muricata, Annona . . . Catesbsea 
spinosa, Bignonia pentaphylla, Passiflora cuprea, Anacardium ? . 
&c. &c. &c. &c. &c. 

Le 9 dud. j'ay ecrit a Mons. le C te Dangiviller, a M. 1'Abbe Nolin, a M. 
Petry, M. Robinet et a mon fils. 

Le onze Mars 1789 j'ay herborise et j'ay continue" mes herborisations sur 
1'Isle de New-Providence jusqu' au 14 dudit. 

Le Dimanche 15 dudit. j'ai revise mon herbier et mes recoltes de 

Le 16. 17. 18 et 19. j'ay etc" herboriser sur des petites isles voisines de 
New-Providence, nominees Keys. 

Le 20 j'ay fait marche avec un Pilote-Cotier pour me conduire sur les 
Isles Lucayes. 

Le 21 j'ay eu un acces de fievre po. avoir dormi au frais sur le bord de 
la mer. 

Le Dimanche 22 Mars 1789. Le nombre des Graines de differentes 
sortes recueillies depuis mon arrivee ici s'est monte a soixante quinze 

Le Dimanche 29 Mars 1789 je me suis prepare a partir pour Charleston. 
Mais le navire a mis a la voile le : 

Le jeudy 2 Avril et le vent favorable nous avons perdu de vue ce mme 
jour 1'Isle de New-Providence. 

Le 3 Avril calme &- 

Le 4 nous avons reconnu une petite Isle nommee . . . 

Le 5 reconnu 1'Isle de Bahama qui a plus de 15 lieues de longeur. 

Le 6 avril calme. 

Le 7 calme. 

Le 8 calme et toujours en vue de Bahama. 

Le 9 Orages, Trombes marines et Vent contraire. 

Le 10 et jours suivants mauvais temps. 

Arrive et debarque le 20 dudit a Charleston toutes les provisions epuisees 
et tres fatigue par le mauvais temps. 

Le 21 Avril reste a Charleston. 

Le 2 j'ay ete a 1'habitation. 

* Genipa dusisefolia, Griseb. C. S. S. 

1888.] Michaux. 

Le 23 Mes Arbres et Graines recueillies aux Isles Bahama sont arrivees 
a 1'habitation au nombre de plus de neuf cens Arbres. 

Le 24 j 'ay fait prepare un terrain et j 'ay plante les Arbres. 

Les 25, 26, 27 et 28 j'ay continue le meme travail. 

Le 28 Avril j'ay fait un Envoy de Graines a M. le Comte d'Angiviller; 
a Monsieur frere du Roy et au jardin du Roy. 

Le 29 et 30 Avril continu6 de travailler a 1* Envoy et a ecrire mes lettres. 

Le l er May 1789. seme les Graines rapportees de Bahama. 

Le 2 dud. travaille au jardin et continue de semer de planter &c. &c. 

Le 3, 4 et 5 me* me travail &c. &c. 

Je me suis prepare au voyage dans les Montagnes. 

Le 6 May j'ay ete a Charleston. 

Le 7 May 1789 j'ay fait plusieurs demarches avec M. Petry consul de 
France po. avoir de 1'argent pour mon voyage et je suis revenu a 1'habita- 
tion sans avoir termine. 

Le 8 continue plusieurs ouvrages essentiels au jardin concernant les 
Plantes rapportees de Bahama. 

Le 9 j'ay fait faire un abri pour garantir les arbres des grandes pluyes. 

Le Dimanche 10 May j'ay decrit un Spirea dioque Germe a trois styles, 
rapporte des Montagnes : j'ay redige et pris en ordre plusieurs papiers. 

SUITE DE 1789. -1790. 

Journal depuis mon depart de Charleston.* 

Le 30 May 1789 Party de Charleston. 

Le 6 Juin arrive a Cambden, petite ville situee a 12 miles de Charleston. 

Le 10 dudit passe par Charlotte en Meckleinbourb. county situe a 80 M. 
de Cambden. 

Vu un Magnolia cordata a 18 Miles de Charlotte. Ce Magnolia paroit 
differer meme du M. cordata decouvert quelques annees auparavent, les 
feuilles etoient d'un glauque ou couleur bleuatre tres marque par dessous. 

Un peu avant d'arriver au ferry sur la rivierre Catawba vu an arbrisseau 
inconnu n'ayant ni fleurs ni fructification, il ressembl. a q. ques egards au 

Vu pies de Burke Court house le mme arbuste. 

Le 13 Juin 1789 arrive a Burke Court house, 80 M. de Charlotte. Visit e 
le Colonel Avery et le 14 parti de Burke. Etant a 298 M. de Charleston 

* Mon journal ayant <t< perdu le ler Juillet 1789, un grand nombre d'observatious 
interessants depuis le 30 May jusqu' a cette datte seront abrigees. 

Michaux.] [0ct> 19> 

vu le Magnolia cordata au pied de plusieurs Montagnes assez hautes, 
remarque le sol argilleux et les Roches de Quartz. 

Le 15 arrive a 1'habitation du Colonel Waford entre des montagnes 
elevees. Ce lieu est nomme Turkey-cove. La distance de Burke a Turkey- 
Cove est de 30 Miles, 310 M. de Charleston. 

Le 16 loge chez le capitaine Ains worth situe a un Mile et parent du 
Colon Waford. 

Le 17 party pour Black mountain situe a ... Miles de Turkey- 

Nos herborisations sur cette montagne ont dure jusqu' au 22 dud. 
Reconnu un Azalea nova species, Andromeda . . . Vaccinium . . . 
Viburnum . . . et plusieurs autres Plantes que la perte de mon jour- 
nal m'empeche de decrire mais mon herbier fait preuve que ces Plantes 
sont nouvelles. 

Le 22 arrive de nouveau chez le capit. Ainsworth. 

Le 23 Juin 1789 parti pour Yellow Mountain. 

Le 24 arrive le soir au pied de Yellow Mountain situe a 30 M. de Turkey- 
cove. Cette montagne est regardee (consideree) dans la Caroline septen- 
tionale et dans la Virginie comme la plus haute Montagne de toute 
1'Amerique septentrionale. 

J'y reconnu . . . 

II y a 5 Miles de marche pour arriver au sommet de cette montagne. 
Avant d'y arriver Ton marche pendant plusieurs miles sur la chaine des 
plus hautes montagnes nommee Blue ridges. 

Le 28 Juin arrive chez le capitaine Farkison, premiere habitation apres 
avoir quitte Turkey-Cove. Le Chemin est etroit, escarpe en plusieurs 
endroits, Ton est oblige d'aller souvent a pied ; plusieurs fois nous avons 
ete oblige de couper les branches d'arbres des Kalmias avec le Tomahack 
qu'il faut toujours porter quand on voyage dans ces forets appelees Wil- 
derness. La distance du sommet de Yellow Mountain j usque chez le 
capit. Farkinson est de 15 M. 

Le 28 nous avons loge chez le Major Carter situe a 20 Miles du sommet 
de Yellow Mountain. 

Le 29 Juin 1789 nous avons passe la rivierre et nous avons couche a 

... 4 miles de Block house. Block house est un lieu renomme pour 
le rendez-vous des Voyageurs qui passent au Kentuckey. La distance de 
1'habitation du Major Carter a Block house est de 25 M. ce qui fait 390 
Miles de Charleston. 

Nous avons appris que la semaine precedente plusieurs voyageurs furent 
tues en revenant du Kentuckey par les sauvages et je pris le parti d'aban- 
donner le voyage du Kentuckey pour continuer mes herborisations sur 
les montagnes de la Virginie. 

Le 30 Juin continue ma route vers les Montagnes et le mgine soir entre 
sur le territoire de la Virginie. 

1888.] 5> [Michaux. 

Le l er Juillet arrive a Washington Court house premiere ville * de la 
Virginie que Ton trouve sur le cote occidental des Montagnes en sortant 
de la Caroline septentrionale. De Block house a Washington la distance 
est de 35 Miles. 

Le 2 nous avons couche a 30 Miles de Washington 65 M. 

Le 2 dud. a 35 Miles de Washington remarque un Plante dont la fruc- 
tificat. solitaire sur une hampe avoit la forme d'une pipe montee sur son 
tube. Les feuilles double sur un seul petiole. Observe la fructificat. du 
Ginseng: Cal. Uinbella simplex; Involucrum foliolis subulatis, propriis 
unicuique flori partial!. Cal. proprius minimus 5-dentatus, Cor. Petala 5 
oblonga recurva. Stam. 5, longitud. corollse, Antherse incumbentes, Ger- 
men subcompressum inferum. Styli duo, stigmata recurva. 

Le 3 nous avons couche a Stone-Mill situe a 93 Miles de Block house. 

Le 4 Juillet passe par Montgomery Court house nomine aussi Fort 
Chisses et couche deux Miles au de la. Notre marche fut de IS Miles seule- 
ment, a cause de la pluye. 

Le Dimanche 5 notre marche fut de 28 Miles et nous avons couche an 
ferry de New -River. 

Le 6 a Midy et demi nous avons passe la Montagne qui termine celles 
nominees Appalaches et commence celles nominees Alleganies. Notre 
Marche fut de 36 M. Depuis que nous eumes passe le cote Oriental des 
Montagnes vers le quel les rivierres coulent dans la mer (parceque a 
1'ouest de ces montagnes, les Rivierres sont censees se perdre dans 1'Ohio 
et le Mississippi) immediatement remarque le Diospiros, le Cephalanthus, 
1'Annona et pleusieurs autres arbres que je ne vis pas auparavant. 

Le 7 Juillet 1789 remarque un Pavia lutea de 3 pieds de diametre et sur 
la Rivierre Roanock le Thuya occidentalis parmi les Rochers escarpes qui 
bordent cette Rivierre a 1' exposition du Nord. Notre marche fut de 34 

Le 8 nous avions visite une arcade naturelle ; f de 300 pieds de hauteur. 

Le 9 parti de Lexington, petite ville dont le commerce est assez entre- 
tenu avec les etablissements sur les Rivierres occidentales (Western Vaters 
settlements) ainsi nominees. 

Le chemin quoique hors des hautes montagnes fut entrecoupe de Col- 
lines couvertes de Rochers et de ruisseaux. Les Rochers sont de sub- 
stance calcaire noiratre tres dure et entreveinees de Quartz, le sol generale 
ment est argilleux melange de substance calcaire a un degre beaucoup 
inoindre avec 1'argille. Marche de 24 Miles. 

Le 10 Juillet nous avons passe par Staunton petite ville tres commer- 
Qante dans ces montagnes : Un Mile et demi avant d'y arriver remarque 

* Premiere ville si Ton peut nommer ville une Bourgade composee de 12 Maisons (Log- 
houses). Dans cette ville, on ne mange que du Pain de mays. II n'y a ni viande fraiche 
ni cidre, mais seulement du mauvais rum. 

t The Natural Bridge of Virginia. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] 50 (Oct. 19, 

dans une Prairie Ic long des ruisseaux un Spirea* dont les fleurs en pani- 
cules de couleur rose de mme q. les precedentse. Cal. 4-partit. lacin. 
parvis, reflexis, marcescentib. Pet. 4 subrotimdo- angulata : unguiculata, 
unguibus lineari-pedicellatis. Stam. 32 inserta calyci, filamenta longis- 
sima. Anthers subrotundse, erects, Germina sex oblonga, Styli breves, 
recurvi. Stigmata capitata. 

Notre marche fut de 15 Miles a cause de la Pluye. 

Le onze nous avons passe la Rivierre appelee North Branch et continue" 
la route a travers un pays inegal, montagneux, ayant les Blue Ridges a 
notre droite et les Monts Alleganies a notre gauche ; Notre journee fut de 
25 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 12 Juillet remarque* dans une prairie sur le bord d'un 
ruisseau le meme Spirea trouve le jo. precedent. Celui-ci etoit aupres de 
1'habitation dont la maison etoit la plus ornee que j'aye vu jusque la dans 
cette partie de la Virginie. Get homine me montra tout ce qu'il avoit fait 
pour ameliorer la culture de sa ferme et mgme pour 1'embellir. II avoit 
des Vaches d'une sorte venus depuis pen d'Angleterre, des Cochons tres 
grands, tres gros et differents de ceux du Canton. If fumoit reguliere- 
ment ses terres. Les arbres a fruits etoient bien entretenir &c. 

Notre marche fut de SO Miles et nous avons passe" par un petit Bourg 
nomme New Market. 

Le 13 Juillet 1789 passe" par Stowerstown autre Bourgade sit. a 40 Miles 
de Winchester. Rem. un peu avant d'arriver a cette bourgade sur la 
pente des Montagnes qui bordent la Rivierre le Thuya occidentalis. Notre 
journee se borna a 27 Miles. 

Le 14 passe par Winchester, petite ville dont le Commerce av. les Etab- 
lissements du Kentuckey se fait par terre. Les merchandises viennent de 
Philadelphie, Alexandrie et particulierement de Baltimore. Notre marche 
fut de 25 Miles. 

Le 15 passe par Charleston, petite ville composee de 6 a 10 maisons 
situee a 22 Miles de Winchester. Ensuite nous passames la Rivierre Poto- 
mack pour entrer dans 1'Etat de Maryland a 30 Miles de Winchester. 
Les Rivierres de Shenandoah et de Potomack se joignent au lieu nomme 
Harper-ferry. De hautes montagnes escarpees et couvertes de Rochers 
se rapprochent en ce lieu. Observe" plusi. Plantes Europeannes un peu 
avant de sortir de la Virginie sqav. Hypericum perforatum, Arctium lappa, 
Echium vulgare, Trifolium lagopus, Verbascuin album etVerbasc. uigrum, 
Veronica officinalis &c. &c. . . 

Le 16 Juillet 1789, nous avors passe par Fredericktown petite ville du 
Maryland bien batie, les maisons soiit en brique et le Commerce y est 
asses florissant 25 Miles. 

Le 17 rien de particulier ; le sol fut moins montagneux ; les Roches c'e 
Quartz sou vent ties pur mais q. quefois combine avec des substances fer- 
rugineuses. Je vis aussi plusieurs fois des Collines dont les Roches etoient 
de substance calcaire et le sol argilleux comme la plus grande partie de la 

* S. lobata, Murr. 

1888. | 8T [Michaux, 

Virginie. Dans les endroits du Maryland ou la substance calcaire est com- 
binee avec 1'argille, les grains qui etoient alors sur pied m'ont paru meil- 
leurs et la vegetation sur les parties incultes plus forte, plus vive, les 
arbres plus verds, les herbes plus fortes et les bestiaux plus vigoreux. 

Dans toute 1'etendue de la Yirginie du Nord au Sud, au de la des Monts 
Blue Ridges le sol m'a paru avoir generalem* cette combinaison d'Ar- 
gille avec une portion moindre de substance calcaire, le pays est riche, 
produisant beaucoup de grains, les bestiaux en abondance et gras en tout 
temps de 1'annee,- les cbevaux vigoureux et les habitans jouissants de la 
meilleure sante. Un cultivateur de ces Cantons m'a dit que le froment 
rendoit communernent 15 Boisseaux par Acre mais tres souvent 12 Boiss. 
rarement 20 Boiss. Notre journee fut de 31 M. 

Le 18 Juillet passe par Little York, assez jolie ville sit. a 59 Miles de 
Frederick town. La campagne m'a paru mieux cultivee dans ces 
environs. Les habitans sont des Allemands aussi bien qu'en Pennsjl- 
vanie. Us sont generalement tres laborieux at tres industrieux. Le sol 
dans cette partie du Maryland est alternativement argilleux, calcaire et 
q. quefois ferrugineux. Les Pierres et les Roches sont Quartz, schitz 
ferrugineux. En plusieurs endroits on trouve des Roches de substance 
calcaire primitive entremelee (entrecoupee) de filons de Quartz. 

Notre journee fut de 84 Miles seulement. 

Le Dirnanche 19 Juillet passe* a Lancaster petite ville de Pennsylvanie 
peuplee d'Allemands. (Le matin nous avions passe la rivierre Susque- 
hanna.) Notre journee fut de 21 Miles. 

Le 20 notre marche fut de . . . Miles. 

Le 21 nous arrivarnes a Philadelphie apres avoir fait depuis notre depart 
de Charleston un voyage de plus de . . . non compris les courses dans 
les Montagues qui s'ecartent de la route principale. 

Le 22 visile" M. De Marbois Consul de France. 

Le 23 Juillet visile le jardin de M. Bartram, Botanist pies de Philadel- 
phie, remarque dans son jardin un Prinos nova sp. dont les feuilles 
acuminees ne sont point dentelees. Vu Zanthoxilurn monoique des parties 
septentrionales de 1'Amerique. Hydrastis . . . 

Le 24 et 25 occupe a des visites. 

Lc Dimanche 26 visile q. ques jardins aux environs de Philadelphie. 

Le 27 envoye mes chevaux a la campagne po. diminuer la depense qui 
en est plus considerable dans une grande ville. 

Le 28 continue de mgine que le jour precedent a faire Provision d'objets 
qui ne se trouvent pas a Charleston et qui etoient ne*oessaire po. mon jar- 
din etabli en Caroline. 

Le 29 parti pour New-York. 

Le 30 arrive" a New -York. 

Le 31 visite M. de la Forest qui etoit prest a partir po. Albany. Deraande 
a voir M. Le C te Dumortier, mais M. De la Forest me dit il etoit en cam- 
pa gne ainsi que M. Otto. 

Le l er Aoust 1789, visite le jardin pres de New-York et je le trouvay en 


Michaux.] 58 [Oct. 19, 

asses bon etat. Le jardinier avoit seme beaucoup de graines et plante 
beaucoup de jeunes arbriss. po. les envoyer en France apres qu'ils auroient 
e" e bien enracines. 

Le Dimanche 2 Aoust 1789 j'ay regie avec le jardinier et je suis convenu 
avec lui des arbres et arbrisseaux qu'il doit envoyer 1'hyver suivant. 

Le 3 visite M. Willet petit fils da Docteur . . et parti le meine 
jour pour retourner a Philadelphie. 

Le 4 arrive a Philadelphie. 

Le 5 le 6, le 7 et le 8 Aoust employes a placer une Lettre de Change 
pour obtenir les fonds dont j'avois besoin pour payer nos depenses de 
voyage et pour pouvoir retourner a Charleston. 

Le Dimanche 9 visite differents jardins, particulierement celui de M. 
William Hamilton.* 

Le 10 un accident arrive a un de mes chevaux qui eut 1'epaule et le 
genouil coupes d'une chute sur un Rocher m'obligea de chercher un autre 
cheval po. le remplacer. 

Le onze je restai a faire panser mon cheval. 

Le 12 j 'allay visitor M r Le Coulteux et il me vendit un Cheval 70 

Le 13, 14, 15 et Dimanche 16 furent employ6s a terminer mes affaires a 

Le 17 Aoust 1789 parti de Philadelphie pour aller prendre mes Chevaux 
que j'avois envoyes a la campagne chez M r Bartram. 

Le 18 la pluye m'empecha de partir. 

Le 19 la pluye continua toute la journee. 

Le 20 parti de tres grand matin et couche a Wilmington petite ville 
dans 1'Etat de la Delaware situee a 30 miles de Philadelphie. 

Le 21 passe par Christine-bridge Elk river. 

Le sol est dans 1'Etat de la Delaware moins bon qu'en Pensylvanie, 
inoins argilleux et plus mle de sable. Remarque le Magnolia glauca plus 
frequemment et la Chionanthus a 52 Miles de Philadelphie. Cette journee, 
notre march e fut de 27 Miles. 

Le 22 passe la rivierre Susquehanna et entre en Maryland, le sol arride, 
sablonneux et ferrugineux. Remarque" le Fagus pumila (Chinquapin) en 
abondance. Marche de 27 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 23 arrive a Baltimore, capitale de 1'Etat de Maryland. 
Notre course fut de 24 Miles. 

Le 24 Aoust 1789 Visite M. Le Chevalier D'Annemours consul de France, 

Le 25 parti de Baltimore, notre marche fut de 84 Miles. 

Le 26 passe par Bledensburg et par Alexandrie l ere ville de Virginie dont 
le commerce languit, malgre son heureuse situation sur la rivi. Potomack. 

* Mr. Hamilton's gardens were the most famous in the United States at the beginning 
of this century. Frederick Pursh, who later wrote a Flora, of North America, superin- 
tended them during three years. The ground occupied by the Hamilton gardens now 
forms a prt of Woodland Cemetery in West Philadelphia. A few rare and interesting 
trees planted by Hamilton still testify to his zeal and success as a planter. C. S. S. 

1888.] ^ [Michaux. 

Cette ville est la patrie du Gen. Washington. Sa residence est a 8 miles 
au dessous de cette ville sur le bord de la rivierre. Notre journee fut de 
28 M. 

Le 27 Aoust passe* par Colchester petit hameau qui n'a rien de rernarqu- 
able. Dine a Dumfries, petite ville composee de 8 a 10 Maisons de 
Marchands et d'environ 30 families en totalite. Le sol est argilleux, mais 
froid et peu fertile dans cette partie de la Virginie. Notre marche fut de 
30 M. 

Le 28 passe par Fredericksburg petite ville assez-agreable situee sur la 
rive meridionale de la rivierre . . . Notre course fut de 27 Miles. 

Le 29 notre marche fut de 30 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 30 Aoust 1789, arrive a Richemont ; notre marche fut de 
27 M. 

Le 31 sejourn^ a Richemont. 

Le l er Septembre parti de Richemont et passe par Petersbourg, petite 
ville mais commerQante ; sol entre Richemont et Petersburg, sablonneux. 
Mimosa . . . Hopea &c &c; beaucoup de plantes des Carolines. 
Marche de 84 Miles. 

Le 2 sol continuellement sablonneux, marche de 29 M. 

Le 3 passe par Hick's foard derniere Court house de la Virginie, sol 
sablonneux et arride ; les maisons sont pauvres et les auberges tres mau- 
vaises, et arrive a Halifax premiere ville de la Caroline septentrionale. 
Marche de 35 Miles. 

Le 4 Septembre passe" par Endfield Court-house; sol sablonneux, longue 
suite de bois et de terres incultes. Marche de 21 Miles. 

Le 5 passe par Dorchester-bridge sur Swift Creek, par Lamon's ferry: 
30 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 6 Septembre passe par Peacock's ferry sur Quotanckney 
Creek : 31 M. 

Le 7 passe* par White field ferry: 31 Miles. 

Le 8 passe par Rock-fish, et par Washington town ; remarque* en plusi. 
endroits la plante Dioncea muscipula dans les lieux st'-riles, sablonneux 
et humides : 28 Miles. 

Le 9 Septembre 1789 passe par N. E. de Cap Fear et arrive a Wilming- 
ton 84 Miles. 

Le 10 visite M r Ducher Vice- Consul de France et parti 1'apres midy. 
Apres avoir passe trois rivierres, remarque a deux miles et demie de la 
ville, Kalmia angustifolia, Dionoea muscipula et un Androm. nova species: 
couche a Town Creek ; 10 Miles. 

Le onze passe par Lock- wood folly et venu couch er a Little river sur 
les limites de la Caroline sept, et de la Caroline meridionale 40 Miles. 

Le 12 passe par East end of Long Bay et couche dans une petite habita- 
tion sur le bord de la Mer : 25 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 13 Septembre passe par West End of Long Bay et venu 
coucher sur le bord la rivierre Santee. 32 Miles. 

Le 14 le vent fut si considerable que nos n'avons pu traverser la rivierre 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

qui a cinq miles de large en cet endroit. Le vent se calma la nuit suivante 
et nous passames a 1'autre bord. Je payay 3 Dollards po. le passage de 
trois chevaux et 5 Dollards po. le Diner, le souper (d'eau chaude) de deux 
personnes et la defense de trois chevaux et un negre. 4 miles seulem 1 - 

Le 15 notre marche fut de 32 Miles. 

Le 16 voyage Fespace de 28 M. 

Le 17 traverse la rivierre Cooper et arrive a 1'habitation. 5 Miles, 

Total 190 Milles de Wilmington a Charleston. 

Le 18 Septembre 1789, nous avons passe la journe*e a 1'habitation pour 
nous reposer et pour reposer nos chevaux. 

Le 19 j'ay ete a Charleston ou M. Petry m'a remis les Lettres recues 
pour moi pendant mon absence. 

Le Dimanche 20, mon fils en passant sur le chemin fut blesse dans 1'ceil, 
au bas de la Prunelle par un particulier qui tiroit alors une Perdrix. 

Le 21 il fut saigne du bras par le Conseil du Medecin. 

Le 22 le blanc de 1'ceil fut gonfle considerablement, et je pris le parti de 
le conduire a Charleston pour gtre a porte"e des Secours. 

Le 23 le mal continua en empirant jusqu' au Dimanche 27 dudit. Dans 
cet interval je fis plusieurs voyages a la ville et je retournois a notre habi- 
tation po. veiller aux differens ouvrages du jardin que j'avois trouve en 
assez mauvais etat, et a la recolte de graines. Recueilli les Graines 

Le 30, il y cut quelques esperances de mieux, le Medecin ayant fait une 
incision, 1'oeil fut i-noins enfle et I'inflammation diminua apres un Cata- 
plasme refrigerant que j'appliquay. Le chagrin auquel il s'abandoit 
etoit la cause que le mal alloit touj. en augmentant. 

Le l er Octobre 1789 la pluye qui survint la veille me permit de preparer 
les arbres a etre rentres dans la terre en les rnettant en Pots, et nous em- 
ploy ames le temps a divers ouvrages essentiels au jardin.* 

Le Dimanche 8 Novembre 1789, parti et couche a Monk's corner, 32 
Miles de Charleston. 

Le 9 dudit, Dejeune chez Jackson's Tav. 9 Miles. A 7 Miles de dis- 
tance vu Ilex angustifolia : Arbres qui se trouvent le plus en aboodance : 
Quercus alba, Q. nigra, Q. nigra aquatica, Q. salicifolia, Q. rubra, Liquid, 
styraciflua, Nyssa aq., Cratsegus . . . , ISTyssa dentata, Cupressus dis- 
ticha. Couche a Youta-Sprig, dix neuf miles de Jackson et 28 miles de 
Monk's corner. 

Le 10 Novembre passe la rivierre Santee a 2 Miles de Youta spring et 
venu diner et coucher chez le Capitaine Deauty a 22 miles de distance. 

Le onze passe les sables steriles nomm. High hills, Santee, et dejeune 

* Here the regular journal for this year stops, and what follows from November 8, 
1789, to December, 1789 is from loose slips of paper found in the end of the book. It 
will be noticed that there is a gap between October 1 and November 8, 1789. C. S. S. 

1888.] [Michaux. 

chez le nomme* . . . Vule Philosoph. LeFevre. Vu dans les sables 1'An- 
droineda glauca, couche a 16 miles en de qa de Camden chez la nominee 
Willow (jolie fille). 22 Miles. 

Le 12. Nove. 1789 dine" a Carnbden, visile le D r Alexander et couche" 
chez le Capt c Nettle a 6 miles de distance de Cambden. 22 Miles. 

Le 13 Dejeune" a 4 M. de distance et nous avons couche aupres de Bear's 
Creek, chez le nomine Johnson 29 Miles et 7 Miles au de la hanging- 

Nota : cinq miles avant d'arriver chez . . . Johnson il y a une maison 
abandonee au bas de la quelle le chemin fourche, la branche gauche de 
cette fourche mene aussi a Charlotte par le Maj. Bartley mais il y a 80 M. 
de Cambden par cette route. 

Le 14 Novembre 1789 parti a 6 heures de 1'habitation Johnson et arrive* 
a un Creek au dessus du quel est une maison dont la distance et de 6 M. 
de Johnson. Vu le Triosteum. Quatre miles plus loin se trouve une 
Plantation a gauche et un Creek a droite du chemin. Pres de ce Creek 
vu sur le rivage 61eve dud. Creek un Viburn. inconnu doiit les f. desse- 
chees m'ont paru a 3 lobes. Ce Vib. est de 2 a 3 pi. de haut et tres mince 
de tige. II y a 7 Mil. de ce Creek nomine . . . po. arriver a la Planta- 
tion de John Cry. Entre ce gros Creek et la PL vu un autre petit creek 
pres du quel une espece de Poirier, arbuste inconnu. Cette journee 17 

Le Dimanche 15 Novembre 1789 passe" par une Plantation situee a 8 M. 
de distance et 9 Miles avant d'arriver a Charlotte vu le Triosteum, 
Clematis erecta ; Sol alternativem* argilleux jaune ou rouge, graveleux ; 
roches de granit et tres souvent du Quartz bien blanc et tres dur, com- 
rnunem* il s'est trouve du silex ferrugineux : Chene rouge a long petiole, 
Chene a longs petioles feuill. tomenteuses et chene noir sont les plus com- 
muns ; sol cultive produit Bled, Avoine et Mays. Sur les rives de la riv. 
Catawba il y est tres bon ; les herbes sont un peu meilleurs que dans les 
parties basses des Carolines mais les moutons ne sont pas tres beaux et 
les autres bestiaux peu gras. 

Arrive le soir a Charlotte en Mecklembourg county dans le Carol, sept. 
25 miles. Deux cents Miles de Charleston. 

Le 16 Novembre 1789 passe la rivierre Catawba au lieu nomine Tack-a- 
segee foard 14 miles de Charlotte ; deux Miles avant d'arriver a ce foard 
nous trouvames un arbuste inconnu a f. opposees et nous avons ete" coucher 
chez le nomine Peter Smith ; deux (un) miles avant d'y arriver, vu pres 
d'un Creek au bord du quel il y a des Ilex et Kalmia, un Magnolia glauca* 
foliis longissimis et cordatis et fructibus globosis, et ramis albicantibus 
acumine sericeis. Ce Magnolia est d'une stature moins haute que les au- 
tres especes connus. Cette journee fut de 26 miles. 

Le 17 Novembre 1789, nous avons passe par Lincoln Court house 12 

* M. macrophylla Michx? The locality "in regionibus ooddentalibus fluvio Tennassee 
trajectis" given in his Flora for that species, however, may well indicate that Michaux 
referred to some other Magnolia in this entry in the Journal.-C. S. S. 



miles et nous avons ete coucher chez le nomme Henry Watner 16 M. de 
Lincoln, en tout 28 Miles. 

Le 18 Novembre 1789 gelee blanche tres sensible. Trouve le pays mon- 
tagneux et les roches d'un Granit compose de shorl, quartz et mica, mais 
plus souvent de Quartz ou bien de silex ferrugineux et argille dans les 
pierres peu dures. Arrive a Burke court house. Vu deux Miles avant d'y 
arriver, 1'arbriss. inconnu de la rivi. Catawba. 29 Miles. 

Le 19 Novembre 1789 parti de Burke et passe chez le Colonel Avery 
dont 1'habit. sur la riv. Catawba a 3 miles de Burke. Trouvo un peu avant 
d'y arriver dans les Creeks un Astragalus nouveau et un Menispermum a 
fruit noir ; couche a 12 Miles de Burk. 

Le 20 nous avons dejeune a 6 M. plus loin et vu Magn. cordata, Jugl. 
oblonga, et nous arrivames ensuite a Turkey-cove. En chemin remarque 
Epigea procumbens et Gaultheria procumb. 15 Miles du lieu ou nous 
avons couche jusqu'a Turkey-Cove. 

Turkey Cove est le point de station d'ou Ton peut aller en differents en- 
droits sur les hautes Montagues. 

Le 21 visile la branche septentrionale de la riv. Catawba. Vu un An- 
drom. arborea de 43 pouces de circonference. 

Le Dinianche 22 recueilli et ramasse sur les hautes montagnes des 
Glands de Chene 'glauque. 

Le 23. parti pour les hautes Montagnes. Vu un Andr. arb. de 49 po. de 

Le 24 Novembre 1789 passe" sur les Blue Ridges de la Caroline Sept. 

Le 25 arrive sur les parties basses de la Montagne Noire et recueilli Aza- 
lea fulva, Azalea nova species &c. 

Le 26 recueilli Magnolia cordata, M. acuminata &c. &c. 

La 27 Arrive aux Cataractes meridi. de Taw river et recueilli Viburnum 
nova species. Gele*e et neige. 

Le 28 Novembre 1789, Degel et Pluye toute la journee. 

Le Dimanche 29 revenu a 1'habitation du S r Ainsworth. 

Le 30 j'ay recueilli les Kalm. lati folia et Rhododendron. 

Le l er Decemb. et jusqu'au 5 dud. visile plusieurs hautes Montagnes et 
ensuite einballe mes Recoltes a la quantite d'environ 2500 arbres, Arbriss. 
et Plantes, en tout 7 caisses. 

(Remember to call at Capt. Smith, the 2 d house below M ter Seagrove and 
get lett. directed to Captain Stafford.) 

Le 9 Decembre 1789 passe par Burke court house. 

Le . . . arrive a Charleston. 

CAHIER 6. SUITE DE 17901791. 

Le 31 Decembre 1790, le temps fut tres couvert, il tomba une si grande 
quantite de neige depuis 4 heures du matin jusqu'a 5 heures apres midy, 
que la terre fut couvert a la hauteur de six et de 8 pouces dans la campagne 
et 6 pouces dans la ville*. 

1888.] 63 [Michaux. 

Je travaillay tres pen a 1'emballage des graines que je me proposois 
d'envoy. en France par le Ship Pennsylvania Capt. Dav. Harding destine 
po. le Havre de Grace. 

Le l er Janvier 1791, je continuay a preparer 1'envoy de graines. M r Go- 
dart chancelier du Consulat de Charleston etoit venu passer q. ques jours 
avec moi sur 1' habitation. La gelee qui depuis 14 jours avoit continue, 
redoubla vivement. 

Le Dimanche 2 dud. continue le meme travail. 

Le 3 M. Godart partit po. Charleston et il me renvoya 1' in formation que 
le navire destine po. le Hav. ne devoit partir que le 6 suivant. Je recus 
la nouvelle que les Americains avoient envoye des troupes 1453 hommes 
centre les Sauvages Miami ; il y eut environ 100 Sauvages tues rnais la 
perte des Am. se monta 183 tue*s et 31 blesses. Je continuay mon travail 
des graines. 

Le 4 je travaillay a I'emballage des arbres po. le Roy et po. Monsieur. 

Le 5 la neige a disparu. J'ecrivis mes Lettres pourannoncer 1'envoy et 
je partis le soir pour Charleston. 

Le 6 Janvier je fis embarquer les caisses, je reglai avec le Capitaine le 
prix du fret, je terniiiiay mes Lettres et je revins a 1'habitation le 7 dud. 
au soir. 

Le 7 je recus avis d'aller accompagner le Major Mitchell dans un Canton 
de 1'Etat ou il avoit reconnu une nouvelle Plante. 

Le 8 je partis pour visitor les rives de la rivierre Santee depuis env. Mau- 
rice-ferry j usque vers son Embouchure. Les rives de cette rivierre sont 
defrichees en grande partie po. la culture du riz. La plupart des habit, 
vivent assez mesquinement et chez les plus riches Planteurs je n'y a pas 
mange de Pain, rnais de la bouillie de Mays (nomniee . . . ) et du 
Pore sale. Mes chevaux ont vecu de fourrage de Pois ou de Mays. 

Toute la semaine fut employee a cette excursion et je revins a 1'habita- 
tion le Dimanche 16 de Janvier. Le principal fruit de ce voyage fut la 
decouverte d'un Andromeda a f. glauques qui se trouva a la distance 
de 38 a 40 Miles de Charleston et seulement 30 Miles de 1'habitation que 
j'ay etabli en Caroline. Pour le trouver en abondance il faut, en partant 
de Charleston aller passer par Strawberry-ferry et suivre la route de 
George-town par Lenews-Ferry (dit Winingham ferry) a la distance de 

10 Miles environ de Strawberry, en continuant la grande route, on recon- 
noit cet Andromeda dans les Swamps etroites qui se rencontrent fre- 
quemm* au milieu des Pinieres steriles de la Caroline. Ces Pinieres 
sont des etendues immenses d'un sable aride ne produisant que des Pins. 

11 s'y est forme par les Pluyes des ruisseaux bourbeux. qui charient 1'eau 
aux rivierres pendant et apres les Pluyes. Us contiennent une eau crou- 
pissante etant retenus par les feuilles et les autres debris de la vegetation. 
Dans ces parties presque toujours humides, on y trouve les differentes 
especes d' Andromeda, les Lauras borbonia, les Azalea, les Magnolia glau- 
ca, les Gordonia &c &c &c- 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Le 17 Janvier j 'ay e"te a Chariest, et je recus une lettre de mon fils dattee 
du mois d' Avril de 1'annee precedente. 

J'ecrivis a M. 1'Abbe Nolia sur les difficultes de trouver a placer les 
Lettres de change et que si ces difficultes continuoient je serois oblige de 
repasser en France. J'ecrivis a inon fils par la meme occasion du Capit. 
David Harding. 

Le 18 et les jo. suivants jusqu'au 22 dud. il ne se fit aucun ouvrage sur 
1'habitation, les Negres ayant ete obliges de travailler aux communes de la 
grande route. 

Le 22 j'eus la visite de M r Frasier,* il parut que la bonne reception qui 
lui avoit ete faite en France 1'avoit rendu plus honneHe, il se loua beau- 
coup de la France. II dcsira que je 1'informe des nouvelles Plantes 
venues a ma decouverte et que je lui fasse part de q.ques unes de mes 
nouvelles Plantes. Mais connoissant que son objet est de vendre, je ne lui 
donnay rien et je in'en tins a lui faire la rneillure recept. possible. 

Le Dimanche 23 je fus occupe a reunir plusieurs especes du genre An- 
dromeda dans la Pepiniere. 

Le 24 Janvier 1791. J'ay ete a Chariest., il n'y avoit alors aucun navire 
destine pour France, et ayant achete des Planches, je revins le meme jour. 
II avoit gele a glace. 

Le 25 je fis travailler dans la Pepiniere, le vent etoit passe au sud ; on 
fut occupe principalement a reparer les Clotures. 

Le 26 meme travail a reparer les Clotures et a rassembler dans la Pepi- 
niere une collection d'And. sqavoir Andromeda arborea, And paniculata, 
coriacea, Mariana, nitida, racemosa, serrata, calyculata, Wiliningtonia, 
polifolia, formosissima. 

Le 27, 28, et 29 travail, a reparer les Clotures du jardin et de la Pepini- 

Dimanche 30 analyse le Betula alnus f et Ulmus Americana. 

Le 31 travaille a arracher les arbres du Jardin. et a les transplanter dans 
la Pepiniere. 

Le l er fevrier 2. 3. 4 et 5 dud. continue la collection des arbres d'un 
mme genre dans le Pepiniere. 

Le Dimanche 6. les negres ont ete occupe a aider un habitant voisin 
dont la maison etoit en feu. 

Le 7 travaille a la collection des arbres d'un mme genre dans la Pepiniere 
et j'ay fait reponse a M r De la Forest, dont j'avois requ une Lettre deux 
jours auparavant ainsi que de M r 1'Abbe Nolin et de mon fils. 

Le 8, 9, 10, 11 et 12 fevrier, continue le rngine travail dans les Pe*pinieres. 

Le Dimanche 13, greffe des Pruniers de Perse sur des Pruniers com- 
muns de ce Pays-cy. 

Le 14 analise la floraison de 1'Erable rouge de Caroline dont les fl. her- 
maphrodites ont 5 etamines et les fl. males aussi 5 etamines. 

Le 15 le Prunier e"carlate de Perse a fleuri dans mon jardin, le Prunier 

* Fraser. C. S. S. 

f Alnus scrrulata, Willd. C. S. S. 

1888.] 65 LMichaux. 

Chicasaw a fleuri cette scmaine. La nuit du 15 au 16 il y a eu grand vent 
et pluye considerable ; le vent a passe du sud a 1'Ouest. 

Le 16 fevrier 1791, 1'air s'est e*claire et le vent a passe de 1' Quest au 
Nord, La nuit du 16 au 17 il y a eu tempete, vent furieux, et plusi. par- 
ties de la cloture du jardin ont ete renver&e"es. 

Le 17 travaille a reparer les clotures. Ce matin la gelee etoit a 5 degres 
du thermometre de Reaumur. 

Le 18 gelee a 6 Degies, discontinue les Plantations pour reparer les 
clotures bribes par les vents. 
Le 19 continue a reparer les clotures. 
LoDhnanche 20 herborise et analise plusieurs Plantes. 
Le 21. 22. 23. 24. 25 et 26. Plante les arbres dans les Pepinieres. 
Le Dimanche 27 herborise. 
Le 28 j'ay ete a Charleston. 

Le Mardy l er Mars Plante les arbres dans la Pepiniere. 
Le 2 acheve la reunion des arbres d'un muae genre dans la Pepiniere. 
Le 3 plante dans le jardin par ordre les Plantes bulbeuses et diffet-entes 
Plantes herbacees des Montagues et des autres parties de la Caroline. 

Le 4 travaille a niettre en ordre mes herbiers et commence par les collec- 
tions de New-York, du N. Jersey et de la Pensylvanie. 
Le 5 et 6 continue la mgme travail. 
Le Dimanche 6 Pluye, seme plusieurs sortes de Graines. 
Le 7 Mars continue a mettre en ordre rnes herbiers ; Recu une lettre de 
mon fils dattee le onze Juillet de 1'aniiee derniere. Recu une lettre de M. 
Bartrarn et une lettre de M. Hamilton. 

Le 8 prepare une caisse de Plantes po. Monsieur Frere du Roy par la 
voie de Bordeaux, recommande au capit. Baas et a Bord a M. P. Texier. 
Le 9 ecrit mes Lettres a M. Le Monn. a mon fils &c. &c. 
Le 10. 11. et 12 travaille a mes herbiers. 
Le Dimanche 13. 
Le 14 Mars j'ay ete a la ville.* 

Le Dimanche 17 Avril 1791. Embarque po. aller a S te Marie (Avril a 
30 jours;. 

Memento. II se trouve autour du l er pin apres avoir passe le Swamp 
aux Vaccin. repens, une bonne quantite de Vaccin. stamineum. Aupres de 
la cloture a Dillon, beaucoup de Viburnum. . . . L'And. axill. se 
trouve abondamm* au bout du champ a main droite chez Williman environ 
200 toises avant d'arriver au bout. Le Magn. trip, et Lianne gynandriq. 
a 1'opposite de la remise du bois en venant d'Ashley-ferry. 

Le 19 Avril au soir, arrive* sur 1'isle de Cumberland, vis a vis de S te 

Le 20 herborise sur 1'isle Cumb. 
Le 21 j'ay ete a S te Marie dit New-town. 
Le 22 j'ay passe la journee sur 1' habit, du capit. Stafford. 

* Here this part stops, and what follows is from loose slips of paper placed in the end 
of book. There is a gap between March 14 and April 17. C. S. S. 


Michaux.1 [Oct. 19, 

Le 23 je me suis embarque pour aller visitor Ics rives de Settella river. 
Le Dimanclie 24 Avrfl. herborise aux environs du nomine James Moore. 
Le 25 reste sur le mgine lieu. 

Le 26 je suis parti pour aller aux parties elevens du Settella river. 17 
Miles de Marche. 

Le 27 les chevaux e*gares, je suis reste chez le nomme Crawford a 3 
miles du M. Right qui tient le flatt* po. passer la riv. 

Le 28. marche 16 Miles et quitte les habitations, campe aupres d'une de- 
meure d'Indiens chasseurs. 

Le 29 Avril arrive au rnagazin etabl. po. la traite avec les Sauvages et 
herborise toute la journee. 

Le 30 reconnu le Nyssa Ogechee tout le long de la Riv. S te Marie et 
particulierernent sur 1'habitation du nomme . . . 

Le Dinianche l cr May descendu la riv. dans un Boat et trouve un Sar- 
racenia nouvelle espece. Reconnu a environ 18 M. de S te Marie le Pisonia 

Le 2 May arrive a S te Marie dite New-town, et herborise* aux environs. 
Le soir revenu sur 1'isle de Cumberland. 

Le 3 j'ay loue deux hommes et un Cannot po. aller sur la terre ferme 
ou j'ay recueilli en abondance des Plantes de 1' Andromeda ferruginea, 
Kalmia hirsuta et Befaria &c. 

Le 4 herborize sur 1'Isle et emballe le reste de mes Recoltes. 
Le 5 May le vent contraire a empche le Capit. de mettre a la voile. 
Reconnu sur 1'Isle de Curnb. deux endroits produisant le Pisonia. 

Le 6 le navire mit a la Voile po. Charleston. Le soir il s'eleva une 
tempte, le tonnerre et les eclairs continuerent la nuit suivant, le vent 
ayant varie plusieurs fois, nous nous trouvames vis a vis de St. Augustin 
en Floride. 

Le 7 apres beaucoup de difficultes et de fatigues nous revimes a 1'Isle 
de Cumberland. 

Le Dimanche 8 May herborise et analyse les Plantes de cette partie de 
la Georgie. 

(At Middleton's place 3 miles from Dorchester the Cork-tree is to be 
seen. Inquire of the overseer.) 
Le 13 embarque de nouveau. 
Le Dimanche 15. 

Le 16 relache dans la riv. Savanah a cause des vents contraires. 
Le 17 entre a Savanah et herboriz. aux environs de cette ville. 
Le 18 herborise dans les camps a une grande distance et reconnu un 
arbrisseau qui se rapporte au genre Mussanda. 

Le 19 herborise aux environs du Fanal construit sur le bord de la mer 
po. la surete des Navires. 

Le 20 May 1791. le navire a descendu la riv. et fut en pleine mer. 
Le 21 nous fumes retenu par les calmes a Tentree du havre de Charles- 

* Flat-boat ? C. S. S. 

_ o^ 1 


Le Dimanche 22 May. Entre* a Charleston et recu les Lettres de 

Nota : Promis a M ter Belin un demi Bois de Riz et des Gr. du Riz sac 
de Guinea gross. ... II m'a promis de m'envoyer des Gr. de Papaw. 

Promis a M. Bleym des Gr. de Pentapetes. II m'a promit de m'en- 
voyer des Graines I'lpomoea qui ont reussi dans le jardin du nomme Clark, 
to the care of Francis P. Fatis. 

Le nomme Andrew . . . sur Crooked riv. m'a promis de me 
recueillir des Gr. de Palmeto a 2 sh - le Peck, et je dois lui envoyer une 
caisse d'avance av. de la mousse. 

Le Saururus cernuus est reconnu tres bon remede po. meurir les playes 
qui viennent a suppuration et en diminuer rinnammation. On fait bouil- 
lir les racines ou les broye, on y ajoute un peu de farine de froment pour 
en faire un cataplasme. On fait aussi usage de miel et de farine de Mays, 
pour meurir les playes qui tendent a suppuration. 

Memento : Ne pas oublier a preparer plusieurs Planches continuees po. 
y planter les Plantes de Bahama et de la Floride de maniere a passer 
1'hyver : Preparer aussi un Abri au Nord. pour les Plantes des Montagnes : 
Rassembler plusieurs especes de Viburnum po. greffer la Vib. tinus et 
particulierement la Vib. cassinoides. Preparer immediatement de chassis 
pour les Kalmia et les Rhododendrons : Acheter un Baril de Goudron : 
faire une Cloture droite av. fosse" derri. le jardin pour les chev. et vaches : 
Outre 1'ombre mettre des longues shingles pour eloigner la pluye de nies 
arbriss. au nord. 

De S* Augustin a Cow- ford ferry sur S' John tenu par Pritchard. 36 M. 

De Cow-foard a 1'habitation du nomme Allen sur S te Marie 46 M. 

D'Allen au ferry de Brown sur Settella river . . . 

De Brown ferry a Ridge Bluff sur la Rivierre Alatamaha. . . . 

D'Alatamaha a Savanah . . . 

De Savanah a 

CAHIER 7. 1792 & PART OF 1793. 

Le 27 Mars 1792, 1'habitation de Caroline a e*te* vendue a vente publique 
au prix de 53 Guinees qui font la S e de 247 dollars. 

Le . . . Avril passe 1'acte d'acquisition faite par M. Himely. 

Le 17 Avril ecrit a M. De la Porte, Ministre de la Maison du Roy pour 
lui envoyer la recapitulation de mes Depenses. et des S e touchers depuis 
mon Depart po. les Etats-Unis. 

Le mme jour 17 Avril tire" sur M. 1'Abbd Nolin une traite de 3000 lv. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

tournois evaluee a 555 Doll. Ecrit a mon fils par duplicata pour lui 
annoncer mon Depart de Charleston po. Philadelphia. 

Cette traite m'a ete rendue par M r De la Forest qui n'a pas pu en faire 
les fonds et je lui en ay donne une autre de 1200 Iv. sur ma famille dattee 
de Philadelphie. 

Le 18 Avril 1792 Embarque a Charleston sur le Charleston Packet po. 
Phihidelphie et arrive a Philadelphie le Mardy 25 dud. au soir. 

Le 26 visite M. De la Forest Consul, qui n'a pas voulu accepter la traite 
de M. Petry. 

Le 27 visite M r James et Shoemaker, M. Pinckney, M. Morphy, 
M r . . . 

Le 28 termine avec M De la Forest le compte des Sommes dont il 
s'etoit charge pour les avances a faire au jardinier Saulnier sur la derniere 
traite du 30 Novembre 1791. 

Virile M. De Ternan, Ministre de France pres les Etats-Unis. 

Visite M. De Brahm, Surveyeur des Colonies angloises. 

Visite M ess - Bartram Botanistes. 

Le Dimanche 29, Ecrit plusieurs Lettres et redige mes comptes po. les 
envoyer en France. 

Le 26 Avril 1792. Visite M r Izard ; le Doct. Benjamin Rush, Physician, 
le major Th. Pinckney, le D r Barton, M r De Ternan et dine chez M r De 

Le Mardy l er May ecrit des Lettres po. Charleston. 

Le 2 visite AI Hamilton. 

Le 3 Visite le D r Benjamin Smith Barton, physicien in Philad a - 

Le 4 visite M. De Bauvois. 

Le 5 a 26 . . . 

Le Dimanche 27 May Parti de Philadelphie par la route d'Amboy et 
arrive a New-York le 29, a 10 heures du Soir. 

Festuca en Caroline et en N. Jersey, Pensylvanie &c. Festuca gluma 
2 valvis multiflora, Cal. 2 valvis, v. lanceolatis mucrouatis. 

Le 30 Visite 1'Etablissement de New-Jersey pres New-York et herborise 
aux environs. 

Celastrus : Cal. 5-partit. lacin. oblongis, obtusis, erectis : Pet. 5, ovata, 
superne reflexa : stam. 5, filam. erecta, Anth. oblongae, erectae : Germen 
parvum receptaculo immersum : Styl. o, Stigmata 3. 

Saxifraga Pennsylvanica fl. en panicules, 

Saxifr. nivalis. 

Le 31 May 1792 continue les recherches botaniq. 

Vaccinium hispidulum * fol. ovatis, integris, hispidis ; florib. calyculatis 
octandris genuine infero, fructu albo. V. flores uniflori, axillares breve 
pedunculati: Germen inferum, basi foliola duo calycina ovata opposita. 
Cal. 4-fld. lacin. ovatis, apici germinis approximatis persistentib. Cor. 
campaniformi, patens 4-fida, laciniis apice reflexis, Stam. 8, fllam. brevis- 

* Chiogenes hispidida, Torr. & Gray. C. S. S. 

18?8.] "9 [Michaux. 

sima: Anth. erecta, Germ, subrotundum, inferuin: Stylus staininibus 
longior, stigma obtusum: Pericarpiuni bacca nivea subovata umbilicata, 
stylo persistente, semina plurima fol. ovata integ. acuminata, breve petio- 
lata, alterna, subtus aspersa pilis ferrugineis ut et caulis. Caules repent, 
radicantes, filiformis, fructus parvi, nivei. Habitat in cupressinis humidis, 
Canadae et Novae Angliae, New-York, Novae Cesareae &c. Attoca a fruit 

Vaccinium . . . Cranberry Atoca a fruit rouge mangeable.* 

Hydrophyllum Virginicum, Saxifraga nivalis, Pennsylvanica; Trillium 
cernuum, Trientalis. 

Le 2 Juin parti de N.-York pour New Haven en Connecticut distante 
de 98 Miles de New-York. 

Le 3 arrive a 10 heures du Soir. 

Le 4 parti pour aller visiter M. Peter Pound voyageur qui a demeure* 19 
Ans dans I'mterieur de 1'Amerique ou il a voyage a 1'Ouest jusqu' aux 
Lacs de la Pluye, Lac des Bois, Lac Winipique, Riv. Winipique, Lac 
Manitopa. Selon M r Pound il faut etre a la fin d'avril a Montreal po. 
aller avec les Canadiens a la Traite. 

Le 5 Juin parti de Mil ford et revenu coucher a New Haven. 

Le 6 parti a 5 heures du soir et arrive le 7, a 4 heures du matin a New- 
York. Le dit 7. je me suis prepare a partir pour le Canada. 

Le 8 au soir parti a bord d'un Sloop po. Albany. 

Le 9 herborise a 18 Miles de N. York, tandis que le Sloop etoit a 1'ancre 
a cause du vent contraire. 

Cornus ramis punctatis, Geranium . . . , Geranium. . . . , Lu- 
pinus perennis, Verbascum blattaria. 

Le 10 Vent contraire. 

Le 11 au Matin, passe entre les Montagnes de roches sur lesquelles on 
voit les retranchem. de plusi. Batteries placees pendant la guerre. L'en- 
droit de ces Montagnes le pi. remarquable est nomme West Point. Ces 
Montagnes tres rapprochees, dans un endroit de la rivierre y est resserre 
de maniere que le passage etoit ferine" av. une Chaine qui traversoit la 
rivierre. Le soir arrive devant Poughkeepsie. Aupres de cette ville vu 
le Juniperus Europea ? Thuya canadensis. 

Le 12 Juin le vent du Nord fut plus considerable et le froid tres vif, 
Thermometre de farenheit a ... degres ; a 5 heures du Matin. Ce 
meme jour nous avons passe devant Esopus. 

Le 13 le Vent deviut plus favorable. 

Le 14 nous arrivames a Albanie distant de 164 Miles de New-York. 

Le 15 Juin parti po. le lac Ckamplam et venu coucher a Lasingburgh. 

Le 16 et Diinanche 17, herborise sur une haute montagne, pres de ce 
lieu. Panax quinquefolia, Acer pensylvanica, Fumaria vesicaria scandeus, 
Mitella diphylla. 

Le 18 parti de nouveau et arrive* a Saratoga. 

* Vaccinium oxycoccus L. and V. macrocarpon, Aife. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] ' j- Oc t. 19, 

Le 19 arrive a Skeensborough, 10 miles avant d'y arriver, observe Linnea 
borealis, Taxus . . . ; Trientalis, Gaultheria procumbens, Helleborus 

Le 20 Embarque sur le Lac Cliamplain : Vent contraire 1'espace de 60 
Miles et plus, tres resserre par les Montagnes qui bordent le Lac. 

Le 21 a 4 heures du Matin, passe devant Ticonderoga cy devant Fort 
Carillon : Hyppophae canadensis. f 

Le 22 Vent contraire et calme : herborise toute la journee : Arbutus 

Le 23 arrive devant Burlington ; sur la main droite 1'on aperc,oit une 
tres haute Montagne situee a 20 M. environs dud. Burlingt. dans 1'Etat 
de Vermont. 

Le 24 herborise sur le cote oriental du Lac faisant partie de 1'Etat de 
Vermont ; Arrive le meme jour a Cumberland Head. 

Le 25, 26 et 27 herborise en attendant une occasion pour continuer mon 

Plantes remarques sur le lac Champlain : 

Pinus abies canadensis : Pinus foliis geminis : Pinus Strobus : P. fol. 
undique sparsis : Thuya occidentalis : Taxus monoica : Betula papyrifera, 
nigra. Ulmus . . . White elm. Carpinus . . . Red elm. Loni- 
cera diervilla, Lonicera ... L. ... L. glauca : Spirea . . . 
Viburnum nudum, V. ... V. ... V. ... Fagus sylvatica 
americana : Hyppophae Canadensis ; Actaea spicata, Vaccinium stamin- 
eum, V. corymbos. V. resinosum, V. ... Arbutus Acadiensis, 
Circaea Canadensis, Collinsia Canadensis, Iris coerulea, Carex : Grarnina, 
V. 1'herbier ; Cephalanthus occid., Houstonia purpurea, Galium . . . 
Gal. album, Cornus 1, 2, 3 especes ; C. herbacea, alternifolia ; Fagara 
. . . Harnamelis Virginica ; Cynoglossum ... : C. offlcinalis ; 
Sy mphy turn officinale ; Lysimachia 4- folia ?; Campanula . . . ; Loni- 
cera (Chamaeceras) ; L. (glauca scandens) ; L. Diervill. ; Verbascum 
thapsus ; Rhamnus (dioicus) ; Ceanothus Americanus ; Celastrus . . . ; 
Ribes cynosbati ; R. (miquelon) : Vitis . . . ; Thesium umbellatum ; 
Asclepias . . . ; Ascl. . . . ; Sanicula . . . ; Rhus glabrum : 
Rh. . . . ; Rh. . . . : Viburnum . . . ; Sambucus . . . : 
Staphylea trifoliata, Aralia racemosa, nudicanlis : Lilium Philadelphicum, 
Canadense ; Uvularia perfoliata ; U. . . . ; U. . . . ; Hypoxis 
erecta : Leontice thalictroides: Convallaria polygonatum maximum, 
bifolia ; Prinos verticillatus ; Medeola Virginica ; Trillium erectum ; Tri- 
entalis . . . ; Dirca palustris ; Andromeda paniculata ; Epigea repens, 
(,a 20 miles avant d'arriver au Lac Champlain) : Gaultheria procumbens ; 
Arbutus Acadiensis ; Pyrola umbellata ; P. . , . Helleborus trifolius ; 
P. . . . ; Mitella diphylla ; Oxalis . . . ; Asarum Canadense ; 

Prunus . . . ; Padus Virgin : Cerasus . . . ; C ; C. 

. . . ; Crataegus . . . ; Cr. . . . ; Mespilus Canadensis arborea ; 

* Coptis trifolia, Salisb. C. S. S. 

t Shtpherdia Canadensis, Nutt. C. S. S. 

1888.] 1 [Michaux. 

M. Canad. frutescens ; Spiraea . . . ; Rosa . . . ; Rubus occi- 
dentalis, cdoratus, arcticus, hispidus, Canadensis ; Potentllla . . . ; 
P. . . . ; Geum . . . ; Actea spicata, . . . ; Sanguinaria Canad. ; 
Podophyllum peltatum ; Nymphea . . . ; Tilia Americana ; Cistus 
Canadensis ; Aquilegia Canadensis ; Anemone hepatica, dicliotoma &c. 
Thalictrum purpurascens, dioicurn ; Pedicularis Canad. ; Ped. . . . ; 
Chelone glabra, hirsuta ; Scrophularia ; Linnea borealis ; Orobanche Vir- 
ginica ; Draba bursa-p. ; Lepidium ; Geranium ; Fuinaria sempervirens ; 
Fum. vesicaria ; Polygala Senega, viridescens ; Hedisarum ; Trifolium ru- 
bens, . . . ; Hypericum ; Eupatorium ; Gnaphalium dioicum ; Lobelia 
syphilitica ; Viola . . . ; Iinpatiens . . . ; Cypripedium ; Carex ; Betula 
papyrifera, nigra : Urtica . . . ; Sagittaria sagittifolia ; Quercus . . . ; 
Juglans oblonga ; Fagus sylvatica am. Carpinus . . . ; Pinus fol. 
binis, P. fol. ternis, P. fol. quinis. P. fol. apice emarginatis, P. fol. den- 
ticulatis, P. fol. fasciculatis, P. fol. undique insertis ; Thuya occidentalis ; 
Hippophae Canadensis ; Myrica gale ; Fagara . . . ; Smilax lierbacea, 
. . . , Populus balsamifera, P. . . ; Menispermum ; Juniperus Vir- 
giniana, communis ; Taxus monoicus ; Veratrum ; Acer rubrum, sacchar- 
iferum Canadense, A. Pennsylvanicum ; Fraxinus ; Panax quinquefolia ; 
Equisetuni. . . . ; Osmunda 

Le 27 Juin parti de Cumberland Head et relache a la Pointe aux Fers. 

Le 28 parti dans un petit canot et entre sur le territoire anglois a cinq 
Leures du Soir. 

Le 29 arrive et debarque a S* Jean. Apres dine j'ay loue une voiture 
po. aller a la Prairie petite ville situee sur le fleuve S fc Laurent 

Le 30 Passe en Bateau a Montreal. Visile plusi. personnes po. qui 
j'etois muni de Lett, de recommandation. 

Le Dimanche l er Juillet herborise sur une Montagne pres de Montreal. 

Le 2 Visile le Capit. ilughes Scot, du 26 e Regiment amateur de Miner- 

Le 3 herborise dans la Campagne et dans les Prairies basses. Reconnu 
deux nouveaux genres 1 : Un genre intermediaire entre le Typha et Spar- 
ganium, plante hermaphrodite a 3 Etam. amentum cylind. cylindrique 
& . . 2. Un genre entre Morcea et Antholisa planta aquatiq. 3 etamines 

Le 4 Passe la Matine avec le Capit. Scott entrenu de voyages, Botaniq. 
Mineralogie &c. . . . 

Le 5 Juillet herborise : Alisma . . , 

Le 6 Dine chez M. Frobicher. 

Le 7 Dine chez M. Henry. 

Le Dimanche 8 herborise au bois de la chine, Dianthera nova et Hyperi- 
cum novum dans 1'espace d'une lieue en remontant la rivierre. 

Le 9 recu la visite de plusi. personnes. 

Le 10 dine chez M r Frobicher avec les offlciers des deux Regimens en 
garnison a Montreal. Remarque le Major Murray du 60 Regim 4 : le capi- 
taine Robinson, le capt. Scott & &c. par leurs merites. 

Michaux.] 72 [0ct 19f 

Le 11 Embarque : le 12 Vent contraire. 

Le 13 relache a William Henry cy devant Sorel petite ville a 1'embou- 
chure de la riv. Chamblis. 

Le soir vent favorable, traverse le lac S nt Pierre. Herborise aupres 
de Sorel. Andromeda calyculata, Kalmia angustifolia, Vaccinium corym- 
bosum. Yac. . . . Calla palustris, Aralia nova, Vaccin. repens 
staminib. octo. 

Le 14 herborise a 8 li. de distance des Trois Riv. dit Baptiscan ; plus 
bas Andromeda polifolia, Kalmia glauca, angustifolia ; Azalea glauca, 
Ledum palustre, Comarum . . ; 

Le Dimanche 15 herborise : Triglochin Scheuchzera . . . Yent 

Le 16 arrive a Quebec. 

Le 17 visite le Gouverneur Clarke : herborise : Oxalis nova species 
&c. &c. 

Le 18 Juillet visite le Juge . . . Dodd. herborise : Lycopodium 
cinq especes differentes ; Aconitum uncinatum* vulgairement Tisavoy- 

Le 19. Yu M r Neilson Imprimeur, homme tres instruit. Recueilli 
plusi. especes de Graines ; Con vallaria . . . Cornus canadensis, Aralea 
nudicanlis. Sambucus fructu rubro. Th. le matin 70 D. une heure apres 
Midy . , . 90. 

Le 20 thermometre de Fareinhit ; le matin 67 degres, herborise : Con- 
vallaria stellata, trifolia, bifolia, duo alterae species, Lycopodium 6 especes 

Le 21 Thermometre le matin 51 ; herborise Arbutus uva ursi, Arbut. 
nova sp. Sorbus aucuparia ; Narthecium calyculatum.f Euphrasia odon- 
tites, Plantago maritima, Actaea spicata fructu albo, fructu rubro &c. &c. 

Le 22. Yisite M r - le D r - Nooth : vu dans son jardin des framboises du 
cap de Bonne Esp. 

Le 23 Dejeune chez le D r - Nooth ; Yu un souflet double de son inven- 
tion pour continuer la flamnie de la fusion des mineraux, du verre po. les 
thermometres &c. 

Le 24 le D r Nooth m'a fait voir le moyen d'adapter des Pinces de Tele- 
scope pour voir les petits objets aussi bien qu'avec un microscope. II 
n'y a rien de plus avantageux pour cela. Les objets sont vus tres dis- 
tinctement a des degres plus ou moins eloignes sans faiiguer la vue au 
lieu que par les Microscopes ordioaires.. Si Ton regarde une fleur meme 
tres petite, Ton peut voir aussi distinctement dans Finterieur de la 
corole qu'a 1'extremite, &c. &c. 

Le 25 fait plusi. demarches po. rne preparer au voyage dans l'interieur 
des Terres. 

Le 25 herborise a la Cascade de Montrnorency : Plantes remarquees ; 

* ?-c. e. s. 

t Tofleldia glutinosa, Willd. C. S. S. 

1888.] 3 IMichaux. 

Pinus balsamea, Firms abies, Sapinette rouge, Sapinette blanche ; Thuya 
occidental is ; Larix ; Betula papyrifera ; Pinus balsamea. 

Le 27 dine chez le D r Nooth. 

Le 28 herborise dans les bois a droite de la petite rivierre S 1 Charles. 
Andromeda calyculata; Kalrnia glauca. K. angustifolia; Ledum palustre; 
Sarracenia purpurea; Azalea nova species. 

Le Dimanche 29 herborise a Lorette. 

Le 30 prepare au voyage du lac Mistassin. 

Le 31 Juillet parti de Quebec, passe devant le cap. Tourmente et le Cap 
brule, situe Tun a 12 lieues de Quebec, et 1'autre a 14 li. Reconnu sur les 
Montagues: Juniperus communis, Thuya, Sapins et Epinettes, Epigea 
repens, Linnea borealis &c &c : Mineraux Roches composees de Quartz, 
de Mica et de Schorl. 

Le soir arrive devant la Baye S l Paul distante de 17 lieues. L'on voit 
1'Isle aux Coudres estime*e a 18 lieues de Quebec. A I'entr^e de la Baye 
vu un Loup marin et plusieurs Marsouins 1'un de couleur blanche comme 
de la neige. 

Le l er Aoust vers une heure du matin, le Vent a change; et a 3 heures 
une Pluye considerable qui a continue jusqu'a 10 heures: Herborise sur 
les Montagues; Leduin palustre et Kalmia angustifolia: Populus balsami. 
Potentilla nivea ; Calla palustris aux lieux marecageux ainsi 
que Vaccin. repens album, V. atoca;* Drosera; Hordeum rnurinum; Galium 
album; Typha altissima; Spargan. erectum; Potamogeton &c. 

Le 2 Aoust arrive a la Malbaye; Cynoglossum seu Pulmonaria maritima;f 
Glaux? ; Hippophaecanadensis: Sisyrinchium bermudiana; Galium album; 
Abies fol. undique sparsis; Ab. balsamea; Pinus Strobus, P. fol. geminis, 
P. Larix; Pyrola uniflora; Juniperus communis: Acer pensylvanicum; 
Populus balsamea: Le Juglans oblonga se trouve a Quebec mais cesse ici, 
ainsi que Abies canadensis; Platanus occidental, cesse au lac Champlain 
&c. &c. 

Depuis la Baye S* Paul, les Eboulements et la Malbaye les Montagnes 
sont formees de terre argilleux sables et Pierres roulees. Le Cap. Tour- 
mente est forme de roches de Quartz. Sur les rochers un peu avant 
d'entrer dans la Baye, se trouve un arbuste rampant, Empetrum nigrum, 
f. touj. vertes, petites, ovales, reflechies, glauques par dessous (ce glauque 
ne paroit que comme une ligne la f. etant pi. etroite que celle du Romarin) 
Cal a 3 f . (ou 3. partitus) corolla a 3 petal (ou 3 partita), Etam. 3, dont les 
filets tres longs, Germe superieur, styl. o, Stig. simple, Baye noire, aqueuse, 
semen ces 9. 

Le 3 Aoust sejourne* a la Malbaye. 

Le 4 parti et couche a 1'embouchure de la riv. Seganey. 

Le Dimanche 5 arrive le matin a 4 h. a Tadoussack: herborise; Juniperus 
commu. Junip. sabina? 46 lieues de Quebec. 

Le 6 Therm, de Fareinhit matin 51^-, Vent d'E. N. E. Midy 70 D. 

* Vaccinium oxycoccus, L. C. S. S. 
f Mertensia mariiima, Don. C. S. S. 


Michaux.] 4 [Oct. 19, 

J'ay engage trois Sauvages pour remonter la Rivierre Seganey. Depuis 
le Cap Tourmente jusqu'a Tadoussack, les Montagnes sont continuelles 
an Nord du fl. S* Laurent et sont principalem* de quartz pur q.q. fois 
melees de Shorl. Dans plusi. endroits la base des Rochers est de Pierre 
calcaire noire. 

Le 7 Th. le matin 52 d. Parti dans un Canot avec trois Sauvages et le 
petit jeune homme Metis que j'avois engage a Quebec po. interp. ayant 
demeuie trois ans av. les Sauvag. Par des montagnes continuees fait 
environ 10 li. Orages de Tonnere et Pluye. 

Le 8 Vent contraire, Rame environ 4 lieues. Sur les Montagnes de 
Roches: arbust. baccifere, (Empetrum nigrum) cal. 3 phyll. cor. 3 parti. 
st. 3: Arbutus foliis margine larmginoso- membranacea: Arbut ? fol. 
apice glandulosis:* Aralia nova hispida. Couche aupres de la Cascade. 

Le i) Temps calme, passe* devantun Rocher coupe perpendiculairement 
dit le Tableau, estime la moitie du chemin de Tadoussack a Chicoutoume 
Poste situe a 1'endroit de la Rivierre Seganey ou le flux de la Mer cesse de 
monter. Cette Riv.^est reputee une des pi. grandes de celles qui se jettent 
dans le Fleuve S' Laurent. Depuis 1'embouchure ou le confluent on 
remonte 1'espace de 21 lieues vers le N. Quest, alors il se presente une 
grande Baye qui recoit probablement une aut. riv. et a Ten tree de la Baye 
on remonte cette riv. vers le Nord. La largeur de la rivi. jusq. la gr. 
Baye est generalein* d'env. 4 Miles tres ressenee par de liautes montagnes 
de roches coupees perpendiculairement. II n'y n point de terre sur ces 
mont. et les Pins qui y croissent n'ont de substances que celles que les 
mousses leur fournissent. Elles sont generalement composees de Quartz 
melees de Schorl, en moindre partie quelq. fois assises sur une base cal- 
caire. Mais les Rochers calcaires y sont a peine depuis le Cap. Tour- 
mente. J'ay rencontre une fois une lieue avant d'arriver a la gr. Baye 
du Feldspath. Depuis la gr. Baye les Montagnes sont moins hautes et 
moins perpendiculaires. Campe une li. au dessus de la gr. Baye. Orage 
et Pluye. 

Le 10 Vent du Nord tres violent: sur les Mont, couvertes de Sphagnum, 
Ledum palustre, Andromeda calyculata, Kalmia angustifolia, Vacciii. 
atoca; V. resinosa; Drosera rotundifolia. 

Le me*me jour campe a deux lieues de distance de Chicoutoume". 

Le onze reconnu sur les bords de la rivierre en entrant dans le bois: 
Swertia corniculata,f le meme jour arrive a Chicoutoume. 

Le Dimanche 12, prepare a partir pour le lac S nt Jean et les Lacs Mis- 
tassin. Prepare deux Canets: 300 lbs de farine, 155 lb de Pore sale, deux 
Peaux de Loup marin po. Souliers, 100 lb de Biscuits, 50 de Pain, 10 lb de 
Sel, 5 lb de Poudre a tirer, 10 lb de Plonib, 3 Rouleaux d'Ecorce de Bouleau 
pour Tente, 3 Fusils, 5 aulnes d'Etoffe de Laine grossiere, 3 paires de 
chaussons de laine, 2 paires de gants de laine. Outre ce qui avoit e*te pris 
po. provision a Tadoussack sc, avoir: 26 lb de Pore sale, 50 de Pain hache", 

* Vaccinium Vitis-Ideea, L. C. S. S. 
t Halenia deflexa, Griseb. C. S. S. 

1888.] O [Michaux. 

couvertures, souliers, Pierres a fusil, Briquets &. Un grand filet, ham., 
six Couvertures. 

Le 13 transport e deux Canots dans la rivierre Chicoutouine, ayant quitte 
ici celle de Sagney, six sauvages et sept sauvagesses furent employees a 
porter les provisions et le Bagage. Ce Portage est un des plus longs ayant 
une lieue et plus de distance de Sagney a la l8te de la Cascade. Ce jour 
nous avons eu quatre autres Portages, la plupart de 200 toises a 500 toises 
environ po. passer par terre du bas d'une Cascade en haut. Souvent 
lorsque les Canots arriventau dessous de ces Rapides ou Cascades, ils sont 
entraines par la violence du courant des Eaux qui sont toujours en ces 
endroits resserres par des roches enormes. II faut alternativement ou 
ramer, ou forcer en piquant au fond, alors q.q. fois on se munit de perches 
et ainsi on lutte contre les Eaux. Malgre la legerete des Canots, les Sau- 
vages euiploient toutes leurs forces et ils sont tres adroits a eviter les dan- 
gers d'gtre entraines ou heurtes contre les roches ou enfin renverses, ce qui 
arrive q. quefois. II y a rarement danger de perir, lorsque Ton sc,ait nager 
parce que alors en se laissant aller au courant des $aux, Ton est porte 
immediatement dans un endroit ou 1'eau est tranquille et souvent moins 
de deux pieds d'eau ; alors il faut sauver ce que Ton peut, Canots, Bagage 
et Provisions. Ces voyages sont effrayants po. ceux qui n'y sont pas 
accoutumes et je conseillerois aux Petits Maitres de Londre ou a ceux de 
Paris s'il y en a encore de rester chez eux. Remarque dans les rivierres 
et sur les Rives. Potamogeton . . . Nymphea lutea calix 3 phyllus: 
Petala 3, stam. numerosa & fol. cordatis. Nymphea lutea Cal. . . . 
foliis et florib. minorib. Ranunculus reptans fol. linearis, caule repente; 
Chelone glabra florib. albis ; Fraxinus &c &c &c. 

Le 14 Aout Pluye considerable toute la journee : herborise et recueilli 
beaucoup d'especes de Mousses, Aster, Gramen, Helleborus trifolius, 
Mitella aphylla. 

Le 15 navigue toute la journee par une pluye fine mais continuelle. 
Nous trouvames deux Portages situe*s a une lieue de distance Tun de 
1'autre et nous avons fini la journee en passant le Lac Senogamie* qui a 7 
lieues de long et autres uu a deux Miles de large, quelquefois il fut borde 
par des montagnes de Roches, qq. fois par des Marecages. Sur les Mon- 
tagnes reconnu Juniperus communis, Abies, Acer pensylv. Potentilla 
nivea &c. &c. Dans les parties basses et Marecages humides Myrica gale 
Andromeda polifolia, Comarum palustre, Prinos verticillatus, Gentiana 
pneumorianthe.t Mentha stam. corolla longiorib., Triglochin palustre, 
Alnus glauca stipulis lanceolatis, \ Vaccinium atoca. Dans le Lac, 
Nymphea lutea major, Nymph, lutea minor, Sparganium natans, Alisma 
subulata, || Potamogeton . . . , Polygonuin . . . , Lobelia siin 
plex.T Eriocaulon . . . 

* c a d. Lac aux Arb. uva ursi. 

t G. linearis, Froel. C. S. S. 

| Betula pumila, L. C. S. S. 

g S. minimum, Bauhin. C. S. S. 

3 Alisma Plantago, L. var. Americanum, Gray. C. S. S. 

fl L. Dortmanna, L. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] <U [Oct. 19, 

Le 16 des le Matin nous avons rencontre deux Portages, 1'un d'environ 
50 toises et 1'autre d'environ trois quart de lieue. Vers midy nous avons 
rencontre une rivierre qui se perd dans le lac S nt Jean. Arrive" dans 
cette riv. nous faisions au moins 3 lieues par heure. Nous avons navigue 
ainsi environ dix lieues et nous avons campe sur le bord du Lac. En ar- 
rivant par 1'Embouch. de cette riv., Ton aperqoit des Collines de Sable ou 
il ne croit que q.q. Artemisia crithmoides,* Arundo arenariaf . . . 
Ce Lac resseinble a une Mer par son etendue. 

Le 17 le vent contraire nous empcha d'entrer dans le Lac des le matin, 
mais 1'apres midy, nous avons rame pend* quatre heures etants touj. a la 
distance d'un quart de lieue environ de la terre et sou vent les Canotp 
touchoient a fond. 

Le 18, nous arrivames vers les 4 heures apres midy au Poste etabli par 
la Comp e po. la traite des fourrures av. les Sauvages des Lac des Cygnes 
et le Lac Mistassini. Ce Poste est occupe par deux Comis. Canadiens. 
Mess. Panet freres. 

Le 19 Dimanche une Brume e*paisse nous empecha de traverser le Lac 
po. entrer dans la riv. ditte Mistassin. Vers le midy il s'eleva un Vent 
considerable : herborise" anx environs du Lac ; Nymphea lutea, Calix 
3-phyllus, Petala 3, etam. nurnerosa. Nymphea lutea minor. Cal. 3-phyll. 
Petala 2, stam. numerosa &c. . . . Andromeda polifolia, And. caly- 
cul., Betula pumila, Arundo glumis 2-floris, Hippophae Canadens. Erio- 
caulon . . . 

Le 20 Tempete toute la journee. 

Le 21 parti du milieu du Lac S* Jean ou est etabli le Magasin des Mar- 
chandises po. la traite av. les Sauvages. C'est le dernier Poste dans ces 
lieux sauvages. II etoit neuf heures du Matin et nous entrames dans la 
Rivierre ditte Mistassin a 2 heures de 1'apres midy. Nous avons voyage 
en Canots dans cette Riv. jusqu' a huit heures du Soir. L' embouchure 
dans le lac est tres peu profonde et pendant cinq a six lieues en remont- 
ant, on voit des banes de sable mouvans qui ont plus d'une demie lieue de 
long. Les Thuya cessent au Lac, dit-on, et je n'en vis pas au long de 
cette riv. Je reconnus Abies balsamea, Pinus abies, P. Larix, Populus 
balsamifera, Ledum palustre. 

Le 22 nous avons continue en remontant la rivierre pendant une heure, 
et ensuite nous avons rencontre un Portage. Les Portages sont toujours 
causes par des Rapides ou Cascades au travers des Roches plus ou moins 
escarpees. A 1'endroit de ces premiers rapides, la rivierre diminue tout a 
coup, ayant eu jusqu' ici 3*a 4 Miles de largeur. Nous avons rencontre 
neuf Rapides et consequemment nous avons eu neuf Portages a franchir 
sans quitter cette rivierre ditte Mistassin quoiqu'elle ne sorte pas des Lacs 
Mistassins. Depuis le depart du Poste sur le Lac S*- Jean jusqu' aux 
Larges Rapides ou nous arrivames vers les 7 heures du soir, la distance 

est evaluee 18 lieues. Quoique 1'on considere generalement les Rapides 

* Artemisia Canadensis, Michx. C, S. S. 
t Calamagrostis.C. S. S. 

1888.] Ti [Michaux. 

ou Cascades perpendiculaires comme des Effets de la nature dignes de 
curiosite, Ton auroit de la peine a se former une idee de la Majestueuse 
perspective de celle-ci. Elle est naturellement comme un Amphitheatre 
dans I'enfoncernent duquel on ne voit que les Arbres aussi bien que sur 
les cotes et elle s'elargit a sa base d'environ 250 toises sur une profondeur 
d'environ 250. L'on apercoit des Rochers sans nombre au milieu des 
eaux brisees et reduites en brouillards comme des fumees epaisses. Le 
Lit de la rivierre au bas de ces Cascades forme une piece d'eau ti es e*tendue 
a la surface de laquelle on n'apercoit pas de roches, mais qui est ties agitee 
et produit en tout temps de grosses vagues a cause des roches sous 1'eau 
et de la surface unie du sol resserre par les collines qui environnent cette 

Les Eaux ayant heurtis sur les flancs de ces Collines de roches, elles 
reviennent de nouveau se mler et se perdre a la base des rapides et 
y forment des bandes ou intervalles unies et tranquilles entre des eaux 
agitees par les diverses branches de la cascade generale. C'est alors que 
Ton est surpris de 1'habilete des sauvages qui savent si bien prendre les 
alternatives, soit po. ramer a force de bras, soit po. s'arreter tout a coup. 
Quelque fois nous nous trouves sur une bande ou intervalle tranquille 
tandis que les deux cotes sont agites de maniere a envoyer des floccons 
d'ecuine dans le Canot. II fallut aborder entre 1'un des bras de la Cascade 
pour faire faire le Portage et poser le Bagage et les Provisions sur les 
Roches qui etoient au dessus de la surface des eaux. Le Danger est que 
les Roches sous 1'eau sont couvertes ordinairement d'une espece deByssus 
ou Mousse aquatique visqueuse qu' empche de poser le pied ferme. Mon 
guide ayant voulu sauter d'une Roche sur une autre qui n'etoit qu' a un 
pouce sous 1'eau, tomba avec sa charge qui etoit un paquet de 50 liv. de 
farine et le Sac qui contenoit ses hardes. Nous avons campe pres des 
Larges Rapides.* 

Le 22 Aoust sur la Riv. Mistassin, Alnus glauca, Myrica gale, Gentiana 
pneumonanthe, Potentilla nivea, Linnea borealis, Epigsea rep., Gaultheria, 
Ledum palustre, Kalmia glauca, Kalmia angustifol. Vaccinium corym- 
bosum minus, V. atoca, V. fructu albo, Trillium capsula violacea angulata, 
Trill, capsula rubra ovata, Narthecium . . . , Cerasus racemosa 
petiol. glandulosis, Ceras. corymbos. petiol. glandulosis, Cerasus fructu 
nigro petiol. eglandul. ditte Cerise de Sable, Cornus Canadensis, Corn, 
stolonib. rubris (Osier rouge) ; Cornus ramis punctatis, Convallaria ? 
baccis azureis, Conv. 3-folia, Conv. 2-folia, Conv. alt. sp., Lonicera camse- 
cerasus fol. tomentos., Lon. diervilla, Lycopod. fructification is paniculatis, 
And. calyculata, Pinus Larix, P. balsamea, P. abies alba, P. abies nigra, 
P. Strobus, P. fol. geminis fructu ovato loevi ; P. fol. geminis breviorib., 
Salix sericea, Salix stipulis foliaceis, Arundo glumis unifloris, Arundo 
. . . , Poa glumis 4-floris, Ribes cynosbat., Fraxinus foliolis tomen- 

* Attached to the record of the 22d inst. is the following memorandum in Journal. 
C. S. S. 

Michaux.] ' 8 [Oct. 19, 

tos. serratis, Betula alba seu papyrifera, Ulnius . . . Orme blanc, 
Rubus arcticus, R. occidental is, Vib. Opulus petiol. gland., Vib. nud., 
Taxus, Spiraea salicifolia, Pteris, Oenothera. Thalictruin dioicum, Actaea 
spicata alba, Epilobium staminib. declinatis, Epil. petalis 2-fidis, Aster. 

Le 23 nous avons eu de la pluye qui avoit commence des 2 heurcs 
du Matin et qui a continue jusqu' apres midy, nous avons reste campe toute 
la journee. 

Le 24 nous avons rencontre deux Rapides ou Cascades et nous avons eu 
consequemment deux Portages; notre journee peut etre evaluee a 8 lieues; 
Remarque des Melezes d'une belle grandeur quoique tous les aut. sortes 
d'arbres diminuent de grandeur dans ces parages. 

Le 25 nous avons e\e oblige d'aller avec des Perches po. luter contre les 
Courans de la Rivierre. Cela etoit d'autant plus penible que le Vent du 
Nord souffloit tres fort et nous avons fait environ 7 a 8 lieues. 

Le Dimanche 26 le vent fut moins violent, nous avons ete oblige 
de faire aller les Canots avec les perches seulement, depuis 7 heures du 
Matin j usque vers onze heures. Nous avons rencontre une Cabane de 
Sauvages et nous y avons dine avec de la Viande de Castor bouillie, des 
Bluets. (Vaccinium corymbosum) bouillies en consistence de Confitures 
et de ces mmes Bluets frais. Les Montagues qui ont e"te brulees en plu- 
sieurs endroits au nord de Quebec, sont couvertes de cet arbuste et Ton 
peut s'y rassasier au moins d'une heure et mgine d'un quart d'heure. Ce 
fruit est tres age*rable et la grande quantite" n'incommode jamais. Notre 
March e fut d'environ six a 7 lieues. 

Le 27 nous avons trouve* la Rivierre extremement diminuee de largeur, 
mais les courants tres rapides etant resserre's par des Montagnes de Rochers 
tres escarpes ; retrouve le Vaccin. foliis apice glandulosis c. a. d. Yitis 
Idcea. Notre course peut tre evaluee a 8 lieues. 

Le 28 les Sauvages ont continue de piquer avec les Perches, po. forcer 
les courans tres rapides et vers deux h. apres Midy nous arrivames au 
Portage Monte a peine. Nous avons e" e depuis 3 heures jusqu' a 7 h. du 
soir pour grimper cette Montagne et pour arriver dans une autre petite 
Rivierre situee de 1'autre cote. J'evalue a 250 ou 300 toises perpendicu- 
laires environ la hauteur de cette montagne et la Riv. situee de 1'autre 
cote n'est pas de 40 a 50 toises plus bas que le Sommet de cette Montagne 
Monte a peine. Les Sauvages me dirent que cette Riv. n'a pas de nom. 
Les Plantes remarquees principalement sur les Marais du haut de Monte 
a peine, sont. Ledum palust. Kalmia angustifolia, Vaccinium corymbos. 
minus, Vaccin. niveum, * Kalmia glauca, Betula . . . , And. caly- 

Le 29 herborise des le matin sur les bords de la Petite Rivierre : Lycopo- 

* Chiogenes hispiduia, Torr & Gray. C. S, S. . 

1883.] & [Michaux. 

dium inundatum, Lycop. . , Lycop. . , Andromeda 

rosmarinifolia,* And. calycul. Kalmia glauca, Ledum paluslre. 

Nous avons en quatre portages a passer dans 1'intervalle desquels nous 
avons voyage sur deux Rivierres qui n'avoient pas plus de 18 pieds de 
large. La profondeur &oit suffisante pour les Canots, mais plusieurs fois 
il fallut alleger les Canots pour les soulever au dessus des Digues de Castor 
dont les Cabanes etoient sur la rive. Ces Cabanes sont toujours situees sur 
1 bord des petites rivierres ; elles sont baties de bois et de terre en forme 
d'un monticule de 3 a 4 pi. de haut sur une base de six pi. de large. II y 
a une entree sur terre et une sortie sous 1'eau po. aller pendant les gelees 
des hyvers manger les ecorces des bois qu'ils amassent dans 1'eau ; ils 
coupent des pieces de la grosseur de la cuisse. Les Digues sont pour 
arreter et elever les eaux qui gelent d'autant moins qu'elles sont plus pro- 
fondes. Toutefois les hyvers sont si longs et si severes que 1'on a vu des 
trous dans la glace de deux pieds de profondeur. L'on ne peut (pourroit) 
se persuader la force, 1'industrie, 1'adresse et la patience avec les quels ces 
animaux travaillent po. vivre et se preserver des riguenrs des hivers. 
Lorsqu'ils abattent un arbre, ils le font tomber a coup sur du cote qui leur 
convient po. e*xecuter leur enterprise, et s'il y a des paressenx, ils les 
chassent de la societe et ceux ci vivent miserables et solitaires. Nous 
arrivames au Lac des Cygnes vers trois heures apres midy. II est tres 
large, environne de terres basses, couvertes d'arbres tres petits, rabougris. 
Cette contiee porte 1'aspect le plus affreux de la sterilite du sol jointe a la 
rigueur et a la longueur des froids. Les arbres sont des bouleaux. Pinus 
fol. geminis, P. abies nigra, Ledum palustre, Kalmia glauca, Kalui. 
angustif. Andr. calyculata et Andr. rosmarinifolia. En entrant, dans le 
lac des Cygnes j'aperQus un nouv. Vaccinium,f a tiges droites d'un pied 
et demi de haut, assez bien garni de branches, fruits solitaires, d'un gout 
plus acide que ceux que j'aye goute en Ameriq. jusqu' a present, mais cet 
acide est tres agreable, outre le port naturel a tous les Vaccin. je puis la 
considerer po. etre de ce genre de ceux a 8 etamines par les divisions du 
cal. superieur au fruit. La forme est celle d'une pomette plutot longue 
que ronde, mais de la grosseur seulement d'un pois. Ce fruit est bleuatre 
et les f. sont glauques. Vaccinium uliginoso affine. 

Le Lac des Cygnes est interessant par 1'aspect de ses alentours, dont les 
terres quoique generalem* basses sont asses bien entrecoupees de Collines 
de differentes formes. La multitude d'angles saillans et des angles 
rentrants, tantot rapprochent les deux rives opposees et tantot les eloignent 
de plus de deux lieues de Tune a 1'autre quelquefois tres profo. q.q. fois il 
n'y a pas d'eau po. la Canot. Enfin je reconnus la Potentilla fruticosa sur 
plusieurs endroits du rivage et presque submerge* en plusi. endroits ainsi 
que les And. rosmarinifol. et les Andr. calyculata. Le Sauvage qui con- 
duisoit mon Canot, vit dans un endroit peu pro fond une tete de Castor 
tres bien decharnee et tous les os de la tte et de la Machoire bien entiers. 

* A. polifolia, L. C. S. S. 
t F. uliginosum, L. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

II m'en fit present mais elle fut perdue de nouveau dans 1'accident qui 
nous arriva en sortant du Lac po. remonter un Rapide au travers des 
roches. L'on avoit resolu de ne decharger les Canots qu'en partie et en 
sortant le Sauvage glissa sur une roche couverte de lichen gluant. Conime 
il avoit encore une jambe dans le Canot, il le fit pencher et dans 1'instant, 
il se trouva a moitie plein d'eau. Tous mes Papiers, Plantes et autres 
parties de rnon Bagage furent mouilles et toute la nuit fut employee a 
secher et a reparer en partie cet accident. Le 30 continue des le matin a 
secher mes herbiers, mes Collections de graines &c. Mes herbiers, enve- 
loppe"s dans des Sacs de Peaux de Loups marins avoient peu souiferts en 
apparence et 1'eau n'avoit penetre dans plusi. parties qu' a un pouce 

Le 30, nous avons navigue dans trois Lacs environnes de Montagnes peu 
elevees et qui se communiquent par des issues entre ces Collines. Le Sol 
dans toute cette Contree est entrecoupe de Montagnes et de Collines dont 
les bas fonds ou vallees sont remplis d'eaux et forment ces Multitudes de 
Lacs dont la plupart n'ont pas de noms m6me par les Sauvages qui chas- 
sent frequemment dans cette Contree. Des Intervalles considerables 
sont de Sphagnum palustre. L'on y enfonce jusqu' aux genoux et 
rneme par les plus beaux temps de secheresse, Ton y est toujours imbibe 
d'eau jusqu' aux genoux. Nous avons fait trois portages et nous avons 
fait env. 3 a 4 lieues a cause de la difficulte a traverser ces desagreables 

Ces marecages ici abondent en Kalmia glauca et Andromeda rosmarini- 
folia, Sarracenia purpurea et Vaccin. Atoca. Dans les parties moins 
liuinides sont les Andr. calyculata, Ledum palustre, Kalmia angustifolia, 
Epigea re pens, Pinus abies rubra, Pin. fol. geminis breviorib. Le Pinus 
balsamifera cessa au Lac des Cygnes, je n'en vis aujourd'hui que trois en 
forme de buisson et toute la Vegetation porte ici 1'empreinte de Piginees 
decrepits, a cause de la sterilite du sol et de la rigueur du froid. Je vis 
aussi un nouveau Vaccinium * a fruits solitaires dans 1'aisselle des feuill. 
fruit bleuatre, cal a 5 divisions, peu ligneux au lieu que celui du jo. pre- 
cedent forme parfaitement 1'arbriss ligneux bien forme. Avena panicu- 
lata calycib. unifloris est le seul gramen que j'ay vu aujourd'hui. 

Le 31 Aoust, nous avons navigue pendant une heure et nous avons ren- 
contre un Portage. Le froid etoit excessif et le temps convert depuis 2 jo. 
et la pluye etoit comme de la neige fondue. Arrete pour dejeuner, le froid 
nous otoit 1'appetit et les Sauvages trembloient de froid, etant tous tra- 
verse's d'eau tant de la pljiye, que des Arbriss. mouilles au travers des 
quels on avoit passe et que des marecages de Sphagnum que Ton est 
oblige de traverser ou Ton enfonce jusqu' aux genoux en plusi. endroits. 
Quoiq. je fusse mieux convert d'habillernens, j'avois aussi tant de peine a 
register au froid, que je fis faire du feu et vers dix heures nous nous 
sommes mis de nouveau en route. Nous avons passe trois Lacs et uue 

* Probably his V. cxspitomm.G. S. S. 

1888.] [Michaux. 

riv. d'eau courante : Narthecium calyculatum,* Epilobium fol. linearib., 
Kalmia glauca, And. rosmarini folia &c. &c. 

Le samedy l er Septcmbre, la pluye nous empeclia de voyager et un des 
Sauvages fut malade. La cause me parut etre la transpiration arretee. 
II avoit ete inouille de la pluye le jour precedent et il avoit dorini dans sa 
Couverture qni etoit imbibes d'eau. L'apres midy le temps fut moins 
obscur et nous avons navigue nonobstant la pluye. Toute la nuit, il y eut 
Pluye, Tonnere et Eclairs. Nous avons fait env. six lieues et nous avons 
eu un lac et des rivierres Ires etroites ou il n'y avoit q. la largeur d'un Canot. 
Le Dimanche 2 le temps fut tres obscur des le matin et il se resolut en 
Neige fondue. Le froid fut moins rude, mais nous avons eu un portage 
de trois quarts d'une lieue au travers d'une Savanne de Sphagnum ou 
Ton enfon^oit jusqu' a la moitie des jambes et malgre les ondees de grele 
qui continuerent toute la journee nous continuames a voyager, car les 
Sauvages aussi bien que moi desiroient arriver le plustdt possible a Mistas- 
sin de peur que les Neiges et les froids ne devinsent plus consider, 
ables. Nous avons eu trois Lacs a traverser et nous avons fait environ dix 

Le 3 la gelee fut a glace d'environ une ligne d'epaisseur. Des Minuit 
je vis la gelee blanche sur les arbrisseaux et les herbes qui environnent le 
foyer ou nous etions cainpes. Le [temps] parut bien dispose au moins po. 
la journee, mais vers 7 lieures Fair devint nuageux et nous avons eu de la 
Pluye et alternativement de la Grgle et de la Neige et des Intervalles d'un 
beau soleil. Nous avons vu un Caribo (Renne) dans une Prairie, mais les 
Sauvages ayant la vent sur . . . f ne pouvoient le joindre. A onze 
heures nous entrames dans une grande rivierre qui coule vers le Nord. 
Ayant les courants favorables, no. avons fait 16-18 lieues. Le sol me 
parut meilleur. 

Le 4 Septemb. nous avons fait trois fois Portage a cause des courants 
tres rapides dans les rochers. A 10 h 1-4 entre dans le Lac Mistassin. Aux 
environs du Lac, Bartsia pallida, Gentiana?, Narthecium ossifragum 
calyculatum, Lycopod. ? &c. &c. Navigue dans le Lac environ 10-12 
lieues, campe sur la rive gauche N. Quest a 6 lieues de distance du Lac. 

Le 5 fait environ 8 a 10 lieues et dine sur la rive des Goelands a 16 
lieues de distance du Lac. Tue une Oie a collier. Nous avons pris 5 
poissons qui avoient un pied 1-2 a 2 pi. de long. Le soir campe. 

Abies nigra, Larix, Betula pumila, alba ; Sorbus aucuparia ; My- 
rica gale, Cornus Canad. (Cornus Osier rouge) Ribes ; Ribes ; Ribes ; 
Pinguicula alpina? Vaccini. niveum 8 etam : V. atoca : Vaccin. uligi- 
nosum? Epigea ; Avena nuda ; Arundo glumis 2-floris ; Andromeda 
rosmarinifol ; Kalmia angustifolia ; K. glauca ; Sarracenia purpurea ; 
Vaccinium Vitis idaea ; Pteris aquilina ; Osmunda regalis ; Hieracium 
paludosum ? ; Linnaea borealis ; Vaccin. corymbosum minus. 22 lieues 

* ToMdia glutinosa, Willd. C. S. S. 
t Illegible. C. S. S. 


Michaux.] 82 tOc t. 19, 

en totalit^. Campe pres la rivierre Atchouke. (Riv. des Loup- 

Le 6 revenu a Mistassin 26 lieues. Collines des environs du Lac Mis- 
tassin : sol est un sable pur a la surface et pi. bas sable argilleux. Les 
Pierresetles Roches sont de Quartz irapur, mle d'argille q.q. fois de 
terre vegetale. Les Pierres du rivage usees par 1'agitation des flots present- 
eni des formes extraordinaires parceq. les couches d'argille ou d'autres sub- 
stances moins dures sont plus usees. II y a aussi des Pierres de Quartz mi- 
caces et de Schorl, tres peu de Quartz pur. Je n'ay point vu de Pierres 
calcaires. Nulle apparence de Pierres volcanisees. Le Sol est peu eleve 
aux alentours. Les Collines sont de grandes distances. La Decharge des 
Eaux de ce Lac est vers le Nord et le Nord Quest par differentes Riv. qui 
vont a la Baye d'Hudson. L'on peut y aller en 4 jours, mais il faudroit 
10 jo. po. revenir. Notre Course fut de 28 lieues tant les Sauvages avoi- 
ent envie de revenir. Les Arbres du Bas Canada ne se trouvent point 
aux parties eleve*s du Canada, quoique ces arbres et Plantes soient dans la 
plus grande vigueur aux parties basses du Canada. 

Le 7 nous sommes partis de Mistassin et nous avons courru environ dix 
sept a dix huit lieues a cause des courans des Rivierres tres rapides. 

Le chif des Sauvages qui me conduisoient tua un Loutre qui traversoit 
a la nage une rivierre et de temps en temps sortoit la tte hors de 1'eau. 
Nous avons e*te en route depuis 6 heures du matin j usque env. 6 h. du soir, 
malgre le brouillard et le froid. 

Le 8 Gele a glace dans un Vase de fer blanc. Beau temps toute la 
journ. A 24 lieues environ de Mistassin aupres d'une Savanne, recueilli 
des echantill. d'un Juniperus communis, mais quoiqu' il y eut plus de 40 
Plants dans ce lieu, je n'eus pas la satisfaction de le voir en fructifica- 
tion. Mon Sauvage tua un Rat musque (Castor Zibaticus Linn.) Le 
soir il le mangea roti avec ses Camarades, mais il ne voulut pas manger du 
Loutre qu'il avoit tue le jour precedent. Nous avons fait environ 20 lieues 
au travers de plusieurs rapides avec le courant, au lieu qu'en montant 
nous avons ete oblige de faire Portage. 

Le Dimanche 9 Septembre, nous avons passe la Lac des Cygnes, nous 
sommes venu coucher sur la Montagne Monte a peine. Notre course fut 
evaluee a 20 lieues. Les Andromeda calyculata, Kalmia angustifolia, 
Ledum palustre, couvrent la surface du sol sur les Collines et les Mon- 
tagnes dont les arbres ont ete brule*3. Les parties qui n'ont ete brulees 

* This Camp was the most Northern point reached by Michaux. No reason for his 
return southward is given in the Journal. The explanation, however, is found in the 
following passage in Deleuze's Historical Notice of Michaux : 

" Michaux entre le 3 Aout dans une petite riviere qui conduisoit au lac Mistassin ; il 
faisoit alors un froid excessif ; il tomboit de la neige : cependant il continua sa route et 
arriva le 4 Septembre dans le lac Mistassin : apres en avoir reconnu les bords, il de- 
scendit une riviere qui communique a la baie d'Hudson ; il la suivit pendant deux jours, 
et il n'6tois plus qu'a une petite distance de cette baie lorsque les sauvages, croyant dan- 
gereux de s'avancer plus au nord dans cette saison, voulurent absolument revenir; ils 
1'assurerent que si les neiges continuoient, le retour deviendroit impossible." Annales 
du Museum, iii. 212. C. S. S. 

1888. | [Michaux 

que depuis deux ans au plus sont couvertes de Vaccin. corymbos. minus. 
Les Pinus abies nigra, P. Larix et Pinus fol. geminis breviorib. formant 
la Masse principale des bois. II y a des Intervalles considerables de Mare- 
cages couverts de Sphagnum dans les quelles on enfonce jusqu'a la moitie 
des jambes. II n'y croit que des Andr. rosmarinifolia, Kalmia glauca 
et Betula pumila, Vaccinium atoca, Sarracenia purpurea, Ces marecagea 
ne sont jamais a sec et les plus aquatiq. ne produisent que des Andr. ros- 
marinifolia et des Kalmia glauca. Notre course fut d'environ 30 lieues. 

Le Septembre j'ay fait recueillir de la mousse pour emballer des Plantes 
recueillies autour du Lac. Des le Matin je fus herboriser et en revenant, 
je vis quatre gros Poissons pris dans les filets que les Sauvages avoient 
tendu la veille. Apres dejeune, je continual mes herborisations autour de 
la Presqu' Isle ou nous etions canape et je visitay plusieurs situations sc/av. 
Quest, Nord et Est, Est-Sud-Est, Quest- Nord Quest : je reconnus Pinus 
abies riigra, P. Larix, P. fol. geminis, Betula alba, B. pumila, Sorbus 
aucuparia americana, Mespilus Canadensis arborea, Rubus occidentalis ; 
.Rub. arcticus ; Potentilla.fruticosa ; Myrica gale.* 

Vu petit Pie ; dessus du corps noir mele de taches blanches et plus gris 
sur les cotes et les extremites des ailes, le ventre blanchatre, quelques 
plumes de la queue blanche a 1'extremite : Deux oiseaux du genre de Pies 
sommet de la tete noir, vers le devant blanche, dessus du corps et des 
ailes brun-cendre. Poitrine et Gorge blanchatre ainsi que la partie dessous 
les yeux, yeux noirs, Oreilles larges &c &c . . . extremite de la queue 
borde de blanc . . . 

Le sol a Mistassin est un sable pur a la surface et plus bas sable ajgilleux. 
Les Pierres et les Roches sont de Quartz impur mele d'argille plus fre- 
queminent de terre vegetale. Les Pierres du rivage usees par ragitation 
continuelle des eaux, presentent des formes extraordinaires parceque les 
couches d'argille ou d'autres substances moins dures sont plus usees de 
sorte qu'il y a des intervalles plus usees et d'autres qui le sont moins, an 
nombre de 6-8-10 dans une longeur de deux pieds. II y a aussi des Pierres 
de Quartz micacees et de Schorl, tres peu de Quartz pur. Je n'ay point vu 
de Pierres calcaires, ni aucune apparence de Pieires volcani.-ejes. Le sol 
est peu eleve aux alentours. II n'y a que des collines a de grandes dis- 
tances. La decharge des Eaux de ce Lac est vers le Nord et le Nord-Ouest 
par differentes riv. qui vont a la Baye d' Hudson. Les Sauvages disent 
que Ton y peut aller en quatre jours, mais il faut dix jours po. revennir a 
cause des courants trop rapides. 

Le f nous avons pris cinq Poissons qui avoient depuis un pied et demi a 
deux pi. de long. Les Quadrupedes que j'ay eu occasisn de voir depuis le 
lac S* Jean jusqu'au Lac Mistassin sout ; Renne dit Caribou par les 
Canadiens, Attakko par les Sauvages ; Castor Amish-Ko par les Sauvages ; 
Loutre Netchako ; Martes, Marmottes par les Canadiens Siffleux ; II y a 
des Linx, Renards, Qurs &c. et un animal tres ruse que les Canadiens 

* (Cy-dessus il y a erreur de date.) 

t This date is blotted out. C. S. S. , 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

nomment Carcajou et les sauv. KouiKouatchou qui ne court pas vite, 
mais sqait prevoir le passage du Renne, grimpe sur un arbre et se jette 
dessus. Les SauvageB me dirent que plus souvent il marche asses douce- 
rnent po. surprendre le Renne et lorsqu'il se jette dessus, il n'y a aucun 
moyen po. lui de s'en debarrasser, a nioins que le Renne ne trouve une 
Rivierre, alors le Carcajou lache sa proie. 

Je me propose de reprendre ici les Arbres et les Plantes que je remarquay 
depuis cette Contree la plus septentrionale ou j'ay penetre en Amerique et 
j'auray soin de remarquer les Parages ou chaq. espece diflerente com- 
mence a exister. Collines qui environnent le lac Mistassin ; 

Pinus abies nigra, P. Larix, P. balsamifera, P. foliis germinis ; Betula 
pumila, B. alba ; Sorbus aucuparia americana ; Cerasus corymbosus ; 
Juniperus Sabina?; Myrica gale ; Cornus Canad., Corn us (Osier rouge dcs 
Canadiens) . . . ; Rubus occidentals, Rub. arcticus, Ribes . . . , 
Ribes . . . , Ribes . . . ; Potentilla fruticosa ; Vaccinium co- 
rymbosum 10 et. ; V. (pumila) 10 etain., Vaccin. riparium 8 etam. Vaccin. 
Atoca 8 et. Vaccin. niveum 8 etam., Andromeda calyculata, And. ros- 
marinifolia ; Kalmia angustifolia, Kalm. glauca; Linnea borealis ; Sarra- 
cenia purpurea ; Bartsia pallida ; Euphrasia odontites ; Rhinantlms crista- 
galli ; Pinguicala . . . Cacalia hastata, Cacalia incana ; Vaccin. 
vitis idaea 8 etam. : Hieracium paludosum ; Pteris aquilina ; Osmunda 
regalis, Osrnunda filiculifolia. 

Les Pinus Strobus ; Thuya occidentalis ; Populus balsamifera ; Betula 
nigra ; Gaultheria procumbens ; Rubus odoratus ; Adianturn pedatum ne 
se trouvent point aux parties elevees du Canada quoique. 

Le 10 nous avons eu sur le sommet de la Montagne une Gelee blancbc 
tres forte et dans les ruisseaux, les brandies des arbrisseaux sur lesquels 
1'eau passoit etoient charges de glacjons. En arriv* de 1'autre cote sur la 
partie meridionale, la gelee avoit fait son effet, mais les Convallaria et 
autres plantes tendres etoient peu endommagees. Le Lonicera Diervilla 
commence ici et se contin. en abondance jusque vers Albany. Achillea 
rnillefolium commence ici et se trouve en Canada et rce"me sur le Lac 
Champlain. Les sauvages et moi nous avons tue neuf Poules de bois 
nominees Perdrix (Tetrao lagopus) par les Canadiens. Ces oiscaux sont 
en compagnie et volent a peu de distance sur les arbres ou ils se laissent 
tuer jusqu' au dernier. Leur nourriture est des graines de Vaccin., de 
Carex et de bourgeons de Melezes comme je 1'ay verifie. Nous avons 
rencontre deux families de Sauvages, Tune me fit present d'une gateau de 
Bluets (Vaccinium corymb. ) cuit en resine et seche ensuite . Je lui donnay 
en Echange de la farine et du Pore sale de mes Provisions et il me donna 
un second gateau. Nous avons fait environ 22 lieues ayant eu un Vent 
contraire tres fort qui empechoit de tenir le plein courant des rivierres. Le 
Soir un des Sauvages que nous avions rencontre, apporta un Ours qu'il 
venoit de prendre a un de ses Pieges. Je lui fis donner a souper dans 
1'esperance d'avoir de la viande fraiche de sa Chasse. 

1888.] O* IMichaxix. 

Le onze des le point clu jour je vis la femme du Chasseur qui se mil a 
depouiller 1'Ours et je fis inettre la Cliaudiere au feu que nous avions par- 
ticulierenient a peu de distance. En effet il m'apporta la Tte et un tres 
gros morceau de filet. II y avoit bien 8 a 9 liv. de viande, c. a. d. environ 
6 livres sans les os. Je lui fis donner deux Boiss. de farine et un morceau 
de Pore sale. Nous dejeunames de bon appetit et il ne resta que les os 
L'Interprete q. j'avois, mangeoit a peu pres autant qu'un Sauvage. Moi 
mme je mangeois trois fois plus dupuisque j'etoisau Canade q. je ne pou- 
vois faire pendant que je residois en Caroline. Malgre les fatigues de ce 
voyage et les souffrances occasionnees paries Maringoins (cousins) par les 
mousketiques (tres petites abeill. dont 1'air est rempli) et par les Brulots 
aut. petite mouche qu'on ne peut distinguer qu'un Microscope, ma sante 
s'etoit retablie entierement. Vers neuf heures nous nous sommes embar- 
ques ; nous avons descendu plusi. rapides sans faire Portage et apres avoir 
fait environ 15 li. nous sommes arrives aux Grands Rapides. Ici com- 
mence la Potentilla tridentata. Trois lieues an dessous des Larges Rap- 
ides, Ton voit des Frenes et des Orrnes. II est a remarquer que 1'on n'en 
voit aucuns depuis les Larges Rapides jusqu' a Mistassin. Quatre lieues 
au dessous des Grands Rapides je vis le l er Pinus Strobus ; car je n'avois 
pas rencontre un seul depuis cet endroit jusqu' a Mistassin tant en mon- 
tant qu'en descendant. Le Pays est montagneux depuis le Lac des Cygnes 
jusqu' aux Larges Rapides. Et ensuite jusqu' au Lac S* Jean les terres 
sont basses et Ton n'apercoit point de Montagues. 

II est tres evident q. le le Pays situe entre le Lac des Cygnes et le Lac 
Mistassin est le plus eleve, car le Lac Mistassin se decharge dans la Baye 
d' Hudson par la riv. des Nids de Goelands qui coule au N. Quest et le 
Lac des Cygnes se decharge dans le Fleuve S nt Laurent par la riv. Mistas- 
sin, par le Lac S nt Jean, par la riv. Chicoutoume et enfin par la riv. Sega- 
nay jusqu' au Tadoussack ou elle rencontre le fl. S* Laurent. C'est avec 
difficulte que je nomme Rivierre Mistassin la riv. que coule depuis le Lac 
des Cygnes jusqu' au Lac S fc Jean. J'ay fait cette observation aux Cana- 
diens qui vont trailer dans ce Pays avec Sauvages. Us m'ont dit que Ton 
croyoit autrefois que Ton pouvoit remonter cette rivierre jusqu' au lac 
Mistassin et que c'est pour cette raison qu'elle a ete ainsi nomme par les 
Missionnaires Jesuites. 

Nous avons fait environ 14 lieues et nous avons campe* aupres des pre- 
miers Pins de Weimouth (Pinus Strobus) qui se recontrent en descendant 
de Mistassin. 

