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1 I ^-' • -p 



ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



Supplementary Papers 



PVBLISItU) UKDEK THE ADTIIOKITT OF THE OOCSCIt, Aim KDITin BY 
THK ASUfTJLMT 8ECRETAKY, 1, SAVILt ltOW> 




Volume IV. 



LONDON: 

JOHN SIURRAY, ALBEMAIILE STREET. 

1890. 



' LIBRARY ^ 

OF THE 

LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR 
UNIVERSITY. ^ 



Loaoos 

rmSTED BY WILUAM CLOWES AND S0N3, IISITKD, 

BrAJH-OUli BlliEET 1.SV fUAaiSO cnoM. 



//4^* ~7 



THE 

HISTOEICAL GEOGEAPHY 

OF 

ASIA MINOR. 

BY 

PROFESSOR W. M. RAMSAY. 



CONTENTS. 



Dkdicatiok 1 

Pbolxoohena (including additions to Part IL) ..... 3 

PAET I. 

GENERAL PKINCIPLE3. 

CeAP. I. HeLLSKIBU and ORnWTAUSH 2$ 

„ II. The "Eoyal Eoad" 27 

„ III. Beoiknikq of the Tbade Route 35 

„ 17. 1'he Eabtesk Tbadb Route 43 

„ 7. The Rokan Roads in Asia Minor .... 51 

„ VI. The Yaluk of the pEUTinoBB Table, Ptolext, akd the 

Itikekabieb, as OEoafiAPHiOAL Authorities . . 62 

„ VII. The Byzantine Roads ....... 74 

M VIIL Chakoe of Site 82 



PAET n. 

A SKETCH OP THE HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 
OP THE VARIOUS PROVINCES. 

iNTBODncnoN 

Cbaf. a. Cities and BiSBOPBica of Byzaktinb Asia 

„ B. CiTIBB AND BifiHOPBICS OF LtDIA 

„ C. Cities and Bishopbicb of Phbioia . 

„ D. Cmxs and Bishopbicb of Heij.ebpoktob 

„ E. Roman Roads in the Province Asia. 

„ F. Cities and Bishopbics of Bithtkia 

„ Q. The Byzantine Hii.itabt Road 

„ H. ClTIKB AND BiBBOFBIOS OF GaLATU SaLDTABIB 

„ 3. ItoHAN ItOADS IN GaLATIA AND NOBTHEBN PhBTOIA 

„ E. Cities and Bubopbics or Galatia Prika 
„ L. Rohan Roads fbok Anktra to the East 
„ M. RoiLAN Roads in Central Cappadocia 

„ N. EOKAN BOADS OVBB ANTI-TaUBOS . 

M 0. Cities and Bishoprics of Cappadocia 
I. Strategia Garsaoueia 





II. 


11 


Mobikekb . 




IIL 


» 


Chahakene 




IV. 


ft 


Saravene . 




V. 


jf 


Lavinianb . 


VOL. IT. 









69 
104 
120 
134 
153 
164 
179 
197 
221 
237 
242 
254 
267 
270 
281 
284 
287 
296 
300 
302 



■n CWNTENTS. 

FAfll 

Chap 0. Cities and BiSHomicB of Cappadocia (continued). 

YI. tJTBATEGIA KiLTKIA 303 

VII. „ Baboabattsenb 306 

Vm. „ Kataouia 310 

IX. „ Hblitehe 313 

X. „ Tyabttm 314 

XL Tab Pkovisob akd thk Thkice CAPPABoaA . . 314 

Chap. P. Thb Ponto-Cappadociah Peontibr 317 

„ Q. Ltkaonia and Ttanitis 330 

„ R. The Passes over Taubos ,...-. 349 

„ S, Rohan Roads ik Ltkaonia and Ttanitis , . . 36? 

„ T. CiLICIA TbAOBKIA OB ISAOBIA 361 

„ U. CiLioiA 383 

„ Y. Cities and Bibhopbics op Pibidia 38? 

„ W. Paufbtlia, Caria, and Ltoia 415 

Addknda 427 

Index of Ancient Adthobb qdoted in Past IT 4C1 

Altebationb in Text of ANaENT Authobs. ..... 46G 

Index of Pbopkh Names 467 

Index of Qbeek Kahes ..•...,,. 494 

SUGQBSTIOKS IN SePTBUBO, 1890, AFTBB A JOUBNET IN AsiA KflKOB , 495 

Table of Stations in Abksnia Minob 71 

Table of Cities of Asia to face page 104 

» » » I-^D'A „ „ 120 

„ „ „ Hellesfontds 152 

„ „ „ BrfHTHiA to /ace page 197 

„ „ „ HOKOBIAS AND PaPBLAGONIA „ 19? 

„ „ „ Gaiatia Salutabm 222 

„ „ „ DiatOESis Amobiana 232 

„ „ „ Oalatia Pbdu. 243 

„ „ „ Cappadoola Prima et Sbcdkda et Tebtia . . 282 

„ „ „ Eelenopontus et Polehohiacus et Armenia Pbdu 319 

Table showing Rbabbanqbuents in Arhenia and Pontic . , , 325 

Table of Cities or Ltsaokia 331 

„ „ „ Ibadbia to /ace page 362 

„ „ „ CiciLiA 383 

„ „ „ PisiDiA to /ace page 388 

„ „ „ Pampbylia Prima 415 

Table of Bishops op Etesna and Katenna 418 

Table of Cinis of Cabia to /ace page 422 

„ „ „ Ltcia „ „ 424 

UAFS. 

Index Map op Ancient Asia Kinob, showing Roadb at 

DiFFEBENT PeBIODS h » 23 

Asia, Lydia, and Cabia „ „ 104 

HlLLESPOSTUB AND BiTHTNIA „ „ 179 

Galatia, with pabts of Cappadocia akd Lykaonia . . „ „ 197 

Cappadocia and Armenia Minob „ „ 267 

Lykaonia, .CmciA, and Ibaubia „ „ 330 



DEDICATION. 



The Eeotor and Fellows of Exeter College, Oxford, will, it is hoped, 
find in the following pagoe a jostifloation of the indnlgenoe and 
generoflity whioh they have extended to the writer, and which have at 
onoe impelled him and made it possible for him to devote to the present 
work the needful years of study. 

The writer also hopes that the research fellowships, institated by 
the enlightened liberality of the college, while held by more dis- 
tingoished BDocessors, may perhaps be jndged hereafter to be not 
ignobly inangnrated by the first holder with this book. 



1.2 



PROLEGOArENA. 



The followiug work reqnitta some prefatory notioe, to explain ihe 
delay in H» appearance, to apologue for ita aliortcoiiiiiiiis, and to 
indioftto those friends to whose cnoouragemeat and help it owes so 
maoh. 

The Roya.! Geugrapliical Society, which had Uhoially li.e1]io<l the 
Asia Minor ExploratioD Fnud, req^uireid fruni me a contnSuUoa; and 
from tbo effort to mako tho luctnro worthy of tho audivnco Ihiii book han 
grown. 

In May 131^0 tho first skctoh of it was road boforo tho Socioty. Tho 
diificulty of tho tmbjoct, and tho diatracLion. canned by other work both 
as a Professor (first in Oxford and ufterwurds iu Aburdi-va), nud aco 
traveller (I left London for Smyrna tho day nfttr rooding tho paper, 
and Bpent coCBiderahl© part of the Bttmmer of 188tf, 1887, and 1S8B in 
Asia Mioor), delayed the ooinpletiun aud publication of the sketch. 
In the be^iiiuing of April, 1888, T brought the ooraplete MS. with 
mo to London to hand ovtr to tho printer-* I discovered, thirty-aix 
hours after starling from Abeidoeu, tljit the taauusoript was no longer 
in the bag where I had placed it, aod wluob Lnd boeu fur most of the 
time close to ray baud, aud I havu uovcr found tho slightest cine to 
the timo or manner of its loss (I have no other rca^oo to suspect 
myself of suninajubulutiiij. At that timo the manuscript was about us 
long as Part I. of the present work. I have found it impossible to 
ruwritu (ho paper in its original form. All iiotos for it bud boon 
deetroyed, and when, after months spent partly in tnivdl and pnrtly 
in despair, I began to rewrite it, the tauk proved impossible. The 
literary' form, whioh it had been my ambition to givo to my treatment 
of tlio subject, uotild nut bu ruoovurud; nob moroly had I no time aud 
no hcftrt (o go through the work of writiug and rewriting, but also I 
had lost in residence at homo the inspiration that formerly arose from 
intimate familiarity with aud love of the txiuntry and the scouerj. 
I have therefore worked into Part I. ovcr^thiLg tliut I oould ruculleot 
of tho lost paper; and I have added in Part II. my collection of 
material for the history and untiqnitie« of the country, so far as it has 
any bearing on geography and soeuui to bo new. 

* It vu pncticoUy couplets la Fobrnary ISSO, whoa I read ooaiidoroble cxttacl* 
&OU il boToio the Alnitddoo brauch vt tho Royal BwltUL GtogcaPhlflBl Sooiot;. 



4 THE HISTORICAL OEOORAPHT OV ASIA UlXOIt. 

The orgftniseni of tlie Asia Minor Exploration Fund and the 
oontribntora to it, private individunls aud corporatious liko thu Royal 
Gevgruphical Society, the Society for the Promotion of HoUenic Stadies 
Ln £ngliiud, uaH. th« Ottoniau Bailway Company throttgh tlieir mnnogor, 
Mr. E. PnrecT, have been the real anthora of this wotk. The reward 
they wish for UeB iu the scientifio reonlts, and iu estiniating these, there 
mnat he rc«kouo(l not merely the preaent writor's works (wliuth^ir thom 
already puhliahod or that history which, if eircumHtauciM- arc propitious, 
may hereafter bo completed), but also the works of those whn have been 
trained iu i]i» first iustunce tliruugh the expeditions made in connection 
with the Fund, chief among whom I may reckon Profassor J. R. S. 
Stcrrott and Mr. D. G. Hogarth. The brilliant explot-mtions of Prof. 
Sterrett were inaugurated by four mouths' proHitiinaT^' training with 
oruf Exploration Fnnd ; and I have his own anthority for stating that 
he would never have thongfat of Asia Minor exploratidu, but for the 
invitation to join iu our expedition of 1883. The credit and honour of 
his admirable work are not diminibhed by giving a share to the Engliflh 
Fluid: indeed, according to the prinnplo laid down by Shelley* hia 
own share of the glory iii only incroaiwd by giving away a little of it. 

I am epccially bound to expresB my gratitude both to the College 
and to the Fund,t for the ooufidence and generosity which they have 
ahovD in maltiiig «o little reHtriction on mo, in leaving ro mnch to my 
own diacrotion, and in making me practically complete master of my 
own time und work during all the period of my connection with tkciu. 

To mention in detail those to whom I am indebted for help, and 
information in the preparation of this work would rp<iiiirc a separate 
chapter. I liave uLiliaod everybody I knew in every way possible, and 
to such an extent that I cannot now even thank them, but mention one 
or two names an Bpeoimens, 'Ek Ai3s dp^w/utrfti : the Camden l*mfe8Bor 
of Hidtory, Mr. Pelham, hna done bo ranch for the Fund that every one 
will recogniflo the propriety of mentioning him before any other. 

In on© case only I have not availed raysolf of the bcwt help that I 
could get, viz., on p. 173. After I had already written my own theory 
as to the pragmateutea, Mr, Pt-lham pointed out to mo that actor was 
the proper equivalent. Dnt it seemed to mo more fair in this case, 
as Ben Jonson says, " to put weaker and uo doubt less jdeasing of mine 
own tli&n to defraud so happy a genius of his right by my loathed 
ntrarpation," and to give Mr. Polham'H view in the Addenda under his 
own namo. The change needed in my text h little more than the sub- 
atitatien of actor for negotiator Iu two or three caiioa; all infereaoes 



* Epiparoliidion, 174 ft 

t Directed tip a committoo conniiiUiis of the Proroat of Oiiul Cultefcri tbo Into 
Mr. FerKiwor, ami Mr. H. V. F<'lli&m from tlic Bnt : la more rocpiit years iilmj of Sir 
C. W. Wllioii and Ur. Doogloii W. Frrahildld, with Mr. G. A. UaoiulUau ut HoDoraiy 
8««ititai]r. 



PfiOLEOOMENA. & 

follow equally, wbidiever Berrile tiilo ia uhocI. But >ii g«noral I have 
Mcd tho best 1 could find ; Prof. Th. Mi>mim)cn has ofton poncroiialy 
intermiitcd tiis own vrork to niutwer my (juostions ; Mr. Bynatvr was 
oAea s prewnt help ; aud many frionds in Smyrna «ud other {lArte of 
Asia HiDor have given me iDvaliiftble help in numborleiBs ways which 
I gntofuUy ro&icinb«T. 

While the opportunity of cairyingoutthe workupto Uis present haa 
hceii givon me hy the TrHvelling Arohieological Studentship, inAtitiit«d 
hy the late Professor M, Rfimanl, by tho Eleeearcli Fellowahip to which 
£xetoT Collego elocbvd m«, amd by tho Explontiun Fund,' tho braiuing 
And the iuc«ntiv« arc due to Colonel Sir C. W. Wilaoa, Cuiifiul-Gt!D«nil in 
Anatultu fruiu 1878 to 1882, in whone conipjuiy and Tiy wIiono invitation 
I made two long joamuyH in thu country in ]88L uud 1882. To him 
»Dd his eiibordinate officers, c«pociaIly Colonel Chcrmsido, Major Bonnet, 
and tho lato Colonel Stewart, who was killed on his way back irom 
Khartnm, I am indebted for help in nunibtrletui wayb.t 

Tho coins at ths British Museum, describod to me cspociany by Mj. 
Head, or ii«cn by me, hav« oftCD hulpod me over a gap : would thnt tho 
wondurftil collection of M. Wadding^n were public property, whether 
ID ft descriptivo work or in any other way I Without thL- ijyiiatarit help 
of tho "Uintoria Xumonim," many trsiaa of reasoning in the present 
worh \rould cot have euggedtcd thoiii8clvc<B ; ond n slight taste of 
M. Waddinglun'a collection in 1882 eiiablea iite to roalii>o bow much thin 
hook loaes for want of Iiott«:r kiiowlL-dgo of it. 

Throughout the work I have been h«lp«d in Taiioue ways by my 
wife, and numcrons slight typographical errors wore dotccited by her in 
finally reading the proofa-f 

Finally, 1 am specially tudebtod to Mr. Hogarth for volunteering to 
go over the proofu and to make tho Index of 'Authors Quoted,' for 
many salutary criticiams and tuefol euggestious, and rooHt of all, for that 
int«lligeiit sympathy which is aide to tliid human Hfo and history in 
eartb and atmosphere, and which is uafortanately so much loiut ounimoQ 
uowHi-dayB in our own country than it was among oar older eoholara 
and is Btill among rori;igo scholars. Tlio nnrrowuoes which wonld limit 
tho study of antii^nity to fireaide peruaal of a few great aathora, ia so 
easy and at-ductive an error, that few are cousciouB of its narrotv-tiess. 



* It U in jnatloe neocvory to add tbnt, qoltc apart from ILc«c aciitcce, and apart also 
from our own uiar uiid «urk, in.)' vifu itail inyai'lf hnrc bdvii mucU (lie lorgcnt ron* 
ttiLuton to the eS|icEU» oTour exfjlnmilinDii iii A<iiA 31 iaor. 

t I owe tn Colonel C3ianiiBi<l« tiio csplittiiitton of tha t«nn poaatiB, vii. tliat puma 
d«<s not lumn n "a pvx," bul a c«iupl«lo iuoti«ii of Uui h'Ay inTulviug two [won, 
A diffcnial aiiJ feir- fetch inl uxyluuatioii uf tlui wonl in givou ia Zft. t. Latcui. Lixiuci- 
giapble, 1889. p. 367. 

3 Bbe alao compiled the index to Part L. afl«r t liod atartMl for Tuikcj-, villi vven 
leo grrtA minutciU'M aod pA.tione«. It it tbwefoce soon Miuplote ILaa Iho iodcx to 
Part 11., K« p. ly. 



6 



THE HISTORICAL GEOGfiJlPUr OF ASIA MIS'OR. 



Of the references mado to luicient anthora in the course of the pre* 
sent woilc, 65 per c«tit- huvo bceii fuiiud in my own perusal of the 
original docnmonts, iiDdortakon for tho purpos« aad 6till far from oom- 
plola. The groat mnjorily of Ihem haYe nlrendy beoii uw>ii by somo one 
or other of the modoni authoritieit, thuiigh no Hiiigle modem writer has 
made any toleruljtu oolluctiun of the rcfcivuccB; but iu a number of 
oaues I havo adJ«d tho d'ocitd.vc pase&ge, which completes tlio chain of 
evidence. E%*en tliOKO rcferencf^ whioli have Iwcn already nsed by 
modem geographers have not heeu tak«n at second hand, nor nven 
merely vorifiml in tho original niithiintioo. My achomu has been (after 
BOTOjal exp«rionooB of tho diffioultioB catucd by acocpticg wrong ocm- 
jcoturos of modern uriterB) to make an atmolatfty froBh work founded 
on the auuioDt autlioritie« aloiio, in which the geogi'aphioal sitnatioa, 
the natural .turronndings and the commercial advantages of each city, 
should be ot-t furth iu aii account of ittt history. That scheme ia inter- 
mpted by the presont work, in which topography gets tho lion's abaro 
ID Part II., while nome general reflexions on the effect exercised by 
natnral Hitiintion and mirruundings on the hietory of tho population 
compose Port I. ; but though the greater eoliome in iiitornipted for tho 
proeont, yet my belief is, that the vigorous criticism which I Bhould 
like to arooso, and tbo etiitmliis and preciHiou which I hope may ho 
given to ftirther eiploration of the country, may really facilitate tho 
completion of the largor work. Had oircuuiBtances permitted, my desiro 
was to complete that undertaking luys&lf; but tbo current of events, 
which at one time, hy no choice of my own, pr^^ecribed tbia work for mo 
and drifted me into a poRitim of nniqiie advantage for it, is now making 
it more and more diflicult for mo to continue. There ha«, tlierefure, 
been, alwoys preeeiit in my mtod, while writing Purt II., the intention 
to make it iineful for (ho wioccssors who may carry out the larger 
ntidertakiiig,* What they can find elsewhere I do not try to give 
them. 

In order to keep down the Bizo of the book, I have in nnmbcrlc»» 
OBflea restricted myBelf to an obeoaro bint or a dogmatic statement, 
where I might have Hpent pagojt in clothing tJie liar\« fact wiih life, and 
expree»iQg it in it« relatione to human history. Tliin rigoroue Kolf- 
denial was neceitsary if Part II. was to appear before tho public at 
piosent. The ordinary reader will find it a mere mnsH of dry duHt and 
lifeloBS doLaila, but he may be nuro that human lifu i» latent in overy 
detail, and (hat, wln-thcr or no the present writer posseesee the art of 
ezpreaeing tliat life, it can bo ho set forth in a larger picture as to 
poMeea the deep int«r««t of real hiRlorj-, 

From tho arrangement and oomproaaion thus imposed on tho writer, 

* I caitDot nulst Lbo Umptittiau to eay tbat an unuauitl nunibor nr Iho nooflBAiry 
<inaliti0s aro iiTiited fnlfr. Uognrtli, wlioco ce-eporotion in tliBCSpIorntion of tha oountfy 
him boon taf guMiiMt help in icc«a( yoan. 



I 




arises much tLnt may bo foand piizr.1iiig in tlie order of cx|x)Hitton and 
in the prtjportion of tbo parts. It may almost Bccm as if tlio npaoo 
devoted to oach uamo wore inversely praportiosate to ita historical 
importanoe; and it ia almost strictly true that th© attontiun given to 
any place is in proportion to tlie difBcuUy and obscurity of the subject. 
it n-guld have buun caey to wnto a huadrod pagoi about Ephcsos, 
Olaonae, or Smyrna : it waa difficult to avoid writing a aoore about 
those ami luaiiy otiicr great nftuids. The ci\iliMng power of the 
"Mother of Sipylos," in early time^ culminating in tho Smyrna of the 
Bviuan p6ri[>d witli it« "Uoldeu 8tro«t" extending frunt her temple 
right acTose tho city to tho temple of Jupiter, exorcisoa an extraordinary 
fudnation on all that have oome under her ioQuenoo, and all that is 
vraiitiiig to inakti the fitsoinatiuu universal on educatud niiiidti ia tlic 
litoi-ary ait; tho artist, however, is ntill to ho discovered. In this book, 
on tho eontrarj", «von tho atiempt has been prooloded by the /ab opnia; 
and if tho reader wiBhea to find what I have to sa^- about tbe great 
oitiea, ho must use the index to Part IL, coUoct the distocta membra 
from it and from the ordinary autboritice, and bruatbe the life iutu tbo 
frngments by his owu histoncal gotiitts. 

Siruilarly if th« rcoonstniction of tho ancient map and the topo- 
graphical discusHionti whioh are given in. this work, hit tho truth, much 
tight must bu throivD on the history of the long warfarti between the 
Saracens or the Turks on tho one hand, and tho early or kt«r B^Tatitino 
ruI«rE on tho other hand. Tbe numerous disooBsiuns on special points 
in Lhcao campaigns will vhovr bovr much uho has been iniMle of this 
hitherto almost untouchod source of topographical infoiinatioa ; but, 
however delightful a task it would be to writo the Mory of the long 
striiggto waged by Muhammoduuism fur tho poHsuasiuu uf Asia Minor, 
that is not the subject of the pi-osent work, and tho roforencea to it 
must bo picked out by tliueu who will from the mans uf dutuils. 

After some preliminary studios published iu my earlior papers, I 
WOK in 1883-4 driven to tho opinion that the only hope of progress in 
tho googimphy of Asia Minor lay in the discovery of new authoritioa; 
and 1 roBolved to ro&d otot tho Byzantine anthers, the Acta Gonciliorum, 
and the Acta Sanotornm, as well aa the ordinary authuritiea, for the 
pnrpoee. I know that there ia still & great deal mora to bo learned 
&om these docnmenis ; but the reader may be assured that !)5 per cent, 
of my qnotationa wore copied out ait I oumo on thorn in my ruiMliug, and 
that moat of them have been re-read several ttmeii in the original 
anthoritiea while the proofit have been going through the press. As to 
tho romiuuiug b per ovut,, they had oHcapod me while making my 
original oollcctions, and my attoution has been directed to them by 
seuing them quoted by modem authorities; hut in such cases I have 
alwaya gone to the mgioal iioutc«, studied each passage iu its contoxf , 



8 



TU£ HISTORICAL GE0aiUPfi7 OP ASIA UIKOR. 



and oopied it out u I rcttd it.* One or two excoptions, wlioru I had not 
•GOMW to the origio&l ttuttiority, »r« men lion ixl as such uud quoted on 
the authority of the writer from whom I take them. While making 
my own independent uUiiy of the coantry, I carefully avoided nsiug 
any modern works, exo«pt of courao the indispensable foundation laid 
by Prof. H. Kiv]Mrt in hia maps; hut my intoution has been, after 
fiuiahiog my own firnt iiketch, to peroHo afresh all that lian heeu »iid hy 
modern authoritieg with a view to compariuon, aiid to pvo every OQO 
the cretlit for everytliiug that he had said rightly. Absolute want of 
tiiac, unlcBH the completion of thi« work wag to bo deUyed for a whole 
year, has pruvciited mu from doing this as fully aa I intended ; utd I 
tako tliia oppoituaity of apol-igisin^ to any writer whose thoughts 
I have npprojiriutod either uuoon^cioUHly through ignorance of hia 
priority or carelet^y through forgetfulnaRs of my debt to him, Erery 
iniitsnco of the kind is regretted deeply hy me and is directly contrary 
to the plan and intention of my work, which I onee hoped wonld 
oontAtQ an outline of the history of dJacovcry in Aaia Minor. In the 
introduction to Fait II. I have g^wkon more fully nbout my debt to 
modoni writora, 

It will bo found that I hove refoiTod more frequently to the cnors 
of modem Hutlioritioa than to their oxceUeucies. This is greatly due 
to the aboTe-mentioned failure to complete the plan of the work ; and 
every onu who takes into eoiwideration that more faults are puintod out 
in l*rof, Q. Kiepc-rt's works than in those of any other modern e^hotar, 
and who at the same time is able to approointo Kiepeit's ohaoluto 
devotion to truth, his marrollouidy wide knowledge, and the liberality 
with which that knowledge is plui'ed at th& aer^ioe of students, ae well 
at) my own conviction that it is almost an impeninence in me to praiso 
him, every one who don this will uoderHtUDd that my correctionit are 
really a homage to tho authority and the value of the writers criticiBed : 
I should rart-ly critiutsu them were it not nocoHsary to prevent thuir 
dtieorvedly high authority from giving wide currency to their occasional 
fiialta. If I snoceed in rousing nny one to make a minute and shai^) 
criticism of this book, I shall he grateful for the salutary medicine ho 
may adiuiuister, provided he teaohus me better. 

I can truly say that it givea mo far gr«at«r pltvasnre to oonfirm an 
IdentiJioatiuQ proponed by previona geographers than to correct one that 
BBOms to me iniotakru. The conteuiplatiou of human error impreHsoa 
one with tho vanity of human cSbrt, and the eouee tluit ouo'a own turn 
to be corrected rauat Boon come. Moreovor the correoling of a previous 
error has often involved pages of extra arguiuout, which I would gladly 
have 8part.-d myself and my readers. 

* CiKuiJidtAiiocti pii'Vonlnl roe froni mnkjiig a. final rvviMiin of tlio rcferAIlOOB, but I 
bvpvtoilo tliii b«far« llio book «h]>pcan, oad tii a liat orcmtit. 



rROLr^OUENA. 



Among the acknowledgment of jireviona work mncle id th« 
beginniDg of I'iirt U^ I obeorvo that too Ijttlo luui boon said of tho 
Goolo FtiuifaUe d'Ath6[ic«. 6«eidea (he sUtotnent made on p. 101, that 
!t« journal, tlic * Ilnllotin do ConoKjKnnlntifio,' lini« Aona moT« tliuii any 
other tti aid Dio student uf Ahm Uinor, I foci bound to add that tho 
flnt TOODg traveUeia in the interior of Aaiu Minor wore memWrs of 
the £colo Frftn^ftiKO. iSM. Dnchesne snd CoUignon in 187^, Mt t>ie 
example of plnnging boldly into the heart of whnt waa then an unknown 
Usd. Tbey had Httio in tlio way of pru|)er equipment, and hul every- 
thing to learn about the method of travel in Mi^iammcdan lauds. 
Accordingly they have mffered the fate of moat onginatots in researnb. 
Their wurk has bcm 8ui>enH?deii by oilier nioro elaborate and Imtter 
equipped inTostigations, which in their ttim must nuficr tlio buhic fate 
at the hand of 6nbeequ«ut workers in the »<Line field. But do acoount of 
exploratinn in Aiiia Minor will ever bu complete withontan lionoiirable 
mention of their names. 

In the Epilogue to Vo). V. of his great work, ' Hietoire de I'Art dana 
rAntiquito," p. 8<>fi, Uontieur Q. Perrot says " ce sera an travail pour 
lea bibljographeB do rftvciiir, qno da rimnir Iak titroH do toiia leu articles 
oh M. RauiHay a eparpill^, dans je ne aaU oombien den ravUHilti dilTeruuta, 
Ice pr^enx renheignoinenta qn'il a reciieillia. Qne de peine il leur 
aurait £pargB^ en ^rivant nn livre !" 

I con answer only by tho <juoation, *' who would publish the book ?'* 
In the present instance my boat thanicBaredueto thv Koyal Geogruphioat 
Sooivty, through whose liberality this hook i» able to appe^tr. 1'ho text 
has been altered and cnt about during the printiag in a way that hoa 
at once grvatly Hhortimed the time uf its compodition, tind iucroaaed the 
exjtense of itH printing. In many casea, where my reasoning depends 
on tlie balancing uf many differont argumouta drawn from widely 
•epftnte «ouroee, the task haa been much facilitalod by having the 
whole of my previoui* work always before me in a printed yet only 
provisional farm. The correcting and revising of the proofs took in 
many places more time and work than the Brut composition. I j^ivo as 
a single example the following. In August 1880, ten complete and 
nndividud Aityn' work waH devoted to about fourteen pages of print, 
which during that time grow into nearly twenty pagen. 

I>uriug grvat part of the period since tho printing bvgau, it has 
been in my power to correct freely what was in print ; and while I 
have fully availed myself of this power, I havo lieen much encouraged 
by finding that, although I waa continually dieoovurlug new matter 
and DOW arguments, and liare often been able to cut out tho word 
" perhaps " from my pagesi and to snbetitnte comparative certainty for 
probability, I have rarely been obliged af^er expressing in lhi« bor^k an 
opinion alwut the sittiatiou of any city, to alter that opinion, even when 
it was formed ou grounds that wore in my Gret draught vzpreesly said 



to give ft mere pTo\*hi\ity. Yot so closely does ihe ytIioIo of Vm- 
lung togctlior, that tiko addition of a seatoDco t^r tho epcoificatiau of 
tLDOtber site in the Inter parts of tho -n-ork has freq^itently iwcceBiUt^^d 
■ score or tuore uf slight moilifi<<utiuuB tbmugliout thti proof:}. My 
Tionn have obangecl groAtlj while writing, but tho chuigo hoa Iwco 
nimost wholly in tli« way of steady grovrtU. Minor cKftOgea b&ve been 
intiumorahle ; tiumv Bpocimens aro given nt tho end of tliiti prufiLCO. 

On the other ha.ad t have now fonnil it neceuary to alter in this 
gvnorol and more mature study a nnmber of opinions stated in my 
earlier |)ap«i8, foiindod on a narrower view of tingle di<trict«. Few 
obongos (tbuu^h many addiUous) are needed aa yet in my " ADiiquittea 
of Southern Phrygia and the Rordta Land*," 18S7-8, or In my "Cities 
and BiBhupricfi of I'hrygia. IWt II.," 1887.* More are rcquir«d in 
" Oities and BiBhoprics, I'art I.," lH8i,t and Btill more in earlier paperti. 
Sut I oan still point to the fuliotring identifiuntioim, iniulo In conHot^uenoe 
of tile cxpcriuuoo of l83l and 1B82, and prinbed yearti ago, as JuBtifying 
CCn&dotice in my uiaturor opinions of 1390: tho very numeia tihow how 
olwoure and difllcult wore the proldems thnt were solved in many of 
these cases — Bronzos, nieropulis and Otroua and Stektori{)n approxi- 
mately, AkroenuB, AiigiistO[)olLii, Aquae Siirvetiae, i.o. Bantlika 'J'herina 
(tho widely divergent opinione ainoo ex])re»fied 1>y Ivicpctt and 
Hiraohfeld prove how difficult it ia to attdiii certainty about them), 
Anaboura, Metropolis with Rhotrini or Rhocrcni I'oiitea, Amhlada 
irith various small PiBidian villages, Lari-ssa and Aigai in Aeolia, 
Ifeunteicboa, 1'einnoB, t^iusima, Nuzlaazos. 

The chronology of the various parta of the book is of flome oonse- 
quenoe to thusu wbu may uso it, innamucti »n ills arrangeiuoutof topica, 
whioh has a riither haphazird appearance, ia to a great extent tho order 
of difloovury, tutn|ier<:d by oousideratiou uf thu oonvuuieuou of printing 
(a oonsidcration which is, I &ar, not eo 4ppaTc<nt as to bo recogniitable 
witliuut an express stutenicnt). 

Part I.. Chapters I.-IIL, and Part IL, Chapters L to S and part of T, 
wore written in the autumn of 18(18, after retamiug from Asia Minor, 
and were prinlud in tho oarly months of 1899. The work was inior- 
rupted by the AV^nle^u Univt-rsity Se-sion, during whieh I find that 
no work involving thu ouminu-isun of many anthortties is pnasible-t 



* A cainiilotH oli&age ia tuaJe as m^nls Titnioaatbrrai, Gurnn niul EuJoklu of 
Ottlatla. 

-t Ct-n-Upa, SnnitiM, &», Tiboriripoliii, and tbo arrdngeinent of fMt of the eom- 
pamUvc table, arc llic ebiof clinnKf*' 

I Tlirro ia no iuniiHiiiUtuiij bL-l-vreen this atatcTniL-nt u.nil the foot that my ** Stuilf of 
Plir7giaii Art. 1.," "Lnctliwla unil SinGllianiliia," " Sjio-Oappailiicinn MoiiuiiienlM in 
AHla Mituir." " InaoriptinnH Iiu'iliti* d'Auo Minnm," >di] fniir impira on "Kurly 
CliHatiiui Maniunenls la Pbrjgia " wero writlcn (hiriniB tho winUr. Buci pApcm, 
{ovalrlng liltlo n-KAidi ni llir maiucnt, Inil umti'I/ BtAttng rcaults of prvviouR sttKly, 
can be aiitUni plucciacal, bviag Ukva ap in occiuioiial houn oriulBmc 



PlIOLBOOMBKA. 



II 




Tart II was almoHt finielied, the proofo oorreoted, and iho wholo sat. up 
in jwgos during the five monthi*. M«j to Septembor, \9tiQ. I hod hopod 
1o finiflh the wurk during that timo; but two pnperti far the 'Journal 
or D':lloiiic StadieB* took qp tuo much timo, and at the end of 
Septemhur the toA wiui »till inoonij.Ivto. Octoher to DecomlM»r, IfiSO, 
were entirely taken np, partly with college duties, partly with an 
eogagoniont rasbly eutered into with Dr. Wcalcott to rivo a lecture in 
Oambridgo on October 18; dnring these months Mr. Hogarth nad 
Mrs. Bainaaj helped me by renditig the proofs. In tho next thi^o 
monthEi, the brief Chriatinaa vncntion and oocsBional honni of Uignro in 
the intervals of adloge work mfficcd only to finish Purl II., pp. 407- 
451,* to write the Addenda, to prepare tho maps and to revise tho 
whole. Part I., Chapten IT.-VIII., together with tliiii preface, were 
written in April and May, 1890 : owing to a chimge of [dau iu the print- 
lag^ it bvcamu niMweatiry vitbor to alter tho cDliro paging of Fnrt II. 
wtth the index of anlhors and all the roferencea, or to fill up exactly 
pagu 1-88. As tho Icnst of two evils the latter conrse van preferrid.f 

Besiden tho timo indicated in tho preceding paragraph, I have been 
ooUeotiag material with the view to a " Local 11 iiftury of Asia Minor" 
fiiAOB 1883, and most of tliis material has been equally applicable to the 
present work in acoordanou with my principle of giving everything I 
oan say abont all hat tho great places, except what baa been alruody 
correctly said in the ordinary authorities. 

Id stating my opinions I have tried to ateor betwooti two dongora, 
on tho one hand meruly leaving a ohoioe between altornativos to the 
reador, on tho othnr hand stating my own opinion too aljaoltitely, as if 
there were no difficulty in thu choice. It is ooaicr for one who knows 
the ooontry to make the choice, and I have put as clearly oa pcoeihle 
tho opinion to which I incline in each oase. Of tho two dangers it ie 
preferred to incur tho charge of dogmatism and confidence rather than 
of helpleasnees. My principle has beon to carry out oach train of 
reasoning to its oxtromo consequencoo and present a d«&nite nwult: It 
iH a real step to have a distinct theory to test by Buliseijuout disoovorj*, 
oven where the proofe are oooifessedly inoomplete. 

A Bories of iadoxce are r«quir«d to mako snch a work us thia 
tlioroughly useful ; ar.d I am ounsoioiu that the two which are giveu 
are not snfficiont. But to make a Hufficicutly minute set of indezea 
would Lave added seriooaly to tho exponao and wuiild haro putttponed 
the publication for another 3'ear: a new expedition to Asia Stinor in 
I8itO will take up my wholu time till the bogiiiiiing of college diiti<-s. 
Tho index of authors will show where most remainH undone by tho 

' IlracA tli« vt-f7 nimmOTT wny In vbich tbo lut pt««ino«a, Punphjli*, Oiri«, 
Ly<:ia,unlrc«tcd: pp, 4(S-4Wwvr«<>il'M in Mav, *□(! ftfootont*,^ 484.iii Bciptcrabvr. 

t Mi«i^l«tilati<'D orniy MS. piodurad nmc iiieqiutlitiM ta tbcsucution: and soon* 
eluding chapter hiu been omitted. 



13 THE UISTOEICAL OKMBAPHY OK ASIA MIKOR. 

prfiseni writer, that maj jield further iaforTaation, The propor namee 
for the Index, u f u m r^ards I*art II.,* vrere all intirkod by myBolf, 
the transcription and airangemeiLt Iwing porfornMMl by chu indux-niaker 
of the R.G.S. I have intended to insert in thia index all iiamui 
and words that wore mcxit Hkuly to be asoful in lielping tbo student of 
history it geography ; but modem Tnrkish name* are usaally omitted. 

In n-gani to the spelling of nnoient names of places, my ongiuni 
intention wan, to traniditerate the Gtvek form in all cases except a few 
namoB like Iconium, which are houeehold words ; but when the proofs 
came to hand, it wait obvioutt that this principle had BOt been carriod 
ont completely. It tlien seemed preferable to leave the variety of fonas 
than to weary the printer by correcting every c to ft and evyry ua to ot, 
or Ticc versa. In some cases the variation is intentional ; Cilioia 
denotee the country, Kilikin the ftraleyia.^ 

I cannot better oonoludo this preliminary statement than by quoting 
the opening words of the preface to U. de "Man Latrie's ' Tresor de 
Ohrouologifi-' " Jo no pr6sentu ptui suns c^uclquo appr6henaioti ee livro 
aa pahUo atudieux et au public savanU Non pas qne j'ai epargnd ni lo 
temps ni lea ttoins poor lo rundro digno d'un bon aocncU ; mais, modififi 
dans sa composition premiere, ralenti dans son execution [tar suite do 
circonatanco» indfipendunteA do ma volontv, il pent, an premier ahead, 
BOmblcr un ceurre oil manque I'oidre et la cohereuce." 



Since Part IT. ^vas in type certain additions have come to my know- 
ledge, the chief of which, in April and May, 1830, are here appended. 

P. 104 (A S) and 4:i0. M. do Mas Latrie, 'Tniaor do Cbronol.' 
p. 1799, would identify PjTgi or Dirgui as ono of (he names of Tralleia, 
comparing Schebab Rddin, 339. 369; Tbn Datoutah 11. 2!t5-3I0. In 
that case Ducas, p. 63, must be guilty of writing I'molus fur Uuusogis, 
whun ho describes the position of Pyrgion. The Soljuk principality of 
Aidin was also called Birgui ; but as that principality extended from 
Smyrna to Tmlleia and iucludcil thu Kayiitros valley, it might naturally 
hRvo had a fortrvse with tho family nianeoleiiTii of the chiefs in the 
Kaystroa valley at Pj'rgi, where Tebinoit was taken and buried. 

P. 109 (A 16). Herakleiaad Sipylum is fixed by tho bounJaty-stono, 
pnhliahed in my 'Contributions to tho Xlistory nf Southpni Aefilis'l'Journ. 
Holl. Stud-, 1881). Tho name disappears in tho Byrjintinc time, and 
either it was merged in Archangoloa, or else the testim'iny of Aelius 
Dionysins, quoted by Kustathius ad Horn. Iliad. B (I take the refereueo 

• As »>gnr<]s Part I., w* p S, noU. 

f Huch TBrintion ia <luc to thi> att4:iii]it to rcptoiJuoo ruitlifully ibc Djutntbo 
sptiltisg, whiob oflui ^ivei a elite to locxi prcnanciatiua. 



ADDITIONS TO PACT II. 



18 



• 



fioin We«eliu(|f8 note on Steph. Bye.. b.v.) 'tlpai^ta ^ xal Maynjota. 
must Ije aooeplod litcrai.ny, and it miut bo <x»Qolu(ted from tliis aUt&Biont 
oompaTed witli tlio itiscriptiuu above mentioned that MagncRia bore thn 
nomo nomkleia diirmg at least the third century b.c. But precIsL-ly 
daring that cculury we have the great inxcriptioD, C.LG., 3137, oon- 
taining the trottty between Smyrna and Mngnosia, concluded about 
244 J1.C. Perhaps tho truth in, that the torritury along the north oud 
west of Sipyloa waa dividtd botwwn M&gneiia and Herakleia, and the 
load-stono fonnd tlicru vras called iudifTvrvntly Maytiit and 'IIiiohAcuVtc 
Xi$w, giving I i&o to the mietalou beliof that Magnesia and Ucrakiein 
wuro uumua of the same place. 

P. 116 (A 37). Titauua \a tlie name given by Pliny, T, 32, to a 
oily and a river on the A«<ilic coast. There c^n be no doubt tliat tlio 
Tiv«r whitsh ho means is the TitiuiioB, hnown froiu cuins of Aigni. Tho 
ooinj! with legend TllNAIO£ and TIINAION are referred by Iiuhoof- 
Blunicr, Mono. On, p. 276, to a city Tisua, which its tho placo meant by 
Pliuy under tho name Titantis; the original form ninst have boon 
Titua, whonoe ooiijch tho river name Titnaioa, Snhuchhardt tahcA thia 
view, and uudunttrtiide, like bis precleceasorB, MM. I'oltior and Heinaoh, 
that Iho PythikoH of A^thiaa u tho eamo rtTer as the Titoaioo. He 
places Tisna at Tzun-Haiiiuinli, uuo hour up the river from Myriua; see 
Bohn. Altert. ven Aegae, p. 61. 

I may mention an extraordinary omission in T)r. Schuclihardfa argu- 
ment aa to the oito of Aigai. Ho has apparently not looked info 
lUeroolea with Wtitweling'g ailrairablo notes, reprinted in the Boon 
edlLiou, and hence haa not noticed the (jnotation frani Galen, Aiyatv tw 
II«/)iripi»T^, rj; fih u^upV Mvpi'iTJ, r^ & HtpyaiUfi (bco p. 117). MM. Leohat 
and Kudet also omit it when discussing the evidenco about Aigai in 
BuU. C'orr. noil., 1887; and I did bo myself in 1881. At that time the 
TOwtoD, though not the excuse, for my omission lay in my isolation from 
books, and my oouseqnent ignoranoe of the Ujzauline antlioritieii. The 
subsequent writers on tho eubject, some reaching tbu wrung and some 
the right conolusion, give also aJi iiioump1ot« list of nuthoritic«. They 
may bo presumed to have made an Independent collection cf the mato- 
riaU ; yet, thdugh I have for more than six yours been urging that ibo 
Byzantine lists must be tho fuuiidatiou of all toiiogrnpbical ottidy in 
Ana Minor, they have nut looked into llieroclcs or W«eaehng's indis- 
pennable cummuutary on the Sjniokdemus while studying Aigai.* 

P. 12t (A 2). Mr. Head, in his • Hist. Num.,' s.v., interprets a coin 
of Sardis with t4io legend AIO£ TONAI us referring to tho worship of a 
rnippened Zene Gonaios. Tho legend is oomploto. and is ititerprcted ly 
tho type as i«s yami, the earcumatanoea oonntoted with the birth and 
rearing of Zeus. 



Tho posMge is (looled by HU. Puttier and Rninsch, • Hrriiut,' p. 20, 



II- 



TUE mSTOKICJU. QGOGIuraY OF ASU MISOB. 



In the Talmud tlio moming meal, taken about nx o'clook, is callod 

*' the Meal of the Lyiliaiis " (NtHiTwuipr. ' G<)0^rap1iiu <lo Taliuud, p. 316). 

The LyiliftQ traffic in sanclaln and in eunuchs is alan alltided to (l-c). 

P. 130 (0 ^4). Hi«ropoli8 of tho Olaukos Talley is probably moaat 

on tlie coins of Synnado, showing Apollo standing and Xoua sitting, with 

tL« l^end 

SYNNAflEnNIEPtAnOAEI]TnN-OMONOIA 

Bm Imlioof-BIumer, Muuii. Gr., p. 413. Zeus I'unilomos roprosents 
Synnada, as is oflon th« case on coins. Apollo often app(^an on the 
coins of ttio ni«ropr>litnu vnltciy. Probably O ehonld lio lostorod in 
place of A in the name oa this coiii. Mionnet given a ooin with a 
similnr legend, where O is tiHerl, hut the word OMOnOIA is omitted. I 
have in 'Troi8 Villoe PbrygicnnOB,* p. 50C, intcipreted the coin as 
referring tfl HieropoliB beside Sandykli. 

P. l.'il) (C 40). The people of Synnada placed on their ooins th* 
faoad of AKAMA£ (nee Drexlur lu 'KututHin. Zft.,' 1889, p. 177); and 
StcphanuB mentions that Akamne after tho Trojan war wandered into 
Plirygia and fminded Synnada. This legend was eviilotilly adopted in 
the city: imd probably Stcphanus derives it from MotropbaneB of 
Knkiirpift, who wrote a work in two bouke on Plirygia, from which 
Stepbantig quobja tho •torj- of tlio bunch of Eukar^iian grapee which 
waB Bu large as to break a waggon. 

Sj-nnjida W'aettt on its coins to be a city of Dorians anil Icinians, 
Thooe Greek colonlatt* perhaps looked to the hero Akanioe as their 
oikist: euoh myths toodcd to bo developed in the procowi nf hollonisa- 
tion of Pbrygia. The native Phrygian part of tho poptilution looked 
to TbyiiMMnia as tlieir horo and luicoBtor. Dokimion was n Macedonian 
military colony (aeu pp. 125, 12(1). 

P, 143 (U 76), compare lfi4 (J) 29). The baths of Phrygia and its 
wines are mcnHoiioA in tho Tuliand h» baviug £0|iarut«d tho Ten 
Tribes from their brethren (Neubuuer, 'G^ogr, de Talmud,' p. 315). 

(P. 144 (C 78). Eakkahaft or Kakkabokome eeoma to involvo tho 
word Kakliabe, the name of the citadel of Carthage, which is connected 
by Ad. Sniiny in Philologns, 1SS9, p. 5jft, T,viLh the Phcoiiimn stem 
&^ab, in the st-nso of " Lill." He rtratirltB thiil iho Pliieuician letter 
ain ia repreeeniod in tho Septuugint somcitimea by tho apiritua leuia, 
BOmetinics 1^ tho ftpiritiiii usper, sonioiimea by kappa, and sometimoa by 
rho. Henoo he explains the Initial kappa in Kukku'/^y- A similar 
phenomeoon occurs in Xatenneia or Ktenncia (see p. 418). On 
Phoaniuinn nanios in Phrygia, seo Sonny, l.o. ; ho ccnnecta Ki'/3<Aa 
(which IIc-eychiU8 explains by ojoj) with Hpbrew (lebel, ami tlionce 
esplaitiB Kvj8*Ai) as M^i-^p 'OjHirf, from which 'P«i3j is a shortnuod form 
(Crnains, Kcitr, z. grioch. Mythol., p. 26, n. 4): tho connection will 
probably nut find general approval, 

P. 17» (E 22), 43ft and 441». Mr. Polham also quotoa Corp. Gloss. 



ADPmOSS TO PAST It 



15 



Lfttin., VL 14, A«tor wpay^MtwvnJs, and II, 177, Saltmufl o/tto^uXof ; and 
he points oat to nio in oorroboratioa of tbo large impftrial estate wLich 
I Lave proTcd at Tyana tlint iq J UBtinitrn's Nov. XXS. (od. Zaahanm 
von LinguuUial, I. p. 163) moro than half tho torritory of Oappftdocia 

said to bo imporial property. Prof. Snyee also roferi! roe, i« 
Tobomtion of my description of the horae-hKHiding on this oatate, 
to rroc. Soo. Bilil. Aroli.. iSSl.Tfov., jj. 14, where Mr. I'inohoB puhlished 
H tabltit from Konyaajik tnontioiiing horsM importod into Assyria from 
Baua. 

P. 176 (E 23). I must retract tho opinion tlint thore wan at Lagbe 
an imperial estate. I nonr accept the intorprelation of /iKrflwr^ 
proixusod by tho Auatnau editors, aa mgre probable iu itaelf ; moreover 
XAgbo Gtmck coins and thoreforo oannot havo been on estate. Tho 
oilier points, honrerer, I HtHl maintain, both the restoration I have 
proposed for the fragmentary iUHcriptinn poblithed in snch var)*!!!^ 
ibrou by tbu Auotiinu editors aud by Ur. A. H. Smith, and the 
opinion that Lagbe must have been in tho oonvcntns of Eibyra and 
ill the proviDce of Asia. The phrase o Kark nnov fLurdn/rji may bo 
oompaivd with rem koto, riirtiv TTjffiiTttv tou Ipyov m an inscription of 
Uiuiratpoliti {he Bas, 1680), which aoeins to donoto the oiHoer ohargod 
with tho doty of looking after tho proper oondition of tho graves along 
the fiaom via. 

r. 183 (F 25). Proin a oampariaon of tho list of bUhopo giTca by 
Le Quien with the priooiplLit stated on p. 427, and with the acoonot 
givfn of Bnsilinopolifl, we may reach the probable oonolasion that Linoo, 
Ciordosetba, and Mela or Modreno, wore formed into biiiltoprios by 
Jiutinian ; that provioiuily, although Xikala liad been an antokephaloa 
bishopric of great dignity owing to (lie wide ostont of torritory over 
which itji influonoo extended, yot no bishoprics wci-o subject to it, and 
it had in vain attempted to uetobluth its claim over the biiihopric of 
Basil! QOiKilis in i.t>. 451, and that Justinian Tcoognisod tho giowSug 
iniportoncQ of tho territory, which lay fi<>uth of Nikaia and politioally 
WBH included in ila territory, by founding .JtuitininnopoHs-McIa on his 
military road, and aliio by giving the Htu.t)iii of cilitw and bislioprios 
to Liuoo and Gordooerba. The elevation of Tatalou, Noiimorlka, 
Daphnasia and Ma&iiniunai to \m biahupriua bolnngs to a later period, 
probably that of Btwil in the ninth contury, Tho earliest known 
hisbc^ of Mela datai 553, of OonUiscrba 680, of Liuoo 692, of the others 
809 (nee Le Quien). 

r. 191 and eleowhoro. For 65 bx., tho date Msigned by Marquardt 
for the institntion of the prwvinoo Bithjiiia-Pontas by Pompey, the 
date C)4 B.C. is Hul«titnted by Niese (Hermes, XIII., p. SO, and Kboin. 
Mus., XXX\7II., 1683, p, C77). 

V, 208 (C( 11). In a note added by Kiepert to Haniaun and 
rou IV. D 



IB 



THE eisiomcja oeoceaphy ok asu mikos. 



Fnclistviu's * Reisea in KleinaBicn,' p. 18, Mclaogcia is identified with 
Earodja Sheliur, beslilcit Doj^'luioii : lio follows Haiuuier-Purgstali, wlio 
M78 that KikraJjft lli«ar, Grvck Mclongcia, wue iKsioged by Ertogntl 
in 1240, and cnjtturc'd by Osmati in 1298. My diectiBiiioD h&B probably 
OBtabliitbod tliAt ihitt ideiilUicittioii is erroneau^. If any further reaEou 
is needed, it may be found in the fact that the valley of the Tembria 
(Pvmuk Su, ill Humatin Pursuk) had bcvu long io the nDdifihirbcil 
pOMeesion of the Tnrks, and that they were in the tliirt«enth contury 
flghtiug for llio lands near tlio Bithyuiau ooost. 

P. 205 (G 15). Ill Humunn and ]*uchBtcui, 'Heiscn in Kkicaalou,* 
p. 11, Dr. Huiaann remarks) that Ine Giil, *' Needlo Liike," wr luck GM, 
"Cttttto Lako," 18 the proper form of the name, and not Aiuo Gol, 
■* Mirror Lake," as it is u&oally givon, 1 have also obeerved tliat the 
village four bours east-ftoiiih-i-aiit from rhiladelpbia (Ala Shehor) is 
proiiorly named Ino Gol {or Inok Gul, which would bo prouoiiocod in 
almost the same vay^ not Aino G&l. 

P. 219 (G 23) and p. 444. The Hame explanation of the name 
GuxatOTlx has already been given by M. l^lk>y, Mum. do I'Aoad. dev 
loBOript., an quotvd iu C.I.G., 4030. Another Galatiait namo involving 
the same word ie Oaizatodiostos, which occurs in that iuiscriptioa. 

P. 220 CH 8). In Humaiiu and PuL'hatein's 'Hciaeu in KJeinauien,' 
Gordion in identidod with Tchakiiiak on the Saitgarios a little Honth 
from TUrme. Humaim rightly remarks on the want of clear evidouco 
to connect Genoa with the site of Viirmo, but Kicport iu a uotu atill 
Hupjioeos that tho namo h n modcru form of Gormn, and that the namo 
atrictly belongs to the hot Bprings. I have visitod these aprings: no 
anoieut oity wua eitttatcd nt thuiti, but thoy in all probability bclougcd 
to tho territory of tho «ity aitualtd at Tarme. 

P. 226 (It U). Gratianopolis cannot bo intorpreled ss an cTT<>r for 
^ KpoLTiavatv mKKi I'hilado]pkiiii w.ia bishop of Grotiauopolia and 
Epiphfliiiuft of Kratein at CVucil. Spbts.. a.d. 431. 

P. 251 (K 18). In his *Rei«on in Kloiiiasicn,' p. 47, numann 
giTOB the diatancca — 

Angora to Tchakal Keiii . . 27 kiloiu. 

Angora to iJinaui . . . 33 „ 

Bitiam to TchoMhnir Kouprea * . 63 „ 

Sir C. Wilaon oRtiiuated tho borgG'roa<l (whicli would ho Rhortcr) ng 19 
mileii Ui Biuam uud SI thcucu to the bridge. The probability even 

* Biuaana doea not gave tfao namo IVom penuiml uLaetvntion ; hut Qiontiooa that 
old tnvi'llors citll il Tchcisnegir-KiJpiU. 1 Imro noted it &« Tclic«!iuir. wlicr^ g lina 
dlaiit]wur(iil Imlnoi-ii vowels uvcunlinK to tlio common dinngoin mMlon) jironuiiclatigD; 
cp. Doiimcn, "wUI/'for Dcgirumn. Ho give* Ibe bridgo (■« 735 mebCfl ftboro aen 
lertl ; Ibe rilUigv oa the «ut bauk as 753 iuvl[«e- 



ADWTIOXS TO PART It 



17 



BUggcBi» itaoli that Snniuiliiui of th« Itinerary is MaIos : tho tlistauoe, 
ftM given by tho Itioomr^- tmite exactly. In that case, IWlc^afigiiH would 
U) All interinediatd stAtioii on Uio road to Ankym (it«o pp. 2'>7, 259). 

r. 277 (N y). lu glaitcing hastily by iha aid of tlio iuJex at Humami 
and PucbBtcin'a uoUh on lUrash and their report of Kiepert'n latest 
view Oil GuriuoiiioiB, I End nu ruaaon to alter aay word tliut 1 baye 
■kid. Tlic froDtior tUat I have ossi^ed to Kommagoue is confirmed by 
the latent disoovories auil luape. The wonis of Thoodorot, who on such 
a point i« a first-rat« autliority, that Gennanicia waa iv ;At0opu}i n/t 
KiAiMuii' Mut Ttvpw [kiu*] KuTnroSoKwv in the province of Eiiphratceia, 
are a complete juutificatioa uf the at least appioxjiuate aoooracy of the 
poifi^en whiclt I auign, and a coiupi&to diitpronf of Kiepert's view. 
TheMtre inference may Iw drawn from Theodoret's e»pn;Baion, Haerot. 
Fab., IV.( 2, r<f)fiai'tK<taf r^f Tijt TaL]p)y yuTM-uiViif miXcwi. Tho frontier 
aeai^eil on my map rcquirte only a slight modifloation, whiob doea nu 
violoDoo to tbu ovideui'c, iuastiiueh an the boundariou lifi among 
uniuliabited moimlaiuB, to ntako Unrosb clow to the meeting of tho 
three proviuoeti. 

P. 280 (N 16) atul p. 287. Tho variant a Cotcna cannot bo accepted, 
for the name Lacotena occura in Ammiannp, XX.. II, a Capjiadocia ipse 
per Uelitonaiu, minuris Arueniae oppiduni, ct Lucotnua, ct Bamoenla. 
tnnsmisBo Euphrate, Edeteam veuit. (1 owe the reference to Surita, 
quoted in Wv^Mliiig's edition of tho Ttincmrios an XXI., 1 1). 

P. 29*1. It is very doubtful whether Saenda, in C'nppadooio, which 
iraa caplnro) by Autiochiia (Front., ^trat.. 111., 2, 9) can bu identidctl 
with iioanda. The StSS. vary greatly in the rciiding. 

P. 304. In Untnaiin and I*ucIuitciD'8, 'ICeiwn,' p. -102, an in- 
scription of Diarbtfkir (Aniida), given by StoiruU, ' Wolfe Exjedilion,' 
Jfo. 631, in repeated from a fif sh copy : 
Ity^fiTjuv^ AwK (?) 
iiapiunov iiTK- 

on-fotoi) isro Ko^xfiiJ [in Kappadokien]. f 
Thtg rtfctccce to Kampai is purely coujcctiiT&), and cannot nnk (u an 
urgninent against my viow tiiat in KanilM tho b fltundu for oil. 

P. 312 (note). Tarkumlwemis ' inn.it be a local pronunciation at 
leauta of the nume Tarkoii<1 aricis nbivh was a euraumo of KuHtor, king 
of tho Toktosugea from alout 61! to 45. Prof. Sayce has rend tho name 
of Tarkhundara(iB) [lost Dyinbol doubtful], king of ArTapa, on a tablet 
fVom Tcl-cl-Amarna (Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1889, Jime, p. 338). Tho 
name Itoudbcrras at Cor^-coit vonfinoB my reading Turkuudbci-Ta». 

P. 317. That the ^ome cf Kolonoia wna origiaaUy part of the 

* Tliia nrord ilocs not occaF in tlic text of iLu Cumbriilgo etlitioi), IlUt EcDlea, 
11.. ZS. I Qwo lliic mill iLu following i«friviicu to Wi-Mclinjc ail Ititi. 

t 8t<>rrctt rend! fin|/u[«]v moiu ocrtvctly, and KAMT vliicli is pK»baLI;f let* correct. 



IS 



THE HISTORICAL QEOOIUPHT OF ASIA UIKOB. 



Armoiiinc Tliomc is nlno implied by the fact tli&t Eamaoha wM tn tbo 
Aniieniac ThemB (Tht^ophau. 469, 4+4. 877). 

P. 346 (Q 30). Strabo, p. 587, mentions, aa an csata|)le of a rircr 
with twenty-flovon fortls, ono that flows from Tyans to Soloi-Ponipei- 
opoliii. The river meant is the ono that runs bosiOo the road from 
Fwulinopolui to Podandos. But it U an error to say that it flowB (o 
8oloi : it rc&lly joiiL» the Baron. The error, howuTor, ia not Strabo's, 
for Mcincko considers the passage to be a glos4. 

P. 370 (T 2(j). The oame Bidana or Biilane fwoms correct, being 
defended by Bizaua • of Armenia (Procop., do Aodlf.. III. 5). Bidikua- 
Leontopolia must probably be the modem town Siriatat or Tris 
Madeu, about 13 miles west of Isattra. Thia situation would explain 
why Ijooiitopolia and IenT]ro|)o1is wen^ nnder the aaiiie bishop. Mom- 
over LoontojNiliB trAB oluarly a city of iiuitortaiicti in later BysaDtlne 
time, and it ia a gonoial rulof that tlio important cities of that timo 
corrodpond to Turldsh cities. This idcntifieation of Leontopolia as 
SiriMtat vx[t1aiuH uverythiug known to us, and may ba looked on as 
pretty certain. Siriatat ia the seat of goTornmoiil of Dot Kyr Kaimma- 
kamlik. I*rof. Stexrutt in Iiia ' Wolfe Expedition,* p. OS, ia too Bovvro 
on Hamilton, when ho says that lh« latter svas " misled into giving the 
place the name of Tris Madcn : " JTamiUon was no doubt tmc to the 
fact of his timo. though the " maden " and the name are now disused. 
The distauce of Bidana from TsauroiioLifl seema too Hmall, but stadia may 
be nsod in the Henne of mileK (soo pp. 190, 268). 1 ahonld look for Xoa 
Isania here rather than where Sterrett pUoos it. There are insoriptions 
at Siristat. 

P. 412. The otbnio Maijvu^ or 'IjLiai;ras, and the local name Maion or 
Im4.ian oorres])onding to it, are related to the name I^Iacb (o» wliich ece 
M. Th. Roinach's eicelltiut pajier in * Itov. dea 6t. Greoq.,* 1889, p. 270} 
as Tataion or Tuttaiuii to Tatas or Tottosi, and the other iusta&oos 
quoted on p. 43U. 

P. 420 (W 14). The inferpretation of Eudocias and Jovia as 
cpithotB of TenneJtens nialce« intelligible the following signature at the 
Conncil of Clmleedon, Zonodotus Tulmossi ot Eniadis civitnUs loniao. 
This ia obviously corrupted from Tei-messi civilatin et Euduciudis et 
Xobioo. Zcnodotns of Telmeesos in Lycin ia frequently mentioned at 
this ooTincil ; but no bishop of TermossoB occurs in the lists to warrant 
the supiiOHitiiiu that ttvo suocesnive entries had Iteeii mixeil up. Mont 
probably Zcnalotiis of Tolmessos and ZenodotUB of TcruicsHOS were Imth 
present (Mansi, VI. S76, VII. 433). At the Conncil of 325, Eeuro8io« 
of TermoRBOS was present; in 431, TiiuothiMid of TermosBOB and 
Eudokias; in 448, Sabluiauus of Tenuessos, Kudoldas and lubia; in 

* Compare KnxiixDEoii nr KAdiondoa^ Podandoa and BoMnti ; 9M p 318. 
t Not a imivi.<nal rulu; ivc p. p. iSi. 



ADDiTIOSS TO PAST II. 



19 



^ 



602, Constontino of EudokUa ; in 787, CftlliBtoB of Eodokias. TLia 
list «liowfl the epitliet gradually eatabUshmg itself and diaplaciiig 
Termewog, nccordiiig to tliu tliwjry atlvancod in my A.S.r. Tlie two 
bisbopBof 458, Auxentius and InttooentiuH. are the sole difllcTilty m the 
way of tlip» thoorj-, itnd I iiavo coiijL'Ctiired tliat one of the two iiaiuM 
ia a corruption or marginal correction, which crept in betwooti 
"TermesBi" and "EuiWiadiB," an** thug oauaed the Hiiiglo hiahop to 
hocoino double. 

r. 423. The monnlAiii CAABAKOC is mentioned on ooLns of 
Apollouia : Droxlcr in Num. Zft.. 1889, i>. 122. 

F. 423. OlymoB, a place ni>ar Mylaso, ia moiitioiiod in ft aeries of 
iuiicriptlonH, T-ie B«ii, 323 to 33ft. Athen. Mittlic-il., 18^9. p. 367. 

1*. 426, Strabo often mentions the Solymoi ; hut the words of 
HerodotUH, I., 1 73, ni £« MiAvat rort SiUv/oi iitaXxnvra tends to dhow that 
they wero oven thvn an «xtinct {wople, whom Sti-abo afterwards 
identified with Home existing {leople; sach ia the enggention of Sittl) 
Berlin. Phil. Woohcnschr., 1838, p. 338. Uo also quotOB Cicero'a worAa 
(VeiT., IV., 10, 21) Lyoii, Graeci homines, to prove that the grseciaing 
process had progreesed very far in Lywia eiirly iii the first century n.c. 

P. 110 (A 2*5). On the coins of Ejihcaoa-Thoologoe aad MagnoHia- 
MangUiua see Mr. Grueher's deeortptioa of the £ud at Epheaos in 
Nrnnisui. Chron., 1872, p. 120 ff. M. do Maa Ltilrie, ' Ti^sor de 
CliroRoL,* p. 1799, quotes from Schltimbarger, *Nnin. Orient.,' p. 483, 
on the coins of Muguesia, but umita tboao of EphuHOa. 

F. 11^ (A 33). Tho Ilouiereiou at Smyrna ia m«ntioued in nn 
inscription, Moun. SmjTu., IV., p. 17^, no. if. 

P. 125 (B 13). M. AVaddiugtun aatureii mu that no coins of the 
Moateiii hnowii to him give iho title Macedonea: oonaideringhta nnii|iie 
kuowlvdgv, this may bo taken as final, and the ooina in quoetion may 
be rejected as migroad. 

P. 135 (C 7, 8). nuoaiig* on Zonaras (vol. TL, p. 187, e3. Dindorf) 
qnotCB the miraolo at Kbonai. The published veniona (Bonnet, 1890) 
ATQ lato and topographically abenrd, bnt tnuat bo founded on aa original 
^^^ of good eharaetor, full of loeal colour. 
^^^ P. 136 (C 23). Poltai was a Miicodoniau colony. 

^^^ P. 130 (C 24). Rnmeneia, as a seat of the worehip of Isia, is quoted 

W by Drcxlor, in Num. Zft., 188D, p. 167. An additional proof ia 

I fnmiEihod by tho inHoription, which may belong either to Feltai or to 

I Enmwnoia, C.I.O., 38fit>, more correctly in BulL Oorr. Hell.. 1885. 

B None cf tho oditora have obsorvod that kiu Eurii[fiiK] must be rood in 

^^K line 6, if M. Paris has rightly copied the inscription. I have three 
^^^1 times learchfxl in vain fur this insonption, about the locality of which 
^^M Bamilton and Paris give very difiurent accounts. Eunteneia huasta on 
^^H its coins to be a city of Acbacane; tho title was a&iumeil by the 
^^H Parganutninn colonists in oppositiun to the Uauxlouians of Peltai. 
^^1 VOK. IV. 



20 



Ttl>: tllSTOBIClL GEOGRAPltr Oi^ ASIA MIKOR. 



P. 139 (0 :)5). vVnothor Alia, a niero laloikin. bus 1>ceTi pmved hy 
M. &. ReiniiolL to have been situRteil nt or uoar Rirgol, 1iutwc«ii 
Tiberiopolis and Aii-Aiirii : it is mentioniyt in an inocription fnimd tbors, 
which wiil toon bo pabliahed. 

r. 172. Prof. ti. Hirschfeld lias recognimd iu tlio modom name 
BuinJiH the nncicnt Aporidns Konio of Litj*. 

P. I'd. Ilugartb, tu Jouni. Uvll. Stud., ttjfO, gives aeTeiml examples 
of the common. Ljcnoninii iiume Soilson. 

P. 187 and p. 352. The line of beacons is aim givon hy Zonaraa, IT., 
]>. 132.«4l. Fnr. His uiiiimeraliuii Of^rot-H with Oodrcuui, cxCL-pt iti the 
iiamee Mitnas anil Kyrizos. fiticatiga quotoi in his notes on ZoniinLS 
nlfto iho forms Aigikkin nnd Angilos as vetnaiitt* in f^oj'lit/^s and Thcoph. 
Contin. ITu mouliuiis that {]m hill of Saint Auxcntiun waM ahuut 
10 miles from Clinlcedon, and was the same na Ox«i» (see p. IHO, F Ofi). 
Baint Auxoutitu, yrho Uvvi uiidor Muruiauus ivnd LcU( knilt a 
mouastvr^ thoro, Dncitnf^a qii->tj>8 the Monneu, .Tnnc 1, 3, V-i, and 
Jannary It*. ThpophiineB, p. 4M, sayn that tlii» hill was iioar Daraatiy 
(aoo pp. 218, S12; uuil Uuiaugi-, (.Joniitaiit. Chmt., IV-. p. 177). 

P. I'JO (F 76). The pa8§age of Coustautiiio IVrpliyrugouitHs, de 
Them., p. 2."», where llpimTiat almoMt ucrtniiily dviiutuB ProiiKu nA 
Olj'rapmu. may serve to eiliuidate two yajisAgen in Pliny's Epist. ad Tra.. 
5H and 81, where alea Prousiaa is ntjod in a siiiiihir way. Mr. Hardy hi 
hill edition, takes a dilloi-ont view, makiug ProiiKiae nu adjective. 

P. 24'2. The road Ancyra 24 Cruntina 112 Legna '2A Cams (Gams 
v.l.) Vicus 31) Krateia 24 C'landitijfolig liais been accidentally om,itted in 
tho text. Cr«QtiuH, a siiEpicious form, eoenis to he tho modern Oirindwt. 
wheru I have ylac*d Meuvgordutt. 

P. "iyil. 'lliu dL>»uri]iti')n uf Oziznla an nhoiintlinf; in gardens, 
Htreams, und gruTe». tihould in the piirch«d cuniitry of Cappachx^ia, 
muko it t-awy to provw ita prtMsiso situation (hoc Greg;. Naz., Ep. 26). I 
have nut tiavolled along tho leTt bank of the Ua'^tt uhwe the eitiiatiou 
whoro I pluce Pnmaasos, but to jndgo fivim tho appoaraiioo of tho 
diilrict as aecu from the road on the right bank, it eorreii))onds to the 
alxtvu desfiiptioii Iwlter tliau unj oilier purt of nappadocia thai I have 
swu. Whon OKizftla i» ouco plaocd, tho eituativu of PuninssuB and 
Xyasa would tie etill more narrowly dttfined. 

P. 324 fP tl) and p. 44S. M. Diichwue follows Ur- lead of the 
Itoilandiats (so also does Miiralt) in saying thai* T'liiclmita wan iv^nttiutd 
Thoodoro[x>li3 iu a.d. Q72, in honour of tlic great victory- gaitic-d by 
John TiimisL'OB over iht' Turks. Cedronus, II., p. 411, nays ihai tho 
uinperor iel>iiilL the church in which thu Ijody of Sa nt Themlonis Inv, 
and chaii;^-d ihc iiaino uf ihe place from Eiikliimpiii to Th<iKlor< jmlis. 
Tho anthoTH whom 1 am arguing ngainat aeHUiiic that, 1>e(-an)to thu 
biographiett of Theodoriis aty tl>at he was bnried at Eitbhaita, and 
Codrenns Rajs tliat ih« eiuporor rebuilt tha ohnreh whoro Theodorua's 



I 




AKWTIOSS TO TART H. 



21 



body lay, therefora tbe city which is in«*nt by C'odroniig u Etikbftito, 
Tliey tAko Eiiklianola «ii<l Euklmita to be the Bune |)taro (M. Duchemo 
doui not even notice the difference of oame) ; Ijut on (liu fullowiug pagu 
CcUixiiiuH ispculus of Tlicophilue, arcUbisIiup oS Eukhailo, distinguishiug 
it as a neuti^r plural from Eukhiuieuk as a foroiiiine singular. Did 
Ccdrcuag mriVe a iiiifttiiUe, aiitl di«liii{j;ai«)i a» txvo diirtrL'iit iiamos twu 
fonui) of tho narao nniue, or do tlio BoUuKlists and Mil. Mnmlt and 
Duobesuo wi-oiigly identify two diflfvrOut placoe oa a single placo? 
Tlu'y o^rtuiuly *mly fullow Zon&v&s, II., p. 21+, ml. I'ar., who giTC* 
Etikbaiiiu und Eukbalta »« (.^qtiivaloiit funus of tho miiuo nuDie. Thin 
cun banUy Ijr cnrrxtot. Notitis) il. und X. mention Eiikbaiiia and 
Eukbaita an M-panitc uietmpulvii* ; aad Gelxer aUowa, " Jidirb. f. protuttt. 
Theol.,' iaS6, p. niO-2, that Kukbnita iKiCAiim ii UKtrupoliM l>otwoeii 
88G and Ml (sue Addenda, p. 44$), and Eiikbauiii betweuu losb and 
lOM. I thorofore rofuso io aocopfc ZonaraB*ti evidonoo an to tbo identity 
of the names, and believe that he was misled by the rcBomblauoo 
botween tbem. Biwaiise SLtiut Theudare bulptid tbo Ityzantine army 
against tho Russians, a cbarch wonid naturally- be erected to bim near 
tbo battlc-fiold, and not in nelunopoutati. Tho etu^ulur unttlo^y of tho 
nameiS, and tho coincideuoc thai both Eukhaiiia und i^iikbait» wero 
aaaooiated with Theodoro, bol^a,^'ed ZoiiariU) into Iiih frmr. TbitH Ibe 
lutt ahred of evidence, on which M. Duchesne relitd for the theory that 
the name Thcodoropolia belonged poculiurly and speuiiilly to Eukbaitn, 
huu now disai>pcai-cd. Eiikbuitu mi^bt bo at^k-d tbe * city of 'rUeodoro,' 
but BO eqiwlly might any rity in which a ehui-cb was dedicated to bim. 
Thin long disproof of ]tl. Ihiebofine's interpretation of tho inKcriplion of 
Sufaramboli (sec p. 320) may soim unntccssary, aji tbu chhc i» su clear ; 
bat my expeiieuco iu the ciiite of Keloe, TbeiniBsouiou, Eii»i, A;i:., abowii 
DO how I may go on for yoart roitorating in vain tho dtitpi-oof of errors, 
anggested without any ovidt-nco and accepted implicitly by the world. 
The uatnrc uf TlicodoniR the Soldier, ns u Haint wui-ftbipped in Pootiis 
and Papblagonia, about whom there rtcw up purely legendary accounts 
without a trace of luHtorical truth or veriaiiuilitude, has Itecn thoroughly 
illUHtratf-'d in our dibcuwiion. 

P. ton (T 7). I had thought that the exact rate of Olba might Itc 
at tbo remarkable nitun hccu by Mr. Hogarth when tmvclliug irom 
Maghrn to Scleiikeia in IHlj7. Atxiiit three huiiM b^'fore reaching 
Solonkeia ho saw thc-tte ruins at no vary great diNtanco to the east, but 
dLviilod from him by u niTiue. Uu wtut awturcd by variouit inronnantK 
at Uagbru that Mr. Sterrelt bad visttei those ruins, aud ihcrt-fore did 
not go to them, as his companion was ill, and tlioy wt^ro hurrying lu 
the ooaat for a ntenmer. But in the utter uncertainly an tu the uiiipping 
of tills diatriot and even of Baid Pasha'a new road from Bcloukeia to 
Maghra (aee p. U61), nothing but a looao approximation to the site is 
poesible. 

c 2 



22 THE HISTOEICAL GEOGRAPHY OP ASIA MINOB. 

This identification was arrived at in the early winter of 1888-9, and 
■was printed in the appeal issued by the Asia Minor Exploration Fund 
in December, 1889, for fanda to cany out a new expedition into the 
Mstem part of Asia Minor. The programme of the route proposed was 
there printed, part of which was to examine this site, perhaps that of 
Olba. 

More recently J heard from Mr. Bent that he has found Olba south 
of Maghra at a site some milee north-east of the one seen by Mr. Hogirth, 
which also has been examined by Mr. Bent. The name Onra, which is 
still attached to the site of Olba, shows that I was right in maintaining 
that Oorha (i.e. Ourwa, for beta denotes the sound of w, cp. footnote 
on p. 312) was the native form of the name, and Olba a grecism to 
suggest a connection with SXfiiK.* With Ourba compare Ouerbe in 
Fisidia (Famphylia Seounda). Mr. Bent's discoveries confirm the 
general course of my arguments, and vrill add greatly to the further 
development of them, f 

* Seleoceia also wu originall; named Olbia, and m&j h&Te been in the oonotry of 
Olba. 

t I add a note after Tisitine: Olba, Ur. Bcnt'a ducoTory. It u rif^htly placed in m^' 
map : bnt the map attached to Ur. Bent's paper in Frooeed. B. O. 8., Ang. 1890, ia far 
from accnratc. Vsunja Burdj should be placed much fiuiher south, aboat lat 36° 37' ; 
Oiuu sfaotdd really be cast by north from it, instead of ftonth. Haghra should be 
much further south- Enrea Kcni, which wc did not visit, ia more nearly correct. 
Wo estimate the height of Vzunja Burdj 2000 feet lower than Mr. Bent. In the 
* Atbennum,' July 19, p. 105, Hr. Bent discards Kastabala of Cappodocia entirely, and 
infers from Strabo that Tyana and Kybistra were in Cilicia near Kastabala. I adhere 
to all that I have written : my opinions were in print months boforo Kx. Bent 
travellcil, and I consider them confirmed entirely by his brilliant discoveries. 



THE 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ASIA MINOR. 



PART I. 
GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 






» 



IN1>KX «AI' TO 
imOraSSOK W^ . HAMa AY)J 

ANCIENT ASIA MINOR 



i-oe 



SruUvf .SlfJiilr Mites 

» y ¥ V m 



jy 






■w 



THE 



UiSTOKICAL (iEOGRAPHY OF ASIA MINOll 



Paiit I. liENEHAL PIlINCirLES. 



1. SeLLE»IS){ AMD OlUBMTAtHU. 



FtASTI3> like a bridge between Aaia und Europe, the jteninaula of Asia 
Minor hns bocu from the Ijegiiitiitig of hiatoT^' a bftltlelk'Kl Wtweeu tho 
East and the Wetit. At^rout this bridgo thoroligton, art, and civilisation 
of the Eaat found their way into Greece; »Dd tho civilisation of Greecu-. 
under tJia guidance of Alesaiulor the ilaoodutiiiiu, jmasud buck wgiuti 
aorcwts tlte Baud bridge to conquer the Etuit ami levolutioni&o Axia aa fai' 
ft8 tlie heart of India. PenriiinH, Arabs. Aloiigoie, Turks, have all 
fullowod the name ruuto iu the mauy attempts that Aoia haK uada tu 
subdue ilio ^Vctst. 

Tbn very character uf the country has markod it out oa u buttlft- 
ground Iwtwcun tha Oricnlal and tho European epirit. The great iiiAM 
of Ania Minor aousiBts of a plutuiiu, ^000 to SOOO foot ab«ivo soa-Uirel, 
around which there I» a fringe of low-lying coiutt-laud. Tho plateau 
is like a continuation of Cvulral Asia, vast, immobile, iiiunotunouB, 
Tho wcstcni ooaRta on tho Acg^;a^ sea aro full of rariuty, with a very 
broken coust-lino and loug arms of the sea alteniatiog with pro- 
minent caiiea. 

lu the scenery also, tho plateau proBonta an ci]uu.lly tttroti^ ooutraat 
to th« wii-stem coasL Tho plateau from tho Aiiti-Taunm woBtwiirdtt wm- 
gUts chiefly of groat gviilly undulating plains. 'I"he nconery. m a rule, 
is monotonous and sulidued ; even tlio monutalnB of I'hrygia socm not to 
have tLo epirit of frocdom about thoui. TIi« tonw cvcrywlioru ia uiclau- 
dioly, but not devuid of a certain chnrm, which, aft«r a time, takes an 
even stronger bold of the mind than tho bright and variod eccnery of 
tlic Greek ivorld. Strong eontraata of olimatu between the long Hovore 
winter and thi: short but hot suuimi:r, a fertile noil dopunJont untiruly on 
tho chaucca of an uncertain rninfall, iniproxecd on tho luind of tliA 
inbabitauta th« inaignificanoo of man and hie dependenoo on tho power 
of nature. The tono can bo tmcod throughout the le^^'udH and tho 
xcligioD of the plateau. The legends are always »ad— LityeieM elaia 



i 



liy tho sickles of tie rcApors lu. tlio fiolcl," Miirsyas flaj'ect l)j" tlie goil 
Apollo, Uylaa drovmeil in tbo foautaiu — all cud in death during tbo 
prime of life and th« prido of Art. Itiit tlio nccnery of the .^Bgean ooast- 
laudfl is ax bright and varied as tbat u( Greucu i(w<lf. Thoro in not a 
trace of monotony or m«laucholj in the conHtant altcrnatioQ of eoa aiid 
promontory, of sharp rugged mountaiiiH nnd doop fortilo vallcye. The 
B«n8d of life and vigour is wonderfully quickened iu the cloar attoo- 
splioit) and the hright light, where wipe after cape utrctehes fur oiit to 
the west an if tiding to bridge over the " oatranglng sen " to the i^laud^ 
and wheve tliu water uf the iuletd, oQbviug au eaai«r road than the land 
iteelf, provolces the navigating instinct. Tho thought of donth is nevor 
present whoro the incitomoiit^ to life nnd rcUod iiro ao groat. 

Thus the plateau is in everj- way characterised aa n border-laud 
hotweeu East and \Vcnt, nnd a Imttlelield lietwcen the Oriental and tho 
.European spirit. Tho idea of thia great etrngglo was n formative 
:' principle which moulded tho gradual dovulopmeut of the Iliad, and gave 
the tone to Horodotns'a epio history. We can trace ite main features 
from that time onwatdB. Greece and Pereia were the roproeeutativo 
antagoniats for two eeiituriea. Then tho conqneats of Alexander, 
orgauiBod and ooiisolidatud later by tho goQiiiti of Bomo, mado the 
European spirit apparonily victorimis for many centurios. 

But tho contiuiEt vraa not rcul. Romans goremcJ Asia Mioor 
hooaosc, with their marvellous govetniug talent, they knew how to adapt 
their adniini»trtit ion to tho people of the plateau. It is true that the great 
cities put on a western appearance, and took Latin or Greet names : 
Latin and Greek were tho ItkiiguagOB of govenimeiit, of tho educated 
claesOB, and of polite society. Only this superfiL'iuI oepoct is attoetod in 
litomturo and in ordinary history, nnd when I began to travel tho 
thought had novor occurred to mo that there wii8 any othwr. The 
conviction has gradually forced itself on me that tho real state of the 
country was very diffi&rent. Greek wob not the popidar language of tho 
plateau ovon in tlio third oeutury after Christ: tho mass of the people 
Hpoku Lycaonian, and Galntian, mid Phrygian, althoogh those who 
wrote books ivrote Greek, and those who govemod spoko Latin. The 
people continued to bcliove in their own leli^on: their gods wero 
identiJiLHl by cdncntud poTuons with tho gods of Greoce and Komo, and 
called by Gmek names; but they had none of the Greek or Bontan 
charact43r, they were Asiatic deities. Christianity conquered the land, 
and sucoeeded in doing what Greece nn<l Homo had never douo: it 
imposed it« language on tho people. But tho Christianity of Phrygia 
was never like the Christianity of Europe : sects of enthusiasts who 



* The talo ia ooiniuoDlj given in tlie r<onn thai Litjrone* xlew nil ettangL-re and hiil 
tliotr bwliva in tlio sItonTca, niul tliKt lie vvu hinuvlf ulitiii by Uct&kl«9 auil lamented by 
Van Kmfon to tlic Lityi'Nca Song ; but \u> mual ultimately ]» an impunountion of (ho 
Ur« ot nature out down in Ibo liuvi-iil, and c«l<^brat«d in hnrTcrt tonga. 



I. ni-XLEHCSU AKU ORIENTALISM. 



29 



perpctual«d the old type Iii ih^ new religioQ always flotitulic<I tliero, 
and tbo orthodox nTitciit fror]ti«iit1y invoigh ugainat tho numeruTlft 
Anatoluin herenios. It is a suggeHtiTe fact that tho old naincx of mAQy 
cities whitih. had been roploood by Greek or Liitiii nauicB often Bmrircd 
and r«taxuud into uiv. Thoro was & city of Isauria uamcd l>iucau.'«areia : 
it is oftou liientionod in tha Gret ReTon. contuiies after Cbritit. lu tlio 
I»ter Byzantine writc-rs Frnlcaua. a naiue uuknowu in earlier writers, 
in re^lavly used ; but the identity of DiocaesaroiA and Praknnu would 
be ankooTm, ^horo it not for a cofinnl pjiraso in tho pnioeedings of a 
ChriBtiau Council (Conci!. Nit-apu. 11.) of Iho eighth oenturj-, which 
shows that at ihat time the popular name Prakana was forcing itself 
into thu official registers nlongsidu of tho ofliotul namo IMocaosarcia. 

The fouudntiion of Couetuutinoplo yeus u sigu thutt tho Wvet had not 
roaily oonquored Asia Minor. The immense power of goTommental 
organiKation which Roman geniiut cniiHtnicted mainlaine<l itsoU for 
many ccntnrios. But the Oriental character grow strongor century by 
century iu thu Byzantine goveruoiout; one dyuosly ovurtumod another 
dynasty, and 4>Jich was loss " Weetuni " than the preooding one. 
Phrygians, IiiaminnH, Cnppadociaua. and ArnieniiLna, ruled under the 
stylo of Bomnn Emporon, till at length ii purely Oriental dynasty of 
Oniatilis oliuinated oven tho euporficial forms of tho West. The 
ohnngo was not in nil rospect* so groat »» wo aro apt to snpposo. Tho 
longnage and the religion and tho goTomment of Anatolia reached at 
last Ibe Oriental goal to ivbioh tho genius of tho laud tended. There 
is no more interesting process in history than this which was completed 
by the conquest of Constantinople in 1453. 

At the present day, after the Bast hasrulod foroonturics undiatarhed 
in Anatolia, tho old struggle has rocommcnced. The Greek element ii 
gradually supplanting thu Oriontal on tho Aegean coast. That strength 
and vitality which the Greek racL' se^ma to pnaseiss under every govern- 
ment except its own,' i» gradiuilly placing the coast valleys in its hands. 
Tho Oriental vlcment docs not reticat, it ia not driven hack by open war; 
it dic« out on tho coast by a slow yot sure docoy. Bnt tho intorior ia 
still wholly Oricntnl, and if the same peaceful development oontinnes I 
believo that the Turks, as saldivnt, and tho Greeks, as traders, will, 
nnited, make a happier country than either race could by itself. 
Knglish railways are gradually pushing their way into the country from 
Smyrna, which is the melropulia of thu wcstoru uk>ment; and western 
conuneroe is Crying to Teoiganise the linos of trade. The same tnide 
routed across Asia Minor now lead tu Maiseiltes and to Livoqioul, which 
once led to Itomo, and the railways aro rcoponing the roads of anoient 
times. Thero aro two oompoting rontes. One follows the line of the 



* I must trnitem that the cleTelofmcut of Greece during tba tut tvn yttin Is 
(llspiof iug Uu! Intmeudo In Uila teuteaoe. vtiicli iros vrilteu toai yiftua ago. 



ac 



THE HISPJRICAI, GKOGRAPUV OV ASU MISOR. 



gnftt "EiHtom highway of UTwoo-ltoniAn time : it posaes through 
GpliMaii, the Graco-Roiuan capital, which has nuw hjiit itji harbour aoil 
snnlt into ooinpl«te i)ecaj; and rmm Kphc-sos oDwarcls it followv, ami 
tnuat oontimio to fuHow stvp hy step, tho Boiuaii road. The other 10 
opening up the old liuo of the "Koyal Road": its enginwni have 
eurveytid Iioth tlio original r<}uteand the tnoi1)(t«t]coiiT«e that it followed 
in the Itomai] period, and tho prophecy is not a dangerous oqo that the 
latter will fiually W ndopto^h 

Th«so movementa uf armies and p&oplcH and civil isutiona have taken 
place along a fow linoR of ro;id,))oinc (if which havo 1»oen more important 
at one time, soma at another. To trace in outline tho hifltory of tixeso 
i-oads, to show how thoy are marked out by nature, and how tho 
variation in their compurative importance, prodiioed by hiBtoricol 
reasonii, haa reacted an the diatribation of the chief uentres of fopulatiou, 
is the Biihjeot of this ONsay. 

The road-eyatom of Anatolia ia at proeent in a tranntion Btat«. 
Siitee steam iiavigtttiuu wa<i iutroduL'ed the great land-routQa, alarting 
from ConBtantiiiople and leitding to the variona proviiicee of tlio empire, 
have fallen into diKUBO and diErcpciir. I'ruviuniily the ncocaaJtiea of 
government roQuired the nininten^inoe in tolerable repair of roads and a 
pestiil servicu. ThiM Turkish rond-syetem was practioally tlio Bame ae 
the Byzantine ajBtem, which was gradually introduced after the 
foundation of ('omitantiucplc an thu capital uf the eiiHturn world. That 
event soou produced a total revolution in the road-syittem, which 
previously had been arranged for comiiiercinl ami milititry purpoet^e 
with a view to easy communication with Rome. We muat therefore go 
Iw-ek to an older road-sj'stciii, of which Rome wan the ctutro. Acoordiiig 
to that Hystoni nil roada led to Rome : all the products of the pnjvinces 
of Auia Minor, from the Luge monolithic columns of Phrygian marble 
to the red Cappadoc'ian earth (^iAt<is) for making pencils, were carried 
to the harbour of Ephesos, ami thence shipped to the West; from 
Jtnme came all tho govomors aud ofBciale, and to iioue they returned ; 
along the same roads all alike travcUod, mcrcbnnts, ot&cittls, tourists, 
every one who was attnietftd towards tho gro&t centra of life. Tho 
same raad-ay§tom, on tho whole, exiated under the Greek kings, except 
that it was nnorg&nised and only inehonto. The ouly road wboae 
«3cistoDce is expressly attested under tbe Greek kitige, and whiMO oonrso 
is descriljed, ooinoiiles with the gi'eat Roman highway from Cafisareia 
to Ephesos. Itiit beforo tho conquest of Alexander wc find a diifcrcut 
B6t of roads, whose course testifiea to a wholly different syatera of 
communication, and opens a glimpao into another period in tho hiatory 
of tbe country. 



( 27 ) 



11. TuE"BoTii. ItOAr.." 

UtircHlutuH dcBCiiWa the ^roat ro«d of tto lVn>iaii iwriod from 
EpheeoB by the Cilioinn (JateH to Sufta. It waa called tho "Boy»l 
Itoail," V)ec,»ii80 tlio bltvico of the Gn»it King jiaseeil nloiig it; and it 
was, thtrerore, tlio direct path of coniinutiiciition for nil goverotnont 
bu8iii««i#i. I'hifi rotid crumtsd Ihu Iiuly« hy u bridf^, which Il^rodotuii 
httd lit^ard of, probably from the nitrratiTa of merchants nt Siiiape, 
among whom a, bridgo over unah a grttat river lui the Halya waa 
certainly coitsiderei] a wondurful work of eiigiii«ering. Now the centre 
of Aaift Minor is occu]>icd by ft Rtwit etilt liiko and a salt doa&rt, and 
tlmre ure really only two ronteii acroea tlie plati^an from t^ast ti) vrost,oiia 
sooth and the other north of th«i <1«flert. If the " Ko)'a1 Road" had 
pattacd south of tbu deiwrt, it cuiihl not have croEXod tho Uoi^'s; it muut, 
therefore, have takon tho northom route. 

The soiithem roiit4s i« iho Rreat highway of tho Gnwr!i>Ronmii period. 
The hiBtory of Aaia Mtiiur for six or iwvon ccntiirica dtpcnds mainly on 
it. It is a far shorter nay ftom Kpli^os to the Cilioinn Outes than 
tbe northern ronte, which inrolves Bti immcnso detour. It ia aUo 
hy ftr the <>iLi!iur. It fullowa the one eoBV path that tiuturu hiu 
raaclo between tho .\egcau coast and the high grounds of the plateau, 
wliilo the northern roiilo haa a vury difficult path for a hundred milea 
in tho weatem part of it« conrae. What was the reaaon why tho I'eraian 
road prffemMl the difficnit and circuitoiia to tho direct and easy 
roote'' Tho only reason can be, that tho PoraianH aimply kept up a 
xuud which had dwolopi-d in an older period, whvn thu situiition of tho 
j^OTerning ooutrv) made it the nntnral road. It is an acooptod l^t that 
in several other cases roods of thr> Persian Kmpire were iiaed liy the 
Aieyrian kingi long hcforc the IViaian time, and, iu particnlur, that 
the eantern part of the " Itoyal Itoad," from CiUcia lo Buss, ia much 
older than the begimiing of tho Poraian power, 

A nmilar phenomenon presenta it«elf in the eaateni part of Aaia 
itior. At the preaent time tho harbonr for Cappudocia in cither ^amaiiii 

the north coaat. or Uenlna ou Iho eouth. la the time uf Stnkix>, (hi> 
liarboar on tho north coaBt waa tbo oaiue, and he deaoribes the great 
trade<rout« from Central Ania liy Komana Pontica to AinthirM (.Samann), 
which ohriously coincidca with tho modern rente. Bivaa-Tukat-^;il^ulUIl 
(See helow, p. 202.) But if wc gu back to au older lime, wc liud that 
not AmifiOs, but 8inopo, w»8 tho barlwnr on the imrth for tho products 
of Oappadocia and Central Asia. In the time of Straho. tjinopo vnm a 
rity whiiisc greutuO!*» lay in iIlo yi&tt. Ila aitiirttion, an thfl natural 
harboui- of a coast district, and one of tho thixjo chief 80«t« of the tunny 
fishery, gnve it a ««rtain im}>ortanco, and livon at the present day Sinnb, 
AS it is still called, ia a harUiur where the Turkish steamers call. But 



2S 



THE HlSTOniCAL aSOGKAPHT OF ASU MINOn. 



this is Dot GUfficiiiat to account for ita great importaQCO in oldor liictor}*. 
It coiiM not b»vu bec^u suuli u. oontro of Liutorioal legend as it is. exoept 
as the port of the ettsteni tra<le. Curtius has recognisL'd iho secret of 
Iho early ^catnces of Siiiopu" us hJng iu the fact tlmt it was tlio 
termiuMS of « oaravau- route, aloog which the pioducts of tbo East wora 
brou^t to tho Grook wtios. To Sinopo converged the routea from tho 
EupLraten, by Mazaka (Casfaroia in Utor times) nnj {unu the Cilicinii 
tiutcs by Tyuufl. But bufure the iirst century b,c. Sinopo had lost thia 
adYftutage. Tiio trade of tho East wm borne, chiefly to Eph*BOB by 
tho groat OrtiKin-BonuiiL highway from the EupUratee and C»«iitnroia- 
Uaz^fr, partly also tu Aiuieus by Subii8t«)ia, Komana, auJ Lnodioeia. 

Ono trace of tlile early iinportajice of Sinopo as tho harbour of the 
Capp&docian trade is preserved by ^trabo (p. 540J. The red earth 
(/uAmt) which was found in Cappaduuia was much used iu Greece and 
Italy. l>uriiig the last oeitturicA &.c. It was carried along tho great 
eastcru highway of Grfoco-BomAQ time to Epheeos, and there ehippcd 
to the West; bnt before that commercial route liod been organised, the 
red earth bad found its way tu Gr&eco by Sinopo, uud was known to 
the Greeks only as Siiiopio Earth. 

Now the natural toad, tho easicat and ahurtost, from Cappodocia in 
general to tho Blaok Sou, goes to Amisoa. Sinope is out oET from tbo 
interior by broad aud lofty niouutains, most ditKcuU to traverse.| We 
have here a neoond case, where the earlier road prefers tho longer and 
moru dif&cuU ruuto to the shorter and eoiiiur, and tbo reason must bo 
the same: tho road must have come into existonco at a time whon tho 
centra of power mads it the natural one. 

These two roads, from Ephesoa to the Cilician Gates over the Halys, 
and from Central Cappadocia to Sinopo, meet in tho parts of Galatia 
oaat of the Halys. Pr^cis^ly in thifi i^imrter lie tho most remarkable 
remains of early Anatwlian history. 

At Bogh&z Keui are situated the ruins of by far tlie most exteneiTc 
*nfiidnt city in A^ia Minor. It« wall, whose reoiaici show that it was 
of great tluclcneaa ami height, embraces a circuit of four or five milea.^ 
The romaina of a palace (or possibly temple) in it are uuiijue iu Asia 
Minor for nizo and stylo. The rock -sen Ipturcs beside it show it to have 
been an important roligioue cODtrc. Ilero wo have the only city in Asiit 
Minor wliicit iti marked by its remains na a ruling city of the Oiiental 
type, uualTfclcd by, and oarliet than, Greek influence. Its situation 
explains all the difilcultiea preaoutcd by the early roads. It cumniuui- 
oatod naturally with Sinope, and tho road from it to Ephesos crosses 



* Griech. Goaob.. eJ. S, toI. I. p. 408. 

t 1 have iiBver ciDoaiHl tliii khuI, but, ncrnriUii^ to Sir C. ^Vilion, its <1ifflciiUy was 
dMrribciI b; Col, (then Licutenaiil) KUcIiouct in ttto \Qry strongMt tcnoa. 

I I Npisik fmin pyr-Aiglit only ; but Dr. MnmanD, who Iim aurv^jred t)i« vholo til«i 
lolta mc- tliiit tUu ostiuuito is aot cxn^ig'tntlMl- 



f. 



• ^U THE « EOYAL ROAD." 



S« 



the HalyR. Wo are tliui) led 'beck to an early nfatc of Aaia Idmor, whoa 
n i^rcikt cttpita.1 ot Boghax Keui ooinisuaicaled on the one band with the 
£aat tLrough tho Cilician Gatox, on Iho other haud with Ephesos. Tho 
road from the Gates to the capital passed tlirough Cappadocia, and the 
produotii or Cappaducia were oarrieil along it, and then on to Sinopo. 
The name Pteria, which ita discoverer Tester eaw to lie righti 
has beon aeeoptcd by every iraTellpr. Hiiitory ban recorded only one 
fact alwiiit it. When Crcesus made war agalnat the Persian conqueror 
of the Median Empire, ho marched on Pteria.* H« ohmsmI the Halya 
liy a bridge, obxioiiely the bridj^ oa Uie Goyal Road, along ivhich there- 
fore his inaroh was directed from Snnlia to Pt«ria. A bridge implies a 
road, and in thin paiutago we httve a olear proof that tho " Boyal Hoad " 
was already in use before tho PcrelaoB had entered Asia Minor. 

Other consi derations iiho<v that this road ie older tbua titu Persian 
period. Herodotus represents it as known to AristagoraB, and there- 
fore, existing during the sixth century, i!,c., and the Persians had had 
no time to orgaiiieo a great road like this before 600 ; they only uaed 
the previouoly uxistjng road. Moreover, the Lydiau kingH Becm to have 
paid Home attention to their rondi*, and perhapa oven to have measured 
them, as we may gather from HerodotuB'a aooonnt of the roads in the 
Lycaa vallty, and of tho Wimdary )>itlar erected byCrccBUS at Kydrara-f 

The exact route which this " Kcyal Iload " followed bctwecu Pteria 
and Sardis cannot be doterminod with certainty, bnt in all probahili^ 
it wont by PeasiniiH and the city of imknown name wliieJi lic« aliove the 
Tomb of Midas. Bcutpturcs. similar to thoao of Pteria, aro found at 
iutorvalH along this route. Tho otyle of art is similar, aiid they aro 
generally accompanied ty hieroglyphics of the same type. Whereas 
the citiea on tlio Bonthorn route, the great (TKeco-Roinaii highway, 
bear names whicli belong to the Greek or tho early Imperial period: 
Ctoaareia, Archelaia, Laodiccia Combnata, Fhilonielion, Julia, Lysias, 
Apameia, I^aodiccia ad I'vcum, Antioehoia, Nyea ; ( the natuea of tho 
cttiea on the northern route are of an older stamp: Tavium. Ankyra, 
Gordion, Petwiuus, OrkinUw, Akmonia, SatAla, Sardeis.S Yet some of 
thcee oitica were, at one time, great religious and commercial 

* Herod. I. 7^. lie ilockre* hii owo opi&Ioa Uiat Cjixniii Cfowcd by tlie bridge, buL 
nentlana Ibe coinmaa Grcok stni; time Tlmln li«d cntibled tlie army to cren by 
tlivtdlnp llie rivur. Hmxlottw. «lio liaJ lieanl nt Kiangu nf tlto Galya bridgii, nv tliat 
C'RBStui mu«t harv eroawU b; It, but the foot is infened, niul not tiik«n tton Krltton 
■utiiority, nor vtru from popnUr tntdHion. 

t HtroJ. VIL 80, — Ma vrii\ii MrartniYvtB, graStiaa It hti Kjufiniii, mn^iji^ii 

I 8<>vpnil, p«Tbn|ii: a)1, of tlicos ciliw had nn carlipr exi«t«uM and aamf, but tKo 
Ttthaadatiaa under u n«ir ii&mo wai ^ncmlly on a new «itc, rbM«u for ccauaercdal 
oonrenienoo. 

f TiujaDupolia it tlio only exception: Aiikyn mia Called ftlso Si-lxiitr. but ttio uamo 
nerCT acquiml popular cnrrmcy. Tn^nnopolJs Is balaoenl hf BodriaaojwUi on Uio 
■onlbsra nad. 



ao 



THE HISTORICAL GKOGKAPHT Of ,UiIA UJNOB. 



centre^,* und tliey oonld nut hare bcoonio ho tiulcos their wero on an 
importaiit tTock of communication ; moreover, they wen greater in tlie 
earlier period, as ia sho^va by thoir plftc« in legend, wbilo in tho Iloman 
puriod they am either urdinary pruvinoial citira like Fesiiinus, or mere 
viltagCH like Gonlioii. 

Crock historical K'gond always IocoHsoh the oH Phrj-giim kingB, not 
in southern Phrygia on the later Tonto, but in tho broad Satigarjoft 
valloy travorsoii by thi» older route. 

Tho followiog arc the points where I think tiiat traces of this old 
I'Oftil cxiat. IBetweea Ephctioti and tiurdiH it uroveod thu pa^e uf Earu 
B«l, in which aro tho two monumcnls of Syro-Capjuwlocian art, one of 
whioh has long been known as tho " Seaostrin." Koar Sardis it probably 
joined unothur road of thia earlior period, coming from Phukftia and 
Kyme hy tho north side of Mount Si|>ylo8, patit tiio liimoua " Niobe," 
another monument of Syro-Ciippadooinn art, really ft cnlt-statue of the 
Oreat CioddesH Meter Kybele.f From Sardia its first stage cannot bo 
doublful; it wfiit iioarly due east, not fur from the course of the 
Mirandor, pniMiing (hrouph ijatiilu,} tho woat of a cultua of a goddess 
Artemis-Ana itis-Loto, which appoaiB to have been the chief religion of 
Utd Kataki'Monmeni: I think tliat thent in n lari^ ttimiilus about Hie 
place where it probably isnued fiom the motintainK on to tho plain 
of Ushak (Tonu-nothyrai and Grimenothyriii).§ It must hare passed 
Ihrougli Keranion Agnn* (lelam Keui), for there is no otlmr possible 
road. A Htilc sonth-wcst of Islam Ktui, closo to the natural lino 
of the road, is a targo tumulus. It roust then have ascendod the 
Ilamam Su, and oliiubed tho slope of tho ridge in which that river 
rises. On the highest point of this ridge, clofto to the linn of the 
roftdv is another large tiimnlns. At this point alternative routes uro 
open : the road mif^ht either turn to the Botith-esBt through Pn-mnossos 
aud Auiorion to Pt-ssimm. or keep on towards the north-yaat. The road 
probably followed tho latter roiito, traversed hiily cunnlry and Lsmiod 
on to the plain of Altyntash at Sf-th KeirhA £'juk, " Fivo Span Mound," 
a village which derivea its name from the large tumuliui bcsldo it. It 

* Goj<lium U&dd mngnuni luiiluJn 0'|>|>i<lutu, avd plut quani mvditcrnuivtim ctLobro ot 
(Veqneiu onipurJuin. — Lif. 39, tS. TItaatrovt inv6fiio» tii¥ ra&tj) liiytutov'al S' UptU th 
raKaiiiP jiii' ivrinTai tirii ^aaai.—%\ttAi.. p. 5(17. 

f HiiTodrtiin'ii Btntctment — tie -ririn iv itirf^ei lyittKoXaiiiilvet ravrtu toh intfihs 
(l.(^ S*»>»lria) -rp -r* ii rqi "E^ffflljf ii •KvmiiicK /(ixwroi, koI tp /k SnfSiwv it Itiipytir, 

— irlitcli iih oLrioity un<l<.'rbtu"t], utterly mcurmcl, is pi»iiii]» n. cnnru.-ul nccouut fi)iiii<ki,l 
in a iwporl or lic^ripl iou of tlicw iwii tnnnumonts, oau on llip rond Ptiocoen to Surd Ik, 
tbe oilier nn tiin nni'l K['hiBr« Id Siirilcii. (.S< i> Ciinptitr IV,. p, Wt,) 

X Thu niiiii'K Siituln uIhu nuL-urii lu AruJi-iijii : it Tt-bima Ha uurih us Sniidal urar KouIh. 
— Cr. 'Jouni. Ilfll. fil-uV 1867. p. !ilQ. From ^nltiln lliin- iirc tnu vllcmDtivi-n, 
Ibruugh Kuiltii uu'1 Ih<1 Uvn, or throngli Tinjaaifpulif awI Karamoa Agutu ; Ibt-ymmt 
•t Five SptD Ml>uii(1 (ricii.li Kiirixh Eyiik). 

S I *|i«ttk fnnu ruuillDctioii at uiy IJnt JautQl^y in Bliky ISSl. It U not mealiunoU iu 
my notof. 



U tai '■ROTAT, BOAn.' 



31 



eWM M the plain nearly dao east, and cntoTs the liilU agaia Wside Bey 
Keiri. Ill the paKH hy wliich it «ul(>r« tli« hills i» n Urge tiiiuuhis, out 
of whidi I havfi diig a "block of Btono, of a tracHytic upecies, on which is 
•u iDscription in Syro Cappodooitiri liiui'OglyphicH. It tltou orutwud the 
hille to Bakshish, Yspttidak, and the city over the Tomb of Atidas, 
whopo thoro is at. least oiio momiment of Syro>OBpi>adocii>.n arU It thoii 
wont nearly diio eaat to OiltiatoB, crcisatd tho Sangsrtoe to PeHBinus, 
trarenod thu hillx to tiurdion,* nuJ then, ptusing the SangitriiM a 
aeeoud time, asoended the namam Sa to its source beside the Syro- 
Oippadooiaiinionuiiients of Giaour KnU-iii. Up to tliio point the [lonsililo 
routea are ao few, that when we aKtiime that PiwhIuum ami the Midas 
city were on the road, its courso is iieorly certain. Natnral conditions 
le»To no oboice. Dut oa>tt of Giaour Kaleiui it is very diffioiilt to 
determine tho exact path, partly bt-causo the country is an little 
known, partly Ia'c.iuku tfavro arv luore ultenintivus open. It pruhuhly 
pasted aotaally thrnugh Ankyra, which appears to have "been an im- 
portant city bcfuru tbu Qauls curvred the country. 

Such a rund as thia implios a considt-'rable amount of regular infer- 
ooni«o and a fiiirly Bettkd and peaceful state of the ct^jnntry. and 
may bo conoidcird to prove that thoro was, lung before the roisian 
con<iueBt, a well-developed civilisation along the north sido of the pbttcan 
of .\8ia Minor, that there wax regular nnd fn-qiient uommnnication from 
Sanlis to the oountrien boyond tho Halys, and that p«aoofnl stid settleil 
government maintuinod and encouraged this cummunicntion by a well- 
eonstructed roud with at least one brid^-e. It is a striking fuct that 
sufficient civiliHntion nnd engineering Hkill to build a bridge over a deep 
and rapid river like the Ilalya already prevailed in the higblande of 
Asia Minor Ixiforc tho middle of the sixth cvntuiy ux. It may very 
CNtfely ite affirmed that after the Persian contitiest the skill to make such 
a bridge did nut cxiat until wo oomo down to tho time of iho itotnaus. 
Wo may gather from the language of Hi-rudutns that this bridge 
wva famous as a wonder ainuiig the Greeka nf .Stno)^ie. none of whom 
hod ever seen it, but who know it by report. All tho other grestt 
rivers on the Roynl Head are cro^Hod by boats; tho Halj's alone lias a 
bridgn. 

Whether there was a regularly consolidated empire in Asia with a 
capital ai Plena, or whether this statu of iieaoo and commercial inter> 
course was due to a homogeneouH oiviliKalioti and religion over the 
connlry, must remain dunbtrnl. Ilut the i-videnee sooms olear that such 
a homogeneous religion and bocihI organisatiuii ilid vxist over the whole 
country, eharacterisbd by th« worship of a Mother-Ootldttw, Kybele or 
IiOto. In. this connection I shall refer to one point which bss somo 
geographical bearing. Tlie sacredness of tho pig us a purificatory sncri- 

• On (lie aito "f r:ordif>n al Ih-. Tlllngo \(lmn?. •<« p. 225. Qoimik it UBUslIy 
libcnl, in (kflau'-o of cpl^jmiHiiv i.'tid<.-uoo. at V<itnw; but Uuiuaonr wliu lios mva the 
|ifaicii, tkgrwa Willi me in clonblin^ lh« idtnttflcntion (aee p. 10> 



52 



THK IIISTORICM, GKOaRAPHV OF ASIA WlSOt 



fice is a rfttnarkable fi:«tnr« in tho religion of Greece. It is not a future 
which is original to the Hellenio tribos, as » proved hy various 
ar^imcnb; — (1) Tbo pig as o purificatory Boorifice is not found in thoec 
religious wUch sgoui to bo most purely HeU«ni«, wherooa it is found la 
tho80 which, on other pounds are gcnDrnlly bolioTod to bo borrowed. 
(2) The ritual of purification for muril«r, which involved Iheeacriilce 
of a pig, wft8 ideiiticAl in Greece and in Lydia, as Herodotus iitoutioiui • : 
Lydia cortoinly did not learn reUgtou from Gre&cc, but Grceco probably 
did from Lydia (Pausan. VL, 22, 1). 

Eoft of the Halys we find that the Semitia horror of tho pig prevails ; 
this ift not the caac west of tlio Halye. At Komana Pontics the presence 
of a pig, oven iu the city, much more in tlie eacred prooluct, was for- 
bidden-t B'lt in Lycia we ee* a pig nndor th« seat of the deified dead 
on tbo Harpy Touih. Iu Lydia the pig was a ptirificalory Bu-crifioe. 
I bought a small iniagi; of a pig in Egyptian, porcoluin, which I bc-lieve 
to haVB been found iu a tamulus at the Bin Tepe uoar Sardis ; and the 
late Mr. James Whittall, of Sniyma, pofceessod a umall arcbuic tcrra-ootta 
pig, which he believed to have been found there also. In Phrygia the 
custom of sacrificing the pig is proved to have existed Lj the ourioQS 
Hlory -which Strabo (p. 57<j) tells of Cleon, the Phrygian robber-ohiof, 
who was raieiMl by AuguBtuB to the high-prioHthood of Komaua Pontica, 
and who ahooked tho priests tharo by sacrificing piga: it is clear that 
he was simply carrying out his national habit of sacrifice. The Semitic 
horror of this animal which prevaik-d oast of the Ilalya waa pnil^ably 
duo to the conquest of that part of Asia Minot by th^ Aaayriana, who 
never actually penetrated west of tho Halye, The detestation of the pig 
is natural to the hotter oouutriea of the south, where ita ficsh is an 
iiuhtMilthy and hardly eatable food. A northern nation dt^es not natu- 
rally share this horror. 

The boundary hotu'ccn the pig-eaters and the pig-betel's was not 
exactly at the IlalyB. In Pcssiians, according to Pausauiaa. VII., 17, 10, 
the rule of alMtiuence from the flesh of th& pig existed, and this 
abistinenCe nay be taki^n. to imply general horror of the Oniuial, and 
tho bttliof that it caused impurity to every thing and person tliat 
touched it. But the influience of the eiwtern religion on the west may 
have dpread the Semitic idea bv>und tho actual hounds of Semitic rule; 
and history shows a continuous process of religious iiifiuence from 
east lo west. 

Whatever Ixj its origin, the difference between western Asia Minor 
and Grouco on the ono h«nd, and eastern Asia Minor, beginning from 
P<;8siDua on the other band, is most striking. In the west the pig is 
nsed iu tbu huHi'St mrciiionies ; its imago accompiiuii.'H the dead to their 
gravcB to purify them, and the living wush with their own hands (iu 
Qrce«c at least) tho pig which is to ho th«ir sacriEce. In the cast the 

• HokhI. I, 33. — lari H mipa»Ai(ff[)f ^ tASapoit toIoi AuSoTac Jtol Torn'CAAqfft. 
t Strub-, p. 575. 



II. THE " ROTAL ROAD.* 



33 



very pr«HODoe of a pig in tho holy city is a profanation and an imparity. 
Wy theory of explanation is that the religion which prevaileil throngh- 
OQt A»i» Minor in early time waa the religion of a nnrtlicrn raoo which 
h»i3 no horror of tho pig. ami thiit Semitic influence eiihserjiiently 
inlrodnccd that horror into thr oastcm parts of the countrv. 

I have unhesitatingly aesnmcd the tmth of the identification of 
Boghaz Keni with Pteria ; hut tlufi is not ntiiversally acooptoil,* and it 
may thereforo ho iidviBable to dincnRs the evidence. In tho firet placy 
tbu ruina at Boghuz Keui are tboeu ut tho grentoet city of AHitk Minor in 
early times, and are on such a sc&ld aa to leav6 no donbt in the mind of 
any trained obserTcr that llioy nni«t Iwlong to Iho metropolis of a great 
empire. In tho next place tho dcHciiption of tho roudu vrhicli hns just 
been given, proves that the capital of a great empire in early time must 
have been situated mmoirhero in tho country where Bnghaz Kent is 
gitnated. In the third place, when we are informed that Ckbbhs 
declared war against the Mciloe and marched on Fteria, the nataral 
inference is that rtoriut waa the Anatolian metropolis of the Mudian 
empire : thia of conrae ia an asaamption, fcnt no one who makes that 
aamimptiou and has eeen Boghaz Keui can doubt th« ideiititl«ation. 
Tho only other hypothcam that ia open, la that Pteria was not tho 
metropolis, bat merely a fortress of tho Median empire. In that case 
Pteria loaea all intflrest for us, and we must bo content to ho ignorant 
of the namo of the metropolis. But, in the fourth place, Pteria was 
probably situated on a road that led from Binopo direct south acruKi 
tho peninsula to the Cilician coast, aed Boghaz Eoui ia situated un 
that road. If the former assertion can bo prcvod, then the identity of 
Pteria ALd Boghaz Keiti may be regarded as proved, ao far as proof can 
be expected in ancient topogra^jhy without actual epigraphic evidence 
disooTcrod on tho spot. The proof of tliis statement, that Pteria was 
eitnated on a road from Sinopo to Ciliois, lies in Herodotua, I. 76. 
Eeroilutus con^idi-rH that tho north coast is a line extending east and 
west, and that Pteria wa« situatod on a lioe at right angles to this,! 
extending from SLaope southwards. This line was, as I betieve, the 
road from Sinope \>y Boghaz Keai and Tyana to the Cilioinn Gates. It 
is obvious that Herodotus had no knowledge of the interior of tho 
country except what he gathered from the report of traders at Sinope, 
who told him about the road to the eoiitb, about Pteria, and about the 
Halys bridge (I. 75). 

Wo naturally ask about the dat« of this ancient empire. I think it 
is possible to indicate approximately the time of its downfall in western 

* All travvlliin «!io have seen tho place, I tMok, accept the i(Ii'iilill>iuition : 
bul I haw nilUud this paraf^pli on uocwunt of the (ocpllrinn o( a forei^ rrleud, 
wfaoM ^nion is of vUae in all mntb-T* ccnnMloil with Aaiii Minor. I Htn now g\tiA to 
i«« Uial Uio id«Dtific«tiea of I'lcria U alw aoMpW by HumBna-Pucliiteia, •• Kcifen in 
Kldnosien." 

t A mtpfi). Kali lit4irtii' . . . tid^rri «n Mj/iiwi;. 

VOL. IT. P 



34 



THE HIRTOHICAL QKOOKAPUY Of A«A UINOB. 



Asia Uinor. Id the wide plains of tbe Sungarlos It gave plnc« to 
anotli«T race, tbo Phrygiuu^, wlioso balf<mytliica), bulf-liUlorical kings 
aro faiuilkr in bistory. Our Greek autboritiee uaaiiimnuBly uiiHirt that 
tbo Phrygians are a Kurapenn rac«, some of wbom found their way aoroas 
tho HeIlL«pDut into A&ia, while otbere continued to exist uulor tbo uamo 
Brigos ID Macedonia. I liav« fonnc) myself gradually forced by archico- 
logicol evidoQco to tbo samo conoluiiion. I believe tbat the I'br^-giaus 
p€uetrat«d across tbd Troad ; ibat tbe Troy wbosu power and whoeo 
downfall supply a slight bistoricol 1w«i8 for the Iliad waa prulmhly their 
esrlieat foundation in Aula; that thoy were originally a peopk of tlio 
cocwt, and thai tbuy wcrv forced up into tbo iiitoitor by Later migntioos 
of barbarous Thracian tribes into Asia Miaor. Tbe Greek chronologist* 
moiitiiJii that in early times tbe Phrygian tthijiM ruUnl the Aegean Sea 
(&1 1-900), and tbe timfl when they w&re forced up into the Suiigarioa 
valley may bo approximately fixed in the earlier half of tlio ninth century 
before Christ- The etatsmcnt in Iliiui, IIL 185, that Priam ftf 'IVoy had 
utKisted tbo Fbrygiana in their wars agaiotit tbe Amazona on tbe baiika 
of llie Saiigarios, probably contains a reiiii niece iice of the actual war« 
between tbo people of Ptoria and the Phrygiana, 

About POO B.C., therefore, the ancient empire, wJiow capital wm 
PtL'riu, bogftn to decay. On tho weet it gave plaoe to tbo Pbrj-giana ; on 
tba oast and Bouth-«ast the peoplea of Syria and Aasyria pressed on it. 
PteriB, however, long contiuuud to bo the great city nf Cappadocia and 
tbo acut of furuign governors : changes and thu gri->wtb of new cities aro 
alow in on Oriental ompiro, but at hwt Pt«ria did give place to oitioa on 
the direct routes of later timca. 

The bypothoeis wUiob identiiloB tho pooplo of Pteria with tho 
]Iittit«8 of north Syria has found numerous adherents ; but it appears 
111 mn to retiuire oonsidorable modiScatiou lioforo it can be aooepted. 
Tbat hypotbesiM, iu the form in which it is usnally put, neoHsItetM A 
capital far to the south in Syria, and leaved tlic old road and the nituation 
of Pteria quite unintolligiblo. IVria must at ono tiiuo havo been tho 
capital of an empire, for it lies bo far out of tbo direct lines of communi- 
cation with the capitals of Aasyrian or PerBian [wwar that jta origin 
UDitor thvaQ lat«r empires is ioipussiblo. But tbo close rt-lationslnp, I 
might almost say the identity, of art and hieroglyphic writing which 
prevails between tho early monumentu of Asia Minor and ths Hittito 
uionumonta of northern Hjria eoems to mt- a fact which must bo tho 
starting-point of all hypothuaes. ThiscloserelationHhipbos lobeexplained 
in Aomo way or other, but the analogy of £k-ljuk' TurkiiJi art, which is 



• TIis tkl>ul£ nianumc-iiUi, almutil uuknown to Rnro|)atnji. oto Uip innrt Inuuitirol 
niiut III A<iit Minor. Thoy iiI>ouqiiI Id the citi«(i tmrn Konia eiutwarij. 6trt>i<tlf , na 
Htt C Vi'i\tOTi nrHeK the ittylc of ait in tiia Sdjuk P'lnalni U Ponian ; tho Btrljukit of 
Ri^am or Ams Minor Bhai«d in the art oflbo S«ljak Otuad tiul ton's court, irbcrc Arabic 
wu the loD^ngo. 



Id. BEGI.VSING OF THE TEADE-nOUTE. 



3> 



ininSy Arabic in. st^Io and Ungnogd, ihows tbat identity of art does not 
necatsikrily prove idaotitj- of raoB. The Hittlto mouumcuts iu Syria an 
clearly nioro (levolopvd lu biyh aud later iu date than thoso of Asia 
Mioor, with tlie ezooption of tfa& rock-sculptnro at Iliriz, wliioh is lalar 
in character. 

An important road probuWy existed, connoctiiig Ptoria with Assjria 
by tbo Anti-Tftiirus region, traversing TaiiroB liy the important poas 
jl V *,'. ii between Al-Boatan and Marash (or in cncient times bolwoon Arabissoe 
and Gorntanicoia). It prol)ably paRsod through Komana and MaKnka, 
Professor Kiepert" loBg ago obaenred the difficulty of understanding why 
the " Royal Ruai" ehoiilil crosa the Ualyii iuutoad of takiiig the aborter 
eoQtheni route. His explanation, that the " ICoyal Road " went north in 
order to join the trade-route from the Euphrates to Sinopc, is, however, 
not sufficient. He gives no oxplanatiou of th« equally difficult fact 
that Sinope was the otil Iiarhoar for the Asiatic iracle. Bnt he has 
Men that the ezplanati«Ti of the P«rBi«n ro«d lies in the eiistenoe of 
ail older lino of rood, and I have morely carried this principle a little 
further. 

ni. Bboiitoiot op the Trade-Route. 

TVhen Aitia Minor was only a province of an empire whoso governing 
centre waa in HMopotamia or Penia, the natuTal road from the iF:gean 
coast to (he capital was the eontlkorn rente, and thiH road gradually came 
into UBe during the Pcrtian period. The earliest direct proof of the 
•xifltence of this trade-route is the quotation given by Btrabo (p. 623) 
from Artemidonw (about it.c. lOO). But the foundation of inioh citiM 
an Laodioeia (twice), Apameia, and Autiocheia, showa that the route 
was impwtoDt as early as the third century bcforo Christ. These oitioa 
were founded as c«ntree of Oroek influeuoo, and their situations wers 
aelectod on the most important line of oommuuication. It in an int«re8t- 
ing and euggestivo detail that the gato of Laoiliceia nd Lycum, through 
which this road uittacJ, vrae called Uio " ijyriau Gate." Tho cuatom of 
naming eity-gatA.* according to the chief objt-et of the road which issned 
through them is wull kuows.f The imjwrtance of the route as early lui 
801 tkc ia pToved by the campiiga which ended in the battle of Ipnos. 
Seleucng coming from Cappadocia, ond Lysimachiis cotaiug from 
Heracleia, sucx'eeded in ejecting a junction, and tho decisive battle 
was fought at I^^hob. Now Ipsos, the 1at«r Jalia, ia a city on the 
direct line of the road, while S)Tinadtt ia only a little way to the north 
of the Toftd, and indeed it was a freqnent cnirtom to take Synsada on 
the line of road by a alight detour. The events ithow tie critical 
importance of this part of the road, and therefore imply the exiKtcnoe 
of the whole road. It is prubablu that the design of Antigouns was to 



■ ' Berl. Hoiialal>«r.' 1B5T, p. 1S6 t. 

t Mi^uesUa Oslo at Epbcooi^ Epherfan Qate at Bmjrnu, to. 



D 2 



I •? 



I 

I 



8S THE III3T0E1CAL GEOCRAPHV OF ASIA ilUOK. 

prevent the junotion of bla enemied* forces bv intercfliiting .S<'lo»cu» 
duriiijf LU luaroL from iLi* vohI; but th^ allied kiugn eluded Iiini 
either ly concentrating along the nortliem ronte in the north of 
Flu-ygia, and tliou advancing tou-arda S^nuod* to give him bnttlo. or 
hy concentrating along tLo foiitLom route aboat Ipaos before Antigosut 
expecfed them. 

Even during the fifth century wo can trace the oouthem route. 
T71i«u Aluibiudcit wan on his way, in 404 u.*:., to the court of Artaxcrz^, 
he u'UHaBaaiuiinated at Melisiia, a village on the road between Synnnds 
and MtttrupoliH, whvre Hadrian aftotwardB erected a Btatno to hia 
memory {Achec, j>. i'>74).* He was tlierefuro travelling along the 
eouthcru loufo towards the Persian court, and the incident prcives that 
the Routbern route wiiA already in nee for communiofttion with the east 
as early as the latter part of the fiOh century. It may be trace<l more 
doubtfully at au even earlii-r period. In the «priug of b.c 480, Xurxev, 
aftur hiti army had muaterod in Cappodocia at Kritala, crossed the Ilalya, 
according to Herodotus, YII. 2G, and therefore took tLe uottberu route, 
but instead of attempting thedifGcuU pasMtgo uf the muuntainfibySatala, 
he crossed Pbrygia from north to south, and came along the eaey 
Boutheru route by (_'olu.-niL- aud Coloesic. Such a circuitous march sooms 
BO improbable as to suggest thatllerodotus mentions the Halys iu tbift 
coae only becauBC ho knew that tlio Halys eoporated Cappadocia from 
rbTygia,f aud therefore ooneludod that Xerxes must Imvo crossod it ou 
his march from Cuppadocia ncross Phrjgiii. The question may be asked 
whether such an error is iu accordauoo with Herodotue's knowledge of 
the geography of Asia Minor. 

* Mpliwft wns prohably giUuitwl at Biiljik Kimr, tv« tiour> saaih oT RynnsHn, where 
there ut; nncienl remaiu* with what tlia nutivea mild a Mir cin the anuunlt of a litllo 
bill, round whioli tho rood ninile upnnr.!. B,it in TurkUh meAns AMw;,attd /U Utlu 
ditoiuutm tenuiufttioa, beiaoo tiicru uin; bo n couitT^Uoti l.«ti[eaB tlu uciaat oaav 
McIImr and the nvodura name. I know no ntliiiT point mi tlit rond nlii-nt Mdiaan coTild 
poiaibi; be |)3ikoeil. and linvo little liesilatiou in plncitE it here. nllhoiii-U tlic rollowing 
•plgtwn on B st«le bnflt into & foundation l>y llic mulaiilQ near tho vfllngn taifcbt 
M ftnt tight teem tuootmUtcnt :— 

Suyrapttjii C'lm^aar ir tMti Biyiurri Haipp 
^ovX^i Knl Hrnav hXiivIiv S^Xfis nfr^r. 
the Thynnaridai oie tbo pccfilo of Sjnniuin, oa dc«c«iulanta of ThjimAK*, a 1dc«I lierv 
mentkinod on cuiuo of Uie citj, oa Drcdcr Iloo obtorrcd ia * Nnminu, ZIL' ItJSC), p. 177. 
But Hcliwa moil certainly hiTcbucua rllbgeof IbQ territory of ftomc city, probaUtj of 
Sjnmdo, for it was nnt ii ■O'lf-goTfrning city : end its inbabitanti woald thercfors be 
SyDDiuloi* or TbyanAriilal- PrrxliT dcerriheii the coin in ijniMition ma fnllowa: ohf-, 
beaid«d bead to rigbl. OYNNAPOC ; rer., Ini etaniting to left, in r siatnitn, In I. 
aililla. Perhaps TtiyQiuifcn wiw n horo of aallvo Phrygian legend, wliilc AkninM, wbo 
appears onooios an-l who U mcnticmcd by St^phantia as fimudcr of tlie city, iru» a 
Iwroeftbo Dorian and loDlnntvilouiiil*, wtto werti aelilod iu tbo city wben tUo Omi 
fmmddtion vaa made. 8oc \i a. 
t Compart L 72. 




* 



m. &EGINKINC or nrE TEADK-BOUrt 



:J7 



With one exception, all rorcrocceB vrliich he maketi to the geogmpliy 
of the plateau are vague notices whiok ho ban gained eitlior from tho 
trwIoTB of 8inopeoT from tlioso of Miletoa. Ftoiu the former he Ic&med 
that the broadth of Asia Minor in tho narrowcot placo, Le. from Tarsos 
through tho Cilician Gates dii^>Qt north, waA five dajs' jonrxej' for an 
active man (I. Ti), and that Pt(>na was over againBt 3iuopo, i.e. it lay 
on a road which led direct south from Sinnpe. He also heard from thom 
the (tcBcription of Cbo great kridgo over tb« Ilaljs, and of the p^<^- 
oantiona and guards upon it. 

From thn Inttor ho heanl of the road up tbo Mfoandor valley to 
Coloiisio and CVhi^uic, and of the natnrnl wondcra of both places. The 
existonco of conimnnication and tradft bi'btwAen Sliletos and Phrygia U 
attested aa early as the sixth century by Hipponax, who mentions tbo 
bad Greek spoken by th« Phrygian traders at Sliletos ; * and the only 
possjtlti road from MilutOB to Phrygia goea up tliu UicauJcr to CVlwnic 
Apameia. 

The only passage in which ir«ro<Iotus gives any thoroughly tnist- 
■worthy information about tbt- rouds of Central Anatolia is the descrip- 
tion of the "Royal Koiul," which hua gvuerally been rccugnined as 
founded on an ofliciAl docuTcicut, Ho cortninly believed that the Halys 
separated Phrygia and Cappadocia (1. 72). and it is therefore not out 
of koepiug with his method or with the amount of knowledge which he 
shows of the interior that he aboiild have uiadu the error which hiui beeu 
suggested aboTD. 

If we could auame that Ilerodotiui had no expreas ovidonco that 
the march of Xerxes cro8Be<l tlie ITutys. and that the stateme'Qt is merely 
due to the vague geographical ideas of his time, we should liavo in tlie 
march of Xerxes from Cappudocia vil Celieaie, a distinct proof that 
Ibe advantages of the southern route had become known na early as 
481 B,c Such evidence, which uxplaius away a direct statement, is not 
of ooorse iu iteolf trustworthy, aud it will be proved in u subseiiueut 
paragraph that Ilerodfttua is right. But wo ore not dependent on this 
passage alone for evidence. An early monument of the Cappadociau 
art and hieroglyphica exist nn the direct line of the road from Celicum 
%0 the CiUciau Gates, viz. at Tyriaion, which BGoma at one time to havo 
been a great ci^, though it was in. later years overshadowed by 
Laodioeia Combusta and Philoiueliou. 'Iliis monument, takon in cnu- 
jonctioo with the traces of a city, now almost wholly buried, is a proof 
tbat a certain amount of interoonree existed along the lino of this roud 
at an early timo. 

The view then, which i^ most probable, h that the sonthem routo 



9finu iikr it MUmoii iKfntiirania. — 'Hlpponax,' Trag. 3li (30). 
Tbeatci; (>f Tottas and Oaij«B,the Phrygians nho iiitrodacM Ihoir .'r^ to AmoMoa, alao 
ToochM Tor tliit {nleftenna 



86 



THE HISTORICAL OEOCRAPHT 



U HIKOR. 



from llie Cilician Gatea direct to the west throngh Lrbaonia nml 
matbem rbrygia wu grndaally tlcTL-lopMl ftt a kt«i penod tluui tbo 
Durtbcm rout« from Pteria to Sanlio. la tbo «ai« of tlio sortlura rout«, 
a donlit bw bwn •zpnased above * n-hi>tber it was fomied to connect 
two chief oeotTM of a singls great ein]>Lnr, or grew up owing to 
oonuDcreial interccmne, aMxnDpsnyiiig Iho spread of a bomogoDCcnu 
civilisation and nligimi from tbo mo&archy iu th« north-caat, of trhicb 
I'teria wsB the capital. Bat Jn the osaa of the soathem route no sncfa 
doaht can exist; it wu certainly formed hy the gradual penetration of 
oomtDerce and intercourse, pQHhing on tho one hand west from thv 
Cilidaa GaUM. on tbo other band va«t from the U«e«Dd«r and tho Lycns 
valley. In tbe first place it was in proct'se of formation at a period wy 
Fooent that there can he no fj^uestion of the existence of an empire 
in Ada Hioor. In the neoond place itii ch&motcr and tho ohTious 
prafercnoe fit «aM to ittrai^h tiictts in scTOial sections, mark it us a 
curavan ronte. It is only in highly developed commcrc« that rapidity 
of traniimiHion becomes really important; the car&vans and the mnle- 
teetB of more primitive tntd« jug ulong the tmdiUuuttl mute that is 
most advantageous to their animals, without any wish to gain a fcw 
bonts by any bold path. Moreover, we can perhaps trace oertain 
tentative rontee from the side, both of the ea«t and of the nest, which 
proved unjiuitalile and were disused in favour of the rente that is 
deecribw.1 by Straho, p. G23. These tcntatlvca will ho described iu tlio 
following paragmphfl: hut first the contrast in all these respects 
between the northern and th» southern routeB suggestB itself. The 
existence of tlie northern ronie ban l>oen traced hack to a. periotl eurliur 
than the ARsyrian domination in Cuppudocia. and probably earlier than 

000 B.C. 80 far aa we can trace its character it prefers the direct patli 
to the ea^ oue, and aims at rapidity of commnaicatiun ; it has not tbe 
oboracter of ft trade and euruvau route.-, but of a military nud aduiiuiittra- 
tivu road. So fur therefore as the evidence from thin aide goes, it tells 
in fiivoiir of the hyj>otheBi8 already Bu^eeted by Orientalists, that there 
wa* at ouo period an empire oinbracing giime consideTtible part of Asia 
Uioor, and that this empire was already in procew of deuny before 
OUO D.c. But whereas some Orientalists plaoe the governing centre of 
that empire in Northern Syria, the ovidoncc that hns biien xtatcd above 
neoossitatos its pueitiou ut I'teria. and makes tbe .Syrian parts of tbe 
empire mere dopondencieH, which apparently acfjuiretl iudcpcudeace and 
slrength at a later period, wheu Flcria loet its imperial cliaracter. 
Uenco the monuments of Northern Syria belong to a lat«T poriod than 
thoBO of Pt«ria, and hence they ebow a certain difforenoe of type, wbicli 

1 have described as Assyrian, in contrast to the Egyptian character of 
Pteiiau art. This diOereaoo of charHcter hue mieled I'lof. G. Hinoh- 



• 8*0 p. 81- 



in. BF-CISNINa OF THE TBADE-nOUTK 



38 



fbid * to deny oil ooimeotion 1)ciwfi«ti the ivro groupH of monuments. 
Tliu dilTeruticuH wLich hv hm pointed out certainly oxiet, and hn\c liccii 
acknuwlodgod mora <rr le»ii diiitiuotly by ftlmofit fill obmrvflrs; but liis 
denial of ull comiaunity of character U aa great an error on the one side 
BH the dbuiul uf Huy ditTercncv of character aiid peritnl would ht on tli« 
olhor. Thoro Is nvury prob&bility thttt OiIit:ia shorecl iu this later 
development of Sj-ro-Cappadorian art, and that from Oilicia that art, 
with tha ucciompnuyiug rlTiliaatiou and leligiuo, apn^ad thruu^h tl^o 
Ciliciaa Gatce lowaniH the went. Ah they epTeail wontwanlH, tlic path 
of comm«rc« vnu opened up, and thoti th« groat tradu routo bctwoon thu 
Asgran cuiut and tho east gradually oauie into use. Whether all the 
monumenta that mark tho early Btagcs of the trade route are to be 
attributed to this later period, or whether any belung to tho older 
Ptorian imperial |Hjriod, le uncortnjn, Tyana or Dunat must proliably 
havo boen important in both periods, but es[)eaiBlly eo in ibo later 
period ; tho same may havo been the caae witli other placfe, Tha 
hieroglyphio inscriptione of Tyana and of Tyriaion belong to the later 
jMTiod, aa docs also tho i-ocb monument of Ibns hcaidc KybiBtrn- 
Beraklvia. But the clay tablota with cnaeiform iuacHptionH, which 
probably como from Tyana,( though I bonght them at Caesaroin- 
Hazaka (Kiueari), ar« considored by OrieutalUtti to be cumpnniti rely 
early; and tho monnniont of FaBeillcr (HaliBuiidoH) appears to oie to 
•bow more analogy with Pt«riun art than with that of a later peritid,§ 
though mich an inference from a ningle monument of a peculiar and 
unUBual typo is naturally rery uncertain. 

As communication pushed wcatwardR from the Cilician G&tM, it 
fir»t attempted the path along thi' northern ukirtB of Monnt Tnnms, by 
KybiBtru-IIerakleia, Dalieandoii, and }>erliap» P»rlaiti.I| Thi^ro Iho 
Fisidian moontabs barrud ita furthur progrras to the wcat. It turned 
ncffthwardEi up the oast tdiore of Lako Earalis, and alno b«(;an to sock a 
direct path on a more nortlierly lino through lutnium and VaHadii. Thia 
■tagtt is marked by tho monumoDt of Iflatun Dtinar (Plato's Spring^), 

* I Mak' fr^^riikly and bluuily my own opinton. liit gniiuii progttn of Aiaam-rj 
wUI iltow whicli vi<iW in rtghL Iu Ibu Euc-uutltna tlii: ntnlhod wbich is moat likoly to 
aatfit prognH in that cacli jiotiod tkoukl aiate dcaily kis own opinion, and carry it ont 
to its logirjj (MMivlitBiooi, acknovlcdgiag lliat, *■ ^ot, M-rtainty in not aiuiiui1>l«, vwio); 
to tlio «oaa(ii]<.t« or eviilnncc f 8cc p. It9. 

t Six pp. 419 aDd 84S-f!. In 1800 ■»« uralii luiil ni>cvidcD>ce tliat llicw^ ublvla luvu 
been (oaad nt Tyniw: pcibufiB llii:,v Miginali: ftuni tCiimaun or ci-rn Mttuika luelt. 

I Sm ray papttt on " KyK>-€iip]in<locifin Muauiatiutii tn A*iH Uincr." in - AUifio. 
BntUwiL,* 1889. 

n Sc« p. SDO, B. Tlw reiimrkublo tjpea ou coitia »t Pbrlnw nug^nrt dint rrms.ms of a 
pr^Bonan rcligimu ositiu oii^hl to lio discoTcicd tVicrc. 

% Thecurioiu nuns (lata* bom llitt Baljuk [HiriuJ, luid ixajnooTuf lliu inlcrnt in 
Grmtk pliilmoplij (tlirougli Arabic tnaalalioDH prob«blj) tlitt eb»facttjfi»LLl Uie Suljok 
court at KoDiu AnutLi'T rtlatnn tiiiimr exinU oa tht- paliu» hill ftt Koiii&. Pnpiilai 
pnuiindalivB not* aUo tb« f^mu Etfotuu nod Klftutua Ijuuar. 



40 



THE HISTOBICAL GDDGBAPHT OF iSlk UIKOR. 



Finally tho long inecription at Kuli-tolu. near TyriawQ.* uarktt tbo 
lino i^'litoli WAS uUiiuak-Ly udopted tlirougb Laodiccia Combnsta and 
f^L ^ Thymbriun-HadiiuLiijKilis. 

Ou die west aiiuilax tentative routed may be traced, a« the lino of 
trodu between Uilotue and Colacnuct wliiob vran iu cxiaionco iu Uie Ume 
of llipponax, eix c^uturios before Cbriet, ptisliod towards Hnj inner 
country'. At liriit a conuectiou willi tlio " Uoyal Hoad " was probably 
- ooiabliahed througli Hieropolis (near Sandykli) and th* nortliera 
UolropoIiM of Pbrygia (at Ayaz Inn). This connection has left no 
ntonaiaont; but is rendered probabio by the tnmiili on tho route and 
by the exiBtence of an old roltgious ccutro at HioropoLifi: round tliia 
centre are gathered remiuisceuccs of tho old Phrygian heroes and 
religion, Mygdgu,f Otreua (the Phrygian form of Aireua), and 

Aeneas.! 

A belter cocneotion was established through thOGoathem Metropolii^ 
Synnada, and Dukimiou aa early aa iha fourth century; thiti is tu bu 
inferred frcrm tho foundatioa of a Macedonian colony at Dokimion, l>ear- 
ing the name of Dukimoa, who in ii.c. 302 surrendered Synnada to 
LyaimuchuB, and from the foundation uf Syuuada Itwilf. Sueh colonies 
were ahvays founded as military stationu and centres of Greek 
civiliGatiuu and goveriiuieut un ijupottaut roads. Now the only roads 
that ean conie into account as detonniniag the situation of Dokimion 
are the route from Celaenae to Dorylaion and Dithyuia, and that frooL 
Celaenae towards Golatia or rather north-eastern P!lrygiE^ i.e. tlia 
coDuc-ction with the " Hoyal Boad." But, of these two routes, the 
former would nnturaUy take the far shorter and easier palh by 
the northern Metropolis and Uieropolis, which was already in existence; 
end moreover it is highly improbable that the Bithynjan connection waa 
important at that time; whereaa the oonuectioQ with Pessinue and 
Ankyra was certainly important. The foundation of a Greek colony 
at Dokimion, compared with the foundation of Synnadu,^ probably 
nbout the eame timu, marks the importauoo of the ronte Apameia- 
Syuuada-Dokimion-I'oeoiuus iu the period 350-309, and may therefon> 
be taken as a proof both that the oounectiou between uast and west was 

" "Eyro-Cftlipft^oriiiaHninimcnt*" in ' A then. MHthfil.,' 1889. 

t Paiuaniaa, X. 27. I. On tlio whole tubject jee uiy " Troi« Vilks PhrygienaeB." 
in 'Bull. Corr. Hell.,' ISI<2: nml Mow. p. 13* 

t I «tni no Masou, with ImliiMf-mumiT, ' Monii. Gr^' p. 418 (bm nlaoHead, 'Hkt. 
Num,,' 5(J7, SU'J). to (lvuL>t tLot Aenn* u mraat ou tli« i^uina of ILe two citica, Otruua 
aiiil Stt'-ktoriuu, tliroE milrn ilivlunt from ca-cIi otlipr.nliirli arc (liw.'ril>cd by Mioonet and 
bLniMir. I liope tint iht analogic quuled in toy "TrtiU ViKcs FliTjg ," anrl tlm 
asplanatiou of tlip nnmu Broum* for Brnughioa = ^pauymt (see CB. § ivlii.) establbli 
tUiii. Tho l^-RiDili hovri tolc^n a (ir«i>lc form, tu wtu nlvnira lh.f mbo in I.jrilin ftrid 
Pbiygio. >u Crwk titcmlurc Imuiuig knoiti), hnt Clie names i^f tlic Lcro(^ itrc rolled in 
tbc diatrict. 

$ Biualtor aalive Ktllciuenta of oMei date en er near the site arc of course not 
eieludiHl bjr tbo Uirm " Ibnailation." 



111. IlEfllKNISG OF THE TIUDE-UOUTE. 



41 



s««king the best roiita by way of OlAeniie>ApQmeia, and tliat it bu>1 
not 8o oariy tw 300 B.C. saUleJ dowu tu tlio wiid rwiito tlmt wns fiimlly 
adoi^to(3. When, however, fij-miatla waa faimdc-l, n» long time could 
«lap»o bvfuro tbo route by Lyiiiii«, Pbilomelion, &ni Tj'riaion established 
itsflf in preferenoe to any other. 

The answer to tho doubt expressed on the preceding pnge about the 
desoriptiou that in giron by HcruiIutuH uf the ruutu uf Xurxca is uovr 
obvious. Herodotas is quite right ; and the very diflSculty of reconciling 
his sccoiint with th« character uf the country and tho routes, known iu 
Bubsequ«ut centuries, addn additional evidence to corroborate the his- 
tory of tho roads na horu atut«d. According to tho account of Herodo- 
tun, VII. 26, Xcrxos, aftor muttering his army in CappadociftAt Kritala, 
whioli may prubiibly be placed iu tho plain of Tyana (^pp, 348-8), eroi-aod 
tho Halja and traversed Plirj-gia, i.e., marched along tho " Royal Road." 
He rettvLed Cclaoaao, and miut tlioroforv bavo takoa ono or other of the 
routflB just described, passing either by Synnadu or by Hieropolis. 
CircuitouB as the march Goeinn. the record )8 oloar, and when other 
consideration 8 hare Ivd us to tb« vioyr that such a road wbh at the time 
ia use, it seems imperatively nccoasory to accept tho authority of 
HerodotUB. Nearly eighty years Liter Alcibiodoa, when proceeding to 
tho Pontian court, also took the route through Meli&sa and 3ynuud«. 

I muat here rofar for a moment to a great expedition which is con- 
Qcctod with thia road — the Anabasis of Cyi-us and XenophoQ ia iOl B.C. 
Cynu etarted £rom Snrdia, passed by tho spot where T.aodiceta wa>i 
afterwards founded, and udvanct^d to Apaineiu-Cvlienio. Here he 
turned off the road and mado a wide detour to the north. This etrango 
dStOOr has always hcun a puzzle. Porhaj)9 the explanation is that if ho 
tdTuaovd straight to tho oust, ho ftarod lout the objoct of hix march 
might beoome evident to the Greeks, and he wag as yet very doahtfnl 
whether he could trust thum. Jle therofore tumod right awuy hack 
towards tho north-weat, aud afier a long circuit, ventured to lead the 
army enfltwards; when his object becanio apparent, he found great 
difficulty iu inducing the Griii^k inorcouHrics to accompany him.* 

Hatutlton firet determinod with general accuracy the line of Cyrus' 
nurob; hia only svrionit error ia in tho position of Kcramon Agora. 
From Celffinm C'yrua marched down the Momnder to Felt» (see 
p. ISO); he then turued atmight north to Koramon Agora, beaide 
tho modem Islam Eoui. This is an exceedingly impoTtant point on tho 
modem road system, lying at the eulmnce of the valley whiuh divides 
two lofty and impossablo ranges of mountains. Boads to tho uorth, 
nntb-east, and east all pass through tlie sama valley, that of the little 
river Hamaw Su. Koramon Agora, th« Potters' Mnrket, ia never 
mentioned except in this one pa««ago of Xonophon ; it did not rank as 

* Xsaopluui incotioiu Ilint timy only bo^n to (upoct LIui objMt of IIid mareh «fUr 



43 



THE mSTORtCAL GCOGRAntY OF ASIA UtKOft. 



BU inJepenildnt «ity, it was only a grout mnrkot, Ivinf; in the opon plnlo 
&111I mcapnliile of dcfcuw, n c*:)Uim«ioiul mit & military' ueotre, incladed in 
tbo territory of tlio great noigbbouriDg fortrr«s Akiiiciiiift, wbioli is only 
a few wiles distuut. Proui ikia point the mavclt of Cyrus ooiucidod for 
a short distance up tho Hiunaiu Su with the routo which huo beou 
dc^crilMd tilK>T'« aa tlio " Buyal Roiul," hut hood ho diverged niong the 
great open Talluy of Phrygia Paroreioa to Tyriaion. In thia part 
Huniilton has Correctly descriK'd his tnurob, except that Tbymbrion 
njiptiurti to be the uldeT uiituo uf Hiidniiiio}>olis on tlio Karmeios, tbo 
river which flows hy Doghan Ilisar and Arkut Khan. Bee €B, LL 

Between Tyriaion and the GatoH Oynui marched through loonium 
and Daua. His uioroh diverged noar the eito of Laodiceia C«mbu6t8 
from tbt> latt-r trwdu-i-outo, and touk a more southerly path. From 
loonium ho wont to Dana or Tyana, the important city at the northern 
outraoce to tho chief paea through, the CUiolau Oatce, on the line of the 
" Boyal lload." 

The line of thia march oertainly gives no reason to think that the 
trado-rout« wu« yet eBtal)li»hed. Itut it in nut Mafe to draw any infigr- 
encG from it, except that, on the eiippoGition that tho regular road to 
tbo FoisiaQ capital still went cither by iSyunada nnd Pteria «r else by 
Satala and Pteria, Cynia'B route was i.>xeelleutly falculated to prevent 
the army from suspecting his design till they reached the Cilician 
Qatas; whereas if tha trade-route wore iii regular and common nac, it 
would be more dillivult to uudM^tutid how t-he unuy was soloiig kept 
in ignorance of his deuign. Tlie route agreea pcrfootly with the viow 
atated above, hut could hardly be used as an argument for it. 

The objection may here bo urged that the '* Boyal Route " from 
Sardis to Busa, so far as the ovidence now Btated goes, must have paewd 
through Apameia, Melissa, nnd tiyiinada, not throTigh Saiala and 
K^eramon Agora, aa I have described it. My reply is that, in tho first 
place, the inference with regard to the primitive iniportanco of Pteria as 
the metropolis of an empire reinaiiie untouched, for it becomes etlU more 
difficult than before to nndenfand how a road from Celaonae-Apameia 
to the Cilician Gatos should crown the ITiilya : the only rqaeon for such 
an extraordinary detour would lie in the previona existonce of a regular 
road to the metropolin Pteria. The objection therefore only strengthens 
my m^in pnrpose. In the second plaoo the oaly reaaun for the rond 
from Epbesos tu Susu passing tlirough 8ardis' would be to take tho 
way through Satala. Thirdly the distances given by Herodotne are : — 
gardis to the Halye, 94^ paraeangs, 
Halys to Cilician Qntes. 104 parasange. 
^jpSWBB distanoSB are utterly irreconcilable with a route through Cclaenad 
'^w'ft© Halys, which would be mueh longer than that from the Halys to 

* Birrodvtiw, V. 50, •.'XiircBoly uys thnt tlio Bitul bcgiui Troiii EpliMw uuil {wstod 
tbnrugli Sudli ; but the wa.^ from Cpbcsua to Cclaouoo ia by tlw Maeuudci vnllef. 



IV. TUK KASTEJiK TllADE-BOUTE. 



48 



iho GnteR; lint the Hbortc«t rout« from Ssrdie 1o the Htilys tbroiigli 
Simula, is n littk dbortor tban thtit from ihe llnlya through Pteria to 
the Gates,* and reckoniog the ;>ftrasang nt 2j milos, tho moiuturcmeiits 
arc ipproximatoly curroct. Finally thu rcasuua alivady atlvanood eoem 
BufficicDt to prove tho existenco of comiuunication anil higher civiliitalioa 
aloug thu nurth Hidv of iha plateau, i^c, along tbo liao wfi bttvo asuignod 
to tlio » Royal Boad." 

The history thoreforo of tlio romls of Asia Minor lieforo tho Roman 
period tJt tliv slow and gradual GuhatitntioQ of a natural and easy 
sj'etem for a difBuolt flyslom, which ivbh ctrtabliKhcd imginaUy to 
(nit tho convonicQc« of administratioQ during ft Bpeoial condition of 
the country. 

Tho great trado>ruut« was in regular and excluaivo use at l«i«l as 
oarly aa tho firet century heforo Chrint (Strabo, pp. A40 and 0ij3). The 
earlioi^t indication of it» rising im|>ortauco is tho battle of IpKf) in 301 ; 
but the foundation of Doldmion and Synnnda show that about tbut timo 
the older routti vm otill m morP common lue. It must 1*0 remembered 
that Synnada, though near tbo tntde-routa, wat> not actually cituntod OB 
it, but was on a northern road which diverges from the trade-route at 
MotTopMiH or nt Diuia-Cbelidonia. It wilh Buffieiautly uuar tho trade- 
route to retain ila importanco aftor that route became the great artery of 
commnnicatiou acrotts tho country. See pp. 139, 142, 171. 



IV. The EjLSTEtis Trabe-Boute. 

Id the preceding chapter it has been sbowri that tbJ8 road came into 
one between 300 and 100 ts,c. We baTc noir to trace its deTelopnicut, 
so far an tho eeanty iadioatiuns permit. 

Under the Persian empire tbo main purpoKO of the "Royal Road" 
wan ndminiatralivu : that roud woh maintained with a pontal so^^'ico and 
regular atatious and kliaua, for the service of the Oreat King. During 
tho two contnrioe that followed the oonquoat of Alexander tho Great, 
tbo set of int^iToiiree varied at diQfi-rcnt jjeriods according to the Heat 
of the dominant power f(ir the time l»eing. No dynasty gained cumplotc 
mastery of the ootiro pcouuiula, and tho tmnsforonoe of jjower from one 
centre to another took plaoe so frevjnently that no uniform and single 
ityatom of cummuiiication bod time to grow up. Wlille the Seleucid 
Icings exercised dominant authority over groat port of Asia Minor, the 
direct sonthern route from the Cilicitui Gatee to the Aegean coast must 

have been muuh uaed. It ia marked by bukIi foundations as Laodiceia, 

^jCjM'li-ApameiB, Antioeheia, Nyaa, Seleuceia, whouo names show tho intention 
that they abould be neats of Solvuoid power. Tbeao foundaticma belong 

* I ahoald hnnUy ufpnct tlio dilCwuee to be ao gieat as stated bj Horodotiu. tli« 
dUtaooM Mem imwI; oqu&l, ProboMy tho rood piusrd \iy Mnzaka, wliMv it jolnod 
'' tlic route fVem Pterin tu Eucniiuigeiio. 



44 



THE UlsrORICAL GCOGRAPHT OF ASIA UIKOR. 






chiefly to the line of tli« grtnt "Eftatom higliwny," ami to tlte comitry 
sotitb of it towards TauniH, implj-ing a Hupplemvntary route leoiling 
eaatwftnls tliroiigh Selenccia of Pisidia and Aiitioch of Pisidio. Tho 
Macedonian colonics of A»ia Minor mny also ho ASftign&d as a general 
rule to the Solenoid rule, though Bomo of Hwm, e.g., Dukimioji, aro 
prohably earlier. Of the Greek cokmies tbat Iwlong to tha oontury 
after Alexander, fuw lio nurth uf tho {^cat highway oxocpt Syiiiioda 
and Dotrimion (both pre-Selencid), and Peltai and Blaiindo* which 
imply a Kupjilcniontary route from Th3-alirA and Saniis to ApRTneia.f 
But tho names of Trallcis-Selcuotia-AntiochoU, Nysa, AntiocliL'ia on llio 
Mwander, Laotliooia ad Lycuin. Apnmfiia, Laodioeia Combusta, eulH- 
eiontly attest the impoi-tanco of tho great higliway, which ia only 
confiniied by the miiiplemontary roiitea. 

When Pergamenian powur took the place of Seloucid, tho roada 
loading to Pergamw wcro tho most important. But on tho whole tho 
Bet of intorooursc is much on tho same lines, though in oppoaito 
diractians, under Seknoid and nndor Purgnmentan rule. Porgumos had 
no direct line of com lonni cation with the upper plateau, and the chief 
road from tho east to Pcrgami^H coin«B by way of A])amcia, Laodicoia 
on tho LycuB, Philadelphoia, and Thyatini. During fho wars of tha 
Attalid and Selfnoid dynasties, this road was of nentral importance, 
ancE Ti%'al foundations, on or near it, can be traced in opposition to 
«m1i other. As Pergftmenian foundations I may monlion Apollonia, 
Apollonts, Philadelpheia, Attaleia, EHraenpin, Bionyfiopclie, and pro- 
bably LyBias and Fbilomelion ; whilo after the pawer of Fergamoe was 
ceiftUialied.Beyeral Swloucid fouudatione lost their fjeloucid name, whivh 
perhaps matki) a remodelling of thvir cunstitution by the Attntid 
kings.! 

Tho kingdoniB of BitLynia and Poutns crfated » curtain divergent 
tendency towards other centreH during the Grook poriod : bnt this waa 
never bo important, and we cannot prcve that there waa any great 
amount of o&inmnnication along any rood leading from the upper 
plat«fiu to a Bithynian or Pontic centre at this time. On the whole 
the kingdom of Bithynia renwiued iB<;>lated from tlio general develop- 
nieut of Asia Mini^r, and concentrated on its internal imprevemcnt by 
suoli great fuundationn aa Kikomedia, Apameia, and the rariooB cities 
named Pronsiaa. In Pontue, the foundation of Laudiouia on the route 



* Evi'H Si^leucrin ocr.tint on the line of Uum higLwsy. as lieLDe; the temponiry itamo 
O^Tmlle)^ soon lilsu-ioO in furoiir of Anliofliftk, whicli also proved only tnwivinay. 

i On the S«l^uci'l Mft«e<tontitn Coloniefl, ae-s aa ndmimble paper by Si^huolihKrdt, in 
'Atlieu. Mitthul.' le^H, p. 1. 

1 TIki Pergiuneuiiiti fnuiiiloliouBtirooflnn plunlcil over agwrat StlcuciiJ colonicR,c.]i.. 
A[ioUoEim niiawun) to N'likrusit. AlUlcia tu TliyHtim, Dtonfiinpinliii lo Dlntiixlnp. I'^unuDola 
to Peltai, ApolloaiiL of Pialdiii (o Stleucoln: whil^ Apolloijis wiu ])crlLii[i8 notually 
phuitnd (in tliv site of Doiilyo, and Traliei<-Selouceu.-Antwob6U rtHuniMl ila pre- 
Selcucid nsmo. 




IV. THE EiSTERS TKAD&KOUTE. 



45 



to tbo liorbuur of Aiuisoa, btilougs to thi* {>eriod. Finally tlis war« 
betwfwn the two kiogdomit, and afterwanla tlio wftis bi-twven thu 
Boriian^, who aeed Bitbynia as their hose, and Mithradateti, king of 
Pucttu, garo tounporary impurtaiico to tbo chitsf roatu thuL oouaecto 
Fcntas and Bithj-nia, viz., th» road that loada from It'ikoiiiedt-ia and 
Nikaia by Uali (CUudio|>oli8), KcroiU (KratoiA), Ta«li Kduprou 
(Pompeiopolis), the Talley of the Amiiias. and Verar Eeapien, to 
Ama«oia. This route, bowever, was fonxid into temporary ci>ii8oi]UbD«e 
during an exccptionftl state of the pomnHula, and had no iui})C>rtance 
excti[>t -where PoDtus and Bithynia are concerned. Kxoept in the 
Mithr&datii: wan, wu htar lilUc of it; and it aliuoHt bliidutt uur nutico. 
exceiit through the important funndationfl of Bithyuion-Claudiopolis, 
Kratfiia-FlfiTiopolis, Pompeiopolia, and perhaps Hadriacopolis, until tbo 
lator Byzantine period.' 

