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v^'t ;♦ II 

ri A c 

•tv«] tirtaffT «f Ttthttmn, and the hvmiiw «f IIm Tvkbh 
flrvt, bf Coart Oriow, in 1770. psintnl for tht emprvM 
C«flirnne 11. of RuiMaa, and for fthirb Ih* wm paid *iliftO 
tKcfaini, abrint 16,000 flonni. or l9Mi. fterlitifr. Criimt 
tMow. to vhnm Um* wnrkt wrrv tmt it Lf*y!honi, vm upon 
lh« vhAte liitrhl V cmtiAewl b/ thrir mrrrftc^il ■rrooi|*li«hnionU 
but hp WM Uti^Btwfird with the rrr>rrwiitat»<>nof thorxpiotiion 
of • fthip, m thr pirturr o( the Imminir of the (Wt ; tml in 
on)«r to vivr thr artMt • prnjif^ ts)[>rf«ti<in of furh a rafM- 
tm^thr. hie ordrrri), viiii a »piril worthr of an autocraf, one 
of tne fniraira of hn fl«^. an old v<Htfel| to he blown np in 
fkii* |» t »n >cr of llarkfTt. in ihr rraiU o1 ly^ghorn, and he was 
wHI MTitfied with thf rr»iill« of hit ri|irnfii«>nf, for llarkert 
$rr%t\r impmu'd t)>e pHiurr. Th»-v worLf, %iilh six other 
•rmiUr m**y'*^9, are now at ?t. P<frT»lwir:r. In 1772. the 
\*^r m wh<rh thr fT«t-ai«-t>(*nnnd pi<-tun»^ wtTe c<»mplHed, 
Jrt^jnn lla« kf rt tlitnl at liaih, »o*tJ onJv lw«»nty-nine ; he mine 
lo fliuUnd muh Mynie jttrtitn*« wliirfc h««l fM-rn ordered by 
Kn^rii^h tni*«*Jirr« m ll/mv. In th«» m-tini^hifi* two oth<T 
Itnrfhrn, Uilhflm and Karl, j#iin«i Philipp in Rome, liut 
\Viih*l;n wi'nt »iH«ftly af>rr^»anU to St. PrtiT^biirv. nm\ «lii-d 
tVrr in I7ho. ajrmi mAt llitri%.t«io. and Karl «>ttif«il in S«it- 
trrtand. Pliili;ip ari opliii-ly in 17TH ••tit for hi« y"un«^«"«t 
•rvclier (»**i*v. »li« «»» an »MJirn»*i*r at I>«'rlln, and ttu\v li^r^l 
<nr»-ther fntiii tJut tJ roe until the dt-ath of iirorp at Florence 
in ImrS. 

Ilarirrt wtw hiir' ly palnoniMM in Rone lw»th by Itiltan^ 
mn»i forf»cmni, TmV \ 1. %ii« ijrljjrhti-*! witli h * %i«»rk«, and 
htt nrtiQUtinn ai a Und*f^|M* |ninter %•«■ unri» jlli^l by any of 
ht« eiinfrnifH»ranr«, th«».'^'h he %inj a ^t-ry »nfi»n«»r iiaintrr to 
U:Ujo, «hf>«a« wttiwr jp|>n'«Mitiil nor known at thjit time: 
\% il*on bit lUFTue in I7i5. In 1777 lUckort niadr a tour 
ta hitily With Utdtard I'jyne Kniirht and ChArl«*a (iorr; 
and m 177a a tour tn the n*irtb of luir with ChaH«'« Gorr 
«nd hifl In lTh'2 be went to S'jipira and «aa iiro- 
arttti^l to the kin?, Frrdinand IV'., by tlie Ruaaian aninaa> 
aaiior. Count Rami mow «ky. i he kinir took irreat plca«tire in 
tiK* work« of iIjM*k.ert, ami tPTifrtl bim with frnxit kindneaa 
ami famiJiantr ; be nard tott>ie bim Duo Filipfio. In 1786, 
alter the d«*)«nnre of Cotint lliMuniow»ky, he apfminted 
liarkrrt III* f»nnopaJ paint«*r, who a<lt)«'d with hta Urt>ther 
f'«>ai llMt ttioe io NapUm. Tbry bad afiarfmenta In thr 
J'aUiao Knmnitilla on itie C*lU.ija. whi< h tiit'y or(upi«^ until 
l*H-T were diii-«iM(^a4^ by 4*ritt*rai lley, the Fn-nrh eom- 
»i^w)«tii of Nj|4«« tn 1«W, who ti'ik pn ^ ^e w on of tb4*m 
l«:ni««>|t . be boweirer trratr<i the U^tf-ki-rta wilh rrfot ktmi- 
IMM, f««r fb«*ni |«M|awt«, antl Mit^rrrvi tb«MO to de|«rt 
wrh all tbetr fuodt arnl rhatlHt, wiib wbirh tb«*y am%ed 

• *U\w at l^nrh<*m. Il^firri't •iibry wa« 1<)0 durata |ier 
i»'».th. with b*« afonrrnnx* frrr, liuth in Naplea and at 

<V«r-ta. In J7h7 iia<&c^ |H<ntr<il a larire furtiire of the 
i^'iftt n of the i*aribfi»0|ie. I>4. tin* ^r•t •hip of warwbi«4i waa 
Imiit aC <*^trl.».Manr ; Umm <^irni«ed b^ hn Ijrotber Georp^; 
Ue fwioied i««> oiImt Ufffe pMiitrra of S«WfiuJit«o aeaftfjrta, 

• LMb wrrw all rn.ifmr*! by wicuo biatanral an'oo of in> 
arri-vt • tb^y are in the \m\Mt'e at <*a«erta. In 17Wt the kin^ 
ar nt biM to Apulij to owke dntwin',:* of all the aeaiM»na of 
Ibat rr«at. whifb be |Aiiitr<l, irvm ^laftfredooia to Taraito. 
In 17'.<U bo VMiird on a aimiUr mMsion the euaau of i**lat>na 
aod Airily : the k'n|r ei|qi|»f»^ Utr bim a amaU felun« railed a 
arBpp%M, BMooed wiib twtiJ%e mrn well armt^, lor tbe 
rt^wrm iNtrpiM*: be waa o;jt abowl hv« aooiba, irom April 
Io Autfwai inflwtive. 

llMkrrt li»r<l. afl^ bia d« {artiirr frvm Naplra in 179*J. a 
tb^jrt tiaae to Ixirbo^. %brt»rr be rvmo^rd to KUnrwee, 
wh#er* he twmti^i la a *il!n wbirb be {lun-hMe*! m 18<U, until 


\ y J Ifc m V*ir^inffC 9t^ o^ rvtnarkaMe Cor any partifiilar 

* of hrf, thM 09 Moipir pr^-tfaita or pro»(«<ta in 

tM^Mta*^ .Tiait tfAfl tlt^i^. afMl tbrtr bnioty armnitniriy 

df^fftff^yjgi^ltRi Inrd l«-84*y of the arTt>e. 'Mie deud 

ai.(^Wal^.w J^«VVt. brinff min*ite, aiid where a nMineiiU) 

•*«a^i«"£W^^^^>rr|ie ■ tbe ebN-f u^»j»*rt of dr»irr. bw wiv^t 

' B^ Al<aiMNLM«fr^ prrfiapi rooiT^rte aaiitfArtfta. e«rr|iit 

la tl-r eaar of aijOHr laal<drfMia rf<nn«<iw«iir wlio miirbt n'^uinr 

a >» . W and wiriap o'twtte (nnirrtiand than lUwe wbit-li 

#bo>wr u rial lit* w tirka r««rfnJly H la d'aw in|r« are eitremr^y 

h I* 9rt iwa. fi !.•• , t'lM'u-a I'r n'»l 'arr . Buny of tbrni ha*r 

(• u ••icmv^i. Ilr |M'>i*f«l in fli 1. m «nrua*(<*, ai»*l in UmI) 

waair^B^aw or a fnajxo, a •(•'t9«'a «jf divtmiprr* lie mitut 

rviMl apwrril | «tr«. 

«;«ptbr baa wnOm a e'lV^c-^tn I.*fr of |{ari«nt, w b**«e rWe 
tM«aM» Ml Id ttaaaao or icIrtfU llae C*«^«ian nttH*, «im1 b*" liit* 

t n A c 

extolled him beyoml 1b» aertta ; whOe be iti pa m FUt«« 
with Skbotelli, and damna bia nolde dealfrw vttb the u. t 
praiae that tbcy hawa aoma pretty ideaa m tbc« ; be n.. 
denina then fnr their want of detail in exrcwtkm. 

(Goethe, H'erke- Phlipp Haekert; and Warktlm^ 
tatd trim Jakrktmdart.) 

HACKNEY-COACH. The derivatioo of ^t «.**! 
Ilaekne^, aa applied to a claaa of miblie conveyanm ^.n 
orcaaioned aioc^b apenilafion. Hailev, in bia Dirt )•«<*• 
adopt! what appeara to liaro berome *a popular notion, i «• 
the name ia derived from the aobiirb of itfwdna ao r»«-' 
foe which inippoaition however we find no niatiaible fjvKU 
\wt he ad«ia. * onleaa too would rather bate it fnan ' • 
French Hacfptenet* wdich b a word of aintilar mmr. . ; 
Many mriotia mnjedunv on the subject are frt^ca bi I'W • 
' Johnton*4 Dictionary/ and in the lexicofrraphiitaJ dititi-r •' 
the * Encycbvfubtlia Metropolitana.* From tiiei« it fei r« '•'•'« 
that a ainiilar word ia found in moat £am|iraa laokiu.rt 
Menage traces tbe French form from the Latin e9«««. a ^ -- 
thii« : — e^r/iff, aknt^ aktmtM^ akinna, akinea^ htufU€iuw. At- 
otbcr Cfmjeclnre derivea it from an Anplo-^ason woril n*. 
intr to Ncif/A. on the »npf)OAition that a lively bor«c. %,\\*u -i 
neiu'liinir, would Ik' the moat likely to be lent for birr. \'*' 
hn)i« the mo«t proliaMe derivation ia from iia^tte, an • 
French wonl for a irvldinir, which would be htter tliun a o 
•pirited $teitjhing hor«e fiir birinff for paiblie nae. lio«>i.' 
thit muy lie, it ia suHiciently evident that tbe term A«/''-!-»- 
waa Hnt apitlicd to bopiea let for hire, and then, hv a i**- 
natural transition, extended to coaehea, and aubaei^mntl; *• 
aiNi^n -chairs, etiiploycd in a aiinilar way. 

lly tbe art 1 &'2 Wm. IV. e. 2*2, by which th- L . 
relatinjr to backuey-can ijirra in London were cifnM>.tiut! 
and amended, it ia declared that every carriaire witli t«o « 
more whoeU. oaed for plvinir for biro in any (aiblic «rrrr* i: 
any place within five milea from tbe Genefwl Fgal'Otbfi 
Loiicion. of wliatever form or eonftniotian, or whatiMrr ir- 
be tbe number of nemna which it ftmii be calruJated iof<a*< 
or the number of oorsea by which it abail be dntwa, »ta ■ • 
d<N*nM*d a k^u-kney-tarnaije : and the diftiiicticio Ihi«< <• 
hackney-carriairca and atotfe-rarriaueM u further lOtf 
mttier dian clt»ttn«tly oapmMHl, by tiM> proviaiOQ thit w*M • . 
in the act aliall extend or apply to any atage-<*aai:h mt< \- r 
plying for |UAacn(reri to be carrit^l for bireo< trfmraitje t 
A liackncy-cnrriaire b one which nuy be hired at ^rfu 
r«*f:ulate<i tares, eaimlatcd either by time or diatanee, antl im 
ioir the Mime whetb«*r it it hired by one {lerKni or b% lb* ^ 
ouiiiImt wbii-b it b liienaed to cmrry, nrVMriM^I JVV* 
liircction. and at anv rri^uired time, under<«ertAin n^fc*^* 
provided by law ; whilea ata|rt^-rarn«Kv b one which |>*'rj«.H 
a certain apceihcd ji»iirucy, at a spccitied time, earr\ trtir | 
aenir%>rv only in tJM* line ol ita spctntied roiile« at a e« nam i 
(which b not regidated by a«-t of |«rliaBH*nt), for cim li ii 
vidua! poaacnger, tbe amount of aoch hire being u>aj« 
ibouirh not in%anably, dependent ufion dbtance, 

bu far m can be frathere<l from aorb notices aa tlio wn 
baa met with, tbb claaa of jiublic vehicl«*a apfM^rf to bw 
ori;:inaled in Lundoo. Tbe rise and pn»|srraa ol U>«ir u^* 
Looibjo may be pretty diMincily traced from outictw in M. 
pberaon'a *Annab of Commeree,' and in Aiidcrvm's * U 
tory of Coouncrco,' of which work tbo early %u1uiim« 
Matcpbersoo are a reprint with but few nlieraiiona. L'n.l 
tbe year 16i^ Macpberaon, or rather Anderson, obwrvea in 
* Our biatoriofrnipbera of the city ol Londim relate ihiil it w 
in tlib year tlat narkney-eoacbea hrtt be^na to ply in Li4j<i« 
street «« or rather at the in na. to be called for aa tlu\v wn 

»» n' 

wantetl ; and tliey were at thia time only twenty in nuiiti 
In 1 634 aeilan-cbairs appear, tor tbe lint time, to b«>f vutA 
into CDro(ietiti<m with luM^ney-conrhes, tbe aole piiki.i 
bctoir rnmlcd w tliwt ytwr to Sir Handera DunixMJtb to ' 
let, and lure ' • nunibiT of ' roverrd eliairs/ aucb aa bo 
preamted to be in uae in many plat^ea beyond acn, f<»r a {an. ^ 
of l<iurtreB vcnra; tlie a««med rvaMwi lor tiK*ir iiiirutlui ii«h 
heme tbe ii»cun«en»eoce orn»Hin«i in tlie atrreta %»! ibc W" 
ty«»fif»lM by *tlie unnerrnMry multitude of cuacbea.' In th\ 
follow intr year an attempt waa made Io eb«x*k tbe inmA^ i.^ 
antM>yan«e oiruaiuoiNl by llio *|rcoeral and pronii4cni<Mt« um* m 
ooaclrfw* by a prDcUnintion from tbe kiofr (Cbarb** I. ) tKa 
no ba»kiicy or b'nd eoacb «ho(ild be UMd in L«MhK'i. 
WcPtOiiiittiT, or the suburlM, imU*aa it were eninipni to ti^w 
at b.«rt tlinv niib^ cjut of the aame. and that eter}- bafniM'v 
rtmrU tm ner aliould ooiutantlj laaintajn kmt able borM<« t« i 
tbe mial service wbctt m^uannl. Finding it lm|Mi«iiM«* U 
pTLMoi tlie yae of ao irrrai a eoavnoacaoti a < 



ve «f A giMB eola«r, «m1 K vtang aftd* ««lMn m Ihb i 
lnv« propoMd the name Microcyttit fer tbii gmt of plnli. 

The tpedef m found upon moist roelu, on tlio volb of 
ctTorat, nd in damp pincci. If r. UmmII Iwn ttimOy do- 
•eribed tevcnl new ipcckt of this genm ; tbej belong hov- 
OTor to m dam of pknii in whicli ilit moal difiieoli to diicovor 
parmaneot apecifie dMrnden. [Rs» Snow, P. C] 

iHamall, BrUitk Fretkumitr AlomA 

P. C. 8] 

Aa tbo 

war wMcb was tominatod bgr tbe Peace of Ryawick in 1607 
[P. C, sx. 987] waa pmeded by what ia called the Fiiat Grand 
Alliance, concluded at Vienna betwixt tbe Emparar and the 
United Piovincca, 18th Maj, 1689, and joined bj Great 
Britain 9th December foliowiog, » the next general war, 
which brake out in 1703, waa preceded by the Second Grand 
Alliance, or Alliance of the Uaffue, concluded at that town 
between the Emperor, Great BrtUin, and the United Pro* 
vincca, 7th September, 1701, and aubaequently joined by Per- 
tugal and other European powera. Ita object waa to reaiat 
the aeiiufe of the Spaniah crown by the French king Lonia 
XIV. for hb gmndaon the Duke of Anjou. who nererlheleM 
eventually became King of Spain, by the title of Chariea III. 
The AllianM of the llaffue was the last political combination 
arranged by William 111. of England, who died 8th March, 
1702 ; and war waa declared agamst France by Queen Anne 
4th May following. [Pa vrrriofi TnnATW, P. C, xvU. 893.] 

liAUNEMANN, SAMUEL, founder of the a^atem J[ 
medicine called IIom<nopathy, was born at McisKu, m Uraer 
Saxony, on the 10th April, 1768. Uw fother, GottfHed 
Hahnemann, who was an artist of connderable merit, waa em- 
ployed in the nainting of china in the celebrated porcehun 
manufactoiy of Meissen. He was m clever well«edocated man, 
and 10 him his son owed the first mdimenta of hia education. 
He was aftfu^ards placed at an elementary adiool, the 
director of which, £>r. Miiller, nemarktng talents that only 
required cultivation to raise the boy to eminence, persuaded 
hb ikther to place him at the High School of Meissen, into 
which they obtained him a free ndmisskm. Hahnemann 
gladly nrailed himself of theae increased facilities; he made 
himself master of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and evinced a 
decided bias for the study of the physical aciences, natural 
hi8feor}r, and medicine. Botany was also < fiivoorite pumiit, 
and his houn^ of leisure were devoted to the collection of 
plants and their systematic arrangement His intense appli- 
catmn and amiable disuoeition won the goodwill of the head 
master and teachen, woo vied with each other in affording 
him every facility in the prosecution of his stodiea ; and his 
INPogrem was so rapkl, that in a short time he waa appointed 
an assistant teacher. 

Having chosen medidne for his profession, at the com- 
mencement of 1778 he left the high school of Meissen, and, 
asttsted by the friendship of his former teachera, he entered 
the University of Leipzig, having, as a candidate, written a 
Latin thean on the construction of the human hand. 

Being wholly dependent upon his own exertions for sub- 
e, he supported himselr during his reaidenee at Leipaig 

by giving leasons in German to foreiffn students and by' the 
translation of En^iah and Frendi medical anthon. The pro- 
fesaora of the UmverslQrf in adminUion of hia ardent seal for 
knowMgo and great acquirements, mvited bun to attend 

an anothoeanr 
amen some nni 

* MatdebuTW, whan he married fkft drnmhter^ 

Kohler. Piwviomi to tUa hThM m. 

and Daman, iMijjeptij^janmnnir, 

labonra, thnatndieaOr cbnalstry 


Hospital of Charitable Brothera, with a view to the co m pio* 
tion of hia stadias and to aeqidring n practical knowledge of 
hia nrofeaskm. 

His moderate pecuniary ramiroea were almost exhanited| 
when hia talents and marked attention to hia duties gained 
for hia n firm friend in Dr. Qnarin, physician to the Em- 
peror of Austria and chief physician to the Hoapital, through 
whoae reoumasendation, al&ou^ he had not yet graduated, 
Hehnemann obteined the situation of fiunilr nmaical attendant 
and librarian to Baron von Briickenthal, Governor of Sieben* 
buigen, then residing at Hermannstadt He remained here 
hr two yeara, and being aUowed to attend private practice 
he raved a small sum of money ; with this he removed to £r- 
langcn« where, on the lOth of August, 1779, he took hia 
dcgrae of M.D.^ and produced his theria * Conspectus Ad- 

in nddilkm to hii i 
and mineralogy. 

In the ycer 1784 he mBoead to Dreaden, wheea ho gamed 
a high rapntaciea m the hoapHals aa n jndifsons and skilful 
prai^oner, but, atnick with the abaenea nf n gnidhisr prhw 

of the ooBling 


hia old 

ciple m their au e utfe a. and the great 

art, he gvadnally withdrew hhnielf 

practice, and endeavoured ^ 

l eaa urc e of translations of 

thon, iMimhig at the aamo tinw hm frvmvita sindy of che- 

Hi hb fomSyly hi 
and French media 


His fodinga mt this period are best esplained hi his own 
words m a letter to the celebrated Hnfoiand, written many 
jreara after be had founded the svstem with which hb nain«» 
la now ao intiamtely connected. * Eighteen ^reara ha%e 
ekpsed since I quitted the beaten path in medieme. It was 
to me to walk in darknaaa. with no other light than 
ka, when I 

be derived from hooka, when I h«l to heal the aick, 
and to preacnbe, according to such or sncfa aa hypothesis eon- 
oeming diieaaa, aubatanoes which owe their pmoe In the Ma- 
teria Medioa to an arbitrary dedsmn. I ee u ld not oonscim- 
tioosly treat the unknown morbid cendifions of mr snibrinii 
brathren by these unknown medicfaies, which being very 
active sobslancea, nwy, unlem applied with the moat rigorous 
exa etn e m (which the phjrsidan oannol oxereiae, bceanse their 
peculiar eflbcts have not vet been examined) ao eaaily cause 
death, or produee new aflectiona or chronic maladiea oft<Mi 
mora dilBeult to remoea than the oric|inal disenra. That I 
might no lonser incur the rbk of doing iigury, I en g aged ex* 
cliHively in mmistry and in literary occupational' 

About thb time he published hb pampnieta on Meronriws 
Solubilb ; eo the moos of detaeting Adalteratien in ^ ine ; 

Etiologicua et Thesapentkeaa.' 
In the year 17S1 he was appomtrd dbtnrt phydoaa-at 

on Cakarea Snlphorata; and en the Detection of Armnie m 
caaea of Poiaoning: he also eontribolad asany able papera to 
Creira < Chenncd Aonals,* and gave to the werid a numbf^r 
of minor medical worka, which Imve since been collected by 
Dr. St^midpttblbhed under the titleof « KlemeSchrifteo/ 
Dreaden and Leipaig, 1629. 

In the year 1790, while engaged upon the tranalailion of the 
• Materia Medica' of CuUen, he waa struek with the difierent 
ex|>bnatkinagivenoftheiaodaofonaiationof Paravian Bark, 
in intermittent fover t and diarafbtifd with them, he deter- 
mined to try ita efliBOta upon hhnaelf. Finding that naweritd 
doaes of this substance produced aymploma strikingly analo. 
goes to theae of thet fonn of intermtttent fever for which at 

waa an acknowledged apaelfic, he detamnnad to try fitrtbrr 
esperimenta with other medidnal anbatanoaa n|Mm himself nod 
upon some medical frienda. He obtabwd similar results - 
that M, he produced by theae agents foctitiouB or asedieisial 
diaorden resamhling the diseaaas ofwUch they were eatcenrd 
curative ; and thus, the first dawn of the law of SimUm Stmd- 
Hhii gleamed upon him. In a work ascribed to Hippocrates 
(Ed. BariL ap. Froben., 16S8, p. 7S) a aimibr doetme was 
enunebted, and the mme doctrine baa sboe found advocates in 

it medical writen ; bat Hahnemann waa the first 
it to be /As guiding prineinle in Thera|peotic», 
and aupportad hb positmn Inr a aenaa of expermMnts. 
Confident that he had dbooverad the long aought for law, he 
saskhioosly punned hb piwring of medidoes, and adopaod 
the new principle hi the treatment of hb naticnfts with (ao- 
oordmg to hb own testanony and that of hb diariplea) a 
aneeem fottyeommenauratewith the Kmitadmeaaathen at h;s 
dbposal. Thaa eneoarMed, ha ventured, in 1796, to addrew 
a paper ta Hufoland'e 'Journal,* m which ha annoaneed hit 
new discovery to the medical watid, pohsted oat the defect* 
of the * Materia Medica' aa then eonstitated, and the nccirs> 
sity of iti reeonatmction upon the baab of pura experiment . 
a the aame time he eameelly invited the co^paratma of hn 
medical brathren. The attention of the German physidans 
waa then deeply engaged m the investigataonof thoBrunonian 
theory, and Uahnemann'a suggestmna were coldly received. 

In 1801 he puUbhed a ehort treatbe on the efficacy tif 
Bdbdonna m tae prevention and cure of soariet fever, and 
affirmed that ita carative properties were baaed anon the 
heraoBopathic bw. In 1906 lie |mblished the vaialta of a 
number of experhnents in a work in two s olani ra , entitled 
* Fragmenta do Viribus Madiraasentonim poritivb sive obviU 
m Corpara Sana;* and m the aame year hb 'Medieme «4 
Experience,' in which ha attll mare alrongly axarearaa hb 

In 1810 he brouffli* 

Experience,' in wh 
ohiection to the oM 

H I 

lh9 wmik df imtmj 






•:^oyi\ i»J 


tiiit flkM M«i tlir iUk. I \U^ 

iMOfcifWt »«- !>*/» 



HAINES Is the name ^vcn to t river lately ducovrrcd 
In the ctttem parts of Afnca, in those coontriet which are 
conprohended on oar maps under the name of Zangiicbar, 
The eastern coast of Africa, from the equator northward to 
Cape G jardafui, has heen oonaidercd nearly as a complete 
wUdemcfts ; its aaprct from the sea is very unpromising, the 
coast aouth of Magadoxo presenting only an uninterrupted 
series of sand-hilb, whilst that north of Magadozo is formed 
by rocky masses of moderate elevation. But Lieutenant 
Christopher, in 1S4S, discovered, that at the \m6k of the sand- 
hills there is a considerable river, which waters an extensive 
valley, filled with alluvial soil and exhibiting a great degpree 
of fertility : thb river u the Haines, which probably origi- 
nates in the high countries which surround the most soathem 
afllitcnts of the Abai, or eastern bruich of the Nile ; but as 
the intervening countries have never been virited by Enro* 
peans, we are unable to determine whether any of the 
rivers rise in these countries and which of them sends its 
waters to the llwnes. Lieutenant Christopher was informed 
that north of 4" N. latitude the river u already considerable. 
He visited it at Gir6ii, a town situated twenty-two miles 
north-west of Msgadoxo. inhabited by more than 7000 indi- 
riduals, and surrounded by extensive fields, on which Indian 
com and millet yield such abundant crops that lafge quanti- 
ties are ezportea to Hadramant and Oman. The river was 
here about 200 feet wide, and too deep to be forded in the 
dry season. From this place the Haines runs nearly parsllel 
to the coost, at a distance varying between twenty and four 
miles, and numerous villages are found on its banks, sur- 
rounded by extenuve fields irrigated from the river. The 
volume of water carried down decreases considerably by this 
irrigation, and is less at the most southern point where it was 
seen by Lieutenant Christopher, which was due north of the 
town of Brava, where it was only from 70 to ISO feet broad, 
but from 10 to 15 feet deep. From this place the river con- 
tinues in a south-western direction, and terminates, according 
to the statement of the natives, in an extensive lake said to be 
unfiithomable. This lake is about sixty miles from the 
eastern banks of the river Jubb or Gavind, and pcrhaits not 
much more than twenty miles from the sea. The inhabitants 
of the broad alluvial tnct traversed by the Haines River are 
a mixture of Somaulis, Galla, and negroes, among which « 
small number of Arabs are settled. It M>pears that the 
greater part of them are Mohammedans. The chiefs of the 
country are Somaulis, but iheir power is limited, as it appears, 
by a kind of aristocracy. 

(Chriatopher, ' On the East Coost of Africa/ in Xondtrn 
GawrapA. JmamtU^ vol. xiv.) 

HAL. [HAu.a, P. C. S.] 

HALE'S! A (named In honomr of Stephen Hales, D.D., 
antbor of * VegeteUe Statics,' &c.), a nnus of plants belong- 
ing to the natural. order Styracese. it has a monopelatous 
cwolla ventrioosely campanulate, with a 4-lobed erect oorder ; 
the stamens 12 to 16 ,* nhunenta combined into a tube at the 
base, and adnale to the corolla ; the anthers oblong, erect, 
S-oelled, dehiscing lengthwise ; the ovary inferior ; tiie style 
single ; the stigma siinjple ; the fruit a drupe, which is dry, 
oblong, with 3-4 winged angles, terminated oy the permanent 
style i the cells I -seeded, with the seeds at the bottom of the 
cells. The species are trees with alternate serrated leaves, 
and lateral fiiscicles of pedicellate drooping white flowers. 
This genua has been made the type of an order Halesiacese 
by D. Don, who is followed by Link and others. 

if. it i raptem, common Snowdrop- tree, haa ovate, lanceo- 
kte, acuminated, sharply serrated leaves ; the fruit with four 
wings. Thia plant is a tree, growioff from 16 to 20 feet high, 
and is a native of South Carolina. It has fine white flowers, 
from 9 to 10 in a fiudcle, drooping and resembling those of a 
■nowdrop. The wood is hard and veined. It is one of the 
hardest and also one of the handsomest of the American de- 
odttons trees. The rate of growth for the first five or six 
years is from 12 to 18 inches a-ycar. It ripens its seeds 
freely in this country, and it may be propagated from these 
or imported seeds. There is another species, G. dtpiera, 
which is also an American plant, but does not attain so great 
a hei^t as the last, and has nuich larger species. H. parvi- 
fiura IS a native of Florida, and is supposed by some botanists 
to be merely a small flowered variety of the first. They will 
grew in any cemmon garden soi], and may be propagated by 
dips from the root, » well as from seeds. 

(Don, Oardmir^B Dkinmary; Loudon, Enqfclopetdia of 
S)m$ amd Skrub$.) 

BALFORD, SHI HENRY, was bom on Uie 2od of 

October, 1766, and was the son of Dr. James Vaughan, pby* 
sician to the Infirmary at Leicester, and author of ' Oln«*rv». 
tions on Hydrophobia, on the Csesarcan Section, and on t. •* 
Eflects of Cantharidcs in Pazalytic Afieitions.* Sir lift ^« 
received his early education at Rugby, and was aftcrvitu- • 
admitted at Christ Church, Oxford ; he graduated in mcfi • 
cine at Oxford in 1794, and was elected a fellow of t!.« 
College of Physicians in the same year. Having been m*': 
introduced into London society, and being distinguished !*•' 
the elegance of his manners, and having eariy marri^rfl s 
daughter of Lord St. John, it was not loosr before his prnctjt .. 
became considerable. He was appointed by George 111. t,ut 
of his physicians, and in 1809 he became possessed of a lar^ 
fortune by the death of his mother's cousin, Sir CbAri i 
Hal ford, and changed his name from Vaughan to Hnlxr! 
He was made a baronet in the same year. Sir Henry <^i'i. 
dnued to hold the office of physician to George lU. Ull i. 
king's death, and subseouently held the same aiipointfii« ' 
under George IV., William IV., and Victoria I. He %• . 
appointed president of the College of Physicians in 182-1, or. . 
delivered the oratiun on the occasion of that body rrmo* .»• • 
from their old building in the City to the new uue in T. l 

During hij professional career Sir Henry was too niu^'i 
occupied with the kind of practice to which his early <t.s- 
nexions in life introduced nim, to contribute much valuAii 
information to the literature of his profession. His |Nil»lirs- 
tions consist of essays and orations: the latter were dcruerT*! 
before the college, and are written in Latin, and exhibit « 
purity of style beyond the average of such produr^tions at th* 
present day. His essays are as follows: 1, * On the CM • 
roarteric £>isease.' 2, * On the Necessity of Caution in th« 
Estimation of Symptoms in the last Stages of some Disea«<« ' 
3, ' On Uio Tic Douloureux/ 4, • On Shakspere's Tc*t . ( 
Insanity.' 5, ^ On the Influence of some Diseases of the l)«i'!i 
on the Mind.' 6, ' On the Kav<ros of Aretaeus.' 7, * < lit 
the Treatment of Gout.' 8, ' On Phlegmasia Dolens.* *'. 
' On the Treatment of Insanity.' 10, ♦ On the Death ,' 
some Illustrious Persons of Antiquity.' 11, 'On the K«iti- 
cation of a Physician.* 12, * On the Effects of Cold.' Th< ^• 
essays and papers display the elegant scholar and obserta..! 
physician, ana are mostly written in an easy graceful i^tv !•• 
In J 8 13 Sir Henry Halford descended with the Pn'r..- 
Regent into the royal vaults of St. G corse's Chapel, Witi<i. 
sor, where, amoncst other curiosities, they discovered i^ - 
hesid of Charles I. Of this visit and discovery Sir Hetir y 
haa given an account, which is deposited in the Briti' 
Museum, and b authenticated by the signature of the Print v 
Regent. He died on the 9th of March, 1844. He h.«il 
been for more than twenty years president of the Colliv^ 
of Physicians, and was mainly instrumental in establish i:»j 
the evening meetings of that body. His urbanity of raanni n 
and devotion to the interests of the college have left behin*! 
them a grateful recollection amongst the members of tlui 

(Pettigrew, Portraits and MemoirB qf Medkad Men, 
Drantactiom cf Medical and Surgical As&ociation^ vol. i,} 

the fourth son of George Montagu, Esq., of Uorton in North- 
amptonshire, who was the fifth son (the eldest by hia tbir. 
wire) of Heniy, first Earl of Manchester. He waa bom ^i 
Horton, 16th April, 1661. His education was begun in Uh 
country, but he was eventoally sent to Weslninster Schn>. . 
where he was chosen a king's scholar in 1677, and whence -n 
1682 he was removed to Trinity College, Cambridge. II i 
had distinguished himself, while a pnpil of Busby's at Wc«-. 
minster, by his extemporaneous epigrams ; and the same li % t- . 
liness of talent showed itself in a way to attraet wider alif-i»- 
tioii in an effusion of English verse which he pnxlucH>d i > i 
the Death of Charles II., in February, 1686, beginning (n<*« 
at all in jest or satire) — 

Pvewell, gTMt ClMrl«9« monarch of bint ivaom, 
Tlw beft good mma that ev«r ftlled a throM ; 

and prooeedmg in the same strain till at last the poet «•%. 

In Qurlea, ao good * man and king, we aa« 
A double imai^ of the Deity. 

This performance, wo are told, so charmed the Eari of Dur-r^ 
that he induced the young poet to come np to town, where^ ti- 
was introduced by his lordship to all the wits of his aequai- 
ance. In 1687 he snd Frior brought out in oonjunetion i ^ 
burlesque upon Dryden*s * Hind and Panther,' cntiUodj 
Hind and the Pantner tmnsvencd to the Story of the i* 

ton tljtk 





MtmblUhnMol ol m public libfmry, out of whidi etmitualty 
came the Britiah MiMetun. (Burnet, ' Own Timef,' ii. 440.) 

Uartog always kept up m oooaexioo with the Hanoverian 
liuBtly, Lord Ualifax waa foaiKl,on the death of Qyeea Anne, 
to be one of the nineteen penons appointed by the new king 
to hoM the government along with the aeven great oiliccra of 
state till his majesty should oome over. On tho 14th of 
October, 1714, he was raised to the dignities of Earl of Uali« 
Ux and Viscount Sanbury, and was restored at the same time 
to his former post of first lord of the Treasury, his office of 
auditor of the Exchcouer being given to his nephew. But he 
died of an inflammaUon of the longs on the 19th of May in 
the followmg year. Ue left no issue, so that his eaHdom and 
viscounty b^ame extinct ; but he was socceedcd in his ba- 
rony according to the limitation by his nephew (veorge Mon- 
tan, who a few weeks after was made Earl of Ualitax and 
Vitoount Sunbury by a new creation. The son of the second 
Earl of Halifax died without issue in 1772, when all the 
honours became eztiiict. 

Ualifaa waa one of the most consistent of the Whig party 
to whom we are indebted for tiie Revolution, the Hanoverian 
Succession, and the Union with Scotland. It is evident also, 
from the detail that has been given, that he was a person of 
great general ability. But he was much more a man of action 
than of aay remarkable powers of thought; and what he has 
written, whether in verse or prose, is of very little value. A 
list of his pieces b given by Wal|K>le in his * Royal and Noble 
Authors.' His character as a patron of literature has been 
drawn with some severe satiric touches, under the name of 
* Full-blown Bufo/ by Pope, in his ' Prologue to the Satires.* 

HALL, REVEREND ROBERT, was bom the 2nd of 
May, 1764, atAmsby in Leicestcrebire, where his father, of the 
same names, had been settled since 17 53 as pastor of a congre- 
gation of Particular Baptists. He had come from Northum- 
berland, where bis forefathers belonged to the class of yeo- 
manry ; and he is stated to have been a man, though not of 
much learning, of considerable native power of mind. He is 
the author of several short religious publications: one of 
which, entitled ' A Help to Zion's Travellers/ was several 
times priotea 

The subject of this notice was the youngest of fourteen 
children. It is related that he was two years old before he 
learned to speak : but af\er this, the progress he made in all 
branches of^ his education was very ra{)id. Though the cir- 
cumstance ia absurd, it is on evidence of the impression he 
had made by hia precocity — that when he was only eleven 
yean old, a fellow-clergyman of his father's (Mr. Becby 
Wall is, of Kettering), to whom he had been taken on a visit, 
aeriously set him to preach to a select auditory assembled in 
his house. His gift of ready expression had, it would appear, 
already strongly developed itself. He used to attribute much 
of his early intellectual excitement to the conversation of a 
metaphysical tailor an his native village, a member of his 
Cither's oongrogation. 

He lost bis mother in 1776, and it appears to have been 
after this that he was sent to board at a Baptist school in 
Northampton, kept by the Rev. Dr. John Rvland. Here he 
remained for a year and a half, after which he was placed, in 
October, 1778, at the Bristol Academy, with the view to his 
becoming a Baptist clergyman. It is the practice, it seems, 
for such studonu to conimence preaching before they have 
finished their education ; and Hall was, ss it is expressed, set 
apart as a preacher by his lhther*s congregation in August, 
1780. In the autumn of 1781 he was selected by the autho- 
yitiea of the Bristol Academy to be sent to King's College, 
Aberdeen, on what is eallcd Dr. Ward's exhibition ; and here 
be studied for the usual period of four winter sessions ; preach- 
ing, at least occasionidly, in the intervening smumers. It was 
at Aberdeen that Hall and the lato Sir James Mackintosh, 
then also a stodent at King's College, became acquainted. 
They bore a close resemblance in intellectual chamcter, in 
their powers of mind aa well as ia their tastes, and the inti- 
macy which now sprung up between them led to an afiec* 
tionate friendship, which bated while they both lived. 

Hall did not finally leave Aberdeen till'May, 1786 ; but he 
had already, during the preceding summer, officiated as one 
of the regular pastors of the Baptist congregation at Broad- 
OMad, Bri«tol, in association with Dr. Caleb Evans ; and in 
Aueust, 1786, he was also appointed dasncal totor in the 
Bristol Academy. His father died in 1791, and the same 
vear a difference with Dr. Evans led to his removing from 
Bristol and accepting an invitation to become pastor of the 
Baptial congregation at Cambridge en the departnre of the 

Rev. Robert Robinson to be successor to Dr. Pnestlry a' 

He had already acquired consi4lerRMe celebritr as s 
preacher, but it was not till now that ho appcwvu m ah 
author ; and the impulse that sent him to the press wa» rvf h^* 
political than theological. His first psblication (unb*sa nr 
are to reckon some anonymous contributions to a Bristol n<*^ «- 
paper in 1786-7) was a pamphlet entitled * Chnstianity c* ->• 
aistent with a Love of Freedom, being an Answer to a Scm»'.<4 
by the Rev. John Clayton,' 8vo., 1791. Like most of tl.- 
ardent minds of that day, he had been strongly cxctUNi a- • ' 
carried away by the hopes ami promises of the French H«m.- 
lution, and he appears to have retained his first faith witii**! 
much alteration for some years. In 1793 he published amt').- r 
libend pamphlet, entitled * An Apolo^ for the FrBC<i>>n« «•« 
the Press, and for general Liberty, wtth Remarks on Hi^h..-. 
Horsley's Sermon preached 81st January, 1793.' This ^».% 
largely diHused, and brought him much reputation. The un- 
pression that had been made upon him, Imwever, by tho imr- 
iigious character of the Frencn revolutionary movement » -• 
indicated in his next publication, * Modem Infidelity ci>r*^. 
dered with respect to its Influence on Society, aSimniti.* 
8vo., 1800. It was the {vublicsition of this able and elcKjur*.* 
sermon which first brought Hall into general notice. Fnc 
this time whatever he produced attracted immediate attrntiin. 
The Sermon on Modem Infidelity was followed in l8(Xi i t 
another on the Peace, which also brought him great nyv^ 

In November, 1804, Hall was visited by an atUck of 'tt- 
sanitv, the violence of which did not last long, but from w hu *« 
he did not entirely recover for some years. His stato » ;' 
health made it necessary for him to resign his char^'^ jt 
Cambridge; but, apparently about 1807, he becanse mini-;»r 
of the Baptist chapel in Harvey-lane, Leicester, and tlii» «*•»- 
ation he held for neorly twenty years. He married in Man » 
1808. At last, in 1826, he removed to the pastoral rmrw • • 
bib old congregation at Bmadmead, Bristol ; and here he rr ■ 
mained till his death, which took place at Bristol, on tite *./ i •: 
of February, 1831. 

Besides occasional contributions to various dissenting per* - 
dicad publications, Hull published various tracts end serrrH.! • 
in the last twenty yean of his life, which, along with tl».- 
already mentioned, have since his death been eollecteU » 
reprinted under the title of * The Works of Robert Ita> 
A.M., with a brief Memoir of his Life by Dr. Grrgorv, u-- 
Observations on his Character as a Preacher by John to*?* - 
published under the superintendence of Olinthus (>rev*'i > 
LL.D., professor of mathematics in the Royal Military .K<t 
demy,' 6 vols. 8vo., London, 1831-3. It was intended i» , 
the Life should have been written by Sir James Macktcit • .. 
but he died (in May, 1832) before beginning it. Dr. it- • 
gory's Sketch, from which we have abstracted the mater, 
of this article, is contained in the last of the six volitn* 
The first contains sermons, charges, and drcukr leUcra « < . 
addresses in the name of the governing body of tlie tiar*' t 
church) ; the second, a tract entitled • On Terms of C . ^ 
munion,' in two parts, 1815; and another entitled *Thr t - 
sential Difference between Christian Bantism and the Baf •' 
of John' (a defence of what ia called the practice ot t .. 
conioiumon), in two parts, 1816 and 1818 ; the third, fN^Iit. . 
and miscellaneous tracts, extending from 1791 to IHl^^ t% 
also the Bristol new8|>aper contributions of 1786-7 ; tlie Uki-* 
reviews and miscellaneous pieces; the fifth, notes of ^tpm**- 
and letters. The sixth, besides Dr. Gregory's memiur, r. 
tains Mr. Foster's observations, and notea taken d<mn ■ 
friends of twenty-one sermons. 

Hall was a num of many virtues, and of intellectual pt*** - 
which pkiced him ia the first class of mere men of talent* 1 > 
acquirements were very considerable, and he appean to t.. 
kept np the habits of a studious man to tlio end of hi* i 
But the great temporary impression that he made as a pf> «» • ' 
and as a writer is to be attributed chiefly to general fonx* . 
fervour of mind, and not mnch to any higher or mrtr fa**.. • 
He was more of an orator or of a rhetorician than of a tin- 
His greatness lay in expression and ex})06ition, not in ^i 
tion; and even bis eloquence was rather flow inu* and ci^ . 
tive than either imaginative or impassioned. His n&in«K - 
not in any sense an original or creative nor even a siil*^^' 
far-seeing one. It may be prcdictiHi, therefore, tha* " 
volumes of his writings, with all their general flai»h^^i ^ 
ganoc, and occasional brilliancy, although thev ma.'^**^^. 

his name from 
ferity. They 

being forgotteti, will not greatly i^**^^ -j -, 
do not contriinite anything to th' '"^ ^ ^..' . 




WM ft ikint piriietioo; tad vwtioiliy ftbov* the §m, in &• 
mme riofr* wa a rery fMMrkable pftrbelioa rather bn»:hi* r 
thftfi the tree tun : it had a pearly appoMnnop, ww ill drhno>i , 
and about two degroei broad. Fron each side of ibafl iumc^' 
proceeded a bright eurve of oontrai7 fiextire, beia|r fii^^t 
oonvex md then eoncare toward* the tun. It eitrni1<<i 
nearly la the outer cirde, and iti lower tide wai tokmb jr 
defined ; but the upper fide melted, with streaks of light, iiit<* 
the sky : the parhelion with its cunred Drolongatioos is >a'U 
to have had very much the appearsnoe oi a vast binl hovcnii^' 
over the sun. 

The HHX>nd fi^re is a representttion of a grrat double lu'o 
which was observed bjr Captain Parry: in tiiis, a horizon: ul 
circle of light, at the intersections of which with the inter »or 
halo were parhelia, passed through the true sun ; and ihcnr 
were segments of droles both at the upper eitremities of th« 
two balos and at the lower extremities of the exterior one, tUx" 
hitter being incomplete. The altitude of the true sun yt u* 
about 23 degrees; and the radii of the two circles were, 
respectively, 22^ degrees and 46 degrees. The lowest pbrtir* 
lion was very bright, but had no coloura, while all the m '^- 
menti were strong! v tinted with colour. Above the sun, at 
about 26 degrees (nxa it, and between the two halos, w ai 
a small portion of a third halo, which appeared to be i'U.|>- 
tical ; and the space between the two segments was axtrenn . v 
brill isnt, in consct^uence of strong reflexions of the sun's ra > * 
from the snow which floated in the atmosphere. 

In the tropical regions coloured halos are frequent a/*! 
brill isnt; and, near the equator, Humboldt has observed smu.i 
ones surrounding the planet Venus. 

The explanation which has been aiven of the halo Ir 
Mariotte and Dr. Young, is nearly as tbllows: — Between tUtt 
spectator and the sun innumerable crystals of snow or ii^% 
having the fonn of equilateral prisms, may exist in the air, in 
all possible positions; of these |m>bably one half will 1m* ^^o 
situated as to be incapable of transmitting any refracted li^ia 
to the eye, but vast numbera may have their trans verae ■«-<^. 
tions in planes nearly passing through the sun and spectitor « 
and it will follow (the index of relraction in ice being aU- it 
1*31 and assuming the angles of incidence to be such that li •> 
incident and emergent rays mav make equal angles witli v <- 
surfaces) that the deviation of the refracted from the inci<i«fkf 
ray, at the epre of the observer, is about twenty-two drgri*«-<t 
Hence, the incident rays being considered as parallel to cu<- 
another, there most appear to be formed a circle of light sN • Jt 
the sun at a distance m>m the latter equal to that pumb«*r . -i 
degrees. The semidiameter of the common halo is rath* t 
greater than this quantity ; but the index of refraction in >< •* 
or snow is uncertain, and the angles of the prisms may, f.-^ .-<. 
partial meltings, be rather greater than sixty degrees. 

Dr, Young supposes that the rays refracti'd from pri^ntt % • 
situated may fall on other prisms siutilarly situated, afid n..> , 
thus sufler two additional reiractions at their surfaces ; r . 
which means the rays entering the eye of a s]iectator wr.i-;. • 
form angles of twice the above quantity, or neaHy forty-four 
degrees with the direct rays from the sun ; and this mz.; 
account for the exterior halo. Mr. Cavendish, however, »t» '- 
gested that the latter may be produced by the two refracti^. .. 
which a ray would undergo in passing through a face and c*. ■ 
end of a prism ; that is, through two surfaces which ore i- 1 
right angles to one another. Such refractions would o&i.-« 
the incident and emergent rays to make with one another :■ -. 
angle of about 46" 44'; and this is, nearly, the distance of t hr 
exterior halo from the sun. The red rays of hght, being th«»- 
which sufler the least refraction, come to the eye from 1 1 • 
interior edges of the rings ; and hence those edges generw 1 1 • 
amiear of a red colour : the exterior parts should be blue, a : . 
tney frequently are so; but it may be readiljr imagined t^ic * 
with such prisms, considerable irregularities in the order « * 
the coloura must take place. 

Immense numbera of vary abort prisms, or thin triancu'^- 
plates, of ice will assume, in the air, vertical positions by t: 
action of gravity ; and Dr. Youns conceives that horizon : . 
rays from the sun fidling on their flat surfaoes may be re6«< r . < 
from Uience to the eye of the observer, so as to produce 1 1 ■ - 
appearance of the horizontal circle, or band, of li^t whv'>i 
finglefleM. Tlie sun being about 14 degrees above the hori- iirequently accompanies the halo. Plates of ioe di.«posed <»• . . 
too, portions ot two halos were seen, one at 24 degrees, and the to reflect the sun s light in a vertical plane may be the n« t . . • 
other at 48 degrees from it; the interior po*rtioii was of a pale of the colunsn which is sometimes seen to form a vert >t . 
yellow, and a degree broad ; and the other, which was about diameter of a halo ; and a similar explanation may be givtrn . i 
If degree broad, was tinted with prisasatic oolours, the red the bands forming oblique diameiera such aa, <m one occax^^ . 
Mqg ncflvwt In ttie warn. On tba left hand aide of the iote- 1 were observed by Captain Parry, when the halo had the i^ 
fsor fiaf, «mI in a lifte mrnguied to be parallel to the horiaoa, | pe aj ftn ca of a gnat wheel hn the heavens, the rnn bebg in i » 

ane tntermediate reflexion : or after two reftmelioM trith two 
mtermedUto reflexions. The index of reftaetton tn ice lieiiig 
1-81, and the prisms equilateral ; it may be proved that, in 
the firat case, the false son will appear to be at a distance 
from the true sun equal to 142 degrees, and in the latter ease 
at a distance equal to 82 degrees. 

Halos are frequently accompanftsd by a horixontal ring or 
hand of whiteish light passing through the sun or moon, ap- 
pearing to ascend as the luminary rises, and having its appa* 
rent semi-diaraeter equal to the zenith distance of &ie latter ; 
•nd at times a similar band appeara in the direction of a 
diameter perpendicular to the horixon. At the intersections 
if these oands with the halo (but in a few instances a little 
be}-ond sorfa Intersections) tart sometimes seen images of the 
«m or moon, which are ill deflned and less bright than the 
true disc of the celestial body : these, when the halo is formed 
ibout the sun, are called parhelia ; and when about the moon, 
p ft r as e l e na e. Occasional ly also seirments of circles, or branches 
9f curves of contrary flexure, proceed from these images of 
the aott or moon so as to assume the appearance of wings or 

Many remarkable phonomena of tht!i kind have at various 
'Jmes been observed : in the History of England, by Matthew 
Paris, there is a description of a halo which is stated to have 
oeea seen in the year 1*233, on the bordera of Herefordshire 
and Worcestcrahire : it is related that on each side of the 
halo was a semirirrlc which intersected the halo in two places ; 
and that at the four intersections were as many false suns. In 
1686 Rothman ol>served at Casscl, soon after sun-rise, a false 
•un above, and one below the true sun, all being in one ver- 
tical line ; and in ]<3'20 Seheiner observed a remarkable halo 
at Rome. In Vy60 Hevelitvi, at Danzig, observed a single 
halo, and in 1661 a donltle halo ; the former was accompanied 
by two false suns st the extremities of a horizontal diameter ; 
and another at the upper extremity of a vcrticaT diameter; 
tlie two horizontal suns had tails tending away from the true 
•un : the latter halo was accompanied by three false suns like 
the other, and by aevcral scgniental bands of light, two of 
which had false suns at their places of intersection. In tlie 
last-mentioned year Hevelius observed also a halo with two 
naraselenm and a double corona about the body of the moon. 
I)r. liallcy observed a halo with parhelia in 1702 ; and a 
very remarkable one was seen by Sir Henry Englefleld at 
Riebmond, in 1802 (Jfmmai qf'iAe Jiot/al JnstitMtioH^ vol. ii^. 
Besides these, man^ such phenomena have been observed m 
Europe, in the United States, and in Canada; and Captain 
(Sir Edward) Parry observed and measured several during 
kla voyages to the arctic regions. 

The flrst of the subjoincxi figures is a representation of the 
enon observed, as above mentioned, by Sir Heniy 

H A M 


11 \ K 

kenhtt tlie ptiattr tnd two of KrattniM, hy llolbeia. It. Tke • 
Qutm's Jhvwmff-^room, 490-504, oJl hy Wc«t, unoa^ them 
• duplicAte of the detth of Wolfe. 13. 2Vm Qttem^s Audience 
Chamber, 606-641, containt tworxcrlU'iit iniutiiigi, in their 
•tyle, of Jmdoc IV. of Scotland, with hi« brother Alosander 
Mid St. Andrew; tnd hiii queen, the daufrhier of Henry VII., ' 
with St. George, by Mahute, attributed by Paanvant to Hugo 
Vander Goos, out certainly erroneously [Gon, Hugo V^a* 
itea, P. C. S.] : in this room also are the three rurious larf^o ; 
nietiiret of the Dattle of Sjnirs, the EmbarkatioD of Uenry | 
VlII. at Dover, and the Field of tho Cloth of Gold, attn- j 
bated to llollwin, for the reason p«t>babl^ that Holbein was \ 
painter to Henry VIII. ; but there is not in all three |>icture« 
tiM tligfalest evidence of the hand or style of Holbein ; the 
ezeeution is minute, but it is at the same time coarse and 
dirty. 15. The Prince nf Wales's Pretence Chamber, 
548<-589, coiitnins Adnm and Eve, by Mabuse; Walker's 
portrait, by himscU'; and tino <lniwin«rs by Isaac (>liver. 20. 
Thepripaie Dimng^roum, 668-6^. In this room is a richly- 
rolourod portrait of Fisher the coni[w«er, by (lainsborough. 
26. 71fce Cartoon Gallery, 769-775. Tins inUlory is occupied 
entirely by the seven cvrtoons of llaphacl [Cabtooks, P. C.], 
for which it was expressly built by .Sir Christopher Wren, 
and perhaps there never Has a building so ill aoaptcd to its 

{lurtKise ; it is too narrow, the rurtuons arc placed much too 
ligh, and the light is wholly Imd ; the windows arc actually 
b«!low the picturtv which thov are intended to light. 27. 27je 
Anie-room, 776-797. In this room is an admirable drawing 
in chalk upon paper of IlaphHel's Transfiguration » from the 
original in the Vatican at Rome : it was drawn by Giambat- 
tista Casanova for Lord Btiltimore, who presented it to George 
111.: this drawing and the cartoons togetlicr show Haphael 
to full advantage. 28. The Portrait GaUery, 798.856. This 
utMrtinent, though styled the portrait pllcry, is chicHy occu- 

J»ied by the nine large distemijer paintings of the Triumph of 
lullus Cossar, (laina^ on canvas by Mautegna for the Mai^ 
cheso Liidovico Goiizaga of Mantua, about 1490, after Man- 
tegna's return tmn llome : there are some well-known wood- 
cuts of them by Andrea Andrcani. These works are Mantegna's 
masterpiece, aiul are among the greatest works of the fifteenth 
century : they are unfortunately in a very bad condition, and 
what IS still more to be regretted, William III. had them 
I'estored by Laguerre in 1690: they were purchased by 
Charles 1., wiih the collection of the Duke <it Mantua, for 
about 20,000/., and wore sold at the state sale for 1000/., 
while the cartoons of Raphael a*ere sold lor SOOl, only. In 
this room is aluo a {XYrtrait of Williain of Nassau, Prince of 
Orange ; Dobson and his wile, by Dobson ; and a picture of 
the dwarf Sir Jctircy Hudson, by My tens. 29. The Queen's 
Guard Cftamber, 657-928. This room contains several por- 
traiti of painter* ; Uenry IV. and Mary do' Medici, by Pour- 
bus ; an excellent copy by Homanelli of Guido*s triiim)>h of 
Bacchus ; and a SaniMin and Delilah, attributed to Vandyck, 
which is a copy of tlie original picture at Munich. 30. TIte 
Ante-room, and, 31, the Queen's Pretence Otatuber, 929-1025, 
are devoted to naval battles, marine views, and shipping 
generally, including several pieces by Vandcveliie, and 
many b(^satifully jNiinted hulls of ships of war, by Marshall, 
and throe largv iiictures of tho nattlc of Trafalgar by 

J'he great hail it decorated with ta|)estri€fl of the story of 
Abraham, said to be made from designs by Bernard van Orlay, 
u Fleming who studied under Raphael at Rome. They are 
(*ertainly of the style of the siiteenth century, but are charged 
in manner ; many of the heads however are hill of character, 
and the com)iosition is in many paru natural and ettective. 
The eoloore arc much Aided, but us taix!stries they are of a 
'ery superior class : Evelyn says of them in his D'uur-^* I be- 
fieve the world can show nothing nobler of the kind than the 
stories of Abraham and Tobit.' They were estimated in the 
fiarliaaientary ioyentory at 8200/. ; but they were reserved by 
Cromwell for the state : tlie whole history is told in ten cuin- 
IMrtments, eight of which are in the hall, and two in tlte 
kmbtie dining-room (14), where there is also a ta|x*stry of 
Tobias, with the angel, taking leave of his father Tobit, and 
his mother grieving for his departure. In the large apart- 
ment neit to the hall, called the Withdrawing-room^w^ some 
much older taf^estrics, in a barliarous style of composition ; 
thrtr stthji'cts are alk<gt)rical, but the coloun are ao faded that 
Ihcy are almost obliterated. Above the Upestrics are some 
irvv\y rsecuted and beautiful drawings br Cignani: they are 
fbe cartoons cif soma frescoes painted by him in the duoal 
palare al Pi 

£«vry facility is aflbrded ibr ttuik*nta desiraus of copymir 
in tiie gallary ;' but pomiisaifni must ftr»t be proearrd oi itw 
Chief Commissioner of her MaJ4*8ty*s Woods and Foreats, or 
of the Deputy Surveyor ; for witliout iiennissioa no penon is 
allowed to make even the slightest sketch iu a pocket-b(«.>k. 
or in an^y way to make a ^ro^iAtc note of what be has srtti— 
an injurious and extremely absurd regulation ; for if an «rti>t 
should wish to sketch a l*udor ruff, or a Stewart lie, or an* 
thing else of as much importance, he nuist first forwanl • 
petition to her Majesty's Chief Commissioner of Woods Ubiitl 

Hampton Court is a very favoorite resort in the •umtu'T : 
there have frequently been as many as 6000 visitors in x 
single day. Guides and catalogues may be had at the paiAt-t* ; 
there an* catalogues also in Mra. Jameson's ' Uand-B««»k t<» 
the Public (ihdleriea of Art in and about Londoa ;' and m 
* The Environs of London,' by John Fisher Murray. 


HAREBELL. [Campanula, P. C. $.] 

in 1787. He was the only son of his parents; has fntiif, 
who was a merchant, died while be was an infant, and he wat 
brought up by his mother, who watched with iaten«t iin't 
anxiety the early development of her son's talent for draHi*»^ 
He was educated for a few yeara at Westminster school ; dut 
when about sixteen he was placed with a Flemish landM-aiix 
painter of the name of De Cort, whom he left for the Uw 
Mr. Drummond, A.R.A., the portrait-painter; and he wiu 
finally placed in the studio of 8ir Thomas (then Mr.) Lav^- 
rence, m Greek Street, with the privilege of copying picturv-« 
there, from nine until four o*dock, but witn an eap(^M«il 
proviso that he should receive * no instruction of any kukd .' 
for this privilege he paid one hundred guineas per annuiu. At 
the expiration however of a year and a half, the master an 1 
pupil quarrelle^l. Lawrence used to employ Harlow to deo'l- 
colour, and Harlow had so far a share in painting a much M>i* 
mired dog in a portrait of Mn. Angeretein, which, at the 
Angcrstein's, he had the imprudence to claim as his o^u 
This came of course to the ears of Lawrence, who in rctfiv»>. 
uuence said to his (Wpil, * As the animal you claim is amou: 
tne best things I ever (tainted, oi' course you have no nec<i i.r 
further instruction from me. Yon must leave my house tm . 
mciliately/ Harlow has tho credit of having revenged Lau. 
rence's resentment by painting a caricature of his style, u(« n 
a sign-board at £()Son], in one comer of wliich be wn<( , 
»T. L., Greek Street, Soho. 

Harlow, however, had little need of any man's assiatanco t.t 
instruction ; he possessed a fine feeling for colour, m tolerA)>l\ 
correct eye for form, and great facility of execution, o*^\^ • 
cially in portraiture in small, whether m pencil, crayon*, • : 
oil-colours; and he was the rival of Lawrence at tho a«;*r */. 
twenty-two. He never studied at the Royal Academy : \> 
professed to consider study in schools and academiea o^ . 
much time s{)ent in the destruction of originality. II U tr : 
picture of note was Hubert and Prince Arthur; but u- 
painted few historical pieces ; the most celebrated of theiu 
the Trial of Queen Catherine, of which the principul < t . • 
ractera were portraits of the Kemble family; Mrs. Si<i«ti. • 
as Queen Catherine. Uarlow launUxi manjr portraits «- 
which the best is certainly that of Fu^icli, painted for >' - 
Knowles, Fuseli*a biographer; it is a work of the hi^i «** 
merit in every respect. The portraits of Northcote »i . 
Nollekens are also among his best works. 

Having already obtained a considerable reputatton «■ • 
some means, Harlow aet out, in June, 1818, upon a vv«r • 
Rome, where he attracted great notice and excitod aomc* «• ■ 
derment bv completing an effective copy of the Transtiuti'i 
tion, by Raphael, in eighteen days. Canova was mu- 
pleased with it, and told Harlow that it looked like tbr u . . . 
of eighteen weeks; he exhibited one of Harlow's pu ti. . > 
at his bouse, and it procured him his election as a men^U '^ 
the Academy of St. Luke, where it was also exhibited. \ * 
only English artists that had been elected membcri of "^^ 
Luke's besides himself were West, Flaxroan, Fusel i« .. 
Lawrence. Harlow, before he left London, was a cai»< .« 
for the degree of associate in the Royal Academy, but ht> . 
Qcdy one vote, that of Fuseli. He wrote a most san^ 
letter from Rome on November 23, 1818, full of hoiK*« « 
plans for the future ; but in less than ten weeks from tQ.xt 
his body was borne to its final abode ; he died in Lomion 
virulent attack of cynanche parotidaja (mumps), on tbo ^ * . 
February, 1819, in the thirty-second year of bis a|ro. - 
shortly aHer his return from Italy. He waa elected a m t • 

H A U 


H E A 

w n»t Um IcvMd men of llie eoantrjr ; and at Han* 
•w b^ waa ywiaated to the elector by the odebraled Leib- 
ita. On kb rem to Ditoaelilorf he caaaed thne banning. 
kniei simUar to theae of TaehirabaMsan to be exeorted. On 
Ibe daatli ef the Elector Pdathie, Hartsoeker, decl'ming the 
aoliritttiiNi of the Landsrave of Hcaae-Caatol that he would 
leride in that eitT, retired to Utrecbf, where he died, hi 
1726. He had been adndttod a foreign assodato of the 
Aend^ie dea Sciences ef Paris in 1699 ; and he was also a 
Member eC the Aeadenjr of Berlin. 

Htftaoeker ia aaid to hafe entortnned, at one tima^ an 
opinion that there existed fai ereiy aniond a pbstic aoul 
which was charsed with the praservmtion and deveiopaient 
of the Indifidari ; he is said to have mamtuned ahR>, and 
the oinnion waa probably founded on a more refined idea ex- 
preesed by Plato in the Thnaaus, that, from the diriotty de- 
aeended a succession of intelligent beings, the k)wer orders of 
which directed and presenred the unirerse ; he had moreover 
some wild notions respecting an empire which he imagined to 
exist in the intorior of the moon. 

In I7S2 Hartaocker published a work entitled « Recneil do 
plnsieors Places de Physique, oil Ton fidt priacipalement voir 
rlavalidit^dn Syst^me de Newton :' he also caused a letter to 
be printed in the ^ Journal des Savans,' coDtaiinng aoone 
absurd remarks on the hypothetds of the English philosopher. 
He treated Leibnitx no better, attecking with great violence 
his system of * monads ' and of a * pre-established harmony.* 
He would never adroit the advantages of the * In6oilesiiaal 
Calculus,' and persisted iu considering it as an unintelligible 
jargon bf the md of which certain leurned men sought to in* 
erease their reputation. Ue is characterixed by J. Bernoulli 
as a superficial and an arrogant man ; but his violence is sup- 
be lem owing to envy than to a morbid taste for 

the young ama dmi she en^sfod to pi^ the aipinie of his 
ednoation; and, on hia cntoring into the encladiirinl iisic;, 
she retained him in her ierviea. He new sftarvank 
quitted his benefitttreas, who conferred upoa hisi mtsu 
benefices, and at her death ahe bequeaihsH la bim • 

The Abbd Hantefeoille, anch waa hia deaigastiM, dt«sc«d 
himself to the study of subjects connected wSh pkyiiml r 
ence, and to the conatnietion or impreveosent of aHmnes 

posed to 

[GanMAiTT, P. C, p. 186.} 


UASSELQUISTIA, a senus of plants 
k bononr of Fred. Hasselouist, M.D., hia pupil^ who tra- 
velled to the Holy Land. It belongs to the natural order 
Umbellifer«,and to the tribe Tonlylinem. Theapedescloaely 
leaemble thoee of Tordylium, and are regarded by some bota- 
nists as nmnatroua Ibrms of this genua. 

UAUGUTON, WILUAM, a dnowtie writer, was pro- 
bably aomewhat the junior of Sliakspera. In Henslowe'a 
Diary, under the date of November, 1697, he k calked ' Young 
Uanghtan :* and hia name occurs frequently m that curious 
record, till the end of the year 1600, but not later. In March, 
1A99, Henslowe lent him ten shillings to pav a debt, for 
which he then lay in the Clink prison ; and constant ad- 
vances of small sums, in earnest of the price of dramas which 
be waa writing for the oU manager, show him to have been 
as poor or improvident as most of his fellow-playwrighta. 
He wrote several plays unassisted ; in othen his coadjutors 
were CheCtle, Day, and still more frequently Dekker, with 
leed he seems to have stood in particularly doae 
In 1600 there was iMenscd a tragedy of his, not 
, called ' Feirex and Porrex ;* and Mr. Collier has 
ceigeetored that Uaughtoa's * Devil and his Dam,' described aa 
b p ie g r ts a about the same tinm^ may hare been an alterstion 
af ' Grim^ the Collier of Croydon.' The sane critic is more 
eonadent in believing that ' The Spanish Moor's Trsgedy,' 
lor which, in Febnmry, 1600, Henslowe made to Dekker, 
Haughton, and Day a payaseot of three pounds to 
waa the wild tragedv called ' Lust's Dommion,' which 
printed for the first time hi 1657, and baa been mserted 
(withevl reason) in the recent edition of Marlnwe'a worka. 
But the only extant playa in which Haughton waa certainly 
concerned are two. 1, He was sole author of the lively 
eomedy called * Englishmen lor My Money ; or, a Woman 
will hare her Will,' which (under the latter title) appears 
in Hendowe's book u 1696. It was printed m 1616, 1696, 
md 1631, and haa been reprinted m a assail eoUection called 
• The Old English Dnum/ 1630, 4 rela. ISnn. 9, Dekker, 
Haughton, and Chettle were jointly the authors of * The 
Pleasant Oomodie of Patient Gri^sill,' entered at Statkaiers* 
Hall in Mareh, 1600, printed in 16a% end reprinted from a 
aanr rare eopv by the Shakespeare Society in 1841. 

HAUr£F£UILLE, JEAN DE, a French mechanieian, 
WM bom at Orieans, March 90, 1647. His father, who waa 
a baker, being accustomed to aupply with bread the maater of 
the Imnae at which thednchcas of Bomlkm then resided, pre> 
sailed on thk person to recomaaand the youth to the notiee of 
UHllniy. The dnchcoa having 
torvMW took plaoa, whas the lai 

but he ia dbtinguiahed chiefly by the claima wkicb be Sk.** 
vanced in 1676 to the honour of havaag ioveoted a spnur- 
balance for watchea. Thia contrivance consisted of a maidti 

r'ng of ated which he applied ao thai it aensd la rsgv.4> 
BBorementa, About the same time Huygbeai ia««a3»i 
for the like purpoae, a apriiw, which he luds of a spin* 
fonn: it happened however UuX HanteieaiUe lwiopomu»^ 
caled hia invention to the Acadteie dea Scieneesof Psrii .i. 
the preceding year; therefore when UuyghsM s|ipM t* 
the French Government to be allowed the exclinivs priiilr 
of uring it, he waa opposed by HautefeuiUe, sad m suim- 
quently withdrew his application. It is remaikaUt thsc l^ 
Hooke had, about the year 1668, mvented a biksss^u* 
for watches, but he spent seveial yearn in ia^<riii|( L 
escapement, and his watches were not made puUie till sS**- 
the same year that the inventiona of Usatifaalle m^ 
Hnyghcns were in use in Paris. 

The other inventions, or rather the progeeta, of Hartrfrfc-^y 
are numerous, but few of them appear to have ksm fanaft" 
to perfection. He publisbed in 1609, at Psrii,s work «v- 
titled ' Rocueil des Ouvrages Hanfefrislia/ vh^i 
contains an explanatran of the elfects of apeskng-tnuapcu . 
an account of a pendulum clock in which the wo^M aas a» > 
raised by the action of the atmosphere ; a metJiod sf nkiri 
water by means of tired gunpowder; and an sceosst af ^nr 
improvemento la telescopes in which the field of «v^ 
was to be increased by meana of a ooncaie niirer; s^ 
some observations on machines for raisug mUer; sa^ 
scripdon of a pump which was to act withoot faakm i ** 

account of a contrivance for mounting taIeMSp» of r^^ 


iautefeuille published a method of fining ths < 
of a magnetic needle (1683); anaccountofaoMgae_ 
(1709) ; with accounts of a microatotrical aiicnMBope, aidm sa 
instrament for observing the altitudea of eelcstisl bhsa. 1^' 
also published, in l71^M^orit en^tkd ' Hwnm Sp^^ 
dn Flux et Reflux de la MerT^p which the phsosmanaoli^ 
tides are made to depend upon iriMftJealai- avtiaa iBhiP> ^ 
ascribes to the earth; but the bestX his works b his ' 1^ 
sertetion sur la Cauac de TEcho,' wh)%|Md bsco md k^ 
the Academy of Bordeanx in 1718, aaSton paUnhad in (^ 
city m 1741. ^ 

HautefeuiUe appears to have been in h^ la fadtf** ^^ 
ideas aa soon aa they arose in his mind, |^ t ' ' -- 
put them to the test of experiment ; and ifpfm 
of his projects are crude conceptions whicthw nsl ^ 
any object of prsctical utility. The opimoi] ' ' 
him by his countiyasen is manifeat from the {^ 
never admitted a member of the Acad^iedes £ 
he ardently deahed that honour. HediedOctJ 
being then seven^-oeven years of age. 


(BiogrmMe l/niverMlk,) 
HAWKEa. [Pj 

PaDI.AB, P. C] 

HAYMAN, t^RANClS, R. A., the best 
painter m Engtead before the arrival of Cipriani^ 
J^wter about the commencement of the cightjeexk^ 
He was the scfaohur of Robert Browa, and wan 
much employed by Fleetwood, the proprietor of 
old theatre, and by Tiers, the proprietor of Va 
also made many designs for boakBellers, the ~ 
are the illustntkMis to 3ir Thomas Uanmer'a 
He waa the first librarian to the Royal Academy : 
1776. (Edwards, AMecdoiti of PauUm^ 6cc ; 
Ifoicse Gazette, 1894.) 
HEADBOROUGH. [CoNovanui, P. C.^ 
HEALTH, PUBUC. [Punuc Hnam, P. 
HEARSAY. [EviDBKca, P. C] 
HEAT. [AnsraacTioa airn Ansoapnoir 
P. C. S. ; Co5DucT0Ba or Hbat, P. C. S.] 

HEAT, ANIMAL. The conversion of the 
and the higher animals into nutriment for the bcxiy i 
with chrni^rcs whkh produce an evolution of hemt Mi\\\i 
stantlr maintains the lamperature of an aaisMl aim poii^t 
or below, accordftag to d renm s t a n ccs, the tempemture 


'»'' I At 

Hit, I ] 

.--,»ii ^MiMii lit tVi^"'H --^ 

.t**ir.-»nr. Tiki*. C*»ni' 


I ««Utt» «i |M4«t»(u£, *]ir»U|»6^TC, Ifiiidi li«li MAi* iflUt 

H E B 


¥l E B 

, of the family bf intenmiTuige. B^ his fint 

ouuTiage, with Mary, oo-hdreai of the Rev. Martin Bay lie, 
rector of tl'rer.tbain, Siiflblk, he had one child, Ridiard, who 
for some time was repreflcntative to Pariiament of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, and is Lnowii as a great collector of 
bookii; and by his second marriage, with Mair, dausfater 
of Cuthbcrt Allanson, D.D., he $ad tlirce children— Regi- 
nald, the subject of the present notice, Thomas Cothbcrt, 
and Mary. 

At a very earir period of his childhood Reginald Heber 
was remaricable for his piety and for his eager thint for 
knowledge. An excellent raemonr enabled him to recollect 
through life whatever he read with almost verbal accuracy. 
He gave early indications of bis poetical talents, and at seven 
years old he had translated PhaBdrus into English verse. 
At eight he was sent to the grammar-school of Uawkhurst 
under Dr. Kent, and in his thirteenth year he was placed in 
the school of a clergyman near London. He remained here 
about three vears, and in November, 1800, was entered at 
Drasenose College, Oxford. In his finit year at the University 
he gained the price for Latin vene, the subject of his poem being 
on the commencement of the new century. In the spring of 
1903 he wrote his prize poem, ' Palestine, which has obtained 
a permanent place in English literature. His career at Oxford 
was one continued course of success. From the wiuning 
modesty of his manners, his ^tlencss of disposition, and the 
charm of bis conversation, his society was courted by persons 
of all ages. In his studies he evinced no taste for the exact 
■denoes, but tlie antient languages he studied with lai^ 
views than is usual with most young men at the universities. 
In 1801 he bcoame a Fellow of All Souls. The year 
after he had taken his degree he sained the Bachelors* 
prise for an English prose esMiy on Uie * Sense of Honour.' 
About the middle of 1805, in company with his friend 
Mr. John Thornton, son of the mcmt>cr for Surrey, he 
set oat on a continental tour. They proceeded through 
Russia, the Crimea, Hungary, Austria, and Prussia, and 
TVtnmed to England in October, 1806. In 1807, before 
be had obtained his degree of M.A., he took orders, and 
was instituted by his brother Richard to the family living 
at Hodnet. Here, as he himself described, he was in ' a halN 
«-ay situation between a parson and a sciuirc.' Never how- 
ever were the duties of a parochial clergyman discharged with 
more exemplary zeal and benevolence ; and Hcl)cr'9^ conduct 
Q hb parish has often been pointed at as displaying in the 
greatest perfection all tlie boit characteristics of a Church 
of England priest. In April, 1809, he married Amelia, 
youngest daughter of Dr. Shipley, D(*an of St. Asaph. 
While discharging the duties of nis [nrish with so much ear- 
nestness he was anlently attached to the pursuits of literature. 
He was a frequent contributor to the * Quarteriy Review ' 
from its commencement. In 1812 he commenced the pre- 
]»aration of a * Dictionary of the Bible,* on which he labomrd 
wilh much delight, but other duties compelled him to suspend 
this work, and no {nrt of it was ever published. In the 
same year he published a small volume of * Poems and Trans- 
lations for Weekly Church Service.* The composition of his 
* Hymns,' with a view of improving the psalmody and devotional 
poetry used in churches, was also a favourite recreation. He 
was an elegant versifier, and continued to indulge h» poetical 
talents even while engaged in visiting his diocese in India. 
He had a great distaste for controversud theology, and only 
once was engsged in a discussion of this kind, in reply to what 
he conceived were the unwarrantable imputations of a writer 
In the * British Critic' His life was diversified by an occa- 
sional visit to his friends in other |)arts of England, or to his 
iiithor-in-law in Wales, and by correspondence with a few 
IKends. His political views were those of the High Church 
and Toiy party, but devoid of all bitterness. He was well 
content with things as they were, and apparently had no 
perception of those abuses which have been swept away within 
the last thirty years. In IS 16 he was appointed Ikmpton 
Icctnrer, and thesuliject he selected was * The Personality and 
Olliee of the Christian Comforter.* In 1817, Dr. Luxmore, 
Clie Bishop of St. Asa|)h, appouxted Ueber to a stall in that 
mthednd, al the request of^ nis father-in-law, the Dean. In 
lltl9 Im edited the woriu of Bishop Jeremy Taylor. His 
«tber works consist of * Parish Sermons * preached at 
Hodnet; and Sermons preached in India. In April, 1822, 
ho woa elected preacher of Lincoln's Inn, for which he had 
formerly been an unsucccasful candidate. On the Snd of 
DeeenilMT, fai the same year, his friend and connection, the 
lUght Hon«Mmihfo Chartea W. WilHams Wynn, who was at 

the time Preaidcttt of the Board of Control, conMlted bin 
eonfidentiaUy resnecting the appoiBtment to the vacant »v n^ 
Cakntta, but did not ofier him the a|«pointiBent TInm 
was every probability in fact that in the ooune of a few )rv« 
Heber wonld obtain a mitre at home. But in anotlier rm, . 
uranicatioB the vacant soe waa offined to him, and, withiiut 
pressing him to accept it, Mr. Wyan e« p i eased the opbimi 
that in no position would Heber's talents find so ample a firM 
or be 80 beneficial as m India. Twice the offer waa decHinni, 
on acooont of hia wifo and child, but immediatriy ufttr Ui^ 
second refusal he wrote (18th Jan. 1823^ stating hb wilim . 
ness to go to India. He congratulated htmaelf upon the Ut 
that no woridly motives led him to this decision. Tne pronpi t:» 
of usefulness in so grand a field as India overbore all fiecunbrv 
considerations, and they had no influence in determiniiHr tn* 
conduct when the pro|)06ition of going to that oountrv i«t« 
first made to him. Besides, he had often eipreased his IiLt, ^ 
for such a sphere of action, and he had * a lurking fondle , 
for all which belongs to India or Asia.' On the 2'2nd ->' 
April he saw Hodnet for the last time, and afWr havin|r b»*-. 
consecrated, he embarked for his diocese, June 16, is-.*, 
The diocese of Calnitta extended at this time over tlie « 1- 1 
of India, and embraced Ceylon, the Mauritius, and Aiistrala . 
In India the field of the bishop's hdxwrs was three dbm* 
larger than Great Britain and Ireland. The numhiT 
chaplains who oonstimted his staft' in Bengal waa fiiv<. » 
twenty-eight, but this number was never cotn|)letcfl. ir.. 
of the number who were ap|x>inted several were on fbriiKt. 
The Bishop had no council to assist hint, was requtnM i 
act on his own responsibility, and to write almost every tifHr 
document with his own hand. On the 16th of June, I^.. 
Bishop Heber began the visitation of his vast diocese, i . 
visited nearly erery station of importance in the upju-r i • 
vinces of Bengal and north of Bombay, and afW an ab«« • • 
from Calcutta of about eleven months, during which hv i. 
seldom slept out of his cabin or tent, he arrived nl Bocl^ 
The Journal which he kept during his visitation, and « t 
has tieen published in three octavo volumes, shows thr nt • 
of his observations on general subjects and the graphic ^m'P 
which he possessed of describing the novel scenes in « t 
he was placed. From A|iril to August he renuum^l « 
Bombay to investigate and superintend the intercata o( 
western portion of his diocese. On the 15th of Auen<: 
sailed for Ceylon, and after remaining there sutuc uti« 
proceeded to Calcutta, which he reached on the 21*' 
October. If it had been possible to have edttcateo 
children in India, he was now prepared, he states, tci iTf 
days amongst the objects of nis solicitude, in Feltr . 
1826, he lefl Calcutm tor Madras to visit the soathrrn f 
vinces. On the 1st of April he arrived at Tricluiio|j(ili 
on the 9rd, after investigating the state of the tuamstctt 
confirming fifteen natives, on whom he bestowed tbe rpt^ - 
benediction in the Tamul language, he retired to itsr a 
bath, in which he was found desd about half an hour z • 
wards. Within less than three weeks he would hn%< 
pletcd his forty-third year. The candour, modeaty, a»o 
plicity of his manners, his unwearied earnestness nsul hz« • 
and steady seal, combined with his talents and aun'tuc-' 
had inspired veneration and respect not only nmos^v: 
Eurofiean but the native population of India, li ««.• 
by those who were capable of jud^ng, that few persoci^. 
or military, had undergone so much labour, traverMxl a* ■ 
country, seen and reguhited so much in so short a tine*, 
the announcement of nis death the most eminent mca zr 
of the three Presidencies and in Ceylon united in »b 
their regret at the loss which they had sustained. A 
cutta it was agreed to erect in the cathedral a hbooviu. 
his memory, which was arterwards executed by Chancivt 
monument, also by Chantrcy, was erected ia Si. i;«' - 
Church, Madras, in testimony of the public rr^rrk-t 
Bombay it was reralved to establish, in Biahop*» C 
Calcutta, one or more scholarships under the title of * i» 
Heber's Bombay Scholarship.' MunU tablets yt«!»Tr^ r- 
in the churches of TrichinO]M>li and at Colombo in f 
His friends in England placed a monument its ^e. . 
Cathedral ; and in Ilxxinet church there is a tmhlx t 
memory, the inscription on which was written bjr Scfu \ 
(Life (fReginuid Heber, by his Widow, 2 »„^ 
London, 1830. This work contains Selections frwu a • 
respondeoce. Unpublished Poems, and Private P«|Mr» 
Jonmal of bis Tour in Russia, &g., and a Uivicw^ 
Cosaaks. Last Days of Bishop Heber. by iho Ami 
of Madraa.) 



H E E 

ibo liime:— 

b roMO Veiwrla toktei In oi« dacor ; 

Adfiiit E](uit)«tli ; Judo p ■rriilM r»ftiicit ; 

CMatnpnit I^Um, enatwii^iw Venn*. 

In 1 570 Lacfts ii-as cmptoyod to ptint a gallery for Edward 
carl of Lincoln, loni hMj-h a<irninil, in wht<'h he was to repro- 
■ent the costumes of ditirront nations. For England, nays 
Van Mandcr, he pointed a naked man Burroiindi?d by all 
aorta of woollen ancl iWk stuff's, with a |iair of scissors and a 
piece ofehalk ; and when the admiral asked him to explain it, 
Lucas said that he could not paint the Englishman in any 
IMirticular costume, as he chuiiged it daily ; he therefore 
painted him naked, gave him stutf and shears, and left him 
to make his own clothes. This however, as Walpole has 
uointed out, was not an original device ; it is prefixed by An- 
drew Borde, or Andrea Perforatus as he called himself, to his 

• Introduction to Knowledge,' with the following lines : — 

1 am «i Engiyiinan, and naked I aUind hcrt, 
Miuing in my mind what raiment I sliall «rar 

Tho principal of Lucas's poetical works was the Garden 
of Poetry, * Boomffaard dor rocsijc ;' ho commenced also in 
verso tlie ' Lives of the Painters,' but this is lost. He divd 
at Ghent in 1684: ho used for a monufrram an II and £ 
joinud, and he used also sometimes the iollowing moral ana^ 

Km of his own name, * Sehado leer u ' (ii^uriea teach you). 
Ileere was the master of V^an Mander. 

(Van Mander, Hei Leven dw Schiiderg^ &c. ; Walpole, 
Antcdot9$ Q^ PaiiUinq, &e.) 

bom at Arfaoi^n, a village near lircmcn, on tlic 25th of Oc- 
tober, 17(K). ilia fiithcr, who was pastor at Arbergcn, and 
a nan of extensive knowledge, gave him his first instruction 
in religion, Latin, and mathematics. His further education, 
amil his sixteenth year, wus intrusted to private tutors ; but 
in 1776 his fiuber was appointed preacher at the cathedral of 
Bremeo, and young Ileeren enttircd the domK*lmle or gyro- 
aasiam of Bremen to prepara himself for tho university, lie 
atates that the exercises in Latin disputations at achool and 
tho intcroourae with tho wealthy merchants of Bremen exei^ 
ciaad a great influence upon the' development of his mind and 

rB the manner in which he al^crwards viewed and described 
phenomena of hiatory and of human life. In the autumn 
of 1779 he went to the university of Gottingen with the in- 
tantion of devoting himself to tJie study of theology, but the 
influence of Ueyne, one of whose lectures he attended, 
wrought a complete change, and liecrcn was soon engaged 
exclusively in philolo^cal pursuits. However he soofi felt 
that Bhilology, in the narrower sense of tlio term, was not his 
vocation, for the things about which he read in the antients 
intereated him more than the languasrcs themselves. Heyne 
did all he could to win Ueeren for philology, and for a abort 
time he succeeded. In 1784 Ileeren took hia degree of 
doctor in philosophy, and on that occasion wrote a dissertation 

* De Cliori Graeoonim tnigiei natura et indole, ratione arigu- 
m(*nti habita«' lu Utc year following he published a new 
edition of the rhetoric urn Menander, and formed the plan of 
a new edition of tlie * £<'iogae' of Stobaeus. The preparations 
that ho had to make lor tiiis work convinced him more and 
mora that yorbal criticism was not congenial to his mind.* He 
liad GOOiiDeoeed giving lectures at Gottingen as privatdocent, 
Ijot tho opposition between his actual pursuita and what be 
Mi to be hia vocation became more and more painfully felt ; 
faia apirits began to fail, and hia health also began to sink. It 
waa fortunate for him that he possessed ample means, for 
otherwise be would perha^ia have fallen a victim to his melan- 
oholy, the result of an ill-choaen carei*r of life. He resolved 
to \tsit Italy, and princi|)ally Rome. One of the main 
objocta of thb joumev waa to collate the various MSS. of 
Stohaeua, but this did not urcvent his paying attention to a 
variety of other anbiccta, which had more inten^st for him. 
Ilia alMT in nanv of the princi|ial towns of Germany. France, 
and Italy waa of great advantage to him ; the future historian 
heoame acquainted with the world at large; he Mtw with his 
own oyea tonie of the countries to mXiose history a ^n^at uart 
of h&s fntura life waa to bo devoted, and furmod friendships 
with men of the highest eminence, such as Zoega, Fiiangicri, 
and Cardinal Boiigia, in the intcrcuurac with whom his mind 
bacamo expanded and enriched witii new ideas. On his rc- 
tnrn to Gottingen in 1787, he was apiiointed professor extra- 
oniinary in the nhiloauphicwl faculty, and hcuceforlli liis life 
flonvd nndi«taroed by any rhuiiges of fortune; being pos- 

scased of wealth, he was cnalilod to continue his ohi)')-".' •( 
and historical studios without anxious cares; hrrojoje-1 ' 
favour and friendship of tho highest in rank and liirr^t.-^. 
and ui 1796 be married a daughter of Heyne, who n^mait 
his devoted and symiMthirinsr companion throughout In* i 
All his energies were dividtNl between hu< professional •ti*'< • • 
and duties, and the production of those worKS which will v\ ' 
secure him a place among the best historians. His h* '« ' 
had from the first an historical temlency, and if it ImiI x- \ 
been for the edition of Stobaeus, which he had undertaken * « 
would have confined himself exclusively to lecture on liUn"- 
At length in 1799 he was appointed ordinary profec***' •! 
history, as the successor of Gatterer. His rv)iutati(m ti* i 
scholar and historian was already establishetl, for the fir^t t.t.. 
volumes of his Stobaeus had appeared in 1792 and \1*M \ '*.• 
third and last was published in 1801) ; in 1793 and K'm; i.. 
had published the first two volumes of his * Ideen tiU*? < < 
Politik, den Verkehr und den Handel der vomehui^*' > 
Volker der alten Wdt' (the third and fourth voluim** <i • 
peared in 1812 and 1815), which is his principal «••• 
and tho one on the completion of which he looked as ' • 
main object of his life ; a fifUi edition in 5 vols. ap|iear\ <1 . > 
1824, &c. In 1799 he published the first edition of \ 
manual of antient history (' Handbuch der Geschichto <:< ' 
Staaten des Alterthums'). A fifth appeared in 182f>. It 
must bo remembered that in addition to these works, whi* 
followed one another in rapid succession, and of whidi v.. i» 
has its own merits, he had for some years been editing* d >. 
jointly with his friend Tvchsen, a journal on antient lit< n 
turc and art (' Dibliothek der alten Literatur und Kt&ii*:'t 
and had written a great variety of essays for other period u^»l 
and for tlie * Transactions of the Royal Society of uottiug* n 
His activity was astonishing, and, in addition to all thi*. ) 
began about the year 1800 to study the history of the uitd«< . 
ages and of mocfem times, and also lectured upon thcAo »«i 
jects with as much applause aa he had before obtained b\ 1. < 
lectures on antient history. It b further worth nentitiini../ 
that Heeren*8 activity as an author wis always in the « I'l'- >> 
connection with that of a lecturer, and before he wrote a w^r*. 
on any subject he had at least once or twrice lectured on it i. 
the university. Hence he always appears a master of h 
subject, and was enabled to give to his productions that t)ii.<i 
and peri'ection which makes them popular in the best ^ '. 
of the term, and which is certainly a rare chanic(t*n<»: ■ 
of Gennan writers. A groat work relating to the hi*tt»r% 
modem times, and which is thought by some to be the U-«*i • * 
his productions, bears the title ' Handbuch der Gesch'u^.i. 
des Europaeischen Staatensy stems und seiner Kolobu t 
Gottingen, 1809; a fourth edition appeared in 182:2. 
work on the influence of the Crusades Q Sur rinflwiu^* • • 
Croisades,' Paris, 1808^ was crowned dv the Acmltftn^ 
Inscriptions. A colIecUon of his minor historical work«, 
3 vols. (* Kleine historische SchrifW*), appeared from 1 ^^ 
to 1808, and another embracing all hia nutorical wurk^, :• 
15 vols., from 1821 to 1826. Most of his works have U - 
translated into English and Dutch, and some of them an • 
regarded as standard works of their kind. On the cirwth 
Eichhom, in 1827, he undertook the editorship of the * It 
tingische Gelehrten Anzcigcn,' which, to^pither with \. 
professional duties, took up so much of his time that ht* • 
unable to complete his groat work on the politics mid < . - 
merce of the states of antiquity, although oonsidcnal>lc ; 
paralioiis had already been maJe for it. 

Ileeren's merits were universally acknowledged. Th«< . 
demies of St. Petersburg, Berlin, Sf unich, Stockbdm, iJi. 
and Copenhagen show^ him their respect by electinfc h 
member. He was also a member of tne Asmtic socit.t't« • 
London and Calcutta. In 1827 or 1828 Heercn, in ccmj 
tion with Ukert. formed the plan of editing a scries of v«l 
containing the histories of tlie states of Europe. Tlic 
historians of Germany were induced to write histories f4«' 
series. The whole is not yet completi*d, but amockg^ M-- 
works there arc some of the highest eminence, such j« 1 
i)en berg's 'History of England,' and Gesier's *Ili*t ^-^ 
Sweden.' Hccren died at Gottingen, on the 6lli of 31 . 

The great merits of Hecren's works, es|)ecia]ly of ihov^ 
lating to antiquity, arc these : they are usually tnc rr^titt • 
diligent study of the antient writers themselves, and rrpri*^ 
the nations m their political and commen'ial rdatkacxs 
very lively manner, llis works arc written In a clc«r ^r- ■ 
so as to be intelli;:iblc to any person of uKxIem^e etitu^^;' 
and the influeure which they have exercised is, kft tliu « 

hmTsn^i . , ■ l'™;n «*«'c. the«un, and rpowi,, a 

^U^rA L*^* «l''er-,h.pcd oorolU, with the th««t 

dLdTfTtJ »^^"^L '^^ «>fpel»'». 1-cellcd, combined 
«o»dl at the base, without any manifest receptacle. The 
•pftWM are annual or shnibl.v plants, with alt^iate leaves 
•ndcironate spikes of small blue or white flowm^^ ' 

A-^Kkf*?"""""'.^*""'"" Ueliotrope or Turnsole, has a 
S^3 h^^V JT""?"* oWong-lanccoUle wrinkled leaves, 
ttrmmJ b«„chcd sp.k« ; the tube of the corolla hardly the 

Sffive^^^r^*- ThemouthoftherorolUia inteJcted 
with five Dhcaturo, of a purple-lilac colour with a greenUh 

much «.lt.vatcd on account of the scent of its flowt™, whi,^ 
mcmblc. very much the smell of the vanilla. It is i naUve 

anfLS^'"™"' "'* ^»"«?««> Turnsole or Ililiofropc, has 

SUk^r.L'^'?'"'-.*^".^'* '^•^'^ finely ^;™,n- 
S^i S' 1 '•»«'»1 'P'l":" *>lit«rv, the teruiinal ^cs con- 
H!^: »»>e culyx spreading in the rfuit^bcaring state. It is 

e»ws. The flowers are swcet-sccuted. 

««;„■ flV*^ *'"*,'" hcrbaotous erect very villous stem, with 

ovate, flat, villous leaves, the spikes lat^rirf~tiwninal »olitor7 

f T,.-.»ii «• • t *"P'«'«»t O'e qXiorp^nov iuumv 

tedt^"^ "S'S"^w !Lr.d-?KS,2^ £ 

rnr«^^ "'^J.? »»ot.bed before being planted out 

eity, In 1746 W was made rJJo(^ ^Ir^y'^t.^jH 
"nwy; but this post he h.l.l c^I^Jf ?^_^"*^'^ 

H E t 

Through the mediation of Count lUchnff; ^h^ .... Copenhagen for the puriKMc of making the i^;/, '.' 
acwptcd an inritation from the court of DtTmuifl . . ' 

tL\^^^•}^^^r^^''^'' ^" ^^''•"*^» « order t;.. 

there the transit of Venus orer the sun's disc A«.w 
he set out from Vienna in 176« ; and, after irtavin- , . ' 
tmip at Copenhagen, he proceeded to tJie place' J\\ 
tinatu)n ; he was absent about two years and a 'h$]f «, ' 
mission, when, having fully succeeded in its ohWi I. • 
tumc-d to Vienna. Besides observing the tmmit ii»r 
advantage of his re«dence in Laphmd to study the re, r 
the natural history, and the climate of the liuntn 1k 
tory, language, and religion of the people, with Uu » ... 
the arts among them : he made also numerous obser^ai.". 
terrestnal magnetism, on the phenomena of the th'.. 
wmds, and on the variations of the barometrical coluul- ' 
he measured the heiglits of the princijol mounuiiia \* 
hifl return he prepared a work containing a full aa-oum ."•" 
resoanthes, which was to have been publUhed in iliTr .. 
lumes, 4lo., but it never apjjeared. 

Hell was very fortunate in the sky being fevouniM, ., 
the day (June 3, 1769) that the transit took pUr »., 
he was enabled to observe tlie interior contact at iW u 
mcncemcnt, and both tlie interior and exterior eontaiit « . 
termination of the phenomenon ; and it is a proof of tli»- .. 
racy of his observations that the value of the sun's m-, 
which he deduced by com|)arinff them with the comviR.. 
observations at certain other places, agreed, within L-. 
of a second, with the value afterwards determined h>m t 
l>anson8 with all the best obscnatioiis which were ma.!,' 

On accepting the engagement, Hell was enjoiniHi h* • 
Danish mmi^fry to abstain from publishing any aw.uut .!( 
observations till his return to Copewhacen, and till U . 
iDftdo all the reouisite comjiutations. The delay nhi !. 

^fiSQ^^^ t"W injunction, took place in makine li- . 

observations r>fciili;?» ^^^ offence to Laknde, who Li. 
letten addressed to iJip different governments of 
JfTcatly promoted the measuiS^*^ obstTving the phe 

JfTcatly promoted the measuuSS:' ' o . 

-* '*•**'" ' irthH-/-'""^*"® i >« «*o «• 


• ^, ^."^ "•" "«ue recior 01 an i 

^ter three ycj« he obtained the r^ oTi^" J^'' ?** 

-echanics, '... I. E^^ A t^b^ TZ^J^^r 
«nt astronomer royal was required to^lJ^ r ' "^ 
ed in..r»menu to fwo boy.7rom CbltTHo. JtT IT**' 
•nan astronomer, however, nvc thelM«Jr.^i?i J • ^^' 
year, bis time afterwards |^S^fij|! ^^^ ^"^ ?»• 

at difierent places on the earthV,^ 

mcrs were however soon -rrnrilc 11^ liP** ^^f coiil.iiu.v' 
OMTCspond with each other as beforo^liiS" **'**' T ' 
moir relating to the transit, which was rwXi!^'"'* "^ '' 
demr ol Sciences of Copenhagen, NovemUw^' '"'''' 

1 he principal work published by ih'is art Kfc»""'" ' * 
jerus cl^Ephemeride. in thirty-fiveTolume-TsI^ 
Uon being enUtled ' EphemerTde. AnS rW-U^' *' '" 

dianum ^mdobonensem Calculis definite.' \\i^ ' ' 

ceptwn of two volumes, these co»tain.nXlu«i > ••' 
mnal subjeeu by himself or other sdeiSKc^ l*"- ' 
Pilgram and Tricsnecker; the Ibnner of wh^'r'"^^ 
work dunng the absence of Uell in Lap||^°"> '"• 
hwp„bh«,t,ons on astronomical subjecti ^' a,^*-- * 

lSou^»'T,^'~'- ^'^'- "*« >«t'''^"« ^ S/|"" 

tteliquarum Tabularum,' 1763; « TubuLe tii.,"^ • 

?«r r n S"PP'«^."«'"to. etc.,' 1763 ; . dS Sa^^Tlfe ^ ' -, 
J7b9 Wardoehusji observato,' 1770; • De P«r-!W' -"• 
f\P^'''^^ '^'^•'^ Veneris, anni 1 rw^' 
' MeUiodua Astronomica sine Usu Quadrintia ' t'^' '' 
lie also edited a cllcction, which had Cn m;d3bj 1! 
stem, of »hn n«f..r.n»_: i -i .. . " •"•"St. j^ ^._ . 

..»ini-!k ^"i^ciion, wnicJi bad been 

P^i^i Ir"' .'^t'?™'""™' observations muUe by 

It^.'^Xms!''"' '^--P-Wi.he/ 

T ^^■'^'?,J^^ w*"-"" te publisheil « Elem 
iv^"7"'.'. 8V0., 1745; ' Adjununtum McT 
ChronoWico-GcneaJogico liistoricum,' IGn.o 
menta Arithmetics Numcri. a. et Litc^^Ii, "a 
SJT "^J^ *™'' magnitudes of the sun «.,d „ 
by the naked eye, 1775; and oiw on aKcw 
Aurora Borealis, 1776. « • ^■♦ew 

All hU works were published at Vienn> •'' 
m that city, April 14, 1792, being «;ve„,v"rwo 

Schemn u^ wd the inventor of a sort of aiul.^ ,■, 
mines : th« u described in the « Mtooires SL^^aI" 
Science, de ParU ' for the year 1760. " * -^^A 

iil:-L06CIA'DrUM, a genus of irciscd U. Jh^cr 
' natural order Umbellifene iid to Uj?\, <7^^ 




> Uvormol, in the cipectttias of obtMning good Kboob 
for lier children and pIcManC fodetjr for bonelf. She had 
little ncjceii in either of theie objects. The sohoole were not 
•oeh ■• the wished for; her house was inooovenientlv small ; 
she was besacfred bv visiton, pressed lo attend fssnionable 
paitiea. and cooiplams with some bittemess of * this weary 

In the early part of the summer of 1829 Mrs. Uemans paid 
a Tisit to Scotland. After staying a few days in Edinburgh, 
she proceeded to Chieftwood, in Koxboighshire, the rstadence 
of the author of ' Cyril Thornton,* and was there mtrodnoed 
m Sir Walter Seoti, with whom she afterwards spent several 
days at Abbotsfofd. She returned to Edinburgh in August, 
and thenoe proceeded home to Wavertree. 

In 1890 she published another volume of poetry, 'The 
Songs of the Aflbctiona,' and in the summer of the mme year 
nsid a Tint to the kkea of Cumberiand and Westmoreland. 
She remained a fortnight with Wordsworth at Rydal Mount, 

and then took up her restdenoe at Dove-Nest Cotta^, 
Ambleside. After remaining sobm weeks, she was induced 
lo make a seoood visit to S^thind, on which occasion she 
spent the greater part of the time at Milbuni Tower, the seat 
of Sir Robert Uston. During this visit she formed a Inend- 
shm in c on seguenoe of which she was induced lo viwt Dublin 
berora she returned to Wavertree, and ultimately decided on 
leaving England, and filing her abode at Dublin. 

In the spring of 1831 Mrs. Uemans left England fpr Dob- 
lin, where she took lodgings. Her health, from the time of 
her leaving England, became rapidly worse, to which the 
.advancing age of the sons remaining under her care wm sn 
additiooai cause of anxiety. * My position,' she writes, 
* obliged as I am *' to breast a stormy worid alone,*' pre- 
cludes me from a calm still meditative lifo, which I wouM 
derire.* In November, 1831, after a visit to her brother in 
Kilkenny, she writes thus to a friend in England :^* (>n my 
return to Dublin I became a sufferer feora the longest and 
severest attack of heart-palpitatian I have ever experienced. 
It wasaoeompanfed bv almost daily feinting fits, and a Ian- 
guor quite indescribable.* And not long afterwards, in 
another letter, she says i-^* The constant necessity of provid- 
ing snms of money to meet the exigencies of the boys* educa- 
tion has obliged me to waste my mind in what I conskler 
mere desultory efiiisioDs, 

• Poarinf mYwlf away, 
A« • irild hM wM tlM> Mlaic* mm 
Tlwt vhksU withla Mm thrilU and beats and buna 
Int« a fleeting lay.'* ' 

The fetter months of 1833 were busily spent by Mrs. He. 
BMUU \m arranging and preparing for publication the three col- 
lections of her poems which were published in the siiring and 
summer of 1844 : ' Uvmns for Childhood ;* ' National Lyrics 
and Songs for Music : and * Scenes and Ilynuis of life. 

In August, 1834, Mrs. Heroans took the scariet fever, and 
when imperfectly recovered, caught a cold ; ague was super- 
induced, and never left her till it was subdixid by her last 
fatal malady » dropsy, which betore the end of 1834 had as- 
sumcd an unequivocally daneerous aspect. The summer raei- 
dcnoe of the Archbishop of Dublin was placed at her disposal ; 
change of scene and the kind attentions of the archbishop and 
his wife afferded some relief, but no permanent benefit ; and 
in order to be near to her physicians, she was taken bisk to 

On the 26th of April, 1835, Mrs. Hemans dictated her 
lH4t poetical efibrt, the ' Sabbath Sonnet.* She continued lo 
sink gnduallv till May 18, 1835, when, after a long and 
()iiict sleep, she died without e sigh or movement She wm 
buried in St. Anne's Church, Dawson Street, Dublin, which 
is clone to the house in whkh she died. A tablet waa eracled 
by her Ijrothert in the cathedral of St. Aaaph, * in memory 
o( Felicia Ilemsna, whose character is best pourtrayed in her 
writinKS.' A volume of 'Poetical Remains* was fwUished 
ttlior her death. 

Mrs. Uemans couU hardly be called a beautiful wonuu, 
but her peisooal appearance was very plessing In early 
vmjth she was greatly admirrd for the brilliance of her com- 
j>)exion and her glossy golden hair; her complexkxi retained 
lu cleamem in her matorer years ; her hair darkened into 
auburn, of a silk-like softnem, and very long and abundant. 
In her aspect and movemenu there was somethmg more than 
usually delicate and femininf). She was unassuming, and wont 
setdoro and reluctantly into general aociety. Her family, a 
few friends, her music, her books, and her poetical pursuit^. 

were her chief aouroea of eigoymeot. She pbyed ud 11*9 
harp and piano-forte, and about the time when slic unit t . 
reside at Wavertree, discovered in herself a faculty « . • :. 
gave her much gratificatiun^that of componug luelotlita . • .•• 
would soroedmes amke a musical air, and then write «<-..• 
for it, and wmetimes set to music a song or lyrical |Wf«. 
already written. Among her friends she was distingutilMd 
nroch vivacity and a very delicate wit. She was kind dui 
affifictionale; and was free from the slightest taint of jmliiuM 
towards the other female writcra of her day, with mo«i '•: 
whom she was on terms of friendship, either neraoiial nr '» 
correspondence— with Joanna BailUe, Miss Miifotd, Mm 
Landon, Miss Jewsbury, Mary Uowitt, and othera. 

Mrs. IIeman8*s love of the art to which she had devorr«l 
herMlf was intense, and her appreciation of it was serious uh\ 
high, as a means to purify and elevate the mind. In i*t 
kter jrears her religious impressions became stronger, and hit 
poetry became more tinctured with religious thoughu sui 
feelings. Uer knowledge was extensive, out it was not phiii>. 
sophi^ or sdentiiic knowledge. Poetry was the ol>Wrt ii4 
all her studies, and she sought for its materials in hist on , 
voyages and travels, and the fine arts; but her esperijii ti^-. 
light was to cootempfete the scenes of nature in all tJ)Mr 
aspects of beauty, and to muse upon the aseodatiosift m4 
sympathies connected with them. Her thoughts are nnUr. 
rowed, are never vague or indistinct, and always seen U^A.» 
naturally from the scene or drcumstance present to her nuiA 
She is most succeesftil when the subject is native, aomethi!i:; 
which she has seen, or something which by tta asaoeaaiiuoi 

calls up the s;jrmnathics which are femilhir to her. In furriku 
sub|ects she is lem eifective. Uer poetry is thus pecolju 1 
ami strikingly the representation of her own character. •• 
the thoughti and feelings of the woman; it is esaeotiidif 
Wrical and descriptive, filled with inu^<ery, sometimea o^n^ 
flowing with it She has no dramatic power; ahe caaiv>t 

enter in 

into the thoughts and feelings of 01 
t her own. Her tragedy was do 

ithers ; ahe can < 

exhibit her own. Her tragedy was deservedly condemoti! 
The actions and sentiments of the characters an above m- 
ture or out of it, and the diction is not dramatic, but poviit »'■ 
and monolonouslv uniform from prince to peasant. Ht 
versifioation has three distinct styles. Her ' Domeatk Ati- • 
tioos,' and other early poems, are obviously moddUrd ««: 
« The Pleasures of Hope,' of Campbell ; her * Tdea and ii:» 
toric Scenes,' and other poems 01 the middfe poiod, an . 
the maimer of Byron, less flowing than her early styU-, ' - 
more rigorous. Her last style is her own, and whcii* r . 
blank verae, in couplet rhymea, in stanzas, in sonneta* ur • 
the varied measures of lync poetry, exhibits in it* free arv 
continuoos flow a perfection of rhythmical melody mUkh 
sweetnem and fullness of sound has never been surpasai- 
In unlntemipted reading, however, it has an effect of cloy .r«- 
unifermity. Uor great defect is the mmihirity of tone a: 
trestment which pervades all her works. Many of her iyrr 
pieces are exceedingly beautiful. 

(Chorley, Mamoin af Mr: Henuau ; Mrs. Hemacv • 

II£M£R(yBIUS,_a genus of insectiof the eider .>«i. 

ifaseqoent entonn. » 

^ distti^pui^hed bv i*. 

filiform antennae and by the number (four) w the palp* 
the inaecti included in it. They have aoft sicodcr burv 
much exceeded in length by the laige redcidated wuu 
which, when the animal is at rest, are deflexed. Thetr ••% 
are globular and vivkily metallic The larvmara fet^*** 
in habit, and prey upon pfent lice, seizing theni with ;t. 
powerful jaws and sucking their prey to cfeath. Whra 
grown, they spin and envelop themselves in a mlkca ciir '< 
The eggs of llemerobii are deposited on plants, and *re f a** .* 
culated, so as to resembfe fungi, for which they havn sooh t*. 
been mistaken. These insects rsnge from Europe lo Aiteir^ 
and there aro many species natives of the British iaiea. 

UEMICI'DAKI^, a genus of fossil Echinodcnnat^ - 
the oolite. 

HEMlPN£'UST£S,ageausoffossU£rhinod«maia 1- 
the chalk marl. 

IlEMri RYPA, a raws of fossil Poly|naria« In tn«> ! . 
stone of Devonshire, allied to Fenestella. (Phillips ) 

HEMLING, HANS. rMsmuiio. UAna, P. C. S : 

HENDEHSON, THOMAS, was the son of n respr^u 
tradesman at Dundee, where he was bom DeeemWr - 
1798. After an education such as his native town •- 

nj:iJii!.nLri5iu9, a genus 01 insects 01 tne « 
rapteta and section JPfenijpeanes. The genus, as i 
by linnseus, has been dismembered bv subsequent 
gisti, and is now equivalent to a family distinguish 




Robert Hanfjm wboM sifdiitiire as notery-publie is attedied 
to a charter gmtDd in 1478 by tiM abbot of Dunfermline, In 
Fifeshire ; and be ia elfewbere taid to have been a school* 
master in that town. It has been inierred that he nnist have 
been an ecdcaiastSc ; and It has been coiyectured thiit he msj 
have bc«n a Benedictine monk. In a poem of Dunbar, 
prmted in 1608, he is spoken of as dead : and to one of his 
pnems lie had described himself as a * man of afre.* His talc 
of * Orphctts Kyng, and how he yeid to hewyn and to hel to 
seik hii quene,' was printed at Edinbargh, in 1 508 : and in 
1608 there was printed his * Testament of Fairt^ Creseide,' 
jrhich had been suggested by the * Trmlos and Crcseide' of 
Chaooer, and is fouml in the common editions of that poet*s 
works. His beantifal pastoral of * Robin and Makyne* is 
known to most readers from Percy's ' Reliancs.' Other sped- 
OMns of Henryson's poems are in SibbaJd's ' Chronicle of 
Scottish Poetiy,* m Dr. Irrmg*8 ' Lives of the Scottish Poets,' 
and in £Uis*s * Specimens.' The fullest collections of them, 
however, are in Lord Uailes's * Ancient Scottish Poems.* 1770, 
and in a volume containing his thirteen poems, called ' Fables,' 
edited by Dr. Irving in 1882, for the Bannatyne club. For 
that dub, in 1824, Mr. Georse Chalmen had edited the 
'Testament of Cresekle,' and 'Robin and Makyne.' Hen- 
ryaon writes with much greater parity and correctness than 
most Scotsmen of his time : his venification is good, and his 
poetical ftncy rich and lively. 

lIEPATrriS. [LiTu, DmiAsia or, P. C] 

HEIIACLE'UM, a genus of plants belonging to the na- 
tnnte order Umbel liffeiv and the tribe Pcuccdanese. The 
eslvx conrists of 5 minute teeth, the petals aboordate with an 
hilloicd ooint, the outer ones rsdiant. Thero are 34 spedes 
noticed, nut only one of these is found m Great Britain, and 
tew are applied to any useful purpose. 

H. SpkomAdhim^ Cow Parsnip, has temate pinnate leaves, 
the leeflets lobed or mnnatifid, cut, and serrated. The stem 
is about four feet hiffh, the lower leaves very large, and the 
liowen white or reduish. It is a native of Europe, and pro- 
bably of Siberia, and is Ibund plentifully in the meadows and 
hedges of Great Britain. The whole plant affords wholesome 
and nourishing food for cattle, and is collected in Sussex for 
latteninr hogs; hence it is sometimes called hog- weed. Cows 
and Tmbbits are also fond of it. and horses will sometimes eat 
it, but it does not appear to be so agreeable to them. The 
Kamtchatdales and Kossians are in the habit of using the 
shoots and leaf-stalks as fomi. aflber the rind, which is bitter, has 
been taken off. They collect large bundles of the plants, and 
during the process of drying the stalks become covered with a 
sareharine efflorescence which is esteemed a great delicacy. 
The Russians distil an anient suirit from the stalks thus pre- 
pared bv first fermenting them m water with bilberries. The 
seeds of the plant arc diuretic and stomachic, and exhale a 
powerful odour. 

H, pubetcen* has temate leaves, somewhat pubescent be- 
neath ; the leaflets toothed and pinnatifid ; the umbels of many 
rays; involucre from I to 2 leaves; the fruit elliptic, having 
the diak rather villous. It is a native of Taurioa in shady 
places, and of the Caucasus in alpine places. The young 
shoots are filled with a sweet aromatic juice which is eaten by 
the natives of the Caucasus in s crude state. 

H, Pyrmaicum has large leaves, tomentosc beneath ; the 
Iea6ets lanceolate, toothed, or temate ; the ifivolucre of few 
leaves; the young fruit covered with long hairs; the matured 
ones glabrons and nearly orbicular. It is a native of the 
Eastern and Central Pyrenees, and of Italy. D. Don thinks 
that this plant is identical with the H. amnmijerum of WilU 
denow, wnich was sunpoied to yield t£e gum oramoniacum 
of commerce. Don naa however identified the plant which 
yields this gum, and has placed it in a new genus. [Dobxha, 
P. C. S.] 

All the spedes of Heradenm grow well in any roil, and are 
easily pro|iagated by seeds or by dividing the root. 

(Don, Gardener*M Victhnary; Bumett, OmtUnes qf Bo^ 
%anM : Babington, Manwd of Briiisk Botany.) 

UERA'CLIUS, Roman emperor from a.d. 610 to 641. 
Since the fiuhlication of the voltnne of the ' Penny Cyclo- 
pedia* ctmttining the life of this great emperor, the im[)ort- 
anoe of Asia Minor and the adjacent countries as regards Europe 
has been much increased, and acrordin^ly it ap|)ears useful to 
give a more circumstantial description of his campaigns against 
the Persians, which are of equal interest for the historian, the 
gcof^nipher, and the aohlter. 

The deatitute eooditioo of the empire at the accession of 

Hcnditts compdled him to be an aloMMt inarCive tpertitof #</ 
the mtnooa invasions of the Avars in Europe and the Pcr»iaM 
in Asia. By submitting to an annual tribute of one thosMTii 
talents (pounds?) of gold, as many talents of silver, one tlffii»* 
sand silk rubes, and one thousand slave girls, he indmrd t. » 
Persian king ChosroesorKhosrew to discontinue bis iuvw««'ia« 
of Asia Minor and to bo satisfied with the cnoqnesu h«» Um 
made from the Greek empire, which comprehended Zuy < < 
and the whole of the Asiatic provinces east iad south of a f . - 
drawn frtmi the northern frontiers of Syria to the east«Trt # i- 
tremity of the province of Pontus. Heraclius made a U •• 
humilwting peace with the Avars. Having got rid of : •• 
enemies, he employed vigorous means to fill his treasury. r.< ' 
sparing the property of the churches ; and he Has thns eiia)<i' • 
to raise an army strong enough to stop all further de^gn« ••! 
the Persian king. The plan of attacking that powerful • - 
was bold and well designed, and it was executed with so niu« )• 
boldness and prudence, and such a startling combinatiim i>* 
offence and defence, as to equal the strategical opentionj ot 
the greatest generals. 

A powerful Persian army waa stationed in the valley of t^r 
Upper Euphrates ready to descend through the pasM's of t.*.«* 
Anti-Taurus into the high plains of Cappadocia, ami to ]nM'- 
on towards Constantinople as they had done in a.d. «!!<•. 
The armv of Heraclius, consisting chiefly of raw levies, v » 
Quartered in the environs of Constantinople, and afterwartU i . 
tnose of Chalcedon on the Asiatic shore of the Bos|)Orus, ar.J 
a whole year was required to prepare his men for a camimi^n 
But Heraclius was master of the sea, and his numemus fl« • : 
enabled him to choose his base of operation. Early in \* > 
spring of 6*22 he embarked his troops, and from*th« l{o«|Mr u» 
sailed to the eastern comer of CilicJa, which lies round tr. 
bay of Isk^udcrun (Alexandria), and is ))roiected on tl . 
north and east by the Taurus and on the south by Mm. .t 
Amanus. Thero on the plain of Issus he continued ac n >. 
toming his troops to actual warfare by making them man<nj*r«« 
in the same way as modem troops do, and he occupied th** 
Cilidan and Syrian gates and other passes that lead thmn::** 
the siirroundimir ranges. A Persian amiy approaching in K. i 
confidence of making the Romans primners of war, orof for^-m.' 
them to re-embark, was tumed, routed, and driven into th< 
mountains of Armenia. Having thus cleared his way and «•• 
cured his rear, Heraclius marched through the Cilictan gmtf« 
northward in the direction of Mount Argvus (Arjfsh) and it^ 
Upper Holys (Kizil Irmiik), where, as it seems, a ponioij ■ t 
his troops remained during the winter as a body of obaervaiKm 
The emperor with the main body advanced upon Trebix^iti*.- . 
and quartered his troops in the province of Pontus. Trebim^i * 
now became the centre of his operations. He left it, h^iw - 
ever, soon aAer his arrival, sailed to Constantinople, ami . 
the following spring of 623 retumed with a fleet and a chf >«^ , 
body of 5000 men. It is important to ascertain bis moti^t 
for conveying his army by sea to the sontli-ea5tem extnen ••> 
of Asia Minor, and thence fighting his way through ii > •> 
ccssible mountains right acrora Asia Minor to the Euxirx 
ho intended to make Trebizond the bams of his opcratti t. 
for it seems that he could have gone there directly rrom < i>:. 
stantinoplc without incurring the risk of losing half bis ami* . 
or perhaps the whole of it, in the defiles of the Taunxs »* ■ 
Anti-Taums. Our sources suy nothing of hb motives, ai • 
generally we know few details of his first csm|«v~* 
However, if wc take the state of the empire into due cr < 
deration, and draw conclusions from his subsequent cainiMi» 
as to his first, we cannot hesitate to believe Uiat llermiiu- .-- 
tended to attack Persia from two points, each of them e<)i.^i' 
well situated for an attack and afiording equal security in < i 
of a forced or voluntary retreat. And it l)ecomes no 'less | •- 
bable that he chose the bay of Isk($nderun for his place of ** •• 
embarkation, and thence marched towards the Euxme« berut 
he wanted to relieve, through his presence at tbo hcivl nl 
army, the minds of those of his subjects who were most • . 
posed to the inroads of the Persians, and to orcuny m msj* 
mountain-nasses as possible in order to prevent tne Pcr^ift • 
from breaking through the defiles between Canpadocia an 
the Unpcr Euphrates. In this, however, he dia not sdcc^^* 
The plan of his campaign further shows a ftct corroborati**) '• 
many sulisequent wars, namely, tliat the inland tract Xxtm 
Trebizond and Issus is unfit for operations on a lar|rc ><-« 
and that the only points from which AnueniSy Meso|jot*n 
and Syria may be successfully invaded by an army c«»fr. j 
from Asia Minor are the eastern angles of Pontus an«l C'iJ«i 
whence it is evident that a power which is master of tlie »« •* 

II V. h 


lit, tnn pprMMMVI twf tfWjT ^ RlllOV tnCIf CftAHI|jto| 

•ihI ll^rw^liM harmr ftTMitrvl ihcM fkttmraiAe coiKiitioiM, 
tkry htd ilovn ilM4r araw, afiil ftlH»<lMird Cbocmr* al a no- 
wNit «ilN« be 9»aml moat in we^d of tbroi. Tb«nv i« aomr- 
4iiM|r ^tranirv in Uite Mnnr, and it wooM imD at if Hfwlittt 
ImJ not to nnirh a luml m tt at Stnir«, thr tm of Chonmrt, 
nho frhrIM i««Hiat hb fiithiT, and tint bim to «katb In 6M. 

In sfwia of ibia Um Cb<««rucf bad ttill a numeroot army, 
tba amount of which it bfl»ir«*%rr etap^ratcHl «hi*n it It ttatrd 
■t M>,OOU mm, to opriotc ll(*raHiii« in thr r^mt«ign of 6i7. 
Hnl hit vHtirtt wtro \n vain. Witb imiututito nowcr tbr 
Human rmprmr mmrd on afmn A«vrta, and althooirh hb 
tiov, bo vm toccMtful In r^rry ntrt and m- 
ilo mmr fmra tbo province of Atn»paKn«, 
|«imrd ibr Zabat (ilmi Ziih) in Ita omirr part, and marched 
tovartlf Niniveh (opfimite Mt'mil), wnera no encnuntarpd a 
iVnian anoy c miiiim w l r d by iihatat«r, n bo had followed the 
fmirfttir for toow time, bat gained tome wia w br a orer htm, 
■ml bad tail m a potition nftkf the ruint of Ninireh witli the 
kafenlion of prevenunir the Romant from occttpyinfr th« valley 
of the Ttrnt and marrbing npoo Ctniphon. After m ohtti- 
mMr rmuunce fmtn daybreak till night Rhaaater wat ronted 
ami killnl, and llrrarlittt, who had anln rifrnaliaed himtelf aa 
a irmeral and a warrior, pofmp«l the fogitivo enemy, and 
ofr«i|*ird the bntlcrt over the iirvat and the little Ziih, 
wbtrb the rer^ant bad no time to trotre. The battle at 
Nifiurb wat ftNnrbt on the 12ih of DiHvmber, 6*27. (>n bit 
way to iWtagerd or Artemita* llerarlian took, plundered, and 
dettn>>ei| tbv royal |«laers of Hum, liogluli, and othert, and 
imiiM-ti««* tnpatitrM fell into ht« ban<lt. Sinm afVerwardt he 
to) 4 Dattagrnl, the favounie retKlencc of Cbofroet, and ilt 
tT«w^rr«, of wbifh Tbco|ihane« givet a fabalniit detrription ; 
and amny tbnQ«andt of captive Romant, chiefly inhabitanta 
of Kilrwa and Aletandna, at alao three hundred ttandanb 
and othrr trophiet token from the Romant in farmer eaaii- 
paignv, wefw recovered by the Yictort. Cbwrart fled from 
l>Bfliaveed to Cretipbon (EUModain), tn«l thence into the 
faitBiior of Pef«a. Ileracliiit wat alnnaly in tight of Cteti- 
nbmi, when he anddenly rrtrrated nortb-ea«t ufion Siazura 
(HbefTiir) and Gandiaea, ntiminir the Attyrian mountaint in 
the muht of winter without Inm. The motivet of hit re> 
trrat were either the ftwr of bein^; onahlo to take the well 
lbrtiftc«l citT of Ctraiphon in the winter, the want of pro- 
Tkiont in Aarjrria, which hatl hem ravagv^l, bf*ing already 
very tentablr Mt, or perbaiw the rebeiiion of SirtMW againtt 
kit (bther C'bntniet, wYiom he trparberowly »eired and put to 
dfwth with eighteen of bit arm*, the brotbert of Siroet. (Fe- 
bruary iSth. 628.) In the month of March following peace 
araa eonHndeil between Siroca and llericliua. Struct ceded 
Syria, Egypt, Metnpntaraia« and Armenia, and gave back tlie 
lloly CrtM taken by hit father at the com|ueft of Jeruaalem ; 
and lleradttit rive tip ouny thoumnd Pentan capcivet, ind 
•Hawed the Pervtan tmopt who ttill ocrapied the princijAl 
townt of Erypt, Syria, and ftletociotamla to return to their 
native erwntry : they werr tnpated witb great humanity on 
Ibeir marrh tbmogh tb«* Roman provincm. In the tame 
fnir llemrltai bad bit tHum(ibal entrance in Conttantinople. 
Tbrnphanet, to vague and olMcure in bit accomita of the Hrvt 
nnn|«tffw« of lleradittt, givet a dcuileil an«l accutmte dcacrip- 
ttan e^ the iwmpaign of 6*/7. It b not In the plan of thb 
article to relate the partlevlart of the btter part of tbe reign 
nC Il<»rarlint, during which he loat all bit conqoetta, whicb 
Ml into tiM* bandt of the Amiw A colomal Matue of Hera- 
Hhn etbtnl at llafletu in Puk'lia to ktc at the end of the 
llfteentb ecntoiT. 

(Tbeopban««, p. 250. kr. ; Niecphoma, p. 4, ftc. ; Ce- 
drriHti, p, 407, kr. ; ZunarM, vol. li. p. W, kc. ; Glycwt, 
p^ tro, Ike., Hi the Parit editioot . Geonrioi Pbida, Jh Kjh- 
^wr/f/mne Hwnciii ; BeOum Afari^-mm: Hfroeism: the antbor 
of ih««e ahnrl bivtoriral pnrm«, wbirb Iwivrevrr are veiy valu- 
aMe. aeeompanieil ll«»r«rlHM on hit cam|«iintt ar«mtt tbe 
Per«bn«; Gibben. lUHme mtd Fail; Lpbrmi, Hitioirt dm 
Um AajftrVe; D'Anviile. iUrhrrrh*^ Grtvfrafiki^^ am* 
ern»«wr t Erp^t»fm df f Rmq^^rtmr M^'ntei»tt$ an /Vrap, ia 

r fht imMcriptHmB af 

* and part of Penia, 
in Kinnrir*t •Journey tbmngh Atia Minor, Armenia, 
KortlUtin,* 1ndita(«^ tbe rootet taken by llerarliaa hi hb 
ftowpolgrwt, bwt they are not correct. We want a complete 
«y«tirml r om m^ n t^ry on tbe etprditmnt of Ilemcliat, which 
mmU e*T lam di.^wlib^ now than it did to D*Anville, tincw 
«ar ki m aiadgt eC tbe eoanifj it moiw eiart than It waa a 

th« t« til. vtd. of .lf/mo»Vm d^ tArnd^mif dm it 

iiMU iMtrr*. Tb^ map of Asia Minor and part ol* Penia, 

Gerataa |iliilaaopher, wm bom in 1776, at Oldenb«r|r, whert 
bb Iblber al the time held aa oAce rmraected with tbe ni* 
minbtration of jottice, Receivin|r hb raligioua i n tt n w i iim 
from a roan well aeqiminted with the pbilotopbicwl tjprtemt ui 
Lribnitx ami Kant. Ilerliart, at tbe age of anmt twelve, wet 
led to tpecalate upon tueb tubjrett at God, freedom, and im- 
nortalitr. In bb ei^rbteenth year he went to the Uniwraity ol 
Jena, whcTW be ttitilicd under Hcbte, and formed an intiiiMtv 
acquaintance with him, and be entrrtaioed tbe birbett o|tfnw«t 
of hit master until SchellinK*t vicik, * Voni hb, fell faito Um 
bandt, which waa ailmired by Ficbte, while llerhart opfMwt^ 
ita trmlcncy witb tbe greatett leal. Thb caaacd a branch lir- 
tween Ficbte and lierbart, who gladlr aroepted a pinre of an- 
vato tntor w hich wat offered to him at Bern in Switierhmd. lie 
had alrrady conceived tbe idea of a tyflem of paycbolo|ry bated 
upon matbematica, ami tbe more clearly Ficbte eiplniiird bw 
%!ewt upon (wychology in bit * Sittrmebre * (Laipaii^ ibmI 
Jena, 1796), tbe more Uerbart bectme eoovinced Ibait tbe 
jpcculationa of Ficbte mutt be aliandoned if any petmaatnt 
baab waa to be gained for hb tcience. About the aame tbne 
he devoted bimaelf with great ical to the ttiidy of tlie bbtory 
of antient pbilotopby, which led bim to form an intimoiw 
acquaintance with the t^ttema of Plato and tbe Ekat»r«. 
Uowever be oontinwd hit own retean*bea which be bad nm^- 
menced under Fichte, and from ISCi to 1805 be drUv«*rvn| 
tihtlotopb'oal lectorrt in the Univemity of Gditiagen, wljrce 
nc developed hb peculiar method ot tbinkinir, wbiib waa 
tubteqm^ntly moch ettonded, but remained etaeaUttlly t^« 
tame at it bad been frt>m the beginning, lib tendency wa« 
pre-eminently practical, and it wat fnitly owit^ to thtt r't- 
onmatance, and partly tobb pertonal acquaintance with Pr^ 
taloui, that bb firat workt trrated on education. In 19U{» b* 
wat appointed profetaor of pbilotophv at KiinigabrrK, ai»d 
waa at the aune time entrusted with the tnpt ' 
the higher educational ettabli^hmcnti in the < 
Prumia, In tbe oifruiiiation of which be did 
In 1833 be wat mviteil to tbe chair of pbilotop6y in tbe Tn^ 
renity of Gottingen, where hb lecturca attracted gifwt attri- 
tion on account of tlie cleamem and prrcbion witb wbicb be 

' explained hb viewt. lie remained at Gottingcn matii bv 

j death, on the I4tb of Aogoit, 1841. 

