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Full text of "A supplement to the pharmacop¶ia : being a concise but comprehensive dispensatory, and manual of facts and formulµ, for the use of practitioners in medicine and pharmacy"

A 

SUPPLEMENT 



TO THE 



PHARMAOOPCEIA. 



LOKDOK : riilKTED BY VV. CUDWES AND SOXS, SXAMFOIU) STllKEX AKD CBAKIKG CSOfSS. 



SUPPLEMENT 



TO THE 



PHARMAC 



^ 



BEING A CONCISE BUT COMPREHENSIVE 



DISPENSATORY, 



AND 



MANUAL OF FACTS AND FORMIJLiE, 



lOR THE USE OF PRACTITIONERS U MEDICINE AND PHARMACY. 



BY 

THEOPHILUS EEDWOOD, Ph. D. 

PEOFBSSOE OP CHBMISTET AND PHAEMACT TO THE PHAE3IACEUTTCAI, SOCIETX OF 
GBEAT BEITAIN, A3S"I> SECEETAET TO THE CHEillCAL SOCIETX. 



THIRD EDITION. 



LONDON: 

I^ONGMAN AND CO.; SIMPKIN AND CO.; JOHN CHURCHILL j 

HENRY BOHN; AND HENRY REi^SHAW. 

1857. 






-S 



ji 



u 



fr 






ix 



PREFACE. 



I UNDERTOOK, in 1844, to edit an edition of Qray^ Supiolement to 
the Pharmacoiooeia^ a book wliicli had for many years been in 
extensive circulation, and the demand for which continued after 
the death of the author. In the prosecution of this undertaking it 
was found necessary to make considerable alterations in the matter 
and arrangement of the work^ in order to reconcile it with the 
existing state of knowledge, and to adajDt it to the altered cir- 
cumstances of the class of readers for whom it was principally de- 
signed. These changes gave to the book an entirely new character. 
The original intention of Mr. Grray, as expressed in the preface 
to the first edition of his Supplement, published in 1818, was, 
" to give a concise account of the actual state of our knowledge of 
drugs in general, using that term in its most extensive significa- 
tion, as including not only those natural substances and compounds 
which are employed by physicians and private practitioners of 
medicine, but those other substances and compounds which, from 
their analogy to these, are usually sold by the same retailers as sell 
medicines, for the purpose of being used as dyes, paints, perfumes, 
cosmetics, liqueurs, &c. ; and upon this account the work appears 
under the title of A Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia, as that 
book contains only the medicines in use at present with the 
physicians of London and its environs. Still, however, the 
medicines form the greater bulk of the work, fi:om the vast variety 
of them that are employed in different places." 

Adopting the design expressed in the above quotation, and using 
so much of the matter of Gray's Supplement as I considered 
useful, yet omitting much, and adding still more, this work was 

)I4TP,7 1 



VI PREFACE. 

produced in 1847, and another edition of it, with much new 
matter, in 1848. In those editions the title of Gray's Sitppleraent 
to the Pharmacopoeia was used ; but the work having now, for the 
tliird time, been submitted to revision, and no part of what ori- 
ginally constituted G-rays Supplement being retained, excepting 
such facts as are acknowledged in common with those taken from 
other sources, Mr. Gray's name is omitted from the title-page. 

In the introduction of new matter, pains have been taken to 
extend as far as possible the brief notices of natural products, 
derived from the animal and vegetable kingdoms, with the view 
of comprising all those substances whose applications in medicine, 
domestic economy, and the arts, have been described ^by authors. 

The part of the work which treats of " animals yielding pro- 
ducts employed in medicine," &c., contains a notice of about three 
hundred animals, which are arranged according to Cuvier's classifi- 
cation. Some of the characters, the habitations, food, and useful 
products of these are briefly described, and an outline of Cuvier's 
classification of the animal kingdom, with some allusions to 
modifications of it adopted by other naturalists, is given. 

Among the " vegetables yielding products employed in medi- 
cine," &c., are included about three thousand plants. These are 
arranged after De CandoUe's classification, and reference is given, 
for all the genera, to the Prodromus (De Cand.), or Botanicon 
Gallicum (De Cand. Bot. Gal.) of that author; to Endlichers 
Genera Plantarum' (Endl. Gen. PI.); to Smith and Hookers 
English Flora (Smith Eng. Fl.) ; or to Lindleys Wo7^Jcs (Lindl. or 
L.). Eeference is also frequently made to Soiverhy's English 
Botany (E. B.), where drawings of the plants may be found. 
Those plants which grow wild in this country are distinguished 
by having an asterisk (*J prefixed to the name ; and those which 
are commonly cultivated in this country, but are not natives, are 
distinguished by two asterisks (* *). The habitat of nearly every 
plant is given, and to those which grow in this country, the 
period of inflorescence and colour of the flowers are also added. 
The notices of the applications and uses of the plants or their 



PEEFACE. vii 

products are necessarily brief, in accordance witli tlie scope and 
purpose of tlie work ; they are generally given on tlie autliority of 
the writers to whom reference is made, by the letters G. (Gray), 
L. (Lindley), O'Sh. (O'Shaughnessy), Loud. (Loudon), or, in other 
cases, by the name in full. 

The last part of the work comprehends the formulae for the pre- 
paration of compounds employed in medicine, domestic economy, 
and the arts, together with mineral substances, and some animal 
and vegetable products. Besides all the formulee of the tliree 
British Pharmacopoeias, a selection is here given from the foreign 
Pharmacopoeias of various parts of the v/orld, with the view of 
comprising sucli authorised processes as are most likely to prove 
useful to the prescriber or dispenser of medicines in this country. 
The sources from whence these formulae have been taken are 
distinctly specified, including the dates of the Pharmacopoeias, so 
that by reference to the historical account of those works, in the 
first part of the book, the dispenser of medicines may ascertain 
whether they are still in authority, and what the country or 
district is to which they relate. But the value of these formula3 
is not, in all cases, confined to the aid afibrded to the pharmaceutist 
in disiDcnsing prescriptions ; many of them are for processes the 
products of which are similar to, or identical with, those ordered 
in our own Pharmacopoeias ; yet, the instructions being different, 
they may be advantageously referred to by the manufacturer, the 
scientific inquirer, and those engaged in framing new Pharma- 
copoeias. There are also a great number of formiilse, derived from 
different sources but not authorised by any Pharmacopoeia, for the 
preparation of medicinal and other substances which are either sold 
or applied by those for whose use the book is intended. 

T. E. 

19 Montague Street, Russell Square, 
October 1856. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Brief chronological history of Pharmacopoeias and Dispensatories 1 

Historical and descriptive account of weights and measures, with 

tables for facilitating calculations - - - - 15 

Description of the methods of taking specific gravities, and of the 

instruments used for that puriDose, with tables of hydrome- 

trical equivalents, and of the relations between the specific 

gravities and strengths of acid and alkaline solutions, &c. - 37 

Relation between different thermometrical scales ; table of tlier- 

mometrical equivalents ; formulas for freezing mixtures, &c. 58 

Chemical elements, their symbols and equivalents - - - 78 

Table of solubility of salts ______ 79 

Explanation of terms used in prescriptions - - - - 95 

The Pharmaceutical Calendar, containing a notice of plants to be 
collected, and operations to be performed at particular periods 
of the year --___--.- 101 
Animals yielding products employed in medicine, domestic 

economy, and the arts __-_-- 106 
Preservation of animal substances ----- 181 

Vegetables yielding products employed in medicine, domestic 

economy, and the arts ------ 186 

Collection and preservation of plants ----- 575 

Animal, vegetable, and mineral products, and formulas for the 
preparation of compounds employed in medicine, domestic 
economy, and the arts - - - - - -579 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE PHARMACOPOEIA, 



ETC. 



PHARMACOPCEIAS AND DISPENSATOEIES. 



When physicians ceased to prepare the medicines which they pre- 
scribed for their patients, and pharmacy became, to a certain extent, a 
distinct profession or business, it was necessary that some authorized 
standards should be fixed upon, by which to determine the meaning 
and value of the terms employed in extemporaneous prescriptions. 
Hence the origin of Pharmacopoeias. These works emanate from 
that portion of the medical profession w'hich consists of prescribers of 
medicines — in this country, the Colleges of Physicians. They contain 
descriptive notices of the medicines employed by medical men, together 
with formulte for those compounds which admit of being kept ready 
made, and the preparation of which occupies more time than would be 
compatible with the speedy administration of the remedy when ordered. 
A Pharmacopoeia is, in fact, intended to serve the twofold purpose, 
of a register of approved and established remedies, which the phj^sician 
employs in the treatment of disease, and a key, or index, by which the 
pharmaceutist, or dispenser of medicines, can interpret the terms by 
which these remedies are distinguished and ordered. 

The separation of pharmacy from the practice of medicine is sup- 
posed to have taken place, first, in Arabia. It is here that the occu- 
pation of a pharmaceutist appears to have been first recognised by law 
as a distinct and separate branch of the medical profession. Establish- 
ments for dispensing medicines existed at Cordova, Toledo, and other 
large towns under the dominion of the Arabs, prior to the twelfth 
century, and all establishments of this description were placed under 
severe legal restrictions. From these regulations, the Emperor Fre- 
derick 11. is said to have copied the principal articles of the law 
passed in 1233, and which remained in force for a long time in the 
two Sicilies, with reference to the practice of pharmacy.* According 

* Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu'jl notre epoque 
1842. 

B 



2 PHARMACOPCEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 

to this law, every medical man was required to give information 
against any pharmaceutist who should sell bad medicines. The phar- 
maceutists were divided into two classes: 1st, the Stationarii, who 
sold' simple medicines, and ?^o/^-^?^Q!^^5^ra/ preparations, according to a 
tariff settled by competent authorities ; 2ndly, the Confectionarii^ whose 
business consisted in scrupulously dispensing the prescriptions of the 
medical men. All these pharmaceutical establishments were placed 
under the surveillance of a College of Medicine.* 

During the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, apothe- 
caries' shops, or dispensaries, were established in most of the large cities 
in France and Germany ; and these, in the first instance, were often 
fitted up and supported at the public expense. A garden was also, in 
these cases, often appropriated to the apothecary, for the cultivation of 
such indigenous plants as he required. 

In 1345, King Edward III. gave a pension of sixpence a day to 
Coursus de Gangland, an apothecary in London, for taking care of, and 
attending, his Majesty during his illness in Scotland. But it is probable 
that apothecaries were not common in England at this period. 

We are informed by Saladin, a writer of the fifteenth century, that 
at that time the only books referred to by the apothecaries, as authori- 
ties with reference to the preparation of medicines, "Were, the works 
of AviCENNA ; the treatise on Simple and Compound Medicines, by 
Serapion ; a treatise on Synonemes, aiid the Quid pro Quo on Substi- 
tutes, by Simon ; the Liber Servatoris of Bulchasin Ben Aberazerin, 
treating of the preparation of plants and animals, and the chemical 
remedies then in use ; the Antidotarium of Johannes Damascenus, or 
Mesue' ; and the Antidotarium of Nicola us de Salerno. 

The last-named author, who was director of the school at Salernum, 
a city in the kingdom of Naples, lived about the middle of the twelfth 
century. In his Antidotarium, or Isagogica introductio in cirtem 
Apothecariatus, he described a great number of medicines, principally 
taken from the Arabs. He must not be confounded, as he has been 
by some writers, with Nicolas Prevost, called Propositus, of 
Tours, whose Dispensatory was published in 1488, and subsequent 
editions of it in 1505, 1564, and 1582. This work is considered to 
have been the first of the kind circulated in Europe. 

Many of the remedies introduced into medicine about this period, 
owed their origin to the investigations of the alchemists, who were 
engaged in the futile endeavour to discover the philosopher's stone, and 
the universal remedy for all diseases of the body. 

Raymond Lully, of Majorca, was one of the principal writers of 
this school. He was born in the year 1235, and died in Africa in 
1315. He is said to have written about sixty volumes on subjects 
connected with chemistry. Among these were his works, de Lapide 
Aurijico ; de Quinta Essentia; de Accurtatione Lapidis Philosopho- 
Turn ; Lux Mercurlorum^ &c. 

Basil Valentine, born in 1394, contributed greatly by his wa-itings 
to the introduction of chemical remedies in the practice of medicine. 

* Constitutiones Neapolitanae et Siculiv, liii. tit. xxxiv. 1, 2, apud Lindenborg., Cod, 
legum aiitiquarum; Francf,, 1613, in fol. 



PHARMACOPCEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 3 

One of the most celebrated of his works was the Currus triumphalis 
Aiitimonii. 

The efforts made by Basil Valentine to introduce chemical agents, 
derived from the mineral kingdom, in the treatment of disease, were 
subsequently followed up by his successor, Paracelsus, who was born 
in 1493. 

At this period, the nmnber of pharmaceutical establishments in 
France, Germany, and Italy, which had previously been very limited, 
began to increase. The proprietors of these establishments, however, 
were but little acquainted with the art of compounding medicines, 
and therefore the most important remedies were often prepared in the 
presence of the medical men by whom they were prescribed.* Che- 
mical remedies, in the sense in which this term was then employed, 
were but seldom obtained from the apothecary's shop, such being pre- 
pared and supplied by a distinct class of men, who were professed 
chemists. Paracelsus and his followers, anxious for the introduction 
of chemical remedies, loudly complained of the ignorance and incom- 
petency of the pharmaceutists, and ascribed to this cause, in a great 
measure, the strong hold which the advocates for Galenical medicines 
still retained on the confidence of the public. 

In 1524, the Dispensatory of Valerius Cordus was published, 
under the sanction of the senate of Nuremberg. This is considered 
to have been the first authorized Dispensatory or Pharmacopoeia, pub- 
lished in Europe. Subsequent editions appeared in 1535 {Dispensa- 
torium Pharmacoimm omnium ; Nuremb. 1535) and in 1542. This 
work, like that of Nicolas Prevost, was principally compiled from the 
Antidotariiim of MssuE'and of Nicolaus de Salerno. 

In 1538, the medical men of Augsburg, in Germany, formed a sort 
of Pharmacopoeia, the formulae contained in which were generally 
adopted in that place.! Augsburg was then a place of great trade, 
especially with Italy, from whence, it is probable, the regulations con- 
nected with the practice of medicine were introduced. The work 
thus commenced was subsequently published in a more mature form in 
1601, under the title of Pharmacoposia Augustana. The seventh 
edition appeared in 1622. 

The following works w-ere published during the sixteenth century :- — 
Bretschneider's Pharmacopoeia in compendium redacta ; Antw. 1 560. 
Yoe's, Pharmacopoeia ; Basil, 1561. Collado's Pharmacorum omnium, 
quce in. us It stmt apud fiostros pharmacopoeos enumeratio ; Valentias, 
1561. Fuch's Pharmacorum omnium, quce in communi sunt practi- 
cantium usu ; Paris, 1569. Maselli's Pharmacopoeia Berg amensis ; 
Bergam. 15S0. '^xxok's Pharmacopoeia; Amsterd. 1580. Bauderon's 
Paraphrase sitr la Pharmacopee ; Lyon, 1588. 

Fernel and Sylvius also wTote in the sixteenth century. 

In the years 1514, 1516, 1520, 1571, 1583, and 1594, laws were 
passed for the regulation of the practice of Pharmacy in France. 

* Lisetti Benanci, Declaratio fraadum et errorum apud pharmacopoeos comnussorum 
Acced. ejusd, argumenti dialogus, Lodetti. Turon. 1553. 

+ Conclusiones et propositiones universimi medicinam per genera complect mt'.s. 
Augusta Vindeliconim, 1558. 

B 2 



PHARMACOPCEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 



PHARMACOPOEIAS OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 

The first Pharmacopceia of the London College of Physicians ap- 
peared in May, 1618. This was circulated among the members of the 
College, and the London apothecaries, but was found to be so imperfect, 
that the greater part of the edition was cancelled, and a new edition 
issued in the following. December. It was reprinted, with slight altera- 
tions and improvements, in 1621, 1632, and 1639, and was remodelled 
in 1650. 

In this edition, the names of the original autliors of the several 
formulae, which had previously been inserted, were omitted. Several 
new formulae were added, and some of the old ones left out. Similar 
alterations were again made in 1677. An excellent formula for 
" Usquebagh^ sive aqua vitce, Hibernis popularis,^' was inserted in this 
edition, (see formulae,) and several other equally important additions 
were made. The next material change was made in 1721, under the 
presidency of Sir Hans Sloane, when, for the first time, the botanical 
names of the vegetables included in the Materia Medica were given ; 
it being stated in the preface, — " The catalogue of simples has been, 
drawn up entirely de novo : the name of each plants and in some cases 
there is more than one^ has been annexed ; as well the officinal name, 
as that ivhich is retained by the more accurate botanists. Those who 
hnoiu how easily plants of the same genus and name may be confounded, 
must clearly see that errors could scarcely have been avoided in any 
other way than by employing this distinction of terms J^ This was the 
first step towards a scientific improvement in the work ; in other 
respects, however, it still retained its original character, the great 
majority of the formulae remaining unaltered, although a few of the 
obsolete ones were omitted. Among other changes, " Saccharum 
Hordeatum" {barley sugar^ was substituted for "Saccharum Peni- 
dium " {pidled sugar). 

At this period, a " more correct and concise method of prescribing "* 
began to prevail among the most eminent of the physicians, with 
whom the old-fashioned formulae, lengthened out with redundancy of 
heterogeneous and often incompatible ingredients, had fallen into 
disuse ; and a desire soon prevailed for effecting a more radical reform- 
ation in the Pharmacopoeia than had hitherto been attempted. Most 
of the formulae adopted by the London College, even those of the 
Pharmacopoeia of 1721, were taken from the works of Mesne, Nicolaus, 
Renodius, Fernel, and authors of this class, with reference to which 
formulae, the College, in the preface to their Pharmacopoeia of 1746, 
state : " It were certainly a disgrace and just reproach, if pharmacy 
should any longer abound with those inartificial and irregular mixtures, 
which the ignorance of the first ages introduced, and the perpetual 
fear and jealousies of poisons enforced ; against which the ancients 
endlessly busied themselves in the search of antidotes, which for the 
most part they superstitiously and doatingly derived from oracles, 
dreams, and astrological fancies ; and vainly hoping to frame composi- 

* Preface to the London Pharmacol ceia. 1746. 



PHARMACOPOEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 5 

tions that mig-ht singly prevail against every species of poison, they 
amassed together whatever they had imagined to be endued with 
alexipharmic powers. By this procedure, the simplicity of physic 
was lost, and a wantonness in mixing, enlarging, and accumulating, 
took place, which has continued even to our times." The celebrated 
mithridate and theriaca may be instanced in illustration of the fore- 
going statement, these medicines having been said to contain the proper 
antidote against every possible sj)ecies of poison. Nor was this redun- 
dancy of composition confined to such medicines as the above : the 
same feature pervaded nearly the whole of the formulse of the early 
pharmacopoeias. One of the old Paris Pharmacopoeias contained a 
formula for a plaster, (emplastrum diabotonon,) consisting of sixty 
ingredients, and for a distilled water, (aqua generalis,) consisting of 
more than 120 ingredients. Previous to the publication of the Phar- 
macopoeia of 1746, the London College appointed a committee of their 
body for the purpose of suggesting such alterations as were thought 
desirable to be made. This committee appear to have entered upon 
their work with a determination of founding the formulce upon the 
principles of simplicity. A most radical change was recommended by 
the committee and carried out by the College. The arrangement of 
the work was entirely recast ; nearly the whole of the old prolix 
formulae were rejected, and those which were substituted for them 
may be said to have originated and formed the bases of the medicinal 
compounds which have chiefly been employed in this country from 
that day to the present. Dr. Plumptre was president of the College at 
the time this Pharmacopoeia was published. 

In 1788 a further change was made; and as that which had taken 
place in 1746 related chiefly to what are called the Galenical prepara- 
tions, so this, for the most part, had reference to the chemical. Subse- 
quent changes were made in 1809, 1824, 1836, and 1851, the last date 
being that of our present Pharmacopoeia. 

The following are the years in which the several editions and reprints 
of the London PharmacojyoeiahayesipipeaTed: — viz., 1621, 1627, 1632, 
1639, 1650, 1651, 1677, 1678, 1682, 1699, 1720, 1721, 1722, 1724, 
1731, 1736, 1745, 1746, 1747, 1748, 1757, 1762, 1763, 1771, 1786, 
1787, 1788, 1809, 1815, 1824, 1836, and 1851. 

The Edinburgh Pharmacopceia was first published in 1699. Subse- 
quent editions, or republications, have appeared in 1721, 1722, 1727, 
1735, 1744, 1756, 1774, 1783, 1784, 1788, 1792, 1803, 1804, 1806, 
1813, 1817, 1839, and 1841. 

The first Dublin Pharmacopceia was published in 1807. Previous 
to this time, however, in the year 1794, a Specimen Pharmacopoeia 
had been circulated among the members of the college, and another in 
1805. The preparation of these works had been chiefly committed to 
Dr. Percival.* A new Pharmacopoeia for Ireland was brought out in. 
1 826, and this has since been superseded by The Pharmacopoeia of the 
Ki7ig and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland, of 1850. 

A Pharmacopceia was announced some years ago, as being in course 
of preparation, for Bengal and Upper India. 

* Historical Sketch of the Progress of Phannacy in Great Britain. By Jacob Bell. 



PIIARMACOPGEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 



FRANCE. 

TJie Parisian Codex, or French Pharmacopceia, was first issued in 
1639. In the year 1590, the parliament had decreed, with a view to 
the public good, that the faculty of medicine should elect a committee 
of their body, for the purpose of preparing a Dispensatory containing 
the simple and compound medicines which the apothecaries of Paris 
ought to keep in their shops. This decree remained unexecuted, and 
parliament, in 1597, named twelve members of the faculty of medicine, 
who were enjoined to j^repare a Dispensatory. Notwithstanding- this, 
and that a fresh injunction was issued in the succeeding year, the Codex 
did not appear until 1639, in compliance with a new order from Louis 
XIII. 

New editions of the Codex were published in 1645, 1732, 1748, and 
1758, which was the last published before the Revolution. 

On the 21st Germinal, year 11 of the Revolution, a law was passed 
by which the government was required to charge the Professors of the 
Schools of IMedicine, associated with the Professors of the School of 
Pharmacy, to prepare a " Codex, or Formidary, of the medicinal and 
pharmaceutical preparations that ought to be kept by pharmaceutists." 
It was also enacted, that this Codex should not be published witiiout 
the sanction and order of the government. 

In compliance with this law, and by order of the government, the 
Codex Medicamentarius was published in 1816. 

In 1835, a commission was appointed by the king for preparing a 
new edition of the work. Of this commission, M. Orfila was President, 
and MM. Andral, Dumeril, and Richard, Professors of the faculty 
of medicine, and MM. Bussy, Caventou, Pelletier, Robiquet, and 
Soubeiran, Professors of the School of Pharmacy, were members. 
The work was completed and published in 1839, and is that which 
still continues in authority. It is written in French, the title being, 

" Codex, Pharmacopee Fraiigaise, redigee par ordre dii Gouverne- 
ment par une commission compos'ee de MM. les professeurs de la 
faculte de medeci?te, et de VEcole speciale de Pharmacie de Paris^^ 
Paris, 1839. 

Besides the above, the following Pharmacopoeias have been pub- 
lished in France, but they have since been superseded by the Paris 
Codex : — 

Codex Medicamentorum^ sett Pharmacopoeia Tolosana, Tolos. 
1648, 1695. 

Pharmacopee de Lyon. 1778. 

HOLLAND AND BELGIUM. 

The Pharmacopoea Batava was published in 1805 for the united 
provinces of Holland. Previously to this time, the Pharmacoposia of 
Amsterdam, which Avas published so early as 1636, and subsequently 
in 1639, 1682, 1701, 1714, and 1792, had been in general use among 
the Dutch. After the annexation of Holland to Belgium, a new Phar- 
macopoeia was published in 1823, under the name oi Pharmacopoea 



PHARMACOPCEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 7 

Belgica, superseding the Pharmacopeia Batava, and having authority 
throughout the Netherlands. No subsequent edition of this work lias 
appeared, but it is said that one is in course of preparation. 

Sooji after the publication of the Pharmacopcea Belglca, J. F. 
Niemann republished the Pharmacopcea Batava with notes, under the 
title of, 

Pharmacopcea Batava recicsa^ cum notis et add'damentis Medico- 
pharmaceuticis. Edit. Jno. Frid. Niemann. Lips. 2 torn. 8vo. 
1824. 

I'his work acquired some reputation, being considered superior to 
that which had been invested with authority. 

The following were published in these countries, at early dates, but 
are not now extant : — 

Pharmcicopceia Ajitiuerpiensis . Antwerp, 1661. 

Pharmacopoeia Hagana. 1738. 

PharmacopoRia Leidensis. Leyden, 1751, 1770. 

Pharmacopoeia Leodeusis. Liege, 1741. 

Pharmacopoeia Utrajectiva. Utrecht, 1664. 

. NORTH GERMANY. 

Germany is divided into a great number of states or principalities, 
which have separate laws for the regulation of pharmacy, and separate 
Pharmacopoeias of their own. 

Pharmacopcea Borussica. This has authority throughout the 
Prussian state. As far back as 1608 there was published a Phar- 
macopoeia, entitled, Dispensatorium Brandenhurgicum s. norma juxta 
cpiara in provi?iciis MarcJdonatus Brandenhurgicimedicamenta officinis 
familiaria dispensa7ida, S)C. Berol. It was followed in 1713 by the 
Z)ispen. regium et electorale Borusso-Brandenhurgicum^ of which there 
were new editions in 1726, 1731, and 1781. On the last of these vras 
founded the Pharmacopcea Borussica, which appeared in 1799, under 
the title of Pharmacopoea Borussica cum gratia et privilegio sacrce 
regice Majestatis, Berolia. New editions have since appeared in 1801, 
1813, 1827, and 1846, the last having come into authority since the 
1st of April, 1847. The title of this, which is the sixth edition, is 
simply Pharmacopcea Borussica. 

Codex Medicamentariiis Hamhcrgensis. Lav*' s have existed for the 
regulation of the practice of medicine and pharmacy in the free town 
of Hamburgh and its territories since 1818. The Hamburgh Phar- 
macopoeia is published under the authority of these. The present is 
the second edition, which was published at Hamburgh in 1845. Its 
title is, Codex Medicamentarius Hamhcrgensis. Auctoritate collegii 
sanitatis editus. 

Pharmacopoea Hannoverana nova. This appertains to the king- 
dom of Hanover. The first edition was published in 1818; the present, 
which is the second edition, in 1831. 

Pharmacopoea Hassiaca, for the principality of Hesse. Tiiis was 
preceded by the Dispensatorium Hessiacuin, published at Cassell in 
1806, and again in 1816. 

Pharmacopoea Saxonica. Piderits Pharmacia rationalis, was for- 



% PHARMACOPCEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 

merly used by the apothecaries of Saxony. The first Latin Phar- 
macopoeia was published by Dr. Leonardi in 1820; and a supplement 
was added to this in 1830 by Dr. Seiler. The second edition of this 
work, edited by Seiler, Carus, and others, under the title of Phar- 
macopcea Saxo7iica jussii regio et avctoritate puhlica denuo edita^ re- 
cognita et eme?idata, appeared in 1837, and is that now in authority. 
It is published at Dresden, 

Phannacopcea Slesvico-Hohatica. The Danish Pharmacopoeia of 
1772, and subsequently that of 1805, were formerly used in Sleswick- 
Holstein. In 1831, however, a Pharmacopoeia was published at 
Kiel, under the title of Pharmacopcea Slesvico- Holsatica, regia aiicto- 
ritate edita. It was prepared by C. H. Pfatf, under the authority of 
the Sanitary College of Kiel. There has been no subsequent edition. 

SOUTH GERMANY. 

Pharmacopcea Aitstriaca. There are two Pharmacopoeias for 
Austria ; one for general purposes, and the other for the army. The 
former of these, Pharmacopcea Austriaca, has passed through four 
editions, the present or fourth having appeared in 1834, and a reprint 
of it, with some corrections, in 1836. It was prepared by four mem- 
bers of the faculty of medicine at Vienna, and two presidents of the 
Pharmaceutical Colle2:e. 

The Pharmacopcea Castrensis Austriaca, or Military Pharmaco- 
pceia, is of later date, having been published in 1841, under the auspices 
of the Military Academy of Medicine at Vienna. Most of the formulee 
are the same in both Pharmacopoeias, but where differences occur, the 
advantage is considered to lie on the side of the Military Pharma- 
copoeia. 

These Pharmacopoeias have authority [in all the German-Illyrian, 
Bohemian-Gallician, and Italian provinces of the Austrian empire. 

Pharmacopcea Badensia. The increased importance which Baden 
acquired in the beginning of the present century led to the adoption 
of regulations for the government of its medical and pharmaceutical 
affairs. In the first instance, however, it was not thought desirable 
to have a separate Pharmacopoeia for this district, and accordingly 
the Pharmacopcea Borussica was adopted in Baden until the year 
1841, in the latter part of which year the Pharmacopcea Badensia 
was published. The present is the first and only edition of the 
Avork. 

Pharmacopcea Bavarica. This is the Pharmacopeeia for the king- 
dom of Bavaria; it was published in 1822. 

Pharmacopcea Wurlembergica. Tliis. Pharmacopoeia has existed 
since 1750, and has passed through several editions in 1770, 1785, 
1798, and 1847. 

NORTH EUROPE. 

Pharmacopcea Danica. Medical and pharmaceutical institutions 
have been long established and well regulated in Denmark. The first 
Danish Pharmacopoeia was published in 1772, and subsequent editions 



PHARMACOPCEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 9 

in 1786, 1805, and 1840. The last is that which is now in authority 
in Denmark, under the title of Pharmacopcea Danica, regia auctori- 
tate a collegio sanitatis regio Hafniensi edita. Hafniae, 1840. 

Besides this, however, there are two other Pharmacopoeias, or Dis- 
pensatories, used in the state, one by the military physicians, entitled, 
Pharmacopcea Militaris. Efter allerho'ieste Befaling udarheitet et en 
dertil nedsat Commission. Kjobenhavn Reitzel, 1840. The other, for 
the poor, entitled, Udvalg af Laegemidler, der skidle bruges i den 
offentlige Praxis. Kjobenh, 1843. 

The Pharmacopoeia Danica is used in Norway, but steps have been 
taken for the preparation of a Norwegian Pharmacopoeia. 

Pharmacopcea Suecica. The successful cultivation of chemistry in 
Sweden has produced a beneficial influence on the pharmaceutical regu- 
lations of that country, which in their principal features are similar to 
those which exist in Denmark. The general management of medical 
and pharmaceutical affairs, including the publication of the Pharmaco- 
poeia, is vested in the Sanitary College at Stockholm. 

The first Pharmacopoeia was entitled Pharmacopcea Holmiensis, and 
was published at Stockholm, in 1686. Tliis was followed, in 1775, 
by the Pharmacopcea Suecica, new editions of which appeared in 
1779, 1784, 1790. In 1817, was published the fifth edition, the 
botanical part of whicli was prepared by the celebrated Swartz, and the 
chemical part by Berzelius. There has been one edition published since 
— namely, that of 1845, entitled Pharmacopcea Suecica, Editio sexta. 
Stockholmise, 1845. Reprinted in 1846. 