That ayfitem of routes, lying east and vest, wlilcb had been growing 
during the prcvioius two or tLrcc centuries, was on thu whole duvulupcd 
without eeseatial alteration during the Boman rule- In the Ifoman 
porioi^? tho main object was to counect the pToviiic(« with Rome, and 
therefore the net of communication still ky along lineti Htretching cant 
and wcat. The BontLern route between EphcKos and GapiHulocia still 
continued to bo the grout «a8t«m highway, though a liao conespondiog 
to the old "lioyal Itoad," yet not exactly coinciding with it, rose to 
importance as connecting Galatia and Northern Phrygia with the 
Aegean Sea at Smyrna, and with the aoat of Government at Epheeos. 
We are therefore jtt8li6od in e*iying that the Gieeco-Roman road system 
hod on the whole a utiiform character during the ]a»t three centuries 
before Chiutt, and the 6r8t three centuries after ObnHt. Tbi< Ruiuun 
government compk-tcd a eytitcm which began to grow up before any 
Ilouiaii Mt foot in Aei^ Minor. 1 shnll therefore describe the syaivm in 
its eompluled form, and we ntay safely say that the Roman rooda were 
aa a rule already coming into Ubi; under the Greek kings. For example, 
the road fruui Luraiida ncroes Taurua down tiiu lialykaduoB was pro- 
bably in Dse when Sclonciat was founded at the mouth ef the river. 
Again, the important decree found near Eriza X may be taken as a 

• It !« qniFe x mutnlcA, due ta fallawing the Prndnp^ Tnlilti, to sav, u «.g., Mr. 
Hkrdy in bii csevllmt (.■ditwu of ' Plioy'H L«tle» lo Tntjan ' doc>, that the mnia rood 
rtDTn NikorDL'iiuta to AaiaMiia pwBed through tiongra; tucli a (i«d did oiiaU Uul uevor 
had tfae importance of tho ntlwr. 

f SelciKvia «tui T'lnatrly cuIIimI tllbia (f<l«pli(iiius (.v.): i.fi. OlUa wu nu enrlEor 
cit>', ■iloatcl » Tcfr miloa north of ^leii<r«ia oa Ite n*i to Olba. JU nMDalna ate 
di«tiuct, and it wna «TidcBll; drpotiulntoil lu oiako tlio new city. 

t Bee Sm. non..-aiic nn<l ^lt^<^ ia - Bull. Cor, lUll.,* 18«5, p. 824 ; 1680, v. 53S. 
Tbt •dHora.with a ]«ivetieueaa ibul b iiluicat inroaouivnble to tmo who knam tlie 
aoealrjr, the divtonou. aad the loftf JiiterTeniDi; monulaliL pass, all of whicli cnn 1x bmd 
bf a glaac* at anj mnp, iiu[)j)n»u the intKiTiption to havo bran mrried frutn LBodiooui to 
Dodur^ (nhich tlicy onlL burJurknr). MM. Coiwin rnd Di»lil od tlnj ■other Luntl 
oappow it to bftTO IxKa canii»l Snax Kara &juk IJaau, whii;L iUej idaatif;, iti appaicat 



■te 



TB£ UlSTOBICAL OEOOBJIPHT OF ASIA MIKOR. 



prooftbattboroad tram Laodiceia to Kib7ni,lBinda,audtho PAmphyliui 
coa»U w»s alroatij* becomiii};; important boforo 200 u.c.; and the imiiio 
inforcnco may ha drawii from Uie account of the mid of tbo Roman 
general Gneiua Manlitut VuUo as far as Tormi'sucw in 189 B.C. 

In the Qncco<]loDinn rond ajHtain we arc not depotideat on a few 
chanco roferencca in andi-ut writers. \Vc Lavo two dociimouts whicli 
profcflg to give an aoconnt of tho raadfi, the Pentinger Table and tlie 
Antonine Itioentry, bcsidca sovoral iieofnl wurks by wliich to cliock 
tbeiu. But the documents are m incomplete and ho full of blundois that 
thu student frcqucatlj ia obliged to give thorn up in deepair, and to 
resign himself to the hope that some fortunate diacoveir in the country 
may clBar up tho iunoluble diffloiiltieii and oontradictlonfi of tlio docu- 
mentH.* S/Bteinatio exploration will in time show the exact oonnie of 
CTory Roman road. Actual remains of the roadwaj- iudood arc roiy 
rarely found, and it ie probable that the roads of the Anatolian provinoe 
wure never eoDBtractetl with the Bamo elabomto foundationa ab the groat 
roads of Italy. If we may judge from the scarcity of the remains, even 
bridges were vorj- ecaroc. The ouly traces of Uoinuu roads in tho 
ootintry that I have seen are: (1) numf-roas milestones, (2) a fev 
remains of bridges, (3) a pavement near Ciorbooim, which is mnch 
brooder as well as better than the pavement of the early Turkish roads, 
and is therefore probably part of the Bomun rand Ankyra-Pttrna«90«.f 
(4) rock-ciittingfi or levels in the bills between S>iinada and Apameia. 
The natural features of the country are of course of the greatest import- 
ance, but all published maps are so inadequate and inaociirate that it is 
rarely wife to affirm anything alxiut the couT8e of a rooil tinlcns it has 
actnally been traversed by some competent observer with a view to 
studying the road-syslem.J 

Asia Minor was, in general, a peaceful country, and the roads were 
on the whole deleruuued mainly by commercial considerations, with the 
view of easy trauBit to Italy. Bat there are aevoral oxoeptioua to thio 
nile. In Eastern C'appadocia and Lesser Armenia tho roads were planned 
with a view to the defence of the frontier. Melitene was the great 
military wtatlon ; the roads led to Melitt^ne, and the distances engravetd 
on the mtloHtones weru meusnrcd to Mulitene. Along the soathem edgo 



ignorftaM oi-dcflanM of WAiHinglon, Kiei>trl, ami tnyjclf, with ErixA (»ee 'Bull. Corr. 
Hell.,' 1889, |). 3aO.) Tlie ioacription (.tobubl)- Iwloug* to IsUkiau Dozar (KrUa: aeo 
pp. 101. 133, 136). 

• Tlte nhovc w.'pUnco wiot prinlcil Iwroro Pnrt 11. of tills worlc^riis written. In tLo 
follmring CIio|iter VI., 1 have giveu a utitj-nn-nt of thi< principlM wliich 1 hare bcea 
<lrirMi t« In nalD^ the Panting*! TaWo, Pt<.lptoT ond Ihe other aiitli<viti(«. Tlxiae 
piinnililca arc mvcL m'ln- Kt^ticnl tliaa tli(«Q of raoJcro Kt^KTajilicTs. 

t Tlio rcmnin* nrc like Ibosc drscrilioil liv Viin. Dloal (' Von Pergninon mm Punluai,' 
p. fl7) an duKOTRTOd by I'rinca Camlnth nrar Mudurlu, "Morsfftltigcs QuaderpQiutcr in 
«incr Btvlie von 12 Holirltt." 

I On*! picgrMB Umado in Eivptrrt's map* iniWi»lny! nnee Uio oIjotc wm vrittca. 



lY. THE EASTERN TBAOt-EOUTE. 



« 



b3«o of tbo plat»aii cinotlier Boriea of roAds waa conetructcd for tho 
defence of tlie plains aj^raituit tlio uuruly niouulHino«ni of Isauria and 
Pietilia. Them roads wore planaod in tho time of Augustus, who built 
a series of Romao oolonies aud fortreeHM along the Bkirtn of Taums, and 
connected thorn all with the oectral colony, Anti'>cli of PUidio. This 
Bj'stem of roads ma.y bo safely awnnioil oaa necoHsary part of AugtutuB's 
■cfaamo for th« defence of the empire : a Bomau colouy and fortress 
neoeanarily implies the existence of a military road. But actual evidonoo 
is almost entirely wanting. Neitliier of tbe documents which treat of 
tho Auatolian i^adii mentiuns this series of roada, and no writer 
refers to tlieui. Ahsolntoly the only piuoe of external eridenoe known 
to mo is a milostoac, which I found two yo&rs ago on tho sito of a 
hitherto unknown colony: it gives the date, ^ a.v., tho name of tho 
£ni|X)rur Augustus, the iinuicof \us liauteuaut-govomor, and a numl>er 
which can only ba explained as the dintnn^e from the military centre, 
Aatlouh of Pifiida. Tlio utunu, thorufurc, proves tho oxietionce uf a road 
made to oonnoct this colony with Antiooh in the very year tliat Augustus 
fonndod his Pisidian colonies, and a similar road may be safely asHuniod 
in tho case of the other oolonios. Tho reason why this series of roads 
has rumainiid so obBouroisthBt tJio I'iaidion momitoinoera were conqiiotcd 
and iucorporaled iu the empire within the next century, and that tho 
iBnariaiiB also ooased to bo a torror. Tbe coloniea, therefore, soon lost 
their military' valno, the sytitem of military roads »iuk into decay, 
and the roads of tho district were mer^^ed In the general Anatolian 
ayetcm. 

The usual aim of tho Anatolian roade was to connect the provinces 
with liomo. In general, therefore, thi^ir oourso waa guided by eoDvooi- 
unco, and they followwl tho natnral lines. In a few cases, however, 
historical reaaouH caused a violation of this rule. I shall mention one 
example. About tito year 129 n.c. tho IVoocneul Manius Aquilius laid 
down the roads thronghuut the proviuoo which the Bomons named A«ia. 
The salt lake Ascania, now called Buldur LaVe, formed the boundary 
between Asia and Pieidio, and at that time Pieidia was an iudopemUnt 
country. The road whioh Maniua AqniUns constructed was, thorcforo, 
forood to keep tho Asian side of tho lake ; and the milestones prove that 
the road kept to this course fur quite four hundred years. But the 
Pisiiliau side uf tho lake is tho natural course for the road ; on this aide 
is the great city of modem time, in a wide opc-n fertUo plain. Yet the 
Roman road on tho Asian shores maintained for a long time the importance 
of tho town on that side, although there is nierely a narrow strip of 
ground bctwuvnthc mountains und the Iftke. Muny years before Manius 
Aquilius constructed bis road, tho Boman gwoi-al Manlius led hi^ army 
along the natural path by the Pisidian shore of tho Iiake; but for five 
oenturiuB the influunce of a Roman rood defied the ooune of nature, and 
kept the chief city on the barren aortheru shore. 



4S 



THE UISTOEICAL OEIOOBAPHT OF ASU UlNOU. 



Bvfuro cliiiCQDBiDg tho Roman roadit wbicb croBBud tho platcaa, a few 
proliminary Tcmarfce ar« accessary. Tho Bum of dist&ncos, Bt«ge \>y 
singe, aloug a rund as gircu in tbe Itineraries in grenUr than the total 
distance as given "by a milestone from end to end of tbe road. This 
I have proved in ooe speuial oobe, Epbesoa-Apamoia-Takina,* and 
fr<.'qn*at examples will be met with bolow. It ariecs from the fact 
that cities were, in many cug&a, a little apart from tho nocoiwary line of 
t!ie direct road, Boudeti this thero are, of ooonw. frequent cwrmptiona 
of nnmbcrs, as well aa of namea on tho roadit. 

The proper undcTKtnndIng of the i'enting*r Table, is mucb tinpodod 
by its Buperfiuial appearance. It has been made id the Byzantine 
period by a person who waa acoustonied to the Byxantine systems of 
road» radiating from Constantlnoplo acroBS Asia Minor, and who tried 
to represent the roada on this idea, yet it ia ultimately Ibtinded on a 
map of the Roman empire and tbti Roman roads. Henoe we find that 
tbe roads radiate from Constantinople and are fairly ooinplvte so long 
aa we follow the tracka from CoDBluntinoijle. For example, wo have 
a complete road from the Asiatic shore of tbe Boepborus along the Blavk 
Sea coast, and anotb^r vjfi iNioomodia to Gangra and Amana; another 
goes by sea toPrainetosand Xicsa, and thence direct to Ankyra, Tavium, 
Ac ; another by sea to Pylao and thence to FnisiaB, Fcrgamon, A;c. 
But uo road wbioh leads across couuU? from the Aegean coast is repru- 
Bontcd with any approach to completone88 : the roade in this direction 
are given in fragments with frequent gaps. 

Tbe same remarlc applies to the Antunine Itinerary : the compiler is 
interested cbicfiy in tbe roade to ConBtautinople, and ropreBeuls with 
tbftt prepofiseeaion the roads of the Roman period, even adding some 
Byzantine roads. Tlie evidence of milestoiLC^s, where it exists, is, 
therefore, our only sure and certain guide, beyond the few roads which 
are certifitd by Sirabo. 

One of the most fi-nUful causes of difficulty and error is the assumptinn, 
tacitly made in almost every caso, that the roadu given in the Itineraric'S 
are direct roodn between the two extreme points. lu a nnmber of cases 
the road gocB along two sides of a triangle. Prof. Kiepeit has argned 
that this is so in one case ('*Oegonl>emeikaugen 20 Prof. G. liirBchfeld," 
' Berl. Sitznngsber.,' 18B4, pp. 52 ff.) j and though I do not agree with 
his view in interpretation of tbe particular oaso, yet tho general prin- 
ciple IB most important. When we conaider bow badly the ancient maps 
represented the face of the country, it iB quite natural that in many 
cases a roiid which was really cirouitous should have been iepre6«&t«d 
as fairly direot, and a direct road aB circuitous. 

Borne examples occur of a remarkable error. A station ia in- 
truded from another road between two adjoining atatious, wliich are 




• 8c« ASP, A. ti, 



IV. THE EASTERN TKADE-ROCTE. 



49 



quite oorrootly giv^n. Tlie following certain cases may be given aa 
■]>o«imons ; — 

Comana PUnudartH C(x;iiitoii. Anton. Itin. 

Araliiatios PtaiiaJaris Cocdhos. Autou. Itin. 

Ciceama SinispoTA Amiicixa. Peut. Tal^. 
but it MwaTV to a greatei* degree thau has t}een siupectod e^mt ia iito 
Antonine Itinvrary. wliicli in tlio best authority wo hnve. In the eastern 
parts of Asia Minor th« Peutioger Table carries tbia tnuutforeace of 
fctAtions to an extraordinary dcgn!6. 

On*} uerlaiu caso occurs In the Peutiugt>r Tabic, wbero the siationa 
are pat in the rererse order, viz. betir^eii Ancyra and Archolais. 

It may be of ueo to give ono typical oiULUiple of tbo wuy id vrbiob aa 
important road is represciitoJ in our authorities. The backlxmu of the 
KuDjaii road systoni ia the great road from Epbeaoa to the east. It is 
given in a fragmentary way in the Poutiager Table, but not as a direct 
ooDtinnoiu road. I give a list of the stations, bracketing tboio which 
are not mentioned in the Table. Several stntioua mentioned in the 
Table are giveu on other reads : these I write in Greek cbaraoter. 

"Ei^Kfos. SIugiiOBifl, T(>ii\Xi(<, [Nytta], [Maetauia], Antiooheia, Caroura, 
[.\ttoudda], Laodicoia, [Colosrvtcl, (Sanaotf], Apanwia, [MelropolJa]." 
Euphorbium, [L^-sias], JuHa, PbiluiiioUoii, [Tyrtaion], Laodici^ia Eat«- 
kekaiimene, iai'-orpo, [Koropaasos], 'ApxtXuts, [Soandos], [Salcaiiena], 
CBsareia, Arasaxa, [Erpa. CodusabaU, Ptunadsris, ArabiwoB], 'A^/o, 

At important points this road was joined by cross roads from north 
and south. Such roads camo down the Mnrayai; from Alabanda and 
western Caria and Lycia, domi the Uarjiasos from Taba«, down th© 
Moraynos from Aphredisias and Uvraclcia ad Salbacuoi and .\pollonia 
and Sebastopolis. But the 6rst really important knot was at Laudlcoia. 
Hare ro8»l8 from all sidps crnased. From the south came the road from 
the Pamphyliau towns Attalt-ia, Pcrgn. &c , by ItiiniU, Lagoe or 
Lagbe, Eibyra, Themi^onion. From the north came a rund Bruuma- 
Enmonoia>Pelt(ic-LoundA, another Snrdis-Philadelphc-ia-Tripolis-Htera- 
poli6,andpeT]iaps another frumBionysopoliH, Must^ua, and the Hyrgalcta. 

Apamoia was the ueit knot. Ilere came in a roaJ from the valley 
of Baris and Sclcnceia Bidcra, joined by another from the diatrict of 
Lake Ascania, a road Antiochcia-Apollonia-Apauieia, a read Amorion- 
Dokimiou-Prymne!>!>iifi>Synniid;t-Uetrj|><jlis-Aj!iimi.>iu, another Uur^'lniou- 
N"8kolcia-Mcn>8-Kfmne-KiJyes,sos-Brtinzo8-Hicropijli8-Eakarpia-Apameia, 
aod anotlier from Sciblia and Etiiauneio. 

At Lao-lic^ia Eatakeka'aoieuo roads cnme iu from loonium on tho 
aontb, and fieiti Dorylaiou.Amorion on the north. 

• T«a totitM tziet hor« : OBeHetro[)oii»-SyTinada-Ju!io, LheatberMeliopolii-Knphar- 
binm-^ulin. 'Dk Tab]« coafuMM tho two, and givn A|)aiHi:tu-EupbaTbiam-&;Rnud» 
Jalia. 

VOL. IV. ft 



•M 



THE HISTOTJCAL flnWRAPRT 0? ASIA SlIN'OK. 



At ArclieUis Colouin rumls from Tyana-BBsiraa-NazianzoH, fmm 
TaTium-Mokiesos, from Aukyra-Pamaascis, ami from Pcaaiuus-l'itiiifios- 
PortA oaiuc in. 

At Csaaruta Foa<3a rrom SebaxteU, fioin Ponttu, from TATinm, 
uai from Ciltcia, cmverged, 

«• ' Eaoh of thcaokaots rupreaentB a oontrc nf proviDcial lire and goveni- 
nent, and it is vrarthy of note that thoy ar« all r(ifoim*J*<i and rcnaninl 
«ith(ff by tho Gruok kingo or by tLu ourly emperore. They formed scnto 
of QnccoKoQian civUiaulion, which spread thencfl ihroiigh the coniitry 
rouud. The biatory of great part uf Aeiu Minor fur many conturics de- 
pends on this road. I will hero r)iioto one alight example, viz, the amnge* 
inent of tlio Soman pro^-incial administration during the first oontuty nx: 
From SO to 60 vx. the Upper Mufandct- valley and the whole of Bouthern 
aud eaeteru Pluygia were disjoined frtim thu province of AbU, to which 
they Ixlongfed hofore and nftor that time, and placed under the jnris- 
diotion of the (jovomor of Cilicia. This arrangomont, which ia at fiixt 
sight so nnint«11igi\>1e, wnn due to the fact that the Oovemor of CUicU 
in prooeeding to <»■ from his province avoided tht- Aoa voyage along the 
.flonth eoMt of Asia Minor, on aocount of the piratea. who were maifterd 
of the sea. The governors wore fwrMd to land at KpheAiis, and go hy 
land along the eastern highway to CJlicia. On their march it vtag easy 
for them to hold tho aeaizce and arrange tho affaiis of tlio districla which 
thoy travoraed. But after Pompey destroyed tho pirates and rcoptnc^ 
the Bea, tho pax Hoiiiaua was rpHtored, and the goveniors of Cilicia sooii 
hugau to prefer the >'oj'«ge lo the long and fatiguing land journey. 

In the Peutinger Tablu the Hne of this road 18 freinently broken. 
Thore ie no «oim&ction between Magncnia and Kphceoa: Trnllcifi is 
transposed to another road ; the connection between Laodiceia and 
Apamt'ia is inmile thiwugh the intervention of n diffvi-ent road; from 
Apaiiieia the road turns nliarp haok to Synnudii, aud then a^^ain eqiiully 
ahnrply hack to Julia and Philomelion. The alternative rontee by fjynnada 
ftOd by Eiiphorhiuit. are nnitod in one road ; between Laodioeia Knta- 
bekaumem- uud Savatra, a atation, Kaballa, in interpolated from a dif- 
ferent road ; thoro hi no counootion between Saviiira and Archelais, bnt 
Lnodiccia-Suvalra-PyrgoH-Iconiiim ia given aa a etraight road ; there is 
uo oonuoction between Archnliiis and CcBBareia'MaKalia. If this most 
important of the roads ia so disfigured and cut wp in the Table that it 
has been iec«giiise(l only fram tho deecription qnotod by Strabo (p. 693) 
from Artomidorae, we may expect to find similar crrorB cleewhere. 

The deecription of tho roads is necesFarily founded in many coses, 
where the evideuoe of mileBtonea and other traces of the actnal roadway 
fails, on the identification of tho cities which were situated on them. 
In the case of ITirygia and weatcra Piaidia, I have already elaewhero 
discuKS^d the whole of tho cities and given a completo scheme of the 
ancient topography. In these provinces, then, the roads are entirely ^ 



V. TBB ROMA» ROADS IS ASIA MINOR. 



ftl 



fix«d, aud I deed do little mora tlian mtex to cay provioiu p«pcr«-* Bat 
in tbo OMOfCikUtia, Poutits, Ljcaonio, eastorii Pitiidin, and Ctt^hrmduoin, 
the anoieDt topography is tiuite tuiMttled. Only aWat oqb in kIx of tho 
aodeDi citiet) huvo Wiu oorrvotly plaocil on the m>{>. I have therefore 
ineetlod a discossioii iu th« briefest poesible fonu of thceo provinccit, 
whic^h makes an outline of the Kotuan topography of the half of ^Vitiu 
Minor. For tho K&ko of cooTenieoce I recapitulute u unall number of 
Bopamte iileiitifioatioits in iheeu pruviuotm whioh I hare puhlisbcd in 
BOattcnnl pai>c-iil, chiutly in fun;i|$Q journals. 

V. TuE Romas Boaos is Asia Mihor. 

Tho "(liBCUBitiuu iu tbo brioft'St puBtiiblo furiii," iitoutiouud in thu 
procodixig puragrnph, hau grown In tho lapaa uf a year iut4t the 1)70 
pagea of the aecond part of this book. I have however left the pun* 
graph uunlti^roil to show Iho original iutcutiou of tho work, aud tlio 
way in which it hits grown upon my hands. Tho autliuritic4 <ia tho 
Iloman road-bystem aic ao dofoutive and ao inaccurato.f that a luinuto 
czamination of tho topography wa« roquirod to justify the r«sii]t« which 
are given in tb» atxiotnpauying map. Thia grow to Buoh a aixe that it 
had tri bo relegattid tu a wpunitc part of tbo work. . 

^Vbilo Part I. carries, ob I hnpo, ita own jiifiiiiicatifln in a way thai 
is ob^'iouB, 1 perhaps owe the rcadoT an explanation of the length and 
couipliuouy of Part 11., in which (as my frieud tho Cuuden Prufenwr of 
Ancient Ilislory, to whom moHl of iho credit or the blame fur this book 
must bo givoiit romarke, with a coitain boighttriiiiiKuf tbo effect/, nearly 
400 pages are apeut in duoiusiug a aot of names, douij of which unybody 
has over heard of before. 

Topography it: the fonndation of history. No one who has 
familiarised hiuiHclf with Atlic hiatory iu books and biiH aflorworda 
Mccnded Pentelicus and aeon that history eprond forth before him in 
Ihc valleys and moiintainfl and aea that have luoutded it, will evor 
diabelieve ia the value of topography as an ai<l to liintorj-. What idea 
of Attic history could bo got, if wo wore uncvrtuin whether Athene waa 
iitualed in the plain of tho KephisaoB or a few miles further east boyoud 
Byuiettus ! I had often wouderod why tho plain of Maiulhuu was so 
long connected with Chnlcis and separated from Attica. The wonder 
ceaacd when from Pont«licua I nuw it ounueoted with Chnlcta by tho 
qaiet landlocked sea that tempte«l oavigatioD, and separated fruia Attica 
by tho rugged and difTiiiilt moautaini). Vet few tliat study Greek 
hiatoiy, and play the part of exauiincr or examinee in it, rcali»i; what 
we owe to the greatest of modern topegra|>hflni, Lcoke. Who, that goes 
through the nanal coureo of highest honours in ancient history and 

* TliD (<ii|K.'ti nbwv rcoultn 1 onuluH urn " Tho Qitiat taA BUliopric* of Ptivj-gin," in 
'Joumiibf Uvllcaic&lu(lica,'iiertl. IS4^, If. 1887 ; '■AntiqaUlw v( StniUMri Pbm:)» 
and Uio Border I.aads" ia ' .^mvricuii Joumal uf AixJUBotogy,* Port 1. 1887, II.-IV. ISAS. 

t On this {lolnt KB Oiftpter VL 

X 2 



52 THE HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHT OP ASIA MIKOR. 

literature ever lienra the fame of Leake, or knovrs tliat lie has doti& 
more to make k real uodorotaading of Orwlt life possible than any 
other Kngtiahman of thia oontniy? We all know Cortinii' 'Hiatory of 
Greece :' hew many of ua know a finer ami greater work, Curtiua* 
'PolojKinneaoe*? Some of ua are even bo narrow lut to intagine that 
the reading of some modern bouki), aupplemouted 1>y a littlo atndy of 
Thtioydides, H«rodi:itiia ami Xenophon (a few rwioh. Pulybimi — how *«ry 
fow go det^pcr!). will enable ub to undeTatand anclunt history. If we 
want to umluratunl tlio aucieutM. aud vajiociitlly the Grooka, wo mu&t 
breathe the eaoie air lliat they did, and aatumtc onraolvea with the same 
soenor^- nnd the name nature thut wrought npon them. For tliia end 
correct lopogrjiphy is a upooiutary, though a Immlde, aerrant. 

The juflt.i£catioii of Part II. then ia that if we arc ever to undorctand 
the biatory of Aaiu Hlnor, wo must know tho places is wbioh that 
liixtory was trausactod. Thu ^.-hular, already stooped in Ilomer, who 
«iU spend montha iu tho Troad and Aeolis, and who will learn to know 
the land until »t Uat lie uudoralandi) it anJ aympatUiscs with it, — that 
»tbolar will place tho Homorio queetion on a new piano. Bat while 
an uncertainty of tun or a hundred* luiles exiiitii ns to tho sitnation 
of any place, we cuiniol oven set about mast«riug ita historj'. 

In Part II. brevity has been my aim, and re^ietition of anything that 
haa been AuBiciently w«1I xaid in ordioAry Ixwka hoii been nroidod. 
Henoe I have, as a rule, Uas to say on the more important cdtieB, each 
of which n«eda a monograph to itself ;t whert-a^ lu some names that 
arc not OTOQ ucntiooed by ordinary geographers. I have devoted 
Boveral pogoa, I mention one tyj)ical example. Eukboit*. a Pontic 
arcbbishiiprio, was not, so fur as I whb than awaro, montionvd by any 
modern gwgraphcr bcforo I wroto a paragraph, piiiited on p. 318, in 
which I etatod iu twenty lines the evidence, and placed tho eity at 
Tchoi-nm. The evidenoo appeared to mo clear, and I did not wiah to 
apeud time in explaining ita preoLHe force. Whilo tho first proof was in 
my hands, a number of the Builctin de CorreKjaondance ITeU6ni<pie, con- 
taining a paper en the subject by M. Doublet and tki) Abbi- Duchesne, 
reaohai me. Iff re tbo bitter quoted almost tho wLoie evidence that I 
had used, aud yet, iu order to support a poasible but unnocossniy and 
forced interpretation of an inscription, canio to tho ooncliiaion that 
Enkhaita wan i>ituatMl at 8aftirainboli, 100 miles further wc«t. Tho 
same evidence, therefore, which Boomed to me to point coaclmively to 
a site eaat of the Ilalya and probably to Tcborum,f appeared to auch a 

■ Tliuuliti^Tnlly true: we SnrHvcni>, Eakhnlbi, jic. 

t Th«<u woultl co(ii)>aM) groal port o( tliat luuil historr of the cciiiDtr7, whicli is 
tho »ocouij «tai|^ ia lliv work I hftd cmci- ninrkt'd inil fur luj'sclf. 

1 Tbe <3c»rriplioa o( the nxxleiu town, nilli itn moiHiijiM and IU fanatlclam. b^ 
Humiinn unil I'm- lutein, riiraisliw ro ineid«ntn1 (yinHrmatioa. ITii! permanmM of rv- 
llgioui foeliDg undur iiMf fornut u ono of tlio moiit ulrlklng Koaturcs Ln tbe hutory of tho 
eoontfyi aiul EokhHit* mu ee it »mly di»t in guwlii.il as n coutre of lelisbua rathuaiiunu. 



T. TBE ROMAN ROADS IN ASIA UlSOR. 



A3 



bigU nulhority as Ui« Abbu Dacboauc, to b« ccauistcnt with a aituation 
wust uf tiio Ualys, 100 iiii]c« from Tcbonitn. I folt CJnipcUod, io 
cuurteo^' to the npholdeni of llie other view, to eiamitie the cridcnco 
tully and bhow its bcariug. This DecG«ntat«(L au addition oT foor 
page«. After thijt was printed, I observod in tho ' Acta Saiictcmin * two 
(Jiiutatioca made hy the oditois from unpublitibcid souroeii, wliivh, with 
a slight oorrectton of the t«zt, took the whole uatier nut of the range 
of oontrovcray. Uad 1 k&own them eooocr, my rcaderg woiili have 
bcwn spared four pagea; but if thoy eeoaped such a maator of hagio- 
logical lit«ratu]-e aa M. Duchi'sno, I may fintl pardon for not Booner 
obaenring tlwui. Thuti was produced thu apparuntly dieproportiouato 
apace that I havo devoted te Eukbaita, asd id the csee of many other 
cilit» tile few Unea which 1 have oooupied in a brief Btatemeiit of the 
OTidcnoe, sometimes by ruere reference to the original nuthoritiee, mighl 
be ejipftnilod to oovurul pagoa, if I tried to vhow ite prcciao import and 
ttrength. 

The order of ezpOBitioii railitt appear so disorderly that a word uf 
explanation in needed. The order is that of discovery : each point as it 
WAS ecttled formod a support for further advauoe. lu ntim(.-rous ciues 
the arguments in favour of particular views seamed to myeolf at tho time 
I first Btated theui to be -weak, and yet iu the gradual progress of mj- 
own knowledge these viQwa were confirmed, partly by tho fitting in 
of other porta of the paiudo, and partly Ly tho diBcovcry of Btrikiog 
analogies; the discnaaion of Pinara, Sidyma, Khudiapolis, &0., in Lyoia, 
givee an exuinplu of Huuh a suli^et^iieutly discoveral analogy. 

The Roman road-system will he best nndoi-stood from the aooom- 
Ij^nying maps. Mere di-acriptiou of the general principles would not bo 
iutelltgiUu without kui'piiig the eyo on llie map; but tho aludy of the 
map will be facilitated by a statement of the plan on which the roads 
weie laid out. But iu the fiiat pluue I must make a general explanation 
in regard to all tho my>e, that in dran-ing tboni aud iadicating the 
boundaries of provinces <jt tho precise situation of towus, it has often 
been uecc«sary to iiMSuiuc an apiiearance of certainty which 1 do not 
really feel. In thcec cases the text wiil show what ovidenoo oxistA, and 
in the map the Hues mu«t bo understood as nieie approximations. If 
the towuB or boundaries are indicated at nil, they must bu iudieated iu 
•omc definite position. The text of Fart II. moat therefore be couHtantly 
used aa an auxiliary to the mnpe. 

The plan of ibe Grecco-Boman road-tiyetem may be briefly dossribod 
as consisting of 

1. The great trade-route and tbo 8iipplomentar>' roads that connect 
aide-lying districts with it. This set of roads can be gathered from 
the map and from the doaoription already given iu chftpt<-r IV. One 
illustration of the nianuor in which trade followed this mute may be 
given. The marble of Dokimion ■wau couvnyed to the eca, not by the 



M 



TIIE HI9I01tlCAL QCOGBAPtlT OP ASIA. MIKOR. 



npparetitly mnch more direct ronto Ysj Kenmon Agora (lalain K»ui) 
uikI FliilniK^lplieia, but by Syniuida ami the great trailc-rgato. Tbia 
rofty bo inferred from the nnmo Syunadic, whioh is usually given to 
thin marble. Dukimion was a self-governing municiiJ&lity, and the 
marble would not have been known to the world as Synuadic, nnleas it 
ha-J in Romc way come iittu connection witb ^ynnndH.* In fact this 
raarble, whon oxportcd, never actually passed tlirongh Dokimion, wbioh 
is About two or tlu-oe miles from the qnanies. It was carried direct 
to Synuada, whore in all probability was situated the chief ofGoe of 
odmiuiatratton^ to which the orders for marblo were sent; and thcnoo 
piHHd along lliB trndo-ronte. It is moroover very doiilitfii] whether 
tfae tti&d between Klaunoudda and Philudulpbeia wuk ever mude 
passable for monolithic cotiimna ; though there CAn l>c no doubt in the 
mind of ono who hns seen th« bold engineering by wbicli the ro&d 
is carried over the mountains between .Synnada and Metropolis that the 
Romans wore i^uite aide to make the road to Philadelphcia passable even 
fortlio Inrgeet ooltinine.t 

2. A road eonneeting nArthcrn Pbtygia and Galatia with Sardis and 
the AegMn coast at Smyrna. The renlinger TaMe preeervee in an 
umuuftUy oomplote and accimtte form j the jjart of tbia road whieb led 
from Dorylaion and Kotiaion by Apia, HicrokLai^ax, Akmouiii, Aloudda, 
Klttsnoudda, and Philadelphoia. Besides this I incHiio to the boli«f 
that nnothor branch came from PoKeinus by Orkistos and joined the 
former road at Hierokhnrax (see )*p. ItiB, 230). But I cwn find no 
evidoiicc that the important modem trade-route from Afiora Kara Hisar 
(AkroenoB, near Prj-mnessos) by Ilierolcharax to Philadelpheia was in 
ate during the Roman period, for the trnrle of Prymnessos and DuVimioa 
miiBt have gone by way of Syiinada and Apameia. This *et of roadn 
fullilluil the function* of the " Royal Koad," though they do not exactly 
ooincidn with it. The map shows the great importance of the pa» in 
wbioU lies Ilierokluirax. The valley of the littlo strnam Hamam Sh, 
which is probiihly tc lie identified with the «n(^ent 8unun)it,§ is the only 



' Bee my pA\>er " [u«crlptit>iis laifditei de Matbrot rhrygioEU," iu ' M^Uogced'Ank. 
el tl'Iliat.' 18«!. 

f TLo nmto Philaiji>lpheiu-Klannuu(l(tit-AkEaania U not neuily bq difflcnlt iu that 
wlilcb, ooconliiig t» my riavt, wii« Mlnwcit hy the " Rojtil GoaJ;" but it wna Dot, 
1 think. brnii|;1it intn vmt till ihn ]>Qr)uiI of tbc Diodoolii. It lauat Ije rtn]i«mbi>rtnl tltut 
Uio my Trom SyuuadH to Mnlmpolin ivna ncii nlrictlj- pmrl of llie tmdc-route, irhich woat 
tHm Uetropolla to Kinnalxiriun utjJ Ljwaik Had Llint Mauliiii did oot cnis tlie 
mountiiiii* tHftt Imnnil Hip SynndJn Tnlley on the south (*eo p. 170), 

t Thc^uly umlvMOii id the in«gQific«nt Ui^TokhfiMi; tie olu«[ f»uU ia Cooleo lor 
Cotion, i.e. Ootialon : kg p. ItiB. 

i Tbe name Scrnnros oociim aa fuiaa of 8eliiulr\ soo Thatl. Hiit Knm., ii.r. ft may 
Inillontc |KitIw|}ii tlie Quo fouutiilnt, now culled Itunar DiuUi, aeiLt :4e1jiutc, or iiiuro 
probably tbo nbi^l^Driti^ nvi-t Itannx Ti^lini. The Hnmam Sn ja ncnf natunill; 
nokaiie^ the ihmd stream; but Lbo natuc Uanai Tcliai U now ftpptiod to (inutlicr 
brancb ootniQfc from tlic villi>g« QuiaE, iiurlh-ircet of lalaiu Kcui. 



V. THE SOUAN B0AD8 IN ASU kllNOK. 



55 



ronte of coramunicatioQ from ft gront pftrt of wc«tom I'bryfi^ia towards 
tlio iiort1i-«aiit and eoat; for the path by Akmouis and BiiiklcA or 
Uulccia towards tho Mieropolitan vaHejrcan iK!iifstr»te further to tlie eaat 
only by a footpath BcriMts very ragged mountaiiu. At the uotrnsco to 
the- paw np tbe Uamiun Su lay Keramon Agora, in the territory subject 
to Aknionta. 

8. The military roada guarding the eaaticm frontier toTvardn the 
Ettphtaiea. 'IliOfiO bar« as thvlr ccutrv Melitoue, wher« vas the 
stauiling camp (ataltYa) of Ltigiu XII. Fulminatu; and thoy uro |)artly 
mixed up with th« enHtem paTt of the great trado-roiito through Ilrpa 
iiud McLitonu to thu crueaiug uf thu KiipkratcH ut Tumi»ti. The 
miUtary roads cotuist of a road from Bataln, the atatiou of L«^io XT. 
Apollinaris, along the right Iwiuk of tho Kuphrates through Arauraci 
or AraaraVa (nee p. 2'!*) nmi Daskoiisa, the atntioii of Ala II. Ulpia 
Auriniw,* to Melittiuv, and thonoo, still along the Euphmtes, to 
Samosata in the provtnuo Syriw. From Melit«ne a read ran along the 
cortheni nide of Tanrus by ArahisHos, an itnporljint military <'«iitro at 
tho entranoo to tlio niaiu pass over Taunu (pp. 276-280, 311), to 
Kokiusoa From Kolcnssoa a roud ran north to Koiuaua, Ariarathn 
and Sobnstcia, nod thence east along the Haly8, through Nikopolis and 
Culoiiia lo Satalii. This coiupU-I«H thu outer circle of roads, in addition 
to which thoro woro aleo dir«ct roada from .ArabisAOe to detaoteia, from 
JUvlitcno to B«ba«t«iu, aiid from Karsagn to Kikopolia. Two paaiee 
acrasB Taurus into Kommageno wore traverfled by the roAda from 
Helitene through Fen-o to SanioRata, and from Arabissos to Gor- 
maiiiceia : tho last mnat have Iwca in all ages, and in atill, a very 
important road. The pass from Kokussoa to German iwiu, wlnvh is 
Btili very little used though nnt oxcoedingly didi'Cult, OAuuot bo 
proved to have been in ««o tintil the niiitli century (p. 270). Tho 
Anti-Taiinia passes are more nniiierous than those acrons Taurus. 
Hcckoning from south to north, &lajor Bcnnot has told me that tho 
following pauses Iwul acroMS the Anti-TauruKJ moautHtns, couuting 
from Honth to north; bat probably only two were traversed by Roiiinu 

roads. 

1. Gez Bel, approaclmd from Kousoli. 

2. Dede Bel, „ „ Seuages. 
'i. Geuk Bel, „ „ „ 

4. Kum Bel, „ 

5. Kuril Tchai, tTaverBcd by the great trade-route. 

6. Eabak Tepc, not iiii]>orta»t 

7. Ycdi Oluk, traversed by the military road to Ariarathia. 

* fioe C I. L.. m., SuTplcm,, Nu. 0713 ; vihun ilonuawca refer* to Arrinn final., 
p. SO. 6, anil Niitil. DiBiiit. Ori«it.. as. Mi : PIIbj-, V. 2i. m. \L V. 27 ; Oro«ii«. L 2. 2X 

t The muuuUin* ou the vest tiilo n( tli*: Snrw in the uppra part of H» coarae 
MiMciftll/ bear tUU aame. Bat the UJmlMa IMgh on th« «iuC uda luiijr *1m bo oftUcd 
ADli-Tawna 



&6 



THt: mSTOBICAI, C£OGBAPaY or A6U ULSOR. 



Somo of these military rottds are deEcribed in Part II., pp. 270-280. 
Tlie rcet are iiidicHtoil in tbe maj) of castem Cappaducia and Armetiia 
Minor: whore it has l»en neowaary to select the probablti Hnc of 
sKveial rooflB, and the prol«a1>Io situation for several towns, Tbo 
folluM-iiig liypotli(?Be« are adopfwl, in ail<lition to ihe remarks nia^lo id 
Part U. The In-okeii roail which is given in tbo IVutingftr Table aa:— 

Nikopoiis 31 Ulo Obeida 15 CaloorHisba 24, 
which Kiepert connecta with Analibla (Aunlila), ia oorreot«d in 
accordaiico witli Itolemy to Niknp(ilis-Sc<leoheTroifi-Ealtion«GH, ami 
ccDQCctcd with Knrsagu. It ia also asaumed that the indirect road 
(AutoD. Iiin., p. 215), • 

^'ikopoH8 24 Olotoodariza 21 Corsat 34 AranracoB 2-1 SuiGsa 30 
fjatala, 
has iK'tin ccirmptctl thruiigh the analogy of the dJrpct road Nikopolut 
24 Olotocdariza 20 Dracontcs 24 IJara 26 Salala. The indirect road 
falU at Carnat (Karsnga) into the frontier road along th« EuphrAt(«. 
and in really identical with the road of tbe Feutioger TbM(> when 
properly interpreted. The name Klotoidarixa or 01ot<iidariza has been 
Hubstitutod for the two statlonH of Ihe Peutinger Table, KaltioriBea and 
Seleoberpoia (oorrupled to Caleorsissa and Ole Oberda). The situation 
of Elotuiduriza or Olotoidaiiza suggi>st« a eoiinc«tion with Bnaguiilariza, 
which 18 mentioned by Strabo, p. 655, together with Hydara and 
Sinoria, rb one of the forta built by Mitbridates in the oountrj- towardu 
Armenia (by which he aeenie to mean Ptolemy "e Ponttis Poloraoniacns, 
for Sttunaria in that district must be Stralio'a SinoriaJ. BaEgoidariza in 
Polemoniacus wa^ therefore probaHy not far froTo Etotoidariza in 
Armenia MJnor. The form of tbe latter namo is very doubtful. The 
initial gnttiiral is given in some of the autkoritica ; l.nt Olotoidariza^ 
has th& snpport of most of the MSS,. and is. defended and confirmed by 
Procopiiie, do Aedif., iii. 4, p. 253, who mentions in this very district 
LyiaTBiizon. If tbe Bonn edition madi; any nttompl lu comjily with 
the conditioDfi of a scholarly work, we perhaps should find that varianta 
exiflt«d whiab Justified such a restoration as Lytadarizon or Alytadn* 
riznu.t The ending -tlarv l>ecarae nswal in Byzantine timo in curtain 
Ariaeuiun names, and i« doubtless equivalent to the eailitr I'tinleriag 
•t^a The name Kitharizon (aee p. 325) probably Khows that £a|>r{w and 
ffapiiwv were ei^nivaloat t«riuinatiou8. 

In the Byaantino, but not iu tho Roman period, wc find alluHious to 

' TIjg Tuiianta ClutoetliLriES, CIoleilaTlza, occar in p. 207; Ijal amid teu Turiiint* 
in p. 183, iiatio bavo the inlllnl oonwaaot uml uiitn^ bnva Ihe enilitig -lariza ioitt^iki) uf 
-dnrln. In p. 215 the vjiiisntB "re U'Vvt, bul timin Imn t!io initial Mtisotiant. 

t Iu tlio funii Kloloiduilza piobubly tko K ni»et frou) tbe cvnfiuitfii wUb Kaltic- 
liMu. In the niiiuc ns Kivcti hy Pron-cjjiiun tlic luuof au initial vuwvl wuulil be ijnito in 
BCGortJancc witSi nnnlitKy.nnil UiereTori) tlie baUiire or jiTulnbility in in fuvuur or iho 
form§ Ololoitlniizu, A1} tnlariion, Lj-tjiterixoD, trbfro L )ia« laken tlia (i1»c>j of original 
I). In I'moijiiina tbe L ]i«a b««n tnodilicd in ill turn to ft. 



V. im BOUAN ROADS IN ASIA MINOR. 



57 



a route S(.>l:>^tci{i-T<.-j>hrik(t-Kainttclia. Tliisrunto in implied in a paeaago 
of Michael AttalioU (soo boluw, p. 2GT), while tic coQDOction as for d» 
'i'e|>Iiriku(Dirrij;i3 iit impliMl iaa.ll Uiooiiiiiiiuigii«aguiiiDt tbo Paulitfians, 
whoee diief etroDghold was Tephrike, Sqt tho campaigns agaiimt than 
ar« oonduoled along the route hy H^Ilika Theiiuo, SibotiL. Agmne, and 
Sobutcia. This ruutl iit iiul pruvoil to have existed in lioman iimcw. 
Thd identification of Gauiaoha with Theodosiopolis is justified by tite 
ooiD]»rfttive table giv^ii on p. 282 and by the T«ini\rlc(i on p. 447. 
There were aevuial citios uumud Theodosiopolis in the easteni part^ of 
the Hyzantine empire : this one is porhajts nieutioiied by Procopina, de 
Acdif., iii. 4, ]>. 2^3, and unother vccuj-s in the eamo worV, p. 2o&, and ia 
B«U. Fera, p. 6'i, vrhere it is Baid to be 4'J atadla south of a mountain 
in which rjee bot,b the Euphrates and theTigiis. 

Eolutiuia or Kolunia was CTidwntly the chief fortrcM in the northcni 
district of the frontier in the later ware, and the oentrel oity of the 
I'hemo Koloneia. The gn.-nt fortrcti»ca of the Byswotlno period w«ro 
as a rule situated on lofty preoipiLutui roclcB, atid Prooopitu, de Aedif., 
iii. 4, p. 253, mentious that Kolotieia oociipied 6uoh a j>oeitioii (iv 
iKpmrvxi^ Xo^w KtxTaKp^firw). Citic* whioh, like Kolonoia, arc of great 
itD|>ortancQ in Inter ByKuntine time retain as a rule this impurtauco nnder 
Turkish rulv. In this diiilrict t1i« iuipoitatit city of Sbubau Earn Hisar 
compIicB with all tlicae conditions; and its military importance is such 
that it must ho a leading fortruss ia tho Byzantine wan, I haro there* 
fore, p. 287, identified it with Kolonbia. The Armentatis still call this 
city Nikopoli : Ki^txirt has rightly seen that this is a miatake, bat h« 
has not oxplainod the origin of iho error, which certainly mast lia in 
the gradual desertion of Nikopolis and the uuiou of the two bishoprics, 
Kolonoia and Nikopolis: in the combiood titio Nikopulia must have 
held the first place, and the second must have fftUen iuto disuse. 

4. The uiiLitary ruadn laid out a1x)ut C ac. or <:i»rli<:r fur the defence 
of the province Gfllatia and the coercion of tho mountain tribes of 
Fisidiaand Isauria. Tho military centre was Antioob of Pisidia. The 
atalioss, all Kotuun coloniefl, ave eumnerated on p. 3136. The militar}- 
avooesity fur thcao roads suuu disappeared as the mouDtainucuB wore 
incorporated in the empire ; and tho road system cannot be understood 
DDiil more CMrly milestones are discoveiixi. Tho little that is known is 
moutioned on pp. 35S, 391, 368-9. In the supplement to Vol. III. of 
the 'Corpus InitLTiptioD iim Laiiiiarnin,' Nu. t]974, £ have stated tho 
opinion that the dietanc* C'XXJI from Antiochcta to Culonia Comama 
was measured by Apolloniaand tho ancient city beside Elyes or Elles on 
Lako Askania (porhaps OkukliaJ. This view is unsatisfuctory, as imply- 
ing that a military roa<l of the Proriuco Gitlatia ran through a part of 
the Prorinoe ARiUi but I am still unable to ses any other way in 
which the mDasuremt-'ut cim bo explained. Mtlestonas of tho second 
or tliirti century fuaui] in this country cannot be taken as sure 



56 



Tin: iiisTORicja OEooEUpav of asia siikok. 




ericleiice of Angosttu's reads; they Wlong to the time tc-hpn tbo 
military T0B(1h were luorgt-d in llio gonerul Hyiiteui of the countTj' nod 
perb&pa modifiMl. 

a. The tODdcncy of couiiuerci? during tho (.trjieco-Honiaii period was 
chiudy Along the ruutv« from c»it to west. But Ixssidex this there were 
aeaporte on the Dlack ^!ea. and the Me<]iUTT«iiean, wliich wpro employed 
in a 1m> degree for the pnrpoBo of direct (r&do witli tiic west, Taraoa wae 
the port for Ciliuia, SeSeuceia for C'ilicia Traoheia (which io latt-r Bomau 
ftod Byirfliitine time wan called Isaiiria). Side and Attnlciafor Paiapbylta. 
TolmoscoB, tto. for Lycia ; and on tho north ('ycicoH, Aiai«)«, aad aoretal 
oth«r harbours, still retained «on8idenibl« inportAaoc. To each of thcso 
jwtDts roads oouv«rgDd, and tlioy were pointi; of dL-[tairturo for a coasting 
traffic, great part of which ultimately foniid its way to Itotnc It wonld 
ho a tiHoful study to fiulluct the refi-rvncra to this ooantiag tr&de,* and 
try to dfitermino its charaotcr and importatice. Ittit a ecrious work o» 
the trade of the ]£uma.a empire ia still adcsideiBtnin ; and the foundatioa 
for a history of trade in Asia Minor muat rest on a " Local History" of 
tho coaiitry, which ought to completo the present work. It ia not 
probable that Attaltia wae u*od at a shipping port for any pro<lnce 
except that of the ooast-Land of Pamphylia, or Seleuoeia except for the 
Kalykadnoe and other valluys that lead down to the iMutriun sea. Tho 
iDDuntain wall of Taams prevented nil heavy traffic from crossing 
the short linos Utwoen the plateau and the Bouthom Boa, and tamed it 
along thtj rond that led tu the Ai'geaii. Th@ {-ame remark (miffalis 
viutaadiaf applies to 8inope; and even Tarso!< was proliahly not used 
as a iH>H for any ootuitr>- except the Cilician plain, fi>r Blrabu, p. 540. 
Be<'m8 to make it clear that the Cappadocian trade went toEpheaos by 
land. The easiest palli from Cappodocia to Tarsns was through tho 
Ciliciau Uati-s, and it is said that the rocky Avails which form tho Gates 
•pproaohed ao doee that, until Ibrahim I'aeha hiaetod a road fur his 
artillery, a loaded caiiiol Conid just pnss between thoni, Similarly it 
may be doubted whether AmiRos was a harbour for more than the tratle 
of the Pontic plains and the trade-route from AnnODia by way of 
Sobasteia and Komana roDti(>a. 

This coasting trade lies apart from my proper subjoct, whieli is 
completed when I linvo cnnmentted tho ]x)iutfi round the coaat where 
lines of road oonverge. I have as yet hardly touched on, the western 
harbours to which the road^ (hat eross Asia Minor from east to weet 
conveyed the prodnco of tho country. In the early liJreok period 
Miletos ap[)eara, so far as the evidence goes, to liavo l>een the seaport 
for the trade with Celaenae and the I'ppur Slaeander. The evidence 
lies partly in the early coiuago as indicating commercial im)>ortanoc, 
jMirtly in Uipponas'g reference to the Phrj-gians, who tamo down to 

* For emnple, in the legend of Aberkloe (Aet fonct., Oct 21), the saint want la 
AltflleiA aad (benco tovk abip (« Itomo. 



V. TU£ 8031AH ROktS I.V ASIA NIXOR. 



59 



Miletoe. Kiiliwos, bowcvor. was really a moro oouveniont harlMnr tli'tn 
MilotoH for a coDsidorablo part of ths Haeanrler Talloy ; though iho 
oommcitiial «uei^' (iu other wurdu, the thoroughly Umch clmraotor) uf 
Alilotos e««infl to; luiv« gtren it much greater importance as a trading 
centrs in th« ourlicr period ; whpreaH :n EphRHos the Greek npirit had 
□ot (to complete maittery ilh in Milutua.* Bub tho energy of Mile-tun 
disappeared ttuder the Persian rale, and the iiaturnl snitnhility of 
EphcBos «6 tho iioarctrt harlwiur for n mad comiTif!^ down the Maennder 
valley made it the terminuH of tha great trade-rDtite, The harhour also 
of Hilctuit wax siltud up, and it is now milc« distant from thti a«a. 
Ephoeos retaiued ita comtaorcial importance throughout tho Koman 
Period ; but ita harlwur also hna now long ceased to exist, the town ia 
abeolntely deaerted.f and ilif whole tnule along tho ancient unitturu high- 
way now }>a«iic« across tht- quay of Smyrna. Boforo the Ottamnn Railway 
was opened, oonuecting tiiuyrua with ths Maeander vallvy, the harbour 
of Kealanova tifok tlio place of KpbeaoB, and niaintaincd a foioblo com- 
petition with Smyrna for tho tnule of tho Maeander valley : but with tho 
advantage of railway communication Smj'i'na la beyond competition. 

Tho railways tbat radiate from li^myma have token tho plaoo of tho 
old roudH. Olio of them goes by the Hermos valluy to Philadelpheia, 
and corrosponda therefore to tlic " Boyal RoaJ." The other connects 
Smyrna with EphcBoe, ibe Maeaader valley, and Apameia-Oolaoikao : it 
eorroBpondi to tho eaatem ti-ado-poato. Tho latter, which was first 
built, cat nut Soatanava and gave Smyrna the eutire command of tha 
trudo of tbo Maeundur vallvy. Tu take one example, tho lii^uorice root 
of the Maeander valley, iu which a great trado hoo aprung np during 
the loat forty years, wa« formerly ahipped from Scalanova ; now it all 
goes to Smyrua. 

One phase in the recent history nf tho great trad^routo furnishea 
an intcroeting commentiiry on tho perioil when the road from Por^mos 
by Phil&delphcia to Laodioeia and the eaat ■was the great route. Aftar 
the HormoH ^■ alloy Railway was completed to rhilndolphoia, it was 
eaaier to oarry tho vaateru traile from tlio LykoH valley ooross tho 
short mountain pass to Diiladolpboia, than down tha Maeander valley 
to tho tp-rminiis of the other ruilway at TraMels {now Aidin), Tho 
trade was thua for a limo divarfcfJ through spwial circumstanDea away 
from the natural line, and did tiot return to it till tho Atdiu railway 
was carried on to tho Lyko> Talley. 

* These two pLnaca "the Greek Rpint," Bad " the commBrotftl enorgr," are oerotf 
(wo different way* nf cviofwiiig tbu mat tdoi. Oiiv of lin-m mtiVKitbctak^n tu amuon 
foftheothor. TogivcarcsMn for the difft-mra IwtireeB UilotM (rod EpbetMtt difll- 
calt : it doca aot lio in som* pbrue aneh m that the Otedc «luMot wnt atn>n;«r fa 
Atilrtoi, thr iiativu oleuienl ia E|iheaa«. Tlio Qiaok s|>tTlt I< not tli« pmperly of widg 
iiu^k- Ui!>t; It 1* Impftrtnl hjth.R nir, tW iico.Bnil itic muTintnin barrii-n to that rarjing 
uitnlgnin orioa.iiy diflitrent trllMii atid tlut-kt wliioh Muittitulud the lit*Kk \xnni\im. 

t ATAuluk, the modcra vUluge, u &bout u niilQ from Ibc nearut put of Epliaao*. 



60 



THE HISTORICAL GEOORAPilV OF ASIA MINOR. 



A similar competition eeeniH at an eoi-Iy timo 1» have beon malut^noil 
betiveen Phokaia, Smyrna, and Ephesoa, Tor the trndi; with the IIotiquh 
^■alley and tLc iiiuer coiiiitr_v along the "Royal Road." Htrodotua, v. 
5-1, uaucH Epheeoa as tiio eca-oud uf that road ; biit the probable ox- 
{ilaoation of hia problematic language in ii. 106 (oomporotl vdth r. 64), 
in that be is stating in a cxjufiiHud aud iuacciiiiite way au account, that 
iiu bad not fully ondorstuod of the tJtreG ixiada, tSaTdia-Phokaia, Smdia- 
Smjma, aad Saidia-Ephesy*. A ft-w words on tliis fiiiiotiB ^weaago and 
on the vftliio of Herodotns'u teBtimouy M-itli regard to Asia Minor may 
not bo out of place here. The text is, tlin &i nai vtpi 'latvajv Stw tvtoi tv 
itirp^t iyMKoXafifiM'M To(.Vau rov uvSput r^ r< Ik r^ 'EtJHfriTjt it Ifwuaxav 

After readiug Tarious attempts to bzplaia Horodotnti'a road from 
EpLcHOH tu Phok&ia, I fwl only nioro airougly Ihat, as I faavo already aaid 
in ' Jouriuil of Ecllcaic Studies,' 18^1. p. 53, eiiLor hia account in bod 
or his text oormpt. The very idea of doftiiing n road ob loading from 
Ephoeo« to I^okaia is as abeurd as it would b« to say that a monament 
■nan on the railway that leads from Scarborough to Lincoln. Mortiovcr 
tht> natural way from EphvHos to l^bokoia vrouid Ih; thivugb Smyrna, 
and no ouo could poBsiMy uudcrHtaud from H«rodotii»'H words a 
road thn)Ugh the pass of Kara Bel, which involveB a journey of quite 
double the distance. To say that Horodotus'a words, Ik r^i 'K^(n'i)t, 
mean a road that lod not from Ephesos itself, but from s^fiuc part of the 
territory of Ephcaoa whitih oommunicatcd with Phokniii by a different 
road, does not help ne: in the first place it is geograpbioally false, 
in the second place it is, in my opinion, contrary to tho Labile aud 
ttonght and expression of the Greek time. My view ia still that, as 
l.hore is no rcneou to believe that any stTiuiis fault pxiBts in the text, 
Herodutaa'a words can be underatootl only by Iiypothotically restoring 
tho account which he heard. Thia was to the eB'ect that three great 
roads led to Sardia from the coast, one from PLokaift, one from th© 
Epiiesian teiritor}', and one in tbo middle from Smyrna. Two of 
those roads were marked ty mouuments erected by the Egj-ptian 
coaijuicror BoBOBtris. Herudotua represents these munumcnta as of 
thG same type; bat I incline to think that in this also lie is in- 
accurate. One of the monuments must be lUe so-called "SeKostriB" 
in Eara Bel pg^s; the other inwBt he the "Niobe." On this view 
the paesugo of Herodotus becomca a very simple and aleo a most 
natural one. 

M'itli regard to Herodotua'g aa-ounts of Asia Minor, the opmiuu h 
irreBiatibly bomo in on every one that knowa tbo country,* that in 
every case wtt-re he epeaka about oceucry or phenomena of the interior 
he npc^ake from heareay, and not from jiersonal knowlcsdgft. Thoro is 

* E.g., Pn>r.G. Uiraehfeli], in ktsawouat of Ajjaueia-CelacaaeiUyiUialUt^rodatiu 
"spriobt cffoDlinr nieht aU Augtoizco^" 



V. THE. BOUAX KOAI16 IS ASU SlIKOlt. 



01 



not a soiitence in liia work that gives the sliglitcet grouad for thiukiiig 
Lo hAd over gouo into Asift Minor mor» tli&n a Few milee from H\o 
voaEt. He was a Greitk aWve all iu IuhIovo for the urn ami bis hftired 
of tho inner country. '\lTiere ho could gu iu a ship, c.y., up the Nile or 
to Sinopo, he was glAd to go ; but I TevI tlliat except as a »\are or a 
priaiHier or an ambassador, ho nerer would have gone to Babylon." In 
regard to tlio iiiiior jmrtH of Ania JtlinoT, even iiuints so near the caaat 
as Aparoeia. Kolo&tjsi, Kara Bel, and Magnesia ad Sipyliiin with its 
"Niobe," hia language ahon-s that ho had not 8con thom. Ko one who 
is intimately acquainted witli a place can mistake a heanay accotiot for 
the account of ao oye-witnem ; tho tniittatEis of an oye-wituoss are of one 
Icind (with vrhich I have liccome fitmiliar aa made both by myself and 
by others), the mistakt-s made in rciiortijig iu one's own wordit an 
account heard from an eyc-vntii««H are of quite a diflerent kind. Close 
and miuuU.' study of what Hci'odotus says about Asia Minor, pouderod 
over for years and looked at &oin many points of view, produces in 
mc thv Itclicf (1) that he was not an eye-witness, (2) tbnt he did not 
carefully reproduce vorbntim tho accounts which ho heard, bnt rewrote 
them, probably in many cases from memory. The Roenery and character 
of tho ooMt-laods which ho knew personally were ho familiar to him 
that he did not think of describing them; it was tho straiigo and tho 
novel things that he had heard about and not seen which hn dCHcri)>cM 
roost oarofuily; In lh« case of Egypt it is precisely thoBO things 
which struck him as unlike hia ordinary experience that he briiiga 
most prominently into his work. 

In speaking of the pass of Kara Bel, the high authority cf Prof. G. 
Hirachfeld is likely to give wide ruiroaoy to a strange error that he 
makes in his "Tehfonrcliefs in Kleinasicn und das Volk der nittlter." 
p. lO.t Ho says that the name Kara Bui means 'Black Stone,' and 
denotes the " Sesostris " monument. The name means " Black Pass," J 
and denotes the monntain pass in which tho momimoiil is 8ituati.-d. 

At first tho gcographtcal nituution of Sm^'nia must have givi-n it a 
decided advantage iu the competition for tho trade cf tho Hermos valley, 
hot it dcvelepod such a strong Greek spirit, and it was so dangerously 
ekme to the Lydion capital, that it was destroyed as a rival to Sardis hy 
rho rising military power of Lydia. So long as the pass from the litllo 
valley of Bmyma across the ridge by Eavaklt Dcre to the cast was in 
the hands of a Greek state, that slate was a perj>etnal menace to tho 
Lydians of the IIormciB valley, which it commnuds by nieons of tho 

' In rciRAid to tliitt |x>iiit I lure nu kaoirkdg* lo jutlify nity opinioa u to vhi-thtr 
or Qit lie wluolly Hiw Bubylon : every Ttador ta na able Iu tima an uj>iuiuii aa I am, aixl I 
shall nut iaiull him by oxpr«ikiinK miots 

f • AUh&ndl. BotLiAImJ-.' 18S7. 

I Kara bmu *Bkcb,' or raUver ■T«iriU»:' Ibe t«rm » cfUn sppliod inaBmral 
mue to dsagooiui 9t pownfal or impraMtvo locking objccb or ^moju. Bd mcuiu* 
Ulerallr " nook," and Is rcfpilfiTly Emptied to bigh open panes. 



C2 



THE HISTOBICAL GEX)GItAPHY OP ASIA MINOIt. 



strong fortrett tliat orerhangs the posB " io the Mtnu way that Surdu 
itself doCH. Ilonoo aroso the lon^ confiirt )iotvre«ii Smyrna ftml Sardu, 
whicll is SMug by Mlmuenaon, kud -ivtiicli leaded in tho duwofaU of 
biuynia iLod iu oMitonitioD from tbo Dumber of ancient oitie8.t 

When Smyrna wns deHtroyed. the trado of the Ereritioa vnlky whb 
proli&bly uiouopolised by PlioltAiH. and itftt^r tbu iipirit and power of 
Pbokaia wero btok«D by tljo IVreiune, EpbeaOe 6iicce«di-d tu ita place. 
The period when Fhokaia commanded thia trade in markM by JtA rich 
ooiiisgo, abuut tiOO-&CiU: thu coinn^ of E[)Lvtn)ii begitm to to important 
at a later date. Tho (juoiition then 8iiggoGt« ilnclf wliotbor tlic prosperity 
of Smyraa was nut a«ooiiipaaii>d alw> by ooinuge' It is usually oanimcd 
tluit the destruction of Smyrna took plaue Iwfureit beg«n to coin money. 
Hut it wait destroyed by Alyatti-n, whn in the Iwginmng of his rbign hul 
on biH hands a six yoara' doubtful war against the powerful Miletos, 
nnd afterwards a war ag»in»t Media ; tlie probability is that he did not 
HQcceod in breaking the power i>f Smyrna till after the coucluelon 
of the Hediau Viar in 535. Wo ehuuld certainly expect tbat a great 
Grcok oommeroiiU state in the sixth oontnry would coin luunoy: and 
I should attribute to Smyrna some of tho tarly ol&ctrum or gold coins 
BRiaJly classed to Sordia. The lion type is eijually Knitablo to both 
ottteB. 



VL TiiE Value op the Pedtihokr Table, ProLEMt, and the • 

ITISEBARIES AS GeOORAPBICAL AUTHOBITIES, 

I cannot protend to disoius this difficull. fiubjeot thoroughly ; but in 
OS BiBohM I have b^n lod to asitign far less value to thcso autboriticH 
iu compari»uu with Strabo and the Byzantine lists than modem geo- 
grapheiH usually do, 1 Bin bound tw olTor a. fow remarks in dofcuoe and 
oxplunatiun of uiy opinion. 

The ocdinaiy method of usiug tho Peutinger Table is carried to its 
Logical conclusion (and to a redwlio ad abmrdttm) by Dr. Konrud TIliLlov 
in hie wort, ' Die Weltkarto dea Castoiius. gouannt die Peuliugersch© 
Tafel,' which is dated in th« your 18B8, though amid many acute and 
useful observations there are some opinions in it which might snggCBt 
a date in the seventGonth century. To judgo from his whole tone 
(«,(r. pp. 7i"'-80, 121) Dr. Miller thiuku that tho Table is a document of 
very high authority, t^at laany of the faults charged against it by 
modem writ«r8 are proofs mjjroly of thoir ignorance, that the progress 
of reeearch is juHtifyiiig and will continue mora and more to justify 

* I liare dcMilbMl tblB fbrtrew and I'ta military importanco in (hr- 'JoniBBl of 
Hellr.nic SUiiltiiti,' 1680, iii a iiajici on " Newly Dinfovnrcd Rileii ncnr Ptayrnu." 

t It iuu*t uul liv tboaglit that Soijcna cciistj Im Piiit: it waa cr^uuifloJ on iho 
native AiintnlUn villogi" B>-stcra, not lu n Greek irrfAM, but it is mcntionc't by Pindnt in 
tJie Bflh routury.nna in ah inwriplton oT the hdjinuing of tho [ourtli eentury. Giots 
anil Cnrtiuw anv iLia, aud tlio Uucriptioa haa confinned thoir opbiion, 



VL VALDF. 0? THE I'ECTIKQKK TABLE, ITOLEMT, ETC. 



«a 



tbe accuracy of Lho TnMe, a»d t!bat one most bo very oareful of oro'h 
groood Wfuro aocuKiug ctth«r the copyist of n fnult in tbu copy or ibo 
OligiBAl aolhor of i^^iivrauce in soy detail: tbe obvious iafei-fuctiH uro 
tlwl theTftblo must be our fundAmental authority, tbnt tho prc«;iimption 
is in favour of all its statcinentis and tliftt tlieBU ought to be acceptod 
where thoy cajiiiot l)0 proved to be wrosg. Every oiiu of tbeso 
iafoionceB I ct^sidor to bo *beolut«ly ittho and diametrically cuTitmry 
to the true ikrinciploB. I BUpposB tlial tliu most recent gcngrAphera 
would c»n»!idcr Dr. Miller rattier to over-eRi imnte tbe authority of tho 
Table; but they would probably consider my viow to be as great aa 
orjor iu ibo oppuoitc direction, and in practice they really aceume hie 
oonulnslona in uuinorous caaos whcro. l)«caiiK« two knovn and fixed 
cities occur aa the termini of a nmd in tlio Tftbl«, they place tlie 
int«rmvd into nauu.« uf thu Table at correepouding iiitarraU along the 
road in their map. Hy rule is that thia mnat ueT«r be done im1ef» 
iiidopondont ovidciicfl in brought forward to JHstify tbe position asaigncd 
to these intermcdtate Ktattons. I vfuuld gu oven farther and maintain 
that the ngreemoui of Ptolemy and Ibo Peutinger Tablu in far from a 
strong argumont, and noods oxtarnal eorrobonition. I consider that 
tho prineiplo which is hero being vritidsMl ie one of iho ohiof reasons 
that have n-tardud tho progreHfl of topography in Asia Minor. Tho 
fonndation of typographical study (givun knowledge of the country) 
must lie in fixing from opigraphio ovidenoe as many poiuta an poHsiblo, 
and thereafter working from tbe Byznulino lists, comparing thorn with 
fitrsbo and the campaigns that took place in the country. The Table 
and Ptolemy may bo uwod as corroborative evidence or to supjity gajw, 
but where they are at variance' with tbe abore anthoritic*, their value 
is naught. 

Tho ab«toInt« contradiction between Pr. Miller's results and mine may 
bo gathered from tbe fact tliat in collocting on pp. 118-120 tho material 
which may be need for Iho cinoidation and criticism of the Table, hu 
dors not even allude to thoeo autlioritjes which in my opinion are 
fundameutnl.* 

The proof of tho prindplco which I have laid down is to be fouud 
in tho second part of thifl book, in which may bo found nomcrcua 
exampltw of roads that are utterly misrepreeente^l in tho Table : tho 
Ttin^rftriea are letter authorition than the Table, but Part II., Chapter 
N, which diKiniiseB the roads iu eastom Capt«docia, a didtriot where iho 
Antoninc Itinerary and the Pcntinger Table are uiiUiniaHy minute and 
detailed, will show how utterly impotwible it is to recuver from thena 
aathoridea any approximately oocutato pioturo of the road system. In 

* Biencaroti apprMeh to s ic<>ngnitinn of th« BynnliiM lEit« is in iho wonli'dls 
BiaelaoMtm dca 4. JaLifannderla (m (Inm*, 8«riei Episcwimram n. a.).' Hi; mnlras as 
refcnncd (n tbo (smiuilgna foncl't iu the country, except in KiealloainK 'Procops 
BctriCtvu* BEiil ' AmmuuiQV HiuiwlUQua.' 



64 



THE KlSTOErCAL OCOnRAPHY OF ASIA UlSuK. 



general, we find in tlie Tnble that Hcini«limcH the right namcfi sro 
laeiitiimod in tJie wrou^ oTtler, fn-queDtly un entirely fahe eel of utunen 
is pUc&d on a rood, and somotimet; true and folso oatoca aro put «id« 
hy iiide amnng tho ntationR. Freq^iientty an important Itoman ruute is 
reiiT«(tcntfd lii uiero ftagiut-nlSt ^t appeara as a sot urdmjuintttd zigxngN 
acroHH tho map, whilo fragranntfi of two or ihree rondB are united into a 
sinj^lo Btraigbt liac* lu addition to th« details girftn iu I'art H., I 
add here & fow oxa.iiiploi( of thc> eharjctar of these documcntti : tkooo will 
«t tho same time prove that, while every statoment made In the lant tw© 
neutvucos would Ijc ucuoptud by tho hc»t ruci-ut j^oo^aphcrf, nud have 
in fact aetnally beor made by theiu in express terms, these geogrftphers 
hare not boon coniiiNtont in anoepting tho logical conclniLion tliat 
llio TabU' iniittt not bo fullowt-d without external confirmation, but 
havo on tho contrary followed it in many caBoa where it ia oiUiCr 
dcmontttrably false or at leaut absoluloly unirappoi'led by any inde- 
jvftudoiit authority. 

1. The principle that even ntriking agreement between the 
PeatitLgoi Table iind Ptok-my does not juntify coafidonco in tbo road 
which thoy doocribo in admirably exemplified in the case of the route 
from Tavium to Caeaareia-Tirazaka. The Table givee thia iu great 
(totail, and Prof. Q, Hireohrcld bus pointed out iu his paper on Tuviumf 
tliat Ftolemy gives nearly tbe same series of Btatiou& in almost a direct 
line. Hirschfcld was niisled by ihis agreement to accept the route as 
accurate, and to found on it a aeries of startling toix>graphical 
novelliea, e.^., that Tallinn wan at InkvHb vrvat of the Hulys. oad tbat 
no part of Gftlftiin roetohe'l beyond the Halys to tho cast. The route ia 
entirely nnlrustworthy, and tbo iuferenccs drawn from it are ^vrong. 
Sec pp. 24;^. 258. 267. 

2. Tho doaciiption given io the Fcntingor Tabic of iho road from 
Nikomedeia to Pompeiopolie and Amaseia, the most iinpcrtant route in 
the north of Asia Minor, may be taben an a fair specimGo both of that 
document and of the confidence that modern geographers ])lace iu it. 
The Table doBcribea thia rowl thus: — 

Xicomedia xvit xxmi Lateas xvui Demetriu xm Dusepro 
Solympum sxx unnamed town xx river Saugarius. Miinnria 
xxxit PotoTuia. Copora xv Antouinpolis xxvini Auadyuata 
xxxn Gangaria xxx Otrcso xxv Virasia xvr Aniasia. 
Tho di«taiice from Xicomedia to the Sangnrios according to this route 
is 122 miles; io reality it is about 15 or 18 miles. Something, there- 
fore, munt be wrong, and aomo correction ia needed. Tho cure adopted 
by Manncrt, Purbiger, d;o., aud evett, I regret to see, by Rioport iu hia 

■ 'Weito Aualadangon oiwluineB nla direkto Wego,' HirMbfoId, *Uel>er nniM^Te 
ffwgT' K«onttitK OoTitlUn tTlurli-Welt.'p. tf^in 'Ooogr. Jnlitbucli,' XH., 18S& Giqicit 
hifl pnttliDMiiic tratli cxccUnitlj' ia tito ' SiUunssbvr. Ucirliu. Akoil.,' 1881, p, 52. 

t 'BiWung*bcr. Berlin Ak»d..' 1883. p. 1243. 



TI, VALUE OP THK PECTmOKR TADLE, PTOLEMy. ETC. 



66 



Ifttost map, ia to moTe all the names to the oth>er side of tlio Sangarioo. 
Then we have Plateae, Demetriiira, Dhruo Sguring as towns of Bithynia, 
aud u mount Olymptw ia iuvonted to Bceuunt for the epithet attoohed to 
DaMie. Kow. iu the first place, whether this aiTHugeiiieut is right or 
wrong, it cannot claim to have in its favour the authority of tbe 
PevtiDgor Tabic It is a mere thoory to get rid of no obvious cormp- 
tiou in the Table. I Kliall not wuiitu time by ithowtng in detail how 
abfiiiTd it 18, hilt «lia11 merely ntate a new theory, and if any one ig bold 
enough horoaftor to follow the current thoury, I kIiuU bo ready to discuss 
it with him. One or more other roada in the conntry have been mia- 
placed throiigb bad drawing and mixed up with tho rattl road, of which 
the only certain, remains aro Autoniopolia and Fompciopolio, placed in 
an empty apuoo alxtve tho road. 

Anloniopolis, i.o. Actinoopolis, in a.n epithet of Claudiopolia ai birth- 
place of Antinood (of which faot its ooIhh boabt). If a oritio objecEs that 
this name iit nowhuro cIhu applied to tho city, I appeal to tho fre(ju»iit 
Tariety of names a|[>plied to Anatolian cities. The oomnian name of this 
city ou coins is Bithyniun-HadriuDo-, but the invariable name in. 
Byzantine times is CluuiliopoliH. I do not venture on any ooujeotiiro as 
to other names on thlit road, ezoept that we might try to find tbe name 
of Taisia, which was certainly the station besido the Sangarios on tho 
east, ooQoealod under &ao of the names. At one time I thought that it 
migbt bo hid under Lateas ; but this conjeotare, aa I now perceive, Li 
most improljable. I think it more probable that Lata.18, Deintttriu and 
Dosopro Solympiun all belong to a road leading from Proosa to Mikaia or 
Nikomedoia. Lateas then would bo a corruption of Platanea, whioL is 
montiouod by Pacbymerea (ii. p. 413 ; quot«d G 17, p. 207} oa Hiliiutvd 
in the district through which the road from Prousa by Xikaia to 
Kikomodeia would paaa, and which is given an Plataua by tho (jeo- 
graphos Anoo. Bavcuuensi^, p. 109.* 

Dnsepro Solympum ought to have glvvu the clue to one of the roads 
that are here mixed. Some modoru critic, unheeded, has remarked the 
obvinUH ftict that this is uu error for Pruiui pros Olvoipum. It is true 
that Pniaa ptoa 01ymi>um ocuura alao on another rood, but similarly 
Lamaaoo (t>. Lampsakos) and Amaaia, eucli occnr twioo in dilFureat 
parts of the Table. Must of the other namos are hopelessly corrupt; 
and 1 utterly rcfujse to accept suoL towne as Munurifl, PoLomiu, &o., until 
they are confirmed by another authority than our copy of tho Tablo.| 

Kactamon, the modem Kastamonni, was sitnatoil on this road, 
between Pompoiopolis and Claud iopulis. It was ovidontly an important 
city in later Bynanti&o times, but is never mentioned in Boman or oarly 

* HiH oidtir U AUavlon (■'.<. TatsTion), Agrillon, PlntaDa: tti« last aamo luu bona 
oomctl; fxplaincd by previoiu writen m a coiruptlui of LngAuoia, liks Aterh'tu. ia 
Ptolemy. T., 1, H. 

t Futvuiia b pccliaps FotAmiai, which naa in tbe dulriot ; seo p. S{4, 
VOL. nr. r 



66 



THE HISTORICAT. (JEOORAPHT OF ASIA MIKOR. 



ByzantiDO docaiQc&ls. It must liavo Inin Ja lh« torrltoiy of mme 
IjiBhopric, or more comsctly it became in later tim« the centre of popu- 
lation of R distriot wliicK had a iiifferont centre in earlier time, and 
which therefore appoara in the Xntitiii! under a different name. T hare on 
p. 323 ffhown the proLahility tUut J^udybru-KuBlamun won the bistiuprio 
in question. 

Hudrianopolis probahly lay on the nmo rood, further west than 
Dadybra and Sora. 

3. Let me give one other out of many examples. Kiopert, in bis 
latest map, iudioates a road from Komana Cappadociae to Melitene, 
along a reut« which acoms to mo qnito inadmissible, and which ia, as I 
holiftvfl, in part quite impracticable. On this road ho placee the 
following towns " oil tlie authority of the Pentinger Table ; — 

Komana 24 Asarinnm 24 Caatabala 20 Pagrom 30 ArQh«Iao- 

polia 30 Singa 14 Arcgn 12 Noooteaiiu 24 LagitlassuR 16 Sama 

13 Melitene. 

Of these iliere can he no doubt that Caatabala is either the Csp- 

pidooo-Ljcaci'aia& or the Cilician city, falaely traDeferrod to thia place; 

Aralapopoli (ae the Peutingur TabW givce it) ia either Archelais 

OoloDia, or el»e Archieopolia of Iiazica,t wrongly placed; 8inga is the 

Komma^nian town ; Arcga in Area, Rtill called Arga, while the others 

are quite tmfcnown. Of all the towns given on this route only Area or 

Arega hclonga to the road from Komana to Melitene, and it appears in a 

corrupt form. 

4. Beoidea the examples given aboTo of the Cappadocian roada, tho 
Anteoine Itinerary ie demonstrably wrong In other places, e.g., in the 
road Dorylaiun- A nkyra, iu makliig the route Xikomedeia-Nikaia-Ankyra 
a direct rente, and in the road from the OiHcian Gate» to Baiae. It 
givca thia road ok folIowH ; — 

Fodando 27 NainpsuoroBO 21 Aogeas 24 Catabolo IG Bais.^ 
Tho order ought to be either 

FodandoB, Mopeoakrene, Taraoe, Aigai, Baiae ; 
or dae (aa in the Jeniaalem Itinerary), 

Fodandoe, Mopeoukrene, Tarsoe, AdAija,MopM)ue8tia,Ea8tabala, 
Buaa 

These two routes have heea mixed up, and the confusion was facili- 
tated hy the similarity of the names Mop«o»krene, UopsoueHtia. If the 
position that I have afisigncd to Eaatahala on the Pyramos (p. 342) ia 
right, the aecond rente as far as Kaetabala ia tho main niad to Kom- 
magene, and at that point ttirtiH south tlirough Epiphancia to Baiae.^ 

* Ho irats a mark ei intcirORatioQ after cadi, tor tlio route u too obricpublj- ubctird. 
t "Prow-pin*, ' Bel. Ootli..* IV.. 027. 

I Thia thuarr, wliicli boldl; nttribatei to Uic Tollo aa error of a kind coinmoa in il^ 
hM sinM been proved to be corr&ct hj Ur. Beat 



VI. VALVt OF TIIE PEUTISGER TABI.E, PTOI.F.SIT, TTC. 



67 



I do not of oonree ro&intiLiu that everything in tlte Peiit!tig»r Table 
that u nncorroboruiod in wronp : eonjo of it niny yot turn out to be riglit, 
or ft oomiption of wliat is right, as e.g., in the Bithynian oxampla given 
abov(^, PUtanoai appoarB on tho wrong road corniptod to Latoas (ucouhs- 
tive). But it is at prwcnt a miBtakcn und dangoroua method to follow the 
Table as guide ; it UQ»t be uaed onl-y an a support for b»tt«r authoritiea. 
I alBOHicjirossIyrefmiii from cuiiclmiiiijjthBtliOtfaiisw tliy Table is bo very 
untmstwortLy in central and eastern Atsiv, Minor, it is etjuully untruet- 
worthy in all other couDlrion. For oxutnplp, it ie much freer from error 
in the weate-rn, and cspflciolly the sonth-west^Tn parts of the country. 

Tho Itiuorarice are much loss corrupted thiiii the Table, and though 
OTOTs abound in tliem, yet many of thcoe can he caniiy Rxplained aH due 
to bad Qinppiiig. Ituth thu PeuLiugc-r Table and the Autoninv Itinerary 
probably depend ultimately on a map, as is usually believed, "die 
ofGciolIe Koiohskarte." * In regard to these two documents tho problem 
is; fimt, how far do they rightly rvprvHont tho ultimate authority? 
«eoo)idI}', what degree of accuracy did that nltiiiiate ftiitliurity attain? 
In answer to tho Bocond quoetion, Kioportt hft« poinlcd out in vorj- 
alrong terms that we muMt not supposo that the offioial map had the 
accuracy of a modem ntap. In atiawer to the Tint quMtion we must 
point in tho first place to a numl<vr of comiptiouB, eomo apparently 
hopelesa, otheis explicable only by uncertain (<oiije«tiireB, To take n 
few examples from the loss corrupt authority, the Autonine presents 
•acb namee as Zoana, p. \Bi, Mogaro and Porano, p. 20ri, and various 
other abnolutcly unknown inuD'eB, which nru, probably, in most cbhph 
oormpt; while goanatns, p. '205, is conjeoturally explained (aeo p. SDS) 
ag ScnndiB, Eiinii>iii and Onndnita, p, 1S2, iw Knniisa and as GJudnen of 
Ptolemy, Sacoena as SitKa*i<.'na, Ochras ua [D]ogra, Adapera aa Tjamora or 
liaskorio, Fianufi aa Siara (the S'l lioing a correction cf Fi). By similar 
oODJecturo 1 should explain tlie P in Ptandnris and Puspena J as derived 
from a preprndtifin which was attuohed to the name {according to a 
custom of which various examples remain in th*- Peiitinger Table) ; it i« 
doubtful whether the Gr««k irri or uirc!, or tho Latin «(• was uscd.S Even 
if all the eormptionB of aingle namoH could be eliminated, thero remains 
the further difficulty thut many names have been transferred f^m the 
proper roftil to an adjoining one. 

I owe to Dr. MiUer'ii information (' Weltkarte des Castorius,' p. 119) 
the refereoce to a frnginent of »n ilinoniTy through Cappadocia, whidi 
Ixiars 80 pointedly on the subject of this chapter tliat I add it here. In 



* KlepGrt In ■ IkrliD. Sitzitngabor.,* 166i, p. H : cp, p. SI. 

t Kiep«rt,l.c^p. 91. 

% Part)u7 and Pindcr prefsr thn still roarc Mriona nomiptioc Euspecnrv, p. 177. but 
Pasp«na luw M9. ■nltiarily. TUv nttoe «<jnM*Id VtaUtafa Ijpa in tlio ii4JHlinl fomi. 
wkich u K) mmnuTEitj- iwuJ ia CappadoL-io. 

( Cuinpnro riHtmln In Ptolonr for M ' titn-ta 

pa 



68 



THE mSTOBlCAJ. GEOQ&APHY W ASLk MINOB. 



tlio yotir 1847 MorottUn pii1)IiBli«:tl ao insoription copied "by himself and 
I by Frof. MomiuBen in Eome.* 1 add tlio tnmscript hero— 
^K III Ir](ufl) Mupsii-Crefna] 

^^^^M Pr(idie) 1<1[ub), Pftuhormo 

^^^^H I(l(ibtiB) Oot(obribuii), ud Aq(uu») Cali(k(H) 

^^^^H XVII E(Bl6uda8) Nov(«mbre8) [Tjjnnam 

^^^^H XVI R(alondas) Tyana 

^^^^H XV K(alendaa) Nov(emb]:'ea) Anda[balim] 

^^^^^ xin K((iIoiK!nt4) Nov(embres) 

^V TN'o »o© from ttie friigmunt tlint Ty"'**. wbioh is mentioned only by 

^B rtolemy.t must be near FauatiDopolia-Qalala. In the Tublo AquM 
^m Calid&e ia pnt in an nnconnocted way near this road, and Leaks rightly 
^f conjeotnred that it must belong to it. The hot spring are still well 

kncnvii. I BMW them in 1682, but noftucieut remains exist; and nothing 

Iiu tho aarnmndingit would luud one to c:£]Joct the splendiil piuturo given 
of theni in tiie Table. The «pringti lio il little v&at of thu direct road to 
'I'yuufi, uiiil jierbn.[tB Cnenft n-^s a villago on tbe rond at a point near 
tho springs. Tho miuic PauhormOH ia othorwiso unknown ; it duubtlL-SD 
iudioatee a great khan for travoUerat probably boaido tho present 
BuKonti Kliu.li. It itboiild be obaorvod tliat the proper uamea appear in 
this fragment in oblif^ue caites, just as in the Table and Itiuerarioa: 
Pcuihormo, Tynuam. 
The pToblem iu rogard to Ftoletay in far more complicAted, becftuso 
I ho oertaiuly lun-d neyeral autliorities, and tried with Tarions degrees of 

^H Muoccas to (.'ombirie them. For «xampl«: tho liet of cities in Phrygia 
^M Magna, v., 2, § 22-20, must bo fuundod nn a different antbority from the 
^P cities of My^iu, § 14. The' furmer e^ttvndH Plir^'gla bo fur weat as to 
include Ankyra, Syuaoa, and BlannduH, while the latter includes 

IAloudda, Trajauopolia, and Piepeuiit»oH in Myeia. Both these views 
wvru entertained by difTcrent authorities, ou acoount of the proverbial 
uncortainty of th« boundary betweoo Myeia and Pbrygia; but Puioiay 
imus HOmoliiues onu, HuinfltiiuaH the other, without perceiving the contro- 
dictiou in which he ia thus involved (eeo p. 145^. 
He leamod froia one authority that PaphlagOuia was governed by 
tho le^tUH pro praeUiro of Galutta ; from anotlier ituthority he learned tho 
Aill extent of Paphlagouia. He then ptaoed this large Papblagonia in 
tho priivince Oalatia. though oonsiderable part of it really belonged to 
the province Bithynia-Fontus. 
The oharat'ter of bis aeoouut of the Strategiai is fully diBousaed in 
Part n., cbaptera 0, Q, and S, which euumeralu his long series of nii»- 



• •• Btim Bfsnth des grutsoroa Cumpann'echen Colurobariumfl in einer Vigno an der 
racbtcn 6<.-il« dut Via SoluiBtiaiin." U« luIiU : " Siill le li \ot vklk-ii'bl xwa craUtomal cm 
tur RoIckaToinkCMHas d« August iu goliurigua JLctiiaittiok lam Licbt gttreten sciu?*' 
accC. I. L.. VI,,M7fi. 

t The siatciueut on p. \H1 must be c«irecl«(l. 





VL VALUE OF TUK PEUTINOER TABLE, PTOLKMY, ETC. 

takes about tho bloTontli Strstegia, wbioh existed for a short time m tliQ 
fint coutuiy befure ncd after Christ. He attributed the cilioa of this 
Strategia, Hoinetiines ro Cilici*. sumciiincs to Stnitrgia Aiitiochiane, scime- 
titnes lo Lykaoaia (Khaabia for Ka^^tabala), EuuctiniGe if Cappadooia 
(Eyzistra in Strategia Kilikia), aom<;timea to Anaeuta Miuor (Kybutra, 
Claadiopolis, DalisaiKloH in Strategia Katitoiiiu). 

la tho Strategia Laviniane or LavianscDe, which Ptolemy phioeH to 
the south inatewl of to tho north uf Mehtene, he meutiouH the towns 
Eapark«]i», Snba^na, Kizara. Of thcae Eaparkelis ii (see p. S02) 
iduotifiml with Oapiinsaii uf the Antcmine ItiBerary, p. 194 (in northern 
Syria), whioh may be corrected by tneaiis ut an inHOriptiou. C. 1. L., HI. 
6up[dom., No. 6814, to UupHrcoao. Sabagciia in diflionlt to separate 
from Sobagona of Strategia Sargurausene, or from Sebagona vf Strategia 
Enikia. Rizara seema lo come from a different directian, viz., from die 
uurth-wetit. Slrabo, p. 560, meutiuiiH Ikixari as a fort in tho eaatoru 
I»rt of Phazomonitifl, a district which apparently forms part uf Ptolemy's 
Pontiis GalaticuB. It ih impossible not to conjecture that Ptolemy's 
Eixara and Strabo'a IkiKiin are iho saiuo place, wrongly placed hy 
Ptolemy through trusting to a bad map. According to tho tmo 
situation, Lavi&iane in cot so far distant from Phaxemomtia aa 
Ptolemy's asHigniuent would mako it. Tho identidcatiou of Kizara 
with Ikizari, is of courne imourtuia: tho names seem identical, hut there 
may have been two places hearing the same name. Prof. EiopoTt's 
ideQtification of Sibora and Ibora was tempting, but bns been proved 
inoorroot (sew p. 2G5, 326) : tho names, however, have la the latter case 
only a auperlicial retiomblancc, for the Grook funns are "Sifiopa and 
'Sfiatpa. 

1 do not venture on the diflioult question as to the particular 
aathoriti«« n»ed by Ptolemy in the difiVrent suctions of his account of 
Asia Utnor ; though there is no donbt that his work losui motit of its 
value until the exact authority on which each of Lie statements reats 
baa bcou dotflrminod. It is fthown on p. 373 that bU Strntegin 
Antiochlane bears a iiauie wliich mtint have I>ccn giTon to it in 37 x.b., 
when it was ruled by Antiochue IV. and.lotopv; and tho t itsextentas 
indicat«d by Ptolemy was not tme after 41, when it vaa greatly 
cortailed. Tho uiiipU*«t, though not the ouly possible, explanation is 
that his authority on tho iStrategini wrote about 37-S A.t>. 

In Poutus Oalntitius and Polemoniuous, Ptolemy's uuthurity iteeuis to 
have been to acciinito as to suggest a Romun official list. By a coiii- 
parison of hi« account of thes» cli>trict« with Htrabo's unusually detwled 
deecripljoTi, it will in all prohahiHty be (.wty after actual exploration of 
the district, to recover tbo ancient topography almost perfectly. Oom- 
|ioriiig Ptolemy's account uf iboso Pontic districtH with his description 
of Cappailocia. we see how entirely ho depended on hi» authority: 
where he luid some single good authority to trust to, ho is uflcful; hut 



to 



THE raSTORICAL CEOGRAPHT OF J13U MCWF. 



wliero ho tiied to oombuio diiTorcut uutlioritica, ho falls iuto the groawst 
hlxaAon. 

In Borne cases his authority was the sama ft« that of th« Peutingcr 
Tttblv and Uio Aatouine Itinerary, viz., the official rasp of the empire 
oxpoeed id tho Porticus Octaviuc, or a copy of it. In tUo uo.Bt«Tu parle 
of Asia Minor this is proved by iho tables on tho opposite page, which 
show how itjiiiiy iiajiiOH iiiLknown from any other soiirceH, are common 
to Ptolemy, the I'cutinger Tabic, aaid tho AnUiuiao Itinerary. 

Various other errors in Ptolemy prohably »pring from hia UM of tho 
tuitno nnthority. In a number of cases, e.g. Eaparkolis, Kiakis, Loandis, 
EamaHH, Tanadaria, Tiiiillis, Ladoiueris, Sinis. he seeuM to mistake 
Latin alilatives phiral of sacond declension* for nominativos. Sach 
errors Btiggest the forma PamasBO, Mogaro, Dorano, SebaatopoU, Ac, of 
the Antonine Itinorary, anil Pesinnnto, Tavio, Corvenute, Ac, of the 
Poutinger Tahlcf 

The error luude in th« name Fiara (for Siara) in the ^Vntonioo 
Itinorary has been explained above (also seo p. 308^ : this error existed in 
Ptolemy's authority, and &oiu his false idea about the position of Sar- 
gftnuMne, which he puis in the place of Saravenc, he places *uipn in it. 

la other cases Ftolvmy ia mislvd by tho loiter F substituted for £! 
in his Latin authority (which we must probably uuduistand to be the 
Roman map). Just as ^ou/Juyi^m in Galatia is clearly derived freia 
tho town Euagina, corrupted in a Lutia document to Fuagina, so vrhon 
^oucnupa and EvD'E/napa occur side by ndo in Metitene, tlid conjecture 
at once suggests itsolf that both names indicato tho same place, but 
thftt the former was takeu from a Latin authority where Eusipwa was 
miBtokon as Fuaipara. 

Kyzistra is given as a city of Strategia Kilikifl. Tho name oocurfl 
eU&whero only iu Concil. Nictien., a.d. 325 ; where a biabop of Kyzistra 
is mcutioaoJ. It is thuroforo only a fault for tho bishopric Kybistra, 
mispluced by Ptoleiuy like tiu niauy other names in his lists of the 
Stratogiai. 

The repetition by Ptolemy of places lite Ollia (a« Olbasa), Kybistra, 
Kormasa or Kortiasa, Ac, iu didcrent districts ia paralleled by the 
Poutinger Table with its ropotition of Prousa, Lampeakos, Amasia, &c. 

Finally, I give a list of some very obvious corrections in the text 
of Ptolemy, some of which have been mado hy previous writere, some 
by myself. 

1 f 13 TaraOv'tOl/ for HuruvvMn'. 
1 g 14 Aayayna for Aatdvtta. 



I 



" SiuUffoma Rinsf^ul itio form, CDtnpnro [Pijuoima ortlii.' IliooniTj : Kinki*. ic, from 
noiiler forms: Ku|iatkellB ftum a fcnuniao tbnu triuch njijicHn u-a tuiotutilivu lb Uiu 
Itincroiy, p. 104. 

t Aocusalivi.- foFBui alto nocur in twtU tho Itiuorat^ (CajHtreM, Arauncos, tm.), nod 
ia the Table (Stal>in=(it Tddtox, Aqaai Amyvaaa, Ac.). 




^^^^H TI. 7MLVZ OF IRE PEUTINGKR TABLE, PTOLEMT, ETC 71 1 




> I. CrtiK* ox Atttnm\ Mixon. 






rvilnoy. 


IWUln^ T, 1 .VjibiD. Itlti. 1 OUki AnttinilLln. 




gkt&llL 

Tapoura 
jjnkopolia 


FnUni 

Niinp(i!i (uttln- 
livn) 


Satutu 
DotniUHi 

Nlcopolia 


Siitilft (ofU.li) 
yikopolJB (often) 




VbowU* 
Ohn«z {I RAnuc ) 

Seleotwnoia 
KiUtlaruM 

PUhj^uo, Ptiuignra 
Gedus 


Dracani* 
Ulu ObenJii 


OanaRia, Cnrwit 

Amura'>M 

l>nK!ontoB 

Auliba 

Oundtua, Oon- 
dcM 


'Af>a<tpan (Oomtt., in.) 
AiulibU (Act CoBO.) 






Endojxatft 

Mu(tra.Kaiu!i 
' OmnniKtM, Oro- 
maudrus 

Iipa 


Kiijiti 


KiupoBo, Pae- 
fnat 








PboBplieiik 

Ajbdo 

Phovpluteu 

Oii&na|Mi, OuaiutpiL 
Ona.0raam 


Areni^a 

(uccuii.) 


Aran Is (nbln- 

tlYC) 








2. Crmts ALtntis thb ErpRiUTxe. 






(ft) In Amoiia. 






LadftDA (v. L Pn- 
Unija) 

ZinMm 
Soaboum 


ZiniPira 
Dmcdu 


(ncciu.) 
ZlmAm 


Still oMod Denindc : not 
frii £<ipbratoa 

Pliny. V. 83 
PUBy, V. Si 






(b) /n XtHlmt. 






Dftgciunt 
UcUtcQO 


Saba :' 
Mol«st«nc« 


Sabona? 
Piannoa (frl 

McUtcno 


0^t.^n in(>tit[oiie<! ; not on 
1 EuphiaUm 






(o) in JxinnMMM'XnFianMiw. 






Korno 
Httwta 

KUadiu 


Coma 

Mvtibi 

Okuditt 


Cl&nil [«pol i( Onpp* doc iw^. 
Pliny, V. B5 






(d> /n [*i)aTiii>Bn*. 






Jntiopolis 1 1 

BaniUo 1 Biirwilium [ 




L 


+ DWoin^r of Iii*l>VH > IT k it avTBitel Itvai lb* uu* Uul *fT«ui In (be ActoEJiM lUstnif ^^^H 



72 



THE HISTORICAL OEOOEAPHT OT ASIA MISOB. 



2 § 14 Adyovro, which has often been (louVitt;^, is defended liy the 
AayoT^im' of CgDstADtino Porphyrogonitaa. 

2 § 15 VpifLtvoGrfHrai for TfiifiwoO., an M. WaddingtoTk rightly 
peioeived. 

2 § 16 Alyaicu for A'yapa (cp. Avirijra^a of Hicrooles, and 2 § 24). 

2 5 16 'ArrouSSa bos been by Bunie stiggestcd for 'Iriuava. 

2 § 20 'Epij^tp'oi htm bwrn proposed with obvioas oorrectnees for 
Ept^ijKoi. 

3 § 21 AiUScit for AoSqAck, see p. 131. 

2 § 23 KfpKvjma haa been corraptcd from 'Airi'a through the isflaenw 

of the following Evxn/nri'o. 

2 S 24 MeAiVaifi ijhuiild Ije restored for MtXiTctpct, com^nTtf § 16. 

3 § 25 fifmr^of for Af>u!J£of. 
BXmvvSpt for BA<ai^pot. 
^{/iKMv, :iiji\ia, or S«/3Xia is the more correot form, iiot lOi^tav. 

2^S 2d Saraik for Sam. 

Tiiyiji'M or Ti{«iFo for Fa^ijca. 
2 I 27 TranspOBe *TiXa>t^wr<oi and Awkooks : * the altoration ftrom 
from the latter being placod beside AuKinf. ^kwejvtrtoi 
la a Greek reuderiug of a Latin origimiJ Phylacenses. 

MoA. Kal<njvoC (a£ in Flliiy) fcr MokkoSijvoL 

Ki5v>;iro'«rs for RvSiirw*!?. 

Mo^iai'ot' IB more correct than Mo^iavoC. 

'if/xHToXiTot was the native name, 'itpairoKiTat the fonn UBod 
by Grecieing writvra. 

4 f 3 ZaX^Ktni for ZaXifTKOv. 

4 § 4 It is unnecessary to alter AiSv^v to AifSv^iov : tfao fortnsi are 
equiTalent.Bee Athen. Mitthei!., 1S&8, p, 237. 

4 § 5 Vfpfi.ariKi?nvXi% for rtp/Jtii'uiroAis, 

4 § 7 ToXurrofi/^Mt for ToA</3<*ttbi. 
ToA/cTTo^«ipa for ToXatrrdj^opa.. 

4 § 9 $ov;3uyi;va ifl n Gre»k I'endoring of a Latin original Fuagiuu, 
an error for Ettagina, see p. 231. 

4 § 10 llpaa€i\yfii.fj.eviTat (inhabitant* of the x*^** irpoa-tiXjj/tfiwij) for 

]JpiXT€p\lli€VirtU. 

TvpiJxior for TrTpdSiov, 

4 § 12 'OpofSmof for 'OpovSiKM : the tribe was called 'Opor8<ts. 

5 § 8 ^vtipa fur Si-VS/in. 

5 § d Htppj-l-oSttav £i}/ioc for Mo'(S];^iof. 

Oitp/itavait«Xis for O^fwi'MTOXit. 

6 5 7 tipoffra.vMt IB more corretit than npima-ita. 
6 $ 8 Kofia/Mi KoX. for Y,op.pajmv. 

6 S 3 ^orapoucy for {'ava-yoftuii'. 

• ASP., B 4.- 



VI. VALUE OF THE PEUTIKOER TABLE, PTOLEMY, ETC 



78 



Cappadocia, Lykaonia, anil CiUciu liavi^all hvon discuBtted enfilcieiitly 
in Part II., and I need not recapitalata Uie Huggeotiona made thorc. 

These views about tLe antLoritioB under disouasioii wore arrived at 
during the oompoBition of Part II., Iwiiig ftircod npon mo 'by the 
diaeovery of auoceKirive errors in them. The example of Tynna given 
in tbia chapter, ahova that a BtBt4^Dlunt utisu])ported at preeeot may 
afterwards be confirmed by new e'vid«uce. But the oameious errors 
that are proved shnn' that wo cannot nafoly accept any statement 
until we oaii cuuGnn it by some independent evidenco, direct or indirect. 

This long discnsaion is pt^rhaps not to>> long for the neoesaities of 
the cose. For oxauplc, I have iu regard to Oappadwia and ita 
Stratogiai diucardud entirely the authority of Ptolemy, which haa been 
hitherto accepted implicitly, even by Prof, Kiepcrt, and have, in d&- 
pemlence ou a fuw Buatcaccui of Btrabo, placed sumo Strate^i as much 
a« lOO miloe from tbo situation assigned to them by Ptolomy's 
uinately detailed map, and followed by al) modem geographers. 
This proceeding may tiecni too bold ; but we must follow either Ptolemy 
M Strabo, whoae evidence is in irroconi-ilablo contradiction. My 
general impreision with regard to S'rabo'a oooonnt of Asia Minor is, an 
atAted flu p. 9U, th»t as a rule "his brief deRcriptic^<u« are marvellously 
accurate, and, to the eye-witness, marvellim«ly lucid." Individual caaoH 
of vagneucss, and even slight iaucijuraoy can be pointed out, but 
they are exceedingly rare.' In some cjmob hia deBcription of the 

lery of the eastern part of the platean is bo good aa to depend either 
i hia own observation, or to be reported with closest preciaion from the 
ftcoouot of an eyo-witiiess. f The wwtern part of the plateau, including 
Pbrygia, on the other hand, ho has evidently not aeon. Now hiw own 
diatinct evidonc* is given (see pp. 555, 536) that he had travelled 
ia Cappadocia : ho had Vveen in Kcmiana of (.'appadooia and had seen 
the wonderful gorge where tho Pyramoa brvuks through Taurus. 
A native of Aniu«eia could not see these two places without seeing 
• good deal more of the couiitiy ; and must indeed Lave been travelling 
for the purposo of obBorvatiou. J 

Finally, with regard to Ilierocles, whose authority I place so high, 
I have diaouBRod the snbj&ct boUi on pp. 92-95, and at numerous places 
throngliout Part IL The inaoy aumn in which his order haa bora 

* I IiavD shown in 'CiliM and BlaliofiriM,' Part II. § xun., that tL« pnxzUng 
arTangcmotit it( ttw ntic* of Phrvgia in fout grmip* Ui.'MiraM occunilv wbca tlio aiuglo 
•l^ht ohuuo of EYMENEIAMbiAKMONEIANismxtc. 

t Tou Dieal ('Von ^acg. 2. Puntiuk,' p. IS) •»;■ Uial a (mums« in i>. 022 bUuws 
actnal cip«ri(>D«e of the nwd from PerguoKu to tlie tmnU On tho other lumd he ■liowa 
thai titmbo givna nn in(u»umlv hroouiiI of thi! Ai o]ie eontt. 

t Nt««o Uuiwa tbgbt tjtrnlio Jovs iKit profpa* to lisvc w>cn any jilocM mirnjF from the 
am in A^Ia Hinur cswgit Koinanis Uii; Pymtu'io. BiiiTHi-alis in Uie hyaaa valtc;, ddU 
Njan in the MfteaDdcT Valley : lee hti ' Bcitnigs sur DUigntphJo Stntbo*' iii Ilrimrv, 
XIII., 1878, p. -12, wliorci ho iihaw* tlinl Btnib. livinl fn>m Kbuut 03 B.C. U) 19 X.U., and 
tbat ho w»l« kia gugnphicBl wotk in lUnne, tot h boamn publl(>, abotit lt^l9 A-D. 



74 



TB£ UISTOBICAL GSOOBAPaV Of ISIA UlNOB. 



confinned by new discoTerioti, havo gi^cn me great oonfideiiiQe in hiiB, 
though of cour«o it iit iiecvi'sary Ui luuk tt» much &« [losttible for coitoW> 
rutivo cvidonco. I have triod to hHow that, ( I ) his ohiof authority- is a 
list of bisbopricH, which ho modifies into a ii»t of cities; (2) this lint 
inUBt hovo boou arruiigud iti au ajiprnximatuly gaographicftl order, 
piirtly according to roads, partly accoidiug to distiict^; (3) llioroclt-s 
modified it aud utou added to it iu Itiihynla and &tiU iuor« iu ilcUw- 
ponttiB; (4) there is great corruption and transposition in tho lists of 
Lydia aud ilollespontiift. 



TIL The Byzahtqie Boads. 

A change in the n>ad-syat«m began in a.I). 202. Dioclottau mad« 
Kikouiedeia the capital of the east, aud iLu ruuds that connected it with 
tlie provinces acijuired increased imporfcince. This tendency w«8 
confirmed whou Cvusluutiuuple was fouudud in 3311; for pi-eotB«ly tho 
K&mo set of roadti load to Nibomedeia and to CoTistantinoplo. The 
centre of attraction was now no louger ItoniR, hut ConBtantiuoplo, and 
tho roads which aorvcd only for tho Bonian trafEo rapidly sank into 
uoro croes-coantry paths. 

At first the old Ilunian roade wer© ntilieed as far as posaihle, aud 
both Iho Pentinger Table and the Antonine Itinerary show us tliese 
roads adapted to the new requirements. But a steady aud progressive 
change was produced over tho whole of Asia Minor. I'revioualy 
prosperity had been greatest in the aonthem half of the plateau. 
But during tho two contariee that elapiiod botweon CouBtautine and 
Justiuian, the northern half of tho plateau grow steadily in importanoo 
19 being nearer Coustuutiuu]de and in easier communioatiou with it; 
and many now centres of population wero formed, which gradually 
acquired the rank of cities and bishop ric«.' Steadily also the Hyst«ni of 
communication altered, as it wux graduaUy fuuiiii ttiut new routed 
BeTTed travclkrs belter than the Bomau rDade. By tho timo of 
Justinian the change was complete, and it is clear that in hhi 
reorganisation of the admioibtration he recoguieed the Dt^w system and 
put an end to the old. 

Xu document has been preserved that attempts to give us a oomplete 
account of tho Byzantine roads. We are reduced to piecing together 
scattered hints in the histariaus, and intetpieting theui in accordance 
with tho natural features uf iho country. We ure aided by the fact that 
CD the wholo tlio Bjcantino system ooutiuuod iu use throughout the 
Turkish domination; but tlio bi'»t roeiilt iittainiiblo with rcgaid to the 
two centuries of change is a few iaulated picturea of (separate poiuts. 
"Vie Icuuw that Apnuioia had bevu one of the chief oeutres of Ora>co- 

* This prindipla U stated C. B., ( UtU., and is proved in mnnj detaila in Part tf. 



VII. THE BTZAKTISI SOADS. 

Koeana civilisatioii and €oinm«i-oo, and nUo of tlie rlaiug power of 
CliriBtiknity. But it8 pronpority dcpcDcl&cl on its eituntion at a knot on 
the great oastem trade-route. That roate lont alt importatioe ander 
the Byzantiiio rule ; itod Apumvia sank into u Uilrd or fourtli-rate 
town. 

Various othor cxamplce of a f>imilAr kind nro f^iT^n in Part II.,* only 
one of vhtoli I idiall refiir to bore, A furtituate cbanoo hut preBerv«c) 
to OK a petition addrcRaod to Ui» enipcror Tboodoi^iuEf about 380-00 ±jt., 
intrMtiog him to build a bridgu orur tliu Hiklys for tho eake of 
presorting a cociHtant counczioa bctwuon Cjiusamia-Mazaka and tho 
prOTtQcea of Galntin and I'tiiitus. I have interpreted thia document 
(p. 255 IT) fut umrking tho trnnsition froui the old Koiuati ruttd between 
Ankyra and Caosareis, which did not cro«« tiio Ilalye, to tho modem 
road, which cnwNOfl the Elolya tnioo. I Iiato ebovn how FarnossaB on 
the old road lost coiiiHM]iii'iice, whureaa Mokiosos on the new road roae to 
importance, was contiliLuted by JaBtiman the capital of Cappadocia 
Secunda,! and in still onu of the chief citiea of Anatolia, l*robubly tho 
document wbioh has prewerved to ua tbia interceting epixode ia not 
nmqne, and more carufTiI iiucstigntion of tho records of the period will 
nrnal othors. 

The completion of tbo By/atititie road Byetcm dutoo from JustiiLiaii. 
The moftt important part of the eyBtcm was the Military Bond forking 
east of tho TIftlys to Cat^wieia and to SwbasUiia. Tho chnraoter of this 
road has not, no far as I know, been obecrvcd hitherto by any biBtorian, 
and I hare therefore in Cbspter U- discussod it in dotail from tho fir«t 
stajre onwards. Much of tbo Byzantine military history in tbo east 
dependn on the recognition of thin great road. At iiitovvnU there were 
standing camps iu ouuvciiicnt pluoos near it, oud as the empvror poMed 
along towards the eoat of w&r, he was joined by tbo cootiogeiLte of 
troops from the difToront provinces which had ooncentrated at these 
oamps. A march in spring from CoDHt&ntinople along the military 
road, a snmmer campaign on the eastern frontier, a return march to the 
oapital ftloug Iho same rund lit tbu approach of winter, and a fow months 
in Conetantinopls bofure the next campaign began — eaoh wa« ihu lifo 
yttir after year of many of the vigorous emperors. The line of their 
march, whure nothing is uxprcsely mentioned, may afl a rule be assumed 



* See pp. iOS, 216. 220. 223. \c I miwt maintain tbat tbe raul (mm Tnviuiu fay 
Koraisapa lo Sob(ut«ls Id it %mnlini) inteipoUtion in Hia AntoniDo ItiDcmr/ - It U 
vntinlj' oat of lco«ping witli tli« Roiuau lyetuo], und ia ntiikinglj illu*trat>::il by tli» 
BTxaatino Rwido. 

i I hBvi>, fur oouT(?nicDr« aak«. ulwujra gpokcn in Tart 11. of KTokiMna u nii-tropolii 
of OappadooU TerlK Itul It miwt U- rviiit.-iutN'i.-il tlml piiUtioally thcie men ool; two 
ptevioDM of CAiip[uIwii&, of kLiuL Liutwroiii ab<1 BtokinBiM wotl- iho rw|ieoti*a imitru^ 
poleii &0Q1 tLi> tiuKi of JiiKtiuuiti uiivHnlii, uliilu Tfiuiu, vfliivli 1i»d bcOD metroixiUs of 
CappMlocia Swuixla from tbc timu wlivu Vnlcn* divided CappnJocla into tvoi tehuBcd 
it* eoclcaiaatical rank and Ita authorilj over a few bisliaprics. 



76 



THE HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHT OF ASIA MINOR. 



to b* the railitury ronA : wni in many casee this is of great iinrort*neo 
for the uiitl«riitaiiiliiig of tlio uper&tions daBcribed. I ehall hero quote 
only one wtamjilB, viz., the march of Itomauue Dic^enes in 106S, from 
Uulonopoliii to the coat. After croHiiiDg the Halys, he avoided th« roud 
to Cacearcia.' It is only the fact of the road forking beyond the Halye 
to Caesareift th.(it gives any point to the »italoiii«nt that the emperor did 
nut touch Cnesivrei&, h city that Iny qnito idxty mik^s from the nearetit 
point of hia march, and a hundred miEce froiu the cro&sing of the Halye. 
Be then enoa.mped at Kryn Feg«, for some dnys; and the heanty, tJio 
plentiful water, tin* tivus and the gruss of thiu place aro duscribed in 
glowing terms, Thia ia obrionsly the camp called Bathys llhyax, by 
Conet^antino For]ihyrOg«nitu8, I„ p. -444, and GeueeiuB. pp. 123, 12'f. 
He then prooeedod to SobaHteia, whdre again ho took tho loft road to 
Koloaeia, not the right to Tephrike (see pp. 57, 267). 

I have anoril>i;il to Ju»lini»u tho Formation of this road and Iho 
inatitution of tbe whole system of aplchta cannocted with it. Tho fact 
JH nowhere Tpoorded, and I depend for proof of tho statement entirely on 
inference from a number of slight details, which are collected in ch. G. 
Thoy proTB that the great importsnoo of the road i« as old aa Justinian ; 
and if 80, there is little doubt that he also arranged its military 
connoction, fur itit initKirtAnoe lies mainly in its military chamctei*: it 
is not the nhorttst route, bat it ifl the best route for an army. 

TLo goticnil map shows the chief liuos of TDod, radiating from 
Constantinople, whose esist^nca in the Byzantine period can he proved. 
S<'me of these we hoar of first in tho laloiit warfare under the Niccean 
empire or the Piilteologi, when the theatre of operations was narrowed 
down to tho west of Aeia Minor, But the previous existence and 
importance of many of them cannot be douht«d (sm pp. 129, 130), 

A study of iho chief refrrunces to those roads and of the operations 
that to<}k pUoe along them would form the proper completion of this 
subject: the incidental reforencea that occur in Fart II. are quite 
insufficient to show its imjwrtance. Such a study would probably ahow 
that severnl other lines of road, used in the Turkish time, but not 
indicated on. my map, are referred to by the Bjicantiue historians in 
pat>i)og«a that have eecupcd me. But such a tttudy would expand into a 
discnasion of the Byzantine campaigns in Asia Minor, whiob is too 
great a task to eutor on at present: it forms the third part of the 
programme of work on the history and antiquiti«H of Asia Minor which 
I^had once 8ket(^ed out fui' myself. 

During certain conditions of warfaie oth(*r roada besidea tho gnjat 
military road, and even nccanioually others in addition to thoBO that 
radiate fruin Cuaiftuutiuople, assumed a temporary importauoe iu 
Byzantine histoiy. On p. 197 ff. I have d»8cril)«d all the routes that 
led from Constantinople to the eoat, and have given some examples of 
• i^f KMrifitiar m^xfciv, Seyl, p 691 ; if Kaitcfitep /til ir(iwr»[{«(, Altai., p. 1*8. 



VU. TUt: BYZAXT1N£ ROJIDSL 



77 



marchea which took place ulong them. Tho long fruiitior wutb agoiiiHt 
thu Sftraoenft tvttteJ every roiita; fur tlio light-ftrmeil manudora, orumioi; 
irom Cilicia for a nsn in tho ChrtHtian lands, twlc somotimos one pftss, 
toucUmofi ADother. I'be two leiuling rontce during thone wars uro 
through the t&mc piiMius thut liavc Lmiu imporUint at all poriods, tliat 
from Gcrmanicia to ArabifiHas, and tho (?iUcian QatOH (Lniilon, see p. 350). 
But almost every importaut mountain pass in tho whole of Ania Minor 
has ita gr»at hattle, and tomo of them thoir score of GonfliolH (wo 
pp. 308, 881, 362). I add ouo example. 

Tho oampaign of 860 is di9Soril>ud vory vapioly. Tho only oxprfrH.*! 
stat«nieDt as to the eitOAtion of tho groat defeat of tbo Saraoone is that 
of Gh)no»iiiB, that il wnti £00 ia\](M front Ainisos, which in of ootime so 
abaurd as to HO^i^est a douht about ibu text. Dot when wo coni^mre 
(ho aoconntfi,* vru find (1) tliat tbo battlu took placu near tho cunfinea of 
the AnoeQiao and Paphlagoninn Thomca, (2) on tho weet eido of tho 
Haljs, (8) on the road that leads Bouth from Hinopo, (4) on a river that 
flows from north to south, (5) near thu Ualyii, for a vei^- few ftigitiviMi 
cAcaped acros8 the Haly» intn tho Kharaian Theme, (0) among the bilU 
in a glen, whero tho Saraccng woro etirrouodod. There ace only two 
looalitiea which can suit thin dc-euriptlon, one whoro l?io n)ad from 
SinO|)e doaoonds to DuinUid und Ulo Halya, tho uthur further south, 
where tt again dencondH tnwarda Andrapa and the Ilalys. Tho fact 
that Lbo crouing of tbo TIalyB led into tho Kharsiaa Theme duoidee in 
favour of tho latter. Uietoriaue difler greatly about tho names: 
piubahly Lalakaon was the diitrict, Posou or Punon the place, and 
Gyris the river.t Rut Gonceiiie and thu OoiitiiiUiitor call tho district 
Abyaianon or Amysianou, Poraon the place, Lalaknoa tbo river, and 
GyriB tho moadow on the river by tho Suracoii camp. Amysianon is 
perhaps coonectod with Amnesia (see X 12, p. 27f!). Amysianou waa on 
a nmd leading probably from Paplilagonia to Kommagcno (nee p. 354), 
and Auineaia was on a road froui Aribisao* to Constantinople, pcrhapa 
by £uk1iaita. Acoitrato exploration miglit probably dotorinino the very 
■pot where the hattlo was fought. 

With the Tuiltiith inTaaion in tho latter part of the eleventh century, 
a now period of military hiatorj- bogini*. Civil history and oummorcial 
intorcouiBO have from tliis time onward hardly any exiatenoo, owing 
partly to the mioery of tho situation and partly to the degrading and 
cafccbliug tufluonoo of thu Uyiuiutinu rulo4 in which the Roman 



* Qeocs- Uwi., 8U: Syrooon Vtkg^ «»; Thmph, Coni, 181; Loo Gnm., 938; 
Cedr. IL, 164 ; Oanea, 9<3; Zotuur. II.. 139, cd. Tar. 

t Daoange od Zonnr. qnotoa EpUt. Ifi7 of Pbotiu, aditreiwd %*Mr^ T<nff»)i> 
vovSiIdry ica^k r«ii Aakinuvai. 

X Thu tuuJ (^nuittally (tofttroyed th« spirit of the diffcruit communtliDf, dlocoungvd 
th« froB flow of tmJo ))olw«vD thu provinoMi and produeed au oricalAl (tognutbii, hi 
which each district got on as boct it could cm iU onn rowuiuu*. Excoptioiu can bo 



78 



THE H1£T0R1CAL OEOaaAPBY OF ASIA Hl»OR. 



oluttMtct hail ftlinoftt Tpbolly givpn plnco to hn Oriental d«e)M>tinn. 
Oraftt part of the pluteaii passed into tha handa of the Turks, whoBe 
power extended over Lykaooia. Cuppadocia, and considerable part of 
PKrygia and Ga.1atm. Dorylaion was tlio north-wcstom limit of thoir 
autbority ; tut Rvtiaion thoy did not hold. From Dorylftion tbej 
ftdvAQoed along the road to CouHlantinople, and eveu aeized Nikaio. On 
the Bonth-weflt they held for a time Sozopnlie, Apameia (then a mere 
Tillage), Btod Loodiooia. It would appenr that their right to these teiri- 
torice waa recognised in the di«pTiw«ful agreement concluded vritli the 
Turks nbout 1076 ^.d., when their help was bought by the surronder of 
a great tenutory. 

The Seljuk Tiu-kisli capital was at Iconiiini, and the four chief roads 
that led to it became tho chief Hocce of warfare from this time onwarda 
until the rise of the Osmanli Tnria. Two of tb^ee roads Mrere the nune 
as roada of the oarUer period, tik.. those which led by Dorylaion and by 
Eutittion. We also begin now to hear of a third, which coincided ffor 
(tome difitanoc with the roivl to Kotiaion throtigh Bilejik and Banlika, 
and then diverged to Dorylaion (seo pp. 208, 236, 445). The foorth 
road vrati one which is first heard of at tlie end of the eleventh century, 
though we then find that it mUHt have buen of some military conse- 
quence from a much earlier tiiuo ; it was the oeiilral rood of the Theme 
Khoma. 

The Bret threu of these roads form a connected group. The great 
road to Dorylaion was the most direct, bat fell earliest into Turktiih 
hands. The road through Kotiaion waa important becanifo that city did 
not fftl! under the power of the Seljuks till 1182.* It was apparently 
in Byzantine hands ii» 1 1 5(5, Tnit tho limit of their powor, when Manuel 
Comnenus marched towards it from laauria. In 111(3 also it was 
certainly in Byr.aQtino bandn. and probably in 1113. 

The campaign of lllli fiirniBhes an dccollont proof of the liae of the 
road by Kotiaion and Dorylaion. Alexins Comnenus then advanced 
with a large army through Dorylaion to Philonielion. Here by one of 
]iit pious frauds he aecertained that the will of heaven forbade him to 
advance to loonium. lie therefore rctirfed towarda Constantinople, and 
was then hurd pressed by hordeg of Turkish light troops, jwho had 
offered little opposition to hia advance. After two days of continnons 
fighting the army reached a point between PoIybotoH and Ipaoe, where 
they diverged from the road by which they had advanced, and turned 
towards Ampoun. There were only two roads open to Ihem. Ono led 



prove<t, bat mcb wni tlie genoral ooudition of the later Bjsautitie em|df«. and hareln 
Iny ita vrenliDeiB. 

* Dor^Uion waa Bot malDta.iDed aa a fortme Vj th« Si>ljtil( Tuilc?. whn trnm 
tliovvd any UTHuiiiaiug itbility; it sank Into niinai, and tlio fertile rtHt-j fr» 9C«u|iivtl bjr 
nomndlc bands anlll 1 175, whoa Manaol refortificd it. 



VII. THE BYZANTINE ROADS. 



79 



by Polybotos, and then acTosa difficult country where tlie Turkish 
skirmiBliera wowld havo htiJ a great «»lvaiita.go; and by this road it 
would be m&iiy days Ijefore th«y ri>Rehcd Byzantine territory. Tho 
otb«r went along tho Vftlloy townrdn tho viUwg'O now culled Ambanaz,* a 
few miles nortli of Akroonoa. The (alter road, nsUBlly known as tlie 
i««le to Kotiaion, waa profcrrod ; and on the following day, when tho 
army was between Anpistopolifi and AkrMiifts, a tnic« waa concluded. 
Thin may be taken as u fair indicntion that Akroeitos and tbo conutry 
between it and Kotiaion were atill in Byzantine hands. 

Id 1142 Manuel Comneuiu; advanced along tho Kotiaion routo almoat 
up to Iconinm, and retired by Khoma. 

Again, in ll7d Manual roBolvod to make a groat eSTort to break the 
Tnrlosh Htnength. As a pr^-liminary ho robnilt two dosortod fortreaaea, 
Durylaioii and Soablaion. In 1176 ho obose tho latter route to delirer 
bia great blow at the Heljuks. Ho advanced from tlie Itbyndakos 
Cobvionaly by Akhyraous Tbyateira) to Khonai, and thenoo to Khoma. 
This oauiiiaigii, iberefore, was condncted along the fonrth of those roads 
which we have mentioned as of prc-fiminont importance in the Tnrkiah 
wars.f Sonblaion waa Bitnated at the aite now called Khoma, retaining 
the name which was coming iTiti) nee among the bintoriaafl of the 
twelfth wntury, Tho change of name in of conme a common pheno- 
menon in Aeia Minor. It ia probable that thu name of the Theme 
Khoma waa applied to the central fortr««8 of tbo Themo. Anna 
Comnena niontitiris t>ie Khomatonoi sfivernl time*, and it in clear from 
her langnago, IT. pp. 325-7, that tho frontierdefenoe against the Seljiiks 
was diridc-d between the Thomea of Ghonut and Coppiulocia.t But 
wty the name Khoma waa given to the Theme, whether the troops were 
find cnlled Khomatenoi from some reason unknown to ns, and the 
ooantry where they were stationed got tho name Khoma from them:g 
ur whether the local application ie the earlier, and the troope were callod 
after the country in which thoy were Htationcd, it seemjg now impossible 
to di«coveT.|| 

The central road of tho Theme connected tho two great fortreaaea, 
Ebonni and Khoma. ;Two routes are pousiblo for it. One, which 
was aetmiUy traverB*d by Bftrharojwa, wont np the Lykos, along tbo aalt 

* OltriniiHl; tlic Mune niuup u Am]xiun iu Anna Comacn*. On tliewholo aulijixit 
MC my p»per In ' Athen. Millbeil..' 18»2. p. HO, 

t On MaDii(»r» defmt, see p. 13fi anil mjr " Kotn and iMOriptlona tX„" tn ' Antar. 
Jonm. Jiteh.,' vol. ii. 

} Ou tho cbauKca oC Ut« Thcai« Cappadooia, tee pp. Xlllt iSO, Slfl. 

{ See p. 3tS, 

II I bovo tn ASr. in n final aiipimiliil note, «ii2EMb>d the poutblllty tlinl Klioma. 
nbirJi in kinmn nine tirtwi^'u Khuib iitid llt-y Rhuliur (wlioiw wn finil Yuhart Khoma 
•ad AmK&i^Iiii KKutiin). maybe oclunllf tbo Turkuk nune ot tbe town, iulopt«d like 
tnaiLj otlien b; iLv ByzeutJiiu writ«n ; but UiJs in not pniWble. Tlio TiMno bu iiol a 
Turkiah up|ieuniricc. aud llirrr in no timn for a Tiirkiah name to have Kalood cnrreaoy 
betiTDeit Ute api)earaucc of the Tiuka aiul ilie lue ef tlw nanta bj' Ana*. 



80 



TH£ UlSTOBICAL CCOORATUr OF ASU MIKOR. 



lake Anava. and tlien vtruok aoronB by Bolatli direot to Kboma. I 
thinl, however, tliat the other route by Deuizlei- (difTureut from Dvntzlt) 
anil Elarir Boghaz, wiis tlio Byza-Dtiae toa^A (huo ASP). la oithor caaa 
tbe line U a Htrango one, diverging as it does from the Romun trado 
rente; hut the eviclence ecema Qoucliisive. Khouia Uob on the shortest 
kXcad hetwecQ the UcrmoB vnUcy or tlm upper Mteander valley and the 
^ Mat in general. That line is iDdeed not au ouny one, bat to light aotiro 
troopH 8ii(!h lis rodti in tho Amh forayg into Asia Minor, it preeonts no 
BuriuuB diflioully, while iU dirnctneiw recommended it to them. I'ro- 
hftbly the same state of tilings ulho oxiDled v/Unn the Sussaaiana were 
ravaging the whole «'>iuitry up to tho Boephorus and the Aegean 
duriog the earlier ceutum<B. Two poeaibilities saggOBt thetoBolvoa 
B£ to tha period when Khomit wa.s cumlo an tiiiportaut fortress, viz., 
either the reign of Juetiuiau or the timu of the Iconoclast omperors. 
JJeny reaaosa induce ub t'> prefer tho former. Ono ia that the pair of 
fur tresses, Khouia and Khonai, were apparently on the same uchomo; 
end I cannot think th:tt Kliunai was fuiiiiduJ bu late as the loonoolaat 
period. The very naiae Khonoi oupplauted that of Kolotteai hetweeii 
€02 and 787, and that oan hardly have taken plaoo immediately after 
the foundation of the fortress of Khouai. Another lies in tho bishoprio 
Justinianopolis or Oikokoiue. I understand Ohco-KatfiTi us a grooiaed 
term for the A'icus marked in the Puutingur Table botweon Eumeneia 
and Apuuoia. Justinianopolis would then he the fortrcBS above it 
nuited under ouo bibbop with thu eettleuiotit in tho open plain.* More- 
over, I am unable to discover any Bigua of the foundation of fortrcsaca 
cr cities by the Iconoclasts, 'i'he whole ejystem of orgauisuUon and dcl'euoo 
'had been so admirably planned by Jubtinian, that nothing remained for 
later omperors^ to do except to maintain or reBloro what ho had bnilt. 

JuBtiniau then built the fortress of Khomu or Soublaion (Hihiia) 
heaide the pass leading tawarda the Aogean coast. Nicetas Choniata 
dieliugnifihee that fortreBs from another actually in the pass, called 
Myriukephaluu,^ which wa$ a ruin in the time of Manuel C'omueuUB. 

Daring the period 1076-1119 the line of the Roman trade-route 
between Loodiceia and Apamcia appears to have been entirely iu tho 
handa of the Ttirks. Iti 1 1 IVi John Comncnus advanced by Philadelphia 
to Lnodiceia and captured it: and in 1120 he advanced further and 
capturod Sozupolia, which remained in Bysonline hands till 1183. 
Jiuteveu after 1120 it appeATu that the lino of the trade-route through 
Apamein was deeerted and uuEiafe, owing to the bands of Turkiah 
Domada who iufcsled it. In 1140 Mnnuol Cuuiuouuh wan attacked and 
wounded beside tiia own camp by a troop of thcae Turku, when he waa 
oncaoipod near !3ouhlaiox)> aud had incautiously gone out towards 
Apumeia to hunt. 

The history of the reigna of the three Comiueoi, AJoxiuH, Johu aiiil 

■ Be« pL 19G, C. 35. f t^ ^^ name, iw p. 220. 



vn. TBK BTZASTINF Rrt\Wt. 



PI 



Huiu«l, BDggeRts that during tli»t ^iitii-e periol thu roa-.1 tlirough 
Apamein wns not nnd )iy thu ByKUiitiiio iknoieii ; ami the pUnuto auod 
at a Inter date hy Tageaon iii deaoribing the march of Rurbarossa past 
the Bait lake AuavB, "luca dottortiaMnia Tnrcoriim" (seep, I30), siiggent« 
llio r«a»oii, Th« riiuto by tto Ilnrir Boji^lini! wat omployud, and I havo 
[ilftOPd Ciinrax aiid Gmos tiala ou it. 

Apart fmm tho tem^mraty chaiig&H <tau3«(1 hy hucb oLrciii&stanociK na 
llio Seljiik ctnpii-o n-illi it» o»j)ital at IcoDiiiin, tHero has heea. little 
iiltoratiou iu tLe ro;)<l systoDi of AoatoUa as it waa Gxod by .TuKtinian 
tintil otir own timo. But tbo roodR an.> iiuw in a transiticrn ntagc. 
When all Turkish goTemment businosH had to be oarriod acroKs Asia 
Minor tu the caatoni and eoiitheni iiartA of the I'mpiro, tho importiuit 
ronl«« had to be maiutainod ia decent condition; and a [mhUI it«rvioCt 
with rolay-H of horaea, was kept op along th«in. When f-ciikft waa sent 
in hajtte from Oonatantinoplo tu Egypt ui 1800, lia rodo aoi-niut Asia 
klinor by I)or>-lai<jii and looninm tii Atiemonrion, and tbi-rc took boat to 
Cypnia. At pras«nt a traveller or a government meaeenger to Cj'pnis 
would take tho stenroer. The diBevpnce in this msc is typical of a vast 
number of similar ohangw, which have ourta-iled the nuralxtr of roada 
along which n horso-puat is kept up. 

Another caiiso of change lies in tho growth of iSmyrna, which haa 
beoonw tho commercial capital of Tnrkoy. Unilwnya from Smyrna have 
crept tip tlip country into Lydia and Phi^-gin. t)tio followH the goneral 
line of tho old " Koyal Ifnail," imtil it has reached the foot of the platoan 
and ia confronted with that stop of 2000 foet, whioh ia rwjiiired to plaoa 
it ou the plateau. 'J'he other keepa clofloly to tho line of the great trade 
roote, and has nli-cody renohcd Apumoia. Tho oxpiknaion of commerce 
between Aaia Minor and the west haii made those railwaya, iu spit« of 
laaoy difficultieH interposed by gOTemment. One ground for the action 
iif the government cnnoernB uo. Theao railways would inakti Buiyrna 
tho oontral city of Asia Mioor, but tho government wiitbos that Cou- 
atantinople Hhould continue to be the governing centi-e; and that vria\\ 
haa led to llie proji.-cted i ailway from CiJustantinopk to Ankyi-a (Angora), 
which as a commercial entorprine has iio pru«pe<it of lieing remunerative 
for A long time. 

Within «iy own knowledge of Asia 3IInur, great activity in road- 
making has bw>u tihown by the Tiirka, In wtmn fn«e« the now roads 
are a bleHsiug to the oountry; hut I have almi Hvon broad new roads, 
wboH path acroBS Ihc countrj- was conspicuoUB by their greener and nioro 
ItiXTiriant crop of grnss, Htid I liavo seen nnmerons voadw mado in uucon* 
nocted fragmenta, or iu .1 more advanocd irtate with everything ready 
except the bridges. In the great mnjority of caaoa one q^uarter uf the cv- 
pendititra would K' stifiivient to improve the oxiHting roads in their worso 
jiarln. But the new Hoheme of renovation in iidimlly on too grand a 
soale. An eatiiely new roata ia laid out, great <^>xpense in inourred, and 
vol.. IV, u 



Wri'AT. fiFOGRAPHY OF ASIA MISOR, 

thon tlie road U left nnfinialiod ; or, vtant fntc of hII. tha broA^ new 
rood, n-itb fxnftll etoneit scattered over the smooth level Hiir&oe, in not go 
pleasant for pack-liontm as tins old uarrovr welUtroddeu path; and 
ti-uflio ^Ichberotely ptefers the old road, leaving tlio aew road to grow a 
mngnificeiit crop of graas. Port of tho reason why tho roadp are in 
nmiiy pawja bo fragmentary lio« in tlie faot that ihoy are hnilt by tha 
iabnUT rjf thu viUigura : each adult in Imiind to give his likWiir for a fow 
days in th« year; and whvn hi» timv in dono tho conclusion of his work 
mn'-t t>o ]tcitttp<iued till tlis next year. This plan is the only one powiblo 
in thu ouuatry, Knd it deinaniU from rhe iiibabitauU thoir fair coDtribn- 
tiua to the common good in tho way that proases moflt lightly on them ; 
but it ttowls moi-a skill iu the proper applioatiou of tho labour ibon ia 
generally sliown, B«t in other oaBe» the reason for the failure of the 
now road lios in mismanagement or in fraud. 1 have eeon a ruiued 
fragment oT a new bridgo ovlt tho Ualys, compoBod of a mere ihell of 
masoury filled iu n-tth earth : this bridge was once oouiplut^d, and mniit 
have looked very well during the annimer months, till tho first high 
water swept great part of it away. 

This duficiouoy iu tho Turkish roud'system is likely to liare im- 
portant political consequence!). Anatolia ie e&sentially a Biubainmedaa 
ooiintty, but Armenia ia a Christian country, where the inhabitants tend 
snrely to union with Russia. The consnnmiation of that nnion is only 
a matter of time, and probably of no long time. The Russian railwayt 
have roaohed tho frontier : there are no Turkish riiilways, esiating or 
ovon projocted, near the frontier, and few roads oven that are in deoont 
repair. Nor is there any likelihood that Armenia proper would content 
Buseia. The Hnlys, the gr«at«8t river of A«ia Minor,* hits ofteu lieon a 
river of boundary. The province on the east of the liver, one of the 
finOBt in the Turkish ompirc, containB a number of Anucniaua; aud it 
is not improbable that the :ius.t step made by liussia will carry her to 
the banks of the Halys. 



VUL CiiAsoE OF Site. 

The variation in the site of cities at different periods of hiBtory is A 
point whieh is frequently ioachi-d Ju the prcecTit work. One of the 
thouglits whicli oftenest occur to the traveller in Asia Minor ifi to ask 
why niodcni towiiB to raxcly occupy «xaotly th« si(« of ancienl cities. 

In some oases the change was made frum purely accidental reusons. 
Prof. J. R. S. Stcrrott'f mentions that during tho Egyptian war "a 
Inige number of Turkish troopH were c|uartored for an indefinite period 
«u tho p«o]>Ic of old Mulutiu, which stood on the site of Mcliteuc. This 



* It IK the IciD^flt. though it dmins nii nron iWiiU'dly imallcr tlinn the ^H.iiFcari'w 



rm. cffASCE OF site. 



83 



t^WOK than ibn !oug-8uflr«riDg tnhabitaQts couU bcari eo tliey 
atandoned their old hoases to the aoldiei-s, and Ijant a new city amoDg 
the ^urdoDH HeroD or eight inilc« Bouth-wiat of Molitcnc." The story 
has a look of popular luytUoIogy itbont it, ftnd Prof. Sterrett does not 
fltftto on 'M-hat niitbority be lins rocoirod it ; but, tf tmo, it would be an 
excellent exuDiple of a kind of <]haugo which can be properly treatotl 
ooly in a ' Local Hintory ' of Aain Minor. There is uii infiiiito Tftviety 
in tho hiGtory of tho variutia diBtricta ; but a foir general ooiuddenktiotis 
tony bo here branght together. 

The uQc-ieiit situ i^ truinvtiiiifm absolutely deserted. At other tinioi 
it is Micooeded by a more village, while the inoilen) town whtoli in the 
hnir to tho imi^ortjmcu of the ancient oity in Mituuted at a cunaidcrablo 
distance. In the Lykoa valley, Denizli, sevorul niilcn fruin Liiudiccia, 
may Iw tuken an both gongraphically and in reepeot of importance tlie 
rcproHontatirc c>f the now dcsortod Laodioeia; for the tiny villagni in 
the plain which are ucaror the attoieiit aite, are cbiflike, and do not 
oorrcfipood to tho ancient city. But Tripolia is represented geogra- 
phically ly Yeni Keoi, in name by the pass called Derebol, and in 
iinjKirUiict.' by BuUaduu : AttouJiIa i» represented geographically by 
UaK Kcai, bnt in inijwrtanoe by Si^rai Kcui * ; and nierapoHs ia repre- 
sented geographically by Parabnk Kalosi, bnt in importance by Dcniili-t 
111 the fulluwlng pugt'S when I spL-uk of a modern town aa the ropresan- 
tatjve of au auuient city, I mi-an tlmt it has succeeded it u the chief 
centre of population and the neat of govemmont ; but I do not imply 
that it actnally oocupit-^ tho ancient Elite, or that it is tho noarc«t 
inhabited plaoe to the ancient site. Tho rule it) general that each 
modem centre in the representative of some ancient city, and conversely 
that lUmott eroiy ancient city ban a taodcm roprcHcntative. 

BcmuIb which were important in one period of tlio history- of Anatolia, 
often lost all iuipuitsnci' iu anulhor jjoriud. In such coMa it frL^cjuently 
happened that along with the road, a city on it lost importance, and ita 
iufluenco was tTaanforred to a now oeutru. Apumcia (see p. 75) was 
grcAt in the Jt^iman period, insignificant in the Byzantine time; and 
quite roccutly it baa taken a now start in life, as tho mere poBstbllity of 
a railway niching it became evident. Other oxaniples in abiindenoo 
are to bo found in Part 11. The &ct tliat almost all the cities on the 
lino of the " lloyal Road " bear uld Phrygian named, while almost ell 
those on the great trade-Tonto bear nainoa thut mark them at rofonndod 
by Greek kings or Buinan vuipurunt, unudx no comment. 

Apart from changes in the ruad-Hystem, however, we oVserre that 



* A narltet. wliloh used to be bfld almoit ou tba kite of Altonddo. liu been 
liaasfoncd within living n^ioorjr to Brnni K^'u. 

t Vcni Kcni ■* alioiil ■ mile fiom lh<: iita nf Tri|iolia, wLii'li la (|UJt« dc*cH«d; 
Bnlludrvti is alniul sis milt n diirlant. pHniliiik Knial lius oluao LnluM tiio autua] tile of 
lllcmpiilia. 

3 



u 



THE BISTOlElCAI. GlXXHtAPUr OF ASU UIXOll. 



cerUin oboraoter in rej^^ard to mtuation, mxwsi), aiid local Burrouudlngs 
cau be traced in tbe oitieif of eaob period.* 

The cbivf chitructurUticu tbuf tiro ubnorvod in tlie ailcs of aueient 
cities in Asia Minor aio ^I) militarj- btreogtb, {2) pobo of uooowt aad 
coutrotirciul advanUt;;i'ii iu guuQrul, (3) oouvenionoe ul' wator-snpply. 

Military strength seetuK to liava beeo tlis dotoriuuiiug uuuittik-rutiuii 
in tbo curlier time. Sitm vrdTo in mauy oases 6elQ0t«d ou billa wUobu 
■idee either wero natnrAlly prccipitflnn oi* oould readily bo warped. 
Thus gicflt Blpougt.h wiw atliiine'l without aiuch (wwitive furtification. 
In some cases a iilight parapot at tbo tup of n purpoudiouUr wall cf 
rook 60 to 100 fut5t iu height was all tbo artificial work needed. The 
dosoriptioii wbicb I havo given of tbo wirly Phrygian cities in my 
" Study of I'hrygmii Art"t sufficiently illuslnitfs tbi» subject. Siinilnr 
fortiQcatiouB weru all that were needfd in Blwundos. Akmoiiia, Piilieo- 
Sobauto, Lounda, (Vlacune, &c. Tbu pooplu murit have livod iu the 
open plain except duiiiig attack by an t-ufiny, when they retired into 
tbo furliliod tuwii. Too little is known of this obi poriod to Jnetify iu 
in ifeying mnch <ibQnl it; bnt that a certain amunnt of commeroo and 
a certain rvf^ard to commercial oouvuiiienco L'xiHtcd uvon then u 
Dfaown by tbo very name as woU as by the Bitmition of Keratnon 
Agora ou tbo "Itoyal Koad." Su abio IVtiainuit, uu tbo Kamv toad, 
oan hardly hare bet-n a strong fortiess; ita chief clefeiicf vraa religicrtts 
TuiiL-ratioii. 

Tbe sacrod uitiot of this oarly period ui'ttui gi-uw up urouad uomo 
plaee, whcro the divine power was most stvikingly munifeatod, e.g. by 
hot medicinal HpriiigH, a hole witb mepbitic exhalations, or tiny other 
natural pbunonii-non, A sacred village, H!aa Kome, grow up near or 
rouud tbe tianotiiary, and di.-pondwl on tbe divine power alone tor 
protoction-t Snob wh« Ite tein]do of Artemis at Epbexoti, whiob aUtoA 
a]>art from and often in op]>ositiou to the Gret-k city. A city of tbo 
nativo chantcter often grew out of this saoi'cd village, and the name 
Hioropolia was often atlacbeil to it. AVborevtT native feeling is strong, 
the form of thiti name ia Hiero]Ki]is, " City of tbe Hieron ; " bnt where 
Greek feeUng and edocation fipreada, tbe Greek tbrai Hienipolis, " tbo 
tjacrod City," is introduoed. Tbo differouoe of form, tbuugb apparently 
no alight, really cotreBpontls to a remarkable difference betvcen the 
native and the Oreek spirit. According lo tbo former tbo Hieron, 
acuordiug to tbe latter the Polia, ia tbe leading idc-a. Typos of llteao 



* Prul^wir 0. HirwliMil in tii» chbv "a 'lyjuln^ne grleohinhei AusiedeAitagw 
iiu Allerthuiu,' eIjuuM bo nudiu uoiiiifctbu wiiti tlicBt ivmurltB; Me ** Anftitae BKtal 
UmtlDH ^wtilmct." Hinclirc'lcl lion niaiijr exooUenl icuiarks ou (be mmc «ibj«ct bi 
bU ' Bfi»tbcrichtft' 

t ' Jttunj, Hell. Sluri; 1868 and 1889. 

t On UtlH Mtibject nee Ihu di'BO.riptioii or tbn village naiued AtyiJitioriou aaat 
DIoDf KipolU in my "Artemt»-LotObDd ApoIlo-LtuibeuM" in' Jotini.HoIl. Stud," It^. 



SITE. 



85 



priwfly foiindfttious are to bo fuuud ut Uicrojiolls in the GlaukcB TaUcfyi 
Soa amoDg tlio Frejienisseia,* Aieojioit in Fhiygitt. Soouiiia in 
Cappadocio, tto. 

But ajKu-l fruui thwBf Uii^nitic ct'titrus aud « Tow luarkeU likv 
Keraiuoii Aj^oni, saft'ty iiu<l military )tlT«ii^h detenniDod tho tdtcn of 
iho oarliuBt oiticH. Wator-supply often oouiitttutiHl a mnuuv difficulty 
in tliem. Watc-r waa BOtnetiniea stored in large ciHtcnis to piuvide Tor 
l.1ie conliugoQcy uf a Hiegu. In Auiaseiu n pouHugo km cut lliiougb the 
rtwk duwn to a plentiful utiipply of w»t«r. Each iudiTidnal city has it4 
uwu tiietlioil of Hii]iply. 

The foimdatioii» of tbo Qieek ikings vrero of a different character. 
Military' Kirc-iigth wiia iitill a pramiiii.'Ut fiic;tur in dE:tcriuining the sites 
chosoii duriuj^ the ccutury tlial fuUowed tht; ilt:atli uf .Vlcxutidvi'; but it 
was not tLe eiilc doniioant voiiaideration, aad it was tjuuglit more by 
artificial fortitication. Ea«o of acwBt* and commercial convenience were 
also aimed «L These citien wore intended to be centres of civiliBtttiun 
and of a foreign domiuutiun iu the country ; and they ravuA thorufuro l>o 
in eoay oommunioation with eadi other and with other cnnntries. llio 
site of Cclftc-nao wiiji now deserted, and Apamcia was fonnded nenr it nn 
u fiJte uf tho new character. Syunada, Selanreia Sideru, Laodiceia od 
Lycntii. AntiocheU in PisidiH, Antiuchcin ud Mauandruiii. utid many 
utbots, belong to the sanit: typL". TJiuy are nitiiulcd on rising grouuds 
at the wlgo of open plains. Thoy aru thua ewiy of Bcu-.;i»e, yet their 
u-alln, jtlaced on the edge of tlui low hillH that constitute the siteii, ri»o 
high over the plitiu and make thetii vorj* strong fortresses, m long an 
the fortifications arc kept in thorough repair. 

The «iz« of tlieeo cilice wae dctorminvd by tho liilla on which tboy 
BtowL Synuada, one of tho oldcot, mnst have been a tiny city ; sod indeed 
Strabo exproH#ly rounirks uti itrt bmuI) siz*^', Tlio fvutci-Hnpply wonltl 
haTO to be studied separately in eiicli caao. In Ijuodicein ad Lyeum it 
oonld be woU noen a few yoam ago. The hne of ihe underground 
conduit which brought the water from the abundant Hourcos that flow 
tbrongb every Htreet of tho modern Denizli could 1>b followed for 
tHiToral luilcH {ram Laodiceia : I did not attempt to traco it up to the 
Boarue. In the uortbcru part of tho uity it ro»e iu tho large eorthcn- 
warc pipo that brought it to a height sufficient to dominate tho wholo 
city: there it oouiuuuioated with ii imuibur of Kmnllor pipes. In this 
way tho pruHSuro woh diiniaiiihed to the amount needed for distributiuD, 
and the tiupply could be odfiily cut olT froiu uuy of the iiuiallur pipob. 

* I Uare iJioiru, |>. Hi, thai tli« (anu llvuninxL lia» ii^o txUtttiea uceiit tu tlio 
nunnk-iprctaUon of un ioaciiptlou ; {>oo. ■' tbe OiftT{>" (i.e, or Atvs},cliOVB thftl Iho 
cbarackx of tlu« rt.'lib'>ou« louIk mu eiiuiluc to tlmt of Atyckborlou aiiar Dtaa^Hpolia. 
8n slao mjr ■- Stndy of Phrjgiaa Art." put ji., in ■ Joum, Uell. Stud..' 1889, 

t AUaiioi nttli it* priKatly dpiulv, vtlio looked to KnpliKrbui lui Aral of tbmr numbar 
and piubitbl} IU ihuii uucL'i>Uv(Huali priL'tU txiiug jjimerully lnucdituy), »eeuu to Ua 
fBVfvi by iiui quotntiou frou llormaif(oav«i uy. 6tcph. hjt., •.r. 



M 



TilK IU:^TOttlfAr. CJEOGRAPliy »V ASIA JIISOR. 



This iatcnwting building vfnn iii jirooeag of dostmotion wliec 1 vittiud 
Lnodiceia in tlie epring of IB83. 

Ill the peftocfiil period wjiioh begau witli tho aacendeiicy of the 
Pcrgftmoninn king* aftt-r u.<.\ 190, ftiid eontiuu«d uodor tho J{i>inaa rule, 
the ]icipittatiuu tended tti i;uav<>a( mte in open dofenoeleBS eituatioiis on 
the plftiuK, whore the couditioBH of Hfu vnsTv mora pk>atuuil thiin iu the 
dtrong but uncnmrortaltlc citiee of the early period. 'I'lio foiiiitlatioiis of 
tho carlior Diadochi indeed, bciug on low hills closo to or cvou in tho 
niitUlB uf upen plains, muiutained their uxiiitenco. But whore the 
uTiL'it^nt custom uf liviug purtly in the open |iUi]i, with a city iu a lofty 
Hituation as a military rcfiigo, hud cnntimieil, opon defcncelesti oitiee 
j^ruw dunng thu PurgauivuiuD aud Kumuii |)uriude. In lUttDy OMM, e.g. 
ut Lounda and ut Sohaiito, the older Bttuatiuii wau ahundoned owiug to 
the grodiiiil concentration of the popitlation in more pleasant hooiei: 
iho name continuud ua hafiATit, but thu luculity chan^d. 

The uevr citioa fuiindod hy the Peigameoiuii kinga won) placed iu 
KituatlotiK of a aimitsr character. Kiimeucia, I)ir>nyK)po1is, Philadelphia 
stand on very geull« bIujkah under the Hhadow of hillH on which tio 
fortificstiuns existed. Ajwltouia of Pieidia stixnl iii a quite defenceleiu) 
ailuatiou iu an oj»ou pUin. This charactor may be used, in ooncurrcnoe 
tvith other LfiiaidtiralioDB, to prove that such fitiee as Lysiui and 
PliiloDiolion wuru PvigameniEUi fuundaliuii&. Doiyluion and Motrupolia 
(in tho Tcliul Ova) aleo occupieil diiriug the Keuiun period similar situu- 
tioiL»; but tho latter at leaot wafl of the same character bb Loiinda and 
Scba«te, having boon originally situated on a high hill in the neighbour- 
hood." The Romau Doni-Iaioa was situated at Shahr Eyuk, a little to 
the north of Eeki Sheher in tlie plaiu. After it hiid sunk into desolatioQ 
Manuel rebuilt it at Karndjn Shohcr {smi p. 212-3). Vuu Diest afEriufl 
that there are traces of ^ATly work boDeath the mediaeval ruinu at 
Karadja Sheher, and I nbotild readily admit that the ancient Doiyluion 
wai moved to thu open plain and afterwardn back to the defetudble, but 
waterlcas old idbo.t 

Iu Lykuouia the aituatious of such cities ud Laodiceia Combnsta and 
Barata (Bin Bir Kiliitu) etruck me an charaoteristic of that country. 
They lie iu theatre-ahaped reces»P4 in the out«r akirt« of the mouutaina. 
From whatever reanon it may Lc, no cities have left such an impi-ession 
of chanu ou uy luiud, and yet I I'eur that their aituntieu in their bald 
and bare gently doping roceawB would bo found nioijt disappoiutlug by 
the tourist in search of striking elfeet«. Iu several other Lykaoniau 

* Tbu ijU v{ M(iro|>i>U* con Iu Inwi in tin? coatnt of tho plain between Tatarii 
and Hftiilnrli (hmi p. 142). I wiib luU iLut llivrc wctv tntw ot toiXi&rnlitni ou a hill 
vlilchl<Udnot viAlt. 

t Oa Kiapi'rt*« npinion, ww p. IS. Von Diest dewrlbea Eald Shelitr m frrnriih: 
hia nxpcT'iDucu vna bod, but OD Ills owii abowtiiK it oaunut bo biniaod oa the plM6. 
My Dvcoant, givco p. 212. wfut deilrod {mm tho pooplo. KouU und Eski Shohcx lutTO 
beoD morv Uuiled to uu Ibau suij otkei lowus in Anatolia. 



mi. CHAxor. OF site. 



B7 



oiti«B, o.g., Iconimn and etill moro KyliiBtra, the luxitrianco of the well- 
wat«r*d orchnrdft is doubly pleading by ooiiti-ost wHli tlio Wr« und 
wftterk'HH pUins tlmt stretch in front fur » Liiudix'd uiil««." 

In the i>erio(1 i^f trniihlt^, wtinn tlio defonoCR of A*'m xklinor hoA to be 
oonBulvred, — n^iiist the SosHatiitiiui, the Arub«, and tUo Turks — when 
foreigii annies mvageil «very Talloj and advauced to tW Botspborcnia, 
Bitos of groat natiirAl strongth agnin CAnio tu ho of siirpawing import- 
ance. Such marauding inroads an were praoti&ed especially by the 
Arabn, required for piirpoeeR of defence fortresneH iuiprcgimbic ugainst a 
suddoa Attack ; hut a loD^thcncd eic^e tvm not a danger to he dronded. 
FortreBses perched on the Bummit of precipitous roclie then became 
oommon, aud some of them hecamt) the oentrea of great cities. Suoh ore 
A6om Kara IIiAar and Sivri Ilisur. At Kara Hianr, only iLree tailm 
from the Itomau city Prymneasos, a singte maea of Toloaiiiu rovlc rises 
out of the plain eruct like a column to tho height of 900 feet : it can bo 
aaoended only by a Kig^g serion of stain cut in the rock. The fortress 
b firat huurd uf at tliu bu(;iiining of the «ighth century. In 740 the 
famans Seid Batal Qhasi wati dofoatod And nlaia beforo it ; and from that 
time onwardH it itt meutioued not raroly under tho nanii's AkroouoB and 
Kikopolis. On the site of rrymuossos there is now a village Sotiluu, 
while Kara LIi»ur is one of the greatest cities of Anatolia. 

Sitri Ui-ar, the Pointofl Castle, lies about ten or twolr© miles north- 
west of tho Roman city PenainKS : a fortress on tho lofty volcanic rook 
with its two sharp points whs iiupntgnabU iii aumpnt warfaro except to 
btarvation. It was forlitied by Justinian, and called Jnstinianopolis. 
PauitinB is now a more village, while Sivri Uusar is a great ctty, as oilies 
ore in Anatolia. 

Noiuerous other fortreseea, mentioned in Part II., belong to this 
cIoM. They wci« foTinde<l generally in the time when a l-eorgauisation 
of the government and attention to the defuncca of Asia Minor gave the 
HyKantinc «mpiro new life. They were suited to the warfare of the 
period, for they were impreguaVile against a nicro foray; bnt they conld 
never have been provisioned with food and watt-r against a long siege. 
I'ho oitiefl which liavo grown up under their shadow are situated in the 
open plain, luid, as a rule, are quite dofoncolees. 

llie fuuudutiuns and changes of citiea, which wo have hitherto dis- 
cussed. Mpring from vigour and growing or recuperative power; but 
there are other changes of a Uter kind which aro symptoms of decay 
and of waning civilLmtiou. lu the case of niauy towns and vilUges in 
modern time, it seema to be purely tho neighbourhood of the water- 
supply that dotennincK the aitnation. The Homan and even the By. 
xantine engineers did not hcsitato to bring water from a considerable 

* The ruinous state of modern Eniila partly hides its t>«autiftil aiimrandioKt {torn 
tha haslj lnTelt«r: a ilriTo or WHjk lo Memm Is lh» sherUot wsy (o Iram wlint mfffhl 
he the cnsr- cvcryntJurrP in tlio noiElilxxirlinuil, 



8ft 



Tm HtsTORtfAr. nwwRArnr of awa misor. 



dUtanci* to Mi])p1y their cities. It in iiiiltiod ti-iin thnt to thU il»y 
nooewitir lias maintninetl soine Bfcil] iu fhU ooo branch of engineering 
((to far M8 my exiM*ri«Tioo gocB, among tlie Greek ChriNtimis only) : tho 
moitern aqnotlHcta ivro ootistructod wllh coneiilorablo skill in undar- 
groand diAnneli* which wind rannd the iilo[)o nf bilU to Rociiro n sloir, 
oontinuouK Joncout from tho «onroo to the publio fouuluin or Tcheiilime. 
Hut even wh«ri> such aqucflnntH hare i"eoentIy cxiitted, they have often 
heen allowed, Uko ttU tliiniipi ui Turkey, to go to nilu. Moroovor, tho 
anciont engineara w«ie far lees dept^ndent on th« nearness of their 
»mrcea thitn the modern. Tn many caeo8 a uioderu town hoa grown up 
at Bonic point vrhnre abundant water is at hand, whiW the Roman or 
Byzantiuo city n fuw miles ditttatit luii; anuk into decay, Examplua of 
this claga are Tyanii, formerly eupplied by a large aqnodwct, now a mete 
villago a few niilfls diBtant from tho towns uf Bor and Nigtlo,' and 
Laotlict-ia, nnw supplanted by Uenizli. In general the probability is 
tbnt ficimc sucli cunvcniuuco ia the reanou for imy vhango of ftite tluit hns 
occurred in tho last few conturic-H. 