I llerhart b tbe founder of a particular tyttcro of pbDoanp^y. 
which it interetting on account of hb fircidbr meiJwd raihrr 
than bb originality of tbmurht, for m reality hb aytlrm la cd 
a tyncretic kind, and Fichte*t Influence upon It' cannot \m 
mittaken. Although Ilerliart occasionally ptolraara ia be t 
follower of Kant, ttill he b of opinion that Kant*t * CrttJctM^ 
of Pure Reaaon* b almott without any objrctive valite, nahd 
that ita method mutt be entirely ahandom^ if mrta|iby%H-« 
are to be founded on a tecure and pcrmancnl haabu llrrbnn't 
rmltf tic tendency further remindt ut of tbe nnoadea of Lr l»- 
nlii. Pbilotopby, aerofding to llerhart, baa imH, like ar^»- 
nary tcicncea, any particular tet of tubjrett wbidi are ita prrw 
vince, bdt it contisu in tbe manner and method in wbirb nay 
tubjcct whattoever b treated. The tabireta themarltrt av^ 

' auppoaed to be known, and are called bv bim * a0tioft« ' 
(liegnfle), to that pbilato|»hy b tbe methodical tnratuM^i 
and working out of tbote * notiona.* The diflirrent mefimdii •/ 
trratment conttitute the main departmenia of pbilaao|i^y 
The flrat of them b locic, which eoniidera tbe nnfri ani 
cleamem of notiooa and their combinatiuntL Rut tftar <vi»- 
templation of the world and of oortelvea kringa before »m 
notiona which raute a ditcoid in our tboit^hta» ihit ctriwar- 

' ttanee rrndeia it neccatary for ua to modify oi rhnagu tba«r 
notiona ateordtng to tbe particular nature of each* B; vi« 

' prociwt of modibration or change tometbinff new ki ndduit^ 
which Uerbart oalb tbe top|flerocnt or romplroMnt (Ert ^ <* 
tung). Now tbe arcond amin department of pliiiomi^;i n 
metonbyaica, which llerhart deftnet to be tbe arieww U'*^^ 
enppiementary notiont. Tbe method of ditmtwri^y tbe wv y^ 
plementary notiona which are nrmttaiy ia ovdar In re» ■ « 
given fortt which contain eontradictory nutinaa, iairUicvff 1-, 
b, aceoeding to bim, tbe method of relationa, and b b by an • 
method alone that tbe other notient of the worid and •« «m-. 
aelvea can be firoperly defined. Ilence ariaea what be r^ ' • 
pmctMwl nM*ta|ihvcica, wbirb b tnbdivided hito P9*^^V«. 
tbe pbilotopby of naiurv, and natural ibeology. A UiM cCm 
of naiitint, lattly, add aometbtng to oar Mmnptiaaa^ aim # 
prvidwcpa eithir pleatuiw or dbplraaum, and the 
thew aotkma b aeatbetict^ which, wbea anpfiad t» 
thing** formt a arrirt of tbeoriei of art, wbivb m^ ba I 

I practical tcieneca. They 

II £ K 


U £ R 

vhidi the/ reoeivo their cmolunoenU.' So far as thw, there 
tt tcrtaiait no objection. There ought to be some speedy 
mode of «fcprivtng a man of these emoluments, which ne ac- 
cepts upon certain terms, lie who will rcceivr alms [Fbavkai^ 
MOiOKB, P. C. S.], and yet preach against the doctrines which 
he is paid for teaching, deserves tlie reprobation of all man- 
kind ; and those who di«Hke ecclesiastical authority most 
could not be better pleased than to sec such an offender 
handed over to his brethren to be dealt with in any way that rule of the church {irovides, to w^hich the oflendcr has 
solemnly submitted him»elf. 

In the year 1845 pnx'eedings were commenced in the 
Arches* Court of Cuulerlmry against the Rev. Mr. Oakley 
for writing, publishin^^ und maintaining doctrines contrary to 
the Articles of Reli^nuu. 

The history of Heresy in England is instructive. The 
change from burning alive to the free expression of opinion 
on religious matters is one of the steps in the social progress 
of England. For some other matters connected with the 
subject, see Blaspiikmy, P. C. 

IlERMES, GKOIU;, the founder of a philof^ophical 
school of Roman Catholic theolo^'y, was bom on the *i2nd of 
April, 1775, at Dreyerwaldc, near Miinster in Wcstpholia, 
where he received nis fu-st education from the prie^^t of the 
place. lie subsequently became a |iupil of the pynmasium at 
Uhcina, and there gave the first proofs, csf)e('ially in his ma- 
thematical lessons, of his strong mental iH>wors. After the 
vear 1792, when he entered the theologicid furulfy ot 
Munster, he devoted himself with great zeal to the study of 
the philosophy of Kant, and tlius arrived at the conviction 
that no one con establish a perfect system of theolojry unless 
he hss previously fathomed the first principles on which all 
human knowledge is base<l. In 1798 he was api)ointcd 
teacher at the gymnasium of Miinster, and all his exertions 
henceforth were directed towards restoring, on a firm basis, 
that which had been demoHshed by Kant s * Criticism of nure 
IU«son.* But OS a teacher at the gymnasium, he had no 
opportunity of making known tlie results of his nhilosophicol 
studies. This opportunity however was offered to him in 
1807, when he was appointed professor of theology at Miinster. 
Ilis great talent os a lecturer, and his kind and benevolent 
manners, attracted great numbers of students. On one occa- 
sion, when he had to give his opinion on some ecclesiastical 
uuestion, he greatly offended Drostc-Visclicring, afterwards 
Archbishop of Cologne, and the ill feeling thus created had 
probably some influence in the subeie(]ucnt proceedings against 
the doctrines and followers of Ilermcs. In 1819 Hermes was 
ap|}oiuted professor of theology in the newly established Uni- 
versity of Boim. His lectures again attracted students not 
only irom all parts of Catholic Gennany, but the King of the 
Netherlands sent a large number of young men to Bonn for 
the s|)ecial purpose of studying under Ucrmes. In the enjoy- 
uient of the highest esteem both of his colleagues and pupils, 
he died at Bonn on the 2()th of May, 1831. 

The only work that Hermes published bears the title 
' Einleitung in die Christ-Katholische Theologie,' Miinster, 
1819, 8vo. ; a second etiition appeared in 1831. So long as 
Jic Archbishop Spiegel zum Descnberg wus alive, Hermes 
and his viewa were not attacked by the see of Rome ; but 
aoon after the elevation of Droste-Vischering to the arch- 
bishopric of Colojme, reports were made to Rome about the 
infidel tendency of Hermes's work, which still continued to lie 
the chief theological manual at Bonn and other German uni- 
versities, where the chairs were filled by the disciples of 
Hermes. There is no doubt that the denunciation against 
Hermes was in the first instance made by some Gorman who 
was hostile to him, but it was taken up very eagerly at Rome 
by Perronne, who made hb report to the pope. The objec- 
tionable point in Hermes*s work was his principle, that reason 
or philosophy must in the first place prove the reality of a 
divine revelation, and in the second, the truth of the lloman 
C'atholic system. These points being ascertained, Hermes 
demanded absolute submission to revelation. He does not 
attempt philosophically to prove the truth of every particular 
dogma, but only to show that the Church has a right to esta- 
blish her dogmas, and to demand submission to them. Hermes 
tiius did not attack a single dogma of the Church, and his 
ortiiodozy can scarcely be disputed ; but if we consider that 
the whole method of Hermes claimed for eveir theologian 
the right of exercising his private judgment, and: at the some 
tine remember that the Roman hierarchy had reason to 
dread every philosophicral inquiry into its system, since, al- 
thou^-h Hermes nMnatnrd urthoiiox, it was by no mrans cer- 

tain that fntnre theologians ought not be fed mtr»j by rh > 
application of philosophy to theology. It will not be sur|ir.> t j 
to find that, on the 26th of SepterolxT, 1635, the pofie tMu«'.l 
a brief against the work of Hermea, The tererity « ^u 
which Archbishop Droste-Vlschering carried the bm'f ini.i 
execution produced a rupture between the courts of lU-rr . 
and Rome. The disc« files of Hermes made all poMible etfi r 
to defend their master, and two of them, Profes^rs hr-n 
and Elvenich, went to Rome to iioint out to his holineM i' • 
Perronne had misrepresented tne viewa of Hermen. ll :• 
their exertions were of no avail. The pO)ie, as late as the t r r 
1844, severely censured the Prince-bishop of Brenlao fnr r >t 
being zealous enough in preventing the cit culation of the c - 
trines of Hermes. In the same year the professors Hn i 
and Achterfeld of Bonn, who refused to recant their Iltr- 
mcsian opinions, were forbidden to lecture in the uni%('r>it; 
by order of the archiepiscopal coadjutor, Von Geiiw), Jt 
Cologne. The number of pamj>hlet8 that have been wrttt* n 
for and against Hermes is prodigious, and has probably <*it». 
tributed not a little towards the religious movement now gni;..' 
on among the Roman Catholics of Germany. The benx «•& . 
position of the whole controversy may be found in Elvrnu h « 
* Dcr Hermesionismus und sein llomischer Gegncr Pcrroniie/ 
Brcjilau, 1844, 8vo. 

(lirockhaus, ConvenatumS'Lexikimf ninth edition.) 

HERMIT, more properly Eremite^ from the Or« ^ 
ipif/Airirr, sipiifving an inhabitant of a desert, is the tmiu* 
given to such religious persons as retired from society wi ?)><>' i 
becoming members of any monastic community The diji^t.-.n . 
tion between hermits and monks, and the origin of both. . 
explained in P. C. under the term Moivacuism (xv. :Mj . 
See also Anchorkt (i. 607) and Ascetic (ii. 437). 

HERMO'GilXIlS, a hei-ctic of the early church, nr..ii. : 
whom Tertullian has written a treatise, was roost proUii»i . j 
native of Africa, and flourished, according to Bosnago litiM 
Le Clerc, a.d. 168. The chief information we yo^^^^ rr 
specting him is contained in Tertullian and Theodoret. i*. 
appears from the former of these writers that Herroogv-M' 
though professedly a Cluistian, had throuffbout his life ev in* i>. 
a strong tendency to tlie doctrines of uie Heathen phili-«- 
pbcrs, and especially to those of the Stoics. Ho ia accuM^' < t 
having taught that God made the woHd out of matter v .t 
was coetcmal with him. The chief design of Tcrtulltjn • 
treatise is to confute that notion: his princi()al anruiu*' : 
against him is, that if matter be eternal, there must uv*- - 
sarily be two Gods, which however Hermogenrs tlid • •. 
allow, but expressly asserted the existence of one su{*r«MiM' 
governor of tne universe. The following. In a few w(»ni- 
appears to have been the system of (his heretic: be i' 
not introduce any con or any creator different from the «•■ •• 
God, the Father; but be asserted the eternity of niatft-r. 
and that God created the universe out of it. Thb ma * • 
had a confused and turbulent motion, and to it he asmf «- ' 
all the evils which exist in the creation. It waa out • 
this confused matter that God brought order and |K*r7tY-. 
tion. He however believed in a future judgment, and, yi -- 
bably, most of the other great doctrines of religion, as h» ;• 
not charged by either Tertullian or Theodoret with any ml . r 
heresy than tnat to which we have alluded. We have i > 
account of any of his writings, though it may be tnferml iv • 
the arguments of his opponents that he waa an author. ^^ 
are ignorant of the year of his death. For a fuller det.i:t 
his opinions see Larcfncr, Hist, of HereticM, ch. xriii. ; 'IM 
mont. Hist, Eccl. ; and Cave. 

HERNANDIA'CE^, a natural order of hicompl. 
Exogenous plants. It has monoecious or hermaphrodite 0u w «• * ■ 
witli an involucellum in the ptstiliferoua and hermaphroii. * 
flowers : a petaloid calyx, tubular, 4-8-pcated, deridoous ; de- 
finite stamens inserted into the calyx m two rowa, of wh:> ;• 
the outer is often sterile, with the anthers bitrttinff !ocig-.i-: 
dinaliy ; the ovary su])erior, 6-cclled, with a pcndtuous o« t: 
and peltate stigma; a drupoceous fruit with one seed, whj< - 
is pendulous ; the embryo is inyerted, withoot olbunico ; t)- 
cotyledons somewhat lobcd, shrivelled, and oily. The sprt*. 
are trees with alternate entire loaves, and flowers arraagcd 4i, 
axilkry or terminal spikes or corymbs. 

This order has been constituted by Blame. It contaicH f u . . 
two genera, Hemandia and Inocarpua. These were M<n. - 
times referred to Myristicacese, from whieJi they diflcr in i • 
absence of albumen from their seeds. Their kmgttwitxx^ 
anthers distinguish them from the Lanracee, in which ortS^ 
they have al^ been placed. Their affinity n aadoalit(«i* ■ 
with Thvnieleaces, from which they differ only in thdr d r^. 





\ not DTWtfd liU 165S. hm I 
IMS. h Doibl«y*t OM Vhy% wili 

of tUai« « A oMrr PUy betwr«ii tW 
tbc Fmr, tlM Coral* aod Neybmir Prtttto,' 
t haw tMirn wHttea brforr 
be found hit * FUy 
oiUod Um Fonre P'. P.« « new and • Tmr mrry EAtrriudc of | 
• PaJMor, o l^nlooer, a Voiyvry^ a Pedlar,* mliich b a fair 
•fjacioMO of kia oodiwaatic arran if go i wi U aiid of ib» |rmt<«|iia 
roaraanoM of hb hotnoor* Amonir Ibe ocK^ |inKliK>lioii0 
braruif hh muoa waa a poatlHinHHia ^okime of * Woorkva,* 
1576, 4IO., orlndi rontahia provcrba in vrrae, and fix buo* 
dfod opijCTat, ^f mbirb in hb own time be »af |irubabljr 
UoC kiiova. In myiecl of Ibem, awl to dbtiniruish bin 
ttmm a Uler play-vnier [ IIktwood. Tiioma», P. C.]« be b 
•at nofroc|UPOtJ V tmlk^ * ibe E|»ifrTaainiatiM.' 

UlERA'Cl CM« a imma of |ibnU bi*i<infrin|r to tbo natural 
onirr ConipontiB. The bomb are ■iaoy41oi»errd, the io- 
«obirrt iMbrkatod oitb many obbnifr viiilca. Fiuit terete, 
, mA Aimwed. tiith a vt^ry ^burt crrnulaled nMr^a« 

the 1 vtj of asMTtr die gimited tovwda the date of km ivir* • 
new patent in which the powen of the court wow im •amt 
renecta eiteinlcd. 

In the reifrn of JoMM L the aanlanea of tbo Coot of n i«i 
ConaiiMioo were moM gooeraUy coninad to deprivatiaB , bar 
«beo the Commoot rtmooatnied on account «/ ttt ^r9t€t4u^% 
' be refuA^ to interfere. In 1610, by virtue of tbo royal |f^ 
ropatire, be cataUbfaed a Cooit of Uifih CooimiiMon in ftc^A- 
iand, the authority of which waa readily acknooledged by th» 
Uiabopf and aome of the elennr. 

' 1641, the Court of Uigb Couiuii«wn •«! Ibo St* 

bncTolalr or bneeolate l<*ave«« hairy above, irlabroua beneath. 
The iowera aiv of a fwle IciiMm colour with a red atripe on 
the back. ^ It b found on dry banka and elevated jilarra. 
a. fl^Mun haa laneeobte butea narrowed mto a foot- 

alalk, entire or timtbeil ; the in%oliiere b covered with loiif^ 
the flon^la eJileroaJly hairy and of a bright 
It b found on rocia in GmU Britain. 

aUky II 

(Babui«ton. Mmmai if JiniaJk Botam^.) 


I genna of iffwaea belonging to the Pbft* 
1 1 baa twogbunea. nearly equal, Membran^M. S-nerved, 
toilougaalbo flower*; tbraetWwera, the lower uitb three 
ana, the o|i|Mr palea uttb two kecb, ibe upper flowera 
with both atamena and pittila, the atamena too, the upper 
mIcu with 1 keel. ( )ne tfirciee of thb irrnui, the U, horeaiiM^ 
haa bcuu Ibnnd au Great liritain : It baa an erect panicle, 
glabfoua padicela, and flowera without a«na. The atew b 
abeut a loot bigb. It baa only been found in Gotland. 
(DidNiwtoo, Mmmmd ^ Bikiak Botmm.) 
HIGII COMMISSION COURT, a tribunal eatablbhed 
by Quotu Kliaabetli under the authority of a cUuw in the 
tSufBwnncy Act < I £lb. c. 1), which exeraaad arbitrary power 
b aaticfs of Ciltb and in acrleiiaalipal cooeenia as the Star 
Cbmiber did M ci%il aflhiia. The ooBuniaaioiaera wi^ve forty. 
km in wmmhn, of wboni twel«o were evrleaiaauca, and three 

tBudad over ibe whole of the kingdom, and waa not confined 
to ibe clergy, but mcludc^ all rlaaiiu. They wfte dirreted to 
vWty rewrw, lediw, order, correct, and auMnd all errora, 
boPHiaa, B ch iiwu, a bu a r e, oflrwcea, oantenpta, and an o rm itiea 
wbataaaiar which be any tcdaaiaatieal authority whatever 
■igbt bo lawfldly eniarrd or oorraetad. The eomauaMonera, 
or oov ibfoo of ibeoi, judge d at their own diacretion of anv 
igii t o or writiug whirb tended to bcnay or acbaMu. AU 
agMoh Irooi tbo inferior erde^iaatical oMrta were curried 
ba f ara ibe Court of High ConnuMan. The court wm cbih 
IntTata, adulleriea, foroicaiiooi, and to 
rrlating to UMtrinifWibl olfeneca. Other 
bad been aubject eiDoa the Keforiatinn to 
■i |ei u n eourta of law, but thb court waa 
It oaorciaed iti pouera thcfvruea uithout eontrol, 
to cwndttct iu pfoperdanga, not only by the 
w, by juriea aod wi tut a Mj , but lo uee 
wa>a which ibey eouU deviae.' Thb 
eanewerad tbaaa la leaart lo ibe iurk« le torturr, i ru iuieitw n , 
aM iagriaaooMnt, end lo pmeed, nut open mfonnaiaen, but 
ol ibair own ibaiiniw ugan lunuiur and aua|iieion. The 
eniteuuM being before baauapectad peraou, and hgr 
walaeiog lo him an oath, oompel bno to anawcr any out 
adibeeobycfiminair hmwl/urhbfrteu4b. Heiuml t 

Chamber were both abort«hed, and a claMaa waa iBir»lann4 
into the act which |irobibited the revival of the fovmee t «tft 
or any other of a bke nature. Jamea JL, however, ianw^ a 
I new commirnkm, and appoioted aeven conmiiarionrra lo raw- 
ciae ftiU and unlinilad authority over the Cburrh of KayUo^. 
I and with the full powera of the farmer courtiL Somtk^*. 
I arcbbbhop of Canterbury, refuacd lo be a member. Four «| 
I the commmioneri uere buhope, and the three laymen wet^ lU 
Thaeo are nine lean British a|ie<iea'of tiiia genua, but inme of Karl of Uochoater, Chancellor JelTrica, and LonI Chief Jm. 
' am are valuable on amimit of the prv(M<rti4»s tb^y yumcm* \ tice IlerbcrC The Revolutioo awept auay thb arbitiwy 
il. PiimtUm haa a Uwfliaa aiogle>hcaded atem; elliptie- inatitution. 

HIGH CONSTABLE. [CoNurAuus, P. C. p. 4fl£ 
HIGH STEWARD. [Stbwabh. Lono Uioa. P. 1 . 
UKUl TREASON. [TaaAaoa, P.C.; JUw, Cmsw.. 
■Al.. P, C. S.] 

UIGUMORE. JOSEPH, a portrait and bbtoriiwl puin*rr 
of some reiNitiition in his day, waa bom in London in Ik x. 
lie was tne nephew of Hi tfhmora, Scrieinl*painice In H . 
liam lir, and uaa originally bred to the kw, but hsvk 
decided disposition for fiainimg, he gave up the law eml 
the pupil of Sir Godfrey Kneller, in whom style be [ 
The Citv was the lirat field of hb laboura, ubanoe be i 
to Lincoln's Inn Fields, where he painted a act of puei 
of the Knighta of the order of the Bath, uhicb Imo 
engraved by John Pine, llighmore waa a moo of mmh 
general iofomation ; be bad a good knowkdue of rn^uamy 
and was thoroughly acouaintcd with iienipective. lie uac^ 
lo attend Chesdden'a lecturra, and be made the drawww 
for hb treatise on anatomy : we owe to bun abo one of tbo W«i 
proctioal hooka on penpecttve :—* The Pmetlee of Pkrapar. 
tive, on the principlea of Dr. Brook Taybr; mo 
Examploa, inmi the moat siroole and easv to tbo i 
plicated and difficult cases' London, 1763. Ilo 
alao a critical eiaminatioo of the cciliug painted by 
in the Banoueting- House at Wbileban ; it 
apotheosb or Jamea L Higbmora pamiod 
royalty, nobility, and gentry, one of the be 
of Young, the poet, at all 8oub* College, Oafoid. lib kw- 
toricni piccea are of only average owrit ; eoo of tbo brm« 
Uagar and lihmaal, wm preaented by him m the Fou^ln« 
Hospital, where it atill remaioa ; there b abo hi the oonae cw- 
stitutioo a porHoit of Mr. Euienoo by him. lie pomio* 
several pirturea from the works of Ri ch ardaoo the movrlmt. 
but hb chief works are taken from the Scriptuiea. Ue «i»-i 
at Canterbury m 17 W>, m the bouse of hb daa^tcr, wIm ««/• 
married lo one of the prebeodariea of ibot ci^, ami be waa 
buried b the cutbedral. 

(GtfUkmam's M^gtuim, AprO, 1780.) 

UIGUTEA, a genua of fosaU pbmta Iran tbo laftr .f 
SbetHiey. (Boweriwik.) 

HILUARD, NICHOLAS, Umoer, Jawelkr, marf «i^ 
smith lo Queen Elisabeth and to James \^ waa bom au 
Eaeler in 1647; hb father, Richard Uillioi^ woo b%U 
sberilTof Eaeter and Devonshire in 1660. 

UiUiard, u jeweller by education, aoouirrd jpobitAi^ k^ 
studying the worka of lloibeio, and he oUamed ^vu 
brity M a miniature painter. Dr. Donne, in a pi 
storm in uliicb the Eari of Eaaex wm surpriacd, 
from the bland voyage, mja— 

B} IUU«M«1 4n« ft. I* votik » h^tafy 
By • won* faikt«v ■■<!>♦ 

There are many niiniaturea, especially of 
lianl eatant. Ue painted Marv Queen of Seoes. 
several tiuos, James I., and Prineo Henry, lie 
twelve yeara the eiclusi«e pri«ilece of naintiog ooRi i^n 
iag the portrmiu of James L and tne ro)al family. OwrM « I 
pt— rssrd several of bb worka, among them a view ••! • 

reprcoowta tba 


1 to take 
I wm p u o ii b sUr by imprisooment. Kmes were levictl 
(Wo luioed the mlruder, and be miubi be impriMoed 
for 9mf bogtb of tune ol the discretion of the court. The 
gnoA el|^ far which the OBort waa established «m mora capo- 
cially to punish asgr defwluio faam the Act of Uniformity k 
of rrligieo or in the arrvtcea and eereaaonica of tbo 
ICbwb. Elambatb. faiaWttcriDiheArrhUsbop 
f, aatd she una rvr-olvod * tbm no men should be 
10 dadioe, aiiber oo the lel^ band or on the right 
od, fimm ibe diowo Ime bmitod by autboeity and by her 
ae onu i^gOKtsamk ioe coouoeoa rTmansaraieii leeCMy 
ain^ tlir t«raofi? M iK^ C*wi^ «if If (fH f *fifrm>'*W«t. |inH W 

by II. 









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'^ ^H 




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.- U- 

-— ' 

- ----- ^- 


H I N 


a I N 

fobfort of PmfMtiMtiaii, ^hkh ha» been prrMnred. The 
•rgiimniCii hi H tre f hU'fl^r directf^l agKinft the opiaioM of the 
k*sntt<d John 8mtn« Enmtt, whom lie aocmes of error fe» 
tperting the do^nc of the Trinity in Unity, tnd the roiJ 
nrcsencc in the ei]f*hariflt. Among other corious ec eo M t i o M 
monght ftgntnst Scoti», he rbarget him with believiof^ tliat 
the fioo! of man is not lodged in the tody, nnd that the 
fmiiahment of hell solely consists in remorse of conscience 
eaosed by the remembrance of sins. 

In the year 8«i we find Ilincmar engaeed in controversy 
with the pope, Nicholas I., one of the most learned eoclcau 
astics of the age. The ore asion of it was as follows :— 
itofhadios, bbbop of Soissons, hod incurred the dtspleasore 
of his metropolitan, Hincmar, on accoirat of tho deposition of 
a priest of his ehnrrh, whom Hincmar wished to restore to 
omcc. Rothadins, refiisincr to re-admit this priest, was eon- 
deuncd in two councils Held at Soissons, excoromnnicated, 
and afterwards deposed and imprisoned. On an appeal of 
Uothadioi to Rome, the pope issued a peremptory order to 
Ilincmar to rsstore this bishop to his sec within thirty days, 
or to appear at Rome, either in person or by legate, to answer 
the chai^ which had been made against him~. In the year 
following Hincmar commissioned Odo, bishop of Reauvais, 
to procood to Rome, and to request a confirmation of the 
decrees of the council of Soissons. Nicholas, irritated at tlic 
opnoaltion of Hincmar, rescinded the decisions of that council, 
and demanded the liberation of Rothadius, in order that he 
might plead in person at Rome the cause of his appeal. 
This demand was at first resisted by Ilincmar, but, through 
the interference of the king, Rothadins was released, and 
deputies were finally sent by Hincmar to the pope to state 
the reasons of his conduct. This triumph of Nicholas was 
soon succeeded by one more important ; Rothadius was re- 
aCored to the episconal dignity, and he returned to his diocese 
accompanied by a legate of the |X)pe. The pretensions of 
Rome in this aflliir were founded on ' The Decretals of the 
Ancient Pontiffs,* a work probably composo<l by Isidore 
Mercator, but claiming mncn greater antiquity. Ilincmar, 
though the moat learned canonist of the age, does not appear 
to have doubted tho authenticitv of tlicso Docretals. 

Tho interference of the I*onc in temporal matters was 
however more successfully resisted. On the death of Lothaire, 
king of Lorraine, Adrian II. was desirous of excluding 
ChaHes the Bald from the succession of his stites, and to 
bestow them ujwn the Emperor Lewis. To this effect he ad- 
dressed two letters, one to the nobles of Lorraine, and*the 
other to the subjects of Charles, threatening excommunication 
should they disobey his injunctions to favour the cause of 
Lewis. Ilincmar, in the name of his fellow siibjectB, replied 
to the pretensions of the Poi)e. In his letter he remarks that 
Adrian should bear in mind that * he is not at the same time 
king and bisthop, and that his predecessors had regulated tlie 
church, which was their concern, not the state, which is the 
heritage of kings.' The opposition was successful, and 
C'harles, with the aid of Hincmar and other prelates, took 
|iosse8sion of the throne of Lorraine, of which all the subse- 
quent efforts of the disiipixiinted pontifiTwcre unable to de- 
prive him. 

In the year 871 Hincmar presided at the Council of Douzi, 
comfK>sed of twenty bishojis assembled by the order of Charles 
the Bald, for the purpose of inauiring into the conduct of 
Hincmar, bishop of Laon, nepnew of the archbishop of 
Rhcims. He was accused of spoliation of church revenues, 
of usur^Nition of powers not properly belonging to a bishop 
[Iktkboict, P.C], and of revolt against his sovereign. His 
uncle appearr- to have conducted the trial with severe impar- 
tiality, and, on conviction, sentenced him to be degraded 
finnm his ecclesiastical office. 

About ten years after these events Hincmar exercised the 
same firmness in defending the rights of the church against 
the encroachments of regal authority that he had shown in 
opposing the claims of the Roman pontiff. Lewis III. wished 
to Iwstow the bishopric of Beauvais upon Odaccr, a favourite 
cofirtiiT, who had been rejected as unworthy of the oflBoe by 
the Council of Vienne, and he endeavoured, both by sup- 
plication and mena«v, to obtain the acquieacence of Hincmar 
to his nomindtion. This prelate, however^ boldly defended the 
lilicrtv of canonical elections, and the indci><'ndence of the 
church. In a letter addressed to Lewis, he fearlessly reminds 
him of tlic sanctity of the oath he had token to respect the pri- 
vilege which the church poasesscs to refuse induction to uo- 
wonhy oandidatrs, and warns him against arrogating to him- 
self a pi»wor which had been denied to tlie roost eminent of 

hb pr o dec— o rt > < 1 tnist,* he obawM in Hf 'ever to }.t#. 
serve invioUte my fidelity and devotodnen lo yosr mr^,'-, 
indeed I have not a little oonCributcd to your own clert.*. 
ivtum not Iherelbre evil for good, by cnaenvoarinr to v- 

rulrs of 

me in my old age to depart from tho holy i 
chnrch* which, thanka be rendered to God, liave ever u 
my pride during six and thirty years of my epis(0}«r, 
(Uinc. Op. torn. ii. p. 188.^ lie proieeda to advise htm' •.« 
assemble a council, in order tiiat his nomination may be ruir.' . 
by the clergy and people of Beauvais. In a aeceod U*tirr ..• 
uses still stronger language, and terminates it wiiii i: - 
ominous words : * It is your lot soon to depart Imni t* 
earth, but the church with its pastors, under J. C their rlii* • 
has, according to his promiae, an eternal existenoe.*- *']<•• 
threat/ sa3rs Flenry, 'appeared a prophecy, when the k-. : 
while yet in the atrengtn of hia youth, 4ied the fbllc»%i :i.« 
year.* (Fleury, b. liit. e. 31.) 

Hincmar did not however long survive bis rovnl tamti-r 
about this period the Normans extended their pnimitfry im^'- 
sions as far as his province, the principal towns of which Ui« 
pillaged and destroyed. They were advancing towards lUu m.\ 
when notice of their approach waa given to Hincmar, «)^- 
was obliged to leave the city by night, having proit^ut. 
taken the precaution to secure the treasures of the rhurtii 
and the relics of St. Remy. The aged prelate anivt i :: 
Epeniay, worn down by tatigiie and anxiety. Severe tli'>' >. 
compelled him to remain in that town, where, on the 31 k n- 
December 882, he ended his eventfid life. The nanM* . ■' 
Hincmar, though associated witli the darkcat period of ci^ • 
siastical history, will ever be conspicuous as that of one ot n < 
most zealous defenders of the liberties of tho ehurch. 11 
great object was to produce that unity among ita men.) - 
which could alone present an effectual barrier acrainst the ' • 
croachments of regal and papal authority. Tne memon i> < 
words which he uttered when he heard thai the Po|)o u. 
about to visit France, and threatened the exeommnnicattun w 
its bishops, are a sufficient index of bis fearlem spirit ' ^ 
excommmaturus venit, excommunicates abihit,' ' if he cnm- 
to excomminicate, he will return excommttnicated.' 

The principal works not alluded to in this article, arr I •* 
' A Treatutc on the Duties of a King.' addressed to C'h>.' 
the Bald. ?nd, 'On the Ordeal by Water,' which pmi- 
he attempts to authorize by quotations from Scri^n-, an 
which unfortunately proves that he was not superior to ii 
superstitions of the age. 8rd, *On the Rights of Mi-tn^;- 
litan Bishops.' 4th, * On the Translation of Bishops and '- 
their Duties.' 6th, * On the Council of Nice ;' and 6th, • < J 
the Nature and Sanctity of Oaths ;' besides scveml letters a: •'. 
' Capitularia.' His works have been collected in two vol hum 
folio by the learned Strroond, Paris, 1645, and anot..^' 
volume was added to this collection by Cellot, in 1658. 

The following are the principal authorities which li*.^- 
been consulted, and may be referred to for a fuOor det^ ■ • 
his life. Fleury, Ma^heim, and Waddington's />••>». 
Hist.; Longueval, Histoire deTEglife GaUieane^ torn. u. 
M^zerai, Hist, de France^ tom. ii. ; Michelet, Ht^ .». 
France f 1. ii. c. 8; and Guizot's Sixth Lecture cm Mim>^% 

p. 236.1 

HINGE, a kind of joint, usually made of iron or tirk«'. 
upon which doors, pates, shutters, box -covers, &r., are mc- • 
to turn in the act of opening and shutting. Hingee arc t- --- 
structed in a great variety of forms ; but m most of the n c - 
moner kinds tlic action is that of a hollow cylinder work • . 
round a fixed central pin. Without pretcnain^ to dcM-'i - 
contrivances so familiar to every one, we may briefly notio . 
few of the more important deviations from the ordinary fd- • 
referring to Uebcrt's * Engineer^ and Meclianic's Eii<}' :■ • 
peedia' ior fuller details, ^i Collinge's patent hingi*s» >k « 
are peculiarly adapted for hanging large heavy door^ i; 
gates, the pnndpaJ rubbing action is between a hoi Ion « , 
and an accurately turned sphere, formed, as it were, up>n * 
end of the psn ; a cavity being provided for the recepti«>n n^ • 
supply of oil to lubricate tlio nibbing surfaces. Mr. R« 
mund, another celebrated manufactorer, who has displavr^i > • 
ingenuity especially in designing hinges for unusual aarf ' > 
parently impracticable situations, in rendering tltrm " . 
mental where, if of the ordinary form, they would *- . 
disfigurement, and for contriving invinble hmgea for *• 
ations in which it is desirable to conceal the binges al ■ ~ 
gether, ia the inventor of tho riting kmffet so fnn]iirtit!y 
used for hanging room-doors in houses of superior cbaiv . 











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U illsf ill 


11 O A 


11 O A 

Md In FfwiTP. TMi plwt slw yMb m n>kmHtifr ; 
«hlr|i b iMd fnr iljrtiifr yvllow. Atthoupsfi in thit 
' ifir krirrkt un mnoewam, tfarr •r#«B to raert s Me- ' 
nHofiirv, or arr yi WMHwi lo'do », fai tome of the 
of tlM» •mitli of Rurofw Thnr are Mid to he ■ 
fc.uamr fond with the Tartan, snd the ft«heniieo of the 
i;ulf of Bothnii rmx thrfn with thrir fifth. 

(lUhiartM, Jl/oim/ f/ //n/. ifar ; Ramrtt, (hdHnrt cf* 

Ilii'Pr'RtSl frfftn'w^nt, • hATH*. tfld •f^n^. tul, frooi 
the rrariii*4«nre of iK«* Mrm to • bonh^'ft w]), » |r«Mras of 
f»i«ltB hrinov'«(>r to thr nUtir J iir«1«r llftl<if«4r(V. It htt the 
•Alitltoib «r«7 min'it**. <'>•'•)« ti ly 2 loN-d ; no p(^l«; one 
MafTN-n : • hl.inrm 9ty\r iynr to • <haimr| of the anther; 
Hm* •tiirtnn mm]it#*, enati* ; tli«« tniit nurummtwoiii, l-rel}«Ml. ' 
Thff* •|imr« i»f tht- j:«ni«i» N%f \n'tTk d<*«rn>ird. <)f thwe. 
I/, tmlijarit, thr <^<nfi»«Hi fu^n Vt. il« M fonml alranriAntly 
IhiunKhoot f'^rmae ■xi'l .N'H-ih Aiiw'-ica. It ha* lim-ar K*av«-«, 
«»-IS m • lilHirf, arni «j>l«ti4 at tin* \^*\u\. It is foiimJ in 
ditrlNV and lakt^t. In d«>4ii«aiiT th«* «MUiM*nrd Icarea are 
tend and prtio«SiI, antj ti«»t riiMou* at the fioints. Thia • 
plant li ir«*r^ cvmnifin in Ctn-at linuin in fttafmant waten and 

To (irvpaiv li 

( lUi tii.jton» Mnnntd t.f BritUh lififart^.) 

iilKC IC ACID. Tht« ■utMtanrr «m olitainrd bjr Cher- 
leul fmm the CM c»f thr rn».f . 

» It. thr an inni« jwTuhirt of th^ ♦li'tillition of the 
tMiniiMl f I m thr »««}» (if irrtjt't fat, U ftatiiratod 
mth iia/^tra. Afi*T h^tin? r«a*i)i'Mti<l the ar»Jiiti(>Ti. the dry 
aalt tft decompoard hv (h'uti* «tjt4 hiirw> arxl ; th^ himc arid ' 
thm fl<«t« (>n thr »tirt'u< c uf th«* iii(trnl in the fnnu of an oil. I 

Tfiif wmI n>rtiiiri4 ti.i-il at 'K'jf* '. it b li;:hti*r Uuin «.it<T, ' 
pmrllt nf the ^mI. m inaii)uh|<* in nat«v, ati«l fo^-m* w»luhle 
aalta with pr>tA«h i^n«l f«in't«^ It hai not br«Mi Knil\f««d. 

IllKlNC; OK >KUVaN rs. fS.KTAaT, V. C] 

tiiUT. AU)YSir.S, wa« U^m at lb la n< ar Donanea- 
ehhi«rw in Ibd^'n. J urn* 27, I76J». In earlr i>o Ik» Ti^ifiyl 
Italy and ftu«li'ul the rmi.iiri« of rla^^* aft ili*-n*, aii'l on 
hb return ■rtticd at lU rlici, ltuu:iL' been ap(M»MiUtl pnM*«>*itor 
%i Prince llcnry of Pnia»ia. In 1796 In* hi<nme nmUs^r 
f an^iteeture and the fine artt at the ar««h nty or B^-H'n, ' 
end naa atilweqonitly inade imrfriMior of arrh,i«>)opy at tlie 
UnUefWty of Ib'rlm. AnH>nir hi« numf'nmi ptihlicationi 
V9 tfwrnl iiw^-al il»*i.ii'*i»*«inft on jMirtMijUr rtnirtiipr»a. i 
aarh aa tl.e Tc-tnple of holomon, the Trm{*}e of |)*jr)a • 
il E|ihrflQa, and the PyninifU of Kfryfit ; ()ut liifitt* f»y wliich . 
Iw will be nMMt i^enerjlly and loncfut known art* his * ii«ii« | 
ksMC aarh den <frund«itz'*n diT Alten/ Im»9, and hb 
• Oawlilrfate drr lUukun«t licy dm Altm.' lHi]>7, 9 vok 
4lD., with a li'lto atla« of platia. Thi« lii*t not <ifily pi%c« a 
hbtofy o/antient arrhitrrture, that of Kl'v(4 inriti4h*<l, down 
IP the time of CV>ft«tAntine, but al«o a full aet-onnt of all tlie 
vwioof riaawt of Imihhnra. Latterly he wai murh ocruiii<><l I 
kt arvnn^oir the ft>UertJoiia in the'lterlin M*i«eum, wtiirh 
broMfrht hiin into a literary di«pQte with hb foniier rwfiil and 
tieoi^^. l>r.W oaten, ainre well known hrre hy hb rftt to En|r- 
laad and rvmarka chi Knirii«h art. lltrt died at fieri in June 29, 
l^37, ju«t two davt ai!«T enimnir hb teventy eiffhlh yrar. 

H<»ADLKY, 'BENJAMIN. M.I>., eldeat ton of Biabop 
lioadley flloanurr, Bav/AMiJt, P«C.), was bora Ffhnmry 
U\ 17UA, m London. He w«i admitted of Cort us Chrbti 
l *u llnra« Ca»hn«ljfe. April •. 1722, and rrceived hit d^^ree | 
cif M.I>. ui 172*). In June. 1742, he wea ap)Krtntcd phyai- . 
cian ID hb Majeaty'a houM*hoM. and in January. 1740. wdj 
appointed tihy«i( >an to the houw-hold of Frrdene, I*rinre of 
Walaa^ and he held b«>th ottcea at the nune time. He wan 
the anthor of 'Three Lrttrn on the Orrmna of Retpirition/ 
* al the Royal Collrpe of Phrfttiian*. Lon<lon, 17S7, be* 
the (•uUuioian Lerturra fur tlui veur ; * ( >rmiio Anniver> 
Mfk In Tbmtro (*ol. Mtdicor. ei llarxii inatttota, habita 
die IKmoOrt. 1742;' M>liMTvati«n« im a S^rira of Elee- 
Ifbiil £apffbMnta.' 175«. 4to. I)r llomlleT b now known 
aiiiaiy a a tba at hor of * The 8ttaj»iciotn Ht»hnd/ 1747, a 
I mi tt inir tmmAf, full of inridentt of intriinie, in which G«i^ 
nc4 wna dbtinpbhrd f<ir h» pvfffcnnanea of the chanrter of 
lafliTir, oaElManwaaalNimMOfwrMvnttimea. i)r. lioadley 
«ad AnfMl 10, 17*7. in km how«e at Choben. Ub brother, 
the Hev. Jnaoi BoAi*tJT. LLU., born (Mnbrr 8, 1711, 
ditd Mairh 19, 17;i>, w^ the bubop*t yonoftwt «». Ue 
Via Ilia aMboraraaveralpoemabi Dwitaaey'a CWbvtion, and ' 
of ian dra— Hb pio fra , nhxh are now krvotten. He pnh- • 
Mad m adbioa oC Bbi^p H(4ulie} '• \l otia, London, 1779, 
^ •obi Mia 

HOAN C-HAl, o r WIf ANCBAI, 7U Y ^ fim . ^ 

a Mrge medtterraneaa afn, wbien nma into the cMleni e?^^ 
of Am, bemfr enrlopcd on the weal and north by CMnn fr^^-rr. 
and on the east by thn Pcninfttb of Com ; on tba aawih .t 
b open and united to the Partfic ()et«n. It Hea m tl» 
parafleb of the Mediterranean, which di video Europe frwm 
Afncm, between 54* and 41* N. bt., and extendi fraa 1 17* 
40" to 147* E. hmr. 

The northern fiortion eitenda in lenfth frooa weal to «Wi4 
M>mew hat more than eiirht hundred milea from tbe ihowi iU 
the Gulf of Petrlnli, near the month of the Hirer Pethv. «o 
the cnaat of C'orra, at the bark of Janiea Unll'a lalai^ 
and it comprrh<*nd« two baaina, U4n|r dividad nan i t y in the 
miihJU* hy a widt^ly projerdniir ptnintnb, wliicli jnla twf 
on tiie northern coa«4, and may be railed the Peainanhk «f 
Lr«o4nnfr, aa it fonna a part of the pravinea of tbat nnwe. 
The atrnit whieh liea between the mmt a o u thera poinC nf thia 
peninsula and the northern aiiorea of the Plovincw of '* 
tonfr b about fifty mi lea wide, and n eootatni 
ftinall rneky iaiunda. aothat it would appear that at ( 
period the' Peninntila of Leao»ton|r waa imited lo thnt of MMn» 
ton^. Between thrae blamb arc pa*»airea whirh l«d a» the 
moat wrctem ha»in, which eonabta vt* two golib, that w 
Peteheli nnd that of Leao-tonir. 

The Golf of Peteheli waslies the north-weatem aheeee ••! 
Shan-lonjr and the eaatera of Petcheli. Th«e ihorre a*w 
low, and eon only be aeen fnmi the deek of n e r aa cl at the 
difftaiicr of al)oot nine milea. The uniformity of the •mmd^ 
inim nlontr thoae fhorea b unusual. At the diatanre «l im 
niilo* from the b4»a<'h they rary only between ffonr and a half 
and »iK fathoin*, and at twelve milea b e tween aix and ^aht 
fat hoMM. Laryo % e«aib cannot approarh the ahorra, and ^ ■< 
ri*muin at anrbor fiora four to sis milei otfl Thb part of tie 
llnaii^-hai ia only navi^ted by ibt^bottomed veoaab, wf 
find alu>lter in tlie enihouchurea of aome nnail rivera. Wl 
the irulf apnmorhra the abovennentioned atrnit 
Leart-tong and bhan-tonor, the ahorea rise higher, and nrr wt |j 
d«-Hne«l. Here a ntnyrt* of moontaina a tr e tch ea from anwi^ 
we9t to north-ea«t at the diatance of tea or tweUe aaib^a frwoi 
the afii, and bet Mem them and the ohore b n lover belt W 
elevattHl tn-rmnd in a tute of hifrh culttaation, o iori^ with 
many towns and villajrea, ami intei ap eraed nrithatnt lMt d t 
and M*«i rml extensive wooda. Along thb eoaat the aammi 
are aomew I ut drefter than on the other, bnl Bat an 
mi^ht heex|M»rted from the bold outline of thn bnd ; at 
aptM ar to l)e aome hurltonrw for brfrer vemela. 

The nr»rtl>em |Miriirm of the we«teni baoin, or Iba <i«lf W 
Leao.tcnir« i* imfierrertly known, for no E n i ap i— wraBv4 baa 
mih d up to itf inont remote nera.^. The ^ttam m9 fwtkj ^nl 
hiuh, and they inenase in elevation and afeepnaai an ibrv 
procrefl farther north. But in fpite of the inrky nntiww t* 
the a^lJMTnl rountrien the aonndinvv are rather ragbhr nmd 4# 
moderate depth. 8ome pood hwrbmira far loige veaoelo vw 
known to eiMt. and it b >ii|ri<oaed that aeaeiml othm amy hm 
fmind when thia jmrtion ot the Hoaiia hni b betlar kw nan. 
The iipfter |)urt of the moontaina which endooe thb rblf "^ 
baiTTii nnd neariy deaiitufe of trrea, but between tkia mmi 
the chorea there are many fertile and well«oltivnlod tmrtrn. 

The water in the wettem baain of the H u an g hai ia n# a 
dirty yellow or preen, which colour Mena la be d«tieTi^ irom 
that of the mud« which conatitntra ita holtom. Tbetw ww 
a U'^ «niall inland* in ilii> fwrt of theara. hot the giu oa of tbree 
tkhiiidii, calM the M<>atao hlonda, which lio patvy » ti - 
at rait lM*twe«'n the wet-trm and rofttera baMtt, are of ■Mtfmar 
extent and well ctiltivaHd and pofmleua. 

The eaatern hrt^in of tie north«*ra nonhm b eery l»f- 
known. Only the m^wt MMithern nart of it, ihatwltifli ww«-.a<« 
the north-raotem pl<on*a of the Pminanla of H ha i -fonr- *«• 
been naviirated hy Ki>rrt|N>ana. and m theH* rarta thaimtira'M 
ia aafe, and then* arv only a tew mckv iatambw The a«««w 
Intra are reir«l*»r and m< Jennte. and tnrrr are aome Ifdun m^ 
harhoura for aniall rr^ncb. The northern Mikao«» ^mn m 
repreaenled on the C*hineie nuipa aa eoatainm|r arae^wi «m 
tenaive froufia of blanda, eapitially along tba obanw td* tfiw 
Peninmb of Leao-tofiir. 

The mott aoutliern port of the YeOow flea, or thai wbwh 
lie* ninth of a line drawn from the BMal north mmmm twfm nl 
the Pcninaulaof Shan-lomr lo the coaitof Connaltbe lara 
of Juiifn Hiiiri Ulamit. b al iia aDolhorm onrcwby b u mown 
tftie mnuth of the nter lloaag-ho and the aualh ■nai aofw «=. 
CVirra nenrir m-wtt hundred mibs widn, kat ginoa aartmw*! 
aa it |«tv«t«da north, teinff near ita norihoni hoaadary^tea^'^t 
»ore than two hondied tmira acroM The ihorea of tbm |mr« «n 

H O L 


H O L 

|vi«al» tnlilirr M ritrrarljr poor. UoerbefK*! : 
i|itfM to brfrviiw. walrkiiif akf^, and othor Pc^aDi 
■nd likr (Stotlot, hb firit eflbrU woro ■moo. with 

ll<)i:RBBftO, PEIIR, a dMoiMbca SvodUi p^lv« 
«M bom in o viHairr of SniUond, in 1746; bio fittlMr woo a 

jooth WW 

eli«lk in the woods vh«o p«rfofniin|r 
When onljfonrtrfn ytm of ■!(• lie entered Iho torTtoe oft 
pointer of Woxio, hot be ivmuned with btm for o very obort 
peHod. Howrrer, li/ Ibe ttoM be wm two and twenty yrmn 
oCofe, bo nontrived ti> learn oo morh from one painter and 
anecbcr in bb own dittnct, thai he was enabled to anuntain 
hiassir by his paiatinfrs, and lie otrn ventured to talie a wife. 
In 17M, in bis thirty-ci|rhth year, he berame a student in the 
Roya) Aradcmv of Arte at Stocltholm, in which he obtained 
two prisea, and made rmjiid prooTPW. In 1790 he established 
bifn««lf at Olslorp in East (;utaJand, where be obtained a 
irrrot fvpautiao, and in 1797 be was elected a m ember of the 
Swedifh ac3i«leniy, and was apfiointed hiftorical painter to the 
khnt. Uedif^iin 1816. 

Tbers are rti^ht y-srvm altar>pieoes by H u ei b ei y in Sweden, 
6ve of which are' m|iir« ; his paintings altopetW ammmt to 
ahoot 700, numtly n*lt|rioai pieces ; bis drawings are Itl^ewise 
■nmeroos* and kn* r« routed many enmvings. 

lib etecntinn is aniintslted, but bu compositions are vigor* 
ons and pervpinifiot . and bb 6gura are more dbtiogubhed 
for ebaraeter than for hraaty. 

His aalobio<rra|ihy wasi poldisbed at Upmla in 1817 ; it has 
been translated into (verman and Danisii ; the original MS. 
b in the lihrnry of the (tymnmtum of Linkoping. 

( KmmMaU, 182i : Nagler, Atlfmrnrinm KtmUkr Lexirm,) 

HOLA'STER, a gmos of fossil Echinodcnnata^ from the 
ehalk and arrensaad di^pofiu. 

IIOLCUS, a genus of gnwsM bdonging to the trihe Ses. 

It has *i-flowered glumes, the lower fierfcrtiy awn- 
traA, the apper nsnsllv vtaminifrrou*, with a df»ml s%in; the 
fnUse baroeninfr on tike fruit. There aiw two Brttiih «n«H*io« 
of tbb genua. H. ItmahtM hm the opper glume obtuse, 
anindata : the awn fmnnth, except for a short diftancc from 
tne tip. it grows in nn^ows and pa s t ur e s . H, moliU hss 
the apper frfwne acutr, and the awn rongh throogboot its 
whole estent. It grows in thickets or open nlscm on a light 
soil. The H, cenums of Willdenow, snd the H. Bonflmm 
of fJnnmus ars now referred to the genus Sorghum. [Soao* 
urn, P. C] Prnss rpfen the pAX*^ ct Theophrastns ( Hist, 
Mm#. vili«, 1,9.7, 10)tDthrspgniKseii,andnottothe^feranfl 
iiaiifn, as bad been done hv previmn authors. 

(Rafainffton, MamutU iy''Bnii$h Boiamy; Fraas, Symop$i$ 
Plmi. Pform CUumh^ ) 

IIOLL, ELI.^S. a di«ttngiii«hed German arrhttect, was 
bom at Au^'«liunr in 1573. Iii» father, Johann iloll, was 
Kkewita an areliitrrt, and was much employed by the eele> 
Imrted prraf pDinrrr of Aufrsbunr. Elias was taken when 
ynnng to Venice, hv a rirh inrn*hnnt of the name of Garb ; 
and bo there stmlini the Italian arrbitectnre, which stvle be 
adonted In bb futorr mork* at Aag«hurg, thoogh onicii sim- 
plHfed in parts and In dorvtnitions. Augsburg owes to Iloll 
a great portion of it> public build inirs, Injt bb msolerpiece b 
the Rattibnas, or titwnhsll, faoilt I615.'i0. which, though 
nnC amonftho bryrvt, is still one of the band«onieitt in 
Corope. The foradc b 147 feet wide, iu depth b 1 10 feet. 
and m the crntre 15*2 feet high : there b a print of it by 
Mnmon Kleiner. Iloll built aluo several chunhr*. and the 
fSMle or pslacp of SrbiMifelH. and the pabre of Wilitiadslirrg 
at Eirllstadt He db«l \n 1656. aged sixtv-three. 

(Von Stetten. iCHi'hiienmt j m drr ta kmjfer gmtorktnm 
ForsTeflbngew mw tier Gnriiirkte tirr ReichMt^di Amf U mnj^ 
fte. ; Lipo««kr, Bnierikhrn Kumttiftr Laierm.^ 

llf)lJ.ANf>. SIR NATHANIEL, hbtorical, landscape, 
asid portrait painter, was iIm* third tno of Dance, the architect 
of the Man«i«Ni House. wIki died in 176M, and the younger 
brother of (;er«n;r Dance. R. A , the architect of Newgate. 

Nathaniel I>anre was the pujiil of Hayman. and he studied 
atw a few yrtat at Rome. He was one of the original 
Cblrty.fii memlvrs of the fUiyal Arsdemy, founded in 1766, 
tfton^ he cannot hare bem at that time more than twenty, 
ilve re*-^ of sgr. He (tm^fhoted msnv worki to the academy 
eahi>':tMnt a« Sir Nathaniel IiolUn«f. m well as Nathaniel 
I>BOf«. He cbanireil hi« nan>e tii llrdUnd unoo bb arauiai. 
tien of a barmtHcy in IMMI, having pre«iri«Miy married Mrs. 
Dammer, who wm connected with several nohle families. 
Tbb lady w«i fmoiemed of entailed evtates. chiHly In llamp- 
iMrv. hicbtffinir Net lev Abbrr vm the Southampton jn^rr, to 
the^aSm of IM.OOQf. 'per annum. Upon hb acquisition of 

hb title, 8b If atbaniel Hollaad apptais to bata nsgatd ii« 
aoademieal diploma, for froos that time bo tsldbitrd stm 
honorary eabtbiter. ^^ rapiaaantsd for some tbw iW 
borouffhofEaatGrhmtaad: ho resided at Ciaabarj Usmt. 
near Wincbcaler, and bo died saddanly in that cttj «« 
Ortober 16, 1611, aged abont sixtv-eifrnt. Lady iloiU 
survived until 1625, when she died, leaf tnf parsoaal prspwn 
to the amount of half a million, the greater partiaa of nkrl 
cmme lo bar nephew the hUo Earl of Cardigan, who mm k«r 
•ole eiecotor and raaiduary legatee. A slmy waa rinabiij 
about Sir Nathaniel Holland, Uial when he 1 

of bb great fortune, he waa ashamed of hb prafasuoa, ^ 
that be spent thomands in the reporvbaae of nb own uwiA, 
for the purpose of destroying them to oblitenUe the rrcu- 
lection of hb ever having been an artisc Tbb slory, has. 
ever, independent of the warn contradiction H mst aiik 
from some of hb friends, b contradicted also bjr the Im U 
hb continuing to paint and eihibit, and of has Dmcntbc 
INCturra to hb friends ; it b also jfasurd tosnppoaa laatptopr 
of rank would part with the portruts of their rebtbm br« 
pecuniary consideration to the painter, lo enaUe htsi w 
destroT them. The report waa no doubt maga«ded from ta» 
fact that ho deatrorf ed some of bb own woika ia kn owi 
possession, because ha thought that they arare not calrabMts 
add to his reputation. All hb best works bowavar still rvA, 
but chiefly in private collections. The Man}ab C«Mdri» 
ami Sir \\ . W. Wynne contributed three to the eakibitba «f 
the works of decesfed Britbh artisU at the British InstitutM 
in 1817-Orpheus, and Garrick as Richard 111.; two Ji 
hU verv best works; and Charles, Earl Camden, Unl 
( * hsnccl lor. The following are also among hb bait work* - 
Tinion of Athen«. of which there b a fine print bjr J. Ual! . 
Vinnnia, scraped in metiotint byJ. G. Haid ; and theilrat« 
of Murk Antony, engraved by T. Watson. Dance pabuv 
many |iortraitj, including both royal personages and bi«ho>«, 
and latterly also some landscapes ; the last work wbirli u 
exhibited was * A View in the New Forest.* 

it has been also re|iorted that Sir Natbaniol aavod SOO.OOul 
out of his wife's iiic^ome and bequeathed it to hb rrbtitn 
but thb re|Kirt b also untrue ; he diatribnled onlr ao.(U< 
smong his relations, the rwidue waa bequeathed to hbwidna 
These reporu have been here noticed, motw narticubrf« 
because they have been carelessly repeated and with rimn^fv- 
able ssperity by the writer of the ar«iela oa Gi 
in thb wortt. [P. C. S.] "~* 

Magarine' for 181 1, and m part, in 1829, Out hava beau me- 
tradicted in subseuoent editions of Pilkbigton ; and nnon tbw 
insertion in 18M tn the « Someriet House Gaaolia/ they mm 
immediately afterwarda contradicted in that same wmi, uA 


an apology waa made for their appearance. Tho slalfmrata 
of the * Gentleman's Majrasina* were apparently nat sen ^ 
any of Sir Nsthaniers friends, or that work would ham m> 
tainly contradicted them also. 

{Scmmai Himm Goialfe, 1824; r-nlfaa 
1811, 1825; AnAecifmttfaUtkelHetmrm 
Rotmi rftkt Britiah 18ia «o IStt.) 

HOLLAND, HENRY, bol^ a high rank amsar th- 
arrhitccu of bb own time, and waa greatly | B lf a ni iw bi 
Geor^ IV. when Prince of Wales. Dot ww have a* »- 
formation as to hb personal history ; and Ida finest u«rt 
the portico of Cariton lionse, has pmatd avny. It wm «^ 
of unusual grandeur, esiiecially when we eaaaMar the per* 4 
of iti errction (about 1784), and was a ten sperimre mt 
merely of the Corinthbn order, but of the Rnmnn Coriaduv 
stvle. in its full and uniform luxuriance, every part af it bf*-* 
highly finished up, and not only was tho friene off 
enriched with sculpture throngboatF— with 
mid thst hf HoUand himself, theonly i 
dcroration among the whole of our modere daabal aoru^v 
—but even the very bases of the eolanms wetw enricM m^ 
carving, a species of adornment by no 
shice, being so near the eye, it challenged direct and mMa% 
observation. Being only hexastjle— and there was a^ •» 
that time any imtance of an octartyla fai tho 
did not make that dbplay m regard toeohimn 
which »me l a ter oaa m ples dot yet it ei osllad nBh t dbr a erw*^ 
hi Its bold projwtion from the boUdiiy. vbidi naiiifiJ it «* 
triprtMiyU nro p ort fon s in that reapect, al th an gh 
as rrpinlcd arrhiteetufal character, a 
each fbnk, in order to obtain an 
tn aifmit carrin^ve. The denth and 
of the portico was still fitrtker ' 
rrcrased within the buUdii^, by which it 




H O L 

^« , .^ • •««( !• Clin— y, tmd MlWMd bftm Di««l«i by 
K' M^-» «a4 Ui— til, bsvinft obtMi w rf a Frraeh \mmpnii 
i7m^ I M^vfaail, «Ht liberty to aako mm of it frooi Loftt 
i.'w^iir. wtm famffDMOvCvf. la tiM MaMMror 1003, 
«-t«-' tft^ r«i«»«-l«Hn« of th* p(«c« of AauMM, hr repa&fvd, with 
I^« U«mUo< to IWm« and «M thora •oon afW Joinod bj 
Mr. F«a, «)4«c witk whom bo «« ioirodooed to tbo m 
coHoL Vmm Pmrw, Lonl ood Lody Uolkod pnmcded 
tkii—^k Fraaeo lo S\mm^ md tbey rwHtinod in tliot country 
tiU afttT Iho bfvikmc ool of tiie war with Eofrtaad in 
jMnrr, lltOS. neimramm booio throoirk Portugal by nMsans of 
l—BiMii obfamgd tbroMicb tbo Prioro of tbo Peace. 

lie oow riaumeirf bw attPttdanoe in tbe Uoum of Lordi ; 
and bM oaoM, at bcfuro« ap|)can fh?*{ucnt]y in tbe reported 
dcbif Uo «M not adwutrd to otficc dunng tho minittry 
of Mr. Fo» and Lord Grenviiio ( January -.6e|>croiber, 1806); 
Un on tbe iMb of Aagurt be and Lord Auckland were t|>-> 
pitmtrd j«>tnt-cimmiiMi()ner« and |iJenipotcntiariee for niraog- 
imc and tettiixiff tbe tpverel nautcri in diamimicin between this 
ronntryaad tbe United Stoics, witb Mr. Munro and Mr. 
Pincbney, tbe raited States cooimiisioners ; and on tbe 87 tb 
of tbe flune nH»ntb be was sworn of tbe privy counriL An 
of tbe diilcvenci*s witb Amerira was effc*etf^ 
ne-^rneiation (witb tbe omia»ion howcrer of tlie 
Hi qift'itioo); but Mr. JvlX'vnua rrfusi.Mi hit mtifi- 
it OBoie to nothing. On tbe 16th of Ortul^er, 
eitb of Mr. Fos, Jxvd Holland wss appointed 
(old ftrivy seal ; and be held that olfiee for tbe six months 
lonper that the (in^viile ministry la^h^d. 

In HUM, Lunl liolUnd bt<<*atne an author be the pub- 
flestion of *Sonio Account of the Lite and Wrilinirs 
of Lope Felix do Vega C«n>i(>/ in an octavo \oluiue. 
Tbb work, nhicb was rrpuhiuht'd in 1h17, when it was 
ealended to two volumes by the adthtion of an account 
of Guillen de Castro and other matter, was ennli table to his 
lordsbip*s taste and lamiltarity with the more p<)|iular parts of 
Spaaisb literature, wit^iuut 1mm ng very leanied or prolonnd. 
It bsd Ibe aerit, or lark, of leading the way in tbe reviral 
of that mteresi in the litenunre of S\mm which baa sinoe 
pnmdlod to some extent in this country, though it spread 
■oea mpidly at fiivt than it has done of Ibte years— a ailler- 
eneo la be attributed partly to tbe allureoient of novelty «m1 
tbo praouse held out bjr on unexplored iicUl, but more per* 
baps to tbe politjral cimimstancrs and events which for a time 
drew •■> nwcb attention to every thing Spanish. Lord Uol- 
laad followed up his Life of Lope de Vega tbe next year by 
another octavo tuluiae entitled * Three Comedies Awn thie 
Snmusb :* and in lauH be editvd and ntrodoccd by a prefiice 
of aomo length Mr. Fox's fr^rnM^nt entitled * A' History of 
tbe earlv part of the lU'itin of James tbe Second.' 

On lae breaking out of tbe Suanisb insurreetion in tbb 
last mentioned vear, be bastened once mot* to visit tbe 
peninsula ; and be rrnkained there till tbe latter part of tbe 
year llHMK The rest of his public lifo for many years was a 
eontiaaalion of the mme course of opposition to tbe policy of 
tbo govemaaent witb which be bad set out on bis enttanee 
btfo parliament. He took a leading part In most of the gre^ 
<|iHntions tbat rame before the House of Lords, and |iar- 
twalnriy diatingvisbad bimarif by bis mpport of Sir Samuel 
Roasilly *s law aaiendments, hy bis ndvorary of Catholic eman- 
cinatson, mmI bia opposition to tbe orden to conncil, tbe cession 
of Norway, and the detention of llonaparte at St. Helena. 
Ilawever opinion may dUbr as to tbe positive wisdom of 
bis politics, tbe praise at least of cimjitienry cannot be refused 
to bim. He was one of the stes«lirst Whiifs of Uic si hool of 
Mr. Fos. Uot \n thorn days tbe lxiundarir« of party were 
mnob sore clearly marked than tbey are dc>w; and 'almost 
tbo only sort of tnconsistenry tbat was pcM*iMe was going 
crver openly from tbe one cwmp to tbe other, clumging from 
Whig la Tory or frtim Ti»nr to Whig. These two great 
parliamentary di«uii»n« «rre then c|ui1e distinct, and did not 
shade iM UMo one an«ithrr as tbey do now. 

When tbe nnoucensfol atlnofg waa made Ibrongh the 
Manfonm WtdlcnUy to otfret a anion of parties hi January 
lall. H was peopowvl that m tbe new minittry to he formed 
open tbal pnaripl* Lat%l Holland ib<wld or^-u|iy tbe post of 
rigm Lard of tbe«ity. Like th4» msjfinty of his party 
be snppnrtad witbmtf yMtiirig tbe awtit«trr of Mr. Canniog in 
1BS7. In ma. be made whst has Um deMnbed m his 
baai speerb » Introdocang tbe Hill for the n^jiral of the Test 
and Corpotntion Acts to tbe Uooso nf Lords. At Un, on 
tlie anrwiMn of ibo Wbigs In power m NmrmlMT UaO, ho 
r^Uoet m*fvMrr m i*\'tur^'\\nr nf ih«» 

IXttby of Lancaslir; and tbk oOka be beM (wbb then» 
caption of tbe minislerbd faHerregnnm of a fer^igbt b lli# 
18», and 9ir Robert Peri*« four months* tcnnre af tmmn 

- pSSfT 

from December 1834 to AprU 1836) till bbdaMb at UdM 
Honaa on tbe fiftid of October 1840. He wm neceaded b« 
bis son, tbe present Lord Holland. 

Tbe only performancet which Lord UoUaad lent to (^ 
press besides tbosealrendy mentioned were * A Letterts tas 
Rev. Dr. Sbattlewortb In favour of tbe Catholic CIttit; 
8vo., Lon., 18:17, and ' A Letter from a Ne8]ioBmn ta aa 
Englishman/ which is stated to have been privately prini«0 
in 1818, and to have been written to clear np some aiems. 
ception by Marat of a conversation which bis lordthip M 
had with bim. Ho ia alMi tbe anther of a tnad4tKn cf 
Ariosto's Seventh Satire, which Mr. Stnart Rase bss |nn'H 
in an Appendix to tbe Filth Volume of bis tramlstioo oi tt# 
Orlando Furioso (1827), toother witb a version of the t^u 
Canto of that poem, which is stated by Mr. Bote to bs tW 
Dcrforuiance of an old schoolfellow, who may prrhsja W 
Idwfi Holland. As a s|)oaker Lord Holland mm ar^v 
animated than graceful; when be began, In partltaUr, *« 
was usually for some time extremely impeded sod nali.'. 
ni59etl ; and be never roie from this bentation into aav thit,* 
like the frve and impotnoos torrent of aripnnent or the'i*B'aiw 
tionod dci'loraation by which his relative Mr. Fox, sIit * 
similar unpromising outset, used to carry every tbtag U 'tnr 
hiro. But his s}iettking had alwsys tbe great charm ot kmntf 
and carnestDCftit ; and it commonlv also indicated, with kr>«. 
ever little of what could be called brilliancy, a weD-iufnra* ; 
and full mind. I^ord Holland was much belovrd bv • 
extitistve and varied a circle of friencb as perhapi snv'aas 
ever po^Hsscd ; and his house at Ken«ngton,interatirrft«i 
its earlier history, was during all his lifetime the rraot J 
the must distingni/ihvd persons both ia the world of poliiia 
and in that of literature. 

(Gemtlemim'$ Magazme for December, 1840.) 
UOLO'STEUM (from oXot, ' all,' and Aerfoe, * a beer.' 
an antipbrssis applied to this plant beeaoao it is »o!t »•) 
unlike bone), a genus of plants belonging to die aafnrjj m*-- 
Caryopbylles, and the sub-order Alsmma. It hm 5 »«p»li 

5 petals, toothed at tbe end ; 3, 4, or 6 stamens ; 3 ft) lr« t 
suucylindrical nmny-seedcd capsule, opening at the end. «i]^ 

6 lecth. Tbe species of this genus are herbs witb aotbaf 
to recommend them for use or cnltivatioa. One spcrtn^ 
if. mnMSfaifMn, is British. It has umbelUte 3oern, )«- 
besoent viscid peduncles, the pedicels reflexed after ll(meriar, 
the leaves acute, ellhitiasl, or elongate. It is not a O'lsska 
plant, but has been fonnd on old walb and dnr places at Nv* 
wich. Bury St. Kdmnnds, Eve, and Yarroootb. 

(Babbgton, Mmmal of hniUk Bv(amf.) 
HOLY ORDERS. fOmDtnATioir, P. C.l 
UOLZER, JOHANN, a distinguished Gemwi fmn 
painter of the early part of the eightecntb eeotary, ass bn 
at Burgeis, near Marienberg in Vintschgao* in m Tvrsl. a 
1709. His fiithcr ww miller to tbe Bcnedtrtine Corm it •( 
Alarienberg, and Hohcr was firat faistnicted by N. Avr st 
Meran in the Tyrol. He made here such extnesdlnsnr (rv- 
grvss, that at the early age of eighteen his repmstiiA t^en-l 
far mto tvermany, and he waa invited bv tbe |Sibirr ). A 
Merx, to Straubtng in Bavaria, to assist bim m some frv«*.«« 
in tbe convent churcb of Oborslteicb. From Straahin^ II .^ * 
went to Aui:<(barg. where he lived sis yeaiv in the Ima.-" ' 
tbe laiinter J. G. Bergmiller, from whom be kamt aiurb ^ 
the iiie(4umi<'al department of painting, both in fresco s»l & 
oil, for li4T|rniillcr was tbe prinrifial painter m Aot^vbari •£ 
that tioK*, and was much employed. Holier psmtn! *t»^, 
excellent frrsroes njMm tbe cxteriora of liouses In Ao*/^*'* 
but k'W, If any, now reniain ; there Is however a eoUrct •• ' 
twenty •cipht prints after them by J. E. Nilson. cat t'- • 
Fictuna a Fresco ia .fdibus Augusts VInd., a J. Uolsrr. !• 
Among these fmeoes. a peasant dance, upon tbe brsdi (f s 
beer shop, was a «ery popular work ; ami it is spri[«a sf ^ 
the highest Iemi4 in the Ictti'rs of J. L, Uisficoni aad 1 -<(' 
Algarotti. Tlie net)^hUninng peasant girU at tlial time ve^ 
e&trrmel^ short petticfiats ; in tbe dsuc e the asowmset* a>^ 
forma ol their leg« were accordingly fnlly displi>s«i. <aI 
UiancottI Sfieaks with enthusiasm of tbe braaly apd lifs of (•« 
yonng pesMuit girls m this painting ; tbe mros wme sKns 
the sise of lile. Holarr*s greatest works bowovcr aie \U 
frescoes of tbe convent cbnrcli of Scbwaracb nev Wanlv^qr • 

be obCataed tbe enmmissian to execote tbem by eamprtitk* ; 

he waa onlj i»«»«y 

and tbey were painted in 1737, when 
Mne xrAT* of nr**. Thev ore 'he be«f 

t v% iV' 

I 41^ MlWI 

i lUilii wJf«vv 




tkp tJirrnTfln llr it amI to Imv* Iwco m rncid in bk r»- 
Bgiooi BocioM thttt be vrouM not wflrr his ton to be toof bl 
to rtmi oHt ul Mj odwr book ibMi the Bible. Wiliiam vim 

fr«d«tlbc»^o^ten inaa sttomrjr'ft office in Lomloo : 
•fW MSM* tine bk &tb«r, fiodioir Uut be b«(l atlacbcd 
bimicif to mmm rribrmmf tonHj and bitnm to take part in 
•bal b« M«sni to bsre tbou|rbt venr objertionAbIc noli lies, 
iriaovvd btm to anotbor niMtor at Cbatbam, mitb «hoai be 
mwitned between two and cbree jean, lie tbcn rrturned to 
Lgikm» ami was etiMrd for tooe time aa deri to an atlor- 
mry vi Ony*9 Ion ; but at last be qutued Uie U« . and, ba%inf 
■Mrned, aet «p in July IMX) a< a bookifllfr, witb a ctixru- 
lalinf ltbf«nr» m Lunbetb Walk. Fmoi ihia Uirality be re- 
■wv^ to w bat wja then called St. Mailin*a Cbarrbymrd, in 
tbe neigrbbourbood of Cbariair Crua* ; and bcre be ap^ienri to 
bate nmained statkniary for leirerml jreart, altbau|rh it tt stated 
Ibat be wat once bomt out, and alio undcnucnt nian^ %icia»i- 
tadfa in boiine«L He bad always tieen food of litcratore, 
and in IHOC be brancbt out bk Am i 

vietioa« mm neqaHtod on carb iadictaM>frt. Hk mAdttm k. itw 


t iiubliratjon, an edition of 
6baw*a * Gardener.* After tbk be devoted miicb of bk time 
to aa attempt wbacb be made in ooiyunction with a friend to 
establiiih a Mvinga bank in Blackfriara Road, which, however, 
^Ird. He tben entered into partaendiip aa a bookacUor with 
tbit frieiidf Mr. John Bone ; but the tiieniUtion ended in 
baaknijitcjr. When be ipot unoo hi* feet a^rain be eatabiisliod 
bitBteli in a tbop in Maj'a Buildingt, whence he removed to 
|li|rb Street, Blooambury ; and here he apneas to liave re* 
maioed tsU 1811, when on the rrtirement of Mr. John Walker 
be was lelecled by tbe booktellen to be what k called the 
Trade Auctioneer, and placed in a counting-bouae in Ivy 
I^ne. Befora thit be bad been employed to compile thie 
lodes to tbe new edition of Lord Bcrnen*t TransJatioo of 
Frukmrt. But be bid no frvniut for busineaa, and, having 
now taken to tbe mvcatiinUioo of tbe abuaca in lunatic asy- 
Wrnt, be aooQ becwme bankrupt again. The date k not given 
bi tba aooount from which our alwtract k derived ; but it k 
ataled tbal be bad now aerpn children, whom be took to a 
bumble k»l|pnf in tbe Old Bailey, and endcmvotin'd for a 
tioie to Mpnort by cnntributing to neritMiiail |Niblicationa, 
r«pccklly tne * Chtioal Review' and tbe * BntiaOi Lady's 
l^l«gaitne.' At length, however, he found meant to set up 
oooa mora aa a boukirller in a email shop in Fleet Street 
11 ere be waa again wifortuoato in having hit nremiaea twice 
broken into and plundered, much of tbe atock tnat waa carried 
olT having been borrowed ; but be irema to have weathered 
tbraa diMatm ; ami in 1816, it k stated, he be«ame publisher 
of tbe * Traveller * newspaper. In that Tear be exerted bim- 
aelf with saoat prataeuortby humanity and stMrit in tbe mvea* 
ligation of tbe case of the unhappy Elixalietb Fcnning, exe- 
calnl mi a cbarge of puisnoiog ol wbi«'b there can scarcely be 
a doubt that slie was innocent ; and he puUisbed a very 
ttnktng arcount of tbe caae, modestly, however, withholding 
bk own name from tbe title- nage .etcept as the publkher , 
and giving tbe literary crrdit to a Dr. John Watkins, who 
only contributed three letters, forming tbe least interesting 
prt of tbe publMmtion« Tbe volume, an octavo of i40 pages, 
prwfeaaes to ba * printed for William Hone, 5S. Fleet StrceL* 
In 1816 be rnwiiiiced a weekly paper cwlled * The Refonn- 
kis* Register ;* but it does not aeem to have gone on long. 
l*bo arst year, however, be brought bims4»lf into great noto- 
riHy by a anvs of |<»liiicwl mtirca, poblisbed aa separate 
pam|ihleta, which bad immense auceem, tbe efCrct partly of 
tbeir liletary merit, partly ako of tbe wood-cut embdfiab- 
mmti from tbe rlo«rr and buoMimus drsiinis of Mr. George 
Cmickahank, whom tbcy fira amde generally known to tlie 
laOilic. One of them, • Tbe Political House that Jack Built/ 
wmt tbfwncb fifty rdiliona, beudiw producing a host of tn« 
Imor laiitstuma, Am»tber, cntitiini * A M<ip at Slop/ waa a 
scvmrpoff attack opi« tbe since defunct djuly OMiruiog paper 
callrJ *Tbe New Times/ itseiiiior I>r. (aTtcrvisr^b Sir John) 
IModdart, and tbe ConstitutKinal AMavki»<ici« or " Bridge Street 
Gang,* as Hone designaird it. But those of the series that 
Inmsil f«t tbe aM»t |iftali»iUfe fur the auiU>r were three 
cwmunird in the manner of pai vmInw B|am variuus fsuts of tbe 
Ibwlk af CcNamoD l^ny^r, Fcir tltc prtntini; and publisbiog 
of tbeee par«Miirs Hone wm b-iiuKtit Ui trul on tbive several 
indiriawnta m tbe Cuori of Kii>it** Bm<b, on the 18th. lUtlt, 
ami Mb of Urrro»»irr. IM7 ; th« titM djy brd^re Mr. Justice 
Abbat (aAerwardt Lord Tcnkpl*n). tl>e si*<«ind and tkiid 
days bnfiwa I^os^l KNcnburoogh. He dt frtnlrd himself on all 
tW tl.rre Iriak (wbicb mtn* befcirr •{tr* A junes;; and, not- 
nilkamadrng tbo best escrtums of ilie Ijench to yrvtmn a cvm- 

Jnr^ on the tliird day, especially, wbicb kslcd sevin k^i 
and a half, when, although fatigwed by bk mvi 
be was inspirited by aucccaa, was rpmarkablr ef 
feeling of tbe public waa that the alleged libels w«e nmn 
prosecuted for their political tendencj* and that if tWt koi 
been on tbe other aide of the quaaiion, w ritlcn in drfrtfr ./ 
tbe minktry instead of m ridicule of it, they never would b«f 
oucstMMied. There k also, we believe, no ttmn !•• 
, however objectionable tbeir form may have brra, tlu: 
Hone had an^ deaign to bring leJicion into cantrmitf It^ 
aconittal, bcaidcs the reputation which it brought b i- . v« 
followed by the subacri ulion of a considerable sum of r . .«^ 
for his use, wkicL enabled him to rrtoove from Fled .Mr*«i 
to a large house ou Ludgato Hill. But when nc attmi|<i«i w 
resume the business of a book auctioneer, be vraa, we arr u. . 
even less succeasfol than before. How long be oontnuird t 
businem k not stated. In I8i3 be published tbe rrtylu ^ 
researches to which ne bad been onginally directed vitli • 
view to bk defence, in an octavo volume entitled ^ A>»*t 
Mysteries described, espociallr the English Minrle {''a)« 
founded on tbe Anocryphal Kew Ti*stameot Storr, mk 
among the tm published MSS. in the British Maseoia.* 1u 
is a curious work, not at all addres^ to the maJtstadr. <v 
chargeable with any irreverence of design or manor', ba 
treating an interesting antiquarkn subject in the dis}nniuuir 
style of a studious inquirer. It baa now been nearer •«,*-• 
scaled by more ekbora<e works that have since apptwred . --^ 
when it waa umduced it was by far the fullest arcoum «^<-* 
old miiacle plays that had been gi^ren to the puUic. la 1^.-^ 
Hone be^an the publication, in weekly nnmlicrs, of u 
' Every I^y Book. The mle was knrc, but hk fsauli U: 
now increased to ten childrm, and be again got mto o-- 
cultios ; the end of which was I hat be was arreated kv s c^ 
dilor aiid thrown into the Kins's Bench priwui. iW »» 
remained for about three years, during whicn time be tnin^ 
bk ' Every Day Book,* in two volume's, and besan and ttu*^< 
hk ' Tablo Book,* w one volume, and ako bu * Year Bma 
in one volume. These three works, which may be ruondnvd 
as forming properiy so luany seri«^ of the same andrrtak :^. 
are full of curious information, and will firofaably presrrtf •^• 
name of their c«>tii|»iler alW everything eke be aid shi^ •• 

ho rest of Hone's life was a contttmation of fHv> 
todes such aa ihuse to w hich he bad been all bk dars sr? i»- 
tomed. Some time aAer he got out of prison a naoiMr o4 U 
frienda attempted once more to establiUi him in tlie work n 
kndlord of the Grssshop|ier Cotfee*bonae b (Sm'fckwva 
Street ; but afler a few vears this s|Jcculation ako baled lit 
then fell into the hands of some new aoqnaiatanoes ef im 
Independent connexion^ who persuaded him to try kn tsbtn 
as a pn^acher ; and be appcaivd fri'qnently an the rnlpi >' 
the Wrigh House Chapel in East Cheap. Ue Imd hid a 
attack of api>plex^ so long ago as in I Ml 5 ; In liM W vn 
struck by iiar«i>sis at tliis chapel ; in 1837 be waa eitaia «»> 
UHy attMiLcd at the office of tbe * PlOriot * newtcapr*. - 
whic*h he was then sub-editor ; soon aAer be mUbrei snuit*' 
attack, from which he never recovered ; and bo died si 1*« 
tenham on the 6th of November, 1842. We have bmu!^-' J 
hk principal works, but bo was tbe antbor of a good su^i 
more. Ilk kst publication was, we believe, an fdit^on •: 
Strutt'a * SporU and Fastimea of tbe Eoalkb/ kont ««l-s' 
octavo, which appeared in 1838. W*e nave nm set-os • *•> 
which has appeared since bk death, entitled * Earli t>' • ' 
C«Niversiun or William Hone, a narrative wrillen hy liiw* • 
edited by bk son, William Hone,* 8vo., Louden, IMl 
Hoi»e waa a warm-hearted but mUd*tempoeed maa. m«t 
misconceived by tbuae to whom bo waa kaowa «■* 
througfi hk parodies, wbicb bo probably uwdinvd k nr« 
tboughtlcssnem and innocence of heart. It k evabwt n-* 
the above sketch of bk history that the nawnrldhnrm •d : • 
nature was such aa k rarely met witb« 

(.VMMKr m Gmtkmtm\ Magaxumfifr Jmwn }. IM ) 
HONG KON(;, one of the group of rockv kkiMfts mu^l 
at tbe muatb of the Canton river, abont tbiny-«rvea mi« 
from Macao, and one hundred from Canton. It is soad h- w 
between 2*2* 9^ and US' IV N. lat. ; bat tbk pmlnblv mr««.-i 
MNne small dependent islands : only one meridian of lnac<-«* 
hm been given, 114* 18' cust. The kind k a s p a i an d - * 
the mainland of China by a narrow stnit, wbldi vant* t 
width from U-m than a mile to fbnr or fve aulm; 1*^ ■■ 
arooant states that tbe brsadtb of tbn dmnnal k m oa* pirt 
little more than a quarter of a miW. Tbo length «i ^ 

li o o 


H O O 

Petimiimg^ kc) 

HOOD, TnOMAH, mw Irim m 17f»M. \n the Ponltrr, 
Lonrir/n, whew hi« fafb#^ w» a h<irjkiil|pr, of th<» flrm m 
VcrrKir and Hood. ThfrnKin HonrJ w,ij •mt to a »rhool tii 
Tokraboctae Yard, m ih«» Htj. »• « f!ar.^>rnr»lor. Th<» two 
maidrn flMtcm whf» k#»jrt the •<*h'iol. an<l wifh whom FfooH tor>k 
h*« dinn«T, had ihr orUJ nam« of Hfiir*fl»-^h. and th'^r ha/1 a 
•rfialtWf! birothiT, wfio wiw alw.iy* jwMrr^v*! ««• Mr. H./ and 
who »u**»r<iurntly Iw-cjirnr the j)r«»tntyji#» of ChaHr^ I*imh'« 
itn«iK-Ci*«ftrtil fanT <-alh-d * Mr. II.' U(ffM\ wa« aft/Twan!! 
lenl to a pr»»[ianitory «choo1. aiu! in duo rrwirv wj* tran«fem*d 
SQ a fininhiiijf u'hff*>\ in ttu» nriglilxjurh'x>d of l>»ndon, but 
diTivi»<I licilf fj«'n*-fit from «-ith«p. 

In IHIl IIooil'ji fathrrdio<l. and (iof»n aft^rwardf his rM<*r 
bn>th<*r di#fl al*o. Thomim H^tod iM-intr thr»n th#» only mmainine 
*4m of the widow, ahc waa anxiofJ! to have him nf*ar hrr, and 
mraJIed him home. In J81*2 nhc* wnt him to a <lay-wlio<'d. 
Hit aeronnt of this s*}uMiI and it« ma*tpr is <o dianirtf-rUtif ua 
to IjO worth extra<^tin2f frf>m \i'\% * LiU^mry Rpminisrcn^es ' 
(* IIool'i Own/ p 202) : — * In a hoa^o, forrncrly a "ulmrhan 
m^t of the unforturuito Earl of Kss^x, over a pmc-er's shop, up 
two pair of J»taini, there wa* a very neleet day-wh<v>|, kept by 
a dc^ii^i»d Dominie, x-s he would have been Trailed in his native 
land. In hi* Ijctter days %»h^n my brother ^as his pupil, be 
hud b»*en maMer of one fif thr»4e wholesale eoneenw in which 
a<i manv ignorant men have made fortunes, by f«voor of hij^h 
tenni, low Dsben, gull.lile juirenLs, and \'ir-timi/i'*! little fifjys. 
As our worthy Dominie, on the rnntniry, had faded to realize 
rven a oompctenee, it may be inl'errefl, li>}^eally, that he had 
dfine better by h s jHipils than by himself; and my own exjK*- 
riencc went to prove that he attended to the interests of his 
t^'holars, however he mi^dit have neplected his own. Indeed 
ho h-as rf*s<^mbled, own in e.xu*mals the modern worMly 
inndin^ tehoolma^ter than the jrfKxJ honest earnest olden jjoda- 
givuc -a pedant perchance, but a learned one, with whom 
leaehinjr was a labour of love, who had a pro[>er tense of the 
dignity and imjiortance of his calling, and was content to find 
a nuiin portion of his reward in the honourable prrdicieney of 
hia dis<iplet. Small a« was our college, its Principal main- 
tained hia state, and walked gowned and covered. His cap 
was of faded velvet, of black or blue or jmrple or sad green, 
or, as it seemed, of all together, with a nuatux of brown ; his 
rolM! of crimson damask, line<I with the national tartan. A 
oiiaint carvod bighbarkcd elbowinj article, looking like an 
ffHiijrc from a act that had been at home in an aristocratical 
draw ing-rooin under the ancien rt'ijime^ was his professorial 
dmir, which, with hia desk, was a])|)ropriately elevated on a 
dais aomo inches above the common floor. From this moral 
and material eminence he cast a vigilant yet kindly eye over 
some dozen of yoimgsters ; for adversity, sharpened by habits 
of authority, h«ut not soured him, or mingled a single tinge of 
Uile with the peculiar red-streak complexion so common to the 
healthier natives of the north.* * In a few inonths ray educa- 
tion prtt£rrc8sed infinitely farther than it bad done in as many 
yean nnder the listless superintendence of B.A. and LL.D. 
and assistants. I pirked up tsome Latin, was a tolerable 
grammanan, and so goo<l a French scholar that I earned a few 
guinea* — njy first literary fee — by n'vising a new edition of 
'^ Paul et Virginie*' for the press. Moreover, as an accountant, 
I eotild work a gttmmum Itonum^ that is, a good sum.* 

From this school he was removed to the counting-house of 
Mes»rB. liell and Co., Russia merrl^uints, Wamford Court, 
City« Init hia health soon betran to fail, and he was sent in a 
Scotch srnark to Dundee, afwl crm.«igned to a female relation, 
who however refused to take cJiarge of him, and even reshipjxMl 
his lugga«r«?, ax>d woild iiaveatmt him back to I.iondon, if Ilood 
had not iiUy^d her an evasive trick, and frustrated her inten- 
lirnw. lie imm«<<li^teiy took Wigings for himself in Dundee. 
II V was tb*Ti hiut^i y-MT* of age, and seems to have been left 
t-ntirely at hi« own d.«(^nd. Fortunately he was not idle, and 
had ofi ta*tr f*w di^ i>i.v.'n, but tf>ok great dcliifht in reading, 
at well as in raxnUtn/, d^Uluii:^ and boating. His health gra- 
ti uUy iw»pfr#i#^, mA, a/wT remaining two vears at Dundee, 
he rrtaTj«d u$ l^/ti^Um. He engaged himself to Mr. llobert 
.^-»nd«, 9n #^r.''»"»*T. wtiO ««u his uncle, in order to learn his 
•rl, ar»«J *^ «j'>r»4rrt# with Lc Keux for the same uuriiosc. 

in \'''l\,Mt. Jf4*tt .Srr,(t, then eclitorof the * London Magn- 
/>M'/ «.«« »j x-d lA a d'jel ; the Magazine jxi.«sed to other 
i*r«>l»riet/>n, woo riJ^.p*T»ed to be I1o(m1's frionils, and he was 
''«hrMj ii»e sttaAixTi of sub-editor. He had ]mbli»h(Hl some 
ffirt^ m iV I/nnder Adverti^T and Dundee Magarine, while 
br rrraamed at that place, which were favoutably received, but 

be had not lie«i stiiwilnlmj |o any ftirtherappr^wwirr H • - 

* My vsnrrr/ mj% hi^. *did not nu«)iy T>limgi* in** into atr. • 
•hip, h»»t no 9nrm*r waa th*T^ a trrntimate ofieiiing fl»- ' 
juf^p^at it. Ii la GrimaMi, head ff>remoat, and was »|^ • 
b^ht;i*) thr sr*we«.* 

Hood, whii^p m tfaia titfcition. herame art|naint«^l w 
•^▼♦Tal p»>f*ow< who have di«fTnfmt«h«M them«^I«e« in F"l ' 
literam-e. and who w^tf th*^ contributors to the ' L*»" 
Ma;razine.' with Lnib,Csrey. Procter. Cnnninfirham. \Uyyt r 
Barton. Hazlitt. Kitrm. Hartley Colerids^. T&lfoiirrf, >•••' 
Horare Smith. Reynold*, Pnok, Clare, limyon, and *'U • 
With Lunb e«[iefially Hood afterwards bpciime on trrn.- 
gr^at intimary. which continued tiit Land/s death. 

Hriod> first poblicatioo in a laeparBte form was • (>d»« • 
.Adtln-^ses to Great People,* in which he was assisted \'} 
brr>th#?r-fn-law, J. H. Reynold s. and which was briMijr*.' «» 
anofirmously. • Whims and (Wditie*/ published in l^^J*' 
•mall Svo., CTm«ifted chiefly of his contrilwjtions to the * J^ " • 
M i;ra7ine/ with some additions. His next work was in p 

* National Tales/ sm. 8vo., which wws followed hy 'I'hc * 
of the Mid«ijrrmer Fairies, Hero and Leander^ Lye*** ♦ 
Centaur, and other Poems,* sm. 8vo.. 1827, a toI nine ol ** - 
jioetry which obtained praise from the critics, but little i ii 
from the public His eipcricnce of the unidcasant truth *: 

' TSioae who liv« to pir— auA pleMe to Live,' 

induced him to have recoorse ajrain to his lively rein. 1 Ic • 
li^hed a «ecoTid ^orio* of his * Whims and *f>ddiri«^«.* :.•..* 
third ^i^nn in lft2S. He commenced the 'Comic Anr 
in 1J<29, an<l it was enn tinned nine years. In the satitc • 
his c<^>!nic jK»em of * The Fppin? Hunt * crime out, and » x- 
much mirth at the expen«o of the Cockney sporL«men. \ 
was for one year editor of * The Gem,' and wrote for »t * 
poem called * Eugene .Aram's Dream.* 

In the spring of 1831 Hood became the occufiier • ■* 
hou^ called Lake House, iK'lonsring to the propn-i. r 
Wanstead, in Essex, near whirh it wa« situated. Wh-". - 
sidinp^ here he wmte his no>el of 'Tylnpy Hull.' Pc<' - 
dit!i(ulties compelled him to lea^e his'nleu«?iml rcsidenc»v i 
dedication of * Tylnev Hall " is datea Lake House, < W* . 
1834. He left it in 1835. 

The * Comic Annual* having terminated in I?.*I7, I: 
commenced ilic publication of * Hood's Own,* in a «• r . 
monthly numlvr?, in 8vo., 1838. It coasisted cliicflv **' 
lectioas from the prose and poetry which he had publU'.. 
the scrii»s of the ' Comic Annual,' with several acidititm*^ 
portrait of himself, for which be sat at the rc<juc<.t •»' • 
publisher, is attached to the work, and is, as he say.s h.i^ 
a faithful likeness. 

Ho<Ki went to the continent for the benefit of hi* !». i 
but while in Holland the unwholtsome air of the mar>l • . . 
duced an accession of illness, which proved of so dar.^. -i- 
nature that he was cH)m[H^llod to remain abnwd mnrii \, - ^ 
than he intended. He went up the Rhine, and was alti>c 
tJiree years in Germany and three years in Belgium. H.- 
in Hel^nura when he published his * Up the Rliioe ; ' im ' 
preface of which, dated December 1, 1839, he states U *• ' 
constructed it on the groundwork of * Humfihrey C-; ►• 
The work consists of a series of imafrinary letters r:<. 
hyi)Ochondriacul old bachelor, his widowed sister, Li* n.-; . ■« 
ajid a servant-maid, w ho form the imaginary tr&A ., 
party. Each individual writes to a friend in Fliij:lvitP:, . 
dt>&cribes the scenes, manners, and circumstances, tn a n. 
suitable to the Ktsumed character. The nephew's r> t- . . 
seem to endxKly the opinions and obser^-ations of Ht*-: 
self. The book is illustrate*! with whimsical cuts in II • 
usual ronirh but etfective style, and abounds in good s^-.-- , 
well as humour. 

Hood afterwards became wlitor of the 'New Month' v .N* 
pt^ine ;' after his retirement from which, in 1843, be cii..» ■ • 
his contributions to that work, and, with additions <it • 
and poetry, published them under the title of * Whtniftit ..:-. 
He still continued to sutler from ill health; andwh*-. 
secretary of the Manchester Athenaeum requested pirtr..- 
to place his name in tiic list of patrons to a oaxaar, Dt* n , 
in a letter of kin<Ily f(«eIiiior ^s well as humour, dated * \ - 
my Bed, 17, Elm Tree Uoail, iJt. Jolm's Wood, JuN .■ 

In 1844 Hood started his last i>eriodical, • Hood's y\ 
zine,' and c^ontinued to supply the best of its contiibati, n- : 
within alK>ut a month before his death. Those who hnvr - 
the work, anil have a taste for wit, humour, and iA^}LX. 
will not readily forget bis * Schoolmistresa Abroad,' • \; 




« tte Ml 

mx^^, tW MinMWMuO, evcrjthiair 4e- 

T««ai«Ai tW duiv «^ 1'«17, (^cnrrmi F«n|ufaar, the irorrrnor, 
■■k4 far ri»t^i «Ki MA>>r-4;rwnl HaU «m iwoni in as 
4tfmr^^9twrmM Canac b» a'nv'orr. An < liaiiiitwo o^ the 
aB«M» ^ii Attr «f u«^ t-Titourr unik pt^re, and tW rrport of 
that eirtnthuv vai correct. Sooo 
» lM«r«rr. * nui •W' tb^ niine of AlLaa, « bo «u id 
■ry 4>yiTi^ iit. otfdr a drt ijrUmo thjt be kiiev aad 
> kawv txui tiicfr ««« a Oc&rv'ttrT of 27.000 <iollm. 
\lM»m tnoft ^J«v. «»«/rp tletH-icnriea were dis- 
>l. and tbr irnilt mm t>.u Hook »ai airertrd on the 
ti^af M«Tft. l'«I«t ; all hi« ^^fxrlT waa «*txcd, and be was 
iMK bac« M Kr^riuki m cvtuaiy. Ybe ship rracbed Porta- 
Wfllk « JacMBTT, ID 111, an«} tbe diin meou ««re submitted 
l» iW lav^^d^^rs of tbr rn»«o. Tbe attomej-rfoerai's 
; vaa^ tbst tboo^ liouk muht Ifc liaW to a ci^il pro- 
I far drbt. Ukrrp was no ap<urrt)t rniux»i for a criinioaJ 
be was ml at Itt^-rr «i:h oolr two ffoid 
I is bis pnrket. lie tc*^ a >a»ill cvctj^rr in Somert 
Tflwm, tad fanned rv*nrrt>i«is with i»cw*(n(«en and iiMS«ra> 
be was ewAlHt'*! to su(i'.»»»- htiiM-ir with the 
I of §ubt'**u nre. lie h«eU in i4*«*nintv. aul was 
• «■!/ to a faw uf bw uid aiwut-iifrs, siidb as SUtthewa, 

Ia lAJD Sir Walter S''<>«t wa« in L/Kxli^n. antl. din'tnr one 
4tf wWk Km otd fneiy) Ttti. m* t (here Matth« «9, and. for 
lb* im tisr, II«»4. Tbe m^j'j.rv into ll«iok'» drla'aUJuo was 
mM Wfarr the •■iltt-buar*i. kmX tKc firucerdin^ werv n*{ire- 
wtaftmi taSrott as • cru*-! prf^re*.t<*»n ; be mm wurb pUwsc^ 
wkk H«ab*s cwavrfiBt>i««Ai |H>wc-r»; tL«*r were Uah suuncb 
Tanaa; awd Sratt iMvtsv touo a^tcrwar^U be«>n a;!!^^**! to bj 
• mtkitmam a^ aidi nr< to rrmmineod an eOiu>r for a pro> 
vwbI f i w a yif. be n^mrd Hutik. Hoi*«, bowet er, was 
WM4mtmmA far pvw«iftnal rrlrt>rivy. The * John liftll * new*- 
pifflr was fatft^^wned, witb lliwik icir iu editor. The rarecr 
•f lb« * J«ba Ball* is veil Lnoww ; it« attads djno Quem 
sop y ortets, hs vinilroiw, its penonaliiiea, 
I «b«rb raMi its nmdati<«i to so mvl a beirbL 
pros |H fill stOe. nevrit ed futl *iUMW. a rear frooi 
it; tmd i^*|«b >(* ctmdatioa padimllr diminished, km de- 
wsilprahfa profit fn«fli it op to the time of bis d«atb« 
tW Wbttfs touk cafv that the inquinr before 
sbcvdd wnc be dru^iped ; aad the rrmlt waa« 
1 1^ hAtfHv 'owkd araifist biai waa iO.OOuf., wbirb 
a was rrdorrd to 15.0001, and at lart 
for li,UUU<. iloitk admittetl at an 
Ibal tbr d«f-Wti(7 was 9000/., but aiir-rwanis 
a sfvt •mOifi^ wouM ba«e strwik olf SOUO/. 
M» tkal SWB. Tbrrr ia aa pmnf of artaal prruutnai <mi the 
paH af llaak : bat there is prunf that be bira^if aad hb 
( k«pt the tnaaai/ bou4s the most 4ui|m^4e aad 
MTifcaaww. and that the kers of the tnwsurtv 
IrvxfMcvitlj leit w;tii aaRieriiars wh*le be was 
nei;i^«M. Ia Arngmi^ l»*i3. be w^ 
a writ af La<*b<^««arr. b«s pr«»pert7 was w*'>J, 
•M iwaiMsvt ataat farty piawis, ami be waa taken to a «t<ui^ 
ai^<4aaaa ■ ^bif» bf, I1rei-4<reet. where be n'liuinrd tJi 
Afnl, laM, vhnMW ba waa tm^mr^ to the Ra:o« uf the 

sr. — •^ D k. -^-1 k^ ^ ibTT tiii Mat. I'^ij, whew 

^T. bat with an intiw* jt *m thai the 
^ ai itsciia far ibedrX. ilc thtm 

Uaaft p afc l absJ b» int srnea of ' Sa%ino az»l Hxmacs ' 
■i f«4k IfM. wlula e««fn>^ •■ the s;twn<riai;.b-«vie, and 
bia 4amj laias^ the pruAt «n Kjt e been « . and be rrsU 
ttaA i^aa afaaasi aa lanre bt the au«rb and other worts 
mkmk ba paU^ad w n^i M ti- wa s afimsards^ The 
faAawasS is a l-^t af lb# w^««^ of thewi '^' S^«in^ Md 
U iii^i ' Trti Smaa, J v^« . I»i4 : S<«t»^ Senrs. a twis., 
IMS l%v^ >rT«. S •*.. . l>^«; 'Maawru.* S ToAt., 
^ i^-v af Nr Uavid ba: -i.* 2 .wfa. a^w . l»3i : * Rv- 
i*a Otov^arr/ 3 wsfa . IKU. • Lm« ^d Pnde.* 3 ttda., 
^«;ilbartGwf»e«/3fW. . 1%^^. « Jark Br^/ J ««%*., 
*fctbi. Daai^n ami Mar- a^v^.* J « .:« . l%jy; 
liimeid.' a •••• . !**• • Pt«v<s a •< P art*^/ 
1 aa^ U«», * Fjcbc-^ *.4 >«»,* 1 svia , l^ii.* , * frn- 

ma BaM»/ t fvla.. IS41, Ma» aaaiba after Hb dntK 
Id I06 ba bacaae cdilur of the * New Moatbtv M^v:.^; 
and ' Gilbcft Gurntf* * Gwraer Mamed/ * Prvrr|itt ui, 
Piactice,' and * Fatbera aad Snoa.' were ori|(biall/ pafCt'vH 
IB penodjral portKAS ia that work, lie aUa wrote * Keii<'i 
Reminisceores,* Irtwa Kellj's aulev, m 1816, vitboal trw*. 
Deration, and merelT out of kimineaa to bis oU fiirad. 

While rr»kiinr at Patn^v he fradwallj aiued aiuft mi 
more freeh in sorietj ; and m l»'i7 took a boase in 0«f . 
Land Row. St. Jaioess, wbirb has sinre beea the n-ndrw* 
of a wfwItbjT no^i<<-maB : be becwnke a awmhcrof dtvm Ihsi 
rate clu^js, rereiied in«itaikns froia persons ni the b^^it 
di^tictiun, in town an<i rooiitrr, aiH raa kianrlf rapKi.t 
and deeplj into debt, not«ith<«-taodtn|r.thc larga «aa n^nk 
he obtained br his litrraiy lalmorL Bjr bis ambttnaw «ai 
criminal eztiavacaoee, which be sapplictl at a fwuioia r\, 
penw of laboor of mad ami bodr. his coastitatioa, eictij^ 
aa it waa oririnallr, waa compieteW broke* apw la Jk't, 
l!^], when dininir at Branpcoa, be waa ak m -r^fd to it 
onweU. and aa he stood with tba oofiee ia Ma band« tarwii 
suddenir to the mirror, and saxl, * AjT, I aat I louk m I 
am ; done ap in parae, ia mind, and ia bodj too at lart.* 

Frm that tiate be waa eontioed to bis boaae. Aboat tW 
m'i«itile of .\nfust be mjorsted the Rrr. Mr. Gleif , rki^ 
lain of Cbelj«*a lio«pitsl, w ho wa« an old arqattaUacr, Im 
lud aever been at bu b^-'usie. to par bim a riaiU lie (btj «•, 
and bi'iair koowa to the aervant as a derfraaa, aai •:. 
mitt<*d with««t aniMKUKTwient. llouk vaa somewbst cm* 
fusi'^d at bi-if-s rai^ht m di^babdle. bot after a moment 'ipawr, 
otiMTmi. * Well. 1 uo are me w 1 am at last— all the bwi. 
iin<rv ami fmlii.oir?. snd washings, arkil hraahmrt, drv;i( i^ 
erer — a po«»r old r-*nr-braded man, with my htilr a^'-t a? 
kni>es.* lie had ut*i-rlr been morh awafa wp^ lie d>el 
AttjT. 24, IMl, in the 'fit tj- third }car of lua a|:e. Ha 
v*^A of * Gilbert Gurwej * contains a sort of ai tnb i n ya | kj 
of himself. 

While limine at SoaKfi Town be had berome aeqaieak J 
with a Tuainr wooian, and by her he bad six chiMfra <» 
was res|M*nahle, and he alwajs b eh are d well la bar, bit M 
had not the mi«^i co u ta g e to amnr her, thnayk, arcv^; 
to bis diarr, he had suwetio;^ thoq^ts of doiaK fo. A fr« 
bomlred pnunds were swbsmbcd far her and dke eti»ina 
after Hook's death, lie waa a pnod aatwrwd maa, «d n l^ac 
la do arts of kiodnesa, but be had m» Mnral priaciple aiS 
oentlr stnmc t» restrain the impulses af the ■«■»!! ■ 

liook*s caaTermtxmal power was frrater tbaa his mvr* 
aa a writer, lie was an admtnble aanator. aU«ao'tl -4 
samit m% inf«* which, if not of the hi^heaC nilily of att a»: 
haaMmr,'were ao m:d as to appear the De«t tbiap cf«t 
actered, aad coald mtermii senoaa iimmiIj fall uf p«d 
sense ami dehvwd frvm a wide obs cnati ea of Itff. U» 
aoveU are not of the bicheat order; tbey contain h-irri 
aacelleoi d tscn ptiona of the wiims fornm ti hfa with ak-^ 
be bad beea cumenant, rapsd bat stnkt^f dkalches of cts- 
raeter, and Latarbable cxtravafcaacwa, c on ie j a J ia a drtr. 
htemU and often pMtwmqwe style, lie waa well calndatni 
far a popular writer, but h aoc like!/ to coatinae pnf*^' 
kmc. llit novels will shortlj share tba fate af his drvu: .- 
pseres. and be for::\<tett. llw aatvical tintaw aiw litUe Ur': r 
than docrrel, and tne potnta, now that the csrtamitift^ 
whieb |m«a rise to tb«>m have passed awaj, aats vrri IX t 
hts pi*w«T la these por a m waa auwra ll* ia t: 
of bis in«m!«ea. m4 ia satincm wit, of al-^s 
iadcvd be had littie, snd that of inv-ior ({aaCtjr. Tbcrr err 
aasar aoors wntti'o br bim wbirb have never teca {•> 
b«bAl. and it is 6tM^ !*-iI if ther are worth pablinCm. 

i Q m mUih iirr*€w. Mar, 'iMi, wm cwtaftaiaimr mi --- 
stmrtive art«rle. wntt'-n in a fair spirit, br one who \*^ 
Hook wWI : G4mi:$ Jia<i.. Oct. IS41, a bad articie. ar.u^ 
IS a «n)nt «W a}a«i-d eorcm mm.) 

IKKtLE. Timo. P. C] 

HOPE. THOMAS. DcacvwM fias ito wwdthj Cir t 
U the * liofirs* of Amsterdam^ md mmmm^ with a-v- 
thaa ard*nanr taste far murv taaa anlman toaaas al ru •• 
talBwr and wrtifyng it, thw rmt>m«i crtJaiiibad far kiai» ' 
a rwfvtatian iw art, eacecdT^f that of a acfv patiaa of .*> 
of a mere amwtrwr at^ rok^rctiv. aiwcw bt <fid aach ia Ui-* • 
af 9/%, both wttb has |voni md his pea. 

Mr. llof^, who wm bum aboat tba vav 1770, p«e •i't 
prcvwcwAM todacaiwaaof hmdnwMattaebsaat tothatbrai S 
of art wKva ■nin morr thM aar atbar to 4jfaad aami *- 

mUM^' m he biaaeif itsla to^ *aRhinctaf« «aa always »• 

H O R 


H O R 

ntn»4 Hteratun* of the United Kingdom :* it \$, however, 
ss manly head than the one paintcMl by Lemud Abbot, 
which was erigrared by J. Heath m 1801. 

(Cunningham, Lives ff Brititli Painten^ &c. ; An AccomU 
efall the Pictures exhibttfti in t!ie rooms cfthe British Insti- 
tmtkm.from 1818 to 18*i8.> 

HORN. Mr. Arthur Aikin, in a paper on the manufac- 
tare of horn, tDrtoisc9hcll, and whalebone, read before the 
Society of Arts in 1832, and publiahed in the fif^y-aecond 
volmne of their « TransaiTtions * (part ii., pp. S34-349), 
obaervca that * in the English langtiage we have only one 
word to express two quite different aubitancci, namely, the 
branched bony horns of the stag gcnot, and the simple lami- 
nated horns of the ox genus, and other kindred genera.' Of 
the former kind, whieh ore, with few eioeptions, coniined to 
the male sex, and whieh are reproduced annually, an account 
is given onder Dkxb, P. C, p. 849. The oscs to which they 
are applied are the same as tnose of bone and ivory, and the 
manufacture presents no point which requires notioe. The 
other kind of horn, to which the French appropriate the name 
come (while they apply the name bois to bony horns), is 
Ibund in the ox, the antelope, and the goat and sheep kinds. 
8ueh horns, with the excej)tion of those of the pron|;lMiek 
[Aktxlopb, p. C, p. 11 u which are not referred io by 
Aikin, are, he observes, '^never branched or palmated, Iwt 
are always of a simple conical fiGriirc, more or less curved, and, 
io some of the antelopes, spirally twisted ; they are found in 
both sexes, hot, in the goats and sheep, are much larger in 
the male than in the female.' ' in all these aninnUs,' he 
adds, * a bony core, of a loose texture and conical figure, rises 
from the bone of the forehead, covered by a permanent vus- 
mlar membrane, from the surface of which arc produced or 
secreted thin layers of horn in constant succession.' Mt is sup- 
posed that one layer, or rather one set of layers, is produced 
every year ; but, as the former layer remains closely adherent 
to the new one, surh horns are permanent, lamellar in texture, 
and exfoliate only very slowly from the outside by exposure 
to weather and friction.* The structure of such horns may 
therefore be described as a number of conical sheaths inserted 
into one another, the innermost of which lies upon the vas- 
cular membrane which covers the bony core. The tip, or 
Ihat portion of the point of the horn which projects beyond 
lie core. Is very dense, and the several layers of which it is 
composed are acarcely distinguishable; while towards the 
base the layers may be readily distinguished, owing to their 
successive terminations forming prominent rings? The horn 
proper is quite insensible, so that the tip may be cut off with- 
out giving pain to the animal ; but if the core be cut into, 
bleeding ensues, and it becomes evident that pain is inflicted. 
Horn appears to consist of coagulated albumen ; and Aikin 
traces the connection between the substance of horns, naila, 
daws, hoofs, the scales of animals of the armadillo and tor- 
toise kind, of lirarrts, serpents, and fishes, hair, feathers, and 
even skin. In the case of tortoiseshell and the armour, 
or covering shell, of the |)angolin and armndillo, the iden- 
tity of the substance in appearance as well as in chemical 
eharacter is sufhciently obvious ; and the bonis of the rhino- 
eeros appear to form a link with the hairy covering of land 
mammalia generally, the bristles of the boar tribe, and the 
spines of the aedgehog and porcupine. These horns are not 
formed upon a bony core, out are described as merely an 
aggregation of flattened hairs or bristles adhering by tlieir 
sides, and presenting longitudinal pores or interstices of con- 
siderable magnitude at the base of the horn, and which 
become smaller tom-ards the point, these interstices being, in 
the living animal, filled with a pulpy matter. Whalebone, 
also [Whales, P. C, pp. 294, 295], is another substance 
illustrating the transition from horn to hair ; but its uses in 
tlie arts differ murh from Uiosc of horn. It is sof\cue«l by 
boiling in water for some hours, and then cut into stiitable 
!?ngths for the various purjiosea to which it is applied, its 
longitudinal division being ert'ected by sijlittinff, or Sfj^arating 
Its fibres. It is usually of a dark colour, but that which 
ap|»cars jet black is dyed. It is much used in the manufacture 
of umbrellas and parasols, in stiffening stays nml other articles 
of female dress, in whip-making, and in various other ways. 
White whalebone is also manufactured into very elegant 
bonnets, and ocrcasionally into artificial flowers of irrcttt delicacy 
and beauty, which may be dyed by the usual processes. 

The princi])al kinds of horn employed in manufat^turing 
0{)crations are those of oxen, to which the hoofs of the same 
animals may lie added. The horns of Uilli< and cows are pre- 
fcrer<l. thcM* #»f f>fill«»rk« b<»inir thin «fid of a rnur^ texture : 

8 eircttmalancc whldi Mems to itidTciite anme cnr.t.i-^ - 
between Uie aexnal fvnctions and the dcvelomnmt m • • 
horns, aimilar to that mentioned under I)aRB« P. C., p. : '< 
Our domestic supply being unequal to the draiaitfl. ^ 
qumitities of horns are imported fron Russia, the C'.'.;t .: 
Good Hope, and South America. The homa of ^ma j '■ 
sheep, according to Dr. Ure {JJictiomuy if Art», Kv .^ 
*' Horn'), are to be preferred as whiter and more tran*;^' 
than those of any other animals. 

The fmX process in the manufacture of horn is to rt-m. .' 
the bony core or pith, which is accomplished tnr stcr ppj 'i 
horns in water for a month or six weexs, according to .\ '■ • 
account, or for about fiAeen days in summer or a oitmtli ^\ 
winter, according to Dr. Ure, by which opention thr r>' . 
brane whieh lies between the core and the homy nheutK ,% i 
destroyed or softened by putrefaction that the cores \\u\ u 
easily extrscted. These, Aikin observes, are not thrr«u 
away, but are burnt to ashes, in which stats they fomi t- 
best material for the small tests or cnpells emplo)-cd b> -^ 
sayers of gold and silver. In some casi^s, accoiding to K 
hage {Economy of Mctctdncry ami Manvfacturrs, see. *i:i>) 
instead of being thus used, the cores are boiled iluvn -i 
water, by which a quantity of fat is extracted, which, r.< n 
to the surface, is skimmed off and sold to the makm •• 
yellow soap ; while the liquid itself is used as a kind of /•■> ■ 
and is purcha«5ed by cloth- dressers for stiflening; aiul t*- 
remaining insoluble substance is crushed in a Ivmc-^- • 
for manure. The solid tip of the horn is nwn otf «iri. i 
frame-saw, and is employed for making'; •••. 
umbrella-liandles, the tops of whips, buttons, and \at' .. 
other articles. The remainder of the horn, which is cnij il''^ • ». 
for purposes for which thin laniinm are required, mav int.* - 
be left entire, or sawn into two or more leneths, am»nlir>,' t 
the use to which it is to be applied. Hheo di>i<l€d, t 
lower part, or that next the root of the horn, is fm«|(u r ! • 
employed for making combs, while the portion wlnrh i - 
formed the middle of the horn is used for lanterns and iiu. 1 
purposes. To prepare the horn for use, it is inunersed in l* ■ 
mg water for alK)ut half an hour, by which it is soitcnr- , 
and, while hot from this operation, it is uAially hcM in M* 
flame of a coal or wood fire, until it acquires nbout the tc- 
perature of melting lead, and becomes so soft as to lit **•>* ^ 
fluid. If the horn he from an old wiimal, care must lie tai*- 
to expose the inside as well as the outside to the action u\ -l 
flame. Mr. James, of Lambeth, a worker in horn, »a» -i- 
warded by the Society of Arts in 1827 for a machinr : 
aceomplisning this object much better than in the mual «< 
His api>aratus, which is described in the ferty-iirth >ik^ 
of the Society's * Transactions,' p. 164, oonaists aainpl) o: » 
block of castiroo pierced with a eonicxd bole, and a t^m* ». 
plug of the same metal, about one-eighth pf an inch less in • 
ameter than tlie hole. These arc heated in a stove or o>o>> 
fire to about the temperature of melting lead. The h\** » '■ 
then taken out and placed on a firm support. A p^w • . 
horn, which, if intrmled to be spread out flat, should 1h* ' 
viously slit longitudinally, is then put into the hole, irt( " 
heated plug is drop|)cd into the cavity of the bom. A« ^ 
horn becomes softened by the heat, the plug is earet'ully <'>)- 
in with a mallet ; and by its pressure any original enM>k<^ii>' 
of the horn is removed. After remaining about a minute . 
this state the block is tunied on one side, the plug is d^M. 
out, and the horn, which is sufficiently soft to be opemd 
flat, is removed. This apparatus is said to effect eonsiden 
saving of time, in addition to avoiding all risk of o%eriwu' -• 
the horn. In the more ordinary process, as des(-nN>l ' • 
Aikin, the heat is applied before the horn is slit ; the »1 1* 
is performed while it is in the semi-fluid atate, by a >*r . 
pointed knife resembling a pruning-knife ; and, bv th<* 
)>lication of two pairs of pincers, one u> each edge oi th** - • 
the cylinder or cone of horn is Ofiened until it U twnrh - 
Several such pieces are then exposed to pressure b('i«<'<" ■ 
teriuite plates of iron, previously heated and greased, w ' • 
vent the horn adhering to them, either ia a ftn^, <k ■ 
placing them vertically in a strong iron trough, ai»d cocn|>r> 
ing them by means of wedges. The degree of y^u^* 
applied depends on the intended use of the laom ; tl it 
intended to form very thin leaves for OMking bntem* 
Innthnms^ as the word was fonncrly written, apparent I \ v 
ref<^rence to the use of this material), the preatare »f"» -' 
sufliciently strong to break the grain, or caiaao the Um u 
the horn to sciiarate a little, so that the edge of a n-* . 
(lointed knife may be inaerted t>etwcen theos to coni}>U>i- * 
s[tlittinr or scfiaraticm. Tlie thin abecta of liem aic ii 



H O R 

)ccMBlier, This fMBMBiH wm^mj 4MMt4ived. 
■inirtmlook pUc«onUiea4tliorM«vh, 1907 ; 
M inumgiwd €0 Um 37tli of April, and wm in- 
mtwdt dMntv^d. Uohmt dad not obtain a tMl 

M ih» irvMnl eloelion, bat fai Um IbUowtair ^^T ««• elodod 
far Ibo borawh of Wondow tbrcwffa the blcmt of Lofd 
Ctfrii^rlan. lt« ^H^ littW at irvt, on mmUim of biMMM 
«iUv»«MibrMly. By dtfrcot be bcgMi to take « pwt m great 
llr Mlirelv ooiacided with Ibo Whifr pwt/ in 
onoriboMOnraortboIknttb fleet; hedtl^ 
Ml ibctr ikrinkinf |Kdk7 on ibe qoettion of 
Ibe 8«Mb war. In Maj, 1809, be rteigncd bit wat at Ibe 
BoaH of ConnnMionerf for mvertigatuiK tbe debtaof tbe Nabob 

of Aivet, w cooMOttcnoe of finding ita dutko mterfere too OMicb 
with tbe punuit oi bk profeaion* On tbe 1ft of Febratry, 

UIO, Uerner node a nMHion for an bqoiry into an alleged 
depcecknion of bMik notca, Tbe «ibje«t was one wbWb be 
kal tlMlifvl oalenAvelv, and be made a very decided imprce 
iian on tbe Uonae. lie wat apfiointod a member of tbe Uul- 
licm Committee, and by tbe part wbicb be took in it, by bb share 
bi drawb« np tbe report, and by bit tpfccbes on the qurttion 
in ibe Uomo, be aoqairrd a aolid reputation and a pocitiou and 
^nl^^mf^ tbefw wbicb be afterwanlt rMber mtgnieated than 
diminiibad On the Regency question he spoke on Ibe iide of 
bis fricndi with grat power end efiect. In the negotiations 
for ibe fanmiinn of a ministry by Lord GrrovUle in IDIl, 
llomrr was oilered the situation of one of tbe Secretaries of 
tbe Trcmnry, bol ha dedioed Ibe ofier. In tbe aeoerd elec- 
tion in UK be wmnot maimed as a member, but br tbe mter- 
vantion of Lonl Grmriilc be was elected for St. Mawes, 
tbrongb the inlerert of the Marques of Buckingham. In the 
■emions of 1(115 and 1S14 be took a prominent part in tbe 
debaica, and became one of the nckoowlcdged leaden of his 
party. Ue look adrantage of the opening of the continent, 
m 1814, and mnJe the tour of (aeneva and the north of Italy. 
In iba great crisis arising from the return of Bonaparte from 
Elba, when Lord Gren«ille urged the neccssttr of a war and 
Lonl Grey diMweoaled the hatte with which tbe country 
aermed db pu sa il to enter upon it, Mr. Horner supported Lord 
Gray, and the difiercnce of ouinion seemed to U* lo irrecon- 
rilablo that be offered to surrrnder bis seat, but the Marquess of 
lliKkiagbam declined to accept bb resignation. On tbe 'idth 
of June, U16,be made hb bat speech in parliament, in favour 
of iba Catholic daims, and against tbe uitolcFsnt and bar»h 
treatment wkiob livland bad eaperieneed from the government 

of tbb oomtiy. Sy mntoms of a' p ulmo n ary diseaaenad already 
ibemaelvca in bb constitution, and he was ail- 

%ited by bb physicians to spend ibo winter in the south of 
Ivurope. Acoompatded by his bfotbcr, Mr. Leonard Homer, 
be art out on his journey, and arrived at Pirn in the Utter 
part of November, lib uiseaae grew rapidly worse, but be 
haJ no aaspicion that it was dangrroua, and be continnrd to lay 
down for bimsrlf plans for future stodiea of tbe most compre- 
bmsiva eatciit. On the 6tb of February bb difficulty of 
bmslhing came on wiib increased aeierity. lie died on the 
tab of Febnmry, 1S17. lib body was opened, and hb com- 
plaint was foond to be, not consumption, (ml induration of tbe 
anhstanm of iba bm^i and enlargement of tbe air-celb to an 
•atnwrdinary estenu lie was buried in the Protestant oe> 
aMtarjr at LtYbom, wbera a amrble table-tomb was erected to 
bb memory by hbfotbcr. Atooeof tbe ends of tbe monument 
b a tikenam of bam m relief, of tbe aiie of life, by Chantrrr. 
A marbka atataa oi bnn, also by Cbantrey, b pUoed in the 
nartb tiwnaapl of Westminster Abbey, tbe cost of which waa 
dalVayad by anfaacriotion aamng bb personal and political 
fifienda. It b one of Cbantrey *s best works, and indeed one 
af tba inaat portiait-sUlttes in tbe Abla^y. 

Tba ebanatar af Uomer*s ondefstaadmg waa tlul of %igor* 
aas raaaoniag In pvsuit of important and o(len difficult truth, 
lie bad no wit, and made no prrtcnca to any. IIU knowledge 
was eatenaivt, and bb joJgmrnI arrurale, not only in tbe rarious 
btanebas of politiqJ economy, but in a great many other dcjttrt- 
mrsrta of litrfHare. lie waa one of the pro^Ttors of the Edin- 
J articles lor iL At a puUic man 
\ nnqoestjooabie ; hb integrity, sinrrrity, 
t acknowledged by all |MrtK«. lie was 
!■«»«««, Iree Irom pnianaion. and eqn*lly free from any Lind 
ef aAviation ae any trare of rancour. As a fKiMic ft|ieskrr 
be aaa gm«a and forrtUe, without unagrry or any of the 
iis af oralory, but with an eamrtttw-^s and evident 
r af mannrr whicb pradnred an etfrvt grratrr ih-in he 
ava dona by any appcab to tba imagination or tbe 

mmm m ucrtwHie. lie waa mic 
bnrgb Ret lew, and wroto many i 
bb ladei«ndenoa w« nnqoestiac 
and mnoeraiioa were acknowin 

edited by bb brother, LBonard ll< 
QmHmrlm Review, May, 1843.) 

UOROU>GY. A psnefal notice of tba bblmy sad a 
tba chief peculiarities in tbe conatradion of iba prianprf 
kinda of machines for mensoring time b given aadcr tku k^ 
m P. C. p. 997 ; and under CaMwoMRmn, P. C. p. 134; 
JawKLuao OP WATcnna, P. C. p. 117; Paiinouiw, P. (* 
p. 403 ; and Waicm, RiomATiao, P. C, p. 107, are fvtWr 
dctaib respecting some farancbea of tbe scienea ii 
Tbe prinopal object of tbb article b to tapfdy 
respectiag aome important nKidem improvemanto m lae nw. 
atmction of tbe large clocks used iircbiircb toweta and paUw 
buildings, which, from their most usual position, are gsamb; 
known by the name of church or turret docki. 