Pharmacopcea Castrensis lluthena. Russia has imitated the more 
advanced European states in the enactment of laws for regulating the 
practice of pharmacy. These only date from the year 1836, yet a 
Russian Pharmacopoeia was published so long ago as 1778. Subse- 
quent editions appeared in 1782, 1798, 1799, and 1803. 

Besides this, which was called Pharmacopcea Rossica, there was a 
separate Pharmacopoeia for Finland, the Pharmacopcea Fennica, pub- 
lished at Abo in 1819; and another for Poland, the Pharmacoyoea 
Polonica, published at Warsaw in 1817. 

All these, however, were superseded by the Pharmacopcea Castrensis 
Ruthena. 

The first military Pharmacopoeia was published in 1765, but this was 
little more than a catalogue. The Pharmacopcea^ Castrensis Rossica 
appeared in 1779, and a Pharmacopcea JVavalis, in 1789. These 
passed through several editions, and were ultimately both absorbed by 
the Pharmacopcea Castrensis Ruthena, which was first published by 
Dr. Jacob von Wylie, Baronet, in 1808, subsequently in 1812 and 
1818, and, lastly, the fourth and present edition in 1840. This Phar- 
macopoeia is required to be used in all military, naval, and other 
government establishments. In the private apothecaries' shops, the 
Prussian Pharmacopoeia is very generally used, and the law allows 
the use of this, the Saxon, Sleswick-Holstein, Danish, Sivedish, 
Pavarian, Dutch, London, Edinburgh, Dublin, Spielmaiis, or the 
Russian Military Pharmacopoeia. This state of the law is embar- 
rassing to the pharmaceutist, and has been considered unsatisfactory ; 



10 PIIARMAGOPCEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 

a Civil Pharmacopoeia for Russia and also Finland was, there- 
fore, undertaken, and a ne\y Pharmacopoea Fennica was published in 
1850. 

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 

In these countries, and in south and south-west Europe genetully, 
less progress has been made in advancing the pharmaceutical art than 
is the case in the more northern countries. The following Pharmacol 
posias have been published in Spain : — 

Pharmacopoeia Valentia?ie?isis. Yalenc. 4 to. 165L. 

Pharmacopoeia CataUma. 4to. 1686. 

Pharmacopoeia Madritensis. 1729, 1738, 1794, 1798, 1822. 

Pharmacopoeia Hispana. Ed. alt. Regis jiissu et impensis, Madrid. 
8vo. 1798.' 

Pharmacopoea Hispanica et Lusitanica continens. 1822. 

Farmacopea en Castellano. Madrid. 1823. 

The following have been published in Portugal: — 

Pharmacopoeia Lu&itana. Lisbon. 1711. 

Pharmacopoeia do Pinto. Cohnbra. 1794. 

Pharmacopeia Geral para o Reina e Dominios de Portugal^ publi- 
cada.por ordem da Rainha Fidelissima Maria I. 8vo. I>isboa. 
1794. 

Pharmacopea Lusitana feita por uma Commissao creada por 
Becreto de 5 de Outubro, 1838. 1838. 

Formidario dos Hospitares militares feito por uma Commissaxt. 
1841. 

Formidario dos Medicamentos para o Hospital Real de S, Jose feito 
por uma Commissao. 1843. 

SOUTH EUROPE. 

Pharmacopoea Grccca. It is onh^ since the establishment of the 
present dynasty in Greece, that a Phavmacopccia has existed in that 
country. The confusion resulting from the establishment of European 
physicians in Greece, while there was yet no recognised standard for 
the preparation of medicines, induced the Sanitary College of Athens 
to commission Professors Bouro, Landerer, and Sartori, to prejiare a 
Pharmacopoeia. This was published in 1837, under the title of Phar- 
macopoea GrcEca, jiissu regio et approhatio7ie Collegii 3Iedici edita 
auctoribus, Joanne Bouro, Med. et Chir. B., Path, et Titer, Prof. 
p.o.f Coll. Med. Membr, ; Xaverio Landerer, Pharmac. Reg. Ckenu 
Prof., Coll. Med. Mernbr. ; et Josepho Sartori^ Phartu. aid. Athcrds. 
1837. 

SWITZERLAND. 

Pharmacopoeia Genevensis, aiict. C. G. Bunant, L. Odiery et De 
la Roche. Gen. 8vo. 1780. 

Pharmacop. Helvetica. 1771. 2 vols. fol. 

Pharmacopoeia Regia, Galenici, et Chimica. Gen. 1684. 

Manuale Pharmaceuticum in usum minoriim urhiam. Basil. 8vo. 
1779. 



PHARMACOPCEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 11 



ITALY. 

Pliarinacopceia Ferrarese, dell doit. Antonio Campana, Firenz, 
Edit. 7 ma. 1821, pp. 423. 

JBononiensis Collegii Medicorum Antidotarium, editiim anno 1783. 
Editio novissima in qua Com2:)letissimus adjectus est Index viriwn ac 
Usuum Medicamerdorimi. Venet. (Venice.) 4to. 1783. 

Formulario Far-maceutico. Genov. (Genoa.) 1791. 8vo. 

Formulario Farmaceutico per iiso dell Ospedale di Pammatone, 
Genov. (Genoa.) 8vo. 1798. 

Codice Pharmaceidico per lo stato della ser. Pep. di Venezia, coin- 
pilato per ordine del excellentiss. magistrato delta Sanita. Padov. 
(Padua.) 4to. maj. 1790. 

Pharmacopoeia Bergame7isis, rationem componendi medicawenta 
usitatiora complectens, ed. P. Land et P. Maselli. Berg. (Bergamo.) 
4to. 1580. 

Pharmacop. Messenensis. Mess. fol. 162£t 

Pharmacop. Sardoa, ex Selectioribus codicibus, optimisque Scrip- 
torihus collecta, in U7ium corpus digesta. ac nunc primum edita, a Jac, 
Jn. Pedemontano August. Taurin. (Turin.) 4to. 1773. 

Picettario de dottori de Arte e di Medicina dell Collegia Fioreniino 
alV instanza di Siqnori Conculi delia Universita cett. Fiorenze, fol. 
1498. Kecus. ibid. 1567, 1597. 

Picettario Fiorentino nuovamente Compilato e redotto alV iiso 
Moderno, diviso in due parte. Firenze, 1789, 4to. pp. 350. 

PERSIA. 

Pharmacop Gsia Persica, ex idiomate Persico in Laiinum conversa. 
Paris. 1681. 

AMERICA. 

The Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America was first pub- 
lished near the close of the year 1 820, under the authority of a Na- 
tional Medical Cotivention, which met at Washington, on the first day 
of the preceding January. It was entitled, 

The Phar?nacopoeia of the United States of America. Py the 
authority of the 3Iedical Societies and Colleges. 8vo. Boston. 1820. 
A revised edition of this work appeared in 1830, and regulations 
were now made for revising it every ten years. The second revision 
commenced in 1840, and resulted in the publication of the Pharmaco- 
poeia of 1842. Another revision took place in 1850, and The Phar- 
macopceia of the United States of America (by authority of the 
National Convention^ held at Washington., a.d. 1850) appeared in 
1851. This and the preceding work were published at Philadelphia. 

Besides the Pharmacopoeias which have been published under the 
sanction and authority of the laws of the respective countries in which 
they are principally used, there are a great number of works, usually 
called Dispensatories, which resemble Pharmacopoeias in their general 
objects, but differ from them in being the production of individual 



12 PHARMACOPOEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 

authors, and not of any public bodies having legal power to enforce 
compliance with the prescribed formulae. Several works of this de- 
scription which appeared in the sixteenth century have already been 
alluded to ; a brief notice of some of those which have since been pub- 
lished will now be given. 

Quercetan's Pharmacopoeia Dogmaticorum Restituta was published 
in 1603. An edition of this work was published at Frankfort, in 
1615, together with a second edition of the Dispensatorium Medicum 
of Renou, or Renodoeus. This was probably the first Dispensatory 
written upon the plan which has generally been adopted by the authors 
of Dispensatories in this country. It treats, first, of Pharmaceutical 
Operations ; secondly, of the Materia Medica ; and thirdly, of the 
Preparations and Compounds ; each formula being followed by a com- 
mentary. 

In 1621, Mindererus published a work on Military Medicine ; and 
about the same time appeared the Pharmacopceia Spagirica of Poterius. 

Schroeder's Pharmacopceia Medico- Chyynica was a work of some 
merit. It was published in 1641, at Ulm, in Wurtemberg. An 
edition of 1672, published at Leyden, in Holland, contains the Materia 
Medica, in Latin, French, English, and Dutch. 

Glauber's works — Ue Furyiis Novis Philosophicis ; Tractatus de 
Medicina Universali ; De Natura Solium ; Novum lumeii Chimicum ; 
and Pharmacopoeia Spagirica — were published between the years 
1646 and 1668, in which latter year the author died. 

About this time Culpeper wrote, and acquired some celebrity by 
the severity of his criticisms on the London College of Physicians and 
their first Pharmacopoeia. He was born in 1616, and published his 
translation of the London Pharmacopoeia in 1653, soon after which 
period he died. 

In 1676, Charas published his Pharmacopee Roy ale, Galenique et 
Chemique, wliich two years after was published in this country in 
English. 

Contemporary with Charas, and not less celebrated as pharmaceutical 
writers, were Pomet, chief pharmacien to Louis XIV., whose Histoire 
des Drogues was published in 1694, and Nicolas Lemery, whose Phar- 
macopee Universelle,m\di Dictionnaire ou Traite Universel des Drogues 
Simples, were published in 1697. These works acquired a just and 
lasting reputation. The second edition of Lemery's Dictionary was 
published in Paris in 1714. 

In 1688, Mr. James Shipton, an apothecary in London, published 
a collection of formulae said to have been those prescribed by Dr. 
George Bate, a celebrated physician in the time of Charles II. This 
work was entitled, Pharmacopceia Dateana. In qua octingenta 
circiter pharmaca, plera que omnia e praxi Georgii Datei, Regi Carolo 
Secu7ido proto-medici excerpta^ ordine cdphabetico concise exhihentur. 
Quorum nonnidla in Laboratorio Publico Pharmacopoeano Lond. 
jideliter parantur venalia : atque in usu sunt hodierno apud Medicos 
Londinenses. The third edition appeared in 1700. Meanwhile, 
translations of the previous editions were published by Dr. Fuller in 
1691, and by Dr. Salmon, in 1694. The Pharmacopoeia Bateana has 



PHARMACOPOEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 13 

been a work of frequent reference from the time of its first appearance 
to the present day. 

Dr. Fuller also published a Pharmacopoeia of his own, called the 
Pharmacopceia Extemporaneaj in 1714. 

Dr. Quincy was an author of some repute in the early part of the 
eighteenth century. He delivered lectures on Pharmacy, which were 
published shortly after his death, in 1723, by Dr. Shaw. His principal 
work was his Pharmacopoeia Officinalis et Extemporanea, or, Com- 
plete English Dispensatory, which first appeared in 1718, and reached 
a sixth edition in 1726. It was translated into French, in 1745, by 
Clausier. 

Dr. R. James's Pharmacopceia Universalis, or. New Universal 
English Dispensatory, followed Dr. Quincy's, being first published in 
1747, and the second edition in 1752. It was arranged on a sunilar 
plan to that of Quincy 's Dispensatory. 

In 1753 was published Dr. Brookes's General Dispensatory ; and 
in the following year, 1754, Dr. Lewis published the first edition of 
his New Dispensatory, containing commentaries on the London and 
Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias. A concise system of the tlieory and 
practice of pharmacy was prefixed as an introduction. This work 
acquired a high reputation, and was decidedly the best of the kind 
that had been published at the time. It passed through many editions 
during the author's lifetime ; and after his death, the work was re- 
printed without much alteration, in London, where it had originally 
been published ; while, in Edinburgh, Dr. Webster, Dr. Duncan, Dr. 
Rotherham, and Dr. Duncan, jun., brought out new editions of it, 
with such alterations and improvements as the advancement of scientific 
knowledge demanded ; and to distinguish these from the London edi- 
tions, the authors adopted the title of 77^6 Edinburgh Neiv Dispensa- 
tory. Dr. Duncan, jun., became the editor, in 1803, from which time 
to 1830 the work passed through twelve editions. The tenth edition 
was translated into French by M. E. Pelouse, with notes by Robiquet 
and Chereau. 

In 1806, Dr. Coxe's American Dispensatory appeared. 

Dr. Anthony Todd Thomson commenced the publication of his 
London New Dispensatory in 1811. This work was written on the 
plan of the Edinburgh New Dispensatory ; it has been always con- 
sidered a very useful work, and has had a great circulation, having gone 
through ten editions, during the lifetime of the author. The eleventh 
edition, edited by Dr. A. B. Garrod, was published in 1852. 

In this year, 1811, also appeared the Traite de Pharmacie, Theo- 
rique et Pratique, of I. I. Virey. 

Dr. Paris's Pharmacologia, although not strictly a work of the 
description here treated of, merits a brief notice, on account of the 
information it contains on pharmaceutical subjects. It was first pub- 
lished in 1812, and has reached the ninth edition. 

In 1818, Mr. Gray published the first edition of his Supplement to 
the Pharmacopoeias. 

This work had passed through six editions previously to its being 
remodelled by the present editor. 

Magendie's Formulaire pour la Preparation et VEmploi de Plusieurs 



14 PHAEMACOPCEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. 

Nouveaux Medicamens, commenced in 1821 ; it lias been translated 
into English by Mr. Iloulton and Dr. Gully. 

Translations of the London Pharmacopoeia were published by Dr. 
Richard Powell, in 1809 and 1815. 

In 1824, Mr. Eichard Phillips, who had previously published some 
criticisms on the London Pharmacopoeia, brought out a translation of 
the new edition of the Pharmacopoeia, published by the London College 
in that year. This work contained much valuable information on 
practical pharmacy, some of which the college availed themselves of in 
the subsequent edition of their Pharmacopoeia ; and of this latter work 
Mr. Phillips became the authorized translator. 

Brande's Manual of Pharmacy was published in 1825; and Rennie's 
New Supplement to the Pharmacopoeias in 1 S26. 

In 1828, appeared Jourdan's P/iarmacopee Universelle, an English 
translation of which was edited by Rennie in 1833. 

In 1828 also appeared the Traite de Pharmacie of Henry and 
G uibourt of Paris ; a v/ork of great merit. The third edition has been 
published in an enlarged form by Professor G uibourt. 

The Observations on the Dublin Pharmacopceia, by Drs. Barker 
and Montgomery, which appeared in 1830^ and the Translation of the 
London Pharmacoj)ceia, with criticisms, by Dr. Collier, in 1837, con- 
tain a good deal of valuable information. 

A Translation of the London Pharmacopoeia, with a Commentary, 
was also published by Dr. Spillan in 1837. 

Dr. Kane, of Dublin, in 1831, published a very useful little volume, 
entitled Elements of Practical Pharmacy. 

Among the works of this class more recently published, may be 
mentioned 

The Dispensatory of the United States of A^nerica, by Drs. Wood 
and Bache ; first edition, 1833 ; fifth edition, 1843 ; ninth edition, 1851. 

The Nouveau Traite de Pharmacie, by E, Soubeiran ; first edition, 
1836; second edition, 1842; and third edition, 1846. 

The Elements of Materia 3Iedica, by Dr. Pereira ; first edition, 
1837 ; second edition, 1842; third edition, 1849-53. 

A Dispensatory, or Commentary on the Pharmacopoeias of Great 
Britain, by Dr. Christison ; first edition, 1842; second edition, 1848. 

Manual of Materia Medica and Therapeutics^ by J. F. Royle, M.D. 
1847. Second Edition, 1853. 

Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, by E. Ballard, M.D., 
and A, B. Garrod, M.D. 1845. 

Practical Pharmacy, by F. Mohr and Theophilus Redwood. 1849. 

A Translation of the New London Pharmacopo'ia, including the 
Dublin and Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias. By J. B. Nevins, M.D. 
1851. 

The Three Pharmacopoeias (London, Edinburgh, and Dublin), with 
practical remarks, by Peter Squire. 1851. 

The Bengal Dis])ensatory, by Dr. O'Shaughnessy. 1842. 

Medicines, their Uses and Mode of Administration, by Dr. Neligan. 
1844; second edition, 1847. 

The Pocket Formidary, by Henry Beasley, fifth edition, 1851. 
Tlte Druggists General Receipt Book, second edition, 1852. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 15 

WEIGHTS AND MEASUEES. 

WEaGHTS and measures are artificial standards by which the gravity 
and bulk of substances are estimated. In the first instance, some 
natural products, such as seeds, wliich were easily attainable, and the 
gTavity and dimensions of which were pretty uniform, were used as 
units, from which other denominations of weight or measure were cal- 
culated. Thus by a law passed in the fifty-first year of the reign of 
Hem-y III., a.d. 1266, it was enacted, that ''an English penny, called 
a sterling, round and without clipping, shall weigh thirty-two wheat 
corns in the midst of the ear, and twenty pence do make an ounce, 
and twelve ounces one pound, and eight pounds do make a gallon of 
Avine, and eight gallons of wine do make a London bushel, which is 
the eighth part of a quarter." The standards of weight and measure 
being arbitrary, difi-ierences liave existed between those adopted in 
different countries, and it has not unfiequently occurred that two or 
three standards have been employed in the same country. This has 
been the case in England, where the Avoirdupois, the Tro3v", the 
Tower or Saxon, and the Foil Weights, have been introduced at dif- 
ferent periods, and more or less extensively used for weighing different 
substances. 

ENGLISH WEIGHTS. 

Avoirdupois weight, according to Mr. Gray, (Elements of Prac- 
tical Phai'macy, p. 5,) was introduced to this country by the Romans, 
at the period of the first civilization of the island ; but it was then 
called anncel weight, from its being used according to the Eom.an 
custom, with the statera Momana, or steel-yard, or with the auncel, 
ansula^ or Danish steel-yard, with a fixed weight and moveable ful- 
crum. Dr. Ellis, however, in a paper published in the second volume 
of the American Journal of Pharmacy, states that the Troy and 
Avoirdupois weights were originally introduced by the Lombards, and 
the first sanctioned by law in 1496, when it was introduced in the 
composition of the gallon and bushel. In the 24 Henry VIII., 
butchers are ordered to provide beams, scales, and weights, called 
haberdepois. 

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT (Old Division) * 



Equivalents 
in Trov grains. 

6-77 

18-22 

27-34 

53-69 

437-50 



I grain English 

24= 1 scruple English . 

36= li= 1 adarme of silk . 

72= 3 = 2= 1 dram English 

576= 24 = 16= 8=1 ounce 

6912 = 288 = 192 = 96 = 12 = 1 small pound . . 5250*00 

9216 = 384 = 256 = 128 = 16 = 1 pound . . . 7000-00 

Other pounds, containing more ounces, have been in use in different 
trades and places, as that for raw silk, containing 24 ounces. The 
Koman government allowed the merchants for waste, in paying custom 
duties, 20 ounces to the pound ; so that the 100 pounds, or centenarius, 

» Gray's Elements of Pharmacy, p. 5. 



16 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



was 120 common pounds. They afterwards lowered the allowance to 
18 ounces to the pound, so that the 100 pounds was 112 common 
pounds and a half. The fraction has since been omitted, and the 
hundred- weight reckons 112 pounds. 

Although our avoirdupois weight has been said to have been derived 
from the Romans, yet there appears to be some little difference in the 
values of our pound avoirdupois and the standard of the same denomi- 
nation still kept at Rome, the Roman pound of 12 ounces being 11 troy 
grains lighter than ours. 

A different division of the pound from that above given was employed 
by the Romans, as well as a different nomenclature. The common 
traders used a set of weights in which the ounce was divided and sub- 
divided by two, as follows : — 



ROMAN WEIGHT. 



1 lens or primus 
18= 1 quadrans drachmae 



36 = 

72 = 

144 = 

288 = 

576 = 



2 = 

4 = 

8 = 

16 = 

32=: 



1 dimidium drachmse 



2 = 

4 = 

8 = 

16 = 



6912 = 364 = 192 = 



1 drachma .... 

2 = 1 sicilius, or siclus . 
4=2= 1 semiuncia, or assarius 
8 = 4 = 2= 1 uncia . 

96 = 48 = 24 = 12 = 1 libra 



Equivalents 
in Troy strains. 

6-76 
13-64 

27-28 

54-57 

109-14 

218-29 

436-58 

5239-00 

6985-00 



9216 = 712 = 256 = 128 = 64 = 32 = 16 = 1 mina or pondo 

Another division of the ounce, used by some old medical writers, 
was into sextulae and scrupuli, which latter were subdivided in imitation 
of the Attic weights, as in the following table : — 

Equivalents 
in Troy grains. 

1-13 

9-09 

18-19 

72-78 

145-56 

436-58 

5239-00 



1 chalcos ....... 

8 = 1 simplium or obolus 

2 - 1 scrupulum or gramma . 
8 = 4=1 sextula or sextans . 
16= 8= 2= 1 duella or bina sextula 
48 = 24 = 6 = 3 = 1 uncia 



16 = 
64 = 

128 = 
384 = 



4608 = 576 = 288 = 72 = 36=12=1 libra . 

The following terms are sometimes met with in old Latin medical 
and chemical works for denoting different numbers of ounces : — 

tJncia 1 ounce 

Sextans librse . . , . . . .2 

Quadras librae, or triunx . . . . .3 

Triens ........ 4 

Quincunx ........ 5 

Semis, Semissis, Semissius, Selibra, or Sembella . 6 

Septunx 7 

Bes, bessis, or des 8 

Dodrans ........ 9 

Dextans, or decunx 10 

Deunx . . . . . , . .11 



?j 
J? 

55 
5? 
5? 
55 
55 
55 
55 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 17 

The modern division of the avoirdupois pound will be found at page 
20, where it will be seen that the ounce is divided into 16 drams; 
but according to Mr. Gray, the division originally was into 8 drams 
and 16 adarms. The adarm having been, in modern times, employed 
only in the sale of silk, has become confounded with the dram. 

Troy Weight. — Some differences of opinion have been expressed, 
as to the period at which this weight was introduced into England. 
The committee upon whose report was founded the Act of 1824, for 
regulating weights and measures, state as their reason for recommend- 
ing the adoption of the troy pound as the standard unit of weight — 
"Because it is the weight best known to our law; that which hath 
been longest in use ; that by which our coins are measured ; that 
which is best known to the rest of the world ; that to which our 
learned countrymen have referred, and compared ancient and modern 
weights ; the weight which hath been divided into the smallest parts. 
On the other hand, the avoirdupois weight is of doubtful authority ; 
and, though unfit to be made a standard, yet the frequent use of it 
renders it necessary to ascertain how many ounces, pennyweights, 
and grains troy, the pound avoirdupois ought to weigh." The divi- 
sions of the troy pound, including the apothecaries' weight, are as 
follow : — 

TEOY AND APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT {Old Division). 

' 1 grain. 

6 = 1 farthing penny of silver. 

20 = 1 scruple, apothecary. 

24 = It = 1 pennyweight, or denarius. 

30 = 1^ = li = 1 farthing penny of gold. 

60 = 3 = 2^ = 1 drachm, apothecary. 

288 = 14|- = 12 = 4| = 1 shilling or solidus. 

480 = 24= 20 = 8 =1| = 1 ounce troy and apothecary. 

5760 = 288 = 240 = 96 = 20 = 12 = 1 pound troy and apothecary. 

For the sake of calculation, the gold and silversmiths divide the 
grain troy into 20 mites, the mite into 24 droits, the droit into 20 
periots, and the periot into 24 blanks. 

The shilling was more usually employed as the first division of the 
troy pound, than the ounce, which seems to have been restricted to the 
avoirdupois weight, as the name of the ore was to the first divisions of 
the Saxon pound or Danish mark. 

The modern divisions of the troy and apothecaries' pound will be 
found at page 21. 

Tower or Saxon Weight. — From an old record, it appears that 
the Tower pound counterpoised Hi ounces, or 5400 grains troy. 
The exact correspondence of 8 ounces of this weight with the mark of 
Cologne, used in most of the German mints, shows that this pound is 
the small pound of our Saxon ancestors, or that of the Easterlings, as 
being derived from Greece, through Thrace. Galen informs us that 

c 



18 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



24 Greek litras, were equal to 25 Roman libras, which is very nearly 
the proportion between this pound, and the 12 ounce avoirdupois 
pound. 

The reports of assayers refer to this small Saxon pound as the integer. 
The divisions employed in assaying gold, and formerly in weighing it. 



are the following : — 



TOWER WEIGHT {Gold). 



1 Tower grain ...... 

15 = 1 quarter carath grain, or feor tilling mancus 
60 = 4=1 carath grain or mancus 
240= 16= 4 = 1 carath or loth 
5460 = 384 = 96 = 24 = 1 Tower pound 



Equivalents in 
Troy grains 

0-98 

13-87 

55-50 

225-00 

5400-00 



In assaying silver, a different division of weights is emiDloyed, and 
although it is probable, from analogy, that the integral pound used for 
this purpose was originally the same as that used for assaying gold, 
yet as it has been divided in the same way as the troy pound, the 
integer is now supposed to refer to this latter ; and the talent, 
now called a journey (day's work) of silver, is taken as sixty pounds 
troy. 



TOWER WEIGHT {Silver). 



1 Tower grain 
24 = 1 peninga or penny 
480 = 20 = 1 ora or ounce 
5460 = 240 = 12 = 1 Tower pound 



Equivalents ia 
Troy grains. 

0-98 

22-50 

450-00 

5400-00 



Other divisions of this jDound were formerly made for weighing 
different commodities, as also another pound containing fifteen ounces. 
The whole are comprised in the followmg table : — 



TOWER WEIGHT. 



1 Tower grain ...... 

24= 1 peninga ..... 

1 mserra peninga or bener peninga 

2 = 1 mancus or drachma 
1|= 1 smaelle skylling . 
o — 



36 = 

60 = 

96 = 

120 = 

384 = 

480 = 

2400 = 100 

5460 = 240 

7200 = 300 



11 = 

4 : 



16 
20 



= 33::= 

= 4 = 
= 12| = 
= 16 = 
= 80 = 
= 192 = 



o _ li.— 



61 = 
8 = 
40 = 
96 = 



4 = 



'Zo = 
60 = 
= 240 =120 = 75 = 



1 skilling 

3i = 1 smaelle ora 

4 = 1| = 1 ora 
20 = 6 = 5 = 1 Danish marc 
48 = 15 = 12 = 1 smaelle punda 
60 = 18f= 15 = 1 punda . 



Equivalents in 
Troy grains. 
0-98 
22-50 
27-75 
65-50 
90-00 
112-50 
360-00 
450-30 
2250-00 
5400-00- 
6750-00 



Treit. — An allowance used to be made on some goods at the Custom- 
house, and also in their sale from the wholesale to the retail dealers, 
called trett. This allowance amounted to 4 lbs. in 104 lbs. ; that is. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 19 

104 lbs. were reckoned as 100 lbs., the 41bs. being allowed for trett. 
Now this 4 lbs. in 104 lbs. is just the difference between the Tower 
weight and avoirdupois weight, 104 lbs. of 15 ores Tower weight 
being equal to 100 lbs. of 16 ounces avoirdupois weight. Hence it is 
probable that this allowance was first made in consequence of the 
Tower weight being used for weighing goods at the Customhouse, 
and that the object of the allowance was to reduce this weight to the 
avoirdupois weight generally used in commerce. The practice of 
allowino; trett at the Customhouse has been for some time abolished. 
Trett has been supposed by some persons to be an allowance made on 
account of waste. 

Foil "Weight. — This was formerly used to weigh gold and sih^r 
wire, foil, and jewels ;. and its smaller divisions are still used by the 
jewellers to weigh diamonds, pearls, and precious stones. As the 
pound is nearly equal to that of Venice, which weighs 4656 troy 
grains, and as the articles for which it has been used were formerly 
imported from Venice, this weight was most likely introduced from 
thence. 

FOIL WEIGHT. 

Equivalents in 
Troy grains. 

1 sixteenth ........ 0*05 

16= 1 jeweller's grain ..... 0*80 

64 = 4 = 1 jeweller's carat .... 3*20 

404= 24= 6= 1 penny foil. . . . 19-20 

7680= 480= 120= 20= 1 ounce foil . . . 384-00 

92160 = 5760 = 1440 = 240 = 12 = 1 pound foil . . 4608-00 

The carat of this weight is derived from the seed of the kurua-treCy 
whereas the carath of the Tower pound is an Egyptian Avord, signi- 
fying the 24th part of anything, and is applied in Egypt to the 
divisions of the land into provinces, or of the larger cities into wards^ 
in the same manner as the Latin uncia is used for the 12th part of an 
integer. As the jewellers mostly deal in silver and gold, and are, 
therefore, obliged to keep the troy weight, they now use those weights 
for their jewels, but reckon 150 carats for an ounce. The sixteenths 
foil, v/hich are equal to the mites of the gold and silversmiths, are 
sometimes divided again into quarters, which are the smallest weights 
used in commerce. Some authors assert that the troy ounce is equal to 
152 carats 3 grains; in which case, of course, the carat would be equal 
to 3*152 troy grains. 

Imperial Weight. — By a law passed in the year 1824 (5 Geo. IV.y 
cap. 74,) it was enacted, ^^ That from and after the first day of May, 
" 1825, the standard brass weight of one pound troy weight, made in 
" the year 1758, now in the custody of the clerk of the House of 
" Commons, shall be, and hereby is declared to be, the original and 
'^ genuine standard measure of weight, and that such brass weight 
" shall be, and is hereby denominated the imperial standard troy 

c 2 



20 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

*' POUND, and shall be, and the same is hereby declared to be, the unit 
" or only standard measure of weight, from which all other weights 
*' shall be derived, computed, and ascertained; and that one-twelfth 
" part of the said troy pound shall be an ounce ; and that one 
*' twentieth part of such ounce shall be a pennyweight ; and that one 
*' twenty-fourth part of such pennyweight shall be a grain ; so that 
^' 5760 such grains shall be a troy pound ; and that 7000 such grains 
" shall be, and they are hereby declared to be, a pound avoirdupois ; 
" and that one-sixteenth part of the said pound avoirdupois shall be an 
" ounce avoirdupois; and that one-sixteenth part of such ounce shall be 
'' a dram." 

" And whereas it is expedient that the said standard troy pound, if 
" lost, destroyed, defaced, or otherwise injured, should be restored of 
^' the same weight, by reference to some invariable natural standard ; 
'' and whereas it has been ascertained, by the commissioners appointed 
" by his Majesty to inquire into the subjects of weights and measures, 
" that a cubic inch of distilled water, weighed in air by brass weights, 
" at the temperature of 62^ of Fahrenheit's thermometer, the barometer 
*' being at 30 inches, is equal to two hundred and fifty-two grains, and 
" four hundred and fifty-eight thousandth part of a grain, of which, as 
" aforesaid, the imperial standard troy pound contains 5760 ; be it 
" therefore enacted, that if at any time hereafter the said imperial 
" standard troy pound shall be lost, or shall be in any manner destroyed, 
*' defaced, or otherwise injured, it shall and maybe restored by making, 
'' under the direction of the Lord High Treasurer, or the Commissioners 
" of his Majesty's Treasury of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
" and Ireland, or any three of them for the time being, a new standard 
" troy pound, bearing the same proportion to the weight of a cubic inch 
" of distilled water, as the said standard pound hereby established bears 
^' to such cubic inch of water." 