In tho IfttiT By7,antiiio poriofl an inBtmctivo csanijilo which hoara on 
tliia point oocHrB. TralleiB had gradnally dcsocndi^J from tho high 
platoau, where the lioinaa city oomnianded one of the grandest iatand 
views I have ever eei-n, down tho slope towards the lower valley of tho 
Mcoandur. As tho valley was made iin.iafn by Turkish incursions, tho 
oity became entirely deserted. AndroniciiN PalRologim aliout 1300 
made an attempt to restore the city on the Bumau site aVove; but tho 
inhiiUtauta fonnd the water-supply doGcieut, and were soon forded to 
deeert Andronici .polls or I'alicolagoiiolie, ae th.o new dty was called 
during its brief existent-e. The water-supply, which waa mifficient for 
a rich and large city in the Roman time, and which even at prettent is 
voiiduoted in a channel nearly on the level of tho ancient city, would 
havo been <|uite enough for AiulronicopoliM, if engineering okill to use 
it had been pOBSeMed by the foundem. 

♦ Tj^noa i» tlill n rontid<7al>l« Mllngc, »s rowI spriBgB rise clow to it The aBCtonl 
niinciliiii cumi> frum Knlii GmmiBli, uliiut 12 niilL-n K.K., iiml wiw cattiviI ta ii tubler- 
lanean clmnnrl Tor kti'oT imrl (if il<i oiimic. Tlio nrclies wliirli cslcnd fur it ulIIc near 
ilio i-ity urp i>r<'>l!ii«iiriii. iind ["mlulily |in--Pi'rnirvn. Tli" nKHlrrn villn^ is bd largeas 
tlie nadiml ttniiT-mii.ply iiraiiH r tlio uncli-nt tity «mld net hnve cxi«trd irithoiit na 
urlifi'ifLl mipiily. 



PART II. 

A SKETCH OF THE HISTOUICAL GEOGRAPHY 
OF THE VAEIOUS PROVINCES. 



TOL. IV. 



PjittT U. A SKETCH OF THE HISTOKICAL OKOGiUPHY 
OF THE VARIOUS PROVINCES. 



Imtboductios. 

Ts the followiitg psgpii the attempt in made to indicato fbe principles rm 
wbiol) tliu tupui;rui>Lj uf Aoiu Mtuur must bo ntiiiliud, ftud tu givo a 
sketch of tho subject a<i a whole, In addition to thin I give a u'nml>or 
of detuiln abiiiit iipeai.il ])i)intH wLioh havo been <<(il lc(;to>.l in tho eoiirso of 
my rradingH, and which hart; bccomo t'x> numerous to hohl together in 
my tnind, amid tho dititnictions of other work, witbuiit tho piintor's aid. 
I liavo not tried to make tlieni coinploto, or to givo what may be fbiind 
in ordinary' souroes of iiiformatioii. Bvery fact* hus boon gathered 
from tlie origiual »oiirc6«, and repreneuta the itapra«siun which tlie 
context has made on uy mind : I cannot, of coarse, fuel sure that the 
impreMion bas always t>een oorrcct, but from 1h« first pag© to tho loat 
thin aketch springs from a froeh collection and an indepondcnt valuation 
of the material. 

A compariaL'U of tbo Itste of citic« in each province wboao exiatence 
at various periods can be traced fona^! tbo bosit of tbi« study, imd a 
brief uriticiHm of tbv vWtbi utiLburitiBB it) neoossary U8 mi iutrodtiL-tion. 

Fii«t may be mentioned tho Notitito EpiNcopatuuin. The mo«t 
important Nntitia! published by Parthey and Pindcraro VIL, VIII., IX., 
L, IIL, X., XIIL All th« unpublished Xotiiiffi that 1 have seen are 
mer« variations of som« of thotie. A complelo Notiiin consiittit of two 
parts, a li«t of metroiiolitaDB and arobbishups, and a list uf the biiihopB 
saburdinatc to each nielro{>olitai) ; tlie fintt of thoao two parts is wanting 
ia IX., JU., XIII., and tho e«cond ia contained only in the sorcn 
Xotitiai above meutioned. VII. is a mere fragmout. It will upj)Qar on 
examination that the lista wore very carelcflsly kept^ and wore not 
altered to suit the actual changes that took pliice. When an ordinary 
bishopric was raised to tho dignity of an arohbisboprif, it mm often left 
in its old pla(» in the list and onlcrod a second time na au arobbishupi ic. 
Sometimes an entire group of biahoprica dtsapjicars from some or all of 
tho Notitite, e.g. Mm Akmouia group and ibo Klionai gruiip iu Pbrygia, 
or the KomiRSA-KonKima group in Pamphylta Secunda. 

* A xexy fbw exocfttlmui hnve been MT«fU]ly uutlccvt. Tlity arc quotalions ham 
liooka InacoMnUft u mn in Aberdeui, which I hAVc round cllod la nuideni booka 
dniiiis Lb» flumincr of im9. 

u.i 



5(» 



A SKKTCn OP TUE tllSTORICAl OEOOFAPUY OP ASIA MISOft. 



Amim^ tlioi.0 f^ven Notitise, Iir., X.,Xin,form & class by tliemsolvea, 
vrbicU I Crequcntlj- niontion as "tLe lul«r Notitii»," VIL, VIII,, IX. 
form another olnafl, not bo diiitiiict and well marked, which I often rofor 
to AA " the oarlitiv XotitiK." I. atAU<^6 in an intermediate poHition, bnt 
ia on the wbolct much cloeor to tlie earlier ulniis, and may iilmoet bo 
incluiled in it and ooiitriiHted with the later cI&sk. 

Wilhiti the liitvet ;^rou]j uf Nutititu, X. und XIII. ani much tilosor tu 
each other than lo III , &vS are also Uitor than it. Among the earlier 
Notitisa th<ie aio much tnoro sdriona vnriationH, bo that in mnny pro- 
vince*! Iho class has to bo subdivided. The chronological ordei in this 
group is Vn., VIII, atid IX., I.* The two internKdiate NoUtite agree 
flomotimed wilU VII. and somctimca with I. VII. approaches Hieroclft* 
moro olonely than any other Natitia does: the mntilation of tbisdoou- 
luent in biltt'rly to b« ittgrcttcd. and Iihb deprived u« probaWy <if ninck 
valnalile iiiformiitimi. An early NotitJa ie one of tho cliiof desiderata in 
tbo history of Asia Minor, and may j'ot be found in ina&u«cript. 

The correction of the first part of a Kutitia, Wz. the liat of Melro- 
jKilitans UTid ArchbiichopTicM. w.m natttratly mnch more oarefuHy [>er- 
foimod than the correction of the Booond part. Ilonoa the dato M'hiuh 
can be &BC«rtained for the first part of each list cannot bo assumed for 
the »eoond part. Tiio faotn of tbo Beoond part bad often ceased before 
thatdate to exist. The second p»i t of Notitiu.' III., X., XIII. dilYcra 
grotttly in many pi-oviiicee from that of VII., VIII., IX, and I., and on 
the whole belongs to a Inter date, prc«eitting some remarkul>lo nnAlof;ies 
lo ihoCounoiUof 859 and 809. The Hnst part of VH,. VIll.. IX., I. ia 
liker thu older Councils and evtn Hi*rocIw(. Still the diSeronoe 
botwcvu thi> two clafisee dues not eimply lie in the fuot that tho later clans 
gives the rouult of certain changes made in the older class. There are 
poculiaritiiis in the later class which diRlinctly Id-long tn an early period 
and to tlie arraogt^meuts of Juotiniun, I think that Notitiro III,, X., 
XIIL go hack to a different re^iater from VIL, VlII., IX., L Perhaps 
the former were taken from a regii*t«r kopt by the occIfiHiautioal 
autboritieji in Constantinople, and the latter from a register kept by 
tlie civil autlioritieti in the ]iula€e.t The iir»t part iu the KotttiiB, 

* Purlb^y uiid Piador, on tint ulhei liuud. mniiiliiin thnt thny linve armnged tlie 
NiOtiliai ia i-limnrFlni^iakl onier: I. tlio oldest, and XJLII. ttiu luliMt ij'raef.. p. vi). in 
I.jiiin, lit. ii£rft«i with I,, not nitli X., Xlll. 

t Ci>iu|«ri> Mpcc'ially t. luid IX. Tbo MvlcBiiHtical legitter wu the wAf oao 
acotiiaililo to the vrritor oT Xotlliu KTII. lultir Ihnti 16S1, a.u., Iiut the fiecU in that 
Kotitiu obviniwly bctong Iq lui «pncti eenlurlei ciirlivr, Kuclutiiuticiil i«giBtetii nf 
Tnrinim kinds wire kept. F.ir nninplo, nt Cone. Mopaiittt,, 4.i>. 548, we wad: 
Ui-ciU-'utur sacra diptj-'ohn, t]iiao dwlumut naactno tnonioriau cunnuiiuriiltoDi-iiii mcvt- 
dvtaui ittiiii MopBUL'alvunc cWiUiltti. UBqiiu nd liittiR nnci^t'l-olcm c|ai in pninKinti tortiit- 
deriina indi>:linii« ilcftincliis cat Et iccilatl auiit ot Uiibintiio: " I'm Tiiiuieaevitlibus 
epIanopiK, Priiloatna. Zi«iiiin. Olyrnpio, Cjrilln. Tlioroa, Bassiaiio. Joaiiiie. Atuentiit, 
ralatinrt. Jncobn. K.Mtiin>o,Thi>a(toro, Sjueitno.'' Ex ntio diptycho: "Pro reijiiieaivntibUB 
cpfkMpU " [Minft liat fallowit]. P.I «x aliia <ll[<'i;''hi»' "Pro requiwoeutibvB «pi«<viiiiit " 



A SKETCH or THE Bli>TOIUCAL OEOaRAPBY OF ASIA MntOK. 



91' 



t>eing iQore uurufully currcotvd tbnii the ecDond part, approximalee 
closely in tlio two cUsses. 

As to (laic tbe fnUowing Taote may sorve im typicftl. (I) AmutTia 
beoaoio nn uTctliiitliupnc' ' abnut a.ii. ROO. A'III., IX. give it at ft 
biflhopnc iitider Guiigru. but VIII. uIbo givoo it as an archbisboprio 
(VII. ui niuiilatutJ, but does sot give it M an arcb bishopric). It in clvnv 
therefore tlmt VIII., IX. give a etuto of tho Church later than 800, but 
are not pri>perl.Y corrected. I., wbicli in <lutoil 883, gives Amastriii an 
an arolibishopiic, uut m a biehupric. IIJ., X., XIII. ila tho tatae. 

(2) Nnkoloia b«cam« &u archbibhupiic b«twiH)it 767 and 662. Nutitiic 
VIL, VIII., IX., I. give it only us u bi«hoprio nn.lor Syimndn. Xotitia 
X. givi-s it an on Mxihhu>ho\)tk: 

(3) Klioitai became an arclibiahoprio in 85t). Notitino VTir., IX., T. 
do not mciitioD it; anil omit al>^ng witb it a group uf bisboprics lying 
clean to it. Tbia is ditc to tlid fact that tliis };ronp must have been 
attaoli«tl tu Ebonai, and tbut the lint uf Phrygian bi«hoprics had been 
ootTCvtcd, but iho new group bad not b«en enlerect in its proper plaoe> 
IILt X., XIII. give Kbooui ue an archbiohapric, but aesign to it no 
HubordiiiHle biiiiiopi-ics. 

('4^ Akniuiiiii must liavu buen at sume unknown time inutrupolit of a 
group of bibbopricH, Thie group is entirely omitted in VIII., IX.. I.; 
vrbereos III., X., Xlll. give tbeni in tbvir Ouu plaoo uuJvr Laudiuoia. 
The latter arrangement wna in forc« in 787. 

(fi) Fivu iiurtb-wUAtetii bishoprics uf Pbiygia Piicatiiiua were tcpi- 
rated from Laoiliceia at »umc date before 7S7 ; according to my cunjectnru 
this arraugciu<:iit wuh made by •jiistiniau. ili-ra 111,, X,, XI11. agr«« 
with CoDcil Nicaon. 11. in pbieing this group under Ilierapolid, while 
Tin, IX., I. aB8iga tbem to Laodioeia. 

(fi) Amorlu:! bvcautu an u re li bishopric before 787. and a motiopoHi* of 
n group of biabopi'icB at boiuo time in tbo iiintli oentnry. Nolitiso VIII., 
IX. givo it as ft biijbvpnc sttbjooi lo Poswinut, yet VIII. alit» nienliooB it 



Immf lid fiillnwp, litil cntU with " Jik'uW omittinj thl lul tlirw], (Matifci, V(jI. ix., 
p. 27^) litit Vi- l.'arn iliBt llii< litiK )iA'l hi«ii nlt«*«d, Tlioodonu, tin- hunrliml bishop 
»ko nlxng with UirHlanw of Tano* origioiitcd tlio !Jc«tnrinii bcri*}-, being igcflt'ii, rnirf 
iiaiut CjiUlua aC AloxaudrU bvioK uikincd iu lib jilnw. Tbia IimI IilIkii I'InMi lol-iw 
Ihe iDeiuiiry o( tlio olde*! penona, but iill kui.w tbe facta. Again : Tbttxionis cjiiKogMw 
luit ill nii« civiUlo [Tjjnm] lemimritiw Ort-gnrii Baiiutn« mvrncrhnf , I'nu.ili™tur eiiiia 
in HCtu diplyc-hi* ita: " I'rii ICiijwjrrliio, .\nlhi<:iniii, AHherin, Dcodatfs Cftllinpio, 
Longiiui, Tbcodoro.*" (Spoc«b of IJuphintitc* of TiTina in Council of C«ii*lftiili(iopI«, 
258, A.D. MkiuS, is.. SAS.) 

* Snioe Georgie of rapLInj^uia. ma oF TbccOoiias and M«i;<iilio o( Kroroun (quud 
]iiujjiui}i]i]m n«l Amiutridi urli). nnsn liETmit in Miiuut A^Luatiiicn. mid atU-iwarils a 
mouk Id iht^ miiunauty of Uoitywa. lit.- was rotiswnitoil ti^hop of AmHilris by tlin 
JMtriueli Tunuiiais TtH-tlOti, uij ul)l«iii«>A Uoiu tlic cmpviur (OiiiitHntiiM(?). whe 
died 790), ttiAt ArauUia *liouU bu no loascr >ubjoct (« 0«u{ni, lial iboulJ bv uuto- 
k«phiLl«« (• Act HarioL,* Fob. 21 , p. 268 S). 



A SKETCH OP THE HISTORIC 



SBOORAPHT or ASIA HISOR. 



among the nrc]i1>iii1ii>pric3. T. giveB it as motropolis of a gro^ip oF 
biahofiriM; aoiio 111.. X.. Xlfl. 

The [irinoiple that tlie formula o S,rparoyiKMs ^n»t KaXiitav, and 
maiiy similur Diit-rirs, iii'Iicntca two citicw included under cue biBlio|), in 
oft«ii (quoted in the following Jtagea, generally aa "HirecliMd'n cauon." 
HimcLrdcl -vras the first, so fftr on I know, to give laxj convincing 
example of it, but does not ky it down in ReinMal terms nor giv6 it 
BOoh wido iipplicffltiiin as I do.* I conwdor tlint wlierevtr two centrsB 
of common life, tuwns or villugoe, were included iiudor the care of one 
bishop, tliifi formula might he used : io many cases one of theao towiis 
WM a now grawtli which gntilunlly roplftccd the old ooutro (as riiracli- 
feld lias rightly remarked), but thero wort-, a« I tbiuk, also many cases 
ID which thft tiTD centres bath existed fiimultanpoimly, without tieing 
sufficiently importuiit to have two sepanite bishops. Th« Kolilia? 
tinfortiinatt-Iy very rnroiy i^ive a eecond title to a bishopric, but there 
wore ptdbtihly vdty nmny ancb. For example, n.Vo./>a «ai Ai'Si'/^ia occurs 
only at Cone, Seleuo,, 359 a.u. Such omisBioii of half the title accounts 
for tlK- disappearance of many old names in Rymntine ItKts. Tbe«e 
ItHtfi Btc roolly Gompleto Mtatemcaix of the ooclcBiiuitical organisnttuQ uf 
the whole country, and (except for unintentional faults) every village 
and town in iho whole land is inolndod andcr mme ouo of tho bishoprics 
]nentioii«<l. 

The liata of blahops present at tho difft-ront councihi aro of fho 
higboat value, and would be by tar the most important authority 
aoceiwible to iib, wtri? thoy inon? djtnploto. Unforttmately numbers of 
biBhiips were nflcn absent, and it is very rare that a metropolitan ^igns 
on bukiilf of his abncut ^ulTraguus uud uamCH thcni. Mon^ovor, wo 
often bavd only au incoiuplcte list ewa of the bishops who wore 
pro*cnt. The most ralimblo lists are thonn which give tho signatures of 
the biahops as they were added ty the recDrds, Aa a curiosity Hiunng 
ihtw I may cito from Couo. Constant^ a.d. 44& : " Eliaif, episcoptia 
37a<lrianoi»nliH Aniad lUl'iuiona snbscripsi per Bomanutu opLeoopum 
MjTonim, CO quod Tiosciam litenia " (Manei, VI., p. 1)39). 

It is aa yet imposBible to state positively the souroes and the method 
of oompoeition of Hieroclcs' Synckd<-iiio». In the first place the doubt 
may be raised wbotbor wo have moro than au index or epiti>me of tho 
euntentfl t'f Hieroelos' "TrAvcUing Companion": tho name oortatinly 
impliea naturally more than a roL-ro list of names, but on the other liand 
iome of the omiMi^ions »r& hardly po»sibl<^ if a da^ciiption of each 
pTorinoo and of its citioa had ever foiiiied part of iho work. 

* RefNberlrht, fn ' Beil. 'Monnlsbcr,' 19T1>. p. 319 : " Don crwaaacLleii Anffoliliiai 
flher Aphms B;eb«n twel ilcr Nottri'.'n, wnein CisoW Xf AiuKtlat liroi 'Aypuv geDmnixt wild : 
abo Agrao war aurh ttor a1to Nainv iliiitie* oioet itu fiutaigkoiu (^linnindfiv Orto*, dor 
aUntUMl den v«rfa.U<-DclAn Hauptt^t (ibeiilug«lt uti'I achon [m Djiluti-iiuma a. CVO aU 
ois blUUvuihi Ott crnHlint winl." 

t Aeiac IB nu tat«rpolatli>ri, tiol given In tUo Grc«k rcTBioa. 



A 9EETCB OP THE HISTOKICAI. OBOOS&PBY OP ASU UINOft. 



93 



In th« Mcoui] jjlace tliu qiioKtioo li&s boeu raised whetlier tho list is 
taken from an eccleaiatitical li^t of the bishoiirics, or a civil list of the 
administrativo distriuU. Tbo aimwor to this question has usuallj boun 
given pr^maturtjly without an attempt tu d«t«natDo the relation of tliQ 
civil to tbo oocIosiutiticAl lists. I may here state my upiujou bmfly. 

(1) There was in geQeinl a practical idi-ntity lietwten the ecclcnaa^ 
tiMl and tko oi%-il lists. Tlio iioHcy of tbo civil itdminiiitration vriM to 
kwp them the same lu (&r as posaible : but the Charoh ort«Q resiutoil, 
and rcfuiied to alter its orgnniantioa to auil political changes. In oldor 
time the Obuicb bad to submit: oven Basil waa unable to preacrve his 
aiitburity over the biwhojis of Cappadooia Seoandm, when thivt |)roTince 
vm separated from Prima, Abont 408 Pope Innocent, writing to Alor- 
ander, bi>«hnp of Autioch, laid down tho prmoiple that the Church 
should mainUiiu : "s^'iscitaris titruni diviata iuipi.<riiLU Indicia provinciis, 
ut duo metropolea hant, eic duo metropolitan] epiecopi debeant nomi- 
Qiii : tiou vor» viituDa est ad mehilitatoiu mundananim Vci oooloiiiam 
ooininutari" iMansi, Act. Codu., III., p. 1055). Kut,even in the twelfth 
oentary. the arclibishops of Ankyra and Herakleiu triifd vainly to 
preserve their authority uvor tiufiikion-Julinpoliti and Mndyloa, after 
those eitiva hud bevu made inetrepoleis (aco under BaaiLcioa Ualatioe). 

The principlu that ewry rity should he ulso a bishvprie wna ex- 
pnealy eoact^il, with two exceptions, by an iinpuriul law, probably of 
Zeoo,474-dl; "unaqnacqnccivitaaproprinin episoopnra babeto. ..... 

Euripitnr autcm TomuuMum Scylhiae civitas, ilUus cuim cpiecopua 
reli/inamm etiam civitatum curatn gorit;* turn etiam LeontopoUn 
Isauriai! eube«t opitHK)|)o iHiiuropolitiino " (Ccrf. Just., I., S, 36). Some other 
difforenoea of dotnil, bowovor, oxii>tod, owing to the fact that Bomo divl- 
6ioim were kept up by tbo Church and ignored by the state. 

(2) In tho province Hoythia Hierocles fellowa the civil list, and 
gives Tomis with the other towns. 

(3) Uu oinita Lenntopolim following the eooleaiaatioal lists, in which 
eiily laanropoUit was )i;ivoa. 

(1) Eiikhaita waa a city of Helenopuntna, and would oottainly be 
mentioned in a civil list : f but being au archbishopric it would he 
omitted in ecoleAiastical lists. Hierocles, following tho lattoi*. omita it. 

(p) Pamphylia was eccUeituttically divided into two dtetricls not 
later than the first half of tho fifth eeutury ; one district being subject 
to Side and one tu Perga. Tliia diviHioti Heenis never to have been made 
in tho civil admiuistrutiuu. llicroelwi apparently follows tho ci'X'il list, 
giving Pumphylia undivided; but examining his uames wo Gud that he 



' 8«CMn«(t M>» of iicyUiin (II. E- C, 21), tovt» ti ti ftmt svAaJii >ijr fx" "bI 'Jaoi 

t Far namjiks it u gi*ea lu llio lut of cities of Holenopentus by Jostiiiiaa, 
NoveL XXVIII. 



A SKETCB OF THE HISTORICAL OSCORAFHY OF ASIA MmOR. 

liBH rvdlly ns&i tlio ecolcaiutical lists, anil gives drsi tbe names iu 
I'ergfiDsiA, then tboae in Sidoiuui. 

(6) SotiaioQ i}C<*iipiod a peculiar position in I'htygia Salutaru, beii^ 
a great hereti<ral cetttrv. It \v»» uii ardiljjalioprio, ftml though perbupg 
niftitiouud as a bi»hopri(^ under Synnada in NotitiiD VIIJ.. IX^* thia if 
tnio mofit have been only a teiaporaiy (i&j;rudutiuD. tlicTovlLti omits 
Koti&ion, ivlieroaa if he had used a civil list, this, the largest and richest 
city oftlie province, eoiild not havo boen otiiittei). 

(7) BithynU was divided cccIeaiaMtirally, not civilly, lietween Nioiv 
medionHiiiaiid NiuiL-cusis.atidCUulcedou'waBaattrvbtiiBhopric, lliczDcIcSk 
like the civil list, gives tho whole ect of oitice without a.ny division. 

(8) There nro many other casee bosidea Leontopuli» und leniiropolis, 
in wtich two neigbboiiritig oitiun were uultcd in one bishopric. 
Hieroclcs eometimcH foUows tlio civil list In giving theao plaoe« as 
separate cities,!' and 8ometiin<-8 ho givps only oii« of thcin,J aB if ho 
followed an eccleBiastical list in which (im wbm often done^ one of tho 
naiue^ was oniiLted. 

I need not give any other examples hero ; aovGral -wilt he foimd in 
the following pages. Itut the preceding are enough 1o ««talliah the 
fuUowing e^iuclusioii tut probahle. Several of the facts are inooDsistent 
with the ii8e hy IlicrocicH of a civil list, while, of tboso wliioh suggest the 
use of a oivil Hat, uouo iiiipenitivcly dvuiaud it : c.y., oven though Toinis 
wae tho only bishopi-ic of Soythia, ooulvtdiutical liala might give tb& 
names of the citi(?s in ihe province. § All the facts that I havo 
oheerved suggest that HierocloH need an eccleaiaHtiL-ul list of the period, 
ond that ho did not simply reproiluoo it, but made use of it along with 
some other evidenoo. This other ovidence did not include a civil list 
of adminiiitmtive diviKion* or ciii^, and it in difficult to »ay whether it 
includetl tnore thim the general knowledge poasessed by an educated 
uiau. except in HelluspoiituH, with which he tthuws euch intimato 
acquaintance as to suggest that ho W4j an inhsbitaut of the proviuco. 
Rithyuia, wliieh was eo iie«r ('onsrantinople, is alao trealc-d by hiiu in a 
more independent way, though witbuut giviug luoru than the names of 
Uie bishoprics. Hut in more distant provlnocA he rotikes errom which 
aro cxplicailo only through his etavuh and uniutelligeut neo of eccteet- 
futtical lists, omitting names which bis authority omits, and misundor- 
etanding names iu tbotr ecclesiastical form.|| 



' Vtll. KojiutUii, IX. KvrifJav. Afl KniDitioii in unknovn, nc ninat {iiubiibl; DDdfT- 
ttnnc] Kdtimliiii tu nti (-rnir Tur Kotiuioii. 

t Limiifti and Uubiunl. Nikopolis and PalaiapoIlB, &o. 

] PiilaiA|holiB without Alitcno, Aiv 

§ Tlie Notltia>, tipctially kwo MSS. Ja Pari*, oltca g'nt touo ■tutiitio beyond tbe 
actual lint* of l>i*liopiic«. 

li K,S- A Ti^pjcUiM' {itiirKOirot% UijiiaSviot, and guuUlvva lite 2araA.iuy, 'Hpa<cX*(M 
'07;io(>, 'HpsKAtlar loJ^Saidrai, auil llie znuny iuitMnroR of Ii^^of. vbita ho wrongly 
leTcn from i KifBaiaii/ a Daiii« K^paci, fri>w i Btttarmt Bpltwa, Irom i [^A^rtar^r Tiiru. 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTOKICAL GEOGRAPHV OP ASIA MIKOR. 



95 



I 



It is v«rj difficult to dotoi-uiUic the origiu of tho Dumbon} given in 
tbo lieadinj; of each province in the list of Hierootes. Thej are 
probaljly not ganaine. but aio ttdded "by sumo ignorant {^kmsuu. who often 
counted u two a city with a -axmet coosiflting of two wcrds. They, 
bowe\'er, aeetu to he older tlian c(;rtiLiiL corrapliocB of th« t«sl. The 
fullowicg iiuinl>oraarc wrong. 

(1) Ana ban 42 cities. Tho uiinilwr fty h got by oouiil.iug either 
Magneeia Muiundria or Adramyttion qiias aatea Lyraetus u two 
cities. 

(2) Hi'llfapontnii has 34 cities, even taking &'« TptiSos and "aS/mok-D 
&tipai *Hpat as each n. Kiiiglo city. The namber A' is oUlur lliau the 
corruption which transferred from Lydi^c to IlelleHjKiiitaH at least thrco 
citi«a: theae arc — 

UAaCrSt^ which appearB as BAaSos 

K6\avlia „ „ „ 2«<X(n-d (■'.«. [<(]t KaXavni) 

SrfHiroi'uccua ., „ „ Sm>c Tpa&K (l.«- <i« [<r] TptiSoi'ftittai']. 

(3) Phrygia I'Hctttiaiin has 38 citiCB. Tho nnnjbcr KO is got by 
COnnting Ti;ti4»vv &vpat us two, 

{4) Lydin has 22 citien. Tho number xy m got by CDunting 
'ATuXAiufo; '\€pnv a» two : if tho view staled in (2) is oorreot, xy 
mn&t be u Ut«r alteration. 

(5} Patiiphylia Las at ronst 44 citic9, t/yttt taking Jovia M n. distinct 
city from Termesaos, Myodia from Choria Milyadica, Alaximian^polis 
from Kteniii MaximiaDOpulix, and Bumouaia fruiu Dumuu Sa,liiiiou. In 
ttolity I think only 40 cities existed in it. Tho mnnber fi^ i^ got by 
OOVntiug cui two citiOH Xvipia MtAvaSiKa, 6«ftfi«j(rus nai hvSoKUi, Jlatifiav 

({>) LjcU hajt ;J2 cities. The number AS' ia got by counting dunbl« 
Mt^a MiTTpuiraAit and Ktufii Maarutipa : tbo number la therefore oldor 
than the corrnption Kofnirr^vi. 

(7) Insiilrio Ijaa 1h citit^^t;. The origin of the numbor «' la not 
daar, for UnfM-ff tXijinf and 'Ainv-itd\aia could hardly be coo nted 
double. 

(8) Caria has 27 cities. Tho number A la got by counting double 
BpaKXtiat '(>Yfii.<'; 'HfianXtiat SaA^aKMfn ami Mip'fjun'iAti "A^/x>Si(Ti'a?, and 
18 Uivn^fure oldor than the glosn [i[o]KT7^-Aiicai',* which baa crept from 
tbo margin into tht.- litt. 

Ptolemy is a writer whose value dcpenda greatly on bis autboi-ity, 
aud who has used and combined in nuiutelligent and eelf-oootradietury 
Htyle several difforc-iit authorities. He hHH timid to a certain extent m 
authority whoa© vnhte as to the apportionment of (be cities between tho 
different Hvmuu prjviucc-a waa very high, possibly an olHoial anthotity 
of Bonio kind. But bo has tried to aubdiride the proviucoB according to 

* Lc Kr^fit *i,\utiuoy. On tliu imperial mtntc tec below, (J 11, and ABV, B f, 
where Bomo wirccUun cf mjr argnnienis U D«cili.-tL 



06 



A SKE11CH OF THF. HrSTORICAI. OIXKJRAPlir OF ASIA HIKOR. 



tlie old li Utnrinil coiintrleH, and has made variouH errors in doing so.* 
Hin pHnti^ra^hs dciscribiiif; the dintiictH and dL-mui uf E'lir/giu. Lvdia, 
and Mjata iirv borroM'«d tVoui ouo atttliority, and Lis lists of the citiM 
fiTtni at. k'nst unv ditTiTCiit find cniitradiotorj* authority. In Cfl]i]ift- 
ducta lia has usied in part an authority who duscrihi-il thu country as it 
WHS divided into clorcn Htrategiul, (he eleventh consisting cliiefly of 
I.yknouian and Cilician tcmtory. Tiiis dirisinn had long ccAsed to 
exist, and I'tftbmy comhineR it in the most blmideriug way with inoon- 
sihti'Ut authoritivM. Hunoi' li« givoti OWta. ut Ciliein Tmclieia twice,! 
bi_<tb in Cilicia Traclioia, district KotiJi, ftod in Htmtcgia Antiocliiane of 
C'Appadocta. I'ho former mtfi^^atiuu was in\« in his own tiuo ; tho 
luttor wiM trnt' in the time of king Archclaos, and partially tme under 
Aiitiochus IV., who was king of iho i^h'venth titr/itegiin in 37-^: thu 
naino Anticchianc must Iw dcrirod fiwu this brief douiinion, and aocma 
to give a date for Ptolemy'e anthority on the etrat^giai. Hence aUo we 
havo STiob absimliliM aa Lykuoiiin nndor Cupptidouin, hut Di>rhi< and 
Lsraoda under Autioohiiiiie of Cappadocia, and Imauria under Galatla. 
Almost every BtutLinuii t in Ptuk-my aau ho Iractd as true ut some 
period, yet as ct^ui biuv'd they often makij a tissue of contradictions. 

- While Ptolemy \» eo difficult to nse nnd ro liable to mislead tinleHS 
tho greatest caution is used. Straho can hardly he praised too highly. 
His authority is naturally higher, perhaps, in Asia Minor, than in any 
otUer country. Hi» brief dt;fcri]iti(in8 aru marvtllu»Bly accurate, and, lo 
tho eye-witne68, marvolluUkly hicid. I hardly orer rcnturo to attri- 
bnte even tho fault of vagueness tii hiiu. 

Tho PeutiiigL-r Tiilile is dy»i:«ad(.-d from an ori^rinal of the fourth 
century. It gives ns a lather di&turted and inaccuiato picl-ure ol' an 
original, in whioli tlio roada of Asria Minor were reproeentfl ha radiating 
Iriim C'oiistantinopic as capital. Ihil ftlihough it thus gives the roads of 
tho new, ]K)>«t-Kt>mHn, i>crit'd, jct the oiigiiuil was madu hefon; llie old 
Boiunn road syistcra had been cntiroly superseded hy Ilia Conetantino- 
politan syatem of rond«. Tho linos of road arc indicated as fairly 
straight, rikdiatiii^ from Cunxtantinoplu; but ruada crossing frum east to 
wtiit, though really great and direct routes of the Roman iwriod, are 
made up of exlraoriliiiary xij^ugti, and ur« frequently intoiruptcd. 

My obligations to modern writers are too nuiutrous to mention. 
Ki'-port's uapH, botli the pnbliNhed m&jm and others in inunuecripl of 
largo districts <jf Asiii Minor, havu hcen of courae my chief aid. His 
generous and genial letters and talk have done much to be]|i ine> 1 
should aU.1 likf* to say how mucli I havo learoed in the way of method 
from Waddingtju's occasional topographieal frngmcnij; — models of 
reuHoiiing alike in boldness and in sobriety — and from some of tfa« 

* He nrparatc* Lycla-ruiujibylia hitui to two parts, suil puis Snj^UiuHwanil Trebendni 
iu Lycin. 

t Inbolh cuH'OxSasliould tKrcad in plaoeof'OASMO. 




A SKCTCn OF THE niSTORICAL GEOORAPHT Of ASU MWOIl. 



97 



g«noml princiiileB enunciatod by G. HireobfoH. Tbo ^crm or th« fint 
dear Hlateuont of almivit every principle with rof^ard to tbe relatiun of 
oities to their natural 8Urit>uQ<)ingH unil tho prefureuco u^oonleA in 
difForeiit {periods to different site* for cities, are to he found in Ilirsch- 
teli't vyritingH ; on tlio other iiand, I am frotj'itutly oblij^cd to differ 
from his optniona aa to the placing of citiea, and Bometimea, e.g. in 
Taviiiiu and Motrojioliit, hu aiipvurs to ma to draw the wroiijj conrluHion 
from the facts Itefon: liiin. Sterrett's two i\>lumc8 »fQ a lioh minu of 
nauaed iiifiprmHliun, gatburcd with ^rcat eliill aud car«. Hih iiisorip- 
ti(»)8 givo the ettnation of Adada and Pappa (thougb ho bimself draws 
it both caii«M the oppo^tito inforoii (,■(<), nUo Flcmcleia, Anaboura and 
Sebastopolia (nlruadj kno«ii)." Tyraandoa, Lyatra. and Hadrianopolis, 
bwidv many villftges. Astra. Arlanada, Plinna, Swbageua, Sarroraaona, 
Gorgoromo, antl Sodoeos. lis bas also (l«4iiiccd from the morlom sarvival 
the ancient nainos of [jnla^isia, Lanzadoa, llinnssos and from general 
oonRidfrationti the sito^t of Dcrbo, Tuvium. Sirica, aod Timbriiis. But 
Lis remarks about the situalioii of Aaraeaos, Nor«, Nerono|x>IiB f«ic], 
Doraitinfiopolis ["Vj, Dolondis [«V], M&.r»goii ws a eiirvival of Sarro- 
ma^tia, Pappomndeifi, ami Savatra (many of which have been quotcil oa 
oonclngire and are, owing to tho gi-uat merits of bin worV. likely to 
l««oiuc accepted idcntificatioiiB). show dofeolivc acquaint^mco with tbo 
lilonitTire of the subject, and fall back from the modoni stamlanl of 
toj>i^graphipal reannniu^ to the primitive guesawork of tiiicty yearx ago.t 
The brilliant chanicLur of hie iIi»)t;overi(« makes it necesitary to juotwtt 
in Ibc iiiter&fltfl ofacionce agaiuat the eaay acceptance of bin ntiatakoH. 

At ono rime 1 hoped to awribo to its ongiiutor th« idoutiticatiou of 
each ancient site, but lime has failed. It may perhaps be poesildo to 
add in the indices a rough lint of the cities placed by a few of the moro 
imiHirtuiit of modfiTi wTiti-re. It hen h«como inevitable in a work 
which is really au iuveatigalion to refer moru to the miatakoR than to 
the meritH <if such wriu-ra as Le Qtiion : bin frwpiont errorB have paasod 
into litenitnre, and hi* lists of bishops are cjiKtted by writere on ecolesi- 
aetical LiBtory without apparently any attuinpt to verify hia etatcmoiilB. 
1 have rjuotcd a few of the tniHlaktti which I have ol-Bcrvcd as a warning 
that hf needs vorifioation. It is a matter of great regret to me to mention 
only the faults in Huch a splendid work as hia, and to find that I have no 
rarely alluded to hisnierits, which far ^urpaaB thnaeof moBt latorwritcTV, 

It liaa always been a ploasure to record thu cuecs where Letike'a 
gni.*%tg are correct. His work, bo^veTer, ia that oF a itndent in bis 

' Anuboura, Ibc diACtjTcry of which ia aKribcd to kim t>f KaiIhjI in IIumiiM, was 
|ihc«d From an Inaoriptiou bjr we \a 'MhmUche UlttbdlRngfii.* 18S3: Unmoluia hj 
Vi'ailtlint(U)ti. on gouvrul ^lotuula. anil b; Pari* aud ilnllvanx (tnax on UiscripliuD, 
8«txutO|K>lU «■• pluMd bjr Soliuoborn from ati iiiKtriplUin. 

t 1 stM da not neoe^ tia Laturu Niiva, wlibk liu bMn geni^mlly Bpp1aa>)ci], but it 
ft a D<>t unnatiuul Inrvnncu tmm hli intciipUoD ; hid Teknwrioa u a tnirn abo aectu* 
to lui- u luialiJte. 



m 



A SKLTCU or TUK lUSTORlCAl. GEOCfLtPBY OF ASIA HIKOR. 



Bludy. Hut «f an eyewitiiBMi,' ami tbougli he haii mado matij' admitiiUo 
giKnees, liis wonilorful ro))ograpbiciil cyo and inatinct liad nut a fair 
opportunity iu Lin bwk ou Aeia Minvr. A word must euffice fvr tbo 
admiraMe i-oirimiilanVB of W*«Kt'ling, fyp the acuiiraoy and care of 
IlninilUjn, and fgr ScliiHibom, to wlutm iiiHufficient e<^iupmeut dciiiwl a 
fair cbauoo of work. Biticr'n ' Klcimuiicii,' an indiaiJeusttVile wwrlr, 
fttifferd from bad arraiigemeut: pertiaj-s it wae wutit of kuowlcklgc ct 
the country tlat oflon iniflo hlin ntialilfi t> ^IJolin^iiEih between im- 
imrtaat and unjinportant fact». I Itave not been ablu to dvl^riuine 
wbothiT Ma&nert or Forbiger ie tlio worse antliority : Foriiger, aa moro 
detailed, ban uioio opiiortualtios to err, and usob tbom. 

The whole snbjeot of Atintoltan tnpography ia at preaent in auch a 
state that it cannot b« dLatitiseud witbout a uumber of combinations 
wbi^ luvo only more or Ichs probability. Tlieso oombinatione may bo 
proved or dituprovcd in two diffcront wuyis. Eitbor diroct eKtem&l 
evidence may be discovered to nbow tbe name of tlie Hito» in (iue«tion, 
or indirect eYidonco may b« fouiul agreeing or diiiagreeisg witli the 
Bchenie which is proposed for the district ue ■ whole-. My exporienc« is 
that an identification e(.-ldom otouds lb<i Uut of iievcral yoarfi' careful 
study without eomo indication turning up to conilirm or disprove it. 
For oismple, no direct evidence baa bran discovered to dUprove the 
hypothesis which I suggeattd la 1883, that Tibcriupulie wan near 
Altynta^h, but that hy^jotbi-isis i» now ho oouip)elt-ly out of court that I 
have not even referred to it as aotLqiialed in discussing tlie distriot. 
The backward Ktalo of civiliaation and eity-orgnnisation aruiiud A]tyn- 
taiib, at* diiiiOobed by the inHcriptionti, in quite incunaistetit with a city 
like Tiboriopolis, which coined money from Trajan ouwaide, and must 
have been made a oity of the Grteco-Uomnu ty]>6 nnder Tiberin^ 

It will bo convenient to put together hero a fww roforenwa which 
dhow how fnr the nutivu laugiinge!!) were retained iti Asia Minor, and 
bow badly tbo <Jreek languago was pronounwd evt-u where it was used. 
The result of this waa that local names were exiioned to great alterationa 
when native naueit were turned into Gicuk, or when Greek words were 
pronounced by natives. In the former case, the native Jiamea were 
especially liable to modi fiia lion through the etymologising tendency, 
which triod to git f^rms with a nicatiing in tiroek. In Vit, Auxoutii 
('Act. banct.,* Feb, H, p. 780). which dates perhaps about 500, we read, 
'' ille, qui uus dc hoc inHtnixit. erat qiiidem liu^iia barhanis, iit qui 
eSBCt ortua oz Alyeia.'' As to Cappaducin, Phil^tralus (Vit. Sopb., II., 

^yt^uiiu riuv arai)(tiiar, axirriWiuf Si to fitjKiro^itva not /iijKi*mr tu (ifnx\ta. 
Ab to Cilicia. Thalelaeus, an anchoret neur Oabala in Syria, 8i>okc natu- 
rally in Greek : " ille enim, Graoca lingua uaus, erat uniiu Cilix gener« '* 

' Ua iiiktiu only on o huirinl run in viiitcr iictom couiilry fiom OciiiiUiotiuopk lo 
liMrrbp, nnJ touolicd at a tev pointu on the vft*t cirfutt. 



A 3EETCB OF TB£ HISTOKICAL OSOOOAPHT OF ASU UiXOR. 



99 



f' Act. Sanct." Fob. 27. p. 680. It i« imiiliod that, if ThalelMiu had 
been ft Syriun, be would probably not have apcilten Greelc. As to 
Ij^kaoiiia. " tli« H[>euch of the L7c:u>niMi8" wfts tlie ordinary language 
in tlie iimo of Sniiil I'uul, whereas in Lydia Straho (p. 631) mentiona 
that tbu Lvdiaii Ut>gnug« hud vntiivly di&appvured in hitt lime, but was 
still sjtokcn in Kiliyrti uloiigsidu of Groek, Pisidian, and t)ie language of 
tim Solymoi. In Phiy^iL and PiBidtu I have lieveral timea tihown * from 
the oviduncc uf iiimiriptiouH, that tbu nistic populatiun knew Itltio or no 
Greek : on the borders uf Fhrygia and Lykaonia thin wat tlie ciuo aa 
late slm the fourth coutiir^'. Rut there was a gcuorul Wliuf that the 
native language wan vulgar, and tliat all persona of odueation ijught to 
nsc (iruuk : cvuu Greek iiaiucK vcre HDbatituted Tor Phiyfiiaii, uiirxpuir yap 
oyofia ■^vyianoi' yxt-aiK <x<ii' (Atachou, ap. Athou., p. o7tf). The had 
Greek of the Syriana Ih dctseribed about 450-60 A.n. in ienaa aintiUr to 
the CappadoL'iaii Greek, otra Kara tIji* t«V Si'puii' i<oA««Tw xnt Ti^i' irpoffowrav 
avTOtf SawiTTjru t'AuKfi. n-pcjt tjjc wri'fO'j SniKKii)(Oiu ^navi'jv, toutVoti row H 
«rrQix*>ov <li rov [toad r»] E fi«rai6oA,T)i', ^ rov 1} tU t^ 0, ^ r« ^i^ra^ir, 
■ij TouitTTa Tii'd ^pax*a (' Vit. Hypatii,* Al'I. 8anct., June 17, p. 308), 

In diHCBMiing the topography ef the leaat known ymrts of Asia 
Idinur, my aim is to he an brivf ua is ounaiHtuut with clearneao. Ufton I 
might spend two or three times tooro space in giving (lie reasons which 
justify the poaitien neaigndc!, by Rhowing that other poBiliona whieh 
might at a first glance seem fqtiallyHuitalile are, on a careful oxaminalion, 
found toU^'iuipuBsiblu, It hatt hap{>euc*d in the uasc of l>i-rbcunduf utbor 
places moulioued in the following pages, that a siluatioD, suggested by 
one of the ancient references taken alone, baa i^H^n prefeiTed by mo for 
yearn, until at huit I found that it led to impossible coaclusiona about 
other placen. It is, however, inconvenient to dtsoiisa every place in this 
elaborate way, aud, while I do it in one or two ca«es, in geuciBl I duply 
state the poftilivu reusuris, and must ask a eritio to examine whether any 
change of pimilion which suggests ilself to hirn as plausible wuuld not 
be inconaiHtent with the situation of aome better known town. It must, 
however, be stated plainly at the outwt that iu muuy cusut tlio ovidenoe 
is not Hufficient to give certainty. I have in these cast-n tried to state it 
without prejudice at ilj( fxir value. In thc^e ca«es. uxpvrianco of my 
own gradual progress lo the past uiakes nio recognise! the great pn>h«- 
hility thut I EiHall Lave to corniot my pruBunt avbumu in vurloiie details ; 
but 1 have coiitidL'iiee that the main oiitHnea are enrrpctly drawn in 
these pages. Tliis essay, however, ought to be supplemented by ao 
annual survey of tho progress of dtscovery, such as Piof. Hirschfeld 
makes ocoasionally in a wiLlor and briefer way lor ancient geography 
in general. Such a rniunii'. which I hope to make luinually, in, however, 
posBthle only a* supplement to a siu);lu general survey. 

* "Thu <Irici»-Iti>ii»vii Cirlliialiun in PMidio," in 'Journ. Ilelh Blvd.,' 1683: 
"Art«ini»-U'toiiiiil Api)i3f>-Ijiiilx'iins" ife, 1889: " PhT7£ian InMcrJ|iti«nt of Ibu Boman 
reiiod." la ' K«it«(^. f. veigl. Spnolir.,* 1887. 



100 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL GEOGEAPHT OF ASIA MfSOn. 



Tlic timo seems to have come tvlicn fsonie such g«nenil sarToy as I 
LeTe alteupt ought to bo m&dc. To ihoac who rogartl tho hiatorj of 
the past an a right and profitable ataily, I need cot defend tnysolf for 
trying to Uy thu fuiuidatious oa whioL nlone a titady of the history of 
Asia Minor can lie built up: every page of hiKtot^- fnminhea example 
that false typography would distort ottr viewof tho faots &ari-Bt«d. That 
the topography of Asia minor is nt preoQnt in a moct HDutufftOtory state 
can readily be proved by a few exampleB from the recent map in 
which Prof. H. Eiepert has euilMilied the rostilts of mod«ru invc«ti* 
gatioti. 'I'o praiso Eiepert is unoeocsBary : hi§ work ie acceptoil oe the 
sum of pcosoat knowledge. Yet ho placvH vfraic^ia Sarovcne quite 100 
milM away from the position which I shall try to prove itought to have: 
this, of course, vitiates all Lis idvatt uf t)i« topngntphy of Cappadocia. 
Except a few old-etatiding identifications, Ihcro in hardly a single place 
in the whole of C'-<ppadociu whiuU ho places anywhere ucar tho nitiution 
that 1 oonsidtr right. JuHtiniaao]X)lis-Muki)tuoH, one of the greatest 
Byzantine citieo, does not appear on his nmp, and iln place ix usurped 
by Acjn« Sar\'unu-, which ought io bo 20 hourtt tu tliu north-cast. 

In OvGanoe of two clear etateaients of Strabo that the river KaruialaB 
flowed tbiOMgh Cilicia, he makofl it a Inbutary of the Eiiphratd'e. It 
is instnictive, as au example of almost wilful error, to read tho remaika 
devoted to this river by modem writers. The Kariualas iiml the 
Motos (the latter a tributary of the ITnIys) aro made by Maimert 
tributaries of the Knphrates, and Strabo is ail wrong abont both of thonn. 
Ferbiger identifies the Karmalaa and the Mclaa. and sees a proof of 
StralKj'ti ignorance in hi4 remarks iibout thcui. Finally, alluding to my 
brief L'oricotion of the modern tirora (pabliahed in tho 'Itcvuo Arch^o- 
logitiue'j, I'rof. G. Uirschfuiil gently rebukes my fiinlt — "ist e-s dioecr 

Knrnmlaii von dem Itaiusay sHgt er gehe nicht in den Knphrat, oder 

liegt dn auf irgond finer Seite ein MimvontLandniss vor?" The only 
misi in ilers landing is thai: Prof, HirschfoM, liko most peoplof looks on the 
Zamaiiti Su (i-C., the tru« Karmalasj ns ft more tributary of iho Strnz 
or Seihiin (Saraa), whereas both in length of coutsc and (bo far as I have 
Been^ in ^■ol«lno of wnter the Zamanti Sii i» the obief riv>.ir, and the 
Sarutt in ita tributary. The mape misled IVof. IlirBchfeldi 1 spoke from 
jMirsoaaL knowledge. Prof. Kiepert is almost the only scholar who dues 
not cundemu an eyo-witnei«B that dilTerg from his maps. 

When two imiwrtant points on a road are identified, e.g. Ankyra and 
Arofaelais, it might BOem to be au eat^y matter to place tbi; iut<rrmodiato 
stations at auitablo ilistances on tho map between them. Prif. Kiepert's 
map in «!a«loni Asia Minor often couliues itsolf to this, taking as correct 
numerous errors of tho Itineraries.* But, even where the Itineraries are 
approximately correct, he sometimes makes roads follow u route which 

■ For exuiTipli-, Ibu toira wtudi ouglit la he culUsd (H^KuJa appnnro c,a lui map ss 
Qxftlla, fbu>Lm uiiiutximf rondaiirvgiiMiu, in wkioti wmiHiiuiM all a-ail ■'.'invtiuies w-v«rfil 
of Ike itctiouf luv fulMty iutcrled lUerv liy lF''t4i'*'"t in tbo PoutiDgat taltU. 



A SKETCH Of TUB UlSTOKICAL OBOGRAPHY OK ASIA MINOR. 



101 



it inoorroct and in dc6ance of naturnl fcaltires, ftml thiu the poaitioa 
wliioh he gives tu the iiitermediAtu |K>uitH in far from the ti-no HitaaUoD : 
t&k«, for example, lh« roa^s from AnkjTa to Archelaia, fri>iii Ankjrra to 
Cffioarein. and fioni AmaneiiL to Neocipsareia, and comparo the Bitaationii 
of tlie towns on th«m with the fuUowing claciJation. 

It) u wuid, viiher my work in » luintake, or tho map of a great part 
of Asia Minor mutt be roTolutioiiisoJ. 

Tbo Icwon w}iich ia frequently enforced to the atudetit of tupugrapliy 
ia the ne«d of caution in accepting idontificatioiiH found«>il on reiwia- 
blance between tho mnlem ami the ancient Qame. Such rceemblanoe 
ia often quite illiusory, yot identifiotttioDH founded on it poueaa tbo moet 
enduring vitality; eomo of tltein bavo beuii my oiieiuios fur yeam, and I 
have expowd them time after time, only to find thtun repc-alAd iifn-ith 
in alntcst erory new writer. tk^M^ml of tliiMo. fwrtunatoly. have been 
rejected by Vrof. Kiupert in hia new map, and th^ro ia some hope that 
they may now grudually paxe into oblivion : among them arc the ideoti- 
fimlion of Koloo vitb the modem Konia, and of Tliemisaonicin with tho 
present Tcfonni. The lattor, however, baa bui;u a Htriking example of 
the vitality of error. Started by some one who pointed out that the 
two names had aonie likonoHB,* it haH niitiutainoi! itttalf tn 8|iitu, first uf 
all, of M. Waddingtoi)*!! proof that Tlit'imaaouion could not possibly bo 
near Tefennt, and that it must be in tbo valley of Kara Kyuk, and aftcr- 
wardft of luy proof, reforrod to or i-cpcated m Fa-Dvb, Kaglixli, and 
American joiimalifi, to the aame effect in a tiKirs detailed way, showing 
that it was at Kara Eyuk Bacar, and f'rually iu apito of Prof. Kicpert'a 
new map ; and its efleclH are oeen in the lateat number of the ' Bulletin 
do Conre«poudancc Hvlltniciuo/t where MM. Couain and Diulil liiloiir 
in show, on the evidsuce of au inHcriptiua found milos away to the 
auutb, that EriKa wa« at Kara Kyuk Itazar. Prof. Kiopurt, however, 
lepeatn tho criually abmird fiuggcation that Ilouir« was at llya.<« or Eljes; 
the r^'ei;iDblum:u is iiuie a little grt-utcr, but Ityua uieaus "JCliiut," and 
baa nothing to do with Ilouza, which is frwjuoutly eullcd Eli-UKa and 
ia apparently tbo same aa Aloudda4 

Evfiii when a correct idetitiGcation has been made by a Bkilful or 
bajrpy curijectuLu, it uften fails to find accoptaooe. For ex&mplu, Lcako 
correctly identified Lystra, but noliody oooepted his opinion till ProT. 
$t«milt ditsci ivered the proof that hs was right. I^eake also eorroutly 
stated that Maiilitis marched along the take uf Guldiir, but even in his 
latest map Kiepcrt follows Hirachfeld's view that bo tnarcliod along thu 

* The tiketiMa it ni>t r«ally b<> groat even hi thivt botwMO MarininD imd Uanmoiitb ; 
tbujv ii a T IU U>tli iu E'>i;li>>l', but not i>i Ur<«k. 

t TLis jtiunial, more Taliinlik tbaii aujr O'Uicc tu Ibu ntudi/tit of Amu &[ioor, has 
during uxr.nt jr.ira ■nmcliiiitia tnsuli.'i] \ttf inaufflcleutly llic tiiimgnpliy ot ike oouiitrj. 
See Aigiii, KiikUnita. Kjcri, I.vttra. Ulni, An. 

I U nnd Z utv ot\ctt niuitmlcnt in Asia Minor muneA e.g. Naiiausat and 
Nadiktiiloa. 



102 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAI, OEOGKAPHV OF ASIA MINOR. 



Sottel Lake. Uncertainty remains bo long an no dofioite evidence ia 
giveu to support an idenfifioation. lu many cases ii<> «pigTftphic 
«vii1»ncv ivuiaitis or cun bo 1io|)c<l for ; and then all thitt can be <lon« is 
In examine the evidenci?. not for a single town, but for all the towns of 
tlio ^iKtrict, nud ttivs to form n oomiilcto eclicinc. lii many oaisca ttu 
found tliat tlL« t'Tldenco s'boiit a tows ie »o va^^ie aa to suit several 
difierent positions tqiinlly well; but a eygti-mntic iiivostigntion will 
allow that other nameH have to be giren to some of these pusitioos, and 
that only uno rcinuinci opvn to the town in question. 

The ruft-TencL-B lu the following pages ba.ve been gathered in the 
ooursc of years: mnry of tliem were oopiod out at tiie time when I finit 
found them, and in a number of cases 1 have not the upiiortunity of 
Torifyinp tlo rtifeniuoee, but must trust to ujy manuscript, noten. The 
tvfurtrtioea lo Hyzantiue hietoriaiiB are to the pages of the Bonn edition, 
except iu Thcvophaiica (do Boor), ZosimnH (AlendelBHobn), and /onaras. 
The reffti enoes to the ' Acta Couciliorum " have bwii gwtlterud at di fferent 
times from threa differpntedirions." 

Ill Ronie ca«ee it m&y perhaps appear thut tho changes which I 
amume in the Byzsutinu rendering of old names are too violent. Some 
of the«u are dna to conniption of the text, but the inajnrity are the real 
spoken uames, and thu vurlutiuns from the literary form arti of grant 
intoreat But I think that any one who gots over the BjMiitiiie dooii- 
mects will fiud many coses which are beyond doubt, and yet which are 
quite as violent oh any that I now propose. In 18RZ I nhnwed that 
Koniotipolis of IlioroclfB had no cunnoctiun wilh Konni, bntisacor- 
mptivn of Diou_iNoiipoIi8; and probably no one doubla this, 9uob 
errora as tlicsi' occiir ofU'ii, even in IIieroolf«, and hi« liirts are far more 
Oorroct tbnn tho occWBiatilical liats. I take one esample of Riibiieqiiont 
oon6rniatiun. In 18813 c 'Ik^iiuv waa luiAUndeifitotid by uie. In 1887 I 
Buw that it was an error of tho scribe for 'Iffptuv, and denoted the city 
Bria.t Looking over the 315$. in tho Rodleiiui Library in 1888, I found 
thii! coiijccturp confirmed (see Bria). 

Id the following paj^s great use has been made of the Byzanlino 
autborltica, the liota in the 'Acta Couciliorum,'} in tho 'Notifiic 
Epieoopatuum,' and in ' Hicrocloe," the local references (which are some- 
times nserul in default of other evidenoe§} larking in the 'Acta Sanoto- 

* I often tefcc to my ' Citiua un-J Binbopiiw of PLrjgia' us CB (ww ' Jeoinol of 
HqIIcqIc SlodtcR.' ISSa »ni| 16S1), to my • Aiiti»iiiitip-B of Sniitln^ii I'lirvpn antl tlio 
Bardw r.niidM' lu AKP (klii ' AmLTiciiu JuuniHl of An-'hinnlng)',' ]}t^ iiii<l l$88>. [ 
femuirly hop(-J to liioluiU- Loro nvcrylLlng ol any valiio in oil other old pai«re of mine, 
lint eociumy of ii|it>i;i> linn nimlc thi* inipiitailili). 

t Soo tbp lukloa of l'».iiti<inii, CB, porta I. anil II. 

1 I raiglit ■[Uut* IU esumiili-s uf tbe iiifoniiftlior] to Ije guioej from a wgnalure, (le 
Icli^iitifloatiou uf Pkileiiij'* Talbotiila witb Ill's bit htijirir Tjmnndoi. nnil ihv »peci8ratioii 
of th<> Fhryp'nti P(rnCn|inli>. 

i Tlie dooiaiTC InfonnutioQ, «.g., nboal Sat«]a Lydls and SosopoUs I'kidita eomes 
bum Ihia aounc. 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTOKICAL OEOGRAPHV OF ASIA iriNOB. 



103 



rum,' aikI, ftbovo all, tKo dMcription of CAiopftipit in tlio historians. Th« 
oomparinon of the acoounts given of the Bamo carapftign by different 
writers («ic«pt vrliore ouq copies tram tbc other) IVeijuently iDRkc« tbe 
Bitnxtion quite plain : eomo detail occairing in one nritor makes all tlic 
otboi-s quLto ol««r. Frequently, also, tbe study of tbe strategy ia one 
cam)>aign has given thu clue to exi>1uin anotlior cAni])iugu which took 
ptaca ceiitnrlen earlier or later. These icfetonccB have been entirely 
oollectcd from the urigiual aiitboritieti in the course of my own readiug.* 
It might have saved me much time if I had known eoonor of Miirolt's 
'Essai do ChroBOgraphio Byzantine ;* -f but I should also hava lost 
much, for if I had knovra that work I Hhuuld perhaps never have gone 
through the originals mjaelf, and ehoald have miseed a nnmlier of useful 
refarNiMS which are not given hy him, as b«i»g useless for his purposes. 
But still much ovideiicu remuius, for I nover sptjiiil a few hours over 
a Byzantine historian without diHcoveriag passages that had either 
eluded my obsorvatiou or baOQcd my undenstaadiog. 

The space devoted to tho diffurvnt cities is not proportionate to their 
historioal importance, but only to the new topographical mat4>riai that I 
have oolloctcd. In eomo i-ases 1 havo practically nothing to add to the 
iofonuation published already. It ia uuueceesary to discuss once wore 
oitieswhose situation is wuiversally accepted ; and even whero a situation, 
not univorvnlly accepted, i>t:euis to me to haw Ijeeii Batisfacttirily proved 
by any writer, I content myself with the rofor«noc 

In giving an account of the rooda, 1 have gcuorally added a ettitemcfit 
of difitances. Some of these are very tough approximations, and perhaps 
should havo boon omitted altuguther; but as in some uasee, where I 
knew tho country well, I have confidence that my estimates are near the 
truth, I have thought it mure likely to bo uauful if i gave nimilar 
os(imat«H in other cases ulsu, Tho unlive syetom of reukouiog by hoars 
is wonderfully accurato. Tou cannot be sure, if yon ask a single 
native, that his estimate is the couiinouly accepted one ; but if yon get 
several together, and they dtsouss the matter, their final opinion is 
almost invariahiy a very good estimate of the distance. I reckon three 
miles to the native hour ; but for my omi hours of actunl riding I allow 
throe and a half English mtlcs. 

For the sake of completeness, it has apjicared more useful to violate 
, principle on which I havo usually acted, and to write a sketch of 
tricts whioh I have never seen. It was otherwise impussible to give 

In a. (nyr tnec* I huvo bormitcil anil ookuoKledgtHl qnolultoni vbich I liBVS not. 
iu AbRnIi'«ii, Uio tiiuatu of yvtityiog. 

t I mel tlia book flnt in tli« Librsr; of Iho Amurioan Scliool of Athima in l^8S. It 
Lu b««i(orUii;grcat<'bt uvl' to roc, and, Id oidt^t to fu«ilJt«U' tlio work of ctiici aludDQlt, 
I Imtv iuocitcU tho datta ocoOTding to MunUt (wbiuh o^cu aru deciiledlr g-rUtRirjr), m 
llial laTeieaoe bo liim ii always eniy. But t qwo to him, a« ]r^l,onlf one iiieful rofer«n«a 
that had CSOS]nd dm— OonsL rar|tli^ de niiu. imp., c 00. The iis« wblcb I liar« mnde 
dftbii pOMSgo will diow itx extreuio imiMtlaiKw. 

VOL. IV. I 



104 A SKErCB OF T1I£ HtSTOItlCAt Gf^OGIUPIlV OF ASIA UIKOn. 

tfant ftccuunt of tbo roads whiok ia the chief ohjcot of the vhole pnper. 
Moreover, it ia now, with tbo ndilitiotial light thrown on Hien.K'loH hy 
the thoraugh examination of I'hrygi& and the horder lands, possible to 
give a sketch of other provinces, wliioh should fix their boiiuils and bo 
Tisefnl both to aoholare and to trnvclk-rH, withont aiming at that minute- 
ii«i8g which can be voutured on in th« districts whioh I have examiniMl 
pereondUy. It is poReiVile, e.g., to provo that IladHRiKtiithemi or Olba 
or AdrasoB ia to bo iiuught id u particular net^hbourhoud, and loavo to 
futui'o discoverers thu pleasure of discovering the exact eituation of 
each. 

In tixamining the Roman road-8>-Btem in detail, I have* divided it 
into diatricta. In some distriote I firet describe the main linos of road, 
and then, inonmuGh as during that deBfirijition 1 havo oftoii to assume 
Ibo exact situation of cities which oocnr on the roaclii, I add a aketch of 
the ancient topography of the difitriot. But in mogt of tho provineps it 
iit «a«icr to take the cities first, aud the roads after. The duHcription 
and the sketch d<vppnd oaoh oii the other to such an extent that either 
might, with almost ei^nal propriety, he placed first ; but, on tho wholo, 
the order ofeipoftiiioii which 1 have atlopted seemed hetter. TIio order 
of «ipo8ition is often rather awkward: this ia partly duo to a dmngn 
and enlargomont of plan after half of tho essay was in type. The index 
will, I hope, help the reader to coltoct all the referonoes to any city. 

A. — CtTIES ABD BlSIIOrniGS OF BtZAHTlSB AsiA. 

1, Asia, in the restricted Byzantinu Bonee, is too wido and too little 
known to mo, eo that I cannot venture to discuss minutely the iiitea of 
all the cilies. But it is eo^y to divide Hierocles' list Into geographical 
groups. 

Ho begins with the metropolis Ephesos, and then takes a city on the 
const to tho soath — Anea, This brings him to the lower part of the 
UtBaader valley. The Mreauder aeems to havo divided Byzantine Asia 
from Caria, and in older times Lydi^i from Caiia. 

3. Ho onumerates tJio citiee of the Ma>aBder valley from west t^ 
ooet — Piiene, Magnesia, Tralleis, Nyasa, BiiouUa, Mastaura. Mastaura 
rctaina its namo as MastaiTO, near Nazli, and Brloula as Bitlara. near 
Horaiinlu (sea ASP, c. 2) ; etriotly, Miuttatira should come Ix-forc Brioulla 
in the order, Strabo (p. 650) has it correotly, Bpioi'^a, Mairvafpa, 
A)(apaita- 

3. He croHBoa to the Kaystros valley, Auineta is unknown, hut tho 
followiag ten are for tbo luottt part certainly iu that valley. Ilypaipu 
was prolMkhly at or near Odcminh. Arlcadiopolie is appawmtly a temporary 
namo of tho nnoient Teira, niodom Thira, Dioa Hieroa wan peihapa 
even lower down tho viilley than tbeae two cities, and nL-arci* 
EphcBos, for it appears from, rhe first onwarda as ^woiplrai in the 



NoUtlaL 


NotitiM m., X., xm. 


Sphena 


1 EphcsoB 


^nea 


21 Anea 


^rifinfi 


22 rroine 


ilagnfsia Hne. 


4 Magneaia 


['raleia 


3 Tralleis 


flysa 


15 Nyssa 


iriuala 


11 ByrlouUa 


loetaura 


9 Uasteara 


Luinata 


19 Aninata 


lypepa 


2 Apatoa 


Lroadioapolis 


/S3 Arkadioapolis\ 
\36 Thyraini 


)ioa Hieron 


29 DioB Hieron 


liQgaza 


26 Angaza 


Csloe 


10 Eoloe 


'alftionpolifl 


35 Palaionp. 


Jaretta 


18 Bereta 


Kurellopolia 
^ea Aule 


14 Anrelionpolifl 


24 Nea Aule 


EoiophSufi 


28 Koloyh&D 


|[£tropolifl 


17 Metmpolii 


reda 


29 Lebedoe 


80 TooB 


Smyrnft 
llazomenai 


II. 1 Bmyma 


H. 4 Glazomenai 


Erythrai 


31 Erytbtai 


lagn&da 


11. 3 Ui^. Aneiloa 
II. 6 ArchnngeloB 


^, 


II. 7 Pfltra 


'hokia 


U. 2 Phokaia 


fTrriod 


13 Myrrhina 


'ergamos 


31 Kvme 
/37 Khiyarei 1 
120 Pergamot f 


Slaia 


5 Elea 


'ittamnS 


12 Piltamne 


i,<iy 


27 i itiv 


ihoodoeioapoliB m\ 
jperine / 


83 TheododonpoIiB ) 
or Fepetineiis / 


Ldramytioii 


6 AtmmytioQ 


LntaDdiot 


32 Attandroa 


largara 


8 Qargara 


\Moa 


7 Aasos 


if asrhft Eome 


16 Mascha Kome 


•■ 


II. 7 Soaandia 



BJl of Hagncaia and BbbU of KEagneaia 
B, both as RTchbiBhoprto and aa bbhopric. 



Tofaeefage 10*. 



A^JLSU. 



lOS 



Vat» of the DQlien Oonfedenoy, to vhioli only cities near tbe 
oout bulong. It tuny bo Ixmido Kos Diinftr, wliero mmo r«mark- 
able arohaic monumoota axiat,' Enaza seems to bo tho aamo aa 
Aup^a. in thn 'Notitia'; its iiit« ia unknown. Koloae ia oaiially 
called Eoloo or Kaloo in the 'Nolitiffi' and Councils; it is still UEtinod 
Kele«. Algiza seems to be the same [tlaco as AT^:iza ; I shall dismiHg 
it more fully bolow. KikopoUa ia oortaiDly the Kikuia of coias, ou« of 
the cJtiea of the KilhiaaoL The inhabitants of the middlo Kaystroa 
vjiUey wetL' callod Knystrianoi, and of the iippor valley Kilbinnoi. 
Palaiapolin in still called Ituliamboli, which is only the modern pia- 
nunciation of iraXmav ir6Kiv. Barettn is unkuovu. 

All thcee cities appear in tho * Xotitim EpLseopatuum ' except Nikopolis 
and Algi7.a. In addition, tho Thymioi are mentioned io Not. iii.; ibis 
appears to bo a falso entry, ha Thlra is already mentiimed under the 
iiAtne ArcadiopoIiH. Tho double entry urisce from tho carolcssnoaB ^ilh 
which the registers wero kopt. The officiiil name had disappeared from 
oommun use, and tha papular name Tbyrea or Thyraia was uddod at tlio 
end. 

4. Next, HieroGlesgivc« the citiee between the Eayatrofl and Hermos 
Talloyn. Wo have AiUion Kome. and Nca Aule. which is proTcd by tho 
inscription pabti«hed aa No. ko.' in the Smyrna MouBeioD, vol. i., p. 120,f 
to have been not very far from Phitadelpheia. probably in a glen 
of Ifoont Tmoloa. Kolophon. MetropoliB, IjcbedoB, Teos, Smyrna, 
KlaEomcoai, and Erythrai (luia-epolt Safroto), all boloag to this grotip. 

.S. The following belong to the lower Hermos valley, Magnesia, 
Jll|^ (called Apas)^, aud Temaos; the uiidille Hermos valley belongs 
ioBycantine Lydia. Ihican calls the river Hcrmon.§ 

TLv whole of groups -i and 5 appear iu tbe Nutitiflc exoopt Atgni, 
Tomnofl, and Anliou Kome, 

9. On tbti cooat bolwoen Honnos and Eaikos nro Pbokaio, Hyrina, 
and Kyme (called Myke) : strictly Kymc should come before Myrina. 

7. Tbu Eaikoa 'x-allcy erabrooee Pergamos, Elaia, I'itaua, Tianai or 
Tiarai, and probably Theodoaiopolis or Peperine. I regard Tianni as 
the conoct fnrni, not Ti&rai, and aee in il an inference of Hierooles from 
the ucclesiaotiuat form u Tiavwv (hria-KOjrrK), which is prol)abIy derivvtl 
from Attea, known to b« a town of Mj-eia, and iu this district, a TmvIui' 
in prolwhly the aame bishop who is commonly mentioned in CoQDciU 
and Notitifc as u Stuii', 11 



■ Ur«frib(>d hy U. W«1>er In Movfftlmr Itivpt., vol. It. 

t Bead Alt Kapiifatv &'a Iaai/i(tor NtavXiirijv : lli« afvDi] U 9tt PhlladoIphoISt 

1 *An{>i, n uuiliUu: in tlio AISB. (or 'A7iJn> vbicb Uiorodca gaU from flomo MOldt 
oMicd lUt. Bunilu Iu llime of |]io Uler Com. Nictieu, il. 

{[ Tbi^ronnd'AffafiM'in'Cfmdl.CtiiLlowl.'siKiDslnconncottlieoUim: 'A.7i{<wr wcnu 

to 'be for 'Aamiiirr (= 'Avmnfarf), Mid tliia foi: 'Krmiter or 'h^aiw^ from 'ATOM, Cp< 
Keria/atr, Atfvhaitiv, 'Amuhajmr, 

I 3 



30ft 



/ SliETCn OF THE HISTOBICAI, OEOaRArHY OP ASIA JllSOB. 



8. Along the north coftst aro Adrauj-ttioD, AQlandros, Gai^m] 
(oalliNl Gudara), aud AesoB. 

Tha whole of groups 6, 7, and 8, aro menlioned ia the 'Xotitia;/ 

&. The Notitife, while otnittiugyikojralia, Algiza, Aiilloii Eoni«. Aigoi, 

end T«iaB«0, add to this list M&sdia Ki>tiie and AuirliupoUfi. Nut. iii.. 

X,, xiii., also add Khiiara, vhich 18 rnentioiied by Ansa and other late 

■wriloTB as eitnati^d a littJo eaBt of Pergamos. Of these omitted cilieit, 

Argizft. AuUoa Eome, Aigai, and Temtios are montioued at Condi. 

Chalced. A.D. 451,' and were, tborofore, hiahoprica in the time of Hieroclee. 

10. Hioroclea is confirmed as to Auliou Komc hy the liete of tho 

Council of Chalc«don. In a list aiipaadt'd to Actio XV, tho name 

apiii!*™ as Thoniaa AnliocomeniiB et Valentiniapolitanug, proving that 

\ ak'Utiniana or Valentin ianopoIiB was either a titJo given to Aolioa 

Komo in the fourth and fifth centuries, or mor« probably the namo of a 

neighbouring smnl\ town united with it in ouo bishopric. Now we have 

seen that, according to tho order oF Ilieroclea, Aniioti Eome lies between 

the HemiOB and Kayelroa valloyB, and probablj-, likeNeaAule,in a glen 

of ilount Tmolci8.t In this wtuation tliere was a town ivLich atnick 

coins under HadriitD and M. AnrtdinsCicaarwIth tho legend TMOAEITfiN, 

«nd with BMcli types ae TMriAOC- It was aftorwards named Aurelio- 

polJB, bnt tiio identity of the two placea is proved by a coin shown ma 

by Mr. LawBon of Smyrna, who rightly inferred tho identity from the 

legend AYPHAIO ■ TMCl- The probability that AiiHon Kome is an error 

for Au^rojliou Kome is thus suggested. Now we have seen that Auliou 

Some, or An[re]liou Eome wne a bishopric-, and yet it is nniitled in the 

NotitiiD Bpisoopfttunm ; but the latter all give Aureliopolis, which 

Hierocles has not, oven although it waa so important as to strike coins 

already under Comnioilns. Now the principle is accepted throughont 

thia »tiidy that a city which coins money under the Soman Empiro, and 

tan be traced as a bishopric in the J^otitiie. ought to be m&ntioucd hy 

llierookfi, and where it fails, wo have tho altornativo either that it 

appears under Bume other name, or that it U omitted only through some 

error. In this case the probability is that Aureliopolis of mount Tmolos 

is the same as Au[Te]lioa Rome, abiu of mount Tmolos.} 

11. NiKOi'oi.19 ought perhaps to be considerod only as a fault of 

• Tlie relalitiu of HiiToolcB to the liita of ClialMdon is ofUn vciy elnae. The 
a^soment in lupMt of th^e four nnnies is ii'itawnrt1iy.nnil,bi'sides lliis. Kvino lii given 
M Mykc in biitli aullioriUvs, >d<1 haUi eloo agree ia 4h<> form Euaea ns dlitiDguislicil 
from Aiigaz» of tho Notitiic. 

t Tmolos vtM a remnrkBUy rtrrtne ninge, as la pfovwl by Hic followiogiinotittioiiB:— 
n<fvT<urai it KOfiu^il* (UjKK-. &imp i in AuZi^ TiiuXoi. Philoelr.. IVf. Apdi., \L 
p. 2C (tfll ; r««»ir ipri Kal wapawKrifia rf \iiSuv Tfiiix^, PJiiliWtr., Vit. A}i'JI., vi. p. 123 
(23i)). II ia rmued fui Ita vinca, OTid, Jlfrf., 6, IS Tun^ta Tinioli ; Virg. Gtor^., 2, 97. 

X Dciag on llie froDticr of Bjznntine Aeta and Lydia, it sccma to bare been inacrted 
fn llie liila of b»lh inorinoea: conipaio Undrintii. Vakiitiiiiiuiu|Kilia ia tlim it iituuii oi 
Pvrikome, Me Lyilia. H. Eftrinoa. ia Moua. Smyni. IL, glvet a tolnlly diirerenl Uieorj- 
alxiut .VuNliopolia. 



A.— A8W. 



107 



separation : tUo onivj in Hioroclos ought to be a single dty NikopoliB 
(or Nikaia) PalaiapoUs. Palaiapolia ami Roloao aro aeighbouring cities 
whicl) seem to havu xtruck uotiitt iiDdcr tbu name Kilbianoi in tW Boiuan 
period. The list of tbe OoaDcil of Cbaloodon has Algiu Pitlatapolu, 
while HierocleH has Algiza NikopoliH I'alaiapolis.* Nikaia or Nihopolia 
was OEB of the cities of tlie liilbinnoi, and, tbwrefore, maat probably 
have been, oa Hieroclea gives it, between Koloae and Palaiapolti, if it 
be not identical with the latter, Tbere is therefore only a choios of 
two alternatives ; citbor Nikopoliit Palaiapolia ia one city, or tbejf are 
two neigbbonring cities, making one Liahopric 

12. ARtii2A, or ALr.UA, ia mentioned with botb Bpellinga ab Cbaleo- 
don (knd ftltra^B nppearB among the biehoprics of Asia. Now Ai^iza has 
bc(«ii recently discovored by Dr. Fabricius in thft prorliice of Hwllespou- 
toa, and Hieroclea givoa it in that province. Algiza is also moutioLeil 
kt OviciL Nicuea. 11.. A.o. 787) and there also it alvraya appean uuung 
tho cities of Asia. Th© onlcrof ttignaturo at the latter Council in closidy 
aocoi'diog to provinces, and at Cbalcedon it approximates to that arrango- 
ment. Two pusttibililios are therefore open. Thoro may bnvo boon Iwu 
citiee, one Argiza io IIoUdepontuB, known only from an iotacriptioa and 
fiwin Hierocles; the other, AJgizti, or Argiza, in Asia, knowa only from 
HienxJes and from two Councils. The other possibility ia that, through 
some old couuection or somo unexplained reason, Argiza of Uellespoutaa 
was in Ibe earlivr ocdeoiastical syat«m subjeot to tbo nidtrupolitan of 
Asia, and Hierocles, being mucli inHnenced by tbo ecoleaiastioal lints in 
that provincf, uisertod Algizti amung the citirai of the Kayatrua valley .f 
while in IlellespoutiiB, where he ia <|nil« independent of th« cccleBiasti- 
c-al lists, ho gives it an Argijia. Tho second altornativfl seems more 
probable. 

13. The disc re pun Lies between Hieroclea and the Notitias aro now 
reduced to this, thut the latter ouiit Aigai and Tvmnufi,and give Ma&cha 
Eome, which HtorocleB has not. I sball prooeod in the next paragraphs 
to show that Aigni and Temnos were separated from EphcyMw aud placed 
under the mctropolio Hinyrua. An to Masclni Komu, I cuu only suggest 
that it was raijiud to the rank of a bishopric later than i..j>. 230. I can- 
not accept JI. Eariiios's view about it; his ideutificationjs of PalaiApoUa 
and Stratoniknia are eic«Uent (Mouh. Smyrn. II,). 

14. SurRSA was raised to the rank of a metropolis, probably later 
than nierocles, but certainly before tho date of the Kolittae. The order 
of signaturoa at the Counoils shows that it was not a itKitropolis in 
401 A.O., but it was so cortaiuly in 692, and probably even in 536. Tbo 



* loMumo hero tho clou rolotiontblp of Uwroelea* list or Ajiawtthtbat of tUaConciJ. 

t Al Clialctnlau it is put next to Palalapirlia ; Hiiiraulta neinntcti tlicm unljr 1>jr 
NikopoUa. Ia TBT, at C«na. NIc. IL, tlie nxniM ofleu go la group* cluiuly appi^xU 
BuUn$ to STou;m in Hiirodui. An AlgUa bIki occurs i& the Tekmorliui liuicili>Lio&B. 



108 A SKETCH OF* THE BISTOEICAL OEOOBAPHY OF ASIA MISOB. 



probability is that it was raised U) the rank of n metropolis by Justinian 
(a.d. 527-tt3). NotitiiD lii., x., givo a list uf the biuboprics uvUicli 
woxB placed uniler iU They are aa follows : — 



NutllU IIL 



«' d tamfu. 

•y* J KXafaiiivuv. 



NdUUi a. 



8 i Tflu 'ApxtYjfJli-oi/. 



ThesQ hix * Li&hoprica I'orm a distinct local grvmp, roadily aocemiblo 
&om their iii<^!lruj".iliK Hiiiymu. Phoknia, Elazumeaai, and MiigneSa aJ 
6il>yluni,'t are well known, and were bishoprics previotibly under 
EpbcMH. yosttiidro* -waa probably ffyinphuioo, the luodom Nymphio 
(Turkish A'l/). John Ducaa died at Nymphaion, and vtm buried iv rj} 
fuif^ Tuir S'i*cnirSpri)i/j tjv mVos iHiifiaro, III tho great church of the Virjfin of 
SoHaadra, at Mngumi, which he had built hiuittelf. Now, the biidiopric 
Bosandra or SoeauJnH ciuuiot l>u Magnveia itself, fur that ie a separate 
bishopric, but it uunt bo bocuo place convcDiontly near Maj^noeU, so tbaC 
the same Virgiu might bo wor»liip|wd at buth pliicoB. It niiiBt also bo 
naturHlly oonnactcd with Smyrna, so as to bo subjeot to that metropolis. 
Now, if Nj-iuphatou wore a biehopric at all, it must almost ricccoBArily 
io tnibjeot to Smyrna; and iU importanoo, arising I'ruiu its positiou 
na cbitif city of a foitile little valley, and »tti»t«d by the freqnont 
references in later hiatory, shows thut it mast hav« been a bi«liopric. 
It appi^rs, tberoforc, iii the ecclesiastical lists, not by its hoathcn nauiCr 
but by a Christian (itlu. } 

15. Ai!ciii.K(jcL()s. Tho bishopric of the Archangol (Miohael) alio 
bears a Chrietian title, derived from its chief ohnnih, which has roj>lao«d 
tho FagaD name. The TolIowiDg passage seems to prove that it was 
ideutical with or cloeo to Tomnos: — In A.l>. 1413, Alahomot came by 
P«rganioa and Kymc into tho plain of MencmoQ, and theuoo to X^ia- 
phaJou. Then) am only two ways to advance from Meoemen plain to 
Nyniiihaion ; one along the coa«t ami through the viiltuy of Smyrna, 
the other round tho north eidc of Sipylos. Mahomot CMuld not tako the' 
former road, for Smyrna was iu the h&nds of bia enemy Tohineit, and 

* Xiltu l>DX[ip«lrius Bar* thnt there wo» flvo LlaUopitu-B under Bmymu, liut iace not 
nnine Uieoi. Pioliahly S i* a niistnha Tnr 6 in his trxt, 

t Ob Magnwio ftnd H* wnt^t-kuppljr, wo (Ityirg. Piidiyin., ii. p. HO. 

I A oity rcooiviug rhe name of !U iiHn<.-fp<kl «iliur«K in vtxy mmainn in ItjuntlDft 
times KxDiplmioa ii inealiouMl by Qcoi^, Pnaltjrni., J. |i. 1S5, ii. p. 'i'iH: Niotpti. Oreg., 
U. pp. it and 30, aloo 137, IM; Dmsi, 8i), 101, U»' AnuaCuain., it. 3^2. 



JU— ASIA. 



109 



only after capturiog Xynipliaiou wm ho able to uiurdi againfit Smymn. 
Utf tfaoiofgro mxuti hftvo takou tho other road, pnst Temnoa aud Magnesia. 
TLo Turkisli name of the fortrcBA of Archangciloe wm Eavajik.* Tbo 
rock on wliicli Tomnog wna eituuted, high and difficult, was a very 
strong forticsB hy nature, commaiiiljiig the uarrow |>aiw betwcon the 
lower anil uiiddlo vallcya of the ITcrmoH: it is, moreover, only a small 
rook, "Kayajik," in oompariaon with tho suiTouiiding mountain*. Tbo 
only other |>Ofiiiibility is that AruLangelos-Kayajik was NeonteicboB or 
Henemen, and in cither case Ai'clia»g«lo8 would ro|j1uco tUu older 
TcuitiDH. Id uitidum tiinu Mououiva haa entirely iakou tho place of 
Temnos, wliich is ddsortod. 

16. Tho plain of Meoemen is mentioned in onothei' jtussago, when 
Utisulman maicliod from Lopadion by Fergamoe luiJ Mtiiomen to 
Smyrna uud EijhoiK>«.t Tbo biahopric of Temnoa or Arobaogc-los mujit 
haTo included the entire teiritorj' along tbo lower Hermos from ibc hca 
to thw bonltTS of tho MngncHian territory at tbo vntranco to tho Boghaz. 
There would be inolwdod in it the foUowiog old Grc«k towns;— Lftrisiw, 
MolanpogoM, Loukai, KcontoiclioB, and Hcraklcia ad Sipylum, l>i-«tdca the 
town of Menemen, which aeems to have risen to importance in later 
Byzantine iimn. I have placed tfaoBv citiiu in my 'Cuntribiitionfi to 
the History ofSonthcm AooHh,' Part II., J whore I ouiittcd U> nicntian 
that Heraklcia ad Sipylum coined money nndcr the later emperors. 
This bishoprio tbon inolnded the whole territory bounded by Smyrna, 
Maguetfia, Aigai, Eyme, Phokuia, and the Gtilf of Smyrna. 

IT. Fimu is unknown to mo, but as Aigai and Tomnos naturally go 
together, and u tho former was ooDvenioatly situated ho as to bo la 
oonneotlon with Smyrna, I conjoctnre that Potru took the place of Aigai. 

18. XotitiiB i., vii., viiL, ii. do not give any bishoprius as irabjecl 
to Smyrna. It in also clear that at Oonoil. Nicien. II., in 787, Smyrna 
bad not yet aubjected to itPhokaia, Uagneeia, Aigai, and T«mnoB. It 
is not tliurofore clear why tbeee Notitiie should omit .\igai and 
Temnos, though it is easy to see why these two cities are omitted in 
Notitiw iiL, X. 

10. X n)ay add hero a few notes on some of the cities in this list, oa 
points whioh are either disputed or uunottced. 

Ei'HEWs watt famoua for the great church of St. Jolin Theologos, Luilt 
on the hill boeido tho modem railway Btatioo, Ayasaluk. This cfaardi 
the c&stle on the hill g gradaally became tho centre of a town, while 

* cli thy TBv nturott-irov Kd)tnvr it ti inti ^poipiar Sx''f^'' ''^ ''^^ *ApX(i7Y'^i' 
XryAfityay, nl TovpKii S< KayiaTiiiK ^tturiijuaiiav. Ilim'is, Ji. 103. 

t Flam IiOJiailion tit Tltp-ya^i/ i^KiiBtv) iv tii ndnmif rov Kajva^iMtv, a«l B} toG 
ii^««u it Zinifvp, DncM, p. 85. I bare oonjcelurallf Interlod two vordjt, whiuk arc 
absoluidjt nfccaarr to tbc «uium. 

J ■ JourDu] of nollooio eiudlcf/ 1881. 

S Od the chnrrli kc Proonpitu J< Atdif.,V. ; TlxiOEiIian., p. 46d, KiiT*\Mr tli 'X^mw» 
ttt (I> t1> etoA^o)-. Xtui ruuUciau ^ouetraleil lalo the TliriiJtf«iaK Theme aa Tar as 



110 



A SKETCH OF TI 



FjilieiioB decayed and is now descrloJ. Tbiis tlie jiluin revorted. to its 
original etata; for before tlje Greek city waa built, the ranctuary of 
Artemis, which is near the hill, waa the contto to which th* vrholo 
valley looked. Tho name Ajio Theologo ban beconm Ayo-thol6go, and 
finally Ayotiolak, or AyHsaltik. Mr. ^^'ood has been uaiflled by the last 
syllable of the modem name, and nndorstands it ok "Ayuif AoVitat, and 
*T*n Trof. G. Hirschfeld has followed bim in this error.' But the 
lattor name could only beeoino Ayo-lulc or Aihik: moreover, no con- 
nection of St. Luke with Ephcsoa is Itno'wn, for the so-called "Tomb of 
St. Lnlte" i«s as M. Weber hos proved, aud aa Prot G. Htntchfuld ruoog- 
nised e\-en from Mt. Wood's deBcription, a Grefek yiclyandrion. The name 
TheoIogOB \» known to have been used both in Byzantine writers, cMm- 
formably to tho habit of naming towns uccordiug to the chief chni-ch in 
tbem, and also ia early Turkish times, for coins of an early Turkish 
chief firo known with tho Latin legend, " JITonc/a qiie fit m Theoloijo," '\ 
At or beside one of lUe theatres in Ephitsos waa a shrine of Heracles 
Apotropaio8.| The plain beside Kphcsoa was called Tlovinii/urnipiy 
(Theoph., p. 4311). The mountain cm the north side waa, as has 
heon generally recognised, Gallosion or Gaksion : there was ft monas- 
tery in the mountain.^ M. Weber has. published a usufal study of 
Ephesoa, with the only good map of the city and eurrotrndiugs. 

Tho smnller detached hill to the uoith within Ephosoe, which was 
named Pion in Bonian time, was apparentiy called by a different name 
afU>r\vnrds: the Ch.vo of the Seven Sleepers in the bill, which is still 
■honTi. and which has always been a place of annual pi]grjmagc.|| ifl 
said in ' Act. Sanot.' (July 27, p. 3Jt5), to bo in Mount Chaoe or Cfleos, 
Caeliup, Oohlon or XuXtuoi-. Pyrgion waa a village at Bome little 
diglanc-e from EphoBos, on the akirta of Monnt Tmolos. (Ducas, p. 83.) 

Tho following qnotatione refer to an «fnSo« of the goddess, who wa» 
carried through the city and back to bor temple (eucU a progrcaa of the 
goddess through her city ia well known at Eomana Ponttoa and elee- 
whera). I tbiuk that th(iy have not l«Bn used by the writers who 
have diaouHsed tho cultus of Ai temia at Epheaos ; nnp 'Ettttirion «n/n->/, 
KaTa7wyio>' int a^aw KoAov^MtTf' Kara yow raimjl' pairaXl Tf araifiovfifvot, 

St. John Thcolo^s, aod ^tublLil tlidr Uorset lu the cliuicli, Gudc«., y. 121. Ou ibe 
csstlu Ty nar* 'E^tirov ipfiovfiifi, G(^r£- rnchyiD., ii, 220. 

• NntooTi liii piiper on " The Mnrchof Manliufl" in Oratulstlonssehrirt dot KcliiigMb. 
Uolr. t. d. AruL. IuhL in Bum, 1ST9. 

t Coiuporu tliu similut coicia ofMn^esiii, "iwi-t'i ^v^ j'i 'i Hangltuia. 

t t1 P/orpof, o5 t1 thu 'A'TVTfertlou Kfurat, .... fori 6i 'HpagKrii, PbiloBtr., Vit. 
A|wll., iv. p. C8 (130-1). 

g N'iiwph. Cin-^. Iv. p. in?, oompare note in ii. p. 1173. J^wepb, head nf the 
laoniLitdr;'. id muntioned by Gcorg. Fsch., {. p. 991. On tho eit«nt of Qalleaion, ap. 
Du--«(i, 87 ftiiJ 101. 

II In Tvccnl yoAts, uiiJei Uio iufluenco iif Mr. Wnod's re^xAKbca. tbi» tiilBriinnsre uud 
fHBtival arc extended to tbc ao-callcd " Twub of Saiat Luke," but prevloue)}- Suiui Luko 
liaii no sliaro. 



A^-A3I1. 



UI 



Tw uuctuji' Tym'/iooi W/u>i-a Ti^v. Motflphr., Yit. Tiiuotb,, i. p. 759, 

Iq D«faiiiliL fcBtiritato corum qaata vocab«iit Catagogioniin, qua) ost 
Mcnndum Aeianoa qnidera me&ais quarti die tricGsirua, Kecunduin autem 
Itomanos meimis Jaiiuurii vicesima seciiiicJa die, regnante in liomanonim 
ciTitjtto pncdicto Norvn, procuntnto autom Asimu Perogriao. Vit. 
Tinioth., AA. SS., Jan. 21, p. 6C«. 

20. Mbsaulios wiia eix liouni' march from Ephonoa, on tl»a road to 
Siuyriia. There was a bridge over the KajstroH towards MuuDt GtaUftioi),* 
which was oroBsoil hotwi^ea Mesaiiliou and Kph««08. 

21. Ducos (p. 87) mentions, undor the iiaiuo u! KA<((ri»r^t a! vpo^ 
HAatavSpov, the pass leading from Kphesos to Magueaia, now in^TorHcd hy 
the railway. 

23. AkcAi or Anaia, is mentioned only in Byzantine times ; it was a 
harbour (0. Paoh., ii. p. 420). It did not win money. It was certainly 
in the mtficAia 'E^ccna (Strubo, p. 639). It was perhapB at Soalanava 
(Turkish Kiish Adaai), which has taken the ]>Iace of the haibuur uf 
EphMoa, now ailted ap. It is pfrhapa to bo identified with one or other 
of the following two harbours, which were in the same cea^t. 

23. PyaoJL, at Phygela, nn ancient city wit}) a sbriue of Artemis 
Mounychia, founded by Agamemnou, disappears almost entirely during 
the Hyzoutine period. The only late rofi-rvnce to it that I havu found 
in in Michael Attaliota (p. 224), who tells that Phoka» wuh about to »ail 
ftom Pygola to Crete, and that, when all wan ready, he enquired the 
name of the harbour. Hi-aring the name Phygela, he diHliked the omen 
(arising from the reacmblanoe to j^iiyof), and aakod what waa thu name 
of a promontory which was visible at a conHidorablo diataooc ; when he 
learned that the name was Hagia, he ordered all the force to diHcmbark, 
march by land to Ilagia, ani^ re-embark there. Hagia uppiVLrs tu be the 
promontory of Scalanova (Tarkiah Kuuh .\daai), and Pygola must lie a 
harbour at some distance. Strabo {p. &39) mentions on the coast the 
Panionion, then NeapoliB,!- then Pygela, then the harbour Panonuov, 
and finally Gpbesos. 

24. On the ooast, at the mouth of the Ua-audor, there was a place 
named ■ The Qardons ' (Ktitoi, Godrcn,, ii. 198). It is also meattonod in 
Theophan. Contin., p. 204, as in the Throkeaian Thcnio,} and, p. 2S6, as 
on the coast beside the Sfnanilur. Oenesius, p. 103-,'>, also alludes to it. 
Another Kuiruc waa in the Garian teland PsenmoH, Paton in Bull. Corr. 
Hell., 18B8, p. 2W2. 

* iirb Tqi yt^ipat rqi Xfrii TaKi/ntr tp»t K<ui/r)|t, Ducsf, p. f^, 

t Ncapolia coined nonef noder tbo liomoD inDpjR, wmniDoei with the tiUt 

AlTFqkfB. 

I It was thenfaro narth nf the StounJer. Tbo EiI)5^'hJti(^t Tli«iae bcgaa at the 

•OttilMnt )»nk «f tiio kliMiKler. 



112 



A SKETCH OF THEHiffTORlCAL OKOORAPHY OF XBlk HINOIt. 



'2o. On ttiU conflt tliera was also a pIncFt M«1»iioiiilioii, and near it a 
&i8tli! Trliii-li. acoording to Fachyoieres, was formerly callod Didjniioii ; 
but lu8 woi-dii imply perhaps that he had no cxprfts* Awthority for tho 
ideutificatiou, but iufurreil it from the uamo " Castlo uf tho Two IlillB." • 
Wo may. however, be BUro that uulcsa it had Ijeeii in this ueighKnirhood 
lowaidn Milotos, Pftchymvrm n'ould not havu mudo tho idoati fixation. 
Another M^lauoudiou in mentioned as a quarter of the city of Mityleue 
(DuvMS, p. 346). 

26. Maualos, a neaiiort iu Ciuia, la porbap* a Tariant uf Marruaru 
(Ducas, p. 82). 

27. TitALLKia Nunieroiis name« arc said to Tnava also been given to 
this city, Bomo apjiarently inEre epithets, nuch as Antheia. Erymna, &o. 
Others (lepeud ou a mere cotifutitoii, Biich an ]>arittea. tike fouudatioii for 
which lice in the title Larasloe. which ia usually given to Zona at Tralloia. 
The epithet ia HomoUmeB corrupted to LarisBaioB, and thus Buggesls the 
old uamu Lari»83i, but ia»cri]itiou« and coitis give the true form. Strabo 
derives tho oplthot. wtioh ho gives as Lariwtius, faim avilloge Larisa in 
tho mouutaitts abovo TT&lleis (p. 440, op. $4t>); the true speliiug must 
bo Laraaa. 

The name Tralleis, mentioned twice by Xeiiophou, is an interest' 
iiig procif of the oouuectiou with Eiiroi>e, due. u» I b«litj\'e, tu a set of 
warrior tnh«s who crossed tho HoUespout and settled as a ruling cast« 
among the fluhj««t population in JUysia, Lydin, PhrygiA, Caria, and Lycin. 
The name uleu occurs aa that of a city on the Lydo- Phrygian frontier. 

The name Tralleis was appliod to a body of uieroenarioo toU 
^aatXtvaiv, and IS explained as a Thracian word moauiug wajrioi-s. 
Fick conEidurs that this Ib a mistake, and that tho word rwi-lly is 
Solavonic, ou the ground that the old TLraciau language oould uot have 
survived till Byzautiue timos ; hut this objection has no force, for tho 
t«rm might havo continued in nee even after the Thraciau language was 
diiiused. Moreover, I bvliuvu that tho native languages of Auia Minor, 
and perhaps aim of Tlirace, coutiiiued iu use uiuoEi lougcr than is 
gouerolly BUppweud. All doubt, however, is removed by tho recently 
discovered inBcription.t daling under Eumenes L (2G3-41 ), which shows 
that the I'erganieiiian kinga divided their «nny into hureo, foot, and 
TpaXta. Tho latter were no duuht Thiuoian merconarios iu the 
Foi'gaiaeiuau tioivice. Tlio fiairiXw are uot, as Fiok uuderutood, Byzau- 
tine omperorx, hut rergaiueniau kiugs. 

Trallsis, from its positiuo, was the most powerful fortress in tho 

* tfoupioii vpbi rb MtAoroiJEioi' tuv tio Bovray t niiAai ot^im tiI H(\q<rlwv 

Atiifiioi- ifijiilirro, U. p. 211 : atfioi would not imply iKMitallriDi or even Eiifornneu in nii 
AUic. wtitui, but 1 Ihlnlc tt doc* La PulijmettJ. 'Ihe temple af Didymo^n Apollo iniut 
bo tlic plnw rtfcirod lo. 

t JiJirU <l(>r kgl. Ftt'uae. EuDstmrnral,, ix., 1S87| p. S2. iiiititcd hy Schitclihardt, 
AlAeii, MiUliHl.. ims, p. l«.: Fick. Ehcwal UpracfKiAeit. p. i'M; and Hcayrli. t^> 
Kits' »(kiii iitakaiirta fiiafapipoi t)p$Kti roTt fiooiXiitfiy, tl rit ^eviicit XP*^" ^f^Tpau^^**- 



3IlNUM]«r valley, and therefore wan a ntiTjngtioId, first of the Soleocul 
kiogs, ee U inforre^l frum thv namirt! tfvluavviu und AQti<3vhoia, which for 
a tiiiio Bupplautod thut ofTraUeiii, and after 190 BX'. of the Pftrgameninn 
rulv. an in siiowa by the great miinl'ieni t>f cij^tophori cciiiiwl tll«rt<. 

BcKidu th« rilh^o of Lunwa was a BBucluaiy of Meter Isodronie, 
olivtooaly a form of Ueter LoU>, who 'vraa wurslup[jed all uloug Mumit 

In the reign of AndrouiouH Palteologus, the cities of thb Miiianilor 
Tallcy hikJ viitirely oeuftod to exist, aiid thoao to tho north, nearer the 
centre of the empire, were terribly waatetl (ri Kftii Mtu'ai^pai- sal Kap^ 

Kut Avvutj^iutv rfoij KOI Tfr*A«vn;««i, to Si •fwnut' ttcu in ifoortpiu ^cii-tsf 
iirjer$ii-ti, itai ijAj'tmoiTO fiiv to kuto. Kaitrrpov mu llpiijvtp', ■ifXtiTKtivro S ^Sij 
Kill TO, KUTil MAt/tov, mrl Muyt&iif «u[ Tu TrfujtT\tupa , , • it'jtt'<iviijtrTo). 
AndroniouD rebuilt Tralloia, and inteuded that it should, under the name 
Andronioopolis or Pid«K)log;nj)olia, perpetuate his gloiy. But no pro- 
vision was made for a water mipply, und the iuhuhitauts Biiffervd luuuti 
in ooiise<)ncnoe, till aftur a year or two tbo Turka under Mentesh 
captured tlio city. — Georg. Puchyrn., i. p. 468—72. 

Akbaraka laj between Trulleiu uiid NyssL; it was the seat of a 
ningiilarly important and intoreitting cultuH of certain gotls, naiuod la 
thu helleniBing ftuihiun of tbo Homun period Plouton and Eoru. llot 
spring in tbo Ofiiglibourhood are mentioned hy Ath«u«.'Ufi (ii. p. 49&) 
is a paasago wboro th^ roading mtiet be ntnendod tvv 'A;(<i/)UK<iKu>p>}n|t> 
vara/uiv. CI. G. ^1)23 refers to Iho woraliip ai Akhoraka, and is vrrouj^ly 
referred by MM. "WaJdington (Lo Bas, J i503c) and Pcrrot (R«v. Arch., 
liJTG, p, :fS3) lo Muatauxu. I liitvo distingiiiblicd between thu iuscrip- 
tiona of Nyess and Maataura in Uullctin de Comwpondanco Uellenique, 
1883, p. 270. 

Nyasa, with its tribea SebaiitH Athuiiaia, Ootavia ApoUonij. G«rmaniB 
t>elexiiEi«, Antiochis (leeu certain), and Eaiaarioa, ia r«oordftd to have beea 
• foondation of the Solcucidw, and the nain«s point to thin poriod.t A 
prominent citiiccu of the b<.<coui1 ceutury in in iiiitcriptioDK aomelimvti 
callod Alkibiiulcs and BonieLimea Alkipalc» ; the variantB are certAin and 
strange.} 

28. limouLA ia often said to have been Bitoated at the modem Vourla ; 
but the buIb evidence is tlic re«einb1auou of uamo, nod tlie order of 
HitToeleB 18 confirmed by Slrabo. who exprt-i^ly gives it in the M»pander 
valley caet of Muetaura, and by Pliny who givv» it in tho convcniuii of 
EplicsoB {V. 111). HAIOC and MHTHP - ©EON occur on ita coins. 

VourU ia meatlonod by Daciu (p. 175), ri Bf>u<Xa§ ka^ a* '&pv6(iai 



' Sttnb., p. 440, cp. A K P, A ii. 
t Ball. CoTT. Ucl!^ 1SS3, p. 27tf. 

1 Bull CoTT. Hull., )a: O.I.E., 27i?~8i Lo Biu. Itiii t; Stcnett. E|rigrftptii&il 
doxuauf, 3. 

$ pKnoimoci] Vfy«la. 



lU 



A SKtTCH OF THE HISTORICAL GEOGRAPIiy OF ASIA MIKOR. 



XAa{e/uiui re : lu tlue furm it oertaiul)' reeeinljlea very cloavly tho 
uici«lit Etionla, and ths Utter nnmo perhaps occurred twice. Vonrla 
18 near tlio ancient Klazomenai, on the oppoahe side of the pemntiiils 
from Erylhrai. 

29. Djos HiCRON ia plaoed by Eiopert on ilie coast between \olioa 
and Lobcdoo.* This is impossible, for it violates tlie order of Hierocles, 
and, moreover, the riviir Kayetros is named ou its coidb. It is sonietimea 
called Christopolis in Ityaantine lieta ; the name waa cbangcd to avoid 
ffpL-nkiug of JupLler, 0.& Aplirodifiias was changed to StatiTOpolis. It caa 
hardly have been fartlior awjij- from the coast than Koa Bunar, and tlie 
ancivnt remnina in that neighbourhood point to some early oity.| The 
lists of tho Delian confederacy ha^o the nomo AitxrtfKnu; coins haro 
AIOSIEPEITON. 

30. The Kilbinn, Kelbian, or Kctbian plain was the upper part of 
the Kayatros valley, with the cities of Kulusts aud Ntkaia. Coins of the 
EUliiarioi are numerous ; they are of three claases, KllbJanai of Nikaia, 
Kilbionoi of Eea or Keuio, aud Upi>er EilLianoi. The third cliuta 
p«rbap9 correBpomJa to the city of Koloe.J The second is represented hy 
ono cuin only, aud is rather doubtful; the T«ai)iiig da KEAITON or 
KEAITON. 

The Kilbiun plain was in the Thrakeejan Thenie.$ A path fiom It 
nver Tniolos to SardiH is mentioned by Thuophauos (p. 41 7); X>i Boor, in 
his imlex, uud(;retaml» that this passage refers to a city Kelbianoa, 
hut the word which ia undorBtood ia TreOior. 

31. Teuia, perhaps tueaoB " the town," as in Thya-teira, the town of 
Chya, compare Thj-essos and Thyaasi>R.|| 

After the name ArcadiupoHa waa disused, it ia frequently mentionod 
in tie later writers, ae Qiipra and &vfiaw. Ducas, pp. 97, 175, 196. 
Goorgius Pachymere« mentions (ii. £88) that Soaan removed many of 
tho inhabitants of EpheBoa to Thyraia, after pillaging tho church of St. 
John, in 1308. 

The river Kayatroa ia now callod the Little MaMindcr. This name 
may perhaps be tracud in wao as c-arly as Annik Comu«iia. Tho ontira 
coast from Smyrna to Attaleia wan oxpOKud to tho ravagee of the Turks, 
Alexius sent Philokales with an amiy. Ho rebuilt Adramyttion, which 
hod been entirely dcirtroyvd. He Itmriidd on omiuiry that the Turks 

* Hb (lultiorlty U tfttpIiBnuM, ir^Aii ^crajt AtBftto ttal KaKin^^rat. Tlio otlic^r 
ei'Uienro proves tliuL llik ii bd orror. 

t Ott tbrw lemiuiit boo We twr iu Mnua. Sinvrti. IV. 

t Thff Domfi K«Ii«! lioi liitbcrln been nrs^ptcd «ci tho cvidcnco «t na itucriptioD 
(Smyni. Muaii. Na i*), Imt tlia muoti tccoiit ciijiy icadi Ka^aijrir, Mittli, ALU. IS80, 
p. 9tt: anJ tliB' form KoIosl- miut for tlio prcKut bo diacordtd. Ttie fiynuitius 
BiiUHintip^ Imne Koloo of Kaloc. 

^ Cinnftra. p. 39 ; ep. Anna Camnmn, iL SS2, 268. 

II Tliie »ui;fra>ti<^ti, wLicli haa bct-n iu my miud tvi yotini, can uow bo quokd fruui 
U. 9. ItoLttUL'h't pa[K.'r Id tlit Prtuch Institute, vklch will won bo publiBhcJ. The &nl 
itaUuueut, and titerefore tho dlaooTory, mnst be oralitcd to tiim. 



A.— ASIA, 



115 



were lu furco at Lampo, and sent a deUcbment ftgaiost tliem. ntiich 
defest«d them, and Lctavcd ■with horriblo cracky. Tho dotaduutntj 
retnrnod to PhUokalee, who Btationed hiznaelf at Phitftdelpheia. Hasean, 
governor of Cappodocio, uow came agaiost him with a largo army, 
pained beside Pliilsdelpliuta, and talcing no notice of rbilokalos, wKom 
ho ooDnderod too wenk to lie dangerous, he divided his anny into 
three part*; one waa eent into tho KUbiao plain, one to Nympbaion ftod 
Smjnia, and one to Pergnmos and Khliara. Philolcales then defeated 
the Jirst two divieioua singlv, but the third escaped him W a ha#ty 
rutroat. Anna mentions Umt the fugitiveit nf tho socood division were 
orerwhelmed in the Uicaadcr (irvTii>*is &i ovr« a-qx ^vyiar, oKoKiMnroi 
mmfMv 6TayT<M'). Tbc passage is auiiitolligilvie <*xoopt on tlie supposi- 
tion that this atittement refera to the fugitives of the firat diviaioit, and 
htt bocQ through Anna's error referred to tho second diviHlon, The 
river would in that case be the Little Ma-Ander, now tKo Cutchnk 
MeodcTex, the Caystor. I 

S3. SuVRNi,. It IB customary to identify tha fimoiis river Me1e« with 
the atreau that flows under Cararaii Bridge on tlie eaetem ekirtji of the 
modem Smyrna. A etudy of tho roforouccs shows that this is a miatakeu 
view. This stream riKOH in the plain of Kulophon, iioar Scvdi Keui, 
aud is Httlu more than a torrcrut, drj' during the greater part uf tliu 
ycAT, bnt swollen in tho rainy sbobou. It may bo granted that it was 
most probably richer in vratcr in ancient timce, owing to greater &buQ< 
dance of trees and rain ; but there can bo littW doubt that the whole a( 
its water must have been divtirtMl alwvo Smyrna to supply the city. 
On tho other hand, the Moleit is described in great detail by Aristidee, 
Fhiloetratiis, and IIJEaerius.* It flowed with au equal volume of watt'r 
)Q winter aud summer, quiet and geutW, and uvvur swollen. It has uot i 
a long course, but riseii close to where it flows iiito the Rea after a curved 
course. ]t rises in a grove of the MuEca bcsido timyma. Aristides 
bathed iu it aud found its waters worm aud pleasant in tho depth of 
winter. Such points, and many others that I might <|uotc, prove that it is 
the stream rising in the springs now called " Diana'a Bath,*' whose watora 
never vary, and have their temperature the eamu in winter as in sumiuor. 

34. JJetw&eu KlaKoineuai and Smyrna there w«ro hot springs. 
Fhilostratos calls them tho springs of Agamemnon ; they were 40 stadia 
from Smyi-na.f Aristides mentions them as one of liis resorts during 
his tUnuis. 



tuBAKt^m' SCtv 6px*^^- id. ib. trt fih *.iBp9vt fii tyt^i luSStaai, li!. ih. tI •!» at 
MoWai Bifpo ; t( Bi In) ttut inryati toU MMrm (tlicu lie vsiiliuiiB tlio natural conoce- 
tion i-t tba Miisra (ritli loniA and nilti the Hek-0> "'■ ■''- *^ '^l"" ''^' X^^m ir f i 
M^iit. l'hiln.lr., Vit Apjll.. «ii., § «. 

t StnK p. G15, cp. mrfol Btfitiai iv '\itvi^. k l«i wol toiv 'ATOfitjiMVifov* itaAouoir ol 
%li6fv»v alKOvyrtf imix""'^' '* ofp" f«r»«fiTo«^a ffTiSia t»S tttiM, nol ^> ^aTrf Korf 
adroiT aixiUXtiTa Kpirit tiieM, Philnctr-, fieroSv. li, p. 160. 



no 



A SKETCH OP THE HISTORICAL OEOQElAPHy OK ASIA MINOR. 



35. Villugeit ill tiiu valley i>f8mym«.or m tlte ii«igltbourbc>oi1, aie 
(1} Karina ; a vroni&ii ete nVo Carina in prJaon at Smyrna, v. Act* i'ionii 
in Act. Sanct,, Feb, 1, p. 44. Jt Bwms impossible to underatand liere the 
towm oil the Myeinu uuaitt, uurtli of Atttriiens, uieiitioued 1<; Herodotus, 
7, 42, and Pliny, H. K., 5, 30. 

(2) Phlobia (perlmps Flnria) may 1m> the 1>atliK of Agnrnfinnion. The 
Emperor Theodore LitSL'iiriii II. k'ft Nymphaiuu iu the spring, iiud after 
liassing BOtiie days iv toic ^lu^Unx, went to Elyzoinenfl (i.e. Klazomcimi) ; 
nt this ploco the Emperors wuro iMcustoiaod to pans a. gowl part of thd 
Rpring after learing Nyiuphaion, as the place offered a fine open grusa- 
covcreJ pkiu, watered with ii.l>iiii<Uiit bdiitcos (icumppuroe Si rvyx^vti tni 
v^amv), ond with numerous TllhigEH and citiva uIoho at haud.* 

(3) FeriklysLra in now called Bunai- Dashi ; it vras a summer real- 
denco of John VatutxcH, and Nymphaiori wae bin wintiir tvsidonce. 
Wben he was sick at KymphaioQ he went tci Smyrna to pray to the 
Clirist of Smyrna. The jirayers which lie addreaaed to the deity of 
Sniyma bionght hiiu uo relief. He stayed at r«rikly«tra in a tentt 

(4) X^lfiia and (.^>) Sykai are meotioned in an inecription published 
iu Le Bas-Wuddington, 1534. 

30. M.LCNE3JA became, in later Byzantine time, one of tho ^catost 
citioa of Wc<stoni Anatolia. In early Christian time it boasted u martyr 
ChanJampiuB, Mrbose story, laid in the time of Scveraa, is devoid of local 
colour aud hiBtorical verisimilitudo (Act. 3anct., Feb. 10). It« TorkiBli 
coins, with the legend •' moneta (jiie fit in MiitigluBia,'' are known. 

.T7. AKiAI.} The territory of Aigai muat have been very wide. It 
oxteQd<Kl from Myrina and Kyrae nn the wc«t to ApoUoni^and Magnc^aia 
oti the east ; it was bounded on the uorth by the territory of PergainoK, 
and CD the south hy that of Temnoa. In tlie ' Bulletin (Ea CorreHpnn- 
dance HclU'niquo,' 1887, MM. Lechat and lladet have been led into error 
through not distingniehing between the town and (ho territory. They 
liftve discovered a sepulchral inscription at a village Mafullar Koui, on 
tho eaatcm frontier of Aigai and Apollonia, which mantiona that copien 
are deposited in the archives of Aigai (as the ctty of which tbo deceased 
rnnked as citixens, thotigh they lived in a villas) and of Fergamos (as 
the seat of tho conventna). On thi? evidencu of this text they seek to 
move Aigai from Korarud Ealesi. and to 6s it at a. village Sari Tcham, 
fl^me distanoe to the east of Mafullar, They lay stress on the vague 
slatODientB of Strabo that Magnesia was not distant {oin dw<:i&(r) from 
TemnoH and Aigai, and of Suidas that Aigai was near Magnesia and 
Smyrua: Lut they place uo value on the more mimerouB authoritien 



• O*org. AtKpol., p, 197. 

t Acropol., p. 91, cp. I IV, (Uvi rf iKtiv* irpainTwif«p Xpiffrr and rtrai ti timr 
ohai tyyi/t »ou t^i ^if<f%t iA ri *o\\»Ti ton DBbvi ir«pi«Aif»rtai »(fT» nm Kar9m/ia- 

t Aigalal Is the motl oorroct form. 



A.~AS1\. 



117 



wbo expreatily oounect Aigai with tho AcoUc cities of the coast, and 
tb«y do not ovon (juoto tho moirt valuable testimony atoiit Aigai, viz. 
the Blatenient uf Galen * thut Ai<^ai bijrJored on Jlyrina and Pprperine 
on P«rgamcM- I lay no Htrais, after this toatiraony. oa Stcphanits (Afya! 
tv 'MvppCvTf), nor on Wi»8(ieUi]g'8 ezoelleni and oertain ememlation of 
Soidaa, vktirtw MayMjonM k«i MvpiiTfv- Tho lipht-hcArf<^ii«8S with 
which recent writcro dixciiw tho topography uf Auia Minor is rapidly 
becoming one of the great«et evils that reeewch in Asia Minor haii 
to cxinteod witb.| Every oue thinks tliat bo can tako & few re- 
ferences from bis predoccesor and contradict him, and in «o doing 
fmqnontly waatea pagea of liia ubcIosb dissprtatioii ami [rngt-s of the 
DeoeasaTy confutation. AVliilc tlin procf tliat Aigai wan nitaated at 
Nemnid Kale&i is not yet itmto complotc, thu pruuf that it is cither 
there or in that neighbourhood is complete. 

US. Puu>ERrNE is fixi>d un the coast on the borders of Perg&moa, by 
the pnaaage of Qalen quoted under Aigai, and other references. 
8chiiohhardt has spccifitvl tho cxitct itituation at Ucrgaa. It ia gene- 
rally called Thoodoeioprtlifl in the ecoIo»iastical lirts. A veiy large 
iinmberofplacGit wnronnmrd after Thcodoains dnring tho fifth oiid sixth 
ccnturicH, and many others Iwor thv naini-s of momboTB of his family. | 

39. EiiLLvBA. It« approximate aitnation is ahown by a woiiderful 
march of the Turkinh chkf Tchincit. Leaving Lopodion in tho jir«t 
watch of the night with a few fuUuwerB^ Tchineit rode uU night over 
hill and plain, till in the morning iio ri>acbed tho Lydian frontier 
about Khliora and Thyateira ((i* rtnt ftipttn T<!it irph^ ru Wupit t:ai 
eiuwtfa); at tho third hour ho crossed thn Ilcrtaos, and njtuohod 
Smyrna about nightfall. § In this hurried ride he certainly took the 
idiorteat road, and at the point where he entered Tiydin Khliara »ud 
Tiiyatoira wore thu nearest citit:e. Tho account in obviouEly exaggerated, 
for the distfinoe from Lopadion to the Hermos could not bo travereod 
between evening and next day at tho third hour. Tho distance between 
the Hormos and Smyrna is uljout ten hours of the modem reckoning, 
and to this Tchiaeit requires tho time between the third hour and 
BUDHct, about nine hours. The distanou from Lopadion to the Ilermog 
must be quite forty hours. Still the route is trustworthy, though the 
time 18 not correct, unless we suppose that a whole day is to be added, 
Wc may feel conBdoat that hia route was either hy Balikesri, Soma, 
and Kirk Agatch, or by Boghaditch and Gelembe; but in cither case 

' npl tixiiiiit, p> 8<^ cd. I^omI : T qnaU rrom WeMoliug. 

t S. Rt^innoli nnil HnliucbliuMl liava aJruiulj Mbu Ihe comet tide njiaiiut 
HU. I..aaliiit iinil Itmlct (ie<? A'ldeDdn). 

} On« of lh»M>, wliicli dnM iml weur tn «ay lUt. !« Amulinpolia at Caria : fmvw t) 
Kol Jr/poii ri\iy tw' irifiari thu vlov aSrrvv, ri irfif Biffoif.ivr Ktytfiin], CucIfCD. i. 5M. 
In IlicTOclnDarmrUavoenia tnlNicoiicmlMl iiudpreilULTMaroianopnlisor Anaalaaiopolls 
Tim Nnlitia giro H nader iCit oiigiii&l Dune. 

I Duoafl, p. 174. 



118 



± SKETCH 07 THE HISTORICAL QEOOBAFHY OF ASU MINOR. 



the Dxpreasion "Khliani and Thyatira" snggeste tluit Eirk AgaUih ia 
KblioTtt, for Ak Hisar and Kirk Agatoh form a natural pair to defino 
the frontier. 

Another passage ^les EblisTa RtiU more certainly. In a.d. 130& 
Bciger marched np tbe Kaikos valley to Qernie. and thenoo by Ehliara 
to Pliilatielphela.* There is no douht he vrent hy the direct road, as 
Philadc-lpheia wns in oitreme danger; his roud would then lead through 
Kirk Agatch and Ak Hiuar, Le. Eblinn and Thyatcini. 

The situation of Khii&ra benide Kakrasa might suggest rather that it 
belonged to Lydiu, but thvrv was much uiioertaiaty about tbedupendvncu 
of the cities in this noighhoorhood. Ducas (p. 174) mentions that it 
was on the Lydian frontier. A town stiU further east, Kalanta or 
Ealanda, is assigned to Asia in Ooucil. TrutL, a.d. CS2,t whtiv Hieroolca 
gives it to HcUeepontua as Skclenta (i.e. tk KoXavra), and the Notitioi 
include it under one bi&hop with Stmtonicea in Lydia. It ia probably 
the modem iwledik. 

id. Assoa takes its modern name Behnioi from a Byuntino officer 
Uuchrau, whose history is toll l-y George Pocbymeres, ii. p. 438. 
Duou mentiouB Ma;^pK>v sb the name of A&bob (p. 332). 

41. Garoara, a few miles east of Askos, has been discussed in an 
ndmirablu paper by Mr. J. T. Clarke (Amer. Jouni. Areb., IBSb). 

■i'i. The conventua of Epheeoa iucLudoe — 



"Metropolis. { 

Motion. 

Eolophon. 
*DioB HieroD. 
•Hypaipa. 

•Kayatriani (vrith their citios). 
*Kilbiaui (with their oiU«s). 

Teira. 



Magnesia ad Mueandnim. 
Trallcis (•CivwirieneeB). 
Nyesa. 
*MaBtaura. 

•Brioiila. 

•[ MysomacedonuB]. 

NeapoUe. 

Prieue. 



Tbe name QTyEomaccdonefi is certainly false, for no city on the north 
aide of Mount Tmoloa is included in the couTcntus of Sphceos : iho 
true reading is doubtlees some city of tlto Kaystros valley or of the 
Mteander valley, where thure was a Maoolonian colony. 

43. Smyrna was the seat of a conveutus; Pliny mentions that moot 
of the cities of Aeolia beloug<;d to it, and ulao Magnesia itud the Hyroani. 
We may attempt to complete the Ust — 

KLtSariiuvifav. Aulas, in the Oiily ritlirr ptnco initnc'd brfori- he rvachvii FLilailt'll'lieJa, 
nad )t» fxiurl diKliinci) i» nut tfivcn. Uuojg. I'uoli., li., 12ti ff. Anna, ii., pp. 25^ 265, 
'iHO. SicetiiB ChoD., p. I'M, jmU Klilinra in Asia. 

t UulvN Lv Quiuu IB ligbt iu allciiiig; KaXaiTur to Kti\i>Tii-air. 

1 Nomca tneiilioDi^il bj Pliny in liLn lint of tlio oonviiitOB u« aat«ii««d. Oa tlic 
InmprataUoD of C«$arieai(?B aa TraUeu, tee vader Lyum. 



ABASIA. 



lid 



Leuka. 

Pbokiiis. 

Kymc. 

Ijyrina S&bastopoliH (?). 

Lanssa. 

Neontcichoa. 

TcinuoB. 



Mugnetuii a Sipylo. 
MacedonoB Hyrcani. 
ElazoinoaM. 
Erythrai. 
Lcljodoe. 

TCOB. 

Nympliaiuii, 

It is jKifiiiblo thftl Eoloiilion Hhoiild he aMoA U> the list, l>ut uot Ajgai. 
Thialut abowti tbat the coiintrj- from ulxHit Mj-rlna to Tens ainJ inland 
all round tho skirls uf ESipyloe was attached to Suyruu. H^ city that 
l)elorig8 to another eonvontne cini bo |)laco(1 within theeo limit«i Ueuoe, 
for exam pie, M. Foatrier and M. Foucart* vrt in renioring an inscription 
with tho uHine of tho Mostenoi and placing that pcoplo on tho aouth 
Hide of tho Hcrmos about U&djilar. 

44. TIio convontus of Pei^amoa inolmtoa (uamos mcntionod by Pliny 
are afitvri»cd) ; 

Elaia. "Perporoni. 

Aigai. Tiareni. 

'Mootcni (MousjTji in Iliny). "HioroIophiunBoa [llienjcffiB&rteDees?]. 

"Mygdonea. " Hermokapelia. 

'Bregmcni. 'Attaloia. 

•nierooomelfB. *AteenaL>* (?ateeQsi>s, FautE!«nsoB). 
•Apolltinis. Pitana. 

'Thyatira. Nakroea. 

Akriwos. Stnttonikaia-lIndmnojiolLf. 

Tiareni, Sfygdones, and Bregrneu! are fulso uaiuee. AteenAos ars 
the people of Ataia, vhich should bo placed ivliero Kiopeit erroaeouBly 
hAS Attalcia-t Hicrokomotai arc ttie inhabitants of some village boetdo 
an important templo ealk-d lliora Kuiuo, a common titla 

40. The conveniTis of Adraniytiion includes : 



•Apollonia ad Rhyndflcwm. 

•ErcKii (read Argizii). 

•MilBtopolia. 

*Poemaneni. 

'Cilices Muidacadeni. 

*Abr6tt«nL 



'UncedODM Asculacio. 
•PolichnffiL 
"Pioiatw. 
"Elcllcepontii. 
Cyzicos. 



Cyzioos was according tu MuniuanU u convoutTui for thu district 
along tho UoUenpout and tho Troad; it i« sii important a city that we 
i>an hardly HUppose it vw dojtendent on the unimportant AdramyttioD. 
Rut Pliny takes no notice of it, and gives the Hbllc^p^ntii under 
Adramjttion. MilctopoUs and Poimanenon would naturally bo expected 

• BnTI. Corr. Hell., 1887, p. M ff. 

i 1 think thu ia bett«r Ihnii to ttho tlM t-ariant I^lMniict an'l eorpeet It to 
Pitanciuoa. 

VOL. rv. K 



120 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTOBICAL GEOGRAPHY OF AStA. HIKOR 



to bo under the conTentiia of Cyzicofl if there was mic ; but Pliny pluces 
llieni under Adramyttion. Marquartit's quotatiou from AristiJes mny 
prove either tli«t the ccmventnB of Ailramyttinn ivaB BiiUlividuil after 
Pliny's time, or th»t tli« iiioetingn of this oonventus were Bometiraes 
held nt Cy^icos. Similarly, KibjTa, wLicli was origiualty far more 
imporiatit ttiau Lrt(>dicei», was in tbc same conventiis with it, A&d the 
courts were usually lipid at Liuidiec»in. 

40. Tbo coDvciitiut of Sardis tncUides the follott^iog (names mentioaed 
by Pliny being astoriaud) : 



•I'hiladelpheia. 
•Tripolis-Antoniopolia. 
*ApoUotioB HioroD. 
*Bfuotimolo3. 

Tuioloitai. 

Blanndoa. 

tinJik. 

Tralla. 

Temenotbyrai-FlaviopollB. 

rinionotliy ra i -T ni jail opoliB. 

Ankyra. 



'Maionift. 

Satola. 

Saittai. 

Sikndos. 

Bngin. 

Tabola. 

Daldis(?). 
•Kftdooni MaodonM. 

Loreni (Gordeni?). 

Hj-naoe. 



B. CiTiics AKD Bishoprics of Ijtdu, 

I. Tbe lists of the province Lydia nre a pnzzio as yet uniMjlvcd, The 
lemarkablo iliscovoric-s of M. Fuiitrier, of Hmyinn, supplemented by MM. 
Rtu1{>t and Leohat,* have only rendered tbo character mid order of the 
lista nioro puzzling ih«ii before. 

Tho order of the firat five bisboprics snggL'sle a connection between 
Hiuroulen and tbu ceeleaiavtical lists, but the former ouiita Sala, Hyrcauis, 
Blaundos, Daldie, and Stratonikaia, which tho latter give; nnd Jnlian- 
opolifi ia Kieroctes perhaps is the niinie of Silandos af the Notiliro. The 
connection between Uierocles and the eeclesiaslical lista, then, ia not 
uearly t*o close, if it doe» exlM, as in Abia. On the other hand, tho 
nnntorons emissions in Eieror les cannot be explained hy hie having used 
a list of the cities of Lydia compiled for purpose!* of governniCDt. I 
long entcrtftiiied the view, saggeitted I think somewhere by M. Wad- 
diogton, that Ilierocloa used aa his autborlty (he }^ivi?rimicnt linta of 
cities in each province, btit I have found mysi>lf ohli|;:;td to rcQoimce this 
view. It 18 iini>u)«Hib]o to suppose that any government MbI would omit 
five cities, all stiikiiig coins under the empire, and all bishoprics both 
in the fifth oenttir>' and in later times. I bad also entortitijiod the Idea 
that .Sala Daldtij and Blatiodos,! being on the eostfim frontior, might 

" M. Fnntrii'r'fi work, jiiiMintiixl flrat in Hie Sniyran Vlavfuw, U tncro genomlly 
ueeuiblc in M. Foucnrt'* MconnI, puLluihcd in 'BnlU-lin do Corroajjciidknge UetW- 
nliiae,' 1667. 

Daldii being Tliccxloun aud BtfuimloB rulrh(>rianci|vi1ia. 



I 



NolltUa X, im. 


Condi. MkMn. n., Tsl. 


1 


3afUmir 


delptieia 


tAaStX^faa 


lia 


TpnrdXtai 


tiia 


SuoTfffMgf 


li and Msgidia 


2rrfir 


Ibpolia and Perikoma 


Ai^\icvw6\»mt, It*ptitiniurro$ 


31 


ripSou 


a 


TpiXur, SriiAAill 




IdXiw 


idoB 


IiActrSou 


>nia and Opeikion 


Maiocfat 


I0DO8 Uieion and 
stoe 


... 


rani and Hymn 


TpKwlIof 


»ne and Hyrtakoine 


•* 


uos and Lipaia 




Uonis 


.■ 


Ml 


'Ai-roArlai 


b 




dia and Trakonla 


TfMuto^Aao' 


indoa 


• ■ 


ot;molo8 


■- 


tooaesarela 


'UpoKuaapilaj 


dis and Hyaleis 


AdXSqf 


ktonicca and Kalandos 
•Kol&moa 


iTpaTOfiKtita (RaXdrrwi' 
'Airias, 692) 


BBeU 


KcpocrW 


lb 


.. 


•la 


TajatUwf 


xookapclia 


'£/ifi0Jcavii\af 


. haTfl Older Apollonii, I 

(mr. 


>aldiB, Attalia. 




To/ow 



a— Lvou. 



121 



"iiave T)6en mcludod by tto civil lista in Phrygia Facatiana, and tlioro- 
fore bocn OTiiittrxl by Ilicroclea frum Lydia, ami that Stratonikaia, wbioh 
is near tlie nortlioru frontior, actaaUy was meutiouecl \>y niorooles 
(fol]o%v]ng the goTernmont diatributian), in nelleflpnntiia, under tho 
conraptioQ Huif TpaSot. But won BotUng osido tlio unDorUinty «f tlu» 
idontifi(M\tion, I have fonnd myself forced, hy cIoHer Btudy of tho frontier 
lin«. to tho view that kU these cities were included in ilie province 
Ljdla.' The only posnible view simmds io ho fiat the liat of HiorouW 
baa boDD mutiUtt-d and ditilooated, so that it has r«aohcd us both im- 
perfect and out of ordtT. Wo »hoiil^ thon bo able to iindorstiiDil why it 
violates tbe geographical order so much, while in general his lists follow 
it HO closely. 

2. Saedis is an old Lydian word moAaing year, as Joannes Lydns 
says (p. 30). Its coins raentiou Zeiis Lydiua, and Men Asltenoa, who is 
obvionsly the same as the commori Phrygian AsVauuos. 

f!. PHinnELPiiiiiA was certainly fonndcd by Attains rbiladelplius. 
Joannes Lydus (p. 4^) eays it was founded by E^yptianH, but thin 
stateinoiit is proltably dao to an erroneous aonnection mth Ptoletny 
rhiladclphus. It wan oallml a "Little Athens" on aocount of ita 
festivals and temples. Ita hot springe are mentioned,! and arc still 
mnch iisod. ^ It WII8 a great and u'arliho city in the later Byzantine 
time, when it was a frontier fortress against the Tarks4 

It* coina soniotituea read d'AAHI »I»IAAiEjV*EnN, showing that for 
Home time it bore the vpitLvl I'luvia ur Flavivpolis in honour of th« 
Flavian emperors. The coina also mention an alUonco with the unknown 
people 'Opttrrtifoi, 

4. Tritolis also bora the name Antoniopolis, as Pliny mentions. It 
mcntioue on its voins tho goddess Leto, the games Letoia I'ylhta, and 
the river Mieandor. 

5. TnTATEiiu was originally called Pelopeia and Semirnmis. It was 
peopled with a Miki^fdoniuLi military cwlony by tho Soloucid Vman in 
tho third cc-ntury, Ita coins and inscriptions mention Artemis 
Boreit«no and Apollo Tyriinnaion. 

ThcKo first fonr citios lioon tho important road described under Asiar 
and it might be a mere cuiiioidonco tJiat both Uioroclus and tho Notitiat 
pluoo them first ; but those lisls also agree in putting >Saittai fifth, which 
must be due to imitation. 

Tr, S\iTTAi retains ita name as Sidas (i. e. Saittaa) Kalo. It names 

* Cvea otanmiiig tint thia view i» eerivel, v« »kould atill liKve to GXj'laio wliy 
&iln,&c., ara oiulltcd fruDi Ibo I'hijKinn lilt. Tlio odIj- exjilanntlon woold Iw that 
llii'tiinli-ji wnx there iiriilt-r tlio Iii(lu<:na<; nf the crulcalaBtitnl lUls, and hcncd Dmittcd 
Sala, Ac, In botli e«»M. See below, j 41. 

t Jonn. I.j'il., pp. 711, U9, whcT* ho ftlso sfoaks nf tli« liot tptingt at Lnodieda onJ 
USerftpolia. 

3(Bvkii(i/riiii a[><^opii tgomra nl iid\urra rtf{tf«t iitmuw^at, timrg- AcrnpnL. ]>, III. 

K 2 



122 



A S&UCV. OF THE HISTOIIICAL GEOORAPHY OF ASIA illNOB. 



the rivcTB Hyllofl and Hermos on it« cuioe. Neir it waa a Tortrow 
Hh^dion, whidi became imiinrtaut iu tho Inter nyzAiitiiio timu, and 
should Im) readily foand (r. Georg. Aciupoi., p. 30), It mcutionH (Ueu) 
Aziottcnos ou ita c<.>tiie. 

7. AtritEUoroLtB and Pesisomb * bftve b«on pUcod in Mount Tmolofl 
(seo Ama). 

& Jdua Gobdus IB still called Goi-dtE. It has allinucc coina with 
£«doi. 

9. Tbaileib and Sala I conjeotiire to be a pair of citic* on the 
BOUthem frontier of I^ydia, adjoining Phij'gia. The ooiiia of Sala mark 
it 88 under tba inflneuce of tlio Laulicvan cuiuago, and moreover 
Ptolemy placea it in Phrygia, near Tripolis and T-aodiwia, which he 
oesigus to Lydia. I therefore yilkoe Sala at AlamHalaia, lO or 13 milcB 
K.W. from Bulladan, and Tralluin (ur aa soino lists give it, Tralla) at 
the «it« discovered by Hamilton eoat of Giinf. On tLo nameTrallds, 
see Abia. 

10. Sala. The omiseiou of Sala by IlierocloB is difficult to aocoimt 
for: perhaps it. is a mere orror of Iho ecri'bG, duo to tho uuuibor of 
simihir iiauiee in llio list, Tralla, Attalia, Satala. We cannot look 
for it under tho t4.-mporary title Jiiliano|iulie, fur that namo dcnotex 
Bilandofl. On coins it boars th^ epith«t Domitianopolia, and it mentions 
thoHPClS ANTINOOS. 

Sala is omitted by Le Qnien, but the follnwing bishops of Siiln are 
recorded (1) Noiimenins Hvlenopolia Lydiac. Cone. ilphLH., 431 A.n. 
La Quien invtuta a. bishoptio Ilelenopolis of Lydia ; but UotenopoliB is 
only a bad rendering of t^c inXtfvCA' iriiAtwf. (2) Anntolinit Sotlononim, 
A.D. 458, is attributed by Lo Quien to Silandos; bnt Sil&ndi or Silanden- 
btnm ifl a violent alteration : reail Salt-nonim. (3) Itliclinel Saloniin is 
attributed by Le Quien to Satala. 

It IB not improbablo that Saia and Tralleia were included in fnio 
biahopric : none of lb« aignatiii«s are inoonsisteiit with this bypothpsiK. 

11. SiLANOOfl is understood to havo rotainfid its name as Setendi. 
Tbo idontiUcaliou oitnnot bo oalled certain, for the name Seleiidi ocount 
elsewhere, as o.g. in tbo Hurmue valloy at Hicroctipsarciia, and in tho 
Kaihofi valley, cast of Kirk Agatch. I^loreover, SiUndos iiauies tL» 
Hermos ou iti^ coiua, while Soleudt is on a ditVuront stroain, a tributary 
of tbo Hermoa, at a point far from (hft main river.| It is apjiHrently 
disguised in Iliciocles as J uliauupolis. Still the territory of Sulendi 
must have oileuded to tho Phrygian frontier on the eaat and 

' On*u wf iltoD Pcj-itnpe : Pcrikomtoa, (ta tli« liHa of Cone. Kia If. giro it, ia 
|)t'rliapi the correct fonn. 

t t^illitt, all Ihu Hjrl!<is, ualii<« Imlll llylliis mitl Hi-nnriB nn tU coio«: but it \a a 
little Dtarcr the HcrninB thnn Sc'leniii U, nml its trrr^Uiy miiiit havo t^xUnded to lltn 
JIoriiinN on tin' «)»ilti, whilii Tabilft perliEips •l^pIltotefl Sulc'ndi from (Im lIoruioH. Yvt 
BvlcDili-SilauduB miut bi; {itoDoaawd a vnty ti-n>|>titig iduntiticativii, like Scltnlik- 
Kulnoda In Itic KatkoH valley. 



I2S 



north-east tovards Eadoi, and, tlierefore, would touch the nppet 
Uermos. 

This Beoond group, 6 to 11, is ^ven l>y Hteroclee almost in the 
n>Torso order of thfl Is'otitite, oxwipt tli»t Gordos in omitted and added 
ut the end of the list as an afterthought. In the lest of the list no 
resemhlance whatever can bo detected. 

12. Maionia. rctaina ita namo as I^ronyo, as TTamilton obaorvod. 
Opiukion is the modern Eoulu : tho Utter Ih quutod as the Turkish nnuio 
by GeorgiuB Pachymoren (ii, 435), and the former ia mentioned l>y 
Georgius Acropolita (p. 30). Zens Olympics is mentioned on coins of 
Haionio. 

13. It will lie convenient to add a word bore about tbo modum 
Eonla. There is now nt Koula ao Inecription oroctcd by KoXcn^i^v ij 
KOTOuaa. The reBemblance of thm name Koloe to the modem Koiiln led 
Wageiier, who first saw and piiblishiid thu iniicription, to say that Koala 
is tho modem form of Koloe. TaakyrogloE, iu publishing the iuflcriptioa 
independently, drew the same iufereiiico : hn wan nwaro * that tho 
owners uf tho stone siy they brought it from a place fur away to 
the north, but the coincidenoe of iiam&H seemed too i-cmarkahlv, and 
lie disbelieved their evidence. Tho coinctdenoo of namcc, however, 
is [jnito ncoidoQtal ; the name Koula ifi a g'ood Tnrlcish namo, which was 
used even by the Bjzautine wiiter Paohymeres. It is the name, 
meaning *" fortrosa," which thoy applied to the strong fortreM called by 
earlier Byzantine writers Op^OB. There is, thcrefttro, no rcoaon to 
doubt tho evidence of tho owners of the stone, whom I have qaeatioued 
on the subject. It waa found in tho district of Kura Tosh, on the 
southern side of tho mountains (probably part of tho auoieiit Tcranos) 
which separate Synaoe (Simav) frum the Kutohckaumenu, night hour« 
north of Konla. Kara Tauh ]>rDduccs madder root in great abundance, 
and Koulft, which is one of the chief centres of the carjmt manufacture, 
formerly carriwl on a grent trade with the district where tho root was 
found. In recent time bad but cheap £un>peaa dyos are uncd in plooo 
of the fine but troublesome tiativo colours, and the people of Kaula have 
little or no Intercourse with Kmra. Tash, while the district of Kara Tush 
is ruined.f In the time when the trade in nisdder-root was brink, one 
of the Koula Qr&eks brought hack this etoue with liim. Tho name 
Koloe, therefore, belongs not to Konia but to some villago in tho Kara 
Tstdi district. Such is the evidenoe, and wo must follow it, iuetuad of 
turning aside into tho fanoiful path of etymological similarity. 

14. AroLLOMOB UmaoM struck imperial coins with tho legend 
Ano.WnNlEPErraN. The only oluo to its situation, besides the fact 
that it was in tho convontus of Sui-dis, lies in its being in later 

* I eonvoned with hiin on my finit viiit to Ktnila. 

t Tbo pwplo of Kiira Tsah, in one ot wboso villojies I slA:r«d a nlicht Id 1^4, 
caq^ulrud uf Dio ntiat tlio rcuM'a vaa nh^ lluli niaililut »iu> nv hngri «nnUJ. 



124 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL QEOaEAPHT Or ASIA MINOR. 



B^rzjuitme liBta molniled in Uie Bam« blBlioprlo vrith Actoo, ivltich, tlicr«- 
TiiK, vany bo andwetood to bo ft fortress that roso^to itnportanco in the 
TiirkUK waiB. Now Aetos ih mentioned on tho luarcli uf the Gcrmntie 
ntider Fre<lcrick, in a.d. 1190, from PliilaJt-lpliui,! to Laodiccia.' It w, 
tlionifore, very probable that Apollonoa Hiei-oii is at tlio upper cud of 
the plain of I'bilnd^lpheia, and Aotoe ft fort c<^mmai:iding tho pass across 
the ruouDtaina to thu Lj'kcia vnUey. 

lb. The HrRCAM and Mosteni were two noigliboui-iiig poojileti in tho 
middle Hormoti valley. Tho general indications a.ro qiiito HufHcient to 
place them bctwcsn Mngi^oBia, Sitrdis, and Thyntoira ; but tho i^isooTorioft 
of M, Fcnlrior ufSmyrua have giveu additional L-pigrupLic eviden>ce to 
localiiio them along the IloniU'S on tliP east Hide of tliti Magnogian terri- 
tory. Thoy were neighbouring peoples, if any Btreaa can bo laid on tlie 
phraae of Tacitue, Am., 2. -17. This part of thv Hermoa -caUcy was 
calloil tlio Hyi'ciitiian plain, from Uio coloulittu HOttled ther« by the 
Forsian kings. Onooflhe llyrcaniaQrill&geswai) called An^cinvKuipi;,^ and 
tho plain wtutt cnlk-d suiuebimus tho Hyrcuniun plain, somotimca Kt^uo 
lUSCm (Strab., pp. 027, G'Jl>), This cxpIanatioQ assumes that Cyru&'s 
colonists were aiidtftata*, accoi'ijing to n fro(]iicnt cuetoni of the oriental 
^oTureigns. 

IG. Tho Moateni wera in the oouventus of PtjrgamoB, and are there- 
fore to bo nought on the north side of the Hytcani, who wore in tho 
oonvontiiH of Smyrna. Thei-e is little room for doubt about them i tho 
reference of Tacitus shows that they were neighboura of the llyrcani, 
aad they must therefore be placed lietwceu tlieui and AjKdlonis, iwrhapa 
ftt Sari Tchiuu. Thoy BometimeB bear on coins tho title KAICAPKIIN 
and AYAON. The epithet CiEsareia, which is thna proved to havo 
belonged to tIiL« city, might perhaps suggest that tho Crasarvla whioh 
Pliny gives in the convcntus of Ephesois might be the city of the 
Moittvui. This, ll0^vcvor, eeeius to W inipoEeibltf, for Pliny's Civsnreia is 
more proliably Trallois, and it c^an hardly be allowed that any part of 
the Ilerinos vallay belongeul to tho conveiitus of Epheaos; moreover 
FUny distinctly inclnileH tho Mossyni in the convcntas of Pergamoa, 
aad this uuue, Mosttyni, when ooiiipiircd with that of Home coins, 
MOSSINUN, uoems to dunote eertiiiiily tho Moateni. This evidence 
B«ejns stronger than the restoration M[osieni] given by M. Fontrier in 
an insuription of Tchobati Isit^ '""^ followed by U. Foucart and Dr, 
Scbucfahardt. Moreover, even admitting the reat^^ratiuu, It cannot bo 
reckoned a certain proof that the Mostoni vero smith of the Honaos> 

Schuchhanlt, in bis excellent |>aper,§ snppoeea that there was n 



• Sieet Clion., p. JSH. AnuUici Avtcu in Tiirnw, Nic. Brj , p, U'J. 
t Wrongly refcncd to Uagaoia Ij M. Fuuavrt, Bull. Ccrr. UvlL, 1B8G, p. S98i 
1887, p, in. 

X TcbubuQ ba, l.t. Slie^ihud Jvtiu, a rutioui Imt nut utrccjamon Turkixb name. 
I Albeulaohe .Miuhciluogcn, 1SK8. p. 1. 



B.— LYDIA. 



colony of MaccdoaiaQ vctornDS Among tbo Mosteni. The inferettoo^&om 
Taoitu«'» wurds indeed is tiot ([uito couviuviiig, and thciu ut w> other 
evidonoe. M. Foucart spoaks of " plujiiuum monnaioi portaat la Ugoade 
yioirrrjvuiv MciKf&ivuif," Ijut be should not on tbis point Imve accepted the 
evldbiioc of ih trnveller wlio got a bimty glumtu ut ocrtuin coimi : no ooina 
with aiicb a legend (>i-o kuo^vn, The Mutrast drawn by 8«httchbiU-dt 
himself between the coins of the Mosteni and tfao Hyrcnni guggcste tbHt 
the former tml moru of the iiiLtive AiuttulJiiD character, while the bitt«v 
were more Greek in character. Tho worda of Taoiiua, " (iwiiine Mastoni 
ant MAoedonce Hyrwini vocantnr," (Ann. ii. 47), nrnj very well he 
explained ob " the pwplc-a who btar the uamo of Mostetii or cf Macedouian 
njTcaiii." ■ 

The Hyrcanian pLiiu, then, in that tbrongb wbidi tho llormoii Sows, 
between tho territory of Sardi« oa tho cast and of Magoosia on the 
WBKt. The llyrcaui inhabited both aidoa of tho HonnoB, and the 
Musteui adjoined thciu on the nortli-ivestcm frontier. 

AsynkritoH, bishop of ZIyrcania, martyred on April 8th, perhaps 
belonged to thia city, and not to the country Hyrcania. 

17. Daseiockoue, OiisioiTA, and Tyasolla. wery three villageB of the 
Hyicani on the south aide of tho Hormos, known only from the inscrip- 
tions discovered by M. Ponliii.T of Sni>'ma, They aro referred to 
Magnesia by M. Foucart, who has republished thorn in the Bulletin do 
Corre«p. Hell., 1885, pp, 3t>4 ff. (c[>. Bulletin, 1887, p. 79, note). But 
the evidence of locality in conclusive that they do not belong to 
Magnceiai and this is conflrniod by tho fuct that they muatioa a Bt«phii' 
nephoros: this magiBtrucy is often found on llyrcanian, but never on 
MugnoHinii coins. Tho only doubt that can exist in about Ormoita. The 
uucription of Ormoita Is in honour of Tib. Claudiue KloitianuR : now tho 
family of KUiitianoa aeenis to bo Hagncsiaa, for a atrategoe of that name 
is mentioned on Magnceian eoins of Alosandor Sev«Ttu, i.o. not later 
thnn 23^, and another, Aurolius, is mentioned act twieo Strategos under 
Philip, 215-50. The older Kleitianos also probably was a ]tlague«au; 
he waa a man of high ataudiug through tho proTincc. and was houourvd 
by the Hyrcaniaii Ormoitcni for eertain special services, 

\S, JV. AKKxaoi was in the Kaikos valley, and mentions the KAIK02 
on its ooina. Its picciso situation is unknown, but it was probably on 
the upper part of tho rivei', for un Ai^'raaiotc was buiicd at Veiiijo Koui, 
eight miles north-east of Tbyotoira (Bull. Corr. Rell., 18S7, p. 176). 
Tho two citice, Aknisos with cfjius .\Kl'A5ltn"I!N', and Nakkama with 
ooinsNAKPASEtlN or >'AK1'ASEIT(1N, in the same valley. arooonfuMng, 
and it u< uftuu difllcult to tell which of the two is moaut by tho corrupt 

* Tbe BQutuii] fgnn of cxprcMinD is dui; only to Tncitua'a loie of variety in a long 
list of tiaiiKa. Si^veliliAidl, in hid Kmarks. niipmTB not to lia\e renxjinbered Uibt 
TMtttu Ugitiiigii list of twi^Ive (^iUm, und that tno Hipnrato citici uro rtimmod up by 
him in tbia cIuum, aa ia wtll knovu bom otlicr autWiUca wko giro Ibo tiat. 



126 



A SKETCH OP 7H£ HISTORICAL QEOGBAI'UY 01' ASIA MIKCB. 



fonns or tbe ecclesiastical lUts.* Tlio following furms caa l)o dia- 
tingnuhed : 



Kieroolea 
Ifotitim 



'Aitpttftv, 
'AKapaSai, 
or Anpaairov, 






It is lemarkaliU that ouo of tlio oiti«e always appears in the ethnic, 
the otlicr onlj- in the city name : this is porhajis for the sake of diatino- 
tioji, and tfie form in Hiorocles sterns to show that thin (peculiarity of 
the ect'IcsioHtii'ttl liats wax praaurved hy Iiiui.t The firet eyUablo of 
Nnlir««a always disappears nitlioul a trace. The uome Akrasos ocean 
in Phrvgia aa a ylaiii on the lower Temhris, Kpancro?! ircHiof or Kpiurof. 
Xakiusa is marked by au iniicriptiou at Bakir un the road Thyatira- 
NoIcrasa-Oerrae-PergnmoB, "which ahowB that, like Thyat«ini aud athei' 
cities, it received a MaccKlouiaD colouy ia Solonoid time. 

Lipara and Akrasoa ara included in ouo biahopric by Notitisa X., 
XHI., but at Coiic. Nic. U., Basil of Lipara, CumHtantine of Aki-a&un. 
and Michael of Keraaeifl, wore all present. Lipara was theri^foro a 
wpArate city from Akraaos, and at some period they were united uudcr 
OUB bishop. 

20. Atoi,t.o."iis was long known to have l^oun near ■palamnt, but 
M. Fontrier was the first to place the site above doubts Strabo says it 
WM t^QO stadia alike from Sordis aud from Feigamoe, referring to u 
direct road belwoeu thoao two cities by ApoUonis. Sehuchhnrdt has, iu 
ail excellent pai>er, shown that it was probably originally numed Doidya, 
that it was made n oolouy of Maccdouiau Holdiflra by tho Scleacida about 
270-50 DC, and refounded as ApoUouia by Attalos II, soon after 159 B.C. 

21. Apolloniii IB to ho distingniahod from Ai<ot.tvi>Nii., a city of the 
KaikoB valloy on the left as uue goes from Forgmmos tu thu uast (Strab., 
]>. (iL'5), This ApoUoiiia in not mentioned elsewhere. Probably it waa 
a Pcxgameniau refoundation, oud tho uante ApoUoniu} woa ropUeod 
after a time hy tho original name. It lay high, probably on tho hills on 
the north of the KaikoH (juniufxni itriKUfiivj] roTo«}. 

22. M.urjYEMOi. A people called MairSviji-oC are mentioned as included 
in the i>Opulatioii of the Pergameuiuo kingdom without having full 
Tights of citizenahip. The citizenship was given to them, along with 
the MftcedoninnB, MyBiune, Ac, aflor the donth of Attains III.§ They |j 

" I do nai niwrn lliat tLese fomt* atu nicro cnmijiiioni of »crilics. Id n great luaay 
(OBM the]? am real iEuiientinnn of [xipiilnr prutninointunu, ttmtijjii gnHsa cI(>rioal emn alto 
exut among thom. 

t Compuo SarxAt'wF iu tUu lUl of Lydiua cilich gcD. «f tlic ctlutLC ttoni 3>iTaAa. 

t Apnilonia u a rL-rgnmcDinn c-itj' nniDo ia Piii^iti. 

§ Iiucii|i'lii>u (fnr.2:).^)liulitiKti[,-d by Frkukvliti Juliib.tWk);!. Ptviiac. Euiistdamml., 
ii. (ISST). p. 84. i liOte tliu rc-fueucf rroni 8ehiii.'tiLnrdt, Allien. Mitthcil., 18B8, p. 11 

I Sfc AunESTA. 



B.— trou. 



W 



are probably Faphlagoniitik mcrccunrios. Tlio name Masdya m&y te 
with Doidya; fomjiaru Hastmira, Miiittusiti (h IiJIl uoar Sm^nui). 

23, 31. TRAKOur.A niid Ga.:4peia. The later KotitiiB mention a 
biabopiic of two tuvrnK, Gand^ia or Gaudfiu iiiitl Tinkuulu. A bittboii 
of Trakoula wae preseut at Cone. Nicicu. II. in 787. No otKer refereuc© 
to thtao pluccu ifl known to mo. Tmkoiila itoemH to hnve mtiunod itg 
UHioe as Trakliala, a village and raonutaln near Somn. Soma Is wear the 
Bite or Ocrme, a small tuwu wliich probably afriiok no coins,* »iid is 
ii4Tor mentioned m tbo eccIesiaBtical lists. Appfkrontly it was mb- 
ordinfitfl to IVaknula iu later By?.antiiio time, and G&ndeia or Gaudeia 
wa« somewliere near. Gsrme, howerer, eeems to bo luoutioued undtT 
the name Karme by Anna Comueua (bco Bithyiiia). 

25. ATTALEtA WW) originally namod Agrooira or Allooira (v. St«pb.) 
It was refuuiided by one of the Pergamoiuau Attali. The site, first 
approximately diitonnined by M. Radet, has been more aocnrately 
si^ecified by Dr. !S«liucbhurilt at Seljikli near Qurdllk Kalest, a fe^v miles 
north of Thyateira (AtUon. Mitthoil., 1888, p. 13). 

36. Bi-AUSDOs mentions tho rivtr Hippourioa on ita coins. The sit* 
nt Sulvimaiili was prurod by Humiltuii. Tho poople nro called 
MlanndeiH on early coins, and Phlaudeia in somo of tho Notitin. There 
can be no doubt th&i the uume ia really the same us that of tho MyBiau 
Blatloa,'f anil tho riBidlan Amblnda ur Amladn. Thi< uativo form, invulv- 
iug tbo syllnblo Dllod- or Blad-, was aduptod to Greek prnuunciation by 
nrioUH deviceH, giving anch fomiH aa Amilanda, Ampolada. Amplada, 
Amlatla, Aniblntla, lilandoa, I3][iudos, B1u<Idi!, Blauiiduii, Flilniidus. 

27, Kl.»ssoui>i>a is known only from some verj" rare coins of tho 
second or first century Iwfiiro ChriBt, nud from the Po»tiiij;er TtiWo, 
which x>laceti it 32 miles from PhUadclphia on tho ruad to Akmonia. 
Tliere la every proWbiiiLy that wo ahouhl read 40, and that the site was 
bceido Ine, whcro there aro sovoral inscriptions. The r&a&on why tho 
name does not apjioar in Byzantine listA is citbnr that the place lixik a 
n«w Dume, or that it was included under auuthor bishuprio; tho formur 
altemative seems iiuposBible, and the probability ie that the town passed 
nnder the influence of the ueighbouring Blaundos, and hence lost the 
tight to strike coins under tho empire. 

28. MEKTTiMOLOS, lins usually been wrongly identified with Tmolos, 
the identification being aided by the fact tbat tlio Byzautine lists 
apparently omit the latter, concealing it under tho name Anrfliopolia. 
A flue to the jiofiitiou of Iteaotimolos is given by several Notitiie,} 
which give it a* included in the same bishopric with BlaundoH, though 



* TliG coins rEpHKNUK nit pcrliaps belong la the city near tho lake of ApoUooIa. 

t TliJM Uytinn Blsdtje, bovievcr, i» iKvtiapg nii enor, aad Blado* U really tlm Ljillita 
Blanndoa, Ke Mov, $ 11. 

J No oo(lfilktlf^ can !«" |>'(K't"T iu •ucli h«ll<-DiMxJ iimii<^; tliie njimc sosiu* mure 
pUuiiblc, bill bo* no more rcii] chancier, tlun TL^nk-iim tot Ovyi^itfa, bccauM 
6clciiciu bennJ there of liia dnngliicrn dcatli <St«pli.]. 



I2d 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAI. GfiOOBAPHT OF ASU WISOR. 



most omit iTToi, auJ turn a eiuglu biflLupriv iutu two. The Qormption, 
^l^ot hrCrionoi IIoXii^^oAtuSov t^s Av5t«i, ftt Cone. Sol6llc>i 3i9 A.D., 
perhaps bides the double name. A iiitantion on tbo eiwt Lydiau 
IxcnticT near Takmuk is pTciLabk, (u 8u!t tbo c-ouiicutiun witli Blauodos. 

The name MorirTifMiiA^K, wLicli ie po&tiil;l; tb« coiTbct foriu, hiu beuD 
probaily LelleBisod iu order to Bii^gc«t ft moauiug. 'I'boi uatue of mount 
Tmolos occurs oIbo as Timolos (Ovid, ' Met.', G, l'.i), oud Mcaotiioolos wub 
uii(l«rstoad as " iu tliu tniddlc uf moimt TiuuIuh."* But tlie ootiiieutiun 
mth BUimd^ks iu fatal to this viow, Prolnhly the oorrect name in 
MyBotiiiioloa, dieUngiiieliiug it from th« western city Tmolos, as the 
MyaiBn TiisuIoEi. It is poeeiblo that the origiinal tuitne was TomaroB, 
and that it (struck rare ooius witli the legciid TOMAPHKHK. ouo of 
irhich numoti a river Rissoa. Tonianw may have been changed to 
TtiMoIos or TimoUM, or porhapa Tomaros and Timolos arc equivalent 
forme : whuti tho uamo wiui {iTuiiuuticud Tttnulos, the deaire for distinc- 
tion produced the name MrcruTi/.uii\of. 

The naiuo TomaruH may be compared with that of tbo mouutaia 
beside Dodoua, which hae tho forms Tmaroe. Tomaros, and Tomourofl. 