Le 12 Septembre Grand vent et Pluye froide. J'ay remarque en de- 
scendant que le Pays bas est uni ; Ton ne voit point de Montagues a 
droite et a gauche de la rivierre qui a entre une lieu en demie et 2 lieues 
de large, environ 15 li. avant son embouchure dans le Lac entrecoupee de 
larges banes de sable et est peu profonde. Nous sommes arrive vers 7 
heures du soir au Poste du lac S* Jean et nous avons fait environ 15 

Le 13 j'ay herborise aux environs du Lac. J'ay fait recueillir diverses 

Michaux.] 86 [Oct ig> 

especes de graines. J'ay depouille plusi. especes d'oiseaux et des Quadru- 
pedes et je me suis prepare" a continuer mon voyage. Circea Canadensis, 
Mitella aphylla. Vu le gros Corbeau (Corvus corax) 

Le 14 Grand vent du Sud Quest ; il fut impossible d'aller au large avec 
les Canots et toute la journee j'ay employe les Sauvages a recueillir des 

Le Poste etabli sur le lac S* Jean po. la traite av. les Sauvages est situe 
au N. Guest du Lac. Le sol y est generalement sablonneux, mais il y a 
des etendues considerables de banes de Pierre calcaire. Les Pierres cal- 
caires sont disposes par couches applaties et sont qq. Ibis de Schitz. On 
y voit des Petriflcations de Coquillages niarins et de Comes d'Ainmon qui 
ne sont que tres peu en forme de comes, mais presqu' egales d 1'extremite 
a la base et de la gross, d'un doigt. II y a aussi vers le Nord des Roches 
de Quartz. (Memento : 

J'ay oublie de noter que depuis Monte a peine, les Montagnes sont 
generalement de Roches calcaires, mais il y a aussi des etendues con- 
siderables ou les Collines sont de pur sable et d'autres melees de sable et 
de Cailoux ou Pierres roulees, nommes par les Canadiens Pays d'eboule- 

Le 15 Septembre parti du Poste sur le lac S* Jean. A la distance d'une 
lieue et ^ il y a une petite Riv. qui tombe dans le Lac. (La riv. Chouamou- 
chouan tombe dans la lac exactement a 1'Ouest en couchant de Septentr. 
La riv. Mistassin tombe dans le lac a l'O-S Quest. Vu deux aut. riv. qui 
tombent dans le lac. Enfin nous arrivames le soir a la riv. . . , qui 
devoit nous conduire a Chicoutoume et nous avons campe aupres. Entin 
en cotoyant le Lac depuis 1'Est par le Sud jusqu' a 1'Ouest, il y a cinq 
grandes rivi. qui se reudent au Lac. La grande decharge se fait par la 
riv. Sagney au N. Est. Je ne sqais pas s'il y en a d'autres. 

Le Dimanche 16 quitte entierement le Lac et nous sommes venus cam- 
per a 1'extremite meridionale du Lac Sinogomie. Ce Lac n'a pas plus 
d'une demie lieue dans sa plus gr. largeur. Sa longeur est de 7 lieues. A 
1' entree de ce Lac par le Nord j'ay reinarque, Acer rubrum, Medeola 
Virginica, Cypripedium calceolaria flore rubro, mais cette derniere plante 
existe aussi sur les Collines qui avoisinent le Lac des Cygnes, ainsi elle ne 
doit pas etre considered conime commenc,ant en ce lieu. Les Montag. de 
roches qui entourrent le Lac Sinogomie sont a Pic quoique d'une mediocre 
hauteur et les bois y sont forts et fournis de grands arbres comnie dans un 
sol fertile. 

Le Lundy 17, nous sommes arrive a Chichoutourne : Plantes remarquees 
de nouveau, Polygonum aviculare, hydropiper, Lamiurn . . . , Lappa 

La distance du Lac S* Jean a Chicoutoume est evaluee a 40 lieues. 
Le 18 parti de Chicoutoume, le vent nous fut favorable et nous avions 
le reflux de la mer a notre avantage. 
Le 19 nous sommes arrives a Tadoussack. 

1888.] 87 [Michaux. 

Le 20 j'ay fait recueillir du The" de Labrador* et j'ay recueilli d'autres 
sortes de graines. 

Le 27 Septembre parti de Tadoussack. 

Le 28 arrive a la Malbaye. 

Le 29 herborise et . . . 

Le Dimanche 30 reconnu Salicornia . . . Salsola . . . Lappa 

. . . , Ranunculus . . . , Trifolium . . . , Litiiospermum 

Le l er Octobre parti sur un bateau po. Quebec. 

Le Mercredy 17 parti de Quebec et couche a la Pointe aux Trembles. 

Le 18 Octobre passe la Pointe aux Trembles, la Rivierre Jacques Quartier 
et couche a S te Anne chez M r . . . 

Le 19 Pass*e a Batiscan Trois Riv. et couche a Machicha : Juglans 
hiccory, Celastrus scandens aux Tr. Rivierres, Populus (fastigiatus?), 
aussi aux Trois Riv. ainsi que Triosteum, Ulmus, Carpinus, Quercus alba, 
Pinus Canadensis. . . . Spiraea tomentosa et Sp. opulifolia, Adiantum 
pedatum, Fagus sylvatica Americana aux Tr. Rivierres mais plus eertaine- 
inent a Berthier. Cephalanthus occidental is comm. a la riv. de 1' Assomp- 
tion. Ledura palustre se terinine vers la Rivierre I'Assomption ainsi que 
la Kalmia glauca que j'ay vu a Batiscan. 

Le 20 couche pres la Riv. I'Assomption. 

Le Dimanche 21 arrive a Montreal. 

Le 22 Octobre aux environs de Montreal, Cratsegus coccinea, Cratsegus 
lutea,f Cephalanthus occidental is. Prinos verticillatus. 

Le 24 Dine chez M. . . . Henry. 

Le 27 dine chez M r Frobicher. 

Le 28 dine chez M r John Dease. 

Le 30 dine chez M' Selby. 

Le 7 Novembre 1792 parti de Montreal et les brouillards furent si epais 
que les conducteurs perdirent le Chemin. Le Bateau echoua, sur des 
Roches ou nous avons passe* la nuit. Le Bateau faisoit de 1'eau. Mes 
Livres et une partie de mon Bagage furent mouilles. 

Le 8 passe a Longueil et arrive a la Prairie. 

Dejeune chez M. La Croix Esq. le Lendemain. 

Le 9 paye 2 Piast. po. Transporter mon Bagage a S* Jean. L'on paye 
communement une PL \ po. avoir une Caleche de S* Jean a la Prairie. 
La distance est 6 li. 

De 10 Visite le colonel Gordon et dine ayec les Officiers de la Garnison. 

* LedumC. 6. S. 

f Probably the yellow fruited variety of Cratxgus punctata, Jacq. C. S. S. 

Michanx.] [Oct. 19, 

Le Dimanclie 11 Dejeune chez le colonel Gordon. Tonte la journ. oc- 
cupe a faire secher mes Livres et mes Effets. 
Le 12 Dine avec le colonel Gordon. 

Le 13 parti et couche vis-a-vis de FIsle aux Noix 15 Miles. 
Le 14 nous avons fait 10 Miles. 

Le 15 apres 5 Miles de chemin passe devant la Ligne qui pepare le 
Canada des Etats-Unis : Cette ligne est situee a 9 Miles au Sud FIsle anx 
Noix. Passe ensuite devant la Pointe au Fer quoique sur le territoire des 
Etats-Unis et occupe par le 26 Regiment de Soldats Anglais dont est 
Commandant le Capt. Hope. 

La Pointe au Fer est a 15 M. de FIsle aux Noix et nous sommes venus 
coucher a Cumberland Head 26 Mill, de la Pointe au Fer. et 56 Miles de 
S* John. 

Le 16 Une Tempte accompagnee de neige nous obligea de sejourner. 
Le 17 Nous sommes partis de Cumberland Head et nous avons relache 
sur le territoire de FEtat de Vermont an lieu dit Shelburne : Platanus 
occid., Ceanothus Americanos. Enfin nous avons couche sur le terri- 
toire de Vermout vis-a-vis Split Roc : 39 Miles de Cumberland Head. 

Le Dimanche 18 Novembre, le Vent du Sud tres violent et contraire 
nous obligea de sejourner : Ceanothus Americ., Hippophae Canadensis, 

Le 19 nous avons dejeune a Bason Harbour 6 Miles : Passe par Crown 
point 12 Miles et nous sommes venu coucher a Ticonderoga : ?qav. 35 
Miles de Split Roc ou Rocher fendu : Pinus bifolia, Hippophae, Juniperus 

Le 20 nous avons relache" a deux endroits differens du territoire de Ver- 
mont et nous sommes venus coucher a Skenborough 'dit Whitehall. 

Le 21 et 22 sejourne a Skenborough po. secher mes Graines endom- 
mages dans le Boat sur le lac Champlain. 

Distance de Montreal a Skenborough extremite mericlionale du lac 

De Montreal a la Prairie 6 Mill. 

De la Prairie a S* Jean 18 

De S* Jean a FIsle aux Noix 15 

(De I'Isle aux Noix a la ligne de Demar- 
quation entre les Etats-Unis et le Canada 
la distance est de 9 miles) 
De FIsle aux Noix a la Pointe au Fer 15 

De la P. au Fer it Cumberland Head 24 

De Cumberland Head a Split Roc 39 

De Split Roc a Bason Harbourg 6 

De Bason Harbourg a Crown Point 12 

De Crown Point a Ticonderoga 15 

De Ticondaroga a Skensborough mainten- 
- ant nomme Whitehall 28 

Total de Montreal a Skensborough 178 

1888.] [Michaux. 

Le 23 Novembre 1792 parti de Skenboroug (dit Whitehall) et venu de- 
jeuner au Fort Ann 12 Miles. Plantes remarquees : Pinus Strobus, 
Pin. canadensis, Acer sacharinum, Alnus glauca, Liquidambar pere- 
grinum,* Acorus. . . . , &c &c Yenu coucher au Fort Edward 24 
miles de Skensborough. Entre Fort Ann et Fort Edward : Laurus Ben- 
join, Liquidambar peregrinum, Pinus foliis ternis, Pinus Strobus, Pinus 
canadensis, Andromeda racemosa, Hamamelis Virginiana. 

Le 25 Neige abondante, sejourne au Fort Edward chez le Capt Baldwin. 

Le Dimanche 25 parti et couche" a Saratoga 20 Miles : Le Fagus Cas- 
tanea americana commence vers Saratoga. 

Le 26 continue la route sur la rive opposee de Saratoga. Dejeune 
a Eastou. Cornus florida, Laurus Sassafras, Liriodendron tulip, com- 
mencent aux environs d'Easton a 10 Miles de Saratoga : Couche a Albany 
36 Miles de Saratoga. 

Total la distance de Skensborough a Albany est de 80 Miles. 

Le 27 embarque sur un Sloop au Port d' Albany sur la riv. d'Hudson po. 

Le 28 et 29 Vent contraire 

Le 30 Vent de N. Quest, relache sur la rive de la Riv. Hudson opposed a 
Poughkeepsie, le vent ayant rompu la Voile. J'allay herboriser sur les 
collines et j'ay reconnu Azalea viscosa, Kalmia latifolia qui commence vers 
cet endroit, Liriodendron tulipifera ; Juniperus Virginiana commence ici 
et Juniperus communis se termine en ces parages ; Thuya occidentals se 
termine ici quant aux situations basses, mais sur lesmontagnes il continue 
en plusi. endroits du New Jersey. Nyssa aquatica ou plutot Nyssa mon- 
tana foliis petiolis villosts commence vers Albany. Quercus . . . 
Chne chataignier commence vers Albany. 

Remarque aussi sur les rochers de la rive opposee a Poughkeepsie dix 
Miles au dessous : Arbutus (acadiensis ?) fol. integerrimis : Liquidambar 
styraciflua commence vers les hauteurs de Catskill. 

Le Samedy l er Decembre 1792 passe devant Crown Point. f 

Tariton est une petite Village situe a 32 Miles de New -York. Montag. 
sur la rive oppose"e avec un Lac. 

Le Dimanche 2 arrive* a New-York. 

De Montreal a Skensborough 178 M. 

Dud Sk. a Albany 80 

D'Alb. a New-York 164 

Total 422 

Le 6 parti de N. York. 
Le 8 arrive a Philad ie - 

Le 10 propose a plusieurs membres dela Sociele* philosophique les a van- 
tages pour les Etats-Unis d'avoir des Informations Geographiques des 

* Comptonia asplenifolia, Gsert. C. S. S. 
t No doubt a slip for West Point. C. S. S. 


Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Pays de 1'Ouest du Mississipi et deinande qu'ils ayent a endosser mes 
traites pour la somme de 3600 lb -, moyennant cette somme je suis dispose a 
voyager aux Sources du Missouri et meme rechercher les rivierres qui 
coulent vers 1'Ocean Pacifique. 

Ma proposition ayant ete accept ee, j'ay donne a M. Jefferson, secretaire 
d'Etat, les Conditions auxquels je suis dispose a entreprendre ce voyage. Par 
ces Conditions, je n'entends pas accepter les Cinq Mille Piastres rnontant 
de la Souscription forme'e par les Membres de la Societe Philosophique 
mais seulem* une Avance de 3600 lb - mentiouee cy devant, dont le rem- 
boursement sera fait sur les Appointemens qui me sont dus. J'offre de 
de communiquer toutes les Connoissances et Informations Geographiques 
a la Societe Philosophiq. et je reserve a mon profit toutes les Couuaissances 
en Histoire Naturelle que j'acquereray dans de voyage. 

Le 20 Janvier 1793 j'ay communique a M r Jefferson les conditions sur 
lesquelles je suis dispose a entrepreudre le voyage a 1'Ouest du Mississipi. 

Le 29 Janvier j'ay fait un Envoy des Graines du Canada. Par le dit 
envoy dud. 29 Janvier j'ay adresse des Oiseaux, des Quadrupedes & c & c 
des Insectes et des Plantes. 

Le 10 Fev. Envoy par la Roch des PI. fraiches du Canada. 

Le 18 Fevrier annonce la traite de 1200 lb - en ecrivant a mon fils par le 
Paquebot le Suffrein. 

Le 29 Fevrier ecrit au Dr. Afzelius par le Baron De Nolken a Lond. 

Le 2 Mars ecrit a mon fils. 

Le l er Avril ecrit de New-Vork a Louis Bosc et a mon fils : Envoye 
Oiseaux, Ecureuils, Insectes, Graines, Echantill. de Plantes &c &c. 

Le 24 Avril envoye par le Hav. de Grace une Boite d'Insect. Echantill. 
du Panax &c. 

Le 30 Avril communique a la societe Philosophique les motifs sur les- 
quels je suis dispose* a entreprendre le Voyage a 1'Ouest du Mississipi. 

(Le 10 May Envoye a Bosc des Insectes maisl'Envoy n'est parti que le 9 
Juin suivant.) 

Le 29 May ecrit a M de Desaint. 

Le 9 Juin envo} e" des Insectes a Louis Bosc (ces deux envois ne font 

Le . . . May arrive a Philadelphie, Le Citoyen Genet Minist. Pleni- 
potentaire de la Republiqne francaise. 

Le 18 May communique au Citoyen Genet un Memoire d' Observations 
sur les Colonies Franchises dans 1'Ameriq Septen., sur la Louisiane, sur 
les Illinois et sur le Canada. 

Le 22 May remis un Memoire abrege de mes voyages dans 1'Ameriq. 

Le .* . . Juin 1793 remis un Etat des sommes touche"es et de mes D6- 
penses depuis mon depart de France pour I'Ameriq Septentrionale. 

1883.] [Michaux. 

Le . . . consulle et confeie* avec le Citoyen Genet sur ina mission au 

Le 22. 23. 24. 25 et 26 Juin prepare au voyage du Kentuckey. 

Lettres de recommandation po. H. H. Brackenridge Esq. at Pittsburgh ; 
Po. Major Isaac Craig, du Major S n Stagg. Po. Captain John Pratt Com- 
manding of Troops on their march to the western Frontiers. Po. Brigad. 
Gen 1 Geo. Rogers Clark. Po. Isaac Shelby Esq. Governor of the State of 
Kentuckey, po. Alex r D. Orr Esq. near Limestone, Dr. Adam Rankin, 
Danville : James Brown Esq. Lexington. 

Le l er Juillet emballe mes effets. 

Lett, de recommandatious Po. Thorn. B. Craighead Sprinhill. Po. James 
Brown, Lexington. Doct. Adam Rankin, Danville. Col nel Alex. D. Orr, 
near Limestone. Maj. Gen. Benjamin Logan, Lincoln county. James Speed 
Jun r Danville. Gen. Clark. Louisville. Joseph Simpson Lexington. 
Gouver r Shelby Esq. Gov r & Brigad. Gen. James Wilkinson. 

M r Robert ni'a recommande de voir M r Tardibeau a Kaskakia de sa 

Le 15 Juillet 1793 j'ai pris conge du Citoyen Genet, Ministre de la Re- 
publique de France pres les Etats-Unis et je partis de Philadelphie le meme 
jour a dix heures du soir pour eviter les chaleurs trop considerables et 
voyager au clair de la Lune. 

Le 16 etant en compagnie de . . . humeau et de . . . Leblanc 
nous avons fait 40 miles. 

Le 17 passe par Lancaster et nous avons fait 35 Miles. 

Le 18 passe par Carlisle, . . . M. et couche a Chipesbourg. 

Le 19 nous vinmes coucher a Strasbourg . . . Miles. 

Le Dimanche 20, parti de Strasbourg, petite ville situee au pied des 
Montagnes ; un de nos chevaux etant inalade, nous avons seulement fait 
21 Miles : observe Magnolia acuminata, Azalea octandra, Kalmia latifolia, 
Fagus castanea, Fag. pumila, Pinus 2-folia, 3 folia, Strobus : Abies cana- 
densis ; Quercus castaneaefolio &c Juglans nigra. 

Le 21 Juillet parti de Wells tavern, passe la rivierre Juniata .... 
et observe Rhododendron maximum, Hydrangea frutescens, Trillium 
erectum ; couche a Bedford. 21 Miles. 

Le 22 parti de Bedford et clejeune a 4 miles de distance ou la Route de 
Pittsburg se divise en deux. Nous avons pris la route a main droite et la 
Pluye nous a oblige d'anter et de coucher a douze M. seulem* de Bed- 

Le 23 nous avons fait 24 M. et passe au sommet des Allegany. 

Le 24 nous avons fait 25 M. 

Le 25 nous avons passe par Green'sburgh et nous avons fait 31 M. 

Le 26 Pluye, nous n'avons fait que . . . M. 

Le 27 nous avons fait 19 Milles et nous arrivames a Pittsburgh. 

Total 32* Miles de Philadelphie. 

Le 28 visite M. H. Brackenridge Esq. 

* Evident error ; perhaps 320 was intended. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Le 29 herborise ; reconnu sur Ics rives du Mononga . , Draco- 

cephalum Virginianum,* Bignonia radicans, Crotalaria alba? Ces plantes 
croissent sur les bords de la rivierre submerges lorsque les eaux sont 

Le 30 dud. reconnu une Plante du Genre Zizipliora . . . Cunila 
pulegioidesf floribus tetrandris ; Teucrium Canadense, Eupatoriuni aro- 
mat., Sigesbeckia . . . ; Verbenae plurae species. 

Le l er Aoust, herborise et reconnu Cassia Marylandica ; Monarda 
didyma ; Sanicula Marylandica ; Triosteum perfoliatum ; Sicyos angu- 
lata ; Acer rubrum, saccharum : Campanula, . . . ; Cercis Canaden- 
sis ; Menispermum Canadens. ; Actaea spicata ; Tilia Americana ; Urtica 
divaricata ; Arum triphyllum ; Celtis occidentals ; Panax quinquefolium; 
Staphylea trifoliata ; Azarum Canadense ; Rhus typhina, glabra, vernix, 
copallinum, radicans, toxicodendron ; Clinopodium vulgare, incanum. 

Le 2 Aoust reconnu Aristolochia sipho seu macrophylla; Panax quinque- 
folium ; Lobelia siphilitica ; Convallaria plures species : Veronica ... 
Oxalis stricta. 

Le 3 et 4 Aoust herborise : Cacalia 2 especes, Phryma leptostachia ; 
Leontice thalictroid. ; Lobelia siphilitica, inflata, cardinalis ; Eupatorium 
perfoliatum, maculatum, odoratum et celestinum ; Actea spicata ; Podo- 
phyllum peltatum ; Azarum Canadense ; Hydrophyllum Canadense ; 
Trillium cernuum ; Panax quinq. fol. ; Aristolochia Sipho ; Menispermum 
. . . ; Sambucus Canadensis fructu nigro ; Sambucus . . . , fructu 
rubro foliis tomentosis ; Tilia Americana ; Laurus Sassafras, benzoin ; 
Robinia pseudocacia, Juglans oblouga, Jugl. hiccory ; Platanus occiden- 
talis : Acer rubrum, saccharum ; Ulmus . . . ; Hamamelis . . . , 
Cynoglossum 3 especes ; Vitis vulpina ; Dioscorea fructu infero ; Teu- 
crium Canad. ; Scrophularia Marylandica; Dracocephalum Yirg. ; Dian- 
thera . . . , Sophora foliis ternis stipulis lato-lanceolatis florib. coeru. 
leis vexillo corolla breviore ; Mimulus ringens ; Bignonia radicans ; Cercis 
Canadensis ; Fagus sylvatica Americana ; Circaea Canadensis ; Urtica 
inermis ; Erigeron Canadense ; Cornus florida ; Rubus odorata, Rub. occi- 
dentalis : Penthoruni sedoides ; Cephalanthus occidentalis ; Polygonuni 
aviculare, hyclropiper, amphibium, scandens ; Sanguiuaria Canadensis. 

Le 6 Aoust sur la rive de la rivierre Monongahela opposee a Pittsburgh 
vu une mine de Charbon de terre, dont 1'entree paroit avoir 15 pieds 
d'epaisseur de ce mineral sans melange ; quelquefois on distingue entre 
les differentes couches une teinte ferrugineuse. Dans plusieurs eudroits, 
on trouve des roches tendres qui paroissent bonnes pour pierre a repasser 
les gros instruments ; leur nature me paroit etre une reunion de particules 
sablonneuses, argilleuses, ferrugineuses avec des parcelles de mica tres 

Le sol est generalement aux environs de Pittsburgh argilleux et les 

* Physostegia Virginlana, Benth. C. S. S. 
t Hedeoma pulegioides, Pers C. S. S. 

1888.] [Michaux. 

pierres au roches calcaires d'une couleur brune, e"tant composees de beau- 
coup d'argile vaseuse. Le sol entre les deux rivierres sur lequel Pitts- 
burgh est bati, est un sol d'alluvion ; Ton trouve mme dans les terres 
retirees pour creuser des puits a plus de 30 pi. de profondeur des pierres 
arrondies et usees par le roulis des torrens. 

Le 9 Aoust prepare a partir, le conducteur du Boat sur lequel j'avois 
embarque mon bagage vint me dire qu'il attendroit les Boats destines a 
transporter les trouppes, d'autant plus que le Boat paroissaut trop charge 
pour cette Saison dans laquelle les Eaux sont basses ; il y avoit apparence 
de Pluyes. 

Le 10 la rivierre parut diminuer. 

Le 11, le 12 et 13 nous restames en attendant le depart. 

Le 13 il arriva trois Boats des Illinois appartenant a M. Vigo. Us 
etoient conduits par environ 30 Francois Canadiens ou Illinois rameurs. 

Un Francjois resident en Amerique dep. 14 ans. charge" d'envoyer des 
provisions de farine a la N e Orleans me dit qu'il me douneroit des Lettres 
po. les Illinois adressees au Commandant du Poste de S nt Louis. II est 
actuellement etabli a Pittsbourgh et il se nomme Andrain. Ce nomme 
Andrain est dit-on associe avec un nomme Louisiere ou Delousiere expatrie 
de France po. avoir etc* connu dans le-complot de livrer le Havre aux 
flottes reunies Angloises et Espagnoles. Ce Louisiere est actuellement 
absent de Pittsburgh. II y a un autre Francois resident a Pittsb. M. 
Lucas de Pentareau excellent Democrate actuellement absent. II passe 
pour un homme instruit [qui] possede la connoissance des Loix. 

Pittsburgh est sit ueau confluent des deux rivierres Monongahela et Alle- 
gany. Ces deux rivierres jointes ensemble forment 1'Ohio ou la Belle 
Rivierre. II y a un beaucoup plus grand nombre de maisons sur la rivi- 
erre Monongahela que sur celle Allegany. Le nombre des rnaisons est 
d'environ 250 et tous les ans il augmente considerablement. L'on y voit 
encore les fosses qui servoient de retranchement au Fort bati par les Fran (j :>5s 
nomme Fort Duquesne. Les Anglois depuis y en avoient bati un autre 
presqu. a cote sur Tangle forme par la jonction des deux rivierres. II avoit 
ete construit en briques et les Americains le font demolir po. employer les 
briq. a la construction des Maisons que Ton batit journellement au Fort 

Les Americains ont un Fort de Palisades situe" derriere la ville sur la rive 
de la Rivierre Allegany ; il sert de Depot pour 1'arrivee des trouppes que 
Ton envoye centre les Sauvagcs ctde Magazin pour les Munitions que Ton 
y envoye de Philadelphie. 

Le Mercredy 14 Aoust, parti de Pittsbourgh et couche seulement a deux 
miles de distance a la pointe d'une petite isle sur la quelle j'ay reconnu 
Acer negundo, rubrum, saccharum ; Evonimus capsulis glabris.* 

Le 15 reconnu a 20 Miles de Pittsb. Pavia lutea, Panax quinquefolium; 

* E. atropurpureus, Jacq.C. S. S. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Un Bryonia* planta monoica calyce 5-fido, corolla 5-partita florib. mascu- 
lis spicatis axillarib. florib. femineis quoque axillarib. genuine instructo 
spinis innocuis. 

Notre course fut de 28 Miles. 

Le 16 passe a 7 keures du matin la ligne qui separe la Pensylvanie de la 
Virginie. Cette ligne est marquee par des arbres coupes de la largeur 
d'environ . . . pieds a droite et a gauche de 1'Ohio ou la belle Rivi- 
erre et cet endroit est a 45 miles de Pittsbourgh. Le me me jour arrive au 
soir a Buffalo Creek. 79 Miles de Pittsburgh. 

Le 17 passe par Willing, 92 M. de Pittsb. cet endroit est habile par envi- 
ron 12 families, ainsi que Buffalo Creek. A cause du vent coutraire, nous 
avons seulement voyage 30 M. 

Le Dimanche 18 Aoust 1793, vu plusieurs trouppes de Dindes sauvages: 
le vent contraire. 

Le 19 nous avons faits 50 Miles. II y a pas d'etablissemens entre Will- 
ing et Marietta, petit Bourg situe a 1'embouchure de Muskingum riv. 
Nous avons couche au lieu nomine" le Fort Harmar, situe vis a vis Marietta 
sur la rive droite de la riv. Muskingum. Dianthera americana. 

Le 20 nous y avons passo la journee. 

Le 21, nous avons passe par Little Kanhaway, Belpre et Belleville 34 

Le 22 nous n'avons vu aucun etablissement. Reconnu Polymnia cana- 
densis : Acer rubrum foliis in feme glaucis ; Acer negundo, Acer saccha- 
rum, Acer foliis rugosis nervis sublanuginosis ; Annona triloba, Pavia 
lutea, Platanus occid. 

Le 23 passe par Great Kannaway, situe a 4 Milles avant d'arriver a 
Galliapolis sur la rive opposee. 

Le 23 nous avons arrivames a 1'Etablissement de Galliapolis situe sur la 
rive gauche de la Belle rivierre. Les maisons sont toutes construites de 
charpentes equarries et seulement entaillees par les extremites au lieu de 
Mortaises. (Leg-house) 

Le 24 sejourne, rendu visite au medecin Petit. II rn'inspira le plus grand 
respect par son esprit, par son scjavoir et sa vertu. II me parut que 1'hu- 
nianite est le seul motif qui le retient attache a cette malheureusc colouie. 
Du nombre de 600 personnes venues po. s'y etablir il en restoit envi- 
ron 150. 

Le Dimanche 25 parti de Galliapolis ; a 35 Miles, reconnu Iresine 
celosioides sur les rives de la belle rivierre aux rives submergees par les 
grandes innondations : Pas"e une petite rivierre nominee Gay. Nous 
n'avons pas vu d'habitations : 40 Miles. 

Le 26, nous n'avons pas vu d'habitations; passe la rivierre Scioto, 
. . . Miles. 

* This is probably his Sicyos lobata (Echinocystis lobata of Torr. & Gray) which, accord- 
ing to the* Flora, was detected by Michaux "in occidentalibus Pensylvanix, juxta fluvium 
Ohio." The " corollj, 5. partita " is retained by Richard in his description. C. 8. S. 

1888.] 95 tMichaux. 

Le 27, vu un Etablissement de plusieurs maisons au lieu dit Three 
Islands, dix miles avant d'arriver a Lime Stone : ces Etablissements sont 
reputes les premiers dependant du Kentuckey. Nous arrivames vers le 
soir a Lime Stone. 

Limestone est repute le Port du Kentuckey (Landing-place). L'on y 
debarque les marchandises qui sont envoyees de Philad po. Danville, 
Lexington &c. Une petite ville etablie depuis six ans a 4 Miles de dis- 
tance sur la route de Lexington, se nomme Washington et est deja tres 
florissante, etant situee dans un terrain tres fertile. 

Le 28, visite le Colonel Alexandre D. Orr. 

Le 29 j'ay quitte les deux Compagnons qu j'avois eu depuis Philad. 
Us continuerent leur route pour aller jusqu' a Louisville et je m'acheminay 
par I'interieur des Etablissements. Le Colonel D. Orr m'offrit sa Com- 
pagnie po. aller avec lui a Lexington, ou il se proposoit d'aller dans pen 
de jours. 

Les 30 et 31 herborise en attendant que Ton put avoir des chevaux po. 
le voyage de Lexington. Guilandina dioica ; Fraxinus (quadrangularis) ; 
Gleditsia triacanthos ; Serratula praealta ; Eupatorium aromaticum, Cre- 
pis Sibirica ? &c. 

Le Dimanche l er Septembre 1793, Dine chez le Colonel Lee. 

Le 2 dine chez . . . Fox et dispose mon baggage po. le depart. 

Le 3 le voyage fut remis au Lendemain : Le sol aux environs de Wash- 
ington est argilleux et noiratre tres riche ; Les pierres sont de Substance 
calcaire bleuatre obscure, remplies de petrifactions, de coquillages marins. 
Les ossemens de ces animaux monstrueux que Ton avoit imagine estre 
d'Elephants se trouvent dans les environs, II est a presumer que ces 
ossemens ont appartenu a des Individus marins, par la grande abondance 
des debris des corps marins qui se trouvent reunis dans ces lieux. 

Le 4 parti de Washington ; passe par un lieu dont le sol abonde en sub- 
stances salines et ou les Bufialos se rendoient en abondance pour lecher 
les particules de Sel qui s'exhalent continuellement a la surface du Sol. 
II y a en cet endroit des fontaines dont 1'eau est acre, putrefiee, noiratre 
ct remplie d'air mephitique qui se degage au moindre mouvement du sol 
par les bulbes qui paroissent a la surface de cette fontaine en approchant. 
Les habitans des environs y 6tablissent des fourneaux et des chaudiercs 
pour en retirer du Sel par 1'ebullition des eaux. Nous avons fait 33 Miles. 

Le 5 nous avons fait 27 miles et nous sommes arrives de bonne heure a 
Lexington principale ville des Etablissemens et de 1'Etat de Kentuckey. 
Nous avons passe par un petit Etablissement, repute ville nominee Paris, 
capitale du comte (county) de Bourbon : II y a environ 18 maisons II y 
a des Etablissements de campagne au long de la route et les voyageurs 
vont actuellem 1 sans danger de Lime Stone jusqu' a Lexington eloigne de 
Soixante six miles d'une place a 1'autre. 66 Miles. 

Le 6 visite deux personnes residant a Lexington pour qui j'etois muni 
de Lettres de recommandation. 

Le 7 herborise , 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Le Dimanche 8 Septembre oblige de sejourner n'ayant pas trouve un 
Clieval a louer. 

Le 9 parti de Lexington, traverse des parties de bois entremelees de 
Plantations tres ecartees. Passe la rivierre Kentuckey, dont les deux 
bords sont resserres tres etroitement, lorsque les eaux sont basses il y a 
plus be 100 pieds de hauteur du bord de cette riv. au haut des terrains 
qui la bordent et au travers desquels elle coule ; Ton me dit qu' elle 
s'eleve dans le temps des inondations a la hauteur de 40 pieds en un jour. 
Lorsque Ton y arrive Ton croiroit eire entre deux rangs de Montagnes 
tres escarpe*es, mais dans le fait ce n'est qu'un torrent ou une rivierre 
dont le Lit est tres profondement ereuse. Les rochers des bords sont de 
substance calcaires. Plusi. arbustes et Plantes naturelles a la Caroline 
s'y trouvent a 1'exposition nieridionale garantie et preserves du froid par 
la situation favorable de cette grande profondeur de la rivierre. 

Le 10 arrive a Danville et visite plusieurs personnes po. les quelles 
j'avois des Lettres : Le Colonel Barbee &c., Peter Tardivau Capit. homme 
d'esprit &c &c. 

Le 11, visite le General Benjam. Logan dont 1'habitation est situee a 12 
Milles de Danville ; Confidence de la Commission dont j'ay ete charge : 
II me dit qu'il seroit charme de prendre part a cette enterprise, mais qu'il 
avoit recu depuis q. ques jo. une Lettre de J. Brown par laquelle on lui 
niandoit qu'il y a des negociations entamees avec les E. V. et les Esp. 
concernant la navigation du Mississipi et les Ind Creeks : Q'un messager 
avoit etc" env. a Madrid et qu'avant le retour au l er Decemb. prochain, 
ceux des E. Vins qui entreprendroient d'agir hostilement centre les Esp. 
seroient desapprouves par le Gouvernement federal ; Qu'il devoit partir le 
lendemain po. aller a son Etablissernent de Boulskiue Creek et qu' apres 
q. j'aurois confere av. le Gen. Clark, il esperoit qu'il lui feroit par des 
communications que je lui aurois fait po. en conferer de nouveau tous 
ensemble, &c &c. 

Le 12 revenu a Danville. 

Le 13 Visite (son Excellence) le Gouverneur de 1'Etat de Kentuckey, 
Isaac Shelby : visite les collines dittes Knob Licks : Vu plusieurs Plantes, 
particulier nt aux parties salees qui se trouvent enclavees dans 1'interieur 
du territoire du Kentuckey. Andromeda arborea, 

Le 14 parti de Danville po. Louisville, loge chez Cumberland a 19 M. de 

Le Dimanche 15 Septembre 1793, a 22 Miles de Danville, trouve une 
sorte de Tragia, Plante rnonoique et fructification a la maniere des Euphor- 
bies. Un peu avant d'arriver a Beardstown reconnu les roches et les 
pierres de substance calcaire et ayant toutes les formes de Madrepores. 
Le haut des Montagnes [collines] que Ton traverse 3 a 4 Miles avant d'ar- 
river a Beardstown sont entierement de ces madrepores petrifies. Reconnu 
beaucoup de Plantes qui ne se trouvent pas ailleurs, Fagara de 1'Etat de 
New-York ; Rhamnus (Carolinian) et Rhamnus . . . &c. &c. Les 

18 3S.] < [Michaux. 

environs sont tres interessants a etre visile par un Botaniste. Dine a, 
Beardstown et couche a 6 Miles plus loin. 31 Miles. ~ 

Depuis Beardstown, le pays n'est nullement interess* po. un Botan. 
jusqu' a Louisville. 

Le 16 arrive a Louisville ayant voyage par la nouvelle route. 29 Miles. 
En total 79 M. de Danville. 

Le 17 Septembre visite le Gen. Clarke. Je lui remis les Lettres du 
Ministre et je lui annoncjais 1'objet de ma Mission : II me repondit que 
T Enterprise en question lui tenoit fort a coeur, mais que depuis si long 
tumps qu'il avoit ecrit, n'en ayant point regu de reponse, il 1'avoit consid- 
eree conime abandondee. Je lui dis que sa Lettre etoit tombee dans des 
mains etrangeres et que le Ministre ne 1'avoit re<jue qu' indirectement apres 
son arrivee a Philadelphie. II me dit, qu'une nouvelle circonst. parois- 
soit y mettre obstacle. 

Le 18 sejourne a Louisville et herborise. 

Le 19 returne visitor le Gen. Clarke. 

Le 20 parti de Louisville, passe cliez le Gen. Clarke, venu coucher pres 
de Salt river. 

Le 21 passe par Beardstown. Evonimus rainulis quadrangulis capsulis 

Le Dimanche 22 sep bre arrive de nouveau a Danville a 5 heures du soir: 
Ecrit au Ministre Genet le m@me jour par la Poste de Philad 8 - 

Le 23 je me suis repose. 

Le 24 parti pour Lexington et couche au passage de Kentuckey river. 

Le 25 je me suis aperqu que mon cheval etoit egare ayant couche dans 
une auberge ou il n'y avoit pas d'Ecurie, le cheval avoit saute par dessus 
la cloture et j'ay passe toute la journee a le chercher. 

Pendant ce temps j'ay remarque sur les plages sablonneuses : Iresine 
celosioides ; Mollugo verticillata ; Sur les rochers ; Heuchera Americana ; 
Asplenium rhyzoph. ; Pteris nova ; Parietaria ; Hydrangea 

arborescens. Sur les montagnes calcaires : Serratula 2 especes inconnues; 
Cupliea viscosa ; Didynamia gymnosperma novum genus ; Didym. angi- 
osperma uov. genus. Sur la bord de la rivierre Dickson, Dirca palustris ; 
Sophora florib. coeruleis. Dans les forets ombrag. &c Acer fol. argenteis 
an rubrum?, Acer saccharurn ; Fraxinus fol. subintegris, Fraxinus foliolis 
serratis ramis quadrangularis, Gleditsia triacanthos ; Guilandina dioica, 
Robinia pseudo-acacia ; Evonimus ramulis subrotundis, capsulis laevibus. 
Le 26 Septembre 1793, Pluye toute la journee ; couche a une mile de 
Kentuckey river, chez . . . Hogan qui cut 1'honnetete de me pigter 
un cheval sans interest po. aller a la recherche du mien. 

Le 27 arrive" a Lexington eloignee seulement de 20 Miles du passage de 
la rivierre Kentuckey dit Hickman jonction. 
Le 5 Octobre parti de Lexington. 

* E. Amerieanus, L. C. S. S. 

PROC. AMER. rnrLos soc. xxvi. 129. M. PRINTED MARCH 16, 1S89 

Michanx.] [Oct. 19, 

Le Dimanche 6 dudit arrive a Danville. Le mme jour crit au Citoyen 
Ministre Genet. 

Le 7 loge chez Puvit et rec,u mon baggage. 

Le 10 Envoye un Messager a Louisville. 

Le 13 Dimanche retourne a Lexington et revenu le Dimanche 20 a Dan- 
rille. N'ayant pas rec,u la reponse du general Clark, je n'ay pas pu pro- 
fiter de la Poste pour ecrire au Ministre a Philad*- 

Le 21 rec,u la reponse du General Clark. 

CAHIER 8. 1793, 1794 ET 1795. 

Le 10 Novembre 1793, L'an 2 e de la Republique Franchise, parti de 
Danville pour Philadelphie apres avoir visite le Colonel George Nicholas 
Esq. pres Danville. II insista sur le plan qu'il m'avoit propose le jo. pre- 
ce"dent relativem* a la Navigation du Mississipi, Se^av : Que les Forces 
Marines de la Republique s'emparant de TEmbouchure du Mississipi, 
deelarassent le Pays leur appartenant a droit de ConquSte et invitassent 
les Americains du Pays de 1'Ouest a profiler de la liberte" de la Naviga- 
tion : Alors si les Espagnols situes plus haut sur le fleuve molestoient les 
Batimens de provisions transporters par les Americains, ceux-ci seroient en 
droit de repousser la Contrainte et la force par la force. Ainsi le Gouv. 
Esp. n'auroit pas sujet de plainte contre les Etats Unis d'avoir rompu, le 
pays e*tant repute* en possession de la Republique Franchise. 

Couche" a Crab orchard distant de Danville de 22 Miles. 

Le 11 Novembre 1793 parti de Crab Orchard en compagnie de 12 pers. 
qui s'etoient re"unies en cet endroit pour traverser les Bois inhabited et 
frequentes par les Sauvages. L'espace depuis Crab- Orchard jusqu'a 
Houlston settlement est de 130 Mil. et se nomme Les Wilderness. Couche 
a Longford Station. 10 M. 

Le 12 couche a Modnell St. 28 M. 

Le 13 couche a Middleton St. 28 M. 

Le 14 traverse* des endroits bas, mar^cageux dont 1'eau 6toit brune et 
stagnante. A 6 miles du Poste Middleton et 18 miles avant d'arriver au 
haut de Cumberland Gap, vu une fougere grimpante qui occupoit plus de 
six acres de superficie du terrain pres de la route.* A cette saison ou la 
Gelee avoit produit de la ^lace de 3 a 4 lignes d'e"poisseur, cette plante 
n'avoit nullement ete endommage's. Dans le territoire il y a deux endroits 
designes Tun par Flat Mck et 1'autre par Stinking Creek. 

Vu autour d'une Charogne de Cerf le . . . Corbeau (Corvus corax. ) 
Davissas stat. 2 miles au . . .f Cumberland Gap 26 Miles. 

Le 15 Novembre voyage des parties de Montagues tres eleve*es entre les 


* Lygodium palmatum, Swz. C. S. S. 

t Three words are here frayed away in the manuscript of the Journal. C. S. S. 

1888.] [Michaux. 

quelles nous avons traverse Clinch river et couche" a Houlston St. cliez le 
nomine* . . . 27 Miles. 

Le 16 cotoye Houlston river et couche chez. . . . Amis Esq. a trois M. 
au de Hawkin Court house, 26 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 17 la Pluye m'obligea de rester dans une petite Cabane 
pres de North fork de Houlston 25 Miles. 

Le 18 mon Cheval se trouva si fatigue de la rapidite et des mauvais 
chemins a travers les Wilderness que je fus oblige d'anSter apres 
onze Miles de Marche seulement, 11 Miles. 

Le 19 parti a la pointe du jour. Au pied de la maison ou je logeai, la 
route du Keutuckey se divise, 1'une a droite conduit a Burke court house, 
dans la Caroline Septentrionale passant par Mouth of Wataga river ; 
1'autre conduit a Abington court h. premiere ville de Virginie. Mon che- 
val continuant d'etre fatigue je fis seulement 20 miles. 

Le 20 j'ay fait 15 Miles, arrive a Abington. 

Le 21 couche a 22 Miles d' Abington pres de Seven Miles Ford: Branche 
du milieu de Houlston. 

Le 22 Novemb. 1793 traverse Seven Miles ford : La riv. Holston est 
formee de trois Branches princip. sqav. North fork, Seven Miles fork et 
South fork of Holston riv. 

Dans 1'espace de six miles apr. avoir passe cette petite riv., observe sur 
les Collines septentrionales qui borde-nt plusi. petites riv. le Pinus abies 
canadensis, Thuya occidentalis, Rhododendron maximum et aussi Magnolia 
acuminata dans les parties d'un sol tres riche : Fagus chinquapin ; sol 
argilleux, roches Quartz ferrugineux, Ardoizes rares et Pierres calcaires 
entre veinees q.q. fois de Quartz blanc : Ecureuil gris : (oublie de faire 
mention que en passant a Abington vu une Tortue de 8 pouces de diametre 
petritiee de substance calcaire noire comme les Roches qui abondent dans 
le territoire). Notre journee fut de 23 miles. 

Le 23 Novembre couche chez un Allemand. Pendant la nuit mes che- 
vaux ont ete egares : entre Abington et With Court house entre les Mon- 
tagnes, Abies canadensis et Thuya occidentalis. 

Le Dimanche 24, passe" par With Court hou'se et a 18 Miles environ dans 
les Montagues escarpees, remarque Pinus Strobus, Pinus fol. ternis (pitch 
pine), P. foliis gerainis . . . , P. abies canadensis. Rhodod. maximum. 
Kalm. latifolia, Gaultheria procumbens, Epigea repens : Lieux plus arides, 
Fagus chinquapin, Fagus castanea americana, Fag. sylvatica am., Andro- 
meda arborea, Hypericurn Kalin. Dans les rochers humides ou arroses 
par les ruisseaux : Roches de silex et memo Agate un peu transpa- 

De Seven Miles ford a With Court h. 36 M. 

Le 25 passe par le ferry nomine Peper's ferry sur New River et 
ensuite traverse du cote Occidental sur le cote Oriental de Alleganies ; 
couche sur une branche de James river nominee Catawba qui cqule de 
1'Est au lieu que New River [qui] coule a 1'Ouest des Montagnes. 

Le 26 continue ina route vers Botetort Court-house 30 miles. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Le 27 passe" par Botetort Court-h. et par la Branche meridionale de 
James river a 12 miles de Botetort. 

Le 28 passe" par Lexington a 40 M. de distance de Botetort et par 
la Branche septentrionale de James river a un Mille de Lexington, Thuya 
occidentalis, Pinus Strobus. 

Le 29 Novembre, sejourne a la maison de MacDowall, mon cheval 
ayant la jambe enflee au point de ne pouvoir marcher. 

Le 30 marche 27 miles. 

Le Dimanche premier Decembre 1793 passe par Stanton, petite ville 
asses florissante situee a 120 M. de Richemont et 75 Miles de Botetort. 

Le 2 passe par Rockyham ou Rockytown 20 miles de distance de 

Le 3 passe par Woodstock autre petite ville a 37 M. de Rockytown. 
Entre Stanton et Woodstock le terrain est montagneux, le sol asses fer- 
tile, substance argilleuse et pierres calcaires nominees Blue lime stone : 
Quercus rubra, alba ; Fagus chinquapin et Pinus foliis geminis, conis 
squamis rigidis et aculeatis. A trois miles avant d'arriver a cette ville sur 
au Nord d'une Colliue sur la route, Thuya occidentalis: Pinus fol. geminis: 
Junip. Virginiana. 

Le 4 parti de Woodstock, passe par Newtown. 

Le 5 passe par Winchester, 35 Miles de Woodstock, nominee cy devant 

Le 6 passe par Charlestown 22 M. de Winchester. Passe par Harspur 
ferry sur Potomack river 8 miles de Charleston et entre en Maryland. 

Le 7 passe par Fredericktown 20 M. du (Potomack river) ferry Harspur 
et 50 miles de Winchester. 

Le Dimanche 8 passe par Woodberry et Little town 35 M. de Freder- 

Le 9 passe par Hanover cy dev* MacAllister town 42 M. de Frederick- 
town et par Yorktown 18 M. de MacAllistertown actuellement Hanover 

Le 10 passe par Susquehanna river et entre en Pensylvanie onze miles 
de Yorktown. Passe a Lancaster 12 miles de Harris ferry sur Susque- 
hanna river et 24 miles de York. 

Le onze Decembre 1793 voyage 30 Miles. 

Le jeudy 12, arrive a Philadelphie 66 miles de Lancaster. 

Le 13 visile le Citoyen Genet, Ministre Plenipotentiaire de la Republique 

Le 14 Visite M r Jefferson, M r Rittenhouse & ... 

Le 15 Dimanche ; Recapitulation de la route sqavoir : 

De Danville a Lincoln 12 miles 

De Lincoln a Crab Orchard 10 

De C. a Langford station 10 

De Langford a Modrell St. 28 

60 M. 

1888.] [Michaux. 

Suite 60 M. 
M. a Middleton St. 28 
M. a Cumberland Gap 24 
Cumb. a Davissess St. 2 
D. a Houlston 27 
H. a Hawkin C. house 22 
Hawkin a ... Amis 3 
Amis a K fork of Houlston 25 
K. fork a la fourche de la Caroline 31 
De la fourche a Abington Devant Washing- 
ton Court House en Virginie 15 
D'Abington a Seven M. fond ^ gQ # 
De seven Miles fond a With court house J 
De With C.h. a Peper ferry 33 
De Peper ferry a Botetout C.h. 50 
De Boteton a James River south fork 12 
De James riv. S. fork a Lexington 28 
De Lex. a Stanton 35 
De Stanton a Rocky town 20 
Dy Rockyhain a Woodstock 37 
De Woodstock a Winchester 35 
De W a Charleston 22 
De Ch. a Harpur ferry ou Potomack 8 
Du Potomack a Fredericktown 20 
De Freder. a Littletown 35 
De L. a Hanover cy-dev. MacAlister 7 
De Hanover a York town 18 
De York a Susquehanna Harris ferry 11 
De Susquehanna a Lancaster 12 
De Lancaster a Philadelphie 66 

Total 746 M. 
De Danville a Lexington 33 M. 
De Danville a Louisville 84 " 

Le 16 Dimanche 1793 dine" chez le Ministre Genet. 
Le 17 Envoye* mes chevaux chez Bartram. 
Le 18 visite le D r Colin, ministre de 1'Eglise Suedoise. 
Le 19 visite M r Peale gardien du Museum. 
Le 20 de'pouille' plusieurs <5cureuils. 
Le 21 change" de logement. 
Le 22 Dimanche re*dige* mes Comptes. 
Le 23 Vu le Ministre Genet et le Cit. Bournonville. 
Le 24 Visite" mes Graines, je les ay divise po. les envoyer en France en 
deux Envoys differens. 

* The manuscript is so frayed that the figures for these two distances are destroyed . 
The footing requires 60 M. for the two.- C. S. S. 

Michaux.] 102 [Oct. 19. 

Le 25 travailld a mettre en ordre mes collections de Kentuckey. 

Le 26 visite M. Rittenhouse President de la societe Philosophiq. 

Le 27 ecrit et occupe* d'Objets indifferents. 

Le 28 visite M. Jefferson, le Minist. Genet. &c. 

Le Dimanche 29 chasse aux oiseaux. 

Le 30 depouille et embourre* les oiseaux tues le jour precedent. 

Le 31 j'ay ete occupe toute la journee a ecrire. 


Le Mercredy premier Janvier j'ay ete a la chasse aux oiseaux, tue* deux 
Crossbills et je les ay depouilles et embourres. 

Le 2 j'ay fait des visites et j'ay appris I'arrive'e a Baltimore d'un Navire 
du Havre de Grace ayant des nouvelles favorables a la Re*publique Fran- 

Le 3 j'ay ete informe de me preparer au voyage de la Caroline et j'ay 
ete prevenir Bartram le Botaniste de me donner la liste des Plantes qu'il 

Le 4 Janvier 1794 j'ay visite* le D r Barton* et il m'a prate le Systema 
Naturae de Linn. 

Le Dimanche 5 copie et fait un extrait de Fhistoire des Mammalia et 
Quadrupedes et de celle des Oiseaux. 

Le 6 j'ay porte au Citoyen Bournouville mes Comptes des Depenses de 
mon voyage au Kentuckey et il m'a dit de revenir le sur lendemain etant 
trop occupe*. 

Le 7 j'ay continue 1'Extrait du Systema Naturae. 

Le 8 et le 9 j'ay continue" le mme ouvrage. 

Le 10 le Citoyen Bournonville n'avoit pas encore le temps de verifier 
mes Comptes. 

J'ay remis au Citoyen Minist. les Brevets en Blanc qu'il m'avoit confie 
pour le General Clark : Plus un Memoire sur 1'etat de la Recolte rela- 
tivem nt aux approvisionnemens de Bleds pour la France. II me declara 
que le voyage de Caroline n'etoit plus aussi important qu'il avoit suppose. 
Je lui dis que je desirois employer mon temps aux reeherches en Hist. 
Naturelle le mieux possible, mais que si pour le service de la Republique, 
le Ministre avoit un autre objet en vue je m'y employerois sinon je sou- 
haitois aller en Caroline pour retirer et mettre en Ordre mes Collections. 
II accepta ma proposition et me dit qu* a mon retour il me donneroit une 
commission pour le Kentuckey. II me recommande de visiter dans Fin- 
tervalle les Deputes de 1'Etat de Kentuckey au Congres. 

Le 11 Janvier 1794 j'ay ete occupe* toute la journee a ecrire. 

Le Dimanche 12 Visite M rss Brown et Colon. Orr Membres du Congres, 
deputes de 1'Etat de Kentuckey. Je conferay av. eux sur les dispositions 
du Gcuvernem* Federal et sur 1'execution du Plan du Gen. Clark. 

* Probably Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton, whose Collections for an Essay towards a Ma- 
teria Medico, of the United States was published in Philadelphia in 1798. C. S. S. 

1888.] [Miehaux. 

Le 14 j'ecrivis au Gen. Clark po. lui marquer les intentions da Ministre 
et po. lui envoyer 400 Dolls. 

Le 16 touche lad. & de 400 Doll et . . . 

Le 17 et 18 ecrit plusi. lettres a differentes personnes de Kentuckey 
et . . . 

Le 18 redige un memoire pour une Motion a faire a la Societe des Amis 
de la Liberte et de 1'Egalite a Philad 6 aftn d'adviser aux moyensd'adoucir 
le sort des prisonniers francjois entre les mains des Anglais, 

Le Dimanche 19 de"pouille et einbourre plasi. oiseaux. 

Le Dimanche 9 fevrier 1794 parti de chez Bartram, la neige tomba toute 
la journee, m'obligea de rester et de coucher a 7 miles de Phiiadelphie. 

Le 10 couche a Wilmington 28 M. de Ph. 

Le 11 couche e 24 Miles de distance. 

Le 12 neige presque toute la journee. 

Le 13 observe plusi. Mesanges ayant beaucoup d'affinite a la Mesange 
bleue : Parus coeruleus : arrive a Baltimore. 

Le 14 ayant etc oblige d'acheter un Cheval et de vendre le mien je 

Le 15 parti de Baltimore, vu plusi. oiseaux .... dont le Male a 
1'extremite des plumes inferieures des Ailes, terminee par un rouge de laque 
ou cire a cacheter, 1'extr^mite de la queue jaune, le corps cendre", hupe" 
sur la tete, tour dee yeux d'un noir fence veloute, ii se nourrit de Diospiros 
dans cette Saieon ; Yu plusieurs oiseaux .... Blue birds par les 
Americains. Terrein sablonneux, mele d'une argilie Ochracee et abond- 
ant en mines de fer. II y a plusi. mines de fer sur la Route qui sont ex- 
ploitees dans cette partie du Maryland. Le ChSne noir se trouve frequem- 
ment ici. 

Le Dimanche 16, entre Bladensburg et Alexandrie, sol sablonneux 
quelquefois argilleux tres rouge : Mines de fer : Oiseaux, Parus america- 
nus ayant la partie superieure du corps noiratre et la partie infe'rieure 
grise, $ griee. Get oiseau paroit ne vivre que de graines, de Plantes her- 
bacees comme Sarothra gentianoidesf Sfcc. II est habitant des bois, mais 
il abonde au long des hayee et des clotures, s'associe avec le petit moineau 
(friquet d'Amerique,) pendant I'liiyer &c. Parus . . . oiseau qui a 
une tres grande affinite avec la mesange bleue de France, paroissant ne 
pas se nourrir de graines mais voltige et passe de branches et d'arbres sue- 
cessivement avec une vivacite* et une rapidite particuliere a cet oiseau . 
. . . Cardinal de la Caroline, cet oiseau habite 1'hiver aux lieux sab- 
lonneux, dans les Carolines, dans la Virginie et mme dans les parties 
basses et maritimes du Maryland dont le sol est sablonneux. Je le vis a 
15 Miles avant d'arriver a la rivierre Potomack qui separe le Maryland de 
la Virginie. 

* A blank leaf occurs here in the Journal covering the time between Jan. 19 and Feb. 
9.-C. S. S. 
f Hypericum, Sarothra Miehx. C. S. S. 

Michaux.l [Oct. 19, 

Je vins coucher a Alexandrie l ere ville de la Virginie situee sur le cote 
mcridion. de la rivierre Potomack. 

Le 17 sol alternativement argilleux et sablonneux ; vu le Friquet d'Am, 
le Cardinal, le Moqueur, les 2 especes de Mesanges citees precedemment. 
Pin a 3 feuilles* aux environs de Dumfries. P. a 2 feuilles dont Tes ecailles 
apres la chute des sem. ne sont pas recourbees, rnais seulement ecartees et 
concaves, f. plus longues droites, grand arbre. Get arbre est le m@me qni 
abonde en q.q. endroits des Carol. Vu aussi aux lieux froids montagneux 
et arides le Pin a 2 f.f Ecailles a eguillons beaucoup plus rudes q. ceux 
de 1'espece precedente, Ecaill. recourbees (recurvatse) f. pi. court es et un 
peu contournees. Cette espece se trouve sur les Collines au long de la 
riv. Schuyllkill en Pensylvanie : Couche Dumfries. 28 miles d* Alexan- 

Le 18 passe par Fredericksburg. 

Le 19 passe par Bowlinggreen et Hanover court house. Depuis Fred, 
jusque vers Hanover Court house le sol est sablonneux, abonde en Pins 
a 2 et a 3 feuilles entremelees sur la mme branche ; Cones de moindre 
grosseur q. le P. a 3 f. de la Virginie meridionale et dont les ecailles 
sont molles, eguillons peu sensibles. Vers Bowlinggreen situe a 22 M. 
de Fredericksburg, commence le Pin a 3 feuilles, J Pinus dont les Cones 
sont a ecailles rudes, feuilles asses longues en tout, il est un diminutif du 
Pin a longues feuil. dit P. palustris et je le nomme Pin a 3 f. de la Virgmie 
meridionale et de la Caroline. 

Le 20 depuis Hanover court house jusqu' a Richemont 22 Miles. 

Le 21 Parti de Richmont ; a un mile et demi sur la route de Petersburg, 
vu TOrme d'Aineriq.g a ecorce fongueuse, cette ecorce n'environne pas la 
tige, mais forme deux ailes ou membranes plattes ayant une intersection 
aux endroits d'ou sortent les bourgeons : C'est le mgme Orme que j'ay vu 
en abondance en Kentuckey entre Louisville et Beardstown. A 9 Miles 
pres d'un Ruisseau ou petite Riv. remarque" le . . . 

A 12 miles vu la Smilax laurifolia et la Smilax baccis rubris dans la 
meme nature de terrain q. ceux ou Ton trouve ces Plantes en Caroline ; a 
20 Miles vu Ilex sestivalis ; couche a Petersburg 25 M. 

Le 22, a 18 miles vu le Bignonia crucigera, Vacciniuin arboreum ; a 30 
Miles vu Laurus|| aestivalis et tres frequemment Vacc. arboreum et Ilex 
sestivalis. Au long des Riv. remarque plusi. fois Ulmus a ecorce fongue- 

* Pinus rigida, Miller, is not included in Michaux's Flora, although the fact that he 
describes his Pinus serotina as growing "in humidis Carolina et Pensylvnniae Cupressetis," 
would indicate that he was familiar with it at least in Pennsylvania where P. serotina is 
not found. It is difficult to understand how such a common tree should have escaped: 
his attention in New York, New Jersey and Maryland. C. S. S. 

t Pinus pungens, Michx. This is the first mention, apparently, of this species. C. S. S. 

J Pinus TSeda, L. C. S. S. 

g Ulmus alata, Michx.C. S. S. 

|| Originally written Ilex in the Journal. This was erased and Laurus substituted. 
C. S, S. 


1888.] 105 S^^JLg^EMichaux. 

use. Le Cunila . . . cesse entre Petersburg et Halifax, 38 miles de 
Petersburg a Tompkin Shop ou j'ay couche. 

Le Dimanche 23 fevrier 1794 la Pluye m'empecha de partir avant 11 
heures ; passe par Hixis ford, petit hameau a 28 miles de distance de Hali- 
fax qui est la l re ville de la Caroline Sept. La ligne sur cette route qui 
separe la Virginie de la Carol. Sept. est a 12 M. d'Hixis ford et a 16 miles 
d'Halifax en Caroline. A 10 Miles d'Hixis ford et 2 miles avant de sortir 
du territoire de la Virginie, vu le Bignonia sempervirens pres du Creek 
nomme Fontaine Creek, Vu aussi 1'Hopea tinctoria un mile avant d'en- 
trer en Caroline. A un mile de distance de la Ligne qui separe la Virg. 
de la Caroline et sur le territoire de la Carol, vu le Cyrilla racemiflora dans 
un ties grand marecage, trois miles avant d'arriver a laTaverne de Pater- 
son ou j'ay couche 16 miles d'Hixis ford et 12 M. d'Halifax : 23 Miles. 

Le 24 a 1.0 Miles d'Halifax et six Miles de dist. de la Ligne entre le 
Virgin, et la Carol, commence le Pinus palustris, fol. longissimis, conis 
majorib. Le Quercus palustris a f. deltoides* commence aussi en cet en- 
droit. Le P. a 8 f.f longues, mais cones de moyenne grosseur qui com- 
mence a Bowling-Green se trouve parmi ainsi q. le Pin a deux et trois 
feuilles. J Le Bignonia crucigera et le Bign. sempervirens, Hopea tincto- 
ria se voyent en aboudance apres q. Ton a passe au sud d'Halifax aimsi q. 
Nyssa dentata et Cyrilla racemiflora dans les Swamps. Couche a End- 
field court house chez le Col. Brandt 25 Miles. 

Le 25 dine chez le Col. Philipps seize Miles et passe Tar River a 4 M. de 
distance au lieu dit Tetts brige : Vu un Sophora dit Yellow Lupin dont 
les tiges etant dessechees, j'ay recueilli les graines qui restoient dans les 
gousses rassemblees en epis : Douze miles plus loin passe" Town creek Iriye 
et couche a 3 M. au de la. 35 Miles. 

Le 26 sol toujours sablonneux, couverts de Pins dits Pinus palustris : 
ces Arbres sont entailles et 1'ecorce enlevee, mais une partie du bois de la 
longeur de deux pi. sur un pied de large. Au bas 1'entaille est plus pro- 
fonde po. retenir la resine nominee turpentine. L'on enleve la Tereben- 
tine lorsq. le bassin forme par cette entaille profonde est plein. Douze 
miles avant d'arriver a Peacock brige, commence le Laurus borbonica et 
trois miles avant Peacock brige commence 1' Andromeda Wilmingtonia ;j| 
le Stewartia malaccodendron^j" se trouve aux environs dud. Peacock brige. 
II y a 21 miles environ de Town creek brige a Peacock brige. Les trois 
especes de Myrica des Carolines commencent dans ce Canton ainsi q. la 
grande Rhexia de Caroline.** 

Le 27 voyage vers News River au lieu dit Whitefield ferry passant par 

* Quercua aquatica, Catesb. C. S. S. 
f Mnus Tseda, L. C. S. S. 
j Pinus mitia, Miohx. C. S. S. 
I Persea Carolinensi*, Nees. C. S. S. 
|| Andromeda speciosa, Miohx. C. S. S. 
1[ S. Virginica, Cav.-C. S. S. 
** X. glabetta, Michx. C. S. S. 


MichauK.] [Oct. 19, 

la maison de . . . Environ 24 miles de Peacock brige a Whitefield 

Le 28 voyage depuis Whitefield ferry jusqu'a Duplaine Court house ou 
Dixon. 31 Miles : Quinze miles avant d'arriver a Dnplaine Court house, 
commence 1' Andromeda axillaris, c'est a. d. 65 miles nord de Wilming- 
ton. Vu aussi en abondance le Vaccin. fol. sempervirentib. *caule repente, 
fructu nigro: Vu en abondance Andr. Wilmingtonia, paniculata, race- 
mosa &c. Bignonia crucigera, sempervirens, radicans et Catalpa. 

Le Samedy l er Mars, vu 1'Andromeda nitida ou lucida des Swamps des 
Carolines, il commence a quarante cinq miles Nord de Wilmington. Vu 
en abondance And. Wilmingtonia, axillaris, racemosa et nitida : Passe par 
Washington 8 miles de Duplaine court house, le Gordonia commence 3 M. 
au N. de Washington, environ 38 M. nord de Wilmington. L'llex angusti- 
folia . . . comm. 26 miles au nord de Wilmington. II y a environ 35 
M. de Washington court house a Wilmington. 

Le Dimanche 2 Mars, j'ay vu dans les Sables arides Lupinus perennis et 
Lupinus pilosus, Atraphaxia?,f arbuste tiges grgles, feuilles charnues, per- 
sistentes 1'hiver, Vaccinium sempervirens &c. Vu par Bartram sur la 
route de Warmspring, le Chamosrops acaulis commence a 15 miles au Nord 
de Wilmington. Olea ainericana se trouve aux environs de Wilmington 
et commence dans ce territoire. Stillingia herbacea commence a 30 M. 
au nord de Wilmington. 

La Pluye m'obligea de coucher a 8 M. de Wilmington. 

Le 3 arrive* a Wilmington ; mon cheval e*tant excessivement fatigue* je 
fus oblige de me reposer q. ques jours : Vu M. Vcrrier franqais des Isles, 
vray Republicain ainsi q. le Docteur Lalloque etabli a Wilmington. M. 
Josselin tenant la Gr. Taverne a Wilmington est un grand ami de la 
Republiq. franchise. 

Le 4 j'ay ete aracher un Andromeda que j'avois remarque quatre ans 
auparavant ainsi que l'Ixia?| de la Caroline et j'ai fait une Caisse de ces 
Plantes pour les envoyer par mer sur le Navire du Capit. Mitchell, Sloop 

. . . a Charleston. 

Le 5 emballe mes collections et mis a bord du Navire. 

Le 6, la Pluye m'obligea de diffe*rer et aux environs de Wilmington je 
vis: Dionoea muscipula, Olea americana, Andromeda mariana, paniculata, 
racemosa, axillaris, nitida, Wilmingtonia ; Vaccinium arboreum, repens, 
fructu nigro &c, Bignonia sempervirens, crucigera. 

Le 7 Mars parti de Wilmington, passe par Town Creek 12 Miles ; Par 
Lockwood folly 15 M. de T. Creek (Par charlott brige 8 Miles) 

Le 8 passe* par Charlott brige et par W Gauss Esq. (jambe de bois) 13 
M. de la Tavern Ross ou Lockwood folly. 

Le Dimanche 9 parti de chez Foster. Violent aristocrate. Au bord de 

* ~\ crassifolium, Andr. (V. myrtifolium, Michx). C. S. S. 
t Polygonella parvifolia, Michx.? C. S. S. 
J Nemastylis ccelestina, Nutt C. S. S. 

1&S8.] 0i [Michaux. 

la mer vu Pisonia* inermis Arbrisseau baccifere, branches et feuilles 
opposees. II commence dans la Caroline septentrionale et il se trouve en 
Caroline me*ridionale, dans la Georgie et dans la Floride &c . . . 

Vu aussi la Magnolia grandiflora a 6 miles nord de distance de la Ligne 
qui sgpare les deux Carolines. A onze heures et demie, je suis entre* dans 
la Caroline Meridionale ; a Midi passe" par un Petit hameau compose de 4 
a 5 Maisons sur le bord de Little river habiie"e par deux franQois Demo- 
crates a qui j'ay eu la satisfaction d'apprendre les dernieres nouvelles 
favorables a la Republique franchise ; Tun d'eux nomine" Jouvenceau en 
buvant avec un Americain Taurisf qui parloit avec mepris de la Revolu- 
tion franchise, lui porta deux coups de Poingts et 1'Am. se vengea en lui 
lachant un coup de fusil dans le ventre. Ce Jouvenceau etoit un vieux 
soldat et il e"toit au lit malade. Le Chirurgien esperoit q. le malade en 
rechapperoit non obstant le danger du malade. Led. Foster ne tient point 
tavern et de W m Gauss Esq r chez Green il y a 15 Miles (II est important 
po. les Voyageurs de faire provisions d'un demi Gallon de Mays ou de 
Riz non battu, car . . . Couche chez Wren 9 M. de chez Green. 

Le 10 Passe sur Long Bay, au milieu environ 9 miles de distance de 
Wreen, dejeune chez la V e . . . comme la plupart des habitans sur 
cette Route ne tiennent point Taverne, mais recoivent les Voyagenrs, Ton 
ne peut pas exiger de la nourriture po. le Cheval, et je fus oblige de me 
contenter av. une Reception tres honnte, mais mon Cheval se passe 
[sans] dejeuner. Le mme jour je vins coucher chez M r MacGill qui a 
epouse" une fllle de la famille Balouin franc/iis refugie" aulrefois po. la 
Religion. Je fus tres bien recju dans cette Maison. Mais je fus oblige" 
d'acheter des Negres du Riz pour la nourriture de mon cheval. 

Le onze a 12 Miles de distance dejeune* chez le D r Mazie et heureuse- 
ment la provision de Riz que j'avois emporte procura a dejeuner a mon 
Cheval excede par la fatigue dans les sables steriles que Ton trouve pend- 
ant plusi. jours : j'arrivay enfin a Pittcock ferry, 23 M. de dist. de chez 
MacGill. Mon Cheval ne pouvoit plus aller. Ce ferry est un peu plus 
bas q. George town et il y a un Mile et demi po. traverser la Riv. et 4 M. 
po. arriver a Georgetown. Couch e" a la maison du ferry mauvaise auberge 
mais mon cheval fut bien soigne". 

Le 12 Mars 1794 traverse" la rivierre a la pointe du jour et je vins 
dejeuner ahez Cooke au lieu dit Cook's ferry sur la rivierre Santee 12 miles 
de distance de Wackamaa river. 

Dine" chez la V e Morell (tres bonne auberge po. les Chevaux). Je cou- 
chay a cet endroit 10 M. de distance de Cook's ferry ; en tout 28 miles 
sans les passages de rivierre tres longs et souvent dangereux. 

Le 13 parti de chez la V e Morell; a 7 miles detourne" a droite po. venir 
a Manigault plantation: de Maiiig: passe" a Wiggfall plant., Vu une plante 
Justicia? un peu avant d'entrer sur le champ cultive" vers le milieu a 

* It is not evident to what plant this refers, as no Pisonia is found as far north as the 
boundary between the Carolinas. C. S. S. 
t Tory. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

gauche la route conduit au ferry de Clement: 5 Miles de distance de Wigg- 
fall. Vu Andromeda Wilmingtonia. Le soir arrive a Clement's ferry par 
une route sablonneuse sans auberge et la plus desagreable et la plus inhos- 
pitable que Ton puisse voir depuis Philadelphie jusqu'a Charleston: 32 
miles environ de Morell tavern a Clement's ferry. 

Le 14 arrive* a Charleston 5 miles de Clements ferry. En general dans 
toute la Basse Caroline Septentrionale, Meridionale et la Georgie, les 
routes sont sablonneuses, dangereuses au temps des Pluyes qui entrainent 
les Fonts ; les Auberges sont tres mauvaises, souvent il n'y en a pas aux 
habitations, Ton trcuve q. quefois a dejeuner ou a diner rnSme gratuite- 
ment, mais Ton seroit considere incivil de demander de la nourriture po. 
le Cheval ; le meilleur moyen est d'en porter avec soi quand Ton trouve 
a en acheter soil du Mays ou du Riz (lit Rough rice. Lorsque je pouvois 
en acheter des Negres, je n'e*tois jamais depourvu, c'est po. quoi il faut 
to uj ours avoir de la petite monoye. 

Le clit : Visite le Citoyen Mangourit Consul de la Republique franchise. 

Le 15 Visile le Jardin Botaniq. que j'avois confie aux soins du Jardin. 
avant mon depart pour le Canada. 

Le Dimanche 16 dine chez le Citoyen Consul Mangourit. 

Le 17 je revins a mon habitat, et je reglai plusi. ouvrages relativement 
a la Culture. 

Le 18 je recjus la Collection des Plantes que j'avois envoy e de Wilming- 
ton et je les plantay. 

Le 19 je fis transplanter un grand nombre d'arbres. 

Le 20 me* me travail. 

Le 21 mme travail. 

Le 22 confere avec M. Mangourit sur 1'expldition projete"e par le Min- 
istre Genet pour la conqute de la Floride Orientale et de la Floride Occi- 

Le Dimanche 23 herborise. 

Le 24 herborise et travaille au Jardin ; taille" et emonde les arbres de la 

Le 25 taille" et emonde et regie au jardinier les ouvrages a faire dans le 
cours de la semaine. 

Le 26 je fus a Charleston.* 

Le 14 Juillet 1794 parti de 1'habitation et couche* a Monks corner ; 
remarque pres du Pont (te Goose Creek : Eryngiuin foliis lanceolat. 

Le 15, a deux mille de Monks-corner, Menispermum. . . . Smilax 
laurifolia en fleur : Passe par Youta spring et ensuite prenant la Route 
de Manigault ferry couche" a 5 [3 ?] M. de distance. Remarque" souvent 
Serratula flstulosa, Heliotropium . . . ; Sida . . . Rhexia . . . 
basi cortice fungoso. 

* Here follow several blank pages in the Journal The next entry is dated July 
14.-C. S. S. 

18S8.] [Michaux. 

Le 16 passe Manigault ferry a cause du de"bordement des eaux qui nous 
empScha d'aller par Neilson ferry ; la Pluye dura toute la journee et nous 
vinmes coucher a 1'entree du Territoire dit high hills Sanlee. 

Le 17 Juillet 1794 traverse high hills santee ; Remarque" Phlox . . . ; 
Coreopsis verticill. fol. ovatis ; Carduus Virginicus . . . Nous vinmes 
coucher a Stateborough. Terrein argilleux en parlie et meilleur : ChSne 
rouge a longs petioles, glands courts sessiles et grossiers ; ce n'est pas le 
mme de Pensylvanie et du Canada et il est le vray Chene ecarlatte de 

Le 18 passe par Cambdeu. En sortant de Cambden po. aller dans la 
Cfirol. Septentrion. on trouve a deux mille de dist. des Sables dits Pine 
barrens. A 4 ou 5 mi. il y a un Creek ou ruisseau (swamps) rempli de 
Sphagnum, Azalea, Eriophoruni et autres PI. aquatiques parmi lesquelles 
sur le bord de la route Ton trouve un Kalmia* qui n'a ete decrit de per- 
sonne precedent et probablement il n'a jamais ete vu : Plante de la 
t) e classe Sophora a fl. jaune : Carduus Virginicus : Lupinus pilosus ; 
Couche un mile au de la de cette Swamp et six miles de Cambden. 

Le 19 passe par Johnston house et couche chez W m Graim 35 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 20 Juillet dejeune 3 M. avant d'arriver ch. John cry et 
couche 7 M. plus loin, maudite et detestable Tavern chez Huston. 

Le 21 parti de grand matin, la Pluye nous obligea d'arreter plusi. fois. 
Couche chez John Spring M d de Chevaux, homme riche, honnte homnie 
et dont la maison est tres honngte, et tres decente. Remarque Rhus gla- 
bruin, Rh. a f. ailees entre les folioles ;f Individus et $ ou plutot > 
sur des pieds diffe'rents ; Rhus . . . Delphinium . . . 

Le 22 passe" par Charlotte en Mecklenbourg, sol argille rouge, Pierres 
Quartzeuses : Eaux claires au lieu que cy devant ; les Eaux ont la cou- 
leur de feuilles mortes ou Tabac sec : Vegetation Chne rouge, noir, blanc 
&c. &c. Actea spicata. 

Couche a six miles de Tuck-a-Segee ford. 

Le 23 passe par Ben. Smith situe a viugt miles de Charlotte. Deux et 
trois miles avant d'y arriver vu le Magnolia tomentoso-glauca fol. cordatis 
longiorib: Stewartia nova? | Couche" a six miles de B. Smith. 

Le 24 passe" par Lincoln et dine chez Reinhart : Calamus aromaticus : 
couche chez le vieux cordonnier . . . 

Le 25 passe chez Henrjr Watner, maintenant Robertson. 

Le 26 arrive a Morganton cy devant Burke court house 30 M. dc Rob- 
ertson. Frutex Calycantha facies &. 

Le Dimanche 27 Juillet 1794, sejourne a cause de la Pluye et des 
(Creeks) Torrens que Ton ne pouvoit traverser qu'a la nage. 

Le 28 sejourne. 

* Probably his Kalmia cuneata, Flora, 1. p. 257. C. S. S. 

t E. copaUina, L. C. S. S. 

t Probably S. pentagyna, L'Her. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Le 29 parti et couche chez John Ratherford pres de la maison du quel 
passe sur un Pont Muddy Creek. 

Le 30 revenu dans la route ordinaire qui conduit a Turkey cove et ar- 
rive chez le nomme Ainswort. 

Le 31 herborise sur les Lineville hautes montagnes au Sud-Est de 1'habi- 
tation d'Ainswort et sur Rochers et les montagnes denuees d'arbres 
recueilli un petit arbrisseau Clethra buxifolia ?* 

Le Vendredy premier Aoust herborise sur des Montagnes dont le sol 
est tres riche, situees au N.-Est : Veratrum viride, album? Convallaria 
majalis, Convallaria ? umbellata ; mesure un Tulipier de 23 pieds francois 
de circonference. 

Le samedy 2, herborise aux Montagnes du Nord ; Convallaria umbel- 
lata,f fol. integris margine et . . . J lanuginosis, floribus umbellatis, 
baccis cosruleis ; Conv. racemosa ; Conv. multiflora, || Conv. majalis fol. 
inlegerrim. nudis florib. racemo simplici secundis baccis caeruleis. 

Le Dimanche 3 Aoust 1794, herborise dans les Cyperoides et autres 
plantes aquatiques. 

Le 4 prepare au voyage de la Montagne noire (Black montain). 

Le 5 differe a cause du manque de provisions. 

Le 6 parti et arrive au lieu dit Crab tree : Plantes remarquees Azalea 
lutea, *|[ stylis longissimis ; Veratum viride, album. 

Le 7 herborise sur les montagnes aux environs de Crabtree : Clethra 
montana ; Cassine . . . ; Rhodod. maximum ; Kalmia latifolia ; Con- 
vallaria bifolia ; Trillium cernuum erectum bacca coccinea ; Magnolia 
auriculata, acuminata flore glauca ; Frutex Azaliae facies ; Vacciniuin** 
fol. margine ciliatis, superfice reticulatis pedunculis axillarib. unifloris 
corollis revolutis, 4-partitis, staminibus 8, Germine infero bacca pyriforme 
coccinea quadriloculari : Cypripedium calceolaria duae species, Veratrum 
viride (sur les collines), album ; Melanthium . . . Veratrum luteuin 
dans les Ruisseaux ; Spiraea (paniculata) trifoliata ;ft Robinia pseudo- 
acacia, viscosa, hispida: Monarda coccinea, dans les ruiss. fistulosa ; Quer- 
cus prinus-glauca. 

Le 8 herborise Hamamelis . . . Nyssa . . . Halesia tetrap- 
tera ; Convallaria majalis? baccis flavis ; Conv. umbellata baccis coeru- 

* Leiophyllum buxtfolium, var. prostrntum, Gray? C. S. S. 

t Uintonia umbellata, Torr. C. S. S. 

J The word is illegible in the manuscript. C. S. S. 

g Smttacina racemosa, Desf. C. S. S. 

|j Polygonatum biflorum, Ell. C. S. S. 

f Azalea calendulacea, Michx. C. S. S. 

** Vaccinium erythrocarpum, Michx. The fruit of this species, however, when fully 
ripe is quite black and not scarlet as described here and in the Flora: a mistake 
which has been often copied by American botanists since the days of Michaux. In 
Watson's Dendrologia Britanica, i, 31, t. 31, it is described as black, and correctly 
figured. C. S. S. 

ft Gittenta, trifoUata, Moench. ?-C. S. S. 

1888. J [Michaux. 

Le 9 continue mes herborisations : Abies canadensis, Abies nigra? fol. 
undiq. sparsis : Spirea , . . , Sp. . . . Pinus strobus. 

Le Dimanche 10 Aoust 1794 arrive au pied de Black montain : Podo- 
phyllum ?* floribus . . . baccis ceruleis : Vaccin. coccineum : Fagus 
castanea americana &c 

Le 11 arrive pur le cote . . . de Black Montain. Abies nigra ; 
Diervilla ; Acer pensylvanicum ; Sedum foliis inferiorib. dentatis, supe- 
riorib. integris ; Sorbus aucuparia ;f Rubus odoratus ; Rhododendron 
maximum, Kalmia latifolia, Vaccin. stamineum, resinosum ; Andromeda 
arborea, axillaris, racemosa ; Clethra montana ; frutex Azaleae facies ; 
Vitis}: fol. inferne tomentosis, baccis magnis (fox grapes, fruit bon a 

Le 12 revenu de la montagne. 

Le 13 arrive a 1'habitation du S r Ainsworth. 

Le 14 Brouillard e*pais et difficulte de parcourir les hautes montagnes, 
herborise dans les Vallees. 

Le 15 Pluye. 

Le 16 voyage" vers la Montagne jaune et Roun mountain, arrive" sur 
Towe River|| Bright Settlem nt * Les principaux habitans de cet Etablisse- 
ment sont Davinport, Wiseman . . . 

Herborise" : Azalea coccinea, lutea, flava, alba et rosea : toutes ces varie- 
tes del' Azalea nudiflora se trouvent dans ce territoire ; Vaccinium cran- 
berry afflnite a 1'Oxicoccus ; Pinus Strobus, Abies Canadensis &c &c. 
Gaultheria procumbens ; Epigea repens. 

Le Dimanche 17 agre"e avec un Chasseur*!!" pour aller sur les Montagnes. 

Le 18 herborise et de"crit plusi : plantes de la Syngenesie frustanee, 
Helianthus atrorubens, Rudbeckia &c &c. 

Le 19^parti pour aller vers les hautes montagnes. 

Le 20 herborise" dans les Montagnes: Acer pensylvanicum, canadense &c. 

Le 21 Aoust 1794 arrive au sommet de Roun-mountain : reconnu en 
abondance un petit arbuste** a feuilles de Buis quej'avois designe pre- 
cedement Led urn buxifolium, mais dont la capsule est a trois loges et 
s'ouvre par le sornmet : flores pedunculati, terminales, plurimi, (in mense 
Junio floret). Cal. profunde 5-partitus, laciniis angustis horizontals post 
efflorescentiam, approximatis : Petala 5 ovata seu obcordata, apice obtusa 
sub receptaculo inserta, plana, decidua, nivea ; Stam. decem, filam. longi- 
tudine corollas, erecto-patentia, alba ; Antherae subrotundse, didymas, 
versatiles, pallide rubrse ; Qermen ovatum Stylus flliformis, longitudine 

* This is probably his Diphylleia cymosa; Flora, I, 203, 1. 19 and 20. C. S. S. 
f Pyrus Americana, D. C. C. S. S. 
t Vitis Labrusca, L.-C. S. S. 
\ The now well known Roan Mountain. C. S. S. 
|| Toe River. C. S. S. 
f Davinport. 

** LeiophyUum buxifolium, Ell. var. prostratum. Gray. One of the common and most 
characteristic plants found on the summit of the Roan. C. S. S. 

Miohaux.] LLa [Oct. 19, 

staminuin, Stigma obtusura ; Capsula trilocularis . . . Frutcx buxi- 
folia, sempervirens . . . 

Potentilla tridentata ; Sorbus aucuparia : Firms abies balsamifera &c.* 
Le 22 arrive au sommet de la Montague Jaime Yellow mountain. 
Le 23, Retourne a I'habitations de Davinport. 
Le Dimanche 24 Aoust 1794, mis en ordre mes Collections. 
Le 25 Pluye. 

Le 26 parti pour Grand-Father mountain, Montague la plus elevee de 
toutes celles qui forment la chaine des Alleghany et des Appalaches.f 
Le 27 arrive au pied de la plus haute montagne. 
Le 28 Monte et arrive jusqu'aux Rockers. 

Le 29 continue rnes herbor : parmi les Mousses diverses, les Pinus Abies 
balsamifera, Abies nigra, Acer pensylvanicum &c &c &c. 

Le 30 Monte au sommet de la plus haute montagne de toute I'Am. Sept. 
et avec mon compagnon Guide, chante Thy nine des Marseillois et crie 
Vivre 1'Amerique et la Republiq. Francaise, Vive la Liberte &c <fec. 
Le Dimanche 31 Pluye toute la journee et reste* au Camp. 
Le Lundy l er Septenibre 1794 revenu a 1'habitation de mon guide 
Davin Port. 

Le 2 Pluye et herborise. 
Le 3 redige* mes Collections 
Le 4 ninie travail. 
Le 5 parti po. Table Mount. 

Le 6 Visite les rochers de la Montagne Hock-bill et de Table Montagn. 
Ces montag. sont tres steriles et 1'Arbuste nouveau Leduin? buxifolium 
est la seule plante rare que s'y trouve. II y est en abondance. Coucke 
a 6 miles de distance chez . . . Park's. 

Le Dimanche 7 parii pour Burke court house on Morganton, couche" 
chez le General Mac Douwal ; vu aupres sa niaison Spirea tomentosa en 

De Burke chez John Wagely env. 12 M. 
De John Wagely chez Th. Young . . . 
De Thomes Young ch. Davin Port 8. 

Le 8 Septenibre arrive* a Burke court house ou Morganton ; VisitS le 
Col. Avery et couche" chez lui. 

Le 9 au soir parti de Morganton, couche" a 3 M. de distance. 
Rencontre un habitant de Stateboroug, M r Atkinson qui m'a invite a 
nller chez lui. 
Le 10 arrive chez Robfertson, 30 M. de Morganton. 

* Abies Fraseri, Lindley. At the time of Michaux's visit the cones, if any were pro- 
duced that year, were nearly fully grown, and it is remarkable that he did not notice their 
long exserted bracts and detect a different species. It is probable that misled by the 
general resemblance of this species with the Northern A. balsamea, that he did not criti- 
cally examine the Firs which abound just below the summit. It is more remarkable that 
no locution is made in the Journal of the thickets of Rhododendron Catawbiense, which 
is nowhere else so fine and luxuriant as near the summit of the Roan. C. S. S. 

t No less than fifty peaks in tho Allejjhany system, including both the Roan and 
those of the Black Mountains, are now known to exceed the Grandfather in elevation. 
C. S. S. 

1888.| [Michaux. 

Le 11 venu coucher chez Reinhart Lincoln court house 15 M. de Robert- 

Le 12 parti pour Yadkin River et Salsbury : couche* a Catawba Spring 
18 miles de Lincoln. 

Le 13 passe" a Betty's ford sur Catawba riv. 20 M. de Lincoln. Planta 
annua, ramosa, ramis- oppositis, erectis, subtetragonis ; fol. ovata 3-nervia 
subsessilia : Peduncula axillares uniflori : Cal. 5-partitis basi calyculatus 
sq. duabus, foliolis calycinis ovalis, acuminatis, suberectis ; Corolla tubu- 
losa, tub. cylindricus, longitudine calycis, Limbus irregularis 5-partitus, 
lacinits ovatis duab. superiorib. rectis : Stara. 4 didynamise, filamenta longi- 
tudine corollte, flliformia ; Antherae subrotundae ; Germ, tetragonum, 
Styl. flliformis, longitud. staminum : Stigma 2-fidum, lacinese aeqnales : 
Semina 4 in fundo calycis, ovata, rugosa. Planta annua in mense Julii 
August floret : Flores cerulei, filam. et pistillum cerulei (Antherae hya- 
cintha colore)* Habitat in reniotis Virginia), Carolinae-Sept. in locis 

Couche" dans une ferme a 8 M. avant d'arriver a Salsbury ou est la 
jonction et le point de reunion des trois routes de Pliiladelphie de Charles- 
ton et de Kentuckey. 

Le Dimanche 14 passe* par Salsbury, ville dont 1'apparence est moins 
miserable que celles des autres villes de la Carol. Sept. dites C. house. 50 
M. de Lincoln a Salsbury. Continue" ma route pour Fayette ville. passe" 
Yadkin river et couche" a 14 Miles de Salsebury. 

Le 15 passe plusieurs Creeks et des Montagues basses mais tres pierreuses. 

Le 16 partie de la route tres pierreuse. Vu le Magnol. acuminata florib. 
luteis : Collinsonia tuberosa, Ensuite entre dans un sol sablonneux : 
Couche chez Martin, Store Keeper. 

Le 17 continue a travers les Collines sablonneuses. 

Le 18 arrive a 6 Miles de Fayette ville. Perdu mes deux Chevaux. 

Le 19 et 20 employe ces deux jours a chercher mes chevaux. 

Le Dimanche 21, trouve Tun des deux et . . . 

Le 22 arrive de nouveau a Fayette ville, cy devant Cross-Creek. La 
Riv. Cap Fear passe aupres de cette ville. Vu dans mes herborisations 
des marecages qui environnent cette ville, Cupressus disticha, thyoides, 
souvent ensemble. And. Wilmingtonia, Nymphsea hastata.| 

Le Mardy, 23 Septembre 1794 parti de Fayette ville apres avoir eu la 
satisfaction de lire les Nouvelles arrive"es de Philad* la veille concern 4 les 
glorieux succes de la Re"publique. Coucho chez le Vieux (?) Mac-Cay. 
15 M. de Fayette ville sur la route de Salisbury. 

Le 24 pris a main gauche la route de Charleston et passe" Drowned 
Creek a Mac Lawchland bridge : Mais la route la plus direct de Fayeite- 
ville a Charleston est de venir a Widow Campbell Bridge 40 (?) Miles 

* Verd cTeau. 

t Isanthus cruktts, Michx. C. S. S. 

J Nuphar sagittstfolium, Pursh. ? C. S. S, 


Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

de Fayette. De Widow Campbell Bridge a Gum-swamp 10 Miles de la 
Ligne qui separe la Carol. Septentrionale de la Caroline Merid. 

Le 25 passe par Gum-Swamp et couche a 8 Miles au de la de Fayette- 

Vu le Cupressus thyoides et le Cupressus disticha en plusi. Swamps : 
Vu 1' Andromeda Wilmingt. en abondance clans toutes les Swamps ; Liqui- 
dambar peregrinum &c. A 2 Miles de Gum Swamp Ton entre dans la 
Caroline Meridionale. 

Le 26 passe par Long Bluff petit hameau situ6 a 2 Miles au Sud de la 
riv. Big Pedee 74 M. de Fayetteville. 

Le 27 passe par Black-Swamp, 22 M. de Long Bluff. 

Colon. Benton. 12 M. de L. Bluff. 

Black Creek 10 M. de L. Bl. 

Jefferis Creek 10 M. de L. Bl. 

Le Dimanche 28 passe par Lynch's Creek. 40 M. de L. Bl. 

Le 29 passe par Black river 30 M. de Lynch Creek. Le nomme Lorry 
tient le ferry de Black river. 

Le 30 arrive a Maurice ferry sur la Riv. Santee 15 Miles de Black riv. 
M. de Monk's corner. 

Le passage du ferry etoit dangereux et je fus oblige d'aller a Lenoue 
ferry. II y a 25 M. de Maurice ferry a Lenoue ou Lenew's ferry. 

Le l er Octobre 1794 parti de Lenew's ferry et passe par Strawberry's 
ferry 25 M. de Lenew's ferry et 28 M. de Charleston : Arrive a 1'habitat. 
pres Ten-M. house. 

Le 2 parti pour Charleston. 

Occupe jusque vers la fin de Novembre a recueillir les Plantes d'Au- 
tomne. Vers le 10 Octobre la fievre du climat s'est empare de moi. Je 
1'ay garde environ douze jours et j'ay ete plus de six semaines a bien me 
retablir. Travaille tant a reparer le Jardin qu' a mettre en ordre mes 
Collections de Plantes jusqu' a la fin de Decemb. 

Le 30 Germinal 1'an 3 e de lu Republique franchise Une et Indivisible 
(Dimanche 19 Avril 1795 vieux style) parti pour aller herboriser dans les 
hautes Montagues des Carolines et.pour visiter ensuite les Pays de 1'Ouest 
(Western territories). Plantes vues avant d'arriver a Monk's corner : 
Heuchera . . . , Vicia 2 especes, Smilax herbacea erecta, Melampo- 
diam ? - . Polyg. necess. Silene Virginica, Phlox lanceolata alors 
en fleur, Valeriana. Couche a 45 M. House. 

Le 10 Floreal, (20 Avril,) environ de quarante cinq Mile house, Vale- 
riana ; 3 Miles avant Neilson's ferry Gnaphalium dioicum, Uvularia? . . . 
Led. 20 Avril, arbre nouveau de la riv. Santee a feuille d'orrne fructus 
muricati capsula muricata, semen unicum, subovatum.* 

Ces graines etoient alors presq. mures ; Celtis occidentalis fleurs . . .f 
et fl. males inferieures. 

Couche a 77 M. de Ch. 

* Planera aquatica, Gmel. (P. Gmelini, Michx.) C. 8. S. 
t A word here is illegible in the manuscript. C. S. S. 

1888.] (Michaux. 

Le 21 Avril remarque sur High-hills Santee ; Phlox a fleurs blanches 
et Phlox a fl. roses, deux especes differentes, tres petit Phlox a feuilles 
lanceolees ; Vu aux envi. de Monk's corner Lupinus hirsutus en fl. Dine 
chez D r . . . ; couche a Statesboroug. 

Le 22 passe par Cambden, cinq miles au de la Kalmia nouveau, il n'etait 
pas encore en fl. Couche a 10 M. au de la Cambden. 

Le 23 Av. passe par Flat rock, par Hanging rock Creek et couche a 
Cane Creek, Lancaster county chez le nomine" M r May ; pendant la nuit 
mon cheval s'echappa, en suivant les traces, on vit qu'il avoit passe chez 
. . . Lee Esq. 

Le 24 je fus oblige de le chercher toute la journee. M r Lee envoy a 
son fils et son negre aussi po. le chercher. II me fit procurer un Cheval 
po. aller, apres il m'invita a venir loger chez lui ; il me coinbla de civil- 

Le 25, le cheval vint de lui-meme a la niaison de M r Lee : Plantes sur 
le Creek ; Dodecatheon Meadia, Asarum Canadense, Claytonia Virginica, 
Erythronium dens-leonis. 

Le Dimanche 26 Avril, parti de Cane Creek, passe par Land'sford sur 
Catawba river. Mais la vray route est de Cane Creek demander la uiai- 
son ou Plant, de Col. Crawford sur Waxsaw, ensuite passer MacClean 
Hands ferry sur Catawba ; De la, droit a Iron works dit Hills Iron Works, 
exploited par le Colon, hill. 

Ainsi de Cane Creek a Waxsaw . . . Miles : De Waxsaw a Iron Works, 
York county . . . 

Le 27 passe Iron Works environ 32 miles de Cane Creek. 

Le 28 passe par Armstrong ford sur la branche meridionale de Catawba, 
12 miles de Iron Work. 

Le dit. jo. passe par 1'habitation de Bennet Smith sur laquelle il y a un 
. . . Magnolia 12 Miles d'Armstrong ford. 

Le 29 passe par Lincoln 12 Miles de Bennet Smith et 36 miles de Iron 

Le Jeudy 30 Avril passe par 1'habittition du Bon homme Wilson, 9 M. 
de Lincoln et 6 M. de Robertson : 15 M. de Lincoln chez Robertson ; 
Arrive a Morganton 30 M. de Robertson. 

Le l er May passe" la journe'e a Morganton et herborise aux environs. 

Le 2 passe la journee chez le Colonel Avery, 4 miles de Morganton. 

Le Dimanche 3 May parti po. les Montagnes, a la distance de 14 Miles 
de Burke on trouve la maison de Wagely. 

Les Montagnes de Lineville au pied des quelles cette maison est situee 
abondent en Magnolia auriculata. Us etoient alors en fleur. De Wagely 
chez le Capt. Young, il y a 8 Miles. 

Le 4 May parti de chez Young. II y a 2 M. po. aller chez Ainswort, 
mais en prenant la main droite, Ton arrive au pied d'une tres haute Mon- 
tag. 3 M. de Young, le soinmet est a 5 M. de chez Young. 

Du sommet de la Montagne ch. Y Bright dit Bright Settlein ttt il y a 

Michanx.] [Oe t. 19, 

3 M. et de Bright, ch. Bavin Port 2 Mil. en tout 10 M. de Young chez 
Davin Port. 

Le 5 May herborise aux environs des habitations de Davin -P. et de 

Le 6 parti pour les Mont scjav. Roun Mountain et Yellow Mountain ; 
Toe River coule entre ces Mountains. Tous les Convallaria etoient en fl. 
ainsi q. les Podophyll. diphyll. et umbellatum. 

Le Dimanche 10 May 1795 revenu des Montagnes a Fhabitat. de Davin 

Le 11 herborise sur les Montagnes en face de 1'habit. II y a environ 3 
Miles pour aller au sominet des Bleue Ridges sur la partie nominee Romp- 
back ; sur les premieres Montagnes Ton voit en tres grande abondance 
1'Azalea fol. apice glandulosis ; Azalea lutea. II n r y a pas d'autres 
Azalea sur les Collines qui environneut les habitations des nommes Davin 
Port et Wiseman que cette espece a fl. jaune. Celui qui borde les Rivi- 
erres est comniunem Bt celui a fl. incarnates et celui a fl. blanches. * 

Le 12 monte" au sommet des Blueridges Rhododendrons minus en fleur, 
Cypripedium luteum. 

Le 13 May parti pour continuer mon voyage. Arrive a Midy au pied de 
Yellow Mountain 10 Miles. Le soir venu coucher chez John Miller 12 M. 
de la Montagnes. Ainsi il y a 22 Miles de Davin Port chez Miller ; a un 
mile Ton commence a traverser Doe River. 

Le 14 cotoye* et traverse Doe river au nombre de 27 fois. Elle est dan- 
gereuse lorsque les eaux sont fortes. Couche chez le Colonel Tipton 20 
Miles de chez Miller. 

Le 15 passe par Johnsboroug 10 Miles de 1'habitation du Col. Tipton et 
84 Miles de Burke C. house. Couche chez Anthony Moore pres Noley- 
chukey river. Pendant la nuit mon cheval s'est echappe. 

Le 16, Dimanche 17, 18 employe a chercher mon cheval. 

Le 19 achete un autre cheval au prix de cinquante Doll, d'un habitant 
de Noley chukey, riv. nomme . . . Earnest voisin du nomme Andrew 
Fox. Le Magnolia tripetala abonde sur les rives de Noley Chukey. 

Le mercredy 20 May, passe par Green Court house 27 Miles de John's 
Borough et la route pour le Kentuckey en prenant la main droite et pas- 
sant par . . . ferry sur Holston river. En continuant tout droit, la 
route conduit a Knoxville. En prenant a gauche un peu avant Green, la 
route conduit a French broad. II y a 27 M. de John Borough a Green 
Court house. 

Le 21 passe par Bull's gap 18 M. de Green. 

Le 22 passe par Iron Works 30 Miles de Bull's gap. II n'y a que quatre 
Miles distance a la rivierre dite Houlston riv. A deux miles de Iron 
Works, il y a un Rocher de mineral dont les morceaux etant broyes et mis 
en poudre donnent une teinture rouge au coton ; Ton fait bouillir ce min- 
eral <frc. 

Le 23 mon cheval etant blesse", je fus oblige de sejourner a un Mile de 

* Rhododendron arborescens, Torrey. C. 8. S. 

1888.] 1 17 [Miehaux. 

Iron Works sur Mossy Creek cliez le nomine" Newman ; Pres de sa mai- 
sou, ( mile) Ton trouve le mineral que je suppose etre de 1'Antimoine. 

Le Dimanche 24, arrive" chez le Colonel King sur Houlston riv. au lieu 
dit Macby ferry 15 Miles de Iron Work. 

Le 25 passe" le ferry et arrive* a Knoxville, 15 miles de Macby ferry, resi- 
dence du Gouverneur des Western territories, 110 Miles de Johns bor- 
ough. Plantes et Arbres du Territoire de Knoxville et des Territoies 
adjacents: Quercus prinus saxosa ; Q. pr. humilis : Q. rubra ; Q. proe- 
morsa ; Q. tomentosa ; Q. pinnatifida ; Q. alba. . . . Ultnus viscosa ; 
Ulm. fungosa ; Fraxinus . . . Diospiros Virginiana ; Liquidambar 
etyracifl.; Juglans nigra, alba seu oblonga, hiccory pignut. Platanus 
occidentalis ; Nyssa aquatica ; Fagus castanea americana ; Fag. pumila ; 
Fag. sylvatica americana; Magnolia acuminata; Betula alnus americanus; 
Cercis Canadensis; Cornus florida ; Evonimus latifolius, Evon. Ameri- 
canus ; Podophyllum peltatum ; Jeffersonia ; Sanguinaria Canadensis ; 
Trillium sessile. 

Reste toute la semaine a Knoxville et herborise aux environs en attend- 
ant une caravanne asses nombreuse pour passer les Wilderness. 

Le Dimanche 31 May re<ju avis de vingt cinq voyageurs armes sur le 
point d'arriver a Knoxville. 

Le Lundy l er Juin 1795, vieux style, le voyage fut encore differe. 

Le Jeudy 4 Juin parti de Knoxville et couche a 15 miles chez le captain 
Camel au lieu dit Camel station. 

Le Vendredy 5, couche au lieu dit West Point sur Clinch river, Poste de 
eoldats pour garder les frontieres du territoire, 25 M. de Camel station. 

Le 6 parti et traverse la rivierre dans un Bacq ou ferry dependant de 
West Point station. Notre marche fut de 10 Miles. Le nombre des 
Voyageurs etoit de 15 horames armes et plus de trente femmes et enfants. 

Le Dimanche 7 Juin traverse les Montagnes dites Cumberland Moun- 
tains, 22 Miles. 

Le 8 continue notre marche dans les Montagnes 23 Miles, Magnolia pe- 
talis basi purpureis.* 

Le mardy 9 Juin 1795, moute et descendu alternativem nt les Montagnes. 
Dans les fonds Magnolia tripetala en abondance, 25 Miles. 

Le 10 arrive sur Cumberland River, 10 Miles et couche au de la 20 Miles. 

Le 11 arrive a Blodsoe Lick ou Blodsoe station, 20 Miles. En totalite 
120 Miles de Willderness. 

Couche a cet endroit ou Ton trouve de quoi vivre pour les hommes et 
pour les Chevaux. 

Le Vendredy 12, venu a un Mile chez le Colonel Winchester ; couche 
deux nuits pour me reposer et reposer mon Cheval. 

Le Dimanche 14 herborise. 

Le 15 venu chez un habitant pres la Rivierre Cumberland M tcr - Jack- 

* Probably M. msicraphylla, Michx. In the Flora it is described as growing only "in 
regionibus occidentalibus fluvio Teanassee trvjectis." C. S. S. 

Michaux.} [Oct. 19, 

son terrain fertile. Chines, Quercus prinus : Q. rubra, Q. glandibus mag- 
nis, capsula includentibus, nommes Overcup White Oak.* Q. toraentosa ,f 
Q. prcemorsa. 25 Miles. 

Le 16 arrive a Nashville 12 Miles. 

Total 197 Miles de Knoxville a Nashville, capitale des Etablissemenls 
de Cumberland situee sur la riv. Cumberland. 

Le 17 visile differentes personnes, Daniel Smith, Col. Robertson, Capt. 
Gordon, . . . Deaderick, D r White, Th. Craighead, &c &c. 

Les jours suivans herborise. 

Arbres du Territoire de Nashville ; 

Quercus prinus ; Q. phellos latifolia ; Q. pinnatifida ; Q. foliis lyratis 
subtus tomentosis calycibus maximis margine laciniatis glandib. includ- 
entibus Vulgo ; Over cup White Oak $ Q. rubra : Q, tomentosa ; Acer 
naecharum, A. negundo, A. rubrum : Jugl. nigra, oblonga, hiccory : Plata- 
nus occidentalis ; Liquidamber styraciflua ; Ulmus viscosa fungosa ; Car- 
pinus Ostrya ainericana ; Rhamnus Alaternus latifolius, Rh. fraiigula ?|| 
frutex prunifer ; Juniperus' Virginiana. Rives de Cumberland rivierre 
Philadelph. ined. ; Aristolochiasipho-tom;^[ Mimosa erecta-herbacea ; Mi- 
rabilis** claudestina seu umbellata seu parviflora ; Hypericum Kalmian- 

Sol de Nashville argilleux, pierreux, Roches calcaires a peu pies comme 
celui du Kentuckey, situation des Roches horizontales, rarement des 
Veines de Quartz dans les Roches, abondantes en petrifications marines. 

Le Diinanche 21 Juin 1795 tue et depouille q.q. oiseaux. 

Oiseaux : Robin, Cardinal, Tetrao, Lanius Tyrannus rare, Quantite tlu 
Genre Muscicapa ; peu d'especes du Genre Picus : Dindes sauvag. Quad- 
rupedes : Rat musque, Castor, Elk, Cerfs nains, Ours, Buffalos, Loups, 
Ecureuils petits gris. 

Mineraux : sol argilleux. Roches calcaires touj. dans une situation 
horizontale ; Ardoises impures, schistus tabularis ; Petrifications de co- 
quillages terrestres et des eaux douces. 

Le lundy 22 Juin 1795 (V. st.) 4 de Messidor Van 3 e de la Republ., parii 
de Nashville pour le Kentuckey; passe par Mansko's Lick, 12 miles de 
Nashville ; couche chez le Major Sharp. 29 M. de Nashville. 

Le 23 traverse les Barren oaks et couche sur . . . Creek. II n'y a 
aucune maison dans cet interval. Le Terrein ne prod. q. des chnes noirs 
30 M. 

Le 24 passe par Big Barren Riv : Celui qui tient le Ferry est bien fourni 
de provisions. II y a 3 Mites de Creek . . . 

* Quercus macrocctrpa, Miohx. , ''here first mentioned. C. S. S. 

t Q. bicotor, Willd. C. S. S. 

j Q. lyrata, Nutt C. S. S. 

g Ulmus fulva, Miehx.- C. S. S. ' x 

| Rhammts Caroliniana, Gray. C. S. S. 

f A. tjjnentosa, Sims. C. S. S. 

** Oxybaphus nyclagineus, Sweet. (AUionia nyctaginea, Michx ) ? C. S. S. 

ft Probably Hypericum aureum, Bartram. C. S. S. 

1888.] [Michaux. 

Traverse les Barrens et couche sur terre sane feu et sans laisser pattre 
mon chev. a 1'ecartde crainte deB Sauv. 

Le 25 passe" par Little Barren Riv. prem. habitation 43 M. de Big Bar- 
ren Riv. Passe ensuite par Green River 6 Miles de Little Barren River. 

Le 26 passe par Roland fork, head of Salt River 30 Miles de Green 

Le 27 arrive a Danville 35 M. de Roland old fork. 

Nashville a Danville la plus ancienne ville du Kentukey 117 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 28 Juin repose. 

Le 29 depouille trois Ecureuils rayes (Sciurus striatus.) 

Le 39 herborise. 

Le Mercredy l er Juillet 1795 visiles chez plusieurs habitants. 

Le 2 pluye" continuelle. 

Le 3 mis en ordre mes anciennes Collections. 

Le 4. 

Le Dimanche 5 Juillet. * 

Le Dimanche 12 Juillet dine chez le Gouverneur de 1'Etat de Kentuckey 
Isaac Shelby. 

Le jeudy 16 Juillet 1795 party de Danville. 

Le 17 passe par Beardston quarante trois Miles de Danv. 

Le 18 arrive chez Standford pres Man's Lick. 

Le Dimanche 19 reste pour attendre mon Baggage. 

Le 20 reste, et e*tant oblige de sejourner, observe les Ouvrages concern- 
ant la fabrication du Sel. Les Puits pour tirer 1'eau salee so nt ere use's a 
. . . pieds environ de profondeur. L'on trouve une argille bourbeuse 
jusqu'a . . . pieds de profondeur. Ensuite . . . pieds d'une 
roche d'ardoise. Lorsque Ton a perce la roche, on trouve 1'eau salee de 
plus de . . . pieds de profondeur. Cette ardoise brule dans le feu 
comme si elle etoit impregnee de bitume ou entierement composee de 
cette substance. L'on a trouve" des ossements de ces grands corps marins 
qui sont asses frequents sur les rives de 1'Ohio, dans 1'argille impure que 
Ton creusa pour arriver jusqu'a la roche d'ardoise. 

Le 21 Juillet, arrive a Louisville 40 M. de Beardstown. 

Le 22 et le 23 sejourne et herborise. 

Le 24 retourne a Manslick 16 M. de Louisville. 

Le 25 revenu a Louisv. 

Le Dimanche 26 Juillet herborise. 

Plantes des environs de Louisville: Quercus cerroides.f Q. rubra ; Q. 
alba ; Q. prinus ; Liriodendron ; Fagus castanea, F. sylv. ; Rhus fol. 
alatis dioique ; Hibiscus:}: fol. hastatis calyce exteriore lacin. subulatis flore 
pallide roseo ; 

* A part of one leaf of the Journal is here left blank. C. S. S. 
t Probably some form of Quercus alba, Michx. C. S. S. 
I Hibiscus militaris, Cav. (It. hastatus, Michx.) C. S. S. 

I Here follow to the end of this part of the Journal separate memoranda on loose 
sheets. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Observat. sur les vignes d'Am. Lincoln, Carol, sept. Vitis fol. tomen- 
tosis baccis majorib. : fructifie au commencement <T Aoust, est nomine fox 

2) Vitis fol. tomentosis baccis minoribus, fructifie vers le 10 Septembre 
est nomme Summer grape est le meilleur de tous a manger et tres bon si 
on le laisse entierem 4 murir.f 

3) Vitis fol. glabris baccis majorib. est aussi repute bon a manger et 
a faire du vin, Muscadin grapes par les habitans, fructifie vers le 20 Sept.J 

4) Vitis fol. glabris reticulat : baccis minorib, croit au long des ruisseaux 
et des rivierres. Winter grapes. 

Supplement. 5) Vitis fol. crenatis acuminatis glabris caule repente, 
Vitis repens. seu Vitis riparia. 
(A Charleston Juillet. 
Sol. se lasse couche a 7 h env. 
Aoust 5 h 15' . . . 6.45 a 6.30. 
Septembre 5.45 . . . 6.15.) 

CAHIEB 9. 1795 ET 1796. 
ANNEE 1795. 

Le Samedy premier Aoust prepare a partir pour les Wabash et les 

Le Dimanche 2 je fus invite a diner chez un francjais nomme La Cassagne 
resident a Louisville depuis plus de 15 Ans. 

Arbres arbrisseaux et Plantes du territoire de Louisville 

Liriodendron tulipifera; Platanus occidentalis ; Acer rubrum foliis in- 
ferno argenteis ; Fagus sylvatica americana : Quercus rubra, Q. alba, Q. 
praemorsa, | Q. prinus, Q. cerroides ;{ Tilia americana; Juglans nigra, 
Jugl. alba, Jugl. hiccory, (Jugl. pacane rare) ; Gleditsia triacantlios, 
Guilandina dioica. 

Le Dimanche 9 Aoust 1795 parti de Louisville et couche a Clarksville 
a deux miles de Louisville sur la Rive opposed de TOhio. 

Le 10 nous nous sommes mis en route et nous sommes arrive au Post 
Vincennes situe sur la IHyierre Wabash le Jeudy au soir 13 Aoust : La 
Distance est evaluee cent vingt cinq Miles : Nous avons traverse une 

* Vitis Ldbrusca, L. C. S. S. 

t Vitis sesUvalis, Michx. C. S. S. 

% Vitis vulpina, L. C. S. S. 

\ Vitis cordifolia, Michx. C. S. S. 

|| It is not clear what Species are here referred to. Q. prxmorsa is probably Q. macro- 
carpa, anfl Q. cerroides some form of Q. alba, although later in the Journal it is spoken of 
as an overcup oak. C. S. S. 



Rivierre le jour de notre arrivee environ 20 miles avant d'arriver au Post 
Vincennes et quoique les Eaux fussent alors tres basses, nous ftimes sur 
la point de faire un Radeau, car le Pays n'est point habile sur cette Route. 
C'est de tous les Voyages que j'aye fait en Amerique depuis 10 ans un des 
plus penibles par la multitude d'Arbres renverse"s par les ouragans, par 
les broussailles epaisses que Ton est oblige de travsrser ; par la quantite" 
de Tiques dont on est devore &c. 