Turret-docks differ from other machines emplofrd W 
measuring time, not only in their greatly superior siar. hat 
also bi tli^ arrangement of their parts, and in the cifcmmcwv 
that they are usiwlly made to atrika the bonn, nd eAia tta 
quarters also, upon iar|re belb, and are occasionally eoaaerH 
with macbinenr for chiming whole tones at eerlmn iatorvM 
upon a set of bells which, when mounted in a eburcb-ui«f*. 
are so bung, that by disconnecting the hammers sf ii« 
chimes and striking apparatus, they may also be nmg b \M 
ordinary manner hjf meana of ropaa. A popilar desoiptas 
of the mechanism of such a clock b given in a paper b tW 
* Penny Magaiine* for 1842 (No. 641), describing a vttit to 
a cbttit'h-dock fadonr and bell-foundry, which b iUastruri 
by a represenution of tbe clock of St. Xnne's Cburdi, Lav^ 
house. One of the most curious peculiarities of a tanet-fijri 
oonsisto in the circumstance that it b freqnently reqaind n 
indicate the time u|K»n as many aa four diflerent diak, on t^ 
four external facvs of tlie tower in which it b Btonnted. Tu* 
apfiarcntly difficult matter b accomplished in a lim^ib mA 
beautiful manner, by placing the clock in or near the oratrr 4 
an apartment either on a level with the catemal foces, or »>■<«» 
or below them, and causing the motion of tba aib «k«i 
under ordinary circumstancca would cany tbe minuir»ht:-i 
(which revolves once in an hour), to be transmitted b} U« ;• 
gear to a vertical roil, the opposite end of which cwmt 
faorixontal bevil- wheel nearly on a level with, and iinu»^ 
centncally with reference to, the four eBlrmal diak. IW 
motion of tbb central wheel b commouicated, by four mtim 
bevil-w heels of the mme site and number of teeth, nar^ 
round its circumference, to four boriaontal rods, tbe ofpi«tr 
ends of which, passing through the several dials, rarnr i^ 
four minute-hands. At the back of each dial b a leiwisi 
wheels and funiona, technically called tbe saofi o n m mk^ p«> 
dsely resembling that described in the acroimt of a wrttfv 
watch under 1Ioboi/>ot, P. C, p. 902, by wbirb man«A * 
imparted to the hour-band, whicb revolvca once in rati*' 
boors. As in the ease of the eiffht-days' spring dork, 4^ 
scribed under IIobouxit, P. C, the movement m the hsa^ 
and that of the striking apparatus are pioyided for by prpsrsk 
trains of wheel-work, each of which b impelled by it» *m% 
moving power. In a turret -clock, the ino%ing power a «;• 
plied by the descent of a wdght, regulated in the fa«e of t* ' 
movement, or goinsr- train, by the oscillaliona of a large (*i> - 
lum, and in that of the striking-train by the remstaarr U *!» 
air to the rapid revolotiona of a fly or ftia act in motjon In '" 
whcelwork. In tbe arrangement of these tralna, and b us .• 
connection with each other, there b notbiag which raqwv* 
s|»ccial notice here, aa these matten may be readily n mh 'iaiwi 
from the account of a spring-dock above referrad to. (Ww* 
to the neersniiy for using a very heavy hammer to stnkr ts« 
boors m a church-dock, the power required for woriwg <-'^ 
striking-train considerably exceeds that of tba g«ang-f*k:' 
In the Limchouae clock above referred to, tba going wnt^ 
b alKMit sixtr pounds, while that of tbe itriking^tnia w s^>t 
five humlrvd pounds. These weights are vaoad np (*a '^^^ 
cases, weekm bv means of which handles and toothed vt^ • 
connected with the massite drama round wbidi their iw|<r* «« 
c»iM; and, for crmvcnicnce, they do not de a eind !«'■■ 
dbt«ly from the drums or barrels, but in tba ana^ <^ '^' 
towrr, or any coovmicut sittmtion, tbe eonraa nf ibrir *«••« 
bring directed by gutdc>|Nj)Irys. In thbdock tbe w ndii''-^ 
rod, which, as is u«ual in laive dorks, b made oi «<v». • 
aliuut lhin<M*n or fuur1c«*n f«*ct long, ito hob, or weight, ^m^% » 
mass of cast imn s)ia|icd like a dnulde ro«vr« l^ws, i^^ ' 
thirty imhcs in (ltan>rtcr, and wdirhtng two bnndrrd \*^ 
Koch of the fiiur dra^k-faniti is thirteca fret iw i ' 
carh |Mir of hand* weij^Ks about si&ty 
b^nd* a'-c *cry nic rly^ Tolai kx d by weigl 

rhto arti 



U M R 

Hit* |«tfr 

wn* Iwf* »TT*s-n4! (lHh**"n m' iJm ,, ^n,. tMB,, T* 

!||..*, ,|,i*-t 

llM* Ut% 




uiuwai saiii>4iifwi^ Miftl twrrflr 

n«»i ainHd maiiiv''-f, #f)d |*1U> 


■ nr on II n-Trj 

k L'f 

hMiu Uiift 4ii-EHyiwuuii:»> UmI m^^ 


lU IftQU 





ictMm would impair the oorrDctneis of the dock, which it not 
the cue with the ■triking train, are best made of hammered 
brua, which is a material more to be depended upon than gun- 
metal. The wheels of both trains are tbrrood with teeth of a 
peculiar stiape, on the subject of which Mr. Dent presented a 
paper to the British Association in September, 1844, in which 
ne states that the geometrical form of the wheel-teeth in 
chronometen, watches, and clocks is seldom attended to by 
the perions who either cut the wheels or make the pinions ; 
which he thinks maf be explained from the circumstance of 
these operations being separated into two distinct trades. 
* The system pursued by workmen to insure what they sup- 
pose to be the proper form of the wheel-teeth is,' he ob- 
serves, ' that it should, as nearly as possible, resemble the 
^uqteafabajf4eqf; wnile the terms geometrical circles or 
IHtch-hnes are not understood.' Mr. Dent then proceeds to 
show that * as the wheels of a dock move in one durection, an 
opportunity is afibrded of the teeth being so shaped that the 
contact, or commencement of the force, may take place at the 
line of centres, and, if possible, it should not take place before. 
' Afler cutting many experimental segments of wheels and 

Kinions,' he adds, ' adopting various proportions in each case 
eyond the geometrical cimes, I came to the conclusion to 
use for the whcd-tecth (the driver) the epicycloidal curve, 
and for the pinion (the driven) the hypocydoidal curve, 
putting nearly the whole of the curve on the wheel-teeth, in- 
creasing the drcumfcrence beyond the geometrical drcle, by 
the addition of three teeth and spaces, allowing only 0*5 of 
the pitch of the tooth for the increased drcumlerence of the 
pinion, just to remove the possibility of any sharp edge. In 
every case the epicydoidal curve has been described by roll- 
ing tJie semi-diameter of the driven on the geometncal drcle 
of the driver. It is very necessary that segments of the teeth 
should be cut for the purpose of ascertaining the breadth that 
the wheel-teeth should be in excess above those of the pi- 
nion-leaves; for as the breadth of the wheel-teeth is in- 
creased, and the leaves of the pinion narrowed, the eficct of 
drivine before and afWr the line of centres is varied.' Mr, 
Dent nas also anplied this theory to the lifUnff of the ham- 
mers, both for tne striking apparatus and the chimes, by unng 
projections of an epicycloidal shape instead of the ordinary 
round pins in the pin-whed. 

Among the other im^^ortant features of the Roval Exchange 
dock, which are appIicabJb to all othcra of similar character, 
whether oonstmctea with its peculiar contrivances for insuring 
perfect accuracy or not, we may mention the use of hollow 
iron drums instead of wooden cylinders for the driving barrels, 
and the use of wure instead of hempen ropes for suspending 
the weights. The first-mentioned of these improvements 
renders permanent accuracy of form more attainable, while 
the latter obviates, in consequence of the much smaller size 
of the cord, the necessity for overlaying it, since a sufficient 
lenffth of rope may be coiled in a single layer upon the barrel 
without increasmg its length or diameter in an inconvenient 
degree. The result is that the weight continually exerts the 
aame force to turn the barrel, while with a thicker rope, 
covering the band in two or three layere, its effective foroe 
is of necessity greater at the commencement of its descent, 
when it acts upon the circumference of the barrel pbu the 
thickness of the fint or innermost layer of rope, than at 
the latter part of its descent, when it acts on the circumfer- 
ence of the barrd alone. Another important arrangement, 
which, though formerly in use, had been departed from, and 
is revived in this dock, is the driving of the hands of the 
dock, and the raising of the hammers of the striking apparatus 
directly from the axis of the driving-barrel, without the in- 
tervention of any wheels and pinions. 

In their determination to secure a public dock of unex- 
ampled accuracy, the Grcsham Committee required that the 
Exchange clock should have a compensation-|x^ndulum, and 
that it Aould be so constructed as not only to show perfectiy 
correct time upon the dials, but also to tell it with accuracy by 
oiaking the first stroke of the hour upon the bdl true to a 
mcond. This degree of precision is unattainable with the or- 
dinary striking-apparatus, as the effect of variations in the state 
of the atmosphere upon the motion of the fly by which its 
action is reffulated, and of various drcumstances affecting the 
inertia of the machinery to be brought into motion, together 
with the uncertainty as to the precise moment when the tail of 
the lever by which the hammer is moved will become disen- 
aiagcd from the ptn or tooth of the pin- wheel by which it is 
lai^ed or depressc<J, render it impossible to adjust the mecha- 
m%\n with certainty to produce such a result. In the Exchange 

dock this difficulty is provided for by i 


ing the lever and hammer to nearly the utmost degfee rpou>n .! 
before the time of striking, and causing the end of the kwf , 
which is formed in a peculiar manner for the purpose, - 
remain pdsed delicatdy upon the rounded point of tne ;«- 
jecting tooth of the pin-whed imtil the moment of stri&".' 
when it is instantaneously released, and thus the stroke to y^^ 
duced without being affected by the prdiminaiy operstMJo J, 
raising the hammer. 

The prindples upon which pendulums are provided «i'K 
compensations for changes of temperature are explained uLtirr 
PsHDULDM, P. C, pp. 402, 403. That of the ExcImi.. 
dock is of a oomparativdy simple construction, which apprk^i 
well adapted for larve clocks. The centre rod of the (tfnat • 
lum is of steel, and is suffidentiy long to pass coc]pl«'t*-i\ 
through the bob or weight, which, however, is not inumui* 
ately attached to it Upon the bottom of this rod b fix<«i » 
nut, by tummg which the length of the pendulum roav !•* 
nicely adjusted, and upon which stands a hollow or tuf*uli* 
column of zinc, through which the sted rod passes freely. < n* 

the top of the zinc column is a metal cap, from projertm;; 
portions of which descend two slender steel rods, U> tb** 
lower ends of which the weight, which is a hollow cylinder o' 
iron, capable of sliding freely upon the zinc column, is fii»- 
pendod. Thus, while both the central steel rod and the tii*> 
smaller sted roids by which the weight is suspended, exjurrfj 
downwards upon any increase of heat, the position of ^^ 
weight in reference to the point of suspension of the {»%- 
dulum remains neariv the same, because the line oolooui, 
thoueh shorter than the central steel rod, expands, owin$r t> 
the difTerent nature of the metal, to an equal extent i^nrort/.. 
and consequently raises the weight just as much as it If in - 

f)ressed by the lengthening of the steel rod. As the pcxi^i i- 
uni of the clock we are describing weighs nearly four cvt.. 
the operation of 'setting' it to the required nicety, that i'» 
beats might be correct to within ^fraction of a iecond, w&« j 
matter of extreme difficulty. This was met by a cootrivao«v 
suggested by Mr. Airy : the dock being started at a rr-» 
small losing rate, a slender spring so mounted as to touch it* 
penddum slightiy, and to cause a gain in the going of tt *• 
clock, was brought in contact with the pendulum-bob n«%«r' - 
at the centre of percussion by means of a line in the dm *.. 
room. By this means the b^ts of a large turretrclock nuy 
be brought to coincide perfectly with those of a chrononK*t( r 
by whicn it is set. The regulating screw by which the ]cn«:tri 
of the pendulum is adjusted is not moved for the correctiun of 
small erron in the rate of going, such being provided fur h} 
the use of small supplementary weights laid upon each side «*< 
the top of the pendulum-bob, which weights may be appJ}« ii 
or removed without stopping the dock. 

While on the subject of compensation-pendulums we nu. « 
notice a paper presented by Mr. Dent to the British A»oi i- 
ation in 1838, m which, among other matters, he explain* a!i 
improvement which he had introduced in the constnictioQ . -t 
the mercurial pendulum, which b that genendly adopted U*- 
the very perfect kind of time-keeper known as an Astrotit>> 
mical CImJc. The ordinary construction of this admiriih'.? 
pendulum, which is described and illustrated under Pssi»cll m. . 
P. C, has the mercurv in a glass jar, the fragility of mh'«.^ 
not only exposes it to the risk of fracture, but also renders it 
unsafe to boil the mercury afWr filling it, to drive oflP the aIt 
which it always contains. Further tnan this, while it is pw- 
sible to give, externally, a mathematically correct form lo & 
glass jar, the interior cannot be made of a periect figure, ac>l 
consequentiv the column of mercurv which it contains canm^t 
be a perfectly regular cylinder. ' This condition,* Mr. IX-x.t 
observes, ' combined ^nth the irregularity of expansion «hii h 
glass is peculiarly liable to from its compound nature, renders 
measurement and calculation, with regard to the odunm, % > 
vague and deceptive that they aro never employed.* Th(>«^ 
defects he has removed by substituting a jar or cistern of r&< 
iron, with which mercury is as littie disposed to affialgamat • 
as it is with glass, for the ordinary glass jar. Thb matrr.^. 
may be wrought with the utmost accuracy into the requin^* 
form, and although, from the effects of expansion and ctc- 
traction, the figure of the >cssel is not perfectly permanrL: 
and unchangeable, its changes are of a nature which is wt 1 ' 
understood, and may be calculated upon viith accuracy. Ia 
such a cistern, again, the mercury may be boiled at any : 
time. *The clock-maker may do it himself on the firts | 
putting of the machine together,— may ad hist the column, — 
may then hermetically seal' it, and dispatch the |)endulum ^u ; 
the most distant countries with the adjustment so perfect th^c 

H O R 


H O R 

H nay be Msidy attached to the wheel-work hj any woik- 
BHD capable of setting the clock upon its eupports ;' and ' if 
at 9BJ sobBequent penod, minute portions of lur have, from 
any came, again mingled with the mercury, and rendered the 
pendolttzn mneptible of barometric changes, the air may 
again be driven off with the greatest focility by repeating the 
prooes of boiling, without removing the mercuij from the 
cisteni.' In connection with this improvement Mr. Dent has 
iotrodoced some other alterations in the construction of the 
mercurial pendulum, amone which is the attachment of the 
cistern directly to the pendulum-rod, and consequent removal 
of the metal stirrup or frame formerly used to carry it, and 
the prolongation ot the rod so as to plunge its lower end into 
tbe mercniy, nearly to the bottom of the cistern, an arrange- 
ment &roarable to uniformity of temperature in the rod and 
meraify; and since the date of the paper we have quoted, he 
hn, with a view to obtaining additional precision in the per- 
fonnanoe of the astronomicu clock, taken out a patent for 
gifiDg impulse to the pendulum at, as nearly as can be deter- 
mined, the centre of percussion. In this arrangement, die 
peodoJam, instead of beinp^ suspended below the dock, is 
siBpended from a fixed pomt at the top of the dock-case, 
while the dock itself is at the bottom, the only connection 
between the two being effected by momentary contact, at the 
eitremities of the range of the pendulum's vibration, with two 
dender pieces attached to the escapement. ' In the old 
amngemcnt,' the inventor observes in his published 'Ab- 
ftract from Two Lectures on the Construction and Manage- 
ment of Chronometers, Watches, and Clocks, delivered be- 
fore the members of the United Service Institution, May, 
1841,' 'the pendulum never vibrates independently of the 
tnechanism of the dock ; besides which, the impulse is given 
rnider very disadvantageous circumstances, as the greater part 
of the force communicated by the escapement is lost at the 
point of suspension.' In his patent astronomical dock, with 
the detschea pendulum, these defects are in a great measure 
remedied, for he states that < if the pendulum vibrates two 
degrees from the [lerpendicular, one degree and forty-five 
nunntcs will be entirely detached from the mechanism, and 
the im^^nlarities occasioned by friction and other disturbing 
canses are avoided.' 

Retommg to the turret-dock at the Roval Exchange, in 
which the connection of the pendulum with the wheel-work 
is of the more ordinary nature, the escapement is the next 
point which claima notice, though it is too complicated to be 
folly described without several figures. Its chief^ peculiarity is 
thit it is of the renumtoire kind, a drcumstance in which it 
resembles some of the best pubKc docks in France ; among 
othen, that of the Bourse at Paris. To explain this it may be 
fiiffident to state that the impulses imparted to the pendulum 
in not given iminediately from the large going-tram of the 
clock, which is exposed to variations of force and resistance 
6om varying friction, from changes in the state of tHe oil used 
to hibricate the mechanism (the use of which, however, is 
limited to the least possible degree), and from the effect of 
the wfaid upon the large hands of the four external dials, which 
m this case are nine feet in diameter : but these impulses are 
given bv a small aecondaiy trun, set m motion by the descent 
of a ball or weight, which is itself raised at intervals of twen^ 
SMQods by the medianism of the going-train. The action is 
therdore very nmilar to that of a remonJUrire-mring^ which, 
IS osed in some horological machines, is a small spring em- 
ployed only to set the escapement in motion, it beuig itself 
wound np at veiy short intervals by the going-train, which 
rtceives its impulse from the prime mover. Such a contriv- 
uice favours accuracy of performance by detaching the escape- 
ncnt, by which the velocity of the machine is determined, 
V, in other words, by whicn the measurement of time is ef- 
fected, from the poweci, necessarily subject to some irregu- 
hrities, by which the greater part of the machinery is kept in 
ioopoD, whether that power oe supplied by a weight or a 
Y^^' 'I'be escapement of the Excnange clock is Graham's 
^cad-beat escapement, and has the pallet jewelled with large 
bpphires ; bat in his ordinaiy turret-docks Mr. Dent uses 
a modificsitioo of Lepaute'a escapement, over a single pin. 
In this dock has been introduced a beautiful contrivance 
for maintaining the motion of the wheels during the time 
of wimfinp up, which was invented a few years since by Mr, 
Atrv for the dock-work of the great Northumberland telescope 
■tthe oniversity of Cambrid^, and of which he publishea a 
wscrintion in the * Transactions of the Cambridge Philoso- 
phicrfSodety,' vol. vii. part ii. p. 217. Harrison's beautiful 
natrivauee of the gmng-fusee, of which a description is given 

mider Hoboloot, P. C^ p. 801, is not soflidentiy powerftf 
for application to large clocks, in which the strain of very 
heavy weights has to be provided for; but Mr. Airy's con- 
trivance, which he describes as ' a new construction of the 
going-fusee,' supplies the defidency. Its action will be un- 
derstood from the annexed diagram, Fig, 2, which represents 

Fig, 2. 

one of several forms of the appantus shown m the illustrations 
of Mr. Airy's paper. In this diagram a represents the first 
wheel of the dock, which is mounted, as usual, upon the axis 
of the rope-barrel b, with a ratchet and dick so arranged that 
the two must turn together whenever the rope-barrel is turned, 
by the action of the weight W, through the line /, in tiic 
direction indicated by the arrow ; while, when the rope-barrel 
is turned in the opposite direction, to wind up the weight, by 
the action of a wmdlass on the axis of the wheel d, which 
engages the toothed wheel « on the axis of the barrel, the 
wheel a will not turn back with the barrel. / is the 
pinion which is turned immediatdy by connection with 
the first wheel a ; and both this and the winding-wheel, or 
pinion, d, have their axes mounted in the plates of the dock- 
frame. The axis of the barrel and first wheel a, instead of 
being thus mounted, is attached to what may be termed a 
lever-frame, one side of which is seen in the cut at o, A, t, 
which is itself pivoted to the clock-plates at A, and to &e end 
t of which the end of the line A, /, is attached, after passing 
under a running pulley attached to the weight W. c is an 
internal ratchet on the first wheel a, acted upon by the long 
dick ito, which has its opposite end att» * - * * 

attached to the lever-frame 
near its extremity t. Wbile the clock is going in the ordinary 
way the descent of W causes that part of the line marked / to 
turn the barrel m the direction of the arrow, carrying with it 
the first wheel a, the internal ratchet of which slips under, 
withont being afiected by, the click m. Under these drcum- 
stances the action of the weight W (through the line /), and 
the resistance of the pinion/, produce a certain pressure on 
the lever-frame at^, which causes the end t to assume a deter- 
minate position, in which it remains without motion so long 
as the weight continues to descend, and consequently to draw 
down the line /; but so soon as, by the operaton of winding 
up the dock, the pressure upon / ceases to operate, the stress 
or the weight upon the portion of the line marked k causes 
the end t of the lever-frame to be depressed, and the click m, 
which is connected with it, to be thrust against the internal 
ratchet c with sufiicient force to maintmn the action of the 
first-wheel a, which turns as it were in one piece with the 
lever-frame round the axis A, thereby produdng a pressure 
upon the pinion / exactiy correspondmg, if the axis li corre- 
sponds wim the point at which the strain of tiie line / is ap- 
plied to the rope-barrel, to the pressure which is exerted during 
the ordinary action of the machine. 

The machinery connected with the Exchange dock fo: 
chiming tunes upon a set of large bells in the turret has been 
constructed by tne same gentleman as the mechanism of the 
dock itself; but, owing to difiiculties in the tuning of liie beIlS| 
it is not yet (Nov. 1845) brought into action. Theae chimes 
win be the first constructed in this country to play tunes in 

U 2 

H O U 


H O U 

fy two Of BKNV notes bemg MnidL wamUMWimiy upon 
Stkrtmt beUt, wherm in nott oMet the mtMr b produced 
ia etagle ne«et, without the btitKliiction of chords, which not 
onlj* rrqoirei the mechincrj to be mora complex, bat renden 
it Htm tmtj to bring the bells into mora perfect tone than b 
Mcvamrr ror ordinarr chimes, 

UORSB-RADlSlL rCocsLBAUA Abmoeacia, P. C. S.] 




UOTTOTilAy • genos of plants belonging to the nntnral 
order Primnlaccs. It has a 5-paned caljx, divided almost 
to its baee ; the seeds, with the nilttra, dose to one end ; the 
, 6, inserted and included in the tube of the coralla ; 

the ospsnlcs masiT-seedcd and 6-Talved, with 10 teeth. JET. pa- 
the flowers wboried, stallied, and seated npon a 

kmg solitary cyliodhcal coowioq pednnde, the oorolhi longer 
than the calrz, the learas pectinated. It is a native of 
Grant Britain in poods and ditches, and is called the Water- 
Violet. The leaves ara submerged and crowded ; the flowers 
rising above the water are of a purple and yellow colour. It 
is a jwttjr plant, but pos sg ii c s no useful available properties. 

(Babislgtaa, MaKmd tf British Botany.) 

IlOUilRAEEN, the name of two dbtinguished Dutch 
artists, father and soQ'~ 

AnsoLD UocBKAKrv, the father, was bom of a good fi^ 
mily at Dort, in 1660, and was the pupil of Samuel van 
Uoogstrmten. He painted history and portnit, and executed 
many designs for booksellers, tie lived chiefly at Amster- 
dam ; aoo he viitited this country and remained here eight 
or nine months, for the purpose of making drawings of some 
portraits by Vaodyck, which were enprmvcd by Van Gunst. 
Uoobraken is, however, chiefly known for his account of the 
lives of Dutch painters, with portraits engraved by his son, 
in continnatioo of Van Maodcr— * Groote Schoulwix der 
Nedcrlantsche Koostscfailden en SkildcreniM'n/ in three iMuis. 
The first and second parts were published st Amsterdam in 
1718 and 1719, for the author ; the third part was published 
is 1721 for his widow : Uoubraken died in 1719. 

Jacob HoynnsMTW was an admirable engraver ; in execu- 
tioo he has never been sur|iaased, and perhaps seldom 
He was born at Dort in 1608, and accompanied 

) fiohcr when very ^oong to Amsterdam. The excellent 
etched portraits of pain ten in bis father's * Groote Schoo- 
barg* ara among his earliest works, yet they ara certainly 
aome of the finest etcbincs in existence. The most beautiful 
apr ri m ens , however, of Uoubraken's engravings are some of 
«The Heads of Illustrious Persons of Grant Britain,' pub- 
lished in London by the Knaptoos in 17 4S : the excellence 
of some of these heads nmst be seen to be comprehended. 
Vertue wai a good engraver, and executed a few of the heads 
in this cc)ll«<cti«Hi J but bis infimonty to Uoobraken was so ap- 
parent tliat the Knai>tons crated to employ bim on that work. 
Some of the brads, ocywevcr, nhich «ere engraved by Uou- 
braken, thfw^b of the biirbe:it excel lence as works of art, 
want authmuri ty as portraits, at, for intUnce, those of Csrr, 
Earl of SoaMT^rt, sfid Serrrtary Thuri«*, which WaJpole 
sa)sare»tmni.u«. [VasTtt, (ix«>a4.B. P. C] The collection 
is m>t«ith«tanding of grrat hitt«>ncal io(err»t. Uoubraken 
engraved alto a great number of (lortraitA of distinguished 
Dutrh charartert. lie died in 17(^0. 

(Van (HjrU, Mntme SfMtmiwrp der KtdrriimiMche Kmui- 
trkiitUrt, Ice. ; Watrlrt, Ihtiummaire de$ Ari$, kc. ; Uuber, 
Mtmttri fir* Amatmrt, he.) 

IIOOE [Hoi»a. P. C] A gmcral outline of the 
prinft{«J fratnrr* in tlie con«tnirtMio of l«<j«iM« being giveu 
nn«lrr Ui tLiii»««. P. C. S.. and to the vario*!* ■itjrlM in P. C\ 
and P. V. S. nh»rh are rrfrrrrd to un«l#T tt^t br«d, the sole 
objr<r1 itf thii ariw \r i« to Mi|i[»ly OfM* of the article* of the 
srnes thttr (vtirit(«il «4jt, « li « b. m (ttriM-ifU( twv of an act idrot, 
mu «itM«owU'*U (Hi.iiu«d m«d«-r lU |»ti|*t iiilc, Kt/mn. 

la an eitrtvifd M-f)«e, the n^rnr ||iM»r i« MmH*tin>ct aptilicd, 
cullrrtiirly, to all tin* a{«r1u]4 i.ti ^nd |*>«4u<'S in a nousc 
npon one and the auor Ic-vil, in viht<b m n^r it is aliiHJSt 
avooaymout with iUmv. In a m'>^« Uu^J iw(t*e however 
the flmr IS the Irvrl |»fAtr4iriu «hi« h U>nit* tli<* lower horizon- 
tal side uf mrh s|«ftrtimtiti. and tl»c wt^irt turfare of which 
•ithcr constitoU^ <ir mi\t\m0rf tkn* upfirr bori/iirttal side, or evil- 
iiitf, of tlM> a(»»riii»riiu of ihr %u»ry imnM«}utrly beneath it. 
Hbile the eitemal n^lls of a house uroaily al!oni the princi- 
pal mptxirt of the lUmm, the mternal or partition walls shonU 
be mada to lirar liirir tiuire of the weitHst and strwn ; and 
vhrrr^ as ia the cm«e of sho|i*, wArrhouae*, and fsiMic build* 

ingi, partitioo walk onaol be alloved, the sapport of ^w 
upper floors, aoppoaing the span to be loo great for !» .^ 
anatained b;^ the extmal walla alone, may be Bsn»trd \^ 
means of bnck pen or iron oolunma. Where, ovinv u> ■.« 
aubdivinon of tne upper stories into smaller rooos tr a.- '>.. 
lower stories, quarter partitiona are fixed without ao} lu . -. 
fVom beneath, they may, as explained under CsariMti. 
P. C. S., p. 293, not only be ao conslractcd « aot tn ii.- 1 
any weight upon the floor, but, if necesssry, so m to siut a 
supporting it. 

An ordinary wooden floor may be conndered ai nxuif*'; 
of two distinct parta : the actual flooring, or phtfonii of barsi 
upon which we tread ; and the framework of timbm. r*^ 
monlr called the naked or earcanihonmg^ upon wbirii t • 
boards are laid, and which may oe constructed ia vir.v 
wars, according to the strength rrauired, and thr »|«i] y 
width of the area to be ooverM. Toe simplest, sad. amw 
ordinary circumstances, the strongest kind of cartas tt - - 
or, as It b sometimes called, Jhor ^ J0^* 1* tkst ^'' 'c 
among carpentcra as a single ftamed flotr, or, ^nx^wut *• 
some writcn, single flooring, which consists of a nn^lK rt 
or horizontal tier of timbera called witU^ or, ncrtr •;< . 
ally, ^oor or Jloormg joift*f which, In oider to dt%\itm' '^.^j 
strength in the most efficient manner, are made niorh (U:r* 
than they are wide, the ends of which are supported u\m i* 
walls, or in some cases, where the walls are too (sr r,ar 
upon stout beams called girders, which mar be stn^Dwr*-'^ 
by trussing. To the upper edges of these joists the ik«<^' :• 
boards, which lie across them at right angles, srr fi*\.'W 
while their lower edges support the laths upon mla. 
ceiling of the room beneath u formed. The eodt of U' ; 'U 
rest upon timbera let into the wall, called waU-pkUn i i:- 
IXG, P. C. S., p. 248], by which the weight of the n.r i 
Of{iially distributed along the wall; the connectiui Utw. 
the ^ists and the wall-plates being formed by a>v» . •' 
cocking, or, as it is sometimes termed, corking or faint ,-. • 
illustrated under Roor, P. C, n. 148, Fig. 25. Somr-.' • 
in inferior buildings, the ends or the joists are laid imiiM^ia' .; 
upon the brickwork, without the mterventionof ««ll(k'i 
but such a practice is highly reprehensible, as it iw4 a • 
causes the stress of each joist to preaa on the bricki tac** .- 
ately beneath it, to the exclusion of thoae on each wi^. ^ai 
also prevents that evennesa and solidity of bearing «!»<- * 
necessanr to keep the joists to a true levd, that the pm»*** 
of the flooring-boards upon them may be mufbrm. )-js» 
for a single framed floor should never be lem thia sboet m 
inches thick or wide, because of their liabilitT Is fpiit*.^ 
witli the operation of nailing down the boaras, m»i^mA 
they bo much more, because, as will be better miAr^*^ 
from Pi.ASTKnijio, P. C. S., anv mcraaie in the widtk </'>.* 
under edges interferes with tne key or hoM of ib^ pU* *. 
which arises from its passing up between, and sael! ": •*" 
the laths. To remedy this inconvenience, where itx*; •*> 
are used, narrow fillets mav be nailed along their lomrt " .•« 
to receive the laths, instead of nailing the laths ibib-^. .' * 
to the joists. Such fillets are called /ioria^s, and Um r t-w 
plication, either for the above-mentioned purposr. tn ^^ ^ 
[Nirpose of rendering the ceiling perfectly flst, »l.«fc • fr** 
of joists never is, especially uuon its imder surface, ftmmi : 
the roughness and warping of the timbers, b termed ywni^ 
doam. PurrimO'Up b the contraiy operation of U«ts( »• ^ 
on the upper edges of such joUu as may happen Id br \m*^ 
the proper level, in order to produce a perfetUy borivcut '«<rf 
for the Aooring-boarda. The depth of the jobl^ and thnr ^» 
tance apart, may be varied according to circwnitaB*vt !&« 
former raniring from about nine inches to fifteen, and dir U^* 
being usually twelre inches, though a distance of twel«r iwi** 
from centre to centre, leaving an interval of abent tea i»^ **- 
U to be preferred. The strength of such a floor aisv hr ^ 
crra.4cd to any degree by increasing the deptf of the ; *> 
and diminbhing the intervals between them. 

The bockling or twisting of the joiato, br wkiik ^ 
strcnirth of the floor would be grentlr hapabeo, b r** | 
agftifut by the introduction between them of saoaD ^^^'J^ 
struu or brarca, as repmented in the cut Pig. 2, ia i ^ * 
•e(|uent column; these stints being in tra d n cr d ia Vj»^ '* 
rows extending completely acrom the width of the to*' tf 
riuht angles with the direction of the jobta, and at mtrnJi 
of n«H more th^ five or six feet. These Urals are o«< •^ 
monly nou lied into, but simply skew-nailed lo the /-t^tv »* 
tin ir em««n would be incrrased by either nocrhing U»e /■ -n 
to pi\e Uiem a proper bearing, or, without ratting wu»tJ* 
jt* «^t*. by niiiliiig iiiangtUar fillets to lhf« toaiM ai«»t^sa 

H O U 


H O U 

kr the itruti. In some cases solid pieces of wood cut to fit 
the mterrals between the joists are used instead of diagonal, 
or, as it is axnetiiDes called, herring-bone strutting ; and, what- 
ever be the fonn of strutting employed, it is advisable in cases 
where the floor will have to bear ereat weight to make the 
struts approximate rery slightly to the wedge-shaped form of 
the roujsoira of an arch, in which case Uie floor may, by 
the additioD of iron tie-rods passing through the joists, rather 
below the middle of their depth, be forced up into a convex 
fonD, whereby its strength will be enormously increased. 

When a timber floor is carried near to a chimney or fire- 
place it is necessary to cut off the joists at some distance from 
the brickwork, to {Movent the risk of ^re. In such a situation 
the carpenter has recourse to what is termed trimming, which 
ma^ be understood from the subjoined eround-plan of part of 
a i)OT of joistB, abutting against a wall m whicn is a fire-place 
with chimney-flues in the jambs. In this cut o, a are two of 
the ordinary joists, the ends of which are supported in the 


Fig, 1. 

osaal way upon wall-plates ; &, & are two joists made some- 
what thicker than the rest, on account of the extra strain 
thrown upon them, and called trinuning-jaists ; c is a piece of 
timber called a trimmer or trimmer -joiat, the ends of which 
are formed into tusk-tenons, which pass completely through 
the trimming-joiats, and are secured by keyinp^ or wedging 
in such a way as to prevent them from separatmg ; and df, d 
are the trimmed wuis, or those which, bcmg cut off sliort of 
the wall, have their ends supported by being framed into the 
trimmer. The stone slab m front of the fire-plaoe is sup- 
ported over the vacant space between the trimmer and trim- 
ming-joists by a flat brick arch, sometimes called a brick trim- 
mer, tmned between the wall on the one aide, and a piece of 
weed called a ^ ringing-piece, which answers the purpose of 
what engineers term a »ew-back, attached to the trimmer, on 
the other nde. When the direction of the joists is parallel 
to that of the wall in which the chimney is formed, the 
arnngement is of course somewhat different; one strong 
trimming-joist then takes the place of the trimmer c, and two 
thort trimmers are put in the place oTb, b. 

The chief objections to the use of single flooring are, that 
the construction offers little obstruction to the transmission of 
srand from one story to another, and that, for the sake of the 
ceiling, the joists must be made thin. Both of these defects 
pay be in some measure overcome by the arrangement shown 
yjirig. 2, in which eyery tlurd or fourth joist is made an inch 

Fig, 2. 

or an inch and a half deeper than the rest, and a series of 
iligfat bin called ctUmg^jcMts, one of which is shown in the 
cat at a, ia nailed, or notched and nailed, to these deeper 
^ists, so as not to touch the intermediate joists, and to these 
the ceiling laths are nailed. By this arrangement the joists 
say be nude of any reouired tmckness, and the ceiling is in 
I great degree relieved from the injurious yibration of the 
floor: and the effect of the shrinkage of the joists, which 
vouid cause the ceiling to crack. 

In a double^ or more properly a double-framed floor, three 
•^ or tiers of joists are used, of which the middle set, called 
^^^'^^eng-joitU, or simply binders, form the real support. These 
reach from wall to wall, or from one primary point of support 
to another, at intervals which may vary according to circum- 
nances, bat are usually about six feet; and the^ are sur- 
Qoonted, at right angles with their own direction, by a 
Kries of smaller joists, called bridging-joists, which may, 
if it be important to save depth, be notdied on to them, 
iad upon which the flooring-boands are laid. Beneath the 

Imidtng-joists is a set of yet smaller ceiUng-joists, similai to 
those in the construction illustrated by Fig. 2. If it be neces- 
sary to save depth in flxing these also, care must be taken to 
notch only the ceiling-joists themselves, because, as should 
always be remembered, the fibres at the lower edge of the 
bindmg-joists (or of the flooring-joists in a single floor) are 
always in a state of tension, and therefore cannot be cut 
through without mafbrially impairing the strength of tiie joist, 
while those towards the upper edge are in the op)X)6ite state 
of compression, and may oonsequentiy be cut without danger, 
provided that the notches made in them are filled with an in- 
compressible substance. As, however, timber, even when 
well seasoned, is more compressible laterally than longitudi- 
nally, or across than along the grain, it is obviously better to 
avoid cutting into even the upper edge of the binders, because 
the bridmng-joist, though it may fit the notch in the binder 
very tigfatiy, will inevitably be more liable to compres- 
sion than the portion of the binder which is cut away to 
receive it Sometimes the ceiling-joists, instead of being 
fixed underneath the binders, are cut into short lengths and 
fixed between them, with only a sufficient degree of projec- 
tion below them to keep the ceiling clear of the binders. 
Some builders, in such a case, mortice the ceiling joists into 
the binders, employing a chase mortice at one end to allow the 
ceiling-joist to be slipped bterally into its place afier the 
binders are fixed ; but as the mortices cannot fiail to weaken 
the binders, it is far better to nail projecting slips within the 
lower ed^ of the binders, and to notch the ends of the 
ceiling-joists so as to fit on to, and be supported by them. In 
either plan it is necessary to nail small pieces of wood beneath 
the binders to connect the ends of the short ceiling-joists, in 
order that the hold for the laths may not be interrupted. 
Bridging-ioists must be distinguished from the short tneces of 
timber called bridgings whicm are fitted between the joists 
when a quarter partition is to be put up across them, to sup- 
port and afford facilities 'for nailing down the sill of the 

In floors of great span, g^ers, which are lai^ge beams 
usually supports by templates let into the walls [Builddto, 
P. C. S., p. 248], or by iron columns, are used in conjunction 
witii binding, bridging^, and ceiling joists. Girders^ which 
are used for longer bearings or spans than binding-joists can be 
trusted for, are, when of timber, made of one or more pieces 
according to the length required and the size and strength of 
timber that can be obtained ; but in modem buildings they are 
yery freauenUy made of cast-iron, pieces of wood fa^ng some- 
times bolted ailong each side, to aflbrd fiu^ilities for fitting the 
binding-jobts, wtuch are usually secured to the girders by 
tusk-tenons. By the ud of trussing, which, howeyer, is of very 
doubtful yalue if the depth of the truss be, as it frequentiy is, 
limited to that of the beam, girders may be strengthened to any 
required degree, whether the^ be made of wood or iron. The 
principles upon which this is efiected are explained under 
Tbcssikg, p. C, pp. 318, 819, where is also a notice ot 
Mr. Smart's suggestions for the further introduction of wrought- 
iron into floors and roofs. 

The size or scantiing of the yarious timbers in a double framed 
floor must of course vary with circumstances. Nicholson, in his 
* Architectural Dictionary,' art * Carcase Flooring,' says that 
binding-joists may be about ten inches by four, bridging-joists 
five inches by two and a half, and ceiling-joists about three 
inches by two inches and a half; the intervals being from four 
to six feet between the binders and eleyen or twelve inches 
between the bridging and ceiling- joists. In the article ' Naked 
Flooring ' in the same work he dves a minute account and 
illustrations of plans for constructmg floors with very short 
timbers only ; but howeyer valuable such plans may be in pecu- 
liar cases, they are, so far as the ordinary operations of the 
carpenter are concerned, more cunous than useful. 

Thorough seasoninff is highly important for all the timbers 
of a floor, and especisuly so for the boards which constitute the 
flooring itself. For this purpose yellow deal is considered the 
best, espedally when exposea to damp. For eood work, floor- 
ing-boards should be planed and exposed to uie air for at least 
twelye months before tney are used, tne reason for planing them 
before this exposure being that the operation of planing opens 
the pores and causes the sap to flow. Many builders rear up 
their flooring-boards against a rack formed of scaffold-poles, the 
boards being placed alternately on each side of the rack, with 
their edges presented outwards, and a sufficient space between 
them to allow the air to circulate freely. The cnief objection 
to this plan, as commonly practised, is tnat the lower ends of the 
boards oecome damp by restincr on the ground; but this ik 

H O U 



mmij ramedM by the timple plan of laying a horixooUd 
pole ikmg the foot of the mck to rapport the lower enda of 
the plankf, aiid aecuring it a few bicnea above the ground, 
eitho* hv laahing it to the rack or propping it up with bricka. 
The laying of the floors ahould in no case be commenced until 
the building ia covered in, and b better delayed until the 
windowa are glued and the plaater diy j it being very essen- 
tial both to appeannoe and comfort that the ahrinkase of the 
boarda after they are laid should be reduced to the least poa- 
aible amount. On tlua account, also, narrow boards are pre- 
ferred for flooring, battena of aeven inchea wide being very 
extensively uaed. Sometimes much narrower pieoea, formed 
by cutting planks into two or more widths, are employed, 
eapedally m superior houses, where a aecond planung of 
wide but very thm boarda ia laid over the prindpal floor as a 
kind of veneerinff or finiah. An inch may be considered the 
least thidmess ^ch can be proper for flooring-boards, al- 
thouffh, as shown under Batters, r. C, p. 42, inferior rooms 
are frequently laid with boards of which three are cut from a 
batten originally under three inchea thick. Ingenious ma- 
chinery has been contrived and extensively used for the 
sawing and planing of flooring^boards ; but such machines are 
frequently objected to aa causing a considerable waste of tim- 
ber, by cutting away much more, in width as well as in 
thickness, than it is needful to do in dressing them bpr hand. 
Uebert {£mgmeer*s and Mechanic*$ JSncydopmUa, art 
' Flooring- Machine ') gives a description and representation of 
such a machine, invented by Mr. Muir, of Glasgow, and which 
nas been brought into use in several extensive establishments, 
oy which, whue the simple planing of the surface may be i>or- 
fbrmed with fiuality, it is also easy to saw the edges at the 
same time, and, if required, to cut grooves in them for the 
purpose of tongueing the joints. 

The moat common mocfe of laying floors is by the operation 
termedybUm^, the floors thus laid being termA folded Jloon. 
In this operation one board is first laid down and secured 
firmly by nailing to the joists. Another is then laid down 
and Mstened in like manner precisely parallel with it, but at 
auch a distance firom it as barely to leave room for two, three, 
four, or any other determinate number of intervening boards. 
When, therefore, these intervening boards are laid in the place 
provided for them, being rather too wide for the apaoe, they 
buckle up in the form of an arch. Boarda are then laid across 
them, and upon these boards two or three men jump untU the 
flooring-boarda are forced down flat to the joists, to which 
ther are securely nailed. Another portion of the floor ia then 
laid in the aame manner. 

The edges of the boarda in a folded floor must of necessity 
be plam or aquaro, and the boards must be nailed to the joisu 
near both edges, in conseouence of which it frequently happens 
that in shrinking they split or crack along the middle. In 
superior floora ioints formed by ploughing and ton^eing, or 
Ly rebating and lapping the adjoining edges, aro otlen used. 
Boarda thus jointed may be nailed at one edge only, thereby 
allowing for the movement consequent upon shrinkage, with- 
out impairing the air-tight character of the floor, which is not 
only important for comfort, but also as a check to the progress 
of fire. The best floors are dowelled, and nailed at one edge 
only, the nails being driven in obliquely through the edge, so 
as not to show at allon the surface. Some woriunen insert the 
dowels over the joists only, tmd others only over the interjoists, 
but perhaps the best way is to put them sufficiently dose to 
have one over every joist, and one over eveir interval or in- 
teijoist. The aauge for the dowels should be run from the 
under surface of the board, which should be straightened for 
the purpose. Flooring-boards, when worked by hand, are 
ffvnerally left rough on the under surface, excepting for a abort 
distance from each edge, the intervening portion being merely 
amoothed with an adae at the points where the board croesea the 
joists, to enable them to find a level bed. In order to force the 
ixNirda of a floor kid otherwise than by folding up to one 
another aa close aa possible, some carpenten employ an ingeni- 
oos and veir efficient machine called %floorimg<Tamp^ invented 
by Mr. Andrew Smith, and fully described, with an engraving, 
in Hebert*a work above referred to. It consists of a lever of 
what ia termed the aecond class, in which the fulcrum is at tlie 
lower end, pivoted to an iron box made to fit and slide upon 
one of the joists, upon which it mar be fixed at any desired 
point by driving a wedge. Being brought close to the edge 
of a fresh-laid board, the workman seizes a handle at the end of 
the lever, and by drawing it towards him, forces a plate of 
iron with ^^eal energy anlnst the edge of the board, and 
\ the joint exceedingly doae. In using either thia cramp. 

or the dioaper subatitate for it called a db^, it is wel. to Ut 
loose fillet between the cramp and the edge of the faotni' ^ 
preaerve it from injury by the force exerted. Any e*- 
thua laid a pUmk at a ume is said to be itrmffki'jomitd, «b d'v 
tinsuiahed from a folded floor. 

The heading-jointa, or thoae between the ends of the fl>» *. 
ing-boarda, may be either square, bevelled, or ploufrhcd u' 
tongued. In dowelled floora the heading-joints must be imX", ' 
or so arranged aa not to come opposite to ODeaaoth<*r, and t^ 
same precaution b advisable in other floors also, thoo^rfa u:. 
poasibie in a folding floor. 

Floorin^^ u measured by the sonons of 100 square left 

Respecting the construction or floors with specia] rcfrn -..v 
to nfeUr from ^re something is laki under Fiaa-Pnoor lii n.. 
nroa, P. C.S., p. 576. Tne mere drcumstance of t do* 
being air-ti^ht, which it can only bo by virtue of ticeW^a 
workmanahip and aome peculiarity of constructioii, is a «ri 
important preservative against the spread of fire, azid ii ii<> 
uaeful bv enabling the builder to introduce a curreot ot . • 
among tne timben by meana of iron air-bricks, without ur« 
sioningany unpleasant draught in the rooms. It u ilvt.i 
highly important, for the preservation of the timber, to do ti . 
in the case of floors laki u a baaement stoiy, which rat u;.(i 
what are termed oroufK^/otitfs laid upon brick or stone pim ' 
dwarf walls ; and in many of the beat London bouies it i> : * < 
done for upper floors, the air-bricks being sometimes oontvA.-. 
by arehitectund decorationa. Besides preserving the fl*"' 
the air thus admitted ia sometimes allowed to eater tlic civ. 
neys through the jambs for the sake of prodndnf? a v 
draught, while the connection with the atmosphere aifonl^ i 
mcaiis of ventilating the rooms beneath by concealed apc'rii: . . 
in the ornaments of the ceiling. A method of layini? do 
which is adopted in some buildings of a superior char.* w r 
and which is verv cfiectual both in rendering the floor . . 
tight and in checking the transmission of sound throu;::. .\ 
consists in laying a kind of secondary floor of short r-. *. 
pieces of wood upon fillcti nailed to the sides of the jo.* 
about midway between their top and bottom cdgri, su: 
covering it with a kind of coarse mortar called ptttjijn.. 
which IS allowed to dry before the flooring-boards arc Ini, 
and upon which is sometimes laid a stratum of broken uj. 
shells. Thu secondary floor, or $ound4foarduig^ coiuisb •>' 
thick laths, or slips of wood not exceeding an inch or in in< i< 
and a half in width, with the joists a little open, that the ^s- 
ging may key to it like plaster to the laths of a ceiling. Ii> 
Uie first-rate houses in which this plan is adopted, the flur>r i 
first laid with very narrow boards, often not eiceedin^ two c: 
three inches, between which, at intervals of a few f<vr s 
small opening is left to allow the perfect evaporadon of d» - 
ture from the pugging. This first floor or narrow boj'> •. 
which, from their trifling width, aro incapable of warpin:** 
any serious extent, is the only one hiid ontd the complutior. ' 
the painting, and all that is likely to occasion bjurr to m • 
boards, after which they are covered with a surface fl<>"' : 
of thin boards of superior quality, which, if it be dosin^i >3 
order to produce any ornamental pattern, may crass the fn'''^ 
of the under flooring in any direction. 

The practice of kying wooden floon above a vtultin: f 
brickwork is alluded to under FiBs-Paoor Boilddos. 'i - * 
is accomplished in various ways, the joists frequently mt ' : 
upon wooden sleeners laid along the crowns of the vcha - 
the upper ribs or the iron ^roers from which they $\ri-: 
dwarl walls or piers beinff raised where it is necessary to ; • 
vide a level support for uie slecpen. Though the ^jui'- ' * 
may be filled up with brickwork or concrete, a space f'>' ' 
free passage of ur should always be left between the Ir i- 
work and the timbere of the floor. Stone floors or^vrnx ' 
are also noticed in the article above refeired to. Lndfr < r ■ 
nary circumstances they are laid upon brick arches, Iwt n • 
are occasionally laid upon timber framework. Slate Da>tin« *>' 
are occasionally used m public buildings, and have been «»-: 
highly recommended for the floors of warehouses. IV'i* 
traordinary strength and dunbility of thia materia) , v^'^- 
may be safely employed much thinner than the bnt i**:- 
stones, render it peculiarly fit for auch an application ; snd f- 
facility with which, owing to ita non-absomnt cbaractfr •' 
may he cleaned by washing, lias been found a grest rrc^ n- 
mendation for the floors of dock-warehouaea, where ra^ ^' ^ 
other things are liable to be spilu Floors of sheet-iron f*^^ 
been constructed in some fire-proof buildmgs, the Puittti* 
nicon, for example; hot they are iaconvcafeiit fnn th«ir 
extreme slippetyness. 

In the baaement atory of aome hooaea, and OBore cspedAli; 


tiU * 

"T»* Ibt.) 


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to lit) laid o[ IIuil«{aiV it^lt i I|» pn «r llm 



ill 4i ^^^j- 

to f rjuk*^ ' 

iijtiml tu' 

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^f^liSJl it I 

MH— »-i- A Ijti .' ':H''.m '^.r.: in | .vti. 

lUr-l* i iT;i 

rni iri'Tir-j: riif- r.!?!! inuE .v t- M 




* Onto,* had ooDdenmod it. Hushes dkwnted, and intttted on 
its being flnmpleted ; and tltooiigh the tuthor afterwards 
completfd it biii»eif; yet Hughes was in the fint iiistanoe 
intrusted with that tuk. Hughes wrote a tragedv called 

* The Sieg«> of Daouucus/ which is inserted in several modem 
collections, and merita its place for the excellence it possesses 
in language and in lofty and refined feeling. It was acted for 
the fint time on the 17th of February, 1720, and 'received 
much applause. The author that night lay on his death-bed ; 
and he p .pired before morning. Hughes was skilled also in 
music, aim was frequently employed to write poetical pieces 
for musical accompaniment. Among his productions of this 
kind were English operas on the Itauan model. But his best 
claim to remembrance rests on his having been one of the 
most frequent assistanta of Addison and Steele in their perio- 
dical essays. He wrote some papers for the ^Tatler' and 

* Guardian ;' and to the ^ Spectator ' he contributed eleven 
numbers and a sood many letters, being moro than the quan- 
tity furnished by any other of the minor writers, except 
TickeU and Budgell. He edited respectably the works of 
Edmund Spenser, and translated Moli^'a 'Misanthrope,' 
and Fontenelle's ' Dialoguea of the Dead.' 

one of the most distinguished linguists of his time, was born at 
Potadam, near Berlin, on the 22nd of June, 1767, and after 
having received a careful education, together with his cele- 
brated younger brother, the Baron Alexander von Humboldt, 
studied law m the universities of Gottingen and Jena. At 
Jena he formed an intimate and lasting friendship with the 
poet Schiller, who had great influence over him, and early 
turned his attention towards those studies in which he after- 
ward rose to great eminence,— philology, philosophy, and 
esthetics. Humboldt wrote at an early age several esaays and 
memoirs, and made translations from the Greek philosophers 
and poets, which appeared in different Reviews in Germany ; 
but tnough he was distinguished by his talents from most of his 
equak in age» he examined himseu carefully before he entered 
upon any subject with a view to publish his ideas. He was 
thirty-three when he published his first great production, a 
critical essay on Gothe*s poem Hermann and Dorothea : but 
thia work at once established his fame, and it is still consi- 
dered as a model of asthetical criticism. After Humboldt 
had left Jena (1798) he carried on a correspondence with 
Schiller, which was published at Stuttgart, in 1830, and which 
is one of the most remarkable collections of private letters 
that have ever been printed. They exchanged their ideas on 
various topics, espedallv on metaphysics, poetry, and history ; 
the letters are extremely dear and well written, and those of 
Humboldt are quite as interesting as those of Schiller. It is 
pleasant to see that these two eminent men were just towards 
each other with regard to their respective accomplishments 
and deficiencies, as will be seen from Schiller*s judgment of 
Humboldt in another part of this article. In 1802 Humboldt 
was appointed resident, and a few vears aflerwards minuter 
plenipotentiary at the Holy See. After his return from Rome, 
m 1808, he was made chief of the departments of religion and 
fNiblic instruction in the home ministry, but tendered his re- 
a^piation two years afterwards, and for some time retired to 
his seat at Tegel, near Berlin, where he devoted his time ex- 
clusively to literature, till, in 1812, he was sent as ambaandor 
to Vienna.^ In this capacity he took part at the Conferences 
of Prague in the summer of 1813, where, after long negotia- 
tions, Austria gave up her neutral position and espousi^ the 
cause of Prussia and Russia. During the camnaigns of 1813 
and 1814 he was in the headquarters of the King of Prumia, 
Frederic Will'uun III. ; assisted at the conferences of Ch&til- 
lon ; signed with Hardenbeig the Treaty of Paris ; and after 
the peace returned to Vienna, where he discharged the func- 
tions of minister-plenipotentiary of Prussia, together with Har- 
dcnberg, at the Congress of Vienna. The treaty of 1815, 
through which the King of Saxony lost one-half of his king, 
dom, which was given to Prussia, was contrived and signed by 
UumboldL He continued his diplomatic career at Frankfort, 
where he made himself conspicuous through his conciliatory 
eloquence in the delicate business of dividing Germany among 
its princes, and afterwards as ambassador at the court of St. 
James's, which he left during a short time in order to assist at 
the Congresr of Aix-la-Cha{ieIle. In 1 819 he was appointed 
Bunister and a privy councillor at Berlin. The retrognuie 
policy of the King of Prussia was supported by the state- 
chancellor, Prince Hardenbeig ; but Humboldt and the 
ounislen von Bcyme and von Boycn tried to persuade the 
king 10 bo faithful to those liberal principles which he had 

procbumed in 1813, and especially advised him to kc<ni*'o 
solemn promise he had given to introduce a general unvj, 
representation. Unable to oppoae a barrier to the k..;. 
policy, Humboldt, Beyme, and Boyen tendered their rv*\,'\, 
tion, and Humboldt a^n retired to Tegel, where he hf ,. . 
forth devoted all his time to literature : he died on the bt^^ . * 
April, 1835. During forty years he had enjoyed the «., 
deserved reputation of one of the greatest philosopbrn . , 
lingubts of Europe, and he was oertainlv an extnonl- ', 
man. The number of languages, most of them bsrhaniu- ' 
half civilized, which he hs^ tnoroughlv studied, be«idi « ; . 
classical languages, wsa very great. He acquired the r. •< 
difficult languages, as, for instance, the Basque, hi t*«i; 
months than others woidd have spent years in leaminir Umm 
He was equally distinguished for the views he took in or ■ 
paring the development of lan^^uages with the developmcii: . i 
the human mind, as well as in comparative grsmmar ; «»] 
as a critic of the ideal in poetry, philoaophy, aiM the fine vtv 
he had few equals in Gennanjr. Humboldt was nediocrp «> • 
poet, and it seems he felt ms inferiority in this reimci. hr 
after having published a few poems, he stopped. He left i 
great number of poems in MS., chiefly sonnets, most of «bi:> 
were afterwards published by his brother Alexander; ha 
though they are beautifully written and of a most ^itpai u.: 
delicate versification, they are decidedly vague and too yt.v 
mental. Schiller, in a letter which was written when Uiui- 
boldt first attempted authorship, sneaks thus to his fiiciMl.- 
' I am oonvincea that the principal cause whidi seems u> }f*. 
vent your success as an autnor is the predominsnce of thr n*. 
soning faculties of your mind over the creating &cult»i, on J 
consequently the preventive influence of criticism over mxiT- 
tion, which always proves destructive to mental prodortioa 
Your ** subject" liecomes immediately an '* object*' to vuu, j- 
though even in abstract sciences nothing can be cresteJ bit tr 
" subjective " activity. In many concerns I cannot csll yt\ 
genius ; yet I must avow that you are a genius in others! ^r 
your mind is of so particular a description that you $n m^ 
times exactly the contrary of all those who are nerdr och 
spicuous through thdr reasoning faculties, through leaniiic, 
or through abstract speculatioiL i ou will of course not ittn^ 
perfection within the sphere of mental creation, but wiiKt 
the sphere of reasoning.' Schiller's judsment was st «mt 
frank and correct : the spirit of universj criticism nv cc* 
bodied in Humboldt, who, with the exception of one lir;^ 
work which he left unfinbhed in MS., composed only miu * 
works, most of them critical essays, which he published •• 
difierent periods. The greater part of them was collect^') '.. 
his brother Alexander, and published under the title, * \N i- 
helm von Humboldt's Gesammelte Werke,' Berlin, IMI. 
4 vols. 8vo. 

The prindpal productions contained in the first volsmc ir» 
— Two Memoirs on the * Bhagavadsita,* a Sanscrit poem, tN* 
first of which was first printed in tKe Memoirs of the Rmil 
Academy of Berlin, ana in Schlegel*8 * Indische BibliotLi4; 
A Critique on F. A. Wolfs second edition of Uootm 
Odyssey, previously printed in the < Jenaiscfae Lilmtor- 
Zeitung* (1795) ; * Rom,' a poem, first published at Brriin. 
1 806 ; < Die Sonne' (the Sun), a poem, first published st Ikr- 
lin, 1820; Twenty-five Sonnets, not printed duriiv dtei-- 
thor's lifetime. Those of the second volume are—' PruUi! • 
der Untersuchungen iiber die Urbewohner Hispanicns Tem-:- 
telst der Vaskiscben Sprache* (Examination of theRcscsn^-<* 
on the Aborigines of Spain, by means of the Bssqdc Ua- 
ffuage^, first published at Berim, 1821, 4to. This is s » ^ 
orated work, and has become the type on which many iatt.i\iT 
investigations have been modelled. Humboldt purposelv « * 
to the Basque provinces in order to learn the Bsisqoe Isnpi. . 
and he confounded for ever the absurd theories of luwv > 
and many other Basque and Spanish sdiokrs on the orik-ii' 
the Baaque lanj^ua^, which most of them endeavoured bi< *t«- 
blish as the nrimitive langua^ of mankind, and conspqurrit r 
of paradise. Humboldt*s opinion is that the present DsM|iie««'^ 
the only unmixed descendants of the antient Iberians. s»i ^' 
shows that in remote times the Iberians inhabited the vb-'* 
peninsula south of the Pyrenees, the southeromost t«rt ui 
France (Aquitania included), Lieuria in Italy, and the t^^ 
of Sardinia, Corsica, part of Sicihr, and the BsJeares. In ^ 
time of the Romans the central part of Spam was inhsKtM 
by Celtiberians, a mixture of Celts and Iberians : the \buA» 
assigned by Humboldt to thb mixed raee, that is, the fst^ 
of country where the antient local names were not fof* ^ 
Iberian or Celtic, but mostly Celtic and Iberian comp«i»k 
correspond with those assigned to the Celtiberians h« 




CbeMT, Stnbo, tnd oAer anient writers. In the countries 
inhabited by the Cehici (the soathemmost part of Portagal) 
and ^ Timarid (Galida)) the antient names aie so exclu- 
nvely Cehic that the author concludes that both those nations 
were pure Celts. The Iberians, according to Humboldt, 
were of North Afiican origin, and ' Berber* and * Iber' are 
probshl/ the same. The second yolume also contains a 
Memoir on the Limits within which Governments ought to 
CQtt&ie themselves in their care for the welfare of their Sub- 
jects; A metrical Grerman translation of the lst-6th, the 12th 
sad Nth of IMndar*s Olympic Odes; the 1st, 2nd, and 
4th-9th of the Pythian Odes, among which No. 4 appeared 
first, with a commentary, in the ' Neue Deutsche Monats- 
flchri/t' (1795), and No. 9, with a commentary, in Schiller's 
*Horen' (1797); the 4th, 6th, and 10th of the Nemean 
Odes ; Forty-one Sonnets printed from MS., &c. The con- 
tents of the third volume are : — ^A metrical German translation 
of the Agamemnon of Aesdiylus, first published, Leipzig, 
1816, 4to., considered to be a masterpiece ; a metrical German 
tnnslation of the Choruses of the Eomenides ; An 'Essblj on 
the Drsma in France, first printed in Goethe's * Propylaeen ;' 
Traveliing Sketches from Biscay ; A most interesting Memoir 
00 ComparatiTe Lin^stic, treated historically, and first 
printed m the Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Berlin ; 
Forty-two Sonnetfe from MS. ; &c. The fourth volume con- 
tains— the celebrated critical essay oo Goethe's ' Hermann 
sod Dorothea ' (26S paoes), which the author first published 
in the first volume of nis * Aesthetische Versuche,' Bruns- 
wick, 1799, 2 vols. 8vo; An Essay on the influence of difier- 
nit Sexes on Organic Nature ; Fiity-seven Sonnets, from 
MS. liumboldfs Essay oa the Dual (Ueber den Dnalis), 
Bcriin, 1828, 4to., is not in this collection. During the 
list ten yean of his life Humboldt was actively engaged in 
inwstigatinff the Malay and American languages ; but find- 
ing the task above his strength, he abandoned the Ameri- 
cua languages to his friend Dr. Boschmann, for whom he 
tf^erwsrds obtained the place of chief librarian of the Royal 
libraiy st BeriiD, and ne devoted his time exclusively to 
the Malay languaaes, on which he intended to write an ez- 
tensire work. When he died, the first volume was nearly 
finished, and it was prepared for the press by Dr. Buschmann 
and Alexander von Humboldt, who published it, with a preface 
of his oim, under the title, * Ueber die Kawi Sprache aof 
der Insel Java,' Berlin, 1836, 8vo., which attracted the atten- 
tion of sll Europe. The er^ter portion of this woric com- 
prehends investigations of the propess of civilization from 
the continent of India towards the urge isknds in the Indian 
Sea, whidi he tracea in the monuments, the languages, and 
the literature of the difierent Malay nations; and only a 
ensll portion is devoted to the examination of the Kawi 
isngoage. The death of the author is the cause of this im- 
pei^^on ; hot there is reason to hope that the subject 
vill be thorouffliiy treated in a second volume, the materials 
of which he collected, but left in such a state as to reqiure the 
laboor of a perfect scholar before they can be published. 
Hmabddt beoneathed all these and many other valuable ma- 
trraJs, ss well as a collection of rare M8S. and books, ciiiefly 
on lingtdstic, to the Royal Library at Berlin. 

(Nater Nekrelog der DeuUcken; AUgememe Deutsche 

HUME, JAMES DEACON, bom 28th of April, 1774, 
It Newington in the county of Surrey, was tiie son of Mr. 
James Home, sometime secretary and afterwards a commis- 
Boner of the customs, and who was nephew of Dr. Hume, 
liihop of Salisbuiy. The subject of this notice was sent when 
my joong to Westminster School, and in that establishment 
rmved dorfaiff the head mastersships of Dr. Smith and Dr. 
Vincent the whole of his school education. 

In 1790, when at the ase of sixteen, Mr. Hume was ap- 
pointed to a deriLship in the Custom House, where be soon 
became consnicooos for that energy of character which aocom- 
pnued him mrough life, so that at an unusually early a^ he 
««s appointed to fill an office of much responsibility m the 
^^nrbaent It was a maxim with him, which he frequently 
ottered, that a man should never content himself witii per- 
■<>nuae merehr his own duty, but that he should at all times 
^hov attcrity m assisting every one requiring assistance, and 
u> ateodmg to the utmost of his abiliur the field of his use- 
yn«sB. By carrying this maxim into nis cvery-day practice, 
Mr. Home nndonbt^ly secured his own advancement in life, 
•ad sttaned to his deservedly high reputation. 
, Id 1798 Mr. Home married. He had twelve children, 
^ht of whom (daughters) lived to be women, and seven, 
P. C. S., No. 98. 

with his widow, survived hho. Shortly mfter his raarriage be 
fixed his residence at Phmer, near Harrow, wLtsre he rented 
a considerable extent of land, and commenced practical far- 
mer upon a lar^ scale, not however neglecting his official 
duties, but givmg daily attendance at his office, for which 
purpose he was, during a part of the year, obliged to leave home 
before daylight, returning to it after dark. He was always 
deeply interested in the sdenoe of agriculture in all its branches, 
and freqnentiy in after-life referred to his practical experience 
as a fimner in support of those doctrines of political economy 
of which he became a zealous and enlightened advocate. In 
1822 he was induced to relinquish his rural pursuits and again 
to take up his residence in London. By this time, lus value 
had come to be highly appreciated by the government, by 
means of reports wnidi it became his duty to prepare upon 
subjects connected with the revenue ; and in the following 
year he was appointed to reduce into one simple code the 
many hundred statutes (upwards of 1600^, often contradictoiy 
of each other, and not unfrequentiy unmtelligible, which at 
that time formed *the intricate and labyrin&ine chaos* of 
our custom-house leffislation. This work had become one of 
necessity for the guidance as well of the government as of the 
commereial world. To no other man could its performance 
have been intrusted with anything like the same propriety. 
Three of the most valuable yean of his life were oevoted to 
the task ; and to the unremitting laboor which he apjrfied to 
its accomplishment, his friends attributed that inroad upon 
his bodily powers which was visible in the latter years of 
his life, ana whidi, too probably, brought him to the grave 
sooner than with his originally noellent constitution was 
to be expected. The labonr of the task was intense. 
During its progress he allowed himself no relaxation, and 
acquired the habit, which he afterwards continued, of work- 
ing through the hours of the night and far into the morn- 
ing. Of the value of the work Uius performed it is hardly 
possible for any one to form an adequate estimate who should 
not have been practically acquainted with the condition of 
disorder that previously accompanied an important bnmch of 
the public business, and into which the acts prepared by Mr. 
Hume introduced clearness, harmony, and regularity, in the 
eleven inteUigiUe acts of pariiament prepared under Mr. 
Hume's direction, and passed in 1826, everything was pre- 
served that it was desirAble to retain, while all that fitd become 
worthless in the many hundreds of repealed statutes was dis- 
carded. So intricate and confused hacl the Uws indeed been 
rendered by successive patch-work pieces of legislation, that 
even those persons who had made it the study of their lives 
were often at fault in its application, and the prvctice of our 
tribunals upon thik branch was frequentiy contradictory. 

So sensiole were the ministers by whom this work was in- 
trusted to Mr. Hume of the ability with which it was per- 
formed, that he was presented by the treasury on its comple- 
tion with the sum of 50002. over and above the salanr of hia 
office, from the duties of which he had been relieved during 
the {jeriod devoted to the task ; and thereafter sesffoely any 
question of importance was decided having reference to tiM 
trade of the country without his opinion concerning it having 
first been obtained. So freooent did these consaltations beeome, 
that a room was fitted up for his use in the office of the Board 
of Trade ; and at length, in July 1829. hia services were 
wholly transferred to tnat department, where an office was 
created for him as Joint-Assistant Secretary. In the neiw 
formanoe of the important duties thus intrusted to him, Mr. 
Hume used the same degree of aeal and intelligenoe which 
had marked his previous course, and which secwed for him 
^e respect and confidence of the successive chlefe of the 
At the beginning of 1840 the inroads upon his health, caused 
' a long life of unremitting laboor, were so apparent, that 
r. Hume's retirement firom the public service became in a 
manner necessary. By this time he had completed forty-nine 
years of active service, forty-four of those years having been 
passed in situations of responsibility, and he was allowed to 
retire on a pension of the same amount as the salary attached 
to his office, which appears by a treasury minute presented 
to parliament, in which was expressed their lorddiips' * full 
approval of his lonff and faithful services, accompanied by their 
regret that the public service would be deprived by his retire- 
ment of his great experience and of his profound and intimate 
acquaintance with me mercantile system of this country.' 
The regret thus expressed was m effect uncalled for, as on all 
occasions, up to the dose of his life, on which his advice, atid 
exoerience were desirable, they were firecJy sought and com- 





— I'tcito! ; ami it b prolabte tlut at no tine duHn^ fab attire mttc to trroonl for the fact that, in geoenl, the 

rmtvet mm be able to mder more caMOtial lervice* to the comet fine when the meminr riact in the tnhe of a faafvmrt«r 

bimt mtcratt of eomnwrDe, than by the aufrtrettiona mailc hj for then, by the increased dcositj of the air, the dowSi &ri 

him afW hb nominal rrtimnent, and miM^riallr by the cvi- made to ascend in the atrooaphere to a rvf^um where, the dry 

dmor prcn by him before the Import Duties Committee of 

lh4U, evidence which, havinff been frtn^ucntly quoted with 

rummendatinn by all partiet in the Ilou«e of Commons, has 

lirrn brKqrht forward to support measum of rrform in cMir 

6acsl syilem proposed and carried in conformity with hb 


After an illness of some weeks' duration, but from which no 
srriuQS result «as apprehended, Mr. llume nas seized with a 
»tu{ior of an afioiJcrttc chuwrter, and two ilays thereaAer (li<'d, 
cm the 12th of January, lH4i, in the siity -eighth year of his 

Althoufrh Mr. Hume n»r be almost said to have lired with 

ncss being great, they are readily diJisipated. (>n the oe- 
trary, when the mercurial column diminishea b length, tf^ 
cIcMids descend; and arriring near the earth, they entrr • 
rririon in which the atmosphere b at or near the state of a'c.- 
ration; when, consequentlT, the Tapoura are easily prv«i» • 
tated. Biot obAcrrcs, on tnb subject, that the des<^eot of l£«- 
m(*r(*ury b a more certain pnognostiration of tain thaa :'■ 
ascent is of fair weather ; the ascent of the doiids in fxv.^ - 
qu(>nce of an tncrpascd d«>nsity of the air not being nemur .y 
accom{aniod by their dis|)er»ion. From the agitatkn ^^tlt- 
^ (luml by U'leh winds, the up{)er regions of the atmoaphere ar^ 
often charged with a(|ueous irapour ; and rain may thm U. . 

the pen in hb hand, he published iNit little, the object of his ' while the top of the column of mercury b abore its BMa-» 

lahfNirs being for the niast part confin<>i to the pre{iaratii>n of 
olfi<ial pp^n, which nuy, nevertheless, ha^e exercis^'d 

greater mfluence Ufvm society than could have followed from 
th«* pabli<wtion of his opinii>ns. He wrote several papers ujkmi i 
subj«vts connected with commerce, which apfM^ared from time | 
to time in the Uriti«h and For«>it?n Ile%iew. One of thc^se 
|ianers, on the timber trade and duties, may be said to hate | 
e&nausted the subjcri. He is U*tter known as the author of ' 
a siTi«^ of letters which, uiMler the sitnutune H. B. T., a(>- | 
|ir«red first in the * Mominir Chmniile * and hate since btvn 
ci4U«cted, and more than once n-printed. Thr%e letters con- 
tain, witliin a very small coiti|ia^«, the rooi*'t admirable and un- 
axiswendile arguments for various chaii:;fs in our Hn-al system, 
many of which hare sinre been carrit*d out, mhile others are 
etidrntly on the eve of adoption. Mr. Hume's style partook 
of the 'cliaracterbtica of hb mind, which naa %iguroua and 

In the private relations of life, Mr. Hume was remarkable 
for the most perfect aweetm'sa of trnifM-r. With fewer of 
human wealrmasrs than are osually found to arcoiu|)any even 
the more correct among ns, be was c\er imiulfrpnt to the fnil- 
inga of others ; just in hb dealings ; true to his |iromLces ; 
with a l a r gmc as of generosity that, as such things are usually 
aicAtured, ran beyond hb means, and tliAt was c\cr attended 
bv the most scmpuloua delicacy towards thoee who were its 
oi>ircts. Hb attachments were stn>ng and stable, and he was 
the object of the moat earnest aflection to all who enjoyed the 
pritileire of hb dose actjuaintanceftlitp. 

HUMIDITY b that property of a substance by whidi it 
comnranicatea to a body in contact nith it some of a liquid 
which it may have absorbed ; and the term b commonly ap- 
plied to the atmospberv when it b in a state to deposit mois- 
tmw npoQ bodies in it. 

The humidity of the atmosphere b eaused in a great men- 
aare by the evaporation of water fr«Mn the seas, lakes, &c. of 
the earth ; and the quantity of mobture which a volume of 
air b capable of containing defiends upon tlie temperature : 
when the latter b low at any part of the earth's suHace, the 
air may lie saturated with mouttire so as to Iw inca|«ble of 
holding anv OMre, but the Quantity of mobture m a given 
volttflM will then be mail. If the temjirrature be increased, 
the atmoapbere, becoming thereby comparatively dry, acouirvs 
aomM^ialely the power of receiving mora va|)our, ana the 
power toc r eas u with the Umiiermture, so that, in a given 
volume of air, the quantity whirh consitU with the state of 
mtBratiDtt b also increased. Whatever be the quantity of 
vapour which constitutre the »ute of «tnrati<m, if the tem- 

Catare be anddenly lowen<d, or if there be prvsentrd a 
\y which has an affinity for water, a pmcipitetion of the 
latter takes place, or water becomes alMorbed in the body. 
[Daw, P.C.t Ra», P.C] 

Tba tcasneraturr of the etaMNphere over any \Am9 on the 
mrUn id the earth dimioiMkes as the divtance of the stratum 
of air frooi the anrfvw tnrmwea : the |K>«cr of the air to h(»ld 
mirly ; aod, as a gvoeral biw, it may 

hcit;ht, and even while it b rising in the tube. 

The atmosphere oOcn becomes humid from the evapont^ o 
or liquids by artificial means. In eatablishmenta for brevi u.r. 
dyeing;, and the like processes, the va|MNirs producrd f-<^* 
' liquids which arc constantly in a state of ebullition riar in \!t^ 
atnuMphere, and even render it opa^iue. The breath tit: • ' 
I men and animals produces a watery vapoor which mdtr^ t£«- 
' atmncphero huniiu ; and when a number of persons are m^ 
si^nibliHl in a cXivs^ ai«rtmcnt the homidity b aometjm*^ so 
I great that water fiows down the walls. The leaves of |ilia*s 
- also di^harge, in the form of vapoor, the water wh^ch «s 
imbiltrd by the roots ; and in conservatorica thb eflect b par- 
ticularly sensible. 

In order to determine the quantity of water which b coa- 
taincd in earth nhen completely saturated with raisi, \>^. 
Dalton took a quantity of garden mould, on which ra;a L«i 
falU'n copicMisly during the i»n>ceding day, and eapoaed is \r 
diti'orent degrees of heat. When it seemed to have ahont t^ 
same degree of moisture as soil at the depth of two tm-Lrs 
from the surface in dry summer weather, ne weighed it, aftU 
found that it had lost ooe-twilAli of iu weifrht ; and wben .t 
had lost two-ninths of its weight it seemed like the npfMr fa-il 
in summer. Hb conclusion b that a body of earth ooe kmx 
in depth, VI hen saturaUni with mobture, containa aeven i^ f«r» 
in depth of water, and that it may loae one-fourth or one^L«. ' 
of that quantity without becomuig incapable of aappon . 4 

The eHiTta of humidity on the dimensiooa of bodiea w^ 
varioos : when a watery vapour penetratea between the twiiar\S 
fibres of cordage, which are vesetable materials, the cwofecw 
swells out trans^eraely, and tnus becomea shortened; wb m» 
cords made of animal substances become relaied by hi 
and increase in length. Moat aalta absorb water, mi 1 
in weight. 


HLMIRIA>CEi£, a natural order of plnta baloaiginir to 
B syncarpous group of Polypetaloos Esoffeoa. It haa tiic uA* 
ring essentisJ character : — the calyx b in 6 divimoaa ; t^ 
tab alternate with the lobes of the calyx and eonal to tWan . 

be stated that the humMliiy < 
the swfsea of the earth upv 

r of the atmosphere dtc n aar a frua 
\ upwards. The grrnt dr)fM*sa of the 
naiihere near the sunimtu of rooutitains lu» been fre> 
atly resnarird by tnw 1Ut«, Ihii thr ({uaniiiy of rooivture 
■o the ditfrrmt sCmU m, fn>m Inral tnflumo'*. subject to 
•any irrrr^ilantirs. Thr tffmpmturr of the lovier stmu of 
the atmosphere dimin whine as the UtitwU-* f»f plaii^i on the I 
earth iorrrasr. a in*rn it-t'jmr <»l air, a* a ruKir fwrt, when 
eompftnrly atturaiid. «tJI ccmiain b«a water as a elation b 
fartVr fn^ fbe r«{uatAr, and the liLr may lie wul of the 


petab alternate with the lobes of the calyx and eqnal to 1 
the stamens hvpogynous, 4 or many times aa nianerons as tW 
petals, mooaaelpbous; the anthers 8-celled, with a flr»'-y 
connective, eitended beyond the 2 lobes ; the ovary snprr^ r. 
usually surrounded by an auricular or toothed disk, 5-<vt^«i. 
with from 1 to 3 suspended ovules in each cell ; the scj « 
simple, the stigma lobed ; the fruit dmpaceona. with 9 or lr»<-r 
oelu : the seed with a roembranoua integunwot, the «nfcr<« o 
straight, oblonsr, lying in fleshy albumen ; the radicle wmrk -. 
The planu belonging to the mder are trees or shrwba abuus^- 
ing in a resinous juice, with alternate, simple, rnriaswm ea- 
stipulate leaves, and axillary corymbs of flo^rara. 

The affinities of thb order are not well made oat. la ch« j> 
albuminous seeds and slender embryo they agrae with Sc^ «». 
cee, as also in their balsamic wood. The^ rracmble Mniaram 
^m much in habit and in their frncti ficali o n , bat the amtbr-^ 
and seeds of Humiriaceap dilTer verj innch from those of Mr- 
liarev. Von Martins comparea thu order vrith Chlrmar or. 
whilst lindley thinka that their rral affinity b with A».*ma- 
tiacev ; * an aAinity,* he observes, ' indicated oy their iaflor^^ 
crnce, the texture of their stamens, thrtr disk, their w m^y^ 

Ctioles, and tlieir balmmic jiticea.* There are thrro prorm 
longing to thb order, Hwmrimm^ UtBrria^ aad > < ■ .■»■» 

Umminttm (from Otamin, the Gayaneae naat of «•» <if tW 
stMH*i«*s) has tb stamens joined into a tabe, the altcraatv aomm 
•hortrst, cilbted abo«e, an annular dish SO^habad, the 
&-lobed, the fruit containing • S-celled not, the 

e»Ctfe rvilaaiu $4 thr aimmpht re o>er a ititKni. il,i« ni^ ^ ^^ed. One of the specie*, //. 

»a tree 




ftet in hdght, with ovate oblong leaves half-clasping the 
Item, with a decorrent nerve on the back, the inflorescence 
kmger thin the leaves, the peduncles smooth as well as the 
petels This tree is a native of Gujana and Cayenne. Its 
bark ii thick, tod abounds with a red balnmic fluid, which re- 
KmUes ttym. m smell ; after it has exuded from the tree it 
befomes Lard and transparent, and when burnt affords an 
tgreeahle odoor. The negroes and natives of Gu^rana use the 
Ivrk in slips for the norpoee of flambeaux ; they also use the 
wood in boilding their houses. We have no account of the 
oooposition of this resinous juice, but Aublet suggests that it 
might be used as a substitute for the Peruvian ralsam. The 
Creoles call this tree * Red-wood,' on account of the colour 
of the wood. The other species of Humirium, and also those 
of Hellena and Saooglottis, yield resinous juices. 

(Undley,iVctfiirof System; Burnett, OuiUna of Botanjf; 
Don, Gardener's Dictionary,) 

HUNGARY. Among the kings of Hungary there are 
three of the name of Andrew, or Andreas, who deserve a short 

Annaxw L, the son of Prince Ladislaus the Bald, and the 
foorth king of the house of Arpad, reigned from 1046 till 
1061. His predecessor, King Peter, in 1045, had offered 
UimcarT as a fief to the Emperor Henry III. of Germany ; 
bat Andrew refused to take the oath of vassalage, and after a 
[votricted war with the emperor, made a peace with him, in 
1052« through which all feudal ties between Hungary and 
the empire were abolished. During the reign of this king the 
Dijoritv of the Hungarians were still pagans ; but Andrew 
sQOceeded m introducing the Christian religion throughout his 
kingdom. Andrew fell in a batUe with his brother Bela, who 
ncoeeded him on the throne. 

A5DBKW II., sumamed Hierosolymitanus, was the son of 
Kmg Bela III. : he succeeded his elder brother Emcric in 
1205, and reigned till 1235. During his lone reign Hungaiy 
ins shaken by disturbances and civil and foreign wars, caused 
by the redtless and ambitious character of Andrew, whose 
passions however were more violent than strong. Previous 
to his accesnon he waged war with his own brother Emeric, 
and nised a nomerous anny. They were encamped in sight 
of each other, when Emeric, a noble minded man, who knew 
that the peitisana of Andrew followed him only through fear, 
went alone and unarmed, with only a white staff as the symbol 
of peace in his hand, to the camp of the rebels. When he 
vas in sight of them, * I shall see, said he, with auiet dignity, 
^vhetheryou will idled royal blood.' None or them dared 
^) stop him, and he thus surprised his brother Andrew in his 
own toit, and alter having reproached him for his conduct, 
prevailed upon him to submit without making even an appeal 
to his followers. In this way Emeric carried Andrew irom 
the midst of his own army, and kept him in prison till 
12(M, when Emeric, feeling his end approach, ordered An- 
drew to be brought before him, and appointed him guardian 
of his son Ladislaus, who was a minor. After Emeric s death, 
Andrew seized the roval authority and reigned in his owe 
name, and fortunately K>r Hungary, the young Ladislaus died 
in 1205, so that Andrew became legfdly possessed of the 
apreme power which he had usurped. Andrew was a slave 
to his beautifol but ambitious queen Gertrud, a princess of 
Meran, whose conduct became so unsupportable that the prin- 
cipal Hungarian nobles conspired against her life, and during 
the absence of Andrew in Galicia, in 1213,, they surorised 
her and pat her to death. The conspirators were headed by 
the Magnate Banco, whom the queen had mortally offended ; 
for m order to take revenee for a slight offence which she 
pretended to have received irom Banco's wife, who was famed 
lor her bou^ and virtue, she prevailed upon her brother 
Berthold to violate ti^e person of^ this lady, and she afforded 
him an opportunity of e^cting his purpose in the queen's 
oini aparteienta in the roval {xdace. In 1217 Andrew under- 
took a crusade, and made himself conspicuous in Paleitine 
through his gsdlant deeds, but his final success was trifling, 
and he returned in 1222 : thence he was called < Hierosoly- 
mitanus.' Andrew took an important part in the Byzantine 
s&in iA his time. After the death of the Latin Emperor of 
Constantinople, Peter of Courtenay, in 1217, the crown of 
Greece was ofiered to Andrew, who however declined it, and, 
in 1218, made a treaty of alliance with Theodore Lascaris, 
the Gmk Emperor of Nicsea, who gave his daughter Maria 
in marriage to Andrew's eldest son Bela. When Andrew 
returned from Palestine, ke found this prince at the head of 
an army of rebels, and his kingdom disturbed by a civil war. 
The power of the noulet was so great that in the diet in 

1222, which Andrew convoked immediately after his return, 
they forced the king to subscribe the \ A urea Bulla,' or 
< Golden Bull,' which has justiy been compared with the Eng- 
lish Magna Charta, and by which great privileges were given 
to the Hungarian nobles, while the royal authority was 
curtailed. Tnis Aiu^a Bulla is still the charter and funda- 
mental law of the kingdom of Hungary and its appurtenances. 
During the following years Hungary continued to be shaken 
by civil factions, which the king was unable to quiet, since 
his natural abilities and his good will were not supported by 
sufficient steadiness of character. Andrew II. died in 1236, 
and was succeeded by hb eldest son Bela lY. 

AirDBEW III., the son of Prince Stephanus, who was 
the posthumous son of King Andrew II., succeeded King 
Ladislaus IV. in 1290. His short reign of ten years was 
signalized by civil disturbances and foreign wars. Andrew 
compelled Duke Albert of Austria to give up his claims upon 
Hungary, with which he pretended to have been invested by 
his father the Emperor Rodolph I. of Germany ; whereupon 
the two princes joined against Charles Martel, Prince of 
Naples, wno founded his claim to the Hungarian crown upon 
his descent horn Maria the aster of the late king Ladislaus 
IV. Charles Martel having died before he was able to pre- 
pare an expedition against Hungary, his case was taken up by 
his son Cnarles Robert, who, having found support among a 
powerful faction of the nobles and the clergy of Hungary, 
entered that country in 1300, and took the field against An- 
drew. The failure of the royal arms against the invader 
preyed upon the mind of Andrew, and he died through grief 
m the same year. Andrew III. was the last king of the 
house of Arpad, the founder of the Hungarian kingdom : and 
his successor, the fortunate Charles Robert, was the first king 
of the Anjou or Neapolitan dynasty which reigned over Hun- 
gary during nearly a century. 

(MaiUth, Count of, Gesehichte der Magyaren; Pray, His- 
toria Regttm HungaricB.) 

HUNTINGTON, ROBERT, D.D., was bom in Fe- 
bruary, 1636, at Deorhyrst, in Gloucestershire, where his 
father, of the same names, was parish clergyman. After hav- 
ing received the rudiments of a classical education at the free 
school of Bristol, he was admitted in 1652 a portionist ot 
Merton College, Oxford ; and, having taken his bachelor's 
degree in 1658, he was soon after elected to a fellowship in 
that college. He took his degree of Master of Arts in lo63 ; 
and, having then applied himself with great success to the 
study of the Oriental languages, he was in 1670 appointed to 
the situation of chaplain to the English factory at Aleppo. 
This post he held for above eleven years, during which time 
he visited Jerusalem, Galilee, Samaria, Cyprus in 1677, and 
Egypt in 1680, and again in 1681, besides making an unsuc- 
cessml attempt in 1678 to reach Palmyra. He returned home 
in 1682, through Italy and France, and, resuming his college 
life, accumulated the degrees of bachelor and doctor in divi- 
nity in June of the following year. In the latter part of 
that year he was prevailed upon with much reluctance to 
accept the place of provost or master of Trinity College, 
Dublin ; but, after first taking flight on tiie invasion of Ire- 
land by the deposed king after the Revolution, and then re- 
turning to that country for a short time, he resigned in 1691 , 
and once more came over to England. In August, 1692, he 
was presented by Sir Edward Turner to the rectory of Great 
Hdlingbury in Essex ; and while here he married a sister of 
Sir John Powell, one of the justices of the King's Bench. 
He seems still, however, to have felt uncomfortaMe in what 
he describes in some of his printed letters as a rustic solitude, 
where he was banished alike firom books and friends, from the 
living and the dead ; and, although he had some years before 
refused the bbhopric of Kilmore in Ireland, his aversion to 
that country gave way so far that in 1701 he consented to 
accept of that of Raphoe. But he died there on the 2nd of 
September in the same year, twelve days after his consecra- 

The only literary performance that Bishop Huntington pub- 
lished was a short paper in the ' Plulosophical I'raiuuctions ' 
(No. 161), entiUea * A Letter from Dublin concerning the 
Porphyry Pillars in Egypt.' The writer of his Life in the 
* Biographia Britannica^ states that some of his observations 
are printed in Ray's < Collection of curious Travels and 
Voyages,' 2 vols. 8vo., 1693 ; but all which that work contains 
is the Letter on the Porphyry Pillars, which is in volume ii. 
pp. 149-155. At the end of the reprint is a notice extracted 
from the < Journal des Scavans' (No. 25, a.d. 1692), of a 
letter from M. Cu^ier to the Abb^ Nicaire, intimating that 

I 2 

H U R 


H U S 

be had just bctrd from Aleppo 'that fone Eauiliah gentk- 
mon, out of curiotity going to visit the nuna of raknyim, had 
found 400 marUe columns, of a sort of porphyry, and also 
obaerred tome templet yet entire, with tomba, monuments, 
Greek and lAtin inscriptions,' of all of which he hoped to 
get copies. This woolcl probably be the earlieat infonnation 
received by the English public of the successful accomplish - 
ment of the first modem journey to Palmyra, which was 
achieved by some ffentlemcn of the factory at Aleppo in 1691 , 
and of which a full account was given in the * Philosophical 
Transactions* for 1695. Ray's book may have been printed 
in the latter jiart of 1692, though not published till May, 
1693, on the Srd of which month the imprimatur is dated. 

Dr. Uuntington is principally remembered for the numer- 
ous Oriental aaanuscripts which he procured while in the East 
and brought with him to this countiy. Besides those which 
he purchased ftor Archbishop Mursh and Bishop Fell, he ob- 
tained between six und seven hundred for himself, which are 
now in the Bodleian Library, to which he fint preeented 
thirtv-five of them, and thea sold the rest in 1691 for the 
small sum of 700^ Huntington, Ijowevcr, missed what was 
the principal object of his search, the very important Syriac 
version ofthe epistles of St. Ignatius, a larae poi tion of which 
was at length recovered in 1843 b;^ Mr. lattam from one of 
the very monasteries in Nitria wiuch Huntington had vbitcd 
in the course of hb inquiries, and, having been deposited by 
him in the British Museum, has been ptiblished in tne present 
/ear under the care of the Reverend William Cureton, keeper 
of the Oriental manuscripts in that establishment. Several of 
Huntington's letters, which are addressed to the Archbishop oi' 
Mount Sinai, contain inquiries about the MS. of St. Ignatius ; 
and the same earnest inquiries are made in his letters to the 
Patriarch of Antioch. 

There b a Life of Bishop Huntington, in Ladn, by Dr. 
Thomas Smith, at the end of which are thirty-nine of his 
Letters, all in Latin, published in 8vo. at London, in 1704 ; and 
he IS the subject of an article in the * Biographia Britannica.' 
HURA, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
Euphorfaiacefle. It has monoBcious, amentaceous flowers ; the 
staminiferous flowers with the calyx truncate ; the stamens 
united into a solid column ; the pistiliferous flowers with the 
atjrle single, and the stigma with 12-18 rays, and the capsule 
with 1^18 coed. H, crepitata b a tree aboundmg with 
roilk^ juice. It b a native of the West Indian Islands, 
Mexico, and Guvana, where it b called * Sandbox,' or ' Mon- 
key's Dinner-Bell.' It has cordate, acuminate, entire or sf^ry 
slightly toothed, stalked, smooth, coriaceous leaves, with simple 
vems passing from the midrib to the margin in a curved 
direction, within a quarter of an inch or so of each other, 
and connected by numerous oblioue veinlels ; laive, ovate, 
leafy, deciduoua stipules, and petioles as long or rather longer 
than the leaves, with 2 glands at the apex. The fruit of 
thb tree b a depressed umbilicated woody capsule, about the 
size of a middling apple, with from 12-18 furrows which 
separate into as many cocci ; each of these separates into 
3 valvea, and flies asunder with peat elasticity when dry and 
ftdly ripe. The noise the fruit makes during thb process 
has obtained for the tree its common names. The juice of 
the plant, like that of the allied genus Exciecaria [ExciBCAaiA, 
P. C. S.j b exceedingly acrid, and a small quantity touching 
the eye will produce blindness. The seeds, like those of 
Croton and Ricinus, contain an acrid oil which b a drastic and 
danfferous cathartic. 

(Lindley, Flora Medica; Burnett, Ouilmes of Botany.) 
IIURRAR, called also Horror and Adhari^ b a country 
with a large commercial town in the eastern part of Africa, 
and situated between Ankober, the capital of Shoa [Abtssi- 
VI A, P. C. S.], and the harbour of BurburaL As the place 
has not been vbitcd by Eurofioaiis, its true situation b not 
known, and our information aixmt it b derived from the ac- 
counts of some natives of the adjacent countries. 

Acoording to these accounts, the town b so large that it 
takes two hours to go round it at a quick pace. It b sur- 
rounded by a wall of stone and mud« which b about twelve 
feet high and three foot thick, and kept in good repair. 
There are five gates. The houses are generally built of stone 
and whitewashra, with flat rool's. There are however some 
fbw huts resembling thoae in Shoe. The emir and the prin- 
cipal mhabilanta have houses of two stories. There are 
aaid to be many mosques within the town, forty-four of 
which are the abodes of learned men. The town b well sup- 
plied with water from numerous springi in its vicinity. Close 
10 the town b a river called Sambi 

The inhabiCanta are rigid Mohanunedaas, nd nay itn,* 
attention to the faata and ceremoniea eajouMd hy that rtlirMi 
According to D'Abbadie there b a law in Ibite wkid t^^- 
hibitaanv white man, that b, any Turk or European, frt«i ,1^ 
tering the town ; but thb b very doubtful. The poniUu^ 
must be large, aa the houses are said to be built vcfj a^c 
tooether. The principal occupation of the people ii tbi d 
tilling the soil, whidi for several miles aroona b highly cui: . 
vated, producing coflbe, wheat, jowari, hariey. and s u t 
of fruits and ve^tables. The kaat (a small ptant, the ksi.s 
of which are said to nosseia an intoxicating oualitr, ^mi u 
which the Araba in Yemen, where it b alao fbiiiid, uv 1 1. 
oeedingly fond) b said to be yetj abundant The giui&i! ». 
irrisatM by artificial means from numerous springi. (■>.-*- 
is the most important article produced ; at least 2000 ULi 
are annually exported to the sea-coast, to the poru of Ik-. 
burah and Zeifa, and thence to Arabia, when it b muM 
with that of Mocha, which b improved by it It is n^i u 
difler from that of Arabia, the fruit beins a laige flat U rn 
A few families are occupied in nanufactunnff industrv. Thtr* 
are weavers, blackamitns, and gold and suversmitbk 11,: 
lances made in Hurrar are in high estimation. 

Uurrar may certainly be considered, for that cotintrr, a 
great commercial town. Kafilas arrive there or depart u i. 
seasons. The principal are those which pass between liurr^^ 
and Burburah and Zeila, which two last-mentioned I'Un 
may be considered as the ports of Hurrar. Three br j 
dc|iart for Burburah between the months of October «t,. 
March. That of March is the larrat, and consbti ttiar - 
of 2000 cameb. They ex{K>rt coHee, jowari, ghee, est... 
feathers, gum, myrrh, and wur; the last-mentioned srti<t< i 
like saffn n .n appearance, and is used by the Arabs u i.i.'- 
ment for cooling* the body ; it b also mixed up with flocr <■* < 
ma<ic up into cakes, which are said to be very mlht.> 
I'hey export also to Burburah sUves, both male sod frh.> •. 
and receive in return blue and white coarse cloth, lu-^ 
piece goods, European prints, silk, silk-thread, red rut' •^- 
yam, beaib, zinc, copper-wire, iVankincense, and some sni»: * 
articles. There are also annually three kafUas to Zeila. 1 1** 
imports are the same as those from Biirbursh, but the oi)i:rj 
are increased by some articles, as wheat, millet, beans, ^c 

Smaller kafiUs depart almost ever^ month to Shoa, rx'M 
during the rainy season. Thev chiefly export articlt^ -'» 
taincd from Burburah and 2eila, esfjccially blue clotb, n<l 
cotton-yam, &c., and receive in return slaves, niul('», t.! 
horses. Other kafilas trade between Hurrar and AruMc :•. 
Chercher, two towns or encampmenta of the Galb, situaiis 
west and aouth-west of Hurrar ; the articles of export »: i 
import are impcrfectiy known. 

The dimate of Uurrar b said to be nmilar to that of M>< » 
but not quite so cold. The language beare an afiloitj U) :>' 
Amharic [Abtssiitia, P. C. and P. C. S.], but die .Ar. 
character is used in writing. The ruler of Hurrar \i»* v< 
titie of Emir, and the succession b hereditary. He u f-*- 
quentiy at war with the Galla tribes which surround hi« rtKic^; , 
but he keeps them in check by a small foroe anucd «• - 
matchlocks, as the Gallas have a great dread of fire-aratf. 

(Barker, Report on the probable Geoffrophiod VotiM ( 
Hurrar, in London Geographical Journal, vol. xii. ; CUry •- 
pher, Account €f tlte North-Eatt Coast qf' Africa, m /-*iA« 
Ge0^apAica/«/ottrrui/, vol. xiv. ; D'Abbadie, Z^^/rr ; Hv'.*. 
Remarks on the North-East Coast of Africa, in the Tm^ 
actions of the Bombay Geographical Society, voL ii.) 

UUSKISSON, WILLIAM, was bom March 11, 1'"*^ 
at Birch Moreton Court, Worcestershire, where his fiiil ■ ' 
occupied an extensive farm. The family had long brcti .vt- 
tied m Staflbrdshire, and for several generations had Utn a 
the possession of a moderate landed estate on which tl'«i 
resided. On the death of hb mother, in 1774, his fat' * 
removed into Staflbrdshire, married a second wife, and r\ ^ •'« ^ 
upon hb patrimony until hb death in 1790, He had si "• 
ate3 a considerable portion of hb property in order to nuk« 

Srovbion for his younger children. The entailed proj**'?^ 
esocnded to the subiect of the present notice, who cii 1 3 
the entail and disposeJ of the landed property altogethrr 

In 1783, when in hb fourteenth vear, Willbm Ua'Av*^ 
was sent to Paris, at the request of hb maternal unile, Pr. 
Gem, physician to the Englbh Embassy. Dr. Gem wa^ « " 
terms of intimacy with Franklin and Jeifcrsoo, and the \iu*) 
known as the * EncyclopiedisU.* W^illuun Huskiasoo, ss • js 
natural to a young man, became an enthusiast in the rau^' ^ < 
the French Revolution. He was present at the takbg it 
the Baatiie in 1789, and became a nenber of the *So»st4 



H U S 

^ 1789/ tMUM in 1790. Th6 object of this dub wti 
to nrtttn iS» new oowlitationd principles. Hit ooimexion 
with H led to Iha chafge which was often brought against 
him of hiviag been a member of the Jacobin Clab. In An* 
gust, 1790, ^ nroDOuneed a * Discoon' at the *6oci^te de 
1789 ' igaioit tne proposed creation of paper-money to a larve 
eitcBt, wliieh obtained for him at the time coosideFBbie 
celetiritr in the French capital. He withdrew from the * So- 
d^' after the legislature had determined upon the issue of 
anigBBls. In the same jear (1790) he oecame private 
Mcretaiy ts Lord Gower (afterwards the Marquis or Staf- 
fold), who was then the English ambassadcNr. A letter dated a 
few da^s after the attack on &e Tuileries on the 20th June, 
179S, shows that Mr. Haskisson's views respecting the Re- 
vohitjoo had andersooe a change. After the events of the 
l<Hh of August, 1798, the English ambasssdor was recalled, 
and Mr. Hwkisson returned with him to England. He 
coDtiaoed to pam the greater part of his time with Lord 
Gower at Wiaibledon, where he often met Mr. Pitt and 
Mr. Dundas. In Januaiy, 1793, by desire of Mr. Dundas, 
he undertook the duties of a small office which had just been 
created for investigating the claims of French emiffrants who 
were then thronging in crowds to England. Early in 1795 
be wm appDinted onder-secretaiy of state in the department 
of Wsr snd Cdloues under Mr. Dundas. In this dtuation he 
KNin became distinguished by his talents ibr business. In 
tiie * Kegmphical Meraofae,' attached to the edition of his 
'Speeches,' k is etated that he was often called to the private 
coundls of Mr. Pitt He conducted the equipment of Sir 
Chtries (afterwards Earl) Grey's expedition to the West In- 
dies. Towards the end of 1796 he was brooaht into parlia- 
nent m member for Morpeth, br the Earl of Carlisle ; but 
he does not appear as a speaker before February, 1798. On 
the r eti r ement of Mr. Pitt he resigned his official situation. 
He wm unsnooeaaful in procuring a seat at the general elec- 
tion m 1802, and did not appear aaain in Parliament until 
1804, when he ant for Liskeard. He was secretary of the 
Treasnrj under the administration formed by Mr. Pitt in 
1804 ; sod after the death of that minister, and during the 
Whig administration of 1806-1807, he was an active member 
or the oppoBtion. At the general election in 1806 he waa 
re-elected for Liakeard ; and after the disBolntion of pariia- 
ment m 1807 he sat for Harwich, and continued to do so 
tmtil 1812. From this period until 1823 he represented 
Chichester, in which neighbourhood he had, in 1801, pur- 
chased a small estate. From 1823 until his death he renre- 
anted Uverpool. On the retirement of the Whigs mm 
office, m 1807, Mr. Huskisson resumed his former post as 
Mcretarv of the Treasury. In 1807 he was strongly mvited 
br the Duke of Ridunond, then viceroy of Irehmd, to become 
chief secre tar y ; but his services could not at the time be 
dispensed widi in the office he already filled. He rengned 
office in 1809, along with Mr. Canning, when the latter le(t 
the siinistiy on account of differences with Lord Castlereagh. 
He refused firom motives of ftiendship snd personal attach- 
B«iit to accept any official appointment during Mr. Canning's 
exdosion from power ; ana it was not unm Mr. Canning 
Mcepted the post of ambassador at lasbon, that Mr. Huskis- 
no again entered the public service. In August, 1814, he 
VM appointed Chi^ Commissioner of Woods and Forests. 
In 1823 he becsune President of the Board of Trade, and 
Treanrer of the Navy. His predecessor had been a cabinet 
nhuster, and Mr. Huskisson considered that his position enti- 
tled him to the same distinction, and after some delay, occa- 
nooed by the cabinet already consisting of a larger number 
thtn usual, he became one of its members. After the death 
of Blr. Canning, in 1827, Mr. Huskisson held the office 
of secretary for the Colonies in Lord Goderich's cabinet ; and 
he retabed his post when this cabinet was broken up and the 
Doke of Wellington became the head of a new ministry. He 
hid to defend himself for renuuning in office after his friends 
ia the former cabinet were ezdndea from power ; and he did 
R) on die ground tlmt the measures to wnich he vras more 
mrticulariY pledged would be followed up by the then exist- 
ing administnition. On the 19th of May, 1829, the debate 
oo die East Betford IKriranchisement took an unexpected 
turn, and Mr. Huskisson was called upon to redeem a pledge 
which he had given in a former discussion on the question ; 
tod he accordingly voted in favour of the bill and in opposi- 
te to his ooneagnes. After the debate, at 2 a.m. he wrote 
snote, as a matter of debcacy and courtesy to the Duke of 
WeQmgton, the head of the cabinet, placing his resigna- 
tion ia his hands. Without any communication with Mr. 

Huskisson, the duke kid it before the king. In the ( 
respondenoe which ensued it is evident that the Duke of 
Wellington was desirous of getting rid of Mr. Hinkisson. 
He had once before voted apinst his ministerial colleagues, 
in opposing, in 1822, Lord Londonderry'a reaolutiona for re 
lieving the agriculturists ; but at the request of Lord Liver 
pool, the prime minister, he remained in office. The resig- 
nation of Mr. Huskisson was followed bv that of Lord 
Palmerston, Mr. Grant, and several others who luid belonged 
to what was called ' Mr. Canning's party.' In the session of 
1880 he appeared on several occssions as a formidable oppo* 
nent of some of the meaaures of the ^povemment, and, but for 
his death so soon afterwards, there is every probability thai 
he would have beoome a member of the Whig oid)inet His 
commercial principles vrere held by him in common with 
them, and in his general views he was approximating towards 
the Whi^ party. He had always been in favour of the Ca« 
tholic daims, and in opposing the repeal of the Corporation 
and Test Acts, he did so on the ground of its beioff a partial 
measure, and likely to retard Catholic emancipation. Hn 
supported in May, 1829, Mr. Grant's bill for relieving the 
Jews of dieir disabilities. He had left the ministry for 
having supported a measure of reform, and in the same session 
he had voted in favour of giving representatives to Manches- 
ter, Leeds, and Birmingham. 

In poriiament Mr. Huskisson seldom spoke except upon 
financial or commercial subjects. He waa an active member 
of the Bullion Committee, and defended the prindplea in the 
Report of that committee in a pamphlet entitled ' The Ques- 
tion concerning the Depreciation of our Currency stated and 
examined,' which was published in 1810. In the debates on 
the com kws, in 1814, he supported the system of protecting 
agriculture by high duties, on the ground that commerce and 
manufactures were similarly protected, and that our whole 
system was one of artificial restraints. He was at that time 
merely for free trade in the abstract. He alluded to the poa- 
sibility of imported com becoming one-fifUi, instead of one 
thirty-fifth or our consumption, if proper means were not 
taken to encourage the home cultivation. He was averse to 
the country bemg dependent on foreigners, and thought such 
a drcnmstance mieht be uaed to the injury of its interests. 
He proposed a sliding scale of duties, acomling to which the 
duty would be 24«. Sd, when the average prioe of wheat per 
quarter was 6Ss. ; and as the price rose the duty would mil, 
so that at 86s. there would be no duty at all. Com from the 
colonies he would have admitted at one-half the rates of 
foreign com. The question was postponed to the following 
yesr, and he suppoited the corn-bill of 1815, and thought 
that less than 80s. as a protecting price would not remunerate 
the fanner. In the session of 1822 he moved a series of re- 
solutions on the state of agricidture, one oi which proposed that 
when wheat should again reach 70s. the quarter, a fixed duty of 
16s. should be permanently charged on the importation of 
foreign wheat The expenence of the last twentjr-five yean 
does not prove the profoundness of Mr. Huskisson's views on 
this subject. In 1827 however he acknowledged that the 
policy of the eom-lawy must be viewed in relation to the 
changes in the growth and price of com abroad as well as at 
home; and he abandoned the corn-bill which had been 
brought in by the govemment, after the Duke of Wellington 
had carried an amendment the efiect of whidi would nave 
been to prohibit the release of bonded wheat so long as the 
price should be leas than 63s. the quarter. In 1819 he was 
■appointed a member of the Committee of Finance. It ia 
understood that he was principally concerned in dravring up 
the long Report of the Committee of Agriculture which sat 
in 1821. It advocated a relaxation of the oom-laws, for 
which he was never forsiven by the landed interest. In 1822 
Mr. Wallace and Mr. Bobinson (now Earl of Rtpon) had 
taken some preliminary steps for relaxing restrictions on com- 
merce ; and these efibrts were oaxried on more actively and 
on a larger scale by Mr. Huskisson. In 1828 he carried 
through parliament an act for enabling the king in coundi 
to place the shipping of foreign states on the same footing 
witn British shipping, provided that similar privilera were 
given to British ships in the poha of such states. He aban- 
doned the old restrictive system of colonial trade, and, under 
certain regulations, threw open the commerce of the colonies 
to other countries. He reduced a great number of duties 
which had been imposed for the protection of the home pro- 
duce. The shipownen, and the silk manufoctnren, and a 
host of other interests were now in arms aoaiast him. 
They represented him as a cold and heartless ttieorist, and 



H Y D 

be WM Attacked Ttiy generallv, both in and out of parlia* 
mcnt, for hti departore from the antient commerdal policy 
of the ooontrjr. Hia speechet in Parliament in defence of his 
ncaauresare hia bert; and his expoaitions of the commercial 
oondition of the countir aiwajs excited great interest. Sir 
U. ParndU (Lord Conirieton) has denied that Mr. Huskisson 
established tree trade, but he states that in his speeches in 
1825 he oertunlv proclaimed and proved the fiolicjr of this 
system. He adds-—' He did no more than strike a balance 
between the firee-traders and the prohibitionists in taking a 
duty of SO per cent. 9a the standard of regulation ;* and hints, 
that had he ever thoroughly espoused the cause of free trade, 
he would not have thrown away as he did the opportunities 
he had of making improTcments in his plan of 1825. {Ft- 
mtmchi JUform^ p. 73.) But even the reforms which he did 
effect ezdtedgreat clamour ezd opposition ; and the advantages 
of the changea he had effected were not recognised until some 
time afterwards. Mr. Huskisson was active in procuring the 
repeal of the combination laws ; and he relaxed the restric- 
tions on the exportation of machinery. 

At the close of the session of 1830 Mr. Huskisson left 
London to be present at the opening of the Liverpool and 
Manchester Rulwa^, on the 15th of September. When the 
train reached Parkside, nesr Newton, he got out of the car- 
riage with many others, and had just been speaking to the 
DiUce of Wellington, when an alarm was raised on the ap- 
proach of an engine on the other line. Mr. Huskisson at* 
tempted to regain his seat, but fell to the ground at the moment 
the engine passed, and was dreadfully injured. He was con- 
veyed to the house of the Rev. Mr. Blackbume, of Ecdes, 
but the shock to the system was so great, that after enduring 
great agonv with much fortitude and resignation, ho died at 
nine o'dodt the same evening. At the request of a large 
and influential portion of the mercantile classes of Liverpool 
his remains were interred in the new cemetery, where a 
handsome monument with a statue was erected to his memory 
by his constituents. 

Mr. Huskisson was married in 1799 to the youngest 
daughter of Admiral Milbanke, but had no family. On re- 
tiring from office in 1828 he entered upon the receipt of one 
of SIX pensions of 3000/. a year, which the Crown was em- 
powerea to grant for long public services. He was nominated 
lor this pension by Lord Liverpool shortly before his politicml 
demise. He was for many years Agent for Ceylon, the salary 
of which was increased from 800/. to 1200/. a-^ear : he 
resigned this post when appointed to the Board of Trade in 

{Speeches of the Eight Him. W. HuiUestm, with a Bio- 
anwhieai Memoir, 3 vols. 8vo., London, 1831.) 


HUTTON, WILLIAM, was bora at Derby, of poor 
parents, September 30th, 1723. By frugality, industry, and 
mtegritjr he raised himself to opulence and eminence. It has 
been said of him that * in many particulars of energy, perse- 
yersnoe, and prudence he deserves to be called the English 
Franklin.' At the age of seven he waa sent by his father to 
work in the silk-mill at Derby, which occupation he qiutted 
at seventeen, and was bound apprentice to an undo at Not- 
tingham, who was a stocking-maker. He ran away during 
his apprenticeship, and wandered as far as Birmingham, the 
town m whidi he subsequently aocjuired a f(»tune ; but dis- 
tress compelled him to return to his uncle. The poor remu- 
neration which he obtuned for his labours at the stocking- 
frame induced him to look anxiously towards some other 
means of gaining a livelihood ; and in 1746 he bought an old 
woro-down press, and taught himself the art of bookbinding. 
In 1749 he walked to London and back to purchase a few 
bookbinders* tools. In the same prear he commenced attend- 
big Southwell, fourteen miles distant from Nottingham, on 
thtt market-day ; and here he rented a shop at twenty shillmgs 
ft year, and opened it for the sale of books. In his auto- 
biography he says : * During this rainy winter I set out at 
five every Saturoay morning, carried a burthen of from three 
pounds' weight to thirty, opened shop at ten, starved in it all 
day upon bread, dieese, and half a pmt of ale, took from one 
lo six shillings, shut up at four, and by trudging through the 
aolitary night and the deep roads five hours more, I arrived at 
Nottingham by nine, where I always found a mess of milk- 
porrid^ by the fire, prepared b^ mj valuable sister.' Hut- 
ton's sister was a woman of superior mind, and he owed much 
to her eaeoonigement. His object was to save a small sum to 
eaaUe him to commence business in a large town ; and in 
1760| after having twice visited Binningham in order to see 

the chances of suooaas which the phoe ofierad, he oa tfte %n^ 
visit took the lesser half of a small s1mm>, at ft reel oC «wp 
shilling per week, and furnished it with a snaU supply ei 
books. The overseen teased him for two yean nnder xi^ 
idea that he would become chaigeable to the parislu F.«t 
shillings a week covered all his expenses, and at the end u 
the fint year he had saved 20/. Fortune continued to sai / 
upon him, and in 1765 he married. In 1791 his nroprr./ 
was destroyed during the Church and King Riots at Birming- 
ham in that year, but afler great difficult he aoceeedcd .x 
recovering 6390/. from the county. He now reliiK|isishc: 
business in favour of his son. He had filled sacQeastwlv &. 
the local offices of the town. In 1781 he published hia * Ui- 
tory of Birmingham ;' and this was followed by other worb 
in the following order: 'Journey to London,' 1784 ; * Tu* 
Court of Requests,' 1784; *The Hundred Court,' 17n9. 
' HUtory of Blacknool,' 1788 ; « Battle of Boswortfa TitlW 
1789 ; ' History of Derby,' 1790; « The Barben, ft Poem/ 
1793; < Edgar and Elfrida, a Poem,' 1793; «Tbe Robss 
Wall,' 1801 ; < Remarks upon North Wales,' 1801 ; • Tsmr 
to Scarborough,' 1803 ; < Poena, chiefly Tales,' 1804 ; * Tra 
to Coatham,' 1808. 

Mr. Hutton died September 20th, 1815, a few d^ heir^- 
the completion of his mnety-second year. In 1816 hia dai\:i<- 
ter pubfished 'The Life of William HuttonL StftSioQcr. c' 
Birmingham, and the Histoiy of his Family : Written by U iid- 
self.' 'This work is one of the most entertaining and inatmctif • 
pieces of autobiomph^ in the language. An editaoc&^of u « 
work was publiuiea in 1841, in the series of * Knight* 
English Miscellanies.' This edition contains some iatenstis^ 
notes by Catherine Hutton, Mr. Hutton's danghter» who «m 
then in her eighty-fifth year; and passages of ft 
nature from Hutton's works are added m notes. 

HYBRID PLANTS. [Seos of Pi^ra, P. C] 

HYDATICA, a genus of fossil planU (probabl/ 
from the coal formation. (Artis.) 

HYDE, SIR NICHOLAS, was appointed diief jnstkv d 
the King's Bench in 1626. He was the uncle and precrniir 
of the first Earl of Clarendon, whose mind he had great shifT 
in forming, by proposing daily to him legal questioos <v 
solution. He owed his promotion to the patrosiagpe of tj <> 
Duke of Buckingham, who having emplojred him to dimm h^ 
successful answer to the impeachment of the House of C'o*- 
mons, afterwards procured him to be appointed chief justjo . 
when Sir RanduTph Crewe was removed from thftt pos: ^-i 
consequence of his lukewarmness in advancing a loen wlufh 
Charies I. attempted to raise i»4thout the authori^ of \mr. 
liament The most important trial upon which Sir Nkiitjiai 
Hyde presided after his elevation to the bench waa th« to 
in which Eliot, Hollis, and Valentine were indictiHi t. - 
forcibly holding down in his chiur the speaker of the li<«s.- * 
of Commons, at the violent close of the parlisment of It.jr 
The court refused to allow to the prisoners their lialnrai 
Corpus, and inflicted fines upon them of considerable askoux.t. 
This conduct (Sir Nicholas Hyde's curious apology for w ti* ii 
may be seen in Rush worth, vol. i. p. 461) was aflcrv&rd* 
voted by the long parliament a delay of justice. lie dt4>i st 
his scat (Hinttm Lodge), in the parish of CatheringttA: . 
Hampshire, on the 26th August, 1631, aged 59. 

Wnitelock, his colleague on the bench, and politioftl opf^^ 
nent, records that 'the cause of his death was a hot fc^rr. 
rendered incurable by reason of an imposthume breakia^ in U*.* 
head ; and that he lived in his place of chief justice w ith 
great integrity and uprightness, and with great wiadom cf 
temper, considering; the ticklishness of the times.* (Bu ahw t wt h. 
vol. ii. p. 1 1 1.) Four of his lettera are extant in the Bodlr mh 
library. A very beautiful full-length marble effijgy of faim 9t.A 
exists in the obscure parish church of Catheniigtoity ILset5. 
He was succeeded in his estate by his son, 

LAwuDfca Htds, who became principally remariabic ftw 
the personal share which he had in furthering the eecnnp • --' 
Charles II. after the battle of Worcester. The kin^ m h • 
memorable wanderings was concealed for a night at the bc«B«r 
of one of Mr. Hyde's tenantB. But as this tenant ws» u* 
hot-headed a royalist to be safely intrusted with the ftrcrvt i*^ 
his guest's quality, the king was accordingly naased otf «» a 
roundhead, and was in that charscter compellea to drink mlijt 
must then have appeared hopeless success to the royal csuio 
Afler some difficulty Charlea was withdrawn from the mar ' 
house by Lord Southampton and Mr. Hyde, and by tK- r& 
safely conducted the next day to Shoreham, where the^ acr- 
ceeded in procoring a passage for him to F4camp. Tb<> « <r> 
cumstanccs are told in detau m a manuscript wnt^cn br Mr 

H Y G 


H Y G 

Oyde'i cousin Colonel Goonter, himself an actor in the 

prents. This mannacript is now deposited in the British 

MuKWD, and oontaina the only authentic account of the 

escape of the king. There are notices of it in Jesse's * His- 

Uiry of the Stuarts ;' and in Parry's * Account of the Coast of 

Susses.' Lawrence Hyde was M.P. for Winchester after the 

Restontion ; be mairied the only daughter of Sir John Gren- 

YiIIe,.tbe n^piKiator between General Monk and Charles II. 

for ie ftstota^on of the king; and died in 1682: his grand- 

ha^ter married Mr. Tooker, a Somersetshire gentleman, in 

whose family the estate still continues. 


HYDROCOTYLE (from ^^p, water, and KorvXti, a ca- 

%)i A ^^ ^ plants belonguig to the natural order Umbellt- 

fere, and to the sub-order Orthospermese. It has the tube of 

the calyx rather compressed, the limb with an obsolete 

narprin, the petals ovate, entire, acute, with a straight apex ; 

the fruit flatly compressed from the sides ; the carpels witnout 

Tittse; the 5 ribs or nerves nearly filiform, the carinal and 

lateral ones nsualljr obsolete, and the two intermediate ones 

joineti. The species of this genus are generally bog-herbs ; 

lH]t few of them are under-shrubs. The umbel is single, sur- 

romxied by a few-leared involucrum. The flowers sessile or 

pedicilltfie, white. 

Upwards of 90 species of plants have been referred to this 
fTPoua. It is not however improbable that a more attentive 
itvAj of them will lead to the distinction of other genera 
amongst them. 

//. ndgarU has peltate, orbiculate, double crenate leaves ; 
the ambeis capitate, of 5 flowers, often proliferous ; the fruit 
enirnnate b«low. This plant is a native of Great Britain 
and throaghout nearly the whole of Europe,' in marshy bcjergj 
places, and on the margins of rivulets on a peat soil. This 
jtUnt is ooDunonljr called ' Pennywort,' on account of its 
iosres lyin^ flat on the ground and having the size and 
form of a piece of money. It b also known by the names of 

• water pennywort^' * sheep-killing pennymss,' * white-rot,' 

* fluke-wort,' and * aheep's-nane.' These hitter names it has 
ohtuned on account of its being supposed to produce the rot 
aw) other diseases in animals that feed on it. This is, how- 
erer, an error, as this plant will not produce disease in animals, 
but it occun in damp moist situations, where animals that feed 
ue likely to be attadied with rot and other diseases. It is in 
this way that other marsh plants, as the species of Drosera 
md Pif^cola, have been supposed to cause disease in sheep 

Of the large nuinber of species of this genus few if amr 
m oacd m the arts or mediane, and none of them are sum- 
ciradv ornamental to lead to their cultivation. H. Asiatica 
is aid to be used in India as a diuretic and occasionally as a 
nilinaiy vegetable. H. umbeUata is recommended by Martins 
li a remedy in brpochondriaais, but on what grounds is not 
itled. The fresh jmce acts as an emetic. It is sud to pos- 
se« an aromatic odour and an agreeable taste. The species 
of Djdrocotyle are easily cultivated ; they must all be kept 
moist The stove-greenhouse and frame kinds should oe 
^wn in pots placed in pans of water. 

{limy Ckardener's IHctwnary ; Burnett, Ou^/uMf ; Babing- 
toQ. Mtmual of British Botany,) 
HYDROCYANIC ACID. JPauasic Acid, P. C. S.] 
HYDROSTATIC BED. [Bd>otad, P. C. S.] 
HYGROMETRY is that part of natural philosophy which 
r^es to the determination of the humidity of booies, parti- 
^.Uriy of the atmosphere : it comprehends also the theory of 
(^ instmments which have been mvented for the purpose of 
Bcertaining the quantity of water contained in a given volume 
t«f air. 

The ezperimenta of Dr. Dalton have proved that the water 
noeived rrom the earth b not dissolved in the atmosphere, 
■kI that it exiata there in the form of vapour. That philo- 
vpber discovered also that the quantity of vapour contained 
'B a portioo of the atmosphere depends greatly upon the tem- 
pcntare of the latter, and that it is very variable even when 
^ temperatore is constant. He ascertained moreover that 
when a qaantttr of aqtieous vapour at a given temperature is 
iiSused throufii any space, it wiU support the same external 
pcmre, whether previously that space had been void or occu- 
pied b^air. On these pnnciples are founded the methods 
ihidb have been used for determining the absolute quantity 
vf motsture in a ^ven volume of air by means of the hygro- 
oetcr: the requisite data being the elasticities of aqueous 
*>f«ur al di&rent temperatures, and the corresponding indi- 
aiioQc of the inatfument 

The tension or elasticity of wateiy vapour corresponding to 
every decree of Fahrenheit's thermometer, from zero to the 
point of Doiling water (measured hy the height in inches of 
the column of mercury which the vapour will support when 
the density of the atmosphere is represented by 30 inches), 
has been determined by Drs. Daltun and Ure, who for this 
purpose introduced a small quantity of water into the vacuum 
of a barometer, and observed how much, at different tem- 
peratures, the vapour arising from it depressed the column of 
mercury ; and a table of such tensions is published in the fifth 
volume of the ' Manchester Memoirs.' 

Previously to stating the manner of determining the relation 
between the indications of an hygrometer and the state of 
aqueous vapour with respect to tension, it will be proper to 
notice the following circumstances : — When an hygrometer, 
like that of Saussure or De Luc [Htgbomstbb, r. C], is 
introduced in a close vessel, or in any part of space fully satu- 
rated with aqueous vaijour, it is observed that, whatever be 
the temperature, the index points to the same graduation ; 
from which it mav be inferred that equal quantities of vapour 
have been absorbed by the material (hair or whalebone) of 
which the instrument consists, notwithstanding the difference 
of temperature. In fact the vapour in the vessel, or space, is 
in such a state that the presence of a material having the least 
possible affinity for water is sufficient to produce a raecipita- 
tion of the latter : the hygroscopic material has an im&nity for 
water, and thus it absorbs that which is precipitated. But 
the quantity absorbed is so small as not to dimmish sensibly 
the elasticity of the vapour in the vessel ; and therefore the 
absorption continues to the full extent of the affinity of the 
material : the quantitjr thus absorbed is necessarily constant, 
unless the affinity undei^go some change by a change of tem- 
perature ; but experience proves that the affinity of the ma- 
terial is not sensibly altered by such change ¥rithin the Umita 
of the usual thermometric scale. 

When the weasel into which the hygrometer is introduced 
is not completely saturated with water, the quantity of water 
absoriied by the hygroscopc material is limited by the power 
of the latter to absorb the precipitated moisture : that power 
diminishes in proportion to the quantity received, so that tho 
affinity of the material for water ceases to act jrhen it is equi- 
valent to the pressure which the vapour can support without 
becoming liquia ; and the elongation of the hair or whalebone 
then ceases, or the index remains stationary on the scale. 

In order, then, to determine the law according to which tho 
affinitjr of the hygroscopic material for water diminishes as tho 
precipitated water ia absorbed by it, or, in other words, to 
nnd on the scale of the hygrometer a number of points corre- 
sponding to any given elasticities of the vapour, Ga^ Lussac 
put water into a vessel of glass ; and, having determined the 
elasticity of the vapour arising from it, he suspended from the 
upper part of the vessel a delicate hygrometer of the kind in- 
vented by Saussure. The vessel was then closely covered, so 
that there might be no communication between the vapour 
within and the external air ; when, after a short time, the 
index of the hygrometer became stationary at a certain point 
on the circumference of the graduated ring which serveci as a 
scale ; this point thus became an indication of the elasticity of 
the vapour. Experiments of the like kind being made with 
vapour of equal temperature, but ui different states of elas- 
ticity, between those which correspond to extreme dryness 
and complete saturation, there were obtained so many points 
on the sode of the instrument as indications of the elasticitiea 
of the vapour. 

From the results of these experiments M. Biot found, by 
interpolation, a table of the elasticities of vapour ^or every 
degree of Saussure's hygrometer, the temperature being 10* 
of the centigrade thermometer (60** Fahr.). He also formed 
a table showing the degrees of the hygrometer corresponding 
to every degree of elaradtw. The extremes of diyness and 
moisture on the scale, and also the corresponding extremes of 
elasticity, were indicated respectively by and 100 (Biot, 
Draitd de Physique, liv. i. ch. IS) ; but the elasticities or 
tensions would be more conveniently expressed in terms 'of the 
elasticity at the pomt of complete saturation, which is then 
reporesented by unity. 

The numbers in the table are formed from the observed 
tensions at a constant temperature equal to 50** (Fahr.) ; and 
it might be supposed, smce the index of the hygrometer 
stands constantly at 100"* when the material is acted on by 
vapour in the state of maximum tension whatever be the tem- 
perature, that the index should stand at one point on the scale 
when the tensions of the vapour have the same proportioo to 

H Y G 


H Y M 

Ihe nAximuin tcnrion at their respective tenpemtun^ : thu 
luppoaition is not quite correct ; bat it mMj be pnmmfA that, 
in ttdng Biot't Ubie for tempcratores differing fiviiA 50" 
(Fahr.), the error in the tensions will not be considerable. 

Gaj Lossac having proved that vapours, whether thoee of 
pure water or such as consist of dinerent kinds intermixed, 
while they retain their character of elasticity, sufler the same 
variations of volume by variations of pressure as are suffered 
oy permanently elastic fluids, determined, by subsequent ex- 
periments, the volumes of the vapour produced by a given 
weight of water at given temperatures and under pven atmos- 
pherical pressures; and thus, consequently, obtained the 
quantity of moisture in a given volume of vapour. The 
results of his experiments were reduced to a formula by Biot; 
and subsequently, with certain modifications, to one in English 
weights and measures by Dr. Andenon, the writer of the 
articie on Hygrometry m the * Edinburgh Encyclopeedia.' 
This formula is 

10953 B.F 
^^^ 447-4 +< ' 
in which G is, in gruns, the quantity of moisture in a cubic 
inch of vapour at the temperature represented by / (Fahren- 
heit's scale), F is the elastic force of the vapour at the same 
tcmpersture, and B is the height of the barometrical column 
in inches at the time of the experiment. It agrees neariy 
with that which was obtained by Dalton from experiments 
on the state of the thermometer at the dew-point [Htgbo- 
auTU, P. C], the height of the mercurial column in that 
result being 30 inches. From this formula, the temperature t 
being 50^ (Fahr.^ B = 30 inchcv, and F = 0*875 (from 
Dalton's table of the elastic force of vapour corresponding to 
that temperature and that density of the air), we have 
G = '002477, the grains of moisture in a cubic inch of the 

The value of G being thus found for any given states of the 
barooieter and thennometer ; the weight of moisture, in grains, 
in a cubic inch of air of the like density and temperature, and 
corresponding to anr observed degree of Saossure*s hygro- 
meter may oe obtained on multiplying that value by the 
number in Biot's table corresponding to the observed degree 
and dividing the product by 100 ; this division must be made 
because, in that table, 100 represents the elasticity of the 
vapour when in the state of complete saturation. 