And by a law passed in the year 1835, (5 & 6 Gulielmi IV., cap. 
63,) the use of any other Aveights besides those above described, and 
the apothecaries' weight, is rendered illegal, and it is enacted, " That 
" from and after the passing of this act, all articles sold by weight 
*' shall be sold by avoirdupois weight, except gold, silver, platina, 
" diamonds, or other precious stones, which may be sold by troy weight, 
*' and drugs, which, when sold by retail, may be sold by apothecaries' 
*' weight." 

The following, then, are the three kinds of weight now recognised by 
law in this country : — 

AVOIRDUPOIS, OR IMPERIAL WEIGHT. 

Equivalents in 
Troy grains. 

1 dram 27*34375 

16= 1 ounce 437*5 

256= 16= 1 pound 7000- 

3584= 224= 14= 1 stone . . . 98000' 

28672= 1792= 112= 8= 1 hundred weight . 784000- 

473440 = 35840 = 2240 = 160 = 20 = 1 ton . . 15680000- 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 21 

TROY WEIGHT. 

1 grain. 
24 = 1 pennyweight. 
480 = 20 = 1 ounce. 
5760 = 240 = 12 = 1 pound. 

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. 

(^Adopted by the London and Edinburgh Colleges.') 

Symbols. 

1 srrain ...... gr. 



20= 1 scruple 
60 = 3=1 drachm 
480 = 24 = 8 = 1 ounce . 
5760 = 288 = 96 = 12 = 1 pound 



9 
3 



The Dublin College of Physicians, in their Pharmacopoeia of 1850, 
rejected the troy pound and its sub-multiples, and substituted the avoir- 
dupois or imperial pound, of 7000 grains, making, however, a new 
division of this weight, coinciding with that of the apothecaries' weight, 



as shown in the following table : — 



DUBLIN WEIGHTS. 

{Adopted by the Duhli7i College, in their Pharmacopceia of 1850.) 

Symbols. 
1 grain ...... gr. 

18-22= 1 scruple .... 9 

54-68 = 3 = 1 drachm ... 3 

437-5 = 24 = 8=1 ounce . . § 

7000- =384 = 128 = 16=1 pound . lb 

The apothecaries' weight is that alone the use of which is recognised 
by the London and Edinburgh Colleges of Physicians, in the preparation 
or dispensing of medicines, either according to the Pharmacopoeia, or 
extemporaneous prescriptions. It is not, however, customary for phar- 
maceutical chemists to keep any large weights of this description ; and, 
therefore, in preparing medicines on the large scale, it is necessary to 
calculate the equivalents of the weights ordered in avoirdupois weight, 
the latter being the only kind of large weights generally used. The 
following table has been prepared for the purpose of facilitating such 
calculations : — 



22 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



EQUIVALENTS IN TROY AND AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 





Trot. 


AvoiRDurois. 


Troy P'rains. 
















J t» 


lbs. 


oz. 


drs. 


grs. 


lbs. 


oz. 


2;vs. 


60 






1 








60 


120 






2 








120 


240 






4 








240 


437-5 






7 


17-5 




1 




480 




1 








1 


42'5 


875 




1 


6 


35 




2 




960 




2 








2 


85 


1312-5 




2 


5 


52-5 




3 




1440 




3 








3 


127-5 


1750 




3 


5 


10 




4 




1920 




4 








4 


170 


2187-5 




4 


4 


27-5 




5 




2400 




5 








5 


212-5 


2625 




5 


3 


45 




6 




2880 




6 








6 


255 


3062-5 




6 


3 


2-5 




7 




3360 




i 








7 


297-5 


3500 




7 


2 


20 




8 „ 




3840 




8 








8 


340 


3937-5 




8 


1 


37-5 




9 




4320 




9 








9 


382-5 


4375 




9 





55 




10 




4800 




10 








10 


425 


4812-5 




10 




12-5 




11 




5250 




10 


7 


30 




12 




5280 




11 








12 


30 


5687-5 




11 


6 


47-5 




13 




5760 












13 


72-5 


6125 







6 


5 




14 




6562-5 




1 


5 


22-5 




15 




7000 




2 


4 


40 








7680 




4 








1 


242-5 


9600 




8 








5 


422-5 


10500 




9 


7 






8 




11520 


2 










10 


145 


14000 


2 


5 


1 


20 


2 






17280 


3 








2 


7 


217-5 


21000 


3 


7. 


6 





3 






23040 


4 








3 


4 


290 


28000 


4 


10 


2 


40 


4 






28800 


5 








4 


1 


362-5 


34560 


6 








4 


14 


435 


35000 


6 





7 


20 


5 






40320 


7 








5 


12 


70 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 23 

EQUIVALENTS IN TROY AND AVOIRDUPOIS "WEIGHT. 





Troy. 


AVOIRDDPOIS. 


Troy grains. 


lbs. 


oz. 


di'S. 


grs. 


lbs. 


oz. 


grs. 


42000 


7 


3 


4 





6 






46080 


8 








6 


9 


142-5 


49000 


8 


6 





40 


7 






51840 


9 








7 


6 


215 


56000 


9 


8 


5 


20 


8 






57600 


10 








8 


3 


287-5 


63000 


10 


11 


2 





9 






63360 


11 








9 





360 


69120 


12 








9 


13 


432-5 


70000 


12 


1 


6 


40 


10 






74880 


13 








10 


11 


67-5 


77000 


13 


4 


3 


20 


11 






80640 


14 








11 


8 


140 


84000 


14 


7 








12 






86400 


15 








12 


5 


212-5 


91000 


15 


9 


4 


40 


13 






92160 


16 








13 


2 


285 


97920 


17 








13 


15 


357-5 


98000 


17 





1 


20 


14 






103680 


18 








14 


12 


430 


105000 


18 


2 


6 





15 






109440 


19 








15 


10 


66 


112000 


19 


5 


2 


40 


16 






115200 


20 








16 


7 


137-5 


119000 


20 


7 


7 


20 


17 






120960 


21 








17 


4 


210 


126000 


21 


10 


4 





18 






126720 


22 








18 


1 


282-5 


132480 


23 








18 


14 


355 


133000 


23 


1 





40 


19 






138240 


24 








19 


11 


427-5 


140000 


24 


3 


5 


20 


20 






144000 


25 








20 


9 


62-6 


147000 


26 


6 


2 





21 






149760 


26 








21 


6 


135 


154000 


2Q 


8 


6 


40 


22 






155520 


27 








22 


3 


207-5 


161000 


27 


11 


3 


20 


23 






161280 


28 








23 





280 


167040 


29 








23 


13 


352-5 


168000 


29 


2 








24 






172800 


30 








24 


10 


425 


175000 


30 


4 


4 


40 


26 






178560 


31 








26 


8 


59 


182000 


31 


7 


1 


20 


26 







24 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



EQUIVALENTS IN TROY AND AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 





Troy. 


Avoirdupois. 


Troy grains. 


lbs. 


oz. 


drs. 


grs. 


lbs. 


oz. 


grs. 


184320 


32 








26 


5 


131-5 


189000 


32 


9 


6 





27 






190080 


33 








27 


2 


204 


195840 


34 








27 


15 


276-5 


196000 


34 





2 


40 


28 






201600 


35 








28 


12 


149 


203000 


35 


2 


7 


20 


29 






207360 


36 








29 


9 


421-5 


210000 


36 


5 


4 





30 






230400 


40 








32 


14 


275 


280000 


48 


7 


2 


40 


40 






288000 


50 








41 


2 


125 


345600 


60 








49 


5 


412-5 


350000 


60 


9 


1 


20 


50 






403200 


70 








57 


9 


262-5 


420000 


72 


11 








60 






460800 


80 








65 


13 


113 


490000 


85 





6 


40 


70 






518400 


90 








74 





400-5 


560000 


97 


2 


5 


20 


80 






576000 


100 








82 


4 


250-5 


630000 


109 


4 


4 





90 






645120 


112 








92 


2 


245 


700000 


121 


6 


2 


40 


100 






784000 


136 


1 


2 


40 


112 







FOREIGN WEIGHTS. 

French Weights. — Previous to the revolution of 1789, the weight 
called ^' poids de marc^^ the unit of which was the pound of Charle- 
magne, was that ahnost exclusively used in France. This was divided 
in the following manner : — 

OLD FRENCH WEIGHT. 



Equivalents in 
English troy grains. 


Equivalents in 
French grammes 


1 grain 0-8203 




0-0531 


24= 1 scruple 19-687 




1-274 


72= 3= 1 gros or dragme . . . 59' 070 
576= 24= 8= 1 once .... 472-562 




3-824 
30-594 


4608 = 192= 64= 8 = 1 marc . . . 3780-500 




244-750 


6612 = 288= 96 = 12 = 1 livre medicinal. . 5670-750 




367-125 


9216 = 384 = 128 = 16 = 1 |"^"^T;'^^^''M . 7561-000 " . 
1^ or poid de marc j 




489-500 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



25 



During the progress of the revolution, a new system of weights and 
measures was introduced by the government, which has been called 
the decimal system. According to this system the ten-millionth part 
of a quarter of the meridian of the earth is taken as the unit from which 
all other measures are calculated. This unit is called the onetre (from 
fxirpov, measure). It is divided into ten parts, each of which is called a 
decimetre ; and this is again divided into ten parts, each of which is 
called a centimetre. A cubic decimetre is taken as the unit of measures 
of capacity, and is called a litre. A cubic centimetre of distilled water, 
at its maximum density, that is, at a temperature of 39*5^ Fahrenheit, 
is the unit of weights, and is called a gramme. There is some discre- 
pancy in the value assigned to the gramme by different authors, as 
expressed in relation to English weights. It is sometimes repre- 
sented = 15*44242 Troy grains, but these numbers are too high. In 
the previous edition of this work, the gramme was described as = 15'434 
grains, this value having been assigned to it from experiments made at 
our Mint. The subject has been more recently and accurately investi- 
gated by Professor Miller, of Cambridge, who has found the kilogramme 
to be = 15432*3488 grains, of which the English standard pound 
contains TOOO'OOO. 

In the following table the French decimal weights are given, with 
their equivalents in English troy and avoirdupois weights : — 



French Decimal Weight. 


English Weights. 


a; 

s 

2 

Si 


6 
S 

1 


g 
1 


o 

s 
s 


6 


s 


6 

s 

i 


0^ 

i 


Equivalents 
in Troy 

Wpio-ht 


Equivalents 

in 
Avoirdupois 


Equivalents 


bo 

O 


be 


O 




s 


bo 


bO 






Weight. 


in 
Troy Grains » 


^ 


o 


o 


o 


rt 


o 


s 








. 1 




>^ • 


>■> 




<v 


o 


h 


ai 






rn 




03 [ W 


en 


O OQ 




g 


i4 


M 
tM 


ft 


o 


ft 


6 


S 


£ 


o 


T3 : 6C 


1 


a bO 


















1 
















•0154 














1 


10 
















•1543 












1 


10 


100 








1-5 






1-5 


1-5432 










1 


10 


100 


1000 








15-4 






15-4 


15-432 








1 


10 


100 


1000 


10000 






2, 34 






154 


154-323 






1 


10 


100 


1000 


10000 


100000 




3 


ll 43 




3 230-7 


1543-234 




i 


10 


100 


1000 


10000 


100000 


lOOOOOO 


2 


8 


11 12 


2 


3 119-8 


15432-348 


1 


10 


100 


1000 


10000 


100000 


1000000 


10000000 


26 


9 


4' 3 


22 





323-4 


154323-488 



A table for converting French decimal weights into English weights 
is given at page 35. 

Several laws have been passed, at different periods, to render the 
decimal system of weights and measures obligatory througliout France^ 
but for many years it was found impossible to overcome the prejudices 
of the people in favour of the old system. 

In 1812 an attempt was made to amalgamate the old and new 
systems, by altering the old pound, or livre, making it equal to the half 
kilogramme, taking this as the unit, and calculating the other divisions 
from this, according to the old nomenclature. The following table 
contains this system of weights, with the equivalents in French grammes, 
and in English avoirdupois weight. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

FRENCH WEIGHTS OF 1812. 



nch weights 




Decimal weight 




English 


avoii 


rdupois. 


of 1812. 




grammes. 




lb. ■ 


oz. 


drs. 


gi-ains. 


1 livre 


= 


500 


= 


1 


1 


10 


11-07 


i „ 


= 


250 


= 




8 


13 


5-53 


I „ 


= 


125 


= 




4 


6 


16-18 


2 once 


= 


62-5 


= 




2 


3 


8-9 


1 ,, 


= 


31-25 


= 




1 


1 


17-71 


* ,, 


= 


\6-626 


= 






8 


22-52 


2 gros 


= 


7-812 


= 






4 


11-26 


1 ^, 


= 


3-906 


= 






2 


5-63 


i ,,. 


= 


1-9021 


= 






1 


2-81 


1 grain 


= 


0-0542 


= 








0-90 



The adoption of this system was not made obligatory upon the 
pharmaciens by law until the year 1827 ; and indeed it appears never 
to have been generally adopted, the greatest confusion having pre- 
vailed •with regard to the weights and measures used in the prepara- 
tion of medicine^ as well as in commerce generally, up to the year 
1840. In July 1837, a law was passed which definitively abolished the 
use of all other weights and measures, excepting those of the decimal 
system, from and after August 1840. The Decimal Weight, there- 
fore, is now the only one permitted to be used throughout France. 

The Medicinal Weights, used in the principal countries in con- 
tinental Europe, are represented in the following tables,* the third of 
M'hich gives the equivalents in English troy grains, according to the 
calculations of Soubeiran and Christison : — 

1. SPANISH, TUSCAN, ROMAN, AND OLD FRENCH 
MEDICAL WEIGHTS. 

1 grain. 
24 = 1 scruple. 
72 = 3=1 drachm. 
576 = 24 = 8 = 1 ounce. 
6912 = 288 - 96 - 12 = 1 pound. 

2. AUSTRIAN, GERMAN, RUSSIAN, PRUSSIAN, DUTCH, BELGIAN, SWEDISH, 
PIEDMONTESE, AND VENETIAN MEDICINAL WEIGHTS. 

1 grain. 
20 = 1 scruple. 
60 = 3=1 drachm. 
480 = 24 = 8 = 1 ounce. 
5760 = 288 = 96 = 12 = 1 pound. 

The value of the grain in several of the above countries differs, as 
will be seen in the follow ing table : — 



WEIGHTS AND MEASUEES. 



27 



VALUE OF CONTINENTAL MEDICINAL WEIGHTS IN TROY GRAINS. 



French, (Old) 

Spanish 

Tuscan 

Roman 

Austrian 

German 

Russian 

Prussian 

Butch 

Belgian 

Swedish 

Piedmontese 

Venetian 



Pound. 



5670-7 
5320-4 
5240-3 
5235-0 
6495-1 
5524-8 
5524-8 
5415-1 
5695-8 
5695 - 8 
5500-2 
4744-7 
4661-4 



Ounce. 


Dram. 


472-50 


59-07 


443 


49 


55 


44 


436 


67 


54 


58 


436 


25 


54 


53 


541 


25 


67 


65 


460 


40 


57 


55 


460 


40 


57 


55 


451 


26 


56 


40 


474 


64 


59 


33 


474 


64 


59 


•33 


458 


34 


57 


•29 


395 


39 


49 


•45 


388 


45 


48 


55 



Sci'uple consisting of 
24 grains. 20 grains. 



19-68 
18-47 
18-19 
18-17 



22-55 
19-18 
19-18 
18-80 
19-78 
19-78 
19-09 
16-48 
16-18 



Grain. 



-820 
•769 
-758 
•757 
•127 
•960 
-960 
•940 
•988 
•988 
•954 
-824 
•809 



Weights in Use in British India.* — The unit of the British 
Indian ponderary system is called the tola. It weighs 180 grains 
English troy weight. From it upwards are derived the heavy weights, 
viz., chiiak, seer, and mun, or maund ; and by its subdivision the 
small, or jeweller's weights, called mashas, ruttees, and dhans. 

In the following table, the equivalents for these are given in troy 



weight 



BRITISH INDIAN WEIGHTS. 



1 dhan 
4 = 

'>. — 



384 = 
1920 = 

30720 =: 



1 ruttee .... 

8 = 1 masha . 

96 = 12 = 1 tola or rupee 
480 = 60 = 5=1 chitak 
7680 = 960 = 80 = 16 = 1 seer 



lb. 
2 

153600 = 38400 = 4800 = 400 = 80 = 5 = 1 pusseree 12 
1228800 =307200 =38400 =3200 =640 =40 = 8 = 1 mun 100 



Equivalents ia 

Troy weight. 
•4687 
1-875 

. 15- 

. 180- 
oz. 900- 

6 

6 





The mun (or that weight to which it closely accords in value, and 
to which it is legally equivalent in the new scale) has been hitherto 
better known among Europeans by the name oi bazaar maund; but 
upon its general adoption, under regulation vii., 1833, for all trans- 
actions of the British government, it should be denominated the British 
maundy (in the Hindee, Ungrezee mun,) to distinguish it at once from 
all other weights in use throughout the country. 

The seer being the commonest v/eight in use in the Indian bazaar, 
and being liable, according to the pernicious system hitherto prevalent, 

* O'Shaughnessy's Bengal Dispensatory, from Princep's Useful Tables, and Sushton's 
Bengal and Agra Gazetteer. 



■'^- 



28 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

to vary in weight for every article sold, as well as for every market, is 
generally in native mercantile dealings referred to the common unit for 
distinction, as " the seer of so many tolas" (or siccas, barees, takas, 
&c.) The standard, or bazaar seer, is always eighty tolas. 

The tola is chiefly used in weighing the precious metals and 
coin. All bullion at the mints is received by this denomination of 
weight. 

The following is the system of weights to be adopted in the forth- 
coming Bengal, Pharmacopceia. 

" To ensure perfect uniformity in the preparation and doses of 
medicines, and at the same time to provide a standard universally and 
easily obtained, we have adopted as the basis of our system, both of 
weights and measures, the Honourable East India Company's new 
rupee. 

*' By numerous experiments it has been ascertained that the new 
rupee or tola^ as found in circulation, is exactly equal to 180 English 
pharmaceutical grains. 

" The half rupee and quarter rupee (silver) of the new currency are 
equal to 90 and 45 grains each. 

" The new copper jozce is equal to 100 grains. 

" The quarter rupee (silver) we divide into 45 equal parts, each 
termed one grain." 

" Having thus derived the grain weight equivalent to one grain 
troy, other denominations of weights are formed, corresponding with 
the English apothecaries' weight, which weights are to be used in dis- 
pensing medicines." 

OTHER FOREIGN WEIGHTS. 

Tchegy, the pound by which drugs are sold in Turkey = 4957 
English grains. It is divided into 100 drachms ; each drachm into 
16 killos ; and each killo into 4 grains. 

Loth, in Germany = i an ounce. 

Obolo (Spanish), = ^ a Spanish scruple ; 3 silicua = 1 obolo ; 
4 grains = 1 silicua. 



ENGLISH MEASURES. 

Before the passing of the Act, 5th & 6th William IV. cap. 63, in 
1835, there were several measures of extension and capacity employed 
in this country. Laws had frequently been passed, from an early 
period in our history, for the regulation of these, in common with 
weights. King Henry I. commanded that the ulna, or ancient ell, 
which answers to the modern yard, should be made of the exact 
length of his own arm ; and by the statute called " Compositio 
Ulnarum et Perticarum," it was enacted that three grains of barley 
make one inch; 12 inches one foot; 3 feet one yard; and 5^ yards 
one perch. 



^"^^ J: 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 29 









LONG MEASURE. 




1 inch. 






12 = 


1 


foot. 




36 = 


3 


= 1 yard. 




72 = 


6 


2=1 fathom. 




198 = 


16J 


r = 5^ = 1 pole, perch, or rod. 




7920 = 


660 


' = 220^ = 40 = 1 furlong. 




63360 = 


5280 


= 1760 =320= 8 = 1 mile. 




190080 = 


15840 


= 5280 = 960 = 24 = 3 = 1 league. 
CORN MEASURE. 


1 


pint. 






2 


= 1 quart. 




4 


2 = 


1 pottle. 


8 


4 = 


2 = 


1 gallon. 


16 


8 = 


4 = 


2 = 1 peck. 


64 


= 32 = 


16 = 


8 = 4=1 bushel. 


512 


= 256 = 


128 = 


64 = 32 = 8 = 1 quarter. 


2560 


= 1280 = 


640 = 320 = 160 = 40 = 5 = 1 load, wey, or ton. 



5120 = 2560 = 1280 = 640 = 320 = 80 = 10 = 2 = 1 last. 

The gallon of this measure contains 268*8 cubic inches, and the 
bushel, which was called the Winchester bushel, 2150-42 cubic inches. 

ALE AND BEER MEASURE. 

1 pint. 

2 = 1 quart. 

8 = 4 = 1 gallon. 

288 = 144 = 36 = 1 barrel. 

432 = 216 = 54 = U= 1 hogshead. 

576 = 288 = 72 = 2 = 14-= 1 puncheon. 

864 = 432 = 108 = 3 = 2 = 14 = 1 butt. 

1728 = 864 = 208 = 6 = 4 = 3i = 2 = 1 tun. 



The sfallon of this measure contains 282 cubic inches. 

WINE MEASURE. 
1 pint. 
' 2 = 1 quart. 

8 = 4 = 1 gallon. 
336 = 168 = 42 = 1 tierce. 
504 = 252 = 63 = U= 1 hogshead. 
672 = 336 = 84 = 2 = li= 1 puncheon. 
1008 = 504 = 126 = 3 = 2 = 1^= 1 pipe or butt. 
2016 = 1008 = 252 = 6=4=3 =2=1 ton. 

The gallon of this measure contains 231 cubic inches. The wine 
gallon and ale gallon have the same proportion to each other that the 
troy pound and avoirdupois pound have. 



30 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

Imperial Measure. — By the Act, 5th Geo. IV. cap. 74, already- 
referred to, it is enacted, " That from and after the first day of May, 
1825, the straight line or distance between the centres of the two 
points in the gold studs in the straight brass rod, now in the custody 
of the Clerk of the House of Commons, wliereon the words and figures, 
'standard yard, 1760,' are engraved, shall be, and the same is hereby 
declared to be the original and genuine standard of that measure of 
length or lineal extension called a yard ; and that the same straight 
line or distance between the centres of the said two points in the 
said gold studs in the said brass rod, the brass being at the tempera- 
ture of 62 degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer, shall be, and is 
hereby denominated, the 'imperial standard yard;' and shall be and 
is hereby declared to be the unit or only standard measure of exten- 
sion, wherefrom or whereby all other measures of extension whatso- 
ever, whether the same be lineal, superficial, or solid, shall be derived, 
computed, and ascertained ; and that all measures of length shall be 
taken in parts or multiples, or certain proportions of the said standard 
yard ; and that one-third part of the said standard yard shall be a 
foot, and the twelfth part of such foot shall be an inch ; and tliat the 
pole or perch in length shall contain 5 J such yards, the fiirlong 220 
such yards, and the mile 1760 such yards." 

" And whereas it is expedient that the said standard yard, if lost, 
destroyed, defaced, or otherwise injured, should be restored of the 
same length, by reference to some invariable natural standard : and 
whereas it has been ascertained by the Commissioners appointed by 
his Majesty to inquire into the subject of weights and measures, that 
the said yard hereby declared to be the imperial standard yard, 
when compared with a pendulum vibrating seconds of mean time ia 
the latitude of London, in a vacuum at the level of the sea, is in the 
proportion of thirty-six inches to thirty-nine inches and one thousand 
three hundred and ninety-three ten thousandth parts of an inch; 
(36 : 39-1393) ; be it therefore enacted and declared, that if at any 
time hereafter the said imperial standard yard shall be lost, or shall 
be in any manner destroyed, defaced, or otherwise injured, it shall 
and may be restored by making, under the direction of the Lord 
High Treasurer, or the Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, or any three of 
them, for the time being, a new standard yard, bearing the same pro- 
portion to such i^endulum as aforesaid, as the said imperial standard 
yard bears to such pendulum." 

" And be it further enacted, that from and after the first day of 
May, 1825, the standard measure of capacity, as well for liquids as 
for dry goods not measured by heaped measure, shall be the gallon, 
containing ten pounds avoirdupois weight of distilled water weighed 
in air, at the temperature of 62° Fahr., the barometer being at 
thirty inches ; and that a measure shall be forthwith made of brass, 
of such contents as aforesaid, under tlie directions of the Lord High 
Treasurer, or the Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury of the 
United Kingdom, or any three or more of them, for the time being ; 
and such brass measure shall be, and is hereby declared to be, the 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 31 

imperial standard gallon, and shall be, and is hereby declared to be, 
the unit and only standard measure of capacity, from which all 
other measures of capacity to be used, as well for wine, beer, ale, 
spirits, and all sorts of liquids, as for dry goods not measured by 
heaped measure, shall be derived, computed, and ascertained ; and 
that all measures shall be taken in parts or multiples, or certain 
proportions of the said imperial standard gallon ; and that the quart 
shall be the fourth part of such standard gallon, and the pint shall 
be one-eighth of such standard gallon, and that two such gallons 
shall be a peck, and eight such gallons shall be a bushel, and eight 
such bushels a quarter of corn or other dry goods, not measured by 
heaped measure." 
And by the Act passed in September, 1835 (5th and 6th William 

IV. cap. 63), it is enacted, " That from and after the passing of this 
Act, the measure called the Winchester bushel, and the lineal 
measure called the Scotch ell, and all local or customary measures, 
shall be abolished ; and every person who shall sell by any deno- 
mination of measure other than one of the imperial measures, or 
some multiple, or some aliquot part, such as half, the quarter, the 
eighth, the sixteenth, or the thirty-second parts thereof, shall, on 
conviction, be liable to a penalty not exceeding the sum of forty 
shillings for every such sale : provided always that nothing herein 
contained shall prevent the sale of any articles in any vessel, where 
such vessel is not represented as containing any amount of imperial 
measure, or of any fixed, local, or customary measure heretofore in 
use." 
In the adoption of the new imperial measure, there is no exception 

made for medicines, as in the case of weights ; and the use of any 

other than the imperial measure is therefore illegal in the sale of these 

as well as every other article of commerce. 

IMPEEIAL MEASURE. 

Equivalents in Equivalents in 
Avoirdupois weight. Troy weight. 

Of distilled water at 62° Fahi-enheit, 

1 pint 1-25 lb 8750 grains. 

. 2= 1 quart ... 2-5 „ 17500 

8 = 4=1 gallon . . 10- „ 70000 

16= 8= 2= 1 peck . . 20- „ 140000 

64 = 32 = 8 = 4=1 bushel . 80- „ 560000 

512 = 256 = 64 = 32 = 8 - 1 quarter 640- „ 4480000 

APOTHECAEIES' MEASUEE. 
(Adopted by the London and Edinburgh Colleges). 

Equivalents in 
Troy grains. ^ 

1 minim . . . . . , . . 0*91 

60 = 1 fluidrachm 54-7 

480 = 8 = 1 fluidounce 437*5 

9600= 160= 20=1 pint 8750- 

76800 = 1280=160 = 8 = 1 gallon .... 70000* 



32 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



APOTHECARIES' MEASURE. 
(Adopted by the Dublin College, in their Pharmacopoeia of 1826.) 



Equivalents in Troy- 
grains of distilled 
water at 60° Fahr. 
(Dublin Pharm., 1826.) 

1 grain very nearly 
19 



57 
456-5 
7291- 
58327-5 



Equivalents in 
Troy grains. 
(Christison's 

Dispensatory.) 

0-95 g 
18-948 
56-95 
455-6075 

7289-725 
58317-798 



1 grain measure 
1 scruple measure 
1 drachm measure 
1 ounce measure 
1 pint measure 
1 gallon measure 

The Dublin College direct, that wherever the term Libra occurs in 
their Pharmacopceia of 1826, as applied to liquids, it is to be understood 
as a pint by measure. 

APOTHECARIES' MEASURE. 

(Adopted by the Dublin College, in their Pharmacopxsia of 1850.) 

Symbols. 



1 minim ..... 
20 = 1 fluid scruple . 
60 = 3 = 1 fluid drachm 
480 = 24 - 8 = 1 fluid ounce . 
9600= 480- 160- 20-1 pint . 
76800 = 3840 - 1280 = 160 - 8 = 1 gallon 



ni 

fl9 

o 
c 



" The term libra, which properly signifies a pound, has been also 
used to designate a pint; but as the imperial pint of water weighs IJ 
pound, such application of the term is no longer proper." — Dublin 
Pharmacopoeia^ 1850. 

Relation between the Old, or Wine Measure, formerly used in Medi- 
cine, and the New or Imperial Measure. 



1 gallon 
1 quart 
1 pint 
16 ounces 
1 ounce 



1 gallon 
1 quart 
1 pint 
16 ounces 
1 ounce 



WIXE MEASURE. 

Equivalents in 
cubic inches. 

- 231- 

rh^ ^ - ■ 

= Of ID ■- 

28-875 
28-875 
1-8046 : 

IMPERIAL MEASURE. 

Equivalents in 
cubic inches. 

= 277-274 
69-3185 
34-65925 
27-72740 
1-73296 



Equivalents in Troy 

grains of distilled 

water at 60° Fahr. 

58317-798 
14579-4495 
7289-72475 
7289-72475 
455-6075 

Equivalents in 
Troy grains of 
distilled water 
at 62° Fahr. 

70000 
17500 

8750 

7000 

437-5 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 33 

The weight of 1 cubic inch of distilled water weighed in air at 62^ 
Fahr. is stated in the Act of Parliament (see page 20) to be 252-458 
Troy grains ; but this is probably not strictly correct. 



FOREIGN MEASURES. 

OLD FRENCH MEASURE, CALLED PARIS LONG MEASURE. 
The French toise = 6-3945 English feet. 



The Paris royal foot of 12 inches 
The inch .... 
The line, or -^ of an inch 



The y 2- of a line 



= 12-7895 English inches. 

= 1-0657 

= -0888 

= -0074 



To reduce Paris feet or inches into English, multiply by 1 1.0^1/^077 
To convert English feet or inches into Paris, divide by j 
To reduce Paris cubic feet or inches to English, multiply by 1 , .g, , ^^^ 
To convert English cubic feet or inches to Paris, divide by J 



OLD FRENCH MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 


Poisson 


= 


3-631 English cubic inches. 


Paris pint 


= 


58-145 „ 


Litron 


= 


49-617 „ 


Boisseau 


=: 


793-856 „ „ 


Minot 


= 


1-378 cubic feet. 


Mine 


= 


2-756 „ 


Setier 


=: 


5-512 „ 


Muid 


= 


66-146 „ 



To reduce the Paris pint to the English imperial] 

pint, divide by ' 1-677618 

To convert the English imperial pint to the Paris ( 
pint, multiply by . . . , . j 

FOREIGN MEASURES. 
Kanne, or Mass, (Austria) = 1-415 litres. 



Kanna, (Sweden) 


= 2-62 


?) 


Mass, (Wurtemburg) 


= 1-837 


?> 


Pott, (Denmark) 


=: 0-9653 


J? 


Arroba, (Spain) 


= 16-073 


5) 


Almude, (Portugal) 


= 16-451 


55 


Quart, (Prussia) 


= 1-145 


5) 


Barile, (Naples) 


= 43-621 


5? 


Do., (Rome) 


= 58-341 


?J 


Do., (Tuscany) 


= 45-584 


55 


Wedro, (Russia) 


= 12-29 


J5 



NEW FRENCH MEASURES, CALLED THE DECIMAL MEASURES. 