Le 14, le 15 et le Dimanche 16 Aoust je fus oblige de me reposer, etant 
arrive presque malade. Mon cheval en sautant pour passer sur le tronc 
d'un gros arbre renverse", tomba et me jeta a une grande distance et je 
fus pendant plusi. jours incommode d'une blessure au bas de la Poitrine 
vers le cote gauche parce que la batterie de mon fusil avoit porte sur 
cette partie. 

Le 17 je passay une partie de la journe"e a herboriser au long de la 
Rivierre Wabash. 

Je coutinuay mes herborisations les jours suivans. 

Le 18 Aoust 1795. 

Liste des Plantes remarquees aux Wabash. 

No. l er Verbena* urticifolia caule erecto, paniculis divaricatis, bracteis 
flore brevioribus, florib. albis. 

No. 2. Verbenaf . . . , caule erecto paniculis fastigiatis erectis, 
bracteis et calycib. pilosis, florib. purpureo-ceruleis. 

No. 3. Verbena:}: caule recto, paniculis rectis foliis ovatis, tomentosis, 

No. 4. Verbena . . 

No. 5. Verbena^ caule repente, foliis pinnatifidis, bracteis longissimis. 

Silphium perfoliatum, S. connatum, S. laciniatum, S. grandifolium, S. 
trifoliaturn, S. pinnatifldum. Andropogon muticum ; Holcus? . . . : 
Poa ; Quercus cerroides ChSne frise Overcup White Oak ; 

Quercus latifolia ChSne a latte Ram's Oak : Quercus . . . Polygonum 
aviculare staminib. 5, Styl. 3 : Polyg. aviculare majus staminb. 5, Styl. 3. 
Trifolium? pentandrum majus; Trifolium? pentandrum floribus pur- 
pureis : Sanicula || marylandica ou Racine a Becquel par les Francais des 
Illinois et Sakinte"pouah par les Sauvages Pians : La racine en d coction 
est un souverain remede pour plusi. maladies et pour les maladies veneri- 
euses inveterees. 

Le Dimanche 23 Aoust 1795 parti de Post Vincennes situe 1 sur la Rivierre 
Wabash pour les Illinois sur le Mississippi. Nous avons fait 6 Miles 
et nous avons camp6 sur le bord d'une Petite Rivierre. Je n'avois 
d'autre compagnie qu'un Sauvage et sa femme. J'avois loue" le Sauvage 
po. dix Piastres et je lui promis deux Piastres de plus po. 1'engager a por- 
ter sur son cheval tout mon baggage. 

* V. urticifolia, L. C. S. S. 
t V. hastate, L. ?-C. S. S. 
J V. utricia, Vent. (V. ringens, Michx.)-C. S. S. 
g V. bracteosa, Michx. C. S. S. 
II Spigelia. ? C. S. S. 
PROC. AMER. PHIL08. 8OC. XXVI. 129. P. PRINTED MARCH 25, 1889. 

Michaux.] 122 [Oct. 19, 

Le 24 nons avons fait environ 25 Miles ; le Sauvage etoit malade et 
il fut oblige de s'arreter plus de trois heures avant le coucher du soleil. 

Le 25 traverse plusieurs Prairies; Remarque une nouvelle espece de 
Gerardia,* Tige communement simple, feuill. o vales opposees sessiles, 
fleurs axillaires fleurs purpurines. 

Le 26 la Provision de viande fut consommee : le Sauvage s'arreta de 
tres bonne heure, voyant un endroit favorable a la chasse. D'ailleurs, il 
tomba sur les trois heures apres midi une Pluye considerable. Une heure 
apres avoir cainpe, le Sauvage revint chargS d'un jeune Ours et de deux 
cuisse d'un autre beaucoup plus vieux. L'on fit bouillir deux fois la 
marmite et nous avons eu de quoi nous rasassier. L'on fit rotir ce qui 

Le 27 le Sauvage tua deux cerfs. L'on s'arrete de trs bonne heure 
pour faire secher les Peaux et pour manger, car le Sauvage ainsi que la 
Sauvagesse mangeoient cinq repas par jour. Non obstant cela ils se 
regaloient de la mouelle des os qu'ils mangeoient toute crue. Car ne pou- 
vant emporter la viande, ils se contentoient d'un morceau des reins de 
1 "animal. 

Le 28 Aoust 17U5 autant je souhaitois voir du Gibier le l er et le 2 jour, 
autant je craignois alors d'en voir par la perte du temps. Je soulmitois 
d'autant plus d'avancer qu'il pleuvoit tous les jours. J'avois deja ete 
oblige de faire secher au feu, une fois mon baggage qui avoit ete com- 
plettement mouille particulierem 1 quatre livres de Botanique, Mineralogie 
que j'avois avec moi, n'ayant pas voulu les exposer au hasard de la Rivi- 
erre, ayant envoye par le Mississippi deux Malles, contenant Papier gris, 
Poudre, Plomb, Alum, Boites a recueillir des Insectes et tous les objets 
necessaires a faire des Collections de Plantes, d'Animaux, d'Insectes et de 

Le Diinanche 30 Aoust arrive au village de Kaskaskia, situe a deux 
miles du fleuve Mississipi et a un demi mile de la Rivierre Kaskaskia. II 
est peuple par des anciens franqais sous le Gouvernement Americain. Le 
nombre des families est d'environ quarante cinq. La situation en est 
agreable, mais le nombre des habitans est diminue, Ton n'y voit que des 
maisons en ruines et abandonnees, parce que les franqais des Illinois ayant 
toujours e"te Sieve's et habitue's au commerce des Pelleteries avec les sau- 
vages sont devenus les plus paresseux et les plus ignoracts de tous les 
hommes. Ils vivent et ils sont habilles la pluspart en partie a la maniere 
des Sauvages. Ils ne portent point de culotes, mais ils passent entre les 
cuisses une piece de drap*d'environ un tiers d'aulne qui est retenue devant 
et derriere au dessus des Reins avec une ceinture. 

Le 31 Aoust herborise. 

Le Mardi premier Septembre, continue mes herborisations, ainsi que le 
2, le 3 et le 4 dudit. 

Le 5 parti pour le village dit la Prairie du Rocher eloigne de 15 miles 
de KHskaskia : Pass<$ par le village S l Phillipe, abttndonne par les Fran- 

* G. auriculala, Michx. C. S. S. 

1888.] fMichaux. 

Qais et peuple" par trois families d' Americains. Ce village est a 9 Miles 
de la Prairie du Rooher. 

Le 6 arrive a Kaskia situe pres du Mississipi a ... Miles de la Prairie 
du Rocher. 

Le 7 herborise et visile les environs de Kaskia. 

Le 8 parti pour revenir a Kaskaskia et arrive le 9. 

Le 10 continue mes herborisations aux environs du Village Kaskaskia 
jusqu' au 13 dudit. 

Le Dimanche 13 Septembre passe avec un guide sauvage sur la rive 
meridionale de la Riv. Kaskaskia et continue a herboriser sur cette partie 
jusqu' au 18 dudit. 

Le 18 et 19 Pluyes continuelles. Mis en ordre mes Collections et repose 
mon cheval. 

Le Dimanche 20 ... 

Kaskaskia 45 families. Prairie du Rocher 22 a 24 famill. S nt Phillipe 
3 famill. Americains. Fort de Chartres en mines. Kaskias 120 families. 
Americains a la Corne de Cerf et a Bellefontaine 35 famill. S nt Louis 
florissant Pet. cotes. 

Le Vendredy 2 Octobre parti pour aller par terre vers remboucliure de 
1'Ohio dansle Mississipi ; par la difficulte de passer la riv. Kaskaskia nous 
avons marche seulement 12 Miles. 

Le 3 et le Dim. 4 Pluyes et nous avons traverse plusieurs prairies ; 
marche environ 27 M. 

Le 5 passe* encore les Prairies entrecoupees de lisieres de Bois. Mon 
guide tua un Elk nomme par les Canadiens et par les fran^ais Illinois 
Cerf. Get animal est beaucoup plus gros (deux fois plus gros) que le Cerf 
nain des Etats-Unis qui abonde aussi aux Illinois et que les fran^ais de ces 
contre*es nomment Chevreuil. Son bois est le double plus gros que celui 
des Cerfs d' Europe. II y a audessous de chacun des deux yeux une 
cavite qui se tient refermee, mais en ecartant les deux espece de paupieres 
Ton peut enfoncer le doigt un pouce avant. Cette cavite paroit destinee 
a la secretion de q.q. humeur. En effet, ayant ouvert cette cavite, j'y 
trouvay une matiere de la forme et de la consistence d'une crote des 
Lievres ; mais de la grosseur d'un gland de chene. Get animal a des 
dents canines en haut et en bas comme celles des chevaux nominees 
crochets. Les chasseurs disent q. cet animal est touj. tres gras. En eflet 
celui-ci 1'etoit excessivement. Marche environ 32 M. 

Le 6 entre dans les forets et traverse plusieurs rivierres. MarchS . . . 

Le 7 Octobre 1795 mon guide tua un Bufle qu'il jugea avoir environ 
quatre ans. II paroissoit peser plus de neuf cens livres. Comme il n'etoit 
pas bien gras, mon guide me dit qu'il e"toittres ordinaire a cet age d'en voir 
de plus de douze cens livres. II paroissoit plus gros qu'aucun des Boeufs 
de France et les surpasser en longeur et en grosseur. 

Le Jeudy 8 Vu un autre Bufle a trente toises de notre Chemin. Nous 
nous arrStames pour le considerer. II rnarcha ties lentena 1 ' mais apres 

Michaux.] : [Oct. 19, 

deux minutes il s'arrgta et nous ayant reconnu, il courut av. une vitesse 
extraordinaire : Arrive ce mehne jour au Fort Cheroquis autrement nomine 
par les americains Fort Massac 125 Miles. 

Le 9 Octobre 1795 herborise au long du Mississipi ; Platanus, Liquidamb. 
Bonducs, Noyers pacanes et Noyers hiccory, par les francos Noyers durs : 
Noyers piquants (par les francais Noyer amer.) Noyers a noix rondes. 
ChSne blanc, Quercus alba, Q. rubra ramosissim. Q. cerroides (par les 
fr. chene frisS et par les Am. overcup White Oak.) Q. prinus, Quercus 
integrifolia* seu Q. foliis junioribus omnibus et adultis semper integerri- 
mis margine undulatis apice setaceis. Cette espece de chene abonde au 
Pays des Illinois. II perd ses feuilles plus tard q. les autr. especes de 
Chene. Les habitans fran^ais le nomment Chne a lattes. Dans la Basse 
Caroline il est asses rare mais il y garde ses feuilles jusqu' au mois de 
Fevrier et Mars. II paroit se rapprocher du Chne verd dont il differe par 
la forme de ses glands. 

Nyssa montana asses rare ; Gleditsia triacanthos ; Robinia pseudoacacia 
(par les francjais fevier.) Le Gl. triacanthos est nomme fev. epineux et le 
Guilandina dioica Gros fevier et les graines Gourganes ; Nota. II y a dans 
la riv. des Illinois, une esp. ou variete de Guilandina dioica dont les graines 
ont plus du double de grosseur de celles des Rives du Mississipi, du Cum- 
berland &c. Lianne Rajariioides ; Anonymosf ligustroides ; VitisJ mono- 
sperma, cette espece se trouve au long des Rivierres et nullement dans 
1'interieur des bois ; je 1'ay vu sur la Rivierre Kaskaskia, sur le Mississipi 
aux environs du fort Massac, sur la rivierre Tenasse, mais elle couvre en- 
tierement les rives de la riv. Cumberland depuis son embouchure jusqu' 
a la distance de 45 M. 

Le Dimanche 11 Octobre 1795 parti avec un Guide pour aller en Canot 
remonter la rivierre (Shavanon) Cumberland. La pluye nous obligea de 

Le Mardy 13 engage deux hommes a une piastre par jour chacun pour 
remonter les Rivierres du Territoire des Sauvages Cheroquis : Parti du 
fort Cheroquis, dit Fort Massac. La distance est six Miles po. arriver a 
1'embouchure de la Rivierre Tenassee par les Franqais. Illin. Rivierre 
Cheroquis. Cette riv. est tres grande et tres large. Apres avoir remonte 
environ six miles, ayant vu des traces d'Ours sur les bords, nous nous 
arrgtames et en entrant dans le bois il se presenta une Ours femelle av. 
trois jeunes. Le chien poursuivit la Mere et les jeunes ayant grimpe sur 
un arbre j'en tuay un et les guides tuerent les deux autres. Nous pas- 
sames la nuit en cet endfoit. Le 14 Brouillard tres epais, nous n'avons 
marche que 5 Miles. La Pluye survint vers midy. 

Le 16 nage* ou ram environ dix M. a cause d'un Vent tres considerable 

* Q. imbricaria, Michx.-C. S. S. 

+ Forestiera acuminata. Poir. (Adelia acuminata. Michx.) 

t VUis riparia, Michx., or, more probably, in part, at least, V. palmata, Vahl. ( V. rubra, 
Michx. in herb.), a species which is often monospermous, and which was discovered by 
Michaux in this region and merged by him with his V. riparia. C. S. 8. 

1888.] 125 [Michaux. 

qui avoit commence par une tempe*te la nuit precedente et qui continua 
une partie de la journe"e. Nous avons campe* vis a vis une Isle ou Chaine 
de Rochers qui traverse la Rivierre presque entierement. II y a cepend- 
ant un courant sur le bord de la Rive ineridionale asses profond, sufflsant 
pour le passage de gros batteaux 

Rives de la rivierre Cheroquis (Tenassee) : Platanus : Juglans pacana, 
Hiccori, pignut ; Liquidambar ; Quercus rubra, prinus ; Anonymos carpi- 
noides ; Anonymos ligustroides ;* Betula australis Bouleauf a ecorce grise 
qui se trouve dans toute 1'Ameriq. depuis la Virginie j usque dans les 
Florides ; il differe du Betula papyrifera ; Bignonia catalpa : Ulmus ; 
Fraxinus ; Vitis rubra seu monosperma ; Gleditsia triacanthos : Diospiros ; 
Smilax pseudochina ; Bignonia crucigera, radicans ; Rajania . . . 
Dioecia 8-dria : Populus Caroliniana, par les Franc,. Creoles Liard et par 
les Americains Coton tree. (Nota : Le Peuplier du Canada est nomme 
par les Canadiens Tremble et paries Anglais du Canada Quaking Aspeii.) : 
Acer rubrum, saccharinum, negundo : Anonymos ligustroides ; Anonym, 
ulmoides. J 

(Le 22 Juin 1795. selon la Gazette Agents de la Republique franchise 
reconnus par le President Washington. 

Philip Joseph Letombe Consul Gen u 

Theod. Charles Mozard, Cons, a Boston. 

Jean Anth. Bern Rosier C. a N. York. 

Leon Delauriay Pensylvania 

Louis Etienne Duhait Maryland.) 

Le 15 Octobre 1795 herborise. 

Le 16 descendu la rivierre et campe a 1'embouchure de la Rivierre 
Shavanon dit Cumberland river par les Americains a dix huit Miles du 
Fort Massac ; tue un Oie du Canada nommee par les franc,. Canadiens et 
Illinois Outarde ; tue deux Poules d'eau, un Martin pgcheur d'Amerique, 
un Pelican d'am. 

Le 17 remonte" environ dix Miles dans la Rivierre, les bords e*toient tres 
fre*quentes par les Dindes sauvages ; les Rameurs et inoi nous en tuames 
cinq en passant et de notre Canot sans descendre a terre. 

Le 18 continue* notre course vers le haut de la Rivi. 

Le 19 descendu la rivierre. 

Le Mardy 20 Octobre 1795 revenu au Fort Cheroquis dit Fort Massac. 

Arbres et Plantes aux environs sur les Rives de 1'Ohio. 

Platanus occidentalis par les Americains Sycamore, et par les francjs- 
Illinois cotonnier ; Populus par les Am. Coton tree et par les francjais- 
Illinois Liard : Celtis occid. par les Am. Hackberry tree et par les frangs. 
Bois inconnu ; Liquidambar styraciflua par les franc/iis de la Louisiane 
Copalm et par les Am. . . . 

Un franQois qui commenjoit chez les Sauvages Cheroquis s'est gueri de 

* Ibrestiera ligustrina, Poir. (Adelia ligustrina, Michx.). C. S. S. 
t Betula nigra. L. (B. lanulosa. Michx.). C. S. S. 
I Planera aquatica, Gmel. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] 126 [Oct. 19, 

la Galle en buvant pendant dix jours la decoction des Copeaux de cet arbre 
qu'il nommoit Copalm et qui est le vrai Liquidambar: Gleditsia triacanthos, 
fevier par les franc,, et sweet locust par les am ; 

Guilandina dioica ;* 

Le Dirnanche 25 Octobre 1795 Spiraea trifoliata est un purgatif usite par 
les Sauvag. et par les franc,ais- Illinois. Us le nomment Papiconah. Aux 
environs du Fort Cheroquis, Ton trouve aussi le Geranium dit herbe ou 
plutot Racine a Becquet que Ton donne pour les Maladies chroniquea 
pendant plusi. semaines ; Ton y ajoute souvent la Veronica virginica qui 
est nominee par les fr. : herbe a quatre feuilles.f 

Le Dimanche premier Novembre je fus oblige de differer mon Depart, 
mon Cheval n'ayant point ete trouve. 

Le Vendredy 6, mon Cheval fut ramene au Fort et je me preparay 
immediatement a parlir pour les Illinois. Parti le mine jour et marche 
environ dix huit Miles. 

Le 7 la Pluye commence des le matin et continua toute la journee : 
Reste campe sous un Rocher ou je m'etois arrete la veille avec mon Guide. 

Le Dimanche 8 voyage" dans les bois et les Collines. 

Le 9 meme. 

Le 10 arrive vers le soir aux Prairies. 

Le 11 traverse les Prairies. 

Le 12 vers le soir Rentre de nouveau dans les Bois et couche* a 7 Miles 
de la rivierre Kaskaskia 

Le 13 arrive avant dejeune a Kaskaskia environ 130 Miles du Fort 

Le 13 Novembre je me suis repose. 

Le Dimanche 14 j'ay ete a la chasse aux Dies de Canada. 

Le 15 mis en ordre mes Collections de graines. 

Le 16 mme occupation. 

Le 17 j'ay ete a la Chasse 

Le Jeudy 18 parti po. aller a la Prairie du Rocher. 

Le 19 Chasse aux Canards. 

Le 20 Chas&e aux Oies. 

Le Dimanche 22 fait des visiles. 

Le 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 et le 28 visite les Montagnes de Roche qui bordent 
le Pays habile ; Opussums, Racoons, Oiseaux aquatiques &c. 

Le Dimanche 29 Novemb. j'ay e"te* au Village S l Philippe, dit le Petit 

Le 30 visite le Fort de Chartres. 

Le Mardy l er De*cembre parti pour Kaskaskias et j'y ay reste. 

Le 2 et 3 dud. Pris des arrangemens avec Richard pour aller par eau & 

Le 4 revenu a la Prairie du Rocher. 

* A blank of 5 days in the Journal occurs here. C. S. 8. 
t There is here a second blank of 5 days, C. S. S, 

1888.] 127 [Michaux. 

Le 5 je me suis prepare a partir. Einbourre une Oie sauvage a lete 

Le Dimanche 6 parti de nouv. pour Kaskaskias. 

Le 7 il m'a ete confirme* de nouv. que la 2 e Ecorce du Celtis occidentals 
(nommee aux Illinois Bois connu et vers la N e Orleans Bois inconnu.) est 
un excellent reinede po. guerir la jaunisse, Ton y ajoute une poignee de 
racine ou des feuil. de Srailax sarsaparilla ; Ton en fait usage pendant 
environ liuit jo. en decoction. 

Le 8 Decembre 1795. Les Francais Creoles nomment 1'espece de Smilax 
qui se trouve aux Illinois, Squine. II n'y croit q. cette seule espece qui 
suit epineuse elle perd ses feuilles en Automne. L'autre espece est her- 
bacee et grimpante. 

Le 9 Decembre. La racine de Fagara en decoct, est un puissant remede 
pour guerir le mal de la Rate. Je ne doute par que Ton ne puisse faire 
usage de celle de Zanthoxilum clava-Herculi pour les obstructions du foie 
et de la Rate. 

Le 10 : Bignonia Catalpa,* po. les Creoles- frangais Bois Shavanon ; 
Cercis canadensjs, Bois noir ; Liriodend. tulipifera, Bois jaune ; Nyssa, 
Olivier. Les ouvriers emploient pour faire des Roues des voitures le Bois 
du Padus Virginiana, po. jantes Ornie, po. les Moyeux, et chne blanc po. 
les Rays. 

Le onze Decembre. Confirme de nouveau que la racine de la Veronica 
Virginiana vulgairement Herbe a quatre feuill. en decoction pendant un 
mois est efflcace pour la cure des Maladies veneriennes : L'on fait bouillir 
quatre ou cinq de ces racines. Comme cette boisson est purgative, Ton 
doit augmenter ou diminuer la force de cette Ptisanne en y mettant plus 
ou moins de racine ou bien en la faisant bouillir plus ou moins selon 1'effet 
que Ton eprouve. II sufflt que Ton e*prouve pendant les l ers jours le ven- 
tre relache et plus libre qu'a 1'ordinaire : il n'est pas surpreiiant que le 
l er jour Ton ait 3 ou 4 selles. 

J'ay ete informe aux Illinois que MacKey Scotchman & Even Velsh 
sont partis vers la fin de Juillet 1795 de S nt Louis po. remonter le Missouri 
sur une Barge a 4 rames. Us sont aides par une Societe* dont Ch. Morgan 
Creole des Isles est le Sindic. 

Le Decembre 1795. 

Le Dimanche 13 j'ay fait les derniers preparatifs po. le voyage de Cum- 

Le 14 parti pour Cumberland ; passe a la Saline sur le territoire Espagnol ; 
Remarque Tagetoides : Appris la nouvelle de la paix entre la France et 
1'Espagne. Couche a six miles de la Saline. Remarque sur les bords du 
fleuve Mississippi Equisetum que les franqais-creoles nomment Prgle ; 
Cette Plante a ici pres d'un pouce de circonterence et la tige 4 pieds de 

Le 15 passe par le Cap. S l C&me au bas du quel le Mississipi forme un 

* This, doubtless, is C. specioea, Warder, the only indigenous species in this region. C.S.S 

Michaux.] 128 [Oct. 19, 

angle ; Ton y peche du Poisson en abondance ; il y a dix huit Miles de 
distance de Kaskaskia : Campe au Girardeau 17 lieues de Kaskaskia. 

Le 16 continue pendant 6 heures ayant des Collines et des Roches sur 
les rives du fleuve, ensuite des terres basses. Nous sommes venus camper 
a I'embouchure de la Belle Rivierre dans le Mississipi. Sur la rive 
opposee, etoit campe le Gouveneur Don Gayoso, Gouv. des Natchez et de 
la haute Louisianne. II envoya un Bateau pour scjavoir qui nous etions et 
ayant appris que j'e'tois passager, il vint me voir. II m'annouca la 
nouv e de la Paix entre la France et 1'Espagne. II me fit offre de ses ser- 
vices. II y a dix huit lieues du Cap. Giradeau a I'Embouchure de la 
Belle Rivierre et en tout 35 lieues des Illinois. 

Le 17 campe a environ 7 lieues de distance. 

Le 18 arrive aupres du Fort Massac ; sept lieues. 

Le 19 campe vis-a-vis le Confluent de la Riv. Cheroquis dit Tenasse. 

Le Dimanche 20 passe* par la Pacaniere ; c'est un Marais considerable 
sur la cote Nord Quest borde de Noyers Pacanes, situe vis a vis ou plutot 
un peu avant d'entrer dans la Riv. Cumberland. 

Le dit jour Dimanche 20 Decembre, entre dans la Rivierre Shavanon 
dite Cumberland River dont 1' Embouchure est a six g'randes lieues du 
Fort Massac : Couche deux lieues au dessus de 1'Embouchure. 

Le 21 navigue environ 8 lieues. 

Le 22 navigue environ 7 lieues et nous sommes venu coucher au grand 
Remoult dont le distance est evaluee a quarante cinq miles de 1'embou- 

Le 23 nous sommes venu camp, audessus de Tlsle aux Saules : navigue 
environ 12 Miles ou 4 lieues. 

Le 24 reste campe ; Pluye toute la journee. La Rivierre, dont la navi- 
gation avoit e*te tres facile jusqu' a ce jour, augmenta considerablement et 
se repandit dans les bois. 

Le 25 la Pluye continua et fut mlee de grle : Reste au Camp. 

Le 26 Reste campe a cause de 1'augmentation de la rivierre dont le 
courant toit trop rapide. 

Le Dimanche 27 Decembre 1795. navigue environ 4 Miles seulement a 
cause de la difficulte de ramer contre le courant de la rivierre ; Campe a 
I'embouchure de Little River. 

Le 28 passe sur la rive opposee. Le courant qui etoit aussi rapide q. les 
jours precedens, nous fore, a de camper : Gelee blanche. 

Le 29 il survint de nouveau une Pluye considerable. Reste* campe. 

Le 30 la Rivierre ayant deborde et submerge* toutes les parties du bois, 
nous delogeames du camp et nous retournames a la petite rivierre Little 
river ; nous remontames jusqu' a ce que nous trouvames une Colline 
asses haute po. ne pas craindre los debordements. Pluye. 

Le 31 le temps devint clair, le vent passa au Nord, maia la rivierre con- 
tinua a de" border. La plupart allerent chasser aux Dindes sauvages. 

1888.] J 29 [Michaux. 

Le Vendredy premier Janvier 1796. Vent du nord, Gele"e ; Rivierre 
aumente'e d'un pouce pendant la nuit. 

Sur les environs de Little river, Pays entremeMe de Collines : Sol argil- 
leux, Terre vegetale tres riche, Roche dc Silex tres peu ferrugineuse. 
Pierre calcaire bleue. 

Animaux : Racoons, Cerfs nains, Opossums, Bufles, Ours, Ecureuils 
gris, Castors, Loutres, Rats musques (ces trois especes tres rares). 

Oiseaux : Corbeaux ; Hibous de la grosse espece, Cardinaux ; Geais 
bleux ; Peroquets verds a tte jaunatre de la petite espece, Pies a te*te et 
gorge rouges. 

Arbres et Plantes : Liriodendron ; Liquidamb : Chne chataignier, 
Chgne rouge ; Annona ; Charme-houblon. 

Le 2 Janvier, toujours reste campe au mme endroit. Temps couvert 
la Riv. baissee de deux pouces seulement. 

Le Dimanche 3 Grand vent : Nyssa montana est nomme par les Or. 
franc,. Olivier Sauvage et par les Americains Kentuckiens Black Gum 
tree et par les Americains Pensylavaniens Tupelo : N'ayant pas d'occupa- 
tion, j'ay fait de Fencre avec des noix de galle que je recueillis sur les 
ChSnes dans les environs du lieu ou nous etions campe ; celle-ci fut faite 
en moins de cinq minutes et me servira d'echantillon : Aux envir. de 
Little river, Liriodendron ; Liquidambar ; Carpinus ostrya ; Ulinus fun- 
gosa ; Pad us Virginiana minor, Laurus benzoin &c. 

Le 4 navigue environ 4 a 5 M. Campe aupres de Collines asses hautes, 
d'un sol mouvant & cailloux roules, Carpinus ostrya ; Ulmus fungosa ; 
Padus Virginiana minor ; Philadelphus inodorus ; Nyssa montana par lea 
Am. Black gum ; Acer rubrum ; Viscum parasite ; Fagus Americana et 
Orobanch. Virginiana parasite sur les racines du Fagus d'Ameriq. ;. 
Betula spuria* par les Francois Bouleau batard. 

Le Mardy 5 Janvier 1796 nous avons navigue 7 Miles et campe vis a via 
de Diev Island 12 M. de Little Riv. 

Le 6 la neige tombee dans la nuit avoit refroidi le temps. Rochers cal- 
caires escarpes ; en partant du lieu ou nous etions campes, qui etoient con- 
tinues pendant un Mile environ sur la cote orientale : Navigue environ 8 

Le 7 La Rivierre etoit diminuee de 19 pouces pendant la nuit, la gelee 
en diminuant les eaux, nous faisoit esperer plus de facilite a ramer contre 
le courant de cette rivierre qui est naturellement resserree entre des Col- 
lines. Navigue" environ 8 Miles. 

Le 8 la riv. avoit baisse pendant la nuit de 19 pouces. Passe par I'lsle 
de la ligne tiree entre Cumberland et le Kentuckey. 

Plantes des Rives : Platanus occidentalis ; Betula australis seu spuria ; 
Acer rubrum ; Ulmus America. ; Fraxinus ; Salix sur les Isles basses : An- 
onymos ligustroid. Navigue environ 10 M. 

Le 9 la rivierre avoit baisse pend fc la nuit de pres de cinq pieds. Nous 
avons navigue environs dix Miles. 

* B. nigra, L. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

Le Dimanche 10 Janvier la Rivierre avoit baisse de 4 pieds pendant la 
nuit. Pluye et Neige continuelles ; Passe par la rivierre jaune (Yellow 
Creek) 16 M. avant d'arriver a Clark's ville. Passe par Blowming grove? 
13 Miles avant d'arriver a Clark's ville. Passe* par Blowming grove ? 13 
Miles avant d'arriver a Clark's ville. Rochers et Collines. Passe par 
Dixon Island? 10 Miles avant d'arriver a Clark's ville et actuellement 
1'Etablissement le plus recule du territoire du Cumberland. Get Etablisse- 
ment est compose de quinze families qui y sont venu s'etablir depuis trois 
mois. Le chef lieu de cet etablissement est nomme Blount's borough ou 
Blount's ville. 

Le 11 Pluye pendant toute la nuit prece*dente et une partie de la journee. 
Passe" par une chaine de Collines et par un rocher nomme Red painted roc 
situe a la droite de la Riv. c-a-d. sur le cote septentrional de la riv. a 2 
M. de Clark's ville. Passe ensuite par la riv. rouge dont rembouchure est 
aussi sur le cote" septentrional et a un quart de mile de Clark's ville : 
Enfin arrive a Clark's ville. 

Le 12 Janvier 1796, reste a Clark's ville a cause de 1'augment de la riv. 

Le 13 le Docteur Brown de la Caroline venu pour etablir cette nouvejle 
ville Blount's borough a 10 M. au dessous de Clark's ville s'y trouva. 
. . . * 

Le 15 achete un cheval au prix de cent Dollars. 

Le 16 parti ; mon cheval m'echappa et je le rattrappay a 6 Miles de 
Clark's ville au Moulin, 10 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 17 dine a 10 Miles de Nashville chez Ebneston a de M. du 
Moulin chez un vieux Pensylv. homme instruit et au courant des nouvelles 
etrangeres. Couche chez Crokes 18 Miles d' Ebneston. La V e Martin 
demeure aupres de la et sa maison vaut mieux po. les voyageurs. 

Le 18 passe les Ridges, 15 M. sans voir de maisons jusqu'a White Creek; 
Le vieux Stump's demeure a 5 miles de White Creek. 

Le 19 parti de chez Stump's et arrive a Nashville 5 M. 

Total de Clark's ville a Nashville 54 M. par terre et 70 M. par eau. 

De S nt Louis a Kaskaskias 94. 

De Kaskaskias a 1' embouchure de 1'Ohi.o 

dans le Mississipi 95 Miles. 

De la au fort Massac. 45 M. 

De la a 1'embouchure de la rivierre Cum- 

berland 18 M. 

De la a Clark's ville sur la riv. rouge 120 M. 
De la a Nashville 60 M. 

*.- Total, 432 Miles cy 432. 

(Prix (a Nashville) Diner 2 8h - Dejeuner ou souper l" h - 4 d Pinte de 

1888.] 131 [Michaux. 

Whiskey 1 s - Cheval po. foin et mays 2 8h - Le tout est six Shillings po. un 

Le 20, 21 et 22 sejourue a Nashv. 

Le 23 parti de Nashville et voyage 29 Miles , loge chez le major Sharp. 

Le Dimanche 24 Janvier 1796 arrive a ua Creek situe a 2i) Miles pres 
du quel le nomme Chapman tient logem 1 a 3 M. ; Mac Faddin sur Big 
Brown tient ferry et logeinent : Total 32 M. . 

Le 25 Pluye et Neige. 

Le 26 Parti po. Green river. La terre e*toit couverte de neige ; les 
Chemins rudes et mon cheval devint boiteux: Je fus oblige d'aller a pied: 
Je fis 12 miles. II me fut impossible de faire du feu les arbres et les bois 
e"toient tout en verglas ; j'ay passe toute la nuit presque gele. A peu pres 
vers les 2 heures la Lune etant leve*e je pris la parti de retourner chez Mac 
Faddin. J'y arrivay a 10 heures du matin. 

Le 27 etant accabli de froid et de lassitude, ayant marche a pied, n'ayant 
pas mange" depuis la veille au matin et n'ayant pas dormi pendant la nuit, 
il me survint une inflammation aux doigts du pied droit. Je trempay mes 
pieds dans de 1'eau froide, pendant toute la nuit suivante a plusi. reprises, 
et il n'en resulta pas de playes, mais pend* plusi. jo. les doigts des pieds 
furent engourdis et comme prives de sensation. 

Le 28 je fus oblige d'aller a sept Miles de distance po. faire ferrer mon 
cheval et je vins coucher chez M r Maddisson qui avoit sa plantation tout 

Le 29 Janvier 1796 je partis de tres grand matin ayant 38 Miles a voy- 
ager sans trouver ni auberge ni autre habitation. J'avois etc" reQu avec 
toutes les civilites que Ton peut esperer d'un homme qui a rec,u une Edu- 
cation superieure a celle des habitans du pays. Mais ce M r Maddisson 
etoit Virginien et parent du fameux Madisson Memb. du Congres. Celui 
ci etoit un vray Republicain dans scs principes et j'avois passe chez lui 
une soiree tres interessante et tres agreable. Son epouse encherit a me 
procurer tous les services de I'hospitalite" qui est tres rare a rencontrer en 
Amerique, excepte chez les personnes d'une education sup. a celle du 
commun des habitans. Cette Dame me proposa de faire usage de chausson 
de laine grossiere par dessus les souliers. Elle me tailla elle mme une 
paire et je fus tellement surpris des avantages q. j'eprouvay les jo. 
suivans q. je resolus de ne plus voyager au temps des neiges et des gelees 
sans etre precautionne d'une paire dans mon Porte Manteau. J'arrivay 
le soir a trois M. de Green riv. et couchay cli. un nomme Walter; je 
couchai sur le plancher et mon cheval a la belle etoile ; mais j'yay etois 

Le 30 je traversay au matin le ferry de Green river. Le froid fut 
excessif et tel que Ton n'en avoit pas eprouve de Plusieurs annees. A 9 
Miles, je pas=ay par Bacon Creek a la Cabanne d'une hoinme nouvellem 1 
etabli et depourvu de tout, m8me de Mays po. 1'entretien de sa maison. 
A 22 M. de Green Riv. Ton trouve la Maison d'un nomme Ragon : et je 
me hatay d'arriver avaut la nuit a q.q. meilleures habitations. A 26 M. 

Michaux.] Id A [Oct. 19, 

de Green Riv. j r aper<jus une Maison a 200 toises de la Route sit. sur le 
bord d'un Creek. Inhabitant e"toit un Allemand qui n'etoit etabli q. 
depuis un an; il avoit une bonne ecurie, il etoit bien fourni de fourrage en 
paille de bled, et en feuilles de Mars po. mon ch. et je mangeai du pain 
de Bled po. la premiere ibis q. j'etois parti des Illinois. Mon souper fut 
de pain et de lait et je me trouvay tres bien traite. Mon hole se nomme 
Geo. Cloes Allemand d'Origine ; sa maison est situee sur South fork de 
Nolin river. 

Le Dimanche 31 passe par Huggins mill sur Nolin river (bon logement) 
a de Mile la route a droite va a Beardston. A 2 M ^ la new cut road est 
droite. Passe a 9 Miles par Rolling fork et 4 Miles plus loin couche chez 
M. Scoth sur Beech-fork. 

Le Lundy l er fevrier 1796 passe par D r Smith house 8 Miles de Beech 
fork et par Mackinsy 9 M. de Beech fork. De Mac Kinsy a Long lake 6 
Mi. De Longlake a Sheperdston sur Salt river 4 miles. De Shepperdston 
chez Standeford 9 M. (bonne auberge) De Standeford chez Prince Old 
station 8 M. De Prince to Louisville 6 Miles. 

Le 2 parti de chez Prince et arrive a Louisville. Mesure a 3 M. avant 
d'arriver un Liriodend. tulipifera sur la route a main gauche dont la gros- 
seur est de vingt deux pieds de circonference de qui fait plus de sept pieds 
de diametre. 

(Correspondant de M. La Cassagne et S nt James Bauvais a la N. Orleans 
M r Serpe Neg* a la N. Orleans. Coiresp. de M. La Cassagne a Philad. 
Gequir & Holmes M u Ph a Prix Diner 1* 6 P - Souper et Dejeuner l sh - 
6 P - Logement 9 sh - pinte de Brandy 2* b 3 P Cheval par jo. au foin et 
mays 3 sh - 9* ) 

Le 3, 4 et 5 j'ay sejourne a Louisville, occupe a rassembler les Collec- 
tions que j'avois depose chez le nomine" La Cassagne. 

Le 6 je vis le Gen 1 Clarke et il me fit part de la visite du Colonel Fulton 
qui etois venu de France q.ques mois auparavant. 

Le Dimanche 7 dejeune chezle Pere du General Clarke dont la demeure 
est a 4 miles de Louisville. Je desirois avoir de plus amples informations 
concernant le Lieutenant Colonel Foulton. L'on me dit qu'il devoit se 
rendre a Philadelphie immediatement apres avoir passe en Georgie - T 
Qu'l s'embarqueroit pour France et qu'il esperoit eHre de retour en 
Ameriq. a la tin de 1'ete le cette anne"e 1796. Le meme jour je partis po. 
retourner a Nashville. Couche chez Standeford. 14 M. de Louisville. 
(Souper I 8h -; Coucher 6?-* Foin po. la nuit du chev. l sh - Mays 8 quarts 
1-b. 4P- ) 

Le Lundy 8 fevrier 1796. (Dejeuner I 1 *-) Passe par Sheperdston 9 M. 
de Standeford. (Mays po. le cheval 3 quarts. 9 Fences Virginia monoye. 
cornme dans tous les endroits du Kentuckey et de Cumberland.) Passe 
par Long lake ou 1'on fait du Sel, ainsi qu'a Sheperdston, 4 Miles dud- 
Sheperdston et couche* chez Mackinsy 7 Miles de Longlake. 

Lieux marecageux, aux environs de Longlake Quercus alba ; Q. cer- 

188S.] [Michaux. 

roides ; Fraxinus . . . ; Nyssa ; Laurus ben join ; Sassafras ; Mitchella 
repens ; Fagus sylvatica americana. 

Collines : Pinus* fol. geminis conis oblongis minorib. squamis aculeis 
retrocurvis : Vu des planches de cet arbre chez un habitant ; le bois m'a 
paru presqu' aussi pesant que celui du Pin a trois feuilles de la Caroline : 
L'on en fait aussi du Gaudron dans cette partie du Kentucky. 

Le9jesuis parti de tres bon matin de chez Mackinsy's, j'y avois etc* 
tres bien rc^u c. a. d. il me procura un souper de Pore bouilli ; meme 
mets a dejeuner. Mon cheval fut tres bien soigne en fourrage, en Mays et 
une Ecurie qui n'etoit pas bourbeuse, comme toutes celles de 1'Amerique, 
quand on loga chez des Americains ou chez des Irlandais. 

Je payai 3 8h - ce qui faisoit l sh - GP- po. mon cheval et autant po. moi. 
J'avois paye" 5 s11 pour mon logem ttt de la nuit precedente et je n'avois pas 
ete si satisfait : Comme la fille de cette maison e*ioit la plus active qu' 
aucune q. j'aye jamais vu en Ameriq. je lui donnai un quart de Piastre et 
le viellard m'offrit une Langue fourree, mais je le remerciay, n'etant pas 
partisan de viandes sale*es. 

La pluye survint une heure apres etre parti et j'eus cependant le bon- 
heur de passer Beechford et par Rollingford. 13 Miles de chez M. Kinsy. 

Je fus oblige d'aneter chez un habitant a un Mile du passage et la 
Pluye m'obligea d'y parser la nuit. 

II y a dans les environs du Liriodendron a bois jaune et dans quelques 
cantons du Liriod. a bois blanc. Les habitants estiment mieux celui a 
bois jaune. 

Le mercredy 10 fevrier 1796, j 'avois soupe la veille avec du The de 
1'arbrisseau nomine Spice wood. L'on fait bouillir une poignee du jeune 
bois ou des branches et apres environ un quart d'heure au moins d'ebulli- 
tion Ton y ajoute du sucre pour le boire conime Ton fait a 1'egard du vray 
The. II n'y avoit pas de Lait alors et Ton me dit que le Lait le rend 
beaucoup plus agreable. Cette boisson ranime les forces et produisit cet 
effet, car j'etois arrive tres fatigue. Cet arbriss. est le Laurus Benjoin 
Linn : Les francos des Illinois le nomment Poivrier et les chasseurs 
assaison nt la viande avec qq. morceaux de son bois. 

II croit dans les environs une plantef de la famille des Orchis dont la 
feuille persiste tout 1'hiver. II y en a rarement deux ; la forme est ovale, 
sillonnee, entiere ; la racine porte deux a trois bulbes tres visqueuses. 
L'on s'en sert dans le Pays pour rejoindre la fayence cassee. Elle est 
nommee Adam & Eve. Cette plante est plus commune dans les riches bus 
fonds des terrains a 1'Ouest des Montagnes Alleganies. Je 1'ay vu aussi 
dans la basse Caroline mais elle y est tres rare. Elle n'est pas rare aux 

La Pluye continua toute la journee et je fus oblige de passer la nuit dans 
une habit, aupres de Nolin Creek parce que les eaux etoient debordees. 

Le 11 arrive chez Huggins 12 M. de Rollingford. 

* Probably Pinus inops. Ait. C. S. S. 
t Aplectrum hyemale, Nutt, C. S, S. 

Michaux.] [0ct 19> 

Le 12 travers6 un Pays d'horbages et de Chenes qui ayant etc brules 
tous les ans, n'existent plus en forme de forets. On appelle ces terrains 
Barrenlands, quoiqu'ils ne soient pas vraiement steriles. Les gramens y 
dominent ; le Salix pumila, les Quercus nigra et Q. alba dit Mountain 
White Oak. Le Gnaphalium dioieum y croit aussi abondamment. II est 
nomme par les Am. White Plantain. 

Ce meme jour 12 ferrier 1796 passe par Bacon Creek ; lieu nouvelle- 
ment etabli 19 M. de Huggins Mill et arrive a Green river 9 Miles de Bacon 
Creek. Couche 3 M. plus loin chez un nomme Walter. 

Le 13 fevrier voyage 37 Mil. sans trouver de Maison au trav. les ter- 
reins dit Barren lands. Le Salix pumila qui y abonde est le mfcme que 
celui qui est tres commun dans les prairies des Illinois en partant du 
Poste Vincennes po. aller a Kaskaskia. Couche au de la de Big Barren 

Le Dimanche 14 voyage env. 30 M. Dans toutes les Maisons, les enfants 
etoient attaques de la Coqueluche que Ton nomme ici Hooping Cough. 
Cette maladie provient naturellem* par un simple Rhume : mais le mau- 
vais regime de vivre habituellement de viandes salees et fumees qu'ils 
font frire dans la poesle produit cette acrimonie d'humeurs qui rend 1'ex- 
pectoration plus difficile. 

Le 15 voyage 27 M. et arrive a Nashville. Souper coucher, dej. 2 sh - 

Le 16 parti pour aller visiter le Colonel Hays riche habitant auquel 
j'avois ete recommande par le Gouverneur Blount 1'annee precedents 
Gouverneur du Pays sous la denomination de Western territories South 
ouest of the Ohio. Le Pays e*stime contenir 60 Milles habitans a cause des 
nombreuses emigrations annuelles et de la population rapide, venoit 
d'etre erige en un Etat gouverne par ses propres representans sous la 
nouvelle denomination de I' Etat de Tennessee du nom d'une tres grande 
riv. qui traverse tout le Pays du Houlston, le Pays de Cumberland, le 
Pays des Indiens Cheroquis et d'autres contre"es adjacentes. Cette grande 
rivierre a son embouchure dans POhio a 9 Miles au dessus du fort Massac. 
Elle a ete connu par les Francois qui les premiers ont decouvert les Pays 
de 1'interieur de TAm. Sept sous le nom de Riv. Cheroquis et elle est 
ainsi designee dans les Cartes francaises. Je vis chez le Col. Hays plusi. 
habitans du voisinage qui venoient conferer sur les affaires courantes alors 
po. Telection de nouveaux Officiers civils et militaires. 

Le 17 et 18 fev. 1796 reste chez le Col. Hays a cause du mauvais temps. 

Le 19 termine le marcne pour 1'acquisition d'un Cheval pour transporter 
le baggage, les Collections des Plantes, Oiseaux et autres Objets que 
j'avois rapporte"s des Illinois et dernierem* du Kentuckey ; Revenu le 
meme jo. coucher a Nashville. 

Le 20 occupe toute la journee a reunir et emballer mes collections; Vu 
des voyageurs francjais qui toute leur vies sont occupes au Commerce des 
Sauva*ges et demande les Conditions po. avoir un Guide pour remonter la 
riv. Missouri. L'un d'eux nommQ ... me dit qu'il s'eugageroit 

1888.] < [Michaux. 

volontiers p. un an au prix de 500 piast. en pelteries c.a.d. 1000 p. en 
arg 1 - : un autre me demanda 2000 en arg*- 

Le Dimanche 21 prepare a mon voyage. 

Le 22 j'ay fait ferrer mes deux chevaux. 

Le 23 parti et apres avoir fait 2 Miles oblige de revenir a cause . . . 

Le 25 parti pour retourner en Caroline et couche a 10 M. chez le Col. 
Mansko, ennemi declare des Fran<jais parcequ'ils ont tue, disoit il, leur 
Roy ; quoique je n'eusse pas dine, je ne voulus pas accepter son souper 
croyant qu'un Republicain ne doit pas avoir d'obligations a un partisan 
fanatiq. de la Royaute*. J'etois tres mortifie que la nuit et la pluye m'ob- 
ligeassent de rester dans sa Maison. Mais je couchay sur ma peau de 
Cerf et je payai pour le Mays qu'il me fournit po. passer les Wilderness. 

Le26 . . . 

Le Dimanche 28 fevrier 1796 sejourne 1 a dix miles de la riv. a cause de 
la Pluye et parceque les Creeks etoient de*bordes. 

Le 29 au soir passe les Creeks et couche dans le Bois pres de la route 
sur un endroit abondant en Roseaux ou Canes. Cette espece de gramen 
qui abonde en plusieurs endroits qui n'ont pas ete etabli, se detruit lors- 
qu'il est broute entierement par les Bestiaux ; les Cochons le detruisent 
aussi en fouillant la terre et en brisant les racines. La grcsseur de la tige 
est quelquefois d'un tube de plume d'oie ; mais dans les riches terreins 
qui bordent les rivierres et entre les montagnes il y a des tiges qui ont 
jusqu'a 2 et mme trois pouces de diametre ; la hauteur est q.q. fois de 25 
a 30 pieds. Ce gramen est rameux mais il fructifie rarement dans le terri- 
toire du Kentuckey, celui de Tenesse et dans les Carolines. La partie 
meridionale et maritime de la Virginie est le commencement de ce gra- 
men. Plus en avance vers le Sud comme dans les Carolines dans 
les Florides et vers la Basse Louisiaue, Ton trouve ce gramen en abond- 

II tomba de la neige toute la nuit et le lendemain matin, mes deux Che- 
vaux qui avoient e"te attaches, avoient les jambes enfle*es a cause du froid 
et des chemins continuellement bourbeux par ou j'avois voyage les jours 

Le l er Mars 1796 arrive* au Fort Blount situe sur la Rivierre Cumber- 
land : La neige continua une partie de la journe~e. 

Le 2 sejourne afin d'arracher des jeunes Plants d'un Sophora nouveauf 
q. j'avois remarque aux environs de Fleen's creek a 12 M. a peu pres du 
Fort. La neige couvroit la terre et je ne pus avoir des jeunes Plants, 
mais le Capit. William, le jeune qui residoit au Fort coupa quelques arbres 
et je trouvay q. ques bonnes graines. 

* Arundinaria macrosperma, MIchx. C. S. S. 

t Cladrastis tinctoria Raf., discovered here by Michaux, although not included in his 
Flora. A letter written by Michaux to Governor Blount suggesting the value of the 
wood of this tree as a dye wood, was, according to the younger Michaux, published in 
the Knoxvitte Gazette, on the 15th of March, 1796. (F. A. Michaux, Voyage a I' Quest des Monts 
AUegfianys, p. 255.) C. S. S. 



J'arrachay aussi des racines de ces arbres afin de les replanter dans 
mon jardin en Caroline. 

Le m6me jour j'eus occasion d'ecrire au Gouverneur Blount. 

Le 3 Mars continue mon voyage, traverse plusi-fois Fleen's Creek : Vu 
de nouveau le petit ombillifere bulbeux que j'avois remarq. q. q. jours 
auparavant. Vers le soir la route s'est trouvee moins bourbeuse. 

Le 4 arrive aux Montagnes dites Cumberland mountains. 

Le 5 passe plusieurs Creeks et Rivierres sur les quelles abonde une 
Fougere grimpante du genre .... * 

Le terrein traverse par ces rivierres est moins fertile que dans le terri- 
toire de Nashville dit Cumberland settlement et les Pins a deux feuilles 
s'y trouvent abondamment. 

Le Dimanche 6 Mars 1796 arrive a West Point sur la Rivierre Clinch. 

Le 7 couche a 15 Miles de distance pres la junction de la rivierre Hols- 
ton et de celle dite Tenessee. 

Le 8 arrive a Knoxville. 

Le 9 Dine chez le Gouverneur Will m Blount. 

Le 10 pris mon logement chez le (/apt n Loune pres la rivierre Cumber- 

Le 11 herborise* sur la rive opposee bordee de rochers escarpes couverts 
de Saxifrage, Ombellifere bulbeux &c. 

Le 12 continue a herboriser. 

Le Dimanche 13, Visile le Capitaine Rickard Commandant de la gar- 

Le 14 herborise : vu en fleur, Anemone hepatica ; Claytonia Virginica ; 

Vu nouveau genre de Plante designe par Linn. Podophyllum diphyllum 
et decouvert il y a q. q. annees en Virginie en passant par le Fort Chissel. 
Cette Plante est moins rare dans les fertiles terreins du Kentuckey et de 
Cumberland. Elle se trouve aux environs de Knoxville. Le D r Barton 
lui a donne le nom de Jeffersonia dans une description qu'il a donnee de 
cette Plante apres avoir vu la fleur des Plants que j'avois rapport e a 
Philadelphie chez le Botaniste Bartram. Le temps de la fleur aux envi- 
rons de Knoxville est vers le 10 Mars. 

Le 15 reQU la Lettre du G r Blount, en reponse a celle que je lui avois 
ecrit sur la decouverte d'un nouveau Sophora aux environs de fort Blount. 
Parti le mme jour et couche a 7 M. de distance. Paye 2 sh 3 p po. Souper 
et Mays et fourrage des Chevaux. Bundle of fodder 2 p. 

Le 16 Mars 1796 couche* a.un mile de Iron Work chez M r Rice Lawyer, 
30 M. de Knoxville. Remarque en fleur, Ulmus viscosa, Acer rubrum 
fl. sur un individu et fl. $ sur un aut. arbre. 

Le 17 couche pres de Bull's gap 30 Miles d'Iron Work. 

Le 18 passe par Lick creek et par Green court house 18 Miles de Bull's 

* Lygodium palmat urn Swz. C. S. S. 

1888.] 137 [Michaux. 

Le 19 passe par Johnsborough 25 Miles de Green. II y a plusi. mar- 
chands etablis a Jobnsborough qui tirent leur marchandises de Philad 6 
par terre. 

Le Dimanche 20 parti de Johnsborough. Vu en passant M. Overton de 
Kentuckey, Major Carter de Wataga chez qui j'avois loge plusi. annees 
auparavant avec mon fils et le Colonel Avery. 

Dimanche 20 Mars 1796 remarque en fleurs le Corylus americana fl. 9 
ayant les Stiles ou Stigmates de couleur purpurine. Le Ulmus viscosa 
geminis aureis florib. 4-5-6- andris, stiguaatibus purpureis. 

Le Acer rubruai fl. $ sur un individu et fl. $ sur un autre. Couche 
chez le Colonel Tipton 10 M. de Johnsborough. 

Le 21 remarque en plusi. endroits les Montagnes couvertes de Sanguin- 
aria, Claytonia et Erythronium a feuill. maculees. Ces Plantes etoient en 
fleur. Le Magnolia acum. et auriculata ; Rhododendr. ; Kalmia ; Pinus 
abies canadensis, P. Strobus ; Azalea &c &c abondent au pied de ces M. 
Arrive a Lime Stone cove et couche ch. Ch. Collier 18 M. du Col. 

Le 22 traverse Iron Mountain et arrive au soir ch. David Becker 23 
Miles sans trouv. de maisons. 

Le 23 parti de chez Becker sur Cane Creek chez Rider 6 M. de Rider ch. 
Widow Nigh. 7 M. De Nigh ch. Sam. Ramsey. 2 M. De Ramsey ch. 
David Cox sur Paper Creek 4 M. et de Cox ch. Young 1 M. De Sam Ram- 
sey chez Davinport 8 M. Total 23 M. couche chez Davinport. Re- 
marque le Salix capreoides en fl. sur le bord des ruisseaux. 

Le 24 visile les hautes Montagnes vis a vis 1'habitation de Davinport, 
arrache plusi. centaines de Plants ; Azalea lutea, fulva ; Anonymos azale- 
oides, Rhododendron minus &c. 

Le 25 Mars 1796. Vu en fleur le Corylus cornuta,* amentis $ 
geminis quandoque solitariis squamis ciliatis ; antheris apice ciliatis, stylis 

Cette espece fleurit environ 15 jours plus tard que 1'espece de Corylus 
americana que 1'on trouve dans tous les Climats. de 1'Am. Septentrionale 
mgrne dans la basse Caroline aux environs de Charleston. Le Corylus 
cornuta ne se trouve que sur les plus hautes montagnes et au Canada. 
Corylus americana amentis solitariis squamis externe tomentosis mar 
gine nuda ; floris 9 stylis coccineis. 

Le 26 herborise et arrache des Plants d'arbrisseaux et des Plants fraiches 
pour les transporter dans le jardin de la Republique en Caroline. 

Le Dimanche 27 Mars . . . 

Le 28 prepare et emballe mes Collections de Plantes fraiches des Mon- 

Le 29 parti de chez Davinport et venu coucher chez . . . Young. 
Violette a feuilles dentelees reniformes petiole velu et fl. jaune en pi. 
fleur sur les bords des ruisseaux et lieux tres frais. 

Le 30 continue ma route et par erreur pris une route a droite qui conduit 

* C. rostrata, Ait. C. S. S. 

Michaux.] 138 [Oct. 19, 

a Wilkes. Autre Viole lutea scapus foliosus foliis hastatis en fleur lieux 
frais et aussi moins humides. Celle-ci un peu plus tardive que la prece- 
dente. * 

Le 31 arrive chez le Colonel Avery et venu coucher a Morganton dit 
Burke Court house. 

Le Vendredy l er Avril 1796, parti de Morganton. Couche chez Rob- 
ertson cy devant Henry Waggner 30 Miles de Morganton. 

Le 2 Avril Epigea repens en pleine fleur comme les jours precedents : 
sur plusi. individus toutes les fleurs femelles sans rudiments d'Etaraines 
et sur d'autres individus fleurs toutes les fleurs hermaphrodites. Arrive 
a midy chez Christian Reinhart pres Lincoln. Reste toute la journee 
pour arracher des Plants du Spiraea tomentosa, qui croit dans les endroits 

Le Dimanche 3 Avril arrive chez Bennet Smith 12 Miles de Lincoln : 
reste toute la journee pour arracher des Plants d'un nouveau Magnoliaf 
a feuilles tres grandes auriculees, oblongues, glauques soyeuses, surtout 
les jeunes feuilles ; les bourgeons tres soyeux : Fleurs Petales blancs a la 
base de couleur pourpre ; Etamines jaunes &c. Au long du (Creek) ruis. 
seau, sur le bord du quel on trouve ce Magnolia j'y ay vu aussi le Kalmia 
latifolia, Viola lutea, foliis hastatis ; Ulmus viscosa alors en fructification ; 
Halesia ; Stewartia pentagyna. 

Le 4 parti et passe Tuck-a-segee ford sur la rivierre Catawba 10 Miles de 
Bennet Smith. Pris la route a gauche au lieu de passer par Charlotte et 
couche a 11 Miles de Catawba river. $ 

Le 5 Avril 1796 a 12 Miles de distance rejoint la route qui conduit de 
Cambden a Charlotte. 

Pris des Plants de Calamus aromaticus qui se trouve aux lieux humides 
aux environs de Charlotte et de Lincoln. Rhus pumila. Couche aupres de 
Waxsaw Creek en Caroline meridionale 35 M. environ de Tuck-a Segee 

Le 6 sur 1'habitation du Colonel Crawford pres Waxsaw Creek : Plante 
anonyme feuilles quaternees et perfoliees glabres, entieres. Cette meme 
Plante se trouve dans les Etablissemens du Cumberland et au Kentuckey, 
Frasera foetida. || . . 

Passe par Hanging Rock ; il y a 22 Miles de Waxsaw a Hanging 
Rock : Pour aller a Morganton dit Burke Courthouse, Ton ne doit point 
passer par Charlotte, mais prendre la Route a gauche a 3 Miles de Hang- 
ing Rock. 

* V. hastata, Michx. C. S. S. 

f M. macrophylla, Michx. C. S. S. 

J Nota : avant de passer le ford j'avois deJeunS chez . . . Alexander, homme re- 
spectable de qui j 'ay et6 recu av. beaucoup de civilites. 

g Nota : Lorsque 1'on ne veut point passer par Charlotte en allant a Lincoln, il faut 12 
a 15 M. avant d'y arriver s'informer de la route qui prend a gauche po. aller passer Tuck- 
a-segee %-d. 

|| It has been suggested that this may refer to F. Caroliniana, Walt. (F. Walteri, Michx.). 
-C. S. S. 


Environ 20 Toises apres la fourche cles deux chemins (i'un desqnels 
conduit a Charlotte) Ton trouve 1'arbuste Anonyme* a racine rouge qui a 
le port du Calycantlms. Get arbuste est celui que j'ay vu aux environs de 
Morganton. Couche aupres de Hanging Rock. 

Le Jeudy 7 Avril 1796 arrive a Cambden ; cinq a six M. avant d'y ar- 
river arrache des Plants d'un nouveau Kalmia vu q. ques annees aupara- 
vant. II y a 26 M. de Hanging Rock a Cainbden. 

Le Vendredy 8 Avril parti de Cambden passe par State's borough a 22 
M. de Cambden et couche a Manchester 30 Miles de Cambden. 

Le 9 mes Chevaux egares pendant la nuit, ayant brise la Cloture ou ils 
etoient renfermes. 

Dans les ruisseaux, Callitriche americana ; fructificatio simplex, axil- 
laris, sessilis, Cal. 2-phyllus, stam. unicum, filamentum longum, latere 
geminis, Germen duplex? styli duo longitudine staminis, stigmata 

Silene . . . cal. 5-fldus cylindricus, corolla Petala 5 (seu 5-partita 
usque ad basim), unguibus angustis, laciniis planis apice obtusis ; Stamina 
10 basi corolla inserta ; Germen oblongum, Styli tres ; stigmata acuta ; 
Capsula unilocularis, semina plura numerosa, flores rosei.f 

Parti 1'apres midi et couche a 15 Miles ayant traverse 10 M. de sables 
dit High Hills Santee dans 1'espace desquels remarque Phlox ; Silene 
. . . ; Dianthus ... en fleur ; Lupinus perennis et pilosus en 

Le Dimanche 10 Avril 1796 arrive sur la Rivierre Santee au lieu dit 
Manigault ferry ; remarque avant d'y arriver Verbena (aubletia ?) et sur 
les rives de Santee, Anonyme arbor dont les fructifications (muricatis) 
couvertes de pointes niolles etoient presque mures. J Manigault ferry est 
a 28 M. de Manchester. 

Deux miles plus loin Ton prend a droite la route dite Gaillard road 
plus courte que la route ordinaire mais bourbeuse pendant 1'hiver. Couche 
chez la V e Stuard 18 M. de Manigault ferry. Taverne sale et depourvue 
de fourrage po. les Chev. 

Le 11 parti de grand matin a 5 M. de distance remarque Lupinus peren- 
nis et Lupinus pilosus en fleur. Distance de Charleston 40 a 43 Mil. 
Arrive au jardin de la Republique 37 Miles de la V e Stuard c-a-d. 47 M. 
de Charleston. 

* It is not at all clear what shrub Michaux refers to in this entry. Mr. Canby, to whom 
several of the doubtful points in the Journal have been referred, and whose knowledge 
of the plants of the Allegheny region is now unrivaled, suggests that Michaux may 
have found Darbya. There is nothing in his herbarium to indicate that he ever saw 
that plant, which was found, however, by M. A. Curtis not far from Morganton. 0. S. S. 

t Probably Silene Pennsylvania!, as suggested by Mr. Canby, or S. Baldwinii, as sug- 
gested by Mr. Meehan. In both of the species the petals are sometimes rose colored. 
C. S. S. 

J Planera aquatica, Gmelin. C. S. S. 



[Oct. 19, 

Recapitulation de la route des Illinois a Charleston : 
De S. Louis des Illinois a Kaskias 
Au village S. Phillipe 
A la Prairie du Rocher 
A Kaskaskias 

A la jonction du Mississipi et de la Belle Riv. 
Au Fort Massac 

A la Jonction de Cumberland dans la Belle Riv. 
A Clark's ville sur la rivierre rouge 
A Nashville 
A Bloodshed's lick 

Au Fort Blount sur la riv. Cumberland 
A West Point sur la rivierre Clinch 
A Knoxville sur la riv. Houlston 
De Knoxville a Iron Work 
A Bulls gap 
A Green's ville 
A John's borough 
Chez le Colonel Tipton 
A Limestone cove 
A David Becker au de la de la Montagne 

dite Iron mountain 
De Backer ch. Young. 
A Morganton dit Burke 
Chez Robertson 
A Lincoln 
A Tuck a Sege"e 
A Wax Saw Creek 
A Hanging rock 
A Cambden 
A Manchester 
A Manigault ferry 
A Charleston 


4 Miles. 



1123 M. 

CAHIER 10. 1796. 

Le 27 Thermidor an 4 e de la Republique franchise Une & Indivisible 
(13 Aoust 1796 Vieux st.) embarque dans la rade de Charleston Caroline 
meridionale a bord du Navire Ophir Capitaine Johnston destine pour Am- 
sterdanr. Le 14 et 15 reste a 1'ancre. 

Le 16 (30 Thermidor) leve 1'ancre, inis a la voile. 

Le 18 perdu la terre de vue. 

1833.1 141 [Michaux. 

Le 15 (30 fructidor) Septembre Tempgte qui a dure jusqu'au 16 du 

Le 5 Octohj-e passe" au travers d'une Escadre Anglaise commande'e par 
1'Aniiral Roger Curtis composee de 14 Vaisseaux de guerre sqavoir : 
8 Vaisseaux a 2 Fonts, 2 a trois Fonts et 4 Fregates. L'une des Fregates 
la Melpomene vint traverser notre direction et ayant envoye un Officier a 
hord de notre Navire, il visita les Papiers et les connaissemens ou Expe- 
ditions du Capitaine. Ayant verifie que les Informations donnees par le 
Capitaine etoient conformes, il fut satisfait et lui souhaita un bon voyage. 
Dans la conversation, il dit que la guerre avec la France devenoit ennuy- 
euse aux marine, qu'ils ne faisoient point de prises, mais qu'ils esperoient 
que la guerre avec 1'Espagne leur seroit plus avantageux et que la l re ex- 
pedition seroit centre Manille. Cette Escadre etoit a 1' entree de la 
Manche plus pres des Isles Scilly que d'Ouessaut. 

Le 18 Vendemaire an 5 e de la Republique franchise Une et Indivisible 
(9 Octobre 1796 V. St.) le vent etoit favorable et beau, mais a 5 hcures du 
soir, il s'eleva une Tempete qui devint furieuse en moins de deux heures; 
elle continua toute la nuit en redoublant de violence et le Vent qui venoit 
de 1'Est nous fortjoit vers le rivage. A minuit le Capitaine avoit prepare 
les haches po. couper les Mats. Enfin le jour arriva avant que le navire 
ait touche, mais le 19 Vendemiaire, (10 Oct bre ) vers les huit heures le Capi- 
taine voyant que la Sonde ne donnoit plus de profondeur sufflsante se 
determina a faire echouer le navire et apres 4 a 5 violentes secousses il 
s'arrta ; alors les vagues tornberent avec tant de rage et de violence que 
tout ce qui etoit sur le Pont fut emporte. Les voiles se dechirerent en 
pieces en moins d'un quart d'heure. Un Mat fut brise, le Navire etoit a 
demi renverse et recevoit quelques secousses qui durerent environ une 
demi heure. Alors les vagues devinrent plus violentes et nous etions in- 
onde de sorte que tous les homines de r equipage et moi aussi nous per- 
dions les forces. Plusieurs Malles ayant ete apportees sur le Pont furent 
jetees a la mer et les habitans d'un village nomme Egmond situe a un 
lieu environ de cet endroit retiroient tout ce qui arrivoit au rivage. Us 
etoient au nombre de plus de 200 y cornpris 25 hommes de troupes envoyes 
avec un Officier pour nous secourir s'il avoit ete possible. Enfin n'ayant 
plus d'esperance, plusi. Matelots s'attacherent a des pieces de bois qui 
venoient d'etre jettees et ils gagnerent le rivage. Quant a moi je m'etois 
toujours tenu attache a un c'ordage ayant les jambes passees sous uue 
vergue qui avoit ete detachee pendant la nuit et attachee sur le Pont. 
Ayant ete battu par les Vagues pendant trois heures, je sentois mes forces 
s'affoiblir et je descendis dans 1'entrepont pour y attendre la fin de mes 
souffrances et la mort. Aussitot je perdis la Connaissance car je ne me 
souviens d'aucune des circonstances qui se sont passees jusqu' au moment 
ou apres avoir ete transporte au village, j'y fus deshabille et change 
d'habits. L'on me fit boire deux petits verres de vin et ayant eie approche 
d'un grand feu, la connoissance me revint environ une demie [heure] 
apres; mais j'avois un tremblement de tout le corps qui dura toute la jour- 

Michaux.] [Oct. 19, 

nee. Je ne sais que par oui dire, car j'avois perdu connoissance, que vers 
les onze heures le Capitaine ayant vu le Canot tombe au bas du Navire, en- 
gagea trois homines qui etoient restes, a me transporter dans^e Canot ainsi 
qu'un autre homme qui etoit dans la meine situation ; ensuite Ton me 
mit dans une voiture pour me transporter au village et vers une heure 
apres midy lorsque la connaissance me revint je me trouvay dans une 
Chambre aupres d'un grand feu avec de nouveaux habillemens et envi- 
ronne de 40 a 50 personnes des habitants du Pays. Je songeai aussitot a 
mes Caisses et mes Malles qui contenoient mes Collections dont j'en avois 
vu plusi. jetter a la Mer trois heures auparavant. L'on me dit que tout 
ce qui tomboit du navire ou avoit ete jette, arrivoit au rivage et que 
le detachement de troupes veilloit a ce que les Paysans ne pillassent point 
les Effets. 

Le Capitaine qui etoit reste le dernier sur son navire s'en jette a la 
nage, vers les deux heures, vint au Village dans une Charette car il etoit 
epuise de fatigues ainsi que tous les hommes de 1'equipage. 

Les habitans du Pays nous fournirent tous les secours possible, Chemises, 
Habits, Pain, Viande, Eau de vie &c. et vers le soir tous les Naufrages se 
trouverent soulages et retablis. 

La totalite de mes Collections formoit seize Caisses et quatre Malles du 
nombre des quels seulement 5 a 6 disoit-on etoient venus au rivage ; Le 
vent souffloit avec la me me fureur, et c'etoit le bruit general dans la 
bouche de tous, que le lendemain matin Ton ne verroit nulle vestige du 
Navire. Le vent, disoit-on, s'etoit un peu ralenti pendant la nuit et le 
lendemain le navire . . . 

11 etoit reste j usque vers le soir, sur le navire, un homme qui ne 
SQachant pas nager, auroit peri sans 1'humanite d'un homme du village 
prochain. II fit attacher une barre en croix au bout d'un petit Mat, et 
s'etant assis dessus, muni de cordages dont une partie servoit a le retenir 
centre la violence des vagues, tandis que 7 a 8 hommes avangoient le mat 
par 1'extremite opposee, ils parvinrent a le faire arriv. au Navire, alors cet 
homme qui etoit sur la piece de bois jetta un cordage a celui qui etoit reste 
au navire. II se passa la corde autour du corps et 1'ayant nouee, il se 
laissa aller dans la Mer et ainsi on le retira sur le rivage. Un nomine 
. . . qui avoit ete Capitaine de navire dans la Marine Hollandaise ayant 
appris cette action d'humanite vint chercher cet homme. II le garda chez 
lui plusi. jours et il lui donna une Tabatiere d'argent sur laq. etoit gravee 
la datte de cette Action. Ensuite il s'employa pour obtenir de la Munici- 
palite une attestation honorable de cette action. Cet homme fut mande a 
Amsterdam ou il eut de la Municipalite une recompense publique con- 
sistant en une Boite d'argent remplie de pieces d'argent et gravee conte- 
nant les details de sa bravoure &c. 

1888.] [Michaux. 

Le Dinianche 9 Octobre, veille dc la Tempte il etoit venu a bord du 
navire deux petits oiseaux male et feinelle que je reconnus pour etre le 
Pinson d' Ardennes. 

Le lendemain de la tempgte Ton trouva un oiseau aquatique marin sur 
le rivage, nomine par les Anglais Garnett. 

Le 5 Frimaire, an. 5 (25 Nov. '96) parti d'Egmond-op-zee et arrive a 

Le 6 fait emballer et marquer les Caisses et Malles. 

Le 7 Dine chez le Citoyen Fousenbarte. 

Le 8 embarque mes Caisses sur un Bateau couvert pour Bruxelles, adresse 
au Citoyen 1'Endormi ; led. Bateau doit passer par Anvers. 

Le 9 obtenu les Passeports de 1'Amiraute po. le transit de mes Collec- 
tions sans eHre visitees par les Douaniers Hollandais. 

Le 10 (30 Nov.) Ecritaux Citoyens Bosc, Chion, Bussy, le Rev d Nicholas 
Collin et au Gen 1 Charles Cotesworth Pincknay, par la voye de New- 
York. Parti d' Amsterdam po. Leyde couche a Harlem. 

Le onze frimaire (l er Dec. 1796 V-st) arrive a Leyde eloigne de Harlem 
. . . et d'Amsterdam . . . 

Visite le Professeur d'hist. naturelle Brugmans a qui j'ay donne quel- 
ques graines d'Amerique. Achete plusi. livres d'histoire naturelle. 

Le 13 frimaire (2 Decemb.) parti pour La Haye et dine le mme jour 
chez le Ministre FranQais pres la Republique Batave. 

Le 14 (3 Decemb.) dine chez le Ministre. 

Le 15 parti pour Roterdam 5 heures de La Haye. 

Le 16 frimaire visile les Freres Gevers dont le Cabinet d'Oiseaux est un 
des pi. rares et des mieux prepares qu'un aucun autre que j'aye vu prece- 

Visile le Docteur Van Noorden, le Consul Le Roux la Ville . , . 

Le 17 parti de Roterdam passe par Dort et arrive au Mordick, embou- 
chure de plusiers rivierres tres dangereux a passer. Couche pres de Breda 
ville tres fortifiee, 9 li. de Roterdam. 

Le 18 arrive a Anvers 10 lieues de Breda. 

Le 19 frimaire pris des informations aux Bureaux des Douanes sur 
i'arrive*e de mes Caisses et Malles chargees a Amsterdam po. Bruxelles. 

Le 20 frimaire, les Bureaux du Departement etant ferrnes je n'ay pu 
terminer aucune affaire. 

Le 21 visile le Citoyen Enisle", Commissaire du Directoire Executif et le 
Citoyen Petit-Mongin Directeur des Douanes. Je fus tres satisfait du 
patriotisme et de 1'Esprit National du Cit. P. Mongin aussi bien que de 
ses sentiments de probite joints a un Esprit solide. Je termiuay mes 
affaires quant a la surete et a 1'expedition de mes Caisses. 

Le 22 frimaire parti pour Bruxelles. 

Michaux.] [Oct 19, 

Le 23 regie avec le Cit. J. B. Champon fils pour 1'expedition de mes 
Caisses et Malles. 

Le 24 visile le B. de Reynegom et achete de lui des Canards du Missis- 
sipi pour reparer ceux q. j'ay perdu par le Naufrage du 19 Vendemiaire. 

Le 25 (15 Nov. v-style) parti de Bruxelles pour Ghent, arrive le lende- 
main matin. 

Le 26 visile M. Van Aken. 

Le 27 parti pour Lille. 



Le 30 parti de Lille. 

Le l er Nivose (21 Dec. Mercredy V-st) passe par Douay, Cambray. 

Le 3 arrive* a Paris. 

Le 4 envoye au Museum national quatre Canards (Anas sponsa) du Mis- 
sissipi et deux Canards (Anas galericulata) de la Chine. Visile" les Cito- 
yens Thouin, Daubenton, Richard, Desfontaines. 

Le 5 visite les Citoyens Gels, Tessieu et Andrieux, tous les trois attaches 
a la 4 e Division du Departement du Ministre de 1'Interieur Agriculture. 

Visite 1'Heritier conservat r du directoire Vegetal &c. 

Le 6 visite Mangourit, Le Cit. de la Croix, Ministre des relations exte- 
rieures, le Colonel Fulton &c. Assiste a la seance de 1'Institut National 
de France. 

Visile les Citoyens Lamarque, Jussieu &c. 

Le 7 Ecrit au Ministre de 1'Interieur, a Mangourit, a Chamon a Brux- 
elles. J'ay ete a Versailles et j'ay couche a Satory. 

Le 8 Nivose couche et dine a Satory. 

Le 9 Visile Le Monnier et dine chez lui. 

Le 10 Visite 1'Heritier chez lui avec le G. Pinckney, dine chez Gels. 

Le 11 Visile Jean Thouin, M de Gilbert, M de Le Clerc, M de Trouve 
femme du redact, du Monit. cy devant Gorelli. 

Le 12 Visite avec le General Pinckney le Jardin et le Cabinet d'Hist 
Naturelle. Dine chez M. Goy et visite M. Barquet. 

Le 13 cherche un logement. 

Le 14 visite de nouveau M. L'Heritier, M r Dupont et dine chez le 
Directeur La Reveilliere Lepeau. 

Le 15 seance publique de 1'Institut National des Sciences et des Arts. 

Le 16 visite Richard, Thouin, seance de 1'Institut. 

Le 17 ecrit au Cit n Petit-Mangin, Inspecteur des Douanes a Anvers et 
au Cit n Champon a Bruxelles. 

Dine chez Remi Claye vis-a-vis le pont au change. 

Le 18 travaille au Demenagement. 

Le 19 dine chez les Cit n3 Redoute Peintres au Louvre. 

Le 20 dine chez Gels. 

Le 21 j'ay ete a 1'Institut, memoire de Ventenat sur le Phallus de 

Le 22 Nivose visite le Pantheon. 

1888.1 " [Mfchaux, 

Le 23 achete quelques pieces de Menage. Visile M r Dubois et le Minis- 
tre Benezech. 

Le 24 visite Thouin, Delaunay et Desfontaines. Dine* chez M de Barquet, 

Le 25 fait travailler le menuisier, ecrit a Brux. 

Le 26 visite Mangourit : Seance de 1'Institut. Memoire sur les Rhino- 
ceros Unicornes et Bicornes ; rec,u une let. du Cit. Petit Mangin ; II me 
marque que mes Collections n'etoient pas arrives a Anvers le 22 Nivose. 

Le 27 ecrit plusieurs lettres. 

Le 28 j'ay ete chez Thouin ; rencontre le Direct. LaReveiiliere, Lepeau, 

Le 29 visite chez le Citoyen Louvet. 

Le 30 j 'ay ete chez le Citoyen Gels. 

Le l cr Pluviose, jay ete a 1'Institut National ; remis a Gels la lettre du 
Ministre de 1'Interieur po. etre envoyee au Consul a Charleston. 

Le 2 ecrit au Citoyen Dupont et envoye la lettre du Ministre de Tin- 

Le 3 j'ay et^ aux Bureaux du Ministre de la Marine et chez le Gen. 
Pinckney, Bernardde, S**Afrique. 

Le 4 ecrit plusi. Lettres sc,avoir ; Bosc par duplicat ; Capit. Baas, 
Duverney 9> Duverney ^, Dupont a Chariest., Bussy a New York, 
Chion, Saulnier. 

Le 5 Din chez le General Pinckney. 

Le 6 ecrit au Ministre de la Marine et envoye les Papfers concernant 
Spillard, Institut National des Sciences. 

Le 7 ecrit a Himely en Suisse et a M d Himely a Charleston, 

Le 8, 9 et 10 travaille a mettre en ordre la collection des graines des 
Illinois ; Dine chez Gels et donne une collection de ces graines, 





Discussion on the Dynamic Action of the Ocean in Building Bar*. 

By Lewis M. Haupt. 
(Read before the American Philosophical Society, January 18, 1889.) 

MR. PRESIDENT : A little more than a year has elapsed since the publi- 
and during this time it has proToked, as was expected, some discussion. 
It seems a propo that the record of this investigation should be entered 
in the publications of this Society, and I have, therefore, the honor of pre- 
senting for the Proceedings the following paper, entitled : DISCUSSION ON 

It is a reply to a Report of a Board of United States Engineers, before 
whom I had a hearing in January, 1888, relative to the methods proposed, 
and who rendered an adverse decision March 16, 1888, in which they ask 
for precedents. In presenting them it becomes necessary to take up the 
items of the Report seriatim, and reply to them specifically. 

This representation seems to be the more necessary since this Society 
has done me the honor to endorse so highly the plans submitted in the 
paper before mentioned. 

(1) The Report states that my paper presents 

*' (1) A theory of ocean bar formation based upon the movement of the 
great tidal wave toward and along our coast ; and (2) a theory of harbor 
improvement based upon the idea that this tidal action is the controlling 
element in the forces affecting the magnitude and position of the bars. 
Each of these theories will be briefly considered. 

" Prof. Haupt calls attention to the natural division of the Atlantic coast 
into three great bays, and the effect they exert upon the relative height 
attained by the tide at different places along the coast. This subject is a 
familiar one and has no novelty. It was discussed by Prof. J. E. Hilgard 
in a lecture delivered before the American Institute more than seventeen 
years ago, in which he sets forth the only important facts connected with 
the tidal wave contained in the paper before us." 

As this quotation creates the impression that I claim originality for 
these statements of facts, long well known, I must respectfully refer to 
the only claims which I have made specifically in the paper submitted to 
the Board for examination (see pages 20, 21 of pamphlet on "The Physi- 
cal Phenomena of Harbor Entrances' r ), from which it will appear that 
no such claims were made. I have also referred in that paper to the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Reports and other documents, 
as containing the data upon which my " theory of improvement" is- 
based? In the reference to Prof. Hilgard' s paper upon the tides, what he 
says is this : " Where a bay or indentation of the coast presents itself, 

1889.1 147 [Haupt. 

opening favorably to the tidal wave, thus developed and decreased in width 
from its entrance towards its head, the tide rises higher and higher from 
the mouth upward. This is due to the concentration of the wave by the 
approach of the shores and to the gradual shoaling of the bottom."* He 
then proceeds to apply this general statement to the three great bays of the 
Atlantic coast line, by stating the observed phenomena. I do not wish to 
be misunderstood as claiming originality for reference to phenomena which 
are described in elementary teaching. My special claims concerning the 
dynamic action of the flood tide were limited to the local effects produced 
at the inlets by the flood as the controlling element, to which I will refer 
again. The Board do not appear to distinguish sufficiently between my 
statements of laws and the practical application and observations I have 
deduced from them. 

The Report continues : 

"Prof. Haupt attributes great importance to the velocities along shore 
arising from the tidal flow entering these bays. He, however, presents 
no measurements or other data from which a definite estimate can be 
drawn as to the intensity of the forces thus generated or comparison made 
as to their importance when contrasted with the numerous other forces 
acting upon the bars. Littoral currents, due to the tidal waves, if they 
exist, are masked and controlled by other forces, and especially by the 
well-known powerful action of wind-waves on all sandy shores. It rests 
with Prof. Haupt to demonstrate that his tidal currents flow along the 
shores of these bays with a velocity sufficient to move the material form- 
ing the bars, and this he has failed to do. The only argument in favor of 
this conclusion is an assertion that the general conformation of the bars 
along the coast accords with what his theory requires. But the facts do 
not bear this out." 

From the above it would appear (a) that the engineer is expected to 
make a definite estimate of one of the most variable forces of nature, 
which may conspire with or oppose others in producing its effects ; (>) 
that even the existence of littoral currents, due to tidal waves, is doubted 
by the Board ; (c) if such currents do exist, it must be proven that they 
have "velocity sufficient to move the material forming the bars;" (d) 
that no proof has been adduced in support of the proposition enunciated, 
but merely assertions made to fit a theory. 

In presenting the evidence in reply to this Report, I propose to show : 

(1) That the velocity is an unimportant factor, and that material can 
be transported even where there is no motion of translation in the motor. 

(2) That waves breaking obliquely on a sandy shore will move the par- 
ticles over a zigzag path, in a constant direction, which is cumulative. 

(3) That the flood tide produces such angular waves, and that littoral 
currents aid the movement. 

* Smithsonian Report, 1874, p. 219. 

Haupt.] [Jan. 18, 

(4) That the term flood component is more comprehensive than flood 
current, and includes the dynamic action of the breakers racing along the 
shore, as well as the littoral currents generated by the on-shore move- 
ment of the flood tide. 

If it can be shown that the flood currents have sufficient energy to 
move materials, such as bricks, coal, wreckage, etc., in a direction opposed 
to the winds, even during storms, and for distances measured by miles in 
the direction of the flood, it would seem to be sufficient evidence to prove 
not only the existence of such a force, but that it is " sufficiently powerful" 
to move sand beneath the surface in the same direction. 

(a) As to measuring this particular force, I can only reply that instru- 
ments can do little more than give an imperfect record of a special condi- 
tion for a comparatively short interval of time, and that the only intelligi- 
ble gauge of the combined action of the physical forces is to be found in 
the effects produced, as revealed by Nature herself. 

A board of engineers, in reporting on Galveston harbor, expressed the 
hopelessness of measuring this particular force when they said : 

"It will be seen that the board does not attempt any prediction of the 
precise depth the jetties will maintain. Such predictions can best be made 
by those ignorant of experience in tidal entrances elsewhere, and having 
great confidence in the credulity of mankind." 

Yet, notwithstanding this statement, it is immediately preceded by the 
statement of the expectation "that the proposed jetties, when the channel 
is once formed, will maintain some such depth as twenty-five or thirty 

As yet the channel has not been formed, although dredging has been 
tried and abandoned, and $1,581,782.84 have been expended, chiefly on 
the outer bar, and the latest survey shows a reduction of depth to twelve 
and three-fourths feet, or less than existed, at times, before the works 
were begun. 

In short, the measurement of this force is impracticable, since it will 
differ not only for different entrances, but at different points of the same 
entrance, and will also vary with the stages of the tide, duration and direc- 
tion of wind, etc. 

Speaking of the action of these natural forces, .General Gillmore says : 
"The question is full of perplexing difficulties, which elude all the known 
methods of research by formulae." 1876, p. 458, Rep. Chief of Eng'rs. 


(6) The Report says : 

"Littoral currents, due to the tidal waves, if they exist, are masked and 
controlled by other forces, and especially by the well-known powerful action of 
wind waves on all sandy shores. " * * * " The observed effects may be 
explained quite as well by the accepted wind-wave theory." * * * "The 

1889.] 149 [Haupt. 

prevailing direction of tlie storm winds, apparently ignored by Prof. Havpt, 
is an important element in the problem." 

This wind-wave theory presupposes that the breakers and waves gen- 
erated by prevailing winds and by great storms rolling along the beaches 
and transporting material in the direction of these movements, are the 
preponderating forces. 

It is a plausible theory, and the effects of great storms do not admit of 
doubt, yet its general application in accounting for the peculiar forms of 
spits and bars will be found to fail signally in numerous instances, as will 
hereafter appear. 

In replying to these points, I would respectfully submit that, as the 
effects of storms are immediate, and the changes readily observable, too 
much stress has been laid upon them, as compared with the work done by 
the ceaseless activity of the flood, the result of which for any one tide 
may be small, but it is cumulative. Thus, on the one hand, we have a 
great force operating for a short interval of time along a variable path ; and 
on the other, a lesser force operating almost incessantly over a constant 
path. Assume that there are five or six great storms from the same quar- 
ter during a year, with no counter-storms to neutralize their effects. We 
have then an aggregate effect of some unknown quantity multiplied by 5 
or 6 to be compared with some lesser unknown quantity multiplied by 
730. In ten years the net result in the latter case would be tenfold greater ; 
in a century it would be a hundredfold, and the effect would go on increas- 
ing as long as time endures. But one great storm, it must be remem- 
bered, may cut away material which the next may restore, and the result- 
ant must always be the algebraic sum of the movements. The wind-wave 
theory is totally inadequate to explain the existence of the peculiar hooks 
and spits which have been built out directly in the face of the prevailing 
winds. For instance, witness the phenomena at one of the most striking 
and familiar formations on the coast, that of Sandy Hook. I will quote 
the observed facts from the Report of Profs. Bache and Mitchell, printed in 
1856, U. S. C. S. Reports. Prof. Bache remarks : " It is known * * * 
that Sandy Hook is gradually increasing, growing to the northward into 
the main ship channel. A spot north of the Hook, where there was forty 
feet of water when Capt. Gedney made his survey, in less than ten years 
was nearly bar,e at low water. The importance of determining the cause 
of this increase, as leading to the means of controlling it, cannot be over- 
estimated." * * * "Various causes have been assigned for its growth, 
by the action of the waves and the winds." Speaking from the results 
of Prof. Mitchell's surveys, he says: "It turns out that this growth of 
the Hook is not an accidental phenomena, but goes on regularly and ac- 
cording to determinable laws. The amount of increase depends upon 
variable causes ; but the general fact is that it increases year by year, and 
the cause of this is a remarkable northwardly current * * * along 
both shores of the Hook." * * * "For more than seven hours out 

Haupt.] lOO j-jan. ig, 

of the twelve, there is a northwardly current through False Hook chan- 
nel." "This northwardly current runs on the inside for eleven hours 
out of the twelve. It is the conflict of these two northwardly currents 
outside and inside, and the deposit of materials which they carry to the 
point of the Hook, which causes its growth." * * * "Within a cen- 
tury it has increased a mile and a quarter." 

Prof. Mitchell says : "Our attention was called not only to the more 
regular action of tides, currents, and the ordinary wash of the sea, but 
also to the effects following violent storms and other extraordinary phe- 
nomena." * * * "I will cite here the most striking case in this con- 
nection. Near the end of Sandy Hook we found many small household 
articles, and even human bones, which were ascertained to have drifted 
thither from the emigrant ship New Era, wrecked at Long Branch two 
years ago. To astertain whether the same causes were still in operation, 
we chose a period of quiet weather, and made deposits of sinking bodies, 
at points along the coast a short distance from shore. The materials pur- 
sued the same path as that taken by the wreck matter of the New Era, 
driving on to the same part of the beach after many days." 

This is conclusive evidence for this place to show that it is not the wind 
wave, but the flood current running along shore, that has produced this 
spit of sand, called Sandy Hook, extending for five miles in a direction 
opposed to the prevailing winds. The observations were made with a 
view to determine this very point, and leave no doubt as to its correctness. 

The same cause, namely, the flood current, flowing westerly along the 
south shore of Long Island, has built out Coney Island to the westward 
in the face of a strong ebb and the north-west storms. 

In a Report on the improvement of the bar near Sandy Hook, a board 
of officers say : "Among the agencies which tend to diminish the navi- 
gable depth, are : (1) Sand moved from the adjacent shores into the lower 
bay. From observation, it is known that there is a gradual movement of 
sand in the vicinity of the low-water line northward along the New Jer- 
sey shore, and westward along the Long Island shore into New York bay. 
Even without special observations, the fact is sufficiently shown by the 
form of Sandy Hook, a sand spit about five miles long, which has been 
slowly built during past ages by this northward movement of sand along 
the New Jersey shore." * * * "An examination of the charts of 
Coney Island shows that its western end is moving westward as sand is 
moved to it, the motion pf its eighteen -foot curve amounting to 800 feet 
between 1835 and 1881." " 

No cause is assigned in this Report for these movements north and west. 
They are merely mentioned as observed facts, but it is not to be supposed 
that this distinguished board of experienced officers would ascribe these 
movements at right angles to each other to " the prevailing direction of 
the storm winds," or to the "accepted wind-wave theory," since the pre- 
vailing dhection is neither west, north, nor north-west, but is off shore, 
whilst the flood-tide movement is north-west and reacts along shore to trans- 

1889.] [Haupt. 

port the isand and drift in the direction of these extended spits. If the 
direction of the beach and drift movements are to be taken as indicative 
of that of the prevailing winds, as they should be, if the wind theory be 
true, then we must have the winds in the vicinity of Nantucket blowing 
from the S.W. ; those at New York entrance from the S.E. ; those along 
the Jersey coast from the N.E. ; those at Cape Henlopen from the S.E. ; 
those along the " Eastern Shore " from the N.E. ; those from Chesapeake 
Bay to Cape Hatteras from the S.E., and from Hatteras to Georgia from 
the N.E., with sudden reversals at Capes Fear and Lookout, and so on. 
In short, to fit this theory, the prevailing winds must blow from different 
quarters over limited sections, which the observed results, as plotted from 
the Hydrographic Charts, do not confirm. But, on the contrary, the flood 
component is found to approach in the direction of the shore drift and satis- 
factorily to explain this movement. The wind- wave theory also fails 
signally as applied to the Great Lakes. 

The same defect of the wind-wave theory exists when applied to the 
Gulf of Mexico, for in a special Report* on Galveston, by a board of en- 
gineers, dated New York, January 21, 1886, occurs this statement as to 
the potency of the winds in producing changes on the bar : 

" Twenty and one-half per cent of the winds were from the N.E. and 
E. ; their waves should give a south-westerly motion to the sand : thirty- 
six per cent were from the S. or S.W. ; these should move the sand 
towards the north-east.'* 

But, as a matter of fact, the resultant sand movement is south-westerly, 
of in a direction opposed to the prevailing wind ; so that this theory is un- 
tenable in almost, if not in every instance. 

The movements of the winds in the great Southern Bay may be seea 
from the subjoined statement of the Signal Service for this bay for the 
sixteen years from 1871 to 1886 : 


Direction. . N. N.E. E. S.E. S. S.W. W. N.W. Calms. Prevailing Direction. 
Movement . 1775 1790 1890 1724 2538 2642 1841 2061 1249 S.W. 

Percentage . 10.9 11.0 11.6 10.6 15.6 16.3 11.3 12.7 


Date 1871 1872 1873 1874 175 1876 1877 1878 

Average movement .... 3984 3735 4550 4739 4942 3889 5117 5034 

Prevailing direction .... S.W. N.W. S.W. S.W. W. S.W. S.W. S. 

Date 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 

Average movement .... 4802 4583 5655 5179 5050 4992 5325 5334 

Prevailing direction .... 6. S.W. E. S. S. S. S. S. 

From which it appears that there is not a single year in which the pre- 
vailing winds are from the N.E., but that they are generally from the S. 
and S.W. Hence if the forms of the spits and channels be due to these 
forces, they should be just the reverse of those found to exist along the 

* Report Chief of Engineers, Appendix S, 1886, 



[Jan. 18, 

northern flank of the Southern bay, where they are best defined and most 

From a more detailed analysis of these tables of monthly wind move- 
ments, quoted from the Signal Service Reports by Lieutenant Carter, 
U.S.E., for the vicinity of Tybee Roads, Ga , it will be observed that the 
prevailing winds, which are from the S. and S. W., would tend to move the 
sand in a direction contrary to its observed motion, which is towards the 
S.W. To illustrate the relative intensities of the opposing winds, I have 
collated and compared the total monthly wind movements from 1872 to 
1886, inclusive. The normal on shore winds is S.E., hence those pro- 
ducing a north-eastwardly movement are the S. and S.W. winds, and those 
producing a south-westwardly movement are the E. and N.E. winds. 
The remaining directions being off-shore. Assembling these in groups by 
years, they exhibit the following results : 

in Thousands 

of Miles. Excess. 
:16: 7 = 9 
: 21 : 5 = 16 
: 25 : 10 = 15 
: 30 : 9 = 21 
: 20 : 8 12 
: 24 : 26 = 2 
: 25 : 5 = 20 
: 23 : 14 = 9 
:38: 4 = E2 
: 17 : 18 = -1 
:46: 5=41 
:25: 5 = 20 
: 27 : 10 = 17 
:20: 5 = 15 
:13:16 = 3 

1872, the S. and S.W. winds : to the E. and N.E. winds, 

1873, " " " " " 


1875, " " " " " 

1877, " " 

1878,- * 
1879, " " 

1880, . " " 

1881, " " 

1882, " " 



From this comparison it would seem that the forces due to the prevail- 
'ing direction of the wind, and tending to move material to the north-east, 
are overwhelmingly in excess of those operating in the contrary direction, 
or as 227,000 is to 6000 miles, an excess of 221,000 miles of wind move- 
ment from the S. and S.W. over that from the E. and N.E., or 14,733 
miles per year. 

It would seem, therefore, that the more deeply the wind- wave theory is 
examined, the more untenable it becomes, and that it is unnecessary to go 
further, if these tables represent the facts in the case, as I believe they do. 
Yet before closing this part of the argument, I beg leave to add that on 
the great lakes the littoral currents are found to divide at or near the widest 
part -of the lakes, and to flow along shore in opposite directions towards 
the head and outlet, which could not occur were they caused by winds. 
How could a N. E. wind on Lake Michigan, for example, cause a current 
to the northward and southward from Milwaukee at the same time ? These 

1889.] * [Haupt. 

currents are due to surface oscillations, which are interrupted and deflected 
by the form of the shore line, as along the coast. 

With reference to the effects of prevailing winds in moving material, 
Prof. Henry Mitchell, of the U. 8. Coast and Geodetic Survey, says : 

" The motion of the waves is not always in the direction of the prevail- 
ing winds. This fact is noted in many publications. An example of this 
is shown by the action of the waves on the north side of Long Island, N. 
Y., which drifts the material westward, while on the south side the mo- 
tion of the drifted material is eastward,* and yet the prevailing winds must 
be essentially the same on the two sides of the island. Another example 
is furnished by Lake Michigan. On the west side, south of Milwaukee, 
the prevailing motion is southward, and north of that place it is north- 
ward, and yet the prevailing wind must be the same. The prevailing 
wave motion must be influenced by the tendency which wave oscillations 
have to move from the deep waters as a centre towards the shores. In 
some instances the prevailing drift, too, must be modified by the pre- 
vailing action of the littoral currents." 

In short, the oscillations of the flood tide in deep water become con- 
verted into waves of translation on shelving shores, where they break at 
a permanent angle, and also generate littoral currents, both of which com- 
bine to move the beach material in the direction of the receding coast line*' 


Again, I believe it to be an error to attribute the deep holes in the 
gorges of inlets to ebb action chiefly. In Ex. Doc. 78, Forty eighth Con- 
gress, in reference to the Narrows of New York bay, it is said : "The 
mean ordinary velocity at the Narrows is, during 'the ebb tide, about two 
feet per second, and from this a depth of 100 feet results." In view of 
this statement, it is strange that a greater mean ebb velocity over Five- 
mile Bar in the Delaware is able to maintain only about seven feet of 
depth. In fact, it is not so much a question of velocity as of reaction, 
resulting from the compression of the flood in its efforts to pass through 
the gorge. The surveys show that the bottom currents run flood for about 
eleven hours out of twelve, and that the resultant of all the currents, ebb 
and flood, is strongly up stream. It is a notorious fact that refuse, etc., 
dumped in the lower bay, is carried by the flood to the upper bay, and it 
certainly will not be claimed that this effect is produced by prevalent 
storm-winds or waves. The flood resultant is also lower than that of the 
ebb, because of its greater density. Moreover, there can be no doubt 
that the extension of Cape Henlopen to the northward about 800 feet and 
the deposit there of over 5,000,000 cubic yards .in the last half century, in 
opposition to the strong ebb, aided by the breakwater, and of the action 
of the N.E. and N.W. storms, and the cutting away of the outer beach 
about 600 feet near the point, is additional evidence that the flood compo- 

* This is only true for the eastern end of Long Island. L. M. H. 


Haupt.] [Jan 18, 

nent exists and has the power attributed to it, which it is necessary that 
maritime engineers should recognize in designing successful works of 

The existence of such a force as that described, and the effects produced 
thereby, in transporting heavy articles, and, a fortiori, lighter ones, is 
still further abundantly attested by the following record of observed facts 
by competent persons. The extracts in Appendix "A" are cited to 
establish, as the author says, a "fundamental principle, that the deposits 
on the ocean border are only made by the current of the flood tide," and are 
a complete confirmation of the conclusions I have reached from an inde- 
pendent and somewhat different line of reasoning, based upon a compre- 
hensive comparative study of the coast charts. 

They were compiled by the late Rear- Admiral Davis,* one of the 
most talented hydrographers this country has produced, and were ac- 
cepted by such eminent authorities as Profs. Henry, Agassiz and Guyot, 
but were unknown to me until my attention was drawn to them by this 


"It rests with Prof. Haupt to demonstrate that his tidal currents flow 
along the shores of these bays with a velocity sufficient to mom the materials 
forming the bars, and this he has failed to do." 

It would appear from this opinion of the Board that they expect the 
results produced by the flood to be those due wholly to the velocity of the 
littoral currents, evidently overlooking those other and far more potent 
agencies which are at work in the flood, as previously proved with refer- 
ence to New York entrance. I have, in general, designated this force as 
the "littoral component," but it has been confused with and mistaken for 
the littoral current, and since the velocity of the latter is evidently small, 
it has been concluded that there can be no motion produced by this flood 
compo?ient. I have already cited numerous unmistakable instances of such 
motion and deposit in opposition to the prevailing wind theory, and will 
now merely call attention to the fact that these results may be produced 
even without any littoral current, since matter may be given a motion of 
translation without the motor itself having such a motion. For example, 
the usual helices for mixing concrete, transport the material from one 
end of the trough to the other, even against gravity, merely by the rota- 
tion of the axis, and water is raised by the Archimedean screw in a similar 
manner. The dynamic act.ion of the waves racing along the beach is pre- 
cisely the same. If the wave of translation, as it comes rolling in, does 
not strike normally (and in a bay it will generally be oblique), then it will 

* Chas. Henry Davis, LL.D., U. S. N., was born in Boston, Mass., January 16, 1807, and 
entered the navy as midshipman iu 1823, becoming Rear-Admiral in 1863. In 1861, he 
was a member of a board to report upon the condition of the harbors and inlets of the 
Southern coast. In 1859 he was made Superintendent of the " Nautical Almanac ;" in 
1865, of the Naval Observatory, and during his active scientific and professional life, he 
translated the " MScanique Celeste." 

lSs'9.] [Haupt. 

roll up the sand diagonally. The particles may possibly return normally 
with the under-tow, only to be again transported obliquely, and by this 
zigzag path it will advance in the direction of the receding beach ; a lit- 
toral current merely intensifies this action. 

This movement along shore is, therefore, largely dependent on the 
angle at which the flood breaks upon the shore, and this angle is practi- 
cally a constant for a particular place, modified by the wind. But vari- 
ability in the wind is not the controlling condition. It may sometimes 
increase the littoral drift, and at others neutralize it entirely. While there 
may be a prevailing north-east wind, as alleged, it would seem from an 
examination of the hydrographic charts, that the prevailing winds are off 
shore and the greatest storms from the south and west. In the middle 
bay particularly, extending from Cape Hatteras to Nantucket, the on- 
shore winds are limited to a few months during the summer. It would 
appear from these charts that the prevailing winds, and consequently the 
wind waves, can have very little influence in transporting material along 
the shores at or below the water line. 

With reference to the existence of a constant angle for the breaking 
wave as well as of a littoral current, Prof. Henry Mitchell, of the U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, says : "From considerable experience in the 
study of waves upon the open coast, I have come to the conclusion that 
there is everywhere a prevalent, if not a permanent, angle at which the 
larger class of swell or rollers strike the general shore line ;" also, "the 
coast currents in some places have a velocity of one-third of a mile per 
hour in thirty fathoms of water. They are in some localities nearly par- 
allel, in others normal to the general trend of the shore line, and, so far 
as the few observations we have seen may indicate, the directions of ebb 
and flood are not usually opposed, although lying at an oblique angle with 
each other." 

Dr. Whewell says, concerning the action of the flood tide : " The cotidal 
lines make a very acute angle with the shore line, and run for great dis- 
tances nearly parallel to it. They are convex in the direction of their 
motion, the ends near the shore being held back by the smaller velocities 
in shallower water and other resistances." 

But there can be no holding back without a reaction upon the shores, 
whereby the sandy particles would be dragged by the friction in the direc- 
tion of this movement. 

Mr. E. A. Geiseler, C.E., formerly Assistant U. S. Engineer and Super- 
intendent of Construction on Light-house Service, says : " I fully coincide 
with Prof. Haupt in his opinions that littoral currents are produced by 
the entrance of the tidal wave into bays. From the higher crest the 
water must flow at first vertically to such crest towards the shore line, and 
on approaching the latter be gradually deflected into a direction parallel 
to it." 

From the reference of the "tidal currents," to me personally, as their 
discoverer or imaginer (see quotation), it is necessary here incidentally to 

Haupt.] j- Jan 18| 

disclaim any originality for the discovery of their existence. What I did 
claim and emphasize in my paper was not that, but their efficiency and 
controlling influence as bar-building agencies, and I applied the knowl- 
edge of the direction of the flood component to the designing of a plan for 
successfully resisting these encroachments. Although hydrographers are 
familiar with the well-known increased height of tide in bays, and with 
the existence of the littoral currents, they appear to have failed to apply 
these phenomena to account for the transportation of drift, until they 
were found, by a specially conducted series of surveys and observations, to 
be the causes of such formations as are instanced in the case of Sandy 
Hook. Yet, notwithstanding ample evidence, there are many persons 
who still adhere to the wind-wave theory as exerting the most potent 

(d) " That no proof has been adduced, but merely assertions to Jit a 

After the instances already given, it would seem to be superfluous to 
cite as evidence any more facts. The theory was not conceived first and 
then generalizations added to fit it, but it is the logical outcome of a criti- 
cal study of the forms, slopes and positions of the topographical features 
at a large number of entrances, taken in connection with the general form 
of the coast line, and the conclusions I have reached are merely confirm- 
atory of those deduced at earlier dates by Profs. Bache, Mitchell, Hilgard, 
Rear-Admiral Davis, some of the members of ttie United States Corps of 
Engineers, many civil engineers, and by some light keepers, life-saving 
crews and wreckers. I think it is clearly demonstrated that there is a 
flood component of greater or lesser intensity, depending on the angle at 
which the flood movement breaks upon the shore, and that it is the cumu- 
lative effect of this force that. builds and moulds the bars at harbor inlets, 
or wherever there is a break in the beach. Such an opinion a'ccords witlL 
observed facts,: explains them satisfactorily, and is accepted by the most 
experienced hydrographers and maritime engineers. 

The Report of the Board continues : 

"For example, we liave authentic records at one of the sites he (Prof. 
Haupt) quotes, Beaufort, N. C., which prove that during the last sixty- 
seven years there has been a cycle of changes, and that the channel over 
the bar which, at present, occupies the- position required by his theory, 
would have borne testimony adverse to its truth a few years ago. In- 
deed, such changes are a common occurrence along the coast. The ac- 
cepted opinion of engineers who have had large experience in harbor 
works on sandy coasts, is that the action of oblique wind waves is potent 
in causing the movement of material along the shore, and that the prevail- 
ing direction of the storm winds, apparently ignored by Prof. Haupt, is 
an important element in the problem." 

The above statement concerning the cyclic changes which are found to 
exis.t at the inlets, is but another confirmation of the correctness of the 

1889.] 157 [Haupt. 

theory. These changes occur in the same direction through a cycle of years, 
and are due to the relation between the flood and ebb forces. The flood 
resultant, by its constant encroachments from the same direction, trespasses 
upon the path of the ebb, crowding it over towards shore, and filling its 
bed, until it is no longer able to find an escape in the old path, when, 
aided perhaps by a storm, it will break out in a new channel, only to be 
returned after a series of years over the same ground. If these changes 
were due to storms only, they would be far more variable, and, in the 
interval between storms, they would be comparatively permanent. The 
channel would be thrown to the south-west by a north-east storm, and to 
the north east by one from the opposite quarter, when equally exposed, 
and there they should remain until again disturbed by this violent action ; 
whereas such is not the rule. 

The changes at Beaufort and all other places are readily explained by 
the influence of this unceasing flood resultant, modified only temporarily 
by storms. 

The reason why the storm-wind theory is the accepted one, is doubtless 
due to the fact that the effects are, for the time being, more manifest to 
the superficial observer, whilst those of the flood component are imper- 
ceptible excepting after the lapse of considerable time. The effect may be 
likened to the slow growth of an organic body, not visible to one watch- 
ing it constantly, but very apparent to one who makes examinations at 
long intervals. The storm winds, it will be seen, are not ignored by me, 
but are merely relegated to their true position of secondary agencies, 
which may co-operate with or oppose the forces of the flood tide. 

In consequence of this cyclic movement it is evident that it would be a 
mistake to assume that all the ebb channels should remain flexed in a cer- 
tain direction along one flank of a bay and in the contrary direction on 
the opposite flank, as some have supposed must result, or that the changes 
would occur simultaneously at all places. 

The Board continue : 

"Nothing which Prof Haupt has advanced suggests that his tidal cur- 
rent should be substituted as the 'controlling' or even as an important 
element in our ocean bar formation. The observed effects may be ex- 
plained quite as well by the accepted wind-wave theory. Indeed, the 
fact that such bars abound on shores where no sensible tidal waves exist, 
proves that no new theory need be invoked." 

The first part of this statement has already been answered, and if the 
last part were irrefutable the theory would be untenable. But since like 
causes must produce like effects, if the observed effects are found on tide- 
less shores, we must expect to find the same causes and so we shall. 
Whether the motor be universal or terrestrial gravitation, the agency is 
primarily a wave of oscillation which in shallow water becomes a wave of 
translation, breaking generally obliquely upon the shore and producing a 
resultant movement along the beach. It is a well-known fact that on the 



[Jan. 18, 

Great Lakes which, in the passage quoted, are undoubtedly the waters 
alluded to by the Board, there are continual oscillations of even greater 
magnitude than are found to be produced by the tides in the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, and that they are much more frequent, hence the effects more marked. 
In the observations made by Rudolph Hering, Consulting Engineer for 
the Chicago Drainage Commission, he shows for one day not less than 
seventeen oscillations of over a foot in amplitude, and one of them exceed- 
ing two and one-half feet. (See diagram.) 

Zl 27 23 2 > 

Fluctuations of the water surface of Lake Michigan, as recorded by an 
Automatic Gauge, Chicago, 111., August 16, 1886. 

NOTE. The wind was from the north-west in the morning and the 
south-west in the afternoon. The lake here is sixty miles wide and from 
twenty-five to fifty fathoms deep. 

Mr. Hering says : "The winds and barometric pressure produce a con- 
stant oscillation of the surface, and at times a swinging motion from shore 
to shore. * * * One oscillation on the above diagram is distinctly 
recognizable as lasting about twenty minutes, which is the swing across 
the lake. The greatest of these, as will be seen, was over two feet. The 
oscillations are relatively greatest at the south end of the lake." 

Concerning these observed oscillations of the lake's surface, Mr. O. B. 
Wheeler, an experienced Assistant on the Lake Surveys since 1862, who 
was continuously employed upon these surveys for thirteen years, and 
subsequently at intervals to date (1888), writes as follows : 

WHEELER, M. AM. 80C., C.E. 

"From my remembrance of the discussion of the self- registering tide- 
gauge observations made at several points and for several years on the 
Great Lakes, I offer the following : 

"In these gauges the ordinary wind waves and waves from passing 

1889.] 159 [Haupt. 

vessels, or from any local, incidental causes, were eliminated by means of 
the perforated boxes surrounding the float. 

"A fair representation of the record is shown in the illustration by 
Kndolph Hering in his paper to the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia ; 
although there is a distinctive curve for each locality of observation, and 
the curve for Chicago would be distinguishable from that of Milwaukee 
or from that of any other locality. 

"The curve at Milwaukee showed that for more than half the season of 
observation there were series of waves coming in at intervals of approxi- 
mately two hours, whose height were from one-third of a foot to one and 
a half feet. Generally the waves are subdivided, sometimes very deeply, 
into two or more parts. At Milwaukee, on Lake Michigan, there were 
more nearly eleven of these waves in twenty-four hours, and at Marquette, 
on Lake Superior, eight in the same length of time. The two-hour inter- 
val at Milwaukee was supposed to be due to the time required for a wave 
to travel across the lake and return, where the width of the lake was 
nearly eighty miles and depth 400 feet. 

"Greater disturbances, known as 'seiches/ occurring generally several 
times in a season and lasting several hours, bring waves upon the shore 
at intervals of twenty or thirty minutes, the crests of which waves exceed 
two feet in height above the troughs. The cause of this phenomenon is 
probably a difference in atmospheric pressure on different parts of the 
lake, and the more decided 'seiches' probably result from severe cyclones. 
The same cause may for the most part account for the generation of the 
two-hour waves above noted. 

"There is also a change in the relative water level of the two ends of a 
lake due to the direction of the wind, but the wave thus produced has 
generally a day or more in length of duration." 

Mr. G. Y. Wisner, a colleague of Mr. Wheeler's, also an experienced 
Lake Survey Assistant, writes, under date of March, 1888, that "the laws 
of the natural forces, which you have so ably set forth in your article, as 
applied to tidal harbors, hold equally true with a large number of the 
harbors on our lake coasts. It is true the tides on the lakes are impercep- 
tible, yet other natural causes combine to produce the same effect." 

" Owing to unequal barometric pressures on different portions of such 
vast bodies of water, series of waves are generated which are usually 
about an hour in passing from crest to crest at any given point, and vary 
all the way from six to eighteen inches in amplitude. These waves fol- 
low each other along the snores similarly to those of flood tides ; their 
effect in generating littoral currents depending, of course, on the general 
direction in which the waves approach the shore and the conformation of 
the coast line. I have noticed the rise and fall of the lakes due to this 
wave action, for days at a time, in perfectly calm weather, with almost 
the regularity of clock-work, and have observed currents generated in the 
open lake of over three miles per hour. * * * Most ot the lake har- 

Haupt ] 


bors are the mouths of rivers, and exhibit in a very striking manner many 
of the characteristics which you have described." 