McHotimoloH then is jirobably Iht: nauio i>f tho oity wboBe ruins tie 
uoar the road from Takuiak tu irsbak, about four huurx frum the former 
on the north side of the rotvX ; and the river Ijeaide tlieni is tho Kibeos. 
TmoUteH illo vicauUB (Ciooro, pro Flacco, § 3; was) n nativo of Traolofl, 
not of Aleeotimolos; Kckhvl wrongly <]uoti>y it as Tiinolitcs. 

29. niEROctKAEZiA hoB beou placed by M. Foutrior benide the villages 
Sciova and BamtTa, about seven or eight miles S.E. of Thyatsira. Tho 
cultiifi of Artemis Pursica, moutioued on i.'oiii£, was said to hftTe been 
founded hero by Cyrus. The same goddess was worabippod at Ilypaipa. 
Paiianniax (V. 27} metitioua some curioue detaiU about tlie Mii^rian priest 
of the grnidcBti, her spoutaiieouely flaming altar, and the rcHgiuutj invoca- 
tiou£ iu a etruugo language (cp. Thc, Auu. iii., 7'2). 

1.0 Quien most unjustifiably altera Knfinua Areopolie, aak 458, to 
Coasiuiua HierocaoBareae, Rufiiins wi*8 bishop of Aiireliopolis. 

30. TjtTKSsos fttmck a few coins, and is meiitioneil by ytojiUauna as a 
«ity of Lydia. It may i)erbapt) be tho older name of niorocRsaieia, OB 
tho eoiiia aoeni tu l* t_>f an early dnte, Tlia name HierocrEsareia cannot 
bs older than AngUBtus, and caimot be proved before the eaithq^uake of 
A.II. 21. The oldebt coins of Hierociesareia are of HeTtj. 

31. Caldis: nothing is known as to tho iiituatiou of thte city. I 
formerly thought tlmt it might lie coat of Jnlia GordoB on the Phrygian 
frontier, and be iuclndod by HieTucks in Pbrygia, uudt-r tho name of 
Thcodiraia.t but I ivfia obliged to disuii&s the latter euppoBitioii, for 
TheoiLoaia ia mentioned in Phrygia at the council of Coust^Lut. ^48, { 

* See ]nKl note, [>. 123. 

i At tbo Bomo time I fftooied Ui&t BlamHofl was hy Hinrwlcs givoii to Plir;gia 
vailcr tlie dabic I'ulcliuiiiiD spoilt ; Uiii iikxi also I bavc reluctantly given up. 
i Aloij Tboiiiiui 'riii.ixlaifiopoUt FliTjgiBC racatiBuau in 451 (I^kbct p. S3S). 



a— LYDIA. 

■while Pftul bishop of r)aldi» signed tlie Ejiiiilola ad Lconem Imiienitorem 
from tlio proviaco ofLydia, iii 456. It is, bowevcr, possible that tlus 
flitaatioQ is ooircct, for it is fftvoui-ed by Ptolemy, who puts Ksdoi, 
8aittai, sod DudaJeis in a group cu tbu Duxt uF Lydia. Dadnleis 'w a 
oormpt uaoio, and tbe easic«t coiTectiou i» Daldiit, which then might ho 
phiood ahoiit Demmlji Keiii. Tho correction, bovover, is uncertain, for 
^^aSoA^rt or SuruAxif in poThajM the correct T«Ading (S60 Hjltaia). 

33. STiuTOMCE&-IlAi>KiiJ>OPOiJe mentions the Kuikus ou its coins. It 
liu Iweii fix*3d u(wr Seleilik by M. Radet. All tha eccleHiastical liatH, 
including Cone. Chalced. i^l, and Epistola ad Leon. Imp. 158, pln«: it 
in L.vdin. Tho Ifttcr NotitiiC unite )t in the Mm« bidboprio with 
Kalamla or Kalamox. Tho picition of KaUudii auii uf Strutoiiicen, when 
compared trith Akra»oa and Attaloia, certainly suggests that ihvj were 
in Lydia, which prolwhly iiLchidud tho whulo upper Kaikos valloyi and 
not in Hclldspoutus ; so that the idvutificAtions of Sios TpaSvt in Hollc8> 
pontuB ns a oomipticu of tk ^Tf>aTov[iKaiavl, and of SkcXoto, in IlcUes- 
[KiDtnB, as ci« KaXav&tL, if Doireot, cannot be taken as proof that tbeoe 
cities weiro over reckoned part of Uullespontns, but irinat be oonsidorcd 
u the result of a serious dislocation of the t«xt (eeo $ 41). 

33. KALiitos. Tbia fonn of Uto nanxa n nioro nana), though tho 
KaUiida of some MSB. of the NotltiiB is pruhaldy u i-oal vanoty, not a 
clerical error; the latter form is portmpB retained in the modem Solodik. 
The roforoncca of Qeorgiiis Acropolita are quite explicit. Qo epcalu ou 
pp. 80 and im from tho point of view of on« lookiug along a road from 
the Eayatros and Hertuos valley towards Contitantinople. E&lanios is on 
the road Houth of Akhyraoun, and ia the uorthorn limit of the Themo 
Kec&aatroii, which belonged to Theodore Lascaris, while Akhyrnoua and 
the Kiiiiinian mountains botuugod to tho Latin cnporor. Tha operations 
of the Greek ciiipororft were wnductod ehiefiy along the road by 
AkhyruitUH towartht ruioian^iuoD and towariU Milelopolia. Ealainoe is 
mentioned on the march of Frederick In tho year llUO uudei tho form 
Ealouon ; Munlt wrongly identific-s it with Surdis. 

March 22-26. Fr«durick unjbMcH the Hollespont at Gallipoli. 
April 2. jVfter three days' difficult road and one day along agiaaey 
valley, tho CnisadcrB crosu the river Digot(pwbftbly 
th« Orauikoa). 
April 3. Crotw river Aueloniou (Aitgelokoniit«s, Anna II. 2^0) 

with diffioulty. 
April 7. Beach the great paved roa*l, Constantinoplo to 'I'ragooinm 
and Icoiiiuin (at a point between Milotopolia and 
Akbymoue); desert country in front. 
April 9. Enter the valley of AacaraUnii, i.e. Akbynious. 

• UuU. Can. Uell.. l^^, p- 108. 

t Momll take* tliU for thn Hcrmoa. After compMlng lliu lUUiueut La tbu text, I 
obwrvo OD KiviHirt'* map tlint KrvJcTiclc tcuk tho latno rokd lu AUxeiiiicT tiie Orvat. 



ISO 



i SKKTat OF THE HISTORICAL QEOORAPIIV OF ASIA MIKOR. 



Traveno lh« pua 



April 14. Kalomou,* tliis oftstle is round deserted; adraiico to 

Tliyateira. 
April 21. PLiiladelpheia: two days spent bero; battlo witJi tbo 

Gro«k«. Actos ; tliia point U omitted by Mnralt (Nio. 

Cbon., 539). Tripolia tlie Less: IIierui»oliB : bottle 

witli the Greaka. 
April 27. Laodiccio.: boBpitablo rcMption hy the Grcoks. 
May 1. Tiirougli looa desertiBeiina, pant laoiis ealinamm (Anava), 

reach pl&co ubi fluvius Mandra (Maenndor?) oritur.f 

Battle. 
May 2. Sozopoli*. 
May 3. Giuglarion fChateau Cingulairo). 

where Manuol hod been defianted. 
May 9. Beside civitaa Slrma. 
May 1 8-2fJ. looniiun. 

May 30. I^ar&nda. For tbo details eee Ltca.<>N'U. 
Juoe 10. fioleiiceia of laanria; Fredoriok is drowned. 
June 14. Curua. 
.Time 21. Antioch. 

EaUuta is mftntion&d in 602 as & bishopric of Asia, not of Lydia : 
this IB perhaps n meve error. 

34. Nwikaetrtiti. The TLcnie Neokaetron is clearly identical with 
the HtMTQOB and the upper Eaikoa valleje, as is elio>^'u by Uio enunicra- 
tiou of tlio Grefilc posseat^iotis iiuder Theodore Lascnris, Neokastron, 
EelbiauoD (the EaystroH viilluy), Khliara and rergamoa (the lower 
KaikoB valley), and iho fortrtssc-s lying to the side Magidion and Opaildim 
(Salttai and Koulnj.f Neokaetron bogiiia from (i.e, has its northern 
frontier at) Ealamos. Pachyniercs (IT, 210, 220) confirms this eitnntion. 
Tlio origin of the name is m«ntiou«d by Tficotas Cboniuta (p. 194—5): 
tlie fortreR&oa restored hy Mamiol Comueinis in the twelfth century, 
viz., Ehliura. Forgamos, and Adruiuyttion, wore styled as u group 
Keokastra. Another Neoka&tion, 'which is mentioned by late writei's, is 
identical with Yoiii Eiile at the month of the HellospouLf 

' 8a 3lurrklt : TagenoQ calls it dtlonioirB. 

t MutnJt, follnwiiig Nicctna, inftltM tti(v CrufiAdiPtii r<a(»li Pliilomclion on Alay I. 
OWiouaij cltlicr PbiioRKilioii or Suicpolii it an error. It eociua goiucvrtibt Im- 
pmbable thnt Fr»]i^rick vnidd niarcli by Pliilumntinn, nnd it » tmpoMriblo llint aftnr 
bb il«lay aivl Im(t1t> at CiiiliidoliJitiiH nud tila bnitlti ut U ieni|KilU. tie caultl reit'-li 
PhiloDielian oa Mity I. Mnronver, Uumlt [jiiob?B oik April IfU, "ukl DnviDG Mandra 
oritur,'* vhil^lI obviauily refoni to tba BourM:* of ttic Micnacicr. I'hi1(iiu«Li()D mny he a 
rnliic nnicriui; of »omo place belw«cu Apumcin-Ci'lacuiL' niid ApaUiiiiia-iJi.isopolie, on Ibo 
dinvt road ti> I'O'iiiuiii. I IiBve atii adccu to ull ihe Butliorities, uui cuust tvierre 
OpiiiiOD. 

X T^ irAsyfwi tyKii/uva Moyllia T< Kal'd^Sxia: tb6 enumeration it lAnil^ (rom tlie 
point of Hew fif olU! lookJiiK to Coni-taDlinopIc, und llic two (ottttttsft tbou liv vff It U>9 
•ido (OeurK. AorciHil., fp. HO, lU.I. c]). U>. 
, { lie poiLtloii ia clctulj ilellni^ iu 'itpticot Xpannir, Balhax, Bibl. Gr. T/ted. Acv., i. 



I 



J 



n.— I.TDLI. 



131 



S5. HtlErxoKOK la uulcouwn to me except in the pasBage of Genrgiua 
Aoropolite joat quoted (p. 1S4) ; it must have bucu iu tbv Ucrmoa valluy. 
nnd mny poBsibly bo the purely Byio-ntino forlrc-83 Giirduk KaJcui, a few 
uilcB north of Thynteira, near the site of Attalt^in. 

36. Satala btill rotaina its namo as Satidal. aliout au UoiU' to tlie 
noTtli-ireat of KouIa, uear tho Hormos. Tho flttlj pa&Hago wbicli gives 
any cluo to its »itmitioii is in " Acta isftnctomm,'* Mny 27, p. G83, Thont- 
pon, after having been tortured in the neighbourhood of Ankyra and 
Syiiaos, where there was « river Astclcs, was coudncttKl to the Tlirako- 
eian Thome along tho course of tlio HcmioH. Ho pnascil throogh the 
bisboprio of Satala, where ho was put to death. It u not e««y to be sure 
of the exact Hensi^ fur tho writer of the nbridgmout, which iu piibliahed, 
did not iiiKlorBland it very well; but apparently Satala was near the 
tk-nnos on the riKul from S>tiiKiH to Iho I'hrakcBiui Tbetos, whiuh in 
tme of Sandal." 

The fomi SaroXtuiv in Hierocles is obviouitly derived Axnn a list of 
hiahopiL 

The chief esncinBry of the Eatakckaumouo woii situated at B»lala ; 
it was dedicated to a goddess and a god, iu whom we may recoguiae the 
TiBnal Anatolian pjiir of trw^iifini 6<ai, tho Mothfir and tho Son. Tho 
goddcHB ia geaorally call«d Arteiiiiis-AuKoitla. tho funner being the 
Creek name that seemed to suit best her character, the latter hoing a 
Tersijin term derived perhaps from tho colonists settled in tho Hermos 
valley by CyniH ; l)Ut beeidea these, the name Leto is also applied to 
her, and is perhaps a more genuinely native ua)D». The god is called 
by many naiuoH, Men or Sabazius, with a variety of additional epithett^ 
of which Aziotlenoa or Asiottouos is perhaps tho moat rfmarkablo and 
widcspruid, lis it iji'curs oii cuius of Suittai u&d on an isKcription of 
Bagis, as well as at Satala. 

It is remarkublu that Satala, the religious centre of tho Katukokau- 
ntciie, struuk no cuius; it probably continued to ho n more village 
attacheil to the temple, and was not the seat of a real municipal organi- 
Mttion. It is puBsihIe that Satala is mentioned hy Ptolemy under the 
form jlu&tAtLT, corrupted from SaSciA«(t:t but probably the oorroctton 
A'lA^eit is to 1>e priftferrod. 

57. Tjibju.! still retains its name as Davala, on the north bank of 
the Herino8, which is mentioned on its coins. 

58. B.1GIS has been placed hy Koppcl's inscripttoiu near Sirgho on 
tho Hermoa. It takes tho epithet C«c«areia on ooina. The »t« of tho 

p. 5.^5-TO. It vat built by Mehetnct lontTord an altonintJvprroMiniiortlifllltilliwixiiit to 
that of Kntlianpolit. tnd nt the wMlern «■»>. It \» naw miIIn) Yoni Knlo, or Nooksfttm, 
anil goOupiM tk(> place; of ili« anckat Si^don. Dcvidrr tbii, Alcxiopulii or NookMtwn 
1IM a furt brsLilo rbilippnpdiik builL bj Alexin* Comiictiuii. 

* AcL Himi;!., tlajr 27, xoi. vL p. (HO. t^ataUi, Maioiiui. aii>I Otinikion(KoDlii), 
wire la llio Opatlduu Tlicine. 

t 1 find Daednloram Tot Satalnrnm in Cons. Cbaltri^d. 



132 A SKirrCII OF Tll£ HISTORICAL CEOGrnPIIY OF ASIA MIKOR 

tity is sbAA to be ou th» iiorlli Vauk, \>ut Sirghe is uti tli« suutb Hidd of 
tlie river. It niontions the HermoH on its coins.* 

39. DecAmLts wsa a term somctimce appHcJ to tUo Eutalcclcauueuc.t 
"VVoliftvo thcrftf'-rft to look for ten citioa in it. The following six nro 
OortAiii ; Satab, Muiuuia, TalMila, Bagis, Silaudoe, Suittai. Of the 
TemaiudeT Uirec aio pToliably DaMin, Philadolpheia, and Apollono!! 
Bicron ; amd if Mc»otiuiolt it has been rightly pluced, it wuuld fall wilhiu 
ihn uaturftl boondH of tlm Katukckaumeue ontl moko the tentb. Gordos 
abm might Buggoet iteolf. 

40. HKRHoKjiricLiciA. WM lu the conventuH of Porgainoa. Tlie name 
niif^t suggest II sitiiutiiiii oii the Honucis, Viut it is probublu thut n cit}' 
on tbe Heinioe would bolong to tho cotivontus of S&rdis. Perhaps it ifl 
to be pbiend at Morrattre, where there aro oont^itlerable roiuftine, towhtoh 
M. Fontrier wrongly gave the name Attalcia, 

The ttilu related by Nicolas of Damaacns about ThycBeos (Dindorf, 
* Hiat. Or. Min.' I., p. SO) may b« a logend to explain the name Ilvruo- 

1ca^)c'lei» : the words occur tn it, Qvftnra^ o JcdinjXt^ 

iynpay TrAijtrtuf avritv rtal '^pfiatov C(<raro. It in probable that this it 
merely au explanation of the two city uumos Thyosflon and Hcrroo- 
kapcleia. Wo might alnioet gather that they wcio names fwr the same 
place, bnt the oxiatenoe of ooinn of both oitica would rather prove that 
they wero sejjarate but neighbouring places. No inforenee can be 
drawn fvoni tho talo as to the Hituation of the citieo; for tlio'Qgh 
accoi'diug tu the btory Kcracn ought to he floeiug from iSanlis to Kynio 
when he uicete Thyossoe, mich foundatiou. legends ave always oaroloBS uf 
vouuistcucy. Ab we have conjecturally placed tho cilieti,^ thay make 
the genetiiii of the legend quite natural. 

41. Hierucicfl' list of Lyilian eitiea dt-fics all geographical order, 
while it omita ma&y names which aro contained in all lists, older, con- 
temporarj*, and younger. Tbe opinion w-Mch ecoms to me moat 
lit'obablo is that tho MSS. have suRbrod some serious nomiption, whioh 
haa diKturbi;tl thu order and caused the loss of fleveral uamcs. Thi.^ lixt 
of HellcBpoatJao cities conlaius eeTuxal names, indubitably corrupt, 
which have a striking Tesemblaucc to some of the names in Lydia. The 
theory' whiib I adviinoo ib (hat tho archetypo Ijccnmo mutllntcd iu 
Lydia, that several nam»H written in the margin wore afterwards 
ioBcrtod by an eiior of the uopyist in Holk'SpontiiB on the preceding 
page, and that the order ef tbe Lydian list Wi1h distnrbod. The nnialer 



I 



' I.oQuii'ii iitjiint from the xiKnsture CJiTjaaphius Bgloenua {Aiyiti') M OncEpbci., 
A-l*. 4Sl, Ibnt ibfii- Wiia ii liitliDjjrio Ilulewi. otAivii Jtulivin by PKiiy, H. N.. V. 30 ; but 
ChrTMlvhitiB (or ClirystnDins) in n bintiop nf B»gie : r«Bd Dag<3niiB and Biyiji. 

t i''pr tbe Burao, wu MctoplirMfen, Aolu l'i«Dii, in Ado SoDct., Fcbr. I. p. 13 ; Voi 
Daonpolira, [.yJiiv rcEioiivra, ignc cambuntum riilctb. 

I II may tic wurth rciiiiii'king (liut thii pnragrapb U iawrlM iw na aflnilicinglil, 
vbt'Tt tlip rvBt of Ilio nrguaient about Ibci X-ko cities nns nlivodv in typi>. 



a— LTDLA. 



133 



of IIcIloBpontiDO townis vnm f^vtiu in ttc orohctypo as 3C, and tbia 
nu[nLH.-r wan ropi-oJuccd by the copyistti, thoagU tho addition of tbeM 
IjVdian nainea made the list much longar. The number in Lydia is 
liowover giv«ii acconliug to tlie shorter lUt. 

(1.) SntXcrra and St'cw TpaSos of IlcUeaponttis have for many ycam 
(jccmcd lo mo to bo orroni for [il]s KdXavra iiiiid *ii (ff)Tp(iSoi(<'r<atai'], but 
I loBg made tho miatalce of thinking that llieroclea placed them inton- 
tioually in HLillvHpontni;. This I now soo to bo inipoieible : IliEirocIea 
was certainly aware that tho whole nppcr Kailcod vallpy bolougod to 
Lydiu. Thu difliciiUy disiippo&n) when wo couitidcr tliat ho gavo thorn 
in Lydia, and th&t thoy havo been docidonlftlly transferred to Hollea* 
pontim. Another argnment against ray older theory may euggcigt iUelf : 
Kalanta uc-cum only in thu lutost Nutitiie, included in the- same binhnprio 
aa Stratonikaia. But I shall show that Iliorocles bad an exceptionally 
good knowlodgA of Holle8pnntn.'<, probably arising from peTRonal 
aoquaiutonce : this knowledge extonded also to the Kaikos valley. 
Moreover Ralanta occurs in ii02 as a bishopric, and may have bocn 
originally a soparatv biehopiic from Stratonikaia, tltongh aftorwardx 
united with it; as, e.g., Lipara and Akrasos wot« Mpamtc biuhopricii in 
787, but are uniti'd in l\ic talo Xotltiiu. 

(2.) lUoon? of llelK-spoiituH was long ago recognised by M. Wadding- 
ton 00 tranHforrod by mistake from Lydia.* Uo baa subftcqiiontly 
ftbAndoDod the id'Ca (on Lo Bas, Ko. lOLl). It is now hold by h im and 
by authorities generally that there was a city HladoB in Sly«ia, which 
haM retained itji uuine as Bolat. No explanation is offered as to why 
this placo in oiiiitt«d from all \otitin : its aituaLlon distinctly marks it 
out ua a biKbopric. I cannot uduiit that Uolat is tho morleni form of 
BladoB : tho reaemblanoe may be aooiJontul, for Bolatli is a Turkish 
vitlagii! iieai' the N.K. end of tho lake of Aiiara. I consider Balat as a 
Turkish name, and place there tho bishopric NeocaeRareia or Arinte. 

One other mfcroncv k traced to tliin oupjiosed Mysian Bladoa ; it is 
in Strabo (p. S67J, who Bpeako of BlaudoH as a iroAis ■ttfu-ytoN); near 
Atikyrn. I sliaU show under HRt.i.>:si>0NTO8 that the nama I'hrygia 
cannot possibly be extended so far as to include Bolat. Tlirire is thero- 
fore no altemative except to undentand that Strabo in ranking a loose 
and vagne refeiAnoe to Blaondos on the Lydo-Phiygiau frontier, and 
that his \^agiie expreieiioti near Ankyra is intondod only to indicate the 
position of Blaudofi on the west frontier of Phrygia, J admit that 
8tl»bo rarely uses encb a ragiio expretution as tbi^, but the other theory 
ni>ceaeitftt«« an oven greater dogrou of raguenoes, for Strabo places 
Blaudosf on tho Lydiun frontier of Phrygia, which in striully true of 
Blanndo!*, but implies un oxtraonliuary va^eness if said of Bolat. 

Sr. Waddington aupports his later view by tho argument that 
nieroolcB mentions Blanndus under the form I.onnda, but pUoes it in 

* ■ Vojnt^ KumidiutiqilA,' p. G4. t *^t Avliw «>fJ SAavfvr. 



134 



A SKETCH OP THE HISTORICAL CEOCRAPIllf OF ASIA WISOB. 



Phry^pa. Jjouaila, Iiow«vor, i» now known to lio a diiitiact Phrygian city 
and bialuiprio: it is montiaavA also ia Xotitiro Ilf^ X~, XIII., which 
give BIsDodos in hydi*.* 

(3.) %iyapa was guggeatod l>y H. Waddington to be a. miitfoniiatioD 
of SaraAo, trsnsferred from LydU. Tt is trao tluit y in frerjucDtly 
written for r in the ecclesiastical Ijuls, os'Attuit&i, 'AryaAcia 'AryuiW.t 
'JkTyvrami. But £araA<'u)i- uccura iu lli&roQles' Lydian li&t, and the 
tboory thoroforo docs not suit wfll ; a confusion botween Sala and 
Satala nmot be iuvuked to help it. 

In spite of this undeniable diffioiiltj* tlie theoty may bo in the main 
true, and it certainly vlimi]]a.t«s sovfirtkl serioua diflicultitfi. It stiJl 
Imtm unc'xplaiued the omission of Duldis and Hyrkauis, and j)erhttpB 
also of Lipara, Gaudia or Gaiidia, and Trakaula in I.ydin, nnd the 
existence of such eeoming corruptionH in IIeIIeB)iontii8 a» IlL'kcta, Korge ; 
bat the foinior may haTe disappeared vutirely whon the arclielypo wua 
injured, and the latter may be villages of Uellcflpoutiis, as Aitemea 
certainly is. 

I may add here a list of the Lydlan bishops, who appear at tlie 
Council of Nikaia, 325 a.p. ;— 



Artemidorus Sardicusis 
Soron Thyatironsis 
TLomasion Ethyina^ius PbiIftdc1pTiiii«> 
BarcnsiB Pulliou Poponjngis 

AgogiuH TripolitaniiH 
FIorentiuB AnticjtTao 
Marcne Standitanus 
AuliucLii8AHnLiIto{ioIitanuB 



SardiM Lydiw 
Thyatira Lydieo 
Pliiladelpboift Lydito 
Perpereuo Asico 
TriiTolis Lydiw 
Aukyra Phrygiae 
Blandoe or Itlauiidos Lydiai 
Aiirolioj^Kilis Lydia; 



C. Cities and Bissornicfl of Phrvou. 

I. luouicsEA, with th9 x^poh Elotnokaprioe and Kitarazos, Laltorios, 
Panaeios, Karia, nnd Tmitalos (which pethnpa aro ii1m>;^;>0()4 the rivers 
KaproB, Kleiuoa, Lyko^ AKLH>Of. and KndiiiuK. muunlH Salbakos and KnA- 
moB, the Syriflii Gatos, and the title Trimitaria, see ASP. A. i. In that 
place I pointed out that Uyetiou and Leinimokhoir are two villages on. 
theltoander boBtdo the bridgY>, which tmder the llamftti Empire was 
not very far from Auticxih, and which is icprwieu tod on coinii of tliat 
oity. Earmala wan porbnps luwor down the Mroauder vallc;^', and 
liOnma and Pvntakheir are certainly mtiob lowtr down. Possibly, Peu- 
takheir is beiddo Mount LatmoR, now i.-alli.Hl Beah Partnak, "Five 
Fingers." It has since occurred to me that the name Tautalos, which 

♦ » BAsSJm- or i *^autit,l^. t 'ATyiMr = •Kitiaiv = [a]ArT[oa]/o!*, Nol, VUI. 
; On tlio lonu x^po>< compnrc liC Bna-H^'wldiaKtoii, No. ITiJ. 




c.— ptmrou. 



135 



occnrs on tlic uiari-li fmni KoloKsai towardR Antioch, is perbupe rotaitiMl 
ill ihr. motk'ni funu Daiiilulo Tcbni, ttppliod to the river MoroyiiOH. 
a. Uiuiuivus CB, ii. ; AS!', A. ii. 

3. McKSVN^, en, iii. ; A.S!', A, iii. It in tlie iiiuijiiluiiioiis coniilry 
Irotweeu Hiempolis. tUe MiKkmltr. and Uioiiyoopolia. The modem 
villnges Gmiirlar, Ak Dcviftiit, SAzak, ami Gerey« nil boli^ug to it. Iii 
CIJ, ix., tlii« torrilory was Jivid«d l»tw«m two hiehoprice, Mossyna and 
MetolIu|wlis ; but the latter has now been identi Eied vrith IVIolella, on th« 
Other bttiilc of the ftTivmiilLT. Thiounta (ASP. A. xii.), a (l(<iuo8 of 

'MoBsyna, Iiad qiuirrics of a btono commoiily uaed for making mtivdjibagi 
The fttouc w«6 xvsvd at EJivrupolts, where it was oalk-l Thitpuiiteui? ; this 
reading, rightly dofc-iided hy M.iWftiUiiigton (I*o IJiui, Hifi;{\ wan allvrcd 
by FranK, C.I.G., yitlj, to AtHcynTf?). Slrubo mcuti-ms that it was a 
variegvled kiud of marble. It wa» alea exi)oit''il to oUicr diatricts, 
where it was known as nitrapolitaii,* just as Dokimiaii tnarblo waa 
known to all tho wnrhl aa Synnadic. 

4. Attouho.!. (ABl'i A, iv.) wiut situated at Haz Eoui, n milo or two 
west of Sorai Kciii. 

V. Karovha (ASP, A, iv.) woe on tlio Kouth bauk of the Uteandflr, 
ti))OUt eight miles wt«t of Serai Kcui, in tho toriitoi'y of Attoiidda. 
Mkxos Komk. wilh the temple uf Men Kiin.ui. w»8 bwlwwn Karouni and 
Attoadda. Tbo hot Bprings of Karoura and Kenos Rome are montioitod 
by Athcnicns (ii. p. A'i : sec below. No. 31). 

(J, Tiui'L/opoLls, near Asiur and Kaji Keui (ASP, A, v.), 

7. KorretAt, a di-fenrelesi* city in the Uvel plaui, xaiik into ilvvny iu 
the ny»tiUiiio wai«. Its aito is now ahsolulcly doacrtcd, ASP, A, tI, 

8. Kiloxir, Oil a 8t«ep, precipitous hill, threo miles south uf Kolostai, 
took its place Al>Diit A.n. 603-787. It wm an iniportunt niilitaryctation ; 
duiibtleaH there waa a Tnrma Khonai, probably of Ihe Thrakewiaii T)i«iu«. 

9. KEB.ETAPA-l>io<;£sutKi A. lit KayadiLii, on the lake Auliudono(t(ASP, 
A, tii., corrccliug CD, xv.) 

10. TiiKinwofJios, at Kara Eyiik Bazar, with the river Kazaneii,'!' a 
tributary of the Iudo«, rising in Mount Kadmos. The god Lykabas 
SoKon is incnlionod on itx coitm. 

11. I'liYLAiaiox or PyLAKAlos4 ©n the road Kibjrra— Phylakoinn — 

* Compare CoDiUiit TotfiijtaSt (te (Vi'm.. p.444.auilSttabo, |i. nT4,w1ine v« niut 
Rod Tqt Kapvinlut ital T^t Jiatiiiiateuiiai rSit 'IfpavnXmir^r, for ZvrfaSiitTtt ii a tuoro gluM 
on ^*«i^oi>, nn<l hni (>Tept fiitn Ibe I>^xt ffnio th« [iinrgii). 

t KvKii oil Kiej^rt'* u«w mnp ttiii rivor is rnlltd Casus. JI. U'aJ<iii)gt4ii long 
Asp> sluincd wtiul tlic true tiauo it (M^. Numinu., 1. p. 110). 

X I pKiamc llint nti one wilt ilrfrinl Knklfiiiolikal u n genuine itii(^oini|)li'<I tmioe. 
Whiln I *lill livlieti- ill lliu idi-ritiiicKt lou of I'liylnliuitra, 1 niiMt withilraK t]ie tTi^^<>«lioa 
tliftt pilyeon Uft eorniplioii of Pykknion. I miiel niimitlli«ltiirioiiii€xnmf.lf«f)f Ortwk 
tiAUic* (ntxt jirrlinpsalZoorcrirftijitionj duo t« tittxk Irllnr*) otciiir iii lh(- Tnt-b. Bat 
llku Aimn. lUvcan. mcntiona Filnction, kuJ tLk pivrea tlint riiyUliiiioii vas nioiiiiimnl 
In tliG nrigiiul uf ttie rrntiDgor Ttibk\ LKmlli'i-n f-}ji Ucu m^j Imvo cnusod Ilia 
Pjrikluoon, coming aa Kconil DBine after it, lo drop oat. 

YOU IV. L 



13IS 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL CEOT.R.IPHY OF .\SIA MrSOR. 



:tapliy 

t 

I 



!Brisa — TbennsHDiiion — Laodiceia, seems to li&ve 1>oen an iniporiitl estate 
mentioiiptl li_v Hitroi^^lcs as ^ojpi'u, irurpi^uKu wjtli thy ditUtgnpfay 
Sokteinalikai, i.e. KWj^a [nv]A(K'ai[<uii']. ASF, B, i, 

12. KniZA, ftt Ishkian UaZRT, ASP, B, S. 

13. T-iKiMA, at Yuntalilt. ASP. A, ix. 

14. Sasaos (ir AsAVA, ASP, A, x., oonciitiug CB, XV. 

15. MOTKUA, the Byzantine Jlotc-Uopolis, retains ite imme m Modole, 
i>u the north side of tho Ma<HiKler, ojij>oeito Dioiiysu|]olie. It is pro- 
bably tbe Piilchnianopfilis of Hiei-orl&fl. wliich wonlil imply that it 
attaini>d thu rank '"fa city unilcr Pult:!iciiii (-JH-4j3 a,d.). CB, ix.; 
A«P. A. xi. 

10. AnoKnoRios, tbe anciont vilkgo at the t«mpIo of Apollo linir^' 
Ijenofl, on tho Houth IiaiiV af the MiBand&r, in tho tenitory of Dionj-so*, 
poliB. ASP. A. sii., J. JI. S.. [887. p. 380: ISSfl. p. 221. 

17. DiosvaopoLK, boHidb Orta Kciii. CB, iv. ; ASP, .\, xii. 

18. 8aloiii>a; 10, Mej^okoms; M, Kaqskita; aredemoiof Uionysopolis 
or porhapa ofMoBByna. ASP, A. xii., J. H. 8.. 1889, 230. 

21. Hyboalcis, on tlio Meander, betwocn Bokirli and Pouiiji Koui. 
CP, vii. ; and (with a slight eorriMlioii) ASP, A, xiii. 

Ti. Loi'SDA, in tho angle of tli» Mroa.Ddt>r, near Hahiniid QbaKl. 
CD, xi., whcro inscription No. ITi ought to ond iiM/inf tni [in)/(3'^/*'*'C'*]> 
and should pruhably bu ottributod to Peltai, ASP, A, xiv. 

23. PcL'i'At, between Kara Agatchlur (pronounoed KarayaBhilar) and 
Yaka Keui. CB, xii. 

24. 'EuMr.:«F.iA, at the sources of the Klondros, betwoon the Glaukos 
uud tho Mmandor, -on the altu of thv modern lehekli. Tbe known 
tribos of Enmcnoia are Her&ie, Alhenaiu, Iladrianis, Argeias. CB, xiii. 

1't. SiBMA, or SouBi.AinN', at tho uLOdtrn Homa, whioh retains tho 
Byzautine (or Turco-Bysantine) name-. The plain in front in the plain 
of Lampo, in wbiob is the village Viciis (called ud vktim in the Peiitinger 
Tablo) ox Oikokomo. The name Jostisiaxopoms appears to have boon 
given to Sotiblaion in the niEtb century. The Douz Bel, east of Uonia, 
waa an important Byzantino Klvieoura, commanded by tbe fortresx 
Myriokephaloii ; and the Turtij* Baghaz. leading down to tho east from 
I)onz Bel, is tho Tl^vppLTl,yi of Nicetas Choninta. ASP, A, xviii.; CB, xiv. 

2G. Atiakassos lb tho modern Aidan, CB, x., ASP, A, xvi. Eski 
Aidan ia on tbe eastern, not as I have atotod on the western, bank of 
Ibe Glaukos; * it liea on tbe eaatoi'u side of \'«iii Aidan. 

27. KitABAX and Gkaos Gala wor* on tho road betwociitho fortiesaos 
of fihonoi and Sonlilaion. Kharax cannot beaonno<;tod wilb Alexandrou 
Kbarax, mentioned by Stephanus, near Ku1iiiii<ii-A|jameia. 

28. OKORi-iA, known only from coins, may pcibapn he tbe city Bito- 
atcd near Eiloa, or KlyoB, on Lako Attkania (lake of BnbUir). In Bj'zan- 
tine time it probably look tbe nam* Vam:mtia, given in Phrygia by 

* I spoke onTy from inToimittinn. but have nnce vIiIImI Aidan. 



v.— iilKYUlA. 



137 



HiftroclM, Tjiit nfttrwftrile ftppftrently *itAo1ioi1 to the diviftion i>f Pam- 
phjUa, wliich was Keparawd livim the resl, aud which in my list (ASP, D) 
in distingnittheil as Tcrtia. 

Okoklia ihca mnrt bo included io Iho courciitua of Uibvni or 
Laocliocia (CB, xxtUi.,', Ukiog th« [ilnci; duubtfuUv amigiied to A<.la*lft. 
It is nlso noco»uiry to add Lagbc tu iLis umvoiittiK. mid thpreforu to 
iacludo it witliin th» Itoinnn province of Ai>!a. Ait iiiHcriiUipn 
(ASP, D, 14) prm'iilott thiit u penalty for riuUttiiig a ttunb ut Lngliv is to be 
pnid to llo *' City of the Kibyiatai." This implieeeilherthat Lagbo wos 
Hubject to Kihyra, or tliiit it wilb in the crmvontiUk a( Kibyin ; * h8 it was 
tui inileiit^iidetit city, coming money, the latter attt'mativo mUKl be 
nccopted. To Uiih »;ouvciitii!t it is jircdifibly nucospmry to aild alsjj tho 
two d^moi, Thiounteis. luid Kogycttcis; and perhapR thfrrA W6Te noveral 
other small tlrmoi iicfir Lngbo, such as Siiidii, which vere iiiuludod iu tho 
coDTentO!). TIki imperial citaten of the Omicb'i.1, Tynibrianam, and 
Alaifloiit and thi; tuwn ut UL-brcn, nil uf wliicb seem some-times tu buvo 
Tiscd the Asian era, 85 tix., Bbould also go wiUk Lngbc. In this way we 
may reach Pliny's total, Kxii, oi- xxv. (the rtmiing variuo). 

In the conTootuB of Aiiftmcia it is necntsary to Hubstituto Mot«lla for 
Blanndos; the latt«r mnr^t \i»\i> bcti undtT Sarditi. 

21>. Pkpouza, probably at Yauiuk Kurcn, on the road from Eamotteia 
to 8tcktono», Otruue, and llieropalis; CB, xvH. There were two towns 
nnmed Peponza: llrjmv^ay iruXtv nva Iptj/uiv <!v<i^iroi' ritXaria* Koi Knirm- 
SuKint Kui ^pfyi'us' iart Ot Mul aX\r} llnrct'^u (^travt. du lit>.'rt;Hlbu.s ap. 
Cottier., Ecckw. Gr. Mun., II, p. 293). 

.'!!>. BitiA, i. e. " the town." Maceiloiiiim, bishop of Bria,| was present 
at tho Council held 553 a-k Bria in mentioned under th« form 'Jxpia in 
Notiliw i., Tiii., ix., wheiv <c is tiu example of u vpry coiuiuvu cletioal 
error for p : liiix conjecturo, in lU'Conlitnoo with which I ntodilied in tho 
table atbiched to CB, part II. the table of port 1.. in proved to be correct 
by the Bodleian MS. Baroc. 185. fol, H, which readh 'U'pin. Tln> prothe- 
tic iota 18 common before the two initial consonant*. <'B, xviii. 

31. SEBjLsrK, about SoljUkler, Sivosli, oud Bunar BAnhi ; CB, six. 
pAl.\F)i-3ERA?rK : tin- old sito at Payftni Alan, fur want nf any hotter 
name, lioa been thiia labelled. It iieoma of too littlv importance to havo 
booo a aoptmitc biabopric. Ju my CB, part II., S xx., I «<tvaucvd th« 
oonjectnre that the pkce which bore tho name of the god Men { might 
ba Palteo-Sebnste : but this view in impoiwible. Athenenx (11. p. 43) 
qwaks of the hot springB bosido Ucuob Komv, and this Munoa Home 
mast bo the s&me plaoo that btrabo says was called after Men. The 
liiorun of Mull in the place callod by iiis name ix tindoubttxlly the famous 

* T1i>> priiu^ptp. nlilch might, I Ihiak, lK^ ufi-ly ouumcil. hu butn ean-fully 
.iUcnsM-il by Ptot. Q. Hirochfcld aad Or. Troaber. 

t Tliuie U frcqucully in IIiq litU • oooAuion belwMa him ftnJ Niu«il<iuiut of 
Biuuioti, vUci iraa bImj pmeD'Ot. 

J rh rev M^mf [Uplir] i» Tf Iriitrrvft^ rdrfv, Sttab^ pi 507. 

L S 



138 



A SKETCH OF TUE HISTORICAL OEOCBAFUY OF ASIA UIN'OB. 



fcmplfi of Mr*n Knrnu liesulc Attctiddfi. The villAfrt) nttiicticd to tho 
teiaple was calleJ Mi!noK Koait'; com])arf at*ove, llj, Atj-oltlwriwii. Hicm 
Koiiin in a gdiieric name fur hiic1i villngi?^. 

32. ALotrniiA oi- Kr-oc?.A.. TIio idftntity of thcM two iinmcR Kcraa 1o 
me cdrtAiu, ami the subjection tu ScImihU uixlur tlio Roiimns s&ems 
probnHo. In tlmt case it woiiM have reacbeil the rank of a, jri>A<c in the 
early Hyzuutiuo lime. Situ nt or near Hadjim (*}T HaOji iiilcr). Alvadila 
is placod tbero by a consideration of tbo road Akmonta — Alc-tidda 
— Klannituddii — Fhilridoipboia, find tb« order of HicTocles ret^iiireB a 
siLuutiou in tbis nL-ij^li\H]iirbi^Hjd fur Eluiixii. 

33. Akmoma, at Aliat Koui. CB, pt». I. and IT. § xsti. ; Amor. Jonni. 
Arcb. 1886. 

34. Kkkmiom Agora, at Islnm K«ui, CB, xxii.biB. A large tutuulim, 
nbout nn boar 80Utb-wF>jit fiom Islam Koui, may some ilty yiuKi T«(iiilt8 
to its cxcBvatoni. Tbio idciilificaliou secius tv ino as cortaiu as ony ono 
of tbe kind can bo; it explains tho routo of Cjtur nad makes it 
rcitNOiinblo, niid it Kiiits tbo dist«nce«. llnmiltiin's iilontificati!ni witb 
UHliak, Btill followed by Kioport io bis latent map, Rccma absolutely 
witbout rciiHOn. ]t in quiL« out of kvc-ping vritli tbo (listancoj), and it 
altributi'8 u march ti tin; army of Oynis over a coantTj" which no army 
would atlcnQ]it cxci^jvt under dire n(H:eKiiity, tintt acruw a low raouittiiiin 
ridge, then over tho enormouB canon of tht- Banuz Tcbai. Cynia wai 
not uiixioii<i to disouunigo Lis army by long uupleasant and unnecessarj' 
uinrchcs at the ontaot. 

35. AuA. Its Rituation near Kirka seems probsblc, but tlio proximity 
of Kirka and Hadjimlcr prevent ony cotiiiilvnce in tbo viact positioii 
until a moi'o tboiongli exploration has beoti made. Tbo general situation 
Seons well estubli^-hod, if i he ordor of Hieroolos ia as true to gPOj;rapby 
as nsnnb* It is beside Akmouia and Uierokharux, but it is not in th<} 
(liKlrict snbject (o Akinoiiin. A situation nortb-west of Altmonia And 
mulb-noat of Hierakburux would be still more iu ticcordanou ^vith 
Ili^rocles, if Buoh a site could be found. Pot'Bibly an andeut town may 
huvo existed on Ibo BauaK Sti, towards its eouroe. nurtb-we«t of Islam 
Kciii. The thought has also occurred to mw that the Bite nt Islam Keai 
may have been, under the Koinuna, au independent town, and not » 
vtllago BTibjoct to Akmonia ; and in ibat case it might bo Alia. But ft 
town at lelam Keui could only be one of tho biehopricH attached to 
Akm»uiii, viz. Hit-rokliarax, UiokJoia, Aristion, and Kidyiwtot^. 

On tlio whole, therefore, Alia, thougb uncertain, may best be placed 
at Eirka, nuleut somo nito be discovered further north timn Kirka, but 
west or uorlb-wL'st of I^laiii Xeui, on rbu BOiith-oast^iii itkirtri of Mnmd 
Dagh (Mount llindyiiuw). A iiittiation beyond tho vaat mans of Dindy- 
moti is quite out oi keeping witb Uto order of Ui«i'0clc8. 

* It niunl pr cournr< b<i ■dmitU.-d tUat Isolated exceptions occtiri but tliere aeema no 
natoa to auspcct oue here. 



C— .PUBYOIA. 



130 



33, UiEROKnARAX, disfigared im loukhftraiax in Tlicroc-Ics, au<t m 
Oi'nka in thtt Notitiii', witH ouo at' (he citieK of lh<i Hoxcauoi. li was 
pru1>ab1y at Otourak,* on tlio ruful fium Akinuuin tu tlie uoitL and llio 
ensl iti generiil. Moxntiioi is tlie forin in Ptolomy and an inacnjiti'vii ; 
3IuzoauQ<i OD c^>iu(<. 

37. CoKELA or ]]|[VKLR\, one of tbo citiosof tlie Moxeanoi, was uituatud 
at Dogbl*. ou the i-md fi'om Akinoiim to tlie Ptititapiilis ofPlirygia. 

38. Abistios IB unlcnown except ua occurring in tbo BjBintino IihU: 
it is to be BOUglit iD tbo w««terii Kjitohanli Ova. 

311. KiDYEBaw, at G«ukobe Eyuk, iu the «n*t*;rn Sitohanli Ova. Tbu 
name is frequently comtptei! in tbo ancient aotboritieti, e. g. K»>{*(r<rt« 
in Ptvleniy, and tbc false fonu in regularly (jtiotud \\y mmlen] writera, 
«. g. M«yor 'Carier' and Panli ' Altgrieohische liiecbrift aiis I^cmDOs' 
(CB, xxvii.). Kidyessos ia related to Eadol, as Hulgessoa to Selga 
(see Segblaisoa). 

40. Fbsjxpous was Ibe uatnc of tbo vulley of SaiidykU, with itn fivo 
citi«8: (41) OrnoUi^CTchorllisar), (-42) BroczM (Kaia. Swidykli), (43_) 
STKKtORiox (tlmir Hiaar), (-14) IIikkokh-is (Koteh Hisftr), and (45) 
EuKAliPU. la. hia recent mui) Prof. Kio]>ert pluccii Euknrpiu twelve 
milw nortb of its real position, prubably a slip.t 

4S, SvKK.iRA was delected by U. Pcrrot, from inaoriptioita copied at 
Tcbifut CHHSuba by M. Cbois^'. CB, xxxv, Ttitodvaina, biahop of 
Byonsda, 408, in • Act. Sunct.,' Jjmi. 13. p. 477c. 

17. UoKiiiiVK, at Jatvbu Karu iliiwur (C'J), xxxvi,). 

48. PtiTii!)KS8t», at Sctttlan, two niUcB S.S.E. from ACLom Kara Hissar 
(CB, xxxvii.). Tby tLiid uiilwtoiio (A PBYMNESSO III T) is stiU 
bmido its onginni position At a bridge to tbo nortb-oaat. 

49. Koni: or Komma, at Bouycuk Teborgia, fivo ur six miU-s north of 
Afiom Kara HiBBar, was united with Mctrjpolis under one biabop; tbe 
lattar vaa proliably at Ayn/. Idu. 

60. AilOKsos is givcm by Htcphanua aa oc]tiiraI(iut to MctropoHs. It 
was probably tbo Byuuitiuo Aiapoun and tbe uiodorii Auibanas, a littlo 
to tbo oa«t of Beu^tsuk Toliorgia (Oli, xl.). 

51. Akiw)I:sos, now Afiom Kara HiBsar. took away tlio iiuportauoo of 
Prymoeesoa. Tbo form implies a atctii, akra, as Kadoeoos implies kailu 
(in Eadya) and Otrocuua inii^liiiTa Oint (in Olreas). Akroonoa woa 
perhaps called N'ikopolis on aoL-oant of tha great victory over tho Araba 
under Seidi GUazi in 740 A.n. (Clt. xli., xlii.). Nulitia) iii., x., xiii., 
have probably omitted tbo wonl ^rui between I'ryuinessoB and Akroonos, 
Aa is douo by uioat N(ttitia> in tho c&ao of Mcaolimolos and Bkuudos. 

bl. Parohejos Fhr^'gia, waa tho country butwoun 8ultau Dagh DDll 

* Otmtrdk, " leliurc," from oloar, lo «it. 

f The name PentMpnIia U ktinwtt oiily froin tlie aigBatara ta OoM. Oaaatant.. i.o. 
353, Paalut cpurapUM Slcctoili piiilutiR, t'ouUpolitleae KglMili^ Phiygha 8aliit&riB 
PfO«iii«iae. 



HO A SKfnJH OF THE mSTORItWL GEOGElAPIIV OF .VSiA ilLWU. 

RiHir Digli, inclniltDg tbe large lakes, anrl llio cities FolybohM, Jnlin- 
IpiKMt, PbilomclioD, Thj-inbriou-HaJriftiiopQlis, and Tyriaion, It« nortti- 
wtaitora limit van lioltiioi, now Ti^liui; it« eoiitb-costorn limit was 
Tyriaion, The ancifnt niimcB of iho laken are unknown, except that iu 
the twelfth centtiry Ak Shelier Oul was calUnl the Laito of tho Forty 
Mivrt;vr» (Auua Ooiitiienft, ii. ji. 32i>j. Forty-two laurtyis. captured in 
Amoriou and sUin at .Sftiiiara on tbo Euphitttcs on refusitij; tu boooiuo 
M CI ham mod ft nH, nrc woreliipped by tho Gr««ks on Murch (Jtb, Act. Ijiiiict., 
p. 457. 31. Perrot iu Hov. Ai-ch. 1676, 1., p. 190 ff. wrongly infers from 
Strab. p. ^'Ci, tlmt Sviuinda waa in Pdronjioa : on tlie mcaiiing of tliat 
pOEsagc und the ncccBsary alteration 'AKfMytmv, bdo CB, xliii. 

53, Julia, the Roman corrospondent to the plaoa oallfxl in more 
niioieiit uud in Byzauline tim^B Ipsos, wan in all probahility near SaklL 
It seeniR to be near the Kai'strou Pfioios of Xenophon. See Addenda. 

M. PoLVJicros retains its name as Bolowodnn. 

56. Philomklios, Ak Sheher, was poinle*! ont by Hamilton, who also 
oorrcctly planed 

5tJ. TviOAios at Ilghiu. 

57. TmuBBioM Bceiiia to hare been refoauded as Qadrianopolis. It 
wiis a littlt; way smitli of rhilomeliou, on the din-el i-oad to Ikoniun viA 
Jvaballa. Thymbrion was the groat city of earlier time, until Philo- 
melion (jirobublja funndation of the Dindwhi, pvrLapa of the Ferga- 
meniane) took its place. Tlie fountain of Midae, five miles north of 
Philoniclion, is, scccrding to XonophoM, apparently incltided in tho 
territory of Thymbrion. In his recent map. Prof, KieportslUl identiSea 
Thynibrioii with Diiloiiiolion, in ilffiiince of Plluy, who menttous tho 
Tymhriani aa une of the pooplcs in the eamo conTcotUB aH Fhilomeliou. 
Phiionw^lion was in aBl probability a ftmndtition of tho Selcncid or 
Pergamuuiuu kiiige, and, in the tiuio of Xenophun, Tbyuibnon wdK tho 
nearest city on the mank past tbo Fonntain of Midas. 

56. DipoiAMOti is several times mentioned without any proctse indi- 
cation of locality ; it \ns an imperial eetate, and bore also tko namo 
SfsgAKAKTA.* McBanakta wus on tho roadliy which BoiuanuB Diogones 
marcliod from Conhtantinoplo to Syria in a.!i, lOU?. On his prwvioUB 
«jL)>editiou Lo marchvil by way of Philomolion, and in uU probability tho 
aame reasona which mnd« that road convoniont in 10.10 actftd also in 
1032. f Moreover, the uperations of tho yi'iir 977 se*m to make it prac- 
tically certain thai. Dipotamon-Me^anakta wnn on n riiaJ leading by way 
of Eotiaion to the cu&t, and there can be hardly any dniibt that this 
road must be by way of Phiiomolion (see Cedrenus, ii. 424). 

Wu art: not loft to probability, huwoveir, for Anna Comnena meations 
Cii. .129) that a place named Meaanukta waa situated on the roail between 

Ceciren. U. . i21. Cii. Lw. Dlac. y. 120. 
t Cwlrvn., if., 191, 19^ 



C-MIBTOU. 



Ul 



Folybotoi and Pliiloiadion, bdtidc the Liklce of the Fort^.- Murtyrs (At 
Sheher Gdl). The imperial estote uu doubt Luoludoil the eplcnilUllj- fertile 
Und at the iiortb-we«t end of the late, wli«ro the beautiful " fountnin 
of Midae" Howe into it. This Btroani is pcrhapa the ^lin Uorofiit, from 
n-hich the niuue Dijjotaiiii^ti in derived ; On the estato ace E, 22. 

Haaeo has rpaehud a vary diR'ert^nt concliieion. lie pianos Dipotamon- 
Mesanakt^ lit the jiinctinn of the Temhris, cither with thu Bnthya ur 
with tho lijargnriofl." Th« error ariees from his taking inte acconnt 
ouly Ccdruiius, ii. 41^4, and Leo Diacoiiua, 120, witbont olj^crving tbo 
other rufervnced. Uih HUggOHtJuQ that the Uathys is identical with the 
Bathyrrhyax is Hhown te be impossible by the dtecusBioQ given iu 
SeotioD O of the luttor streanii whioh proves it to be uoar Yeni Ehan, 
wert-norlh-wcet of Sivas. 

69. Asrioovs. After Dipotatoon has boon fixed, it becomes possible 
to place on the map 80iuo other iiitmes whii:'h Leo Piaconuit nietitionH in 
coQ&OGtion with it (p. 120-2). In a.v. 971 .SkloroB advanced from 
Constaatinople againat the rebel Bardas Pliokaa. He halt«d at Uorj'laiou 
till tho troup« of tho Gitrrouiidiug thcniata conceutratud t)iere,t and iu 
the meantime comiuunicatad with PhukaK, vainly urging him t^ submit. 
Eo then wlvuuced to Diputaiuun, and again baltt^d. sending emiusariw 
to corrupt the adhci^nta of Phokas. It is clearly implied that ThokM 
was encamped not very far away, at a place called Bardaiitta; and as 
his followers gradually deserted him he fled to the castle of the 
Tyranuui, culled Antigotu.} Cixlreuus, with whom Zmiurae agrees, tcllfi 
the circumfitances di£[«reiitly. Baying that Thokoa was encamped all the 
time at Cecsaroia of Cappadooia, until bo Hod to 'I'yro|K>icin, But Leo is 
olearly a better authority. He relates that Pbokus escaped from 
Amueia, wWra he was living in banishment, to Cfusoreia, whore he 
stayed nomo time collating an army. It is implied that ho tlien 
Advanced towards the west, and the oireumstancoR are very similar to 
those of A.D. titf7, when Sapor advanced from Cappadocia to iladrian* 
opolia (see IIkxapous below). Fhokas aleo advanced into Phi^-gia 
Farorcios, obviously by tho great Itomau highway Ivoding from Cmsaroia 
to Philumclion, 8ynnadii, and EphoBOs, and encamped at narda«:'tta,§ a 
little to the south-east of Dipotamon. Cedreuus aud Zonaras omit the 
forward march of PhokaH, aud oven Leo only implies it without oxpreaidy 
dencribiug it. lie thvn flud to Tyranuoi or Tyropoion. Bight ou the 
Use of bis flight towards the oant Heii Tyriaion, and it seoms impowible 
to doubt that n niv Tvpdvimv ^puCpiov stands for to rvtv Tivpavjvlav 
<f>povptov, and that Tvpiintioy is an alteratiou of Ti^Motoi', due to the 

• 6ii' mt. rJiTj'gui Ul Each & GrUlx-r. 

t I I'lpaiid tlko hiiat refflKDoes of Leo nnd CedrenuB, p. 387, la ite«>rJ«nee with tho 
aocoDnt fpvm \tt\tivr ofDoiylftion. 

J Tt riy Tvfiyruy nitrrper, i 'Artiy^iii <h'h\itai, L«o Dine., p. 122. 

{ The aiuuc U ■uwlillI^d \>y liie poputar ctyiiioiusiet to giTC the wcaat, " tlie defeat of 
Uanlak" Ii Bnretta tlie true Diunc ? 



A SKEIX.-U OK THE HISTORICAL GEOORAPHT Of Jt3\X UIN'OK. 

etymologising tendeuo}-. SlandiDg by tlio hieroglyjiliic inscription a 
milv or more north of Eijli-tolu, I eaw a, high eteop bill, beneath wliicli 
Ilghin lay out of dght On this hill therB may hftvo be«n a ByzonticQ 
caiitte. A rocky hiU was also pointed out to mo from the inscription, 
apparently ftboiit an hoar or two distant,* which was naii,! to bo a 
fortifiod Kale. 

60. Hexaimlis. a district in Afiia Minor of this name is occasionally 
mentioDcd.f Tho Arabs ravaged it in 007. Siipor, tho Stratogoe of the 
Armeniac Theme, rebelled againut tlio Emperor Constantino in G88, and, 
aa wo m«y infer, [narobcd westwaids. IIo occupied Iladrianopolia, and 
was there thrown from his horao and killed. Phadalas was gfjnt by the 
Ehalif Moawiya to bolp Sapor, and whon he reachod tho Tloxapolia h« 
learned of the death of Sapor. He halted until he could send for further 
relnforoomcnts. and when they arrived he advanced to Ohnlcodon. and 
as he retired he captured Amorion. Thie account seems to imply that 
Hadiianopulis -wns in the Hcxapolis. Now tho AmioniiKi Thomo at lliis 
time embraced the vrhole of Oappaducia, and a very nalural road for 
Sapor to advance towarda Constantinople wn.3 through Phrj-gia Paro- 
retos and llailrianopoLis. It soome impoesiblo to understAiid in this 
pnaenge any other of the cities named Hadrianopolis. In that raise tho 
Hexapotis mtiiit h« i>qiiiva1ent to Paroreio», and the hIx cities may be 
Jnlia-Tpsos, Hiilomelion, Hadrian opnlifi, Tyriaion, Sinethandi^s, and 
Laodikcia; these sis, lying on or near a great route, might Ijo clasaed 
together for somo government pnrposoB, and thna form a HexapoliB. 

61. liTKAOSics, in tho Cutchiik Sitchanii Ova (CB, Ixixv.). are called 
In inscriplioDS AvKuortt irpoi ivSvv. 

62. AtiKDKKA or Anlokra, with tho famous fuuntihiu called Rooreni 
(i.e. Aiirocrciii) Pontes by Livy,} and AnloTneno by the Greeks 
generally, is the name of the Dombni Ova (CB, Ixxivi.}, 

f»3. MErBOPOLis, in the Tchul Ova, three milca west of Tolarli (CB, 
Izxxvii). 

&i. Ki>t*fADOiiios, pwbably at Geneli, in the aonth-ireBtern corner of 
Karamyk Ova (CB, Is.). 

65. OiNTA, still called Oinan, in a valley which waa jirobably called 
Euphorbium (CB, Ixt., Ixii.). 

G6. Kheiipohia, mentioned by Stmbo (p. 66S), between Metropolis 
and Holoioi (Tehai), roust Imvo Iieon the Dinijc which Livy mentionR 
between MctropoliB and Sj-nnaila. It ia to he looked for botow Karodilli. 
at the eouth-wcBtern extremity of tho Oiaan Ova (sec Ijclow). 

• The iDBcriplion iBabout two mike frotn KtiLi-UiIii, a viiHn nf Klixlyii Kliiin, From 
the Bt^na I KaA tli« hill ovcrll^ltiu 275% E^li-tolD i:{li°. [wlia<tyn Khan IICiBtul tkc 
Kale SiO". Sec my pnpcr ia ' Attiea. UilUtviluugeu,' lUSi). 

t Tlicopliftii., p. »48. 350. 

t EliotriiKiH ill tbo text of liwy (xxxviii., lit), \a nn rrroi- for Bhoriiiios ; but tlic 
raminon correction Obrimai ih u'^isurd ntul cill«ily iinju>linitb!o. 




lis 



67. SlBtlwusr,!, nut mentioned by HierocleB, but perliapH tolw [iioliidei) 
under his dcmQi Amadaaot* which moy ala» bo tlic truoform corrupted by 
Plolemy aa Gammaotutn or (lEimboua. Perhaps it is to be sought fcotweou 
AngnatfijTOUa, PolyTxitos, ITolmoi (Tchai), iiiid Lyttias. SibidonncJa is 
to the Isauriuii namu ^^bidIl us Attuudcia is to Attain, end tui Aloudda (o 
Aii« (CB, UiiL, Isiv.). 

66. I.T^UR, prabably n Pergnmcnian roundation, about RuzaT Agatob 
and Karadja Euren (CB. liv,) 

59. ADii08roTOLt.s at Surmeno (Atln'ti. llittlicil., 1882). 

70, 71. KtERoe Urbisk and Kleros Poutikes formed between tbcm 
ft great imperial estate, the latter being the torritDry of AnguHtopolis, and 
tli« former probably in the hilly roimtry to t\w north- Thoy Beotn to 
Imvc boon uncil, amoug otiior purptMSci;, for breeding horsos, " quoB Phiy- 
giiG matree sacrie prioeepibus cdunt."t 

72. TaoKONDA WOK a villa);;c, itioiitionod in n:i insorlpUou found at a 
bridge tUroo milca north of Pryniuossoa. and four milet WMt of AngtUH 
tupoliat It may ponaibly be the old uaiuo of Auf^niitoiKilts. 

73. AsABoimA, is tho station between M&ndri Fontc« and Beadofl on 
the inarob of Manliusw It is to bo anngbt a little way Ronth-eact of 
Sunncnc, or possibly cv«d at Kara Ar?laiu The latter, however, Hoema 
too near Bcudoo. Anaboura was also a <;ity of the Phrygo-Pinidtan 
frontier, now called Enevre, sit miloa west of ICara Agateh. 

74. MiKORi rosTES, altered by the editors of Livy (xxsriii., 1.1) to 
Alandii Pontes, are the rouuUiins that Sow away towardit PolylotoB, a 
few milea north of the vilUgo of Mnndra, and a few mikii oast of 
Seidilar. 3^^v, dos fet. Greoq., 188P. 

75. Brcjimis Yetvs (as oppoeod to the new city of Synnada, Svo miles 
distant, which wiu probably a foundation of the uarliost Dtadochi). at 
the village Aghiri Earn. Boudcia, and Phyteia are perhaps otiior fortna 
of the name. Hiorodos givoa it corrnptly as DchiJakia. Minis wob 
biahop of Beudoa in 451 i„n. 

7S. Leontos Eome is mentioned in AtheticcDa as a villa^ of Phrygia, 
with hot BpTiDgs, the nalor of whi'ch was harsh and iiuprognated with 
tiitro.ji The rof«renco pofleibly may bo to the liot npring8 about 14 
miles IC.S.R from Afiom Kara Hissar, between Tchobnnlar and Yeni 
Eoui, or to the eorics of but npringH about three honi-s nortb-wcst of 
AGom Kara Hiaftar. It is possible that the soiuo place i» referred to by 
I*eo Dloconita (p. 12:*) as '(}r}Kiovra, or in the niatic speech ruXion-n: 
Leon Phokaa fled thither, a.d. 920, from Chryaopolia on the Busphonw. 
C«drenii8 saya thai he Gnt came to the fortrosB AteotiB, and when rvfaeed 

* Tlie nnroo in nnt qiiitn ccrtAin. Hieroclm liM 'AA^uwav, ttbii'li la I'robablf a 
liBii*{n»ition, with the aitdiliooA) fault of A in pl«c« of ^. 

t fee E.. 22. 

I Mr. lliig'irlli na<U 'Arriwrui in thia iaicHption. I have ooiilti.--l the HMW In 
|)ubli«hiug it. ^cc CD, Ir. 

$ fpcx^'po "^ fiT/witftfTfpa, Atlien., U^ -13 A, 



A SKETCH OP THK HISTORICAL OfiOORArRr OF ASIA MISOR. 

admittance thcro ho wont to raijkfovrtA. Syiiivon Ma^sLer gives tlie 
QuiiiCH Actou* oiwl r»»fA<ciT( (dative).' Aotoi ib mlA by him to }i<^ ft. 
cily, Gootoon au open Qelfl or oonotry village. Leo GranunalicuB agrewi, 
but haii AteouH and ruifXiom. GcorgiuB Hcmaohiid iiieiitioria ouly ri 
miltrtpov "ATfuf*. None of tUrae refereiicee give any cluo to tLe situatiou. 

77. Meros, at Ktimtot (CD, Ixvi.). The wdcr of Hieroclea is clear. 

78. NaicoLCf A, at Seidi Gliazi, as J. B. Steuart aud Dr. Murdtinaiin 
saw aud proved (CB, Ixvii). ViHagt* iu its territor>- were Skiski, Vek- 
iHiicouc, Saxtaiiai:i5, Kask.iua&, aud iwrliapB ItVMA (CB, Ixviii.-lxxiii.}. 

79. Sasoia, 160 Btndia from I'eHiiLnft, at the aoaroe'B of tho Sangariou. 
This distanvo, aa gtveik hy Strabu, iB a deeidod uudomtaUiiiiont. It vrna 
near Tchift«lcr ; and Pazdn. where a TCovatian Synod waa held, booidb to 
have bocn in th« Etuuo uuighhouthood. 

80. Mezea, a village near Dorylaion (CB, Ixxix. Soe telow, p. 212). 
Tlio Dntliye Joined the Tenibris, Terahrogiiis, or Thyhris, at Doij'laiou, 
v. Nia CIioii.. \t. 89. Ciniiiim., p. 81. 101. 

81. Aksilaiox is placed ou tho ro&d between Midaion ami Genua 
Colonin (sec Galatia). 

82. KiiAssax, iht! phiin of the Tembris below Midaion, and probably 
also below Akkilnioii, for Altkilaioii was in the province of Asia,! while 
Kpitro-ov (ir«5('wi') eeeuuB tu I« placed by Galen outaido of tho bounds oF 
Asia (CB, port I., App. I., where it is nnneceseary to correct Kptiviro? for 
Kpaairov : ttcSiui' iii undorbtoud). 

83. KoTiAioN is still called Kutaya. The name is given on coiua 
with tho spelling KOTIAEON, but probably the form KurvaXov, which 
<ifton ofcurH, is iiiorw etrictly accurate. It is the city of Kotj-a, us 
Midaion of Miilas, Tataioii of TaUs, DwryUioii of Dorylas, Akkilaion of 
Akkihut. It WBB the neat of a marked type of Christianity from the 
second centurj' onwards. J 

84. PiiAir'CNisSEis ore a people on the upper TembrLs or Tombrogins, 
about Altj-ntash. Tho ohinf town or village of the district was caUad 
8oa, and the inhakitaDts Suetioi. The name BenutBoa has hitherto been 
given as a variant or rather a fuller form of Hofi, but thia ie a mtstako 
arifling from misHnderetaading of the following iuecriptioB, a dedication 
to the god of the distnot, Benneue or Zona lionnios ; l-wip riju AvroKpiiropo-: 
Ntpova tpatayau, etc., ►«i'ioj( Ail Bewi'to Mijvoi^nVijs T<ij«o[Xajot' tc* 0iaij.ov 
ivifmpjfv Bn't't? Su.jvSi-. The inBcn|ition is boOly cngiavod, and in the 
work of au unpractiaed engraver and an uuedncatcd eompoaer.jj The 
last two words must not bo joined into a single word ; they are added in 
a final lino, ajuirt from and unnecessai-y to the rest of the inscription, 

■ Cttdrrn., ii., 293 ; Symnoa, p. T30 (Boon Ed.) : Loo. Grnmni., )t. 30£ : Groig. Moii., 
p. SHI' (Itoun). 

t ll8 rare roini) Iwliiiig to Aaift, rathi^r tli&n to Citilatiii. 

X Bm niy pnpcn in tliu Exp-nlttr, IH^tt and XiU'S and Addcadn. 

$ Thd Icttcn itre nii3o, and TEIMOAA or. with a gsp belweeo A uml o. is olear. 



C.^-HRTOrA. 



^^^^^ poBsilily evoii Ijy a dlfllamnt hand. Tlioy ai-o aimply inteiiJeil to bring 
I into Bpccinl prominoooo tbe god to whom Uio dedication is made, Beiinens 

I of the 8o«nui. The forais BoDDeu« nnd ZeaH BoDoios are boih osed ia 

I othor insori|it.(oue, tlioiigli not side by sLdo m here. The coiiatruotioii is 

■ awkward, Imt eucL explanatory additionn arc uot a, rare feature in tbo 

I mde i>at*)i8 which waa called Greek by the Phrygians, while tlio addiiiou 

H of ft gouitivu Boi^Kroijiw, according to tho current iiiterpreUtion, 

H is both et^iially awkward and abwilutoly contrary to analogy. More- 

H over, tho iiamt! Soonoi ocrars in anotlier intKiription of tho Mine 

H villago, atiJ wo are hound to accept ita authority, wh«a if ia oonfinoed 

I by the natural and r;implc oxplanalion of the former inxcnptioii. Hon. 

is apparently idvuiival with the t'arian «oTia, 'grave,' «ee Stephantu, a. v. 
SouiiyiAa. 

Tho cftmoB Tottoia, Ahcikto, Trikomia, SSingot, iBkorao, and IsgorM, 
also SIconlapiii (eornij)!?), Siwre Cuomipt f), Oaion Kome (corrupt?), 
Tribauta (uucortain), are found in Ihi* diatnct atdiffvrent perioils ; they 
denote apparently for the luoat part oeparate villagea (CB, sc-xovii.). 

85. EiiKTKTcis, In Older to understand Ptolemy's dtaoription of this 
part of Phrygia, we roust bear in mind that he useii more than one 
anthority. One of bis authoritiw made Phrj'gia extend on the north 
only as for a« tbo Kidyoseeia and tho MnkcdonoB Kudoen-oi. Tho 
nnttority whom ho oaea probably conaidered that along this frontier lino 
Phrygia wag bounded by Mysia. Hence tho Prfti]H'ini»<*ei«, who are 
north of tho EidycflH«is, are a8«igned by Ptolemy to Mysia. But when 
Ptolemy gives ft liat of tho citioe of Phrygia, he follows a different 
anthority, wlio reckoned this entire district as far west as Synaos and 
Aiikyra to I'hiygia. This unctTtainty as to tho liinita of MyaJa and 
Phrygia wua a proverb among the Greeka, aa Strabo mvntions. Ptolomy 
iuakc-3 tho Kadoonoi and Kidycsseis border uot on Myaia but on Bitbynia. 
So also Strabo, p. 70^, makM the Mysians (cnllod Olymponoi and HoUm- 
pontii) intervene between Dithynta, with its capital Nikaia, and Phrygia. 
la other places also Hlrabo ai«ignR a considerable territory along the 
north fioniier of Phrygia to W.ir'Wa. At other tira« he aaaigas both 
Mysia and Epiktetoa Phrygia to the district about OIj*m]M>« between 
Bithj'nia and Great Phrygia. Bpiktetos contains the six cities, Midaion, 
Doi^-Iaion, Kotiaion, Nakoloia, Aizanoi, Kadoi, thoagh Strabo adds that 
Kodoi ia by some reckoned as part of Myaia (p. 671, 570). But when 
(p. !>G7), he oxCenilatho nnnio Phrygia to include BIowIoh near Ankym, 
which must be the Blados of Uierooles, it is impomiUo to think, aa 
mont anlhoritiea do, that he extended the name Plirygia to indnde the 
modern Bolat (eco p. 133). Bolat is iu Strabo'tt Myida Abrettene. 

The solution of these apparent contradict ions lies in tlio songe of tho 
word Kpiktutoa, whioh ])urhap« was given by the Pergamenian gu^-ccn- 
mcnt " to a territory, considerable part of which had previously been 
* The toiM of Epiktctos arc rcrf^mraian tn typv. 



A SKETCH OK THE UlSTOBICAL OEOOEHPHY OF ASL\ MISOR. 



rockoncd ^[yisiiLii. Hence tlinro is a tondcucy to vury iiD«I oOcfllSB 
betweeu Piirvgia E]iikli>loa aii-I Mysia. Not luercly Ankyrn anJ Syuaos, 
wliicli Sti-ubo rookous tie lI^Rm Ablinitis, but also Kodoi (whero no 
inscription of tbo Abtacitai occuns, Lo Baa, No. 1001). PiaiponiwoH 
(reckoiietl by Ptolemy in Mysia), um), Uierefore, necesftarily also Aixanot, 
wcro at ODO timo ami l>y some wi-iton) rockuiicd ne part of Uysio. IIodm 
it is quite nutural tliat Xeiiophun. sliould call Keraiuun Agura (Islam 

Tbo uamo PbryKiu wmi givcu to tbo country nilcd by a foaquenQR 
tribe of Phryges, CToeBing from the Macedouiuu side of Thi-aco by tho 
lle,llesy>ouU At a later time now troops of Eiirupouu barlwrtanH, the 
Mysoi, ponetratcd into Asia, pressed the Phrj-ges fartbor inland, and 
partially oocupiud tli«ir oouutry. lu this way tlio cxtnioi'dinaiy intor- 
Ucingof the two nATUcs becomes int«lligii>k. Tho aituatioti of the partn 
callud My»ia, wliicb, acconliug 1o Stntbo, separated IleUeiipoutiiie 
Plirygid from Grt-at Pbrygia ami EpiktiitOB, and uu one siJo adjtvined 
tho KaikoB Dsd the PurgamcniaQ territory an far west as T«utliraiiia, 
while it extended Ibrougb Abbaitis and Abrettene io the Mysian 
Olympos Qj. 571, S76), can only b« expbkiued if we Biippoae the Mynoi 
to Iiavo crossed into Asia at a point much farther WLst thao the 
Pbrygiatie did, probably fdllowing tho route which aftevwavda Alexander 
and BarbaruiiMit bolh took. 

8C. ArrrA, on ibo noman mad butwiicii Aknioiiia and Kotiaion, is 
well known isiuco the jonmcy of Lc Bob. It is still called Abia, CB, 
xcviii. Coiufl have the spelling 'Aiririai-uii', but tbij true uauio is probalily 
Apia, liko tho 'Airi'd yaM of tlio Peloponnesus: tho namn i« connected 
with the stem ajw or ahca, '• water." Le Quien omita Paul, biiibup of 
Appla, 325: tho Acta have AptuiieensiH for Apiauonsis, and La QnioD 
reads Acmoitietieiij. 

87. EuDOEiAS ia a name which, liko Puloherianopolis, Yiilontia, and 
Thoodoaia, points to the fourth and fifth centuries. At one time I waa 
dispoaod to seo in it a temporary name of Kotiaion, bnt aa all authorities 
assign Kotiaion to the province of Salutaris, I have been obliged to givo 
iip this view, and to regard Eudokiaa, according to tho order of Hioroeles, 
as occupying the north frontier of Pacatiana, lictween Apia and Aizanoi. 
Thera is » tract of uucxpl'ored country ui this neigh bourliood, on the 
north «fcirt« of Murad Dagh, reported to coataia many villages. Eudokias, 
however, 18 probably the iniperial estate, on which weo IC, 22. 

The next five bLihopricD were an ecclesiastical district, and -were, 
then&ni, according to tbo principle wbioh is observed in many caece, a 
local district also. Four of them, AJKAtKii, Kadoi, Anky ra, and Synaos, are 
well kuowu, and tbo fiftli, Tibcriupolis, uiust be placetl Bdjuining them. 

88. AzAxui or AuANOi. Tho site at Tchavdir llisar, with ita extec- 
aive and intvitfe^ling ruins, i» wutl kiLciwu. Hicphamia moiitiuns* that 

' On Llia uutborilv of II<Tiii02t!i».'». 



I 




1 



C^PHRITGJA. 



U7 



EnpliorbuA was the first priostly dyniwt of tlio temple, and waa 
appointoil becaii80 he t«nglit tii« projwr method ot sacrifice. Tlic story 
may be taken jui proof of the former existence of priestly dj'naetfi, at 
AtzADoi. such ns nre well known At Ollu, Pcsflinui, Cotnnnn, Sec; trhero 
the prieitt rnl('<l us iiiterprcvtor uf iho wilt of tho guil. KtipliorbtiB pre- 
Kcribeil the aacriGco of the hedgfhng and tho ftix (t$iv htiA alavovv), anil 
hoaoo CDuit's tiic ii^mu uf tho city, wbich oiigUt iitrictly to lie "E^ovavoir. 
W«r« it not for this form, 1 should be dieposod to connect Amnoi with 
Phrygian A(ipa, nccus., " beaid." The Zeits of Aizattoi Ik doubtlevi of 
thv Bunm cbaractiT us tho Z^uit Uuntious of Uiu Fraipcuiseelft, And &x tbu 
Zona BronloD of Dorylaion uxd Nakolcia. Tho two latter are identi- 
fied in n dodicatioQ found in the district of Xakoleia Ail Bfiorr^i-n xot 
Utvpti. This Zciw was apparently the god of tha European trilje, which, 
ucoordiug to my viow. ovoiTan Phrygia nboiit 900 i!.c,, or possibly cTcn 
earlier, and which adopted tho religion of Cybele and moth of tho 
civilisation and social ctMtoma of tho oldur race, among whom it 8ottl<Kl 
as a conciuoring caste. I regard Benneua as oonneat«d wiih the Thraoo- 
Illyrittn Hoiina, a car, and as denoting tho thundering goil, who diivest 
in hia CAr acro6« tho hi>avc!<ue. In tho moro civilizod fitat«B of Xakoloia 
iiud Dorj-liiion, tho Greek term Bronlon waa substituted for the native 
name Utvnncuti. 

i9. TiutiiiioroLis, about Amcd, Aaaarlar, ur Egrl Goz. Thore waa 
here a cultiis of the ttfiofff^txioi 0«h 'S.<ff<ttrro!, either Au^stus and Liria. 
or motv probably Tiberius and Liviu, tho imperial mother and eon 
taking tho place of iLe divine mother and son, who wcra ofton wor- 
abippcil ill Aain llinor us LoU> and Luirbenus. Tbu district around it 
waa called Abr«tt«ne, as M. Waddington has shown in his admirablo 
cUsDUwioii (I;0 Bas-Waddington, No. 1011). 

flO. 91, AMKiaA and Syhaos wore provod by Hamilton to haTe been 
situated at Eilisati Eeui and Simav. They were joined in one 
bishopric inlator Bj-zantine time. Ankyra aomctim^^s horo tho epithpt 
Sidera or Fcrrea, apparently t<^ distinguiish it from thti G»bitian 
Ankyra.* The river Makeaton rises in tho lake of Siniar, and the 
district aixxind won cikllcd Abbauitia. 

!>:;. Kaik^l The accnsative form ban remaiuod till the present day in 
the form Ghcdix. Tho othnio KaSoi^i'us Khow« that Kadoi is derived 
from the name KaSt!;, a Lydo-Phrygian hero.t Tho proper form, there- 
fore, ia KiI&)FciL or Ka&oi, Kix£oFou« or Ko^Ct. Hence comes Uio 
personal name KaSnva;, i.o. KnSuFuf, found on tho sotithoni Phryo- 
Pisidian frontier. Kadoi was a Macedonian colony (Pliny). 

93. TiiKODOsiA is placeil by the order of Hieroclea at Bhap Ehaua i no 
other cridenoe oxiata.^ I have assumcl that Tboodoida and Gudokiaa 

• M. Wmlilingtoii (Ic) •»)• "qnniit !t I'qijtliSt*; iJi: Ftrrcn q«'i! [I« Ba»] lui 
iloniip. J0 ntt *iib oil il I'a raucootn^)." It uociin iii tlie liali) of tlie Nic«UL' Council, 
t KaAaFi|>^t, 'OrpeTiirit. impi/ an ortgtniil Bteol Katv, 'Orfti. 
I Domiiiniiit TliocxlMwpolU PbtyH"" ^^''-ntinn* in 536 (I.tibbi>, p. 74): cp. p. 198, 



146 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL CEOarurHY OF ASIA ML\OG. 



dieajipCAr in the int«rvAl bctwcoD Hierocle* nii<l ihn earliest XntitU. 
This may bo juetified by tbo example of Dabiiiui in Piaitlia, which doost 
not ncciir later than ITit?ri>clen, htkI of Kimnfiljorion in I'luygiii nnil uf 
Atvoiit ill i'isidia, wliicli a|>|>oar in llivrocks aiHl the ciirliist vlius of 
Xotitite, but disappear in the latest Xotilift?. In sacb oasca tbe town 
did not, fts I think, ilinaiiiicnr entirely, but whb iiuly mergeil in tbo 
same biahopric with some neiglibnuring place. 

84. TEaiESOTfiTfRAJ. The sttnation ni' this city is a. Jifficwlt prvtblcHi, 
as two sotiiwiB of eTidonco,eoph apparently precise, seem to conBict with 
«ich other. 

In the tliut piftci! Tenieiiothyrai le^rs alsu tho naiuu Flaviu]K)U» on 
itii coins, and Arundel heard of an iiiecriptiou uf FlaTiopalia atUahak.ond 
an inscription of a na'ive of Tcmenothym.i, found at Ushalt, is pnblished 
in Ii»Ba8-Waddingtun, No. 727, Xow tlio Bitu of Grimenotliyrai-Ti-ajn- 
oppolifl was about nix milea cast of I'shaV, and it is natural to Mippotitj 
that tbe trrO' names dvoigoute a pair uf citicti uf tho vallty of Uithafc, 
one Du tlio «.«st sidu and tho othvr on ths wettt. I have found coins of 
Tenienotbjrai offered for sale in grrat iiiiiiibfti-s at Usbalc. 

lu the Hooond plaa^, howuvcr, PauHiinius mt'ntiun« that Touicno- 
thyrai vras a email city of Upper Lydia, vrhere tlier« vaa a taoiiuluD 
contaiiiiiif* tho corpso of Hyllos, son of Gc, " from whom tho rivor took 
ita uaino." It Buutns a natural iufutoiico from this that thu river flowing 
past Temenotli yrni was the Hyllos. Now the Hyllos is known from 
coins to ba tho tributaiy of tho IlGnuofl flowing pant Saittai. Thia 
Tivcr, whose conmo i havo traced fiom its foih'oc, ia in/wrrectly given in 
Kieport'tt iiitipH. It rix^s in the lofty monntainii iiumodiately south of 
Syuaoe (Sitnav), and has a ooniec similar to that of (he Deminlji Tchai. 
This range of mountains runs apparently rontinuouely along tho south 
side of tliL' MiikcHtus vBllcy, ojid thore con Iw little doubt that the 
wentei-n part of ths range at least was fiallod T^/^vos. The name T^^mto- 
Svpai was clearly nudorstood to mean " tho paases of Mount Teranos," ' 
and the case then might sesm uiiide out that Tumcitothyrai lies ou the 
tipper waters of tho river Hyllos, on the southern slopes of Mount 
TemnoH. The situation suits Fansauias's oxprewtion, "a city of Uppor 
liydia." It must hi.' acknowledged that wc should cxpuct Tciunos to bo 
tlio divieion letweea Lydia and Phrj-gia, and all jilaccs on tho south of 
tlio moiintainB to be I-ydia. Tho only dilficnlty, then, would arise 
fVoui the fact that all Byzantine listM place Teuienutbyi-iu in Phrygia; 
and this diffiaulty cannot be considerod insurmountable. 

The second view sevaicd to mo the more probuble whoa writing 
C'B, § cvi)., and Prof. H. Kivport has sinco followed it in his recent map 
of Ana Minor. lie haa, however, made tho error of placing Tomeno- 

* 1 bare liowevcr no doubt Hint >I. 8. JkinAc)i'« esplanaUou of Bipa. aa altered by 
|iopulsr I'tjranlogy from tcim, "rillngp" (*ijm|»re TliynteitB, Tcico, ami porLiip« 
BadtiDnntitlx t ni), !• qnltc right. 



C—PHRyOIA. 



U9 



ihyrai, not on the river which flowx liy riniltMi, bnt on the Bominlji 
Tchai. Owing to tliL- huihII scttlu of Jhe map, the site nF Snittai eccms to 
l)« hall-way betwoon tho two ririir*, l>iit ronlly it i» not in the -valley of 
the Deiuinlji Tcliai. but near the c?oiirse nf the next river on the oast. 
1 then imngineil that ATanilcI's anthonty ooiild not be tmstwl \a rcgaft 
to thiH iuecription, which he pivca only in cureivc test, remarlcing that 
Fla-viopolis IB known as a bishopric, Ab thin remark ia wronjf, being 
hasfA apparently on aconftieiun with Trajauopolie, I thon>;ht that the 
inscription conid not he accrjitcd as oviJenoc. Dnt MoriBiour S. ReinacH 
has since connnci^d me that I watt iiajust to Arundel. KuhimfunnA 
two inBcriptione of Ushak, copiod in the early part of the century by a 
French tmvellor, which mention Temenothyrai.* 

The finit view Ihen nttiot he aLi^epti^. and tlio wuiila uf Pautsanioa 
m»y then be p«rliftiM uudoratoofl aa not impljing that " tlie river" 
in qncfltioii Bowed past Temenothyrai, tnit merely aa referring tci the 
Lydian river at no ^eat distance, which flowed into the llermos. 
Panafinian neenia to speak not an an eyo-wittip»s. lliil perhaps a hvtter 
iotcrpi-otatioD i» to sappow that tboro were two vivern II,>'Uoa, one at 
Kaittai, and one at Temenothyrai, tlie latter flowing towards the 
Vwauder. The atory HeeiiiH niiR'h iiioi-o natural if llynos l)e a locnl 
]>crson&ge ; and if the name Ilylli"* were not artiially presurvtxl in the 
local iiuiucnvlaturc, it is hard to Hae why the hero Tciuonos, who ie 
mentioned on tlio wins of the (lity. should not have been m&de the 
pinprJetor of the bones. I Kliuuld then louk for Toniencilhyi'ai a littlo 
til the west of Uahak. on the higher ground wiKirating the hasitjR of 
the llerniotj and tliu Mivander. The " thronv " mentioned by raueanias, 
•K wrought in a projecting rocky ajinr of a bill at Temenothjrni may 
perhaps yet lie disoovered.| T!io ni-ighbonrhond nf Kiirc and Yeni 
Keui, or poiusilily ITshuk itnelf, may be given lis the aitc of Temenothyrai. 

%. TuAjAKOfOLis was refouiided and roiinincd in A.P. 119, about the 
end of Sc^ptenibor, by poiiiii««ion af the Emperor n«,dnAu4 Tmjano- 
polis WB8 a city of the |)eople called OKnicsoTinniTAi, a« Ptiikmyl 
mentions. Coins of the Grimcnolhyritai are found under tLo earlier 
emperors, but uuno are latvr than Ifadrlau. It would appear, then, that 
aeify was founded in thoir t<>n'it<.>i'y and named Ti'ajanopolis, by special 
leave of Hadrian, in honour of hia deceasiMl impiTial fathor. \l was 
apparently named in omnlatiou of TemeautbyiBl-FliiviopoIio. The name 



■ Tlkeco|iice »to nry rt»|piciituiv, but Icoul4 aoo uo rauuu to iloubl lua nnt'initiim 
«f the tun name. IVinrnotlij'nii Klnviupolin. 

1 Bpivat iytp6t itrttv iv<i[rjmr/i4i-ot tpaut Kitiittt wptBeKf, I'Aiit, i., .15, 7. 

Z 'thn inacriihlii>D moutloainjc thofIat«triu wpledOratby Ilitriiillun, and laputliihrd 
hi 11 luoro K»inpl«t« fona in my CB, riiii. It U At Tcliarik KmiJ. The inaoription ia 
older tbao, anil oauaot be ooaQoclcl nitli, Ilndriaa'n joum«y iit A»U Miuor. aaJ d^s 
not tlicrefoiejiintirf Dm-rrin iiuutin^ it ua4-vL](!iieeliiliis*'fttini!ri i\(r» Kaiw^n Hotlrian." 

S Tl!« text lias Tptiunodvf'iTu ; iliti cornvtinn it mo-lc hj M. VTaddiiigloo, on 
Lc BBS 727. 



150 



X SKETCH OF TllK HLTTOEUCAL GEOOKAPHV OF ASIA MINOF!. 



Grimcnothyrai disftppora lioDCofortb from ubo, so far as coIub and the 
Byxaiitino lists are concerned; but the nauie Flaviu))olia wus soun 
dimseJ, ftuJ Temenothyi-ni reiualued ciirn-iit. The order nf Ilierocles 
places them together, &ml bo also do Nutitim ui., x., xii. Tht: actual site 
of Trajauopolu was tit Giaour Eureii, uear Orta Keui, which is about six 
mil(» east uf Uolink. 

flfi. Plixhoiasoi-ous iH proWbly thu uaiuu under which Motella wa« 
Rnl raiauil to the rauk of » inKii, CBi oix. The nitme evcmH (g bv a 
false form. ntfvAxv*<wiroAtT snd IlouXx^ari; are both cwn-ect forms, but 
n*vX;^f/>Mivoi''R'<iA« confuses the two. 

97. LvKOKKASllAi well) a diviisioii iif iufautr/ stationed at some place 
io Fhrjrgia in the time of Justiuiuu (Thoopbau., p. 178). It i^ posniblo 
that tb«y dtrivcd their name from tlio fort where thoj were statioued ; 
but more probably the iia.nio bolougi-d to them as a regimeut, perhapg 
derived fruui the type of helmet that they wore. Sw Addenda. 

98. Mastaixis vraa meutioned as a city of Phrygia by Alexander 
Folylkietor, qnotod by Stophaniis. The name occurs in two iiiscriptioDB, 
one copied by Mordtiimnu,* niid both oo]>i«d by lue iu a deserted ceme- 
tery on tho road between Arab Euren and Kaimax (Trokuades). In it 
are two Hiiiall brokeo oeluiiiiie, itppureutly of Synnadio marble, very 
like others which I saw at Kuinins. Sach of these ooLumus has two 
inflcriptionR on oppoMic sidea at the siinio height. On one i>ido is 'Ayi'a 
&*icXa in llynintini; letters, not earlier than the fifth century*: on the 

other side i» 

(I) AAMAM [2) AbfAM 

OA OAA 

It in reniavkablfl that both tlicsc inKoriptions aro written from right to 
loft, wbcrttts the name of the eaiut is written in lhi« ordintiry direction. 
The dill'ereuoe in llu' form of the luttvnt might snggcfit a later date for 
the name of the aaint than for the word Mandalo, but the exact oorre- 
Rpondcncc of the two inscrij'tions can hoi'dly bo accidentA]. " Mnndalo " 
may be cuuuu^ted with tliv lity Mantalos. 

0&. The dirifiionfi of Phrygia vary much at different times. In 
earlier time we have Phrygia Magna in the interior and Phrj-gia 
Hellespontia on the south of the PEelleNpont and Pro^KintiR. To these 
wan added Phrygia Epiktetos, probably in the Porgaiiienian time, n 
district iutcrrening between Phrygia Mngna and liithynia, and in part 
assigned by many writers to Mysia, Phrygia Pttroreius wun the great 
high-lying rnlley lietwcon Emir D.igb and Sultun Dngb, extending from 
relybotoH to Tyriaiou. The came Phrygia extended apparently to a 
point Bonth cf Apciltonia nnil AnMocheia Colonia (usually called Autio- 
cfacia of Piaidia), but north of Eonane, NcapoHs, and Analxium. 

" Mnrdtmiinu lii ' Sitzuog»liir. il. Biiytr. Akuil..* 1862. p. II. He ■jk'aIiii of llio 
enigfnntin tni)cri|ili(m n; written VitiatropliC'don ; tlili is a miatnkp, a^ liia ov!\ transcript 
shows. il« •**; tli« one which 1 givo as (2). 



J 



C— PH1170IA. 

Ill tTi« CBilier TljMiittTie period we hear little or notliing of Phrygia 
HellejipfHitia, Part of ParorcioH, busidcs Apullonia, the southern Metro- 
poliH, Apamoia Klbotos, Tymandos, and Antiooheia were asei^ed to 
Pieidift. . AU tbo Test of Phrvgia was divided into two provinces, wliioh 
wore at'fTret called Prima and STOniida, towards A.n. 400 Magna and 
Parva, and lieginning from about a.d. 360 Pacatiana aud Salntaria. Tito 
laat pair of nauies bocame nnivereal during tlio fiftli contnry, and ftU 
oth«r titles dignppoarcd. At what exai?t time the divi«icn into two 
provini^m was uccompliBh&d is Htill n matter of doubt. On the whole 
tlio pmhahilitjr secmti to me to be that it woii made, not by Diocletian, 
bnt soon after him by Conetantine.* The border towns in Balutaris 
were Kotiaion, Pjaipenieecia, Akrocnos, Lj'leaonci!, BronsoB, Stoktorion, 
f^ukarpia, Anrokra; and in Pacatiana Aizanui, Endukias, Eidyefisoii, 
DioVlea. Pepouza, StuiMaion-jTistinianopolis-f Some trace ramains of a 
dinaion into smaller districte, porliaps for goTommontal pnrposM; 
Fentapolis incladed the 6ve cities of the npp*r Olankon valley. 

At the diviaioiL into Themes, Phrygia was divided betweon tbo 
Anatolic and the Opsikian. The latter inclnded Alidainn, Bnrylaion, 
Eotiaion, and marched with tho former at Moroa. Drawing a line from 
this point BO as to incIud'O the fortress of Opaikion (KouU), we may 
safely flay'lliat Aiikyra. SiTmoR. Tliooflosia. Kadui, Aisanoi, Til)orio]>oiie, 
Eadokiait, Apia, and perhaps PruipcnisHCiH were included in Opirikion, 
and that Dindrmoa (Mnnid Dagh) wan the houndarj towards the 
Anatolic Theme. The rest of Phrygia, together with LyVaonia and 
part of Pieidia. formed tbw vast Anatfllic Theme. It may howATer be 
doubt«l whotlier the Lykos valley, with iho strong fortreiw Khonai, 
which was probably a Ttirma, waa not inclnded in the Tlirakcsian 
Theme, thfiogh ConBtantino Bays nothing ahoat ir. In a fichome of 
defence the Lykoa valhw goes nainrally with the TlirukoBian Theme. 
The name TTexapolis, denoting apparently the citien of Phi^-gia Paroreios, 



• MntfilaR Rxyg that Constantitip mailp ilia proTinre Salataria Plirygia (il'ii., (i. 323): 
but lip naw tiie immti Uitit vias PiifLiimiir; in hi* invn limn. Knir Tnr Mala1<is, a. vny 
poor nathontv. «in bp Imstwl f.n Bueh a point Is anctfrtotn, lint n.o1liin)> i* knr>wn Uiiil 
coaSiot* yr'iiU bU nUkTiiest. Mommwn ^nd Cxwtdiua niv Inoliac^ to di*crc(i[t hia 
■latBinent imd In nttritmlr ILl* iliTiiiioo lo DioclvtiBn ; Kuhii, JiiHif n, hiii] Iljclteuie ore 
Inclined tnnwei>t a dule luitr tLiin Diocletian. The Ivu I'hrjgiiu an^, nennnting to 
UuebMOe, ■eparntnl in prraimbic tn Coticil. Snnlic., A.D. 347. bnt «v«ti Ih'm infor-nco 
cannot be juetJficH. Th« li»t i» Uysin, Anh, Oarin, llitlijrtitA, Ht'Ilt'spont, Pbtrsiu, 
PhtTgiB altviBi Plridla. CupiMilooio, Poatiu EuxtDn*. CiUciB, ruinjitiylin. L\din. 
Cjrcdadw Qalatia (Uanii. li., 71S-6): tliii liat ia oljvion^ily a bter aad onhistoiieat 
flethm, fer Uyda, Pantas Enxhiua, and CjoIfuIm were ncvur Bviuntiun pTnrincca. Th« 
«{>i8tbi aT Ui« Mmn nmnail fpffm a mueti meto tniHwortby li»l: Cilicio. Isaaria, 
C«pp«-i«cw, GaUti*. Pontw, Bilhyiiin, Paphlngqaia, Caria, Phrjgia, Pimiiiii, Iiietilao 
CyoliHliiiu.Xjdla. Aria, Hellcapoiitas (t(>., 731). 

t In ' Const. Porph. dc Tbcm.,' jx 11. r«ad, oi at U'oat uuiknlarid, inb rui 'KKfotrnZ 
nl p'xpi Tov 'Ajiapiav mtXrirai ^pv^a laXnvrofiSa. Eilbnt the text liai hfMi «orni]it<'d 
or Contlnntini! hai miirciirc^B-'titiHl hit nutbority. 

VOU IV. H 



a^PHRYQIA. 



108 



IB foniid during tnw period (in the cightt century). During this period 
tbe Church retained tlio old divisiou and names, Paoatiaiu aad 
SKlataris. 

In late Byzantine liUtoriaos the aatnos Groat and Littto Phrygin 
xctippear in a new nense. Great Phrygiu ih dufintMl by Ducas* as the 
territory from Aeaoa to tho Ilollospoat : it i^i apparently much the same 
H tbe modern vilayet Kanuii, and wnit nilod by % Turkieh chief of that 
nama 'Oiis name ubviuut^ly urieeH from a (lim recolleotion of Phrygia 
HelleBpnntia, and ib purely liUTury with no teal political exi8tono& In 
contract tu it tbo two provinces Pacratiiina and Ralntaria are summed ap 
as ■' Entire Phrygia," or " Upper Phrygia " (Nioet. Clion., p. 68 ; C«droa. 
it. p. 09) as disIingniBhed from "Lower Phrygia" or Karaei (Dnoos, 
p. 72). Uncus atill nncs the twu iiuuieis Pacatian& and Salutaris s« 
divisiaQH of Upper Phrygia, and mentioue (p. 77) thilt tbo lattvi wan 
oalled T>y the Tnrks Kara Hisftr (K^i^xwrup), which approximates ux a 
very rough way to the truth. 



D. ClTIEa AXD BlSHOPElCS OF HEU.Xai'OSTCS. 

1. The province of nelleHpoutn.1 is ontirely nnknown to nio. Except 
OD a ehert excnraion from the DarduiielloH tu At»u». 1 have novor been tn 
tbo country. Tbo Byzantine lists differ so much from oaoh other, and 
Hifirof^lft* iasn oomipt,!" thnt tbe topo;;rapihy of this province is more 
dilTicuH than that of any other in Ania Minor. 

Hieroolee gives ninny places which the Netitiaeomit. Many of these 
•Tfl email towoH, or tvtai Tillages, which pcrhapa nuvci had the rank of 
oities or biahopricA, But it in eertaiuly difficult to see why Argiza, 
Bladus, and Skopeis are emitted by the N'otitiw. Skepaia ia, however, 
included tinder the title Saint Cornelius by Notitin X., XIII., and its 
omuwioD in the others is pcrhupa only a slip. 

2. A comparison of tbo N«litiio with tbo listfl of the Connoils shows 
that the biitlioprios are almost tbe sanio at alt timos in nelUspontus, and 
that Hiuroclfs dooe not found liis lint on them. His lint in general 
keeps close to the geo^aphical order,} and is probably either feuudi-d un 
iutimato knowledge of the country or on a govorumont list of town- 

* ^pvyia waira ^api Toil Kaficiiir, Irdpa tpvy!a KrydXii ifixofiii"! i'b 'Airir«S w6\ttn 
iXP> «b1 'tLXXitfrivrav npi Tou Kaparih p. IS. Tba wunU *pv^la Kryd^rj, 4^t^fa 
lUrvBTiu^ on tlie Mme ^ffi tuvo Soeii otlfO Titt^rly miiiuii'l^ratco.l, an if M'-jiKTj wu 
Baltttarij: but tlio [iii— gfi irally uicttiiit Ikixt Hio Bjuctiuo power cxleiiiled met 
Bi^Ilmpontlne Pliry {^ (MryiXn) mkI PiirtttiauA, Liit nni over SnlntAiui. 

t nierocIOB bai ditlo^phj in Bapli C^^*^] nifpiiw. 'Atpiaroi Bgpai H F*AI, nmifiiion in 
M { lAifTifrlaAit, and ntUa eomiption in a(»i Tpiioi, Kipyn (peitutps = K«^m), 'Pixrta, 
KavtialrTi (Pliny, Couicinm?*, *C. 

X Exl^e|>tio^g goDcretly depend on doubtful id«litlfio«tioiiB, luvli <u WcmoUd^i 
SUcmn with 6iKci"n. Miuulrai «!tli Kmuilrcia, Ktrgu with Rebreoe, BliFket* with 
Bli«jii>lfin, ami Artemea with Atamen, all ot which, tlteiefore, ara prubablj to bo 
rej«ntc<i. 



5RICAI GKOGBAPHY OF ASU MINOR. 



Bhips. Bwtof all the placojj which ho mentions and wliieh did nothccomo 
bishoprics, only one etruok any coina, via., tjkftutundros ; and its coins ara 
older than b.c. 300, &o that it had piiseuil ontof exiatoiioe, or at least ooased 
to be of auy iinportaiicd, abcmt that tim«. On tliB other band, all tlie 
bishoprics alau struck coins, excc{}t Baris (whioh tuok thu place of 
Friapoi!, u city ooiuiug laouoy) and Oka. IlelleBpoatufl, thorefore, givoa 
no roaaon tobalievo in imyoxetiplioiiJ* to the mle thitt city and bishoprio 
arc Ofjiiivalont tarma. All the places which he gives in addition to tlie 
"Cities and Bishoprics" neem to be unimportant little places, with the 
exoeption of Blados and Argiza, The futmer however in probablyn city 
of Lydin, which has been transferred to Hellespontoii by a corruption of 
8omo scnb(>.* Ar^za is a puzzle which 1ta.H already been dLtcussed 
under ALGIZA Asiae. If Hioroclos's authority for Ilollespaiitus was 
a gaTommcDt list, it cannot have beeb a list of iraXtitt for he gives 
many places that never were woAkis (to judge from the evideiioo acces*;- 
iblo to «b). Iu all probal>Llity he knew the country iutimn-tely, and 
i^ko from his own knowledge more fuUy than in othor provinoaB* 
wbcrv Le Gou&uea himfielf rigidly to the " Cities and Bishoprica." 

a. Hiorodos logins with Cyzieoa, ami tliuu, after giving the island 
ProooniieHUR, goes along the Hellespont and down the west coast 
to Trous, and then up the Sciiiunndoi'. Barie was probably on the 
Grauikoe, and rultid the district along the coaat as fur as Cjzicos.t 
This district probably cont&tned the town Anl^mia, which is mentioned 
by Georgiiis Aoropolita (p. 13) between Baris and Poimanenou. Aulouia 
may have derived its name from the Aulen of the Atscpos, which seema 
to hdvebeou a noteable feature of the oonutry (Stiub., p. C03). Baris 
tien must have replaced (probably in a different sitnationj the older 
Friapos, which atruuk a few coli]3 fruiu about lOO B.c. down to Gordian; 
and Attlouia must have been near it, for Aorn^mlita mentioii^ them as 
a pair, and IJicetas, p. 121, actually idvnli&es tbeu, a mistake which 
probably ariuea from theix> being a bialiop Biiptw% ^m Af^wnV^ 
PoUohua is mentioned by Strabu (pp. C03, GOT), as in the glen of the 
Aisepoa near old Skepsis ; it waa on tic north-eaatem elopoa of Ida, near 
tiw souroee of the Scamauder. 

4. Hieiocles then returns eastward, keeping a little inland. Poliohna 
IB to be found on the left bank of the Aisepos, perhaps about the middle 
of its course. Artemea is not, *vith Wosselinj, to be altered to At»m«a, 
which, was in Byzantine Asia, Artemea is obviously a, village with a 
bieron of Artemis, and tbie conuderation leaves us no hesitation in 
ideDtifyiug it with the bot spriuga on the lower Aisepos. There was 

* Tbo Eubjwt is (liKC'Ubged uuilur Lj'clin. § 41. 

t 'E^tifia is probably na c[iUhcI of npautot^roii tec AeiDDTDi. 

Nlc. Cliou., 121 ; -rp ha-rit 'EWfirmtrray Av\atr(if, ib., 711, ill diatlQctiOL &Otu, Aulouiu 
Dear D]rrnw;liiiioi. Uti Dorla^ kx § 1^ 



I 



D.— HEIXESPOSTTS. 



155 



ftsn^n ^rtomis T1ienn&i&, to wfaotn ArisUdee composed hymns (vol. I., 
p. SOS, ed. Bind.)- 

Rheketa U qnito iinknon-n and proLaUy corrapt, a.n<l tUeu w« have 
Germo • and Mjletopulis on the etuitem fmntior.t HieroftlcK nnxt gives 
tlio towns to TTadriaQOiilliLTAi, nil gf wtich are iinkiiowii. The fol- 
lowiDg towDB aro on ib« Houthem froutier: — Pioiiia vreA apparently 
south or aoTith-west of Skopais, to jutjgo from Stmbo (p. 1510), who 
m«utinu8 it. along witli Aiiduira and Gargarin. Tho latti>r ia in Byzant- 
ino AHia, and tho former is otherwise unknown.} Argiza waa reoently 
di8Cuvtir«4 by Dr. Fabrioiiis ; it te nieDtionud by Pliny aa Erezii, and by 
tlio roiiting&r Tabic aa Argoaie. Ergasteria waa 440 stadia from Por- 
gamoson tho road to Cyzicrm, and waa therefore on tho upper waters of 
tbu TarsioH. &kcp»i!t was on tho ttppcr waters ut tho AiHopom (^trab., 
p. 603). Mr. J. T. Clarka plac«B it at Kunhuntu Tope oa the upper 
waters of tho Scamander : tho situation doea not eeom (juito to accord 
with Stral>o,§ but il ta letter for tho priwont to follow tbo opinion of a 
soholar who ta now throwing bo much Hght oti tho antiqititlos of the 
Troad, and who knows the twantry bottvr than any otJicr. Perhaps be 
in«aiia that now Skopsta wufl at Knrshnulu Tui)o, and that old Sl<6p«ia, in 
a higher poaitlon CO btadia distant, was about the common sonrce of 
tho Soamaudor and Aisopos. 

Ht. J. T.Clarke remarks aoately that Andorra andPionia, aeonuuior- 
fttcd by Strabo, are on a road fiom Skopsis to tho const. Qi«r«eleB doea 
not give them in thia order, for there is 8\ery probability that his 
Siderou refers to the iron-tuines bcsido Audeira (Btrab., p. 61fl) ; Piooi*. 
howovcr, ho pla«08 uftor IladrianontJieraJ. Perhaps jVrgi;!a, Mandahada 
and Ergaetorion aro to bo nought on tho Aiiti'poB or tho Tarsioa. 

Sagara ta nover meotionod elsewhere, but may l>u a correct name, 
related to the name of the rivor Sagarin aa a place oamo to a personal 
Dnuo. Compare Ariawoe and AryaBsiis Kidramos and KJdramouaa, 
Kadoi and Kadouas, &a. But see Lydia, % 41. 

5. HAiiRiiKODTHEBAt wfts fouiidod ty Tladrian after a Inclcy l3oar> 
hunt. Ita situation ia given by the writer iu Smith's DiutJoiiiiry aa on 
thu road botweeu Eiguateria and Uilotopolis, bat this seems only to be 
a, mistake founded ou tbu road PcrgamoH-Hadrianouthorni-Milotopolis io 

* Oemie. or Hioia Gcraie, bits boon generally n3fn;E^M('<1 m ritiiatctl Dcnr Etrmftsli 
Kii£Gaba, where the nyMtititic Aoiata M><nn« Io have Iv^on ((}., 20). Tlie OcrmiiLii ItilU 
ni'iitiotidd liy Aunn IL, p. Sit. ue nut eeiiuucttd witU tlila Gvnue, »a Foibl^er fbociefl. 
bat am «n tha eiwt aide of Olytn|xw- 

f OnittUiig Bladta aud Sk^lcuu, ou which Me Lydin, J 41. 

I Mr. J.T. Glmkeplnrtii rbninon ihi; nnrtli btuik of the 6otnIt>i-i«. lu the rich plahi 
of AivBJilc, naA Anilura in nii uutlutenntecd altnatlon betvfcn it aoA Bkcpeia (Aid. 
Jcum. Aieta., IK88, f. SI7). Andi'iH irfM in llgll(>a[innt;ni) Pliiygia, n» wn niay iufor 
friMii Pliny, who ff,^e* it on ono of tba eltiu of Phiygi*. 

IIaA«itfK44't<rj 4 HJa Kif^i) nal 'Af^vpta ;,DciTielriu« of gkrpsui ap, tjlnvk.. p. 6CP3.) 




188 A SKETCH OP TIIE mSTORWAL GEOORAPHT OF ASIA MIKOR. 

tho Pyutinger Table. Th« diataiioeB in the Table are QGfortmmtely 
utterly imtnifrtworth^. Tt© best clua to the position of tlio city 18 tq 
be found iu thu Byxaotine dooiuuenta. lu the later Notitite we fiud the 
namo Akhyraous giron as altoraatire to Qadrianoiitberai. 

6. Ai:iiyiu.ou!), thou, is either the Byzantine name of HadrianOU- 
t1i«raJ,or else a neighbonring fortress which took ita place.* Akhyraoui 
waa 9itiiat«tl on the great route to Miletopolie and Constantinople from 
the Ilcnnas and KuLkoii rallvya : thie route ptuiaea thn>ugli Dolikeeri,! 
and the evident importance of Akhyraoiia iu tha late Bysantine timet 
leaves little doubt that it is to l>e placed there. lladriAiioutherai 
woe on the rood from PergmnoB to Miletupolis : this ruad and thu other 
iu«et about Baiikeeri, Bud Hadrianoutherai id to be sought eomewherd 
in that neighbonrfaood. 

The importance of Akhyraons in later time, as shown by the 
reforonocH in historians, explaius its elevation to the rank of a motro- 
polis. This IB attoated only by NotitiA XI., and by two UQ|>ubli8hod 
Notitim in the MSS. of the Biblioth&que Rationale in Pam,[ tn all of 
which it is laHt in order. It, therefuro. must have been elevated at a 
vory late date in the twelfth or thirteenth century, 

7. MiLATAi. Cedrenas (L, p. 437) has the phrase 'ASfiiavm Q^pat 
ef roil fUToTois-g This strange expreasioa probably oonoeals the name of 
the people or district in which the city was found. If it wan the dative 
of an ethuio in -nji, the ending tou would bo readily altered to aiiit the 
article ruif. Kow Arislides, in a story whose scene seems to be laid at 
Porgamoa, speaks of a M<i\aT>js ii aKpoiro'A^wi.K The god had told him to 
take a goone's egg. He sent out for one, hut the mesaengers could find 
none iiL the whole markot; at last, partly by ohauce, partly by 
infcmnation rtsooired, they went to a oertain Kilatian who lived en the 
aoropoliB- The Milatian replied that he had an egg, bnt was keeping 
it to be used for a. cure as the god had ordered hiiu. If this Milatian 
was a native of AriBtideB' own district, the stoiy is full of the trivial 
coinoidcncea which ^Vristides lovad. Now, it aeoma probable that the 
whole district from Hadriauoutberai down the Makestos to Milatopolis 
and to the lake Milebipolitia was called Mila, or at least was inhabited 
by n people called Milatai. MiletopoUs, then, was the city of the 
Milatai, and its name was lielleDised to suggeet a colony from Milctcxs. 
'I'ho Inke, which is souio distiknco from Miletopolis, would more readily 
get its name if the people who dwelt on its soutlieru and oastem 

" Pmbnbly tlie Ittttiir in tliu correct viuw, acfunliii?; to Prof. G. HiracliMil's iMiinn. 

t I lliiiik [lie tnio fdriD cif this niime in Uulyk UiMr— " town of the cajitie " : it has 
been diBtorti^l tlinnit^li tli<: iluairi! tu giiL the fona convspundjng to na\sjA Katoipttt. 

1 1356. M. 28H ff, : V&). fol. 8». 

§ T1i6 test ttiuy have bron riinngcd U> giT* lite Bi-nau ''ouu of Urn M«latii," on nlucb 
«c« Qotkufrvdua ad OA. TIuxkIo*., vol. IJ., p. 25g, nud Nov. Tliwdot., zziil. 

I I ibtnild oonjecloru that rit hoa bcea lott alter -r^s. 



I 



I 



Dt— HELLESPOITTO^; 



16? 



fhilpn WBTO oaU«d Uilatai. Tbe«e faoU show tbat in Cedreniu we 
■bwld read fr -nU MiXurotc. 

8. A careful examioatiou of some misuixlerstooil paasagos in Ari- 
ctidoe gives ptocisioD to this sitiiktioa. Aristidos' native plaoo was two 
iHaya' journoy from the hot springs of tha Aisepos (p. 502). The road 
Uy tliruugli Puiiaaneuua, which watt 160 Atudia diHtaDt : it is impHeiJ 
that thiA 100 stadia woa a very loug d&y'e joiiniey. It wbh 440 etadia 
(55 iniliis) froai Cysicoe, 320, i.e. 40 luilce, from tko lake UUvtopoHtifl 
or Aj)hniti», and (as is oloar from tho rout© to Poamaiienou) alwut 
100 from, ui-rtaiti hot xfinugH which wure on the road (p. M7). It was 
two ur throe days' joarnsy from Porgamos (fp. £39-11, ed. Diud.) — the 
exact dittttuou is cut gireD— l>ut after two short days' jotiiiioy, he liad to 
himy over SOO stadia oii tbu third day ; acounling to his other journeys 
we may reokoD 120 stadia for eioh of the first two days, and the total 
distaooo is £40 stadia, about 06 miliMt. The detuilx of this lust jouriiuy 
show that there was a plain about 400 stadia, and a t«iiiple of Apollo 
, 800 st&dia, from Porgomos. It is obvious that those meosurementH 
point with practical wrUiuty to the neighhourhood of Hadriuaoiitherai. 
AU douht o» this poiiit ia removed bj p, 458. which shows that ho 
oould sot out from his house to go to Porgamoa towards evoniDg, and l>o 
oucertaic whether or mot it would 1h! posiuble to reach Hadriauoutherai 
the Katue night. EJii house, then, waft some miles ourth of Hadrian- 
otitlierai, and the diatanoe of the tatter from Pergamoe muat be about 
£& to 5ti miles. 

This result docs not agree ^th the statements of Philostratos and 
Suidas, who say that Aristidea was born at Iladrianot. Rut Hiulriauoi 
WHS quitu 110 miles Irum Pergaiuus, 6i> frutu Cyzicutt, and 65 from 
FoimanenoD, and it cannot possihly lie reconciled with tho atatemonta 
of Aiifllides. Probably the error arises from tho shorter nam© being 
Bubbtituted for tho longer by aa error of I'hiluBtrutUB or i>ume other 
authority.* 

i>. Poi:mani;noh was one of the etTongost fortresboa in this district 
(Anna, XL, p. 261). There wuu there a famous church of St. Kiohaol.t 
Its fiituatioii, 280 stadia (35 milcM) south of Cyzicos, on tho river 
TarsioB, and 160 stadia frouk Ariatides* estate, has been already proved 
(soo nAl>MAKODTHBKAl). Thtto dJatonoBS do not suit Maniyas, which ia 
tho site uomuiouly asaigued, if we may judge from the published naps. 
BtUntyas ia not oo the road from Pergaiaoa to Cyzicoa. In Kieport's wall- 
map of Asia Minor in antuont time, he gives Poimauenou on the proper 
roisd. Xo modem names, however, are given, and it ia not quite dear 

* It is liowcvcr pMiibla tlint tiu liirthflfl«« should 'be distingdiihod ftom this 
iK-mUtai; ««lat« wliiub hv pusH-mi.-'tt (kv AddondA}. 

t A robs TDv ^ApxiirTparilyou lii* (Ivw BurafUvr (Anropnl., p. Sly On tbo BlUitai; 
UD|K<rUiDcoot PoiiuAUL'QocL, cp-lbu inucrijjtioD of Novum Ilium ^hlimann,' Uio^* p. 709}, 
^iwtMl b7 LoUmg, ■ AtLen. Mitlh.,' 1884, p. Sa 



158 



A SKETCH OF TOE HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OK ASIA UlSOK. 



wl)etli«r he would now represent the nittiation of Manivas differently; 
but a« ke^hua outirtily ftlt«Tcd tliu counie ussigaed to thu TureJue. and bs 
Toxi«r meutions that Manijas is on tho road iu gaeetioo, probably his 
sew positiou lor Poiniaueuon dopondn nii better iufuruiutiun aa to tlio 
site of Mfmiyiui. In tho ' AtlieiuHcbe MittheiluDgpn,' 1884, p. 35, Lolling 
piiblislitis ftn inscription found at Owueu on the AinepiiB, ivLich fiuemv to 
contain tlie come [110l]M[AN]EIMJ[N] ; ho ie in. doubt as to tho site, 
but ihie inscription would only |)rovH that the territory of FoiuaDcnoii 
exteudud tu Goooii, 

PoimauenuiL was 100 stadia, i^. 20 miles, from Aristides' estate 
norUi of Badrianoulherui. On the way, 100 Bladia from iLo cittate, 
there were hot eprings, which should easily to disouvered. Thoso 
luiiTktKl iu Eiejittrt's new ancient map seem to he too far from 
Poimaneuon. There were also hot springs on the Ait>«po8. two d&yis' 
journey from Aristides' eetate, and the way to thorn lay through 
Poimanenon. They aro marked on Kiepcrt's new map, but I do not 
know whether he lias jactiial information about thout or ouly iusorts 
them from Aristidcw. 

M. W&ddiugton and Pr. LoUing* prefer the form Uoitui,yin for the 
town. This, howovor, ia a mistake, arising from a wrong coucei»tiou 
of the origin of the name. It is tnie that llctftavr}vo{ are the peuplo, 
and that the legend on coina is the genitive of the name of the people. 
But in this, ua lu many cases, tho people arc older and the town is later. 
There were Poimuneuei long befoi:^ there was a x'"P^°*' Hot-nayrjyav to 
serve as a central city. In thia way there was not a city PoimatioH, 
giving name to the people Foimanenoi, but only a people Poimaneuoi, 
eume of whom lited iu the Puimaneuiait town.| The hero Poimes i» 
probably a lueie eponymous iu-vention. 

10, Lentia}1a wub & district, a range of mountains or a hilly 
coantry, and a town in tlie neighbourhood of Poimanenon. Tho two 
are frequently named together.} In 1223 the Emperor John Vatatzes, 
after tho buttle of Poimanenon, captured Poiuianeuoii, Leutiaaa, 
Kharioroa, and Borbcniakon (Acropol., p. 38). Comparing a passage of 
Anna (II-, '2t^0) we find that Lentiaaa lay between Cyzicos and 
Poimanenon, and from Acropolita (p. 31) wo see that Lentiana, the town, 
was close to Poimanenon, eo that Kharioroa and Gvrbeuiukon uro farther 
north. Another pas^ge (Acrop., p. 13) mentiomi tho Frankish territory 
in Mjfisia, apparently counting from west to east, liaris and Aulonia and 
PoimaneBOD and the- Lentiana up to Lopadion. 

•■ Lc Bni-WnddiDgtoa, No. nCl : Lolling, • Atlion. MitthriL," 1*84, p. 29. 

I The sataD iirinriplo must bt> upplied in uiutiy oilier vuai-B, ei^pedullj iu Cnjipiidociii, 
ullfio i>'C Hud MtAiT;;)^ iiniJ nuiufroUE gtlit-r ndjeotival Conuir Dut in Plirygin Dtia it 
to tfC ri'fltnrrtl in plua; cif Ltmuu. bvtli uu ancnuiit uf the seuae i.Spi'a = lovmj uud ua 
ai^uuDl of iliK eiilrj in *ouje luta d 'Wplcoi'. Tliia Bria naa duubllcM " Uie town" wblch 
n ptMjpla of DBino uiibnou'ii to lui loak--d la as lliuir cwiitrc (CU., Part I-, § xi,). 

t far 'PufiaiKuf , vrriaiti Atrru»i* khI Ilui^arqruu (Acro{X<l., p. Sl^ 



I 
I 



D.— HELLESPONTlfS. 



ISO 



11. Katoiii-Ukia WW) a place cloee to Lontiana, which is moutloned 
only by Addu Comnona (11. 310). 

12. Kjmlsas veM a motmtiuD. adjoiniog Akbyraoue,* ixiontioti«4 not 
rarely by lato writara. Ita situation is implied to bo north or west tmta 
AkhjTBoas in the desoriptiou which Oeorg. Aoropolitn (p. 30) givM of 
tho i^orritury bolouging respectively to tho Fmnka aud to ThtMxlore 
LaBcaxis. Tbo latter poNic-biseU tho ovuutry fruiu tho Raikoa valloy 
soiithwanlH, and from Lopadion oafltwards. The FrankB had tho north- 
west comer of Uysia^ including the whole of Kiiuinas and «v«n 
Ahhyraoua ; Akhynwus was the uxtrumu limit of th«ir tcrritorj-.t This 
oioimtiua i» Qftoa moD^onod oe an abode of monks and hermits.} 

13. Baku), near the mouth of tho river Barenoa (which is apparently 
th» Qr&iiicus), in probably thb sceue uf tL6 great dofuat inflicted 
by tho Arubo on tho Thrakoaian troopw, *.». 774. Thaophaiies (p. 158) 
gives (be sceoo of th« batUi> aa Uarc-uou, uud a ncighbuuriug place b» 
Banoe. It is iiHUal to undcrsbuid Bancs as tha lake of Nitcom^doia, 
which was called by later writers Baanto*, aud so Konaraii takes it. But 
pri^bably the reading in both cases bhould be corrected aud vre should 
then have iv romo Acyofio'^ hapfv^, and inpaj-ytr* Tijv Bttfrqv (l.fc Baptvy, 
The circumiitAtiueii hIiuw that thia siluatioD is required, while a situation 
OD tho lake of Nikuitiudt-ia is imposiiiiblc. Haruu advanced as far as 
tbo BoHphorua at Chrysopolia : ho, therefore, was ve^t of tho lake. Ho 
dotaahed Uouruioho towanU Aaio, and this detachmcQt defoatod .tho 
Thraketiiau general (who had probably advanced sa as to be ready toact 
in defence of Constauttuople). The bactle took place near the bouudarieB 
of tho UpHikian and Thrakesian Themes, but in the former, on the 
western siiLe of IJariu ; but fiutsh troupe from Constantinopla seized Bari» 
and LUtun;e[)ted tho retreat of the Arabs. Baris probably oonimanded 
tho passage of the river. Moreover Anastasiiis has Bariui. 

14. MiLGTOPOLis is commonly plactd at Mualltcb, botwoou tho 
Mokeetos aud the Ithyndukos, at their junction ; but it 'nt, in tliat casO) 
hard to see, in the present state of the maps, why the lake to the wort 
Hhould be called UiletopoUtis. Wo should rather eipect the city close 
to the la]ce.§ Btill, it is certain that MllotoiKjlie and Lopatlion were not 
far from each othi^r, as they were in later Byzantine time united in one 
biahopric. This is stated in on unpubliEhed Notitia Kpiscopatinimq in a 
MS. of the Bibliuth^que Natlonale. Paris, Xo. lSd9, fol. 287-8. This 



• Ti Sfif rl i'lrfi'i Till 'Ax"?^"* Tvyxii'oy lOcofg- ArTopol., 30). 

t Ti itiv vau Kifiira rit-tn /uii unJ curr^t T^i 'Ax^jiiiotn (id., ib). 

t AoL 8. AUiuuoui Cunf., July 5. [i. '217 : ''CAt vvr\> iui>iib liir Kjiaiiiaii in A«la, altus 

' et (mpo impiwiiu; lit t]uo onit aiouuatoriutn oui ptncntt Micbacl ovgucEiiliio MiJinoi." 

T»ii iv tptai imraxoh, t^ tt 'OKijiwif taX Tif Kofurf no) i^ XpuitiJ KaTorofiaioiiivji tl^rpf 

mU toi Bapaxtiov Sjut (Ttieu[ilinu. Cout, p. 41^]: is lov wtpiaivinuu 6pi)\» 'OAVjUivu 

"Mm r* KmI riji 'liqt &A^ti >il)i' aal rov xa^i Ku/iunv tf'u/isAqpu^Toi (OcviES., p. 62). 

I Smi liowovvr, J 7. Tho oame of the lako i« mor« nataiol, if tho mif^pj livcd_oa 
its Bouttioru auil ovtvia iliana. 



160 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL GEOGKAPHV OF ASU MINOR. 



MS. contains a list of the sane does as Partboy'H X., ami ogrooiug witK 
it down to tbe tbirtioth Arclibisbopric, ij TorBia • 7 KuSput. In the 
next place it, originally aililed \a'. to AoiraStoi-; but this is erasoJ, and a 
DOt« ID rvil addud ut tbo foot of tKd page* t£ \Qira.6iay t-artpoy yiymt • 

At tlioond uftlio list of Arcbbi^bopric^ aiiotbcr addition to X. oocnrs, 
Too last entry ig jx, to ii8ufi'/T*tijni' ■ (Tra yiyovt fkiftpiiroKvi rii AoiruStof, 
trma^Qn tq Mt^iroinnUeL. Thin nuto is in blaok inlc, written OOQ- 
tinaoiiBly with tlio real of the Notitia. 

An to tbo datti of tlits oveat, it la later tbaa the elevation of Kybintra- 
Herakleia to the raak of an arcbbishoprtc about a.d. 1059-64. It is 
also later tlian Nihis Doxapntrtue, wboae liet, written 1142-3, givos 
Horakloift Kybiatra, bat not Lopadion, among tbe Anxhbiftlioprics. It is 
older than the ebangeH introdiioed by Andronioua (1283-1328), 

PLilutus wan bishop of Miletopolifi in the latter puit of the third 
century, when Purtbenina was txini. Partheninn wae oonnecrated bishop 
of Lampsakoa between 312 and 330 by Asoholius (or AchiUins), bishop 
ofCyzivos. Kustathius was bishop of Parioa when Partheniue died 
(Act. Sanct,, Feb. 7. p. +0). 

15. LorAuios, which etill retaina its name aa Ulnbad, is vary 
frequently mentioned in the later Byzaiitiao wars. Lopadion waa an 
important point, as there was there a bridge owr tbo Hhyndalvos. This 
bridge was built later than 258, when the Scythians, who had 
plundered Xikuiuiideia, Nikaia, Kios, Apamcia, and Prousa, fouud it 
impossible to crose tha Hhyndukus, whiuh was swoln with rain.f But 
in A. 11. 1405 MuHuIman tuarohed from Proitaa, crusaed tbe bridge ut 
Lopadion and came t» Fergftmoa, obvionaly by way of Alchyraons- 
Hadriaiioutborai.} When this bridge waa broken, it took a throe Aaya' 
journey over very diSouU conntxy to march round the south aide of the 
lake and thus reach the we«t bank of the river, which could be orosaod 
above the lake, but not below it (Duoas, p. IQS), 

16. Adrasi^u. The occiineuco of Adraneia in Hellespontua in 
Motibia} VIII. and IX. is a remarkable fact. They also give Hodriani 
in Bithynia Prima ; and the question arises whether tUiti is an errer of 
double entry Buoh as ocoasionnlly occurs in tbe Notitite, or whether 
there are really two distinet cities, nadriani and Adraneia. In the firKt 
place, tbe name Iladriani often appears aa 'ASparovs in tbe NotiticB) 
while Adraneia appears in 458 03 Andriano, so that thero can ho nO 
^imht that the two nameH are the aaine. In the next place, Hridriani 
wa« actually on the frontier of the two piovincex, and in the Soman 

* It ifaen con Ud lies, Uke X., Aa*. 4 lavyittm. \£'. tI 'KfiaiiA«auf. Ay. oj *oEAAaj. 
A natc it) rol in ndilLil (top ot CdL 28S i"), 4*^'^"' Bm/iov ^ SvvT^sf* Kol el *avAAai, 
Kol yiyovr (inrpilrtktl, 

t Z(«iiuit.i. I„ 3.i, 2. p. :)t. 

I l^iu'iui, p. bS. Tliut lie cruKMxl a bridge la to beiinferred ftom p. 169, which kUs 
or Ibo bridge lieing cut b^ Munul. 



I 



D^HELLBWOimre. 



161 



pailod it Iwlonged to tlio provinco of Asia, while in the Byzantine period 
itaeems to liave been Bttachvd to Bitliynia. Tlie case. Ihtsu, ^ceiiio to lie 
one of mere double entry ; but tlion the question ariees wliy only two of 
tho Notitiae place it in IIcIlcKpostus. The C'oimcil liBta at the tirst 
gtanco «*eni to Bhow that we must, after all, change our opitiiuu, and 
admit that AJraneia, which m given ax a bishopric of IIell««pontuii 
in Epist. Bynodi Cy«ioeiii», Cone. Chalood,, and Cone Nic. 11., lo not 
Hodriani of Bithynin truuBferrod to the vfjong proviiico, for Nioe- 
phorus of Hadriaiii ia regularly mentiuued al Gone. Nic, II. among 
the BithyiLJau biithopH. iu ;iilditioii to UaailiiiH of Undriaiionthenii and 
Sisinmus of Adraneia ia HcUcispontua, and Kicotae* of Iladrimiopolis 
in Houorius. The case ia not so clear at Chaloedon, owing to the small 
Dumber of hiehops preneiit from Itithyniii,! but at least there con be no 
doabt that in. both 451 and 45S a biiihup David of Adittnia or AndriaoA 
wu subject to thu Metropolitan of CyzLcoa. It ia. therefore, <iuite open 
to maintain, so far ae tho evidenco of 4$1 aud 4&8 is concerned, that 
Hadrian! still wna fdokonod by the ecotcsinGtical eystem of tlio tifth 
cenluiy in ita ulil RomaTi conueotiitn with the Weat, and not in the 
Byzantine counection with Bithyoia and the Sast. This view 
aocordiugly might be anheeitatingly adopted wore it not for the 
eviduuoo of thu Second Nicuno Council. Tiie probability is tliat some 
unknown fact, Huoh as a quarrel between the Metropolitans of 
Nikuincdeia and Cyziooi, undcrlioB thu double entry at that Council; 
ea«h Metropolitan, ia»istiug that Uadriaui or Adrania bc-loiiged to hiA 
provtuoe, muy have consecrated a bishop for the eity. One Uetropolitao 
would insist on the fact that lladriani bad always been iu the civil 
aduiinifitration of Bitbyuiu,} the other would urge its old eocleoaatical 
conneotion with Cyiucost and perhaps quote the evidence of the Council 
of Chalceden. Notitifo VIll., IX. soom to be under the influence of 
the older Byatem ; they aru of th« earliest class of Notitis, and then 
the ouly difficulty remuiuiug ia to oxplaiu why VU,, the uarlieat of all, 
and OBually very closely akin to VIU., 1X-, doce not give Adi'aneia. 

17. Si(ii:[-»ii9 took the name of Saint CurneliuB the Centurion, vho 
eettlud ut Skepiits and conveited the popnhitiou and Demetrius the 
Prefect (AcL Sauct., Fob. 2). nis grave wasdisoovcrod in the bt^^iuuiiig 
of tho iifth ceuttuy, when tjllvaoua was bishop of Trou.$ Apparently 

* Nc^darins or Nicotaa ; rtctdln^ vtirj, but Nlcataa ia usual. 

i Al Cbnlcodon, Tlic<i|ihiiui of Iliii}rinni>]Nilia id nmiorias was represented lij a 
pnsbTtsr, PuIu^db: but ntdUiL-r UuiJruiuoi iiui miyuthuf of tlio oitiu of Bitli^in, t^xcept 
HQEomoieia, Nik&ia, Kios, A|ianidii, uid CUflloxloD, vera npttaoated, Pntrioiua of 
BadtitLnopoliH U reslly of HtulrtMioutLeni, as is proved hy aonte of tbc lids and by tlis 
•isaatuna «f iSS, 

1 Before tiiu time it Is Irao that tbc Tlmnn liiul cnitie into cxiatvuot. Sluiltai 
^Quirela of an older (late Uxik plam between Nikumi'Jiilu nuil Nilmiiv aljout BMiliDn|)olif, 
and Iwtnvitii C<kwu\'ia and Tynrut nboiit Doira, aiid of n Inter dntn m to whclhi^r 
Jolidpolu-Ihuiiloioti w«ji »ul>jt:<>l U> Ankynt or >lir«oUy l-i CvuebuttillVpkh 

S SilTaous wa* cuiuecrukil by Saint AUicos, who diod 125 A.D. 



IS2 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL GBOOHAPHY OF ASIA lUNOR. 




it was at this time that tha ohnroh which gave name to the oity was 
dedicated. Anothor cliiircli wag erected to Dometrius. Ou the death 
of SiKannB, Athnnneiua (who was hiehop of Skopnia at tho CouQcil of 
EpheaoB, a.d. 431) fniooccdcd hiiu at Tr>>aR, and Fhilostorgiaa was made 
biiihop of Skr.'peia. It would appear, therefore, that tho hinhopric of 
Troiui was a moro deHirable dignity thau that of Skepnlii. 

IS. AnxAKB n'Oti a town near Cyzicos, with a church of the VirgiD 
(Thoophftn., p, 29yj. Prooopiiie (B. Pere., p. 135) makes it a sobtirh of 
CyziooH (rrpoatrrtun'). Mount Biiidjinos OTorbung Cyzicoa (Zoa^ II., 31, 
p. 07). 

19. Artanas, a river of Bithynia, muat be di^tinguiBhed frotii Lake 
Artynias or ApoUoniatis (i*. AdHendn). 

20. SloRUNK. The hilly country between CyziooB and tho month 
of the Rl)^-ndakv8 was callod Sigriane. In some places the hills reached 
down to the waior'a edge There wae ia it a monastery, founded by 
Theophanen at a place OAmcd AgTOS, twelve roUcs from Hieria • (Thco- 
phun., II., pp, 7, 1 9, 2fi), The Mrj-aXos norafL/tt mentioned as the eastern 
tonndniy In probatly l]io Bhyudakoa. Tlie harboui' fre<jTiontty men- 
tioned under tho name of Pegai waa on tha ooatem side of the Sigriaiio, 
for John Vatatzoe traversed that district on hia march from Lampsabos 
to Pegai (Gooi^. Acroj)., p. 73). Tho Latins, uiarohiug from Kerkhreai 
and Lampsakos to Pogai, reduced on tho way tho fort Keramidee. near 
Cyzroos.t Thifl last poasago might alouo bo taken to imply that Sigrene 
or Sigriane was close to Lampeftkoa on the eA«t, but the other passages 
EcciQ to show that it was further away from Lampsakoii. 

21. Eenkrrbai was a fortresB near tho river Bcamandor.}: The 
pnstagojuei c|notcd froraOeorgius Acropolita (pp. 50-1) might suggest 
that it wna clofla to the s&a, for tho Latins are said to have mnTchod along 
tho coast while the Greoka kept ou the high ground above them; and 
tlius tbo Latins only succeeded in travoming tho not great dist^inco from 
Larapeakoa to Ecnkhreai. Biit, as I do not know the country, I follow 
tho authority of Mr. J. T. Clnrko, who identifies it as Kiz Knlcsi, ft 
Byzantine ruin a little to tho north of Chigri.j 

22. Monaeterios in the Trond are mouttoneil not tinfretiuently. In 
9"4 tho pfttTJarcli Basil wa« banished to ra Kara 2,Kaix.ai-SpQf tfipovTt- 
trr^pioy, which he bad built himself (Leo Diac, p. 16^). A monastery 
iiamftd Pelokete, ft[)par()nily near the Hellei^pont, is referred to in Act. 
Sanot., March 28, p. 732 (cp. Jan. 12). A country plnoe, named Colieiis 
or KijAAtof, apparently near Lampsakoa, is mentioned Act. Sanct., 
Feb. 7, p, 40, There was a monsBtery there of which the head, Leo 
pneeeB Celleorum, -wan at tho aoooud. Niwno Council (Act. IV.). 

* Tbis Hietia in diflercD't from the hurhonr in Bilhjnia, opposite Cn>ietanUii(i'ple> 
t fpl TOif Toui Sovvotit tiamtntyov t^j KupKou ^Ueorg. Acrop., pp. SO-I). 
I iv Toii Kari iHiiiCwtpov KtyxptM IctarBpiinp -rii-l ^aufiy tOeorg. Pkch.. L, 485. 
ir., MS). i ' Amor. Jour. Arch,' 1^6, p. 140. 



J 



D.— HaLLESPOKTUS. 



163 



S3. Pt«lAia is mentioned as a plaoe on the HelldBpont in Aata S> 
PflTthenii (Feb. 7, p. 41). He vuiited all the fialiiiig cmporia from 
Xiitup»i1iCM as far as Atiydog to stop thu failure of the tnnny fiehePT, and 
then ho eut «V t(S Kara IlTcAaia* (w. 11.. IItcA^us. nT<Xu(^tt«) ijLTraii'if. 

21. TLv riwr lEhjndakos chaugt'd tte canae, like almost nJl tlie others 
in tUU part of Ahju Minor, before the ttmo of Anna Cotuueita, who culls 
it Lampee,* rb the Granikon became Barunou, aud tho AisejMja Angelo 
kotnites (see below, G S 17). 

25. MetopA «r Mesopa wae a fort near tho lake of ApoUonla (Aot. 
Sauct., Feb. 4, p. 543). 

23. An inscription copied by Prof. Eiepert in the valley of the 
Gnuiikoa (Le Efifl-Waddiugtou, No. 1745) giveH the name of six villa^^ca 
or x^l""'- viz. Mottianoi, Baietoonoi, Trinoixeitai, Aguanot, Il]>oitou<)i, 
Hylcbantcnoi. 

27. "Anraos of Hierocles a« powdbly an error for IWiuos or Palaia : a 
]i]ac« uf tbi» uamo la taimtioncd by Strabo (p. 614) 130 stadia from 
Andoira. I'alvoa at tho Sucoad Niuciio Counoi] means Parion. 

There are apjiarently three other plticos IwAriiig thin name in Aaia 
Hiuor. Two uf theBu are bishoprics mentionud in the Kotilise, but not 
in Hierocles. One of them is In (ialntia., Uiu other iu Lycla ; and buth 
liave the ultorDutive uume Jiutiuiauojiolis. Tho former hu4 the forma 
Palia, Spaluia (i.e. a-Pal<7ia), and Spania: the latter ap[>i*ani always in 
t1]u ii^uitivo plural of tho ethtiic IloXiuitCiv, naXXiunCw, UoXwruiv, lloAiw- 
Tw. Mordtmann, iu b!^ excellent paper ' Uordimn, PcHsiuns, mid Sivxi 
Hiesar't remarkud that Folia of Gulatiii was probably one of the forts 
founded by Justinian to defend the empire, and might therefwro bo 
a»fo]y identiSed with llio powerful fortresA of Sivri Hi»i^r, whicih is 
now the chief city of the divtrict. Tho third is a fortrF«a named Palia 
or Pitleai in Isauria. The only reference to it which I ImTc ubservod is 
in Amminnufl, XIV. 2, 13 : " Kubbera, coming from the neighbourhood of 
Larando, locum petivere Paleas nomine, vergentem in mnro, valido muro 
fimiatniu, ubi conduutur nunc nsi^ue ooiumratua disiribiii militibai 
oinno Utus Isaunao dofondcntibus adsueti." I do not bcliove that the 
name Fakai or Palia is oonDected with the Greek adjective n-uXowf : 
it is more likely to be a native word, resembling the Greek in soun^. 
Three of the plaoea named Palia ap^iear to have been fortrt^ses : and 
henco the set of name»! iu Tetchaa and C^araj; enggeat themselves for 
compariBon Abonoleichos, Gordioutcuhaa, PancnumteUhen, Xton Ta<ho$, 
Sierocharax, Ckanu Aivxandri, Charax, 

28. The Acta S. Phiktacri (Act Saiict, May 19. p. 310) contain 
some curioufi i>artioulars abuut u jouruey Ireiu Nikoia towards Prokon- 
eesoe. The Saint was conditctod by the Kcldiore, after orosstiig tho 
Bhyndakos, past Scroukome, to a village be&ide the river Koasta, and 

* Aboo, vcl. I., p. 315, -rhf Ad^»T|r * T«T(^i ttWai stpl AoT^tuf. 
t Muiiuli. Oul. Aux.. 1862. 



IM 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL GEOanATnT OF ASIA MUfOH 



not vflry fat from a placfl uamed Eaetiiliis, From Kaatallts thoy Jid 
not tabo the direct lond townnlB Cyzioos, but went through a village 
KleodouB and a placo (or river?) Stribos to Poketos or Kopeloe, wboro 
there was a eacreil grove of cypreeaeH (ri Sn-Spo. ra ino avamX^ icrrwra 
Toil' Kir7nif>M<riiii' /liyurra oiru t^SKOtl/ay, hta to /taXurra rovs 'EX\j}va% tv 
iKtifetti TSi; KV^apur<TOiV ras TrA«u>v Ovaiai cirircAcii'). Thees Act4 d&tO 

from a miicb later time, and are of Bitspicions cbaractar, bat may con- 
tain topographical fact. Tho rcfercuc* to the sacrod trees is iiitereBting; 
tho oldcnt Tvligiouii document of Ihu Troad, the Hymn to Aphrodite, 
and this tha latest r«feruui3o to tlio old religion, alike mention holy 
treaa. From Foketos tho giiardB went on to Cyzioos. 

29. Bcsido the hot springs of Artemaia on tie Aisepos, and thoee 
between iludriauoutherui and Foliuauciiou, tbcro n-vro alito hot springs 
at Daakylon, and fit Lari&sn in the Troad, not far ^m Alexaudria 
Troas. The list of Thomm given liy Atbenieiiit II., p. 43, may here be 
(inoted in full, as it iji often referred to iu these p^ee ; — ni t' Iv ly 

TpuiiKYJ Aafiiirtr^, koX iHpl MayvTjvinr, si- St Upown) r^ wpwi riiv Mvaiov 

"OXiifiwov Ta liatriXiKa. KoXovfiiva • ra ^ tv 'Affiy rr*pl TpaXXuj koX tov 
['A];(iipu.[ii£u]i£u»p»/njv tiwo^w, *T( oc N^wrai* roAef, ovrtus iari Xiirapb. is fii) 
ii'iSiu rov% tvavo\,cniii.eyrnti iKtuov. roiavTa mu. to tV \acrKv\ov Kiiifiiy Ttt S' Iv 
Kapinjpoi-i Kard^pa kui trtfiiiSpa 6ipfi.<i • tu Se ntpl Miji-ot Kufiijr, q urrt 
9pvy(a^, Tfiuj^iTtfid iiTTi Kul Kirpiu6€in<pa, uK tai [taj cv -rg KaAou/i«t^ AaOtros 
K-oifiji 1-7? ^pvyta<i ' TO Si w«/>t AopuXaLov *rai. irivo/in'a (Otl ijbima. 

30. Saint PhilotheoB was Iwrn in the village Myrmex in the 
Opsikinn Theme (Act. Banot., Sept. 1&). It ia prohablo that Mar- 
pcBSOB, Marmeeaoe, Mermessos, Myrmox and Myrmiasos nte forms of tho 
same name ; luoiit of thoeu forma are i-oi-oguiKi-d bj' Foibiger hk varying 
nauiee of a place east of Lampsakos, birthplace of a Sibyl. ' 



E. EoMAN BoAca IS Tira PitonscB Asia, 

1. The roods of this provincfe are too well defined to refioira any 
special treatment. I havo disciisa^d som* of them in my Contrihiitions 
to the History of Southern ^olis, part I. The road from Epheaofi to 
MsguegiH, Tralleis. Antiocheia, Laoiliccia, and Apamoia, built by Manivs 
Afjiiiliiifl about l.'JO d.c.. was continued by him along the snuthem 
frontier of tho province through Eyns or Elyea (perhaps Okoklia) as far 
as Taklna, aa is fthuwn by a milestone thero with the distanoe 233 g. b 
all probability Manilla built the i.>ntir« circle of roads Apaniijia-Taltina- 
Kiltynv, and Landiceia-Tbcmisaouion- Kihyra. The exact distance 
in Soman miles from EphcBoH to Tralleia is known from u niila- 
■tone to ho 32, and I have calcnlafed tho diatuncea to Laodiceia as 107, 
and to Apameia as 173. The road is so extraordinarily distorted In the 
Peuttngor Table that nothing oau be luarnvd from it. 



!>.— BELLESPOSTtlS. 



166 



2. The road from Ephesos to Sniyma and Cyztoog m givou In the 
reiitinger TaUe as : — 

EpliesiiH — ^Metropolis — Smj-ma sxxiu Cyme Tini Harinna (i^. 

Myriaa) xii Ela[ea] xvi Pergamo xxir ArgesU xix Phoiuenio (i^. 

Poi miuiai on ) — Cy zico. • 

The fallowing diatanoes on this road can Iw dcterminecl in Roman 

ntilee. EjilieKoa to Smyrna muat hftV6 been 45 miles: though 

Strabo givL'H it a» otily '^'20 eta<lia. I oetiiniLtcd the number foriu«rly 

OS 44 from tho map, ond am now tblo to appeal to the following 

passage. 

Tchiueit started from Amorioii, cronBeJ Plirygia Saliilaris, cams 
down to Laodicvitt. oud tbcnco pust^ed by Sardio to Nymphaioa. Hero 
bt> turned to Ibo riglit, and, crLueiiig by the ravine, descended on 
Triakonta, which ia Blill known as Trianda. Ho croBwd on the aamo 
day tho moiintains extending towarda Gutt-Mon and tho sea (ra wpos 
VaX'^iTi.ov Zpof Kci^vu irpQt OixKarray vfn{) and reached Byp0ele iu tho fijrst 
watoh of i>ight4 In the aooount given by Ducas (p. 194) of thia hurried 
march, it is obvioiui that there ia only one error: Laudioola has been 
aubotituted fur Philadelplieia. To one who knowtt the country, nono of 
the way which Tchiccit travorsod ia doubtful. Od the other luiiid, it 
would be an enormous detour to go by Laodicoia, nnd from Loodiooia it 
would again bu un enoruiouii dtitour to go by Sardit). Tho name T^iii- 
Kovra is important : it obvioasly means tbe thirtieth mite from I^pheaot. 
Names of that kind aio vor>' common, as maybe BOon in tho index to 
Parthey and Pindar's odition of the Itinerariea under " Tigeaimum," " Tri- 
censtmiim." Tho railway has a station, Triauds, but not aotually at th« 
Tillage; tbe diiitaiice of this station from Kpbcsos ia 2J| English milee, 
My 23 Raman; the modem villiige svemn to be quite 3 Roiuaii miles 
to the north of the elation. Tho total is still only 28 miles; but tho 
ancient village may ha-re been situated a tittle mora towards Smyrna, 
and been slightly moved towards the Houth, though tbe namv remains. 
Allowing fur tJie change, it still appoiurs neocseary to moasure 15 or 16 
mile« on to Smyrna, ro that the total diatance } ia 45 or 46. 

Tbe rood from Smyrna to Ephefloa stitl leaves Smytna by a gate on 
the south-woat, and pawieii on the weat aide of Pagoe : thia was atao the 
line of tho ancient road, and with tho bout mv4Uiun;iu<;uta i can make tho 
distance mnnt lie given ua 45 miles. 

8tn>bo giY«« 200 stadia from Metropolis to Smyrna, 120 from Metro- 
polie 1o Kpbcfioti. Tho latter number is clearly wrong, as tho dintanco 
ia fully 20 English milc«i if wo take it as 160, w« havu tho whole 
dixtanoo Smyrna to KpbesoB 360 etadta or 45 miles. 

A mUostuue (Lo Ban, No. &), staled to have boen found ai fiuruabat, 

* Pbonionio, PorgamM, Arf^eaU, 4i« nil ab1atW«a. 
t lln"*"'^' icar Iho ancic&i Lcbcdoe, ia atUl culled Ipmili Hijbii. 
X Owing to ilic gKot detour ou tbe rAilwaj, tke distanet). 2lJI, oiMMurul ftiyia Uia 
Biayma station lo Trianda, is of no nw for cBtimatiiig tlic Roman road. 



Ifi0 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL OEOOIUPET OF ASIA MINOE. 



Imt leally, a« I hnvo boon inf<-.n«ft(] ^j M. 'We'ber, fonnd Weido the Mft 
where H appronciieii iicnriiet tu Biimabat^ l>earB a untnber M., which mty 
indicate any niinil>er from 41 to 49. The point where it was found 
mnet Ijo quitu 3 milcH from the " Ephesian Gales " of Smyrna, so 
that M[H] or M[0] is the prohablo readiug. The diiitanceB between 
Smyrna and Pergauioe soorti to he ai^corato, bo far as I can jndge. The 
diiitaiice to Eloea from Ephesoa, then, in 99 aiiU's. tiiid il. is hard to soe 
how tho reading H H, 88. can appear on tho milsjitoiie above mentioned. 
M. S. Reinach informed lue that the etonc is bo laige that the idea of 
its having been transported cannot bo ontertoined,' There ia, therefore, 
CO apparent solntion except that the number waa carelo^Iy iuacribad, 
and that the trite reading is 08, which is exactly correct, aa the «ton« 
u a little south of Elaea. 

3. At Pergamoa the road forlted, one branch to Adramyttion and thA 
Troad, one to Cyzicos, and one to Miletopolis. A mileetone found near 
Dikeli, on the former road, lins the number PAA, cisxJ. As we have 
aeen, the distances Kphseoe to Porgamos are correct ou the Table, and the 
total distiLncs ia 1 15 : the milestone gives a nnmbor a little grofttor than 
we should expect, and therefore proves that our estimate of the distanoo 
to Porgamoa is not exaggerated. 

The numbers given, in the Table botweea Fergamos and Lampsokos 
are eo utterly disprepant from thoaa in the Antonine Itinerary that 
nothing is to be gained from a compariaon except by ona who knows the 
oountry far better than I do.f 

4. Two roada led from Pergamoa acroea cotintry to the Sea of Mar- 
mora, one to Cyzicoa, the other to Miletopolis. They arc given in the 
Table a8— 

(1) Pergamo xsrv Aigcsis xxx Fhemenio — Cyzico. 

(2) Fergamo viu Iladreanntalui xixiii Milepoli. 

Gnlen mentious that Ergasfflria waa 440 etadia ("say 55 miles) from Per- 
gamos on the road to Cyzicoa. It luaat bo placed in an intermediate 
position between Poimanenon and Argeaia of the Table. Poiraa- 
nenon was 280 stadia from Cyzioos, which gives the distance omitted in 
the Table aa xsxv. Tho sum of distances point to point is then 100 M. P. : 
and the distance in an air-line on Kiepert'a rvocnt map is about 
95 English miles. We should expect therefore a larger total of Bomau 
miles, for tho proportion to air distance in tlio Iwst known coses is 
decidedly greater. Perhaps restore 

Fergamos 35 Argc«is 20 Ergasieria 20 Poimanenos 35 Cyzioos ; 
total 110. See Addenda. 



* The douH vhich I Kirmcrl; csprtoacd ac lo Die readieg is noir «et at rest, aad 

t Ur. J. T. Clarke's Mabtretioa {• Amnionn Jonmal of Arohnology.' 1938, p. iB6) 
!■ " Ailrwjiyttion xri Antuudroa xxi Gjirgsra vnii Aamrm kv ftminthion.'' Thu 
diitasoe of tLe Itiiierftjy from PorgiLinofl In Adntmj'tlioD, xxxi, Bhonld (irobably bo 
[liliiiaMil li; X. Tlio Table give* tiro roida, one direct, ikad ono aloDg tUo coad 0a 
Ihc liitlnt, Atlivlin kIhhiIiI Iiu cliun^^d in AllaiB, lU M. ItiiJut han rarrwtty obaOTTDd. 




E.— ROADS OF THE PBOVIKCE ASIA. 



167 



Keitlier of tlifi diataaooB on tbo otlicr road in cortoot: possibtf it 
ehould 'be — 

Poi-gaiuos Lilt Hadiiiiiioutlionii xxxxin Milolopolig, 
l)Ut tLc tutnl dintaiiro muiit ho rather greater. 

Tlio poaitioii of the towns on these rifails is iliBcaesed under EIkllbs- 

POSTCS. 

5. The direct road from MiletopoUs, or rather from Lopadion, which 
WEH tli6 more iinjKtrtaiit point in later time, to Thyatira and tho QeriDuii 
valley, is froqaeiitly meiiLioited in HyKaiitiue writerei hut is not given 
in tlio older Authoritioe. It passed by Althyraoue. Iteferenoos to 
it are mad» untler Stratunioca Lydiae and Akhyrautis Uellesjwnti, 
also T 10. 

6. Tho rCMtl Fergamofi by Germe, Xakra&a, and Sardis, to L&odiofikt 
on the LykoBiia given both ia the Antonino Itinerary and tUo Pcutinger 
Tahlo, and in Lietorically a very important miito. Ah the two autho- 
rities agree altij<^«t perfectly, they may be accepted as fairly correct— 

Perganioo xxv Gorino xjuuh Thyat«ira xxxvi .SaTdio kx^tu Phi- 
ladolpheia sxiiii TripoHs xtt Hierapolis vi Laodic«ia,* 
Only one of these iiiiniljere is certainly wrong. From Gc-rnio to Thya- 
teira Bhoiild }>e xxin, not xxxm. 

The Table also gives a direct road from Thyateira to Philadelplioio 
with the distaaco J,XT. This road i« a mere ciror aritiiog from bad 
drawing. Tho Tond vii Snrdis is really direct, 

7. The distance given by Strabo, iUlO stadia or 37j milee, between 
ApolloniH and Pvrgaiiios, is meaeiircd along a direct hill-road. He gives 
the same diatanco botweon Sardis and Apollonia, which is eorrect. 

f^. The direct road frcim Ephcsoa to Surdis paused throngh Hypaipa 
( beiiide Odemish) at the southern end of the pass over TmoloH. Between 
Hypuipa and Kphe-va tho Table gives a place Anagome, which iscloarly 
a oorrwpt form, perhaps coaceaUng a nam* cndiiig in Kw^Tj.f If, as tho 
Table implies, Asagomo was a village at the fork of the roads to 
Mtttiopolis and to Kyitaipa, it would l)o near Eos Bunar, d miles 
from Ephoios, and xxxiitt from nypaipa. The nutnbers on the Table 
would have to bo transposed : tho XX between Sardis and Hypaipa 
appears to bo correol. 

9. The road Smyma-Temnos-Magnesia, forliing there to Thyaluira 
and Sardis is vor^' Iwdly given in tho Table, Tetnnos being transferred 
to another road, and Magneeia beiug omitted. The diatauecs approxi- 
mately are — 

. Smyrna 25 Temmw IS Magnesia (2.'> Thyateira or) 36 Sardis. 

10. The direct road from Sm.vnta to Sardisi pacising near Nym- 
phaion, is omitted on the Table, but a uumber of milectoncc on it are 

' Thu Tabic oiuiu xx\m alU-r Sardii, sn<] bw » diitlocation after Uicnpolia; ft 
has also xxsiiii before Trij^lic. 

t la Qrwk the Dime wua prrbniit of the form u-)) Ki^n- 

VOL, [V. IT 



168 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL OEOGRAPHi' OF ASIA MISOB. 



piwerved (Li> Bas-Wodd., fi-9 ; C. J. G., 3179, 3180). The disUnco i« 
about M mileii. 

11. No reconl is pieserteJ of a Roman road from Sardia by Maioiiia 
auil Satal& to Tcnicnotliyrai, Trftjnnopolie, nnd Alctnonia, perhaps also 
forking at Satula to Kadoi and Aizanui. Tho pasii botw<Mtn Safala and 
TwiDfuotliyriii is very difficult, but in l83l Sir C. WUeon and I obnerTcd 
remaiiia oF two Kotdhii bridges over tho normoB in it. Ono Jieo above 
tbo moduri) putb wliun il first reaches the Uermos after lenvtog Konls ; 
it IB a mero ruin. Tlio other miiL'b fnTlIncr uii is titill in vae, and the 
repairs do sot wholly hide the Itomnn work. 

12. The roads in I'lirygia am ull diitumiinod by the fixing of t!i« 
citi«a which they connected. Dctryl&ioii wae tho moft important road 
ooulre in tho north. Tho road from the BodphoruB and Propontis \a 
KotiaioD (tee Bitkvxia) in not known to bare been mod in early time, 
and all com muni cation with the north probably poiued Ihrongh 
Dorylaioa and Lhetice ntdiatad aouth, south -woet, and «oiith-ouHt. 

13. The Feuling«r Tnlilc gives n road, wliich^may b« completed 
thus — 

Dorylaion xxxv Kotiuion xxx* Appia xvi IXierokbaiax xit 
Aiinionia XV Aloudda xx Elannoitdds (near Blaundos) xxxx 
Philadtjlphia-t 

The I'lavonth niileetonc north of Akmonia, and ssToral bslireon Apia 
and Kutiftion are known and published (0. I. t., III., SuppIetD., 
Ko. 717t> and CB., J xcvui.). 

A luileetone ncur Altyntoah and other evidcnoo etatedi below undei- 
OitKisTOS make it probable that tho roiid Akmonia — Jlierokharax — .Si.w — 
AIoi'os — PossiuTiK was conHtriioted in Tioraan tiruo. 

14. The Tablo gives a road which may be restored thus— 
Dorylaion XXVI Nakcdeia xviii Mt-roB xii Melropolis Vl K«no 

XI KidyessM Xll Eronzoe iv Hiwopolie vii Enkarpia XV 

Aarokra vui Apameia, 
Tho Table omits tho eomiilotion from EnkaiTiia by Aurokra to 
Apamoia, hut this nuiet necessarily bo restoied. In place of tlii^ part 
oTtholinv, the Table, owing to bad drawing,! carries on the route strnight 
to Einneneia and Apnmeia, But the road Eiikarpiu — Apameia really 
(Uvorged from the other at eilher Broniws or Hieropolis, and thence goes 

• Called Coolw iu tbo TU-lc. 

t Akmotiin in niiuut five rniluK olT llio ilirect roftil, irhtcli pflaeet [tlirough Kcnimnn 
Agtim (Islam Koui>. lilnuniJus i» bIjouI aii niilea ionlh of KlonnoTiiiiln. PciLajm Alia 
tliould eome botwwii AJtmcmtft and Alniiddn. Tliore is no LTwipriec thai u roiid 

Koliuioa Aimnoi — SynKiB — Aiikyw — Wnkestos-viilky — StratoTiikulfl— Petgaiu<u;, ur u 

road Kotifljnii— AiMOioi— Kodoi — Sntoln— Muiouiik— Sciniid, not in iiap. Bui tlio txiii- 
teti"? of two wicknt l)ri<lgrs (mc J Il> makn* it piobaWo tbnt tho road Akaioow— Trti- 
jiiTiopolS*— TemenoUiyrni— Saliila— Miiionin— Pordia waa moBtTOrfwI, 

t Or, u Pttil. a. Ui»clil'(>lil piite it, ■' vmilo Aiuhidiuigeii eraelieincn alu tllrelcia 




£^-ROADS OF THE PROVINCE ASU. 