The use of any other measures but these was made illegal by the law 
passed in 1837, and which came into operation in January, 1840. 



34 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



FRENCH MEASURES OF LENGTH. 
{The French measure being at 32° Fah\, mid the English at 62° Fahr.^ 



English inches. 










Millimetre = -03937 




Enoflish Lono- Mfiasm-p. 




Centimetre - "39371 ^^- 










Decimetre = 3*93708 n^iles. 


furls. yards. 


feet. 


inches 


Metre = 39*37079 = 





1 





3*7 


Decametre = 393*70790 = 





10 


2 


9*7 


Hectometre = 3937*07900 = 





109 


1 


1 


Kilometre = 39370*79000 = 





4 213 


1 


10 



Myriametre =393707*90000 = 6 



156 











FRENCH MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



English Apothecaries' Measure. 





English 
cubic inches. 


^diT" 


pts. 


ozs. 


di's. 


m. 


Millitre . 


*0610 










16*9 


Centilitre 


•6103 








2 


50 


Decilitre 


6*1027 






3 


4 


13 


Litre 


61*027 




1 


15 


2 


11 


Decalitre 


610*27 


2 


1 


12 


5 


51 


Hectolitre 


6102*7 


22 





7 


3 


8 


Kilolitre 


. 61027- 


220 


3 


13 




30 


Myrialitre 


. 610270* 


2204 


4 


10 


3 





The annexed table is used in the same way as the tables given in works 
on Analytical Chemistry. The figures in the first horizontal line repre- 
sent the number of any denomination of French measures or weights 
(expressed in capitals in the first vertical column), the equivalents for 
which in English measures or weights are required. The figures 
opposite the several denominations of English measures or weights 
are the equivalents for the French measures or weights, and each 
vertical column gives the several values of the number of French 
measures or weights indicated by the figure at the top of the column. 
Thus, 1 metre = 1*09363 English yards, or 3*28090 feet, or 39*37080 
inches. 2 decimetres = 0*65618 feet. 4 litres = 7*04531 pints. 5 
kilogrammes = 77161*7440 grains. 1 gramme = 15-4323488 grains, &c. 
The nine columns of numbers, therefore, give the values, respectively, 
of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, of each of the denominations of French 
measures or weights specified. If it be required to ^et the values of 
10, 20, 30, 40, &c., instead of 1,2, 3, 4, &c., of any denomination of 
French measure or weight, it is only necessary, in the line of figures 
in which the values are expressed, to remove the decimal point over one 
figure towards the right hand. Thus the value of 10 metres is 10*9363 
yards, and the value of 20 decimetres is 6*5618 feet. In this way the 
units may be converted into tens, hundreds, &c., by shifting the decimal 
point towards the right. In like manner the whole numbers may be 
converted into decimals, and their values ascertained by shifting the 
decimal point towards the left hand. An illustration will render the 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



35^ 


















CI 


CI 




o o o 


1—1 1—1 


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T-l 1—1 


1—1 






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lO CO 


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oo »c 


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1-1 CI 


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36 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



mode of using the table evident. Let it be required to give the value 
of 461*32 grammes in English grains. The table shows that 4 
grammes are = 61*7293752 grains. Now, by moving the decimal 
point over two figures towards the right hand, we get the value of 
400 grammes, and by shifting the decimal jooint over one figure, in 
the numbers representing the value of 6 grammes, we get the value 



of 60 grammes. We 

400* 
60- 
1* 
•3 
•02 


thus get t 
grammes 


le result as follows : — 

= 6172-93752 grains 

= 925*94090 „ 

15*43234 „ 

4-62970 „ 

-30864 „ 


461*32 


= 7119*24910 



BAROMETER SCALE IN MILLIMETRES AND INCHES. 



Mil 



Inches. 



700 
701 
702 
703 
704 
705 
706 
707 
708 
709 

710 
711 
712 
713 
714 
715 
716 
717 
718 
719 

720 
721 
722 
723 
724 
725 
726 
727 
728 
729 



Milm. 



Inches. 



Milm. 



27- 


560 


27- 


590 


27 


638 


27- 


678 


27 


717 


27- 


756 


27 


795 


27 


835 


27- 


876 


27 


914 


27 


953 


27 


992 


28 


032 


28 


•071 


28 


•111 


28 


150 


28 


•189 


28 


•229 


28 


•268 


28 


•308 


28 


•347 


28 


-386 


28 


•426 


28 


•465 


28 


•504 


28 


543 


28 


-583 


28 


•622 


28 


661 


28 


•701 



730 
731 
732 
733 
734 
735 
736 
737 
738 
739 

740 
741 
742 
743 
744 
745 
746 
747 
748 
749 

750 
751 
752 
753 

754 
755 
756 

757 
758 
759 



28- 


741 


28- 


780 


28 


819 


28 


859 


28 


898 


28- 


938 


28- 


977 


29 


016 


29 


056 


29 


095 


29 


•134 


29 


•174 


29 


213 


29 


•252 


29 


•292 


29 


•331 


29 


•371 


29 


-410 


29 


•449 


29 


•489 


29 


•528 


29 


•567 


29 


•607 


29 


•646 


29 


•685 


29 


-725 


29 


•764 


29 


•804 


29 


•843 


29 


882 



760 = 

761 = 

762 = 

763 = 

764 = 

765 = 

766 = 

767 = 

768 = 

769 = 

770 = 

771 = 

772 = 

773 = 

774 = 

775 = 

776 = 

777 = 

778 = 

779 = 

780 = 

781 = 

782 = 

783 = 

784 = 

785 = 

786 = 

787 = 

788 = 

789 = 



Inc 


hes. 


29 


992 


29 


961 


30 


000 


30" 


040 


30 


079 


30- 


119 


30 


•158 


30 


•197 


30 


■237 


30 


•276 


30 


•315 


30 


355 


30 


•384 


30 


•434 


30 


•473 


30 


•512 


30 


■552 


30 


•591 


30 


•631 


30 


■670 


30 


709 


30 


749 


30 


788 


30 


827 ■ 


30 


867 


30 


906 


30' 


945 


30- 


985 


31 


024 


31 


063 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 37 





28 inches = 711-187 millimetres. 






29 „ = 735-587 „ 






30 „ = 761-986 „ 






31 „ = 787-386 




1 millimetre 


= 0-03937 inch. 


1 inch rz 25-39954 


millimetres. 


1 


= 0-00394 „ 


•1 „ = 2-53995 


jj 


01 „ 


= 0-00039 „ 


•01 „ = p-25400 


5) 






•001 „ = b-02540 


5) 



SPECIFIC aEAYITY. 

The determination of the specific gravity of a body consists in esti- 
mating the weight of a given volume of it, as compared with an equal 
volume of some other body. The bodies usually taken as the standards 
of comparison are, pure water for solids and liquids, and atmospheric 
air for gases. 

The specific gravity of a solid is determined by first weighing it, in 
the ordinary manner, with an accurate balance suspended in the air ; 
then attaching a horse hair or fine silken thread to the solid body, im- 
mersing it in pure distilled water, and weighing it while thus immersed. 
The weight of the body in air, divided by the difference between its 
weight in air and its weight in water, will be its specific gravity. 
Thus a piece of lead is found to weigh 398 grains in air ; when 
immersed in water, its weight is 362*4 grains ; and the difference 
between these two weights, namely 35-6, is the weight of the volume 
of water displaced by the lead, or of a volume of water equal to that 
of the lead. The volume of water being taken as unity, the specific 
gravity of the lead is found by the following rule-of-three sum : — 

35-6 : 1 : : 398 : 11-176, the specific gravity of the lead. 

In taking the specific gravity of a solid substance lighter than water, 
some modification of the process is required ; but we have, neverthe- 
less, the same preliminary points to determine : first, the weight of the 
substance in air ; and secondly, the weight of an equal volume of 
water. This may be illustrated by taking the specific gravity of a 
piece of wax. The weight of the wax in air is 105-4 grains. On 
immersing the wax in water, two pressures are exerted, — a pressure 
dovvnwards equal to the gravity or weight of the wax, and a pressure 
upwards equal to the weight of the volume of water displaced by the 
wax ; but the specific gravity of water being greater than that of wax, 
the upward pressure preponderates, and the wax rises to the surface. 
Thus we find, that a volume of water equal to that of the wax weighs 
as much as the wax, and something more. We must ascertain how 
much more ; and this is done in the following manner : — Some body 
heavier than water, and the weight of which in water is known, is 
attached to the wax, and the two bodies are weighed in water together. 
A piece of lead may be used for this purpose. The lead alone weighs 
378 grains in water ; with the wax attached to it, the weight in water 



38 SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 

is 372'4 grains, making a difference of o*6 grains ; and this 5*6 grains 
is equal to the excess of the upward over the downward pressure on 
the wax when immersed in water. Thus a volume of ^^•ater equal to 
that of the wax weighs o'6 grains more than the wax, or 105'4-j- 5*6 
= 111 grains. 

Then, 111:1:: lOo'o : 0*949, the specific gravity of the wax. 

It sometimes happens that the solid substance, the specific gravity 
of which is to be detesmined, is inpoivder, or in several small particles. 
In such cases, it is found convenient to proceed as in the following 
method of taking the specific gravity of calomel : — 

100 grains of calomel are introduced into a specific-gravity bottle, 
which holds 1000 grains of distilled water ; the bottle is filled up with 
water, and the weight of the contents is found to be 1083*7 grains ; 
deducting the weight of the calomel (100 grains) from this, the re- 
mainder (983'7 grains) will be the weight of the water in the bottle, 
and the difference (16'3 grains) betMcen this and 1000 grains, the 
weight of the whole contents of the bottle when filled with distilled 
water, is the weight of a volume of w^ater equal to the volmne of the 
calomel. 

Then, 16'3 : 1 : : 100 : 6*03, the specific gravity of the calomel. 

In taking the specific gravity of substances soluble in water^ other 
modifications of the process are required. Sometimes the substance 
may be covered with a thin coating of varnibh, so as to protect it from 
the action of the water. This method answers very well for blue pill, 
which may be brushed over with a strong tincture of mastic, and then 
proceeded with as in the case of the lead. In other instances, how- 
ever, it is necessary to pursue a different course. Thus, any powder 
that is soluble in water must have its specific gravity taken, in 
the first instance, with reference to some liquid in which it is not 
soluble. 

Spirit of wine, oil of turpentine, or olive oil, may be used in such 
cases. The process may be illustrated by describing the method of 
taking the specific gravity of guano in oil of turpentine. 

In the first place, the specific gravity of the oil of turpentine is 
ascertained to be 0*874. Then 100 grains of guano are introduced 
into a specific-gravity bottle, as in the case of the calomel ; and the 
bottle being filled up with oil of turpentine, the weight of the contents 
is found to be 922*7 grains, from which, deducting 100 grains, the re- 
mainder (842*7 grains) will represent the oil not displaced by the 
guano ; and this, deducted from 874 grains, the quantity of oil the 
bottle is capable of holding, leaves 51*3 grains as the weight of a 
volume of oil of turpentine equal to that of the guano. Now, 
874 : 51*3 : : 1000 : 58*7, the weight of a volume of water equal 
to that of the guano. 

Then, o8*7 : 1 : : 100 : 1*7, the specific gravity of the guano. 

The methods by which the specific gravities of liquids ai*e usually 
determined, may be divided into two classes : — 

1st. Those which consist in filling any suitable vessel with the liquid 
to be estimated ; ascertaining the weight of the contents, and dividing 
this by the weight of the same volume of water. 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 39 

2ndly. Those which consist in displacing a portion of the liquid by- 
some solid body floating in it, and estimating the specific gravity 
according to the weight and volume of the substance immersed, as 
compared with its immersion in water. 

In the first case, the instruments employed are, a specific-gravity 
bottle, and an ordinary balance. 

In the second case, the instruments used may be comprehended 
under the general terms of hydrometers or areometers. These, how- 
ever, are distinguished from each other- — for there are many varieties 
of them — by different names, according to the particular purpose for 
which they are respectively intended, or from some peculiarity in their 
construction. 

The specific-gravity bottle affords the most accurate means of deter- 
mining the comparative densities of liquids. It consists, usually, of a 
globular bottle with a flat bottom and a slender neck, which holds 
exactly 1000 grains of distilled water at a certain fixed temperature. 
It is very easy at any time to test the accuracy of one of these bottles 
by a single experiment ; and having ascertained that the bottle is cor- 
rectly adjusted with regard to distilled water, the indications afforded 
with any other liquid will be equally trustworthy. The weight in 
grains, of the quantity of any liquid filling such bottle, will indicate its 
specific gravity. 

Hydrometers, or Areometers, are floating instruments, and their 
application for the purpose of determining the specific gravities of 
liquids depends upon the fact, that a body immersed in any liquid 
sustains a pressure from below, upwards, equal to the w^eight of the 
volume of the liquid displaced by such body. 

The use of hydrometers for determining the specific gravities of 
liquids has been traced back to a period about 300 years before Christ ; 
an instrument of this kind being described as the invention of Archi- 
medes, the Sicilian mathematician. It subsequently fell into disuse, 
but was again brought into notice by Basil Valentine. 

There are two kinds of hydrometers which may be taken as the types 
of all the different varieties in regard to construction : — • 

1st. Those which are always immersed in the liquids to be tried to 
the same depth, and to which weights are added to adjust the instru- 
ment to the density of any particular liquid. Of this description are 
Fahrenheit's, Nicholson's, and Guyton de Morveau's hydrometers. 

2nd. Those which are always used with the same weight, but which 
sink into the liquids to be tried to different depths, according to the 
densities of the liquids. These usually have graduated scales attached 
to their stems. Of this description are the common glass hydrometers 
generally, including those of Baume, Cartier, Gay Lussac, Twaddle, 
Zanetti, &c., and the specific-gravity beads. 

Sikes's and Dicas's hydrometers combine the principles of both types, 
having moveable weights and graduated scales. 

Hydrometers may also be divided into two classes, as follow : — 

First. Those having a general application for determining the com- 
parative densities of any liquids ; 

Second. Those intended for special application, as for estimating the 



40 SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 

comparative strengths of spirits, or the comparative densities of syrups, 
oils, &c. 

Fahrenheit's, Nicholson's, Guyton de Morveau's, and the common 
glass hydrometers, including Baume's, Cartier's, Zanetti's, and the 
specific-gravity beads, belong to the first class. 

Gay Lussac's, Sikes's, and Dicas's hydrometers, the Saccharometer, 
Urinometer, and Elaeometer belong to the second class. 

Fahrenheit! s Hydrometer consists of two glass bulbs blown in a 
glass tube, like a common hydrometer, excepting that the upper bulb 
is larger, and the stem, which is small, is terminated at the top in a 
cup or funnel. It has a mark on the middle of the stem, indicating 
the point at which the instrument is to be made to float, by means of 
weights put into the cup. 

NicholsonHs Hydrometer is a modification of Fahrenheit's. It is 
made of brass, and consists of a hollow globe, to which is fixed a 
slender stem surmounted by a cup ; on the opposite side of the globe 
is another cup fixed in a kind of stirrup, and loaded so that this may 
always form the lowest point of the instrument when immersed in any 
liquid. There is a mark on the middle of the upper stem, indicating 
the point at which the instrument is to be made to float. A certain 
weight is introduced into the cup, to cause the instrument to sink to 
the proper mark in distilled water. On immersing the hydrometer 
into any other liquid, more or less weight will have to be put into the 
cup, according as such liquid is more or less dense than water. Thus 
the relative densities of liquids is determined. 

This instrument is also applicable for taking the specific gravities of 
solids. If the solid substance be put into the cup as part of the weight 
required to sink the hydrometer in distilled water, the weight of the 
substance in air is ascertained ; and if it be then put into the lower 
cup, immersed in the water, and the instrument again adjusted, its 
weight in water is ascertained ; and from these its specific gravity is 
calculated. 

Guyton de Morveau's hydrometer is similar to Fahrenheit's. 

Sawne's hydrometers are used extensively in this country, as well 
as in France, and are applicable for all kinds of liquids. There are 
two distinct instruments, one for liquids lighter than water, and the 
other for liquids heavier than water. The latter is, for distinction, 
called the Acidometer or Saccharometer {pese-acide or pese-sirop) ; 
the former, the Spirit Hydrometer (pese-esprit). 

Baiimes Acidometer is made in the form of the common hydrometers. 
It consists of a glass tube terminated at the lower end by two bulbs, 
the lowest bulb being much smaller that the other, and intended to 
contain the ballast with which the instrument is loaded. The scale is 
marked on a slip of paper, or of ivory, fixed in the tube, and is ad- 
justed in the following manner : — The top of the tube being open, the 
slip of paper on which the scale is to be marked is put into the stem, 
and the instrument is then immersed in pure distilled water; quick- 
silver is now dropped into the lower ball until the instrument sinks so 
low in the water that only the top of the stem remains above the sur- 
face, and a mark is made on the glass denoting exactly the point to 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 41 

which it sinks. The instrument is now taken out of the pure water, 
and put into a solution of fifteen parts of common salt in eighty-five 
parts of distilled water, this solution bemg at the same temperature as 
the water in which the instrument was previously immersed. The point 
to which it sinks in this solution is to be marked on the stem as before, 
and the distance between the two marks being taken with a pair of 
compasses, and transferred to the slip of paper, the first is made the 
zero or 0, and the other the 15th degree of the scale. This distance 
being divided into fifteen equal parts or divisions, each division is 
called a degree, and the scale is completed by adding as many more 
degrees as the length of the stem will admit of. This being done, the 
slip of paper is again introduced into its place, and so fixed that the 
zero (0) of the scale shall be exactly opposite the first mark made 
on the glass. The end of the stem is now sealed with the flame of a 
blowpipe. 

Baume's Sjnrit Hydrometer is similar in form to the acidometer, 
but the weight of the instrument, and the scale, are different. In this 
case, the hydrometer is first immersed, as before, in pure distilled 
water ; but it is made to float, so that the greater part of the stem 
shall be above the surface of the water. This point is marked, and 
the instrument is then transferred to a solution of ten parts of common 
salt in ninety parts of water, when another mark is made. The dis- 
tance between these marks is made ten degrees of the scale, which are 
divided with the compasses, and marked on the slip of paper, as in the 
other case, the floating point in the solution of salt being made the 
zero, and the degrees carried upwards from this point. 

The temperature at which these instruments were originally adjusted 
by Baume, was 10*^ Reaumur, or 12*5 Centigrade; but those made in 
England are usually adjusted at 60° Fahrenheit. It is sometimes im- 
portant to be aware of this difference. 

Cartier^s Hydrometer is much used in France. It is only applicable 
for liquids lighter than water. This instrument is a modification of 
Baume's spirit hydrometer, the form of the instrument being the same, 
and the same point being taken as the zero of the scale ; but the space 
which in Baume's scale is divided into 32°, is in Cartier's divided 
into 30°. 

It is becoming the common practice in this country to have the 
scales of hydrometers marked with the specific gravities intended to be 
indicated, and this is by far the most convenient kind of hydrometer for 
general use. 

Tivaddle's Hydrometers are much used by manufacturers for esti- 
mating the strength of saline and other solutions. They are made of 
glass like the common hydrometers, and are sold in sets of six. Each 
degree on the scale is equal to 0*005 of specific gravity ; so that the 
specific gravity of a liquid is found, with these hydrometers, by multi- 
plying the number of degrees indicated by 5, and adding 1000. Thus, 
10° by Twaddle's hydrometer, x 5 + 1000 = 1-050 specific gravity. 

ZanettibS Hydrometers^ which are made at Manchester, are also sold 
in sets of six. With these the specific gravity is got by adding a cipher 
to the number of degrees indicated. 



42 SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 

Specific-gramty heads, sometimes called Lovis heads^ are hollow 
sealed globes of glass, about the size of small pistol-bullets. Each bead 
is a small hydrometer, intended to indicate one fixed density, by its 
remaining half-way between the top and bottom of the liquid into which 
it is introduced. These beads are sold in sets, each one being- marked 
with the specific gravity it is to indicate at a certain fixed temperature. 
They are very useful in making mixtures of any required densities, as, 
for instance, in making test acids. 

Gay Lussac s Alcoholometre is frequently employed in France; it is 
adapted only for estimating the strength of spirits. The instrument 
is made like a common glass hydrometer, the scale of which is divided 
into 100 parts or degrees. The lowest division, marked 0, at the 
bottom of tiie scale, denotes the specific gravity of pure water at a 
temperature of 15^ Cent., and the highest division, at the top of the 
scale, tlie specific gravity of absolute alcohol at tiie same temperature. 
The intermediate degrees indicate the number of volumes of absolute 
alcohol in 100 voliunes of the spirit tried. The instrument is accom- 
panied by a table for correcting the numbers marie ed on the scale, when 
it is used at any other temperature than that of 15® Cent. 

Sikes's Hydrometer is used exclusively in the collection of the spirit 
reveime. It consists of a spherical ball or float, and an upper and 
a lower stem, made of brass ; the upper stem has ten principal divisions, 
numbered 1, 2, 3, &c., which are each subdivided into five parts; the 
lower stem is made conical, and has a pear-shaped loaded bulb at its 
lower extremity. There are nine moveable weights, having the form 
of circular di.^cs, and numbered 10, 20, 30, and so on to 90. Each of 
the circular weights is cut into its centre, so that it can be placed on 
the inferior conical stem, and slid down to the bulb ; but in consequence 
of the enlargement of the cone, they cannot slip ofi" at the bottom ; but 
must be drawn up to the thin part for this purpose. The instrument 
is adjusted to strong spirit, specific gravity '825, at 60® Fahr., this 
being reci<oned as standard alcohol. In this spirit the instrument 
floats at the first division, 0, or zero, without a weight. In weaker 
spirit, having a greater density, tlie hydrometer will not sink so low, 
and if the density be much greater, it will be necessary to add one of 
the weights to cause the entire immersion of the bulb of the instru- 
ment. Each weight represents so many principal divisions of the 
stem as its number indicates : thus, the heaviest weight, marked 90, is 
equivalent to 90 divisions of the stem, and the instrument with this 
weight added floats at in distilled water. As each principal division 
on the stem is divided into five, the instrument has a range of 500 
degrees between standard alcohol, specific gravity -825, and water. 
In using this instrument, it is immersed in the spirit, and pressed 
down by the hand to 0, till the whole divided part of the stem be wet. 
The force of the hand required to sink it m ill be a guide in selecting 
the proper weight. Having taken one of the circular weights, which 
is necessary for this purpose, it is slipped on the conical stem. The 
instrument is again immersed and pressed down as before to 0, and is 
then allowed to rise and settle at any point of the scale. The eye is 
then bjought to the level of the surface of the spirit, and the part of 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 43 

the stem cut by the surface, as seen from helow^ is marked. The 
number thus indicated by the stem is added to the number of the 
weight employed, and with this sum at the side, and the temperature 
of the spirits at the top, the strength per cent, is found in a table which 
accompanies the hydrometer. The strength is expressed in numbers 
denoting the excess or deficiency per cent, of proof spirit in any sample, 
and the number itself, having its decimal point removed two places to 
the left, becomes a factor, whereby the gauged contents of a cask or 
vessel of such spirit being multiplied, and the product being added to 
the gauged contents if over proof, or deducted from it if under proof, 
the result will be the actual quantity of proof spirit contained in such 
cask or vessel. 

Dicas's Hydrometer is similar in construction to Sikes's, and it is 
'Used in a similar manner, with the same result, indicating the relation 
of the spirit tried to standard proof spirit. 

It is the practice in commerce to designate the strength of spirit as 
so many degrees above or below proof, the Government having fixed 
iupon what is called proof spirit as the standard in comparison with 
which the strength of all spirit shall be estimated. The term proof 
is said to have been derived from the ancient practice of trying the 
strength of spirit by pouring it over gunpowder in a cup, and then 
setting fire to the spirit ; if, when the spirit had burned away, the 
^gunpowder exploded, the spirit was said to be over proof; if, on the 
other hand, the gunpowder failed to ignite, in consequence of the 
water left from the spirit, it was said to be under 'proof. The weakest 
spirit capable of firing gunpowder in this way was called proof spirit : 
but it requires a spirit nearly of the strength of what is now called 
rectified spirit to stand this test. The standard proof spirit of the 
Excise is defined by law (56 Geo. III. cap. 140) to be "^ that which at 
<t temperature of 51*^ by Fahrenheit's thermometer, weighs exactly 
twelve-thirteenth parts of a7i equal measure of distilled water ^ This 
will have a specific gravity of -923 at 51^ Fahr., or about -920 at 60*^ 
Fahr. The standard alcohol of the Excise is spirit the specific gravity 
of which is '825 at 60*^ Fahr. By "spirit 60 degrees over proof," is 
understood a spirit 100 measures of which added to 60 measures of 
water, will form standard proof spirit, sp. gr. 920. By " spirit 10 
degrees under proof," is understood a spirit 100 measures of which, 
mixed with 10 measures of standard alcohol, sp. gr. '825, will form 
standard proof spirit. 

Saccharometers, which are hydrometers intended for determining 
the density of syrups, are usually made and graduated in the same 
manner as Baume's Acidometers, and differ only from these in being 
made smaller ; but the scale is sometimes graduated to indicate the 
proportion of sugar in the solution. 

The Urinometer is a small hydrometer, originally suggested by Dr. 
Prout, for estimating the density of urine. The scale is divided into 
60 degrees, the zero being the point at which it floats in distilled 
water. The numbers on the scale, added to 1000, the assumed sp. gr. 
of water, give the specific gravities at the respective points: thus, 
supposing the number cut by the surface of the liquid to be 30, this 



44 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 



indicates a sp. gr. 1030. The letters H. S. on the back of the scale 
signify healthy standard, which ranges from 10° to 20° of the scale. 

The Elaeometer is a very delicate glass hydrometer, intended for 
testing the purity of olive oil, or oil of almonds, by determining their 
densities. The or zero of the scale is the point at which the instru- 
ment floats in oil of poppy seeds. The point at which it floats in pure 
olive oil is made the 50th degree, and the space between these two 
points is divided into 50 equal parts, and numbered accordingly. It 
floats at 38 or 38^*^ m pure oil of almonds. 

The following tables have been drawn up for the purpose of show- 
ing the relations between the indications afforded by some of the 
foregoing instruments : — 

TABLE OF THE PROPORTION BY WEIGHT OF ABSOLUTE ALCOHOL 
(sP. GR. '7938) CONTAINED IN 100 PARTS OF SPIRITS OF DIFFE- 
RENT SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, AT 60° FAHR. 

{Fownes^ 





Per cent. 




Per cent. 




Per cent. 




Per cent. 


Specific 


of 


Specific 


of 


Specific 


of 


Specific 


of 


Gravity. 


Alcohol. 


Gravity. 


Alcohol. 


Gravity. 


Alcohol 


Gravity. 


Alcohol. 


•9991 


0-5 


•9638 


26 • 


•9160 


51- 


•8581 


76- 




9981 


1' 




•9623 


27- 






9135 


52- 




•8557 


77- 






9965 


2- 




•9609 


28- 






9113 


53- 




•8533 


78- 






9947 


3- 




•9593 


29- 






9090 


54- 




•8508 


79' 






9930 


4- 




•9578 


30' 






9069 


55- 




•8483 


80 






9914 


5- 




•9560 


31- 






9047 


56 




•8459 


81 






9898 


6- 




•9544 


32 






9025 


57 




•8434 


82 






9884 


7- 




•9528 


33 






9001 


58 




•8408 


83 






9869 


8' 




•9511 


34 






8979 


59 




•8382 


84 






9855 


9" 




•9490 


35 






8956 


60 




•8357 


85 






9841 


lo- 




•9470 


36 






8932 


61 




•8331 


86 






9828 


ll 




•9452 


37 






8908 


62 




•8305 


87 






9815 


12 




•9434 


38 






8886 


63 




•8279 


88 






9802 


13 




•9416 


39 






8863 


64 




•8254 


89 






9789 


14 




•9396 


40 






8840 


65 




•8228 


90 






9778 


15 




•9376 


41 






8816 


m 




•8199 


91 






•9766 


16 




•9356 


42 






8793 


67 




•8172 


92 






•9753 


17 




•9335 


43 






•8769 


68 




•8145 


93 






•9741 


18 




•9314 


44 






•8745 


69 




•8118 


94 






•9728 


19 




•9292 


45 






•8721 


70 




•8089 


95 






•9716 


20 




•9270 


46 






•8696 


71 




•8061 


96 






•9704 


21 




•9249 


47 






•8672 


72 




•8031 


97 






•9691 


22 




• 9228 


48 






•8649 


73 




•8001 


98 






•9678 


23 




•9206 


49 






•8625 


74 




•7969 


99 






•9665 


24 


• 


•9184 


50 






•8603 


75 




•7938 


100 






•9652 


25- 















SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 



45 



HYDROMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 





100 parts 


contain of 


1000 pts. 








Per cent, of 


Sp. Gr. 


Alcohol 




contain of 








Alcohol, 


at 60° 


Sp. Gr. 


Water. 


Standard 


Sikes 


Baume. 


C artier. 


Sp. Gr. 790 


Falir. 


796. 




Ale. Sp. 








by volume. 




By Weight. 


Gr. 825. 








Gay Lussac. 


796 


100 









46-5 


43-48 


100 


797 


99-5 


•5 










99-75 


798 


99 


1 






46 


4306 


99-50 


799 


98-67 


1-33 










99-25 


800 


98-33 


1-67 










99 


801 


98 


2 










98-75 


802 


97-67 


2-33 






45 


42 14 


98-50 


803 


97-33 


2-67 








42 


98-28 


804 


97 


3 










98-15 


805 


96-67 


3-33 










98 


806 


96-33 


3-67 










97-80 


806-5 


96-17 


3-83 






44 


41-22 


97-70 


807 


96 


4 










97-60 


808 


95-5 


4-5 








41 


97-40 


809 


95 


5 










97-29 


809-5 


94-89 


5-10 










97-10 


810 


94-67 


5-33 










97 


811 


94-33 


5-67 






43 


40-34 


96-75 


812 


94 


6 










96-50 


813 


93-67 


6-33 








40 


96-25 


814 


93-33 


6-67 










96 


815 


93 


7 










95-75 


816 


92-5 


7-5 






42 


39-40 


95-50 


817 


92 


8 










95-25 


818 


91-67 


8-33 










95 


818-6 


91-5 


8-5 








39 


94-90 


819 


91-33 


8-67 










94-75 


820 


91 


9 










94-50 


821 


91-5 


9-5 






41 


38-46 


94-25 


822 


90 


10 




■ 






94 


823 


89-67 


10-33 








38 


93-75 


824 


89-33 


10-67 










93-50 


S25 


89 


11 


1000 


63- O.R 


40 


37-55 


93-25 


826 


88-5 


11-5 


993 


62 






93 


827 


88 


12 


988-5 


61-5 




37 


92-6 


828 


87-67 


12-33 


984 


61 


39-5 




92-3 


829 


87-33 


12-67 


979-5 


60-5 


39 


36-63 


91 


830 


87 


13 


975 


60 






91-7 


831 


86-5 ' 


13-5 


970-5 


59-5 


38-5 


36-17 


91-35 



46 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 







HYDROMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 






Sp. Gr. 
at 60° 
Fahr. 


100 parts 

Alcohol 

Sp. Gr. 

796. 

By W 


contain of 

Water, 
eight. 