The extreme points on the scale of an hygrometer acting 
bv the elongation of a material, like those of Sausmre and 
lie Luc, may be found in the following manner : the instru- 
ment is to be placed under a receiver in which is a certain 
quantity of dry caustic alkali ; when, aAer a time, the material 
will contract m length as much as its nature will permit ; the 
point on the scale at which the index stands is that of extreme 
dryness, and constitutes the aero point. The instrument may 
then be placed in water, or in a receiver filled with vapour 
completely aaturaled with mmsture, when the materiid will 
expand to the greatest extent possible: the place of the 
inoex b then to be considered as the point of extreme 
humidity, and is usually indicated by 100. 

Leatie's hyffroi*ieter consists of a glaas tube bent so as to 
form two equal branches pamllel to one another, and each 
lerminatinjg with a hollow ball in which is introduced suU 
phone acid, coloured. One of the balla is covered with 
cambric, which is kept constantly moist by water from a 
neiKhbouring veasel ; and the evaporation of the water, by 
cooling that ball, allows the ur in the other, by its superior 
elasticity, to depress the acid in the tube below and force it 
to rise in the other. The deme tX evaporation depends 
partly on the temnerature, and partly on the state of the 
surrounding atmosphere with respect to humidity ; and hence 
the depcessioa of the acid in the tube, being measured by a 
convenient scale, affinrds an indication of the relative dryness 
of the air. In order to determine the absolute Quantity of 
moisture in a given volume of the atmosphere by tne state of 
bis hygrometer, Leslie, having found from some experiments 
that the capacity of air for caloric was i of that of water, and 
havmg ascertained that the quantity of caloric necessaiy to 
convert a given volume of water into vapour was expressed by 
6000 degrees of his instnunent ; concluded that the 

quantity of caloric would raise an equal volume of air to a 
temperatore expressed by } X 6000, or 16,000 degrees of the 
instrument ; and consequently that, at the temperature of the 
wet ball, atasoapheric air contains a Quantity of moisture 
equal to ^Jv P^ of its weight for each degree ; the scale 
between the points of extreme dryness and extn^iT'e moisture 

being divided into one thousand parts. (Trrattte *(>q iW 
Relations of Air to lleat and Moisture.') 

From the fact that the elastic forces of pure vapour nvi << 
vapours mixed with atmospheric air are equal to one uiofi-* 
the expansion which air undergoes in conse q uence of Un-i 
saturat >d with moisture mav bo found. For if V re|irMf« t 
a given volume of dry air, V' the volume, wbea ssturj- : 
and B, in inches, the height of the barometrical cola- • 
then the elastic force of the air under the increased to' ..-. 

V B 

V is -^. Now F representing the elastic force of the n- 

pour in inches of mercury, which, for the given tenpmuft, 
may be found from Dalton*s table; the sum of the cW^ 

V b 

forces of the air and vapour will be expreased byF-f-^,. 

and this being made equal to B, the pressure of the ita •. 
phere, the value of V — V majr be found. Making V - i 
that value expresses the expansion in a fractional psrtcf ; ^ 
volume of Ary air. 

At any place on the surface of the earth, the metn tts- 
pcrature at which moisture begins to form in the atBKKt>^r > 
mzj be found from Dalton's Tbrmula £ «* ^^ M (F * F) t i 
which £ is the number of grains evaporated in oncici../. | 
from the surface of water in a cylindrical vessel 6 in(h<^ ui 
diameter and one inch deep, F is the elastic force of tap- I 
in the atmosphere at a given temperature, which ms^ U- ::• 
mean annual temperature at the place {W Fahr., iur (irra i 
Britain), and F' tne elastic force excrtoa at the tiiae thai 'u 
moisture begins to form : M is, in gruns, the evtpon.ti:«* 
force in an atmosphere supposed to be perfectly dry ; rj\ 
Dalton has given a table of such forces for dificrent teDpr%- 
tures, the atmosphere being at rest, in sentle, and in ▼]<>:•': 
motion. In the table, the temjierature being 212*, the h«- .: : 
of the barometrical column 30 inches, and the wind blow.:; 
moderately, the value of M is 1 54 ; axid substituting thii «i..' 
in the formula, we have F'-* F — | £. 

The mean annual evaporation in Great Britain is *COO(M>: 
inches or *01155 gruns per minute : this last number h'lr^ 
multiplied by the area of a circle 6 iuchea in diameter, {:>'•« 
0-3236 grains per minute (— E) from a vessel of tbsi lu;- 
nitude; hence F' — F- 00647. But, by Dallon*i U" 
the elastic force (F) of vapour at a temperature «s— 
to SO"* b expressed by 0*375, in inches of mercury; \.<wt 
F' — -3103 inches. Substituting in the above formula fur C 
this value of F' in place of F, and 30 inches for B, «e ^' 
•00205 for the number of grains of moisture in a cubic uk \i ^ 
air corresponding to the elasticihr F'. To thb number ri •. 
responds the temperature 44^ lo' ; which may be fouod = ; 
insjpcction in a table formed to contain the values of G f r 
different degrees of temperature. 

HYMEN^A (from Hymen, in reference to iu u a 
leaflets), a genus of plants belon^g to the natural orl*: 
Leguminosse. It has a calyx fiirniahcd with two bracu •' 
the base ; the tube turbinate, coriaceous ; the limb 4^ pa-^^"* 
deciduous, with 2 lobes sometimes united into one; 5; to- 
tals nearly equal, glandular ; 10 stamens distinct, hSiat^ >*> 
the middle; the style filiform; the legume woody, oU*'; 
man^-seeded, containing fecula ; the embryo straigbL 'i • < 
species are trees, with bifoliate leaves, and cofynbs of i^' 
or yellow flowers. 

H, CowbarU, Locnst-tree, or Gum-Antmo Tree, naiohU . : 
ovate leaflets, unequal-aided, and uneoual at the base, em: : .- 
in a lone point; with the legume oblong, comprencii, y.- 
lowish, shining. It is a fine lofty spreading tree, and cr «* 
in the tropical parts of America ana in Jamaica. Tbe $« 
are enveloped m a cellular mealy substance, which is su> 
like honey, and is eaten by the Indians with great su.. 
When fV«ih it is slighUy purgative, but by keeping »t I - 
this property. A decoction of this substance, when s))« < 
to ferment, forms an intoxicating drink resembling N^' 
From between the principal roots of this tree there ciu'l*-> - 
fine transparent rcsm, with a red or yellowish red colow. -* 
which is collected in large Inmps and sold under the nsinc v 
Chan Anime or Oum Anhm, This resin reaembles amtrr. ■ 
very hard, and sometimes contains leaves, insects, or <)»^" 
objects imbedded in it, which remain in a perfect stui* 'j 
preservation. It bums readily, emitting m very frannt sbh 1 
Dissolved in rectified spirits of wine it makes one en the fim< 
kinds of varnish. According to Lindley, this rcsn b ralln 
•/ofoAy, Jaichvy or Copalj and in Minas Geraes JafU* 
Cowbmii is the name of the tn^ in some parts of S^-.ti 
Amerca. In countries where this tree crows the n*jn ' 

H Y M 


H Y M 

gied sedieBiDy, and hts tJao been employed in that way in 
Europe. It acts as a stimulant when taken internally, and as 
n imtuit whn applied externally. In fumigation it has been 
employed far perms labouring under asthma and dyspnoea. 
I^amlvsd io spuits of wine or oil it is used as an embrocation 
in Theastinn. IntemaUy^ it has been recommended as a 
mMtnte ibr guaiacnm, in Tenereal disease and chronic rheu- 
matiaaL The inner bark, either in the form of tincture or 
decoctiooyis administered as a vermifuge. The cunulores 
btve a method of mixing it with sugar and rum, 90 as to make 
a rtrj agreeable emolson or syrup. The wild bees are fond 
of bmldmg their nests in the trunx of this tree. The timber 
of the old tiees isvCTy hard and tough, and is in great request 
for wheel work, particularly for cogs. The wood is so heavy 
thit a cubic foot is said to weigh a hundred pounds ; it takes 
t fine polish. 

Several other species of Hymenaa are described, but of 
these comparatively little is known. 
(DoQ, Uardemar^s IHetunuay; Lindley, Flora Medka.) 
HYMENOMTCETES, the first suborder of the Fungf , 
a natoral order of plants. [Fuitgi, P. CI Thev are cbi- 
lacteriaed br tiior reproductive organs, called the hymenium, 
being naked. This suborder is divided by Fries into four 
tribes (Tuaax, P.C.] ; by Berkeley into six tribes. Those of 
die latter are, PUeati, Clavati, Mitrati, Cupulati, Tremellini, 
and Sderotiacei. 
The tribe PUeati contain the following British 
J^anem^ in which the hymenium conrists 0I 
dialmg from a common centre, with shorter ones in the inter- 
stices, composed of a double dosely connected membrane, 
BMre or less disdnct from the pileus : the veil is various or ab- 
smt rAoAxicTO, P. C.^ 

OaAaniba baa the pileus fhnushed below with dichoto- 
BOOS, radiatingy brandied, subparallel folds, not separable 
froB the flesh, sometimes anastomosing or obsolete. 

MervSm faaa the hymenium veiny, or sinuoso-plicate ; the 
folds not distinct from the flesh of tne ptleus, forming unequal 
annilar or flexnons pores. [MBBirijrs, P. C.] 

SekizoakjfBmm has the gills radiating from the base, com- 
pmed of a folded membrane, which is ruptured along their 
(df^ ; the two portkms of the fold being revolute, bearing 
isn onlv on the cmter snrfiMX. 

Iknkdm has ^e hymenium composed of anastomosing 
gills, or flexooos elongated pores formed out of the corky 
■ihftance of the pileus. 

iW jF/ WMa has the hymenium concrete, with the substance 
of the pileus consisting of snbrotund pores with their simple 

Bokhu has die hymenium distinct finom the substance of 
the pileus, consisting of cylindrical separable tubes, with 
oUoDg sporidin. [Bolrvs, P. C] 

FAma haa the hymenium formed of a distinct substance 
but co ueiete with tiie fibres of the pileus ; the tubes at first 
vait-like, somewhat remote, closed, radiate-fimbriate, at length 
tpprozimated, elongated, open. 

Hfdnm haa the hymenium of the same substance as the 
puos, eompooed of free spine-like processes. 

Siiiatrema has the hymenium somewhat distinct from the 
micas, co mp use d of irrq^^ularty-disposed, curved, and gjTfme 
mseUate teeth. 

ffpcx has the hymenium concrete with the substance of 
die pileus, tsm into distinct spines, disposed in rows or in a 
nti<silBte manner, their bases connected together by lamellate, 
mnoBs, or porooa folds ; the asci riender, situated only on tiie 
^xtiitd proceaaes. 

Badakan haa the hymenium tuberculated ; tiie tubercles 
dttpelem, resembling papillc or rude somewhat angular 
n"Ms, more or less obtuse, distant, distinct or irregiuarly 
^scicriate, the inner substance homogeneous with the recep- 
tidc; die asci occupying indifferendy all parts of the 

Pkbbui has the hymemum homogeneous and concrete, 
«Tth die pileos smooth, venoso-ragose, wrinkles interrupted, 
dispowd nregukrly, stimght or flenioos, bearing asd all 

T^ekphora haa the h ym e nium homoeeneous and concrete 
v^ die pSeos, even or papillate, the whole surface bearing 

Of ihcse geaem Agatieos contains by fiur the greatest 
Baaber of species. On this account it has been found neces- 
ary to ciass the speeies under various subgenera. The fol- 
lov^ag table contatas the subgenera ef Fries arranged in eight 

P. C. S., No. 94. 


simple, unequal 
juiceless, per-, 
sistent, discrete 
from the pileus. 

I Limadum. 

, iTricholoma. 

Lamellae unchangeaUe ; jClitocybe. 
veil variable or none ; spoA Omphalia. 
ridia white. I Collybia. 

I Mycena. 
Hyporhodhu, rCHptopilus. 

r^amellag changeable in lEcdlia. 
hue ; veil none ; sporidia | Leptonia. 
Tose-coloured. vNolanea. 

Inocyhe, Imx^be. 

Lamelle changeable ; veil spnnging longi- 
tudinally from the innate fibres of the pileus ; 
sporidia tawny brown. 


Lamellae discoloured ; veil 
floccose ; sporidia subferru-^ 









Lamellae changeable, nebidous ; veil vari- 
is ; sporidia dark brown. 

Coprmarius. Coprinarios. 

Veil partial ; lamellse lax, nebulous ; spo- 
^ridia buck. 

Most of tfte species included under the seriea Leneo* 
aporos are eatable, and contain those species which are men* 
tioned as edible ui the article Aoabicus, P. C. It also con- 
tains the various species of Amanita, which are among the 
largest and most remarkable forms of the fbngi. A, cmtarea 
is remarkable for its beauty, but not so much so as for the 
traditional belief that it was in a dish of these mushrooms, 
which were regarded by the Romans m one of the greatest 
luxuries of the table, that Agripjnna administered poison to 
her hnsband Claudius Caesar, in order to hasten ner son's 
accession to the Imperial power. A. nnacana poaae a a os an 
intoxicating or narcotic property. It is used by the inhabitants 
of the nor£-eastem parts of Asia in the same manner as wine, 
brandy, arrack, spruce, ftc. are by other nations. One large 
or two small fungi is a common dose to produce a pleasing in- 
toxication for the whole of the day. 

Ui>wards of 700 species of the genus Agaricoa have been 
deacribed ; of these 338 are natives of the British Islands. 

Ei^ht apecies of the genus CaathareUua inhabit Great 
Britam. The C aurantiacut is said to be a poiaonous plant. 
It is common in fir-woods and pastures. It naa a beautiiul 
orange colour and a strong smell. C dbturuUf the eommoo 
Chanterelle, is 'common in woods in the summer and au- 
tumn. The pileus is of a pale yellow colour, and the whole 
plant has an wreeable smell like that of apricota. On 
the continent of Europe this fimgus is eaten, b«t is not oflen 
used in Great Britain. It is however dangeroua when eaten 
raw, and ahould dways be cooked. They form a delicious 
ingredient in rich gravies. 

One of the spedes of Mmdiut has been supposed to be 
die cavse of drjr-rot. [Ihnr.Ror, P. C. ;* MaRoiJws, P. C] 
Berkeley describes ^we speeies of this genus as natives of 
Great Britam. 

Of ScUzopi^^ium but one species lias been finind in Great 
Britain, the S, cauuaune. It is a veiy beautiful fungus, and 
has been found in almost every part of the wmdd. 

The genus Dmdalea has beeai so named from the remark- 
able siniiosities and aculptnre4ike pores of its hymenium. 
jD. ^siercrna is found commonly oai oak-trees or stamps and 
roota of that wood. It is an astringent and has been applied 
to wounds to arrest haemorThage. It is commonly called * the 
lungs of the oak,' and was fiinneriy on this account used as a 
remedy in phthisis. It is at the present day sold In Covent 
Garden market for that purpoae. There are several other 
species of this genua which are indigenous in Great Britain 

Vol. IL^K 

H Y M 




if a Bortbcm pluit It jiokk an agrwable 

UpwanU of forty t(irr]i*« of the gmut Pofyponu are fotmd 
in Grrftt Uritain, wkI many more Luropoan spcciet liare been 
dnrrihrtl. Many of tho f uccin are umhI in arU and modi- 
fine. P. igmiariuM has long lM>en famed as a ttyptic. Amadou, 
or G«nnan Under, b mide from thii plant bj separating the 
poront hymeninm from the lianier narta and steeping it in a 
solotioo of nitre aAcr it has been beaten into a soft sponsy 
state. Many other species of Polvfioros may be naed for the 
aame purpose. The Lapland<»re slvo use them for applying 
the actual ouitery in tho same way as the Japanese and 
Chinese use the moxa. When they suffer firom pain in the 
limtjs, ther {mil the fun^rus in jiieces and placing it on the 
skin, set fire to it and allow it to bum away till it blis- 
ten tho sliin, when it arts as a counter-irritant. P. (^JUci" 
maia la a cstliartic. P» mtattolaa has a pleasant smell. 
8ome of the species secrete acids, and boletic, liingtc, and 
oialic acids have been obtained from them. P. tqvamonu is 
one of the lar)rt*st of Hritish funfH, weitrhinf? sometimes as much 
as thirty pounds. P, tiesintetor is one of the funffi found on 
decs ring timber when it is attacked with what is called dry-rot 

5fany of the plants formerly included under the genus 
BoUtm$ arc now referred to PobmniM. Berkeley enumerates 
aiatren species of the genus Boletus as natives of Great 
Britain. [Bourrra, P. C.l 

Tho genus Hytbnam^ althoiiffh named after ^vo», the 
tnAe, includes a different seriei of planU. The hymeniuro 
b formed of spinous bodies whi<-h give to the species of thb 
genua a very formidable appeanmoe. Ilenee they are called 
In the country spine-stools, prick le-stools, &c. Several species 
are natives ol Great BriUin. Some are eaublc, but caution 
ahoolj be used in their selection. De CandoUe says that those 
which have a dark colour are dangerous. 

Th« genus FishUima has one rrprrsmtative in Great 
Britab, P, htpniica^ the pipe-stuol. It grows upon the trunks 
of old oaks and other tree*. It b eaten in France. When 
cat into it b beautifully marbled with red and whito streaks 
iwambUag a fine piece of beef. It b called in France FoU 
d$Bamf,ltm^9m<kBa^,GimdgChate,kc. Ithasanadd 
lasto, Imt b rather toufrh. It has been known aometimes to 
■dain the weight of thirty pounds. 

Tha genera Sitlotrema, Irpa, Eadmtmm^ and PhlMa are 
•man genera, and not used as food, or in any other way. 
TlMpiAorv b an extensive genus, and forty. two species are 
indigeootts in Great Britain. They are common on decaying 
branches of trees, &c., and exhibit a varietr of coloura. 

The tribe Gkmtfi, which are dbtinguisbed by a single or 
branched vertical receptacle, embrace the following Britbh 
generm i-^dawma, Caiocera, Gtoglo$mm, Spaihuiaria^ Mi* 
inrfa, TVpAstIa, and ISaiiUaria. These plants, in their 
branched and club-shaped forms, resemble tlie coraU, and 

rere actually plai^ by the older natural bts In the 
elaas. Some ol the spet^irs of the Clavaii are edible. All 
the Clavaria are ester mcd as food. C. mpota has an agree- 
able flavour tike that of the common mushroom. C Jiara 
and C. ffxidata are prixed on account of their taste. C. 
€viinM IS the species most commonly eaten on the Continent. 

The ifUraii have a bullato, fiieiform, margined receptacle. 
They •mfaraee five BrttUh genera: MarcMla, HeheUa^ 
Fsopa, Xaotfw, and ribn$sta, 

Tm fpnos MorchtOa yields the esculent fungus mord. 
rMoaSiv P. C.l Three siiecies are found In Great Britain. 
There are alao three Britifth species of Helvella as that genus 
b at preeeol defined. The species of llelvelU are edible. 
H, critp^ b eon«Kierod the best species for eating, but none 
of the species, forrtgn or Britiah, are poisonous. 

The tribe OgwrfnTt, which has a pateltiform margined re- 
reptacU with a superior hymenmm, contains the following 
British genera : ~ /'ento^ PoUOana^ A$to6ohu, Bulgana^ 
iMiwim^ Tymptuus, Cfmait<^wm, StictU, Crypiam^fceg, Cy. 
Mrfi'a. Cn the«e Pesita b the most extensive genus, contain- 
ing upwanU of 900 species, of which 106 are natives of (treat 
Bntam. S>me of tnrte pUnts are very rrmarliable from 
the regular cup- hie forai and the dnep ctUours they pre- 
sent. P, cocctntn b fierhspi the mo«t rlctrant plant bi'lonir- 
lac lo the natural onlrr of Funiri. The uutrr surface of the 
<wp which it UiTW* ts white and d<i«ny, whilst tlie in«i4le b 
of the ricbett iwmiine. It ffiNjumily gravis on Mi«k« co- 
vered with i»(MS« the irrr«*n n»l(Hir nf «1ih h form* a (tcautiful 
eontra*t «tth tKc nh'te a/id mmwni nl the iV/irJi. P, arm* 
§mtmm a iU<y j.-*ren rtAtmr, and j*-m*m»» titr pni)M*ny ui 
atamuftg woul u<i «liM.h it gruvs of the same fv»l«jur m ilU'lf, 

The Peiiae are not gencnlly eaten, bd aoat of thm aa 

The fifth and sixth tribes of the Hymcnomycetts wr *k. 
TremeUini and Sdenliacei. The TrDrocllini embnteo Z 
Britbh genera. [Taniaujiri, P. C] The Brituh pt^ 
included under Sclerotiacei are P|r^<"mm, Acnmirrmm, 
Sderoiima^ Perioia and Spermoedia, These are aoKib^*! lu 
lowest forms of the Ilymeoomyretous fungi, sad \u .« 
species which are found attacking the various i^rrr^^ 
pirodudng the disease called enrot. [Enoor, P. C. , Sria* 
MOKDIA, P. C] An account of the reoiaining fonai* ot l» 
Funjri b given under (vASTsaoMTcmcs, P. C. S. 

(Bumeit, OtUiines of Boiamy; Berkeley, .£j^U FLta, 
vol. V. ; Fries, Sustema Mycoiogimm.) 

OF, a Scottish nobleman of some diplomatic celebritj a tai 
reign of George II., was bom in 1701, and succeeded t» tb 
family honours in 1737. Ue represented, m one of thr >tx. 
teen rcers, tho Scottbh nobility in several paHiaacati, vtv^ 
for two successive years (1739, 1740) as royal Coofluu^ttpr 
to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and icU 
the dignity of lord lieutenant of the county of Lanark, n ttc 
upper district of which the family estates were ntesttd. lis 
diplomatic life began upon the occasion of the seinre of iw!<ia 
by Frederick the Great in 1741 , when hb lordship was drpatel 
envoj|r extraordinary and plenipotentiary to the Prussiaa txict 
In thb mission he socceeJed in efiectinff an aocoonodsUD b^ 
twcen that unscrupulous prince and the £mpmi-U««i 
Maria Theresa, by a treaty concluded the foUoaini; jrara 
Breslau. So sensible were the contracting parties of thr tj^t 
of his lordship's medbtion and services, that bv a gisct *>a 
the King of Prussia, ratified subsequently at Vienna (>t *Jtf 
Empress-Qneen, he was permitted to assume, m ativi.uc b 
the family armorial bearings, the Silesian eagle, aith the tuf\» 
* ex bene merito,* and was moreover honoured bv his u«a i£< 
with the national decoration of the order of the ThjiUr 
At Berlin he became acouainted, through the intrvdsitaa 
of Frederick, with the iamoua Baron Trcn<k, iibor«>- 
fully acknowledgca in hb Merooira, the ' parental tn»V 
which hb lordship took in counselling him and nroowciac ka 
interests when they met aome years after at Mosrov. b 
1744 Lord Uyndford waa sent ambassador to Rosiia. «b'*v 
he became a great favourite of the Empreas EUsaUt!!. m*/) 
took an active part In behalf of Maria Theresa; ami wc «m 
highly instrumental in bringing about, in 174^, the pr*i <*( 
Aix-m-Chapelle, which terminated what b known b Utur; 
as the war of the Austrian Succession. In thb 

lordship continued till the end of 1749. and on hb rrtan vw 
oonsti toted a privy councillor and lord of the brd-cbsa^. 
In 1752 he was sent to the Court of Vienna on hb thud rw- 
basBj, with which, after a few months, hb career as a di,^ 
matist terminated* though he did not altogether aitkins 
from political life. In 1764 he received a further aari < ^ '.'^ 
king's esteem in the appointment of lord vicc^adaun. d 
Scotland. After hb return from Vienna, hb um «« 
divided between London and the family seat at CanDuL*', 
in the vicinity of which the memory of the * Ambaimi:'' ■ 
still cherished with almost filial refjard by the dnrm-Uaa d 
those who benefited by the munificence and puUtc r^tri 
which he never ceased to manifest In promoting the mtrma 
of hb county. During hb whole lifetime, ai^ paroruur t 
hb latter years, hb attention was unremittingly drvocrd is 
hb estates, which he enhanced in value by extensive isfrwf* 
ments, and enlarged hj Judicious purchases and advsptsfsi"* 
exchangee. He died m 17fi7, leaving no issue. Ilbo^nsl 
correspondence, exiendinff to twenty*three volumes b wsas- 
icript, b now depoaitod m the British Mneeoah to akat 4 
was secured by purcltase in 1833. 

UYPANTUO'CIUNUS, a gcnna of fosaU CtwuM. 
ttook the Silurian strata. 

UYPERBOLOID. The conditiona mder mb<h tb^ 
equation of the second degree belonct to an hTperbi>«>»«i tf« 
given in ScmrACis or tub Sbcosi> Uxcba K C. <^ **^ 
two kinds of hyperbuloids there mentioned, one, the ^"^ 
hyperboloid, has the remarkable property that stnur^** i-"* 
can be drawn upon it. llirough every point of thr «^*'i«-v 
two straight lines can be drawn, which are entinU upw 
the surface, and which are also in its tangent pbae. Vi\^^ 
the surface is one of revolution, that ia, when U b X^mt*'^ ty 
the revolution c»f an hyifcrbula about Ita minor as i«. *^'* '*' 
fttraiirht linct are all divid«<d into two seta, each set cit.t *^ • i 
of lines symmetrirally dM|iu«ed with reapart to thr aA.*. ' -^ 
never mectu.g it . so that if one of either set acre w ^ •-•• 







"■ fr 





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^^^^^^^^^^IQ91^Hbv»>^ ^ ' t 







pmwrty io tlw creditor*! ImmIs. ThoM 
n b«9 which givtthe 

ia the adte Itvt which giv* tiie revcmt a pre* 
, tad the iMlnaMDts Med 
la their iMmufcctiiie, era itrictljr the creetioB of tadt hjpo. 
the«s. The protitieQS in the benluiipt acta for pajring oer- 
fwta* wages and other dchta out of the reediest tads of the 
hnkmpt arete eatabliahnMat of a general h/pothec over the 

In Soothnd the hndlord'a prinlcse to lebe the tenant't 
goodi lor arrotfi of tent ia caUed a b/pothee while it ie an- 
eiercked— 4hel k Io lajr, before execution agaimt then ia 
en—wnwd the laodlord ii Mid to hate a hypothec over the 
goods. On an affricnltoni htm the crop tdnds hypothecated 
lor the rent of &e jeer of which it ia the produce. The 
laadloid'e right exitii to h»g m the crop b on the fann, and 
It extnda to the rerfaidicatMMi of it eren from a boni fide 
* within thrM Months after the rent hM bilcn due, 
he have been aperchissr by built in open aaaricet. The 
hypotlMe for other e ft ct s Mthe cattle on aiana, the tenant's 
isi niUu e n a house — subsists over the whole for each term's 
lenty and gives a preference for three months after the rent b 
dne. The bttUord^s hypothec b not affected by the bank- 
nnit statates. Another ri^bt of a different description b 
called a bype|thec in Scotland—via. the right of a law agent 
Io tike hb client's decree for expenses, or judgment for costs, 
In hb own nsme, in order that he SMy recover parmeot of 
hb aoeonnt M taxed by the auditor of court. Thb nfrfat csnnot 
be defeated I7 a ooUuBvesettlcMeat Ih Sootlmd a law agent, 

whether em|iloyed to oondnct a lihpation or m odMr b» 

lal businMs, such M conveyancing, b entitbd tomi., 
hb emplojrer*s title-deeds and papers until hb imt ufmu » 
paid. Thb right hM alao bean cdUed a l^ypoihae, but u . 
clearly a lien. 

In Fmoe there b a diatanotion between privil4«f« ^ 
hrpothdqoes. All tacit hypothecs, armrding to the dnM« 
above kept m view, are inclnded under the farmer, vbc^ «« 
mbdivided Into a general p re fei e n ce over all the mofmhUt m 
personal property hk the debtor's possession, and laminl p*. 
terenoM over particnlar articles of property for psrtiGiiar ui-i*. 
gations. This last named, in so for m it aaeots bioic»« 
property, b the clam of ri^ts which hM been spaksaersb .« 
M tacit hypothec, and it indudes the bndlerd't mvnu kr 
hb rent There b also a daasification of privil^ tu in 
immeubba, consisting of todt preferencH over vkt a u 
England called real property, and of privileges wUdi o^n; 
to both aaoveable ana imaM>veable proper^. The I 
th^ue b applied to conventional securitiM over u 
or landed property, and b the object of much asefal kfyiuu, 
such secuntics being, from the c€brts to aive vvImI cdcct u 
the law for partition of auceessiona, witoout ledocnf bm 
below the proper extent for agricultorsl opentfioas, am 
common in Fmnce than perhapa in any othar psit ti m 
world. See on the matter of the Imamoiately ] 
marks, Code Chnl. lib. iii. tit. 18. 


I bT|VW 

Habeniria^ page I 
Uabingloa, WUlbm, I 
Hateefia, I 
Harkert Pkmpp, 1 
Ilsckary-Cuoeh. t 
Hadrmssaut f Arsbb. P. C and 
P. a 8.1 

HMMSoeooena, a 

Uwietieo ComburvnlQ» Writ de 

[Uars^. P. a &1 
Hagn^ AUianee of the. 4 
Raiasmaaa, Samuel, 4 
HaU [Snow, P.t\ a tC6, eoL S] 
RahMsRiwr. a 
Hal rtlalW, P. C 8] 

Halfofd. Sir Henry, a 
Baltlhs, Bari o^ 6 
UalU Btfv. Hobmt, $ 
Hall. Basil Cbpmia, R.N., • 


HamtHan, David, II [bry. 11 
BamMon Court PIrture Oal- 
Haadwritiag. ProoT of [Bvi. 

dMse. P. C] 
HaivMl jCsMsu^P. C 8.] 
Hafftow, Oeofgi Henry* ia 



llarriian, WUUam llrary, 13 
liandM. flpiril of [Ammonb, 

HarmD^. Nloolas. 13 
Hans [Ofrmaay. P. C, ^ IW] 

. WQHm, 14 

J. Jean da. 14 

Hawhsr IPadbr. P. CI 

HaadkawMh [CiaamlkP.C; 
UMlih. P2hc [Publie UMhh. 

P. C 1.1 
Haasiv JWaaae ^ P. CI 
naal |Aluttacttan an4 Ausiv^ 

«sner Uani,P.Ca;CbB. 

Heat. Animal, 14 

Hebcr, Reginald, IS 

Hector, 17 

Hcdjaa TAnbia. P. C and 

P. c ij 

Hedy'mram, 17 
Hcess, Jan DavHas de» 17 
HwmsHrk. Marten, 17 
Ueersn, Arnold UcTMn Lud- 


Herorich, Cari PHedrid^ 19 
ilrliiatbcmum, 19 
HelioCrOpium, fO 
Hell, Maximilian, 90 
Helm Winds [Wfaid, P. C] 
Helmtathoeofmn [Sea-weeds, 

P. C] 
H^lodtti rrishes,PosBU,P.C8.3 
Hekiaciadtom, 9U 
HrUtoo, SI 
UelvelU [Hymenomyoctas, 

P.CSJ ^^ 

Hemans, Felicia Dorothea, 91 
llcmen^ius, 19 
Hemtcidaris, 99 
Hcmipnewiss, 99 
UemUnfc Ua»[Mairibg, Hm, 

Hcndemon, Thomsa, 99 
Hevioo OslsrtiBO Divila, 93 
Henryson, Robert, 93 
Umtitis [Liver, Oisemm of, 

Hrrscleim, 94 
Her»clios» 94 

Herbert, Jobann Priedrich. 96 
HerMlimmcnt rCkatlels, P. C ; 
OmeentpP.Cs Esmie^P.C] 
HeruMS, Georg. 99 
Hermit, 99 
Hevmugraa^ 93 


llevptris, 99 
llrirrucrrus, 99 
HetrriAiera, 99 
Heyvwd, John, 99 

Hicftjehloe, 90 

High Connidsdon Court, 90 

High CoDstable [Conatahic, 

P. CO J' 

High Steward fSteward, Lord 

High, P. CI 
High Trmaon [Trsaaon, P. C] 
Highmore, Joseph, 30 
Ilightea, 30 
Hilliard, Nicholas. 30 
Hilton, WiUiam, 3| 
IliDcmar, 31 
Hindoo Arehiteetnre [Hindus 

tan, P. C, p. 935] 
Hinge, 39 
Hippo, 33 
Hippobrdma, 99 
Hippocr^pM, 33 
Hireie Acid, 34 
Uiriag of Servants [Servant, 


Hilt, AUnrriM, 34 

Hoadler, Benjaaiin, M.D^ 34 

HoaDg-IImi, 34 

Hoang-Ho [TeUow River, P.C] 

Hoare, William, 35 

Hoars* Prince, 35 

Hoare, Sir Richard Colt, 33 

Hodgm, WtUiaas, 35 

Uoiine, 35 

Hoerberg; Pehr, 35 


HolcQs. 36 

Hall, Eliai, 36 

llolUod, Sir Nathaniel, 36 

Holland, Henry, 36 

Holland, Lord, 37 

HoIjUibhi, 38 

Holy Orders [Ordtantlsn, 

RC] ^ 

Hetaer, Joham^ 99 
Uommoeaihy, 99 
Hemieide [Murder, P.C] 
Hone, WUliMB, 39 
Hong-Kong. 40 
HouUunt, or Hmidlhofat, Get^ 

hard, 41 * 
Hood, Thomso, 49 
Hook, Theodoie Edward, 49 
Hoole rTaa», P. C] 
Hepe, Thomas^ 44 

H opp ner , JofaB, 45 
Horn, 46 

Homer, Pmnci^ 47 
HoroMgy, 46 

Hona-ffudiih fCbth l mrn i^ 
P.C a] 

Horseshoe [llorm,P.C 
Hosiery [Weariag, Pi ! 
Houpimlleia [Tcmpbi^ W i* ] 
Hoase-BrmUng [Lav, Ctm 

nal, P. C Sj 
Hofme-Leck [S 

Howell. JamsB, 56 

Hughes, John, 55 
Uumboldc. Kari W 

fiaiun von, 54 
Hume. Jamea Denean. 57 
Humidity. 56 
Humiriacce^ 99 
Hendry. 59 
Huntington, ! 
Hnrrsr, 60 


William, tt 



Hyd4tiea, 69 
Hyde, Sir Nicfaslsa. f S 
Hydrastis rWamefu, P. C] 
Hydrocutylc. 69 
Hydroeywiie Arid (Prwc 

A od, P. c _a] ^^ 
Hydroemaie Bed (Re4ms4i 


H y i i u sn sU j , 69 

HymcMmyerfisik 45 
Hyndlbcd. Enri ot a 
llypasthucriaus, 47 
Hyperbohiid. 67 
Hypericum. 67 
Hypi«*fattria. 67 
H^podim [ ^ 
Hyponiirw AcAd, 4? 
ITjlilhiiiilw miHij Pil 

ICE-HOUSB, a building oonstmcted for the purpoM of 
Btepfa^ loe through the summer, I17 excluding, at per- 
fecUyn possble, Uie influence of changes in the tempera- 
ture w humiditj of the external atmosphere. Such structures 
tie not Qoljr useful for preserving ice which is to be applied 
to the cooling of liquors, or to the preparation of articles ik eon- 
fectMDsrr, but also as aflbrding the most eflectual means known 
for keepmg meat, fish, game, vegetables, and fruit sweet and 
fresh in hot weather. In London's * Encydopeedia of Cottage, 
FtriD, snd Villa Architecture,' where (sec. 736-738) a detailed 
Mxoant is given ot various modes of eonstructing ice-houses, it 
is observed tiiat although these important conveniences are 
rveljr to be found aoxmg the building of an English farm, they 
are freouent in those of North America, and might be advan- 
t^^eottuj introduced in this country, especially upon such fanns 
89 are oonnerted with inns. To a gentleman's country residence 
m toe-hoose ia always an important, and, in some cases, almost 
ID indispensable appendage. 

Oae of the rimpiest modes of preserving ice, alluded to in 
ths work above mentioned, consists in enveloping the ice in a 
great <pantity of straw, above &e surface of the gpround, in such 
a posiuon «t moisture, which is even more injurious than 
hHtj may drain off ireely . For this purpose the ground should 
be laised in the fcmn of a flattened cone, upon which should be 
Ud astratnm of ftggoCs. Straw is laid upon the faggots to the 
thickoess of a ibot or more, and the ice is piled upon it in a 
conpact eomcai mass, the larger the better. Over the ioe b 
laid firrt about a foot thickness of straw, then fiiggotpwood to a 
fiirtfaer thickneaa of two feet, the interstices of which have the 
effect of keeping a stratum of confined air round about the pile 
ofiee; and finally two or three feet of straw arranged as a 
Jiatrfa. The best ntuation for audi an ice-stack or mound is 
stated by Loudon to be under the shade of trees, or, where 
such mAter cannot be obtained, under a kind of shed roof, 
widi an opening to the nortii only. Some writers, faowevo*, 
among whom mny be mentioned Cobbett, who notices the sub- 
ject in his ^ Cottage Economy,' considers that, in consequence 
of their tendency to increase the humidity of the air, the 
vidnity of trees is olijectionable. On toe same principle 
MDe reeonmeMl an eastern or soutiti-eestem, in [H'eferettce to 
a oorthem aspect, for the entrance to an ice-house, in order 
that Ihe moram^ sun may dissipate the damp air from it. 

An ondergroond iee-house may, according to Loudon, be 
nnply a ki^ cellar, with hollow or double walls, floor, roof, 
and doors, imd fumjriied with a tnmped dnun to allow the 
escape of such water as may be proauced by a partial thaw, 
vitbout admitting any mr. Such Ice-houses are usually farmed 
in the shape oran inverted cone, which is eonndered tiie 
DXBt adnmtageoua because it keeps the iee more compactJy 
together than any other form, and becaase, in case of any 
t!aw taking place, the renuDiun|^ ice will naturally slip down, 
w IS to keep the mass solid. This advantage, however, jLoudon 
does not eonoetve sufficient to compensate for the greatly ia- 
maaed cnenae of ooostniction involved in the adoption of 
tbe conical form. ' A |dain sipiare room,' he observes, * with 
doable side walk, say a foot apart, a double arch over, and a 
doable floor mider, which can be built with the saaae ease as 
nj common orilar, wiU, all other circumstances being alike 
&v«Biable, keep Um ioe as long as any conical form whiUever.' 
In all cases it is wdl to interiwse a layer of straw, reeds, or 
chaf, which ia unfened to straw in Italy, where it is used 
for packing iee ror travelliog, between the walls and the ice ; 
nd by the use of fiiggots as w^ as straw any perfectly dry 
<«liir ia a suitable ntuatton amy be used as an ice-house. In 
•ane sitnalxms a sufficient dMfue of hollowneas in the walls 
■>7 be prodsMsd by tbe am^ption of tiie plan of bmlding 
with bricks an edfpe (nAtioed trader BunAnro, P. C. S., p. 
1M), or by Bome suiOar eontrtvanoe. One modeof buikttng 
hallow wafia wfaicfa may be thus applied, conrists in the nse 
«f balT-bricka, divided longitudhnlly, as stretchers, leafving a 
space equal to the full width of a briek between them. Such 
ulf-bridu are ^ttkU produced byneariy catting the brick in 
Uf with a wire bmre burning, when, after pyiog ^^ only 
n a angle brick, it mtff when burnt, be easily oroken in two. 
HoQow floon for ioe-hoases aaav be constnicted in various 
««|« widi bricks on edge and tiles or flags. Whatever be 
^ constnKtion of the ice-house ilaelf, there should be no 

opening by which it can communicate widi the external air 
ezceptmg through the entrance passage, which is usually at 
least two or three yards lon^, and foxnished with two, three, 
four, or more doors, of which not more than one must be 
opened at a time. Where a portion of the passage is fitted 
up with shelves to serve as a pantry, fow doors are necessary, 
and the sj^ace between the first or outer and the second doors, 
and also, if nosrible, that between the second and third doors, 
should be nlled up with straw, which, for convenience of 
removal, may be made up into great begs or cushions, and 
suspended from the ceiling. For this purpose barley-straw 
is, owing to its softer nature, preferable to that of wheat, ire, 
or oats. The space between the third and fourth doors then 
constatutes the pantry, the tempemture of which may be 
reduced by occasionally opening tne fourth or innermost door 
for a time. Sometimes mntry-shelves are placed in the body 
of the ice-house itself. Where the difficulty of excluding ex- 
ternal temperature is very great, treble walls, roofs, and floors 
may be used, and the entrance-passage may be made crooked, 
wim a door at every turn. 

Loudon gives a ground-plan and section of a complete Ice- 
house of apnroved construction, of the inverted conical aliape, 
with an arcned roof, which it is proposed to cover vrith two 
or three feet of earth, or more in not climates, over whidi he 
suggests the proprie^ of training ivy, for the sake of exclud- 
ing adar heat. In this design a small pump is shown com- 
municating with a well in the drain of the ice-liouse, for the 
purpose of raising the thaw-water for drinking or other use. 
Dr. Ure, in his ' Dictionary of Arts,' &e., art. ' Ice4iouse/ 
gives a section of a similar structure, but vrith solid walls and 
a conical roof of timber, which may be simply thatched, or 
covered with brickwork and thatched, and woich should have 
a gutter round it to collect and conduct to a distance all rain 
that fidls upon it, that the drcomiaoent eround may be kept 
dry ; and m Hebert's ' Enaineers and Mechanic's Encydo- 
podia,' under the same head, is an account of a plan proposed 
by Mr. David G<ndon, for constructing an ice-house of similar 
form, principally of timber. In this plan tiie excavation is 
made consioerably krger than tiie ioe-house, whidi eonsisCs 
of a framework of strong timbers, rouehly boarded outside, 
and lined with straw set on end and connned by laths nailed 
to the timb^v. The conical roof is thatched with straw or 
heiUh, and the space between the outer boardinr and the sur- 
fiuse of the excavation is filled with heath, brushwood, or fir- 
tops, and neatiytiuUehed or turfed over. In some ntuations 
dmple excavations in calcareous soils, with a long cireintous 
passage by way of aj^iroacb, are used instead of more regular 

In filling an ice-house, the ice should be broken with Bsal- 
lets to a coarse powder, wliidi, according to Loudon, should 
be ' eomposed of particles not larger than tiiose of sand or 
Bidt,' and well rammed down as it is thrown into the ice-well, 
its upper surface being kept of a concave shape, and a little 
water being occarionall^ added to fill up all interstices, and 
to focilitate the congelation of the whole into a solid mass. A 
better method, acoordmg to the same authority, is to sprinkle 
the ice with vrater satumted with salt, by dissf^vinj^ it at tiie 
rate of a pound of salt to a gallon of water. This salt and 
water may be applied by a common vratering-pot upon the 
surface of the iee at intervals of two feet fitmi bottom to top of 
the mass, an extra quantity being poured on when the filling 
ia completed. By this means the ice becomes so firmly com- 
pacted as to need the force of a pickaxe to hntk H up, in the 
neat of summer. ' Thus prepared,' observes Loudon, quoting 
hmn the * Gardener's Magasme,' ' it vrill be found to keep 
three times as long as by the common metiiod in the house, 
and it will also keep three times as long when exposed to the 
mr, from salt wator, and consequentiy salted ice, having a less 
capacity for heat then fresh water or fresh ioe.' Snow is 
occasionally preserved in a similar manner to iee, it being 
carefully compessed into a solid mass. Some curious parti- 
cidars respeetwg the use of ice and snow for refrigerating 
liquids, in antient as well as modem times, are given in a long 
paper in the third volume of Beckmann's * History of Inven- 
tions ' (Ei^lish edition of 1814, pp. 322-356), in which 
reference is made to antient writers who allude to the pre- 
servation of snow in pits or trenches; and it is stated that a 

I C H 


I C H 

BmUar metliod it panned in PoHim], where, when the now 
hue been collected in a deep gulf; eome fpnm or green todf, 
covered with dimg firom the sheep-pens, is thrown over it ; 
md under this covering the snow is so well preserved that it 
ougr be taken up and tzansported to a considerable distance 
throoghottt the sununer. 

In connection with the subject of this article, Loudon de- 
Bcribes a kind of pantrr intended to serve some of the pur- 
poses of an ice-house, m which the evaporation of water, 
oonstantly trickling down the outside of a close conical cham- 
ber elevated above the ground, is employed as a means of 
refrifferation ; and also, in section 2536 of his < Fint Addi- 
lionu Supplement,* an ice-boa which mieht almost be 
termed a portable ice-house. It consists of an inner end 
outer casing, six inches apart, the interval between which is 
filled with oumt cork reduced to powder, this being found to 
possess hiffher non-conducting properties than the cnarcoal of 
wood. Tne lid is double, ana is filled with the same sub- 
stance ; and it is made perfectly air-tight by means of project- 
ing ledges, which, when shut, dip into a gutter filled with 
water. Ice mav be preserved for several weeks in such a 
V>x, in which also bottles, dishes, &c. may be placed. Simi- 
lar to this contrivance is the American ice-safe lately intro- 
duced into this country. 


ICHNEUMON, a genus of insects belonging to the order 
ffymenopteraf section TerebnaUia, and family Pupivora, 
in the arrangement of Latreille. The genus, as defined by 
LinnsBus, included such pupivorous hymenoptera as are fur- 
nished with veined wings (the anterior pair presenting in 
their disk several complete or closed cells), filiform or setace- 
lus vibratile antennas composed of a great number of articula- 
tions, and an ovipositor of various length and complicated 
structure. The Lmniean genus now constitutes a group in- 
cluding a great many well marked genera and an immense 
asserobltfe of spedes. All these are remarkable for the 
liabits of their larvse, which are parasitic in the bodies of 
other insects. These bodies the perfect ichneumons perforate 
by means of their ovipositors, and there lay their eggs. This 
destructive habit ^ve rise to the name by which they are 
known; a comparison being drawn between them and the 
Effyptian ichneumon ( Viverra Ichneumon), the quadruped 
ocuebrated as the destro3rer of serpents and crocodiles. 

The history of these insects has attracted much attention 
among naturalists, and many elaborate memoirs have been 
written upon them. The purpose they serve in the economy 
of nature luu been well described b^ Kirby and S pence : 
* The great body of the ichneumon tribe is principally em- 
ployed in keeping within their proper limits tne innnite host 
of lepidopterous hnrge, destroying, bowever, many insects of 
other orden. Such is the activity and address of the Ichnok- 
momdta that scarcely any concealment, except perhaps the 
waters, can secure their prey from them ; and neither bulk, 
courage, nor ferocity avul to terrify them from effecting their 
purpose. They attack the ruthless spider in his toils ; they 
discover the retreat of the little bee, that for safety bores into 
timber, and, though its enemy ichneumon cannot enter its 
cell, by means of ber long ovipositor she reaches the helpless 
grub, which its parent vainly thought secured from every foe, 
and deposits in it an egg which produces a larva that de- 
stroys It In vain does the destructive Cecidomya of the 
wheat conceal its larvae within the glumes that so closely cover 
the gnun ; three species of these minute benefactors of our 
race, sent in mercy by Heaven, know how to introduce their 
eggs into them, thus preventing the mischief they would 
otherwise occasion, and saving mankind from the horrors of 
famine. In vain also the Cymps, by its magic touch, pro- 
duces the curious excrescences on various trees and planti, 
called galls, for the nutriment and defence of its progeny ; 
the parasite spedes attached to it discovers its secret chimiber, 
pierces iti wall, however thick, and commits the destroying 
egg to its oflspnitf . Even the dover weevil is not safe within 
the leguinen of that plant ; nor the wireworm in the earth 
from their ichneumonidian foes.' (Introduction to Entomo- 
lomft vol. i. p. 267.) In the third volume of the Transactions 
of the fiinnaaan Society, in a Memoir by Mr. Marsham, may 
Im found a full account of the operations of one of these 
insects, the PimpUi numjfe$tator, observed by him in Ken- 
sington Gardens. The details of its proceedings there given 
are exceedingly interesting, and present a remarkable picture 
of insect instinct The larvaB of ichneumons are in some 
caaes aolitaiy, in others gregarious. Those of some species 
quit tlie bodiea of their victims and spin a cocoon of silk 

before bein^ transformed into the chrysalis stale. Zhtm of 
others, remam and use the skin of the oaterpilhiras a eomuf 
By a wonderful instinct, when the grab leaves the cgf . -;. 
stead of attacking the vital organs of the cstsrpillsr, wrL^ 
whose body it has been hatdied, and therebv ocstroya^* • 
food, it confines itself to the latty parta untu it bu D('l„ 
attained its full nxe. 

ICHNOCARPUS (from Sx««'i « ' footstep,' vestige, i^. 
capvof , a ' fruit,' in reference to the slender foliidet), i ^nm 
of plants belonging to the natural order Apocynaccs. h ba 
a salver-shaped corolla, 5-deft calyx, and indoied siifflrr« 
sa^ttate anthers free from the stigma. The spocift ir» 
dimbing shrubs with opposite leaves ; the flowers in bniaih^ 
terminal panides, white, and inodorous. 

/. ^ruieacent has a turning stem, oblong lanceolate \n.f^ 
tapenng to both ends, axillary pedundes very long and ntv. 
mose. It is a native of Ceylon and Nepaul. The flovm tf- 
small and purple ; the leaves deep green above and pile be- 
neath. Accoitling to Profeaaor iloyle, it ia aomctiiDa tt^ 
in India as a substitute for sarsaparilla, and it ii slio tmu- 
tioned by Afzelius in his Remeoia Guinenna ss a laedkiiii: 

/. Jraarans has oblong lanceolate leaves tapering to ^ n 
ends, and axillary trichotomous spreading nedundei. U .> ^ 
native of Nepaul, and has large handsome flowen. 

/. Afzdii is a glabrous shrub with turning stcmi, ot^ 
acute leaves at the base, oblong or lanceolate as tbeyspprvfrj 
the top. The corollas are white and sweet-scented. It u i 
native of Sierra Leone, and about the river Baacbs, m «o»j 
and among bushes. 

/. Loureirii has a fratescent stem, ovate oblong Ictrn. 
lateral 3-flowered peduncles. It is a native of Zanzibar. A.. 
the spedes of Ichnocarpus grow well in a mixture of W 
peat, and sand, and cuttings strike readily in nnd under & 

(Don, Chrdenei't Diet. ; Lindley, Flora Medical 

researches of naturalists in all parts of the worid have of U- 
veara greatly added to our knowledge of fiahea, and revircd U*- 
mtereat attached to thia important branch of vertebrate Zoolofr. 
The connection which the gemua and laboun of Agauiz b" 
established between Ichthyology and Geology has not • Ii(t 
tended to promote research in this direction, and the rr^u.'* 
are beginning to hold no unimportant place in natoitl-hiM"'; 
publications. Moreover, now tiiat philosophk Zoolog}' ii f- : 
gaining ground, and mastering the spedes-making and m ' 
collectmg, which had so long taken the name snd iisur,- 
the place of the acience, the atudy of a dasa of animal^ :. 
eluding the links between the vertebrata and invcrtebrau 
assuming a degree of importance to which it formcrlr o ..: 
lay no dum. On the much-neglected subject of the cU«v- 
fication and the distribuUon of fishes, some important mrm. "^ 
have been recently made known, of which, aa they will \^-- 
bablv materially affisct the future progreas of Ichtbydogr, «t 
ahall here give a brief aumnuunr. 

Classification of Fiskes.^The natural arrangement of fio<< 
has recently engaged the attention of two of the most emi&'! ■ 
and philosophioil naturalists of our time, W. S. Maelcav >- . 
J. Midler. Mr. Madeay's views on this subject sre nu - 
Imown in a letter to an eminent Indian naturalist, Mr. M'l ^ 
land, and were published in the Calcutta Journsl of Naniii 
History for July, 1841. Throughout they are influenced Im 
the quinarian hypothesis, of which he is the distingu *ht«i 
author. He bases his clasrification on three gcnerAllr s*^- 
mitted facts, which he holds to be incontestable. The &nt n 
the near approach of fishes to Batrachian Amphibia, wLbli. 
with Swainson, he conriders to be made by means of Z^^-^uj 
and Malthe. 2nd. The near approach of fishes to tLe I < u* 
ceous Mammalia, the viviparous sharics constituting the i;r- 
necting link. 3rd. * As the grand character of fishes as a ( -■ 
is their bdng the most imperfe^ of vertebrata, the most t; ^t*^ 
of fishes oueht therefore to be the most imperfect of tb' : 
t. e. the furuest removed from the tjrpe of vertebrata ;* a }*"'• 
tion which many naturaliata will be indined to combat 11 
regards as examples of such fishes the CjftiostomL Bnnta* 
the above 'fundamental facta' in mind, be coostitiitcs 'J>* 
following primi^y diviaiona :«- 

Aberrant gro^. OrxicoBBAircBU. Gills pectinated. 

1. Pla^iostomi, Cartilaginous fishes wUh fixed tsw* 

chue, leading to MammoikL 

2. Sturiones. Cartilaginous fishes with free branriiiaf 
8. Ostinoptery^, Bony fishes with free braDcU*, 

leading to Ati^pkibia, 

I C H 


I C H 

Ntrmal grotg^. AcrxvoiaAjrcHn. Fish breathing witA 
gills, not pectinated. 
4. Lophobrandm. Bony fishes breathing by tufls ar- 

nnged in pain along the branchial arches. 
6. Qifetottomi, Cartilaginous fishes breathing by a 
aeries of cells. 
Mr. Midesy has not yet presented an analysis of the families 
tod geoern iaclnded under the above five orders, with the 
excepdoo of thoee of the third, Osiinopierygii, a term by 
irhfch he proposes to denominate the osseous fishes having 
pectiittted gills. The following table of his subdivisions of 
this important order will convey to the naturalist a clear idea 
of his system. 


Abenani group, AcAXTHOFncBTGn. Spines in the first 
dorssl fin hard. 

Tribe ]. AfiMm. Maxillary bones soldered to the inter- 
maxUlaries, and both to the palatine arch ; opercula and gills 
cooccaled beneath the skin. Includes the families BaHstitkte, 
(ktracmtidaef Cephakapis, Orthagoriscidae^ Diodontidae, 

Tribe 2. Percina, Bones of the jaws free and complete. 
()perealum distinct Operculum or preoperculum generally 
with dentated edges, or with spines. Includes OiaetuUmtidae, 
Perddae, Scorpaaudae, Cirrmtidae, Sparidae, 

Tribe 3. Fiahdarma, Bones of the jaws free and com- 
plete. Operculum distinct. Operculum and preoperculum 
gvoenlly with smooth edges. Scombridae, Fishdaridae, 
GMoidae, Lcpkudtx, Labrtdae, 


Normal group. MAULCoPTKBTon. Spines in the dorsal 
fins soft. 

Tribe 4. PlatrtmecthuM. Ventral fins, when existing, in- 
serted nnder the pectorals, and directly suspended to the 
Uones of the dioulder. AnguSHdaey JEcheimdae, Cydop' 
iaidae, Plaaronedidae, Gadidae. 

Tribe 5. Abdominales, Yentrals suspended behind tne 
pectorals, and not attached to the bones of the shoulders. 
Sibtridne, Ogprmidae^ Esoddae^ Chpeidae^ Sabnomdae. 

Geogrcpkkal IXttnbutwn of Fuhe». — This branch of 
idtfavology is b^^nine to attract the attention and research 
wliicD the interest of the subject demands. Within the last 
five years the example of Yarrell has been followed in many 
coimtries, and valuaole local monographs published, with ex- 
cellent illustratioiaa. In the norm of Europe, besides the 
writings of Nikon and Eckstrom, the fishes of Denmark are 
b progress of illustration by Henrik Kroyer. Those of 
Bdgiom have been carefully examined by M. de Selys Long- 
chsmpB. In that naturalist's Faune Bdge fifty-three fresh- 
water fishes aod forfy-one species inhabiting the sea are 
enaoerated. Of the former, forty-three live only in fresh 
water ; six in fresh water, but go to the mouths of rivers in 
wtBter; and four liye in the sea, but migrate to the riven in 
spring or summer. Of the sea-fishes thirty pass up the 
^beldt as far as Antwerp. The fresh-water fishes of central 
Earope are engaging the attention of Agassiz, and his work 
CO them is in progress of publication. Freyer has published 
tn account of thoee inhalntmg Camiola, amounting to thirty- 
*o species. Italian ichthydogy has been admirably illus- 
tnted by Charles Bonaparte, the Prince of Canino. In Asia 
the fishes of the Caspian have been descnbed by Eichwald in 
lus 'Fuma Caapio-Caucasica,' published in 1841. Those in- 
habiting the riven of S^ria have been enumerated by Heckel 
0^^) from tiie collections of Kotschy. Fifty-seven species 
i&hahit Uie rivers Orontes and Euphrates, of which no fewer 
t^ forty-five are Cyprinidae. Indian ichthyology has re- 
neired valuable contributions from McClelland, whose papers 
^ been cMefliy published in the Calcutta Journal. In 
Skid's * Fauna Japonica' (1642) are accounts and figures 
d Japanese fishes by Temminck and Schlegel. The most 
vihable eontribation ever made to our knowledge of the 
idt&jology of Eastern Asia was communicated to the British 
Aflociation at Cambridge in 1846, in the form of a report on 
tbe^Icfa&yology of China,' by Dr. Bichardson. From his 
raeMhes it wovld appear that the fishes of that region are not 
nlf ^^ numerous as regards species, but also very valuable 
«t account of the extensive fisheries there carried on. His 
^nojiis on thdr distribution are highlv interesting. It would 
ippeir that chains of islands or coasts having an east and west 
ci^eoROQ determine the extent of the range of species and 

groupa of species. For example, to take the inttirtropied 
zone of the ocean, we find a g^reat number of fishes oommoo to 
the Red Sea, the coasts of Madagascar, the Mauritius, the 
Indian Ocean, the south of China, Uie Philippines, the Malay 
Arehipelago, the northern coast of Australia, and tibe whole 
extent of Polynena, including the Sandwich Islands. Aa 
regards the generic forma of the fresh-water fishes, China 
agrees with the peninsula of India. Were the vast xone in 
question, embracing more than two-thirds of the circumfei«ace 
of the globe, to be suddenly elevated, we shoidd find the re* 
mains of fishes similar everywhere throughout, the spedea 
which have a local distribution being few and unimportant. 
This result of Dr. Richardson's researehes is of the ni^hest 
importance when brought to bear on geological considerations. 
Dr. Richardson has also been engaged in the special investi- 
gation of the ichthyology of Aurtnuia, and his many valuable 
memoirs on that subject may be consulted in the ' Transactions 
of the Zoolodcal Society,' and in the ' Annals of Natural 
Hbtoiy.' In Dieffenbach^s < Travels in New Zealand ' (1843), 
the same indefatigable and philosophic zoolonst has published, 
in conjunction with Mr. Gray, a Ibt of the fishes of New 
Zealand. Ninety-two species are there enumerated. In 
Smith's ' lUustrations of tne Zoolocy of South Africa,' fisurea 
and descriptions are given of the fishea of the Cape of Good 
Hope. The researehes of Dr. Peters on the eastern coast of 
Afnca, at present in progress, promise to make us well ac- 
quainted with the ichthyology of that interesting reffion. 
With those of the northern part of Western Africa we have 
had ample information in the valuable memoirs of Lowe on the 
fishes of Madeira {Zootogical Draruactiong and Proceedings), 

The labours of Jenyns on the fishes collected during Cap« 
tain Fitzroy's voyages have contributed materially to our 
Igiowledge of the ichthyology of the southern extremity of 
South America, whilst that of Guiana has been illustrated by 
Sir Robert Schomburgk, in the ^ Naturalist's Library.' De 
Kay's * Zoology of New York ' (1842^ has made us acquainted 
in detail with the fishes of the Unitea States. They amount, 
so far as known, to 440 species, distributed through 166 
genera and 32 families. In the State of New York there are 
126 Acanthopterygiij 115 MaiacopterggHf 8 Lopkobranchu^ 
18 Plectognathi^ 3 species of sturgeon, and 27 cartilaginous 
fishes. It is to be regretted that the researches of Dr. Parnell 
on the West Indian fishes are still unpublished, since they 
would go a long way towards enabling us to gain a connected 
view of the ichthyologr of the new world. 

As far as we can judge from the materials as yet collected, 
the distribution of fishes appears to be determined by the 
same laws which regulate that of other aauatic animals. Cli- 
mate, composition of the element in whicn they live (whether 
salt, brackish, or fresh), and conformation of the sea or river 
bed, on which the depth of water depends, are the great 
r^ulating influences. The great dbtinctions of form and 
colour between fishes of tropical and those of temperate re- 
nons, evince the influence or climate ; the fact of the fisheries 
for certain species commonly used for food beins invariably 
conducted in deep water, whilst others can only be main- 
tained among shallows, shows the influence of depth ; the 
fact pointed out by Dr. Richardson that the seas, by ranges 
of land or reefs extending for great distances under the same 
dimatal parallel, are peopled by the same species of fishes, 
is an instance of the action of the combined mfluences of cli- 
mate and depth. The distinctoess as to genera and si>eciea 
of the greater number of river and lake fish from those inha- 
biting the sea depends on the second of the three great influ- 
ences enumeratea^that of the composition of the element in 
which they live. Great depths cut off the range of speciea 
even when dimatal conditions are similar. Hence the fishes 
of the coast of the United States are for the most mrt distinct 
from those on our own side of the Atiantic. Some fishes 
have very limited ranges in depth compared with others, and, 
generally speaking, it may be assumed that those having the 
greatest vertical range (i. e, range in depth') have also the 
widest horizontal extension, a fact depending on the capacity 
of such spedes for living under a greater variety of conditions. 
Barriers of land, as chains of mountains, determining the 
courses of rivers, are often the boundaries between two dis- 
tinct spedfic assemblages of fresh-water fish, and in like 
manner a very narrow strip of land may divide two very dis- 
tinct marine faunas. The distribution of marine vegetables, 
afiectinff the distribution of numerous marine invertebrata 
which feed on those vegetables, and in their turn serve to 
furnish food for fishes, will materially afiect the distribution 

I C H 


I C H 

r tpecMi of tbe latter. 80 aki will Um prawnco of 
cwrenti. wad oven the agoacy of maa, aaiitting ofiso unin- 
tOTtMoaUy in tbe oonTajanoe of ofi fron one ooimtvy to 
anotber. Diatant regfioot, prcaeoting iimikr oooditioaai Mich 
at tbe Arctic and Antarctic Seas, are inhabited by fpedet 
repreMDtalive but not identical, and preaentinff a general 
aapect very rimilar, depending on cbaiacten of form and co- 
loor, ftc. It ia probable alio that the fishes inhabiting the 
grattter depths of tropical seas resemble those of temperate 
dimesi ana that thoae of the latter in like manner approach 
Arctic forms. 

A brief glance at the range and distribution of the prindpal 
genera will bestscnre to illustrate the above positions. 

The lowest and most anoBoalous of all the species of fishes, 
the BnmekiMtama, is genenUlj distributed through the seas 
of Europe. Onlj one species b known, jet we cannot but 
hope that the reaearches of the many active naturalists now 
occupied with the study of marine loology will bring to light 
forms connecting the Lsncelet with other genera. The 
MyxmBf or glutinods hag, almost equally strange in form and 
structure, is confined to the most northern and most southern 
seas, and is replaced in the higher parts of the southern 
henisphero by the equally curious and nearly allied genus 
Heptatrwmn, The Lamprevs inhabit the fresh waters of 
£iU|ope and North America, but the species in each are quite 
distinct. XspuioasrsM, the connecting link lietween fishes and 
reptiles, so dubious in organization tmit its positioo is still dis- 
puted, is an inhabitsnt of the west of Africa, and a 
cloaely allied has just (1845) been disoovered by Dt, 
on the eastern coast of the same continent. 

The rays and sharks are universally distributed, but many 
of the genera and species are yerj locsl and apparently regu* 
lated in their range by dimatal aones. The seas of Europe 
can botst of the greater number, though fortunately the most 
formidable of the species are exotics. The laivcst species, 
as the great SUmchuM maximm, the basking shark, are harm- 
less, and have their fa-'ourite habitats in the temperate zone. 
Sise among fishes does not appear to bear any relation to 
latitude. Cftmrnsra is northern and southern, extending from 
the frigkl sone» Tbe iSdienNleniit are for the most part 
southern and tropical, especially the curious forms of CSesfra- 
don and Attrocum, MmactaUhus inhabits the American 
and Chinese seas; TViotiMi, the Indian ocean; TetrotUmf 
JModom^ and Batistet have wider ranges. The typical 
genus of pipe-fishes^ Swngnaihui^ is cosmopolitan, and has a 
very wide geographicar distribution. Six species are found 
in the British seas, two on the coast of the United States, and 
Mr. Jenyns has described new forms from Valpanuso, Tahiti, 
and Fati^onla. Hmocam p vs is of the temperate aones of 
both hemispheres, and in the tropical seas is repUced by So- 
k mo tt om a wad Pegatm. The sturgeons inhabit the Western 
a, the Caspian, the Black Sea, and the Mediter- 
Three niedes are North American. 

Of ^e eels, AngmOa^ Qmger, and Murtma are' typical 
and cosmopolitan. Qymnarehu is Egyptian, Gwnmohu (the 
electrical eel) South Ameriosn, both inhabitsnts or fresh water. 
The om e o us fiat fishes are veiy eenendly distributed ; the largest 
species are inhabitanti of northern sess. The Meditemnean 
boasts of many species of Plmtrmedes, Species of sole are 
found in both nortfaeni and southern hemispheres. Tbe Go" 
didtB are Inhabitants of northern and temperate seas, and certain 
species, aa the Task, do not range farther southwards than 
Norway and Scotland. LgpwMmi^ one of the few remain- 
ing genera of Ssuroid fishes, which appear to have played a most 
important part m the waters of antient geological epodis, is 
confined to the rivers of America, and some allied forms to 
northern Africa. The herring tribe, Cb^NSKfae, has a wide 
distribution, and forms of the typical genas Onpm are found 
in the aoothem as well as in the northern hemisphere. The 
species however are locally distributed ; thus the true herring 
Is unknown in the Meditemnean, where its place is taken by 
the Sardme, snd the herrings of the South American coasts are 

Suite distinct from those of the north. Even within Tcry 
mited aress, as m that of the Britidi seas, the species have 
pecolkrities of distribution, as we see in the prevalence of 
the hemng, properiy so called, on the coasts of Scotland and 
b the Iriah sea, while it is replaced by the Pilchard on the 
sooth- west coasts of England and south of Ireland : the white- 
*«ait is also a remarkable instance of local distribution. Mot- 

Myro, Extcmtm^ and Etoa^ are the typical forms of pikes , 
the first is North African; the flying fishes are oceanic 
and Mediferrsncan, and tbe pikes proper are inhabitants of 

the temperate aones. The r e st ric t ed genus Bnx » cooSk^ 
to fresh water. 

The importsnt family of Aifawattririf has its most nloUt 
members in northern regions, some with a wide nner, th« 
same species of trout occurring in Lapland snd b bviUrr- 
land. In North America the trouts are represented br ifn 
similar but distinct spedes. M'Clelland has deicribed 1 tnw 
salmon from India inhabiting the tributaries of the Oiut 
This instance, however, does not affect the esKotiaUj tto^ 
perate and subarctic character of the distribution of tlip .V 
mOntdas, for this Indian species was found at sn elf t&ii(.a t/ 
11,000 feet, where we must expect to find tempente iorn^ 
prevail. Jenyns has made known a peculiar geniuof^W- 
fNORMiae, which he has named Aplochiion, inhabiting thr leai 
of the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego. Ba)ort » 1 
genus constituted by De Kay, and confined to the Uuu«i 
States. The Argaimei are Jieditenanean, snd Stemft^t 
is oceanic. 

Among the most characteristic fishes of the freih utttn 'S 
tropical countries are the Sihindae, which abonad in tbe 
regions of Central Asia, where almost all the spcocs of tk 
tvpical genus Sihina occur. A single ofiet finds iti mtj to 
Europe. JPmdodui and CaUichthy» are Ainericui mn 
of this family ; the electrical Malaptentnts, North Afnoi . 
Loricaria, South American. Equally interesting sod vr..' 
marked in distribution is the fresti-water family CmrautUt. 
The true carps are charutcristic of the old world ; Coteifdw 
and Anabiqa of the new. 

Of the Acanthopterygious fishes the geners Gstfrnni nl 
FiattUaria are, with the exception of a single Meditmaiw 
species, tropical. The genera of Labridae nave well-nurAr-: 
provinces. Thus the numerous species of Seanu arc grw\«^ 
together in tropical seas, being replaced in tcmpemc rcptut 
by Labrui and CrenUabi%», There are officts, howc»tr, r/ 
each. The frog-fishes Lophius and ChironeeUt sre chic^t 
represented in Africa and South America. A single LofLMi 
is a native of European seas. De Kay enumeratci ams 
Lophiadao as inhabitants of tho United States, snd Riciari^ 
son has described some Australian species. The Gobv tr.'** 
prevails in Europe and Asia. Some of the spedes of 'G<ibm 
are remarkable for the depth at which tney live. T* 
Blennies are truly European, with very few exceptioos. li' 
Gunneb are mostly of northern seas. Some spedes of li^ 
Goby tribe inhabit fresh water, as tlie genus Taaiioidet, *'ui 
is found in marshes in India. Com^ttwia lives in Lu'' 
Baikal, and one or two species of GMia proper bvc 11 

The Mtigiloidae are very generally extended. The; U 
been said to be absent from North America, but this i» > 
correct, four spedes of MufU inhabiting the United Sut* 
Atherina is also a cosmopohtan genus. 

The Labyrinthiform rharyngeans are essentislly mij*.. 
being all natives of tbe eastern regions of Asia. Tbiir 'r. 
ganization is peculiarly adapted to their dimatal range, i - 
Teitihyei are fishes of warm dimates, and many spedei bU : 
the Australasian seas. The Mackerel tribe indudes a iiun-'«r 
of genere, which have^ very varioua areas of disthUo'/ -. 
Among them the Dolphins CCoryphaena) are Mediternn j^ 
and Oceanic ; the Dories (Zeui) mostly Europesa ; TuMr 
exotic ; Notaccmtfnu, arctic ; Ltchia^ Mediterranean. 5rtR v 
and the allied typical genera of the tribe are OMNtJ/ ct^*:- 
politan. The Chetodam are csBcntially equatorial. 

The family of ^^amideae gives the most pronunent fn* ' 
to the ichthyology of the Mediterranean ana seas of Sml -^ 
Europe. Pagnu has a wide range, but chiefly through ^^-r, 
regions. The Scienoideaef very numerous in speciet. *. - 
mostly equatorial. The important faaaily of Th^tidir ' 
which the Gurnard is the type, has a Ycry extensi«t dW.- 
bution. The true gurnards are mostlv European j Scorj*>^ 
ranges from Europe to Australia. i'MyoanUbv is pecu'^'i/ 
Indum. Seftostes IS a genus of the old world, with OQcoct* 

The Perooideae, chief of the AcantliopteiTgiooi bm^'^ ' 
is partly composed of marine and partly of freab-water ^ac *•- 
The genus Perca is characteristic of Uie northern ieBpr';.'r| 
aone. Meaapnumy IHacope, PlectrcpommM^ and Sawm •- 1 
cosmopolitan. MmUui and PuraUniM are Europesn r'"^ 
Hokfoentris^ Myry^rutii^ PriaetmAuM^ and Dtdm are nr« j 
seated in both hemispheres. Amhtnnt is an Indian f-^ | 
water genua. PercophU^ Pmguipei, Ctmtrartkmiy aini i ■ 
motii are American. Seryx^ TViocMcAlef, UdoU$, Pe!^*tt 
and Chinmema are Australian 

I G N 


I G N 

rCICA, a genus of plants belonging to the natuxd order 
BonenneB. It has a small obtusely 5-toothed calyx ; 5 petals 
iDMited under the disk, reciirvedy sessile, Talvate ; 10 stamens 
shorter thsD the petals inserted with them ; a cup-shaped disk 
with 10 ereastores at the margin ; a sessile 6-oelled ovary 
with two ooUsteral ])endnloos ovules in each cell ; a very short 
gtjk ; 1 5«igled stigma ; a globose obtnse 1-3-oelled drupe 
with thid snd fleshy dissepmients ; resmous seeds without 
tlbooieo. The species are shrubs or trees with unequally 
pinntte leaves, ana white flowers seated on panided racemes 
which sre terminal or axillary. 

/. hdenpkifBa has temate or pinnate leaves, with stalked 
onite» scommated, entire, simply-veined leaflets ; the racemes 
thnj^e, rs^er shorter than the l^ves. This plant is the 
/. Aracmtekhu of Aublet It is a tree 60 feet in height, 
growine in Guyana, on the banks of the river Couron, where 
it is oaSicd bv the natives Araconchini. When an incision is 
nide in the bark of this tree, a yellow balsamic aromatic fluid 
exudes, which retains its fluidity a long time after exposure to 
the sir. This fluid is used by the Guyanese as an application 
to wounds. A resin ia found also in the seeds, and the natives 
of Govana cany the nuts about with them on account of the 
loent thCT give out. These nuts they often send as presents 
(0 their friends. The Caribs also use the exudation for mixing 
with oil with which they anoint tiieir bodies. 

/. keplapkyUa has 5-7 stalked oblong acuminated leaflets, 
with the racemes few-flowered, somewhat corymbose, and 6 
limes shorter than the petiole. It is a small tree, a native of 
the woods of Guyana, where it is called Arbre d'Eneen$, The 
whole plant is sweet-scent^, and like the last species yields 
a dear balsamic fluid when it is wounded. It is burned as a 
perfmne, and used as a remedy in dysentery. The seeds are 
contuned in a viscid pulp which hardens into a grey j'esin, 
tnd is used hj the natives for burning as a perfume.. The 
Cirib name of this tree is Arouaou, 

There are several species of Icica, all of which yield the 
•mc tnmsparent flnid, resembling turpentine in many of its 

/. Ickarihay a native of Braadl, yields a rean, which is 
brought mto the market under the name of gum elcmi, but 
it is oot the true gum of that name. /. decemdra is found in 
the woods of Gujana, where it is called Chipa. The fluid 
which exudes Iroxn it yields on evaporation a resin. /. aUig- 
ana grows in Gayana. There are two varieties of this tree, 
iLOown by the name of white cedar and red cedar. The latter 
i» a Terv duraUe wood, and is used for making household fur- 
nitore, boats, canoes, &c. 

(Don, Gardener's Dkt.; Burnett, OutHnei cf Botany^ 
Liodley, Flora Medica.) 
IDENTITY. [Samskm, P. C, S.] 
IDIOT. [Lotacy, P. C] 

IGNATIUS, Patriarch of Constantinople. The schism 
of the Gredc and Boman churches, which began Under 
Photius, who persecuted this prelate, and usurped his see 
[pRonuSy P. C.], gives importance to the life of Ignatius. 
He was bom in 799, and was the son of the Emperor JSfichael 
Curopalates, and hb mother Procopia was the daughter of the 
Emoeror Nicephoma. On the revolt of Leo the Armenian, 
MicWl surrendered to him the throne^ which he had occu- 
pied during only a year and nine months, and embraced the 
monastic life. His sons foUowed the example of their father, 
ud the youngest, Nicetas, then aged fourteen, changed his 
nune into tiwt of Ignatius. The new emperor, in oraer not 
to be disturbed in the possession of power, separated the 
WYeral membons c^the fsmily of Michael, and caused his two 
sow Eostratius and Nicetas to be made eunuchs* 

During the rdgn of the three emperora Leo, Michael II., 
sidTheoi^us, they were allowed to enjoy in tranquillity the 
noQsstic life to which they had devoted themselves. lenatius 
«s sdnitted into the order of priesthood by Basil, Bidiop of 
Puds in the Hellespont, a i»elate who had suffered much 
poKcotion in opposing the loonoclastB, and to whom Ignatius 
v« much attidied. 

Oq the death of Theophilus, the Empress Theodora was 
<}ccUred regent in the name of her son Michael III. Being 
ofiposed to the Iconodasts, she banished John, the Patriarch 
(d Constantinople, and caused Methodius to be elected in his 
p^«. Four jreara after, on the death of Methodius, the pa- 
^^i>r<^ dignity was bestowed upon lenatius, who was 
Mpefled to leave his monastery, where be had ac^mred a 
u^ repatation far piety and talent, and to accept this peril- 
He had not long enjoyed this see when the possassioo of >^ 
P, C. S., No. 95. 

was tronbled by his contest with Bardas, the brother of the 
empress, whom he had excommunicated on account of his 
scandalous excesses. Bardas having obtamed considerable 
influani'V over the mind of the young Emperor Michael, 
whose vices he flattered and encouraged, induced him to take 
the reins of government, and to compel his mother to with* 
draw to a convent, and to accept the vows. Ignatius, when 
summoned to lend his authority to thb unfilial act, did not 
content himself with remonstrating against it, but gave them 
a stem refesal. He was in consequence banished to the isle 
of Terebinthos, and deprived of his see, which he had held 
for eleven yean; every means were afterwards employed, 
but without efiect, to induce him to resign. Photius, a eunuch 
related to Bardas, and a person of considerable learning, who 
favoured the Iconoclasts, was by the will of the emperor, but 
without the consent of the church, appointed to the Patri- 
archate of Constantinople. The controversy of Photius with 
the Church of Rome, and its issue, are fully detuled in the 
article Phottos, P. C. 

In the year 866 Bardas was put to death ; and Basil, the 
Macedonian, became possessed of the supreme power. One 
of the firat acts of his reign was to banish Photius and to recall 
lenatius, who was triumphantiy reinstated in his patriarchal 
dignity on the 3rd of November, 867. At his suggestion a 
Council was assembled at Constantinople, which ranks in the 
Roman Church as the eighth Oecumenical. It was pre- 
sided over by the legate of rope Adrian II., and in it Photius 
and his partisans were excommunicated, and their opinions 

From this time Ignatius was allowed to rule the Greek 
Church without oppontion, and his episcopacy was adorned 
by many Christian virtues, and by a oiety which long and 
severe persecution had chastened. He died on the 23rd 
of October, 878, on which day the Greek and Roman 
Churches still celebrate his memory. He was buried in the 
Churtdi of St. Sophia ; but his remains were afterwards trans- 
ferred to that of St. Michael, near the Bosporus. The 
details of hb life are chiefly drawn from Nicetas David, who 
had knovm him personally. It has been published by Rader, 
Ingolstadt, 1604. 

(Le Beau, Histaire du BasEnqnre^ liv. Ixvi.— Ixx. ; Fleuty, 
Hist, Bcdes.y vol. x. ; Alban Butier, Lives of the Saints,) 

IGNIS FATUUS, a meteor resembling a flame, which 
floats in the atmosphere at a few feet above the surfiice of the 
ground. It is gener^y observed by night, either stationary 
or in motion, over marshes or bunal eronnds; but in the 
* Philosophical Transactions,' for 1694, there is an account of 
some ricks of hay being burnt at Dolgelly, in the preceding 
year, by a vapour like a weak blue flame wluch came from the 
sea: Derham (Pka. Drans. 1729) relates that he observed 
about a decayed thistie a flame in motion, which receded from 
him as he aavanced towards it ; and Beocaria states that he 
saw one which seemed flxed to a spot about two feet above 
some stones near a river : this philosopher observes that such 
meteore are most usually witnessed during a fall of rain or 
snow ; he adds that they often appear on dayey soils, and 
that they have been seen to give out sparks. Trebra (JDeut- 
scher merkur^ Oct. 1783) mentions that he saw at Zellerfeld 
a meteor which at first approached him and afterwards receded 
from him to a distance of 600 paces ; he adds that it then dis- 
appeared, and at the end of half an hour it again became 

Occasionally such meteora have been observed to follow or 
advance towards a spectator ; but m general they appear to 
recede on being approached, and it has happened that from 
their resemblance to the flame oi a distant lamp, they have led 
the unwary traveller into cUoigerous swamps. Littie confi- 
dence can be placed in the descriptions given of them, as few 
persons have oeen able to examine them with due attention ; 
and commonly they have been observed under the influence of 
an ill regulated imagination rather than a philosophical spirit 

A plausible hypothens whidi has been proposed in order to 
account for tiiis pnenomenon is that a phosphuretted or a car- 
buretted hydrogen gas, produced by the decomposition of 
animal or vegetable substances, rises from the ground or from 
stagnant water, either small in quantity and occupying a smgle 
spot, or in mat abundance and then becoming a train or a 
horizontal column of vapour of variable dimensions : such gas 
may take fire by cdectncity or spontaneously, at a spot where 
the atmosphere is particularly free from mouture ; and the 
flame communicating itself successively to other parts of a line 
or column, the htter bemg in a state of undulation from the 
agitations of the atmosphere, will give rise to the appearand 

Vol, IL— X« 

I L L 


I N C 

•I a motion 'Ifom placo to plioe* The biighliie« of the 
metBor wiU change with the vtrying qnantity or pnntj of the 
gat; and its temporary dimppetranoe may be cuiaed by the 
quantity bemg in tome plaoea too maU to render the flame 
viiiUe. Spontueoui ignition u well known to ta]r« place 
ocra«ionally in a number of vegetable and animal tubataneeB 
while undergoing deoompoaition, in conaeqoenee of the in- 
flammable matter ooming in contact with oommoo air or with 

IIJFCmi). There are two placet of this name in Essex, 
both in the hundred of Becontree. Great Ilford ia a village 
hicluded for dvil purpoaea in the ward and former chapelry 
of lUbrd in the parish of Barking; it forma a reapectable 
street along the road from London to Chelmsford and 
Colcheater, about 8^ miles iirom the General Post Office. 
It ia on the left or east bank of the river Roding, which is 
here crossed by a brid^ The river is navigable for 
small craft up to the bridge, under the name of Barking 
creek. The name Ilford is derived by Morant from the Ui 
ford that must have been hero before the causeway and 
bridge were erected ; and by Mra. Ogbourne from * a ford at 
the bill, written Hyle^ford,* Great Ilford baa a new church, 
erected in 1831 by the aid of a grant from the comroiasioners 
for building new churchea. The chapelry was then consti- 
tuted a distinct parish for eocleuastical purposes. The church 
is in the ' gothic style, with tower and spu^/ and is capable 
of accommodating about 860 persona. Mr. Wright detcribes 
it as a handsome building. There is also a small chapel (St. 
Marv's) belonging to an anticnt hospital, of later (or perpen- 
licutar) English arohitecture ; and a new chureh or chapel 
(Trinity Clwpel) lias been erected at Barking-side in the 
parish of Ilfonl, capable of accommodating 466 persons, to 
which a district chapelry has since been assigned. The 
chapel is in the Anglo-Norman style, with a small belfry. 
There are also in the rillage two dissenting chapels. Ilford 
ward contained in 1881, 725 housea, namely, 668 inhabited 
by 701 ftnulies, 4 houses building, and 63 uninhabited ; with 
a population of 9512: in 1841 it contained 771 houaes, 
namely, 731 inhabited, 32 uninhabited, and 18 building; with 
a population of 3742, ahowing an increase in ten years of 
230. The liring of great Ilford is a vicarage of the dear 
yearly value of 430/., in the roral deanery of Baridng, the 
archoeaoonry of Eaaex, and the diocese of liondon. The edu- 
oational retnma for 1833 do not disthiguish the ward of Great- 
lUbrd from the other divisions of Bariuug parish. 

little Dford ia a pariah separated from that of Barking by 
the river Boding. The parish has an area of 750 acres, and 
contained in 1831, 22 houses inhabited bj 23 ftmilies, and 1 
houae building: the population was 115: m 1841 it contained 
S3 inhabited houses, with a population of 189 ; of whom 36 
were prisoners or officers in Ilford gaol, which b a house of 
oorreedon for the coun^, erected in 1831. The church is 
dedicated to St. Mary the Vii^. It contains a monument 
to Smart Lethieullier, Eaq., the antiquary. The living is a 
rectory of the dear yearly value of 408/., with a glebe honae 
in the aame eodeaiastical divisions as Great Ilford. There 
was no adiool in the parish in 1833, but the children < were 
taaight to read ev«7 Sunday moniing and afternoon in the 

(Monnt. Aatonr if JBs$ex; Mrs. Ogbourne, Histarp cf 
£mx; Wright, Histoiy of Essex; lUporti of CommiB- 
mmen for BuUdmg New Churches; Population Hetunu^ 
€iMti oiher PoHutMSHtQTy Popers.) 

ILICINEJE. [Aquivouacejb, P. C. S.] 

ILLEGAL CONTRACT. [Ponuc Poucy, P. C. S.] 

ILLICE'BRUM, a genua of plants the type of the natural 
order Illicebracem. It has five sends slightly cohering at 
the base and homed at the back. Petals absent or five subo- 
late inserted with the five stamens on a perigynous ring ; a 
one-cdled ooe-aeeded furrowed capsule ountmg along the 
forrowa. The only apedea ia a amall trailing shrub with 
opporila leaves havinff scarioua atipulce at the btte. 

/. v€rt%eSaahm^ Whorled Ruah-gnaa. It has a trailing 
glabroua aleni, roundish leaves, vertidllato whoried white 
minute flowers. It is found in bogs and wet marshy plaoea, 
ehicflT in Cornwall and Devonshire. The aeeds of tnis shrub 
ahoold be planted in a moist situation, and, if allowed to sow 
Ihcmaelvos, will spring up rcgulariy every SMson. It is 
worth cultivation on account of tho delicac}' and beauty of its 

(Babington, Manwal of Briiuh Boiony; Don, Gtsrdaters 

k«. [WwTiaACEJC, P. C] 


, LAKE. JRum^ P. CA 

k» INNOCE'NZIODiLapmiil( 

ihed painter, of the eany hairol 


I'MOLA, INNOCE'NZIO D A. a pwnl of PiaMj,, mi 
a diatingaiahed punter, of the eariy hauof the mx^tmx 
century. Hia fomily name waa Francood: he was borr j 
the latter part of the fifteenth oentnry, at Imda, ahsacr \t 
aurname, but he lived chiefly at Bokigna. He jaintM) fnc 
1606 until 1549: Vaaariaayahe died ^edfifty^, botths n 
apparently an error, or he mutt have comnenced to put 
when onfr thirteen yeara of age. However, about 1&06 hr 
was placed with Franda, and, aooordins to Vasari, be nadif J 
also with Albertinelli at Florence. In 1517 he pnxlacd 
what is now considered hia masterpiece. It ia a large pirttrf 
now in the Academy at Bologna, but Ibnaeriy over the ftm 
altar of San Michele in Boaoo, repreaentii^, m the kwer 
part, the Archangel Michad vanquiahing Satan, Sdms Pctrr 
and Benedict at the sides, and above in the doub the 
Madonna and Child aumonded by angela; the whole a 
treated much in the second manner of Baphad. It bit bm 
engraved by A. Marchi for the * Puiacoteca di Botoitta.' 
There is also a very superior work by him in the catMn: 
of Faenaa. Da Imok*8 stvle is termed by Land Ri^mOtta, 
and it appeara that several of hia worka have paaM^l Ibr rC 
works of Baphael, that ia, for worka of hi$ aeoond stjie. He 
was also a good fresco painter. 

(Vasari, Vite di BUtori^ &c. ; Land, Sfena Fittont, 
&c. ; Giordani, PmacoUea di Bohgna.) 


IMPERATOOIIA (so named from its supposed inptn. 
virtues in medidne), a genua of planti bdonging to ihr fa 
turd order UmbelliferBB. It has no cdvz; oborate piuit 
contracted into an inflezed aegment. The fniit flattmd a 
the back with a dibited flat border. The species are |^«i> 
perennial herba with erect hollow terete atnated steou. Tkt 
umbels are large and compound, and tho flowers white. 

I, Ostruthwm has a toberoua fleshy and aomewhat aw^t 
root of an aromatic and acrid natore. The lower leaves bin :• 
nate, the upper ones less compound. The flowen are nni 
and of a white or pde flesh-coloured hue. It is a nsU«e U 
Europe and Newfoundland in dannp meadowa and voc^ 
This spedes is the Masterwort of ola En^iah herbalisU, uJi 
the root baa been much celebrated as an antidote scab: 
poisons, a diuretic, and sudorific ; and Lerango affirmi tkt is 
infudon of it in wine haa cured aguea which have rts^n! 
quinine. When chewed, it ezdtes a oo|nous flow ofulni, 
and acts as an agreeable stimulant to the gums. It b rtcoa- 
mended in caaea of rheumatic toothaehe, and ia cdtiTtled n 
many places for the London market. 

J. angusUfoUCf the Narrow-Ieaved Masterwort, bat Utr. 
nato leaves, oblong leaflets attenuated at the base and dfrtv* 
serrated. It u a native of the Alps and Piedmont. Thf 
blossoms appear in June and July, and are of a wlute cdw:. 
The species of this genus are of easy culture, and may bs yr> 
pagated either by dividinj^ the roota or from aeed. 

(Don, Gardener's Jhc.; Lindley, F^ro MeOca; Bll^ 
nett, OuOines ofBotaay.) 

IMPRESSMENT. [BaAismr, P. C. S.1 

IMPRISONMENT, FALSE. [Faim Ixnoorain. 
P. C. SO 

INCENDIARY. [Aaaoa, P. C; Law, CaiMDii. 
P. a S.l 

INCEST. During the Pkvtectorate in the year K^* 
incest and adultery were made capital afieaeea, bat it i:» 
Restoration this law waa not confirmed. Inceat in EngLiT-i 
ia now only puniahable by the ecdeaiaatical courts, actad.aj 
to the ruleeof the canon law. Thia law abo detendacs v^v 
kind of sexud. connection is inceat. Incest nair be conoiiuiM 
dther by married persona or persoiia unmuiied. If sddir^ 
is committed, it mav dao be inceat ; and if foraieatica i»cta> 
mitted, it may dao be inceat The notion of incest it foondi^ 
upcm the degree of consanguinity or affini^ betwero u« 
partiea who have had the aesud cennectioa. 

The term Incest ia from the Roman term Inceatum, wh<cL 
ia the same as Non Castum, * not pore,' and in itamoit $f»*^ 
aeoae aisnified an^ oiftnoe agamsl podUve aotaUtjri ^ ^ - 
ligion. reraoiia within certain dcgi e e e of coaaa ngu idty loc J 
not contract a marriage ; and if they did oontiact a narm^ 
or live together aa man and wife, soch a mani^ge was alV ^ 
incestuous (Incestao Nuptiae). The affiNslia|r to majry vaj 
not neceaaanr to constitute Inoeatam. It wo«m be InevruQ 
whenever there waa aeonid connectioa between a nan soq 
woman, whether mairied or not, who were iiwardr^ of c^ 
tractmg a Uwful marriage by reaaon of conaangomity. If tbd 
partiea were capable of ooBtractin^ a«Mii iMii^n, the €«d 



I N C 

gge^on vovM be Stupmniy wldc^, in ks Umited tcnsei portly 
contspondi to knaomm. 

The Bootti notion of Incettom wu not ooniiDed to the 
case of blood rdationship. Penons who stood in the relation 
of pinnt nd diild bj aaoption could not contract a marriage, 
even after the adopted ddid was emancipated. 

The fiomaaa do not appear to have had anj direct legis- 
lation oo this sabjeet tOl the Imperial period, and the rules of 
Uw that were in force were founded upon positire morality 
and tnge. The Lex Julia which was enacted in the time of 
AngiBtus treitol of inoest only Indirectly, and so far as it eon- 
cfroed the ol^ject 6i that bw, which was the punishment of 

lo some esses of inoest at Rome, there was capital punish- 
jsent (Dion Cassius, Iviii. c 32; Tacitus, AmuU., yi. 19.) 

The sabjeet of the Roman Incestum is treated copiously 

by Kein, Cnminalrecht der BSmer, and with a reference to 

(he oumerous authorities. 


INCHBALD, MRS. ELIZABETH, whose maiden name 

vtf Simpson, was the daughter of a Suffolk ftomer residing 

near Bury St Edmunds. She was bom in 1763. Prone to 

romantic notions, and lodng her father in youth, she rsn away 

at me age of sixteen to seek her fortune, and endeavoured to 

pnKore an engagement as an actress in London. After several 

adTentures, sIm obtabed a place m a countiy theatre, and 

aooQ manried Mr. Inchbald, a respectable actor, much older 

than herself, with whom she liveci for some years in mutual 

Tf!pi^ and comfort Mr. and Mrs. Indibald perfoimed for 

four sessons in Edinburgh, and, after an engagement at Vork, 

went to Fiance for a time. In 1779 Mr. Inchbald died at 

Leeds; and in the winter of 1780-81 Mrs. Inchbald began to 

play secoadary parts at Covent-Garden. She continued on 

the Stan till 1789, but always owed her favour with the 

poUic Ins to her merits as an actress than to the sweetness 

of bCT face and manner, and to the blameless character which 

she was known to maintain in private life. She had begun to 

vrite dramatie pieces several years before her letirement from 

the sU^e : the first of dieae, a slight afterpiece, was acted and 

printed in 1784 ; smd from that time till 1806 she wrote plays 

m npid succession, producing nineteen in all, one of wnich, 

' Lovers' Vows,' is an adaptation from Kotzebne. Her dra^ 

natic eenins was not of a very high class : but several of her 

ODowdies had much success, tfid one or two of them still keep 

their place on the stage. Ther eained for her the means not 

only of snpportincp herself with nonourable economy, but of 

making a handsome allowance to an invalid sister, and of 

nvin? a ooosiderable sum. Her melo-dramatic comedy of 

'SocA Things Are' gained for her more than four hundred 

poQDds : as much was produced by ' Wives as they Were and 

Maids as they Are ;' and for * Every One has His Fault,' the 

BKKt ainmgly charscterised of her plajs, she received seven 

hmHhed pounds. She edited, with biographical and critical 

mDBiks, *The British Theatre,' a collection of acting plays, 

25 vols., 1806-1809; 'The Modem Theatre,' 10 vols., 

im ; snd a collection of < Faroes,' 7 vols. Mrs. Inchbald's 

iltoary talents are best exhibited by her two novels, ' A 

Srople Storr,' fixvt published m 1791, and < Nature and Art,' 

in 1796. Both be^une extremely popular, and deservedly 

», sad have been reprinted in our time in collections of 

rtandard novels. She died on the Ist of August, 1821, in a 

hoaiding-house at Kenshi^^ton, leaving nearly 6000f. in legSp- 

Off to ber rebthres and friends, to the Roman Catholic poor, 

to the Covent-Gardeo Theatriad Fund, and small sums to her 

Wandreas snd hairdresser, ' provided they shodid inquire of 

her eseonlon coooeming her decease.' She had written an 

asoiiat of her owatfiife, but had refiised an offer of a thousand 

posods for it ; and, in obedience to her will, it was destroyed 

lAer her deaidt. Bat her journal, kept r^pilarly for many 

vrors, was pfuacf f e d ; and Iram it and her letters were written 

Mr. Boaden's < Memoin of Mrs. Inchbald,' 1888. 

INCLOSURE. The term Indosure is applied to the in- 
ci'uaf aad pnrtatioDfaiff of lands in England and Wales, which 
1^* oompreheoded under the general name of Commons or 
^ 'amnion Lands. A knowledge of the present condition of 
the lands compnsheaded under this term enables us to form a 
^tter estimate of the state of asriculture in England and its 
opahOitics of inaprovement We thus learn also what was 
tbe geneial oondatiott of the lands in England before inclo- 
ses were made. 

It is aeoessary to define the terms Commons, and Cora- 
■Miabie and Inlmiitxed Lands. CosMnons or Common Lands 
■t leads in a state o^ Mitur^ or wai**'^, of which individuals 

Imve not the severally. Comttcmable Lands are these kmlff 
which during a pert of the year are in sevendty, that is, occu- 
pied severally by individuals as their own, to tte exdunon for 
the time of other people. The amount of common land in 
England is not known, but it is conjectured that it may be 
about 8,000,000 of acres: the total area of Enghmd and 
Wales is supposed to be about 37,000,000 acres. 

The amount of commonable and intermixed lands is not 
known. The nature of these commonable and intermixed 
lands may be collected from the following instances. ' There 
are many parishes in the kingdom that consist altogether of 
intermixed or commonable Ituids ; there are others m which 
there is a great intermixture of common land with the com- 
monable and intermixed land. The township of Barmby on 
the Marsh in Yorkshve contains 1692 acres. There are 1 162 
pieces of open land, which contain 1015 acres, giving an 
average size of S roods and 23 perehes, and there are 352 old 
indosures containing 677 acres. In the parish of Cholsey in 
Berkshhe, the total contents of which are 2381 acres, there 
are 2316 pieces of open land, which contain 2327 acres, 
giving an average size of one acre.' This open land gene- 
rally consists of long strips, which are so narrow that it is 
impossible to plough them across. Yet much of this land is 
the best in the kingdom for natural fertility, and is the oldest 
cultivated land. 

There is a great variety in these commonable lands ; but 
they may be divided into three classes, exclusive of wood- 
knds. First, there is open arable and meadow land, which 
is held and occupied by individuals severally until the crop 
has been got in. After the crop has been removed, that is, 
during the autumn and winter, it becomes commonable to 
persons who have severalty rights in it, and they turn on to it 
their catUe without any limit, or without stint, as it is termed. 
Thus there is a divided use in these open lands : individuals 
have the exclusive right to the enjoyment of one or more of 
these strips of onen land for a part of the year; and during 
another part of tiie year all these individuals enjoy this open 
land in common. Second, there is open arable and meaoow 
land that is held in severaltf during one part of the year, like 
the first class ; but after the crop is removed, ft is commonable 
not only to parties who have severalty rights, but to other 
classes of individuals : these lands are generally called Lammas 

These commonable rights may belong to a particular class, 
M a body of freemen, or to all landholders. There is great 
variety in these two classes as to the severalty holdings also. 
* There are many cases in which the severalty holding varies 
year by year. There are in these open landEs what is called 
a pane of land, in which there may be 40 or 60 different 
lots. It Is reported to be a remnant of an old military custom, 
when on a certain day the best man of the parish appeared to 
take possession of any lot that he thought fit ; if his right was 
called in question, he had to fight for it, and the survivor took 
the first lot, and so they went on through the parish. It often 
happens that in these shifting severalties the occupier of lot 
one this year goes round the whole of the several lots in rom- 
tation ; the owner of lot one this year has lot two the next, 
and so on. When these lands are arable lands, they do not 
change annually, but periodically, according to the rotation of 
the crops. Then there is the old lot meadow, in which the 
owners draw lots for the choice. There are a great variety of 
circumstances under which the severalty ownership of these 
lands shifts from time to time ; but after the severalty owner- 
ship has ceased, and after the crop has been removed, they all 
become commonable.' 

This is one among many instances of the existence of 
anticnt usages in Enj^land, which are the same or neariy the 
same as the usages of nations that we call barbarous. Tacitus 
{Germama, c. 26) says of the antient German mode of agri- 
culture, ' The lands, in pro])ortion to the number of culti- 
vators, are occupied by all in turns, which prcsentiy they 
divide among themselves according to their rank (merit). 
The extensive pliuns oflbr facility for division. They change 
the cultivated nelds yearly ; and there is still a superfluity of 
land.' The meaning of Tacitus is not clear. The following 
passage in Csesar's account of the Gauls (vi. 22) is more dis* 
tinct : ' They pay no attention to agriculture, nor has any 
man a fixed quantity of land and boundaries of property : but 
the ma^stratcs annually as^gn to the clans and tribes who 
have come together as much land as they please, and where 
they please, and in the next year they compel them to move 
to another spot.' Herodotus (ii. 168) says that each member 
of ^e military caste in Egypt had a certain portion of land 

L 2 

I N C 


1 N C 

Migned tohim; Imt theyei4oj«dlhelttidiinafotetk».aiid 
the Mine penoM did not oontinoe in the ei^oyment of the 
Mine Uuub. Stimbo (p. 316) mentiont • costom amongit the 
Dalmatiani of making « dirinon of their lands every eight 

* The tlurd cI«m k that of grazing lands, where the rights 
of pardes are setded and defined, the oidinaiy stinted pasture. 
The oommonable lands are subject to Tery great yanety and 
peooliaritT ; for instance, in some of these lands the right of 
granng sneep at all belongs to a man called a flock-master, 
and he has tne power, during certain months of the year, of 
turning his own sheep ezdusiYely on all the lands of the 
parish ; or, according to particular circumstances, his right is 
limttad and restricted to turning sheep upon a certain portion 
of it, with a view to giving parties an opportunity of puttmg 
in a wheat crop. In those parishes where there is a flock- 
master who has a right of depssturing his sheep during a 
certain portion of the year over all the land of the parish, it is 
dear that no one can sow any wheat without haYing made a 
bargain with him for shutting up his own particular fields, or 
some proportion of them.' 

< Tnere is a very large extent of wood-land in this kingdom 
that is commonable, stranffe to say, where certain individuals 
have a right during the whole year to turn on stock, the owner 
of the wood having no means of preserving his property except 
by shutting out other commoners' stock oy custom tor some 
two or three yean tSier fdling. There is that right, as also 
the old right of estover, which is a very great inconvenience, 
vis. where parties have the right of cutting house-bote, and 
plough-bote, and fire-bote, and so on in woods belonging. 
qua wood, to another party. There is a great deal of land 
subject to that ruinous custom. There are many varieties of 
these commonable lands, but these are the most prominent 
and remarkable of them.* 

Under such a system as this, it is obvious that these common 
fidds molt be ill cultivated. The intermixed lands cannot be 
treated aooordine to the improved rules of good husbandir. 
It is stated that Uie simple redistribution of intermixed lands, 
now bdd in parcels so mconvenient in form and size as to be 
incapaUe <^ good husbandry, would in many instances raise 
the fee-«mple value of the lands from l&s. or 17s. an acre 
to 3Qs. 

It is the opinion of witnesses examined before the parlia- 
menlaiy committee of 1844, on Commons* Indoeurcs, that 
iodidotts indosure would make a large portion of common 
lands much more productive. At present open and)le lands 
are so intermixea that efiectud drainage is nearly impossible. 
One witness says : * I have had occasion to go over two small 
properties, about 150 acres each ; one I found in 301 different 
pieces, and the other in a litUe more than a hundred. I men- 
tion this to show how the lands are frequentiy intermixed ; 
they are therefore fimned at much greater expense ; and it is 
imposttUe to drain them on the present improved mode of 
ilrainage, inasmuch as other parties are occupying the furrow 
by which the water should pass off.' In the Midland coun- 
ties, where there are these open arable fields, the course is 
two crops and a fdlow, and every third year the flocks run 
over the whole fidd. The same witneas considers that a 
fourth of all the open arable land is at present totally unpro- 
ductive. In cases where common arable fields have Men sub- 
divided and allotted, ' the great improvement is, that in the 
firat place every man has his allotment, and he deals with it 
as he pleases ; he drdns it, and crops it upon a proper course 
of cropping ; he puts it in seed and keeps sheep upon it : he 
grows turnips and dover, or whatever he thinks proper.' The 
same witoeas is of opinion that the average improvement in 
the vdue of common fields which have been tndosc^d is not 
less than 36 per cent. Indeed the evidence that was produced 
before the coosmittee establishes to a de^^ree beyond what 
otherwise woold be credible, the immense mconvenience and 
loss which arise from the system of intermixed lands, and their 
bdng also subject to commonage. 

As to Common Rights, that is, rights of pasture and so 
fiirth on commons or waste Isnds, they are described generally 
onder CoMMoir, Riobts op, P. C. As to the common pastore 
lands, they also require an improved management It is 
stated thai commons are ^nerally overstocked, partiy m con- 
•aooenoe of persons tummg out more stock than they have a 
rignt to do, ud partly by persons patting their stock on the 
common who have no right. In consequence of commons 
being overstocked, they are profitable to nobody ; and a rule 
lor ngnlating the quantity of stock would therefore be bene> 
fldal to all persons who are entitled to this right of oommoD. 

Violent ffispntes also frequently arise in conseqaeoce of !Kt 
rights of pertiea to commonage not bdng well ddbrd. I; • 
the opinion of competent judges that very great sdtinru* 
would result from stinting those parts of commons that an* - < 
worth indosure; and tluit Mt would be in naav tn«V"i 
highly dedrable to inclose portions of a common tar the | <> 
pose of cultivation, and to allot such portions of it, nhi/^' t 
would be impolitic to do more than stint other portions oi <• ' 
A stint may be defined to be ' the ri^ht of pastungv far in 
animd, or for a certain number of ammab, acoordiDir to «r« , 
sixe, and capability of eating.' The eommons m ftci irr u \ 
now stinted by the levant and coudiant right, a right ihi'ti 
cannot be brought into practical operation ; and besides thu ti^ r* 
are many commons in gross. [Coimoir, Riobts or, P. C. ' 

Indosores of land have now been going on for msn/ yrii%. 
It b stated that rince 1800 about 2000 indosure ads'bif 
passed ; and prior to that time about 1000 or 1700. It unu 
doubtful from the evidence whether the 1000 or 1700 n n. 
prehend all indosure acts passed before 1800. These ly !■. 
sure acts (with the exceptions which will presently br tm.. 
tioned) are private acts, and the expense of obtaininfr tb- 
and the trouble attendant on the carrying their proviskmi miD 
effect have oflen prevented the indosure of commoos. 

In 1836 an act (6 & 7 Wm. IV. c. 115) was pai»ed fr* 
fadlitating the indosure of open and arable fields in Kncii'id 
and Wales. The preamble to the act is as follows :—* Wfaf'tj 
there are in many parishes, townships, and places in EdiHaa! 
and Wales, divera open and common arable, meadow, aiki p*- 
tore lands and fields, and the lands of the several prDpnit.n 
of the same are freouenUy very much intermised snd d' >• 
persed, and it woula tend to the improved cultivttion ti«i 
occupation of all the aforesaid lands, &c., and be otbmi • 
advantageous to the proprietora thereof, and persoos intnriii*' 
therein, if they were enabled by a general law to diride r . 
indose the same,' &c. Inclosurea have been made aoder tU 
previsions of this act, but the powen whidi it givM i** 
limited, for the 'act applies solely to lends hdd in serm^ti 
during some proportion of the year, with this exception, Hi 
slips and bdks intervening between the cultivated lands m; 
be inclosed.' The lands which cannot be indosed under tv 
provisions of this act are ' the uncultivated lands, the Isndi c 
a state of natore, interveninff between these cdtivated lr<i< 
beyond those that are fairly to be considered u sHpi uri 
balks.' However, it was stated in evidence before the nc- 
mittee of the Hoose of Commons in 1844, that a large eitrat 
of common and waste land has been illegally iodoted tm:<r 
the provisions of the act, and the persons who hold nich iv. > 
have no legal tide, and can onl^ ootain one bj bpie of tin-- 
The chief motive to this deahng with commoos sppetr* t» 
have been, that they thus got the indosure done chesper tL: 
by applying to parliament for a private act. 

In 1844 a scaect committee or the House of Conmooi vu 
appointed * to inquire into the expediency of ftdlititioc: t'^ 
indosure and improvement of conunons snd lands hfl«i •> 
common, the excnange of lands, and Uie divisioo of mM' 
mixed lands, and into the best means of proriduw (or in* 
same, and to report their opinion to the House.' The c-c- 
mittee made their report in favour of a general inclosurv v 
after recdving a large amount of evidence from pcnow « - > 
are well acquainted with the subject The extrads that .^ux 
been given in this artide are from the printed evidence ttit 
was taken before the sdect committee. 

In pursuance of the recommendation of the comnutte^, v 
act of parliament was paased in 1845 (8 ft 9 Vict c. D* 
the object of which is thus stated in the preamUe :—* Whcr j^ 
it is expedient to &dlitate the indosure and improveomt > * 
conunona and other lands now subject to the n^ts of t*-^ 
perty which obstroct cultivation and the productive eofij- 
ment of labour, and to fadlitate such exchan^ of lands. i»i 
such divisions of lands intermixed or divided uto inoonvm)flit 
parcels, as may be beneficial to the respective ownen ; tc** •( 
IS also expedient to provide remedies for the defectiie ^r 
incomplete execution, and for the non^xecotion of povfi 
created by general and locd acts of indosure, and to suthtr j.> 
the renewal of such powera in certain oases,* &c 

It is not within the scope of this article to attempt to r*' 
any account of the provisions contained in the 160 Mctk«* •■< 
this act; but a few provisions will be noticed that srr ii*>* 
portant in an economical and pelittcal point of view. 

The 11th aection contains a cmoprehensive descripticc oT 
lands which may be indosed under the act; bit tho N<^ 
Forest and the Forest of Dean are entirdy eiorptol. Hm 
14th section provides that no lands sitaated wtthia ftftna 


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I N P 


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w,SMtmmdukeMi.Mdm.EetkU,lH 76-83; 
•left der JZom. J/CcrCAMmer, IL 121 ; Piichto, 
, U. 441.) 

INFANT HEia. JEmkb, P. C] 



INFEFTMENT, in the Uw of SooUaod, from the iame 
«ripn ai the Engliah term fiBoffineat, expreises the ceremooj 
by which « penon weoeeding to another bv deaoent, aettle- 
meot, or oooreyance, ia inTeated In any heritable or real 
property. Down to the year 1845 thia ceremony was aa pure 
a feudal uaageaa it ever liad been in the days when the almost 
aniversal hiability to write auggeated aymbolical modea of 
^it>«yiny poaMasmn. Suppose a rery ordlnarv case— that a 
person purchases a piece or ground from one wno holda it of a 
superior. According to the system of sub-infeudation presenred 
In Scotland, he may either be put in the seller's place and 
hold of the same superior, or he may hold a sub-feu under the 
seller. Whoever is to be the superior, the title deed contains 
aa authority from him to invest the vassal. Until the late 
change, a number of persons had to proceed to the ground, con- 
sisting generally of the attorney wno prepared the titles, and 
his cleits, who had the following parts to act One was the 
bailiff of the superior, and a commission authorizing him to act 
In that capacity was read over. Another party acted as the 
procurator or representative of the vassal or purchaser. The 
iMiliff lifted aome fragments of eaKh and stone frxim the soil 
and handed them to the procurator, as symbols by which, accord- 
ing to the authority given to him, he made over possession of 
the lands to the new owner. The receiver of the symbols 
tlien placed a coin of the realm in the hands of another party, 
who must have been a notary public —this being the form m 
which a proteat is taken in the hands of a notary in Scotland. 
Two other parties acted as witnesses. The ceremony, with the 
authority on which it proceeded, was narrated in a deed called 
an instrument of sasine, in which the notary publicly attested 
the transaction. The preservation of this cumbrous cerenK>ny 
down to so late a period was owing to its connection with the 
admirable ^stem of registration which has kept the commerce 
in real property in Scotland on so clear and secure a position. 
The whole ceremony went for nothing unless the instrument 
narrating it were recorded in the Register of Sasines within 
aixty days after the ceremony. The registration was and is 
the criterion of preference. If land ahould be sold or mort- 
gaged to any number of different people, the person whose 
sasine Is first registered has the absolute title, ana all questions 
as to the fiumess of the transaction, are pecuniary questions 
to be settled apart from the title to the lands. The cumbrous 
ceremony mentioned above was rendered no longer necessary 
by the 8 and 9 Vict. c. 35, passed 21st of July, 1845, and 
called ' An Act to simplify the form and diminish the expense 
of obtaining Infeftment m heritable property in Scotland.' It 
aimply proridea that ' it shall not be necessary to proceed to 
the lanos In which sasne la to be given, or to perform any act 
of mfeftment thereon ; but sasine shall be efiectuaUy given 
therein and infeftment obtaued, by producing to a notary- 
public the wamnt of sasine and relative writs, as now in use 
to be prodnced at taking Infeftment, and by expeding and 
recording * ^ * an mstrument of sasine, setting forth 
that sanne had been given in the said lands, and subscribed by 
the said notanr-nublic and wlmesses.' There has been little 
opportunity of observing the working of this act, but it ia ex- 
pected that It will Buterially reduce the expense of trana- 
lerring Interests in landed property In Scotland. A costly 
ceremony and a long deed, essential to the durability of every 
title of a new holder, are aboliahed by it The act at the same 
time contains aome methods of remedying mistakea and omia- 
alons which under the old bw were fatal flaws. 

INFORMER. An Informer is a man who lays an infor- 
mation or proaectttea any person m the Kuig*s courts for aome 
offnice against the law or a penal statute. Such a person is 
generally called a common Informer, because he makes a 
buainesa of laying tnlbramtiona for the purpose of obtaining 
hia afaare of the paalty. riajoBMiTioir, P. C] Persons are 
indooed to take the trouble of discovering ofienocs, for which 
a pecuniary penalty b mflicted on the offender, by the pro- 
miae of the rewara ; and if the penalty is imposed for the 
public Interest, he who makes the offender known does the 
nublic a aervioe. But still the business of a common in- 
twrnar is hmkad on with dislike, and he who follows it b 
(reoerally deapised ; and perhaps the character of common 
mfomera b generally aoch that they deserve all the odium 
ihey receive. They stand m a like situation lo the 

hangman. Thb dbltke of infbrmeia, simply as nek. u rn 
of the anomaliea of society, who hate their banefsctor. It 
real foundation of the distike however among thcae wbo ru 
form a just judgment of things b, not the act of iafoniut).^, 
but the devicea, tricks, and meannessei to whldi a oMn nni! 
often resort in order to know the facts on which his iofoma 
tion must be founded. It is the same principle vhicfa u \f% 
leads us to condemn a man for making certain ststsincn!, » 
public, not because of the statements, but became of d* 
means by which he may have obtained his knowledge. V^tit. 
a penalty b too heavy, or when the Uw that impoMs it . 
generally dbliked by the people for any reason, good or w! 
the popular dialike finds a definite object in the ufbrmer wU 

E'ves effect to the Uw. The legisUture that made tbe »&, 
w b overlooked, because the legisUture b a number oi \n 
sons ; the informer b one, and his agency b seen ami Mi 

In absolute governments there are spies and Mliikaj ,. 
formers, who are the tools of a government which osi t» m.* 
but Its own pleasure. Some peopU have been dull eo'..^ 
to confound all informers in one oass : not seeing that tL-*i 
b a difference between an informer wno helps to (rive rr-! 
to the Uw, and an informer who helpa a tyrannical to*t-, 
ment to entrap and punish persons suspected of diaiiinu 
to the government or of designs against It. 

INFUSO'RIA, FOSSIL. The ffeograpJtkaldutr^/t^ ' 
living infusoria corresponds in extent whh the sbnudi 
of reproduction, and tne facility of diffusion thnMurh « • 
and air, which belong to these microscopic crmturei. 1 * • 
qucnt in all the varieties of water which have been n;** . 
to air and light, and in all the conditions of thb element bcu<« > 
the extremes of terrestrial temperatures, not abMvt oveD !" 
snow, ice-covered streams, or the ejections of volonoo, t* 
have been recognised in all the regions of the globe. U. »• 
rivers, and the sea are in places richly replenished by them 
their siliceous integuments falling through the water ao v 
Ute into extensive deposits. In regard to such aocuuiuUrii.*.* 
the sea, we have the evidence of aoundings bv Ca|>tain >/ J 
Ross in the course of the antarctic voyage (AnrntU (f .^ 
History ^ Oct,, 1845) and Ehrenberg*s eiamination of ' 
deposits at Cuxhavcn ; and their abundance in firosh mu^ • 
matter of universal occurrence. These deposits cooiist «» l< 
siliceous integuments of the infusoria, and as only a null [.n^ 
portion of the families are protected with ailiceous counr .- 
and as the w^aters whicli nourished them contam but i ' 
silica, while the deposits are very extensive, we nstuTki , 
assocbte with these Ucts the idea of long-eUpaed tine. 

But on turning to the marine and frcah-water deposiu - . 
earlier date, this impression of the long duiatioo ot niti^*: 
agencies becomes much heightened, n hen, coodoctrd •• 
Ehrenberg, we find beneath the Bohemian mountains, a*- -. * 
the plains of North Germany, pleiocene deposits msxij Ut ' ' 
thickness, composed of little else than the thin fiiotv ) ^ 
of microzoaria, and, following Professor Rogers and Mr. Ba. ■ . 
who dug up myriads of other forms from the meioeeneitmi * 
Virginia, while Mantell and Reade exhibit lo us ia('L> 
from the chalk and the Rimmeridge cUr of England, «• 
must add to tbe historic time during whira it can be k 
these aninmlcula have lived the Urge indefinite gni -.' • 
periods of Cainozoic and Meaoaoic formations. 

The source of the siliceous matter, which enten thf • * 

Snization of the infusorial races, b not difficult of disroTt- 
ost of our fresh waters contain allien, though not in i . • 
dance, derived, it ia probable, from the deeom posit.* •(• 
felspar and other mmeral silicates. Silicate of suas ado 
cate of potash, thus occasioned, may by lntermedt«te «<. ' 
tive processes yield the silica in a atale auitabie iar l- 
organically solidified. Experiments on thb subject, «• 
may be easily made, are quite satisfiactonr In shuwio^ t' . 
myriada of silicated infusoria (Brachiooi) may be r^' 
mted in a few days in a sandstone trough, supplied with «:- 
and decaying vegetation. The anbanlcula bemg drbd or " 
field-glass of the microscope, their beautiful tnnspanmi » 
oeous loricm remain in abundance. In the hot waten ot • 
canic fbd, silica b dissolved abundantly, and it is ueeranr, 
keep thb fact in view while conaldenng the eiteasi>e t 
beds in chalk, the thick Pollerschieler beda of Bilin, and ( < 
siliceous masses, the result of oignniaarion. The disut«' 
of marms andfrtsh-wattr races, which nma throairb t^ * 
larger animab and plants with such reguUritr as to br tm. 
a Uw of natm«, obtains abo, but leas nbaototdy, in th •• 
fusoria. Some species live both in fresh and aalt water, : 
many at the junction of riven with the aen. Bjr rocn^k.- 
thn uving oceanic and lacustrine raoca oa n Uiige scale, mt - 


I M F 

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I N P 


Specief which occur in the Kictelgohr of the Isle or 
Frtiioe,~Bicillam Tiilnru? TpJentiful), B. major, NaTicak 
fblTft? N. gibba, N. himms (Imog near Berlin). 

In the Bergmefa] of Santa Flora :-- 

Sjnedra capttata (plentilul} ; with this are S. ulna 0>^n)? 
both in fresh water and the sea) ; NsTicula ineqnalis, N. capt- 
tata, N. Tiridis, N. gibba Tfresh water socdcs) ; N. Tiridula 
(liTing in Baltic) ; Knnotia granulata, Navicula follis (ex- 
tinct) ; Cooooneis nndulata (marine); Gomphonema para- 
dozum, G. cbvatnm, G. acaminatum (\\rm^ near Berlin) ; 
Cocoonema Cjrmbifonne (fresh water); Gaillooclk italica; 
Spicda of spongiae or sponeillie. 

In the PolierKhiefer of Bilin : — 

Fodoaphenia nana (plentiful), (^Uonella distans, NsyI- 
cok Malpram, Bacillaria Yulgaris? (probably all marine 1). 

In the Leaf Tripoli:— 

Gaillonelb distans (plentiful), Fodoaphenia nana, Badllaria 
▼nlearis ? (probably marine). 

At Bann, in the covnty of Down, Captain Fortlock found 
mider peat, Nayicube, Bacillarie, EunotiflB, with fragments of 
achnanthes and confcnne. (MicrotcopioalJimmai, 1841.) 
At Gainsboroogh, Mr. Binney found under peat, abundance 
of GailloneUa. At Bridlington, we hare observed in white 
and brown marls, Eunotia serra? Bacillaria vulgaris, Nari- 
cula imsqualis, N. Tiridis, N. phoenicenteron, Cocoonema lan- 
ceohita, a new and beantiful Campilodiscus f C. zonalis^ &c. 

The North American localities have yielded to Bailpy and 
Khrenberg a laige catalogue of infusoria. £hrenbcr|r cnump- 
rates: — . 

Amphiphora— ^Mie species* 

Cocoonemar— -two species. 

Eunotia — seven species. 

Frsgilbria — three species. 

Cvomphonema — ^foor species. 

Uimantidiam— one species. 

Navicula — eighteen species. 

Staorodra—two species. 

Tabellaria — three species. 

With these are three forms of spongoid spicula, and two 
flpeciea of Thylachim. 

Theae are mostly derived from beds lying onder peat, — 

The Richmond earth (of miooene date) yields — 

Cosdnodiscua rsdiatos and other^ 

B^ca (Jig. 3) 
Actmocyclus senarins and others 

0^.2) . . 
Kavicule, sevend spedes 
GaillonellflB • • • 
Dictyocha fibula (Jig. 1) 

In the chalky maris of Oran, Sidly, Greece, &c. occur 
many living forms, as — 
Actinocylua-— ten species. 
Amnhitetra— two spedes. 
Bidaulphia— one spedes. 
CocooQema-*oiie spedes. 
Cos c inodiscus — seven species. 
Dictyocha — four s|>edes. 
Eonotia—two spedes. 
GaiUooeI!a~ooe soedes. 
Gimmmatophora— nwr spedea. 
Haliomma — one spedes. 
Navicula — six species. 
Striatella— one spedes. 
Svnedra— one spedes, 
Tessella catena— one spedes. 
Trioeratium — one species. 

In the white chalk and flint of Europe, and also living, - - 
Fragillsria rhabdosoma — ^Graveaend. 

striolata^ Grsvesend. 
Gaillooella aurichaloea — Riigen. 
Fcridinium pvrophonim — Gravesend. 
Xantfaidium nircatnm — Gravesend. 
hinutum — Gravesend. 

Dr. Mantel] has been unable to discover Frsgillaria in the 
chalk of Gravesend, but Xanthidia occur in the chalk of 
Dover. (Atm. Nai. Hist.^ Aug. 1846.) Gdllonella auri- 
chalcea has been resarded as an Osdllatoria ; and it appears 
doubtful whether the so-called Xanthidia of the flints and 
chalk are really to be referred to that fresh-water genus. 

From the preoeding notices we may gather as general facts 
the oocnrreooe of tofuiorial reauuns in the following stratiflca- 

M. (iueckett has found 
sevml of these recent in 
the North Sea. Mr. 

' Lee has discovered Cos- 
dnodisd and Dictyo- 
chsB in the bamade and 

Cainoioic period 

Mesozoic period 

Recent Floviadie and other •rdinai^ 
lacustrine deposits of the Elk i 

Miooene Tertiaries 
Eocene Tertiaries. 
Chalk depodts. 
(Oolitic deposits 
The relative abundance of the Inluioria m theie mt^^ 
deposits is inversely as their antiquity ; they are nrt m im' 
oolitic and cretaceous rocks, and abu n dant in tbe upprr w.! 
tiarics. It b true that Ebrenbenr, by asngning to thf mt^ 
ceous sera the calcareous marls of Oran, Sidly, tnd Gm«i<.. 

S'ves a large catalogue of Meaoioic infiaoria, sod that ^i 
vour of such reference of those marls are the Botilis, Tn^ 
tiltne, &c. which occur both in the tnie chalk sad in mrli 
marls. But on the other hand, remembering the kn^ KUft 
of geological time through which these genera of PblitK», 
lamiae extend, and taking into eonsider^ion the fact' M 
some spedes which occur in the chalk of Europe sre qw*^ 
bv Ehrenberg from unquestianably miooene sbits b Af»* ' 
nca, we shall hesitate to admit those richlv iniusoml nm-'i 
as truly coeval with the white chalk in which eompvitiVfir 
very few remains of the group occur, and these not q( U4 
ssme spedes as thoae which abound in the otiier depnu. 

Another pdnt on which the authority of Ehrober^ U 
not been recdved without hesitation, b the abtobde tpenf' 
identity of a large proportion of the Ibsnl and recnt in:.- 
soria. The prerious discoveries of geologv had prepuvd e 
easy admiuon for the opinion that many of the tertitiy funM 
of infusoria were undistinffuishable from living nwei ; avii i i 
the fact in regard to all &e invertebral races ; hot aith trrr \ 
few, and those not always allowed, exceptioos, the mvok!. i 
arv strata had been found to contain only extinct fonDs d ' 
life, till Ehrenberg examined the ininute Pdythilamb kA 
found many of them similar to livinr types, and coBfinnK 
thb inference by independent researaea among the infunrii 
Supposing these opinions of the Prussian nucroic o pb t to \» 
connrmed by future inquirers, we shall find that thiy bio!.r 
no infrsction of the relations of loological forms to geobci' *. 
time, which have been established from examinatioos o( ur 
other classes of the animal kingdom. The sjtteim of liff n 
each succesnve system of strata are wot 9eparaU ad dxawx 
creaHom^ but successive terms of m, ereatipe seriei; csrh of 
these terms b compound, and (to apeak exacdy), iti colk-. 
tuent quantities (the several clas$e$f orden, famSa, pcwri:. 
or^pecMs) have their own coefficienta and exponenti; Uut 
b to say, have their own timet cf dmraiion^ tkar mm prrw^ 

^ abundance, their own peculiar reiationM to ear&er oA 


A rule drawn from Fishes cannot be applied to MoUwct. i 
law based on Crustacea cannot be recdved for Microuarw. 
without scrupulous examination ; and Palssontolpnr t* &!! >^ 
examples of the unequal periods of duration whidi bebar (*> 
the diflerent organizations, and the uiie<)ual defjuee of develo;- 
ment, and unequal geographical diflunon, which chanctrn:f 
these organizations at the same epocha mid during the nnr 

Admitting the authority of Ehrenberg's detemins^ 'f 
species, we find another curious and unexpected result— thr 
frequent, if not general, admixture of marine and fircsh-vit«r 
tribes— in the comparatively levd regions of Europe. In tU 
pbins of North Germany, round the Bohemian and Hm 
mountains, in Tuscany, and Yorkshire, we find thb tdmu- 
ture of supposed marine and suppoaed fresh-water nets, io 
the supra- tertiary deposits. Is thb to be explained by nit- 
pofiing those deposits to have happened while the nt^litixi 
level of land ana sea was different from what it b at prm-nt. 
and the sea was near to the place of depodtion, so ditt * « 
some of the many natural modes of aifiusion whidi irv 
effective in this class of life, the organisms of the sea uk*- ' 
be csrricd into lakes, as well as mixed m estuaries, a&i 
along the course of languid rivers? Probably so. Tut 
deposits of infusoria which now happen so abnndsntlr a 
the mouth of the Elbe are mostly derived from the ica; 
and it has been found in the River HikIsoo that tpecics on<T 
imagined to be truly marine live in juxtapoddoo «iik 
the species of fresh waten. There may probably be, in a 
class of beings assocbted with dlicated waters, a grenter iu< 
dependence of the saline qualities of water than hi other ntn 
which have littie need of silica, and which require the exirv 
cation of lime from a state of solution in the walcn whirii 
they inhabit. In confirmation of thb view, ve find Um 




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^ " 1 

I N S 


I N S 

•lid Nmi-Crioiinal. In lonie caaet danuiget w«re ifd 
othen the offender wai ponuhed in hk penoD : in i 
dici he might be pimiihea by a peonniarj oenaltj and in hit 
peraott alio. 