109 



to Enmencia, Peltni, Ijoiiiiila, and Laoiliceia. Of tbis rcwd Ibo TaUe 
gives the Uae only as fur as Etuneneia, and then adiU the i>am« of Poltai 
(nndcir tho oormption I'olla). Th« «ri«1ence of the oomploto road is 
proved both lay the same I'eltaj, and by tL« followii)g niilentone, copied 
by Hogarth and mynulf at Baljik Iliaar, about ita original poaitioit 
between Enmcneia and Peltai: — 

AfASH rixv 
AYTOKPATOPI 

mXapi r M€ccia) 

»JNTCJ TP«. 
ANU) A£KICJ KAI 
CPCNNIA JTPOYC 
KIAXp C6BACTH 

lI 



M 



TMa mileHtono n-as probably erected in 349 a.p., and later there wero 
oddvd in emaller letLers. irre^lurly engraved round the number, the 
names of tho tn-o Cccsare, [K]v(W([> '£piw([ttf] A<K[(']y km 'KlTfija^iTt^if ?} 
Kvlvrtf, neither complotely nor occnrately given. 

The connection, Eumeneia xn ad Ticum xuil Apameia, given in 
the Table is clearly only part of a road giving a route from Apamoia 
to Fhilndelphein and tht> Hermoa valley, bnt no other evidenoe exists to 
prove it. 

15. The Table gives a third road— 

Dorileo — Fl. Sagar — Docymeo xxxii Synnada Aqmnade VfOTbio 
mil, xxxvu. Euforhio. Ab Eufoxhio. Ab amea IlkUl. XXZTI 
Apamca Cilwtoii. 
This road is a falm one, du<! to incorrect drawing of the lines, one of th« 
commonrat eourcca of error in our copy of the Tabic, ThiB road abonld 
go to PcB»inu3, and not to IXtrylaioii. Tb« position of the river San- 
garioB ahovra thiu, uud a conaidunition uf t)w possible rout'S led tu« loug 
ago to this conclusion (CB., § XSXVI.). 

Trof. Cr. HLrschf^ld, in hia ' Report on our Geographiotd Knowledge 
of the Anoieat Greek World,' advances adifTeroot opinion ue to this and 
the preceding road. He oonBidors that the roaJ Hynnailii*T)okimioo- 
Dorylaion cDtucidcs in more than half of its lungtli with the road 
lEiicarpia-Nakoleia-Doryltuon. He therefore apparently holds that tho 
toad Dokimiou-Dorylaiou turned wcatwarJa to Metropolis ui nortb-wost 
to Me roe, and thus coinoided with it through Nafeoleia to iJorj-laion. ■ 
The point Is one ivhicli cannot be deterinined ; I cannot prove that there 
vraa not a Tioman road from Boklmion to MotropoliB or to Jleroa. I can 
only say that 1 for ft time held the view that tbia P-iul joined tho other 



* Valm thia road joined the «fbar a good vnjr nutb of Ucnut, it conid act wdncide 
with it fur moK tluui lialf it* letiglb. 

!( 3 



170 



A SKETCH OF TBE HISTORICAL CEOGEAPITy OF ASIA MLS'OB. 



at llorcw,' *ii^ WM, ixftcr oareful examination, oWigod to give up tliis 
opiuiun: as to a tund Dukiiuiuu-MutroiiaUie-Brter^Nt-Xakoluia, I L&nlty 
tliink lliat Frof. Tlirschfeld cm bare thought of it. Moreover, tho 
simplest and ousioet wny of bringiDg the nauicjs nuil Hues in tlm Tublo 
into Larmouy with each other and "with the facta is to snpposo that 
the line Dokiinion-Saiigarioe-l'esEiiins had been drawn awry, so us to 
touch the lioe Dorylaion-ressinua. Ac, at the wrong plaeo. Then tvro 
u&iitOB wLtth fihould fall between fiamcn SangariQi and DohhnlQit, fiz. 
Amorion and AhroBtola, got out of their right position : they contiun&d 
to hold their place near Pessirius, hut as iho line I'uHsiaus-Dokimioa 
had ceafted to exist, they got into tho lino roseinoH-Arcliolais. 

IG. Tho route from Dokimion to the coiLst in commorctally almost 
the moat important in Asia Minor, Tho road along which tho onomious 
monolithic eoluni.nB of Dukimian marble were txansportod as oarly aa 
the time of Strabo uust have hcnu well-conBtructoJ and carefully kept. 
Its cuurao its uow quito cei-tain. It passed through Syunada, Trhore tho 
central office for managing the fpiarriea was sitiialcd, and -which gave its 
name to the marble. Between Dokimton and Synnada was PrymnesaoH, 
o liltle west of the direct and e&ej path, but yet iieceasarily lucluded in 
the xixu miles placed by tho Tablo between DokimioD and Synuada.t 
Tho road wont Btraigbt south from Syunada to Metropolia by a routo 
\ia Baljik Ilisar, crossing a lofty ridgo by a finely engineered path, tlie 
cuttingH and cnrres of which cau etill be obeerv&d.J 

The approximate distancoa arc : Sj-nnada to Metropolis xvm tuilva. 
Metropolis to Apameia sxiv. 

This road was. as I belioro, coaatmctod by the Homans. Before 
their time the case was probably the same as at the present day: there 
was B horse-road over the mountains, and a waggon-road round the 
diitour by I'zun Bunar. MauHus, who was acoompanied by an army 
heavily laden with plunder, must have taken the waggtm-iijad, and 
Bininc, through which ho passed, must he eonght un It, Alcibiados, oc 
the other hand, was more likely to travel by tho direct horso-road, and 
Melissa, whore ho was killed, was on the road betweeu Synuadu and 
Motroi>olis,§ and may be sought at Baljik Hisar, where there are Miid to 
he remaiaa ou a hilt ru^und which the roitd winds. 

• At an eMllcrtime I liad fonoiod tbat the road Sokimion—pArj-Uioa joinod Ihfl 
otIiAr nt Nakoluin. Thb njiiaion olso I had to n1«nJ>i>ii, or raliiei it la a Uiil way of 
ea/uis tijut tlid rvAtl Dokluu^a — Pensiuus intcnseotctl at Doyut tiie rond Doi7lni<:>D — 
yukoleiu— Polyljotos— Jiilift— rhilomelion — Ikouion, »o inijiorUut in Ulcr time, 

t The (urtiul lUttancu ia nbout xxv miles at moat, but if PrymnMsui aod llie 
tli'totir l>!i couutuil dD. wd liu-Vti IS + 17, M. Chai«j took HV<?n houn to the journey 
from Allain Kum llitut to Syaaada, and ««limatM tha iljatftoc^ rioni 25 lo SO kilom. 
(15 to 18 tuilve) : I luuk five Loura ten niinutis lo the juumcj, utiJ estioialcil tl.e 
dUtanocat IT to 18 milfs. PjymneflBos it about two uiiloe ucarer SjEOftda. 

t I wrongly bdiyved formerly (CB., LXI.) Uiat Ibe mnd mado a lung dclour to llie 
east lo iivM tlib lofty ridgi'. Uutil I enwud it, I ttiMiglil tliul tliu tii.aiiolitbic ooluiuaa 
could Dot li&Tc Uco carried over it, i AllittDnuB, XIII. p. S7i, F. 



E^ROADS or THE PEOVHTCE ASIA. 



171 



17. Slralxi describes, after Artemidonis, tho p^i-'at carRvan-TOflds 
fmiii Epbesos to Apameia to the east. lletwe«a Metropolis luitl the 
bord^n of Pnrontio)) Flirvgin at Holmoi it did not tsko tUe route by 
Synnada. which the Boman governors preferred. Now the naluml 
pittti is h}' Oin^n and Gvneli. 'i'liis path is Hiii^iliirly easy and la 
throughout practicable for oarriagcs at the preeent day. Artemidorua 
probably wrote iML-fitrs the direct road Metropolis to 8yuiia<lft was made : 
bnt even aftur that road was built it ia lunlly conceivable thnt 
merobaDditte should be carried round Lyflias — Syiinuda — MetropoIiH, 
when thoro U a far »hnrl«r and more level road Lysins — Oen«li — Oinia 
— iletropolis, Eveu without any nrtificlal caiiBeway, thU natiimi path 
is porfectly eswy for vehicles. Eholiiloniou thi?» is to be sought about 
cither Geneli or Oiuia. The route by which Manlina marched co- 
iocidea w^th this road -nntil it enters the Otnan Ovu, and then turns oB* 
to tho north. Dinin, through whioh Manliois passed. Be«Ti]» ti bo the 
second part of Khelidottia (for the diGTerence of Tiiwel le lamlleled by 
the two forma Siblia and Suubluion), and therefore Diiiia — Kholi-donia 
must he in the sonth-wMtem end of tho Oinan Ova. 

19. The line Dorj-laion 20 Nnkoleia 12 SantahariB Kukka- 
bolcome 18 Etsja 15 I'olybotoft— Julia — Philomelion — nadriauopolia — 
EabaUft — Ikonion becamo important after Conataritiuopjtf wae made iha 
capital, but it is vory doubtful whether it existed in thu Roman jicriod. 
It may, however, have been represenlwl on tho Tabid, which giveg tho 
rout«« radiatiug from CouHtantinoplo, fur part of it, viz., the direct lantl 
Philomelion — Kaballa — Ikonion was given on the original from which 
our copy is taken, and this part has no importanco except as Iho oom- 
pletion of the shortest lino from Cuustautinoplf to Ikonion. 

Tho obser*ation, which Prof. IIir«cbfeld made, tliat circnitou* 
lontea are oflen given on the Table oh direct (and, I will add, dtroot 
TontcBas cu'cuitous) i» a valuable one, and many examplos of it occur 
in thiB paper. Bnt a zigzag ronto on the Table servos as a proof that 
the comjilwte roads, of which parts arc given in tho zigzag, alroudy i-xisteil. 

20. The routy Smyrna — Sarilis — Philadelphia — AUmonia— llioro- 
kharax — ^Ariatiou — Kidyeseoe — rrynincKsoBh&abocnonooftheimporlRTit 
trade-routed in modern time, but apparently it watt not oonstracted in 
Roman time. The trade of Bolcimiun and PrymneHuos ptiistKid to the 
coast by Synnaita and Apamcia. 

21. Tho Boundaries of Iloman Asia arc traced with approximate 
correctness by M. IVaddington in Chap. IJ. of his ^Fasti-s dee Provinces 
Atiitil i(jues,' p. 2.'j. His woida iiry ; " Conimentant par Ic nonl, le oouir du 
Hhjndiicm! scrvait d'aboni do liinito (Plia., 11. N., V., H2) jusquo uQ 
pen au-dela do la rillo d'Uadriaai, qui app&rteaatt h TAeie et not) h la 
Biihynie ; la fronti^re bo dirigcait enuuiCo h Text, possant an nord da 
I>oiylu«uiii [atteigtiait piohablemcnt le Sangarius],* puis rcdcacoudait 

* Omit tlw wordii tn LndceU, wUidi are due to the bad repr«aenttiliaii af the 
S&ngtuiM ill ol<l map*. 



172 



A SKETCH OF THE inSTOUlCAL CEOOBAPHY OP ASIA MINOR. 



au midi, en passant & Vest Ao 3Cida«iim.* d'Amc»'inni et da Philo- 
mel ium,t qui /itnit la ville In. plus oricntale de la proTiiice." The reatof 
Ilia dvficriptiou CAD ba given muru auuunxtely. The boundary passed 
south of Hadrianapolm, and thero turnud norlli-woet oAoug the Sultiin 
Dagh, leATing Neapolitt and Antiooli out, till it reaohed iLb long tidge 
wliii.'b sepiinitus the valleys of Kamtuiik, Umun, ntid Xchul, fi'out the 
oonntry that dnuiia iutu tiie gtfAi luk«a Uuwirau aud Eg^idir, wLichi 
as Hirscliffild lias euggestcd, were prubnbly known as Limnni, Tbo 
boundiiry ran aloDg tbis ridge till it oame to the valley of Dombsi 
(Aiir(i1ci'u), when it turned Bi>iitb to include the vulluy la Aeia. Quo of 
tJjc boundaries is still preserved iii tbia part. The load from Apameia 
to ApoUonift, after paaeing close over Anrokreni Fontee. reachos a small 
vilbigD Tcbapitli, ».Qd asoGtids a long etcop (tlope. At tho tup of tbia 
slope there is a lurgo pillar, square in plan, with base and capital of 
vficy oligbtly ornameutal type: the pillar is now lying flat on tbo 
ground, btit originally stood on & low circular basement, which still 
remaiciB ia a fragmentary Btate. On one side of tbo pillar ia the 
foilowiug inscription ( : — 



10 



IS 



YnEPTHCAVTOKPA 

TOPOCKAICAPOCeE 

OYTPAIANOYnAPei 

OYN OYAYI 

OYTPAIANOYAAPI 

ACTOVAPXIEPE 

MEnCTOYAHMAP 

OYCIACTOIO 

YnATOYTOrnATPOCHAT 

OC lACKAIAIWN 

CAYTOYTEKAI 

nANTOCOIKOY 

OYHBOYAHKAIO 

AHMOCOAnOAAtONIA 

AYKIWNKAIQPA 

UNUNOEOIC 

NOPIOIC 



Topoi Koiirapoi, 6f- 
ou Tpatarw Ilapdc 
Kav ttlou, Stjov Sl^tpy>aa, vl- 

i^drov T* 7', irarpttt war. 
pii}tt, [<fi«Tiip](ai ■tal aimr- 
lav iiaitiirn]i oCrai! rt ks). 
ToC tfinlrajirai oiKoa 

Silttat i 'AirdX^BVia- 
fir], Amf«ii Kol #pf ' 



This dedicatioa lh dated in a.d. 135. 

From this point the bonndnry ran to Ibo viilag* of Bamdis, where 
tlie following bo uiidarj- -stone was copied by me in 1892 : — 

Finis 
Gatsarik N 

This stono probably indicates the boundary of an imperial cstato, whiob 
included the rich va11«y of Xetchi Burin and Kilij, and which was 

* For Jtlikoiim ntul Akkiiaiou, and aJd "d? Tioknncles, il'OrkistMi" b^fiito 
** d'Amciriom." 

t Fer Pliilomoliun mtd TbyiiihTion-HmirianopoIu. 

% Imw it fint ill 1883, whnn travelling nith Kir Cliarli?* Wilscrti. tt wu in tiii'li n 
poittioii that it could cot b« toad. In 1S88 I roturnnd la tbr plofo, tmd nftfT ttro hoant' 
itvik, ff)i tLe stone tnracd and tLo iuicriptioa copiod. 



J 



E.— ROADS OF THE TEOVINCE ASIA- 



ITS 



iDCliidcxl among tlta Pliryginn cwlatofl Jiroctol perhaps hy fiio Procurator 
I'hrrgiae. tioath and cast of Lbis boundury the territory belongs to 
Qnlatiit, in wliich the oitir Kvuiini; wils itioluilfld. 

TI16 lake of DuMur (Atikania) was probably the bouudary, and near 
ita south- wdttom end at the vilUigG of Dnuor, vro find aootlior boundary 
(whioli I copied in 18S4), to fUf iv S*^*^ tlvai iay^\a<nriuiv, ra. Si Iv 
upiimp^ Kiuftti^ TvfLj8fKai'a<nrov Ncfjiuvof KA,tiii3ioti KaiVapot. Thin imiieiiol 
catuto imucdiatoly adjoined tbu territory of Takiua, wLicb bcloBf;vd to 
Phrygian Asia. It is thert'Toro probablo that it, like the other estatoH* 
AlnsLos and OrnieWis, was iiiclmliid among ibo Phrygian wdJites. The 
boundary, thorofore, musthavo passed between Lysinia and Tymbrian- 
u6ao!s iind betvreen Olbasa and the OnnvleiB. We can tJioa onderstuud 
why ft niile-stoue at Hedje gives the diutancc from Kibyra. The whole 
liiju of ibis itiadf frum. Ktbyra to Apameia by Ormoleis, A1asti>8, and 
Tyxubrianaeeos, was in the pi'ovitice of Ania. The diviainn betwooD 
Asia and Galatia tafiev "J A.^. betwocn Aaia aad Lycia-Pu-mphylia) lay 
along the centre of a valley, a rcmarkablo line.]: 

After [jaming Olbasi the boundary turned south, probably ah>ng the 
upper watera of the Lysis, and included Lagbo in Asia. It then turned 
west, poking through the lake Karnlitia, until it touched the livor 
IjidoB, down whoso coureo it wout to the mdi. 8ee Addcni.hi. 

The boundarioB of the Bysantine proTinoeii Uave boon given in tbo 
<liHOn88ion of the cities iu each provinoo. 

22, It will ko uuoful horo to r«c&pitulato tho imperial pTwporticn 
whose existence in. the itoman province of Asia has been estabUshed on 
<-VTtuiu or probable grounda. First luay be mentioned the grii^it estiitoA, 
probably continuoos with each other, of tho Ormolois (aftcrn-ards called 
ItlAxinuanopolix), including Ahistos, and Tymbrianaiia.S 

The iuscriptioiu of this district are ditud aa a rule according to an 
ix{TpoirtK% vpayfiartiiTai, and fiurSaiTai, i.e. a procurator Augusti, DCgutia- 
tfjrcs, and (>oiiductoreH.]| TJio populatiou vf siuh an estate bad a peculiar 
Btauding in Soman law, aud the inscription]! show that the Onnoleia 
aIho had a peculiar organisation. Their magiatiate or official is called 

• 6(m:> S 29 and Addenda to A, Ai. 

t Tbi« onrroeti KMoe AtXaUa in ASP. 

I II i» iMiallcUHl hj Bouic of tbe Utor divldiona: B]-iBulii)a Curia ami Ljdla ate 
separated bf Uio Mscandor, sad taki- each hidf nf tlia valley ; ByianiLac Lydlo atid 
rhrjp" ttl80»rn mpamtoil bj tiiu AIiLPandpr. TilgKiliB. wlilot M in rull vwir of TliHrntmlii^ 
hiivg |»rt of Lfdla. Bo oa tbe south Uie L^tu amy hiive brvn tho linn M|ianting Ibe 
I no profiuow. 

!j ia ABI'., D 22-^ I doitcribed tbs gcnaial ebaMcl«r of these estates. Frnns on 
C. I. 0., No. 43Gr, m, aai UM. Duahosna and OolUffoaa in *BalL Coir. IlnlL,' 13?S. 
iaUiiD(l«r«tan>l tlna ctuiraotei of th« ioicrfpUuiu, and ifwk of tlio pmgiuntcutea m a 
tort of ArohciTi Rj>onrmoa. The Uolii of Mr. Pethaoi has enabled DM to ndtl grcittly Iu 
lliii numliet of paints wbioh frove that tlio inscriptions wcr« oTCctfld Ly tliA coloni of 
ILki; impcrlid utntca. 

II Tb« rendering sctorea would he more amnrate for wpayiMtmnal ; aev AddAada. 



I7i 



A SKLTCU Of THE IllSTOIUCAt CEOOELAPilV OF ASIA UhVOR. 



irpoiyoftsperiiaiwatiaiifilationof praepoeitns.* A Proagou occurs also in 
two ioflcriptions of Pisi<liit, now wiiltOy sernintcil, but pcilmps oiigin- 
uting from Bindcofl (Stcrrett, II. 89 and III. itio) : ttoo § 2C. 

The little information that we gather from the Ormelisii JnBcriptiona 
iwlutoB to tLoir coulributiLiiis fur iho Viciicfit of tbo commnnity : tii]il 
iiHiially tbu inscription begins with a vow for the hcaltli of the emperor: 
o<»ui{i«re *' pro Halulu imp. CW-n. etc.: colotii wkltiia Mftuupiuui ncdiQcia 
vetiistftte conl&psa B(aa) p(ectiiiia) i'(e8lit«ernnt), item areas duos a(ere) 
^(iiii) fl'ccenint)" (C. 1. li. VI]]. 'i87)."f Similar constructionB at the 
ex{X'tu>o of coloni are often »U«(1l'(1 to ; " pro »n,]utv imp. Gordiani. etc. : 
niurUB coiietitutusn colon Is ein8ca»t^)liCel]en8i6"(WiIm.75G)i"poilicnm. 
ex pocnnift Baltnarioruai " (C. J. L. IX. 3386). The frequently renirring 
phmao in'fiyjtrt riv o;(Xo»' is perhaps eqiiivaleut to "coutrilmti^d for the 
iwnofit of the oommnnily." 'En'^ijcr* -riiv «;^Xoi' Spurrov (C(u iTTut«E to', 
" conlriljuteJ u breakfiist wnii 380 Attic (Irachmae," occiirs-i The com- 
mnnity is called o^Aos : thia seems to he a translation of pi,*puliia plcbeiut, 
which was the proper term for the inhabitJintA of nn estate (mUiii.' 
C]), FrontinuB, etl. Lachni., p. 53; Fustel dea Coiilangfls, ' Recherches snr 
qnelqiies Problimcs d'Hisfoire,' p. 2"). 

There ivaa in thi3 proviucee a procurator or rationalie, who adminis- 
tered the estates and Tcveniiea of tlio emperor. He -waa the official who 
exercised all real power, even that of life and death, in an imperial 
estate, and heuce the Ormeleia date their inscriptions by bis name. He 
let out the imperial properties iti the province to coaductorce ; and there 
were apparently three Iota of property, let to three condnetoree, in the 
Otuntry of the Oimeleis. 

The proper iiimJtiiig of the honads of an imperial property waa of 
courM a duty of the procurator, and he was abo bound to prevent 
(liecrdeily pereona from enlcriug the estate (Dig. I. 10. 3). Among 
tho Ormeleia the duty of protecting the boundaries and acting as 
giiaida was diiicharged by different corps calL-d irfiputf>v\atitriu ; oi ip 
'AXiuTTi^ irapatfivXaKtTiii were the corps who guarded AlaatOE, one of the 
three properties. Wo also hear of individuals called upo^i^'Aai(«. Thcso 
corrcBpond to the "walluarii fjui finiura cuatodiendomm oau&a" (Dig. 
XXXIU. 7, 12J, who vrvTU iindfr the ordeni of the procurator. 

Ahatit the three condnctorea we can gather very Httlo from the 
iiiscriiitiouH that aro preserved. The conductor was close to the coloai, 
and bia power niuut have beta almost greater than that of the distant 
procurator, BO long as he paid his rent and kept on good terms with the 

' Uiilcju fpodytm, or irpoa^'di-, ti^ Pri-^iilcnt of the Gnmci, which arc a feature el 
Pisldian life nnri coins; Imt •■ I'm^posiltis vctt. fccr." (O. Uirsulif., *KOiii. Vcrwslt" 
fi«cii.,'p. 8C): for ' prjpposituB pogi ■ : tea C. Tlieod. xiL 1, 4i>. xlL B, 8, 'pmcpositUTn 
liorreoTttcu et fingonuo ' : Voigt. Divi E(.ii|!;r, 0(>iutiliitinnon, Ji. 182. 

t "tCcftceniiit>"'aiid"ii 6(olo)" (Ucnsoii, 5313). 

i WroiiE:!; tmiiscrilictl ifiarov xat ^vi]iKa«T<l[raT<*} by Mt. Sterrett) ' Epi^. 
Joonipy,* No, 82, I. 9. 



£.— ROADS Of THIJ PROVIKCE ASIA. 



175 



]alt«r. 1Ien«e at Lagbo, fines ft-r violation of tlie tomb wen fonietunW 
XDftde piLynblo to the local conductor (n^ onru toirov ^turAikpg), ao BS to 
ensure bU aid in tbe proBecation of any violator. Oue of tbo oocduo- 
tores of the property at Alastos, M. Calpuruiiia Kpineikos, was a 
frttodmau a cubicuh of a Boiuaa Darnel M. Calpuruius Luu);u«. Tho 
latter may perhaps have been procorator, or waa at least closely ooa- 
nected witli tbo diiitrivt, for wa fiad a dudicnliuQ to Diunyscn by od« of 
his dispoDBatores or atevrards,* witb the inscription [' AplTtumv M. KaX- 
irwfi[n]ov Aoryoii ScmKos OMUfci/uit,] in thu aamv notghbourbooil.f 

Tbv cottdactorea, aa being pormanont reaideuts, vere naturally alao 
brought into relations ivith the Horophylaltes; ami prubably iestted 
orders to them in tbo abacnco of the pracmntor. Tliiit may perhaps bo 
gatbered from a f mgmeu Ury ineeription, which I oopied ia 1884 in a 
deserted oemetary below Hassan Fuslia: — 



€TOYCAC6niMlCeO 

TOYAYPTPO gONAOYN 

AYPTPOKO 

ICKOYANE 

TOYMICeflTOYrE 

0*YAAKnNANECTl- 

EIKAIA 



4^i>; Ao-* ■ iir'i liixrOuf 

Tou AJp. T/)o[ii]u'i^v N 

Ahp. TfKHtn- 

t'A«v iuKOV "Ak- 

. . . rav /Ltirffairov (i)iri- 

<r<i-l. 



The date la probably aooording to the Cibyratio era, and corresponds 
to A.R. 2ii5. 

Nogutiatorcs (irpay/tfflTnfT«i),t as defined by Lalteo (Dig. 32, 05), 
BT« Hlaveti "(lui praapouti eeaeiit uegotii cxoioondi cauna vejuti qui ad 
emondum locaiidum comluocTnlum prat-posUi essont." Th«ao pragma- 
toutai were perhaps imperial alaTea nnder tho ordurs of the procurator, 
■who wcrw Btntioncd on the eatatoa to look after the ii]i[ierial intereata. 
The diapeiisntor mentioned Iwlow (5 27) was probably an official of n 
similar kind, an imporial alave. It ia not poasible that they were 
*• middle-men," corn-doalera who bought up the grain from tb© oon- 
diicl4rM.S The fact tlint there w^re special negutiaUirM, apparently 
tbo Bamc in number aa the couductorus, points ooacluaiTely lo tho 
fotiner view. Merfl tradera in cum would hardly bo stleeted to data 
an inscription by : fur this pnrjKisu eume definite oSicial position ia 
reqnired. The names of tho negotiatorea alflo are suitable for bImtcs, 
Abii£canttiH, [A]Dthinus, Marcelliou, Aeithaloe, whorcas tho Proagontca 
are free-bom with a pater, and the miatUotai are libortini ((,'Iaudius 
Aboscautus) or ingouui. In ono inscrLption (3t«rrott, No. 4S) there are 
tlirea nogotiatoros and threo conduotOTCa. upparontly one for each oatatc. 

' SlHTPtt. ■ Epigr. Jomn.'. Nos. TP, 78. 

t An linpurial bUivi:. ilU]H)a*aUir, nt TeBitirlon-Eaitokiat. {27. 

I P«rhii]M ana]os»ti» to the prabatoru or voctores mnneotail irith mlnM itnd 
qunrrio* (iKV O. llirKhCciIi), ' Itum. VorwkltilngMleach.,' i. \ip. 80, K(). But ou tlu 
pEapor KOte of Wfoytianvrai k« Mr. Pelham'a note tu Addenda. 

f Lilw a^satiatuTO ia tlio wllim of Apuliu aoU Culabria (am Oualod.Var, ti. StitftcJ 



17(3 



A SKETCH OF THK HISTOBIOAI, OKOGKPAHV Ot ASIA Ml.\f»R. 



A buuitilarjHstoQo of the estate TymbTmnafiu kas hceo ^xihViainA 
(ASP., I> 22-5j ; 08 it is oroctud Ijy tho logatne mwl tlie i-rociiralor 
of Gftlatia, it miglit seeni that the «&tate was at that timo part of 
Galatia. But wIiku alnioet tho whole of Fioidia wuh Lakiiii fruiii GaUlia 
and aunexed to Lydo-Paraphjlia, apparently in the year 74, it wowld 
appear that Tj-mbrianasa was joined witli the otker Phrygian oet«t<« 
and put in tlid piovinco AKin. TIio rivor hjs\» was in all probability 
the boundary between Ania and PampUylia. The three great estate* 
Mem to have iuoluded all tlie country on the bfl bank of the Lysis, and 
the datW on tlioir inacrtptioiis appear to bo as a rule reokonftd from 
either the Asian em, September 85 b.o., or the Kibytstb era 23 A.D. 
A road pajued throngh them from Kibyra to the oast, and the distance* 
along it were reckoned from Kihyra. C'roasing to the right bank of tho 
river we find the Piaido-Pamphylian citloe of Olboea, Lysinia, and 
probably PulaiapoUs; and in the laat a double reckoning,* by tlio 
Kibyratic era and by tlie formation of Paiuphylia-I.ycia in a,d. 74. 
The furmer vus used aa being familiar in tho dintrict, and the latter lut 
being the provincial date- 
One peculiarity may Ix) remarked about mauy of theao Phrygian 
estates r they received during the fonrth or fifth century an imperial 
name and a IiiaLnp, This wan iho cuao with Muximiunopiilis, Eudokia, 
Augnstopolie,t Thcodoeioupolie, and perhaps Valontia, Theodosia, and 
PnlcheriauoixiliB. We shonld gltwily know whether tbia indicatod that 
8orae new organisation with grnator frnoiloni and more rights waa 
graQti»l to these estntofi at this timo. That privilegos were sooietimca 
granted to the inhabitants of an imperial estate is Bhown by C. I. L. 
VIII. No. 82M, 'Epbeui. Epigr.' II. p. 273, which rwcordu the Iwstowal 
of the »uj» nuiirfiWriu/j. On each estate there was at least one Tlllagu, 
and a head man {maffltlcr nVi) is oftun niontiuued, who ueoms to corre- 
Bpood to the proagon in these Phrygo-Pisidian catatea. The proogon 
lias a Greek namo, und Kucms to he a native Piiiidiau. 

23. At Lagbo (Alifachreddin, or AUrurudin, Yaila) there must have 
been another iniporiul catato. TkiM roauUs from the following inscrip- 
tion, already Iwioo piibliahed, bnt not correctly restorod J— iraut <wr'- 

Ai-p. K«[ gap of uncertain dimynsiuuB] Kajta^ncvnaty to fivrjii-uov 

iavrif] Ktti rg [yiraiKi Aip , iT4pif &i t>v]&tvl i^v itnai irrur- 

[«<«*(«( nrwfio, itrtl tyaxm ?]oTai o i7ri[;(u]fiii[cri»«] T^i (pyu ro[vry tv/*- 

sroAti (jtjvc^Ma) a]^', mu n^ [K](ir[i tot]w itur0iiirg [rjoC jfiQpiQV (^&7jvapuii) 

" ABP„ D Ifi : I hnve ihere reckoned Die sdmiii} era as 7S, litil 7* ia riiiiall^ 
poiKible : tliu liAtim nrt? 103 nnil IhO. TIit' 1nlt«r givf^ a ti. lifi-G, and if t)i4i Kibyruiio 
en began in the autumn, Only 71 ii proliubly tliv L'iiiu{iti}'litta crn. 

t Tlie munti though rot found in lliTiwIun, is olilir tliiin l^no. Sekno., a.S. 359) 
WlKili 4A(ica3(ti AilyoiiirTiiivr ^puyiat 'EKapx^<u ■■ liioiilii-iii*^c!. 

* m. Smitli. in 'Joiirn. UtH. Stud.,' 1^117, p. 'J33,and PetuiAU uit von I^uachan, 
Lyklee,' tt, p. 1C8. 



E.— KOADS Of THF. PKOTIKTE ASIA. 



^ •<• St Ti (8oiAewr[o), rnJj'ra In faiv imypaijiia. The refitorntion nf the 
latter pnrt ie given 1>y an inscription, aido by tiido with tho altCTu, 
whtcli the Austrian tmTellera omitted. It is eugrnTed in Caint and 
>ni letters. I hare ]>ublit(li6il it in ASP., D 14 ; but tLe end mutit be 
nil rip icaT« Tontir fiia$iit\T^ (Sr^vapia <^")]- 

Tbwe refercnoca to a local fua^iur^ hnvc alrcadj been expUined. 
Dr. Petarsen, who raBtorea rw Mark i^>^i' iu*r$airf}, mmimlorstandB 
(fts I tliiuk) tlit> paesfige, considering that thi> land was hired from thti 
local commiinity. Ths fine* aru payable to tlio Human treaaory, to the 
cit J of Kibyra bs chief of the conventna or aa jioasoaaiiig somo lightB 
over Laghe, and to the imperial conductor, irho reprC3«iitcd to the 
rustic mind tho majpgty of tho emperor. Up, having soinothing tu gain 
from protecting the tomb, might lie expected to proaeouto any one ivhu 
violated it Khorion or Eomo i« regularly appUod to an imperial estato 
aa distinguiahed from a miy. It is remarkable that a coin AArBHNQN 
ahonld exist. 

The dato 21C mnst bo reckoned from the Ribyratio era, and is 
equivalent to a.p. 240. Dr. PeterEen reckons from the creation of tho 
province Lyoia in a.u. .'4; but it in an error to place LagliO in Lycia. 
Tlie reference to Kibyra bIiowb that it waa in the conventua of Kibyia* 
and in tho province of Asia. 

24. Phylftkaion or XaipCa lIaTpiiAwii[Xia\ between Kriwii Kibyra, and 
ThemiaBonioii : ASP., B 4. 

25. It must be left doubtful for tho present whether the Valentia of 
Hierocles and of C«QciI. Xioees. II. 'n-aa an imperial tetate. 

2B. Tho ffltato called Bindooa: the form of tho name i» always 
II BiVSccK (BiVSdtfn) or to BCvSiov (with X'k"'^ "r jfuipCav underntood). It 
seems to be the ThcudosioitpoliH of early Bysantine time.'f and to have 
keen inado a bishopric by Theodosina, probably tlte second emperor of 
that naino. The two iiigcriptionfl, found at Sparta and at Uayat, and 
published by Prof. Sterrett.} which mention both an ^ynrtuTiirTt) 
[compare ipytnurrarxji tov XaropuW, O. niracbfeld, 'Kiinj. VorwnJtunga- 
Geach.' p. 83], and a irpoiyviv, may have boon brought from fiindaioe. 
A boundary- stone of tliia testate has been mentioned above. 

27. Between Apiu, the Pr«i]>eni»«ei8, and Kotiaion, we find a diatrict 
calliMl by niorocles Eudokiaa. In it are two inacriptions which eeem to 
prove that it vrtui an imperial oi^tatc. One of those (C. I. L. Supplem. 
No. 7002) in the epitaj^h of Diotiyxins, Augusti dispenvator. He was 
ertdcntly a slave of tho eniponir, atationod in this diatriot for some 
fiscal purpose, as deacribed above, ilin friend Aoliua Trophiiuiia may 



■ Snfi ftlMTo, .*ig*i Aeiiie. 

t Uionwlca hu Eu<losioupolii, poThapa onl; on cnvr for TkouildirioupoUa 
t ' EpiKiaphio Jonmry,' No. S3; -Woire EipiJ.,' No, IdS. lu bath Iho befrlanlnir 
(ai Ur. Hogarth detected) thoiild be et]ini itiw/i<7oi>) mi XpiirT(avJ mI 'Ayiw ni<«l)> 



Utt A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL {JCOOEAPHY OF ASIA, MIKOIl. 

IiftTfi 'boen a freedman. Tbo otber itiscriptioti (C I. T*. 111. Siippleni. 
No. 7004) is, I believe, ono of the boundat^'-Rtones of tliia estate. The 
cxplanatioa which fgrtnerly occDircd to toe, nwi which was printod in 
' Epheiu. Epigraph.' V. n. l4o2, that tho atone raiirkod & boondaty 
betwocn Apiit and Aizaiiol doca not now Hatisry me. We deoiro eomo 
r«<a«ou why an imperial procunitor ghouM talco the duty of marking the 
bniinda'n', and this cftc I ihiiik only 1>o expUinod by the Hiippoeitioii of 
iiupcriiil cfltatc. The river Tembris, Temhrugiiis. or 'i'hyhri* (Porauk 
Su) flowed through or along this cutatg, which tliervforu mtiy safely bo 
identilied with iho imperial estate called Temhre or Terabrion (C'onsl. 
Porph. vol. 1. p. 488) in the Opsikian Thome, whence ^Bhormeu were 
taken to ftocompftny ihu Emperor un a marcL. titophauae girea tbu 
nnmu a« Tembrion, Tymbrion, or Tombrieton. 

28. The imperial eatale of Dipot&mou, urhase oxiHtence has been 
proved in the Bycautino period, can perhaps be traced as early aa the 
third century by tliu following inscriplioii, found nt Kara Agha, ono 
honr north-west of Dogh&n niaar, near the site of Hodrianopolis. It is 
an epitaph on a tomb dedicated by parents to Soucrnv duu o/io^yAoxt 
tatftayivTi irr^ Ajjoru^." Bousou was a, BalluariiiH cm thitt eatalv^ I know 
no other cxaniploe of Hoiophylakes except hero and on the other great 
imperial oBtate of the OrincleiB. The situation of Kara Aghn Bhows 
Dither that the inscription has been carried, or that Sousou was employed 
on nil estate at some little diatmico from his pfirciite' homo, or most 
probably that tho e&tato was a very largo one, reaching to the south of 
Ak Shoher Lake and Philomolion. 

20. A largo e«tiite in two divi«ion«, Rleros Oroines and Kleros Poll- 
tiVoH, I.C. Pracdium Rnsticum t at'd PraeJium Urbanum, taii been traced 
in the couiitr>- between Prymneasoa »ud Dvkiiuiou (CR, ^LIII., LIV.). 
It apppurs in moet of tho Byzantine Itsls as Augntitopolis, but is named 
Kleroi at the Council of a.d. 869. Tho pafsagea which prove llwt 
A iigti»topolis wa3 an imperiid property are in 'Vita Eutych,,' 'Act, 
Sanct.,' April C, pp. ooO— I : uip^aro fiiv in rijf rwr ^pvyuv )(yipai, T«irov fij 

*''"//*X*'' T'"* Jl*'P""''i 0"nl' Ko'i^ij't, otiTiJi TTprxrayopfvofiti'mj &t!a^ Ktuftt]^ 

TiV fill/ 7} avaOpttliaftfvri (ttii rof /iiyav Eiin'jjtnv iBoi/to- ■ AV-yewTToiroXi! 01*^/1 
MoXovftivT}. A oonductor of tliis caiute, or at least of tho pracdium 
nuttoam, )b mentioned in an inscription quoted in CB., § LXVI. Tbo 
bead man among the colon! of tho estate is there euUed ttvi/uip^o-t. 

30. Tbeodouin, whose existence in inferred at Shap Ebano in CB., 
§ C^1■, was perhaps au imperial estate. This may poseibly be gathered 
from the name and from tlie aluin-mines and workii, which have caused 
the modern name, "Uoosa of Alum." Mines were usnally imperial 
property. 

' Bterrelt. ' Epigrapliic JmimiTy,* X»i. I.W, wliom the I'roUietk iola of la^ayii^i, i« 
l]iiftr«pn.>ioD(«d RmA alto AouBb Zoiiiou fur AauSat 06auu. 
t UnlMsit 1i««fiiBilnainlliieuii«." 



178 A 

have bee 
No. 7004 
explanftti 
' Epbem. 
tetween 
reason w 
boundarj 
imperial 
Su) flowi 
identifiei 
Porph. "vi 

taken tq 1 ^ 

name as , 
28. 1 
proved i 
third cei 
hour nor 
an epita 

no other 

impeiial 

either tb 

on an efi 

probably I 

Ak SheU I 

29. A '■ 

tikoe, i.e- 

in the co | ' 

It appea; I 

Kleroi a |. 

Augusto] 
Sanct.,' i : 

Tl's OVV 7/ 

KoXovfifyy, 
msticum. 

head mai , 

30. T f 

§ovi..-« 

from the 
the modt 
property. 

• Sterr. 
miBreprcBe 

t Unloi 



-:! 



E.-I10AUS OF TUe PBOViNCE ASIA. 



179 



3t. Pulcliemuopolia or Kfotolla was perbops an estate. Except the 
namo, no other evidence h l(uou-ii ; but nottmig iiiconBLHt«nt wttb the 
hypotheais is known. Clandiua Clemena, whose nlave Rouphion is 
mODtionbd in fta ioMription," vrte poThapH a Bomaa oouneotod with the 
Mtate. 



F. CmRs ASD Bishoprics or Bmmiu. 

Whilo it does not lio in my purpow to di8cu«s carefully the topo- 

' gruphy uf Bitbyuin, a cuuutry which I have nuvcr Hctiu, it is ncogenary 

to study clotjoly the lino of one of the rofttls. anci m a preliminary to this 

I must give a sketch uf thu gvueral topography of Bitbynia ami a more 

detailed study uf tbo country olong the line of tho road. 

The eocJeoiastiMl lists are given in tho accompanying Tabic. 

1. CRAt.CEDON. Hioroclee begins, not mtb the actual metropolis of 
the prorince, bat with Cbalcedon. This city wan, in the eocl^iiiastical 
organisatiDn, not Biibjcct tu Nikoiacdeia, but an indepL-ndcnt mctropoHa. 

2. XiKOMEPELi, which still retains its name 88 leuimid or lamid t (tli 
NccOjUtjStKH'), was a foundation on the aite of Aetakos or Olbia. It was 
one of tho greatest cities in Asia Minor under the Roman Empire.] 

.Diocletian made it one of the capitala of the Buiutui \VurId. Ju tho 
tenth centary it was the chief city of the Optimate Theme. 

Hierocles thou goes along the south coast of the Gulf of Atitakos or 
Nikomcdcia, roachiitg 

3. Praiket>>!! or Fiietoa, given as Prinotoa in his text, whouo 
Hituation is discnisMd more fitUy below. It was the third city in the 
Optimate Theme. 

4. KcLEKoroi.13, eecoud city in lli« OpUmata Thome, is discussed 
Imorv fully below. 

5. NiCALi. comes next iu bin list. It retains its name as Isnik 
r{<*< N^Koiav). It waa not subject in the eoolesiusticat arrangement to 
\ if ikomedeia, but was an independent metropolis. J ltd origioftl name was 
iHelikoro or Aukore (Notitiu III. and StephauuB). 

Basileihopolis is to bo looked for between Nikitta and Kioa, 
[probably at the western end of Lake Aecauia, Tho conlfi«t between the 
ll>i3hop3 of NikaJa and Nikomodoia at Concil. Chalced. (4i>l a.d.) as 
[tu which was motrop<jlilau of Basilinopolis, woe finally Huttled in favour 
[of the latter. This suits a position towards the western end of the lake. 
rfailo the urgnmenfs adduced in favour of Nikain shuw that BaeilinopoUa 
I not far from it. It in named after Ba»ilina, mother of the emperor 

• Artf-mI«.L«to, te., $ 14, in • Jenn. Hall. Stvd.,' 186a 

i la c&ilf TutltUh (li« rorm it Uni^tntd. 

X *ii otm alt* t1)v Nma^Savi, Snui itiw tiaiiit t« Kttl luyJtaut Srmt St A«i>pdnp-»i vol 
tfl^f lx*>i lol A( ^v' BiSuFBf liiri]! •wi^tan ixTfTpiTo\ti ioTi¥ aDm (AA. 99. Apfil Z7, 
add. p. LX., vil. Antblml, epLacop. KktHoed.) 

g Ditiiynia 6«onnda u cot a civil, but an «<oleeiA>ticAl, prertaco. 



180 



Ji SKETCH eg THE HISTORICAL aEOaKAPHY OK ASIA MISOB. 



Julian, und wu roiiitHl to the mnk of a city by Jalinn alKnit 365 (Cone. 
Cbaloed., Actio xiii.): cp. No. G8.» 

7. Kios, nt the lieacl of tlio Giiif of Myrloa or Kius, was called 
also Proatniui ad Mure. It is au independent luetropolia in the cccIcei- 
aslical liats. 

8. Ar-AME!A, Biirnamod Myrlea, was on the snm* gulf, ami i« UBnally 
placed beside the modem Mudania. It itt aii indepeadetit metropolid iu 
Uiu ecclesiastical list). 

9. FitovMA atill letains its name as Bioueaa.. It is dietinguushcd as 
Proiiea ad Olympum from I'roiisi&s ad Mato, i.e. Kioa, and from ProusiaH 
ad Hypium in HoiioriHs, 

Hot spnngg beside Ptoiish, BoiuetioieA called Pythia, were famooa in 
antiquity: boo 'Act. S. ilenoilunie,' Sept. 10; Tillciuuiit, ' M^m. p, 
Berrir,* &c. v., art. 63 ; Theophan., pp. 180, 471 ; Nieet, Chon., p. 701 ; 
pTOTOp., 'Aedif./ p. 3IS. In Act. S. Fatiicii, April 28, p. 676, 'Julius 
proconaul, omn, ingreftsua TlLerma^, aacra Asclepio et Salnti porcj^tsset.' 

Tb© famous monnettiry of Medikiou, near Prwuea, wae fonndcd by 
Nicophonts, wlio die<l A.n. 810, and was eiicccedod by Nicotat, ' Act. 
Sanflt.,' May 4, p. 500. 

10. Eaisabeia flttikes unmeroiia ooiris as Ctcsarcia Gonnauico. The 
coins eetiD] to &bow that it was a seaport and near Slount 01ympoa,t but 
these oO'nditions oro hnrdly consistonC with each otiier. Dio Chryaostoin 
plaoea it beside PiouBa, wbich agiet* with the coins rvadiiig 0AYMU02. 
Pliuy Cttlla it Iltlgiis-OeniiauicopoliB. Uolgaa is ptrhapa the old native 
name. If we could accept il. Imhoof-Blumer'a opinion that the coin 
reading OAYMROC ehould ho attributed to Geiiiiaiiicia in Konunageoe 
(Mouu. Gr., p. 439), eoiue of the ditlicuUioa ahmtt the gituatiOD of 
Cifsareia would be eliminated. Tho coinB, together with ChrysoBtom, 
socm to repreeeat it as the port of Pixjusa, i.c. Muduuia, whoru Apameia 
ia vtiually plocod. A paasago in ' Act. Sanct.,' May I>, p. 3C3, aeemt to 
continu this BituatioD ; it mentions that Codrntiie and othere, under 
Decius, were taken by the Proconsul Perinius from Nikomedeia to Nikairt, 
theu to Apameia, then to Caceareia, th«n to ApoUonia, and tbenco to 
Rhundaca et Hcrmopolim (apparently the river Bhyndakos and Mile- 
topolis) ; this beems tu describe the groat road from \ikaia to Miloto- 
polis^ (E. S d), and snggestti that Apameia wus nearer Kios; and Straho 
also eaye that Apumcia and Eios were near each other. Bnt tho 
importance of Apameia corresponds to that of Mudanla, and probably 

• It U ulna jMM^tile tliat CiinlJDupolis gt-ta iUt unnio from tUo tataic nLkb trnii 
beqacalhoil bj BeBiliua to Iho icliUKili, and wliicli ChiyMstoni woa a««vBe(l of bAvLug 
•uW fo( hit own bcucflt (.lo/. Sanel., Sept. 14, p. 613). Tim rcifereuce in Coin. Clmltftl. 
it not iiiciDHiBtciil with tbia. I Iiilvd aot tlio opportunity of cotitnUing the otiiiii 
IMHiixva qucitccl bj ViLli^iuN in Lis nolea tu Aiumianu*, xxr. 3, nt bearing ud tho poiul. 

t Hcail. ■ Ujal. Nmit.,' p. 48« and p. ti53. 

t TluB VIM tlid important rcrnl from Ljdia lo Kioji and Congtantiticpl?, u TveU| m to 
Kikoiannd (ho tiut. 



p.— BITHTNIX 
rola Is to be Bonglit on tho cojiet between Apamew ana Daakjr- 

11. Arot-LOKIA is lixod by the lake called Apolluniatia or Artjnia. 
The towu in still called Abtilliout. It is called Tlieotokia at th« 
Connoilfl of 080 atiil i!t)2. 

12. Vashvijoh lay betireoD tlio two largor lukea Apffllooiatis and 
MUetopoUiU and tbe eea, od a small lalco called Daskylitio (Strabo, 575). 

13. NEocAESAiiKtA ftppeant Only iu th© Bystaiilino li«U, Thcordorof 
Ilieroclcs and tho KotitiK show ihut it is lo bo toukcd fur about Bolat. 
Tlie only otIi«r places ibat could etiggettt thetuaelvus are Kiriua»li 
KatwaliA (but Gorme wa* pTobahly situalod them) nnd tlic noighbourbood 
of Egri Goz and Amed (but Tiboriopwlia Phrj-giao seetnB to bavo been 
there), Bolat remaiiitt wilLmita name, ftfter HcUcmioiituB and Pbrygia 
arc completely mapped, and, as its situation aud iuijwi-taucc mark it as a 
biahoprio, it muBt bave belonged either tu Bithyoia nr to Lydia. The 
north-easteriii border of Lydiii ie not <juite oortniii, but tbu proviuce can 
li&rdly havo extended to include Bolat, which therefore must belong to 
BilLynta and be the site vi Xuocacsaieia. From about 7^7 onwarda 
Kcooaesareta v.u« rpplaced by Arista or Eriate ; it is therefore omitt«d 
from Kolitia I. Od the other band, Notitla? HI., X., XIII., which are 
founded uu a diflerent register, forgot entirely that Kristo is the old 
Keocaeiiareia i and III, even coafuAett tbe latter wLtb the mctro|K)lis 
MooCMwrcia, which belongs to Fontus. They simply repeat thu oil 
register and add Eriste or Arisle at tho end. If Balike&n iis ibo trite 
Dame of the lutxlurii ton's near Hadrianoutberai, we might imagine that 
IIoAoia K.ataofiti.a. was opposed to Keocaesareiu ; but tlio name is donbtfnl 

14. HjioaiANi still retainii the name Kdreut>e, which denotes a 
governmental district. 

15. lificto TATJUO^ alHO called Tottaion and Tatavion.* wa« a district 
immediately to the cott of the Sangario* adjoining the territoiy of 
Nikaia aud Nikomcdeio. 

Iti. Rcaio Dunis was another district in the eastern part «( UithyniR. 
There can be no doubt that it hecanm a biehupric alonp; with Rogto 
TalaioB, but appears only under another name. If it was eotith of 
Tataiija, it would be under Nikaia, aud is probably to bo identified wilh 
Nuitierica. Now, if it were north of Tataios, it would be connected 
oatarally with Nikomcdcia, and could hardly have been a ri-gio under 
Nikaia, aa is expressly mentioned; therefore its eouthi>rn poiiition is 
eitUblitihodt and ita probable appearance as tlie bisboptio Numerit-a. 
Duria Itvgio, then, lay pre bably between BcgioTollnton aud tbe Galaliau 
frontier. In this part we find in older authorities the namo Dablcis. 
The two namoa are apparently two attempts to render in Greek a native 
name, in whioh there was a sound, probably like English V or W, that 
* In PUilvmy nsToaiior, OB cnor fia Tarao^tar : ate Addcsda. 



182 



A SKETCH OF TUT. l(I;^'K>tttC\L GCOGtlAPflV OF A51A MIKOft. 



oonld not readity bo proncnncei or writton by Grovlcs. This eound 
may havo boon rendered tKnuotiiuea by B, someiimefi by O or OY.' Tliis 
Tiew, probable in itself from tho mere sound of tbc nuraes. is proved by 
n posHige in Cud. Tlicodoa., XII., 1, 119, wbcro we read of the cimalcs 
CUudiopoIiti, PrnBiadis, ac Tolai et Votidiaf oppidortnn aire nianeionum 
j)«r Bithyiiittin. We nmat lieru read Tuttaei et DoridiB, and we soa tliat 
ihcy are tbt? two matiBionee on tbo road to Ankyra, mentioned in tbo 
Itinentrioe, TaUion or Tottaiou and Dablcie. As there vore onrinleet 
resident in thoni, thay must liavo been plaoea of sonie importanco, 
ivbich IK natural couMdi^ring tUeir putiitiou ou a great road. In ' Acta 
CoQC. Chalced. ' (Actio xiii.) we road: Tarrtu'oc kui ^lopU ^rytaiv4t ttutv 
vfrur^Kutatai-.And theyMcni at tbis time (451), not to bavu badbiahope, 
tbongh we must fiupixiee tlmt they slill had curialea-I Ilicroclea 
mentions tbom n» Kegioitcs. The lat«r Noiitiie gave Taion, i,«. Tataion, 
as a biehoprio, and, though Doria or Dablis ia not mentioned, it must bo 
meant cither by No'imerilca or by Maxuniaofti ; bnt tho carlioat Notitiw 
Till, and IX. (VII, ia mutilaled) omit these three bishoprics. Taking 
into couajderation what is said about regto Tarsia, No. 78, -w* 8C» that 
the thioc rcgioacB cast of the Sangurios were elevated to tbo rank of 
bishoprics along with Unpbnoiisia at a comparatively Into period: to 
judge from tho order in the lint, TarBin is Mitxioiianai, and Doris is 
Numerica, bnt certainty as to the correspoudeQce is impossible. Tbo 
incompIetentBs uf lIiui'Oclcb''H list is obvious. He gut Begio Iloris anfl 
Jtfgio Tataion perhaps from the 'Act. Cone. Chalced.,' but omits liegio 
Tarsia, which was not mentioned (hero. Ho gives the bisboprica, and 
supplcmentu the list where he cuu from any other eonrce of information ; 
but h« had not a govi^mment Hat. 

17, 16, 10. Oai,u)9, Lophoi, and Eawsia were probably three places 
near eneb olher on the road betwec-u Proufia and Nikaia, on Ihe Dppor 
waters of the river Gallos.S They are subject to Nikomtdeia, but do not 
appftar in Hicraclc». 

20. Dath^iousix was an island in th« Euxinc, on the Bitbynian 
coast. It becamv a bialiojiric, but is tiot given in Hierocles. It was one 
of the group of bishoprics iobtituted at a late time. Kotitia' I., JIL. X.. 
£I1L mt-uliou ii, and 111. »li<o ^ives it in HcllDspontus. It was 1000 
stadia from CoDstantinoplc (Nic. Ctreg. It,, 65; ep. Poohyin. ii., 138; 



* Oonipiirc Ihc FumphylmB Logbc, Lagocattd (be ellmEc Aayyura^ iu Byuiotiiii: 
liaU. 

t Gutliofr<-r]iia iiihU'tkUiikIj tbnt KiciB.Fniiiiu is meant, tio'l says that Vorls nviv 
porhftiM be the 9api(m, wSkit narrioKti, &f SlopliAnuB. I think that ProiMtiu nd Hj-jilum 
U lucMit irlii-ii Pruu«lD» u imtiieil aicui'ly l><r a IliIlt uriler, 

£ It i« rrninilitttilG (tint in ttio eniui; |wvBWkg<> tbo iii*thutioa of carutleii (wpajjtvttu- 
ilMyoi) at lioniliudpnlij Nliniilil !m; idi Dtioticd aa cquit'iilcnt to mining It lo Uiu rank of a 

S Tho Rnllna, which I.«alM plAMd tightly, is put by tUepcrt on tli« wiong «J« of 
thp ^ongurioa (ace HodnDc). 



AoiOpo], 192). S. Sabag, bUhup of Daplinoasia, is mentioned iii 'Act 
Sanot^' VUy 2, [>. 2ft2. Ptolein,y b&s Tliyaias quau ct DuphuoaaU ; Pliny, 
II. N.. v., 32. TlmlluKi qtme ot DuplmuM (bee 86). 

21. Eristi: or AmsTE i« K-sMo Xftokftixuroin, ami i» tticluiled in tha 
Ksmo bishopric with it at Cone. Nicaeii. 11., where Leu En«t«s or 
ArJstea is also called A^wr N«<i«:(t«rnp(iaf Jfrtn 'Apitmit, Len NeocaOflareae 
Tbncift« aot Aristee. It is »diled at th« end of the Ii*l in Notitiic III,, 
X., XIII., as difltioct fnim N\inca««ar6ia i tliin in perhaps a mere error, 
ariBing from NeocnetKarem having lost importance, and it« identity 
with Arialc having btcn forguttttii : I. umits Neooaeaarola and giroa 
Eiiete. 

22. The «fintitry in the RoutUooiitcm part of Bithyuia waa mad© 
tutu a aDTiM of hiKhnpricH subject to Nikuia. It cuiisiatitil originally in 
all prohnljility of a vast territory Ix^longing to Kikaia, and of two 
districts (reyion^f) which are &ai'l to liaro been to a certain extent 
sobjoct to it, TatJiion and Doris. The hishopric* of tliis district ara — 

23. MonKEN'E, which, liko the following, 

24. Mela, will be fully disciufled in tho follovring Cliapter Q. 

25. LixoE, 20, GoRDOSRRBA, arc in all probability to bo placod on tbv 
two important roads leading from Xiltaia to Eotiaion and to Dorylaion, 
Olio is pTobably Silgut, and oiio BilejiV or Itin CJngn. The diatriot 
Gordon, in which Gordosorbu is situated. Ut-a a1oii)x the Saugarios (seo 
bolow, Modrono and Mtlu). ami ]»;rlia|i8 (lonloiterba i» tiiignt.. 

27. The whole territory of ByMintino Bithyoia beyond the Sangariott 
WAS divided into three regiones, which at a Inter time became biiihaprics 
(aee 18). 

The district which litis along tho roads from Chalcedoii to Kilto* 
medcia and to Nikaia is fO i-aportant for luy purpose, that I uust 
diflousfl it accurately. 

I take ftrst the road from Chalcedon to Nikomedem, already well 
diacaaaod by others, an<l comparatiroly froo from difficulty, though 
opiQiotis 01^ evca here far from nnanimou^. 

28. PiKTiciuoN' is still vailed Paudik, 4^ hours from Scutari. 

29. Kassn is half-way betwenn t^ialcedon and Pandik. The form is 
doubtful. 

30. F^rfTAXUS is between Pan<lik and the following. 

31. LI8VS5A is to l>o Bfiught at enmo puint ncir Malsnm, but probably 
a little ne^irer Nikoraedeia: it is famous for tho tomb of Hauuibul, bnt 
ia neTer mentioned in Byrjintiiie titties. 

32-38. Bkunca has, by WoSMling, l>ecu taken as pi:rhaps an 
erronoons form for Kryaa." Rnt Bryas was a Iiarhonr on iho Bitbynion 
coast, wht^re Yeiid lay when bi-aiegiitg Ccuslaniiniple in x.X). 717. 
HiashipH ooonpicil thi- harbours (34) Satvros and Dry us, and extended a» 

* Tlu error vwuU cume Itunuf-li a Grt«k text, B^iScma Unng written tpia^ya, 
TlKoplianca, p. ^7 Jiu (uvnia. Bpuar : Ccdrentu, I., p. 789, BftWrn. 

TOI.. IV. O 



164 



A SliETCH Of THE HISTO&ICAL OECKlRAPUir OF ASIA MISOR. 



far M (35) Kautauimen, which i» perhapH tho mudc-ru Kartat, marked by 
Kiepert olc«e to PaiKlik. Tbeopkiltis built a. ifn\;u:\} at BryuH ia ^.d. 8^6 
ID tliv yuruouu RtyK using for it the Htuiius fraui the iiionaBteij of 
SatjToe, tti« name of whioli wae derived from tbo pa^tan tvcrahip of a 
iiatyr ]iracti8C<l there (Tlioaplmn. Contin., p. 2^}. yiMiii thu noameiw of 
Bryas and Satyrws, t!itt palaco is called Satj-jos by Constantine Por- 
j)h>TDgeiiitu8(vi>l. T., p. -iOT), who mentions four pdljiceB oa thoUitltTuian 
ooaetDot Tcr>- far rmio C^Jtuttautluuplg, na at tjatyrtfn, at (36) FOLBATIKOS, 
At (37) Roi'HE-ViANAi,' iiud at ('.in) lIiKKKLA. Tlio Hocotid IH unkuMwn (o 
iHu, tius tiitrd wait iii a famous tuiibn ib of Cbalcedtin, aiid ibc fourth was 
a freiiueut landing-place at tlic rliurteat oroHBing from Cunstanti Duple. 
It muat be c->ufeaBod that these referonces seem to plaod Uryaa and 
Satyros, at the furthdst, about the narrow cnlniiK'4 to tho gulf, and not 
wliei* "BntQga'\wa8 iiituated ou the gulf near Kikomodeia. The 
Mmo opinion reeulta from Nicepbonia Fati., p. C), wlio sayit that 

Si". KaUS AgROS wimj a Imrlwu- on tbti Bithyni^u coast near 'Axrat 
Xariip^Vt whilft Nikotiata was betw&en Kaloa Agros and Dorkoii. Xow 
Nik^linta oun be placed with tioiuB ad^uracy, it wax botiidv Daklbyza 
(GlicvKo), but oil tho side towards Chnlcedon, on the nea-ooast. Tlio 
idoDlilj of BruDga and tbo liatL^'Sur Biyaa cauuot thor£:forc bo accepted. 

40. Dakibvza has been idoutifiod with Gbevso by Leake, and then 
can be qo doubt of the identity of the two names [Dajkibyza and Ohevw. 
KoreoTOT FrooopiiiH munlions that Justinian destroyed the road between 
Obttloedtm and UakibyKa, and compt-Ucd all the txavoUors [to Nikaia, in 
jiUm of taking the land-road to Uakibyza and there crossing tho 
narrow ferry Aiglaloi to Kibutox,] to sail direct from Coniilantiuople to 
llek-uopolis [beside Kitifitoa].! 

41. NiKKTiATA. The fort of Uiikibyza in often mentioned by Iho later 
Byzantine writers on tho road bctweon Nikomodi^'ia and L'balcedoii. 
George Acruiwlila (p. 64) distinguishes it from the foitretw Niketiata, 
which waa a little further west, while (42) Kuabai: was a little to tbo 
east of Dakibyza. But Paehymeres speaks several tiuiee of ry npoi 
$»X»raav jiiiv NiKip'iarujf r^s iaM/3i'i'>js ippaupuf, ns if I here woio a pftir of 
fortret4Si>s both called Nikutiatn, <he eautem of which was diatingnlshed 
as Dakibyza.J 

43. I>0'RKOH. The famous monastery of Kikutiata, founded by Saint 
Sa^us, who waa bom at Niketias, a plooo bot-ido Ama^tHs in Faphla- 
l^onia, ia thus described in a Ort'uk aynaxarion qtioled in Aota Sanctorum 

' All*!.,' p. M8 : op. SoMio., 8, 17. 

1 HieL Arc $ W- I Iuto vudaavl i« braoliol* my cxplftnttory additioru to Uie 
WttriU n( Procojiiua Oo3iiparo 8ocr.. ' H. E.' \. 13 ; 8ok,. fl, 14. 

I 'I'liiN I'xpUtutlon, gicm in tbu -Obaervikt. Paolt/cuer. fuUi Potsiui,' p. 646, aeema 
rorrwit. H* givMi llm iio«.iit Vimrnitav. whicli con liii^llj- hr. corruct (ttioiiKh it oeciira 
aJw> in PnchjioeN*, vol. 1., I9'l, 19s, 307, II., 10:)), as tlin Kinftnlar u Sttirti^fnt of ftr<l 
dccksalon. Bat the fonu UiK^iari/r ainy |)«rlutpi be utcd »W 



f.-BITHWU. 



186 



(Juno 28, p. 385), fitmiy njs ®<ordKou i^k ^vrw iirwofMaaith-rjv " rifv 

Tlia liarbour of Kalos A^o^t is meutioiied ae on the BitliyainQ cutt&t, 
not vcrj- far from tho promontoiy Sat^'ros or 'Awthi Sarv/>««<, Ly Ni- 
cephoniB Patriarctia (p. 61), which coiifinns tbo above account of tha 
Synaxaiiun, yet Fioltiy tvtyH this is a niiHldke. and tliat Kalos Agros is 
Buyuk XJoio oa the Tiosjihuniu, icfuning to Dacaage (' CoQstajit. Christ.,' 
177) and Oyllittn (■ do Hosp. Thrfto." II., ch. 16, p. 301). NiMphoniR. huw- 
ever, vxpresaly dt'olarM that Kalus Agnm vtaa not ou the BL<iiphonit, 
und if Ducangc U right, theru must \k tvro barhuurs ualloJ Kuloa A^os, 
ono ou the Boephorus, und oue ou the Bithyniau coftiit near Uhevse. 
The SytwxAriou ia not strJetly corruct iti saying that Nikotiatu wiu on 
tli« gulf of Nikumedeia ; it ia really outside tlie entrauoe lo the gulf on 
Uie Bithyniau cuast. 

44. FofLOKRExc. 4^. IIttuon. 40. FztGusoM. S«v«ml otiier plaocit 
in thia ni>ighkonrKo»d «tx» mentioned by Cantacnzoous (vol. I., p. SftO); 
Philokren», Xikolinta, IUktbyr.n., nnd Bitzion were tha placen to which 
the Byr,imtiuo urmy retired from Pylukunon. whore ft battlu had taken 
pluco with the Turk«, who had been besieging N'ikaia, and who bad 
advanoed to moot tho rcUcTJsg Byzantine army. Kitzion is aUo 
montioned by Ginnamne (p. 194) afl on tho Asiatio uoaat, nut far from 
CbalodioD. Philokrcno waa perhaps the ueareat to Chaloedon, for lli» 
whole army finally oonoQntrated there and marcliod Ixtck to Skoutaii, 
P«lekanon hcui porhaps the Mmo name im tbo Phr^'gian or Piudian 
Piliganon. Beside Pelekanon w&s a placu Mesaiupola, with a slirino 
of S. George CAnna, II., 75). 

47. GALAXRiofc, which is aUo mentioned an ii muiiiuitvry in this 
quarter of Bithyuia, nmy l^ oonnectetl with Thilokronc. Nicolas the 
potriaroh [elected 69H) wau disgraced by Leo for oppotnng hii fourth 
marriage: per Boncoleontem ductnm, lintritjiiu impouitum, in Uieriam 
traiecenint, c <ium puduts ad Oalnorouna nequo (monaatorium a Be con- 
ditum) pervenit, ' Act. Jianct.,' Mny, vol. 111., 510. 

48. £itiiioi.os. Ou .the road from Nikomudeiu to Nikaia, the first 
stutJon ia Eriboloii. caU«d l>y IHolomy Eriluia : both naniea arc grvcised 
formt, adapted to give a meaning in Grook. Kribolos. aa Xiphilin iiayi>,} 
WAR a harbour opposite Nikomcdeia, i.e. on the fiotith feido of the tialf of 
AHlakiw. Tho distance from Nikomedma in [mdrnbly ten, not twelro, 
milw. 

4'^. Aei{. A pa«ugo of Anna Coaiueiia (vol. II., pp. ^12-3) montious 
a place Aer, on the south coAst of thd gulf of Antakos. It lay near the 
eait end of the gulf, for llie Kinpross sailed from Aer to Cunstaotinople, 

* ^■wtvAMfu'rgi' u tui qIivuiiu currvclioQ. 

t ». OjU. »d Dienj-a. Byi., fr, « ; MUUw, • Geogr. Gr. Min..* IL, p. 54. 

o 2 



186 



A SKfrrcu OF ths histobical aniMBKPHX or Asu maOR. 



but oil the way wna detained foratimo at FTclcnopoUa by cnnttary winds. 
It was alao (ippim-ntly near the road to Nikaia, aii'l is hy theoi coualderft- 
tions ptaool Losids Eiiboia. or Eribnlos. It i* posMilily a ehurtotied 
form tif tlie «a.iiie native njimc. which in grccised in these two rorniit. 

50. Bnt tnivullt-ra t-i Nikaia would mnko a gr<;at detour in going by 
Nikoiuedeia : tha direct rotid docs not touch Nikoiiiodia. Stow, during 
the Byzautino period, by far the moat important ruad that lad from 
Coiutaiitluople into Asiti. [itisseil tliroitgh Nikaia to Durylaiun, and there 
forked in serora] diroctitms. The direct path to Nikaia therefore 
acqaiicd immoaHe importance, and is very frcqitflntly referred to, while 
WQ raroly hear of iiiis etatiune near T^ilcouit'deia. 

The land road to Nikaia coincided for eonio distance with the road to 
Kilkomcdcift. Tiavclltre crossed the Doaphonie by one of the ferries, 
most commouly taking the feriy whiob went to Daualis. Tboy then 
went thi'ough Piiiitichiou nnd Dakihiza to Aigialoi, wh^re they orussed 
the narrow entrance of the giilf of AKtakos to Kibotux, and conliiiTicd 
their journey by land to Nikaia. 

51, 52. The foiTy from AloULot to KtBOToe is desoribed by Anna 
Comnfliiii (vol. 11., p. 278). There might Otherwise bo a temptation to 
identify Kibotoa with Kibyza. the shortened form of Daldbyza and the 
modern Ohevsto. But it is clearly neci-ssary to place KiboUw on the 
south side of the fottT,-, nuar the narrowest part of the cntranco to the 
giilf of Arttiikoft. This fi-rry itt atil) in nw, and i* dc»ml>cd by-Lonke, 
who ha» not obaened the ancient names, and erra in placing Libysea 
where lie ahould put Aigiahii. Diioange (mtat in Alex., p. 683), fol- 
lowing tbo reading of the ciUio princfpt, gives the name us Aigjiloi. and 
identi&e)> it with Aigilos, but the latter is the second point from ArgeoB 
in the line of iH-acuit-Greg from Loulon tu Constantinople, and niiiat be 
in the north of Phiygia. 

53. In place of the lacd-road and the ferry it was often found inon 
Mmvenicnt to Hail from Constantinople direct to the eolith side of tbe 
gnlfof Aatako.i, and ProcopiuH sneers at Juatiaiitn (TTist. Arc., 30) for 
«nootiraging thin muthud, and allowing the road bctn'ecn Chaleodon aad 
Dakibyea to fall into decay. lu the fourth century Praiiietoe was the 
usual port to land at, mid it is tiie only one mentioned in the Penliuger 
Table. But Constautine founded a new city, HeleuopoUii, at a place 
called prorioiiflly Drepmia, which becumc tin: usniil Imrbonr fur landing 
at tbronghout the Bj-»antii)o period. Juetinian, who encouraged thia 
method of niafcing the journey, benntified Helctiopulia by many fine 
buililinga. lis Pi^oocipiuB n-Iates (Av .?Edif., v. 2). The emperors seem to 
have had eomo piivafo latiding-placca at m>nie iniiieriat estatea in thia 
neighbourhood, for in A.r. 1068 Romauus Diogenes observed a bad omen 

* Lt^nkc cnlU bhn utirtli cQil of lli« ferry MuIbuu. Ki<!t)ert (Iom not K^ve the name. 
It is 2) liOLiH miulk uf Poiidik. It u often montioiiod as Civftot In ttic Latin liistoriea 
of the CruMdei. 



r^BlTIIYNU. 



1S7 



in tL« faot ih&i, wliea be did not land at Ncukoiiicra, lut at Hetenopolu,* 
tke vulgar ])roiitiiiciatioQ of tlic tiaruo wiigKloiiiopolifi. AttOiotaTeports 
tKe matter with some clifTcrence, and apparently more correotly. Boma> 
una liiJ nut lundt at Pyliti, w]iei6 tliuru wiia a ru,val ])iiUcp, uur »t NeoD 
KuiDi't another imperial c«tatc, hm at Holennpulia-t 

64. Uka Konh id proV^bly tlio tmo nftrno of the rillnge on tbe 
imperial vHl*i», callvil Neuti Kome, or Ni.<akom>3«, in tlie pnwtagcs jnot 
quoted. 

fio. Pri^ J wax It ottost town of Bithjuiu, west uf the gulf of AalakoF, 
probably near tbe promontoiy Poscidion, to judge from tho Piiwiinger 
Table. Manuel CoiiinciiiiB (a.d. lUft), nettled ibens ihe Chrirtian popu- 
lation wliom hu carried off frum PbilooicUou : but Cinuainus is (iait« 
wrong, whcD hs says (p, i'i) tbat Manuel gavo tLo place tho name 
Pylai. Tho name is at least as old as th« fourth century : it oocutb in 
the Potitiugar Table. It ia mentloii^d iu lOOS by AttaliotaS as nn 
iuipvrial estate, and CTideutly Iklanticl in 114ti gave tho eolato to tbo 
refugeea. This passage of AtUiliola alto provos that Pylai ^ae between 
PoteidioD and HclunoiHiliH. Pylai, PrainetOH, and Nikoinedoia, muTitime 
towns (Attal.. p. 26&). 

CiiDdtantiuo Porpbyrogenitua mentionii tliat Pylai was tbe usual place 
for ibu emperors to land when ihcy wcro going to tlie Kuat, and deacribca 
all tbe oeremoniea of tbeir reception (de Coriinon. vol. I., p. 474, and 
p. -193). 

oi3. A bill culled Mokilos, or Moukilos, above Pylai, wae ouo of the 
liuc ot bcaoone between Louinn and Const an tinuple. It inuat be Samanli 
Dagb. Then Eyriiu^H may be Eatorli Da»b, uud Olympos porliafm some 
point on tho Hjulb-castcrn skirts of KcBhiith Dagh rather than the main 
anmiuit. 

57. Helonopolis was founded in the year 318 at Drepans by Conalan- 
tine, and named after bis mother Helena. It waH bnilt in honour of 
Lucia UUB tbe marly r.|| Ic continueil. nccxjrding to PrucopiuK, tube u mtre 
villego, till Jastiniaa gave it a wator-snpply by buildiog aa aqu&iuct. 



'EXfmurdAti (SryliU.. p. (i8'J>. 

t aiS ykp iv rail nvAso K«l Toir BaaiXtSait liii-jit oiS' ir KJitii Ku^jl, \wfSf 

ri>J ;(w^Tii(f- fiaiTiAiK^s tupu^tflai 4 vrariUi, iW' ill '£\.iviwo\u ^. 144). TIio Uann 
tnxt [iriiili ri\aii fur tl^Aiut. 

t PfK<u, a port ou the Ut'lleopoat ucar it« entlcrn eni, most bo dUtingoiilicd frcm 
Pj'lal. Botli ur<! troiiuvntly mefiiioocd : 'Aw6 KutlKau tit ntrr^t wSfkt¥ r^/ taii vir 
'U.ktiatai'rw iKtaii (Canlacuz. L,339). C<^cn., II., SCO. mralioiia the Churcti of tlie 
Vifgin nt Another Pogi*, clow to Co(uilaiiliiiu|ik. 

§ Seo tbe pawigMOf AtUlloUk (p. U-i) nod ScylitSM (p. (toll) >|ualed aud comp*rad 

II ApirmtSt-Tbir tr Niiio>ii]Biif frmrdiai iJi ri/iif AauKiavnv toC ^ciOf itafTvp^rarrei 
(CeOnia., 1, p. SIT. cp. riieophau., p. m. vrbere Vi Uour ftccciils AptTdrof, but <iu(>tM 
lhi> vnriunla AptTovAi' und ap»ra>arj. Act. Saiiel. Jon. 7, p. 36*2, giTM a \*ty inlArailing 
•cooimt of tlin foundatloa and [npulftlicdt. 



188 



A SKETtm OF TU£ UISTOBICAL OEOGUPUY OF ASU UINOR. 



and oonstnicte^l liatlis and piiblio luildings. According to Procopins, 
who aotnally Kay« t)tal Helena wum a Dative of the pUic«, JtutiuiaD's 
motivo WM to do honour to I he foamier of thectnin'ro; hut th« discuetdon 
of tho ByKAntine tnilititry rond will show that thin oitj* wfts only part of 
liin gODfiml schi'iiio in making that gri?at road. Maialxs, p. 'i'iS, »%y9 
that it« originfil name was Siiga. 

Iltlenopolts waH nciir tho river Drukoii, and Lvako has ahgwu that 
tlio Drakon was the river of the Forty Forde (Kirk Getchid). Helen- 
opnlis iherofore was near tho nan'owcst part of tho imtrazice to the golf 
of AetakoB. 

68. pRAiHKToe, said hy Ste)>)ianue to have been, founded hy the 
Phoenioians, in not mentioned till the Rvxantino ])«<.Tiod, when it ohsxci 
In the development of the country between Cbiik-edon and Nikaia. It 
was on the south »ide of Ihc gulf of Astakon, and east of Uuleuo|)oliii. 
M in proved hy tho Tahlc and Ilicroclos," It lay on the march of 
Nicephorna BotoniatoB from Nikaia to Cotistantinople in lO'S.fbiit ho 
may Imvo divvrgml n liltle from the iiii>>ct road to cnanrc its adhereuue 
to bin cause. It in also mentioned on the mute by n-liicb TaticiUB 
retreated from Nikaia towards ConHlati tine pie in ^D, ]<)85 (Aana, I., 
SOii ; fwe No. 73). The Pentiiiger TaWe also gives it on tho coast xxrni 
miteR from Nikaia, which ngrecB voiy well with the Hitiialion aBsigned. 
If it were west of IleleaopoliB, it would be more than xXTin milee from 
Kikaia. Its position on the PeuliiiKcr Tuhlo shows that it was one of the 
ports to which travellere from Constantinople to XikaioL were in tlio habit 
of going by sea. The native name wasi ]>erhnpn Priotos or rrinetos. J 

tt vrill \n> best hero to discuas the Hituation of aome other plnoeti 
beside or on the road to the important city of Nikomedeia. 

5'9, Skuasa is mentioned as a villngo not fur from Nikomedeia (Act. 
Sxiict. April 27, p. 484, vir. 8. Antbimi). 

(ift. Sabandjn Thv-jh, t>a8t of Nikomedeia, on the south side of the lake 
Rabandja, and ovcrbarigiiig the road to Ankyra, which paBfes between 
the muanlains and the lake, has long been reoognisi-d as the Bysantine 
Sophon (rof Xryo^twov Su'qi*!)!-!* to ofw (Attal., p. IftO ; SoylitJt., p. 71l>). 

CI, 62, BoBKoi. and Limsai, were two neigh Umring placoa on the 
eouth ouiiBt of tlic gulf of Aalukos. TUt>y are iu<i.'ntioued only iu the 
Aota S. Autoaomi, Sept. 12, x^^^V *^^* V 'roi'i^p" ^W- S<up«ot, ictiroi Si iv 
it(ia Tw i'unrXtavTi rov t^« Nitco^ij'S^tiis kuXttov, and again K£iitl0fv if A^/it'Citt 

' Hp4v»Ttt, iiirtftitv KorarTiKpi r^t Niiio^>)S(i«t ii^tiitrer (Soor., 'Hbt. Ecolm..' TI,, 14). 
NiJUou^Stia, nplfrret. 'E>.tviwe\n (Hieroclet). 

+ CompaM Spyliliflfl. p, 731, witli Xicppli. Bry<.n., p. 124. tail Atttl., 267. 

t irfii npUriM', IJTii TIpitlrtTOr vapi rur iix^P^'"' iifwyifiaarai (TLcdpluia. Coutia., 
p. <<H). Tlw above le |>robnliIj- tho iDlcnition, tlmngli tlic wnrda mena tho corvcfse ; 
Ifyirrtr tJiuuld i)rubulily In- correciL-J to nplKtro*. Tim pnMage gor* on to roi^illoa 
tlial Ci)e (i1ai>t> vnit named DPttiT miiho v^rpiai ^lit of tli<r BlIbjrninnB. Sloptianai eatis 
It PTADfrlctodi nf»t DropMift (i c, Hvli.'opolb). The T«bl« han Vrtn^byn or ProDPtiM. 



P.^BIT[irHIA. 



189 



%M|03. S. Ilypntiiia, of tlio tuODaatery Bufiniaoa or Drys, tbrMt miles 
auk of Chitli^fxlot), went to visit tb« 1>rotli«rt in tho interior of HitbyDia, 
on the river IthitmH :* it happened to be the time of tlio aiiuual fvast of 
Artcui**. ch1Ic<1 o KtlXa$m, at which lime it was iiot right to nndortake 
any long joornoy for fifty dajB ('AA. SS.,' Juno 17tli, p. 343 J. Tho 
fcsttr&l Kalalbi^ may be aoccpted aa a true part of the religio'it of 
Arteiois. See Curlius in * Arcli. Ztg., 18^3, p. ISO, and other passagea 
quoted in my Graoco-Itomau Civilibatinu in Pisidia, ' Jcmru. Hell. Stud.,* 
1863. 

61. KAiKEs, the lake now colled Sabandja G&l, is oFt«n atludod to by 
Byzantine writers. 

65. UxiA, a mountain about i«n miles frum Clialcodon, ' Act. Banct.,' 
Fob. 14, p. 772. 

()$. Stoi'A, nnolhor hill between Oxia ami Houphcnianni, ib. 

07. Hrmekum. emporium Chalcedonis, iK 

CS. Atroa, nit^ntioncd by Theophanea (p. 466) is p«rliap8 tho same 
pUoo aa StFabo'a Otrviu. Tho ttituntioii ud lake Aakanla, which btiabo 
n<8ign)t tn Otroia, would suit Atroa very well. Lea Diaconnalp. 177) 
apeakfi of t^i- tu 'OAi'^tiu vafiaKtifiiiip- t^s 'ATpum w«S(ii£<i, wbioli is ijuit* 
C(>iit»ist«iit wilh thia Biluntion: it lay ou the mnirh of John Tzimiftkos 
in !>75 from the Cilician Gate* toConstiinttiioplti along the military road. 
John Tximiakea diverged a little from tlio road to otijoy tho honpitallty 
of uuo of his ofBoon in a private eaUate at Atrnn, near lake ANkaniu 
(cijmpa.ro Urizion). Otryni, whicb is mentioned hy Plntaroh {Vit. 
Locall., 8), should probably bo read 'OrpuuUtt *ud identified with Otroia 
or Atroa. Tho identity of tho Greek Atroiui with the Phrygian Otreos, 
waE accepted even fay O. Curtitu, and is continued by the identity of the 
derivatives 'Orpoi'a aud 'Arpi|Ja4 which have replaced oldvr foruia 'Orpoft'a 
and 'Aritofia. Compare tho perfional namce Attalos and OttjUos. und the 
Bitbyniau village called indifferently Tataien aud I'uttaion. I have 
deitcritxiil the cultiiit of Aeneait aud Aacauiux, vrhioh esu bo traced both 
at OtToia in Bttliynia and at Otroua in Phrygia, in " Trois Villes Phiy- 
gieuiioit" (Bull. Corr. Uoll,, 1862). It is pi'ohalto that Otroia may bo 
in the same distriel an Battiliuapolis. 

I3fl. H\iutA. « fortreaa beside the Sangarios {^poi'pwv vpiti mjt Sayyofitt 
M()tn-ov worajAif, Pachym., i., 419), may Lave been ono of tho forta near 
Pithekaa(0. 8). 

7'). SvumouiR ScRius is mentionod in Vita S. Platonis (Act. Sanot., 
Feb. 21, p. 2ti7) in the parts towards Olympos, looua Symboltui appollo- 
batnr Suriua. 

?l. HvAKisTUOS ; a monaetory of this oatae, mentioned hy Aoro- 
polita, p. 20, wnit probably at or near Kibaia. 

" Ki>l. Bnllmi'l, : nhibu <[m «t Rhebo* «l Rlioonts. 

t vtot»tUa eomxaaa apcUin^ In later iiMcriptionB antl mi>nuiieri)iU. 

t 'ATpVar oliutild tw tewl In Leo Visnt. 177 on Wic huUuiril; of Tliisiphaace, iftd. 




A SKETCil OF THE HISTORICAL OEOOIUPIIY OF ASU UIKOP. 



72. VovtAKEA, A oastlu ia the OjiiiikiaD Theme, whero Artni 
took reTii^ti in 74a (^Tlieojihan,, p. 420). It was probably eouth 
^'ikoIuodcia niiil Ntkiiiii. 

73. BisiLKiA wfi8 a, pkc* twolre miles* north of XikaiB. Taticin«7 
coinmaiiiJiug tli& Byiuintiaa amiy, which was oporiiting agninst the 
Turks of Nikiiia, r««uK'«d to r«lretit to CoiiftUutinupte liy way of Siko* 
medeifr. The Titrkx fullowDd him, and ovortook hiiu at PraiaiBtoB (a.d. 
1085), bat were repulsed. 'J'liia »eciu« U» imply that Prwinetos waa on 
tlie road from Xil;iiia tu Niliuimrdt'iii, ii little soulh of Eribtilus; but 
Anna haa piabubly itiprely made a Blip, and meajis the road through 
Bitbynia, aa she najs eii the fotlowiug pagc.'j' Kikumedeia was at lliic 
time in the poe«e«eton of the Turks, A.ud Aniin immediately procoocis to 
deiJcriliQ Iho operationt) iiniU-rtakcii to recover it. The road ia qutstion 
is Kikata-Bainleia-Praiuetos. 

74. EioaAios, a pliiw near Mo^lrene, according to a very doubtful 
Btatement of AiiaKteKiiiH, * Uhixm.,' p. 27?, 7 ; compare Do Boor'« note od 
'Thaoplian.," ii., p. 638. 

75. KoinofKLF.il, a furlrc»s near Mount Olyinjwn (^poi'fHto rm Kara 
T^jf Mwriav rrjy iv ry "OAr/iinii, rachym., li., 580), sent for aid to Lupadiou 
wlieu attao'lced, and must tberefore have heeu os the west side of 
Olyiupog. 

TS. Dauouta is placed hy Ptolemy in Greater Mysia; iind perhaps 
Forhiger is not far wrung wht-n he my» tlut it was mtunted at Segut, 
though he baa evidently uo ether rc-aaeu than the accidewtal aimilari^ 
in the DamoK.| Ptolemy iu the groap of towns Dngouu, Praii)eni»»oa, 
Alyddu, IB probably folluwing some autlicirity who iiised Mysia iu ttft 
widu eenee alrctwly dofiued (bco V, 85 1, lliuiigli lie aboimliy adds Per- 
g&moa to the group. I knoiv uu other rcforeace to this plaoo till Con- 
Mtantine I'orph., do Thciu., p. 25, who plncea in the iaterior of Bithyni& 
a people Dttgotthenoi, connectiug them with the Mysiaii Olyiriiuts and 
with ProuM.5 lie, LowevtT. nuiueives thai the JJagotthcimi live hotwuun 
OlyiupoSii&d the eea, towards Prousa. This siluatinn ia not eonsistent 
with Ptolemy, who haa, however, very hazy idoa« about Daguuta, and 
cauuot milk ko high its an aiithoriry in this case. The bishopric UhIIob- 
£aduaja-Lophoi waa pcrbape the cuiiiitr^' of Ihe Uagotlheiiui. 

77, AasiLLo:) or AoRiuos ia aubBown except in the Pcntinger TablOr 
and in I'lolciny. It wan '14 miles from Nikaia oa the road to Dorylaionr 
ftxjm whiL'h the distance was 35 miles. Il may be Aigiiileii (nee F, 51). 
Tbe name Aigialoe (Aigyllos in Ihica&gc, notm in Alcxiad., p. 683) ift 



* Anna (aye itodin : Miocph.Br., ICO, )n]raoTer40»tiicliiv; op. |iii. 221, 228. 

t Vol. L, p. 306. PorhdiM Ntvu/i^leui is ft falM r«adtog ou 305. 

t SSiPit, n Vi-rj comincD Tu/kialt ii«ii« *f pliico*, mMiit " w jllpyf." 

i Bir UN-B npavaidi (vt Ffuuca. Uc lUaluiguiBhca the ouanlrj- of the DaipittLuDol 
frnni Iliut of llit* Blyiianv, sciiilb of Olympos. In Intc nritcn Proiuiita sIiuuKl pTuUitbljr 
not be Ciiki'H Tiir Kiot (Pniunu Bil Hnie). 



I 




P^BITHYNIA. 



olvioanly a iiativtt ouu {[reotKL-il mj lu lo hare a mt^auiiig iu Greek, 
aud it may have been tniqtlaoed in Ciie PentiDger ThUo oq the road 
ObitloeiluD-Nikuin-Uurylaiai). 

78, K&iio TAit^ii was a district on tlio east* ha&k of tbe Sangarius 
iiumediatul^ adjuiiihig thu mgiu Tataios ou tho nurth, and tlioreforo 
upiKwite and near to Nikomcdeia.f It was in tho Optimate Themo, and 
formed part uf ihu Kioaoan uinpiru uf Thowluru Lanoarin (Aoropot., p. 
Ii3>. It -n-fts on tlio road between Heraklcia Pontica and Nikomodoia 
(Nicet. Cbon., p. 319). The chief village centra of the rc^io is to be 
looked for un thu impoxtaiit road which led frum Nikuinvdcia to Kntt^ia 
und Popklagonia iu goneval. It wae in later tiiuQ pmltahly raised to the 
rank of a bishopric along witJi Unphnonaia, Tataion, and DoriK, and 
was named Maximianai (8ee No. ItiJ. 

79. Ktiioji or KiiKLE waa a promontory 180 stadia west of tho 
moiitli of the bangnrivs, aud a ecorf* of stadia east of tho Ulaad Tfaynias. 
It is montionod also by Anna Caimionn, vol. ii., p. 26, aud ia deecrtbcJ 
by Pachymerea, i., 419, 475. 

BO. Ealpb, a little went of Thyiiiua, m mentioned under the name 
Kar]>c (or KarpioJ in Martyriuu S. Agathonici (Act, Sanct., Aug. '.'2) ; 
ttariXafit Bi^iq^i'ai' <ls iftiropiav Xtyo^Lcvav KofMrii' (perhaps read Kafittypr). 

81. Tlio Koman province, BithyiiiH, was iii8titut«d on the death of 
the last king, NikomedeH III.,t who hoquoathcd his soreroignty to the 
ilomunis. To it Pontni) vnu addvd by Pumpc-y, wbu iii 55 B.C. aiivvxcd 
tht! w«eturu part of the kingdum uf MithradiitvE but left the eaetam 
parts to native dynaaU. The Roman part of Mithradalea'a kingdom 
WU8 divided by PuDii>oy into uluvca oitiea (ToXirfttii). Marquardt con* 
siders that the eastern boundary of tho Koman dietrict was the Halys, 
and that the frontier wax friMjUontly altered so oa to include at Boroo 
[wriodK «rcii Aniieui!: but this view preef«e too closely the pasnage of 
Strabo to which ho rcfom (p. 644). According to this puttsago, I'aphla- 
gonia extends along the coast from tha Uatya to Uerakleia, and in the 
interior rcaclieit ovou oagt of the Hal.vs. Of inner PapLlagonia Mithra* 
dates ruled over the nearcet part (tJji- iyyvrurui), whilu rho n-stwos inled 
by dynasls. As to the bounds of Bithynia-Poutus, tho evideuco is not 
i-ufBuient to show tho exact fn^ntier lino, but tho follomng facte are 
known. As nioch of Paphlagoiita as belonged to Iklithradatea was made 
into the Roiuau Province Pontus by Pompey (jt^xP^ 5u<fio toiv 'Pwij.tuois v 

* B. KkiiUicriua, cubicularini of Moxlinkn, vaa bt-hcudcil be bis mUIo oii tb« oMt 
bnulc of t)i^' Suu^irio* in Bilh^Ja, in lh« dictrict Taraiii, Jd. Stmet-, AQg. 4, p. 321-5. 

t Tiir dtxevpur Nuiap.iiM«i Tafalar, Sicci. Chon., p. 590. ICuitratliis e Taroia (*u) 
imlicitala rcKl'n est i optima turn cmJini imbjeeui), vlao Bilitnna, .Hnt. Sanet., Jao. j>, 
[I, 396 (ttauBl. from tini-k SleuaifiX 

] UiiT(|Ujinll, foUoniiig WaiMia^ton on I« Bm, Ko, 40!>, gJVM thd date aj74 na, 
ftiiij iiiukM tho Ditlijriiiun cm ulonlicsl with thn Pontic, 207 n.c. ; Mmiuiumh id * ZfL T. 
Numinn.,' ISSl, f. IStJ, &tvi the ttu tunl luting the ItonMU period m 281 i>.a Boo 
Addvuda 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAl GEOOBAPHT OF ASIA HIKOR. 



HavTunf hrap\ta atbu-pcrrai) : * the rent of Paphlagtmia cr>Dtini]C(1 an 
b«finv to bo nUcd b^' dyDiutts ercn after tliu fiiiul doi««tt of Mithnidatce. 
StraVo then goes on to do&cribe the country ruled hy Mithradatea, and 
called Pontng [by the Rumens], while he postpones till p. 5<il-<i2 the 
deeoriplion of the interior of Fophlagonia, which -was not ruled by 
Uithtadatee [and vi*a not called the Ilomau Puntua]. lie then deecribot 
Amastrig and Sinopo, and crosaca the Halya to Amisoii. Ho mentions 
thut part of the country, GazelonitiH, between the ITalvs and Amiaoif, 
was iirnlcr the power of that city, and part wiw given by Pompcy to 
]>oietaros, tetrarch of the Galatiau Toliitobogii. If wo compare with 
this the passnge on p. 5-1 1, whcm he nnya that of the whole kingdom of 
MithmdateK, including Poutus and a portion of Puphlagunia, Pompey 
gave the parla lowitrds Aiinciiia to the dynasts who had helped him, 
vrhiU tho Teat he divided into eleven poUteiai and added to the Boman 
province Bithynin, we can hardly doubt that AinisD§ was inolitded 
among the eluveu pulitei&i. This in conGimGd by the fnct that two 
governora of Bithyuia-Pontus, C. Papinue Carbo, 61-69 >.c., and O. 
Caecilius Corrmtue, 56 B,c, iire uamod ou its coins. 

Inner Paphlngonin was niloil by kings till 7 B.C., when it was 
iacorpomted iu the pronnce Ciahitia. Of aeveral kingdoma Into which 
it was at times divided, the chief aeoms t<^ have been the tAnteru, with 
Gongra aa capital, ruled by a gr*at-grandBon of the elder Dciotanu, 
viz,, Doiotarus, eon of Kastor. If so, Anilnipft ( NeoclaiidioiioIiA) was 
also probably given to Duiotarus, becautio it goc« naturally with 
Oangm, and bocnuso Oangra nud Andrapa were in the same year, 
7 B.O., takon into th& Komau province Galutiii, and date their coina 
from that event aa era. Amnseia iiaeH the Hanm era: it had abio been 
rnled by a aeries uf kiDga,t and it wna aWnbi-d in GaUtia iu 7 b.c. 

83. The lot of Pouipein^xiIiD is donbtfuh Strabo, taken literally, 
implies that it waa not included in the Koman province by Pompey, for 
he describes it, not in the parts uf Puphlagonin. which h»d belonged to 
Puphlagonia and were taken aa a Koman province (p. 644), but iu that 
part of Paphlugonia which he ]>ustponGd to a later occasion (p. fi4>2), 
and which was ruled by nativo dynasts. But it ueeius impossible that 
tliis city, on the direct and G.^aential route from Puntus to Bithynia, 
should Itave fuiled to bo part of Mithradatee's empire; and, if it was not 
in the Uomiin province, tliero would remain to the province none of tho 
interior of Paphlagonia but only tho coast-land. Perhaps it is for the 
Aake of avoiding the natural inference from bin arrangomont that Strabo 

* It ii doulitful wliL-lIioi M' V ittip" nieani "up to tho Halya," or ''as for oa tbe 
Mltlmdatio part of Ptphftlognid cxtotulcHl." Marqunidt uiiliixitaliDglf I4ike8 tliu 
foiiiier view ; I ioclini; to tLc Intti-r. Slrnb., p. 5tt. 

t iH^ Si Kaiii 'A^uitfds 0aat\iitn, rvr t* iwa^x^' ^^^ Stiab., ]i. 561. Msr<iuiinll, 
f- M'*, givM A dlHervut ^iwoust of Ihcav dlii'i: but cji. Strnti., jip. ^11, Mi, 5(j2. Still 
Mui-iiLurLlt'a vi«w UiaI Gaagra anil Andnpti were given tu t'5liiiiiii]iivit'« fnmilj tui^y 
he tms. 



r_BlTHTIIIA. 



19S 



cMb tlio districts nbout Poiiipciopnlts t} citttj; 'AXijot )(uipa -nj^ Tlomiicqt 
iirafix"itt' a ^^Ty iJcciiUat phrafio, vrhoiw oxout bodkc is aut clvar. If it were 
^ trrot K. T. A., wo might anderataBd in the nstaral vr»j, " the dtatriot 
of tlie (Boman) provinco Pontiis tlmt lay we«t of the Tlalyx," a« ilis- 
tingui»hed from a part that Iny t(> the east But trnt 'AAuuc implios that 
8trabu in speaking from the I'ontio point of view, awl iu tLat ooee lie can 
hnrilly be speaking of tho Roman provluoo, but of Mitlimdnlic Poiitiis. 

All donlit about I'oiiipeinpolis wonld bo at on end if J'rof. (r. Ilirech- 
ield'sf interprotaticm uf tbu I'ompeiupolitan era aa 64 B.c. coiiM be 
accepted. But the iuBcriptious which be givee do not contain any 
iDtcmal evidence to Biippnrt thi« view, and he seemn not tn have 
observed that another insoription (C. I, G., 4164^ i« da-ted by a difffrreut 
«». which niiwt fall between 17 ikc. and 2 *.D.j If Borgheai, V. 429. 
is right io making tho en 7 ».C., then we abould have to admit that 
Pumpeiopolia, like Gangra, Andrapa, and Amaseia, was added tu Onlatia 
in that yeHr, wliicli wixild rather favour the view that, like them, it 
had bL-on hitherto governed by dynaats and bail ni>t formed part of the 
province Bithyuia-Pontns. Another pioce of evidence ia quoted under 
*C I. G.,' 4lo7, wlK;re au iinpiibUahed ini^ci'i ption ir mid to B^ieak of a 
TSoi'rap\Tfi at PompeiopDlis aa at Sinope and AniaatrlH; the dato is 
Qoknowi], bill in most probably later than ox. 7. The preaeaoe of a 
Pontarolt wo«ld bIiow that Pompeioi>oli* was in the province Pontna, 
but tliiH reported inanrijitiir'n iii a fiiiHpicioiia authority. 

3^. Piirt of the interior of Paphlagoaia waa given by Poiu])ey tu the 
deenceiidanta of Pylaimenea ; but we cannot be certain hh to the aitnation 
or Hinita of their territory. Mart)nardt aligns to tbcni tho country 
round OlgasBya, with the citieH Ponifkeiopulis, (jangre, and Andrapa, 
about which I have already Mjmken. Pliny, 'SI., 2, apeaka of gens 
Paphlagonia, quain Pylacracnia aliqui dixcrunt, tncluBam a tergoGahitia, 
without uamiiig any town in it. 

84. The pru(M)ding paragraphs show how difficult it ia to deturniine 
the eleven poUteiai of Pompeya province Pootus; the fgllowiug are 
certain — ^Amieoe, 8inopD, Abonouteichtw-Ionopoliit, Aniaiitriii, Tien, and 
Herakleia, and )>orbap8 we may add Dadybra,S Sera, Kiatcia, Pompei- 
opolia, and the town whieb woa afterwards oalled Hadrianopolis. 

* A tmniilo dodicnh'd U) 7^u* BnaiUraos, Kiiuilnr to I^p I*^ tov ipavi wtirtov 
(Ol^uuyHj nvraxiiu taeilfvtUy^ tuu recently bi>«a diHooven-il hy M. Doublet. < Bnll. 
Cwr HflL." 1889, p. MI. 

t <Sititu>K)bcr. Uctl. Akad .' Jul;. LB88. ]>. S63 ff- 

t It in dAted in tlio yuu 178, and mentiona U. Auraliuii vriLlrout addinj Mi, ithith 
prom tliat h« naa mill living. 

$ Either Datlylira or Sora ma; be Sebute Pnphln^oniae, wLlirh itnick roiiu In tho 
■cfoed aDd thii-d ccntui-irnt Aflet Clirist, an<l which Mr. Ilnivl, ' llUt Num.,' p. tilt, ean 
liaHlj boiigbt in idviitifjia;^ with tJira*, ihv ancic-nt Hebiuti.'iB AnnuDiae. Plrdemf 
baa both Sakuva ami 8iikan», one or whldi dtoulil pmbably b« Durreettd Io Bonk 
RrslelB aad Tlon veie n.'clHini.'d to be Papht^oniao. not Otlhynian, Jnxtin, NnveL 
Ulx. Kuliii and BlAniuntdt •m wrong on this point. See AddmHa ibout tbv ooum 
ofSehute. 



194 



A SKE-rOU or the UISTOKtUAL U£OGUAI'UY OF ASIA UIKOIL 



Soino coin.8 of Hadriamijiolis add the title SEIt. This might Kuggest 
tliut it ia to be identtfioil nitit Scba^lo Paiihlagouiae, but ciiins of Uic 
latter city uccur tmder Caracalk, -wbile Hftilriituoiioliii be^^int to cuin 
umlcr Hudrian. If uuy uf fho ubuvc jtliivt'iH Ih) futittil b<;rottfU-rwarde to 
lie uneniitatile for the list of rom[)ey's paliteiai, 'Jimolaion might be 
suggested ; it struck cuiiis in tliu time of MithrwUtcs. aiid may b«ve 
t>««ii racked as a city hy Pompey, tbongh it <li«uppuared Ixoui history 
sooa afterwards.* Msntincioii has no claim to Tank among the cI«rAQ 
poUteiai ; it in moutiuneJ by Socrales, ■ H. E.,' 2, 38 ; it was in Itouorias 
(Act. SiLiict.., Aug. 24, Martyr. S. Talion), and is ineutioued nluiig with 
C"laudiopoli».t 

85. AmiiiOB, wliicli belonged to tlie pro%'iucG 63-50 B.C,, vae made 
a free city by Cuettur, pnwded thruiigli vaiiiitm viciw*iliide^ atnl was 
liijenitud by AuKuattiit fruiu the tymut Stmton in 30, J It wbb perhaps 
nominally free when Strabo wrote (10 a.p.), but waa certainly altacbe^l 
to Hithyuin-Po>itit» in 111-3, when Pliny governed the provinw (at! 
Traian.. 92. 93. llO). It was etill a free city then. 

It is usual tu give ».<:. 'S3 as tliu era from wbiuli the Puntic i;iiy 
AmUoa rockon»d ite chroaolijgy, and to e»y that the tyrant Straton 
waB expelled in that year. But Strabo (ji. .'j47) implies tbat Strati»n 
wa« })Ut duwu by Allgiwttix /xcto. ru 'ANTtcwa. Eckhel, II., it4f), »u)ijKiitcH 
that StratoD mtiet havo been put down by Antony in S3, and that 
Atifputus only oonfinu^ their fi««dom. It is. however, not quite tufe 
to utit ftHido Strabo'B authority iu this style. When wo invwtigntc. wo 
Hud that the authority ia a cuin of Diadnmeoiaiius with the date CMS- 
Nuw let us foUotv ::JtraW iuipliuitiy ; wc eball suppose that thu people 
of AmiHOg, in gratitudo for their deliverance by Augustus from the 
tyrant, adopted as their era ibo victory of thoir dolircrer at Actinm on 
tiept> 2, 3l, 'iho UHuuI bu^inuiug of the A^iau year was the autumn 
equinox. Then the year 1 of Aminos ended Sept. 21, 31 ikC, and the 
year 249 would end Sept. 2 It* a.p. Diadnmonianue n4gned nearly »ix 
months in 218, and we might therefore very naturally have his coins 
with date CMO,^ The ruault is thu same if we suppose ihat Amiftos 
followed the Uoman fashion and began its year with Januoiy*. The 
era 31 must therefore be 8ul«titnt<»l for 33 B.C. at Amiiioa, 

84. From n,c 7 onwards auvend Puphlsgouiati cities, possibly even 
Pompciopolis, were iuchide<l in Galatia. IIoiicc the governors of (iuhitia 
are said iu sumo inac-nptiunH to be guvi:mu]'i< of Puphlaguniu; but it is 

• Wrong I Timataion ilid not strike cmm. Set Addi'tnla. 

t Vit, 8. Aiilonoaii, II Ael. I^inet., Sept. 12, wlirro tho woiiJ«/ij W MaifiVdm- mJ n^r 
KAaL>lwi-<ni\iv nhoi iwi*\t K»tifioth<si»keana n ]>nx>f tbat citLn jiWu wue on Utoewat- 

I Slr.ilio, p. M7. 

S A Cuin uf Aelitui C^ieur li tiated P^©: the j«»t 1Q3 emis^litt^eiil. 138 a. l>.. 
niul Acilius Ca&Kir died on Jan. I. 138, A lyiii of nnllm It daliil PA, but wm apjiaKtitly 
Bttuck aa«r liin ilcnth da it tatida 0EOC CEBACTOH. Eckliol w«co* la eiT in 
tliUdtiiig Ibiiit tliu yi-ari> wiro n-ckoued to atatt {turn ibu erik : I Udak tbal Ike cvtent 
jroar in wlilvb Actiuni wiu fuufiht was icckimcd. f^ Addenda. 



r.— nmiTst.A. 



ifts 



not correct to infer, an is sometimes done, that th« whole of Fl^lhlKgoiifa 
was alttchtxl tu Gnlntia at the tinin in rjnetitioii.* Marqaardt's woHs, 
p. 3'»9. n. 10. miial not be i)ti<lcTBtoo(l in the wider aenne, wlit-ii heqiiotee 
Ptolemy to illtiKtnitii tliis plira«c in in«crii)tii)nB. Ptoleiay m^igns to 
GaUtia even ttio »ntiro cona* nt Paphlflgonin, including Ab<inouU'icho« 
and Sinopp. Winy certainly proveH, ad Traian., 90-2, that Aaiiaos and 
BtDope vri.-1-e attached to Dithynia-Pontus in a.ix II 1-3. The question 
may be raiacd wbothcr Ptvlomy haa \:wn ioaccurato, putting the whole 
of Paphlagonia into tha provinoe Galatia when ho ahould only have 
put a part of it. or wheth«T itis anthority may be acc«pt«d that th« 
romainilprof the country wa« attached to Galalia between 113 and IfJO. 
Th« fact that Ptol^iuy gonerally gives a very accurato account of Iho 
bouiiiU of th<; Roniaii pravinccst tella in faraar nf thn latter view, 
vrhioh Mar^uardt, adopla. p. 361. It vt possible thHt lhi> wideuiag of 
Gnlatia to inclnd« the Puplilagonian c-oast totik placo iii TrajanV reign, 
as a coinpoQSftlion for the ecpriTAtion from Oalatia of Oappadooia, 
Pontua GalatinuR and Cappadocicus, and otb«r diBtriota, which worn 
mnd« a distinct pruvinoL*4 Hut fitlicr this arrangemaDt was again 
dimiaed and the older system reintroduced about 160-200 i.n., or else we 
must admit tliat Ptolemy ja entirely in error, for Abonontcichos used 
the PomjwiHii «ra iu i.D. 310.3 Fnwh ovtdencu, which would almost 
certainly be diaciovered by a careful epigraphic exploration, is needed to 
clear up all thci«e doubtful poiata. 

8o. It may bo mentioned that Marqaardt, p. 350, riglikly obaorToa 
that Gangra, &c., w»re added to Galatia in d.c. 7, but on p. 4J>] ho 
rotains by mistake the old Tiow that they were ndded to Bithynia- 
Ponttui in that year. Inttcnptiutia give thu proof that Ainaseia was 
govctucd by the legate of Galatia, Pomponius Baesue, in a.d. 98, and by 
the legate of Cappadocia, Arrjus Antoninus, in the middle of rho second 
century. An iusviiptlon of Andrapa (Iskvlib) also mentions Pumponiiw 
BaasuH; and the deecription of the Galatian reads, which is given below, 
shows that tliMo towns along with Gtmgra arc critical points in the 
military aystem of roada. 

86. The boundary between Bithynia - Pontiis and tbe province 
Qaletia can be more eocnratoly fixed on the wcdtom aide. Tlie river 
Hienis or ijihorix divided th«m, according to Pliny, v., HQ. Tliis would 
leave Juliopolis-Gorjoukomo and Padaetana to Bithynia, Lagancia to 
Oalatia: but Ptolemy aasigns oven Laganein, which is about n dozen 



' For csuiupio lh«7 rtre .iLifi mill ti> bt; gnxrmon or Pliryglo. bnt ODljr a very atiiatl 
pott of Phijgin wm Airtaiillr nlU»!lic<l l<i (talulia 

t Except where, m in LTknoniu and Cilicia TWhoia, be goM wroiig thnni>:b 
ramtiiotng aathnrillui of tirfforont datta. 

; This pmbablr tnok plaoo finally nodor Trajoa. see *0l L W itL 8up|il»m. 
No GtilS. 

S DlrwMeld In ' Berl Jahrab ; 168^ p. 887. 



196 



A SKITCH Of THE UISTOfUCAl OEOOKAPHY OF ASIA UIXOR. 



milcH eoKt of "the Hicnis. to Bitliyiiiii.* In Bilhyn(» there vera x 
oiviUtot, iwo&rdiiig tu Pliny, v., 143. They may bo eDU)nerate<3 
KikoQicdoia, Xiknin, ('half^Cfdnn, Kiofj-Prusins (ad Mure), Apamei 
Hyrleia, ('accmniiii-Goritiuuica-Uelgafi, l*nisA (ad Olympum), IVnsi. 
(ml Hypium), Dit1iyuioii-Hailiian«-ClAti<liopi>li8. uiid Jirliupulix. The 
remain two: one of theso ie Utiekrlkm, which in oxpreaaly inotudi 
unooQg the XIL, though it did not strike coins; tho other is probat 
D{« or Dioepolie, on tho coftxt between Duphnvusia-Thyuiiis and tl 
month of t)ie Sangarioci.t Dia struck cninH in tiio time of Angnati 
nnU must tlioroforo havo hccu n uivilus,} but it HOunui tu ImT« nank in 
decay and to liftve strnck no coins later (ban Auguiitna. Ittt territo] 
iniifa't have been poor nnd confined, atul ii8 )iii]iort»n(<c can nL'vnr ha' 
been great. The bifthnpric Daphibousia, in later time inclnded tl 
torritory of Dia. It bccumu a biBlio])rio ettrliur Ihau 879,$ liut pixibub! 
later than 7H7. It pri^bably ■was institnled at the s»tno time wji 
tho gronp of biithoprics, Tataion, Nouiuerika, and Maximianni; ai 
the (•levutioQ in dignity of Jnli^'poliit, iindvr llie new naiuu Itooleio 
piobably took place at the same time A li^ibhop of Xoumerika, uami 
CoB8tantin«, iis monUonod at the Comicil of 869 ; and Ignatiiis Jnli 
polifi. or Ignalins Baailii, oocwri! at the same Counfil, This change 
thu wh«>lo difltiict along the eatit side of tlio ITalya wan therefo 
probably due to Basil, and moat in that case bo dated SC7 or 868. 

87. Tbo aouthora and weetcm boundaries of Bithynia were luoilifit 
in the end of the third or the fourth century. Laganeia aud .luliopol 
were (ransfenvd ti) Oalatia, a change which is older tlian the death < 
Jovian. 361,11 and la aluo implied in the JoruMilom and Antonino Itin 
raries, (a-d. 336 and 300-^0). ApoUonia and Hudriani were taken &o 
Helleapontus and added to Bithynia, and a territory near Rulat un tl 
sonth-weat of Itadriani was erected into a bishopric of Bithynia nnd 
the name Noocaosareia or Eriste. 

88. Tho hietory of Hithynia-Pontun in the f-mrlh century pi^ee^nl 
■ome diffinnllies. Bithyuia and i'aphlagonia are givou tut goporsi 

* PlLDf almliarly gives the RhfiKliilcoii an the Ixmlrr Wlweco A<la tknd BitbTOI 
jrvt bntli Apalloiiia mid HailriHiil, wbioli utv uuhL ur tlio rivor, bclongixl to Al 
(H. N. v., Hi). We uust therer-nrc follow PloK<iny uid iucluilo lAj^ii«ia iu Roau 
BithyuiA. Oil JidioiKilia v. PUu. aO Tr., 77. 

t Mantnordt (foltonring XTihn, with nonic dinnjcMa but uot ImprOTlng oa bfin) oral 
ProiUN. OiieiNLKia^enDanfiat. end Din, Hiving In thnir uti'ftd Tion and Ktatoia M« 
HenLkleia ir nivrte 't» iO'uiudod iu Ruman Poiitus bs U alaat butlj from Uie name ai 
[mm th(> cspTMa t4Slimony or StrnW, p. Ml; and Tinn. nliloli la oest of Hcnddei 
miut ucWMonl; aUb W in Fuotiw, and i», iii<:iri.'oTcT, PMi^ucd by Pliaj' to Poutiu i 
pKphlaguDui. UMf]iiBnlt'a sluttimiuit Hint I'tuum vu a komc lUl Trajnn'o tlmn 
inootieot; Pronaa coinixl moQcy TtDia Nero onward*. Jtutiuinn, *Novel. XXI3 
uaigna Kratela to PapUiignniK. 

J Tliia pKVM titat Knhn i* wTong in ioromn; from Pto1«tuy that lliu t«nilory < 
ot Ohakedoa oxIuidoJ to Uic river Uypioo. But aoo AddciidA. 

S Anioniiu Dupknntigiiui und Dauiiuuus Duplitiutii Luth occur at ILc Council of fil 

i Amniian. XXV., 10. 




s 



HONORIAS « 



lU. 



BIOYNIEQN.KAA 

I 

nPOYziEnN ■ np( 

HPAKAEflTAN • El 



TIANON tDia 

KPHTIEnN-*AAC 

AAPIANOnOAEITf 

frArrpQN ■ apx ■ 

IrEPMANIKOnOAB 
ZEBATTH ■ MHTP 
ABflNOTEIXEtTfl 



AMAZTPIANnN (h 

nOMnHionoAE! 



Qvll AmngFment, 



Honorias 



PapUlagouia 



fk. 



\ 



1 





























Eoman Oitlit. 




Cone. Chilcedon, 4SI. 




r- 
NIKOMH&EnN 




tiiKOfi^ttiaf 


nPOYEAEnN ■ n ■ o/^^ 


•■ 




(Falladiiu HelenopolU, 


40( 


1 1 
1 




AnOAAnNlATON ■ HP 


■■ 




AAPlANnN • nPO£ ■ CL- 
AAPIANEAN ^ 


(in Hellespont Us) 




KAI£APEtA£ ■ TEPMArj 

i 
** i 


;; 




NIKAIEnN 




KtKoloc 




! 


Begio Doris 








Regio Tottaioii 




KAAXAAONinN 

AHAMEON 

KIANnN 




KaAxtlEilvaf 


— 


'Araficfai 


Ki'ou (a Co) 




Ei 


igtc BB separate bishojirics. 








J 



K.— BITHrXIA. 



197 



provinces in the lints not only of Pi)Ietuiiis Silvitis but also of iLo ulder 
Vcr&ua MS. ; yvi wu h^-n about a.i>. 311 n connulans Poati oi BithyntM), 
C. 1, L. VUI., &3i». But till' proWliUity is tliat the name foiitim hero 
<l«noteK only the city Heraclaia in I'onto, nbicb Itad fumioil part of ihe 
Bonian runtoii. and iloos nut incltidu tho cntiro province Pontna.' It ia 
qait« coubiutcnl vritb tbd 6xist«nM of tvFO prorincbtt, Bitbyuia including 
a sioall |inrt of Roinao Puutus. and I'ajihlagoiiia iiwlnding Tion, Kratoia, 
Hadriatiopolis, aud all the country ap to the Ilnlys (soe Addmda). 

81). Tlioodoaiua I., eoine time U>r<M-o l*ol«mius SilviusH liat (which 
datM about A.ri ^8G). made a ii«w proviuoe Hvuorio*, by taking out of 
Jlilbynin rni«i&« (o^l llypiuin), llci-aklcia, and Claudiopolis, and oat of 
Paphlagonia Krateia, IladriaaopoliB, and l^on. 

00. About 534 A.i>., Jtintiiiiuii tiuitC'cl Koiioriuts ami Paphlugonia into 
one ptoviuoe, with tvolv« citiM ; but tho motropolaie of the two acparato 
province*, Clnadio])o1ia and GaDgra-t^iermuuicopoIitt, fctill continued both 
to bo meiropoleiii, and the eoclMiaslicul ooniditutioD waa nuobanged 
(Novel, lii'f. Tlieee changca in the arrani^riiients of tlie provinces are 
illnatrati-d by th« nvoompanying TubW of Bitbynia aud PapliUf^iia. 

91. Two important roads, not connting the road to Ankyra and the 
jialh which »kirl« the (tea, cromsetl Rithyiii.t and Papliligoutu. 'i'ho first 
of these, which played a great part in the Mitliradatic waix, panes 
thruugh Ponipeiopolis (Taah Keupreu) ; the other pasntM through Kratuiu 
and Gangm. 



I 



G,— ThB BvZASTISE MiLlTART ROAD. 



Tbe chief loutos from CoDstaotinople to the Ea»t ore u followat : — 

1. The Pilgrimii' Bo*l. — Thin ruad in deserib^ more froqtWliQy 
than any other in Asia Minor. It is given altnoHt uouiplate, aad with 

^Tcry Itlttu iuterruptiuu in the Puutiugur Tiiblv. It is d(wonli(<d in full 

PID tlio Antonino Ilincmry. and with ovon gi-cater detail iu tho JenisaJem 

Itinerary. Many roferenoes ooour to it in Byzantine writerit, ospeoiallr 

of later date ; uud in the section C(in8tantiiioplt> — Ankyra it h still oue 

of the nioflt important trado-routoein tho counlrr. Itia described below. 

2. Malagina, Dor^-laion, Polybotoe, Philotuelion, Ikooion, and thence 
to Cilicia uithvr by tho Gatoa, or over one of the Tauroe pawea. — 
This ia etill much a»e<\ an a poat road, and in the Byxautiuu perioil was 
luKxl (Specially iu later time. It iu probably tho one wliieh Romanua 
in k.v. tO:{0 followed, when he marohod from OtnvtantiBoplo to Syria 
by Philojuolion (Cedron. II., 'JI)- '^^'> Crnaadors nnder Conrad took 
ibi« road (Cinnam. p. dl). Alexins Comnenaa went as far as Philo- 

* TbMo bonotafj IsBoriptioiM oncn taek to adil dignity by giving tho lumc ot a 
oottnli7 ai gavened by tbe eO^al aaufiwd, when In Hallty hi* pravinca included 
oaly a m»a]\ i»rt uf lite tviinlrr, Hrasclvk wm Itivn la Bilbjruift. 

t ll i» unocrtata to nhifli al ibo folluwiiig n>uw« wo Bbonlil aMign Kbelicloii, « rircr 
00 tbe roail tma OmutauUnciple in farUi OritnltM, ' Act. Baact.,' Marcli tC p. BTT. 



19S 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL OEOOBAPHT OF ASIA MINOR. 



melioa, and bis march is described in aome detail by Anna (Vol. U., 
p. 324). This route is not so good between Dorylaion and Ikonion as 
the folUwing. and is raroly roforruil tu titilil a lato ]>enod. II is perhapa 
given in tJio Pontlogor Table, btit it only rodo ■to importance after 
Ikonioii became thu Suljuk i-a{>iu! »nd n great nmd-ccntru. 

(3.) Kalngina, DoiyUion, Amorion, Aiiii tbo €ilici«.n Gat«B.— Tfaia 
rood IK perhaps tbe easiest and moot direot for ain^Io paBBon;;eni or 
siDsIl parlii.-c(, yet few oxainpled of iia use nan lie found ; aod it baa 
hardly been rooo^ieod (ao far aa I bavo ohavrrod) by modem wHtors. 
Beyond Amorion thore is a choice of rciut«a, either by Laodiceia 
CombnHtu tind Ikouion,* or by Archelaift, or direct acrosa tbe plainn 
west of Ila'Ban Bagh towards Tyauu. 'i'lio latter ronte is thu ahortest. 
and tlio Hue of beacon fires which was maintained by the Iconocla&t 
Einpoi<ors t» ^ive waniing of Hamoon inradera paaain)!; the Gatett parsed 
along it. but, owing tu the waut of tratcr it it not practicablu fur anuieti 
but oiiiy for small partlea. MoreoTer tbe conntiy is so ajiaraely 
inhabited, and villipjca are so distant from each otbor that travellers 
without a guide may ruadily stray. Hence, though much the shortest 
way, it vraa not the onlinary " Pilgrirus' Road," It was. however, 
noiuctimea need by pilgrimii on fool, e.g. by S. Sabaa, who died at 
Antonon while making th« pilgrimage from Byzantion to Puleiitin«,t 

In the yi^ar Till. CoiiRtAnlinc VI. ndvancod by this road as far aa 
Anydroi P^rgoi on an oxpodition agaiiiHt TarsoH. lie turned hack from 
Pyrgoi. and it ia uncertain which of thu poHHiblo routvH bo intcndccl to 
take. TLis march has been referred to (oec \i, 346) aa proving the po!>ition 
of Pyrgos or Pyrgoi ; { possiUly the diffieully of watering the airay, if 
the seaBon were dry, may have caused the premature and iuglorioiw 
end of the expedition. 

Thie route is given in great part in tbe Poutinger Tahlo, and I boliore 
timt the C'Tiginnl intention of that map wns to give the road in fnll with 
ttie two branches to Ikunimi and to Archulais. A »]i<^hl JiaWation 
has occurred in the conthorn part, and a rather more serious one in tho 
north, whcnj the intention wob to rcprt-wnt the ruad from Dorylaion 
aa going lo Amoriou and theto forking to Cukimion and Synnada, 
to Laodiceia Ratakekaumene, and perhapN§ to Pyrgoi, but in place of 
this thu itiad goeit direct from Duryluiuu to Dokimion. and n sepaiate 
read goes from Dorylaion to Amorion. 



* This i* tho ftnbn routo (if tlii< pmsoot day frarti Konla ti> Ksici Slu-lii^r (DorylaEoo) 
and CuiiBtaulmoiilc. 

t 'J'WC""" ■'"^ Buforrtav M na\aiailrqr, vti^ tij* ri^ptiar ■oioiijMyot - iC'di i)| pSi^ut 
fi'filiSytay trktiniivt (Saboo Yitn ju Ciili'lrr. Kfclia. firniv. Moniim. 111., p. 3IJS). 

t Tbotiplian., p. *i)7, wlipfc DiSoor 1im wip^ovt la piiLceotlli'fryvt'i, »nd in tiie ind«z 
gitH tlin lutmo imdt'r Anjnlroi. The aboro d(i>criplion •hows Uiat lie b. nuetakeo hi 
dnoribiaK it iw owr T«r«ij». 

S II is doulhtful nh«tber Pyigos OD Ibo Tublcid a Latin occiiaitirc plural, or a aooii- 
nfttivDaintpilar. 



4. NilcniB, Liuoe (Aine OOl), Kotiaion, AkrocncHi (Afioni Kara 
iliisar), aod Ikouiu'ii. — Tliia rwwl itf dciscrilod l>/ Cmtiaiuii»,* p. 4< , od 
tbs march of Usanc'l ComnenuB ; and Alexius Comnontut trarerBoil it 
ou bU return march fmm Jkonion. It became impoitant ouly at a very 
U(c period as an alttrnalivc route between Conetantinuplc and Ikoiiiun, 
wliAD tLu latcfir was Ibe Seljuk onpital. It is not gireu in tL« Peutmger 
Table. 

5. Ilor>'laiuDj pL>»>iuu-, »luiig tlio weet Bliore of latce Tatta to 
Arclielais. — Tliis route in given in the Pentingor Table, with do 
iutoiniption, but with euvcml interiJoliLtid naiiictt. Il iis not a uH-fnl 
roTite, aud I know no fcietorioal example of its obp. 

6. Tho preceding aru the great ro«t*» to Cilicin; but wlien the 
intention is to go to Anlcyru, Tuvium, Cucttarcia, Anncuiu. ur Rom> 
niagt-ne, the pilgrims' mute is on the whale the beat for light travoUera, 
hat it travcTsM n. nuiiintainotia country, and alihongh thn natnml 
interest that beionga to it has cauiied its importancB t« lie much 
exaggerated. It wan not one of tho groat through ruutt's of the Ryirantino 
Einpiro. The military history for many centnries depends on another 
Toad, long«T but more nsefnl ami cosy. This road went by Nikaia and 
Uuryloiun, cnofued the Sang&rioB hy the bridge Zoio]k>h, and the HalvH 
at tho modem Tohvehuir K«upren. and then forked to Sebaslcia and 
Armenia, to Coceareia and Eomniagonc, and to the Cillvian Ualiw. 

Thio great military road of thv Byzantine Empire was niaiuUiued 
with the tilmust care for many ceuturie)'. It fvll iuto disro['air under 
the weak sovoroigus who succeeded Heraclins, and who brought the 
Etupiro to tho verge of mln. But under the vigorous lulc of the 
Iconoclast Ecupcrura tho defences and commnnications of the Empiro 
■were again brought to the porrcction in which they had been left by 
Justinian in the sixth century, and althougli wo can trace the history 
of this road only in obacure passing refoi cnoes, there is no doubt that in 
general att«ntioa was paid to its inhiat«nAnc« nntil the eleventh 
century. Almost all the military expeditions of the vigorous emperura 
|)as8cd along this poad. lu the cmptror's progres!* from Cunst^iitiiiople, 
he fonnd the contingent of troops famished by the different provinces 
availing him ftt stated points n«uT the roads. These staled points were 
called a*\y]KTa : they were no doubt large standing campB, eiich as ibe 
old Romans called Statira, They are enumerated by the Emperor 
Constantino Porpb j rogemtus in the t--nth contnry. 

This main luililary rood of the Empire woe longer than the pilgrims' 
road. Its advanlagosi lny in its gn^atir ease and in iln piuiHing near the 
most convenient military btations for tho defenoo of the provinoes. But 
when these advantages disappettr, when all roads fall alike into uegtecti 
and when a fvrcigu army which had no contingents to draw from the 
provinces invaded tho empire, then Die directneRS of the pilgrims' ronte 
• Tlu Fonlc U Pitlinkns, Alcroitnot, Plulomelloo, p. 38. 

VOU IV. P 



SOD 



A SKETCH OF TITF: historical GEOGRAPUY of ASIA MINOfi. 



muBt again bring it into prominence. Snc^ lui been tho case tnncc the 
elvvoiith century. 

Tli« conrao of the road wos dctennined by ccneid^rs'tioDfi of oosj* 
coticoiiti-ation of the forops of tho ililToront proWitccB aloug tho rood, and 
it wan defended ut IntervaU by strong furtressen. Tboee which I httvo 
aotax are aa a nile of (he same general character. Tlney are perched pu 
lofty precipitous rc^k*, which Arc of iminenee nntnral etrcngth, bat 
trhiob miild not W provUioned against a long Mage, though they wore 
piactioally impregnable against a short itiego. Such furtresaeo were well 
Biiited lo tlio dooultory cbamcter of the inrasiooa to which Asia Sliuor 
waa exposed from lifaasaniau or Saracon armtos: these were, a« a rale, 
tnoie predatory t<xi)editioiis, which rotiiod at the end of autumn. A series 
of forts which could not be captured except by blookudu and Btar- 
Tatiou funned an adiuirablo ii}'»tom ofdufeiice ngaiiiKt eitch euemies. 
Hence these forts liecamc the naotens of new cities, and their importaneo 
grow Htaiwlily dnriug the Byr-nnlJoo perioil, while cities in defenceless 
aituatioua were deserted or rednoed to mere Tillageo. Even citi«e whose 
etrength depended on artificial fortifioaticj»« «nd diecipliued garriaoa 
ti-dope and tho obsorvanee of proper preoautiooa, were uot suited to 
piotoot a countiy, which wiw ofton ruled by carclt^sit and incompeteut 
emperors, and whose defences »vere therefore often aUowed to f»ll into 
dtBrepair. 

Although the great gtationg on the road are exprc«ely described hj 
^nnBtAntiTl(^ in a pni^snge which I fibril quote and emend below, I am not 
aware that any modern writer has connoctod tliiiip&KKage %Titb tlie road, 
or has ahown its extrewo impoitaiico for the uiidemtanding of Byzautioo 
mililary hiatory. It ie therefore ntceasary to jirovc my tbuory, 6t«p by 
step, aa rc^i&rda both the route and the importance of the " BytcaQtioe 
Military Road." 

7. With regard to tho time when tliia road kob first organisi-d, we 
obatirve Ibut lo \wi than four different citice, fuuiiidtid by Justinian and 
Darned JustinianopoUs," besides a paved causeway many milus in lenglh, 
which was oonstruoted by him, oocur on this road. Frnir separate points 
showing bin work may be taken as sufficient proof that lie organised the 
whole route, and ittt creation may be fairly adduced as one of the moat 
striking proofii of tho skill with which he planned and renoTaled the 
goremment of Asia Minor.! I sliall now proceed to di«cu«8 the road in 
detail, point by point, so far as the evideuco 1 have been able to collect 
reaches. 

iStartiug from Oonxtantinoplo, an emperor n^ing the road might either 

* I liMTc rc^niod it m ccrtnia lliat nil tLrae ri:ruu(latlouH dale fKm JncUiiiaBL; 
•rsa where Itasj are aot >iu-»tc'd by Prooopius, moat of Ihcm cou b* proved to hpve 
etfstod bofoK Jiuttalui U.. ad. 68.>. 

t Tho road Uivtrds the PMt, on vbich ho took Mn* lo mniuUiiu llie postal Bcniw lu 
high ordnr, though tin nn^lci^tft) it on otlicr nwulxacconling lol*tooopias('lli*(. Ate.', 80), 
irai oettaialj thia read. 



0.— THE BTZ-INTIKP. MtLlT.\RY ROAD. 



201 



oraga tUo Boaphfima and tiiko tho land route from ClialcedoD to Aigialoi 
and crosB tbe ferrj- to Kibotos, or he mijfht take whip to eomo liarljoar 
eiich as Hcleur>[x)lts, or Prainutos, or ono or his privuto lauding^pUces * 
on the south <H>aet of tho GnlTuf Aetakos. lthanl>««n already r«innrkod 
that nelaaopoliB vas tho u.iunl Ktarting- point of tha land road, and Uiftt 
the groat HerivK vt builitingH nitU whioh Jiutiman heautifiod it wtu jMirt 
of hia genpial scheme for this great road. Kibotos vf&i cloao to 
Hulcaopolis. In Utor timo at loast tho emperors thcniBelves iisnalljr 
Iftodod at Pylai, lint this involvod a detour, and vns practifiod by tho 
emperon alone. Romaiius in 107t> is muntionBd as aD exccptioa : 
perhaps being in a hurry he tookthe direct and iiininl coat»e, and laudtKl 
at Ht)l«uo|A>liei. Kenco the rvaJ wuul to Nikaiu. 

From Xikaia th@ ruad app»reully w^nt to L«itkat on tlio Sangarioa.f 
It piuised flntt a rillnge Qnita, whinh hetirn tho itatno iiaino aa a Phrygian 
Tillai^ on thfl honie road bL-twoon PUilomoHon and Ikonion. W« hear 
mors than onou about Christians from tho aeighhoarhDod of Fhilomclioo 
Ijoiug settled in Bithynta, and porhapn tho name may have been Carried 
in this way.| 

S. FiTUKius in tli« next point mentioned on the rood. There waji a 
bridge beside tt (rflr «ara riv nifJijKoi- ytt^vpav, Anna, I. c). Stron;; for- 
tifications at thiN plaoo aro montioncd by Niootas CUoaiata.§ Haaac, 
in the art. Phrytjia. in Ersoh and Gmlwr'fl ' AHgem. Enojolop.,' p. 274, 
inaccurately suppoei^^ that Pithekas was in tlie ueighbourliood of Phila- 
delph>oia. Manuel ConinenuH, marching from the lonrcr Rhyudakoa, 
croi£«iKl the Myetan Olympo* fKoshish Dagh) before roacrhing Pilhekos. 
He slrcngthened the furtifioatiouB in order te protect himself agninst 
the Turks of Kouia. Thin Bhonrs how widely the Se^juk power was 
GStoaded at the time. Ouly in the later years of his life did Maiinel 
seize and fortify Uorvlaion. In hia earlier years Doryluion was com- 
pletely iu TiirkiBh potvor, and Manuel always in his earlier caiu|>aigna 
preferred the roa<l by Kotiaioa Cwhich ahfo pasied through Pithekaa), 
Kotiaion was further vroat and longer in the ChriBtian possesion than 
DoryUion.|| 

ARMeyoKa?rit''>N' Is perhaps ouo of the forta in the iioighboarhood of 
Pithekas, which have just been mentioned (cp. F. *!3). Anna Coranena 
mentions it ou thu march uf Alexius between Pithekus and Leukai. 

* Tbmt baie ban dMrrilxHl niMne (V. S3) in ilbcnMiiiif tbo rond t« NQiaia. 
t Anna. Commcna, XV_ voj. U, p 322. 

I The rtllngi; wiUbof PliUuiueliria iM ilill CaUimI A^it; it intucntioncd by CiaoajDUa, 
p. il. Cbrisliuu ««e brtaght la tbu ynj bjr Uanuel Comiuruua eaae yam later, and 
Mttlcd at Pylai In Ditb^in. Alrxinn alao brought btutk Cluiitintii 6em Phflomeltni. 

( tA w/i tir ni4qitai- ipi)MTa. (Klost. CiuML, p. 71 : Op. CinnAia., ]i. 38). 

II It u clunr tbnt in tlia diagnu»fal tnnt^ of 1074 bdwgon Saleioian and tbe Empcmr 
Uioboel, DoiyUiao aixl Stigut, bnt not Kotiai«n, wore ino1(i)I«it in tli« country n-c«fciiiMU 
M Bcljtik. I )iiiT« iliKOMed tli« •ouUicni frooticr ui iho Ameri««ii ' Jwunwl of Arcbco- 
Igg;,' 18S& aad bsra gbovn thnt Ap&mciu-CrlneDACi but ttot Saublnion, wm included in 
IbeSvljnkcDUulrj. 

r S 



202 



A SKETCH OF TQS Ult^^BlCAL GEOOCArHT OK ASU UlSoU. 



Lelikjj retains ibi nama u Lefke. It is be«ido the junction or the 
river Gallos wiili tlio Sangarios. The suitjiiciuii suggfifits itedf that the 
bri<Jgo of Pilhekas, just tnoationed, is the Itridge over the Oalloti, and 
tbnt Fitli«lA)i, Loukai, &c-. ato oil in tb« enmA nvig1it>oi]rliood. Tbe 
fortifioatioDB lij* whioh Manuel BtreEgthened the diittrict of MelngoDB 
(Nicet Choii., p. 7l) wouH then be identical wiih t« mpl rhv UiSijKav 
IpvfiAra (ih.). 

9. UalagiQft, Molagiua, Ualsgena, Melaugift, or Mda, arc diSerent 
TiAiao« given lo tlio first grcuit sUtiun oii the luililur^ road. It was ao 
QB-AijiTTw, where troops from the mirromidiiig country coiiceutrated to 
avoit thu ompcTur'ii arrival, and to avcouipuiiy his march to the cast 
Unfortunately the account of the dvKjfKTo. giren by Constaatine, our aolo 
iiuthority, i» «o conf«i«.«l and iuticciimtc tlmt its value m giciitly impaired. 
He males the troops of the Thralcesian and Anatolic Themes ooiiceutrule 
At MaUgiuu; he omits to tell Y>-hat troops coucenlratod at l)ur>'laion, 
the second an-AijKToi't and ho rcpeate the Anatolic Theme a« conceutntting 
at Ka1iorlEii>n, the third airXyjKrov. We ure thcreforu ohligod to trost to 
our own judgment iu the matter. The Optima te troops would natuially 
cuncentraleitt Malagiun, the OpHikiaa and Thrakesiau wiiuldooiiC(.-iitrBto 
at Durvlaiou, the Doiue&ticus Scholaium would come either to Dorvlaiun 
or to Kaborkion, the Anatolic troops world come to Kaborkion, so wotiJd 
the Seleukeiau traops. 

10. It will 1)0 convenient ne n preliminary lo our whole invMtiga- 
tioD to give here the text of thie most important passage oE Cunstautioe, 
vol 1.. p. 444 :— 

rptroy fh r» Kh^h/jkii', riraftrov ei? KnAoVcai', ■vifiirrov (ic i^maapuax; titraf 
■If 'A/J/t»(aicoL)E cif TUf ^a^i.tta}Va. • Srt u crrpari^ut twv 0painpricuv Kat 6 
crrpoTT/yo^ ruri- 'AyaroKLKoiy o4nikov<riv vrrajT^v Tip ^natXtZ tU ia MuAayan. 
5 ivfiiaTiKOi Tvy C^oAiuv kO-i o trrpanfYOi tuji" Xi-aroXiKti/v Kai u frrpixnjyvf 
2«Anr«tas oi^cCKownv inravr^ riu piuriXtt elt re Ka^opita/- on d ftiv Itrrc 
TO Tn'ci^ioc (ts Tofwfii', tu Atjtira &ljLa.T<i fu^tOi,o\;atv ^TooiapfintrBai ilt 
Kn\coi'(n,i', «t hi jTjJcs Ta fiipi] r^s 'Ai aroAij^, i^d^ovaw Waiti^v rip fiaai^tX h filv 
KninrtiSv^ Kol I Xapinavinis «al i/ BnvKiWdpn fls KwAwrwo-, i 5i 'Apfunaxii^ 
KOI ft llaifiKtf^v nai o ^tjiaartia^ tie Kaurdpttav. ut« to 'ApixtviaKa $4fxttrti 
6ifi(t\oimv itTra(Tuip*i'ta6ui tU Tc^piK^r (is tSv fia6vv 'Pu'oru. The text iff 
evideutSy iu a very had slate, and 1 hetievo that the passage is to be 
xestored o8 follows : my reasons will be given in detail below. The 
fourth a-aKr}KTi>v is not tis K«AuM'»ar, but <ls Savt'ovav. Then the writer 
Oiintimie*: (itrrt'tn') 5ri A arpoTTyos rtJiv 'OirrifuLruiv ot^tiKu iirmn^v T«fi 
jffri<riA<i «i( Ta MoXoywa, o tnpaTtffai jStv O^lkivii' koi o Trparrtytt^ rSw 
^pOKrfu'nM- <is ro Ao/ivAuioi', u Zop,vrTi.Ku^ tw ir)(oAwv xai h oyparriyn rur 
^AvaToKiKoiy «iii i oTpanyj'os i<Att'K*iat t'a to Kci^opKtov* ori, tl p-iv tirrt fi 
^txitihiw (te "Zapaw, Ta AoLfr^ Qifuna iitfiu^ovaiv &voaitptvta0a.i «(< ^ai'iaiar^ 
<i Jk ffjpot TcL ^(/n] r^f 'AiraraX^, iI^ecAoiiviF ^irarryi' Tip ^a<riA<t u ^Mf' 



flLlTART BOJ 



203 



Reiifko, in liis comniont&rv. anggeet^ tliut thia, with llie re»t of tlio 
6n(t psvt trl" the Appenrjix to lib. I. de Cerimoniis Anl. Ryz.. was -wrUtoii 
during ibu fourth or fifth oontuiy, untl in not tbo work uf Couslnntise 
Porphyrogenims ; ho argues that the Icrm KaXtrap denoting the omperor 
b*i been dieasod lu favour of Bao-iWt bwforo his time. Thii npiTiion 
caniiol bo correct, for the pnsHage iinplioB the diviston of Iho empire iuto 
Thcutftta iu place uf pruvinocs, and ihe liiiiguitgo is of a uuob Uter typ« 
than tha Gre*k of tho fifth contury. It is. however, liighlv prohQble 
that Coiislautiae used such an older document, btiJ that some of his 
erfom nro mado in Ihe attempt to ftocomniodate thU authority to tho 
ohftnged circumataacca of hit) time. This documtMit may have b«en 
early, for Coastantina has prohahly adopted fioia it the term Kcuaap. 
If Koloneia ia not a mere clerioal error, it mtut come from the older 
docnincnt: the military impurtance of Koloccia Arcbclais musl have 
disippearad when Moki«8oe wbs reco^ised as the great city of westerQ 
Cappadocia by Jiistininn, hut Oonataiitine, finding the name in one of 
hi.s ail tliori lies, retained it (see Addenda). 

II. I shall QbW diecv&s tho various forms of the name Kfelngena and 
the ohit^f plaoM in which they oociir, and prove that they all denote one 
tiughj place. Tlieir identity has rarely or never been obecrved, and tho 
situation of the place lia* not even been guessed at. 

llALAaiKA w-Bn a vtiry importaut etation on tho road to Doryhiun.| 
It is very frequently mentioned in the B^imntine wars. 

lu the year 78(i t)ie Byiuintinc tnrops ndvauced uguiiiBt tho Arabs a« 
fair aa Malaglna. In the year 798 tho jVraba mado a rapid incuridoD, 
penetratetl ae fur ue Malagina, and captured tliv humoa of Stuuiaciu*. 
the court farourito, and lh« cinjieror'ti own saddle (nfofUKriXXafy. Ilie 
royal titahlea at MaUgina (i-ei^uired for the imperial potit acrvioo) are 
mentioned in the routv dcacribL^d by Kdrini, from Ainurioii to El Khalidj 
(see nndei' Saxtajsaiiij), and on this occaeiou the Arabs evidently 
captured them with all the horaea.^ In 8^8, also, the Ar^klM are said by 
80]nu authontie« to have again captured the imperial post-horses at 
Malagtna (pjv fiaaAin irroriv (rvfa/uiyrji-. Genes., p. 1I4}.S These 
atablcs were the groat horee-station of Asia Slinor, and aro frotiuenily 
mentioned in the Appendix to Boolt I, of (!'on»tantino'« 'Oeroraonies of 

' On the fre^Dcnt cxp^ilieai againrt tbo Pnolicians, referring ottpeolally to tlio 
e»ni|iaigii« or Bauil, wlio btvku lli«ir |Mw«f. 

t I» the tunatiTo of cvonlt prtcodiciR Conotl. NioocMi. U, Mnoii, XII., p. 902, cum 
fecbKOt l«lt vintn uwiai; nd MnlnciMUi.'n ({«i rvr KaKirylmv). 

X W«il, ' Oewh. der Khalifon,' II.. 157. note, and Marall both ipcuk at Mangttna 
bore : Uangaaa b a 'r\nj diHffent pla>oe, b««>ito Coaatantinopl?. 

$ Comparo TbMpli. Coiitin., p. IBS. Sjiaeort ling. (|i. GtiO) TnecitLons th«t Mulngtn* 
«aa in die Optiklu Tbcai«. 



204 



A i^KF.TCn OF T1IE BISTDSICaL GECfiRAPHT OF A&lh KltUfS. 



tlie By^aclinc Court,' «-lm« iheix whole organiefttton i» drsoribcd 
(pp. 4J1>, 4T0, 480). 

Id 803 Bardauos, who ted rebelled agniiigt Nicepliorns, ailv&nc«<l to 
Cirysopoliaou Ut? CospboruB, but retired inimcdiu.t«lj as far bh Mala- 
pina : h« was rtratogos of Iho Anatolic Them*, wliei-o iio imJ rcWUcd. 
Olid towardu wkicli he naturftUy lotirud njra.in. His niarcli, tlierefore, 
miul tavu Iwcti tawanU Dor^'lniun (Throphan., p. 479). 

Tho Pauliciaoe, linger Chrjsocht-ir, peut-trated »9 far an MuLigcna in 
872 (G«noK., 1I4J. All the rocordwl CAropaigns of the r«uliciau8 paes 
Along Che military- road. 

12. Tbo foiiDB Melaiigia and Tilclagiiia or Melitgtiua, u already 
recngiiiaed by Uucunge, are clearly cfiuiTalout to Malagioa; bwt I add 
some proofs of the position of M(-Ung6ia on the sftino road. Coiutantine, 
bishop of Mi-lntigcinf ie iiioiitiou»d aelsle as 126'J by Pachymeree (vol.L, 
p. 102). Moliigiiiu is nK-otioniMl as an ardibiHhopi ic iu au iitipubltBlied 
Kotitia Epittoupucutiiu, iu (liv Uibtiotlittiuu Is'utionalR, Farifi. It is given, 
last in order, as Xo. 3&, among the l^p)^t^Kt•TKlnraC. This Nolitift belongs 
to tlio same class as Parthey'it No. X. It is in a MS. iiiarkoJ No. 960, a 
codex lombt/cinitt uf the cud of xiii vr httgiuning of XIV t.'ontury ; and it 
bugtur) on fol. Si' I**. The refereiioiT of racliynerte fi««ine Ut imply that 
llie bifihop of Mol&ngeia wan alrtady rai«od to this dignity : hu ia men- 
tioned along with the bishops of Anlcyra, Ephesoa, Ao. 

MpUngi-ia is iilso mentiono*! a"* on the road from tlio Bosphoms to 
Uoryhiiou. C'l'iirad croBstd by the ftrry Damalis, and advancod towarda 
Fhilom&lion by llolangcia and Dorylaion (Cinuam., {>. 81). Tbe em- 
peror Maunel Comnvnus, 1175 a.. n., crushed at Banialis, advanei<d through 
Holaiigeia, where he collected tho iroopo which concentrated there from 
Bithynia on tho cast, and from thv distritte idung the Ithyndukoa * on 
the west, i.e. the Opiiniatff and Opsikian Th^mce, ami then prooeedod to 
Dorylaion. Mvlangoialiorcisxhowii to bo on tho »an)o road aaUa]aginft,f 
and Hlte it t<j be an air\r}irrov, where the lro<iira of tho Optimate Theme 
met tho oiiiporor on hi» march. Thvro oau, ihoi'cforo, bu uo doubt of 
the idewtily of the two placea. 

After tho preootling and roHowing paragrnphH were fmlBhod. I 
observed that Zonaras as^serlB ihc identity uf Mt^luugcia and Malagina, 
aayiug that tho latter is the moni niatic name,} 

13. Tho form Melaginn seem.i lo have led Ut another corruption 
Molaina. Helaina is moiitiou<;d by liiRaa un a villagu on the road from 
Amutiia towards I'rousa (fyyi-i jtw tljJoiJin)!, p. 129). I thiulc thore can 
be no doubt that Melaiua ^ MclaginCt, § and we havo thus a proof that 

" Cinnnro.. p 2.11 (<-p- pp. S*I, 127). 

i Tim forui MoA-di^iva iuuitiUutos occiiM for MoXiiT"'". 

% Zoniini*, 111 , p. I'JO (Bawl, t5ST). 

5 Mtliij,-iiii» Ikoipiir-h Mclniiift, cilhai tliK.upli till! ii]K'nitii>ii til' jioimliir etjnwlofry, 
acold&R a word with n mcaaiuK, «r tfaiungb tbi; tvndcucy of uiudwD Urv«k pmiuneiation 
lo ntnikMi g hdoto I Inlo f. 



C— THE BY2ANTINK MIlITAftr BOAI>. 



205 



dU plaM WAS at llio oroming of Lhc roiuU Troiu Pronsa to the cast and 
Aom NilcnJa to the south, which exactly confirms the coucliuiun to bo 
drawn from the fact that Maliigiiia was ati uitXi^ktoi' whurv the Ojitiufttc 
txogpe concentrated. Aftor Dorjlaioit ha<l paes-^d into Tiirkuh bands 
]|[«lagoaa wna the natural airXijwroi- for tlie Opsikinn iTOopi al«Q. 

14. Mala, which tloe* not occur iu Ilierocles, is mentioned aa a 
hisliopric iu all tho Kotitito. It munt, thorofore, prohably Lave men to 
this rank uftcr 030 A.D. In the Council held at Ounatantiauplc in a.d. 680, 
ths Lishop of Mu!a wus prL>H»!iil, und thu names Mela and JnatiiiianopoliB 
Nova, are used ilh efjuivalcnt, Mela thei'efore wim rcf.uindfd by 
Justinian and raised to the n*rik of a liishopria Pracopitis, though he 
wroto hia accoimtof tho biiildingt< of Justiniun not earlier thun &60 AJ).,* 
doea not refer to tho building of JiiGtiuianopoIiH Mt^la, l>ut tho patwage 
in which hit doxeribiM the building and paving uf th« road from Bilhynia 
into Phrygia may fairly hv coimccfcd ■vrHh the foundation of the city, 
and may a&rve aa a proof that the dly was Ritnated on Iho Toad-f It 
ma}', of ooursu, bo uouHdently a8Kiini«d that the road difbcribed by 
ProcopiuH is the imperial post-road to Dorylaion, tho great artery of 
com lunui cation with I'hrygia. Procopiiitt mentions hts care of tho road 
to the oast (Hist. Are., 30). 

15. Tho situation of Mela m furthor dot«rmin«d by the iwnal entry 
in the JfotilifT, Moifnp^ ^m Mt\7t. Mela was i^ufBciontly near Modra 
or Modroiie, fur the two to he Inolndod JQ ou« bishoprie. Jfodra was 
flitnaled on iJte upper waters of the Ctalloe. If the l«xt uf titmbo 
(p. 243) is to bo trusted, the Gallos joined tho Sangaiios a little orer 
SOO stadia, nearly 40 miles, from Nikumedeifl, and this distanee, as 
Leabe mciitione, proves that the Gallos ia the rivur which flows past 
Lculcai.t rising in the litlle Lake Aino Gdl ("Mirror Lake"), Tlie 
probable inference then is that Modra was about the village Ainc Ciwl, 
and Mela about tho point where tho imperial highway croaii«d the rlT«r 
Oalloa. Strabo know tho distance from this putnl. the junction nf tho 
SangATios and Gallos, to Nikomodvio, from an itinerary, and hr-ncn bo 

* Ho roftnlQ tliD Snujariai britlgio uin prorcm of building. It wm U-guii In XO. 
t 'F.irri Si 'Tit /r BiSweif Uin it rk ^pvyvr ftff?r it«iti* Hm, tufa tti it-fp^iit -ri 
iroftStui'i intl (y'l* '^'^ll X">'"*'^' ^K iiuXiakirm fuddaui'i ' yioiliit yip bw4pi.-,a]i q 

S>iiAi4itffWi- ir iex^^Vt ^AAct Kol '^tt^vr iwiTitHTaiKUar, dr affrar fvx^ '* T«A^ Batir iial 
jlTiipti'Tai' {uKUTTau'm. fai Tt iSotit ■nvaytUhit i(>yaio>tiirri, tdui tfit lArrat ti tou #rl 
vAiiirrcy ejeiwriytv. iAAd lol Tou-rov ainos t< luytXotftiaviivT/ ^v\i]i Knl q ButMi 
^niiipa tIv iitvtonir tm nofmiai hi.i/,uamr. it Ijfiifas yip iioii ^/iiov tvfwrfi itipl KlSaii 

r«it T^}t MtToi (Procop. Aoiil. V. 3). 

I Tvxici wtya thai this rivQT rona bom Aim: Gul, •»■) Kioport'a taler map ngitn. 
Mb older map nmku tlm river of Aice Gul tun iouUj of nud pumllMl b) tlio riirr at 
Looltai. T«il« Mjr* that the rkTcr of Ainu Gtil U c»i\td Bttlrc Tchai : he Ktald 
)>iu)«l>lj- liav« oWrvett tlist tho name Bodn> it titc uncieiit Mwim, but fur Li» i-xtngr- 
jiiinrjp rtva nWut tliD bIo of Mwln, wbiob he plaoM at MuJurlu. Kitpert fulluws kim 
Iu lliis, and b ohilgti to i>iit llic Qallus out of tho Sangnrioit 



20G 



A SKETCH OP THE HISTORttAL OEOOKAPHY OP ASIA JUKOR. 



girttt It, iWngb there is really a tiinoh shorter intotval between (Iw 
Sftng&rios fccd Xilcomodoin furthor uoith. Dut Strnbo bod do statJaticii 
of this shorter distanw, for the rcmte Aukyra-Nikoniedeia, along whiob 
it niighl ^ ineaeiired, wok of no imporlsncc in his tiiiiA, wltcreu t)i« routa 
from Xiknmcdcia and Nikaia lo Loukai. DoryUion, Kotiaion, timyrtta, 
aad EpbeiKM, must have been a most important road then (aee E. 12). 

Tbo inferenoo juat drawn aa to the situation of Hola cannot bo ooa- 
lidered i|i]ite cdTtain ; tlio conditions would be fairly vrotl tBittkfio<l by a 
aitnstiou bctn-wn L«fko and Vtrzir Ebno, 10 or 12 uiIm further aoutb. 
But the dceariptii.'U which Leake gives of the aituation and aurroundinge, 
Ooiubined with thGimpnrtiinco nf X.6fke, t^how tlmt Mola ia to be DOnght 
not tat from it, probably ut some more defeuaible puint 

16. Tho natural rout« from Prousa to AinaHia wutild paiui by Lujihot 
down the QalloB and aoroaa tho Saugarios to join the other rc«d from 
Nikomeileia to AmfLRin. A point in this noighboiirhfHxl would al»o bo 
a good meeting-place for troops ooncontrating from the Optimate Theme. 
Malagina, Mohigina, or Mclaiiia, in theivfura to ho p1ac«tl tn the samo 
pkc« as Mela- Jut tiuiacopo lis, and the imiturtanco of tho city ia to be 
oonnectsd with its situation at a raeeting-placo of roads. AH Justinian's 
fonadations owe their importance and lasting character to the akiU 
with which they were placed, lie simply rccogniaed and gnvo pre> 
cisioD and name t*; th« pluccis which by the forccof natural ciroumatanoca 
wero attaining impurtanoo amid the Gteady improvement and develop- 
mont of the northern partaof A«in Miuor lit tho two oentitriea after the 
foundation of Constantinople. 

In the name Mitlagina the t«rmiuattoa -ti-a should ruolly bo -tjvi ; it 
is adjectival and eztrtuTdinnriiy common in ATintoliau namea. McX^ 
>l(A(i^, and McAtvuv (all genitivea), in the Nolitiao, have lost the y, like 
tlio form Mi'lnina. Like McAirt/ri; in Cappaducia it is roallyan ai^jcctir&l 
ibnn, denoting Lh<: district, in which there was no true city. MoAayira 
hu alterod its character and aoocnt when it became a nonn. The Qative 
name inimt have bei'u Molug-a, and the adjectival character of the name 
Ifelagiria or \fohingia, as denoting a district nud not a Hinglo town, is 
proved by a passage In Ciiinamus (p. 127), where be Bpcaka of Manuel 
aa living at a plaoo (^-V*') natned Metabole o- H<A«yytu>ts. 

Leukfl or Leulcai (tbo White Town) is to I» consiibTi'd na a village in 
the diatrict Mali^un. and perhaps popular wit or popular anperatttion 
aonght a definite purpose in opposing the name to the iU-omened 
Melafna {Bluck Town)." 

Mwdrene was the scene of a battle describfid by Nicephnruii 
Pbtiiarcha, p. ()8. 

1 7. AngolokoiuQ ia by Texior (As. Min., p. 91) and Ton nammer iden- 
tified, on account of the reaemblanoe in name, with the modem Aine GM. 

" UompuB flrrolc MoXoftd, KaA.QFiina, Apple Town.fu Latio Midcrftntum. changed 
to BenoFoiLtuiD. 



a— TUb BrzA^TI.>'E uiutary goad. 



207 



JTboB viow IB not oonstatoat wttb » jiasfiHge of Anna Comneoa, aocoHiag 
to witich Augelokoue would aeam to have boeu «ituttted en one of th« 
rivont thiit flow out of MouQt Tila, Audil (vol. II., p. 280) montionit that 
tho Tarla crowed a river Bnreno« Irotweon KjT-ikos and Parion, This 
rirer, wbiob ninsl be either tbo Orauikoa or the AieopoK, flon-s ont of 
Monnt Ibia, whdro riao also th« Skamaadros, th« Augelokouit«B, and th« 
Empelos. The AngQlokoniitofl is obvioiiHly (>alled after the town foften 
meutioncd in latt* Bii-zaiitiiie time^ |)iuit whiL-h it llou'S. Similarly tho 
BarcnoB is obviouely the river that flows hy Rarifi, a town moutioned in 
all tha Xotitiae (somotimcg as SasabarU) and hy Hiaroclcs.* Other 
oonnderations iucliuo ub to pUcjo Angslukemo aa far oaut a» poasiblo, 
trhioh would show that it was on tbo Aiseiioa, and Bans on tbo 
Unnikos. It way, bowevor, bo duubtod qiiito ivBHOiiably whether 
Anna's geography is tmstn-orthy, when ahe mnkos the AngolokomitM 
and Skamandros liae in the samo mountain. Perhapa she has oonfoBed 
the two uoiiutaiiis, Idu nud Olyinpoa.^ Thu en-anieriiliou of t«wii« 
Guar Nikaia capturoil by the Turks, which is given by Pncbymcrca,} 
a<^QU conclnaivo. Btlnlcomo i$ Bilejik, Angelokomo is Aine 061, Ano- 
gonrdeis and Plutanea are unknown TJUagos in theiliroolionuf Melagena. 
It wouIJ not bo con-ect to say that Aine Gol. which moana *' Mirror 
Iidke," a natural and pocticul name for a Uke among the mooatains, is 
got by iwjHilar etymology frora the Byzantino nam** Angehikomo. Tho 
faot necius to bo that Itt-lokume auJ .\Tigi;loknnie are Greek ropreaenta- 
livoe of the Turkish nnmea Bilejik and Ainu Otil ; and that tbuec two 
pUoes, baving bcou fur eomo time in the bands of the Turka, are 
desij^natod by thiiir Turkish namos, while Melangoin, fhrthor north anci 
cloee to Nikaia. lias atill its Greek name, which is retained even by 
Edrijsi-i Then Llio Angolokomo that gave name to the river, would bo 
a difforoDt place from thia later Angolokonio, a aumo coiaol ont of the 
TurkUh .\ine Gol, and Aunan ncoonnt of the four rivera Hoiring from 
M'ltiut Ida (Ibis) may be acoept«d: her EmiwloB TemaiDS doubtful, 
periiapa the Satuioets. 