1000 pts. 
contain of 
Standard 
Ale. Sp. 
Gr. 825. 


Sikes. 


Baume. 


C artier. 


Per cent, of 

Alcohol, 
Sp. Gr. 796 
by volume. 
Gay Lussac. 


.S82 


86 


14 


966 


59 O.P. 




36 


91 


83::! 


85-67 


14-33 


961-5 


58-3 






90 


65 


834 


85-33 


14-67 


957 


58 


38 


35-72 


90 


3 


835 


85 


15 


953 


57-5 






90 




836 


84-67 


15-33 


949 


57 


37-5 


35-26 


89 


7 


837 


84-33 


15-67 


944-5 


56-5 






89 


35 


837-0 


84-25 


15-75 


942-5 


56-3 




35 


89 


20 


838 


84 


16 


940 


56 






89 




839 


83-5 


16-5 


936 


55-5 


37 


84-80 


88 


75 


840 


83 


17 


932 


55 






88 


5 


84] 


82-67 


17-33 


928 


54-5 


36-5 




88 


25 


842 


82-33 


17-67 


924 


54 




34-94 


88 




843 


82 


18 


920 


53-5 




34 


87 


65 


844 


81-67 


18-33 


916 


53 


36 


33-88 


87 


3 


845 


81-33 


18-67 


912 


52-5 






87 




846 


81 


19 


908 


52 






86 


7 


847 


80-5 


19-5 


903 


51 


36-5 


33-42 


86 


35 


848 


80 


20 


898 


50 






86 




849 


79-67 


20-33 


893 


49-5 






85 


65 


850 


79-33 


20-67 


888 


49 


35 


33 


85 


3 


851 


79 


21 


883 


48-5 






85 




852 


78-5 


21-5 


878 


48 


34-5 


32-43 


84 


7 


858 


78 


22 


873 


47-5 






84 


35 


854 


77-5 


22-5. 


868 


47 






84 




855 


77 


23 


862-5 


46-5 


34 


32-04 


83 


65 


856 


76-5 


23-5 


857 


46 






83 


3 


857 


76 


24 


853 


45-5 


33-5 


31-58 


83 




858 


75-67 


24-33 


849 


45 






82 


7 


859 


75-33 


24-67 


844-5 


45 






82 


35 


f'OO 


75 


25 


840 


45 


33 


31-13 


82 




fV6] 


74-67 


25-33 


836-5 


44-5 




31 


81 


7 


862 


74-33 


25-67 


833 


44 






81 


3 


8)2-5 


7416 


25-84 


830-5 


43-75 


32-5 


30-76 


80 




863 


74 


26 


828 


43-5 






80 


8 


864 


73-5 


20-5 


823 


43 






80 


3 


835 


73 


27 


8] 8 


42-5 


32 


30-21 


79 


95 


866 


72-5 


27-5 


813 


42 






79 


6 


867 


72 


28 


810 


41 






79 


8 


867-5 


71-83 


28-17 


808-5 


40-5 


31-5 


29-78 


79-15 


868 


71-67 


2S-33 


.SOT 

1 


40 






79 





SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 

H YDROMETRIC AL EQUIVALENTS. 



47 





100 parts contaiu of 


1000 pts. 








Per cent, of 


Sp. Gv. 


Alcokol 




containoi 








Alcohol, 


at 00° 


Sp. Gr. 


Water. 


Standard 


Sikes. 


Baume. 


Cai'tier. 


Sp. Gr. 796 


Falir. 


790. 




Ale. Sp. 








by volume. 




By Weight. 


Gr. 825. 








Gay Lnssac. 


809 


71-33 


28-67 


802-5 


39-5 O.P. 






78-65 


870 


71 


29 


798 


39 


31 


29-29 


78-3 


871 


70-5 


29-5 


792-5 


38-5 






78 


872 


70 


30 


787 


38 




29 


77-7 


873 


69-5 


30-5 


781-5 


37 


30-5 


28-83 


77-35 


874 


69 


31 


776 


36 






77 


875 


68-67 


31-33 


772 


35 






76-5 


876 


68-33 


31-67 


768 


34 


30 


28-38 


76 


877 


68 


32 


762-5 


33 






75-65 


877-5 


67-75 


32-25 


759-25 


32-5 




28 


75-5 


878 


67-5 


32.5 


757 


32 






75-3 


•878-5 


67-25 


32-75 


753-75 


31-5 


29-5 


27-91 


75 


879 


67 


33 


751-5 


31 






74-8 


880 


66-5 


33-5 


746 


30 






74-3 


881 


66 


34 


742 


29-5 


29 


27-44 


74 


882 


65-5 


34-5 


738 


29 






73-7 


883 


65 


35 


733-5 


28-5 




27 


73-35 


883-5 


64-83 


35-17 


731-25 


28-25 


28-5 


26-99 


73-17 


884 


64-67 


35-33 


729 


28 






73 


885 


64-33 


35-67 


724 


27-5 






72-5 


886 


64 


36 


719 


27 


28 


26-53 


72 


887 


63-67 


36-33 


714 


26 






71-5 


888 


63-33 


36-67 


709 


25 






71 


889 


63 


37 


704 


24-5 


27-5 


26-07 


70-65 


890 


62-5 


37-5 


699 


24 






70-3 


891 


62 


38 


694 


23 






69-8 


892 


61-5 


88-5 


689 


22 


27 


25-61 


69-3 


893 


61 


39 


644-5 


21 






69 


894 


60-67 


39-33 


680 


20 






68-7 


895 


60-33 


39-67 


675-5 


19-5 






68-35 


895-5 


60-16 


39-84 


673-25 


19-25 


26-5 


25-15 


68-17 


896 


60 


40 


671 


19 




25 


68 


897 


59-5 


40-5 


666-5 


18 






67-65 


898 


59 


41 


662 


17 


26 


24-69 


67-3 


899 


58-5 


41-5 


655-5 


16 






67 


900 


58 


42 


649 


15 






66-7 


900-5 


57-75 


42-25 


647 


14-75 


25-5 


24-23 


66-52 


901 


57-5 


42-5 


645 


14-5 






66-35 


901-5 


57-25 


42-75 


643 


14-25 




24 


66-17 


902 


57 


43 


641 


14 




1 


66 



48 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 







HYDROMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 






100 parts ( 


jontain of 


1000 pts. 








Per cent, of 


Sp. Gr. 


Alcohol 




contain of 








Alcohol, 


at 60° 


Sp. Gr. 


Water. 


Standard 


Sikes. 


Baume, 


C artier. 


Sp. Gr. 796 


Fahr. 


796. 




Ale. Sp. 








by volume. 




By W 


eight. 


Gr. 820. 


, 




« 


Gay Lussac. 


903 


56-5 


43-5 


636 


13 O.P. 


26 


23-77 


65-6 


904 


56 


44 


631 


12 






65 


905 


55-5 


44-5 


626 


11-5 






64-5 


906 


55 


45 


621 


11 


24-5 


23-31 


64 


907 


54-5 


45-5 


616-5 


10-5 






63-65 


908 


54 


46 


612 


10 




23 


63-3 


909 


53-5 


46-5 


607 


9 


24 


22-85 


62-65 


910 


53 


47 


602 


8 






62-3 


911 


52-5 


47-5 


595-5 


7-5 






61-9 


912 


52 


48 


591 


7 


23-5 


22-39 


61-5 


913 


51-67 


48-33 


586 


6 






61 


914 


51-33 


48-67 


581 


5 






60-5 


915 


51 


49 


576 


4 


23 


21-94 


60 


916 


50-5 


49-5 


571 


3 






69-6 


917 


50 


50 


560-5 


2 






59-3 


918 


49-67 


50-33 


662 


1 


22-5 


21-48 


69 


919 


49-33 


50-67 


554 


•5 






68-5 


920 


49 


51 


560 


Proof 






58 


921 


48-5 


51-5 


545 


1 U.P. 


22 


21-02 


67-5 


922 


48 


52 


540 


2 






57 


923 


47-5 


52-5 


535-5 


3 


21-5 


20-56 


66-5 


924 


47 


53 


531 


4 






56 


925 


46-5 


53-5 


626 


5 






o5-5 


926 


46 


54 


621 


6 


21 


20-10 


65 


927 






515-5 


6-5 








928 


45 


55 


610 


7 






64 


929 


44-5 


55-5 


505 


8 






63-5 


929-5 


44-25 


55-75 


502-5 


8-5 


20-5 


19-64 


53-25 


930 


44 


56 


600 


9 






53 


931 


43-67 


56-33 


495-5 


10 






52-5 


932 


43-33 


56-67 


489 


11 






62 


933 


43 


57 


484 


12 


20 


19-18 


61-5 


934 


42-5 


57-6 


479 


13 




19 


61 


935 


42 


58 


472-5 


14 






50-5 


936 


41-5 


68-5 


468 


15 


19-5 


18-72 


50 


937 


41 


59 


462 


16 






49-5 


938 


40-5 


59-5 


456 


17 






49 


939 


40 


60 


460 


18 


]9 


18-26 


48-5 


940 


39-5 


60-5 


444 


19 






48 


940-5 


39-25 


60-75 


441 


19-5 




18 


47-63 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 

HYDROMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



49 



Sp. Gr. 
at 60° 
Falir. 


100 parts contain of 
Alcohol 

Sp. Gr. Water. 
790. 
By Weight, 


1000 pts. 
contain of 
Standard 
Ale. Sp. 
Gr. 825. 


Sikes. 


Baume. 


C artier. 


Per cent, of 

Alcohol, 
Sp. Gr. 79S 
by volume. 
Gay Lussac. 


941 


39 


61 


438 


20 U.P. 






47-25 


942 


38-5 


61-5 


432 


21 


18-5 


17-80 


46-5 


943 


38 


62 


426-5 


22 






45 


944 


37-5 


62-5 


421 


23 






45-5 


945 


37 


63 


416 


23-5 


18 


17-35 


44-75 


946 


36-5 


63-5 


411 


24 






44 


947 


36 


64 


399 


25 




17 


43-5 


948 


35-5 


64-5 


397 


26 


17-5 


16-89 


43 


949 


35 


65 


389-5 


27 






42-25 


950 


34-5 


65-5 


382 


28 






41-5 


951 


34 


66 


376 


29-5 


17 


16-43 


40 


952 


33-5 


66-5 


370 


31 






40-5 


953 


33 


67 


364 


32-5 






39-75 


954 


32-5 


67-5 


358 


34 






39 


955 


32 


68 


352 


35 


16-5 


16-3 


38-5 


956 


31-5 


68-5 


346 


36 




16 


38 


957 


31 


69 


339-5 


37-5 






37-25 


958 


30 


70 


333 


39 






36-5 


959 


29-5 


70-5 


324 


40-5 


16 


15-51 


35-75 


960 


29 


71 


315 


42 






35 


961 


28-5 


715 


307-5 


43-5 






34-5 


962 


28 


72 


300 


45 


15-5 


15 


34 


963 


27 


73 


292-5 


46-5 






33 


964 


26-5 


73-5 


285 


48 






32 


965 


26 


74 


277-5 


49-5 


15 


14-59 


31 


966 


25-5 


74-5 


270 


51 






30 


967 


25 


75 


261-5 


52-5 






29 


968 


24 


76 


253 


54 






28 


968-5 


23-75 


76-25 






14-5 


14-13 


27-5 


969 


23-5 


76-5 


244-5 


55-5 






27 


970 


23 


77 


236 


57 






26 


971 


22-5 


77-5 


227 


58-5 






25 


972 


22 


78 


218 


60 


14 


13-67 


24 


973 


21 


79 


209 


62 






23 


974 


20 


80 


200 


64 






22 


975 


19 


81 


195 


66 


13-5 


13-21 


21 


976 


18-5 


81-5 


190-5 


68 






20 


977 


18 


82 


183-5 


70 






19 


978 


17 


83 


175 


72 


13 


12-76 


i 18 


979 


IG 


84 


163 


73-5 






i 17 
i 



50 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 

HYDROMETRIC AL EQUIVALENTS. 



Sp. Gr. 

at 600 
Fahr. 


100 parts contain of 
Alcohol 

Sp. Gr. Water. 
706. 
By Weight. 


1000 pts. 
contain of 
Standard 
Ale. Sp. 

Gr. 825. 


Sikes. 


Baume. 


C artier. 


Per cent, of 

Alcohol 
Sp. Gr. 796 
by volume. 
Gay Lussac. 


980 


15-5 


84-5 


150 


75 U.P. 






16 


981 


16 


85 


143 


76 






15 


982 


14 


86 


135 


77 


12-5 


12-30 


14 


983 


13-5 


86-5 


128 


78-5 






13 


984 


13 


87 


120 


80 






12 


985 


12-5 


87-5 


112 


81 






11-25 


986 


12 


88 


105 


82 


12 


11.84 


10-5 


987 


11 


89 


98 


83-5 






9-75 


988 


10 


90 


90 


85 






9 


989 


9 


91 


82 


87 


11-5 


11-38 


B 


990 


8 


92 


75 


89 






7 


991 


7 


93 


67-5 


90-5 






6-5 


992 


6 


94 


60 


92 






6 


993 


5-5 


94-5 


52-5 


93-5 


11 


10-92 


5 


994 


6 


95 


45 


95 






4 


995 


4 


96 


37-5 


95-6 






3-5 


996 


3-5 


96-5 


30 


96 


10-5 


10-46 


3 


997 


3 


97 


22-5 


97 






2 


998 


2 


98 


15 


98 






1 


999 


1 


99 


7-5 


99 






•5 


1000 





100 





100 


10 


10 






BAUME'S HYDEOMETER. 

RELATION BETWEEN SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, AND DEGREES OF BAUMe's 
HYDROMETER FOR LIQUIDS HEAVIER THAN WATER. 



Sp. Gr. Baume. 


Sp. Gr. I 


kiume. Sp. Gr. Baume'. 


Sp 


Gr. Baume. 


Sp. Gr. Baume. 


1-000 = 





1-067 = 


: 9 


1-143^ 


= 18 


1 


231 = 27 


1-334 = 36 


1-007 


1 


1-075 


10 


1-152 


19 


1 


242 28 




346 37 


1-014 


2 


1-083 


11 


1-161 


20 


1 


252 29 




359 38 


1-022 


3 


1-091 


12 


1-171 


21 


1 


264 30 




372 39 


1-029 


4 


1-100 


13 


1-180 


22 


1 


275 31 




384 40 


1-036 


5 


1-108 


14 


1-190 


23 


1 


286 32 




398 41 


1-044 


6 


1-116 


15 


1-199 


24 


1 


298 33 




412 42 


1-052 


7 


1-125 


16 


1-210 


25 


1 


309 34 




426 43 


1-060 


8 


1-134 


17 


1-221 


26 


1 


321 35 




440 44 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 
baum:e's hydrometer. 



51 



Sp. Gr. Baume. 


Sp. Gr. Baume. 


Sp. Gr. Baume. 


Sp. Gr. Baume. 


Sp. Gr. Baume. 


1-454 = 45 


1-566 = 52 


1-676 = 58 


1-801 = 64 


1-946 = 70 


1-470 46 


1-583 53 


1-695 59 


1-823 65 


1-974 71 


1-485 47 


1-601 54 


1-714 60 


1-847 66 


2-002 72 


1-501 48 


1-618 55 


1-736 61 


1-872 67 


2-031 73 


1-526 49 


1-637 56 


1-758 62 


1-897 68 


2-059 74 


1-532 50 


1-656 57 


1-779 63 


1-921 69 


2-087 75 


1-549 51 











SULPHURIC ACID. 

QUANTITIES OF ANHYDROUS AND OF LIQUID SULPHURIC ACID CON- 
TAINED IN MIXTURES OF OIL, OF VITRIOL AND WATER AT DIFFERENT 
DENSITIES. (URE.) 





Liq. Acid. 










Specific 


Sp. Gr. 


Dry Acid 


Specific 


Liq, Acid 


Dry Acid 


Gravity. 


1-8485 
in 100. 


in 100, 


Gravity. 


in 100. 


in 100. 


1-8485 


100 


81^54 


1^6630 


76 


61^97 




•8475 


99 


80 


•72 


1 


-6520 


75 


6M5 




-8460 


98 


79 


•90 


1 


-6415 


74 


60-34 




-8439 


97 


79 


•09 


1 


-6321 


73 


59-52 




-8410 


96 


78 


•28 


1 


•6204 


72 


58-71 




•8376 


95 


77 


•46 


1 


•6090 


71 


57-89 




•8336 


94 


76 


•65 


1 


-5975 


70 


57-08 




•8290 


93 


75 


•83 


1 


-5868 


69 


56-26 




■8233 


92 


75 


•02 


1 


•5760 


68 


55-45 




•8179 


91 


74 


•20 


1 


•5648 


67 


54-63 




•8115 


90 


73 


•39 


1 


•5503 


66 


53^82 




8043 


89 


72 


•57 


1 


5390 


65 


53-00 




7962 


88 


71 


•75 


1 


5280 


64 


52-18 




7870 


87 


70 


94 


1 


5170 


63 


51-37 




7774 


86 


70 


12 


1 


5066 


62 


50-55 




7673 


85 


69 


31 


1 


4960 


61 


49-74 




7570 


84 


68 


49 


1- 


4860 


60 


48-92 




7465 


83 


67' 


68 


1- 


4760 


59 


48-11 




7360 


82 


66 


86 


1- 


4660 


58 


47-29 




7245 


81 


66- 


05 


1^ 


4560 


57 


46-48 




7100 


80 


65- 


23 


1^ 


4460 


56 


45-66 




6993 


79 


64 • 


42 


1- 


4360 


55 


44-85 




6870 


78 


63 • 


60 


1^ 


4265 


54 


44-03 




6750 


77 


62^ 


78 


1^ 


4170 


53 


43-22 



52 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 



Specific 


Liq. Acid 


Dry Acid 


Specific 


Liq. Acid 


Dry Acid 


Gravity. 


in 100. 


in 100. 


Gravity. 


in 100. 


in 100. 


1-4073 


52 


42-40 


1-1876 


26 


21-20 


1-3977 


51 


41-58 




1792 


25 


20-38 


1-3884 


50 


40-77 




1706 


24 


19-57 


1-3788 


49 


39-95 




1626 


23 


18-75 


1-3697 


48 


39-14 




1549 


22 


17-94 


1-3612 


47 


38-32 




1480 


21 


17-12 


1-3530 


46 


37-51 




1410 


20 


16-31 


1-3440 


45 


36-69 




1330 


19 


15-49 


1-3345 


44 


35-88 




1246 


18 


14-68 


1-3255 


43 


35-06 




1165 


17 


13-86 


1-3165 


42 


34-25 




1090 


16 


13-05 


1-3080 


41 


33-43 




1019 


15 


12-23 


1-2999 


40 


32-61 




0953 


14 


11-41 


1-2913 


39 


31-80 




0887 


13 


10-60 


1-2826 


38 


30-98 




0809 


12 


9-78 


1-2740 


37 


30-17 




0743 


11 


8-97 


1-2654 


36 


29-35 




0682 


10 


8-15 


1-2572 


35 


28-54 




•0614 


9 


7-34 


1-2490 


34 


27-72 




0544 


8 


6-52 


1-2409 


33 


26-91 




-0477 


7 


5-71 


1-2334 


32 


26-09 




-0405 


6 


4-89 


1-2260 


31 


25-28 




-0336 


5 


4-08 


1-2184 


30 


24-46 




•0268 


4 


3-26 


1-2108 


29 


23-65 




•0206 


3 


2-446 


1-2032 


28 


1 22-83 




-0140 


2 


1-63 


1-1956 


27 


j 22-01 


1-0074 


1 


0-8154 



NITKIC ACID. 



QUANTITIES OF ANHYDROUS AND OF LIQUID NITRIC ACID CONTAINED 
IN MIXTURES OF NITRIC ACID AND WATER AT DIFFERENT DENSI- 
TIES. (URE.) 





Liq. Acid 










Specific 


Sp. Gr. 
l-5inl00. 


Drv Acid 


Specific 


Liq. Acid 


Drv Acid 


Gravity. 


in 100. 


Gravity. 


in 100. 


in 100. 


1-5000 


100 


79-700 


1-4820 


93 


74-121 


1-4980 


99 


78-903 


1-4790 


92 


73-324 


1-4960 


98 


78-106 


1-4760 


91 


72-527 


1-4940 


97 


77-309 


1-4730 


90 


71-730 


1-4910 


96 


76-512 


1-4700 


89 


70-933 


1-4880 


95 


75-715 


1-4670 


88 


70-136 


1-4850 


94 


74-918 


1-4640 


87 


69-339 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 



53 



Specific 


Liq. Acid 

Sp. Gr. 

l-5inl00. 


Dry Acid 


Specific 


Liq. Acid 


Dry Acid 


Gravity. 


in 100. 


Gravity. 


in 100. 


in 100. 


1-4600 


86 


68-542 


1-2523 


43 


34^271 


1- 


4570 


85 


67 • 


745 


1- 


2462 


42 


33- 


474 


1- 


4530 


84 


66- 


948 


1- 


2402 


41 


32 • 


677 


1- 


4500 


83 


66- 


155 


1- 


2341 


40 


31- 


880 


1- 


4460 


82 


65- 


354 


1- 


2277 


39 


31' 


083 


1- 


4424 


81 


64 • 


557 


1' 


2212 


38 


30 


286 


1- 


4385 


80 


63- 


760 


1- 


2148 


37 


29 


489 


1- 


4346 


79 


62- 


963 


!• 


2084 


36 


28 


692 


1- 


4306 


78 


62- 


166 


1' 


2019 


35 


27 


895 


1- 


4269 


77 


61- 


369 


1" 


1958 


34 


27 


098 


!• 


4228 


76 


60- 


572 


1 


1895 


33 


26 


301 


!• 


4189 


75 


59- 


775 


1 


1833 


32 


25 


•504 


1- 


4147 


74 


58' 


978 


1 


1770 


31 


24 


•707 


1- 


4107 


73 


58 


181 


1 


1709 


30 


23 


•900 


!■ 


4065 


72 


57' 


384 


1 


1648 


29 


23 


•113 


1- 


4023 


71 


56- 


587 


1 


1587 


28 


22 


•316 


1' 


3978 


70 


55' 


790 


1 


1426 


27 


21 


-519 


!• 


3945 


69 


54 


993 


1 


1465 


26 


20 


-722 


1' 


3882 


68 


54 


196 


1 


1403 


25 


19 


-925 


1' 


3833 


67 


53 


399 


1 


■1345 


24 


19 


-128 


1 


3783 


66 


52 


602 


1 


■1286 


23 


18 


-331 


1 


3732 


65 


51 


805 


1 


•1227 


22 


17 


-534 


1 


3681 


64 


51 


068 


1 


•1168 


21 


16 


-737 


1 


3630 


63 


50 


211 


1 


•1109 


20 


15 


•940 


1 


3579 


62 


49 


•414 


1 


•1051 


19 


15 


•143 


1 


■3529 


61 


48 


617 


1 


•0993 


18 


14 


•346 


1 


3477 


60 


47 


•820 


1 


•0935 


17 


13 


•549 


1 


3427 


59 


47 


•023 


1 


•0878 


16 


12 


•752 


1 


3376 


58 


46 


•226 


1 


•0821 


15 


11 


•955 


1 


3323 


57 


45 


•429 


1 


•0764 


14 


11 


•158 


1 


•3270 


56 


44 


•632 


1 


•0708 


13 


10 


•361 


1 


•3216 


55 


43 


•835 


1 


•0651 


12 


9 


•564 


1 


•3163 


54 


43 


•038 


1 


•0595 


11 


8 


•767 


1 


•3110 


53 


42 


•241 


1 


•0540 


10 


7 


•970 


1 


•3056 


52 


41 


•444 


1 


-0485 


9 


7 


•173 


1 


•3001 


51 


40 


•647 


1 


•0430 


8 


6 


•376 


1 


•2947 


50 


39 


•850 


1 


-0375 


7 


5 


•579 


1 


•2887 


49 


39 


-053 


1 


-0320 


6 


4 


•782 


1 


-2826 


48 


38 


-256 


1 


•0267 


5 




•985 


1 


-2765 


47 


37 


•459 


1 


•0212 


4 


3 


•188 


1 


•2705 


46 


36 


-662 


1 


-0159 


3 


2 


•391 


1 


•2644 


45 


35 


-865 


1 


•0106 


2 


1 


■594 


1-2583 


44 


35^068 


1-0053 


1 


0^797 



54 SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 

HYDKOCHLOEIC ACID. 

VALUE AND ATOMIC COMPOSITION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID AT 
DIFFERENT DENSITIES. 



DAVY. 


THOMSON. 


(Temp. 40°. Bar. 30.) 




Real Acid in 100 


Atoms of 


Specific Gravity. 


100 gi'ains contain 
of hydroc. acid gas. 


Specific Gravity, 


of liquid. 


water to 
1 of acid. 


1-21 


42-43 


1-203 


40-66 


6 


1 


20 


40 


•80 


1 


179 


37 


00 


7 


1 


19 


38 


38 


1 


•162 


33 


95 


8 


1 


18 


36 


36 


1 


149 


31 


35 


9 


1' 


17 


34 


34 


1 


139 


29 


13 


10 


1- 


16 


32 


32 


1 


128 


27 


21 


11 


1- 


15 


30 


30 


1 


119 


25 


52 


12 


!• 


14 


28 


28 


1 


112 


24 


03 


13 


1- 


13 


26- 


26 


1 


106 


22 


70 


14 


1- 


12 


24 


24 


1 


100 


21 


51 


15 


1- 


11 


22 


30 


1 


096 


20 


44 


16 


1- 


10 


20 


20 


1 


090 


19 


47 


17 


1- 


09 


18 


18 


1 


086 


18 


59 


18 


1- 


08 


16 


16 


1 


082 


17 


79 


19 


!• 


07 


14 


14 


1-087 


17-05 


20 


1 


06 


12 


12 








1 


05 


10 


10 








1 


04 


8 


•08 








1 


03 


6 


•06 








1 


•02 


4 


•04 








1-01 


2-02 









ACETIC ACID. 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF ACETIC ACID AT DIFFERENT DEGREES OF 



Atoms of 
Acid. 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 



DILUTION. (THOMSON.) 

Atoms of 
Water. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



Specific Gravity 
at 60°. 

•06296 
•07060 
•07084 
•07132 
•06820 
•06708 
•06349 
•05974 
•05794 
•05439 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 

SOLUTION OF AMMONIA. 



55 



qdantities of ammonia in solutions 
of different specific gravities, 
(davy). 



100 parts. 
Specific Gravity 



of Ammonia. 



8750 


contain 


32- 


50 


8875 


)> 


29- 


25 


9000 


jj 


26' 


00 


9054 


) J 


25- 


37 


9166 


?> 


22- 


07 


9255 


5? 


19- 


54 


9326 


J> 


17" 


52 


9385 


J5 


15 


88 


9435 


?J 


14 


53 


9476 


5? 


13 


46 


9513 


?5 


12 


40 


9545 


5J 


11 


•56 


9573 


5J 


10 


•82 


9597 


?5 


10 


•17 


9619 


5? 


9 


•60 


9612 


5> 


9 


•50 



STRENGTHS OF SOLUTIONS OF AMMONIA 
OF DIFFERENT SPECIFIC GRAVITIES^ 
AND THEIR RESPECTIVE BOILING- 
POINTS, (dalton.) 



Specific 
Gravity. 



Grs. of Am- 
monia in 100 
grs. of liquid. 



850 
860 
870 
880 
890 
900 
910 
920 
930 
940 
950 
960 
970 
980 
990 



35 

32 

29 

27 

24 

22 

19 

17 

15 

12 

10 

8 

6 

4 

2 



Boiling- 
Point. 



26 

38 

50 

62 

74 

86 

98 

100 

122 

134 

146 

158 

173 

187 

196 



Vol. of gas 
in one vol. 
of liquid. 



494 
456 
419 
382 
346 
311 
277' 
244 
211 
180 
147 
116 
87 
57 
28 



SOLUTION OF POTASH. 

QUANTITY OF ANHYDROUS POTASSA CON- 
TAINED IN SOLUTIONS OF DIFFERENT 
SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. (DALTON.) 



SOLUTION OF SODA. 

QUANTITY OF ANHYDROUS SODA CON- 
TAINED IN SOLUTIONS OF DIFFERENT 
SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. (dALTON.) 



Specific 
Gravity 


Potassa 
per Cent. 


Boilincr.Point. 

329° 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Dry Soda 
per Cent, ' 


Boiling-Point. 


1-68 


51-2 


1^85 


63-6 


600° 


1- 


60 


46- 


7 


290 


1 


72 


53 


8 


400 


1- 


52 


42- 


9 


276 


1 


63 


46 


6 


300 


1- 


47 


39- 


6 


265 


1 


56 


41 


2 


280 


1- 


44 


36' 


8 


255 


1 


50 


36 


8 


265 


1' 


42 


34 


4 


246 


1 


47 


34 





255 


1 


39 


32 


4 


240 


1 


44 


31 





248 


1 


36 


29 


4 


234 


1 


40 


29 





242 


1 


33 


26 


3 


229 


1 


36 


26 





235 


1 


28 


23 


4 


224 


1 


32 


23 





228 


1 


23 


19 


•5 


220 


1 


•29 


19 





224 


1 


19 


16 


•2 


218 


1 


•23 


16 





230 


1 


•15 


13 


•0 


215 


1 


•18 


13 





217 


1 


•11 


9 


•5 


214 


1 


•12 


9 


•0 


214 


1 


•06 


4 


•7 


213 


1 


•06 


4 


•7 


213 



56 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES OF SOME OF THE SUBSTANCES 
ORDERED IN THE PHARMACOPGEIAS. 



The London Pharmacopoeia directs the Specific Gravity to be taken at a temperature 
of 62° Fahr,, the Edinburgh at 60° Fahr. 



Acetum 

Acetum Destillatum . 

Acidum Aceticum 



Glaciale. 
e ligno venale 
forte 
dilutum . 



Hydrochloric um 

dilutum 

Hydrocyanicum dilutum 
Muriaticum purum . 

dilutum 



Nitricum 



purum 
dilutum 



Phosphoricum dilutum 
Sulphuricum . 



purum 
dilutum 



Aromaticum 



^ther 



Sulphuricus 



Alcohol 

Ammonias Hydrosulphuretum 
Aqua Destillata . 

Ammonise . 

— Acetatis . 

Potasses 



Bismuth um 



?p. Gr. 



London 


1-019 


London 


1-0065 


Edin. 


l-OOo 


London 


1-048 




[1-063 


Edin. 


\ to 




1-068 


Dublin 


1-065 


Dublin 


r044 


Dublin 


1-066 


London 


1-008 


Dublin 


1-006 


London 


1-16 


Edin. 


1-17 


Edin. 


1-050 


Dublin 


0-997 


Dublin 


1-176 


Dublin 


r045 


London 


1-420 


Edin. 


1-500 


Dublin 


1-500 


London 


1-082 


Edin. 


1-077 


Dublin 


1-092 


London 


1-064 


London 


1-843 


Edin. 


1-845 


Dublin 


1-846 


London 


1-103 


Edin. 


1-090 


Dublin 


1-084 


Dublin 


0-974 


London 


0-750 


Edin. 


0-735 


Edin. 


0-796 


Dublin 


0-795 


Dublin 


0-999 


L. E. D. 


1-000 


Edin. 


0-960 


Edin. 