Mr. Wisner has subsequently prepared a paper on this subject for the 
use of the profession, which paper is published in the "Proceedings of 
the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia" (1888), giving the practical applica- 
tions of these phenomena to several of the lake ports. 

The application of the observed principles to the lakes becomes very 
simple. As a lake contracts at its head (as at the west end of Lake Supe- 
rior, the south end of Lake Michigan, the west ends of Erie and Ontario) 
it may be regarded as a large bay with converging shores. The oscilla- 
tions in midlake are reflected along these shores and broken into waves of 
translation rolling towards the bight. Here, if there is any land drainage 
entering the lake, there is an opposition between the drifts in these direc- 
tions, and a precipitation of materials usually from both shores ensues, 
forming long spits, as at Minnesota and Wisconsin Points, on Superior 
bay, and at Chequegoniegon spit on the bay of the same name. Similar 
formation takes place from the same causes at Maumee bay, at the head 
of Lake Erie, and at the end of Lake Ontario. Like movements in Lake 
Huron drive the sands into the St. Clair river and thence into the enlarge- 
ment known as Lake St. Clair, which was so shallow before improve- 
ment, as to have been the controlling feature on the lower lake naviga- 

The same action at the head of Lake Michigan has, I believe, closed 
the ancient southern outlet, via the Kankakee river, to the Illinois and 
Mississippi, and is still at work closing the mouths of the streams at that 
and other points and creating extensive deposits of sands. The same 
effects are to be found generally at the indentations of the shore line of 
sandy formations. 

Prof. Hiero B. Herr writes from Chicago, under date of March 30, 1888, 
that "our sand propelling currents are southward on the south half of 
the shore and northward on the north half. This seems clearly proven 
by the rapid accumulation of sand deposit on the north side of projecting 
piers in the former case, and on the south side in the latter." 

From these numerous instances, therefore, it is believed to be a fact that 
this shore component of the lake oscillation and "seiches," be they pro- 
duced as they may, by wind or barometric disturbance, is the principal 
agency in producing the characteristic forms found there, as on the alluvia! 
coast line. 

This brings us to the second branch of the Report of the Board, in 
which they comment upon my practical deductions. 

The Board say : 

"The practical deductions drawn by Prof. Haupt from his theory are 
illustrated by proposed plans of improvement at the harbors of New York, 
Charleston and Galvestou. They are all similar in character, consisting 

1889.] - - lHaupt. 

of a single detached jetty made up of elliptical curves presenting their 
cusps to oppose the supposed advancing component of the tidal wave, 
and of an in-shore extension to concentrate the flood current upon a 
secondary or 'beach' channel, which it is proposed to keep open. At 
New York and Galveston ' detached breakwaters' are indicated, to pre- 
vent the ebb from being diverted from its course, and to train it upon a 
point where, according to his theoretical deductions, ' the bar-building 
forces are weakest.' 

" Without going into any general discussion of this typical plan, it will 
be sufficient to point out : (1) That since no provision is made to close the 
'beach' channel during ebb tide, it will carry oft water which might be 
more usefully applied to scouring out the main or 'ebb' Channel, and that 
one good channel is certainly better than two bad ones ; (2) that this pro- 
posed main channel, in the case of Charleston, is so lengthened by its loca- 
tion, that the working energy, due to the difterence of head between the 
harbor and the outer ocean, is frittered away by being distributed over a 
path needlessly long ; and (3) that the degree of contraction on the bar is 
ill-defined, uncertain and altogether insufficient." 

To any one at all familiar with the original plans of the Government 
engineers for both Galveston and Charleston, the above criticism of my 
methods must appear as singularly inconsistent. If there are serious ob- 
jections in the plans which I have submitted, they must apply with much 
greater force to those now being executed at so great expense to the Gov- 

The whole merit of the submerged jetty plan, as adopted, was based 
upon the theory that the flood would be admitted freely over the jetties at 
their shore ends, and be, at ebb, trailed by them out across the bar, where 
the jetties were to be raised to or above the surface of the water. If the 
loss of ebb energy through the comparatively small lateral opening left 
in my plans be of serious amount, it would be far more so when the lateral 
openings amount to nearly four hundred per cent of the section at the 
mouth of the jetties, as is at present the case at Charleston. 

As to my proposed channel being so lengthened as to fritter away the 
working energy due to difterence of .head, it is only necessary to say that 
the point of escape for the ebb at all these sites is, in my plans, nearer the 
gorge, giving a greater slope and more rapid discharge than in the plans 
now under construction . At Charleston, the most unfavorable case for 
me, it is but two and seven-eighths miles distant from the gorge, while 
the mouth of the Government jetties is about three and one-eighth miles 


There is no doubt that one good channel is to be preferred to two bad 
ones, but the counter-proposition that "two bad ones" are better than no 
good one is likewise true, and when it is remembered that the forces relied 
upon to create and maintain the two .channels are distinct, are operating 


Haupt.] 162 [Jan. 18, 

at different times and places, there would seem to be no reason why they 
may not both be created. A fairer statement of the case would be that 
two good channels would be better than one poor one. Apropos of the 
amount of water escaping laterally during the ebb through the beach 
opening in the breakwater, the Reports of the Chief of Engineers are 
explicit in stating that it would be much less than the amount admitted 
during flood ; and in view of the beneficial effects of the 600 feet gap in 
the great north wall of the Dublin entrance,* there would seem to be no 
room left for doubt as to the benefits to be conferred by such a vent as 
that which I have proposed. The loss of energy through this lateral out- 
let during ebb would be immaterial; as it lies close under the lee of the 
shore, and nearly the whole of the ebb is trailed to discharge over the bar 
at the curved outer end of the breakwater. 

In discussing the Government projects, it was originally deemed funda- 
mental to their success that the flood tide should be admitted freely to 
secure the necessary prism for ebb scour, and in the design for the beach 
channel entrance, which I have given, I have provided a form that must 
pass more flood than ebb, and hence the excess would go to increase the 
ebb at another point of the bar. It is this difference of quantity upon 
which I rely in part to increase the efficiency of the ebb as well as the 
conservation of its energy over nearly one-half the crest of the bar. 
These principles are universally accepted as sound. They certainly will 
not fritter away the .energy available for scour in an "ill-defined, uncer- 
tain, or altogether insufficient action," but must concentrate all there is to 
be had over the most limited as well as the weakest section of the bar. 

In considering the utility of high jetties for Charleston, the late General 
Gill more said : " The excess of ebb over flood scour is due to two causes : 
(1) To the rainfall of the natural drainage area ; (2) To the volume of 
water carried in over the bar by waves of translation, which afterward 
form a part of the general outflow. High jetties, or those which rise above 
the level of high water, will cut off all supply from this source, except 
what little is carried in between them. " * * * And he adds : "There 
are few maritime constructions, says M. Minard, less susceptible of gen- 
eral rules and more dependent on local influences than jetties. He might 
have added that we are as yet unable to deal with these local influences 
with much confidence or satisfaction." To avoid these defects of high 
jetties the Government has tried the submerged plan with, thus far, no 
better success. 


"In fine, the Board, after an attentive study of Prof. Haupt's paper, 
supplemented by a personal interview, in which he was afforded every 
opportunity to explain and elaborate his views, find that they are purely 
theoretical, are unconfirmed by experience, and contain nothing not 

* See Franklin Institute Journal, for April, 1888. 

\jv X^ 


im] 163 > *^g|j|J.. [Haup, 

already well known, which has a useful application in the improvement 
of our harbors. 

"A copy of the printed paper submitted to the Board by Prof. Haupt is 
herewith enclosed. Respectfully submitted. 

(Signed by) " THOS. LINCOLN CASEY, Colonel Corps of Engineers. 
" HENRY L. ABBOT, Col. of Engineers, Bvt. Brig. Genl. 
" C. B. COMSTOCK, Lt. Col. of Engrs., Bvt. Brig. Genl. 
.' "D. C.HOUSTON, Lt. Col. of Engrs., Bvt. Col. 

"W. R. KING, Major of Engineers." 

From the above concluding remarks it will be seen that the Board find 
in the paper submitted "nothing not already well known, etc.," and that 
the plans ' ' are purely theoretical and unconfirmed by experience. ' ' These 
conclusions appear to me to be contradictory, since if, on the one hand, 
they are new and untried, they could hardly be expected to be confirmed 
by experience, or if, on the other hand, they are "well known," they are, 
by that expression, impliedly recognized as true, and their application 
should be readily confirmed or denied by the supposed existing precedents. 
But none have been cited by the Board. 

In the paper of Prof. Hilgard, to which the Board allude in their Report, 
he describes the, to him, unexpected effects produced during the war by 
the sinking, on the Charleston bar, of the so-called "stone fleet," thus 
obstructing the entrance to the harbor. 

Prof. Hilgard says : 

"On the accompanying diagram is seen the 'stone fleet' sunk in the 
main channel, which at that time had twelve feet of water at low tide, 
where the figure seven indicates the present depth. There was, moreover, 
another channel, making out more to the southward, with nine feet of 
water, where the figure three indicates the present depth. The vessels 
were placed checkerwise, in such a manner as to impede navigation, 
while interfering least with the discharge of water. The effect, neverthe- 
less was the formation of a shoal in a short time, and the scouring out of 
two channels, one on each side of the obstructions, through which twelve 
and fourteen feet can now (January 27, 1871) be carried at low water. 
The increased waterway thus given to the ebb tide caused it to abandon 
the old nine-foot channel on the less direct course to deep water. We 
have here the total obstruction of a channel, which was of considerable 
importance to the southward trade, by new conditions introduced at a 
point four miles distant from where the effect was produced, and we are 
warned how carefully all the conditions of the hydraulic system of a har- 
bor must be investigated before undertaking to make any change in its 
natural conditions, lest totally unlooked-for results be produced at points 
not taken into consideration." 

So that instead of obstructing the entrance this accidental barrier to the 
flood actually deepened the water on the bar two feet, and induced the 
ebb currents to effect an escape in its lee, closing a channel several miles 



[Jan. 18, 

to the westward by furnishing a line of less resistance, and withdrawing 
the water from the former distant channel. Moreover, it cut a second 
channel quite as deep as the first on the opposite side of the fleet, thus 
creating TWO channels as good or better than before, instead of the one for- 
merly existing on the site of the fleet. 

There could not be found an instance more fully confirmatory of the 
soundness of the principles I have laid down and proposed to use, than 
this accidental practical experience, and yet the amount of the protection 
afforded by the "stone fleet" was much less than that I have provided, 

1889.] [Haupt. 

and it is situated at a point where its effects might have been considered 
"altogether insufficient, uncertain and ill-defined." 

(The cut is reproduced from Prof. Hilgard's paper, Smithsonian Report, 
1874, page 221.) 

The accompanying letter, recently received from Prof. Hilgard, is con- 
clusive as to the probable efficiency of these plans : 

"1349 L St. 
"WASHINGTON, May 20, 1888. 

"My DEAR PROF. HAUPT : I have received your interesting paper on 
the 'Physical Phenomena of Harbor Entrances,' in which you describe 
the peculiar forms of the bars and spits found at the inlets along the sandy 
cordon of islands defending the Atlantic coast line and give your explana- 
tion as to the forces producing them ; ascribing them chiefly to the energy 
of the flood tide as affected by the general form of the coast line. 

"In this I think you are entirely correct, as it is undoubtedly the un- 
ceasing activity of the flood that produces the forms which are so charac- 
teristic of harbor entrances, and not the wind waves produced by prevail- 
ing winds. The direction of motion of the beach sands is, as a rule, the 
same as that of the flood tide along the shore. It is modified by great 
storms, but only temporarily, and in a short time the flood reasserts its 
supremacy and the channel returns to its normal position. 

"In applying this physical fact to the plans for improving the bars, I 
believe you have proposed the best form to resist the encroachments of. 
the sand and yet admit the flood tide freely. These are fundamental condi- 
tions, and you have fully met them while providing at the same time 
ample facilities for navigation. 

" The successful operation of your proposed plan is well illustrated by 
the accidental experience with the stone fleet on Charleston bar, described 
in my paper on ' Tides and Tidal Action in Harbors,' published in the 
Smithsonian Report for 1874. From that instance it is seen that by ob- 
structing the inflow of sand and inducing an ebb current, two good chan- 
nels were formed, the better one to the leeward of the obstruction. Your 
plans would change the conditions of equilibrium in favor of the ebb, and 
the length of your breakwater is much less than that required by existing 

"I trust that they will be tried at some suitable entrance along the' At- 
lantic or Gulf coast. 

"Yours, with great regard, 


"PROP. LEWIS 'M. HAUPT, University of Pennsylvania. " 

The effects to be Anticipated from the shore flank of the breakwater are 
best instanced by those'found at the Delaware breakwater, where a 
straight barrier of half a mile in length stands at such an angle to Cape 
Henlopen as to have been originally tangent to it when projected in 1828. 
Its end is about a half mile from shore, and it is open to the north-west 

Haupt.] [Jan. 18, 

storms and ebb scour, It has maintained a channel 600 feet wide and 
over thirty feet deep through the shoals, which have been built upon 
either hand, all the way to the deep water of the Atlantic, and notwith- 
standing this concentration of the ebb forces through this funnel-shaped 
passage, the flood was not prevented from rolling Cape Henlopen about 
800 feet farther north since the commencement of the construction of the 
breakwater. These detached instances, with that of the Dublin harbor 
north wall, are all conclusive, so far as any precedents can be, as to the 
effects to be expected from my plans, and when it is remembered that the 
cost of executing them would be less than half that of the high and tight 
jetties now proposed, and that the effects of time will be to reinforce and 
strengthen rather than to destroy them, it would seem that, in justice to 
the commercial interests of the country, an opportunity should be found 
for at least giving them a fair trial. 

In further confirmation of the requirement that the jetty should be on 
the side toward the flood component, reference is made to the experience 
of a private company, at Aransas pass, on the Texas coast, in 1869, which 
is believed to be the only case of this kind on record. 

Here the movement of sand is southward at the rate of over 200 feet per 
annum, and this company expended less than $10,000 in building a short 
jetty only 600 feet long from the north shore and extending out on the 
north side of the channel. 

"These jetties, crates or caisons, as they are variously called by the 
builders, were made of live-oak poles, spiked together in the general form 
of a triangular prism and placed longitudinally. Each crate was about 
eight or ten feet long, six feet high and six feet wide at the base. * * * 
They were ballasted with a few hundred weight of stone, filled with 
brush and sunk in two or three parallel rows. They were expected to 
act as a nucleus about which the sand would settle, and close up the sec- 
ondary channel, thus directing the flow of water directly through the 
channel of the bar. From the fact that the secondary channel has shoaled 
about two feet, and the main channel deepened about two feet since 
placing the crates, it may be supposed they have contributed to produce 
this result."* 

In a later "Report, dated February 1, 1879, Maj. Howell, then in charge, 
in commenting upon this early precedent, remarks : 

"From my remembrance of a verbal description of the work * * * 
the cribs were triangular in cross-section (dimensions not known), and 
their parts very imperfectly fastened together, and besides seem to have 
been made of any timber and lumber that came handy some live oak, 
but mostly yellow pine scantling, four inches by six inches. 

"Some of these cribs were filled with brush and stone when sunk in 
place, but it is said that others were simply ballasted so as to sink them. 

* Eeport or Jhe late Lieut. E. A. Woodruff, Corps of Engineers, dated April 1, 1871, vide 
Report Chief of Engineers, 1871, p. 526. 

1889.] "* [Haupt. 

During the work of construction some of the cribs near the shore were 
broken up and washed away. 

" When the work was suspended it is said there was a twelve foot chan- 
nel across the bar, which was maintained for several months, possibly 
until the teredo and the waves had destroyed a considerable part of the 
frail cribwork. 

"In 1871, when the late Lieut. E. A. Woodruff made a reconnoissance 
of the pass, he was unable to find any trace of the work. It is said that 
as the work gradually disappeared the channel across the bar gradually 
returned to its normal depth. I consider my information reliable as to 
the above described work and its effects." 

These extracts show very conclusively that, so far as this frail structure 
went, it was in the proper place, and did effective work in improving the 
channel by keeping out the sand and preventing the dispersion of the ebb. 
Its form and materials might have been improved to great advantage. 

The Government failed to profit by this precedent, however, for in 
August, 1887, the engineer officer in charge of this pass, reported that : 

" The work designed to deepen the channel over the bar, consisting of 
a single jetty, constructed upon the south side of the entrance, has had no 
important effect upon the bar, and is in a dilapidated condition. The 
channel depth, over the bar, is now eight and one half feet, and the 
channel crosses the jetty." 

Thus it appears that this jetty was attempted on the wrong side (the 
south) of the channel, and that the ebb discharge in seeking the line of 
least resistance was forced over the cresj of the submerged work by the 
bar of sand rolled up by the flood component. 


This paper would be incomplete without the evidence collected by ex- 
perienced maritime engineers of other countries, as to the results of similar 
works elsewhere. 

In his digest of jettied entrances, Sir Vernon Harcourt says in general 
of the jetty system : 

"The jetties also, in most cases, were extended in the hope of reaching 
deep water, which proved fruitless, owing to the progression of the fore- 
shore with each extension of the jetties. Next artificial sluicing basins 
were formed, to provide a larger mass of water for sluicing, with the ad- 
ditional advantage that the issuing current was nearer and better directed 
for scouring the entrance. Lastly, dredging with sand-pumps is being 
largely employed for deepening the channel beyond the jetties. The 
parallel system has not proved successful in providing a deep entrance 
without constant works. * * * Experience has shown how jealously 
encroachments on the tide-covered lands should be prevented, and the 
uselessness of prolongations of the jetties. * * * Parallel jetty harbors 
are one of the most difficult class of harbors to design and maintain suc- 

Haupt.] [Jari 18> 

Again, the President of the Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland, 
and Engineer of the Port of Dublin, T. Pursur Griffith, writes with refer- 
ence to the alluvial harbor at Ostende, Belgium : 

" It is not necessary to enter into a detailed description of the successive 
additions made to the jetties and sluicing reservoirs * * * suffice it to 
say, that the jetties extend at present about 300 metres seaward from the 
shore line, and the maximum sluicing capacity of the reservoir is about 
1,100,000 cubic metres. The result of these costly works cannot be re- 
garded as satisfactory. The channel is still shallow, while the bar a short 
distance beyond the pierheads still forms a dangerous obstruction. Depth, 
of water at the entrance to a port is more needful during rough, wild weather 
than in calm, and it is just at such times that sluicing operations similar to 
those at Ostende fail." 

Speaking of the jetty system in general, he says : 

"The system so generally adopted in Continental ports, of parallel or 
nearly parallel jetties, extending only to comparatively shallow depths, ap- 
pears to be radically wrong in principle. Their tendency, generally, is to 
act as groins, and make the sandy shore extend outwards until the sand 
passes around the pierheads where the action of the sea heaps it up in the 
form of a bar." 

It seems unnecessary further to multiply instances of the failure of the 
principle of parallel jetties in tidal waters, and it is confidently believed 
that the single-curved barrier placed upon the bar as an obstruction to 
flood-wave and sand movement will be found satisfactorily to fulfill the 
requirements of these problems. 


Extracts from a paper, by Charles Henry Davis, Lieut, U. S. N., entitled 
"The Law of Deposit of the Flood : Its Dynamical Action and Office." 
Printed in the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. iii. Referred 
to a Commission consisting of Prof. S. Agassiz, Prof. A. Guyot and Prof. 

Joseph Henry, and accepted December, 1851. 


"The views in the paper* were founded upon observations and exami- 
nations of various parts of the alluvial coast of the United States, through 
a series of years, and led to the discovery that the shape, extent and dis- 
tribution of the loose material of which they are composed quartzose 
saiid were chiefly determined by the action of tides." * * * "It 

* The author here refers to a previous memoir on the same topic. 

1889.] 169 [Haupt.' 

was laid down as a fundamental principle, that the deposits on the ocean 
border are only made by the current of the flood tide. * * * 

" The mode of operation of the flood is essentially accumulative. Its ten- 
dency, also, is continually to carry onward thb deposit in the Course of its 
current, so that it performs the double office of increasing the collection 
at every successive tide, and of advancing from place to place the matter 
at its disposal. This process, and the law by which it wag produced, were 
proved by the manner in which the materials of wrecks were conveyed 
along the shore, and the direction (always that of flood) in which the 
various forms of deposits are increased. Many well-authenticated in- 
stances of the transportation of wrecked matter were adduced." He adds, 
" It is difficult, if not impossible, to make these inquiries through another 
person with a perfectly intelligible result, * * * it has not, therefore, 
been possible to add many facts to those already collected. The follow- 
ing statements are well attested." 

Mr. J. H. Skillman, Inspector of the Port at Greenport, L. I., stated that 
in October, 1842, the whale-ship Plato was wrecked on the south side of 
Long Island, and he took part in the purchase of the wreck. "After 
removing the oil, the upper frame separated from the lower timbers and 
drifted to the westward. The wreck masters built a house on the beach, 
in which they lived two weeks, employed in rescuing the cargo and ma- 
terials of the vessel. During this time bricks (spare ones for the 'try- 
works') and wood drifted to the westward, and were collected on the 
beach in that direction only. Nothing was carried to the eastward. The 
top frame that had separated was heavy, water-logged, and weighed 
down with iron fastenings, it floated deep ; and at the time of its drifting 
to the westward, the wind was blowing from the west. . The bricks and 
fire wood constantly advanced in a westerly direction. During three of 
the fourteen days passed by the wreckers on the beach, the wind was 
from the north-west and one day very strong ; at no time did it blow from 
the east. After the hull was lightened it began to work to the westward, 
so that it was necessary to secure it by ropes, made fast to stakes driven 
into the sand." 

Mr. Bishop, speaking of the British sloop-of war Sylph, lost on the south 
side of Long Island in 1814-15, said that : " The materials of this wreck 
were also taken up to the westward, some of them beyond Fire Island 
beach during the three weeks following her destruction. And, curious to 
relate, her rudder was found seven years afterwards, twenty miles to the 
westward of the place of her loss. It was known by its size and the king's 
arrow on the copper." Other cases are cited, and the statement is made 
that the flood current on that part of the Long Island shore runs to the 

Lieut. Com'd'g J. N. Maffitt, U. S. Coast Survey, says : " Cape Hatteras 
is a point of divergence of the tide wave, or, in other words, a split of the 
tides lakes place there ; in consequence of which the advancing flood 
that supplies the harbor of Charleston flows along the coast from the 


Haupt] 1*0 [j an . 18| 1889 . 

north to the south." He adds that, "the water, while it runs flood, is 
loaded with sand ; but that, when it runs ebb, it contains little or none 
of this matter." 

The action of the flood is to roll a floating body forward and lift it up, 
carrying it in the direction of the flood and finally leaving it stranded at 
high water. 

"Again, if a strong wind should arise to cause a heavy sea upon the 
beach, the floating body will be thrown still farther on the shore." * * * 
"If, during the ebb tide, a floating object be placed upon the water, out- 
side of the line at which the sea breaks, it will be taken off, but if inside 
the breakers, it will be cast upon the shore. From these facts it appears 
that there is a mechanical action, by means of which the water, when in 
contact with the shore, ejects the substances either floating upon its sur- 
face or held by it in suspension, and that the effect of the flood current is 
to transport these substances and place them within the reach of this ac- 
tion, and that of the ebb is to transport these substances beyond the reach 
of this action. That is to say, what is called the law of deposit of the flood 
tide may be divided into two distinct phenomena ; one of which is the 
transporting power of the flood current towards and on to the shore ; the 
other, the dynamical action of the water at the shore." 

"So, then, the inward tendency of the wave action on the shore ejects 
or rejects the matters brought under its influence, and the transporting 
power of the flood current bears them from place to place, bringing them 
finally under this influence. And further, the projected particle will not 
strike the beach perpendicularly to its length, but obliquely, so that it will 
advance, as it rises on the shore ; and in this manner, also, the combined 
action of the two forces leads to the accumulation of deposits in the direc- 
tion of the flood tide. " 

In the Memoirs, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (New Series, 
Vol. iv), pages 138, et seq., the same author cites a number of instances 
of wrecks along the south shore of Nantucket, and remarks: "In none of 
the instances were any of the wrecked materials seen to the westward of 
the spot where they first struck the island ; that is, in the direction of the 
ebb. This is well known to be universally the case, so that wreckers 
never go to the westward, but always to the eastward in searching for 
floating articles. The fact is the more striking, that this course is opposed 
to the violent north-east gales, the principal cause of loss to shipping. For 
the preceding details I am indebted to Mr. Mitchell, of Nantucket, the 
astronomer," and others. "But the characteristic action of the flood may 
be observed with even greater distinctness on the eastern shore of Cape 
Cod. There is a separation or split of the tides * * * and the tide 
currents, at this place, appear to run on and off" shore. Now, the materials 
of vessels that are wrecked to the southward of the seat of division of the 
tides are uniformly carried south, and are found inside of Chatham har- 
bor or of Monomoy Point ; while vessels that are wrecked so far north as 
to be within-reach of the northern current of the flood have their effects 

Nov. 16, 1888.] ' [Branner. 

scattered along the north shore, and making occasionally the entire circuit 
of Cape Cod, are soon deposited in Provincetown harbor. Here also, as 
at Nantucket, the movement is opposite to the prevailing winds. The 
transportation of such heavy materials as coal and bricks has been men- 

Mr. Small, the keeper of the light at Truro, said that "When articles 
float light upon the water, and offer a large body to the resistance of the 
wind, they may during the violence of the storm be carried against the 
current. During seven-eighths of the time, the waves break on the shore 
at Truro in a direction to the northward of west, the shore itself running 
north and south. This takes place in opposition to northerly winds. If 
these winds are exceedingly strong, they may for a short time overcome 
this prevailing tendency. It is the same on the eastern shore of Sandy 
Hook and of Nantucket. As the flood tide runs in a northerly direction 
at each of these places, the idea is suggested that there is an intimate con- 
nection between the course of the current and the manner of approach of 
the waves to the beach." * * * "The constructive process of the 
flood is equally exhibited in the way in which the hooks, etc., are built 
up. They extend and increase always in the direction of the advancing 
current, as, for example, the Great Point of Nantucket gains constantly 
to the north, and the point of Monomoy to the south, which are the direc- 
tirtns of the flood currents at these places. * * * And so with all the 
hooks, both great and small, of the north-eastern coast, whether formed 
on the borders of the sea or in enclosed bays and harbors." 

Hitherto the tides have been regarded chiefly as an astronomical prob- 
lem; but if the views brought forward in this memoir are correct, they 
must hereafter be treated also as a strict geological problem. It has been 
shown that the courses of the tidal currents must in general be due to the 
forms of the shores" (page 148). "In this memoir, the forms, localities 
and amounts of the alluvial deposits have been attributed to the active in- 
fluence of local currents." 

Notes on the Botocudus and their Ornaments. 

By Prof. John C. Branner. 
(Read before the American Philosophical Society, November 16, 1888.} 

The Botocudus of Brazil have been described at more or less length by 
Prince Maximilien,* Auguste de St. Hilaire,f Lery4 Denis, Bigg- 

* Voyage au Bresil, par S. A. S. Maximilien (French translation from the original 
German), Vol. ii, p. 207 et seq. 

t Voyage dans les provinces de Rio de Janeiro et de Minas Geraes, par Auguste de 
St. HUaire, 2 vols. 

JHistoire d'vn voyage faict en la terre dv Bresil, par Jean de Lery, p. 103-1. 

g Bresil, par Ferdinand Denis. This work reproduces five plates of these Indians. 


Branner.] -- ' 2 [Nov. i 6( 

Wither,* Professor Harttf and others, but nowhere have such carefully- 
made drawings been published of them as the accompanying, for none of 
the illustrations give any idea of the true features of these people. The 
photographs from which these are made were taken by M. Marc Ferrez, 
of Rio de Janeiro, in 1876, when he was employed as the photographer 
on the Brazilian Geological Survey. A leveling rod (metric system) was 
placed beside the subject in some cases for the purpose of affording an 
approximate measure. The short horizontal bands running part of the 
way across the rod are one centimetre wide. 

These Indians live near the Rio Doce, about three hundred miles north- 
east of Rio de Janeiro. They are, or were but a short time ago, savages, 
and were formerly regarded as the most ferocious and intractable of all 
Brazil4 They wear but little clothing ; their hair is very black and coarse, 
and their color a light mulatto. The women do not allow their hair to 
grow upon any part of the body except the head, and in the illustrations 
it may be noticed that they have no eyebrows, the hairs all having been 
pulled out. The children are dirt-eaters. 

One of the most striking habits of these people is shown in the pictures 
the wearing in the lips and ears as ornaments of great plugs resembling 
big, broad bottle- stoppers. As far as these pictures show the custom, the 
ear-plugs seem to be worn by both men and women, but only the women 
appear to wear them in the lips. The accounts given by Maximilien show 
that this custom was not so restricted at the time of his visit in 1836. 

The openings for these ornaments (for that of course is what they are 
meant to be) are made by first piercing the ear or lip of the child when 
seven or eight years old with a small thorn or wooden spit of some kind, 
just as the ears are pierced nowadays among some civilized people, and a 
small stick is inserted in the opening. In a short time a larger stick is in- 
serted, and as the opening yields to pressure, still larger sticks or plugs 
are used until the desired size is attained. 

The lip ornament is made of a light kind of wood, is usually about two 
inches across (Prince Maximilien measured one over four inches in diam- 
eter), three-quarters of an inch thick, and with a groove about it in which 
the flesh-band fits, holding it in place. The lips of the younger people 
stand out at right angles or are somewhat elevated at the exterior margin, 
but with age the muscles relax, the openings enlarge, and the lips dangle. 
When the wearer smiles broadly the projecting ornament rises, and if it 
fits tightly, strikes the end of the nose. This ornament is worn almost 
all the time, though it is occasionally taken out. When these lip-plugs 
are removed the loops of flesh hang down in the most ungraceful manner 
imaginable, and are often torn out in the family jars that occur even in 
savage life. So great is the attachment of the women to their lip-orna- 

* Pioneering in South Brazil, by Thomas Bigg-Wither, Vol. ii. 

t Geology and Physical Geography of Brazil, by Ch. Fred. Hartt. Appendix, p. 
577 et seq. 
JSouthey's History of Brazil. 

Proceedings Amer, Ptiilos, Ssc, 

hi, mi, Ho, 129, 

.nil - . 

Proceedings Amer, PHIos, Soc, 

lol, IWI, Ho, 129, 


Proceedings AIM, Philos, k, 

i, mi, No, 12?, 

^ iiijnr "rrrrc 

.'i i J : 1 1 1 1 1 ,,--" 

Proceedings her, Philos, Sec, 

Vol. ffll, Ho, 1ZJ, 


Proceedings Amer. Phllos, Soc, 

Vol. mi, lo, 129, 

MMf I Illl 

~-~niii 1 1 1 1 1 . 

co r 

Illll III II 


1838.] . 173 [Branner. 

ments, that when one of them gets the flesh-band broken, she patches the 
ends together with strings that she may not be without her ornaments. 
This breaking and mending are shown in illustrations 4, 5 and 7, while 
in 3 and 6 the bands are shown unbroken. Lery says they used to take 
the plugs from these openings and thrust their tongues through them in 
order to give the impression that they had two mouths. He adds : " I leave 
you to judge whether they are handsome in this act." One cannot help 
thinking that St. Hilaire was in a waggish mood when he wrote of these 
people that "ils se distinguentsurtout par une physionomie plusouverte" 
than the other Indians of Minas.* The use of these heavy lip-ornaments 
appears to have affected the language of these people, for it is remarkably 
guttural and nasal, and has no labial sounds. 

When the ear-rings or ear-plugs are lost or removed, the bands of 
flesh dangle near the shoulders, as may be seen in 2 and 8, and are, on ac- 
count of the danger of being broken or torn when thus left exposed, gen- 
erally looped over the tops of the ears. This is shown in 3, 6 and 7. In 4 
the ear- opening is not fashionably large. The lip and ear-ornaments of 
South American Indians are not always made of plain wood and in this 
bungling, bottle-stopper shape, the custom varying more or less among 
the widely scattered tribes. Some of them use pendants smaller in diam- 
eter, but of greater length, while some of them are made with the greatest 
care, and of the most beautiful stones. In the Museu Nacional at Rio de 
Janeiro are many of these more beautiful lip and ear ornaments made of 
beryl, jade, serpentine, quartz, clay and wood.f Bigg- Wither figures one 
large spindle-shaped lip-ornament from Southern Brazil weighing a 
quarter of a pound.J 

The use of these monstrous plugs is gradually dying out among the 
Botocudus. It is to be noticed, even in these illustrations, that the younger 
members of the tribe do not wear them, and in the case of number 10 the 
young woman wears ear-pendants very like those used among the more 
civilized races of the present day. 

No. 9 is introduced to show the method used by the people to carry 
children. The same method is employed in carrying other burdens. It 
shows also the method of wearing the dress, which is usually nothing 
more than a strip of cloth, but which is sometimes sewed together at the 

Under the encroaching influences of civilization, the savage customs of 
these tribes are gradually disappearing. 

*Southey's History of Brazil, Vol. ii, p. 151. 

t Archives do Museu Nacional, Vol. vi, 1885, Plate viii. 

| Op. cit.,p.!42. 

[Jan . 4 , 

Stated Meeting, January 4, 1889. 

Present, 26 members. 
President, Mr. FRALEY, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows : A letter was read 
from Mr. Arthur Biddle acknowledging his election as a mem- 
ber of the Society. 

A letter was read from Bishop Crescencio Carillo, of Merida, 
Yucatan, acknowledging the receipt of his diploma. ' 

Letters of envoy were received from the Meteorological 
Office, London ; J. C. Ayer & Co., Lowell, Mass. 

Letters of acknowledgment for Transactions XVI, 2, were 
received from the Societe K. de Zoologie, "Natura Artis 
Magistra," Amsterdam ; Philosophical Society, Cambridge, 
England; Koyal Society, Koyal Institution, R. Astronomical 
Society, Society of Antiquaries, London ; Radcliffe Observa- 
tory, Oxford. 

Letters of acknowledgment for Proceedings were received 
from the Societas pro Fauna and Flora Fennica, Helsingfors 
(127); Phys. Cent. Observatory (127); Academic R. des Sci- 
ences, Lisbonne (125, 126, 127) ; Royal Statistical Society, 
London (126, 127); Dr. Brezina (126, 127). 

Accessions to the Library were received from the Linnean 
Society of New South Wales, Sydney ; Mr. John Tebbutt, 
Windsor, N. S. W.; Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 
Helsingfors; K. K. Geologische Reichsanstalt, Wien; Gesell- 
schaftfiir Erdkunde, Physiologische Gesellschaft, "Naturwissen- 
schaftliche Wochenschrift," Berlin ; Gartenbauverein, Darm- 
stadt ; Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein des Reg. Bez., Frankfurt, 
a. O.; Socie'te' R. de Zoologie, "Natura Artis Magistra," Am- 
sterdam ; Biblioteca N. C., Firenze ; R. Accademia de Scienze, 



etc., Modena; K. Istituto Lombardo, Milan ; R. Comitato Geo- 
logico d' Italia, Biblioteca N. C. V. E., Rome; Soci6te Philo- 
logique, Alen9oa; Societe de Borda, Dax; Societe de L'En- 
seignemeat, Redaction " Cosmos," Paris ; R. Astronomical 
Society, K. Geographical Society, Meteorological Council, 
Editors of " Nature," London ; American Statistical Associa- 
tion, Boston ; Harvard College Observatory, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Dr. Samuel Abbott Green, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Dr. J. C. Ayer, Lowell ; R. I. Historical Society, Providence ; 
" American Journal of Science," New Haven; N. Y. State 
Museum, Albany; Drs. Charles W. Dulles, I. Minis Hays, Mr. 
Henry Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia ; Johns Hopkins University, 
Maryland Academy of Sciences, Baltimore ; Department of 
State, Hydrographic Office, Mr. F. L. Scribner, Washing- 

The President reported that he had appointed as the com- 
mittee to examine the paper of George B. Simpson, Messrs. 
Lesley, Horn and Heilprin. 

Prof. Lesley, Chairman of the Committee on Mr. Simpson's 
paper, reported it worthy of publication, and it was referred 
to the Committee on Publication. 

The President reported that he had appointed as the Stand- 
ing Committee on the Henry M. Phillips' Prize Essay Fund, 
Mr. Richard Vaux, Chairman, Messrs. Henry Phillips, Jr., 
William V. McKean, Furman Sheppard, and Joseph Fraley. 

The Committee on the Aztec MSS. reported progress, and 
was continued. 

The Committee on the International Language reported 
progress and was continued, and, on motion, Mr. Horatio Hale 
was requested to prepare a historical digest of schemes for a 
universal language to be printed and distributed by the Society 
in advance of the meeting of the Congress it proposes to 

The death of Prof. Josef von 'Lenhossek (Budapest, Decem- 
ber 2, 1888, 8et. 71) was announced. 

-1 ' v [Jan. 4, 1889. 

The judges and clerks of the election reported the following 
gentlemen as having been elected : 

Frederick Fraley. 

Vice- Presidents. 
E. Otis Kendall, W. S. W. Ruscheriberger, J.P.Lesley. 


George F. Barker, Daniel Gf. Brinton, Henry Phillips, Jr., 
George H. Horn. 

Counsellors (for three years). 

Richard Wood, William V. McKean, Isaac C. Martindale. 
Richard Yaux. 

Counsellor for two years in place of Dr. J. Cheston Morris, 

Samuel Wagner. 

John R. Baker, Patterson DuBois, J. Cheston Morris. 

1 Treasurer. 
J. Sergeant Price. 

Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., was renominated for Librarian for 
the ensuing year, and, on motion, the nominations were closed. 
Prof. Cope presented a paper for the Transactions on "The 
Mechanical Causes of the Character of the Hard Parts of the 
Mammalia," which was, on motion, referred to a committee of 
three (to be appointed by the President) to examine. The 
President subsequently appointed as such committee, Drs. 
Joseph Leidy, Harrison Allen, and Horace Jayne. 

The Committee on Finance reported the annual appropria- 
tions, which were adopted. 

Prof. Lesley made a communication in reference to the con- 
dition and progress of the U. S. Coast Survey, and offered a 
preamble and resolution, all of which, after discussion, was 
referred to the President of the Society and Messrs. Dudley, 
Frazer ard Haupt as a committee, to report upon at the next 
meeting of the Society. . 

And the Society was adjourned by the President. 

Dec. 21, 1888.] *** [Brinton. 

The Ta Ki, the Svastika and the Cross in America. 
By Daniel G. Brinton, M.D. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, December 21, 1888. ) 

What I ain about to say is, to a certain degree, polemical. 
My intention is to combat the opinions of those writers who, like 
Dr. Hamy, M. Be.auvois and many others,* assert that, because 
certain well-known Oriental symbols, as the TaKi, the Triskeles, 
the Svastika and the Cross, are found among the American 
aborigines, they are evidence of Mongolian, Buddhistic, Chris- 
tian or Aryan immigrations, previous to the discovery by Colum- 
bus ; and I shall also try to show that the position is erroneous 
of those who, like William H. Holmes, of the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy, maintain that " it is impossible to give a satisfactory ex- 
planation of the religious significance of the cross as a religious 
symbol in America."")* 

In opposition to both these views I propose to show that the 
primary significance of all these widely extended symbols is quite 
clear ; and that they can be shown to have arisen from certain 
fixed relations of man to his environment, the same everywhere, 
and hence suggesting the same graphic representations among 
tribes most divergent in location and race ; and, therefore, that 
such symbols are of little value in tracing ethnic affinities or 
the currents of civilization. 

Their wide prevalence in the Old World is familiar to all stu- 
dents. . The three legs diverging from one centre, which is now 
the well-known arms of the Isle of Man, is the ancient Trique- 
trum, or, as Olshausen more properly terms it, the Triskeles,% 
seen on the oldest Sicilian coins and on those of Lycia, in Asia 
Minor, struck more than five hundred years before the beginning 
of our era. Yet such is the persistence of symbolic forms, the 
traveler in the latter region still finds it recurring on the modern 

* Dr. E. T. Hamy, An Interpretation of one of the Copan Monuments, in Journal of the An- 
thropological Institute, February, 1887; also, Revue d" Ethnographie, 1886, p. 233; same 
author, Le Svastika et la Roue Solaire en Amerique, Revue d' Ethnographie, 1885, p. 22. E. 
Beauvois, in Annales de Philosophic Chretienne, 1877, and in various Idler publications. 
Ferraz de Macedo, Essai Ci-itique sur les Ages Prehistoriques de Bresil, Lisbon, 1887, etc. 

t See his article, "Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans," in Second Annual Report 
of the Bureau of Ethnology, p. 270. 

J See his article in Zeitschriftfur Ethnologic, 1886, p. 223. 

PROC. AMKR. PHILOS. 8OC. XXVI. 129. W. PRINTED JAN. 30, 1889. 


1 4 O 

felt wraps used by the native inhabitants.* As a decorative mo- 
tive, or perhaps with a deeper significance, it is repeatedly found 
on ancient Slavic and Teutonic vases, disinterred from mounds 
of the bronze age, or earlier, in Central and Northern Europe. 
Frequently the figure is simply that of three straight or curved 
lines springing from a central point and surrounded by a circle, as : 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

In the latter we have the precise form of the Chinese Ta Ki, 
a symbolic figure which plays a prominent part in the mystical 
writing, the divination and the decorative art of China.f 

As it is this symbol which, according to Dr. Hamy, the dis- 
tinguished ethnologist and Director of the Museum of the Troca- 
dero, Paris, indicates the preaching of Buddhistic doctrines in 
America, it merits close attention. 

The Ta Ki, expressed by the signs : 



Fig. 3. 

is properly translated, " The Great Uniter" (to, great ; lei, to join 
together, to make one, to unite), as in modern Chinese philoso- 
phy, expressed in Platonic language, the One as distinguishe d 
from the Many, and is regarded as the basis of the numerical sys- 
tem. But as the Chinese believe in the mystic powers of num- 
bers, and as that which reduces all multiplicity to unity naturally 
controls or is at the summit of all things, therefore the Ta Ki ex- 
presses the completest and highest creative force. 

* Von LuchsTn, in Zeltschrift fur Ethnologic, 1886, s. 301. 

t See Dumoutier, Le Svastika et la Roue Solaire en Chine, in Kevue d' Ethnologic, 1885, p. 
333, sq. 

1888.] ll" [Brintou. 

As in Chinese philosophy, the Universe is made up of oppo- 
sites, heaven and earth, light and darkness, day and night, land 
and water, concave and convex, male and female, etc., the highest 
terms for which are Yin and Yang ; these are held to be brought 
into fructifying union by Ta Ki. Abstractly, the latter would 
be regarded as the synthesis of the two universal antitheses which 
make up all phenomena.* 

The symbolic representation of Yin and Yang is a circle di- 
vided by two arcs with opposite centres, while the symbol of 
Ta Ki adds a third arc from above uniting these two. 

Fig. 4. Fig. 5. 

It is possible that these symbols are of late origin, devised to 
express the ideas above named. One Chinese scholar (Mr. S. 
Culin) tells me that it is doubtful if they occur earlier than the 
twelfth century, A. D., and that they were probably introduced 
for purposes of divination. In this case, I believe that they were 
introduced from the South, and that they originally had another 
and concrete significance, as I shall explain later. 

Others consider these symbols as essentially Mongolian. The 
Ta Ki or Triskeles is to them the Mongolian, while the Svastika 
is the ethnic Aryan symbol. Such writers suspect Iiido-Euro- 
pean immigration where they discover the latter, Chinese immi- 
gration where they find the former emblem. 

The Svastika, I need hardly say, is the hooked cross or gam 
mated cross, usually represented as follows : 

Fig. 6. 

the four arms of equal length, the hook usually pointing from left 
to right. In this form it occurs in India and on very early (neo- 

* I am indebted for some of these explanations to Mr. K. Sungimoto, an intelligent 
Japanese gentleman, well acquainted with Chinese, now resident in Philadelphia. 

Brinton.] [Fee. 21, 

lithic) Greco-Italic and Iberian remains. So much has been 
written upon the Svastika, however, that I need not enter upon 
its archaeological distribution. 

Its primnry significance has been variously explained. Some 
have regarded it as a graphic representation of the lightning, 
others as of the two fire-sticks used in obtaining fire by friction, 
and so on. 

Whatever its significance, we are safe in considering it a form 
of the Cross, and in its special form obtaining its s}^mbolic or 
sacred association from this origin. 

The widely-spread mystic purport of the Cross symbol has 
long been matter of comment. Undoubtedly in many parts of 
America the natives regarded it with reverence anterior to the 
arrival of Europeans ; as in the Old World, it was long a 
sacred symbol before it became the distinctive emblem of Chris- 

As in previous writings I have brought together the evidence 
of the veneration in which it was held in America, I shall not 
repeat the references here. 

I believe we may go a step further and regnrd all three of these 
symbols, the Ta Ki or Triskeles,the Svastika and the Cross as orig- 
inally the same in signification, or, at least, closely allied in mean- 
ing. I believe, further, that this can be shown from the relics of 
ancient American art so clearly that no one, free from preju- 
dice, and whose mind is open to conviction, will deny its correct- 

My belief is that all of these symbols are graphic representa- 
tions of the movements of the sun with reference to the figure of 
the earth, as understood by primitive man everywhere, and hence 
that these symbols are found in various parts of the globe w ith- 
out necessarily implying any historic connections of the peoples 
using them. 

This explanation of them is not entirely new. It has pre- 
viously been partly suggested by Profs. Worsaae and Virchow ; 
but the demonstration I shall offer has not heretofore be^en sub- 
mitted to the scientific world, and its material is novel. 

Beginning with the Ta Ki, we find its primary elements in the 
symbolic 'picture-writing of the North American Indians. Jn 

1888. ] 



that of the Ojibways, for example, we have the following three 
characters : 

Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig 9. 

Of these, the Fig. 7 represents the sunrise ; Fig. 9, sunset ; Fig. 
8, noonday. The last-mentioned is the full day at its height.* 
Where, in rock-writing or scratching on wood, the curve could 
not conveniently be used, straight lines would be adopted : 

Fig. 10. 

thus giving the ordinary form of the Triskeles. But the identi- 
cal form of the Ta Ki is found in the calendar scroll attached to 
the Codex-Poinsett, an unpublished original Mexican MS., on 
agave paper, in the library of the American Philosophical Society. 
A line from this scroll is as follows : 

o o o 

Fig. 11. 

Here each circle means a day, and those with the Triskules, cul- 
minating days.f 

* George Copway, Traditional History of the Ojibway Nation, p. 134. It will be noted 
that in the sign for sunrise the straight line meets the curve at its left extremity, and for 
sunset at its right. This results from the superstitious preference of facing the south 
rather than the north. 

t The triplicate constitution of things is a prominent feature of the ancient Mexican 
philosophy, especially that of Tezcuco. The visible world was divided into three parts, 
the earth below, the heavens above, and man's abode between them. The whole was 
represented by a circle divided into three parts, the upper part painted blue, the lower 
brown, the centre white (see-Duran, Historia, Lam. 15a, for an example). Each of these 
three parts was subdivided into three parts, so that when the Tezcucan king built a 
tower as a symbol of the universe, he called it "The Tower of Nine Stories'' (see my 
Ancient Nafiuatl Poetry, Introduction, p. 36). 



[Dec. 21, 

Another form of representing days is seen in the Vatican Mex 
ican Codex published in Kingsborough's Mexico, Yol. iii : 

Fig. 12. 

This is not far from the figure on the stone at Copan, described 
in Dr. Hamy's paper, where the design is as follows : 

Fig. 13. 

This does not re-emble the Ta Ki, as Dr. Kamy supposes, but 
rather the Yin-Yang ; yet differs from this in having a central 
circle (apparently a cup-shaped depression). This central circu- 
lar figure, whether a boss or nave, or a cup-shaped pit, has been 
explained by Worsaae as a conventionalized form of the sun, and 

1888.] [Brinton. 

in this he is borne out by primitive American art, as we shall see. 
The twenty elevations which surround the stone, corresponding 
in number to the twenty days of the Maya month, indicate at 
once that we have here to do with a monument relating to the 

Turning now to the development of this class of figures in 
primitive American art, I give first the simplest representations 
of the sun such as those painted on buffalo skins by the Indians 
of the Plains, and scratched on the surface of rocks. The exam- 
ples are selected from many of the kind published by Col. Garrick 

Fig. 14. 

The design is merely a rude device of the human face, with four 
rays proceeding from it at right angles. These four rays repre- 
sent, according to the unanimous interpretation of the Indians, 
the four directions defined by the apparent motions of the sun, 
the East and West, the North and South. By these directions 
all travel and all alignments of buildings, corpses, etc., were de- 
fined ; and hence the earth was regarded as four-sided or four- 
cornered ; or, when it was expressed as a circle, in accordance 
with the appearance of the visible horizon, the four radia were 
drawn as impinging on its four sides : 


Fig. 15. Fig. 16. 

Fig. 15 is a design on a vase from Marajo, Brazil, and is of com- 
mon occurrence on the pottery of that region.f Fig. 1 6 repre- 

* Mallery, Pictography of the North American Indians, in Fourth Annual Report of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, p. 239. 
f Dr. Ferraz de Macedo, Essai Critique sur les Ages Prehistorique de Bresil, p. 38 (Lisbonne, 


Brinton.] [Dec. 21, 

sents the circle of the visible horizon, or the earth-plain, with the 
four winds rushing into it when summoned by a magician. It is 
a figure from the Meday magic of the Ojibways.* Dr. Ferraz de 
Macedo has claimed that such devices as Fig. 16 " show Chinese 
or Egyptian inspiration."f It is certainly unnecessary to accept 
this alternative when both the origin and significance of the sym- 
bol are so plain in native American art. 

When the symbol of the sun and the four directions was in- 
scribed within the circle of the visible horizon, we obtain the 
figure representing the motions of the sun with reference to the 
earth as in : 

Fig. 17. 

This is what German archaeologists call the wheel-cross, Ead- 
kreuz, distinguished, as Worsaae pointed out, by the presence of 
the central boss, cup or nave, from the ring-cross, Bingkreuz, 
Fig 18: 

Fig. 18. Fig. 39. 

in which, also, the arms of the cross do not reach to the circum- 
ference of the wheel. Worsaae very justly laid much stress on 
the presence of the central boss or cup, and correctly explained 
it as indicative of the sun; but both he and Yirchow, who fol- 
lows him in this explanation, are, I think, in error in supposing 
that the circle or wheel represents the rolling sun, die roUende 
Sonne. My proof of this is that this same figure was a familiar 
symbol, with the signification stated, in tribes who did not know 

* Captivity end Adventures of John Tanner, pp. 359, 360. 
f Op. cit., p. 88. 




the mechanical device of the wheel, and could have had, therefore, 
no notion of such an analogy as the rolling wheel of the sun.* 

When applied to time, the symbol of the circle in primitive art 
referred to the return of the seasons, not to an idea of motion in 
space. This is very plainly seen both in art and language. In 
the year-counts or winter-counts of the American tribes, the 
years were very generally signified by circles arranged in rows 
or spires. Fig. 20 shows the Dakota winter-count, as depicted 
on their buffalo robes. f 

Fig. 20. 

This count is to be read from right to left, because it is writ- 

Fig. 21. 

* See Worsaae, Danish Arts, and Virchow, in various numbers of the Zeitschriftfur Eth- 
nologic. The ring-cross is a common figure in American symbolism and decorative art. 
It frequently occurs on the shields depicted in the Bologna Codex, and the two codices 
of the Vatican (Kingsborough's Antiquities of Mexico, Vols. ii and iii). Dr. Ferraz de 
Macedo says that the most common decorative design on both ancient and modern native 
Brazilian pottery is the ring-cross in the form of a double spiral, as in Fig. 19 (Essai Critique 
sur les Ages Prehistorique de Bresil, p. 40). A very similar form will be found in the Bo- 
logna Codex, pi. xviii, in Kingsborough's Mexico, Vol. ii. 

t See Mallery, Pictography of the North American Indians, pp. 88, 89, 128, etc. 

PHOC. AMER. PHILO8. SOC. XXVI. 129. X. PRINTED JAN. 30, 1889. 

Brinton.] [Dec. 21, 

ten from left to right, and hence the year last recorded is at the 
end of the line. 

Precisely similar series of circles occur on the Aztec and Maya 
codices with the same signification. Moreover, the year-cycles 
of both these nations were represented by a circle on the border 
of which the years were inscribed. In Maya this was called uazla- 
zon katun, the turning about again, or revolution of the katuns.* 

The Aztec figure of the year-cycle is so instructive that I give 
a sketch of its principal elements (Pig. 21), as portrayed in the 
atlas to Duran's History of Mexico.f 

In this remarkable figure we observe the development and 
primary signification of those world-wide symbols, the square, 
the cross, the wheel, the circle, and the svastika. The last-men- 
tioned is seen in the elements of the broken circle, which are : 

Fig. 22. 

which conventionalized into rectilinear figures, for scratching on 
stone or wood, became: 

Fig. 23. 

In the Mexican time-wheel, the years are to be read from right 
to left, as in the Dakota winter-counts ; each of the quarter cir- 
cles represent thirteen years; and these, also, are to be read from 
right to left, beginning with the top of the figure, which is the 
East, and proceeding to the North, South and West, as indicated. 

The full analysis of this suggestive and authentic astronomical 
figure will reveal the secret of most of the rich symbolism and 
mythology of the American nations. It is easy to see how from 
it was derived the Nahuatl doctrine of the nahua ollin, or Four 

* This name i^given in Landa, Relation de las Cosas de Yucatan, p. 313. 
t Hiatoria de la Nueva Espana, Trat. Ill, cap. i. 

1SSS.] o [Hoffman. 

Motions of the Sun, with its accessories of the Four Ages of the 
World. The Tree of Life, so constantly racurring as a design in 
Maya and Mexican art, is but another outgrowth of the same 
symbolic expression for the same ideas. 

That we find the same figurative symbolism in China, India, 
Lycia, Assyria and the valley of the Nile, and on ancient urns 
from Etruria, Iberia, Gallia, Sicilia and Scythia, needs not sur- 
prise us, and ought not to prompt us to assert any historic con- 
nection on this account between the early development of man 
in the New and Old World. The path of culture is narrow, espe- 
cially in its early stages, and men everywhere have trod uncon- 
sciously in each other's footsteps in advancing from the darkness 
of barbarism to the light of civilization. 

Oramifhiitic Notes and Vocabulary of the Pennsylvania German Dialect. 

By W. J. Hoffman, M.D., Washington, D.C. 
(Read before the American Philosophical Society, December 21, 1888.") 

It is an astonishing fact that the* speech of over three quarters of a 
million people, occupying the most fertile agricultural lands of Eastern 
Pennsylvania, has, with few unimportant exceptions, received almost no 
attention from a scientific and philological standpoint. It is not the in- 
tention of the writer to venture upon the subject from these points of 
view, but only to present a few hrief facts respecting the grammatic and 
phonetic peculiarities of the "Pennsylvania German" dialect, and to 
give a vocabulary of such words as are at present employed by such of 
them as are not familiar with any other language. 

It is the writer's intention to present here a simple and intelligible sys- 
tem of orthography, so that the exact sounds of syllables and words may 
readily be reproduced by any one not familiar with them. This has not 
been accomplished in the several brief contributions which have appeared 
at sundry times and in various places, excepting in the case of a few 
essays which were of strictly philologic value, but which, unfortunately, 
abound in inverted letters and diacritical marks, thus causing a practical 
study thereof to become rather difficult and tedious. 

The alphabet employed in the present paper and vocabulary is practi- 
cally that adopted by the Bureau of Ethnology, at Washington, D.C. 

Hoffman.] [Dec. 21, 

A slight departure from that, even, has been found advisable, so as to 
secure the simplest phonetic system without introducing characters foreign 
to the English language. 

It is well known that the early German colonists represented almost 
every dialectic subdivision of the States now embraced within the empires 
of Germany and Austro-Hungary, but as the immigrants from the 
Rhenish Palatinate were in excess, the present linguistic residiuui par- 
takes more of the characteristics of the Pfalz dialects than those of any 
other. This fact was most forcibly brought to the writer's attention dur- 
ing the period of his services as Staff Surgeon in the Prussian army, in 
1870-71, at which time opportunities for practical comparison occurred 
almost daily. 

The chief difference between the Pennsylvania dialect, and those of the 
Rhenish Palatinate, lies in the fact that the former is characterized by the 
abundance of nasalized terminal vowel sounds, brought about by the 
almost unvarying rule of dropping the final n of German words ending in 
en and ein, and sounding the vowel as a or e, or a n or e n . This has refer- 
ence particularly to verbs in which the infinitive final is en in the German. 

It is extremely difficult for the people of the rural districts, who are 
not familiar with the English language, to acquire the correct sound of j 
as in James, and of g as in gem ; the result is tsh or ch as in chain ; words, 
on the contrary, beginning with ch, as in Charles, are pronounced likej, 
as in jar. 

The final th usually becomes s, while the same sound as an initial one 
becomes d; this applies to English words, incorporated with the Pennsyl- 
vania German. 

Both German and English words commencing with st, si, sw, sm, sn, sp, 
etc., are pronounced as if written wfth sh, the h being inserted between 
the first two consonants, e. g., stein = shte n ; alow = shlo ; small = shuial. 

Plurals, and diminutives, are formed after the same manner as in 

The following alphabet will serve to represent the words of this dialect, 
as it is spoken chiefly in the northern portions of Berks, Lehigh, and 
Northampton counties. On account of local peculiarities, a drawling 
manner, or a rapidity of speech, inhabitants of the several localities can 
often be readily identified : 

a as in what, was ; German, man. 
a as in car, far. 
a as in hat, mat, mass, 
a as in law, ball. 

ai as in aisle ; as i in pine ; used in the present work instead of the Ger- 
man ei, ein, sein = ain, sain. 

ai as oi in oil, boil. Ex. hai = hay ; Mai = May. 
au as ou in out, or ow in owl ; German, kraut, laus. 
b as in ball, bulb. 

1888.] [Hoffman. 

c see explanation under t* and t*h. 

ch as in German nicht, lic/tt, micli. 

d as in dead, deal. 

e short sound of English a, as bet, pet. 

e long sound of English a, as in ale. 

f as in fifty, fib. 

g as in gag ; German, gabe. 

gli as in tage, or in the last syllable of dagegen. 

h as in hold, hat. 

i short sound of the English e, as in hit, lit. 

i long sound of the English e, as in beet, i in pique / German, ihm. 

j as in just, judge. 

k as in kick, kill. 

I as in lull. 

m as in man, mum. 

n as in no, none. 

o short sound as in the German soil, holz. 

o long sound as in most, note, pole. 

p as in pip, pulp. 

q is represented by k. 

T as in run, roar. 

s as in sell, sold. 

t as in tell, tuft. 

ts as the German c in cedar = tsc'der, and z in zeit = tsait. 

tsh as the English ch in church, chin = tshortsh, tshin. 

u short sound as in put, pull. 

u long sound as in rule. 

v as in velvet, van. 

w as in will, wish. 

x is represented by ks, as ax SAs, box baks. 

y as in you, yield. 

z as in zeal, zest. 

ny as in sing, bring. 

represents the omission of a vowel. 

n nasalized vowels are indicated by the superior n as a n , i n . 
the hyphen is employed between syllables. 
' the acute accent is employed to Indicate accented syllables, as riv'er, 

da duplication of vowels prolongs the sound of a short vowel, as I at, 


In German words ending in be or ben, the b becomes w, as gabe 
gebcn ge'wa; and in many words the au becomes d as laufen la, a 
taufen dafa. The initial t in German generally becomes d. 

Hoffman.] [Dec. 21, 

The following notes will serve to further aid in the peculiarities of pro- 
nunciation and contraction of words : 

Conjugation of the verb tse sai n , to be : 



Singular. Plural 

1. ich bin 1. mir sin 

2. du bisht 2. ir sin 

3. ar is 3. si sin 


(Not used.) 


1. ich war 1. mir wa'ra 

2. du warsht 2. ir wa'ra 

3. ar \var 3. si wa'ra 


1. ich war gewest' 1. mir wa'ra gewest 

2. du warsht gewest' 2. ir wa'ra gewest' 

3. ar war gewest' 3. si wa'ra gewest' 


1 . ich sol sai n 1. mir sol 'la sai n 

2. du solsht sai n 2. ir sol'la sai n 

3. ar sodt sai n 3. si sol'la sai n 

1. ich wil sai n 1. mir wel'la sai n 

2. du wid sai n 2. ir wel'la sai n 

3. ar wil sai n 3. si wel'la sai n 


1. ich sol gewest' sai n 1. mir sol'la gewest' sai n 

2. du solsht gewest' sai n 2. ir sol'la gewest' sai n 

3. ar sol gewest' sai n 3. si sol'la gewest' sai n 



Singular. Plural. 

1. ich mag sai n 1. mir me'gha sai n 

2. du magslit sai" 2. ir me'gha sai n 

3. ar mag sai n 3. si me'gha sai 11 



1. ich megt sai n 

2. du megsht sai n 

3. ar megt sai n 




1. mir meg'ta sai n 

2. ir meg'ta sai n . 

3. si meg'ta sai" 



1. ich mag gewest' sai 11 1. mir me'gha gewest' sai 11 

2. du magsht gewest' sai n 2. ir me'gha gewest' sai n 

3. ar mag gewest' sai" 3. si me'gha gewest' sai n 


1. ich megt gewest/ sai n 

2. du megsht gewest' sai n 

3. ar megt gewest' sai n 

1. mir mech'ta gewest' sai n 

2. ir mech'ta gewest' sai n 

3. si mech'ta gewest' sai n 

1. ich war sai n 

2. du warsht sai n 

3. ar wart sai n 

1. ich sodt sai n 

2. du sodsht sai n 

3. ar sodt sai n 


1. mir wa'ra sai n 

2. ir wa'ra sai n 

3. si wa'ra sai n 



1. mir sod'ta sai n 

2. ir sod'ta sai n 

3. si sod'ta sai n 


1. ich sedt gewest' sai n 1. mir sed'ta gewest' sai n 

2. du sodsht gewest' sai n 2. ir sod'ta gewest' sai 11 

3. ar sodt gewest' sai n 3. si sod'ta gewest' sai" 


Fl. wanting. 

| sai du | (Frequently pronounced sai-da.) 


tse sai n 
gewest' sai n 
sai n wa'ra 

I hisht du j ( 
3. is ar, si or es 

1. sin mir or wir 

2. sait (or sin) ir 

3. sin (or sain) si 




Hoffman. ] 1 V ^ I)cc 21 j 



sait ? 



Paradigm of a reflexive verb : 

sich tsa shem'ma, to be ashamed of one's self : 



Singular. Plural 

1. ich sh em mich. 1. mir shem'ma uns 

2. du shemsht dich 2. ir shem'ma aich 

3. ar shemt sich 3. si shem'ma sich 


(Not used.) 


1. ich hab mich gshemt 1. mir hen uns gshemt 

2. du hosht dich gshemt 2. ir hen aich gshemt 

3. ar hot sich gshemt 3. si hen sich gshemt 


1. ich het mich gshemt 1. mir het'ten (or het'te) uns gshemt 

2. du lietsht dich gshemt 2. ir het'ten " aich gshemt 

3. ar het sich gshemt 3. si het'ten " sich gshemt 


1. ich war mich shem'ma 1. mir wa'ra uns shem'ma 

2. du warsht dich shem'ma 2. ir wa'ra aich shem'ma 

3. ar wardt sich shem'ma 3. si wa'ra sich shem'ma 


1. ich war mich gshemt ha'wa 1. mir wa'ra uns gshemt ha'wa 

2. du warsht dich gshemt ha'wa 2. ir wii'ra aich gshemt ha'wa 

3. ar wardt sich gshemt ha'wa 3. si wa'ra sich gshemt ha'wa 



1. ich mag mich shem'ma 1. mir me'gha uns shem'ma 

2. du magsht dich shem'ma 2. ir me'gha aich shem'ma 

3. ar mag sich shem'ma 3. si me'gha sich shem'ma 

1883.] LuO [HoffYnan. 


Singular. Plural. 

1. ich megt inich shem'ma 1. rair mech'ta uns shem'ma 

2. du megsht dich shem'ina 2. ir mech'ta aich shem'ma 

3. ar megt sich shem'ma 3. si mech'ta sich shem'ma 


1. ich mag mich gshenat ha'wa 1. mir me'gha uns gsliernt ha'wa 

2. du magsht dich gshemt ha'wa 2. ir me'gha aich gshemt ha'wa 

3. ar mag sich gshemt ha'wa 3. si me'gha sich gshemt ha'wa 


1. ich megt mich gshemt ha'wa , 1. mir mech'ta uns gshemt ha'wa 

2. du megsht dich gshemt ha'wa 2. ir mech'ta aich gshemt ha'wa 

3. ar megt sich gshemt ha'wa 3. si mech'ta sich gshemt ha'wa 


1. wan ich mich shem'ma sol 1. wan mir uns shem'ma sol'la . 

2. wan du dich shem'ma solsht 2. wan ir aich shem'ma sol'la 

3. wan ar sich shem'ma sol 3. wan si sich shem'ma sol'la 


1. Wan ich mich gshemt ha'wa sol 1. Wan mir uns gshemt ha'wa sol'la 

2. Wan du dich gshemt ha'wa 2. Wan ir aich gshemt ha'wa sol'la 

BO d slit 

3. Wan ar sich gshemt ha'wa sol 3. Wan si sich gshemt ha'wa sol'la. 



1. ich sedt mich shem'ma 1. mir sed'ta (or sod'ten) uns shem'ma 

2. du sodsht dich shem'ma 2. ir sod'ta aich shem'ma 

3. ar sodt sich shem'ma 3. si sod'ta sich shem'ma 


1. ich sedt mich gshemt ha'wa 1. mir sed'ta uns gshemt ha'wa 

2. du sodsht dich gshemt ha'wa 2. ir sod'ta aich gshemt ha'wa 

3. ar sodt sich gshemt ha'wa 3. si sod'ta sich gshemt ha'wa 


1. wanting. 1. wanting. 

2. shem dich 2. shemt aich 



tsa shem'ma 


sich gshemt ha'wa 


Hoffman.] 194 [Dec. 21, 


Compound verbs are formed by prefixing adverbs or prepositions to sim- 
ple words, usually verbs and rarely adverbs and adjectives, thus varying 
or modifying their signification. When these prefixes permit the insertion 
of tse or tsa between themselves and the radical, or their transfer, so as 
to become suffixes, as in the present indicative, they are termed separable; 
as uf'shte", to rise or to stand up, from uf, up -f- shte n , stand. 

Compound prefixes are also used and are separable, as dafun'la/fa, to go 
away from, to leave, from da, there -f- fun, from, -f- la/fa, to go or walk. 

Prefixes are inseparable when they are so closely united with the radical 
as not to permit the preposition tse or tsa between the prefix and the 
radical. When compound prefixes occur, the first prefix may become 
separable from the second and inseparable prefix to allow the intervention 
-of tse or tsa in the present infinitive, as uf -f- shte n , up -f- rise (from bed), 
= uf'tsashte", to rise literally, up to rise. 


Impersonal verbs are used only in the third person singular, and have for 
their subject the pronoun es, it sometimes abbreviated to 's, which in ordi- 
nary conversation is frequently pronounced as if forming the first letter of 
the verb, thus forming no apparent and distinct syllable. The following 
are examples : 

es shnet = 's shnet, it snows. 

es re / -ghert = 's re'ghert. it rains. 

es kis''lt = 's kis^lt, it is sleeting. 


The definite article der or dar contracted into d'r and the indefi- 
nite article en contracted into 'n are both used, and inflected as 
follows : 


For all genders. 
Nom. di 
Gen. d'i'ra 

Dat. de 

Ace. di 


For all genders. 
!Nom. "] 

Dat, i wantin 9- 
Ace j 





der, or d'r 
' m sai n 

d'r irs 

'in sai n 






der, or d'r 







en, or 'n 

en, or 'n 

en, or n 








The five personal pronouns are ich, /; du, thou ; ar, he; si, she; es, it; 
and are inflected as follows : 

First Person. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ich, / mir, or m'r, we 

Gen. mai n , mine, or of me uns'r, our, or of us 

Dat. mir, to me uns, to us 

Ace. mich, me uns, ws 

Second Person. 

Nom. du, or de, you ir, or 'r, you 

Gen. daiY#0w air, y#wr 

Dat. dir, d'r, to you aich, or ich, to you 

Ace. dich, you aich, y<m 

Third Person, Masculine. 

Nom. ar, or 'r, he si, tf^ey 

Geii. sai n , Jiis, or o/ him i/ra, /^ir, or o/ them 

Dat. im, ^ 7*m i'na, or 'na, to tJiem 

Ace. in, him si, 

Third Person, Feminine. 

Nom. si, she si, Z#ey 

Gen. i'ra, or irs, hers, or o/ her i'ra, tf/tetr, or o/ them 

Dat. i'ra, or ara', to her i'na, or 'na, to them 

Ace. si, her si, them 

Third Person, Neuter. 

Nom. es, or 's, # si, they 

Gen. sai n , or sains, its, or 0/ # i'ra, their, or o/ ^ew 

Dat. em, or 'm, to it i'na, or na, to them 

Ace. es, or 's, it si, them 

Although du is used in addressing the Supreme Being, the second per- 
son plural, ir, is generally resorted to in addressing the aged, or a 


The demonstrative pronouns dar or der, this, and sel'er or sel'r, that 
are inflected as follows : 

Singular. Plural, 

Masc. Fern. Neut. For all genders. 

Nom. dar, or der di des di 

Gen. dem sai n da'ra ir dem sai n de'na ir, or i'ra 

Dat. dem da'ra dem den'a 

Ace. den di des di 




Nom. seP'r 



Gen. sel"m sai n 

sel''r 'ra 

sel'm sai n 

Dat. sel''m 

sel''r 'ra 


Ace. sel''r 



Hoffman.] 196 [Dec. 21 


For all genders. 
sel'-la i'ra 


As will be observed by reference to the preceding inflexions, the pos- 
sessive pronouns are derived from the genitive case of the personal pro- 
nouns. They are mai n , dai n , sai 11 , i'ra or irs, sai n or sains, from the 
singular, and uns'r, air and i'ra from the plural. 


Indefinite pronouns, representing persons or things without particular 
specification, are used, the most important of which are here given, viz.: 

man, one, some one. 
eb'ber, some one, somebody. 
nim'mand, no one, nobody. 
ken'ner, no one, neither. 
e n 'ner, one, some one. 
ye'derer, each one. 
man'icher, many a one. 
et/-lich a, some, several. 
e n 'nicha, some, any one. 


A pronoun is termed reflexive when the action represented thereby re- 
verts upon the agent, as ar shnait sich, he cuts himself; sich being equiva- 
lent to either Jiimself, herself, itself or themselves. 

In German, a reflexive pronoun becomes reciprocal when the intention 
is to represent the actors in tbe plural as acting mutually, and to avoid 
ambiguity the reciprocal word einander, one another, is added or substi- 
tuted for sich, themselves ; this, however, is not the case in the present, 
as sich is dropped, the reciprocal einander (nan'ner) being sufficient, as, 
si shnai'ta nan'-ner, they cut one another. 


The interrogative pronouns are war, wlio ; was, what; wel'ler, which 
one ; and, was far en, whot sort of a, or wJiat kind of a. These are in- 
flected like-the relative pronouns, excepting was far en, in which en only 
is inflected, excepting in the plural, where it is omitted in all genders. 

1888.1 , [Hoffman. 


Predicative adjectives seldom undergo change, but attributive adjectives 
are declined like the definite article. 

Adjectives, having in the positive a terminal ai, au, from the compara- 
tive by adding er or 'r, as : 

Positive. Comparative. 

shai, shy shai'-er, shyer 

trai, true trai'-er, truer 

rau, coarse rau'-er, coarser 

Adjectives, having in the positive the ending ai, ch, d, s, t, and u, take 
for the superlative sht. 
Irregular comparisons occur, the most important being the following : 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 
gut, good bes'ser besht 

lang, long leng'er lengsht 

negsht, near ne'gher * negsht 

f II, much or many me n mensht 

It has already been stated that adjectives are declined like the definite 
article, in the nominative and accusative. The following are the termina- 
tions in the several cases and genders in both singular and plural ; where 
a dash occurs, there is no alteration or suffix to the adjective : 


For all genders. 
Nom. a 
Gen. a 
Dat. a 
Ace. i or a 


In German, the numerals are classified according to the signification, 
and the general usage obtains in Pennsylvania. These classes are termed 
Cardinal, Ordinal, Distributive, Multiplicative, Variative, Adverbial, Dis- 
tinctive, Partitive, and Indefinite. Diinidiative numerals are not in use 
to express the same idea as in the German. 

A short list of the Cardinals and Ordinals is here presented : 

Cardinals. Ordinals. 

1. ens, en, e'ner arsht 

2. tswe tswet 

3. drai drit 

4. fir, or fi'ra firt 

5. finf, fin'fa finft 

6. seks, or sek'sa sekst 


, Fern. 



er or 'r 


es or 's 


a sai n 













[Dec. 21, 


7. si'wa 

8. ach'ta 

9. nain, nai'na 

10. tse'a 

11. elf, el'fa 

12. tswelf, tswel'fa 

13. drai'tse 

14. far'tse 

15. fuf'tse 

16. sech'tse 

17. si'-wa-tse 

18. ach'tse 

19. nain'tse 

20. tswan'sich 

21. en'-un-tswan' sich 
30. drai'-slch 

40. fart' sich 
50. fuft-sich 
60. secht'-sich 
70. si'-wet-sich 
80. acht'-sich 
90. naint'-sicli 

100. hun'ert 

101. hun'ert un ens 

102. hun'ert un tswe 
200. tswe hun'ert 

1000. dausent. 


si 7 - wet 














en'-un-tswan' sisht 









liun x ert un arsht 

hun'ert un tswet 

tswe hun'ertsht 

dau sentsht 

In the preceding, the Ordinal numbers from twenty to ninety are 
recorded as they are most frequently pronounced ; though upon 
closer examination the sounds given are usually a little more difficult for 
one to acquire. They consist of the syllable sht being added to the car- 
dinal number, making, for example, tswan'-sich -f slit, drai'-sich -f sht, 
and should be written tswan'-sichsht, drai'-sichsht, to represent the com- 
plete form, instead of the final syllable sisht. 

Distributive numerals are formed by coupling cardinals by the conjunc- 
tion und (= un or 'n), as tswe un tswe, two and two, etc. 

Multiplicative numerals are those having fach, fold, as a suffix to the 
cardinals, as e n/ fach, onefold, single ; drai'fach, threefold. 

Variative numerals have the suffix lai or le (sort or kind) added to the 
cardinals, and for the sake of euphony, or preceding that suffix, as, 
e'ner-le', of one kind ; drai'er-le 7 , of three kinds. 

Adverbial numerals are formed by adding the suffix mol or mols to car- 
dinals and.indefinite numerals, as e n/ -mol, one time, or once ; si'-wa-mol, 
seven times; ye'der-mol, each time; fil'-mols, many times, or of fen. 




Distinctive numerals are formed by adding ens, as a suffix, to the 
ordinal numbers, as arsht'ens, firstly, or in the first place; tswet'ens, 
secondly, etc. 

Another class, which properly comes under this group, is the union of 
the cardinal number with the suffix er, to designate one as belonging 
to, valued at, etc.; as finf'er, a fiver, i. e., a five dollar gold piece ; one 
belonging to a company having for its designation No. 5. 

Partative numerals are formed by adding '1, el, or t'l, part, to the ordi- 
nals, as drit't'l, a third, seksf'l, sixth, etc. 

Indefinite numerals are those which are, in English, usually recognized 
as adjectives, and serve to indicate number, as ye'der, each, ye'des, each ; 
to indicate quantity, as eb'bas, some, gans, the whole as opposed to a 
part halb, half, etc.; and those to indicate both number and quantity, 
as all, all; ken'ni, none; fil, much; wen'ich, a little ; genunk/, enough. 


These are dar'fa, ken'na, me'gha, mis'sa, wol'la and los'sa, with all of 
which the verb is used without the particle tse or tsa, except ken'na when 
signifying to know. 







Nom. dar 



Gen. dem sai n 

da'ra ir 

dem sai n 

Dat dem 



Ace. den 




For all genders. 

den'na i'ra 












sel'm sai n 

sel'r I'ra 

sel'm sai n 










For all genders. 
sella ira 



Dat. sich 

Ace. 'm 





[Dec. 21, 


Norn, war 
Gen. wem sai n 


wellera ir 

wem sai n 


For all genders 
war, welli 
wella Ir 

Dat. wem 

well era 



Ace. wen 




The interrogative what is was throughout. 


a, 1. also, too ; ich a I also, or, I 


2. alas ! what a pity ! too bad ! 

d n , 1. on, as clothing on the body ; 
ar hot sai n henshing a n ge- 
du' he put on 7iis glove. 
2. to begin, or to take in ; as, 
wan fangt di musik a n tlit., 
when does the music begin. 

ab, off, from ; as a prefix to many 
verbs, when it conveys the 
sense of removal, detrac- 

ab'-a-dek, drug store. 

ab'-a-de'-ker,' apothecary, druggist. 

ab'-a-dil dak, opodeldoc. 

ab' a-dit, appetite. 

ab' -a-dit-lich, appetizing, pleasant 
to the taste. 

d n '-bai-sd, to bite into (for the first 
time) . 

d nf -bard-Uc7i, particular, particu- 

ab'-b'drsh-ta, to brush off; to finish 

a-bart'-ic7i, particular, particularly. 

d n '-bart-Uc7i. See a n/ -bard-lich. 

d nl -bas-sa, 1. to fit, on a person or 

thing ; to try on. 
2. to successfully deceive or 
cheat ; to impose upon an- 
other; ; as to betray a girl by 

ab'-bt-da, 1. to outbid at a public sale. 
2. to warn, or bid one to re- 
main away from a place. 

ab'-bin-na, to tire a wheel with iron ; 
to hoop, as a cask. 

ab'-bla-da, to pluck off leaves. 

ab'-ble-cha, 1. to fade. 

2. to bleach, to whiten by ex - 
posure to sun or rain. 

ab f -b\1-a, to cease blooming. 

ab'-blo-sa, to blow off. 

ab'-bir, strawberry. 

ab'-brech-a, to break off. 

ab' bri-a, to scald, or to complete 
by scalding. 

ab'-bruc7i, cessation. 

ab'-bud-sa, to wipe off, to clean. 

ab'- dank-Tea, to resign, to decline. 

ab' -dek-7ca, to uncover, to unroof. 

ab' -de-la, to divide, to share around 
in parts. 

a nl be-fe-la, to enjoin, or request. 

a n '-be-lang-a, to relate to, or to con- 

a'-bend-mal, The Lord's Supper, 

d n '-be-ta, 1. to worship. 

2. to supplicate, or solicit. 

a nf -be-ting, an offer, or paper in 
supplication of a desire. 

fr'-be-tungs-wer-tich, adorable ; that 
which may be worthy of 

ab'-fal, refuse, offal 

ab'-fal-la, to fall off. 




ab'-fod-ra, to ask from. 

ab'-ga-we-na, to discontinue a habit 
or custom ; to wean. 

ab'-hand-'la, to get rid of by sale 
or exchange, to. dispose of. 

ab'-har-ich a, to hear or to listen to. 

ab' -he-la, to heal off ; to heal by 
desquamation, or by the scab 

ab' -henk-ish, sloping ; inclined. 

ab'-he-ra, 1. to hear a statement, 

or to grant a hearing. 
2. to molt, or shed hair. 

a n '-bin-na, to hitch,' or tie fast ; to 

a n -bl-da, to offer, to accost. 

a n -'bid-ta, to pray to, to persuade. 

ab'-kep-pa, to chop off the head, as 
of fowl. 

ab'-klo-ra, 1. to clarify liquors. 
2. to clear off weather. 

ab'-la-da, to unload. 

ab' -la-fa, to drain off ; to walk off. 

ab 1 le-gh'l-a, to deny; to transfer 
blame upon another. 

db'-le-sa, to read off. 

a n '-blik, a glimpse ; a view. 

a nf -bli-ka, to view, or to take a hur- 
ried glimpse. 

a n '-bUns-la, to blink at, or to wink at. 

ab'-los, an outlet ; a ditch for drain- 

a n '-blan-tsa, to begin planting ; to 
start by planting. 

a nf -blo-sa (infin., a nf -za-bld sa}, to 
start by blowing at ; to kin- 
dle by blowing. 

ab'-los-sa, to let off, to allow escape 
to a person or thing. 

ab'-ma-gher-a, to emaciate. 

ab' -mo-la, to draw, or make a sketch 
of anything. 

ab'-nem-ma, 1. to take off. 

2. to depreciate in size or quan- 

3. to amputate, or cut off. 


a n '-bo-ra, to bore, or to tap ; refers 
to beginning of action only 
the start. 

ab'-rai-sa, 1. to tear off, to sever. 
2. to take departure for a jour- 

ab'-ra n -ma, 1. to skim cream from 


2. to remove dishes and ar- 
range in order. 

ab'-rech-la, 1, to deduct from an 

2. to square accounts. 

ab'-rech-ling, an account. 

ab' rech-lung, an account. 

a n '-bren-na, to kindle ; to scorch. 

a n '-br1-a, to scald, or to steep for 
an infusion. 

ab-ri-gos f , apricot. 

ab'-ris, a plan, design. 

ab'-ritsJi a, to slide off'. 

ab'-ro-da, to dissuade ; to warn. 

a n '-bruch, daybreak ; the early ap- 
proach of day. 

a nf -brum ma, to growl at ; to roar 
at in a low deep tone, as a 

ab'-sads, heel of a shoe. 

ab'-sd-gha, to deny, to refuse. 

ab'-sai n -na, to sign off as legal in- 
struments ; to relinquish by 

ab' -sa lut', absolute. 

ab-sa-nat', particular, precise, ob- 

ab'-set-sa, to set off or aside, to dis- 

ab'-sfiaf-fa, 1. to work off, to elimi- 
2. to discontinue. 

ab' sUai, abhorrence, hatred. 

ab-shai'-lich, abominable. 

ab'-sha-ma, to scum, or remove 

ab'-shaum'-ma, to remove froth, or 

129. Z. PRINTED FEE, 5, 1889. 



[Dec. 21, 

ab'-she-la, 1. to peel, to desquamate. 

2. to pare. 
ab'-shin-na, 1. to skin off as bark. 

2. to flay. 

3. to abrade. 

ab'-shl-wa, to postpone, to defer. 

ab'-shrai-wa, to copy. 

ab' -shrau-wa, to loosen by remov- 
ing screws, to unscrew. 

ab f -skrek-ka, 1. to scare off. 
2. to intimidate. 

ab'-shrit ta, to step off, or to meas- 
ure by steps. 

ab'-shte n -a, to begin to spoil. 

ab'-shte-la, to steal or sneak away. 

ab'-shtai-gha, to dismount ; to step 

ab'-shtek-ka, to stake off. 

ab 1 shtim ma, to put to vote. 

ab'shtrai cha, to smooth down the 
fur or hair of an animal. 

ab'-shtri-gh'l-a, to curry down. 

ab'-shtro-fa, to reprimand. 

ab'-shwar-ta, 1. to give a beating. 
2. to split into slabs. 

ab'-shwenk-ka, to rinse, or wash off. 

ab'-shwe-ra, to swear off, to reform. 

ab'-sau-fa, to drain by sucking. 

ab'-sicht, purpose, design. 

ab'-te-pa-ra, 1. to taper down. 
2. to cease drinking liquors, 
after a debauch. 

ab'-tren-na, to unseam ; to rip off. 

ab' -ts'drk-la, to make exact ; to de- 
scribe outlines with mathe- 
matical instruments. 

ab' tse-ra, to become emaciated. 

ab'-tsug, 1. departure, leave. 
2. deduction. 

ab' -wai-cha, to leave the proper 
course ; to warn. 

ab' war-ta, to serve, to wait upon, 
to nurse. 

ab' -war-tern, a female waiter or 

ab' wai clia, to deviate, to deflect. 

ab'-we-da, to remove pasture by 

ab'-wek, off road, wrong way. 

ab'-weks-^ta, 1. to make mutual ex- 
2. to alternate. 

ab'-welk'-ka, to wither, to fall off 
through withering. 

ab'-we-ra, 1. to wear oft. 
2. to dissuade. 

ab'-u,\-gha, to weigh off, in parcels 
or quantities. 

ab'-wish-er, a duster or wiper ; a 

ab'-ya-gha, to drive away ; to scare 

ach, an interjection equivalent to 
oh ! well, but ; used fre- 
quently to denote that a thing 
or action has been forgotten 
or neglected. 

adit, eight. 

ach'ta, eight. 

acht'sam, careful. 

ach'-tse, eighteen. 

acht'-sich, eighty. 

a n '-dacht, attention. 

a^'-dai-ta, to indicate, or to hint. 

a^'-dech-ticJiy attentive. 

ii nf denk-ka, keepsake, memento. 

a nf -denk-as, a memento ; a memo- 
rial ; keepsake. 

^ad'ler, an eagle. 

a nl -drai ica, to start to drive, to 
urge forward. 

a nf -dre a, to turn on, as a spigot. 

a n '-dref-fa, to meet ; to come in 

a ll/ -du n , to dress, to clothe. 

of, monkey, ape. 

a n '-faich ta, to become moist. 

a n '-fai-la, to file ; the first indica- 
tions of having been filed. 

a n '-fai-ra, to set fire to ; or to light, 
as a stove or furnace. 

a n '-fal la. to assail, to fall upon. 




fi n '-fung t beginning ; origin. 

a n '-f?tng-a, to begin, to commence. 

" r -f<"(ngs, at first, from the begin- 
ning of a certain time. 

fi. n '-f<i ra, to drive, or lead in driving. 

a n '-f<ir-drau'-a, to entrust ; to con- 

a nr -farsh-da, plowing furrows to 
indicate direction. 

a n '-fau-la, to show a beginning of 

d nl -fecli-ta, to fight ; the beginning 
of a quarrel. 

a n '-fech-dmg, a contention or quar- 
rel ; usually applied to legal 
strife between individuals. 

(t n -feng-er, a beginner, a novice. 

a nf Jing-ra, to handle with in a 
meddling way. 

a nl -fit-ta, to try on, or to fit ; fre- 
quently used instead of a n - 

a nf -fi-la, to touch, to feel. 

a n '-Ji-las, sympathy ; feeling for. 

a nl -Ji~ra, 1. to disappoint, to mis- 

2. to betray as a girl by seduc- 

a nl -flick-ka, to patch on another 

n/ fres-sa, to gnaw at; to show 
signs of having been eaten 

ay, an eye ; pi., a'-ghd. 

a n '-ga bis'-sd, anything which has 
been bitten into, is said to be 
a nf -ga-bis-sd; a bite taken 
from an apple, or other edi- 
ble object. 

a'-glia-blets'-lich, immediately. 

<"i nl ga-bod-ta, offered. 

n '-ga-bo ra, hereditary; congenital. 

d nf -ga-bordt, started to be bored or 
drilled; the boring or drill- 
ing in its beginning, or com- 

a n '-ga-budt, the first bid, or offer, at 
a sale. 

d ll '-ga-le-ghd8, a yearning ; con- 

d n/ -ga-nem, pleasant, agreeable. 

a n '-ga-nem-lich, agreeable, agree- 

a n '-ga-nem Uch-er-wais, in an agree- 
able, or pleasant manner. 

d n '-ga'-num'-ma, accepted; feigned. 

d n '-ga-roshdt, to show signs of rust- 

a nf -ga-sicht, countenance. 

a n '-ga-wak'-sa, grown fast to. This 
term is applied to pleurisy, 
the idea being that "the liver 
has grown to the surround- 
ing vicera and to the ribs." 

d n '-ga we'-na, to contract a habit J 
to acquire, or to accustom. 

a n '-ga-we-net, a habit ; or acquired 

d n '-ge-wa t to lodge information ; to 
inform, or to suggest. 

a n '-gfauldt, speckled by decaying. 

a n gjirdt, 1. disappointed, fooled. 
2. betrayed, seduced. 

a-gUa-ab'l, eyeball. 

a' gha-ap f -el, eyeball. 

a'-gha-blik, a moment ; an instant ; 
a hurried glimpse. 

a gha-blik-lich, immediately. 

d'-gha-brb, eyebrow ; pi., a f -g7ia- 

a' g7ta-deck'l, eyelid; sing.tmdpl. 

a' -gha-dok-ter , an oculist. 

a'-glia-lwr, an eyelash. 

a-gha-haid-^tl, an opacity of the 
eye ; a membranous growth 
known as terigium. Some- 
times used for cataract, shtdr. 

a' -gha-lusJit, the eyes' delight ; the 
"delight of the eyes." 

a n -gla-gha, to accuse ; to complain 
of to others, or to legal au- 



[Dec. 21, 

a n '-gle-wa, to cleave to ; to paste on 
or to stick to. 

a nf -grai-fa, 1. to grasp, or attack. 
2. to comprehend. 

a n -grif, an attack ; act of grasping. 

a n -gsic7it, countenance, face ; view 
or prospect. 

a nf -gsicht-a, prospects. 

a n -guk-ka, to look at, to behold. 

a n '-hal-ta, to continue, to perse- 

a n 'har-ich-a, to listen to, to pay 
attention to. 

a n -7ieng-er, adhere, a hanger-on. 

d n '-he-ra, to listen to, to obey. 

ai, an exclamation of surprise ; is 
frequently repeated several 
times when seeing or hearing 
anything of a surprising or 
astonishing character. 

ai, egg. 

ai nl -li-sa, to incur danger, to lose; 
to meet with misfortune. 

ai n '-bil-da, to imagine, to fancy. 

ai n '-bild-ing, imagination. 

aft 1 ' -bin-no,, to wrap up, or in ; to 

ai n '-bld-sa, to start a furnace ; re- 
lates to iron works. 

ai n '-brech'-a, 1. to break into, to 

2. to break to harness. 

ai'-deks, lizard, newt, salamander. 

ai'-der, 1. the yolk of an egg. 
2. udder, of cow. 

ai n '-dra-gha, to bring in, or to 

ai'-er-dot'-ter, yolk of egg. 

ai?'-fal-la, to cave in. 

ai n '-fardt, entrance, gate-way. 

ai nf -fed'l-a, to thread. 

ai'-fer, eagerness, zeal. 

ai'-fer-a, to endeavor, to be zeal- 

ai'-fer-icTi, zealous, energetic. 

ai nf -gang, entrance. 

ai nl -ga-richt, arranged; prepared, 


ai nf -ge n -a, to shrink. 
ai n '-ge-wa, 1. to give in, to consent. 

2. to administer medicine. 
ai'-gha-dum, property, possessions. 
ai n '-grai-fa, to make inroad up ; to 


ai n '-gra-wa, to bury, or inter. 
ai nf -hak-ka, to cut into, to chop 

ai nf -hal-da, to hold in ; to slacken ; 

to keep in as at school. 
ai n '-ho-la, to overtake. 
ai n '-ka-fa, to buy in, to purchase. 
ai nf -ke-ra, 1. to put up at a public 


2. to begin house-keeping. 
ai n '-koch-a, to boil down ; to con- 
centrate by boiling. 
ail, 1. an owl ; pi., ai'-la, 

2. a, hurry, haste. 
ai'-la, to hasten, hurry. 
ai n '-la-da, to invite. 
ai*' -la-ding, invitation. 
ai nr -mach-a, to preserve. 
ai nf -nem-ma, 1. to take internally ; 

to receive money in trade 

as in a store. 
2. to cheat or deceive. 
ai nl -rai-sa, to encroach upon. 
ai n '-rich-ta, to fit up, to arrange in 

shape, or to furnish. 
ais, ice. 
ai'-sa, iron. 
ai nf -sal~sa, to put in salt or brine ; 

to salt down for the future. 
ai'-sich, icy, slippery on account of 

ice, or sleet. 
afi'-sal-tsa, to pack in salt ; to salt 


ai'-sa-maindt, iron ore ; iron mine. 
ai'-sa-shtor, hardware store. 
ai n '-se-a, to sow for coming crops. 
ai nf -se-ghna, to confirm a religious 





ai nf '8et-sa, to put in, as limestone 
into a kiln ; to install into a 
position or office. 

ai nr -shar'-'fa, to enjoin, to cram. 

ai nf -shenk-a, to pour out, or into 
other vessels, as into tea- 
cups, etc. 

ai n '-shla-gha, lightning to strike 
an object ; to strike into sud- 
denly and violently. 

ai n '-shlak, woof. 

ei n '-shld-fa, to fall asleep. 

M n '-shlum-'r-a, to fall into a slum- 

ai n '-shlup-pa, to crawl in or into. 

ai nf -shne-a, to snow in, or to be- 
come covered by drifting 

ai nf -shpan-na, to hitch up in har- 

ai n '-s7irai-wa, to inscribe ; to write 
into a book ; a preliminary 
writing to a document. 

aish'-ter, oyster. 

ais'-tsap-pa, icicle. 

ai n '-tswing-a, to force one to swal- 
low, or take internally. 

ai nf -wai-a, to dedicate. 

afr'-wai-ing, dedication. 

ai nf -wa n -ner, inhabitant. 

afi 11 '-wech-a, to put in soak, to 

ai n/ - wen-ing, an invention, an ex- 

ai n '-wik-'l-a t 1. to wrap up, to band- 

2. to deceive and impose upon 
equivalent to the common 
expressions "to take in," or, 
"to rope in." 

ak, an eye ; pi., a'-g7ia. 

ak'-a-dl-ra, to make an agreement. 

ak'-er, acre. 

a n -ket-ta, to secure with a chain. 

a"'-kfauldt, speckled or spotted by 

a nf -kin-dich-a, to inform, or to an- 

a n -kla-gha, to accuse ; to complain 
about to the authorities. 

a nf -kle-da, 1. to clothe, or to dress. 
2. to ingratiate. 

a n -knep-ba, to button on, to secure 
by buttoning. 

a n -knip-ba, to tie on, securing by 

aks, 1. axe. 
2. axle. 

a nf -kset-Mt, first settled ; first indi- 
cations of settlement. 

aks'- I, 1. shoulder. 
2. axle. 

ak-to'-w'r, October. 

a nl '-kum-ma, to succeed, to get on. 

a n '-kum-mer, a new-comer ; one 
who has arrived or is about 
to arrive. 

al, all. 

a n '-lai-a, solicitude. 

a nl '-lang-es, longing, yearning. 

al'-au n , alum. 

al-dar', altar. 

al'-der, 1. age. 

2. old one a rude term applied 
to a man advanced in years. 

a-le n/ , alone. 

a n '-le-gha, 1. concern, to yearn for. 
2. to lay on, as laying on a coat 
of paint. 

a nr -le-gha8, a yearning for ; concern. 

a-le nf -nich, alone. 

al'fart, always, ever. 

al'-le, all. 

al-le n> , alone. 

al'le-dak, every day, daily. 

al'-le-ga-bot', every once in awhile ; 

al'-ge-mai n , average, commonly. 

al f -ge-me n , average, commonly. 

al'-le-mol', every time. 

al'-ler-arsht', very first ; the first of 



LDcc. 21, 

al'-ler-dings, sure enough, to be 

al'ler-hand, all sorts, melange. 

al'-ler-lai, various sorts, various 

al'-ler-U', all sorts, various kinds. 

al'-les, everything. 

al'-le-wail', just now, at present. 

al-mech'-tich, Almighty. 

al' -mi-nan' -ner, all together. 

al'-mo-sa, alms. 

al'-niks, in vain, fruitless ; lit., all 

a nf -los-sa, to let on ; to pretend. 

al'-o-we, aloes. 

als, as, still, while. 

als'-a-mol, sometimes. 

alt, old, aged. 

alt'-er, 1. age. 

2. old one, i.e., "theoldman;" 
generally used by a wife when 
speaking of her husband. 

am, at, at the, on the, by ; contrac- 
tion of an dem. 

a n '-mach-a, 1. to mix, or to prepare. 
' 2. to make up to, to gain one's 

am' -a-pa' -disJi, homeopathic. 

am'-ba-rel', umbrella. 

a n '-mc-a, to begin mowing, or reap- 

a n '-met, the second crop of hay. 

am'-shel, robin merula migratoria. 

amt, office, position. 

an, on, at, by. 

a u '-na, without, but. 

a nf -na f -gh''la, to nail fast to ; to at- 
tach to by nailing. 

a n '-ars7it, other, otherwise. 

a nf -ne-a, to sew fast to, or to attach 
by sewing. 

a n '-nem-ma, 1. to accept, or to 

2. to feign or to "take on." 

an'-er, othes. 

an'enlit, otherwise, differently. 

any'-ker, anchor. 

ans, at the, to the ; contraction of 

an des. 

ant' -wart, answer, reply, response. 
ant'-war-ta, to answer, to respond. 
a nf pak-ka, to attack ; to endeavor 

to overcome. 
ap'bir, strawberry. 
ar, he, him. 
ar'-a-bir, strawberry. 
ar'abs, pea. 
a nf -rai-a, to baste. 
a nl -rai-8a, to tear off a portion ; to 

begin to tear into. 
a nf -rai-wa, 1. to rub on or against. 
2. to ingratiate, by keeping in 

contact with another. 
a n '-rank-ka, plants securing a hold 

by means of tendrils. 
ar'-a-wet, labor or occupation. 
arbs, pea. 
arb'-sa, to inherit ; to receive by 

heredity, or congenitally. 
arb'-shaft, legacy. 
ard, earth ; world. 
ar'-da, earthen. 
ard'-ab-p'l, artichoke. 
ard'-be-bung, earthquake. 
ard'-fle, plant louse, plant insect ; 

lit., earth flea. 

ard'-gaisht, gnome, "puck, "bogy. 
ard'-licht, ignis fatuus, will o' the 


ard'-ning, order, quiet. 
ard'-sliol-la, a clod of earth. 
ard'-shwam, mushroom, fungus, 

agaric ; lit., earth sponge. 
ardt, 1. sort, kind, variety. 

2. place, locality. 
ar'-antsh, orange. 
d n 'red-ta, to address, to speak to. 
a nl -re-gha, to touch. 
a'-rem-se'-lich, miserable, wretched. 
ar'-entsh-tswi'-w'l, Indian turnip. 
ar-fa'-rung, experience. 
ar-fin'-nung, invention, discovery. 




dr-frai'-a, 1. to gladden. 

2. to free one's self, or to libe- 

ar-frisli'-a, to refresh. 

dr-frish'-ung, refreshment, recrea- 

dr-hal'-td, to maintain, to retain, to 

ai'-lic,' -a, to exalt, to elevate. 

ar-hdlt', recovered. 

a' -rich. See ar'-rik. 

d n '-rich-td, to report, to cause. 

ar'-i-ghn, organ. 

ar'-i-gli'l-shpl-ler, organ ist. 

ar'-ik. See ar'-rik. 

a rin'r'd, to recollect, to remember. 

d n '-ii.rd, I. to begin to stir, or to 

2. to affect, touching. 

dr'-i-yd, to irritate, to annoy. 

dr'-i-ydr-lich, aggravating, irrita- 

dr' -i-ydr-nis, irritation, vexation, ag- 

ark. See ar'-rik. 

ar-ken-na, to know or to recognize. 

dr-kwik'-d, to refresh ; to renew. 

dr-kwik' -ung , recreation, restoration 
of energies. 

dr-ldb'-nis, permission. 

dr-lang'-d, to reach, to attain. 

ar-la'-wa, to allow, to permit. 

ar-le'-sa, to liberate, to save. 

ar'm, 1. poor, destitute. 
2. arm ; a branch. 

ar-ma'-na, to exhort ; to remind. 

ar-me nf , army. 

dr'-mer, pauper; lit., a poor one. 

drm'-lich, poorly, miserable. 

ar'm-loch, arm hole. 

arm-Be' lick, miserable, destitute. 

ur'-mut, poverty, distress. 

arn, harvest. 

arnd'-lich, decent, proper. 

dr-ne'-ra, to support ; to maintain. 

drnnht, in earnest. 

d n '-ros7i,-ta, to become attached by 
rusting, or corroding. 

dr-ret'-ta, to save or rescue. 

ar'-rik, very\ar f -rikgro8,very large; 
en ar'-ri-yer ^ros'-ser man, a 
very large (or great) man ; 
en ar'-ri-yi kle n '-ni frd, a 
very small woman. 

dr-sliaf'-Ja, created ; conceived. 

drsht, 1. just, only now. 
2. first. 

ar-shtau'-na, to astonish. 

dr-shtaun f -lic?i, surprising. 

drts-nai', medicine, practice of med- 

dr'-tum, 1. legacy. 

2. something received by he- 
redity, or congenitally. 

d n '-ru-fd, to accost by calling ; to 
call upon. 

d'-rum, 1. arm. 

2. poor, poverty stricken. 

3. lean, poor in flesh, indigent. 
d'-rum-se'-lic7i, miserable, wretched. 

dr'-wd, 1. to inherit ; to secure or 

obtain by transmission. 
2. an heir ; one securing a leg- 

ar'-wet, work, labor, occupation. 
as, as, while, because. 
d n 'sd-gha, to announce. 
d n: -se'-fa, to soap in part ; or as in 

a preliminary manner. 
d nf -se n -na, to view, to behold. 
d n/ sen-licit, respectable, pleasant to 

look upon. 
d nf -set-sd, to set ; set to hatch, or to 

d n '-set-t'la, to begin to settle, or to 

attempt settlement in a place. 
d n '-shaf-fa, to provide, to secure for 

future emergencies. 
d n '-shai n , appearance ; indication. 
d n '-shain, appearance ; prospects, 

or probabilities. 



[Dec. 21, 

a n '-shau-a, to behold, to look at. 

a ni '-she-Id, to start to pare ; to begin 
paring or peeling. 

a n '-sMk-a, to behave ; to conduct 
one's self. 

a n '-shla-gha, to nail to anything ; to 
post for public information ; 
to notify. 

a n '-shll-sa, to loin to. 

a nl '-shmech-la, to ingratiate by coax- 
ing or flattery. 

a nl ' -shmech-lich, ingratiating ; pleas- 
ing, agreeable. 

d nl '-shmi-ra, 1. to ingratiate one's 

2. to paint ; to daub. 

3. to cheat, or betray. 

a ni '-shnar-r'd, to address in coarse or 

rude language. 
a nl -shpan-na, to hitch to, or before 


a n -shpel-la, to pin fast to. 
a n/ -shpUt-ta, to start splitting ; to 

begin a split. 
a n -sJiprit-sa, to begin to sprinkle, or 

squirt a liquid ; to sprinkle a 


a n '-shpruch, a demand, a request. 
a n -shprung, a start in running, a 

beginning in a run. 
a nf -shrau-wd, to secure by screwing, 

to attach with screws. 
a n '-shta-la, to place new steel on 

the cutting edge of tools ; to 

harden like steel. 
a n '-shte-d, to like, to agree with 

one's expectations. 
a n '-8htek-ka, to contract something 

contagious ; to set fire to. 
a n/ -shtel-la, 1. to appoint to a posi- 
tion, or office. 

2. to commit a wrong or injury. 

3. to behave, or conduct one's 

a n -shtel-ling, an appointment, or 

a n -s7itel-lung, an office, or position. 

a n '~shtif-dvr, an instigator. 

a n -8htif-ta, to instigate, to urge. 

a n '-8htd'-sa, to join to ; to connect ; 

a nf -shtraicJi-a, to paint, to cover 
with a liquid by means of a 

a n '-shtraich-er, a painter. 

a nl -shtrik-a, to knit on to another 
substance or article. 

a llf -s7iu-a, to attach new parts to old 
shoes ; to cover with new 
upper leather. 

a nf -sicht, view, aspect. 

a n 'tsai-cha, to indicate, to give a 
token, or prognostication. 

a n '-tsai-chas, a token or sign. 

auf'-ar-shte'-uny, resurrection. 

aits, out, out of, from. 

aus'-ar-da, to become degenerate ; 
to form a variety distinct from 
the original. 

aus'-ll-da, 1. to notify to quit. 
2. to ouibid at a public sale. 

aus'-brV-a, to clean out by scalding. 

aus> '-bud 1 '-sa, to clean out, to prune. 

aus'-dau'-ra, to persevere, to main- 

aus'-de-la, to divide, to distribute. 

aus'-denk'-ka, to contrive, to devise. 

aus'-dil-ya, to extirpate, to root out. 

au*'-di-na, to serve out a time. 

am'-dre-i, to wring out. 

aus'-dre-er, clothes-wringer. 

aus-drik' -lich, particularly, ex- 

aus'-drak, expression, enunciation. 

aus'-fal, 1. deficiency. 

2. a falling out ; enmity. 

aus f -fal'-la, to fall out, to disagree. 

aus'-fa-ra, to appear as an eruption, 
to break out. 

am'-fa-ras, eruption cuticular. 

aus'-Ja-rinj, eruption of the skin. 

aus' -far-kd' -fa, to sell out. 



aus'-fi-m, to carry out, to prose- 
cute a plan or scheme. 

am'rfran^l-a, to fringe out, or to 
become fringed. 

aus'-fres-sa, to eat all, to consume 

everything eatable. 
f -</<?*, to go out ; to become ex- 

e-da,i f -art t exhausted, tired 

aus'-ge-larnt, completed education. 

aus'-kal-da, to sustain, or to hold out 

aus'-he-la, 1. to heal to complete- 
2. to hollow out as wood. 

autf-lw&g-er-a*, to starve out, to 

aus'-koch-a, to extract by boiling. 

aus f ~krafaa, to erase, to remove by 
scratching or scraping. 

au*'-lwch'-a> to ridicule, to laugh at. 

aus r -la-fa, to expire in time. 

aits' -le-g Ji<t, to explain, to demon- 

aus'-len-er, foreigner. 
, to empty. 
, to select ; to pick out. 

aw&'-hsh-a, to put out ; to extin- 

aus'-mach-a, to reach conclusions, 
to make out, to obtain results, 

aus f -mish-da, to clean out stables, 
to remove manure. 

au$ f -pak-kti, to unpack. 

aus'-pik-kti., to pick out, as fruit or 
vegetables ; to select and as- 

antf *plan-tia, to transplant* 

aut'-plii-gha, to plow between rows 
of corn, etc. 

avs'-rai-aa, 1. to abscond, 
2. to tear out, to fray. 

au*'-red, excuse, pretext. 

aus'-ret, excuse, response. 

to perform, to transact) 
to accomplish. 


aus'-rot-ta, to weed out, to root out. 

aus'-ru-fa, to announce in public ; 
to exclaim, to cry out. * 

aus f ~ru-gha> to recover by resting ; 
to take rest sufficient to re- 

aus'-sau-fa, to drink out all. 
to sow. 
sa, to plant, or set out. 

to pour out (coffee 
or tea) at table. 

au&'-shen-na, to reprimand, by mak- 
ing fun of; to cause one to 
feel ashamed. 

aus'-shlek, sprouts or young shoots 
on trees. 

aus 1 '-shli-sa, to exclude, to lock out. 

au9 r -3kprech-a, to pronounce. 

aus'-shrai-wx,, to write out ; to com- 
plete by writing. 

aus'-shlai-ar, outfit of furniture, etc., 
when going to housekeeping; 

au9 f -8klai-gha, to dismount from a 

aus'-shte^, to bear, to endure. 

aus' -shwenk-ka, to rinse out. 

am 1 ' -slwit-sa*, to sweat out ; to get 
rid of by sweating. 

aus f -8icht, prospect, view* 

aus'-tse-ritig, consumption, phthisis. 

<Mf4'*tM-r*eA'*ta to transact or per- 

tttts ; -tccnc^, to evade, to avoid. 

aus'-wak-sa, to grow to maturity. 

aus^warf-liiig, an outcast ; an im- 
perfect one. 

aw r *icen~ich, 1. outside. 

2. to know a thing by heart. 
ftA~a, to rub out, to wipe 

to instruct, to show, to 
indicate, to direct. 

a*wek f > away. 

a'wend-mvl, the Lord's Supper. 

& n '-wen*na, to apply, to utilize, 

129. 2A, PRINTED FEB. 11, 1880. ] 



[Dec. 21, 

a'-wer, but, only, otherwise, used as 
a threat to wish one to desist. 

a n '-witk-ld, 1. to wrap upon, to con- 
nect by wrapping. 
2. to accomplish by palming off 
upon another. 

a'-w'r, but ; used also as a threat to 
one who has committed a 

a'-w'r-gla-wa, superstition. 

a'-w'r-gld-wish, superstitious. 

V, a contraction of ba, be, used as a 
prefix and equivalent to the 
English prefix be. 

ba n , a path, a track. 

bd-dmt'-er, occupant of an office or 
public position ; one elected 
to position by ballot. 

bab f -d-dek'l, paste board. 

ba'-bd-gdi, parrot. 

ba-bir', paper ; sometimes applied to 

bob' -la, a poplar tree. 

ba'-Vl-a, to babble, to talk sense- 

ba'-b'l-maul, one who talks too 
much, and senselessly ; a tat- 

babsht, pope. 

bd'-dd, to wade, to bathe. 

bd-dal'-yd, batallion ; muster day of 
the militia. 

bdd'-er-t's'l, partridge, quail (Ortyx 

ba-dl'-nung, office, service. 

bd-dd', a flat-bottom boat (a macki- 
naw, as used in British Amer- 

bad'-'rd, to bother, to annoy. 

bd-drach' '-ta, to behold or to view. 

bd-dref'-fa, to concern, to affect. 

bd-ding'-a, to agree, to make terms. 

ba-drof'-fa, confused, afflicted, af- 

bddt, a bath. 

bd-fel' t command, an injunction. 
bd-fe'-la, to command or charge. 
ba-frai'-a, to deliver, to set free. 
ba-frid' -ich-d, to satisfy. 
ba-fr~i-dich-d, to pacify. 
ba-frid-ich-ung, satisfaction. 
ba-ge'-ghna, to meet, to come to- 
ward one another. 
bd-ger', a request, a desire. 
bd-ge'-ra, to request, or desire. 
bd-ge'rich, desirous, greedy. 
bd-ger' -ich-kait, greediness, eager- 

bd-ger'-ich-ket, greediness. 

bd-hdrt'-sich-a, to take to heart. 

bd-haup'-ta t -io assert or maintain. 

bd-hl'-ta, to protect, guard. 

bdi, pie. 

bai, by, at, near. 

bai'-dr'-d-wd, co-heir. 

bai' -bring '-a, to bring from another 
place, to contribute. 

bai' -drd-gha, to carry from another 
place, to contribute. 

baich'-ta, to confess. 

bai'-d'l, 1. bolt used to separate 

2. scrotum. 

bai'-drik'-kd, to press together, to 

bai'-fal-la, to transpire, to occur. 

bai'-ho-la, to bring together, to fetch 
to a given point. 

bai'-kum-ma, to come together, to 
gather at a given point, for- 

bail, a hatchet. 

bai' -Id-fa, to walk together; to 
gather, on foot. 

bai'-lar, a pot or boiler. 

bai'-le-gha, to lay up ; to hoard or 
save ; to lay aside. 

bairn, with the, by the; contrac- 
tion of bai dem. 

baim-gle'-na, retail; lit., "by the 




bai-na', nearly, almost. 

bai'-na-ma, nick-name ; Christian 

baind, pine, pine tree. 

baind 1 '-harts, resin of the pine tree, 
exudation on bark of pine. 

baindt, a pint. 

baindt' -blech, a tin cup holding about 
a pint. 

baindt 1 '-mo*, pint measure. 

baind' -tsab' -ba, pine cone. 

bat-no', almost, nearly, approach- 
ing to. 

bai'-sa, to bite. 

bai'-sicJi, acrid, biting, sour. 

bai' -sliaf -fa, to provide, to procure. 

bai> -shpring-a, to run past, or by ; 
to run to assistance. 

bai'-shpil, example, instance. 

bai'-shte n , to support, to stand by. 

bais'-tsang, pincers. 

bai'-wek, by-way. 

bai'-wo-na, to attend, to be present. 

bai'-ya-gha, to drive together, to 
herd or round up. 

bak'-drok, dough trough. 

bak'-ka, 1. to bake. 