The common, the non-legal, nse of the worda In* 
jury and Ii^riea ia aa vague aa people*! notions of Right 
ana Wrong generally. But people have often a dear per- 
ception that a damage is done for which no compensation 
am be got bj legal meana, though compensation ia due ac- 
ooidtng to those uniTeml principlea on which the common 
notions of right and wron^ are based. The popular judgpaent 
here is often right, and la a foundation on which good and 
efficient legislation csn be securely based. 

INN. The responnbility of innkeepers for the safe cus- 
tody of the goods and chattels of their guests is one out of 
the numerous classes of cases that arise upon the law of bail- 
ments, and is placed by % W. Jones, in his Treatise, under 
the second suodiriAon, LoeaHo Opens, of the general head 
Locatum. The law makes the Innkeeper responnble for the 
safety of the gooda of persona coming to his house, in the 
langusge of the antient writ, eaud hoqritamU; but he may 
be released from his liability either by inattention on the part 
of the guest to such reasonable rules as the innkeeper may 
think proper to lay down for the protection of the property 
of his guests ; bv any act of negligence on the part of the 
Buest himself, or i>v ms making use of the house not, aa it is 
before said, cauid hotpiiaiidi. Thus, if an innkeeper requires 
his guest to put his goods under lock and key, and the guest 
leaves them m a passage, whereby they are loat ; or the goods 
are stolen by the guest's own servant ; or the guest uses his 
room in the inn aa a show-room, into which a number of 
people are allowed to have access, and not as a lodging-room, 
the responsibility of the innkeeper ceases. The general 
interest seems to require that the law should be made still more 
strict ss affainst innkeepers, as the good faith and responsibility 
of the innkeeper form the only security of the travcUer. The 
Roman law on this subject is contained in the Digest iv., tit. 9. 

(Smith's Zeadmg Cata, * Calye's Case ;' ^Wo/tse on the 
Law of BmbmaUM, by Sir W. Jones.) 


INSCRIPTIONS (/nscnjphbiaes), that ia, records of 
public or private occ ur rences, of laws, decrees, and the like, 
engraved on stone, metal, and other hard substances, exhi- 
bited for public inspection. The custom of making inscrip- 
tions wss infinitely more general in the states of antiquity 
than in any modem country, ss we see from the innumerable 
inscribed monuments which still exist in Persia, Egypt. 
(•reece, Italy, and other countries subject to or colonised 
by the Greeks and Romana. A great number of inscriptions, 
especially those recording great events, laws, or decrees of 
the government, which it was important for every citisen to 
know, supplied to some extent the want of the art of printing. 
When, for example, the laws of the twelve tables at Rome 
were set up in puolic, this public exhibition was equivalent to 
their publication by meana of the art of printing, for every 
Roman might go and read them, and, if he liked, tske a copy 
of them for his private use. Previous to the invention of toe 
art of printing, mscriptions set up in a public place were 
the most convenient means of giving publicity to that which it 
was necessary or useful for every citizen of the state to know. 
Inscriptions therefore are, next to the literature of the an- 
ticnts, the most important sources from which we derive our 
knowledge of their public, religious, sods], and private life, 
and their study is indispouable for every one who desires to 
become intimately acquainted with the history of antiquity. 
For the history of the languages they are of paramount im- 
portance, since in moa^ cases they show us the oifferent modes 
of writing in the different periods, and exhibit to us the lan- 

b mani 

in thdr gradual p rogres s and development ; though it 
(est that the antients did not bestow that 

I manifest that the antients did not bestow that care upon the 
accuracy of the language and orthography which we might 
expect, and in nuny cases they seem to nave left these things 
to the artisan who executed the inscription. After the ovei^ 
throw of the Roman empire in the west, inscriptions still con- 
tinued to be made ttiry frequently ; but as the ignorance of 
the middle ages increased, and as all knowledge became more 
and more crafined to the priesthood, the custom of makinff 
certain things known by means of inscriptions gradually fell 
into disuse, until the art of printing did away with it almost 

In order to render inscriptions as permanent ss possible, 
the antiento chose such materiab as were least subject to de- 
via. stone or metal. Tha stone most commonly 

used was marble cut fat slaba, but aoBBetifMS iQseri|4ioM vnt 
engraved upon a flat surface ofthe unhewn rock. The BiMtna. 
mon metal waabrsss orbrooie, though wehaveinslnecsaln .' 
lead, tin, and ^Id being uaed. Ifwe believe the sceosati H 
the antieots. inacriptions were made even in the mj^h.j 
ages (Herod., v. 69, &c.; PauMn., vim 14,4; ii. llji. 
but such inscriptions, existing in later timea, wers proU'^ 
fori^peries, and we cannot suppose that inscriptions were Mic 
unul the art of writing waa pretty generally known. 

We shall here pass over the arrow-headed inscrip(kx» sf 
Persia [Absow-hxapkd CHAm^ctsaa. P.C.I, the kir*Tw 
glyphics of Egypt, and the now unintelligible inscripiittu *£ 
Etruria, Lycia, and other countries, and confbe ounelm \u 
those written in Greek and Latin. 

Grtek InacHpHau, — ^The earliest Greek inscriptioos skirb 
we may safely take to have been genuine, but sll of vb^s 
have perisheci, were the lists of the vidon in the O\jm]%o 
games (Pans., iii. 21, 1 ; v. 4, 6, &c.), the records o( t:^ 
musical contesta at Sicyon (Phitareh, De itfiis., 8, 8),iik) j^ 
chronicle of the p rie s te ss es of Hen (Juno) at Argm. Tui 
eariiest among the extant inscriptions do not seem to bf e 
been made much before the year b.c. 680. 

All inscriptions are co mp oaed either in prose or vene, Ki 
the former compose by far the greater numoer. The proi^ u 
the public documents is usually stiff, and their s^W ii m 
unlike that of official documents of our own time. All Gnri 
inscriptions are written in capital letters, and without tu 
punctuation or separation of the several words, wbicb att> i 
rendera it difficult to read and understand them pronrJ;. 
Some of the earliest inscriptions are written, like the UeUv, 
from the right to the left ; others varied their lioci, ihe b'>! 
being written from the left to the right, and the uni 
from the right to the left. In thia manner, which iialiiw 
/3ov9rpof9<iy, the hiws of Solon were written, snd no^ 
specimens are still ex tanL rALraABR, P.C] Tbentthj^ 
of later times was to write, like ourselves, fhmi the left to tir 
right. But besides these general distinctioM, ihm ore.* 
a great variety, and some modificationa of writiof whr* 
are the result of mere fancj. Another important point «h> > 
it is necessary to know before attempting to read Greek inl 
more especially Roman inscriptions are the abbrevistioQi f 
names and worda (sigia), which have been detmbed b- 
explained in several works, such as Nicolai, *De bu i 
Veterum,' Lugdun. 1703, 4to.; Maifel, *De Grsecorva 
Siglis Lapidariis,' Verona, 1746: £. Corsmi * Notar <ini^ 
conim,* Florence, 1749, fol. ; Placentinus, * De Siglii ^ ^^ 
rum Graecorum,' Rome, 1767, 4to. ; but the best vork u: 
this subject is Franz, ' Elemente Epigraphiccs GniKv. 
Berlin, 1840, 4to., whidi is at the same tune Um noitcis*- 
plete introduction to the study of Greek inscriptions. 

Public or state documents were exhibited in Greece ia err- 
tun [Jaoes of great publicity, as the Acropolb at AthoA ^^ 
sometimes whole wails were set apart for the purpoae (tf i^ 
ceiving marble or metal slabs with inscriptions. M<ii(t- 
placea and temples likewise served aa repositories for lovnp- 
tions. When it was intended that an inscription ibQaU ^ 
understood bv two different nations, it was writtm is i^ 
languages of both (vucnptkmei Mna^Ms), ss in Gfl<« 
and Assyrian (Herod., iv. 87), Greek and Phosniaas (Oi 
senius, Monum. Pbcenie,, i. p. 98, &c.), Greek sad Ua 
Greek and Lydan (Grotefend in tiie JVmuaeticm t/ f^ 
JRo^ Society, iii. 2, p. 817, &c), and Greek and E^\^^ 
as on the Rosette stone in the Rritish Museum, ol «&• 
another copy has recenUy been discovered by Lepnts. 

The necessity of making collections of the moat impc^ " 
inscriptions, such as contained public decrees, or mternt:; 
epigrammauc poems (of which many have found their «f« 
into the Greek Antiiology), was felt by the Greeb Utfoml'^- 
The eariiest collection we know of is tiiat of Philochoro, on^' 
the titie of *Bwtrpdfkiiara 'Arrucd ; his example «aa fuUo«K 
by Polemon in a work Utpi rmy uarA nikui'Smy^p^^^^' 
and especially by Craterua in the importsnt coUectico n- 
titied Iwaywyi^ ^vfcff^carMv. Although pobrw v»p\<^^-'^ 
were under the protection of tiie state, and altiioogb u«ir 
violation was severelv punished, we nevertheleas know ; 
seversl instances in which they were oaaliciooslir or bi^wu'*! 
destroyed or mutilated. In certain cases the state in 
ordered the destruction of public docmncnts, aa ^^J''^ 
crees were annulled or aboiiahed. In tiaMS of war aiid 'i* 
the deatruction of towns, innumerable inscriptions aioat t^** 
perished. Athens, as early as the time of the Penpaa «i^. 
gives us an example of the destruction of public BonuBf^ *; 
aa pilkn, and tombstones with inacriptions, for the pur^^^ > - 

^ 1 JS 8 ^^^^^^^^H 

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I N S 


I N S 

tbov«. A toamrhiU more compile and arfmnte coUcctloQ 
«f 46S9 inicriiiUacw wm published by FubrctU und^r the title 
* ljiicri|itiooiua Antiqiaanim, quae in Aedibus PatcmU aswr- 
vaoUtr ExpUcatio et Additamcotuni/ Rome, 1699, fol. (some 
oo|jict bear data of 1708, bot this is ooljr a bookseller's im- 

But all the works here neotioned are eclipsed hj the 
vmlertaknif of Jaoos Gnitenis, which was to contain all the 
iaicripckais that had until then been made known, lie took 
the work of Smedus as his foundation, and was activcl/ as- 
sisted by Joseph Scaliirer. fhe coUcrtion appeared under 
the title * Inscnptionca Antiquae totius OHtis iMnani/ Heidel- 
bcrir, 1G03 and 1G6S, Ibl. J. G. Graeuu» afterwards under- 
took to edit a still more complete and corrected edition, but 
bt did not live to complete his task, nhich fell into the hands 
of P. Durmann, who, assisted bjr many othor scholars, published 
the new edition of G rater, under the title * Inscriptiones An- 
tioaae totius Orbb Romani, in sbMtutis»imum Corpus redactae, 
oum auspiciis J. Scslifreri et M. VclM^ri, industria autem 
Jsni Graleri, nunc notis Marquardi Gudii emendstae, cura J. 
G. Graetii,mmstmUm, 1707, fol. Msrquard Gude, who had 
travelled in Italy, likewise prepared a collection of inscrip- 
tions for pttblicmtion, which however was edited after hb death 
by F. 1Ic«m1, Lcovardiae, 1731, foK This collection how- 
ever rootains many fori^vrles made by the nutorious Lifrorius. 

A collection of *iOOO insiTitmoos which had been guthered 
by Dooi, HAS published by Gori, *T. h. Donii Inscrititioncs 
Aotitjuse,' Florence. 1731, fol. In 1739, L. A. Muratori 

imblubed his * Not us Thesaurus Vetrnim Inscriptiunuoi, 
bn, 1739, 4 vols. 4to., with a &u]>plcmont by S. Donatus 
U a tolt-, L4irca, 1765, S^e. Aiwuiff the coUi^tions of in- 
scnpt^ims published at a IsUt time, few are of great im- 
porufioe, VI ith the eireptiun of the seUu-tion from all the 
known in«cntHions vihiih was published by J. C Orelli, 
onder the title ' Inscriptionum Latin.irum selectarum am- 
plts«ima Collectio ad illuftnuidam Ronianae Antiquitatis Dis- 
csplinan accommodata. Ice. ; cvm incilitis Hagenbuchii suis- 
one AAnotatiooibus,* Zurich, 1628, 2 vols. 8«o, This collec* 
Uoo is ettrcnely useful, but it is to be regretted that the 
aditur kjs not always published the incriptiiHis with that 
•ccwaey and eiactness which are required in works of this 

la modem times the nnmber of Latin inscriptions found hi 
tho various paru of the world which once were subject to 
Boma, has been increased enormously, and will increase every 
year, m arrimrological societies are formed in all parts of 
Europe, with the eaprem object of searching af\er, pppscrv- 
log, and publishing the Roman monuments eiisting ia the 
{■rticolar districtstn which those societies are form(^d. The 
number of Latin inacriptioos now known amounts to al)out 
60,000, mid the want of a new and complete collection lias 
long been felt. The Danish s(*hobr Olaus Kellermann, who 
liied in llalr for aome time, fonnrd the plan of publishing a 
colleCl«a of Lstin inscriotions similar to the * Cofpus Inscnp- 
tiuoom ^trsccanim ' of iSocckh, but his untimely death m 
1837 prevented the carrying out of hb olan. O. Jahn 
h<maurcv) his memory by the jpubliouion of his ' Specimen 
Epigrapliicnun in Memortam OUi Kellermann,' Kiel, 1841, 
B«a mt a lair prospect of the puUicailon of a comfilete 
collectioa of all the known latin inn-riptioos has mx-ntly 
been held oat On the 6th of July, 1843, Villemain, the 
French mtuister of uublic instruction, ret|Ui'4tt*ii the Academy 
of Insrriptionft at Fans to prepare such a coIItTtion, and a 
eummMMUJO of French mvans has been ap(omted to conduct 
and superuitrad the work. Several |mui|»h)ets have since 
apfvarrd both in France and (lennany, coouining su^rgestions 
rmpritiog the principles which should be foUowrd in the 
anangemctiU of the iascri(iOons. 

Amm^ the works lo be consulted by those who wish to 
arqoirr a lac-ilrfjr in reBMiin|t and undeistandini^ Latin in^rrip- 
tioos, the fullowii^ are of uaportance : Zacrsrta, * Instttuzuwie 
* ■ '"^ ana Yen 

lapaiaria,* Rome, 1770, 

Venice, 1792, Mon-elli, • De 

INJJECTA, FOSSIL. Tntd within a km years the oc- 
cyn n KW of iasetis ui a fuMil state c^mld only be sulMiantisted 
hf fTfirrrnre to a small oiunljer of kM^lities, situated (as at 
Att in Provcoce) amnr^ brustrine ti*rtiary strmU, or (as at 
BtraimftsM in Osfondshirs and Solenhofea in Franconia) 
amoi^ marine oolitic Utls. IWt Mr. I'rrstnich has added 
iWPia of oofooplcra Cn«tt the owal funnation of Coalbrook 

Dale, and Mr. Strickland narta of owroplara from the Haa U 

Warwickshire; Dr. Buckland obtains neuroptera fruat t:« 
oolite of Stonasfield, and Mr. Brodia portions of insc« ts b« 
longing to various natural orders from the lias of SoosrrM ' ^' r». 
Gloucestershire, and in the Wealden deposits of the % a> .s 
Wardour in Wilu, and the Vale of A vlesUiry. 

Still the number of fomil insects, whether nc estimatr i/w: . 
viduals or species, is vei^ small compared to the prv^laa^c 
number of antiently existing races ; a circumstance 4 • v 
explicable by reference to the phenomena which arv c-.« 
taking place in nature; for of upwards of 12,000 lirt*4 
species of insects there is reason to believe thai but a ^cy 
minute proportion is buried and preserved in larustruir, 
estuary, or marine deposits now in nrogrma. Chdw m&t 
elytron of a small beetle was observea in a deposit ol t: « 
Elephantoidal mm in Yorkshire, and one aecd of sooir «^ 
bellate plant, along with hundreds of shells wbicb afkbahstm^ 
the lake. 

No doubt vast numbers of insects, wanderiiw by capnee ut 
drifted by winds, pass from the sliorc and fallin the aea > ■• 
we learn from the first voyage of Cook, who sailed thra«s% 
myriads of insects, some on the wing and others in the vai* «*. 
even thirty leagues from land olf the coast of South AmrrKw . 
but few of these escape the watchful finny races, or ever rr^ h 
the bottom of the sea. 

In like manner we find land insects heaped in profuoMr U 
winds on certain tracts of fresh water, and botno dovin *.*^ 
course of rivers by inundations ; and tiicse cases, by the ai • 1 
particular suppositions, such as evaporation or slow dra^ x 
off of the water, minf ofier the nearest analogy Id the L» % 
actually observeo b tne greater number of insect depostts. 

The oocurrenoe of fossil insecU, cspec ially in manae atra.'n, 
is therefore to be regarded as an exceptional case, Bad m. j 
makes the circumstances brought to light c o ncernian tL«m 
remarkable and difficult of interpretatiao. We find bowcvtr 
from Mr. Brodie that the insects lie in a certain bed or wum 
of thin beds in the lias; similarly they occwpy 
layers in the oolite, the Wealden deposiu, and in the trrtMry 
accumuUtions of Aix, Oeningen, and Anver^^we. la tu* 
latter region the calcareoua incrustatiooa gathermg oa the ^ 
duttse or larva-cases of Phryganidm have caused the formmtUkm 
of a peculiar liroeatono (* Inousial Limestone*), 

In the following summary of the groups of foasil In a ert * » 
Britain, the most recent stratifications come first. TW « *t^ 
logue commences with the Elephantoidal era. The aarthor- - « 
and localities are given for each case. (See Morraa'a i «as. 
iogm of FotsiU; Brodie'a FouU InmcU; LycU, ia €itm 
Pro.; Phillips, GtoL YorksJkire; StrickkmC la M^ ^ 
Nat. UiM. ; BucUand, in BridgiaUr TVaoHmr; amU limm. 

1. Osijfenmsfmk-waitrdepomU (PleiaioeameV 
Ely tron of a Chr}*somela. Bielbecks, in Yorkshire. (Fkul ;• • 
Ronains of Copris lunaris. MundesWy, Noriblk. (Lj* 
" Donacia. « » •. 

,. Uarpalus. ,, „ 

„ Coleoptera. Soothwold, Suftlk. (AhnuMi^ - 
(No truly aquatic beetle b mentioned among theaa. iXoi^ a 
hauau aquatic plants. Tha others are strictlr ferrmetr.M 
They must have been drifWd bio the Ukca in nbirls the i «& 
norbos, kc, lived.) 

2. In the Cretaceous System, no insects vet iaaad. 

S. In the Wealden strau of the Vale of Wardomr ilU.m. 
by Mr. Brodie and examined by Mr. Westwood)-- 

Land Coleoptera, of the fiunUies-CarabMha? Bmr^^tm^ 
Suphylinidtt ? Bupreatidv? Tenebrionidm ? rinSuiiiB 
Curculiooids ? Cantharidm? llelophoridmu 

Aquatic Coleoptera of the lamilica—Uydrophilsi^ ? L>«. 
ticidm ? (Colymbetca.) 

Orthoptcrm, of the gcocra Acheta awl Blatfia. 

Uemiptrraand Uomoptera, including land trihaa, mm Cm. - 
cidm. Cicada, Cercopis (Larva), Aphides, &c., aad tW a^^iiLa. 
rsixw of Velia and ll vdromctia. 

Neuroptera. In this nalrr-hauntiag order onrur UiLv U. « 
and ilUhna, Corydalis, libellulidm^TeraMS 1 a»d Lrptererwm. 

TrichopleraV Phri'ganida; ? 

Diptcra. Simulium V Platyura ? Tany pas ? 
Culei ? Tipulidss, &c. (Aquatic larva) EmpidmT 

4. In the ooliiK giruim, insects occur in the h 
probsMy littoral beds of Stonesfirld and sosne other I 
in Glouccstenhire and near Beth. Dr. Bnrklsftd 

scTibrti several <pccies tn the Geological Piuc w edinga ms^i m. 
his Bridgwater Tieattae on (seoluwy« md Mr. »«»»« t,^ 
midcd othrt*. Tht raaaiaa are chiHIy Dyta of C<4e«^«. .^ 

I N S 


I N S 

■mI wingf of Nciiroplem. The following is abstmcted from 
Mr. Brodie's list 

Colmteri, of the fiuniltei Prionidaa, Bttprefltid«y Pimeli- 
idae? Chryaomelidae ? CoccinellicbB. 
Neuopten. Hemerobioides giganteoa. (Buckland.) 
5. In tk Uppv lioM at Dumbleton and Churchdown. 

H (ke Lmer Xiof—above the bone-bed of Auat Cliff; 

Waialode Cliff, &c. on the Severn ; Coombe Hill, Ciacombe ; 

BaMdf Cowewood Hill, &c. in Gioueettenbire. (Brodie.) 

(Mr« Weftwood haa examined 300 specimena of insects 

irom the lias beds.) 

Coieopteia, of the fiuniliea Buprestids ? Elateridae ; Cur- 
eulionide or ChrjrsooielidiB ; Carabide ; Telephoridie ; Me- 
loioQthidc, &C. ; a species of Gyrinus ? 
Orthopteim, induding Gryllidseand Blattidse. 
Hemipien and Homoplera. Cicada ? Cimicidfli ? 
NeuropCeim. These are the best determined of the fosul 
grmps, owing to the atnictnres of the wings being dear and 
dmaderistic : 

IJbellala, Brodiei (Br.): 
upper Lias. 

flopn (Brodie). 

Agrion, Bockmanni (Br.), in 
upper Lisa. 

Aedina, liassma (Stricklaad). 

Ortbophlebiacommimia (West- 

Heawrobins Higig^nsii (Br.). 

Dumbleton, Glouc. (Bro- 

Strenanam, Woroestershire. 

Dumbleton. (Brodie.) 

Bidford, Warwickahire. 
Wainlode, Forthampton, 

Strenaham, Cnoombe, 


Haafieldy Strenaham, Bid- 
Eubenera Strenaham. 

Asilos? ignotoa (Brodie). Forthampton. 

It is in the lower Baa beds that the insects are moat abun- 
They oocor in this part (between the ordinair lias 
I and tlie bone beo) so extenslvdj as to justify the 
application lo this genua of the term * insect nmestone' used by 
Mr. Brodie. As a whde the liaa inaeota *ppev to contain 
larger proportioiis of aquatic tribes than the Wedden. There 
ii ao dedded CTidence amongst them of the prevdence of a 
virai dimate at the time and in the place of their existence. 
They are naudly of amdi sixe, not so entire as to forbid the 
aippoaitioo of hairinff been drifted (the Neuroptera may have 
been Jess drifted ttnn the Coleoptera) ; ami if there were 
idaida or high coasts adjacent, these might nourish, and in 
^ of flooda aeod down the srodl coleopterous insects to be 
imbedded with die ftiooidBy orsters, and modiol» of the coasts, 
and ferns and other plants ofthe Umd and streams. 

6. In the ironstone noddes lyinff in the carboniferous depodts 
ofCodfarookDnie, Mr. PreatwidL haa discovered Cdeoptera, 
CmtdJoMieo Aasdcii (Buckl.), C. Preatvidi (Buckl.) ; and 
Mr.Murduaoo, Sil. Syst p. 105, mentions an insect to which 
the Dame of Cofydafis Brongniard is asdgned. It is very 
posible thai the laminalfd limestone deposits of Burdie House 
zwar £dinbui]§^ and Ashford in Derbyshire may yidd insect 
remains older than any ^et mentioned. And seeing the 
freqaent connexion or proaindty of fossil inaects to fosdl nshes, 
it ma^ be worth while to search the lower beda of the moun- 
im hawstone where the rich fish-beds occur in it, on the 
AvQO, in Caldy laland, and in Fermanagh. The fish-beds of 
the msgnesi a n limeatone (marl slate) may dso be indicated 
kr (brther nsa c s r ch . A rery interesting addition to the fossil 
Huects of Aiz haa been made known b^ M. Coquand. It is 
a bstterfiy, and has been carefully examined by M. Boisdumd, 
vho baa been able to reeognise perfectly its generic and spe- 
o6e dMTBCters. It belongs to one of those genera the species 
flf which are not nnmeroos, and are at present confined to the 
dads of the Indian Ardupdago, or the warmest countries 
sf tfat Asiatic continent. It belongs to the genus Cylb— it 
ts a eitUKt species— and ia named C. sepdta. M. Boiaduvd 
hai Clammed the other fossil insects of Aix, and differing both 
fnm Carda and Blaaod de Serres, refers them to the eztnu 
European genera, and to extinct spedes. 

(Midm dB la Soe. GM. de France, Avril, 1845, and 
^m. ffNat, JBui,, Nov. 1845.) 

OF. The variooB kinds of insects, eva. when furnished, as 
d» gresser nnmber of them are, with powerful organs for 
Mkt, see each and all diatributed within as certdn bounds as 
ihr mm statfonary admala or plants. Independent, then, of 

its mat interest as a part of philosophicd zoolc^, thr. ^dy 
of the range and spedfic centres of the forms of msect life be- 
comes of great imjportanci) as an dd in the definition of tribes, 
genera, and species. As yet, however, entomoloj^ists have 
done comparatively little in this department of their sdenee, 
and have rather occupied themselves in recording the distribu- 
tion of specimens in cabinets than of spedes on the earth's 

Climate and the extendon or form of land are the chid 
influences regulating the distribution of insect life. The 
constitution of the soil afiecta it dso, but in a secondary man- 
ner, tbrouffh its influence on the vegetation, on which many 
insects feeo. When from the intervention of tracts of water, 
of mountdn barriers, or other causes depending on antient 
geologicd events anterior to the origin of the existing fauna 
of the earth, tracts of land presenting exactly umilar condi- 
tions of dimate and soil are placed »r apart, we then have, 
not a repetition of the same ibrms among their insect popula- 
tion, but a representation by similar forms. This we see also 
in the fauna of the severd zones of dimate belting mountdns 
at difierent heights. Man's agency and the transporting 
power of currents of wind modify the distribution ot many 
species of insects. In the following brief glance at the distri- 
bution ofthe principd genera of iosects, examples of dl these 
influences will be met with. 

Coleopiera,—¥nmk the fiu^ility with which insects of this 
dividon may be preserved and transported from place to 
place, we have more detdled accounts of thdr distribution 
than of any of the species of other orders. The CtndndeHdm 
are dispersed over most parts of the globe, the typicd g^enos 
being cosmopolitan, whust other groups are more limited. 
Amon^ the CaraiMB are many genera peculiar to Europe. 
Chkmnu, Affonym, and Anuara, are common to both hemi- 
spheres. IToiTKiAis and J^rocAtmcs are cosmopolitan. Cnema- 
eaaihus occurs in Africa and Chili. The CkirabideB of Westeni 
Asia agree remarkably with those of Europe. Erichson has 
remarked that Carabi are very constant to certdn soils : the 
verticd distribution of the spedes is dso very constant. The 
water-beetles dlied to Dytieau, itself universd in the dd 
world, are mostly European : severd of the spedes live in 
sdt or brackish waters. Cryrims ranges from Northern 
Europe to New Hdland. The Brachelytra have thdr chief 
centre in Europe. The typicd genua SiaphyUnM$ appears 
however to be represented everywhere : many species occur 
in South America. A spedes of AJeockara is found in Van 
Diemen's Land. £iater and J%(preslis, types of families, are 
both cosmopolitan: the species are often locd, and their 
distribution depends, in many cases, on that of certain plants 
on which the larvse prey. Among the fire-fiies (Laa^fjfridie} 
the genus Lanqfri$, which is furopean, is represented in 
the tropics by Pkotmm, and in the New World by Atpuoma^ 
The Jaaiachu are found everywhere, except in South Ame- 
rica. PtimUf a genus chiefly European, has a dngle repre- 
sentative m Australasia. Of the Necrophagi^ the genera 
Cr^ttcphagua, StnmgyluM^ and Siipha are found evenrwhere, 
ranging from Britdn to China, and ih>m Bradl to Lapland, 
Hisier, the type of a family, is also a cosmopolitan genus. 
Byrrhtt belongs to the northern hemisphere, and has its chief 
centre in Europe. Among the Coprifphagoui LamdUcomea, 
the genus ApMdiua, thougn represented in most countries, is 
chiefly developed in temperate regions; whilst Ateuchue, on 
the other hand, is mainhr trodcaL Geoirvpes is cosmopoli- 
tan. Ccpri* ranges to New BoUand, where however it is 
confined to the north coast &:qraft«ia is subtropicd. PdiVf- 
noto is American. The beautifd Ceicmae appear to be of 
universd distribution. The strange ibrms of QcHathui are 
Sooth African. Of the cockchafers, MMoiUka is cosmo- 
pditan ; Macrdopi and Anoflognathiiu, confined to Austrdia ; 
Hopiia, with one exception, European; Axiy^hkoma u 
Mediterranean ; AmmyJea and Serica natives of the warm 
and temperate regkma of both hemispherea ; whilst Euckhna^ 
oocupymg the same range, extends beyond in a northern 
direction. Of the Mdaeomm, Bk^, and Pimdia, both ex- 
tendve genera, have theur chief development in the warmer 
regions of the Old World. Of the Sieniiytra, Helaps is cos- 
mopolitan, (Edeman European. Of the AjUhidda the 
numerous species otAnihicue are chiefly inhabitants of tem- 
perate regions. The Mistering beeties of the genus MMe are 

verv generally distrttiuted. 
Of the ten 1 

thousand species of weevils the great gpenera 
Ceutorbyncui, Ciypiarh^icus^ CdUmdra, Ckiorhyncus, and 
CSb'ottics are all coamopoTitan. PlaiyMmUs and Cjmhui are 
South American ; Bnarhgceme, Sou* African and Mediter- 



I N S 

BraUui^ mdnly coii6ned to the tropical regioiit of 
both hemispheres ; Apkm and XkynekUm, diiefly European. 
The dtttribtttion of the tpedes of weerils depenos in a gnai 
measore on that of daats. 

The moat beautiful and yividly coloured forms of Longt- 
oom beetles are mostly tropical. The presence of forests 
determines that of many of the geners. Of the serenty genera 
of Cenm^ddtBf the typical one, Cerambyx, is cosmopolitan. 
Others have defined centres, as Cfytui in Europe, lYachy- 
dem in South America. 

Of the CSbysomsfiiMs. the typical genus G&iysomefa is 
eosmopolitan. The presence of certain nlanls determines the 
distribution of the species. From this cause, species of 
limited distribution are sometimes multiplied far from their 
aborisinal centres. Thus Galeruea calmanauii^ introduced 
fitmi £urope into America, multiplied so at Baltimore in the 
yean 1838 and 1839, that the elm trees of the district were 
eaten bare by their larvm, and probably th^ will henceforth 
become a constant annoyance in the New Worid. Lema and 
Dm^ada are instances of cosmopolitan genera having distinct 
centres in temperate dimates. Ckuiida^ on the other hand, 
has its centre in the tropics. 

Of the THmera, Coctxndlm are found ererywhere. Eu- 
morpWi b Indian and Polynesian. 

Ortkopiera, — ^Though by no means an eztcnsiTe order 
either as to genus or species, the Orthopiera are of very 
general distribution. Representstives of ttie genera ChryOuM 
and Ai^eta, the grasshoppers and crickets, are found in most 
countries. The LoauiM are mostly exotic. The strange 
PhasmtB are mostly tropical, as are also the greater numlwr 
idManfidte, known popularly as * walking leaves.' The cock- 
roaches, Blaitm^ are very general, and have been ffreatly 
diffused from their original centres by unintentional human 
agencT. The earwir tribes, FoffaiBdaB^ including more 
than nfty species, are in great part European, but range even 
to Van Diemen's Land. 

Erichson notices the curious fact respecting the Orthoptera 
of Van Diemen's Land, that only one fourth of the species 
are completely winged and capable of flying. 

Newnoptera. — ^Tbe number of known species in this order 
is short of one thousand. The section of Ptidpeime$ is almost 
entirely European ; the genus Macrcnoma^ including specieB 
lh>m Madagascar and Brazil, b an exception. The Plant' 
pameif a great part of the genera of which oi vbion are now con- 
sidered by man^ naturalists OrtkmteroiUf have a much more 
varied dbtribution. Thus the MyrmeKomda are cosmopo- 
litan, the Peria and Nemourm chiefly European, the Panor- 
pm charMteristic of the temperate regions of both the old and 
new world, the ThnmUe$ or the tropics. In the section of 
AiMShoomef , the EpKemeridm are European ; the AeiknidoB^ 
ooamopolitan ; as also the true dragon-flies, IMUuUb, of 
which near two hundred species are known. Other allied 
genera are more limited. 

nymenopUra, — Amonr the stinf^-bearing species, the true 
bees are characteristic of the antient continent, those now 
dbpersed in America having been transported from Europe. 
The ^era CaUrit and Eugltma are exdunvely American. 
N<maa b Asbtic AOodape b south African. Andrena^ 
Xykfccpa, and several other extensive genera, are cosmopo- 
itan. A great many genera of wasps are peculiar to South 
America. The ants are most developed in Europe. Bembex 
b a tropica] genus. The terebrating Uymenoptera are both 
very numerous and widely distributed, especially the great 
genus Ichnemmm. Certain genera forming the family 
Oxjfurm are exclusively European, as are also a |ppeat part of 
the numerous family of Chalcididm. Cyn^ is European, 
and the greater number of Tenthredimdm, 

The distribution of the Sireptwiera depends on that of the 
msects on which thev are parasitic. 

Lqridopiera, — Wnen toe distribution of the butterflies 
shdl have been worked out, it will doubtless prove very inter- 
esting. At present our knowledge of thb subject b imper- 
fect. The PapiiUmidm are very numerous specifically, and 
for the most part tropical. Some of them possess great 
ranges. Thus certain species of Picrit are found over all 
Europe, and great part of Asb and Africa. Other forms 
are oonstsnt to mountaino*js regions. Of the NymphaUdm 
the greater number and more gorgeous forms are tropical. In 
thb family there are some remarkable instances of extensive 
distribution of spedes. Thus Fcmessa Cardui (a common 
British butterfly) b found in every part of the worid, and 
Kmcssa Atakiia moea over all Europe, part of Asb and 
Afnoa» and to North Aneriea. In the remaining tribes the 

ts, the PhakHidm are dudb 
isuaUv widely dbtriboted. Thii api^.,, 
vith the other families of Moctanial L. 

typical gcnmare almoit always cosMipolMaB, whilst oUrn 
have more limited areas. 

The Sphmffidm and Zygenidm are w great part Euro;.- 
the Castmdm mostly tropioal. 

Among the moths, the Pkakmdm 
and the spedes are uauall; 

to be the case also with t 

doptera, probably rather in consequence of our imp^tf 
knowledge of exotic forms, than because it b rtalU tc. '.? 
we find types and spedes in dbtant rra^ions wherever xtn 
have been even casually explored, as in the instaaceof Aw ^ 
Ruaria, where the researches of Eversmann asMmff tW 
insects have brought many new forms to light. 

2)ipr«ra.~One-half of the described species of two-vinrai 
flics (about eight thousand) belong to Europe. Tlui dapvtw 
pordon arises from our comparative ignonuioe of the n<j»K 
forms. The small group of OmUhomyxidm^ panwic* .« 
quadrupedfrand birds, has representatives of all its ((tncn i& 
Europe, the few remaining spedes being natives of cMcn 
Asia, Western Africa, Australia, or Brasil. The flies fara. 
mg the fiunily of Miueidm include a great number of ftntn, 
both European and exotic, the former being most prolif ' .i 
spedes, some of which have wide ranges. The Sppkida tn 
in the same category. The genus Chjy$op$f caualli (>•>»< 
loped in Europe and America, and represented m • «a 
degree in Africa and Asb, docs not appear in AoiUilU nu^ 
in the blands of the Padfic. Thbamu b more widely iii 
tributed. Ommatius, a genius of AtSidm^ hss its nm'^n 
in all parts of the world. A great many genera are pKL or 
to South America,^and several to Afnca, hot, wooJj, tui 
mobt regions favouring their diffusion. T^wAi, presmt^n^ 
numerous and varied forms in most narts of the world, ii ti' 
eluded from Australb and the Padfic, which region Mnn to 
be the least prolific in Biptera. OUex b rvy gfMnlii 

Hemipiera.^Of the two great divisions of thb order, t^ 
Hemopiera and the HeiercpUra, the first b the snsllc^t ip: 
also the most tropical. The dbtribution of the insects cnt- 
prising^ them depends mainly on the fauna and flora of \^' 
countries they innabit. Thus each spedes of Gooc«s4^ 1.'j 
a range correspondent to that of the plant upon which it fi-r-^ 
and of the Corwida and Lygmidm with the presence o/ 1. • r 
favourite animal food. Among the most mterestiog o! 'uf 
families of Hemipiera are the OrWicfaidtir, of which the pvu 
Tettigcma includes 200 species, centred in AnMrio, U.' 
having members also in tne Old World; the ¥^ind^. 
or Luitem-fltes, very generally distributed through v«m 
dimates ; ScuteUeridoB^ remarkable for brilliancy, sod nndi 
equatorial ; and Gmex, of which the only true sperict b '*.• 
common bed-bug, a peat spread over all Europe. Om - 
Aquatic Hemipiera Genii and Nq>a are cosoiojoliua . 
Pdogmti and the NeeicnectidtB^ mostly Europesn ; Oo^aoj 
and mononyx^ American ; and Haiobaie$, equatorbl. 

Ihysamira. — As yet the distribution of these minute ia« f t! 
has been scarcely attended to. The spedes of Lepima n: ." 
from Europe to China. Padwra and Smmiikitra sre Eu*.*- 
pean ; a single spedes of the last-named gcnw ocnm tt 
North America. 

XncppftfTo.— These disagreeable paraaites hare bte); bm 
honoured by the attention of some excellent natorsliiAtt ^' 
dally Denny and Gwilt. Their distibutioo oorrespood» «' 
that of the animals upon which tliey are found. Oft'' 
equally annoying order Apkampiera three-fourths of tl 
known spedes are European. The common flea is « ^ - 
mopolite, and the Chigo is confined to South Amerirt. 

INSOLVENCY. From Ausust, 1843, to Aufnut, I^^:* 
three acts have been passed retatine to insolvent drbtn^ 
these are 6 & 6 Vict. c. 116 ; 7 & 8 Vict c. 96; and 6 ^ i* 
Vict. c. 127. 

The act 6 & 6 Vict. c. 116, which oaase mto opmt 
1st November, 1842, enabled a person who wm not s trsoir 
within the meaning of the bankrupt laws, or a trader « ' 
owed debts which amounted in the whole to lem thsn %^ 
to obtain by petition a protection from the Court of Buu* 
raptcy in London or the Commissioiien of the Distiict (^ovti 
of Bankruptcy in the country, from all process whate^rr ;< •>* 
oept under a judge's order), either agmnst hb person or (r - 
perty until the case was adjudicated by the eoort. lo the : -i 
terini the insolvent's property was vested in an uffirisl ss»*..tM«j 
appointed ti^ the court. If, on the hearing of the prbtu .| 
the commissioner were satisfied with the allcgatiom vhni i 
contained, and that the debts were not oontrect c d bv \rm 
broach of trust, or by any proccediQga fl^ bnadi of the bn 



I N S 

he was empowered to neke ■ final older for the protdction of 
tbe petitioner from all pirocen, and to caoae his estate and ef- 
fects to be tested in an oflkial aarignee, together with an 
angnee choaen by the creditors. 

The act 7 & 8 Vict c. 96, passed 9th Angust 1844, is 
entided 'An act to amend the law of Insolvency, Bankruptcy, 
and Execvtion.' It enacted that any prisoner in execution 
upon judgment in an actkm for debt, who was not a trader, 
or irlMse debti, if a trader, were under 80(tf., may, without 
anyprerkNis notice, by petition to any court of baxikroptcy, 
be protected from proceas and from being detained in prison 
for any debt mentioned in hia achednle ; and if so detained, 
the commissioners of any bankruptcy court may order his 

The property of the insoWent may be seiaed for the bene- 
M of his cred i tor s with the ezceotion of the wearing apparel, 
bedding, and otiier necessaries or the«petitioner (the insolvent 
under 7 & 8 Vict. c. 96) and his family, and the working 
tools and implements of the petitioner not exceeding in the 
whole die value of 20^. Under the 7 & 8 Vict c. 96 (§ 89) 
if a petitioaer for protection from process (pursuant to the 
provisions of that act) ahall wrongfully and fnuidulentiy omit 
m the achednle, whidi schedule he is required to make (6 & 
6 Vict c. 116^4 any property whatsoever, or retain or exempt 
oat of such scneduie any wearing apparel, bedding, or other 
necesnries, property of greater value than 20/., he shall, 
■pon conviction, be liable to be imprisoned and kept to hard 
labour for any period not exceeding three yean. 

The 7 & 8 Yicft. c. 96, made' a great alteration aa to debts 
under 20/. The 67th section is as follows: * Whereas it is 
expedient to limit the present power of arrest upon final pro- 
cess, be it enacted, That from and after the passing of this 
act, no person ahall be taken or charged in execution upon 
IB V judgment obtained in any of her Majeaty'a superior courts, 
or in any oountjr court, court of requests, or other inferior 
court, in any action for the recovery of any debt wherein the 
nm recovered ahall not exceed the sum of 20L exclusive of 
the eosts recovered by such judgment* The 58th section 
provided that upon application to a judge of one of the superior 
courts of law at Westminster, or to me court in which such 
jodgment n is mentioned in aection 57, ahall have been ob- 
tnaed, all persona in execution at the time of passing this act 
be disdiarged, when the debt, exdoaive of coats, did not ex- 
ceed what ia apecified in the 57th aection. Accordingly, such 
persons, on nmking application pursuant to the 68th section 
of this act, were diacharoed from prison in England and Wales. 
The consequences of the legislation contained in the 57th 
and 58th sections of 7 and 8 Vict c. 96, were these. AH 
persons who we^ in confinement for debts under 20/., exdu- 
nve of ooats, might get their liberty ; but the judgment upon 
which the debtor waa taken in execution remained in force 
({ S8), and the Judgment creditor or creditors had their re- 
Biedy and exeentiou upon every auch judgment againaf the 
property of the debtor, just aa they might have had if he had 
never been taken in execution upon such judgment. The 
59th section care to the judge who should try such cauae (§ 
58), being dUier a judge of one of the superior courts or a 
hsrrister or attorney at law, power to impriaon the defendant 
(debtor) for auch tnnea as are mentioned m | 58, if he ahould 
^^pear to have been guilty of fraud in contracting the debt, 
or had contracted it under the other drcumstancea mentioned 
in the 59tii aectioa. 

The amount of debts in England and Walea under 20/. must 
•Ivajs form a very oonaiderable proportion of all the debta 
that are at any time due m England and Wales. Such debts 
oooprehend a large part of the dealinsa of shopkeepers and 
petty tradeamen ; probably in a very uurge number of cases 
debts ander 20/. may comprehend every debt that is due to a 
jsrge body of petty tradesmen. The tradeamen no doubt do 
to many oaaea give credit to persons who have no reaaonable 
BKsos of payment, and with whose character and condition 
tfaej are very imporfeedy acauainted. Many peraona are al- 
ways wiUinf to contract a debt, but never intend to pay if 
th^ can help it Another dass of debtora consiats of those 
whose morality is not ao well fixed aa to make them good and 
^nlfin^ P^ers, but who will pay and do pay under the com- 
hiaad mfhienoe of aome feeling of honesty and aome fear of 
^ eonseqoenoes of non-payment A third class, which we 
lu»pe nay be the most numerooa of all, is willing to pay, but 
^raa requirea time, and muat be deprived of many comforts 
^ they cannot command the credit which their chuacter and 


amings fiuriy cntitie them to. [CBsa>iT, P. C. S.] 
The 57 A awl 58tii saetiona of Uie 7 & 8 Vi«t c 96, 

prived creditors of their hold upon their debtors for 
under 20/., and lef^ to all persons who had ddms upon peraona 
in prison for sums above 20/., the power of still keemng their 
debtors there. As to debts under 20/. existing before the 
act, and for which the debtor was not in execution, it left the 
creditor no remedy except against his property. And here 
we may remark tliat the (juestion as to the imprisonment of 
debtors seems redudble within narrow limitB, if we view it 
merely as it affects the interests of the community. The ob- 
ject in allowing a debtor to be seized is not to punish him as a 
debtor, but th^ he may be subjected to a complete examina- 
tion for the purpoae of discovering what his property is, that 
be has not parted with it to defraud his creditors, and that 
there was no fraud in the contracting of the debt The 
nmple fact of being indebted and unable to pay should not bo 
punished. The contracting debta under such drcumstancea 
as amount to fraud ought to be punished. The principle then 
which should guide a legislator should be, not to punisn a man 
simply because he is indebted and cannot pay his debts, but 
to punish him for any fraud that is committed either in con* 
tracking the debt or in attempting to evade the payment of it 
Now in the case of a debtor, fraud, both in contracting a debt 
and in attempting to evade payment, u known by experience 
to be a thing of nreouent occurrence ; and it b therefore just 
and reasonable that judgment creditors should have the power 
to secure the person of their debtor until he has paid his debta 
or made a full and honest statement of his means of payment. 

The efiect of the last-mentioned act was of course to dimin- 
ish the credit g^ven by small dealers to all peraona. The act 
alao rdieved many diahonest debton from the payment of their 
pest debts, for it deprived the creditor of his most effident 
remedy ; and aa to tul future dealings, it rendered the small 
tradeaman leas willing to give credit to those who, under the 
old system, had it But the act did more: it encouraged 
fraud and a fraudulent system of trade. Peraona who were 
refused credit by respectable tradesmen, who honestiy paid 
fi>r theur goods, could still obtain credit of tradesmen wnoae 
practiced were not so honest. The amount of mischief, both 
pecuniary and moral, caused bjr this unwise measure, may be 
estimated from the loud complaints against it from all parts of 
the kingdom, from a great variety of tradespeople, especially 
tailora, ahoemaken, butchers, bakere, grocere, three-fourtlia 
of whose debts, and of retiul tradesmen generally, are ordi- 
narily in sums under 20/. In some whdesale trades three- 
fourths of the debts are also in sums under 20/. Their debtora 
aet them at defiance, as, except in cases of fraud, there waa 
no power of obtaining payment except by an action in one of 
the superior courts, in which caae the creditor would have to 
pay the costs out of his own pocket, and in the end might be 
unable to obtain satisfSMrtion for the debt. Many tradeamen 
had debta in auma of less than 20/. which in the aggregate 
amounted to a large sum, perhaps in some cases to 20001. or 
3000/. In some of the provincial towns it was stated that the 
aggregate amoont owing in sums under 20/. waa not leaa than 

The legisUture have now remedied the mischief which they 
did bv a new act, 8 & 9 Vict c. 127, which is intituled very 
significanUy * An Act for the better securing the Payment of 
Small Debta ;' and it begina by dedaring, wnich every think- 
ing man will allow to be true, that ' it is expedient and just 
to give creditora a further remedy for the recovery of debts 
due to them.' The sums to which the act appliea are debta 
under 20/., exduaive of costs. The powers of 7 & 8 Vict 
c. 96, and of the aeveral acta relating to inadvenqr, are ap- 
plicable to 8 & 9 Vict. c. 127. 

The act (8 & 9 Vict. c. 127) givea to creditora the meana 
of obtaining payment of sums under 20/., besides the ooata of 
auit, by the following proceas :— A creditor who haa obtained 
judgment, or order for payment of a debt not exceeding 20/. 
(exdusive of costs), may summon bis debtor before a com- 
missioner of bankruptcy ; or be may summon his debtor before 
any court of requests or conscience, or inferior court of record 
for the recovery of small debts, if the judge of such court is a 
barrister-at-law, a special pleader, or an attorney of ten yeara' 
standing. It may nere be remarked that this part of the ac^ 
which takea the jurisdiction of the courts of request out of thi 
handa of non-professional commiasionera is a new provision. 
The judges of these courts are made removeable for 
misbeuiviour or misconduct, and the courts will be as- 
similated in some degree to the bankruptcy and inaolveney 

On the appearance of the debtor before^ the oommissiuner 
or court iipon summons, he will be examined by the oovt| 

I N S 


I N S 

irIytW crfdiMr If hetiiiiikfit,'toBcfaiii9 tlM Maacr Md dMtofiUblon wfaoMiMli 1mi«c not 
tee of hk coatmrtiiif Um iMc, iIm sttni or proopect of operatioot of tmde or cwmwn i, or andor 4 
fMBfot be then bad, ibo Ptoprrt/ or imom of pijmont bo tt to brioff tbca vitbia tbe fankrapt lowo» 
•ml both or amy bote, tbe dbpoiol be nor bove ohmIo of an^ | Fonnenj tbera were two kinds of onwai b dvU 


property doe» eootrartuif tucb debc* The coBMniMioner Is 
eapowerad to Buke an wder 00 the debtor * for the pajmieiii 
of hia debt hj iostalaM>ot or otberwite ;* and If tbe debtor 
lailt to attend or to make ntisfactory answer, or shall appear 
10 hove been pnUy of fraud in contracting the debt, or lo 
have wilfitlljr eontrartrd it withoot reasonablo pru s pe ct of 
heinit able to paj H, or to have roocealed or made away with 
his property in order to defeat his crrditori, tbe commissioner 
or judge or tbe coort may commit him for any time not ex- 
ceding forty days ; but such imprisonment will not operate 
in satk&etioo of the debt. Wrmriiifr apparel and bcddmg of 
a Judgment debtor, and the bnpleroenU of his trade, amount- 
ing in the whole to a sum not exceeding 6/. in Taloe, are 
exempted from setsure. Tbe powcn of all inferior courts 
under this art are assimilated ; and a suit commenced in one 
•mall debt court cannot be mnored to another similar court in 

which took 

trial, aiKi was called arrest «a mtv 

thai which takes place aAcr trial owl Jodgw-.*. 

and ia called airest on final proceas. In tbe arrcat on »•»: * 

procem it was only nrcfamry for tbe plaintilT to make an sfi.. 

davit that tbo cause of action amounted to 7DL (7 4 S Unv 

IV. e* 71), upon which be eould sue out a win caiin: • 

Mptos, which was directed to tbe sheriff^ who tbervupen ri*« 

his oflicers a warrant for seixing tbe allegod debtor. 'I be 

statute I k 2 Vict c. 110, H S, S, 4, 6, 6, eneted timt m 

' iicraon can be arrested for alleged debt before a Judgmmt hm 

oeen obtained against him, unlem It can be ahovn to tbe sati*- 

! faction of a Judge of one of the superior eoufts thai tbe pUi»» 

' tiif has a cause of action against such penon to tbe amam uf 

I 20i. or upwards, and that Uiere ia probable oauso to bri*e«« 

! that tbe defendant is about to quit England. A ritfiaitl 

may also be arrested upon mesne procem when be bos 

tbe flune town. When a debt exceeds 10/. the suit may be reived an unfavourable judpient ib tbe court for tbo rebrf «/ 

removed by certloetfi to tbo superior courts. Any of her 
M^iestT*s secfet ai ies of smte are empowered to alter or en- 
kur|^ tbe Jurisdiction of all small debts and inferior courts. 
Tbe nd itself enlarges the jurisdiction of courts of request, 
where sums not exceeding Hi, could heretofore only be re- 
covered, and now sums not exceeding SOI. may be recoverc?d 
in tbem. It b provided by the act that all suitors' money 
natd faito court and not claiincd for six years is to go bito a 
tod for tbe payment of tbe necesmry expenses of carrymg on 
I of the CI 

tbe bustnem 

Tbe act 7 ft 9 Vict. c. 70, which came bito operation 1st 
September, IS44, and is entitled * An Act for iacilimting 
Arrangements between Debturs and Creditors,' is of the 
•nturaofan insolvent act Under this art a debior who is not 
•ubiect to tbe bankrupt laws may apply by petition to a court 
of faankfvptry and obtain protection from arreet, provided his 
petition be signed by one-third m number and value of his 
creditovw. The debtor's petition must set forth the cause of 
bmbUity to meet his crediton, and contain a proposition for 
tbe future payment or tbe compromise of bis deUs, and a 
•tatcuwnt of his amets and debts. Any one of tbe commis- 
sioners of bankruptcy may eiamine the petitioning debtor, or 

■ * n, or any witness pro- 
be be mttsficd with 
I general meeting of all 
petitioner's crrditon, and appoint an ollieial amignee, re- 
gistrar, or a creditor to rrport tbe proceedings. If at tbe first 
■meting the n^jor part of the creditors in number and vslae, 
er nine-tenths m %alue, or ntne-tenths in number of those 
whose debts eiccvd VH., shall M«ent to the proposition of tbo 
debtor, a second meHing is to be appointed. If at tbe second 
meetfaig three-fifths of the eredttori present fai number and 
value, or nine-tenths in vmlue. or nine-tenths in number of 
hose debu exceed 20/., shall agrre to tbe arrangement 
I tbe first ntt^ting and rrduce the tetWM to writing, 
mlution slwll be binding, tirovided one foil thud of the 
credltoei bi number and value be pnwot Under this ar- 
rangement tbe afikirs of the debtor may be settled. When 
this has been effircted, a meeting of tbe crediton b to be held 
before the rommiwioner, who is to give tbe debtor a certifi- 
eato, which shall opermto as a eerttficato under tbe stotute 
rrlatbig to benkrapts. 

Tbe rrgnUiions of the 7 ft • Vict. e. 96, as to debu under 
90/., trnttmni iiniveml diMutisCM^ion among crediti>rs ia Eng. 
land and l\*sle«, as we have alrp*ly observed. The evidence 
taken brfore the Lortls* Committee in 1846 proved tbe ne- 
rtmaty of amemling this art. The hiitory of this piece of 
unwise legi«lation and of its corrreti«jn is aaefol. it shows 
bow ill.<vMidrrrd mcwsorve msy sometimes brrome law in 
litis rountrv, m whirh the ma« of putilie businem is so enor- 

insolvent debton (1 ft 2 Vict. c. 110, | 86). 

Arrest in execution is therefore now the only atvmt that u 
of any practical importance: it means tbe airostinir of a maa 
afler a court of jusuoe has decided that he owes a debt. T\m 
ground of arresting the man is, that ho doea not ony tbe drtt 
pursuant to the judgment ; in other words, be d i >obe y s the 
command of tbe coort, wbkrb baa dodarad that bo 1 
certain sum of money to the plainttff. 

On the subject of maintaining the low (»f arreet in oae 
there has been diflferance of opinion. Tbe best t 


fiivour of it that we have seen are contained bi n * So|-7«r. 
mcntary POper on Bankrvptey and Insolvency, by Wii.iMn 
John Law, Esq. DisMutient from tbo Report, rumntid to 

both Houses of Pariiamcnt, 1841.* Hr. Law did not •«« 
the report of the other comn ussi onerB 00 tbo aahjoct beoamo 
he did not agree with tbem ; and tbo Supple mantory P^m 
contains the reasons of bis dissent 

With respect to arrest In executioQ, Mr. Law's 
knowledge of the relation of debtor and creditor iMn < 
him to answer folly all the arvuments of tbose who 
to show the Insufficiency of this'final amat. Uo bm 
beyond doubt tbe kutice of this final arrcat, or if t 
justice be olijectea to, its usefulnem to tbe oommonity. A 
man ia not now arrested till be has disobeyed tbe judjgmoac ec 
a court of Justice. It is his busmem to show why htt «ho- 
obeyedthejudement; and bi the nwan time either bm puraon 
must be secured, or the judgment of tbe eouit mam bu tnMed 
as a mere idle form. It may be aakl, the plabtiff enn pe^ 
ceed to take tbo debtor's p ro p er ty : but even visible pi U| M Hy 
cannot always be got at ; for when tbe sberilTgoea to arme «. 
' some one on the premites holds up a bit of pnrebment rallr4 
a bill of sale, and friektens him out agam ; tbeiw is wot erne 
plaiiitiif in Aife hondrrd, great or small, who bus n—naa 
enough to indemnify tbe oifioer, and defy tbe Isnud * If 
ih«-re is this dilBculty as to tbe taking nnssrawon of n Ailitoi • 
visible property, what must be tbe difiicultr of gettag al 
the property ol the debtor which is not visdile 7 And wkm 
other ttiode can be suggested of compelling tbe defewdi^t to 
give a tnie account of all bis property than to imprlBm k.m 

until be doQs ? * A defendant lias alwa^ been mwnr to 
of reach of an execution, but tbetw has 

If I make mv |««^ 
I mnst hm-g is «iv 

enacted wtthoot the other party to establisb 
It also thows that the forre of opinion, satisfying iL' 
sound reasons on ' * 

due deiiberstion 

when sustained by sound rrusons and direrted by men of; 
>«-lgmTOt, IS strong enough to indnre the Irgisktnre to amend 
Ki'ir mistakea. 

Tbe lao of debmr and crprfitor has been a difiirulty in all 
enatttnrs. In Kttirtand an itmiWent debtor may, inWrtain 
rA*a, |«> •,}y^9'^ to the n^wrainm of tbe taAkrvfit laws 
If be cannot rUm the hi n«-fit of tbe bankmpt laws, be is 
Miyert to tbe law that rtlAtr* to m«(4«ent debton. The 
I of m u s t and im|ir Mmrni nt for debt baa bren chirlly 
wiin rrftrrfiii. '.i ti •!»tnf (ti bturp, Iliat t«. the 

his pTOficrty out 

this one restraint : he mys to himself, 
pertv safe, they will uke me, and then 
ward," When property only can be 

is changed ; it becomea this : ** If I make my piapinj mMm, 
my enemy can do nothing.** So nrr^amij is proeam aitoi^ 
the peteon for proce m aninat the property, and an nanmM«. 
able as it to requtra of tbe creditor by leeued the mmk tv^^ 
ment of any fortber cnse, bi order to entitle bam to an eft«««- 
tion. Uis judgment is bia caae : tbe denram duty b*^ r« 
arty to establisb bia exemption from 9km todk •>• 

Tbe great I 
(iiasents is tbis i 

•umea fraud. Tkb argument is very nhsun* TWr { 
tion ought to be againat the debtor who dom net obey tr^ 
judgment of tbe coort. He may be guilty of fraud or «^ 
nuv not: It b his butineas to explain why be dambeyn t: - 
order of the court. This argument aujmnaS enecmUbm m 
Aiunded on tbe p i r s u mption bring In tbe^debaor'a fo««nr» 
ifi^tc-ad of beioy, m it is, egabist bun. ' Tbe pmcticnl ^ncm 
anl »i»dom b in «ubjrrting all dlebtorv) lo m>arrbu^ mt^fmtrj^ 

of tbe Report from wbicft 
all exerution againat fie 

I N T 


I N T 

fer tlie potpose of ncertumng whedier the^ are dishonest or 
not I am qmtenir^ that in mat oomt (the Insolvent Court) 
where wtrdung inoohy is known and practised, it is found 
neoeBBT to be applied to etery case as the means of dis- 
ckMing Its tnie diancter and merits.' 

' BUmelesinesi most not be pesumed : faultiness is to be 
prpsDowd: it maj or may not oe that which is told by the 
voiti fiiod; the precise shade cannot be presmned ; the cha- 
ncier and degree are to be learned through a deliberate and 
ibroed ioqaifT. It is misre p resentation to say that frand is 
prenmed and punished on presumption ; the coercion which 
ms ODoe purelV punishment is now neoessary ooerdon to the 
infcstigatioD of a question in which presumption is and ought 
to be aeaiost the fwrty coerced. The debtor in execution is 
tiie apfSicant for indulgence; he has to establish his case; 
bat he is at liberty to institute proceedings towards this ques- 
tioo instantly on his arrest; and not only is he at liberty to 
seek exemption from the consequences of the injurr which he 
bai done to the particular party who has pursued him, but to 
Bse die same opportunity for acquiring a priTilege against 
eveiT person in the kingdom towards whom he stands in a 
nmilar predicament : on giving to the true owners a part of 
their property, or on showing that there remains no part to 
ganrender, he receives, if excuse is found for granting it, this 
great boon— a total freedom for the future of person and pro- 
perty ; save that if ever he become in the full and fiur sense 
of die words of ability to pay, there will reside in a competent 
tribunal the power to ascertain that ability and to exact that 

* It is almost unnecessary to sav that these results ought 
not to be enjoyed without that full disclosure of the history 
of his property which is found in the schedule of an insolvent 
debtor ; that fuU opportunity for the creditors to challenge 
this histoiy ; and tittt fair, deliberate, and effective investi- 
gation of its truth which is made in that court.* 

These general arguments in favour of the justice of final 
execotion are supported by Mr. Law with facts equally 
ftroog, which also prove the efficacy of such arrest The 
mode in which he has examined the arguments in &vour of 
aholisfainr arrest, which are derived from certain returns, is 
completeTy convincing. The efficacy of arrest must not be 
estimated ' by the extent of dividends made in the Insolvent 
Debtors' Court, or the proportion of unfiivourable jude- 
toents ;* though it must be remembered that the dividends 
are not none at all, as some people suppose. 

It is dearly shown by Mr. Law that arrest docs make 
]jeopie pay, who do not pay till they are arrested ; it is found 
that the examination to which insolvents are subjected ex- 
poses a great amount of fraud ; and it is also certam that the 
Qunber of those who are induced to pay by the fear of arrest 
b considerable, just as the fear of otner punishment prevents 
many persons from committing crimes, who have no other 
motive to deter them. The fear of arrest is precisely that 
preponderating weight which is wanted to induce those whose 
honesty is wavering to incline to the right side. 

The aigumeota of Mr. Law should be read by every man 
who wishes to form a sound judgment on the law of insolvent 
debtors in &igland ; and so much of his arguments as have 
oere been given, may help to diffuse some juster opinions on 
a iobiect in which a sympNUthy with debtors, to the total for- 
getfoloess of creditors, haa led many well-meaning people to 
adopt ooocloanona that tend to unsettle all the relations of 
society, and to confound honest men and rogues. Some valu- 
able observatioos on the laws relating to Imprisonment for 
Debt l^ Mr. Commianoner Fane are printed in the ' Banker's 
Magazine,* No. xix., October 1845. He concludes 1st, 
That the remedy given to creditors by the seizure of goods 
onder a fieri faatu [Fimu Facias, P. C] is a delusive re- 
uM^v ; and 2nd, That such remedy, instead of being bene- 
fiml to the creditor, whom it is mtended and supposed to 
assist, actually prejudices him, by enabling the debtor more 
Ffcctiially to cneat him under the form of law ; and, there- 
fore, so far as relates to this branch of the siibject, the power 
which each creditor now possesses of seizing his debtor's 
p»ds under a fieri facias far his own exclusive benefit, b a 
btbchievous power which ought to be abolished. 
INSURANCE, MARINE. [Mabiwjb Ihsubaitce, P.O.l 
INTEGRATION. In the article IjrrBOBAL Calculus, 
P. C, the meaning of an integral was explained. The prc- 
irat article is devoted to the operation of mtegration, that b, 
of finding 6ie p i imitif fu n ction which has a given function for 
itt dillerential coefficient Having given P a function of x re- 
quired Q so that dQ : dx may be r. In the article Qu adba- 
P. C. S., No. 97. 

», Mrrod of, p. C, is given the mode to which we 
must have recourse, in order to find particular values of Q, when 
the general methods for determining it fiul. In this article we 
confine ourselves to what is most useful in operation, as a sum- 
mary for the advanced student, not an explanation for the 
learner. Properly speaking, the problem requires some 
addition to make it definite. Thus 2z has rr* for a primitive 
function, and also x'+C, C being any constant ouantity 
whatever. In the present article, we shall neglect mis con- 
stant altogether, reminding the reader that he must never 
omit it in any application. If he should find in different 
books difierent functions given as the primitives of one and 
the same function, he will always find that those difierent 
primitives difibr only by a constant quantity. Thus (I ^x)"^ 
and ap(l— a:)"^ both occur as the primitive of (I— a?)""*; but 
they only differ by a constant, namely 1. 

Li the common process of integration, the actual passage 
from the difierentiaf coefficient to the primitive is always an 
act of memoij. The algebraical woric which occurs is 
always used cither to reduce a form in which memory will 
not serve into one in which it will, or else to reduce the 
given diflferential coefficient to two terms, one of which can 
be integrated by memory, and the other of which ia more 
simple tiian the original quantity. 

The functions in whicn the simple remembrance of ihe 
forms of the difierential calculus is of use are as follows : — 

fdx^x,fadx^ax,fx*dxz^—, j^ = 2^*, 



yiinirdts— cosa:,ycos*dLr==Mna?,y--3-=tan x 


be added the 



To these should be added the following, which may be 
obtained in various ways from the methods of this article, or 
From peculiar artifices which are found in works on the sub- 

/dx . ,1 a? r -dx _, x 






=- tan' 


<f A/(tf*±«") 

f tanx c2r= —log cos x /coir dx=\og sin x. 

Among the peculiar artifices of integration may be reckoned 
the following, which are perhaps nearly all that can be use- 
ful to a learner : — 

1. The reduction of such a form as /Kdx to another Form 
fVdo, in which w is a different variable. Thusy(a'+a«)"«ir 

can be immediately reduced to 4/'(a*+x»)» rf.(a«+jr«) or 
hf^dvj where v means o'+a:". The second form b imme- 
diately seen to be integrable. Cases of this kind are so vari- 
ous that the student must form the habit of looking for them, 
and recognbing them at sight. Sometimes a slight trans- 
formation b required, thus; (14-iM')*'dr, when reduced to 
(g-*+a)"*i'"'d!r clearly shows the form — i?"*<fo, where » 

is f~"'+a. . , * _^ 

2. The reduction of algebraical to trigonometncal functions, 

and the converse. Thus (c^^s^)*afdx, if a? be made a sin e, 
becomes a*•■^*+* co8*+*e sin"(W9. Also /(sm e, ooa e)M0^ 

if x=sin e, becomes/1 x, V(I-«')}.(1-/)"**^- 

3. When rational powers appear m a denominatm, they 

Vol. II. — ^N ' 

I N T 


1 CH T 

thoald be tnf jferred to the numGntor by changing x into 
1 : s. By fuch a trantfonnatioD, we change 


into — 

4. When an irnttkma] root of a poiynomia] appears in the 
numerator, it should Benerally be transferred to the dooomi* 
nator: thus, ^XdxAwAd be written Xiir: VX. By sudi 
a tnnsfonnadon, we change 

6. When, by the addition of more simple terms to the 
numerator, it can be made the differential of the prominent 
function of the denominator, such additions, with compensat- 
ing subtractions, will frequently reduce the question of inte- 
gration to a more simple one. Thus we alter 

1 d(fl±bx^3*) 



2c V(a+&r+cx«) 
b dx 

the first term of which can be integrated as in (1), leaving 
the second term, which can be simply integrated. 

6. The process known by the name of integration by partSf 
consists hi reducing the form Xdc into any convenient form 
Ydb, and using the obvious theorem 


thus the findmg of/Vdv is reduced to that of yWV, which 
it may often happen is the more simple of the two. Thus 
to find fx^ log xdx, we have 

log Jf.X* ^^ 


'"Jm+1 X 

m+1 J m+1 
about the second term of which there b no difficulty. But 
it often happens that this method succeeds by a succession of 
reductions. Thus it gives 

/iVdLrsafi* - 6/iViir 
in which the second term must be again treated m the same 

7. In the last mode of proceedinff, it is best to form, in 
general terms, an eqmatim of redme&n, as it may be called, 
which furnishes the key to the reduction of each case to the 
one below it. Thoa \f fi^^dx be considered aa a function 
of n, and called V„ mtegration by parts gives 

thus showing how to find/i*»x"dr as soon a8/i*»a?^*ifa is 

8. The use of the eouation of reduction depends upon our 
beinff able at last to reduce the question to that of findmg a 
visibly known integral. Thus, if in the preceding n be an 
integer, we must at last come to fi^x^dx, or fi^dx, which is 
known. But if n were a fraction, no reduction of the value 
of » by units at a time would lead to an integrable form. 

9. The intemble form at which we arrive by successive 
reductions is called the uitj^natefarm. It frequently happens 
however that the reductions proceed by two or more steps at a 
time, in which case two or more ultimate forms result For in- 
stance V.=/(ii« - jr«) ~ * 2^dx has for its equation of reduction 

n + » ^^.-« 

Accordingly, when n is even, we are brought at last to V^, 
and when n is odd, to Vi, or to sin~\x : a) and- V(a* -x*) 

10. In using equations of reduction, it will be found more 
convenient to work upwards from the ultimate form to the 
case required, than in the contrary way. Thus if we want 
Vi^/t'x^dx, the equation of reduction being 

We ahould proceed as follows :— 

V,=xS'-2(ti'-/) =T«.'-2Tt'+2*' 
V^=x*/-4x't'+122'.' - 24tt'+24i'. 

11. There are several oases in which the follovtng ttin. 
sion of the theorem known by the name of John Bmdu: . 
may be useful. Let i/, ii", &e. be the succcssire diffcrihnii 
coefBcienU of v with respect to a;, and let ri, c^* ^ti kr. U 
the successive integrals of v with respect to x : then 

/iidb=iir-if'r,+ii"«,-ii^V,+ . . . db i^*>e, ^f^^\di. 

This is particulariy useful when « is a ratioml and intomi 
function, and V is aucceasively integrable witii ease, m «h^Q 
» is f<», sin ox, or cos <ur. The process can then be cintiiiK.1 
until the remainder vaniahea. 

12. In the case of ^m2j;:^x, where ^ andt^xtren. 
tional and integral functions, the integration is ilirtvt i<». 
sible aa soon aa ail the roots of ^x sO are found. The nrm << i 
in FnAcrroFS, DacoiiPoaiTioir or, P. C. S., must be it*. 
plied. When this u done, and the function thereby miu^iO 
to the sum of terms of the form A(«— ii)~*dr, the iDtr;.«a. 
tion gives no trouble. 

13. In the caaeof a pair of irrational roots, a^fi^^] 
each occurring once, the sum of the terms which tiwy ivui ^>« 
can be reduced to the form 

the integral of which u 

14. When ffixdx is a function of powen of any one n$f r.r 
ax-\-bf it can, if irrational, be reduced to a rational fanrt. • 
by assuming ox+fr=t^f where m is the least comnon m. ■ 
tiple of all the denominatora in the exponents. ¥ordx\>' 
comes mv^^^dv : a, and every power of ax+b becomes a 
integer power of p. 

15. The function x*(ax+bydx can be mtogiattd nhfa 
either m or n is a positive integer : when n is integvr. Kt 
simple expansion ; when m is integer, but not n, by boLj:! 
or 4-6=0, and substituting. But when both m aad ■ ait 
negative integera, let x= 1 : y and after substitutioD, oiuc 
a-f 6y=:tr, and substitute for y. 

16. The function fxdx : ij^±a*) can be easily intefmtni 
by decomposition of fractions, the aenominator never b^iv 
equal roots. The same may be said iif we sobitiuje 
a7^d:2&a*2?"-|-«r in the denominator. 

17. In 3^(a'\-bx^ydx we have an intemble funrtiflB, 
whenever dther of the following is a positive integer :— 

_,or. — -I 

The substitutions which succeed in the two cmcs sre 

ii+6y«»>, and ox-'+tssa* 

d beinethe denominator of /. 

18. The following transformation involves a lai^re Dsnk* 
of obvious cases, and is constantly occurring. Iff^xdr^^t, 
then /ip(ax+bjdx:s}ff(aX'k-b) : a. 

Thus m no list would/co6(aap+6)d:r be set down, aft*? 
ycosx dx has been given. 

19. The following integrals are worth giving separstrj; ■ 
ultimate forms :— 


p 1 — la 



jrV{a*i"^-a ^^ 




— Ifl-X 


J V(25;+5)='"^ {x+a+ VCSor+x-)) 
J a^bx^ca*-^ J ( 

o+fcr+ca?*""* J Ciex+by-k-^oe-t^ 
which comes under one or another of three previooslr prfs 
forms, according as 6*— 4ac is positive, nothmg, or uegsCTc. 

Jxdx 1 . b C dx 



^log|2ap+»+ V{4c(«+«r+cfn)| 


if^ir iif £1111111 mhUU nm 



farm ttfltii -m^ Miilil H* 

A| »in-{-l-(-&i^ 

I r^l.1 « rM a -^.b / _ i 

»\ a,F^l tf — I 

finie Mi - 1 iKr 1 

ij imnjiinnijjiv'iii 



i .tf»— 1 

Till* (iiffi timi bryiiilft Wf^i? 



far {•■H #> or /f • •I^to", nt 






v^ .- 

1 ffetf^J*)* 












r»d Toff ala tnl oat ft* Tkn itiliffiiii 
I lb be tmiMdCfiiefjf 

lAbcinooa lii llikt of 
«st tlittfv if toip* 


tUMit of nidiirlKtfi Af^* tii^'ic whtch 

/ — ^*^f- 




,^if#-i t-l 

w+p "WT* 




I- 1 rc^^Wffl 

'(m^lW^* ••^U 


fii- 1 

1 tn^ii-j r ijB 

H *J 

I N T 


I N T 

"* (fi-l)c--' " n-l J <r-» 

32. We have given the last steps in yarious forms, be. 
canse in fact all the intcmls of the form y^(a*— j^)*<ir de- 
pend upon them. For if jrs a sin 0, the last integral becomes 
-fl^+^'+ysin— ooB^'edO. 

We have now given most of the forms which will be useful 
in an ordinary worlc of reference. Further ,ibrms and ex- 
amples will be found m manj works on the integral calculus, 
but the largest collection is in Meier Uirsch's < Integral- 
tafeln,' Berhn, 1810, 4to., a work of which there is also an 
English edition. 

We have omitted notice of a great many such forms as 
fxH^dx^ /xac^ cos nxdx^ &c. which are little used, except 
in particular cases. When ^ . tfl»dx can be integrated, it 
follows that ^.f" cos hxdx, &c. can also be integrated, 
since the second can be made into the sum or diflference of 
two functions of the first form, by putting for cos &r or sin hx 
their exponential values. 

The question of the possibility of integration in finite terms 
can often be settled b^ the following theorem :— Integration 
and differentiation, with respect to difoent variables, are 
ooovertible operations ; thus 


If therefore fitdx can be found, so also can J{du : dy)dxy if 
If be not a function of x. From this it will be seen that 
whenever ^xtfi'dx can be integrated so can 4^t^jfl€iXf which 
is obtained by » difierentiations with respect to a : and also 
that whenever ^.x^dr can be integrated, so can ^x* 
(log x)Fdx, which b obtained by m difierentiations vrith 

Functions involving the transcendental forms sin-i^, &c. 
can sometinies be reduced to more algebraical forms by inte^ 
gratioQ by parts. Thus, 

J V log Xdx=:\og X ./Vdr- r^^^i^ &c. 

m which X' means dXidx. 

INTEGRATION, DEFINITE. In the preceding 
article we have given some idea of the usual modes of mte- 
gration. The results, which in the present article are given 
under the nameof dg^lMiiee miegraU, are mostly cases in which 
it is poastUe to find an integral when both limits are given 
jlmoKAL CALCVLfjBf P. C] ; but not possible to find the 
integral in all oases. If we can integrate ^dx generally, 
mat is, if we can find the function ^^x, of which t^x is tbe 

differential coefficient, we can always express the integral, 
the limit of the summation in the article just referred to, as 
follows :•- 


bat it frequency liappens that ^ is a function for which 
this cannot be done in a finite form, except for certain values 
of a wad b. And it happens almost as frequently tliat these 
pncticBble values are of particular importance. 

But tbe view of definite integrals which best shows thdr 
vtilitj is the consideration of 4hem as fundamental modes of 
exprasrion. The ordinary sjrmbols of algebm, it is well 
kaowni are i n competent to express in finite terms by far the 

Mntly the lattp^ 
If vMl nwmotlj Ik 
wth which ire ^t. 

greater number of mtegrals. Conseqnentl* 
themselves become modes of expreasioo, an' 
only ones. When we find a language with which ire ka 
much to do, and which has words which cannot be triMUtai* 
we adopt the words of that knguage mto our own Pn.' 
cisely the same thing is done in the case of definite 'mt^s^ ' 
Thus^in Facioeiai*, P. C. 8., we -k^^SL S^;!;;; 
Jo I '«"rfr, as the fundamental mode of eipranoa fur « 
function till then inexpressible, which becomes 12 3 
whenever » U an integer, and remains mtelligible, tbooffh but 
verr easily found, when » is a fraction. 

Further to illustrate this, let us suppose that the interi: 
calculus had made some progress before the coowpti.^ o( , 
loganthm had been formed : a thing which might euilv hi.. 
happened. It would then have been found that /x-»ix t j 
wholly unattamable, a function which algebra coold o« n- 
press in finite terms. It would therefore itself have boon. 
a mode of expression, and it would soon have been pn^uj 
that *^ 


Here then would have been an obvious indication of \i^ 
existence of a function proper to be made use of in prrt;.r». 
ing multiplication by means of addition, &c. ; snd tallies oj 
the values of f^r-^dx would have been formed b^die mt(tri>i 

of ouadratures [Quadkatuexs, P. C] or otherwiM; *hrt. 
would, so it happens, have been a much easier task tban thit 
which fell on the first calculators of logarithms. For all 
however it happens that we are prepared by knowing iv^ 
rithms and their properties; so that/r-* cb is aeen to U> 
log.a: +C,and/^*ar-^<& to be loga: the logarithms thn>u}:L'! 
this article being Naperian. But we ere notequsHy m 5 
for ft~**dif or for ft~'j^dx (except when n is bteger) or t'.- 
/cos a^dx : and accordingly we are obliged to itudj tK? 

properties of these functions as fundamental modes of expr»> 

To give some idea of the use of this view, «e exhM 1 
mode of solving the following partial difierentisl equaLuv, 

dt ^ dx» 

the general solution of which cannot be expressed in fir. :e 
tenns. It will easily be seen that Cf*^** is a lolutjoo fi-r 
any value of C and y, provided only that ^=ov*, snd ilv' 
that the sum of any number of such terms b a solotion 
Hence we assume an indefinite number of such tcnn^, 
giving to C the form ^v.dv, and —"nming them with sud 
values of y as will make the whole represent 

and we then see that this integral is a solution or genenl laioe 
of u, whatever the function ^v may be, and whatever nuj Ir 
the values of /> and y. By a reduction which is rendered «sj bj 
some of the results presentiy mentioned, this solution is tfarova 
into the form 

11=/ r^- ^ (« + 2»'^5r) r^dv. 
where f may be the symbol of any function. From tbi< ;*. 
is dear that the given diff*erential equation has ntiiabori«>«f 
solutions which ordinary symbols are incapable of expns»uw 
in finite terms. The treatise in the Libniy of Useful Knov- 
ledge on the Differential Calculus, Gregory's ' Extmplw ^-^ 
the Differential Calculus,' and the * Csmhriage Matbeoiaiirfti 
Journal,' contain various examples of *h«a mode of exprctfi* 
applied to differential equations. 

We now proceed to give a selection from the enonvms 
number of definite integnds which has been given. Tkcj 
have been found by detached methods, so that we cooM not 
attempt to give anything more than the results. Our srtklc 
is intended for reference to the forms which it is prohahie 
will be noted in future elementary works, ami which the 
mathematical reader may also wish to refer to. In ader to 
avoid risk of broken or dropped letters, in sa srtidf in 
which the correct printbg of^the limits b of the otasost in- 
portance, we shall print what is usually denoted hjf^^xdi 
in the following way, /^xdb? [n, b}. Any conditions ai to 
the values of constants will be cxpreand befoce the intefrsl 

I S T 

Ms'lO, J J 


I » • n iti •« 11 

^,f'.(-fi« ,^ 

ni^ ii/-- t-T^ iu#ii'iii 

2 ?^-* 




li. ©fi« Of 

' -1 'I MI ^ ii^-uilai I, wr lUIVl* IH fr 


1^1 li, oat rr 

L «Ml m f ouil 11 \mft^ [tarn Uiiii v, 


T — s Mmcr. dt ^' ^ 


iltsctf {^:r 

rln lit li *th 4t 

r r« ^ 1^ + 1 I 

Tl^e icikfrnl iA 

] ii iko «ai 

ftktfr^qani fNrvnnuf nr Pv^i'r^rrjJ, F C?, im^mmg lUl 

, tlii^n«»^ 

j T??— to. «J «^ J r+ii L". ^ 

6rv mtfrdty M|iiMJ tit 

lltv fcwi lM«iAi; +, this «eeiiwl — . AUo 

r "■■" f* 


. iii4i tJt tijt liii^ ^^ '^ '^ ^1 "giM to*»^ 
-i.^faf (riiiitt*|li ?<"<^» i i i i i i^ i iM kf 

I N T 


I N T 



a] hai been tabdated [Diff. C«lc., 

L. U. K., p. G62] by Soldner, and a great many integrak 
roav be Tound from it. Soldner proposes to call it the Loga- 
riinm-^iniegral of a, and to denote it by the abbreviation li. a. 
Adopting this notation, we have then, both tn definite and 
indefinite forms, 


oot »'(«-p).^.i-*»Acyir. 

is one which, for all values of x, approaches without Hn • 
j truth, as A is diminished without limit posit! vHy. But .f • 
stead of the limits -• and +od, for p, we write oinj;. 
a being less than b, then 





n.ia-k-hx) j/ 

dx = li. f' 

and so on. 

Of miscellaneous integrals there is an immense number, of 
which we. give a few instances : 

[0, 1] = log 




/^xtanzdr w 

/^jrcotarfa: ^^ 





a pos.) j r^ sin bz.z'^^dx [0, oo ] = tan * (& : a) 

coe&r— r 

dlr [0,00] --log 


If neither a nor a be negative. 



, •• dir[0,go]=:i. V»i-*" 


[0,»] =^log(l+a)or^log(l+^) 

according as a is less or greater than unity. 

Among the means of producing or using definite integrals 
which are comprehensive enough to deserve the name of 
methods, there are four which ])articularly deserve the atten- 
tion of elementary writers. 

The first is Laplace^s mode of finding the approiimate 
value of a definite integral in which large constant exponents 
occur. Let j^x be a function of x, such as f ""V or x* (I — x)*, 
&c., in which », w, &c. are considerable exponents. JLet 
this function vanish when x = aand x = 6, and, continuing 
positive and finite throughout the interval, let it come to its 
maximum Y, when x = X. Let u^ mean the value of the 
second difierential coefficient of log ^, when x = X and 
assume ifus = Yi~<'. Then ' 

/^(ir= YV( - J)/i^ift nearly, 

provided that the limiting values of / on the second aide are 
those which, in the equation ^sYf"*', belong to the limit- 
ing values of x taken on the first side. The best approximatinir 
casea are as follows. First, when a and 6 mthe limiting 
lalucs of X, m which case ~oo and -f oo are those of /, and 
the result is ' 

Secottdly. when the limiting values of x are X ± r C bemir 
small. In this case ' '^ 

/*xdc[X:fcC].= Y^(.l)2/^.d^[0,Cv(-l.)] 

This method is found, by itself, almost sufficient to meet 

rohllSiti^ "^^ compUcated problems in the theory of 

Secondly, Fourier's theorem, as it » usually called bv 

which a discontinoouf function can be exprcned. This 

theorem IS aa follows, *^ . . *«» 

Jj["*=*r*^'= +«»«»dft«m»=sOtoi0=Qo, Orthns: 


coa tr(ar— v>^f«Mb 

Is a discontinuous function, as follows :^Fron xs^s (, 
x=o exclusive, it is nothing: when x=a, it is ^; f^.-^ 
x=a to x=b both exclusive, it is ^ ; when x=A, it ii u*' 
and from xr=6 to x=ao it is nothing. 

Thirdly, the following methods of expandmg a AinctMo n 
series of suies and cosines has been extensiv^ ocd br U. 
grange, Poisson, and Fourier. We give it in the most em- 
ral form after the manner of Poisaon. Let 

^=Ao -f. A, cos J +A, eoe -j-+ . . . 

then for every value of x from x=0 to x=/, both incloo^f 
this equation is true if 

Ao = 4 r*»* [0» q» A. = -J- f coa?!p^r[(\ r 

Again, the equation 

^=Bi sm y -f-B^ am -j— f. .... 

is true from x=sO to xs=/, both exclusive, if 

Bg,=y I an -^-^wfrCO, (]. 

Further, the equation 

0x=Ao + Ai cos -T-+A, cos -^+ .... 

+B] sin 

-+Bs, sm -J-+ . 

is true for all values of x from x=0 to x=r/, both nc\m t 
(becoming i^/ when x=/) if 

cos -T-0rrfr[O,/l 

B«isa— I Sin -7-^ni/&[0, 1} 

But write 2/ uistead of /, tn the UmiU only, or write [0, 2/" 
instead of [0, /] and the equation becomes true for all u'..*'^ 
of X from to 2/, both inclusive. 

Fourthly, we shall give two cases of the method dcdw«: 
by Cauchy, as specimens : the complete method itielf lu: 
some difficulties which are not yet overcome. 

First, let ^ be such a fimction of x thatXx+yV-1) 
vanishes when x=-oo or -f.«, whatever f wkj be, w: 
when y equals od, whatever x may be. For everjr rod c/ 
the form o46V— 1 (« being either positive or negative, it« 
b being positive, but both finite) which makes ^ infinite-, 
let (x-a~6 V- 1)^ be finite ; calcuhOo the vaJoe of \L^ 
last product for each root For every real root o, of ^=c 
(xsO not being one) calculate half the value of (x-a) ^ 
Let the aum of all these values and half values be P. Thea 

o ^, /*«fri;-«.+«]-2»^.i.p. 

Secondly, let ^ be such a function that ^('+y%^-I) 
vanishes when x=3 -foo or — oo independently of y, and •h'n 
y=:-f QO or —00 independently of x. Take Ao imapjuri 
roots only which make ^x infinite, and let (x-a-6%^-l> 
^ be always finite when fl+6 V— I is one of those roou, t.". 
xsra-f6 V— 1. Let the sum of all the values of the Isst y^- 
duct, for the cases in which b is positive, be P ; snd for the 
cases in which b is negative let it be Q. Then 

/^xrfr[- CD, +»]=r^-.l.(P-.Q). 

The subject of definite uitegrals Is one in which the dificul- 
ties which have always appeu^ at the boondariei of mstbe- 
piatical knowledge are oonstantlv met with. The coaMqam^ 
is, considerable difierence of opinion about many poiots. On 
these the student who desires to use the higher parti of sm- 
lysis must hope to form his opinion Independentlyi^ wbeo his 
reading and reflection are sufficient for the porpose. Moe: of 
these difficuUies belong, in principle, to ttiat which acow- 

I N T 


I N T 

iwnies the use of (ttvergent series, which b the ramt import* 
snt mathematical qaestioQ now mder discunon. If we were 
Co Judge of Che futare hy the past, we shoald prophesy that 
divergent series would one day take their undisputed place 
among well Fuderstood objects of analysis, as native quan- 
tities and th^ logarithms, imaginary quantities and their 
exponentials, infinitely small quantities with their different 
orden, disconttnnoas solutions of differential equations, &c. 
hare sooceasiTely done, each under a fire of objections which 
has well serred the progress of science, by the defensive 
rcsearchca which it has rendered necessary. It is fortunate 
for analysis that so many of those who find difficulties propose 
the entire rejection of the symbols or methods in which the 
difficoltieii exist : the proposition excites those who are against 
any rejection to effi>rts whidi tiiey perhaps would not make, 
if they had only to meet the doubts of allies, instead pf the 
attacka of opponents. That the symbolic expressions of which 
we are apeakmg, will never vanish out of remembrance, we 
may coofidentiy predict: of all the points of difficulty of 
which we have spoken, it may be sud, in the words of 

* Ntfann ezpellM fam, timen luqiie recorret ;' 

they will come, and will demand explanation until they get 
it. They will conquer by numbers, as Fontenelle said the 
symbol of infinity had done. And it is to be hoped and ex- 
))«>cted, that no difficiflty will be completely resolved, without 
the appearance of a successor, to excite new efforts, and be 
the stimulating cause of further progress. We should be sorry 
to think we had arrived at the < last imposabilities'* of pure 

INTERDICT, in the law of Scotiand, supplies the place 
of an injunction from a court of equity in England. It is a 
prohibitory order, forbidding some act from being done, and 
u is obtained on the application of the party who would be 
injured by the performance of the act. It may be issued by 
the Court of Session, or by the Sheriff's Court. Interdicts 
in the Court of Session are frequentiy obtained for preventing 
inferior courts, or courts of limited operation, such as the 
ecclesiastical courts, from exceeding their jurisdiction. To 
this end the form was frequentiy adopted in the late dispute in 
the Church of Scotland, which ended in a secession. \Fbxe 
CntmcH, P.C.S.] Interdict is applied for by what is called 
a * Note of Suspension and Inteniict ' presented to the Lord 
Ordinary on the Bills. In presnng matters, interim inter- 
dict is awarded before the parties are heard, but in the gene- 
ral case intimation is given to the other party, who gives in 
answers. If there are means by which the applicant's in- 
tereats can be kept safe, as by the finding secunty, or other- 
wise, the interdict will not be granted, but the ' vote will be 
pasaed to trjr the question,' and the matter will proceed as an 
ordinary litigation. 

INTERMENT. [Intbbmkst, P. C] Of late years the 
STibjcct of interment has attracted much attention in England, 
and a great amount of information has been collected. Though 
opinions are not unanimous, the evidence, the further it is exa- 
mined, appears to prove that emanations from crowded burial- 
irroonda and from the vaults of churches do injuriously affect 
the health of persons who live near them ; and that these 
eoanatioas when sufficientiy concentrated may produce 
speedy death. The general 'conclusion that all interments 
in chnrcfaea or in towns are essentially of an injurious and 
daneerotis tendency' (lUport on the Practice tf Interment 
in Tbinsa), is at least made a strong probability, and strong 
cnoogfa, ooapled with other reasons, to justify the legislature 
in forbidding such interments, and placing all burying-grounds 
under such regulations as may prevent Uie eflluvia from the 
d«!ad from becommg detrimental to the health of the living. 
The Report to which reference has been made contains, in 
addition to the evidence on the injurious effects of crowded 
borial-plaoes, much valuable information on the injury to 
health caused, narticularly among the poor, by the delay in 
mtennents. The following remark will show the nature and 
extent of this evil: *In a large proportion of cases in the 
metropolis and in some of the manufacturing districts, one 
room serves for one family of the labouring classes : it is 
their bed-room, their kitdien, their wash-house, their ritting- 
nom, their tfining-room ; and when they do not follow any 
oot-door occupation, it is firequentiy their woric-room and their 
shop. In this one room they are born, and live, and sleep, 
and die amidsl the other inmates.' Among the poor in some 

•TWwtte 1bewv6MciitM,A.V.X7g9l,9t Leiprie, who hn nwndy mix 
11*^ in tUscaontrya met OB dwraMlotioa ofaU kinda of Muatioiu, printed 

parts of London the average time that a body is kept is about 
a week, which sometimes arises from inability to raise money 
for the iuneral expenses, as well as other causes ; and where 
there is only a single apartment, the dead and the living oc- 
cupy it together. The iniurious consequences to health from 
the presence of a dead body sometimes in a state of rapid 
decomposition, in a small ill- ventilated apartment, and par- 
ticularly when death has been the consequence of malignant 
disease, cannot be disputed; and the effect on the Hvine 
is demoralizing. The expense of fimerals is another head 
which is examined in this Report, where it is well remarked 
that ' the expense of interments, though it falls with the 
greatest severity on the poorest classes, acts as a most severe 
infliction on the middle classes of society ' (p. 46). The 
cost of interment in London varies from 41. for a labourer to 
1000/. for a gentieman : for persons of the condition of a 

gentleman it b stated that 150/. would be a low average, 
ut these charges do not include anything but the under- 
taker's bill. The account of the details of an expensive 
funeral, * which is strictiy the heraldic array of a baronial 
funeral, the two men who stand at the doors being supposed 
to be the two porters of the castle, with their staves in black,' 
&c., is ludicrous enough; but the disposition to laugh is 
checked by considering the pecuniary embarrassment which 
this absurd display often entails on the survivors. Many per- 
sons incur a heavy debt by the expenses of interment. U is 
not unusual for poor people to liquidate such debt by instal- 
ments paid weekly, or at other short periods. 

The subject of interment, like many others relating to the 
economy of society, may at first sight not seem to require any 
particular attention on the port of the state. It may be said, 
let every man bury his dead as he best can, and as he chooses. 
With respect to the rich, the expense is an absurd waste of 
money, and the example is bad ; with respect to the mid- 
dling classes, it is a heavy burden ; but to the poor, interment 
of their dead is often almost an impossibility. To diminish 
these expenses, to secure the decency of interment amongst 
all classes, and particuUrly among the poor, and to prevent 
the contamination of the livine b^ the aead, are objects well 
worthy of the attention of a legislator. The information 
collected in the report above alluded to lays bare a revolting 
picture of moral and physical facts ; but it is truly said, * Ge- 
neral conclusions can only be distinctiy made out from the 
various classes of particular facts, and tiie object being the 
suggestion of remcKlies and preventions, it were obvioiuly as 
unt^coming to yield to disgusts or to evade the enumeration 
and calm consideration of these facts, as it would be in the 
physician or surgeon, in the performance of his duty with the 
like object, to shrink from the investigation of the moat offen- 
sive manifestations of disease.' 

The Report makes a proximate estimate of the total ex- 
pense of funerals in London, which, according to the esti- 
mate, amounts to 626,604/. per annum ; and a like estimate 
of the expense of all the funerals in England and Wales in 
one year is 4,870,493/. This sum, enormous as it is, may be 
considered an under estimate. ' The cost of the funerals of 
persons of rank and titie varies from 1500/. to 1000/. or 800/. 
or less, as it is a town or country funeral. The expenses of 
the funerals of gentry of the better condition vary from 200/. 
to 400/., and are stated to be seldom so low as 150/.' The 
average cost of funerals of persons of every rank above pau- 

E!rs in the metropolis maybe taken at 14/. 16s. 9</. per head, 
ut owing to circumstances, fully explained in the Report, 
even this lavish expenditure does not secure the proper and 
solemn discharge of the funend ceremony, which, in crowded 
and busy districts seems to be totally impracticable. It is 
ftdly shown that the expenses of funerals may be greatiy re- 
duced, and the due penormance of the religious ceremonies 
may be secured by otner arrangements. The establishment of 
cemeteries by Joint Stock Companies has done something by 
diminishing the amount of interments in crowded places, but 
the expenses of interment ht^e perhaps not been at all dimi- 
nished by them. 

The Report concludes (p. 197) with a summary of the 
evils which require remedies ; and there is not one of the evils 
which has not been proved to exist There may be differ- 
ence of opinion as to the degree in which the evils exist ; but 
none as to the existence itself. The remedies that are sug- 
gested for these evils appear to have been well considered, 
Uiough, when an evil is ascertained to exist, people are not 
always agreed as to the best remedy. One of the proposed 
remedies, which involves many important considerations, and 
would prolmbly meet with some opposition, is *that rtiow^ 

I N T 


I N T 

cemeteries of a soitaUe detcriptSoa CMight to be morided and 
mttntaincd (at to the material arrangcrocnti) uncier tlic direc- 
tion of officers duly Qualified for ine care of the public 
health.' Another it, 'that for the abatement of oppreatire 
charges for funeral materials, decorations, and aerviocs, pro- 
Tision should be made (in conformity to succesBfnl examples 
abroad) by the officers having charpie of the nadonal ceme- 
teries, for the supply of the requisite materials and services, 
securing to all classes, but especially to the poor, the means 
of respectable interment, at reduced and moderate prices, 
suitable to the state of the deceased and the condition of the 
survivon.' The numerous matters contuned in the Report 
can only be indicated here. It should be consulted by all 
who talce an interest in the well-being of society, as a most 
valuable contribution to the statistics of civilized life. 

{A SvpplemenUary J^epari an the Results of a Special In- 
quiry at to the Practice of Interment in Ihunu, made at tite 
request of her Mqjeity'* principal Secretary cf State for the 
Home nepartmaU, by Edwin Chadwick, Esq. Bamster-at- 
Law. London, 1843.) 

INTERNATIONAL LAW. This term was originally 
applied by Bentham to what was previously called the * law 
of nations,' and it has been ^nerelly received as a more apt 
designation than that which it superseded. When the term 
< law of nations ' was in use, that of * law of peace and war' 
was sometimes employed as a synonyme, and as indicative of 
the boundaries of the subject. It was thus in its proper 
sense restricted to the disputes which goveminents might 
have with each other, and aid not in general apply to Ques- 
tions between subjects of diflerent states, arising out or the 
position of the states with regard to each other, or out of the 
divergences in the internal laws of the separate states. But 
under the more expressive designation, international Law, 
the whole of these subjects, intimately connected with each 
other as they will be found to be, can be comprehended and 
examined, and thus several arbitrary distinctions and exclu- 
sions are saved. To show how these subjects are interwoven, 
the following instances may be taken : — A port is put in a 
state of blockade ; a vessel of war of a neutral power breaks 
the blockade : this is distinctly a question between nations, to 
be provided for by the law of peace and war, in as far as 
there are any consuetudinary rules on the subject, and the 
parties will submit to them. But suppose a merchant vessel 
oelonging to a subject of a neutral power attempts an infringe- 
ment of the blockade, and is seizea— here there is no question 
between nations in the first place. The matter is adjudicated 
cm in the country which has made the seizure, as absolutely 
and unconditionally as if it were a question of internal smug- 
gling ; and it will depend on the extent to which just rales 
guide the judicature of that country, and not on any question 
settled between contending powere, whether any resi)cct will 
be paid to what the par^ can plead in his own favour, on the 
ground of the comity of nations, or otherwise. But there is a 
third class of cases most intimately linked with these latter, 
but which are completely independent of any treaties, declara- 
tions of war, or other acts by nations towards each other. 
They arise entirely out of the internal laws of the respective 
nations of the world, in as far as they diflier from each other. 
The ' conflict of laws ' is a term ver^' generally applied to 
this branch of international law, and the drcumstances in which 
it comes into operation are when the judicial settlement of the 
question takes place in one country, but some of the circum- 
stances of whicn cognizance had to be taken have occurred in 
some other country where the law applicable to the matter is 
diflerent. One of the most common illustrations of this subject 
is,— a judicial inquiry in Ensland whether a marriage has 
taken place in Scotland accoroing to the law of that country ; 
or an inquiry in Scotland whether a marriage has taken place 
according to the law of England ; in either of which cases 
there will generally be the further and nicer question, Which 
country's law ought to prevail as the criterion? 

Thus the three leauing departments of international law 
are — 

1. The principles that should regulate the conduct of states 
to each otoer. 

S. The principles that should regulate the rights and obli- 
gations of private parties, arising out of the conduct of states 
to each other. 

3. The principles tha' %hould regulate the rights and obli- 
gations of private parties, ^rhen they are aflected by the sepa- 
rate internal codes of distinct nations. 

The first of these has been the principal subject of the 
well'kD«iwn works of Grcitius, Puffendorf, Vstfcl, and other 

publicists, who have derived from general prinriplcs M 
morality and justice a series of minute abstract niU« for tW 
oondnct of nations towards each other, and subsidiarily for tW 
conduct of their subjects in relation to intematioaal QuntHc^ 
It has been usual to call this department the ' Law or NtUrr/ 
as well as the Law of Nations, on the suppositioii iku. 
though it has not the support of the authority et any Icyi^U- 
ture, it ia founded on the universal principles of lubinl 

It is clear that thus in its large featurea, as a rule lur tlf 
conduct of independent communities towards each other, \\ti 
Law of Nations wants one essential feature of tbst vbUb u 
entitled to the term law — a binding authority. Natiom eMu 
the most powerful are not without checks in the fear (•' 
raising hostile combinations and otherwise ; hot there nn I* 
no uniformity in these checks ; and in general when i^ io. 
terest is of overwhelming importance, and the nation powrrfv'. 
it takes its own way. The impurtance of the questions vhvs 
may be involved in the Law or Nations thus materiall; sfEnta 
the question how far it is uniformly obeyed. In a wi uf 
minor questions— such as the safety of the petsons of smtw- 
sadon, and their exemption from responsibilitjr to the U«t .f 
the country to which they are accredited, and in othmsanm 
of personal etiquette, a set of uniform rules has bees no- 
blisned by the practice of all the civilised worid, wbirb %n 
rarely infringed. But in the more important questiotu, r^ 
garding what is a justifiable ground for declaring war? nhit 
territory a nation is entitled to the sovereignty mJ whit ii i 
legitimate method of conducting a war once commenced ) &r. 
—the rales of the publicists are often precise enooffh ; hot tU 
practice of nations has been far from regidar, and ns brcn, u 
every reader of history knows, inflQ<n>ced by the rtkuw 
strenglh of the disputing parties mors than by the juitice / 
their cause. The later wnten on this subject have from tls 
circumstance directed their attention more to the nesai ^>t 
which any system of interaational law can be enforced, tins 
to minute and abstract statements of what may be thcorrW 
justice, but has litde chance of being enforced. They bur 
found several circumstances which have an influeoec in \^ 
preservation of interaational justice, though of ooane b* 
sanctions which can give it the uniformity and 00QsistefK7 iJ 
internal laws. 

The combinations for the preservation of what is csl)^ 
the Balance of Power [Balancb of Powkb, P. C] k^ 
among the most useful restrictions of ambition. All prri*:* 
of history furaish illustrations of this principle. Eume fviu ' 
that the reloponnesian war was carrieo on for the p re s cr o t'n 
of the balance of power against Athens. The late war exbibitnl 
a noted illustration of combination to prevent omTeml roo- 

?|uest on the part of the French. The safetv of msll lUiti 
rom being aosorbed by their larger neighbours, ii io (^' 
jealousy which these neighboun feel of each othcr*i srenn- 
disement. Thus the jealousy of ralen is one barrier to Dsunmi 
injustice. Another is public opinion : sometimes that of tly 
nation whose nilen would be prepared to commit injustrr- 
sometimes that of other nations. Of course it can odK be tn 
a very limited extent that the public feeling of a ovpuif 
goverament can check the grasping spirit of its nilcn . bnt 
the public feeling of the constitutional and dcmocntic ittb« 
is the great check on the injustice that might be P^^^ 
by a nation when it becomes so powerful as Great Britsia 

The seizure of the Danish fleet by the Enriish hai brcti i 
subject of warm censure in tiiu country. NecesBty--ewt 
the plea that Napoleon would have used the fleet to w^ 
our own shores— nas not been accepted in palliatisaof the 
act ; and the manner in which it has been canvassed 9 rrnr 
likely to prevent any British goverament from sdoptinr ^' 
precedent The partition of Poland is an instance of iistK>|r«) 
injustice condemned by the public feeling of countries otb«f 
than those by which it was perpetrated ; and it issy be qn^*- 
tioned whether the states which accomplished Uic psrtitifl 
may not yet suffer by it. Good fame m the couwmmiti «j 
nations is like respectability in private circles, a wurcr < 
power through exteraal support ; and the conduct of Ri^ • 
towards Poland has frequentiy diverted from tiie foniw' 
country the sympathy of free nations. It need scsrcvW < 
observed that the press, whether fugitivt or rermaaeBt, » u <* 
most powerful organ of thb public opinion, and thst we ^w^* 
of able historians, jurists, and moralists, have much Inflww^ 
in the preservation of interaational justice. Amon^ the jtd- 
cipal subjecU of dispute in this department of intermiM'Wi 
law are— the sovereignty of territory and the pmprt ^"'^ 
daries of states, as in Uie question at present under deUtc re- 


I N T 



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I N T 


I N V 

drft prftMipto, tf«Mi««M ktel/ nmtim wUk Fram and tU 
Oaitad Sutas of Amnieti^ far Mirorcinf wbieb. in thk oomilry, 
tw« Mto of pM^JfiMrt w«ra pMMd (6 & 7 Viol, e. 76 tml o. 
76). by which ft wcrelary of lUte, oa thm reqaiaition of tho 
jihtMidnr or other reprcientotive of Fmaoe or the Unitod 
Sutco, mlffhl ioMe t wmtwiI to maffistralei to feiae • penoa 
■ocoi ed of a orinie, a mafr'Mtnto being en joined to mit it in 
fore* OQ bit beta|r «tJaHed thai the charge m or tueh a 
aotane aa wooU aalhoriae him to oomoiit o pertoo charged 
with perpetmting it io his ovn juriadictioa. [CoiivBirrioM 
TasATiat, P. C 8.] Bot it haa beeo a niW in manj ooontriea, 
oad partaeiUarlT Is our own, that no mid ia to be given for the 
enforcement of the politkml kwt of Ibreign atatca. Aa in other 
braochea of international law, oor eiiliKntened V"><^pl^ ^ 
the tubject of alaverj bate here been the cauae of perplexing 
difienltiea. With alave>bolding ooontriea alavery oomm to 
be • oneation of propertjr, bot with laa it can onlv be n quee- 
tion of government ; and we cannot view enjr nuea regarding 
property ia alavea aa lawa rvleting to private righta, an in- 
frinmnaot of which, when held to be criminal in the alave- 
holding oounHy, muat be ao elao here. Accocdinglj, in the 
celebmled caae of the Creole, in November, 1841, when oer> 
tain Anwricui alavea eaoaped and found protection in a firitiah 
aetilcment, it waa found toat we could not aend them back to 
their ownen aa robbera who had with Tiolence atolen their 
own penona from the cuatodjr of their proprietora. 
Aa on the one hand the criminal law b that to which thia 
aent of Intamntional law moat broadly and diatinctly 
t on the other hand the poaition of raai or landed pro> 
a that 10 which it baa generally the leaat rererenoe. 
Mona of thia diatbction are very obviooa : hia own per- 
aonnl eooduet ia that object of the law which a man moat com- 
pletely carriea aboot from one cuuntry to another ; hia con- 
nection with famded property ia the relation in which a tribunal 
oot of the eoontry in which the property ia, can have the 
Icaat chance of ai$udieatiiig. Between theae eatrraMa there 
are many qoeationa regaiding peraooa in their relatiooa to each 
other, and rEgardiog oontracta aa to aMveahle or peraonai pr»> 
parly. It came tlwa to be a general principle, that righta 
connteted with landed p ro p er t r muat alwaya be aettled by the 
law of the place where the Una liea, while queationa regarding 
other propertv might be aubjected to other criterioni of juria- 
dictioa. Peniapa hialoricnl ctrramitanooa in the early hiatory 
of the Evrwpean nationa favoured thia diviaion. The variooa 
tribea which oocnpied the territory of the Roman empire 
appear to have carried with them their own peculiar lawa and 


Savigny ooolea a lettor from Biahbp Agobardus, in 
be myi it often ' , ' ' ^ 

ditierant law, nay be faund walking 


I happena that 6v« men, each nnder a 
faund walking or aittin^ lowether— a 
lof aorietynt thta dayeiemplified in aoowonentu nationti 
Ameoar all theae diatinct tribea the fendal ayatem aroae aa the 
grnefnl and uniform territorial law. Throegh a aeriea of W" 
cnnataacaa which need not be here narrMed, the civil or 
Roman kw became the raltnff principle aa to peraona in their 
relation to eaeh other when that ralation waa not of n feudal 
character, and aa to daima ragardii^ moveable fooda. The 
common law of England haa parhapa had the leaat aflmity 
with the othar Emopean eodea. But It haa fartnnntelj hap. 

•f farw^rn 

thoae depertmenta of the law with which interoa- 
tiona ara chiefly cancemad,— 4ha oonsiatorial and 
admiral^ kw, hate been eonaidarad aa the legitimate ofl^ 
me of the dvil lew, and have adopted In • graat meaaure 
ila pr tnd plaaaa they have been in praetiea thpo^ghent Europe. 
The mafwanlile kw k nneral of Engknd baa eeeommodatod 
ilaalf to the cin tam nf mrrrhania; and thk ewtom haa m • 
graat miMari ariaen out of the adaptelkn to modem com m erce 
of the prkripka of the dvil kw. The pcrtmi cf the com- 
marckl cade of Ei^lmid which k kaat k krawny with that 
of other cmmtrka b parhapa the hmOLinptnr kw, wbkh» bdng 
f » haa net » pliantly adaplad Unlf to the eslgcnciea 
irn riiMmiiii aa the riiBiilmlinary poptkna of the 
del kw have danei Thna» n nder the eld aegiiaatiathin 
cr bankmplry ammto of Seetknd, whlc^ waa aoppoaed to give 
the iraaiee or aaaignee fall power far ohtakfam pcimaaiioD of 
the bankrwnt'a praoarqr k all parta of the wcrfd, it waa faond 
thai he bed no right of aetien far • debt dna to the bmiknipt 
k Ei^knd— the right cf the trwateebatim that of an aadgnee 
maerly, and a right to a debt bakg a chnM k action, and 
ther^£ire net capahkcf hahv maigWHl by the kw of Engknd. 
See Jeftwf n.llT^nart, fl M. * t. (K. B.), 196. The 
kw ef bMifcinnt^ji apfomc to be ene of the meat d&dknit of 
Mamant to ktmaanaanl pdaai^ilm. TbaM are eksaa k 
kaihfwpiry and jnaahrofy acta ef S^gkttd by which. 

thrangh ruptintko of the vcitingcpdar, 
mveated with all real or landed property k any paat ef the 
Britiah dominiona where n oonreyanca of aoch nroDorty re^ 
qoiiea to be recorded. (See i «c 3 Wm. IV. c M. | i7. «ia 
111 3 Vict. e. no, 1 46.) It could not have been the i&u^ 
tion of thia proviaion to give an Engliah aaaignaa nn«iWv«« 
which a truatee of a banknipt eatato doea not held m b- c. 
knd ; kit while the latter requirea to amke np n fandal t.. « 
before he can be the recorded fjeoprietor of raal pawporty. it 
WM found by the Court of Sceaion w the atrict mterpreuu«« 
of the Engliah proviaion that no auch protiminary waa nec*^ 
aaiy, and that the reffiatration of the veating craer wna k.:- 
fident. (Rattray e. White, 8th March, 1643, 4 D.. Mo. ) 

The oonflicta of kwa between England and SootkiMi ere ml 
coiuee k thia part of the world the moat important ai^ iAt». 
rating. The oonauetudinary or unatetatorr kw of Ea^U.-**! 
haa porhapa fewer prindplea m common with that of Scwua-4 
than the ktter haa with the kw of any other eountry m L^ 
rope ; and thia divergennr hm been the canae of many 4kA€^t 
queationa. In theae the law of marrkga and thatof awcrami m 
have been particularly fertik. In the for mar the diffrrm<e 
between the inatitotiona of the two ooontriea, whca mhpfKUU 
to the prindplea of mtemational kw. haa bann prodncuve J 
TeiT remarkable eflecta. In Kngknd there ara cartain erci 
which ara neceaaary ingredienta, oy the atatuto kw, of a vn. i 
marriage. In Sootland the conaant of partiea to hoU ^a 
other aa man and wife, when auflinently atteated, ia, neeardmc 
to the doctrinea of the dviliana, auffioent. But k Emti^i 
it ia a prindple of mtemational kw that a marriafw v^W m 
theplaoe where it ia contracted ia valid mEnnknd; thee 
quenoe b, that the ki prindpk of mankge by aimj ' 
conaent would have probably fallen kto 

lirion k Sootland, were it not kept op by Engiiah paruie, 
•trictiona of thdr own kw. On ue 
aubject of aocoeaaioo, a aeriea of dectaiona 

who thua evade the reetrictiona of thdr own 

haa aettled two very important prindplea^that k the caae ^ 
landed property it followa the far rm mim^ or the kw of ll* 
pkoe wnere the property b ; while k oMveabk or 
property it followa toe far domieUut or kw of the T 
which the peraon leaving it died. 
INVENTION. [PATorr, P. C. ; ComioBr, P. C S 
individuala, aa to the honour due to the origination of nrw 

a, proceaaea, or methoda, ara mattera ef eoaaiant daaeim^ 
m the bbtoiy of lettcii and adenoe. It b atrm^n a^ 

the aul^ject ahould never hare been generally trretod : ami m 
default of better, we klend to put together aome iwde mane* 
riaU for conaideration, which w^ perhana halp the yornng 
reader of the hiatory of acience (from which enr eiamp m 
will moatlf be drawn) k farming hb opinion cf the cmwh^ 
Toraiea which there abunnd. 

Invention and diaoovery era, far onr I 
moua terma. Aa commonly naad, the 6rM 
the formation of aomethkf^ which would not i 
exiated, but for the invention ; the aacond mi 
oot that which alwaya did csiat, and would hmw 
whether the diacovery had been made cr net We nC pan. 
factly ace the error k the am citi o n , aet down for 
k the Englbh esercbe-booka, that ' Gahlee dkm 
teleaoope, and Uarvey iwtwntef/ the ctrculatkn cf the Uuad 
and alao the propriety of the aaaignment ef wordi mnde hf 
Mr. Maoaukr, when he mya that the iarmak whkh Mirhia 
vcUi b nanally deecribed would aecm to 
* the dieooverer of ambition and revenge, the < 
cf petjury.* We can baagine the poadbilt^ cf n toimmpn 
having never been faamad, or n fake oath havlM acear hnnn 
awcrns but aa keg aa man cabta, and hb bked cbcnkamk 
faelinga of amktkn and revenge will aprkf en k hm mtmd. 
The worda have aoaM anakgy with thoaa ef pnhkan mad 
cm k geometry : and prtknkrty k thb, thnt mematam 
be ultimatdy a aoggeatton of diaoovery. The kwitor 
Ddem ink, which tUl hb time had never aabtod, Aw^ 
' that n mutura of galband aniphcto nf 

produce a durabk dark 

appUoatkn cf hb diacovery to the art cf 

manner it amy be a a a ar ted bv aome [B4CQn« 1 

that Roger Bacon diacovcrad the talawwna Thcro'i 

a dbrovrry preceding every kvcntkn ; kit It daaa nnt C^ 

lev thet every dMooveiy lenda to kvcnikn. Bnt jat Ifaaew 

ara amna maeak which the pmcdb« d^Utkmi ftal to dn- 

acnbe the ectaal naa nf wceda; far niMpk, hkbacMant nT 

I N V 


I N V 

in tlw kbonlorj b^ its inTcntiir. 
Bat the ekaniiits would not etll diis tn iiiT^nlioa, nor anj- 
thmir but a diaooTeiy : we thoold recommend them to draw 
the dietBM!tioii» m useful to the memoiy in relation to the his- 
' of dirir fldeace. 

I ii in the words diacoverj and inrention a tempting 
resemhUaee, often just, and often falkcious, to those of 
theory sad practioe. Bat in ftct each of the thi^ must be 
sabdifided mto theorefical sad praotioa]. The enact of the 
fton- e pherio d form of the earth upon the moon's motion was 
diseorerad theoreticaMy ; the variation end the ereotion were 
disoomed prictiosUy. As to hiTentions, we call Davy^s 
a theerel i cel inventioo i for the question given 
' to overcome a certain duiger, generally ; and it was 
that a lamp was to be constructed. But 
the commmi Moty of the boy who saved his labour by tying 
a strii^ horn the valve he iras employed to open and shut to 
a part of the machineiy which moved in soch a manner as to 
do it Ibr him, is, if true, a record of a mctical invention. 
8till there is trudi in this, that practical men, properly so 
called [Thbobt awd Fbacticb, P. C], have invented 
of^efier than they have discovered ; and that theoretical men 
have di s e o fere d more often than they have invented. 

It is no wonder that the earl v history of discovery should be 
oooluaed and uncertain : the loss of documents, which ope- 
rates OD all Oiir first knowledge of antiquity, is a sufficient ez« 
planation. Nor is it surprising that first writers should be 
persons of unsettled claims ; tlttt in the case of Euclid, for 
example, we should not be so well able to say where his dis- 
coveries be^an as where they ended. But it does seem 
strange that m matten of our own day, or that immediately 
jirecediog, it should be a question to whom a right of dis- 
«!overy shonld behmg, when the only tan^^ble matter is a 
iiook, to the date of the publication of which there is every 
poanhle attestation. 

Thcie is one most importsnt preliminary consideration, 
irhich will, in the minds or those vnio for the firrt time give 
rt due attention, change the face of the whole question. 
When the period arrives at which a discovery becomes pes- 
siUe, there are many courses which lead to it, and many snips 
asiiing on each of these courses. The analog;^ may be carried 
farther. When a new island is discovered in or near a ire- 
qoented track, as soon as a ship of some one country casts 
anchor in a port and takei posBcmion, it mar be afterwards 
iband in aoane logs that something like land had been sus- 
pe^ed before, in othen that land Inids had been seen, in 
dthera that the oc^onr of the vrater was noted, in otheri that 
an altenUion of the current was observed, and so on, all near 
the same Doint, and any one of which might have led to the dis* 
coveij, if the hint hadbeen followed. It is the same in matten 
of aoenee, to an extent which will not be easily credited by 
thoee who are unacquainted with its history. And tins greatly 
enhancra the merit of most original researches. It is much to 
the credit of Newton that Huygfaens had gone as far as to 
detennine the conditions of ctrralar motion, that Grimaldi 
hsd noted the eftct of the prism on light, that Format and 
Cavalieri had all bat discovered the method of fluxions. The 
cham c t e r of accidental good fortune disappears when we see 
that the piogm m of knowledge seems to brin^ new results 
within the possible reach of many, but withm the actual 
gnsp only of one. Is there then nothing acddentsl in dis- 
coverr and invention ? We answer that there is somethmg, 
bat that the aoodents which mighi produce discovery are 
ig to all, and frequently ; while the accidenti which tb 
! k happen to those only who are ready to take advantage 
of tiicBa. Bat this it nonr be said is reasoning in a circle ; for if 
we are asked how we oistinguish the person who is ready to 
take advmiinye 6om the one who is not, we have only the dis- 
covery to pomt to. We reply, that it generally happens that 
the pefeoes wfaocan &ai fix a casualty, are also Uiose who give 
evideeoe of sueeesafid research in caaea where fortone s1k»ws 
BO special fovoor. It vras by a mere accident that Mr. Baily 
[FukmiTBSD, P.X). ; Baii.t, P. C. S.] bought a house oppo> 
Bte to the posw a s or of a bive handle of Fkmsteed's lettera, 
and nothing more than the met of their existonce came to his 
ears. Many perhaps had seen them, and either taken it for 
gnoted that the contents were all in print, or been unable to 
jodge of thdr value. But the life of Fhunsteed is not the 
only eridenoe of Mr. Bsily's suoceas in a point of astronomical 
histafj : there waa no accident about the editorship of the old 
cstalo^pesL It is said to have been by a casual effect of 
ssn4ieht afta window that Malus discovered the polariaation 
of raiactod %ht; bat then Males 

\ waa a profound optical in- 

vestigator. It is our conviction that no aockJents are vaUa 
except those which happen to the proper men at the right 
times ; and that there are usually othM* means of showing Uiis 
besides the suooem of the accidents themselves. 

Before we can examine the title to a discovery, it must first 
be settled what the discovery is : and this is fraqoently the 
greatest difficulty. The case of the steam-engine is con- 
stantly under discussion ; and the principal point at isstte is, 
what is the steannengine. Heron of Alexandria certidnly 
produced rotatory motion by steam, and, with sufficient funds, 
could have ground all the Com in Egypt by his method. If 
we assign the merit to the person who contrived such an 
economy of fuel as to place the use of steam on something like 
its present footing of convenience, it then becomes a doubt 
whether anpr except Watt has the dmm. M. Arago remarks 
on this subject, that a watchmaker would be struck dumb by 
the question, who invented a watch ? The thing as it now 
exists is not the invention of any one person. As long aa 
there is any national feeling in the discussion, one or another 
definition will be proposed, constructed to suit tiie advocacy 
of one or another claim. We have not here to settle the 
cases which we eito ; it is enough that they illustrate our 

It may happen that in a complicated instrument or method, 
the perfecting of which extends over e long period, there is 
some one distinguishing characteristic Uie mtroduction of 
which marks the main epoch of the invention. In the case of 
the watch, for instance, if we ask for the distinctive defimtion 
of the term, we find that it is not merely an instrument for 
measuring time, which would include the depsydre, nor an 
application of wheel-work for that purpose, whidi would in- 
clude the dock ; but it is the use of a spring for the regu- 
lator, in which consists the distinction between a watch and 
other horologes. In a similar manner we look upon the ad- 
ditions made by Viete to the mechanism of algebra as consti- 
toting the main groundwork of what now bean the name. But 
it would be exceedingly wrong to say that Hooke invented a 
watch, or that Yieta invented algebra : things done before and 
after both eaaentialljr bdong to the ideas we mean to convey 
by the words. But it is not an uncommon practice of writen 
to strip a word of all its accessories, and to attribute (justly 
enougn perhaps) the invention so cut down to some one 
person, and then to dothe the word with all its most modem 
assodations, and the favoured inventor with all the glory 
which ought to be dirided among many. When the stoim- 
engine is reduced to a teakettle, or at most to a pump, it is 
Aveiy, or De Cans, or Worcester, or Newcomen, or rapin, 
&c. &c. who invented it, according to the countnr or the mncy 
of the vrriter ; but when once the claim is established, the tea- 
kettle throws out a condenser, and the pump runs along the 
railroad at sixty milea an hour. 

* The common sense of the law requires that the applicant 
for a patent should make a distinct specification, not merely 
of what he intends to construct, but of that particular part of 
the contrivance which he daims as his own ; and here a daim 
upon anything old, or an omission of anytiiing new, vitiatea 
the patent [PAmiT, P. C] The cases which have oo- 
cnrred under this law would be good study for those who 
write on discovery. 

It may indeed happen that the amount of claim may be 
materialnr augmented oy the view which the discoverer lakes 
of his title. Columbus inferred, on true principles, the possi- 
bility of crossing the Atlantic, spent the energies of a fife in 
procuring the means of making a trial, and is therofore pro- 
perly and truly the discoverer of all the new world : the 
Northmen who had visited it long before did not promul^te 
their discovery, and it might as well be given to the aboriginal 
inhalntants of the continent itself as to them. It does not do- 
predate the merit of Columbus that he could not but suppose 
be should leach India or China : these were the certainties 
at which he aimed, and which he would have reached had he 
not been stopped by the intermediate continent which ought 
to bear his nsme. Had Heron, when he first announced 
and executed his revolving boiler, been able to point out 
that it was a method of producing force from fuel, which 
might supply the place of human labour — ^that all which 
remained was adaptation ~ and that skill in the use of this new 
kind of force would make it a substitate for the strength of 
men and beasU— it would have been difficult ia have denied 
him the title of the 4i8coverer of the steam-engine, and the in- 
ventor of the first step. Among the conseouences of attempt- 
ing to describe discoveries under too general terms, is this, that 
both things and persons are allowed to dash unroooeatanly. 

I N V 


I N V 

It b not alwm, to be wan. thai this goat todi a l«ig[th at 
; kr JMtOB'a atomic tlieoiy the character of bemg a 

rapohlicatioo of thenotkNU adopted bv Emcanif from hit pro- 
decemori ; if it did there woula be tiie le« harm : there are | 
Biaiir tlMoriea be t wee n which miadiievoui confusion it more 
eanlj brcnvht about than b e t ween thote of the pbilotophert of 
Athene and of Manclietter. The nomendatore of tcienoe it 
perplesed bj phratet of no precition— ot that Newton ditoo- | 
vered gravitation, inttead of a true explanation of the heavenly 
motiona by meant of gravitstion— that he fiftt advanced the | 
true theory of aatronomy, which he did in one tente, and Co- 
pernicot in another; whence the provincea of the two are 
Reqnentl J confounded. It rnntt tlto be noticed that n mere | 
opinion, the retolt of choice be t ween teveral, one or other of ; 
which mutt have been taken, it oonfoouded with the tame 
opinion advanced and tnpported by reatont. Thut Philolaut 
and Arittarchut atterted the motion of the earth, and Coper- 
mctts it taid to have only revived their opinion. The dif- 
ference between the two cases lies in this, that the antient 
philotophert merely aaserted their belief, the modem one 
made hit hypothetit the meant of accounting for all the known 
motiont of the heavent, diurnal, annual, and preoessional. 

The apedfication, to borrow a term, havmg been agreed 
upon, the next question is, what constitutes a claim to disco- 
very? The answer b, priority of publication. If, at has 
often happened, two persons should discover the tame thing 
about the same time, the one who first publishes is univer- 
sally recoenited at the discoverer. Of course, if a fraud can 
be provecT if it can be satisfactorily shown that the first pub- 
lisher stole hit matter from another, be would not be allowed 
the advantage of hit wrong : but the onut of proving the fraud 
liet entirely upon the asscrtor of it, and, until the evidence 
and verdict arrive, the first publisher is in possession. The 
reatont for thit rule are not altogether those which exist for 
the rule in law. The objects of the latter are the protection 
of private riffhts and public peace ; or rather the assignment 
of private rights iu such a manner, as best, in the long run, to 
promote the welfare of the community, and particularly its 
peace, without may great shock to the natural feelings of 
equity. It is not difficult to conceive a case in which men 
would gladly eive op a small per centage of dedsions conso- 
nant to natursl iustice, or what is so called, for the sake of a 
rule which would present decided advantages as a rule, in the 
imperfect state of private morality. But the obiect of the 
acientific historian is truth for its own sake ; he has nothing 
to do with conventions made for the sake of peace. 

Thb rule, that first publication gives the right, until the con- 
trary b proved, b adopted for the sake of its own probability, as 
a starting point Select, at hazard, the name or a result, and 
of its first announcer ; no doubt will exist in the mind of any 
one, used to the hbtory of sdence, that it is at least fifty to 
one the name of the real discoverer b thus given. But if it be 
the fact that the discovery was made at an earlier period, and 
if that ha can be established, the hbtory of the human mind 
must not be falsified by adherence to a rule. If, for example, 
it coold be made out, from internal evidence, that Ardiimedea 
most have had an algebra and a differential calculut, which 
deference to the notiont of hb time prevented him from pub- 
lithintr, it would never do to let the formal daimt of LeibniU 
and Newton prevent the allowance of that of Archimedet : for 
then would retult the tupprettion of the actual fact, which, if 
true, would be of great consequence, namely, that the Greek 
mathematica were powerful enough to lead their best minds to 
the ditcoveriet of modem timet. We intitt upon thb becaute 
we have obterved aconnderable tendency in writera of hbtory 
to ettablith a rule on legal eroonda of peace and convenience. 
There b abo a oonfntion between two dbtinct things ; the 
daima of hittonr, and the daimt of the individual : the former 
demanda true fiicta, the latter jutt appreciation of hb merit 
By a perverntj of the human mind, Newton and Leibnitz would 
lose fame to>inorrow, more or lett,— that b, more with tome and 
lest with others— if an undoubted manuacript of Archimedet 
were totnmup,thowttg that he potsetted aformal differential 
calculua. We are apt to aasiffn praise to mere prioritr, inde- 
pendently of originality, and to withdraw it on failure of 
priority. But it la forgotten that the merit of priority only 
lies in thb, that the earlier an invention or discovery is made 
the ruder are the methoda and instruments, and the fewer the 
hints to which it b due. For example, D'Alembert re- 
invented Taylor'a theorem rTATt/>m, P. C, p. 126] in, or 
ahortly before, 17M. He baa all the merit due to the db- 
covery, at n 1764. But oonld it be proved now that Taylor't 
workti te. ware lucent fbrgeriet, so that IVAIembert thonld 

ttand at the original faivcntor, it would bo huporibb lo pn 
him in Taylor'a place; the differential caleufa» wm b tv^ 
very difierent ttatea in 1716 and in 1764. 