1-011 


Edin. 


1-072 


London 


9-8 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 



57 



Sp. Gr. 



Chloroform yl 
Chloroformum 
Creasotum . 



Glycerina . 
Hydrarg-yrum 
Liquor Ammonise 



Fortior 



Acetatis 



Antimonii Terchloridi 
Arsenicalis . 
Barii Chloridi 
Calcii Chloridi 
Calcis Chloririatse 
Ferri Pernitras 
Plumbi Diacetatis 
Subacetatis 



— Potassse. 



Causticae 
Carbonatis 



-• Sodse 



• Causticag 

' Carbonatis 

Chlorinatae 

< • Zinci Chloridi 

Oleum ^thereum 
Spiritus ^theris Nitrici 



Sulphurici 

- Ammonias Aromaticus 



Foetidus 



Fortior . 

Pyroxilicus 

Rectificatus 



Tenuior. 



Syrupus Simplex 
Tinctura Ferri Acetatis 
Sesquichloridi 

Zincura .... 



London 


1-48 


Dublin 


1*496 


London 


1-046 


Dublin 


1-066 


Dublin 


1-260 


London 


13-5 


London 


0-960 


Dublin 


0-950 


London 


0-882 


Dublin 


0-900 


London 


1-022 


Dublin 


1-012 


Dublin 


1-470 


Dublin 


1-013 


Dublin 


1-088 


Dublin 


1-225 


Dublin 


1-035 


Dublin 


1-107 


London 


1-260 


Dublin 


1-066 


London 


1-063 


Dublin 


r068 


Dublin 


1-310 


London 


1-061 


Dublin 


1-056 


Dublin 


1-026 


Dublin 


1-034 


Dublin 


1-593 


London 


1-05 


London 


0-834 


Edin. 


0-847 


Edin. 


0-809 


London 


0-918 


Dublin 


0-852 


London 


0-861 


Dublin 


0-849 


Dublin 


0-818 


Dublin 


0-846 


London 


0-838 


Edin. 


0-838 


Dublin 


0-840 


London 


0-920 


Edin. 


0-912 


Dublin 


0-920 


Dublin 


1-330 


Dublin 


0-891 


London 


0-992 


Dublin 


1-237 


London 


6-860 



( 58 ) 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 

RELATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT THERMOMETRICAL. 

SCALES. 

The thermometer always used in this country is that of Fahrenheit ; 
it is also used in parts of Germany. 

In this instrument the range between the freezing and boiling points 
of water is divided into 180°, and as the greatest possible degree of 
cold was supposed to be that produced by mixing snow and salt 
together, it was made the zero. Hence the freezing-point became 32°, 
and the boiling-point 212°. 

The Centigrade thermometer places the zero at the freezing-point of 
water, and divides the range between the freezing and boiling points 
into 100*^. This scale has long been used in Sweden, under the title 
of Celsius's thermometer, and is generally adopted on the Continent. 

Reaumur's thennometer, wliich was formerly used in France, divides 
the space between the freezing and boiling-points of water into 80*^^ 
and places the zero at the freezing point. It is now little employed. 

Le Lisle's thermometer is used in Russia. The graduation begins 
at the boiling-point, and increases towards the freezing-point. The 
boiling-point is marked 0°, and the freezing-point 150°. 

To reduce Centigrade degrees to those of Fahrenheit. 

Rule. — Multiply by 9, divide by 5, and add 32. 
Cent. Fahr. 

Thus, 40 X 9 -f- 5 -f 32 = 104. 

To reduce Fahreyilieit' s degrees to those of Centigrade. 

Rule. — Subtract 32, multiply by 5, and divide by 9. 
Fahr. Cent. 

Thus, 104 - 32 X 5 -T- 9 = 40. 

To reduce Reaumur s degrees to those of Fahrenheit. 

Rule. — Multiply by 9, divide by 4, and add 32. 
Keaumur. Fahr. 

Thus, 32 X 9 -^ 4 4- 32 = 104. 

To reduce Fahrenheit s degrees to those of Reaumur. 

Rule. — Subtract 32, multiply by 4, and divide by 9. 

Fahr. Reaum. 

Thus, 104 - 32 X 4 -^ 9 = 32. 

To reduce Reaumur s degrees to those of Centigrade. 

Rule. — Multiply by 5, and divide by 4. 

K'eaum. Cent. 

Thus, 32 X 5 -f- 4 = 40. 

To reduce Centigrade degrees to those of Reaumur. 

Rule. — Multiply by 4, and divide by 5. 

Cent. Reaum. 

Thus, 40 X 4 -^ 5 = 32. 

The following table of Therraometrical Equivalents has been cal- 
culated according to these rules. 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



59 



Fahrenheit 


Eeaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


Fahrenheit. 


Eeaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


2570 


1128 


1410 


761 


324 


405 


2480 


1088 


1360 


752 


320 


400 


2390 


1048 


1310 


743 


316 


395 


2300 


1008 


1260 


734 


812 


390 


2210 


968 


1210 


725 


308 


885 


2120 


928 


1160 


716 


304 


380 


2030 


888 


1110 


707 


300 


875 


1940 


848 


1060 


698 


296 


870 


1850 


808 


1010 


689 


292 


865 


1760 


768 


960 


680 


288 


860 


1670 


728 


910 


671 


284 


855 


1580 


688 


860 


662 


280 


350 


1490 


648 


810 


653 


276 


345 


1400 


608 


760 


644 


272 


840 


1310 


568 


710 


635 


268 


335 


1220 


528 


660 


626 


264 


330 


1130 


488 


610 


617 


260 


325 


1040 


448 


560 


608 


256 


320 


1004 


432 


540 


600 


252-44 


315-55 


995 


428 


535 


599 


252 


315 


986 


424 


530 


598 


251-55 


314-44 


977 


420 


525 


597-2 


251-2 


314 


968 


416 


520 


597 


251-11 


313-88 


959 


412 


515 


596-75 


251 


313-75 


950 


408 


510 


596 


250-36 


313-33 


941 


404 


505 


595-4 


250-4 


313 


932 


400 


500 


595 


250-22 


312-77 


923 


396 


495 


594-5 


250 


312-5 


914 


392 


490 


594 


249-77 


312-22 


905 


388 


485 


593-6 


249-6 


312 


896 


384 


480 


593 


249-33 


31J-66 


887 


380 


475 


592-25 


249 


311-25 


878 


876 


470 


592 


248-88 


311-11 


869 


372 


465 


591-8 


248-8 


311 


860 


368 


460 


591 


248-44 


310-55 


851 


364 


455 


590 


248 


310 


842 


360 


450 


589 


247-55 


809-44 


833 


356 


445 


588-2 


247-2 


309 


824 


352 


440 


588 


247-11 


308-88 


815 


348 


435 


587-75 


247 


308-75 


806 


344 


430 


587 


246-66 


308-38 


797 


340 


425 


586-4 


246-4 


308 


788 


336 


420 


586 


246-22 


307-77 


779 


332 


415 


585-5 


246 


307-5 


770 


328 


410 


585 


245-77 


307-22 



60 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



Fahrenheit. 


Reaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


Fahrenlieit. 


Keaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


584-6 


245-6 


307 


559 


234-22 


292-77 


684 


245-33 


306-66 


558-5 


234 


292-5 


583-25 


245 


306-25 


558 


233-77 


292-22 


583 


244-88 


306-11 


557-6 


233-6 


292 


582-8 


244-8 


306 


557 


233-33 


291-66 


682 


244-44 


305-55 


556-25 


233 


291-25 


581 


244 


305 


556 


232-88 


29111 


580 


243-55 


304-44 


555-8 


232-8 


291 


579-2 


243-2 


304 


555 


232-44 


290-55 


579 


243-11 


303-88 


554 


232 


290 


578-75 


243 


303-75 


553 


231-55 


289-44 


578 


242-66 


303-33 


552-2 


231-2 


289 


577-4 


242-4 


303 


552 


231-11 


288-88 


577 


242-22 


302-77 


651-75 


231 


288-75 


576-5 


242 


302-5 


551 


230-66 


288-33 


576 


241-77 


302-22 


550-4 


230-4 


288 


575-6 


241-6 


802 


550 


230-22 


287-77 


575 


241-33 


301-66 


549-5 


230 


287-5 


574-25 


241 


301-25 


549 


229-77 


287-22 


574 


240-88 


30M1 


548-6 


229-6 


287 


673-8 


240-8 


301 


548 


229-33 


286-66 


573 


240-44 


300-55 


547-25 


229 


286-25 


572 


240 


300 


547 


228-88 


286-11 


571 


239-55 


299-44 


546-8 


228-8 


286 


• 570-2 


239-2 


299 


546 


228-44 


285-65 


570 


239-11 


298-88 


545 


228 


285 


569-75 


239 


298-75 


644 


227-65 


284-44 


509 


238-66 


298-33 


543-2 


227-2 


284 


568-4 


238-4 


298 


543 


227-11 


283-88 


568 


238-22 


297-77 


542-75 


227 


283-75 


567-5 


238 


297-5 


542 


226-66 


283-33 


567 


237-77 


297-22 


641-4 


226-4 


283 


566-6 


237-6 


297 


641 


226-22 


282-77 


566 


237-33 


296-66 


540-5 


226 


282-5 


565-25 


237 


296-25 


540 


225-77 


282-22 


565 


236-88 


296-11 


539-6 


225-6 


282 


564-8 


236-8 


296 


539 


225-33 


281-66 


564 


236-44 


295-55 


538-25 


225 


281-25 


563 


236 


295 


638 


224-88 


281-11 


562 


235-55 


294-44 


537-8 


224-8 


281 


561-2 


235-2 


294 


537 


224-44 


280-56 


661 


235-11 


293-88 


636 


224 


280 


560-75 


235 


293-75 


535 


223-55 


279-44 


560 


234-66 


293-33 


534-2 


223-2 


279 


659-4 


234-4 


293 


634 


223-li 


278-88 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



61 



Fiilirenheit. 


Eeaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


1 

Fahrenheit. 


Eeaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


533-75 


223 


278-75 


508 


211-5 


264-44 


633 


222-66 


278-33 


507-2 


211-2 


264 


532-4 


222-4 


278 


507 


211-11 


263-88 


532 


222-22 


277-77 


506^75 


211 


263-73 


531-5 


222 


277-5 


506 


210-66 


263-33 


531 


221-77 


277-22 


505-4 


210-4 


263 


530-6 


221-6 


277 


505 


210-22 


262-77 


530 


221-33 


276-66 


504-5 


210 


262-5 


529-25 


221 


276-25 


504 


209-77 


262-22 


529 


220-88 


276-11 


503-6 


209-6 


262 


528-8 


220-8 


276 


503 


209-33 


261-66 


528 


220-44 


275-55 


502-25 


209 


261-25 


527 


220 


275 


502 


208-88 


261-11 


526 


219-55 


274-44 


501-8 


208-8 


261 


525-2 


219-2 


274 


501 


208-44 


260-55 


525 


219-11 


273-88 


500 


208 


260 


524-75 


219 


273-75 


499 


207-55 


259-44 


524 


218-66 


273-33 


498-2 


207-2 


259 


523-4 


218-4 


273 


498 


207-11 


258-88 


523 


218-22 


272-77 


497-75 


207 


258-75 


522-5 


218 


272-5 


497 


206-66 


258-33 


522 


217-77 


272-22 


496-4 


206-4 


258 


521-6 


217-6 


272 


496 


206-22 


257-77 


521 


217-33 


271-66 


495-5 


206 


257-5 


520-25 


217 


271-25 


495 


205-77 


257-22 


520 


216-88 


271-11 


494-6 


205-66 


257 


519-8. 


216-8 


271 


494 


205-33 


256-66 


519 


216-44 


270-55 


493-25 


205 


256-25 


518 


216 


270 


493 


204-88 


256-11 ; 


517 


215-55 


269-44 


492-8 


204-8 


256 


516-2 


215-2 


269 


492 


204-44 


255-55 


516 


21511 


268-88 


491 


204 


255 


515-75 


215 


268-75 


490 


203-55 


254-44 


515 


214-66 


268-33 


489-2 


203-2 


254 


514-4 


214-4 


268 


489 


203-11 


253-88 


514 


214-22 


267-77 


488-75 


203 


253-75 


513-5 


214 


267-5 


488 


202-66 


253-33 


513 


213-77 


267-22 


487-4 


202-4 


253 


512-6 


213-6 


267 


487 


202-22 


252-77 


512 


213-33 


2Q6-66 


486-5 


202 


252-5 


611-25 


213 


266-25 


486 


201-77 


252-22 


511 


212-88 


266-11 


485-6 


201-6 


252 


510-8 


212-8 


266 


485 


201-33 


251-66 


510 


212-44 


265-55 


484-25 


201 


251-25 


509 


212 


265 


484 


200-88 


251-11 



62 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



Falireiiheit. 


Reaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


Falirenlieit. 


Eeaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


483-8 


200-8 


251 


458 


189-33 


236-66 


483 


200-44 


250-55 


457-25 


189 


236-25 


482 


200 


250 


457 


188-88 


236-11 


481 


199-55 


249-44 


456-8 


188-8 


236 


480-2 


199-2 


249 


456 


188-44 


235-55 


480 


199-11 


248-88 


455 


188 


235 


479-75 


199 


248-75 


454 


187-55 


234-44 


479 


198 66 


248-33 


453-2 


187-2 


234 


478-4 


198-4 


248 


453 


187-11 


233-88 


478 


198-22 


247-77 


452-75 


187 


233-77 


477-5 


198 


247-5 


452 


186-66 


233-33 


477 


197-77 


247-22 


451-4 


186-4 


233 


476-6 


197-6 


247 


451 


186-22 


232-77 


476 


197-33 


246-66 


450-5 


186 


232-5 


475-25 


197 


246-25 


450 


185-77 


232-22 


475 


196-88 


246-11 


449-6 


185-6 


232 


474-8 


196-8 


246 


449 


185-33 


231-66 


474 


196-44 


245-55 


44825 


185 


231-25 


473 


196 


245 


448 


184-88 


231-11 


472 


195-55 


244-44 


447-8 


184-8 


231 


471-2 


195-2 


244 


447 


184-44 


230-55 


471 


195-11 


243-88 


446 


184 


230 


470-75 


195 


243-75 


445 


183-55 


229-44 


470 


194-66 


243-33 


444-2 


183-2 


229 


469-4 


194-4 


243 


444 


183-11 


228-88 


469 


194-22 


242-77 


443-75 


183 


228-75 


468-5 


194 


242-5 


443 


182-66 


228-33 


468 


193-77 


242-22 


442-4 


182-4 


228 


467-6 


193-6 


242 


442 


182-22 


227-77 


467 


193-33 


241-66 


441-5 


182 


227-5 


466-25 


193 


241-25 


441 


181-77 


227-22 


466 


192-88 


241-11 


440-6 


181-6 


227 


465-8 


192-8 


241 


440 


181-33 


220-66 


465 


192-44 


240-55 


439-25 


181 


226-25 


464 


192 


240 


439 


18088 


226-11 


463 


191-55 


239-44 


438-8 


180-8 


226 


462-2 


191-2 


239 


438 


180-44 


225-55 


462 


191-11 


238-88 


437 


180 


225 


461-75 


191 


238-75 


436 


179-55 


224-44 


461 


190-66 


238-33 


435-2 


179-2 


224 


460-4 


190-4 


238 


435 


179-11 


223-88 


460 


190-22 


237-77 


434-75 


179 


223-75 


459-5 


190 


237-5 


434 


178-66 


223-33 


459 


189-77 


237-22 


433-4 


178-4 


223 


458-6 


189-6 


237 


433 


178-22 


222-77 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



63 



Fahrenheit 


Reaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's, 


Fahrenheit. 


Reaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's, 


432-5 


178 


222-5 


407 


166-66 


208-33 


432 


177-77 


222-22 


406-4 


166-4 


208 


431-6 


177-6 


222 


406 


166-22 


207-77 


431 


177-33 


221-60 


405-5 


106 


207-5 


430-25 


177 


221-25 


405 


165-77 


207-22 


430 


176-88 


221-11 


404-6 


105-6 


207 


429-8 


176-8 


221 


404 


165-33 


206-66 


429 


176-44 


220-55 


403-25 


165 


206-25 


428 


176 


220 


403 


164-88 


206-11 


427 


175-55 


219-44 


402-8 


164-8 


206 


426-2 


175-2 


219 


402 


164-44 


205-55 


426 


175-11 


218-88 


401 


164 


205 


425-75 


175 


218-75 


400 


163-55 


204-44 


425 


174-66 


218-33 


399-2 


163-2 


204 . 


424-4 


174-4 


218 


399 


163-11 


203-88 


424 


174-22 


217-77 


398-75 


163 


203-75 


423-5 


174 


217-5 


398 


162-66 


203-33 


423 


173-77 


217-22 


397-4 


162-4 


203 


422-6 


173-6 


217 


397 


162-22 


202-77 


422 


173-33 


216-66 


396-5 


162 


202-5 


421-25 


173 


216-25 


396 


161-77 


202-22 


421 


172-88 


21611 


395-6 


161-6 


202 


420-8 


172-8 


2J6 


395 


161-33 


201-66 


420 


172-44 


215-55 


394-25 


161 


201-25 


419 


172 


215 


394 


160-88 


201-11 


418 


171-55 


214-44 


393-8 


160-8 


201 


417-2 


171-2 


214 


393 


160-44 


200-55 


417 


171-11 


213-88 


392 


160 


200 


416-75 


171 


213-75 


391 


159-55 


199-44 


416 


170-6 


213-33 


390-2 


159-2 


199 


415-4 


170-4 


213 


390 


159-11 


198-88 


415 


170-22 


212-77 


389-75 


159 


198-75 


414-5 


170 


212-5 


389 


158-66 


198-33 


414 


169-77 


212-22 


388-4 


158-4 


198 


4i3-0 


169-0 


212 


388 


158-22 


197-77 


410 


] 69-33 


211-66 


387-5 


158 


197-5 


412-25 


169 


211-25 


387 


157-77 


197-22 


412 


168-88 


211 11 


386-6 


157-6 


197 


411-8 


168-8 


211 


386 


157-33 


196-66 


411 


168-44 


210-5 


385-25 


157 


196-25 


410 


168 


210 


385 


156-88 


196-11 


409 


167-55 


209-44 


384-8 


156-8 


196 


408-2 


167-2 


209 


384 


156-44 


195-55 


408 


167-11 


208-88 


383 


156 


195 


407-75 


167 


208-75 


382 


155-55 


194-44 



64 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



Fahrenheit. 


Eeaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


Fahrenheit. 


Eeaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius"s. 


381-2 


165-2 


194 


357 


144-44 


180-55 


381 


155-11 


193-88 


356 


144 


180 


380-75 


155 


193-75 


355 


143-55 


179-44 


380 


154-66 


193-33 


354-2 


143-2 


179 


379-4 


154-4 


193 


354 


143-11 


178-88 


379 


154-22 


192-77 


353-75 


143 


178-75 


378-5 


154 


192-5 


353 


142-66 


178-33 


378 


153-77 


192-22 


352-4 


142-4 


178 


377-6 


153-6 


192 


352 


142-22 


177-77 


377 


153-33 


191-66 


351-5 


142 


177-5 


376-25 


153 


191-25 


351 


141-77 


177-22 


376 


152-88 


191-11 


350-6 


141-6 


177 


375-8 


152-8 


191 


350 


141-33 


176-66 


375 


152-44 


190-55 


349-25 


141 


176-25 


374 


152 


190 


349 


140-88 


176-11 


373 


151-55 


189-44 


348-8 


140-8 


176 


372-2 


151-2 


189 


348 


140-44 


175-55 


372 


151-11 


188-88 


347 


140 


175 


371-75 


151 


188-75 


346 


139-55 


174-44 


371 


150-66 


188-33 


345-2 


139-2 


174 


370-4 


150-4 


188 


345 


13911 


173-88 


370 


150-22 


187-77 


344-75 


139 


173-75 


369-5 


150 


187-5 


344 


138-66 


173-33 


369 


149-77 


187-22 


343-4 


138-4 


173 


368-6 


149-6 


187 


343 


138-22 


172-77 


368 


149-33 


186-66 


342-5 


138 


172-5 


367-25 


149 


186-25 


342 


137-77 


172-22 


367 


148-88 


186-11 


341-6 


137-6 


172 


866-8 


148-8 


186 


341 


187-33 


171-66 


366 


148-44 


185-55 


340-25 


137 


171-25 


365 


148 


185 


340 


136-88 


171-11 


364 


147-55 


184-44 


339-8 


136-8 


171 


363-2 


147-2 


184 


339 


136-44 


170-55 


363 


147-11 


183-88 


338 


136 


170 


362-75 


147 


183-75 


337 


135-55 


169.44 


362 


146-66 


183-33 


336-2 


185-2 


169 


361-4 


146-4 


183 


336 


135-11 


168-88 


361 


146-22 


182-77 


335-75 


135 


168-75 


360 5 


146 


182-5 


335 


134-66 


168-38 


360 


145-77 


182-22 


334-4 


134-4 


168 


359-6 


145-6 


182 


334 


134-22 


167-77 


359 


145-33 


181-66 


333 5 


134 


167-5 


358-25 


145 


181-25 


333 


133-77 


167-22 


358 


144-88 


181-11 


332-6 


188-6 


167 


257-8 


144-8 


181 


332 


183-83 


166-66 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS 



GS 



Fabrenheit. 


Keaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


Fahrenheit. 


Eeaumur. 


Centigradj?, 
or Celsius's. 


331-25 


133 


166-25 


306 


121-77 


152-22 


381 


132-88 


166-11 


305-6 


121-6 


152 


830-8 


132-8 


166 


305 


121-33 


151-60 


330 


132-44 


165-55 


304-25 


121 


151-25 


329 


132 


1G5 


304 


120-88 


151-11 


328 


131-55 


164-44 


303-8 


1208 


151 


327-2 


131-2 


164 


303 


1-20 -44 


150-55 


327 


131-11 


163-88 


302 


120 


150 


826-75 


131 


163-73 


301 


119-55 


149-44 


826 


130-66 


163-33 


300-2 


119-2 


149 


325-4 


130-4 


163 


300 


119-11 


148-88 


325 


130-22 


162-77 


299-75 


119 


148-75 


324-5 


130 


162-5 


299 


118-66 


148-33 


324 


129-77 


162-22 


298-4 


118-4 


148 


323-6 


129-6 


162 


298 


118 22 


147-77 


323 


129-33 


161-66 


297-5 


118 


J47-5 


322-25 


129 


161-25 


297 


117-77 


147-22 


322 


128-88 


161-11 


296-6 


117-6 


147 


321-8 


128-8 


161 


296 


117-33 


140-66 


321 


128-44 


160-55 


295-25 


117 


140-25 


320 


128 


160 


295 


116-88 


146-11 


319 


127-55 


159-44 


294-8 


116-8 


146 


318-2 


127-2 


159 


294 


116-44 


145-55 


318 


127-11 


158-88 


293 


116 


145 


317'75 


127 


158-75 


292 


115-55 


144-44 


317 


126-66 


158-83 


291-2 


115-2 


144 


316-4 


126-4 


158 


291 


115-11 


143-88 


816 


126-22 


157-77 


290-75 


115 


143-75 


315-5 


126 


157-5 


290 


114-66 


143-33 


315 


125-77 


157-22 


289-4 


114-4 


143 


814-6 


125-6 


157 


289 


114-22 


142-77 


8.14 


125-33 


166-66 


288-5 


114 


142-5 


313-25 


125 


156-25 


288 


113-77 


142-22 


813 


124-88 


156-11 


287-6 


113-6 


142 


312-8 


124-8 


156 


287 


113-33 


141-66 


312 


124-55 


155-55 


286-25 


113 


141-25 


311 


124 


155 


286 


112-88 


14111 


310 


123-55 


154-44 


285-8 


112-8 


141 


309-2 


123-2 


154 


285 


112-44 


140-55 


309 


123-11 


153-88 


284 


112 


140 


308-75 


123 


153-75 


283 


111-55 


139-44 


308 


122-66 


153-33 • 


282-2 


111-2 


139 


307-4 


122-4 


153 


282 


111-11 


138-88 


307 


122-22 


152-77 


281-75 


111 


138-75 


806-5 


122 


152-5 


281 


110-66 1 


138-38 



66 



THEEMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



Fahrenheit. 


Reaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


Fahrenheit. 


Reaumur, 


Centigrade^ 

or Celsius's. 


280-4 


110-4 


138 


255 


99.11 


123-88 


280 


110-22 


137-77 


254-75 


99 


123-75 


279-5 


110 


137-5 


254 


98-66 


123-3a 


279 


109-77 


137-22 


253-4 


98-4 


123 


278-6 


109-6 


137 


253 


98-22 


122-77 


278 


109-33 


136-66 


252-5 


98 


122-5 


277-25 


109 


136-25 


252 


97-77 


122-22 


277 


108-88 


136-11 


251-6 


97-6 


122 


276-8 


108-8 


136 


251 


97-33 


121-66 


276 


108-44 


135-55 


250-25 


97 


121-25 


275 


108 


135 


250 


96-88 


121-11 


274 


107-55 


134-44 


249-8 


96-8 


121 


273-2 


107-2 


134 


249 


96-44 


120-55 


273 


107-11 


133-88 


248 


96 


120 


272-75 


107 


133-77 


247 


95-55 


119-44 


272 


106-66 


133-33 


246-2 


95-2 


119 


271-4 


106-4 


133 


246 


95-11 


118-88 


271 


106-22 


132-77 


245-75 


95 


118-75 


270-5 


106 


132-5 


245 


94-66 


118-33 


270 


105-77 


132-22 


244-4 


94-4 


118 


269-6 


105-6 


132 


244 


94-22 


117-77 


269 


105-33 


131-66 


243-5 


94 


117-5 


268-25 


105 


131-25 


243 


93-77 


117-22 


268 


104-88 


131-11 


242-6 


93-6 


117 


267-8 


104-8 


131 


242 


93-33 


116-66 


267 


104-44 


130-55 


241-25 


93 


116-25 


266 


104 


130 


241 


92-88 


116-11 


265 


103-55 


129-44 


240-8 


92-8 


116 


264-2 


103-2 


129 


240 


92-44 


115-55 


264 


103-11 


128-88 


239 


92 


115 


263-75 


103 


128-75 


238 


91-55 


114-44 


263 


102-66 


128-33 


237-2 


91-2 


114 


262-4 


102-4 


128 


237 


91-11 


113-88 


262 


102-22 


127-77 


236-75 


91 


113-75 


261-5 


102 


127-5 


236 


90-36 


113-33 


261 


101-77 


127-22 


235-4 


90-4 


113 


260-6 


101-6 


127 


235 


90-22 


112-77 


260 


101-33 


126-66 


234-5 


90 


112-5 


259-25 


101 


126-25 


234 


89-77 


112-22 


259 


100-88 


126-11 


233-6 


89-6 


112 


258-8 


100-8 


126 


233 


89-33 


111-66 


258 


100-44 


125-55 ! 


232-25 


89 


111-25 


257 


100 


125 


232 


88-88 


111-11 


256 


99-55 


124-44 


231-8 


88-8 


111 


255-2 


99-2 


124 


231 


88-44 


UO-5 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



67 



Ffilirenheit. 


Reaumur. 

1 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


Fahrenheit, 


Eeaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


230 


! 88 


110 


205 


76-88 


96*11 


229 


87-55 


109-44 


204-8 


76-8 


96 


228-2 


87-2 


109 


204 


76-44 


95-55 


228 


87-11 


108-88 


203 


76 


95 


227-75 


87 


108-75 


202 


75-55 


94-44 


227 


86-66 


108-33 


201-2 


75-2 


94 


220-4 


86-4 


108 


201 


75-11 


93-88 


22 (> 


86-22 


107-77 


200-75 


75 


93-75 


225-5 


86 


107-5 


200 


74-66 


93-33 


225 


85-77 


107-22 


199-4 


74-4 


93 


224-6 


85-6 


107 


199 


74-22 


92-77 


224 


85-33 


106-66 


198-5 


74 


92-5 


223-25 


85 


106-25 


198 


73-77 


92-22 


223 


84-88 


106-11 


197-6 


73-6 


92 


222-8 


84-8 


106 


197 


73-33 


91-66 


222 


84-44 


105-55 


196-25 


73 


91-25 


221 


84 


105 


196 


72-88 


91-11 


220 


83-55 


104-44 


195-8 


72-8 


91 


219-2 


83-2 


104 


195 


72-44 


90-55 


219 


83-11 


103-88 


194 


72 


90 


218-75 


83 


103-75 


193 


71-55 


89-44 


218 


82-66 


103-33 


192-2 


71-2 


89 


217-4 


82-4 


103 


192 


71-11 


88-88 


217 


82-22 


102-77 


191-75 


71 


88-75 


216-5 


82 


102-5 


191 


70-66 


88-33 


216 


81-77 


102-22 


190-4 


70-4 


88 


215-6 


81-6 


102 


190 


70-22 


87-77 


215 


81-33 


101-66 


189-5 


70 


87-5 


214-25 


81 


101-25 


189 


69-77 


87-22 


214 


80-88 


101-11 


188-6 


69-6 


87 


213-8 


80-8 


101 


188 


69-33 


86-66 


213 


80-44 


100-55 


187-25 


69 


86-25 


212 


80 


100 


187 


68-88 


86-11 


211 


79-55 


99-44 


186-8 


68-8 


86 


210-2 


79-2 


99 


186 


68-44 


85-55 


210 


79-11 


98-88 


185 


68 


85 


209-75 


79 


98-75 


184 


67-55 


84-44 


209 


78-66 


98-33 


183-2 


67-2 


84 


208-4 


78-4 


98-0 


183 


67-11 


83-88 


208 


78-22 


97-77 


182-75 


67 


83-75 


207-5 


78 


97-5 


182 


66-66 


83-33 


207 


77-77 


97-22 


181-4 


66-4 


83 


206-6 


77-6 


97 


181 


66-22 


82-77 


206 


77-33 


96-66 


180-5 


66 


82-5 


205-25 . 


77 


96-25 


180 


65-77 


82-22 

■r. O 



68 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



Fahrenheit. 


Eeaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


Fahrenheit. 


Eeaumur. 


Centigrade 
or Celsius's. 