2. cheeks (sing, and pi.). 

bak' -ka-bart, whiskers, beard. 

bak' -ka-buch, pocket-book, purse. 

bak f -ka-shte n , brick (sing, and pi.). 

bak'-ka-shte n -le'-gher, brick-layer. 

bak'-ka-shte n -of'-fa, brickkiln. 

bak'-ka-tsa", molar tooth ; lit., bak'- 
ka, cheek -f- tsa n , tooth. 

bak' -of -fa, bake oven. 

ba-ke'-ra, to convert. 

ba-ke-'rung, conversion. 

ba-ken'-na, to confess, to make 

ba-kend'-nis, conversion, acquaint- 

ba-kesh'-dich-a, to supply with food. 

ba-kim' -er-lich, pitifully, poorly. 

ba-kim'-ra, to concern one's self. 

ba-kla' -glia, to complain, to report. 

ba-kand 1 -mach-a, to make known. 

ba-kand' -mach-ung, acquainting 
with, advertisement. 

ba-kand' -shaft, acquaintance, famili- 
arity with a person or sub- 

ba-kle'-da, to clothe. 

ba-kref -tic7i-a, 1. to assert vigor- 
2. to strengthen, physically. 

ba-kum'-ma, to become, to agree 

ba-kwem', commodious. 

ba-kwem'-ma, to adapt, to become 

bal, soon, nearly. 

ba'-Ubt, beloved, liked, popular. 

bal'-ka, beam, joist. 

bal'-la, ball. 

bal' -la-britsh, a bat for playing ball. 

bal-lun 1 , balloon. 

ba-lo'-na, to reward, remunerate. 

ba-lo'-nung, reward, compensation. 

bal'-sam, balsam. 

bal-wi f -ra, to shave. 

bal-wlr 1 '-mes-ser, razor. 

bal-wir' -sef, shaving soap. 

bam, a tree. 

ba 11 ' -mach-a, to make a track or path ; 
to cut or open a path through 

bam'-Vlich, loosely or carelessly. 

bam' VI, a loiterer, a stupid fellow. 

bam' -Via, to loiter, to waste time. 

bam' -gar -da, orchard. 

bam'-mes'-ser, a pruning knife ; lit., 
a tree knife. 

ba-mi'-a, to concern one's self ; to 

ban 1 '-dt-baks, bonnet box. 

band, 1. a hinge. 

2. a band, bandage. 

ban'der, a panther. 

bandt, 1. ribbon, tape. 

2. a bond legal instrument. 

ba-ne'-na, to give a name. 



[Dec. 21, 

b'i mn'-ung, naming, denomination. 

bang, afraid, uneasy. . . 

bang'-a-net, bayonet. 

bang' -ich-ked, fear, dread, anxiety. 

bank, a bench. 

ban'-na, to charm, to captivate. 

bap, paste. 

bap' -pa, to paste, to stick to. 

bar, 1. bear. 

2. sometimes used instead of 

blr', pear. 
bar, bare, denuded. 
ba-ra'-da, to deliberate. 
ba-rai'-a, to repent, to prepare for 

a future state. 

ba-raV '-cha, to need, to require, 
ba-rait', prepared, ready. 
ba-rai'-ta, to prepare, to make 


ba-rau'-cha, to stand in need of. 
ba-rau'-shend, intoxicating, excit- 

bar'-fi-sich, bare-footed. 
bar '-geld, cash. 
bar'-gha-ment', parchment. 
bar' -gha-mot, bergamot. 
ba-richt', a report. 
ba rich'-ta, to report, to make 


bfrr' ig.,, a hill, mountain. , , 
b<ir'-ik, a boar. 
bd'-rik, a hill, mountain. 
ba-rik'. a wig. 
ba' -rik-bluk, a "hillside-plow," a 

plow for hilly country. 
ba rimdt', renowned, well known. 
bar-ir'-ing, emetic. 
barir'-ung, emetic. 
ba'-ri-ya, to borrow, to obtain credit. 
bar'-ka, birch. 
bdrl, a barrel. 
barl'-fas, a barrel ; lit., a barrel 

bar'-ma-dik f -' > l, a pendulum of a 

clock. . 
barm-harts' -icTi, merciful. 

barm-harts' -ich-kait, merciful, the 
act of being merciful. 

bd'-ri-ich, hilly or mountainous. 

barshd, 1. a brush. 
2. a bristle. 

barshd'l, a little coxcomb of a fel- 
low ; a synonym equivalent 
to the modern expression of 

barshd'-ta, 1. to brush, to clean 

2. bristles, as of a hog. 

harts' -el, the coccygeal region. 

barts'-el-a, to tumble, to frisk. 

barts-'l bam, sommersault. 

bas, bass a bass voice. 

ba, a boss, a chief, a master. 

bash'-ta, to husk. 

basht'-hel-s'l, stick for husking corn. 

bas'm, opossum. 

bas'-sa, 1. to fit, to suit ; to measure 

to fit, as clothing. 
2. to pace. 

bas'-gaik, a bass viol j lit., a "bass, 

bash'-ta, 1. to husk. 

2. husks, shuck. 

basht'-art, bastard j hybrid. 

basht'-hols, husking pin. 

basht'-nat, parsnip. 

ba-sin'-na, to consider, to make up 
one's mind. 

ba&'-sem, opossum. 

bat-do f , a flat-bottom boat (Pr., ba- 
teau). ? 

ba-ttar'-ik, district, circuit. 

ba-tsdrk', district, circuit. 

batsh'-ler, an unmarried man, a 

bat f -sich, saucy, impudent. 

bau'-a, to build, to construct. 

bauch, belly, abdomen. 

bau'-cha, to boil wash. 

bauch' -fel-ich, decrepit, failing. 

bauch' -gri'-wH-a, an uneasiness in 
the intestines, 




bauch'-shmart'-aa, pain in the stom- 
ach, cramp. 

bauch'-we, stomach ache. 

bau'-er, 1. a farmer. 
2. a builder. 

bau'-hols, lumber. 

bauch'-ri-ma, belly band or strap. 

bauch'-tsu-wer, a wash tub. 

bau'-er-a, to farm, to cultivate. 

bau'-er-ai', a farm. . 

bau'er-a-shtand, a farm with all its 
accessories, as a plant. 

bau'-mesh'-d'r, building master ; 
contractor, architect. 

baur, a farmer. 

ba-wai'-sa, to show, t6 prove. 

ba-wa f -na, to inhabit, to live in, to 
occupy. . 

ba-van'-er, inhabitant, occupant. 

ba-wandt', inhabited. 

ba a '-wol, cotton. 

ban'-wol-lich, anything of cotton. 

be*, leg <c-pl- t be n ). 

be' -a, to toast. 

be- ant' -war- da, to answer for, or 
become responsible. 

be-antf -wart-ich-kait' , responsibility . 

be-ard'-ich-a, to bury, to inter. 

beck, pitch, shoemaker's wax. 

bech'-ich, pitchy, sticky or adhesive. 

bed, a bed ; a lair. 

bed, both. 

be'- da, 1. both. 

2. to pray, to supplicate. 

be-dai'-er-lich, pitiable. 

be-dai'-ta, to indicate or signify. 

be-dai'-ding, signification ; indica- 

be-dai'-tvng, signification ; indica- 

be-dan'-ka, to thank. 

be-dau'-er-a, to pity. 

be-dau'-er-lich, pitiful, that which 
may be pitied. 

thanksgiving day ; lit., 
prayer day. 

be-dar'-fa, to need, to want or re- 

be-darf'-nis, necessity. 

be-dau'-ra, to pity, to commiserate. 

bed'-dep-ieh, bed cover. 

be-dek'-ka, to cover, to roof a house. 

be-denk'-ka, to consider, to think or 

be-denk'-lich, serious. 

be-dl'~na, to deserve ; to attend to 
or serve in an office. 

be-dl'-ner, a servant. 

bed'l'-a, to beg. 

bed'-lat, bedstead. 

bed'-lat'l, a small bedstead, a trun- 
dle bed. The more frequent 
term is shl'-wer-li'. 

bed 'I 1 '-man, beggar. 

b&dra f -gha, to conduct, to deport, 
to behave. 

be-dre'-ya, to betray, to cheat. 

be-drlbt 1 , sorrowful, distressed. 

be-dri' -gher-ai, deception, swindling 

be-drl-gh'l-ich, deceptive. 

be-drik-lich, deceptive. 

be-drl'-wa, 1. to make sorry, or to 

cause distress. 
2. to cheat, impose upon. 

be-druk, fraud. 

bed'-shtrik, bed-cord. 

bed'Juch, a case for feathers, feather- 

be-fin'-na, to find. 

be-fol'-ya, to obey, to observe. 

be-fro 1 '-gha, to ask, or to inform one's 

be-gle'-da, to clothe. 

be-glik'-ka, to happen to, or to make 

be-gin', beginning, commencement. 

be-gne'-dich-a, to pardon, to befriend, 
to favor. 

be-gne 1 -dich-kait, mercy. 

be-grai'-fa, to grasp, to comprehend. 

be-giaif'-lich, conceivable, compre- 



[Dec. 21, 

be^gra'-wa, to bury. 

be-guk'-ka, to look at, to look over, 

to inspect. 
be-greb'-nis, a burial, a place of 


be-grif, comprehension. 
be-haup' -ta, to assert, to maintain . 
be-hel'-fa, to make shift, to help 

one's self. 

be-he'-fa, to behave, to deport. 
be-Jief'-Uch, with deportment, com- 

be-hal'da, beholden. 

be-henk'-ka, to bedeck, to put on an 
extra quantity of finery. 

be-hoft', afflicted. 

bek, peck. 

be-kandt', known, acquainted, fam- 

bek'-ar, a baker. 

bel, a bell. 

bel, bail, security. 

be lai'-dich-a, to annoy, to worry. 

bel'la, 1. to ring a bell. 

2. to tattle, to relate to gos- 

be-lash'-da, to burden ; to impose 

be-la n '-na, to reward, to recom- 

be-li'-gha, to belie. 

bel'-U-gots, a term applied to com- 
mon molasses candy. Was 
formerly used in and around 

be-ti'-wa, to belove. 

be-lobt', liked, beloved. 

be'-luk'-sa, to cheat, to fool, to belie- 

bels, a thick matted growth of hair. 

bels' -nik-el, Santa Glaus ; a grotesque 
figure assumed by the young 
in making visits on Christ, 

bel'-tsa, to pelt, to lamm, to beat. 

bel'-tsa-bup, Beelzebub, demon. 

bem, trees ; pi. of bam tree. 

be-mar'-ka, to note, or observe. 

be-mdr' -i-ka, to note, to observe. 

bem'-bla, to fool away, to idle, to 

be-na'-ma, to name ; to give a 

ben'-di, Bantam fowl. 

bend n l, a string or twine. 

be-ne'-w'lt, befogged ; intoxicated. 

beng''l, a robust, overgrown boy. 

benk, 1. a bank for deposit of mo- 
ney ; a bank of earth. 
2. pi. of bank bench. 

ben'-ni-cha, to overcome or to sub- 

be-nbch' -rich' -ticli-a, to notify, to 
make known. 

ben'-rail, pennyroyal. 

bens, a cent, penny. 

be-nut'-sa, to benefit, to use. 

be-rod' -shla-gha, to deliberate, to in- 
terchange views. 

bes, angry, cross. 

be'sa, a broom. 

bes-ding', a felon ; lit., bad thing. 

be'-sem, a broom. 

besti'-d'la, to tinker, to plaster. 

besht, best. 

be-sJiur', to be sure, certainly. 

bes'-'r, better. 

bes's'r-a, to better ; to improve. 

let, a bed. 

lefl'-a, to beg, to solicit. 

be-tra'-ghas, conduct, deportment. 

be-richt' -ich-a, to correct, to report 

le-tsa'-la, to pay, to remunerate. 

be-wais', proof. 

be-wai'-sa, to prove, to illustrate. 

be-wa'-ra, to protect, or to shield. 

be-we'-gha, to move, to budge. 

be-we' -ghlicJi, unable. 

be-we'-ghung t motion, exercise. 

be-yam'-ra, to bemoan. 

be-ya'-wa, to affirm, to state affirm- 




Vfal'-la, to befall. 

bfesh'-dich-a, to fasten, to secure. 

bfi'-la, to feel. 

bfin f -na, to find one's self, state of 
health ; to find in place. 

blb'-cha, 1. a very small boy ; di- 
minutive of bu boy. 
2. a chick of domestic fowl. 

bib'-l-chia, chick of domestic fowl. 

bich'-er, books ; pi., of buck. 

bid'er, bitter. 

bid'-man, a lever, connected with 
an eccentric. 

bid'-ra-tm-lad, dandelion ; lit., bit- 
ter salad. 

bidsk, a bitch, slut. 

bidt, a bid, or offer. 

bif-l, a hornless cow. 

bl'-gka, to bend ; to incline by bend- 

bi'-gk'l-a, to iron, with a flat iron. 

bi'-gh'l-ai'-sa, a flat iron sad iron. 

bik'-ka, to bend or bow, to stoop. 

biks, a rifle. 

bUd, a picture. 

bin, am ; I am ich bin. 

bin'-d'l, a bundle. 

bin' -no,, to tie, to bandage. 

bir, a pear ; beer applied also to 
lager beer. 

bir'-hef, yeast. 

bis, 1. a bite. 
2. till, until. 

bis' -el, a little. 

bish'-el, a small bush, a shrub. 

bish'-op, a bishop. 

bisht (contraction of bisht du are 
you), are, art. 

bis'-kate, a skunk, polecat. 

bis 1 '-kat-sa-kraut, skunk cabbage. 

bis 1 ' I, a little. 

bis'-sa-bet, dandelion. 

bit' -da, 1. to supplicate, to ask, to 

2. to bid, as at a sale. 

bitsh, a bitch, slut. 

bi'-wi, a pewee (Contopus eirens). 

bl'-w'l, Bible. 

blad, a leaf. 

blads, a place. 

blaf'-fa, to bark. 

blai', lead. 

blai'-a, leaden. 

blai'-wa, to stay or to remain. 

blai'-wais, white lead ; as white as 
white lead. 

bla'-ka, a spot ; a patch. 

blak'-a, to blacken. 

blak'-bi^ra, blackberries. 

blan-dash', plantation. 

blan'-tsd, to plant, to inoculate. 

bl'dr'ra, to bleat as sheep, to bellow, 
as calves. 

blash'-der, a plaster. 

bla*h f -der-a, to plaster. 

blasJi'-der-er, a plasterer. 

blats, a place. 

blau f -der-a, to converse, to tattle. 

blaum, plum. 

bleck, tin. 

bleck, pale. 

ble'-cJw,, to bleach. 

blech'-e-mer, a tin bucket. 

bled'-cha, a saucer. 

bleds'-Hck, immediately, suddenly. 

bledt, bashful, diffident ; weak. 

bled'-ter, leaves ; pi. of blad. 

blek'-l, a small spot, or patch. 

ble-tiir', pleasure, gratification. 

ble-slr'-lich, pleasantly. 

blets, places ; pi. of blads, 

blet'sha, to smack with the flat 

bti'-a, 1. blossoms refers chiefly to 

fruit trees. 
2. to bloom. 

bli'-a-knep, buds ; flower buds. 

blits, lightning ; a flash of lightning. 

bli'-ent, blooming. 

blig, plows ; pi. of bluk, or blug. 

blik'-a, to glance; to peep at mo- 



[Dec. 21, 

blind'-a-mai'-s'l, blind-man's buff ; 
a game played by the young. 

blind' -bait, blindness. 

blind' -half -ter, blindhalter, blinkers. 

blindt, blind. 

blind'-ts'la, to wink. 

UU'-sa, lightning ; to flash, as light- 

bit, 1. blue. 

a. indigo, "bluing/* 

blo-barg', Blue mountain a range 
in Eastern Pennsylvania. 

bio-bar' -yar, an inhabitant of the 
regions of the Blue moun- 

Ud'-der, a blister. 

blo'-der-a, 1. to blister. 

2. to tattle, or scatter gossip. 

blo'-fogh'l, blue bird (Sialia sialfr 

Wo' -hush-da, whooping cough. From 
Wo, blue, and hush'-da, cough; 
denoting the color of the face 
during paroxysm. 

blots, a log. 

blok'-hai'-s'l, a log cabin. 

blok'-haus, log house. 

llos, 1. bare ; only. 
. & a blister. 

bld'-sa, to blow. 

bl#s-bal& bellows. 

blot, bare, denuded of covering. 

btot'-kep-ich, bare-headed ; bald- 

blot'-sa, to jump or jar, as in a car- 
riage, or on horseback, in 
going over rough soil. 

bind, blood. 

llu'-da. to bleed. 

blud'4eh, bloody. 

blud'-suk*1-ar, a leech ; tit., blood- 

blud'-ioar-tsel, blood root (Sanguin- 
arto c&nadensi&) 

Uug, plow. 

Uu'-gba, to plow. 

Uu f -ma-Ken' -er, a botanist. 

bin, 1 -ma-krants, a wreath of flow- 

blu'-ma-shtraus, a raceme, a sprig of 
flowers ; nosegay. 

Uut, blood. 

bob' -I, a bably. 

bod'-bai, potpie. 

bod'-e&h, potash. 

bod'l, bottle. 

bod'-'l-chia, a vial or small bottle. 

bod'-'l-i, a vial ; used sometimes by 
the illiterate. 

bod'-ta, bottom, the ground or 

bod'-m, the ground, or earth, bot- 

bof'-la-haut, buffalo robe. 

bo'-gha, a bow, a curve. 

bo'-gha-flmt, bow-gun cross bow. 

lok, buck; ram. 

ton, bean. 

bo*'-na-grai'-t'l t summer savory. 

boP'-na-sItfok, bean pole. 

bo'-ra, to drill, or to bore. 

lord, 1. a board. 

2. boarding, meals. 

b&rd'-kar-ieh, the gallery in a church. 

b&rdtt board. 

bos, a kiss. 

bo'-sa, to kiss. 

bofl, bottle 

bran'-de-icai*, whisky. 

braf, good, of excellent deport- 
ment, brave. 

braf -it, profit, gain. 

brai, pap. 

brai'-di-gam, bridegroom. 

brand, ergot. 

brandt^ 1. mortification, gangrene. 
2. brand, firebrand. 

brandl'-shtif-ter, an incendiary. 

bral'-la, to brag, to boast. 

bral'-ler, a braggart. 

brat'-s'l-a, to sputter, sputtering. 

bran' -a, to brew. 




brauch'-a, 1. to need or require. 
2. to exorcise, or, to perform 
ceremonies for driving out 
disease, spells, witches, etc. 

brauch'-bar, serviceable, useful. 

brand, bride. 

brau'-er, brewer. 

brau' -er-ai' , brewery. 

braut, bride. 

brau n '-war-tsel, figwort. 

brech'-a, 1. to vomit. 

2. to break in to harness. 

brech' -loch, furnace for drying flax. 

brecht'-ich, splendid, elegant. 

bred'-bail, broad axe. 

bred'-ich, a sermon. 

bre'-dich-a, to preach, to deliver a 

bre'-dich-er, a preacher ; parson. 

bredt, broad, wide. 

brek'-'la, to crumble. 

brem, horse fly. 

bren'-dis, apprentice, a beginner. 

bren'-e-s'l, stinging nettle. 

bren'-na, to burn, to scorch. 

bren' -ner-ai, distillery. 

bre'-ting, braiding. 

brl, juice, sap ; any liquid of worth- 
less character or questionable 

brl'-a, 1. to scald, to parboil. 
2. to hatch. 

brV -der-hait, brotherhood. 

bri'-der-lich, brotherly, amicably. 

brV-ich, juicy, of a liquid consist- 

bflf, a letter. 

bri'-gh'l, a club. 

brik, bridge. 

bril, spectacles. 

bril'-la, to cry, to weep, to roar. 

brisht, breasts mamma; pi. of 

brisht, a priest. 

brish'-ter, priest, a prelate. 

brod, bread. 


brod 1 -hank, a hanging shelf for food. 

brod f -ta, to fry, to roast. 

bro-fit', profit, gain. 

brok'-el, a crumb, small fragment. 

bmch, 1. a rupture, hernia. 

2. a quarry either stone or for 
ores ; a generic term. 

bruch 1 '-bandt, a truss, used for ap- 
plication in hernia. 

brud'-'l-d, to simmer, to pout. 

brud'-er, brother ; pi., bri'-der. 

bru 1 -der-hait, state ot feeling, or 
affection, between brothers. 

brud f -sich, one apt to pout ; cross, 

brudt, a brood, a litter. 

brud'-tsa, to pout. 

brum'-la, to grumble or murmur, 
to mumble. 

brum'-ma, to hum, to buzz. 

brum'-mer t 1. a steam whistle usu- 
ally applied to such as is 
foundat factories, to announce 
beginning and ending of 
working hours. 
2. a bull-roarer boy's toy. 

brun'-na, a well. 

brun f -na-e a -mer, well bucket. 

brun'-na-wals, a windlass, for Draw- 
ing water. 

bruns, urine. 

brun'-sa, to urinate. 

brusht, breast, thorax ; applied to 
either one of the mainmai of 
a woman. 

brusht' -lap -pa, a vest. 

brusht' -warts, a nipple, of one of the 

bsan'-ders, particularly. 

bsar'-ya, to be solicitous ; to pro- 
vide for. 

bsed'-8a, to trim ; to arrange by 
trimming, or placing. 

bsed'-sung, trimming. 

bshai'-sa, to cheat, to deceive. 

bshe' -dich-a t to injure. , 

129. 2B. PRINTED FEB. 11, 1889. 



LDec. 21, 

bshenk'-a, to make a present of, or 
to give freely. 

bshim'-ba, to disgrace, to insult. 

bshis'-ser, one who cheats, or is dis- 

bshli'-sa, to conclude, to close up, 
or bring to an end. 

bshlus, conclusion ; resolution, de- 

bshmai'-sa, to throw up, to pelt. 

bshla'gJia, to shoe as a horse ; 

bshte'-la, to rob. 

bsktel'-la, to order, to commission. 

bshtel* '-lung , a position or office. 

bshte' -ticli-a , to confirm or certify, to 

bshto'-la, robbed. A person is said 
to be bshto'-la, when he is of 
a thieving nature. 

b&hwe'-ra, to swear with another, 
before giving testimony. 

bshwer'-lich, with difficulty. 

bsid'-sa, to possess, or occupy. 

bsid'-ser, occupant, owner. 

bsin'-na, to consider, to deliberate 
before making up one's mind. 

bsuch, visitors, company ; visitation. 

bsuch' -a, to visit, to call upon. 

bsun'-ders, particularly. 

bsun'-na, having presence of mind ; 

bu, boy. 

buck, book. 

bu'-cha beach. 

bu'-chel, beach. 

buck' -shank, book case. 

buch'-we-tsa, buckwheat. 

bud'-d'r-fat, churn for making but- 

bud'-sa, core, as of a boil. 

bud'-sa-man, scare-crow, as erected 
in the field to scare off birds. 

buds'-ich, insignificant, small, 

bud'-ter, butter! 

bul'-ter-blum, buttercup (genus 
Ranunculus) . 

bud'-terfo'-g'l, reed bird ; lit., butter 

buk'-er, a rascal. 

buk'-ker, a rascal. 

bu/cs, box ornamental garden 

buks' -bi' -ra, teaberries ; fruit of win- 
ter green. 

bumb'-ba, to pump. 

bum'er-ants, tomato. 

bum'-ert, orchard. 

bump, a pump. 

bum' -pa, to pump, to exhaust. 

bun'-d'l, a bundle. 

bun'-d'l-a, 1. to bundle, or tie up in 

a bundle. 

2. The custom of bundling for- 
merly practiced in New Eng- 
land, and various portions of 

bung'-ard, orchard. 

bush, woods, forest. This word is 
sometimes used to designate 
the rural districts. 

bush'-knip-p'l, a rustic ; a country 

bush' -man, countryman, one from 
the rural districts. 

bush'-tab, letter of the alphabet. 

bush' -ta-wi' -ra, to spell. 

bush' -da' -wa, letter of alphabet, 

bus'm, bosom, breast. 

bus'-si, cat. 

butsh'-er, a butcher. 

butsh'-er-a, to slaughter, to "butch 

butsh'-er -aks, a cleaver. 

butsh' -er-mes' -ser, a carving knife. 

bu'-wa-lais, tickweed. 

bu'-wa-U, a little boy. 

bu nr -wol, cotton. 

bu n '-wol-la, made of cotton, cotton 




bu nl -wol-lich, having the appearance 
or property of cotton. 

d', 1. from da, de, do, here. 

2. from du, du, thou, you 

da, exclamation, signifying, there 

now, there you have it, take 


dab, deaf. 

dab'-ich, clumsy, awkward. 
dab'-pa, 1. prints as foot-prints ; 


2. to walk about aimlessly. 
dach, roof. 

dach'-farsht, ridge pole. 
dach'-fensh-ter, dormer window. 
dach'-kan-d'l, rain gutter, rain 

dach' -la-da, hatchway ; lit., roof 


da'-di, father, "daddy." 
dad' -'I daub, turtle-dove. 
da' -fa, to christen, to baptize. 
da-for', in favor of. 
da-fun 1 , from it, from that, there- 
dafun'lafa, to go or walk away 

from ; to leave. 

daf f -shai n , certificate of baptism. 
dag, day. 

dag'-dlb, a scoundrel. 
da' -gha-brucTi, daybreak. 
dag'-len-er, a laborer, one who 

works by the day. 
da-hem', at home. 
daich, a narrow gully ; sometimes 

applied to a deep valley or 

daich'-'la, conduit, drainage or 

sewer pipes. 
dai'-er, costly, dear. 
daiks'-'l, a wagon tongue. 
dait'-lich, distinct, clearly. 

dai'-ter, a pointer. Formerly, school- 
books were used to which a 
string was attached, havi g 
at the other end a sharp- 
ened piece of whalebone, to 
be used as a pointer. 

daitsh, Dutch, German. 

dai'-w'l, devil. 

dai'-w'l-a, "to devil"- to annoy 
and worry. 

dai'-w'ls-drek, assafoetida. 

dak, day. 

dak'-la n , daily labor. 

dak'-Un-ar, day laborer. 

daks' -work, day's labor. 

dal, valley. 

da'-ler, dollar. 

dal'-ya, dahlia. 

dal'-ros, aster, chrysanthemum. 

dam, dam. 

dam' -ma, to dam ; to obstruct. 

damp, vapor, steam. 

dam' -pa, to steam. 

dam' -pa, to dampen, to moisten. 

dan, then. 

dank'-ka, to thank. 

dank' -bar, thankful ; grateful. 

dank' -bar, thoughtful, considerate. 

dank' -bar -ket, thankfulness, with 

dan'-ser, a dancer. 

dap'-per-a t to hasten, to hurry. 

dar, tar. 

ddr, 1. dry, cured. 

2. lean, skinny. 

3. the. 

dd'-ra, to dry, to cure. 

dar'-a-ba-din', turpentine. 

dar' -ba-din' , turpentine. 

dar' -' ch-laf, diarrhoea; lit /'through 
walk." The literal transla- 
tion has actually been used 
in conversation, to designate 
the complaint. 

darchs, through the ; contraction of 
dar'ich des. 



[Dec. 21, 

dar'-'ch-se'-na, to see through ; to 

dar' -' ch-waks, boneset. 

dar' -' ch-wek' , throughout. 

dar'em-sed, "cat-gut" string, sinew 

d'dr'-fa, to dare, to challenge, to be 

dar'-ich, through. 

dar-lch-aus 1 , throughout; generally; 
by all means. 

dar'-ich-bring-a, 1. to bring through. 
2. to squander. 

dar'-ich-ge n , to pass through. Is 
used, generally, in the sense 
of escaping or running away. 

dar'-ich-ge-widsht', slipped through ; 

dar' -ich-nan' -ner, mixed ; confused. 

dar' -ich-sicht-lich, transparent. 

dar' -ich-such' -a, to search, to exam- 
ine, to ransack. 

dar' -ich-tsweng' -a, to force through. 

dar'-i-gh'l, stagger, faintness, ver- 

dar'-i-gh'l-a, to stagger, to reel. 

darm, intestine, gut. 

darm'-lich, giddy, dizziness. 

darn, thorn. 

darn'-ich, thorny, prickly. 

darshd, thirst. 

darsh' -dich, thirsty. 

dart, there, at that place. 

dart-rum', therefore, for that reason. 

da-rum', therefore, for this reason. 

das, that. 

dat', deed, act. 

da'-tum, date. 

da-tswish 1 '-a, between. 

daub, dove, pigeon. 

dau'-ba, barrel staves. 

dau'-er-a, to pity ; to have compas- 
sion for. 

dau'-ra, 1. to endure, to last. 

.2. to pity or to have compas- 
sion for. " 

daur'-haft, durable. 

da-we'-der, against. 

deb'-ich, a quilt, or bed cover. 

de'-dich-a, to cause death. 

de'-ghich, doughy, tough. 

de'-ghlich, daily. 

dek, dough, a plastic mass. 

dek, a cover. 

dek' -let, bed cover ; coverlet. 

dek'-ka, to cover, to roof. 

dek-' I, a cover or lid of a box, ket- 
tle, etc. 

dek'-lich, daily. 

dek'-s'l, an adze, to cut with an adze, 

del, a part. 

de'-la, to divide, to share. 

del'-ler, a plate. 

dem, to this, to this one, to him. 

de'-mandt, diamond. 

dem'-a-grat, democrat. 

dem'-e-di, timothy. 

de'-mi'-tich, humble, depressed. 

dem' -pa, to dampen. 

deng'-el-a, to sharpen scythes by 

deng'-'l-ai'-sa, an elongated wedge- 
shaped iron, one end being 
driven into a log of wood, 
and the other used to sharpen 
scythes by hammering the 
cutting edge. 

deng'-'l-shtok, a wedge-shaped piece 
of iron used in sharpening 
scythes by hammering. 

de-ne'-wa, on the side of, beside. 

denk'-ka, to think. 

denk'-ki, thanks, thank you. 

den'-na, to these. 

den'-ser, dancer, dancers. 

der, door. 

der, he. 

der-for', in favor of. 

des, this. 

des-glaich'-a, the like. 

dest, desk writing table. 

del, part. 






de'-ml'tich, downcast, despondent. 

de'-mut, despondence, down-heart- 

de-tstV, to that, likewise, also. 

di, the (/em.), also before plural or 
collective nouns, this one 

dib, thief. 

dib'-'l-a, to spot, or cause to be 
marked with spots. 

dib'-lich, spotted, speckled. 

dib'-shtal, a resort of thieves. 

dick, thee, you. 

dids, teats. 

di-fen'-d'ra, to defend, to protect. 

dik, thick. 

dik'-sek-ich, "big bellied." 

di'-ma-di', timothy. 

din, thin. 

dl'-na, to serve. 

din' -da, ink. 

din'-da-glas, ink bottle. 

ding, thing. 

ding' -a, to hire, to secure for ser- 

dinsht, service. 

dinsht.' -mad, female servant. 

dinsht' -mat, female servant. , 

dlr, 1. door, gate. 
2. an animal. 

di'-ra-shd', menagerie. 

dl'-ra-shtep, doorstep. 

di' -ra-shwel, door sill. 

dir'-shtep, door step. 

dish, table. 

di*h'-d'l, thistle. 

dish'-'dr-a, to quiet, to soothe. 

dish'-duch, table cloth. 

<?#, teats. 

d'-no f , then, afterwards. 

do, here, at this place. 

do'-ba, paws. 

dob'-'l-a, to double, to fold. 

efo&'-'ZJ, double, twofold. 

dob' -pa, a hank ; this term Is used 
in reference to flax, etc. 

dock, though, although, yet, in* 


doch'-der, daughter. 
doch' -der-man, son-in-law. 
dod, dead, death. 

do' -da-bar, bier for supporting coffin. 
do 1 ~da-gledt t shroud. 
do' -da-wa' -gTia, hearse. 
dok'-ter, doctor, physician. 
dok'-ter-a, to practice medicine. 
ddl, toll, a tax. 
dol' -metsh-er, interpreter. 
do-mit't herewith, therewith. 
do'-mols, at that time, in those times. 
don, then. 
dor, gate, door. 
dds, a dose. 
drach, dragon, will o* the wisp, 

elf fire, ignis fatuus. > 
drach' -a-loch, dragon's hole or cave; 

a cave. 

dra'-gha, to carry, to support. 
drai', three. 
drai'-ang-k'l, musical instrument of 

steel (or iron), a triangle. 
drai'-dre-dich, three threads or 

strands ; three-ply. 
drai'-ek, triangle. 
drai' -ek-ich, three-cornered. 
drai'-wa, to drive, to force. 
drai'-wer, driver, coachman. 
drai' -yer-ich, a three-year old. 
dram, dream ; trance. 
dram, rum. 
dra n '-ma, to dream. 
dran, fish oil, train oil. 
drank, trunk. 
drau'a-, to marry. 
draub, grape. 
drau'-er-lait, mourners. 
drau'-'ra, to mourn. 
drau'-'r-ich, mournful, sad. 
draus, out, on the outside. 
drau 1 '-tea-rank' ', grapevine. 
drat'-ta, to trot. 
dre, a crank, or handle to churn. 



[Dec. 21 

dre' -a, 1. to turn, to churn, to twist. 
2. to threaten. 

dre' -ar' -i-ghel, a hand organ. 

dre'-bank, turning lathe. 

drech'-der, a funnel. 

drech'-ter, a funnel. 

drech'-ter-blum, morning glory ; lit., 
a funnel-flower ; f. e., a fun- 
nel-shaped flower. 

drech'-ter-kuch'-a, funnel cakes. A 
thin dough put into a funnel 
having a long handle, and 
the dough allowed to run into 
a pan of hot lard, moving the 
funnel spirally over the sur- 
face so as to make a long 
spiral cake. 

dred' -pau-er, tread -mill, a pedal to 
cause power for turning light 

dred-t'l, a treadle, a pedal. 

dre f -fa, to hit. 

drefts, tares (or cheats) growing 
with grain. 

dre' -hend-' I, a handle, for turning 
or churning. 

drek, dirt, dust ; mud. 

drek'-ich, dirty, soiled. 

drep, step ; stairs. 

drep'-s'l-a, to trickle, or to fall in 

dres7i'-a t to thrash as grain. 

dresh' -den' , the thrashing floor of a 

dresh'-der, worthless residue. 

dresh'-fle-gh'l, flail thrashing flail. 

dresh' -ma-shin, thrashing-machine. 

dre'-ta, to kick, to tread. 

d'r-for, in favor of; for it, or 

d'r-fun, from it, of it ; away from. 

drib, dim, cloudy, misty ; coated 
with an opaque film. 

drib'-sal, sorrow. 

drik'-ka, to press, to squeeze. 

drik'-ning, dry ness, drouth. 

dril'-la, 1. to drill, to muster for 


2. to drill with an instrument. 
drin, in, within, inside. 
drit'-'l, a third ; a widow's portion 

or dower. 

dri'-'ura, over, on the other side. 
dri'-wa, to regret, to be sorry. 
dri'-wer, over, across. 
drob-pa, drop, drops. 
drob'-sa, to drop, or to fall by drops. 
drok, trough. 

drol'-la, a lope an easy gait. 
drop'-sa, to drop, or fall by drops. 
dros'-'l, trestle. 
drot, wire ; wax-ends as used by 


drot'-garn, shoemaker's thread. 
drdt'-tsang, pliers, pincers. 
dro'-wa, up, on the top, above. 
dro'-wer, a drover. 
drub, troop, herd, drove. 
drvf, on it, upon, 
druf -gshnabt, died, equivalent to 

the common expression of 

"slipped up," when referring 

to the death of anyone. 
druk'-ka, 1. to \ rint. 

2. dry. 

druk f -er, printer. 
druk 1 -er-ai' , printing office. 
druk' -ka-det' -ter, dandruff, dry tetter 
drum, a drum. Also a drum used 

for heating rooms on floor 

above that in which the stove 

d'rum', therefore. Contraction of 


drum-bet', trumpet. 
drum' -ma, to drum. 
drum'-sek, cross-cut saw. 
drun'-na, down, below, among. 
du, thou, you (sing.). 
du' n -a, to do, to accomplish. 
dub'-lich, spotted, marked with 

small spots. 




duch, cloth. 

du'-d'l-sak, bag-pipe. 

dud'-s'nt, dozen, the twelfth. 

duk' '-me-sich, sneaking, deceitful. 

dul' -la-ban, tulip. 

dnm, stupid, ignorent ; dumb. 

dum'-bich, close, damp, humid. 

dum' -he-da, stupid tricks, nonsense. 

dam'-kop, block head. 

dum'-'l, haste, hurry. 

dum' -la, to hasten, to hurry. 

dun, a ton. 

dunk'-er, one who dips or immerses. 

Applied to the Dunkards, a 

religious sect. 

dunk'-es, gravy, juices of meat. 
dunk'-ka, to dip, to immerse. 
dunk' 'I, dark, obscured. 
dun'-ner, thunder. 
dun'-ner-a, to thunder. 
dun' ner-wet' -ter, thunderstorm; lit., 

thunder weather. Is used as 

an oath. 

dunsht, vapor, humidity. 
dunsht'-ich, humid. 
dush'-der, dusk, twilight. 
du'-wak, tobacco. 
du'-wak-sak, tobacco pouch or bag. 

e n , a, one. 

eb', before, whether. 
eb'-bas, something, alittle,anything. 
eb'-ber, some one. 
eb'-'r, some one. 
ech'-a, oak. 

ech'has, squirrel ; lit., oak rabbit. 
ech'-'l, acorn 

ech'-'la, 1. oak ; frequently used in- 
stead of ech'a. 
2. acorns, pi. of ech'l. 
e'darn, hoarhound. 
ed'-lich-a, some, several, few. 
edt, an oath, a vow. 
e'-er, rather, sooner. 
e n 'fach, single, singlefold. 
en'-fech-ich, singly. 

e n 'feld-ic7i, silly, foolish, 

ef -ent' -lich, openly, public. 

ef f -na t to open, to develop. 

ef'-ning, an opening. 

eg, a harrow. 

e' -g'd-sin' -ich, obstinate, willful. 

e' -ga-sin> -isJi, obstinate, self-wi led. 

e'gel, disgust, dislike. 

e' gel-haft, to have dislike, or disgust. 

e'-gel hefd' -lich-kait, loathsomeness. 

e'-ghe-na, to own ; to possess. 

e'ghen-er, an owner. 

e'-gh'l-a, to nauseate. 

e f -gh'l-ich, nauseating, disagreeable. 

ek, corner. 

ek t a harrow, 

ek'-ich, cornered. 

ek' -shank, corner cupboard. 

ek'-shte n , corner-stone ; diamond 


ek' -shte n -nich, checkered. 
el, 1. oil. 

2. ale. 
e' -la, to oil. 
el'-bo-gha, elbow ; an elbow of stove 


el'-der-a, parents. 
eldt, age. 

el'-duch, oil cloth. 
e'-lendt, misery, trouble, distress. 
e'-lend-ich, 1. wretched, miserable. 

2. in poor health. 
el' -fa, eleven. 

e'-lich, oily, having an oily sur- 

el'-i-fandt, elephant. 
el'-licht, oil lamp. 
el'-shte n , oil stone. 
em, 'm, to, to the ( masc.) to him, 

with him. 

em, to one (denotes possession). 
e n '-mer, bucket, pail. 
e' -mer-Jienk, bucket handle. 
e nf -mer-ref, a bucket hoop. 
e nf -mol, once, one time. 
e-moV, once on a time, at one time. 

Hoffman. 1 


|Dec. 21, 

end'-kai-t'l, the inferior portion of 
the colon ; the large intestine 
used for pudding (sausage) 

end' -lick, finally. 

e n '-ner, one (used before, or refer- 
ring to masculine); applied to 
a man in disrespect, when the 
name is not to be men- 

en'-er-a, to alter, to change. 

ng, tight, close. 

eng' -brisk tick, asthmatic ; lit., tight- 

(ftg'-el, angel, angels. 

tng'-'l en'-er, Englishman. 

tng'-lish, English. 

cng'-lish-salls, epsom salts sulphate 
of magnesia. 

e nf -ni, one, she (fern.). 

e n '-nich, friendly, agreeable with 
another, or on good terms. 

e n '-nich-er, any one (masc.). 

e n '-m'eA-, any one (fern.). 

e nr -nich-ep'-er, any body, any one. 

e n -nich-ep-es, anything. 

en'-k'l, grand-son. 

en'-k'lin, grand-daughter. 

enk'-shter-ich, alarmed, alarming ; 
fearful, anticipating trouble. 

er, 1. ear of grain. 
2. honor, respect. 

e'-ra, to honor, to respect. 

cr'-lich, honest. 

er'-tum, legacy. 

ens, one. 

ent, duck. 

en'-ter~ic?i, drake. 

er'-tsa, to address one with "Ir." 

es, it. 

e nf -8ai-dich, one sided; of one opin- 

esh, ashes ; ash tree. 

esh'-a-mid-woch, Ash-Wednesday. 

esh'-ba, aspen. 

es'-ich, vinegaf. 

e's'l, a mule; used sometimes as a 

term of derision. 
es'-sd, 1. to eat. 

2. food, provisions. 
es'-sach'-a, eatables, food. 
es'-shank, pantry. 

es'-shtub, dining room ; lit., eating- 

e f -wa, even, level. 
e'-wa, just, whether, if, though, be- 
cause ; the true rendering is 
difficult to present, and can 
only be understood by the 

e'-wa-fil, immaterial, unconcerned. 
e-wail', meanwhile ; a short time. 
e'-war, 1. a boar. 

2. before he, whether he (from 

eb or). 

e'-wer-sich, upwards. 
e'-wich, ever, always, eternal. 
&' ~wich<kait, eternity. 
e'-wich-rot'-ser, glanders. 
fa'-b'l, fable, tale. 
fa-brik', fabric, edifice, factory. 
fa'-da, thread. 
fa'-dem, thread, fibre. 
fa'-der, father. 
fak f ~'l, a torch. 
fai'-ar, fire. 
fai'-ar-a, 1. to celebrate ; to keep 


2. to start a fire, or to "fire up.*' 
fai f -ar-bd'~na, kidney beans. 
fai'-ar-brandt, fire brand. 
fai'-ar-dak) holiday. 
fai'-ar-fo'gh'l, firefly; lit. t firebird. 
fai'-ar-hart, fire hearth. 
fai'-ar-ich, fiery. 
fai'-ar-lich, solemn. 
fai' -ar'Uch'ked, solemnity. 
faicht, moist, humid, damp. 
faig, a fig. 

fai'gha, figs ; also, though rarely, 
used in the sense of slapping 
or boxing one's ears. 




faik, a fig. 

faindt, enemy. 

faindt' -lich, hostile ; of evil, disposi- 

faindt' -shaft, enmity, hostility. 

fai'-la, to file. 

faisht'-'l-a, to "make fists," as in 

fal, 1. a trap ; a fall. 

2. a circumstance, condition. 

fal'-da, folds, creases, plaits. 

fal'-der, bars in a fence that may be 
removed for passing. 

fal'-dlr, a trap door. 

fal' -en-krank' -et, epilepsy ; lit., fall- 
ing sickness. 

fa' -li-wal' -ter, pound apple. A va- 
riety of pale green apples 
varying in size and weight 
of from ten to eighteen ounc- 
es, sometimes even exceeding 

fal'-la, to fall. 

falsh, false, deceitful ; resentful. 

falsh'-het, falsehood, anger. 

fa-mil'-li-ya, family. 

fa-mil' -yd, family. 

fa'-na, flag. 

fang '-a, to catch, to contract. 

fang'-tse 11 , tusks (cuspids). 

far, for, before, because. 

far, for ; used also as a prefix. 

fd'-ra, to haul, or drive. 

far-ach'-ta, to despise, to hate or to 

fa-rai'-sa, 1. to tear. 

2. to go abroad, or far from 

far'-ap, paint, color. 

far-ar'-yer-a, to aggravate. 

far-ar' -yer-lich, aggravating ; vexa- 

fa-ra-wel', farewell, "good-bye." 

farb, 1. color, shade. 
2. paint generic. 

far-bad' '-er-a, to confuse. 


far-bai', part, gone by. 

far-bai'-sa, to destroy by gnawing 
or chewing. 

far-bl'-ta, to forbid. 

far-bi'-gha, to bend out of normal 
form ; to distort. 

far-blen'-ar-ai f , jugglery ; to deceive 
by sleight of hand, or some 
other method. 

far-blen'-na, to blind by reflection. 

far-bUdt', blossomed ; past bloom- 
ing season. 

far-Uu-da, bloody ; covered or be- 
smeared with blood. 

far-bodt', commandment. 

far-bd'-gha, bent out of shape. 

far-brech' -a, 1. to break in pieces. 
2. to violate ; to disappoint by 
non-compliance with promise. 

far-brech-er, a criminal, law-breaker. 

far-brek'-'la, to break into small 

far-brendt', burnt. Used also to im- 
ply that the one spoken of 
has syphilis. 

far'bren'-na, 1. to burn. up. 

2. to give syphilitic contagion. 

far-bri'-a, 1. to scald. 

2. to spoil eggs during hatch- 

far-bndt', 1. scalded ; injured by 


8. Eggs that will not hatch after 
due time are said to be far- 
bndt' ; lit., over hatched. 

far-brildt', given to crying ; syn- 
onymous with the common 
expression of "cry-baby." 

far-brocht', squandered ; spent in 

f arch' -da, to fear, or to be afraid. 

farch'-der-li&h,, fearful. 

far-dai' -henk-ert, a vulgarism imply- 
ing enormously. Applied to 
persons who are incorrigible. 

fdr-dan f -ka, to have to thank for. 

129. 2C. FBINTED FEB. 18, 1889. 



[Dec. 21, 

far'-da'-ra, to dry ; to spoil by dry- 
ing too much. 
fdr-darsht, famished ; perished from 

want of water. 
far-ddr'-wa, to spoil, to ruin. 

far-dau'-a, to digest; to assimilate. 

far-dau'-ing t digestion. 

far -de' -la, to divide, to apportion. 

fdr'-dich, done, finished. 

far'-dick-a, to bring to completion ; 
to finish. 

far-di'-na, to earn. 

far-ding' -a, to serve, or to hire for 

far-dil'-ya, to eradicate, to destroy 
by rooting out. 

far-dinsht, earnings, wages, merit. 

far -dolt 1 , confoundedly. Used as 
an adjective ; equivalent, in 
expressions, to "be darned." 

far-dop' ~'lt, doubled; sometimes 
used to convey the idea of 
being confused. 

far-drai'-wa, to dispel ; to drive 
away or to scatter. 

far-drtf-a, to distort or to twist. 

far'-dre'-ta, to tread upon ; to de- 
stroy by walking upon. 

far-dri'-sa, to offend ; to vex. 

far-drls'-lich, vexatious. 

far-drus', bad feeling. 

far-droa' -sa, entertaining bad feel- 
ings toward another, hurt in 

fardt', a drive, or passage-way. 

fa-rel f , trout (Salmofontalis). 

far' em, before this ; contraction of 
far dem. 

far-en'-er-a, to alter or change. 

fa-re nl -nicJi-a, to unite ; to com- 

far-fal'-la, to tumble to pieces, to go 
to ruin. 

far-fau'-la, to rot, to become rot- 
ten. ^ 

far-fe'-la, to miss. 

far-felsJi'-a, to falsify, to counterfeit- 

to adulterate. 
far-finsli'-der-a, to obscure. 

fdr-fl'-ra, to seduce, to lead astray. 

fdr-fi'-rer, a seducer. 

far-flr'-ich, deceptive, seductive. 

fdr-fluch-a, to curse. 

fdr-fres'-8d, 1. given to eat glutton- 

2. to lose possessions through 
dissipations in eating. 

fdr-frir'-d, to become frozen. 

fdr-gaf'-fd, to be captivated by look- 

far-gang'-a, past, vanished, dissi- 

far-ge nf , to dissolve, to dissipate. 

far-gel' -shter-a, to scare, to intimi- 
date, to cause anxiety. 

far'-ge&h'l, a driving whip. 

far ! -gesh-ter, day before yester- 

far-ges'-sa, to forget ; forgotten. 

far-ge'-wa, to forgive. 

far-ge 1 '-wens, in vain, unavailing. 

far-ge'-w'l-ich, unavailing. 

far-gif-ta, to poison. 

far-glaich'-a, to compare. Used also 
as an expression to denote a 

far-glaich' -lich, comparable ; that 
which bears comparison. 

far-griicht', content, satisfied. 

far-gni'-gha, to content one's self, 
to be satisfied. 

far-gm'-ghlich, contentedly. 

far-gnl' -gMich-kait, contentment. 

far-grd'-wa, to bury. 

far-gre'-sar-a, to enlarge, to mag- 

far-gre'-ser-ings glds', magnifying 

far-guk'-ka, to overlook. 

far-gukt, overlooked; to err through 
looking too intently. 

far-gun'na, to envy. 




far-kattt', given to crying. Rather 
a better and more polite ex- 
pression than fdr-brilt'. 

far-Jiak' -ka, to chop up into small 

far-hard' -to,, to harden. 

far-has' -sa, to despise, to hate. 

far-he' -la, to secrete. 

far-Jielt-nis, relation, compact. 

far-henk' -art, an expression synon- 
ymous with devilish, darned, 

far-hin' -ar-a, to hinder, or to cause 
delay by annoyance. 

far-hl'-ta, to prevent ; to avoid. 

far-hud' -''l-a, to tangle ; to confuse. 

far -hung '-er-a, to starve. 

far-hun'-sa, to despoil, to botch. 

far'-icht, 1. fear. 

2. furrow made by a plow. 

far' -icli-da, to fear ; to be afraid. 

far'-ich-ta t to fear ; to be afraid. 

far-ka'-fa, to sell. 

far-kaf'-ta, to notch, by cutting. 

far-kar'-tsa, to shorten. 

fdr-kar'-tse-ra, to shorten. 

far -kef -f l-a, to notch, to cut notch- 
es upon an object. 

far-kel'-ta, to take, or catch, cold. 

far-kert, deranged, "mixed up." 

far-kesh' -dich-a, to furnish food. 

far-kin' -dich-a, to make known, or 
to announce. 

far-kla'-gha, to inform upon ; to 
complain ; to excuse. 

far-Men' -a-ra, to make smaller. 

far-knech' -a-ra, to ossify. 

far-knip'-pa, to knot, to secure by 
tying knots. 

far-knod'-'lt, knotted. 

far-ko-ld-bt'-ra, to confuse, to mix. 

far-kwed' -sha, to bruise by squeez- 

far-la' -fa, to stray ; to come to pass 
or to transpire. 

far-laicht', perhaps. 

far-lang'-a, to desire, to long for. 

far-le'-gha, to misplace, to mislay. 

far-le' -ghen-hait, opportunity. 

far-le' -na, to let, to rent. 

far-leng' '-ar-a, to lengthen. 

far* -le-sich, negligent. 

far' -le-sich-ked' , negligence. 

far-le' -ta, to become discontented. 

far-let' -sa, to wrong, to injure or 
spoil ; to maim. 

far'-ling, farthing. 

far-ll'-ra-, to lose. 

far-los'-sa, to leave, to desert. 

far-lushdt, loss. 

far-lush' '-der-a, to enjoy one's self. 

far-mach'-a, to bequeath. 

far-ma' -la, to grind into powder. 

far-med'-tsla, to cut fine, to massa- 

far-me'-ra, to increase ; to prosper 
by accretion. 

far-mik'-sa, to confuse by mixing. 

far-mis' -sa, to miss. 

far-mud'-lich, probably. 

fdr'-na, in front ; before. 

far' -na-dra?' , ahead, in advance. 

far' -na-drin, in the front part. 

far'-na-drvf, on the fore part ; a 
superior position. 

far'-na-har, in advance of. 

fdr'-na-hl n , to the front. 

far'-na-naus, in advance of. 

far'-na-naus-b'tsalt, prepaid ; paid 
in advance of. 

far-nem'-ma, to comprehend or un- 
derstand ; also used in some 
localities in the sense of feel- 
ing aggrieved at what one is 
saying or doing. 

far-nich' -ta, to disown, to destroy. 

far'-nis, furnace ; a heater. 

far-numft', despised, ostracised. 

far-nunft', despised. 

far-push' -a, to spoil, to make a mis- 

far-rai'-sa, to tear. 



IDec. 21, 

far'-ra-wa, to dye or to color. 

far'-ra-wer, a dyer. 

far-rek' '-Tea, to die, as cattle, to be- 
come like carrion. 

far-rik'-ka, to displace, to be able 
to budge. 

far-rikt, demented, of unsound mind. 

far-ro'-da, to betray. 

far-rop'-pa, to pull to pieces ; to 

far-run'-s'la, to wrinkle. 

fars, for it, before the ; contraction 

far-Bat 1 ' -ma, to waste time, to ne- 
glect, to miss, or to be too 

far-sau'-a, to soil, to dirty. 

far-sau'-fa, to drown. 

far-se'-a, to foresee, to provide. 

far-se' -fa, to drown ; to drown one's 

far-se'-gha, to spoil by sawing ; to 
saw into pieces. 

far-se n '-na, 1. to oversee, to admin- 
ister, to provide beforehand. 
2. to mistake, to err. 

far-seng'-a, to singe or scorch. 

far-senk'-ka, to singe, to scorch. 

far-set' -sa, to dislocate ; to change 
by misplacing. 

far-Bhaf -fa, to work up, to con- 
sume material in work. 

far-sTibar' -ra, to save for future use, 
to reserve for emergency. 

far-shin' -na, to skin, to abrade the 

far-sM'-sa, to shoot away, or con- 
sume by shooting away all. 

far-shit'-ta, to spill. 

far-shla' -gha t 1. to knock to pieces. 
2. one given to kicking. 

far-sTilap' -pa, to spill ; to make a 
mess of an undertaking. 

far-Bhle' -fa, to drag away, or to 
scatter Jby carrying away. 

far-shlo'-fa, to oversleep. 

f'ir-sJilup' -pa, to secrete, to hide. 

far-shmai' -sa, to destroy by throw- 

far-sTimak' -ka, to taste. 

far-shmel'-sa, to melt, or dissolve. 

far-sJimir 1 -ra, to besmear, to soil. 

far-shmo' -ka, to darken by smoking. 

far-shnai' -da, to cut up, to cut to 

far-shpre' -a, to spread out, to scat- 

far-shprech'-a, 1. to promise, to be- 
2. an agreement or promise. 

far-shpreng'-a, to cause to burst. 

far-shpring' -a, to cause to burst. 

far-shproch' '-a, promised, betrothed. 

far-shrai' -wa, to convey by writing, 

fdr'sht, a verse, or stanza. 

farsh'-ta, heel. 

far-shtand f , understanding, sense. 

far-shte nf , to understand, to com- 

far-shte n 'ner-a, to petrify. 

far-zhtech' -a, to pierce, by repeat- 
edly thrusting the instru- 

far-shtek'-'l a, to hide, to secrete. 

far-sJitel' -la, to change, to simulate ? 
or to conduct one's self. 

far-sJiten' -nich, intelligent, intelligi- 

far-shtend'-nis, understanding, 

far-shter' -ra, to disturb. 

far-sJitik' -ka, to suffocate. 

far-shtim'-'l-a, to spoil. 

far-shto' -la, one given to pilfering ; 

far-shtop'-pa, 1. to plug or stop a 

2. constipated, clogged. 

far-shtop-ping, constipation. 

far-shtopt, constipated, clogged. 

far-shto'-sa, to disown, to reject. 

far-shtru'-w'l-a, to dishevel. 

183S. | 



far-shwai' -gha, to keep to one's self, 

to be retiring. 

far-shwel'-la, to swell to excess. 
far-sliwer'-ra, to vow. 
far-ghwn 1 -na, to disappear. 
far-sick' -er-a, to secure, to insure, 

or to give indemnity. 
far-sich'-er-ing, \ security, insu- 
far-sich'-er-ung, j ranee. 
far-sin' -dich-a, to burden one's self 

by sinning. 

far-sink' -ka, to sink out of sight. 
far-8of'-ner, a drunkard, a sot. 
far -such' -a, to taste ; to tempt. 
fart, off, away. 

fart' -dau-ra, to continue, to last. 
far't'l, a fourth ; a quarter of a 


far-tse'-la, to relate, to narrate. 
far-trau'-a, to confide, to trust. 
ffir-tsai' -a, to forgive. 
far'-tse, fourteen. 
far-tsa 1 -gha, to despair. 
far-tsar'-na, to anger, or cause to 

be vexed or angry. 
far-tse'-gha, to wait, to tarry. 
far-tse'-la, to relate, to narrate. 
far-tse'-lung, a narration, a tale. 
far-ur'-sach-a, to cause. 
far-wai'-la, to amuse one's self, to 

far-wa'-ra, to guard or protect ; to 

cherish with care. 
far-war' -ka, to forfeit. 
far-wart', delirious, confused. 
far-war'-ya, to strangle or to 


far was', why, wherefore. 
far-weks'-la, to change, or mistake 

for one another ; to confuse. 
far-wel'-ka, to wither, or shrivel. 
far-we a '-na, to cause children to be- 
come spoiled by indulgence ; 

to spoil. 
far-we'-ra, to prevent or to hinder, 

to prohibit ; to protect. 

far-we'-sa, to moulder, or become 

far-wes'-lich, that which is liable to 

moulder, or spoil. 
far'-wich, colored, varied in color. 
far-wik-'la, to tangle, to confuse. 
far-wun'-da, to wound, to maim. 
far-wun' -ner-a, to be astonished, or 

to wonder. 
far-ya'-gha, to chase away, or to 

scatter, as game. 
fas, cask, barrel. 
fas'-sa, 1. to measure into bags. 
2. to hive bees ; to put bees into 


fa'-sa-nacht, Shrove Tuesday. 
fasht, fast, secure. 
fasht' -a-tsait, Lent ; lit., time of 


fas'-nacht, Shrove Tuesday. 
fas' -nacht-kuch-a, doughnuts. Cakes 

eaten on Shrove Tuesday. 
fa'-ter, father. 
faul, lazy ; decayed, rotten. 
fan' -la, 1. to rot, to decay. 

2. to idle, to loaf. 

faul' -halts' , diphtheria ; sore throat. 
faul'-hed, laziness, idleness ; decay. 
fau'-len-tsar, sluggard, idler, loafer. 
fausht, fist. 
fech'-ta, to fight. 
fed, fat, grease. 
fed'-ar-be n , fore leg. 
fed'-ar-Jis, fore feet. 
fed'-ar-kshar, harness of leader of a 


fed'-arsht, first, foremost. 
fed' -ar-shunk' -ka, shoulder of ba- 
con ; lit., fore ham. 
fed'-er, feather, quill. 
fed'-tich, fatty, greasy. 
fed'-t'r-dek, feather bed. 
fed'-t'r-fas-ing, bed-tick. 
fed'-fr-fi', poultry. 
fed'-t'r-kai'-t'l, quill; quill fit for 

making a pen. 



[Dec. 21, 

fed'-t'r-mes'-er, pen-knife. 

fed'-tsa, shreds, fibres. 

fe'-gh'l-misht, guano. 

fe'-ich, capable, suitable. 

fel, skin, pelt. 

fel, for sale ; that which may be 

fe'-la, to fail or disappoint. 

feld'-mcs-ser, surveyor. 

feldt'-bred-ich-ar, chaplain ; lit., 
field preacher. 

fe'-ler, fault, error. 

fel'-grif, to miss, an error. 

fel'-lich, fully, ample. 

fel'-sa, rock, rocks. 

fel'-sich, rocky. 

fel'-ya, felloe of a wheel. 

fel'-yor, a year of scarcity. 

fen'-du, vendue, public sale. 

fen'-du-krai'-yer, crier or auctioneer 
at a sale. 

fen'-ich-l, fennel seed, fennel plant. 

fens, fence. 

fen'-sa-maus, chipmunk ; lit., fence- 

fensh'-der, window. 

fensh'.ter, window. 

fensh'-ter-ram, window sash. 

fensh'-ter-ra'-ma, window sash. 

fensh'-ter-sits, window sill. 

fensh' -ter-shaib, window pane. 

fer, far, f'r, for ; used as a prefix. 

fesht, 1. secure, tight, fast. 
2. a festival, jubilee. 

fes'l, a small cask or keg ; diminu- 
tive of fas. 

fet, fat, grease. 

fet'-ar-be n -nich, feather legged. 

fet'-er, feather, quill. 

fet' -kick' -'l-chiar, doughnuts ; lit., 
fat cakes, i. e., cakes baked 
in melted lard. 

/, cattle. 

fi'-d'l-bo'-gha, violin bow. 

fi'-d'r-a, to feed, to nourish. 

fiks, a fix, a qtfandary. 

fik'-sa, to fix, to arrange. 

fll, much, many. 

Jil, colt. 

fl'-la, 1. to feel. 

2. sometimes used for fll many. 

fil'-la, 1. to fill. 

2. sometimes used when speak- 
ing of a mare giving birth to 
a colt. 

fll'-ar-a t various, numerous ones. 

fils'-ich, filthy, dirty. 

fil'-s'l, dressing taken from roast 
fowl, or breast of veal. 

fils'-laus, crab-louse, body louse. 

finf, fin'-fa, five. 

finf'-Uch-er Alo'-se, Pentateuch ; lit. t 
five books of Moses. 

finf'-fing'-er-kraut, cincquefoil. 

finft, fifth. 

fing'ar, finger. 

fing'-ar-a, to finger ; to handle, or 
to meddle with. 

fing'-ar-hut, thimble ; lit., finger- 

Jing'-ar-ling, finger stall. 

fing'-ar-ring, finger ring. 

fing'-'l-a, to sparkle, to glimmer. 

Jin-l'-ra, to veneer. 

fin'-na, to find or discover. 

fin'-ner, finder. 

finsh'der, 1. window. 
2. eclipse, opaque. 

fins7i,'-der-nis, eclipse. 

fip, a small silver coin of the value 
of 6 cents, known as fib'en- 

fir, four. 

fl'-ra, 1. four. 
2. to lead. 

flr'-ek-ich, four cornered, square. 

fir' feld-ich, fourfold. 

firt, fourth. 

fish, fish. 

fish'-arai', fishery. 

fish'-briJtd, spawn. 

fish'-garn, fish net. 




fisJi' -ham' -mer, a net used for fish- 
ing ; constructed by having 
an upright handle attached 
to a hoop, or half hoop fast- 
ened to a straight bottom, 
piece, to hold open the bag- 
shaped net. This is held near 
deep holes or rocks while an 
assistant with a long pole 
starts up the fish. 

fixh'-o-ra, gills ; lit., fish ears. 

fish'-rai'-yer, kingfisher, applied also 
to cranes, herons, etc. 

fl8h'-shpe n , whalebone; lit., fish 
chips, or shavings. 

flach, flat. 

flaicht, perhaps ; contraction offar- 

flats, industry, thrift. 

flai'-sicJi, industrious. 

flak'-er-ich, flickering, varying. 

flak'-ka-ra, to flicker, to flare. 

flake, flax. 

flam, flame. 

fla-nel', flannel. 

flang-gl'-ra, to flounder, to rove. 

flash, flask. 

fle, flea. 

flech'-ta, to plait. 

fled' -ter-wish, feather duster. 

fled'-t'r-maus, butterfly. 

fle'gh'l, a flail, used in threshing. 

fle'-gh'la, to thresh with a flail. 

fle'-gh'l-haft, scurrilous, impertinent. 

fle' grant, smart- weed. 

flek, a speck, or spot. 

flek'-ich, spotted. 

fleks, tendon, sinew. 

flesh, flesh, meat. 

fli'-gha, to fly. 

fli'-gh'l, wing, wings ; a vane. 

flik, full fledged. 

flik'-ka, to mend, to patch. 

flindt, a gun. 

flind' -ta-kol-wa, gun-stock. 

flind'-ta-laf, gun barrel. 

flind' -ta slie.ft, gun stock. 

flink, quick, active. 

flis'-sich, eruptive, or liable to cuta- 
neous eruptions. 

flitsJi'-a, to slip off. 

flitsh f -er, a quick slap, or crack of 
a whip. 

flo, flea. 

flok, flake, also used in some por- 
tions to designate a flock (of 

flor, floor. 

fluch, a curse. 

fluch'-a, to swear, to use profane 

flucht, flight. 

flus, rheumatism. 

flits 1 '-fed'-ter-a, fins. 

flus'-ka-rel'-la, amber beads, em- 
ployed by hanging to^chil- 
dren's necks to remove erup- 
tive affections, etc. 

flus'-sich, scrofulous, eruptive; liable 
to affections resulting from 
impoverished blood or hered- 
itary affections of the skin. 

fod'-'r-a, to ask for, to demand. 

fo'-gh'l, bird. 

fol, full. 

folk, people, nation. 

folk'-sagha, folk-lore ; lit., folk say- 

fol'-kum'-ma, mature, perfect. 

fol'-licht, full moon ; lit., full light. 

fol'-mant, full moon. 

fol' -shten-dich, complete. 

fol'-ya, 1. to obey, or to comply 

2. consequences, results. 

for, before, in front. 

for'-dref-Uch, excellent. 

for'-el'-ta-ra, ancestors ; lit, fore 

for'-fet'-ar, ancestors ; lit., fore 

for'-geng-ar, ancestors. 



[Dec. 21, 

for'-har, previously, hitherto. 

for'-hald'-ta, to upbraid, to reite- 

for'-icht, fear, dread. 

for'-le'-sa, to read in advance. The 
pastor formerly read each line 
of a verse or stanza, when 
the congregation sang it, pro- 
ceeding thus through the 
whole hymn. Originated on 
account of scarcity of books 
in those times. 

fdr'-U-sicli-kait', negligence. 

for'-na-ma, given name ; pro no- 

for' -nem-ma, to undertake, to ven- 
ture, to purpose. 

for'-nemmes, an undertaking, a 

for'-nemsht, the best, superior. 

for'-se-na, to foresee, to anticipate 
or to provide beforehand. 

for 1 '-shmai 1 -sa, to accuse. 

fdr'-shte-ar, deacon in a church. 

for' -sicht' -lich, cautious, circum- 

for'-shtel-ling, foreboding. 

for'-shus, overshoot. 

for' -tsl-gha, to prefer, to choose in 
preference to another. 

for'-tsugh, preference, choice. 

for'-tsuk, preference, choice. 

for' -wit-sich, forward, indiscreet. 

f'r, contraction of fer, far, and/ar, 

fra, wife, woman. 

frai', free. 

frai' -a-rai' , courtship. 

frai'-ge-wa, to set free ; to give lib- 
erty or freedom. 

frai 1 '-ge-wich, liberal, charitable. 

frai'-hed, liberty, freedom. 

frai'-lo*-sa, to liberate ; lit., to let 

fraind, friend. 

fraind' -lich, friendly. 

fraind' -shaft, 1. friendship, acquain- 
2. relationship, kinship. 

fraindt, friend. 

f rain' -shaft, 1. friendship. 
2. relationship, kinship. 

frai'-wil-ich, voluntarily. 

frak-tu'-ra, 1. Gothic figures, or 


2. to write in old German or 
Gothic characters. 

fram, pious, sanctified. 

fran'-s'l, fringe ; tatter. 

fran'-s'l-a, 1. to fringe, to tear in 

2. pi of fran'-s'l. 

frans'-Uch, fringed. 

fran-sos', syphilis- venereal disease; 
lit., Frenchman. 

frais'-ich, foppish and impertinent. 

fre'-a, to rejoice, to be glad. 

frech, impertinent, saucy. 

fre'-lich, 1. happy, joyful. 
2. certainly, assuredly. 

fre'-ling, spring. 

frem, strange. 

fres f -sa, to eat gluttonously ; to de- 
vour or bolt food. 

fri, early. 

fn'-ab-'l, early apple ; i. e., harvest 

fri'-da, peace. 

fri'- dens-rich' -dar, justice of the 

frid'-lich, peaceable, amicable. 

fri'-ra, to freeze, to be cold. 

frish, fresh. 

fris'-s'l, a fine rash, such as first 
appears in scarlatina, meas- 
els, etc. 

frV-yor, spring. 

fro, glad, pleased. 

frog, a question, an inquiry. 

fro'-gha, to ask, to inquire. 

frok, a query, question. 

frosh, frog ; tree frog. 



f rots' -hans, a conceited braggart, a 

frots'-ich, pompous, foppish, imper- 

frucht, grain, cereals. 

frucht'-bar, fruitful. 

frucht'-kam-mer, granary. 

frucht'-kran, beard, of ear of grain. 

frucht 1 '-plan-sa, cereals. 

fu'der, feed, fodder. 

fuf'-tse, fifteen. 

fuf'-tset, fifteenth. 

fuf'-tsich, fifty. 

faks, fox ; sorrel color (as of horse). 

fuks'-gaul, sorrel horse. 

fum, from, from the ; contraction 
of fun dem. 

fum' -Via, to fumble, to feel for a 
thing in an awkward man- 

fan, of, from. 

funk'-ka, spark. 

funk'-'l-a, to sparkle, to scintillate. 

fun'-'m, from him, from it ; from 
fun Im, and/w/i em. 

fun'-nd-rd, from her; contraction of 
fun Ira. 

fur, a team. 

fur'-ge-shel, horse whip, used by 

fur f -man, teamster. 

fus, foot. 

fus f -8ar, fuzz, delicate fibres as of 
lint or cotton. 

fus'-sar-a, to fuzz, or become fuzzy. 

fas'-ar-ich, fuzzy. 

fus'-geng-er, pedestrian. 

9, g', gd, ga>, ge, employed as a pre- 
fix to denote past tense. 
gab, gift, donation. 
ga-bai 1 , building. 
gd-belk f , beams. 
gd-bed', prayer ; toasted. 
ga-bet', prayer. 
ga bikt 1 , stooped, bowed. 


ga-bis', bit, teeth as a set. 

ga-bllt', blood, circulation of blood ; 

ga-bod', bid, offer. 

ga-bo'-ra, born. 

ga-bort', birth. 

ga-borts' dak, birth-day. 

ga braich' -lich, customary. 

ga-brauch', custom, habit. 

ga-brauch'-lich, customary. 

ga-broch'-a, broken ; ruptured her- 

ga-brocht', brought. 

ga-bro'-fa-tsait', predicted, foretold, 

ga-bund, bundle as of straw. 

ga-bun f -na, bound, tied ; also used 
to signify apprenticed. 

ga-dank'-ka, thoughts, impressions. 

ga-dart', dried. 

ga-decht'-nis, memory, mind. 

ga-dicht', poem. 

ga-dir', an animal. 

ga drai', true, faithful. 

ga drenk', beverage, drink of any 

ga-dshumpt, jumped. 

gd-du nr , done ; past tense of tse du n 
to do. 

ga-duldt, patience. 

ga-duld' -tich, patient ; docile. 

gaf'-fa, to stare, to look idly, to 
gape at. 

ga-grish, loud noise of voices, yell- 
ing ; great ado in talking. 

ga-hor'-sam, obedient. 

gai'-ar, turkey buzzard. 

gai'-gJier, a fiddler. 

gaik, violin. 

gail, horses ; pi. of gaul. 

g ails' -dok-ter, farrier. 

gails'-kesJit, horse chestnut. 

gaisht, ghost, spirit, apparition. 

gaits, avarice. 

g aits' -hals, miser. 

gails'-ich, miserly, stingy. 

gak'-'l, egg. 

129. 3D. PRINTED FEB. 18, 1889. 



[Dec. 21, 

gd-krai'-der, 1. herbs and plants 
used in domestic cooking and 

2. mystical manoeuvres, hocus 

gd-krai'.der-sup, vegetable soup. 

gak'-sa, to cackle like a hen. 

gal', 1. bile. 
2. gallon. 

gal'-ar-ich, soused pig's feet. 

gd-ldrndt f , learned, educated. 

gd-le'-gha-hedt, opportunity, occa- 
sion, chance. 

ga U f ~gh'n-het, opportunity, chance. 

gdlind, mild, smooth, gentle. 

ga ling, lungs, liver and heart of 
slaughtered animal. 

ga-ler'-sam ked, learning, erudi- 

gd-Ubt', loved, beloved. 

gal-lun', gallon. 

gal'-ri-wa, ruta baga variety of tur- 

gal'-ya, gallows. 

gam'-ber, camphor. 

gd~me nf , congregation. 

gd-me n> -sheft-Uch, in common, per- 
taining to the union of the 
whole number of persons. 

ga-mis 1 , vegetables ; usually applied 
as served on the table. 

ga-mist', had to, obliged, compelled. 

gdm'-la, to gamble, to play for 

gd-mech f , a construction, make-up ; 
applied also to the genital 

gd-ma nf -na, to remind. 

gd-nau' t exact, precise. 

gang, hall or entrance, passage 

gang f -a, gone, went ; passed. 

gans, 1. goose. 

2. entirely, entire, whole. 

gan'-sard, gander. 

ga-nunk 1 , enoifgh, sufficient. 

gar. 1. quite. 

2. sufficiently cooked, or com- 

gdr'-d-wa, 1. to tan. 
2. to thrash. 

gdr'-d-wer, tanner. 

gar' -da, garden. 

gar-din', guardian. 

gdr'-d'l-dr, gardener (rare). 

gdr'-d'n-dr, gardener. 

gar-du nf , calico. 

ga-recht', just, justice ; equitable. 

gd-rech'-tic/i-ked, justice ; satisfac- 

gar'-i-gh'l, windpipe, trachea, po- 
mum adami. 

gar'-i-ghla, to gargle. 

gd-ring 1 , slight, trifling ; sometimes 
used to signify exact, careful. 

ga-ringsht', slightest, least. 

ga-rishl, prepared ; scaffolding. 

ga-risTit' -hols, a put-log, 

gar'-ken-ni, none, none at all. 

gar' -kens, none at all. 

gdrn, 1. yarn. 
2. a net. 

gdrn, willingly, gladly. 

gar'-net, not at all. 

gdrsh'-ta, barley. 

gdr'-t'l-a, to garden, or cultivate a 

gdr'-tshel, cordial. 

gd-ruch', smell, odor. 

gdr'-wer, tanner. 

gdr'-wer-ai', tannery. 

gdr'-wer-grub, tanner's vat, for 
soaking hides in tan, or lime. 

gaul, horse. 

gaund, dress, frock. 

gaunsh, a swing. 

gaun'-sha, to swing. 

gd'-wa, alms. 

ga'-wel, fork, bifurcation. 

ga'-wel-tsink'-ka, prong of a fork. 

ga-we'-na, to accustom, or habit- 




ga-icis'-sa, 1. conscience. 

2. certain, specified. 

3. shown ; past tense of t*e 

ga~wer', firearm, gun. 

g a -yam' -mar, moaning, lamenta- 

ge, go, to go. 

ge*, to go. 

ge'-a, go, to go ; this form is of sel- 
dom occurrence. 

ge-Uatshd', sounded in imitation of 
splashing, or slapping. 

ge-bleeht 1 ', bleached, whitened. 

ge-drai', obedient, faithful. 

ge-denk'ka, to remember, to recall. 

ge-dim'-m'Td, thundered. 

ge-dish'-d'l-ird', distilled. 

ge'-ghend, region, locality, neigh- 

gel, yellow. 

gel, is it not so ? 

geld, 1. money. 
2. is it not ? 

geld'-sak, purse ; lit., money bag. 

ge-leg', layer, or layers. 

gel'-la, is it not so ? 

gel'-rlp, carrot ; lit., yellow turnip. 

gel'-shpecht, flicker or yellow ham- 
mer ( Golaptes auratus). 

geV-sucht, jaundice. 

gel'-weshp, yellow jacket (insect). 

gens'-blum, daisy. 

ge'-ra, to ferment. 

ge-run'-na, 1. curdled, coagulated. 
2. leaked. 

ges, goat, goats. 

gesh'-der, yesterday. 

gesJi'-el, a whip. 

ge-tso 1 '-(jha, removed ; pulled. 

ge'-wa, to give, to donate. 

ge-wid'-der, lightning. 

ge-wid'-d'r-rut, lightning rod. 

gfal'-la, 1. fell. 

2. to be pleased with. 

gfecht, fight, fighting, battle. 

gfel' -ich-kait, satisfaction, favor. 

gfel' -ich-ked, satisfaction, favor. 

gfelkdt, fallowed. 

gfer'-lich, dangerous. 

gfll, feeling, sympathy. 

gfloch'-ta, plaited. 

gfor, danger, peril, risk. 

gfro'-ra, 1. frozen. 

2. to have been cold. 

gfuld, fooled, imposed upon. 

gfun'-na, found, discovered. 

g'gos'-sa, 1. cast in a mould. 
2. poured, from a sprinkler. 

g'hes, command, order; a saying. 

gich'-ter-ra, convulsions. 

gicht'-ros, peony. 

gift, poison. 

gift' -shwam, toadstool agaric. 

gik'-sa, 1 . to stick or stab, to nudge 

into one's ribs. 
2. to snicker, to giggle. 

gil'-ler-l, killder plover. 

gin'-ni-hink-'l, guinea fowl. 

gip'-p'l, spire, apex, on the summit. 

gips, gypsum, plaster of Paris. 

gi'-sa, 1. to sprinkle with a sprink- 
ling pot. 
2. to cast, in moulds. 

gis'-kan, watering pot. 

gi'-w'l, gable. 

ge'-w'l-end, gable end. 

gi'-w'l-end, gable end. 

glab'-bort, clapboard, pailing. 

glaf, key of piano or organ. 

glaf'-flr, piano forte. 

gla'-gha, to complain, to enter com- 

glai, soon. 

glai'-a, bran. 

glaich, equal. 

glaic7i'-a, to like, to admire. 

glaich' -ge-wicht, balance, scales; lit., 
equal weight. 

glak, complaint. 

glaich 1 '-nis, parable ; comparison, 



[Dec. 21, 

glans, lustre, reflection. 

gla'-wa, to believe, belief. 

glas, glass. 

glat, smooth. 

gle n , small, little. 

gle'-'d, clover. 

gle'-da, to clothe. 

gledt, article of clothing, garment. 

glem'-ma, to pinch, to jamb. 

gleP'-ni-shlang'-a war'-ttfl, "small 
snake-root," Virginia snake- 
root (Serpentaria Virginia- 

glensht, smallest. 

glen' -sa, to shine. 

gles, rut, wheel track. 

gle-sur', glazing, gloss. 

glet'-ta, burdock. 

gll'-dich, red hot. 

glidt, a member part of body ; 
member of an association. 

glik'-ers, marbles ; testicles. 

glitsh-ich, slippery, icy. 

glit'-s'r-a, to glitter. 

glit'-s'r-ich, glittering, shiny. 

glo'-a, claws ; a staple. 

glo' a-fet, neats'-foot oil. 

glo'-a-fus, cloven foot. 

glof'-der, a cord of wood. 

glok, bell. 

glok'-ka-blum, columbine. 

gluk, a hen. 

gluk'-ka, to cluck like a hen. 

glump'-a, a lump, a heap. 

g'mad, 1. swath. 

2. measure or part, equal to a 
portion, as one being able to 
contend with or doing as 
well as the others. 

gnad, grace. 

gna'-da, grace, piety. 

gnar'-ra, 1. to growl. 

2. projection on the trunk of a 
tree, a spur or burr. 

gnar'-ish, apt or prone to growl. 

gnarsh'-a, to gnash as the teeth. 

gnar'-shich, gnarled, or knotty. 

gnech'-'l, small bone ; digital joints. 

gned'-lich, gracious. 

gnetsh'-ich, cartilaginous ; " gris- 

gnik, vertebral joint of the neck ; 
applied to the back of the 

gnoc7i'-a, bone, bones. 

gnoch f -a-yar'-i-gh'l, skeleton. 

gnoch'-ich, bony ; lean. 

gnop, 1. button. 
2. a knot. 

gnop'-Jiolts, buttonwood tree, syca- 

gnop'-locJi, button hole. 

g'num'-ma, taken, required. 

godt, godmother. 

gold, gold. 

gold'-am'-shel, Baltimore oriole ; lit., 
gold robin. 

gol'-den-dur, golden tincture. 

golt, gold. 

Got, God. 

go-w\-nlr' , governor. 

grab, grave. 

grad, straight, exact, right, now ; 
grad a-wek', right away, im- 

gram'-bl-ra, cranberries. 

gran, 1. crown. 

2. barb, of the ear of grain. 

3. fishbone, of thin sharp form 
as the ribs. 

gra nf -na, stop-cock ; spigot. 
gra'-w'l-a, to crawl ; to grovel. 
gre'-ak, corn on the foot. 
grish-dir', a syringe. 
grish-dir'-ing, an injection. 
grish-dir 1 '-ra, to give an enema with 

a syringe. 
grob, coarse, rude. 
g'roch'-a, smelled, scented. 
grot, toad ( bufo). 
grot'-ta-bal-sem, pennyroyal ; lit., 

toad balsam. 




grub, a hole or pit. 

grub'-hak, a pick-axe. 

grub' -pa, to grub, or dig with a 

pick, or hoe. 
grum', crooked. 
grum'-bdr, potato. 
grum'-bir, potato. 
grum' -buk-lich, hunch-backed ; 

grum'-la, to grumble, to growl. 
grum'-lich, given to grumbling, or 

to growling. 
grund'-nis, peanut. 
grund'-sau, ground hog. 
grusht, crust. 
grm'-l-blr, gooseberry. 
grus'-lich, gristly. 
gsang, a song ; singing. 
gsat, told, said. 

gsel'-shaft, association, society. 
gshar, 1. harness. 

2. implements or tools. 

3. crockery, dishes. 
gsJibas, sport, fun, amusement. 
gshait, intelligent, smart. 
gshe'-da, divorced. 

gsheft, work, occupation, busi- 

gshenk, gift, present. 

gshicht, tale, narrative, story. 

gshikt, 1. expert, clever. 

2. sent past tense of tse' shik'- 
ka, to send. 

gshlecht, family or branch of family, 
clan, gens ; generation. 

gshmak, taste. 

gshprech, conversation. 

gshproch, language, speech ; an ax- 
iom, saying. 

gshtalt, a frame ; a wooden struc- 

gshte'-a, to acknowledge, to own 
up to. 

g&fiolt'-a, scolded ; a thing to be 
avoided on account of its be- 
ing badly spoken of. . 

gshtopV -a-fol' , filled to the utmost ; 
stuffed to the limit of capa- 

gsJiwd'-ra, a boil ; boils. 

gshwind, quick, fast, hurry. 

gthwindt, quick, in haste, hurry. 

gshwish' -da-ra, children of the same 
mother, brothers and sisters. 

gshwish' -der-kin'-ner, cousins. 

gsicht, face. 

gsof'-fa, drunk, intoxicated. 

gsundt, well, healthy. 

gsund'-het, health. 

g'tsif'-fer, 1. markings made with a 

pen or pencil ; calculations. 
2. insects ; small animal life in 

g'-tso'-gha, moved, pulled. 

g'-tswil'-ichd, twilled. 

guk, look, a look, a view. 

guk'-gum'-mer, a cucumber. 

guk'-ka, to look, to see, to behold. 

guk'-uk, a cuckoo. 

gum' -a, 1. gum tree. 

2. to gum, to paste with mucil- 

3. the gums. 
gum'-mer, a cucumber. 
gus, a casting. 

gut, good. 

gut 1 -rich-ich, fragrant. 

g'-walt, strength, power. 

g'-walt'-ich, powerful. 

g'warb', joint. 

g' -warts, spices ; garden plants used 

in cooking. 

g'-weks f , tumor, growth. 
g'-welb r , arch ; roof of a vault. 
g* -wen' -Itch, usually, ordinarily. 
g'-wicJit', Weight. 
g'-win', 1. gain. 

2. thread of a screw. 
g'-wis 1 , certainly, assuredly. 
g'-wis'-sa, 1. conscience. 

2. shown ; past tense of tse 

wai'-sa, to show. 



[Dec. 21, 

g'-wit'-'r, thunder, thunder-storm, 


g' -wit' -r -rut, lightning rod. 
g'wolt, wanted, desired, wished. 
g'wun'-ner'd, wondered. 

hddr, here, hither. 

hdd'-ra, to hear. 

hddrdt, a herd, flock, drove. 

hdbt, chief, principal. 

Jidbt' -sum' , principal at interest. 

haf'-fa, an earthen pot, or jar. 

haft, 1. rivet, clasp. 

2. eye, for hooking on dresses 

hook and eye. 
7iai, hay. 

haich'-la, to simulate. 
haich'-lar, hypocrite. 
hatch' -lar-ai, hypociisy. 
7iai'-da, heathen. 
hai'-et, haying season. 
haif'-ich, numerous, in quantity, 

haif '-la, to heap up, to gather into 

a heap. 

haifts, heaves. 
hai'-la, to cry, to weep. 
hai'-land, Saviour. 
hai'-lich, holy, sacred. 
hail'-mit'l, remedy. 
hai'-ar-dt, wedding. 
hai'-ar-a, to marry. 
hair'-ra, to marry. 
hai'r'-ich, desirous of marriage. 
hdi'-ref, hay rick. 
hdi 1 -shrek -er, grasshopper. 
hais' -licit, domestic. 
hait, to-day. 
hait'-se-ddgs, at the present time; 

hak, hoe. 
hak'-ka, 1. to chop, or to cut. 

2. to whip. 
hak 1 -' I, a hackle. 
hak'-l-a, to hackle (as flax). 

hak'-mes-ser, cleaver; lit., chop 

halb, half. 

7ialb'-lai-na, half linen linsey- 

halb'-nacJit, midnight; lit., half 

halb'-shti'-w'l, " half boots," gait- 

halb'-shtreng, chains forming the 
end of traces. 

halb'-yer'-ish, half - yearly ; six 
months old. 

hal'-da, to hold, to retain. 

haldt, halt, stop. 

half-tar, halter. 

half'-tar-rV-ma, halter strap. 

halm, a stalk of grass or grain, a 

hals, neck, throat. 

Jials'-aus-Ue-rung, laryngitis ; ap- 
plied also to bronchitis. 

hals'-band, collar, neck band. 

hals'-duch, muffler, neckerchief. 

lials'-gnik, neck joint. 

hals-'-grd-gha, cravat. 

hals' -we, sore -throat. 

hal'-ta, to hold, to retain, to secure. 

hal'-unk, a rascal. 

hal'-wer. half. 

hal'-w'r-gaul, dock ; lit., half-horse. 

ham' -el, a calf ; a lubberly fellow. 

ham'-mar, hammer. 

ham'-mar-shlak, scales of iron, re- 
sulting from forging or ham- 
mering ; dross. 

hd'-na, rooster. 

hand, hand. 

hand'-duch, towel; lit., hand cloth. 

han'd'l, trade, commerce, exchange. 

hand'-lang-er, assistant ; tender, 

hod -carrier. 

7iand'-ri-g7i'l, handrail, bannisters. 
hand' -war -ik, trade, occupation. 
hand'-war-iks-g'shar, tools, imple- 




hand'-wdr-iks-lait, laborers, work- 

hand'-war-iks-man, mechanic. 

hand'-wdrk, trade, occupation. 

Tianft, hemp. 

hang, 1. a bracket for dishes or food. 
2. slope, declivity. 

Jians, " Jack," foolish fellow. 

hans'-warsht, a clown. 

hdr, Lord, Mr. 

hd'-ra, to hear ; to obey. 

Jid'-ra-fo'-gh'l, jay-bird. 

Jia'-ra-sa-gha, hearsay. 

hdrbsht, autumn ; fall of the year. 

hard, hard. 

hdr'-da, to harden. 

hdrd'-gras, herd grass ; pasture. 

har'-dich, hurry, quick. 

hard'-lai-wich, constipated. 

harf, harp. 

liar'-ich-a, to hear, to listen. 

har'-kum-ma, origin, source from 
which, to come from. 

hdr'~lich, lordly, happy, jubilant. 

horn, horn. 

ham, brain. 

hain'-e-sel, hornet. 

harn'-ich, horny. 

harn'-ing, February. 

hdrn'-shal, skull. 

7iarn'-she-d'l, upper portion of crani- 

harsh, deer. 

harsh' -arn-gaisht, ammonia. 

harsh' -flesh, venison. 

harsh' -gr as, millet. 

hdr'-shtam'-ma, to descend from, 

harts, heart ; courage. 

hart, hard. 

harts, gum, as an exudation on 

harts' -af-tich, courageous. 

harts' f el, pericardium. 

harts'-ich, resinous, gummy 

hdrts'-ich, hearty, dear. 

harts' -klop' -pa, palpitation of the 

harts' -sJito-sa, palpitation of the 

harts* -war-t&el, tap root. 

has, hare, rabbit. 

has, hatred, dislike. 

hd'-sa-gU'-a, sorrel ; lit., rabbit 

hash'- bid' -el, hospital. 

hash' pel, 1. a reel. 
2. a silly fellow. 

has'-l-hek'-ka, hazel brush. 

has'-'l-nus, hazelnut. 

has'-l'r, hostler. 

hax'-sa, to hate, to dislike. 

has'-wip, cow-hide, whip. 

haubt 1 '-shtik, chief portion. 

hauch, breath. 

hauch'-a, to breathe ; to expel 
breath through the open 

hau'-fa, heap. 

hauns, hound. 

haunt, hound. 

haus, 1. house. 
2. outside, out. 

haus'-rodt, furniture. 

haus'-gshtai'-er, necessary furni- 
ture, etc., for housekeeping. 

haut, skin, pelt. 

ha'-wa, have ; tse ha'-wa, to have. 

ha' -was-wdrt, worth having. 

ha'-wer, oats. 

ha'-w'r, oats. 

ha'-w'r-ges, katydid. 

he, height. 

heb'-gdrn, dip net. 

hech'-er, higher. 

hechsht, highest. 

hecht, pike a fish. 

hecht' -grant, pickerel-weed. 

hech'-tsa, to pant. 

hef'-ner, potter. 

heft'-ich, with strength, powerful, 

hek'-'l-cha, crochet needle. 



[Dec. 21, 

hek'-ka, brambles, briars ; dry 
branches or shrubs. 

Jiek'-l-a, to crochet. 

Jieks, witch, sorceress. 

7iek' '-sa-gla-wa, belief in witches ; 

hek' -sa-gla-wish, superstitious. 

hek' -sa-kim' -m' I, Stramonium, jim- 
son weed. 

hek'-sar-ai, sorcery ; shamanism. 

Jieksht, highest. 

heks'-'l, straw chop for feed. 

heks'-'l-fu f -der, chop feed. 

he'-lar, concealer, one who hides. 

hel'-mit'l, remedy. 

hel, 1. clear, bright. 
2. hell, hades. 

hel' -fa, to help, to assist. 

Jielft, half. 

hel' -ing, hollow, cavity. 

helm, helve. 

7iem, shirt. 

hem, home. 

he' -met, a home. 

hem'-gfil, home feeling. 

hem'-g'macht, domestic or home- 

hem'-lich, secret; homely, not 

Tiem'-'r-prais, wristband. 

hem'-tsus, homeward. 

hem'-we, home sick, yearning to be 
at home ; nostalgia. 

hend'-ich, handy, convenient. 

heng'-'l, bunch. 

henk, 1. handle. 

2. a swinging shelf. 

henk'-ar, hangman. 

henk'-bauch, paunch. 

henk'-ka, to hang, to suspend. 

henksht, stallion. 

hensh'-ing, glove, mitten. 

he'-sa, 1. heel. 

2. to command, to ask, to request. 

3. to call or designate a person 
or thing. 

hes'-lich, disgusting, disagreeable, 
ugly, shabby. 

het, had, would, could. 

het, height. 

hel'-sa, to set a dog at, to urge. 

he'-wai-sa, crowbar. 

hl n , 1. thither, towards, to another 

2. exhausted, "done for." 

hibsh, pretty. 

hift, hip. 

hik'-ar-a, 1. hickory. 

2. to whip, or punish. 

hik'-ar-i, hickory. 

hik'-ar-nus, hickory nut. 

hl nf -leng-lich, sufficient. 

hilf, help, aid. 

hils'-n'r-ham'-ar, mallet; lit., "wood- 
en hammer. 

him' I, heaven ; sky. 

him' -'l-f art-dag', Ascension day. 

himl'-lish, heavenly. 

him'-mel, heaven ; sky. 

hi'-na, behind, back. 

hi' -na-dra n , behind, behind-hand. 

hi'-na-drin, in the hind part. 

hi'-na-druf, on the rear part. 

M'-na-nai^, into, or by way of, the 
rear part. 

hi'-na-no', subsequently ; after- 
wards, in the rear. 

7iin'-ar-ge n , to deceive. 

hin' -ar-lich, troublesome, obstruct- 

hin'-ar-ra, to hinder, or delay. 

hin'-arsht, hindmost. 

hin' -ar-shunk' -a, ham ; lit., hind 
ham, in contradistinction to 
shoulder, "fore ham," fet'- 

hin'er-em, behind the ; contraction 
of hin'-er dem. 

hink'-el, chicken, fowl ; poultry. 

hink'-el-ke'-wich, chicken coop. 

hink' -el-shtal, chicken coop; lit., 
chicken stable, or pen. 




hin'-nich, after. 

hl nf -rich-ta, 1. to bring to ruin ; to 

2. to direct to a desired place. 

hl nt -shtard' -tsa, to tumble headlong. 

hi'-sich, native, relative to region 
spoken of. 

hit, hut. 

hl'-ta, to guard, to watch or pro- 

hit' -mach-arn, milliner, one who 
makes bonnets. 

7iUs, heat ; fever. 

hit'-sa, to heat, to warm. 

hits' -ich, feverish, heated. 

hits' -pok-ka, prickly heat. 

hi'-w'l, hill, mound, hillock. 

hi'-w'l-ifih, hilly, undulating. 

hoch, high, elevated. 

hdch'-ach ta, to esteem. 

hoch'-tsich, wedding. 

hof, yard. 

hof'-ning, hope, expectation. 

hok'-ka, to seat one's self. 

ho'-ka, hook. 

hok'-ka, to sit, to seat one's self. 
The word is not a polite form. 

hoi, hollow. 

ho' -la, to fetch, to bring. 

ho' -land-war '-ts' I, elecampane. 

hol'-ler, elder (alder bush). 

hols, wood. 

hols' -Uats, place for chopping wood. 

hols'-buk, saw-buck. 

hols'-ko-la, charcoal. 

hol'-wek, sunken roadway ; lit., hol- 
low way or road. 

hop, hop (pi. hop'-pa hops). 

hop' I, hobble. 

hop'-p'l-a, to hobble. 

hor, hair ; fur, on the skin. 

hos'-sa, pantaloons. 

hos' -sa-dre' -or, suspenders. 

hos'-'l-a, to raffle. 

hot, has. 

ho'-w'l, plane. 

ho'-w'l-bank, carpenter's workbench 

ho'-w'l-shpe n , shavings ; lit., plane- 

hud 1 1, tatter, rag. 

hud 1 -la, 1. to hasten ; to work in a 

careless manner. 
2. to clean out a bake oven pre- 
vious to depositing the arti- 
cles to be baked. 

hud'-ler, a rod with a rag attached 
for removing ashes from the 

hud'-lich, hasty, careless. 

hud'l'-lum-pa, a rag used for clean- 
ing ashes out of a bake oven. 

hud'-s'l-a, uncut dried fruit. 

huds'-lich, shriveled, dried. 

huf, hoof. 

Jiuf'-ai-sa, horse shoe. 

hum'-m'l, bumble-bee. 

hundt, dog. 

hundts' -shtal, dog kennel. 

hung'-ar, hunger. 

hung'-ar-a, to hunger, to long for. 

hung' -ar-ich, hungry. 

Jiung'-ars-nod, famine. 

hun'-na, down, off the top. 

hun'-ich, honey. 

hun'-ich-fo'gWl, humming-bird. 

hun'-ich-sok'l, honeysuckle; wood- 

hun f 'rt, hundred. 

hun'-'rt-yer-ich, centennial. 

hun> '-'rt-yor, century. 

huns' -da-gha, dog-days. 

huns'-graut, toad flax. 

hup'-sa, to hop, to skip. 

?tur, whore, prostitute. 

hur'-a-kind, bastard ; lit., whore's 

hush'-ta, to cough ; cough. 

hut, hat. 

hut' -mach-er, hatter. 

hutsh, colt. 

hutsh'-el, a colt. 

hutsh' -'l-i, a colt. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. 80C. XXVI. 129. 2E. PRINTED FEB. 25, 1S89. 



[Dec. 21, 

ich, I. 

im, in the ; contraction of in dem. 

1m, bee. 

im-a-fres'-ser, bee eater, bee martin 

(Tyrannus carolinensis). 
Im' -a-karb' , bee hive; i. e., bee 


Im'-a-rbs, honeycomb. 
im'-ber, ginger. 
i n '-men8, ant. 
l'-ments, ant. 
im'-er, always. 

im' -er-fart, always, constantly. 
im'-er-me n , evermore ; constantly 


im' -er-wer' -end, lasting forever. 
im'-r, always. 
ims, meal. 

ims'-tsait, meal time. 
I'-na, theirs, to them. 
in'-ar-lich, internal ; internally ; 

the interior. 
in'-dres-sa, interest. 
in'-ga-waid^ entrails, viscera. 
in'-haldt, contents. 
ins, in the ; contraction of in d'8. 
insh, Indian. 

in' -ska-rob' -er, rubber, India rubber. 
insh'-ing, Indian ; Indians. 
in'-sM-nir', engineer. 
ifi'-s7iing-rob'-ber, India rubber. 
insh'-lich, tallow. 
in' -'uren-nich, inside. 
Ir'-tsa, to address one with "ir t " 

a polite form. 
is, is. 

ish, is (rare). 

i'-wer, past, gone by ; over. 
i-wer-ai'-la, to be over hasty. 
i'-wer-al, everywhere. 
i'-wer-aus', exceedingly. 
i'-wer-W-da, to overbid ; to outbid. 
i'-wer-bin'-na, to bind over. 
i'-wer -dek, coverlet. 
i'-wer- drai'-wa, to overdraw ; to ex- 


i'-wer-dref'-fa, to surpass ; to excel. 

i'-wer-em, over the; contraction of 
i'wer dem. 

i'-wer-flus, an overflow ; surplus. 

i'-wer-ge-larnd, crack-brained ; lit., 
over educated. 

i' -wer' -Jia'dr' -ra, to overhear, to 
learn by accident. 

i-wer-handt, overhand ; control. 

i' -wer-haubt, generally, in general. 

i' -wer-hos' -sa, overalls ; lit., over- 

i'-wer-ich, left over ; not desired. 

i' -wer-kshaid, conceited ; lit., over- 

i' -wer-la-fa, to overwalk one's self. 

i' -wer-le-gha, 1. to meditate ; to con- 
2. to admonish. 

i'-wer-lif'-er-a, to deliver, or to hand 

i'-wer-li'-we-ra, to deliver, or hand 

i'wer-mach'-a, to make over ; to re- 

i' -wer-ma' -ri-ya, day after to-mor- 

i ! -wer-nem' -ma, to overtake. 

i'wers, over it; contraction of i'wer es 

i'-wer-set'-sa, to translate. 

i' -wer-shrifl, superscription. 

i'-wer -shtu-dlrt', over-studied, over- 
worked by study. 

i'-wer-sku, overshoe ; rubbers. 

i'-wer-shwem'-ming, inundation ; 

i'-wer-sich'-tich, cross-eyed. 

i'-wer-tsai'-gha, to convince. 

i'-wer-tsuk, casing for feather bed. 

i'-wer-tswar'-ich, 1. contrary, obsti- 
2. crosswise. 

i'-wer-wai'-sa, to convince ; to show 

i' -wer-wel' -dich-a, to overcome ; to 




i 1 -uer-win-na, to prevail ; to win 

i'-w'l, 1. nausea ; nauseating. 

2. evil, bad. 

i'-w'l-a, to nauseate ; to sicken. 
I'-w'l-de'-t'r, malefactor, criminal. 
i'-w'l-ich, nauseating ; nauseated. 
i'-w'r, past, gone by ; over. 
i'-w'r-a-wail, after awhile ; shortly. 

kabt, had ; from German gehabt. 

ka-dol'-ish, Catholic. 

kd'-d'r, torn cat. 

kd'-fa, to buy. 

kdf'-lait, merchants, purchasers. 

kaf-man, merchant, purchaser. 

kaft, a notch, a gap or divide on 

hills or mountains. 
kaf'-ta, to notch. 
kaft'-ich, notched. 
kaich'-a, to pant. 
kai'-d'l, a wedge, a plug. 
kaim, a germ. 
kai'-ser, emperor. 
kai' '-ser-dum, empire. 
kalb, calf. 

kal'-basht, calabash. 
kalb'-flesh, veal. 
kalb' -f el, calfskin. 
kalbs'-haut, calf skin. 
ka-len'-'dr, almanac ; calendar. 
ka'-letsJi, college. 
kal'-ik, lime. 
kal' -ik-of -fa, lime kiln. 
kal f -ik-shte n , limestone. 
kalk, lime. 
kal'-mus, calamus. 
kalt, cold. 

kall'-me'-sel, cold chisel. 
ka'-ma, cogs of a wheel. 
ka-mel', camel. 

kam'-mer, chamber ; spare-room. 
ka-mil'-la, chamomile. 
kam'-rdd, cog-wheel. 
kan, 1. a can. 

2. to be able to. 

kan'-d'l, spout. 

kan'-d'l-tsuk'-ar, rock candy. 

kans'-draub, currant. 

kans'-graut, St. John's wort. 

kan' -shaft, familiarity with, knowl- 
edge, acquaintance with. 

kan'-s'l, pulpit. 

kan'-s'l-red'-ner, pulpit orator. 

ka-nun', cannon. 

kap', cap. 

kd'-rd', 1. to sweep. 
2. to belong to. 

kar'-ab, basket. 

ka-ra n '-ner, coroner. 

kdr'-a-pet, carpet. 

ka-ra'-she, courage, pluck. 

kz'-ra-sl'-ra, to court, to caress. 

karb, basket. 

kar f -'b, basket. 

k'dr'-ber, body. 

karb' -wai-de, basket willow. 

kdrd, 1. cord ; yarn. 
2. a card ; chart. 

kar f -du n , calico, prints. 

kdr'-dun, calico, prints. 

kar-frai 1 -ddk, Good-Friday. 

kar'-icli, cart. 

kdr'-ich, church. 

ka-reV, bead. 

kdr'-ich-a-rdd, church council ; ves- 

kdr 1 ' -ieJi-a-shdul, pew. 

kdr'-ic7i-a-sits, pew. 

kdr' -ich-lwf, church yard, grave 

kar'-ik, cork. 

kar'-ik-ka, to cork. 

kar' ~ik-t&l' -gJwr, cork screw. 

kdrl, fellow. 

karn, rye. 

kdrn, kernel, seed. 

karn'-brod, rye bread. 

kdr'-nish, cornice. 

kdrsh, cherry. 

karts, short. 

kdrta'-lich, lately, shortly. 



[Dec. 21, 

karts' -sich-tich, short-sighted, near- 

hash' -da, cage, case, box, chest. 

kats, cat. 

kat' -sa-ge-grish' , caterwauling. 

kat 1 -sa-graut, catmint. 

kau'-a, to chew, to masticate. 

kaum, scarcely, hardly. 

ke n , none, not any ; contraction of 
ken'-ni, none. 

ked, chain. 

kef'-fer, bug, beetle. 

keft'-lich, notched. 

kel, trowel. 

kel, throat, trachea. 

kelch, cup, chalice. 

kel'-lar, cellar ; a vault. 

kel' -lar-kich' , basement kitchen. 

ke nf -mol, no time ; at no time. 

ke nf -nich, king. 

ke nf -?rich-en, queen. 

ke nl -nich-raich, kingdom. 

ken'-na, 1. to be able. 

2. to know, to be acquainted with 

ken'-ni, none, none of them. 

ken'-mol, not once, at no time. 

kens, none. 

kent, could. 

ken' -tsech-a, property mark ; sign 
by which a thing may be 

ker, 1. care, responsibility. 

2. hearing, sense of hearing. 

ker'-ra, to sweep. 

kes, cheese. 

keshdt, chestnut. 

keshd'-lgh'l, chestnut burr. 

keshd'-lich, costly, expensive. 

kes'-sai', colander; lit. , cheese sieve. 

kes'-s'l, kettle. 

kes'-s'l-flik'-er, a tinker ; lit., kettle 

ket, chain. 

ketsh, a catch, puzzle, trick. 

ketih'-'r, pall. 

ke'-wich, cage. 

ki'-ben, cow pen. 

ki'-bid-ars, tansy. 

ki'-blum, dandelion. 

kich, kitchen. 

ki'-drek, cow dung. 

kl'-drek-rol'-ler, tumble-bug ; scara- 

kil, cool. 

kl'-la, to cool. 

kim'-er-lic h, poorly, indigent, needy. 

kim'-'l, caraway. 

kl'-misht, cow manure. 

kin, chin. 

kin'-bak'-ka, jaw bone. 

kind'-hed, childhood. 

kind'Jich, filial. 

kindsht' -lar, expert, artist, one who 
can adapt himself to various 
delicate operations. 

kin'-nish, foolish, childish, silly. 

kindt, child. 

kin'-ner, children. 

kin'-ner-dlb, kidnapper; lit., chil- 

kinsMl'r-ai', pow-wow-ing ; the 
ability to perform mysteries ; 
also applied to spiritualistic 

kim'-kind, child's child = grand- 

kl'-rus, lampblack. 

kishd, a chest. 

kl'-shtar, cow bunting ; cow black- 

ku'-'l, sleet. 

kis'-'l-a, to sleet. 

kis'-'l-ich, sleety. 

kis'-sa, a pillow. 

kit, putty. 

kit' -'I, a long loose coat. 

kitsh, a scraper ; a rake made of a 
board, transverse to the han- 
dle, for removing ashes from 
a bake oven. 

kit'-s'l-a, to tickle. 

kits'-lich, ticklish ; delicate. 



Mai', soon. 

klai'-a, bran. 

klam, clainp ; clothes-pin. 

kliim'-mer, lamentation. 

klang, a clang as of a bell. 

kldr-a-net f , clarionet. 

kla-gha, to complain. 

klag, complaint. 

klap'-bort, clapboard ; strip of 

wood for pail fence. 
Mas, class. 
kle'-a, clover. 
kle n , small. 
klecJi, link. 
kled, article of dress. 
kle'-da, to clothe. 
kle'-d'r, clothing. 
kle'-d'r-kam'-mer, wardrobe. 
kle'-d'r-shtub, wardrobe. 
klem'-ma, to pinch, to wedge, to 


klen'-ar, smaller. 
kle nf -nic7i-ked, trifle. 
klensJid, smallest. 
klep'-er-a, to rattle. 
klep'-er-ich, rattling, worn out so as 

to rattle ; rickety. 

**"' ( burdock. 
klet'-ta, ) 

klid'-sTia, to slip. 

klidsh'-ich, slippery ; icy. 

klik, luck, a happening. 

klik'-ka, to happen, to occur. 

klik'-lich, lucky, fortunate. 

klim'-Vl, a small heap or mass. 

kling, a blade. 

kling'-'l, a ball ; a small round bell 
containing a ball ; used for 
sleigh bells. 

kling'-'l-a, to jingle ; to cause ring- 
ing of small bells as sleigh 

kling'-'l-sak, ") a small bag, at- 

kling'-l-sek'-'l, / tached to a long 
pole, having a little bell at- 
tached. Used in churches for 
taking up collections. 

kling'-sh(e n , clingstone ; applied to 

a variety of peaches. 
klo'-a, claws ; cloven foot. 
klo'-a-fet, neat's-foot oil. 
kldf'-ter, a cord as of wood. 
klof -ter-hols, cord wood ; forest 

trees which are intended for 

cord wood. 
klok, bell. 
klok 1 -ka-blum, columbine ; lit., bell 

klop'-pa, to knock, to pound with a 

hammer or other instrument. 
klop' -hengshd, a stallion from which 

one testicle has been removed. 
klor, clear, pure. 
klo'-ra, to clear, to purify. 
klots, block. 

klugh, intelligent, erudite. 
kluk, brood hen ; an old hen. 
kluk'-ka, to cluck, like a hen. 
kluk'-sa, to cluck, like a hen. 
klum'-pa, a lump, a heap, a bunch. 
klum'-pich. lumpy. 
klum'-sich, clumsy, bungling. 
knaib, shoemaker's knife. 
knak, knot ; skein. 
knak'-ka, to crack as nuts. 
knak'-warsht, hard smoked sausage. 
knal, a clap, as of thunder ; a sharp 

loud report. 

knaps, scarcely ; close, stingy. 
knar'-a-w'l, gristle. 
knar'-a-w'lich, cartilaginous. 
knar'-ich, 1. knotty. 

2. given to grumbling. 
knar'-ra, 1. to snarl or growl ; to 

2. a knot as on a tree, or in 


knar'-sha, to gnash, to grate. 
kna'-wa-ra, to gnaw ; to nibble at. 
knep'-pa, to button. 
kne'-w'l, a stick used for twisting ; 

a gag. 

km, knee ; angle in a stove-pipe. 
knV-a, to kneel. 



[Dec. 2J, 

knik'-ka, to break, without separa- 
tion of pieces. 

knip'-l, a club. 

knl'-rlm, shoemaker's strap. 

kni'-ri-ma, shoemaker's strap for 
holding the shoe to the top of 
the knee, in mending. 

kni'-shaib, knee pan patella. 

knl'-wand, the wall of a house ex- 
tending from the floor of the 
garret to the roof. 

knec7i'-'l, a small bone ; a joint of 
the fingers. 

kneeJit, male servant ; hired man 
for farm work. 

knoc7i'-a, bone, bones. 

knock' '-a-man, skeleton. 

knock' -a-mel, bone dust. 

knoch'-a-yar-i-gh'l, skeleton. 

knoch'-ich, bony, lean. 

knod-d'l, 1. a lump. 

2. an awkward fellow. 

knod'-er-a, to grumble. 

knod'-l, a small lump. 

knod'-lich, 1. given to grumbling. 
2. precarious, meagre or with 
poor success. 

knod'-'l-sup, a soup made of small 
hard lumps of dough. The 
more frequent term is ri'-w'l- 

knop, button, a knot. 

knop'-loch, button hole. 

kno'-w'loch, garlic. 

kocJi, cook. 

koch'-a, to boil, to cook. 

koch f -ap-p : l, apples fit for baking or 

koch'-flesh, meat for boiling. 

koch' -haf -fa, boiling pot. 

koch'-ich, boiling hot. 

koch'-kes-s'l, kettle for boiling. 

koch-lef f -'l, ladle. 

koch' -of -fa, cooking stove. 

koch'-pan, sauce-pan. 

Jed' -la, coal. 

kb'-la-breu'-ner, charcoal burner. 

kd'-la-e n '-mer, coal scuttle. 

kd'-la-griib, coal mine. 

kol'-el, kerosine coal oil. 

kol'-ik, colic. 

kol'-of'-fa, coal stove. 

kol'-wa, ear of corn ; core. 

kop, head. 

kop'-cha, cup. 

kop' -pa-Ms' -sa, pillow ; lit., head 

pillow, or cushion. 
kop'-shmar-tsa, headache. 
kop '-we, headache. 
kor, choir. 

ko'-ri-an'-der, coriander. 
kosh'-da, costs, expenses. 
kosht, 1. food, board or boarding. 