There b alao an bjuriont tendency to ataad by ths fix«4 
rule at a thing of good cooteooencet, in the way of poniihoKiit 
or ttimulut : and certainly there b no denying that if it «rrt 
but right to tubttitute, in hittory, the thing wmch b not for t'.t 
thing « hich b, there are advantagea ariaing from the ado^j-« 
of the rigid rule of first publication. Tarta^lb f Tast ac u i 
P. C] tuppretted hb method for cubic equatioot firoB s ir.'tM 
motive: Cardan, to whom he had communicated it under yr^ 
mise of tecrecY , poblithed it, with a aufBrient aekaowledmnt . 
neverlhdeat the rale always goea by Cardan't name. iW i 
littie to regret here : Tartaglb waa willing, timply that b* 
might be able to puzzle hb contemporariet, to retard die prorvv 
of algebra ; it b not certain that be ever would have pobuwr r.{ 
hb discoveriea. The public haa rewarded the uidwidaiJ *• 
whom they were indebted for knowledge by affixing his nior ■■ 
the rales be announced. If it were understood thit tb« tur..> 
attached to any identific retult wat alwayt that of the fcnt 
publisher, saving all the rights of history over the truth of tbf 
discovery, this and similar acts of nomendatore mi^t tv i 
satisfactory use of the norma toguauH, It htt BCMMbcri 
happened that individuab have depotited tealed padceto «■••. 
public acientific bcdiet, to reterve their rights in the evrnt / 
any one else arriving at results which they wished totni 
making public until they had followed them out to tff » 
remote condusions. This practice b one which woold r ' 
prevent the name of any other person from bemff tttsrbf^ t- 
the contents of the packet, if he camo independeiitly br • 
same results, and publbhed them before the packet wss oprii"' 

The next Question is, what constitutes a sufficient r- '> 
lication. Ana here the answer b, that the only inode «i < . 
can give the ditcorerer no further dut^ in the matter, it :*- 
press. If any one should prefer written correspDodent* 
public lectures, or ord conversation, it must beat bit o«i 
risk. A printed book, pamphlet, magarine, or neii«)u ^r 
which any one who likes may buy, b a record of the cosn : 
history from the day of its appearance : but any othrr m «' 
of communication, which is of its own nature not addrfH-f-i 
to the public at large, must be put in and proved bcfnr^ * 
can be available. A communication to a acienttficbodr w 
example, b only so much better than a letter to a frieod f 
it is more public and more eaaily proved : hot Dot(« it t<* 
published in the transactions of that body, in which ckm- t 
rankt with a book from the date of publication, it will nMyv 
tubsequent ettablbhment There ia, however, alwsTi s C\± 
culty with regard to tuch communicationt, particdsrir «tn 
the trantactiont of the academy in queation do not spprtr \ 
some time afler the reading of the memoir. It b iinp»^. > 
to know what an author hu added aa the paper went thrtitji 
the press : that is, if a contest of dates soould arise, it *-. 
always be necessary to assume the date of publicscioo. on mi 
aome proof can be given that the memoir as publiihed U. ^ 
the matter under dbpute, the same at that which was oHf imi / 
communicated. It nas happened before now, that s n • 
munication presented has been almoat entirdy reoodc < 
before it was printed. We have littie doubt tMt, b n u-h 
of time, bodies which nublbh tranaactions will find it vk^'*- 
sary to require that autnora shall either print thdr comsia: - 
cations at presented, or date tuch additioot as thejr i^ 
desirous of making. 

The most remarkable question of publication that ertranw 
was that relative to the invention of fluxions. [Fmzioss, P i ; 
CoMMKBciuM EpitroucuM, P. C] There never wti s evr 
in which it was more necessary to consider the i%bu •' 
history, aOtI not to judge by any fixed rule. Newton, anqon- 
tionably the first inventor, made no publication vbstevcrtt 
the time: an anagram, or tranaposed aenlenoe, caaaot be 
looked upon in any other liffht than aa a tmled psdrt 
Leibnitz haa accordingly the rail merit of an nveator. vtd 
priorihr of publication. Newton haa given proof that be 
could bave publiahed it, if he had choaen. 

It frec|uentiy happena, aa before obaerved, tiiat mdi^'^- 
discoveries take place about the aame time : there b no dt«bt 
that such b the fact When the publications take f^ 
very nearly at the same time, particulariy when they srf is ^l' 
ferent coontriea, it b easy enough to admit the real w*- 
pendence of the two. If the aame thing shooM apprsr in ihr 
notices of the Royal Society and the Comptes RcndiM of thr 
French Institute within a few weeks of eadi oUwr, Uw pr^* 
tumption b ttrong in favour of ndther writer havia|r hsdi 
'n, dvectiy or indirectly, from the othw sad 

.U., ^,,fi-, iif, Jr-^i 


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^--'*ilv, bn!sjait i- 

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•Mbft fwitef el t! 

: ^ii]b tb«oM mhkk 

I hit officmtioo^ '^ ^tiiLt th« nfjvk of 

r, fc.*^ All r. ,. ■ I ■ I . . . _,| ^J,^ 

attJ to on, I^' ' iintiM Iq 

■' ''f>o fiitir*- ■ "''■ i-'ni^f^^ 

fb^ PI In ' Hl94l»|f 

, ,U r v-^/-./- - U!i7-4^, wh r, *- ■ i •■ to 

iiU « the 1^1 |irT^^i«iOf J>'i mi.y raciii I ch^ 

. uu^ oi niiiiir»-0Ulj^t»i--l4-::^.j. -ill* 

Jl nan/ (Ifumt (ftlioAt tIA) \wsiiig^ 

I pvdatiaci, b enlur tn i«ci4afai« the etj^UaMikm^ 

■ V »-« «*«»■ 

I N V 


^ ai,4i 

•96$, 5f 


I — • 



> ■ 



96937, 18U9 

32G9089 89 

39 199:2098 



I N V 

- l,iS7499(t91«lS 
3M7, 163401 





We ftm pal down thm eoefiiGiefits ts oaoal, not chanfringr 
tb9 rif« of Ihe ktt (whieb b oal/ a oooireiiieiioe for tvohuiom, 
tnd doM QOC ftltcr an/ figurs). The vdue of jr being 121*23, 
«• bffUi with 100, which, bevng two dpberi, we mrk oif 
Imt eowMt fiooithe •ercnl ooefBcicQU 0, 2,4,6 plaeei. We 
ttea praooed bj Uonwr's proce« wiib the 6gui« 1 (not 100), 
tokiiif care to meke cooums fall ander oodiiims, or to imo the 
oooiMM m if tbe/ were decimal pointi (which they are in 
Ibct, tboogb not mut-poimii). At looo as we have dooe the 
iret praoeM, eootaining all that conca before the linea A, we 
loam aa IbUowa. Lat 

4r« 0^ • SUIx*-!* -OOOx- 1497-499 
then, T beliif 100, ^r, ^'t, i^^x and l^'^x are aeverall/ 
•90710S-4O1, 909371 309, 269tf-859, and 9. We then write 
down the feanlla again, after tbe linea A (which b not necea- 
mry hi calcniarion), nerel/ to show the new dtspoaition of 
tbe eooHnaa. We are now to proceed with 20 (froro the (Irrt 
lln ""' " 

o<rO, 1,2, 3 
Immediatrlr before the lines 
we team that when jr « 120, ^r, ^'x, and i^^r are aeve- 
ndly 13903943131. 338046169, and 3236*869. We then 
write down tbete rceulti without anr connaa, and proceed 
with tbe aecond 1 in 121, from which we fbd that when 
#sl2l, the ftmrtionaare 13896695 209, 894346*887, and 
9269*369. We then begin to provide for the dccintfJ point, 
hy naeiiaff one, two, and three ciphert to the woriiinff 
eolwMw, and ttkn^ the aecond 2 in 121-29 towoii with, and 
appljrtng Uomer'a p ro ce ea, we find, when <sl21 2, that 
pr, ^jt, and t4^x, aiw aeverallj (remembering that all the 
aaneied eipben are ao amnv additional decTmal jJares) 
15079673*212760, 995959 5 1U60, and 9269 2590. Finally, 
we annet tbe cipbera again, and with the 9 we find that 
MM 121-29 givea 15937559-760654100, 996049 6904400, and 

Let ui now compare the troable of thia prooem with that of 
my other method of doinv the mme. If we throw ont all tbe 
flgwrm which we have wnttra fwke over merely for eiplana- 
tien, and aloo the laat two and one lines in the second and third 
eolamna, which are onlj wanted lo go on further with, we 
have written down about 280 lifrores. The ordinary verifica- 
tien casta about 940 figum. It is tnie that every step b both 
• multiplicntion and an addition in one : but this ean be done 
and eugbt to be done in the aae of this method, and is not 
method. And we have not only the ad- 
»-of a potely mechanical method, in which the first 
a the a u rceedtng steps lo require nothinir 
•sctrpi a look at the sue rami ve figwea of tbe value, but thestiil 
r ndvantege of bcin|r able, at tbe end of tbe process, lo 
r any asmll alteration of value with ease. If, for instance, 
bavfag dwQveved thai 121-297 would do better than 121-23, 
w WW lo gel additinnal aeomy, we have but lo nib out the 
laal 9 p ea ce m, and proceed with 9 and 7. In the ordinary 
mada, wo maal either repaul the whole mu ce m again, or cor- 
eact appwiiimatily by aubstJtutiny 121 -29- -009, which will 
pamdre m lo cakwiaie ^'JMnd perhm kf*'s. 

We will mam oahibii a rnWiBiiii amitiplioatian. aiJ the for- 
iof aa ^ aaiat not, of 

■■Mnoraa^narat noi,oreanrm, ohi we ataKft any pwi 
Iv vifao la ihaaa aimpio eaaaa, hoi that wo m^ show 

of the 

■at wo may stew the 
16796x92916, or Ihe 

raloe of ]4796x't-0 when xa32316. We repeat 
before, which is mora than is necaanry, ai * 
cem look very long. 







Required the ai 
ken xa279*46. 


Answer 478147536 

of 979-46, or the eafam nf ^>«v4^c 










I nrocemi 
ely, bm i 

poaitively, bm neither bean pot in ils right 
ita doe reward. It ia tbe natnral atlenalMi of 
procem of multiplication, and ita inversion ie as nan 
necmurily the proper inode of solving equations, 
multi plication is the same fiir the simple 
Tlie inventor of it 

Blar^ hd mv 



mm -f 

aa t^rt mi 

analyst or the algebraist, commonly ao ealled, bm «ian i9m 
disix>versr of the piuum of muItipUoatien and divismB« ami ^hn 

extraction of the square mot. 

The application of thia method to tbe 
consists tn findfaig the first figure by trial, and 
the Newtonian approximation to find socei 
namely, that if a be ncariy a value of J-, • - , 
more nearly ao. Thb mfOiod b i eomm J i fcnit « 
roou are neariy equal ; but tbe dtflicnhy lies la wha 
called NVwton^ part of the complete mrthod, not in 
pert. When tbe difllcttlty of algebfm ahall be 
prorrm of arithmetic may easiljr be a me nde d in the) 
but to suppose that a capital improvmsent in the i 
conducting comp u tatioos b little worth, beranae it i 
eom|«oied by a victory over diflicnlties of quito i 
is as unreasonable aa to quarrel with a cnlrab 
because it is not an' Inventlng-machlae. This i 
said, that, with a little more trial, llonmr^s 
applied to the ease of i 

wm r 



f neariy equal itiots : and that, aa 
diaeovering them than an^elhsr a 

« mw 


J N V 


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.hie I'-^^utin oj 

t9^ k m^tfMit4t md yH thMi^ 

tk^pn^t^m uuui be cunUiniui mt^nia UMtbnr mQi bvftlttiliif 

Tf *m U *r.:^ .1 - iWi » fc i root, triilt 

-^i*n» U iaollier rocit bc^biiiixig mib !L 

Anii hv Eriil ;! 1 1 U _ k iriniit in i 



an (^'Ulll 








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j^uo^ in 
1 (tPSktifflf^ 

i« b f«'H thhr '^«"«0 fto«^ insk^ feQ isMiljr 

Mfrr^^'ir .> 1, ,1 irig- EifiJiv ihili N« flpvriii In Um f«*t. 

I N V 


1 N V 

but m Encland, when eTwything rebtiii^ to numerictl calcu* 
la^oo hMiMeii alwAjt diligeDtlj studied, it wm much noticed, 
and received extennooe w power. In the pofthamoue work 
(1631) of Harriot [HAimrar, P. C] ezamplet of it are given 
with toe improvement of forming only lo many figures of the 
divisor as are wanted : and he ventures upon roots of three 
places. In the second edition of Ooghtred^s ' Clavis Mathe- 
matica' (1647) Vieta's method is given without Harriot's 
improvements. But we did not find till veiy recently that 
the first who used Vieta's method to any ^reat exteut was 
Briggs, in the calculation of the sines, &c., in the ' Tngono- 
metna Bnlannica.' In the preface the method b applied to 
equations of the third and fifin degree, and partially aescribed 
for the seventh and higher decrees : with examples carried to 
JIfleen and sixteen figures of the root It is for the fadlitadon 
of these solutions that the Abaau wtyxpn^rot is ^ven, 
which some have unreasonably interpreted as giving Briggs a 
claim on the binomial theorem. GelJibrand telu us that Dnggs 
formed his tables of sbes hy aleebraic equations and dilTer- 
ences about thirty years beiore nis death. Now Briggs died 
in 1630, and Vieta's trsct appeared in 1600 : the former must 
then have received the work soon, immediately seen the 
importance of the method, and commenced operations by 
means of it. We cannot aive Briggs any independent title to 
the invention ; for it is likely enough that ne was in cor- 
respondence with Vieta, whose wohls he certainly knew. 
One of his examples is the solution of what would now be 

je-Sx^r 1-298896096660866 

ferwhidi he gets «» 1-917639469736386. He puts down 
the^woric as fiur as . . . 697, proceeding towards the end by seve- 
ral figures at a time : and he has got what Vieta had not, the 
Newtonian di visor <h'x instead of 9(x + 1 ) — ^. Of course it 
adds materially to the historical value of thb method that it 
was thus used in an operation of so much importance to the 
progress of mathematics in genend. The dates above riven 
may even cause a suspicion that it was the power of solving 

3 nations thus suddenly acquired, which firrt suggested the 
Iculation of the natural sines, &c., in the * Trigonometria 

Wallis,inhis Algebra (1684). eives the method of the ' mime- 
roas exegtm* as he calls it ( VieU had called it poiettatwan 
ati^'eetarum ad exegmn Resoiatio) with an example of the 
fourth degree worked to seventeen places of the root. He 
makes use of the method of contracting the figures towards the 
end. In this ssme Algebra appeared, for the fint time, 
Newton's method of approximation, which soon superseded the 
s_ j_^_ _L!_u L 1. L-j 1 T_^._i^ mcorporated 

in the general 
follows. If a 

be a near value ofxin^sO, then,' except when there are 

two neariy equal rooti, a nearer value is 

" 1^ 

«-0>S«^« + 

The old exegens, and espedally Briggs's form of it, employs this 
pripeiple ; — ^ is calculated, and either ^'a or ^(a -hi) — ^. 
Briggs, who proceeds by several figures at a time, and uses 
^a, does redly use what was aflerwards called Newton's 

When the exegesis was abandoned by R^ihaon and othen, 
in favour of Newton's form of operation, no foither improve- 
ment was made in the direct numerical aolution of equationa, 
until the time oi Mr. Homer ; at least no further improvement 
was published. Mr. Henrir Atkinson, a young man of New- 
castle, re-mvcnled the whole method in 1801, applying New- 
ton's divisor, and giving mles by which one divisor was made 
to help in forming the next. Thia was rend to the Philo- 
sophiosl Society of Newcastle in 1809, and published post- 
humously, as *A new Method of extrscting the Roots of 
EouatiolM/ Newcastle, 1831, 4to. In our artide in the 
* (Jompanion to the Almanac,' already dted, we have supposed 
that no one can be shown either to have used ^'a, or to 
have made each vdue of it hdp the next, before Mr. Atkin- 
SOQ : but we now find that Bngga was before him in jwth 

Lagrange's mediod of transfomunr the root into a continued 
Iraetion [Tbbobt of EauATioiia, P. C] does not need no- 
tioe here, becauae it belongs to another mode of expression. 
But it ought to be noticed that Horner's pro cess ym much 
abridges the labour of Lagrange's method, as much indeed aa 
Hdoes that of Vieta's exegesis, and for the same reason. Mr. 

Exiey, of Bristd, in the • Impend Encydoiadia,* viidi 
ABiTHianc, Improved (aocordmg to Hereer hinself ) ths 
common method of extracting the cube root, so ss to pit(fd« 
Horner in this particular ease. We bdieve mors tCa o^ 
method had been given for redudng the enoraioMUboar of tW 
ordinary extraction of the cube root : we may BMotioa am, 
which IS ingenious and efiective, and dmost esactlj • pn! 
ticular caae of Horaer^s method, given by Mr. A. Input, a 
his edition of Hutton's Arithmetic, Hawick, 1811, 8vo : ^ 
Mr. Homer himself refera to an edition of Melrose'i Antli. 
metic, by Mr. Ingram (the same, we suppose) u coatauuM 
such a method. 

Mr. Horaer'a paper was read to the Boyd Sodetvoo the i« 
of July ^ 1819, and was published in the eurreat vdoms ot tic 
Transactions, on the 1st of December. Tbfie dstn uv id 
importance : the publication of the above paper wss the nrtk 
for more than one person to make a niblMing dsim to t^ 
invention. Mr. Horner was unfortunate in two poioti. Ftm, 
he had not suifident knowledge of antient dadn to be nm 
that his method contdned the process of Vieta, sad Uut &■• 
red cldm condsted in the discoveiy of the beaatifol pnci% 
by which the labour is immensely reduced, and coapiftnr 
systematiaed. Secondly, he appean to desire to be the u^jc 
rather than the arithmetidan, and will not show snvthisf fi. 
cept to those who can take dl. It ia true, be;foods mbt, xul 
his method is adapted to eveir sort of equation, and tint d j 
as great a hdp to tlie person who desires lo sdve tu x-oxsi*. 

BX, as to the other who wants nothittg but s tomtn 

dgebrdcd equation. So for, then, it is more thsa Virtii 
method simplified ; it is the same dso extended. But if lv 
inventor baa proceeded from simple dgebra to the more cm- 
plicated cases, his merits would have been more noidlr t^ 
predated. He did not well aee that his mode of vSuiK* 
applies ss well to the integer part of the root si to the tnr- 
tiond ; nor did he folly comprehend how moeh of hit (m 
discovery condsted in the generd mode of cdcdttia^ o 
vdue of 4^f as riven at the beginning of this srtide. Ik: 
that we may not do him injustice, and still more thst we «« 
enable those of our readers who have not access to the onr-3- 
paper to see how completely he had got hold even of the im: 
convenient arithmetical process, we give his solutioa of tt' 
famous Newtonian instance a:*— 2x=5. After reduonc ^ 
root by 2, the heads of his columns are 1, 6, 10, sad 1 (tk 
first colunm, which is d ways vacant, he does oot »i doviv 
He then annexes either dots or dphera, and prooeedi eurJr 
as follows 










62 74 






• . 1 62 82 








4 92 


















As soon as Mr. Homer's paper had bees jmbrdwd « 
months appeared ' A new Method of Sulring EqustioB*.' » 
Theophilua Holdred, London. 1820, (preface dated Joae I 
4to. The method is taken from Harnot ; and a npp!fic«i 
is added, which gives Homer's method. Both m dbuMd m 
independent mventions, and Homer's name is not ateoooc^. 
Mr. Hddred asserts that, after having had his mediod for 
forty yeara, he was led to that in the sopplesMut* bf > k'*' 
take he committed b solving an eqaation amt him bjf oo^ **< 
his subscribers. We hare given, ia the artide of the *Cms- 
panion to the Almanac,* dready dted, our ntmn ht oov^f 

• W« flUBot bat belWvv «]MtlCr. HoUnd dU tMlfe.liaMr'b m" 


b* mraUoacd It, uid Um bw« of th* mbnibOT, hh l y i rtw . i^ "^* 
papar, IM Bight h««« poMttAy MtahUAaA ft dri« !• te • mbspA to^«* 


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I N V 


I N W 

rirr|4 the lUili trhnolnitftcr, ever broii|rhi fonrtnl lUidan^t 
»•»• or anr ntrnftion of it, cither from Budan, or indc- 
1- rMi.-iiilv. to the iropmrrmrnt of Vieta. Fourier had seen 
lUjUir« iH>i>k. and hofl invmtcMj a roethoil of his own ofsMlr- 
iii;r r<|tMtifKi« ; or mtiier had fp>en hm own mode of condiirc- 
i:./ N I* wt'in'i approximation; but tiiit method ii far Mow 
I i! of Ilomrr. 

Wv Uaw written ao much on the dinroTcry of this method, 
U <.<»i«i* iinrAir attempts were made by claimants who had no 
t.ili' whatever to drpri%e the author, who was a man of real 
i-iiiiii«, ut hi* nirhts o^rr hi«own discovery. We refer to M M. 
lii<Mn'<l ami Nichol«im : tliouirh we do not believe the second 
^ I* Ln<<\»in}:ly unfair. Mr. At)iin«on, when he first saw the 
* Ufkn-likurmte methtMl/ (as some called the subject of this n^ 

IH*r«) law and haul that it was a ' canital improvement,* We 
u«e written aU> Ixvause it can hardly yet be said that mathe- 
nutiiHans are alive to the value of this f^ruid completion of the 
•r«ti'm ofarithmctir. The continental writers show noknow- 
l.'.'-T of it ; the O&ford and Cambridge elementary works do 
not yrt nM<n,Tii«e its existence. The fact is, that mathcma- 
ti«« i)i%like culcuUtiun, and are apt to form ha&ty opinions 
on fuimerical methotU l>eforc they have pven them sufficient 
trial. The first elementary writer who brought Homer's 
UM thoil into imtruction was Mr. (now PruretAur) Young, in 
hi< * KlemmtJ of Alcrebra/ publidhed in 1823. 

In 1*«5|, ehM<«n years after this method was published, ap- 
iMMml Fourier*! ^MKithumoua work on equations, containing an 
eitendt'd u<tr of Newton's methrKJ. It amounts to employing 
0a, f'a.h, \i>"a,h*t &c., to calculate the value of (a+A), 
and j/a^ A^aM, &e., teparateiy^ to calculate ^ (a+A) ; and 
s>> on. Courier was an exjiert arithmetician, and in this very 
Work «hows his |)o«er of »u^'ut>sting new forms ofarithmetiiid 
pnict>«« ; but he du(>s not conio near anything like making the 
pr«*«ii«i« cahulalion of 0^*^ (a+A) give assistance to that of 
•" ' (o+A). The equation x*— 2r=5, which Wallis hap- 

Cne«l to take as his instance of Newton's method, has always 
rn the example oo which numerical aolvera have shown 
thrtr )N>wer. No one can be said to have carried a method 
hcyiNid those which preceded, unlcaa be has solved this equa- 
titNi to more places tlian they have done. Fourier went to 
ttiirty*two decimal places, which we do not know that anv one 
hati duoe before. Some students of University College, 
l/tndciQ, (and one of King's College) none exceeding eighteen 
yean of age, carried Homers proceM further still, Uieir bde- 
pendrot ralculatiooa giving, aa the root to 62 figures ; — 

Mr. Nicholson gives, aa the work of a jroong oompater, the 
fuUowing «oluti(m of 

4j' + 74* + 0i4+6x*+&i* + 3jrB793 




is, liat 

We have left entirely out of sight all the irrelevant 
tntterty relating to the method of finding the limits of the 
n^it«. c<»n'Ku'ting tl»e prr>cess when two roots are nearly equal, 
bo<l «> on. The cUims of Budan, Fourier, Homer, ic, are 
here mi ted up in a manner which rrauires a sifUng investigm- 
tiofi. Very tnH)uct)tly the value of Homer's method is stated 
as de|ai*nding u|M>n (minU of this kind. When any of the 
d'MStiul ca«es ari«e, which we noticed at the beirinning of this 
a'lH )e, we find, for oum>lves, that the ease with which re- 
(M*at<^ tnals are made by Horner's proiTw gives us more 
fimmand of the^ que«ti<ins than anything el^; in laet 
Fourier's theorem r^m'mii'a TuaoEui, P. C\] is very easily 
ImMjicht to bear by means of it. But it most be admitted, that 
all OH-thoda which tn any way include the Newtonian apnroxi- 
matioo art tn|irrf«'<rt, when roots are nearly equal, in not 
bavin,; a better addititm to the root o alrrady obtained than 
<— ^ : ^'o. Let a better method come, and we have no doubt 
thai Homer*! pmrras is more itwdy to make eai^ use of It than 
any other. A fttuilrnt w ho is verr slow at finding out the trial 
fik^urra of rtmiOMio diti«tiiQ, aiight aa rrasooabiy depreciate 
tfie rule of divumu altnirt^thrr. as quarrel with Homer's method 
kiv^ase there is now and then a diffv-olty in ascertaining 
wh«*thrr or n<> mi*re lion one fi^'^re will do ti» proceed with. 
Tim* d !h<u!ty rou%t et'^t m every metlMjd, as matters 
n *w Mill In tl«e meanwhile, we think tlie discoverer of 
tl»e |inM>*«i, w hM h i« now brmnninz to take iti {imper pla<Y. de- 
arrvw att* nti<«Y to hif rvt^uest wh«'0 he aavt. tpeakiog of the 
•fiL«v«irii*t (•«'rn* whuh hiil •tarla'^l up *' All 1 a^k of them 

.«:■ < M«.«iif \Jk:\* Hi M^'rmt I Miliar (nr the fai ilit)r« con*ipnid to 

their use in the non-figunte method, ia Ic oar m 
1 alone am the author of it.'* And ve tenna 
whatever, and arc willing to stake our credit «|m 
when the inertia of the higher mathfmatirism ta 
computation is overcome, and when tha mndt of aolvi^ c«^u*. 
tions has reached the schooUx»vs, aa it ia rapidly domg, u^ 
name of Homer will be one of the hoasehold wowfa of |«<'r 
arithmetic, and himself looked upon aa one of the greslnt • • 
its modem benefactors. Justice requirea that b« naoke sbia»..i 
remain attached to his process, 

IN WOOD, the fantily name ol throe architecta, lather ar. 1 
two sons, who constmcted many public Mid pnvala bttil«.i:t^« 
iiS London a&d elsewhere. 

WiixiAM lawooo was bom about the ytM 1771. H»« 
father, Daniel Inwood, was bailiff to Lord Manafi«M, m 
Caen Wood, Highgate, near London. William Inwood wm 
brought up to the professions of architect and aonreyar. H« 
was employed as steward to Lord Colchoster, ww surveyor \* 
a large number of persons, and several architecta now V«. ,r 
were instmcted by him. He had two aoos, one or o(h»r . 
whom was employed conjointly with himaelf in noat <4 I % 
larger works ot architecture, and he was assisted gcnermLv ta 
all his professional pursuiu by both. He died Maorrh'l**, 
1843, ami about acventy-two. He waa the author of * Tai^ % 
for the Purchasing of Estates, Freehold, Copyhold, or Ijmm^ 
hold ; Annuities, and for the Renewing of Leasee Md nndrr 
Cathedra] Churches, CoUegea. or other eor pu i ala Bodica. j.r 
Terms of Yearscertainand for Livca, &c,' LoMhrn, 1811, »••• 
a woHl founded on those of fiaily and Soavt. It gnvv- 
pally differs Irom previoua works in giving tha vahMa to y cwra 
and quarters, as well as to decimal of a year ; the liner 
being intended for those who cannot read dectaml frnrti^M. 

HasTBT WiixuM LrwooD, the eldest aon of W;*i«aB 
Inwood, waa bom May 22, 1794. He wm br«i«fcl ap c-v 
his father to his own professions. He ww aavcrd ymn 
in Greece, and examined with great care tha arduiwCArai 
remains at Athens and elsewhere, and made plaM and draw- 
ings of them. He assisted his fiither in noat of Iw arrhui^ . 

tural pursuiu, especially in designing and 

Pancms Church, and had ha not suffered so nodi aa Im* . i 

for many yean from ill health, would probably have artau^^ 

to great eminence as an architect Hia death ia aappu»<^ :« 

have occurred March t20, 1843, about which tiaa a si p .- 

which he had sailed for Spain waa wrecked, and all en Uv. 


Ucniy Inwood published m 1627 * The EiwthcMn aa 
Athena, FragmenU of Athenian Architecture, &e., UhiBbasr^: 
with TbirtT-nine Platea.' The work, which ooaakto «f 1* . 
pagea exclusive of tha plataa (engraved by-Nic^obon . m 
printed on elephant paper of very krga aiaa, and was |mr»- 
liahcd bv subscription. He had also i^«— >f»*- *«i % wwk re^ 
titled * ()f the Resources of Design in tha Arcfciiaciarv . / 
Greece, Egypt, and other Countries, obtained fay the 2^ • 
of the ArchitecU of thoae Countries from Natore,' 4«a. l^m^ 
don, 1834, with explanatory engravings. Two parts w«r- 
publishcd, but owing to ill health and bis antiaiely draih t.v 
work was never completed. Ha oolkctad many fiamsla mmt 
remains of antient art, moat of which are now in tfce Bru.^ 

CnxBua FasDmc Ijtwood, aeeood aon of Wu .^ 
Inwood, bora November 28, 1798, bemdas mrngjam i • 
&ther in his works, was the architect of tha cbadi ui A J 
Saints at Great Marlow, In Buckinghamshire, whic^ «« 
com|4cted in 1835. He also built the St PanoM NatuM^ 
Sdiool, in Southampton Street, Euatoa Square, a larf^ ^Mm 
brick building of little architcctunl prvtcnsian. Ue djad m 
Mar, 1840, aged fortv-two. 

St Panctas Church, New Road, London, whsck wm U^ 
cot^oint work of William Inwood and his sea Henry, m m ^ 
kind and In iu peculiar beauties aniqae among the iIimi u a 
of the metropolis. The building waa nwamcnrid J^^ I 
1819, was comoleted May 7, 1829, and cost 76,7«if Yw 
exterior of the oody of the ehnreh ia, with entain arri^ i 
deviationa, an imitatioo of tha Ionic Irnple caDad iIm* Crwww 
theioo on the Acrojxdis at Athena rEancmtsoa, P. C t^ 
tower is an ailaptation from the building eomaaonly eriWd *9m 
Tower of the Winds, alao at AtheM, which Is fivpaHy 
Hofologium, or water.clock, of Andronirna CjrrHsasaaa. 
mraauremenu and drawings of these haiMiafs ware n^dr '-n 
Henry Inwood on the spot Tha semkirewlar afam m c^ 
ea«t end ot the church supplies tha place of the ifimaht ««wa 
wall of the Pandmaioo, or temple of ftodraaas, wkara ih 
fjinH the KftNthemn at the west end TV tw« 'i ««-«^ 

I w 


I O W 

fvild^t which project from each ode of the east end, form- 
ifg the entrances to the cataoomba of the church, are adapta- 
QODfl from the scmth portico of the FSandrosion The caryatid 
figuRs, of which there were six, four in front and one at 
cadi ^, were m the place of columns, and supported the 
peduBCDt of the sooth portico of the Pandrodon ; the opposite 
north portioo had columns. There is one of the onginal 
tarytjd figures in the Elgin Room of the British Museum* 
The aveo^isguB boieath each roof indicates the purpose for 
which the projecting buildings have been constructed. The 
two looic half columns eng^^ in the widls on both sides of 
the west end are additions made to form an apparent basis for 
the tower. The windows are adaptations moaelled in accord- 
iDoe with the form of the doors. Grecian temples had no win- 
dows ; krge temples had a central portion of the roof open to 
the sky; small temples general] j receiTcd light only from the 
door, which waa wide and lofty. The octagonal tower, with 
it! two ranges of eight columns each, in its form and general 
eflect, eombines weu with the building and portico, and is in 
itRlf so object of peculiar beauty. In the interior the gal- 
lories are supported by very elegant slender columns. The 
«^iog is flat, and formed into a number of ornamented pan- 
neb. The general efiect of the interior is good, though 
nther deficient in light, espedally below the galleries, from 
the mall size of the windows. 

The Westminster Hospital, near the west end of West- 
minster Abbey, was built by William Inwood in conjunction 
with his son Charles. It was begun in 1832, completed in 
1834, and cost 27,500/. The architecture is Tudor Gothic, 
the material is giay Sufiolk brick, with stone facings. It is 
quite plain except the front and the truncated angles which 
coonect the front with the two ends. The front extends 
shoot 200 feet in length, and is 72 feet high in the centre, 
which (rmects ^ghtly and is a story higher than the two 
wings. The entrance is by a ffight of stairs beneath a large 
stone porch conatracted in three dirisions with flat pointed 
trtbes, enriched pinnacles, and other appropriate ornaments. 
AboTe the porch is an oriel window wnich extends to the 
height of the two upper stories ; and at each of the trun- 
cated sngles is an onel window similar to the one over the 
porch. The flat windows are deeply indented, and are 
dirided mto four equal compartments by a muUion and ti^- 
foia, but the two upper compartments are distinguished from 
the two lower by trabil tracery at the tops, and each window 
is sormooited by a weather-moulding. There are in all 260 
windows. The brick harmonizes well with the stone portico 
ssd drearings, and the general appearance of the front is very 
hsndsome. Perhaps the battlemented parapet may be ob- 
jected to as inappropriate to the purposes of tne building, and 
M less handsome tnan a parapet or open-work would have 
been, nmilar, for instance, to that of Westminster Abbey in 
the part which has been renewed, where such a pierced para- 
pet occnpiea the place of ^e old battlement The interior 
anangenients and ventilation are excellent. There are 19 
wiids and about 250 beds. 

William Inwood also built the Regent Square Chapel, 
opened in 1826 ; the Camden Town Chapel, opened in 1824 ; 
tnd Somers Chapel, in Seymour Street, opened in 1826, all 
of which are chapels of ease to St Pancras Church. He also 
boilt numerous other structures, mansions, villas, barracks, 
webooses, &c. 

(Written Communication; Compamon to the Almanac; 
Knight's London; * Elgin Marbles,' in Library of Enter- 

IOWA, a territory of the United States of North America, 
n bounded on the west by the Missouri river and the White 
Rock river ; on the east, by the Mississippi and a line drawn 
diiect north from the sources of the Mississippi to the Lake 
of the Wooda ; on the north, b^ the parallel of 40° N. lat , 
which separates it from the British possessions ; on the south, 
bj the parallel of 40^ 8^ N. lat, which separates it from 
the State of Missouri. The area iias been estimated at 
900,000 square miles, which b nearly four times the area of 
Eo^rland, exdosive of Wales. 

Of the northern part of the territoiy a very laree portion is 
cocviMed by a vast extent cyf high ground, oUled the Coteau 
des Pruriea, which commences about 48^ N. lat, and termi- 
aaUs about 4S^ N. lat, extending in width more than fifty 
Biles between 98° W. long., and 99° W. long. This huge 
nasi, which ia said to rise mora than 1000 feet aboTO the sur- 
TQusding ooontry, has generalljr a rounded surface, with few 
irregularitiea, and is for the most part destitute of treea. East 
of the Colean des Prairies i an extensive valley, lu wnich 

the Red River runs northward to Lake Winnipeg, and the St 
Peter's River south-east and then north-east to the Mississippi. 
West of Coteau des Prairies is a broad vallev of prairie land 
traversed by the James River, and this valley is separated 
from the Missouri by a high range of ground similar to the 
Coteau des Pnuries. The upper parts of both of these great 
river-valleys have been estimated to be more than 1000 feet 
above the level of the sea. The rest of the coimtry between 
the Mississippi and the Missouri contains no mountains noi 
even hills or large size, but consists of rounded sweeps witn 
broad valleys in which rivers flow, the upland tracts being 
connected with the valleys by gentle slopes. Belts of forest 
occur near the rivers, especially contiguous to the Mississippi 
and the Missouri, but the rest of the country either consists 
of prairies or is covered with brushwood. The south-east 
part of the territory, which is the only part in which the 
settlers are numerous, and where the lands have been sold by 
the federal government, is generally undulating, interspersed 
with timber-lands and prairies, and abounding m springs and 
streams. This tract, which is very fertile, extends from the 
Des Moines River south to the Turkey River north, and 
westward from the Mississippi fifty or sixty miles to the 
Indian boundary. 

In Iowa there are numerous rivers, which rising in the ele- 
vated ^unds of the northern parts of the territoiy, flow 
respectively eastward into the Mississippi, westward and 
southward into the Missouri, and northward into the British 
possessions Those which flow into the Missouri are com- 
paratively small, except the James River, which has a course 
southwaHs of upwards of 400 miles, and falls into the 
Missouri where that river flows to the east some distance 
below Grand Detour. Of the rivers which fall into the Mis- 
sissippi, one of the largest is the Des Moines River, which is 
navigable for 300 miles from its mouth at the south-eastern 
extremity of the territory. Next in size is the St Peter's 
River with its numerous tributaries, which rises in the Big- 
Stone Lake, flows about 300 miles south-east, then about 200 
miles north-east, and falls into the Mississippi a little below 
the Falls of St Anthony ; its course is very winding, so that 
if measured in a straight line, its len^ perhaps does not 
exceed 300 miles. The Skunk River, the Lower Iowa, with 
its affluent the Cedar River, the Wabepisipimecon Biver, the 
Great Maoooquetois River, the Turkey River, and the Upper 
Iowa, are also rivers of lar^e size. Of the rivers which flow 
northward the Red River is the largest ; it rises in the same 
valley as the St Peter's River, in Luie Travers, which is near 
the Big-Stone Lake, and has a course of from 300 to 400 
miles northward before it enters the British possessions, 
through which it flows to Lake Winnipeg. In the most 
northern and north-eastern part of the temtoiy, though the 
elevation above the sea is not much less perhaps than 1000 
feet, the country is flat and swampy, and there are numerous 
lakes. There is a lead-mine dbtrict in the south-eastern 
part of the territory, and considerable quantities of the metal 
are obtuned. 

There are no towns yet of sufficient size to require descrip- 
tion; the largest are Burlington, Bloomington, Iowa citv, 
Du Buque, and Fort Madison. There is a newspaper pub- 
lished at Burlinffton. Iowa, the capital, is in 4^ 28' N. 
lat and 13° 46^ W. long, from Washington. 

Iowa was constituted a territory by an Act of Congress, 
dated June, 1838, and the government commenced July 4, 
1838. It was then divided into sixteen counties, and the 
population, according to the census, was 22,859 ; in 1840 the 
population was 43,112; in 1844, it had become 81,920, a 
rapidity of increase probably exceeding that of any other 
state or territory in the Union. 

The legislative power is vested in a governor, a council of 
13 members elected for two years, and a house of represen- 
tatives consisting of 26 members elected annually. The 
governor's salary b 2,500 dollars a year, and there is a secre- 
tary who receives 1,200 dollars a year. The members have 
three dollars a day, and three dollars for every twenty miles 
of tiavellbg. There are three judges, who are appointed for 
foiur years, and who each receive 1,800 dollars a year; the 
territory is divided mto three judicial districts, in which the 
judges perform circuit duties ; the supreme court, composed 
of fdl the judges, meets annually in July at Iowa city. Con- 
gress vot«i 20,000 dollars for the ercctiin of public buildings 
at the seat of ffovemment, for which Burlington was first 
chosen, but it naa been since fixed at Iowa city, where the 
legislative assembly meets annually on the 1st of December. 
Congress voted also 5000 dollars towards the purchase of a 

P 2 



I R R 

Iftiwy. TiM lOTiloffy MBdt«M MCmWioike 
Hoaw of RiPcwmttliiw 

On llM M of April, 1S44, tU peopfe of lova piMd a 
VOC9, by ft Hjority orS^iOO, fo hmang th« Terriloiy ioto ft 
8tat», which the/ were colhled to do when the popolfttioo 
reftrheil^.OOO. A conveotioD Bel k October, foraed ft con- 
etitotioQ, ftfl efW ftf di Mboiitted it to Coogrett, and dftimcd to 
be ftdmitted into the Unkm as ft Siftte. A kw was peawd by 
Confrrtai for thel purpote, Mftrch S, 1846, which fiied the 
boufidftriea of the State thuf :— From the OMHith of the Det 
Moinea Rtver to a pftralld of Utitode pu*ing thnmgh the 
movth of the Mnkftto, or Bloe-Eftrth River ; thence west 
•kmfr thia pftralld of latitude to where it la interKcted by a 
meridiaa line 17^ «/ W. froa Wathinirtoii ; thence due tooth 
to the northern boondaryJine of the Sute of Mianori ; thence 
east akng that bonndarr to where H mterMcta the Det 
Moinea RIfer. The Blue-Earth Rirer IhlU into the St. 
Ptfter't Riirer near the pofait where the St. Peter't changet itt 
oome from toath-eart to north-eaaL The boundftrice fiied 
br Coogmt not only tery greatly re/nced the tin of the 
Territory, aa waa eapected, hot diflered to materially from 
the hnondftrira propoted by the conTentioo, that the people of 
Iowa refuted to be fonneo into a State on the conditiont laid 
down in the Act of Congrctt, and Iowa therefore remaint ttill 
ft TnTitory. 

The quftntity of pnMie landt told in Iowa from 1838 to 
IM4 (hut faidoding only the two firrt ouartera of the latter 
year) waa 1,403,6:14 acrrt, which produced to the public 
trrmniy of the United Smtea 1,829,426 dollart, which it 
rather more than a dollar and a quarter per acre. There are 
ttill a great number of tquattert. 

The inhabitantt of the Territory of Florida had applied for 
admtiwion to the Union at a Sute« in January, 1S39, but the 
application waa not panted till Marrh S, 1845, when it wat 
eoQttitttted a ttate or the mme Act which would have ad- 
mitted Iowa. Floridi made no objection to the termt of ad- 
mittkm, and it t h e r e for e now one of the United Slatet of North 
America. A aketeh of the new conttitution of Floridn ftnd 
other pftrtimlari It giren under Usrrrao Srani or Noam 
Amsbica, p. C. 8. 

(American Almanart* 1839 and 1846; Buckingham't 
Amenea (EoHem tmd Wuttm State*), toI. ill. ; Gengrapky 
tf Amterim^ poUithed Ky the Utefiil Knowledge Society ; 
FIfait't Huior^ aad Gto^rapky tfiMe WeHttm StaimA 

IRIS, ft geout of planta the type of the natural order Iri- 
It hM a 

tabular perianth with a pelaloid 
iimh, the tegmenta of the tepalt revolute, often bearded, thote 
of the petalt erect and conrerving ; three ttament, concealed 
beneath the lobet of the ttyle ; the ttyle 3-parted near the 
upoer end with petaloid trgmentt ovcrarrhmg the anthere 
ana bearing a two-lipped trantverte ttigma below their endt ; 
the eaptule S-celM, bunting through the celb Into three 
valvet, eot ia ceow, with nmnenrat flbt or round and flethy 

nwmni/or, Blue Flag, hat tword-thaped ttriated learet 
the baae, a ttem two or three feet high, round 
«i one tide and acvte on the other, and bearing from two to 
tia flowfta. lliii nlant it a natire of twampt and wet men- 
dowa in the United Statet. The rootttock hat a nanteout 
ftCfid mate. It actt at a cathartic, and itt action b attended 
with great depretiioo of the ncnout tyttem and prottration 
of Mfwigth. It alto acta upon the kidncyt, and it meful In 
Otat where diuretire are indMmtcd. 

/. pmmd anoi'M, Yellow Flag, hat fword-ahaped learet; 
the ttem immd ; perianth beardlrat, itt inner argmenta nar- 
rower and thorter than the itifrmm. It it a natiTo of wet 
pheet la Great Britain, France, (tfrmanr, and mott eoontriet 
af Caropa. The rootttock b tend and pomr m et aa emetic 
ami porgfttive ftrtion. The tecdt when roettod are laid to 

kto tMll faaUa it b uMd for imai pirn. AmHi^ to 8i^ 
thorp thb plant b fomd in Graaea al the pnaaat ^y. It « 
the Ipit of Hippoerataa ( Jforft. MmL^ t, 973) Md ifaa V»« 
AXtfiei^ of Thaophfwtnt (BiM. Pimi., 7, 19). 

/. fiUidUnma^ Stanking Fli^, hat award thapad lcn«f«. 
the ttem compremed, the pmanth baardlcta, ill imwr •rr- 
mentt about at long m the ttigroaa. Thb plant b a naiivr . i 
Great Britain and other porta of Europe. It bat a ppcul «r 
tmell, which tome have compared to roatt beef, bat «b<rh i^ 
othert tuggetta onich lem pleamat amncblinnt. It a ti * 
^t dTfMa of Th^phrwtat (Hisi. Phtd,^ 9, S) and Ct^-i «./ 
Diotcoridca (4, IS). 

/. tMherom hat letrmonal learet, the tegmanu of th«- ;i»^ 
rianth acute, the roota taberote. It b not a lomma n ima- \ 
in Europe, hot hat been nataralbedat Praaanca \m Corw*» . 
and near Cork in Ireland* 

Many other tpedet of Irit hare been deacrifaad. /. Ce^- 
wmmiea hm been oted for the tame pm pote t at /. Fhttmimm^ 
and ther are contidenBd by toate botanitu at iden^eal. T »«- 
roota of many of them cootato ttarch, and Pallaa atyt tka: 
the roott of 7. dkkotoma are eaten in Siberia. /. tidblu w 
eaten by the llottentota of Africa, where it b called OmJkfn 
All thcee tpeciea are cultirated in gardana om wmr^^t U 
handtorae thowy flowen. 

(Frtas, Synopsis Florm Chuicm; lindley, FUm Me* 
dica ; Sibthorp, Fhn» Ormea ; Babington, Mmsmi^Bm^Mk 
Botany: Burnett, OntHnes of Botany.) 

IR^H MOSS. [CcnuBiA Iauun>icA, P. C. 8l ; Sk* 

W««D«, P. C] 

p. 895.] 

IRRADIATION denotca, property, the iwibtinn ol m«» 
from a luminoua object, but the word b generally need a» » j- 
nify an apparent enlargement of the ditc of a ce l et t iai hfi% 
thb enlargement being canted either by a deriatioa of tk^ 
rayt of light from a rectilinear direction, or by tome tl.MtBa 
anting from the action of light on the eye. 

When rtyt of light from pointa at the tnrfoce of nm mk^rr^ 
foil on the retina, there may be nro du ced on the bttor om t^^ 
tation extending within tkiort mttanoet about the pnmm %» 
which the rayt in the pendb are made to e ou tei g e by tW 
humoura of the eye : hence there majjr i 
fringe or border about a hnti 
apparent enlargement of toch body, 
ttar, when aeen by the eye, appeart to be a dbe of i 
magnitude, inttead of a mere pomt ; which, on armmit etf* itt 
remotenem, would be the caae if the m^ of each pamnl ptm^ 
duced no eAect beyond their mathematjcal point « eoa««nr- 
ence : the diac of the aun or of the moon b eonccivad to uv 

may ariae a perorptMi eif a 
body, and oonaaqncBtS? am 
dy. Tbua the homm^'^ a 

in like manner, apparentiy enlarged ; aa 
of the moon whica, when the latter b nearty new, la enl^s 
ened by the tun, appean to bea portion of a tphera of gmmr^ 
diameter than the part which b mora fointly enlifblifd t« 
the rayt reflected from the earth. 

A tpeciet of inadbtion b canted by the blending taifvtWr . 
upon tne retina, of the circlet of light produced by the pamn- • 
which foil upon it either before or aAer the rayt m oac^ Voi i 

coorerged to a point ; the humoura of the eye no 
that convergence to take place exactly on the 
[EaLAaoaaiKBrr or Owam, P. C. 8.1 

Before the inTention of telcacx>pct, tne apparent ( 

m a good tofawtoto for cofler. 

/. Fhrmstum, Florrntina Irit^ 
fokmto laana iharter than the ttem, the petaU two inrhet 
leog ami one Inch broad, reflcted at the edge and rather 
plaited towardi the baae. The dried rontttock b known hi 
the dtopa noder the name of orru-root. The plant it a na. 
ttee of the aoothctn partt of Europe and the itlandt of the 
Med it e rra nean. The rootttork hat an arotrntic odour and 
anfaarrid tatto, and b amplored m a dentifrice. It entrra into 
the compoiitiaa of Roapmi a tincture and tooth*powder, end 
ether popular dentifrieet. It wat at one time wed in medi* 
cina and admitmd into the Britiah Phagamrnpii im Tbaftuth 
ft pafgalive, and wnt abo employed at an 
mm aftha cheat. When dried and 

of celettiai bodice were very e r roneu u tly ' 

Tycho Brahe mode the diameter of Venua tweire liman. ^ f 

Kepler made it leireo timea m great w it b now knann to bv 

Teletcopet do not entirely remove the ante of t 

but, b^ diminithing the apparent brightnem of the I 

error m the ettimation of their apparant magmUadaa b j 

tionally dimtnithed. Do S^jour, Lesell, mid oihar a 

mera, on comparing the calculated with the obanrvnd i 

the oontactt of the aun and moon In edipam of tha 

have, in order to jwoduce an a gr ee m ent between them 

it necemarv to diminish the a|iparmt aemidiamrtofe a€ aJ 

luminariet or 3^ minulet each ; on aoeount, it b ms^fmnmi^ 

the eflcrtt ol irradiation. 

It b a contequmoe of irradbtion, thai obbcto whtrh mw 
reality of equal magnitudet ap|«ar freq u ently to diibr in ^ 
according to their colour or to the quantity of KglM wk-a- -^ 
folU upon them. Sir Willbm Ilerachcl iiwiid (!'%•» 
Traitf., I?(i3) Umt when a bright ctrrla waa viewed ligiii i, 
with a dark one on a bright gionad, tha latter alwuyv «^^ 
peered amaUer than tha oMier; and, bi ordtr to earv— -> «^ 
a r r w e uu B ertinmto of tha magnitodea of the 
templet when theyara teen againat abriyhl ( 

I s o 


I U L 

tiiat theandents ouiide the thidmess of the columna to increase 
)>roportiona]lT to the diitenoe between them. The reason as- 
Rgned for this practice by Vitru^iu (* De Architectura,' lib. 
3, cap. 2) is that the colamns with wide intervals, being more 
surrounded hy the air than those which are closer, appear 
on that accoont to be more slender : it must be observed, 
however, that the perceptions of magnitude depend partly on 
those of distance ; and a contrary effect frequently takes place 
with objects viewed agunst the sky when conceived to be 
more remote than they really are. 

ISCHY'ODUS, a genus of fossil fishes included m Chi- 
ma?rs by Aeumz. 

ISNARDIA, a ^us of plants named by Linnaeus in 
memory of M. Antome Dante Isnard, member of the Aca- 
demy of Sdenocs. It belongs to the natural order Onagrarieae, 
and has a 4-clefl calyx, 4 petals, 8 stamens, and a filiform 
style, with a clavate or cruciform stigma. There is one 
British spedes of this genus. 7. pahtstris has a procumbent 
rooting glabrous stem, opposite ovate acute leaves, terminating 
in a petiole axillary solitary sessile flowers, witii the petals 
absent It is found in pools and marshes in Europe, Sioeria, 
and Persia, and in Sussex in England. 

/. aUent^oUa has an erect branched stem, alternate leaves, 
riitber scabrous on the margins, and hoarv beneath. It is a 
native of Virginia and Carolina, in marshy places, and has 
o%al yellow petals. Tlic root is used as an emetic, and is 
called Bowman*s Root. 

None of the species of this genus possess qualities which 
eutiUe them to cultivation except in botanical gardens. They 
may, however, be reared in a hot-bed, and then planted in an 
open border in a moist situation. 

(Don, Gardeners Dictionary; Babington, Briitsh Ba- 

ISOCHROMATIC LINES are tiiose coloured rings 
which appear when a pencil of polarized light is transmitted 
along the axis of a crystal, as mica or nitre, and is received in 
the eye afterpassing through a plate of tourmaline. If a plate 
of ni'tre havmg its surfaces nerpendicular to the axis or the 
oitoral prism, and highly polished, be placed between two 
plates of tourmaline having their axes at right angles to one 
another, and a lens of short focus be placed so as to transmit 
the light of the sky through the plates to the eye of the 
observer, that focus railing a litUe oelow the surface of the 
nitre, the rays of light will be polarized by passing through 
the first plate of tourmaline, and there will be seen a series of 
ova] rings, about each of two points as poles, forming together 
figmies which may be considered as resembling lemniscates. 

By the nature of the lemniscatc, the rectangle contained by 
two lines drawn from the poles to any point in the curve is 
constant ; and the curves have received their designation from 
the circumstance that the tint of any one is represented by 
the er|oiyalent of such rectangle for that curve : when the 
light is viewed through plates of nitre of different thicknesses, 
the tint depends also on the thickness of the plate. 

The curves are conceived to exist on the surface of a sphere 
of which a point in the crystal is the centre ; and when the 
optical axes of the crystal are at a considerable distance from 
nne another, if tiie curves be projected on a plane, the tint 
in each conre will depend on the product of tbe sines of the 
angles subtended by two lines drawn from the poles to a point 
in Its periphery, and also upon the length of the patn de- 
scribed by a ny of light in passing through the crystal. 
LSOCRINrTES, a genus of Crinoidea (Goldfuss). 
I'SOETES (from 7^?, equal, and iros, year), a cryptogamic 

?iius of plants, belonging to the natural order Lycopodiacese. 
be capsule of the plant does not open, and the fructification is 
encloKu within the swollen base of the leaves ; it has sporules 
of two kinds, which are attached to filiform receptacles. The 
organs of fructification in this plant are small cases, which 
are situated ift the angles formed .by the union of the leaves 
£&d the contracted stem ; those seated in the axillae of the 
outer or inferior leaves are divided into three cavities, contain- 
injr about fif^ spherical bodies (granules) ;^ the cases in the 
axillc of the internal or superior leaves are ai vided by numerous 
transverse partitions into many cavities, all of which are filled 
with an impalnably fine powder, in the early stages of its 
development wnite, but suosequcnUy becoming black. 

Tbeapedes of laoetes grow at the bottoms of ponds and lakes, 

sad are said to a^rd excellent food for fish. They are called 

Quillwfyrts from the nuh or quill-like appearance of the 


X. taauinif Quillwort, has subolate roundish-quadrangular 

leaves with four longitndfaial jdnted tabes. The riilzoma of 
this phmt is a blunt tuber ; the leaves are slender, broad and 
flat at the base, but elsewhere between cylindrical and quadran- 
gular. It is found in Great Britain, at the bottom of lakes 
and ponds in hilly districts. The stmcture of the froctificn- 
tion of this plant, and other species of the gemis, is only im- 
perfectiy understood. It is on this account refered to Mar- 
silleaceas by some authors, and made to form an independent 
order by others. Lindley refers it to Lycopodiacese, and ob- 
serves, ' I follow De Candolle and Brongniart, in referring it 
here. Delile has published an account of the germination of 
Isoetes setacea, from which it appears that its sporules sprout 
upwards and downwards, forming an intermediate solid body, 
which ultimately becomes the stem or oormus, but it is not 
stated whether the points from which tiie ascending and de- 
scending axes take tneir rise are uniform ; as no analogy in 
structure is discoverable between these spondes and seeds, it is 
probable that they are not. Delile points out the great 
affinity that exists between Isoetes and Lycopodium, particu- 
larly in the relative position of the two kinds of reproductive 
matter. • In Lycopodium,' he says, * the pulverulent thecse 
occupy the upper ends of the shoots and the granular thecie 
the lower parts; while in Isoetes the former are found in 
the centre and the latter at the circumference. If this com- 
parison is good, it will afford some eridence of the identity of 
nature of those thecs, and that the pulverulent ones are at 
least UQt anthers, as has been supposed ; for in Isoetes the 
pulverulent inner thecfe have the same organization, erea io 
the presence of whai has been called their stigma^ as tibe outer 
granular ones : so that if Isoetes has sexes, it wUl ofier the 
singular fact of its anther having a stigma.' 

(iSabington, Manual of British Botany ; Newman, History 
of British Ferns; JAndley, Naturai System; Burnett, Oat- 
lines of Botany,) 

ISO'TELUS, a genus of fossil Crustacea (Trilobites) from 
the Silurian strata, especially of North America (Green). 

ISSUE PEAS are round bodies employed for the purpose 
of maintuning irritation in a wound of the skin whicSi is 
called an issue. [Issca, P. C] It is a matter of indifference of 
what substance the peas are composed, so long as they do not 
introduce poisonous matters into the wound. The seed of the 
common garden pea is frequentiy used. It is however more 
common to use the younj? unripe friuts of the common orange 
{Citrus ata^antium). The fruits are dried and afterwaraa 
turned in a lathe before they are used as issue neas. The 
unripe oranges, dried, are sold under the name or orangsttea 
or Cura^ oranges. The rootstock of the Iris Florentina is 
also formed into peas and used for keeping up the dischaiige 
from issues. 

(Lindley, Flora Medica ; Christison, Dispensatory.) 

lU'LUS, a genus established by Linnseus for such Insecta 
Myriapoda as now form the order Chilognatha (xf IXof , Tvcftfoc), 
the first division of Myriapoda in the arrangements of Leflch 
and Latreille. The Oukiqnatha have crustaceous and usually 
cylindrical bodies, formed of numerous unequal segments, 
very short feet, each terminating in a sinele hook ; a vertical 
rounded head, furnished with two mandibles, which are either 
thick and robust or united with the labium and elongated. 
They have no palpi. The antennae are two, very short, 
either slightiy thickened towards their extremities, or filiform 
throughout, and composed usually of seven, more rarely (as 
in the genus Sphcefvponts) of six jmnts. Their eyes are 
smooth and vary greatiy m number. These animals move 
slowly and with a glidmg motion. When disturbed, they 
roll themselves up spirally, or into a ball. They feed on de- 
composing animal, and vegetable matter. 

Tno position assigned to the Chilognatha, at the head of the 
Myriapoda, by Latreille and others, has recentiy been dis- 
puted by Professor Brandt and by Mr. Newport. The fol- 
lowing remarks on this subject by the latter naturalist, of all 
living zoologists the most competent to decide in questions 
affecting this difficult dass, are taken from his catalogue of 
Chilognatha in the British Museum, published in the ' Annals 
of Natural History for April, 1844,^ and aflbrd hi a brief com- 
pass much information respecting these curious animals. 

* The Chilognatha have usuuly been regarded by natural- 
ists as the first order of Myrimoda, parti y in consequence of 
the more compact form of the Dead, and its similarity to that 
of the larva state of hexapod insects, and partiy from the 
general form of their bodies being similar to ^at of the larvae. 
This waa the riew taken of these animals by Latrdlle, Leach, 
Gervms, and some others, and very recentiy by Lucas. But 
a difierent and, as I believe, more correct view and arrange- 

I V o 


I V o 

voit hftve been fc^wed bjr IVofeiior Brandtt who regards 
the Chikpoda as the first, and the Chilognaika as the second 
diYisioQ of the ckH. Although I cannot entirely agree with 
Biandt in his division of the CMUoffmatha into masticating and 
socking species, because, ss Lucas has recentljr remarlscd, 
there are species eren aaong the ChUt^foda which have the 
eztenal oreans of nutrition fitted only for taking liquid food, 
aa m the fittle ScobpendreUa^ I fully agree with him in the 
saperiority of the Vhilopoda, as an order, over the Chi' 
iogMahOj notwithstanding the less compact structure of the 
head in the former. The general characters of the Chihpoda 
oertunly point them out as the most perfect animals of the 
osculant dass of Articulate. The more compact frame of 
body, the reduced number of the organs of locomotion, the 
greater activity, and the predaoeous habits of the higher 
•pedes, approximate the Cnilopoda to the predaoeous insects 
on the one hand, and to the Arachnida on the other. The 
form of the head, in the two divisions of Mvriapoda, seems 
to have reference chiefly to the particular habits of the spe- 
cies. Thus, in those wnich seize their prey and subsist like 
the Arschnidans on living objects, those segments which in 
reality compose the whole head are not all anchylosed tose* 
ther, but are in part freely moveable on each other, and thus 
allow of a more prehensile function to the lai^ forcipated 
foot-jaws, the true mandibles of the Articulate. Some natu- 
ralisti have believed that these foo^jaws in the ChUopoda are 
not the true analogues of insects and of CkUognatha; but I 
am satisfied, by recent examinations, that this is truly the case. 
In the Chilognaiha the footpjaws have the form of true man- 
dibles, because the habits of the species require that compact 
form of the orphan which alone can be subservient, not to the 
seizing and piercing of living prey, but to the grinding or 
oommmuting of more or less solid vegetable matter, on which 
most of the genera of CkUognatha entirely subsist In all 
other respects, both in their internal as well as their external 
anatomy, and in their phynolo^y and mode of growth, the 
CkUognatha are decidedly inferior to the CkUopoda, They 
seem to conduct us down to the Annelida from the vegetable- 
feeding Crustacea, as the CkUqpoeUi do from the Aracknidans 
to the same cbss.' 

The Chiiognathous Myriapoda are found in all parts of the 
world, certaiu genera, however, afiecting certain geographical 
divisions. Thus the species of Ghmeris are European ; those 
of Spirastreptus and Spkaeropaus African and Eastern. The 
genus /tiAtf, in its most limited sense, includes European, 
Anatic, and North American species. luius terrestris is a 
ftmiliar British example. 

A synopsu of the genera of Chilognatha will be found in 
the third part of the nineteenth volume of the * Linnaean 
Transactions,' appended to a valuable memoir on the Myria- 
poda by Mr. Newport. Professor Brandt*s papers on these 
animals are publisned in tiie ' Transactions ana Proceedings 
of the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg.' 

IVORY, JAMES, a distinguished British mathematician, 
was bom at Dundee, in 1765, and received the rudiments of 
education in the public schools of that town. At fourteen 
ears of age he was sent to the univerrity of St. Andrew's ; 
tu father, who was a watchmaker, intending that he should 
become a clergyman of the church of Scotiand. In that uni- 
versity the young man remained six years, during four of 
which he was occupied with the study of mathematics, lan- 
guages, and philosophy ; but the first of these subjects, from 
a natural inoination to that branch of science, particularly en- 
sagcd his attention : he was encouraged and ably assisted in 
his favourite pursuit by the Rev. John West, one of the in- 
atructors at the university ; and his great progress, which is 
aaid to have excited considerable notice, cave already indica- 
tions of the eminence which, as a mathematician, he was 
afterwards to attain. The two following years wero pa^ed 
m the study of theology ; and Mr. Ivory then i^moved, in 
company with Mr, (afterwards Sir John) Leslie, who had 
been his feUow-student at St Andrew's, to the university of 
Edinbui^h, where he spent one year in completing the course 
of study nxjuired as his oualification for admisnon to the office 
of minister m the Soottish church. 

It is not known what circumstances prevented Mr. Ivory 
from carrying out tiie intentions of his father in this respect ; 
but, on quittmg the university, in 1786, he accepted an ap- 
pointment as an assistant teacher in an academy then recently 
fstablished in Dmidee, and he continued to fidfil the duties of 
that nost during three yean. At the end of that time he en- 
gagea with some other persons in the establishment, at 
Doiiglastowu in Forfarshire, of a factory for spinning flax ; 


and of diis association he appean to have bMo Um amaid 
person. ^ ^ 

Duruiff fifteen years (from 1789 to 1804) Mr. Kory »,. 
employed daily in operations apparentiy very uncongtnij « '^ 
tije taste of a man of sdenoe; Imt it may be pitsumftl thu 
his leisure hours were devoted to the proaecutioo of tciit** v 
researches. It must have been at this time that, tbwurK * 
siding in a retired district, he diligentiy studied the «n . i 
of the English mathematidans, together with thoie oi \-. 
illustrious foreiffners whose works were hi the public lilnnM 
of Scotknd ; also that he obtamed access to, sod imk hie 
self thoroughly acquunted witii, the later produdioM uf t':r 
continental mathematiciaDS. 

It is scarcely to be expected tiiat a iiMSlory carried 00 im.!.r 
the superintendence of a man the greater part of mhtm \i» 
was probably spent in researches which requh^ ncariv i iLt,, 
abstnM^ion of the mind from the ordinaiy ooooenu of litr 
should have succeeded ; accordingly we find that b 1^ l, 
oomiMny ceased to exist ; and Mr. Ivory, who tiieo obtaiani '}. 
appointment to a professorship of mmematics b the Ri.-i, 
Military College, quitted Scotiand, and went to raiilr • 
Mariow, in Buckinghamshire, where that uistinitioo h^j . 
few years previously, been formed. On the removal rt t! 
college to Its present site (Sandhurst in Berkshire), Mr. I r. 
accompanied it to the latter place, where he remsinrd till *.>• 
retirement from public service. He fulfilled Uie dotirs rj - 1 
professorship to the great satisfaction of the governor i. . 
attention to the students who were placed under bim nu .% 
remitting; and it should be remarked that, however iri«-' 
it might have been to a man of high attainments in icirac 
communicate the elements of knowledge to young {nt^- - 
Mr. Ivory always evinced the utmost readioc« to 8ni«i, 
the most appropriate and familiar illustntkms, in mm^ii -' 
the path of science to hb pupils. An edition of Eu!i.> 
< Elements,' which is known to have been hb work, tiitn. 
his name does not appear on the titie-page, was prt*t«ntj 
him for the use of the students in the college ; and tbc nui-y 
m which ho has treated the book on proportion, and th - 
which relate to solids, must have greatiy diminished the J ^ 
culties which the generality of learners experience b Bf^{>. . . 
a knowledeo of those parts of elementary mathematics. 

In the beginning of the year 1819 Mr. Ivory, fwlinjr: 
health decline under the great exertions which be m»' 
carrying on hb scientific researches and performintr his -i 
as a professor, those duties leaving him but short inu-rtt:* * 
leisure, was induced to resign hb profcssor^ipsnd ni n 
private life. In conscqueuce of hb great merit tlu'^ >. 
granted to him the pension due to the full period »ii, 
the regulations, the civil officers of the institution ar<* n>. ' 
to serve previously to obtaining such i)cnsion ; ami « 
period he had not completed. After his retircmti.t , 
Sandhurst, Mr. Ivory devoted himself wholly to > :• - 
researches, and the results of his labours have botn i>^ 
chiefly in the volumes of the ' Philosophical Tnns • * 
In 1831, in consideration of the great talent disnUvMi < 
investigations, he was by Lord Brougham, to wtwm h* 
been known in early life, recommeudod to the king ^^ >< 
IV.), who, with the Hanoverian Guelphic Order of Kt . 
hood, gave him an annual pension of 30(V., which be *^* 
during the rest of his life; and, in 1839, the Inivrrv- 
St. Andrew's conferred on him the degree of doctor m !.• 
He lived in great privacy in or near London till thr t n>< 
his death, which happened September 21st, 1842, r. 
seventy>scventh year of* his age. 

Mr. Ivory's earliest writings were tiiree Memoirs n^^ 
communicated in the years 1796, 1799, and IS()2 t.* 
Royal Society of Edinburgh : the first of these was •' 
•A New Series for the Rectification of the FJlicN'; 
second, * A new Metiiod of resolving Cubic Emutioo^ . ' 
the third, *A New and Universal Solution of KepUr* I 
blem;* all of them evincing great analytical dLtlKa.** «*• 
originality of thoueht He contributed fifteen psjirr. • • ' 
* Transactions of the Royal Society of London,' oearit j. 
them relating to physical astronomy, and everv one c^^ou - 
mathematical investigations of the most refined nstorr. i 
first, which is entitied * On the Attrsctions of Homokcn 
Ellipsoids,' b m the volume for 1809, and contains in< ^ 
tions of the attractions of such ellipsoids on poiD(s»::'*' 
within them and on their exterior: tne former («« P^" 
few difiicultics ; but the process used by Lapbce for the - 
tion of the other was very complex, and Mr. horj hj*l - 
merit of discovering one wnich b remarkable for its sio)pi:< "' 
A given point being on the prt::i^ of an dlipnid, hf t>- 

Ill ^^^^ I Z A 

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flmA\w»^y, wr* h:v \' I, P. L\] 

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J AGAR AND A of oonmerce is mmI by Prince Maxi- 
milum to be the timber of a Brazilicn MuMta. 

(Burnett, Chilmet €f Boiany,) 

JACKSON, JOHN, R.A., was born in 1778 at Lasting, 
bam, in Yorfcabire, where hia father carried on the business 
of a tailor, and be was himself bred to the same business. 
He however bated his occupation ; he had seen the collection 
of Lord Mulgrave, and the pictures at Castle Howard, and 
be bnd a strong indtnatioo to become a pabtcr. An attempt 
which he made to imitate a picture by Reynolds waa shown 
loj bis sdioolmsster to Lord Mulgrave, who perceiving in it 
and others, notwithstsnding their cnideness, some talent, 
supplied Jackson with proper materials, and enoouraged him 
to go on. Lord Mulgrave and Sir 6. Beaumont purchased 
the two years of Jackwrn^s unexpired apprenticeship, and the 
latter in 1797 gave him an allowanoe of 6(V. per annum, and 
an qjartaent in bis house in town, to enable mm to prosecute 
his studies at the Ro^ Academy. 

Jackson soon obtained a name for bis portraits in bladi lead* 
pencil and wateiMsolours, but it took him many yean to equal 
the suooessfu' oil-painters of that day. He first attntcted 
notice in this department about 1806, and in 1817 when he 
was elected a member of the Royal Academy, his reputation 
waa little inferior to that of Lawrence, though be was compa- 
ratively Uttle patronized : his portrsits were bold and effective, 
but they wanted the clelicacy of the works of Lawrence: 
Jackson could paint five heads while Lawrence was painting 
one. In the summer of 1819 he visited Rome in company 
with Chantrey, and painted for him there a portrait of 
Canova. Jackson astonished the Roman painters, mys Cun- 
nmgham, bv copying in four days the borghese Titian of 
* Sacred and Profluie Love ' as it is called, a picture which 
many Romaaa reqiured two or three months to copy : Passa^ 
vant savs, the figure of Divine Love, in three days, which is 
more likely ; the rest of the picture is scarcely worth copying. 
Jackson was elected a memMr of the Academy of St. Luke, at 
Rome. He wss in all his works ezttnordinarily rafiid and sure. 
A story is related, that he commenced and finished in a single 
summer's day, as a wager, the portraits of five gentlemen : he 
received 25 gumeas for each of them— 125 guineas in one day ; 
probably no painter ever earned as much by his own labour 
oefore. The story is told by Passavant Jackson died at his 
house in St John's Wood on June the 1st, 1831. Uis best 
works are the portraits of Lady Dover, of Flaxman, and of 
himself, both painted for Lord Dover, and the portrait already 
mentioned of Canova. He ]^nted in all tne portraits of 
thurtecn of his fellow Academicians, but that of Flaxman, is in 
all respects the best ; Allan Cunningham truly observes of 
this picture^ that there is a * sombre grandeur about it which 
awes one ;' it is certainly one of the finest portraits in the world. 

Jackson exhibited m all, at the Royal Academy, betti-een 
the years 1804 and 1890, one hundred and forty-five pictures ; 
be of oouise painted very many portruts that were not exhi- 
bited, for he wss latterly constantly employed. His nominal 
nrice for a head was fifty guineas, and though he must have 
oeen making a lar^ income, he died without leaving a pro- 
vbion for his family. Ho wss twice married ; his second 
wife, who survived him, was the daughter of his fellow- 
academician. Ward. 

(Cunningham, Lives cf British Painten^ Sec. ; Passavant, 
Kimttreiae durch Engkmd^cJS 

JACKSON, ANDREW, the late American general and 
president, was himself a native of the United States ; although 
nb lather, of the same names, was an Irishman, the youngest 
of the four sons of Hugh Jackson, a Hnendraper near Camck- i 
fergus ; and either the linendrmper himself, or one of bis recent ' 
progenitors, had come over from Scotland.* Andrew Jackson ' 
went over to America in 1765, taking with him a wife and two 
sons. With them he established himself in the Waxhaw settle- ' 
mcnt in South Carolina ; and here his third and youngest son, 
the subject of the present notice, was bom on the 15th of i 
March, 1707. Andrew Jackson died soon after ; and his | 
widow found herself left with a bf»^^eared farm, without 
slaves, whereupon to bring up her three sons. I 

* It b a raurluhU brt that thrw ofOM P^cmdento of Um I?nit«d Scati>a ha^ 
Wf ibmmnUmtu of Scottiah coionttU of dw fiorth of Ireland ; Monroe, Jacluw, ' 
mA Um I— Mat Prcndeat, I\>lk. (I»4C ) 

Andrew, her latest bom, amiears to have been hii mui.f * i 
favourite; and the original aestinatiooof tbefatnreGM.*,. 
and President of the United States was to be s deryrnwi. .. 
are not informed of what denomination. With I'lii. >,» i. 
after having finished his school cducstion, he wsi irat t<> • - 
Waxhaw Academy; and here he seems to hsre ttul 
theology for some years. When the war of iodfpf«<lt:, r 
however, made all Americans soldiers, the yonng Jwi ^ .. 
did not hold back. Andrew is rocorded to bsft feii|(fat. i'<r; 
with his next eldest brother Robert, under Suoitcr in ' . 
attack on the British garrison at Rocky Mount, on tb« tith < 
August, 1780: at which date he would be little morr tt^i 
thirteen. And from this time he is stated to bsvf tu^d i 
pert in the campaigns as long as the war lasted. Nor oni 
altogether escape the usual dissipated habitsof amiliurr -'^ 
but, with the decision of character which wss his most i^naA 
able chararteristic, be suddenly changed his eoone brf^ > t 
was too late, and, collecting what remained of his iimrL* -. 
himself, in the winter of 1784, into the bands of > - 
M'Cay, Esq., an eminent advocate and afterwsrds a ,u..-> 
to be instructed in the practice- of the law. Thu new • . 
he prosecuted with so much success that in 1787 be «»• i 
pointed solicitor for what was then called the Wcstrm Di**' 
of North Carolina, and is now the State of Tenfic«^e. t 
circumstances of the time, however, did not suffer bira, m 
if be had been so inclined, to throw ofi" his militsiy riiA.-.. * - 
or to let the experience he had gained in csnp \ 
campaigns go to rust Although the n-ar with tbe &•'.*• 
country wss over, the borders of the republican tenibvn- « - 
still infested with another most troublesome encmr in * 
original occupants of the soil; and Jackson, sltho'i^'b ' 
would only serve as a private, is said to have so murli « 
tinguished himself in toe contest with th''*'* nstorsl rit: 
his race, that ho was honoured among fiiem with thr r ■ 
or descriptive appellations, of Sharp Knife and P' - 

He continued to be thus employed till the year 170*>. "» ' 
after having first acted as one ot the members of tbe Ci • 
tion for establishing a constitution for the state of Teoof fv^ ' 
was, under that new arrangement, elected to s sest lU r 
House of Representatives. The next rear be vs5 cb'^r. i 
Senator ; but he resigned his seat after holding it for one «« 
sion. On this he was immediately appointed b^ the W 
tore of Tennessee Judge of the Supreme Court m tbst * 
having also been shortly before chosen a Mijor General ot : 
state forces. But he soon resigned his judicisl offici* : i ' 
settling himself on a farm, a few miles from Nsshrillo, m^ 
Cumberland river, he resided there in retirement tiD the I ' ^ 
ing out of the war with England in 1812. With that • 
commences the most memorable portion of Jackson's cvt«". 

His first command was that of a body of between tvo • 
three thousand volunteers, who had assembled on bW '^^ 
tion, and with whom he was directed to proceed douL "• 
Mississippi for the defence of the lower country. Tk'f v.- 
in November, 1812. The next year he greatly distinc- • ' 
himself by a camnmgn against the Creek tribes. An am w*: 
of it may be founa in a message from the Presxlent (M«i> 
to Congress, dated 7th December, 1818, in which it is ft/ • 
that the best hopes of a satisfactory issue of the conti:«t v * 
already warranted bv the complete aucccss of a wcn<{>Ii'. • 
enterprise against the Indians, executed by a dctsrbmi t : 
the volunteer militia of Tennessee under the coomt:i^l < 
General Cofiee ; *and by a still more important victor? • 
a larger body of them, guned under the immediate ron-.n 
of Major General Jackson, an ofiiccr CQvallv dittinpi' 
for his patriotism and his militair talents. The Crwl* v« - ■ 
repeatedly afterwards defeated by Jackson. The »tr • 
terminated in August, 1814, by a treaty, by ahith ' 
agreed to lay down their arms. (Message of P^** 
Madison, dated 20th September, 1814.) 

In 1814 Jackson was appointed a Mi^r Gencn.* m ' 
service of the United States ; and, among other op(nti<>: * 
succeeded in taking Pensacola on the 7th of NovcicU'r. j- ^ 
raised himself to the highest noint of reputation and popu r * . 
among his countrymen bv tne famous repulse of the K' *•''• 
forces in their attack on New Orieans, on the 8th of Jsni* .' 
1816. The next military command which beheld, i»s» thz: ^ 

J A C 


J A C 

(he vtrigainst the Seminole Indians of Florida m 1818, fbr 
ihf details of wluch the reader mav be referred to Premdent 
Monroe's Mes8^:e to Cong^ress of the 16th of November in 
that ynr, and to the Reiiort of the Couiiiilttec of Senate on 
die ^jemioole war, dated 24th Febniarv, 1819. Jackson's 
iiTOccediogs in thb war, from first to fast, were extremely 
irr^gulsr sod hi^handed ; the force at the head of which he 
iiliiccd biiBself was raised and officered not only without but 
in direct opposition to the orders of the general government ; 
in carrying on his operationa agmnst the Indians, he did not 
scruple to seiie, one after anot&r, several forts and ]x>rt8 be- 
laiving to Spain, with which countiy the United States were 
St peace, and to pat down the Spanish anthorities by the power 
o^' the sword— conduct of which his government marked its 
dt^spproTal in the roost emphatic manner, by the immediate 
m<toiation of the places thus unwarrantably seized ; but his 
RKst oxtrMmiinary act was the execution of the two English- 
mn Arbathnot and Ambrister. Alexander Arbnthnot was 
taken in the Spanish Fort of St. Mark's, along with two 
Indian chieft, and Robert C. Ambrister, a few days aiter- 
wards, on an excursion which the force made from that post 
to destroy a neighbouring Indian village. The two Indian 
chiefs were hanged at once, and without trial ; the justifies- 
tioa urged being that by their own usual practice in like cases, 
and by the general manner in which they carried on war, the 
Indian trib^ were to be conskiered as having put themselves 
beyond the pale of the ordinary law of nations. Arbutbnot 
tai Ambrister were both, after a few days' confinement, tried 
St St Hnk'a by court martial ; when Arbuthnot was sen- 
tenced to sufier death, and Ambrister to be whipped and 
farther confined ; but General Jackson annulled the latter 
vntcnce, and Arbathnot was hung and Ambrister shot. 
There is no doubt that these persons were acting in concert 
aith the Indians ; and, that bemg the case, it would perhaps 
be difficult to show that they were entitled to other treat- 
oicnt than those with whom they had associated themselves. 
Bat even to take the lives of Indian prisoners of war was an 
extreme proceeding* and one of very doubtful propriety ; the 
cfaaiire upon which the two Englishmen were tried was only 
(h^ vrrv vagne one of ' inciting the Indians to war;' in 
tiiose circumstances it was certainly a startling exercise of 
military power for a genex«l, under the most popular of 
sU governments, to set aside the sentence of a court martial, 
IS wtt done in die case of Ambrister. Besides, the principle 
Bjjun which GeneralJackson took his stand was even less tenable 
thui the one we have just stated ; he himself vindicated what 
he had done« on the |joond that Arbuthnot and Ambrister, 
bv assisting in wnr agatnat the United States while they were 
u peace with Great Britain, became outlawa and pirates ; 
thus restine their liability to suficr death, when taken 
f^^oners of war, not on the ground of their having united 
their fates with savages, but on that of their having been the 
ntbjectj of a power with whidi the United States were at 
w'jie ; a principle altogether unknown to the law of nations, 
li'tiiever, idthoagh a stout fight was made in Congress by the 
oripoeiite party, Jackson's friends, supported by the feeling oat 
of duors, where his military reputation and his ullra-democra- 
t3r professi<ms bore down everything, carried a succession of 
^utes in his exculpadon by large majorities. 

General Jackson afterwards acted as commisaioner on the 
}art of the United States in the negodation with Spain for 
rbc transference of Florida : and after the arrangement of the 
tiT«iy to that effect, he was, in 1821, appointed the fintt 
potenior of tiie prorince. He held this post for a year, and 
«as then again elected a member of the Senate fbr the State 
nf Tennessee. 

VTben the elecdon of a new president came on at the end 
of 1824, General Jackson was a candidate aloncr with Mr. 
Adaott, Mr. Clay, and Mr. Crawford ; and on tne first vote 
be bad a large majority over the nearest of his competitors : 
the numbers being fbr Jackson 101, Adams 82, Crawford 41, 
Clay 37. No candidate, however, having the minority re- 
Qond by the Constitution, the election devolved upon the 
uouae of Representatives ; and Adams and Clay having 
vaited their strength, the former obtained the votes of thirteen 
itstrs agunst aeven who voted for Jackson and four who 
voted fbr Cnawford, and became president. Jackson, how- 
eier, was trioniphantly elected in 1828, and again in 183S; 
m that he was at the head of the government of his nadve 
cwmtry for the eight years from 1829 to 1887. His presi- 
dency was distinguished by the rapid growth and extension of 
lirtnucratic tcndracies of all kinds : and, at the same time, of 
Uith the spirit of territorial extension, with its near oonae- 

r. r s . No 100 

qnences, conquest and war, and of Che influence of the southern 
states and the slaveholding interest ; but the subject in regard 
to which the president personally came forward in the most 
conspicuous manner was in the affair of the United States 
Bank. This bank, the renewal of the charter of which was 
the ostensible matter in dispute, was a powerful instrument 
in the hands of the genenJ government; and hence the 
renewal of its charter, though supported by both Houses of 
Congress, was resisted, and successrully, both by the popular 
voice and by the president whom that voice had phced in 
office, and who haa been one of the most ardent ana resolute 
of the democratic leaders throogfaout his life. 

General Jackson surrived his prendency about eight years, 
and died at his seat called the Hermitage, near Nashville, in 
Tennessee, on Sunday the 8th of June, 1845. He was married, 
but had no issue. 

{Biographical Notice m (New York) Weekly Herald, of 
21st of June, 1845 ; Fvtieral Oration delivered by Mr. Bon- 
croft ai Washington ;• Histories of the Time,) 

JACQUARD, JOSEPH-MARIE, was bom at Lyon, on 
the 7th of July, 1752, of humble parents, both of whom wero 
employed in o|)er8tions connectca witii weaving. He is said 
to nave been left to teach himself even to read and write ; but 
at a very early age he displayed a taste for mechanics, by con- 
structing neat modeb of buildings, furniture, &c. for amuse- 
ment. At the age of twelve his father placed him with a 
bookbinder for a time, and he was subsequently engaged in 
type-founding and the manufacture of cutiery, in lx)th of 
which occupations he gave evidence of talent. Owing to the 
death of his mother, young Jaoquard returned to the house 
and occupation of his father, who also died some years after, 
leaving him a small property, which he employed in the 
attempt to establish a business in the weaving of figured 
fabrics. The undertaking failed, and he was compelled to 
sell his looms in order to pay his debts. He subsequentiy 
married, and hoped to receive a portion with his wife which 
might assist him out of his peomiary difficulties; but this 
expectation proved delusive, and he was compelled to sell his 
paternal residence. His wife, to whom he is said to have 
been tenderly attached, is described as a model of patience, 
kindness, and activity; while he appears, without fortune, 
ambition, or foresight, to have occupied himself with insenioua 
schemes for improvements in weaving, cutiery, and tynr- 
founding, which produced nothing for the support or his 
family. Necessity at length compelled him to enter the ser- 
vice of a lime-maker in Bresse, while his wife remained at 
Lyon to attend to a small straw-hat business. In 1792 he 
araentiy embraced the revolutionary cause, and in the follow- 
ing year he returned to Lyon, and assisted in the memorablo 
defence of that place against the army of the Convention ; his 
only son, then a youth of fifteen, fought by hb side. Being 
denounced after the reduction of Lyon, they were both com- 
pelled to fiy, and they then joined the army of the Rhine. 
Hb son was killed in battie, and upon this Jacouard returned 
to Lyon, where he found hb wife, whom he ban been unable 
to inform of his ffight, earning her bread by plaiting straw, 
in which hmnble occupation he was compelled by poverty to 
assbt. Lyon at length began to rise from its ruins, and its 
artisans returned from Switzeriand, Germany, and England, 
where they had taken refuge. Under these circumstances, 
Jacouard applied himself with renewed energy to the t>er* 
fection of tne beautiful apparatus for figured weaving which 
bears hb name, and which b described under WxAyuro, P. C, 
pp. 178, 179. He had conceived the klea of such an appa- 
ratus as earl;^ as 1790, and he now succeeded, though but 
imperfectiy, in accomplbhing his end. Hb machine was 
presented, in September, 1801, to the national exposition of 
the products of industry, the jury of which awaraed him * 
bronze medal for its invention. In the same year he obtained 
a patent, or ' brevet dlnvention,' for a term of ten years. He 
set up a loom on his new principle at Lyon, which was viMted 
by Camot and several other of the statesmen who were as- 
sembled at that city in 1802 to arrange the affiiirs of the 
Cisalpine republic. 

About this time the attention of Jacqnard appears to have 
been directed, by the accidentui perusal of a paragraph from 
an Englbh newspaper, stating that a reward was ofl'ered by a 
aodety in this countiT for the invention of such an apparatna, 
to the construction of a machine for weaving nets for fishing 
and maritime purposes. From the account given by Dr. 
Bowring, who had conversed on the subject with Jacquard 
hunaelf, before a Seleot Committee of the House of Conunona 
on the silk trade, in 1882, and which is made thesnbjeet of 

Vol. 11. Q 

J A C 



•v«r, till into the iModt of the pr^fet at Ljron, and i 
vat tiifll, aceordin^ to tlie arbttnry fiMhUm of the 
and Ua andMna were placed itndcr aneal and eon 

in Wo. 50 eT thn *Pe«ny llajMina * pnhBihad fai 

IMS, thb noold appear to havo been Jnoonaro*! ftret UMclia* 
nloal ioTentiQo ; but the man cwewMtantHd aeoonot in the 
*8«ppUfneot* to the • Biomphie Univenelle/ to which we 
are rhieij indefaced for the naterUa of thia article^ thowa 
that Mch waa not the caae. He aooonplkhcd the derired 
oltfecl, bat, having amMed hlaeelf and MsfHenda with hit 
(^ontfivanee, he threw it aalde. Ilia machine-made net, how* 

1 the readt 

eontreyed to 
Fvia, whef« the invention waa aubodtted lo inqiecton, upon 
whoaa rmrt a cold medal waa awarded to him in February, 
laoi. On oecattonof thia forced visit to Paris, Jacsquard was 
to Napoleon and CamoC, when the latter, not 
■ ' " if he were 
\ tie a knot 
at iuch a 
rar ep t i on, explained tlie action of his machinerr with sim- 
pUntr. and convinced the incredulous minbter. tnat the sup- 
poaea Impossibilitv was accomplished by it. He was then 
employed for a time in repainng and putting in order the 
models and machmes b the Conservatoire des Arts et Mt^tiers, 
awl while there he produced some ingenious improvements 
hi weaviiy machbety, one of which nas for produnng ribbons 
with a velvet 6oe on each side. He also contrived some ira- 
iMrovemcnta upon a loom bvcnted by Vauosnson, which 
(mprovemeots have hern stated to be the origm of tlie 
Jaeqnard machine. Aoconling to the French authority above 
a e fcfr rd to, however, this improvement upon Vaucanson*s 
bom waa not connected with his great bvention ; and, as its 
mechaaiwii Is very complex, its apiJication limited to very 
Jl pattrroa, lu actioo slow, and iu cost ver^ great, it is 

wnderatanding Ua mechanism, roughly asked him if 1 
tlw man who pretended to do that impossibility— to t» 
b a stretcheo strioff. Jarquard, not disconcerted a 

to belong rather to the dam of cunons than of 
nsefnl mnchbea« 

In Jfl04 Jaoqoatd returned to Lyon, where he waa long 
engaged b gnpe ifa lcodbg the btradnctiao of his bventions 
for ^^vrad weavbg and for making ncu, in which he was 
oowarfolly aided fc^ Camtlb Pemon, a rich manufacturer^ 
through hb amiitsuoe, a commission of mannfacturers was 
appobtad to report upon the (irvt^named bvention, and even- 
dially an imperial dfcrre, dated Berim, October 27, 1806, 
was m w w d to authoriie the municipal adiuinistnition of Lyon 
to pnrrhaae hb bvention for the use of the public. In the 
same voar the Academy of Sciences and Arts at that city pre- 
asntoa him with the priae medal founded by the consul 
Lehnm. For some vears Jacquard bad to stmggle against 
mnch oppoaitfon and prejudice on the pait of the Lyonese 
veavetv, who eonsidied to discourage the iwe of hb machinery, 
wilfollr spoiled tMr work to bring it bto discredit, and, 
throaili the Conseil dee Prwdlionnues, who were appobted 
to watch over the co mm erc i al bterrau of the city, had it pub> 
ndy broken up and sold as old matcriala. Even his peraonal 
aafo^y waa at ttmct endangered. At length, however, under 
the eA«< of foreign competition, the vabe of the invention 
was acknowMgea, and ft was brought very cttensively bto 
nee, not only b France, but b SwitieHand, Gennany, Italy, 
Americm, and, ac«>ordiog to the * Bbgraphb Univeraelle,' It 
baa been introduoad even bto Chba. 

Jacquard was aollcited hf the amnnfortarrra of Rouen and 
8l Qnaiitb to orpmiae their foctories of cotton and batbte, 
and he ra caived a tempting oHer of a similar nature from £ng- 
Isnd; hut he p iefctre d remabing at Lvon, where he con- 
tbned to etert himself b prooKidnK the use of hb grant 
bveartioo until, havh^r bat hb wile, be tettrod to Oullins, a 
villaRe near Lyon, where he Mwvt hb btter yeara in retiiv- 
meut, and died on the 7th of Aanust, 1854, at the age of 

eighty-two. During hb life he rrrrived the crom of tiie 
L^gtan of Honoor, and b 1K40 apulihc statne ww rabed to 
hbmrnmry at Lym, Hb * Ekige Ubtoriqoa' has been pub. 
Nshed by II. de Fortb. 

* The anme of Jeciinard,' uh se rn the writera of hb memoir 
la the • 0b«raphb Cniverwib,* 'has become, ao to apcnk, 
torhnieal b both the old and new world.* •The happy con- 
thnrntoraf the efate of Viawaiim. who, IIU him, was en. 
M|«d at I^roa b the hnm oie m eni of weavbg mnrhbi ry, 
J a i' ii a ami i klaa b ianl id a Jmple mid cheap moriune, coming 
wlttb the raarh of the h um ble weaver, the btrodnrtion of 


new era— b the teatib 

art.' By bs ^gOMr the richest and moat complea deabna are 
■Painra d w»h focibty at the mom moderato prbe ; aad,aolb 
ibm dlmlahlilng BaiylDjnunl. as aame faarad on ita font b. 
b Im, noDardbf to th* wfiten >Mt 4)Mt<d, b> 

it b need tenfold. ^**^ 

JALNA (J^ktapoor), a town of Hbakatan, capital sf tb 
diatrict of JalnUp b bdoded b the peovbes ef Aara^bl 
The dbtrict of Jaba b oomprised chiefly of two Ivn ««)ini 
one of which b watered by the Pouma and the ether by tb 
Doodna. The town b fitaaled about forty mim cmt rnm 
the city of Aunmgabad, on the eaat fmak ot the Coaa4bia. 
an affluent of the Doodna, b 19* 69^ N. laL, 7r Lb^ 
Jabapoor b a fortified town of conaidera b le jbe. It mu 
taken from the Mahrattas by Colooel Stephenmn b Seum. 
her, I803y b the courae of the military openrtbns nbidi i». 
mediately preceded the battle of Asaaye* and wm alWrtn4 
ceded to the Niaau 

J AMESONE, GEORGE. caDed \n Walpole the Vndjd 
of Scotland, was the aon of Andrew Jamesonef n arrikbct, 
and was born at Aberdeen in 159^ Jameaone and VsatfTtk 
were about 1616 fellow-popils of Rubens at Antwerp. VWa 
Charles I. visited Edinburgh in 1633, he sat to Jamcwnr, mk 
presented him with a diamond ring from hb own fingtr. lie 
career b not exactly known, but It must have beea a mcnsfst 
one, for he bft his wife simI fomily well provided iurit bu 
death in 1644 ; and he bequeathed also much b other (&ne- 
tbns. He was probably in Italy, for hb portrut a b tb 
painter's portrait gallery at Florence ; he travelled b <t«. 
pany with Sir Colb Campbell of Glenorrhy. Man/ of tb 
considerable families of Scotland p om un pottnlti bj Janrunr. 
but the gmiest collection b at Taymouth. the srat of ib 
Eari of Breadalbane. Sir Colin Campbell, the eari*taa<Tite. 
was Jamesone's first and chief patron. In a manusrrint ess. 
taming the genealogy of the bouse of Glenorrhy, thm a 
mentbn of seversl portraita pdnted br Jamcoone br ^e 
Colin, with memoranda of the prioea panl. For portrab d 
the kbga Dsvid and Robert Mce, Charicf I. and k» i|w«*, 
and for nbe oueens of Scotland, pabted b 1635, Jsawwo^ 
received only 260 Scotch pounds, or 90 pounds per pertrwi, 
which b eqnal to \L 18s. 4d. steriing ; the Sootcnpoaad *» 
twenty pence. All other portraits pntntcd for sir C«^ 
which were many, were paid for at the same rale. Tbiv m 
several of Jaroesone's pi<^res also b the two coHeps of .\hfT. 
deen. There b a poitrait of Jameaone by hunscu sc CU'^a 
House ; he ap|ican to have ofWn pabted hb onn portne. 
and he always painted himself with nb hat on, nhick he mt 
have done either in imitation of Rubena, or on hsuAf b«t 
grsnted that privilege bv ClwHca I. when he mt to k». 

Though the pupilof Rubens and the companion of Vmdt i. 
Jamc«one*s works have neither the fubem nor rirfao««i d/'b^ 
former, nor the vt(pMir of the btter ; they are howetrr {abird 
rm thinly and with much nature, bit there b a disrpbm 
b nb ouUtne which remiwU of a ftty different srbibl frun 
that of Rubens. • Ills etccllence,' mys Walpole, *kusl\. 
consist in delicacy and softnem, with a clear and 
colouring, hb shades not charged but helped by «a 

mnce of the m«|/ 9o b 
ttryman Cnnningnam b ip«<-^ 
has added the following words to It i 

Odaxmaf)^ with littb appearance 
Walpole: Jamesone*a 

thb passage 
abo from V 

im Walpob—** He had much of Vand)(4*s 
, and to Sir Antony aome of hb works haw hn 

sionally imputed.' These'woida are not b Wal|»b. st W*< 
not b the edition of I76i. 

Jameaone*s cartieat works are painted on pamel, kr »-■ 
albrwanJs fine canvaa, smooihly mmed, avd pirpsfv^ t i 
shade tbt. He pabted occasionaUy Ustory, nuuisteiv t-^ 
landscape. Walpole mentbna a view of Edbhanih b; bm 

Cunninffbam bos ascribed to Jamrsone the ilium iuarimi *^ < 
mannicr^ of two hundred leaves of parchment, illMtTati&f u# 
Life of Christ, which bebnged only to Jameaone. sod «brt 
be valued at itUO/. sterling. Jamesooe hbnsdf desmhn m m 
a manuscript b hb peas fai o n * contablng turn handivd bsn* 
of parchment of excellent write adonied with divene bmar^ 
of oor Saviour curidualy Ibmed.' Thb uismuiniMbni «s» ■ 
the posaemion of hb deacmdant, Mr. John Jamanoe, a entf . 
merchant of Lmth, finom whom Walpole (or ra br Venmi 
obtabed the particnhra of hb account of Jammsni. Itntee 
kiwwn what naa become of thb maonacHpt. 

Cttnnbgham speaks of Jameaone as wHhont a nali«e f*«d 
b Grant Britab ; he appean to have ostrfeniad I M w a , 
some of whose bends not only appronrh hot equal Vaa4}«k\ 

Jaaseaone's daughter Bla7 escelbd b ambaidiiy. m wtt.« 
paintings; someof herwoHuvwatill prawrrad btkechvtt 
of St. Nioolae, nt Aberdeen* 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B WV ^ H*'' ^^^^^^^^1 








^^H :l 

' ^b ^H 

^^AN MAVkT^' »6i.AND b KH UUmI In r) 


J A V 


J B R 

•ml 7rr9.kt..«i4 


wi n lh^^ abont tkiftjr aulrt, aDd k b M pbw 
Ib hnmdih ; a flOM pin* H k Im 1km tvo mill 

vnc«fMialb«Di|fit. HbptrMhMlMt 
film luaiatWiMi»^ 


C)» the I to tlir KalaaiMi ; aad nat write 
MTtlH^ ntmnilj. VrlMf* the ialMil b «rU«it, stHMk ibe I Ncn« aod UaAriM. !!• «w tW iMMr oT Utiv J«Ui^ 
■MwiiitBin cbIU BtcmbcTf or Bmt MnmtM, * pnk riaaf J It mj bs mfmrtd fima • f i |l of J«ltaM(Dif. 40. tit i 
lA 6V70 IWt ibo^ tiM m4r«vl. It fntmmfAf Aamm its ' • frM^M JavokmtMKtiM beU tfacoftc«iior|romMrc( 
mmw^ lto r4 wummh abot^ tlw rlowb, and mis oo • nckj Syrim md Afrin. lie is JPfobiUjr tbo JmvUmm ftwrm 

u« ««. At me looc oi ido isecrrooenp w 
Isr gkden : th#jr orcvpj rtceme* in the citfl 
tfcw 1200 Iwt bigb, smI BMri/ perpcndM 
wjr RHigh o« the sarCior, and of a ^[ttet 

hj a tundy answer Paaueont PauJus ^ron bifiWtiof hw wi^ 
OB bin. Javoleons m men 6a m 6 bv C^tabaat in Im L!« 
of AotHrioM Pins as owe of tbe >mMi wbo worn Ibt advnm 
of tbo MBpcror. Bnt tbis woaU oMnd bk life \mymi pn. 
babfe iMBts; bo wbo wm tbe mmer of JnfaMw wU inw 
up tbo Edictaa PcrpctnnB nndcr Bwdrian, oonH aot kn 
been one of tbo ndfiwn of Anioiiians Fraa. Aeooidtatw 
tbo Floroitioe Indcs, JoTolcnns wnito fiAN« boob * n 
CoMo/ tbnt is, Gaiot Cbmiiw Ln^iBna, fimUm boob ^ 
Epwiole, awd fire books to Plantina. lie was abo tbe awkw 
of an Epitonw of ibe Libri Poaieriora of L«bso; aad Mk 
note* nn then (Dm. 40. th. 12, s. 4S). 
JEREMIE, SIR JOHN, waa bom in GwiMiv. Ami 
19. 1795. and was the eJiiert son of the late John Jcraut, s 
inteosr fRWI. LA* caarwlfv, thnr |frmiim«nit (!m*nt«h ruloiir i diftinfruished advocate of the Royal Court of that isUnd. At 
is tariefcatcd witbwM>w.«biU* patrbct rrtrmhliiiK fosnn, which I an earljr afce be was ami to the Rlimdell pranMnar w^i. 
deepijr raotntt with the )rt-h)«(k ficMnts of the most |ironu- I Tif ertoo, but hb studies were toon interrupAi^ by the ynm^ 
nent rorks perntnir thrtMiirh their wiiiaret. I tun* death of hU kther. Upon bis retom to (fnanwrt W 

Tbo coMt nas srvmJ mail«tr«h with pood anrfaonr^' Ri df rotcd binnelf to the ntndy of tbo law, which bo eaaiti/irtrii 
ftre to tn fathoow Jtmtrr. \A4tk mikW |rroun«l, lut no har- ' daring a rvstdeoce at Dijon, m France. As carl/ as 
boor for a ihip, all the anrhfirjsrm brinflr o(«*a to the •!•« in an | the commcucenicnt of bu pnlilic life, bo diatinftowbrd hmm i 
aAffle of at Icvst tm pnititj of tli^ r«>ni(w9fi. 'l>te MmiMlintr* ' tiefure the rorsl roinmiwinaera, sent over to (vorraary to o.-. 
i the wland are %erT tmnniUr. ami thr ljottt>cii prt^firrmilv j rpct certain abittrs u the Wws and admioistrmtioo of jnMir« 1 

lanjr «4i£<^i 
1 ahifb (.«- 

attain m elevaticn of hetwem 1600 awd 9000 Ceot. 
lar^-e ponton of tbo bland a com po sed of lava mid other 
(owtr natter, mid two craters bare brew d i s uu i ei od oa 
enairni side ; amobe wad fr« bare been obsenred is 

E««w bi tbo btf^bflng of Ai««t aH 
Ibuod colored with wiow and icw, and the low buida fai those 
•alleys awd drwp csvtties where Urire brdt of soow bnvo been 
rolloctcd, retain part of their eorering to the very border of 
tbo sfw. At the foot of the Beernberr «« t^v^ ^^ sinfrw- 

' I the cltir where it b more 1 
dirolar. Tbey are 
l^reenisb frrry eoloor. 
Tbey pripsewt Ae appmranee of immense caiaracU suddenly 
their iHun Te aa and enopealed by the power of 

I primer 
of rorks or bUrk aaiitl. The we*tero nj%it:Aii<Hj of 
Jan Maren b prrferrrd to the rasteni. a« betnc le«« cricuiii. 
bered with ice and lem M\*r<t to mint*, «4^uidi«. and whirl- 
winds, whirh arr oftin enf'«>«int<*rrd in pa««inr to the ea^t of 
lle ti tnb i m. The whole t«Und b frcnerolly »urrounded in 
the rprinir of the yrar ; hi.t in soiutnn, and even in 
the lew sometimes tela to far to the westward tliat 
viaihle fiwm anv fwrt of the land. 

tiiat island. He was afterwards retained In 
(w.«ea, both ri%il and criminal, and aoon acquired 1 
HMter for imivucDdcnce and enenretic zcad in the UiakWr* • 
hi« |irt)fr«<itioai duties. On more than one occasion be «m 
choMon to plead eases of appeal before the Privy Coonril, ebrr 
hb tah*nu and eloc|U«'noe iound a larger spheiw for ibrtr tctni 
and brouyht him before the notice of government. 

, la <>cu.»>er, 18i4» he was appouitni to tbo ofire of Ck>' 

Tbcfw are Ibies and white bears, and perha^w also rein- | Justice of S. irftciu, in the West Indies. * At the ttais 0' 
Water- fowl are namermis, espe«-iatly hi u ^t o maa ters, ' tender of an a)>|)ointni€nt was nuide to him,* be obarrvet. fi * • 

h b not 

fulmars, puAttS, guUleoiota, little auks, kitty waktw, arid terns, 
^vcral rrtjmjas animals ahcMind, prin'-ifviily of the ^periei 
Habena Physaiu. Tlie vefretJtwm b very araiity. and limited 
to a firw species srattnvd widciv ahiiot anionc (be volcanic 
minerals. J run bm brm o<»er««-<l at M**eral tiUrta. 

The isbmd was diMXi«errd in 1011 hy s Uuirh natif;mtor 
callod Jan Maycn, and wa« m«ieh vi«ited'iip to about 1644) on 
aaroont of the grmt numhrr of whales, which, however. after- 
wwds retrraird to other norta of the Arrtic Sem. In thb time 
(I69S>I<I$4) etven VniAt Mwmen wintrnvj h<*re, firo^whly for 
tbo pnrpoae of estahlicbinir a p«*rmanent crdony, axid they kept 
• rmlar iounial« Bnt on the arrival of the Uotrh fleet m 
the mllnwing Jane all were found deml fai their huts^ From 
tbn Jonmal, however, h appeared that they bad not been 
billed by tbo fhwt hot by tbo scnrvv, which bnd attacked 
them Ibr wmit of fresh provisiotaa. Tbetr joomal terminated 
on tbo Slat of April. 

SSeorraby, A amm i of ike Aretk JEambni.) 
ARDYN, KAREL DE, one of the best of the Dutch 
bmd sc ane, ji as t nrsi, and frarv painters, and the most distin- 
gn i sbw of K. Iler|rhem*s scholars. Ho was a native of 
, and lived wimo time in Rome, wberethe FIcmbh 


unaruuaintrd «ith 4 

mini oeportmeot* »- 1 

tbo thea cane - : 

nabrtars pve him the nicknamo of Dokkrbaart (goal-beanl). 
lie died at Venice w 1078, a|ced about forty. 


There are 

the natural 

fr-lsisved rolstr oalys, 

triid style, d-coAcd 

hat vahnlar po«w at 

Iba bnae. rbera b but one Britbb species of this genus, 

J» ms m a a s basa iim|le rwoC, binntiah obloof wavy Im 

mid flalked iowon. l\o strma »w Awm all mchas m 

iss4 mng, Bslaan, ainrple, or oraneven z lealy w 
mbbimM above, and aaosnd limm the crown of t 
■nwmu arw smni, m mfmsnai aenrtemeo nanna, 

Ei^ays on Colonial Slavery, 
single indii idual in the service of the colonial 
his political opinions were rather opposed to 
government. On the question of slavery he was thoraw • 
inUitferent; indeed, it was to remote fnxn his nnml pu-^ <.• 
that he mar fsiriy my he had never given it a thfwvbt. '■» 
the interval between the first pro|ioeal and hb UTr)< . 
office* hb professional avocations broo|rht him to E n gbai. k < 
on thu occasion, pft>bably owinc to this propuanl, hn cwm • 
prompted him toattend an anti-slavery meeting. The »!■••> 
sioo made upon bk mind was rather unfavonnhle than 142*7. 
wise to the abolitionists. He heard much deekmsfuw. um% 
angry and eloquent declamation ; but nrrnvtomrd from mr ■ 
life to sift evidence, it struck him that there wm a dr^rirwi 
of tacts and of evidence on which to fowod thnt derkmsc-a * 
It waa under thb impression that bo went to tbe colottir* »■' 
the candid esprasion of bk Icdinp on the sufairct of •k«<r' 
which we have qimtod, ma4 aeouit bhn of at^ bms ia u<i» 
of iu abolition, aiMl proves that hk subse q wsnt drvusrdnrn •* 
the great cause of emancipatkn waa theemtiffv raank efsr>v 
victioo pressed upon him by an actual k no w l e dge of tbe r« ■ 
of the system. No sooner, indeed, sraa thn ala«w lav ««' I •«- 
pcDasulgated, and the slsve enjoyed the IUmt^ of Irerlf <«ei 
nmoicating with hk prwtectors, than miBCffwna eiom|*« 
revolting crwdtpr, brought before bam in km oficml rsiw *■ 
pfwdoced a rapid but lasting ehan|rs in bk npinbms la ^r - 
pordon to the estcnt of hk Inquiries wns tbo dowlh of kw >• - 
viction that the only iiwedy to the evU of ainwrn ««• "« 
gradual emanripatfon of the sUve. Hk siewa on IMS wa.** 
tant sobkct are folly put forth hi * Four Eoaayn on Cvim « 
Skvary,^ which be published on hk retani In E«wpe m 1 * *• 
- ribesthogmMnl' - . ri- 


•alw iW 

k4 iw 

f BaMnMn, JVosn^ ef BrWA 

oftberoot. The 
baring a light 


in them he dcambea I 

efbclof tba 
I to abnw what bo 

fuftnar maaamwa iwoubwd for thn cntbw 
system. Tbe prbKtnfo fay which hn waa 
ing thw asmys wiU ha aan 6toa the folfom 
then; ho ihmiiaa» « k tbo 
formed of tba Waat Indb« 
pWn tb«t tbiy gfo 

irlMCtaa ■ 
tbey r^ 
t tbey a«e 

J O H 


J O I 

i2lv.p$ec« of Um diufdi of BoGtinmlef «Bd w w bim 

town, but hU bodjr was removed to Vtleiicift and deposaled m 

the church orSuiU Cruz in 1681. 

Jo4n€S was one of the beat of the Spaiuah painten : he k 
acknowledged aa the head of the achool of Valencia, and is 
aometimca termed the Spanish Raphael. His drawing ia cor- 
veet, and displays many successfid examples of foreshortening ; 
his draperies are well cast, hia colounng is aombro (he was 
particutarly fond of mulberry colour), and his expr e s si o n is 
mostly in ijerfect accordance with his subject, whioi is gene- 
rally devotion or impassioned resignation, aa in the Baptism of 
Christ in the cathedral of Valencia. Jotoes* sulqecta are 
exclusively religious, and if. ufs Cean Benpntdea, Moimlea 
en thia aooount deserved the title of £1 Divino, Jo^nes ia 
equally entitled to it Lil^e his oountrjrman Vargas and 
D'Amato of Naplea, he is mid to have always taken the sacra- 
ment before he commenced an altar-^nece. Ub best worlis 
are in die cathedral of Valencia, and there are several good 
specimens in the Prado at Madrid. To mention a minor qoa- 
kty of bis woiks, he excelled in painting hair. 

Juknes had nuny scholars, among whom his son Juan 
Vicento was not undistinguished : his daughters also, Dorotea 
and Margarita, were well known for their ability in painting. 
(Cean Bermudes, Ditcionano Hisiorico, &c.) 
JODE, D£, PlETEll, the name of two celebrated en- 
gravers of Antwerp, iather and son. 

The elder, the son of Gerard de Jodc, likewise an en- 
graver, was born in 1570. lie was the pupil of Goluus, 
studied and worked in Italy and at Paris, ami died at Antwerp 
b 1634. 

De Jodo engraved many plates in a good style, among 
them the remarkable picture of the Last Judgment, by 
Cousin, in twelve sheets, making altogether about sixte«i 
square feet, four each way : it is one of the largest prints in 

The younger de Jode, or Petrus de Jode, Junior, as he 
signed himself on his prints, was bom at Antwerp in 1606, 
and was instructed in engraving b^ his father, whom he soon 
•urpasaed in execution, especially m the nude, and equalled in 
ooirectness of drawing, lie worked with his father in Paris. 
His numerous portraits after Vandyck are his best works; 
among them are his own, and those of Jordaens, Poelemborg, 
Suellina. De Coster, and others, painters of Antwerp. He 
executed also some good prints atlcr Uubens. The date of 
his death is not known. 

AsaoLD DB JoDB wss the son of the younger Pieter, and 
was bom at Antwerp about 1636. Be is said to have been in 
London in 1667, mid then to have engraved a print after the 
picture by Correnrio, which bekmged to Charles I., of Mer- 
cuiy instructing Cupid, which is now in the National Gallery . 
Scarcely anything is known of him personally: aaan engraver 
he was inferior to his father and grandfather. 

(Basan, IHctUmMire de$ GraoeurM; Hubert, Matmddes 
Amaieur$, &c.) 

P. C. S.J 

JOHNSTON, DR. ARTHUR, the fifth am of an incieBt 
bmily possessing estatea in Aberdeenshire, was bom in that 
county m 1587. At an early age he went abroad for medical 
education : and the degree of Doctor in Medicine was eon- 
ferredon him at Padua in 1610. He travelled in various 
parts of the continent, and reskied for twenty years in France, 
marrying twice in the course of that period. He returned to 
hia native countir before the year 1626, and was soon after- 
wards appointca physician to King Charies 1., probably 
through the influence of Laud. After this appointment hie 
nunt have resided chiefly in the neighbourhood of the court. 
In 1641 he died at Oxford, while on a visit to a daughter 
married there. Johnston's name is preserved in the memory 
of scliolars by his Latin verwa. He was the most extensive 
contributor, and is not unusually called the editor, of Sir John 
Soot's collection of Latin poems, the ^Delitiss Poetaram 
Scotonm hujus JEvi Illustrium,' Amsterdam, 1637, 3 vols, 
limo. ; and besides several other volumes of compositions in 
Latin verae, he was bold enough to measure lances with 
Buchanan in a version of the Psalms, ' Paraph rans Poetica 
Psalmorum Davidis, Auctore Artiiro Jonstono, Scoto,' Aber- 
deen, 1637, 8vo. Til is ambitious attempt led, many years after- 
WBrds, to •protracted controversy on the merita of the rival 
versiona. The history of the dispute b related, and Johnston's 
works fully described and Justly estimated, in Dr. Irving'a 
' Lives of Scottish Writers,'^ 1339, 2 vols. 3vo. It ia enough 
haie to say* that Johnatoa*s high rank among modem writers 

of Latin Doetry ia vdversaBy adnitled t md dlat, alUi< «.-* • 
Soothmd hia paalms have oaoaHy been climated moei U . 
Buchanan's, the JMMtke of this awile n ce has been qw^t .v. 
by critics of authority, of whom Mr. Ilalbm is one 

JOINERY (French, MemAene) ia the art nf j. 
pieces of wood together ibr the interior fittings of \k'U 
for nrnking artielea of fnmitnre, end far nomeroot (••'). 
raqniring greater neatness of workaansUp tkan thr n-.- 
tions of the carpenter. [Caxpbbtbt, P. C. 8., p. 3*^2 ] \ 
carpentry and joinery are in many oases earned nn ir > 
same establishment, and even by the same workmen, it «. . 
be difficult aocarately to define the Hnuta of these mn \ 
dred arts; but a vood general distinction ia drawn U!« 
them in Tredgold'a article * Joinery,' in the seventh «< • 
of the < Encydopsedia Britannica,' where it is statrd ti< ? • 
art of carpentry ia directed almost wlnrfly to the •t]|>r»" 
weight or pressure, ovring to which drcttmatance its I** . 
principles oelong to the mechanical sciences. I'ht f«' . 
object of carpenter'a work in a baildinir ia to give fm ••• 
and stability to the structure ; and wittitn its prnj^ r. 
may be embraced all the rough timber- work oeces^r U- • 
support, division, or connection of the scversl parti • 
building. Carpentry thus inchides the conntnirtlon 'if ' 
framing of floors, partitions, and roofs. Joinrrv, iiri" - 
to the same anthonty, has for its object the addition of 4 
fixed wood-work necesfiary for convenience or omarn- 
and while it does not call for the apnltcation of ni»' li • 
chanical science, it requires, as Tredgoid observes, miy li i 
in that department of geometrical science which rt^hut r^ •• 
projection and description of lines, surfaces, and solid*, r« - 
as an intimate knowledge of the structure and pm|Hr* •-. 
wood. The princinal items of joiner's work hi a buil.:t! j 
enumerated by Nicnolson in his treatise on * Csr]rnf 
the ' Encyclotieedia Metropolitana/ are the doors, wi^-- . 
margins rouno plaster to protect it from injury at sn^U** \ 
decorations generally, such as architraves, bases. <v>;. 
and pilasters; boaitling, skirting, and wmnscotinir 1 
boardmg of floors, which is treated of under Hon r. VJ '* 
p.. 52, and the construction of stmrrases [SrAiaci^r. 1' < 
p. 423], are considered as fiilling into the department * 1 ' 
miner rather than the carficnter ; and the constnictmn 0' > 
hand-railing of staircases is a department of jriinrrr «' 
requirea much ingenuity, and b treated at great I'-t.:* 
man^ works on the subject Tredgoid obserws thot '^/< 
makmg, or that department of wood-work which rr!jt • 
the making of furniture, has little affinity «ith j-t. 
although tl^ same materials and tools are emptoTpd ir • 
deacriptiona of work. The line of demarration. hr^^- 
between jmnery and cabinet-making wouM seem to !«• * 
more difficult to define than that between c&qMntr) 
joinery; and, with the exoepdoii of such matten m ^r>r^' 
and polishing, which relate only to the use of the hir t 
more valuable woods, the operations of the cabinct-mAk* ' . 
the joiner are nearly identical, the mme means U^inc a* •> 
by both for the production of neat end strong jainti. rr» 
evading the injorious effect of shrinkage, warptntr, ti»! . 
grometric changes in the material operated npon. I' 
indeed, remark^ by the author of * The Joiner snd Ci ' 
Maker,' in Knights series of Industrial Guide- B(v>il« " 
* the same man will call himself a joiner when he » »• ' 
in deal, or oak, or ash, and making a strong kitrhra tj' < . 
a door, or a corn-chest, and a cabmet-ntaker when be i« " • 
ittg in mahogany or roae-wood, and making a uritinc-^-- » 
a cabinet' 

Tredgoid, in the article above referred to, has r! > 
nnmeroua notices relative to the progresaive itnprovrrr" t 
the art of joinery, and the principal works whirh ha^r * 
pol»lished on the subject He traces the origin of th«- tr* 
the thrones, stalls, pulpits, and screens w osthcdr'i 1 
chtnvhcs, in which, however, the joinery is of the ino*t • ' 
kind, and is indebted to the carver fbr Iti omamcn! 
eariiest writer on joinery to whom he alludes is Jo»o)i} M ' 
in whose • Mechanick Exercises,' publisbed !n 1677. th. • 
and ordinary operations of the joiner, and the tei^hni^-/! «. 
then in use, are explained. He attribntcf the r^ t 
establishing the principles of ioinery, in this mmtn . < ' ' 
sound basis of geometrical science, to the vslnii^)le ; -> ' 
works of the late Peter Nicholson, who appesrs to L« ' - 
the firrt English writer on the subject who derived .•*• • 
from the worka of continental writers. The FfPiirh, f*f- ' 
have produced many valuable works on joinery, vH^h •' "^ 
that some things given as new liy English aritcft lii*!* 
been known on the contment; be fredgold ohsmr* t^ < 



J O ! 

pntAce the Fraack jniMn wn ^my iofenor to our own. 
* Their worfc/iM mjB^ ' m rouglit dovedhr, ftnd ofton dmiisjr, 
iftd «t Che beet ie ooolinod to ezterml e&ct The noBtneee, 
KMBdnett, «m1 eoeiancf wBch la so eonniioii to every pert of 
tbe wvia of an Engliih loiner, is scarcely to be fbmid in the 
worki of t Fieneb OBe.*^ * The little correepondence/ he 
sddif ' ia point of cxoeUeiice, bet w e e n their theory and pnie- 
tioe, lesdb ot to think thnt tiieir theoretical knowledge is oon- 
fiacd to srchiteetSy enyineers^ ftc, Instead of being difibsed 
S0oi^ worbDen» aa it la in thia oountrjr.' 

Id ill theopanliona of the joiner it ia of primary iniport> 
ttMf to know the peeiiKar propertiea of the material that ia 
Mcd. Ttii seliject ia fanefly noticed vnder CAnrarmT, 
P. C. S., p. 292, and some mibrmation bearing upon it is 
gircn Bodor Wood, P. C, p. 518 ; while in £xoonai8, P. C, 
|i. JiO, is sn esphmatioQ, tlliistrated by sectional diagrama, of 
the minncr ia wbidi woody matter ia formed, aira of the 
amnfreomit of the oomponent parts of the trunk of a tree. 
7'red^old frtves mnch infonnation relatiTe to varioua kinds of 
wood io his * Elementary Prindplea of Carpentry ;' and, in 
bii treatise on joinery in the * iAoydopsMlia Britsnnioa,' he 
fxn the lesalts of some important experiments on 

pfcaiiar propertiea of wood which lead to its warptng and 
crackiog. Of these the first in order was made oy T. A. 
Knicrht, Eaq„ and commameated by him to the Royal Society 
iu 1^1 and 1817 ; end they mear to be oppoaed to some 
ftnenHW reoeifed opinions* In his first paper on the sob- 
iMt, prialed in the tdnety-first vohime of the * Philosophical 
Tniwtftioiis* (p. 844, &c), Mr. Knight obeenres *tbat there 
B io erery kind of wood what workmen call its grain, con- 
wting of two kinds, the false or bastard, and the tme or rilver 
frnin/ < The former/ he explains, * ooorists of those con- 
afrtrtc circles whidi mark the annual increase of the tree; 
ami the latter is composed of very thin lamins, diverging in 
m!7 direction from the medulla (or pith) to the bark, ha^ng 
futk sdhesioD to each other at any time, and less during the 
«unn^ sod summer than in the autumn and winter, whence 
tw ffnter brittlencss of wood in the former seasons.' His 
oWnations in thb paper refer to English oak, but they are, 
bf AJ9, oMve or leas applicable to every other kind of wood, 
tKe «ood of ezogenooB plants onl^, of courBe, bein^ included 
(A this remark. The truth of his obs^nrations is illustrated 
bf the <act tibnt in diying whole trunks it b imposnble to 
^if!tii the wood from spliltine more or less, the cncks being 
n all esses directed towards the centre, thus indicating that 
^ wood shrinks in n greater ratio in the direction of tbe dr- 
luatfertDte ef the tiunk than in the direction of its diameter, 
u«i lUst the naiiating or difernng lamine of what Knight 
K^le* die true or silver gndn w91 readily separate from each 
hW. Iu sawinff the Enjglish oak into boards, Knight ob- 
•«7v«». ' it is uanal to cot it, aa ranch aa possible, into what 
r> tilled quarter-boards, which are so named becanae the 
2^ M fim cut into quarters.' * In a perfect board of this 
(«i«i; be adda, * the saw exactly follows the dveetion in 
• ^b the tree most readily divides when cloven ; in this case 
t!^ fasMue of the silver grain lie pandld with the surfiRO of 
t^ bosfd, and a board mus cut, when properly laid in the 
'^'^y it rarefy or never seen to deviate from its true boriaontal 
i^Mttion.* An American machine for cutting np trunka so 
•t«u all ibe boards produced may posaess this ouali^ is noticed 
''uy Saw.Miu^ p. C, p. 481. « If, on the contraiy,' to 
'''^nne Mr. Knight's obaervatkms, ' one be sawed across the 
<-'^ grain, it will, during many years, be incapable of bear- 
''T chaagts of temperatare and of moisture witnout becoming 
^ifped ; nor will the strength of numerous nails be sufficient 
*^^s^j to nrsvent the inconvenience thence arising. That 
'«-2ic» of n board of thb kind which grew nearest the centre 
«• Oie tree will always show a tendency to become convex, 
*^ the opposite one concave, if placed in a situation where 
^«^ aidaa are equally expoaed to neat and moisture.' 

1> (he secoadpaper or Mr. Knight on thia subfect, in the 
^i^3«eophkal Traoaactioos,' vol. cvii. p. 969, &c., he atatea 
^ (vsnh of lanilar experiments upon ash and beech. Some 
4a hcerds of these woods were, to quote his own words, * cot 
nByyoBlt e direetioBS reiarive to their medulla, so that the 
yqgent csHahg proceasea crossed the centre of the aur- 
™^»«ieof diem at right angles, and lay parallel with 
^ nrtm of othMs ; by which means I be<»me enabled to 
■^Jt^ owBoaiitivc extent of their expansion and con- 
^'J'^jrhai wey were subjected to various degrees of heat 
***"p*<'> a.* • Both were placed under periectiv similar oir- 
T^J^** ia a warm room, when those which had been 

'^'^ ^ tit6nf[ acTttRi the convergent cdlnlar processes 

soon changed their ftmn veiy considerably, the one nde bd» 
eomine hollow and the other raised ; and m drying theae con- 
tracted neariy 14 per cent rehitive to their breadth. The 
others retmned, with very little variation, their primary form, 
and did not contract more than 3} per cent, in dirying. 

Tredgold, after briefly noticing the above experiments, 
gives the result of another, conducted apparently by himself, 
which completes the application of the same important prin- 
ciples to the more ordimur materials of the ioiner. ' As Mr. 
Knight,' he observes, 'had not tried resinous woods, two 
specimens were cdt from a piece of Memel timber ; and to 
render the result of our observation more dear, conceive Fig. 1 
to represent the sectkm of a tree, p^ | 

the annual rings being shown by ^' 

ehndes. BD represents the manner 

m which one of our pieces was cut, 

and AC the other. The board AC M^K^K^^f^ 
contracted 8*75 per cent, in width, 

and became hollow on the side ■»{ JI^Ba 

marked ft. The board BD retained Ki.-;.,.^i-^^ifli^ ^ 
ita original strmightness and con- 
tracted only 0*7 per cent.' The 
difibrenee in the relative amoont of 
contraction between boards cut in 
the two ways faidicated in ^ diagram, appears therefore to be 
even greater than in hard woods. ' From theae experiments,' 
Tredgold obaervea, ' the advantages to be obtained merely by 
a proper attentkm in cutting out bomds for pannels, &c. will 
be okKrious ; and it will also be found that pminels cut so that 
the septo are nearly parallel to their faces will appear of a 
finer and more even gnun, and require less labour to make 
their surface even and srooodi.' He considers that their 
resulta will be no less interesting to cabinet-makers, especially 
in connection with the making of tables. * For such purpoaea,' 
he says, * the planks should he cut so as to cross the nugs aa 
neariy in the curection BD as possible ;" and he expresses hia 
opinion that the great superiority of the billiard-tables of some 
nmkers to those of others is attributable to a knowledge of 
this property of wood. As afiecting ornamental woo£ he 
remarks that where the transverse septa are large, a pbmk cot 
like BD will be fisured, while one cut as AC will be phun. 

Reasonable and self^vident as the results of the experi- 
ments above detailed may appear, when the physiological 
structure of exogenous wood is taken into consideration, they 
are almost diametrically opposed to an opinion prevalent 
among joiners, that a pftmk or board cot as AC, whidi would 
be tenned mUd^ is preferable to one cut in the plane of the axis 
of the trunk, like BD, which would be termed ttromg, not 
with reference to its actual strength in the ordinary sense of 
the word, but rather as a correbtive to mild, as indicative of 
rankness, hardness, or coarseness, and its presumed tendency 
to warping. 