18. Uudra or Madrono ie by Toxicr placed at Mudurln, far away on 
the other side of tho Saiigarios, though he agrees with Leaka'e identifi* 
oaliou of the Gultos. His suU ground is th« modoru nuiut% which he 
considers to be a modification of the anoiont name. But Mndnrlo is n 

* Hittccles liaa the fnnii Bapliraii, t. ccrilic'a clcriail error. Wc-nnnliiis, tiowcTcr, 
wrongly lUitKnls 'Afiirav ii* tlio proper resiilng. BgfCn-ir atl«ea tKica a dittographf. 
Oi^i rspivv boing written Bofn »air^iai-, Rtid Ui« wonls iMiag aftanwrils vnmgljr 
diiidfrl CocDinnt Baplt, cthnio hapijrii, in PlaUlfa. See D 8, 13, C 33, irhieli abows 
that th* Uanatia i>aa Ike Gmnikna. 

t Other ricnIUr aron am given, under Mopsoantia ClUclv and Juat below in 
OMiiiwtion with AleTaeeDa. 

] fir iiiv ^ifKitafiA, ttr 9' 'ATT^xJvwfu, t^v t 'A>B70iiplJ)T Hal ItAaravM koI t& 
MtXrfvT''^ ■■' *' Wp,{ YArra (vol. II.. {V 413). 

S Sw the itnxic giwu uiiJut Onlutia ^uterii^ Sautabaria : tb«r» MuLavw«ii p«rhaf« 
oonvapoudato Bilqjik-BelokouLe. 



ZQS 



A SKETCH OK THE HBTOBICAI. OKOGItAPliy OK ASIA MINOR. 



good Turkisli name, and bas no connection vrith Mo^lru. Kicpcrt 
in hiB latnst map foUowu Tcxit-r. 

19. GalloB, whicb appears as a bishopric, united with tli4 otlK-r places, 
Kailosiu and Lophol, nmst proliftUy be piaoed on the UalloK, if there is 
tin ami of that rivfir whioh rises far away to tho weHt. GilIos*Kat1oeia 
was in BitJiynia IMma, mibjeut to Niltoniedeia, while Modra wraa in 
Bithjnia 8eouiida, under Nikaia, vrhich includM tho n-hole sooth- 
cast«ni part of tho province from Aine 061 and tlio Xioeno lako. 
Gall'is-KadoKia is to be lookt^d for north-wmt of Ainc Gul, aud the 
bnundary of the ecclesiastical prx^vincca pawca botwecn Kaduaia aad 
Aino Gol. 

20, The operationa of the year 1113" aro vory hard to andoTstaiid , 
hut. after fixing the into of Malngina, it becomos poaaible to put them 
uoro pteciaely. The Turks who wcro ravaging Myitia divided at 
Rjzilcos. One diviinoa nader Mahnmet retired through Lentiana and 
Poiman^noD (Maniyaa), and thenoo deiibtletiB along tho Khyndaltoa 
towards Kotinion and Dorylaion, the latter of whioh was entirely in 
the band;) of nnmadic Tntkish tribcH. t 'I'lic ompc-ror suut ordcia to 
Kamylzes to laaroh a^iiiet the Tnrka. He mast have gone tfarotiKh 
i'miim and round thi? north sidw of Mount OlyniiKis (Kesbish Dagh) 
till he reached Aoratii, obvionitly in the Rhyndakoa Valley at a point 
near Poimunonon. Here ho attacked the Turka tiuddonly, dispcnwd 
them, and rooaptiired ull tht-ir booty, but. instead of retiring on Poi- 
manenon, be lingered at Aorata. and the Turks, r^illjing in a plain 
beneath Aorata, surprised him in turn, dofeali^d liia army, and raptured 
himself with all the siwil. In tho meantime ihu t-mpcror had croBBcd 
tho fen-y from ConBtantinoplc to Damalis, and marched in thr<-e days to 
Aigialoi,{ at the narroweat part of ih© entmnc* to th« gulf of Astakfnt 
or Nikomedeia, whence he croBeed the ferry to Kibutos on the sonih 
aide uf tho gulf, and then again took tlie land-rr>ail to Nikaia. When 
li© learned in Nikaia of tho ill siiccoaa of Kamytzcs, ho advanced by a 
different road to intercept the Turks. Jlo wont by way of Malagiua 
and Bnailika. Baailikn is doscribed as a narrow and difficult glen on 
the (soutb-eaHtorn) nkirta of Olympoa : it ia probaWy to be conght 
somewhere abuut Inn Ungii in oriissing thu wutvrebml. i Uu then 



* Anna CamneDii, rol. II.. p. 270 fT. 

t ThlsuiiMiitJonafl in tbp fiirvojr of th« hutorf of Uorylaioa. ght-a hf XImUu aixl 
Cinnuniu, when MivniiiiC unt nhniit lortniniltap the aby. 

Z Thd liiirry nLlili Anna in<mlJ4Di Hocs not oozMpwd well with tbe tbrM ^ays 
bctncca i^amalu umi A^cittbi (Ali'iina. Iiitwisrcr. was unwnll), for Ijcoke <m\y givv* 
lSh(nira,36 luilcw, from Sculari to MiUhuui, wbub niu>l cnnopoiid lu Aigiolui. Ooo 
might tevl ttfutpH-d Ui Ui'iitify Kibutoe willi tlie modun ClioTae, tho aii^ient Kibjia or 
Aa«ffiufa. biit Dukibyza nu on tho nflrlh uAf, 9 niiloR wiNit of Ihu r«rr;, wliercee MV«r«I 
pwMgvs in Aaiiiv iliuw clearly lliftt Kibutun waa vn Ihe wutU side (sot hi tma 
HelMiaiwLj^ DrvpAuuii). 

S Boo AJdeoda to p. SSQ. 



G^THP, BTMMTmE MILITABV fiOAll. 



'6otoended to AJethina, wliich mniit be between Eotkiou and Borylaiou. 
HMWtitueMahuiuvtWlalreadxre.iched the noiglilxmrboDdof Dorylnion, 
but AlexiuB, igiiontut uf tliia, udvaocixl on Akroktxs, in tho direction of 
Kotiaiou. He oamo tipun tho otlior division of liio Ttitkieh anny, which 
had advanced from Kj^zikos over tho rivor Uurouos or GmuIkLrH. by 
FarioD, Ab^-dos, Adrumyttion, and returned by the KaikoH valley tlirongh 
KMi&ra (which wtut eattt of Pvr};aui(>s) iind Uvrmu (called by Anna, 
Karmo). IIb further mivrch nmst hiivo lod by Syiino« (now Siuav), 

'Aizttncii, and Eotiaion, until they were middenly n.ttjtokod by Alexins. 
During the battle tUe Byzantine rcar-giinnl wiui aiiddunly uttai-kvd by 
Uahumct, who, learuiug of the cmjieror'a arrival, Lnd oollecteil a foice 
of the nomad Turkmeiia round Uorylnjon, and follov.'od in pursuit of 
tho Byxuutinu anny. Alexius wan thue caught between two foroea, bat 
atiU he gained the victory after suffering cxtusiilcnblo loas. He tb«li 
tetirvd to Ouuebiutinoplu.* Tho dvecription of this route, whm ooni- 
pared with Edrioi'a account of tlie road Amorion-Kotinion-Chaloedon 
(H 25), BbowB that Alexius followed tho mod by Bilejik(MnluwweQ) to 
Eotiaiun. 

21, Th« route betwe<uu Malagina aad IKir^-lnion iis nowhoro doecribvil 
ouefully, but I find a probable reference to it in a passage of Anna 
Comuena, pp. 312-31.'i. 

The Caatic of Saint Gcoi^ was near tlie Aacaniaa lake, wert 
or north-wuttl of Kikain. The Turkv penetrated to it in the 
year 1116, whilo Alexius w&e at Aer (SribuloK, tea miles Goatb 
of Nikoraodeia). He at onoe advanoed to Nikaia and the uistle of 
Saint iieurge. and even to Sugnt.t wbicli lies south of Malaginii on the 
rood to Dtnylainii. The regular Ukodem road to I^orylnton pasnes 
through Siijcut, tho'igh tborc is an&th&r way through Uil<ijik, and thin 
|ULBBage of Anna niakes it probable that the aucient road took tbd same 
fxnirae. 

The Cnatle of Saint G«oi^ was ou tho lake of Kiknia, a Uttio to tho 
wait or n^rth-west of the city. It niunt be dietinguicihed from the Castle 
of Saint Gregory uti the i^uuth «ide of ttin gulf of .\iitakoii or Nikomedeia 
(FMhym., U., lOit), though the Bonn tmnalation of Auua always reudera 
Gregory inntoiul of (Juur^e. 

22. Ju8tiuianopoliB'3IolA is several times at tho Council of 680 A.D. 
oalled Nova Justiiiianopolis Genii, which probably meaoB of the cooutry 

* Annn'* nTcrenor to Fliiladi-ljiliuu dLowr hvt vii^ue !ilt!u uf U)« altuutiuu. 

t Kw/i6no\lr Tim Za7utiSiioui iyx"!'^"' HoJ^avfi^r^i/. Tho fiM't llrat (ho Turkish Dame 
Bo^l. " triltow," was nlroiuly m utlaclint tii tliu pkoc thai Anna lUM it niid callii It ibe 
naliv* SMDV. is a Ktriking pronf of iliu txtrtil of the Scljuk power along tli« Dnrylniun 
note. Tl)« KottMtoi loutc Mna not no oumpleMjr in tlit>ir lunil* darjof; tlu* or the 
foillawing tvifii. Sugul auuii uftet bucmuo faiuixi* a« Lbe oriiftiuU Ii'jiud of llie Oltoutaa 
Tivlu iu A«la Mioni: 'Eoti itrrour-n 'o/m Miwio* itwuii oStw Ka^amiirn (*!»'*«** ksJ 

•Wfo^t irofi' «{vjp oSru voAoiIufMi icaA.aiTo J' &y oUtji 'Itiai K^t. It ia aboot 230 

Stadia from cho Euxino, occirillDg; to Loon. Cbalcor^ p. IS. 



212 A SKETCH OF" THB HISTORICAL OEOGSAPHy OF ASIA MISOtt. 



means really " foitiBod <aiy," »od i» taken firom the Arabic. It U etill 
UBvd ia TarkiBh in the seoEe of r eingle honsa standing Apart among 
the fielils awsy from iv town, ami therofore like a castle. The 
Loiiiidikry of the Opsikian Tbcmu, passing suuUi of Kuulo, tau DortU-eoBt 
to Mcroa (now oftUod Kumliet), and a point east of Uidaion on the 
Tvmbri& 

'27. Tbv u«3[t important point which ii) mentioned on tho lond nas 
the fanionH city of Dotylaion, an SxXtjitvov, where the troops of the Thra- 
kesian sud Opttiki&n Tboines met the Gmiieror: it is stilt a Turkish 
mililary btatiou. 

It is montioiicd that Schulnrii, tho ^ards commanded by the Domes- 
tieua Schoiarwn, weri> 8t&tioii«4 in Kikoinedeia, Kioii, Pruuisa, KyzikuM, 
Kdtiatuu. Dwrj'kiou, and one other place, until the time of Justinian, 
who removed tbem &om the first eix statiuiu, and placed them iu tb« 
oiliee of Thracft.* But thougli the Sohol&rii wore removed, there can be 
no doubt that Uorylaion still coiitinuod to Ije a military station, Iu tho 
time of Constantino Porphj-fogenitns, however, the Domes'ticas Scho- 
larum aeeius to have been etatiouod iu Anatolic Phrygio, as ho mccbi tbv 
Emperor at the third a7rA>^ov, Xaborkion ; mor&ovor, Joattnos Kurkuaa, 
tii« famous gt^ueral wlio Teoon(iuerecl the uountry from the Ualys to the 
Tigris, WHS DoinestiouB. 

Dorylaion foil Into tho hands of the Seljuk ISirks in the latter poi-t 
of the eleventh centVTy.t along with the lino of tho military i-oad to a 
point further north than 8ugut, but lb© lino of road to Kotiaion by 
HnUgetia, Busilika, nnd Aletliiiin., ((till remain^ in BysaQtine poB»e«n(Hi, 
and attained groat Jmportauco in tho cam])aignsof Alexius (I lid), John, 
and Manuel Coiuuoutis. At lat^t, in thv year 1175, MududI made a groat 
effurt to break the Turkish power, and reopened two of tho old military 
roada, one by Souhlaioii in the «oiilh of Phrygia, the other by Dory- 
laion. Ho advanced to D.trylaion by tho forry DamaliB, oollectiug hia 
troops at Molangeia. Ciuuatuus gives an iuterroting account of tho 
aituttlion of Dorylaion, its former importance as one of the very greatOAt 
cities of Asda, tho delightful climate (which is even yot pTni^ed in 
liie ooTintry), the fertile soil, the river f«U of fish.J the numerous popu- 
lation, tiic baths, and of lis utter dfatruction by tho Turks. About 
2000 uomada camped in tbeneighbourhoodef the deserted city. Manuel 
did not rebuild the old city, but selected a new site at a little diatance. 
The site which he chose was apparently that wbicb i^ now ealUd Rara- 
dja Sbebor. a dcecrtod fortr&ss about six miles south-west of Rnki Sheher 
(]>oryl&ioD). It ia a fottress of tho later Byzantine style, built on an 

* Theofibaiim. p. 23i3. 

t Probably in tlir yvu lOTi, m already ttated. 

t Fiitb ■wnnn in tlm Tiitnbriii. Iiti( I vitm iliM[tiiiMiiit<.-il with tliosc wlifrh I triixl to Mt; 
tho flfab ia tofi, tiuto§ lib} cuud, t.aA [iraviifl uii(>AUitjk> u> a V'ly hungry nmii. I found 
tbftl llic nntiTci ako coiulicrad Uio fiah that were luouijhi me hartlly fit fi^r food. 




0.— TU£ BVZAKTINH UIUTARV ROAD. 



213 



'vi^BOBt i8o1nt«d spnr oftbo ])1ntcau tbnt bf>rd«i« tho Tfttnbris T&llcy on 
<wi~fDatb, of great uutural strengtb, but difficult tu supply with watur. 
After lli« defeat at Myriolcepfaaluu, id the foUowing year, Mannel 
pTCJiuUod to ilvetroy tltu dcw city, ant), though bo biuku bis won1. Iiu 
could n>ii r«taiti hia h«1d ou it, aud it went to d«c--ay. 

2i*. Tbe im|)C>mL CMtate, called Temliri'Jti in thb Opsikiaii Themo, 
vbouce flftliRnnen were taken to accompauy tbe Gmperur'a expedition*, 
and catch fieli for liJB tabl«,* may have been bcmtdLi Ouryluiuu or Midaiuo. 
Tliu riv«r Tembris Howe paet both citioa. It is called Tliybria liy Cia- 
namuu, wb<j mentioiia ul»i> tbat tbo Bathya (which must be a tributary 
of th« Tembris) flowerl past Dorylaion. 

Tbe Byr,autiiio writers give iutmeating acwuntn of the Ttirkiab 
QVIuadi who inhabited tlio plain &f DoryUion wb«u Manrn.'! i«occupi«d 
the raty. Anna Cutnneua oaUs them Turkme&a (r^y xarh rijv 'Airtaf 
otxoimar T«iY>i[o/uir<uv, vu). II., p. 234). I atlij otbcv two paMagen : Sam 
Tto^v^fiifip.ivn »iT(f ava&i(f)'oiri iroaT tik Xci^unViAai t Kut ruvruk Tt'Oca Tuiv 

Chou., p. IS8), TOT* Si liberal a/j<^i SKr;^iAwi<c Tnp\ ravnjv (the plain of 
Donlaion) vt>p.a.&K iW i^oi IvK-qvimv (Ciuunm. 2ili). 

2y. Froiu Doijlaion tbo rood perhaps followed the line of the old 
Bomaa road to Peesinus as far aa Trikomia-TrokDada. It is raeutioued 
that th« Emperor Baail II., in the yoar 8^0, whon rotorning froin an 
expctlitian into Koiuiting«tii>, paased throngh Miilaimi. rrcwiiiuahly Iio 
ira veiled ulong tho militar>' road. \Vor« it not fur thin p^uufuf^o. I should 
hav« auppoeetl that the road went aloug tho modern track dii-&ct to 
Tmktia'la (Kaiiiiav.) ; but tho temis in which ^Uduion ifl mentioiKtd do 
not permit tho HuppcwitioD th»t uu thiti cccasiou Battil diverged a little 
froEU the direct road for aonie special roasoii i» order to visit it. When 
ho roacUcd Uidadou he halted. tctIowccI hij troops, tlitttibutod rowards, 
aud diiimiiiBed them to thuir winter quarters.| 

30. Trokoada was the oeareat point on the n^iad tu tho third 
SxKifKtm,, RahorkioD, and pruhably th" tioope who had collectcxi at 
£aborkit/n jois«d the emperor when lie reached Tiv>kua<la. The 
diatanM is about twolvo or iifteen mih^g. Kaborkion, a binhopric of 
Fhiygia Salutaris in tbe lattiat class of Xotitise. was probably in tbe 
Anatolic Theme. It was the pluoe where the troops of the Anatolic 
aud &eUttkeian Thentee collfrct«d, together with those commanded by 
the DouiesticuB Scholarum. Its situation at tbe gr«at fountains of the 

* Bre ImA note, p, 2IZ. The colato ia ci|>ruMl]r mentloneit m tov x>«plev tou Ttitafti 
(Contl. Purpli., I., p. 488), But, udm tho abure vu in tftw, I liuvc ot>M>n-«] tliat 
thU plmr4 (which 1* eallwl TumbriuiU. Tymbrion, or Teiubileiao by Hii-iiliuauM) ia {ho 
iwpcrinl Mtato called EtulokUa 1>y HIciocIm, tM E. $ 27. 

^ Tliui espK«i«a adda ivoUbDlljr to tlio idootifl(«lwa pvcti kolew (tc« Oablia. 
Scnubarla] of Edrlal'a Llbodhla on a nafifCkblr Orviaa witli Dnn-lnion. 

I Cudtvn., II., p. 2IG; TheoplinD. Coalin.. ji. 2i3. H.nvn» wo* uIki on the Milllai; 
RmvI (w^ ]>■ 4!I5}, wLicli itrobAliljr tUvu wwt l« JualiDitnupolia- 



214 A SKETCH OK THE HISTOKiCAL OEOGRAPHr Of afU MISOR. 



SangariM lias teen deBcrifced, CB, S liar. The upU-niiil -water-snpply 
in a tiurt^ land, and tb« fiii« fcrtilo plain ai-oiiiid made it an oic«lleiil 
camping-gnuod for &n anoy. It is Btill a good hor«c-br«editig oentrc, 
an imperial estate, and a niilitary Btation. 

31. The road vrent on to a very stitoig and important fortress, 
Jiistiniano]H>li8 Pulia, ritoated at Sivri Uisar, wKcmm lofty twin poaks 
afford an impregnablo eitadol. Dr. Mordtinann waa first led bv the 
namo to Buggost thtu aitiution : tlie conne of tbe road provea hiR ucote 
SuggestioD to bo oorrct-i. Ita Mi«ngtli aa a fortrau, and ita sittiation on 
the road aoon made it the chiorcity of Galatia Salutorin. It became 
first a bishoprifi, and nFtorwar<lR tho actnal metropolu and tlto raaidcnce 
of the metropolitan biidiop, tboiigh be still retained tho litlo ' btghop of 
Poasititui.' It fltill n.-taiDii its rank as cbitf c-ily of a Sanjiilc. and is an 
imiiortant oentre of roads and commerce (see Qalatiu Salotaris). 

32. Tho coTirno of the road aoTom Galatia » very iincerUin. The 
rarity of refcrenew to Aokyra in the military hiBtory of the Byzantine 
Empire, combined with the fact that it lies to thu north of the direct 
route and that thv road !$ivri-llitsar-ADkyra ia vrntcrleu except at the 
crowing of ttie SAngarioa, suggests tb&t the military rood pa«<«d te the 
Bouth of Ankyrn. In that cane there can bo no donht that it went by 
Beluam (Oorbcoiia), where it joined tho now road from Ankvia to 
Juatinianopoliii-Tiltfkisaoa and CV-imivia, still uno iif tho most importaal 
routes in Anatolw. This road wont nearly straight eaat to tho rialya, 
which it eroBsed at tho liridgo now called Tohtwhuir Koupren, and 
ticsideB which was probably eituatvd the foTtrera Saniana, thc> militarj 
centre of the Titrma Saniana. The route fn>ni Sivri llisar to GorheouH 
(Beinam) ie very diffioiilt to trace. 

33. The biidgo ^mpos or Zompi spanned the Sangnriosat the point 
where the road crussud the river. This point must have been aouth of 
the modern Kawnnji Keiipreu and near the month of the Ilidja So, if 
the view which I take of the sabsetjnc-nt course of tho road is correct. 
Widely different i?iewB, varying from near tlie sutti-ce of the SangarioB 
(Texier) to near its month (Ritter), have been expreissed abont the 
situation of this bridge, which is of grrat importance in Byzantine 
militaTy hiatory owing to ita sitnation on the military road. It will, 
therefore, be couvuntcnt at tliia point (o exariiine the quealion of the 
Byxantino bridgea over the Songariua, Pontogephyra, Zonipi, and perhaps 
Tantaendia. The first of those was built by Justinian, a.d. 5(i0, to 
replace a bridge of boats (which waa frc"iticnlly dc«troyed by Qoude) on 
the important roads fmm Nikomedeia to Ank}-m and to iho whole of the 
north provincca. This bridge is described by rrocopius(da Aedif-.V., 2) 
us bIUI building while be was writing hia but^k. Juntinian diverted the 
course of the river to build it. The fame of this bridge grew as time 
paaaed, and it itill stand*, a really great work, deacribed by Texier aa 
429 metres long and composed of eight arches. PaohymeroB (IT., 330) 



G.— THE UVZAWriNE MIUTARY BOAD. 



215 



isentioDS its true name Puiitogcphyra, and suya tliat it no luugvr 
spiinred th« 8angftrJ06 but a boiftllor Atroam caltod Molss, lut tho Ssingarios 
had obanged its oourne. The tinharia Htill flows some distance to the east 
uf tbu briilgc. Tbu nunio FonLugcpIiyra, apparaiitlyA hyliriJ, Gruek aotl 
Latin combined, van oornipted to PLiitegepliyra, and explained as bridge 
otfiTc ftrohc*, though ftccoriling to Tcxicr it is of eight arches.* This 
error uocurs iu C'edrenus (I., C78), atul Thoophaues (p. 234). Agathiax 
oomposed an epigram on the bridge, which is qnnied by Konaras 
(UU p.^3) and Gi>astuatinQ I'orpli>-njgoiiituB(dtt Tbom., p. 27). The 
latter, miBUDdem landing his authority, says the epigram was engraved 
on a stona in tho bridgv, n.nd tho nii»iHtat«ni«nt has often been repeat«d. 
3-1. Kilter, in his 'Krdlcunde vuii Aeiun,' vul. XX., p. o5S, identiGve 
tUis bridge of Justinian with tho bridge j^ompi, but thiit iti a quite mis- 
taken view.! Tho situation of Zompi is defined with sufficient oleanioas 
by the many reforBiiccti tliat occur to it. At lirHt xiglit eomvthitig is tu Ix 
said for Tcxior's Tievr| that tho bridge of Zoiupi is TchamlirKoupreu, a 
few hours Wlow tJio groAt tipriugB ot TobifU-ler in which tho ijungario* 
riiws. Auua Couinena rofvrs to it as Ij'iug <.>iu>t of Sautnbaris (Bardakchi) 
and Amorion, and Kicephorus Biyenniiis speaks of it as near t^ie sonrces 
uf ibu Saugarius. Texior doclari» it tu be a ittiniu bridge uf Byzantinu 
work, and the case scorns v<»ry complete in hix favour. In lli83 I mado 
n long d6tour in order to see tho bridge ; and in 188S I again crossed it. 
It Koems to mo to bo a Tutkish bridge, built to cany tiio important 
route from Sivri Ilisar to AKizio (the earlier Turkish Jirgin) and Aliom 
Kara Hisar. A road to the cast frora Dorylaion oould not p«s«iMy gi> 
i'y Tobandir Keupreu, and, if it be Zompi, then the mililary road must 
havo cro»sed tho tiangaricis by a different bridge. Hut a passago iu 
Michael Attaliola (p. 184) furuoa us to look ^dauwliero fur ^mpi. Iu 
tho year 1073 tho Caesar John nmrohud (evidently along the military 
roaii) from Dorylaion to tho east, and crossed tho bridge called /ompos„ 
wliicli BiKins the iNingnrioa, and ounnccts the Anatolio and Cuppadocio 
Themes. Now, I have stated above that tho military road did not even 
tuuch Tohifteler (Kaborkion), wLoro are the fouutaiiiB of the Sangarios, 
but keeps away to the north of it vithout touching tli<^ S»tigurioe. But, 
oven supposing thut it did make the d^tuur to Tchiftulur. it would nerer 
make a farther detour down the right bank in order to need a bridge to 
(-ro8« by some 12 miles down. It would gn straight across frooi 
Tohifttlcr to Sivri Hi»ar(JuHli[it»iiopolis). Moreover, it cannot bo snp- 
piifeed that the Csppadocic Tbonio extended to tho souroes of the 
$angano« at this time. It might, of course, be argued from Conetun tine's 

■ I am aanimios Tcik-r'a iKcount to W oumnL BnL paMaibly b« is wrong, sod tlu> 
trul^ hsa HvG nicfies. Iu lluil cue PoDtt<{;ci)liym wuuid t« correct, ami Pontogtiiiliyr^ 
tlip pomipticm. 

t Tlicrv 8»i'ina to Iw )ieR> saone Blmugo jiiiMMnfi^jiUon r>f tlia great K'''OSniplioi, sa iu 
tliu stmit Mutcncu liu K]Ktt]{s of ilit) {ilaiiiH of Durxlaiuri eii Wte out at llic SauKorios. 

t Teiiei. ' Asfe Mirjooie,' p. 381. 
VOL. IT. g 



216 



A SKETCH OF THE HI8T0KICAL GEOOItAPHY OF ASIA JIISOII. 



ileaoriptton of tlie Cappttdocio Tliooto tlittt it could not bave 
rtooJicd to any pnvt of tlie S&ngario'^, but was uonJuied to the euit side 
nf the It.1l.^H; but hiii dcBcriptiuii iip[)lii-it to tlic oMcr torm of tbe 
Tliome, and ftliout SW the f'appadocic Thome was itctii&lly cxtendod 
as far wcot o» tho moMntaios cast of Sivri Hieor (Gunasu Dagk, ibo 
»iici<int Diixlymos ?). 

:t/i. It ia nvcesiiary at IliiH puiut to dincueB fiie limits 'mt different 
perioils of the Cappmlociu Theme. Oonstftutino idoaLifiee t1i& Cap- 
padocic Them?, which wiuc one of the three divi^onn of tho great 
Armenino^Thetiie, with the old prurince Cappudociu Secnnda ; but this 
is a mere «Iip, for in the earlier part of his account he defines it clearly 
OS adjoiiiitig Lyk[i';>uia uii the one side and r«:ichiiig to CiLCs&roia on the 
other, and in anuthor diri-cliou Ijordcring oti th« liuooellarioto Theme on 
one siile and reaching to lioulon and cTPn up to Podaiido* on tho other 
side ('do Them.,' p. 19). Kut bis dtwcriplion of tho BacccIIaiiote Theme 
abowH that it extended to the Halys, and that it was divided from the 
Cappadoeio Thome by the Hnlys. A passage, howcvor, iti his treatiso 
' da Admin istrandu Iiiii>oi io ' (p. 225) shows clearly that, though originally 
the Ituccellaridto Thome did extend along the Ilalys aa far aoaUi act 
tho frontier of the old Cappadocian proviu'Ce near Famaesoe, yet a modi- 
fication took place Buhsetjucntly. About the year 890 fonr military 
ilistricta of the Buccellarioto Theme, nareti, Baltadun. Aspoiia, and 
AlcarkouH, together with throe of tliu Anatolic Thome, Badokiae, Saint 
AgupetOH, and Aphrazeia, wore transferted to the Cappadocian Tbeut. 
The*o Ht'von distriuta comprise all tho sonfhorn part of Galatio, from 
A&pona. near the Tlulye. to iha SuugariiM and even Io Kudokiaa, and are 
cidled the Turma Eommata.f Tho bridge Xompi crosses from Eudokiss 
to Saint Agapetoa or Myrilm, and appanntly cither a third change miut 
have occurred and Eudokias been again attached to the Anatolie Theme, 
or e1»e Michael refers to tlio fact that the Aiiatulic Theme included all 
the country south of tho .Sangarios, and must have come cloao np to 
Xompi. 

3S. or tht-ee Koveii haiidai or tu[<otfreuiiii, Eudakiaa, Saint Agapetoa, 
Aphrazeia, and Aspona, hare (H, 5-12) been placed approximately or 
exactly. The procisu nitou of Bai-eLa, Balbadvii, and AkarkottK, can 
hardly ho fired, biit Altarkoiis h probably n false reading for Akarbons, 
and Is a variant of Gorbeous.} Barota and Italbadon would then 
oompriae the ceutral ^)nrts of the Ilaimane (Barcta on the north, 

* H)v Tvp 'Ai'iitdXihui' Kal KuinniloKwv /ir<^>UYV('(i {napx^"" (Slioli. Attal., p. 184). 

t Kntnmata is pomibly tho I«tin eonwita. 

X GiirlH^ntig. Akn.r)Hiti8, (X'inpnn? Liiulon, Hnlala, wliich havn bci-Q idontifiod ia Ul- 
otber part of tliiti bnolc. K fm It in n ccaimraa error ; cmnixini Ikrin for Ihriain Noi L, 
Vm. IX. I miiiiutt!riiruted Dtrla in my • Cities aaJ Biiiliiipricfl of Plirygia,' port I, but 
fiit.it conootly lit the TMt\ |inrt It. Since tlien, I tied my«orreotioa mnfirmed hj tho 
Bodloian raaDUiieTipl, Ihiroe. 185, foL l€, wliicli nada ivfimv, nml wliicli invarinht^ 
writos u for A 



C^THE BYZANTINE JIILPTJlRy EOAD. 



a 17 



TWlIiadon on the soulh), iin<l Akarlxins ani^ .'Vxpona similarlj- tJie earteni 
HiUTiiniie np t^> the ITalj-p. Akiuljuutt would l>e a fort coniinaiidiug the 
railitfl-n- roft^. an<\ simiUily we may look for Bar«ta or Balbadon on or 
near t)ie miliUiiy raiul at a j>oi»t Koutli nf Ankyrn, nod noar tbo rood 
from Anltym to I'erta iind ArcheUis Cijlmua. 

A compttripon of the account giTcn (K 15) of the Kharaian Themo 
ahuira that this later f'appadocio Thomo must ]i*vo Iwen praotically 
confinod to tbom Bovon bnndnj. It wm 'bounilcti on the north by the 
Biiooellariot« Tlioaie, which is ineniloned a,p. 1035 by C««1ren\is, IL, 
p. 514, and Glyctw, p, a88, as 8[iU m existence, on tho oa«t by the 
Holytt and the Kbamian Theme, on the south and west by the AnatoUo 
Tltonic- ItH impurtATice, in iK]>itu of ibt gniall »\rje, \».y m iU Wing on 
tho line of tho Brcat road. 

It iH ooiiainly tmc that the oxpr^RfiioQ of Michnel Attaliota about 
Zompi cotmoctiiig thn Anntoltc niiil Cappadocic Thomos snggMts that 
the river separated the two Themes, ami a great river in certainly the 
mttoral bonndtuy between two intlitniy districte, just as the Halys wsa 
on tho east. Bnt on the other hand Endolcios seenui nocoiwnly placed 
at TUrrae, and the bathn of Saint Agapetos equally neoeiutarily at tho 
Hamam near Kudi Keui. Kudoliiafi borders on Germa, and even if wo 
COald ploco EudokiiiH east of tho Saoi^rioi!, Bcjioratcd by that river 
from Oerma,* it w«uld then bo almost neciettsaryto place Saint Agapelos 
at YUrmv, and tho difficulty would bUII remain. 

In IOCS Roiiianiifl I>iogonea, marching to the oaxt hy the nanal road 
n'li HoIcQopoliB, croencd tho Suiij^ttriuiit by the hridga ICumpos, and 
afterwards tlie Calya.^ Thiii pnsBage also proTce that Zompi waa on 
the military road. 

37. Another bridgo tailed Tautocndia, cvidcntlj- over the Sangarios. 
or pei-ha{>H one of ite tribataricB, the Tenihrls or tho Siheris, la mentioned 
in tho life of Thoodonui .Sylceota.^ It lay between Culonin Qorma and 
Sykea. and must he either over the middl« koutso of the Sangarion, 
flonth of Sykea and Lagania, or over the Temhris near Oerma. It is 
just possible that it is identical with the bridge over tbo Siboris built 
by Justinian (Procop., ^ JEAif.,' V. 6). 

38. To croex G alatia with a large army from east to west, tliero ar« only 
Iwo roa^la which afford a watwr-supply. One of thoHO would keep along 
the Tembria (Porauk Su). cfoss the SangftTio8,aiid aeccnd tUo Ankyra river. 
The military road appcftTB not to have taken this course, and it most in 
all probability have taken the other. In that ca«Q, from Juitinianopoliit 

* TbcpOBitinn no br north ix, hnniiTiir, impoMtblp, for tbeievonbaiidalareoUartf tho 
•ontbern part or Galatla. Tlie Aufliolic Theme, to Judge ftttm Oonitantiafri doeirri|v 
tioa,<Mu1<) nrvcr tiavoindiii)«i] Rii<!ilita),nTi1ot8 it was pretty ftr Mvth; anil nothing U 
l«n for Ltic RaMvillaTi'>l4), if tlio AnatAliR cxtmulod ta llic riTU of Aukfn, wliidi ia 
tiMt CISC vTould be tL<i nurtlicrn border of Kudokua. 

t Soyllte., p. C33, nad Altai., p. ISO. 

X Act. ganou April 22u[l. p. 53. 

«8 



316 



A SKETCH OK THE HISTOItlCAU GEOGRAPHY OK ASIA MINOf., 



it went to Rnjolctas, rroflsed the Sangarios eouttt of the preatnt 
Kawtiuji Kciiproii, nsccclud tlio Iliju St). wliicli tloM-s witli a iino btTMiR 
thruiigliout tlio summer* from tlin uontntl TlHiniHtic. Tlio rodd would 
paiw (inder the wnllii of Eizil TTiwar Kale, wliicli I snppoHi to bo 
A]>)inucia, auJ which ururhntigs the river. It waitlil tli«u crow by 
Barota or Balbadon to GorbdODs-AkarboTis, aDd dcecend a streftm which 
flowH cAtttwnrcls towartlK tho Halvf. 

89. The Ilalj'B must h«ve "been crossed by a bridge, and Tchesbiiir 
Eeiipreu in ntliiiiraMy nittiated, 'nlivre Oio river in narrowed to enter a 
j^orgo in the taoiintaitiM, A bridge over the TInlyH is indeed never 
mentioned by ByTantinc writcre; but it can hardly bo the oase thai, 
the Tnrld were the firwl to coiimtrnct a bi idge thore,f 

In A.H. 905, tJamonaK, the Satnccij favouritu of Lco VI,, on pTctcccc 
of going on » visit to his own monastery tfpeira, which was sittiated in 
Daniatry b^de Cuikstantinoplo, lied to bia nativQ country, uud, in order 
to avoid pursuit, hamstrung all tbe pust-horseH as be pafuied. lie wan, 
however, roftiHud fieniiiiiKiuii tu crouB tbe Hulys, and wns in coDni-'juciiee 
overtaken by bis pur^ners. A doubt might be raiaod whether this 
referx to the passage of the nalys at TcheKlmir Kmipreii, or to tbe 
other oroHttiug between Justiiiinnupulis'MokissoM (Kir Shuher) ar>(1 
Caesarein. He bad already long pamt^d Spoirn, and was going onwards 
tow«rdi! the ottst, when Iio wiis ftiTRste<l, «o that it was clear that bo wa« 
flooing. He then pretended that tie was going to the TinLiuii Stavroa, 
the Holy CroSK, at SirichaM or Simcbas.} "When wo rL'iiieuiber tliat one 
of the fortreases in southern Galalia which wo have (K 1 2-(t} seen reaeon 
to place on the toilitary road, was called Timios Stavros, there can be bo 
doubt that Samonas wax arrcstci] at Tobesbuir Kouprou, and then 
pretended that he van going to tho Holy Cross for religions pnrposa*. 
'llio incident iuindcntaUy oontlrmtt iu a jjeucral way thu aittiatiuu whi<^ 
hae been assigned to Timios Stavros. 

40. Another place on the rtrnd west of tho llaiys wm Am. In a.ik 
906 Eustatbins Argynia was bitniBbed 1o bis own houBe in tho Kliai'sian 
Theme, but on bia way died at Aiii, and was buried at tipynin, a bigli 
point beside Ara.$ His sons, however, oxhuiucd tho body and oarriod 
it to tbe family monastery of S. Elizabeth in tho Klmrsian Theme. 
There is no clue to tbe exact poHitiou of Ara aud Spjnin. 

41. There must ctrtaiuly have beon a furtrces near the bridge to 
protect tbe crossing of the Halys. Thia fortress, as I shall try to prove, 
was 8aniana. 

In tbo tirist place, the defending fortress was on the east side of tbe 

* I have gnne along it in the miJcIlo uf Septembt'C. 

t The present Irjilgo may be onlj n i«]iAired Byxantlne btitlge : it liu a nogis 
foiiilcil niub. 

1 Bl[icliaiI.oaGrnmiiiat„p. 278: Thcophan. Oontin.,p.3G9; SiracliSB, Ofdrvs., IL, 
p.ZM. 

i it tt Swurlf rou 'A^ r^r wtetifiv (Theo]>hAll. Oootin., p. S74). 



0.— THE BTZASTINE MILITART BOAT). 



219 



Hal^s, for Ilomiuias Piogcace, in lO&d, bmlt for tlio first timo a fort oa 
tlio went b,iiik at the oroatdng (Atta)., \\ !4fi). 

In the aecuTid pJaca, tlio tl.ree bautlai in the soutli of Galatis Iteyond 
tlio Hulye, wliii'h once bclonRL-d to the Baocollurlotu Thcnio, but in 890 
were tmnsfcrrod to the Kliarsian Thetno, were uuitod iu the Tumu 
Sftniana. During tbe following coiitur/ Constantino meiitioiui tbat the 
Bttccellariote Thoino extended to tho fortress Suiiana Tho fortreas 
Saiiiana ia uleo weiitiunoJ in tho year 824 an being nunenilere^ by the 
insiirgont elii*f who occupied it. Now it is cltar that the Buecelliirioto 
Th«iuo DXtandEKl to tho HaljE, and it in thorefore prabablo that the 
limiliiig town vtim oh tbc Traly^. l^Ioreover, the [uinciiinl fortress of a 
Turnia may very suitubly be placud at such an importuiit point an the 
oroesing of the Ilalye and a triple fork of tho military road. 

Aiiotbor ai^iniciit maybe drawn from Stiabo(p. 5U2),n'ho loentioiia 
Sanisene apiiarcutJy an a fruntivr district on tbo eonth of Fuphbigouiik* 
Junl OS we find the two foruui FiiuolidH and Piiuolin, or Koloao and 
Koloc, iiBcd to dcstgnnlo tho Hamo town, so Ssniseno and Saniann arc 
eloarly tho samo name. Now it in certainly impoasible to place Saiiiana 
as fur north aa Stmlio implica Sanieeiio to have boon ; but reiueiubering 
bow vsguo wore th« limila of ooontrieit In StriLbo'a timo,t wo may, 
perhaps, couiidor that SauiBcnc was partly abeorbed in Qalatia, and 
jMrtly left in raphlagoiiia. In tlisit ca^u fjanieene would l>e oiiglually 
a province or district along the Halya on both banks, south of Pimulisooo, 
extending as far south us Toheahnir Keuprou, near which stood the 
By^mtiuo fortrosg ^aninua. Originally, of courue, Sniiiana was an 
adjectival form, but it has, like MaUgioa, become a doud. 

42. Now it i» obvioiiH that tho bridge uf tho Ualyti would bo a couve- 
niont owA^nTgw for tho B(>ccolUrict« troops, C«u»taatiuo, however, says 
that the Uuccellarioto troops always met at Kolonia, i.e. Archelais. It is, 
howeTcr, a patent absurdity tbiit whuii thti oni]>eror ia marching to the 
east, the Buixellaiioto troops should ooucantrato 100 miles south of the 
road, and 00 miles south of thoir southern frontier, in order to join bim 
cunvuniuutly. Sulvtituto Saiiiana fur Kolouiit, and thu deiiCriplioii is 
clear and acouratf. Tlio onlcr of onumcrattug the on-Xi^Kru is then 
natural. Saniana w then Mio ptaoo where all the oastorn thoraata meet 
the emporor if his march is towards Cilicia. But if bo is going towards 
Kommi^ne the Uucoellariole, tho I'apfaliigonian, and the Kharsian 
Iroops meet at Saniuna, while the Oap|H(du<:ian, Armoniuu, and Subai*- 
toian { meet at Cacsaroia. 



* Tbo t«xt MdiiM not antLxfiietary. Thn mnuiing prot>ftl>ly ■■ tliat anntliom Paph- 
la^^nain {rated hj tcvcrol ldnj;ii) wua divick-d into TiiuunitU <>□ tlio Ditbjmian IVonticr, 
anil thu kiDgtlnca of Gi-xaluiix iududiiig UannoliUB and Saaiaeno aad Fotamiu; nmlt 
one tai (lee Adileailu> 

t Hw ^iiott* tliw pruvctbiki uiiciTtaiiit}', " Uiu baiinds of Ilirjrgia and iljiU." 

] Ooe Bcwtaai; tmnaporition it hen made lietwicn PaptiUj^niBD ixad CAppatJoeisa. 



220 A SRTrCH OF TBE HISTORICAL GEOOtlArifT OP ASIA BOyOR. 

Yfil another argument naifilit be broagbt to show the utter abeurditx 
of the Teaming Roluniik. A glanvu of tlie uia]i will tiliuw Lliitt If Kolooia 
were an uTXijKrof, it woiil(l in every oasn be by far the moBt conveuiciit 
for tbo Selonkoiau, and eoiuctimtis fur thu Auutolio traoj'H, yot l]\ea& 
troops go io KaborkioQ : on the other hand, no the uitXijktu have been 
coirectetl, Eaborkion is tho'propor tLvXtjurtn' for them. 

■43. At Saoiana the military road furktid, «iid one brKnch went straiglit 
cast, prohably through Myriolcoi)Iialui, Tiiuios Stavroe, * Basilika 
Therma, Siboron, Hypeola, Agran* or Agriane, StiiIoh, Bnthys Bhjar, 
and Seluuiteia towards Armenia. This ]Hirt of ttie road n-ill bd dis- 
CUHBLfl bvluw. It only reiiiiUDS to add tliat Jimtiniim fortified norcnkl 
points on the road in Armenia, Satnla, Kolunciu, and Theudosiopolis, and 
bnilt the %vallfi of ScbaBteia (Procop., Aedif,, III.). 

44. It is to bo obevrvoil that tlio liiRt iIirAijKrov is Daziiuon, hntlliat 
the tioops who miust haw HBEtoiiiblod llittre arv Kuid to mtwt thv emperor, 
not at Da^imon, bat at Bathyn Rhyax. The situation of these two 
places, aa fixed L '20, explains this peculiar language. Daiiimon is the 
splemdid plain called the Kaz Ova, weat of Tokat. The Ameniac Iroopa 
collected here, and when the emperor was appruttohiiig, ihey came to 
moot him at Bathjs Rhyus, which is menlioned as a convenient placo 
ior going off the road into tbo Armcniao Tlionie.t Balhye KLy&x has 
hooo placoil At Sialoe or Siuiii, uuw Yeni Klmii, where tlio ruada from 
'J'okat and from the wont meet before tbej' go on to Sebasteia. Thirty 
miliii beyond Bathya Ilhyax, and therefore near Sebiksteia, was a hill 
by the road called K^ro-tavriyou Boui'Of.J (S*^ 1'- 207.) 

45. The other branch of tlio road, going couth-eaat from S-inianOf 
passed throngh JuBtinianopoliB-Moktusoj!, now Kir Sheher, which, fronk 
its refouiidution by Justiuinii, has oon tinned down to the pre»>eut day 
to ho ono of the chief citica of eastern Anatulia. I have deeciibcd, in 
didcasBing tbo roads eoi^t of Ankyra, the altenition that oceurre'd in the 
roiids acrosx north-western Cappaducia in the fourth and fifth centuries, 
and the coneequent rise of Jiwtiniunoixilis (o importance. 

48. At Jnatiniauopolis the road again forked, one branch went BOnth by 
Zoropaaiiofi (Tarnpson §), Soanda (near Nov Shebcr), through the Turma 
Eases or Kasjo in tbo plain of Venaaa (about the modorn Mtdogub and 
Hueea Keui), to Tyana and the Cilician Gato«. Dnriug the ccutnrica of 
Saraoea warfare, thu country between tho UutoH and the Haljs waa 

* Sofb Danira as (Tt^Aiirii/at fur Tr»knmlc:s, fi. Agnputos fur Myriltii, &c.. aliow lliit 
liiOaenoe of raliginn on Dom^ndatnn! in Bjraintinc lima. AiiotUof Cut, callvd 
Myriokcphaloa, «bMdon tho intpactniit Kloisoura, lu.iding eoat irora ttoultlaioft. 

t Corapan) Gendiuiu, pp. 122-4, vrliiub Isiiuuled iu ibcviit' the po»UiuQof Agtaai: an J 
BatJijs Itlijnx. 

t OeiitB., p. 134. 

3 The nnmo ia alvnyn giffen in Iho majM, AtelHtta; Lnt tbo speUIiig VarapBon 
corresponilii Tnr mnro closely to tlio locnl prnntiti^ktion. The mitiixl y ia klwnya 
atidibln. 



0.— Tnr, BYZASTIKE MILtTAEy ROAD. 



231 



■IsMtt oontiiiiially infested by Saracou buode. Uoac6 oti %aob an 
e^edition th© wliol« Bjfzautiuu anay wiw oollected by the tiuio the 
emjMror reached Saiiiana. It wohUI havo ex[Hjiioil Llio urmy to !« cut 
offtn detaolinientR if it liuil coticoatratod fui-thor Huutb. 

It ia pouihlo that tlio old pilgrim'u r<.'u>I uluug the loft Iwuk of the 
Halys may appear to sonio ratdorH to lio a preforablo route. Iii that 
case tliu fork wuuld occur at Akarbous, auil an expedition agaiumt CilicHu 
would pass through tLo forlreBS ABpoDu (uIho a binhopric), would touch 
the H&lya aud pass through Faruaseos and Nyeao, would tU<9n divcrg« 
firDm ths Ualys aod join tho other ronto at Soanrln. Rut in addition 
to the argiimuntH which hnvc already led us 1q thu view given above, 
I may add that tlie utter deaolation of thin route and the almost comphito 
Culure of Byzantino mins on it, aoom irtocoiicilable Avith tho idea that it 
wait one of the greatest imperial ruads throiigliout the Byzantiiiu |H!iiod. 

47. ^Vheii the emperor was marching tOKranU Kommagene or 
Mulitene, it was most convenient that tho Ariuvuiac, Bobuatciuii, and 
Oappadoctan troopB ehould meet in Ce&&ai-«ia. The march lo<l from 
JustinionopollB-MoktftsuB eouth-«aHt to the Hnlyi*, wUioh it croseed by 
the bridge deecribed below (L 2), and probably then passed through 
Jiistiiiinnoi>oliti-KnRionHaiiai lo Cefsareia. The road firom Cowareia, 
MTDEs tho rivers KarmaUH or Oiiopntctoa (Znninnti Su) and Saros to 
Arabissoa (Yarpuz) and Geriuauiocia (Marash), Las beeu described 
N 1 : bnt it will ho coiivbtiient to add haro a note un the chief 
campftigna a^inat tho ArahH. Tn Soctinn R. I have described tbo 
chi^f pouea acroaa Taunts, and corre^pondiiig to thofie KleiHoumi there 
ar« in the Sanioea Wars twe chief linus of attaoli, used at ilifluroQt 
periods. The Arab nrmiex at some periods crons by the Cilician 
Gates, at others they come from tho Auti-tuurua icgion. la the 
fonaer case tL« operations take place chiotJy on the road by Tyana. 
partly al^o on that which leads through IlciBkleH-KybiatTa and Lyka- 
onift. In the latter oaae, thoy take place on tho rtjuds that lead iiorili 
and west from tho river Burua. As a general role, the operations of the 
period before B40 are on the Cilioian route, and altar 840, under Aliohaf) 
and Basil, thoy arc nliaost always on the Kommagoniuu route. 



H. Cities mn Bisnomics of Galatei SALirrAiirs. 

This province wan formutl botwwfn SSS and .1!',' by the emperor 
ThooduaiuH (Malalav, p. ^48),' by taking the south-wcsteru port of 
Galatia, with the bishoprios Gorma, Myrika, Kudokia«, Pessinna and 
Petineasoa or FitnicHja, aud ndditig to them » part of Pbrj'gia Salutaris, 
containing tbo bi^shoprics Amorion. Orkistoit, Klonoos and Trukofulvs. 

* 866 fa the ■itprciiiQiitQ (lbt« KiTcn for Fulutnius Bilvtu*, wlig inmtious onl; <mo 
pro*inc<>, GalAtia: 412-3 ia tlie date (riven b; Seock tatbo'Notltla DJ^iletura,' which 
montioiM two Oalalia*. 



H^-G&UTIA SAL0TARI8. 



225 



JBBMinua was aadd the metroix^Iin or tho new province. Tbo tikai« 
'"BalntAris" waiperhft{)B Ane lotho hut s^^ringe, which abound inweAtem 
Oalatia and eaiitem Phr^gia, and which have alwayn heen gr«at 
iDedicinal resurts. Svo p. 437. A comparativo list of the biBhoprica is 
^veii iu Ihe accompanjiag Table. 

I and 2. l*i«si!iLr3 and JuftrtNiANorous. — This pair of cities is so 
closely tnnnoctod tliat th«y must bo lrca.tod tugether. Sivri Hinar, the 
modem capital, LaA Micccedetl to tKe hciioura of PoHHiniiH, and is in 
£reat meaauru built out uf tliu ruioH of thu Gncou-Bumaii city. A 
cliarcb uf S. t^uphia at PwuiiDiiH, and a church of tbo Huly Aogola 
outaid« the walla, to which tho bialiop Georgo went forth, are mea- 
tioDcd iu 'Acta S. Thiiwlori,* April 22, p. 52. Two iuacriptioiis of 
PVtsinus, etiU unpubliehed, moatioo Quo gartuenta (two fibulatoria, twu 
paira of i^ura), aent ai a present to tho Emperor Trajan: it waa 
(loubtle«s this kind uf cloth that is montiuued as bemg made in Galatia 
and aa forming an important article of tra^lo, in the Greek geographical 
tract publiahc^ by GothufruduH (Qoucvu, 1628, p. 24), and datod by Ltiu 
A.v. S47-8. Tiio pig waa held to be an naolean animal at Pijasinuii, 
according te rauttaiiiaa, VII., 17, lO. 

The nituatiuii of iVKsinua hoa long boon known at lUIa IIi»sar, 
about 12 milv6 is.HJ-^. of iiivti Uiasar. Texier publiaboa a boaotifal 
plan of tho niins of Pl-ssiuuh ; but bis plan \a alino«t a pure in- 
vention, and haa only tlie vory faintest resemblance to the featnres of 
the place. Thu viiy sunk into ducay ua JtiatiDtanupolia (tiivri Iliasar) 
TOoe to itnportaniw; but it has alwaya been inhabited, and the present 
jnhabitantji ap]ioar to mo U) be dcsceudtKl fr<jni tho anciuiit ])opulatiou 
with not more than a verj' alight admixture of Turkiuh blood. 

JuBtioianopolifl waa rcfuunded by tlie emperor Jvatinian. Ite older 
name seems to bavc been L'alia or Spalis,* but the apelling vatioc so 
much that tlie cirroct form is quitfi uncertain. As Monltmatint firut 
divined, JustiniaDopolia is the impregnable furtrods of 8ivri Ilifeaar. It 
was evidently built aa one of tho chain of ntrong pluoos on the Bysant* 
ine military road,} and its military importance «oon made it the real 
centre of the province. In Not, 1., dated X.J), 883, we have the enlry 
o lliiriraiWuir 'jtm 'lowmvafovnoiitutt, which provea that It bad definitely 
booomc tbo metropolis of the provinoe, and the arcbbiahop of Poaatnua 
was now merged in the metropolitan of Ju^tininnopolis. Yet, in all 
the Notitiu), evon Id Xot. I., which alone prtworvos iu uuu of ita entries 
the trnth, Justiuiauopotia in mentioned as separate from Peesinna and 
ranking laat among tho biahoprics subject to tliat metropolis. When 



* It i« (lutuuble iliat 8|Miiia, wlikb ubo occun, ii the bed fonu, S«o p. 1<^. 

* I nm glad to liavo Mie oppnrtunlt^ uf ijuuting Df. MontUiuina, wlio iliil mticli good 
vaik, with fdw piwilivo cornet iiJitiitlficAtion*. Uia pAipC'n arc buried iu old JMiraals, 
•^•ciall; ' UQnchvncjr tJitsuagsbcr.' ati-l ' (iel. Aui<-ig«r.' 

I BeeOSl. 



224 A S£ETCB OF THE HtSTOEUOa QSOa&AfttY OF ASIA UIKOR. 



foaoded by JoBtinian it wag mftdo a 1>isIiopno, and placed at the auH of 
tho ouHliiig liet of bULuprics ; but when it beeame (pro1>ably about 
700 i..i).) the real centre of tlio pntviutw, tlio Ardibisiiup of Prosiiiu& 
traosfcrroil Iuh rcsidonco to tho forti-css, and, while cuntiiiuitig to bear 
tho title o tl<(ratnvi^iiity rjroi 'lovirruiai'uvTtoKffui), bocitmo practically tlio 
RTchbigliop of JnHtiui&iiapoIis.* 

JustiniaDOpolU is wholly iguorbd !u the Couacilft, bvcause it was 
not foouduii whea the CoudcIIh boforo TiHA woro held; and when the 
Inter Counoile were held the aictiopolitau wf Poo&imis ie idontical with 
the tnsbop (archbishop) of JtiHtitiiaiio^oliu. Only in the Council 
X.D. fiSS ho might have appeared, bat of the whole prorinoo only 
FoHeinttn and Gemia wore rei'rct»i«t<Kl iu tliat Council. 

3. OKiaiA,n colony of Aoguiitus, CoIodia Julia Augusta I'ida Germa, 
ie ofleu called Germokoloneia in Hj^aolina documents. All writers 
have hitherto soceptcd Leake's view tliat it was situated at Yilrme, and 
that " yilrmo" is tho modem pronunciation of "gcnno." I havo ahown, 
J, § 1, that tho vidw is mibtaken, that coDclusire vpigraphio evidence 
places Germa near Miistit Kuui, on tho lowor coume of tho Tcmbria, and 
that the rottd-«y8tcm of Galatia demands this situation. The deriva- 
tion of Genue f'ruin tlio Plir>-gian com-Bpondunt to Cireelc 0tpf^, 
Sanskrit f)harma», Latia formiit, is probable ; but it ia not known, 
whether any hot springs existed ueorer than Mouegon. 

Hierocles has the name Ttp/un, which ho gets according to a practice 
common with liitn from the cccUsiofitical u rtp/Altui' (^TruTKoirm). Tho 
Mino form oocuni in tho Latin traastatiou of tho ' Acta S. Tlicodori ' and 
OOcaBtonally in thoecclosiaBtital liHta. " 

4. MrKLASfiELOi was a uanio givon to Germa iu Byeantino tiiuea : it* 
origin ia obviuualy from the; chief church, which most havo boon 
dedicated to tho " hoBts of angels." 

Gormia of Galatia is mgnlurly mentioned aa an arohbiiihoprio in 
Bcvcral of the Notitta) of all cbtsses-f Genuokoloneia is regularly 
meutioutHl in the eaino Xutitiro as a bishoprio aubjoct to PcBBinu& 
We might believe tlmt tho archbishopric is tho eamo place as the 
bishopric, which bad bton l«ft nnconvctcJ in its old place, when it 
wua elevated to ho an archbishopiio. Such cxamplos of caiclcsaiiess 
iu keeping the rcgiBti;ra arc oomuioti, and in this case tho double 
lume JoeiUtated tho onor. But the rciuarka, p. 322, ehow that Oermia 
the arehbishoprio ia perhapa in Bitbynia. 

Two monastvrica at Germa are uienttoued at the iiacond Council of 



* I luiT« ■howD Uiot tlie ntnp oocurml (1) atPorgn aotC AttKHn: mo " Antiq. nf 8. 
Phrygift," in •Amcrjo^m. of.\rt!h.' 1R88, »,e. Perga; (2) ftt I'rymiiewns anJ Ak^3eaM, 
" OIL mmI BiaL, of Vhtygia." ux > Juurn. of HcU. Stud ' I8S7, n.v. AJaovaon ; (3J at 
IColoasai au<l Oliouii! ; luiil at naiuQroaB otlier places. 

t r^i>)iia ra^arlat, Nnt, I,. 11, VL, X. : r^pf.111 raAari«i Bpiiriii, Not. VIII.; rtfjum 
TaXariat ttinifot. Nut. YII. 




n,— GAIATIA SAICTABB. 



22ft 



iSi. 787 ; Hfiyto^ iiyovfLa'OS jviv rtpiAtuf and 'tiodwifi vp€r^vT<pOi 

5. Kci>oii^ is u ii&uio ipvon to soma town or viUago of Gulatia iu 
ibonoar cither of the luotlier or of the daughter of Tbcoitosiiis IL ll 
ilwIoiigB to a Urgo group cf city nnmos, which isoom all to bolong to tho 
[period ,of Val«iis, ThoodoBitw I., and Puloheria Augnstu ; in Fhiygia 

fctiana, Yalootia, KtidokiaA, TheoiloAm, and PnlcIienaEioiKiHs ; in 
'rheu<losii>poli4 (EudoiLiopulin iu Uioroulusj ; in Ahiu, sdVeial 
diff«rent plaoot ware named Tlioodoaiopolis, and Arcadiopolis oocors; 
and many other ixamples might be coUecteiL 

Endoxiaa ami Otrmit wcru coutcrmiDouB biiilioprios, aa is ebowu 
by a pcwsago iu tho lifo «f S. Theodorua Sykoota.* There wus a 
feast of the Vii'gin tn Mur^i nppido, at whioh it was caatoiiiary for tho 
Itialiops of Qciiua uud uf EuduxiuH tu Ixi preaeut. Miwguni uas, tliL-rcfore, 
pmhably a village oa the I'roDtier of Gorma and Eudosius, and the 
Ohriatiau cnstom porpotutkt«d an old religious oonucctioc of both oitioa 
witli ooino be1y uput between Lhom. Sueh a ounnectiun ia sot likoly to 
have existed l>etwt'en cttiefl nu opjwsite »id€« of the Sangarlos, and no 
(rfher territory in (Julatia Siidutaritt, oouteriuiuoua wiLh Qeriua, rcuutiut!, 
except on the south of that city and on the onst of P«B«i&us. 

There is, theieforo, every prohabiiity tbat Kudoxias was situated at 
Yiirmc, wbcrv tbcru arc conaidorabli: rcinaiuti of it Pyimtitiiie bisbupnc. 
and in that atbu 

6. Mopsoos was probably sitoatod at the lino hot springs alwut 
aix miles N.N.W. ef VUrme, 

7. Synopion. It uppuars that the bishopric which is named (in 
gtuitivo case) Sui-riiSwi', SuiaStwi', ISvi'oSidv in the ktc If^otiliw III. and X., 
and in tho Council of Constantinople, 602, must bo identifiod with 
Enduxtas ; but tho ruascju uf tbv name is quito unknown, iinleat it bo 
derived from this great gathering at tio hot Bprings _od Miisgi 
opptduia. 

S. GoitDiox. The fsmuug c-ity Gordion is apparmtly to bo itlontificd 
with Eudoxias. Mauliiw, after oroasing the Sangarioa nrnth of resaltiua. 
marched ia oue day to Gordion; and Alexatidcr the Qreat, maitiluiig 
probably by the same road to Ankyra, passed thiuugh Gurdion. It 
was en important commercial city of the early period, and the sitnalioo 
at YUniie explains thix iiuportaneu, beeauso il is on the "Boyal Road " 
from I'caainua to Ankyra. The identiRoation aoema fairly certain, for 
tbere ia aboolately no «ther eily within a day'a uiaroh of the place 
wtieKP Maulitm uiiuit havu cro^wcil 11r- Saiigaricia. 

9. Akkilaios U wToiigly identified with Eudoxias, and tho frontier 
of Asia i:oiiBC(]uent1y pushed too far east, iu the map attached to my 
"Citicsaud BitfbopricH of rbrygia," part II. TUe ffil^o sitnalioDaeslgtied 
to Germa by all uuthorities and accepted by me, threw tlie whole 

• ■ Acia Sarieleroni,* Ai'rU 22iid, p. 47. 



SSQ A SKETCU OE' TU£ Ul!i'roBICA.L tiKOtiRAI'Uy OF AlJU SlINOn. 



topography »( tlie dlatiiul iuto coufusicin. Alckitaifiii has now beeo 
properly iilmccil on the Terobris, lietwcen Miilaion ftitil Germa. So long 
oe Cicrina wan plocvd aL Vuriiic, dinco £iidox)iiii vraa certainly Mljotoing 
it, tbere u-as no altcrnuttvc exoept to plaoo KudoxioH un tlie lower 
TflinliriB. ThoQ Akkiln-iun and Eiidoxias v.-»rv sido liy sido, and, OM 
Akkilaion never occurs as a buhupric, I supposed tliem to 1» actmtlly 
(Deluded iu outi biaUopric. The tiumo Akkiluiuu, lik« Uidftioii fiviu 
Midtte, Doryloioa from Porj-Ifts, Tataion or Tottaion from Tiilas or 
Tottes, in obvioufily derived from a personal name AkkiUa, and tharo 
can bo liltlo duubt Uiat tliis ifl a variant of thu very cotiiinon Plirygian 
pcnsoDftl Qame Akytas.* Akkilaion is perhaps Gmtiaiiopuli', on wLi«h 
sec C. B., LXXXIII., Act Sanct., Apt. 22, p. 42, and Cono. Ephos,, 
A.D. 431, whvro rhiladvlpbtiii, bibbop uf GTaliaiiu]>uli8, vna present. 
Akkilaion was iu I he pruvitico Asia, as ia cloar from ita coitm. 

10. MvHiKA. The cHuation is proved with i-vrtainty by the hot 
fipiings, moiitiiined in a sigontnre at the Council of Cimloedon. Boaidea 
tlifi hot baths Iwtwveii Ovriim and Eiidoxitis, the ualy olhoni known in 
Galatia Saliitaris are at the Morkcz of the Huimano, near Kadi Kcui, ftt 
till) hcad-watcTB of u stream which fioWB iuto the latanor, Sa not far aboTO 
itJ5 junction with Ihu Suuy>irion.f The cxjict form uf the name ib 
nnocrtajn; the adjecUvee funned frum it are MupuLris and MvpimjuoK. 
Ilierocloa bus Mvpiniutv, which is up|iarciitty adapted ftom a liat of 
liisboprics (6 Mnpucuitv). In one entr^- at CWcci]. Chalcedony vo re&d 
*'Elpidio (episcopo) ThermenBJa majurie," whitih implies a distiuotiua 
from Bonie other Thermal of lees importanoe. 

11. Saint AiiArrros. In thelaUir KolHiieand iu the Council. Qiiinis. 
A.D. 69-, the bisbvprio changes ila name, and is colled after Saint 
AgnpotOB, to whom its uhurch waa doubtleea dedicated. ThiK nwems to 
have been a real case of change of name, and not a change of eltuatioa. 
The common phrase with the double name (oonitected by >;ra«) doea not 
occur, but the new nunie ia BubBtitut«d for the old oao and the enlry ia 
dcpjUA ToO 'Xyuni ' Ayamjroi'. 

An important imssage of Constantine Porphyrogemtua (*de Admio. 
Iinp.,' p. 225) is clear and readily intelligible, when Kudosias haa boon 
placed in its proper position. About 8D0 the banJ<ti or lo^niterMtai of 
Kndukiaa, itaiot Agapotoe, and Apbrazeia were transferred from the 
Antilolic to the Cappadocic Theme, and the latter (wih four atiditional 
baadai) nan niado to include all the territory now called Raiioaac, 
bounded by tlio Halya on the cast, lake Tattu on the south, and the 

* For tlio vnrintjoiia iM^tween f and u in Phryi^lttQ ep. Sitiliu and Bonbl&lon, itnHn 
luul Winuri, ko. : »6fl my p«ippr nii Uie Phryginn inBtiriiitions in ' ZmlBflmft fiir viTsJeieh- 
<mii» Bpfadtroncliuug,' 18tj7, ami Fkk, ' Elljeauiligi) t^pmcliQinhoit,' eonoMl* A k ri waa 
ami akristiB with Ui<> nmt Icnu. 

t The flow <if ttiu water li wrongly iDdicntcd in kuic uf Kirport's tnapt of thia 
CMinUf. 

t Ed. LAblM, p. 87- 



H.— GALATIA SALUTAltlS. 



227 



tnoiinfAina )>otH'«€ii Sivri Hiiuar and Tttimo (which art now oaL1o>I 
Ciuiittsn Ditjjh, pivluiLily tho ancient DiQtlj'niuii *) oit the weut. 

The ceren baiidai CDnntiluted the Tiirma Kommata.'t The geueral 
utuation nf tliis Turtim, as it hue now bucn placed, in oonfirtiicil hy a 
pa«Mgo iu Gou«»iits, p. I'J'i, 'A'ho sath that the Panliciana of Tuplirikc 
under ChiyBochi'ir advniicod ns far us Aiikym ami Kointnata {^i^xp^ 
'Aynt'pas T^ Tt'AtuK Kiti aiTuii' Twi" Ko/j^ttnui' J). The Piitilicianii heiiif^ed 
or capturcrl Ank^kTu, and ovcii thv milit»ri|' Ktrongliotd Konimnta. It in 
dvubtfitl whether this word is hero to bo undorstood aa a defiiiito 
fortrot^K, the coiitro of the Theme, but mora probably it denotes only tie 
whole mililary district, with itovon divieiuiia and aoTOn furtreines. 

12. Apiikakkia. Nothing is hnown about It, except thai it mast 
havo been \ fortreHS a-^joining Saint Agapctoa, and in tho Anatolic 
Theme. Probobly it was the fine foitrefts now calM Kizil IlisBar Knlc. 
on a hill about threo or four huurs houth-west of the hot itptings of 
Myrika. Ou thu tvrniinutioii -ilfio^ -aC»^ in ]'iir;>'giun, Lycisn, etc., seo 
Kinoh in Zft. f. Xnmism, 138y, p. 1*J2. 

13. VmsKssiia or rmdiUKt. Its Nitnatioii iu ihe salt desert wost of 
lake Tatta hotwoon Lykituniu and tlio Huiiuaiio is niado clear by .Strabn 
(pp. 5<>7— ^). The exact situation rentains to be discovered by explora- 
tion of the southnin frunticr of (itilatia. I have aa yet mtuio only one 
rapid journey actrUKS from Myrika Iu Philomelioii. The sita of I'iwtia 
(Piri Begli) wonld suit Ibc indications of Pctinc'-soH fairly well, but 
a site farther to the cast would agn-v slilt hotter with StraVo. It ueeiutt 
difficult, in oonsiBteuoe with the ordur of Hierocles, to put any other 
hivhopric on Ihe Lykaonian frontier of Gatatia Saltitiris. 

14. Tiii>K.NALiE.\ u people nith au apparontly (laiiHsh name, in- 
habited the eouutry on tho nonhcrn or lol't bank of the SaDgurioa. 
Their chief town was apparently aittiated at KaimosE (S^Mt C. I. L., iti. 
Sapplem., Ko. 6997). Hierocles Inia tho name Begetnakade, i.e. Itogio 
TroknadoH. In Xot. III., X., wd find instead of u Tpwrvu^jir the straugo 
name of l> AuntVuv: this is probably derived from the uamc of a saint 
— pQrha|>s PlutiimB, like Saint Agapetus for Myrika.S 

■ StralKi, p. .Vi7. eirca ttio naini-. He vita ugrMS (p. 026) vtitli HurodoluB Jn givlafc 
Oin naniu Diiulynins ki Muntl llagb, where Iho UeruK* riaos. A DiSni Diiiili-nioa !■/ 
over C]r2 IMS. Kybclc ia otleii Uftinoi] DimlyniiMiP^ for vrltieh tlis vnfianl Zitlmi-na ia 
kn'iwn (cutuimm N*u:ii>»m, KtutiiinJii*), wliii^h ang^jila Ihnl Dindyuiut ud4 Itiilyma 
nru two fonu« '■! tliD mine tinnc [kc Athvo. Miltlioil., 1883, p. 237). TUu ruulinj; 
Dli^fDina in Ptolemy tlHrffiirit nonl not bt- ulterwl to DiiutymfHi. 

Y KTbuinroiiiKtiuaaa titlcof aoineboily of trixipa; tlics I^tio woni may liare fceOB 
HI imn dent 00(1 asJ turntd into ra K^^t^^ara-, «p. PorikoinmivtD l.jdiae. 

J Tho Bonn tvxt piint* tta/iiUrarr wiUioiit n cnpilol. 

g Eiftin|)]c() or ttiU ure nunii-roas, nml |>mvc the pomr of tho CLnrch in the 
muntry: m we luiv Myrians<^loi tai OvniiB, and prut ably llii* eauae Iiim proiionNl 
many niodeni tuuuc*: Eliaa tuia givuii liU diliijo to Ailadu, StL'[iheu te MuxiiuiiuiopnliH 
(«« my 'Antiquiticaof SaulLern Plirygia'); Aitamns (27101 ew/iai) *' '^ Molifnumedan 
village tbrM livan cut of Nigdoi Sogounnoa ('loionii) ij tlui anduat Seivua; 



A SKETCa OF THE HISTOIlK'Ar, GEOORAPny OF ASIA MtSOIt 



On tlio vrholo, then, tlie prolmbiHty \g tiiat FitDisoewas the bishoprio 
of the district now called Djihan-beg-li, ami tliat its territorjr waa 
conteniiinoiiH with Uini of Paeliilft-Vmnopolie on the east and Amorion 
on tbo west, nnA th^t it r<vftclie<1 to the regio Ortciitena, tho SftDgariOB 
and Aphrazuin oii tliQ Dortti. This gi^'os an enormous stretch of vary 
spaisely inhahitcd connfr^; hut no douht the territory of Amorion 
Ktretchud fiir away t« tlio nouth nnil cast of the acttinl oity. Con- 
siderable rcinainH ooour at Tchcltik, but I xbould ^irefer to oonnect 
Toheltilc with Amorion and to place Petinessos farther east. 

15. Trikohu in raontionecl by Ptolemy. iin(t oconrs in tho Poutingcr 
Tfthle Iwtwecii Miilaion and PcBwiims. It ifi an old observation th&t Iha 
distances pla«o it nt Kaiina7." It ia not oerlntn whether Trikomia is n 
Greojwd foiTa of Trolcnaila, or whether throe villages of the TroknadeB 
were actnally iiiiited in one slate (i>eo my " Cities and Bibhoprics of 
l*lirj-gTa," part ii., S xcv,). The Ilcgio Trocnadcnisiuni was originally 
in Iloman Asia and ByKantino Fbrygia, and was, doubtless, transferred 
to Galatia, along with OrkiBtniJ, between 38G and 395. 

16. OBKieTos. Tlio sitit, iliecovcrtd by Pocouke, in at Alikel Ysils. 
Alokiaii is tho name giTfln hy Pooocko and Mordtuiann, and it is under- 
Btflod, thongh not commonly used, by the people of the district. It wan 
pnit of the dioce»i8 Aniana in A^n. 331. f and niuBf. tberefoi'e, have 
Iwlnnged to P!iryKl«. In a.d. 451 it was in (ialiitin SahitariB. There 
can be little doubt that it waa trsinsferred fr&m I'hrygia to iJie new 
prtmnoe of Qalatia Salntaris at ita formation, probably aboat 
38^-95 A.l>. (See Amokiox.) 

Tho torritory of Orkislos extended to the cnetum skirts of the 
Plirygian monntaine. A« inscription fonnd at Baghlije, the audcot 
Petarft, Rhows that it wns in the temtory of Orkistos, iinlose the stone 
tiaa been carried : ©eok- Krl/i^oSoi' 'OpKKmp'uH' o l^/io^ k4i j) ytpovai'a 
(Athon. MitthelU 1899, p. 01). 

The natno "Orkietoa" does not occur in niei-oclec, though uU tho 
Notitite mention it as a bishopric, and it was devittod to tho rank of a 
city in A.o. 331. The name in Hieroclo* which seems to correHpond to 
it is 'PcytfiovpiKLov, i.C. 'Prycic AvptKun: In this uauie av is lo bo taken 

YoniuluT ("Johiu') 11 the and«Dt Yaucla. Ayaualuk luolc Die pliioe of Ejiheue, 
vlijoli was itirly iic«i>rti:il : AyMwluk is 'Aytov 9io>iiyau, frr-m the gri-at clinreb of B. 
Jnhn, built by JuEtiivian, nnd not 'Ayia* Aoim, sm Xt. Wo«J, followed hy Pr«f. C. 
HinchfclJ, tliiuks. 

* RalmdK caotiot, ae ie unially saSd, lie a enrriTnl of the old name Trikomin; 
becAuno (1) Trikomia was not tiie populor tmme. 1)iit TmknaileB: (2)Kaimaz ia a gool 
Turkisli mtroe, orcorring (ilacwhere : it raen-nm " it doea not «iip." Nnmca of ttiie alasa 
«iv found ocoMJottnlty : f,ff., El-vcmoz, " he iloc^a not eat ttrili ; " fJnlduk, " wc haro 
ftraa^." 

t Compare the gretil inBcriplIon. tbc Clmrlci of Orkiitos. ivliIoU may uow be read 
more cort«ctly in STiinn, 'Foatn juris fiomimi,' or in n pnpcr by Mommeea ia 
■HcniiM,' 1W7, p. 317, nnd nhioH will hooh appear na No. t>^T in the Stippiomont to 

o.i.L.,m. 



H.— GAUHA SAMTTAlirS. 



239 



SB arcndoriiigof o; nnd t iii inscrtccL Ijotweon twoconsonnntf*. Tbeniitno 
in thou «quivnleat to 'Pcycuf "OpKt«v, i.e. " the re^on oF the tribe Qrkai." 

17. Okkoi. The Orltaorkoi nro mentioned t'lrec timeH by fjtivbo 
(pp. 567, 56S, 576) as inlmbiting the vact treeloss plains oii tlio casttm 
frontaor of Fhrygia. The rcforeuco in p. 5G8 neeiiiM to place tbem north 
of PitnisoB, and i\it\l in p. 57C iioiitli of Fc«»iiiiis, wliilc thnt in p. £67 
implicB that tliey aro fcotwrtcri the Galatlan TvktoHagea and I^rygin. 
The great plaina extending along the right hniik of the S.-ingftri(i« from 
tU source aro tbu locnlity indicAted hy tbeso rcfcTunoiti. Xow, (he nanio 
Orlcoorkui, if tbo form in corroot, ie a reduplication ; and vitbiu the 
district whoTO Stmbo plaooa tliem, ii the city Orfc-ijrto-*, 'which is 
obvioiuly a sort of mperlativo of the tribal uame. Itistead of Orkiiitos 
HioroolM givcH 'PtytpuivptKiov, i.e. 'p€ytuir 'OpKioy. Tn tho north of the 
oottntry of tbo Orfcoi or Orkaorkoi, at the sctirco of tbo tjanpi&rios, I hare 
proTod that thero was situatctl a bit^hopric, Kaborkiuii, i.f. Kaou-6fiK-u>-r, 
which proliably ooutains the same tribal name with a prefixed word.* 
Thiu! our invoBtigniion Wings t«^i?thcr on the map thc*c throo words, 
oconrring in such different periods of htstoiy and with 8«ch slight topo- 
graphical indicaliunii, and when they are hronght tcgtither they aro 
found to contain tbu saino tribul iiunio. 

Tlie groat inBcriptioii, the Charter nf Orkistos, menttODs that tho 
town had once l>c6n a station (^manaio) where four ronds mot, but that 
recently tbceo ruails had sunk iDto decay. At tho time, AJk. S."}], it ig 
qiute true that tlic ul<l nomaii rond-B^'Hlem wns in a state of trandtion. 
Koads leading to CoiiBtantinopto wcro now taking the place of roads 
leading to Rome. 

Tho coincidence bctweon tbo words of the ioscription and tho known 
facts of history is so striking that we mus-t accept the ooRcltnlon that 
the pwiUeii of Orkistos was more important under tbo Koman system of 
roads than nndcr the Ityzjintine syiitcm. But it soems difficult to accept 
tho account which tlie Orki*teni give of the former imporlanoo of thoir 
towu except after large allowance for exaggeration duo to local 
patriotitnn ; for most of tho oTidonco accessible to xus tends to show tlint 
no great roads of tho Roman period oould go by way of Qrkistos. It is 
quite clear that no road mentioned in the Peiitinger Table pnsHCd 
through OrkistoK. The only routes which naturally pae« through 
Orkistos are (L) a route from Pes«inus straight to the west like Ibo 
*' Boyal Koad"; (2) a route from Amorion northwarda tbrongh tho 
Tmknades (Esimaz) to Midaion and Bilbynia or JuUopolis and Papbla- 
gouia. Neither of these is very important, bat they seem to be meant 
in the petition of tho Orkistcni, in which the four roads wore 
enumerated, but which is now imperfect. Thr^ are meationod in tho 
]>art that remnlns to ns: — 

* It hu men oeeurmd to tna Ihst OPKAOPKOI in Stmho » a Mirnptlnn of 
KAOTOPKOt. Oompare aUo my "Oitip* atid DuhopTici at PliTygiA," U. $ Ixsiv. 



230 



A SKRTCH OF THE HISTOBICAL GEOOEAl'HY Of ASIA MIKOB. 



(ti) Tlio )x>«(1 to PeesiniK, xxt. miles. T)iie is an ovorH)«tiniate, for 
tlic moflem track can hnr«lly he more tliaa 25 iuib». The only wny in 
^rliicb tliO distauoe xxx. could be umdo up U Uiut tho roud mado » 
<1c'toiir to a bridge ever tlio river. This kridgo mut-t have certainly 
been on the ilirect road butwoen Pesainus and Ainorion. which is a for 
Miorw iiii|iortant route. 

(6) Tlio roftd to "oivitM (litftnorum SXJI. mllos: " the fii*t 

]<^ttcra of the oamo aio luet, but Hommsana reetoration [Mid]uituioriini 
BOfinB to l<e very prolsuble, although (I) Mlduion i» very niiich niciixi 
than 30 mik-H I'ruiii OrkiGtoH; ('J) tbo oi-dor of emimoration aeema to 
re<}uiro horo n road to the snuth-east, betwt^en tho Possiiiutt road and tliw 
A morion road. 

(c) The roud to Aniorion. 

There cau be littl« doubt that the fourth road Iml to Ntkolaw. 

It in clear that tbc route Feaainuit-OTlciKtos-Kiikolei* eoiTMpoadB 
ow tie wIioIr to tlie "Royal Uoad," and that tlio route AmorioD- 
Orkiato9-[Trikoiiiitt-]-M.idftimii is tlio other of tbe only two roiito*. 
wkicL, as I tavo said, can pnaa thi'ougli OrkistoB. It iif, on the wiiolf, 
trua that these roiiten lead in a westorly and Bonth-werterly direction. 
Hiid thcFL-forL- tln;y «re more uucuiimgvd by the set of trade to EpheauB 
and Itoinn than to Conatautinoplo. 

"We miwt, then, accopt the evidence of th* iuHcription that theao two 
roads wore cwnBidorable tradv-routoe under the Koman empire, even 
althougli no otlitT «>videtice coufijnis their cxiatpnce. But I think that 
n milcetonc, whicli was long a puzxle to mo, bo long as I accepted the 
Pou linger Table aa a fair picture of the Koman road-ayetom, beoomu 
intelligililo as Rnon as we ucoept the load PeKHiniut'OrkiatOH-Xukoleiit 
an a Roman road. In '(J. 1. L.,' iii, Supplcm, No, 7160, a mlleHtona will 
eburtly b« pubUahed which I copied in 1884; it in in a c«meter^* 
1 J miles S.W, of Altyntaeh. It gives tho number A Ei i-C. 35, and th«ro 
Hfieniti no poiiGibility of andoretsnditig this (.-xcopt aa the distance from 
Akmotiia. But a mad from Akmunia to Altyntanh cannot i-nd there; 
it niuat go on over the Phrygian uic»unt&ius tvwardB thv east, and 
would finally r»Hc]i Orkistos and PeesimiH. 

18. Ajiorios : the site near tho villaga Ham za Hadji was proved by' 
Hamilton.* Amorion was in the Kotuan Proviuoo of Aaia, aud at ono 
time took tlio namo Vij^aania. Dnring tbo fourth century it mustliave 
boon part of Phrygis, for it oould not have been included in Qalatia 
when Orkisfcjs was in Phrygia. Between 380 aud 305 1 tbt'nsforw it 
uuet have been trauafcrrcd uluiig ^ith Truknados, ElanooH and Oikistoa 
to form tho newly create^ province Galatia Salutaris. 



* Tlio fliun strelobiiig In the out U utill et^\fA Hadji Omu Ova, wliiob it perbapt n 
raninEsconcv of AiDDiioa, llmuiltun culli llio now (|uitc'<!on«ito:d aito llorgnu Xalo; uo 
nuDBrxccpt Knli: niu knowu in ud)' uf tliv surrmiiiliug VLiln^i-ra tci iiliom I Inlkod. 

t %'liea Tlii.<odi>8in& madv the new prorinoo Oalalla I£.. tax p. 221. 



to^-(lAI.JlTIA SALUTARISL 



23L 



In the fe«bIo parudy of tho fino sy»tom of dofonco organiiH!<l hy tlie 
uldcr Byzautiiio oiiiiKTont, wUklt waa kei)t up in the eleventh century, 
the difitriot betweou Amorion and tlio Saiigftriue was dignifitrd with the 
name of the "Theme CapjuducU." ThU Theme and thai of Khomit 
tvcre, tinder Alcxioti RumiieiiuK, eiitniBtvd tu n loparohfiB llt^urtzes 
(Anno, I., 171) ; and tlio country toward* the Saogftrioa wft« under hia 
government (Anna, II., 32.'>, 327), 

P]iiik«lt^t» api>eH.i'8 to have lieen n name applied to t]ie wide plain 
east of Amonoii: tho only rofercuDo to it w: auru r^r nayHuActcu'. . . . 
imr^^jiTQV TovTO n<&ioi', ru 'AfUtfiiu W|><Kr«yyi(*, Loo Diac., p. 170. But 
CedreauD (II,, p. 431), doecriliiiig the same liattU', saya : ij ilayniktuivtSiaw 
di-arcTTTrt^nVof rt kui iirr^arui', (jfj^ioTa jrov tov vurafiaZ 'WvtK «(ijj«h«*. 
Byzautiae writers ofteu apeak ao loumsly tli»t it ia diQicult to decide in 
thie c&se, 'but Leo Dlaconns describes the events of this period with, 
infinitely greater topogrnphioal accuiary than OedreniiR, and is to lie 
pniforrcd in this cnae. Moreover ZonuTiui also confirms Loo, luij'iug that 
I bo battle Uxtk place near Amorion. 

Amorion wag fortifieil in tho reign of Zeno (474-91; Codrcn. I^ 
OlSj. It had an eventful hiMtory during the Anih warn. It was 
captured a.d, (ififi hy the UaracciiM under Yczid, and rooaptured bj* 
Andreas, general of the Emperor OonxtunB in tho same jear (Cedrcn., 
I., 763, Theophan., S.'il). It waa again besieged unsueeemfiilly by tho 
Saracens in A.i>. 716, 77H, and 789.* In ihe first Hioge it was sHV«d by 
the vigour of Ijco the laauriuu, aftorwards ettiporor, who furtifiod it no 
Btningly that it waa able tx> roeiat tho Ambn for a long tiiiis. But it 
WM captured by tho SaraoeiiB, \.o. 838. through tho treaeherj- of a 
citizon, aud the tuoMt iiplendid c-ily of the Eiistf wah r^aixd to nshea. 

Monaaterien at Ainoriou are mentioned at tho Second Nioene Counoi], 
767 A.D. : BiuriAios fioea^in rov 'A^iap(av t^ iy!a% ii<tnvKai\ and 0«u&upK 

Amoiiun became a very important eity under the Icuuoclaat 
l!mporui» in the eighth century, and was infamotia among the orthodox 
fur if« beresieB-t It was thiecdnyo' joiirtioy from Uorylaton (Cwlrm.. II., 
132J. 

19. Lalamdo^i -vras a. district of Amorion, an is pmvod by tho two 
inscriptiona wbiuh I hare publiahed in the ' Bevue dea I'^tudes (ffecqueit.* 
1889. p. 2l. 1 have tbeie eatabliahed the probubilitj- timt Amorion waa 
d)vid(»l iutj a aerlea of loott tnl>CB (^W), and that the diotrict 
lAlandoB Itelongwl to the tribe of Zeus (*iAij AiJt). Tho myttio 



■ Throplutnea. 3S0. 4.'>2, 470. 

t i; tar J^vr tiattptnvrift (Codrciu, II., p. 137). 

X 'lavialir 5al 'ASiyyii'tfr «■) iftpiii' i.ft&i* rA^flot /xir^ai rai' XP^"'"' '7>r*T0iiitftrai- 
Kti Tit Bl iliptatt ix tSi i\Ai(A<»- fcvtrmfni K«i iainitoZs ijuAi'if iti^irrt (Ctilrwn , 11,. 
p. 69). On Kadoxiiii, liisluip of Aranrinn iinilrr T;on tti« Arnicalaii (SIS-SO .«.[>.), mfd 
• Acl. ftttict.' Hnifh 8, p. 7M. 

vot. »-.••• ' It 



SS2 A 5KCTC1I OV THE HISTORICAL OEOCRAniY OF ASIA MISOH. 



wonbip of Mitbi'&H flonriiihed horo, nccordicg to an iiiBcription, aa early 
«A the first ccHtHiy nftor Christ. 

20. AiJUs'Wii Flumes, mentioned hy Livy, XXXVIII. 17. i» 
probably, ne I have eliown in the saric pUce, to "be corrected LiUuid] 
rjiiiuou. BJit th« uld correlation "Alauilri fLiiites" In Livy, XXXTIII. IS, 
u definitely tfl be rejected ; the MSS. read " Mandri fontctn." an^ a serien 
of funutaiuB, D«ar a village still called Slandro, exiat on tho route of 
JIaolius, ■which I.ivy is JeBcriViag'. 

At Bomo unknown tirao later than tli© Council of Constantinoplo 
(!□ TruUo) in 1)92 a.i>., and earlier tbaii tlio second Council of Nikaia in 
787 A.n^ Aiuorion vr&s nuseil tu tlio rank uf uu tudvpi-ndcnt blshojiric 
(a JTi:iK('<^<iA(fs), and ceaaed to be subject to tho mdiropolitan of PeAuuus, or 
rather of JuBtiitiaiiopolis. In the later Ao/ffiie Aniorion «p|>ear8 a» 
metropoliii of a dintrict carred out of I'hr^gia Salutaris, Pisidia and 
Galatia, the blahuprioft in which uro given tut 



Notitin I„ 






M<Aitia UI. 



rf 'A)ufl«v tpvyiaf 
a', i 4iAnj>i)Aiaif . 

y. i KAwioii 
S'. i Tlii\vfi6T»v . 
«', i ILtfo!a>, . 



Notitk X. 



(1^ 'AfiarpSif 'S'l 

i KkaB4ov . 
i naKvffirev 



VII.,V11L>II. 



Galiilia Siiluttiris. 

riiirljn. 

Pliryinn RalutiuiN. 
Kkinot Onlatu Salnluia. 
I'lirygiii iiialutoris. 
Nat tiM>atim«d. 



ThiM now dietrict vmu forinod nudor Anionun hh motropolis 
a oonindcrabk time after Aiuorion was luuik^ atitoh^iltalvay for the 
order «f vaiimeratioii at Concil. Nicacn. If. (a.h. 787) Hbowa cltxirly 
that Ainoriou was independent, but that the bi8li<.>prios aft^rwordft 
subject lo it were BtUl iu their original coimaction, Tho refcroneo U> 
tho digoily of Aiuorion in 8 j8 xs>. is iiidiTisive as to it« exact potiition, 
vrhethei' a» aiTOK«^oAoi or as metropolis with subject biKhoprica. In 
that year the Ptttiiar(;h Thoiius eect the archbishops of Aiuorion aod 
Kliouai as envoys to Rome, dignifying the latter for the first titno wltb 
the title of archbishop* : this implies that Amorion was already an 
ftrob bishopric. Khonui and Aniuriuu ure both uietropvlcia in the later 
Notitiu, but not in the earlier, vin, Vli., Till., ix. 

In the aVive list, Philoiuelion (Ak Sheher), Dokimion (Itchja Kara 
nisar). and Polybotos (Boluwodun, as Leake detected) ate well known, 
and Iheir sitnation makes it plain that, as in several other cases, the 
wbule sot of biehoprica fotiaod a well-marlied district along tho road* 
leading from Amorion to tho Bouth and tbe west. ThiM conBideratiun la 
inipuiUtntin dutfii'mining the situation of the two remaining biiihoprics, 
Pifitiia and Klaneosi 

■ ' Vie. S, Iguatii," in Mansi, ■ Act, CoUflil." XV !„> 235, 



H,— QALATIA SALDTAllIS. 



233 



''^'ttU'IlBKA wan probably sitiiaU-d at I'irl-boy-Ii oq the road from 
Anorloa to Philomel ion, nhoxxt twelvo homv from tlio latUir ruid itix from 
the formor. Tho rnmaiiiii here am snflioient to mark it as a place 
Nufficieotly important to be tlie aeak of a Lixhop, and Ibi sitiiHtion on tlie 
road belwtdi Pliiloroolion and Ataonoii iiroToa that it mmt biiloDg to 
the same looil group of bifthopricfl. Tbia IftRt oonBidcration ahows that 
my former view vaH wrong, and that ruliuoxEOo utiiiiot Im plaoetl here. 
Accordiiig to my former inew Piuiia was plaoed at Bayat between 
ZkAimion and Amorion. but cluacr study hIiows that Klaneoa -vae iu all 
probability situated at Bayat. 

22. KUANEf*.? (ufttially KXiiytot*) i» plaofid by Hioroclea botwccu 
Amorion and Troknades. This order points to a aitQation north, north- 
west, or iiovtb-cutit of Amurioii, and agrooti admirably witb u aituatiou 
on thd rood from Amorion to Dakimion. On this road there are tvo 
places where a bishopric might be plaood — at tiennio, and at Bayat. 
Tho latter place, at the crossing of tht^i road with the important poat- 
road ConstAntiuople-DorylaioD- Ikon ion, is in all probnhilitj iha situ oF 
KIau«oe. Oeumft ie a place of much leu oorkSfn^nenco, and the lUBcnp- 
tions that are fottud there have probably been bnmght from Amorion, 
thoagh, being on an important road, it was always a Tillage of aoma 
oonacqnenoe, and a coarael^'-built mediBeval min, perha(>« of a chnrch, 
Btaoda half an hour wmt of it The topography of the Baynt rall«y 
mnat detain us a liltle. 

2i). Krorka is proved in n former paper to be the nam* of tho fioo 
old 'Ihirkrab fortreaa about two miloa wust of BayaUf It is mentioned 
hy Anna Comnoua fXV., vol. n., p. S'M) on the inarch of Alcsiuii by 
Dorylnion to Thilonitilion. Ko fulloweil tho ivgiilur and uiimi&Lakable 
poat^road by Banlakchi, Khoarer Paaha Khan, aud Bayat. After Dorj'- 
laion, Saiitabims is tho next place uieiitioned on hitt route. It must bo 
Mther KhoBrev Pasha Klian or Bardakohi : the only other place on the 
joad is Seidi Glmxi, tho nnoicnt Nakoleia. There is no diatinct proof 
which of tbeae two places v/mh Santabnria, but as thnt place waa near 
Nakoltia, and as Kakkabokoiue was at Khoarev Paaha Khan, I have 
])laoed SantaharU at Bardakcbi. 

* It Li •riiDeliinci accented KAort^, an>l hibdj other Tari«li<M>ccoiir, tlio nioit rcmaik- 
nble of wblcb Ea Kxd->{, a (bnn winch {irarea tbnt uoae of Lliu Crcdc iptJIinga ropreat'Dt 
the tiuL> chanuitcr of the nasw. 

t ** Prjrmiienm and M«tn)]K>lu " b the ' MittlieilnngEii Atlien.,* I8f>{. I ptn gUi] to 
Vs a1>le td point to the idrntill«Atinnii of Ki^Ima, Atrroc^nA, «.n.l AvkmrUijioIlii, n« c<>n- 
dvuivclj' pnxTcd, in (ht> tajrUnt nlt<.-ini>t to ductiwitliot<Mji]iIiorilcd|)mblci]ic>rPlm£iaii 
topographjr. mritltui wlnii I biul litlk' kiiiiwlcd{;u or llie ciianlr]', and wfia impHol bj a 
tjtlwo >d«a of tho tine nf the iti<i<]4. by it fil*e rcwling of tlie difttonce of PrytuiiMKi on 
a milMtono^ aiid hj tho fnlw sitiiiiUini [1n1]KkI(^l by ptuviriu!! HhnlAn for l,fJaa. Tlte 
accoant giNii in that [Wpct »f the mnrcb and retiun ofAl^iiaA awnu (o mo atJU tube 
<lii)t<- c«rrv<ct. TIm' lin« vt nwii-L i< •jjoin r?rerK<l ia, uid Anpona ami oihci {lUcn 
flicd, in my • tit and BLili. of Phrvgift." Tart II., f 40. 

R 2 



S88 A S££TCa OS THE UISTOJUCAL OCOOfiAPBY OF ISIA UINOU. 

Fasbfi Khftn, and tlierufore must be at Ilardalcclii, wlutre tliere are great 
remauiH. Edruu gives tlie route frum Amonou n»^ 

IS milGft to village of fish, and 2 to river . . . . = 17 

12 „ to Famlj =12 

US „ toCalahi-el-Ohalje (ofthoForcBt) . . . = 15 

12 „ to Jow'a Port, and 18 to SeuJabori . . . = 30 

30 „ to Merdj djunift el Melik Baderwana . . . = 30 

6 „ to (Jlmrolwli, and 3 lu Cburohi-s of llie King = 8 ' 

25 „ to Mulitwwen (Bilejik) ^25 

15 „ to El'Agradb, and lo to Mcliidjeiia . . . = 30 

5 „ to King's Stable = 5 

30 „ to El A'bra =30 

Si „ to EL KLalidj =24 

Total 220 

Many of these names ar« iincortaiu. but the inuto appeani to be one 
fiom tho Canal (ol Kliulidj), ue. the Bosphoru^, to Amorloo by u 
circuitoHR routu through Melugena (Mcladjcna), Baailika, Dorylaion, and 
Santaburis. T}i>--uce it goes to Amorion by a zigieag roulu, perhaps 
through Sivri llisar, and uciohh tho iSaugerios (river of ItBh). Jow'a 
Fort may be Tchiftelor : Tchifut moaoe a Jew, Tchifbo, a pair. * 
Blordj djamii would then be Doryluiun. CharchcB of the King would 
bo Anua Comuona'a Basllika, The paatui^o in wbloh Atinn meutitimi 
Basilika and Alethina (vol. II., p. 231 ft.) liatt been discussed (Q 20). 
The oniiHaiou of Xiliaia befurc Bl A'bra is rDmarkablo : £1 A'bra must 
be at the ferry from Eibotoe to Aigtalos, 

26. PoiMASEKON is mentioned as a place on fhc road from Saiitaboris 
to Atnorion. Stypeiotce occu])iod it when detached towards Amorion, a« 
was desoribcd abuvo under Eeilrea. No other reference ocuurs to tho 
place, but the text is ckar. It is doubtful whether it was iu Byzautiufl 
I^rygin or in (iaintia Salutarin. Tho name is intei-estiiig, il& eon- 
Ptitnting anothwr link between cutitral Phrygia and Hellespontine 
Phrygia. The town of Poiraanenon (now Maiiiyas) in My&ia ia well 
known. 

27. Pet^ihx IB proved to have been at Baghlije by an ineoiiption, 
which I have publidherl in my ' Cities and BifihopricB of Phrygia," II., 
5 Lxx. It was probtibly actually a. village in the tcrriti>ry of OrkistOH, 
aooording to an jnecription found in the viUaj^c, a dodLi;atIoa to Com- 
tnodiiB by Ihv Orkhftt^nui (hl'o No. I()). 

28. Aiinoii'nii.A in mentioned only in Ptgletay and in the P«utinger 
Table. Tho latter gives it twice, on the road botweon Amorion and 

* Fntiitj HiiTi in IVtsiiiiiK, iiixl ('HLn}<i-cl-(iIiat>c tho tlrou^ ci^allu (Kuii?) of Sivrl 
HiMu. Juubvrt laudbcKiun^iu taking AjfindJi as Aomto. which ia ia ijuitii a dlffuraat 
dlrecticn. 8e« Addmitlit. 



U.-aALATU SALUTAOIS, 



m 



pMuntifi, and on the road Amorion to Archdais- One, at Imgl, of these 
positionH muet be wrong, fur these two roads go froin Amoriua in <imt« 
different directions. Tlie error must arise from bad drawing of the linos 
rcproecntiug the roads, a froqucnt caiiM uf error tn the TaliK;.* I*t»- 
leniy'ti authority is iu thia case valuable; for hU Uats, thuugli in many 
roBpects bad, aro guuerally no con-vet m assigning tlie cities to the 
Ttomnii proviiiceA, aa to hIiow that ho used au excellent authority, [>cihaps 
au official list of the ciliuii of each pioviuee. AbroatoU ie iu tlic province 
of Asia, and it ia nut ]Hiiwibl(] tu bring it into tlio iiruviitov of jVsia 
except hy phioiiij^ it between Aniorion and Fcsudub ou the right side of 
the Sangaiioa. The IoUlI distuneo from Amoriua to rvesiuus is nboui 
thirty Boman miles, and I should expect to 6ud Abroetola either on the 
left bank of tho fine slream that men at Itunar Ga&lii, two or thrt^e miles 
eaatof Amarioii (ri niilos from Amoriun, and xxiv from PessiuuH, ns id 
the Table), or on the right bank of tho Sangarios (xx initcs from 
Anioriou, Si from X'eAsinuaJ. I consider the foraujr position more 
probable. 



J. B0UX!1 BOAM IK GdlLlTIA AltO KoIITHKR:^ FitRVOU. 

I. Tho Koad From Dorj-laton to Ankyra is given in tho ADlonine 
Itineraiy as ; — 

BoryUiou xxx Arcolalo xx Germa xxivl- A'iuda xxxfi Papira 
XXVII Aucyra. 

Hodern views as to tha eoursu of this road havealways been distorted 
by a fulso idea, started by Leuke, as to the site oftierma. It la supposed 
that Genua still retains its name as Yunuo or Y&rooio, and that tlie 
r<Mul mokes a detour to the sotttb iu order to pass through it. Itat for 
this nusap prehension, no doubt could exist in the mind of any petsoa 
as to the niilural course of this road: it must dosooud tho Tembria 
(rotsiik Su) to the SangarioH, crosa tbe SAngarios, and then go otmtght 
to Ankyra, passing a little to tbe nurtb of UasrL This h both tho 
vasitjst aiid tliv shortest route. 

Now, there is no cTidciico tj place Qcrtua at Yfinne, Tor the n>- 
eemblanoo of the naniea is purely aooidental. Yiirme is a Turkish 
viUag« name, wbteh 1 have several tiraos fonnd elsewhere, and there 

* To avoid an argument wliich U likely to be advanced S^Jtut uc, I uiny say tlint ftt 
fimt 1 triod tn nmndtc tlic In" ponilEcm.i lijr nipfnaing that n rnul went ttom Aiuorioii la 
Aichuluu uluDg Uu! mst cla(^t uf Ukii Tiitla. niiil thjtt at tJici imint nlicte UiisntodpSMed 
lUL-oroBl to Pcwiniu it wim jnltiLil bjr t\ rcoil »«ni Pcuinui, aud Itut AbnMtoU wmt 11m 
]i>iiit uf juiicliuu. Wvrv tliia Tua<] o rc'il uiw, it «'od1>] yartlj i\'«oucile Ibo pcnOoaa kItcs 
to Alirmtola on tltc Toblo. I>ut I tiail tn ritc U[i Uib rfew nboo I vUtcd tha rauulnr 
tut luul naoiii o( Aiivirioii. In tlu: llnri {ilsce tlie read rrma Amonon b> AntbelaiB la an 
importaiit rout(> bulli now and iu uncioul time, it pa«i<e along the vraslcva skirk of tlu 
Ball Doort : und ia tho iMoml plove r(ol«iii;r *> deoiniTi for be pleoM Abrostola la 
Phrygia and in t)i« Itoiiuia Fiovincn Amo. 

I Tho iiailiiij! XXXIt. nlao occiiri f.* XXIV. iu tku ItJiw-rary, pp. 201. 202. 



236 



A SKLTCH OF TUK HKTOKJCAI. Or.OfiRAPnY UK ASIA MINOB. 



i« no rooBOH to tliink thlit tto mwloni wonl is a sarvival of the oW 
name Gonna. 

The remains at Yiiiiite ura not thoiie tif n Homau Culoum, aa G«nna 
■was, hilt of a Chrutian city of tho early Byzantine type* On tho 
other huDid, lUo Laliii iiiecripttons foimd ui Masut Kuui on th« lowor 
Tcmhriu U<ev& no iloabt thut Germii was situntod in that ueighbourlio>:)d 
('C. I. L.,' III.. 28-t-C): they give the Ijalin name of (.'olonia .Tnlia 
Angntftiv Fulix, known ftleo from coins. Moreovur, other epigraph ic 
evidcnco aa to tho course of tho road has hftcii discororwl at TBiioun 
points, nnd probably only the fact that tho mdlem roads follow dif- 
feront routes haa prcventL-d th« dtsottvery of innch further evidence. 
We already have : — 

(1) An iiiBOi-iption which I found at Bnsri, and which will bo 
piihliahod * C. I. L.,' III., Snpplomuiit, Mu. 6770. It in a dedication to 
Julius MaximiiR Ciwmr, a.d. 23'j-P, by the soldiers of a Itomau cohort, 
probatily a dutAchtiiCnl tttalionud at Baturi. A military elutton mubt be 
on a Itoman road : aitd sovernl other inscriptions ahow that Bftsri i» 
near an ancient site, which must clearly lie Viuda. 

(2) An inscription found on an ancient hridgo, iilxint throu hours wcet 
of Uolyk Koyunjj, ami pahliehod by mo, " lusor. do U fialatjo," in ' Bull. 
do Corresp. IleSluniqUD,' 1883, p. 22. It racordB the building of tho bridge 
by a bishop Faiil, probably him l)mt wax biahop of Ankyra in A.l>. 5TU. 

(3) A milcstono of Aiirclian, copied by IJnmaHzt^wski five hours 
weet of Anguru on th« road to Sivri Hiwiir (' C. 1. L.,' IIJ., Suppluiit.t 
No. 61102;. 

(4) A inileatoue fuur hours west of Angora (' C. I. L.,' Til., 317). 

(5) A luileatoDO one hour weat uf Augoni (' ('. 1. L.,' III., fil6). 
Tho situiition of Papira is still unknown: it ia to be looked for id 

the country near Balyk Koj-unji. 

TliB diatauce from tlio point whoru I suppoee Gerina to be ^near 
Sbflnt Keui, but perh&pa lower down tho river) to Dorybuon ia more 
than fifty mU««. But the road must pass through Midaioa (see below), 
and there can thorefure be no doubt that one station is omitted, 
and that the road mnst he restored on tbe authority of the Feutinger 
Table as— 

w 

Dorylaion xviii Midaion xxx Akklluiou xx Genna XXIV ViucU 
(Vindia) xxxii Papim xxvir Ankyra. 

The dietanoo from Germa to AufejTa ia hero too great. There tmiBt 
be eOQie error in the nntnbers, but it U uuoartain where tbe correction 
Bhonld he made. If one of the nuinbera bo diminished by X. the 
result wxnild be nearly correct, for the huiu of distances station to 



' AiDCQi; tl)D mine i.t the Wt pKw:rTc.-<l fw^fttin or nn cnrly eimrelt tbiit I Iiutc »ccn 
In Alfa Minor. Nuuu uC llic iiii9cri{itluiiB tae Lutiti, and many na a( iho BjzautUu: 
poriixL 



j.-^OMAN eojtns m oalatu and piirvgu. 

ttatiou 18 of coutto giieater than the ilireot mflasurement given oil tho 
mUeetaneH fiinn Gernift U« Ankyru, wliicli wu» apparently- nbont iJtiit. 

II. TIiu road fruni FcaHmus to Aiikyn. is given in tho Aatoniuo 
Itinerary an ; — 

Feaeinas xn Q«nDA sutu Vicda, &o. m before. 

The [irevioiiJ! expoeition shows whnt must havQ been the coarse of 
this roud: it went oortb from PiiSHitLus (Bal& ITissar) tu GL-rma uii th« 
lower ooaree of tha Teiubriu. A uiilentone has been proncrveiJ from 
tho road !'e8binu9-Gvrma. It was copied at Miilk by iramilton ; uid 
I have in vain, in 1883, soHrcbed through the village for it As the 
road hA8 now I<eeii determiiHjil, th« jio«itioti of this stone i» (jnitn 
uuturul, hut avcorditig to tfav old viow as to tho eito of Gcroio, its 
position is (^aitti in«xpiioablo. It ia LXS.1. miles from Ankyra, giving 
the distance Ank}-ra4>«riua alwut LXI. to LXV,, which iit about the 
actual distaaco from a point near tho mouth of tho Tt-mhris lo 
Ankjia. 

III. The rond from Deiylaion to PeeeinuB ia given in tho Pontiogor 
Table as— 

Dorylaion xxrui Miduios xxviui Trioomia xit PeBBinus. 

Coins of Midaion show that it was sitnatcd on tho rivor fembria 
(PoFBuk Su). The remaius ut Karodja Eyuk on the south bank of the 
riwr, about eighteen miles from Durylaion, must be thow! «f Hidaiou.* 
and the number in the Table miiat be diininiehcd by x. Triootnia ia 
apparently to be identified irith Kainauz, which wae th« chief oontrc oF 
tho tribo Trokoade8 (' C. I. L.,' III. SuppLam., Vo. 6907) ; and the On<ok 
name TrikAmia was jirobably applied to it as a union of threo villages.! 
The distatioee from ICaimiu to BaU HiatHtr and to liarudja Eyuk oro 
correctly giwn in the Table. 

A mere cross-road from Midaion to PeeHtnuii would be too uuijii- 
portant to find a place iu the T»ht«. There tuiii be no doubt that this 
is only a part of a groat through route, which ia rightly given in tho 
Table BB loading to Arohelais Coloaia. The rcet of the stations havo 
been diHCUHsed under L/knonia. Tlie roads in the Peutinger Table 
were originally drawn by one vfho thought of all roads as radiating 
from ConBtautinoplu. and In this caac bo had in his mind a rood loading 
from Coufltan<inople by Dorylaion, FessinTia and Archelais to the 
Cilician Gates. Siiiiilatly he had in hiti miuil anutlter read by Dor,vlsion, 
Amorieu, Laodioen Cumbueta, to Ikonion and tbo south coast; but in 
both cnaes the lino is brokon in the oopy that remains to ns as the 
Peutinger Table. 



■ 'ClUoiandBbliopTli'tof PliryKtm'in* JoiirunI urHi?lti>uk- Studies,' I8S7.Stxs3.. 
where I Lave omiltoil U^ •tiiti> tlint tlio dUlaiiue xvui. in a cornL^tloti. 
t *at. unJ mah.,' ixvv. 



S-iO A SKETCU OF Tm. HlSTOtUCAL UEOOlCArilY UV AAIA UiKOB. 

IV. Tlio road ttom i\Q BoBiihoms to Aokjrnt in gi\i:a !ii our 
•nUiorilics ait i'oltoWH : — 



Ppotlnger TtbtF. 



AiiluiiInT lUiKTscy. 



J u iB^lwni IlIntTmrr. 



CooBtjiii linn p«]is 
OtIcMlonliL 



LivuKi xxxTtt 

NicoiiirdiiLXxni 
Eribnlo .. .. 
Niccft xxxai .. 



Tutonblo XL .. 
DafalH xxiii 
DtuJastana xt 



Kiiiis ("ilieic X 
l.iiEn&iivxxTni 

lUiiugo xxxriu 



[Aiicyrti] xxmii 



It^znnlio 

C«]coilmiiA nil .. .. 

Pautiriaxv ., .. 

LiVmn xxnn .. .. 

Nicometluxxii 

Llboixi 

Nici&xxiir .. .. 

Muulo OritntU xti .. 

'lottulu xxviii .. 



Dablts xxviti .. 

Ccnon Onllicniiuii xvili 
Dftbtulnnn xxi 



lulioiiolim xxn 

LngnnmBXXiv 

MuiIko xxiii . . .. 

Slaui-gonla xxmi .. 

Aiipvm xxiiti .. .. 



Unk-e'loiiiiuu 

UllUtiO NHMOtV vti. 

mniisio I'nndicU vii. 
tatiUllciF«iilAijiiia xnt. 

liinn>-io IiibiniL vtitt, 
inntAti') Hmuc Kir. 
Oivilad XlCOTTlMliii XIII. 

luul&tJaUvribnluDi x. 
man»if) Llbum xi- 
BiiitAtla Lliula XII. 
civi1ii« Niciu nil- 
iniiUili'} Behiiin) Tin. 
omuiin MI<to vii. 
muiuiiii ChiigMD VI. 
iijuLitio ThiitiHO X. 
muUtiij Tul4Li> mil. 
uiututiu l'rut(ini«i> xi. 
mututiu Ark'raiB sit. 
manaio Dnblm ti. 
trutniila L'cnilic VI. 
lliUtivtio Kiiii* X. 
iimii.ti" DiiiIailKiia vr, 
III1lIa.1.ii> TIIllll^ lIlllllTe VL 

muimiu MiliikXi, 
civitos ]iilio|iolui Till. 

mil U (to Hynoiipntamrm xiil 

nmmsio AB«niii«. xi 
UiuCntia li«ti)>im>.Tii VI. 
nwmlo Mnixnf x. 
muUtio Pnumon xii. 

tnutntio 0(inns<in pilidom xiii. 
dviMs AnHiim GnUtirt .... 



Ab I have never traveraod any part of the rooA, I cannot spoak about 
it m detail. .iVs far as Xikoiuedeia it follows tho direct rnad to the 
East tlirongli Piniilik. From Nikomedeia, instead of going straight 
on along the lake Sabaiidja to Geivc, tho road, makes a JOtuur to 
Nicffia. The reason probably i» that it was common to take ship 
to t.he const opposito Nikaia, land at IVaiiiistos, and talco tho land- 
roiiti! throngh Kikaia. Prohaljly tho two roniJs vtd Nikomcdiu aud 
vi'l Nikaia would meet at Goive, whioli may be auppofifid to be close to 
Tottaiou. 

ToTTAlos is an Important name. It appears in Ptolemy as ITo- 
Taowm-, obviously a fault for Taraoviov. Itierocles ha« 'PcytTurnmr, aud 
Tottaiou, Tataion, Tatoabioii occur indiscriminately in the eoclosiuDticul 
liata. The nanid thoroforo contains the sound of digaiama, which ia 
oommonly omitted iu Gr»ek writing, hut is soinetiaies given as ov or 



J.— ROHAN itOADS IK GALAHA AKI> PJUtVUIA. 



241 



jS.* The nnmfl is formed from u ooiunicm penunal namo TataH or 
Tottoe,Iiko:— 



Doryliiion 




from 


I DoTjrlas. 


Rotyaion 




»» 


Kotya. 


Eudui (for 


Kudooi) 


H 


Koflys. 


Otroia (OtiyaJ 


- It 


Otreua. 


Olrcns 




It 


OtreiiB. 


Auaia 




>l 


Anoa. 


Attaia 




t1 


AttCH. 


Akkihuon 




11 


AkylHH. 



Dablis in probably to be sought near Terftkli as indicated in 
Kiepert's old map. 

Baua^taxa was tho border totvn of Bitbynis and Galaiia, in tbe 
Latter prorinco. I'hc emperor Jovian died there in 364 A.l»,, whon 
marching towards Couslaiitinuplo along this ro(u].| Tbo Itiueraries 
agree about tbe bnuadaiioK l>e.twoon tbo provinces, but Itolemy places 
Julioijoliii, Laf^nnuia, and Daduttnnn, ua wLdl as Uubloia and Tatavion, 
in Bitliynia. Apparently, therefore, the bonndary of Galatia was 
nlterC'd when the iioa' arrange riioiit of the provinces, attributed to 
IMocletiau, caino inio cxiatoiiLc Ptolemy's apportionment of tliecitifts 
among thu lEonian pruviuooH ia in general far wore ootrevtf than tho 
poeitions which he assigns to the cities. 

The dinertjmney hotwei^n the nnthoritio« in regard to the uection 
Dabteix-Dailatftnuii is iirolxibly to ho I'xplaint^d hy the oiniiutton of a 
itatien in the Jcraaalera Itinerary botwocn FinoH and l>ftdaBtana. 

Jot.ropOLis waa certainly Bimatud hy the river § a little ■wvst of NalU 
Khan: it is described at greater length below. Twelve miloa ea^t of 
Juliupulis the roail croBBod tho river Siberia (Ilienia in PlinyJ 
Hycronpotamnm in the Jerusalem Itinerary), 'f lie village of Sykoa or 
Sylceuu wtut situated at the croxtiitig of tho river, and Justinian built a 
bridge over the stream (Procop. ' Aedif.,' V., 4). Theodnnw l^ykeota was 
tiom there in tho nixth century, t<on of u wuniau of loose character, 
who made a profit from tho travollen along tho road (Act. Saitct., 
April 22, p. 32). AnaataBiopoHs waa situated twxjlvo miles cA«t: of 
Sj'kea, nnd must therefore In a Byzantine name of Lagania, which 



* Bo Sftiinni or Acwvn liu Ihp rUinir Snanhcnaia in lomo eoclctinstical llsla. 

t AtnmUii-. XXV., 10, 12 : XXVL. ». i. Zdiimtia. III., », p. 17% nyM rit Uifvifai 
it- Aalamiiiint, relalnliig the old Bonmn tjivitjoii of nilhyDl& and CttliitluL. 

X Iic\]!iteA fiocptions ocinir: t4;>gnla«nx hu puU in Lj^ciu, but l.yoia and PnmplijrUft 
ffWO eao proTlucv, Stnlvpft Anliwhittae Iil> giro* tu OpjMdacioi mltlcd by *a 
antliorltr efolilor djito. 

i ItamnciMt aaoie is Scopu or ficoplmi. 

1 'Upii U a Ofeek fDrm, HJaptcd fkom tlie ttatiTe nnoie to give a void with a 
miataing. Tha ominion i*( an inltlat ir nad of n dlgaminii on aattirnl in Gnwlc 



242 



A SKKTCIt flP THF. HISTOFICAL OTOOBAPHY 09 ASIA MINOR. 



Mcnpica the saiuo poHitiua in the Itinenms.* The Peuiinger Tabid 
falHely initftrtii two stations 1>otweer) JuUopoliB and I^agnnin. 

Half-wBj between tlie rirer Sibcriti and Bei Bazar tho site uf 
I«gaota-AnastaHloiH}I!i* iiiu.->t bo luoked Tor. The Httle mulalio called 
Petobrog«, wbicU boars a (JaUic nanio like EccobrigB, AllobrOgeB or 
Allobrigofl, &c., boa now booomo the chief town of the district. Boy 
Buzar, unleits bett<.-r mnps prov(< LugHtiin to bo there. 

Mdizus was apparently 8itiiat«<l near whore the road croBaes the 
Emir Tohai. Maucgurdos, which is a more probable form than Malo- 
gardis, was in all probability sitnatod near Qirinduo about midway 
bettvoen Mai70« and Autjra; inBcriptions have been found there. It 
i« omitted in the Joruaakm Itinerary, where it should probably be 
inserted after Praemon. Lnkc Cetiaxie filiuuld be etwily found (»o« K 1). 
Thu distoacofl in this part of the road eoem too groat. GiriudoB is at 
most 20 miloK from Aukyra. Mizago in the I'entinger Table is the 
result of mixing itp Mnizo and ManegD[rdu] ; oompare OumitanaSBO 
mijed of Coropastto and Famueso. 

This road of course became far more important after CouBtantinople 
becaitte the capital of the eastern empire, and it is Btill a great trade- 
route. But even bcforo 330 its uxletcnce can he traced. As soon ss 
Niconiodia was made by Diocletian into one of the four capitals of 
the Human world and the seat of one of the four mlom, Uie road 
must immediately riae into gront importance. It la deflcribod in the 
Antonino Itinomrj-, which belongs to the jKiriod 300-ii30 Ji.u.f But itfl 
chief interest lien in ite being the natural land-ionte for pilgrims front 
Eurojiu to the Holy Land- The chcapeet way for western pilgrims to 
ruttch Jerugalum on foot wan by way of CutiHtatitiimpIe, then along a 
road of the Roman system l-o Nicomedia (or occatiionalty by ship to 
Nicecft), and thence through Ankym (Angoni.) and Tarsus. This road 
in in some rospeots the moat inti. resting of alL the lator roada of Asia 
Minor: it was csrafullly k«pt up, and the stations and halting-places 
continued to 1)o the same as they were in the time of Constantinc. Id 
the sixth century after Cliriat the publico regii cursus via is referred to 
(Act. S. Tlicoderi Sykwtae). 



K. Cities asi> Bishopbics of Qalatia Vaixx. 

It would perhaps have been a better arrangement to dieoues these 
cities along with thoee of Pontue, but there is also a certain conveoienco 
in keeping the two Gulatian provinces together. The basis of a topogra- 
phical discussion must as usual be sought in the Byzantine liets. 

* W«Moling haa oWrrMl this earK>ctl<r- 

t dnapDru- yrm/atio to I'orllicy nud Piuilcr'i uilitlou, II iji written fit>io Ib'^ poial 
of view o( a person wliu tliiuka Ktctjuiotlia tl>« capital. Di. C. Miller C Vh WulUurta 
Ton CuloriDB,' ]>. lISjelTri thedntemSOO, wtiicli iremi to me tmeaxljr. 



.1,— KOMAN BOAIJS IN OALATIA ANI> hHitYfllA. 
OALATIA rillMA. 



i4S 



IlittrcclM e. i3i «ii(t Cone 


Houu* I-. VII.. Via. IX. 


S<iUUnUI..I^Vni. 


!■ "ATTvpa* iLrtfiroktt. 


I. ■AfKipm.,. 


1, 'A^KUfUI. 


2. Tofilt. 


I, 'AttoSIai, T<vua(. 


S. T<SiJm- 


3. 'hawiim. 


4. 'A<rw6nit. 


4. 'Aarrfrgf. 


4. KImw. 


T- K^rqt. Klrnr. 


7, KltvqT. 


5. Pt^traToAb. 


8. 'Arwrraaittu^iStvl. 


8. 'AraoTctriin/wiKnn, 


li. P>7J/un|(af. 


C. M.'ffw- MrfC'v- 


1], Htii'ou. 


7. 'HAm^Au. 


'i. 'SktovwiKim, 


8. 't>.i«Li«^X(ai irti BonAoIow. 




5. Bt|pi»oimf Xco I. 


5. MqpiPHXiiAiiui <!''''» STowpDv. 









6. Ko^vvfi^riii. KsAvi'it'^ii 





1. Anktba. The BituutioD of Aukyra kaa Dover been a matter of 
tloubt : it is Btill called Engriri, A niinnory luimcd I'ctris. at Ankyra is 
nientioQed in Acta S. Theodori, April 22, p. 38. Suiot Plato was 
«xcoulcd in Campo Amoeno outdtde t1i<- wnlln of Ankym, under Mftximiun, 
praesicl« Agrippino (Aot. tsaiict., July 22, p. 234). Tbo lako montioaed 
in tho pA«eio S. Tlicodoti, OAp. 2, nniir tho city, may bo tho rermxis pnliu 
of tho Jerusalem Itinerary (Act. Sanct.. May 18). 

2. Taocios, Tavium. The vexed qneetion as to the sito of Tavium 
}itt8 been net »t rcet by tbn diiicoycrice of Prof. J. }{. S. Sterrelt. The 
-^ittifltion at Nofcx Kooi, proposed hy Texier, was lonjf accepted; but 
Prof. O. Hirsohfgld in 1883 publiahed an vlalHirate memoir in the '3117- 
ungriberichtv ' of the Berlin Academy, in which he atieiupted to prove that 
Tavium was nitnated at Iskoltb on thi^ west Hide of the Ilalys. Prof. 
Kicpert replied f to this memoir, but tried to place Tavinm in <ho 
vulle^ of Alaja, about 20 niilea north-eaat of NefoK Eonl. Their 
Tvasoaing did not alter my opinion, and I asked Prof. Sterrott to liunt 
Tery coreftiUy through the country about Nofee Keui for evidence. Hi« 
March produced the evidence of a miloKtonc tlint Svtfi^r. Kcni was the 
■rite of a eapiit tim, and no other city in this pari of the coimtry but 
Tavinm ounid bare brau a capvt ct». 

S. Arpoka was aituatfiil on the road from Ankyra to Pamassos. It« 
precise situation cannot bo dctorminiid witboiit more careful oxamina- 
tJon of tho oonntry. The description of this road which hai been given 
^p. 265) nhowH where !l mnst bo lonkod for. Tts tnrcilory must have 
iDOlnded nil tho aouthcm part of Galntia da Sal^m, touching tho 
territory of Ankyra on the north, Cappadooia, lake Tatta, and LjkootuA 
OD the sontb, and |H)rhap« Myrika on the weat. 

* 'rUo Bpvlliti^' uu'l ucmatuHlion ate «tcarlf Irao lo Um locvt ^loikuuciatioa, na ia 
oltown \i3 tliG matlrm fvnn Eu;;uri. 

t ■ (iaguiilwiueTkun^eD xnProf. UinohfeM' in the 'Sltxaiij(*tNrricli(o' Tot Joa. 1$S(, 



24+ A SKUTCH OK THE HISTOKiCAL QEOGFAPHY OF ASIA MDIOtt. 

4. Mxizos was abuut 50 milcH from Ankyrn, and u to bo looked For 
atont 25 miles west of Girindoa (Maneg-irdos). 

5. Laoaxia (EogonagAl)H, ie. rvgio Lftgaiiia, in lliomcleH) v/as ro- 
nuued AnHiitaHiojiLilui, evidently tender ttie Emperor AnastanuH (a.i^ 
491-518). L'litin;]ic8of 8aint Ueorge utid of tlie Archangel are mentioned 
in it (Acta 8. Thcodori, April 22, p. 46). 

6. SvKt^ov WHS a village on the Siberis, 12 miloR wont from LaganiOy 
and the imperial highway (piililicft n^gii ciirHus riii) patwed through it. 
There was in it a charch of Saint GemelliiH. 

7. JuuoPOLis was th6 name gJTOn to tho oldor VopSoo Kmixr], It AgAi» 
changed it* name in the la.t«r Byzantine period to BaHilaion or Baaileoo. 
In Not, X., Xin. it oconrs m 'lauAuImXn ijrrni 'RairtXaay, as « hiahoprii? 
BuTiJect to Ankyra. In Kot. II., X., XI., XII. (which bolon^ to the lato 
Byzantino poriod). BturiKaKiy or Ba<riX<or Bppe«rs, not as BTlbjoct to tlw 
motropoHs Aukyra, but as an indcpundcut (atTOKi'^cXue) hisbopric 
Not. X. tlierefore contains two separate hishopricB named BaaUeon, and 
Pai'thoy on tbtti ground diBtiogiiiehcit tbvni (boo hiit index, ». v.). JBut a 
passage from a Novella of the Emperor Alexins Comnonns (jIl.u. C51>3, 
A.D. 10815) • Hhowg that thin in incorroot. The bishops of Heracleia and 
Aiikyra appealed to the XII. Canon of Chalcedon, which prorided that 
the metropolitan biehop of a province should retain hi» rights over any 
bitthoprio in his diocese which might bo raised in dignity (Ti/ni^dcurg 
ixitX^ffif), in order to prevent tho province from being dismombored (*i 
fLrf KararifivtaGai Ti}f (iuxv iwup)^Ca.l' <it iuu). Alexius decided that ibo 
emperor might do us lie clioae in the way of ratxiug hishopH to a higher 
rank, and that when ho did so thej* ceased to bo in any way subject to 
thoir former metropolitan, and were referred, straight to the patriarchal 
chnroh at Constantinople. It appear* tlierefore that there ia only ono 
church Basileion, and that oven after it became aiitnkephalos an<i 
independent, the Notitite remained uucorroclod and cnumeruted it 
among tho biflboprics subject tu Ankyrn, as well as in its proper plscti- 
of dignity. 

Iksiloion in evidently named in honour of one of the emperors Basil. 
Kow Nutitia li. appears to uuntaiu the licit of iaetro|H:ilitans and 
onloitiphatui in tho ordor of procedonce fixed by Leo tho Wi*>e (886-91 2);. 
it foUon's that Juliopolis had changed its name not later than his reigDr 
and therefore that it wua culled after Biisil I. (667-80). But as 
Kotitia 1., which in dat«d iii 8U3, does not contaia Baeil'cion, that namo 
might appear to have been intiuduoed either in tho last year of Basil I., 



* Lib. II. Not. I v. to Leuiiclav.. ' Jm tintx'.o-Kiiiniuiuiti/ p. 1^0: liB^afiSiiw* lnr%t 

liylTpyri\tiiit roii BairiXaiim Knl T^i fiirffuiniXttiH MaSi^Toii' xt^'""'"^*' - ■ . . titirJ«trl<rar at 
fi-wjTpnwnXlTVjg i 'HfiotAaEflt kuX & 'Ayvr'pai, Hal ttTtlr^ fiij o^tiXtty T^f tviai^u iKHhr^vltLit 

^^ir^mi Aaa& KBfi' •^Tw ' BA rb 7tif > < • . imiK^aiAf lev KaffiAftloti ifuTKoritv thai raft 



K.— OALATIA PR[M.\. 



H4& 



or morn prffbatily Tiudcr Leo (88fi-itl2), Ifcing gtv«ii in niemoiT of 
hut fatbiT. Ttiit tlie iiiuiia BuHilGiun occurs at Cone. 869, awd this ib 
an oxainplo of tlio froqiicnt omiasion to correct Notittw up to data 
It is evident that 8onn) changes wero iatroducfid in tho dty aimal- 
lADoously with ihu oliangu of name, and that Ha importance was raised. 
In tlie 1a1«r fcistorians Baaileion is uot iinfV«quentI/ m«ntii»iod. Tbo 
leaeon vrhy Juliopolia bcuima ho mach mora important in l}iia latCT 
tim« is ptobafcly to bo found in the fact Uiat the great miUtary road, 
|whidi will lia described 1>«low, wag not maintained ho carefully, and the 
direct road from Coniitantmoplo to Ankyra would in thai v&hk lK<(K>m» 
more imiwrtutit, (uid with It JuIiopoJia, as a ha]f-waj- atation, miiHt rise 
in c<;u8e4^u«BC('. 

The original namu of JiiliopnliB rtciire in a late document of the 
Eastern Chiiroh, where a inoBMitory iv nu \iat>ua r^s Vapfiiov Kuiftijt is 8oid 
to be under the control of rav MtfrpomoKirov roC <frayiT^]j, 

8. Pbtohieiqx wa« a viUago on Lho road 12 miles east from Lngauio. 
It is mftntioned as Petos or Petonin tho Acta S.Theodori, April 22, p. 55. 

9. KiNN.i. Aftt'r all tho othur biHho2>rios of Galntia are phiocd there 
rom&tiis A groat district w&at of Ankyra, in the north-westorn jiart of 
the rich oom-growing iliutriot now called HouuBne. The order oT 
HienwleB aeems to show that Einna in tu bo plocod there, but the exact 
situation can Iw dek-niilnwl ordy by further explomtiou. 

Einua ta to be sought in tho cottntry Ibetween Mnizos, Myrika*. 
Ankyra, anil (Jorboous (Bfinani). A pai-sago in tho 'Acta S. TlicodorJ,* 
April 22, pp. 45-G, agrees with eiich a situation, but ia too vagiio to nfForcl 
any aot-urato evidpiico. ThewUire, rotiiruing from a pitgrimago to- 
Jeniitaloia, after entering the hordera of Galatia, atoppod at a monastery 
callod 1>niina (apud Druinornm moiiastc-rium). llaii it ■wan aoon found 
oot who the vieitor was, and ho healed varioim *ick people. Ho theo 
wont to blijHft a nt-ighbijuring monaatcry of S. Stephen. Then Amtautus, 
bishop of Kinua, heard of hit* prenencc, and induced him to viifit Kinna, 
lie returned from Kinna to Pruina, and tbcnce proceeded on hiA road to 
A&attii«iopoIi». The question U by what road Theodoi'o wnnld traval. 
None of the nameii meutinnod mal<o this uertaiu. In the fonrlh or fifth 
century the probability would havo been all in favour of lho usual 
pilgrima' route by Ankyru and I'atiiuissoe>. But this road had in hia 
tirao (600 A.D.) ceased to bo an important one, and tba road by Ankyrft 
and MokiKHos (Eir Shoher) had ttnpplaiitcd it. Hut tbo dilTurvuco is not 
important in this case. The roads coincide between Sykea and Gorbcona 
(Beinam), and tbo prubabiUty is that Druiua Uw oorlh of Gorbeona, 
bctwoon it and Anastasiopolis. 

10. A gri>ttt number ol plncca, generally near Sykenn and Anastonfo- 
polls, are mentitmed in the Acta S. nieodorL Such arc Dufjariu (p. 4S), 
Gucfaracs (p. 46) or Eucraa (p. Ou), Beace (p. 44), Tzidrama (p. 3&); 
Euarzia, H miles from Sykcoti, ia perhaps tho same as Enchraes (p. 44), 



24.-. 



A SKETCH OP THE UlSTOlllCAL OEOOtU.PHV OK ASIA JIINOB. 



Buna or Biiqas antl Hynia (p. SA). Pidnirn was a town in the territoiy 
of .Tntiopolui (called by a oomnion Byuuitino eitot Heliopulia), near 
wLiob was a place ATDbronn with an oral(»'tuK Archangdi (p, 40).* 
Buizna was in tlin territory of OmliniiopoliH in the regio Ckirdiana, 
outside tbe bounds uf Galatiu (p. 42).f Tiuiwzus wuti 10 iiiiW frum 
Sykcon (p. 3S). Aien, 8 milcH froiu Sykoon, was a pagan holy place, 
protected hy Diana. Alcctoria (pp. 52 and 57) waa clearly near SylcooD. 
Arauiiia w&a a town fivo milea distant from Sykeon ou the mail to 
cieitat Sfhatta, which 18 a truiii^lntian of roAit ^iifiamr^. and may uican 
eiUier AnlcyrA or ('onstatititioplo. An archiprce'bytcroa Aadrcaa lived 
at Aiaunia. Scndm vae beside the SnQgarioe not far frotu Sykeon 
(p. 60). XerutiitLOB wan a valley ni-ar Sykeoii (p. 4^). Oppidam Sundi 
i8 witlitu a day'a journey of Sylccon (p. 54), and oppidum Pi-rnietanite 
ia a liltlo fiirthur away but in Gulatia (p. 55). Ftrrmol unia Bt'cias to bo 
ihu name e.f r«niietaia (p. 43). Jt^tium seems to be ttenr Permelotlia 
(p. 67). The liill Briaiion (p. 43) with a nioiiitftoiy of H. Thoodonu 
(p. Hi) wftB eight miles from SykutiTi, Konchan, a anittll town, and 
EnLitrutuH, u. village, were also near Sykeon (p. -38). Ma/,aim» or 
Mazunia, on the upper Sibfiriit mtb climate Mnoxtvi», possCeHini; a church 
of S. KuRnicim (p. 40), was evidently in the tenitory of Mnizos. The 
SiheriH muat drain a large arva, siiica one of its brariches risen in the 
territory of MiiiiMts. Places to whose eitiiat inn no cine is given are Potamia 
Qalenii-UDi (p. 43), ApocomonRis ricns (p. 43), Mons Praoonis (p. 43), 
The Peilis is a river of Dithyuia, west of the Artaiica. Oppidnm 
j^atium and oppidum SiUtidiounftTise} (p. 57) are porhape in Cralatia: 
CoIonosauH rcgioiio LycBonim (p. 43). In Carta Jluctus Copaa is proViably 
a false readiug (p. 44) : the river Soopoi or Scopiiw flowed put 
JnliopoliB into tlio Sangarios. lopolis (p. 85), 16 inilea from Sykeon, is 
clearly a tnlBtake for Juliopolis. 

The ' Actii' of Thoodoro Sykeota are very important, as gl ving a picture 
of theatato of north-western Galatia in the end of the trixth oeuluiy.S 
Unfortunately niily n Lutin translation ispublitiljcd in ' Aeta Sanctorum,' 
and the names ami perhaps aUo iha sense have lieen Borne-time's very 
butdly i-upreaentetl ; but wc may beliero wifely that all topographical 
details ate faithful. All tho placca which we know from other auurcOB 
are mentioned with correct tleBeripliona, though nomctimos under 
d)8tortei,l nauiee — Mnizos, Petobriga (uilh-d Peton), AnaNtotiopol's, 
Juliopolis, and the rivers Siberia and Scopna. The nuommua topo- 

• Pidnun luiiit be iii the BuwplbrinU! Tlieiiie, aitil is lo be- iluitiD|;iiikli(Ml from 
Piilm, un unknowii jiliLCe in tlie AQatoiiu 'I'licmc. roll ['AfaroAiTovJ 9inan«t hrl rivi T^>y 

T^y 'AytrroKiKvy (Thcophftn. Contio., p- C), 

1 Orfttinnnpolb iHa tetnpnmrjr iinine of sonio towu. jx-riiaji* A k kiln ion : »it tl D. 

J HiliiiilkuiicuBH inusl stiti'ly In- n mis>tniii>1nti>in of IiXiP-lunci^n ; i<uiujinr« K[w«o5»« 
it(i>tij. ie. It i» DofortUiuitL> tlmt tlir* -fJcDi'lt nri.i;iniil is net nrpniwihlp, Wltli SililuliM 
<>»inp*ro Lydtan SiUnidn. Apnenmcnria vioiis niuat iilso ccuIbiu tho ^^lclln>Ht -■tifi'i. 

i TLcodgro died a.ul 613. Sec Addenda. 



K.-QiXATU FBDIA. 



347 



grsphioal dotii!l8 which ws cftDoot ocmtrol by iiidepeafl«nt testJmony 
may bo accepted with coafidcnoo for the onnntry withia a moderate 
dieUnoe; but, ia i-egard to rdmoter cities, the author's geographical 
knowludgo i» dofooUve. For example, ho hns no idea of tfao dUtaaoe 
from Amorion to Suzupolis (p. 63). but he kno^^'s that the road from 
SuzopaliH to tiykeoD paases through Amorion, Genaa, and otot the 
bndg« Tantaendia. 

One other probablu rofuroncc to Einca is to bo found in the ' Aota 
S. Thcodun ' (p. 44). Theodore was mado bishop of AnaiitaniopoHs in 
euoocsuiou to Timoth«os, and by order of thu biubop uf Aukyra ho waa 
ooneocratou by tho bishop of Kinara. The word Cinara in the Latia 
-venioQ is certainly incorrect, and, as the biiihop iu queHliun was under 
the jurisilictioi) of Ankyra, he munt he of Riuna.* This oertaiiily 
■aggttrta that Kiona wns not distant from Ano&taaiopolis, or was oven an 
adjoining biehopric. The provioiia indlcutionH, cutublned with thui, 
place Riuna about Balylc EoyiiDJi, or even nearer the Sangarioa, and 
asifign to it the territory which is bouudi^d by Kyrika, Uorma, 
Asaatasiopolis, Muizos, Ankyra, Aspona. 

Eadosia, the bishop of whioh waa brought to 1'heodore (p. 53) on a 
litter to be cured of his sicknees, l)elougH not to Galatia, but to Bithynia. 
Wo find the entry TuAAuv -7711^ KaSoaiui, or &oamt in tho ootUeet Nutitiee, 
and at tlio Council h«1d 6S0 x.l)., Qeorge bishop of Qalos or of Kadosia 
wag prceenL Id the later Notltito, I., III., X., XIIL, the entry is alwu}3 
roAAow TTw A»*ur (aeo p. 182). 

11. Yerikopous rosu to injportance in the Byzantine perio<]. It ia 
not montioned by Hierodoa, and yet it was evidently rofounded and 
renawvd before bis time during the lifetime of the einprees Vorina. 
The late NotitiiB montiou it along with Stavros, ahuwing that these 
were two neighbouring towuA included in ono bishopric. These were 
two fortrcaaea, whioh became important statioufi io the Byzantine 
militaTy ayat^m, but had apparently not been laiaed to the rank of a 
biahopric when nioroclcA mudu bia liat, about 530 a.i>. Inall probability 
they became a bishoprio in the reorganisation of the BynantiDe empin 
by Jufitiuian within a few years after Uieroclea wrote. The Iiiatory of 
tho Byzantine changes lu tho comparative inipurtanoc of Anatolian 
towua frum the time of Justinian onwards tnma on military OOQaidura- 
tiouB. The forts (rvn-tn-tipqvuu), situated on military roodfl, often in 
different Rttuationii from the Roman cities, grew into bisboprioA and 
finally often into the capitabi of provlaoes. Any plaoo which became a 



* Comparo UioroolM'a LraiBam in Pamphflia. Bolli uamw liave been tormod 
in tlic tamo waj. Thn cxpnMnoa i KiWvr, or AuarJinr, /vdrKimt, written vilb 
tlie cnmmaa mla^peUing Xitmitir, Auriro/wr, haa twea mtHOod Ktyifvr, AifHrdpmr, 
aiiil iut4V]iraWd ." BUhop of CiiianL. L^imant,'* T)i<^ e^preadun really mcoDa, in 
aomntniieo wHtk tba almoat uoivanal fiiruuila, "lllalu)]> of llie pwpU ot Cioa^ 
Lj-aiaia." 

TOU IT. S 



248 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTOUtCAL GEOQRAPHT OF iSU MTKOR. 



bishopric nncr Hierodofl is presuniably a fortrosa of tho Bjzantma typo, 
uiunteil on n liigb, precipitous hilL. 

Tlio grcftt importance of Etiagiua a* a uiaotiug-pkee of roa<l8 bo- 
oomes appareuL in'mir examination of the liom&Ei rosils leading east 
from Aukyra. Though I havo nob visited its nito at G()no, I harvQ 
hoani in the country grei*t reiiorts of ruins near it. How, then, Rhall 
■we acicount for ito apparent umisaiou in the lljziiiitiiio lists? We muBt 
Iraliovo that, if Any tavra in Eastern Galatia grew into a liiRhopria in 
BjT.antino time that town teiis prolmbly gtluatuil at G'Ono. In ithort, 
everytliiug poiuta to tho conclusion that Yotiuopolia was the name 
giren to Enagiiift when it Iwgnn to riso, in the growing dovolopmeut of 
this district, to be a place of importancii (see p. 2G1J. 

12. Stavros ia ariiiaiciiUy of etiaally late'devclopmeut. Kotitia* III., 
X., XIIL, vrhich aluno mention it, arc tho latcet clius of li^ts, and the 
only other reference which I have foimd to the place dates about a.0. 
890. I th«i«fore nudarstaud that Stavroe waa on the luihtary road of 
Jttntinian (whoso oonrse in discusHed in eect. G), and that it beoame 
iDipt>rtaDt only ullor thi: foinnutiou of that road. Being nnitcd with 
VerinopoliB in a single biahoprJc, Stavrofi muat have been, not far 
distant from it, and is to be l<x)]teil for a few hoars to the south.* 

13. MyBiOKCCHAloi 18 apparently unothur of tho fortrwsiios of Justinian 
on lb« great military ruad. The uaniti occuis also in Pbrygiu, denoting 
a fidrtrasB east of Soublnion on & military road, which aIbo was organleed 
T»y Jnstiniaii.t Myiiokejilioloi was west of Stavros. Vorinopolia, 
StaTTos, and MyrioJtephaloi were three fortrwsBOH, which together 
formed tho Tourma Saniana. They belonged to the Buccellarioto 
Theme, bnt wero, about 890, tnuisforrpd to tho EharBi.-in Thi'me. They 
may be safely takt-n to include the whole Bouthcm part of the |>rovinoo 
Galatia on tho cast side of the Ilalys. The important passage of 
Constantiae Porphyrogonitus ('de Admiu. Imp.,' 225), which uieiitions 
the modiBcations of 690, will be more fully ooniridered b&Iow. 

14. Salolimne is named as a bishoprcu in tbo lateat cbuH of Xntitise. 
It is perhaps the sarao place that is mentioned nniler the name Kad^mna 
an a bi^hoiirio of I'brygia Sulutaris in Nut. I : KndcniTia and Alopcx an) 
certainly (j^uite erronGouKly nppended at the end of tlio list. Nothing i» 
known about it. Was it Kotcb Hissar? (see Addmuia). 

15. Boforo concluding tho discussion of Galatin Prima it is necoseary 
to Attempt to dc&co the limits at ditrcreut timce of tho Kharsian Thi-me. 
Conatantino Forphj-rogcnitiia say« t!io nunio was derived from aome 
general named KbamioB, who flourished when the Theme was formed in 
tbo time of Jntttinian or some other emperor: thiti liL-riTution is 

* We find "Fvssiiius or •luallniftnopolia " as a siu^lti liiBljojirio: tlia diitanoo 
betweim Bala Hilar eiKlSiTrillifiar it four Jioiirt (nhoiit 12iu)tiM}. Htavro^iiaalw) called 
Titnuis Stavros, and vm a luunv of tlia plocn cnlUd ulno ^irioliAs or Simolioa, Q 39, 13. 

i t^ce ' AaoTl<>aa Jouninl of Aroliti>alogy,' 1SS8, p. 'itrSi. 



K^— OJLLATIA PB1UA. 



249 



obrkimllj m mora gacan of Constantino's. It hoe boon BtAtcd above thnt 
tlie aaaio t* {iwIiaI^}- doriTcd from t)io town of Onrsi or Kaiiseu, b.1 tbo 
irajKirtant itnd oeotre of Alaja.* Originally this ploco, ottlled to 
Xaptrtavov mimpov, wag one of tlie handa! or tnpatereHiat of the vrnI 
Aniicnino Theme. Thon the Thoinu wna divided iiitothroo partm, aiid 
the namo Khars'aQ was givou t9 tho central o»e. The bouadarive of 
this Thome vnry consideidbly. In the time of Miohaol (8-t3-807 A.T>.'), 
tliero wa8 only a Kleutuurarch of Khnrsiana, so thut u yet it harilly 
ranked as co-ordinate yviih tlio groat Thomct^t 

In A.I). 730 Mosloraah invndcd Cuppadooia and captured the Kharaiaii 
fcrtreea^ The patsage bIiowb ihat the fort vns iu Cappaduc-ia rather 
than in Pontiis. 

In 832 TbeupbiliiB defeated the Samccus at Khiirsiauou. § 
In A.D. 8G0 a battle took place at Ponon in tho district Abystannm OH 
the borders of the Aniieniao and PapbUgonian TheraeH, about 'lOO miW 
from Ajuioiia, aud noiiie of the dvFeftted Amba escajiod aoruas tlio Ilalyii, 
but were eoon afterwards captured in the Khan>iaia Thotne (Genea., p. 99). 
Tho Stratogoi of the Rharsian Theme and of tho Armeniao troop* 
are mentioned inider Basil I., and Agraiie and Siborou are itaid to be in 
the RbaraiaD Thome, while it la implied that at Siboron there waa 
leady aocfse to the Armeniao Thome. || 

Wlicn Jimiiiiee Eur}:iiad began bia caroor (under Loo VI.) the 
'bounda of the empire cm the oiut were the Kharsian Caetlo, the town of 
Hjpocln. and the Ualys: ht? curriod it« iioundtt to the Euphrates and 
the Tigris (Theophan. Gootin., p. 427). Here tho distiuoUon is made 
between tho fortress HypsoJa. and tho central Kharsian fortress, and 
the line indicated agroeu admirably with the lower Halys, Ataja, and 
the lofty roclc Ma^halem Kale. 

In A.I). 8B7 the town Hypsela in the Ehaisian TbonLft wu captured 
by the Saraeena.ir 

lathe year 000 Leo yi. exiled EustathinsArgyroa to hiB hoe so in Ehar* 
aiaao. Oii hin way thither he was poiuonud at Ara,and baried at iiipyiiiu 
(<i( TO Sm/i-o- Tou *Apn r^k- Kopn^ijv). HJssons ozhumed hia body and oor^ 
ried it to the family monastery of 3. Elizabeth iu the KbarsiaD Theme.** 

* ij wifTa rai XapirUu tA CAnirlaritin'vpIe (t. ThflApihiLacs pnteiro) mia op|ioBit« 
BliicliDnin, and pcrha|)« liciic« Kctn it> uutao (m if Ka^irtov). 

t I HdiI mmtioind in Ukhnars retgii tho Aruteiiiao, BucecllaHoIe, Kolnn«ino 
P«pbla{,t>iiiitu, Tlinku^iim, AoatoUc, OptUdAH. and CnppiidtMiic Tlicmea, nod tfao 
KleisoBrarcliui of 8«]?iikcui Hiid Kbanu&a. 

X rlt XofauxfJir Hitr^r (Tbuoph., p. 409; Codren., L p. 800). 

i kstJi t& Xiif<Tii>«<Ji- (CoJjuo., ii. Via I Contio., p, 111). 

II vif rt Tuv XB^iria>vv <iftl v^r rwr ' ApiitnaKir la^fit^fr7ir] (Codrvo, \L SIO 
G*iiM., I22> 

\ n Kori rb Xapaiavbv tiwetiuirv <'Ai( i "t^^Kii (C«dtBlu U* UO, Op. Tbeoplinii 
Contiii,, 3'>1>. The Boca t«<it of Codrcnoi prints ^i)Xli u an ifiithot. (Finlajr, bf a 
miiipritit, lioa IIjwl* for llj-piaola.) 

*• ThcopLan. Coatin., 374 Cwlieo^ U. 2fl0. 

S 2 



250 



A SKETCa OF THH HISTORrCAL OEOOBAPHr OP ASIA MINOR. 



Another referenoe may be quoted to this older furm of the KharsuD 
Theme. "S. EudokimuB— gvnttsquidcni duxii e CapptulociLua — al6otii8 
ut pr%««flet p&rti «xercitus CappadocnnL et moraretur circa id quod 
vocRtur Cbarwia-mim."* 

16. Aliout 690 oucutred a reorganisation of the eaHteiTi Tliemes, and 
five topoteresiai which oonetituted Qalalia iTant Halifm wore traiiflfcxrod 
from tho BucccUuriote and Armeniac ThttnxjR to the KiiamAn Thome. 
At the same time the Bouthem parts of the Cappadocic Theme, viz., 
thfl Toiinna Eases (which prohably iucludes Tyana arid the plHin of 
Vottaw) and the topoberesia of C'i»Kar«ia and NysBO, wore also tninsfeired 
fo the Eharsiaix Theme. The Cappadocio Theme now included the 
Oonotry fVom the mountains near S'tvri Hifisar (Dmdymos) to the Halya, 
mud the Kharsiun Theme all the country from the Halyn to Ces&reia on 
the east and Loulon on the eouth. \ 

For topographical purpoees it is important to observe that the 
topoteresiai of Tariiim and Eoiuodromoe, whiuh bad belonged to the 
Anneiiiac Theme, and which included the northern part* nf Oalatia 
trarm Halj/m, were added to the Tourma Khar^na, whilo tho three 
loi>otenwiai which htid belonged to the Bnocellariote Theme, and 
which included the sonthern parts of Oalalm trmu Bahjin, contttitntecl 
the Tourma Saniana. The Tourma KbanfiauB, therefore, woe tho 
uurUi-weBtera part of the Ebareian Theme, and this ounGrms the view 
already stated that Garsi or Karissa, eituated at Aluju, was tho ori^nal 
centre from which the name Kharsia spread over tiia entire Theme. 
OriginaHy it was only a part of the Artneniao Theme; then tliis groat 
Thome waa divided into thren, Cappadooic, Eiiarsian, and Anneniao, 
end finally the reorganitiatiou which I have just described wa« 
made. 

An objection may bo urged that Abvja, where I have placed Eharsta, 
fiilU more Dikturalty into ihe BuooeUariote ihau the Kbareiac Them«. 
But ori^nully the liiio of division wns iiLH.du between tha Armeniac and 
the Buccellariote, and in that case the line of separatioit 1*etweeu Uiine 
and Alujtt U not ho surprising. Moreover, tho arrangement of 890, 
which anited Kbarsia with Ta^inm and Komodromos, oleaily req;tun!a a 
close geographical connection between them. 

Another Tourma of the Kharsian Theme was named Kymbalaioji. 
It was perhaps the country about Kir Sheher. to the eoet and 
north. 

The powerful caatlo on the lofty iHolated rock of Mushalera Kale 
luust have been a very importaut point iu the Saruceu ware, and was 
jwrliapB centre of another Tourma or at lewt a Topotoreeia. It is 



• Act. Baoot. Jul; 30, p. 812. 

t It it nftcr this cnlnrgemoDt of tlic Eharfian Theme, fn a.d. 978, that DaiQika 
TlicYma IS n^ntiotied (Ccdrtrn., ii. 43l> u in tlia KliuBlaa Thunie. Bee Constaot. 
Pupil., *de Adniin. Im|i.,' p. 225. 



K.— GALATIA PMMA. 



2S1 



referred to only in a.d. 887 • as Hypsela. Tbia Hjpsola miMt bo 
distiuguiHhi-d from the town of tbo snmo uame, which B]>pi?ars as a 
Uahoprlc of Fontus rolomuniacuB in tho latent Notitie, anleM (w ii 
probable) geograpliioal coimecLioii is viulatol. 

17. DiuuNU, whic3i occnrs in tbo Jonuftlcm Iiinerftry, x miles 
from Ankjrra on tho road to Parnawos, under the form Delemoia, and 
whioh ifl perhaps corniptol tu Oleiioa in Ptolemy, is also meiitionwi in 
an inHcriptiun. publinliod by BprntusECWBlti, in the Arcbaeulog. Bpig. 
Mittbeil. aas Oest., IX., 18S5, p. LIS. It was a villagA situated perhaps 
at the iiurtlittm ond of th« Lake Mobau GijI, or on the lull betweon it 
and Ankyra. 

18. MAL08 (MoAds) was & place a little over 40 miles from Aiityra,t 
on tho wo8t«m bank of 1b« HaJys. Thoodotus come to the place at the 
time when the remains of Yalens (tuE hr M vSmuirii' Sii iroXAtui- UOorTOc 
fiairnyojv') were thrown into tlie Halyn. Theodotns saved them, and 
Cftrriod them to a rock od the bank, about t'wo stadia } from the Tillage. 
There were there grass and trees (iai&pa Apitnffiva koI ^o/Mrtva), and at 
mom the BOimd of [grasshoppers and the song of nightingales. Sovontl 
of the brethren by chance found him lioro, and were fient to bring the 
presbyter Crom tb« village. Tho pr«ebyter, coining out of church at 
the sixth huuT, suu* them coming, anil the village dogs barking and 
troubling them ; he went with them, and was told by Theodntus to 
prepare on the spot a receptacle for tbo relics (Act. Sanct., May 18, IV., 
p. 165). 

Of the three roada that lead from Ankyra to tho Halys, the one that 
is probably meant here ia that wbioh gees to Kalejik (Kocobriga). 
The diataiioo from Angora is at prvseaE givou aa 13 hours, and 
may bo fairly reckoned as 40 Rdman miles. The distance by the 
Rtraightoit road duo cast, to the Halys and Tavium, is decidedly loss 
than 40 miles. 

19. pRosEiLEWHCNK was a term applied to a district of Qalalia, eonth 
of the three Gaulish tribes (viro to tifirnUva i9v^), and north of the 
Btsenoi and the pait of Lykaonia coutuliiing Petinoaaoa, JCgdaamana, 
Kinoa, &o. The name is probably to be explained on the analogy of 
Epiktetos l^iygia, § aa indioiLting the entire distriut of Lykaonia which 
woa added by Fins (p. 377) to Qalatia. Ptolemy || is the only autlior 
that tnentiona thiu nama The IHsenai inhabited what PUiiy cnlls 
Lycaoniae partem Obixenen (V., 32, H7). Probably the Greek forin 

• Sw alw Tliwpli. Coatiu., p. 427. 

X The brriD Ktailin jmiliulily uimti!! luiit!* ; comparo Asnn's italtmcnl ai to the 
dittancc of BuU«la (nm Nikaia, nod see bIm) L, 6. 

i C«iupar« gtmbo, p- 563, vho uj« that th« aune KplktotM giran to HeUcepotilJQS 
M Uttlv PbTjgia (kUf frgm IbQ Attalfds. 

B Wilbcrs ID his uuta girco Ibe Btnsge deriratLoa of r^wtt^qM^^nr beta trfw^tiAtu- 



THE HrSTORICAL GEOCRAPHr OF ASIA MIKOR. 

ol this nam« cilionld be 0!ni,Jivni, ami the name of the town 0{iiv^<Xa 
given by I'toloaiy twiou, in Galatia umotig tho TuktosagKs and 
in Fisidifti is ooDQOct«d yriih. it. Th& ooutrttdictioi], wluch on this 
theory i« involvtid in placing OHv^tXa among the Tektosnges, in ihie to 
the fact that Ptolemy anna a dift'erent authority for his paragraphs about 
tJie tribes iu the diiTerent provinoen fVvin the one which he usea to 
mahe his lidt6 of oitioii. It is, hovrcror, possible thett Oviyl^tXa amoog 
the TektosagoB in a fault for OiivSia. 

20. Th* bouudnriea of the Komau Ptovitice Galatia vansfl gieiitly at 
diScicnt timcB. The province wae fonnod on the death of Amyntaa in 
V:C. 25. The bouuda towards the north and west have' olrfaily K-«u 
diHCUK»dd. On thu souih it included thu whole of Pioidin, with Milyas 
and Rahalis, and muKt bare reached down almoHt to tho southern liniits 
uf l^uunin, where it riHuH fruni the ouuHt lundit of i'auiphylia. Kuniama 
and Kolbasa, colonies of Augustus, must have belonged to it, and ptovo 
how far it extended. 'Whon Vefejitisiiiii iiiBlitutod tho pmvinoe I.ycia- 
Painpbylia, he muMt have detaclied a great part of Piaidia from Galatia 
to make the new provijice; and the soutbeni frontier of Galatia then 
took tho lino indicated by Ttolomy, iueluding tho valley of ApoHoaio, 
liut not that of KuDune, Seleuceia, and Barie. Further eaut Neapolis, 
Amblada, and the Oroiidein, with Miathia and l*ap[m, were left to Galatia, 
but the BDuth'GAstera utid of Bey .jhehor Lake, with Karalliu, KulybrauoH, 
Lyrbe, >jcc., along with uU the piirttt south of this Hue. were lussiguod to 
Ptimphylia. That this eiihirgenient of rainphylia belongs to the re- 
orgauisatjoD by Vespasian is sliovvn fiiist by the fact that no other 
occasion seems reaaonftbio for t!io cliango from tlie older arraugeraent, 
wiiich prevailed as late as Nero (■ C. I. L.,' 111., Supplein., No. 6872), to 
the later arrangemont, which at Komama liad oome into foroe as early 
tui 141 A.n,, whun Voconina Baxa hfcauie governor of Lycia-Pampbylia ;* 
find secondly by the date in an insoriptiou of PalaiapoUs Pieidiae, whioh 
appears to be reckoned fiom 74 A,D, as ora.'j' 

llie boundary on th* south-east will be treated under T, 47. 