2. cost, value. 
kosh'-tard, custard. 
kosht'-bar, costly, expensive. 
kosht' -geng-er, boarder. 
kots, vomit. 
kot'-sa, to vomit. 
krach, a crash ; the sound of a gun 


krach'-a, a crash, a cracking sound. 
krad'-H-a, to crawl, to climb. 
krad'-'l-ich, crawling, sprawling. 
krad'-sa, to scratch. 
krad'-sich, irritating, pungent. 
kraft, vigor, strength. 
kraid, chalk. 
kraids, a cross. 
kraids'-lam, lame in the hip-joint ; 

hip shot. 

kraids'-wek, cross-road. 
krais, circle. 
krai'-sha, to cry out, to yell, to 


kramp, cramp. 
kran, a crown. 
kra n '-na, 1. a barb of an ear of 


2. fish-bones particularly the 
thin long ones ribs. 

3. to crown. 




krank, sick. 

krank' -het, sickness. 

krap, crow. 

krans, wreath, garland. 

k> aut, cabbage, weeds ; plants. 

kraut'-ho'-w'l, cabbage cutter for 
slaw ; lit., cabbage plane. 

kra f -w'l-a, to crawl, to creep. 

kra'-w'l-ich, creeping, crawling. 

kra-yer, a crier. 

kre'-a, to crow ; to boast. 

kre'-dk, corn, sometimes applied to 
a bunion. 

krebs, 1. a crab. 
2. cancer. 

kreds, itch cutaneous affection. 

krff'-ta, strength, vigor. 

kreft'-ich, vigorous, strong. 

krem'-bir, cranberry. 

kre'-mer, peddlar. 

kre'-mer-a, to peddle ; to carry 
around for sale. 

krenk-ka, to grieve, to regret. 

krenk'-'l-a, to complain of sickness; 
to take sick. 

krenk'-Ucfi, sickly, delicate. 

kre'-ser, larger. 

krets, itch cutaneous disease. 

krids'-'l-a, to scribble. 

krid'-s'l-ar, a scribbler. 

krig, war. 

krl'-gha, 1. to get, to receive, to 


2. to war with one another, as 

krl'-gher, warrior. 

krik, war. 

krik, 1. a creek ; small stream. 
2. a crutch. 

krik'-a-fish, fish taken from fresh- 
water streams, in con- 
tradistinction to salt-water 

krik' -s' I, cricket. 

krim'-'l-a, to crumble. 

krim'-lich, brittle, crumbling. 

krish. a cry, a scream, a shout. 

krishd'-kind'l, Christmas gifts ; lit., 
little Christ child. 

kri&h'-kin-d'l, Santa Glaus. 

krisJit'-dag, Christmas. 

krisht'-war-ts'l, hellebore. 

kris'-'l, a thrill, a shock, a chill. 

kris'-lich, horrible, shocking. 

krol, curl. 

krol' la, to curl. 

krol'-ler, a variety of cake, made 
similar to doughnuts. In 
some localities they are con- 
sidered identical. 

krol'-lich, curly. 

kro'-ner, coroner. 

krop, 1. craw. 

2. rude, coarse. 

kro'-w'l-a, to grumble ; to fumble, 
to grovel. 

krud'-sa, core of fruit; cob of 

krud'-sich, 1. full of cores. 

2. miserable, "from hand to 

3. stunted, meagre. 
kruk, jug, pitcher, crock. 
krum, crooked, curved. 
krusht, crust. 
krusht'-ich, crusty. 
krus'-s'l-blr, gooseberry. 
kshdik, cannon. 

kshlar-af'-fa ksicht, mask or false - 

kshpensht, apparition. 

kshwai, sister-in-law. 

kshwair, justice of the peace. 

kshwa'-ra, a boil, boils. 

ksims, a strip of wood extending 
around the walls of a room, 
to prevent chair backs 
from injuring the plaster- 

ku, cow. 

kuch'-a, cake, cakes. 

kuch'-a-plat, griddle. 



[Dec. 21, 

kuch' -a-rel-cha, a small instrument 
for cutting and decorating 
pie dough ; consists of a small 
wheel at the end of a handle, 
similar to a wheel-barrow in 
construction. The wheels are 
usually serrated, or have an 
undulating periphery. 

kud'-'ld, 1. tangled. 
2. hurried, bungled. 

kud'-'l-flek, tripe. 

ku'-gh'l, bullet, ball. 

kum-a-rad', comrade. 

kam'-bas, compass. 

kum'-et, horse collar. 

kum-et', comet. 

kum'-et-dek, housing. 

kum'-et-shpe n , hames. 

kum'-ma, to come. 

kun'-na, 1. customers, patrons. 
2. importance, important facts 
or results. 

kun'-shaft, custom. 

kunsht, skill, art. 

kun'-shta-w'l, constable. 

kun' -shta-w' l-er, constable. 

kup'-per, copper. 

kup' -per-kop, copperhead snake. 

kup'-p'r, copper. 

ka'-rus, copperas. 

kutsh, coach. 

kwed'-sha, 1. plums, prunes. 
2. to bruise, to squeeze. 

kwek' -sil-wer, mercury ; quicksilver. 

kwel, spring. 

kwel, bother, torment, annoyance. 

kwe'-la, to torment, to worry or 

kwel' -la, to dampen or moisten so 
as to cause swelling ; to boil. 

kwe'-lich, tormenting, worrying. 

kwen'-d'l, thyme. 

kwet, quoit. 

kwilt, a quilt. 

kwil'-ta, to qui]t. 

kwilt' -ing, a quilting; quilting party. 

kwit, quince. 
k'wit'-ter, lightning. 
k'wit'-er-a, 1. to thunder and light- 

2. threatening thunder storm. 
kwol' -la-flesh, dry-beef. 
kwot-em' -ber, Ember days. 

la n , wages, salary. 

lab, foliage ; dry leaves upon the 

ground, as found in woods. 
lab'-frosJi, tree frog. 
lack' -a, to laugh. 
lad, 1. a load. 

2. coffin. 
la' -da, 1. to load. 

2. a window shutter. 
lad' -ing, gun charge, a load. 
lad'-mds, measure for ammunition 

for a gun. 

lad' -sJitek-ka, ram-rod. 
laf, gun barrel. 
la' -fa, to walk, to go.. 
laf'-tsait, rutting season. 
la'-gher, a resort, a place to lie. 
la'-gha-ra, to lie down. 
la'-ghar-fer, camp meeting. 
la'jk, lye. 

lai'-a, to lie down, to recline. 
lai'-ar, monotony, rut, the same 

way, sameness ; alt lai'-ar, 

"the same old thing." 
lai'-a-ra, to accomplish slowly. 
laib, body. 
laib' -haft-ich, bodily, with energy, 

laib' -shmar-tsa, pain in the stomach 

or bowls. 
laib' -we, 1. pain in the stomach. 

2. diarrhoea. 
laicht, 1. light (in weight); easy. 

2. light (in color). 

3. a funeral. 

laich'-ta, 1. to lighten, to relieve. 

2. to ignite, to light. 
laicht' -fl-sich, light-footed, swift. 




laicht' -sin-nich, thoughtless, fickle. 

lai'-da, 1. to suffer, to endure. 
2. cares, sufferings. 

laid'-lich, agreeable. 

laim, glue. 

lai'-ma, to glue. 

laim'-ich, gluey, sticky. 

laim 1 '-led-' V, scraps of leather; leath- 
er shavings. 

lain, a line ; a course. 

lai'-na, 1. to line. 

2. linen, made of linen. 

lain'-duch, bed sheet, linen sheet. 

lain' -ol-ich, linseed oil. 

laishd, 1. lath, a slat of wood. 
2. a shoemaker's last. 

laishd' -ho' -w' I, head plane. 

laishd' -na-gh' I, lath nail. 

laishd' -1a, to lathe, or to nail laths. 

lait, people, folks. 

lait'-hars, cavalry. 

lak-sl'-ra, to purge ; to physic. 

lak-slr'-ing, purgative ; cathartic. 

lam, lamb. 

lam, lame. 

la'-me-sich, law-abiding ; according 
to law ; legal. 

lam' -I, a lubberly, awkward fellow. 

lam'-tsait, ewing season. 

Ian', shaft of carriage. 

land, land, country. 

land'-e-ghner, land-owner ; proprie- 
tor of lands, or farm. 

land'-kart, map, chart. 

land'-mes-ser, surveyor. 

land 1 -re-gha, a settled rain ; lit., 
land rain. 

land' -shaft, landscape, region, area 
of territory. 

land'-shilt'-krot, tortoise ; lit., land 

lang, long, length. 

lang'-a, to reach, to hand. 

lang'-kwid, connecting pole of a 

lang'-lich, oblong, lengthy. 


lang'-lich rund, oval. 

lang'-mi-dich, enduring, forbearing. 

lang'-or', long-ear ; sometimes used 
to denote an ass or mule. 

lang'-sam, slowly, tediously. 

lang'-sam, slowly, tediously. 

lang'-sich-tich, long-sighted (presby- 

lang'-wer-ich, tedious, lasting. 

lands'-man, countryman, one from 
the rural district. 

larb'-sa, to speak with an indistinct 
and guttural voice. 

larbs'-ich, in an indistinct or gut- 
tural voice ; drawling. 

lar-'ich, meadow lark (Rturnella 
magna) . 

lar'-'m, alarm, noise. 

lar'-ma, 1. to alarm ; to make a 

2. noise, alarm. 

lar'-na, to learn, to acquire. 

larn'-ing, learning. 

lasht, a burden, a charge. 

lash' -der -haft, vicious. 

las' -ich-kedt, lassitude, indisposition. 

lat, lath. 

lat, coffin. 

la-tarn 1 , lantern. 

lat' -war -ik, apple butter. 

laud, loud, with noise. 

laudt, loud, with noise. 

lau'-er-a, to listen, to be on the 
watch for obtaining informa- 

laud'-'r, nothing but ; only. 

laus, louse. 

lam'-ich, lousy. 

laut, loud, with noise. 

le n , alone, solitary. 

leb, 1. lion. 
2. a loaf. 

leb'-ar-a, to sip, to tipple. 

leb' -dak, during life. 

leb' -haft, lively, vivacious. 

leb' -kuch' -a, honey cakes. 

129. 2F. PRINTED FEB. 25, 1889. 



[Dec. 21, 

leb'-pish, flat in taste, unsavory. 

leb-raich, benevolent, kind. 

lech-ar, holes ; pi. of loch. 

lech'-ar-ich, full of holes, or open- 

lech' -ar-lich, laughable, amusing. 

lech'- I, a small hole ; a small open- 

led, sorrow, regret. 

le'-da, tired of ; to have disgust. 

led'-ar, leather. 

le'-der, ladder. 

le' -der-bam, ladder beams. 

le'-der-shpros'-sa, rounds of a ladder. 

le'-der-wa'-gJia, wagon with rack, 
for carrying hay or grain. 

led'-icli, single, not married. 

le'-dich, tired of, wearied. 

led' '-ich-ar-na-ma, maiden name ; 
lit., single name. 

kd'-'l, lath. 

led'-rn, of leather, leathern. 

ledsht. the last, final. 

led'-t'l, lath. 

led'-t'r-a, 1. to whip, to beat. 

2. to leather or to cover with 

ledtsJi, latch. 

le'-far, runner (sJilit'-ta le'-far, 
sleigh runner). 

le'- far-mi, shoats. 

lefts, lip. 

lef'-l, spoon, dipper. 

leg'-ai, nest egg. 

leg'-ai-sa, axle plate. 

U'-gha, to lay, to put, to place. 

leg'-hink'-el, a laying hen. 

le'-gh'l-a, to deny. 

lek'-shan-ni'-ra, to canvass, to elec- 

U'-lak, lilac. 

U n '-ma, clay. 

l" nr -mich, clayey. 

le' -mid-ich, sorrowful, downcast. 

len, lane, a narrow road way seldom 
used, and generally private. 

le nf na, to lend ; to loan. 

lend'-lich, rural, pertaining to the 

len'-er, garden beds, arranged for 

leng. length. 

leng'-lich, lengthy. 

Itngsht, long ago, length. 

le'-nich, lonely, lonesome. 

ler, empty ; learning. 

le'-ra, to learn ; to educate, to teach. 

le'-sa, 1. to read. 

2. to pick up, to gather. 

lesh'-a, to quench. 

lesh'-der, annoyance ; trouble, a 

lesh'-der-a, to annoy, to blaspheme ; 
to slander. 

leshdt, a last ( used by cobblers). 

lets, 1. wrong, not correct. 
2. turned wrong side out. 

let'shta, the last. 

let' -ta, clay. 

le'-wa, to live, to exist. 

le'-wa-lang, life long. 

le'-was, life, during a life-time ; ex- 

U'-was-far-sich'-er-ing, life insur- 

le'-was-gfor, in danger of life. 

le' -wa' -shtrof, capital punishment. 

U'-was-tsait, life-time. 

le'-wa-wol, live well; a farewell wish. 

le-wen 1 -dich, alive, living. 

le'-wer, liver. 

le'-wer-warsfit, liver pudding ; lit., 
liver sausage. 

le'-w'r-graut, liverwort. 

lib, love, affection. 

Ub'-ha-w'r, lover, admirer. 

Ub'-lich, lovely, savory. 

licht, light, candle, lamp. 

licht f -bud-ser, snuffers. 

licht'-mes, candlemas. 

lichfr-farm, mould for making tal- 
low cand es. 

1888. | 



Ucht'-'r-macli-er, tallow chandler. 

lid, hymn. 

U'-da, 1. to solder. 
2. to lead. 

lifd'-ich, airy, breezy. 

li'-gha, to lie, to falsify. 

li'-ghnar, liar. 

rigk, a lie. 

lik, a gap, a space ; an unoccupied 

lik'-ar, liquor; usually applied to 

lil'-ya, lily. 

Ung'-'l, a wild fellow, one full of 

links, left, to the left ; left-handed. 

Un'-na, linden tree, or wood. 

lish'da, to enlist ; to enroll. 

lishdt, list. 

Ut'l-haus, an isolated water closet, 
or privy. 

ti'-wa, to love. 

IV -wi, sweetheart, a dear one (ap- 
plied to females). 

ll'-w'r, a dear one (applied to male), 
a lover. 

Id, tan ; crushed oak bark for tan- 
ning hides. 

lob, praise, love. 

loch, hole, opening. 

loch'-sek, a narrow bladed handsaw 
for scroll work. 

Idd', a load. 

Id'-d'l, a loafer ; a tippler. 

Id'-d'l-a, to loaf, to idle. 

lo-dri 1 , lottery. 

lo'-fen'-d'l, lavender. 

lok'-ka, 1. to call, to entice. 
2. a lock of wool. 

lok'-ish, having locks. 

Id'-kus, 1. a locust (cicada). 
2. locust tree. 

lop'-pa, a flap, rag, patch. 

Id' -rod, tan colored ; lit., tan red. 

Ids, 1. loose, not secured. 
2. a sow. 

los, 1. let, allow. 

2. negligent, careless ; the word 
las is generally used. 

Ids' -brcch-a, to break away, to es- 

losli'-der, vice. 

los'-ka-fa, to ransom. 

Ids' -kum' -ma, to get off, to get free, 
to escape. 

Ids'-los-sa, to liberate, to set off or 

Ids' -mach-a, to loosen, to untie. 

Ids'-rai-sa, to tear off; to break 

Ids' -shi' -sa, to shoot off. 

Ids' -shrau-wa, to unscrew. 

lot, a lot. 

lot' -tar-V , lottery. 

Id' -warm, luke-warm, tepid. 

lu n , wages, salary. 

lu'-d'r, carrion. 

lu'-d'r-fo-gli'l, turkey buzzard ;'lit., 
carrion bird. 

lud'-'r-ish, Lutheran. 

luft, air, breeze. 

Ivft'-rdr, trachea ; air-tube. 

lu'-na, linchpin. 

Inks, lynx. 

lum'-er-ich, limber, flaccid. 

lum'-pa, rag, rags. 

lump'-ich, ragged. 

lung, lung. 

lung'-a-graut, lungwort. 

lush'-da, desire, want, delight. 

lush'-dar-a, to have desire, to want. 

lush' -dar-ich, luscious. 

lush'-dich, joyful, merry. 

lut'-ser, lantern. 

'm, 'm-a', 1. prefixed to a noun, 
and the latter followed by 
sai 11 his, completes posses- 
sion ; equivalent to the apos- 
trophe preceding 's in Eng- 
lish to form the possessive 



[Dec. 21, 

2. Also signifying to a, for a, 
with a, etc., the particular 
shade of meaning depending 
upon context. 

mach'-a, to make, to do ; to hasten. 

mad, maid, a female servant. 

ma-de'-ring, pus, matter. 

mag, 1. may. 
2. poppy. 

ma'-gha, stomach. 

ma'-gha-bal'-sam, mint. 

ma' -gha-kramp, stomach cramp. 

ma'-gher, lean; unproductive. 

mai n , my, mine. 

mag'-net, magnet. 

mai, May. 

mai'-ab'-p'l, May-apple fruit of 
Podophyllum peltatum. 

mai-blum, lily of the valley ; lit., 

mai' -da, to shun, to quit. 

mail, mile. 

mail'-shte n , milestone. 

main'-da, 1. to mind ; to heed. 
2. to extract ore from a mine. 

maindt, ore; ore mine. 

maind'-ta, to dig ore ; to work an 
ore mine. 

mai'-ner, mine ; refers to a sub- 
stantive masculine. 

mai'-ni, mine ; refers to a substan- 
tive feminine. 

mains, mine ; refers to possession, 
of a substantive of neuter 
gender, or one of diminutive 

mais'-chia-shtil, extremely quite ; 
lit., as still as a mouse. 

mais'-o-ra, saxifrage. . 

mai-ya, to go Maying ; to celebrate 
the first of May by having 
picnics or excursions into the 

ma'-la, to grind. 

mal'-tsait, meal time. 

mals, malt. 

mam, mamma, mother. 
mam' -mi, mammy ; i. e., mother. 
man, husband ; man. 
ma n '-na, 1. mane, manes. 
2. to moan, to lament. 
man'-dak, Monday. 
man'-d'l, mantle cloak. 
man'-d'l-karn, almond. 
mandt, moon. 

mandt'-shai n , moon's light ; moon- 
mandt'-un-er-gang, setting of the 


ma n -net, month. 
mang'l, 1. want, destitution. 
2. craving or desire for. 
mang'l-a, to crave, to want. 
mang'l-hqft, unsatisfactory. 
man' -ich-er, many-a-one refers to 

masculine gender. 
man' -ich-faldt, the third stomach of 

man 1 '-ich-es, many-a-one; refers to 

neuter gender. 
man'-ich-i, many-a-one ; refers to 

feminine gender. 
ma-nlr', manners, habit. 
ma-nir' -lich, well-behaved, polite. 
ma-nir'-lich-ked, politeness. 
man' -shaft, crew ; garrison. 
mans'-lait, men, gentlemen ; males. 
mar, mare. 
md'-ra-ai', cocoanut ; lit., mare's 


ma-ral', moral ; morality. 
ma-ral'-ish, moral. 
ma-ran', sweet marjoram. 
marb, ripe, tender. 
mar'-dar, murder. 
mar'-dar-a, to murder. 
mar'-dar-ar, murderer. 
mard'-bren-ner, incendiary. 
mard'-dadt, murder. 
mardts, March. 
mar'-ik, market. 
mar'-ik, mark, sign. 




mar'-ik-ka, to mark. 

mar'-iks, marrow. 

mark' -war-tick, remarkable, won- 

marsh'-er, a mortar. 

mar'-ya, to-morrow. 

mar '-ya-shtund, morning, daybreak. 

mar'yeds, in the morning. 

mashd, 1. fattening. 

2. luxuriant (growth of plants). 

mashd' '-sai, fattening hogs. 

masht'-sau, a hog fattening for 

masht'-darm, rectum. 

mat, faint, weak, debilitated. 

mat' -ich-ked, debility, faintness. 

maul, mouth, opening. 

mau'la, to give impudence ; to 

maul'-blr, mulberry. 

maul'-e-sel, mule. 

maul'-fol, mouthful. 

maul'-ich, saucy, impertinent. 

maul'-karb, muzzle ; lit., mouth 

maul f -uf-shpar f -ra,toya,wn, to gape. 

maul'-warf, mole. 

mau f 'r, wall. 

mau''r-ar, mason. 

muu''r-senk'-el, plumb-bob. 

maus, mouse. 

mau'-sa, 1. to catch mice (as a cat). 
2. to molt, to shed the hair. 

maus'-dod, dead, equal to the com- 
mon expression "stone dead." 

maus'-fal, mouse trap. 

maus'-kats, a mouser. 

maus 1 -or, saxifrage. 

maus'-tsait, molting season. 

me n , more. 

me' -a, to mow, to reap. 

me'-bla, maple. 

meb'-lais, tick seed. 

mecht, might, strength. 

mecht'-ich, mighty, powerful. 

med'-ar-la, feather few. 

med-a-tsin' , medicine. 

med'-chia, a little girl. 

med''l, girl. 

med'-s'l-a, to massacre ; to chop up. 

medt', 1. girls. 

2. the place (and time) where 
mowing is done. 

me'gha, to be allowed, to have lib- 

meg'-lich, possible ; probable. 

meg' -na-tai' -sa, to mesmerize ; to 

meksht, might. 

mel, meal, flour. 

mel'-da, to report, to announce. 

me'-lich, mealy. 

mel'-ka, to milk. 

mel' -sup, porridge; pap. 

mem, mother. 

me'-na, to mean, to think, to intend ; 
to believe or have an opinion. 

men'-chia, male of birds, etc.; lit., 
little man. 

meP'-ner, more. 

meng'-a, to mix. 

men'-ing, opinion ; meaning ; sig- 

mensh, person, being, man. 

men'-sha, people, inhabitants. 

men' -sha-al' -der, generation. 

men' -sha-faind, misanthrope ; an 
enemy to human beings. 

mensh' a-far-shtand 1 , common in- 
telligence ; common sense. 

men' -sha-fraind, philanthropist. 

men' -sJia-hilf, human aid. 

mensh' -hed, humanity, human kind. 

mensh'-tens, mostly, generally. 

mer, to me ; we ; one. 

me' red-ich, horse-radish. 

tner'-hait, majority. 

mes, brass. 

mesh'ta, 1. to feed for fattening. 
2. to remove manure from a 
pen, or stall, and supply fresh 



[Dec. 21, 

mes'-sa, 1 . to measure. 
2. brazen ; of brass. 

mes'-sar, 1. knife. 

2. one who measures. 

mes'-sar-kling, knife blade. 

me'-sel, chisel. 

me'-sel-a, to chisel, to join. 

mesh'cCr, master. 

mesh'-d'r-wart-s'l, master-wort. 

me'-sich, frugal. 

mi, pains, labor pains, trouble ; 

mich, me. 

mid, middle. 

mid'-da, in the middle ; between. 

mid' -dak, midday, noon ; dinner. 

mid' -dak-es' -sa, dinner. 

mi 1 -dich-ked, lassitude. 

mid'l, sore hand ; sometimes ap- 
plied to a felon. 

mid'-'l-a, to meddle, 

mid'-'l-ar, a mediator, a "middle- 

mid'-'l-bar, mediate. 

mid'-'l-mel, middlings second 
grade of flour. 

mid'-'l-me-sich, tolerable, moderate. 

mid' -U-mos, average ; lit., middle 

mid'-'l-punk-ka, centre, centre point. 

mid'-ter-nacht, midnight. 

mid'-t'l, remedy. 

mid'-woch, Wednesday. 

mi'-ghlich, possible. 

mik, fly. 

mik'-ka-blash'-der, fly plaster (can- 

mik' -ka-garn, fly net for horses. 

mik'-ka-g'shar, fly net for horses ; 
lit., fly harness. 

mik'-s'l-fu'-der, mixed feed for ani- 

mil, mill. 

mil'-daich, mill pond, a race. 

mll'-dam, milldam. 

mil'-dau, milctew. 

mil'-icTi, milk. 

mil' -ich-graut, milk weed. 

mil'-ich-haus, dairy. 

mil 1 -ich-hor, down, of the cheeks ; 

lit., milk hair. 
mil' -ich-kel' -lar, cellar where milk 

is kept. 

mil' -ich-saft, chyle. 
mil 1 '-ich-sai 1 ', milk strainer. 
mil-its', militia. 
mil'-lar, miller. 
mil' -mach-er, millwright. 
mils, spleen. 
mils' -ich, melancholy. 
mils' -krank-et, melancholia. 
mils' -krank-het' , melancholia. 
mil'-shtab, dust or sweepings of a 

grist mill. 
mil-yan', million. 
mil-yun', million (frequently used 

in the rural districts). 
min-udt', minute. ' 
mir, we. 

ml'-sel-ich, wearisome. 
ml' -sel-ich-ked, wearisomeness. 
mi'-sich, idle. 

mi'-sich-gang, habitual idleness. 
mis' -brauch-a, to misuse ; to abuse. 
mis' -drau-a, to distrust ; to mistrust. 
mis' -drau-ish, suspicious. 
mis' -far -gunt' , envy. 
mis' -far-8htend' -nis, misunderstand- 

mis-fo'-la, to displease. 
mis-fol'-ya, to disobey. 
mis' -gun-nish , envious. 
mis' -gunshd, envy. 
mish'-Ua, persimmons. 
mishd'-Uof, dung yard ; barn yard. 
mishdt, dung, manure. 
mish'-ta, to manure, to remove man 

ure from stalls. 
mis'-lich, uncertain. 
mis'-sa, 1. to be obliged, must. 
2. to miss, to fail to meet, or 





mis'-s'r-a-w'l, miserable ; wretched. 

mit, with, along ; middle. 

mit'-bring-a, to bring along with ; 
to contribute. 

mit'-gfll, sympathy. 

mit'-hel-fa, to assist ; to aid. 

mit' -helf-es, assistance ; charity. 

mit'-hilf, assistance, aid. 

mit' I, remedy. 

mit'-laidt, sympathy. 

mit-lai-das, sympathy. 

mit' -lok' -ka, to entice ; to call along 
with, or away. 

mit'-mach-a, to take part ; to par- 

mits, mittens. 

mod' -el, a mould, or pattern ; a 

mod'-'l-a, to model, to mould. 

mol. 1. time ; once ; once on a time. 
Also pronounced in various 
localities as e-mbl'. 
2. a mark, nceva materna. 

mo' -la, to draw, with pencil or pen. 

mo'-lar, a draughtsman ; one who 

mo-las'-es, molasses. 

mo-las'-ich, molasses. 

md'ler, 1. a mole, or mark upon 

the skin. 
2. a draughtsman. 

mb'-li, once ; corruption of e nf -mol. 

mol'-ka, whey. 

mops' -kop, a dull fellow ; a mope. 

mo-rasht', morass, mud. 

mo s, 1. moss. 

2. measure (of capacity). 

mosh'-kop, "mush-head," a -stupid 

mos-Un', muslin. 

mos'-s'l-in', muslin. 

mud'-ich, moody, spirited. 

mud' -Ids, dejected ; without energy. 

mud'-ma-sa, to surmise, to conjec- 

mud' '-r '-grant, mother-wort. 

mud'-'r-karn, the black grains found 
in rye, known as ergot. 

mud'-'rtce, pressure within the 
stomach and oesophagus, 
caused by indigestion, etc. 

mudt, mood, condition, disposition. 

mud'-fr, 1. mother. 

2. womb. 

3. mother of vinegar. 

4. burr of a screw. 
mud'-t'r-shbf, ewe. 

mud' -V r-shprocfi, mother tongue. 
muk, a fly. 
muV-li-kop, tadpole. 
mund'-er, active, lively; well. 
mus, must. 
mush'-der, pattern. 
mush-kad' -nis, nutmeg ; nutmegs. 
mush-kad'-nus, nutmeg. 
mush'-ked, musket. 
musJi'-kW-ter, mosquito. 
mush'-' I, muscle ( bivalve). 
mut'-to, motto. 

'n, 1. contraction of German ein, 
einen, eines; as a prefix, or 
preceding a word signifies a, 

2. contraction of German ihn, 
ihnen, es ; as a suffix, or fol- 
lowing a word, signifies him, 
them, to them. 

nab, hub of a wheel. 

nacht, night. 

nacht'-haf'-fa, chamber pot. 

nacht' -es-sa, supper. 

nacht' -mol, Communion; the Lord's 

nacht 1 -wech-der, night watchman. 

na-dlr'-Uch, natural. 

na-dir 1 ' -lich-ar-wais 1 ', naturally ; in 
the course of events. 

na-dir' -lich-ked, natural, natural- 

na-dur', nature. 

Hoffman. J 


[Dec. 21, 

na-dur 1 '-ga-wa, natural gifts; talents. 

na-dur' -ken-ner, naturalist. 

na'-e, near, neighborhood of. 

na'-gha, to gnaw. 

na'-ghas, a gnawing ; remorse. 

na'-gh'l, nail. 

na'-gh'l a, to nail. 

na'-gWl-bo'-ra, gimlet. 

na'-gh'l-fasht, immovable, fixed. 

na'-gh'l-flus, whitlow. 

nai, new. 

nai n , in, into. 

nai 111 '-brech-a, to break in ; to bur- 

naP'-brmg-a, to bring in, or into. 

naid, envy. 

nai'-dich, envious. 

nai' -gir-ish, inquisitive. 

nai' -ich-ke' -da, news. 

nai a/ -laich-ta, to light one into an 
apartment ; to show to a 
room by also carrying a 

nai'-lich, lately, recently. 

nai' licht, new moon; lit., new light. 

nai n '-na, nine. 

nai n '-se n -na, to understand ; to 
comprehend ; lit., to see into. 

nai?' -shpar-ra, to lock, or bolt into ; 
to secure. 

nai^' -shtim-ma, to elect to office. 

nak'-ich, naked ; bare. 

na'-ma, 1. a name. 
2. to name. 

na' -ma-buch, dictionary. 

na'-mens, by the name of ; named. 

nan'-ner, together, one another. 

nar, fool. 

nar' -a-drech, foolishness. 

nar'-a-haus, insane asylum. 

nar' -a-shtrech, an act of foolishness. 

nardt, north. 

nardt'-lich, northerly, toward the 

nardt' -licht, aurora borealis. 

nardt' -shain, aurora borealis. 

ndrf, nerve ; courage. 

nar' -haft, nutritious, power of sus- 

nar'-ish, crazy, insane. 

ndr' -ish-ke' -da, foolishness, "tom- 

n'ar'-yeds, nowhere, in no place ; 
from in and ar'-yets. 

nas, wet, moist. 

nas, nose. 

nas'-harn, rhinoceros. 

nasht, branch of a tree. 

nas' -loch, nostril ; lit., nose hole. 

nau n , now. 

na'-w'l, navel. 

na'-w'l-bin, navel band, or bandage. 

na-w'l-bruch, umbilical rupture. 

na f -w'l-shnur, umbilical cord. 

nau'-ba, anything serious, or re- 
quiring delicate procedure or 
manipulation ; difficulty of 
accomplishment, almost an 
equivalent of the common 
expression "no joking." 

ne, neighborhood, vicinity. 

ne n , no. 

ne'-a, to sew. 

ne'-ar, nearer ; seldom used, the 
usual word being ne'-ghar. 

ne'-arn, milliner, seamstress. 

ne'-thar, nearer. 

nech' -ber-lich, neighborly. 

ne'-dich, needy, necessary. 

ned'-lich, irritable, fault finding. 

ne'-dich-a, to invite. 

ne'-ghar, 1. nearer. 
2. negro. 

ne'-gh'l-chiar, cloves ; small nails ; 
lit., small nails. 

negsht, next, near, nearest. 

neksht, near, nearest, next. 

nem'-lich, namely; as follow; the 

nem'-ma, to take, to select. 

nem'-mar, a taker, or receiver. 

nen'-na, to name, to suggest. 




ne'-ra, to nourish. 

nesht, nest. 

nesht'-'l-a, to nestle, to smuggle. 

net, 1. not. 

2. neat, tidy. 

net'-des'-dx-wen'-ich-er, nevertheless 
nets, thread, sewing cotton. 
nets, peritoneum. 

ne'-wa, beside, aside of, on the side. 
ne'-wa-bai, from another source ; by 

the side of; from the side. 
ne'-wa-dra n , beside ; alongside of. 
ne'-wa-gaul, the horse hitched to the 

right of the saddle horse. 
ne'-wa-ge-bai'-er, out-buildings. 
ne'-wa-har, alongside of ; from a 

side source. 
ne' -wa-kosh' -ta, extra or incidental 


ne' -wa-sach' -a, extra, things not es- 

ne'-wa-shtrds, side street ; by-way. 
ne'-w'l, fog, dew, mist. 
ne'-w'l-a, to fall like mist ; to fall 

like drizzling rain. 
ne'-w'l-ich, misty, foggy. 
ni n , never. 
id' -da, to rivet. 
ni'-dar, down, low. 
ni' -dar-drech-dich, contemptible. 
ni'-dar -drecli'-lich, contemptible, 


ni' -dar-gshla' -gha, depressed, de- 
jected, stricken down. 
rii'-dich-ket, neatness. 
niks, nothing. 

niks'-nuts, good-for-nothing. 
niks ' -nuts -ich, worthless, bad. 
nika' -wis-ser, know-nothing. 
nim'-me, no more, no longer ; from 

the German nicht mehr. 
nim'-mandt, no one. 
itim'-mer^ no more, no one. 
niin'-mi, no longer, no more, not 

any more. 
nl'-moldt, no one ; at no time. 


nl'-mols, at no time, never. 

nip'-pa, to nip, to pinch. 

riir, kidney. 

rii'-ra-fet, suet. 

ni'-ra-graut, kidney-wort. 

nV -ra-knank' -et, kidney disease. 

ni' -ra-shtik, the rump of veal. 

mr'-insJi-Uc7i, suet ; lit., kidney 

nis, 1. nits; the eggs of lice or other 

small insects. 
2. nuts. 

nl'-sa, to sneeze. 

nish'-d'l-a, to nestle ; to smuggle. 

nu'-shis-ser, gad fly. 

nis'-sich, nitty ; having nits. 

mt'-na-gh'l, rivet bolt. 

nits' -lich, useful. 

ni'-wer, across, over. 

'n-no* ', then, afterwards. 

no', after, then, afterwards. 

nocTi, yet, still. 

ndch, after, toward. 

noch'-a-mol', again, once more. 

noch' -be' -da, to repeat a prayer after 

noch'-ber, neighbor. 

noch' -ber -lich, neighborly. 

noch'-ber -shaft, neighborhood. 

noch '-bring '-a, to raise, to bring up. 

noch'-dem, after this, hereafter ; 

noch'-denk-ka, to consider, to reflect. 

noch' -der-hand, afterwards. 

noch' -en-an' -er, successive, succes- 
sively ; one after another. 

noch' -es' -sa, an after meal ; a sec- 
ond table ; to eat after the 

noch' -fro-gha, to inquire ; to famil- 
iarize through inquiry. 

noch' -ga-bort, the placenta after- 

nbch'-ge-wa, to yield. 

noch'-har, afterward, hereafter. 

noch' -hel-fa, to aid, to assist. 

129. 2G. PRINTED MARCH 5, 1889. 



[Dec. 21, 

noch'-kum-mes, descendants, de- 

noch' -les-ich, careless, negligent. 

noch' -les-ich-kait, carelessness, neg- 

noch' -los-sa, to relax, to abate. 

noch' -mit-dak' , afternoon. 

noch'-mbls, afterwards, again. 

noch'-richt, a bit of news, notice. 

noch 1 '-rich-ta, news. 

noch' -ter -hand, afterwards, subse- 

ndch'-wais, proof, explanation. - 

nod'-glech, opeii link. 

no'-d'l, a needle. 

nod' -'I, a bungler, a stupid fellow. 

nod'-lik, a "white lie;" a lie of 
necessity, or desire to avoid 
telling facts. 

nodt, 1. need, distress. 
2. seam. 

nodt' -lai-da, to suffer want ; to suf- 
fer loss or damages. 

nodt' -lai-ta, to suffer damages ; to 
be in want. 

nod' -wen-ich, necessary, needful. 

nod' -wen-ich-kait, need, necessity. 

no-fem'-ber, November. 

no'-fro-gha, to inquire ; to familiar- 
ize one's self by inquiry. 

nb'-ge-wa, to yield, to give in. 

no'-hel-fa, to aid or assist. 

nol, naught, cipher. 

no' -los-sa,, to relax, to abate. 

no'-mach-a, to imitate, to counter- 

nom' -mi-dak, afternoon. 

no' -re' -cha, to reach after, to at- 
tempt to reach after a thing. 

no'-rech-a, to rake, after the reaper. 

no'-sa-gha, to repeat after another. 

not, a note, letter or bill. 

iiu'-d^l, noodle ; dough rolled out 
flat and cut into thin strands, 
in imitation of maccaroni, for 
soup. * 

nu' d'l-sup, noodle soup. 

nud'-sa, use, profit, service. 

nuf, up, upward to a place or posi- 

nvf'-tsus, upwards. 

nuk'-ka, to nod, to nudge. 

num f -ma, only, but. 

nun'ar, down, downward ; down 
from a place or position. 

nun'-ar-tsus, downwards. 

nup'-ba, to have important features, 
to be difficult of accomplish- 
ment ; corruption of nau'-bd. 

nur, only. 

nuts, use, of service. 

nut'-sa, of use, serviceable. 

ob, whether. 

obht, fruit. 

obsJit'-bam, fruit tree. 

och'-dem, breath. 

od'-er, or. 

o'der, a vein ; frequently applied to 

artery pols -oder. 
d'-der-a, to ooze from a wound, 

or the abraded skin. 
o' der-lo'-sd, to bleed venesection. 
od'-r, or. 

of -en-bar, manifest. 
of -fa, stove, oven. 
of'-fa-ror, stove-pipe. 
of-kors', certainly ; corruption of 

English o/and course, 
of n f -bar '-ing, revelation. 
oft, often, frequently. 
oks, ox, steer. 
oks'-ich, brutal. 
ol, eel. 

o'laus-war'-tsel, elecampane. 
o'-lich, oil, oily. 
or, ear. 

d'-ra-ble'-ser, tale bearer, tattler. 
or'-faik, a box on the ear, a slap on 

the ear of another, with the 

flat hand. 
ds, carrion. 




os'-7ia-na, turkey buzzard. 

osh'-der-a, Easter. 

osh'-der-ai, Easter egg. 

osh'-der-blum, narcissus. 

o'-tem, breath. 

o'-wer, whether he ; corruption of 

ob and er. 

b'-wet-rodt, evening red of sunset. 
o'-w'r-den, loft in a barn. 

pad, path, trail. 

pad-si- ent', a patient. 

pfif, priest, preacher ; not a polite 

paif, 1. a pipe, a tube. 
2. a whistle. 

pai'-fa, to whistle ; to play the fife. 

pai'-far, a piper, a whistler. 

pail, an arrow. 

pai'-lar, 1. a pier of a bridge. 
2. a pillow (seldom used). 

pain, torment, suffering. 

pain'-ich-a, to torment, to worry, 
to distress. 

pain'-lich, distressful, painful. 

pak, 1. package, a bundle. 
2. a pack. 

pa-lasht', palace. 

pan, pan. 

pan'-Jias, scrapple ; a solid mass ob- 
tained by boiling buckwheat 
flour in the liquor resulting 
from boiling pudding ( liver 
sausage); lit., pan rabbit. 

pan' -na-kuch' -a, pan cake ; pan 

pat, path, trail. 

par, pair, couple. 

pa'-ra } to pair, to match. 

par'-a-bla, small-pox. 

par'-a-Ua-plan'-tsa, to vaccinate ; 
lit., to plant small -pox. 

par f -ra, pastor, minister of the 

par'-ra-dis, paradise. 


par 1 ' -ras-kin-ner, catechumens; can- 
didates in preparation for 
joining the church. 
par-sen' -lich, personal. 
par'-shing, peach. 
ped'-'l, a boat oar. 
ped'-'l-a, 1. to peddle, to hawk 

2. to row as a boat. 
ped'-'r, god-father. 
pedts, in a quandary, in "a pinch," 

in a tight place. 
ped'-tsa, to pinch, to clamp. 
pek, 1. a package. 

2. a peck measure. 
pen'-s'l, 1. a pencil. 

2. a paint brush. 
pesht, a pest, a bother. 
pesht'-bld'd'r, a carbuncle. 
pesJi' -tich-a, to annoy, to harass. 
pe'-ter-li, parsley. 
pflech, foster. 
pflicht, duty, obligation. 
pflich' -tich-a, to obligate. 
pflicht'-ich-kait, duty, obligation. 
pflicht 1 -lich, dutiful, obligatory. 
pifj a whistle, a shrill whistling 

pik, 1. choice, selection. 

2. a pick or pick ax. 
pik'-ka, to pick, to select. 
pik'-tar, picture, an illustration. 
pilg'-rais, Pilgrim's progress. 
pin' -bo ra, pegging awl. 
ping'-shta, Whitsun-tide. 
pingsht'-blum, lilac (flower). 
ping sht' -man' -dak, Whit-Monday. 
pingsht'-na-gh'l, pink (flower). 
pink' -lich, punctual. 
pinkt'-lich, punctual, 
pin'-na-gh'l, peg used by cobblers. 
pi'-ro, bureau. 
pish-dol', pistol, revolver. 
pish' -per, a whisper. 



[Dec. 21, 

pisJi'-per-a, to whisper. 

pish'-bla, to whisper ; to converse 

in an undertone. 
pis'-sa-bet, dandelion. 
plads, place, space, room. 
plad'-sha, 1. to splash. 

2. to tattle or gossip. 
pla'-net, planet. 
plank, plank. 
plan'sa, 1. to plant. 

2. pi. of plans, plant. 
plap'-er-maiil, a tattler, a "blab- 
ber," a gossip. 
plash'-der-a, to plaster. 
plash'-d'r, plaster. 
plats, place, location, space. 
plau'-der, conversation ; the noise 

of voices in talking. 
plau'-der-a, to converse, to talk. 
plan' -der-icli, talkative. 
pie-sir 1 , pleasure, enjoyment. 
pie-sir' -lich, enjoyable, agreeable. 
plok, 1. a plow. 

2. a log. 
plok, 1. annoyance, toil. 

2. sickness. 

plok'-ket, log chain ; used in drag- 
ging logs. 

plop'-per-ra, to babble, to tattle. 
ptu'-glta, to plow. 
pluk, a plow. 
pluk'-gren-d'l, plow beam. 
pluk'-sher, plow share. 
pod' -da, 1. to bud, to sprout. 

2. pi. of pod or podt. 
po'-ha-na, peacock. 
po'-Jiink'l, pea fowl (female). 
pok, a pimple. 

pok'-bi-ra, poke berries, poke plant. 
pok'-ich, pimpled. 
pok'-ich, slow, "poking." 
pols'-o-der, artery. 
posh' -da, post, posts. 
posJit' -af-fis, post office. 
posht'-mesh-der, postmaster. 
posht'-ta, post, posts. 

praclit, splendor. 

pracht'-fol, magnificent. 

pral'-la, to boast, to brag. 

pral'-lar, a braggart. 

prech'-tich, excellent, splendid. 

pred'-ich-a, to preach. 

pred' -ich-amt, ministry ; a charge. 

pred'-ich-er, preacher, minister of 
the Gospel. 

pres'-ent, prison. 

pri'-gh'l, a club, cudgel. 

pri'-gh'l-a, to club, to cudgel. 

pri'-gh'l-hols, fire wood, consisting 
of heavy sticks. 

pri'-gh'l-sup, a term used to denote 
a thrashing or clubbing in- 
flicted upon another. 

pro'-fa-tsai'-a, to predict, to proph- 
esy, to foretell. 

pro-fet', prophet, a wiseacre. 

pro-wi'-ra, to try, to attempt. 

psa'-l'm, psalm. 

psal'-t'r, psalter. 

pud'-l-hund, a poodle ( dog). 

pul'-w'r, powder, gunpowder. 

pul'-w'r-harn, powder horn. 

pund, pound. 

punk, punk, decayed wood. 

ra'-clia, 1. mouth applied to ani- 
mals ; an opening like a 
2. revenge. 

rach'-ger-ish, avaricious, grasping. 

racli-l' -rish, vindictive. 

rad, wheel. 

ra-gun', raccoon. 

rai, a row. 

rai", 1. clean, pure. 

2. in toward the speaker or 
into an enclosure. 

rai' -a, 1. to baste. 

2. to regret, to bemoan. 

3. the instep of the foot. 
raib'-ai-sa, a grater. 
rai'-blum, everlasting flower. 




raich, 1. rich, wealthy. 

2. kingdom, empire. 
raich'-dum, 1. riches, wealth. 

2. kingdom. 

rai'-da, to ride on horseback. 
raif -drau-wa, chicken grapes. 
rai'-fa, frost. 
raim, a rhyme, a ballad. 
raim'-ma, 1. to agree with one an- 

2. to rhyme. 
rai'-mi-dicJi, repentant. 
rain, pure, clean. 
rai'-nich-a, to purify, to cleanse. 
rai'-sa, 1. to tear, to sever by pulling 

2. to travel. 

rais'-end, stirring, agitating. 
rais'-hem-'l, that portion of a wag- 
on on which the sliding piece 

rai'-wa, to rub, to chafe. 
rai'-wai-sa, a grater. 
ram, sash. 
ram, cream. 
ram'-lefl, skimmer; lit., cream 


ran'-af, rim. 
ran'-aft, rim. 
ranft, rim. 

rap'-'l-a, to rattle, to clatter. 
rap'-l-ich, rattling, dilapidated. 
rar, rare, scarce. 
rar f .ich-kedt, rarity, scarcity. 
ra'-sa, 1. to fume with rage. 

2. to play boisterously as chil- 

rash, hasty, rash. 
rash' -VI, a rasp. 
rap'b'l-a, to rattle, to rustle. 
rash'-b'l-ich, rasping. 
ras'-'m, rosin. 
rat, rat. 

raw, rough, coarse. 
raub, a caterpillar. 

rau'-bash'-ticJi, rough, ill-mannered, 

rau'bels', a coarse, rude fellow. 
rau'-bi-gh'l, a coarse fellow. 
raus, out of, out from. 
raus'-fod-er a, to challenge, to dare 

to come forward. 
raus'-ge-wa, to give out, given out ; 

to publish or issue. 
raush, a spree. 
rau'-sha, to rustle, to sound in a 

rushing manner. 
ra-wa, to rob. 
ra-wer, robber. 
ra'-wer-ai, robbery. 
re af , clean, pure. 
reb, vine. 
re'-cJia, to reach. 
rech'-a, 1. a rake. 

2. to rake; to gather with a rake. 
rech'-la, 1. to figure, to calculate. 

2. to reckon or imagine. 
rech'-'l-buck, arithmetic book. 
rech'-lar, mathematician, reckoner. 
rech'-ling, reckoning, account. 
rech'-ning, an account, bill. 
rech'-nung, account. 
recht, right ; correct. 
rechV-fart'-ich-a, to justify. 
recht 1 -mes-ich, correctly, lawfully. 
recht' -mes-icli-ket, legality. 
rechts, to the right. 
recht'-shaf-fa, honest, upright. 
recht' -shaf-ich, honest, virtuous. 
re' -da, to speak or to address. 
red f -ich, radish. 
red-' I, red chalk. 
red'-l-a, measles. 
red'-ner, speaker, orator. 
red'-sa, to tease, to irritate. 
redt, speech, oration, address. 
ref, hoop. 

ref, rack ; grain crad4e. 
ref-a-rl', an arbitration ; referee. 
ref'-a-rl'-man, arbitrator ; referee. 
re'-fart, tansy. 

, 1- to hoop or to bind with 



[Dec. 21, 

ref'-shpros-sa, one of the upright 
bars, or rounds, of a rack. 

ref-shtek'-ka, hoop poles ; i.e , poles 
or rods used for making bar- 
rel hoops. 

re'-gha, to move, to urge. 

re'-gha, rain. 

re'-gha-fo-g7i'l, cuckoo ; lit., rain 

re-gJia-ment' , regiment. 

re' -gha-mes-ser, rain gauge. 

re'-gha-ra, to rain. 

re'-ghar-ich, rainy. 

re'-gha-warm, earth worm ; angle 

re-g7il'-ra, to rule, to govern. 

re-glti' -ring, government, rule. 

re-ghish'-der, register, index. 

re'-gKl, rule, regulation. 

re'-gh'l-me'-sich, regularly. 

re'-gh'l-me'-sic7i-kait, regularity. 

rel'-yan, religion. 

ren'-na, to thrust, to push. 

rer, tube, pipe. 

res, 1. a race of speed. 

2. a journey, tour. 

3. race for conducting water. 
re'-sa, to take a journey. 

re-set', receipt. 

re'-se'-ta, to receipt, to sign. 

resh'-da, to roast. 

res7i'-der, f d patch on shoes or boots. 

resh'-ta, to arrest. 

ret'-sa, to tease. 

rets-H, riddle. 

re-tsept, receipt, recipe. 

retsJi'-a, to tattle. 

retsh' -bet~ti, a tattle tale ; one who 
hawks about news not in- 
tended for others. 

retsh' -maul, a tattle tale. 

rets'-l-a, 1. measles. 
2. riddles. 

ret'-ta, to save, to rescue. 

rib, turnip.^ 

rib, rib. 

r~i'-cJia, to smell, to scent. 

rich-ar, smeller, nose. 

rich'-ta, to judge, to direct. 

rich'-ter, judge ; a director or 

rich' -tich, correct. 

richt' -shaidt, a ten-foot pole, used 
by builders; carpenter's rule. 

rid'-'l-a, 1. to agitate, to shake, to 

stir up. 

2. small lumps of dough made 
of flour, eggs, etc. for boil- 
ing in milk for soup. 

rid'-'l-sup, soup made of small frag- 
ments or lumps of dough 
boiled in milk. 

ri'-gJi'l, rail, bar ; bolt. 

ri-gh'l-a, to bolt or bar. 

ri'-gh'l-shlos, a bolt lock. 

rik, back. 

rik'-ka, to move, or budge. 

rik'-shtrang, back bone, the spine. 

rilps, an uncouth, ill-bred fellow. 

rilps'-ich, ill-bred, uncouth. 

ri'-ma, a strap or leathern thong. 

rin, bark as of trees. 

rind, heifer. 

ring'-a, to place rings into hogs' 

ring'-aus-shla'-glia, a game, com- 
monly known as Copenhagen; 
a kissing game. 

ring'- I, a ringlet. 

ring'-l-blum, marigold. 

rin'-na, 1. to leak. 
2. to bark. 

rins'-fi, neat cattle ; the rabble. 

rins'-flesh, beef. 

rins' -led-ter, calf -skin leather, leath- 
er for uppers. 

rins'-tsung, beef tongue. 

rip, rib. 

rip'-pa-fel, the pleura. 

rip'-pa-sJitos, a nudge in the ribs. 

rir'-ra, to stir. 

rlr'-end, stirring, exciting. 




ris, 1. a crevice, a fissure. 
2. a tear or rent. 

rish'-bla, panicles. 

risht'-ar-ai', preparations. 

risht 1 '-haus, an arsenal. 

risht' -ic7i, vigorous. 

ri&fit'-ta, to prepare : to make 
preparations ; to place in or- 

rislit'-ing, preparation. 

rls' 'I, snout. 

ris'-'l-but-ser, an insulting epithet ; 
lit., snout wiper. 

rl'-wa, turnips ; rodt beets=red- 
turnips ; gel carrots=yellow 

ro, raw, sore. 

rod, 1. counsel, advice. 
2. red. 

ro'-da, 1. to guess. 

2. to counsel, to advise. 

rdd'-ge-w'r, counselor, adviser. 

rod'-sam, advisable. 

rodt, red. 

rodt'-kols, logwood (dye). 

rodt'-kop, 1. red-head. 

2. red-headed woodpecker. 

rodt'-lich, reddish. 

rodt'-prin-se'-be-dat', red precipi- 

rddt'-'r-hin-k'l-darm, pimpernel. 

rodt'-rlb, beet ; lit., red turnip. 

rodt'-war'-tsel, blood root ; Sanguin- 
aria canadensis. 

rok, coat. 

rok'-fli-gh'l, coat tail, coat flap. 

rol'-du-wak, twist tobacco ; plug to- 

rol'-la, to roll. 

rop'-pa, to pull, to pluck. 

rosht, rust. 

ror, tube, pipe, flue. 

ror'-blech, sheet iron. 

ro-sain', raisin. 

rosk'-da, to rust. 

roshd'-gret, gridiron ; boiler. 

rosJid'-icJi, rusty. 

roshdt, a roast. 

roskt', rust. 

rosh'-ta, to rust, to oxidize. 

rosJi'-tich, rusty. 

rots, secretion from the nose. 

rots'-er, 1. an uncouth term to de- 
signate coryza. 
2. an impudent child. 

rots'-hols, slippery elm ; lit., "snot 

rots' -icJi, "snotty," filthy from na-, 
sal discharge. 

rots' -lef -el, a vulgar epithet of con- 
tempt ; applied to a mean, . 
contemptible fellow. 

rots'-nas, a pert, impudent child ; 
lit., "snot nose." 

ru, rest, tranquility, quiet. 

ru' der, rudder of boat. 

ruf, up to a place. 

in'-fa, to call. 

ru'-gha, to rest. 

ru'-ich, quiet, tranquil. 

ruk, rest, stop ; quit. 

ru'la, to rule, to govern. 

rum, around, about. 

rum'-a-dis, rheumatism. 

rum'-a-dits, rheumatism (rare). 

rum'-le-fer, tramp. 

rund, round. 

rund'-ing, roundness. -. 

rund'-lich, roundish. 

rund' -me' -sel, gouge. 

rung'-a-ni'-ra r to ruin, to destroy. 

run'-na, standard (of a wagon). 

run'-n'r, down, down to a place. 

run'-s'l, a wrinkle. 

runs'-lick, wrinkled, shriveled. 

rr, dysentery. 

rur'-graut, cudweed. 

rus, soot. 

rus'-ich, sooty. 

rut, 1. rod, a rood. 

2. rod of thrashing flail. 

rutsh, a slide, a coasting-hill. 



[Dec. 21, 

rut'-sha, 1. to slide on one's seat. 
2. to coast on a hillside with 

rut'-slii, coasting -hill. 

's, contraction of es it, and gene- 
rally sounded as s, without 
the initial short e. 
sa n , son. 
sa n '-ma, seed. 
sack, thing. 

sach'-ta, slowly, quietly. 
sad'l, saddle. 
sad'l-ar, saddler. 
sad f 'l-gird, saddle girth. 
sads, yeast. 
saf'-ran, saffron. 
saft, sap, juice. 
saf'-ta, quietly, stealthily. 
saft'-ich, juicy. 
saft'-lieh, quietly, softly. 
sa'-gha, to say, to tell. 
sa'-ghas, a saying, a myth. 
sai, 1. a sieve. 

2. pi. of sau hog. 
m' n , 1. to be. 

2. his. 
sai'-ar-ai', dirty work, a disgraceful 


sai'-ar-lich, tart, acidified. 
sai' -barsh-ta, bristles, hog bristles. 
sai'-bdr-tsel, 1. a "dirty villain," a 

2. purslane. 

sai' -ban, horse bean ; lit., hog bean. 
sai' -ben, pig sty. 
said, 1. page, side. 

2. since ; not as frequent as 


sai'-da, silk, silken. 
sai'-duch, straining cloth. 
sai' -da-flesh, bacon ; lit., side meat. 
sai' -fas, 1. swill barrel. 

2. applied to a common drunk- 
sai' flesh, pork. 

'-tser, a 

saif'-tser-a, to sigh. 

sai'-ish, "piggish," gluttonous. 

sai'-ki-w'l, swill bucket. 

sa'-ma, 1. seed ; growing grain. 
2. to hem or stitch. 

sarsht, first, the first; contraction 
of es arsht the first. 

sa'-tan, Satan. 

sa-ta'-nish, devilish, satanical. 

ta'-yer, a sawyer. 

sail, a shoemaker's awl. 

sai' -o-ra-blat, plantain leaf; plan- 
tain stalk. 

sai'-o-ra-blet'-ter, plaintain leaves. 

sai' -shnit-ter, a gelder of hogs. 

sai'-wa-ra, to cleanse. 

sai' -war-lich, cleanly, neat. 

sak, 1. a bag, a sack. 

2. a pocket in clothing. 

sak'-dlb, pickpocket. 

sak' -ra-ment' , sacrament ; used also 
as a curse. 

sal-be'-d'r, saltpetre. 

sal'-dat, soldier. 

sal-pe'-ter, saltpetre. 

sals, 1. salt. 

2. epsom salts. 

sals'-baks, salt cellar. 

sals' -flus, salt rheum. 

sals'-lak, brine, pickle. 

sal'-wai n , sage. 

sal' -wen, selvedge. 

sa af -ma-kop, seed pod. 

sam'-la, to gather, to collect. 

sam'-ling, collection, gathering. 

samsh'-dak, Saturday. 

samt, together with. 

sand, sand. 

sanft, mild, soft. 

sanft 1 -med-ich, gentle. 

sanft'-mut, gentleness. 

sans'-fra, daughter-in-law ; lit. ,son's 

sar'-ik-felt'-ich, solicitous, careful. 

sar'-ik-los, careless. 



sar' -ik-sam, careful. 

sart, sort, kind. 

sar'-ya, 1. cares, trouble. 

2. to provide, to care for. 

sar'-ya-frai, free from care. 

sas f -sa-fras', sassafras. 

sas-sa-fril', sarsaparilla. 

sat, satisfied, gratified. 

sats, yeast. 

sau, a sow, pig, hog. 

sau'-a, to besmear, to daub. 

sau'-ar. sour, acidulous. 

8au' -er-dek, leaven, leavened dough. 

sau' -er- grant, sourkraut. Cabbage 
cut into shreds slaw and 
packed in salt to form pickle 
or brine. It is then boiled 
and served. Frequently salt 
meat, or sausage, is boiled 
with it. 

sau 1 '-er-kraut, sourkraut. 

sau'-er-ramb'l, sorrel a plant. 

sauf'-fa, 1. to drink animals. 

2. to drink to excess drunkard. 

sauf -fer-ai, a spree, a drunken 

sauf'-gich-ter-a, delirium tremens. 

sauf'-lo-d'l, a professional drunkard, 
a drunken loafer. 

sau'-wer, clean, pure. 

se, sea, ocean. 

se' -a, 1. to sow. 

2. to see, to look (not common). 

se'-ar, a sower, a planter. 

sech, coulter. 

sed, string, string of instrument. 

seds, clinch iron. 

sef, soap ; sJirriir sef soft soap ; sef 
was'-ser soap suds. 

seg, a saw. 

se'-glia, to saw. 

seg'-bok, saw buck, "saw horse." 

seg'-mel, saw dust. 

seg'-mil, saw mill. 

seg' -rich' -ter, saw-rest ; lit., saw 


se-gunt', a second of time. 

seks, six. 

sek'-sa, six. 

sekst, sixth. 

sel, that (before neuter gender, and 
occasionally feminine). 

sel, 1. soul. 

2. a wisp of straw for tying a 

sel'-a-mol, at that time, then. 

sel'-a-mols, in those times, then ; at 
that time. 

sel'-ar, that (before masculine sub- 

8el'-ar-ich, celery. 

sel'-ich, blessed, holy. 

sel' -ich-kait, salvation, state of bless- 
ed ness. 

sel' -ich-ked, salvation ; condition of 

sel'-li, that (before substantive fern, 
or pi. of any gender). 

selbslit' -mard, suicide. 

sel'-da, seldom, rarely. 

sel'-wen, selvedge. 

sel'-wer, self. 

sem'-li, assembly Legislature of a 

sem'-U-man, assemblyman mem- 
ber of State Legislature. 

se n '-na, to see, to look, to behold. 

$en'-et, senate. 

senk'-'l, plummet. 

sens, scythe. 

ses'-'r, assessor. 

ses'-ment, assessment. 

set, should. 

set, the season for sowing cereals. 

stt'-sa, to seat, to seat one's self, to 

se'-warsht, the upper ; from des and 

shab, moth. 

sha'-bok, scurvy. 

sJiad, a pity. 

sha'-da, shadow, shade. 
129. 2n. PRINTED MARCH 5, 1889. 



[Dec. 21, 

sha'-da, injury, damage, loss. 
sliad'-da, shadow. 
shad'-los, free of harm. 
si ad 1 '-Id s -band, indemnity bond. 
shaf -fa, t WO rk. 
shaf'-ic7i, industrious. 
shal nf , shine, sign. 
shai'-a, to scare, to frighten. 
shai'-ar, barn. 

shai'-ar-den, barn floor, upon which 
threshing was formerly done. 
shaib, 1. target for shooting. 

2. pane of glass for window. 
shai nl '-Tiai-lich, hypocritical, false. 
shai'-led'-ter, blinker of horse har- 

shain, shine, to appear. 
shai nf -na, 1. to shine, to glisten. 

2. to appear. 
shal, sound, echo. 
shal, 1. shell, rind. 

2. shawl. 

sha' -la-wok' , balance. 
shalk'-yor, leap year. 
shal' -la, to echo, to sound. 
slial' -lach, scailet. 
shal'-laeh-fris'l, scarlet rash. 
shal'-lak, a wag, a scamp. 
sham, froth, scum. 
sham' -left, skimming spoon. 
shand, shame. 
shand'-bar, shameful. 
shand-bar'-lich, shamefully. 
shank, closet, cupboard. 
shop, shop, work room. 
8har ! , scissors, shears. 
sliar, plow-share. 
sharf, sharp. 
shar'-a-fa, to sharpen. 
shar'-a-wa, 1. fragment of pottery; 
pieces of pots. 

2. shale or shaly formation. 
shar'-bok, scurvy. 
sTiar'-fa, to sharpen. 
sharn' '-shda, shimney. 
sharn'-shda-but'-ser, chimney sweep 

shar'-ra, to cut with scissors, to 

sJiarts, apron. 

sharts, apron. 

sharts'-fel, leather apron. 

shats, sweetheart. 

shat'-ta, shade, shadow. 

shat'-tich, shady. 

shau'-dtr-a, to shudder. 

shau'-der-ich, shuddering, terrible, 

shau'-der-haft, terrible, agonizing. 

shau'-fel, shovel. 

sJiau'-f'l, a shovel. 

shau'-f'l-a, to shovel. 

sliau'-f'l-ek 1 , cultivator. 

sha'-wa, 1. to scrape, to shave. 
2. pi. of shab, moth. 

shba'-da, spavin. 

shbaich'-er, the second or upper- 

shbaU, spite. 

shbank, pluck, "spunk," temper. 

8hban'-na> to span, to stretch. 

shban'-pet, cross beam. 

shbar, a brake. 

shbar' -a-gras, asparagus. 

shbar'-it, spirit, spirits. 

sJibdr'-ket, brake chain ; log chain. 

8hbar'-lich, scarce. 

shbar'-ling, sparrow. 

shbar'-ra, to put on brakes, to lock. 

shbar'-ra, rafters. 

shbar f -ra, to save, to spare. 

shbas, sport, play ; generally term- 
ed kshpas. 

shbar'-sam, economical, saving. 

8hbar ft w-la, persimmons. 

shbat-al'-ra, to promenade ; to go 
visiting or calling. 

s7ibau'-a, to spit. 

shbau'-baks, spittoon. 

sJibauds, saliva. 

shbe", chips. 

shbed'-la, to mock. 

shbed'-lich, mockingly. 




sJibek, bacon, fat ; adipose tissue. 

aJibek-da'-gh'l, spectacle, a sight. 

shbek-dlf, a spy glass ; small tele- 

slibek 1 '-drau-wa, fox grapes. 

ehbek'-maus, bat vespertilio. 

slibek 1 -shwart , a piece of bacon used 
to grease a griddle, in baking 
batter cakes. 

shbel, pin. ;.' 

shbel'-la, to pin. 

shpeng'-lar, tinker. 

shbets'^l, sparrow ; generic term for 

shbi-an', a spy. 

shbi'-gh'l, mirror. 

shbi'-la, 1. to play. 
2. to rinse. 

sfibl'-lar, a player ; a gambler. 

shbll'-sach, toys play things. 

shbll' -shis' I, dish pan. 

shpll'-was'-ser, dish water. 

shbin, spider. 

shbin'-d'l, pivot ; spindle. 

shbin'-na, 1. to spin. 
2. pi of shbin. 

slibin'-na-rad', spinning wheel. 

shbin-nat', spinach. 

shbin' -na-iceb', cobweb. 

shbis, spear. 

shbit'-sa, 1 . to point, to sharpen to 

a point. 
2. a point, apex. 

shbit'-sich, pointed, acute. 

shblit' ta, to split. 

ahbo'-ra, spur. 

8hbot, derision, mockery. 

shbot, late. 

shbot' -na-ma, nickname. 

shbot'-ta, to mock, to scorn. 

shbot'-yor, autumn. 

shbrad' -lich, spread out. 

shbrau, chaff. 

shbrau' -sak, chaff-bag, used on 

slibrauts, sprout, sucker, a shoot. 

s7ibraut'-ta, to sprout ; to throw off 
new branches. 

shbre'-a, to spread ; to spray. 

shbrech'-a, to speak, to talk. 

shbrtng-a, to run, to force to speed. 

shbrl, a spree, merry-making; a 

sJibri'-a, to spree ; to become intoxi- 

shbrich'-ward, proverb, by-word. 

zhbriks, sprigs, brads. 

shbring, a spring ; spring of water. 

shbring'-a, to run. 

shbring'-shtok, spring lancet, used 
in venesection. 

shbrits, a syringe. 

shbrit'-Ba, 1. to squirt, to sprinkle. 
2. to water with a hose. 

shbroch, speech, language. 

sbbrod'-lich, spread out. 

shbros'-sa, rounds- of bannisters, etc. 

shbruch, scriptural text, biblical 

slibruny, a leap, a spring. 

shbritng'-rl-ma, martingale of har- 

shbuk, ghost, apparition, "spook;" 
commonly termed kshpuk. 

shbuk' -ka, to spook ; manifestation 
of ghosts or apparitions ; to 

thpul, spool. 

shbund, bung. 

shbund'-bo'-ra, gauge. 

shbunk'-uh, plucky, tempered. 

shbur, track, foot-prints. 

shdab, dust. 

&hdach'-l, a spine, sharp point, a 
prickly point. 

shdach'-l-ich, prickly. 

sJidaif, stiff. 

shdaif-ing, buckram. 

shdaif'-ket, stay chain. 

shdaik'-bi-gh'l, stirrup. 

shdai'-gha, to ascend, to go up. 

shdal, stable, stall. , 



[Dec. 21, 

shdal, steel. 

shdam, branch, stem. 

shdam' -pa, to stamp, to tread heavily. 

shdand, state, condition. 

shdand'-haft, steady, steadfast. 

shdang, pole, rod. 

shdar, blackbird. 

shdar' -a-wa, to die, to expire. 

shdar '-a-wes-krank, mortally ill. 

shdarb'-lich, mortal. 

shdarb 1 -lich-kait, mortality. 

shdar'-ik, 1. strength. 
2. starch. 

shdar 1 '-ik-a, to starch, to stiffen with 

shd'drk, strength. 

shdar' -kep' -pich, stubborn, obstinate 

shdarm, storm. 

sJidarm' icJi, stormy, boisterous. 

shdarm' -wind, tempest. 

shdarn, 1. forehead. 
2. star. 

shdarn' -blum, aster; lit., star flower. 

shdarn' -hel, unclouded ; lit., star 

shtar' -na-hel, clear, unclouded. 

shtar' -na-ken' -er , astronomer. 

shdarns, confounded, confoundedly. 

sJid'drt'-sa, to tumble, to fall. 

shdat, city. 

shdat, state. 

shda'-wa, to dust, to be dusty. 

8hde n , 1. to stand. 
2. stone. 

shde n '-bok, Capricorn. 

shde n '-bo-ra, drill, used in quarrying 

shde nl '-bruch, quarry. 

slidech'-a, to stick with a sharp in- 
strument ; to stab. 

shdech'-ab'-'l, thorn apple, fruit of 
jimson weed Stramonium 

sJidek, 1. stairs. 

2. a foot-bridge across a stream, 
a tree trunk being the ordi- 
nary kind. 

tthdek'-drep-pa, stair steps. 

shdek'-ka, 1. stick, sticks, cane. 
2. to stick, to place, to put 

shdek'ka-ba-na, pole beans. 

87ide n '-kle'-a, trefoil. 

shdek'-l-la, to play hide and seek. 

shdel, 1. a place, an office. 
2. pi. of shdal, stable. 

shde'-la, to steal, to rob. 

shde'-lar, thief. 

shdel'-la, to place, or to put ; to 
stand up anything. 

shdels, stilt. 

shden'-ner, a large tub. 

shdeng'-'l, a stalk, a stem. 

shdeng'-'l-glas, wine glass. 

shdep'-pa, to stitch, to quilt. 

shdet'l, village; lit, little city. 

shdib'-cha, a small room. 

shdich, a stitch, a sting, a sudden 

shdich' -la, to hint. 

shdids, a small wooden bucket, 
having a lid ; used for carry- 
ing water to the fields for 
workmen during harvest 

shtif'-biu'-der, step-brother. 

shdif'-fad'-ter, step- father. 

shdif -mut' -ter , step-mother. 

shdij'-shwesh'-ter, step -sister. 

shdik, a piece. 

shdik'-flus, croup. 

shdik'-' I, 1. a stake. 
2. a small piece. 

shdik'-'l-a, to patch ; to do patch- 

shdik'-'l-dep'-pich, a patch quilt 
"crazy quilt," 

shdik' -l-f ens, stake fence. 

shdil, 1. a still, a retort for distilling 

2. quiet, silent. 

shdil, handle. 

shdil'-er-i, distillery. 




sMil'-la, to quiet, to soothe. 
shdil'-shdand, stagnation. 
shdil' -shwai-gha, to silence, to beck- 
on, to be silent. 
shdim, 1. voice. 

2. a vote, a ballot. 
shdim, steam. 

shdim' -ma, 1. to vote, to take a bal- 

2. to tune as an instrument. 
shdim' -ma, to steam. 
shdim'-p'l, a small surplus. 
slidink, stench, bad smell. 
stidink' -bok, a stinking fellow; some- 
times applied to old topers. 
shdink'-ka, to smell badly, to stink. 
xhdink' -kes, hand cheese ; also ap- 
plied to Swiss and Limburg 

s7idi'-w'l, boot, boots. 
shdi'-w'l-a, to tramp, to walk. 
shdi'-w'l-hols, boot tree used by 


shdi 1 '~w 'l-knecht, boot-jack. 
shdob'-ba, 1. to darn. 
2. to stop, to quit. 
shdod 1 -der-ra, to stammer. 
shdo'-di-a, 1. to meditate, to study. 

2. to steady, to make secure. 
shdoft, stuff. Generally applied to 
lumber boards, etc. , for build- 
ers' use. 
shdok, 1. cane, stick. 

2. a stack as hay or straw. 
shdok 1 -blindt, totally blind. 
shdok' -ba-na, bush beans. 
slidok'-dab, totally deaf, "stone 


shdol' -ba-ra, to stumble. 
thdol'-fus, club foot. 
shdol'- la, balls of snow which form 

on horses' hoofs. 
sJidols, proud, vain. 
n/idop'-p'r, a stopper, cork. 
shdos, a thrust, a push. 
hdo'-sa, to push, to thrust ; to ram. 

shdos'-wai, chicken hawk. 

shdraich'-a, to stroke, to smooth. 

shdrai'-da, to quarrel, to live at 
enmity with one another. 

shdraid'-ich, quarrelsome. 

shdrai' s'l, a nosegay, a small bou- 

shdrait, strife, disorder, quarrel. 

shdraks, immediately, without de- 

shdral, streak, ray, beam. 

shdral'-ich, rayed, streaked. 

shdram, stream, current. 

shdram'-bla, to trample. 

shdrang, 1. trace. 
2. skein. 

shdra'-w'l-a, to struggle, to kick. 

shdra'-w^l-ar, a struggler. A term 
applied to a sect of Metho- 

s7idre'-a, to strew, to spread, to 
make a litter. 

shdrech, a stroke, a blow. 

shdre'-fa, strip, stroke. 

shdref'-ich, striped, streaked. 

shdrek'-ka, to stretch. 

shdrel, comb. 

shdre'-la, to comb. 

shdrem'-ich, streaked, banded. 

shdrich'-a, 1. a stroke or line. 
2. teats of a cow. 

shdrids, a syringe. 

shdrid'-sa, to squirt with a syringe. 

shdri'-gh'l, currycomb. 

shdri'-gh'l-a, to curry. 

shdrik, rope. 

shdrik'-garn, yarn, knitting yarn. 

shdrik 1 -ka, to knit. 

7idrip'-pa t to atrip, to undress. 

shdrip' -hut, a woman's head gear 
in imitation of a bonnet, re- 
sembling the so-called scoop, 
but made of calico or print 
goods to permit of washing 
and ironing. 

shdro, straw. 



[Dec. 21, 

shdro'-bank, straw cutter. 

shdrof, punishment. 

shdrof'-fa, to punish. 

shdro'-fak-'l, a bundle of straw. 

shdro' -kis f -sa, straw bolster. 

shdro'-kne'-w'l, a short piece of 
wood used for tying wisps 
of straw around a bundle of 
straw or a sheaf. 

shdros, street, road. 

shdro'-sak, straw mattress, straw 

shdrump, stocking, sock. 

shdrump' -bend' I, garter ; lit., stock- 
ing string. 

slidrup, hames hook. 

shdrup' -no-d^l, bodkin. 

shdru f -w'l-ich, 1. disheveled. 
2. ungovernable, obstinate. 

shdub, room, apartment. 

shdu-dent', student. 

shdu-di' -ra, to study. 

shdul, chair. 

sJidul'-gang, defecation, excrement. 

shdum, mute, dumb. 

thdump'-pa, a stump. 

ahdump'-shwans, bob-tail, bob-tailed 

slidun, hour. 

she n , nice, pretty. 

sheb, crooked, out of place. 

shed, sheath. 

she' -da, to divorce. 

she'-d'l, 1. scalp. 

2. part in the hair. 

3. skull. 

sJied'-lich, dangerous. 
shed'-sa, to appraise. 
shed'-was-ser, sulphuric acid. 
she'-fer, pawnbroker ; corruption of 

Eng, shaver. 

she'-fer-shap, pawnbroker's shop ; 
sometimes applied to brokers' 
establishments where ques- 
tionable transactions are prac- 

shck'-ich, spotted, dappled, varie- 

shel, one-eyed ; blind of one eye. 

she' la, to pare, to peel. 

shel'-a-graut, celandine. 

shel'-cha, saucer ; lit., a little shell. 

shel'-da, to scold. 

sheld'-maul, a scold, a vixen. 

shel'-lika, a wild, mischievous fel- 

slielm, a rogue. 

shem'-ma, to blush ; to be ashamed. 

shenk'-ar, a donor, a giver. 

shenk-ga' -shi, a gift, a present. 

sherik'-ka, to present, to give, to 
give as a present. 

shenk'-'l, a thigh, a leg. 

sJiep, crooked, leaning. 

shep, 1 . sheaf. 

2. shape, form. 

shep'-bdl, dipper. 

shepf'-ing, creation. 

shepf'-ung, creation. 

shep'-ki-w'l, a small bucket for dip- 
ping or bailing. 

sJiep'-lef-'l, ladle. 

shep' -pa, to dip, to bail as water. 

sher, 1. shears, scissors. 
2. share, part. 

8he'-ra, 1. to cut with shears or 

2. to divide, to share. 

shib, spade, scoop. 

shib'-ba, 1. dandruff, scales. 

2. frowns, as when a child be- 
gins to cry. 

3. pi. of shib, spades. 
s7ilb'-fensh-ter, sash window. 
shid'-l-a, to shake, to agitate. 
shid-'l-ar, shaker in thrashing. 
shid'-'l-ga-w'l, a wooden fork for 

use in and about the barn. 
shids, a marksman. 
shif, ship. 
shif'-'l, shuttle. 
ahif'-f'l, a shuttle. 



shif'-lait, ship's crew, sailors. 

shik'-ka, to send, to forward. 

shik'-lich, suitable ; handy. 

shik'-sal, fate. 

shild, 1. sign. 
2. shield. 

shild' -grot, tortoise. 

shild' -posh' -ta, sign post. 

shild'-shaid, swingle-tree. 

shil'-shaid, single-tree. 

sldm'-mel, a white horse. 

sJiim f -m'r-a, to glisten, to shimmer, 
to shine. 

shimp, disgrace, shame. 

shimp' -pa, to disgrace, to shame, to 

shi'-na, splints, of wood, particu- 
larly of hickory, for manu- 
facture of brooms, baskets, 

s7il'-na-be'-8'm, splint broom. 

slii'-na-karb, splint basket. 

8hin f -be n , shin, leg. 

shin'-d'l, shingle. 

shin'-lu-d'r, a scamp, a rascal. 

shin'-na, 1. to flay, to abrade. 
2. to overwork. 

shin'-ner, 1. a skinner ; a term ap- 
plied to a scavenger. 
2. one who overworks ser- 

shm'-nos, carrion, a "dirty vil- 

ship, shovel. 

shir, nearly, almost. 

ahl'-sa, 1. to shoot. 

2. to sprout, or run to seed. 

shi'-ser, a flat wooden shovel used 
in putting bread into the 

shis' -ga-wer', fowling piece, fire- 

skis'. 'I, dish. 

shi'-w'l, a clod, a lump. 

shi'-w'r, piece of shale, or slate, 
fragment of pottery. 

shi'-w'r-ich, 1. spreckled, spotted, 

2. shaly, slaty. 

shi'-wa, to shove, to push. 

shi'-wer, a drawer. 

shl'-wer-li, trundle bed. 

shkV-da, to skate. 

shkidt, skate. 

shkwarl, squirrel. 

shlacht, slaughter, battle. 

shlach'-ta, to butcher, to kill. 

shlacht'-fi', cattle, fattened for kill- 

shla'-gha, to strike, to beat. 

shlaich'-a, to sneak along ; to go 
forward cautiously. 

shlai'-fa, 1. to grind, to sharpen. 
2. to slide. 

sMaif'-shde 11 , grindstone. 

shlaim, slime ; mucus. 

shlak, 1. a stroke, a blow. 
2. apoplexy. 

sJilam, slime, ooze. 

shlung, snake. 

shlap, swill, slop. 

shlap'-hut, sunbonnet. 

shlap'-pich, sloppy, untidy, muddy. 

shlar-af'-fa-ksicht, false face, mask. 

shlau, cunning. 

sJila'-w'r-a, to slobber. 

8hla f -w'r-duch, bib ; lit., slobber 

shlecht, bad ; poorly. 

shlecht' -ich-ked, villainy, badness. 

shlet, slate. 

shlet'-dek-ar, slater ; one who roofs 
with slate. 

shle'-fer-ich, sleepy. 

shlef'-fa, to drag, to pull. 

shlef'-garn, seine a net. 

shlef -' r-ich, sleepy. 

shle'-gJi'l, a sledge. 

shlek'-er-ai', dainties. 

shlek'-er-we'-sa, dainties, sweets. 

8hlek'-ka, to lick. 

shlek'-sach, dainties. 



[Dec. 21, 

slilenk, 1. a sling. 

2. thumb latch. 

sJilenk'-er-ich, loose jointed, rickety. 
shlicht'-ho-w'l, smoothing plane. 
sklids, slit, crevice. 
shlid'-sa, to slit, to cut in slits. 
shlid'-ta, sleigh, sled. 
shlik, quick, crafty. 
shlik'-ser, hiccough. 
shlim, bad, sad, pitiable. 
shling, hot punch. 
shlip'-pa, 1. to slip, to slide. 

2. to catch with a slip-noose. 
shlip' -per-ich, slippery. 
shlip'-pers, 1. slippers. 

2. sleepers railroad ties. 
sJill'-sa, to lock, to close. 
shlis'-blum, primrose. 
shlis'-lich, in conclusion. 
shlis'-s'l, key. 

stdis'-s'l-blat, key -hole plate. 
shlits, slit, crevice. 
shlit'-ta, sleigh, sled. 
shlit'-ta-le'-fer, sleigh runners. 
shli'-w'r, splinter, fragment. 
shli'-w'r-a, 1. to splinter, to shatter. 

2. pi. of shli'-w'r. 
shlof, sleep. 
shld'-fa, to sleep. 
shlof -kam mer, sleeping chamber, 

bed room. 

shlof -shtub, sleeping room. 
shlos, lock. 
shlos, hailstone. 
shlo'-sa, 1. to hail. 

2. pi. of shlos. 
shluk, a swallow or gulp. 
shluk'-ka, to swallow, to gulp. 
shlum'-pich, slovenly. 
s/ilup, noose, loop, bow. 
shlup'-pa, to crawl, to hide ; to 


shlus, end, conclusion. 
shlut'-ser, sugar teat. 
shmai'-sa, to throw. 
shmak, taste." 

shmak'-er, a smack, a kiss, one who 

sJimak'-ka, to taste ; to detect. 

shmal, small, narrow. 

shma'-ler, a drink of liquor. 

shmals, lard. 

shmard, smart, obedient, diligent. 

shmar'-tsa, pain. 

slitnat' -sa, to smack the lips. 

shmech 1 '-' l-a, to flatter, to fondle. 

shmel'-sa, to melt, to thaw. 

shmecJi' -lich, flattering, insinuating, 

shmes'-mik, blue-bottle fly. 

shmid, blacksmith. 

shmid'-tsar'-i-k'l, calipers. 

shmir, grease. 

shrmr'-kes, cottage cheese ; lit., 
spread cheese, i.e., cheese that 
may be spread on bread, the 
usual manner of eating. In 
rural districts, a layer of ap- 
ple-butter is also spread on 
the bread. 

shmir'-ra, to grease, to besmear. 

shmlr'-sef, soft soap; lit., spread 
soap, or soap that may be ap- 
plied by spreading. 

shmod'-ich, sultry. 

shmok, smoke. 

shmo'-ka, to smoke. 

sJimok' -du-wak f , smoking tobacco. 

shmun'-ts'l-a, to smile. 

shmunst' -lich, smiling ; ingratiating. 

shmuts, grease, dirt. 

shmuts'-ich, greasy, filthy. 

shnaid, cutting edge. 

shnai'-da, to cut. 

shnaid' -bank, bench used by coopers 
for cutting wood with a draw 

shnai'-der, 1. tailor. 

2. grand-daddy long-legs ; in- 
sects of the family phalangi- 

Bhnai' -dern, dressmaker. 




shnaid'-mes-ser, draw knife, used by 
coopers and carpenters. 

shnaid'-sa, to blow the nose, by 
using the fingers for pressure 
on the alas. 

shnal, buckle. 

shnal' -la, 1. to buckle. 
2. pi. of shnal. 

shnap'-pa, to snap. 

shnaps, liquor, a dram drink. 

shnap'-sak, knapsack. 

shnar'-fo-gh'l> humming bird ; lit., 
jerk (jerking) bird, on ac- 
count of its sudden and erratic 

shnar f -ik~sa, to snore. 

sJmar'-ra, to hum. 

shnar'-ra, to jerk. 

shnau'-fa, to breathe. 

skne, snow. 

shne'-a, to snow. 

shne ! -ich, snowy. 

shne 1 '-flok-ka, snow-flakes. 

shnek, snail. 

shnek 1 '-ka-shtek, winding stairway. 

shne'-kshti-w'r, snow storm. 

shnel, quick, hasty. 

shnel'-ler, carnivorous beetle, found 
on hams. 

shneV-wok, steelyard scale. 

shnep, a snipe. 

s7mep'~pa, 1. to tilt, to lift with a lever 
2. snipes ; pi. of shnep. 

shnep'-per, 1. snapping turtle. 
2. trigger of a gun. 

shne'-shti'-w'r, snowstorm, a flurry 
of snow. 

shnlk, a sneak. 

shni'-ka, to sneak. 

sJinlk' -ich, sneaky. 

shnip'-sa, to sob, to sniffle. 

shnit, a cut ; cutting of a plant. 

shafts, dried fruit, cut in small slices, 
as quarters or eighths ; usu- 
ally applied to sliced dried 


shmt'-sa, 1. to fib, to evade the 

2. to cut fruit into quarters and 

eighths, for drying, i. e., to 

shnits'l-a, to whittle, to cut with a 


shof-not'^t'l, black haw, and fruit. 
shof -rib' ~ba, yarrow plant. 
shop, shed. 
shos, lap. 
shnok, gnat. 
shnot'-er-a, to cackle. 
shnub' -ba-ra, to meddle, or trifle, 

with things belonging to 

shnub' -duch, handkerchief; lit., 

snuff cloth. 
shnuf'-'l-a, to sniffle, to meddle and 

search out things belonging 

to others. 
shnup'-du-wak', snuff; lit., snuff 

shnup f -pa, 1. coryza ; snuff. 

2. to snuff, to sniffle. 
shnur, cord, twine, string. 
shnur'-bart, mustache. 
shnut, snout, muzzle, nose. 
sho'-da, pods. 
slid' -da-bam, catalpa tree. 
shof, sheep. 
shof'-bok, ram. 
shof -flesh, mutton. 
shok'-'l, cradle. 
shok'-'l-a, to rock, as a cradle or 


shok'^l-shtul, rocking chair. 
shpad, spade. 
shpar'-ket, a chain used to secure a 

wheel from revolving so as 

to act as a brake. 
shp'dr'-ra, to bar. 
shpau'*a, to spit. 
shpauts, spittle, saliva. 
shpauts'-sa, to spit. 
shpe n , chips. 

129. 2l. PRINTED MARCH 14, 1889. 



[Dec. 21, 

shpecht, 1. flicker Colaptesauratus; 

usually knowu as gel shpecht. 
2. spoke of a wheel. 
shpicht'-la, amusing stories ; the 

usual form, as pronounced, is 

kshpicht' -ta. 

shpll, object, plan, conception. 
shpll' -lum-pa, dish rag. 
shpits'-bu, a rascal, a keen fellow. 
shpit'-sa, 1. a point, apex. 

2. to point, or to cut to a point. 
8hpits'-ich, 1. pointed, sharp. 

2. acute, wide-awake, shrewd. 
shpits' -dr-ich, keen ; lit., sharp- 

shpot, mockery. 
shpot, late. 

shpot' -ta, to mock, to make fun of. 
shpot'-yor, autumn. 
shpot'-fo-gh'l, mocking bird. 
shprat'-s'l-a, to sputter, sputtering 

as boiling mush. 
shpur, path, track, trace, trail. 
shpur '-r a, to track, to trail, tracks. 
shrain'-er, carpenter. 
shrai'-wa> to write. 
shrai'-wes, a writing, an agreement, 

a legal instrument. 
shrank' -lich, shaky, unsteady. 
shraub, screw. 
shraub' -shtok, 1. a vice. 

2. gunrod with screw attached. 
shrau'-wa, 1. to screw. 

2. pi. of shraub, screw. 
shrau'-wa-tsl'-gher, screw driver ; 

lit., screw drawer (or puller). 
shrek'-lich, terrible, frightful. 
shrep'-kop, cup, for blood-letting. 
shrep'-pa, to cup, to let blood by 

shrlf, sheriff. 
shrV-fa, to sue at law. 
shrift, 1. Scriptures. 

2. writing, script. 
shrift' -lich, in writing 
shrit, a step. 

sJirit'-ta, to step. 

shrit'-wais, by steps, step by step. 

shrot, 1. shot for bird shooting. 

2. chop for fodder. 
shrot'-sak, shot bag, or pouch. 
shrot' -me' s' I, chisel hammer. 
shtd'-wich, dusty. 
shte n , 1. to stand. 

2. stone, stones. 
sJitem'-p'l, a pestle, a masher. 
shten' -da, to stand, to bear. 
shte nl -e-sel, jackass. 
shte n '-of-fa, lime kiln ; lit., stone 

shtreng, 1. severe, strict. 

2. #Z. ofshtrang, trace, or skein. 
shtud'-sa, to hesitate. 
#M, Shoo ! An exclamation to drive 
away anything, like fowl, 

shu, shoe. 

shu'-a, to shoe a horse. 
shu'-bud's'r, door mat. 
shu' -flik-er, cobbler. 
shul, school. 
shu'-lar, scholar. 
shuld, 1. debt. 

2. guilt, crime. 

3. cause. 
shul'-da, debts. 
slmld'-ner, debtor. 
shul' -ing, education. 
shul'-kum'r-rad', schoolmate, school 


shul'-ter, shoulder. 
shul'-tich, owing, obligatory, to 

owe another. 
shu'-mach-er, shoemaker. 
shu'-mek, sumach. 
shun, already, so soon. 
shu'-na, favor. 
shung'-ka, ham, hip. 
shunsht, otherwise, else. 
shup'-karch, wheelbarrow. 
shup' -kar-ich, wheelbarrow. 
shup'-blat, drawer. 



s7ius, 1. shot. 

2. sprout. 

shus'-blo-t'r, stye. . 
shus'-bord, tail board. 
shwadr, 1. father-in-law. 

2. heavy. 

shwadr 1 '-lich, hardly. 
shwaa'-ra, a boil ; more, commonly 

known as kshwdd 1 -ra. 
shwach, weak. 

shwach'-het, debility, weakness. 
shirai, sister-in-law. 
shwalm, swallow, martin, swift. 
shwam, I. meadow. 

2. sponge. 

3. tumor, as blut shwam blood 
sponge signifying a fungus 

shwan, swan. 

shwan'-Jid'-gh'l, swan shot. 

shwans, tail. 

shwans 1 -rim, crupper. 

shwans' -n' -ma, crupper. 

shwdrm, swarm. 

shwar'-ma, to swarm. 

shwart, 1. rind of bacon. 

2. the board cut from a log in 
squaring, with the bark ad- 

shwarts, black. 

shwart' -ser, negro ; i.e., a black one. 

shwe'-ghern, sister-in-law. 

shweng'-k'l, pump handle. 

shwenk ! -ka, 1. to rinse. 
2. to wave. 

shwen'-s'l-a, to wag the tail ; to 

shmr, heavy. 

shwe f -ra, to swear. 

shwes, pe/spiration, sweat. 

shwesh'-der, sister. 

shwes 1 -sa, to weld. 

shwes'-lech-er, pores of the skin. 

shwet'-sa, to talk, to converse. 

shwet'-sar, speaker, orator. 

shwet'-sich, talkative. 

shwe'-w'l, sulphur. 

shwe' -w' l-Uid, flour of sulphur. 

shwi'-gJiern, mother-in-law. 

shwi'-gher-doch'-ter, daughter-in- 

shwi'-gher-fad'-ter, father-in-law. 

shwi'-gher-mut'-ter, mother-in-law. 

shwi' -gher-sa 11 , son-in-law. 

shwim'-ma, to swim, to float. 

shwin'-d'l, 1. swindle, fraud. 
2. dizziness, vertigo. 

shwin'-d'l-a, to swindle, to defraud. 

shwin'-d'l-ar, swindler. 

shwin'-na, sweeny horse disease. 

sJiwit'-sa, to sweat, to perspire. 

shwob, 1. cock-roach. 

2. a native of Wiirtemberg. 

shwo'-gher, brother-in-law. 

si, she. 

sib, sieve. 

sick, one's self. 

sich f -ar, safe, secure. 

sich f -ar-het, security. 

sif'-fer, drunkard. 

si'-gh'l, seal. 

si'-gh'l-a, to seal. 

si'-gh'l-waks, sealing wax. 

sig'l, a seal, a stamp. 

sil' -wer-glet, litharge. 

sil'-wer-sand, fine white sand for 
cleansing tin-ware. 

sim'-a-de'-ri, cemetery, burial place 

sim'-bild, emblem. 

sim'-et, cinnamon. 

sim'-e-trin, cinnamon. 

sims, cornice. 

sin, 1. are ; from the verb, tse 8aiP, 

to be. 

2. mind, sense ; the pi. is usu- 
ally employed sin f -na. 

sind, sin. 

sin'-der, I. cinder, slag. 
2. sinner. 

sind'-flud, the deluge. 

sin'-flut, the flood deluge. 

sind' -haft, sinful. 



[Dec. 21, 

sin'-dich-a, to sin. 
sing'-a, to sing. 
sing'-ar, singer, warbler. 
sink, 1. a place where dishes are 

2. a sink, a depression in the 

3. zinc. 
sink'-ka, to sink. 

sin'-na, 1. the senses, thought. 
2. to contemplate, to meditate. 

8W, sweet. 

sis' -hols, sweet wood, i. e., liquorice 

sls'-lich, "sweetish," inclined to be 
sweet in taste. 

sits, seat. 

sit'-sa, to sit. 

si'-wa, seven. 

si' -wa-tse' , seventy. 

si' -wa-tsich, seventy. 

so, so, thus, such. 

so-bal', as soon as, so soon as. 

sod'-bren'-na, water brash, heart- 
burn, acidity of the stomach. 

sodsht, should. 

sodt, growing grain. 

so -gar', even, as much. 

sok'-ka, stocking feet. 

sol, shall. 

sol, sole. 

solch, such. 

sol'-ich, such. 

sol'-la, to be obliged. 

such' -a, to seek, to hunt, to search. 

sud'-da, the south. 

sud'-la, to slop, or puddle in water. 

sud'-lich, 1. southerly ; should be 

2. wet, sloppy weather. 

sud'r-a, to simmer. 

suk'-'l-a, to suck. 

sum, sum. 

8um f -mer, summer. 

sump, bog, marsh. 

sum' -pa, bog, marsh. 

sump'-ich, boggy, marshy. 

sum'-m'r-flek'-ka, freckles; lit., sum- 
mer spots. 

sun, sun. 

sun'-dak, Sunday. 

sun'-der-bar, wonderful, strange. 

sun'-er-bar, wonderful. 

sun' -na-shtich, sunstroke ; lit., sun 

sun'-nich, sunny. 

sunsht, otherwise, else. 

sun'-yf-gang, sunrise. 

sun 1 -un'-er -gang, sunset. 

sup'-pa-lefl, tablespoon ; lit., soup 

sup'-pa-shis'l, soup bowl, soup dish. 

taks, tax. 

takt, 1. tact, aptitude. 

2. time in music. 
tak'-sa, to tax ; to impose upon. 
ta-lent', talent, gift. 
farm, term, limit. 
tarn, steeple, spire. 
te, tea; also applied to various house- 
hold remedies consisting of 
dried plants. 
te'-kan, teapot. 

tesh' -da-ment' , testament, a will. 
track' -da, to strive for. 
trai, true, faithful. 
trai'-los, faithless. 
trak-dl'-ra, to abuse, to treat with 

trau'-a, 1. to trust, to confide in. 

2. to betroth, to marry. 
traur'-ai', mournfulness, sadness. 
truar f -ra, to mourn. 
traur'-rich, mournful. 
trenk'-ka, to water as animals. 
tren'-ing, separation, division. 
tren, 1. tear. 

2. a train as of cars. 
tren'-na, to sever. 
trink', a drink. 




trink'-ar, a drinker, generally ap- 
plied to one who is a habitual 
drinker of liquors. 

trink'-ka, to drink. 

tri'-w'l-l'-ra, to annoy, to worry, to 

trosh'-da, to console, to soothe. 

trosht, consolation, relief. 

trosht' -raich, consoling. 

truds, in spite of, defiance. 

trud'-sa, to be defiant, to be obsti- 

truds'-ich, defiant, willful. 

truds'-kop, a defiant person. 

trum'-p'l, jew's-harp. 

tsa, to. 

tsa", tooth. 

tsab'-ba, a projection, a knob. 

tsa*' -flesh, gums of the mouth. 

tsa-fri'-da, contented, satisfied. 

tsai'-gha, a witness. 

tsai'-ghnis, proof, evidence. 

tsait, 1. since. 
2. time. 

tsait' -fer-draib' , pastime, amuse- 

tsait'-ich, ripe. 

tsait' -ing, newspaper. 

tBait'-lich, by times, early. 

tsak'-ka, a prong, or branch, a short 
projection, as a short branch 
of a tree. 

tsak'-ker-a, to plow. 

tsal, number, enumeration. 

tsa^'-lad, maxillary bone. 

tsa-lad', salad, lettuce. 

tsam, 1. tame, docile. 
2. bridle. 

tsa' -ma, 1. to tame, to domesti- 
2. to bridle. 

tsam'-ma, together. 

tsang, tongs, pincers. 

tsank'-ka, to scold. 

tsa'-ra, to tease. 

tsard, tender. 

tsar'-ik'l, 1. circle. 

2. dividers. 
tsau n , a pale fence, fence made of 

slats or clap-boards. 
tse, to. 
t&e, tough. 

tse\ teeth ; pi. of tsd\ 
tse' -a, 1. toe, toes. 

2. ten. 

tse'-a-ga-bot'-ta, the decalogue. 
tseb'-cha, uvula, soft palate. 
tseb'Jl, uvula, soft palate ; from 
tsa'baB, projection, the word 
being a form to denote dimin- 

tseb'-'l-cha, uvula, soft palate. 
tsech, a score, a reckoning. 
tse'-eha, 1. sign, indication. 

2. hands of a clock. 
tee'-dar, cedar. 
tsed'l, a ticket. 
tse*'-dok-ter, dentist; lit., "teeth" 

tse'-et, tenth. 

tse'-ga-bot-ta, the decalogue. 
tsek, a tick. 

tse'-la, to count, to enumerate. 
tselt, tent. 
tset-'l, a ticket. 
tshump, a j ump, a spring. 
tshump'-pa, to jump, to spring. 
tsich' -dich-a, to chastise, to punish. 
tsif'-ar, cipher, figure, numerals. 
tsi-gafi'-ner, gipsy. 
tsl'-gha, to move, to pull. 
tsi'-gh'l, 1. a bridle. 

2. a tile. 

tsi'-gh'l-a, to bridle. 
tsil, aim, objective point, goal. 
tsl'-la, to aim. 

tsim'-ber-lich, delicate, debilitated. 
tsim'-lich, tolerable, tolerably, pret- 
ty or fairly. 

tsim'-ma-ra, to work in wood. 
tsim-mar-man, a cooper ; sometimes 



[Dec. 21, 

tain, pewter. 

tain'-da, to light, to ignite. 

tsind'-locli, touchhole. 

tsind'-pan, pan beneath touch hole 
of a gun. 

tsind'-pul-w'r, priming powder. 

tsing'-'l-a, to move the protruded 
tongue with rapidity, as a 

tsink'-'d, prong, as of a fork. 

Uit'-tar-li, souse ; pig's feet jelly. 

tsit'-ter-a, to tremble, to quiver,. 

tsob'-tsi-gJi'l, check rein. 

tsol, inch. 

tsol' -shtab, foot-rule. 

tsot'-t'l, 1. a rag, tatter. 

2. a strumpet, prostitute. 

tsot'-t'l-a, 1. to drop, or scatter, 


2. to loaf around as a strum- 

tsot'-Vl-ich, ragged. 

tsu, to, at. 

tsu, closed. 

tsu-arsht', first, originally. 

tsub'-ba, to pull, to jerk. 

tsu'-bring-a, 1. to pass time. 

2. to accomplish. 

3. to bring to to resuscitate. 
tsueJit, noise, commotion. 
tsucht'-ich, boisterous. 

tsucht' -haus, penitentiary. 

tsu'-drau-a, confidence, trust. 

tsu' -fel-Uch, accidental, coinciden- 

tsu' -fel' -licJi-er-wais' , accidentally. 

tsu' -fer-drau' -a, reliance, confidence 

Uu'-flucht, refuge. 

tsu'-fal, accident, occurrence. 

tsu'-gang, admission, entrance. 

tsu'-geng-lich, approachable. 

tsu'-ge-wa, to give in, to admit, to 

tsu'-hd'd-ra, to listen to, to hear. 

tsuk, a moving, a departure. 

tsuk'-blash-der, blistering plaster ; 
drawing plaster. 

tsuk'-er, sugar. 

tsuk' '-er-maul, one fond of sweets. 

tsuk' -er-sach, candy, confectionery. 

tsuk'-ka, to jerk, to pull. 

tsu' -kum-ma, to come to, to recover. 

tsu-letsht', at last, finally. 

tsum, to the ; contraction of tsa, tse 
or tsu, and dem. 

tsu'-mach-a, to close. 

tsu'-mu-da, to expect, to expect 
from another. 

tsu' -na' -ma, surname. 

tsu'-nem-ma, to increase, to improve. 

tsung, tongue. 

tsur, to the ; from tsa, tse or tsu, 
and der. 

tsu' -rich- da, to prepare, to arrange 
in order. 

tsu-rik', back. 

tsu' -rish' -ta, to prepare. 

tsu'-sats, an addition, addendum. 

tsu'-sed-sa, to add to, to swell in 

tsu'-se n -na, to witness, to look at. 

tsu'-shbrech-d, to encourage. 

tsu'-shlak-ham'-mer, sledge hammer. 

tsu'-shtand, condition, state. 

tsu'-trit, entrance, admission. 

tsu'-w'r, tub. 

tswai'-fl, doubt. 

tswaig', twig, sprout, a slip for 

tswai'-gha, to graft. 

tswai'-w'l, doubt. 

tswai'-w'l-haft, doubtful. 

tswan'-sich, twenty. 

tswan'-sich-t'l, twentieth portion. 

tswar'-ich, dwarf. 

tswar' '-ich-aks, a twibil a kind of 
mattock or axe, having two 
blades, one edge running hori- 
zontally and the other trans- 

tswar 1 -na, to twist. 




tswe, two. 

tswek, aim, object, design. 
tswe' -kep-ich, of varying mind, un- 
decided ; lit., two-headed. 
tswek' -me -sich, proper. 
tswelf, twelve. 
tswel'-fa, twelve. 
tswelft, twelfth. 
tswelf '-t 'I, twelfth. 
tsweng'-a, to force, to compel. 
tswik'-l, fool. 
tswil'-ich, twilled. 
tswil'-ing, twins. 

Uwinj'-a, to subdue, to overcome. 
tswW '-sar-a, to glitter, to glisten. 
tswit'-sar-ich, glittering, brilliant. 
tswi'-w'l, onion, tuber. 

uf, 1. open. 

2. on, upon. 

3. open. 

uf'-bas-sa, to be careful, to be 

uf'-bin-na, 1. to bind up as a 


2. to rake and bind. 
vf'-brech-a, 1 . to break open. 

2. to adjourn. 

3. to fail in business. 
uf-lut'-sa, to clean up, to dress up 

or arrange in order. 

uf-drik'-'l-a, to dry up, to wither. 

uf-em, on the ; contraction of uf 

u'-fer, bank, shore, landing. 

vf-fl'-der-a, to improve by feed- 

vf-Q&t to sprout, to grow. 

vf-ge-wa, to discontinue, to give 

uf-haa-ra, to cease, to quit. 

uf'-hal-da, 1. to keep up, to pro- 
2. to hinder. 

uf-Jiel-la, to clear up. 

uf-he-wa, 1. to lift, to raise. 

2. to save, to preserve for fu- 
ture use. 

vf-kld-ra, to clear up. 
uf-kok-sa, to endeavor to persuade. 
uf'-kum-ma, to rise, and prosper. 
uf -la-da, to load up, or upon. 
vf'-'n, on a, upon a. 
uf'-nem-ma, 1. to take up as land. 

2. to arrest. 

3. to entertain. 

uf-pik'-ka, to pick up, to gather. 
uf-ra-ma, to place in order, to ar- 
range, to cleanse. 

uf -rich-tick, upright. 

uf-ror, uproar, riot. 

uf-sa'gha, to recite as a lesson. 

uf-shbi-la, to wash dishes ; to 
cleanse and arrange in order. 

uf-sJii-wa, to postpone, to delay. 

uf -shtel' -la, 1. to set up, to erect. 
2. to put up as at a public 

vf-shto'-sa, to belch. 

uf'-shto-see, eructations. 

uf-tsa-ma, to bridle a horse, to har- 

uf-tse-ra, to consume. 

uf-t&l-gha, 1. to bring up ; to edu- 
2. to wind up. 

um, about, for the purpose. 

um'-acht, faintness, syncope. 

um'-Vr-el, umbrella. 

urn' -bring -a, to kill, to destroy. 

um'-bshdimt, undecided, doubtful. 

um'-fang t circumference, girth. 

um'-gang, 1. acquaintance, commu- 
2. cohabitation. 

urn' -ge-ghend, surrounding regions, 
or area. 

um'-geng-lich, social. 

um'-ge-kert, confused, to be con- 

um'-hak'-ka, to cut down, to fell. 



[Dee. 21, 

um'-hang, curtain, window-shade. 

um'-henk'l, window curtain. 

um'-ke-ra, to invert, to turn. 

um' -kum-ma, to perish. 

um'-maeht, faint, syncope. 

um' -mech-tieh, faint, syncope. 

um'-me-ghlich, impossible. 

urn-ring' -a, to surround. 

um-seP'-na, to look about, to famil- 
iarize one's self. 

wm'-shtand, circumstance, condi- 

um' -sliten-da, circumstances. 

un, and ; as a prefix for which 
um is frequently used it sig- 
nifies not, equal to the ordi- 
nary prefix in English, as 
im or un. 

un'-ci, below, at the bottom. 

u n '-na, without ; usually pronounc- 
ed a*>-na. 

un'-acht-sam, careless. 

un'-a-draus, in the lower part as a 
geographic term. 

un'-a-drin, in the lower part, in the 

un'-ar, below, beneath. 

un'-ard-licn, disorderly, unman- 

un'-ar-drik'-ka, to oppress, to keep 

un'-ar -lios'-sa, drawers ; lit., under- 

un'-ar-rok, petticoat. 

un'-ar-sJwd, difference. 

un'-ar-shrift, signature. 

un'-ar-shrai'-wa, to subscribe, to 

un'-'drsht, lowest, the bottom one. 

un'-ar -such' -a, to investigate, to ex- 

un'~ar -such-ing, investigation, ex- 

un 1 -ar-warV , unexpected. 

un' -ba-denkt'; inadvertent. 

un'-be-kant, unknown. 

un'-be-kert, unconverted. 

un 1 -be-kim' -mert , careless, thought- 

un'-ben-ich, unmanageable. 

un'-be-weg'-lich, immovable. 

und, and. 

un' -end-lie?!*, endless. 

un'-jp-nieh, at variance, not in ac- 

un'-er-em, below it, under it ; con- 
traction of un'-er dem. 

un'-er-lich, dishonest. 

un'-er-lich-kait, dishonesty. 

un' -fer-glaich' -lich, without compar- 
ison, unique. 

un' -fer-sTiemt, shameless. 

un'-fer-shtand, want of sense. 

un'-fer-sMen'-ieh, senseless, impu- 

un' -fraind-lich, unfriendly. 

un'-ga-fer, about. 

un'-ga-hai'-er, excessive, huge. 

un'-ga-Mi'-er-lich, excessively, im- 

un'-ga-Mr-sam, disobedient. 

un'-ga-tsif'-fer, vermin. 

un 1 -ga-tso-gha, ill-bred, unmannerly. 

ung'-glik, accident, misfortune. 

itng'-graut, weeds. 

itny'-kosh-ta, costs, damages. 

ung'-kshait, nonsensical, unwise, 

un'-glik, accident, misfortune. 

un'-glik-lich, unfortunate. 

un'-glik' -Uch-er-wais', accidentally, 

un'-graut, weeds. 

un'-gsJiikt, awkward, clumsy, inapt. 

un f -hem-lich, a sense of discomfort, 
a feeling of loneliness. 

un'-koshta, costs, damages. 

un'-man-riir-lich, unmannerly. 

un' -me-ghlich, unlikely. 

un' -mensh-lich, cruel, unnatural in 
disposition, or form. 

un'-nids, a good-for-nothing. 




un> '-nids-ich, useless, good-for-noth- 

un'-recht, wrong. 

un' ricJi-tich, false, incorrect. 

un' -rod, trash, dirt. 

un'-ru, 1. unrest, restlessness. 
2. escapement of a watch. 

un'-ru'-ich, restless. 

uns, us. 

un'-ser, pur, ours. 

un 1 -sMk-lich, unsuitable. 

un'-shuld, innocence. 

un' -shuld-icJi, innocent. 

un-sich' -bar, invisible. 

un' -tse-frid' -da, dissatisfied, discon- 

un 1 -wis-sent, unknowing, ignorant. 

un'-wol, unwell, not in good health. 

un'-wor-hed, untruth. 

ur, clock. 

ur'-dail, judgment, sentence. 

ur'-gros-fad'-ter, great grandfather. 

ur'-gros-mut-ter, great grandmother. 

ur'-he-w'r, originator. 

ur'-sach, cause, motive, reason. 

ur'-shprung, origin, source. 

ur'-tail, judgment, sentence, opin- 

wa, what. 

waart, value, worth. 
waart'-fol, valuable. 
wa'-da, 1. calf of the leg. 

2. to wade. 
va'-gha, a wagon. 
wa'-gha-gles, wagon rut. 
wa'-gha-ref, tire of wheel. 
wa'-gha-shop, wagon shed. 
wa'-ghnar, wheelwright. 
wai, hawk. 
wai n , wine. 

waib'-cha, female of birds. 
waibs'-bild, woman. 
waibs'-hem, chemise. 
waibs'-lait, women. 
waibs' -mench, woman. 


wai' -da, willow. 
wai nf -gar-da, vineyard. 
wail, 1. while. 

2. because. 
wain'-na, to cry. 
wais, white. 
wai'-sa, 1. to show, to direct. 

2. to whitewash. 
wai'-sa-haus, orphans' home. 
wai f -sa-kind, orphan. 
wais'-darn, haw thorn. 
wais' -er-gle' -a, white clover. 
wais'-hait, wisdom. 
wai n '-8hde n , cream of tartar. 
wais'-s'l-a, to whitewash. 
wais' -wal-nis, butternut tree. 
wait, 1. wide. 

2. far, distant. 
wak'ar, awake, alert, active. 
wak'-ka, quartz, quartzite. 
waks, wax. 

waks'-ich, flourishing, thrifty. 
waks'-knop, lymphatic gland. 
wafcs'-sa, 1. to grow. 

2. to wax. 
wai, 1. election. 

2. choice. 
wal'-nis, walnut. 
wal'-nus, walnut. 
wais, roller agricultural. 
wal'-sa, 1. to roll with roller. 

2. to waltz. 

wam f -ba, stomach, paunch. 
wam'-es, jacket. 
wan, when, if. 
wa af -na, to dwell, to reside. 
wand, wall. 
wa n '-ning, residence. 
wand' I, conduct. 
wand'-'l-a, to wander, to loiter. 
wank''l-mi-dich, fickle, unstable. 
wans, 1. bed bug. 

2. when it, contraction of wan 

and es. 
war, 1. was. 

2. ware, goods. 

129. 2j. PRINTED MARCH 14, 1889. 



[Dec. 21, 

war, who. 

wd'-ra, were. 

wd'-ra, will be pi. 

w'dr'-a-w'l, the top of the scalp from 

which the hair radiate. 
ward, word. 
ward, becomes ; will. 
war'-da, to wait. 
war-haft 1 '-ich, truly, verily. 
war'-i-gha, to choke, to strangle. 
wdr'-ik, 1. tow. 