179-6 


65-6 


82 


154 


54-22 


67-77 


179 


65-33 


81-66 


153-5 


54 


67-5 


178-25 


65 


81-25 


153 


53-77 


67-22 


178 


64-88 


81-11 


152-6 


53-6 


67 


177-8 


64-8 


81 


152 


53-33 


66-66 


177 


64-44 


80-55 


151-25 


53 


66-25 


176 


64 


80 


151 


52-88 


66-11 


175 


63-55 


79-44 


150-8 


52-8 


66 


174-2 


63-2 


79 


150 


52-44 


65-55 


174 


63-11 


78-88 


149 


52 


65 


173-75 


63 


78-75 


148 


51-55 


64-44 


173 


62-66 


78-33 


147-2 


51-2 


64 


172-4 


62-4 


78 


147 


51-11 


63-88 


172 


62-22 


77-77 


146-75 


51 


63-75 


171-5 


62 


77-5 


146 


50-66 


63-33 


171 


61-77 


77-22 


145-4 


50-4 


03 


170-6 


61-6 


77 


145 


50-22 


62-77 


170 


61-33 


76-66 


144-5 


50 


62-5 


169-25 


61 


76-25 


144 


49-77 


62-22 


169 


60-88 


76-11 


143-6 


49-6 


62 


168-8 


60-8 


76 


143 


49-33 


61-66 


168 


60-44 


75-55 


142-25 


49 


61-25 


167 


60 


75 


142 


48-88 


61-11 


166 


59-55 


74-44 


141-8 


48-8 


61 


165-2 


59-2 


74 


141 


48-44 


60-55 


165 


59-11 


73-88 


140 


48 


60 


164-75 


59 


73-75 


139 


47-55 


59-44 


164 


58-66 


73-33 


138-2 


47-2 


59 


168-4 


58-4 


73 


138 


47-11 


58-88 


163 


58-22 


72-77 


137-75 


47 


58-75 


162-5 


58 


72-5 


137 


46-66 


58-33 


162 


57-77 


72-22 


136-4 


46-4 


58 


161-6 


57-6 


72 


136 


46-22 


67-77 


161 


57-33 


71-66 


135-5 


46 


57-5 


160-25 


57 


71-25 


135 


45-77 


57-22 


160 


56-88 


71-11 


134-6 


45-6 


57 


159-8 


56-8 


71 


134 


45-33 


56-06 


159 


56-44 


70-55 


133-25 


45 


56-25 


158 


56 


70 


133 


44-88 


56-11 


157 


55 55 


69-44 


132-8 


44-8 


56 


156-2 


55-2 


69 


132 


44-55 


55-55 


156 


55-11 


68-88 


131 


44 


55 


155-75 


55 


68-75 


130 


43-55 


54-44 


155 


54-66 


68-33 


120-2 


43-2 


54 


154-4 


54-4 


68 


129 


43-11 


53-88 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



69 



Falirsnlieit. 


Reaumur. 


Centigrade 
or Celsius's. 


Fahrenheit. 


Reaumur. 


Centigradej 
or Celsius'0. 


128-75 


43 


53-75 


103 


31-65 


39-44 


128 


42-66 


53-33 


102-2 


31-2 


39 


127-4 


42-4 


53 


102 


31-11 


38-88 


127 


42-22 


52-77 


101-75 


31 


38-75 


126-5 


42 


52-5 


101 


30-66 


38-33 


126 


41-77 


52-22 


100-4 


30-4 


38 


125-6 


41-6 


52 


100 


30-22 


37-77 


125 


41-33 


51-66 


99-5 


30 


37-5 


124-25 


41 


51-25 


99 


29-77 


37-22 


124 


40-88 


51-11 


98-6 


29-6 


37 


123-8 


40-8 


51 


98 


29-33 


36-66 


123 


40-44 


50-55 


97-25 


29 


36-25 


122 


40 


50 


97 


28-88 


36-11 


121 


39-55 


49-44 


96-8 


28-8 


36 


120-2 


39-2 


49 


96 


28-44 


35-55 


120 


39-11 


48-88 


95 


28 


35 


119-75 


39 


48-75 


94 


27-55 


34-44 


119 


38-66 


48-33 


93-2 


27-2 


34 


118-4 


38-4 


48 


93 


27-11 


33-88 


118 


38-22 


47-77 


92-75 


27 


33-77 


117-5 


38 


47-5 


92 


26-66 


33 33 


117 


37-77 


47-22 


91-4 


26-4 


33 


116-6 


37-6 


47 


91 


26-22 


32-77 


116 


37-33 


46-66 


90-5 


26 


32-5 


115-25 


37 


46-25 


90 


25-77 


32-22 


115 


36-88 


46-11 


89-6 


25-6 


32 


114-8 


36-8 


46 


89 


25-33 


31-66 


114 


36-44 


45-55 


88-25 


25 


81-25 


113 


36 


45 


88 


24-88 


31-11 


112 


35-55 


44-44 


87-8 


24-8 


31 


111-2 


35-2 


44 


87 


24-44 


30-55 


111 


35-11 


43-88 


86 


24 


30 


110-75 


35 


43-75 


85 


23-55 


29-44 


110 


34-66 


43-33 


84-2 


23-2 


29 


109-4 


34-4 


43 


84 


23-11 


28-88 


109 


34-22 


42-77 


83-75 


23 


28-75 


108-5 


34 


42-5 


83 


22-66 


28-33 


108 


33-77 


42-22 


82-4 


22-4 


28 


107-6 


33-6 


42 


82 


22-22 


27-77 


107 


33-33 


41-66 


81-5 


22 


27-5 


106-25 


33 


41-25 


81 


21-77 


27-22 


106 


32-88 


41-11 


80-6 


21-6 


27 


105-8 


32-8 


41 


80 


21-33 


26-66 


105 


32-44 


40-55 


79-25 


21 


26-25 


104 


32 


40 


79 


20-88 


26-11 



70 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



! 

Falirenlieit. 


Reaumur. 


Centigrade. 


Falirenlieit. 


Pieamnui. 


Centigi-ad< , 






or Celsius's. 






or Celsius" -. 


78-8 


20-8 


26 


53 


933 


11-6G 


78 


20-44 


25-55 


52-25 


9 


11-25 


77 


20 


25 


52 


8-88 


11-11 


76 


19-55 


24-44 


51-8 


8-8 


11 


75-2 


10-2 


24 


51 


8-44 


]0-6 


75 


19-11 


23-88 


50 


8 


10 


74-75 


19 


23-75 


49 


7-55 


9-44 


74 


18-66 


23-33 


48-2 


7-2 


9 


73-4 


18-4 


23 


48 


7-11 


8-88 


73 


18-22 


22-77 


47-75 


7 


8-75 


72-5 


18 


22-5 


47 


G-QG 


8-33 


72 


17-77 


22-22 


46-4 


6-4 


8 


71-6 


17-6 


22 


46 


6-22 


7-77 


71 


17-33 


21-66 


45-6 


6 


7-6 


70-25 


17 


21-25 


45 


6-77 


7-22 


70 


16-88 


21-11 


44-6 


5-6 


7 


69-8 


16-8 


21 


44 


5-33 


6-66 


69 


16-44 


20-55 


43-25 


6 


6-25 


68 


16 


20 


43 


4-88 


6-11 


67 


15-55 


19-44 


42-8 


4-8 


6 


66-2 


15-2 


19 


42 


4-44 


6-65 


66 


15-11 


18-88 


41 


4 


6 


65-75 


16 


18-75 


40 


3-65 


4-44 


66 


14-66 


18-33 


39-2 


3-2 


4 


64-4 


14-4 


18 


39 


3-11 


3-88 


64 


14-22 


17-77 


38-75 


3 


3-75 


63-5 


14 


17-6 


38 


2-66 


3-33 


63 


13-77 


17-22 


37-4 


2-4 


3 


62-6 


13-6 


17 


37 


2-22 


2-77 


62 


13-33 


16-66 


36-5 


2 


2-5 


61-25 


13 


16-26 


36 


1-T7 


2-22 


61 


12-88 


16-11 


35-6 


1-6 


2 


60-8 


12-8 


16 


36 


1-33 


1-66 


60 


12-44 


15-66 


34-25 


1 


1-26 


69 


12 


16 


34 


0-88 


Ml 


68 


11-66 


14-44 


33-8 


0-8 


1 


67-2 


11-2 


14 


33 


0-44 


0-65 


67 


1111 


13-88 


32 








66-75 


11 


13-75 


31 


—0-44 


— 0-66 


66 


10-60 


13-33 


30-2 


—0-8 


— I 


65-4 


10-4 


13 


30 


—0-88 


— Ml 


66 


10-22 


12-77 


29-75 


— 1 


— 1-25 


64-5 


10 


125 


29 


— 1-33 


— 1-66 


64 


9-77 


12-22 


28-4 


— 1-6 


—2 


63-6 


9-6 


12 


28 


— 1-77 


—2-22 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



71 



Fiilirenlieit. 


Eeaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


Fahrenheit. 


Keanmnr. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's, 


27-5 


— 2 


_ 2-5 


2 


— 13-33 


— 16-66 


27 


— 2-22 


— 2-77 


1-4 


-13-6 


— 17 


26-6 


— 2-4 


_ 3 


1 


—13-77 


— 17-22 


26 


— 2-66 


— 3-33 


0-5 


— 14 


-17-5 


25-25 


— 3 


_ 3-75 





—14-22 


—17-77 


25 


— 3-11 


— 3-88 


— 0-4 


—14-4 


—18 


24-8 


— 3^2 


— 4 


— 1 


-14-66 


-18-33 


24 


— 3-55 


— 4-44 


— 1-75 


—15 


-18-75 


23 


_ 4 


— 5 


— 2 


—15-11 


-18-88 


22 


— 4-44 


— 5-55 


— 2-2 


—15-2 


—19 


21-2 


— 4-8 


— 6 


— 3 


—15-55 


—19-44 


21 


— 4-88 


— 6-11 


— 4 


—16 


—20 


20-75 


— 5 


— 6-25 


— 5 


-16-44 


-20-55 


20 


— 5-33 


— 6-66 


— 5-8 


— 16-8 


—21 


19-4 


— 5-6 


— 7 


— 6 


—16-88 


—21-11 


19 


— 5-77 


— 7-22 


— 6-25 


— 17 


-21-25 


18-5 


— 6 


— 7-5 


— 7 


—17-33 


—21-66 


18 


— 6-22 


— 7-77 


— 7-6 


— 17-6 


—22 


17-6 


— 6-4 


— 8 


— 8 


— 17-77 


-22-22 


17 


— 6-66 


— 8-33 


— 8-5 


— 18 


-22-5 


16-25 


— 7 


— 8-75 


— 9 


— 18-22 


—22-77 


16 


— 7-11 


— 8-88 


— 9-4 


—18-4 


—23 


15-8 


— 7-2 


— 9 


—10 


-18-66 


—23-33 


15 


— 7-55 


— 9-44 


—10-75 


—19 


—23-75 


14 


— 8 


— 10 


— 11 


-19-11 


—23-88 


13 


— 8-44 


-•10-55 


— 11-2 


—19-2 


—24 


12-2 


— 8-8 


—11 


— 12 


—19-55 


-24-44 


12 


— 8-88 


-11-11 


— ]3 


—20 


—25 


11-75 


— 9 


-11-25 


— 14 


—20-44 


—25-55 


11 


— 9-33 


-11-66 


—14-8 


—20-8 


—26 


10-4 


— 9-6 


-12 


—15 


-20-88 


—26-11 


10 


-- 9-77 


—12-22 


-15-25 


—21 


—26-25 


9-5 


—10 


—12-5 


—16 


—21-33 


—26-66 


9 


— 10-22 


-12-77 


-16-6 


—21-6 


—27 


8-6 


— 10-4 


—13 


— 17 


—21-77 


—27-22 


8 


—10-66 


—13-33 


— 17-5 


—22 


—27-5 


7-25 


— 11 


—13-75 


—18 


—22-22 


-27-77 


7 


—11-11 


-13-88 


-18-4 


—22-4 


—28 


6-8 


-11-2 


—14 


— 19 


—22-66 


—28-33 


6 


—11-55 


— 14-44 


-19-75 


—23 


—28-75 


5 


—12 


—15 


—20 


—23-11 


—28-88 


4 


-12-44 


-15-55 


-20-2 


—23-2 


—29 


8-2 


—12-8 


—16 


—21 


-23-55 


—29-44 


8 i 


—12-88 


-16-11 


—22 


—24 


—30 


2-75 1 


—13 


—16-25 


—23 1 


-24-44 


—30-55 



72 



THERMOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS. 



Fahrenlieit. 


Eeaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


Fahrenlieit. 


Reaumur. 


Centigrade, 
or Celsius's. 


—23-8 


—24-8 


—31 


—32-8 


—28-8 


—36 


—24 


—24-88 


—31-11 


—33 


—28-88 


-36-11 


—24-25 


—25 


-31-25 


-33-25 


—29 


-36-25 


—25 


—25-33 


—31-66 


—34 


—29-33 


—36-66 


-25-6 


—25-6 


—32 


—34-6 


—29-6 


—37 


—26 


—25-77 


-32-22 


—35 


-29-77 


—37-22 


-26-5 


—26 


-32-5 


—35-5 


—30 


—37-5 


—27 


—26-22 


—32-77 


—36 


—30-22 


-37-77 


-27-4 


—26-4 


—33 


—36-4 


-30-4 


—38 


—28 


—26-66 


—33-33 


—37 


—30-66 


—38-33 


—28-75 


—27 


—33-75 


—37-75 


—31 


—38-75 


—29 


—27-11 


—33-88 


—38 


-31-11 


-38-88 


—29-2 


—27-2 


—34 


-38-2 


—31-2 


—39 


—30 


—27-55 


-34-44 


—39 


—31-55 


—39-44 


—31 


—28 


—35 


—40 


—32 


—40 


—32 


—28-44 


—35-55 









FREEZING MIXTURES. 

FORMULAE FOR COOLING OR FREEZING MIXTURES. 

(mr. walker.) 
FRIGORiriC MIXTURES WITHOUT ICE. 



Mixtures. 

Muriate of Ammonia 
Nitrate of Potassa 
Water . . . , 



Muriate of Ammonia 
Nitrate of Potassa 
Sulphate of Soda . 
"Water . . . . 



Nitrate of Ammonia 
Water . . . 



Nitrate of Ammonia 
Carbonate of Soda 
Water .... 



Sulphate of Soda . . 
Diluted Nitric Acid . 



Parts. Thermometer sinks 



Degree of 

cold 
produced. 



5 iFrom + 50° to + 10° = 40 
16J 

glFrom + 50° to + 4° = 46 

lej 



} JFrom + 50° to + 4° = 46 
I From + 50° to — 30° = SO 



UFrom + 50° to — 7° = 57 



FREEZING MIXTURES. 



73 



Mixtures. 

Sulphate of Soda . 
Muriate of Ammonia 
Nitrate of Potassa 
Diluted !Nitric Acid 

Sulphate of Soda . 
Nitrate of Ammonia 
Diluted Nitric Acid 

Phosphate of Soda 
Diluted Nitric Acid 

Phosphate of Soda 
Nitrate of Ammonia 
Diluted Nitric Acid 

Sulphate of Soda . 
Muriatic Acid 

Sulphate of Soda . 
Diluted Sulphuric Acid 



Thermometer sinks 



Degree of 

cold 
produced. 



Parts. 

6j 

2>From + 50° to — • 10° = 60 

4 



5 [From + 50° to 
4J 



14° = 64 



From + 50° to — 12° = 62 



9] 

^) 

6 From -\- 50° to — 21° = 71 

4] 

^iProm + 50° to — 3° = 53 

IProm + 50° to — 3° = 53 



Snow or pounded ice . 
Salt 



FRIGORIFIC MIXTURES, WITH ICE. 

to — 



Snow or pounded ice. 
Common Salt. 
Muriate of Ammo nia 

Snow or pounded ice. 
Common Salt . 
Muriate of Ammonia 
Nitrate of Potassa 

Snow or pounded ic e . 
Common Salt. 
Nitrate of Ammo nia . 

Snow 

Diluted Sulphuric Acid 



Snow 

Muriatic Acid 

Snow 

Diluted Nitric Acid . 



Snow 

Chloride of Calcium . 



2 
1 

ij 

24 

10 

5 

12^ 

5, 



s 

>^ 

c 

a 

o 



to — 12° 



to — 18' 



to — 25'' 



^JFrom + 32° to — 23° = 55 
^JFrom- + 32° to — 27° = 59 
^IProm + 32° to — 30 = 62 



^JFrom + 32° to 



40 



o _ 



72 



74 FREEZING MIXTURES. 

Degree of 
Mixtures. Parts. Thermometer sinks cold 

pi-oduced. 

Cryst. Chloride of Calcium .3] -r --' - ^ 

fZs. :::::: 4}^^™- + ^^^ to - 510 = 83 

COMBINATION OF FRIGORIFIC MIXTURES. 

Phosphate of Soda . . • 51 

Nitrate of Ammonia ... 3 VFrom 0° to — 34° = 34 

Diluted Nitric Acid ... 4] 

Phosphate of Soda . . • ^1 

Nitrate of Ammonia . . . 2 VFrom — 34^ to — 5(P = 16 

Diluted mixed Acids . . 4) 

Snow 8] 

Diluted Sulphuric or Nitric VFrom — 10° to — 56^ = 46 
Acid 3J 

S'^ow ^Wrom 0° to 46° = 46 

Diluted Nitric Acid . . . ST 



Snow 

Diluted Sulphuric Acid . . 1/ 

Snow 



J I From — 200 to — 60° = 40 



Chloride of Calcium . . . 4 j 

Snow 3 

Chloride of Calcium ... 4 



68 



^JFrom + 20° to — 48° = 

IProm + 10° to — 54° = 64 

^T'A rn'i .* * * * olFrom — 15° to — 68° = 33 
Chloride 01 Calcium . . . oj 

^""Z nui' 'A ^n\' ' ' ol^rom 0° to -^ 66^ = 66 

Cryst. Chloride 01 Calcium . 2j 

Snow 1 



Cryst. Chloride of Calcium . 3f 

Snow ll-c. ^00 4.^ niO _ 



-n-i . ^ c 1 I. • A -^ inrFrom — 68° to — 91° = 23 

Diluted Sulphuric Acid . . lOj 



EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE. 

Degrees 
below zero. 
Greatest artificial cold produced by the evaporation of a mix- 
ture of solid carbonic acid and ether, in vacuo, by Faraday 160 

Ditto in the open air, by Thiloreir 135 

Solid compound of alcohol and carbonic acid fuses . . . 131 
Greatest artificial cold produced by Walker ..... 91 

Strongest nitric acid freezes 55 

Sulphuric ether congeals 47 



EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE. 75 

Degrees 
below zero. 

Liquid ammonia freezes 46 

Mercmy freezes 39 

Proof spirit and brandy freeze 7 

Degi-ees 
above zero. 

Solution of 1 salt in 3 water, freezes 4 

Solution of 1 salt in 4 water, freezes 7 

Mixture of 1 alcohol 3 water, freezes 7 

Solution of sal-ammoniac in 4 water .,,.... 8 

Oil of turpentine freezes 16 

Strong wines freeze 20 

Fluoric acid freezes 23 

Oils of bergamot and cinnamon 23 

Vinegar freezes 28 

Milk freezes 30 

Ice melts . . . , 32 

Olive oil freezes 36 

Glacial acetic acid solidifies 36 

Medium temperature of the surface of the globe .... 50 

Medium temperature of England 52 

Oil of aniseed freezes 64 

Lard melts from 90 to 97 

Heat of human blood 98 

Phosphorus melts ► . . 99 

Stearine from hogs' lard melts 109 

Spermaceti melts 112 

Tallow melts (Thomson) 92 

(Nicholson) 127 

Bees' wax melts . 142 

Ambergris melts (La Grange) 145 

Potassium melts (Fownes) 150 

(Daniell) 136 

Bleached wax melts "(Nicholson) 155 

Sodium perfectly fluid 200 

Iodine fuses (Gay Lussac) 210 

(Fownes) 225 

Sulphur fuses (Fownes) 226 

Camphor fuses 303 

Tin fuses 442 

Bismuth fuses 476 

Lead fuses 594 

Zinc fuses 773 

Antimony fuses 809 

Red heat (Daniell) 980 

Heat of common fire (Daniell) . 1140 

Brass fuses (Daniell) 1869 

iver fuses (Daniell) 2233 

on fuses 3479 



76 



EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE. 



TEMPERATURES AT WHICH CERTAIN SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 

ARE VOLATILIZED. 

Degrees 
aljo\:« zero. 

Liquid Sulphurous acid boils (anhydrous) 14 

Ether boils 98 

Fuming sulphurous acid boils (solution) 113 

Bisulphuret of carbon boils 126 

Liquid ammonia boils 140 

Pyrolisi-neous spirit boils 150 

Alcohol boils 176 

(Black) 174 

■ sp. g-r. 0-800 (Henry) 172 

Water boils 212 

Phosphorus distils (Pelletier) 219 

Water saturated with sea salt boils 225 

Nitric acid boils (sp. gr. P5) 187 

White oxide of arsenic sublimes 283 

Oil of turpentine boils (Ure) 304 

Petroleum boils (Ure) 316 

Metallic arsenic sublimes 540 

Phosphorus boils in close vessels 554 

Sulphur boils 570 

Sulphuric acid boils (Dalton) 590 

(Black) 546 

(Fownes) 620 

Linseed oil boils 600 

Mercury boils 662 



BOILING-POINTS OF SATURATED SOLUTIONS. 



Alum 


. 220° 


Sulphate of nickel 


. . 235° 


Muriate of ammonia 


. 236 


Chlorate of potass . 


. . 218 


Oxalate of ammonia 


. 218 


Nitrate of potass . 


. . 238 


Tartrate of ammonia 


. 230 


Quadroxalate of pota 


ss . 220 


Chloride of barium . 


. 222 


Acetate of soda 


. . 256 


Nitrate of baryta 


. 214 


Nitrate of soda 


. . 246 


Acetate of copper . 


. . 214 


Biborate of soda . 


. 222 


Sulphate of copper . 


. . 216 


Carbonate of soda . 


. . 220 


Acetate of lead . 


. 212 


Phosphate of soda . 


. . 222 


Chloride of calcium . 


. . 220 


Nitrate of strontia. 


. . 224 


Bichloride of mercury 


. . 214 


Sulphite of zinc 


. . 220 


Bicyanide of mercury 


. . 214 


Boracic acid 


. . 218 



TEMPERATURES TO BE OBSERVED IN CERTAIN PHARMACEUTICAL 

OPERATIONS. 

In the fermentation of saccharine solutions, the highest temperature 
should not exceed 86° (Thomson). 

The lowest temperature at which they will ferment is 38° (Thom- 
son). 



EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE. 77 

The process of acetous fermentation is best conducted at a tempera- 
ture of about 86°. 

The temperature requisite to coagulate albumen varies with the state 
of dilution. If the quantity of albumen be so great that the liquid has 
a slimy aspect, a heat of 145° or 150° suffices, but in a very dilute con- 
dition boiling is required (Fownes). 

In the London Pharmacopoeia. 

When a boiling heat is directed, a temperature is meant of 212° 
Fahr. 

When a gentle heat is directed, a temperature is meant of from 90° 
to 100°. 

The specific gravities of substances ordered in the London Pharma- 
copoeia are to be taken at a temperature of 62°. 

A water bath is that by which any substance contained in a proper 
vessel is exposed either to hot water, or the vapour of boiling water. 
A sand bath is made of sand, to be gradually heated, in which anything 
is placed contained in a proper vessel. 

Syrups are to be kept in a place where the temperature never exceeds 
55°. 

In drying vegetables, put them into very shallow wicker baskets soon 
after they are gathered, and expose them to a gentle heat and a current 
of air, excluded from light. When the moisture is expelled, increase 
the heat gradually to 150° F., until they are dried. Afterwards 
preserve them in suitable vessels, so as to exclude light and moisture. 

In the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias. 

Whenever mention occurs of the specific gravity of any body, its 
temperature is supposed to be at 60°. 



78 



CHEMICAL ELEMENTS, WITH THEIR SYMBOLS 
AND EQUIVALENTS. 

The"^ equivalents given in this table^ are founded upon the views 
generally received among Chemists with regard to the constitution of 
the compounds from the analysis of which the determinations have been 
made, and the numbers in the table represent the best and most recent 
results. In the case of mercury, however, the equivalent is represented 
as = 200, because this number accords with the constitution assigned to 
the compounds of mercury in the London Pharmacopoeia, although 100 
is now more generally assumed to be the equivalent of mercury. 







Symb. 












Equiv. 


Aluminum . 


. . . Al 13-7 


Antimony (Stibi 


um) . Sb. 












. 129 


Arsenic . 


. . . As. 












. 75 


Barium . 




. . . Ba. 












. 68-5 


Bismuth . 




. . Bi. . 












. 213 


Boron 




. . . B. . 












. 10-9 


Bromine . 




. . Br. . 












. 80 


Cadmium 




. . . Cd. 












. 56 


Calcium . 




. . . Ca. 












. 20 


Carbon . 




. . . C. . 












. 6 


Cerium . 




. . . Ce. 












. 47 


Chlorine . 




. . CI. . 












. 35-5 


Chromium . 




. . Cr. 












. 26-7 


Cobalt . 




. . Co. 












. 29-5 


Columbium (Tai 


[italum) Ta. 












. 184-0 


Copper (Cuprum 


. . Cu. 












. 31-7 


Didymium . 


. . Dy. 












. 50 


Erbium . 


. . Er. 














Fluorine. 


. . F. . 












19 


Glucinium . 


. . G. . 












1 6-9 


Beryllium . 


. . Be. 












Gold (Aurum) . 


. . Au. . 












197 


Hydrogen . 


. . H. . . 












1 


Iodine . 


. . L . 












127 


I idium . 


. . Ir. . . 












99 


Iron (Ferrum) . 


. . Fe. 












28 


Lanthanum . 


. . Ln. . 












47 


Lead (Plumbum 


) . . Pb. . 












103-7 


Lithium . 


. . Li. . . 












6-5 


Magnesium . 


. . Mg. . 












12 


Manganese . 


. . Mn. . 












27-6 


Mercury (Hydra 


irgyrum) Hg. 












200 


Molybdenum 


. . Mo. . 












46 


Nickel . . . 


. . Ni. . 












29-6 


Niobium 


. . Nb. . 














Nitrogen or . 


A.ZO 


te . . N. . . 












14 



CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. 



79 



Norium . 

Osmium . 

Oxygen . 

Palladium . 

Pelopium 

Phosphorus . 

Platinum 

Potassium (Kalium) 

Rhodium 

Ruthenium . 

Selenium 

Silicium, or Silicon 

Silver (Argentum) 

Sodium (Natrium) 

Strontium . 

Sulphur . 

Tellurium . 

Terbium 

Thorium 

Tin (Stannum) . 

Titanium 

Tungsten (Wolfram) 

Uranium 

Vanadium . 

Yttrium . 

Zinc .... 

Zirconium . 



Symb. 

No. 
Os. 
O. . 
Pd. 
Pe. 
P. . 
Pt. . 
K. . 
R. . 
Ru. 
Se. . 
Si. . 
Ag. 
Na. 



Sr. . 
S. . 
Te.. 
Tb. 
Th.. 
Sn. . 
Ti. . 
W. 
U. . 
V. . 
Y. . 
Zn.. 
Zr. . 



Equiv. 

99-6 

8 
53-3 



32 

98 
39 
52 
52 
35 
21 
108 
23 

43-8 
16 
64-2 



59-6 

58 

25 

92 

60 

68-6 

32-6 
33-6 



THE SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



Name of Salt. 






Sp 


. gr. 


Solubility in 100 parts 
Water 


Solubility in 100 parts 
Alcohol 






at 60° at Boiling-point. 


at 60° at Boiling-point. 


Aluminum 
Alumina 




.1 


2 
3 
3 
1 

1 


67 
9 to 
97 
245 

645 


Undetermined 

Insoluble 

Uncrystallizable 

0-05 

Uncrystallizable 

Very soluble 

Very soluble 

Uncrystallizable 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 




Acetate of 
Arseniate of . 
Borate of . 
Camp borate of 
Lactata of 
Muriate of 
Nitrate of 
Oxalate of 
Phosphate of . 
Seleniate of . 




100 at 54^o 
.... 100 
. . . .2-91 



80 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 







Solubility in 100 parts 


Solubilitj' in 100 parts 


Name of Salt. 


Sp.gr, 


Water 


Alcohol 

A 




it 60° at Boiling-point, e 


it 60" at Boiling-point. 


Alumina. 


1-67 


50 




Sulphate of . . . 




Sulphate of, and Potash 


1-71 


5-4 . 133-33 




Sulphate of, and Soda 


1-6 


100 




Sulphite of . . . 


. . 


Insoluble 




Tartrate of . . . 


. . 


Uncrystallizable 


2-91 


Tartrate of, and Potash 




Uncrystallizable 




Tungstate of . 


. . 


Insoluble 




Urate and Lithate of. 




Insoluble 




Ammonia. 




Very soluble 




Acetate of . . . 


Readily soluble 


Arseniate of . 




. . 


Soluble 




Binarseniate of 




^ . 


Soluble 




Arsenite of . 




. . 


Uncrystallizable 




Benzoate of . 




. . 


Soluble 




Boletate of . 




, , 


38 




Borate of . 




. . 


8i . . . . 


. . . 0-416 


Camphorate of 




. . 


1. . . .33 




Carbonate of (Sesqui) 


. . 


33 ( Ure) 






. . 


20 {Brande) 




Chlorate of . . . 


. . 


Very soluble 




Chromate of . 


, . 


Very soluble 




Citrate of . . . . 




(Difficultly crystal- 
( lizable 




Ferrocyanide of . 


. . 


Very soluble 




Formate of . . . 


, , 


Soluble 




Hydriodate of, (or lo- 1 
dide of Ammonium) J 




Very soluble 




Hydroeyanate of . 


. . 


Soluble 




Hydrosulphuret of 


. . 


Very deliquescent 




Hypophosphite of 




{Soluble and deli- 
) quescent 




Hyposulphite of . 


. . 


Very soluble 




lodate of . 


. . 


Sparingly soluble 




Lactate of . . . 


. . 


Uncrystallizable 




Meconate of . . . 


, . 


66 




Molybdate of. . . 




Soluble 


' 7 


Muriate of, (or Chlo- 
ride of Ammonium) 


^ 1-53 


36 . . . 100 


l7-5at80° (o^|«900 
]4-7o do. {tc:|]-872 
[1-5 do. (ch.^(-834 


Nitrate of . . . 


1-58 


50 . . . 100 


. . . 19-16 


Oxalate of 


• 


1-46 


4-5. . 40-84 





SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



81 







Solubility in 100 parts 


Solubility in 100 parts 


Xame of Salt. 


Sp. gr. 


Water 


Alcohol 




at 60° at Boiling-point. 


!at 60° at Boiling-point. 


Ammonia. 


1-8 


25 (Brande) 




Phosphate of . 




Biphosphate of . 




Less soluble 




Phosphite of . 


Very soluble 




Purpurate of . 




• 0066 much more 




Pyrolithate of 




Soluble 




Suberate of . . . 




Very soluble 




Succinate of . . 




Very soluble 




Sulphate of . . . 


1*75 


50 (Brande) 100 




Sulphite of . . . 




100 (Ure) 




Tartrate of . . . 




60-03 . 304-7 


. . . .2-91 


Tungstate of . 




Soluble 




Antimony . 


6-72 


Soluble (Ure) 




Acetate of . . . 




Benzoate of . . . 


, , 


Soluble ( Ure) 




Tartrate of . . . 




j Very soluble 
[ {Bra7ide) 










Potassio-tartrate of . 




7 ... .50 




Barium . 


4-00 






Baryta . 


1-828 


5 at 50° 10 at 212° 

88. . . .96 




Acetate of . . . 




Antimoniate of . 




Insoluble 




Antimonite of 




Slightly 




Arseniate of . 




Insoluble 




Arsenite of . . . 




Difficultly 




Benzoate of . . . 




Soluble 




Borate of . 




Very sparingly 




Camphorate of . 




Vei'y sparingly 




Carbonate of . 


4-331 


i Very nearly in- 
[ soluble 




Chlorate of . . . 




25 




Chromate of . . 




Very sparingly 




Citrate of. . . . 




Difficultly soluble 




Ferrocj^anuret of . 




•0005. . -01 




Hydriodate of, (or lo-l 
dide of Barium) . j 




Very soluble 




Hydrosulphuret of . 