21. The boundary between Galatia and Cap[)adi>cia is indicated by 
the list uf bi&hoprioa and by the discuenion of the strutegiai uf Cappa- 
dticia. Tho liinita of tho Roman provinoe on this side variL-d gruatly. 
In 70 A.I). Cappadocia wan placed under a consular legatus Augusti, and 
At some time not Inter (ban 78 it ■wiis united vitli the province Golntia. 
Thia armngomont looted until the time of Trajan, but in the later 



* Sea Beundoir, fte., 'litiaen in Ljlc^n,' ii., p. ISS, 'C. L L.,' UL, l$up[>t«iD., 

t MaiH.(iiaiM!t iissigns Lhi; jrmir 74 lu a prnljuble ilnle for Vupiiaan's riw-rgnniiiLlion 
nf l.jclu-riiujjiljyUa, on lliu autliorit; ot SuE-toulus oud Kiuoblua; sec ' n^iaauvcrw.* 
i., p. 37G. Tills dnip is now Mnfirm<y1 by tLo nboro-mentionwi ina<:ri[>ti^ri, tvliich ia 
eoiDDUntecl on A.S. t'^ U. Iti, aad ici Aililuudu tu jh 104, ami which provca tbat the iww 
■lyttua U^tui irilb lliu goreinDr wlio viu emit iu tliu miuitaor of Uio ^ronr 71. 



K.— OALATIA PBUJi. 



3S3 



yeare of that emperor* tho vast prtjviiicu had bu«a ilividoJ, nml Galatia 
■wus eutrualud to a pnietorian kgatas (aa it had been beforo 78), wLilo 
Cnppiwlwiia was govonivd by a ouusuliir logatiu (us tho oaiU-d proTinoua 
had been since IS), rrevioue to 78 s.q. Funtus Polemcniacua, Foutus 
GtilatiouB, anil [»art of rajililagonia, were ooiiDeoted with Galalia. This 
haA been arraQgod apparontly In tho ymn T B.c. and 63 JUD. IIoDoe tbo 
inecripticiQ of Kjuqieti, * C. I. h.,' III., Su]>pl«iii., (!til9, gives au eomae- 
ration of tlio country* governed hy n l^gatus of Galatin, which was 
tnio h«tw«en a.d. 03 and A-D. 78, and probably was never btifure ur 
Afterwords tme : tho enumeration is Qalatia, Piflldia, Phrygia, LycaoQia, 
Xi»uuria, Puphlu^ijuia, I'uutiui Gahttious, I'uutua i'ulumumiicuif. Of tbceij 
•oight countries, the first 6v« wore tho original pro\*ince of B-C. 25, 
Aiiiynlaa'x hingdom : Paphhigonia and part of Pontus OalatioUH f were 
added in B.C. 7, and Pcintus Puioitiutiincua was added in A.». 63. 

Id tho period 78-10'> J the combined province is Qalatia, Cappadooia, 
PontuB, Fisidia, Faphlagouia, Lycaonia, Armenia Minor {'('. I. h,,' III., 
312, 318). The omiisaion of iBanria and Piirygia here is duo to tlu^r 
being only small districts, included under tho terms Qalatia and Pijsidia. 
"When nndor Trajan at some uncortoin dato tho province was ag4in 
divided : FonttiM Galutiuus and FulE^momaciua went with Cappadooia, as 
is proved by inscriptions of Arriiia Antoninus at Aiun«eiu and of Arrian 
at ScLaatopolJB, an well as hy thu inHcription of on unknown governor 
of Galatin, "C. I. L.,' III., Supplom., 8819, which euumcrutw tic 
countries govomed by hiui as Galatia, Fhrygia, Fisidia, Lycaonia, PapUla- 
gonia; tho coat«nt*t of this iuacriplion date it under Trajan, and 
probably in the second half of his reign. 

A further change it: the Vmt of eoiiutriL's ruled by the guvernor of 
Galatia is indicated by * CL L.,' III., Supplem., C$I3, where tlie eiiamera- 
tino is only Ualatia, Fisidia, l^pblagouio. The omieciiou uf Pbr>-giu is 
doubtlctie duo only to tho fact that so little of Phrygia was includod in 
the province; it is here summed up under Pisiilia. But the omiRsion of 
Lyoaonia la cleai'ly to be connected with the enlargement of the proviuoo 
Cilioii* so aa to include the three eparehiae CiliciH, Lycoonia, Isauria, 
whioh took place under Antoninus Fiiia (nee p. 378). 

22. The fulluwiug Tablo gives the changes in the dimensions of the 
Roman provluco Galatia: — 

■ '<J-I-L.,' ni,Suiiplf!m.,6819. Tbo niflnomonttof otiuigedeMiilMd l>y M«rqaudt, 
p, SS2, tuiut probably l* di»<ttnlc-J, for Sokpca Lm In bo aulMtitut^Ml fvr Sull»fa, 
and tliu (tuto for tL« t;ureriuuiiiil i« uiiciirUiii: ib. C818. Still it Is not dclliiilcly 
proved tbaL the prerluoa vciu united betirociu fiS aud DG. On. tLu ilul« of 6sm, aeo 
the folloving rvmuika. 

t Sm Aildcadft. 

J The poiioi) may be proved to bo tcv^r by further diaeorcncc. II Diny bo noted 
Ibal 'C. L L,' lU., Sujipkni^ 6816, iiiiu>t pnitmUy d<i.le liolwvca 7D and 7f. if tho 
SannBlian cxpcdiuon referred to b ttiat of 70 a.d. Tbe dite 90 w 9S for ttie eipedi- 
tioo, sjiprnvod bjr UoamuBo, 'H^rmiw,' III., 113, nod BLuqunrdt, p. 3lJ3, cannot, In view 
of the f Tceeding expodtlon, be ueciJUd. 



254 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTOKICAL OKWRAPHT OK ASIA MIHOa. 



25 D.O.— T D.a. Gal. Plidd. [Phrj^g.] Lyntoo. [laitai.]-* 
7 ita— <a A.i>, Ga[. Pifid [FbrjgJ Ljmnn. [Iwiir.] PttpliIuK. Font Gal. 
63A.D.— 78 A-n. Gill. Pij.i.1. [Pliryg.] Ljmiou. tl"""-] FaphUg. Pont. Gal 

Pont P*l<>in, 
78 *.».— 100 *.». Gal PULd. Lyc*on. PapUag. pMt. [Oti. ct Polem.] 

Capp. Ann. Min. 
HW A.D,— IWor 150 A.D. 0«l. PisiiL [PliryK] Lyeaan. Paphlag. 
140 OT 150 A.a— 297 a,o. GbI, PieiO. [Pliryg.] Priphliig. 

2S. The exact bQundary-Un'e on tbe eosterD side cannot l>o fixod, but 
the description of the cities and bishoprics shows upproximatelj' the 
liud that separates Guhitia from Puntus Gulatious und Oai>]iadooia. 

24, About ttfl end of the third eentury the province vm divided 
among three now t>roviuecB, Paphlagoiiia, Galatia, and Pisidia. and, 
about 38fi-95, Theodueius subdivided Galatia into two, taking pert 
wf Phiygia to furm thu westcrti provinoo, vrith the metropolis Poasinus. 
The two Oalatiaa wore distingniebed somotimCH as Prima and .SocuDda, 
BumctimeB aa &reat and Little,t Galstin. The name SalutartH wuk oft«D 
applied to P>;«8iriimtiu« Galatia, as U> eaatim Phrygia. An eocliCKiastical 
(Hviaiou, which wots probably made iu the ninth eontui^-, but which was 
nover a civil division, may also be nolioed. The cities eoulh and west 
of Amorion were placed under it as inetropoliB ; as the old civil division 
into provinccB had long since been diwusod ond Themea been substitotftil. 
He regard waa paid in this new arraugemeat to the boundaiy between 
Fhrygia and Gaktla. 

L. Romas RoAna VRoa Anrvwa to the East. 

I. First, I take the roads Ankyra-Arclielais anil Ankyra-CaBBareia ; 
the former appears in four forma in our authorities as follows: — 



Anlcnlne Tilntrary. p. SOS. 


J«RluI«n lllniinrj. 


ADtonim [dnaiary.ji. 1(3. 


p™«ng"f T»Me.t 




Ancfia .. .. 




[AnOTia.] 


GoTboousXXtV. .. 


PilimnU X. 


C«tbennf»!xS, 




GnbcouB XI. .. 


CorT«uito X. 


Oreolnginno XVUI. 


BiwoliHliawi XII. 


RnsolAciAtMi XII. 




§Aj[H)DS SS 


AUtiMus XUL.. 


ARiwDaXXXm. .. 


numiaaXin. 


Ajiwnn XVIU... 
GoeaXIir. .. 


AHpona X. 




Andniiia IX. 






FainnHao XXIL .. 


Farnu»B«a XI Q. 


PnmaaH^ XXTV. .. 


Aapaai XIL 


KtmXSIV 


Ingok XVI, .. 


OssaUXVII 




Oamnii.X.XXl[. .. 


Nitiaiftt?)STni. 


Nit»Ki(?)XVUl .. 


Nita...staXXXI. 


Saocusvuii XXVIU. 


AnriuUun XIII. 
Co onm Archi^IaiN 


1 




CtBsareiu XXX. .. 


CnlniLiam ArriloiOa 


tArolidii]K]XXX 




XVL 


XSVIL 





* Names Iu bnvckota aru aoLiill districtB wliioli uiiKUt Ira cuuittci,! la tta iaBcrI]>tiiin 
wltbout f nii^jiiig iiTiy dnubc na to boiiti'Js. 

t TliBopUan.. jj. 71. Thf sense of rail' kcItw raXarrii', Act. Sanel.,lltMJ.vail.L, ^.ISOa, 
la doDbirul. 

t Is tito Pcniingn Table tbe gUtions t>tt> put in tbo rororao ordor, to tliot Oorvontil* 
ii uoxt t» Archelaie. 

S Tbo Antonine Itinemry in both ouki pechap& oiuib a etation between AeiNiDa and 
ParaoBKB, 



E.— OU.ATIA PItlMA. 



255 



Few rauHs have beeti bo miioh disausned aa this, whiob romm a [Dart 
of th« pUgiiiu route from Eurapv to tliu Huly Land. The central 
critical point ia tlio iletarmi nation of the sito of ParoaeaoB, which hu 
been vorioual^ piftcei, by namilton (whom Kiepert foUowH), at Rotch 
HiHar on the salt lake Tatta, and by MoxdtmauD at Kir ShoLwr on tlio 
oppoaita eide of the Halys. I bdieve that the argument given bdow 
f {1. 2S8) ia sufficient to determine vrithin narrow limits Uio situatiou of 
Pamaaaoa, so that I need not spend timo in examining and etatiug tho 
arguments whiob might be brought for\va.rd agnintit older views, ^r- 
naaeos was on the right bank of the Halys, between Tchikin Aghyt 
(piouotiuood Toliilcintil) and Eeeeik Eeiipreii. 

The fir$t part of the ooutM of this road i* not donbtful. It went 
along the east side of Mohan 6ol to Gorbeous, near Beiuaiu.' Tlut ozuct 
sitnation of Gorbeoiia Is unknown, but tho route iit clearly marked, and. 
BkOteover, I saw in 1886 u part of tho old pavomcnt, Romait or Byzantine, 
beside AghaboK. The road wont on in a fairly etraight lino to tJi& 
Halys at Tobikiu Aghyl, which is Bituatod at tho point whore the river 
tnakcB a bend to the north from its previoui coarse, W.N.W. A Htfelo 
above Tcbikia Agliyl theru are fords, and I duulit whuther any other 
ford oxJBt* on tho Halys till we roaoh the upper part of it« connoi. The 
ntiiation of PamaasoH on the Halya is oertain, but the argutneiita given 
below do not suffice ti> place it accurately without much closer examiua- 
tioa of the oountry than haa yet been made. But aa we know tcom 
Folybiua that Parnaesoe was at a crossing of Uie river, and as it ia in 
tbo laat degree improbable that a bridge exiHted there in the time of 
Polybiua, it seems probable that Pftmuasus was situated at the fonls. 
Moreover, acoording to my roate in l&UO, tbo distanoo from Aghaboz to 
Tchikinal ^ is, in an air-Une, 60 statute miles ; and, according to my 
QBtimate, the diKtanoe by road ie Qi* slatiito milos. Xow, the distunnu 
from QorbeuuB to i'amaeGoa ia 78 Iloman miles according to thoJoni- 
salom, and CS according to tho Antoniue, Itinerary. Tlier« is therefore 
quite aatisfaotory agroi^<moiit in regard to distance if Parnns*«c« is placed 
a fow miles higher up the river than Tchikin Aghyl. The intermediate 
stations must be placed oooording to the distanoes given in the autho 
rities. Tho discrepancies between tho four different accoauts afford a 
convincing [iruof how little we can troat to any one. The Joraaalcin 
Itinerary is probably the b«et authority iu this case. 

Acourdiug to this view tho boundary between Cappadocia andOalatia 
was near the place where the Kara SeiUr DagU appToachwi close to the 
Halyit about Bts miles north of Tchikin Aghyl. 

2. At PamaasoH tho rood forked. One branch went by Ozizala, 
Nitalia, and Argustatia to Archelais Cotuuia, The other went I'y 

* I iLouIJ look for G<nl>c«iu toiacwhcro twtwcoa Bcluam and AgliaLus, 
t Tutuklu Aglij] i» cumiuxnlr iiroauuDCcd in thii VAjr, aa tbo guttuml iiiiialljr 
di>B[i[ieari botnwn voweU inTurkiab. 



268 



A SKETTCn or TB£ HlSTORICAr. GEOCEUmr OP ASIA UtNOR. 



attthorities differ; but Uie ooiitenl iuii is disproved both by Prof. Kie- 
perfg 'GpgonbomprkiirgoD,' and hy tho ikBcertained innccuraoy of tho 
pottitions whioh bo maintained and enpported by the anthurity of 
Ptolemy." 

I do not, of oonne, coatond that Ftolomy'e poeitioos have absolntely 
DO valaa, bat for otir pnTpoee, in an nnknown country, they wonld be 
more inJuriotiH than helpful. Aft«r tbo invcAligatioii bait eetabUshed a 
nomber of recalls. Ptolemy may be need mors freely ; but at present tho 
extent to which I valuv his authority inuat be roathoted within the 
limita stated abovo. 

The moKt valuable evidencs about these roads is a Met of Trajan's 
milestoDes, which reveal a system of road& phiiiued about thv end of the 
first century. 

6. It ia not certain from the evidence that there wna a direat road 
along the ahortest line from Ankyra to Tavium ; uther routes, which are 
BtiQ often used, go by Kalejik auil by Gorbooos (Beinam). But there 
ia a natural probability that there was a direct road b«twcon two anob 
important cities. A mileatane at Orta Keui (' C. I. L.,' HI. Supplem. 
6901) is now situated on a road which went due eant up the river from 
AiikjTu, and it» pueition can hardly ho oxpluiuod uoleeii tlioro was 
such a direct ro&il.f 

Now a road from Oangra-Germanicopolia to Ankyni, though it i» 
omitted iu the Feiitiiiger Tahlip, is necessary, and ia mentioned 
in tho tale of Saint Callinicne, who walked from Oangra toAokyrat 
a difitance of 70 stadia, ehod with iron apikes: when be had gone 
60 stadia he reached Matiica, where he called forth a fountain 
which still flowfi.{ If wo read miles fnr htadia, wo got a fair 
approximation to the distance viil Kalejik, wliuro two nilcetouea are 
known, and through which the modem road — and, douhtlcsit, al«o Iho 
ancient road — to Gangra paBses. Kalejik ia about xxxvi milea from 
Gangra. By n lUrect road it is indeed nut so uiuch as xxsvi milea 
from AnkyrA, but two milestonoa of Trajan and of Hadrian found at 
Kalejik read xssv and xxsviii, and it doea not admit of doubt that these 
diatances are measured from Ankj^ra. § They can he accounted for only 
by B detour : the road joined tho road Tavium-Ankyra enme distance out 
of the latter city. Tho distaucee xulyi and zxxiu ou the Table close to 



* PnprMaor Uirsdirelil etUI iMlliiMua to hia Dpinion. *I]«iIuier WochcDBCbrlft.* 
IdHai. 1-888, p, €20;— "In Ptuleuiniiw gluubotch eiueRontniitc far dia Biobtlgkeit dw 
Talel gcfntiiien kh linbcn CMoonUher. Berl. Akad..' 1«83. I2{i0 f.)," 

t luBcrijititmi) are, «f course, orti^n carried. Miit-'Htnoeii, frnm tlicir Bhii[i« &nd otim- 
httnxB size, ato Icoi olUia curiiod, und, m u rule, ouly to b& uned na giavmtonw is iho 
ouu&Uiy or a tano. 

I Act. Sanct, July 2d, p. 11. On eladia in (lie aenso of mllea, ccimpara F 73. 

g 'C.I. !>.,' III., 30S, niHcrts that Ancym cnDont bo th« aijrni rtor, qb- tliB real diitanoe 
la nal ao great u tUa nuuiben : but tbe •uppl«iiuoiitarj' put of III., 6898, gives up tha 
abJMtion, 



269 



AnVyTft seem (to apprupriato to this roaA, that I a-oept them and 

restore 

AnkjTft xxxitii AoitonKiaoo xxxvi Gimgrji. 

Acitorizincum,' then, was a station near Kalojik, perhitpe n little to th« 
north nr iiorth-«ut. 

6. The road Ankyra-Tavium la given both in the Itinerary and 
in the TikMe: they agree in a. station Eccotriga, and LaMOra may be 
identical with Adapeia (A and A being interchanged in a CJroek 
iniginul). If we follow the TaWo anfl read xviii between Laeaora 
and Tavium, Laasora would be at lahakli, and Eocobriga a little caiit 
of Yaktthi Rhnn. mvi milus Trom Lassora. Tfaoro temaius only alwut 
■13 milee to An^ra, in whigh tiietance there cjaunot be room for more 
than one atatioo. 

We maat foUow the Itinerary, and roHtora 

Ankyta xxiiit SarmaltiM xx Eccolmga xxim Lassora xriii 
Taviuiiu 

One ntation too many, THilegMgnt, with the same dietanoe xxrrii, ia 
given in the ItiueTary: it indicates either a trantiference or a oormp- 
tioQ. Lttssoia is prohably Ptulemy'a Laskoria, and mutt be oorrected 
ncoordingly. Matripa, with il« fountain, ahonld be looked for about ten 
miles from Aukyra towards Gangra. 

7. The mileetonett nf the road coiiHtruoted by Trajan are fuond «b 
Aniasoia, Iskelib,and Ealcjik, nitd ilte distance at Iskelib itt^ ns Profeaaor 
<5. Hireehfeld rightly saw, reckoned from Amoscia. It is therefore not 
open to doubt that the road Ankyra to Gangra went on to lakelib, 
Tchomni, and AntaAeia. It may be thus completed ■ — 

Gangra xlv I)iki<1ib xxrii Tuhorumj xx Etonia xxx Anaa^, 

8- There is a milestone of Trajan at Tavinm, which was therefore 
inclutled in the aaroo eonstruotion as Amaoeia, Iskelib, and Kalejik. 
The rcutd Ankyra- Tavium wont on to Sc-bunteia and to Aniaacia. forking 
at Tavium, as is dearly given on the Table. The latter road must paoa 
.by Alaja, an obvioua Roman git«; goographical conaidemtionn leave no 
doubt that this is the route. Thenoe it goes by Hadji Eeni, or else faUft 
into iho Iskolib-Aniatioia rnad atTohomm. The former course is mote 
<nutar&l, and auits Iho distancee given in the Table : — 
Tavia xni Tout-a xxs Gang xxx Amasia. 

It would at first appear that Tonea is at Alaja, and Garai at Hadji 
Keni. But Ptolemy puts Etonia in Pontue Galaticua and Karlssa, which 
is obvionaly equivalent to Oarai, in Qalatia: and though hia authority 
is not high, still it has aomc weight. Moreover, it i» perhiijia oonlirme'l 
by the Byxantine recorda, Tliis country north of the Ak Dagh and eaiit 
■uf the Halys was the Tiirma Khamiana. The name Kharaiana is an 

* Pmbably a corrupt nume. 

t BuUialU wu Htunli d tcl Toborom (p Sift} ; Aadn|A at iBkelib. 



300 A SKETOI OF THE HISIOEKLU. GEOGRAPHT OF A8U MIKOR. 

adjective, iJcrivod from s town Khamn, iFhtoh ire can liardlj refuao to 
identify with Garsi of the Table. Ptolemy't* form Kansas looks like a 
Grccisoil form of tho namo. Now, the Thom* wnntt more likely to bo 
named after aa itapoiiant point Uko Alt^tliansuchaplaceasHiL^ji Koui. 
The Iiuportniit and central situation of Alaja so impremed Profeasor 
Kiepoit, that ho irishod to placo Titvium thcro (' Gi-gcnbcmerknngon 
211 I*n>f. (J. Hir»ehfeld* in 'Berlin Sitzungsber.,' 1884.) MoreoTer, 
Hadji Kent wsa oertainly not in Kharsiana. bnt in tho Armoniao Th«me 
(itBiiig Anneniac in tho natrowoi acnfc*). 1 tbercforo placo Earaia near 
Alaja, ' Etonia at Hudji Keui, and restore 

Tavinm vn Tomba xxiii Karsia xxx Etonia xxx Amaaeia.t 

lb regard to Ptolemy's placing Etonia in Pontna Galaticn*, I qnita 
adoiit tbat deoisive authorit; cannot bo attached to h>M googfrapliical 
separation between Galatia, Pontns Qalaticaa and Pontns Polemoniaetu, 
He plaoee Amiute:a,Suba«tU[KiIi8 (5nhi Svrai), CbolooandFtda(wbiohare 
between Amn&eia and Koocteaaroia), and Eoinana Pantina in Oalattous, 
and yet ZeU, (.-qually wiili Neooceeareia and tscbatttcia, ia in Polcioonia- 
C1W.J But on thfl wbul«, tbo towns which ho plaoos in Folemoniaona aro 
further east, those iu Galatia furthar weat, than those of PonLua 
Oalatious. Eenco, though there are one or two exoeptious, and thougli 
hJB authority is cot cocclusive, yot his aesignmont of the cities to the 
eeveral provinces must be accepted, unless distinct reagons can in any 
ca£o be brought against it ; and all other conHideratiouB tend to oonflrm 
him in this cufio. 

9. Tavinm to Zela, SobastopoUs, Komana, Sobaetcia, Neooatmrcia. 
Anthorities (a) Peutinger Table. 
Tavinm xsxvi Ro»nior§ xixvi Aegonne xxnir Ptomari livi 

Zola xxxii Stubitlnm sxii Seramist xv Neoceraaroia. 
Tavium xvt Tomka xxii Kugoni Ad Stabulnm xxii Uosyla XT 

Coiuana Poutioa oonlinucd to Nikopolis. 
Tavinra ivi Ena.giQa xxiiH Samlio xxii Zama xsxv Aquas 
Arauenas oontintn-d to Ciie»nroia Mnxaca. 
Ko oonneotion with Scbuateia is ehown in the Table. 
(6) Antonine Itinerary 
given in detail below. 

* I plnco tlio Uivn two or tlir«e uiilcs N.W. of (lie rilla^n Alty'ti. 

t Aniitlirr pxnuipio of ILo ttullons on a kiqlI In tlio rtiiliuffiT Tftlil« bt.ing given in 
tliQ wTonf; orddr lua; be fouud in Ankym-ArrhclnU. It wbb fuciliutn] hy the uHonaacw 
Xvmba lonea, »oo g 10. 

t Aflar tbc nboTe icmiiilo] tiDV« iwa long iu print, rurtlier study anlice mo add thai 
t now aco no invuutl U> ilonbl Ptolemy's aocumcy hero : llio fronlli-r liiiu i» coaflnaad liy 
Simlin. p. 55'J, and may be Boftiy nccepM. His lintiidf Porilas nn,lntiDiiB. Capiiulodous. 
nod P^lciDAniiiciu, are [wTtiapi tnk<?n hoax a higli autliority. 

$ Tlio luull iH n cluriicicibtii? oao: Tikviuiu ['rjrucinoi^uiu] ta dlyidud iatc two 
Bbdonii «u<l tlw uuiubn icxxvi. u givun twice. 



L.— ROMAM ROADS FROM ANKr»A TO TID: ilAST. 



261 



Zq regard to tlieao roadH, which are ohvioniily very cormpt, it i» 
eaSMitial to ubtKtrro tliu itnpurtunt.'u uf the point sow callotl Qune, where 
there are aaiJ to bo namerous remains (I have not viBittd it, bnt epon.Ie 
from report heard in tl>o neighbourhooil at Alaja and TerKili namam). 
QOne is on tho on]iiiar>' road Tnzgat-Siva«, which must ouincidu with 
one of tho two ancient routoa TuTiuiu-^ubiiHt^ia. 

10. In regard to the road which goes due «afit from Tavtam, Iho 
Poutinger Tahle in the tripio 

Tftviam xsxvi [T]roginor[um] \x\Yi MgooQe to Zela, 
Tavium xvi Toniba xxit Gngonia to Eomana. 
TaviiUD XVI Euagina 

rcpoatK and confirras iUclf. I have mentioned that the BQin of distances- 
atation by station is always greater than tho total distanee measured 
Btnii);ht uloiij; tho road, ^gonno, Eiigoiib, Eiiagina, 30 miles from 
Tavlum, may be onhpsitatfngly identified with the modem Gone, Tho- 
roads toZolaand to Eonianu Punticn miiittiiaturiUy agree for fart of the 
distance, and fork at Gone. From ^g:<->nne to Zola tho dii«tanc«fi noam 
accurate in the Taltio, and Ptem&ri ia ounfirmed by Ptolemy's PlenmanB. 

JGgoune xxvin Plenmaris rxvi Ze!a. 

Tho name of the intermediate station Tomba, though anapicIouBly 
like another station Tonea on another rood, and not confirmed hy 
Ptolfimy, is cortatiiiy to bo accoptod on aooonnt of tho modem Tamtia 
Hassan. The modern village is on a diSerent road, between Tavinin 
and Alaja (Karissa), but th« namo may hu%'0 Hhiftod uii tho Feutingor 
Table. On account of thia prohahlo oonltrmationi I wonhl gladly aasnme 
a trauepoBttton in the Tabl«, puttint; Sorulua (Saralio on tho Table next 
to Tavinm on the easlcm roed, and Tomba between Tavinm and Kariasa. 
Tlie namo of tho station at GOne in varioniily giren /Egoiine, EiigonJar 
Euagina. Fnaginn, EudiiKinu. ' 

Tho form Eugenia seems to bo a mere attempt to give a Greek forui 
with a meauing to a nnlivo name ; the hot springa anggOKt aiioh a form. 
The reaemblanoe to the modem name Gone is apparently acddental; 
GSne ia elsewhere known as a Turhinh name. The tme native name is 
probably more oorxoctly reprodnccd in Eiingina. 

11. Tho road Tavium'Sobnstopolia^tjiila Serai) -Scbasteia is a rood or 
the first importance. It ia gir«n in the Itinerary up to SiibaMtopuUd as: — 

Tavinia xsi Magoro xjiiii Daorano xi, Sebaatopolis. 
This ifl obviously ntterly oorrnpt: the road muat pass through Eungina, 
which ia omittod ; and Blagoro or Mugaro. and Dnrano, am clearly 
corrupt names, beyond the roach of emondation. It is jnat postiible thnt 
Bogmor, as a separata station on the Table, i. e. [Tavium T]rogmorfnm ]. 

* Tbo l3«t hiia Twcn tranBrrned to the Sobartoia-Cuummi!! miL EnagiDS, falwly 
writtrn FtiOfjinn, hiu pKuiuao4 PMrtuy'a ^nfiiya-Of wUioIi alTurilii an liiteiealiug proof 
tbut I'tolemy lucd •oine L»tiu Kutlioiilj. 



'i6a 



A ItKCTCH or THE HISTORICAL QEOQEAPHT OIT AStA HUCOR. 



has uruieD from tho same error Uut prodno&d Hagoro. Tho siation 
Seimnisa or Serrausn occurs twico on tlio Table : if ite re«,l situation wsa 
lietween Euagina and SokastopoliB, it might readily be transforriid on 
the one sido towards Koinana. on the other eide towards C«e8arsiB. 
Ptolemy's Sormouga, which hoars ohviouoly the aame natoe, ia so plsoed 
by him aa to agree admirably with this position. I reatore the road: 

Tarium xxxvi Euagina xxiiu Scruiouaa * xxvi SebaBtopoliB. 

12. Beyond Sebastopolia th« road is given in the Antonine Itinerary : 
Sobastopolia xxuii Yerisa xxt Siara xxxvi Sebaateia. 

The duitances on this road are far too great for the direot distanoe 
from Seboetopolis to SeTiasteia. We mast therefore either correct theio, 
or assume that the road ia cirouitoas. The latter alternative is corrwt. 
Vorisa is a station on the important trade-route Sohaateia-Koiuana* 
Amaaeia-Amisus. The road Tavium-Sehaslopolift-Veiisa is intended to 
form a jiiDctioiL with this great trade-route. The road SehaBto]>olis to 
fiebafiteia probably went direct through Siara (Yeui Khan), but the 
Itinerary, depending on a map not perfectly aocurate in proportion, 
gives what is really a circuit as the direct road. 

1 3. The inter-relation of these roads, and the origin of the erroiB in 
our aulboritiea cannot he understood without the reetoration of one of the 
great trade-routes. The existence of thin tradie-ioiite tut u Roman road, 
though not attested by a single trace in the Itinerary or the Table, ta 
vouched for fl) hy a roilcfltone, which I copied in 1881, at Ahmed Serai, 
between AmafiutA and Ainiaois.t It is marked KP, 23, bat the caput viae 
is uncertain, and it has perhaps been carried.J 

(2) Eomana was on an imporlAnt trado-ronte from the interior of 
Asia, (_ifi.iripim toU <!iru t^^ 'Apiitvla^ dfio^vyuK Strah. 559), which has heeo 
hriefly referred lo above. 

(3] The road A-om Amaseia to Komana is described in the Acta of 
Saint BasitiKOui^ who was led on foot along it by the fioldiers. Ho paased 
through a village, GumiallB. reached a village, DtiC07,ae or Sakntu or 
Bakai, where he tilayed a night. He oro&sod the Iris by a bridge ad 
Ivcuvi Va^rismartnn,^ and reached a village Saos or goon. At this point it 
in mentioned that it wtis the third day sinoo ha had eaten. He spent a 
nigbt at a village, and on the next day at the fonrth hour niaohed 
Eomana. The bridge was evidently near Turkhal; and tho road was 
muoh the same as tho modern road Tokat to Amaseia. 

* B«nnnaB xri. and Semm!m sri. on tli« Tabid. 

-r I puMiiiliad It in Joonial of Philology, 1888, p. 158. It u No. fiSM in ■ C I. L.,' m., 
i*nppli"mmit, 

J It ]■ one of tlie smftlUir kind of miloetons^, nnil \» now built [ato tlie vail of a 
)i6uw. Tho older tuikafones are Inrgr-r ttmn tl>« k(«r. 

$ Cad tliM l>u a carruiitloD or miBtraiiHl*tii>tii for "thabriilgeoa the ToaJ to Veriaa" — 
Varinnorum for Voriwomm ? Tli« preeeat text ntruld tlion be doe to the miniDdcntand- 
tDg of tlio Oory by the writer. 



I RGM.W EOAM PROM AKKYEA TO THE EAST. 

TI16 conrso of thU nm^t CBiiiiut be iloabtful. It is olQarly marked hy 
tiatiiro, and is atill one of the importAnt trade-routes of Aaia Itlluor, 
poeeiug by Siraa, Yuni Kbiui, BuIuh, Toknt, Turkhal, Amasoia, Ladik, 
Ahmed Serai, Amisiis. A milostoue at Ahme^ Sor&i, marked Kr, proves 
the line of the Rmnan road in olosoly followoil liy tho niodum rond. Tho 
ancient nunoB Ubto already boon given fur the most part, Sobastein 
Siara (oomapt), Veriaa, Daziiuoii (in the territory of Komaiia PoutJoa, 
which liofl on the river a little off tlio direct road), Ibora, Amafloia. 
Lnodiooia liea slightly off the modem route, but the d<<toar is very 
(tlight. and tlie aticient road iiinst iiave passed close to it. 

li. The road Zela-Neoca^aarcia in tho Table is ohvionuly false, For it 
most pass throngh Eomana Pontioa. One of the stations, Soramisii, has 
already been referred to aiother road. The probable and natural 
route is by Tnrkhal (Tbora), after which it coincides with the road 
montioned above to Eomana. Eoniaiia is given in another line on tho 
Table without any ooanoction tu Neoc(»s&r<3ia. But a road from tho 
west to Neoctfwareia mitet pass throngh Komana, and the arntngement 
in the Table, which makes Komana a turminnB, ia obvionsly absurd. 
Ab IhoTB, an important poiut on the road, ie never mentioned in tho 
Tablo, foil aa it is in this part, the snggoation is natnwJ that it is the 
station, Stobiilnm, which is given twice— Zela-Stabnlum-NoocaBSftieia^ 
and Tavium-Stabulum-Komana. 

The raadH from ZeU and from Sebastopolis to KoooaBsurcia may bo 
thus restored i-^ 

Sebastopolia i:xiv Vcrieea sx Komana xsi Nuoca»areia. 
apd 

Zela 15 Ibora 24 Komana 21 Neoc(C8arei& 

15. Tho road given in the Tnblo as 

Am&soift XV Palnlce xii Culoe x Pidin xvi UironoB X NeooeaarJa 

seems to be nearly correct. Ftolomy has Colue as Xokajj t/ XoAJyi, and 
Pidis as Ilt^a ; and ho puts them between Amaseia and Neocu.'sareia on 
his map. Colonel Stewart (of fihartum memory) gave me the following 
ronto from Amaseia : — 

6 miles, Zane (Sune K., Kiep.), cross Yeshil Irtuak by bridge. 

13^, Ousgus Kiliaso. 

26, KaUgalla (1090 foot above sea-l«vel] in Taah Ova. 

32i, Kizilduaa, Greek village* 

37, Ktwhuff. 

43, Fidi. 

49i, Heonk (Herek, Kiepert). 

73, Nikear. 

Ouagua Kilisse corroeponds to Palaloe, Kalagalla to Koloe, and Pida 
to Fidi ; but the distance of Pida is wrong, and it ia necessary to read xx 

* Kizil Doglian, Red Fulcon, miiat bo ibe khA form of the Dttnw, 
TOU rv. T 



264 A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL OEOOHAPHY OF ASIA UIXOB. 



inHttfsi] of X. Tbe \ l>erore Xenctcsarcia also seems a very small stage. 
If wo read xv we should have the whole distance, Etag« to stage, 78, 
■which corrcBpondij very well to Colonel Stewart's climate, 73 Engluh 
inilM. The lueftSTiremeDt ilirect &om Aniaseia to Keoc«saTeia would, of 
ocnme, be lens than tho total, revkoned stage bj etuge. 

Mirones Beftioa corrupt. It ia {>erhape Ptolemy's Meeorome of Pootua 
Pol cmoii loons, which the Tahle also gives as Me^roiue. on the road 
be baal eio-Nikopolis. 

16. A road in the Antouiiie Itinerary which, at the first glanoe, is 
xooat suspiciona is 

Tavium xxi Comiaspa xxv Pftrhoseua xxr Sihora xx Agriane 
XXX Simos XL Hobuetoia. 

i^ett has tiuggLtitud thut Sihora is idetitical with the hishoprio 
Umiu, and at iimt night tho idontiGcation appears no nntiiral that it mnst 
be accepted {Qcgenbetaer}cttn</cn xu IlirtchfclJ iiher Tavium : Scrl. SHxaug^ 
ber,, 1894, p. 57). Now, Ihoia is fi-xwl at Tnrklml un the Iris by nnex- 
ouptioEiAble eviilenoo, no tliat this ideutification of Sihora and Ihora would 
proTO the rood to hn quite urroueoiis. But the road is corroborutod an 
TXigards Coniiaepa, Slbora, and Agriane by passages hitherto unnoticed 
by geogruphom, nnd il muut bo accepted as a correct doecrij>tion of tho 
reiil path. 

Koroiospa was a district within the borders of Cappadociu, hut so 
olose to the (}alatian frontier, that Eunomius, who was boiTi at Oltiserii', 
a village of Koroiaspa, was soornfully called hy Basil a Galntiau (Greg. 
Nyss. e, Stinom., pp. 259, 281). As EorniaEpa is, according to the 
Itinerary, just rxi miles from Tavinm, the two passages confirm each 
other ciimplot-oly. Now Euaginn. and Earaia are. according to Ptolemy, 
in Galatia, therefore it is not poesiblL' to i-eaoh Cappudocian territory in 
XXI Dillee from Tavinm, except hy going soutb, Tho road on which 
Komiaspa is sitHated iiiu&t then, he jirubably the direct road Tavium- 
Ctesareia. Now a point on that road which is xx[ miles from Taviimi 
would bo nbont xxv from Aqua:- SnraveiitB (Temli ITaninm). The 
second station on the rund is ParboBcua {vs. II. Barbosoena, rardosena], 
which Becms to bo a form of Tarhasthena,* mentioned by Giegor^- 
Nysoeuus (c. Entn^i., p. 263). Now Eorniatspa is the name of a diatriot, 
and we may oonclndu thot Tarbasthena is also the name of a district. 
Aqu^e 5ar?enra is obviously the name of a gjugle place, nnd tho posu- 
bility is Buggeated tlmt Aqua.- Sarrona- was a bath in the district of 
Tarbasthena, which heoftm* the chief town of the district, and, as will 
be shown below, seat of the bishaprlo. 

17. In the year 873 tho Panlician leader Chiysocheit invaded the 
Bywintine doiniuiuns and penetrated as far as Ankyra (h'jV'U 'Aytcvpas 
r^ wiKtan Kst avTuiv Twf Ku^i'toii', Gonos., p. i'J2). As he returned ht 

* Cumparo PMbt!tiii.Trabt;Diin, TarbnBKN»<Oorba«a.Co1Ii]iaB(W, 



L— WnUS ROAM FP.OH ASKTRJ TO THE EAST. 



SOS 



WM cmitionely follnwi>d by JonriTieB Domesticus, who carefully concealed 
his muvemente ami kept a day's joamoy iii the rear.* At length 
CbryflwheiT encamjied at Agrans in the KharsBQ Tltvino, aatl Jolin 
T«maiQtKL at Siboron. Tlic«o plaoos tDQSt, therefore, 1)e on some road 
liMnling from Aiikyra to the Paulician capital Tophrikw, and Siboron 
ni«8t be a good day's journey west of Agran©. This precisely agrees 
with the , Antoninc Itinerary, in which yiboru is xxv mi\m v-xat of 
Agi'iane od & road leading from TaTiinu to SebaBteia. 

18. This Siborti, or Siboron, on a road frutn Taviinii to Sehosteia, tnnet 
1» different frnin. Ilwra, a bishopric of Ilelenopoiitus. The road on which 
it vraa Bituut-tnl wus uppa,niutly tlio direct route froui western Galiitia to 
Tepkrike (paseing of courso l>y Sobostcia). Baaililift Therma wm on tho 
road, as may be gathered from a passage in Cedreaus, which shows that 
Bosilikn Therma was in the Theme of Eharsinna, and on a road leading 
lo tho cast. In tho year 978 Phokaa was dt-feated by Sklcros at Aiuorion. 
Ee retired in good order into the district of Kfaaraiana {riv Xty^furw 
XafiiTiavov tenniX-iftp^i). Slcloros follourod him, OTicaiupud at Biiailika 
Therma, and challenged him to a second battle. Phokas was again 
dufcutud and fled into Iboria (Cbdren. LL, 430-2). TLiti account loaves 
only two possible positions for Basilika Therua, at Gone and at Tersili. 
Now Itnsilika Themia was a biiihapnc of Cappadooia Prima, and wo can 
hardly nuppoae lliat Cappnilocia extended a-u far north as Oiiuii, and 
moreover, it has been kLowh that Itolcmy's authority places Gsne Id 
Oalatia. Basilika Therma muot, therefore have been situat«d at Torzili 
Bainaru, as I eonjeclnrod yeara ago,1' jndgiiig fiom the importuned of the 
remains there and froiu the popularity of the baths with the Christiaos 
of Ca«areia. 

19. This road became a most important one in tlie Byzanttno Empire, 
It was [lart of thu military road from Cuii stunt inople to SebaHt«ia and 
Armenia, andwa^ in conotant use throughont the Byzantine caiupaigus. 
It oruHBud tliD Hull's at Tcheatinir KeiipieUi and was of course the great 
road of thoThoma Eharsianon. Tho KU'iaourophylaxof thatTliemowaa 
pi'oliahly stationed on the military ruad, and in that case there can bo 
liltle doubt that the lofty ottstlo now cullad Mushalcm Kale, whicli must 
IutT6 hwm a central point in the defence of Kbarsianu. wils his head- 
quartan, and on the military rowl. It is probable that it in the 
<* Lofty Castle " ("YipTiXt}) mentioned in the Saraoen wars. 

It in probable that Bibora was the city beside Mushalcm E&lc. It 
became a bishopric in later ByKantinc tunc, not appareiklly bofuro tJio 
ninth oenlnTy. This is precisely the period when wo hoar most about 

• TTii* u jnnbftbly thti Iroo r«pl«tinlion:— CMmoitw naj-t, Siiurrriiia-rl(wy fiSkior h. 
Tfaoopli, Oonl., p. 27S, nii<.l Ci-dmiUB, iL 209, havo itwi rmc iiaor^MTPi. Jolin's 
iiiovcmcutB wtrc uulfiiown lu Clirjaoolieir, and there luuft Uicrcfon: hsTc been wmo 
cou^dcrnblo dUUtoco between thein. 

f * Bulletia de CormjiuuiJaoce lIclU-ai((a<f,' 1863, ]>. SOI. 

T 2 



866 



A SKETCH OF THE niSTOftlCAL GEOGEIAF^T OF ASIA VIN'OR. 



the military importenoo of Hub roftd. There can be littlo douLt tbatr] 
during the troabled iiyxaiitiao timo tlio city at Mnsbalem Kalo wu 
the chief iovni of tlio district. Uuroover, it is near the miiieH now 
called Ak Uugli Mudeu, iiitd dorirod ftdditionoJ imporbinco thoro&om. 
In that case, for xxv of th« Itinerary between FarboBoona aod Sibora wo 
most roftd xxx or even xxiv. 

20. In tLo alx>vo qnotod passages of QtntsiuH, &c., the further ooorao 
of the roait ia tlius dd»oribed. Jahu beat part of hie army to follow 
Cbrysocheir ^«xf» ruv BaBvpCaKvt, and to olwerre whether ho detach«d 
any troojw to o[)enito in the Kbaraian or the Armoniao 'Ilioino. Chry-J 
acwbeir [sturting from Agrane?] lu tlio evening oucaniped on the slopos^ 
of the hilts* (^itncijrutat tdnt, Geoea. ; Mtra r^ toD opow tmaiptiar, Codren.\ 
while tho B^'zantioo troops onoatnpod on a r'ldgo overlooking his oamp. 
at a wooded diihcult spot called Zt^golo&nos. At dan-n the imperial 
troops euddunly uttauked ttie Pautlclans, soniu of whom vr«re attending 
to the baggage animahi (ra <)buf7tu tu'i vm^vyloK tmoC^iiaii), entirely 
def&ated tbuiu, and pursued tUom 30 miles (^iin rov Baffvpwutoi lim nv 

Batbyti Ilh^ax, or Bathynhyax, is aTtio mentioned by Conatantine 
Porphyrogouitutt a» one of the avXijK-ra on tbe great military road which 
wehavedo8cril>ed(6ooO.). It sboiild therefore bo looked for at a junction 
of roadB where iroops from different quarters ooald oonveniuntly coq- 
oentrate on tbe military road, to be in reudtness to swell tbe army aa it 
niarohed euatwanta. This oonrideratton places tt in the valley about 
Yoni Klian, a vory important point. 

21. Now, all roads from Sivmi towards the west or north must pass 
through Yoni Ehan, as Sir C. WiUan asserts poaitivoly after long 
fumiliarity with tho country. It fullows, tliertiforc, that the roads from 
Sebaeteia to Verisa and to Agriano mtut have coincided aa far as Yoni 
Ivhau. In that ea«o, con&idering tbe frequent corniptiyna in tho 
itineraries, it would seem probable that Stmos is a false reading, and 
is in Homo way to be i^leiitifiod with Fiorasi and Siara of thw other road.f. 
Tho distances, xxxvi in tivo eaaes, sl in the third, arc rather too great; 
m is tho utmost distaaoo of Teui Ehan frwin Sivas. 

':i2. Tho road from Musbaleni Kalo to Yeni Khan is Ifi hours fby '. 
Eaya 10 houro). This confirms the Itiuorary, and Agriane must 
looked for about EkkayL The road is tu be restored 

Taviitm xxi Eoniiaspa xxt Tarbasthena [x]xzv Sibora 
Agriano xxx Sinia xxtti Sebastela. 

AcconlltiKloMiirfbcraocoiuit, tboPanlidBQinMwUcd tboplitM cdlod Dalbjnbyax 
in tliG dreuiii);, anJ the Djzantino tr<x>j>a c ucmuiivd ou a hi U nbovc Ihvm. — TbMpliBii. 
CodUd., p. STlf. CNo »l«tcuu>iit beiG iJiovi ban loUV the dctacbed Uoojm followed Um 
Fanticiani] 

t i'«r>iiip4 3IAA0S fans b(s«me SiHOX. Slabs and Slora ore praotioall; tdntiaHl. 
Pjjuasi it [liubtibly cniuol Ijy a coricclion n bcioj; ndiled to a fulwt form Fbn. 




*NiU' 




TW 



!t^ 



208 



A SEETCK OF THE HISTOBICAL OEOQKAPHY OK JiSlk MINOB. 



ooatradlstory aooounts of tlie toaJh anr! stntion!) in the liorder-landfl of 
Pontiu, Onlatts, and CAppnilocm, iujuimuvli lu it is giiiirRuteuil hj two 
iodepuadont authorities, Ptolemy and the Peutinger Table. But IVof. 
Eiepert iu his 'Cvgoubtiuvrkimgcu* lias provod tkut Hii-achfeld's 
viciw of this road is migtAken, and as it depends on a theory of tho sito 
of Taviam whicli is definitely disproved, I need not discuss it. 

I have (see L 18) shown that tlio Aquas Saravens were the hot 
springg now called Turziii E»ioaui. The rcail of tbo Table, then, i« not 
a direct road, T>ut a dtitour. Euagina is at Gone, and wo Imve theroforo 
a part of a great north ronte from Cjcsareia viii A<juiu Sarnveaffi, 
Kuagina, and Karsia (Alaja), to Amaaeia and AmiiS08. Sir C. Wilsoa 
informs mc that this in at proeeut the groat nmd frooi Cncenrois to 
Amisos : it ii tite only road that is proctioablo f<^r arabaa, and mnat 
always have been a great Irade-route, It passea through Tchomin 
(Iiokbuita). It iH possible that from Alaja there was a oonneotion tiA 
lekolib and Boiabad tn Sinope, which is a junction of four ronda on tho 
Tal)lo; but this difGcult oioimtain path cuuuot have beeii important. 

Tiio road on the Table mseds further correction. Botwoou Euugina 
and Tuvium a stalion is naiitted; and botwsen Euagina and Cffisareia 
the DUtubere are far too threat, Zaiiia is a town of Khamanonot and cannot 
poBsiWy l)o on this road. It bs.e been transferred from the road Tavium- 
HoktBS(]8, which in dofoctivo in tho Itinerary and omitted iii tho Table. 
Saraloe (Saralio) is, I believe, transposed (see L 10), and we hava 

Taviura xvi Saralos xsii Euagina xvm Aqnte Saravenio. 

Between Aquie and Cresareia the distance is given as i'i niilo», 
which is too muob. The stations, liowerer, cannot be oon-eob, for Don& 
(Item.) can ha-rdly Iw separated from Ptolemy's Odoga or Dogra, which 
is evidently tlie Doara of the Byzantine lists. Tiiie wiis one of the 
bishoprics in Cappadocia Secanda under Tyana, and afterwards in Teitia 
under Mokiaanu, ami cannot therefore possibly te ]iliiced on tho road 
between Ceesari.'ia and its eubordinato bishopric Aqufu (i.e. Basilika 
Thertna), for that road raiiBt have been wholly in Cappadoaia Prima. 
Moroover, such a number uf short dijilancca as are given uu this road ia 
nuusnol in the Table, and most improbable in a country like Cappadooia, 
thinly jjeoplod, with few citit-s, and only elightly civilisud. Dona haa 
therefore boon transferred from another road, probably Cnsareia- 
Uokissoa. 

Berumsa Is given a second time in the Table aa Soramisa, between 
Zola and Neocicsaroia, and it is clearly idoutiail with Itolvmy's Sor- 
mouga in Pontus Gftlaticus. The other position in the Table must 
tUerefure be pvcferrcd, and there remains 

Aqwe XX Siva xxu Cambe xvi Cfceareia. 

Siva is the modem YoamioH (Kicpert), or Yogonnes, where the name of 
tho ataint to whom the cliurcli was dedicated seenie to remain. Kambeis 



U.— £DUAN B0AD5 IK CHNTtUL CAl-PADOQA. 



aco 



Kcmor. TUo only corroctiou needed u xxxil fur xxa letveea, Siva aud 
Cambo. 

2. The AntoDine Ituifrary giTCB a roail from Tavinm by Thenna, 
Scanda, tic., to Cn^9areia. The mQiilJoii of Soniida provc-s tliat this in 
not a direct ruud (|>cr cuinp«Ddiuni), 1>ut a circuitoUH road by Sbandft. 
Soaoda U knowQ as a. station between AroboUis and CiBRar&in. Tho 
lEientiou cf Tli(<rm)k gives a further oluu. Tli«*ritia (Ieuot«9 the hot 
springs of Kir Shohor (Mokinsos), and the Ilineniry is really giving tho 
route Tavium to Mokiasoe, and thonoo by Kuanda to Cn.tuu'cia ; bnt tho 
loaa of Beveral namoa at the beginning haa obscured the acoount,* The 
two rondfi cannot meet oxcopt at aomo point nemr Nov Slioker, where 
therefore Soanda muat bo plucod. The route MokiBRoe to Soanda inUJit 
vert&iiily go by Hadji Bektash (Dogra) and Zorupiusos. An inU-'niiv-diato 
htatioQ is omitted. A oompftrison of this road with that from Nyasa to 
CEwareia showB a remarkable similarity. They are thus represented: — 



NfML 

OBiana. 32. 
6ftkMOi»,23. 

Onnrvia, 80. 



TLerma. 

Sakoaiin, S2. 

CK'ljnu. (Acme v.l,), 18. 

CCMOTOIA, '24. 



Tbcro can bo littlo doubt that the road from Nyesu to Cojisareia pauod 
by way of Nev Shoher, and about that point it would join the road 
Archelaifi to Cwsarein. Thirty-two miles is about the distance from the 
jxtaition we have given NyjSHa to Ncv Sbehcr.l" Osiaua then muat be 
about Nov Slivhvr, wheru we have plooed Suauthi. audit aevma tiinxBsary 
to oonsider Osiana as a uorruptiuu of Sutinda. 

Tho next atation on eaob road appearx in a groat variety of forms in 
the MSS. — SiooaMonii, tiaicoasc-ua, Acvaecna, SucBHena, Scccaauna, and 
Saoeoa, Sacona, Saoouna. Thoro is groat prDl>abiUty that all aro 
oormptiong of one name, and the dietanue 28 or 82 suggcste that the 
atatioD wan near luje Sii, which is an iEUportant junction of roada. 
But a fuw miles norlh-coet of Inju Su arc tho ruins called Viran Sheher, 
and noar them Major Ik-nuet telU me th«i'e in u village Siikfiiiu, which 
baa preBerv«(l the actual nanio Stooasoiia. Uouve we may cunSdently 
identify the site of this atation as Virau Sheher, and prefer the distance 
32 between Soandos and Siccanona. { 

From Viran Sheher to Cetiareia is too Bhort a distance for the 
numbers on the Itinerary. Even if wo oorroet xxx to xx, tlio estimate 



* Anolii-or uuuapl« oT Bnnm omittod in thu Itinotarf is in tlio nnA iknkynt to 
Dorylaiau. Piot Kiopnt hm nghiiy aoou llial llUa routo in \iiio\y U> tiare be«ni giwD 
in KiiDo of tlio IlincmriFH. but mokea tho error of idi-nlifyiiik: Aqnao SarreDM m Kir 
Sliohor, and thu* ApplU-d tho wtong nam« to th« mai), m« tii* ' OogoDbnninrkungpa zti 
IV>r. O. UinclirrU.' 

t Tku total from Panuuioe to 3o«u<lo> (K Rviuau iuiIm) ft^reot wdl witli Ibu actu*l 
dlvtanco from tho aitiintion a fc^w milca uboie Tchikiu Aghf 1 to KtiT Slieiior. 

I 8ln1uu'B toule by Sadakura takes a man nuUieni path, am p. 30G. 



270 



A SKETCH OP THE HISTOIUCAL GEOOHAPHr OP ASIA MINOR. 



seems great enongh, ae the (listanca can Hardly be more than sixteen 
Euglibli luilus : but tbu Dumbers iu iLo Itiiierarios can Dcvcr be pressed* 
It ia clear that Oohrus or Aoraa is inserted here wrouglj- ; and it also ie 
evidently a corniptino. PerhAjiB. it is [Oiljogra rtiisplnced, and then the 
road is to be restored 

Titvium — Znma xmi Thonna xviii Odogra xvi Soanda xxxii 
Bakkasena xv Cie&ai'eia. 
It has been euggesteil above that Zama boIongB to this road. 

3. The direct road Taviiim to Ciesareia is ajiparontly oiuittod in the 
ancient documonts, hat in reality every station on it is given : — 

Tariuui ssi Korniaeita XJVl Siva [xjxxu Kamooro xvi Cffieareia. 

4. The road Sebafitcia-Ceeoareia is given in the Antonine Itineraiy 
as: — 

Crasareia xivt Eulepa xxim Armaxa xxvxil Marandara xxx* 

Svanatua xxviu Scbaeteia: total cxxxn, 
and in the Pentinger Table as :— 

Cssareia xiii Soipara xiiu Foroba xiiu Annaza svj Eudagiua 

xxxit MiLgiUaisao xxsu Comaralis xxii Sivastia. 

The total distauoe is about crxv n)ilos,t ivhich agrees fairly well 
with the Antonine Itinerary. The road paasoe through Palaa, obvioiutlj 
an anaient name : we shall see that it is probably the bishopric AipoUoL 
Enlopa seeiUH to bo another form of the saiuu tiume : ( l-ho consonant* 
being transposed as in Capatiuua for Facatiuiia, Morea for Bomea 
(i.c.'ytofio.ui'), &c- The distance is fairly correct: Piilaa ia about xxx 
miles from Caeiiareiu, bnt the undent site may have been diffetunt fix)m 
that of the modem village, a common phenomenon. 

Artnnxa is guaranteed also by the Table, and ia probably a oorreot 
uamo. Marandara is aleo given as Malandam and Mumndaua. It is 
perhaps Ptolemy's Mardara. Eudagina is Euagina transferred to a 
wrong road. ComaraUs ie Carmalis, and belongs to a different roud 
(0 II). On iScanatus ^ee O II. Magaloseos is perhaps a form of Uaga- 
lassos, Ptolemy's Megalos^sos, betwuen 8ebaateia and Xikopolis. 



N. RosiAH RoADB OVER Antj-Taiihos. 

I. In the roads between Cnwareia and Melitene, the Autonino Itinerary 
18 cxtraonliuarily full, but so full of contradictions and errors that it was 
quite unintelligible till a sorieB of milestones threw light upon theDi.§ 

* V.I. u^xriiE.. wliicli ia more likely to he wrrapt. OieaareiaxTt. Eiilepa also ooonrs 

t A4:cordiuK to Mujur Dt- lauul : Siriu IS YUclU Sti 7 Strni S3 Kanujj Eurea iU 
Tclieipi)« 1 1 Stoiio bridge over Halys 12 Paliu 3u Kouui. 

t PnUm, of coanc, is ftn AccuMlive Icirm. Aipolioi b grectiseiL lo get a form with a 
■uentiiiih'. 

$ 'riiD flnt wu dlMtivored by Kr. Clu^-mu in 1681 ; I bdded Kvoial la 1882 ; auil 
Mr. ^lure-Lt luis copied sud paltliBLsl a fine aeries. 



- K^BOMAN ROADS IN CENTRAl CAPl»ADOCIA. 



Strangply enough, ihe coDtitmation of tlio grout Bumau Highway, 
EpheBUB and Cwsamn to th« Euphi7tt«0, is quite abecured and only piirt 
of it is givon in th« eour»6 of a diffuroiit i-oad. There are two poflsible 
routes for thio rood. (1) Tbo fintt is 

CEDsareia 24 Zerezok 10 Zuniftnti Sit 30 Kara 'Eiliso. 

This is the most important of th« muilern roade which oroiw Anti- 
Taurou from Caeeanjia. It is prautlcabl© for wheeled traffic tlironghout, 
and in all probability it it) the roiitu which wim taken by tbo UomaD 
road from Kokiwsos or Komaua to Cacaareia. Tlio only other routo 
which oan be thought of goea liy Marilin and Toninrza. There it forka. 
having a choice of routes over Aiiti-Taurtis ; the Houtbcm route goes by 
Keneeli (where it is joined by a road from Femk Din, Argya Sheher, ic.) 
over the Gok Bel, post Guoilu, to join the Komaua-Kokiueoa road south 
of Eeklik Oglu, while another rimto goes hy Suwagon (S^^ayip-a) ou the 
Zamauli Su, crosaes Auti-Tauroii by Dither tbo Dede Del, or the Gcuk 
Bel, or tlie Kuni Bel, to Klimciili and Koniana (Shahr-Uere-ai). 

1 cau trace nv probublu rvfercncc to the Tuuiarza route in auciont 
MfriterH, and the identifioattOD of Arasaxa aa Zeresek (mentiouod first, I 
think, by Major Beniiet, many years ago) seems to prove that the lUimau 
ruad followed a more northern route. 

The preoiAe route uant of Zeruxek in by Kulete, over Zamanti Hn, 
near a recently hailt Moliajir {i.e. Refugee) village, p'lst lass, ()ver 
Aiiti-TauruH by the Kuru Tchai pasa to Kara Eilisa on the SaioB. 
Thenceforward the road coincidcH with the road froin Bebasteia and 
Ariarathia to Kokueeus or to Kuinuna. There ie indeed a path leading 
more directly to Arabiesos, Melilene, and the Enpbrato*, by Tovla, 
Tobarshak, and Dali Kavak, to ManignB and Tanir (Tanadarie). It is 
ubout 24 miles from Kiira Riliiia u> UamguH : bub the path in quite im- 
ptBcticable for whceln, and cannot have Wen uaed as the Bomau road. ^ 

(2) The other road is 

CacBaroia "26 Karadai" 6 Ekrek 8 Yore Getohon i Zamanti Su 21 
KeuiTere 15 Maragos 4 Khumian Kale*i 7 Tanir 12 Arabiwos. 

This ia abto «tiU a mml of sooie importouee, and wbtieled traffio oaa 
traverse it. It croKUt-a Anti-TauruH, between Zaiuanti Su and Keui 
Yere, by the pass calle<l Y'eUi Ohik,f whioh ia also the paw leading 
froia Azizic (Ariarutbcia) to the Sarus valley. Thia mad has also a 
continuatioa direct towards Tanir and Arahi^sos, which ia juttl barely 
practicable for wheels. It is probably the trade-route which Strabo 
dteoribea aH leading by Krpa, on the Earmalas, to the Euphrates at 
TomiBa, wliicli in doubtloas, uti Kiepert puta it, due otiflt of Melitene. lb 
ia more difficult to decide whether the fiomun military road followed 

* Etmtdtti U bImuI a mlli: iioi'lli uf Zvrvwk 

t ThoTs u *a altoruatlvc fos nioiu to the west bj Xavak XqM^ not proclicobla foe 

KhL-vla 



272 



A SKETCH OF THE BISTOEUCAL QCOORAPHY OF ASU UIKOE. 



thia roato or look tho paaa hy Knm Tchai. Tho namboni that ore 
given oorturiuly ^»ggost thut Codusabtitn was tit Keui Yere, and that the 
rcMid Eoktiflsu«-(.'aeHar«iii coiaoiilod witb tlie ruiul KokttesoK-AriarHtbem for 
ft greater diHtattce than is possihle by the Euni Tcliai road. Moreover, 
tliB frequent uppeBrance of rtanadaris ( Tanir) in the Antouiiie Itiuerary 
prows that it uust hnvo been a statica of hoiuo oou»e^ueaoo ; it is 
always pnt by tho Itinerary on the wrong roail, but tho oxplnnation of 
tha mistake wuuld ho easy if there wera two ron.i]8, Codiiaihala-Kotusdos* 
ArabiBHoH iind CuduHnbiilu-i'LinadariB-ArabiBsoa. We ma^y tbon pmbnbly 
Ba.y thai a Koiuun road w«ut along the Yedi Oluk route that has just 
beon doscribod. Tho roiid ifl dcgcrihod in the Antonino Iliiiorary as : — 

Cuecarcitt xxitii Araeaxa xsixii Curlusubula. 

Tho mention of AriiSHxa in not conclusive, fur, althongb I liavo not 
givon ZerLizek on. tlta Yedi Oluk mad, yet that plaoo lies hardly a milo 
Hoiith of the shortest path, and may quite well be taken on the rood. 
It 18 clear thut either the seootid xxiiii luiist he corrected to iLnil, or 
thut A Bt^ation has been omitted. ^Iruho givcB tho station Rvpa on the 
/amsnti Sn, and we may conjeotiirally insert it. The whole rood might 
then be restored as fullon's : 

Cftsaroiti Jtxiiii Arasaxn xix Erjia xrun Codusabala xxvuil 
Ftanadaris ^Tanir) xxii Arabisaoe. 
The Fentingor Tablo gives 

CsMareia xsiiti £>inisponk Xliu ArMtixa x Larissa sxut io Cilisai 
XX Comaun. 

I give thin tm a typical cxamplu of currnption. 

Siuispora xim must be eliminated : Siniti is porhapa Sinia n«ar 
Melitene and pora is perhaps Erpa. In CilifisI ehotild bo in Cih'oin, and 
Iwlougs ti>tbe road through thoCilician Gates to TamoH.* Bui, in regard 
to LarissiL, the Peutiuger Table is confirmed by Michael Attjiliota in 
deaoribirg the march of the Emperor Rouianna, who, in tho year 1067 
Blartiiig from Confitautinople, marohed by CiQBareia and tamo to Larissa 
(tjcv fh T»f» Kotiriipticii', ttra kui rji Aapitrtry ■n-pocrifii^t) : then, advauciug 
further, heoQcamped at some distance from Melitcne (Mich. Attoh, p.12it). 
LariHsa is also ofteu mentioned ob a Turma, origiDally belonging to thQ 
Cappadocian Thome, but trausfcned by Leo VI. in 8!t0 to tho Theme 
of Sobusteiu. 

This weighty coiDcidcnco muat be acoeptod, bnt tho dintanco x. from 
Arasaxft in probably too euifill, and in the preacnt state of the Tabls it ia 
imposuiblo to say anything moro definite about tho position of Lnrij^sn^ 

* Tlio mods on (lie Pentiugcr Table fruia Komnna to ML-liti'Do and to Samontd. 
tlionjfii very loufi, do not (sintiun one cnrtedt fltalion : c. g, U(Vt<iV>k ii Kastftbuln, hnvoght 
froui tUu ruDil Icuaiuiu-Pyluu Cilicin-l'Lirwic ; Arcilitpopoli i> Arlivlikia Coluniu. IrttniH 
fcrrcd Itcro from tho roud LitoJiceu'Cietiim'iit ; f'astwluiaw aad.Sauiu ue Dngalawiiia aiitl 
Zim, tirouglit f^m thorond^Sebaatela-Nivopolia. 



If.— ROMAH ROAM OVES INTI-TAUROS. 



27» 



tban tliat it was on tlto ilircct road to Iklclitenc, not very far east of 
Ariwuxa ami |>rol>(ibly nuar Erpu od tbo river KutiuuLiu. 

Marogn, now SUragoB, woa also on this road xii mi\ee from TauoilnrJa, 
tut I oiiiitletl it iu the lint giveu above in urder to retain one more 
iiuuibor from the Itinonirj-. 

The punaibiiit^ mudt of coureo be left open tliat boUi tlie Kuni 
I'chai routo ond tho Vedi Oluk loitto w«rti uaod by U19 Romnuti, and 
Lari»ia may havo lioen on tlie former, Ei'pa 011 tho luttei. 

2. Th« roat of tbo Anti-Tauroa roadu would bo quite uiuutelligiblo 
without the reccutlj- discovered scries of itiiluatouea, Li jstudyiug 
tho milo8tune« tbo firet principio to obscn-« is that stoneH in tha 
ceiuelery of a town are carriod from all quartera: henoe tbe mile- 
stones of KokuBua vary from PA tu PMA. But five luilca muti of 
Ookeun tbo unubcr PKB occurs, and 12 jaUee nortL the number PAU 
oocnrs, and 17 milts north tho miniVKir FMA. Tho distance Kokneoa to 
ML-Iiteno along tbo Boidhu road then must have been ia all prubabtlity 
137 Boman miles. Tho distance of Arubiiutos oaimot be detenninod no 
iwrtainly, but is near 100. 

In tbe roads which are giron in tbo Itinerary, tho most Btriking 
foAturo iu tho coiistAnt introduction of Ptanadaris. Thoro can 
bo little doubt that Ptaitadaritt ia Tanir, and in that case it 
is tutrodueed in tbe moat absurd and icnposeible way. It belongs 
to the road Arabisaos-CiDsarciu, and should U' vlimiuateJ from all other 
roads. If wo cut it out wo hax'o tbti roiul in tli» Itinerary Mulittme to 
Arabissos 104 M. P., Arabissoa to Koknuoe 28 M.P. Now, tbo sum of 
eepnrale JiHtimceB, station to Htotion, in alwaj-s greater than the direct 
distanco from end to end. We may therefor© conclude that tbe follow- 
ing stations nro aoouvnteily givett in tbo Itinerary : — 

Helitene xxvui Area xxi Dandaxina xxim OeJara xxvui Arabiwos. 

Oadara must be looked for botweeu Ueiuiiji and Aibazli. 

What Touto did tho Bomem road follow between Mclitono and 
ArabisBOB? Mr. St«rrett ftnys that between Alkitttan (12 milea eatit of 
ArabisBOs) and Ualatia " nu milliaria were found. I am wholly unable, 
tooocxiuot fur this fact, as there aretmly two possible roads from Albistan 
to Melitene, one of which wo travereod on tbo way oat, aud tho other 
on our rotunt. It may bo safely affirmed, however, thai the Bomait 
road did not go by way of Kw. Agha and Pulut, siuoo this whole road 
is much too difficult. Had tho Roman rood gone this way it could not 
buvo avoided the abrupt ])us«> of Ola Eaya. and it is exactly this paim 
that malcea it necessary to look for it cbtowhero. Tho only other route 
ift thai by way uf DoTiudc, aud tbeuco down the Tulcbma Su to Malatia." 

There is. however, another road, appareu lly unknown to Mr. Sterrett, 
of which I havo been told by Major Itennct, who has travereed it. It 
piitecs through Ai^, crosaee th« mountains in a nearly dircot line, and 
reaobea the valley of tho Sugutln Irmab near Alhazlt. The road miiy 



276 A SKETCH OF lOS. HISTOBICAI OCOOBAPHT OF ASIA UINOK. 

A|K)lIiiuiri8 was stationed here (' C. I. L.,' HI. Siipplem., 6744). Dwltonaa 
was on the bitiikB of the Euphrates oppOHito Penga. Ala II. Ulpis 
Aurianii was stationed hero (* €. L L.,' HI., Stipploin., 67-4S), 

Ftolumy asugna DftskotisA. ZiiuArA, Sinibnk to Armenia Minor on tbo 
hnnkfi of the Euphrates, and mt'Dtions Analibia west of tlie KupkralcB 
ID Annt'tiia Minur. Tie piitB Ciacis (which ho suenis to havo derived 
from ail itinerHi^ whoro it was gtvcn aa aii ablativo), and Dagoiiaa 
(which is prohubly a ditto^ruphj of Doskousa), in Ueiiteu«. 

7. Three pasiifB, h-ading iicross thc> &aHU>rii port of Taurou iutu Eutu- 
magODu, i:«a bo tiacetl in the ancient reoonla, one frora Koki)s»M to 
Ocrmanicia, a Boc^ond from Arabliutos to Gonnanicia, which is far moro 
{rDqut<iitly mentioned and fividently lauob more iiuportant, and a third 
leading dir«ot south Trom M«1itono to SamuHU.ta. Theeo thruu passes 
Aorrospond vith the three ohief modem rooteK, OnlcBon to Manub, 
Albostan* tu Maroeli, which in by far tho mout important, aiid Molatia 
by I'uUt to Adiaman and Samwtt. Tho 8tatoiu«iit of thoao i&cU liares 
little doiiht that Mnniah ia near tho anoient Gormaaioio. Rut, as this 
aitiiation hnn buvri dispiitud by !Rttt«r and Kiepert, I must examine it 
more closely. Rieport, having sacrificed all the north-wcatern part of 
KommsgOQO to tho t^^'o ■Stratcgiai SaravcD« and Lnviauscno, which ho 
foUowR Ptolemy in misplacing, ia obliged to sat Germanicia and other 
Eommagsnian txiwnfi much further south and east thau their tme 
ponition. VirKt, however, I may describe some of the marches of 
B<'ZiuitIuo emperors acroes Taurou. 

8. The march of ItaRi! from Caesareia into Kommagone, in 877, is 
doBcribed in great detail by Cedreuus II„ p. 213, aiid Theoph. Contin., 
p. '27S. It ia the same routo which BamanuB Biogeacs afterwards took 
ia A.D. 1008 (Scylitz., p. tiTl). After leaving Caosaroia, tho advanced 
guard captured Xylokastron (PailukaHtron, Conl.), and PhyrokaBtron 
(Pamraokastullori, Cont. |. Then the castlo of Phalakion 8UiTendured,t 
TJie KaracoR army flud bufure the emperor, who captured Kasama 
(Kaieo8{ or Katasamas, Cont.), Earba (Robam or Endelekhone, Cont.), 
AniaU (Andala, Cont.), and Erymosykea (ErymoBykaia, Cont.). Then 
Hasil criiRHod the rivers Ouupniktes and Sardoa (Sarus, Cont.), and 
arrivvd at KokuaaoB or Koukuueoe, wheooe ho pcuotrated through the 
defiles of Tanros, cutting his way through the forests, by Kallipolis and 
PiLdasia to Qoi-manicia. Ho chose tliis uncommon route evidently 
bcL-uuBc the regidar ruuloby ArabiaaoH was in the haaJs of the Huraocrns. 

' Tliii pwsa lias bocu ilewribeil to luc, and lt« iiupoiiuuoc most ntrongty cmp1iuJxo4, 
b; Hit Cliartcfl Wilson, Coloiirl Chcnniido, and M^or BeoDct. Alltovtan, *' tlie Qutlen," 
Ilab tnlien tlin pUcu nf Itie itnriotit ArnbiMcw. u Uie □ortliern key to tho pius : tbe ilte 
of Arabiwos is tbo moilorii vv11iif;o Yar]iux, which roUuna the nnoli^iit nnmo. 

I TbiE [>Wi?, wholly iinmu m );iveu in tlie aiiiim torm \ij Cvlruona uuil Ooattni., mart 
lie tliaiiDguLHliixl from tlm inountain Pbalakroo, mentiniiuil l}' CuuatiiniiiiB Pnrpli., Ae 
Tlicm., Ik. 31, 03 nn tho oortbcm or ntiitli-vro*t(TD frnutk-r of tbi> Theme Kolonola. 

I On Kkum as au Amb purMnal uuuu, uu MunJl, p. ISl, 307. Svu p. 3M. 



N.— ROMAS ROADS OVEJi Ai'TI-TAl'SOS. 



2-; 7 



All i1i« forU whicli ftr« mcntictiod on this pMsngc mtiiit Im strong- 
huldK comniaudiog the ruads between Catisareiii and Eqia, fur they 
are all meationed liefore the Onopnikteii (Karnialaa). Melitene and 
vTcn ArabisBOB appoar to bo at tJiia tJmo to thu hands of tlie 
i^raceuo. 

Aft«r deTa«tating Ihe ontskirtA of Gormaaicia, but not voiitDfing to 
attack tlie wallx, witbiti whicli tbe ArtLbs remained, Basil beaieged 
AdutA in vain, and finnllj returned to C'aeeareia. 

9. To appreciate fully the evidence of this oami>aig», it u n«cMsarj 
to examine the frontior between the Aral) and tlio Bj'zautino {wwer at 
this time. It is banllj poKsible to fix tbo exact date when Oomtanicia 
(^Ksud into the SamccD power.' The Bytantiiic rfconis htc silent, till in 
745 Thoophanes luontioofi that it was recaptured by the ChriBtians. On 
this ftubject vro may colloct the following faola. In 6SA ArabiaHOR and 
Melituue were buth still in Byxautiue baniLi : ArabissoH whh a military 
elation and residence of tlie Kleiaoiiiarch viho gnardeii tho oaetem 
[■OHStfit of TauroH (Thcophan., p. 3£0;. Tho Arab hijttoriana dtclnro (eco 
Wi'tl, 'Ehalifeu,' I. 471^ that Marash was evacuated by thu GrtH-ks iii 
695; but this was perhaps ouly a temporary withtlrawal, aa in 700 tho 
tirwke defeated tbo Ainhii near SamoBala. Uut most probably tho caiii- 
pfrign of 700 was a single great uffortr and Kommaguuo uow puiMvd iolo 
■Saraoen hands. In 712 ThoopLauoK, p. 3S2, apparently implies that 
Jt[«1tteoe was outKtdo of the domimons of PliilippicuH. Auiaseia was 
congnerod in thu eanie 'y<^'^> f"^^ >■■ ^'^ Coeoureia of C'uppudocia wuh 
takea. lu 716 tho theatre of war was abvut Aoioriou, Akroeuos, aud 
uv«n PorganioH. In 717 the Arab» crossed by Abydos into Europe, and 
even beaieged CoiuituDtinople. But this raahnesH cost them a severe 
defeat. It is practioally ctirlain that at thin tiiuo thu patHOH of Tauroa 
wore entirely in Arab powtr. The KhaTfian fortresB wae captured in 
730 by the Araba. But from thin time their power diminished. In 740 
(hwy were defeated at Akroenoa, iind were trying to oapturo Tyaua, 
which thoy had takon in 708, but which must again have paaacd under 
Christian power. lu i-lli, according to Cedrenuit, II., 7, and XbvophanGE, 
p. 422, Cuuiitaii tine Copronymus, tukiu)> tulvantage of the difiaendioos 
Hmoug the Amha, captured Gcmmnicia and laid waste Doulichiu (i.e. 
tbe oouotiy near Dolioho). lo 7S2 he captured Molitcne and Thoodo- 
aiopolifi, in Armenia. The great paae was thus in Christiun hatidii for 
Homo years, till in 770 (jlemianioia was recaptured by Al Uunsar, and 
iaoorporated in Palestine, i.e. Syria-f In 778 a gre&t Uyxantiiio unuy 



* Ttae (latas ^ven hy differant authoridM vary wmBldembljr. I Tolkiw Btumit for 
«anv«ntQO«i> in avcry mm whom ha muodnna tlic eieaU. 

t Flslay wmtgly audcnriamtj) tlmt tliu iulwUliuiU mto tmuportvd Ut rulntttx}: 
M*mA4'ii *'' noAaiorfdir is Tlicujili&niu'a way of ta^iiig tlmt it -vmi »i.-|iaruti^ frum lh« 
Bynntlue swaj.aud ouuk part vl tLi: Aiab domiaioaa FalotLSuu ougljt lu Ui tnuuLiied 
Syria two. 



2»0 



A SKETCH OF TIIE niSTORICAI, GEOfiBAPHY 07 ASfA HtNOR. 



itfttiTe name at last expelled the official title." I lielieve tU&t tbJE official 
naiDB was Germanikvia. Ritt«r, wLo maiutainit tlint it was Antiodioia, is 
bound to show wliat Byzantiuo binhoprio incluilcd within Ha bouudu this 
city of Autiocbtiu. 

In 1b9 second plaoe, Bitter ^ivee aa one of tbo reasoTis for pl&dng 
Ooimnnicia further Bontii tbmi MarnBb, that Stopliaiins wijs it was in 
Euphratesia, " also im Slidcii von Korumagene dero Euphrates niibcr 
g«niokt." But according to the proriiioinl diTisiou of Diocletian 
Euphratesia boidered on Molitene, and even P(>rra is inclndo^ in it, and 
18 nnmed by Hienicle» neit to rrcruianicia : Euphratesia inclnded tbo 
whole of KoiumagiiDO, and Kuuiiua{!;ene ezteudud t^) the borders of 
Mttiitene and Kataonia. Forro is woll known to have been beside the 
modrm Adiaman, north of Samo&ata. 

Again, Altyutash Kale, where Kieport wnuM place (lermanicia^ ja 
pronounoed by Piichstein to be a purely medinsval rnJn, withont any 
tnc« of Ancient importanoe. Its situation and its romains are both 
alike inadequate to explain the importance of Germanicia, and the ronto 
Germanic a- JSctigma-EileBBa in the Itinerary' it) ridiculous if Genuanicia 
\a at Altyntnah Eule. 

10. Almost tho only reference to a third route cros^iing Taiiras from 
Melitenc to Sainosata is the account of the military road in tho Antonino 
Itinerary. 

Mi-litena xii Maieena xxvni Lnkoteiia xxvi Forro xxiiii 
Samoeata, 
This rente is fairly certain. It goes by Elomenjilc, Khan Ttnnar, Viran 
Shchcr or Surghy (near which Lakotena must be placod), and Adiaman 
(Perro). Wo should gladly placo bouib of Ptolemy's names on this road. 
ItCaisena or Maiasona docs not seem a correct name, ami Lacotoiia should 
porhaps be ult^rod with suuie MSS. to a Cvteiia. But aomu now evidence 
is needed beforo any conjccturoB ai© jtiBtifiablo, 

In TLeophaaea, p. 3dO, it is shown that tho ordinary route &om 
DamascuK to Melitene wft§ nut by this pass, but by that of Arabisws. 
This paea in ninntiuoed along with that of Gbroiiiuicia and Adata in the 
treatise de Volit. Bell. Niceph., p. 250, whoro tho names Meliteue, 
Kuloudia, Kai-iJouLi, and Baoutha, are connected wiUt iu Kat.tiJOua mn^t 
be diatinguished from Kaisos (see S 8). 

17. The road from Kukuiwufi to Eaatom Cilicia is given in tbo Puu- 
tingor Tablo as follows :— 

CocuBo sriU Luranda xviii Badimo xxn Fraotorio XXll Flaviada 
STUI AnaEarbo. Total 9R nulcH. 

This is a route of cousideruble importance : it baa been described to 
mo by Colonel Stewart and Major Bennet. 

* rnikMiu n-pUkcedtlieotDi'UI I>iocic(ureiiiiiili9Uuruiii1>aitt7S7. und loKanlabouiMU 
nai SiUlla lepliucil Uioic of other Imuriau cities. 



K— BOUAN eOADS OVfift AKn-TAOBOS. 



281 



GukBun, 4000 foci abovo tioa-lerol^ 

6. Adji Mata pktean, 5C00 fccL 

13. Kara Kiliitn. ruin, MOO ; tbou croas cwiloit of rivor SaiM, 
exactly 1000 feet deep. 

21. HsQoliA Derc. 8900 fr«t. 

31. HarljiQ. 3200 foct, at-w BatUmon, 

40. Oenk Su <Saro«), 2800 feet 

47. Kira/. Bel, fllSOfeot. 

54. Tupaiulcro, 3000 foot, near Praetoriam. 

68. Oirgen Su, 940 feet. 

76. Sis,* 600 feel.Tlaviafi. 

90. AnaurlA. 

113. Oemanii'. 

124. Q&m Ebane (Epipb&neia, Bonnet). 

130. Roach sea. 



0. Cities asd BisHOPBrcs of Cappatxku. 

OeueTftUy, the lu1« of Hicrncloa and of tlioiVod'ftii; Epitcopataum form 
the beet starliDg-point for the dinouattion of the topography of a province, 
1 annex a compaTativc tnbl<4 o^f these listR, but it i» of little uac in this 
case, 1wca<t«6 tltu ori^iiiaatioD uf Cappaducia wan apparently veiy 
peouHar. The other provinoes were for tL« moat part divided into 
cities, eaoh posseaBiiig a certain territory; a few districta or demui 
mentioDed in each province form exoeptions. Bnt C>ppa<lociA vras 
divided into largo diatricta, in L>ach of wlii^-h th^re wore many village*;, 
or even towns. Tlio diatrict under the Biahop of Cfttaareia waa ho largo 
in the fuarlh centur>-, that he liad 6f(y cftorcpiiKopi to h^lp him. llie 
naiD« of tho di«trict oflon differs from that of the meet important town 
known in it, and somctimtsa the biahup gets his title from the town 
(Saainiu, Boailika Therma, Doora), while Uiu diatnot in which that town 
is situated is uoQtiuiicd by other writers under ita own name. IleaM 
many of the nanica in Cappadooia have an adjectival form (lUclitene, 
iljakasena, Sohagena, Sehflgena, Ac.). Enho, Terfaiisung dea romischeu 
Reichea, ii. p. 2UI £, givee an cxoellertt aooount of the Cappadocian 
political ayatem. StralKi oaya there won) only two citiee — Qreoh cities 
in A Cifcppadocian countrj-, aooording to Pluloetr., ViL Apoll., ). 4 — 
Gneebeia (C«easrvia) and Xiiaeheia Tyaiia, but it would appear that at 
least Ai'cheloia and Ariaratbta should be added as centres of Hellentslic 
ort^oniaatioa. Elat-wbero there vrere no dtacena, no aasomblioa, no city 
magistrates-t 

* Other datanccs an^ BU Ui Adann 41, Ailnnti to MIjhIj (Uopsotieatia} 15, Adsoa (o 
Ayna S4, Miuda to Oimanic. 33. 

t Hax''? *f )^<^'*^ ""^ ^* K«nalJicaii Itn^it, {ifipa^av filr t4 eif^ya riy 
OTOixciw*-, tfVor/AAair H ii fotuvrintm «al tiqji^r ri $fax^*- — Fbil(«ir.,Vii- Sopli., U.13. 

V 2 



5.— CAPPADOCU. 



It u imposBiblo to group tbo difiorent towns and Tillages under the 
bielivpriott to wliicb tbe^ were evbjwt, aa oTidtxiw is ftltogetber wttDtiog. 
I therofgre prerer to disotue Oapi>a(lo(.'itt ucdor tho Slrateyiai. The claHSt- 
licatiou intu bislioprke, liowever, ofreu gives imporlaut eviJeiic't' in par- 
ticular ciuujB, and 1 ahull often have to appeal lu tlio Byzantine diviaioiM, 
an account or wluoU in neoeosaiy a» a prelimiQar;/. 

Id tbe wintor of 371-2 the Emperor Valoou dividod Cappodocia into 
two proviiic«t», with the intemtion of injuring Bnsil, Bii«bop of defuinjia, 
by reducing tbo size uf the proviuoo mibject to Liu coolt-'oiaHtiCTdlj. 
FudimdoB, a mere hnmlot, wan first made niutTX))x>lis of the new prvfisoo, 
Cappftdocitt Svcnuda, but aftervr&rda Tjaun was iiiEido the metropolis. 
Then aroMi u Btrugglo between AtithimuK, Bishop of Tystia, nnd Baul, 
the latter trying to retain hif) authority over AutbimoB and tbe other 
bisbopH of Sucuudii, the former cluimiog to bo independent und Metro- 
politan in hia province. 

Cappuduciu SociinJa was again divided into two by Jiiatinian aboQt 
JLJ>. 536. lie made MokisBoa the capital of Cappadocia Tertia,* giTing it 
tile uatiio JiiaLiiiiauoi'uIis. 

The account which Strabo givos of th* tec Slralegiai differa very 
much from the pontion nseigned to them by PColemy. Kiepert followa 
Ftutemy, and places Laviansiruo and SoravQuia tioutb of Melit«ne ou tbe 
frontier of Kommagcne, along the EiiphratcB. I jsiall follow the authority 
of Strobe, and in tracing oat tho map uftur hitu 1 hope to show bo atany 
iucideuUil cundruiatious mt tu provo that he in more to be trusted than 
Ptolemy. Strabo divides the Slralegiai into two groRjw of Ave each. 
The first lio in a scrica extending along thtj soutbcm side of Cappadocia 
(i.e. towards Tauras), froiu the EuphratM on the east to Lykoouia on 
tlie wc«t; thoy are Molitone, Kntaonia, Kilikiajt Tyaniti«, and Gar- 
aauritia. The other five estend along the northero side, from the 
eastern liioita of Cap|>Adocia to the tialalinn frontier; tbey are Larian- 
Bcno, Sai^araaseoo, Saravene, Cbamauene, Sforimend. 

riiny (vi, 3) agrees partly with Strabo, partly with Ptolemy: 
Cnpi>adocia] par^ j^irtett^nta Arm«iiii« majori, MoliU-nc vui-atur; Comma- 
gouR), Cntaonia ; I'hrygia, GarEauritia, BargarauaQno, Cammaneiie ; 
Qatatiic, MorimcDC. 

Ptolemy agroos fairly well with Strabo as regards the general 
position of Tyaniti«, QarRauritis, Eilikia. Cbamauene, Earaonia, ood 
Molitoue, though ewn in their cuso ho has frequently mado Gerioua 
errorif ; but ho has plaoed Sargarausenc whoro Sanivene should be 
(Plitiy mak«8 t}i« suiuo error {^, and Moiiriauo (i,«. Moriinouo) where 

* I find ui> iiuuuuw of thli tittu la Muiiciil tlMumaaU ; both MoktaKW and Tjana 
liviag eHlle-d iiietn>|>olt'i« of B^'CunciU CkppuJociu. 

f 1 diitinguiati Cillkia u tko StraUyia ot CappadKiIa, ClU^ aa thfl conaliy Bonlh 
of Tauraa. 

I Tli« emr ta prabubl; doe to tbe likeneu of tlie Wo DamM: ^opovn'^ aiul 



284 k SKETCH OP THE HISTORICAL OEOOSAPHT OT ASU UUtOB. 

SaTgAnnMBO should be, antl liiui put SaraTono and LavianBcno in 
Kommaii^fliie, either omitting most of their torritory, or (juuing it in 
ArmGnia Alicor. His map of Cappai3ocia and Armenia Bfinor is thero- 
fore incxnct to a degree entirely "beyond his repreneutation of the other 
provinces of Asia Minor. The n»«on ajipcurtt tu bo tliut the Sfrale^at 
were an aotiriiiatod iiistitntion, bel'>Dging U> hiatory, not to political 
reality. He oonld thereror« not hnvo noceos ta RoiDiiii official Hi^ltt, but 
was obliged to tniBt to th« maps. The authority whinh he followed 
nppoarB to linTe given hiru in iiinat of the StraieijiM the nani«fl of seTeral 
of tbechi«f towne.* Thi.60 he plftcc« together, soiuetimesfii-Bt, in hia list 
of the cities of the StraUgia, and tht-ir known poftition difuijp-oM in ninny 
c.'ises with tho sitimtiun which he asiigns to it, while it agrees perfectly 
with the aituntion which Straho aflsigiia to It. He thuQ added a few 
other towna in each SlralffyU, which he derired from the auLhority of 
exiating ma]>B or itinerarieB of the di.itrict whero h© plated the Siratetfia, 
and which ihL'reforo eeemod to him to agree with his position for it. 

I. GASSAOtTBtA is fixed by Gamaoura, which has 1>eeu recognised 1^ 
Leoka «8 the old name of Colonia Arcliulais, now Ak Sorai. It theroforo 
bordered on Lrkaonia. Ptolemy, Stiobo, and PHoy are agreed in thia 
poHitioo. 

The dties of Garsaoniia are given by Ptolemy aa 

NnveoTTO! TtTfiairvir/ia. 

Fbrbatx IB never mentioned elHewhere. The immenHe depth of the 
wells in the plain of Haesa Kcui and Malakopain. may have caeaed the 
name. But this plain eeema to belong to Morimono, and wolb am 
oharaoteristic of many villageBf in the plains of Cappadocia and 
Lyoaonia. Very dot^p wella existed also at Savalra (Struh., p. C68.) 

AfiCBSLAts wa.il. founded, as its name denotcH, by Aichclaoa, king of 
L'appadocia. Leake has tthown that it in the (laiuo ua Btrubu'a ktmunn/Ut 
Garsattira (p. 637, 539) on the great eastern highway, and wc might 
infer that the foundation of Archoluis in latur tinin Strubo's time, were 
it not that hia information can be traced down to 19 a.d., whoreas 
Aroht)l4Wffl died and Cuppudouia waa made r Bomnn ])rovinoo in a.o. 17. 
Probably therefore Strabo'a information about Oarsauiia waa not Dp to 
ditte. Stralio inontions that, thonjijh a mero komopoliii in hia time, it 
had been formerly a metnjj)oliii. It was made a Roman colony hy 
Claudius.^ It slruuk no ouins under the empire, a remarkable character 

* I ibkll <liow under iMrot* thnt Pujiemy givea a name to tlie okvontli StralAgla 
KtLioU cuulil bu uBvil uu!y ilurtag tlii; mgn uf Auliovliuo tV., a.0. V7; hia authoritj on 
tli« SlraUgiai muftt lln^roloro hnvo been Hvint: at lliat time. 

t Ucnt uf tlii:^ pUcea ueiiUuiiet.) by Piolcniy um tuKr<! viUii4i!it, HtmlM) nientiuni (hat 
Iheie wi!to only tw* cities in Cuppailiocia. Muzoka. Tyunn (p. S37 : aee p. WI). 

t PItnf, ' Nitt. Hiitt-,* vi, 8, wlio mak<« the Diutako nf [liitciag it oo the Haifa, 



a— CAPPADOCIA. 



2S5 



whicL it sLarM witli Claudius's other colony ClaudiopoUs in Cilicia 
Tracbeia (Byzautine Isanria). It was an important c'sly thruugliuiit 
Byzantino history, and cron more important audcr the Seljuka of Konia. 
Kiceta^ Cboiiiuta iiieiUiims th«t ii, was cnlloil Tufa/ia by tUo Turku iu tho 
twolfth ccnlTiry. Td(afM is apparently a Grook writing of the Turkiah 
Ak Serai.* It is very often lueittioned iu Byxantiue authoriti(»i us 
KoKwvtta. 

XAKESios must be the same pl&oe which ia oalled MomoaBBCiii in tho 
Jomsalom Itinerary, 12 miles c>aat of A.rcb«lai8 on tho road to Tyaua, 
It still lutaiuB ite name in the furiu Mammasun, about three hours eoiit 
of Ak Serai, and tliifi form bhows that the Tttcerory is moro ac«ural« iu 
tho uauio thau Ptuluiiiy. 

DiocA4\REiA wan the name given under the Kcmau Empire to the 
amall town of Naziaxxoh, the hirth-placo of Suint Gregory TheolugOB 
NuKiunzcuoa. jUaiiy passagca prove the identity: e.g. 

'H Jiiuiiaiffifiavr dA/'}1] riJXii. — Gn'g. Kaz- PoOm., p. 1121 Uig;tta. 

About 876-80 i..D., Biucwaarcia, for noma act of inaubordination, was 
threatened wilh degradation from tho rank of a city. Gre^^ory 
intercodod enccceBfully on its behalf with Olympioe, the governor of 
Cappadocia isecunda (Greg. Saz., Kp. 141.) 

By the Emporor RomaMns Diogenes (1087-71) Kaaiauzos was rmised 
to tho rank of a luutropolis (SoyliUi., p. TOiJ [645]). 

Nasianzoa was on tho road to Tyana, 1!4 miles f from Archolais. It 
BtiU ratains ita name as N^onizi, aix hoiii« cost of Ak iSerai. In the 
JemsBlem Ittoentry it Is corrupted to AnatluKsgo, and in tho Autouiue 
it is writteu Naatianulus, Philoatorgius (a[>. 8uidam, s. r, Vfn^yapuit) 
mentions that it was a station on a Soman road (tnaeiivt). 

The forms Na&ai'fioc and Nafliiu'^oc are given as equivalent by 
Philoatorgius (ffidf. Ecclet^ viii. II). 

K1111D&1.A was tho uamu of a vjllago in tho territory of NariaaKos, 
tesido which was an estato Aaiiszos, tho hereditary property of Gregory 
Nazianzen. It utill rotainH its naitio in tlio form KaA|3ap^ in Grook, and 
Gulvure in Turkish. Gelvore in a Christian vilLt^e, 2^ hours south of 
Keuixi, containing Qumcrous rock cutting» (churches, houses, &c.), aud 
a church full of reltos of S. Grogury N«zianr.6n. Tho inhabitants ai% all 
aware that Naziuuzoa, tho city of thoir soint, was at tho Turkish 
Xonizi. 

In some referenoos u doubt iH left wbolhor Karbala was the village, 
and Arian&os the witato, or vke vtraa ; but it is distinctly mentioned in 
one passage (aoe Uansi, Aet. Concil. ix., pp. 256, 358), that Ariaoioa wa« 

■ Compan CiniMiniu, wba hu 'Atoofn) aud n^«t^ii: TultJak, Ak Sh«)hcr ftnd 
fi«g Shohur. Taxuni ia Tor -rt 'A* Sapit ; 1,-oiupiiro UIia,1ci3c»a J., p. 213, wli« apn^ of 
K'liiia IU TiKirtmr. goe tlao p. 270, 200, miil Addi-oiln. 

t ilL T SJI. M.P. TIio dutaiLMi «c iwjmiiigly ratticT too great. 



286 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL OEOOBaPHY OP ASIA MINOR. 



« f«rrn (prsnTitm) in iho district of Nazianroa, belonging to Gregory 
Nil*,,' wtiore hu wiiB buro. Tlio exjireadion nr^/xa iV 'AfnaiZoK owurs. 
Al Arianzoe a festival of tho holy luartyrx oii tho twonty-Becouil of the 
month DatbontuL in mentioned by Gregory Naziaczcii (Ep. 125). Thin 
villnge Kai'tiala is callwl nv ^topiou KanpaXiuit (Greg. Kaz, Ep., 308), 
■where the npclling either varies or the reading la corrupt; Gregory 
writing to tho gotcrui^r [of C'niipodocia Socunda], sa^-a that when tho 
latter happened to be [iresent [al NaKtanxDe], Gregory liftd the oppor- 
ttinity of titlkiiig vUh him (irnpoiVij! r^ nfiioTrjTt'x irov. SnA«j(e>;p) : he wa* 
at iho linio living on tho family property at the vilhigo Kiirbala. 

Salimpkia, or Sarasraka, isa verj* donbtfnl place. Sarabraka cannot 
be separated from Arauraka (i.e. Arabraka |) of Armenia ?lliiior, whoee 
(KPettion is anenrod by the Autoniuc Itinerary (208 and 216) as GO milos 
(or -17 miles) west of SataUi on tlio roail to Nikopolia. Two altcrnatiTc* 
are open: either that Ptolemy hna misplaced Sarabrata, or that the 
identific-atiou of Saliimbria and Surabraka is Incorrect. BalaiiiViria Beems 
to bo the Bamc- as Salnberina, which ia placed on the Pcntlngor Table 
between Aj-cheluif «ud Tyuua, but which cannot bel'/i)g to that zond, all 
whoRo etntioni) are well known. 

TETiuPTiinn awniR tn occnr twice on the Pentingcr Tabic, once as 
Tetra, hetwi-en Kybi«1rii and Cicsaroia. and again as Tetrapyrgiii, between 
Ikoruon and Poiupeivpolia. Either eitaation is irteconoilable with 
Ptolemy, but neither hii8 tho slightc-st real weight, and tho tast jjlaco ia 
one of Ptolemy's liatii has eijnally little weight : hence we may say that 
nothiag is known of Tefnipyrgia oxcept the name. Tho Acta Saoo* 
tomm J aids os by prceci'ving tho rocoi'd of a station Totrapyrgia ta 
northern Syria, Probably this station hnB Iwon fftl«<!ly transferred to 
Capprrtlocia : though it is possihlc that two places of the name may 
Imvq existed. There was also a Tetrapyrgia iu the Oyrosuica. 
To theee wo may add 

Arocstaha, XVI. tniles north of Arohelais on tho road to ParailBSoei 
Argnstauia isa luurv probable form. 

OautA, HI. milea west of Kazianzos, on the road to Tyana : the name 
is suspicions. 

Tho towns or villages of Garsaouria are 

(^louia ArcbelaiH (Garsauira) 



Miimmaesfis 

Arianzos 

Argustana (Argnatama) 

Nora or NftroasBOB (sbb Eilikia). 



NiiKiaiizoe DioctoEareia 

Earbala 

Chueu 

Mataza f (see (KlLlKii). 

Argos or Argaioe (neo LykaosiaJ. 



• Cf. GrPK. Nai, Ep^, WS, 125. 

t ITio lurio Arabnika is iisral by Conrtant. Porpb. rfj nem., p. 31. 

X t miinol £it<! the cuf t tttcteacc, vliioh I hav« loat lot tUo time. Tlie name or a 
Byriftn TrtraiijTgtA immn otao Act. Siiacl., Jan. 2G, p. 311, but aniither more apcdflo 
tHunaiec oooiin. Hon below, p. 857. 



0.— CyHTXDOOA. 



287 



II. MoRiMKKi ia dcscri liod by StraW (j>. 537), as tlie part of Cui<pa(Io<nft 
wluch adjotneil Lako Tatt« : and (p. 534) »« tbo wdstom tiralfigia on tho 
northern sido of Oippadooin. Ho also saya that Venasa ia a ditttrict of 
Moriinene (p. 537), and I shall jjruvc TjcIliw- that Venasu w«b llie {iluiu ul 
Mt'legul). UtiDLt) vru twe ttiat Stralio la&kcH Morimcne tho district along 
Uio Boutbom l>ank of tbo Hnlyi?, from ihc froutitr of Uolfitia to Mclcgob. 
It ia bounded by Gulalia, tiiu llalyii. Kilikiu, Tjranitiei, Garsuuuritiii. 

rUiiyagrvi'(i,iuiyiiig tliatMorinioneiiion the Fhryglau bonier (pielfn/a 
Phrygite, vi. 3). 

Morimcno in (called by Ptolemy Moariano, and placed botween Eata- 
onia and Arroonia Miuor. Sumo uf tlic tuwus whtcb ba placi-s in it, 
bowever. duiimrid a vary dilTerent Hituation, exactly in ihopositioa Strabo 
plaoea Uoriincii«. Tbia pru%'OH tbat Ptuk-uiy Lad aucosa to an uutUority 
wbicb gave a more accurate aooount of the Stratfgiai tbou be hiiueclf boft 
produced. HiH list iit 

livatra 

SiSDlTA and EoTAiKA are, according to ihe priaciple laid down above, 
perhaps dorivod from Ptoloniy'a authority on tbo Strattgini*, anil are, 
tbeiefore, town* of the real Moriuiene. If w, they are either abeolntoly 
ncknowo otherwise, or clso (be namos arc coimptod. It ia vselem to 
advaoce coDJootiiree such as that Siudita may bo Sounda, and Eotaina 
may bo [Mabijkopaia, as tbuy cannot bo proved. (See aleo Locotona or 
aCotena, N, § 16.) 

ZoBOVAanca luia retained ita name ns Yarnpmm (Art-twiiu un Eiepert'fl 
map), on tbo ttontbom bank of the Half's : tbo ferry over tbo Ilalys on 
the direct luad from NevShoher (8o>indoei}to Hadji BeVtash (Doara)sxid 
Eir Sbelier (ACokiswos) is at this point, which is, themfore, of 8om« 
ounec<]uoiic(>. 

NISSA itt fixed ou tLv bank of tho Hulytf by the dewription of Gregory, 
bifihop of NvEHft. Jn Kpitttle vi. bo duauribea his return to Nysaa about 
A.D. 378. He piutMil throngh EariKMi and VestoiiH and down the course of 
tbo river (which can be no othur than the Balya), through a number of 
villages, which lay oloae to each other along the elream, to Nyssa: 
KyEsa waa on tho ntail from Cntiaroia to Faniansos. If, as is probable, 
GrBgory waa coming from C-ieiiareia, hte road led through S'landa (Ner 
Sbebor), and thence through Earsoa and Ve^teue: from thin point bo 
mentions that hie road led down to tho riveraid*. Ve«tone, then, most 
be near Tuz Keui. Nyssa is to be looked for 34 miles fTum PamafiHoa, ou 
tbu south bank of the Halys, abont 10 milea above Eeasik Keuprcu. I 

* Thry ccnie at the beginning of hia tivti but see SargaraoMnc, SanTonCt anl 



288 



A SS£TCU OF THE IHSTORICM, OEOORAPHY OF ASIA HIlfOB. 



have o1>8erv«(l in this neiglibuurhood a, great many curious cuttiogs in 
the Txxiks lit tlio rivor'n Lriak. 

NTOsa iras not fat from tlie Galatiau frootier : hence Gregory saya 
^EpJAt. p. 107ft Migno), M TTfjofTX"'/"" '^ *>^7* 'EKiiXifvia'! TaAixrak Tho 
garden on the bauks of the Hslys, from which Gregory wrote faia 
twoQtiolh epistle, was doubUvsH beHidu Nyoi^ft ; uDd lie mentions that 
the aame Vakot* wan Galatiau, and that it deeoni-d • name moro in 
aeoordimoo with Its hu^aty thuu a mere Galatiau word.* 

Nyasa, though away from the proper t«rritorj' of Ciaearuia, and la 
Cappailooia Secuiidii, wsm i-etained hy Gregory for the diooese of his 
Irothur, Bajstl of Cicaarcia, at the time of tho dJiiputo 'betwccD Basil and 
AbthetniuB (nee p. 100). It was alao inoludcd iu the Baue Turma wiUi 
Cacaaroia, cbvionsly for defence of tho Huutli bank of the Balys. This 
Turma was tmnitftirrecl to tho Xhurstuii Theme atiout 890 by Leo VL 

A&jtSAXA hu8 retaiQcd He name ws Seruick or Zerceek.t ux hours OUi, 
of Cnsoreiii. Its aituatiou ouimei he rcicoiiciled with the real Motimene 
of Straho and Pliny, but it suits exactly iho Monrinno of Ptolejiiy on Iho 
euat uf Eilikia. This, theref'urc, is a clear example of a name ioiiertad. 
hy I'tulumy iVom a luap or itinerary t« suit hiK poeition of Mouzuoe* 
It beIoni;a really to Kilikiu. 

ExuNALis and GitiKjUie are otherwise uukncwn. Their poeitieu after 
Arasaxa niakeM it probable that th^y have been taken by I^lemy frota 
an itinerary an lyiiig iu the district which he ooiuitlered to he Uouriane. 

Earaaiia may be a mietAku for E^iuialik, and be oonnectod with ths 
river KamialaH, now Zamanti Sii. It most then be derived from an . 
Itinerary] and uiuxl liave been a station beyond AraGaxa, at a erOMnug oi 
the Earmalas, either nn the road CaiHaieia to Euiiiaiia and Melitene, or 
ca the road Komauit to tiivaa. Kew the Peutinger Table hfia Coni&ralia 
CD the road Sivas to CiBsaTeia. Comaialis may eafely be corrected 
Cariualis. Tho stutioufi ou this rond in the IVble am all false, with the 
exception, of Armaxa (sea p. 270) ; and Carmitlis lia« been traiiaferred 
from some other road. 

In order to place Karmalis, it ia necessary first to cxamioe tbu 
evidence aboat the river Kurmalas. The Eannalaii is Hupposed by 
Kiepert to he the Tukhnia Ku, a tributary of the Eiiphrates, flowing , 
through the SiraU</ia Melitene. Thia opinion is tioutrary to two paeaages 
of Strabo. In p. 63ti Strabo mentionu that a tciaperary obstruction of 
tho upper EarimiUH produced doudB in Cilicia, in the districts near 
Jtlallos; and in p. ^37 he says that the Eurmalus traversus Cilicia aa 



' Tkerefere the Capparloclaoa scorned tlie GalatiiinB. So tha heretic Euaomlcis conw 
|:laiDcd, wt of mt iitjurj-, tliut Baail liitil called liim u Galatian. vhereoi be wu ft Cnppa- 
duciiiu or Oltumrin, a viUajji- in tbi' dUtfiirl nr Komtiupa, near tlici (>ulfttiaji Croulior of 
CsppoilooU. — 'Grog, N^u. a. Eudoiu.,' pp. 2bV, tiSI, 

t 8» W u I kuowi Sinjw ficunct was lLi> flrsl Iu netico Ihii siutIviiI of tht aocuttl 
tuam. 



0.— CAPPADOCU. 



289 



well 08 Cnpfndacia. Thoao pasaagoB point nnmietakably to tho groat 
river, uow calli;d Zamaiiti Su. wbioh niid»Fartii the north of Capptutooia, 
and, uniting with tlio Suroii, f]ou'» into tho soa near MhIIos. It is truo 
that the river PyramoH pasaed olusu to Mallos, whereas the Zanianti and 
SaroB are ft littb further vff. fiut the lands oil the latter river may very 
well ho desciibed by Strabo'o words, rHiy KiAixwi' ni-i x^P" '« "'♦P^ MaXAer, 
And there in uo other nvei* except the Zamanti Su which can bj any 
poMibiliiy correwipond with Stmho'a Ji-scription (p. 537. 539. 6ft3); " Tho 
Karmalaa waa a river of Sargaratisene, which flowed into Cilicia, and it 
was crossed at tho small town, £rpa or Erpha, by the road from CuAreia 
to Melitene." 

In the ninth oentary the Earmalas bore the strange name, Onopn iktee. 
In CedrenuB (ii. 213-4) aud Theopliaii. Coiitin. (p. 278-80), a marrh of 
Basil from Cesaroia to Kokassofl is doecribod. Uo croesod the rivers 
OnopTiiktoa and Saroa. There are only two rivers on this march, the 
Zaniauti Su, or Earmalaa ; and thv SarUE Su, or Saroa. 

The modem name Zainanti Sii ia perhaps derived from the fortrces, 
TsamanduB. which is BOtnotimca mentioned by Byzanlinu hiiftorians 
(e.g. Cedronna ii. 423). Ita aitnation is unoertain, but reforenoos 
anggnst that it was in tho region of Cappadooia through which the 
Zamanti Su fiows ; and we may now say with confidence that it was 
aitnated ou the riY«r. The name Zamauti Su, when compared with 
GodJz Tohfti, Qebren So, Porsulc Sn, clearly mfans *' the rivor that comoa 
from the town Xomanti;" and tho name Taamandoa or Zntnanti, an applied 
to a fijrt or town, must have anrrircd inlu the Turkish period. TIi>ltv urc 
two plaoes which might very natiirutly give name to the river ; one now 
hears the name Azizio, having bocn recently made tho scat of a kaimakam 
for the Circassian oonntrj'. and re-named after the Sultan Abdul Aziz.* 
It is aitnattsl in a very remarkable, i riprcsaive, and important situation, 
■whenr a magni6oent series of fonntains rise from the hill" that fringe tho 
ZamantiSn, and form a stream which much more than doablos the wat«rof 
the river. It might wtdl lie that the river derived its name fiom thia 
fonntain. Similarly the Sakaria is conadorod to rise in a voat seriea of 
fountains near Tcbifteler, and not in any of tho long streams which join 
these fountains within a few roilea of their aonrpo. Another place that 
might give its name to the river is Viran Sheher, through which the 
Zamaoti 8u flows a little distance from ita aource.t One or other of 
these mnst be the site of Earmalis. Now Tsamandos was on a loCty 
hill, which is qnile inconsistent with Viran Sheher, but may snit Azizie: 
therefore Earmalis was probably Viran Sheher. 



* lU Alder iiome appeara to hnvt^ iMon Bunu Bulii (Riltcr, •Kloiniiaioa,' It. 139). 

f Kicpcit sad Ritt'.-r luoke llio Znmanti Su rlao kt Vuant Ituiil, and i>lnca Virau 
fibclitr m the 6aniz (!ii. This it an ciror, nml U uorncliil in Kir.in'it'n Ialr>t iniip. Tho 
water llist dona lliiuufrb ili<! auntm at Viran Slielu>r flaws (o Axixie. AioiworUi makes 
ViKLQ Sheher a TurJcisli (ortreM, but oa tiiia oplaion tea pp. 290, 1. 



202 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL flEOORAPHT Of ASU MIKOR. 



88 being & rich couDtry. which tmits tbo upper Saros ralley. Con- 
Atantiiie, 'do AJmin. Izap«r.,' p. 228, oiao epedu of tho Itlouonra that 
lies botu-een tho city Lylzftndoe adcI Tzatnaudoe. This ia the well- 
Icnown and important pass by which tlie Bonuui road crossed from 
Ariarnthia to Kodii/jibaU. nod wo mttj therefore confidently place 
Lapam-Lykaudos iu the valley no&r Keai Yer& and Eodaabola. 

It would be long to diHcuss thfl either roforonoos to TBiunaDdos, 
such an SoylitzM, p. 677 (op. Attal., p. 121). But the deHcription of the 
campaign of Komanus Diogenes, in 1068, above clearly the situaiioD of 
the Theme LyltSindos. IIU dosign woa, aft«r sponding the summer i» 
LykandoH, to otohs into SjTia in tbo antamn. In portmanoo (if tJiis plan 
he entered Syria by the paiw from KokusBcw lo Germauii-ia, which thero- 
fore leada from liykaiidoH into Syria (ftee Attal., 104 ff. ; IjcylitE., 669 ff.). 

Tenasj. is a dietrict mentioned by Strnbo in MorimcDO {p. 537}. 
There woa at Venaita a sanotuarj' of Zeus (upov roC tv OvijiWoit Ai(>t), 
which poeseKM-*! 30i>0 hierodouloi and a 1arg«t and fertile country, 
prndiiHng 15,000 talents (ihhubI revenue to the priest. The prieet held 
office for lifv, ftiid raiik^ next to tlie priost of Komana, In « former 
paper (* Bulletin do Corresp. Hell^n.,' 1888, p. 322) I publidied an 
inscription rrlating to the worship of this deity; Mcyot ZrI-< Iv 
ovpay[^ coT(o?J *t\tu)i /am ^T}p.rp-pit^ It waft engraved on a flat stone 
lying on the top of a hill near & village called iu Turkish Suvermcs 
and iu Groek <VAofpa. A well and a hole with traces of building around 
exist on the hill-lap, which commands a splendid viow of tho plain. 
Being cmbjirrusai'd by the erroneous position for Morimene, accepted by 
Kiopert on the authority of Ptolemy, I there stated that this inscription 
could not refer to the Zens of Venasa. But when Morimene ia rightly 
placed, tho greater part of tliis plain in in it, and then tho inscription 
may be taken as evidcnco th&t Venasa waa tho anuicnt name of the 
plain. This ponitiou ia confirmed by a quaint and interenting epitjcdo 
in tho hiatory of tho Christian Churoh in Cappadooia. 

A certain UlyoeriuB ws8 ordained by Basil as deaoon of the church 
of Venaea (O^rtacv, Swcocra*', OwijKira). He raisbeliaTeil in this capa- 
city, and dcspinod the authority of his presbyter, of the chorepifcopns, 
and of Basil himself. At )a«t ho toot the opportunity of a great 
gathering at Vonasa {avvo&oi, obvioUKly tho Christian Hubatttute for the 
old fcatival Tov Aio^ roS o- Ovifi'nirois), whun a great multitude was col- 
lected fiom all quart«r», and before the whole aoBembly ho brought 
forw-ard a bard of virgins, who followed his minietratioM, and danced 
in public. Finally he fled from Yenaaa, acoompanied by hi« devotees, 
and sought refuge in tho dioceae of Qiegory. Basil, finding that 
Glycerins had thus gone beyond tho sphere of his own authority, wrote 
to Gregory and begged him to send back the women to their pareata, 
and if poBsible also to force Glycerins to return. But Gregory rather 
took the part of Glyoorius, and evidently couaidered that he was ti-uly 



O.-CAPPAD0aA. 



293 



follgiouii; iMid finally Basil iigrccd to overlook the past enlirelj- If they 
TToiiM all return. 

Tho opieodc ia qnaint iird int#r<^stinf;. It ia clear tlnat Glycerin* 
introduoed BOtnGtbiug of the wild entbuGiuiim uf ihu old Cappndocinn 
religion, analogous to Montanism in Phrygio, and there is tuach 
jiTuhability that if the mtldaemof Gregoiy had not prevailed over the 
IwrBccntinf; «n«r^ of Jtasil, the movom^nt znight have gro^u RtroDgcr. 
Ap{mr«ntly a little judicioua leniency quietad tli» dititurbance. 

For topngiapliicjil piirpoaeH it ia necessary to discover who vtas the 
Oregoiy into ivltofiv diiwuM} Gtyocriaii tied. Tilk-mvnt cousidoni that 
either Gregory of Nyeaa or Gregory of N&ziAnroa ie TDoast. Bnt tie 
lone of the lottor ia not wliRt w« might expect if Basil were writing; to 
cither of thorn. It ifi not oonceivud it) tbo spirit of uuthority in wliich 
Raail wrote to his Iitothor or to his friend. It appoara to ms to show 
a certain defor&nco, which, considering thn roeoliite, imporione, and 
unoompromiaing ohnracter of Basil,* I can explain only on the srappotn- 
tioii that he in writtng to the aged and vencrahle Grttgorj'. Bishop of 
Naxianxoei. Then the whole Bituation is clear. Veiiaaa was in tlie 
district of Ualakopaia, or SnvermeK, towards the limits of ihe dioccM of 
Cfesarnia. The ailjoining tiiBhopric wna that of Nazianxo^. Tcnosa 
iKing 8o far from Ca-sareia, was administered hy one of the fifty thor- 
ejMxcopi whom Basil had under him,t and the aathority of Basil waa 
■ppMied to only in the final report. Glycerins, when BaiiLI decidfd 
Bgftifltt him, DAtnrAlly dcd over the border into the diocnHo of Nfi;nan7«9. 

The gre«t plain which exteiida from Sa«iinn nearly to Soandofl is fall 
of andcrgroTiiid hoiiws and chiirehea, which are said to be of immfnaa 
extent. The ioliabitants are described hy Leo Dioconns an having Iwcn 
originally named Troglodj-tes.J Nicopborus travcrsod their country 
A.D. i)63, during hta luamh along the Byzantine military roa<l via Tyana 
to the Cilioinn Gatei>. Enain (see p. 250 and p. 3uC) may theroforo be 
probably placed In tliia valley. For example, every honito in Ifaasa 
Eoai haa nn underground story cut out of the rook; long narrow 
paaHages connect the underground i-ooiua belonging to each houae, and 
also ran from liouae to house. A big aolid diac of atone stands in m 
niche oateide each undergrotmd honse door, ready to bo pviUed la front 
of the door at any alarm. 

Sasima (the lengtli of i is proved by the line quoted hulow) waa 
on the rond between Xazianzoa and Tyana. The distances pc^nt 
certainly to Uaeea Keui. At this the road to Sooodoa diverged 



* Seen capeciiJl)' in bis behaviaiir to Grrs"'? Naiianxpn in tli« oiattCT of tliG bulioprio 
fif BMin.t. I ftn<l it iiM««n(y In fficpUio for tbe benefit of elauiMt ■cholnnt that 
liKgiMT Nm. waa aon flf Gngoty, Biahop of MosIaaMM, 

t TilliiUitiDt, ' M^m. |i. M!fvir, tc„' ix., p. 120. 

Xafii/pivtott, imr*l f atXcoTi csl vwurfut, bwvtiivita. — Iaq Dtnc^ p. SS. 



A SKETCH or THE lUSTORlCAL OBOGRAE-irT OF ASIA MINOK. 

from tbe rood to Arch«Uis. The eituatiou is well described by Gregory 
NuK'iiiiizoD (* Poem.,' p. lO.'iS, Migoo) : — 

"Ayvip-01, tx^''f' "^^ **>*' /A«i9(^oi, 

Affrt 3(wt^a)«' rwr J^wf iiiiiKria(a. 

Aa abaolutoly Dnhistnriral modern IcgAnd nbout tjt- MAkrina is 
rotated at Haiun Kuui. Recently h good-Kized clinroli has been baUt in 
tUe vU1l4^ evidently an the nite of an ancient cbii.rcli ; it in dodicated 
to St. Makrino. vrlio, tut titu vUliigo pricat relutue, fled bitbor from 
Kaisari to eooapo tniLrriago, und tu d(!dicate lieraelf to n fuuntly lifo. 
The uudytgrwmd obII in which Hho lived is bobjw the church. 

B^gil, during bis cunfliut with Antbitnus of Tyana, mado an attempt 
to retain tbo diittriot within hid dioofse by raising Suaimu to be u 
biBhopric, and consecrating his friend Grcgoiy Nazianzen aa bishop. 
Tho attempt vmt fruslnited, partly by the reluctance of (jicgory to live 
in 8iich an luiplcoaaut place, and partly by thu determined opponition of 
Atilhimuu, KupporttHl by tha civil aathority. S&siraa was always 
attaelied iu Eubeeqnent time to Tviuia. 

Near Stisima there wiui a ]tlaee eulled LlHXAl, which Anthimus 
oeciipied, in spite of the oppu«itiou of Qrogory Nazianzen, during the 
(juarrol with Basib Tbe incident ia doecribod by Gregory Xaziunzen, 
Ep. 60, where \i(j,vrn is iisuiilly regnrded a« a oommon noiin; but there 
WM no roaaon why Anthimiis should oouupy the taainbes, n,nd great 
reason why be should 8ei7.e a village \ifi.i'ai in ibe district of Sasima 
(tsarltryft \i'nva<i). Thie is tbe vithige, one hnigr ea&t of na»8K Keni, now 
■ called Goljik in Turkieb and Ai/ti-a. by the Grcoke of tbe district.* 

This obscure village Limnai in one© referred to in the contradictory 
accounts given of the exile of the usnrper BasiliitcuH and bis wife 
Zeuonie. As several of the original nuthoriticd urc not acccs«iblo to nie, 
I quote ValesiuB (od Tbeodor., Lect. I. 30): "De loco in quo Bwdliacua 
tyrannns inteiiit, diesoutiaiit autiqiii ecriptoiea. MarcclliuaH guidem 
in Chronico, et ex ille JordaneH in libra de SaoceHsioiio Hegnotum, 
Boitilitiuum in oppidu Cappjulijcitti Limuis ]}«riiBsa Iradunt. qnibua con* 
sentit Auclor Ohronici Aloxandriui ; Hcd Victor Thanoueuaia in Chronioo 
Ilnsiliacum Sasimia Cappadociro martnum esea sGribit cum nzoro ho 
liberiH. Quud quidvui propius acuidit uil scripturam Thiodari noatri 
(BoLi(ni;Hiic). Theophanee vero in Chronicx> jwig. 107 BusJIiecntn una 
cum iixoro ot libem Cuoubuui Capptvilecicu dopuTtatum fui&»e BcribiL" 

The eeeming citulitidielion now disappeurti almoBt entirely with tho 
above expotiitioQ of the situatiun of LimniLi. All the authoritieB are 

* 8oe my p^per (q ' Bulb dt> Co]tq«])i>di1. Uulltii.,' 1383, pi. 324. 



O.~Ci.PPAD0CIJL 



295 



agrood eioopt Thcophanoft, vrha moat be in orror. In 'l^eoilurus 
Leotor tbo uftmo in corraptod from SuviVuks to Bcnwuftoic* 

Tlie greater part, probably tlie wliok*, «f thin pliiiu Wlwigi-d lo 
MorimoQe, oxoopt pcrlmps 9a«iina^nii(l Mouitili«. Saaima waa appaietitly 
included In Stratogia Tynuitiit by VtiAcmy. in w}io((o lint it liw beeu 
corrupL«d; the first ayllable Las dropped, uud SIM A bete bocomo StA.\A. 

MoL'SHLiA of Ptolocay's Kilikia ut tlio modorn Mist), of the same 
valley, [tart of the biaboprio of Saainia. 

SiQC-o tho poeitioii of Morituene baa been recognised, we may plnce 
in it tli« fuUowiiig. 

SOANOA or SoAXiiOH (corrupted Uniaua iu the Antoiiine Itiu., p. 20S} was 
th« point where tli« ruudx from Parnfts«o« iind from ArchuUis todtusareia 
met ;t >t mimt tlierefui'e have lieen situated not far from Nev 8h«hcr, a 
cituation which moat in all poriuda buvo had iK>m« local importance. 
We migbt bavo expected a bishopric in auch a fine and central pnGition; 
and iu ibe latoaL Xotitin.\ III., X., XIII., a blsboprio, Matiakk, ueoura 
under the metropi'lis Uokifisoa. Uatiuuo boa atill retaiuod its name as 
Hatchuii, a amall village a fen* iuLlt>a eaat of Nev Shc-hcr. Ixstiida unu of 
the moat striking groups of rook-out huu«c«, cburuhes, und tamba that 
exist in A»ia Minor. Matiane and Soaiidos ai'e praotioally one biahopric. 

Soondoa must be reitil iu pinoo of Scmidos, wbit^h i^ men tinned us a 
vlUagft of Cappadocia subject to Ciesareia, three miles from Moutuiaeka, 

vwo /ti]Tf>uinKiv TcXoi'«n;s ri/v Kaumpiaw'). A mouastery c'aII>Gd Tlaviuna) waa 
20 atudiu. from Bloutnlasca. (Coinpure Vita Salub in CotuliL-r, Eccla. Or. 
Mvttum., iii., p. 222-3], Tlie monastery was perhaps among tho wonderful 
rook reraiiinR of Matclmn, whicli is called Martohan in xome maps. 

Tito faot that it wax Kubjoct to C»-»iareia pruvua that this Scandos 
of C'appadocia Bhonld not bo idontificd with tho Bcandia mentioned by 
JufrtiutAti. Novel., XXVIII., as a iowa among the Loxi, in the moet wslem 
parts c>f Pontes, beyond Trajiezuu^.^ The place Si'-anatiis, mentirtned io 
the Peiitliiger Table, near Sebosteia, on the road to CseiuiTeia, is probably . 
a misplacornent and mifiepelHiig of Jtutiuiau'a Suundin, 

MAt.iJ£orAiA is ueulioued in the Saracen ware at the end of the 
eighth oetitiiry. It rofa\in« its name as Melcgob. The late Dr. 
Mordtmaun observed this in an interesting paper. 

OziZALA is given in tho Aotoniue Ittnorury as OzKala, in the 
JanuaLem Itinerary as logola, and in tho Peutiiigcr Table Nitalia 
Ozixala have porbnps been run togetbi^r into Nitaxo. The onrrcct form 
is given iu tome letters of Gregory Nazlanzen to his friend Amphitocbiiis 



* Ma<nr»ut waa. iloubtlru, a real varicly of XJ^i/m (ia irUeli iota U loag) : «nm|i«Tv 
Siblia and SiiubUiiOD. Suaauna nu'l BunMina nujr be wrmptioaa : ike latlct ia a aicni 
dlerioJ error. Awaia Ibr Snfuaui. ava p. 2S2. 

t 8»» p. 249. 

I See al«> Prucopjas, B. Paul II , 389 ; B- GoUi. IV., 52C 
VOL. IV. X 



206 



A SKETCH OF TRE HTSimilCAL nEDORAPHT OF ASIA JIlKOB. 



(Ep. 25 to 27). Thoro is some fricmJly joking in the Icttors, turning on 
the foot that Oeixaln abnnndcd in vcgetablcx, whilo Nozianzos was n 
com-growiug dietiict. It was 16 or 17 miles south of Pamasso*. While 
it mtiBt he left in dniiht whether ParniuiHos \rn» in Chiunancuc or in 
Monmono, there oan bo littJo doabt that Ozizala was in Moriiucno. 

An oetate, which belonged to the family of Aiaphilochiua, in the 
territory of Ozirala, is frequently referred to. Its orifpnal natiTe name 
is unknown : it woa renamed £uFin:uiAS after a hrothtr of AmphilttohinH 
who died there. The father of AmphiloohJue, however, was bom at 
NamnzoA (Greg. Nrk., Pofm., p. 1123, 1161), Gre^rj" No/iniiKPn w^nt 
(from Nazianzoa) to pay a visil to CJregory NyssonuB, and BtopiM?*! by 
the wny at Eiiphcmias (Ep. 197). Basil (Ep. 217) writes to Amphiloch ins 
of Iconiam, d«li);ht«d at the proapeot of Be«ing him agnin. If Amphl- 
lochins coTQCB to thn honitr> iit Etiphemins (»' AotaXitjiiiii tov oIkw tov t'lrl 
r^ Ei'^/iinSos), it will not be difficult for Ensil to go there, and more- 
over, lie may at any rut« bu uhliged to go to Nazianzos. 

KiT;iLis is given in the Jernsalom Itinerary, 31 milos south of 
PamasaoB. The Antonino has Nitazi, and the Pootinger Table hns 
Nitazo, -which seem to be corruptions arining from the next name Oxizala. 
The towns or villages of Murimene are: 

Nywia. Vwtene. 

!!oropaatoB. Eilfhoh. 

Boandft. Miilakopaiii. 

OziKala. Venass. 

Euphemiat. Sasima. 

Matiane. Limnoi. 

Nitalis. 
Farnassos is doubtful : it may be either in Morimeno or Id 
Chamauene, probably ia tho former. 

m. Cn^VAViiNK in phocd in much the same position hy Straho and 
by Ptolemy, adjoining G alalia on the west and the north. Pliny's ex- 
pression Pfirygite pratciita may be interpreted in the same scubo. It ia 
Uncertain whether Btrubo couHiJerud that Chamancne was confined to the 
right bank of the Ilalya, or whether he considered tbiit it embraced Bomo 
tonitory on the left bank north of Moiimene. But as Ptolemy begins 
with Zama and Andraka, he has probably got them from hid authority on 
the Strat«giai, and in that catje Cliamanvne lay ou both sides of the Halya,* 
Ptolemy's list of towns in Chamanone is 

Zifia. Oid&tUL, 

'AvSpaxa. So^oinipa. 

PaSuu'a (v. 1. TaSdatjt/a). 'O&oypa. 

* TUo potiticn of CIiaEnrwncno on the Oalatitin fianUcr ozplaini tho word* of Buil, 
iti^vt tIi i^Ti icrSo'ii "(fi Xofiai^rfi?; in n ktlcc nddreaaod CVnr'(«W, appwoatlj Cmtiivri 
Oalaiim. Id Ep. 3IS, also addressed to a Galatian ufBolal, he uys, ftrri yip nittoi tlutt 



ft-CAPPADOCIA. 



M7 



Zaha U placed by tho Pentingor Table on Ihp road Itotwcen Tii»iam 
and CKftareia, tint more protia1>ly it wan a statinn olnee to ihc GulHtlan 
frontier, between Tftvium and Thcnna-Atokisaofl. No other reference to 
it is knomi to me. 

ANDitAKt is called Aioirapa in the Jerusalem Itinerary. It waa 
12 mileR norrh of PamawiOB, on the frontier of QalatJA atid Cappiidoola. 
A cityi;f l*u])h]agonia is nleio kiiovrn of iho nami> Aiidrnpu ; Ptulvmy 
has it ''AvBpana t] koi NrocA.at,<SibVoA<f, fttid it was Ibe Littbplac;? of a 8ai»t 
named Hesychioe (Act. Sanct., March 6tli, p. <56). The correct form of 
the Cappadocisn name ia uncertain. 

GaT'Iaxa in an adjectiTnl form, nnd Gadia may be the Galea of the 
Jonualem Itinor&i-y ; Gnlcft wae 9 milcB north iif Auilrnka or Andr»pa, 
on tliu Galatmu aiOo of the frontier. I'orhtipB Ptolemy is wrong in 
AHsigning it to Capjuclocia, or elRe the frontier may have variod tX 
diflercnt tiinoB. It in probably to be idcntifiud with Stnibo'a Kadono, 
the capital of the tiHurper tiiainea, as Nora-NeroaaBoa was hie treaaare- 
forLrosa (Strah., p. 537). Tho two plaeoa nro therefore proUibly not far 
dittttint from each other : oee Rilikia. 

OiJADArA is mentioned only by Ptolemy. The name eeoma cornipt, 
OaadntA appears to have boon tftkcn by him from an itinerary vhleh 
placed it on a road south of Andnilca. In that siltiation Oziznla lay, and 
delta for zcta is ollowi'd by the form Nailiandoa (sco NAZiASron). It is 
poeaible that OAIAAAA has been corrupted into OYAdAAA and 
OYAAATA. 

Sarvina. is by its samo identified with Aqnta SarreriK* of tbc Pout- 
ingcr Table, and marked as a part of the neighbouring StraUi^ia of 
SaraTone. I have clBOwherc (fuUt^t'n dc CorrcspoBdaitec UclUniquc, IQdQ, 
p. 330) identified it with the Byntntine biahopric BoirrXiKa &€pfia, and 
placed it at th« hot Bpringa now culled Toi/iti namam. 

Odoora 18 pTx>l>ably the name as Doara which bocamo a biahopric iu 
the fourth CBntaiy. It is also probably the samo aa Dona ( to be oorrected 
Dora) in tho I'cntinger Table on Iho road botwrton Cmiarria and Tavium. 
Tho following coDsi duration 8 enable ua to localiso it noar Hailji 
Bektaah :— 

(1) When Cappadoda was divided by Valens in a.t>. 871-2 into 
two provinces. Prima and Sectinda, Doara was in tho latter under the 
mctropolia Tyawa-t It could not, thoroforp, be aituatcd on the nio«t 
direct road from Otraareia to Tavium, for that road mu'^ms to havo been 
entirely in tho diaceei* of Ca»(ireia, but must have Uin on a roa«) that 
gr>ofi further t<i the weat, i.OT on tho road that goes by Kir Sheher 
(Mukisaos). Previous to ihie it had boon Hubjwt tu Cffiaareia, and Baril, 
BUhop of Cwaareia, did not give it up without a Htruggle. He made it a 
bishopric, and conBooratod, by tho hands of Gregory Nuzianzcn, the Unt 

* Aqitiu) AmTf-nu in tho Tivbl«: frm Bbor*, pp. S65, 20S. 
t S«a Manai, • AeU CoooiL,' ix., p. 258. 

I 2 



208 



A sKrrcH ov the msroRicAr. ceographit or asia wxon. 



BinTiop, in 373 A.D.. in tlio hojw (liat he would attach the ace to his rido 
iu hilt cotitruvorsy with Aiithimus, ninhop of Tyo-nn.* The piutaai^ just 
qugt«d from the Aeta CtfnctJiontm fthovrs tlmt he Hi not fiuoce«d, anct 
that Doura nontinneal to be under Tyann., and that il8 BUhofB were 
cciiH6cr3t«d hy tho Motroiiolitaii of Tj-aiin.t 

When aXtoul 43S a.d. JuHltnian ruiseij MokiaeoB to tho rank of a 
meltopolis (^metrofkilitana jura dedUsel), ho named it JnntinianopoliB snd 
placed Duara, Nuziaiizoit, PumasgoH, and Culoiiia AruhehiiH iiitdor it 
(Mansi, I.e.). 

(2) An inoidunt in tUo church history of tbo funrtU ocntnry 
coufii'ms the sitnation assignod to Doartt.t In J..D. 383 a oertain Bishop 
BoKporiuis was acctiDed of heroKy. It is menlionodf in tho l>U8in«8fl of 
CooBcil V. ^Constantinop., a.*>. 55S) that this BoHix>riiiii was Diahop of 
Duara. Ti1]emout,ho'waver (Uom., «to., ix., j). &SS and 727). rejects this 
Icetimouy on the jtroimd that no olhor reference to a BoBporiua of Doam 
ocGure, and cnnsidem that the person meant is tho woll-known Bosporius, 
Bishop of Colouia. But the fact that an ohscnre Bishop of IDoaro should 
rarely he mciilionod haa nothing surptising in it, and a ooDeidemtioti of 
the oiroumstance-i shows that Tillcmont is wrong. At the r&qacst of 
Gregory Naztanzsu AinphilochiuH, Bibhop of Iconium, cama as far as 
['ariia^AOH in order to hefrienil Bottjioritia. In coming to IVmaBBos Am- 
philochiuB ncco^aarily pa6.4od through Culonia ; and if BoBporiuii bad beoia 
Bishop of Colouiii, ho wouhl havo etoppod thoro. He went on, however, 
towards Doara, tintil he rauio to FarnasEtot), on the road from looninm 
and Coloiiia to Doara. Here h« van close to the diocetiO of BuKporina, at 
a coutnil and imjiartant city hy tho crosHing of the Ilalyfl. Tho ooly 
other road to Doara wonld have gouo round to Zoropuei^O)!. 

Tho exaot site of Doara can hardly he doterrained. Il was probohly 
either Mudjiir or Hadji Bektash. The latter i» tho central OHtahHshmenl. 
of the Bckt«»h Dervishes, once anch a powerful body : and tho ooutinuity 
of r«H^otus hi^tcr^t' »uggcets that it is the modem repreaeutalive of the 
old bishopiio of Doara. 

Parxassos, « town of great importanoe, has been very vanoosly 
placed hy gotjgrapherfl. Mordtmaiin, in a paper that oontaiiui tnncii 
iDtereBting matter, has put it at Kir Sheher (Moki^os-Ju&tinianopolis). 
Uamiltou, followed by Kiepert, hau placed it at Kotch Hisar, a Tillage 
near the Salt Lake, Tatta. According to this riow, tho road follows the 
bhorteet line acroeB country from Aohyra to Arohelats, but makes a long 
detour 90 far as concerns the way Irvm Ankyra to Cwearoia. lehall 
prove that tho road Itetwivn CHtsaroia and Tyana ran along iho BfiUtheni 
hftok of the Ilalya for a long distauce, and that ParaaasOB was situated 

• See Orog. Nw., or. 18. or 'Vita Baallli' in iba Mrgno edition. I.. p. 89, ulim 
Tillvmaut's errore (' Slifmoirea, *c.,' it., p. 39*) ore made tlear. 

t OrdijtBlioDCm Epboopoiuiu Tyaaeuirui «|iucopUji Tacuebat.— MbqbI, ix., 29$. 
1 Qn-B- Nn*. Kp, 18*. $ -^cta ConoiL, t., p. 177. 



O.— CAPPADOCIA. 



m 



DA riv<>r, at it point wboro the roiul from Culouta Archolaii), loontma 
and the soutli-west in geaentl to Tuntus, Eastern Gnlntia antl the north- 
eu6t in gouenil crosaetl the riTer. Iti the tliintlj country of Cappadooia 
it -was couvoDionl to keep cloao to tho only titvi which &owvA 
perennially. 

I know DO authority wliich vxprossly plact>is PArnaoitoi! on thu rivvr. 
but it can be proved that the roa<1 to Qal&lia tonched the H&l,vii about 
13 to SO miles north of I'amaKsoB, and that Nyssa, whicb wb 24 mile* 
from Pamiuiiiuji on tbti way to Ca'sarcia, vna al«oon the river. 

The first point In proved by a. passage of Polybiiiit (xiv. 4, 8, 9). 
MHion Pbamakci) inradtKl Cappa.docU, Gumcnos and Attaloe advauocd 
into Giklatia against bim. Froiu Galatia they ri.>aohod on the fifth daj 
tho Halys, and on the »ixlh day Paniiuwoa. Aiiiiiathea, kiiij; tif Cuj)pR- 
dooia, prcsaiiiably maroliing Ijom Cnwreia, joinMl tbeni at raniasm^ 
and the combined anuieit entered the territory of Mokioeos.* FamaMoa 
wao the natiir«I rfimlctpcat for (ho armies coming fi'om Galatia and from 
Ccc&arein, for it is given as a slation neoirly half-\r(iy on the rood from 
Ca-&Hrviu to Aukyra. The only furds of the Ciilys known to me are a 
little above Tchikin Agbyl, and Parnassoa was probably beeido theni, 

The B«ooad poiat is proved in th« discuuioa of Kysw (wo IfTssi). 
Famaaace than being eituntL<d on tho direct road between two poiuta od 
the Tlalya, muit also haTO been nu the Halya. At ParnasatHi the roads 
froni CKSATciu and from Arcbeluis mot. There oaa bu no duubt, aa a 
glance at tlie w:ip uhowg, that a road here crossed the river, aud -went 
to Taviuu and to Poiitua in general, by Theriua or MokisaoB. Th6 
sittution is further determinetl by FolybiaH'if Btatoment just quoted, 
which shox-s tbut Ptiraaesos adjuiuod MokieaoB, uoiv Kir Bhehcr (we 

JUSTIMAHOPOLIS MoEi^SOS). 

The exact point whet* Pnruassos alood can only be detemiiiiod by an 
actual inepeclioQ of tho luealitiL-ti,| but vre may appruxiiuatcly fix it. 
The army of Enmouea and AttaU>« muflt ba-ve reached the Halys aomo- 
vhere near Tchikin Ag>iyl, and next dfty they marched toParnaMOa, 
•which was thcrcfuro about 10 to 20 miles further on. Thia would bring 
VB tu a point on the rivor opjHwite Mokinsos. A^raiii, the dintances given 
are, Pamaesos to Ankyra, Si a.v. or O'J u.r.*; Puruuiuwe tu CcDBaroiu, 
\\i iLr. A point on the Holys beaido Tchikin Aghyl would bo about 
hiilf-way from Ankyra to Cwaarcia. Tho uneeruiiuty of the uumbt-ra 
iu tbe IiiiierarieH most, bowovcr, prevent this argument from having 
any great value. 

J8 nn olt) CDticcUcm of the l«xt)- 

i III n very hurried journey I trossed the (brdand weal oahyTi-hikiB A^Uyl to Ankjrra. 

X Thi) Jonmlvm ItiiK'nry mnki* It itS v.r, uott u |ifobat>ly mora corroct. Tlut 
Aulaiiinc lui« SI. I luvu ■bowa Uuit Uii: diatanM FMinanoa to Cnnreia Is |irvbal>l<r la 
be rcckomd 10 tuU«a Bh«rt«r. 



300 A SKETCH OK TU£ HISTOFICAL QEOORAPHT OF ASIA MINOR. 

In tho cliacuHiiua of ihfi reads it has been shown that tho change* of 
the fourth century lonilwl to roduw Iho importance of ParuaesoH, It 
ceased to !><> a roml-ci^iitrc, aiiil bocamu a uii.'n; Ktstiou on the road front 
Arohelaui Coluiiia to Justiiiiimoijolis MoVissos; and It ivaa so near the 
latter that it gradually sank into decay, iiud hua now ceased to exist. 

JtrsriKi&NoroLiH, rvfou&ded l>y Justinian, and mado motropolis of a 
large division of CaiipftilociR, was one of tho chief cttios of Cappadocia in 
tho Byzantine period. Kir 8heher. a city in a 0nti situation, is the 
modern DKilmpulis of the uaiud division of Cappadocia. The deecriptiou 
givoa by IVocopiuft of JiiKtiiiianopolia eo accuratiily TOpresonts Kir ShohoT* 
that when I read it I recogniaed the situation iuuuodiat«ly : ^ Sc rt 
tPpviftuni if Eainra^Koit MuiiojirtrtK o^opct tv fiiy rip ifiokti utifuvov, vaSpbv 

ii, owtp 'looimviai'nt {in.utXni% KaBtKiav, Tti)(Ot UKoSo/iiTUwra 

nv>iiS^ /*«/" is fit Tpot i^rtripav rov ir<j\<u 'PpQvptov, iv X'^pff <liavT« T< Koi AtOf 
opeC-f Ktu o^ij^aiy vpaatXetIv (de M^\t. V. 4). Thoru j» in tho oiit^kirta 
of Eii' Shehar, a very huge mouud, apparently aitificial, with high steep 
sidos, and a large uxtunt of lov«l eurfnce on tho top.^-a Mound of tiemt- 
ramia, eimiUr to that of Tyaua. 

Independently of this description, whieh iJi tea vngiio to bo absolutely 
convincing, our conaideratian of the road-syatem has ahowu that 
Mukiiutufi-JiiAtiuiaQopolis was situated at Kir Sbuher, and that its central 
impottouco was duo to the revolution of the road-system, caused by tho 
tmnsforenoo of tho governing centre of the Empire from Bome to 
Oontitautinople. 

The inrngnificance of Mokissos as a oitj-, previous to the re-foundation 
by Justinian, in proved by itc title ta Ilioroclcs, FeycKoi-'covtrv; ; it was a 
mere ragio without any central town. The same i.4 tho caso with the 
neighbouring Doara, called Bt'gB-IX)urB in HitTOcles. 

Under the eiuperor Michael Palteologus, when Mokissos had long 
bocn in partibut inJvieUun; tho Bishop of Mokiaaoa acted also aa Bishop 
of Prokonnesoa.' 

The towns of Ohaniaucne are : — 

Faruafisos? Therma or Hokissoa Justiuiaiioputis 

Andrapa or Andruka i!nma 

Galea or Gadia Doara, Dogara, or Odogra. 

IV. Saravxxic has had all itH towns taken away by Ptolemy, who has 
placed it away dowa on the EuphratoB with the cities — 
JuUopelis, ou the BuphrOitcs. 
Barzal(>, on the Euphrates. 
SeroHtere 
Lakriosaos 
Eutoleiu 
Adattha. 

Georg. PiMlixin.. i., p. 283. 



O.— CAPrADOCIA. 



301 



Thcee Ar«, so far m knoTm, towns «itbor of H.«Utono or of Kommtgone, 
Ptolomy appEiri'Dtly felt that the tuwoa meatiunud in his ttutburily un 
tlio Siratr'yiai ah iK-lou^jing to Suravetio were inooiuUteDt with iho 
position ou tlig Kui»hratvtt wliicli bu Bciiif^uti to SamvooD, aad tlierufur^ 
oaiit« them «utir«ly, or tranafere them l*> Cbatuauonti. 

AJHtthti or AihktA ia frcijiio&tly montioucd &» ucar Germanioeia by 
the C^'xaQtiufl writera. 

lu tli« y«ar 880 tho eiiipei-ot Basil ailvaucud fiuin Eukusoe, oluariag 
the roftd as he went. UdTing reached Callipolis and Fadasia, he hinuolf 
choored hi« men by oiarohiug on foot through the diSicuIt defiles beyond. 
Thus he reached Gurmauiceia, ravagHd the country round, but not 
venturing to beeiege the city, he proceeded to Adatii aud laid Biogo to it. 
Ha could not oaptura AdatA, but having destroyed a littlo town named 
Gerou fQerouta) iu the iioighbourhood, rutiiruoil again over Monnt 
Argwus to Cteiuireia., and thenoe by Midaiun to Byzantium.* The paiw 
tlirough which Boeii raarohed aeomsto have been t^iat which leodn from 
Quksoii direct to Maraah (Uennauiccia): tho oaual road atitom TuuruB 
Into Euiiimagouu was frou ArabisBUS by Alboatan to Maraah : it wan 
[)rabab1y in the hands of the Siuiioeiis, aud BadI took another route. 
Cwii-euaa (p. 214) and Theuphan. Coutiu. (p. 278-30) agree in aU roBpcctn 
in the description of Boail'B oainpuigu iu Euphratuua or Koiumag«iie< He 
vainly besieged Adata (Adapa iu ihe Boon text of Cedrotiuti +), whicb 
vraa long aftcrcvanh) captured by Lis son CotutaDtiue, took a little fort 
uamod Uoron or tiorontu, aud returned over Mount Argicua to Ciosureui. 

Qadath, a fort between Manudi aud Uembitoh ia ftiKiucutly lueulioued 
by the Arab writers. It must bo tho "A^ara of tho Byzantiue hiatorious 
(v. 'Wetl, libalifeo, u. 96, aud EdriBi, Jaubert, it. 13S.) 

The poaition of Saravene is determined by ^trubo, who puts it on 
the north tide of Cappadocia between Khamauouo aud Laviuocoac. 
The poaition of Basilika Therxca has been fixed in the examination of 
the roudjs at Terzili Flamaiii. These baths therefore were iu Saraveue, 
and mufit therefore bo the Aquau SarnvoQau. Wo may then nafvly 
aasigu to Suraveue the towna on the read Tavium to Cawareia vi& 
AquHO Saruvouito, iu so far as tbey do not boloug to Gulatia in the 
north, and to Eilikta in tho south, fiaravouu woa in great {lart in 
Oup]wdocia Prima uuder tho Byxautino Empire. It was then bouudcd 
by Galatia on the nortb^ LitTia&ione on tho cost, Kilikia on tho eouth 
(the llttlys probably being the boundary), aud KhamiincDo ou the west. 
TIlo boundary with KhaTuaricne »p]iarur4ily lay ausl of Zuma uud Doura. 
The whole country of Ak Dugh wue in ::Jaravone. 



* Tho oonduiion of tlm miLirli •bom that tliodirvcl toad AomCMarelatoDoiylaioo, 
Nikomodtia, and CoonUntioopIc poiacJ di-ht Midaioo.— Thcophriii. Cuntin^ )\ SSd-S. 

t Ftuhtj, in LIi 'liialotj,' U., {f. Slit, iDukiM Um tuiilakc of faucj'inj; tlul Adaaaof 
OillcLi id thn place iu quntlDu. Qlycas (p. 51?) BCtualljr itlvotiQ«M Adata aul 
OeciuanlooiKilli, but Uiia la erroDcoiu. 



302 



A SKETCH OF TltE HISTORICAL GEOCRAPHT OF ASIA MINOR. 



SiBOBA is obvioonly identical willi tho biBhopric Seboriai, or Souarias, 
of llio later Sotitiw, c&\'icA Tihe-rias at the Coanoil of jlSk 692. So1)arft, 
placed hy Ptolcuiy in Strategiit Kitikia,'m proWbly tho sumo place; it 
occurs laitt in his list, and is thcrcforo not g<'t frou his ftuthority* on 
tho Strategiai. JVohnbly it iu renlly ia Saraveoe. S«iinriD6 looks like a 
form adapted »o an to suggest u tiicaning iii Greek, n cummou reason 
for the modification of Analoliaii tianice ; it wus cotiHtmotl as the " tovn 
of SoYonis." 

It would uppear that this dietrtot miiiit Lnw Ittccu siibjoct to Cflwareia, 
and vWn seven new hi»hopricii were added to the four original luBhoprics 
iiridur CiL-»aruiu, uno of them luunt have becu up in this rcmoLo district. 
Sibora, boiug the town near tho misce, w-o«ld be tho most unpoTtaot in 
tho dJBtrict, wid tJicroforo the seat of tho biBhopric. 

Basiuka TMsriai, Korxusim, Oltisekis. Paiibosksa or Tarbasthmia, 
8[BOKo:r or Sibom, Aokanb or Aiji:ia:jb, have all been fixed in the 
cxamiDfttion of tho road-Rjstcm. 

SiouA or Skioua has In the Hume place been fixed at Yogonnneae or 
Toaiiiies. Pt»lt:iny plaws it in Slrate^ta KHilcia, bnl it is more probable 
that Eiiikiii did n(;t oxtciid acroHs tbu river Hulys. The Ualys forms 
the natural boundary both of Muriaieno and of Kilikia. 

The regionoB or villages of Saraveno are 

Bfteilikd Thcrma or Aqnro Sarvcna;. 
KomiaHpft. 

OUisLTilJ. 

TarbaBthena, or rarboeena. 

libera, or Siboron. 

Agrane, or Agriaoe, and Sinm (see p. 308). 

Sioim, or Sc-ioua; or EiiiuMii, or Eaaeai (see Kilikia). 

v. LAOyisuyt is placed by Ptolemy on tho EuphraUa betwecii 
^olituno aiLd Surnvtum. Hu phiwH Kuruv, Mi'tcita and Claudios on the 
Hiiplirates, and then ad<lH in the country west of tbu Euphrates : 

K-ttiraCKiXvi, 5iL(Sayijfa (gOO VII Sv/^ayr/vu). 

Tlaaapvif. Aaunatra, 

Ttov« is a ecrlniu probability that one or two of thii^e, proljAltly 
those at the hoginning, are derived fronj his authority on thu Stratttfiai, 
and tho rt-Ht are inforrod from his view of tho situation of Laviniaae. 
Tho throo on tho Euphrato* at* of courso inferred in tlio latter wuy. It 
may be tniapected that CnparceliB (Caparceis?) ia an ablative (compare 
Ciacin, N" 6). The pliice is. like Tetrapyrgia, transferred erroneously 
from Syria. Tho Itinerary' gives Caparoia 10 luitce from Bpiphania on 
tho road to Bcrooo, but ' C. I. L.,* III., Supplom., 6814, shows probably 
that the name begins Cuparc. 



0,— CAPPAIWaA. 



303 



Strebo j^tvos the natno as TjATiftnseoo (Aaovuivcnjr^, and plaoes it 
ftt the north-eaatem eitremity of Ciipptnlociii (p. 540), Ixirdcriiig on 
Eolopene anti KAiniinenc (p. 60O), and cnnlniaing the head wBtoM of 
the UAly«, mnfimiich h% tbnt river rin^ in CappndMin (p. fi4ii>). ]t 
therefore include the country euuth niid H<juth-fA«t of SoUutoin, knd 
was bounded on tho went liy Saravene, on the south and Houth-waii by 
Snrgantiiiiciio and Mulitonii,on the uost by Irt^Buor ArmeniiL. In Ptolemy 
this whole district is included in Lessor Armenia. 

The roadH from Soliaslcia to Oipsarcia, and to Ariaraihia, were pro- 
bably fw the raofit part in Lnviftnsfni;. On the furmer WL-i^e the 
bishopric AipoHoi (the latter probably within tho boands of Kilikia), 
and the stations mentioned in tho Antonino Itinerary', Armnxa and 
Malaudura or Maraudaua. On the latter were Tonosa and Karmalls 
(the latter probably within the bounds of Sargaraiisane). 

VI. Ku-llUA was fixed by the tiituutiun of tic capitul Catuirvia-Hazakft, 
and Ptolemy agrees with Stmbo about it. It waa probably bounded on 
tho north by tho rialyji, and on the west by the Earmalae (/amanti S«, 
see Eakxales). 

Ptolemy gives tho fullowiag list of towns in Kilikia. 



HoinrrtXia, 
Si'oMi (^ 2<iovu). 






MousTJLiA has retained its name in the form Misti. It must have 
b«eu the next station to Anditbalts on tlio road from Tyana to 
Cannrcia. It lice on the borders of Murimeuo at the edge of the distriot 
Teoasa. 

Cc^AREiA MiZAKi. Tbb uld uauie Ma'Cuia in euiil to be dorivod from 
Moeoch tho ancestor of tho CappadociaoB (Pbiloet., 'Hist. Eceles.,' n. 
12"; Joaeph, 'Antiij.,' I., o. 7, p. 136). The city was rofoundod by 
Claudius, who gave it tlic naiue of Ctesnrela: the rvfoaiidatiou is no 
doubt coincident with the sumv llmpcror e roundatioo of Colonia Archelais, 
and tnarka a general reorgsnisatiaa of Cappaducia and Lykaonia.* 
Other writers say that Tiberius gave the name Crosaroia: that is, 
perhaps, a less Iruetwiirthy accuuut, founded on the fact that Tiberius 
made Ciippadocia a Hoiuau province, and, aided by tho priotioiucn TibcrioH, 
whieh is cointnou to both Eiuporors (Eiiseb., Chrou., in j.l>. 21, and Ilieroii., 
Chron., p. 18i ; Eutrop., Vit. Tib., p. 77). Socrates (' Hist. Eoclca,' v. 
4) is the only authoriiy who vouchoa that Claudius gave the name 
C^areia, and modern writers bavo always accepted tho authorities in 



• Compare Clauilinp'Jit Cnlmiiii in Cilik-iu Tnudini«. ArcWliiia C'.ilonia in Cappa. 
dov'ia, Claudio-ilfirhn, Cliiuil-iaiuiuin. ClAudiu'Iiu)diooii Lu Lykouuiu, vhich tittcal n wide 
rwrgniUKktion »( this port of \ho «mp[i« by Olsadiu*. Tk« daW wh firobablj 41. 



304 



A SKETCB OF THE niSTORICAT. GEOORAPBr OP ASIA HISOB. 



favour or TilimuB. But Soora.t«R is confiroied, iiot only by the proob of 
a general reorgaiii^iitiou by Claudiiui in 41, but also by tKo evidence of 
ooius. Tlio name CtnMtrc-ift aover occurs on coinn of tbo city earlier tli«u 
tuB tiniG : thoaft which roa.i F.Y5EBE1A5 KAI2A,I'EIAS belong probably 
to bis reigii,* befuro the now title liad ousLed tbe old. 

The came of Cmsareia was taken fix)m the city, and it was eipungcd 
from the lijitof oiti«6(i« toO Ko-ToXiyov ruiy TriXuov)\nftiit) Kinpcxor Juliao, 
who bated it on account of the stretigtb of the new religion in it. The 
wholo city wm CliriHlian (irav^/i.(i Xpumai'ilovrai) ; and the great temples 
of Zou» PuUouchos and Apullon Putroos had long ago been dvntroycd 
(Sozom., ' HiBt. Ecolea.,' V. 4). 

When Basil was eugageil in tliOBtniggle with Anthimaeof Tyanabe 
riuEed a number of places to the rank of biahopric& Tbeee were, 
however, for the mo«t iitirt not recogniBeil ax ha%-ing the rauk of ri>\t>e. 
They ato omitted by Ilierocles, except Saiiima, Duara, and PodnQduf. 
But in the sixth and later oenturies the number of bishoprics incrotsed. 
The earlier Notitia* giv* more than Hioroules, and the later Xotitia) 
add still more. The steadily growing importance of Cappudociu under 
Byzantine rule accounts fur tbo steady grovrth lu tbo uumbor of 
bishoprics. Il will fiioJJitate the subjiOct to examine the whole list here 
ftt ODce. The bishoprics subject to CieBareia are given in the accom- 
panying Table (p. 2S2). 

These bifihoprica wonlil naturally be sitaated on the groat lines of 
road which connected Cresareia with other important ceutrus. So, for 
example, we have found that Matiane on the riiad to Archolais Colonia, 
and Sibora, ou iiapuitunt fortn.iM uu the military ruud frum CVufitauti- 
DOplo to 3elia6tei(L, appear a« bishoprics in these Intor Notitiie. 

EauouU-I can hardly be distinct from Kemer, for Kamoulia and 
Eamouria are ei^uivulunt forms. Now Ecmcr has been bIiuwu iu tbo 
diecuaaion of the roada to be the site of Kauibe : fi iu the Byzantine li&U 
and iu Greek l«t«r than the eeeond century commonly takwt tlie placo of 
91', and Kanovr) ^or piiseibly Kanavprf) may be corrupted to Cambe in the 
Peutinger Table and KiipTrui in Ptolemy. Ptolemy has Kamouresarbon 
(op, GorJo-serba) iu Ponlus CnpiiadocicoH. 

In the Lists of Concil. Constant., 553 a.d., Kamoulianoj i< cftllod 
JustinianopoUa. 

KiasisoB .still retains its name aa Iviskeu, a government centre, seat of 
a UudLr, 8outh-cuHt from Mt. Argmiu. 

EuAissAr, EuAHAi, EuoisAi, may, perhaps, be Ptolemy's Sciova, Siva 
in tbo Table, which has been [dauud on tliu road Cieaareia>Basilikii 
Therma at Togouncs. A bishopric seems very suitably placed on this 
road : the churoh must hav& been snored to St. John, prubably the Erauge- 

* I bm indebted fur tlua Etntcmrat tu Mr. IleaJ. iilio hiu kindlf giren me lui opinion 
OQ Ibc point. 