Another kind of warphig or irregnter shrinkage, wldch 
ofWn afiects joists, door-posts or jambs, and other thick pieces 
of wood which are cut from one side of a trunk, ia thus ex* 
plamed by Mr. Knight (Pha, Ihnu, vol. evil., p. S74.> 
* The hiterior and older layers of wood,' he stetes, ' are much 
more solid and specifically heavy than the external layers hi 
the same tree: and the hitter conseqnentiy contract more 
longitudinally in diying than the former, and the edge of 
every board (that has been cut with surfiKies neariy pwrallel 
with the line of the converging cellular processes) which lay 
nearest the medulla in the tree will therefore in diying be^ 
come convex, whilst the opposite edge will become concave.' 
From these remarks it may be preramed that while, ^whero 
flatnem of sorthoe is the principal object, a piece of wood cot 
like BD, F^, 1, is prefbrable to one cut like AC, tiie bitter 
would be praf^rable where the permanent straightness of the 
edges is of the greatest importance, because the fibres near its 
two edges, bemg equidistant from the pith or medulla, will 
ahrink equally, while in BI>those at theedge B will contract 
more than those at the edge D. 

By paying due regard to such circumstances in the selection 
of wood, the joiner may, m a great degree, evade the hiooB* 
venience arising ihnn irreguhur variations hi the diasenslons of 
his aaaterial. As an illimtratlon of the application of sneb 
knowledge, we may refer to the method described in DoddV 
'Britiah Manofoctores,' aeries iv., p. 811, in Knigfaft 
' Weekly Vdmne,' as occMioMdly adopted hi the formation ei 
krge deal table-tops, for veneermg with mahogany or rose* 
wood. Owing to then* great width and various other drenaa^ 
stances, such boards or slabs are pecnKariv IkUe to warpinfp' 
but tho tendency is guarded against by eeleeting deals aa Ann 

J O 1 


J O I 

uiinBi $tmr hmekm or tour inclni aad • balf 
■Im^ lofviiMr Mk by n^. m ««%• vlrich 
Um hevt oT tlM trw Mair joiMd to 
When Um yiM U tham^ghljr wt, tU vide 

oiliWo edgo. 
vid0 canpOHM bovd 

rkm mdoDsd it tfaaa cut an iato aiint* bj Mwinf H longitn- 
iiiMUj ttMlvfty batwwtt tW jpioti, md UMtealiptare r ' ' 
with • fitftker cbangv ia Um order of ploctng Ibo 
Tko toblo-lop tbM coMMti of pMcc* of wood not 
l«o iiicbot wtdoy to amofrod m mohmU/ to oountoroct onj 
iodiofttioa to vorpn^. A doe rcgwd to the k vt of varping 
•od ibriokoM » oIk» votj nnr— ry to tbe ooottmctioo of 
larfo OMmJaiQa and dccofotkait, vbicb ore built op, aa it 
wore« of aoTeraJ Uiitinct pioeea of wood. In makiog wooden 
ODJOBiBa, for example, arvenl pieces auit be fitted togetber 
to Ibrw boUow cylinder, in preference to using ooe large 

rat; or, wbere large {lostsare used, tber must, if appearance 
to bo ig g a id e J , be sunooiMlcd by a oaaaljcr of narrow pieces. 
KndU coloniDs nay be made of a single piece, mod jproTeotod 
Droia splitting by boring a large bole down tbeir axis. 

Tbe orimal abrinkage of wood in drying is not bowcTor 
tbe only nwago of dtiiiwaion to be provid^ for, aince, from 
its bygronetrie propertiea, changes m tbe state of the atmos- 
ukere oooasioii even old and acaaooed wood to mj in siie 
inmi tkao to tima. Of this we ba«e a kmiliar illostistioQ in 
tbe Ion that doors, esnerialty garden doori, which open and 
abut with facility in ary weather, frequently awell so aa to 
beenmo aloiosi imaHnroable in • homid state of the atmof- 
idtem. Kiom oxpertaiaBte made by M. Roadclet, oootcd 
oir Tradfold, it appnuv thai in wood of a mean degree 
or drynete the eitant of eootnction and expansion produced 
by the oBual chaofces in the state of Uie atmosphere ww, in 
firewood, bom 4|th to J,th port of its width, and in oak, 
from |||th to {|(h |«rt of lis width, showmg a mean variation 
CdmI to fhtb pan of the width in fir, and ^1^ part of the 
width in oak. At this nman rate of variation the difibrsBce 
of width prodoeed by the above caose alooo in a fir board 
lU iuchm wide wmdd be ^ of an inch, an aaMMOt 
hmur SMfidont to cause the boaid to split or crack, if it 
fisod tmmovoably at both edgca. 
For lite above iWMoos it balways neocaaary to inaort pannds 
in the ffamework in which they are mounted, in aach a manner 
■a to allow Ireo motion at one or botb edges. An ordinary 
ft a me d door, anch aa that rrproiented oodcr Dooa, P. C. 
fk M, aiurda a ftood esampio of panocUed work, and ooe in 
which Ibis peculiarity m^f bo readily observed. In this kind 
nf doar the stylos, marked 32, 2, ia the cot referred to, the 
aaila, marked 6, A^and the muniona (or, as they are frequently 
I bv wodkmen, the amgaCms), maiied 6, (», 6, ooostitote a 
g naming of tbick bnc comoanoively tavrow pieces of 
i, tbe rectangnlar openiajn or which, nmrkcd 1. 1, 1, 1, 
ate lilled with thm boaitls called uaonels, usually cut to one* 
thifd of tbe tbic ku om of the frammg. Tbe paaioeU are ilid, 



faal with the |inbn of the ^od, u sulfie 
na plaoeu In now boaaea it amy oAen be 
aMpaannea of the paini towarda tbe sides, 
the innnda of doom and wiodow-shutters, t 
mora than nine or ten inches wide, they b 

brfcire tbe fmnmm is completely pot togetber, 
phrajcbad or cnt, ahont balf an ia^ deep, m tbe famcr edges 
of the framing, faMo which grooves they are nuale to fit with 
iftci ani aoeuracy to piwveot shaking or mttling. yet not au 
l^gbr aa to p ieian t ibetr sliding a Utile in the gioovea, aa the 
l amnal abrinka or oapanda. The usual practice la to fit them 
(bM ao tight that a little Ibroe applied to the edge of the 
' ' ) band, u sulficieni to drive it mto 
be pem*ivod, by the 
, or rather edgca, of 
tliat, even when not 
e, they have shrunk at least 
Kai j b t h of an inch sincr tbe completion of the painting, 
witaatanding tbe eai« takm u» •casoo them previously ; 
and if obncrvationa wrno made with nilBcieot accuracy, it would 
ba lonnd ihni iba anwanl of shrinkage appears to be grratcr 
or lorn aaeaniiag to the stote of the atmosphere. The addi- 
tianaf gint or aiulsto huU the pamrl hi iu place wouU ooe^ 
sioo tbe panncis to crack or split, which they oocasiuoaUr do 
with a noiae aniiciiatly indicBtife uf the irrmwtibU farce 
wilb mhiA tba ahange of dimeosion takes plaoe. la superior 
doom Ibo aagW f orme d between tbe iancr edgeof the framing 
«mI tba faea of the pajMKl is oec ap fa d by a naiuiaiikg, put in 
wllb a» 'f lrw l jainia» wbicb areeaplatned below ; ia each a caaa 
aaiw mMi be taken ao to inaart the aails by which the BMwld- 
big ia bald m Ite placo, tbal they mav enter Uttframimg tmfy, 
nMboal tnacbing tba paonda. la bad aofk they are oltcn 
driven earrlmair iato totb. and tbe almeai bef itable cooscu 

ioa is that Iba 


crack, in 

of their fia^ 

^ . iad otbrr 
of ioinar'a work are framed and pannelled fai the tmw «•« « 
ordinary doors, tba pannala tbemadvea being, abi'a too ii4« 
to ba oat oat of a ainglo boanl, wwnpi aa J af too « ^ 
picoea uaited with glue at thair adgasi Tredaolil aAnm, 
iiowever, that each pannds ebodd never ba amSe awv iku 
fifteen bicbca wide and four feet deep, aod aot m Iwf r if « 
caa be avoided. A aiattlar eonetructiea k aba ed^inl «« 
superior fumttara for the backs of c beat i of diaoen, b>4. 
cases, &c., aa the jplaa la laora efledad tbui aay odirr *>? 
the exdueioB of oast. By dividing tba width of tW u & 
into two or more portiona, it nEdocea the aaweat of 
abrioki^ at aay one mint; aad if tbe paaads br 

enter the grooves of tne fruaiaff oaly a oaarCir of u ir-* a 
each tide, each pannel may sbriiw nearly ndf aa lack v.i'. m 
producing any apertore between tbe pannd aad the ftia . i 
A simpler but iem efiectual mode of attainbg the mm . 
ject, wnich is often adopted for tbe backs of luraitarr, vmi s* 
tome other parposes in which an extended sarface of ^mr*. .• 
b rec^uircd at Iem cost tbaa is invdved la finaimg sad («&.•■ . 
Hog, IS to fix a icrics of narrow boards aide by side, m\h ,• 
them with a few nails only, without glue, ia order tkst u . 
niay retain as much freedom of motion « pueuble, sod irf^. 
ing the adjoining edges, aa abowa at a, a, Fy. 1 Bt •. • 
arrangement a considerable aamuat of shrinksirs Od/ *ii 
place a ithout producing any opeoiag between tbe »:, - - « 
boards, aad, if the aails be aot fix^ too aear their t^** 
surticient play may ba allowed to pravaal tbe wood *rm 

a a 

E w 'I ■ ' ' ■ ,y-> 


The appaanace of ouch boarding aaaT be lasproved bv f<r«- 
ing a bead with a moalding-plane along ooe ed|rr of •«* 
board on the visible side, as at 6. 6, /^. 9, becauM (h i-a. 
mcona tbe open joint b m aome oegree masked In tW o * 
or wide groove on the oppoaite siile of tba besdiac T- 
sauie means of avoiding tne diaspeeaUe appearaarr */ n- 
opi*ning joint is adopted ia soaie doora aad shattm mht-l .«• 
fnuned and (lanndled in tbe uaud manner, bat in «b<-fc * - 
paunels are made two-thirds instead of una third of the t; i 
nem of tbe framing. In this case the edges aie ntoi- - 
the tbickncas of an ordinary pannd, aad the rebated («^-- 
alone ia ioaertcd in the groovea of the framing, akJ< 
unreduced portion of the pannd ia broogbt/lMA or etm • - 
tlie surface of tbe frambr. This aMm of conMnvi-- • 
often adopted for extemd doors, aa it diowa tbem to bv »• 
Strang wtthout any great tbicknem of fraiaiag. At i 
Fig, 2, le shown another mode of jtiining boardi nd» b^ « 
which is odicd OMrfoMoardiHMr, and ia applirahU la v - 
or Jh^, of or exoaedlng hdf an inch in tbirkat^ *! 
plan M freouently adopted for the kind of iafcrw < 
called 4sdjpatf fioon^ which, to avoid tba exprnie d fie 
are made of narrow boards placed side by m6t, aad b- • 
gether br trsnsverte piccea called ledgaa or baHraa, t« » 
each of the boards is nailed . Tbe blnl, m shown ia t » « 
where it b repreeented as maskea bv a bead, euaai*'* • • 
groove cut ia ihe edge of oae board, ivceiviaig a f^. ** 
tongue formed oa the ed^ of tbe a^joialag oae. V- 
called aarfdi fdnum, nmda to pdra, oaa for forming tW ^o- 
'and the other for formlaff laa toagwe, ara made te k* 
tbe fitting of mateb^boaidiag ; bat wbara tbe 

mg Of mataMwaraiag ; bat wfeara tbe mteev aort : 
I theae tba poovo may be fonaed witt ibr bi»' 
iog-pbute cdlod a pkmgk^ aad Iba fia^g^a by *%>' 
away cmb side with a rtUiinpkmm 
waAy^ though iacorrectly, termed a i 
tbb kind of jofait b tint caUed pirn 


wbkb b 

which botb edges of everr Im _ . 

dip of wood b insetted between tbrm to fill ap tbe <-» — 

" * b olurA 

Tbb plaa, wbidi bvdvaa 
plored ia fioors. 

As indicated by Its aaate, a very imoartmit olepw im* ■ «' 
ilie art v( joimrv b the formalbin af l owi ng sm m'<r>'^^ 

I :j 

/ U I 

till /m.** rr(,uLSi*J U* llii* I l»*l>i iUfvctij»i*j^ \ui h «• iiut *<i 

J O I 


J O I 


teml(*ncy of fho inclino^d faces to slip upon each othor, it is 
ditiicult to fonn it with accuracy. It is the joint used for the 
Jincrleff of pi<'tiire-framcs, and for many other pur|)Oses in which 
the joint is cxfK>s<'d to view in the same manner ; and in «uch 
fiis<'s the strengrth c>f th«* joint is often increascil by inserting, 
in a saw-cut made for the pur|)osc in a slopin*? dircvtion, a 
thin slip or key of hard woml in the direction indicated by 
the dotted lines. This key is inserte<i with glue, and when 
I hat is dry, the snnerfluon'? comers are cut oif. At e^ Fuj, 3, 
is shown a mitru<l joint at an obtuse angle, to show that this 
form of joint is applii-able to any angle, the plane of the joint 
being in all ca^es m«<le to bisect the angle. To facilitate the 
accurate formation of mitred joints, joiners enij)loy a contriv- 
ance called a mihe-ffox, by which they are enabled to saw and 
nlanc, or tJtooff the incline<l faces exactly to the required angle. 
The last joint represented in Fig. 3, tiiat marked/, is a com- 
bination of the overla[>j)ing with the mitred joint, much 
neater, where the angle alone is visible, than the former, and 
stronger than the latter, like which it may be nailed both 
ways. Fig, 4 illustrates an arnmLrement almost too simple to 
need explanation, by which the strength p. . 

of a nailed joint of the over-lap kind ^^* 

may, with very little extra trouble or 
waste of stuff, be greatly increased. Sim- 
ple as it is, however, it is very rarely 
practised in this country, and, indee<l, 
has never been seen by the writer ex- 
cepting in tobacco-chests or packing- 
cases from America. For neater piir- 
|X)ses it might be worth while to divide 
each joint into four or more portions, 
instead of two oidy, as in the cut, by 
which means the tendcn<'y of the joint 
to open by the warping of the wood, or 
m conse<iuenct» of external violence, would be still further re- 
sisted, owing to the more frequent changes in the direction of 
the nails. 

In all the anpdar joints above noticed, the two pieces of 
nood which form the memlx'rs of the joint are held together 
by the glue, naiN, or screws applie^l'to connect them; but 
in the higher operations of the joiner and cabinet maker, the 
wood is so cut as in some degree to hold the cfmstnicticm to- 
gethcr indeiwndcntly of such aid. In the joints shown in 
Fig. 5, for example, where a represents a joint adapted for ex- 
ternal angles, and b a joint for internal angles, sueh as those- 
of the skirtings of a room, the form of the joint alone would 
hold it together, irresi)ective of any fastenings. The same 

Fig. 5. 

obTect U attained far more perfectly by the various mr^Ies of 
efovrfniiing, the simplest of which is illustrate<l bv Fig. 6. in 
which /I and /»represint, in isometrical |ien5|H'ctive*a jnirtion of 
two lj4Mnh, swch as two sides of a box, or the bark and one 
*ide of a drnwer. nif nmdy for fixing together by an ordinary 
dovHail.'d jomT. nod r *ho\v« the joint as it appears when Htt<»d 
toeelher. ft i%ill U» evident that, w hen thu«uniti^l, the wedin*- 
Hj4ie«l pn>je«*tions from the end of the p'«<t» a (from the 

transverse sectional form of wbicli,M>iD»wluU iwrmM.'.i; t'at 
of a dove*s tail, the joint takes its naiue) must powertuili n .( 
any strain lending to icparate the joint, nolcst that mpj ,i • . 1 
jjen to be exerted preciaely in one direction ; whil« il„' ^^^ 

rate fit of the purts, aided by the glue, and m soirir au . i 
nails or screws, renders the joint so strong even io tlmt tir < 
tion that, if properly made, the wood will sooner ImoJi u 
separate at the joint. The small dovetail-thaped |»n.j.ri, 
in the piece a are called /w»f, and the opcniupg . ui .n • 
"ud of ft to receive them, holes When the Ixjardj %ihHij . » 
stitute the members of a long dovctailc«l ioiot ar« cihujk.vv 
two or more pieces glued together at the edg»\<, it i> vk> . 
to arrange the dovetailing that the gluei* joint, if in iIm \<. 
corresponding with a in the cut, shall fall in one of ti»f j 
and not in an interval between them, and if in the pim 
one of the intervening solid s))accs between the hol*«, n^. < 
in the hole itself; because by such an arrangement tin- • 
ing up of the dovetail tends to hold the glued joint lu^;.!' 
while it might otherwise tend to split it open. In cohm- < 
the front of a drawer with its sides, it is desirable lo «\.w. 
the joint entirely on the front face. This is done hv tL< k 
of joint shown in Fig. 7, which is Fig.l. 

termed a dovetail blind of one eye. 
In it the piece forming the front of* 
the drawer is made thicker than the I 
side, and the pins, which arc formed 
on the front piece, are nwde only as 
large as if it weie of the same thick- i 
ne.<s as the side, and the intervening I 
spares are not cut through the extra 
thickness of the wood. Similar to this 
is the dovetail biittd of both eyes, or 
mitred dovetail^ in which botli pieces 
are of equal thickness, and the pin-holes, as well as tU- • 
are stopped about one-eighth or three-sixteenths of un ; 
from the outer or visible surface of the wood, the eiim t: 
ness of the wood thus left uncut being miirvd ; no il • 
joint is very secure, but the means by w hich it b mi.i' r • 
are completely invisible. Such a joint of course ^»^^ul^v* i 
accurate workmanship, to enable all the parts to til (* 
without Ihing so tight in any part as to need injuniHu .• 
in kno< king up into its pro[>er |x)sition. 

The only other kind of joint that claims notice bm' i« 
mortise and tenon^ which is the kind of joint usually < n»[ 
for connecting the several members of the framing ui a 
or similar ])iece of [winnelled work, as well as for mun\ . 
pnri)oses. A vwrtise is a deep an4 narrow groove . ul -.. 
member of the framing to receive a corresi)oruling j.ivjr 
called a tenon, or, impn)iKrly, utamni, formed on tin- * 
another niemt)er of the framing which abuts upon it. u*-i 
right angles. Tredgold recommends that the thick..* -• » 
tenon, and consequently the width of tlie mortiM> to n«t > 
.should Ixj about one- fourth of the tliickness of tl.o ♦.-.i. 
and that the width of the tenon should never be gnji» ' 
<i%e times its thickness A more general rule, hovkc^tr 
make the tenon one-thinl the thi<'kness of that pt»n -< 
framing which it is to enter. When the mcmUrt «.: 
fnnning are wide, the tenon is dividtxi by an intervc u nt: • 
into two parts, by which the necessity for weakti.:i; 
frame by very long mortises is avoided. In Fig. ^. n ri 
sents a divided tenon of this kind, and b is what U i« ri- 
douh/e tenon, vhicli is sometimes used in very th»»k •: < 
es|)ecially in the framing of drwrs which are to rfM.t.f i 
tise locks, or locks inserted in the thickness of tin •' ' • 
which ca<e the l(H*k w placctl in the interval betw<vtt f 
tenon?. In some crises, where a single tenon i« umnI ». • 
framing, a small proj<»ction culled a ctcass or ftather-^^- 
fonnf»d on each sitle of it like a ver^' short tenon, as in r , / . 
shallow grooves or mortises being cut on c*ch >,Jv «•. 
princi|)al mortise to receive them. 


.» (♦ 

ill i^ 


rlj 8 rilallf «H»»if^< -** ,^i^<Mi»T« . 

.'Y «i( ,iir + i* 

' t «... I^«^- .. 

f «... 

> M M llii' 



i O U 

Im wmm Isvowito |m|hI ^ GUbtrt 

17M Mr. JoMi mm appoiiitMl 

AiaKlnny, Swantva^ whicli 
t Im held abost thrw jmuv, and thrn •mlcd «t Plj- 
I Dod( « oriniflrr of the UniUrUti eonmgatioD at Uu»t 
, vbarv ht rraiaiiMd tvo yrmr^ Ue thcii beraae m* 
' of the UnhanMi co ugn apt a tioo at Ilalifiu ia Yoriubire. 
In aboot Un«e jmrv he moved to Loodoo, where lie resided 
dorinir tbe reiaatnder of hit life, chWBy ocniiiicd ■• a claMcal 
Inarher, and praachioir oaJv ormionally in the fdacse of 
nthen : ho never took chanr<* of a ooofrrgmtioQ. Soon after 
h«* came to London he mamcil the daughter of Dr. Abraham 
Rf^; abe died without iMoe m 181S. In 1817 he married 
•yraio, and had tvo diUtimi, who wrrtved him. He died 
January 10, 18S7, in Grrat Coram Street, London, and waa 
tntmed in tba banin|;-|rmiiad of St. Geor«e*s Bloomsbory. 
A i<pw y e an befonr hb death he rronrea the cfi|iloaia of 
1«L.D. Hom the Univeivttv of Abenlcen, and was soon after- 
wanlt elected a mcmtic-r of the Rovml Society of Literature. 

I)r. Jonaa was the anthor of several works, some of which 
are relifiena, ehieflv in support or defence of the evidences 
of Cbnstinnity. ()f there one of the moat important was, 

* lUusiratioas of the Fonr Go«neUi, foimded on circumstances 
timtliar to our Lord mid the Evanirelistx,' Lond., 1808, 8vo. 
In 1809 he iHiblished a short i«tin Grammar for the use 
of tibools; in 1804, a (trrek Ctramoiar, which has been 
frmjoendjr re p rioled, hot the year before his denth he re- 
miidclled it, and ehansrd the title to that of * EtjrmoUxria 
<;nMm.* In 1M12 be iiuhli«lir<l a Latin and English 
Vucybniary, which be n*|«ibliAiunl in 1826 as * Antholo^rim 
Lstinm, or a Development of the Anakifries by which the 
I'arts of Specrh are derived frnm each other.* 

Dr. Jones's chief work, to which he devoted a great many 
years of his lifp, was his *(*reek and English Lexic^mi,* 
whidi was mil4tsh«*d in 1823, in one volume, 8vo., and s^niin 
in 18*i6. Ur. Jooea was oiie of the firvt to introduce into 
thb emiatrv the practice of teaching (iirek through the 
mMlimn of bigliah instead of Latin ; and the irst Gnck and 
Englisb Lnatnon for general ure was Dr, Jones*s. lie after> 
warda jmblished an abbrevieied edition for the ose of schools, 

* The Tyre's Grrek and Englinb Le&icoo.* 

There have since been teverul Greek and Englisli Lexicons, 
nm only In England, but in Amch<-a. Soon after lyr. Jones's 
cnme not, 8rhre«clius's LtxH-am nas translated into English, 
and pnbllsbed by Valny, a m*w edition of which came out in 
llCII. In I8i6 Dr. iXmncgan's (•rr^k Lrxicoo appeared, 
and sinoa that tlMMe of (fretrn, Ewiiig. Duiiliar and Barker. 
Ilinrks's small School Lrxictm, and lantly the Lexicon of 
LiddeU and Scott, which is in one volume 4to., in small 
type, with many thonmnds of relereorrs, and has already 
< IMft) fvarhed a second odiiion. It is based on the German 
work of Ifkssow. 

The sn ei ^si of Dr. Jonre's Lrxicvn was very great, and 
a large impre«iion was soon disposed of. The nort, as might 
be expected, waa e^t without its faults, aAO was niugnly 
treated hi the second nnmber of tlie * Westminster Ri^view.' 

(Ganf.'s ilfay. 18:17 : JawmlcfEdmcaiiam, vol. iii., lH'i3.) 

JtlSQUlN, DEPREZ-tba name which it appean to us, 
after having collated various aathoritire. is the true one of this 
r»ltlwlad eumpoasr of the naost ancient school of part-music 

oas, there sn*ms little reason to doubt, a native of the Low 
Camtriaa, though the honour of his birth k bdirectly cUimcHl 
by nmny Italian writers, while its date still rrmains a matter 
of infcrancr ; M. Kavolle thinks that the year 1460 may be 
assumed aa the period at which he ww born, and we are not 
inrltned to dttfrr fn«n this opinion. 

Josipdn wm a dbriple of Johann Ockcnheim, ' the oldsnt 
eampoaar in narts en the continent,' mys Dr. Uurney, * of 
vbuse works I hare besn able to ftnd any remains,* and' much 
of nhnw rsputation ariam fram hia having been the matractor 
nf ana who berema ao eminent. The master and scholar were 
relatirely to cwch other as Blow and Purrrll. On the monn- 
aamii of the former, in WastminalFr Abbey, it is rr«t>rdtd 
thm ha waa *mamtr to the fcrnrnw Mr. Pkincell.' It is |ire. 
bshUthat JoHpun wcsU into luly nlien yoniy, and tlirre 
im|irevod huiMrlf in the knowlrtlgr of his art ; and this may 
hate led to his having brrn thought a native of that 
ciNntry, a supposition to nharh the (re«|umt addition to his 
name of rrairmas. ur dol Prato (a u»wn in Ttucaoy), ma^ bi* 
Mtrtbnted. It is rertain thst he nas a ain^rr m the pootiAcal 
chagprl m thr time of S'uttis 1 V., who sat in the pap«l chair 
l^ml 1471 to 1484, lor Adasai speaks of him, in that ns|mcity, 

» Ugh 

Looii XII., for whom ha compnaed mack mmic (osinrrai 
which soma amnamg atorica are toM), and a matst ar ten 
eontrired that the monarrh was enabled to triw a 


him a aramma of a' hrariir, 
To remimTthe khv the maywr 


but neglected to redeem it. 

hI a motet bcfriiwiac ' licmor aato verW tb/ kr. 

lis not prodoctng the btandcd rmnlt, Josqmn wreir saotkrr 
upon the words, ' Portio mea non est m lint vitmcan ' 
Loots then took the hintt be a towod a bmeAaa, and tW ««wk. 
poier eipressed hb grsthnde in a third awtet, cpmawnni«. 
' Bonitatem fcciati cum aervo tim, Domine.* Bat Glivre--o 
remarks that dcaire proved more in a p l finn than g r stit si i e. ks 
the two first works very mneh ivrpassed the Imc 

The time of Josqwn's deceaar b not known. Ilv v» 
buried in the chnrch of St Gudule, at Brearb, abtir U 
effigy and epitaph are, we boliere, stUI to be ssen. ll<* •« i 
very voluminona oompoaer, and man^r of hb narks rrmm, » n 
attpst hb learning ana geniwi. Ilawkins gives a guid ipn tnn 
of them ; Burner more than one example ; and levvral «v n 
be found in the Aitish Museum. * Ue may,' mys Dr. Rami. 
* be justly called the father of modem harmony, and tW •• 
ventor of almost everv ingenious contexture of iu csmtittii^ 
parts, nearly a buncfrcd years before Palestrina, Orlaki Ji 
Laaso, Tallb, or Bird, the great mnsieal hmdnarics M ::» 
sixteenth ccntavy, whose names and works are still beStl m tb 
highest reverence, by all true judgca and lovrts of sU 
appean to me the true and 

JOUVENET, JEAN, acelebretcd French fwialrr .!«*. 
ing the reign of Louis XIV., was bom at Rooen ia \H\ 
lie was first instructed l>v hb lather Uiamt Joaveact, ki 
completed hb studies in Paris, where he soon attnrfid cv 
notice of Lebrun, who in 1675 procured htm I 

gmmine a^Ie of choral n»> 

tfi ♦•■ 

hb ebctMB an 
the Academy of Painting for a' picture of Erthar bsfoe Ato 
surrus, whick b one of the bret uaintingsof the Amk^i 
collection. Jouvcnct had obtained considcreble diibDii«« 
two years previously by hb pictnre of the Imar M-^ 
healed, which was the so-called Ma^ Picture (Ls TsUn,. 
du Mai) of 1073. The May Picture ts a nainth^ whrh « • 
formerly pmi'iited on the 1st of May of e«cry yrar u* 
Virgin, in tbc cathedral of Kotre Dome, bv tbs uol4« 
of Parb: the practice ceared in 170H. Joovcnrt br>« 
successively prufi^mor, dinrtor, and |ieri)clual rertnr «»•• 
Academy, and be wm granted a snutii penvon bj L 
XIV. Iledb<linl717. 

The French boast of Jonrrnet, as of I^ Saw, bwis«' 
never vimted Italy ; and it b for tlie mme reason, jo^-^t 
to some, that he is censured by Count Algarotti, «hn t! 

couM. lie \ 

my, had no faith in an exrellfuce that < 
of' Italy. l*bc norks of Juu%cnct are not brillisat ai s-v ' 
spect or e\en attnrti%e, yet tlK*y pnaarm all the r^'" 
merits of a picture in more than an oidiaary d<*frrr I' 
style rrsenililes that of Nictdas Pott««tn, esperi»Uv m f^^ 
pusiticm and colour; and he exrellrd In light soil JtmU *• 
in expression he was nc« cr great. 

Jau«enet*s last work, the Visitation of llw Vi-gb, «r l* 
Ma^'ni first, in the eithndml of Notre Dame, om |mi 
with hb left hand in 1717. He had a pnrelytic •tT>k* 
1713 and lost the use of hb right hand, but upon the fire : 
he ftMind hb loft w obedient to hb will m hb right kid b> 
one of the manjr proofs that, hi art, it b not tha hand hitf ' 
mind that rcqoires the education. 

There are ten of Juovenrt's pictam ta the Itfavre, •■' 
of which are hb best work\ m the Mirerulous Drem^-: 
Fisbea. the Resurrecikm of Lnxarus, the Sellen *-' 
from the T«m|4e, Christ in the Houm of 8tnma thr I' - 
risen, and the Dcaccnt from the CVoas. Thefost lasr ^ -• 
been worked in tapeatry of the Gobrihw^ and thri ».• 
all hrvtk cngTm%ed, as nave also nearly all JoB«eoH'«J*« 
works, by some of the hret French engrev i m by U . !i T ■ * 
J. Amlrin, E. Ticard, L. DrspWen, A. h^ ^ 

Trauvatn, and others. There are works by Jmntwt ai **' 
of the chsrchre of Pkrb, mund and eaael pictnres. ^^ ' ' 
muml paintings the prineipnl are the cnlnaml Anseors «( ('• 
ApostJea painted on the doom of the cliureli Dm InvaliAri 

(D'Argenville, AhrMAIm %'m dn ydbs/mnm Pfmf*' 
Watelet et Lr%csi)ne, jMrfManunre dim ^rts, *r. ; t^sJi <^ 
8aint.(H*rmain, Lm TVosi fuitirndt h Pimmlmt m F^wmt • 

JOITVENCY, PIERRE, was bore si Pbrb hi l«43 b* 
stwUed at Caen and aArrwarda at U r<rhe, wtth cumM^ 

i U D 


J U D 

Kfcrnt In MidHkm to UUi, the judgveiit, whoo p 
itm BWBtfC oHm tint th^deCendiiit * be ia meity/ 1 

muthmt. To 

IM jnnncfit if ito- 

vdl Ml* 

or iMd fi»r Mi dSliy of Jntdw : ami when for the 
>» that the phintiff * be fai merty' for hii fobe Htini. 
It behif ilgtwd, the ptrt/ in whoer favoor it fo 
|iv<» iMjr toe out etccotiua tberrao, direded to the aheHfT 
of the ooont^r where the pTDpertj to be taken b fituated. At 
eoiBimi bw, the sooda and rhattela of a debtor onder a writ 
if ftrri foriat, aM the frovHiir prollu of the bmd ooder a 
levari fcr<a0, eould akme be tak(-n tn eiecotioii lij a jodgnent 
CTBdHar for debr er daiaairn. The vfmtdj waa ejrten<M b^ 
the 19 Edw. L atat l,e. l8(We«t.<),to therrrdttor orer a 
■wiitjr ef the real puu e i t j i of the debtor ; for which norpoae 
• writ ealled oa ele|nt waa crMted, faicliiding all Avebold 
id btemts which the debtor held in frveralty, co- 
', or to oonaKMi, and all rmt char|rm ; hut ropyholdt 
i not to be liable to be taken in esecutum tin<)rr this 
By a tfrtioo of the bw, judgments wert* rt>n«*(Irn>l to 
Who i4hct ffooi the fiiot day of the terra in which chcy wrre 
alined, and there fo te a porrhfticr mtfrht hare his r^tstc en- 
' ' a judginent acknowledtrrd pibscqucntly to the 
'o terocdy this in1ii«ticf it was niartcd by the 
of Prwds (!29 Car. II. c. 9), that any judge who 
ahoold sign Jodgmentf , should at the time of ftipim^ sot down 
tfM exact dale thereof, which date should be also written on 
tfM ■arain of the record when the ju^lgment w(l<« entered, and 
aach hMgments should operate from tlie date apitcannf? on the 
aanna. As, howercr, this did not com)iel tnc plaintiff to 
hrinf Id the Jod|pnent roll, K was almost hnpomblc for pur- 
Hmsen to <fiscover what jiKl^^ments eitsted against tho lands 
aboat to be ennreyed. An act, therefore, was passed (4 & 5 
W«« k BlafT, e, ^), afterwards made perpetual by the 
7 ft 9 Wm. III. e. 36, which directed that the clerk of the 
Cmft of C. B., the Herfc of the Dockets of the Court of 
B. R., and the master of the office of picas in the Court of 
BsrItoqQrr, ahoold kerp tn alphabetical list or dtx ket of all 
Jart||itnts in their respectiirr courts, entered accorJinff to the 
Maes of the defendants ; and that no judgments should affect 
bnda in the haada of l»n\ fide nurchaai^rs, unlras so docketi*d 
acvordtnit to the act How tnit bw has been altered by 
foeent statntea will be hereafter considered. For the purpose 
of dl i i 'l iai ' Ki ng a Judgment the proper mode b to enter up 
■Ibfoetion on the emirt mlU, but a deed of release will have 
dM Maie effect althongh the jtidgment be allowed to renoain ; 
and It has been held that a rr lease of all «iitts i« a complete 
d bihai g t ' of all nmati^Urd judgments. If eiecntiun be not 
flHd ont within a year and a day of signing the judgment, it 
anat he rerirod by a writ ofteirt/oew, and a judgment waa 
pnmnnrd to be satisfied aflrr a lapse of twenty years from the 
algnlnf or tho b^ rerival, whi<^ b now cuafimMpd by the 
aiatote of the 9 ft 4 Wm. IV. c. 27. 

The entertng the Judgment on record, except m the cases 
apc i flo d by the art, where the bads in the hands of pur- 
A asiii are to be aflreted. b not aheolotoly oecrsMaiy. But 
to snpport a writ eiren brought for the purpose of rerening 
Ifea Jndgment, the Jndgmeot moat be entered on the records 

RMTot stottttns have btfodoeed grrat rhanget b the law 
a# Jodgmenfei aa they alfoct real property, but as the same 
fvlea whk-h eiisted before thoae enactments are atilt onder 
eartofai rl nu mstai n la ranable of applioatjoo, It may be osefnl 
■rat to consider bow Jndgmenta then stood* 

A Jadgment at the time of entering no became a general 
Han aiion all proprrly, real and personal, which the debtor 
1km naM or snbseq n entty aeqaired, and gave the creditor a 
Iml right, ao long as the Judgment remained on the records 
of the cemt and ttnaatMM, to enter upon and irdnoe into 
any Mrh |vnpertT, br aalng ont the writ of Seri 
!f the gnods and chattels of the debtor were to be 
In eservtion, or the writ of elegit as to hb real estate, 
i^ia by changbf that whbh was before a naked right mto 
an abolttto Interest, limiled oevvrthebaa to the amount of 
the deliC or damagea thr which jndgment waa originally co- 
tored op. 

As to peraonal ealato, H wm enacted bir the 16th section 
•I the teluto of Frmds, tlwt the goods of the debtor should 
he hiiaad by a bdgment only from the time of taklnft ont 
otMwtion. And on the hmiia nation of thb dense It waa 
Md thai dmttrl hitrrevta b land were inrloded wider the 
tovmgMkil*. Thb cbwse still remains hi foil efrct, althongh to \ 
the €«se of a frnndnleni aasi gn me n t allrr enterinf np Jnik- ' 

«f a q ni ty nan id aabc Im 

it creditor to feltow the gooda bto the teds nl tW 

he righta of the Judgment creditor eiktus eal^ «t U* 
over the permnal property of the debtor, which w^ .n -. 
warda extended to a moiety of the real ttiate, il k« ••^ 
legal eatote was only affected, and thetefove, ky the « . 
qoent creation of trwrts, the jodgmcnt mditor wm frn^ . ■ 
orevented from obtaining that rcmedr at bw agaiiui \u 
drbtor to which he otherwise would ha»e hem mtjtK-- 
To veoiedy thb Inconvenience, and enal4e the pp\c^ »t 
creditor to obtain execution on the bcmficial bterf.t n 
any portion of the property of the dcUor, It a as rcui* . 
by the Statute of Franda that eii cution should be dtU^r-rd 
of all such Undr, tenements, lectorirs, iithrs. and b-T^«. 
taments, as any other person or |M*rsons should he wittii ^ 
possessed of, in trust for him arainst whom encnttioa nu « 
sued, Kke as if the debtor had bcrn seised uf sarh b»ft nd 
of such estate as they be seised of in tnt<t for him at the uu 
of the exemtion aura. On the intcrjiretatioQ of this iiai. 
it was held thui an equitable iotcrrst m a term of yr^-^ •« 
not mdoded nithln Its limits, and only soch trust o'l. » 
the debtor was Interested in at the tiuie thccirrutH^ &«« 
sued out, and in which he had the sole beuHi« Ul i. u • 
\n thb case the judgment creditor bad no cYrcutitti st ^i. 
hot he might oome into a court of equity and rbin \\v u.i * 
satisfaction out of the couttable interest as be woa«il L. 
been entitled to at bw if It vicre legal. As lu»«rifr •. 
sole right of coming into a court of ei{uity wa« bmrU ««. ■ - 
failure of the bw, it was necessary that the jodgmrot cmi ♦ ^ 
should forfeit hb title to the utmost by suing not his «r • «/ 
elegit before the court wouM listen to any ap(4icstion 1 1 • 
move the legal impediment. Upon the same prifwi^rt^ 
it assisted the creditor who had no relief at bw, tlie n«-. 
equity did not ])ermlt a jud-rmcnt againat a tnntre, tl«r««;'> a 
bw a lien u|K)n the estate to atfi*ct the brncfidal inun*! 4 
the cestui que trust. 

As under the hut mentioned claoae of the Statute f/ F'^^ * 
a judgment did not affect the h^ catate b the K>i-'* ' 
the trustee, until the writ was abeolotely depmitnl n ! ■ 
hands of the shDrHT, a purchaser of the cquluhle nuir «.: - 
out notice might by getting in the kgal eatate protert K^l* t 
iigainst prior judgments ; but if the purchaser booglit %\\ 
notice of the jndgment, no acoubition of the Irgal estate «•% i 
lirotect him. Equities of redemption were decided to hr ..i 
Mich trust estotes as to be included by the Statote of Frv«> 
the debtor not hawufr the sole bencfinal interest 

In the aae of lands contracted to be aoUl, the puMiM' 
relieved to equity asrahist JodgmeoU entered up m\mic^u- 
to the contract \ and abo where land b oonveyed to tn^*' • 
for aale, whoae receipts are to be sulBcieot dlsriMrgr , tkr y» • 
chaser will not be bound by any sabaeqoent jidfwnn ^^ 
which he has even exprem notice. 

Until the pamtng the arts of the I St 9 Vict r. 11^ iA ) 
Vict. e. 1 1, and 9 Ic 4 Vict. c. 82, the bw of jwirw^> 
remained in the main unchanged. Be them dccn^t vt 
orden of Coorti of Equity and raba of Couru of Cutt» * 
Law, and ordcre of the Lord Chancellor in maticn oT Iva- 
rvptc^ and lunacy, are gi«en the cfl*ect of jndgmenta, nal (*» 
scconty of the creditor baa been extended trom a moteir i»k^ 
whole of the debtor's lands, toduding copyhoUs, w^ > 
Icoseholda bound in the aame manner as frrrhoUs. An '^ 
all bnda are tocioded by the acts, o^cr which the drbnr w*- 

for the tenant might at so} ti 

So also were equiti«<« of mdnapii 

trust catatoa, in which the debtor had onir a partial i 

barred the entail. 

ha%e a dbposing power, judgments agminst a tmant 
bindmg en hb issue ; f< 

ilso were equit 

he debtor had onIr 
Aflrr passing thb net a qoestioo waa nisrd whrthrr siw-t 
com|inaed, in which the debtor hnd only a partial »inv*c *< ' 
thb waa act to rrst bjr a claoae of the second art, am'*- ■ 
aliove, which distinctly dccbfta that the totcrrat ef thf ^ •» 
mrnt debtor, whether in poasessHm^ rvmaindrr, ar ie««««<« 
in any stociu, fonds, or sharea, aa also to the £t»drv»it » • 
annnal proeeeda of such stucis, ftc, b to helialUe to ihr/«. 
mant, and that stock stamllng to the nanM> of the aecwie<* 
gunend b to ha to the same positMm. Money and smrr**^ 
for money (except where deuosiic d to the hands of a i' ' 
perann as a trustee) can also be taken to etemtinn. l^^ '* 
gnna^et alteration which recent statiitea have w<«ti ' 
changing the erit^ct of Judgment beforr exccutMa • -*> 
out, from a general lien to n speoAc chaefe upmi ihr * i. • . 
mta, rectoriaa, advnw«Hia« tithea, rents, ami hrr*< *« 
' of which the judgnM<nt dehasr B^, at the ii^ • 
or at any ttaw a ft ain a w b he |m» mL. 

J R 



• It b IJ10WI7 far wmhm of <wngreg»tBj pwm to thrwr 
dli—ilif wioer tb« wbedt, ami evm 6tbm and mo^hen 
with iMr t*hiMrpa ia tli«ir inw. Tb<» cfaaHot dmms on, m 
If no unprdimant eiittod« uid cniihiiHr thrai to death k W|>- 
pcwrd to coavvir them imaadklcly to hravm.' On thia paa- 
k^ FrafvMrll. n. WUmi, in hb new edition of Miirt 
work, haa tha following note (vol. i., p. 416) :-*It ia no 
Kttla etan^raiioQ to vy that nuoiHora of the* conawg a ted 
people thruw themtdvet under the chariot wheels. Mr. 
ktiriinft, who waa rrfideot in OriMa for four yean, mentioos, 
that daring that penod there were no more llian three neh 
hmnolationi ; and of thcae one waa pombly unintentional, 
whilil the other two wen* oaaca of punful ana incurable dia- 
ante. But this practice b ■Kxlem : Jagannath himself is 
aKidcfii, and haa no place in the Vatshnara Puranas. It b 
not Improbable that the prraenC shrine attabed reputation as 
a pboe of pilgrimage no ioQgcr ago than a century ' (that b, 
la 1740). 

(Han^toa, AsT /ndKa Oauit^er; Eouna Roberts, Seerm 
mmd CkarotitrMf af HMuttm; Rennell, Memoir of a 
Mop ^ HimdotUm; Mill, History of Britiak /mfia, by 
Wilson : Wilson, Smuerii Dteiioma/y.) 

JULlA'NUS, 8ALV1US, wm piobably anattreof Mibn. 
Be was the great^gnoid father of the Emperor Didius Jultaniia. 
(Aellanna Spartianus, JMioM JmUamoM.) Julbnus waa twice 
eoosol, and also Prarfcrtus Uriii. He mentions hb own con- 
anbhip and oAce of Praetor Urbanus ; and he alao sfieaks of 
having been in EgrtK (Du/. alii, tit 2, s. 5 ; xlvi. tit. a, s. 36). 
Jnlianos waa a at«ttofnibhed juriaoonsnlt, and one of the 
Conalttarii of Hadrian; and he may probably have at- 
the honoor of the consulship wMer this emperor. 
I (Cbmrnorlas, c S) speaks of the Emperor Com- 
I aolicitiag the chaitity of a ton of Salvius Julianaa, and 
of hb patting the father to death : bat thb cannot be the 
Jnriscooaalt Jidianns, who probablr died in the rpign of An* 
tonbiaa Pba. The sepulchre of the Jurisctmsult wm ou the 
Vb i^vioana, 6ve milea from Rome, according to 8|)artianiii : 
and hb deaoendaat the Emprror Didius Julianas was buried 
la the same tomb. (DidiuM JuBamu, c. 8.) 

Salvtoa Jultaana waa a pupil of Javolenua Priscoa, and 
th eia lb ra one of the Sabiniani. Hb authority was very great 
J the RoBsaa jarbts, and he b oftcner cited than any 
' wrilv by the Roman jjurisu. evrn more frequently than 
D. The great work with which his name b connected 
waa the ' Edictam Perpetaum,* which was cooipiled in the 
tfaae of Hadrian. [EoicTAt Law, P. C. S.] Hb princt(«] 
legal wurit waa Nmety Booka of Digvata. There are 457 
•xoerpis from Juliaaas in the I>igest of Juatiiiian, and 
cbieflV from the work jast mentioned. There are also men- 
tfooed, b the Fforeattoe Indaa, Sis Booka Ad Minui-ium, 
Four Books Ad Umeium, and One Book On Ambiguities 
(Da .\mbtgaitalihaa). 

JURIEU. PIERRE, waa boni 'm 1637, and wm the aon 
af a Pnneatant minister at M«r, in the dioccae of Blob, and 
nephew of the rrlobfated Ritet and Du Moulin. When of 
%ce to antor the ministry, he succeeded hb father in hb 
|waloral oAce. Hb reputatton for learning afterwards ob- 
lidaed far him the sitaatioo of Professor of Tbcologv and the 
Hehrvw language at Sedan. When In 1681 the I^roteatanU 
were deprived of the permissioa to give oublic instrwiion b 
that lowUf he ivtlrrd to Rouen, and from thence wt^t to 
Rotteffdam, where he was appointed Professor of Theology. 
Ia that city the ardour of his aeal aooa drew him Into coniro- 
fmy with Bayle, Basoa«!e, and Saaria ; hi the heat of which 
ha maaifesled the asaw raneoar which aafortunatrty disgraces 
amst of hb polrmical writings. He allowed himself likewise 
to fall bto various 
Hvrly Imaglnalioa 

hibhawat of PnitraiaacLm (a'Prsace daring the year 1686. 
Thaae who difcad from him b opbbai, however high their 
rr for learning and platy, hr trvaied with a awst uabe- 
severity. (trutius and H ammond , perimpa the two 
theulogiaaa of their age, because they dllfervd 
m oa the subject of the Anticbbi pn-diited b 
the Book of Re«rlatiuM, he aiylra * the dbgrace of the Re- 
favmad ChaiHl, aod even of Chrbtianity.* The same sph^t 
b amaifiat ^i ia hb well-kaowa controversy with Bosauct, 
Bbhop of Maaax, whom he doea not scrunte to accuse of 
'ad dishoaeity, though, oa the othrt hand, it mast 
that the rwrtmirmliaas of thb eek^Uated defender 
a politely eiprrssed, aia rqaally 
; the grsat object of '^ 

poirmicai wnuoga. tie aiioweo ntaiseir likewise 

arioys m%tr% by too much indulging a aatarallv 

alioa b the bterpretatioa of pni|ihecy. In his 

on the Auocahrpse he even prMfictcd the cato- 


bmag, It woold appear, to chaiga hb w tigoa b aiili hsUaa 
the heretical opinions of Socbaa. (noaaat, HiM, 4i f^ 
HooM, vol. iv. p. 64 ; vol. T. p. 936-888.) With sll tWiT]!! 
facts Jttrica itaada deservedly hbh aa a coatrsfvsisiM ti» 
learabg was most profound, ne S geocially aiact b tW r*u. 

tioa of hb authorities, and he had a special tabat b dite«n»c 
the weak pobt b the caoao of hb aatagoaista. Ia mom 
of styb ana ebquenoe he b immeaaurablj behiad BMuetbt 
he b at least hb equal b polemical lataat, ind ky mm « 
considered hb superior b eruditioa. Jorisa*s laivnr If^ 
was beoombg that of a Christiaa miaialer : he «« cW. 
table to the noor alamat beyond hb aieana, and he rm|jOT«U 
the great bfloenoe he nomciard with the forriga nmra « 
alleviadng the auiieringa of hb exiled biethrvn. lie dmi 
at Rotterdam oa the Uth of Jannary, 1718. U'a a«dt, 
which are very muaerooay were eBtreinely popubr b tbre 
day, and many of them are atill held In high tstiMUa 
by theologiatts of every school, on accooat of the grmt Imno^ 
which they dbpby. The principal of them aie - 1 A 
Treatiae on Devotion.' S, • iJefcnce of the Monb; «i tW 
Reformed Church/ Hague, 1685, b answer to a ««k bt 
Amauld, cntided * Morality destroyed by the Calrimm.* |\ 
*A Preservative against Change b Religion ;* abidi •« 
written to refitto Boosuet's * Exposition of tLe CWthoTic Fa *k ' 
4, • Letter! agabst the Hbtorr of Calviabm by iV Msi»» 
bouiv,' 2 vob. 6, Another collection of contiaverM] Ih^i, 
entitled 'The bat Efforts of opprmsed Inaooaacc.* $. A 
Treatise on the Church.' He oonsdem it eompnt^ d 
all Chriatian societies who hold the 
the Chriatian faith. 

by a Reply to Nicolle, who had written a wori b rrQ^-.m 
of it 7, * A Hbtory of the Doctrinea and Wmiditp of -*» 
Jews,' Amsterdam, 1704, with a Supplemaat paUabd a 
1705. 8, * A Treatise on Mystical Theology,' omyamA m 
the occasion of the well-known ountroveny oetweea Fmria 
and BoaMet. 

JURISDICTION. Thb term b the Latb vmd Jn 
dictio, which simply sif^ifies the * decbratioa of jai « b« ' 
He who had junsdicUo wm said * jua dicere,* lo ' tkrbt 
the bw.' The whole office (officium) of him who 6rr^jM 
the bw waa accordingly expressed by the word Jarbs»«.- 
(Dig. 2, tit. De Jwrutbdume,) Jariadictb wm ritbv «*\o. 
tanr (voluntaria) or btigant (contcnibaa). The imni**- 
vomntarb related to certab acta, each for lastancr m i^« 
forms of manuniimion and adoption which mast be d(«r br. 
fore a magistratus in aider to be valid. The jatisdarbu nc 
tentioM related to litigation, and such legal p rocee din c* «■-* 
mid to be ' b jure,' before the magiatrataa, m apftuni '> 
the proooediags before a judex, which were asid to b a 
judido.' The aiagistratus wm aaid 'Joa dicers* ar *m^ 
dere,' when he exen-ised hb functions: and *asKp>m^« 
and * ^ui Roome jua dicit' are accordingly coavertibb trf&-% 
Juriadiction in England means an aathonty which a ct«.t 4 
bw or et^nitj has to decide mattem that are litigated brwr 4 
or queationa that are tried before it The eonrts at Wr«r»^ 
star have jurisdiction all over England and Waks ; ba u- 
jurisdiction of other courts b limited by bring rniAnrU w 
certeb limits of apace and to certain kinds of csaws or sj«^ 
leri b dbijute. Whea the jarisdictioo of a court rttraai hi 
over England, It amy atill be limited aa to the klod ••( n*^ 
abich it triea. Thus the superior coarta of b« oal tW 
courts of eoulty have their aeveral juriadicticais at to m»ru ^ 
which they near and dctemune. [Kqcrrr, P. C] Tb***- 
deaiastical coarta also have their se para to brbJjrtMi i^- 
other ooorta, such as the Coort of Insolvrarj, IU^«.* 
Courti, and others, have their several JarivtirtMas 1* 
lows, that if pTDceedinga are commenrad agaiaat a warn ^« *- 
a court ahieh has no jurisdiction b the matter brosgki U « 
it, the defendant amv answer br allegbg that the rmr 'j» 
BO Jurisdictjoo ; which b called pleading to the >»n»: - 
Whan a party b eonvicted by a court that haa no jan*:* : 
b the matter, the pitweedbga mar he moved lain tf« < ^t 
of King's Bench by the writ of Certiofari aad if«»- 
[CaanoaABt, P. C.J Those who hava HaaHvd jsr^ 
am Ibble, it b aaU, to oa actioo, If they amama a ^^ 
tioa wbirh they have not. 

JITSTICES, LORDS. Oar kbgi hava hsaa, e«e^ r^'^ 
the Consueat, b the habit of appobtbg, aa aermiwi iwt« ^ 
oaa or mora persoaa to art for a tiaie aa tWir salattutf* ' 
the saprrme^ovrmment either of the whale Ua|[d<aa sr » • 
part of it. When Willbm I. latanied to KarMadf the f«w 
afVer the Conqu<^ he left hb halfOvalhar O^ Itahi^ ^ 
Biqraas, aad WllHma ritxhertaart, to ha Otmodm ibgsi, ^ 

I U 8 


J u b 

goTenuamt and •dmiiilitnlkNi of pomtiiDcnt, tad all other 
oMUten and things whatfoefer, which, bj Tirtue or by reaaoo 
of the aforanid oiBco or plaoe, hare been uaual, or may bo 
UwruIIr ordered, done, or performed.' Power ia afterwarda 
apedallj giren to keep the kins'a peace, to canae the laws 
and cuttoma of the kingdom to be ipeciallj oba^ved by all, 
to poniah criminals and oSenden, to bold the parliament then 
existing, and to continae, prorogue, and diasoive it, and like- 
wise to summon and hold another parliament and other nar- 
Uaments, and the aame to continue, prorogue, and dissol?e ; 
also lo direct and gnmt authority to the lieutenant, or justices 
and geoeml gOToroon, of the kmgdom of Ireland for the time 
being, to summon, hold, proro^e, and disBdye the fMurlia- 
ment and parliaments in tne said kingdom, and likewise to 
prepare and transmit the bills which ma/ be propoied to be 
enacted in such parliaments, according to the laws and statutei 
of the kingdom of Ireland ; to summon and hold the Privr 
Council, ud to appoint committees of the same ; with the aa* 

to appoint and authorise peraons to treat with the ambas- 
sadors, coomiinaries, and ministen of emperors, kings, princes, 
republics, or states, and to make and conclude treaUes, con- 
Tontions, and leagues thereupon ; to confer, grant, and pre- 
aent to all benefices, dipities, and ecclesiastical promotions, 
where the presentation is in the crown ; to issue commands, 
anthoritiea, orden, and warrants, under the privy seal or 
otherwise, to the treasurer, or commisnoners of the treasury, 
and other officers, for snd conoeminff the collection, levying, 
application, payment, and disposal of the royal treasure and 
revenue ; to coaunand the army ; to suppress invasions and 
inaurrections ; to execute and employ mutial law in time of 
war, if that should happen ; in like manner to command and 
employ the naval forces of the kingdom ; to appoint to and 
diachtt^ from all offices at the disposal of the crown ; to 
grant pmons for hieh treaaon and all other crimes and offencea ; 
and finally, to do lOl theae things in Ireland aa well as in 
Great Britain. 

This enomeratbn is probably the most authentic com* 
pendium that has been published of the powers of govern- 
ment ordinar'ly eiercisea by the crown. It docs not, how- 
ever, profess to be an enumeration of all the powers resident 
in the crown ; and it will be especially observed, that (besides, 
perhapa, aome appertaining to the office of supreme head of 
the church) the power of creating peers and conferring ho- 
noon ia not made over to the lords justices. That is a power 
which, we believe, never has been delegated, or attempte<f to 
be delegated, il we except only the case of the patent granted 
br Charles I., in 1644, to Lord Herbert rbetter known as the 
Eari of Glamorgan), which, after the Restoration, he waa 
compelled to resign by the interference of the House of 

The Lords Justices are further required in the oommianon 
of 1719, in the execution of their powers, punctoally to ob- 
aerve hia migesty's will and pleasure, aa it miffht be from 
time to time more clearlv and oiftinctly expressed in instrue- 
tioos si^ed by the rml hand ; and the commimion was ac- 
companied by a set of instructions, also printed in the Report 
of the Conunittee of 1788, and atated to be neariy the aame 
that had been issued, as far u was known, on similar occasions 
before and sinoe. The rules prescribed are twenty-one in 
number, the most important things directed in which are, that 
no livinga or benefices in the gift of the crown which ma^ 
become vacant ahall he disposed of without his osiyesty's di- 
rections as to the penons, to be signified from beyond the 
seaa under the aign manual ; that no orders or directions con- 
cerning the disposition of money at the treasmy shall be ffiven 
before hia m^ioty'a pleasure shall have been signified there- 
npoo ; and that there must be no exercise of tne power of 
diasolviii|f the pariiament, or calling a new one, without 
apecial signification of the royal pleasure. The same restric- 
tion is put upon the exercise of the power of pardoning, and 
iottk " 

r the other powers. In esse however they should hold 
it neoessary or expedient for the public service, the Lords 
Justices are authorized to fill offices immediately, and also to 
v^pneve criminals ; and thoy are pennitted to continue the 
existing parliament by short prorugHtions, until they should 
be otherwise directed under tne royal sign manual, and to 
summoii the privy council to meet as often ss they shall sec 

The aovemment was in the same manner intrusted by 
Gcaiipa J. to Lords Justices when he again went abroad in 

1720, 1723, 1725, and 1727. It la struM thai the Ilr|.^ 
of 1788 shonld notice only the second of the several Kgcm ..« 
of Queen Caroline, in the earlier portion of the m/u a( 
George II. Her nu^jesty so long aa abe Uved w« s1»b)i tn. 
trust^ with the adnunistration of the government whin v * 
king went abroad; which he did m 1729, hi 178S, ia i::;, 
and in 1736. An act, the 2 Geo. II. chap. 27. wss pa*..i 
in 1729. ' To enable her majesty to be regent of this ktn^<i -z 
during nis majesty's absenoe, without taktnff the osthi ; v. 
the 15th of May thereafter, according to Saunon*s * Chrur.'>. 
lof^ical Historian,' a commission passed the ^rest icaJ t-r,, 
stituting her guardian and lieutenant of the kingdoa durr.; 
the king'a absoioe ; and the same authority states her to b^ r 
been appointed guardian in 1732, and regent on the tvo oi. .-r 
occasions. According to the Report of the oooumtut oi 
1788, a patent, with the like powers as that iswed to it^ 
Prince or Walea in 1716, passed m 1732, anpointiDg Qj.^. 
Caroline niardian and lieutenant of the kingdoa m the kis^'i 
absenoe. Most probablv all the four appointments were m.ip 
in the same manner ana in the same terma. After the drt*.) 
of Queen Carolbe, the government was always left dunii; 
thb reign in the hands of Lords Justices when the king «. -.• 
abroad; aa he did m 1740, 1741, 1743, 1745, 1748, i:>> 
1752, and 1755. On all these oocaaioos the conuniaiiooi u.i 
the accompanying matructiooa were neariy the ssoie *i\k 
those issued in 1719. 

Georve III. during hia loitf reign never left Enpli!*! 
When George IV. went to Hanover in September, h;!. 
nineteen suiundians and Lords Justices were appoiotini, : .' 
Duke of York beinff the first. In an important article « ! - % 
appeared in the * Morning Chronicle ' for Aug^ lltb, isj, 
tne writer, after stating that Lord Eldon considered it iai^ 
pensably necessary that Lords Justices should be sppox' «i 
on that occasion, adds: — ' One ^ood eSed aron from i*- 
appointment, that the Lords Justices duriaff his (the Li&«' n 
aoMnce aisned an immenae number of mUitary coinmts» -.« 
and other documents, which had been accumulating liorc ..i 
accession to the throne.' This writer contends that ' :*<« 
royal authority of an English monarch cannot be penoai ii 
exercised in a foreign country.' * We take it,' he aiuj, ' u> < 
Quite clear, that a patent sealed with the great sol m i 
foreign coimtry would be void. To guard agamst snj hm 
irregularity, the law reaiures that the patent shall $utc \\y 
place where it is signed and sealed aa apud Watmomute- 

Nevertheless, no provision such aa had been costooisry « 
auch oocanona waa made for the exerciae of the royal auUw- 
rity, either when her preaent mijesty made her short exnr* 
sion to the French coast in 1843, or when she uMde her ir^ 
more extended visit to Germany (in August snd Septits't, 
1845). On the latter occasion the aubiect was brought V-- 
ward in the Houae of Lorda by Lord Campbell, who, oo t-^ 
7th of August (two daya before the prorogation of Pariisox'r.t !. 
after stating at some length the course which he 
had been uniformly taken down to the year 1843, siied n -i 
was the intention that Lorda Juatioea ahould be bow ti^ 
pointed 7 The lord chancellor, however, replied thsl t^ 
government had no such intention. ' On the oocsnoo of i^ 
majesty viaiting the king of the French,' his h>rdib.p » 
reported to have said, ' the then law officers of the cremo. w 
present lord chief baron and the late Sir William FoUctt. l 
been consulted. . • • And after mature deliberatioo. tt^ 
learned persons gave it aa their decided opinion that it v:» 
not at all necessary ui pomt of law that tnai sn appoinrmt* : 
should take place. . • • In the present instance also, the i.« • 
ofiicers of the crown had been consulted as to whether it w ** 
necessary in pmnt of law for her majeaty to appoint s ^V' } 
during her absence, and their reply waa that it was is oo :• ; 
gree neoessary ; an opinion in wluch he entirely cooturr^^: 
Both the apeech with which Lord Campbell pre&ce<l - * 
queation, and the subsequent article m the ' Moraisg CL:- 
aide,' well deserve to be consulted. 

It ought to be mentiooed that the seven penoM f\*»^'''^ 
in 1705 by the 4 & 5 Anne, c. 8, and agam m 1707. !> 
the 6 Anne, c 7, to admmister the govenimeot sloos « '» 
other persons whom the new king or queen should h^^'' 
named, in case of hb or her absence at thetioie froo "*^ 
kingdona, are styled Lorda Justices m the act, althoo^b a « 
regents by Burnet, and in the common aooounts. T.- ■ 
Lords Justices (twentv-six in all), who actually cane ' '-' 
office on the death or Queen Anne, lat Aumt, ITU.l . 
continued till the arrival of the king on the 18th of Scptrni < '. 
enjoyed more extensive powers than any others that i*'' 

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K AFFA, a country in the eutern pArts of Africa, of which 
wo have only lately got some information, and which hitherto 
has not been visited by any Eurooean traveller, so far as is 
known. It ia said to be of considerable extent, laiiger than 
Shoa [ABTsamA, P. C. S.]> and appears tooccupy the space 
between 3^ and 6<> N. lat. and dOO and 34<>'£. long. It con- 
tains several high mountains, which are separated from one 
another by wide valleys. Numerous watercourses drun the 
country, and all of them join the Goshop, a large river 
ori^natbg in several branches to the south and west of Kaffi^ 
which probably falls into one of the rivers whose embou- 
chures have been recognised on die coast of Zanguebar. On 
the north of Kaffii is iSiarea, and on the west a wilderness, in 
which numerous herds of large quadrupeds (elephants, 
giraffes, &c.) are found. The country is fertile, ana partly 
well cultivated. Cotton is grown to a great extent. The 
ooffee-tree is there, as well as in the neighbouring country of 
Eoarea, indigenous and a forest-tree. It is not stated that 
coffee « an article of export, but it is thought that the coffee 
nailed in these parts gttoa has derived its name from this 
country, as the Arabs assert that it has been transplanted to 
Yemen from that part of Africa. 

The capital is Soooee, a town which, according to the ac- 
counts ot African travellers, has between 6000 and 7000 
inhabitants. This place and some others are visited by the 
merchants of Enarea, who exchange their goods (rock-salt, 
copper, horses, cattle, and some Intlia stu£, brought from 
Gondar), for cotton, cotton-cloth, which is made in the 
country, and slaves ; this is the only way by which the inhabi- 
tants aispoae of their produce and obtain foreign goods. The 
inhabitants, it is said, call themselves Christiana, but none of 
the practices by which the Abyssinian church is distinguished 
are m use among them. 

(Krapf, Berichi txm demFhine Cfoshop tmdden Landem 
Enarea^ Kaffa^ wid Doko^ in the MonaUberkhte dor Ber- 
tuner Ge$dU3uxftfur Erdkunde,) 

KAIN, LE, HENRI-LOUIS, a French actor, so often 
spoken of in the memoirs of French literature in the middle of 
tne eighteenth century, that some account of him may be use- 
ful. Uewasbomin 1728, and died in 1778. Hewasaprot^g^ 
of Voltaire, who observed the natural strength of his histrionic 

Snius, and removed him from an humble operative profession, 
e acquired his chief celebrity in the characters or Voltaire's 
plays ; yet, owing to a singular series of events, that author 
never saw him on the stage. He was unable to make his 
dtfbut mitil seventeen months after Voltaire's departure for 
Prussia, in 1750, and on the author's return, after an absence 
from Paris of twenty-eight years, he found the actor about to 
lio buried. Louis aV. stamped the reputation of Le Kain, 
by saying, ' i/ itC a fait pUiarer; moi qui ne pUwre guht ' 
Like the English actor to whose name that of Le Kain 
bears a great resemblance, 1|^ was small in person, and his 
success arose from hb power of representiiur deep passion 
and vehement emotion. The character of his acting was 
novel, and while it fiudnated the audience, it did not at first 
Mitisfy the critics, who termed him le convuUumnaire, He 
was critical and accurate in costume, and attended minutely to 
its topical and chronological applicability. 

(Bioartmhie UniverieUe,) 

KALEIDOSCOPE, a name compounded of two Gi«ek 
words (caX6t and miwos), and denoting the exhibition of 
beautifiU forms, is the designation of an optical instrument 
which was mvented by Dr. (Sir David) Brewster, and made 
public in 1817. 

About three ^ears before that time Sir David Brewster, 
being engaged m making experiments on the polarization of 
ilfffat by refiexion fitmi plates of glaas, observed that when two 
plates were inclined to one another, and the eye of the spec- 
tator was nearly in the produced line of the common section 
of their planes, the fiutner extremities of the plates were mul- 
tiplied oy successive reflexions so as to exhibit the appearance 
of a drm divided into sectors, also that the several images 
of a candle near those extremities were circularly disposed 
about the centre ; and these drcumstances suggested to him 
the coostruetion of an instnaiMnt of the kind above named. 

It OMf be observed, however, that the multiplication of the 
hnage oi an object by successive reflexions from mirnm in- 

dined to one another had long before been a subject of L . 
tigation in treatises on optics ; and both Baptisu Pom mi 
Kircher had given descriptions of instruments cuDiittnc i 
mirrors united at two of their edges, which, being oneofrl tup 
two leaves of a book, were capable of multiplying the imi;^^ 
of objects. Bradley also, about the year 1717, cofumii!«t 
an instrument consisting of two plates of glass incUnni tn ur.- 
another, which being placed on a drawing, with the in»^ >* 
section peroendicular to the paper, exhibited to the eye irto'-fr 
images w tne figures, disposed bpr succewve reflextoos timi 
a centre. But the optical investigations alluded to are «»t; 
remotely connected with the properties of the kaJridotrr.>' 
and the application of the latter to objects which out iv 
moveable and situated at any distances from the ob»'n* 
render Sir David Brewster's instrument very diflK^mit \r & 
and far superior to the simple contrivances of Ports, KucL' - 
and Bradley. 

The essential parts of the instrument consist of two p' • 
mirrors of glass, naving their posterior surftces blsckcrxH . 
order to prevent any reflexion of light frtm thence; mirri 
of polished metal would, however, be preferable: esch n.r ' 
is from nx to ten inches long, and of a tiapezoida] fono ; ''>: 
laiiger end about an inch and a half long, and the shorter (.. 
about three-quarters of an inch ; and 3ie two are pWnl i 
contact with one another at a long end of each, so ss to ftra 
a dihedral angle, the like ends being placed together: tb- 
object to be viewed is disposed contiguously to the Urjrr 
ends, and the eve should be near the opponte extremitr, be: 
a little above the line of contact The efiects producrrj ^t 
the reflexions of the light may be understood from the follov ■ 
ing conriderations : — 

Let A C, B C, in the first of the figures, be the tvo ei. 

tremities of the mirrors on the side farthest from the rw •/ 
the observer, which is supposed to be near the oppont. m* 
tremity of the line of section pasnng through C perpfn<i' ^ 
larly to the plane of the paper. Tbeae lines A C, B( . . 
the sectoral space between them (which in the figure it cc^ 
eighth part or a drde), will be visible by rays comios c- 
rectly to the eye ; and, at the same time, rays from the '^' 
A C falling on the minor B C at a certain angle of iori i< 
will, on being reflected from thence to the eye, pn nn- i< 
the image C a of that line : in like manner rmys from the 1 :>- 
B C fallmg on the mirror A C at an equal an^e of mci^i^ 
will, after reflexion, give rise to the image C 6 of the i>" 
These, with the intermediate rays, produce the first rri|^ *"• 
sectors BCo and ACfr. Other rains from the sector A(/ 
at the surface of the mirror A C wiU fidi on die mirror Hi 
and, while a portion of them arrive at such angles of inciiit-r ' 
as to be reflected to the eye and produce the percepCioQ of ti.' 
sector a C^, another portion of them will be reflected hr « 
to the murror A C at such angles of inddenoe ss to be r^ 
reflected to the eye and cause the peroepCioa of the srrtf 
i/C I/'. In a similar manner the rava first reflected m-: 
B C a will, by subsequent reflexions, give rise to the ptnt;^ 
tions of the sectors 6 C a', ft' C a''. 

Thus it is easy to perodve that an oljcct, as M, oo .\( . 
with iU unmediatdy reflected unage M^ will give rise to fit 
appearances of similar figures at mm^^ m^m^; and sn c^r^* 
as «, on A B, with its immediatelv reflected image y. • 
give rise to the appearances of nmuar figures at as', «**' 
also an object, as P, between AC and BC, will sppear b/ 
reflexion similariy dtuated in all the other seden. 

K A L 


K A L 

if the mgle A C B be ^th of four right angles, in which m 
ii any tenn in the aeries of e^en nambers 4, 6, 8, 10, &c., the 
number of sectors will be m, and each of them will be equal 
to A C B, while C Y, the appearance of the line in which the 
mirron meet each other, wiU, as in the figure, bisect the angle 
which is oppodte to A C B ; also if m be any term in Uie 
series of odd nnmben 5, 7, 9, &c., the number of sectors will 
be m, and each of them will be equal to A C B, while C Y 
will ooiocide with the line in which the two lowest sectors 
join one another. It may hence be easily understood that if 
a fiat object placed in the sector A C B, with its plane per- 
pendicular to the mirrors, hare its bounding-lines similarly 
situated with respect to A C and B C, the refiected images 
will be nmilar and equal to the original object ; and the whole 
will constitute one symmetrical pattern, whether the ralue of 
m be odd or even : Imt if the bounding-Iines are not similarly 
situated with respect to A C and B C, the reflected images 
will not, in the two lowest sectors, unite so as to correspond 
to the images in the other sectors, unless m be an even num- 
ber. The second figure represents a pattern produced by the 
objects represented in the sector corresponding to A C B in 
the first figure. 

In order that the whole pattern in the field of view might 
possess perfect symmetry about the centre C, it would be 
neoensxy that the eve should be exactly in the direction of 
the line in which the glass plates meet one another ; but in 
such a sitnation the refiected images would not be visible : if 
the eye were far above the line of meeting, the viable field 
of view would be senribly elliptical, and the brightness of the 
field would be diminished ; it follows, therefore, that the eye 
shoold be near the smaller ends of the mirrors, and very litUe 
abore the line of their junction. Again, it may be readily 
understood that, in order to permit the refiected images of 
objects to be symmetrically disposed about the centre of the 
field of view, the object should be exacUy in a plane con- 
tigooos to the mirrors at the extremities which are farthest 
tnsm the eye ; for the line in which the planes of glass meet 
each other appearing to pass through the common centre of 
the irisible sectors, if the object were placed on that line of 
imiclion, and dther between the eye and those extremities or 
beyaod the latter, it is erident, the eye being above the line 
of meeting, that tiie apparent or projected place of the object 
would not coincide with that common centre, but in the 
former case would appear below, and in the latter above, that 
centre. The length of the mirrors should be such that the 
object in the sector A C B may be distinctiy visible ; the eye 
may, however, if necessary, be asristed by a concave or a con- 
vex lens. 

The first kaleidoscopes constructed by Sir David Brewster 
consisted simnly of the two mirrors, which were fixed in a 
crlindrical tnoe ; the objects were pieces of variously coloured 
pas atteched to the farther ends of the mirrors and project- 
ing on the sectoral space A C B between them ; or the objects 
were placed between two plates of very thin glass, and held 
by the hand or fixed in a cell at the end of the tube. In some 
cases these plates were moved across the field of view, and in 
others they were made to turn round upon the axis of the 
tnbe. The pieoes of coloured glass or other obiects which 
were sitoatea in the sector A C B were, by the different re- 
flexions, made to appear in all the other sectors ; and thus the 
field of view presented the appeanince of an entire object or 
pattern, all the parts of which were disposed with the most 
perfect sjnunetiy. By moving the glass plates between 
which the objects were contained, the pattern was made to 
vary in form , ' 

dnoed bj movini 

or of a lamp might fall on the objects 
When the obiects m the sector A C B are confined near its 
npper part, the images evidentiy form an annular pattern ; 
and, on placing the two mirrors pandlel to one anotner, the 
m oce as i ve reflexions of the objects produce one which is 

Sir David Brewster subse<]uentiy found means to obtain 
multiplied images of such objects as flowers, trees, and even 
p el s o ns or things in motion : and tiius the importance of the 
otgtmment was greatly increased. For this purpose he caused 
the two mirrorB to be fixed in a tube as before, but thb tube 
was oontuoed in another from which, like the eye-tube of a 
telescope, it could be drawn at pleasure towards the eve : at 
the opponte end of the exterior tube was fixed a glass lens of 
convenient focal length, by which there were formed images 
of dlstsnt objects at the phne of the sector A C B. These 
tbw becaine objects which, bdng multiplijBd hy ^* 

cessive reflexions from the mirrors, produced in the field of 
view symmetrical patterns of great beauty* 

Some kaleidoscopes have Men executed in such a manner 
that the two mirrors may be placed at any required angle with 
one another, by which means the images in the visible field 
of view may be varied at pleasure. The instrument is capable 
also of being constructed so that the multiplied image may be 
projected on a screen, and thus made visible at one time to 
many spectators. In order to obtain this end, the rays of 
light from a powerful lamp are, bv means of a lens, made to 
fall upon the object in A C B at the farther extremities of the 
two mirrors ; and at the eve-end of the instrument is placed a 
lens of such focal length that the rays in each of the emergent 
pencils may converge at the screen : there will thus be formed 
on the latter a magnified image of the whole pattern. The 
tube containing the glass plates is frequentiv mounted on a 
stand having a ball-and-socket joint, on which it may be 
turned in any convenient direction ; and the instrument being 
thus supported, the figures in its field may be easily sketched 
by a skilful artist, who by means of such an apparatus may be 
greatly assisted in desigmng beautiful patterns. 

Sir David Brewster*s account of his invention is contained 
in his 'Treatise on the Kaleidoscope' f Edinburgh, 1819): 
but Dr. Roget has shown (' Annals of rhilosophv,* vol. xi.) 
that the properties of the instrument may be greatly extended 
b^ employing, instead of two, three and even four plane 
mirrors, vadtSd together at their edges so as to form a hollow 
prism, or a frustum of a pyramid, the reflectine surfaces being 
towards the interior. Of these, which are caHed Polycentral 
Kaleidoscopes, the instruments constructed with three plane 
mirrors appear to produce the most pleasing effects ; the mir- 
rors may be disposed so that a section perpendicular to the 
axis shful be an equilateral triangle, a right-angled isosceles 
trianffle, or a right-angled triangle having its two acute angles 
equal to 30'' and 60®. The first disposition of the mirrors 
affords regular combinations of images in three different direc- 
tions which cross each other at angles of 60^ and 120* ; aid 
to instruments of thb kind Dr. Kop^t gave the name of 
Triasoope. With the second disposition the field is divided 
into souare compartments having the hypotenuse of the tri- 
angle tor their sides :* this is called a Tetrascope. The third 
disposition exhibits a field of view divided mto hexagonal 
compartments; and hence the instrument is designated a 

Sir David Brewster obtained a patent for the kaleidoscope, 
and several opticians of London and other places were duly 
authorized by him to execute and sell them : but the refine- 
ments of taste are too often disregarded in the purchase of 
works of art ; and, apparentiy, the public did not adequately 
encourage the manufacture of the instruments of a superior 
kind; while, in violation of the patent, imitations of the 
kaleidoscope, rudely and inaccurately constructed, were sold 
at low prices, by unprincipled persons, in such numben that 
it is doubtful whether the distinguished philosopher to whom 
optical science is on many accounts so highly inaebted derived 
any pecuniary benefit from his invention. 

pointed out that there is a mistake in the commencement of the 
rrench revolutionary yeara as given in Yxab, P. C. On ex- 
amination we find that not only the article cited, but many 
other works give an account of tnis kalendar which is more or 
less incorrect. The decrees of the National Convention, which 
fixed the new mode of reckoning, were both vag^ue and insuf- 
ficient, so that it is no wonder that many detailed accounts 
neither agree witii each other nor with the truth. To learn 
what the truth was, we have recourse to a French work, in its 
sixth edition : ' Concordance des Calendrien R^publicain et 
Gr^gorien,' par L. Bondonneau, Paris (fii^me Mition), 1812, 
8vo. This work puts every day of eyerj year, from An II. 
to An XXII. both inclusive, opposite to its day of the Gre- 
gorian calendar : it also gives the decrees of the National Con- 

By these decrees it appears that the year is to be^n at the 
midnight of Paris Observatory which precedes the true 
autumnal equinox. It is to consist of 865 days, with 12 
months of 30 days each (the SO days bein^ 8 decades of 
10 days each), and 6 complementary days, which were taste- 
fully called sansadotides (a name afterwards repealed). A 
sixth complementary day was to be added, not according to 
any rule, but tdon que la position de Viqwnoxt U can^portt, ; 
and although it was stated that it would be orduudremaU 
nicessaire to add this 366th day once in four years, yet it is 
not eyen stated in what particular coming years the necenity 

K A L 


K A T 

would arife. The fint decrm, dated October 6, 1793 (the 
new month not htmng been introdooed), declares the vear 
then corrent to be the aeoond vear of the French repablic, 
and enacts that An I. began with September 23, 1792, and 
An II. with September 23, 1793. The aeoond decree, fixing 
the months, is dated the 4th of Frimaire, An II. (NoTember 
24th, 1793). The Gregorian rackoninff was restored from and 
after January 1, 1306, bjr an imperial ordonnanoe, dated 22 
Fnietidor, An XIII. (September 9, 1305). 

It bto actoal usage then that we must appeal to know what 
thedecreea do not preacribe, namely, the portion of the leap- 
jean. Forthoof^ereiypenod of fouryearswasaJ^niciatf, 
and the last year of the Franciad was called SeriiU (having 
aix oomplementaiy days,^ jret in fact An IV.| An YIII., &c., 
are not leap-years. The following list, actually made from 
the woik thort mentioned, must be used as a correction of 
that in Tbab, P. C. For farious mattera connected with the 
poblicdebty fte., it was necesiary to ooostruct the table up to 

An I. 




Bast VII. 




>» 33.1793 
„ 32,1794 
83, 1797 

An XII. 









begins 84, 1803 
„ 33,1804 
34, 1807 
33^ 1813 

When the Gregorian year is not leap-year the beginnings 
of the months are as follows, according as the republican year 
oc^gins on September 22, 23, or 24 : — 

1 Vcnd6niaire is Sept 
is Oct. 
is Not. 
is Deo. 
is Jan. 

1 Bmmaire 
1 Frimaire 
1 NiToae 
1 PluTioae 
1 Ventose 
I Gennimd 

1 norai 

I Prairial 

1 Thermidor 
1 Fnmtidor 

33, S3, 84 
38, 83, 84 
31, 82, 
31, 32, 

80, 21, 
19, 20 

is March 81, 83, 
is April 80,81, 

is May 
Is June 
is July 
is Aug. 

30, 81, 
19, 30, 
19, 30, 
18, 19, 


I Jan. 
1 F^b. 



1 oS: 

1 Not. 
1 Dea 

is PhiT. 
is Vent 
Is Germ. 
is Tbermid. 
Is Fractid. 
IS Vend^m. 
is Brum. 
Is Frim. 


11, 10 
18, II 

10, 9 

11, 10 
11, 10 
18, 11 
13, 11 

13, 13 

14, 13 
9, 3 

10, 9 
10, 9 

Bui when the Gregorian year is leap-year the beginnings 
of the months are as follows, acoordmg as the republican 
year begins oo September 22, 23, or 94 : •- 

1 Vend^m. b 


Tbermid. is 
Frectid. is 


1 Frim. 

1 NiT. 
1 PlUT. 

1 Vent 




55*- "' 

Oct 88, 

Not. 31, 

Deo. 31, 

Jan. 30, 

Feb. 19, 

March 80, 

AnrU 19, 

M»y 19, 

June 18, 

July 18, 

Aug. 17, 

I Jan. 
I Feb. 
1 Mareh 
1 April 
I May 
1 June 
1 July 

1 Sept 
1 Oet 
1 Not. 



ii PlUT. 

b Vent 

Is Oeim. 


is Prair. 

is Mesrid. 

Is Theniid. 15, 

IS Fmctid. 16, 

Is Vcndteu 11, 

is Bram. 13, 

Is Friak 13, 


33, 84 
83, 34 
83, 33 
33, 83 

81, as 

80, 81 
31, 83 

30, 81 
80, 81 
19, 80 
19, 80 
18, 19 

11, 10 

13, II 

11, 10 

18, U 

18, 11 

13, 13 

13, 13 

14, IS 

15, 14 

10, 9 

11, 10 
II, 10 

; For instance, what la 14 Flordal, An XII. TbetvpobtkiB 

year be^ns Sept. 24, 1803, so Florid falls in 1804, iiwTI 

; Gregorian leap-year. Look at the third Table, tad mhn tU 

year begins Sept 24, the first of Flor^ is April 21 ; c«<ur. 

quentl^ tAe 14th is May 4, 1804. Agna, what b Jmt i: 

1800, m the French calendar ? The year is not Gmr"«*Ai 

leap-year; and An VIII. contans it, which begim Srpt Z3 

, Look in the aeoond Table, and in such a year it sppnn tbit 

Jane 1 is the 12th of Prairial ; therefore Joae 17 u 

Pnurial 28. 

I KALGUJEW is a considerable islsnd in the rirrW (^ 

I Mesen, in the Russian ^erament of Archanael, md ritutri 

' to the north of the penuisuk of ScfaemonkoDdii. It ties Us 

' tween 63" and 69° 40^ N. lat , and 4r SO' and 4ri0' E. U; , 

' and is about 66 milea in diameter. The sur&ce is iifidiiiAti£,r ! 

it haa aome low mountaina, which rise b the centre, two iiial 

rivers, and several brooks of fresh water. The wr^ # 

covered, as in Mesen. with mosses; there are etuaii** 

morasses ; the ground bean nothing but benics, loiiie u'^ 

scorbutic plants, and stunted bushes. The sarroundiof mi » 

shallow, but swarms with fish ; the coast sbouodi m wij, 

walrusses, and other such animals. The diib are oon.-M 

with an incredible number of sea-birds ; the interior a L: 

of polar bears, foxes, &c Except a few Samoidcs tkm i- 

no settled inhabitanta. A colony of Raskolnidu eitiUi»i> t 

tnemaelves here m the 18th century: but soon left Ui* 

island. At preaent it is only frequented by fiskemeo r. 

seal-hunters from Mesen and Archangel The little iilaad u 

Flokti-Kockti and some others are near to Kalgujew. 

massel, Handbuch, vol. u. ; Cannabich, leMHmeh.) 

K ALMIA, a genus of pbmts named by Linnaea b bon v 

of Peter Kalm, proiessor at Abo in Sweden. It ku a iba. 

five-leaved alfx, • cyathiform corolla, with an SDfuUr f*: 

open limb having ten niches in its rides. The capnW h^ 

celled and many-eeeded. The apedea are erergrecn ibvn 

with alternate or vertidllate leavea. 

JT. latifcUa haa its leavea on long petioles, scattefvd v 
three in n whorl, smooth and green on each ade. It 3 1 
native of N. America from Canwla to North Caroliot, <m tiv 
sides of stonv hills. It haa various names in the Unurfl 
States, Laurel Ivy, Spoonwood, Calico-bosh. &c. The ft&vcr' 
are red, and when in bloasom have a vor elcgaat appnn&rt 
The leaves of this spedes are aaid by Arton to be poifooou 
to man and beast, bat their actioo can be hot fceble aad \a^ 
portant, for animala are known to feed on the pleat vitiia.; 
any evident eflect. Bigelow however atates that the flci^ (/ 
pheaaants having eaten thia plant haa produeed looe om Ji 
severe disease attributable to thia cause alone. The 5o«cn 
of the JT. laiifolia exude a laige quanti^ of sweet aMtan^a 
juice, which ia jffreedily collected by beca and vaiw, bnttlK 
Aoney formed fiom it ia iiynriooa to man. and the lokt. / 
swallowed itself, will noduce an intoxicaluw of id iotw 
kind. A brown powaer which adhcrea to the sboou as^^ 
branchea is used as a sterautatoffT by the Ameriesaa. 

JT. anguit^dUa^ Hanlm-leavea KalmU^ h^ petiohte l<i«<«, 
acattered or three in a whori, oblong, obtase. rather n:« 
beneath ; corymfaa lateral, faracta linear ; peduaacsaadaUin 
clothed with glandular pobcacenoe. It isansthreofNtr& 
America from Canada to the Carolinaa, m bogs and ivibh^ 
and aometunea in dry momitain landa. It is a aknib obc <£ 
eight feet in height, with dark led flowers. Itis oJledSkffp- 
Laurel in North America, aa it iaauppoaed to be ver^ii^irai 
to sheep. Several varietiea of this plant with,ligkter sad darier 
flowers have been described. There are several other ipecio, 
all of them natives of North Aaaerioa. They are sU mut* 
ablea for the irritability of thm stamens, and cack </ tk 
stamens haa a Ktde cavitjr fbrmed for it ia the coi^ ^ 
aerve aa a protection to the anthen. 

They are haadsoaae shniba when in bloaaoaa, aad aif r**' 
frvouritea in gardens and ahnibberiea. T^y giov beit ia i 
peat aoil, or they aaay be planted in a very sand; toan a 
vegetable mould. They may be propi^ted bjr hytn « 
aeeds. When the seeds are iMcd they abould be aovn car!; 
in the spring in flat pane or pots filled with peat cartk, tnJ 
very alightly covered over; the pota aa^ be thie friina 
doae frame, or in the fimt of a hothoMa, till the plast* 
eoaae op, wben they mi^ be.'tran^ilBnted to other pola, w^m* 
ahonld stand ia a doae fraaM tOl they have struck rssi; tkrf 
should then be hardened to the av by degieea. 
(Don, Gmdmer'B Did.; Bonett, OmUim^Botm9^ 
KATER, HENRY, aa EngfisTinthanatnB af •«• 
ihMBoe, and an exceUeBt paetieal phOoaaphsr, ess bsra*^ 

Bristol, April I3th, 1777. bat of bia aariy lifc i«y bttUa 




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. . 

K E A 


K E > 

got little Vifenaj instructioii. Hit theatrical education, how- 
ever, commencea early ; Mias Tidtwell instructed him m her 
art, and hia mother, as toon as she found that he might be 
made useful, took him with her in her occasional occupation of 
selling flowers and perfumery from door to door, the beauty 
and intelligent countenance of the child pleading strongly for 
the mother ; she afterwards took him with her in her rambles 
with strolling players and showmen. Master Carey, as he 
was then callea, was so clever, that once, when Miss Car^ 
and her son were performing in Richardson's booth at Wino* 
sor (the Richardson so well-known for his annual exhibitions 
at Bartholomew Fair), Master Carey was required to give his 
recitations before George III. at the Castle, which he did to 
His Migesty*s great delight, and was dismissed with a hand- 
some present He continued his performances, sometimes 
with his mother and sometimes slone, at small ]>laoes of 
public amusement in London and the neighbourhood till about 
the age of sixteen, when he left her entirely, and jomed a com- 
pany of strollers in Scotland. 

Kean*s first performance of a complete character was that 
of Young Nonral, in * Douglas,' in nichardson's booth ; his 
first encagement with a regular company was in 1804, when 
he made his appearance at Sheemess on Easter Monday, 
on which occasion he played George Barnwell and Harlequm 
in a pantomime. He was still called Master Carey, and his 
salary was 15s. a«wcek. From thia time till 1814, when he made 
his first appearance at Bvary Lane Theatre, London, his life was 
a series of the vicissitudes, struggles, and privations incident to 
the profession of an actor in country theatres. In 1808 he be- 
came acquainted with Miss Chambers, an actress in the same 
company in which he had obtained an engagement at 
Gloucester. Maria Chambers, in July, 1808, became the 
wife of Edmund Kean, as he then oslled himself; and 
when she waa near her accouchement with her first child 
they travelled together on foot from Bristol to Swansea, about 
one hundred and fifty miles, with only four pounds to pay their 
expenses on the road. On the 13th of September, 1809, 
Howard Kean was bom. In the winter of the same year 
they passed over to Ireland, and at Waterford Kean became 
acQuamted with Sheridan Knowles, then an obscure actor, or 
rather singer. Knowles wrote a drama in blank verse, called 
' Leo, or the Gipsey,' which was performed at the Waterford 
theatre, and in which Kean played the chief character with 
great effiKst, and the drama was eminently successful. It has 
never been printed, but an analysis and extracts are given in 
the * Life or Kean.' Charles Kean, the second son, was 
born at Waterford in 1810 or 1811. 

Kean had a high opinion of his own powers, and in his 
country engagements always stipulated tor the privilege of 
playing tiie first characters, as thev are techniodly cdled, 
declaring that he would ' play second to no man except John 
Kemble.* On two difierent occasions when the managers, 
against his will, had announced him to perform with Master 
f^tty, the Young Rosdus, he disappeaiW till after Master 
Bet^ had gone away. One of Kean s best engagements was 
at Exeter, where his salanr was 2/. a-week, for which he not 
only played the leadmg cnaracters in tragedy, comedy, and 
farce, but Harlequin in the usual pantomime and the monkey 
in * Perouse.' 

While Kean was residing at Exeter, in 1813, he engaged 
to play four nights at Teignmouth; having completed his 
engagement, he had a benefit, on which occasion he played 
Rolls in < Pizarro,' and then there was * Chiron and Acbilles,' 
in which his son Howard performed, and lastly there was a 
pantomime, in which he exhi<ited his usual grace and agility 
as Harleouin. On this occasion Dr. Dniry, late head master of 
Harrow echool, happened to be present, with his wife. On 
\he following morning Mrs. Drury called to pay for the tickets, 
and told Mrs. Kean that Dr. Drury was much stnick with Mr. 
Kean^j performances, and intended to speak to Mr. Pascoe 
Grenfell, one of the Drury Lane Committee, in his favour. In 
November, 1813, while playing to a very thin audience at 
Dorchester, he observed a gentleman in we boxes who was 
very attentive to his performance, and who seemed to admire it, 
but who did not applaud. Kean saw that he was appreciated, 
and played his best. The gentleman was Mr. Arnold, mana- 
ger of Drury Lane Theatre. On the following morning Mr. 
Arnold engaged him provisionally on behalf of the Committee 
of Drury Lane Theatre, for three years, at a salary of eight, 
nine, and ten pounds per week for each successive year. 

A short time before Kean was seen by Mr. Arnold, Mr. 
£l]i»ton had oftered him an enrogemcnt at 3/. a week to play 
at the Olympic Theatre, in Wych-sirect, London, but the 

engagement had never been completed, and Kean tbooffct •- 
more about it. When be came to London boirv^«v. r 
Elliston heard that he was to be brought out at Dmr; Imc. 
he claimed his man, appealed to Mr. Arnold, and thrr«tf 
to appeal to the law, the consequence of wUch oppositufi nu 
that from the 6th of December 1813 till the 26tb of Jjfi:.' 
1814, poor Kean and his wife and child were alowit ktaah*,: 
not having received a shilling of salary, except 8iL «liu h «< - 
sent to him at Dorchester to pay their expenses to Lond >n 

At length Mr. Arnold ventured to complete his hvr-.' 
and the play-bills of Drurir Lane announced * The MmL. 
of Venice,' * Shylock by Mr. Kean, Irom the Exeter Thntn ' 
There had been no previous puffing, and the boQie «&. 
thinly attended, but the applause was tumultuous ; be npttu-i 
the character ; the house mas well filled, and bis lunc vn 
thenceforth established. On his first night 164/. mtn ;«: 
at the doors; on the second, 324/. ; afterwards tbe&vix^ 
was upwards of 600/. His performance of Othelk» oo one u • » 
sion brought 678/. 18s. 6d, After his third nerfoniumv ..< 
Shylock, Mr. Whitbread invited him to breaklast to coffi|M» 
his engagement for three years, at 8/., 9/., and Itf. t «ni. 
Immediately after the contract was sianed Mr. Whitfarv^i 
tore it to pieces in Kean*s presence, ana presented him v. 
a sketch of a new engagement, by which the Drurr laar rfn- 
mittee bound themselves to pay him a weekly salai; of M 
per week. Not long afterwarda the Committee made b-c » 
present of 500/., and he received many valuable present! fnn 
individuals. Druiy Lane Theatre was saved from the n.- 
which had previously threatened it, and rapidly adnnccU * 
a state of unexampled prosperity. 

Kean*s career of success, including a visit to Anerin >• 
1820, was uninterrupted till his criminal connection *iti> 'i 
wife of Alderman Cox became the subject of comnwot lo r:* 
newspapers. On the 17th of January, 18*25, the sruu 
Cox V. A^ean was tried, and a verdict of 800/. danscv m* 
pronounced agunst htm. Some of the newspapcit nal* i 
series of comments of unusual severity on his private rhr» 
ter. The public were exasperated against him, sod kf«.' 
driven from the stage of Drury Lane and afterwards frmn i.%' 
of Edinburgh. After some time however he was sUonc. * 
go on with his performances at Drury Lane, but be hM ' 
reinsute himself in his former position, and tberefon; f\M. 
accepted an invitation to pay a second visit to Amefics. 

After an absence of two seasons in the United Statet Kw 
returned to London, having during the time not ooi; r- 
quired but saved a considerable aum. The Loodoo fuK^ 
had relinquished their animosity, but it was in vam. lie i^ 
always, in the time of his prosperity, been a disMlute si; 
but be had now fallen into nabits of almost coostaat mtoin- 
tion. His constitution was broken up, his meioon «v 
impaired to such a degree that he could not study a dcw pirt. 
his alacrity of spirit was gone, and his performanoei wm 1.:*" 
more than a fiunt reficction of what they had bera. H* 
had separated from Mrs. Kean afW the tnal with AUfrai 
Cox, and allowed her 200/. a year; his mother wsiiiivrn 
1832, and had firom him an allowance of 50f. a jrsr. 1^' 
eldest son, Howard, died in 1813. His son Charles nuii 
Eton College, and when Kean found that he was dttpoKi: :• 
become an actor, he absurdly quarrelled with him, iri 
abandoned him, and the young man was obliged to talr *•: 
the stage in order to obtun the means of subsistence. CbiHn 
Kean was a year or two in America ; after his retura his i»:htr 
became reconciled to him, and in 1833 it was anaouaccd tin 
Kean would play Othello, at Covent Garden Tbcape, *p- 
that Charles Kean would play lago with him. Keaa stni^ 
through the part as far as the speech ' Villain, be sore/ «if*- 
his head sunk on his son's shoulder: he was borne otf tb» 
stage, and his acting was at an end : the andicDce is ^' 
ness immediately left the theatre. 

Kean Imgered on at his residence at RichmoDd far a «h- <*. 
and before he died wrote to his wife to ask her * ^^^ 
and forgive.' She unmediately came to hi^^ and sttcadr: 
him till his death, which took place May 15, 1833. 

Kean in his person was small, but weU-fenacd ; bu a^ 
waa thin, but handsome ; his eyea and hair were blaci : ti 
countenance, in variety and intensity of exprcsnoo, va< v«i>- 
derful ; his voice, in its upper tones was sooewbat hanh, a 
iU lower tones it was soft and mdodioos; his f**^ V* 
free, graceful, varied, and appropriate; his oooceptjoa oiTfts- 
racter was original and true, and evid^tlv the rewltof w*^ 
vation and deep and careful study. He aid not, as fome n"* 
aupposcd, trust to the im|)ulse of his fecl'wgs. 11<> '^"^ 
his characters much and anxiously. Frequently, sitrr » 

K £ I 



fkmily were retired to rest, he wooid act scene after scene 
before the pier-glass, endeaTciuring to prodnoe, hj expression 
of coontenance, gesture, emphasis, and modulatioD ot voice, 
the effect which his conception of the character required. 

Kean was indispotably the greatest tragedian of modem 
times ; perhaps, he has not been surpassed at any time. His 
Othello, in truth and vigour of conception, in brilliance of 
execution, and power of effect, was entitled to rank with the 
best of Mrs, Siddons's performances It was an exhibition of 
consummate skill . The audience was irresistibly swept along by 
his ove rp owe r ing enerey and pathos, and acknowledged by a 
series of bursts of apjHause the intense sympathy which he 
had infhaed into all ranks of society and all dc^ees of intelli- 
gence with which the theatre was crowded. In some of his 
other characters he exhibited the striking points rather than 
the whole of the character ; but this reproach did not apply 
to his Othello, Richaid III., Shyk)ck, and Sir Giles Over- 
reach. These charactera were all pervaded with an intensity 
of passioo wtuch he exhibited with matchless energy and 
truth. His power indeed was in the display of character 
and passion in all their varied shades. In passages of 
declamation he had peculiarities of intonation and utterance 
which gave him a strong and by no means pleasing man- 
nerism. His comedy appean to have been by no means 
equal to his tragedy. He played Abel DruKger on one occa- 
son for his benefit, and though it was well received, he did 
not repeat it. Old Mrs. Garrick, who witnessed it, and who 
admitted that he rivalled Garridc in Richard III., told him 
that his Abel Drugger waa decidedly inferior to her hus- 

Keen's accomplishments in arts connected with his profesnon 
were very varied. His fencing was much admired for skilful 
play and elegance of attitude. He played well on the piano- 
ibrte, and sang with exquisite taste and expression. 

Of his private character little fiivourable can be said, though, 
if the circomstanoes of his early life be considered, much mav 
be oflfiered in excuse. He was profusely extravagant, spend- 
ing' the vast sums which he received in personal gratifications, 
and habitually indulging in dissipation among low society in 
tavema which are kept open to a late hour in the neighbour- 
hood of the theatree. 

(Lffe qfEdnnmd Kean, London, 1836, 2 vols. 8vo.) 

KEILL, JOHN, a distinguished British mathematician 
and natural philosopher, was bom at Edinburgh in 1671, and 
baring received the rudiments ol education in that cihr, he 
oompleted his course of study in its university, of which the 
celebrated Dr. Gregory was then the mathematical professor. 
In 1G94 he was entered in Baliol College, Oxford, where he 
(fistinguislied himself li^ the lectures which he delivered in 
private on various snb|ects relating to natural philosophy, 
principally from the works of Newton ; and in 1698 he puE»- 
liahed in London ' An Examination of Dr. Burnet's Theory 
of the Earth, with some Remarks on Whiston's New Theory.* 
In tlua work Kcsll pointed out, not without some harshness, 
the errors into which cnose theorists had fallen; and the 
severity of his strictures drew from each of them a reply : it 
u evident, however, that the advantage in the argument is on 
the side of Keill. In 1700 he was elected a Fellow of the 
Roynl Society of London, and in the same year he succeeded 
Or. Millington aa Sedleian professor of natural philosophy. 
Two vean afterwards he pablished a work m Latin under 
the title c/t * Introdnctio ad veram Phyricam,' which was well 
received in this country, and was also much esteemed in 
France — ^it being there considered aa an excellent ke^ to the 
* Priacipia ' of Newton. An edition of it in English was 
pablished in London m 1733, under the tiUe of * An Intro- 
ductioo to Natural Philosophy,' &c. 

In 1709 Keill went to New England with the appointment 
of treasurer to the Palatines, who were sent to America as 
emigrants at the expense of the British government ; these 
persons had been induced to leave Germany, and were living 
m London in great poverty : he returaed, however, in the 
following yesur, and was immediately diosen Savilian Professor 
of Astronomy at Oxford. In the year 1711 he was chareed 
by Cfeaeen Anne with tiie duty of deciphering papen ; and it 
a mentioned aa a proof of his sagaci^ that he onoe dedpfaered 
a letter written in Swedish, tboi^ he knew not a wortfof the 
lanffuagc. He held this post tibont tre years. 

Li 171S the U ui weia i ty of Oxfoid conferred on him the 
degree of Doctor in Physic ; and in that year he published 
aa edition of Coaaaaadina's < Elements' of EuolM, witii a 
tract on TrigonometiT, and one on the Nature of Logarithms. 
la 1718 h0 tmbliiiMd a watt MtitM ' Intradvctio ad vena 

P. cTs., No. loa. 

Astronomiam,' which he afterwards transbted uito Engliali| 
and published in 1721 under the titie of * An Introduction to 
the true Astronmny, or Astronomical Lectures delivered at 

In the ' Philosophical Transactions ' for 1708 there are two 
papere by Keill, of which the first b entitied * On the Laws of 
Attraction and other Physical Principles,' and the other, ' Of 
the Laws of Centrifugal Force.' In the volume for 1713 
there is a paper by him on ' The Newtonian Solution of 
Kepler's Problem,' &c. He also gave a paper entitied 
' Theoremata quaedam Infinitam Materiae Divisibilitatem spec- 
tantia ;' and one which is designated ' Observations on Mr. 
John Bernoulli's Remarks on the Inverse Problems of Central 
Forces, with a New Solution of the Problems ;' both of these 
were published in the ' Transactions ' for 1714. 

Dr. Keill died Sept. 1, 1721, m the fiftieth year of his 

A writer in the * Acta Eroditorum ' having, in a notice of 
Newton's Treatise on the Quadrature of Curves, stated that 
the English philosopher had taken the Method of Fluxions 
firom Leibnitz, the indignation of Newton's friends was 
excited; and in the paper on the Laws of Attraction, &c., 
which, as above mentioned, was published in the ' Philo- 
sophiod Transactions,' Keill formally asserted the claims of 
Newton to priority in the discovery. This paper eave 
ofience to Leibnitz, who, in a letter to the Secretary of the 
Royal Society, required that Keill should be compelled to 
retract his assertion: this was not done; and Keill, in a 
letter to the Secretary, detailed the evidences of what he had 
stated. [CoMMBsciuM Epistoijcum , P. C] 

Dr. Keill was not fortunate on another occasion. Entering 
into the war of problems which wu at that time carried on 
between the English mathematicians and those of the Conti* 
nent, he somewhat presumptuously challenged John Ber- 
noulli to determine the path of a body when projected in a 
medium which exereised on it a resistance varying with the 
square of the velocity : the challenge was accepted, and 
before Keill could complete his own solution, Bernoulli 
announced that he had succeeded in obtaining one: the 
former was, in consequence, compelled to endure in silenee 
the reproof which the foreign matnematidan did not fail, un- 
sparingly, to administer. 

An edition, in Latin, of Dr. Keill^s principal works waa 
published at Milan, in 1742, in 4to., under the titie * Intro- 
dnctio ad veram Physicam et Astronomiam (Huygenii Theore- 
mata de Vi Centrifuge) quibus accedunt Trigonometria ; de 
Viribtts Ccntralibus ; de Legibus Attractionis.' 

(From the Phihaop/Ucal DransactumsJ) 

KEY ISLANDS are a group of islands of considerable 
extent in the Indian Archipdago, situated between 5** 20 and 
6*" SO' S. lat, and between 132" 30^ and 133** 40^ E. long. 
Three islands are rather large, and called Great Key, little 
Key, and Key Watela. The number of the smaller ones is 
not known, as they are rarelv visited by Europeans. 

They rise to a moderate elevation above the sea, and all the 
heights are overgrown with forest-trees, which constitute one 
of the principal sources of wealth to the inhabitants, who are 
engaged in ship-building to a considerable extent; a great 
number of country vessels that ply between Borneo and 
Timor on the east, and the coast of Papua on the west, are 
built on this island, especially in the harbour of Doola, which 
lies on the western coast of littie Key. These vessels are, 
stoutiy built, of excellent timber, and areWd for a moderate 
price. There is no town at Doola, but the harbour is large 
and surrounded by numerous villages. The native population 
of the island of Banda obtain from this place an abundant 
supply of prorisions, especially catUe. The European and 
India goods obtained by this traffic are pardy re-exfK>rted by 
the inhabitants to the Arroo Islands [Sunda Islaitds, vol. xxiii. 
p. 291] from ■ the harbour of Elie, which lies on the eastern 
shores of Great Kev. This place is also remarkable for the 
manufacture of earthenware, which is greatiy prized by the 
inhabitants of all the neighbourinr groups, and preferred to 
all other uteo^Jls of that description. Many of the inhabi- 
tants are occupied with fishing trepang, and there arrive 
annually several vessels from Macassar to fetch the produce of 
this fishery. Very littie is known of the inhabitants of this 
group, except that a part of them have embraced the Islam. 
This is especially stated of the inhabitants of Elie. It is 
further stated, that a great number of families from Banda and 
Coram have settied among them, and perhaps it mav be attri- 
butable to these foreigners that the native population has 
attained a higher degree of c'vilixation than their neighbounu 

Vol. II.-T 

K I L 


K I N 

'thtjvt itttcd to be more firioMD j to fordfMn, and to be 
■wre booett in tbeir deelinct* 

(RoItT, JKcutf door dm wmmg heJkmdm tmdtiijkm 
MeUkThm Arthipd,) 

K I LI AN, the name of a dUCtnguiibed hmWy ormgrmTen 
of AiiirburK. There hare bera auny engrmTcrt of this name 
and family, but four ooi/ were artists of tuprnor abilitv: 
Loraa and Wolfgang* the tnni of Baitolomacut Kilian, a gold- 
Kaab, «ho was born hi Sile»ia in 1&4^, and died at Auga- 
bunr in IS^; Banolomaruf, the thifd ton of Wolfgang; 
and Pbilipp AndreM Kiliau, a more recent vtift of the 

LrrAa Riuav waa bore at Aupburg in 1579, and was 
nlocaird as an engrairer by \xu stepfather Dominick Custos. 
llr ttwiird alio the works of Tintoretto and Paul Veronese at 
Vmire, after which he engraved seroral prinU which were 
so. J at Au^imnr and obtained him the reputAtion of one of 
thr br«t en^raTers of his age ; his stvle of drawing was however 
DfjC quite correct, and was aonievihat mannered. Ud died 
at Aa^tiurg in 1637. Lucas had great coomiand of the 
fTh^rr^ an<l has been known to execute two portraits in a 
ssnrle week ; bis works are very numerous. 

WoLroAVQ KiUAV was born at Augsburg in 1581, was 
a}«o ttstnirted in engraving br his stopfather Custos, anfd, as 
hit brother hvl done, studied sJto in Venice. The prints he 
ti>«*re prudoced are the most carefully executed of his works. 
lie was Utterly compel l<<d by the wants of a numerous family 
and hard timea' (it was during the Thirty Years' War) to look 
more to the qoautiiy than the quality of his labour, and he ac- 
cordiDfly executed HiifHIy portraiu. His greatest work is 
the Crlebraiioo of the Westpbalian Peace in Augsbur]^ in 1649, 
in two sbe«*U, a/ler a picture by Sandrart: it contains about 
fittr pTHtraits. lie died at Augsburg in 1662. 

bABTOLonABTs KiLiAV, the third son of Wolfgang, was 
bure at Aupburg in 1630, and was 6rst instructed in en* 
grmunff by his father, who afterwards by his son's request 
sent him to study with Matthaeos Merrian, a celebrated en- 
grater at Fnuikfort oo the Mayn. From Fruikfort Bartolo- 
maeus went to Paria, where he remained a few years, main- 
tuning himself bf bit own labour; and he retnnied to 
Augsburg about 1655, a very able artist both with the graver 
and the etrhing-needle. Sandrart terms him a bora engraver : 
his works are very numerous, but are chiefly portnita. Ue 
died at Augsburg m 1696. 

Pit lATT AxDBKAs KiUAV, the soQ of Georg Kiltan, 
doaely related to the above, was bore at Augsburg in 1714, 
and waa taught engraving by G. M. Preissler in Ntiroberg. 
lie studied also in the Netherlands and in various parts of 
Germany, and became one of the most distinguished artists of 
his time ; besides hin technical skill in the use of the graver he 
had a good taste and was a correct draftsman, but bis ex- 
ecution is somewhat peculiar and monotonous. In 1744 
Aumittus 111., king of Poland and elector of Saxony, created 
Kilian hit court en^rraver, and Invited him to reside in Dresden, 
but Kiltan preferred his native city. lie however vbited 
Drrsden in 1751 Air the purpose of conducting the execution 
of a eollectiaa of prints after the most celebrated pictures of 
the Drewlen GaJlenr^' fterueil d'Estampea d'aprSa lea plus 
r^lcbrea Tableaux de b Galerie de Drrtde.' The rom|^tion 
of this collertioo was interrapled by the breaking out of the 
Srvrn Yean' war, hi 1756. Upon the cesaation of this work 
be cmasaenced an ^tensive series of illustrstioot of the Bible 
in quarto, «hirh he accomplished by the assbtance of various 
'iCher artists, to the number of ISO prinu, but they are not 
amcirtg his best works. He executed many portraits ; two 
of th<* best of which are the e m pe r or Francis I. and Maria 
Tbcrrm, after G. von Mytms. Three days before hb death he 
was rogapd oo a portrait of Pofie Clement XUL, which he 
yrrvt nesHy eomplelrd. He died in 1759. 

Ilrinekcn cmsmeratca twenty -one mcmben of thb family, of 
whom eighteen were artbta, and fourteen of these engravers. 

(Hetoekea, Smtknekim vom Kumttltm tmd Kwutwd^m.) 

KILLIGREW, THOMAS, a younger son of Sir Robert 
Kdligrew. ww born at Hasworth in MiMleset, hi 161 1. He 
travelled fai hb youth, waa p r mnt at an exorrbm of the mns 
of Loodan, wae appointed a |«ge of hoiwur to Charies I., and 
atteadrd Charles il. duriii|r hb exile, marrying one ol the 
oueen's maids of hooo«r. fib coarse and licentious wit quail* 
M him pecwIiaHv for aec uiiu g the flkvour of hb master, who 
b 1651 . m spite of the ranoiiatraacea of bb wber eommelloiv, 
mwt htm as hb envoT to Veokw, where he used hb placa for 
ffVMMsr mnoey for himself, and was cipelM with dbgvMT 
Oa ihr Rtvaotatbsi KOIifrew hwum ffoom of the ^ ' 

and efgoyad ■§ iBtimacT m 
king which the fbvt omb b the Bttm vara — able lo ohiair 
He Das Bometimea been nid fta have beta oflkiaUir appouktrrf 
to be the royal jeater; but for thb aaatitiuu there m no 
ground, though he was in the way of takinf such Hbtrtwe as 
none but profeasiooal jesters would in any other reign hs«e 
been allowed to take. Ue dbd at Whitehall fai 16Mi. He 
wrote eleven pbya, of which the first two were priaaid ;a 
1641, and the whole collection in a folio eolume fai 16^4. 
They do not by any moana justify hb reputatioa aa a «i*« 
A sufficient specimen of them b lureishcd by the eoawdy of 
' The Parwn^s Wedding,' reprinted in Dodsley'a • Old PUr* ' 
Killigrew's oldest brouier, Sir Williaas, a much more 'rr^ 
specuUe person, waa the author ol four or five plays, aad -. f 
two volumes of moral reflections. Ue died hi 1699. 1i^ 
youngest brother. Dr. Henry Killipew, wrole a tragedy m 
hb youth, took holr orders, and held several nre fti mi 'iJ ts. 
He was Master of the Savoy at hb death, whidi took pi^v 
after Sir William's. Dryden's fine elegy oo Mn. Aaae kU 
ligrew celebrmtes a daughter of Dr. Henrr. 
KIN. rDEsc«!«T, P. C ; I.trstact, P. C] 
KING, PETER, LORD, was bora in 1669, at Exeter. 
in which town hb father, Mr. Jerome Ktog, carried ob th^ 
businem of a grocer and Salter, though said to be dt s ren d ' ^ 
from a good family in Somersetshire. To thb baawem a» 
brought up his son, and the future Lord Chancellor of G^^st 
Britain served for some years in fab father's shop. It «as 
probably hb relationship to the celebrated Joan Lork«, 
whose sister was hb mother, that pot it into hb bead, wh.> 
thus situated, to think of making himself a scholar ; hot tW 
story told b, that he had by himself made extraofdinary prt^ 
ficiency in learning, purchasing books with all the money k^ 
could procure, and devoting every moment of hb leisure te 

study, before he was taken any notice of by Locke, br w Wwe 
advice however he then went to the Univentty of L#t<v* 
How long be studied there we are not infofed. Ue nrm 
made himself known by the publication, in an octavo i rdum i . 
in 1091, of the First Part of hb * Inqidiy uito the CoMtit*. 
tion. Discipline, Unity, and Worship of the Primitive 
Chivch ;* in which with oonsiderabte learning ha ailtocaaeii 
the right of the Protestant dissenters from e ta a wip a ry i» be 
comprehended in the scheme of the nathmal raiaWwhrni i» 
The Second Part, occupied with the Worship of the pHm^Dve 
church, followed soon after. Thb work cxciled much atiew- 
tion, and, besides a corre s pondence between Mr. Edward 

Dys and the author, which waa published hi oclav«. by the 
former, in 1694, drew forth, oo lU being reprintid m 171*. 
during the discussions oo the Schism Bill, * Am laparuai 
View and Censure of the Mbtakes propagated for th« as da a 
ing power of Presbyters in a celebrated Book ewtitM A a 
Enquiry, &c.' in an appendii to *The Inval&dily ef the 
Dbsenting Ministry ;* and also * Aa origmal Dnmcht M 
the Primitive Church, in answer to a dii 
Enquiry,' &c.. 8vo., Lood. 1717. Both 
fessed to be * by a Presbyter of the Chvch of I _ 
the latter at least b known to be the productioo of a •■»* 
juring clergyman named Sdater. Meanwhile Kioff hod #•- 
tered himaelf at the Inner Temple, aod waa io «o» i mom 
called to the bar. Ue tppemm to have begoa ««fy eaHy la 
make a figure in hb proffmioo ; aad healaosoeo cmmtwi wf^m 
a Doliticar career, harinr in 1699 obtained a seat fai the Boasw 
of^ Commons as one of the m emb er a for Beanlsn 
be retained for aeven pwliamenta, or to tha end of i 
of Queen Anne. He did not yet, bowevar, 
don bb firat pursuit, but hi 1709 publiahed^ i 
learned theological work, «The Hbtocy of the A p aed s * 
Creed, with critical Observationa on Its aeeeral AfOc^ * 
In July, 1708, he wm chosen Recorder of Laodao, m4 w» 
soon after knighted. In 1709 he was app oiol t d by ch» 
House of Commons ooe of the amnagiis at the Imparhmroa 
of Dr. Sacbeverell, aod hi 1719 he gave hb mnkm. siij ■ 
a fee, M ooa of the cooaael for Mr. VTUsIhi, ao hsa ortal W 
hcmy before the Court of Dalegatea. laHosoBhor, 1714. 
a §&w mootha after the ac c maloo of Gwag o L, Sr ^^sr 
Kfaif waamadeChh»fJustieeof thaOwaMriaM; mtikm 
a privy eeomellor fai Aprtl of the fbOowM ymm^ 
ma «bl had bean taken ftoai tba E«l of 2«rfa». 

After the great i 
field, he was, hi June, I79fi, 
waa at the aama tfana lalaad to 
Ockham hi the oomHty of 

not * " ' 




not M ChMcoOor aotiify tho poUe oipacMiM. or. to li aa^ 
peaad.hbown; md Ukmii ta iaeo myod W hoJih hy 

K I N 


K I N 

rfbr his new duties. He resigned 
the aeals oq the 26th of November, 1733, and died at his 
teat orOckham on the 22nd of July, 1734. By his wife 
Anne, daogfater of Richard Sejs, of Boverton in Glamorgan- 
shire, Esq., he led four sons, who all inherited the utle in 
succession, and from the youngest of whom the present peer 
(created Earl of Lovelaoe in 1838) is descended. 

Kn?G*S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, was originalljr a 
seiainanr for a rector and twelve fellows, founded by Rug 
Hemy Vl. in 1441 ; but in 1443 he changed its form, and 
endowed it for a provost, sevf nty fellows and scholars, three 
^Mpjfrna^ tix derka, sixteen choristers, and a music-master 
(who is now also organist), sixteen officers of the foundation, 
twelve servitors for the senior fellows, and six poor scholan. 

Eton College was founded by Henry VI. m 1441, and 
when be re-f(Minded Kind's College in 1443 he placed it in 
immediate connection with Eton College for the supply of its 
scholarB, each of whom at the end of three yean from Uie day 
of his admission to King's College, is either elected a fallow 
or is no longer a member of the College. For the last twenty 
yean the vacancies at King's CoUese have been on an average 
less than four in the year. The process of electing the 
schcdan on the foundation at Eton College for admission to 
King*s College is described under Etok Colubgb, 1'. C. S. 

Toe Society, as at present constituted, consists of a provost, 
a vice-provost, a dean of divinity, two deans of arts, three 
bunars, a tutor and dassicai lecturer, a mominsr reader, a 
divinity lecturer, a lecturer in mathematics, a concluct, and an 
organist The visitor is the Bishop of Lincoln. 

A pablic examination takes Jplsce in the Hall of Kixtg's 
College tt the end of Easter Term, when the students are 
dividra into classes according to their respective d^rees of 
pro6ciency ; and books, to the value of 10/. and stamped with 
the College arms, are apportioned to the three fint scholan 
in the <&sical and mathematical examination; the three 
scholaim who are highest in the divinity examination receive 
prises in three unequal proportions from the yearly interest 
of 5001. left for that purpose. 

There are also other annual prizes which have been speci- 
tdlj provided for, either by the College or by bequests of 
imvviduals : — 20/. to be eaually divided oetween such scholan 
as have in the course of tne year been most distinguished for 
learning and regularity of conduct ; 6i, to such scholar or 
acbolan as shall be adjudged to have deserved well by appli- 
cation to atudy and good conduct ; two 5/. prizes for Latin 
dedamations ; two 5/. prizes for English declamations : and 
one y. prixe for the best translation of an English subject into 
Greek iambics. 

King's College has some peculiar pririleges. The provost 
has anolate authority withm the precincts ; the undergrar 
doatea Sunder certain restrictions) are exempt, within the 
liasita of the college, from the power of the proctonand other 
nniversity officen ; they keep no public exercises in the Uni- 
veiri^ schools, nor are in any way required to be examined 
by the Univernty for their degree of B. A. 

King's C<^ege and Trinity Hall are the only colleges at 
which undergndnates can be elected fellows ; in King's Col- 
lege, however, they are obliged to take the degrees both of 
B.A. and M.A. in the Univenity when of sufficient stand- 
ing, otherwise they are not entitled to the full proportion of 
their dividends. 

There are thirty-«x church livings in the patronage of the 
College, — two in Cambridgeshire, two in Devonshire, one 
in Dorsetshire, one in Essex, four in Hampshire, two in 
Hertfordahire, one in Lancashire, two in Lincolnshire, one in 
Middlesex, Bre in Norfolk, one in Northamptonshire, six in 
Suffolk, five in Surrey^ one in Sussex, one in Warwickshire, 
and one in WQtahire. 

The original buildings of King's College consisted of the 
present chapel and a qiudranffular court to the north of it, built 
of atone, 120 feet in leng& by 90 feet in breadth. The 
bnildings which constituted this court baring become much 
deaden, it was determined that a large quadrangle should be 
erec£sd to the south of the chapel ; Gibbs was appointed the 
architect. [Gnaa, Jaxss, P. C] The building was com- 
menced in 1724, and he erected on the west side of the qua- 
drangle the Fellows' Building, or Grecian Building, as it is 
eooimonly called. Nothing more was done till July 12, 1824, 
mueu the new boildinss were re-commenced by Wilkins, and 
coBBj^eted in 1828. [Wixauis, Wiujam, P. C.] 

The qondimgle is 280 ftet in le^rth bv 270 feet in breadth, 
I of the Halli Ubraiy, Chapd, and apartnjients for 

the fellows and sdudan. It is separated from Trumpingtos 
Street on the east by a screen, in the centre of which is the 
entrance-gateway beneath a domed tower. The Hall, on the 
south side of the quadrangle, is 102 feet lone, 36 feet wide, 
and 45 feet high, a noble room with a beautiful timber roof, 
similar to that of Crosby Hall in London, the arches ter- 
minating in pendants and adorned with elaborate tracery. 
There is a music-gallery at each end, and an elegant screen 
at the west end. The roof is surmounted by two stone 
lantem-towen, and there is an oriel window filled with 
painted gkss. The Library is supported by buttresses on the 
exterior, and is ornamented with pinnacles and a pierced 
parapet. The interior is 93 feet long, 27 feet wide, and 18 
feet nigh, and is handsomely fitted up with projecting book- 
cases of carved oak. The Grecian Building is 236 feet in 
length, 46 in breadth, and 56 in height. It is built of 
Portland stone, in three stories, with a lofty Tuscan por- 
tico, and comprises twenty sets of apartments for the fellows. 
The ProvostB* Lodge, 98 feet in length, is a hiehly orna- 
mented specimen of the Tudor domestic style. It has a lawn 
in front, and a bridge of one arch which connects it with the 
walks and fields on the other side of the river Cam. The 
interior contains some spacious apartments cle^tiy fitted up. 
The state-rooms are 35 feet long by 20 feet wide. 

The Chapel, which is the only part of the original buildings 
now remaining, is the architectural glory of Kmg's Coll^;e. 
The first architect was Nicholas Cloos, and the first stone was 
laid in September, 1447. The walls were erected to a con- 
siderable height, but litde progress was made during the 
latter part of the disturbed reign of Henry VI., and still less 
during those of his successon, till, in May, 1508, Henry VII. 
gave 6000/. towards the completion of the building, and his 
executora, in 1513, under a power conferred by his will, gave 
a further sum of 5000/. for the same purpose. In July, 1515, 
the exterior, including the roofs, was complete. In 1526 an 
agreement was made for the painted winao^'s. The screen 
and stalls were not finished till about 1534. 

This magnificent chapel, on the exterior, is 316 feet in 
length, 84 feet in width, and 90 feet in height to the top of 
the battiements ; the height to the top of each of the four 
comer turrets is 146) feet. The interior length is 291 feet, 
the width 45^ feet, and the height 78 feet. The exterior 
walls and the two roofs are supported by eleven vast but^ 
tresses on each side and four towen at the angles, and there 
are eight small chapels originally constructed for chantries, 
on each side between the buttresses. The exterior appear- 
ance of the chapel, with its towen and buttresses, lofty win- 
dows, pinnacles, and pierced battiements, is as bcAutiful as it 
is g^nd and imposing. In the interior the vast stone roof 
unsupported by pillan is one of the wonden of architectural 
skill. Eleven principal ribs spring from the buttresses on 
each side, forming an arch somewhat flattened at the centre, 
whence ponderous stones, each of which is said to weigh a 
ton, hang as pendants, and appear to be the key-stones of the 
arches. The pendants are carved with alternate roses and 
portcullises, the principal ribs are connected with each other 
oy diagonal ribs, and tne whole roof is formed into one great 
whole of the lightest and most richly carved fan-tracery, 
producing an effect of the strongest admiration and asto- 
nishment. It is stated that the stone pendants are not really 
key-stones, but might be safely taken away, together with the 
wfuls between the buttresses and the four towers, leaving, as 
it were, the skeleton of the building to supftort the roofs. The 
exterior roof, of light materials, is separated from the interior 
stone roof by a space of about six feet. 

The great east window and twenty-four side-windows, each 
nearly So feet hisrh, are filled with painted glass, and form a 
series of scripturu pictures of exceeaing beauty. The great 
west window alone is of plain fflass, prolxibly for sake of addi- 
tional light. The whole of the interior, with its screen in 
the centre, its walls of carved stone, and its stalls and tid>cr- 
nade-work of carved oak, is worthy of the highest admiration. 

(Lysons, Cambridgeshire; Dyer, History of the I7mtwr- 
eiiy "(f Cambridge; Wilson, MemorobiUa CaniabrigiA; 
Cambridge UmvergUy Cidendar^ 1846; Cambridge Gtdde^ 

KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON, an institution estab- 
lished in October, 1828, and incorporated by royal charter 
14th Auffust, 1829, as a college for the general education of 
vouth, * in which college,' says the charter, ' the various 
branches of literature and science are intended to be taught, 
and also the doctrines and duties of Christianitv, as the same 
are inculcated by the United Church of England and Ireland. 


K I N 


K I V 

Tka ckw«w arcdudc*, to tlw MIowimr «mm 
■• not memJben <4 ibe EMkblwlMd Charck 

frooi bokliiiff 
tak«) ia Um coll4v« : ' PiwricM alwaTt, that no penon who u 
Ml a oMwbcc of the Uaited Cbarcfa of England and Ireland, 
•• br law Mtablishcd, ihall be conpelrat to act m a irovernor 
bf virtae of bU oAcr, or to be nominated or act at life- 
ffoveroor, or be eltfrible at a Menber of the council, or to 
nil any oCce in the oollefe, excetit only the Froiemontim of 
Oriental LiterUnre and Modem Ltnmtapt'*.' Kinfr*t Coflcfr^ 
m therefore intended to be exclu»irply a Church of England 
ImlitBtMNi ; and in this respect only does it mainlr differ from 
Univemtj Collf^, London, which waa r»u(>li»he<l two or 
thitw yean earlier, with the desifm of alfording the advantages 
of a nniTersitj education to persons who were exdnded either 
entirely or partially from the universities of Oxford and 
C«mbrid)re, on accooat of their not being members of 
the (Tburrh of Ennrland. [U^tivaasiTT Collkob, Lotidost, 
P. C] The Ti»itor appointed by the is the Arch> 
bishoii of Canterbury tor the time being, and the govemori, 
ez-olBciOv are the Lord Chancellor, the Archbishop of 
York, the Bi«bop of London, the Lord Chief Justice of 
the Queen's llench, the Sorn*Ury of Sute for the Home 
l>e)Mrtn«cnt, the 8|ieaker of the House of Commons, the Lord 
Mayor of London, and the IX<ans of St. Paul's and West- 
minster. There are also lifc-irovemon, but their number is 
limited to eight. The council conwists of the govemort and 
the trmiorer, end a number of others. The proprietors are 
those who hold shares or hsve \M^n donors to the amount of 
601. Proprietors are entitled for each donati<m of 50/. or up. 
w^nb, or for each share, to nominate one student, either lor 
general or medical education in the college, and one ympil in 
the school, or two pupiU in the school. The chief otticer of 
the college is the Princi|«l. 