2. a work, edifice, a creation. 
war'-ik-haus, workhouse, i.e., peni- 

war'-ik-ka, to choke, to strangle. 
wdr'-ikl-hols, rolling-pin. 
war'-ik-lich, truly, verily. 
war'-ik-sa, to retch, to gag, to 

wdrk'-ik-gaul, distaff; lit., tow 


war'm, worm. 
war'm, warm. 
w'dr'm-a, to warn. 
wdr'-mut, wormwood. 
war'-na, to warn. 
war'-ning, warning, notification. 
war'-ra, to become. 
war' -shal n -lich, probable, probably. 
warshd, sausage. 
warsht, sausage. 
wdrsht-drech-der, sausage stuffer ; 

lit., sausage funnel. 
wart, wart, excrescence. 
wart, word. 
wart, landlord. 
wdr'-ta, to wait, to tarry. 
war'-tsel, root. 
wart' -shaft, public house, with bar 

and appurtenances. 
warts' -haus, tavern, inn. 
war'-tsl, root. 

wdrt'-s'l-a, to take root as plants. 
wa-rum', why, wherefore. 
was, what ; ftr was for why is 

usually employed for why. 

was'-ser, water. 

was' -ser-ich, watery. 

was 1 ' -ser -mi-Ian 1 ', water melon. 

was' -ser-sucht, dropsy. 

watsh, a watch. 

watsh'-a, to watch. 

we, sore ; painful. 

web, web. 

web'-shtul, loom. 

wech'-Uch, weekly. 

wed'-d'r, 1. against. 

2. weather. 

3. whether. 

4. a ram wether. 
wed'-d'r-le-cha,to lighten, lightning. 
wed'-d'r-rut, lightning rod. 
wed'-sa, to whet, to sharpen. 
weds'-shtal, steel, for sharpening 


wedt, pasture. 

weg, 1. way, road. 
2. direction. 

wek, 1. away. 

2. bun, variety of sweet bis- 

wek, 1. way, road. 
2. direction. 

wek'-ka, to wake, to awaken. 

wek'-lok-ka, to decoy, to call off. 

wek' -mesh-der, supervisor. 

wek 1 -shaf -fa, to remove, to destroy. 

wek'-s'l, change. 

wek'-s'l-a, 1. to change. 
2. to exchange. 

wek'-s'l-fl'-wer, intermittent fever. 

wek'-ur, alarm clock. 

wek'-wai-ser, mile-post ; post erect- 
ed at cross-roads, bearing a 
board upon which is indicated 
the distance to the nearest 

wel, 1. well ! which. 
2. wave, breaker. 

we' -la, to elect ; to choose. 

wnl'-ba>n,, axle. 

wdk'-ka, to wither, to fade. 




welsh' -ha-na, turkey cock. 
welsh'-hink'l, 1. turkey hen. 

2. turkeys. 

welsh' -karn, corn, maize. 
welt, world. 
wem, to whom. 
wen'-ich, a little. 
wen'-na, to turn. 
wen' -ring, cant hook. 
wesh, wash clothing. 
wesh'-a, to wash. 
weshb, wasp. 
wesh 1 -lain, clothes line. 
wenh'-r'n, laundress. 
wesh'-shbel', clothes pin. 
wes'-ser-a, to water. 
wes'-ser-ich,. watery, moist. 
wet, would. 

wet'-sa, to whet, to sharpen. 
we'-tsa, wheat. 

wets' -harn, horn for carrying whet- 

wets' -kump, horn for carrying whet- 
stone used by reapers. 
wet'-ta, to bet, to wager. 

we'-wa, to weave. 
we'-w'r, weaver. 
we'-w'r-tset'l, warp. 

wi, 1. how. 

2. like, as, likewise. 

wi'-cha, wick. 

wl'-dich, mad, hydrophobia. 

wi'-gha, to weigh. 

wip, whip. 

wip'-ba, to whip, to punish. 

wip'-b'r-wil, whip-poor-will. 

wich'-dich, important. 

wid'-der, again. 

wid'-der lich, nauseating. 

wid'-d'r-a, to refuse. 

wid'-d'r-ga-bort, regeneration. 

wid'-d'r-ho'-la, to repeat. 

wid'-fra, widow. 

wid'-man, widower. 

wid'-d'r-ru'-fa, to recall, to revoke. 

wid'-d'r-shprecli'-a, to contradict. 

wid'-d'r-shte nl , to resist. 
wik, cradle. 
wik'-'l, 1. a lap. 

2. a foolish, silly fellow. 
wik'-'l-a, to wind, to wrap. 
wil, will, wish. 
wild, wild, untamed. 
wild' -fai-ar, erysipelas. 
wild' -flesh, granulations of a heal- 
ing surface. 

wild' -er-bal' -sam, spearmint. 
wild' -er-nis, wilderness. 
wildt, wild. 
wil> ich, willing. 
wil'-kum, welcome. 
wil' -la, 1. will an opinion. 

2. a last will. 
win, screw-jack. 
wind'-ge-bro'ch-a, heaves. 
wind'-ich, windy. 
wind' -'I, diaper. 
wind'-mil, windmill, winnowing 


wind'-shtil, calm. 
wind' -zhtos, gust of wind. 
wind'-war-w'l, whirlwind. 
win'-ish, crooked, warped. 
wink'-ka, to wink. 
wink' ' I, square tool. 
wink'-'l-ai-sa, iron square tool. 
wink-'l-bora, brace tool. 
win'-na, 1. to win, to succeed. 

2. bind-weed. 

win'-sha, to wish, to desire. 
win'-s'l-a, to whine. 
wis, a meadow. 

wish, a wisp, small brush, a wiper. 
wish' -a, to wipe, to brush. 
wlsht, ugly, disagreeable. 
wis'-sa, to know. 
wis' -sent-lich, knowingly. 
wis'-s'l, 1. weasel. 

2. a small meadow. 
wis'-s'n-haft, knowledge. 
wits'-ich t witty. 
woch, a week. 



[Dec. 21, 1888, 

wod, would. 

wok, 1 . a scale. 
2. whiffletree. 

wol, wool. 

wol, well, healthy. 

wolf, wolf. 

wolf'-ich, greedy, grasping. 

wol'-f'l, cheap. 

wol'-ga-mud, mountain sage. 

wolk, cloud. 

wol'-kfal'-la, satisfied with, pleased 

wolk'-ich, cloudy. 

wol' -la, to desire, to wish. 

wol'-la-shteng-el, mullein, mullein 

wol'-shtre-micTi, brindled. 

wor, true. 

wbr'-et, truth. 

wor'-et-sa-gher, fortune-teller; lit., 
truth teller. 

wbr'-Tied, truth. 

wot, would. 

wu, where, whither, whence. 

wudt, anger, madness. 

wudt'-shte n , mad-stone. 

wU'lii*', whither, whereto. 

wund, 1. wound. 

2. abraded or chafed. 

wund' -grant, golden rod. 

wun'-ner-a, to wonder. 

wun'-ner-lar, wonderful. 

wun'-ner-fits, curiosity ; an inquisi- 
tive person ; the desire, or 
promptings, to inquire or to 
be inquisitive. 

wun> ' -ner-fits-ich, inquisitive. 

wun'-ner-fol', wonderful. 

wun'-ner-nas, an inquisitive per- 

wun' -ner-sel' -da, seldom, rarely. 

wunsh, a wish. 

wus'-lich, lively, playful. 

wus'-s^l-a, to caper, to be playful, 
to frisk, 

wuts, a pig. 

wuts' -'l-cha, a shoat. 
wuts'-'U, shoat. 

ya, yes. 

ya, yes. 

yacht, noise. 

yacht'-ich, noisy, boisterous. 

ya'-gha, 1. to chase. 

2. to hunt game, etc. 

ya'-ma-ra, to lament, to moan. 

yam'-mer, lamentation. 

ya n '-ni, Jonathan. 

ya n '-ni-dan', Jonathan. 

yaud'-sa, to shout, to bark. 

ye'-der, every one, each one. 

ye'-der-er, each one, when reference 
is made to masc. nouns. 

ye'-der-es, each one, when speaking 
of substances of neuter gen- 

ye'-der-i, each one, when alluding 
to fern, nouns. 

ye'-ders, each one collective. 

ye'-gher, a hunter, sportsman. 

yem'-ar-lich, pitiful, poorly, piti- 

yen'-nar, January. 

yer'-lich, yearly. 

ying'-ling, a youth. 

yingshd, youngest. 

yd, yes. This is a peculiar form, 
used frequently to signify 
more than simple affirmation, 
giving, in fact, an idea of 
positiveness which could be 
conveyed only by such ex- 
pressions as, yes, certainly, 

yoch, yoke. 

yoch'-a, to yoke. 

yd' -hans-grant, St. John's wort. 

yok'l, 1. a stupid fellow. 
2. Jacob. 

yor, year. 

yud, Jew. 

Jan. 18, 1889.] ^8<) [Blasius. 

yud 1 '-da-Tear 1 '-sha, ground cherries. yush' -da-ment, exactly so. 
yu'-li, July. yash'-dis, justice of the peace. 

yung, young. yusht, only, but. 

yung'-fra, virgin. yut, Jew. 

yushd, only, just. 

Has the Signal Service Degenerated f By William Blasius. 
(Read before the American Philosophical Society, January 18, 1889.) 

There is of late a growing impression in the public mind that the Signal 
Service Bureau is degenerating, and is less effective than during its earlier 
days. The Philadelphia Public Ledger gives these impressions a definite 
form when it refers to the forecasts of that great storm of November 27, 
1888, which read: "Fair, except light showers on the coast; northerly 
wind, becoming variable ; stationary temperature," and compares it with 
the violent storm on that day. It then continues: "It is because the 
Ledger desires to have what may be made a useful service restored to its 
former 'probability,' that it thus calls attention to failures of somebody at 
the Washington office to do as good work there as the service is capable 
of doing, or has heretofore been done." 

If such a condition existed, if the Signal Service were no more effective 
than it used to be in its earlier days, it would be most deplorable ; be- 
cause the little interest the public seemed to take in this most interesting 
and useful science might die away, and the hope we have for its develop- 
ment be buried with it. Such a result would be still more unfortunate 
from the fact that this country, by its geographical position and its topo- 
graphical structure, is better adapted for a successful study of meteor- 
ology than any other country on our globe. 

The Signal Service has, however, not degenerated, but it has not im- 
proved much either, and if it does not change its plan of operation hitherto 
pursued, I dare say it will be no more effective in the future. The above 
prognostication, it is true, does not give in advance an idea of a storm 
that will rage, "with hurricane fury over an extent of seven hundred 
miles on our coast, from New Jersey to Nova Scotia," but it speaks, at 
least, of "light showers on the coast." If we compare it, however, with 
prognostications for similar storms of earlier days for instance, the storm 
of August 23, 24 and 25, in the year 1873, extending from New Jersey to 
Nova Scotia, in which 1032 vessels and about 500 lives were lost, and 
which was predicted by "fine weather" the above prediction of "light 
showers on the coast" must be considered an improvement. At that time 

Blasius.] 286 [Jan . i 8> 

the papers complained of the Signal Service for having indicated that fear- 
ful storm with predictions of "fine weather ;" and, whether officially or 
by some friendly service, a kind of an excuse came from Washington that 
that storm must have passed to the northward and outside of the United 
States Signal Service stations. In that case the Canadian Signal Service 
ought to have observed it. But it did not, because it worked on the same 
method as the United States Signal Service. That storm, however, must 
have passed somewhere. Then Prof. Abbe, the scientist of the Signal 
Service, came to the rescue and demonstrated clearly (?) that that storm 
probably originated near the coast of Senegambia, Africa, on August 13, 
moving north-westerly across the Atlantic until the 23d, when its course 
changed to a north-easterly direction, running up the coast of North 
America, gathering force meanwhile, until it culminated near the coast of 
Nova Scotia and Newfoundland ; after which it continued its course, with 
diminishing force and increasing size, across the Atlantic, reaching the 
northern part of Great Britain on the 31st, and Norway on the 2d of Sep- 
tember.* This was indeed a remarkable journey of a storm, which be- 
comes more wonderful by the fact that Prof. Abbe located its centre 
about two hundred miles away from the coast, yet reported the greatest 
or rather all destruction as taking place on the coast ! 

The affair became quite amusing as well as interesting to me. I pro- 
cured the Signal Service charts of the state of the atmosphere over the 
United States, and showed by their own maps that the storm had come 
from Manitoba, crossed the country by way of the lakes over the Signal 
Service stations, to the south-east and east to the coast from New Jersey 
to Nova Scotia, f To the uninitiated it may appear incomprehensible that 
a storm should travel over the United States Signal Service stations as a 
bringerof "fair weather," and develop to such fury and severity on the 
coast. But such is the case. 

The reason for this apparent paradox consists in the fact that the lead- 
ing meteorologists define a storm or cyclone as an area of low barometric 
pressure. A storm is, therefore, not expected unless the barometer begins 
to fall. The area of high pressure or the anticyclone, according to their 
rules, brings fair weather. I have shown, as early as 1851, that this 
theory is not correct, and that the area of low barometric pressure is not 
the storm but only the effect of the storm, and that the areas of high baro- 
metric pressure, under certain circumstances, bring the most violent and 
destructive storms, especially when they reach our coast. J I am corrob- 
orated in my views by practical men such as the late Com. Wyman, Chief 
of the Hydrographic Office, Bureau of Navigation, United States Navy, 
who says in a letter to me : "It [my book] is borne out by my experi- 

* Chief Signal Officer's Report for 1873, p. 1025, Appendix E. 

t Storms, their Nature, Classification and Laws, etc., pp. 180-197. Porter & Coates, 
I Ibid., pp. 91-K4. 

1889.1 [Blaaius. 

ence," and others; and also by the accounts of almost every violent 
storm. In explaining that storm, it was also shown that the Signal Ser- 
vice might have telegraphed it to the coast three days in advance, if they 
had acted according to the views above presented, instead of following 
the old traditional theories. 

I have since on similar occasions called attention to the characteristics 
of this kind of storms, and the fact that the Signal Service men have this 
time predicted, at least, "light showers on the coast," shows some 

There is another fact to show that the Signal Service during the last few 
years is not degenerating, but improving. It consists in the practical adop- 
tion, at least sometimes, of the law of oscillations in air movements, as 
published in my work on "Storms," instead of the rotary law heretofore 

Those unacquainted with the science will understand this important 
change better when I indicate the effect in the prognostications. In the 
earlier days the prognostications contained the information of the approach 
of a cyclone or anticyclone, or what is identical, of an area of low or high 
pressure. Now we read of the approach of a warm or a cold wave. That 
the present indications are of more practical value to the public than the 
former must be obvious to any one who gives the subject any thought at 
all. A knowledge in advance of a change in the temperature or moisture 
of the atmosphere assists us in regulating our health, our industries and, 
in short, everything that relates to the comforts of life. The fact that the 
pressure will be a little more or less does not materially affect us. The 
predictions according to the oscillation law, or the warm and cold air 
movement, did not prove so effective as they would have been, had they 
not also retained the old traditional theory of a cyclonic air movement at 
the same time. To assume a straight line air movement and, at the same 
time, that of a cyclone, must cause confusion in the predictions. 

When at the close of the war, at the suggestion of the late Prof. 
Henry, the Signal Corps was changed into the Signal Service Bureau, and 
every soldier and officer of it became, at one stroke of the pen, a full- 
fledged meteorologist, I expected that with the aids and resources at their 
disposal they could not help stumbling upon some very important discov- 
eries which I had made some thirteen years previous. General Meyer was 
an excellent organizer, but he created, after all, only a machine, a body 
without a soul. Seeing how observations were made, I became convinced 
that they would not reach any valuable results necessary for successful 
practical progress. 

The public is accustomed to assume that he who gets an office, gets also 
the necessary knowledge and wisdom for it. The public wants to harvest 
where it has not sown, and it had to be satisfied. So General Meyer man- 
aged to get high percentages in verifications. He showed progress by 
increasing them. The beginning was already as high as seventy-five per 

Blasius.] [Jan. 18, 

cent, and they have reached as high as ninety-five per cent. The public 
was elated to have the best Signal Service in the world, and did not care to 
test the matter. Now General Greely caniiot well exceed one hundred 
per cent, and he cannot well go back to a more justified number, and the 
public then thinks that the Signal Service is degenerating. Thus General 
Greely has to bear the sins committed by his predecessors. General Greely 
is as well calculated for his important position as any of his predecessors, 
if not better. But the Signal Service will not become better nor grow 
worse than it always has been, unless General Greely commences from 
anew and does what General Meyer ought to have done in the beginning. 
To establish correct laws ought to be his first and principal aim. The 
fact that, at the end of nearly a quarter of a century's hard work, the 
public begins to think that the Signal Service is not as effective any more 
as in its earlier days when it could not be anything, is sufficient to prove 
that the laws hitherto followed are wrong. 

In view of the foregoing, I beg leave to make the following suggestions 
for the improvement of the Signal Service Bureau : 

Find the true laws. This country offers all advantages. Let the pre- 
dicting, in the meantime, go on in the usual way to satisfy the public. It 
cannot become worse than it has been hitherto, by taking away half a 
dozen or a dozen of the most intelligent men, and making them an investi- 
gating corps. Have them taught, above all, to see correctly in order to be 
able to read nature as well as antiquated books and meteorological instru- 
ments the latter any school-boy can do. Teach these men to compare 
what they have seen and with common sense work it into laws, as 
Franklin did. The less these men know of antiquated traditional theories 
taught by professors who never digested them themselves, the better they 
are calculated for their work. 

Let General Greely shake off such authorities that hide their ignorance 
in high-sounding hollow phrases, and who compliment each other by 
copying each other's undigested works, and start anew with such an in- 
vestigating corps prepared in the above-mentioned way, and the Signal 
Service will soon be in the condition to show real progress. In this coun- 
try the meteorological laws are exhibited so plainly that anybody who has 
learned to see nature correctly, without being biased in his mind, cannot 
fail to learn them. 



Alphabetical List of Obituary Notices published in the Transactions and 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 

By Henry Phillips, Jr. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, February 1, 1889.) 

ALEXANDER, Joseph Addison (John Leyburn). .Procs. VII. 320 

BEADLE, Rev. Elias P. (D. Hayes Agnew) " XXII. 227 

BETHUNE, George W. (R. Dunglison) " IX. 70 

BIDDLE, C. C. (George Ord) " VI. 158 

BINNEY, Horace (William Strong) " XVI. 1 

BONAPARTE, Joseph (C. J. Ingersoll) " VI. 71 

BOOTH, James C. (Patterson DuBois) " XXV. 204 

BRIDGES, Robert (W. S. W, Ruschenberger) . . . . . " XXI. 427 

CALDWELL, Charles (B. H. Coates) " VI. 77 

CHAPMAN, Nathaniel (John B. Biddle) .' . . " VII. 397 

CHASE, Pliny E. (P. C. Garrett) " XXIV. 287 

CHEVALIER, Michael (Moncure Robinson) " XIX. 28 

COL WELL, Stephen (H. C. Carey) " XII. 195 

DARLING-TON, William (T. P. James). " IX. 330 

DARWIN, Charles R. (LeConte) " XX. 235 

DAVIS, Isaac R. (Stephen Colwell) " VI. 299 

DESOR, E. (J.P.Lesley) " XX. 519 

DILLINGHAM, W. H. (William Darlington) " VI. 91 

DRAPER, Henry (G. F. Barker) " XX. 656 

DRAPER, J. W. (W. H. Hammond) " XX. 227 

DuBOIS, W. E. (R.Patterson) " XX. 102 

ECKPELDT, J. R. ( W. E. DuBois) " XII. 547 

EMERSON, R. W. (C. G. Ames) " XX. 498 

FRAZER, John F. (John L. LeConte) " XIII. 183 

FRAZER, Robert (Persifor Frazer) " XVIII. 233 

GASTON, William (W. H. Dillmgham) " IV. 49 

GILPIN, Henry D. (Joseph R. Ingersoll) " VII. 347 

GROSS, Samuel D. (J. M. DaCosta) " XXII. 78 

HALDEM AN, S. S. (D. G. Brinton) " XIX. 279 

(J. L. LeConte) " XIX. 109 

HARDEN, John W. (J. P. Lesley) " XVIII. 422 

HARRISON, Joseph, Jr. (Coleman Sellers) " XIV. 347 




[Feb. 1, 

HAYDBN, F. V. ( J. P. Lesley) Procs. XXV. 59 

HAYS, Isaac (D. G. Brinton) " XVIII. 259 

HENRY, Joseph (Fairman Rogers) " XVIII. 461 

HEBB, Oswald (Lesquereux) " XXI. 286 

HEBSOHEL, J. W. F. (H. A. Field) " XII. 217 

HOPKINSON, Joseph (J. K. Kane) " VI. 12 

HUMPHBEYS, A. A. (Hampton L. Carson) " XXII. 48 

IB VINO-, Washington (Henry Coppee) " VII. 363 

JACKSON, J. R. (John K. Kane) " II. 217 

JAMES, Thomas P. (Joseph T. Rothrock) " XX. 293 

JONES, Joel (George Shars wood) " VII . 387 

KIBKBBIDE, Thomas S. (John Cur wen) " XXII. 217 

KNEASS, Strickland (Frederick Graft) " XXI. 451 

KBAUTH, Charles'P. (Frederick A. Muhlen;berg).. " XX. 612 

LAW, Philip H. (D. G. Brinton) " XXV. 225 

LE CONTE, John L. (G. H. Horn) " XXI. 291 

(J.P.Lesley) " XXL 291 

LIVINGSTON, Edward (Henry D. Gilpin) " III. 92 

LUDLOW, James R. (Richard Vaux) " XXIV. 19 

MASON, E.R. (S.C.Walker) " II. 7 

MACPABLANE, James (J. P. Lesley) " XXIII. 287 

McOALL, Peter (Henry Phillips, Jr.) " XIX. 213 

McILVAINE, William (George Ord) " VI. 101 

MEIGS, Charles D. (John Bell) " XIII. 170 

MEIGS, John Forsyth (William Pepper) " XXI. 266 

MIOHAUX, F. Andre (Elias Durand), Trans., N. 

S., XI, xvii, " VI. 223 

MILLEB, E. (S. W. Roberts) " XII. 323 

MITCHELL, John K. (Robley Dunglison) " VI. 340 

MITCHELL, O. M. (Henry Coppee) " IX. 147 

MOOBE, Samuel (Franklin Peall) " VIII. 53 

NEILL, John (Daniel G. Brinton) " XIX. 161 

NUTTALL, Thomas (Elias Durand) " VII. 297 

PATTEBSON, Robert Trans., N. S., II. ix 

PATTEBSON, Robert M. (John K. Kane) Procs. VI. 60 

PETEB, William (Job R. Tyson) " VI. 115 

PHILLIPS, Henry M. (Richard Vaux) " XXII. 72 

PBICE, E1LK. (Joseph T. Rothrock) " XXIII. 572 


READ, John M. (Eli K. Price) Procs. XIV. 271 

REED, Henry (John F. Frazer) " VI. 87 

REYNELL, John (B. H. Coates) " VII. 156 

RHOADS, E. (Henry Hartshorne) . " XII. 171 

ROBERTS, William (Frederick Fraley) " XX. 199 

ROQERS, Robert E. ( W. S. W. Ruschenberger) . . . " XXIII. 104 

SANDERSON, John (John S. Hart) " IV. 62 

SEYBERT, Henry (Moncure Robinson) " XXI. 241 

SMITH, Albert H. (Harrison Allen) " XXIII. 606 

STRICKLAND, William (John K. Kane) " VI. 28 

TAYLOR, Richard C. (Isaac Lea) " V. 226 

TREGO, Charles B. (S. W. Roberts) XIV. 356 

TUCKER, George (Robley Dunglison) " IX. 64 

VAUX, William S. (P. H. Law) " XXII. 404 

W ALTER, Thomas Ustick (Joseph M. Wilson) .... " XXV. 823 

WHITNEY, George (William Sellers) " XXIII. 38H 

WISTAR, Caspar (William Tilghman) Trans., N. S., I. xviii 

WOOD, George B. (Henry Hartshorne) Procs. XIX. 1 18 

Stated Meeting, January 18, 1889. 

Present, 21 members. 
President, Mr. FRALEY, in the Chair. 

Mr. Arthur Biddle, a lately elected member, was presented 
to the Chair and took his seat. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows, viz. : 

A circular requesting the attention of the Society in behalf 
of the Philhellenic Society, Amsterdam, Holland. 

Letters of acknowledgment were received from the Hun- 
garian Academy, Budapest (127); Naturforschende Gesellschaft 
des Osterlandes, Altenburg (122-127). 

Letters of envoy were received from the Bureau des Longi- 
tudes, Paris ; U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington 


[Jan. 18, 

A letter from the President of the Society stating that he 
had appointed Mr. Craig Biddle to prepare an obituary of the 
late Casper Wistar, M.D., and that the appointment had been 

A letter requesting exchanges was read from the Aachener 
Geschichtsverein, which was granted, and the Society ordered 
to receive Proceedings from No. 96. 

Accessions to the Library were announced from the Eoyal 
Asiatic Society, North China Branch, Shanghai ; Government 
Observatory, Madras; Hungarian Academy, Budapest; K. 
Nordeske Oldskrift-Selskaf, Copenhagen ; Anthropologische 
Gesellschaft, Wien; Naturforschende Gesellschaft des Oster- 
landes, Altenburg ; Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft, Messrs. 
K. Friedlander & Sohn, Eedaktion " Naturwissenschaftliche 
Wochenschrift," Berlin; Societe des Sciences Physiques et 
Naturelles, Academic N. des Sciences, Bordeaux; Societe 
Zoologique de France, Societe de Geographic, Ecole des Mines, 
Bureau des -Longitudes, Paris ; Societe des Antiquaires de la 
Morinie, Samt-Omer ; Philosophical Society, Cambridge, Eng.; 
Koyal Society, R. Meteorological Society, Editor of the " Geo- 
logical Magazine." London ; American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, Boston, Mass.; Publisher of " The Travellers' Eecord," 
Hartford; Entomological Society, Brooklyn; Historical So- 
ciety, American Chemical Society, Mrs. J. "W. Barrow, New 
York ; Mr. Charles W. Darling, Utica ; College of Pharmacy, 
Franklin Institute, Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia; 
Prof. Ira Kemsen, Baltimore ; U. S. Geological Survey, U. S. 
National Museum, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Mr. James 
P. Kimball, Washington, D. C.; Elisha Mitchell Scientific 
Society, Kaleigh ; State Board of Health, Nashville ; Univer- 
sity of California, Sacramento; Observatorio Meteorologico- 
Magnetico-Central, Mexico. 

The Committee on the Codex Poinsett reported progress, and 
was continued. 

The Committee on Prof. Cope's paper was continued. 

The stated business of the evening was then taken up, and 



an election for Librarian being held, Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., 
was unanimously re-elected to that position. 

On motion, the President was authorized to appoint at his 
leisure the Standing Committees of the Society, which were 
subsequently reported by him as follows : 

Henry Winsor, William B. Kogers, Phillip C. Garrett. 


Daniel G. Brinton, George H. Horn, Samuel Wagner, 
Patterson DuBois, Horace Jayne. 

J. Sergeant Price, William A. Ingham, Charles A. Oliver. 


Edwin J. Houston, William V. McKean, Wm. John Potts, 
Jesse Y. Burk, William H. Greene. 

Mr. William Blasius read a paper, " Is the Signal Service 
Degenerating ?" and subsequently made some oral remarks on 
subjects connected with meteorology in general. 

Dr. Morris offered a suggestion as to the probable equivalent 
in our modern English speech of the ancient Hebrew word 
Amen. Sometimes such equivalents may be found in terms 
that are marked in our dictionaries as obsolete, or provincial, 
or in terms now in use only among the lower and more igno- 
rant classes. Thus he had on one occasion been much struck 
by the description given by an unlettered negro, of a certain 
pain as a " gugawing " one. We can, in this case, easily trace 
the origin, as of a dog gnawing at a bone. So, in rendering 
our assent to a proposition forcibly, we often, to-day, do so 
with a nod of the head and the utterance of a sound better 
represented by the letters m'h'n, than by any other. Is not 
this then to be regarded as the modern representative of this 
form of earnest solemn assertion ? 

The Committee on the Communication of Prof. Goodfellow 

[Feb. 1, 

and the Kesolution of Prof. Lesley in relation to the U. S. 
Coast Survey, reported the following preamble and resolutions, 
which were unanimously adopted : 

WHEKEAS, The American Philosophical Society having a deep interest 
in scientific investigation, has heretofore taken occasion to express its 
opinion as to the propriety of the appointment of scientific men for high 
scientific positions ; 

AND WHEREAS, The American Philosophical Society recognizes the 
advisability of appointing as Superintendent of the Coast, and Geodetic 
Survey a man of the highest ability, experience and character, be it there- 

Resolved, That this Society regards Richard Meade Bache as one fulfill- 
ing all these requirements ; that his training on the Survey for a period of 
nearly forty years, his familiarity with its methods and history, his general 
knowledge and scientific culture, would make the appointment an emi- 
nently fit one, and would assure to the work the maintenance of that high 
standard of usefulness to the people and to the Government which it 
reached under the distinguished administrations of Alexander Dallas 
Bache and Benjamin Peirce. 

Resolved, That this Society recommend the said Richard Meade Bache 
as in every way qualified for the Superin tendency of the Survey. 

Resolved, That a Committee of three members of this Society be 
appointed to proceed to Washington and lay there these resolutions be- 
fore the President. 

The President of the Society and Messrs. Dudley and Haupt 
were appointed the Committee referred to in the resolution. 
And the Society was adjourned by the President. 

Stated Meeting, February 1, 1889. 

Present, 16 members. 
Vice-President, Dr. RUSCHENBEKGER, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows : 

A letter from the Marchese Antonio de Gregorio (Palermo), 
accepting membership. 

A circular from the Society for the Promotion of the Study 
of Modern Greek, Leyden, Netherlands. 



A circular from the American Oriental Society requesting 
information as to whether the American Philosophical Society 
possessed any Oriental manuscripts. 

Program of La Societe Batavede Philosophic Experimental 
de Eotterdam. 

Circular relating to the Bressa Prize of the Eoyal Academy 
of Turin to be awarded after December, 1890. 

Letters of envoy were received from the Mining Depart- 
ment, Melbourne, Victoria ; Yerein fur Erdkunde, Dresden ; 
Meteorological Office, London, Eng. ; New Haven Colony 
Historical Society, New Haven, Conn.; Prof. N. H. "Winchell, 
Minneapolis, Minn.; Oficina Meteorologico Argentina, Cordoba. 

Acknowledgments for 128 were received from Mr. Horatio 
Hale, Clinton, Canada ; Sir J. W. Dawson, Montreal ; Geologi- 
cal and Natural History Survey, Ottawa ; Sir Daniel Wilson, 
Toronto ; Society of Natural History, Portland, Me. ; New 
Hampshire Historical Society, Concord ; Prof. Charles Henry 
Hitchcock, Hanover, N. H. ; Mr. Robert N. Toppan, Cam- 
bridge ; Massachusetts Historical Society, American Statistical 
Association, Public Library, State Library of Massachusetts, 
Messrs. Stephen P. Sharpies, Eobert C. Winthrop, Boston; 
Free Public Library, New Bedford ; Rev. Edward E. Hale, 
Roxbury; Essex Institute, Salem; Rhode Island Historical 
Society, Prof. Thomas Chase, Providence, R. I.; Yale Univer- 
sity, New Haven Colony Historical Society, New Haven ; 
Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford. 

A circular from the Audubon Monument Association of 
New York asking for contributions. 

A letter was read from Mr. Robert Patterson in answer to 
one from Secretary Phillips, relating to the portraits of Robert 
Patterson and Robert M. Patterson owned by the Society, of 
which it has no record. Mr. Patterson states that he has in 
his possession, a portrait of Robert Patterson painted by Rem- 
brandt Peale, but is unable to say if the one belonging to the 
Society is an original or a copy. 

That the portrait of Robert M. Patterson owned by the 
Society was a replica painted by Mr. Samuel F. DuBois, his 


[Feb. 1, 

nephew, and presented to the Society by Mr. Patterson's 

A letter from Mr. J. C. Pilling requesting the loan of a work 
on the Society's Library, which was not granted. 

Accessions to the Library were received from the Koyal 
Society of Yictoria, Department of Mines, Melbourne ; Gesell- 
schaft fur Erdkunde, Gesellschaft fur Anthropologie, Eth- 
nologie und Urgeschichte, K. P. Meteorologische Institut, 
Berlin ; Prof. Dr. August Boltz, Darmstadt ; Yerein fur Erd- 
kunde, Dresden; Yerein fur Erdkunde, Halle a.S.; Nassau- 
ischer Yerein fur Naturkunde, Wiesbaden ; Alterthumsverein 
fur Zwickau uod Umgegend, Zwickau; "Flora Batava," 
Leiden ; Academic Koyal de Belgique, Bruxelles ; Socie'te de 
Geographic, Paris; Societe d'Emulation des C6tes-du-Nord, 
Saint Brienc ; B. Academia de la Historia, Madrid ; Natural 
History Society, Montreal ; Peabody Museum, Harvard Col- 
lege, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge; Essex 
Institute, Salem ; Meteorological Observatory, Mr. John Eyer- 
man, New York ; New Jersey Historical Society, Newark ; 
Prof. E. D. Cope, Messrs. Francis Jordan, Jr., Bois Penrose, 
Henry Phillips, Jr., Dr. Euschenberger, Philadelphia ; Depart- 
ment of State, Bureau of Education, Chief of Engineers, An- 
thropological Society, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D. C.; State Historical Society, Iowa City ; Prof. N. H. Win- 
chell, St. Paul ; Mr. Francisco Canton Kosado, Merida, Yuca- 
tan ; Sociedad Cientifica " Antonio Alzate," Mexico ; Oficina 
Meteorologico Argentina, Buenos Aires. 

Mr. John Fulton presented a photograph of himself. 

The Audubon Monument Committee presented an engraving 
of John J. Audubon. 

The Committee on the Codex Poinsett reported progress, 
and was continued. 

The Committee on Prof. Cope's Paper reported progress, and 
was continued. 

Mr. Phillips presented for the Proceedings " An Alphabeti- 
cal List of Obituary Notices published in the Transactions and 
Proceedings of the Society." 



Mr. Phillips presented " A Supplemental Eegister of Papers 
published in the Proceedings of the Society from No. 115 to 
128 (Vol. XXI to XXIV), 1881-1889," completing the Eegis- 
ter prepared by him in 1880. 

Also a Subject Kegister of Communications published by the 
Society in its Transactions and Proceedings. 

The Secretaries were authorized to have a sufficient number 
of these printed separately for general use. 

Mr. Phillips read an account of the Congo Free State. 

Dr. Eothrock made an oral communication in reference to 
Forestry in Pennsylvania. 

New nominations 1183, 1184 and 1185 were read. 

On motion of Prof. Eothrock the Society resolved to appro- 
priate a sum not to exceed $50, to enable the Committee on 
the Michaux Legacy to transmit from the Society to the Jardin 
des Plantes, Paris, a duplicate set of photographs of American 

And the meeting was adjourned by the presiding member. 

Stated Meeting, February 15, 1889. 

Present, 15 members. 
President, Mr. FKALEY, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows : 

A letter from Prof. Steiner, of Darmstadt, in relation to 
Pasilengua, etc., dated January 20, 1889. 

A circular from the U. S. Commission to the Paris Exposi- 
tion of 1889, in reference to the same. 

Letters from the Observatoire de Zoologie, Yillefranche-Sur- 
Mer, and the Geological and Natural History Survey of Min- 
nesota, requesting to be placed on the exchange list, which, on 
motion, was so ordered from Proceedings 129. 

Letters of envoy from Physikalische Central-Observatorium, 
St. Petersburg ; Boston Society of Natural History ; U. S. 



[Feb. 15, 

Geological Survey, Indiana Society of Civil Engineers and 
Surveyors, Remington. 

Letters of acknowledgment were received from the North 
China Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, Shanghai (124, 125); 
Prof. Peter Tunner, Leoben, Austria (127); Accademia degli 
Agiati, Rovereto, Austria (125-127) ; Public Library, Boston 
Society of Natural History, Boston (127); Mr. Arthur Biddle, 
Philadelphia (127). 

Letters of acknowledgment for 128 were received from Mr. 
Alfred Selwyn, Ottawa ; University of Toronto ; American 
Antiquarian Society, "Worcester ; Prof. William D. Whitney, 
New Haven; Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences; Prof. 
Edward North, Clinton, N. Y.; Prof. T. F. Crane, Ithaca ; 
Astor Library, New York Hospital, University of the City of 
New York, Historical Society, Drs. J. A. Allen, J. J. Steven- 
son, New York City; Vassar Brothers' Institute, Poughkeep- 
sie ; Oneida Historical Society, Utica ; U. S. Military Acade- 
my, West Point; Prof. Henry M. Baird, Yonkers; Rev. 
Joseph F. Garrison, Mr. Isaac C. Martindale, Camden ; New 
Jersey Historical Society, Newark ; Prof. George H. Cook, 
New Brunswick, N. J.; Prof. Charles A. Young, Princeton, N. 
J.; Dr. Charles B. Dudley, Altoona ; Dr. Traill Green, Profs. 
J. W. Moore, Thomas C. Porter, Easton ; Mr. Andrew S. 
McCreath, Harrisburg ; Dr. Lyman B. Hall, Haverford ; Dr. 
John Curwen, Warren, Pa.; Mr. Ario Pardee, Hazleton Pa ; Mr. 
John Fulton, Johnstown, Pa.; Mr. Elisha Kent Kane, Kane, Pa.; 
Linnean Scientific and Historical Society, Lancaster, Pa.; Mr. 
Peter F. Rothermel, Linfield, Pa.; Franklin Institute, Penn- 
sylvania Hospital, Wagner Free Institute, Library Company 
of Philadelphia, College of Physicians, Athenaeum, Messrs. 
John Ashhurst, R. Meade Bache, Arthur Biddle, Craig Biddle, 
Geo. D. Boardman, W. G. A. Bonwill, John H. Brinton, Isaac 
Burk, Jesse Y. Burk, S. Castner, Jr., Thos. M. Cleemann, E. D. 
Cope, Samuel Dickson, Patterson DuBois, Philip C. Garrett, 
F. A. Genth, Frederick Graff, George Harding, J. S. Harris, 
H. Y. Hil^yrecht, G. H. Horn, Edwin J. Houston, E. J. James, 
William W. Jefferis, Francis Jordan, Jr., W. W. Keen, J. P.< 



Lesley, Morris Longstreth, John Marshall, E. Y. McCauley, F. A. 
Muhleriberg, Isaac Norris, Charles A. Oliver, John H. Packard, 

C. Stuart Patterson, Robert Patterson, C. N. Peirce, Henry Pem- 
berton, Henry Phillips, Jr., Franklin Platt, J. Sergeant Price, 
Theo. D. Rand, T. B. Reed, James W. Robins, J. T. Rothrock, 
W. S. W. Ruschenberger, Samuel P. Sadtler, C. E. Sajous, Lewis 
A. Scott, Oswald Seidensticker, Isaac Sharpless, Aubrey H. 
Smith, Edgar F. Smith, H. C. Trumbull, James Tyson, Samuel 
Wagner, W. H. Wahl, E. H. Weil, Talcott Williams, Henry 

D. Wireman, Philadelphia ; Heber S. Thompson, Pottsville, 
Pa.; Lackawanna Institute of Science, Scranton, Pa. ; Philo- 
sophical Society, Mr. Philip P. Sharpies, West Chester, Pa.; 
Mr. W. M. Canby, Wilmington, Bel.; Peabody Institute, 
Maryland Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; 
Library of the Signal Office, U. S. Geological Survey, Surgeon- 
General's Office, Messrs. J. H. C. Coffin, Albert S. Gatschet, 
Charles A. Schott, William Strong, Capt. Thomas J. Lee, 
Washington, D. C.; Prof. J. W. Mallett, Leander McCormick 
Observatory, University of Virginia; Elliott Society of Sci- 
ence and Art, Charleston, S. C.; University of South Carolina, 
Columbia; Georgia Historical Society, Savannah ; University 
of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; E. W. Ciaypole, Akron, Ohio; 
Society of Natural History, Cincinnati Observatory, Prof. J. 
M. Hart, Cincinnati, 0.; Prof. Leo Lesquereux, Columbus; 
Rev. Henry S. Osborn, Oxford, Ohio ; Denison University, 
Granville, Ohio ; Kentucky Historical Society, Frankfort ; 
Dr. Robert Peter, Lexington, Ky. ; Prof. John C. Branner, 
Little Rock, Arkansas; Prof. Daniel Kirk wood, Bloomington, 
Ind. ; Indiana Society of Civil Engineers and Surveyors, 
Remington, Ind. ; Chicago Historical Society ; Rev. Stephen 
D. Peet, Mendon, 111.; Col. William Ludlow, Detroit ; Michi- 
gan State Library, Lansing ; Mr. Charles R. Keyes, Burlington, 
Iowa ; State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison ; Acade- 
my of Natural Science, Davenport, Iowa ; Washburn College, 
Kansas State Library, Topeka, Kans. ; Colorado Scientific 
Society, Denver ; University of California, Prof. John LeConte, 
Berkeley, Cal.; Mr. George Davidson, San Francisco. 

[Feb. 15, 

Accessions to the Library were received from the Society of 
Finnish Literature, Helsingfors, Finland ; Naturforscher- Yerein, 
Eiga; Academic Imperiale des Sciences, Physical Central 
Observatory, St. Petersburg; Dr. A. Boltz, Leipzig; K. B. 
Akademie der Wissenschaften, Deustche Gesellschaft fur An- 
thropologie, Munchen; R. Accademia dei Liucei, Rome; Mr. 
Jose F. de Peralta, Bruxelles; Prof. E. Renevier, Lausanne; 
Mr. Alphon Picht, Geneve ; Mr. L. Selbor, Madrid ; Institute 
y Observatorio de Marina, San Fernando ; Society of Arts, 
London ; Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Penzance ; 
Society of Natural History, Boston ; Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge; Mr. James B. Francis, Lowell, Mass.; New Haven 
Colony Historical Society; Astor Library, New York His- 
torical Society, New York ; Empire State Association of Deaf- 
Mutes, Rome, N. Y.; New Jersey Historical Society ; Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association, Messrs. Angelo Heilprin, 
Thomas H. Dudley, Charles R. Keyes, James Mooney, Henry 
Phillips, Jr., De Forest Willard, Dr. Persifor Frazer, Philadel- 
phia; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; Bureau of Edu- 
cation, Hon. J. D. Cameron, Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Light- 
house Board, U. S. Geological Survey ; Denison University. 
Granville, Ohio ; State University of Iowa, Iowa City ; Indi- 
ana Society of Civil Engineers and Surveyors, Indianapolis ; 
Rev. Stephen D. Peet, Meiidon, 111.; Kansas State Historical 
Society, Topeka. 

The Committee on Prof. Cope's Paper for the Transactions 
reported in favor of publishing the same, and, on motion, the 
Committee was discharged and the paper referred to the Pub- 
lication Committee for action. 

The Committee on the Codex Poinsett reported progress, 
and was continued. 

The death of Prof. Guiseppe Meneghini, Pisa, January 29, 
1889, was announced. 

The minutes of the Board of Officers and Council were sub- 
mitted, and the following resolution adopted by the Board was 

Resolved, "The Board recommend that the Society should authorize 
the printing of such portions of the minutes of the Board of Officers and 



Council as to the Secretaries should seem desirable, and that a sufficient 
sum of money be appropriated to have the aforesaid minutes prepared 
and published." 

On motion of Mr. Dudley action was deferred until the next 
stated meeting of the Society, and the Librarian was directed 
to obtain in the interim an approximate estimate of the cost 
of such publication. 

A communication was made by Prof. Cope " On the Mam- 
malia obtained by the Naturalist Scientific Expedition to 
Southern Brazil." 

Mr. Lyman exhibited and presented a map of the New 
Boston and Morea Coal Lands, Schuylkill county, Pa. 

Pending nominations Nos. 1183, 1184 and 1185 were read. 

Mr. Price, from the Committee on the Henry M. Phillips' 
Prize Essay Fund, reported that the engrossed resolution of 
thanks of the Society had been sent Miss Emily Phillips. 

The report of the Trustees of the Building Fund was pre- 

And the Society was adjourned by the President. 

Stated Meeting, March 1, 1889. 

Present, 10 members. 
Vice-President, Dr. RUSCHENBERGEK, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows : 

Letter from the K. Leopold-Carolinische Deutsche Akade- 
mie der Naturforscher, Halle a. S., requesting missing pages 
483 to 498 of Proceedings, Yol. XIX, No. 109. 

Letters of envoy were received from the K. Leopold-Caro- 
linishe Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher, Halle a. S.; K. 
Sachsische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Leipzig; Royal 
Statistical Society, Meteorological Office, London, Eng. 

Letters of acknowledgment were received from the Royal 
Society of Edinburg, Scotland (Trans. XYI, 2); Royal Society 
of New South "Wales, Sydney (127); K. Leopold-Carolinische 
Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher, Halle a. S. (123-127); 


[March 1, 

New Haven Colony Historical Society, Conn. (96-128) ; Mr. 
George Harding, Philadelphia (127); Cincinnati, O., Society 
of Natural History (127); Prof. B. G. Wilder, Ithaca, 1ST. Y.; 
New York Academy of Sciences, Dr. J. S. Newberry, New 
York, N. Y.; Dr. E. H. Alison, Ardmore, Pa.; State Library 
of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pa.; Mr. J. B. F. Carll, Pleasant- 
ville, Pa. ; Mr. P. W. Sheafer, Pottsville, Pa. ; Dr. John Cur- 
wen, Warren, Pa. ; Naval Institute, Annapolis, Md.; Maryland 
Historical Society, Baltimore, Md. ; Geological Survey, Signal 
Office, Library of the Surgeon-General's Office, Washington, 
D. C.; Prof. Joseph LeConte, Berkeley, Cal. (128). 

A letter was read from a member of the Committee on Art 
and Exhibitions of the Centennial Celebration of the Inaugu- 
ration of Washington, as President of the United States, re- 
questing the loan, for exhibition in New York, of Sully's 
portrait of Jefferson owned by the Society. 

On motion of Mr. Vaux, the application was ordered to lie 
on the table. 

Accessions to the Library were received from the Koyal 
Society of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia ; Geological 
Survey of India, Calcutta ; K. Statistika Central Byran, 
Stockholm, Sweden ; Yerein zur Beforderung des Gartenbaues 
in den K. Preuss. Staaten, Messrs. K. Friedlander & Sohn, Ber- 
lin ; K. Leopold-Carolinische Akademie der Deutschen Natur- 
forscher, Halle a. S.; K. Sachsische Gesellschaft der Wissen- 
schaften, Leipzig ; Ministro della Publica Instruzione, Firenze, 
Italia; Societe d'Ethnographie, S. A. le Prince Albert de 
Monaco, Paris, France; Eoyal Statistical Society, London, 
Eng.; Natural History Society, New Castle-upon-Tyne, Eng.; 
Kev. C. G. Ames, Boston, Mass.; Yale College, New Haven, 
Conn.; Mr. W. Danmar, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society, Dr. Persifor Frazer, Messrs. B. S. Lyman, 
Henry Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa.; Society of Natural 
History, Cincinnati, 0.; Dr. D. A. McLachlan, Ann Arbor, 
Mich.; Museo Michoacano, Morelia, Mexico. 

The Committee on Publication presented a report on Prof. 
Cope's paper, and publication was ordered. 


Committee on Codex Poinsett reported progress, and was 

Some remarks were made relating to the supposed lack of 
harmony between primary and later instruction in French 
schools and universities. 

Attention was called to the late discoveries by Prince Albert 
de Monaco relating to the alimentation of shipwrecked per- 
sons, and the importance of the subject in its relation to an- 

Secretary Phillips made the announcement of the date of 
meeting of the following associations in Paris during the 
month of August, 1889 : 

Congres d'Geographie, August 5 to 12. 

Association Frangaise, August 8 to 15. 

Congres d'Anthropologie, August 19 to 26. 

Mr. George B. Wood exhibited and presented a photograph 
of a projectile emerging from the muzzle of Pneumatic Dyna- 
mite Torpedo Gun, taken in 1887, by Major William F. Kan- 
dolph, U. S. A. 

Estimates for printing the minutes of the Board of Officers and 
Council were presented ; on motion, the consideration of the 
same was postponed until the next stated meeting of the Society. 

Pending nominations Nos. 1183, 1184, 1885 and new nomi- 
nations 1186 and 1187 were read. 

And the Society was adjourned by the presiding member. 

Stated Meeting, March 15, 1889. 

Present, 9 members. 
Yice- President, Dr. KUSCHENBEEGER, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows : 

An invitation to attend an unveiling of a memorial to Dr. 
Joseph Priestly in the First Unitarian Church of Philadelphia, 
to take place March 13, 1889. 

A letter from Dr. P. Steiner, of Darmstadt, in reference to 
his system of Pasilenyua, on which no action was deemed 
necessary to be taken. 


[March 15, 

Letters of acknowledgment were received from Mr. M. II. 
Boje, Coopersburg, Pa.; Mr. George Stuart, Philadelphia, Pa. 
(No. 128). 

Letters of envoy were received from the Observatoire Astro- 
nomique et Physique, Tachkent, Russia ; Meteorological Office, 
London, Bug.; Royal Irish Academy, Dublin ; Museo Nacional, 
Buenos Aires, S. A. 

Accessions to the Library were announced from the South 
African Philosophical Society, Cape Town ; Societe des Natu- 
ralistes, feieff, Russia; K. K. Zoologisch-Botanische Gesell- 
schaft, Vienna, Austria ; Prof. Leopold Einstein, Niirnberg, 
Bavaria ; S. A. le Prince de Monaco, Paris, France ; R. Acade- 
mia de Ciencias Naturales y Artes, Barcelona, Spain; York- 
shire Geological and Polytechnic Society, Halifax, Eng.; Me- 
teorological Office, Geological Society, Dr. Benjamin Ward 
Richardson, London, Eng.; R. Irish Academy, Dublin; Mr. 
Charles J. Hoadley, Hartford, Conn.; Scientific Aasociation, 
Meriden, Conn.; New York Academy of Medicine, Prof. J. S. 
Newberry, New York, N. Y.; Mr. William John Potts, Cam- 
den, N. J.; Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., Dr. J. T. Rothrock, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.; 
Smithsonian Institution, Col. Garrick Mallery, Washington, 
D. C.; University of Nebraska, Lincoln ; Museo Nacional, 
Buenos Aires, S. A. 

The death of Mr. John Ericson, New York City, N. Y., 
March 7, 1889, set. 83, was reported. 

The Committee on the Codex Poinsett reported progress, 
and was continued. 

The consideration of the question of publishing the minutes 
of the Board of Officers and Council was postponed until the 
next stated meeting of the Society. 

Pending nominations 1183, 1184, 1185, 1186 and 1187 were 

On motion of Prof. Cope, permission was granted him to 
withdraw the paper lately offered by him for the Transactions 
of the Society. 

And the Society was adjourned by the presiding member. 


Stated Meeting, April 5, 1889. 

Present, 14 members. 
President, Mr. FRALEY, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows: 

A letter from the R. Accademia delle Sci^nze, Turin, 
announcing the death of its President. 

A circular inviting subscriptions for a monument to Antonio 
Rosmini in Milano. 

Letters of envoy were received from the Mining Department, 
Melbourne, Victoria ; Universite' R. de Norvege, Christiana ; 
K. Geologische Landesanstalt und Bergakademie, Berlin, Prus- 
sia; Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester, Eng. ; 
New York State Library, Albany. 

Accessions to the Library were announced from the Depart- 
ment of Mines, Melbourne, Australia; Geological Survey of 
India, Calcutta ; Institut Egyptien, Cairo ; Tashkend Observa- 
tory, Tashkend ; Acade'mie des Sciences, Krakow ; K. P. Geo- 
logische Landesanstalt und Bergakademie, Berlin ; Oberlausitze 
Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Gorlitz ; K. Gesellschaft der 
Wissenschaften, Gottingen ; Academic Royale de Copenhague ; 
Bibliothcque de 1'Universite, Christiana ; Societe' Royale Ma- 
lacologique de Belgique, Bruxelles ; Philosophical Society, 
Cambridge, Eng. ; Royal Institution of Great Britain, London, 
Eng. ; Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester, Eng. ; 
Geological Society, Glasgow ; Rhode Island Historical Society, 
Providence ; Mr. Augustus Schoonmaker, New York ; Mr. W. 
J. Potts, Camden, N. J. ; Academy of Natural Sciences, Board 
of Directors of City Trusts, Germantown Dispensary and Hos- 
pital, Messrs. W. S. Baker, Henry Phillips, Jr., Dr. J. Cheston 
Morris, Philadelphia, Pa. ; U. S. Naval Institute, Annapolis, 
Md. ; Johns Hopkins University, Editor of the "American 
Journal of Philology," Baltimore, Md. ; Bureau of Education, 
Adjutant General's Office, Smithsonian Institution, U. S. Com- 
mission of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D. C. ; General 

PKOC. AMEB. PHIL08. SOC. XXVI. 129. 2if. PRINTED APBIL 26, 1889. 


[April 5, 

Thomas Ewing, Marietta, O. ; Sociedad de Geografia y Estad- 
istica, Mexico ; University of California, Sacramento, Cal. 

The Committee on Publication reported that it had exam- 
ined the communication of George Simpson on the "Fossils of 
the Helclerberg Series," and that it recommended its publica- 
tion in the Transactions of the Society, which was so ordered. 

The Committee chosen January 6, 1888,* to assist the Com- 
mission appointed by the State of Pennsylvania in the exami- 
nation of the defects of English orthography, presented the 
following report, of which, on motion, the Secretaries were di- 
rected to have a sufficient number printed separately for gen- 
eral distribution, and the Committee was continued. 

Report of the Committee Appointed (January 6, 1888} by the American 
Philosophical Society to Assist the Commission on Amended Orthografy, 
Created by Virtue of a Resolution of the Legislature of Pennsylvania. 

(Read before the American PhilosopJdcal Society, April 5, 1889.) 

The literature of the subject of " Spelling Reform " is already extensive, 
and, for its purposes, sufficiently exhaustive. The most eminent filologists 
in England and America have contributed to it, and the publisht testi- 
mony in favor of reform is from filologists, linguists, scientists, statesmen, 
educators, editors and literary workers in general. 

In view of this, your Committee recognizes that there are practically no 
new facts to be brought out to strengthen the argument on either side. 
What it aims to do, then, is to present, in a logical and conclusive man- 
ner, the known facts in the case, together with a consensus of opinions 
drawn from high sources, in so far as they illustrate the points at issue. 

In this way, your Committee designs to review the whole problem, so 
that the objective point, the recommendation of the State Commission that 
certain simplified spellings be employed in the public documents, can be 
intelligently considered. 

1. WHAT is SPELLING? According to Worcester, it is the art of "form- 
ing words by arranging their proper letters in due order." But this defi- 
nition is as loose, and therefore unscientific, on the one hand, as it is pop- 
ularly true and sufficient on the other. The main issue is bound up in 
the adjective "proper ;" a secondary issue is in the word "letters." 

To dispose of the latter, it need only be remembered, that "letters" are 
but the mechanical devices or symbols by which words are represented to 
the eye. Any one who can analyze a word into its fonetic elements can 

'* Proceedings Vol. xxv, pp. 1 and 18. 



spell that word by a synthetic recombining of those elements. And this, 
in the truest sense, is spelling ; for the spoken language is the language, 
while the written language is merely its mechanical representation to the 

It is not therefore, primarily, "arranging their proper letters" that 
constitutes the true spelling of words, but the proper arranging of their 
component sounds. Just so far, then, as the successive letters of the 
written word represent and exclusively represent those successive com- 
ponent sounds of the spoken word, just so far will they be the "proper 
letters " and the written spelling a proper spelling. That is, in true 
spelling every symbol should have but one sound, and every sound but one 

2. WHAT is ENGLISH SPELLING? By the foregoing amplified definition, 
it is evident that the great bulk of our English spelling can be so called 
. only by courtesy only by a deference to a usage that has itself originally 
deferred to the ignorant printers and proof-readers of by-gone centuries. 
Orthografy, in its root sense, can hardly be considered an element of 
Victorian English. 

Indeed, as Lord Lytton well says, "A more lying, round-about, puzzle- 
headed delusion than that by which we confuse the clear instincts of truth 
in our accursed system of spelling was never concocted by the father of 
falsehood. How can a system of education flourish that begins by so 
monstrous a falsehood, which the sense of hearing suffices to contradict?" 

"The greatest genius among grammarians," says Dr. March, "Jacob 
Grimm, but a few years ago, congratulated the other Europeans that the 
English had not made the discovery that a whimsical, antiquated orthog- 
rafy stood in the way of the universal acceptance of the language." 

And why is it a "whimsical, antiquated orthografy?" 

Because, being unfonetic, it is unetymological. "It is the sound of the 
spoken word," says Skeat, "which has to be accounted for, and all sym- 
bols which disguise this sound are faulty and worthless. If our old writers 
had not used a fonetic system, we should have no true data to go by." 
"We still retain much," says the same author, " of the Elizabethan spell- 
ing, which, even at that period, was retrospective, with a Victorian pro- 
nunciation. * * * The changes in spelling since 1600 are compara- 
tively trifling, and are chiefly due to the printers who aimed at producing 
a complete uniformity of spelling, which was practically accomplisht 
shortly before 1700. The changes in pronunciation are great, especially 
in vowel sounds. * * * The shortest description of modern spelling 
is to say, that, speaking generally, it represents a Victorian pronunciation 
of popular words by means of symbols imperfectly adapted to an Eliza- 
bethan pronunciation ; the symbols themselves being mainly due to the 
Anglo-French scribes, of the Plantagenet period, whose system was 
meant to be fonetic. It also aims at suggesting to the eye the original 
forms of learned words. It is thus governed by two conflicting principles, 
neither of which, even in its own domain, is consistently carried out." 


[April 5, 

And again, says Dr. March, " Caxton brought over a force of Dutch 
printers, who set up manuscripts as best they could, with many an objur- 
gation. People ceast, at last, to feel any necessity for keeping sounds and 
signs together. The written words have come to be associated with the 
spoken words as wholes without reference to the sounds which the sepa- 
rate letters would indicate. Changes in the sounds go on without record 
in the writing. Ingenious etymologists slip in new silent letters as records 
of history drawn from their imagination. Old monsters propagate them 
selves in the congenial environment, and altogether we have attained the 
worst spelling on the planet. And we have been proud of it, and we are 
fond of it." 

The actual condition of things, then, as Meiklejohn (late Asst. Commis- 
sioner of the Endowed School Commission for Scotland) puts it, is : Out 
of the 26 letters, only 8 are true, fixt and permanent qualities that is, are 
true both to eye and ear. There are 38 distinct sounds (Sayce recognizes 
40, others 32) in our spoken language; and there are about 400 distinct sym- 
bols (simple and compound) to represent these 38 sounds. In other 
words, there are 400 servants to do the work of 38. Of the 26 letters, 15 
have acquired a habit of hiding themselves. They are written and printed, 
but the ear has no account of them ; such are w in wrong and gh in right. 
The vowel sounds are printed in different ways ; a long o, for example, 
has 13 printed symbols to represent it. And Isaac Pitman shows that in 
our magnificent tongue, with its wretched orthografy, the long vowel 
a (in father) is represented in 5 different ways ; the a (in gate) in 17 ways ; 
the e has 21 different spellings ; the oa (in broad) is represented by 9 dif- 
ferent combinations of letters; the vowel o has 19 modes of representa- 
tion, and the vowel " oo" (in smooth) has 21*. Mr. Ellis gives a list 
of 97 signs and combinations to express vowel sounds, and having, in all, 
319 meanings, or a little more than an average of three meanings to each 
sign or combination ; and, further, he shows that 34 consonant signs have 
79 uses. 

As a consequence of all this (and more, if we were to stop to discuss it), 
an enthusiastic fonetist has calculated that the word scissors can be cor- 
rectly spelt in 596,580 different ways, when it ought to be possible to spell 
it in but one, and that one obvious to a child or a foreigner who has never 
seen it in print nor heard it spelt. In brief, we have, says Prof. Whitney, 
" a greater discordance between the written and the spoken speech among 
us than in any other community of equal enlightenment. This is the 
whole truth ; and any attempt to make it appear otherwise savors only of 
tne wisdom of the noted fox who lost his brush in a trap, and wanted to 
persuade himself and the world that the curtailment was a benefit and a 
decoration. Every departure from the rule that writing is the handmaid 
of speech is a dereliction of principle, and an abandonment of advantages 
which seemed to have been long ago assured to us, by the protracted 

* Authorities differ somewhat in these figures. Dr. Thomas Hill places the number of 
symbols for long a (in gate) as high as thirty. 

an IYER SI': 



labors of many generations of the most gifted races known to history. 
* * * That the written word in any case deviates from the spoken is a 
fault which may, indeed, admit of palliation, even amounting to excuse, 
but which it is an offense against all true science and sound sense to extol 
as a merit." 

Such being the state to which our written speech has come, the natural 
question to ask is : 

3. Is REFORM DESIRABLE ? Such a question is answered in its own 
asking. Reform or improvement is always desirable in anything. Whether 
it is possible or feasible is another question. But let us see, briefly, why 
an improved or reformed spelling would be desirable, by looking at some 
of the benefits that would accrue from it. 

(a) It would tend toward a greater uniformity in pronunciation. Upon 
this point Whitney says : "So loose and indefinit is now the tie between 
writing and utterance, that existing differences of utterance hide them- 
selves under cover of an orthografy which fits them all equally, while 
others spring up uncheckt. No small part of the conservative force ex- 
pends itself upon the visible form alone ; whereas, if the visible and 
audible form were more strictly accordant, it would have its effect upon 
the latter also." 

(b) It would greatly economize time, space, labor, and money. 

"The amount of saving would depend," says Dr. J. H. Gladstone, 
"very much upon the system adopted. The mere removal of duplicated 
consonants would save 1.6 per cent, and of the mute e'tt an additional 4 
per cent. In the New Testament, printed in fonetic type in 1849, by 
Alexander.!. Ellis, 100 letters and spaces are represented by 83. As far 
as printing and paper are concerned, therefore, a six-shilling book would 
be reduced to five shillings." This is a saving of 17 per cent. 

But the question of economy is more far-reaching than we might at first 
suppose. In the President's address before the American Philological 
Association, in 1874, he said : " The time lost by it is a large part of the 
whole school time of the mass of men. Count the hours that each man 
wastes in learning to read at school, the hours which he wastes through 
life from the hindrance to easy reading, the hours wasted at school in 
learning to spell, the hours spent through life in keeping up and perfect- 
ing this knowledge of spelling, in consulting dictionaries a worl^ that 
never ends the hours that he spends in writing silent letters. * * * 
The cost of printing the silent letters of the English language is to be 
counted by millions of dollars for each generation. And yet literary 
amateurs fall in love with these squintings and lispings. They try to de- 
fend them by pleading their advantage in the studyof etymology. But 
a changeless orthografy destroys the material for etymological study, and 
written records are valuable to the filologist just in proportion as they are 
accurate records of speech as spoken from year to year." This brings us 
to the next point. 

[April 5, 

(c) If some etymologies would be obscured, more would be evidenced and 
clarified, none could be lost. 

What is known as the "etymological argument" against spelling 
reform has been so often and so fully met by the scholars best qualified to 
speak that it would seem unnecessary to do more than allude to it here. 
And yet it is sure to be the first objection raised by the person of educa- 
tion, and even of scholarly habit, who has not made specific study of the 
subject. It is, indeed, at once the most plausible and the most baseless of 
all objections. Even if all trace of roots were lost from present forms, 
there would still be no danger of any such sacrifice of linguistic facts. 
But if none could be lost, so comparatively few would be obscured, while 
many false etymologies would be disowned, many true ones restored and 
made plain. This is an establish! fact among filologists, as will appear 
from the following, from Max Miiller : "An objection often made to spell- 
ing reform is that it would utterly destroy the historical or etymological 
character of the English language. Suppose it did ; what then ? Language 
is not made for scholars and etymologists ; and if the whole race of Eng- 
lish etymologists were really swept away by the introduction of spelliug 
reform, I hope they would be the first to rejoice in sacrificing themselves 
in so good a cause. But is it really the case that the historical continuity 
of the English language would be broken by the adoption of fonetic spell- 
ing, and that the profession of the etymologist would be gone forever? I 
say No, most emphatically, to both propositions. Because the Italians 
write Jilosofo, are they less aware than the English, who write philosopher, 
that they have before them the Latin philosophus and the Greek filosofos ? 
If we write / in fancy, why not in phantom? If in frenzy and fra?ific> 
why not in phrenology? A language which tolerates vial for phial need 
not shiver at 'filosofer.' What people call the etymological conscious- 
ness of the speaker is strictly a matter of oratorical sentiment only. If 
anybody will tell me at what date etymological spelling is to begin, 
whether at 1500 A. D., or at 1000 A. D., or at 500 A. D., I am willing to 
discuss the question. Till then, I beg to say, that etymological spelling 
would play greater havoc in English than fonetic spelling, even if we are 
to draw a line not more than five hundred } r ears ago. If we write puny, 
puisne, we might as well write post-natus. We might spell coy, quietus.; 
pert, apertus ; priest, presbyter; master, mngister ; sexton, sacristan, etc." 
And from Prof. A. H. Sayce : "We are told that to reform our alfabet 
would destroy the etymologies of our words. Ignorance is the cause of 
so rash a statement. The science of etymology deals with sounds, not 
with letters, and no true etymology is possible when we do not know the 
exact way in which words are pronounced. The whole science of com- 
parative filology is based on the assumption that the ancient Hindus, 
Greeks, Romans and Goths spelt pretty nearly as they pronounced. 
English spelling has become a mere series of arbitrary combinations, an 
embodiment of the wild guesses and etymologies of a pre scientific age, 
and the hap hazard caprice of ignorant printers. It is good for little else 


but to disguise our language, to hinder education and to suggest false ety-. 
mologies." And from Henry Sweet : "The notion that the present spell ^ 
ing has an etymological value was quite popular twenty-five years ago. 
But this view is now entirely abandoned by filologists ; only a few half- 
trained dabblers in the science uphold it." 

Testimony of this kind is worth more than a logical array of facts to the 
average mind, because it adds to the cold fact, the fervor of the personal 
conviction of those whose convictions are themselves the result of the 
logic of facts. And just here we cannot do better than quote from Skeat's 
"The Principles of English Etymology." 

"The old spelling was, in the main, very strictly etymological, because 
it was so unconsciously.* In striving to be fonetic, our ancestors kept up 
the history of words, and recorded, more or less exactly, the changes that 
took place in them from time to time. But in the sixteenth century an 
entirely new idea was for the first time started, and probably took its 
rise from the revival of learning, which introduced the study of Greek, 
and brought classical words, and with them a classical mode of spelling, 
to the front ; a movement which was assisted by the fact that the spelling 
was all the while becoming less fonetic. This new idea involved the 
attempt to be consciously etymological ; i. e., to reduce the spelling of 
English words, as far as possible, to an exact conformity in outward appear- 
ance with the Latin and Greek words, from which they were borrowed. 
But it was only possible to do this with a portion of the language. It was 
easy to do this where words were actually borrowed from those languages, 
as, for example, in the case of such a verb as to tolerate, which was now 
spelt with one I, in order to conform it in outward appearance to the Latin 
tolerare. But the words of native English or Scandinavian origin were 
less tractable ; for which reason our writers, wisely enough, let them 
alone. There remained words of French origin, and these suffered con- 
siderably at the hands of the pedants, who were anything but scholars as 
regarded Old French. For example, the Latin debita had become the Old 
French and Middle English dette, by assimilation of the b to t in the con- 
tracted form deVta, precisely as it became detta in Italian. The modern 
French and the Italian have the forms dette and detta still. But in the 
sixteenth century the disease of the so-called 'etymological' spelling had 
attackt the French language as well as the English, and there was a craze 
.for rendering such etymology evident to the eye. Consequently, the 
Old French dette was recast in the form debte, and the Middle English 
dette was respelt debte or debt in the same way. Hence, we actually find 
in Cotgrave's French dictionary the entry: 'Debte, a debt.' Another 
word similarly treated was the Old French and Middle English doute ; 
and, accordingly, Cotgrave gives ' Doubte, a doubt.' The modern 
French has gone back to the original Old French spellings dette and doute; 

* " Conscious attempts at etymology sometimes produced rather queer results. Thus 
the M. E. femele was turned into female, obviously because men fancied it must have some 
connection with male." 


[April 5, 

but we, in our ignorance, have retained the b in doubt, in spite of the fact 
that we do not dare to sound it. The rackers of our orthografy, no doubt, 
trusted, and with some reason, to the popular ignorance of the older and 
truer spelling, and the event has justified their expectation ; for we have 
continued to insert the b in doubt and debt (properly dout and dei) to the 
present day, and there is, doubtless, a large majority among us who 
believe such spellings to be correct. So easy is it for writers to be mis- 
led by paying too great a regard to Latin spelling, and so few there are 
who are likely to take the trouble of*ascertaining all the historical facts. 

" Most curious of all is the fate of the word fault. In Old French and 
Middle English it is always faute; but the sixteenth century turned it into 
French faulte, English fault, by the insertion of I. For all that, the 
I often remained mute, so that even as late as the time of Pope it was still 
mute for him, as is shown by his riming it with ought ('Eloisa to Abe- 
lard,' 185 ; 'Essay on Man,' i, 69), with thought ('Essay on Criticism,' 
422 ; 'Moral Essays,' Ep. ii, 73), and vfithtdught ('Moral Essays,' Ep. ii, 
212>. But the persistent presentation of the letter I to the eye has prevailed 
at last, and we now invariably sound it in English, whilst in French it has 
become faute once more. The object, no doubt, was to inform us that the 
French faute is ultimately derived from Latin fallere ; but this does not 
seem so far beyond the scope of human intelligence that so much pains 
need have been taken to record the discovery. Another curious falsifica- 
tion is that of the Middle English mtailles, Old French mtailles, from 
Latin mctualia. The not very difficult discovery of the etymology of this 
word was hailed with such delight that it was at once transformed into 
French metafiles and English victuals. (See Cotgrave.) For all that, the 
Middle English vitailles was duly shortened, in the pronunciation, to 
mttles, precisely as Middle English batailles was shortened to battles ; and 
mttles it still remains for all practical purposes. Swift, in his 'Polite Con- 
versation,' has dared to spell it so ; and our comic writers are glad to do 
the same. 

"The form of the word advance records a ludicrous error in etymology. 
The older form was avance, in which the prefix a- is derived from the 
French a which arose from the Latin ab. Unfortunately it was supposed 
to represent the French a which arose from the Latin ad, and this Latin 
ad was actuall}' introduced into the written form, after which the d came 
to be sounded. If, then, the prefix ad- in ad-vance can be said to repre-- 
sent anything, it must be taken to represent a Latin prefix abd-f It would 
be an endless task to make a list of all the similar vagaries of the Tudor 
remodelers of our spelling, who were doubtless proud of their work and 
convinced that they were displaying great erudition. Yet their method 
was extremely incomplete, as it was wholly inconsistent with itself. After 
reducing the word toller ate to tolerate, they ought to have altered follie to 
folie, as the latter is the French form ; but this they never did. They 
should likewise have altered matter to mater, since there is only one t 
in the Latin materia ; but this they never did. They had got hold of a 



f-ilse principle, and did not attempt to curry it out consistently. So much 
the better, or our spelling would have been even worse than it is now, 
which is saying a great deal. 

" I believe that the stupidity of the pedantic method which I have just 
described is very little understood ; and that, on the contrary, most Eng- 
lishmen, owing to an excessive study of the classics as compared with 
English (the history of which is neglected to an almost incredible and 
wholly shameless extent), actually sympathize with the pedants. But 
the error of their attempt will be apparent to any who will take the pains 
to think the matter over with a little care. Their object was, irrespec- 
tively of the sound, to render the etymology obvious, not to the ear, but 
to the eye ; and hence the modern system of judging of the spelling of 
words by the eye only. There is now only one rule, a rule which is often 
carefully but foolishly concealed from learners, viz., to go entirely by 
the look of a word, and to spell it as we have see.n it spelt in books. If 
we do this we hug ourselves in the belief that we are spelling ' correctly,' 
a belief which even good scholars entertain. 

"Certainly the pedants put several words right, as they thought ; but 
their knowledge was slight. They let the pure English and Scandinavian 
words alone ; and, as we have seen, they mended (as they thought) the 
spellings of French words, not by comparison with Old French, which 
might have been justified, but by comparison with Latin and Greek only ; 
and they were frequently misled by the fancy that Latin was derived in its 
entirety from the Greek. Thus they fancied that the Latin silva was de- 
rived from the Greek %fai and accordingly altered its spelling to sylva. 
Hence, even in English, we have to commend and immortalize this blun- 
der by writing sylvan. They seem to have had a notion that the Latin 
milus was derived, of all things, from the Greek ffrb^oq (a pillar), which 
would be extremely inconvenient, we must suppose, as a writing imple- 
ment ; the fact being that stilus and ffruXos have no etymological connec- 
tion. This blunder we commemorate by writing style. 

"We write science because of its connection with the Latin scienfia ; 
and for this reason some writers of the seventeenth century, struck with 
the beauty to the eye of the silent c after s, admiringly copied in such 
words as scite, scituation and scent. The etymology of the two former 
was, however, so obvious that the habit fell into disuse ; but the etymol- 
ogy of scent was less obvious, and so we write scent still ! What, again, 
can be more absurd than the final ue in the word tongue, as if it must 
needs be conformed to the French langue ? But when once introduced, it 
of course remained, because none but scholars of Anglo-Saxon could know 
its etymology. It is impossible to enumerate all the numerous anomalies 
which the disastrous attempt to make etymology visible has introduced. 
Yet this is the valueless system which is so much lauded by those who 
have made no adequate study of the true history of our language." 

A long list might be added. For instance, the old Hand had an s in- 
serted because of its supposed derivation from insula. Old English rime 


[April 5, 

borrowed an h from a supposed Greek original, like rhythm, and gave us 
rhyme. The I has been inserted in coude, to make it like should and would 
for which there is a reasonable use of the I. Milton's sovran (Latin su- 
peranus) was supposed to have to do with reigning, and was so transformed 
to indicate it, by writing sovereign. 

Says March : " Accurse, earlier acurse, from Anglo-Saxon a- intensive, 
and curse, simulates by its unfonetic double consonant a Latin origin and 
the prefix ad- ; many words are like it : affair, French a-faire, i. e., ado ; 
afford, a-forth ; affright, from a-fyrhtan ; affray, past participle correctly 
afraid; annoy, earlier anoi, Old French anoi, from Latin inodio, and so 
on through the prefixes ; allegro is transformed from Latin alacrum; hurri- 
cane, French ouragan, Spanish huracan, a word from one of the languages 
of the aborigines of America, doubles its r to persuade etymologists that 
it hurries the canes. The double consonants, never correct for pronuncia- 
tion, are a nest of etymological blunders, and the digraf vowels are as 
bad. Somewhat different from these sheer blunders are those words in 
which their unfonetic spelling points to some remote derivation, but yet 
disguises the history of the words. To follow up the double consonants, 
a very large part of the apparent compounds of Latin prefixes suggest a 
mistake. The words are not really Latin compounds, but French. Many 
with ad-, for example, were made in French with the French a, and in 
French and Early English are so spelt. The double consonant is a 
modern insertion, which falsifies the sound and the history to give the 
remote school -Latin. Such are accompany, Old French acompaignier, 
compounded of a and compaignier, to which there is no school-Latin 
word corresponding ; Early English acoint, Latin cognitus, disguised now 
in the form acquaint; acomplice ; acomplish ; address, earlier adress, 
French adresser ; afirm ; qfix ; afront ; agrieve ; alegeance ; alie, Old 
French alter, alley; apease, French a pais ; apraise, a preis ; arears; 
ayuage ; aturneye, attorney, etc. These examples, taken from the begin- 
ning of the alfabet, may well make the stickler for historical spelling look 
twice at a double consonant whenever he sees it. 

* "There are many words which have letters in them which contribute 
nothing towards ancient history, and falsify the present. Words ending 
in silent e after a short syllable are examples. This e tells no history, it 
is prevailingly an orthografic expedient to denote that the vowel before it 
is long ; it lengthens fat iniofate, bit into bite, fin into fine, not into note,' 
and the like. Whenever it follows a short vowel, therefore, it is false as 
well as wasteful : genuin is standard English pronunciation, genuine is a 
vulgar corruption ; hav spells the word intended, have should rime with 
gave, slave, knave, rave, etc. We ought to write imbecil, medicin, treatis, 
fawrit, hypocrit, infinit, definit, indicativ, subjunctiv, and the like. Several 
hundred words belong to this class, in great part learned terms from 
Greek or Latin, and common to many languages. To scholars they look 
more naturahand scholarly, as the Germans and most of the Europeans 
write them, without the final e. This is one of the amendments which 


gives best promise of general adoption. The Spelling Reform Association 
publish as one of their rules for immediate use, ' Omit silent e after a 
short vowel,' and five of the eleven new spellings recommended by the 
Philological Association are examples of it definit, giv, hav, infinit, liv. 
* * * Feign, Old English fein, fain, from Old French faindre, has 
assumed the g of Latin Jingo. * * * Fonetik is the very Greek 
<pu)vr)- IK-OS, the natural old form of it in Roman letters; <f>d>p is far; 
<fdvat, fari; Fabius, $dfiw~, and the like. But when the Greeklings at 
Rome began to affect a pure Athenian accent, and retained in words 
newly taken from Greek the old sound for ^, which had been that of p 
followed by h, they wrote ph in such words to represent their way of 
sounding it. The fashion past away at Rome. The Italians, like the 
Spaniards, have returned to/." 

"The first question is," says Prof. Max Miiller, "in what sense can the 
present spelling of English be called historical? We have only to go 
back a very short way in order to see the modern upstart character of what 
is called historical spelling. We now write pleasure, measure, and 
feather, but not very long ago, in Spenser's time, these words were spelt 
plesure, mesure, fether. Tyndale wrote frute ; the t in fruit is a mere 
restoration of the French spelling. * * * The b [of debt] was likewise 
reintroduced in doubt, but the p was not restored in count (French 
compter, Latjn computare), where p had at least the same right as b in 
doubt. Thus, receipt resumes the Latin p, but deceit does without it. To 
deign keeps the g, to disdain does without it. * * * If we wisht to 
write historically, we ought to write salm instead of psalm, for the initial 
p being lost in pronunciation was dropt in writing at a very early time 
(A. S. sealm), and was reintroduced simply to please some ecclesiastical 
etymologists ; also nenew (French neveu) instead of nephew, which is both 
unetymological and unhislorical. * * * There are, in fact, many spell- 
ings which would be at the same time more historical and more fonetic. 
Why write little, when no one pronounces little, and when the old spell- 
ing was lytel? Why girdle, when the old spelling was girdel ? The same 
rule applies to nearly all words ending in le, such as sickle, ladle, apple, 
etc., where the etymology is completely obscured by the present orthog- 
rafy. Why ascent, but dusent, when even Milton still wrote sent? * * * 
Why accede, precede, seczde, but exceed, proceed, succeed? Why, indeed, 
except to waste the precious time of children?" 

And Dr. James A. H. Murray, the editor of the mammoth new his- 
torical Dictionary, says: "Let us recommend the restoration of the 
historical t after breath consonants, which printers during the past century 
have industriously perverted to ed, writing fetcht, blusht, pickt, drest> 
winkt, like Shakespeare, and Herbert, and Milton, and Addison, and as 
we actually do in lost, past, left, felt, meant, burnt, blest, taught. Laughed 
for laught is not a whit less monstrous than taughed, soughed, would be 
for taught, sought; nor is worked for workt less odious than wroughed 
would be for wrought. * * * The termination. of the agent our should 

31(5 [April5 , 

be uniformly leveled to or (which is Old French), as already done in so 
many words, like author, doctor, senator, orator (all of which are adop- 
tions from French, not from Latin)." 

(d.) The present so-called spelling is the chief hindrance to education, and 
a chief cause of illiteracy, ignorance and degradation. In his "Introduc 
tion to the Science of Language," Prof. Sayce speaks of the "vicious 
moral training afforded by a system that makes irrational authority the 
rule of correctness, and a letter represent every other sound than that 
which it professes." He further remarks that the "dissociation between 
sound and symbol to which the child has been accustomed from his 
earliest years, makes the English and the French notoriously the worst 
linguists in Europe. The inadequacy of English spelling is exceeded only 
by that of the Gaelic, and in the comparative condition of the Irish and 
Scotch Gaels on the one side, and the Welsh Cymry oil the other, we 
may read a lesson of the practical effects of disregarding the warnings of 
science. Welsh is fonetically spelt, the result being that the Welsh, as a 
rule, are well educated and industrious, and that their language is main- 
tained in full vigor, so that a Welsh child has his wits sharpened and his 
mind opened by being able to speak two languages, English and Welsh. 
In Ireland and Scotland, on the contrary, the old language is fast perish- 
ing ; and the people can neither read nor write, unless it be in English." 

The most complete and convincing exhibit upon the educational ques- 
tion is that which has been made by Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S., mem- 
ber of the School Board for London, and sometime President of the Eng- 
lish Spelling Reform Association. Dr. Gladstone's statements are drawn 
from a thorough investigation of the National, British and Wesleyan 
schools as well as board schools, and from village schools, town schools 
and schools of the metropolis. He says : " From these data it is easy to cal- 
culate that an average English child, spending eight years in school, and 
making the not unusual amount of 400 attendances per annum, will have 
spent on an average 2320 hours in spelling, reading and dictation. * * * 
The spelling of the Italian language is, as far as I am aware, the most 
perfect of any in Europe, with the exception, perhaps, of the Spanish. 
It is, in fact, almost strictly fonetic ; that is, each sound is exprest by its 
own letter, and each letter has but one sound. * * * I have gathered 
information from different parts of Italy, and fortunately the detailed 
programs of the instruction in elementary schools are publisht. From 
them it appears that children begin school at six or seven years of age, 
and that while in the first class, which usually occupies two years, they 
learn to read with a correct pronunciation, and do exercises in transcrip- 
tion and dictation. On passing to the second class they acquire the art of 
reading fluently and with intelligence, and dictation lessons cease at the 
end of the first four months. As the summer vacation lasts for two 
months, and all festivals, both civil and religious, are holidays, the num- 
ber of attendances can scarcely be greater than 360. As religious instruc- 
tion and exercises, arithmetic and writing occupy a large proportion of the 



five hours per diem, ten hours a week may be taken as an outside estimate 
for learning to read and spell in the first class ; while in the second, read- 
ing may occupy five hours, and dictation two and a half hours weekly, 
but the latter only during the first half of the school year. This will give 
945 hours, instead of 2320, and indicates that an Italian child of about nine 
years ot age will read and spell at least as correctly as most English chil- 
dren when they leave school at thirteen, tho the Italian child was two 
years later in beginning his lessons. 

" The spelling of the German language is incomparably better than our 
own, yet many mute letters are employed, and several sounds are capable 
of being represented in more ways than one. I have obtained informa- 
tion from educational authorities in various parts of Prussia, Saxony, 
Wirtemberg, Baden and Hamburg, and that with regard to all classes of 
society. The German child seems usually to begin his schooling every- 
where at six years of age ; and the general testimony is that he learns in 
two years, if not in a shorter time, to read distinctly and correctly books 
which are not above his comprehension-." 

After giving some details, he continues: "It appears, therefore, that 
the irregularities of German spelling, trifling as they are when compared 
with ours, greatly prolong the time required ; yet a German child of ten 
is about on a par, as to spelling and reading, with our fifth standard chil- 
dren, and is thus saved about two years' time, tho he commenced to learn 

"The Dutch, Danish and Swedish languages are spelt better than our 
own, tho their orthografy is by no means perfect. The information 
which I have received from these countries does not give definit numerical 
data, but it shows that reading, at least, is acquired more quickly than 
with us. As to Sweden, I am assured, on the authority of Mr. Ekman, 
the school board inspector of the Upsala district, that ' the children in 
the Swedish board schools as a rule are able to read fluently and to write 
correctly at the age of nine to ten years.' 

"When, however, we turn to France, we find a language which is 
spelt much more systematically than our own, but has peculiarities which 
render its orthografy almost as difficult. Consequently a very large 
amount of time has to be expended, as with us, in dictation and tran- 
scription. * * * In reply to inquiries as to the comparative time a 
child ignorant of letters, but understanding English and Italian equally 
well, would take to learn how to read and write each language correctly, 
the principal estimated that the English language would require about 
twice the time of the Italian. 

"From inquiries which I have made respecting the Anglo-German 
schools in London, the general result seems to be that the children ac- 
quire as great a proficiency in reading and writing German in eighteen 
months as they do English in two years. These schools are six in num- 
ber, and some are in very poor, and some in respectable neighborhoods. 
My own visits, however, to some of these schools convinced me that not- 


[April 5, 

withstanding the great attention paid to the English language, the scholars 
never become nearly as proficient in spelling it as they do in spelling the 
German. * * * 

" It English orthografy represented English pronunciation as closely as 
the Italian does, at least half the time and expense of teaching to read 
and spell would be saved. This may be taken as 1200 hours in a life- 
time, and as more than half a million of money ($2,500,000) per annum 
for England and Wales alone." 

Various experiments have been made by educators in teaching English 
spelling by a fonetic alfabet. The results show that children taught 
in this way acquire the ordinary spelling much more easily afterward. 
The latest expression upon this point is from the pen of Dr. Thomas Hill, 
in The Forum for April, 1889. He says: "Experience has demonstrated 
that there is no means so efficient as the use of simple reading-books 
printed in a truly fonetic manner, so that each sound has but one repre- 
sentative, and each combination of letters but one sound. The accent 
must also be markt, and in some cases the emphasis. When the pupil 
can read fluently fonetic English, he requires but a few weeks to learn 
to read the ordinary spelling. 

" Three fundamentally different ways have been proposed of giving to 
elementary books a fonetic dress. First, by diacritic signs, such as are 
used in pronouncing dictionaries ; secondly, by using an enlarged alfabet ; 
thirdly, by a serious and well-considered imitation of those American 
humorists who apply the twenty-six Roman letters to a fonetically uni- 
form use. The first method is not only expensive and troublesome to 
print, but trying to the reader's eyes, and not always applicable without 
respelling. The second is the mode of the Cincinnati alfabet, and is pro- 
posed in a new and improved form in Mr. Bell's World-English. The 
Cincinnati alfabet was tried long enough and extensively enough to give 
a practical, experimental demonstration of its immense value. We tested 
it thoroughly for six or seven years in the town of Waltham, Massachu- 
setts, which then had about 800 children in the public schools. The effect 
on the school life of the town was very markt. The saving of time in 
teaching the children to read and spell enabled us to introduce exercises 
for the eye and the hand, thus cultivating habits of observation, skill in 
drawing and writing, and geometrical ability. The fonetic print corrected 
the brogue of the Irish children and the Yankee dialect of the American 
in a surprising manner. An improvement in the moral and intellectual 
tone of the schools was also noticeable, arising certainly in part from 
giving the children interesting reading, in place of stupid 'a, b, ab,' ' b, 
a, ba,' and instead of such absurd falsehoods as that of saying 'sea,' 
'you,' 'pea,' spells 'cup.' 

"Fears were exprest lest this method should injure the pupils' spelling. 
In order to test that question, I took pains to procure, several times, lists 
of words which had actually been used in Boston, Roxbury, and other 
places, with the percentage of failures on each list. Springing these lists, 



without warning, upon classes of the same grade in Waltham, we always 
louiid our percentage of errors very much smaller than in other towns, 
sometimes I think only one-third as large. We also questioned each 
pupil in our high-school as to the amount of time which he or she had de- 
voted in his or her whole school life to fonotypy and fonografy. Com 
paring these times with the percentage of errors in spelling, by the same 
scholars, we found that those who had read the most fonotype made the 
fewest mistakes." 

One point more. Out of 1972 failures in the English Civil Service ex- 
aminations, 1866 failed in spelling. The Right Honorable Robert Lowe, 
formerly Minister of Education in England, challenged the House of 
Commons that not half a dozen members could spell, off-hand, the word 
"unparalleled." The Earl of Malmesbury, having examined the Stale 
papers in the foreign office, says that no Prime Minister from Lord Bute 
to Lord Palmerston could pass an examination in spelling. 

The foregoing exhibits seem to leave little room for doubt as to the 
desirability of reform. There is, however, one other factor in the discus- 
sion of such a theme. Let us call it the personal factor. How do such 
statements affect the opinion or judgment of men as individuals? Who 
cares or who has ever cared for, or believed in, the desirability, to say 
nothing of the possibility, of an amended orthografy ? 

A few years ago 130 British school boards presented a memorial to the 
Education Department praying for a Royal Commission in the matter ; 
the British Social Science Association past resolutions favoring reform ; 
the Philological Society of England and the American Philological Asso- 
ciation, the Spelling Reform Associations, general and local, have been 
active in the cause. In 1875, Teachers' Associations of Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey took favorable action. In July, 1877, the State Teachers' 
Association of New York appointed a committee to ask the Legislature of 
that State to create a commission to inquire into the reform, and report 
how far it may be desirable to adopt amended spelling in the public docu- 
ments and direct its use in the public schools. The Ohio State Teachers' 
Association also took action in favor of the reform. In 1878, a memorial was 
prepared to the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States. 
This was signed by the president and ex-presidents of the Philological 
Association, and by filologists and professors in about fifty of our lead- 
ing universities and colleges. The Department of Public Instruction of the 
city of Chicago took up the matter, and its Board of Education unanimously 
adopted a resolution : " That the secretary of this board correspond with 
the principal school boards and educational associations of the country, 
with a view to cooperation in the reform of English spelling." Other 
State teachers' associations and local societies have been similarly emfatic 
in their expressions. Indeed, any list headed by such names as Miiller, 
Sayce, Skeat, Earle, Murray, Morris, Sweet, Whitney, March, Child, 
Trumbull, Haldeman, Lounsbury ; and by statesmen, scientists, poets, 
educators, such as Gladstone, Sumner, Mill, Lytton, Tennyson, Trevelyan, 


Thirlwall, Bain, Darwin, Lubbock, Harris, Barnard, constitutes "an 
authority" in English, quite as respectable as The Academy, in French. 
There is no lack of learned support ; all real authority is for the reform. 
It is the right thing to do, but 

4. Is REFORM FEASIBLE ? First, we must remember that The written 
language is not the language, but merely a device for recording the lan- 
guage, quite within the scope of the reformers as well as the first f'ramers. 

Secondly, let us see What has been done in other languages. To quote 
again from the valuable report of Dr. Gladstone : 

"In the Italian and Spanish languages the spelling has already been 
brought into almost perfect conformity with the pronunciation. In 
these, therefore, there is nothing to justify any agitation for further 

"Although little fault can be found with the German spelling as compared 
with the English and French, the educationists of that country and the 
governments of the different States have long been desirous of simplify- 
ing it. In 1854, meetings were held both at Hanover and Leipzig, which 
resulted in certain modifications of the spelling being rendered obligatory 
in the Hanoverian higher schools. This was followed in 1860 by Wirtem- 
berg, which adopted a reformed orthograty for its elementary as well as 
its upper schools ; and by Austria in 1861, and by Bavaria in 1886. But 
the changes adopted by these several States are not the same ; and so im- 
minent did the danger appear of having a different mode of writing and 
printing in different parts of Germany, that a conference of delegates from 
the several governments was held at Dresden in October, 1872. This led 
to the Prussian Minister of Education, Dr. Falk, proposing that a compe- 
tent scholar, Prof, von Raumcr, should draw up a scheme ; and this met 
with the approval of all the governments. The scheme thus prepared was 
privately printed and sent to the respective governments, and then sub- 
mitted to a ministerial commission, consisting of Von Raumer and eleven 
other educationists, together with a printer and a publisher. The com- 
mission met in January, 1876, and approved of the scheme with certain 
modifications ; and a report of the whole proceedings has been drawn up 
and printed." The reformed spelling is now required to be taught in all 
the schools, and the military cadets are required to use it in their official 

"Up to the beginning of the present century, the spelling of the Dutch 
language was very unsettled. In 1804, the movement for reform assumed 
a definit shape through the essay of Prof, von Siegenbeek ; and the 
greatly improved spelling that bears his name was the only official and 
authorized one till 1873. Then some important changes were proposed 
by De Vries and Te Winkel, and these are now adopted by the different 
departments of government. I believe, however, that there are other 
systems which receive official sanction, and we can only hope that the 
result will be 'the survival of the fittest.' 



"Similar movements for reform are taking place in the Scandinavian 
kingdoms. The Swedish spelling appears to be about equal in quality 
to the German, but for the last 100 years, or thereabouts, attempts have 
been made by competent persons to establish a purely fonetic system, 
and the Swedish Academy has adopted some of their proposals and 
embodied them in a model spelling book ; but the government has" 
taken no part in the matter, and there is consequently much diversity in 
practice. In Denmark, the movement originated with Prof. Rask and 
some other learned men and schoolmasters, and it has resulted in a 
government decree, confirming certain regulations with respect to double 
consonants, the silent e and d/the abolition of q, and some other points. 
These 'official' changes are not obligatory ; but they are winning their 
way both in public and private schools. In July, 1869, a meeting of 
scholars from Sweden, Norway and Denmark took place in Stockholm, 
with the object of establishing a fonetic mode of spelling which should be 
common to the Scandinavian languages." 

And there have been and are other similar movements, among the 
Slavic nations as well as the Romance-speaking peoples, including the 
French and the Portuguese. 

Thirdly, What Tim been done already in our own language? Has any 
one dared to lay hands on our fetich and lop off a superfluity or restore a 
lost feature ? 

The Anglo-Saxon spelling was fairly fonetic, the chief defects being the 
double use of/, the double use of s and the ambiguous use of two charac- 
ters for the two sounds of tk. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
"the English language was practically respelt according to the Anglo- 
French method, by scribes who were familiar with Anglo-French;" 
thus, qu was substituted for cw, c for s (before e and *). 

It was at this period that Orm, a canon of the order of St. Augustine, 
wrote "The Ormulum" (1215), which was a set of religious services in 
meter, spelt according to his own scheme. One peculiarity of Orm's 
method was the doubling of the consonant after the short vowel. Orm, 
or Orminn, may be called our first spelling reformer, and we have to 
thank him for preserving to us the pronunciation of his day. In 1554, 
John Hart, of Chester, England, wrote on "The Opening of the unrea- 
sonable writing of our inglish toung : wherin is shewed what necessarili 
is to be left, and what folowed for the perfect writing thereof." This the 
author followed up by a publisht work in 1569, called "An Orthographic, 
conteyning the due order and reason, howe to write or painte thimage of 
mannes voice, most like to the life or nature." The object of this "is to 
use as many letters in our writing as we doe voyces or breathes in our 
speaking, and no more ; and never to abuse one for another, and to write 
as we speake." In 1568, Sir Thomas Smith, Secretary of State in 1548, 
and successor of Burleigh, suggested an alfabet of 34 characters. This 
was followed, in 1580, by William Bullokar's book in black-letter, propos- 
ing an alfabet of 37 characters. Then, too, we must mention Sir John 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. 20. PRINTED MAY 10, 1889. 


[April 5, 

Cheke, Chaucer and Milton. In 1619, Dr. Gill, head- master of St. Paul's 
school, publisht his " Logonomia Anglica," advocating an alfabet of 40 
letters. In 1633, the Rev. Charles Butler printed an English grammar 
fonetically. In 1668, Bishop Wilkins publisht his great work, the 
"Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language," in 
which he gave the Lord's Prayer and the Creed in a fonetic alfabet of 
37 letters. In 1711, says Sayce, "the question of reforming English 
spelling was once more raised, this time, however, in a practical direction. 
Dean Swift appealed to the Prime Minister to appoint a commission for 
the ascertaining, correcting and improving of the English tongue. His 
appeal, however, was without effect ; and the next to apply himself to the 
subject was Benjamin Franklin, who, in 1768, put forth "A Scheme for 
a New Alphabet and Reformed Mode of Spelling, with Remarks and 
Examples concerning the same, and an Enquiry into its Uses." 

It would seem that in this Hall, if anywhere, a reform advocated by 
Franklin is entitled, even at this late day, to a fair hearing and an intelligent 
understanding. Franklin's scheme, tho in some respects crude, has never- 
theless the true ring, and is in many details accurate and scientific. It 
embraces eight vowels and eighteen consonants. There are special signs 
for a in ball, v in gum, ah, th, dh, ng. He considers that the alfabet 
should be arranged in a -more natural manner, beginning with the simple 
sounds formed by the breath and with no help, or very little, of tongue, 
teeth, and lips, but produced chiefly in the windpipe. He omits as un- 
necessary c, q, x, u, y and j ; this latter he replaces by a special character 
which is to folio vv and modify other consonants ; preceded by d it pro- 
duces j in James; by t, ch in cJievy ; by z, the French j in jamais. g 
has only its hard sound. There are no superfluous letters, no silent let- 
ters. The long vowel is expressed by doubling the short one. There are 
no diacritical marks. In general principles the scheme is sound. Had 
Franklin lived in the filological light of the present decade, he would 
have been a power in the good movement. He went, indeed', so far as to 
begin the compilation of a dictionary and the casting of the necessary 
new types. The latter were offered to Webster and declined by him on 
the ground of the inexpediency of employing new characters. This was 
in 1768. Eight years later he wrote to a lady : " You need not be con- 
cerned in writing to me about your bad spelling ; for in my opinion, as 
our alfabet now stands, the bad spelling, or what is called so, is gener- 
ally the best, as conforming to the sounds of the letters and of the 

The next great American reformer was Webster. It would be out of 
place here to discuss Websterianisms. Suffice it to say that Webster had 
a lasting influence upon our spelling. Had he been more of a scholar his 
influence would have been vastly greater than it was. The trouble was 
that he tried to occupy both ends of the see-saw at once. On one end he 
sat as etymologist, on the other as analogist. He had "just enough of 
that half-learning, " says Lounsbury, "which enables a man, when he 

1889.] 323 

arrives at correct conclusions, to give wrong reasons for them. Speaking 
of Webster's ortliografic changes, the same writer well says: "At best 
they merely touch the surface, and then only in a few places. But one 
effect they have produced. They have in some measure prevented us, and 
do still prevent us, from falling into the dead level of an unreasoning uni- 
formity. By bringing before us two methods of spelling, they keep open 
the question of the legitimacy of each, and expose to every unprejudiced 
investigator the utter shallowness of the argument that opposes change. 
Slight as these alterations were, however, they met with the bitterest hos- 
tility on their introduction." 

After Webster come Mitford, Archdeacon Hare, Landor, Pitman, Ellis, 
and Thomas, and then the mighty host who are leading the present Spell- 
ing Reform movement, which includes nearly every eminent English and 
American scholar. Indeed every one who consciously prefers to spell 
parlor, color, music, public, develop, deposit, traveler, jeweler, wagon, woolen, 
quartet, controller, ake, ax, fantom, program, proves that spelling reform 
is popular, and that the people prefer sense to nonsense, brevity to length, 
economy to waste, truth to falsehood. 

The many devices introduced into the written speech during the past 
six centuries, demonstrate that there is no cast-iron law of language to 
prevent other devices from being introduced and accepted again. 

Because the French scribes of the twelfth century understood that c 
before e and i, was soft, they substituted k for it when the sound was hard. 
About 1280 the rune "wen" was replaced by uu, and afterward byte. 
Accentual marks suddenly disappeared in the thirteenth century. Toward 
the fourteenth the rune " thorn " was giving way to the use of th and hw 
to wh the latter, doubtless, due to the decay of the guttural h leaving the 
sound of w more prominent. Indeed, down to the middle of the fourteenth 
century, li had the force of German ch. As that decayed in sound, it was 
reinforced to the eye by a c as in licJit, necht, or by a g as in though. The 
symbol oa disappeared in the fourteenth, but was revived in the sixteenth 
century. Another expedient of the fourteenth was to double the final s to 
show that it was not sonant M. E. glas, bits, dros, became glass, bliss, 
dross. Another device for the same purpose was to substitute ce a.s in 
mice, twice, originally mys, twy'es. Since Shakespeare, useless doubled 
consonants have given place to a single consonant in words like pitty, 
linnen, marriner, widdow, pallace. Waggon is now in transition to wagon. 
Duplicate final consonants with final e have given place to the single con- 
sonant, as shippe, sonne, farre. Useless final e has been dropt, as in chcere, 
drinke, looke, etc. Three new letters, j, w, v, have been introduced. 

"About 1630, in opposition to the usage of all past ages," says Dr. 
Murray, "u was made a vowel and v a consonant, so that 'Reuiue vs, saue 
vs from euil,' became 'Revive us, save us from evil.' " Up to that time u 
final was a vowel, but u before a vowel was a consonant ; when the con- 
sonant was written v the following e was no longer needed to distinguish 
it. Had the reform gone a little farther and dropt the e after the conso- 

[April 5, 

nant we should have been spared many useless appendages to words 
like haw, live, etc. 

In the fourteenth century the system of doubling the vowels was resorted 
to, to indicate length. Since then ck has been substituted for cc or kk, 
and within memory the k has been dropt in words like music, public, etc. 

Toward the end of the sixteenth century i was largely substituted for y, 
so common in Caxton. "In fact," says Skeat, "English abounds with 
such fonetic devices ; no one objects to them so long as they are allowed 
to remain sporadic, irregular, and inconsistent." 

Says Dr. Murray, " The whole history of written language is the record 
of such gradual and partial reformation. We know, for instance, what 
was done about 1500 by the systematic application of ea and ee to distin- 
guish two sounds formerly both exprest by long e, and the analogous 
adoption of oa and oo for the two sounds of long o. And the slightest 
glance at the orthografy of Shakespeare, Bunyan, or a Bible of the seven- 
teenth century, will show even the most ignorant, what an immense 
amount of spelling reform has been done since then. Thus, to take at 
random a single instance, Psalm 106 (forty- eight verses), as printed in 
1611, differs in 116 spellings from that printed in 1879, and the first chap- 
ter of Genesis, as now printed, differs in 135 spellings from the same ver- 
sion as printed in 1611. One hundred and thirty-five differences in thirty- 
one verses ! tho the same version word for word. Yet there are people 
some certainly fools only, but some I fear knaves who, when spelling 
reform is mentioned, shriek, ' You are going to alter our language ! ' 
* * * the fools not knowing, and the knaves pretending not to know, 
that the spelling in which they read these works [Milton, Shakspere, and 
the Bible] is already a greatly reformed spelling." 

Finally, "In 1883," says the report of the State Commission, "a 
scheme of partial reform was jointly approved by the Philological Society 
of England and the American Philological Association, and recommended 
for immediate use. Those changes were made in the interest of etymo- 
logical and historical truth, and are confined to words which are not much 
disguised for general readers. * * * Many propositions have been 
made for adopting part of these changes. " * * * 

Among these is the progressive scheme used by " The Spelling Reform 
Leag," as follows : 

1. Use the simplified forms allowed by standard dictionaries, as program, 

Javor, etc. 

2. Use the Two Words : tho, thru. 

3. Use the Ten Words : tho, thru, wisht, catalog, deflnit, hav, 

giv, liv, gard, ar. 

4. Use the Two Rules : 1. Use/ for ph sounded as /, as in a1fabet,fan- 

. torn, filtisofy, etc. 2. Use t for d or ed final sounded as t, as in Jixt, 
tipt, stopt, clast, crost, distrest, etc. 


5. Use the Five Rules : 1 and 2 as in 4. 3. Drop a from digraf ea sounded 

as short e, as in lied, helth, sted, etc. 4. Drop silent e final in a short 
syllable, as in Jiav, giv, Uv, forbad, reptil, hostil, engin, infinit, oppo- 
sit, activ, etc. 5. When a word ends with a double letter, omit the 
last, as in eb, ad, staf, stif, t>titf, eg, shal, wit, tel, wel, dul, lul, etc. 

6. Use the Twenty-four Joint Rules of the American and English Philo- 

logical Associations. 

7. Use all changes recommended by the Philological Associations. 

At a meeting of the Philological Society, April 20, 1883, it was voted 
unanimously to omit certain of the corrections formerly recommended, so 
as to bring about an agreement between the two societies. The following 
scheme of partial relorm is now jointly approved by the Philological 
Society of England and the American Philological Association, and is 
recommended for immediate use : 

1. e. Drop silent e when fonetically useless, as in live, vineyard, be- 

lieve, bronze, single, engine, granite, eaten, rained, etc. 

2. ea. Drop a from ea having the sound of e, as in feather, leather, 

jealous, etc. 

Drop e from ea having the sound of a, as in heart, hearken, 

3. eau. For beauty use the old beuty. 

4. eo. Drop o from eo having the sound of e, as in jeopardy, leopard. 

For yeoman write yoman. 

5. i. Drop i of parliament. -, 

6. o. For o having the sound of u in but, write u in above (abuv), 

dozen, some (sum), tongue (tuug), and the like. 
For women restore wimen. 

7. on. Drop o from ou having the sound of u, as in journal, nourish, 

trouble, rough (ruf), tough (tuf ), and the like. 

8. u. Drop silent u after g before a, and in native English words, as 

guarantee, guard, guess, guest, guild, guilt, etc. 

9. ue. Drop final ue in apologue, catalogue, etc. ; demagogue, pedagogue, 

etc.; league, colleague, harangue, tongue (tung), etc. 

10. y. Spell rhyme rime. 

11. Double consonants may be simplified : 

Final b, d, g, n, r, t, f, I, z, as in ebb, add, egg, inn, purr, butt, 

bailiff, dull, buzz, etc. (not all, hall). 
Medial before another consonant, as battle, ripple, written 

(writn), etc. 
Initial unaccented prefixes, and other unaccented syllables, 

as in abbreviate, accuse, affair, etc., curvetting, traveller, etc. 

12. b. Drop silent b in bomb, crumb, debt, doubt, dumb, lamb, limb, 

numb, plumb, subtle, succumb, thumb. 

13. c . Change c back to s in cinder, expence, fierce, hence, once, pence 

scarce, since, source, thence, tierce, whence. 

[April 5t 

14. cli. Drop the h of ch in chamomile, choler, cholera, melancholy, 

scliool, stomach. 
Change to k in aclie (ake), anchor (anker). 

15. d. Change d and ed final to t when so pronounced, as in crossed 

(crost), looked (lookt), etc., unless the e affects the preceding 
sound, as in chafed, chanced. 

16. g. Drop g in feign, foreign, sovereign. 

17. gh. Drop h in aghast, burgh, ghost. 

Drop gh in haughty, though (tho), through (thru). 
Change gh to / where it has that sound, as in cough, enough, 
laughter, tough, etc. 

18. 1. Drop I in could. 

19. p. Drop p in receipt. 

20. s. Drop s in aisle, demesne, island. 

Change s to z in distinctive words, as in abuse verb, house verb, 
rise verb, etc. 

21. sc. Drop c, in scent, scythe (sithe). 

22. tch. Drop t, as in catch, pitch, witch, etc. 

23. w. Drop w in whole. 

24. ph. Write/ for ph, as in philosophy, sphere, etc. 

" These recommendations are known as the 'Joint Rules for Amended 
Spelling,' or as the 'Twenty-four Rules.' They cover the main points 
as to which there is substantially no further question between the two 
societies or among reformers in sympathy with them. * * * 

' ' The rules thus derived necessarily differ in importance and in the extent 
of their application. Some are very comprehensive, some affect only 
limited classes of words, and some are mere lists of words to be amended. 
They are arranged in the alfabetical order of the letters omitted or changed. 
The rules proper may be reduced to 10. 

" It should be noted that the rules do not apply to proper names, or to titles 
or official designations like 'Philological Association,' or 'Phonetic Jour- 
nal,' while they may, nevertheless, apply to the individual words which 
enter into such designations, as filological, fonetic, jurnal. 

"There are sufficient reasons against meddling with proper names and 
titles. They may well be left to adjust themselves to a fonetic standard 
when such a standard is establisht for common words. 

"The rules for amended spelling form a sequence, in which each degree 
includes all preceding degrees. The Five Rules include the Eleven 
Words, and are themselves included in the Twenty-four Rules. The 
sequence is more gradually developt in the seven steps of the Leag pledge, 
according to which one may start, or stop, at any point, from a simple 
preference for the simplified forms already admitted by the standard dic- 
tionaries, to the adoption of all changes recommended by the Philological 
Associations. '-The several stages are all consistent with each other, and 
enable any one who has the spirit of progress in him to exhibit that spirit 



in practical action, not only free from the risks of individual preferences 
or caprice, but with the knowledge that he is acting on the advice and in 
accordance with the practice of scholars of the highest eminence in 
English filology. " 

The report of the State Commission continues : "Without venturing to 
recommend any of these, or any orthografic novelties, the Commission 
would call attention to the fact that many words are spelt in two ways in 
our dictionaries, and that it is therefore necessary for a choice to be made 
between the different spellings. We find 'honor' and 'honour,' 'travel- 
ler' and 'traveler,' 'comptroller' and 'controller,' and hundreds of such 
pairs. In these words one way of spelling is better than the other on 
grounds of reason, simpler, more economical, more truthful to sound ety- 
mology and scientific law. 

"The Commission respectfully submits that the regulation of the or- 
thografy of the public documents is of sufficient importance to call for 
legislative action, and that the public printer be instructed, whenever 
variant spellings of a word are found in the current dictionaries, to use in 
the public documents the simpler form which accords with the amended 
spelling recommended by the joint action of the American Philological 
Association and English Philological Society." 

It is this recommendation of the State Commission that is the objective 
point of our discussion. Your Committee is unable to see how there can 
be any difference of opinion upon the following points of the argument : 

1. That the English language is grossly misspelt, and is therefore an 
obstruction to the etymologist ; a needless consumer of time, money and 
energy ; a falsifier of history ; a perverter of the logical and of the moral 
faculty ; a hindrance to education ; a chief cause of illiteracy and a clog 
upon the wheels of general progress. 

2. That either a complete or a partial reform is desirable. 

3. That as partial reforms have been successfully wrought in the past 
and present centuries in English, and complete reforms in other lan- 
guages, it is feasible to hasten and direct the still further improvement of 
our so-called orthografy. 

Your Committee heartily believes, with Prof. W. D. Whitney, that "it 
is altogether natural and praiseworthy that we should be strongly attacht 
to a time-honored institution, in the possession of which we have grown 
up, and which we have learned to look upon as a part of the subsisting 
fabric of our speech ; it is natural that we should love even its abuses, and 
should feel the present inconvenience to ourselves of abandoning it much 
more keenly than any prospective advantage which may result to us or 
our successors from such action ; that we should therefore look with 
jealousy upon any one who attempts to change it, questioning narrowly 
his right to set himself up as its reformer, and the merits of the reform he 
proposes. But this natural and laudable feeling becomes a mere blind 

[April 5; 

prejudice, and justly open to ridicule, when it puts on airs, proclaims 
itself the defender of a great principle, regards inherited modes of spelling 
as sacred, and frowns upon the fonetist as one who would fain mar the 
essential beauty and value of the language." 

But your Committee is also of the opinion that a complete or strictly 
fonetic reform, however valuable it be as an ideal, is as yet impracticable. 
A limited reform in the right direction, however, is not only practicable, 
but it has already found a foothold. Just how far this could safely be 
attempted in the State documents the Committee is not required to say. 
But it is certain that the recommendation of the Commission is as safely 
conservative as any recommendation in the direction of true progress 
could be, and that its adoption would be a wise and easy step toward 
uniformity and the simplification of English orthografy. 

Your Committee therefore offers the following : 

Resolved, That the regulation of the orthografy of the public documents of this State 
is of sufficient importance to call for legislative action ; and that this Society approves 
the recommendation of the State Commission that the public printer be instructed, when- 
ever variant spellings of a word are found in the current dictionaries, to use in the pub- 
lic documents the simpler form which accords with the amended spelling recommended 
by the joint action of the American Philological Association and the English Philologi- 
cal Society. 

In view of the fact that the Legislature will probably not take final 
action upon the recommendation of the State Commission at the present 
session, and as the Commission still desires the assistance of this Society, 
we would respectfully suggest that your Committee be continued with 
permission to report whenever it may seem desirable. 