PADOCU. 



aos 



|f1Ii1, m&ny relics of whom arc still nhovrn in bq Anacnton monftstery 
AKbI of Ciesareia. The {ilaoo rutiuus tbi* uauie of tlie eaint.* 

Seiouft or Siva may probablj lukvo loet a final Hsa, and 6«iouas» 
approximateB L-losely to suoh a form as Kaasai ur Kaliiaa^ The iuitlal 
a in dropped also in tlio fulIowlDg uamo, and the equivalence of v and 
ov appcan olao in Xnuarpn, ^aovarpa, %6aTpa. Basil of CuuHircia, 
Ep. 2dl, vritas to tho inhabitaals of this town as Eiat<rt]v<M, Euavn'W, 
Kujiun}yt>{, iu Liitiu Evufieni or £vaiseni. Tho coutonta of this letter, 
e.g. tho inflnenoo which KiistathiiiH of SebaateU has tried to exercliM 
00 tho £raiauDi, thu alluuioiiR to Galatia, Amuiioia, Zola, 8Ugg««t ft 
situation in the northern part of Cappadocia ; and the later Notitin 
show that it was anbjcot to C(eean>ia. Basil's letter also ahowB that it 
must have bovu a placu of somo coiiscqacnoo Iu tho fourth century, 
which catabliinhoH the probability that it wan situated on an Importoat 
tmdt;-rDUto, Httch )u that which leads from Cassareia to Kuagioa, 
Eukhaita, and the coast. 

Yogotmoee, whoro we placo Euasai, must be io all probability in 
Sankvene, not in Eilikia, unless the latter eztendod north of tho Ilalys. 

SlLUAljl:^A or Khackxa is probably tho modern Suwsgen near the 
crossing of tho Zamanli 8u, ua&t of Tomsirza, on tho road from Cuisarcia 
hy TumoTJUt and the Euru Del to Eomana. \Vc may conitdently asBomo 
beeidoe StjSayijm thu forms Sx^a-Yn^a and S<oi<ay>;ra, in which th« resem- 
bhutoe to Snwagon or Seiiageu is onmifitakablo. 

Tu£oi>osioroLCs Armkniae is a clear example of a city attached 
eocleailwiioaUy to the metropolui of a distant province. Juatiuian made 
it tho capitftL of his .\rmeuiu Prima, but hla rodistributioii of the 
ptoTincee was long disregarded by tho eoolesiAslical )ist84 Notitioa 
VII., Till., IX., and I., continue to attaoh Theodueiopolis to CaBsareiti, 
and only in the late Notititt 111,, X., XIII. is his arrangement followed, 
and Thcodustopolis ccaseti to bo under Cccsareia, though, owing to the 
iuoompleleness of these Lists in the eastern dtstriote, it is not given as 
an Armenian metropolis. 

The biiihopric of Xyssa, as compared wilh Sosima and Doara, 
exemplifies the way in which an eoclceiastioul oonoeotiuu might arise 
between a btHhoprie and a distant motroiiolitau. Xyssu was more 
clearly than either Sasinia or Dears a part of Cappadocia Secnnda ; it 
alwaya retained its v^clcaiuaticul dependence on CwMroia, but politically 
it must have been subject to Tyaoa irom 37'J (o 536 and afterwards to 
Hokisiios. All three were apparently places to which Basil coniieorated 
bishops during his contest with Aiithimufi and the civil power. His bishop 

* 6o«a fliida nllngo AiUmos, now purely Tat kiob, somo dlatonoe east of Htg<loi 
AItuuas='A7iiii aui^ii. Si-u{jp. TiH. 227. 

t B shoWR tbt> conaonaiitol vikliio ot o. 

t BMna itutan<M4 oT conriuiua belweeit Jiutlulaa** amngemflDt tuid the ustul 
eMtectutiiMl ordvx uc quvlod, p. 3S6. TliMHloatopoii* U RuiuActku-Aai. 



306 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL OEOaitAPUY OF A5U MIKOR. 



of Nyna, h'm own 'brnthor Gregory, was ejected by t.1iL< ilomiuiiDt Arians. 
but the cmiuencc and Tit^ur of Qregoiy eeciuod bis reinstatement and 
triampfattDt rctuni. Bihsil's Appointment wns thus sncccsBfiil, and the 
coDnccUon always continut^. Hia apiioiutmcnt at Snidma iraa tumio 
ceesfal ; Cirt-gar^ Nazianzeii would nut maiiitiiii ttie contest, aod Sasinia ' 
pU8»d under tli« mctropolilan of Tyana. At DoAra. in like faahion, 
BanTB nominee was expelled, and apparently never reiastated (Ep. 239 ; 
iJregory Xaz., Or. 15. coiisocmtfd BsHil'ti biitliop). 

The olhor connectiona of tliu kind wbich can Im traood with more 
or less probability are : — 

Podaudos of Cappadoviu Secuuda with CsM&ieia. 
Argi^a of ITelleHpontiis witb Rpheaoi. 
Autbl^a of Piflidia witb Itiuaium. 
Lamos of CiUcia with Seleuoeia, 

AiroLiot soaiua to bave rtitained ila nnme as Fallaa on the 
Cwsareia-Sebasteia. Eulepa in tbe Antonint> Itinerary eneOB to bft' 
situated at Pallns, and bu he a tronBfiOBcd form of the same native uiiino, 
which is licllenised Aipolioi to give a word with a meaning in Grefile. 

Akatuia 18 perbajm Akasaxa, luis-writteu ou the analogy of Ariarathia. 

AuMAXA, Mal&ndabui or Maranoana, were Btalions on the road betwoeo • 
Scbaatvia and Aipoliui. 

EYZisTitA. As to the other names in Ptolemy's list, Leake boa sug- 
goeUid tliat the road of tbe Table, Tynna xxxvii Audahaliu xv ScoUa ixu 
Cibietra ix Tetra — Cesareia, is a real road, and that Cihiatra miutl W 
corrected to Ctzistra on tho authority of Ptolemy. Thie is paying too 
j^roat deference to the atithority of the Table. I rogard Cibixt mas simply 
tianspOHod from another road, and feel great doubt whether any rj«d 
Tysaa-CwBarcta waa given by tho ultimate authority from which tbe 
Table was derivctl. Such cross-roaila cxietod, but are out of keeping 
with tho sch&me of the Table, which givea only great thruugh-rootea. 
Kyzistra, mentioned ag a bishopric at thu first Council of Nikaia, is merely i 
an error for Kybietra, and a similar error may bo aiiapoctod in Ptolemy. 

BS£AQEMA, or, as it might have bven written, Scoini/Tva or £n>ay7>-i>, 
«till retains its name aa Seuagen ; see p. ZUb. 

Arkhalla IB Htill called Erkelet. 

BouARA is unknown, unless it bo Silwra in Sar&rene. Tho Pftut 
Table haa Porobu un tho road Ctetiareia-Sebaateia : it is out of place, and 
is perhaps also a corriiptiou of Sibora. 

Sakaskxa has retained its name as Suksun, beside the ntios named 
Vtian Sheber. It is corruptod to Saca-na in one place in the AntooSiM^ 
Itinerary, and given more correctly in another. It was the first •tatioil't 
OD the road to Soandra. 

iSauakora is uienlioned by Struhu »h ou the road between Soandaj 
(about Her Shoher) and Cssuroia. It is prohahly tbe &amc plaoo that 
is mentioned by Fbiloetcrgias as Dakora or Bakoroa. EunomiuB, tho 



0.— CAPPADOCtA. 



307 



liacl an OBtbto there. Ho wss hdtiI by Entropiu* to reside in 
ntbvtncut at CnMi«ui, but bein^ uupoimlur tht-r« on aocotint of hJa 
eaiuil^ to Bniiil, the lato Bisliop of CiDwreio, ho wag allow^ to go to 
hw property at Dalcom, There he died, and hia body wa« Tcmovod to 
Tynna.* I'hiluslurgiiiB f^'wee tio cliiu to tlic uxwit sitnntiOQ of D»kon>fi, 
but S«xom«n, who colls it Dakora, saya it was a villago of tbc territory 
of Cw«ar«ia. *pot 'A/>ym''.i.t Soaoioen, bnt not Pbilostorjfimi, says that 
EnnomiuR waa bom at Dakora (irarpii ' ku/ii; S" avnf Kus-jraSomas An«c^). 
Thia is prohaUy merely a falne iiifereitce of Soi^omeD from anoh n-urdu 
06 occur in PhiloBtorgins, rvvs iavrw uypoeSs. Eimoroius, aw Gregory 
Kjuesiui tnentionB, was born at OUuu>ris, a villagu uf Korniuapa on tho 
bonlont of Cappndocift towards Galatia. 

Demakella (or MakvUoa), a placo near Csaareia Ciipp., vbvro GuUua 
and JulikD were ecut to be cdncatod, Theopban,, p. 3^. Sozonien more 
correctly calls it MnkelUin, iiud ftaya it vas an imperial estate vitb 
hatha and aplondid fuiiutiiiuit. 

Aooordiiig to Vitruvius, VIIL, li, "eet in Cappadocia, in itinera 
fliLod bat inter Mamcam ot Tiianain, laciia amphie," in which rccds or 
wood are petrified In a day. It is not known what VitruviuB is hero 
alluding to. 

I add here a list of plauvs, of wlucb wu know only that they woro In 
Cappadocia. 

MiWAiiiasos ia mentioned uuly in tbo biography of Saint ThoodoaioB: 
Ktajt.it Tit ^v(yKC TDk fiaKofnov, avofia Miryapuraoi Kara rijv riuv HaTnraSaMuii' 
Xiufmi' Kci/u'v^ {w. 11. UagariasBoa, Mogariaaeos, Uogarisoa, Mariset<s], 
5 ToTt fiiy TIM ifoWois aytxixTTV-i T< tai okrjj/nH i/f, iwi it «at ffuffi <f)(<ii>f 
it avTov yKnipyMn. (Metaphru&tes, 1 , p. 469, od. Migue.) 

ApeK&issos ia mentioaed only in the will of Gii^gory Nazianzen: 
TO itT^fML ri iv 'AflTp-ftucrw, pro[Hirty of Kupbemiiui, wrongly occupied by 
Mvlutitu. 

Eamotala m mentioned only in tbo will of Gregory Naziauzon; 
lof 1JV TO? )(tiipCm EavoraAwi'. 

BfATAZA, ftu cstato beloDging to Pbilagrius, « Mcud of Gregory 
Naziouzen and of bis l>r>>tber Ce^aarius. Tbcro is no cloe to ita position, 
except that it wan far t-noiigb from Naxian7/iH to roquiro a journey for 
the one to visit the other, but near enough to require an apology when 
Gregory came to KazianzuM bnt did not visit Philagriua. (Gr^. Knz^ 
Ep. 30-0, 02.) 

Navila (/i^t NawAaii'), a place near onongh to Narianzo* for 
Gregory to go there on a Tinit, but far enongb for the vieit to bo a 
matter of aome difficulty. (Bp., 204-6.) 

" Philoatorg.. x. 6-— Aojiopoiirol ti t«i iypoti tJ Sn/ia. Cf. zl. 5. 

t Tliiaespranim is uleuuderBtouil Ljr tlte writer in Smilira ' DictionuT of Ghrutian 
Uiograpbj * (aT. Eunomliu), irba aaya tbat Dakora Kai ander the ebadow o( A rg»iu. 
Canwia ad ArgvaiB is tbo dialiDgnuhing till* of Cataraia-Maaka. 



308 



A SKETCH 07 THE HISTORICAL OEOCRAPHY OF ASIA UIN'OR. 



BoRUSon, a Tillage (na/ii;) of Cappatlocin, where Eartorica and Eo- 
lunpkin, tbo pari'Dtii of PLiloBtorgion Uio historian^ lir«d. (Pbiloet. 
H. E., IX. 9. 

Oitasa: rik T^^aa tov dypov irov SuM^iAccrrarov hcundrm McAcnov. 
(Grog. Xr7„ Ep., 99.) 

Nora or Nero.\sso9 has 'been placed by IlAiuilton at Zongihar Kalesi* 
Storrett bUo i»y». " Tlioro fian «an»ly be a doubt but that tbo bigber ' 
peak of Zengibar Ealeei in Kora." But the only distinct topograpliical 
statotDcnt aViut Nora i» tba.t it was on the borders of Lycaouia and 
Oappadocia, which T«qnirc4 a BitUAtion very much further wovt. Hor<»-* 
over, Strabo racntiona that Siunas kept hia treasure in it, and that 
KaJena was hi» capitnl. Now Kn^ona is proWbly on the wMt«m 
frontier (aco CbniDancnc). Morocvor, fho context in Strabo showa that 
Atgog and Norn were a pair of fort« on the weetem frontier, and be goe« 
on, "Gurcauira aho ix on tlio Lycaonian frontior." Nora was probably 
fiirther north than Argoa, perhaps on the skirts of Ikojik Dagh, or at 
HaWa Dere on the northern spars of Haeean Dagh. 

The following namei; occur only in the Peutinger Table, and ar« 
ontraatworthy : — Soolla, ABarinnm, Pagmin. 

The towns and Tillages of Eilikia then aro 



Cnsareia Mazaka. 
Sftcoaacna. 
8a<l»kora, Dakora. 
Arfchalla. 
Kamoure, Eamonlia. 



Arasaxa. 
Behagena. 
EiBkieos 
AipoUoi. 
Deniftkella, Hakolkit). 



YIl. Saroabadsesk (or SorKabraaono) ia placed l>y Ptoleioy on the 
Galntian frontirr, and by Pliny on iho Plirygian frontier, which may b4i 
treated as almost on equivnlcnt definition. Ptolemy's error uay Iut« 
boon produced by tlie aimiUrity of the natuoa "S.apavrfv^ and Sopyaiyito 
(np-Tf, for ho has placed the Itttter exactly whore he shoald liavo placed ■ 
the former. 

Btrabu ^luceti Sargarauscne on the sidu of Oappadoda towards Taoma, 
between Katannia and Eilikia. Its exaot relation is fixed by the conne. 
ef the Earmnlas, whif^h l)ow» throDgh it, and bj the town Erpa or Erpbil ' 
on Iho road from Ciuiarcia to Melilone at the oroesing of the EanaaUs. 
The towns uamed by Ptolemy agree with the ^ituation afi defibMl by 
Strabo. The bonnOarieB, then, an.-: on tho north Lavianse&e, on tha 
eaet and eontb Slelitene and Kataonia, on the west EiUkta. 

Ptolemy gives tlio following towns in SaragBnsene: — 

ravpniiii. Mt^iwyi 

Tkiara may perhaps be the Siara or Fiatad of 



310 



A SKETCH OF TUC BISTORICAL GEOGRiPHT OF ASU UmOR. 



OD tlip Eiiiihnttua. but be nwy err in positios. (2) It ii doabtful 
vhcther tho rcailmg Dmlanda ocean in asy M^. 

SjLiijius908 taAy be the same town, vrhi^ is oanaed Codn-sabala* in. 
tlio Antouiue Itincrarj-. Codtuabala vaa situated bnt'ween Komaaa and 
Amnitbia on tbo upper waters of tho Saroe about Eizil Banat or Keui 

AfiUBiTitu ii Sxed by a connderatioo of the Boman roads orettstem 
Oftppadocia. It was sitoatod ut Aziue. It derives iU name fn>m one 
of the Kings Ariaratbea (333 to 97 11.0.). and probaUy dates from 
the Mooad or third oeiilur)' s.c. It owed its importance to its srtuatioa 
on the high road fi-oin Kouana to SoLtutviu, Komana Pontica, aod 
AmisiU. In the eightli or nintli ocntuiy nft«r Christ tho namo Twmandos, 
perhaps, came into me, baring be«ii [mpuUrlj' preserved from ancient 
timet ; just ns Prakana, obrioUHly the old Isaurian name, vupplaoted 
Diocaearciii in tho eighth century. 

Ari&rathia ia nic»tion<>d by Gregory Xazianxen in. a letter (Ep. 310) 
writton to tho govomor [of Armenia Secnnda]. 

The towns which wc can aaaign. to Surgarausone aro— 

'KpMfM$ia, T{a/xafSoc (= Aocr^fvSa?). Mo/Muyn and !£itp^/iai}»«. 

Knp/uiAi't (perhaps in Lavianaene). Koduzabaln or Su/JoAcunros. 

'Kpaaaia (more prubftUy iu Kilikia). 

VIII. Ei.T^O!iiA is extended by Ptolemy in tho mo«t absurd fashion 
to include Mupaoukroue in Cilicia. betw(>ea Tarsos and tho Pylu 
CiliciiD.t Daliaandos in Lycaonin, and Clandiopolis iu Isauria. It is 
traversed by the Sarott, and extends south to tho mountainous region of 
Taaroi and Amanoa (Strab. b'l\, 527), in which lies the bonier between 
it and Cilioia and Koiumageue. The Kftnualas probably bounded it oil 
the west, diWdiiig it from Strategia Eilikla. In a larger snnse Eataon]& 
inoluiled Mciitoni', tu Strabo uu-iitiviis (p. 533), aud he uses the term id 
this wide sense (528) when ho euya that onoe AfcilJaenft of Armenia was 
reckoned as port of Kataonia. It included (he Anti-tanros with 
Eomaiia. 

Ptolemy cDumerutcsiu£ata.outa tho following cities (lomit Kiii^MTpa, 
KXavSiOiriiAi?, A.aXttraySa^, najvavSuf, Motfrwi Kpijvi]) ; — 

Tiiwa. Tavaiofits. 

TtftaKKii. Atavhii. 



* The varietlmof reading ojie great: iI(xliiziilnia,oodiiubalii,(Iodiicu.UlA,gadtiiabaIa. 
jndiualal'a, ooduxnlBba, oxloiulabu, cudozubnlu, oodolalia, 

t Bi'c nlioTo. I£ail»alu or Kaumalu, 0, It. 

X Till; Kaaon Ilea In tbc gimt I'^tenibti given to OBp[iai]ocia romlinio ariei 17 sj;., 
wben tbe Elovautli IJtrategU, exUDding fn.>[u tbo Unui-ian cctml tu Kyblttn, wm 
•uModloit. 



[ABAS.WS. Tbe<re is somo leiuptatiun ia atter this namo i&to K.o- 
kuesos. The confusion of K aad B u froquect, and KolnisEioa (now 
Gaksun) vras a vety importaDt stniiOQ on the Itoman road id Katumio. 
But KaWssos is mentionotl by Stepltanns Dyzaiitiiis lu a viUuge of 
Cappattocia [<«' the roadj Vtctwucn Tarsos and Ca-wureia. He probably 
refers to a rood by H'ls, aLtl not to the direct road ihroujfh thu C'lUciaD 
Oatcs, to Ceesareia, for Kabassoa is also nienliuned as a biithoprio of 
Cilicia S«cuiuIh (»«« p. 386). 

Tyx!>*a and TiitALLB aro «utircly unknown. 

LuNtia is DO doubt identicul with Laranda of the Antonioe Itinerary, 
18 miles frou Koku^oson thoroad to AnaxarboH. Mr. Str^rrott, tu Lis* Pro* 
liminarj- Report of a Journey iu Aaia Minor,' p. 19, places it at Kilisxejik, 
fiv« hvurn 'went' of Kokusifos, but inhis complete account of the jourueyt 
•ootns to hare givon tip tho identification. I think, however, that it isqatte 
right. KilitxoJIk is on tho road KokoseoB tu Aua7Arbos, about 13 laUeK 
from KukiiBsuB, Mnjur BL^unct tulls lue that the uaino its Karu Kilisu. 

TaKADAKi£, the Ptandari of the Antoniuc Itiufirary, haa retained ita 
name in the form Tiinir. 

Arai!is&os is not mentioned by Ptolemy, thoagh it was a very im- 
portant pluco. ft vniL» tho military centre of Kataonia, and a statioD 
for troopB) and haa retained its name as Yarymz. In niodcnt timu, tho 
oontral point of the district haa changed from Yarpiiz to All<istan,J a 
few milcH south caet ; but tho importance which now attaohoii to Alboetan, 
a« yarding thu uiitrauco to the most important pau by far aorow 
Tanros into Komma^noi formerly belonged to Arahituios. Tho paw 
which is moist fteqnontly mentioned in the Byzantine frontier wara, is 
that from ArabiBeoB to Gennanicia or Aduta (see N, 12, O. +), and 
one or other of theite townii muat correspond to t)i« muilom Mamxh. 
The latter namo occurs in Byzantine histoty in the fiinu MapuViv. 

In the year GiO a.d., Heraelius, starting from the country abont 
Amida and Martyropolia (about the BourcM of tho Tigriu), oroaaed tho 
river Nyuiphioe, and reached the Kuphratea at a point whero there waa 
a brid)^ of boats. The cnoijly had destroyed tho bridge, but he 
sacoc«d«<L in crosslnfi; by a ford in the mouth of March. He paued 
through Samosata, and urubocd Tauros by Gurmanicia and Adana 
(error for Adata).§ Afterwards he crotiKed the Saros by a bridge; h« 
must therofora havo token tho regular road ArabuiE<Mi to Cicsarcis, on 
which oluno thuru is likely to havo been a bridge. Be then turned 
north, to 8ebafit«ia (8ivaa). 



• By » Blip Mi, Stcnctt tajt " «iiuH»-*<M>t." 
t ■ Vupcn of tlic Amr-rtciiii School at AthoiM,' rol ii, jx S39. 
t At BiMbti], tlwtiarileii. 

$ tldlu* rbv TavfMf mr«f>Mt «It Ttpfuwliutap d^btrro, m! rtpitas TV'ASsu'aqACoptt 
Tir Z^K— Tb'OnpLaucN, 313. Head 'Airra (aeo BiKAVSJiE^ 

VOL. IV. r 



312 A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL OEOCftAFHY OF ASU MIKOK. 

Acdrotts, iho envoy of the omporor Conataiu, wont from Damasons to 
Heliteue, Wbeu ho reached ArabusoH, he met the EUiuouruplij-lax 
ftad iiutnicted him to keep -watch fut Sergin«, the envoy of the rebel 
Sapor, on hid road hack from Daiuascue ; Stilus, while rotumtng 
throagh the Klftisoiirai, wae fonml nnd taken prisoner, ami carried to 
Andreiu, who had gono to Amnssia. The paHs here alluded to must 
certainly bo the paeH From Harash to Albcstau, and it ia plain that the 
c^oor charged with its defence reaidod at Arabiasos (Thcophui^ 
p. 860). AmQOuia is olhorwiBc unknown, unloRS it be connected with 
the rivei Amaiaa bcitide rumpeiojHdis in FupbUgouia. 

The military importanoo of ArabiaeoB is also attested hy a passage in 
the life or Saint Tlutychius (' Act, iSanct.,' April 6tb, p. 5Qi}; aoddit ut 
ii quibus Modcroti&na> Icgionia eomnusga erat cura vcnircnt ex Aiabisso 
(to visit EutychiuB at Amaueia).* 

It was placed in Armenia Secunda at the TeoTganiaation of the 
provincea by DiucIutiaD,t and JuHtiuian (ajj. 536) changed tko name of 
thg proriuoo to Armenia Tertia, without: alteriug it« Hmite. 

Bauimon and rTiAroniUK on Iho ix)ail fruui £oku»iDB to Anazarboe, 
which went by Kiraz Bol, Tapan Dere and Flavias (now 8u). 
See N. 17. 

Daotamcoh ifl mentioned by Strabo as (p. 537) ^Tmbod by thu ri«r 
EuiOBlas, and in the Stintegia Eataonia. It muat be eonght on the 
Zamanti Sn below Ekrok. TVstarkoii was the seat uf the Kataouian 
Apollo, who was revorBOced over bU Cappadocia. It was on a lofty 
rock surrcanded by the xirer. Dae-tarkon (cp. Dastcira DaBOttada) 
c«ntainH nu intcr««ting name. Been also iu Tarkondimotoe, TftT' 

quinius.^ 

Az-iMOBA is montioued along with Dastarkon in Biieh a way as to 
kftve it< poflition doubtful between Meliteno and Katuuiua. 

Oadara, 24 miles east uf ArahtsBOS, near Alhaxli. 

BiKicx, oil the 9aroH, nix miles ortst of Komatia. This Sirica can 
hardly be identical with Sirieha. which seems to be situated nearer 
the Qalye. •Samoaas, un pretence of going to his monaetcry Spoira, 
which was in Daniatry, fiod from Coufitautiaople to Meliletic, Just 
before ci-ossing the Halys, he was seizes] by Nicephorus Kallonas; he 
protended that he had come on a pilgrimage to the cros« iu Sirieha (iv 
TV S*pix?. Th«ophan. Contin,, 309. 8ee G. SS). It may, however, be 
ideulical with StupLauati's Sapc;^'!, v6K(S Kan-irR&Mtaf. 

* Aialieaui, meationijd by MtBondcr, p. 895, caaa&t bg tlie people of ArabiMM : 
Ib^ bakng to Armeuiti, fi<rlli(ir vast 

i Ot Fhilwtor?. up. Buiduu. 8.V. Eaadlfwr : ii 'ApaSiacov Tfli MiKpar Afintviot. 

t All i'Xfim|i1c or tliU iinnie hne bei-n minmiiierilood, bath by Prr>f.«iM Stem-It, viho 
pntiliBliea it (■ Wolfo ExiMrJ.." N»i. 18)). ami by W. [iiulilt, iu 'B«l. PliiL Worliciuohr.,* 
18S9. [1. 730. Sterr-tt rorrwt* lii« ei;ij>y (o TcipKifr^a] Bff,w: Guilllt curmta to 
Tiv««.5.>,Mi^. TLo co|)y i* ftfrrwl, TofKi/yiSifiptr, wLi-rti A M to be aadiMlood (ua often) 
M equal to diguiinua. Comjinfo 'BirrFttuvt for 'AiniwSmt. 



0.-CAITADOCIA. 



313 



Tli9 lowna of Kataonia are ; — 

EomansL 

Sirica. 

TiLnadaria. 

Arabisfios. 

Ofldara. 



Leantlifl. Laraada. 
EokuMox. 
Badimoii. 
Prretorium. 



IX. Meutese is placed oimilarly bj Strabo and by I'tolomy. It 13 
bounded on tho oast by tho Euphrates, nn the nortli by Leaser AnDOtua, 
on Ibe west by Sargaranseno and Kataonia, and on the aouth by 
Kommagene. 

Ferha{)8 mme of tlie towns aaaigncd by I'tolemy to Laviauaeue and 
oven Saravone BfaoiiM bo included in Melitene ; tito n<mjuD(Ior belong 
eLtber to Sommagene or to Eataunia, but tbey ntv for the most part bo 
little known, tliat it is impossible to place ihem. 

According to tlie r«organi»atioQ of Diool«tian, Melitcoe bocamo tlio 
metropolis of Arracuia Secnnda, a province whiolt is govomed by a 
prseaei in Notit. Dignit, (ab. 413 a.d.J and in Hioroele«. Justinian, KovelU 
xxxi., named tho pioriucc Armenia Tcrtia, made its governor u Oomea 
Juatiniaacus, and remodelled the orgauisuliua in varioua ways; the 
passage gives an int«resliag account of the province : — Ad ho^c tcrtiam 
Armeniam ioatituimus, earn qiiiu prius secunda dicwbatur. in qua prliici- 
pBtum tenet Melitena arbs insignia in palcbm solo clomuntiqite oailo 
pneiU, iiequc mtiltum dustans a flaeutis Euptinitie 0uvii. Hhdo nos in 
pnvec&tia «t aiigondam et ad formam epectabilium trftduoendam 
pntavimua : pneaidein quoque bnjiiaoouiiloni JuHtiiiianeum oominandnm, 
dandcnque ipsi pro aooonis nnlidoH 700, eias assossori iiolidoo 72, et 
rohnrti eiQH Holidoa U30, et ut omnia liabeant <ju.x viuemodi tlirouomm 
propria airnt, Et qui priua Cohortalos nominabantor, turn omnia fnciant 
qua' etiam prius, el maxime ciroa puLlicam exactioncm oecupontur; 
turn ad Coniitianomm appcUatiouen trunseant, porindo omnibus els con- 
acrvatin ac hi (_!ohortal«8 exiateront. Urbos vcro oi parti m Arcam et 
Arabiflfium, partim Ariaraatbcam, et alteram Comanam (qnam etiam 
Chrusam appoliantl, et Cnonsum Bubdidimiix, quaa et prios habebat 
e itex omnioiodo connstens urbiltns. 

An excellent spedea of vnan, tUvos Horapirtp, is said by Strabo to 
grow in Molitcuo (i>. 535). He also says that Molitcne was the only 
part of Ciippailncift that abounded in fruit-trees, and modem traveUcrs 
also speak of th« orchards. 

A[BLm:se sLould perhaps strictly bo oalU-d MoUta, it was the central 
city of A district Melitene; but tho form Melita never occurs. Tho 
city was nut in vxtstcncu in tlie time of f>trabo : it gradually grew up 
as the ccntio of tho people Mclitcnoi and tho cuunttj- Melilvne. Uencu 
the name is attictly an adjective, >) MtXtrqvq irvAtf. It atill rolatns its 
name undor the form Malatia. 



814 



A SKETCH OP THE HISTOSICAL aEOORAPHY OP ASIA MIKOR. 



TLe atrungth of the fortresa is often praised liy Byzantine historians : — 

SvofjaCo/ifyov, or again to A^mjrai' Kui ii^u;^or KuurrpuviTheophan. Contin., 
p, 415; Cedron. ii., y. 2C3. Acconliug to Mr. Sterrctt" there arc now 
two towQB, Old Malatia, nhicli waia abandoned duriug ihs Turco- 
Hlgyptinu war, wliich ocoiipied the eite of the andeat city, and New 
Malatia, eeveii or eight miU-a to the south-wcat. 

Ftolumy a^eigne tu thiu Strat^giii the following towns: on tlie 
£Qphrftt<4 A<iy0vo^ (read perhaps Aotrxttvou), £ms fraXurw, M<A(r7}r<}; 
and further woKt, 'AiMrdfiirrot, TiTafitrtro'^, Kku-iko, ^ovinirofo, Euert/iapo, 

lavaiK, KiuKtc, Atiyaiaa, Kuf^oAa, ^Tffutroi, Aa^ivipK. 

. Daeeuea at Penga (' 0. 1. L..' iii. Suppl. No. 6743). Sinis Colonia, 
probably PieoQOS of the Itinerary, Ttut mHw fruiu Melitcne, on the 
Tond to Sobaatiiia. Kiakin i« Ciiica of the Itinerary-, xvili miles north 
of MelitODO on the Euphratea (Craca of the Tabic). Seraiaos seeing, 
piThupB, to corrcBpond with STaisoua (i.o. McHona) uf the Itiueiary. 
Probably Ptolemy gets &uch naiuoH as Leandia, Ciacia, Caparodiaf, fri'm 
an ilirtcrary in which nblatire cnsce woi'o u«cd, aH sometinca in the 
Peutlngvr Tabic. Tbo fullowiog nam«ii also occur in Basil, and may bo 
referred to Armenia Minor: a district Orp&neno or Orpbanone, with, two 
■villagce. Koreagaina and Attaguiiiu (Ep. 27&): Phargumuus, whoro ft 
great meeting in hoootir of c<?rtain martyrs was held erory year (Ep. 95). 
Ptolemy does not moulion Area, now callod Arga, a Kotoan Btativn and 
a bishopric, which must have belongftd to Mtlitone. 

X. T¥A:<iTiswiU bo most vouvcuiuutly diHcnHtiod along with Lycaonia 
and tho Kleisourai or pa<sce over Taurus. 

XI. The precise boundarieit of tho Roman province Cappadocia can 
hardly be fixed mure accurately than results from the description of the 
Strategiai. One of the honudarioe towards (jlala.tia, near Famassoe, is 
giren exactly. Again, Pliny eoys that tho river Kappadox divided th* 
provinces. ThiB river ia probably one of tlie tribiitaiieB on the right, 
i.e. cast, bauk of the llalj-e, for nu tributary on the west bank acems to 
suit the description. Pliny's words must not be pressed, for be givfis 
tho Ith}*ndakos as the boundary of Asia, and tho Siberia or Hieros of 
Galatiu, but the froDticr only approximates to theeo rivors. Hesco 
Eiepert is probably right in givnig l!io name Kappadox to the DeBje 
Irmak. Lake Tatta was apparently part of the western frontier. 

Haa^an Dagh was for the most part in Cappadocia, bat it ia doubtful 
wbetlior ttie western end did not extend into Lykaonia. Kybistra 
eertaioly, and Eastabala probably, were included in Cappadocia. Tho 
Pylaa Cilicioe wtiru the southern limit, and probably a line along tho 
great ridge of Tauroe marks the frontier. The eastern Strategiai 

* E|>igrap1>. Jonm. in Aaia Uiaor, in ' Fnp«ra of Ibt AmcricftQ Sohool oT Albeai, 
ii. 330, 

t On CitparetliB, jirobubly a fiyiiiui town, ico p- 802. 



O—CAPPADOCU. 



31.> 



an AMigiied hy Ptolomy to Armeniii Minor, but Annenm Minor aiid 
Cftppadocia were one Koman Proviccw. Tho bournlH of C^ppailocia on 
the eoat ftad north cauiiot be indicated more procieoly than is done in 
tlwj diacuseton of the Str&tegiai. Sovoral of tho citios which Ptolomy 
AMigDH to Armouia Minor, iu the narrow seane, certainly boloug to iho 
Stratcgiai. 

Tlift bounds of Cappadocia on the north niiwt h»\» rarieil at diSbront 
timM. The dietiiot of ijibora, Korn-iaspa. and Baaitika Th«niia, can 
harJIy havo Iwcn reckcmod in CappaiJot'ia by Strabo, who mentions 
{p. 540) that the bonndary betwctu CappaJocia and PuntoB was a 
mountaiu chain, which extended parallel to Monnt TanroB (ie. east 
and west) from th& weetcm extremity uf tho SlrBtogia EhamauonO to 
tho eastern parts of the Strategia I^aviansene. This chain ib certainly 
the ridge which in its central portion ia callod Ak Dagh. and which 
toivarda the wcat forms a watemhod between the llalys and tho Delijo 
Iruak, while towarJu tL& oast, uudor the name Tohuiuli Hel, tt cloice 
in the northern siilo of tho upper Ualys Talloy. The sonthem. province* 
of Pontoti, which harder on Cajipiulocia, are ZelitiK, Ko1o{ieiie, and 
Enruisene. The situation of thcHu provinccti in uccurntely iiidicate<l on 
Eiopeit'a map : Zelitis i& fixed hy the capital Zela, now Zille; Kamieono 
by the fortrcas KniuisA, it little way cn^t of Sol>iistein (Sivaa) on tho road 
to Sataln and Niropollii ; and Kolopene by Seba&topvlia (Sulu Send) and 
SebasloiA (Sivas) which Pliny places in it, vi. 3.' The mountaiu ridj^ 
10 therefore a boundary Ix-tweeu Puntuit and Uappuduoin only in « loose 
aud general way ; as in truth it ie not a single well-defined ridgs, but a 
bniad irregnlar elevation. The Haly», which flows along the aoiithem 
side of th« mountaiti rJdgH, is undenatood by Strabo to 6ow from eaat to 
west ; it riaea in Cappailocia close to the frontier of Enmioeite in Poiitoa, 
flows through Kamiwoe, and then for a long diatanco traverses Cnppn- 
docia (Straho, 54C). 

Roman Cappadocia pnilwhly exteudod much farther north than the 
bounds HHEigncd by Strabo. Probably the Byzantine bonnda, which are 
iadtcatod by the eitnation of Koruiaspa, Bosilika Th^rma, aud Sibont, 
are much tho Humo as the Koinan bi:)tnids. Pbdemy oven inclndcs Phiam 
in Cappadocia; but this is perhaps not Ime, if his Phiara is identical 
with Siiin-Fiurasi of the Antouino Itinerary. 

It is necessary to deecribe briefly the themes into which tho cuuteni 
parts of Aiiia Minor were dividoil in labor Byzantine times, beginning 
probably from the reign of HeracliuB, GL0>41. By far the moHt iniporlant 
of these themes, daring (he eighth and following centuries, wan the 
Armeuiac, while those namoe which indicate a situutiou still fuilher 
c«st, Khaldia and MoM>potamia, were of aruall size and little importanc*. 
Bnt this onnnot always have bwn tlie L-ase, Apparently tho design 

* Stnbo soys UcsalopoUtia. Uie diHtcicI louud Ui'tfulopvlirSfbugt^ia vim cua- 
brminoui with Knlop«Q«. 



310 J^ SKETCH OF THE niSTOKICAL GKOGRAPKIT OF ASIA 3imOR. 



of Honiulins was aimilor to th« Mili«ine of dofonce of tbe early Ronnn 
empire. Tlie largo pTOTiticfB of the vfttliur ompirolitiil Iwen controlled 
li>- geoemls who cotniuanded armiea, axennaed great power, and had the 
defouot) of Uio tiuett'in frontier in tlicir tru*t. The oiiiperors, from th« 
end of the tbinl century onwanis, carritd cut a different policy. Thfiy 
iii&ile tho pmTincc« eunll luul iimltiplied llioir iiwmber. Tlioy greatly 
iu(.Tciuiod iho tmuiTfor nf provincial governor* nnd lUmiiiishcd oorre- 
6|>omlingly thwir individual power. TIib goveniment mt» mfre centraliwd 
and loss wiw tnisled to the eomiuandors of the provincM. With n neriea 
of weak omperoni this policy reduced tho empire to the verge of ruin. 
The Tigour of Heraclitjn restored it; and hU policy iiiaiigiinit«d a new 
systciu of military govuniors, ruling ortr vast diatricta and commandiag 
large hodiee of troops. 

Th» namM Khftldin and Meeopotamia were nsod in the tenth century, 
"hat Khaldia denoted the conntry uear Trappzons, In the ninth century 
Khaldia included KcUzi-nc, but Leo YI. transferred KuUzene to the 
thome Mcsopotamift.* (Jompuring the known hiat^ry of^tbo theme 
Cnppadoci«, which was originally tho conntry of that name, afterwards 
the ooyntry between the SangarioB and the IlalyB. and at last, in the 
lime of Alexius Comneniu. only the plains ronud .Amorion, we may 
hclievo it probable that tbe imrao Khaldia had changed in a sicnilar way 
jtii denotation a* tho houndaries of the empire shrank. Under Heroeliua 
the name Khaldia way have denoted the Bonth-eaBtem frontier theme, 
mill may have had some pretenaion to be geographically tnie. It ia cot 
imiwssiblo that Klialdia and Arnieniaca were tlio two frontier thenm 
of Horacliii*, but cvidcnco is too Bcanty to give confidenoo to any 
opinion. 

Mettopotatnia, on the other hand, in aaid to have lieen instituted for 
the first timo by lico VL.t who took Kamakha from Koloneia, and 
KgUkguc fn>iu Khaldia, to form it. 

It ia probable that the Amieniac theme, in the same way, got ite 
name from the fact that it included Ariinjuia iind llie northern part of 
tho eaatetn frontier. Em, in the tenth century it had ceased to include 
any of Anncnin. and dcuoti.-d the conntricB of Capp&docia and Poutuftt 
and extended even weet of tho ITalys, to inclnde Dokeiii and Andrapa. 
The themod wore pnrely military diviuitiiis, and their names denoted 
aectiona of the army. These sectiong reUiiied their old nurao oa ihcy 
"were driven back from their old litationH, and Hoon thoii namc-« wero 
•ppUed to the diatricls in which 1h«y were elalioned within tho nar- 
rowed lim^its of tho empire. 

The ahriuking of the Byzantine boundH coaHod. Tho Iconoolaat 
tinpcrore stemmed the tide of Mohiimmintau invasion: tho Maoedoaiau 

' TLo cLicf niilliDiity on tho Ihemos is Coiirtutitinc PfrpliyroscnHui. bgtli in liU 
treikliao dc Tlicnuili'liiiK, nuil iu the flfliulL obafitDi ot his * de AdEula. Imjicr.' 
t CoEiBt. '(le Adm. Imp.,' y. '226 : ry riti mpii O^jua aliK i'- 



a-CAPPADOCU. 



317 



dynasty rolled it back. The great gonerat, John Kouikonas, advaiic«d 
the frontier of the empire froni iLo Halys to the Tigris.' Kew thcmoa 
were created oat of tlio aovrly cDnqocriHl districts; and their j^nulnol 
croatioii markM tho gradual ndvnnM of tho HyTantine aitdb. The 
remarkal>Ie aoooant of the trnuHfvrence of the oamo Citjipndoi^ift, whioh 
J8 given, p. 216, 250, ou the authority of CoDstantim.'. is not tlie oon- 
ecquenco of au arbitrary deSaucc of geography by the Euiperox Loo VL 
It marlcit one of tho fir«t stages in the reorganiiation of the "reconquered 
country. The centre and nonth of f'appailocia had been either in 
Saracen hania or expoaod to conliiiual iuroxiihi, lunl the name of tho 
tiountr)' had bcoa carriod west of the Halya by the soldiers who had 
bc«n slatiuned in it. IjCO VI. did not carry back the name to ita old 
country'. He arranged that the name should continuo to denote the 
oouQtry and tho aoldiera between the Halye and the Snngarios. The 
Klareian Tuurma iu tho north of Cappodocio and tho uouth of Pontes, 
on tho other hand, had not so ntterly ceased to exist, and the name had 
been extended to include the country aa it was coii<)uorod; and Leo 
arroDgod that it should denote all the country np to CnMarDia on tho 
eaet, and to Tyaua on the aouth. 

Tho tliemu uf Koloueia must have been originally u part of the 
Armeniac theme, if wo can trust the Rtatement of t'onstantme, p. 21, 
that NeooBisareia was in tho Armctiisc thvmo, for that city certainly 
was afterwanlfi in the Thome Kolonoia (id., p. 33). This theme ia older 
than SijO (Theoph. Contin., p. 181^. 

Sebiuteia was aimilarly formed into a now theme out of part of the 
old Armuniac theme, at some time later than 8iW. Originally it was 
only a turina of tlie Armeuifto theme, and it Vtecajne a thcmo under 
Leo VI., when the turma of Larissa was ploooci Hnder it. 

Thu theme of Lykandos was also originally a part uf tho Armeniac 
theme, before it passed into the baodH of the Saraccna. This is implied 
by Tbcophanca, who mentions no other theme to whiuh it could belong, 
and spoaka of Sapor, general of the Armeuiao theme, as residing at one 
time iu the parte round Meliteno (ji. 360). Ho also spealks of Kokaasoe 
as a city of Csppadocua. (p. 124), mad Cappadocia was in thn Armoniac 
theme. Lykaodoe was formed into a theme under CoustaQtinu later 
than A.D. 913.t 



P, The POSTO-CiPPADOClAS TtlOSTttR. 

1. With regard to tho topography of tho provinocs along the Black 
Sea, HonoriaK, l'A]>hlAgonia, and Fontus, I am glad t-s be able to resign 

* Tlie ezpraaidou, which ia eliglitlj cKaKgetntud, ia lakfiu from Tbeopfaaa. Gontltk, 
11.427. 

t Flnlay wrongly saya it bbOiLino a titaat uudez Leo VI. ; see Ooosl. ' de Adm., 
p.SS8. 



318 A SKnCB or TBE BISTORICAL OEOGRAPHT OF ASIA SIIKOR. 

iho <iifficutt task to Prof. Q. Hirsdifeld, who nutdo « long jonmoy 
tlirougU them in 1883. Hicroolc*' liat io Ht^noriofl «greee exactly, cvca 
to tha order of entimeration, willj the Notitire. In Piipbla.gonia bs 
givoe six cititM, wborvaa Llie Kotttiie give only Oangra, lonopolis, 
Dndybra and Sara; bat of tbo two wbioh Hioroclos uldo, Amastria 
was made an aiitrikepiialouK archbialiopric about x.t>, 800 between Ibe 
duto of Iliaroc^loe and of tbe oldest Xotitia^,* and tbo eaiao wiig tho coPe 
between !i3$ and 5S3 with Pompeiopolts. Jiutinian (Novel., xxix.) 
rei^turad tbu original vaity of I'aplilagonia, out uf wbiuli a part hod 
beoii taken te fonu Honoiias ; but adds that it would be pedantic to giv^ 
back to Bithynin the cities Fronsiaa, Ilerakleia, and Clau<lio}K>H8, 
which had been taken from it to coinploto Honorias: iheso citiea, 
tboi'eforo, continued attached to Faphlngonia. The et^cleeiostical division 
into two provinces continued a« before, for the principle was now 
eetabUfihed that the Church should not follow the puliliual changes of 
organigatioD. Wo may infer that Hadrianopolig, Tios and Krateia were 
in tho eastern part of rionorino. Tho Purthonios wna probably tho 
bonndarj,- betw«i.'n Houoriue and Paphlagonia in the narrow een»e, and 
possibly Hadrianopolia was at Safaramboli, nnlesa that be the 8it« of 
Germia-Theodorias. 

2. Thu accompanying table includes the provinces that bound Cappa- 
docia on the north. It ia unnecessary for my present purpose to examine 
them completely, and I have travelled so little in thorn that I could not 
▼eiituie to do so. But with regard to a few towns which lie near the 
Cappodocian frontier and bare licou naml in discnssiug tho roads, it is 
necessary to prove their position. 

S. EuKHAJTX was a bishoprio of Heionoponfoa. It was always con- 
sidered a city of that provinew (Justinian, Novell., xxriii.), and its 
bishop was originally subject to the nietropulis of Amaseia (' Act. Sanct.* 
Feb. 7tb, p. 24). It wati made aalokephaloe apparently at an early time: 
henco Hierocles, who simply took the Vatt of bishops in Holcnopontos 
under Amaseia, omils it. This houoiir waa probably accorded to it, at 
least partly, on account of the great sanctiry of it« patron saint Theodore, 
who killed a dragon in the district of Eukhnita.! It was a station on 
some road ; honee, wlion Eutycbiiis was recalled from Amaeoia to Coq- 
tautinople, bis journey lay tbrongh Enkhuita and Niooroedia ('Aot. 
Sttuct.,' April 6th, p. 585). He travelled probably viA Tchomm and 
Gangra. This route ia tho moat direct, and its use is proved by tbo 
foUiJwing incident, 

Dui-ing an invasion of the flung into Pontua and Cappadocia, 

" Kotlliik Vn. 13 inMinpl.itt, litit it «!««■ not mcnti'OQ Amoftrie ta the arah1'gi>h.oj(rira. 
and donbtlcM agrc<^ vilb Uicrorlca. 

t The AcU Thcclori (Fi^li. 7th) cnntnin Httlo or no iuoiil i\>lorring. His hfslory ta 
dlrulnl butwcun Eulfhnita, NibomGdeJa. and Uurocloia [rooties], vliioh ii Hid Io b« a 
citj ncnr both the otirnn I 



p.— THE PONTOOAPPAWXaXN mOtmER. 



319 



Eiikhaita WM on the point of being caphtruil. Bud Maoeilouins fled from 
Eakhaita to (Jangra (Thoophan^ p. 161);* this poiata Tory piobaUy 
to Tcbontm oa the site of Eukhaita- 



tictEKoiy>sTr«, ['a^rrrs PoLEMoMUors. Ahmeku Pbima. 



HlETwlM. 


v..ijiiBi. vm.it 


H04KU.IJ1.X.XIII. 


'ft/LoaU 


1. 1 'A^wvf (of 


1 'Afidmlu 


14-w 


i 'Xfiifytni 


4 'I^J^> 4"< n^tsXlaT 


Zf)Aa 


7 ZiiXwr (nm, viii. ti.) 


7 ZnAic 


SiXr«r ZaXlxDH 


6 lOAixuK^TOlAtDJ-rOWTdAtMt 


6 ZoAJxc" ^01 Af4frwM*(n 


'ArS^Kira 


A 'Ai'I^aviJilwi' 


3 'AvSfxtrW)' 


'AfUiim i 


2 'A^iriruv 


3 'A^r0-«» 


S^tSWIf 


3 ^irinrft 


.1 l.iyii,7it 


— 


W. LbxaivtM 


11. EtocalTW 


NioKBirifi'tia 


I TftOKOIOVl^lfu 


t. 1 NtaxotirapfEat 


K^^iU'a 


i Yiatiift" 


1 Kafi^rui' 


lIoXi^v nor 


i IT#Affi*(i'<fvi> 


3 n«\f;iiWr(>v , 


Ktpo^oS* 


3 Xipaaovmt 


2 K<^(aviV«i 


T^««4fi:Ffi 


2 T#ia»r«t"''»*<'t 


II. TpavtCaw. 


b - 


— 


& 'AAAat 


I - 


— 


C 'P.<<ifov 


k ~ 


— 


7 K4<r>«i 


L - 


— 


8 EufTifHiu 


1 - 


— 


» 'ApaSitair 


1 " 


— 


10 Hop-vpovdAot 




— 


11 *"IVb\*i 


X(9^«i« 


1 S(Aurr«fM 


1 Xf^airrdai 


HuinAit 


% 'KiwariKimt 


3 NiKDvtfAtatr 


KnXorla 


3 Kohmvlat 


S KaAortfat 


3iTft>.B 


\ ZsT^wr 


4 SoTiL^'vc 


X<^M^O^«Xll 


3 3<iBa(rTai^<fAt«(i 


2 3(^arr«(«rfA(«>i 


— 


S Bn^Ivqt 


6 KT)p/<T(r>)i 



4. Sinco the preceding pAragrftphe w«re in tjpo an article bos 
sppcarml ill the 'Bulletin de OorraBpondance HolK'nique,' 1889, p. 297, 
on Eukhaita, It ia written Iiy M, Doulilet, whu. howeTcr, merely 
«xprca«v» the opiuiuca coumanicatcd to hira I'y M. I'AbW Ducbeene. 
Ho argues from an inscriptiun of Sataramboli tliat Kiikhaita waa situated 
there. But th* iuiwription on which Im fiiUiidt this opinion merely 
»hoTra that ibb cUutxrh at isufuramboli waa dedicated to Saint Thcodorus 

* Compare Cedren, i.. p. 633: rl>y 'Kpittvlay llii^a^c*, KaT«al«irI«m koX TaXmrlaw 
mai Ittft-rnv X^if^^troi, tit jtal tji Eux'''^* ^i'^dC 9apm»Hi9»aiav i$iv ml f >^r i U(A» 



S20 A ssercu or tue iustobical geography o? asia uixob. 

«ud that tho cify wu, according to tlio contnonest of Byzootiae customs, 
epok«u of somotiini.-H a» tho "city of Thoodonu." It Acvt not prove 
that tlie oity wsb tjfficialiy de«ignate(l Theotloropolis, but merely that 
IB & religious dedication tlio city vfn* called aft«r it« patrou saint. It is 
uot impruhahio that Thcodonis v&B worshipped as patron saint of more 
than one city io the uorth ; thti tcgoutl couuectvd n-jtb hiui do«a not 
confini' hi8 iiifluencv tu a KingU c-ity.* Tho furthvr proof iHistil] wauiing 
that Safaramholi was within the bonndg of HelenopoQtoH, in which 
province Eukhsit» wiut intrtiidi^d. A gluucu only at tbu map a needed 
tosb&wthat Safiiramholi nae far west of Ueleuopoutue, anil near tho 
bountTary of Hononaii and Faphlagonio, ; mircly M. llouhlet bad never 
(XOisnlled tho map n'Leii he proposed the idontiliciitiuii. 

fi. lu tho fiiBt phice, Eiikhai ta was a city of Hclenopontoe. Notitia I. 
gives under the ufrtiKt^uAot, as Xo. iff, 'Eivafxw 'EXti orruvruu o EijiaUw. 

Now there are perhaps, I admit, some rare coscb -n-here, through some 
unknown ecclesiitsticHl bond, a Lishopric is attaohod to somo province ID 
di;Hani.'« of geographical eituatioii ; hut this in not a case in point, for 
Enikhaita, though uot subject to the Metropolitan of Holcnopontos, is 
said to ho a city of the province. Moreover, it happens that the 
goveniment list of the citiex of Helenopontoa under Juatinian is knowajf 
and Eukhiutu is among them. 

Secondly, the hounds of Heknopontot) are eottled by those of 
Puphlagonia, which included Gangra, I'orapeifipolis, and lonopotis. The 
weBtfm boundnry of HelenopontoB was, tLerefore, taat of these cities. It 
may be deflued still more exactly. Helonopoutos included three cities 
on the woitt aide of tho Halys, viz., Sinope, l.eont©]>o]i», commonly called 
ZalikhoB or Haltus ZalichonUR, and Andrapa, which is by Ptolemy said 
to bear also the name Neoclaudlujioli)*. Tlie laxt of these is identified 
by Kioport with great probability J as the moilorn Iskolib. The aecond 

* Compare, e.ri., the InvocatioD to tlio ArchoufKl Wc^KihiI at Akntmoi, fitffor rtr 
riKii^f) dou: Kv Ftj'mtiwaciii aai MHrnptili* in ' Mitllii'il. AUlcil,' 1862. It happen t 
llmt from aicglo puBsngos wu IcuuwUwl ItotbUcmiia and Kolonda wcro knows oocaiian- 
ftlly \-y the nDmcoftlieu pAttou TbuodoTUs; at Coni^ Cmiil.,5S3 a.C, Jmssw opieoopW 
Colon«iieLuiii aive TtuHHltiriiulio dvHaUe: on tiDTmln, tco g G. Suailnrly Iho taxi Ui&t 
SabraiulKili (Ilailriaiiopolis. or perhaps Odnoiii) wus protoctecl by Llm piitjou laiDt 
TlitnlnniH U known from Clua ioMirijitioD only. 

t ■> HeleiiOipootum quidciu oota iub«8 implent, hoc twt Amngiii, Iboia, Enctiaita. 
inmiM'i' ot Ki'lii (it Anilrjpit ^t Aegeum nd cliiiincna, ho« Ml gmdiu, ritum, Sicojia ct 
Amtjiua, antiqiKc lubes, led rt Leootopolu, iLit[L- et ipm. jnui iut«r urbva cuuvntiu : 
■lin vvru qainqii? rtilomnniiiciitn Pouluin ooutintiul : Neixriusarta, et C'»uiaiia. Ttafieuu 
H Ueroiiw lH FolDtncitiiuiii : Pityim eufiu et Seba^lapohit inter castro gwtitts qnam 
nrbo* DnmeTaDdio aunt" (■ Novella ' xxtUL) Tbs Latin t«xt hna a enrioua miatmu- 
lution, 0.1 Yf n-p^i ToTi iiXl>iiu-i lalfurtu XiniTif t« Hal 'Ai^oit Uiing rrndCKd " At^guum ul 
climacaa" ; oa ttA^ia tco iBaurin. 

t Ki0p«it Id '@iUuDg>tbi/<t. Heri. Akod.,' lflS4. in bia 'ntftACulKmcrkimgeii xn Tn- 
feoor O. Hinchfcld.' Tli« IMtur tdcntlAod Tuvlnm with Iskclib. I And no daflniie 
puui^ to Iwutiao Aiidnpa, but general ooneidentinns mikltn me ncwept EiepeR'a' 
nani^atlon wIlU ouufiiltmee. A dtv is -«rant«d at lakolib and then Kvma ne otker l» 



T— THE FOKTO-CAPPADOCIAN FBONTIER. 

1 4Mati^4tai gka of the little river ZolekoB, 210 etadia west of the 
BafTIT*" flbJK^ is w^ll known. A line between these three and tli9 
thive eastern oities of Piiphli^i^iiiii marks tbo boiinds of Hulenopontoe 
on th« east. The a«aigtiBtioa of Uukoia to it in ths foUowiiig patagraph, 
if coiTcct, matkfl it still more narrowly. 

Thirdly, Eukhaitawoe in tho ArmciiiRC Thome-f It i« s-bsolotoly 
impo&u1)le tu think that tlie Artneniao Theme, which included the n-lible 
of Cappadocia from tlie CiHduu Galen to the Btuck Sra nt Aiiiiso« 
uhoold oxlcuil BO far wo»t aa t^afaramWU, leaving to the Faphlagonian 
Theme the little comer between that and the bordent of tho Bac«cllnriote 
Theme, which oxteudod to the iioa at Horakleia. I need not linger to 
enforce' thut'po'Qt. It is, however, ohvious that, if Dokeia was in the 
Armeaiao Theme, tt niuat have beca iu UeleuopoutoK, and la tliat ooiie 
We may esy tliat it mtifit have been very cloee to the frontier. Dokeia, 
now called Tosaia, is recorded to have been in the Artneninc Thenis: } 
it was occupied by Romnnus Biogenea on bis retm-n from captivity in 
1072. Alexius CumneuTis returned from Auasela by Dokuia (said to lie 
in I^phlagonia), Eastamon, and Ucrakleia (Niceph. Bryen., p. 92).| 

rouTthly, Eukhaita was probably eaat of the Halys. The pnKsage 
quoted almve from Thwplianes shows that in A.n. oi>8, when the Hiiiis 
were ravaging Fontos and Cappodocia and Galatia, MacodoniuB tied 
from Eakhaita to Qangra. If Kukhaita were at Safaramboli, he would 
bo going right into tlio hands uf the tui^ io (leoing io Oangra. Ho wa« 
at some placo such a» Tchomin, and then naturally encaped wcnt- 
ward to (iangra. Moreover, the words of Theophanes iniggDet that 
the IIuwi did not croes the Halys, and therefore that Eukhaila, which 
they brsiegod. was on the east side of the river. 

Those pas-tagcH show that Bakhaita was on a road from Amusaia to 
Nikomedeia, in uuty communication with Gangra, and east of tlie Halys. 
Tchorura is the site that wiggestn iteolf from a utiiily of the map, 
without nctnal knowlcdgo of the countiy. 

6. Thv ouly pusxRgL-s known to me tliat t«n in favour of MBT. 
Xhichcsne and Doublet aie (I) that quoted in i it, footuote, from 

tta S. Thoodori;' but the biography appears to me, as I have there 



plitix' Uiere eicf-pl Sora nml Aailropo, Snm wtu probftbly ftinlicr west, and M. tK)iiliItil 
is ]>rotialilj riglit Iu idfnilir^ing it lu tlic modi^m ^orn, liiilf n day MnlU-oflet of Sapha- 
nniboli (• r«iy I(N>m tm'l iiuMjcucnU; ^af at ilaieribiiig tlvo nttiAltnn), Hull. C'trr. \liM^ 
I8ljd, ]>. 311 : ^0 most Utcicrotc aliiii'lain Muaacit** propoaci idcntilioaliou uf Sor* «i<b 
fuuXanioii, till) iiiDiIiTii Kantaiiitini (NIcrL Chva., 28; Clnu.. 13-lG). Andrbpa ww 
c]«arl}r ia tIjU nei^^lilwiulio'Kl. ii ovt^j tw* 'hirtpo-Tnitiiv yfit & /lax^ui ('HirAx'"*) 
h^ii (Act. SttTict., Mar. G, )>. 456). 

* U. Duubliit imyi(l. c, p.S97], "Je n'al mAllMtiKiMDmeDtpuiiiMitifterw Ibont ni 
ZoUch^" 

t TbeopliaQea. p. 489, menUoni lliat Leon. govCTnor of lie Anncninc Thcmt, wu 
at Enkhnita with tlie mllttar; cliMt: Do Sooi rigbtlj- iQrvn tbat EuUiaila wu in the 
Tbcan>a- 

Cenlin., pL 426). For Aiutu pcrttapa rcod AexiaraC. 



823 



A SKETC'R OK Till; HISTORICAL GEOGEUPHY 09 ASU M1K0K. 



■tataJI, to want local colouring, and therefore not to lie written b; h 
penon who know tho diirtriot. It is really one of the most contemptible 
documents in the entire 'Acta Sanctorum." It ia qnito clear that 
nothing wlialsoover was knowti about Theoiloro except hia name and a 
lale that ho hud Riain & dragoD, lie waa worshipped in several places 
in Puphlagouia and Puutus, and the legcud hriiigd them together: ho 
killuHl a dragon at Eukliaita and he lived at Herakloia. The exAmple 
of Makrina at Sanma, and of the coffin of Saitli Ghazi at Nakol^, show 
how roadilj stories ahuut saints, Christian or Mohamniudan, grow np at 
places where thoy are worehijip^d. f (2) A quotation given in 5 11. of 
thv Uullaiidist preface to ' Acta S. Thowdori ' may also he held to favour 
MM. Ducheane and I>oublet : the hiahop of Hadriauopclis, seeking for 
AJypioB, xaToAo^^tii'ti TotToc iv Ei';(oiVik? ■^oij t^s irmtfyvfHiiK TtXavittnji 
©toSiupoi' rw MtipTirpos. These two referonce« do not aeom to mo worth 
weighing against the argamcnta which havo juHt boon stated. 

Again, even if it be admitted that SafaiamboU bore thu official name 
Theodoropolis, this does not agree with Eukhaita, for M. Ihichesne 
himself statcH that the name Theodoro]K>li8 was given to Gukhaita 
S63-73 ou the oooaaioa of a victory over the Kuscaans, but this 
inscription Ixtlongs to the fifth oentnry. We must look for somo place 
which "38 called hy ndigioiis jionple by the name of S. Theodorua in 
the fifth centnry. Oermia perhaps fulfils this condition, and may 
poBBihly have been tituatoJ at tJafaraiuhoU. 

Gomiia is mentioned oa a metropolis in Notiti» I., 11., VI. VIL, 
VIII., X., generally as !i«longing to Galatin, in VII, as Iwlonging 
to Galatia Prima, and in VIII. to flaUtia Secnnda. Thia might 
appear conclusive aa to i'a aituation. But in tlio Quiuiaexta Synod, 
A.D. 602, there occurs among the orchhiehopa at the beginning of 
the list Mankr^ om^in; iwirrKomK Tiy? 0«n$bipiarui' iffn Prfi/iwri^ [jtoAciik] 
■r^ BtSiivuiv (Vupx'"^- Bcsidea him wo find, among the Ushopa of 
HbllcepontiiR, TlarA,fK r^s TifiitiTivHiv fruA«(<K rt/s 'EXXijfnroiTiajy iwafix^f' 
Now GcrmocMonia, a wvll known city of Galatia Secunda. mentioned in 
all the Notitiffl aa a bishopno nubject 1o I'csHiniis, cannot be the sarne na 
this Gei'iinia, for the formor bears tlia religious name Myrimgolui, the' 
latter of ThoodnriaB. Except the name Garmiag in the Peutiugor Tahlo 
between Ankyra and. PamaasoB (which ie corlaitily an error, u this 
road ia very well attc«tod by otlier aul borities), I eee no other refervDiM 
to this Gcrmta. If we can tmat the list« of tlie Cotin<^il in prefeieoce 
to the Xotititn, Gcrmia might be attuatcd at SafarBinboli. It ia tino 
that Safnramholi is rather to be assigned to Paphlagonia than to 
Bithynia; but Jii«tinian cicpressly says (Novel. sxi:i.) that Ctaudiopolis 



* Thre« venioiii. nil equally poor, an? piiUli«lKil tinder Feb. 7. 

t "Porlaventnt uam ab Uimrliii in Kudmito," (Add. p. 8DI D.)- Ou KIiJcrill^Ht- 
Sa^iua. It i*, of cuiirito, tia iuKult to MutiniiimL-diiuiiiii t<j tpcak of tho noribip of 
S(^ Qlituci : Ihc dcfTidlicB, inltcd, wlio kfjjl up llio uti'mory of flriiii GlinzL, iirc bflow 
the standard «r MobaDuncdaDiim. but evea tli«7 aaaaot be mid to wonLip Soldi OhatL 



p.— THE PONTO-C/PPADOCIAK FBONTItX. 



S23 



anil Herakleia weix*, strictly apt^ukiug. Uithjaifta cities, and Safaramboli, 
therefore, is not fur oast of the bouudur; between Bithjuk au<i Paplila- 
gooia. A certain vagnencfs always cxinted, as i* well known, in rc^g&i-d 
to tho b<junc]ari(iii of provim-os I'tlicr than tli« Soman ofScial divliiionH. 
Etill, I la^no ntrcss on tho identifioa lion, except tbat itianot inipoiteible. 
I on the whole prefer tbv conjecture that Uudrianopolb waa at Saforam- 
boli.* Bat Germia, certainly in the eeventla oentnty, nnd probably 
iu tho fifth oeotarjr,t bore, religionsly, the name of S. Thooilorn«, and 
the cvidenoe is not ooncliiAive against Oenuia being at Sufaraniboli. 
Enkhaita i» reconlod to have received the name Th*)o<loropoli6 in the 
teutti century, and the evidence appears to be ooDoluaive tbut it waa 
euat of Gangra. anil probably eaKt of ihu IIiiIjk. 

The frequent references to Eukbaitft tdiow ita importanoe. Why, 
then, ii it omitted by Uteroclcs and all elder writorn, as well us by tho 
uodem geographow?} UuJec tho Komsn empire the diatrict in whiuh 
Enkhaita waa situated waa not penetrateil by the GraxMvHomaQ 
oiriliaation ; bunoe the uilonoo of writeia older than Uioroclos is only 
naturaL But the gro^'th in importance of the oities along the north of 
the AuatoHiin plati-aii ia one of tho most marked fL'stnrea during iho 
two centm'iee 350-550. and during tbia time Kukhaita became one of 
the woKtK of HeleuopontoB. If Hieroolen had used a govemnient list of 
cities, he oould not have omitted it : tho roaoon why he has omitted it 
miiRt be that he followed the eccleaiaatical Vmta, In which thiit city, 
being atrrottitpaXcK, was nut giTcm among the bishoprics under Amaseia. 
The emrlieet proof that Enkhaita waa a{rroM«^tiXnc i» at tho Counoil of 
A.V. 680, where the order clearly itupUti that LcontopoliB and Kotrada 
in Isauria, as well an Eukhaita, aro metropolitan bii>hc>prics. 

There is one oilier poHiible situation for Eukhaita. It may hare 
been, not on the ruad Auiueeiu-Guugra, but on tho more nurthorn ronte, 
Auoeeia-Tezir Koiiprou-Tash Kenpron (Pompeiopolia), &c, Bnt the 
flight of Macedoniufi to Gan^rra certainly tnggcBta the southern route. 

Some MS3. of tho later Notitiu; S give four bishopricn us subject to 
Enkhaita, vis. Gamta, Rout/.iag;rofl, Sibiktos and Bariano. Of theao 
Gazala might perhaps be identified with Qazeloa (chief town of the 
district Gazelonitis), which is tajDJecturally plarod hy Kiepert at Veinr 
Kenpreu. Bat the majority of MSS. aaaign these bishoprics to tho 
metroiX)Iie Koai Patnu in the Peloponnesus, and add tw Et^;^('ruji' 9p6rm 



* If 1h« ntoatioii fnr Sara uBiKUi'd by M. Doublut m oorrticl, Uii(lriani>|>iilui mtut b« 
farther weil, fin it wan in Uoiioiiiia ; and SafiiuiiLboli aeenu a peouliaily euitalile silo. 
KulamnnI wu Id PaphliLgonia, u it viu Mpanilod l>om HouoHm: it mnj be tb.st 
i)i»l;tjra uid tijc laUt KaetanKm vftre a *ing1« biatioprio. 

t The incidcolul alluoiaii jirarvii that IL13 uaiu« wus curreut ainong the i>eop1e, nail. 
tbtiKfuK. of some antiquity. 

I M. Daobeano u, I think, almost tbe &nt writcv liuco La Qulon vha baa 
niOTilioTK'tl IL 

i Not. X., Bad a Pari* IIS. 



324 



A SKETCS OF THT. HlSTORtOU. OEOOBAPHY Of ASIA MIKOR. 



iitroKUiAtvot «lm &m, and NitoB Doxap«tnti8 HgT«e« with tliem. It Is, 
therefore, more probalilc, no far us the ovidcuce of the Kotitiie goes, 
that tlivae four bishoprics belong to the Pelopoaaosiia : porhajM eomo 
ftuihority on the topogrftjihy of Grooco will douide the qnealion. 

After the preceding paiagrsphs aro in print I find further conSmm- 
tioii in Act. Suuct., Juno 5. p. 586, whero a (luotation is given from 
Acta Thoodori Ticonie of Amaseta, to the eB'^t that a noble matrou 
Eu^ebcia transportol Iho body of the martyr "in poseossionein susm, 
quae diatat a dvitale A mania ria nnins diei, in locnm qui vooatar 
ISudiaita." Tchorani stiivtly ia two daya' joiimoy from Amaaeiat hat 
an oxtutc within the territory of Tohonim might quite welt LaTo been a 
day's joum«y distant. On the same page another quotation is gtvca 
from a MS. Vita S. Barbarao, ■^v Si iv rj) xwp? *T* 'AvoreXix^, rg 
HtAovfUvii '[lAiofiTDXtt, ivijp KaroucZv cv xiaiptif JnAcyo/xnifi TtXaatoK iit ^Ud 
/uXt'oif ScKoSvu EfxatTwr. Thore ia do city named Iloliopolift, which is 
uTidontly an error. If we txirrect to [Oi-]>f^4[i']owTOA<*, we have placed 
VerinopoliB at Gteuiio, and a fHtia iu the uorihem part of the territory 
of Verinopolis might Tory woll he twelve miles from Tcliomm. The 
two paaM^B proro that Tchuruiu wa« Eukluuta. 

With regard to tho ft^iir bielwprifg, Mr. Tozer infonna me that hd 
oau trace none of tLo names in Grceco. The prubability therefonj is, 
either that they mmit he axaigpned to some third metro^KiliK, or that they 
belong to Eukhaita, The district which would jinturally I* subject to 
Eahhaita is the country along the lialys vn thu oa»t. Tho northern port 
of this eountry bcara the name Qaeelonitis, and ita chief t«wn may 
perhaps occur as one of the fuiir bishoprics 

T. The ancient city at Safaramholi, then, was not KulchaKa : I leave 
it toFrof. G.Hinuhfeld tuspucify its muae with cvrtunty.f Tho modem 
name, ia perhaps, derived from @<oSoipi'af ai>uv. It is a very common 
oceurttiTice that the modern name of a city shonld follow tliat of the 
patron saint & bueumys S, aa ill Ayasaluk from "Ayw @coAciyo ; the dis- 
ayllablea @(o and iav are re^arly ran together into one syllable in the 
common pronunoiatioc of Greek : the only difficulty in the change of S 
tofi but the modern prouunoiation of S{ aulvas much of the difQoulty. 
The acsouttativo form is tlie common one, e.j, in IluliainlKjli, FlaXatilr 

8. It will ha useful to give at thia point a comparative tublo of the 
chaugea introduced into the provinces of thia diittrict by JantiuiBn 
(Novel., xxriii., xxxi.). From it we see that Zda was on the 

* I have Tia opiwftuiilty or couultiiig tha oriKinixt. ThcoJonie Tiro U ]>ONt]iooed 
from FuU 17 lo NoTdtibcr in 'Act. Biuiot.' M. DueUeiuc, who qavlce from 'Acta 
Tbcoii. Tir.,' <lcwB out npiK-iLr t» Ijnvr noticed this liuportknt {usw£«, vrliicli droiolislim 
his topn^fnlilii-Ctit tlu-oiy. 

4 Btifore I uoUocd llie referenoe tu Gennia Tlieodorioa, I hud thought of HaJriui- 

t EagUib a in 1^. 



p.— THE P0NT(W:APPAKiC1AN PROTTrreil. 



328 



frontier of the older Helenopontos adjacent lo Ahnonia Prima 
(Sebafitiurm); Eouiauft ua the Trouticr of FoloTUon iakoa adjacont 1o 
Arcnenia Prima Sebastmna ; Satals, KiVopolia. ant] Coluiun on the 
c&Btum frontier ut' Armenia Sobastiuna, furming a. conrcmout nom 
province with Trapczons and Keroeoos of Polomoniakoe.* 

PosTM A}n> Armxku. 



JdaUdIbu 


■ Re-oiEUilMll»n. 


OUet SruotlDe AmngrmcrLi. 


Annctiia Priinft 


Buonis oT T.wntopclu 


Utile 110 vn 


>i 


TboodMfopolU 


Cap|)iulae<& Priun 


■1 


Trftpu-zons 


Pontof rnlomgaiakot 


11 


KorRMHia 


)■ 


•• 


Satala 


Armenia Prlnui 


H 


Nikopotli 


VI 


•4 


Colania 


n 


AfiueoU Booundft 


6«b«tteia 


n 


1' 


Sebnsto|M>Jii 


p 


_ 


KomAU 


PoQtoa rolemoniekoi 


ft 


Twin 


Armenia ?rinia 


H 


Zd» 


H«leuu|K>ijUa 


Heleaoponlo* 


AnuMpJft Tubi 


n 


.. 


Ambu Dfln 


•• 




Ibonnibi 


■V 




BnkluuU arl« 


n 


-J 


AndrajiA urh« 


H 




Slnoj© iirlw 


n 




Lecatopolls uiba 


** 




Nooonnn-tn uibi 


PontiM Folcmonlikoa 




Pokmoniou urla 


■1 


^ 


PStymu [ilirourion 


•1 




Scbastopolia phraurion 


■T 



Tho confusion cansed by tlio fact that Arinetiifi Sohaittiana wag 
Prima before Jiutinian and la the Is'otttiaj, Sccunda in tLe civil 

■ Jiuttiiium, Novel , x«xi , formed a new prorlnce 6f Anncniu Prinw with IImi 
metlopoli« LeoaWpdia. lie txldi ; l'ib» iUi tdalgnarimiu, rikL-uJotiupoliiu, tjtinia etil 
ptlw habuil: ?nlnl*tn, ct Ktuii}iuliiu, OoloDca qi(m[iM> ex prloia (nl outi' votntiatur) 
Amwili «miiiiiplu : item TiD^itiEuuto, el Ceruuntd ox Pulvmuiiiiuv) prins dtcd) Panto. 
H» nwdo Armeula Secuada out of parte of (he old Prlmu niid of PauliM: StK'niidiitn 
TcTo ordinem t«Dec» iuMlnit* vttia Arvarvum qniio bnW jitiiivi •lic«bMur, in qiu eattvnt 
{iniecvdit Sobwtea urbo, &ttrtbuta iUi. ct Sobtuitopoli, qoam priua quoqiii- lialmii, 
«t itttii{Mr Commaiia ex Polcmonbco iiriuB Pcnitu dicW : ct /.tliK-x Ilclonoiwiiio: uequu 
nan Berin. Armcsia Tertin vtu tUe old &ticimda uortittnj^nl ; »r»< O, 2. Amienin 
QoartA wu formod out of rnrioiu tribcB, inclndisg Lho district* TiApliancno, Anicllicnp, 
Ualabitcnc etc. It coutaintd tbc <<il;r Mu-lpopolia uul Ihc cfullu Kitticrison. 



A SKETCH or THE Hlf 



GltoGRAPnY OP 



ctirUioQ aft«T Jiiittiiiiiiii, is ofteo appHrent to the eccle«i»8tic;il Ibla : 
c.-/. nt Synod of 680, Vonsen Sccundn ArmciiiiB ; and Notitia I. Hpealca of 
Armeiiia Quarta (evidently Utat of Justiuiau, for it meiitionti KitLiirizoDt 
tliough it places Martyropoliu, purt of his provinoo, ia Mc«o{i<:>taima), 
«ad yet it has no Armenia Tmtia- 

0. SEBAsroroLis, also called ReracIeopoHs. was situated at Sulu Serai. 
Tfais U proved hy an inscrtption oa the Boman Itridgo beeide the town, 
vUeh haa boon pntilished by Renicr (' Uev, Arohgeolog.,' 1877, p. 200) 
and by Boehl ('Boltraga ziir grieoh. Epigraphik ') from a copy su bad 
that their tranacripts differ widely. It -naa afterwanla published hy me 
ftoQi the accurate copy of Sir Charko Wilson ('Journal of I'hilology/ 
188S, p- Ibi)- It IB erected by the archons, senate, and people of 
Sobaatopoliu HeradoopoUa, midur th« governor of CapiiadocJa, Arrian 
(the hiBloriun), a.d. 137. 

10. A«A3U, AmISOS, SiSOfE, NEOCjaAIiEU, KCJIASA, SEBASTEIA,haVD8ll 

Tetainedtheirasoieut names with more or leiJB modilicaiionto the present 
day. Eomana is uow a «tiiaU village ou the Iris, aUivo Tokat, which 19 
said to he calleil Gi'imenck : 1 have not seen it, Strabo (p. 567) mentions 
that the Irifl flowud thruugh the city of Komana. StibaHt«ia ivm oalltid 
llegalopoUs aft^r Pompi^y, and under tho early empire took the name 
Sehasteia. Its walU were rebuilt by JuBtinian, 

11. Imir*. The jxjBitionof Ibora canbvdvhi-rmiiied with approximate 
accuracy by the Icttern of Buiiil and Gregory Nyiseciitia. Tbo family 
Cfitate where they were boiti, where they oft«D went to live, and where 

ii«t sister Macriiia died, w«b ou tho bauka of tlie Irie, at a villago 
Annesoi. The road by which Gregory returned from AnneBoi to TSym% 
after Iho death of Maerina pasBcd tlirough SebaBtopuliH, which was 
apparently not far dietaut. In his yonth Baeil retired fr\>m the world 
to live on a hermit close to Anneaoi, but on the opposite side of the Iris.* 
It is freiiuently jnentioued that Annesoi wa« in the dioceae of Ibora. 
Einmuloia, tho mother of BiisU, Macrina, and Gregory, had brought the 
remaiaaof the Forty Martyrs i^ Anneeoi and built a church them U- 
receire them-t Henco, when tho Bishop of Iborn died, Gregory look 
temporary charge of the ohnruh, oa ho felt to be hitt duty.f Hera 
6elegatea front Bubaiiteia, the metropulis of Aniieuin Sccutida. came tu 
Ttait hint. Now Iboni was a bishopric on tho fionticrs of PoutOB, and 
not far from Daziiuon (Tokat) ; therefore it was probably that bishoprio 
of Potitas which adjoined Sebastein. 
^Gregory Xaziuuzoii (Bpt«l. iv.) deHcribes the hermitage to which. 

* Basil EpUt., 8 Uld 2Sa — M rqt /ior^t -rru M rf 'Ifiii irgra^. 

t KMftiii fSl /col ^pairri<"ifV*. I' f t1 r&v Tpia/iaKapSmi' rtivtti¥ iuranirturrm \f ^|«rB, 
tafi 111 raXlxr^ 4 ytheiv, 'Ipaipn itiiAoiffic our^i-.— (0 reg. Nyw., la 'Quadr. Uart^' 
p 783.) 

.... Vvi^iTTws. — Or«B. Nyw , ' EpIdtV p. 1075. nori tly vfOvfiMrr* T*i* *m^ airo<t 



P.-TRE POXTO-CAPrADOCIAN reOSTI&R. 



327 



Buil r*treftt*<l as gitimteiJ in h nftrrow glen ftmong lofty tnountaius, 
wbiuh koep it always iii KliaJuw aud durkuuBi;, wliile fiir Wluw tlio river 
foftiiiH mtd roars in iU rocky, narrow, procipitons bed. (Ep. iv.) Thi« 
dctfcription oflu Wrdly refer to any other part of the rivtr tbun tlic rocky 
glen below TuTltbal. Ibora cauwdt bo plM««l further don-ti, Ixxjaiwo it is 
the frwiilior bishopric of Pontns towards SpliiiHtdiA ; and furtlier «]» tbero 
is DO rooky glen until the territory of Koiiiait^i is reached. 

Grej^ry Ifyiwciiuis in hia trcatiso on Bn|itiem (irpot ruvt fipaZworrai 
(If TV ^urTMT/ia, iii. p. 415, Ed, Migiifi), speaks of Eomaiia as a neigh- 
bouriug city.* Tillumout, thinkiiig that the treatise was written st 
NyauL, infers that Kyasa and Komann were near o««li other. Tho truth 
is, tlmt Gregory must have written his trcAtiitf at Anncsoi. \Vc iiiay 
therefore infer thut the territory of Iboru udjoiucd tbilt of Kuuiunu uo 
the cast and that of Sebastoia on the south, and tonched tho Iris from 
the Imuiidaiy of Romaiia down to a point below Turkhal. The lioiniclHry 
waB probably near Tokal, and llxjm itwilf may have been actually 
situated at Tiirkhnl. 

If thid reasoning be oomxit, how arc wo to explain Basil's letters 
86 and 87, A certain preabytor's ooru had been seiTed by thn public 
officers (twi' ri Snj/tjairta SumjciIv irtvurTn.'fifyuir^ at Verina (iv Bt^fUfrtroi;. tv 
KTjfu'aaon). Letter 80 is written to tho governor of the province in 
which Basil had been horn and brought up (ru ipy^oyn r^f irarpiSw sod 
rw ^tfiovi), i, e, the governor of Pon tUB, and complains of the condact of 
tha officials at Yoriiui. The second is addressed to tho officer under 
whofro instnictians the offioials of Yorisa claim to have acted : this 
ofEcer is informed that Basil hits already written to the governor of the 
[irovinue, and is uxhurted to eonipvl ivutitutiun of Liu own aeoord, as 
IWil will otherwinu take <he matter iiito the court of jimtice. From 
lltc! expressions nsod in the second letter, it is certain that this officer 
was stationed at no great distanoe from Basil's reaidence, Annesoi. Tho 
wiiter of the note in Migne concludes that therefore Annceoi was in the 
district of Verisa. This is int-errcct. Yorisa waa one of the towns 
in the district administered from Iboru, where the chief oivU and ecclc- 
S'ostical officers of ft "city and bishopric" reeitled. The farm from 
which the com of Dorotbeos, brother of Basil.^ co-prettbyter with tha 
officer of ^e Ibora district, had been seized, was >n Yerise, id tho 
diatriot of Ibor& 

lu the tasic ef explaining the false inferences hitherto drawn from 
these two letters, we have at the same time gHinod a valuable indication 
of tho site of Yerisa.) 



* M T^( Ko^araiup [!-«- Ka/tatitayl nikttis Tpi^qi itfTiiyifrvroi (p. 12.1). 

t i wvititirmTirt UtXfii Awpi^toi I c'Ot &a actual bictliu of UaiU, bat tatW a 
frioad, r*llcd omjiliatiiMlljr " mj itty Jew brother." 

I Ttin uoUw La Mi|;De eipliim tho &nl letter ob irrLtIca to tlie officei in V«rt«a, tlio 
Bcoond as to the prm»e* of Cappadocia ! 

TOt,. IT. S 



3123 A SKETCH OF THC BmORICAL OEOGtUPliT OF ASIA HCNOfi. 

It might soom incongistont villi ihe Mtnaiion aarigned to Ibbra that 
Basil soraetimes speaks of it &b near Noocraoircia (Niksnr). lo Ei^tle 
2l0, Banil writing from CnBareia in Ca{>padocia to tli« people of Keo* 
Ctesareia, may very veil aay that ho will bo near ttitm wLcQ ho gOM to 
Anooaoi, or«n tliougb Anniwoi ia bwide Tiirklial. Epietle 21G is to be 
int«rpreted in tla.d same way. On a circular jouriioy for cliurcti puri>a««s, 
Basil came from the south-west to Dazimon (the Kaz Ora lietween Tokat 
and Turkbal), and theo visited hut brotbor Potur, whinn vro may awumo 
to have beeu living ou tho fumily property at AiiDC«oi. The first aod 
more natural interpretation is that Petor, thv brotlior of Basil, lived at a 
place furthor np the Iris than Dazimon. in the direction of Neocnsareia 
(Bos. Ep. 218 Sta TO !r/J(X7«yytf«ii' ro"v naiii HonaKrapfiuf Toirott). But on 
mor« oarefnl oonaideratioii it is obvious that after the tronblcs in Dazimon, 
Basil went t» take a holiday with his brother Petor, and therefore he did 
ikOt neoeasarily continue bis journey onward from Dazimon. The ex- 
procnon of nuighbonrLooJ to the tliatriot of Keocaisareiu is donbtleea 
only comparativo: Basil's uirual nwidonco was Cocareia. Horeover, 
M tbora has now lM>on placed, irs territory pmbably touehed that of 
Neoofeeareiu. 

As Ibom is now placed, its sitnation also smUs the statement of 
Procopina, Uist. Arc., p. Ill, that Aniaseia iind Ihotn were both 
destroyed by an oarthquako under Justinian. The mait correct form 
of the name is'l^mpa. 

The place to which Xanoratins, brother of Basil and Maorina, retired, 
and where he died, was three days' journey f^om Annteoi, in a wooded 
hilly district on the Iris, It must have boen three days' journey down 
the river towards Amasia, as tliis distance niejisiiri'd np the river wonld 
take ns beyond Komnua far into the province of PolemoDiacns (Oreg. 
Nyse., vit. Macrin., p, 907), 

Ararine was bishop of Ibora at the time when Blacnna died ; tho 
date of her death is hy aome authorities given oa Jtdy t9th a.d. 380, by 
others Nuvcmbcr — Dfoeidber 370. Another bishop, TTranins, probably 
earlier, is mentioned in ' Act. Sanct.,' April <3lh, p. 553 (qui Ihoremm 
cathedram ezornaviC ibiqiie eonditna eat).* 

The tcrritoij' of Ibora exiunded perhaps aa far as the Hnlye. In 
Not. Ill, ooours A "[finpaw rjroi Ilt^oXc'a; (with ihe variant Q«/toAiir«r*f«)- 
Pimolieea and Ibom were therefore two towns under the same bishop. 
According to Cedrenua, ii., 626 and 642, Pimoliesa was a fortress on 
the Halys (to if>poupiov rijv UijfioXwirM'. irtrpa. 4J ■^ Tlif/ioXic-cra iropi ri 
j^fiXos ic«i/icvtj TDv 'AXvrjs wora^S), and Strabo rofers to the district 
of Piuolisa an situated nest to Chtliakctmmi, in the northern part of the 

* Uranjus, ftloai; with Mclttiua mid Bt-kucus, biskiipe «f Aimtscis. liiiiJi a 
taonaalcty ut .iuiaai'iii. Mvlttlitu amj Sclcueu* were burled tlieni <i4.). The mosias> 
(err i* tncntlauod h; Xbeo^tisue*. p. t2S. U wiu vnniod FlaTla ('Act. Sanet..' li 
p. 961). 



[■.—TUB POKTOCATPADOCIAK PBONTIKS. 



339 



territory of Amnseiji, but extending to th« rlv«r n*Iy«.* Kiepcit'H 
pasitJou for PiiuoHhia at OniuHiiijilt seems highly probable. 

12. Veiusa or VBUissA waa originally in Ui» diouoM «f lljora. It was 
alienvards dignitied ae an independent binhopric imder tlio Mctrapoliu 
of St<kiuiti;ia ill Armeiiiii Priuut.'f Tliu rual(e<( it probnble that the 
territory of Ibora wan inconveniently large, and the iioutliL-ni purt, nitU 
tho town of Vorieaa, was constituted uu iudupoiiduiit city and bisboprio. 
Tbit took pUce ftl't«r tlid tiuo of Basil and before 4fi8 a.d. Yoriua 
WAS iLKsigned to Ariuourii Prima both in the Notitite and in the Epistola 
Prov. Amion. J. atl Leonem. 

- Tbetw conHiderstioos uuito in pointing UB to tlto Hite of IJuluit, which 
.fulfilfl all the conditions; and we aoo that Dolus aolually is the modern 
form of Yorixa. Two po8sage« quoted in I,. 1 -i uiul P. 12 ]iorh»p« mention 
the direct roiut from the Rea-ooaat aa passing through Yeriiia. 

12. Dazimoms WA8 the nninii of the rich plain now called Kox Ova, 
through which thm Iris Qows after passing through tho middle of 
Koumna {Strnb., p. i47). Dnximnn, whioh .teems to hnve been « fortroM, 
muAt have been the modem Tokat, with its Btrong castle. In the year 
8ti0 the Rtnpcror Aliohael led an army ugaiust thu Saracens, encainjied 
iu an op«a groasy plain Collarion {xofrrntftapm- iT*hior) in tho district called 
BaximoD.} To undenttand tho oventt tlinl follow, it is ncoosaary to 
knov what hod been the previona movementa of the SantCN>iis. The 
Byyantiiic writerH give no inrormation on tliis point, but Finlay infers 
from tho Arab hiatoriana that they woro returning from ^ino|>o. 
Instead of marohing by tho regular road (r^ T4r^/</x(k7c a&ov) vhioh 
led to Zelisa (perhaps a muitalEu for Bolisa, a form intermediato between 
the older Rcrlna am! tlie modern Bolus j). they turned a«iilo and marched 
to t'honarion. Clionarion wub iiuai' the IJyzantino camp, and in the 
battle which followed Michi^-l whs dofuated, and flod six milue to a 
ragged hill called Anzvs. Tho Saracens after vainly attacking Anz^, 
letirvd U> a grassy pluiu named I>ora (/yiiu wofi^ipm x'^V'*'* 'f hooph. 
Coiitia., p. 17£>; cf. Oeues., p. Oa). 

In the year the Sarticen army was onoampod at Daximon (mtu to*> 
Ao^i/tuva), TheophtluH oolleotod an army from all quarters and encamped 

* Compare nl^n \i(^d[ili., ji- 11S.Ti^lmDr cditEivn. 

t Uitrot-kt*, if hi* list ii quile Mraplete, oamaiders V«riM« ta «. fiSTt of Ibors ; but 
Juatiiiiati (NoTvUiL *m- £36} luoDtiona it nti «n iuJi.-j>fu4viit city ol Armeaia imdcr 
8dmateiU,aiiilili<e{t(at undtr&otKutoi&in Epiit.ail Ltontiu tnlAS. Jiutiaiiui pliiced 
ZelusBtl KomanatD the nevr|imvincv of Amicnin iV-ctitida alunf; viLL SelnsMla, Sebss- 
tojirilli. nni] Vcriia, bot ttm Molc*iiutical diriiuuu rcmiiitivd at befor*. Probably 
Uicroolra i« Jcfootirf, nnd ought to wntsin Vcrin. 

I Kol Kar>Xa0i>'' f i** X"?"' ^ iftiriitAaii Aofi/i^v, itiM-* vKii'ovTai *T( t> XifdSipr 
KOTtivviiaBiiiror Kt\.Kifiioi', — Gcticv^ p. i>2. i'lixliuf* { slioald in this Kurl lUwnji lie 
oorrvctud to (, Viit the »%uk vtitmltirii cecum iu Iho uam« Uoxouioi ul Piirjgia (Ploleiny 
and an iatcriptio&J. «lto are MOZEANOI on coins. 

i Perhaps ! t may bo fiKrorroil to eouiidcr Zuliu n« au arrer lot Zeis, bat tho stoff 

*ill bt cquaUy intcUiKil>l<-. 

X 2 



830 A SKETCH OF THB HISTOBICAL OBOORAPBT OF ASIA MIKOR. 

at Anzc* (kqtv rot- 'At^iji-). A battle toolt place tminodiat«1y : Tlieophilas 
vasdefo&ted uul flud to Cliiliukomoo, near Ainafiia (Goaosius, p. 67-8; 
Theophan. Contin., p. 127-8; cp. Strab., p. 561). 

It is clear from tho AraL accourta {Weil. Cliolifi-n ii., p. S12) that 
tlie Saracens liad invadod Anatolia by way of Helitene.' At AnsM 
Tlieupliiliis could aacwnd a hill and surroy tlio Saracen anny in its 
position. 

Dazimoii (rf dot'/iu^'t) ia mentioned as a town or a district orPonfi 
Tisited by B&biL (£p. 212, 216) on a oironlar tonr, in order to eotiDteraot 
tbe Arian iiilluonco of KuNtatbttis, Bislio[) of Subuj^tuia. It wbr tberefore 
near enough to be under the influence of Sebiuteia, and the context 
eLows tliitt it was quite cIoho to Ibura (sec Iuoua). The sitnntion at 
Tokat illa8trat«8 adiuirally the ciroumetaiioee related in the letter*. 
Daztmnn was not a bishopric; it tniist havo been eubjcet to the Bishop 
of Eomana. In the Byzantine wars it miiHt have beoome Car more 
important than Komanii. uud tho title u Kofiiivuiv '^tm ^a^ifiafvoi might 
bo expected, if the listn wei-o completely true to hietorical fact. 

13. EiidoxiftTift i« pkcftd by Kioport at ToJiat.f The only referenoe 
to Eiidoxiaiiu that I havo observed is in tho Ijatin vereion of Ptolemy, 
wlier© it ia IiiwrUid Iwtween Sermuga and Comaua in PoiitusGalalicus. 
This could bo accepted only as a Hyzantino interpolation in the tost : 
some city mnitt be tncnnt which tcnipor&rily tnok the name. But 
Wilberg'e auppoeitiun that Eudoixata or Eiidoxata of Armenia Minor is 
mi-ant in very prubablo. Tho latiiurlc and longitude of Eudoxiana aru 
hardly c<jnu&t«nt with Pontus Galaliuutt, and agrcu alinoet exactly with 
those assigned to Endoxata. 

Q.— LyKAOHU AKD TYASITtS. 

1. The roads of Lykaoniaaud ofHouthom Cappadooiawill b«B10ltl 
vcniontly tr6fl.t*d together, and I have therefore separated the diBcuesion 
of tho Bonthern jiart of Cappadocia from tlio rest of that oomitry. In 
the vast level plains of Lyltaonia and sonthem Cappailocia, roads may 
rnn in any diruotiuu. Wo therefore get no help frum the nutuml road- 
linM in determining the sites of cilios, but on tho oontiTvry we mimt iirst 
fix the citii.* tiud then lay down the roads Uiat oouuoct them. 

Lykaonia was first formed into a separate pTovince ahont 371-2 a.d, 
Tor some time previously it eocms to liavo been divided between Pisidia. 
and Ii<avria. 

In later Byzantine times Lykaonia was entirely included in the 
Anatolic Theme. This is mentioned by Coii8taritine (de TAem.^, and his 

* Tlio IbrtnM I.uiiIdu, nhtab coiuniandcd thu rmul tbrou^-h the Ciliojsn Gates, wbh 
at tliiN liino iu BjzaDtino band*. Prom Millteiw tbe Arabs nould prohablr adruDCo 
throng h Sebatteia, 

t Id C. I. O., 41B4, tbe statement alao appHirs. 



336 



A SKETCII OF TUE HISTORICAL QEOGRAl'HIT OF ASIA BFIKOR- 



nni^txl it> vras a colony foandcd oa the edge of itieir territory by 
Aii^iistu'i in order to kfc:|t iluwii tfau p«opli^ who vroro in bis tinio n 
rent dattgor to tli« pacified provinces. Similarly Lyatra oa their 
otwterD fTonlioi' nerved the doublo purjKwo of a fortroes against the 
iBauriBOB aiid tlio Uomonades. 

8. ]r,i9TRA retuiiiH the auoieut name iri tho form Ilisera, 

9. Laiunda IB etiU vallod L«randA by tlio Cbri»tiut p«paIatiou, aa 
well as Kararann, vhich ia the ofiioial and usual name. 

10. Dkrbe. In fixing tlie site of Derbe, tlie first preliniinary is to 
nnderataiid what is meant hy Ptolemy's 'StretegU Aaiinchiane,' whicli 
bo placet in Cappodocta. and which coutaina tho fuur town^ I>erbe, 
Laramla, Olbasa, and MotiBbanda. In studying any Elatement of 
Ptolemy, the first uMt^uliiil ia lo determine his authority. In this cue 
there cnn he no doubt that ho refers to the eame hiEturioal fact as StraW 
do«« (p. £S5). whou, after dcbcriting the t«ii iSfroto^UM of C&ppadocia, 
he adds that in the first century beforo Cliriet tii«r« was an eleventh 
stratngin eonKisting of part of Lykaonia, Ctlioia, and Cap|Midocia 
(tt ptMrtyii'tra 5* Jerrtpov jr«ptt 'Ftu/iawui' <k t^ KtXuciuf roi^ irpii 'ApxtXdov nai 
O'Scnutt; oTf'oTi^yia, q fitft KavTLi/SaAa mci Kv^ivrpa tU)(/H t^s 'Aynirirpou 
9oi Xyjmov ^if^rii)*. This, like the other Slralegiai, had ccasoil to exist 
lung before the time nf Ptolemy; hut we may accept bis list as a 
valuable tentimony as to it« limits. His list contains only four name*, 
Dorbc, Luruudu, Olbosa, and MoHshiiUiifi ; but Appian nii<.l Sirabo both 
add Caatahala, and Strabo also addx Kybiittrn. Of thew>, Olbasa, or 
rather OUia, according to the neoessary correotiou of M. Wnddington 
('Voyage NumiBmat..' h.v.) and Moiisbauda, are citica of Byzantine 
iBanria, which vras in earlier time called Cilicia Trivchela. tiarauda has 
been already mentioned, and tho fiituatton of Kybistra at £r«gli is 
certain. Aooordingly, the general ponition of this eleventh Strategia is 
certain. It extends from the original frontier of CappudnL-ia at 
Kybi«trft westward and southward oa far as Doibo (fi«xP' ^'PjSqS) Strabo), 
■which imi0t therefore bo west of Laranda. (.Wsidering the fiy>ntier 
line and the position of Ilistra and Laranda, there is hardly.any choico 
left. Derbe muBt bo pluevO about yo«t».f The »itiititioii agrees 
admirably with the order of Hierocles and Not. I., VII., Vlll,, IX. It 
ia demanded also by another passage in Stnbo (p. 569), who defines 
l^aurica as containing the two iBaiirax !>nd many other villages, and 
prooee<U: r^s 5" 'Ivavpnc^ mrrtv iv Ti\fvpiitK if ^iffiri. ITis next words, 
fiakurm rff KaintnSnKia finxi^iwiK, refer tO the fuct that it waa on the 
frontier of the eleventh strategia, an external addition which bad been 
attached to Cappadocia. 

• Hi! refer* tfl llio «ame district (p. 337) na -r^v rf»/«ntTi)v (i.e. ffrpanrjlayy. tit 

y JitiKT^Tffuj ai awapiOfii tm^mi, { 1 ) tb KarraSa-Ka tial *i Kifiiarpii, (2) sal T<t, Ac. 

A|)piiiQ (UbU. Hitlir., IOi)> merely •uj'v, "Kvcml citiw of Cilioin Tnicbeia. ainoog | 
wliidi wtw Kasbibaliv," 

t Tlila situatiou was &nl au^emilea b; Profenor J. It. 8. Stemtt. 



TIA AKD ITAHrnK 



33; 



Strabo (p. 535) is clear that this district of Ky^iit^a, KastabaU, 
Di]rb«, &G., wa« in the prnvinoe C'«ppa<luciu, coD&litntcd by l^ilwrius 
A.V. 17, -whAn 1L« leat king Arclidftno died, l>at to Utor time 0«rb« aiid 
Laranda aiDjuear as part nf Lykaonia, cities of the Knivoc ^^<Kanvn^t■. 
It ia not rficoriUitl when ihvy wenj trausferrecl from Cappadooia tu 
Lylcaoiii&, hut it is highly probable th« title Claud to-Derba was iustf- 
tuted by (.-IftiidinB, wlien be arrasgod the traasforcnco, A.T>. 41. After- 
wards, when Cappndocin and Onlatia wero united by VcRpnaian, the 
whole of liykaoiiia wan included in this va«t proviiico, Huiice Ptxjlomy 
in cunfancd in bis diviBtoa of Galatla and Cappadocia, piitling part nf 
Lylcaooia in th« 9h« proviuce and purt iu th« other. Tho Stralttji» 
AniiiKhiane ha derived from au old sourcu ; fur thoro is no probability 
that tho Bomao proTJnoo was administered according to the Sirategial.' 
If the Rumatis bad kept up thin ilivieioi), Ttoleuij-'s list of the citiee in 
tho Stralegicii would probably not have been so bad as it is. 

11. ItAitATA is very rarely alliidod to. Tho fullowiog is the only 
rof«renoe known to me iu lit«r«tur«. A saint, named 'Joanned in the 
Well,' lived in Kybiatra vith liis mother Julia and hin sinter Themistia, 
He 0I108C th« life of a hermit, and with his mother'x oottftoot w«nt ont at 
the age of thirteen to live in the wildemeBS (Wjv if>tfUiv oln^tu y^). An 
angel met him and giiideil liim, and lie wont a jouni«y of one d»y till he 
foand a well, in vrhicli he lived ten yoara. Then a ocrtsin ChrysiaN, 
III' it- Tjj tAij rCii- B*if uT^Mi-.t was brought by %f^ angel forth into lh« 
wildemees and buried donnueii (Act. Sauct, iQaroh JJOth, p. 830 and 

odd. 4a). 

The locality is dear. Joannt^s went forth from Kybistra (now 
Eregli) into the plnisv north-weot, which lie between Erogli, Kara 
Bunar, and Esni Dagh. Barata must be one of the towns nn the edge 
of this desert, and the order r>f the Dyzantino lists, which plapt- it along 
with L&randa, Durlw, and Hyde, is inoro iu favour of a nite in tho Kara 
Dagh, while llyde was at Kara Bimar, and 8. Joannes lived in the 
treeless level plains lielwwn them. 

The Peutinger Table confirms this situation. It mentioRS Barata 
6fly luilect from looniQcn on a road leading to the east. This a)iiicidenoc 
of anthoritics places Barata at Bin Bir Kilisno or Maden Sheher t in 
KfcTft Pftgh. 

If I am oorreot in placing Hyde at Kara Bnnar, the order of the 
Bysantine lists points couchisively and ineior&bly to ihiH into for Barata ; 
but the coDJectaral posiliun of Hyde is too much in need of eztemnl 
oonCinnalioD to bo able to aftbrd any support to other identificatiuuH. 



* KuliQ, ■ StatltfTcrraiicaiiE det rom. Itciclici,' consuK-rf, on Itie cootimiy, tliat lli« 
Itnnuiii udiaiiiiiilnitti'n wrui rnuilurlcd according to tlic etntt-gisi. 

t Oi>e niiglit ■ua{jc<at 'riji Tor fxji, for tberoara do trcca tn Ljcaonia, ani) Hjrdc wu 
in ilii« cuiuitr7. Perhaps tho ori^nnl text vuTiii [<rl.v^0»] rSw B«^T<wir. 

I Ma^OD Bhohtr ncaiu " City of Mibm." No aiaea are now IcDown. 



338 A ilKtCTCH or THE HISTOBICAL GEOCRAPUr Or ASIA MIKOR. 

Still it is import4Dt that thean pontioni'shoald in tbeir entirely oonfirm 
tho order of HieroolM. 

Afl iim flit«. thoQfjli mther famooa, has boon vorj little explored, I 
may briefly motitiou the romsrkabk Hericii of cbuioliw, whidi are woU 
wortli a careful examination by sludenls of cocle«ia«ticaI antiquitiea. 
Sir C. WilBi»i and I copied tbo following inacriptioa, -which ran along 
the side walls of th« nave uf one of thew churches : a syllablo or two 
w«ra engraved over tho koyrtooe of each of the arches. The rcmaimng 
part of the inscription begau from the east end. 

-t-TOKOAAHniN " *oXA^y)a- 

CNKOINU) fr Kou^ 

6Y,5a tiii- 

MCNOI ^<rQ( 

STEM frt(t . . 

Th« inBcription mnet have begun at the weet end, on tbe left hand 
08 oao «nt«Tod tho chiirob, and, after running the whole length of the 
church, continued on the right kidoi. back to the entrance.* 

Ou the walls of a oburch, oub»idn the ancient city, there are ft 
nnmber of pilgrims' nurks, all of the eame type. 

6YXHNHCI ti^i Nijoi'- 

OYTIB€PIOY ov T<;8cp.'w. 

CYXHT6YKP0Y it}(^ T«'*pw 

HAniOY Hawiw. 

eYXHN€/ tv)^ Ei(y«v.W?]. 

Similar inHcripiionH from Bin Bir Eiliso are given by Davis, p. 310, 

CYXHIN »4)[^ 'Kr"'^'"*-] 

CYXHAOMETIOY nr^ Aofi^rMV. 

and by MM, Kadet and Parin, ■BuU. Coit. Ucll.,' 1886, p. 512. which 
may perlmptl l)u icntored [«^]t; rtnp[yiou kJ Ztijijc [«ti] iravros [oTicou 

I nhuuld bv i^lud if sumo attoution cuuld be given to theae rains, 
which are perhaps tlic ino«t interesting in Aeia Minor for cbnrch 
antiquities, 

12. UniNKXci., in the Feutingcr Table, near Archelnis. is certainly 
a cornipt form, Uydo hnggestg iteelf ns perhaps the original name. 
According to the foltowiiig restoration of the Woman road, Hude and 
Caniia wors ndjoining stutioDH, and thi-ir names may have been corrupted 
into the ningle Ubiunncn. 

* The o^rrcotion ks\x^[->]ii' bmhu 1lGl^«sclln^, bnt tho toniliitg MwaddfllOf flsl 
wftU. I Oo not uiiili'Ditniiil in what Buudc rtiKKvy", u nvll-knoini f9rm = l 
ta to be tikhoa, uukiFa tt 1m " ttio churcli of a culliiKiuui/' 

t Ttip Itinv otiKT iniic(i|)Lionji rhim Ittn Bit Kilifti?, piiUliltcd on Uic mme (M)p>, ara 

budlfoiplnltiDil.auilivrliHfiH not vti-ll copied. Una twms tu btgiii atrifq ■aT(>t)«(ii)oO)> 
K{v)ii[a]^i Tau'latfVMt. Anollior oTKit^qi^l) tioififav t'. Xholliirtl)<»j{iiia [dSt'Mi. ...Jw 



Q.— LYKAOSU AND TTANITIS. 



339 



13. ITyRE, Of this city nothing in fcnown. Pliny sny« it wasa city 
of Lykttouitt, fiituattiJ ou tbu borders of Galatin* ami Ca]tpiv1ucia, and it 
■truck coins as a member of the Roiuoa Lycaonon. IlierocleK mentions 
it after D«rl)o niid Baruta, avi XutitiiB I., Vlli., IX. liuvc it ulso aftc-r 
Batata and Derbe, and beforo Sftvatra and Kanna, Thwo CDnsidtrationa 
ognjo well witii tho noiglibouriiood of Kara Biinnr. Now Notiliio III,, 
X,. SlII. omit Hydu and montiun Thubwia. It is a natural mippwiition 
that the nmisHioa of Uydo waa not aocidentol, but that Hyde was 
merged in Tbebasa. 

14. AUcratiuns were fmi^uently made in the situation of cities during 
tho ByzAutiiie period f : In stich cases the lisli! iometimes, but not always, 
give tho names of tho old and the new site aide by side. I nball non- 
proceed to show that everything recorded about ThobaM pointe to a 
mtmition in tho cuunlry about Kara Buuar. 

lu Not, ni., X., XIIJ., Passula and TibuMtadiif ^>cc^lr ws 13 aud H. 
Thero can bo little doubt that theBo two namce arc a dtttography, tuid 
that tboy doDot« the strong fortreus Thebaoa io Lycaonia. Tli«ba«a is 
said by Pliny, v., 27, ty have been a Lykaouian city, situated in Tanroe. 
It i8 al»o meutioned in the account of the Saracen inroads during tbe 
eighth and ninth ccnturicn, whL-n it wais a c^ritical point. It was, 
therefore, sitnated on one of the roade by whiuh the Saraoeuji were in 
tho habit of iuvadlug tho Byzatitiuo territory, >.<>. it was one of tho 
two roads whii:h met at Podaiidox (oiio by way of Tyann, the other by 
Heraklcia-Kybietra), and wont Houth to Tarsos tbnjiigh the Cilician 
Oat«i. S Herakleia-Kybietnv waa tuiother of thaw critioal points at tho 
time ; Malakopaia (north of Tyaiia) nnuther. 

Thebasa belonged to Lyoaoiiia, whereas Ileralcleia-Kybistrs was part 
of Capyndocia at all times; therefore 'ITiebasa mast have teen further 
weet, and perhaps on the direct load thenco to Iconinin. We should 
then look for it in the neighbourhood of Kara Biinar; there are there 
both water and suitable points for fortification. A convenient water 
supply in this dry plain was of course an object of the first ituportauco 
for the Saraocn invaders. 

It wae a pleiMant confinnation of tny work that, when indepesdoat 
reoAoning had led me at difierent times to place Thnbarta and Hydo aa I 
hare done. I ib«n observed that the result eiplained the aniission of 
Ilyde in Not. IIL, X., Xllt. We hare one of the numerous casos of 



* H« Oae* the name in the aenw or tho proTtoett Galktia, b tilii<^li Lrk&ocia wm 
icicludeil. 

t Lc n new wnin grew op, aud Uiv tnaaa of pa|iv1atiun oollMtcd tbcro. 

X Tibtunda: wiili tbe termiiisUon compara Tymbrisdu, a form of TjFiabrSM. 
nAXXAAA = T1[B]AI1AAA. 

§ Loulga iru iti ^raoc-u hkniJB at tiio timo «hcii Tlichutn ii noii tinned, mi4 W>n»t- 
qututlj' inTMioaa item m a nita niaie thccrugli thu CUiuiua Qabn (tec U-Ioir). 



340 



A SKETCH or THE UlSTORICAL OEOaRAntY Or ASIA MISOR. 



comwpondonoe between n city in th« low g^round, Hj-do, and & Btrong 
fortress on a rock, Tliebasa. Currtwjtiniiltng ozamplcw are — 

Pr)'muc(<suti and Akroeuos 

Koloesai and Clionai 

Feesinos and JuBtinianopolia-Paliofl 

U is poesiblo that ho)u« MS. Kotitia taay yet bo fouud with tho 
vlltfjr 'Y5»f iJTen &y0<xffa. 

15. It Tiiust bo aoknowledgad that the above conditions nw n<it vory 
■leRnitc, and that tliey ivoiild bo fairly well fnlfill«d if Hydu and Tbubaea 
-n-erc sitiutod furtlivr north-weat at EaraHiiig-Kapii, 'vrhere there la *' 
very strong caatlo on a li'ffly hill, riaing ^n throo side* right out of the 
Lycaooiaii plain, and cIobp tu the Cappadocisn fnmlier. This niif^it 
fte«ui to auit tho podition of Ubinnuca on tho Peutingcr Tablo niaoh 
b«ttor ; for Ubinuaca there »eew8 to b« placed ou a road from Archdaia 
to IVfana, paaaing wc«t of HaeeAii Dagh, aud tliorofote thrt>ugh Eara-ang- 
Kapu. Tlio only difficwlty in the way of this ir that Argo« or Argcoe 
B«em8 to b« the name of tho c««tlo above Enni-ang-Kapu, and thai I feel 
very doubtful wbetbur a ruad •wont of the iloasan Dagh can over Lavo 
bc«u in iiBC. My opinion, uftor travorsing tho roft<i, was that it can at 
no time havo been the roiit« fi-om Affihelais to Tynna, and tbat no 
Itoman road paacied thruugh this rocky, dry, and barren country on -Che 
western Hkirts of the Haattaii Uagh, Moreovt-r. it is liiirdly an adinim 
biblc HuppONilion that a city atriMng ooina could have existed in such a 
tniserablo situation as Kam-ang-Kapn. 

The condilionii would not bu well fulfilk-d if Ilyde and Tliebasa an 
buppused to havo boea aitnatod at Aiubaraiaasi : (1) I think there la 
no lull there which oould become a Byzantine fuitreM: (3) Knatabala 
was nioru probably tutuated there; (S) the corniptioD rbinnoca in tho 
I'eutinger Table then remaiuM unoiplained. 

Thcbnsa wan fortified by Mioephorna A.t(. 803. along with Ankyra and 
Audnwoe. In t^OO Uurun-a1-lt*iihid oocupied Tyaua, aud built a mooqiio 
th«re ; lio then onpturcd Uerakleia, 'J'heboiift, Malnkopaia, 8td«ropal<fl, 
and AndniBOB, wliiok in tba Arab iicouunt arts given as Herakleia, 
SakalibA (ByKantiue AnvAof, calleil by Joan. (.'hald. Hisu AaHakaliba, the 
bulwark of Tanwa), DabciA (apparently Tiiebana), SufuHaf, Konia or 
Malkimia (apparently Malakopaia), aud Usu-l-kala.* As aoou aa Harun 

* Aa I (|Uotu thin Itil, I but hnnt giro n, illacuiutuu oT Hw aame*. which might mora 
suiUbly be Kivi-n U-low in R. In tliU lint 8nf«mr and Utiit-liuSik h><tu tn cormfiaiMl 
U> AuiInUdu unci t»id(?I«|)nl<M. giirttM.f mcnnit " niUnw," iin4 in Tuildah So^d (Saynt), 
vhicb haa tlie annie moaning, is a romiuna vlUaffe nuiac. 

SufaM-f waa token by tho EaniCoue In & nud^ m. T97. vrhcm ffanin |w-ni?liat«(l •• far 
u A»liym(Wci], 'ti«Kb. d. KUnlif.,' ii, ITO). Tbeopliunea mvutitnis a mid of tbo 
Saraoena in 799, nrlilcb readied Amotiuii (|>. 470). Tli« tno an puwilil; tliv waiav. 



Q.— LYKAOKIA AKD TTANITIS. 



341 



retired, Nicephonu refortified tlin eaiue [Jacos, and oren raT&ged 
Oiliuia ulxiut Mopeouostin aud Aii»z*rb»iti lut Hatuu again scut na 
army, and once moi% captur&d Tbolnaa.. 

TlieodomuM, bioliop of the Catholic Churoli iu Tdp, ugDed the will of 
Oregory of NaziflunM. Ho is, doubtloM, Bishop of Uyde. 

Hiuy mcntioDS the Tliobnitoui in Galatia, i.o. ilia Uomau Provioco, 
which included Lykaonia. Mordliuaiin, not observing this, diatiiigtiiBhefi 
the GaUtJHu from tho Lykaonian Th(>b«tia, nnd itlniitiiieH th« forraar witU 
Pteria (' Mtincli. SilKiingsber.,' 1860, p. 178. ff.). 

Ilct'p is the most conycaiont place to dixviua tlio south-w(»<ti;ni comer 
of Capp&dooia, which is properly a part of Strategia Tyaaitis, l>at is by 
Ptolemy eeparated from it. It contains two dtiont Eybistra and 
Eaatalialn. 

10, KvBisTBA wan ftituat«d where the modem ErogU HtontlH. in ua 
open w'oU-wator«d sittiatioD, a very city of orcbarde. Suoh a sitnotion 
was not Biiited for the trouble"! times of Byzantioo varfaro, and during 
t1i« eighth and ninth centnriw we often hear of a fortrem Heraklein, 
which in ]>roved to liave been oloae lo Eybiatra, and tiuited with it in one 
biehoprio by an entry in Kotitia X., ^6: ri Kvjjwrra i/roi ri 'Upa/iKiuv^, 
The name of the furtreas has been preserved in the modem form EregH ; 
its preoLM site ih to be looked fur on aome liill in the neighbourhooil . 

Kyhistra ie mentioned by Cicero (ad Farn., xv. 4) as in Cappadocia, 
near the boundary «f Cilicia, and not far from Taurus. 

IIcrakleia-Kybiatra was cjaptured by Harun in 80.5, and by AlmamuQ 
in s:i-£ au 

KybijKtra-Heralcleia wan nriginally a binhopric under the metropolis 
Tyana. but it waji formed into an archbishopric under the Fatriarcli 
CoiiBtantine (1059-64, Not. X. 96). It is mentioned in tlie liat of arch- 
hinhopricft in Kot. X.* and XI. This event prabnbly marks the rocog- 
nitiun by the Church of the fact that great part of Cappadocia now pacned 
isto Mohammedan hands, but Kybistra atill remuincd iu B^-zantine 
possesHion, and it thoroforo bocamo an arclibishopric ; though the names 



but [ jiKftf td (llalin^ulih llicm. f(ir my priDoipIc i« (|>. 313) to fulloir our aalbcuitii-a nt 
fai aa ^lowiljlo, anil sol try (onMj to iiluntifr nverjr raid nmiDtiiiiiMl bj Arab hUturuui* 
In the OBOeawng frontior wua with mnna ft*»nt d«Kribed by EtjaantiB* wrilere. Wc 
■hall tticrefora ngud tti* obmiw rvacrmbluicft vt tli« numoii Siileni|>alo« and Dnu-1-kaU 
as occtdcntiil: wc tbntl dlaliDKuiib the raid an RafaFaAT nui! .^nkyn frrvm <)ml i);ga[na( 
Amorian. and lake Urn roiiner *» a praliable proof Lljat HufuMlT wiu on thn noi] froin 
the t^lieiaii Ofttaii te Ankyia. Andrasoi (p. 3418) llicn wna not Subanff. und nuit 
thmr«e b« Dsu-1-kaIo. Cf- Th»pUn., p. *S2; W«l,'G**«h. d. Kbalifeu,' ii, IStl; 
Edrisi JaiitNxt. ii. 301. Dot aco AdOcoda. 

* It ttirrofnm ortnin twii-r in K«t. X., a« aii archblafaoT'rlo, 9S. anj n* a b1abo]tr1e, 
129, a t}|iical inatiitin' of ilie rairelMtueaa nith whir'li Oifta re^aten «ete lin[it TIm 
aotnal wo^la of Not. X,, 1*6, might apply t« anothfr Cnnat«nlin«, U&S-5, Nut lit* 
«SplatiaLiou giv«n in tbo text litiomt thnt this d»l« u niiMiitabli^ ki Cappa'twU was 
eatlrclf in TuiblBh hands at that lim«. NaiianEoa waa miiiie an archbialiopric by 
Bnmnniu Diagnttt l(Kr7-71. 



S42 



A SKtTCH OF TOE HISTORICAL OEOGSAPUT OF ASIA MINOS. 



of Ty&na, &q., were r«tfttae<I oa bitibopru-a, ;«t the}* wen reallj tti parlUm* 

In the year 1060 Bomnntis IV. ndvanood from Sobostoia (Sivss) 
agaiiiBt tL« Turks wTio were ravi^ing LjlatoniB. Ho camo u fkr as 
Ky1>i»tra-Hvi'a1ileia (r^ KcyofAii-rjq 'IlpanAiWs nw/iovoXdvt). Thu road 
vhtuh he took must have been by C(e«areia and T^-aua. H«re be heard 
that tbo Turkit, after captiiri»g Ikoiiion, had gone nwnj ; and he alUrvd 
hit! plans, snd wtnl }>a.rt of bis lojcvs iutu Cilicia. 

17. Ra^abala. Ptolemy mentiouB KiiA.'iiiM in Lykaonin : llaisiftsil 
oljvidus oomiption ; and KastaliaU is tbo yirobatle correction. StiicUy, 
Kaatabala uught to be in his Stralajia Antiochians, but different an- 
thuritivB are followed by biiu id the lioU of Antiocbiane and of 
Lykaoniii. 

Kfifitubala i^montiuuvdbyFliDy, YI. 3, witlioutauy prooie« iadication 
of locality, afl a city uf Cu[ipadDoia. It ig mentioned by Ptolvuiy iu the 
oorrtiptioti Khanbia as of Lykaoiiia. It muit theiefnra have been on 
the frontier wost of Kybiatra, which wub alwajH rcckuuod iu Oappadooia, 
and cast of Lar&nda. Tliis Agrees with Strabo, vho twioe mentions 
Kaatfibala (p. 535 and fi3T) along with KybiRtra, an n pnir of tovna, not 
far from Tyana, but near«r Muunt T&uroH. Wben Kybiatra is fixed at 
Ercgli, it is a natural and pn^bable conclusion that Kastabala is at 
Ambararasfti. 

Another Kastri-babk wtut situated (in the Fyramoe, and boro altio tho 
naiue Ilioropolis, Tbv lucid statement of M. Imhoof-Bluuer (.VonNaira 
Orecqacg, p. 353) pointn to a dilfferent cunoluaiou from that vrhich ho 
draws. The coins which he thoro dCBCtiboa wora pruhably all etrack 
by a city of Cilicia proper, situated near the river Pyiamos : the exaet 
aite of the oity still remains to be discovered, and the Antooine and 
JoTUsaleiii ItinerarloH are unfortunately confused and inacoui«te in t3ua 
part. I Bhmtld look for it on the Pyrumus near OMiiniiie, 

A cutting conducts tbo road aoroes the rocka iinmcdiutely beyood 
Eaetabula, two milea before reaching the end of the lake, and nbont 
19 iiiiloa frnm Kybiatra. 

Eatabtttnla (r^v tuIi' ManxiuW rri'iktr), which wnfl cnptared by Itatil'a 
gf^neralii (A.D. 87C) at the timo when he bimcclf was taking Loulon and 
MoIoh"*, can hardly be Kastabala (Theophan. Contin., 278), but is mors 
pi-obubly in Armenia, near Tephrike, ArgaonB, and the other Faulician 
cities (Lokana, Tautas or Tarati, Aumra: Thoopb. Cout., 2G7, 279, 
Cedrcn, ii. 154, 207). 

If Eostabnla was a fortroes in tliis ^ituittion, why is it ncTer mentioned 
as an imp-'rtact point in the Saracen wars? The reason is, I tbink, as 
follows: — K&stabaU was a furtre«8 of the kind which was Qsnal in the 
iinie of the Greek kiuga and of the Roman empire, couvt^uiently sitiutod 
near & groat road, and depending for its ntrcngth mainly on artifioial 
fortification. But almost all the fortreesea which were important io tha 



<i~lTKAOKU AND TYASITUL 



343 



Sanwen vrupB were porolivd oa loft}- and Iiar^Iy QccDaniltlo rocka ; Boch 
w«re Loulon, Khonai, Akro«uos, Sozopolis, Juvtiumuopolis- Pallat, 
Kharnuion Kutran, nnd mitny otlicre. KutttbaU vtob not euffiuieatly 
JcfiuiBible, and foil into docay early in the Ryzaiitine period. 

18. Is&tnu)POLi-<) IB [Quntiuuud by U iLTucI'-'a aad at the Council of Cbsl* 
«odon (x.i>. 030 and 4S1). It is never mectiiiaed in any of ibo Notitia. 
But Zeno, providing in orno of liis lawn that every city sbouM havo 
(lio riglit to be seat of a bishop matlo & npecial exception of iBaoropoltB, 
whidi went aloug with L«onU>poIi8.* Luontopolid ia mentioned aa &a 
AatoK'phnlotie diocoeo in tli« Notitiro. 

loaura woH situated on the high and ntrong hill now called Z«ngibar 
Kale; it watt discowrod by Hainilt^in. MK. iladet and Paris wrongly 
iofuri from an inecHption which thfy hare pitbliahed iit ' Rull. Corr. Hell.,' 
1887, p. 67, that Isaara v/w a Itoman colony. Tho words on which 
Qivy rely, 'Itravpvav if ^ovA>) teak i f^fitK oi T< <n//uir<AtTfiMftn'Oi. 'Potiituat, 
do not, as Pn^fesgor MommHAu informs mo, jiiHtify Knch an inforenee. 

Uilariua, biehop of the CiUholic Church r^ Kara 'Itravfitav (not tv. 
which is need in tli« saino pasaago with regard to the town of Hydo 
[TSij]), sigiiod thu will of Gregory of Nazianzoa. 

19. EoKXAiamenticinGd hy Ptolnmy and by Flioroclffa, and a biahopof 
Koma (Cotneimiii) was prcBont at Concil. Conatantinop. 381, and another 
at Concil. Cbalcod. 401. It never occurs in tb« Notiiiee. The order of 
HioroclM suggeots a position cither between I)«rl>«, IsauropoUji, and 
I.yetra, or a littU to the weat of laimiiini; tho authority of Ptolemy 
leans in thn name direction. No other evidence ta known to me. Xo 
reason for ita disappcaiBnco after Juntioian's tiuio ia known: it may 
have been ni^rgi'd in another bialiopric Similarly, laiuropolia dia- 
appears from all liittii later than Uieroolea. It is poasible that the two 
pliemnmoua are couiicctod, which would lend additional prohahility to 
the nituation of Koma near Isaiiropolie. 

20. SAVATiu,or BoATRi., ia fixed with a degreeof certAintynnusaal ia 
Ijyc>aouia: it waa oa tho direct road from La'jiliui'a Katakekaumono to 
Archelaia, as ha» Iicen shown aboTo; it wan nut far from Arck«taii!- 
Garaaoiira (Strab., p. Gt)8); it waa in the waturleas Lycavniaa plains, 
vnpplied by deep wells with water which watt sold. 'I'beno indioaticna 
point clearly to tho ntins, four hours south- weat from Eakil.f which 
are extfauive. It cannot bo ao far tust aa Sultan Ehan or K&Iiaya. 
where ther« aro abundant spriugs of water: and it can hardly bo 
further we«t than the eito abovo-montionod, 6iro« it was not far from 
Archelaix. 

Proftasor Storrett haa placed Savatra at Obruklu; hut that sitnation 
CDDtraveoeathocuuditions, for it 18 not ou the road Laodicca to AFcbeluia, 

* Ttic law u quolM ■hoir, jii tlie iiiliolucUim, 

t I eiaiuinnl Ukmo ruhia in ItiSli, when travdIiMg wiUi Mr. H .\, Bruwn. Wo tiyJt 
Ike ■tmiglitotit jwAiil'lv rood (roai Tjrriaicii and LoodlMJa Kitial;»biiuinoo« U> Aichulnia. 
VOL. H-. 2 X 



944 



A SXETCa or the HISTORKjU, CCOGIUrHT or ASU HIKOfL 



aud it doiivcM its water, not from wells, bnt from a I«kt; inoiTOT«r, 
Obroklu 'Would ratlivr be callod near Iconium tban near Arcbelais. 

21. KoEOFAffiM, a Lycaoaian village, 130 Btadia ftnm Arclielaift on the 
rood to Savatnt, Tiaodioea, and Kphe^m (Strab., p. M&, 663). Tt iti alito 
mvntioDDtl in tlio Pcatingcr Tabic in tbo oorrtipt form ComitanaHKoti. 
'wliioh i>erliap6 results from a oosfueion with ParuasBos on a aeigbboar- 
ing roarl. It itlionM «aiiily bo fonml between Sultan Khan and Ak Serai. 
KoropasHos is probably to be read in place of the corrupt name AdopisHos. 
wliicli Ptolemy places precisely in tliis tiorth-«aatera corner of Lycaoiiia. 

Eoropaasoe ib to bo di&tingiuahed from the city Koropieeos of Keti» 
in Inurift (Cilicia Trnchcia), vho«o situation in disenued below. 

22. E&XKA is placed by the order of the Byzantine lista in nortti- 
caxteni Lycaoiiia, in the neighbourhood of Savaira and Perta. Ptolemy 
agrees, placing it near Adopteeoe to the south. Thoee coneidenttiona point 
to the »onth-w««tcm skirts of Hasaan Qagb, sonth of Kara-ang-tcapn, on 
the hill over which ix the great fottrcM Argiw. A bishoprto ia rfc|niroil 
for this district, imd all the oonditiona agree with the Tiew that Kannn 
woa that binhopnc. 

23. AitDisFAUA in placed by Ptolemy in the nerth-wentern p4Lrt of 
I'.ycaonia. It still retains its ancient name in the form AriK^mn (which 
should probably !)« opclt Arriiutanta), north •west of Kara Bunar, and 
not very far from Kara-ang-kapn. It waa not a biMhripric, being 
probably merged in Eanna (or poflsihly in Ilydo). 

24. PcitTA id by an cxaminalion of the very nnoertain road Archelsis- 
PMeinna plnccd at Eskil, but, in the nnc«rtainty U8 to the number and 
order of the ntationson this roail, the ]Ki(wibiIity munt bo left opeoi that 
it was mtuatcd at somo other sito ia tlic north part of Lycoonia. It is 
apparently intended in the Table to be 32 miles from Arofaelais. A 
Kituatiun near Eukil would agree admirably with the oi-dor of Hioroolc 
The Notitin; alwaj s place Perta last, which prevents any iuforencc frot 
their ordor. 

25. Glauama npjiears to be the correct form of a nnmo which appean ' 
as Egtinutt, VXa\Kifin, ViiX^avci, I'lDLfmra, I'dA^ni-vt, "KK^in(/in>yi. In tho 
NotitiK it appears alwayn with the addition Eijuokias (i^i Et'iSoKiat). 
An cxaniinntioii of the road Archcluis-l'i-Bsinns on the Petit. Table leads 
TMfl to jilnco it at Incvi, and the order of Uierocles and of the KotltiiD 
favours a xitiiation on the northern frontier of Lycaoiiia; but. cousideiiug 
how very uncertain ore Htntions on this road, it mtiift ho loft <|iiitc open 
to place Qlanama at some other site on tlie west side of Lake Tatta, 

Tho doabio name makeM it probablo thai there were two »\Uff included 
in one blgbopric, and that Kudeki.is was a foundation of the fifth centtuy, 
in a silnation of the later type,* wliilo Glau&ma wan at a nito of the 

2Q. ViuuNOPOLis or Psbbila is toontionod in tho 'Notitisi,' but Dot in 
* Tho fflvontito TIjEniitine iiLtiiatinn '•nui on n lofty en ■ preciiitlooa biU> 



Q.— tVKAOKIA A.SI> TTASITIS. 



345 



Hieroclca TheDdoeiUK, bisbop r^ Bqpr/i-iuv- iraX<mt, r^ 4'i|d^Xa)v troXcwt, 
waspreeteDt&tCouoil.Conhtantinop. iii., A,D, 680,findttt Coiicil. Quintgext. 
A.n. 092. Tho city miist !io distingutshoc! fruta ■VerinopoliB or Slaurou 
in Qalatia Prima, of which the hiiibop Stephanus was prewmt at the 
same Council, 002. 

Vwina was wifo of tho oooporor Leo (4&7 t* 474), and w* ahonld 
expect that TeriiKipolis was rai&ed to the rank of a city and bishopric 
diiriug that period, ur viae during tli€ reign of Zeoo, hii)t1»iii<l of her 
daughter Adriane, when she retainod Bomo influoDOo (471 to 491 A.l>.). 
It <mgh.t in that caeo to be mentioned by Hieroolcfi ; its fnilore may be 
dti« to the louM way iu whiub tho L<ccU'BiaHticaI registore wvru kept. 

Xieontiiix of Sibila, Sibilla, or Sib^a signa among the THaiiriati hiahopo 
at OoDoil. Nicam. ii., A.i>. 787. This plaDO eoonis to be the eaino an 8ybaln 
or Syballa, mentioaed in Isauria by Notitiro III^X. Thoqnestion ariM« 
whether this Igaurinn tishopric can bo ideutifiotl with tho Lycoonian 
Paebila or Peihcla ; and, considering how loosely the lists ivero kept, thf 
mere fact that Notitio; til. ittid X. mciitiou both, dofc not (ibauliitely 
disprove thotr identity. If they arc identical, the city tuiiBt bo placed 
OD the frontier nf tho tva provinooa. liO Qaion takoB thi« view. It ia 
indeed clear lliat Sihila was in the uortli*m part of iBmirin (see T, 24), 
mid iherefoTO near tho Lykannian frontier; hut my rule 18 tu accept thfr 
BTlthority of the Notitina ■whoro no clenr i^Ai^on i« tocn to discredit 
tbcto. It is therefore more probable that Notitioe 111. and X. are to he 
folluwed, and in that caeo the order of all Nutitiio suggests a situation 
for J'Hchila in the northern part of Lyhaonia. \a other oTidenoa in 
BVailiiblo, but it le worth while to allodo to tho poeeihility that the 
othvrwiae unknown Pegella. nipnliuned in the Pentinger Table north of 
Perl*, may be a corruption of Psibella, 

Tho frontier between Byr-antine Galaiia and Lykaonia liea between 
GlBQBmft and Petiuessoe. Now, tho furthest north point to which 
Lykaonia can ovi'r havo extended on tho woat h Iwtweeii Allan and 
Piri-Ili>y-li (tho latter in Galatia Auioriaiia), therefore it is veiy unlikely 
to have extended further north o» tlieeabt»ide than InL-vi. Thoouantry 
and tlic roada near Lake Tatta aro almoftt unknown, only a part of it 
having boon seen by Aiusvrort!i, 

27. SKtofATA, placed liy Ptolemy in the north-wert of Lykaonia, » 
otherwiiie uulnowu. PoBnibly it is a corruption of Baonntra, which ia 
wrongly given by Ptolemy in Isauria : be aleo girea Olha and Antiocbeiu 
twice. 

28. Ptroos oocuni on the Pentinger Table between Savatra and leo- 
niom, or perhaps between Savatra and I.Aodiceiit. A biaboprio ofPyrgoi 
ia motfiion6d, Not, 1 11^ X., XIII. IIieroclc« baa 'Piyytiy, which ia probably 
a corruption of tho tame name, and hia order would suit admirably u 
ftituatiou in the north-weHlem part of Lykaonia. Now the great extent 
of territory north and north-west of Laodioea ecems to require a biahoprio, 

2 A a 



A SKETOl OV THE ai!>TOR[CAL GEOGRArKy OF AAFA UIKW. 



nnil in this quarter, m little oiT tUo rwkd Sniutra-Laoilioea, in n place 
Orbugh,* which 8«enie to preserve th* uncient natno. Tho town 
Anjdroi Pyrgoi, diegulaod in TbeophaneB. p. 467, ncoording to tho text 
and index of Tk: Bottr, a» Anyi^rui. on n nmd ludiug from Amorion to 
('ilicia, in eviJeiitl; the bUhoprio in quoetian : it wm clearly situated 
in this district. 

Another pUcfi earned I'yrgos is uicntionbd hy Tiig<!iioii on tho march 
nf Frederick BarhoruMa fruiii loontiim to Laranda. Thii details of tbo 
march are as follows : — 

May 23. Went ant of Icouiuni to a hortns regiiis, aud stayed there in 
plenty. Tliitf hortUB is one of tbo gardoas doscribod above. 
„ 2tf. Started thcnco and wimo to XL Fontea. 
„ 27. Keaolicd largo stream of jiotablo watt'r; tho stream in now 

called Tchfirxlieiiilto Su. 
„ 28. A largo village, with vinoyordB. 
„ 29. P>Tgo«. 

,, 80. LarHuda, quae dlvidit Ciliciam, id est, Armoniam, a Lycaonia. 
TheucB tliey crossed ihe mmintaina after reaching Home 
ChnBtiiin villagcu), and cm the inountaina tho Frin'.'V of 
SibilJa oame to meet them: est aatem Sibilia oastmm 
mtiiiiliBsimum, ot Marcliia Christianoimm . . . dofensatitr. 
Juno 0. Bridge ovor Snlepliica stream ; they cross, and thonoe diffionlt 
road lies hoforo thoni: iho bridge must bo over tho river 
■outh of Mut. 
„ 10, Solcfke. The Emporor is drowuod. 

This route soetne to follow tho modern track from Eonia by Caasaba, 
near nism, to Liirini<li), and ryrgos mu^t be Cuseaba, the walls of which 
«rt' Blill a remarkable monument. Wo caniiot identify this Pyrgos with 
tho Byznntino town (see Addunda). 

It is most convenient to nllode at this poitit to the Stratugin TyMiitia. 
nnd tho citic» which it cimtains. 

29. TviSA has long baeii ktiown at Kiz TTisfcnr. called by some wnters 
Ktli«a Hissar. It is certainly a various form of Xenuphou's Dana ; tho 
two varieties bciing attempts to reprosent in Grcok an Anatoliati namo.f 

30. Cjbsa nnd lJA]-ALA.-FjiErsTi7J0W>us, aro to lie looltftd for at due dis- 
t'lTices on tho road from Tyana to tho Cilidan Gates. l''austinop]iii moat 
\)0 near Pashmakji ; it dorived its Dame from tho older Faustina, who 
di«d tfaoro. 

31. Aniubalis is still called Ani^nval, 16 miles north of Tyana on tbo 
road to SaHima, djeBarein-Afazaka, Culonia Archelais, and MokiMOs. 

* It ia cnllctl Obrutcin in nin|t«. Iml Otbit^h iLpprfiximfttKn ii«nret lo t]i4 lovtl pro>J 
iiiiiiviution, null ikv tkilnumt liua Ubruk. Olvuk in a Tutkifli wctJ niennlDg valerjar, 
utiJ pcrlmiie tlio true u]ii roirn OtliUKt (Jl&pyai) hu licett inuilified by p^jxiIbf eiymit\og3 
>o na to ^vc a nninc witb a niouuing. 

I Called ali) Hiitobi'io, and Culonia Antoaina. 



3^7 

OS. P;tSA or pASfASA woB nc«r Tyana. Gregory NiizUnzcn (Ep. lC3j. 
Uttttions a c^Ttaiti George, rritli tlie epithet Uotrvturtjvos,' tmi 
Euphmntcw, bishop of Tyanft, stalo^l at Oi>ne»l. v., that thia George wa» 
liixul of the inonafitery of fiuta, 12 miles from Tyana (Acta Cone, r., 
pp. 447-8, Mansi. ii. 258). 

33. XAKX1.IIIS. Thu hot buthn uf Xanxariof are tnentioneJ only l>y 
Gregory Xazianzen, who \nsiteJ them in x.i). 381. Ho wa« residing at 
AriajiKos, his farm iicnr Nazi»ii»cw ; and he apeakH of his TiHtt to tho 
biitUH aa having lod him rather r^r fntm honio (^irtpatfifiia irf^o-^aytv). 
Jlia visit to tbe baths gave biiii the liopc, almuab thu certuintyt of 
meeting Olympiua, tho govornor— this, of counw, means governor of 
Cnppa<loci» Socuutlii. 

This pTovcH that the bathn of ^Eaiisaria were a usual rmortof ihu 
pcopio of Tyaiui, and wero not very fur from that city. Tlicy are still a 
favonrite reeort of the iuhabitaata of this diatriet; they »r« eituated 
Ijotween Bor and Nigile, a littlo <.ff tho direct roful (on tho north side, 
I think), and are called Himply " the UaiaatQ." 

At tbc litillin there nana moniuiUry, ani) Gregf^ry mentkins tliat tJio 
head wae luuch troubled rf) mv Sfiufiw ij^fmyriSt, which hocuis to imply that 
ho had (o look after tho wrvioe of jJOBt-hortiL'B on tho pnblio road. Tho 
Hamain lies lxwi<lo the ixjad from Tyniia to Aiidabalis, anil iniiHt be aboQt 
10 or 12 luilcB from Tynnu; tlit^iounatiicry, tlicrvfurciis evidently that of 
Pasa. Bcaido AudabalU was an itiijitria) i-«tato, wliero tlio lino Cappa- 
docian horses were brod, culled " etjiii i'almatiaui " in thu fuurth century 
aflvr PaliuatiuK, who niiparontty wuh the lesseo or superiatoudont uf tho 
estate. Pasa or Xanxaris was apparoutly on this estate. 

34. Bazis, given by Ptulcmy in TyanitiF, is an iaterettUng word, Tbo 
feminine personal Cappadocian name Bazcirt ia certainly connected witli 
it. It is deriveil from Old Porsiftii baga, "go<l," Phrygian Bngaiott. 
" iiouB," and in the seat of Zoiis AamaWioH, near Tyana, deaoribod by 
Stnbo. p. 537 ; Pbiloftratus, Vit Apoll., i. 4 ; and Aiiiiuiunue, xziii. 0. 

35. DiEAOAi : Sjnirai and Aay/xii ait) the reudiugH of Ptulomy. Cora- 
linring Tnu^aaof the Pentinger Table, uesoe that A/iayoi ia probably the 
correct reading. It whs aitnated m^ar Tyana, on a Hoiunu road ; bub tho 
Tablo is hero no confined, that wo may hcaitate to accept ita authority 
that the road in (jiiostioTi lod front Tyana to Archolais. Thiu socnu to 
be fiilHe. for we know nil tbo atationa on this road very well, it being 
described, stage by stage, in the Piljfrims' route.} Bnt I ahall pniceed 
to ahuw tliat Dragai in probably tho narao of tho iiiiporial oatato noar 
Andabalis, and thrrofuro lay oii the road from Tyana to Arohelais. 



' Var, /ni, TlAVifatfffOf, tlanirir, riaaTtj^iit, Tiaffintvii. 2f<^ AdJcadfl. 

t 8oiu« etU. rotil ZarCtftlvt, GrvK. Niu„ Ep. 12J, 126. 

I Th>- view I fonmrrljr u»k, tlial tliv TmUv aliows a tmid Koing fhun Tfana lo 
ArdielaU by Oiuiu^i and Uta^ai on the west lido of tho Ilavan Ua^li. Kcmed tn tuc to 
bo ontenslle wboa 1 IrsTrniNl tbut raid (•(■« Htdc). 



34B 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTOBKAI. OUMtUFBr OF ASU HiXOR. 



Drizes or Drinon is Mvenl timM xowitiooed hy the By /antiiie writatt, 
■lid, if it can be proved to be in this neighbonrlioud. tho -variouB fonne 
of tho ii»m« may bo identified u ruaduntign of a atogle native name* 

Tbo Gnt referenoo to Drizion or Drives migiit {ierha|w Mom on a 
unnory glaooo to ilcmand a situation furth«r houiU. In the year d75 
•lohn Tzimiakn retnmod fmm Syria to CuDstautioopIo : on tho m^rch ha 
wM tstntuvly uDQuyod to ntt that the rich estates, Lougiafi and l>riz««. 
which had been recovered from the Saracens by long and bloody wars, 
had been iwize<] by the diamb^lain BaMl.f But tuoAt nathoritio« npeak 
of Ajiazarboe and Podandos inMead ut huttgiMs and Drizca, and it would 
tharefore appear that Longias was au eetat« near Aoazarboa, and Drizas 
near Podandoe. Ijonf^nias i« elaowhero recorded} to have been a 
4)ilician eiitate, and probably liongiuiaa should bu nnd for Lungias in 
Ijeo Diacooiu. As to Drixo* there in no poaaihilUy tliat a rich and fertile 
uatato oxiBtcd in tho {ton of Podandoe, and vro must look for it at the 
north end in the plain of Tyamt. The details show that theae two 
eitetos had formerly bwri inijwrial property, itlcg^illy lidized by Basil, 
and hence aroao tho angor and bittor reproaches of the omperor against 
him. Tho impurial ntntu of Drima may probably bo idoiitificd with 
tho Villa Palmati, which was near Andabalia, probably lying between 
it and Tyntia (m>o Addenda). 

The poaition which I have aaaigned to Dvizoa is confirmed by tho 
only othor rufcrL-nw which I hiivo been able tu find to tlrnt onimixirtant 
plaoe. In 'JOi Nicophorus marched against CUicia, taking with him the 
Umpresa Theophana and her children. He left Thoophaoo outsido of 
Oilicia *c Tiyi iiip</v(>iifi Api^i'ui ihlXui>/i/i<i^. This shows tliat Drizion was 
not far from the Ciliui&n frontier, uiid iit-ar or on the road to tht« Pyht-. 
through which he entered. The Byzantin« military ro«<l, by which be 
mast of course have maruhc-d, paasod by Tyana ; and at l^ragai, or Urizion, 
a few miles from Tyaua, i>erhnp(i us W-iiig a luoro pleasant country 
roti<»tt than the large city Tyana, ho left his wifo to wait his rotani 
(Theophan. Oontin., 3G1). Another acconatsaj's that he enc^amped some 
timo in Oappadoula before outenng Cilicla (t^ KimraSoMriv tyavXi^^iitw^ 
X,^ff), a\.i retarniiig after hia expedition, spent the winter In Cappadooia, 
preparing fur the uuxt campaign (Lud Diau., 51 ; op. Zonaras, ii. 201), 

S6. PoLiANnos is well known, and frequently referred to by the B>-zan- 
tiiie writers. It occupied a very important position in a deep valloy in 
front of the Ciliciaii OutcA (nji uitrun/icnit rit fiilfudpav, BusiL, Kp. 14). 

Podandos has retained ita name att Boxanti. Comparing the equiva- 
Itut forms KadiandoB and NazianzoH (Philostorg., Qist. £ccle&, xii. 7), 

* Compnrc Dagn nnd Bniia, Drngai and Drizca. 

t I^u Diaa^ |i. 177. 

; I liovo nnd about Langlaius lu Act. Baiict.. but Iiato ntif^rtu&ately (l(»tre7«d 
tlia rufvrtiuctf wbicli I luiiilv i>l lliv linic, l'<it wliicli nft<:rwiu<l> nccmoJ loo trivial fvr 
prMerrstiou. UianaiuiUi p. I&O. iiientioii« It aa a place nmr AuassrbaL See also 
Anna, ii. p. 1S6, and Ducango's nottn p. Sin. 



<t.— LVKAOXIA AKD TYA:tfn& 



849 



^0 M« that tbe " s " in. BcnAoti indioates an SDcient variely in tbe nuaa. 
Tho rtyio Podandiu is mentioned by Tlioroclos, but never oochtb «s a 
biaboprio, aad it » indesd diffionlt to me n-here amid the monntninG of 
Taurus coulJ bo tlii- populutiun that would require a biabop. Monwvcr 
after Gappaducin wan divided by Valoiiu into two piuvinccs. Prima iuid 
Seetmda, Podandos must have beoD politicallj ta Soconda; but dTi ring 
the strnggles that fbllovrod, the bishops of CtDcnrcia rf^tained, for at leant 
a abort time, eccleaiastical juriadiction o\-er the district of Mouut Tauroa, 
uud Anthiinua siiw the revonuee of tUe nionasturj of Saint Oreetes in 
Tauros carried past Tyaua to Ceeaareia. It is quite probable tbat thej* 
marked this jurisdiction by oonsocrating a bishop of Podandos, the 
oenttal point of the Tauros region, but Ijefure the caTlie«t " Notitia," this 
bishopric had disappeared. Podandas had bcun taliua by the Aniba a« 
early as the tseveatb oe&tury. In S30, Jlierocles, being aniler the 
inflnraoe of the eceleeiaatical lists of hia time, placed Podandoe in 
Oappadocia Prima; had ho foUew(>d the civil lisU, ho would oortainly 
have pat ii in Seenndo, for, when C-appadocia was divided in 371-72, 
VuleuH mado PodundoA the capital of Scounda, but soou obaogcd tho 
capital to Ty,4iia. 

37. SriJ.& is mentioned in T^'nnitia by Ptolemy. It has boon already 
discnsaed in Oappadocia, where I have mentioned that 2IAAA is probably 
a porniption of [£A]SIMA, a citj* and bishopriu Home miles north of 
Andabilia.* 

38. BAOAOAoxii. ia doaoribed by Slrabo (p. ,^39) is a plain in tho very 
south of CapimdoGta, nnderoeatb the very ahaduw of Tanroa, barren, the 
haunt of wild uHses, hurdly prodaaing n single fniU-tree. Thede»crip< 
tion appliofl, n<jt to tho plain of Tyaoa, aa has usually boon ondorstood, 
but to the pUinn north and north -weat of Kybiatra. Stophanua mentions 
nagadoonia a)> the Hrmlbernmost pait of Cappadooia. 

The only other rcfun-uce to thi--< dintriot i» in Kiccpliortia Bryonuius, 
p. 63, where the name is Gabadonia. In 1073 laaac and Alexius Cem- 
Donus advanceil from loonium to <?(eRareia, and they were defeated by 
the Tarka not far from Cwsareia. Alexius escai>ed with difficulty, 
uud reached after some wandering to ti- ra^aSni'ip iroXixnov. This 
temi, mentioned apparently as a familiar place, is in all probability 
the well-known fortrees of Ilerakleia-Kybiatra. Alexius muBt have 
tried to escapu in tb« directinu of looniam. 

K. Tllli PAhSlM OVEE TaUBDS. 

1. At this point it will be most convenient to describe the passes of 
Houitt Taurua, whioli were ondor the general charge of the Kleisonr- 
aroh, or Guardian of the Passoe, ia the Byzantine system of frontier 
defeuoa The chief paiuKie over Taarna are the Pybu Cilicia:, through 
whieb led the main road from nil parts of the plateau of Aata HCinnr to 

* Compare (<inn nr Hiiiio* of the lltnenrieA near Sebatteia. 



350 A SKrR-11 Of TDK HISTOKICAI. OEOGRAntV OF ASIA UIXOR. 

CiliciA in kII jwriodi of liiotory. Tlie T«gnlBT npproaL'h wai by w»y of 
Tyaiia, as we know from Xeiioplioii ami fi-oni all later aiiiboritieit; but 
tli«reareotl]«r two ap]iroMcheEi, from KybistraaDdfrom CinMireia. Other 
liaeaL-s, all more or less difficult, lead direct from Lycaonia, to tlio ooaat 
at AneniOTinon.at Keloiideris, and below Seleiio^in. Tho moRt imjiortank 
of tlicflo 18 tliB oiio wliii^'Ii is frctjnoiitly iii<>i]1iijiied n* tlte \mxs of Anilrms*)! 
or Kylindros, i.e. tlio pass leading viA AndraAoa, ot Adraaos, tw 
KeleiidcrtH. 

Tho treatise on the tactics of NiwplioruB Pholtas, the reaaltflofhw 
experience in a long conrKe of mitxiewiftil war against tho Saraoena, 
emim«iateB in chap. 2a the chief paBsoa by which (he Saracen anniiw 
(lonld retire from a foray in Ilywintitie territory intu their own oonntrf, ' 
i.e. Ciiicia cr Commagenc. They aro (I) the passes which lead int#^ 
the Anatolia Theme out of the Theme of Stileuoeia, crossing from 
OiUcia into Cappadocia or Ljkando*, (2) the passr-s cTOBSing from 
EDmmagene to Heliteue and ArabiaflOH, (3) the Arnicniim paescd beyond 
the Euphrates.* The first head iucludca the piies of .Adra«o«, thfr 
Cilivian GatOH, and the pass from Anazarboe and Sis by Hadjin t» 
Komana and to KokustioH. 

2. In tlic expedition made by Xioepfaoran (Ixifoi-e Oflfl .*.ii., aoe undor 
IkCiSTjtu Lyeaomx) into CiUcia, ho odvunced by the pave of BlAt'RiASOK, 
ravaged the country towards Adana, marched down »» faT as the aem^.t 
and enRanipnd on tho banks of the Kydnos, beyond the bridge on the 
road to Adunu. The finrntcni! who wctc besieging Mirthia, hearing of 
the raid, raised the ^iege, and niai'chod in all haste to interoept the 
Byzantine army on its retnm. But Nirephonij^ having stayed only %,< 
(biy or two in CiUcia, retireil iu Rafwty by tlie pass «f KAiivutoir. Thersi 
RAnnot be the tilighle«t dunbt, from the plucce in Cilicia mentioned, thai 
Kicophorusadvanced through the C'ilitiiun GalL'<8. The Saraoenfi retanied 
from Uiathin, liy way of Vnjtada, Konia, Kregii, towards tho Gates to 
intercept him. Kicephorus, however, had already retired in safety. 
What, nnw, waa the pans by which he returned? I hn-ve no donbt ho 
I'etircd through the CiUt-ian Oatcs. A few uiles north of tho Gatets 
the road divides into three ; the left leads to Kybistra, tho central to 
Tyann, the riglit direct to CH.ittirciu-Mu/ukB.f Kow Nicephoms ainnot 
liave advanced by Kybistra, for, as he must have traversed Ijyknouia to 
roach that pass, there wae every chance that tho Saracens would hear of 
his raid too xoon, and be able Lo intercept hin^. Moreover, it is ex- 
pressly mentioned that the Anatolic and Opsibiau troupe wero loft to 

" r. 250. — ti oJet yiip iiaZ tif^ffiiv ff-av\ii$wi}iv, a%a !■• ruy iy ZtAfuirii? nAfiffov^r-, 
Kol Tou Tvf 'KtiaraXiKaiv Stfiarot, itata ii TaupiKk Spri r^y rt KiKixlay tiafl^auai Karra- 
JaNliiv r( Kat Au<ia>-lJ>" trfibl -rouruit ii Ka] ri stopaicil^ti'a r*pliarliitiJir ti ical 'Ata-rAr. leal 

t Tli« Cicnarria rcind *r|wntc» troai the other beilde rod&uiloa (Bosanli Klinn): llw 
OtliCT tnro Auk at 'l^Iclitn Ki-u]in-i], itix idUpi furlhor tiortli. 



IL— THE PASSES OVER TAURO& 



351 



Oppose tTiv Surnocn iaviKOD, bo tlmt tlio tnxype ivitli .Ific«[>1iorufl mnst 
havo been mftiiily thcM of the oasUrn Themes, Kbar-inno, ATtneniaeo, 
Ao. n«D(!« Niceplionis murt have advanood hy one of the other pOMM, 
and certainly by tlo regular militarj' rtjuto Ly T>nuA, wliioh, therefore. 
ia tfao pass Mauriiiiiuit. On hix rolurti llio jiass uf Sybi«tra is obviuu»ly 
©ven moTO oat of the queelion than on tlio advAuoo ; hence tlio namo 
Karj'dioB remains for tho piwa It-atiiiif; to KnUari by Uereketli Maden. 

After writing out this argtiment, I tiini fo my niBp, aiiil find that 
lh« rtMwI from llio I'jtm C'ilivim to Ca'sareia paaoca by Duzunti Khan 
(Fodandoe) and Fundnklu; Fuadukln i« tho TarkiBh, translation of 

Th« point where the pusses Ma'iriaTioii and Karydiun forked wa* 
perhaps called Gytarimi or Typwrion. In 1068 the Bywiutine army 
crossed the patscB of Mount Tauroa from Cilieia, iiunm S' v^uc «« *< 
)(tiipl(ii/ rij^ rov lIcidavToti nXtiirovpa^ Ittro^, Tvi^aftov KaXovitivov. The 
emperor went tliwieo direct to Constantinople ; hcuco there is every 
prolMbility that Typ^'arion is not on tho Ercgli imaa, but on tho direct 
road from I'odandoB to Tyana. Mich. Atlal., p. 121. 

Soylitwi*, p. 677, diflVn) from Michael as to the name and the 

pOftiliuii, — <tc Ti j^ui/iuif T^5 Ilo&ti'Aoi) Kktiampa^, riTu/.ioc itaTOTO/lo^d/ifcol'. 

At this point the army heard n.'port« from Melicone : there u there- 
fore only one point whicli 8uil« all tho conditiong,— ihat point ia where 
tho direct road fmm eoxtom Cappidwia joins the Tyana-Tarses road. 
Uer« ]i«W8 would naturally reach the army ; and it in a jMint oat of tho 
paaa in ona seDite, ycfc it would he etinally oorreot to hay tluat it ia iu 
the pofis. 

The pass Manrinnnn -was gnaided by the strong furtrasa LouloD, 
wliich had been captuTwl by Basil in 878, and the route wa« therefore 
o]>en to Niocph«nm. 

'd, LocLOM, called Saicaliua or Ilisn AsMknUbft by the Arnhs. was • 
frontier fortruBK of primary importance in the Sanioen wars. It com- 
manded tho main patw loading north fnm Tartios. and ila pusscBsion waa 
a oHtiofil point. Ita critical impuriuncv ia orioii tuentioned,t and thd 
rcfcrcncos, if taken etrictly, wonld show that Lonlon was close to Tarsos ; 
but a study of ita history tihowaclunily that this iii4|uito impossible, and 



* Tlie three ruaiiii mtj io tbna glrou, ntlU upiinniiualo diatoncca; — <1) Tjla 12} 
PoiUtniloa4t Yoiunlia 2 Funijiiklu A| Kunn*liti KtiiLii 8} Sold.iklJ 12) Knyn AIti i^ 
Knvluk Si Frmilc ^| F.iiebil HJ Ariilamn 5 CimldJx 3 Aiii|>li 8 Di^vi-li Kun Uiawr l»| 
Indje Si] III Ktiairi. (2) PoJuntlu^ 3 Ak K^'tiprcu 3 Takbta Kcnprcu 19 Pflabmakji 
(iiOM- Fi>uiilin'>p«l>ii) 13 Tyttne.. (8) TnUliln K«.-ti|>rcit 13 Tcliin« Klinn II Ulu KiihU 
13 Tctin|«n 1 '> Erc^ti (K:rl>i>tni) 20 luittulwla. Must of tlicK cduuntv* L owv tu Majot 
BeDiiuf. 

t Ti rKurra r^ir 'PaFWUxV iniipirtiw i^AoCi> ixopArvrBV KAirrpev (TbeojiIiBn. 
Contja., S77), tlie bulwAtk or Tnnii* (.To. Cbal'l.), ^faipUr ti ■tij' li^gif myxt^ifav tti 
tirai (^i^XsT^ao Ki^u ical ^pu^rav ((.^ICD., U. I7i) ; Ifnf/La ii nal ffoifivr Tp KorA 

KiAw Jv Tiftif wK^aii(av «■! ftiravovv (Tlieoiibnn. Contin., I£P7). 



3o2 A SKETCH Of THE HISTORICAI, GEOORAPHT OF AStA UlSOR. 



that LoulonvrH»muub farther nortb. Itoommaniled the moet important 
route to Xbtbos, and was thuB the key which vpoaud uud olosod the ro»d 
to TarsoB. ThJR great road muet of Luunid be the road Trom Tjana 
lltroagh the Clliciiui Gates. Ovur thu uctiial Gxtes th«inMelva8 th«-re 
arc the reinaiitH of a, fortress, and it ia possible that is Iioulon ; bat er«n 
this pusitiuQ, 40 or 50 tnilos fioiu Tareus, Mocmif too fur eootli to BOtt 
hJHtory, and I nhould look for a uite noaror Tyana. 

4. ThoThema of Loeeor Cappadooia. which lay i^outh of Khaniians, 
Wdering on Lykaonia and BuccolUrii and including CictMrein-Mazaka. 
«xt«iiQled oa the south aa Ur iut the forti'esii of Luulou, and eT«D to 
Podandoa.* The tormB imply that Ijoalon was north of PodandoSL 

5. Loolon JH nii>iitioncH] as the first [loiiit in the line of beacon fim, by 
wlucti ucH-a of a SaracoD inraflion w«i» telcgmphed to Constautinople : 
ihia lino of oommuuication was d i»cutitinu«d by the Kinporor Uiobael 
(812-67) ill one of hie foolish fren-k