The colU^ was opened in 1031. There are fire depart- 
menta : the department of General Literature and Science ; 
^ Department of Applied fix^iences; the Medical IX^part- 
»ent ; the Theolofricai l>e|iartnient ; and the School. 

In the Department of CieoermI Literatore and Seienee, ma- 
triculated stadents, not aider the age of 16 (except in s|)ecial 
CBSCi), are admitted to a regular and prescribed course of 
mieral iCttdy, bat are allowed to attend any particular 
leetyrea not pr escri b ed in that courae. * Occasioiial studenU 
are admittea, who attend mv particular course or oourws 
of lac tur as givcsi in the collnre. There are apartmenu 
tkted m In the college for a limited nomI>er of studenu 
not nmMr eighteen yean of age, who are re<{oired to dine 
hi hall. The prescribed cour^ of study comprises rrli* 
■fkws instfwrtioo according to the principles of ^be Esta- 
bliahed Chuirh ; the Greek and Latin cla5»ics ; mathematif^ ; 
Cngliih literature, and modem hiMnry. The course of reli- 
gifius ftttStnictioQ is given by the Frinci|ial and the chsptuin, 
and contiits of lectures and weekly eianiioiiiont. All matri- 
ctdated stadmts are required to attend cha|N*l daily, and a re- 
gister of their attendance is keftC The atsdeniical year eon- 
sisu of the Michael mas, Limt, and Easter Terms, kxamina- 
linns take plsce at Ihe end of the Michaelmas and Easter 
Termi, when the Mud«*nts are H^^ted arconling to prufi- 
rieocy, and at the cl(«e of the araderaicsl year tln^re b 
■•other etaminatifio, followed by a fiublic di«tribution of 
ffiaes. After eomfdetinga three years* course, thote students 
who ha«e passed thronsh it with nedtt, and have alto attended 
three extra eoon^s of hvtitrrs, are mtitlfd to the dtploma of 
• AsMx4ale of Kmr*s C<»llc«e.' There are Prof<'s»onhi|« of 
C^lsMStwl Literatim*, Matlimntirs, Enirlish Literature and 
Modern History, Natural PhiUi«ophy and Astronomy, Exfte- 
rimental PhilowNihr, Eogl<*h L«w and Juri»pnidence, Potiti- 
cwl Eronomy, (9eology» Chcroifttry, Botany, Zoology, Fine 
Arts, Hebrew L^nguave and Lttrrature, Onental l^iiguaers, 
and of the Frmch, (iennan, Italian, and Spanish Languages 
iwipardvely, aftd also of Vocal Mosic, and Drawing and Per- 

The Depvttorwt of General Inttmrtion in the Applied 
PS inr lodes aiathematK-s, grnefml philo«>pli\ , chemistry, 
f, and — nafJMfnfing art, with a s|iihuiI course for 
hi civU eninneennir and an luircture. The 

in thia department is two yrars. CrmhcBtf^s of Approval 
■ad CertificBles of Honour are gr^uited to »tiKi«*nts who have 
distioiruished thrm«el*ea, and who are thus entitled to the 
diploma 9f Associate. 

In the Mi'dieal Department all the usual liranrhea of 
The matncwlaird iCwdcats are 

tho Octtdontl Stvdeati ■ttend only llto kdwa a# jm-^ 
cidar profcasora. At Kfa^'s CoUcfa Hoapital aose of t^ 
officers and all the draasers art selected horn tha pwpik oi " e 

The Theolomal Department was iMtitnled la IMf;. ^-.t 
has not yet (Jan. tM) been opened. It is intetwj^a • * 
stodenu of King's Collega wlio shall hare pam«^ t !.*«•# 
years in the department of general lit e trn tar a and wu • **. 
and who have received a diploma; for gradaalea of Oi'- -: 
and Cambridge; and for all persona who shall be a|»f>mw.: 
bv the Principal and recommended by a biahopw Tb«' n<:-v 
01 study will be for six toms ftwo yean), and the fres « t 
amount to 801. It is btended to employ tha stodmtt m» 
district ▼isitors, and to instruct them in tha best mHhMl* ..f 
coodoctinf^ schools. They are also to ba taafht cwir^v»- 
tional ainging. On the completion of tha oonraa of stisd v *j, ^ 
Principal ia to be empowered to grant frtiftcato a of ^u -- 
menu and good conduct, which oertilkataa aiw to ha eaKibttf ^^ 
to the bishop on application for holy ocdera. 

There are libranea attached to tbie several dtu a ifta ta, u>£ 

also a general library. 

The School Departflwnt b for yootha from nina to wit^*r« 
rears of age, and the coarse of inatnietioa c om p i ws f»rT«s 
Latin, French,' mathematics, writing, arith m etic, boch-k« > 
ing, history, geography, and EngliA literatart; aoA ior v* 
first three classes German, and for the first fov 6n^ j 
The terms are eighteen guineaa annoally, exdusire of bt- 4j 
and stationerr, with an entrance fee of one avuiea. Ja 1 ^U 
the number ot' students and pupils waa as follows :— 

MatriaUaimi Simimis. 

Department of General Literatare and Scieocw 1 3S 

Dc}iartro(*nt of Applied Sciences 30 

Medical Department l&J 

OaataibMi/ Sradfeals. 

In the various classes, exclusive of the Medkal 35 

In the Medical Classes M 


PupUa 471 



j baaa w ha aniar al anew aaaa the loorw rrauifad by the 
Owvgw m wvjpttM MM !■■ Sooety of Apothacwiaa ; ■■■ 

There are several small endowments by be n e fit to t s o^ :i« 
college. The Worsley endowment is for the instr wctM n .a 
ove'Y department of two scholars, to whom a stipend t^ ... 
a y ar is paid, and who, on the completion td thetr §*»: v^. 
are sent out as missionaries ; and there are aeveral achen » * 
priies for proficiency and good conduct. Three srhnlar * .• 
have bet*D f«>undcd lor matriculated medical MadanaB. 1 : • 
Master and Fellows of Msgdalene College, Camfaridgv. hs** 
ffivcn an exhibition for students of the College In >'■« 
Mr. Marwien left to the College a valuable librarr of a^fe^.-; 
dOOO volumes, chiefly m Oriental literatore and philaforv 

King's College forms the eastern wing of Son w rse t U-^tmr, 
which was leA in an uncompleted state. In I83U Ihe py^rr:.- 
ment grsnted this site to the college for one ihonMwd y«nK«, 
on contlition that the proprieton completed the baAdms m • 
style corresponding to the other part of the ediftra. Tt.^ r* . 
lefpe buildinas extend from tha strand to the Th^aea. 1 IM7 
comprise Ic^ture-rooms, a chemical laboratory, a wari.ftk- , 
museums of anatomy, materia medica, aoology, botawy, c««. 
lugy, and roincra]o||ry, and librarica, beaidas a dtmsig ^J. '. 
sfurtmcQU for a limited nombar of stod t s ita, sad var««m 

others The school-rooms are in tha haaeaMvt i 

KIVA, KUlVA,or KHYVA.smstryia As^^ 
a part of that nataral divisioa which goes by Iha amme 
Turan, or Lower Turiistaa, is situated an the «mc or zSm 
Caspian Sea, between 39* and 4A* 21. hi., Md bacwswm 4 - 
and 59* £. long. Its political boandarj m Ml dM»^ » 
detenuined, as it mostly runs theoogh d t aer ts ,' inhahitnS « 
nomadic tribes, which only nomioallir at kn ow led g e d^ »-«. 
reignty of the Khan, 9t pay no obediewcv to has •»« - ^ 
Only on tha east, the buundvy betwee n Khyva and Bv*r&-s 
is more exactly fixed. It traverses the rtver iHm a frw » <« 
north-west of the Bohhariaa fortress of Charchai, and "x « 
northward near the town of KarahoL On iha mvnik 
Khyva is the desert called Ktxd Om, whtrh b «wtf or c:^ 
8ea of Aral, this kite, and the tahlr land o# Otot^.r-. 
whirh extends from the 8ea of Aral to the rfiawa M zlm 
Caspiaa. The Cwpim CBM ti t ai aa in wan na loM ii m 1 . 4 «» 
the mlh af Klgrva b Iha 



^M Vi ^^M R 1 V ^^H^^^^ 



) ■■ -*l nHi 1 H J 







uj ^B 

























ill H 





rr B 



ii ffl^M^M Ji 








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^^^H^ i^nii 




^^BDlt^ M^»#, 








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^^Hik h**w 






PH^II^MMd •lii) i»Alf •rl|L*V m ^| i < 

ii|^: iii * 

iLi' I'l^!!* J 

' LiH^nM OukT* «iH» y* ^lO'lii^* o/ii largr aiki niinirriiai ^^B 

1^1 V 


K I V 

Praa KiUi CiMip ite g«Mf«l ooom i» to tbe wctt for abovt 
two hwrimtl ailtfiv thmgli ft eooatrj where cnltiTftled tnetM 
•lleraale vith madj deteru of modmte extent After hftv- 
b^ |Mwd the MTidiMi oT Mkh (67<> E. lon|r.), its coune 
deduiet oiore to the iiartli-«r«t, and in that dircctioo It con* 
tinwfi 10 the boundary-lhie of Khr^, watering the a^JMent 
ooancry for bmwv than two hmdrrd and fifiy nilei. The 
ooaatrr which it tfa ui a ta it unfit for culti ration, except in the 
l—miatff vidnitr of the river, where the fields are irngated 
from the river. It ia here still a rapid stream and navigable, 
hat not fiv from the houidar7-line between Bokhara and 
ILhjrvm rapids are aasd to exist, which are full of rocks, and 
dnnnir low-water dangerous to be pajtsed by boats. In this 
middle part of its coune the Oxos is not joined bjr an/ per- 
manent stream. 

The lower course of the Oxus, from the above-mentioned 
rapids, above the Bokharian fortress of Charchui, to its mouth 
in the Sea of Aral, probably exceeds five hundrpd milea in 
length, so that its ii hole courae amounts to nearly thirteen 
hundred miles. It therefore 'is larger than anj ri^er in 
Europe, CK^pt the Volgm. Nearly two hundred uiiU's of its 
loner course lie through a desert country, similar to that tra- 
versed by it in tu middle courae, but there does iK>t occur any 
obatnictiuo to nsvipstioo, and it is navigated. The river 
reaches Khyva PrDper near 41* N. lat., and traverses it 
in «me bed as far north as 42** 2(/, or upwards of a hundred 
miles. It courM* b turned by the northern extremity of 
Mount Shtkbodiihilli to the west, and a few miles lower down 
the ri*er divides into two arms, of mhich the nuallrr, csIUhI 
Londahn, continues to run in a nestcm direction about fifty 
miles, when it falls into Lake Ak-Cheganak. This lake is 
aituated near the base of the table- land of Oost-oort, and at a 
distance of mom than a hundred miles from the Sea of Aral. 
It e&trnd* alMHit thirtr milea from east to west. On its 
iu»: thorn si^le U*gin» a deep depression, which extends along 
the Ka<4» of the tuble-laod to the Sea of Aral, and has a mean 
bri^l of fifteen miles. It b entirely filled with water even in 
• inter, wh<*o the level of the Oxus b lowest, but only to a 
moderate depth. It b overgrown with reeds, rushes and other 
aquatic planu, «ith the exception of a comparatively narrow 
stn|)e in the middle, which b unincumbeiVd, and where a 
perceptible current runs to the Sea of Aral. The water of thb 
svraropy tract b sweet. Neariy halfway between the place 
w hi^re the Lowdahn branches on from the Oxos and its influx 
into Lake Ak-Ch4»ganak, it sends otf a branch to the south- 
west, which b called Scarkmuk, and passes near the town of 
Kana (Old) 0«>rgendsh, but its farther course b not known. 
At Kana (lorgetidJi it was, in September, lS4i, a river about 
stxtr or st'vcntv feet wide, and two feet deep. 

f rom the |)(ace where the Lowdahn branches off the main 
•trram of the Oxus runs due north about ten or twelve miles, 
and then sends off an arm to the north-east, called Kook-osak, 
which afWr a coarse of more than thirty miles fails into a lake 
called Daukarm. From thb lake a swampy depression 
atmilar to that of lake Ak-Cheffaiuk b stated to extend to the 
Aral; Imt thb fact rests onnr on the tnformatioQ of the 
•ativea. From the cOnx of the Kook-Umk the Oxus runs 
again nortli-wcst, and sends a branch, called Karm-Baili, to 
LAt Dmikarm, and two smaller ones, KUtt Chargan and Kok- 
Dtoia, to tha depmaioo north of Lake Ak-Chcganak. Far- 
ther on, at a dbtaocw of about thirty miles, the Oxua divides 
Into two arma, of which the smaller and western, called 
TaMyk Daria, rraches the Sea of And without dividing any 
fhrthn'. hnt the e a ste r n, Ulu Ikria, enters the sea by two arms, 
of which the emcem b known as Kaaak Daria. 

The Sea ol Aral, into which the Oxos disembogoea, b a 
gffwt inland lake. [Aa^u} It contains numerous ishmda, and 
•osae of them ars inWaied and cultivated. The largest, 
ealled Ttikmak Ata, lies opi^mtt the oKMtths of the Oxua. and 
ia about twenty mirs loog. It b partly cultivated and partir 
iith wood. The distance from the shore ■ 
; and it b stated that when the water of 
the sea b low a man on horseback can pam throufh thb strait, 
m ahaJiow b this sra. 

The Aral b not menti>med by the dasaioa] writers : were 
they larqHslnted with this sea ? or did it then ooostitole a 
part of the Caspian ? 8«ime modrm writers have maintained 
the latter opinioo, and it has beeoaaked, over which part of the 
bthmas lymg Ut wetn the two seas, the strait passed, which 
mritod them. It canMt have haew the ease between 43*90^ 
nd 4C* JO^, aa b ihaaa mtt» the isthmm b oempicd by the 
tsMilamlarthaO tHBOrt^ ia which no dspumam of mek a 
m n vwnM bn re^wirea la fenn a wide aDw 

overgrown wii 

deep strait. TbeRonan anrrejiortha Omj 
ua nN^nmnted with its taileni ahorea and the < 
diately adjacent to them. The hills which shirt the i 
as already observed, internipted at thraa plana. Baa the tw* 
southern openintr* are of small width, and at ft dastanr« f4 
from 900 to 400 milea from the sowtheni ahorm of •if*' 
Sea of Aral, and it b hardly probafala that a atnit of sv fa a 
length could have pasaod through the oornmr witlbnut Icav. 

ea ; Ixtt such traces have not been I 

the Caspian, with the exten 

The northern 

Imt such traces have i 

above notieed, which opens 'm"» 
extensive lagune of Kara Bofns, mav 
have formed a strait, fer its aoil consists of aneh sand as m U't 
behind wherever the sea retires. It b abo of eoastdrrs* - 
width, except towards the eastern extremity, west of Ras« 
Oorgensh, where it booly a few miles aeroas. In tbaae pnrta 
it ap|iears rather to hare formed the bed of a rirer than r? • 
receptacle of a strait Thb leads us to another more com » .> 
cated question. The antient authors, who mention the t m?*. 
stote that it 6owed into the Casfaan Sea, and the AraUr ir-- 
graphers of the middle ages, who were better acqaaintcd w.-i 
these countries than the antients, hoM the name opinion . s 
can therefore hardly be doubted thiA it waa so. A man. 
whose authority b the best of all, distinctly atatea thsc it 
flowed into the Caspian Sea (Xna6. iii. 29). Bat wUrt 
did the river reach tne Cmpian ? Some antbora hnve ms-s- 
uined that it passed through the sonthem depreavaon. a «: 
entered the Gulf of Khyra, or Ashaib Beyvri, north of ay 
N. Ut., which b only one degree farther north then th# 
place assigned to the month of the Oxoa b^ Ptolemy. ( >thr«« 
think that it reached the sea by the nuddle openlnr. ttu 
flowed into Balkan Bay. But Alexander von UaasboUt u / 
opinion that historical facts prove that, as late aa a.». 1>>*. 
the Oxus still carried its waters to the Kara Bocax. I'fw 
most decisive proof lie finds in the *Theatnim Orbb T«-*v 
rum' of Ortelius (1570), where an account and ■»; • 
RuMU and Tartarr are found, which both had prevM*. « 
(1562) been publbhed m London, by Anthony Jenkm««i . 
agent of the Rumb Company, who w« sent to e«u» • i 
commcrrial interroune with central Asia by the way o< ■ 
White Sea and Moakow. The title of JenkiiM0Q*a w« k .^ 
* Russiae, Moscoviae, et Tartariae I>eacript}o, Anrtnre A- 
tonio Jenkinsonio, An^lo, edits Londini 1562, et ded^r^u 1 
p. Henrico Sydnro, Walliae Praesidi.* In thb map tbr ( S • 
is bid down as failing into a large arm of the Caspnsn at 4 !* 
N. Ut. Thb b evidently the lagune of the Kara Bogas. l« - : 
ap|)ears that at the time of hb travels (1559) the Ivmv » 
vaneed much farther eastwards, which cl«nge may ha«e U - 
produced bv a change in the level of the Caspma. I r. » • 
account Jenktnson sutes that the water of the Oxns no I • «. - 
reached the bav as it formerly did. and be attribotca this e !• . .- 
to the great volume of water which was drawn from tbe n««- . 
irritrate the adjscent countries. But Oorgendth was at hu t ^ * 
a large commercial town, liuilt near the riter, whU w w at ■ 
gable at that place. In fact, he embarked here, md asi^vr. - 
it to the vicinity of Bokhara. In the hbtory of AM U\m^ 
it b stated that in 1575 the Oxus turned to the nnrtliwtf-. 
and began to run into the Sea of Aral, and that the frr* ' 
country surroonding Oonrmtah w« then converted r s 
deaert. Since that time tkb place has prtsmikd asly ra.** • 
the travellera who visited it ; no ri?er haa brco laami -: .. 
vicinity In the last three centuries. Bot h wmdd apyai a^ 
in the last fifWen vean the river haa made same eCoris w •« - 
occupy its old bed. Several statements toad to prpee it. m- 
Basiner found, in Sept. 1S42, that the Sanrlmnh, near Kshm 
Oorgentah waa from sixty to sevenhr feet wide, end tww Vr: 
deep, and that the place, which wto fonneriy nninhah*^. ft^ 
again been aettled, and contained a popnlatw «f 1000. 

A river like the Oxua, tranersng such a level eaamtrr m 
Khyva, must be subject to freooeot and grsai rhan^i a ^ 
course. The river, like the Nile, bringa down dars^f M^ 
fbrsheto a great quantity of detritus; but, mdike the drrmw 
which the Nile leavca on the fleM afler hnvhy teffcnd * 
bed, the earthy nmtler contained b the ar aN r a ef the t H« 
the fertility of the aoil. To ^ 
of the river and of the Inrver 

the hanka 

raised cooaiderahly above the level of tlto < 
tritna b thna conlfaied to their beda, mid it 
thick Uyer of mod mbed up with aand. The 
annually be deanaed, and thb b a lab e ricns 
of the embankments partial innndationa an 
and dcatnactave of life and proper^. In 1 
ahle portion of the cnltivated trad 
and it b atotcd timt 


K 1 V 

I m mtiw ti^rwK n* K hyf^ *t%n 

^ v* 11^(111^] lt» «kfi«i l#4l ii 


Ji -^. 1 if lii.i 

2it Ii « tinr nstiurfeitlib 

rF«ftiiii*iiiii«» Arif Mr? Iieawtjiy* und fiiilJ 

- ^- . ■■ - ,b 

^k tit {Ni^fviritiMi *u Uia umtatU Kiii |K»(iifLi4^o ^f tll9 

i • . ,1 . ' . . , i.tukl» of 

.1 )f«Ml-fl |*.«ID«*1 dAIIAt fOAi 

iwj<> <^4 1^0 klitfii u (itil|^ » bffn.^ not) 
^ Ittii pe11^(i9 da4 tiH>l* Ififwitopif ill 


Mj, rvui If I itt' JiMKhmWiiHi 

i|e« I'll einsiL 

till ol pemit Itnf fo"^ P' f^*^' ' r * ^*- -r It IT I 

.rwaAiln III tlw mmu c4 

N|viri«l, »tiiinit tsrJo* 


n*ifv^t0f^ *• fjjcrt afr Wii-rui |iiii^ r*»a- j ticrrot' iuc imtf** bi rnaJijemli*, 

K L A 


K L A 

- lo a cooBtry like Rhytrm* whoM nil wppllc* 

Its iohabifiuito thandMOkf with food, whikft lit i Mn ii f i iinrn 
•ftiH alflMit all tb« other Honiriti of Ufo, bat do not jioid 
oajT vttrlo for onvtAtaoo, foreign commeroe mwt be very 
inroniidmble. The mott active it that with Bokbaim, frooi 
which place alto a few Indian goodt are imported : we are 
however not acv^aamtcd with the detaib of this trade. Fnn 
tine to time a cafnvan froet from Kbjrva to Orenburg. It ex- 
porta a few BHUUifoctared artidce. aheep-tkini, bidet, and 
borMa, and bringt btck ntcnttk of cntuiron, tone woollen 
cloth, and copper and other mrtab It pa»et throogh Ktna 
Oorgeotth, tnvertet the table-Und of Oott-oort, near the 
thorvt of the Sea of Aral, and aAcr dceccnding to the low 
plahi lit roote liet throuch the ttcppe of the Little Horde of 
the Kirgbit The comacrre between Kbyva and Pertia it 
■tUl lets important Khyva tends there chieAr homty and 
rrcei^et in return driod fniiU and some silk (Tooda. 

iftilory.— >Khrvs probabljr was a part of Bactria when that 
rountry submitted to the sway of C>tus, the founder of the 
Pcfsiaa emriire, and constituted a portion of the province of 
llertria at the time of the conquests of Alexander the Great. 
After his death it was united to tlie kingdom of Syria, but 
separated from it by the revolt of Throtlotus of Bactria (256 
brfore Christ), who founded a sri>aratc kingdom in tlie«e 
paru. But in the lecood century U*rore Christ the nomadic 
nations of Upper Turkistan besran to descend into Turan, and 
look possrasi<m of the countries north of the Ox us and south of 
the Sea of Aral. They seem to have laid waste the country 
and kept potn wioo of it during more than two ceoturii^t. In 
the M'cona rentury sfter Christ however they were subjected to 
the sway of the Chinese emperors, who at that period ex- 
tended their dominions to the shores of the Caspian. It is 
not known at what time and in what way the Chinese were 
compelled to abandon this country. In the third century of 
our ara it wat comected aith Persia, and remained » up to 
the tenth oentary, when one of iu governors acquired inde- 
pendence and erected the kingdom of Karizm or Khowarism, 
which appeara to have remained an independent state until 
conquered by Gengts Khaa (1218). The dcicendantt of 
Gengis Khaa remained in possession of the country, which 
oootinofd to fonn an independent kingdom under the name of 
Khowarism, up lo 1379, when the town was taken by Timor, 
and the coontiy annexed to his possessions. Khyva remained 
a part of Mawar^Unahr, or the kingdom of Samarkand, to the 
bcfinniag of the sixteenth century, when a Turkish nation, 
the Usbecks, ander the auspices ot'Shibani Khan, desrended 
from Upper Turkialan, and by degrees took possession of 
the whole of Turan. Kbyva, at it appears, soon became an 
independent state ander an U»beck pnnce, and has remained 
to np to thia tine. A fea years mxo Russia comtiUined that 
iha cara%aBt pasung b e t ween Orenburg and Bokhara, in 
tnnrallinf to the connlry east of the Sea of Aral, were fre- 
qisHUly tiested and robbed by the subjects of the Khan of 
&byva ; and as they knew that the khan wat unable to 
lattiain the nomadic nations from attacking the caravans, they 
resolved on taking posscft»ion of the country* ; probably also 
with the view of extending farther their conquests in this 
dirrctioo. In the antitmnof la39 Russia dispatched an army 
of 5000 men, ander GenenU Perowski, but they did not 
rtaeh Kbyva. Ther tulforvd greatly from want of water, 
Astl, and fodder for homt tnd camelt during their pasatge 
through the Desert of the Little Horde of the Kirghis, and 
before they reached the base of the ublc^knd of Oost-oort, 
they were overtaken by MM*h severe ccild that nearly all the 
camels (19,000) and a vrrat number of the honrs (lenslird ; 
and thas thry wen* ob'ticnl to rrtum to Ormburx. and when 
they arrived thcra it was found that one4huU of the soIdU-rs 

(Muraaiew, JUim m CAimm; Humboldt, t/Ane Ceninde; 
lUstAcr, AmckncMtm whtr tttmt truaeMMcAafU»rAe Reue naeh 
CJktmm^ m Zbanwraunn's Uemkackrifi wber dm mtterm Lamf 
dn Osw$; Abbo., A'arrafser fif m Jtmmty from Hertntt lo 
A'Am, Moanm, md Si. pHerUmra. &c.) 

the skmS ccninent Orwntal ^liolars of modem times, was bcvn 
at BaHm, an the llth of C#(tober. 17H5. He was the son ol 
the eriebralad cfeeautt KUpeoih, who wtihed to bring bim 
np la hit awn puifsttiun, hoi the boy was little inrlmed to it, 
and employed amsl of his time en other pprsmu unknown to 
hiO lather. He wat aboai fifteen when , dunag a public examl- 
dT the papilt of thecollegein Ifterlin where be rer«t«od 

yonr pudon,* Mitwertd vaopr Klapiwth, 

Hit ansarer watreoeivea with nn o nhin i 

he hnmediately gave proofr of hit having amda steal p 

m that difficult langnage, and ha beeame hsnet fort h m 

of admiration to all who bad an opportnnity of wi 
extraordinary talentt. He had leainad Cf ' 

without the help of a matter, and, act w diu g la his ov^ 
taytng, be first began It in 1797, allar ha had foimd out • 
small and incomplete, but neverthelem vahahle eolle<t>ifi -■/ 
Chinese books in the pnbl'tc library at Berlw. His i^^^'^T 
soon became reconciled to the pnmitt of hit ten, b«t prr- 
ceiving that he devoted hit tiote exdottvely lo Orimtal un- 
gutget, he sent him, in 1801, to the university of Ualle. m *«ii 
a strict injunctioo to study the clatsioal langnafea. Klaoeuui 
remained several Tearaat Halle, and in IM'i pnbh«K«^ x.*^ 
firat number of hit * Atiatischet Magasin.' Tba Wwrae-l 
Count John Pototki having beard of Klaproth. htatewe^l %m 
make his acquaintance, ai^ wat to ttmek with him tbac ^ 
immediately proposed lo him to enter the tervire of the « n» 
peror Alexander of Russia. Klaproth accepted the (4^ -trk. 
sition, and the count being in great fovoor with the tx%* 
Klaproth was formallr invited to settle in Rnmta. Cpuo r 
arrival at St. Peteraburg, early in 1 805, the Acndeisy i 
S< ionoes presented htm with a diploma of Ad,junetna, fur .*« 
Eastern languages and literature, and the Russian govere«^ - 

hit laslmelion, he wat to hsrkward that one of his e&mmmers 
arM a«t fasdifnaatly« * Why, %o'i know nothing at all.' * Urg 

being then engaged with the plan of sendimr an ^ 
China, Count Potocki obuined for Klaproth the plar«> eif sts 
interpreter. Klaproth actually sot bis commistion belor* '^^ 
appointment of an ambassador. Thb hoooar wat fina-if ?■. 
stowed upon Count Golowkin, a vain and ambitioot maw * s. •: 
Count John Potocki wat put at the head of a body of sri • iara 
who were to accompany the embassy. KUiptoth set owt *# nr. 
before the embassy was ready to undertake the ioafTie% . a-. 
after having traveried the Ural Mountains, and pamed tt r • ; - 
Katberinenburg, Tobolsk, and Omsk, empfortng all hv *-• '' 
in studying the country and its inhabitanti, he finallr an-.* ^£ 
at Irkuuk, which was the place of meeting for all t^ r-^vs* 
bera of the embassy. Count Golowkin and hit tatte «rr«t 
soon after him, in October, 1806, and alW bavmr ^»-'v 
detained tome time at Irkutxk and Kiakbta, the ep^M»r 
cmssed the Chinete frontier on the Itt of Jannary. \ ^ • 
Thoy had scarcely proceeded a hundred and eighty n "• 
when they were again detained, Coanl Golowkin' hs« • 
refused to submit to the Chinese nwrt-eefewmnial, wmA s 
having remained a month in a miserable Mosigwl tvww. •.* • 
count was informed that the court of Pekm did not w ish ti» «« 
him. The embassy consequently ret ur ned to Su FriivWmnr 
Klaproth however did not accompany them, bat took a «* ir-« 
routo through Southern Siberia, and only rnaehed the Kamrm% 
capital in the beginninfr of 1807. 7*he iofor«tl»a wt» a sn 
brought back to St. Petertburg wat deemed to h w p wi ms *. 
tnd hit own abilitiet were so fidly acknowledged, thai br*^"^ 
the end of the year he was sent on a scientific mlassna »» x * 
Caucasian provinces. He returned fraa this roant^ m 
January, lflK)9, with a large stock of teientitie and pr«i:>^ 
knowledge, most of which aftrrwardt formed thesw»j»<n ^ 
separate works and articles in learned periodirala. The A/^ 
demy of St Petersburg chose him an estraordtnavr mr mh t r 
and the emperor conferred ufion him the title of Anlie r««.w. 
cillor, and made him a kai|tht of the aider of Wla^imw. aa 
honour which placed him amoofr the Roaian nahsliiy. II «- 
ever, Kbiprotb bad exfiected ttdl greater dhtinrimns, awa ;£• 
Rumian go«emment having setTPtly nat a flop to his msreit-4 
publication of hit journey through tne CaaeaHB, ha ta asu n 
teel unea«y in Russia, lie was too frank, too libftal, «■< »« 
bold to feel hapny among slaves. He neverthelna pt u fcu ^ *- 
hts sojourn in llussia. and wns active In ittaMnhina a sr* •« 
of Oneiital languairet at Wilna, and in mafciag %it^rri*,*m 
(wtalogue of the Chinete ami Mandsha MS8. m the m* -^ 
liliraryat St. Petersburg. He wat sent, bi 1811, to U- 
for the imrpose of so|ierintending the in^iaiing of t^- - »• 
rtctera which wero intended for printing thaaa MK» la 
1812 he tendered hit resignation to the R 
and afUw a considerable tiasa received hb < 
n^uiark that by solinting permission to i 
all his civic and sctenttfic titlea and pri 
St Peteraburg 
as to the rsal ca 


af terwarat repeated m feraign 

hit d i t g iwca, and It wat i 

MSS. and hflokt arent beyono Mtpe scitMlMe attovMawL ?*e 
sooner wns Kknoth frta tlmn ha begaa ¥ Wteg ani %m ^m* 
nal of hst travelt hi the Oanaatai; bat rii—y beeame t^ 
theatre of a long and bloody wnr, and tha laanarf OrwfeiiA 

K L A 


K L A 

fltd from place to place witlioat findinff rejxMe lor his pursuits. 
During this war he became acauaintea with tome of the most 
distinguished men in the Frencn armies, and his name became 
known to Napoleon. Klaproth's admiration for the French 
emperor must have been great, for after Napoleon had 
been banished to Elba he suddenly left Germany and visited 
the fallen hero in his exile. Napoleon received him very 
well, and it appears that Klaprotn, ei^tmg the emperor s 
early return to France, offered him his services, and was 
chosen the future editor of one of the first newspapers in 
France. The ' hundred days ' however passed away without 
any notice bdng taken of Klaproth, and when the Bourbons 
returned to Paris he was at Florence, in rather uncomfortable 
circumstances. Count John Potocki, having heard of this, 
myited him to settle in Paris, and there Klaproth lived some 
time by his pen, when he accidentally met with William von 
Humboldt, who, although he had seen him only once, em- 
ployed aU his influence to ])rocure for him a situation suitable 
to hb pursuits and his merits. It was at Humboldt's recom- 
mendaticni that the late King of Prussia, Frederick William 
III., conferred upon Klaproth the honorary title of royal 
professor of Oriental languages and literature, which was ac- 
companied with a liberal pension, and a promise to defray the 
expenses of printing whatever works the professor might 
think fit to publish. Klaproth was further allowed to stay in 
Paris as long as he pleased. Placed beyond all want, and 
moreover enjoying an income which enabled him to gratify 
his love of pleasure and refmed society, Klaproth now exhi- 
bited an extrsordinaiy activity, and it was in the years subse- 
rnt to 1816 that he published most of those uterary pro- 
tions which established his European reputation. The life 
which Klaproth led in Paris, leaving his study only to plunge 
into the torrent of mental and phvncal excitement of ue 
gayest capital of Europe, proved fatal to his healtli. In 1833 
the symptoms of a dropsy of the chest becoming alarming, a 
tour to M^in, where he was received with great distinction by 
the kii^ and the puUic, produced a good effect ; but shortly 
after his return to Paris tne symptoms became worse, and his 
bodily sufierings were unfortunately accompanied by occanonal 
dnangement of his intellectual faculties. The skill of the 
first jphysidans of Paris proved ineffectual, and after long and 
painiul sufierings Klaproth died suddenly, on the 27th of Au- 
gust, 1835, and was Imried in the cemetery of Montmartre.' 

Klaproth was one of the best scholars and decidedly the 
best linguist of an ase which can justly boast of great linguists. 
Uis peoetiation and sagacity, and the qmckness of his per- 
ception, were extraordinary; deamess and perspicuity dis- 
tinguish his style ; and his memory was so happy and capable 
of retaining the most difierent impressions without ever con- 
founding them, that he seldom made more than scanty ex- 
tracts. When he began a work, it was already clear ana dis- 
tinct in his mind, and the composition did not take him more 
time than was required for the mechanical act of writing. If 
we comp ar e Klaproth with William von Humboldt, we find 
that Klaproth had the superiority in analytical power, while 
Humboldt surpassed Klaproth in the sjmthetical. KlaproA's 
biographer in the ' Biographic Universelle,' says that ne was 
naturally of a kind disposition towards everybody. Yet this 
kind man was the dread both of his literary enemies and 
friends. The former dreaded his answers to their attacks, 
and the latter observed the greatest precaution in their inter- 
course with him, lest they should imtate his irascible temper; 
and it would seem as if he made no distinction between scien- 
tific and moral error, so severely did he handle those who in- 
nirred his scorn through a display of inaccuracy or ignorance 
in matters of learning. His controversy with Professor 
Schmidt, the Mongol scholar in St Petersburg, is an instance 
of this. 

It would take mudi space to gpve a complete catalogue of 
his numerous publications, especially as the majority of them 
consist of pamphlets, memoirs, and dissertations, many of 
whi<Hb are not of any general interest Prerious to 1812 he 
had only published some minor works, as, for instance, ' In- 
scfarift des Tu, iibersetzt und eridi&rt,' Halle, 1811, 4to., 
being a German translation, with notes, of a Chinese in- 
scription ; ttid artides in difierent learned periodicals. The 
' Asiatiocfaea Magaxin ' was edited by himsdr. The following 
■re hia most remarkable worics. 

1, ' Reise in den Kaukasus,' with maps, Halle and Berlin, 
1812-14, 2 vols. 8yo. : of these 'Travels in the Caucasus' a 
French translation, with valuable additions, appeared in Paris 
US 1823; 2, 'Execution d'Automne (The Autumnal Exe- 
CBtioB), Peiung, ZO^meann^e Kia King, 8dme lune, jour mal- 
P.CTS., No. 104 

heureux:' this severe critique of Weston's translations finom 
the Chinese was published m Paris in 1815 ; 3, ' Supplement 
an Dictionnaire Chinois-Latin du P^re Bonle de Glemona, 
imprim6 en 1813, par les soins de M. de Guignes,' Paris, 
1819, fol.; 4, <AbhandIung iiber die Sprache und Schrift 

tables, in folio, Paris, 1823 ; 2nd edition, Paris, 1829, with a 
Life of Buddha according to the legends of the Mongols : 
this is a classification of the Asiatic nations according to their 
languages, with a comparative vocabulary of most of the Asiatic 
languages ; 6, < Examen critique des Extraits d*une Histobe 
des Khans Mongols, ins^r6 parM. Schmidt dans lefii^me vol. 
des Mmes de I'Orient' Paris, 1823, 8vo. ; 7, < Sur TOrigine 
du Papier Monnaie en Chine,* Paris, 1823, 8vo : this very in- 
teresting treatise on the origin of paper-money was shortiy 
afterwards translated into English. Taper-money was known 
in China as early as 119 b.c., and was in general use in the 
tenth century of our sera, but it fell into disuse in the middle 
of the fifteenth centory ; Marco Polo mentions it 8, * Ta* 
bleaux Historiques de I'Asie depuis la Monarchic de Cyrus 
jusqu'^i noe Joura,' with twenty-four maps, Paris, 1824-26. 
9, * M^moires relatifs h TAsie,' &c., Paris, 1824-28, 3 vols. 
8vo., with maps and engravings; one of tiie most valuable 
works on Asia. 10, Dr. W. Schott's ' Angebliche Ueberset- 
zunff der Werke des Confucius aus der Ursprache, cine litera- 
riscne Betriigerei,' Leipzig and Paris, 1825, 8vo. : ' Dr. W . 
Schott*s alleged translation of the works of Confudus, from 
the language in which they wero originally written ; a lite- 
rary fraud,' by W. Lauterlwch (the pseudonymous name of 
Klaproth). Two Chinese, the one a labourer and the other 
a cook, having arrived in Germany, got their livelihood l^ 
showing themselves for money. They exdted the curiosity 
of the learned, whom they persuaded that they were priests 
of high rank, and the Prassian government believing their 
stoiT, sent them .to Halle, where they were to teach Chinese 
in the university. There Professor Schott became acquainted 
with them, and made use of their names and assistance in pub- 
lishing a German edition of the works of Confucius, wnich 
however was littie better than a re-translation of previous 
English translations. Klaproth, with his usual sagacity, dis- 
covered the fraud, unmaskcn the Chinese impostora, and chas- 
tised Schott most severely, but, in this instance at least, most 
deservedly. 11, * Tableau historique, g^ographioue, ethno- 
graphique, et politique du Caucase et des provinces iimitrophea 
entre la Russie et la Pene,' Paris, 1827, 8vo. ; one or the 
most important works on the Caucasus, espedally at the time 
when it was written. 12, ' Yocabulaire et Grammaire de la 
Langue G^rgienne, publi6 par la Soci^t^ Asiatique ' Paris, 
1827 : the fint part is Georgian-French, the second French- 
Georgian. 13, * Yocabulaire Latin, Persan, et Cordan, d'aprte 
MS. ^crit en 1303,' Paris, 1828, 8vo. This vocabulary was 
copied from a MS. which once belonged to Petrarch, and was 
first published in the * Journal Asiatique.' 14, ' Chrestoma- 
thie Mandchou,' Paris, 1828, 8vo. ; 15. ' Aperqu de I'Origine 
des diverses £critures de I'anden Monde,' Paris, 1832 ; 16, 
' Lettre sur les D^couvertes des Hi^roelyphes Acrologiqaea 
adress^e k M. le Comte de Goulianoff*,' Paris, 1827, 8yo., fol- 
lowed by a ' Seconde Lettre' on the same subject, addressed to 
Mr. D. S — , published in the same year ; and, 17, ' Examen 
critique des Travaux de M. Champollion, jeune, sur lea 
Hi6roglyphes,* Paris, 1832, 8vo. Klaproth is of opinion 
that although the younger Champollion aeserves great credit 
for having improved and increased our knowledge of hiero- 
glyphics, by correcting and extending the theory of Dr. 
Young, and discovering the signification of many new signs, 
yet Champollion's theory is only available for reading the 
names of kings and other high personages, and is useless with 
respect to ideographical and symbolical signs, which, accord- 
ing to Klaproth, Champollion unsuccessfully attempted to 
dedpher. * The system of Champollion,' says Klaproth, * is 
not rounded on a solid basis, and we thus see him altering, 
whenever he thinks fit, that signification whidi he laid down 
as the original meanmg of the phonetical as well as S3rmbol!- 
cal charactera. That scanty knowledge of the antient 
Egyptian language which we can derive from the Coptic lan- 
guage is quite insiiffident for explaining the sense or an an- 
tient Egyptian inscription, even if it were written in phone- 
tical charactera ; and the alterations made in the inscription 
of Abydos,' continues the reviewer, ' gives an adequate idea of 
the degree of confidence which we can bestow upon the theo- 
ries of dedphering hieroglyphics.' Klaproth, of c 

Vol. II.— U 

K L B 


K L B 

mdboTtWtliteorkMnrWdpof bbtime. 18 •Nollco 
dVioe MappcoMMMlt •! d'vM Con»ogrBphio Chiiioiics» piib- 
lite •aOinM, TttM «n 17S0, rwtro en 1799/ Parit, 1833, 
•?o. ; 19, * Nipon o Dti itnnii. oa Anntlci aet Empercun 
do Japoo, tndiui par M. lane Titrinfh, ravQ at oomg6 aur 
rongiiMa par M. Klurath, el prMd^ d'uiie Hktolra My- 
Ibolofoqne da Japoa/ Paria, 1834, 4to. 

Amoof tha pobricatiooi edited or tranlatad hr Kluiroth, 
«• matt neDUoQ tha pabUcattooa of Uie A^atic Society of 
Paris, of vkicii ha wai ooe of the foundert ; Guldenstadt'a 
Travab in the Caooamt ; Count John Potocki*e TrmTela in 
the atmee of Astrakan and the Cauoant : Father Delia 
PeniM*idaamDtioQ of Tibet; a dotcription or the tame ooon* 
try, trantlaled from the Tibetan language into Raimian, and 
thence into French ; Timkowaki*i TraTeit to Pckin ; * Maga- 
tin Aabtique,' from 1 625.37. &c. &c. Among his minor pro- 
ducUoQg a letter to Beroo Alexander von Humboldt on the 
invention of the Compass, and another on the art of printing 
and frnnpowdcr, are both important and interttting. Klaproth's 
contributions to the leamca perio " ' " 

periodicals of France, Gennany, 
lan twenty octavo volumea. Kia- 

and Bosna would fill more than twenty 
|iroth WIS not oolr aa Oriental scholar, but also an excellent 
throrrtical as well aa practioal geofmpher, as appears from 
CVitH^il Observations on Arrowswith's Map oi Asia; his 
* Carte da I'Aaie Ccntrale, d'apr^ lea cartes lov6cs par Tordre 
de rEroprrear Kiang-Loung, par les Missionnaires da Pekin,* 
Psrii, 1HS&, In four liuge shecU: ' Carte de la Mongolia, du 
Pavs des Mandehott, da la Corfe, et du Japon,* Paris, 1833 ; 
and many others of a smaller compass, m several of hia worka. 
Klaprotn Icfl ready for tha arem * Description g^ographique, 
statistt4^oe, ct historiaue deVEmpire Cbiaois,' which was to 
appnar m French and Eurlish, Iwt has not ret been poblishod. 
lie Icfl incomplete a MS. containing the plan of a new 
*Mithridates,' and a Commentary on Maroo Polo: both 
these works ware completed in hb mind, but as he waa not 
in the habit of making many notes Draviona to writing, there is 
no hope of aering tlMsa two MSd. ever made ready ibr the 
press. A complete catalogue of all hia publieationa b ooo- 
tataed b Cblflrf^ lis /b ^iWblA^M dkyte if . db XA^wvO, 
nor k lAnm MtrUtu Paris, 1839, 8vo. 

" "' ' NwkrvkgderDmUdkm; 

par m Ijiprmn Mtrta^ rans, IB 
(Biommkie Umimnetk; Nm 
Qiidrara, La Pnmet LiUrmfa.) 

KLE'BER. JEAN BAPTISTE, according to tha batt an- 
thoritiea, waa bora at StrMbourg in the year 1 7 M, thoiM^ soasa 
place thedate of his birth three or four years cariier. Ua was 
hrought up by his &ther, who waa adomestic in the housdiold 
of the CiMinal Da Rohan, to the profession of aa architect, and 
was sent to Psris at an eaHr we to complete hia studies. While 
thars d icttms t an ces enabled him to ' 
sarvioas to two yooi^ fiavarians, who, having bi 
salves in his oehalf, induced him to accompany them to 
Munich, and through their influence ha aotored the milltaiy 
oeJWga of that dty. Ilis rapid pro g ram in acquiring the 
science of war gained him tha patronage of General Kaunita, 
aan of tha oeUbntad Austrian minister of thai name, by 
whose, at tha eemplaliao of his oollcga career, ha waa ap- 
pointed to a sub-lMwifammqr in an Austrian rnrimaat He 
yeara In that corpa, which ha left in 1783, in 

order to rwtarm to his native oovntry. He there rcsnmad his 
r umfiimiun, mid ftbtijntil tha aitaatioB of in w mf l Br of 

public bttikliiv at Bdfort in Upoar 
Tha brHkiag ovt of the Frendi Ravolotiao opaoad to him 

Ha had taken a prominent jMt hi a 
fvvolt at Btfovt in 1791, and had enabled tha rapn 

» brilliant 
,w^»atBtf«vtinl791. and had enabled tha rapnfilienaof 
thnt town, by putting biaHalf at their head, succcsslully to 
rnsbt tha rvgimant oTBoyal Louis, which had been called to 
snppRMit To sciami himself from tha covaqoHMea of thia 
actton he anliatod as a private soldier m tha grenadier oous- 
panyof tha battalion of vohHtaara which had bean rsiaad in 
the dapartment of tha Upper Bhina. By hia bimvary and 
lalenis ha aooa attainad the rank of a^jatant-m^, ia whidk 
fBflMity he aetod far aima time nndar General CNvtina. and 
whan CMina waa a J Imnrnds h t a agh t to trial, he had 

D praasAt himaalf hrfure his smgdaanr Jadges, and 
many in his lavaur. At the siega of Mayenoe to 
17ia Im dispiigrad eaniiiimaMa ceonfa and Hgamnt: his 
srrvtoas veaa u n ai dad by tha rank af a4)Btaai4|anaralt and 
shortly n ft aiw mds ha lier a ni s hri gajl i rr g ans ia i. f rem tha n ca 
ha was m4tfmA to La Vandda to oppose the insurawit royal, 
ists ; he M tharr tha aoldiert af the flsrrison of Ma ye nc a , on 
whcae eauiaga and devotion ha could rsckon. At the crla- 
tnnsd remhai of Tarim (S a p to m Hsr 19, 1793). while 
the enemy at tha haad at tht advanced guard of hi« 

ha fell whh aevaral woond^ and hb Mb wm aalf fnemsA 
by the nrompt aaiUtance of hb eoMlart. Hm iftnto «f tW 
Katiooai Convention construed Into a crime hb ksBHas hon* 
ference b stopping the crveltica which ware oetvbed isav^ 
the prisoners and the unoffending bhabitanls of iht coaeirv. 
However he was only removed to a commend b the Ar%v of 
tha North, and afterwards ia that of the Sambra and McU, 
when he rose to the rank of a general of divbioa. 

At the battle of Fleums (June 26, 1794) he cam^sdid 
the left wing of the French army, and by hb ikiirul ma- 
noBUvres greatly contributed to the victory. lie ihaa wmtM 
against Mons, which he retook from the Austrians, and W«t^ 
forced the passage of tha Roer, he drove the enemy bari t» 
the right bank of the Rhine. Retumiag towanb MMtnHit, 
he took that strong fortress, after a siege of twentr^gkt 471 

In 1796 he directed the passage acrom tha Rhiaa of th« 
army of the Sambra and Mouse, and, when comptilcd to 
retire before superior forces, he effected a retreat b vkH 
hb cool intrepidity and skilful dbpositiona were alike itsNri. 
able. In the year following ha partook of tha glory abieb 
attended the success of General Jourdan*s opsrttioni ai d* 
opening of the campaign ; and he afterwards reftaed th» tm- 
mand of Fichegru's army, when thb general wm diignnd 
for holding treasonable communicatiooa with tha meat. 
[FicBBOBu, p. C.J 

Discontented with tlie manner In which tha Dimtsy 
managed the military afiairs, Rldber retired to Fub» aUiv 
he spent the p:reater j«rt of the year 1797. and ooomcd km* 
self with wnting his memoirs. When howatar Boasfam 
was appointed to the chief command of tha army lor E^ypt, 
he maJe it a special request to the Directory to he allo«<«l n 
take him aa one of hb gencrab of division. Ktfber Mv^'-j 
accepted the companionship of arma with a chief vWm 
brilliant achievements already prognostioaled hb firtort flvr. 
The army likewise which be accompanied w« b a pit 
measure composed of tha veteran aoldiaia who lad dMOs* 
gushed themaelves in tha plains of Italy. 

At the n^t of Aleisodria. on tha frat badbg oT lb 
French forces, ha was womded in tha head whib pOsadt 
dimbing tha rampart^ but ha did not rattrs from tht omi«t 
till baud received a second and a aeverar wound. Whmib 
dty was taken Kldbar was appointed to tha eammsnd ti a, 

and of tha whole province of which it was tha hcad-omrwn. 
Ha afterwards jomed hb divirion and took part ia the ftp- 
dition to Syria; ha there diatinffulshed hhnself by d» o^ 
tare of thafortaofEl Arish and Gaa, and wm at the tikar 
ofJaA. Ha was abo at tha mamorabla siega af St Ms J 
Acre, where ha rendered hhnself conspienoaa by ha » 
danntad bravery, and aharad every danger with the eanmm 
aoldiers. Ha was however withdrawn mm tha siege b^oidv 
of Bonaparte, who desired him to nmrch with hb di«mm 11 
reinforce tha troops stotionad at Naaareth ondv the esaHad 
of General Junot, and to repel tha 
tha remnanta of tha ^' 
niasaries of Aleppo 

irregular caralry, who ware advanaag to tha sapanrt sf dra 
basmgad countfymen at Acre. Tha arrival af KNhv'i Atv 
sion waa nmst opportune^ for tha aaany had afaaady tnad 
tha Jordan, and ware nmidly pressing m conaUanUs wmhm 
towards tha coast Kl«ber left Naarath with tha enmaWr 
of hb troops b order to make an attack apon tha Twi>A 
to do so ha waa aalkiiaisd by ifcs 

troops statwnad at Maaareth wOat tfes eswrns 
mot, and to repel tha larga arw ca m p asJ ^ 
of thaMameiukaamiderlbraUm Ber.As^ 
Lleppo and Damaseaa, and iiamsfni larbi d 


ap, but w att 

ny, who advanced against him with fiftaca the 
M many infontiy. Kldber fwBi a d hb small 
Mod nwn inaqnares, and pfaned tha arti 

which iiad acaroely 
iimdy attsckad by tha whole ferca of tha 
deadly fire from tha dose naka of tha aqnaraa 
thb impataoua attack, and for ais hooia that tha 

oaa square waa broken nor a foot of grsand bat fc^ 

r at length arrived, and tha battla of MaM Thtka 

^1 17th, 1799) termmatcd hi tha la^ dsfoai sf ih» 

The siega af Acrw ' 

It against k prwvad 

Turkish troops, 
bvaia, avei 
tish valour, 


nt (Acaa, P. C. ; hoa at jkaarn^ F. C; 


Tha Frmdi on their retnn to Egypt iibtahiii H Abmk? 
signal victory ovar tha Turiu; amd tbad<ydbrta0 
^ • -^ ^ ■ '• adtb^whaaks 




battle of the Nila, dctermhrnd him npaa Immng Wjp^ 

decisiva battla 

learnt tha eaptara of 

tha ckae blorkada of Malta 

CMhl^tha n hi 
nby tba ^ 
with tha 

K L £ 


K L E 

Ob the MmI of Awgt^ 1790, ba Mcretly eidbariLed. aos 
wimwii a d hj tetcnl of hia soienla, his tecretaiy Boor- 
rinae^ wilii BerthoUet and Honge, who had joined the 
expedidoB for the IbitheraBce of acience. Before leaving 
he ajimfied hia readotioii to KI£ber in a letter, by which he 
appointed him his socoeaBor in the chief oominand of the 
Egjntian anny^ and authoriaed him to conclude a conyention 
for tbe eracoation of the eoontiy in the erent of no succour 
arriTing from Fnnce during the following spring, and if the 
anrtafity fitn the plague among hia aoldim should amount to 
fifteen hundred smo. 

The anddea departure of Bonaparte spread anxiety and dis- 
trasl tfaroaghont the oamp; the reputation of hia successor 
howerer, wno e^|oyed the highest confidence of the army, 
tended greatly to Assipate their faars. But the talents of 
Kleber did not at firrt appear to be equal to the difficult cir- 
mmBtawre a in which he wu placed. He not only permittad 
himsdf to be swajred by fedings of Sndi|;nation at what he 
deemed the ahamummeat of the army by iti former chief, but 
be committed the ftnlt, which in his pontion became a crime, 
of openly dedarinff his opinions to his dismtisfied collessues 
in romsnand ; he &qs caused the seeds of discontent anade- 
Bre of home, which had been proTioosly sown among the 
troopa, to ripen to a maturity which soon threatened the rain 
of tiie expedition. A letter addressed by him to the Diree- 
tary mntains many erroneous and exaggerated statements 
which had been furnished by Pouisielgne the army admi- 
aiatralor, and preaents a most filoomv pcture of the state of 
affidrs in ^Egypt A copy of it is in the Memoirs dictated by 
Napoleon at JSt Helena to the Count de Montholon, aad is 
rewiered the more Taloahle on account of the copious comments 
which accompany it, and which, though written in no friendly 
spirit, are for the moat part bme out by contemporary tei- 
tunooy. In this letter KUber complains that his army is 
reduced to oneJialf ; that it is destitute of the neceasanr stores 
and omnitions, and that the greatest discontent prevuls. He 
farther asserts that the Mamelukes were dispemd but not 
destroyed, and that the Grand Vizier was inarching from Acre 
at the bead of thirty thousand men. Two copies of this letter 
were sent, one of which fell into the hands of the English, 
and waa flie immediate cause of the expedition under Sir 

cidy to Ae statements which had been given to him bv one 
who, though loaded with fiiTours firom jBonaparte, maoe this 
imgnteltti return to hia absent beneftkctor in order to secure 
his preeent interests. 

Kl^ber, vider the influence of these despondent feelings, 
sddreaaed pnqwaals of accommodation to tne Grand Yirier; 
thougli at the same time he made rigorous preparations to 
repd the Turkish army. An unexpected reverse moreover 
increaaed the neoesnty of a negotiation. The Grand Vizier 
with opvards of forty thousand men had crossed the deaert, 
and, asBiatari by aome British officers, had captured the fort of 
B Ariah, joatly deemed one of the keys of Egypt General 
Dematx waa, against his will and contraiy to nis judgment, 
ap p oi nt ed negotiator on the part of the xrench, and, allter 
nany debatea and freouent delays, a convention was signed at 
£1 Aiisfa on the 88th of Jsnuaiy, 1800, bv which it was 
speed thai the whole of Kl^bo^s army should return to 
imroomj widi its arma and baggage, either on board their own 
rernm or aome fvrniahed by tiie Turlcs ; that all tiie fortresses 
of Eerfptf with the exception of Alexandria, Bosetta, and 
AfaoBKir, siiodld be suirnidered within fiirty*five days firom 
the tima tlial the convention was ratified; and finaOy, that 
the Ymer ahoold pay a aum equivalent to about 120,0007. 
daring the time that the evacuation waa taking place. The 
Ettgliah ttdndral, Sir Sidney Smith, thou^ not veated with 
fidTaathori^r 6m hia government to coodode audi a conven- 
tkm, hmi entered willm^y into it, and was honourably pre- 
paring to aee It carried mto effsct Three months however 
befere these events tfie Britiah government had dispatched 
crdcfs to Laid Keith, who had the command of the Mediter- 
nncen fleet, to refow hia conaent to any treaty in whidi it waa 
not atipokled that the French aninr ahould be oooadered pri- 
eoiKfB of war : and a letter from thia admiral readied General 
KJ^ber, waning him of hia intention to detain ai^ veasd 

to £vopeby virtue of a capitnhition. The French 

■ade a ncSfale use of the opportunity which was 

ed to him of retrieving his milita^ character. 

revived hia cneigiea and ronaed hia courage. Helm- 

erieied the evacuation <^ the strongholds to bo. 

stopped, and prepared to resume hostilities. In one of those 
a nwnatin y nmlamations so ooounon in modem French war- 
ftre, he indigaantiy declared to his aoldiera thi|t victory waa 
the only answer to such insolence, and bade them be ready to 
fight Thia appeal to their courage waa received by the 
shouts of the army. On the night of the 19th of March, 
1800, Kl^ber formed hia army, which was 12,000 strong, into 
four squarea, with the artilleiy at the aoglea, and the cavalry 
between the intervals : the two squares on the left were com- 
manded b^ General Begnier, and those on the right by 
General Friant ; the whole army was drawn up on the plsin 
fronting the ruins ofHeliopoUs. Before them was the Otto- 
man anny, amounting to upwards of forty thousand men ; in 
thdr rear was Cairo with its three hundred thousand mha- 
bitantB, waiting only the signal of success to join the standard 
of their fiuth. The formation of the French had taken place 
by moonlight; perfect order and deep rilence prevailed 
throughout the ranks, and every aoldier felt that the fate of 
Kl^bor and of EgTpt hung on the iasue of the contest. A 
huge body of Turkish troops had been stationed in the village 
of Mataneh, and a movement waa made by the division of 
Eegnier to cut it off before the remainder i» the army couki 
come up to its support. No sooner did the Janianes per- 
ceive the approadi of the hostile columns than, sallying forth 
from their entrenchments, they attacked them with desperate 
courage. Steadily onwards however moved the unbrokoo 
bands, pouring forth a rolling Bre. They drove the enemy 
back to their entrenchments, while the grenadiers, pressing 
on over masses of the dead and dying, scaled the works, and 
became roasters of the camp. Tnb combat was but the pre- 
lude to a general attack, for the Vizier's army waa marching 
to aven^ the destruction of its advanced guard. Vast masses 
of Turkish cavalry soon envdoped the compact squares, by 
whose murderous fire thev fell so rapdly that a oorrier of 
bodies was formed arouna them, and impeded the renewed 
attacks of the impetuous horsemen. But Asiatic valour could 
not lonff withstand European disdpline, and the Turks at 
Isst flea in confusion towards the deaert Kldber, foUowiog 
up bis success, hastened to £1 Kangah, where was posted the 
remainder of the enemy's army, who seeinff themsd ves so closely 
pressed, hastily retired^ ^^^% ^^"'^ ^®™ ^® vrimle of 
their baggage and munitions. Thus ended the battle of Helio- 
polis, important in its results, and attended by littb loss to 
the French, who numbered only two or three hundred killed 
and wounded. The relief of Cairo, in whose dtadel two 
thousand men under General Yerdier were closely besieged, 
was the next object. The firing had scarcdy ceased in the 
plains of Hdiopolis when the sound of a distant cannonade was 
neard finom Cairo ; it informed Richer that fresh exertions 
were required, and he instantiy proceeded to the rescue of bis 
coontQ^n. The Turks under Ibrahim Bey. who formed 
the b^eging army, agreed, on hearing the result of the pre- 
vious battle, to evacuate the town ; but the ezdted populace 
of Cairo refused to listen to any terms, and prepared them- 
sdves for a desperate resistance. It became neoeaaary to take 
by storm Boulak, a fortified suburb, and the French, who had 
returned from the pursuit of the Grand Yiaer, invested the 
dty. On a further refusal to surrender, a severe ca n n on ade 
was directed against it, and it vras finally entered by assault. 
A des|perate smuggle ensued between tiie besioged, who occu- 
pied the houses, and the besi«|;er8, who were prnsing on in 
the streets. Night alone ternunated the oonteat ; and, on the 
following morning the Turks ofered to capitulate, and were 
permitt^ to do so on fiivourable terms. Kl^ber. m this in- 
stance, as in many others, enhaneed his victory by his modera- 
tion and humaniQr. 

About the time that these events were taking place, another 
body of the Turkish army had laid down their arms to General 
Beliiud : and Mourad Bey, the chief of the Mamelukes, de- 
prived of ev^ hope of ultimate success, conduded an honour^ 
able convention with the French commander. Thus, within 
a month of the battie of Heliopolis, the French were again 
in possession of their previous conqueata. With an army 
trimnff in numbers, with a numerous enemy in his front, more 
tlmn naif composed of Mamduke cavabnr, whoee skill and 
courage are ao greatiy renovmed, with til Hgjipi revolted in his 
rear, and when the £ngliah considered that ne would be com- 
pelled to surrender on any conditians, in less than ibr^ days 
he bed overtlux»wn the whole Ottoman fi>rce, and subjected 
the revolted Egyptians. A graphic description of tiieTuHusb 
mode of warfare is to be found in the dghth volume of Alison's 
< History of Europe,' to which valuable woric we have beer 
much indebted for the details of this narrative. 

U 2 

K L B 


K L I 

Rel«iied from immediate danger, Kl^ber now began to direct 
Alt energies to more pacific labours, and to aoply them to the 
administration of the conquered country. Uis plan appears 
to have been to distribute portions of land among the Teterans 
of his army, and to adojpt the coune followed by the British 
goTonment in India ot enlisting in his serrice the natire 
troops. Scarcely however had he entered on this work when 
he became the Tictim of an obscure assassin. A young man, 
a native of Aleppo, named Suleiman, was incited to the 
atrocious act by religious fanaticism and the prospect of an 
ample reward. He nad performed the pilgrimaj|;es of Mecca 
and Medina, and his mind was deeply imbued with the tenets 
of the Mussulmans' faith. He chanced to be wandering in 
Fdestine, when the retiring remnant of the vizier's army 
was passing throus^h that countiy, and he became acquainted 
with the aga of the Janizaries, at whose suggestion he con- 
sented to become the instrument of what he conudered divine 
▼engeance on * the sultan of the French.' He was furnished 
with a sum of money, with which he proceeded to Cairo, and 
spent several weeks in seclusion in a mosque of that city. 
He had intimated his purpose to the four principal sheiks of 
the mosque, who, though they attempted to (ussuade him 
fiom it, took no steps to prevent its execution. He armed him- 
self with apoignard, and having followed Kldber several days 
without being able to effect his purpose, he at length determined 
upon concealing himself in an abandoned cistern in the garden 
attached to the mansion which the general occujpied. On 
the 14th of June, 1800, Kldber was walking in that garden 
with Protain, the architect of the army, and he was pointing 
out to him some repdrs which the building required, when 
Suleiman presented himself before him as a suppliant for alms ; 
while Kl^ber was listening to his petition, he seized the 
opportunitjr of rapidly striking him several times with his 
dagger. The architect, who was armed with a stick, attempt- 
ing- te interfere, received a severe though not deadly wound. 
The guards having hastened at the cries of Richer, secured 
the assassb, whom they found concealed behind some ruins. 
Universal sorrow spreaa through the army, and the Arabs them- 
selves, who had frsquentiy admired and experienced his cle- 
mency, joined in the regret A military commission was 
immediately assembled to try the assassin, who boldly con- 
feawd, and even gloried in his crime. The four sheiks, the 
partakers of hb confidence, were beheaded, and Suleiman 
was impaled slive. 

Thus prematurely perished this distinguished general, and 
with him the hopes of the eastern expedition. Ue had 
formed many important designs for colonizing the country, 
and it is prooablc that, under his judicious rule, it might long 
have been preserved a valuable acquisition to the French Re- 
pablic. ' There is no military man,' says Napoleon, ' who 
will deny that the army of Abcrcromby would have been 
defeated and destroyed if KltSber had lived. How material 
was the weight of a young fanatic, acting on the faith of a 
doubtful passage of the Koran, in the general balance of the 
world I' Though many may hesitate to agree with this asser- 
tion, there can be no doubt that the military talents of Kldber 
contrast very favourably with those of his successor General 
Menou, to whom by seniority devolved the chief command of 
the expedition. In a conversation with Dr. O'Meara, Napo- 
leon further remarks that, of all his generals, Dcsaix and 
Kldber possessed the greatest talents. There was also a 
melancholy coincidence in their deaths: on the same day, 
and nearly at the same hour, that Kldber fell under the stroke 
of an assassin in Eg^t, Desaix, who had lefl that country 
about three months previously, found a glorious death on the 
plains of Marengo. 

' Kldber,' says a celebrated French writer, * was the finest 
nan in the army. His lofty stature, his noble countenance, 
whoso features were animated by the fire of his soul, his 
valour at once bold and calm, his prompt and sure intelli- 
gence, rendered him on the field of battie the most com- 
manding of commanders. His talents, though unaided by 
education, were brilliant and original. The works of Plu- 
tarch and Quintus Curtius were his constant and exclusive 
ttndy ; he sought in them that nurture of \o(ty minds which 
the records or antiquity present. His disposition however 
was capricious, indocile, and captious. It nas been said of 
him, with truth, that he was as unwilling to command as to 
obey. Ho obeyed indeed under General Bonaparte, but it 
WSJ discontentedly; when he commanded it was under 
another's name, as in the campaini with General Jourdan ; 
it was in the midst of combat that, by a species of inspiration, 
be assumed the command, and exercised it with masterly 

skill ; and, no sooner was victory obtabed, tlu he mmn 
to that subordinate rank which was the objsct of kii rr*. 
ference. He was licentious in his conduct and knguicr ^^jt 
as upri^t and disinterested a chief as could be met mtii b e 
age when the conquest of the world had not ye( CDmint^i 
the character of the conqueror.' (Thiers.) 

His funeral eulogium, which was pronoonood by J. h 
Joseph Fourier, is published in the 12tn vol. of the wnri n. 
titled ' Victoires et Conquetes des Armdes Fran^uiet.' 

(Alison, Nist.cfEmpe, vols. iii. iv. ; Thicn, Hia. <& 
Ccmulat et de r Empire^ livro v. ; Diet, HitMqm da Ih^ 
tailUs, 4 vols., Paris, 1818 ; Memoin dictated be ^an^ , 
at St. Hdena to the Count de Monthobm (Thnulati,., 
PrScis des Evenemens MiHimreSy ou Eteaii Hittimqufi ,te» 
Campagnes, ^c. 1799 h 1814; Las Cases, Mimonai de \ 
Hahie, vol. i. p. S07, 908 ; Biogrcgpkie Umeendk Gbnyw. 
&c., datxihne Partie, Paris, 1829; Biogrt^hit Mvdrne, 
vol. ii., Paris, 1815^ 

tician and philosopher, was bom in 1689 at Tolefon. •'.* 
Linkoeping, and received his education at Upsd. It t; 
intended by his parents that he should follow the U« x* . 
profession ; but, after having made some promsi in th<> < 
of jurisprudence, he abandoned that pursuit, his tssteioa r ; 
him to the cultivation of the mathematical scienoes. 

His first production was a dissertation on the height r/<- 
atmosphere ; and this was followed by one oo the mcv 
improving the thermometer : both dissertations were, in i: ; 
inserted in the Memoirs of the Royal Sodety of i'yi. 
In 1727 he set out from Sweden for the purpose of tni(>ni. r: 
himself by travelling; and, aAer passing throufrh |«ni 
Germany and France, he made a visit to Englaixl, r i. 
whence ne returned in 1730. At Marburg he beeaiw k".. >- 
to the celebrated professor Wolf, and appliMl himself di) -:• 
to the study of his philosophy with a view of introiitiii:<: 
into Sweden on his return. At Paris he wssintrodu'i*:' 
Clairaut, Fontenelle, and Mairan ; and he is Mdto hiTr r ' 
municated tothose eminent mathematicians someusefulnm « 
concerning the integral calculus and the Bgure of the <vth 

Shortiy after his retocn to Sweden he wss sppoiotni [<"- 
fessor of mathematics ; and being thwarted m h» jimj'''' 
teaching the philosophy of Wolf, which was supposed u> '* 
some respects at variance with the doctrines of Chri*r«.. 
he devoted himself the more ardently to the immefiibtr • 
of his ^ofessorship. He numbered among his pupils Si'«- 
mer, Wargcntin, Melanderheilm, and Mallet; and it " 
same time he contributed greatly by his writing* to «/■ 
improvement of mathematical science. 

On the retirement of Dalin, the tutor of the Vnnft K ' 
of Sweden, afterwards Gustavus III., Klingenstien.j. . 
for the correctness of his moral character no less thin * - • 
talents vrus highly esteemed by the influential penutu / * 
country, was unanimously chosen to fill his post : be ir 
himself in the performance of this important duty wi'^i « 
success ; and, as a recompense of his zeal, he ncv'w-- < 
title of Councillor of State and was made a Kni'^ht ' 
Polar Star. On the termination of this public duty. Ki . 
stiema, feeling his health decline, quitted the court and 
several years in strict retirement. The Academy of > 
at St. Petersburg having, however, offered a I'riie r- 
best Essay on tne means of correcting or diniioUK • : 
chromatic and spherical aberrations of light in m''. 
telescopes, he once more exerted himself ; and, h<« i : '^ 
lected nis various papers on optics, he compoKd from t • - * 
eeneral theory with reUtion to the proposed mhy^-i «• ' 
he sent to the ' Academy ;' when the memben of th-t • ■ * 
unanimously awarded him the sum of one hundm) ^" 
This work, which was entitled ' Tentamen de definn r • • 
corrigendis aberrationibus radiorum luminis spbcrins n-t^^ ' 
et de perficicndo telescopic dioptrico,' was publishcU a: > 
Petersburg in 4to. in 1762. 

While the improvement of refracting telescopes ^'- 
the attention of mathematicians it happened ihst IXi! • . 
England, proposed objections to an assumptioo of Kv)« * ' 
when light passes from air to glass and from air 'o watrr, t i 
logarithms of the refractions of the mean retnnirihlr n>< • I 
proportional to the logarithms of the refnctkMis of thr ■ . \ 
refnm^ible rays ; and assumed as a iirioctple deduced t-i " ' I 
experiments of Newton, that with a prism of f^ ov. I 
in a prism of water, a constant ratio sabsistea brt«««*n *i^ 
diflferences of the sines of the refractions of the red and ^ I 
rays in passing from air into the first mediwD axid mtP :i I 
medium into Uie second. This principle, and the ucqtu ^ I 

K N I 


K N I 

Newton's experiment on which it was founded, were impugned 
bj Klin^enstienui, who, from his own experiments, found 
that the light emergent after the refractions was affected with 
colour, under the circumstances in which Newton supposed 
that it would be wholly free from it. In 1754 he transmitted 
to Dollond an account of his experiments, together with some 
inrestigstions relating to the dispersions of heterogeneous 
light in lenses, and these papers mduced that distinguished 
artist to bare again recourse to experiments with a view of 
disoovering more predaely the phenomena of refraction. It 
WW in the proeeciition of these experiments that Dollond dis- 
covered that combination of lenses of flint and crown glass by 
which the dispersions of light have been so nearly corrected 
in optical instruments. 

Klingenstiema published, in Latin, an edition of Euclid's 
'Elements;' a translation in Swedish of Musschenbroek's 
Phyncs, and two discourses, in Swedish, which were delivered 
before the Academy of Stockholm : one of these is an £Ioge 
on the mechanician Polhen ; and the other relates to some 
electrical experiments which had been made at that time. He 
was early made a member of the Royal Society of Upsal ; 
and he was afterwards received in the Academy of Sciences 
at Stockholm. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
of London in 1730 ; and in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' 
for 1731 there is a paper by him on the quadrature of hyper- 
bolic corves. 

Klingenstiema died Oct. 28, 1785 ; and by order of the 
queen, the mother of his pupil Gustavus III., he was buried 
m the tomb of Dalin, who had died a short time before him. 
(BiograMe UmverseOe.) 

KNAPrIA, a genus of plants belonging to the natural 
order Gramineae. It has an inflorescence, with a somewhat 
ooe-sided raceme. The flowers solitary ; "glumes not keeled, 
and blunt It has 2 paleae, which are scarious, very hairy, 
obtuse, unequal, and without awns. There is but one species 
of Knappia. 

JT agroMiea, an elegant but very small grass, with a 
mall fibrous root, having numerous stems and short rough 
leaves. The spikes are slender, consisting of from 5 to 10 
mostly sesale lutemate spikelets. It is found in sandy mari- 
time pastures, but is a rare grass. 
(BabinfftoD, Manual of British Botany.) 
KNAuTIA (named after Christopher Knaut, a German 
botanist), a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
DipsBceae. The inner cal^x is cup-shaped, with radiant 
teeth, the outer one formmg a thickened margin to the 
germen. It has a 4-fid corolla, a fruit with 4 sides and 
8 little depressions, the receptacle with spinous scales shorter 
than the involucre. 

K. orwMiu, the Field Scabious, has its lower leaves simple, 
the stem-leaves pinnatifid, the inner calyx with 8 or 16 some- 
what awned teem. The stem rises frx>m 2 to 3 feet in height, 
is slightly branched, and with but few leaves. The flowers 
are purple, in larp^e convex long-stalked heads. This is the 
only Bnti^ species of this genus. There are a few species 
of Knautia natives of Europe. 

(Babington, Manual of British Botany; Don, Gardener*$ 

KNIBB, REV. WILLIAM. Of the early life of this 
devoted missionary few particulars have yet been made public, 
but the very brief interval which has elapsed between his 
Boezpected death and the time of writing thb article (January, 
1846) is aaffident to account for the lack of such biographi- 
es! infomiation. From a sketch of his life and character in 
the ' Patriot * newspaper of December 22, 1845, to which we 
are mainly indebtea for the materials of Uiis notice, it would 
appear that he was bom at Kettering in Northamptonshire 
(a place, it may be remarked, early connected with the his- 
tory of Bapdst Missions, as noticed under Missions, P. C, 
p. 270), aoont the commencement of the present century. 
In due time he was apprenticed to a printer at Bristol, where 
be appean to have made an early profession of religion. His 
elder brother, Thomas, left England in December, 1822, to 
undertake the charge of a school connected with one of the 
Baptist Mission churches in Jamaica, where he died, in May, 
1624. The intelligence of his death so excited the zeal of 
William Kmbb, who is said then to have been little more 
than of age, that he offered himself to gp out to supply 
die place of his deceased brother : and, his offer being ac- 
cepted, he sailed, with his wife, in November, 1824. On his 
arrifsl he was very kindly received by the negroes at Kings- 
ton, who had become much attached to his brother. To- 
wards the close of 1829 he removed, in consequence of deli- 

cate health, from Kingston to the north-western part of thf> 
island, where he took charge of the Bidgeland mission, in 
connexion with Savanna-la-Mar ; and sulraequently, on the 
death of Mr. Mann, another missionary of the same denomi* 
nation, he accepted a pressing invitation to succeed him as 
pastor of the mission church at Falmouth, then consisting of 
between eight and nine hundred members. Shortly after 
Mr. Knibb'a settlement at Falmouth he was brought into 
painful notoriety in consequence of the breaking out of an 
alarming spirit of insurrection among the slave population. 
A notion had by some means been widely circulatea among 
the negroes to the effect that the King of England had deter- 
mined to emancipate them from slavery, and that the Jree 
paper, as they termed the supposed authority for their libera- 
tion, had been actually sent to the West Indies, but had been 
suppressed or held back through the influence of the slave- 
owners ; and, in consequence of this belief, the slaves upon 
several estates in Jamaica avowed, towards the latter ena of 
December, 1831, their determination to do no work idTter 
Christmas. So soon as the missionaries became acquainted 
with this state of things, they endeavoured to remove the 
erroneous impression from the minds of such of the negroes 
as were under their influence, and were so active in their 
measures as to lead to a report among the disaflected slaves 
that the white people had bribed Mr. Blyth (a Presbyterian 
missionary) and Mr. Knibb to withhold their freedom. In- 
surrectionary movements were, in spite of all the eflbrts of 
the missionaries, actually commenced oy the negroes, although 
the interposition of Mr. Knibb, who possessed great influence 
over the slaves, prevented their rismg upon many estates. 
Notwithstanding this fact both he and his brother missionaries 
were regarded with neat jealousy by the planters, overseers, 
and others in the sutve-holding interest, whose enmi^ had 
been excited by their efforts for ameliorating the condition of 
the negroes, and by the part they had taken in exposing many 
cases of gross cruelty and oppression. On the 1st of January, 
1832, 1V& Knibb was compelled, without regard to his sacred 
office, to ioin the militia, and while on service he was treated 
with marked indignity. Having, a few days later, memo- 
rialized the governor for exemption from military service, he 
was arrested, and debarred from an^ communication with his 
family, upon the plea of alarming mtelli^enoe by which, it 
was pretended, the missionaries were implicated in the rebel- 
lion. After suffering much persecution, he was released in 
February, no evidence being obtained to support a criminal 

Erosecution ; but in March fresh steps were taken to bring 
im to trial, though on the day appointed for trial the pro- 
ceedings were almndoned upon the appearance of about three 
hundr^ witnesses who came forward, upon a few hours' no- 
tice, in his defence. 

During the continuance of disturbances in the island 
Mr. Knibb^s chapel and mission premises at Falmouth 
were razed to the ground by the men of the St. Ann's 
regiment, who had used them as barracks for a time ; and as 
similar outrages had been committed on other missionary 
stations, it was determined that Mr. Knibb, accompanied by 
Mr. Burchell, should visit England to explain the circum- 
stances of the mission. They accordingly reached England 
in the beginning of June. Down to that time the Baptist 
Missionary Society had carefully avoided taking any pert in 
the .question of emancipation, regarding it as one of the politi- 
cal questions on which it was desirable to observe a rigia neu- 
trality. Mr. Knibb was accordingly cautioned not to commit 
the Society by his proceedings ; but, warmed with enthu- 
siasm excited to the highest pitch by his personal knowledge 
of the horrors of the system, he boldly declared that the 
Society's missionary stations in Jamaica could no longer exist 
without the entire and immediate abolition of slavery, and, 
feeling that the time for neutrality was P&ssed. he declared 
his determination at the annual meeting of the Society on the 
21 St of June, to avow this at the risk of his connexion with 
the Society. Mr. Knibb carried the meeting, and subse- 
quently tie feelings of the greater part of the coun^ with 
him, and his stirring appeals had no unimportant share in 
bringing about the Emancipation Act of 1833 

In the autumn of 1834 Mr. Knibb returned to Jamaica, and 
In the following year the building of a new chapel at Fal- 
mouth, and of a new Lancasterian school for children of all 
denominations at Trelawney , was commenced under his super- 
intendence. The same benevolence and energy which had 
led Mr. Knibb to take so determined a part in promoting the 
abolition of slavery, induced him now to expose the failure of 
the apprenticeship system established by the act of 1833, a^ 

K N O 


K N O 

r mvtaliag iIm evik ntidpitod i 
He iho««d that mnj of tiM wont ffBtlara of 
dftvvffj wm cop t fawied mdcr tk« gvite of tppraotioMliip, md 
Waoid MOM plaiilerB to ntkipite Uwcooneof Uwb/faBine- 
4kk$ «aHiid|»tiQB. After the oonplele ceMndpttioB of the 
rievee er •porantket. on the 1st of AogiHt, 18Si, Mr. Knibb 
pewhiewf , py the «ht of EngUafa fticDds, e tract of ground for 
the porpoea of foraiihiiig independent rendenoe and occupa- 
tioB far the libented negroei; and ha erected a normal 
achool al the lillage of Kettering, in Trekwne/, for training 
aotife and other ■choolmiitrritgi for both Janwca and 
Afrka. In 184S, hi eonieqiience of the proaperous ttate of 
i chnrchea hi Jamaica, it vaa detenmned b/ the 
I and congregations to aeparate themselves from 


the Baptist Misstonsiy Sodetj^ so far as anr dependence 
npoQ the Sodelj's ftms was conosfnad; ana in the same 
year Mr. Knibb visited England to promote the estaUish- 
at of a theological seminanr in connexion with the natiTC 
' a to Africa, which had been commenced abont two 
before^ throogh his exertions. In the earlj part of 
)M6 he egam yidted England, to oblun pecuniary aid for 
the negnMs eonnecU ' • • - • 
whowers, in a new 

latiire, of a system of taxation which bore upon the liberated 
negro labonran with extreme severitir, by limiting the supply 
of food and other necesames, and at the same time importing, 
by tlm aid of the revenoe thus obtained, large numben of 
fonign lahooreiw, so as to oTcntock the labour-market, and 
redaee the persecuted' negroes to the greatest distress. Hav- 
hig sneceeoed in obtainmg both sympathy and pecnnianr 
assistance, he returned to Jamaica in Julv, 1845. In the fof- 
lowh^ November he was seised with vellow ferer, and died, 
afWr an illness of only four days, on tne 15ch of that month, 
at the village of Kettering. Though his funeral took plaoe 
OB the foUowing diy, such was the respect entertained for his 
wamnry that not lem than eight thousand persons are said to 
have assamhied ob the occmioo. 

It is yet, perhaps, too soon to form, between the entho- 
iiastic panegyrics of his friends and admirers, and the bitter 
vttnpemtioBS of his political opponents, and of the men whose 
oppttissmns he exposed with such onflinchinff couiage. an 
aeowmto eathnato of the character of William Knibb. Of a 
peculiarly ardent temperament, and fooling that he bad undcr> 
ven the championship of a cauae which demanded all the 
teal and energy which could be called into exercise for the 
exnosnre of enormo u s wrongs, he sometimes exceeded, in the 
astiBMtino of his best friend^ the bounds of prudence, if not 
of charity : bat it should never be forgotten tnat his long resi- 
denoe in Jamaica^ and his intimate knowledge of the state of 
the negro popalatioo, osused him to feel with an intensity not 
to be roaltaed by his friends in this country, the cruelties 
which he laboured to abolish or to mitijrale. As an instni- 
BMBt in the mental and moral elcvatioo of the negro character, 
the name of Knibb will hmg be honoured by the friends of 
the African race. A fall account of the important transac- 
tions in which he was involved is gircn m the second vohime 
of Dr. Cos's * llistory of the Baptist Mimionary Society.* 

KNOLLER, MARTIN VON, a distioguisbed German 
pdblor of the ^ghteenth century, was bom in the village of 
Blanmch hi the Tyrol, hi 17SA- His father appears to have 
heao a poor painter of sasae sort, and he intended his sdn to 
Mlow ais own pnrayit. lie was however in sarh circmn- 
alHmsa as to make it necosanr for his son to perform the 
msBJal work of the houst», wnioh Martin appear* to have 
fanad particnlarly distsateful. The boy accordingly ran away 
from hia home, and fbvid shelter to the house of llofkammer- 
rath von Hormayr, at Innafaraek, who, when he had heard 
the boy's ilory, let his fhther know of hia safety, and placed 
hfan with an ordinary pamtcr of the nasae of P<%el* who thus 
baaama KnoUar's fint mmter, though ha can Give Imd but 

the sii phl^ ii^asnee npm hkB,'ir «y at alL Martin's 
mCber however le^juirsd Us son s se^ices m evcty way, and 
ha was fbresd to letam home, whose he di? Ued his time be- 
tween the puTMli of his art, hi ■■■istiag his father, and in 
what elher way he conki, and in the p e r form an ce of amnial 
damaslie oAeas. 8ooh was the stete of aiaii* when drcnm- 
alBBeas hramiht the pmnter Paal Tragar , en his return to 
ana. to ifia vUhma of Steinarh, whers ha saw and admbed 
■a of the astRMTuary peodortioas of Knollar, then twenty 
■a of Ma. Tragar p st c eired the lad's afaihty, and o iia ad 
tekahimwithhImtoVianBa. Yoang Kaotter want with 
■id hi eight yearn fivm that tfana ha had not a 

sopariorof hkownwahitho Attstria&daaBahns. Ahtwlf 
mtha years 1748-M, he mristed Titiger b the ftmam Jl 
the cathedrol church of Brixen; and hi 17ftS he ohisiafd tht 

great priae of the Austrian AcMleoiy for h&stoncai mtnt hs 
In 1753 KnoUer returned to tiie Tyrol, and hi the LUtn.^ 
year punted in fresco the church of Aniim so awdi b t:i 
manner of Troger that it might pam for the work o( t:^ 
master. Troger, though correct, was cramped and formii ■ 
design and sharp in his ouUines, In 17M Kaollff tii«H 
Rome, and greatly unproved his style during the thive Tttn 
he spent in that city. From Rome he was mvttrd to ^'«,^ft 
by Count Flnnian, the Austrian ambmsador at Nspio, vbM 
employed him modi hi that city, and hi the deoorttioa of %» 
palace at Milan. KnoUer visited Rome several tiaics mimt- 
qoentiy. and contracted a dose fiiendahlp with WiadHswn 
ttKl with Mengs. In 1764 he finished one of kii ortan-^ 
works, the firmcoes of the church of Voldem sesr 11*11. a 
the Tyrol, consistuig of pasasgca frwm the life of Sm C>^ 
Bonomeo. In 1766 he returned to Milan to h» kn^ 
patron. Count Firmian, whose esteem and patroosgo btjui^i 
KnoUer to make MUan hia head-quarters, and he tbm tmr- 
ried, in 1767, the daughter of a merchant, by whon hs k*: 
nine children. KnoUer painted many works in Milao, ia <.i 
SBid in fresco, the best of which is a ccUbg in the psUt «/ 
the Prince Bdffioioso, representing the apotheoti s of oomf 
his ancestors. The palace of the Count Finman wu rict a 
Knoller's works. liis psindpal Geimsn weiks are die (m- 
coes of the convent church of Ettal in the Bstarim A)\» . 
and the seven cupolas of the diureh of Nerosheisi ia ^ .-• 
temberg, paintea in 1770-75, for which he received S2.0i« 
iorins. He painted a large fresco, 110 feet bj tt, biK* 
town-haU at Mnnich, representing the Ascension of iW V-*. 
gin ; and there are altar-pieces by him in several disRi^i a 
the sooth of Bavaria. He was much engaged slso st Vir*.-4, 
but chiefly in portrait painting : ^le was there cnnoUtd, u; 
the tide of eon, by Maria Therrss. There are nsiij uf U 
works in the Tyrol, at Innsbruck, Botxen, and other phr«i 
The church of bis native niaco, Steinai^i, pOMrmsi tk«t 
altar-fMeces bv KnoUer. Iio died in 1804. lie a« pi a 
colouring, and correct and vigorous la design, sn4 ka v«rii 
are chiefly chi 
and effective < . 

sphere ^ 

practical part of art ; the true histcHiesl and aesthrti. m 
hardly approached : but this might be mid oiwmnr wr mi- 
neat painters. A Life of KnoUer was publtsbed ui tbe ' Bii^ 
triffe inr Gesdiichte und Stalistik voai Tyrol,' for 1931 

(Lipowsky, KuMttkr-leiiam; Fiorillo, Getekkkt, hr 
Nsgler, Kwuiler^Lexiam,) 

KNOWLTCNIA, a genus of pbats belengkig to tU u 
tural ofder Rananculaceae. It hm A sepab, mm i ^ i* 
petals, with the margins naked. The stsmens sad i'«r i 
numerous; manv l-se^ed succulent fniiu, not poisted t; "' 
style, which is deddoous. The species are 1-seeM j^-^'- 
nial herbs, with greenish yellow flowen. 

jr. v€$ieatanm is a plant which has the upesfWKT of m 
umbelliferous perennial. It has bitemate Icava, tU ^: 
menti somewhat cordate, rigid, and smooth, the Islrtt) <** 
liqudy truncate at the base. The umbels ars aesrij wm-' *. 
and few-flowered. The leaves are need as vrsicaou » i ' 
Cape of Good Hope. There are four ether spcdrf . mt • ^ 
of the Cape of Good Hope, where these planti gmo n *i«-*- 
danoo. 'rhey wiU thrive weU m a mixture of losn md p*^ 
and may be increased either by dividing the root or by snd 

iDon, Gbrdmer's JXeHomaiy: LindJey, Fhn Mt^^ > 

% ana oorreci ano vigorous m ucsign, sna aa vtru 
\j characterised for ueir phyaicBl quslitiii diinifr 
tive composition, strong axpravoo, and vt|;arow wA 
n attitudes. His sphere waa almost esdmulv *^ 

bgton Green, Middlesex, Dec. 8, 176i. 

_ bora SI >•• 
lespx. Ucc. 8, 176S. His lather vw tW 
Rev. Vicenmni Knox, LuB., FeUow of 8t Joha'i Cc:.«r 
OxfbH, and head mmter of Merchant Taylen* 8dw4« L«> 
don. Viomunns Rnos, the son, was aiso edamifd tf ''^ 
John's CoUcwe, Oxford, whers he pursned bis damtal «»^«* 
with great dUigence, and became very ikilful in U^^ '^ 
poMaa. Havmg taken his degree of UA. end bete f"'^ ' 
to a Felhiwfhip, be left the university, and in 1771 «» t:****"-' 
maater of Tunbridge School, KenL He married sU«i ^ 
thna of his settlmg at Tunbridge, and his aifip died m > • 
leaving two sons and a daughter. A short tiaw sArr t-* 
marri^re ha received the dcwrea of D.D. br diploM f*^ 
the Univensty of PbUwlelphia. Aflor havmfr bt«a wm^ 
of Ttabrhlga School thirty-three years, he rrtirvd. m^ '^ 
svooeededbf hbddestsoo. He wm rectm of iUm««ll -^ 
Banwden Craya, m Esmx, and mfaimter of the chsyrlri J 
Shiphourae, in Kent He nerformad the datimars|anift 


i fn«v fititi? mkiiir wmk9^ orcsi^ 

K R A 

It iaw llvp qta ^ imvmifiiii Iti« Mvw 

Ttcv 4 

4 I! Ill 

iltmu^liiwit Kiirofe and k GtmI 
•i^ntivl GannKi 

'i(|i9fiUi till' 

^ i,.«ii» ♦* "'- -r'^ iliii^, ttiil h* mti win* 
h^BiX^«^3 lE^wd wiiImI tlUlM^lf 

wl-*r«^ 1 ' , , ' ^^ mUl ft ttDEiiilft ilif, 

•PlikM ltpJ«l Off M 

inrlalStAiSN t^k^u 

,1 iftli-|fl*»i. ■ h in* i» 


iflM rTi-» .1 M'»« 

Aiming un tko m^n 

III fjlifkJLL^. 


la tlt«sr tli^if ] 


' BMf fMk»l 1i)flilat^lfiB^ mlM* mm. 


I'"**? Ii(i4 ffe»T««T##^lftii? 

^^ itU. <u t«i/_^i.r r«i rj«[iii4nr- 



■ii ti or I nbf, «Wt«r thati t' 

n*\A 4f*^«» ii^lhfs ff!tllt». 

1 . 

t|^^f In liia 

.11, wn$ 

hm Ml oral 

Ji" maHfimtf^ *fhki^ li • fprn^ t iilbiat filttflX^ villi 
oonm ATS vliliM aati Fiti*ei'kA£iil0L 

lbs cJiiucli nf bu lAvn9ri<^, Dv^^t^ 

.'!^t the mnmdm \min^ tur^mi tlawtn i* 

iKv Lt^" k '<^ ^^ nTiJi-7 f^ tfn ^fiiicoMi Itttf^^ to i^mii UaCj iirrJi 
laT tli« ^Jiiirvk. Tn^ ri<»iiriuv li pWd biiMil^aAlj it^/mm 
law itelbrmwkidi U iu|f;A^rtiid V'^f bfiUmkamlim fifortt 
i>f AdMt Ei^l i»t( Kk Iwii iiBiti»n(» ; diu rail ut Wiiiia^ tiT 

.frfiaiifvilrdwiifa iB4l %tM» In t&e foisid i»ri [ 
pa«idiiAdj tlMiNi tli# fs^ijpiiuiit im Uirvi ttilfl^ m« i 

K U P 


K U R 

Mmm in bMorilievo of Chrift HJciv 1mv« of Ui Molber, 
tb« Ltft Sapper, and ChriH on the Jtont of Olivet ; htftli 
above then •f«---Chml belbre Caiephee, tbe Crowninjr with 
Thona, aad the ScoaTpng ; above tbeae u tbe Crucin&ioii ; 
■ad, laatl/, above that is tbe RerarrectioQ, all m tbe roood. 
Tbia elamate work waa executed by KnSi for a citizen of 
the name of Hans Inbof, and for tbe small anm of 770 florint ; 
if tbe ordinarr florin, about 70/. aterling. There it a print of 
thit tabernacle m Doppelmajrt worli on tbe artittt of Ntim- 
barf. Recent writen have indulged in variout conjectum 
re^ardrng tbe time and woriu of Krmfft, but tbe circumttances 
of both are ttill involved in their former nnccrtaint/. Ue b 
anppoaad la have died in tbe Uotpital of Schwabach m 1507. 
S aiwiart baa interled tbe portrait of Krtfft in bit * Academy,* 
from tbe 6gwe mentioned above, under tbe tabernacle. 

(Sandrail, Temisd^ Aeademie, &c. ; DoppclmaTr, Huio- 
riieAa Naekricki ron dem Aurnber^uehen KiauUem^ &c. ; 
Fuatli, AUgyememm KmntUtT'Leneom; Ntgler, AUgttmemu 

brotbert and dtstinguiihed painten, were bom at Bacharach 
on tbe Rhine, in 1772. Tneir father wan llof-kammerratb, 
exfbeqoer coontellor, in the •ervu'o of the clortor of Cologne, 
who in 1791 tent the twini to coin|»lete their ttudiet in Rome 
after thejr had made tufliricnt pn »tnvtfl at home. Gerhard 
painted hittnry and portrait ; and (.*trL landnrape. Gerhard 
wat induced to trr hit fortune at St. rctertburfr, whither he 
wat toon follomed by hit brotkor Carl : thoy both met with 
great tiiccen, and mtrrird two fti!>trra, of a noble family of 
Curland ; but Gerhard, aHor a few veart, rrmovod in 1804 to 
Drptden; Carl remained at St. rctombunr, where he was 
appointed court painter. Gerhard had 09tabli«hed himself, 
and a high reputation, at DrpMlrn, where he held the appoint- 
ment of pfofcttor of painting at the Academy, when his career 
wat toddenlr cut off in a most melancholy manner. Ue wat 
brutally roboed and murdered on the rciad from Pillnitz to 
Dreaden, not far from the capital, in IK'JO. It was a common 
highway robbery ; tbe miterable wretch who committed the 
d«^ waa not in the leatt aware of who his victim wat. Ue wat 
a private toldier, and hit nngtiltr cupkiity wat the caute of 
hit detection. He even drew off the lyoott of Kugelgrn, and 
hit afterwardt taking thete boott to be mended to the very 
man who bad made them and who knew them, is said to have 
been tbe caute of hit detection* 

Kugelren*t workt are of a very unpretending character; 
tn most of them an abstract rt*Iigi<Nis sentiment it the chief 
and cbancteristic motive; in execution they are careful, deli* 
cste, asKl tomewhat formal, vet pleating and imprpsdve. Ue 
delighted in compositions or one or at most very few figures ; 
often three-quarter lengths of the nte of life. His biography, 
by F. Haste, wat published at Leimig in 1824. 

Carl Kiigelgen painted many lanatcai>et, and executed many 
dfiwtngt of tbe scenery of lUitsia, both in tbe northern and 
a o ulli e m provinces. Ue made two journeys in the Crimea for the 
expreos pirpote of painting its scenery ; tbe first journey was 
nuMie in 1804 by the detire of the Emperor Paul, the tecond 
by tbe exnrets permission of the Emjicror Alexander, in 180<k 
Thirty oil paintings and siity septa drawinp, part of tbe 
ftpvitt of tbe tecond journey, were purchased by tlie empcrt»r, 
•nd placed together in a hall in Kamnioi Ostrof. in 1818 
Alexander aent Kugelgen for a similar purpose into Fmnland, 
of whicb CDuntnr be painted fifty -five ptctnret, which alto 
were pnrrhased by tbe emperor. Kugelgen executed in all 
171 pirtwet and 290 finished drmwingm. lie died at Reval in 
1M2. HltUfettinthe*NeuerNekn>logder Deutschen,'z. I. 

(Nagler. Ateei Attgtmemm Kututier- Lexicon,) 

XUNOrZ. ITi aai.TA«, P. C.) 

KUPETZKY, JOilANN, a very crlobrated portrait 
painter, wat bora al llusing or Boxin, near Prrsburvr in Hun* 
gary, in 1667 or 1666. Hit fsther, onginallv of a Bohemian 
huMy, wat a poor weaver, and be intended Ihts ton to follow 
bit own bosinrst ; Konetiky however had very different ioten* 
tloM : be fled from nome when cmly fitb-en years of age, 
begged hit way lo Switaerland, and there, at Locrine, ob- 
tained ndmitBan into tbe house of a painter of tbe name of 
Klaat, who inrtmcted him in paintmg, and wat soon tur- 
pa«ad by bit pupil. Koprtxky, after a time, found hit way 
to Rmne, where be underwent many hardships until be was 
telieved and Introduead by bb friend J. C. Fundi to tbeprin- 
dual pnfarteti and vinaosi at Rome. Alexander Sobwaky 

t a varaabie patron to 

After a stay of tweoty*two 

tbe firrt porti^t painter of hia 


hi ItalT be wm brited by tbe Prince Adam «on Licb 
to Vienna, where be toon obtained tbe reimution of 

hit patront and ndmtrera tbe etaperon Joaiak L ttd CiMrift 
VI., and tbe Prince Eueene ; and in 1716 be wm iavitsd bv 
Peter tbe Great to Carltbad. Peter witbed Knostiky to ratir 
his tervice and to return with him to Pe te tap uig , but ks- 
pettky wat obttinately fond of bia liberty, and woaU m irr 
enter tbe aervioe of an^ prince. Tbe Cav Peler gavv t .i 
many commistiont notwithstanding bia refusal to c&trr t^ 
service. All that Kupettky had ever required of the he.,*. 
rorof Auttria wat, that he might be allowed to eoniiitp in4 
in hit own way. Ue belonged to tbe tect called the l;>Vr> 
mian Brothers. Thit liberty, however, verr acarl; m««<.r^ 
him in teriout diflkultiet, at be wat accuaecf or thnatmf^ to 
be accuted, by tome of hit rivab, of malignant hrrrtv ; tbd 
fear of the Inquitition appiBars to have taken passim.^ U 
him, and be secretly left Vienna aad tettlcd b Nurau-r. 
where he died in 1740. Kopetxky painted hitlory sbd ••t. 
trait, but chiefly portrait. His pictures have a rriti dn. f 
character and much effect : hit friend and adastfvy } .*• 
sayt thev combine the vigour of Robent, the tmtk and i^ 
gance of Vandyck, and the cfliect of Rembruidt Mm; «.i 
hit portraitt and tome of hb pictnret have been rofntni, 
ctpccially by Bemhard Vogel, m mexxotlnt Tbe pntu fv 
paved by Vogel were added to bv V. D. Prritslfr sod |«.'» 
lished in a collection in folio at ^liraberg in 1745, oo«icr t.-# 
following title : — * Joannb Kupetxky, incomparabilis srt; j. 
Imaginea et Pictune quotquot eaxum haberi poCumat, 
od quinque dodecadet arte quam vocant nigra aeri i&<i«H,A 
Bcmhaido Vogelio, jam vero timiliter cnntinuatae o|c*i ti 
tumotibut Valeotini Uanieiit PreitsJeri, Chakograpb. 

Kupetxky 't portrait of bimtelf, in tpectaclct, a «««i i 
prodisriout merit, bat been copied by L. de Lahorde, i.^^o 
VogeVt print, and b interted at a apecimcn b bis o i 
mezzotint engraving — * Hittoire de la Gmvurt en Mai.. ** 
Noire.' J. C. Fiitsli publbhed a Life of Kapetiky, aitL or 
of Rugendat, at Ziirico, in 1758. 

(Fiorillo, Gt$chidUe der Znehnmdm JTaUtflt. &r.; l>is- 
bacx, AUoaneineg hutoruche$ KiinttUr^JLenamUr B«kmt^ • 

KURDISTAN (the country of tbe Kurdca) coaprvbca 
tbe larger portion of that mountain-region which dt«i«irt '^ 
elevated table-land of Iran (lVn»b) from tbe lov ;<ajm • 
Mcsopotamb or Al-Jc/trch. At it does not cuo«t;tbip i 
political divuioo, itt buuiiibirii^s arc not exactly deter*. ^1 
some authors consider tlic cuuntry surrounding the oi' i 
Van aa forming a part of Kurdistati. but at that caj:'.^ m 
mostly inhabited by Armenians, azul there are »!? t^trf 
Kurdea among them, the mountain-raaige of the En^'sii !««: 
(38« 20^ N. lat.) must be considered as ooottinitiog \he rwr 
dary-line between Armenb and Kurdistan. From thi* rvr 
it extcndt in a aoutb-eattem direction to the pr»«*y •< 
Lourittan, or to about S4« N. laL The width of tii* e^at* 
tain-rmon may be about a hundred milea. This c.i-t • 
area of 28,000 tquare milea, or tbe extent of Irrlsod. S"*^ 
three-fourtht are tmder the dominion of tbe Tariak »>'as 
and form portiont of the evaleU of Bagdad, Mosul, sod W> 
the remainder belongs lo Persia, and conttitates the pr t rv 
of Kurdifrtan, of which Kermansbah b tbe oapilaL 

The bigiier mountain-region occupies tbe northmi ^-v. 
and extends from the Erdcsh Tigh to a range, ehitfi •«. ^ 
west approaches the bankt of the Tigrtt touth of Jeorr^ **•• 
Onuu*; from which point it exieodt in an cast b; »«i"t 
direction arrots the whole region, being oie i top ped otsr i • 
boundary-line of Penb by the elevated peak of Rp«c^« 
( 10,120 feet above tbe sc».levcl>. Tbb range b osM tf « 
western extremity, where it hardly ritet a ihianaarl ktit^-* 
the tcm-level, the Soli Range, but in tbe anddJe, «Wf« • 
attaint SOOO feet and more, tbe £1 Kbair lio untsia s u a 
still higher where it appruac^hes tbe table-land of Iiaa. V.* 
nbole country between thb range and tbe £idtsh lar^ ■ 
mountainoot. In tbe ticioity of itt nort h ern hauls iW '^>»* 
matset are rarely and not deeply furrowed bj dep»rw« •• 
tb^ ftha|w of valleys. Thev form a tabteliwt, fnaa (AAt !- 
7 AX) feet elevated abo%e the sca-levd, whose svface F'vat » 
a succeasion of low hillt with gentle dedivitirt md m^ 
pbint betucen them. Thb b Uie table land of Ab lls<*«. 
un which ^try fipw lofty tummila rite. Tbe cltaMlr a <« ? 
dry, and tbe vegetation acanty. It b mostly '^^ F* '^ 
ground in aununci 
gradually cbangea 

the maaaet bHween ibem rite bigber» 
b changed into a mountainoua conntiy eambliag cf > 
ridgea with tteep acrlivitiet and compantively aarrv« «- 
between tbem. Sonic of tbe ridpn attam a giesi ^'< *«'• 

'. In proceeding aoutbward the t^*^ '« 
ita featnrw. Tba vallcya sink 4Ktff »< 
k Ibem rite bigber, «id that iht isUr-^* 

K U R 


K U R 

, the Jawtir Tagh, and tlie Jelooh 
the Jawiv Tagil appeaiv to be the highoL and to 
rifle between 12,000 and 13,000 feet above the sea. The de- 
divitiei of the ndges and the valleys present a vigorous vege- 
tatxMi in the nomerous forests and in the growth of the cuf- 
fSereat knida of grun and vegetables which are ruldvated. 
The forests chiefly consist of diffisrent kinds of oak (Quercus 
valoiiia sad Q. infectoria), finom which those immense quan* 
titiea of gsU-nats are collected which constitute the most 
impartaat article of commerce in this resioD. In the valleys 
the £oropean oerealia are raised ; and me orchards produce 
apples, pears, ploms. and cherries. Many of 'the vallevs open 
towards the plain of Mesopotamia, and these are wider, but 
the iarver number extend from north to south, and are seldom 
more than two miles wide, and generally not half so much. 

This portion of Kurdistan is in possession of some tribes of 
Kvrda, which are independent when the psshas of Bag- 
dad and Mosoi are not in arms to punish the least set of 
disobedienoe. It is ss difficult for the Turks to penetrate 
into die vallevs of these r^ons as for the Rosrians to get 
possession of tnose of Circassia. Probably more than half the 
popoladon are Mohammedans, and the other half Christians, 
among whom the Nestorians are the most numerous. Their 
patrivch resides in Julamerik, a small town situate in the 
vale of the river Zab Ala, or Great Zab, and enjoys almost 
the power of a sovereign. Near the southern extremity of 
this region are the towns of Amadiyah and Rowandiz, the two 
plaops whence the gall-nuts are exported. Amadijrah lies in 
a railey from five to six miles wide and very fertile, and is 
built on an isolated limestone rode elevated about 80 feet 
above the valley ; it contuns about 200 houses, many of which 
are inhabited by Jews. The town of Rowandiz is some miles 
west of the peak of Rowandiz. It is built on a tongue of land 
formed by the confluence of two rivers, and contains more 
than 1000 houses and perhaps 10,000 mhabitants. Nimierous 
cvnvans pass between this place and Mosul. They export 
nll-nuta, madder, hides, ana tobacco, and bring back several 
European and Indian articles. 

The aonthem porti<Hi of Kurdistan, or that which lies be- 
tween 86° and 84^ N. lat, can hardly be called mountainous, 
except in its eastern districts, which are contiguous to the 
elevated table-land of Iran. The surface however is greatly 
diversified by several ranges of hills. Three such ranges may 
be traced between the banks of the Tigris and the esstem 
moontmns. These three ranges go by the names of the Hamrin 
Hills, the most south-western, Ali Tagh, the central ridge, 
and Kan Tagh, the north-eastern. T&y run parallel to one 
another from north-west to south-east The llsmrin Hills 
terminate on the banks of the Tigris between the town of 
Tekrit and the mouth of the Zab Asfal or Lesser Zab (near 
SS*" N. lat) ; the Ali Tagh, south of the confluence of the 
Zab Ala or Great Zab (near 36° N. lat) ; and the Kara 
Tagh joins the El KbsSr mountains south-west of the peak of 
Rowandix. These ridges are connected with each other at 
aevend places bjr hilljr tracts. It appeara however that the 
greater part of this region is occupied oy plains of considerable 
extent The hills ss well ss the gpreater part of these plains are 
either entirely sterile or possess only a soil of indifierent quality, 
bnt along the base of the hills, partly on their declivities and 
partly in the adjacent level country, there are lands of consi- 
derable i^tftility, well cultivated, and populous. The moun- 
tain-region which bordere this country on the east varies from 
ten to twenty miles in width, and it contains several high ranges, 
ss the Shahn mountains, the Azmir Tagh, and the Kuniur 
Tagh. In the second range is the Pir Omar Gudrun, an ele- 
vated mass which appeara to rise above the snow-line, as it 
mppliea the adjacent countries with ice all the year ronnd. 
This Buwntatn-region is united to the hirh masses surrounding 
the peak of Rowandiz. It is well wooded, whilst the lower 
western ridges are almost entirely destitute of trees. 

The larj^t river of Kurdistan is the Zab Ala or Great 
Zab. It rises in the north-western corner of the uble-land of 
Ali Baog>h, within the boundary of Persia, at an elevation of 
aboBt 7000 feet above the sea-level ; receives by its numerous 
aflbents the drainage of almost the whole of JNorthern Kur- 
distanventen Soothem Kurdistan by a narrow gleu where the 
Kmrm Tagh mountains are connected with the KhaSr range, 
and joina the Tigris abont 30 miles below Mosul. At Uie 
plKce of their odnfloence the riven are nearly equal in size. 
The watera of the Tigris are highest in April and May. but 
in the Zab in June and July, ibr about that season the greater 
part of the snow with |rhich the mountain-region is covered 
' ' the long winter dissolves, and thus the water brought 
P. C. 8.. No. 106. 

down by this affluent serves during the summer to keep up the 
level m the lower part of the Tisris. The water of the Zab 
Ahi is much colder than that of the Tigris. The other larae 
riven of Kurdistan are the Zab Asfal, or Lesser Zab, and the 
DiyiUah. They rise in the elevated r^on dividing Southern 
Kurdistan from the table-land of Iran, and siler draining the 
first-mentioned country, they fall into the Tigris ; they break 
through all the lower rid|^ of Southern Kuniistan. 

There are several considerable towns in Southern Kurdis- 
tan. The most northern is Arbil (Arbela) or Erbil, built 
between the Great and Lesser Zab, in a plain which has a 
very fertile soil, yielding rich crops without bein^ irrigated. 
The town is built on some considerable hills, which ul trar 
vellen consider as artificial. It contains 6000 people, three 
large mosques, and two baths. Altthi Kupri, on the banks of 
the Lesser Zab, contuns 8000 mhabitants. Kerkuk, farther 
south, is a rather lar|^ place, which carries on a considerable 
commerce with Suleimaniyah, to which place it sends liurge 

Quantities of gall-nuts, honey, sheep, and cattie, brought from 
he mountain-re^on lying farther east, and whence it receives 
European, Persum, and Indian goods. Its population may 
amount to between 10,000 and 12,000 individuals. There 
are some manufactures of coarse calicoes. 

Suleimaniyah, the modem capital of Southern Kurdistan, 
and the residence of the hereditary pasha or wall, who how- 
ever is dependent on the pasha of Bagdad, is not far from 
the base of the Azmir range, and of the peak called Pir 
Omar Gudrun, which rises to more than 10,000 feet above 
the sea-level. The plain of Banna, at the eastern border of 
which it lies, is between 3000 and 4000 feet above the sea. 
It was built in 1788, and contains more than 2000 houses and 
about 10,000 inhabitants, six caravanserais, five baths, and five 
mosques. The commerce with the adjao^t countries is con- 
siderable, and b concentrated in thisplace. 

Littie is known of the climate of Kurdistan, except that of 
Suleimaniyah, where the wintera are very cold and the sum- 
men very hot. Snow coven the plun of Banna for six 
weeks, or even two months. In May the climate is very 
agreeable, the thermometer standing at six o'clock in tfaie 
morning at fifi"* ; at half-psst one, at 78° ; and at ten o'clock in 
the evening at 69° ; but in July the heat is verv oppresave. 
espedally durinp^ the north-eastern winds, which are called 
iherkif and which afiect the human body more than the 
samoon at Bagdad, as they suddenly raise the temperature 
ten degrees and more, and produce the most unpleasant 
feeling. They continue to blow sometimes for eiffht or ten 
days, and return frequentiy, even as late as the end of Sep- 
tember. When the sherki does not blow, the changes of 
the atmosphere are very regular in summer. At sun-rise it 
is (|uite odm ; but immediately afterwards a light breeae 
begins from the east, which increases gradually until the sun 
attains flie meridian, when it blows a gale, or at least strone 
gusts of wind, from the south. Later in the day the wind 
turns to the west and moderates. The mornings are gene- 
rally unpleasant, but the afternoons are very agreeable. 

The fields of Kurdistan produce wheat, barley, and Indian 
com ; millet and rice are Kfown only in the lower districts 
towards the banks of the ligris. Tobacco and cotton are 
largely cultivated, and supply artidea of commerce. Le- 
gumes, especially lentils, are much grown. Melons, water- 
melons, and cucumben are very abundant The orcharda 
yield figs, pomegranates, olives, oranges, walnuts, apricots, 
peaches, plums, apples, peara, cherries, and abundance of 
grapes of good quality ; in some places there are plantations 
of dates. Poplar ana chinar trees (plantanus orientalis) are 
planted, and among the forest trees are several kinds of oak, 
and also wild pear-trees of great use, and between them wild 

Sheep, cattie, and horses abound ; the best horses are im- 
ported firom Bagdad. There are bean, wild hogs, wild 
goats, antelopes, and jackals. Land-turtles are frec^uent, but 
of smaU size. Bees are very abundant, and honey is a con- 
siderable article of commerce ; locusts sometimes lay waste a 
part of the country; birds are not numerous, except par- 
tridges and quails. 

Minerals appear to be scarce, except buildinff-etone. In the 
mountain-region iron and sulphur are met with ; and in some 
pbces these mines are worked on a small scale. There are 
several salt springs in the hills between the leaser Zab and 
tiie Diytiah, from which large quantities of salt are obtamed. 
Naphtha and petroleum abound, especially in the vidnity of 
Kerkuk, and some of the springs yield a considerable revenne 
to the wall ; tiiey are noticed by Stnbo (p. 738, ed. Cas.), 

Vol. II.— 3S 

K U R 


K Y D 

Af the piMes through the ranges of moimtaiiit and hillt 
m nitiier dUBcolt, single timTellers are aubject to be robbed 
tnd mordered. Commerce is therefore carried on br caravans. 
At least one caimvan departs every month from Sufeimaniyeh 
for the Perrian towns of Tabriz and Uamadan. They take to 
Talnu chiefly goods obtained from Bagdad, as coffee, dates, 
and European and Indian manufactures ; and bring back 
large quantities of silk for the manufacturers of Bagdad, 
and some rilk stufla. The exports to Hamadan consist 
partly of ffoods obtained from Bagdad, and oartly of the 
produce or the country, as tobacco, fruits, noney, nil- 
nuti, &c. ; the imports connst of butter, but especially or the 
manufactures of Kasbin. as velvets, brocades, cotton goods, 
&c. The commerce witn Kerkuk, which is the chief market 
for the produce of Kurdistan, is very active ; from that place 
are brought to Suleimaniyah gall-nuts, honey, sheep-skins, 
and cattle ; and exchanged for fruits, rice, leather, ooffoe, 
cotton stuA, &c. There is also much commerce with Bag- 
dad, where coffin, dates, and European and India goods are 
obtained in exchanee for the silk brought from Tabriz, and 
ftor the 'produce of the country, consisting of sheep, gall- 
nuts, sumach, cheese, butter, gummi, tallow, soap, and 
tobacco. These articles are also taken to Mosul, where they 
are exchanged for calicoes and other cotton staiffi, nlks of 
Damascus and Diarbekr, stuffs for turbans, boots, and shoes. 
The least active branch of the commerce of Suleimanijreh is 
that with Erserum, to which place hardly anything is ex- 
ported except those articlea which are imported fixnn Bagdad, 
for which the returns are iron, copper, and mules. Armenia 
aappliea the whole of Kurdistan and some neighbouring 
oountries with these aninuds. 

The population of Turkish Kurdistan is estimated at about 
one million, of which four-fifthsare Kurds, and the remainder 
Armenians, Persians, Jews, and Turks. The Kurdish nopu- 
lation of Persian Kurdistan may amount to 20,000 individuals. 
But as a numerous colony of Kurds is found in Khorassan, 
and several tribes have also been dispersed over the hilly 
region in Mesopotamia, and as far west as Aleppo and the 
Taurus ranse, tne whole population of the nation may per- 
haps not fall short of two millions. The Kurds are a stout 
race of men, of dark complexion, with black hair, a large 
mouth, small eyes, and a savage look. They are rerj regu* 
lariy built, and attun a great age. Their language is derived 
from the same stock as that of the modem rernan, but not 
having been fixed by writing, it has degenerated much more. 
There are several dialects, which vary conaderabl^ in pro- 
porfion to the distance at which the different tribes live 
nom one another. The name of Kurd signifies a valiant 
warrior, and is therefore adopted as an honourable deno- 
mination. In Turkish Kurdistan the nation is composed of 
two castes, the warriors, called Bebbehr or Babans, and the 
working people or agriculturists, called Guran. The hitter 
are considered by tiie Bebbehr as a race of men totally 
difibrent from them, and arc treated as slaves. The Bebbehr 
never cultivate tlie ground, and the Guran never serve as 
aoldiers. A great portion of the population is still addicted 
to a migratory life. Even when settied in villages, they leave 
them in summer, and retire with their herds to the adjacent 
mountain-ranges, from which they return when the harvest 
time approachea. Though the Kurds are as good Moham- 
medanaaa their neighbours, their women enjova much greater 
degree of liberty, and are frequentiy met with in the streets. 
Lilies of rank wear a veil, but the women of the middling 
and lower classes go about without The Kurds are much 
more inclined to aasodate than their naghbours the Persians 
or Turks. 

The Kurds were known to the antients. Xenophon 

(Jnabam, iU. 6, 15, fte.) called ihtm OardneU (Ualfn*.) 
and later historians K«p<iel^ r»pJkalM,GordianL Wbcnis>i. 
ject to the kinga of antient Persia, they belonged partly u,Vf 
province of Assyria, and partly to Media, as at present th'tr 
country is divided between Turkev and Persia. The b&t'v 
of Gaugamela (Arbela) was fought in Kurdistsa, nesr u^ 
modem town of Arinl. After the time of Alesander ti^l* 
country was united to the kingdom of S/na, but mi <!>•. 
membered from it in the third oentnry berare Christ by tht> 
Parthians. It afterwarda became a part of the new Pm«n 
empire, and fell with it under the dominion of the cslipht ./ 
Bagdad. After the destmction of the caltphat, Kurdi^u:- 
partook of the numerooa raTolutmna, in Persia sod Mni- 
potamia. The famous snltan Saladin was a Kurd, of lv 
tribe of Rewandooa, and appears to have got pouemw u 
least of a part of the ooontiV. But it soon paand uadcr t^f 
dominion of the Moguls (1^^)> ^*^ finally (19HS) v« 
conquered by Timur. After the establishment of the Soodc* 
dynasty (1602^ Kurdistan constituted a part of Pcnit. %>i 
remained so till the seventeenth century, when the Konti. 
oppressed by the Persians, revolted, and 8ul|jecled tbcnudtn 
to the dominioa of the Turkish e m peror^ 

(Rich, NarroHee of a Rmdmoe m Kwdktm; Htoir. 
Voyage up the Penum Gujf, amd a Joimmf oimiaedfrm 
India to England; Ainsworth, * Account of a Vint to v.* 
Chaldeans iiihabiting Central Kurdistan,* in Xondba Cr.ur 
Jovmai, xi. ; Ainsworth, TVonsit- and Meeearekee m Ana 
Minor, he, ; Shiel, ' Notes on a Journey iroiB T«>'ni. 
through Kurdbtan, &c* to Suleimaniyeh,' in Londm G(i*r 
Journal f vol. vii. ; Rawlinson, Joum^jivm Tabm tknu.* 
Persian Kurdittany &c. ; Hitter, Jardkunde wa Ana. 
vol. ix. and xi.) 

KYD, THOMAS, waa one of those dramatic pocii vbi 
immediately preoedeo Shakspere. Three pUvs of fait itp 
extant — 1, ' Comelia ; or Pompey the Great, his Cur Cor- 
nelia's Tragedy,' a truislation, respectably execotcd, from k* 
French of Gamier, printed in 4to. 1594, 1696 ; 2, ' Tbc* \ .it 
Part of Jeronimo,' 1605, 4to. ; 8, ' The Spanish Tra^r. 
or meronymo is mad again;' of which there are sBsnj r> 
tions, the oldest known being of 1599, though the dU; «m 
certainly printed earlier. All the three are in Dodslcr'* ( - 
Plays. 'The first Part of Jeronimo' is merely an latrw' i- 
tion to the 'Spanish Traoedy.' The former, and |«oU^i 
the latter also, most have been on the stage about tJie rir 
1587 or 1588 ; and they kept their plaoe in IfiOl sad ii'^:, 
when Ben Jonson was paid for making large additkiof to \m 
Second Part, which are in the modem editioos, and are << '» 
worthy of his genius. Ihe portions written by Kyd ho»J 
are the objects of continual ridicule to Shakspere sod hu (^ 
temporaries, whose comic characters parody the most estrri- 
p;ant speeches of the mad Hieronvmo. Yet tiie pisy, e «<>» «. 
Its Introduction, and still more m the Second Part, pa»»«i 
great vigour, both of imagination and of passion, h u u 
irregular and rude work, belonging essentially to the io^^^ 
of the drama, in its conception of character as well u u> '^^ 
plan and in its language. But it was by no mesns iin«"''.t ' 
of the great popularity which it eigoyeiL It is a \n^\ ^ 
bloodf hed, after the manner of ' Titus Andronicoi/ to vIk^ 
however, it is much inferior ; and it has been obsmfti *./ 
more than one critic, that there are in it pomti wbicb vat 
natmmlly enough be supposed to have suggested tlMu^ta 
for * Hamlet' Kyd has also been supposed to have bcfo 0^ 
author of the old <Taming of a Shrew,^ 1694, and of the »• 
gedv of ' Solyman and Perseda,' 1599. For tiie fonaer w^ 
position there is no ground ; and for the other there is no beoer 
reason than the particular mention made of the story w i 
* Solyman ' in the * Spaniah Tn^y.' 


Kalfii,jiage 138 

Kain, Le^ Henri-Lonis, 13S 

Kaleidosoope, 132 

Kalendar, Revolutionary, 133 

Kalgujeu, 134 

Kalmia, 134 

Kater, Henry, 134 

Kauftnann, Maria- Angelica, 135 

Koan« Edmund, 135 

Keiil, John, 137 

Key IslBfids, 137 

Kilian, 138 

Rilligrew, Thomas, 138 

Kin [Descent, P. C. ; Intestacy, 

King, Peter, Lord, 138 
King's College, Cambridge, 139 
King's College, London, 139 
Kiva, Kbiva, or Kbyva, 140 
Klaprotb, i alios Heinrich, von, 

KMbcr, Jean-Baptistc, 146 

Klingenstieroa, Samuel, 148 

Knappia, 149 

Knautia, 149 

Knibb, Rev. William, 149 

KnoUer, Martin von, 150 


Knox, Rev. viocsimus» 150 

Kobell, 151 

Kobrrsia, 151 

Koch, Josepb Anton, 151 

Koel^ria, 151 

Krafft, Adam, 151 ^, , 

KQgelgen, Oerhsrd av! (^' 

von, 152 
Kurdistan. ISS 


dicdnctiao as a jurial, was the father of a more distinguished 
fOQ. He was at the battle of Philippi, on the side of M. 
Brutus and Casaus, and after the defeat he killed himself in 
his tent, and was buried there. (Appian, Cml Wara, ir. 
135.) Q. Antistius Labeo, the son, was a pupil of C. Tre- 
batins ; but cootraiy to the practice of that time, instead of 
devoting himself ezdnsively to one master, he attended 
several. He lived in the time of Augustus. Labeo was dis- 
tinguiahed for his knowledge of Roman law and Roman 
usages, and also for the freedom with which he expressed his 
opinions to Augustus (Suetonius, OcUwianui Caeaar^ c. 54), 
to whose measures he set himself in opposition. Some critics 
Buppoae that he is alluded to by Honce (1 Sat, 3. 82) ; but 
there might be other persons of the name of Labeo. Ateius 
Capito, his rival in I^gal knowledge, was raised to the consul- 
ship bv Aojgustas in <»der that he might have that superiority 
in wJl which his talents alone could not give him. Labeo 
never eigoyed any higher honour than the praetorship. (Ta- 
cituj|, JmoI, iii. 75.) The character of Labeo is ^iven by 
Gellios (xiii. 10^ : < Labeo Antistius principally applied him- 
self to the study of the dvil law, and publicly gave his 
opinions to those who consulted him. He was also not un- 
acquainted with other liberal pursuits, and he deeply studied 
grsmmar, dialectic, and antient learning ; he was also well 
amoaintpd with the (mgina and principles of Latin words, 
ana be availed himself of that kind of knowledge especial! v 
to clear ap most legal difficulties.' He was confident in his 
abilities and acquirements, and bold enough to advance many 
new opinions. He was a ooinous writer, and is said to have 
prodnoed four hundred dificrent treatises, from which there are 
sixty-three exoerpta in the Digest, and he is very often cited by 
the other jurists. Labeo wrote commentaries on the Twelve 
Tables, fifteen books at least on Pontifical Law, and fifteen 
De Disciplinis Etrusds. His works which are mentioned in 
the Digest are, eight books of DciOoyd, of which Paulus made 
ao epitome with notes; and ten books of Posteriora, so called 
froin having been published after his death, of which Javo- 
lenos Bsade an epitome ; but Gellius refers to the fortieth book 
of Posterionu He also wrote libri ad Edictum, Libri Prae- 
toria Urbani, and thir^ Libri Praetoris Peregrin i. 

A brief notice of C. Ateius Capito may be appropriately 
iDlnMhiced here, for he was the rival of Labeo, and munded 
a sect or school which was opposed to that of Labeo. The 
lather of Capito attained the rank of praetor ; his grandfather 
was a centanoD who served under L. Cornelius Sulla. Capito 
was oade Consul Sufiectus by Augustus a.t.c. 768, and it 
was during his term of office that he decided that a patron 
oottld not take his freedwoman to wife against her consent, a 
dedsiao perfectly consistent with Roman principles. Capito 
was m flatterer; Labeo was an independent man and said 
what he thought Instances of Capito*s adulation are re- 
corded by Tacitus (AnmaL iii. 70) and Suetonius. He died 
m the tine of Tibenas, a.d. 22. ^Anmd. iii. 75.) 

Capito ia often cited by other jurists, Proculus, Javolenus, 
Paulos^ and once by Labeo : they always call him Ateius. 
CapitD*s reputation as a lawyer was very great. He wrote on 
Pontifical Law at least five books, as appears from Gellius (iv. 
6), and numeraos hooka of Coi^}ectanea ^Gellius, xx. 2 ; xiv. 
7). He also wrote a ungle book De Offido Senatorio, from 
which Gellios gives an extract (iv. 10), and a book De Jure 
Secrifidorum (Macrolnus, Sattam, iii. 10). Gellius (xiii. 12) 
also quotes a letter of Capito, in which he speaks highly of 
lAbeo's legal knowledge. There are no excerpts from Capito 
in the Digest. 

From the time of Labeo and Capito we date the formation 
of two opposed sects or schools oi law among the Romans. 
The nalme of this opfMdtion is collected from the words of 
Pompooios (JDn^. i. tit. 2). Labeo was a man of greater 
._ .i^__ im _?.^ j^j ^£. ^ ijQi^jgp temper. He ap- 

the stores of knowledge that were 
I was led to many new views. Capito 
stuck doae to what had been transmitted by his predecessors: 
he vaa one of those who appealed to authority. So far as 
coocema geDenl prindples, we cannot condemn the method 
of either 4a these ^eat jurists. Each has