The resolutions offered by the Committee were adopted. 

The Committee on the Codtx Poinsett presented a report, 
stating that the publication of the same was desirable, and laid 
before the Society estimates for the cost of its reproduction. 

The Society ordered that the Codex should be published in 
its Transactions and further continued the same Committee, 
with request to prepare appropriate letter press to accompany 
the plates and to superintend the passage of the paper through 
the press. 

Mr. Phillips stated that the Physa HeterostropJia, of which 
he had spol'en to the Society on April 20, 1888, had reap- 

1889.] 329 [Hoffman. 

peared in the same place about three weeks since and promised 
to be very abundant this season. 

Oral communications were made as follows : 

By Prof. Henry F. Osborn : 

1. Upon the Displacement of the Foot-bones in the Mam- 

2. Upon the Perissodactyla of the Uinta. 
By Prof. W. B. Scott : 

1. Upon the Relations of the Uinta to the Bridger and 
White River Fauna. 

2. Upon the Artiodactyla of the Uinta. 

The question of printing the old minutes of the Board of 
Officers and Council was deferred until the next stated meet- 
ing of the Society. 

Pending nominations 1183-1187 were read. 

And the Society was adjourned by the President. 

Folk-Medicine of the Pennsylvania Germans. 

By W. J. Hoffman, M.D., Washington, D. C. 

(Read before the American PhilosopJiical Society, May 3, 1SS9.) 

Reverting to the period in the history of Pennsylvania, when the home- 
steads of the colonists were remote from one another, it may readily be 
conceived that ordinary social intercourse was impracticable. One of the 
first duties was considered to be the erection of a house of worship so lo- 
cated as to be accessible to the greatest number of people within a given 
area. Thus it generally happened that the gatherings before Sunday ser- 
vice were of social importance and were looked forward to with great 
interest as a means of exchanging the news and incidents of the preceding 
week. This practice still obtains in the rural districts. 

Except in the villages, and larger towns, professional medical services 
were scarcely to be had, and hence in other than simple cases it was the 
pastor who was called upon to administer to the bodily as well as to the 
spiritual welfare of the members of his flock. Common complaints were 
treated by the application or administration of household remedies, the 
collection and preparation of which formed no insignificant part of the 
wife's duties. For this purpose various plants, roots, barks and blossoms 


Hoffman.] [May 3, 

were gathered at specified times, and preserved in special ways, each sep- 
arately wrapped or inclosed in a small bag, and ultimately suspended from 
the rafters of the attic ready for use. This custom was not a new one, but 
merely the perpetuation of a practice transmitted through preceding gen- 
erations, and the custom survives even at the present day. 

Although many of the plants used are well known to possess the thera- 
peutic properties attributed to them, and their selection seems to be based 
upon sound principles, yet the greater part of them are coupled with some 
form of superstitious belief, either pertaining to the time of gathering, 
method of preparation or administration. 

There are numerous instances in which certain plants are supposed to 
possess special virtue in particular diseases, on account of their fancied 
resemblance to some part, or organ, of the human body ; and others again 
where color plays an important part in their selection. 

Among the less intelligent and truly illiterate prevail the practice of 
laying-on of hands, breathing upon the affected part, charms, incantations, 
exorcism, making passes with the hands and crosses with the index finger, 
at the same time pronouncing the name of Jesus and coupling therewith 
some act in His life ; besides various other mysterious actions seemingly 
for the purpose of impressing the credulous and superstitious. Such prac- 
tices are still indulged in, and when a patient suffers from an insignificant 
disorder which in due time disappears, the restoration to health is accred- 
ited to the operator and consequently adds to his already established 

The several methods of procedure just mentioned are seldom practiced 
by the same person. There are individuals of both sexes who become 
famous for success in special complaints ; one may have a specialty in 
erysipelas and other inflammatory diseases ; another may be noted for his 
success in arresting hemorrhage, and still another may be celebrated as 
the possessor of a "mad-stone," which is often equally applied to the 
bites of rabid dogs and venomous serpents. 

To another class may be relegated the workers of evil, witches or hex' a. 
In opposition to these, to cure sickness or to remove spells, are a class of 
sorcerers who work countercharms, frequently employing mystic writ- 
ings, charms and fumigations. Some of these even go so far as to profess 
the power of producing good or evil effects upon absent persons, regard- 
less of distance, and in this respect they occupy a position identical with 
that of the Indian medicine man or shaman. 

Another form of cure is by the transference of disease, either to some 
person or animal or to an inanimate object ; sometimes a disease is cast 
out at a specified time or upon the fulfillment of certain injunctions. 

Investigation proves conclusively that some of the superstitions and 
practices found in Pennsylvania were introduced by the colonists from 
the countries from which they had emigrated ; and it is evident, also, that 
others of thejn have become modified, as were deemed necessary, or were 
changed by the adoption of new methods resulting from a new environ- 

1S89.1 331 [Hoffman. 

ment. One of the chief reasons pertaining to the last-named may be on 
account of the difference of the flora of Western Europe and that of Penn- 

A number of charms and recipes appear also to have been selected from 
old works alleged to contain valuable secrets. One of these, known as 
the "Sixth Book of Moses," is said to be of great value in that it contains 
formulae for casting bullets, which never fail to strike the object thought 
of; compelling game to return, before sunset, to the footprint over which 
the operator pronounces certain mystic words, etc. I have thus far been 
unable to see a copy of this work, although its possession by certain per- 
sons has been reported to me from time to time. 

Another purports to be a reprint of a work by Albertus Magnus, a 
learned philosopher of the thirteenth century, in which are given a large 
number of formulae, recipes, charms and other secrets for exorcising evil 
spirits from man and beast.* 

A third work, a copy of which, as in the case of the last named, in the 
possession of the writer, is unfortunately without title page, and it is only 
from the introduction of one short article that it becomes apparent that the 
work was printed in America sometime during the earlier portion of the 
present century. Much of the information contained in this little volume 
appears to have been selected from "Albertus Magnus," though there are 
a number of charms and recipes entirely new, and quite unknown to the 
people under discussion. 

Before detailing some of the methods of procedure in the cure of dis- 
ease, it may be of interest to note several superstitions pertaining to the 
indication and prevention of disease, and the avoidance of bad luck. 

By many it is still considered a forerunner of illness for one to sneeze, 
and the usual "helf Gott" or "Amen" is uttered by some one present. 
This is a very old custom, and Brandf remarks, "In Langley's Abridg- 
ment of Polydore Vergil, fol. 130, it is said: 'There was a plague whereby 
many as they neezed dyed sodeynly, werof it grew into a custome that 
they that were present when any man neezed should say, "God helpe 
you." A like deadly plage was sometyme in yawning, wherfore menne 
used to fence themselves with the signe of the crosse : bothe which cus- 
tomes we reteyne styl at this day. ' ' 

The writer has discovered the survival of a belief prevalent in many 
portions of the Old World in regard to the position of sleeping "north 

* Albertus Magnus bewiihrte und approbirte sympathetische und natiirliche egyptische 
Geheimnisse fur Menschen uud Vieh. Fiir Rtadter und Landleute. Neueste Auflage. In 
3 Theilen. Brabant, 1725. sm. 8vo., pp. 71, 84, 70. Although bearing the above date, 
this is a recent reprint, issued in New York. 

Albertus Magnus was born at Lauingen in Bavaria, about 1200. He occupies the first 
rank among philosophers and theologians of the Middle Ages. He became a Dominican 
friar in his youth, and lectured later in life both at Paris and Cologne. He died in 1280 
and left a great number of works, which treat of logic, theology, physics and metaphysics. 
Thomas Aquinas was his disciple. 

t Popular Antiquities. London, iii, 1882, p. 125. 

Hoffinan.] 33 LJ [May 3, 

and south," i.e., having the head end of the bed to the north. Mr. D'Arcy 
Power* quotes several instances of prominent people who were successful 
in attaining advanced age upon practicing this method of sleeping them- 
selves, and insuring sleep to invalid children when every other prescrip- 
tion had failed. "A physician who died at Magdeburg, at the advanced 
age of 109, states in his will the manner in which he preserved his life. 
'Assume,' he said, 'as often as convenient, and especially during the 
hours of sleep, the horizontal position : the head towards the north pole, 
and the rest of the body in a direction as much as possible that of the 
meridian. By this means the magnetic currents which pervade the sur- 
face of the globe keep up a regular and normal kind of nutrition of the 
mass of iron contained in the economy ; and hence arises the increase of 
vital principle which, regulates all the organic phenomena having a direct 
action on the preservation of life.' " 

Mr. Power, in commenting upon this and similar instances, concludes : 
"These facts, whether scientifically accurate or not, will suffice to prove 
that this particular position in sleeping was commonly regarded as the 
most favorable one possible. We think that many customs of the kind, 
which are sometimes considered as mere superstitions, may be traced to 
some underlying truth which affords a more or less sufficient justification 
of them." f 

A common belief is to the effect that if a potato be carried in one's pocket 
it will secure freedom from rheumatism. In some instances a horse-chest- 
nut is claimed to possess similar properties, and is therefore carried in a 
similar manner. 

If the rattle of a rattlesnake be attached to a string and suspended from 
the neck, it will prevent, as well as cure, rheumatism. 

To carry a bullet in one's pocket will prevent an attack of toothache. 

The following, to prevent poisoning from ivy, was given to the writer 
by a correspondent in Fayette county : "Eat a small portion of the root 
in the spring, and you will be proof against it during the whole year." 

During the prevalence of contagious diseases, sliced onions are exposed 
in sleeping-rooms in the belief that the infectious matter would be ab- 
sorbed, and not affect the occupants. 

To prevent cramp while bathing, a thong of eel's skin is tied about the 
leg or wrist. 

For the purpose of preparing the system for warm weather, an infusion 
of the crushed bark of sassafras root is used early in spring. A teacupful 
is swallowed once, or twice, daily for about one week. Thirty years ago 
it was a common practice for all elderly people to be bled, or cupped, each 
spring. The belief was that the blood was sluggish, and an accelerated 
circulation could only be produced by reducing the quantity in the body. 

* The Folk-lore Journal, London, ii, 1884, pp. 92, 93 ; also quoting the Lancet (London), 
March 3, 1866,-and Notes and Queries, December 3, 1870. 
t The Folk-lore Journal, Lond., ii, 1884, p. 93. 




To kill the first snake found in spring will enable one to thwart the evil 
designs of one's enemies for the remainder of the year. 

A very common practice is to nail a horse-shoe against' the lintel of the 
stable door, to insure good luck and safety to the animals. Horse-shoes 
are also nailed over the doors of the house to insure good luck to the oc- 
cupants. That such a horse-shoe be found upon the highway is of addi- 
tional importance. 

The custom of employing horse-shoes in the manner above mentioned, 
and the representation of the outline or impress of a hand, is of Oriental 
origin. The Romans drove nails into the walls of cottages, as an antidote 
against the plague : for this reason L. Manlius, A. U. C. 390, was named 
dictator to drive the nail.* In Jerusalem, a rough representation of a 
hand is marked by the natives on the wall of every house whilst in build- 
ing f The Moors generally, and especially the Arabs of Kairwan, employ 
the marks on their houses as prophylactics, and similar hand-prints are 
found in El Baird, near Petra. In Persia, it appears, these hand impres- 
sions receive another interpretation so as to become related to an important 
tact in the history of that people. General A. Houtum-Schindler, Inspec- 
tor-General of Telegraphs of the Empire, says : "All through Persia, prin- 
cipally in villages though, a rough representation of a hand, or generally 
the imprint of a right hand, in red, may be seen on the wall or over the door 
of a house whilst in building, or on the wall of a mosque, booth or other 
public building. It is probably an ancient custom, although the Persians 
connect it with Islam and say that the hand represents that of Abbas, a 
brother of Husain (a grandson of the prophet Mohammed), who was one 
of the victims at the massacre of Kerbela in A. D. 680, and who had his 
right hand cut off by el Abrad ibn Shaibau. In India I have noticed sim- 
ilar marks, hands, or simply red streaks." ^ 

That these practices and the later use of the horse-shoe originated with 
the rite of the Passover is probable. The blood upon the door-posts and 
upon the lintel (Exodus xii, 7) was put upon the most conspicuous places 
and formed, as it were, an arch ; and when the horse shoe was invented 
it was naturally adopted by the superstitious as conforming to the shape, 
or outline, upon the primitive doorway, and in time it became the symbol 
of luck, or "safety to those residing under its protection." 

In the following notes, under head of each disease, are presented the 
f.icts pertaining to ailments and their treatment by internal remedies, 
charms, transference of the complaint, etc. : 


The following remedy is reported from Fayette county, where, accord- 
ing to the informant, it is held in high repute : "Take one quart of ale, 

* Brand's Antiquities, Lond., iii, 1882, p. 18. 

t Lieut. Condor, " Palestine Explor. Fund," Jan., 1873, p. 16. 

I Letter dated Teheran, Dec. 19, 1888. 

I This has been previously referred to in an article entitled : "Folk-lore of the Penn- 
sylvania Germans," printed in The Journal of Am. Folk-Lore^ Boston and New York, Vol. 
i, No. 2, 1888, p. 129. 

Hoffman.] [May 3, 

put into it nine pieces of burdock root and nine pieces of plantain root, 
and alter dark bury the vessel under the eaves of the house. Take it up 
next morning before daylight and drink." 


Make a gimlet hole in the door frame at the exact height of the top of 
the patient's head, into which insert a small tuft of his hair and close the 
hole with a peg of wood, then cut off the projecting portion of the peg. 
As the patient grows in height beyond the peg, so will the disease be out- 

This has recently been practiced in the case of young boys, but it is not 
stated what would be the course adopted in the case of an adult, who had 
attained his full height. 


A common remedy is to put brandy into a saucer and set it on fire. 
When it has burned several minutes extinguish the flame, by covering the 
dish, and add sufficient white sugar to make a syrup. The dose is a tea- 
spoonful, taken in intervals of an hour or two, as the case may require. 

Peter Kalm* refers to sassafras berries being used, by putting them into 
rum or brandy, "of which a draught every morning" was taken. " The 
bark being put into brandy, or boiled in any other liquor, is said not only 
to ease pectoral diseases, but likewise to be of some service against all in- 
ternal pains and heat ; and it was thought that a decoction of it could 
stop the dysentery." 

The inner bark of the wild cherry tree (as well as the berries) is put 
into a bottle of whisky or brandy and allowed to stand for a week or 
more, when small doses of the mixture are taken for cough. 

A stocking tied around the head has been used for a cold in the head, 
and it is probable that this may be a modification of a remedy suggested 
many years ago.f 


If cut with a sharp instrument, or tool, grease the cutting edge of the 
instrument and lay it aside to hasten the cure and to prevent lockjaw. 
This practice prevailed also in some parts of England, and Mr. Black \ sug- 
gests that the secret lay in the simplicity of non-interference with the 
wound and treating the instrument instead. 

Wounds and bruises are bathed with a tincture of balsam-apple Mo- 
mordica balsamina a bottle of which is generally kept on hand for the 
purpose. When the plant, or vine, has blossomed and the pod begins to 
grow, a bottle is slipped over it so as to allow the fruit to grow to its full 

* Peter Kalm. En Resa etil Norra Amerca, etc. Stockholm, 1753, i. 

f " Du musst es fiir gewiss alle Abeude thuii ; wann Du Deine Schuhe und Striimpfe 
ausziehst, so feh/e mit dem Finger durch alle Zahe und rieche daran. Es wird gewiss 
helfen." From the third-named work Mittcl und Kiinste above alluded to. 

I Folk-medicine, etc. Lond., 18s>3, p. 53. 

1889.] 33t> [Soffman. 

size witbin the vessel. When fully ripe, the stem is cut and the bottle 
filled with whisky or brandy, and afier several weeks the liquid is ready 
for use. 

Dog- fat and skunk-fat are both used in certain localities for bruised and 
incised wounds ; and for the latter, a piece of bacon-fat is also sometimes 
applied by means of a bandage. 


If any one suffering from corns takes a small piece of cotton cloth, rubs 
it over the offenders and hides it, unobserved, in a coffin with a body 
about to be buried, the corns will leave him. 


It has already been noted that boys, to prevent having cramp while 
bathing, tie a thong of eel skin about the leg or wrist ; and when entering 
the water an additional safeguard is for them to urinate upon their legs. 


A common remedy consists of a mixture of goose-grease and molasses, 
given internally to induce emesis. 

One less frequently used is to make a poultice of grated poke-root and 
vinegar, and applied to the soles of the feet. 

In Lehigh county an emetic for this complaint is prepared by boiling 
three (or five) onions until soft, and mixing the juice therefrom with 

In Fayette county an emetic for croup is made by mixing urine and 
goose-grease and administering internally, and also rubbing some of the 
mixture over the breast and throat. 


This, it is believed, may be successfully treated by dropping rattlesnake 
oil into the affected ear. 

A native "herb doctor," who lives in the Blue mountains of Camber- 
land county, presented the writer with a card bearing the following recipe: 
"One ounce of refined camphor oil, the ears of a weasel, a male weasel 
for a male, is proved and insured, by putting it in cotton in the ears of a 
man, to cure all deafness." 


In Fayette county a poultice consisting of the fresh excrement of a hog 
is worn about the neck for one night. 

Cow-dung poultices are also known to have been used for this disease, 
but more faith is placed in a band of red flannel secured about the neck. 
There is great faith in the color of the material used ; the general impres- 
sion prevailing is that all red flannel is medicated ; and there appears to 
be an association of ideas between the color of the flannel and that of the 
inflamed throat. 




The belief noted by Mr. Phillips,* as current in the vicinity of Philadel- 
phia, obtains in various localities along the eastern base of the Blue 
mountains : "To cure a bite use a hair of the dog that caused it ; it is 
sometimes placed between two slices of buttered bread and eaten as a 

In one of the publications already referred to as containing a reference 
identifying it as an American work.f a remedy for mad dog bites is given 
in which chickweed forms the subject. This plant must be gathered in 
June, when it is in full bloom, dried in the shade and powdered. It is 
taken in the form of powder. The dose for an adult is a small tables poon- 
ful, or by weight, a dram ; for children the dose is the same, but it is 
divided and given at three different times. 

One of the most popular fallacies is the surviving belief in the powers 
of the mad-stone. We frequently read interesting notices in the news- 
papers of reputed cures, and the prevention of hydrophobia, but there 
are pretensions also that these stones may be used with equal success in 
the extraction of serpent venom. In this respect the practice reverts to 
the custom as first known in Asia Minor, and later in Europe. 

Among the various individuals in Pennsylvania who profess ability in 
exorcism and charms, we occasionally find one who is reputed to possess 
a mad-stone. These pebbles are of various sizes, and appear to have been 
selected on account of some peculiarity of color or form. A specimen, 

* Procs. Am. Phil. Soc., Philadelphia, Vol. xxv, p. 159. 

t Mitel und Ktinste. On account of the peculiarity of the recipe, I append it in the 
original : 

"Ein gewisser Herr Valentin Kettering, von Dauphin County, hat dem Senat von 
Pennsylvanien ein Mittel bekannt gemacht, welches den Biss wiithender Thiere 
unfehlbar heilen soil. Er sagt, es sei bei seinen Vorfahren in Deutschland schon vor 
250 Jahren, und von ihm selbst, seitdem er sich in den Vereiuigten Staaten beflndet, 
welches iiber 60 Jahre ist, gebraucht, und immer als untruglich befunden worden. Er 
macht es bios aus Liebe zur Menschheit bekannt. Dieses Mittel besteht aus dem Kraut, 
welches er Chickweed uennt es ist eiue Sommer-Pflanze, und bei den Schweizern und 
Deutschen unter den Namen: Gauchheil, rother Moyer Oder rother Huhnerdarm, 
bekannt. In England neunt man es : rother Pimpernel ; und in der Botanik heisst es : 
Annagellis Phouicea. Es muss im Junius, wann es in roller Bliithe ist, gesammelt, im 
Schatten getrocknet und dann zu Pulver gerieben werden . Hiervon ist die Dosis fiir eine 
envachsene Person, ein kleiner Essloffel voll, oder an Gewicht ein Drachma, und ein 
Scrupel auf einmal in Bier oder Wasser ; fiir Kinder ist die Dosis eben so gross ; allein es 
wird zu drei verschiednen Zeiten gegeben. Wenn es fiir Thiere griin gebraucht werden 
soil, so schneide und vermische man es mit Kleie oder andern Futter. Wenn man es 
Schweineu geben will, so mache man das zu Pulver gemachte Kraut mit Teig zu Kugeln. 
Man kaun es auch auf Butterbrod, mit Honig oder Molasses, etc. , essen. 

' ' Ein gewisser ehnviirdiger Herr in diesem Staate sagt, dass man von dem Pulver dieses 
Krautes in Deutschland 30 Gran schwer des Tages viermal gebe, und so eine Woche lang 
mit einer geringern Dosis fortfahre, uud mit der Briihe dieses gekochten Krautes die 
Wunde wasche, und auch Pulver hinein streue. Herr Ketteriug sagt, dass er immer nur 
eine Dosis mit dem gliicklichsten Erfolg gegeben habe. 

"Es wird gesa&t, dass dies dasselbe Mittel sei, mit welchem der verstorbene Doctor 
William Stoy so viele Curen verrichtet uud glucklich geheilt habe." 

1889,] "37 [Hoffman. 

which had a high reputation in the State from which it had been brought, 
was described by the present writer,* as consisting of a worn piece of 
white feldspar, and possessing none of the properties of absorption attrib- 
uted to it. 

The first notice of stones used in extracting, or expelling, poisons, 
occurs about the middle of the thirteenth century, though the knowledge 
of them, and their use, by the superstitious of Asia Minor, without doubt 
antedates that period. They were called bezoar stones, f and consisted of 
a calculus, or concretion, found in the intestines of the wild goat of North- 
ern India, known as the Pazan, described by Aldrovandus as HurcusPezo- 
ardicus, and which Linnseus mentions as Capra bezoartica. Various other 
ruminants were subsequently found to possess a similar calculus, such as 
the chamois, and the llama and guanaco furnished the early Spaniards 
in South America with this highly valued article. The latter was recog- 
nized in therapeutics as the Occidental bezoar stone in contradistinction to 
the Oriental variety, which latter was considered more efficacious. A 
specimen in the British Museum, described and figured by Van RymsdykJ 
in 1791, is called Bezoar Germanorum, although it had been found in 

In addition to the fact that the fable of poison-extracting stones may be 
traced back to the Middle Ages, it is probable that they had been used 
long anterior to that time, in Asia Minor, and it is more than probable 
that a knowledge of their reputed properties, and possibly specimens, 
were brought back to Europe by Crusaders on their return from the Holy 

Several objects found in 1803 at Florence, on the site of the old Church 
of the Templars, dedicated to St. Paul, are of interest and may be briefly 
mentioned. One of them is an earthen vase, and another, a medal. These 
relics are in the collection of M. Gaucia. Lacroix says of these antiquities : 
"The Earthen Vase, on one side of which is seen, between two fleurs-de- 
lis, the figure of St. Paul bitten by a serpent, bears a Latin fl inscription, 

*The Western Lancet, San Francisco, Cal., 1834. 

t Known in German as Bezoarstein and " Hen des Qifftes ;" Greek, Alexipharmacum ; 
Hebrew, Bduzaar or Belzaar ; Chaldaic, Bcluzaar, from the Persian Pdd-Za/ir pdd*= 
expelling, zahr - = poison. 

The medical works of a century ago still mention this substance in its list of remedies, 
and it was given internally for a variety of disorders in combination with other sub> 
stances, such as powdered red coral, etc. For further information relative to its claims, 
see inaugural dissertations published as follows : G. Becker. Lapis bezoar, Wittebergse, 
1673; J. D. Ehrhardo. De tinctura bezoardica essentificata, Jenoe, 1698; J. H. Slevogt. 
De lapide bezoar, Jense, 1698 ; C. W. Vesti. De lapide bezoardico oriental! physice et med- 
ice considerate, Erffordise [1707]. 

t Museum britanuicum, etc , London, M,DCC,XCI, Tab. VI, No. 7. 

I Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages, and at the Period of the Renaissance. 
Paul Lacroix, New York, 1874, p. Ib7, Figs. 14S-187. 

il " Expelleo lapide hoc pattli virtvte venenvm." 


Hoffman.] OOO [May 3, 

'In the name of St. Paul, and by this stone, thou shall drive out poison.' 
On the other side is engraved in relief the cross of the Temple, between a 
sword and a serpent. * * * On the Medal is represented a dragon 
with an Italian* legend signifying, 'The Grace of St. Paul is proof 
against any poison.' ' 

In addition to the representation of a dragon, the figure of a scorpion 
also appears in the space between the beginning and the end of the latter 

The fact that St. Paul is the one appealed to in the above cases may be 
attributed to the fact that he was not affected by the bite of a serpent, 
when almost instant death was the result expected by his associates (Acts 
xxviii, 3-6). 


The patient must drink the warm blood of a freshly killed dove. It is 
better if the head be cut off and the blood taken directly from the neck. 


For ordinary febrile disorders strawberry leaf tea is administered to 
produce diaphoresis. 

Tea made of elder blossoms is given to hasten the eruption in measles 
and scarlatina. 

An infusion made of parsley roots is considered excellent as a diuretic, 
and to produce free lochial discharge. 

Tea made of sheep cherries (Gen. et sp. f) is given for measles. 

A decoction of blackberry roots is sometimes given for fever accom- 
panying diarrhoea. 


To remove freckles from the face, one must rise on the morning of the 
first day of May, before the sun is up, moisten the hands with the dew 
upon the grass and wash the face therewith. Not a word must be spoken 
aloud either before or during this procedure. f 


It is believed that if the hand of a corpse be rubbed over a goitre the 
afflicted may be certain of recovery. 


For children who are affected in this manner, they must be whipped 
with a hud'l lum'ba, i.e., the cloth used in removing ashes from the oven 
previous to depositing the loaves to be baked. 

* Gratia D. S. ^avlo contra tutti Veleni Vivi. 

t This custom was indulged in by some of the young people of Hawick, England, 
to secure " twelve mouths of rosy cheeks." Folk-lore Journal, Lond., ii, 1881, p. 191. 

1889.] OOJ [Hoffman. 

When the patient has reached the age of adolescence, the alleged relief 
is obtained by urinating into a newly made grave ; the corpse must be of 
tae opposite sex to that of the experimenter. 


Quince seed, soaked in cold water until it is slightly mucilaginous, forms 
a common remedy for inflamed eyes. 

The pith taken from the green branches of sassafras is similarly used. 

When the eyes become unusually sore a small piece of bluestone (sul- 
phate of copper) is dissolved in water, and a few drops applied several 
times daily. 

Another common remedy is to put a drop of molasses into the eye and 
allow it to remain until washed out by the tears. 

When sore eyes are accompanied by symptoms of scrofula or other con- 
stitutional disorder, the lobes of the ears are punctured and gold rings 
inserted. This is practiced by men as well as women. 


The following is from Fayette county : "Mix equal parts of lard, sul- 
phur, and the inner bark of the alder ; heat the mixture, and prepare as 
an ointment which must be used on three successive mornings, when, on 
the morning of the fourth day, after careful washing, ne\v clothes must 
be put on." 

The addition of the alder bark is probably on account of some mysteri- 
ous property attributed to it. 


Hollow out a carrot, fill it with the patient's urine and hang it, by means 
of a string, in the fire place. As the urine is evaporated and the carrot 
becomes shriveled, the disease will leave the patient. * 

In this there is an evident belief in the connection between the proper- 
ties and color of the carrot and the yellow skin of a patient having jaun- 
dice. To this class may belong the belief respecting the use of a band of 
red flannel for diphtheria, and yellow or amber beads for purulent dis- 
charge from the ears. 


A patient having the measles is required to remain in a close, warm 
room, and tea made of elder blossoms is administered at intervals to keep 
him in a perspiration, to hasten the eruption. 


To cure the mumps, the swollen parts must be rubbed against such parts 
of a hog-trough as have been worn smooth by that animal. 

* Mr. Black records a somewhat similar custom prevailing in Staffordshire, where a 
bladder is filled with uriiie and hung near the fire. Folk-Medicine, London, 1883, p. 56. 

Hoffman.] [May 3, 

Here there is apparently a relic of a belief in the transference of disease, 
of which more will be said further on. 


To cure pleurisy the child must be passed beneath a table to an assistant. 

It is necessary to state, in this connection, that pleurisy is believed to be 
caused by the attachment of the liver to the ribs ; the cure being to rupture 
this adhesion by stretching the body. This disease is commonly known 
as liver-grown fagewak'sa, lit., grown fast. 


A decoction of the leaves of the bone set Eupatorium perfoliatum L. 
although recognized by physicians as a tonic, is used both as an emetic 
and purgative by the people generally. If the leaves are stripped from the 
plant in an upward manner it is emetic, and if pulled downward it is 

The belief in the virtue of the remedy, whether removed from stalk in 
one direction, or another, survives also with respect to the following : 

A decoction of dogwood bark Cornus florida L. is given as a purga- 
tive, as well as to produce emesis ; but the desired result depends up-n 
the manner in which the dose has been prepared. The belief pertaining 
to these effects, the preparation ot the bark, and the decoction, is as follows : 
AY hen the mixture is to act as an emetic, the bark is scraped from the 
branches from btlow upward when the sap is rising in the spring. This 
is put into boiling water and a strong decoction made, which, if swallowed, 
will quickly produce the desired effect. If, however, a purgative is wanted, 
the bark must be scraped downward, in autumn, when the sap is believed 
to run downward. The scrapings must be put into a vessel of cold water 
and boiled for a considerable period of time. If a sufficient quantity be 
swallowed, purging follows. 

That the desired effect is generally attained by adults may appear 
singular, but it may readily be attributed to the will and action of the 
patient himself. The decoction, if taken as an emetic, is readily disposed 
of at the earliest sense of nausea, but when the purpose is to purge, the 
patient, with some effort on his part, retains the obnoxious mixture 
until it has passed beyond the control of the stomach into the intestines, 
when the desired result follows. 

A mixture of sulphur and molasses is frequently given to children, to 
purge, as well as to purify the system, in spring. 

Various mixtures are resorted to by adults for the same purpose, to pre- 
pare the system for the warm weather and to remove the impurities from 
the blood, whjch are supposed to have accumulated during the pre- 
ceding winter. Should this be neglected one is in danger of having various 
kinds of eruptions. 

1889.] [Hoffman. 

Most of the remedies employed for the above purpose contain greater or 
less quantities of sassafras root, burdock root, bone set, cream of tartar, etc. 


A potato carried in one's pocket will insure freedom from rheumatism. 
As a potato is perishable and likely to become shriveled, it must be 
replaced by a fresh one when necessary. 

By some persons horse-chestnuts are used in a similar manner. 

The rattle of a rattlesnake, attached to a string and worn suspended 
from the neck, is believed to cure, as well as to prevent, an attack of 

Rattlesnake oil, if rubbed over the affected part, is also believed to be 
an unfailing remedy. The present writer saw this article prepared and 
offered for sale, only a few months ago, in the mountains of Cumberland 

A decoction of witch hazel bark is also used as a local application. 

A decoction of the bark, or an infusion of the blossoms, of the prickly 
SishZanthoxylum americanum Mill. is also employed in the same manner 
as the preceding. 


Chronic or purulent discharge from the ears is believed to be cured by 
putting a necklace of yellow or amber beads around the neck of the 
afflicted one. 

In the above-mentioned work Mittel und Eunste is a recipe which has 
also been found in practice. It is nothing more nor less than a mixture of 
lime water and oil in such proportions as to become semi-solid, after which 
it is melted with hog's fat and wax. This is applied daily to the affected 
limbs, in the form of a plaster. 

It has frequently been reported that there are certain persons who are 
possessed of the power of curing, what is locally termed white swelling, 
by the layiiig-on of hands and the recitation of certain secret formulae. I 
have as yet not personally met with any one who had such a reputation. 
The belief may probably be a survival of the older custom of the royal 
touch. King James II, becoming wearied at such a ceremony, was relieved 
by merely holding one end of a string while the other, terminating in a 
loop, was put over the head and neck of each subject presented : in this 
manner the influence passed from the king's hand to the string, and from 
the string to the patient's body. 

" Kerchiefs dipped in King Charles' blood were found to have as much 
efficacy in curing the king's evil as had the living touch,"* and " in 1838, 
failing the royal touch, a few crowns and half-crowns, bearing the effigy 
of Charles I, were still used in the Shetland islands as remedies for the 

* William George Black. Folk-Medicine, Lond., 1883, p. 100. 



evil. They had been handed down from generation to generation, along, 
perhaps, with the story which some travelled Shetlander had told of the 
ceremony on St. John's day, 1633, when Charles I went to the royal 
chapel in Holyrood, 'and their solemnlie offred, and after the offringe 
heallit 100 persons of the cruelles orkingis eivell, younge and old.' "* 

This practice prevailed at different periods and in different countries ; 
and it is only reasonable to suppose that the occasional practice of the 
laying-on of hands which occurs in this country is nothing but a survival 
of the English and continental practices ; many of the inhabitants of the 
remote rural districts as well as some professedly cultured of the literary 
centres are in just that plane of development to seize hold of such 


Slabbering is cured, it is alleged, by passing a live fish through the 
child's mouth. This was practiced in Reading in the summer of 1888, and 
survives in other localities also. 


As there are many kinds of harmless snakes found in Pennsylvania, 
and but two venomous species occur there, many of the reputed cures are 
to be attributed to the fact that many persons are really bitten by harm- 
less kinds. It is a fact too, though perhaps not generally known, that 
many of the wounds inflicted by rattlesnakes are not fatal. There are a 
number of reasons for this, chief among which may be noted the condition 
of the person at the time of the accident, and the time of the year and 
condition of the serpent whether much of the poison had lately been dis- 
charged or not. 

The ordinary treatment is to endeavor to intoxicate the subject with 

In some localities pounded onions and salt are bound over the wound. 

Place the vent of a live chicken upon the wound. It is supposed that 
this has the power of extracting the venom, but it will kill the chicken. 

The following practice obtains in Clinton count} 7 ", among those occupied 
in picking berries. Rattlesnakes are very common, and the pickers 
abstain from eating onions, as that seems to accelerate the effects of the 
venom. If, during the day, one of the number is unfortunately bitten by 
one of these reptiles, he is immediately taken to the nearest house, where a 
chicken is secured, cut in two, and the warm bleeding surface of one of 
the halves placed upon the wound. It is believed that the poison is quickly 
extracted and no fear as to evil consequences is entertained. 

* William George Black. Folk-Medicine, Lond., 1883, pp. 142, 143. (Quoted from Pet- 
tigrew and Lecky.) 

1889.] [Hoffman. 

The following formula was practiced by specialists in Northern Lehigh 
county : 

Gott hot al'les drshaffa, und al'les war gut ; 
Als du, al'le n < shlang, bisht ferflucltt' , 
FtrflucM solsht du sai n und dai gift. 

t t t 

Tsing, tsing, tsing. 

Wliich means : 

God created everything, and it was good ; except thou alone, snake, 
art cursed, cursed shalt thou be and thy poison. 

f Tsing, f tsing, f tsing. 

The operator recites the above phrase and then, with the extended 
index finger, makes the sign of the cross three times over the wound, each 
time pronouncing the word tsing. This word is probably meaningless ; 
though it is possible that it may be a contraction of tsung tongue, or 
tsing''la, as the rapid movement of a snake's tongue is termed. 

A poultice of the bruised roots of the black snakeroot (Cimicifuga race- 
mosa Ell.) is also applied to the wound, and a decoction of the same parts 
of the plant is administered internally. It is generally believed that the 
blacksnake, when bitten by a rattlesnake, eats of this plant which causes 
the venom to become inert. 


Warm cow dung is applied as a poultice to sore or gathered breasts. 
This appears to be used in only one locality, and it is believed that the 
remedy was suggested by an Irishwoman who was a very energetic advo- 
cate thereof. The same substance is used, also, in the south of Hamp- 
shire, as an application to open wounds.* 


Apply a poultice made of yellow clay and vinegar, renewing the appli- 
cation as socn as it gets dry. This is resorted to in Payette county. 

In nearly every district the ordinary application consists of hot vinegar, 
in which a cloth is dipped, then wrung out, the cloth being used in the 
form of a bandage. 


"Bind three kinds of weeds upon the spot stung by a bee." The cor- 
respondent who furnishes this, as still practiced in Fayette county, fails to 
name the plants ; but it appears to partake rather of a charm than a 
remedy, on account of the use of the number three, which occurs in nu- 
merous other instances also. 

A silver coin applied to a bee sting is believed to not only remove the 
pain but to extract the sting. 

* Folk-medicine, William George Black, Lond., 1S83, p. 161. 

Hoffman.] [May 3, 

Moist clay is also applied by some, in which the moisture and tempera- 
ture of the substance appears to furnish relief. 

To charm a wasp, so that it may be handled without danger of stinging, 
breathe upon it, and repeat the following words three times without taking 
breath : 

Wish'bli, u'esh'bli, sfitech mich nicht, 
Sis der Dai'w'i di se'ga shpricht. 

The equivalent of which is : 

Wasp, wasp, sting me not. 
Until the devil recites the creed. 


To cure the stitches, pick up a pebble and spit upon it three time?, 
then replace it where found. 


Blisters on the tongue of children (stomatitis) are caused by telling fibs. 
"When they show no disposition to leave, the following course is pursued : 
Three small sticks are cut from the branches of a tree, each of a finger's 
length and as thick as a leadpencil. These are inserted into the mouth 
of the patient and then buried in a dunghill ; the next day the operation 
is repeated with a new set of sticks, and again on the third day, after 
which the three sets of three each are allowed to remain in the manure, 
and as they decay the complaint will disappear. 


Rub the sty with a gold ring, and it will disappear. In a similar cus- 
tom found in West Sussex, England, the sty must be rubbed three times,* 
and in some known instances it is necessary for the ring to be a wedding 


Place a thin slice of bacon fat over the swollen tonsil, and secure it by 
means of a bandage or handkerchief. 

A stocking, turned wrong side out and tied about the neck, will relieve 
the swelling. 

A bandage of red flannel worn about the neck is also looked upon as a 
good remedy. This is, no doubt, another instance of the belief in the effi- 
cacy of color rather than material, as has been noted in the reference to 
other throat troubles. 


Steal a piece of fresh meat beef being more beneficial rub it upon the 
wart and bury it at a cross-road. As the meat decays the wart will dis- 

* The Folk-lore Record, Lond.. i, 1878, p. 45. 

1889.] : [Hoffman. 

Tie a horse-hair tightly around a wart and it will leave. This may 
occur through ulceration. 

Shave off the top of a wart and touch the exposed surface with the juice 
of milkweed Asclepias. 

The juice of the common dandelion, if applied to warts at certain inter- 
vals, is believed to cause their disappearing in a short time. A number of 
other plants are also supposed to have this property. 

Steal a piece of bacon rind, rub it upon the wart and bury it under the 
eaves of the house. As the rind decomposes the wart will disappear. 

Water from a blacksmith's barrel (in which hot iron is cooled), if 
applied to warts, will remove them. 

Rub the warts with a piece of bone and replace it where found. Who- 
soever picks up the bone subsequently will have the warts transferred to 
his own hands. 

To remove warts or scars, the person so affected must look at the moon 
and repeat the words : 

Was ich raib, nem ab ; 
Was ich sen, nem tsu. 

The English equivalent is, "What I rub, decrease; What I see, increase." 
This must be done three nights in succession, beginning before full moon, 
so that the last trial comes on the night of full moon.* 

Another method of a similar character is as follows: Rub the warts with 
the fingers of the opposite hand, on the first night that the new moon is 
visible, and recite the following lines : 

The moon will increase, 
But my warts will decrease. 

This must be done unperceived by any one ; and it is believed that before 
the next new moon all the warts will have disappeared. 

A curious procedure consists in frying hens' feet in lard and anointing 
the warts. 


To remove a wen, a person must strike it a severe blow with a small 
Bible. It is apparent that a blow of sufficient strength will rupture the 
synovial membrane, but the cure is attributed to the influence of the book 

* The above appears to be one of the methods adopted in accordance with the follow- 
ing, extracted from Mittel und Kiinste, above referred to, viz. : '-Am dritten Tag, im 
zunehmenden Mond, Abends, wenn du den neuen Mond zum ersten Mai siehst, dann 
nimm du den Kranken hinaus, legp deine Finger der rechten Hand auf die Warze und 
blicke nach dem Monde, dann spricht wie folgt : Dasjenige darauf ich sehe ist zuneh- 
mendund dasjenige was ich jetzt anfasse ist abnehmend; nachdem du dieses dreimal 
wiederholt hast, gehe in das Haus zuruck." 

t Mr. Szekely says wens are caused, it is believed by the Magyars, by trying to count 
the stars. Folk-lore Journal, Lond., ii, 1884, p. 96. 

PHOC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. 2n. PRINTED MAY 15, 1889. 

Hoffman.] OdO [May 3, 

At some localities, after the blow has been given, a silver coin is placed 
over the spot and securely fastened with a bandage. 


The following method is pursued in the upper Susquehanna valley : 
Make a tea of hornets' nests, and allow the patient to drink of it each day. 
The length of time of continuance is not stated. 

Another practice is to administer milk stolen from a neighbor's cow. 

One instance of treating a child having the whooping cough consisted 
of thrusting a live fish into the throat.* 


Under this caption maybe classed all persons professing more than ordi- 
nary ability in the cure of the sick or those under spells. They may be 
of either sex, and are locally termed Uant'sa dok'tor herb doctors and 
hex'a dok'tor witch doctors. The latter practice various methods of 
what is generally known as branch' a, which includes powwowing or exor- 
cism, incantation, stroking, etc. It is not always the case that they are 
called upon to operate directly, but they may communicate a formula or 
method to the applicant, from whom they receive a fee. Should a remedy 
be known to one requiring such aid, he first consults the witch doctor 
both to verify the correctness of his own proposed plan and to conciliate 
him that no countercharm may be practiced and compel extortionate 
demands for freedom therefrom. 

There are many persons who claim to possess the gift of using the divin- 
ing rod in the discovery of ores and water. Instances are frequent where 
wells are sunk after an indication of the presence of water has been ascer- 
tained in this way. In fact, it is amusing to learn the particulars of the 
search, and the ultimate labors of the well-diggers, who continue until 
they do find water. Naturally, water would have been found under ordi- 
nary circumstances, but the rod receives the credit. 

Forked sticks of hazel, willow or elm, are generally used for this pur- 
pose. One of the Pennsylvania methods is as follows: On Christmas Eve, 
between the hours of eleven and twelve, the one who intends experiment- 
ing must break off a branch that has grown during the year, and, while 
facing the east, must at the same time speak the name of the Father, Son 
and Holy Ghost. The rod must be used three times when searching for 
an object. If the. top of the rod inclines toward the ground, the operator 
is over the spot sought. When using the rod, recite the following words: 
"Thou Archangel Gabriel, I beseech thee through God, the Almighty, if 
there is water here, or not, indicate it." 

It is supposed that the top of the rod will incline to the front arid 
toward the ground if water is present beneath the surface. 

* Notes and Queries. Lond., 5th ser., Vol. ix, p. 64. This was observed near Phila- 

1889.] 347 [Hoffman. 

If search is made for ore, the name of the kind desired must be men- 
tioned in the above phrase, instead of the word water. 

The following directions for selecting a divining rod were given as early 
as 1751,* at which time the practice of discovering various kinds of ores 
and water was in vogue. The description is related to have been obtained 
trom "an ingenious gentleman" not named who revived the method 
which had been greatly neglected and had made numerous experiments. 

"The hnzel and willow rods, he has by experience found, will actually 
answer with all persons in a good state of health, if they are used with 
moderation, and at some distance of time, and after meals, when the oper- 
ator is in good spirits. 

4 ' The hazel, willow and elm are all attracted by springs of water; some 
persons have the virtue intermittently, the rod in their hands will attract 
one half hour and repel the next. * * * 

"The best rods are those from the hazel or nut tree, as they are pliant 
and tough, and cut in the winter months ; a shoot that terminates equally 
forked is to be preferred, about two feet and a half long; but as such a 
forked rod is rarely to be met with, two single ones of a length and size 
may be tied together with thread, and they will answer as well as the 
other. * * * 

"The most convenient and handy method of holding the rod is with the 
palms of the hands turned upwards, and the two ends of the rod coming 
outwards ; the palms should be held horizontally as nearly as possible, the 
part of the rod in the hand ought to be straight, and not bent backward or 
forward. * * * The rod ought to be so held, that in its workings the 
sides may move clear of the little fingers. * * * 

" The best manner of carrying the rod is, with the end prolaided in an 
angle of about 80 degrees from the horizon, as by this method of carrying 
it the repulsion is more plainly perceived than if it was held perpendicu- 
larly. * * * 

"It is necessary that the grasp should be steady, for if, when the rod is 
going, there be the least succussion or counteraction in the hands, though 
ever so small, it will greatly impair and generally totally prevent its activ- 
ity, which is not to be done by the mere strength of the grasp, for, pro- 
vided this be steady, no strength can stop it." 

The description continues, embracing directions for using the rod, prop- 
erties observed, etc., but enough has been quoted to show that the method 
has not been changed, even up to the present time. 

It may be proper to state, however, in further illustration of the form of 
the rod commonly used, that it resembles the letter Y inverted, thus j^, 
the lower arms being grasped with the hands, and bent horizontally out- 
wards. Thus the stem being carried upright is free to move. 

* Gentleman's Magazine, 1751, p. 507. Reprinted also in Gentleman's Magazine 
Library, Vol. oil Popular Superstitions, pp. 148, 14'J. 

Hoftman.] obO [May ::, 


Although the belief in the transference of disease, both to animate and 
inanimate objects, is prevalent in almost all parts of the world, there are 
but few instances referred to above that indicate its survival in Pennsyl- 
vania. The instances cited pertain to the transference of warts to other 
persons by means of a piece of bone ; the conveyance to the dead, of 
corns ; the transmission to fish, of whooping cough and slabbering of 
children, and transferring mumps to hogs, through the intermediary of the 

The passage under a table, of a pleuritic child, although at present 
stated to "break up the adhesions," may probably be the relic of an an- 
cient custom in which sufferers from scrofula, hernia, etc., were passed 
through a cleft tree, or an orifice in rocks, whereby the complaint was 
lost either by the transmission, or perhaps in the belief of a renewal of 
life. It was necessary, in most instances, that the body touched the inner 
surface of these objects, whether tree, or stone, so that the disease was 
transferred direct. 

A tree observed at Burlington, N. J.,* which had been thus split and 
the parts rejoined, was believed to have been used for such a purpose, and 
numerous instances might be cited of the practice in England and on the 
continent. In Ireland, holes in rocks" were resorted to for the same end, 
and it may be that the stone collars found in Porto Rico some of which 
are now in the Smithsonian Institution, and the use of which is thus far un- 
known f were used by the aborigines in a similar manner. These rings 
resemble horse-collars, and are slightly varying, on account of which they 
are known as "rights" and "lefts," the orifice being sometimes rather 
small, but on the whole could still have been used for passing through it 
an afflicted child. 

Both in France and in England the licking of a wound or sore, by a 
dog, or the application of a dog's tongue, was firmly believed in as an un- 
failing cure. This may have originated among the superstitious and had 
its source in the incident of Lazarus and his affliction. 

Diseases are claimed to be cured or removed even at a distance from the 
operator. Such diseases are said to be the effect of charms and spells put 
upon patients by witches, or the evil conjuration of those gifted with such 
alleged powers. The disease may then be due to an evil spirit, or demon, 

* Notes and Queries, Lond., 6th ser., i, p. 16. 

t These collars have for want of a better name been termed sacrificial stones, but if 
they had been put to use in the sacrifice or torture of victims, it is scarcely probable that 
their forms would have been constructed so as to correspond to what is called " rights " 
and "lefts" ; under such circumstances, on the other hand, symmetry would more 
probably have.been an object in their form and outline. An ancient custom was to pass 
the sick through the sacred yoni, and it is apparent that the stone collars much resemble 
that Oriental symbol. 

1889.] OiJ [Hoffinan. 

which has taken possession of the body of the victim, and in this respect 
the superstition is similar to that entertained by many of the Indian tribes. 
Countercharms are resorted to for cures, but for this purpose an article of 
clothing of the person causing the spell, a hair or a piece of finger-nail, 
must first be secured before the remedial process of exorcism can be at- 
tempted by those professing such powers. Imaginary ailments are thus 
readily removed by conjurors, in whom the victims have faith and confi- 

There is a prevailing belief, also, that some witches have the power of 
producing peculiar noises in a house, or some other place, to notify certain 
persons that wrongs are being, or have been, committed by some one in- 
timately connected. The following incident occurred in 1876, and came 
under the writer's personal observation while he was practicing his pro- 
fession in the city of Reading : 

A farmer, living in the south-eastern part of Berks county, called one 
autumn day and stated that he had been very much annoyed by peculiar 
rappings near, or in, his kitchen stove every time he sat down to his 
meals. He stated furthermore that he suspected his wife of infidelity, as 
the railroad watchman, whose station was but a few rods from his house, 
appeared very fond of calling in the evening and at other times when not 
on duty. The visitor desired to obtain some "witch medicine" so as to 
compel this man to remain away as well as to put an end to the rappings. 
He was informed that the noises undoubtedly proceeded from the stove, as 
after each meal the fire was permitted to go down, or perhaps out, and in 
consequence the contraction of the several metal parts caused the crack- 
ing sounds, as the same noise might be noticed by him had he been at 
home when the fires were kindled. The simplest explanation of the 
results of expansion and contraction, failed to penetrate his mind, so, after 
leaving the oifice, he proceeded to visit a "quack," who was reputed to be 
a hex'a dok'tor, where he received some charms and vile smelling herbs, 
which he was directed to burn in his house so as to drive out the evil and 
remove the visitor. 

The result was not ascertained, but the writer has no doubt that the ex- 
periment was successful, as any one with normally constituted olfactories 
would avoid a house where such a stench repeatedly greeted his visits. 

The powers attributed to a seventh son are well known, and a woman 
who marries but does not change her name is also believed to possess un- 
usual skill and power in curing. One such person, living in the above- 
mentioned county, is frequently called upon by people from a distance, 
who solicit aid in relief from illness. Her method is both by stroking, or 
laying-on of hands, and by sending cakes of a peculiar kind, which the 
afflicted are to eat. 

A curious circumstance pertaining to a charm intended to attract the 
affections of the opposite sex toward the operator may be mentioned, 
although it is not one of the most elegant methods of love-making. A 

Hollmau.] dOU [May 3, 

widow became impressed with a boatman with whom she casually be- 
came acquainted, and as he evinced no response to her numerous mani- 
festations of regard, she adopted the following method to compel him to 
love her even against Ms will. With the blade of a penknife she scraped 
her knee until she had secured a slight quantity of the cuticle, baked it in 
a specially prepared cake and sent it to him, though with what result is 
not known. This woman was known to have had the utmost faith in the 

Another class of conjurers direct their attention to the cure of sick and 
bewitched cattle and other domestic animals ; to casting " lucky bullets ;" 
furnishing charms to prevent another man from firing oft' a gun, usually 
termed "stealing fire " or "taking fire;" giving charms to prevent dogs 
Irom barking, or biting, etc. 

It is true that any one acquainted with these methods may himself prac- 
tice them, but in some there is more certainty of success, it is alleged, if 
an adept first apply to a recognized conjurer for verification of the method 
oi procedure, otherwise such conjurer, if slighted, might place a counter- 
charm in the way of success. 

As already intimated, witches are supposed to possess abilities in curing 
the sick, and such as may have been charmed by other witches and con- 
jurers ; but there is a belief, also, that some of these beings have the 
power of transforming themselves, and their victims, into other animals. 
The following instance is said to have occurred in Northern Lehigh 
county, many years ago :* A vicious black sow was frequently encoun- 
tered by people on the highway, but no one knew to whom the animal 
belonged. One day, as the sow became too aggressive in pursuit of her 
victim, the person thus annoyed picked up a heavy piece of wood and 
threw it, breaking one of the animal's legs. It was learned subsequently 
that a witch living in that neighborhood had broken her leg on the same 
day and at the same hour, and it was firmly believed that the witch and 
the animal which was never encountered afterwards were one and the 

The following is a similar instance of alleged transformation caused by 
a witch, and although the circumstance is said to have occurred during 
the early part of the present century, it is still mentioned as inexplicable 
and supernatural by the present residents. The story, in brief, is as fol- 
lows :f Near Trexlertowu, Lehigh county, dwelt a farmer named Weiler. 
His wife and three daughters had, by some means or other, incurred the 
enmity of a witch who lived but a short distance away, when the latur, 
it is supposed, took her revenge in the following manner. Whenever 
visitors came to the Weiler residence, the girls, without any premonition 
whatever, would suddenly be changed into snakes, and alter crawling 
back and forth along the top ridge of the wainscoting for several min- 

* Reported by I'Ue writer in Journal Am. Folk-lore, Boston and N. Y., ii, 1889, p. 32. 
t J. Am. Folk-lore, cit. sup., p. 33. Reported by the present writer. 

18S9.J 351 [Hoftman. 

utes they were restored to their natural form. These cuiious transforma- 
tions occurred quite frequently, and the circumstance soon attained wide- 
spread notoriety. About the end of the third month the spell was broken 
and everything went on as before. 

Witches may be disabled or their charms counteracted by securing a 
hair from the head, wrapping it in a piece of paper, and, after placing this 
against the trunk of a tree, tiring a silver bullet into it. 

Another countercharm to free enchanted or bewitched cattle is to place 
fire near enough to the victim, the influence being immediately over- 
powered, as witches are supposed to be unable to bear such close contact 
of heat, either near their own person or the object under their influence. 
This is illustrated in the following narrative, and the circumstance oc- 
curred only a few years ago, according to report :* A fanner, now living 
at Alburtis, Lehigh county, had two cows. One day an old woniajn, who 
lived but a short distance away, and who was suspected of being a witch, 
came to the house, and, during the course of conversation, asked which 
of the cows gave the greater quantity of milk. The one indicated was 
then with calf. Upon the following day the cows were driven, as usual, 
into the fields to pasture, but, on attempting to drive them home, later in 
the day, the milch cow was found lying helpless upon the ground. The 
farmer, upon hearing of this, went into the field with his sons, to endeavor 
to get the animal upon her feet. The sous took hold of the horns while 
the lather grasped the tail, but all attempts to move the cow were ineflec- 
tual. The father then directed the boys to gather some wood to make a 
tire, which was soon placed near the cow. During all this time the witch 
was standing on the portico of the farmer's house, watching the proceed- 
ings ; but the instant she saw that fire was to be kindled, she came for- 
ward and inquired after the purpose of the proceedings. The farmer ac- 
cused her ot bewitching the cow, but this she denied most vigorously. 
The witch then bade the farmer call his wife, who, upon her arrival, was 
told to take hold of the cow's tail while the witch went to the head. After 
a few caresses and the utterance of some words of endearment and en- 
couragement, the cow rose from the ground and walked away as if noth- 
ing had occurred. 

The following notice of the trial of witches is reproduced from the Gen 
tleman's Magazine,^ and relates to a circumstance which transpired in 
New Jersey, just across the Delaware river. It is probable that the trial 
was instigated by English residents, as such prosecutions were rare among 
the German settlers ; in fact, but one instance is known to the writer, to 
which reference will be made further on. The trial above referred to is given 
in the following words : "From Burlington, in Pensilvania, 't is advised 
that the owners of several cattle, believing them to be bewitched, caused 
some suspected men and women to be taken up, and trials to be made for 
detecting 'em. About three hundred people assembled near the Gover- 

* Related by the writer in J. Am. Folk-lore, Boston and New York, i, 1888, pp. 134, 135. 
t January, 1731, i, p. 29. 

Hoffinan.] 352 [May B> 1889 

nor's house, and, a pair of scales being erected, the suspected persons were 
each weighed against a large Bible, but all of them outweighing it ; the 
accused were then tied head and feet together, and put into a river, on 
supposition that if they swam they must be guilty. This they offered to 
undergo in case the accuser should be served in the like manner ; which 
being done, they all swam very buoyant, and cleared the accuser." 

The other trial above referred to is related as follows : * "In the south- 
ern part of Williams township, Northampton county, there is a hill, to 
which the witches have left their evil name and fame. It is known as 
' Der Hexenkopf,' or 'the Witches' Head,' because it was there that their 
ladyships were supposed to hold nightly revels. On these occasions they 
bewitched their neighbors' cattle, and made themselves generally hateful 
to all good, order-loving citizens. They did not, however, always escape 
with impunity, as is proved by the following indictment, which is care- 
fully transcribed from the Session Docket, omitting only names and date. 
The case was 'for bewitching a horse whereby he became wasted and be- 
came worse.' 

" 'The jurors do upon their oaths, present, That S B of 

William township, in the county of Northampton, widow, on the day 

of in the year at the said county of Northampton aforesaid, 

did commit certain most wicked acts (called enchantments and charms), 
at the county aforesaid, maliciously and diabolically against a certain 
white horse of the value of 4, of the goods and chattels of a certain Jus- 
tice W of William township aforesaid, on the day aforesaid, and 

county aforesaid then being, did exercise and practice, by means of which 

the said horse of the said Justice W , on the day aforesaid at the 

township of Williams aforesaid, greatly worstended (pejoratus est) and 
wasted away, against the peace of our said Commonwealth, and against 
the laws in this case made and provided.'" * * * "'Judgment: a 
year's imprisonment, and every quarter to stand six hours in the pil- 
lory.' " 

"The poor woman at first resolutely denied the charge ; but the learned 
judges at last convinced her of her guilt, and she always confessed herself 
a witch, though she was unable to say in what manner her enchantments 
had been performed." 

* The Historical Magazine, N. Y., vii, 1853, p. 233 ; reprinted from the Lutheran, under 
tli3 title of Gleanings of an Antiquarian in German Pennsylvania. 

APRIL 19, being Good Friday, a public holiday in 
Pennsylvania, no meeting of ths Society was held. 


Stated Meeting, May 3, 1889. 
Present, 16 members. 

President, Mr. FRALEY, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows : 

A circular from the E. Academia delle Scienze, of Turin, 
soliciting subscriptions for a monument to the late Angelo 

A circular from the New Haven Colony Historical Society, 
stating that a valuable sword presented to the late Admiral 
Foote, U. S. N., had been stolen. 

Circular from the Rhode Island Historical Society, in refer- 
ence to Indian names and localities in that State. 

Program of prizes to be awarded by the Acade'mie Roy ale 
de Belgique for 1890. 

Letters from August Neilson, Gefle, Sweden, in relation to a 
proposed international language. 

Accessions to the Library were announced from the Geologi- 
cal Survey of India, Calcutta ; Physiologische Gesellschaft, 
Berlin; Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft "Isis," Dresden; 
Universit^ Royale, Lund, Sweden; Societe Zoologique de 
France, Paris; Societe' d'Histoire et d'Archeologie, Geneva, 
Switzerland; Bath and West of England Society; Mr. P. 
Hoinix, London ; New Hampshire Historical Society, Con- 
cord; Massachusetts Historical Society, Rev. P. S. Moxen, 
Boston; Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Dr. T. H. Saffbrd, Williamstown, Mass.; American Antiqua- 
rian Society, Worcester, Mass.; New York State Library, Uni- 
versity of the State of New York, Commissioners of the State 
Reservation at Niagara, Albany ; Mr. W. J. Potts, Camden, N. 
J.; New Jersey Historical Society, Newark ; Prof. John Eyer- 
man, Easton, Pa.; Indian Rights' Association, Historical So- 
ciety of Pennsylvania, Messrs. Richard B. Osborne, Henry 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. 2s. PRINTED MAY 22, 1889. 

Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia; Department of the Interior, War 
Department, U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, U. 
S. Geological Survey, Washington; Col. Charles C. Jones, 
Augusta, Ga.; Prof. John C. Branner, Little Rock, Ark.; 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Historical Society, 
Chicago, 111.; Academy of Natural Sciences, Davenport, la.; 
Washington College, Topeka, Kans. ; University of California, 
Sacramento, Cal. ; Imperial Observatorio, Bio de Janeiro, 

An obituary notice of Dr. N. A. Randolph was read, by 
appointment, by Dr. Joseph T. Rothrock. 

The deaths of the following members were announced : 

Henry W. Field, London, d. March, 1888. 

Prof. Samuel W. Gross, M.D. (Philadelphia), b. February 4, 
1887, d. April 16, 1889. 

William Henry Rawle (Philadelphia), b. August 19, 1823, 
d. April 19, 1889. 

F. A. P. Barnard (New York City, N. Y.), b. May 19, 1815, 
d. April 27, 1889. 

On motion, the President was authorized to appoint suitable 
persons to prepare the usual obituary notices of Dr. Gross and 
Mr. Rawle. 

The Secretaries presented a communication from Dr. W. J. 
Hoffman, Washington, D. C., on the " Folk- Medicine of the 
Pennsylvania Germans." 

The Secretaries presented a paper by Mr. James Mooney, 
Washington, on " The Holiday Customs of Ireland." 

Prof. E. D. Cope made a communication, " A Review of the 
N. A. Species of Hippo therium." 

Prof. Cope made an oral communication as to " The Partial 
Results of the Geological Survey of the Cypress Hills, near the 
Saskatchewan River, in the Dominion of Canada." 

Dr. Allen made some remarks upon the " Characteristics of 
the American Pronghorn." 

Pending nominations 1183-1187 were read. 

The Librarian reported the preparation of a first list of 
the Iacuna3 on the shelves of the Society's Library among 



sets of publications of various learned societies. On motion, it 
was ordered to be printed and distributed. 

A communication was read from Col. F. M. Etting in 
reference to the MS. copy of the Declaration of Independence 
in the autograph of Thomas Jefferson, owned by the Society. 

On motion, the Society resolved to publish the same in 
fac simile, and requested Col. Etting to prepare suitable letter- 
press to accompany the reproduction. 

The consideration of the publication of the old Records of 
the Council was postponed until the autumn. 

Prof. Cope offered the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the Secretaries see that there are printed on the separata 
issued to the contributors to the publications of the Society, the name of 
the publication from which they are taken, and the date at which they are 
issued to the author. And that both be placed on the sheets of the sepa- 
rata and not alone on the cover. 

Mr. Wood moved to refer the motion to the Committee on 
Publication, and being put to a vote, the motion was declared 

And the Society was adjourned by the President. 

Stated Meeting, May 17, 1889. 

Present, 22 members. 
President, Mr. FRALEY, in the Chair. 

% Correspondence was submitted as follows : 

Program of the award of the Hoeufft prizes, by the R. 
Nederlandish Academy. 

A letter from August Neilson, Gefle, Sweden, in relation to 
international language. 

A communication from the "American Anthropologist," re- 
questing a subscription, was referred to the Library Com- 
mittee with power to act. 


[May 17, 

The Academie des Sciences at Cracow was ordered to re- 
ceive Proceedings from No. 130. 

On motion, the Tokyo (Japan) Library was placed on the 
exchange list, to receive Proceedings from No. 96, and a copy 
of the Catalog. 

Letters of envoy were received from the Universite Royale, 
Lund, Sweden; Bath and West of England Society, Bath, 
Eng. ; Bureau des Longitudes, Paris, France; Meteorological 
Office, London, Eng. ; Smithsonian Institution, Department of 
the Interior, Washington, D. C. 

Letters of acknowledgment of 127 were received from Capt. 
Richard Temple, Mandalay, Upper Burma; Universite Royale, 
Lund, Sweden; Musee Royale d'Histoire Naturelle de Bel- 
gique, Bruxelles ; Observatorio Meteorologico-Magnetico, Cen- 
tral Mexico, Mex. ; Observatorio Astronomico Nacional Mex- 
icano, Tacubaya. 

Letters of acknowledgment of 128 were received from the 
Musee Royale d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, Bruxelles; 
K. K. Central-Anstalt fur Meteorologie und Erdmagnetismus, 
Dr. Aristides Brezina, Vienna ; K. Bibliothek, Deutsche Geolo- 
gische Gesellschaft, Berlin ; Naturwissenschaftliche Verein, 
Bremen ; Yerein fur Erdkunde, Dresden ; Yerein fur Geogra- 
phic und Statistik, Frankfurt-am-Main ; Naturhistorische Ge- 
sellschaft, Hanover ; Dr. Otto Bohtlingk, Julius Platzmann, 
Leipsic : R. Accademia dei Lincei, Roma ; Station Se'ricicole, 
Montpellier ; Profs. A. Daubree, Abel Hovelacque, Gaston 
Plante, Remi Simeon, Paris; Prof. Lucien Adam, Rennes; 
Cambridge Philosophical Society, University Library, Cam- 
bridge, Eng. ; Royal Society, Royal Institution, Royal Astro- 
nomical and Meteorological Societies, Society of Antiquaries, 
Society of Arts, Yictoria Institute, Geological Societies, 
Sir John Lubbock, Sir Henry Thompson, Prof. William 
Crookes, London ; Natural History Society, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, Eng. ; Penzance Natural History and Antiquarian So- 
ciety, Plymouth, Eng. ; Royal Society of Edinburgh ; Royal 
Observatory, Mr. James Geikie, Edinburgh, Royal Dublin 
Society, Dublin ; Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 



bridge, Mass.; Messrs. Richard L. Ashhurst, G. de B. Keim, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Prof. 
S. F. Emmons, Gen. M. C. Meigs, Washington, D. G. ; Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, Knoxville; Observatorio Astronomico 
Nacional Mexicano, Tacubaya. 

Accessions to the Library were announced from the Soci^te 
Finno-ougrienne, Helsingfors; Naturforschende Gesellschaft, 
Emden ; Academic des Sciences, Dijon; Societe* d'Anthropol- 
ogie, Musee Guimet, Societe des Antiquaires de France, Bu- 
reau des Longitudes, Paris ; Sociedade de Geographia, Lisbon ; 
Meteorological Council, London; Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
Free Public Library, New Bedford, Mass. ; Buffalo Library, 
Buffalo, N. Y. ; Mr. W. J. Potts, Camden, N. J. ; Prof. Geo. 
H. Cook, New Brunswick, N. J. ; Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; Women's Anthropological Society of 
America, Washington, D. C. ; State Historical Society of Wis- 
consin, Madison ; Mr. Charles E. Keyes, Burlington, la. 

The following communications were offered for the Trans- 
actions of the Society by Prof. Scott : 

" On the Mammalia of the Uinta Formation," which was 
referred to Messrs. Horn, Cope and Ryder, to examine. 

Subsequently the Committee reported in favor of its publi- 
cation, and it was referred to the Committee on Publication, 
with power to act. 

The following communications were offered for the Pro- 
ceedings of the Society : 

Through the Secretaries, from Prof. D. S. Kirkwood, Bloom- 
ington, Ind., on " The Inclination of the Asteroids." 

Mr. Yaux offered, by title, a paper on " The Circle and 
Cross Symbols." 

The Curators reported upon the condition of the cabinets of 
the Society, and, upon motion, it was ordered that a sum not 
to exceed one hundred dollars ($100) be placed at their dis- 
posal to enable them to examine and to arrange the same. 


[May 17, 

The Committee on Hall presented the following report, and 
resolution, which was unanimously adopted : 

PHILADELPHIA, May 17, 1889. 
To the President, Officers and Members of the American Philosophical 

Society : 

GENTLEMEN : In view of the fact that the building which the American 
Philosophical Society now uses was occupied by it for the first time on 
November 21, 1789, we suggest the adoption of the following resolution : 
Resolved, That a proper commemorative celebration of the Centennial 
Anniversary of its occupancy be held on November 21, 1889 ; the subject 
and order of exercises to be referred to a Special Committee of six mem- 
bers, with power to take action in the matter. 



Hall Committee. 

On motion, the President was authorized to appoint the 
Committee, which he did as follows : Messrs. J. Sergeant Price, 
William A. Ingham, Charles A. Oliver, Richard Vaux, Dr. 
Euschenberger and Henry Phillips, Jr. 

The minutes of the Board of Officers and Council were sub- 

This being the stated evening for the voting for candidates 
for membership, pending nominations Nos. 1183, 1185, Ilb6 
and 1187 were read, spoken to and balloted for. 

Pending nomination No. 1184, in the absence of its proposers, 
was postponed until October 18, 1889. 

The Tellers appointed to receive the votes of the Society 
reported the result of the balloting to the President, who de- 
clared the following persons had been duly elected members, 
viz. : 

No. 2156. Lester F. Ward/Washington, D. C. 

No. 2157. Andrew A. Blair, Philadelphia. 

No. 2158. Clarence H. Clark, Philadelphia. 

No. 2159. Henry D. Gregory, Philadelphia. 

And the Society was adjourned by the President. 

1889.] OOJ [Rothrock. 

Biographical Sketch of the Late Nathaniel Archer Randolph, M.D. 

By J. T. Rothrock, M.D. 
(Read before the American Philosophical Society, May 3, 1889.) 

It is not unusual to find men, young and old, who have lived with so 
clear a conscience that they have few regrets and no fears when the 
supreme hour of their earthly career comes. It is also very certain that* 
these men leave behind them vacancies which are hard to fill, and that 
those who knew them best mourn their departure most. 

When a young man, jealous of his integrity, conscious of his powers, 
devoted to the work and welfare of the world, is unexpectedly snatched 
away after years of preparation, it is but natural that we should regard 
our loss as almost beyond repair. 

We, to-night, deplore the removal from our midst by death of just such 
a man. Lest it should be supposed that this is the expression merely of an 
overfriendly opinion, I shall reinforce what I have said by the further 
statement that Doctor Randolph was both a positive and a popular man ; 
to have been both is so remarkable that it presupposes some extraordinary 
qualities, which are not often combined in one individual. 

Nathaniel Archer, son of Nathaniel and Eliza S. Randolph (now Eliza 
S. Turner), was born November 7, 1858, after the death of his father. 
From his earliest childhood he appears to have been conscientious beyond 
the measure of most boys. To illustrate the above statement : on one 
occasion, he refused to say, I will be glad to see another child, because, 
said he, how can I be glad to see one whom I do not even know ? With 
most persons a fondness for natural history, or a special branch of it, can 
be traced to a particular influence. So far as we can see, this was not the 
case with young Randolph. He grew up with it, and no more wondered 
at his mental preferences, or thought of questioning their validity or im- 
portance than why he should eat or sleep. His fondness for living things 
was as decided as was his power of making friends with them. It is said 
by those who knew him best, that later in life, in his physiological experi- 
ments, he was scrupulously careful to reduce suffering to a minimum and 
never to inflict it at all, save with a clearly defined purpose in view. 

His tastes are thus seen to have been naturally those of a student and an 
observer. Young Randolph rather avoided than courted the manly sports 
which most boys admire. In fact, it is said by one who had abundant 
opportunity for knowing, that he did not incline to enough exercise to 
keep him in the best physical condition. This, however, was due to no 
lack of spirit, but because he preferred to study, or to amuse himself, in a 
quieter way. His disposition was gentle ; hence, it was an exceedingly 
rare thing for him to utter a harsh word against any one. This was so 
true that even his most familiar friends, to whom he confided most of his 

Bothrock.] [May 3, 

likes and dislikes, more than once remarked that he seldom spoke 
unkindly of his acquaintances or associates. 

Dr. Randolph's education was commenced in Philadelphia. Later, he 
was sent to Swarthmore College, near Media, in Pennsylvania. When 
seventeen years of age, he entered Cornell University, at Ithaca, in New. 
York ; where, while yet a freshman, he contended for and secured one 
of the prizes that previously none but seniors had entered the list to com- 
pete for. 

In the spring of 1882, he graduated in medicine at the University of 
Pennsylvania. His thesis on the "Red Blood Corpuscles" grew mainly 
out of study in Europe. 

With his graduation in medicine his active public career may be said to 
have commenced. From the very start, his course as a teacher seems 
to have been predestined. The ink on his diploma was scarcely dry 
before we find him one of the members of a "quiz," fitting candidates for 
their final medical examinations. This never degenerated with him into 
a mere perfunctory performance, in return for fees already collected. He 
gave in addition to the ordinary "quiz" collateral lectures, in which 
the fluency and apt illustration, characteristic of the born teacher, were 
constantly recognized. It is but just to add that the interest and enthusi- 
asm of the teacher reacted upon the class. Many a thirst for knowledge 
is blunted, depraved and at last quenched by some wretched substitute, 
simply because tie teacher failed to reach a pure fountain head. In the 
long run, just how many wastes, dry and unproductive, our social life may 
reveal in consequence, it would be very hard to estimate. Randolph's 
zeal was an inspiration to his students. This, with his sound judgment, 
drew students to him and attached them to his own special line of work. 
This, though not itself genius, is so often associated with it that it is apt 
to pass for the greater quality.- His popularity with his students was so 
great that an expressed wish from him was seldom, if ever, violated. 

His earliest recognized instruction, under University control, was in 
the "Course Preparatory to Medicine," in the Scientific School of the 
University of Pennsylvania. His duty there was elementary instruction 
in physiology. Which he really preferred, physiology or hygiene, I never 
could decide. Either was more than broad enough, and with either he 
could have been content. It is certain that had his life been spared he 
would, sooner or later, have settled upon one or the other exclusively. It 
was necessary that he should have done so to produce his best results, 
and no one more quickly than he would have so discovered. 

There was in his career no halting or hesitancy. He believed that only 
those who appreciate themselves and act for themselves can command the 
respect of others. Hence at no time, in any candidacy for professional or 
other honors, did he ever in the slightest degree apologize for his youth 
or depreciate his own right to freedom of judgment. After all, to such 
men official appointments are of very small importance. If no institu- 
tion appreciates manly traits combined with great intellectual endow- 

1889.] 361 [Rothrock. 

ments enough to secure them, then there is the open world where con- 
scious integrity and fearless purpose will win their way to large success. 
Courage which stops short of aggressiveness by only a little, along with 
transparent honesty and a much greater than average mental activity, 
can always take the world, by storm if need be. These men require no 

During the last years in which Prof. Harrison Allen held the Chair of 
Physiology in the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Randolph was made 
Assistant Demonstrator of Physiology. Dr. Allen writes of him: "I 
knew Randolph very well, and loved him dearly. He was faithful to 
trust, loyal in friendship, sagacious, affectionate and zealous. His career 
was one of preparation for the most part ; but usefulness and honor were 
certainly to be his. His intellectual work showed great promise. His 
record as a teacher was already made at the time of his death. He was 
very popular with students and exerted a remarkable influence upon 
them. There is no doubt he would have attained a high rank as a plat- 
form lecturer." 

After the resignation of Prof. Allen, Dr. Randolph abandoned his posi- 
tion as Demonstrator to the Chair of Physiology in the Medical Depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania, and was made, in 1884, Instruc- 
tor in Physiology in the Biological Department of the same University. 
July 18. he was elected to membership in the American Philosophical 
Society. He was also a member of the College of Physicians of Philadel- 

His value was fast becoming recognized, and as he had filled his posi- 
tions in the University to the entire satisfaction of the Trustees and the 
pupils, it is not strange that he was elected, in 1886, to fill the vacancy 
in the Chair of Hygiene, caused by the death of Dr. Joseph Richardson. 
In the very first meeting of the Faculty after he was elected to this posi- 
tion in the Auxiliary Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Randolph requested per- 
mission of his colleagues to show his respect to the memory of his prede- 
cessor by delivering that course of lectures in Dr. Richardson's name, and 
to turn the fees over to Mrs. Richardson. It was a graceful thing, not a 
charity, but simply one of those spontaneous acts which were so thor- 
oughly characteristic of Randolph. It would never have been done, or 
even thought of, by any one less generous than he, and no one wondered 
at it in him. Selfishness, or even the appearance of it, he abhorred. 

The ease with which he wrote, the force, clearness and elegance of his 
style, combined to mark him as the man when, in December, 1885, an 
Assistant Editor was sought for the Philadelphia Medical News. He held 
the place until May, 1887, when he resigned it to take the Chief Editorship 
of the Medical and Surgical Reporter, published in the same city, and 
which, under the distinguished Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, had attained a very 
wide circulation. 

Dr. Randolph's publications had not been very numerous. He had just 
entered upon the productive part of his life when he was taken hence. 


Rothrock.] 3(>2 [May C, 

He had, however, from time to time contributed brief papers to the scien- 
tific peiiodicals of the period. These are marked by clearness of state- 
ment, and the conclusions are so distinctly put that the busy worker could 
obtain the desired facts at a glance. For instance, he concludes his paper 
on the " Faeces of Starch-Fed Infants " thus : "First, that many infants 
of under three months can digest starchy foods. Second, that the individual 
variations in this regard are so numerous that no broad and general state- 
ment can be made as to the period at which infants begin to digest starches ; 
and, Third, that the physician can be absolutely certain that a farinaceous 
ingredient in the diet of a young infant is beneficial, only by an examina- 
tion of the dejecta under such diet. (See Transactions of College of Phy- 
sicians of Philadelphia, 3d Series, Vol. vi, p. 443.) 

In 1883, Dr. Randolph and Mr. A. E. Roussel contributed to the Phila- 
delphia Medical Times a paper of great practical value, wherein it is 
proven that in about eighty per cent of the cases treated by inunction of cod- 
liver oil a notable increase of the fatty matter passed per anum was 
observed. This well-grounded observation is one to which the hard- 
pressed physician may frequently turn for support, in behalf of the con- 
clusion that his oft-repeated inunctions have done good when the stom- 
achs of his patients utterly refused to tolerate oleaginous substances, either 
as medicine or as food. It is the more important because of the scant use 
made of inunction by the medical practitioner. 

In the Proceedings of ths Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, 
1883, he published "A Study of the Distribution 'of Gluten within the 
Wheat Grains." This may be regarded as preliminary to the more ex- 
tended paper, entitled " A Study of the Nutritive Value of Branny Foods." 
In the preparation of this, Mr. A. E. Roussel was associated with him. The 
conclusions reached are too long to be stated in full here. We may, how- 
ever, as indicating the character of the paper, quote his fourth and fifth 
deductions : ' ' That in an ordinary mixed diet the retention of bran in flour 
is a false economy, as its presence so quickens peristaltic action as to pre- 
vent the complete digestion and absorption not only of the proteids present 
in the branny food, but also of other food-stuffs ingested at the same time ;" 
and, "That inasmuch as in the bran of wheat as ordinarily roughly 
removed there is adherent a noteworthy amount of the true gluten of the 
endosperm, any process which in the production of wheaten flour should 
remove simply the three cortical protective layers of the grain would yield 
a flour at once cheaper and more nutritious than that ordinarily used." 

While it may be truly said that Dr. Randolph was by nature an investi- 
gator, yet his career as a popularizer of scientific knowledge gave almost 
equal promise. It is clear, however, that his choice of life work would 
have led him into the laboratory rather than into the field. The former 
gave time for thought and matured conclusions, whereas the latter often 
implied more hasty decision. 

He was remarkable for his ingenuity in devising instrumental aids to 
his problems in science. In this it is not saying too much to assert that 

1889.] [Rothrock. 

few, if any, of his associates equaled him. His " Metastatic Heat Regu- 
lator" is an illustration. This simple contrivance was so arranged that a 
column of mercury regulated a gas jet so that, to use his own words, 
"temperature thus maintained is adjustable at will." 

In January, 1887, he delivered, before the Franklin Institute of this city, 
a lecture on "Death." About the same time, there appeared in the 
(Philadelphia) Medical Times an article of his entitled "Is He Dead?" 
It was an admirable statement of the difficulties in defining just what is 
meant by the word Death. This may appear to be a mere play with 
words, but a perusal of the article will show, on the contrary, that it is a 
most important subject, and that there are serious problems and questions 
arising from the use of the word. The article in question makes clear to 
even the most unlearned, that at any point prior to that at which mus- 
cular putrefaction occurs there still linger about the body some of the at- 
tributes of life. 

Besides the papers quoted above there are : 

"On Certain Untoward Effects of the Administration of Turpeth Min- 
eral," Randolph and Roussel, Philadelphia Medical News, 1884. 

"A Preliminary Note on a Reaction Common to Peptone and Bile- 
Salts," in Proc. Phila. Academy of Natural Sciences, 1884. 

" A Note on the Behavior of Hydrobromic Acid and of Potassium Iodide 
in the Digestive Tract," Phila. Neurological Society, April 28, 1884 

"On the Digestion of Raw and Boiled Milk," Randolph and Roussel, 
in Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sciences, 1884. 

"On the Behavior of Petrolatum in the Digestive Tract," Proc. Phila. 
Acad. Nat. Sciences, 1884. 

"Cutaneous Absorption of Nicotine," Randolph and Dixon, Proc. 
Phila. Acad. Natural Sciences, 1884. 

" On the Dietetic Factor in the Treatment of Angina Pectoris." Read 
before the Phila. Neurological Society, 1884. 

"On the Cutaneous Absorption of Salicylic Acid," Randolph and 
Dixon, Phila. Medical News, 1885. 

" A Note on the Irradiation of Motor Impulses," Transactions of the 
College of Physicians of Philadelphia, March 2, 1887. 

The above are his most important contributions. There are others, 
briefer and more hastily written often, which every one in the position of 
an editor must from time to time prepare, but which it would be unfair to 
allude to save as evincing the ease and grace of his style of composition. 
- On Friday, August 19, 1887, Dr. Randolph left his work and went to 
Longport, on the New Jersey coast, for a little needed rest. His family 
was already there. The change of scene and freedom from work ap- 
peared to give him new life. It was, however, evident enough that he 
was suffering from overwork. And though he very seldom alluded to his 
physical condition, it was quite clear that he realized he was overtaxed 
in mind and in body. Editorial duties and the business cares associated 

Roth rock.] 364 [May 3, 

with them were producing that state of mental worry which is the usual 
precursor of waning vigor. But besides these he still kept up his other 
appointments, save that of Physiology, in the Biological Department of 
the University of Pennsylvania. This he relinquished to Dr. Hobart 

The surf bath which ordinarily infused fresh life into him failed to do so 
on Saturday morning. On Sunday, as the bathing hour approached, ac- 
companied by his wife and little daughter, he went down to the beach. 
The party lingered there until all the bathers had retired, and then he and 
his wife went in for a "final dip." After a few minutes his wife noticed 
a change in his countenance. Probably they had ventured further than 
was safe, but, as they had often done so before, nothing was thought of 
it. After a few minutes struggling, in which he became separated from 
Mrs. Randolph, he fell forward, and was dead. 

From the account given by his wife, it is certain that there was a sud- 
den heart failure, to which, and not to drowning, in the ordinary sense 
of the term, his death was due. 

Though relief came as promptly as could be expected, all hope was 
gone. For two hours friends labored to restore him, feeling, however, 
that it was in vain. His devoted companion, taken from the water insen- 
sible, was saved almost by a miracle. 

Thus, in his twenty-ninth year, was taken from us one who had already 
left .his impress on the scientific character of the city in which he lived. 
His friend and associate, Prof. Harrison Allen, touchingly writes : "Ran- 
dolph's name is to be added to the long list of young men we have lost in 
Philadelphia, in our own time to Hare, George Pepper, Parry, Jenks, 
Rhoads and Hunter a loss that is simply irreparable to us. His death 
came as a shock to the community in which he had, but a few days earlier, 
moved so full of activity and of promise. The leading daily papers spon- 
taneously echoed the sentiments of those who knew him best, when they 
deplored his death as a public calamity." 

It may not be improper to allude to the one indulgence of his life, that 
of cigarette smoking, and to ask whether it may not have been partly 
responsible for his death ? This, probably, never can be answered, though 
we do know that he had long had a tendency to cardiac trouble ; that his 
use of cigarettes was far from moderate, and that under such circum- 
stances the physiological effects (or pathological effects) of tobacco upon 
the heart might almost be expected. 

We are accustomed to regard this as an exceptional age, but, save when 
the world slumbered from wickedness and weakness just before the six- 
teenth century, there never has been a time when men did not think much 
the same of the period in which they lived. But may we not at least say 
that this has in some sense been an age of transition. It seems to be so 
notably in the relation of the woman to the world. We no longer ask, 
by how narrow limits can her life be circumscribed, but how wide a range 
can we open to her, or help her to open for herself? Dr. Randolph was 
"advanced " in his views on this question. 

1889.] 365 [Rothrock. 

His broad humanitarian ideas revolted at the thought of being a laggard 
in the cause, and, from the first to the last, his voice was always in favor 
of opening every avenue to her aspirations, and thus allowing her to stand 
or fall by what she could do in the great moral and industrial struggles of 
our daily life. No popular prejudices, no sordid motives ever blinded 
him to the fact that she had a divine right to become a physician, a 
philanthropist, a reformer, and that it was not only in vain to oppose her, 
bat that it was cowardly to do so. 

It is remarkable to what an extent he had impressed his individuality 
upon others, without in the least trying to do so. Among his acquaint- 
ances, his advice was often asked and was honestly given ; even when, 
from a selfish standpoint, it might have been prudently withheld. He 
was generous, perhaps, to a fault. When appealed to for aid, he seemed 
to think there was nothing to do but to give. The idea of refusing was so 
foreign to his nature that if it ever came at all, it was only as an after- 

Looking back upon his life in connection with our great University, one 
is surprised to find how many worthy young men he discovered, and how 
many of them he inspired with a zeal for work ; and also how many of 
them he was the means of making life much easier to. I now remember 
but a single instance in which his proteges proved disappointing. 

Dr. Randolph married Anna Louisa, daughter of Dr. William Charles 
and Elizabeth Lean Head. Three children survive him. His domestic 
life was one of rare happiness. Nothing diverted his affections or interest 
from his home and his work. His memory is precious for the illustration 
it furnishes of how much good may be done by one in early life. 

Allen.] 3Gb [May3, 

Remarks on the Pronglwrn (Antilocapra Americana). 

By Harrison Allen, M.D. 
(Read before the American Philosophical Society, May 3, 1SS9.) 

While observing the movements of the two examples of the pronghorn, 
now in the Zoological Garden in Philadelphia, I noticed that the foot, in 
receiving the support of the body, exhibited the first phalanx partially ex- 
tended upon the metapodiuin, and the second partially flexed upon the 
first. The movement was marked in a greater degree in the pronghorn 
than in any other ruminant in the Garden, which contains several speci- 
mens of the Old World antelopea. 

It occurred to me that a heavier bulk of trunk would tend to force the 
phalanges nearer the ground, and that the digitigrade plan of progression 
be converted in this way into a phalangigrade. Comparing the foot of 
the pronghorn with that of the llama in which such a change has actually 
occurred, it was seen that in some respects the two animals move the feet 
in similar ways. Notably in this regard is the manner of turning the 
trunk on a limb which, in each of the animals named, is being used for 
support. The limb permits a marked degree of torsion to take place before 
the foot is lifted, and the twist to occur for the most part on the inner 
hoof, while the outer hoof describes an excursus. 

Such conclusions led me to compare other parts of the hind limb with 
each other as they are found in the camel, the llama and the pronghorn. 
I found the several parts resembling each other in the following particu- 
lars, as distinguished from tfceir congeners : While the thigh is exsert in 
the camel and llama, it is partially so in the pronghorn. The folcj of integu- 
ment in the pronghorn which passes from the trunk to the limb reaches it 
at a point directly above the knee. In the deer it reaches it at the knee, 
or over the tuberosity of the tibia, and in the bovine group still further 
down. In the Virginian deer the fold answers to the separation of the 
venter color from that of the upper part of the side of the body and of the 
dorsum. In the pronghorn, the camel, and tlie llama, the fold answers to 
no localization of color. The camel, llama and pronghorn also resemble 
one another in the width between the thighs as seen from behind, and in 
the great inward inclination of the legs at the ankles. 

These resemblances were so striking that I was induced to compare the 
crania of these animals with one another. I found that they agree in hav- 
ing the lachrymal bone* excluded in great part from the floor of the orbit, 
and in having the bone extended posteriorly to a less degree than the 
maxilla. In other ruminants (except the Chilian deerf) the lachrymal 
bone comprises the orbital floor and extends posteriorly beyond the max- 

* The peculiarities of the lachrymal bone are of special importance in determining 
the value of craniological characters. I have found its shape and relations of great in- 
terest in studying the mammalia c 

t Pudua humilis. 

HS9 ] 307 [Allen. 

The vomer in the camel and llama advances far into the nasal chamber 
before joining the bones at the floor of the nose. The choanae are there- 
fore imperfectly defined. This peculiarity, however, is of little value, 
since many forms of Cervus and its allies exhibit it. 

The squamosal foramina are variable in different examples of the prong- 
horn skull, but on the whole they may be said to resemble those of the 
camel and the llama rather than those of other ruminants. 

The angle of the lower jaw is not trenchant but inconspicuous and 
rounded in the three animals last named, and in this respect differs from 
other ungulates examined. In place of the process on the posterior bor- 
der of the ascending ramus, seen in the camel and the llama, the prong- 
horn has the outline interrupted by an obscurely elevated rugosity. 

It must be conceded that the above resemblances between the prong- 
horn and the family of the camels are decided, and it remains to point out 
their significance. 

The Tylopoda and Pecora are separated by characters too profound to 
be bridged by any of those enumerated, and in the absence of proof pre- 
sented by palaeontology that the groups are connected through the me- 
dium of one or more extinct forms, it must be concluded that the charac- 
ters are adaptive on the part of the pronghorn to enable it to live on 
terms of the same kind that environ the camel and the llama. 

May ;!, 1S89. 1 



Library of the American Philosophical Society.* 


(Read before the American Philosophical Society, May 3, 1SS9.) 



Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India, Calcutta. 
Transactions, all after Vol. VIII, 1841. 
Journal, all after Vol. I. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. 
Journal, Vol. I and all after Vol. IX. 

Royal Asiatic Society (N. China Branch), Shanghai. 
Journal, N. 8., all before No. 6 and all after to Vol. XIV (inclusive). 
XVI, XVII, all after No. 2. 
XIX, all- after No. 2. 
Asiatic Society of Japan, Yokahama. 
Transactions : 

Vol. I, anything after Oct., 1873. 
Vol. II, any thing after July, 1874. 
Vol. Ill, anything after Part 2. 
Vol. IV, anything after July, 1876. 
Vol. V, anything after Part 2. 
Vol. VI, anything after Part 3. 
Vol. X, anything after Part 1 . 
Vol. XII, Parts 2 and 3. 


Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobarton. 

Reports, all before 1849, also 1860, 1861, and all after 1870. 
Papers and Proceedings, Vol. Ill, rest of volume after Part 2, if any. 

Royal Society, Victoria, Melbourne. 
Transactions, Vol. I. 

Royal Society of New SoutJi Wales, Sydney. 
Transactions and Proceedings, all before Vol. IX. 

Linnean Society of New South Wales, Sydney. 
Proceedings, all before Vol. VII, old series. 

New Zealand Institute, Wellington. 
Transactions and Proceedings, Vols. II, III, IV, VIII. 

* NOTE. The Society will be pleased to receive as donations any of the publications 
mentioned in this list. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. 2u. PRINTED MAY 22, 1889. 

3 7 [May 3t 


K. K. Geographische Gesellschaft, Vienna. 
Mittheilungen, Bd. IV-VIII (inc.), X, XI. 

K K Zoologische-Botanische Gesellschaft, Vienna. 
Verhandlungen, I-XIV (inclusive), XX. 


K. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab , Copenhagen. 
Oversigt, all before 1842. 
Memoirs, IV-VII. 


Bath and West of England Society J or the Encouragement of Agriculture. 
Journal [N. S.], X 2, XI 2, XII 2, XIV. 

[3d ser.], Vols. I, II, III, IV, VI, VIII to XV (inclusive). 
Letters and Papers, selected from the correspondence, all after XV 1. 

Royal Horticultural Society, Liverpool. 
Journal, all before and after VII 2. 

Philological Society, Cambridge. 
Proceedings, Vols. I-VI (inclusive). 
Transactions, Vols. I, II. 

Philosophical Society, Cambridge. 
Transactions, XIII, all after Part 3. 

R. Cornwall Polytechnic Society, Cornwall. 
Annual Reports, 5th, 19th and 36th. 

Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society, Halifax, Eng. 
Report of Proceedings, all before 1854 ; also 1858, 1859, 1861-1864, 1869. 

Philosophical and Literary Society, Leeds. 

Annual Reports, lst-4th (inclusive), 8th, 9th, 10th, 32d, 41st-44th (in- 

Transactions, Vol. I, all after Part 1, 1830, and all volumes after. 
Proceedings, all after No. 14. 

Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool. 
Proceedings, T, V, XIII, XIV, XV, XVII, XVIII. 

Royal Asiatic Society, London. 
The whole of Vol. X of the Journal, 1878. 

Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London. 
Journal, Vol. I, X, XIII 3. 

London Society of Antiquaries, London. 

Proceedings, Vols. I, II, Nos. 1-17 (inclusive), 1853. Vol. I [N. S.], 
Nos. 2, 3, 4, and any after No. 8. Vol. II [N. S.], any after No. 5, 
Lists, 1863-1865 (inclusive). 

Royal Astronomical Society, London. 
Memoirs, Vols. XXVII-XXXII, XLI. 
Monthly Notices, Vols. XXII-XXV. 



British Association, London. 
Keports of Annual Meetings, 1860-1863 (inclusive), 1882 

London Chemical Society. 
Journal, Vol. I. 

Vol. II, page 1-192 (inclusive). 
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Geological Society, London. 

Quarterly Journal, Nos. 29 (VIII), 37, 38, 39 (X), 41, 42, 43, 44 (XI), 45, 
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to XXI, 1865. 
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Meteorological Society, London. 

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Royal Society, London. 
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Journal, all before XXVIII 4, and after to XLVI. 
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Victoria Institute, London. 

Journal of Transactions, Old Series, Vols. I-III (inclusive) ; Vol. IV, 
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[May 3, 

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Transactions, Vols. I, II, III, IV, V i. 

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Societe Historique Letteraire, Artistique et Scientifique du Cher, Bourges. 
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The rest all wanting of the old series. 

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Atti, all of 1st Series. 

all of 2d Series. 

[3d Ser. J-all before Vol. XIII. 

[4th Ser.] I. 


1889.] UlO 


No-rake Fortidsmendesmers Bewaring, Christiana. 
Foreningen, all before I860 ; 1870, and all after 1875. 
All Registers except 1875. 


Royal Society, Edinburgh. 
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Transactions, Vols. I, III. 

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R. Academia de Ciencias Nat. y Artes, Barcelona. 
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Memorias, all except 1 Ser., Ciencias Exactes, Vol. II 1, 1853 ; 3 Ser., 
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R. Academia de la Historia, Madrid. 
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Memorias, Vol. VI. 

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Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa. 
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[May3, 1889. 


University of Lund. 

Acta, any before 1864; 1866, 1867, 1871. 
Katalog, 1872-1875 (inclusive), 1879-1883 (inclusive). 


Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellackaft. 
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Natarforschende Gesellschaft in Basel. 
Berichte liber die Verhandlungen, all after III, 1838. 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Berne. 
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Societe (Economique de Berne. 
Abhandlungen, any after 1773 ; Neue Sammlung, any after 1785 ; Neu- 

este Sammlung, any before and after 1796. 
Schriften, all before 1760, also 1767, 1774-1778, 1780, 1781, 1783, 1784, 

and all after 1785. 

Societe de Physique et d*Histoire Natarelle, Geneva. 
Memoires, all before Toine XVII. 

Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, Lausanne. 
Bulletin, Vols. I-V. 

Naturwissemchaftliche Gesellschaft, St. Gall. 
Bericht iiber die Thatigkeit, all before 1863. also 1865-1866, 1867-1868. 

[ To be continued. ] 


In List of Obituary Notices, on page 289, insert 
PE ALE, Franklin. (Robert Patterson) Procs. XI. 597 

P. 459, line 12 from bottom, for was held a second congress lege "was formed a second 

May3, 1889.] [Mooney. 





VOL. XXVI. JULY TO DECEMBER, 1889. No. 130. 

The Holiday Customs of Ireland. 

By James Mooney. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, May 3, 1889.) 

INTRODUCTION. Saint Bridget's Day Origin One of the great pagan 
fire festivals Sacred fire of Kildare Brigliid an ancient Irish goddess 
The bairghean breac The Brideog The Crios Bhrighide Gaelic and 
English verses sung The crosses of rushes Passing through the crios 
Bringing home the rushes Hebrides custom. Saint Patrick's Day The 
national festival Festivity the chief feature Lover's account of the birth 
of Saint Patrick Weather sayings The croiseog Processions Drown- 
ing the shamrock. Shrove Tuesday, Lent and Easter Shrove Tuesday, 
perhaps, the ancient festival of Beinid Marriage season Taking to 
Skellig Tossing the pancake Sruthan na ngadaraidhe Cock throwing 
Ash-Wednesday Good-Friday Strange fishermen's custom Easter 
Sunday Egs and bacon The Easter dance The dancing sun Beliefs. 
May-day or Bealtuine A universal ancient festival The second of the 
Irish fire festivals Kindling the new fire Sacrifices Passing through the 
fires Ceremonies relating to cattle The gilded ball May Sunday in 
Cork Bonfires and May-poles Nettlemas night Fire beliefs The 
May-pole and May-bush The rowan tree The May dance The May 
queen of Finglas The May boys Miscellaneous beliefs, cattle, witches, 
butter stealing Fairy beliefs Love charms Repairing the fences Set- 
tling the dues Omens An unlucky birthday Easter derived from the 
May festival. Whitsuntide or Cingcis Strange fatality in the season. 
Saint John's Eve or Midsummer Night Ancient festival of the summer 
solstice Universal festival of Modern Europe Third great fire festival of 
Ireland The bonfires Origin of the word The celebration in the north 
Cattle ceremonies The "white horse" Fairy time The celebration 
in the west. Samhan, or Hallow E'en Origin The last of the fire festi- 
valsThe great Feis of Tara The modern celebration The apple a 


Mooney.] 378 [May 3> 

prominent feature Ducking for apples The snap apple "Lamb's 
wool" Festivities Love charms and omens Nut burning The ten 
beans Cabbage pulling The three basins Dream charms Hemp seed 
Winnowing Tarruing na Sruith The lime-kiln conjuration Other 
mystic spels Fairy travels The Puca The dead again upon earth The 
celebration in Donegal. Saint Martin's Day Origin Unaccountable be- 
liefs in connection with this saint Drawing blood Legends Sprinkling 
and marking with blood Legends of the origin of the custom Belief in 
regard to the turning of wheels. Saint Stephen's Diy An ancient Keltic 
festival Reasons given for hunting the wren The wren, the king of 
birds The wren boys Carrying the wren The custom unknown in the 
extreme north Gaelic and English verses sung English originals of 
some of them. The Christmas Holidays, New Tear and Twelfth-night 
Origin of the winter festival Leading features common throughout 
Europe The Yule festival The mummers Description of a company 
Drawing blood on Christmas The Christmas block and candle The 
three-prongd candle on Twelfth-night The twelv rush candles Mis- 
cellaneous Christinas beliefs Origin of New Year Beliefs in connection 
with the day The rain test Twelfth-night Water turned to wine- 
Weather predictions A sacred season End of the holiday period. 

The world has grown so familiar with the stories of misrule, suffering 
and violence in Ireland, that we ar apt to forget that there is another side 
to the picture, and that every nation has a home life as wel as a political 
existence. The little every day cares and pleasures of the household, the 
merrymakings and social gatherings of neighbors, and the occasional 
holidays, make up the real life of a people, and he who is ignorant of these 
knows not the nation, however familiar he may be with the history of its 
kings and rulers, their battles, victories and defeats. The heroes of 
Gettysburg and Spotsylvania wer men who enjoyed a good dinner, or a 
quiet smoke after a hard day's work, as much as any of us, and, as boys, 
took fully as much delight in a Fourth of July celebration or a raid on a 
watermelon patch. The dreaded Moonlighter or the unspeakable Fenian 
wil walk as many miles to a country dance as ever did Carleton's rollick- 
ing Ned M'Keown, is just as anxious about the condition of the potatoes 
and the health of the pig, finds as much satisfaction in listening to a fiddler 
at a wedding or a story teller at a wake, and in his young days was just 
as eager in hunting the wren on Saint Stephen's day or feeding the bon- 
fires on Saint John's eve." 

What ar calld the popular customs of a nation ar always best pre- 
servd by the agricultural and village portion of the population, a class 
especially numerous in Ireland from the fact that the peculiar political 
conditions of the country compel the great bulk of the people to draw 
their living directly from the soil, leaving them but scant opportunity to 
acquire an education or to become familiar with modern progress. In 
spite of all this, however, the old customs ar decaying here as elsewhere, 

1889.] 3*9 [Mooney. 

and many of the observances which wer once general ar now confined 
to remote mountain districts or liv only in the memory of the older people, 
while others, again, ar stil common throughout the country. As there 
is but little communication amongst the peasantry of different districts, 
excepting at the fairs in the summer time, the customs common in one 
parish ar sometimes entirely unknown in another hardly ten miles distant. 
In this paper we shal describe the beliefs and customs connected with the 
observance of the principal Irish holidays, omitting those of lesser impor- 
tance. As a number of these holiday observances ar more or less com- 
mon to all the Aryan nations, especially to those of Western Europe, it 
must suffice to note the fact here without entering into a detaild com- 
parison. The features more peculiarly Irish ar mainly derived from the 
old druidic worsliip. Where authorities ar not given, the statements ar 
the result of personal investigation. As a matter of convenience, all 
those customs which wer in use within the present generation ar described 
as stil existing, altho some of them ar now obsolete. 

The essentially foreign customs found only in those districts chiefly in 
the north occupied principally by Scotch and English settlers, hav no 
place in this connection. Aside from these, however, many of the genuin 
Irish observances hav evidently been considerably modified by English 
influences. This is especially true of the May -day and Christmas celebra- 
tions, while in regard to the many holiday rimes it is hardly too much to 
say that they hav been imported bodily from England. The same may 
be said of many of the children's rimes, riddles and other formulas, even 
in the remote west where the Gaelic is the ordinary language of the peo- 
ple. This may be due in some slight degree to contact with the English 
colonists in Ireland, but by far a more efficient cause is to be found in the 
annual summer exodus of the Irish harvesters. As soon as the corn begins 
to ripen troops of the poorer laborers from every part of the country turn 
their faces toward Dublin and Queenstown, where, embarking by thou- 
sands, they cross over to Liverpool and range in small parties from one 
end of the country to the other until the harvest is over and cold weather 
approaches, when they return to their own land with a few pounds apiece 
to pay the rent and perhaps a few shillings extra to buy salt for the pota- 
toes. During these summer months they mingle constantly with the 
rural English population, by whom the old customs ar most cherisht, be- 
come familiar with their habits, games and sayings, and enter into a 
friendly intimacy such as is never extended to those of the same race in 
Ireland, where they ar always regarded by the natives as foreign usurpers, 
and disliked and avoided accordingly. 


The observances connected with New Year and Twelfth-night wil be 
described in treating of the Christmas holidays, of which these festivals 
form a part. Proceeding onward in the calendar the first great festival is 
that of Saint Bridget's day, February 1. The ceremonies in this case, as 

Mooney.] [May 3, 

in that of several other holidays, begin on the preceding eve, as among 
the ancient Irish the day was considerd to begin at sundown. This is a 
peculiarly Gaelic festival, and its observance under this name seems to be 
confined to Ireland and the remoter districts of Scotland ; but there is 
every reason to believ that it was a part of a general European fire cele- 
bration, which stil survives in Candlemas, the second of February. In 
ancient Rome, as in Ireland, this festival was dedicated to a female deity, 
Februa, in whose honor the people carried burning torches about the 
streets just as the candles ar now lighted in honor of the Virgin Mary. In 
ancient Ireland the day now consecrated to Saint Bridget was the occa- 
sion of the first of the five great fire celebrations of the year, and it seems 
probable that bonfires were lighted then as on the eves of May-day and 
Saint John. 

Saint Bridget was one of the earliest disciples of Saint Patrick, the 
apostle of Ireland, and founded a convent of nuns at Kildare in the year 
484. This cloister, like that of the vestal virgins of ancient Rome, was 
celebrated for its perpetual fire, which was fed and guarded by the nuns, 
and which, with the exception of a short intermission in the thirteenth 
century, burnd constantly lor more than a thousand years until the sup- 
pression of religious establishments by Henry VIII. It was permitted to 
blow this fire only with a bellows and not with the breath.* This remark- 
able incorporation of the old fire worship of the country into the service 
of a Christian saint, together with the fact fh&tSrig'id (pronounced Breej) 
was the name of one of the deities of pagan Ireland, render it probab e 
that the ceremonies now practiced in honor of the saint ar but modifica- 
tions of the ancient rites intended to propitiate the heathen goddess, who, 
from the character of the observances, Would appear to hav been the 
special protectress of cattle and the dairy. This is the more likely as it 
is a wel establish! fact that almost every practice known to the holiday 
calendar of modern Europe had its origin in the pagan ceremonials of pre- 
Christian times. The date also corresponds closely with that of the first 
of the five great annual fire festivals of ancient Ireland. The lark is held 
sacred to Saint Bridget because its song used to wake her to prayers every 
morning, and if heard singing upon her day it presages good luck and 
fine weather. f 

The Gaelic name of Saint Bridget's eve is Oid'c'e B'rig'ide (pronounced 
Ekha Vreja, or, incorrectly, Eel Vrejci), " Bridget's Night." In the last 
century, according to Vallancey, it was customary on this occasion for 
every farmer's wife to bake a cake calld the bairg'ean breac (bawran 
brae) or spotted cake. The house was then set in order and the neighbors 
invited, the cake sent round with ale and pipes, and the evening was spent 
in mirth and good humor.:}: In the east and south-east young girls dress 
up the churn-dash to represent Saint Bridget, and carry it in procession 

* Grimm, Mythologie, i, 578. 

t Lady Wilde, ii, 121, 136. 

t Vallancey, Collectanea (Ant. Ir. Lang.), ii, 291. 

1889.] dol [Mooney. 

from one house to another, expecting to receiv a treat at each, and in this 
they ar seldom disappointed. In the city of Limerick, where, as may wel 
be supposed, the old custom has degenerated, a broom is drest up, not as 
the saint, but as "Miss Bridget." 

In Galway and other parts of the west, companies of young girls carry 
about on this eve a figure known as the Brideog (Breejoeg), made of straw 
and rushes and drest to resemble the saint. At every house the carriers 
sing a short verse or two, and ar rewarded with a small gift of money or 
cakes, the net proceeds being expended by the participants in a jollifica- 
tion later in the evening. The young men, with their faces coverd with 
painted masks of paper, go about in like manner, singing verses and car- 
rying a rope known as the Crios B'rig'ide (cris Vreja) or "girdle of 
Bridget," which wil be described later. The ends of this rope ar joind 
so as to form a circle, through which every one is expected to pass on 
payment of a small trifle. The Gaelic verse commonly used in Galway is 
as follows : 

Crios B'rig'ide, mo C'rios, 
Crios na d-tri g-eros. 
Eirig- suas, a b'ean na tig", 
' Tab 'air d'am rod-a cinnt 'sgo t'ri mo C'rios, 

Agus go m-bud' seac't mile fearr b'eid'eas tu bliag'ain 6 anoc'd.* 

Which may be renderd literally : 

Bridget's girdle, my girdle, 

Girdle of the three crosses. 

Rise up, woman of the house, 

Giv me something and pass through my girdle, 

And may you be seven thousand times better a year from to-night. 

The English verse used in Eastern Galway runs thus : 

God bless the master of the house, 

And the mistress also, 
And likewise the little children 

That around the table grow. 
Go down into your cellar, 

If anything you can find 
Your pockets are not empty 

If to help us you'r inclined. 
Your pockets are not empty 

Of money or strong beer (!) 
And we'l trouble you no more again 

Until another year. 

While this verse is wel known in East Galway, it is English in its ori- 
gin and easily to be recognized as such, altho as here given it has receivd 
one or two unmistakable Irish touches. No genuin Irish popular song 
would ever bid the master go down into the cellar, such a thing being an 

* Pronounced : Cris Vreja, mo khris, 
Cris najre grm. 
Tree suns, a van a che, 
Thoar um t'udh a ceenc.h sgti hre mo khris, 
b-gus go mH shokhth meelyafdr vise thu bleean o nukhth. 

Mooney.] OO-i [May 3, 

unknown appendage to the house of the ordinary farmer or peasant. In 
trying to avoid this incongruity farther on, by substituting the word 
pocket for cellar, the boys hav only made matters worse by filling the 
pockets aforesaid with strong beer. The original of the first four lines is 
the Yorkshire Christmas carol, as given by a writer of 1824 in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine : 

" God bless the master of this house. 

The mistress also, 
And all the little children 
That round the table go."* 

The remainder is probably taken from a verse given by Brand as sung 
by English children on All Souls' day, and much resembling another 
verse sung on Easter morning. The last lines of the former ar as 

follows : 

"Pat your hand in your pocket and pull out your keys, 
Go down in the cellar, bring up what you please, 
A glass of your wine or a cup of your beer, 
And we'll never come Souling till this time next year."f 

According to O'Reilly's " Dictionary," the Brideog is used by girls on 
the eve of the saint to determin who shal be their future husbands, J 
which is the only hint the writer has receivd thus far of its use as a love 
charm. The Brideog is unknown in the north and in the south-west, but 
in both sections, as wel as in Galway and throughout the greater part of 
Ireland, it is customary to hang up about the walls of the house numbers 
of small crosses made of straw or rushes. In Galway these ar made, at 
least in part, of materials taken from the Brideog after it has servd its 
original purpose in the procession. In the ordinary cross each arm is 
made of three strong rushes or straws, converging at the ends and widen- 
ing out in the centre of the cross, where they ar interwoven. In Kerry 
a more elaborate cross is sometimes made of wood, about 5x8 inches in 
length. Short crosspieces ar fastend near each end so as to make four 
smaller crosses, around each of which is brought a single rush or straw in 
diamond fashion, while a similar larger diamond is fixt around the centre 
of the cross. Should a Kerry farmer hav a firkin of butter on hand as 
spring approaches, he wil defer opening it until this clay. 

The Crios B'rig'ide or " Girdle of Bridget," already mentiond, plays 
an important part in these ceremonies in the western districts. This is a 
rope made of green rushes, procured the day before, or if rushes be 
scarce, it is made of straw, with three green rushes plaited into it. The 
rope is made sufficiently long to allow a tall man to pass through the cir- 
cle without difficulty when the ends ar joind together to form the girdle. 
It is made on Saint Bridget's eve, and as soon as the ends of the 
rope hav been joind, the master of the house holding it doubled up in his 
right hand, makes the sign of the cross with it in the name of the Trinity 

*Pop. Sup., 5'4. 

t Brand, Antiquities 5, 413. 

% Edward O'Reilly, Irish-English Dictionary, new ed., n. d., Dublin, under Brideog. 

18S9.] 383 [Mooncy. 

and passes it three times from right to left around his body. Then hold- 
ing it out at arm's length in his right hand, he lets one end drop so as to 
form a circle, through which he passes three times, putting the right foot 
through first each time. He then doubles up the rope and again passes it 
three times around his body as at first. He is followd in turn by every 
member of the family. In some cases the girdle is simply laid on the 
floor in the shape of a circle and each one passes through it by lifting 
up one side to step under, and then raising the other side to step out 
again. In the morning Saint Bridget's day the girdle is hung over the 
stable door and all the animals ar made to go through it. This ceremony 
protects both men and animals from the influence of evil spirits through- 
out the year. In some cases the rope is kept in the family from one recur- 
rence of the festival to another. A rush taken from it and tied about the 
head wil keep the headake away from the wearer tor a year. 

In different parts of the country there ar several interesting ceremonies 
in connection with bringing home the rushes, which ar procured on the 
day preceding the festival. In Galway, the boys go in the morning to the 
small streams in the neighborhood and gather bundles of the green rushes. 
In the evening the eve of the festival these ar brought around to each 
house, which, in every instance, is found with the door tightly closed, the 
family being waiting in sil