11. . . .50 




Hypophosphite of 




Very soluble 




lodate of . 




•33 . . 1-6 




Lactate of . . , 




Soluble 





S2 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 







Solubility in 100 parts 


Solubility in 100 parts 


Name of Salt. 


Sp. gr. 


Water 

A 


Alcohol 




at 60"^ at Boiling-point. 


at 60** at Boiling-point. 


Baryta, 

A 




Insoluble 




Lithate of. 






Muriate of, (or Chlo-] 






a at 80° )"z r-eoo 


ride of Barium) > 
(Anhydrous) . . J 


2-825 


36-8. . 68-5 


lo-29. . fc-^ -848 
0-18. . P'^Ih -834 
[0-09. . J,^ (>817 
/1-56 at 80° \2 ( 


Muriate of (or Chlo-I 
ride of Barium) Cryst. J 


3-14 


43 {Brcmde) 78 


0-43 . . S. -900 

{0*32 . . '3<-848 

0-06 . . ^ -834 


Nitrate of 






3-28 


( 8-18 at 58-9^ 
[35-18 at 214-97° 


10-25 . . j^. 


Oxalate of 






, , 


Nearly insoluble 




Phosphate of . 






1-286 


Insoluble 




Phosphite of . 






, . 


0-25 




Pyrocitrate of 






. . 


•066 . . -02 




Sulphate of . 






4-3 


Insoluble 




Sulphite of . 






1-694 


Insoluble 




Tartrate of . 








Slightly 




Bismuth . 




9-77 


Soluble 




Acetate of 


~v 




Arseniate of . 




1 


Insoluble 




Benzoate of . 






, , 


Soluble . . . 


Sparingly. 


Carbonate of . 






, , 


Insoluble 




Chloride of . 






. . 


Deliquescent 




Nitrate of 






2-73 


Decomposed 




Phosphate of . 






. . 


Soluble 




Sulphate of . 




• 




Decomposed 




Cobalt 


• 


8-51 


Soluble 




Acetate of 


■^ 




Antimoniate of . 






Soluble 




Arseniate of . 






Insoluble 




Borate of . 






Scarcely 




Carbonate of . 






Insoluble 




Lactate of . . . 






•026 {Ure) 




Muriate, or Chloride of 






Very soluble 




Nitrate of . . . 






Soluble . . . 




Oxalate of . . . 






Insoluble 


100 at 54^0 


Sulphate of . . . 






4 {Brande) . 


Insoluble. 


Tartrate of . 










Soluble 





SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



83 



jS^ame of Salt. 




Copper 



Acetate of 

Antimoniate of 

Arseniate of . 

Benzoate of . 

Borate of . 

Carbonate of . 

Chlorate of . 

Chromate of . 

Citrate of. 

Ferrocyanide of 

Fluoride of . 

Formate of 

Hyposulphite of 

Muriate, or Chloride of 

Dichloride of . 

Nitrate of. 

Oxalate of 

„ and Ammonia 
J, and Potassa 
J, and Soda 

Phosphate of . 

Subnitrate of . 

Sulphate of . 

Disulphate of. 

Trisulphate of 

Sulfihite of Protoxide 

Sulphate of and Potassa 
„ and Ammonia 

Ammonio Subsulphate 

Tartrate of . . . 

Bitartrate of . 

Tartrate of and Potassa 

Gold 

^ * , 

Perchloride of 
Protochloride of . 

Iron . 

* * , 

Acetate (Prot.) . 
Acetate (Per.) 
Antimoniate of . 



8-862 



1-78 



1-815 



05 
37 



2-174 



1-4158 



2^ 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Water 



at 60° at Boiling-point. 



24 

89 



19-25 



7-788 
1-368 



20 



Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Slightly 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Soluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Soluble 

12 

Soluble 

Soluble . 

Nearly insoluble 

Deliquescent 

Soluble? 

Soluble 1 

Soluble ? 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

2^ . . , 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Soluble 

Soluble 

Soluble 
Less soluble 
Soluble 



Soluble 
Soluble 



Soluble 

U ncrystallizable 

Insoluble 



50 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Alcohol 



at 60"^ at Boiling-point. 



100 at 176^ 



g2 



84 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



Name of Salt. 




Solubility in 100 parts 
Water 



Iron. 



Arseniate of (Prot.) . 
Arseniate of (Per.) . 
Benzoate of . . . 
Borate of . 
Citrate (Proto.) . 
Citrate (Biproto.) 

Citrate Per. . 

Ferrocyanide (Prus- 
sian Blue) . 
Fluoride of . . . 
Gallate of Peroxide of 
Hyposulphite of . 
Lactate of Protox. of 
Molybdate of Protox. of 
Protochloride of . 
Perchloride of 
Nitrate of Protoxide of 
!Nitrate of Peroxide of 
Oxalate of Protoxide of 
Oxalate of Peroxide of 
Phosphate of . 
Phosphate of Perox. of 
Superphosphate of 
Succinate of Peroxide of 

Sulphate of (Cryst.) 

Sulphate of (Dry) 
Persulphate of . 
Hyposulphite of . 
Persulphate of & Potassa 
„ and Ammonia 
Tartrate (Proto.) of 
Tartrate (Per.) of 
Tartrate of and Potassa 

Lead . 

-iri * 

Acetate (Cryst.) . 
Acetate (Anhyd.) 
Diacetate of . 
Antimoniate of . 
Arseniate of . 



11 

2 
2 



85 
64 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Alcohol 



at 60^* at Boiling-point, at 60" at Boiling-point 



Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Soluble 

Sparingly soluble 
j Very soluble and 
] uncrystallizable 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 
Insoluble 
Soluble 
Scarcely 
Insoluble 
Soluble 
Very soluble 
Uncrystallizable 
Very soluble 
Soluble 
Scarcely 
1 nsoluble 
Nearly insoluble 
Nearly insoluble 
Insoluble 
16-2?>^{Brande) 
I 333-3 

Uncrystallizable 

Uncrystallizable 

Soluble 

Soluble 

0-25 {Dumas) 

Soluble 

Uncrystallizable 



33 

345 
57 



27 {Bostock) 29 

Soluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 



100 at 176° 



Soluble 



Soluble 



12-5 {Brande) 
Soluble 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



85 



Name of Salt. 



Lead. 




Benzoate of . 
Borate of . 

Carbonate of . 

Citrate of 
Chlorate of . 
Chloride of . 
Chloride of (fused) 
Chromate of . 
Ferrocyanuret of 
Gallate of 
Iodide of . 
Hyposulphite of 
Lactate of 
Superlactate of 
Malate of 
Molybdate of 
ISTitrate of 

Dinitrate of . 

Oxalate of 
Phosphate of . 
Phosphite of . 
Succinate of . 

Sulphate of . 

Sulphite of 
Tannate of 
Tartrate of , 



and Potassa 



Lime 



Acetate of 

Antimoniate of 
Arseniate of . 
Arsenite of . 
Benzoate of . 
Borate of . 



4 to 
75 



823 

13 

65 



2-3908 
1-005 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Water 



at 60'= at Boiling-point, 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Alcohol 

, * ^ 

at 60" at Boiling-point. 



Insoluble 
Insoluble 

> Insoluble 

Nearly insoluble 

Soluble 

3-3S{Brcmde)i-5 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

0-08 . . 0-5 

Soluble 

Soluble ( Ure) 

Soluble 

Scarcely 

Insoluble 

13 

[Scarcely at 60"^, 
< but much more 
[ so at 212'' 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

J Not absolutely in- 
I soluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Almost insoluble 
( Insoluble {JBerze- 
\ llus) 



{Kirwan) 



Soluble . 

Insoluble 
Insoluble 
Difficultly soluble 
Sparingly soluble 
Very difficultly 




86 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



Name of Salt. 



Lime. 



Carbonate of (Anhyd.) 
Chlorate of . . . 
Chromate of . 
Citrate of . . . 
Fluoride of . . . 

Hypophosphite of 

Hyposulphate of . 
Hyposulphite of . 
lodate of . 
Iodide of Calcium 
Malateof . . . 
Molybdate of . . 



Sp. Gr. 



2-7 



3-15 



Muriate, (or Chlor "| 
of Calcium) . e f 

Nitrate of . . . 

Oxalate of . . . 
Phosphate of . 

Biphosphate of . 

Subphosphate of . 

Succinate of . . 

Sulphate of . . . 

Sulphite of . . . 

Tartrate of . . . 

Tungstate of . 



LiTHIA. 

, " ■ ^ 

Acetate of 
Bicarbonate of 
Borate of . 
Carbonate of . 
Chloride of Lithium 
Chromate of . 



1-76 
1-62 



at 60° at Boiling-point, 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Water 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Alcohol 



at G0° at Boiling-point. 



1-9009 



Citrate of. 
Nitrate of 



Insoluble 

Very soluble 

Soluble 

Nearly insoluble 

Insoluble 
[Solubility nearly 
< equal at all tem- 
[ peratures 
40'65(j&rfm(/e)150 

Very soluble 

20 100 

Deliquescent 

-m 1-53 

Insoluble 

200 at 32° 

400 at 60° 

almost any quan- 
tity at 220° 

25 ... . 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Soluble 

Almost insoluble 

Difficultly soluble 

0-301 at 50° 

12-5 

(Nearly insoluble at 
60°, but -16 at 
212° 

Insoluble 



Soluble 



Deliquescent 

Slightly soluble 

vSoluble 

1. . . . 



Very deliquescent 

Very soluble 
j Very difficultly 
I soluble 

Very deliquescent 



161-66 



Insoluble 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



87 







Solubility in 100 parts 


Solubility in 100 parts 


Name of Salt. 


Sp. Gr. 


Water 


Alcohol 




at 60° at Boiling-point. 


at 60° at Boiling-point. 


LiTHIA. 




Very deliquescent 




Oxalate of . . . 




Binoxalate of. 




Less soluble 




Phosphate of . 




Insoluble 




Sulphate of . 




Soluble 




Tartrate of . . . 




Easily soluble 




„ and Potassa. 




Easily soluble 




„ and Soda 




Easily soluble 




Magnesia . 


2-3 
1-378 


Very soluble 




Acetate of . . . 




Arseniate of . . . 


^ ^ 


Deliquescent 




Arsenite of . . . 


, , 


Difficultly soluble 




Benzoate of . . . 




Soluble 




Borate of . 


2-566 


Insoluble 




Carbonate of . 


, , 


Very slightly 




Chlorate of . . . 




Very soluble 


[50 547 


Chloride of Magnesium 


1-6 


200 (Brande) 


{50at 80°/s.gr.ofV817 
(21-25. .\ Sprts. j-900 








Chromate of . . . 




Very soluble 




Citrate of. . . . 




Difficultly soluble 




Iodide of Magnesium 




Soluble 




Malate of . . . . 




3-56 (Brande) 




Molybdate of. . . 




6-66 8-35 


("Nearly insoluble 


Nitrate of . . . 


1-46 


100 ... . 


< in pure alcohol 
[ll sp..gr. -840 


Oxalate of . . . 


, , 


Nearly insoluble 




Phosphate of . 


1-55 


6-66 




,, and Ammonia 


. , 


Sparingly soluble 




Succinate of . . . 


, . 


11 ncry stallizable 




Sulphate of (dry) 


, , 


33-192 73-57 




Sulphate of (cryst.) . 


1-66 


68-042 150-71 


1 at 80° {Kirivan) 


5, and Ammonia 


1-72 


Soluble 




„ and Potassa. 


2-07 


Soluble 




„ and Soda 


^ ^ 


33-3 




Sulphite of . . . 


1-38 


5 




5, and Anmionia 


^ ^ 


Difficultly soluble 




Tartrate of . . . 




Insoluble 




Tungstate of . 




Soluble 





88 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



Name of Salt. 



Manganese 



Acetate of . . . 
Ammoiiio-chloricle of 
Ammonio-sulpliate of 
Antimoniate of 
Arseniate of . 

Benzoate of . 

Carbonate of . 
Chromate of . 
Nitrate of. 
Oxalate of 
Phosphate of . 
Succinate of . 

Sulphate of . 

Hyposulphate of 
Sulphite of 
Tungstate of . 



Mercury 

Acetate of (Prot.) 
Acetate of (Per.) 
Arseniate of . 
Benzoate of . 
Borate of . 
Bichloride of . 



Chloride of . 

Chromate of . 
Citrate of 
Bicyanuret of 
Fluoride of . 
Molybdate of 

Nitrate (Prot.) 

Nitrate (Per.) 
Oxalate of (Proto 




8-02 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Water 



at 60° at Boiling-point, 



2-877 



14-00 



66 

9 



{Hasen- 
fratz) 
6-5 

(Graham) 

7-176 



78 
98 



3. . . . 

Soluble 

Soluble 

Moderately soluble 

Insoluble 
( Deliquescent 
I (JBrcmde) 

Insoluble 

Soluble 

Very soluble 

Insoluble 

Nearly insoluble 

1 ( Ure) 
131 (Ure) 
1 50 {Brande) 

Deliquescent 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Alcohol 



at 60° at Boiling-point. 



Soluble 



0-16 {Braconnoi) 
Readily soluble 
Insoluble 
Insoluble 
Insoluble 
6'26{Brande)2>2>-2, 



j -00833 at 212^ 
[ {Dumas) 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

. . 54 

Soluble 

Very sparingly 
( Soluble and deconi- 
( posed by excess 

Do. do. 

Scarcely 



Soluble 



42-6 85-2 

10-74 at oOo 
fSprts. sp. gr. -915 
|43-66at 50° 
^Sprts. sp. gr. -818 
( Graham.) 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



89 



Name of Salt. 


Sp. Gr. 


Solubility in 100 parts 
Water 


Solubility in 100 parts 
Alcohol 




at 60° at Boiling-point. 


at 60° at Boiling-point. 


Mercury. 


6-444 


Insoluble 

0-20 . . 0-33 

Decomposed 

•005 . .0-33 

Insoluble 




Oxalate of (Per.) 
Sulphate of (Proto.) . 
Sulphate of (Per.) . 
Sulphate of (Sub.) . 
Tartrate of . . . 




„ and Potassa 




Soluble 




Nickel . 


8-33 


Very soluble 




Acetate of . . . 




Arseniate of . 


. , 


Soluble (Ure) 




Carbonate of . 


, , 


Insoluble 




Chloride of . . . 


, . 


Soluble in hot water 




Nitrate of Protox. 


• • 


50 ... . 


Soluble 


„ and Ammonia 


, , 


Soluble 




Oxalate of . . . 


, , 


Insoluble 




Phosphate of . 
Sulphate of . . . 
5, and Ammonia 


2-03 


Nearly insoluble 
33-3 185-71 
25 




,, and Potassa 


2- 19 


11-1 




„ and Iron 


, , 


Soluble 




Tartrate of . . . 




Very soluble 




Platinum 


20-98 


Soluble . 




Protochloride of . . 1 
Perchloride of . . j 


j Easily soluble, 
( also in Ether 


Protochloride of . ,\ 
„ and Ammonium] 




Soluble . 


Insoluble 


5, and Potassium 


^ ^ 


Soluble . . . 


Insoluble 


,, and Sodium 
Bichloride of . . .\ 
„ and Ammonium} 
J, and Potassium 
„ and Sodium 




Uncrystallizable 

Very sparingly 

Very sparingly 
Soluble . 


Very soluble 
Soluble 


,, and Barium 


^ ^ 


Soluble 




Protonitrate of . 




Soluble 




Pernitrate of . 




Soluble 




Protosulphate of . 
Persulphate of . 


• • 


Soluble 
Very soluble 


fVery soluble, also 
\ in Ether 



90 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



Name of Salt. 



Potassium 

POTASSA . 



Acetate of . . . 
Ammonio-oxalate of . 
Ammonio-sulphate of 
Ammonio-tartrate of 
Antimoniate of 
Antimonite of 
Arseniate of . 
Binarseniate of 
Arsenite of . 
Benzoate of . 
Bibenzoate of 
Borate of . 
Camphorate of 
Carbonate of . 
Bicarbonate of 
Chlorate of . 
Chromate of . 
Bichromate of 
Citrate of 
Columbate of 
Ferrocyanide of 

Iodide of Potassium 

lodate of . 
Molybdate of 

Chloride of Potassium 
Nitrate of . . . 

Oxalate of 

Binoxalate of. 

Quadroxalate of . 
Phosphate of . 
Diphosphate of . 
Bi phosphate of , 
Hypophosphite of 

Hyposulphate of . 

Hyposulphite of . 




at 60° at Boiling-point, at 60° at Boiling-point. 



865 
706 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Water 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Alcohol 



6 

085 

6 
692 



83 
05 



1'90 
2-073 

2-10 

1-96 
1-81 

2-85 



100 ... . 

Soluble 

13 

Very soluble 

Slightly 

Soluble 

Uncrystallizable 

18-86 at 40° 

Uncrystallizable 

Very soluble 

10 

Soluble 

1 . . 26 

100 

25 . . 83 

6-03 60 at 188i 

48 extremely 

10 much more 

Very soluble 

Un cry stallizable 

33-3 . . 100 
J 143 at Q5 {G. 
\ Lussac 

7-14 {Brande) 

Soluble 

(29-21 at 66-83° 
159-26 at 229-28 
( 29-31 at 64°) 
{236-45 at 207° [ 
[285- at 238°) 

[30 \Brande) . 
1(10 Brande) 
t(C/rel00) 

Difficultly soluble 
Soluble in hot water 

Very soluble 

Very deliquescent 
(Difficultly solub.at 
160° readily at 212° 

Deliquescent 



2oa 



3-75 
Insoluble 



Insoluble 



Sparingly 



'2-083 
4-62 at 80° 
1-66 . . 
0-38 . . 



[o^)-900 
^^ '812 
|^-^)-834 

2-083 



2 '76 at 80° sp.gr. -900 
1 . . of Sprts. -872 



2-91 



Very soluble 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



91 



Name of Salt. 



POTASSA. 



Hyposulphite of and 

Silver . 
Succinate of . 

Sulphate of . 

Bisulphate of. 

Sulphite of . 
Tartrate of . 
Bitartrate of . 
Tartrovinate of . 
Tungstate of . 
Nitro-tungstate of 

SlIiVER 



Acetate of 

Arseniate of 
Arsenite of 
Borate of . 
Chlorate of 
Chromate of 
Citrate of . 
Molybclate of 
Chloride of (F«sed) 
Nitrate of (Cryst.) 
Oxalate of 
Phosphate of . 
Succinate of . 
Sulphate of . 
Sulphite of . 
Hyposulphite of 

,, and Potassa 

Tartrate of . . . 

„ and Potassa 

Sodium . 

Soda. 

>■ 

Acetate of . , . 
Arseniate of . 



Sp. Gr. 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Water 



at 60° at Boiling-point. 



2-64 

2-47 

1-586 
1-556 
1-95 



10-49 



45 
521 



0-953 

2^1 
1-76 



Difficultly 

Very soluble 
10-57 at 54° 
26-33 at 214° 

f 50 at 40° 

[200 at 220° 
100 

100 .. . 
1-05 . .6-66 
10 any quantity 
Uncrystallizable 
. . (Ure) 5 



(Very difficultly 
[ soluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Difficultly soluble 

25 (^Chenevix) 

Very slightly 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

100 . . 200 

Insoluble 

Insoluble 

Soluble 

1-15 

Very little soluble 

Soluble 

Difficultly soluble 

Soluble 

Soluble 



35 . . . 150 
[10 {Thompson) 

\25 {Ure) 



Solubility in 100 parts 
Alcohol 



at 60° at Boiling-point. 



0-416 
2-91 



25 



92 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 







Solubility in 100 parts 


Solubility in 100 parts 


Name of Salt. 


Sp. Gr. 


Water 


Alcohol 




at 60° at Boiling-point. 


at 60° at Boiling-jwint. 


Soda. 








Binarseniate of . 


• • 


Soluble 




„ and Potassa 


• • 


Soluble 




Benzoate of . . . 


, , 


Very soluble 




Biborate of . . . 


1-73 


8-033 . . 50 




Carbonate of Cryst. . 


1-45 


50 . . . 100 




Bicarbonate of 


2-19 


7-6 




Chlorate of . . . 




33-3. . . . 


Sol. in sp. rect. 


Chromate of . 




Very soluble 


Sparingly 


Citrate of. 




( 100 or more 
[ (Brande) 




Iodide of Sodium . 




173 




lodate of . 




7-3 


Insoluble 


Molybdate of 




Soluble 


« 


Muriate of (or Chlo-1 
ride of Sodium) . j 




[Equally soluble at] 


(5-8at80°(Sp. gr.1-900 


2*01 


< all temperatures > 
[ {Berz.) J 


{3-6 . A of [•872 
0-5 . . ( Sprts.) -834 






33-3 at 60°) „ 
100 atl23°p"'^"^ 














50 at 60° Berzeh 


r 9-58 






73 at S2°] 


[Gay 
Lussac 


10-5at80°(spCT '^00 


Nitrate of . . . 


2-18^ 


173 at 212° 


• 6 . . < of J-872 






80 at 32o 




l0-38 . ( Sprts.) -834 






22-7 at 50° 


^Marx 








55 at 61° 






» 


2 18-5 at 246° 




Oxalate of . . . 


.. 


Sparingly soluble 




Phosphate of . 


1-33 


25 ... 50 




,, and Ammonia 


1-50 


Soluble 




Biphosphate of . 




Very soluble 




Hypophosphite of 


• • 


Very soluble 


Very soluble 


Succinate of . . . 


• • 


Soluble 




Sulphate of (Cryst.) . 


1-46| 


48-28 at 64° 
32212 at 91° 






2 -591 


16-73 at Q^°]{Gay 


>Insoluble 


Sulphate of (dry) 


50-65 at 91°U»s- 




42-65 at 217°J ^^'^) 


Hyposulphate of . 


, . 


41-6 . . 91 


Insoluble 


Bisulphate of . . 


2-74 


50 




Sulphate of & Ammonia 


, , 


Soluble 




Sulphite of . . , 


2-95 


25 




Hyposulphite of . 


. . 


Deliquescent 


Insoluble 


Tartrate of . . , 


1-980 


56-37 (TAow 


ipso7iy 


Insoluble 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



93 





Solubility in 100 parts 


Solubility in 100 parts 






Water 


Alcohol 


Name of Salt. 


Sp. Gr. 








at 60° at Boiling-point. 


at 60° at Boiling-point. 


Soda. 








Tartrate of and Potassa 




20 


rSol. in sp. rect., but 


Tartrovinate of . 




Soluble . 


< sparingly in abso- 
1 lute alcohol 


Tungstate of . 


• • 


25 . . .50 




Strontium 
Strontia 


"■■{ 


0-625 at 60O1 

5 at 212° S^^"^^) 

2 ... 50 




Hydrate of . . . 




Acetate of . . . 




Very soluble 




Arseniate of . . 




Sparingly soluble 




Arsenite of . . . 




Sparingly soluble 




Borate of . 




0-76 




Carbonate of . 


3*66 


0-0651 at 212° 




Chlorate of . . . 




Very soluble 


Soluble 


Chloride of Strontium 


2-83 


50 ... . 


Soluble 


Chromate of . 




Insoluble(^r«;^<ie) 




Citrate of . . . 




Soluble 




Ferrocyanuret of 




25 




Iodide of Strontium . 




Soluble 




loci ate of . 




25 




Nitrate of . . . 


2-70 


... 113 




Oxalate of . . . 




. . . 0-52 




Phosphate of . 




Insoluble 




Phosphite of . 




Soluble 




Hypophosphite of 




Very soluble 




Succinate of . , . 




Soluble 




Sulphate of . . . 




0-026 at 212° 




Hyposulphite of . 




20 ( Gay Lussac) 


Insoluble 


Hyposulphate of . 




22-22 . 6Q'm 




Tartrate of . . . 


1-837 


0-67 at 170° 




Tm . . 


7-28 






Acetate of . . . 




Soluble 




Arseniate of . 




Insoluble 




Borate of . 




Insoluble 




Nitrate Proto. of 


.. 


Uncrystallizable 




Nitrate Per. of . 


.. 


Scarcely 




Oxalate of . . . 


• • 


Soluble 




Phosphate of , 




Insoluble 




Succinate of , , , 




Soluble 





94 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 



Name. 



Tm. 



Sulphate Proto. of , 
Sulphate Per. of . 
Tartrate of . . . 
,, and Potassa 



Zinc 



Sp. Gr. 



. 6-861 



Acetate of 
Antimoniate of 
Borate of . 
Chromate of 
Citrate of 
Chlorate of 
Chloride of 
Iodide of . 
lodate of . 
Lactate of 
Nitrate of 
Molybdate of 
Oxalate of 
Phosphate of 
Succinate of 
Sulphate of 
Sulphite of 
Hyposulphite of 
Sulphate of, and Nickel 
Tartrate of . 
Tartrovinate of 
Trisulphate of 



577 



93 



Solubility in 100 
parts Water 



at 60° at Boiling-point. 



Crystallizable 
Uncrystallizable 
Soluble 
Very soluble 



Very soluble 

Very sparingly 

Insoluble 

Sparingly 

Scarcely 

Very soluble 

Very soluble 

Soluble 

Difficultly soluble 

2 ( Ure) 

Deliquescent 

Insoluble 

Nearly insoluble 

Uncrystallizable 

Soluble 

140 {Dumas) 

81-81 at 220° . 

Soluble . 

33-33 

Difficultly soluble 

Soluble . 

Soluble 



Solubility in 100 
parts Alcohol 



at 60° at Boiling-point. 



100 at 544° 



Insoluble 
Soluble 



Sparingly soluble 



95 



SOLUBILITY OF ACIDS, BASES, &c. 



Xfime. 



Acid. 



Arsenious 



Yitreous 



Opaque 



Benzoic 
Boracic . 
Citric . 
Gallic . 

Oxalic (Cryst.) 
Succinic (Cryst.) 
Tartaric . 



>p. gr. 



Solubility in 100 parts Solubility in 100 parts 
Water Alcohol 



at 60° at Boiling-point, at 60° at Boiling-point. 



3-7385 
3-699 



2-9 



1-0345 



62 
6 



8 ( Graham) 
9-68 
( Graham) 
11-47 



3 
133 

5 
11 

4 
150 



50 

9 

33 



33-3 

200 
33-33 



20 Sit 17 6^{IIenri/) 
Soluble 



. . 33-33 74 at 176° 
(Brande) 200 Soluble 



Brucia 
Cinchonia . 
Morphia . 
Quinia 

Strychnia . 

Camphor , 
Cane Sugar 



0-9887 



1 



59 



•1177. . 0-2 
Insoluble 0-04 
Nearly insolub. 1 
Nearly insolub.O * 5 
0-04 (Graham) 

0-15 
0-229 . . . 
200 



75 at 176° 



EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN 
PRESCRIPTIONS. 

A. aa., ana (Greek) of each. It signifies equally by weight or by 

measure. 
Abdom., abdomen, the abdomen, the belly. 
Abs.febr., absente febre, fever being absent. 
Ad catharsis, until purging occurs. 
Ad 2 vie, ad secundum vicem, to the second time; or ad duas vices, 

for two times. 
Ad gr. acid., ad gratam aciditatem, to an agreeable acidity. 
Ad def. animi, ad defectio7iem animi, to fainting. 
Ad del. an., ad deliquium animi, to fainting. 
Ad libit., ad libitum, at pleasure. 
Add., adde, or addanlur, add, or let them be added; addendus, to be 

added. 
Adjac, adjacens, adjacent. 



96 EXPLANATION OF TERMS. 

Admov., admove, admoveafur, admoveantur, apply, let it be applied, 

let them be applied. 
Ads.fehre, abstante febre, while the fever is present. 
Alter, lior.^ cdternis horisy every other hour. 
Alvo adstr.y alvo adstrictd^ when the bowels are confined. 
Aq. astr., aqua astricta^ frozen water. 
Aq. bull., aqua bulliens, boiling water. 
Aq. com., aqua communis, common water. 
Aq.fiuv., aqua fiuviatilis, river water. 
Aq. mar., aqua marina, sea water. 
Aq. niv., aqua nivalis, snow water. 
Aq. pluv., aqua pluviatilis, ot pluvialis, rain water. 
Aq. ferv., aquafervens, hot water. 
Aq. font., aqua fontana, or aqua fontis, spring water. 
JBis ind., bis indies, twice a-day. 
Sib., bibe, drink. 

JB.A., balneum arence, a sand bath. 

jBB., Bbds., Barbadensis, Barbadoes, as aloe Barbadensis. 
B.M., balneum maricE, or balneum maris, a warm- water bath. 
Bull., bulliat, boil. 
But., butyrum, butter. 
B. v., balneum vaporis, a vapour bath. 

Ccerul., cceruleus, blue. 

Cap., capiat, let him (or her) take. 

Calom. calomelas, calomel, protochloride of mercury. 

C.C, cornu cervi, hartshorn; it may also signiiy cuctirbitula cruenta, 
the cupping-glass with scarificator. 

C.C. U., cornu cervi ustum, burnt hartshorn. 

Cochleat., cochleatim, by spoonfuls. 

Coch. ampl., cochleare amplum, a large (or table) spoonful ; about half 
a fluid ounce. 

Coch. infant., cochleare infantis, a child's spoonful. 

Coch. magn., cochleare magnum, a large spoonful. 

Coch. med,, cochleare medium \ a middling or moderate spoonful ; that is, a 

Coch. mod., cochleare modicum J dessert spoonful— about two fluid drachms. 

Coch. parv., cochleare parvum, a small (or tea) spoonful ; it contains 

about one fluid drachm. 
Col., cola, strain. 
Col., colatus, strained. 
Colet., coletur, colat., colatur, let it be strained ; colaturce, to the 

strained liquor. 
Colent., colentur, let them be strained. 
Color., color etur, let it be coloured. 
Comp., compositus, compounded. 
Cong, congius, a gallon. 

Cons., conserva, conserve; also {imperat, of conservo) keep. 
Cont., contunde, bruise. 
Cont., rem., or med., continuentur remedia, or medicamenta, let the 

remedies, or the medicines, be continued. 
Coq.i coqucj boil ; coquantur, let them be boiled. 



USED IN PRESCRIPTIONS. 97 

Coq, ad med. consum.pt, ^ coque, or coquatur ad medietatis consicmp- 
tionern, boil, or let it be boiled to the consumption of one-half. 

Coq. S. A., coque secundum artem, boil according to art. 

Coq. in S. A., coque in sufficiente quantitate aquce, boil in a sufficient 
quantity of water. 

Cort.^ cortex^ bark. 

C. v., eras vespere, to-morrow evening, 

C. m. s., eras mcme sumendus^ to be taken to-morrow morning. 

C. n., eras node, to-morrow night. 

Crast., erastinus, for to-morrow. 

Cuj. , ciijus, of which . 

Cujusl., cujuslibet, of any. 

Cyath. thece, cyatho thece, in a cup of tea. 

Cyath.^ eyathus, vel la wine-glass ; from an ounce and half to 

C. vinar.^ cyathus vinariiis,] two ounces and half. 
Deaur. piL, deaurentur pilulcB^ let the pills be gilt. 
JDeb. spiss., dehita spissitudo, due consistence. 
Dec, decanta, pour off. 

Decuh. hor., decubitus liora, at the hour of going to bed, or at bed-time. 

De d. in d., de die in diem, from day to day. 

Deglut., deglutiatur, let it be swallowed. 

Dej. alv., dejectiones cdri, stools. 

Dep., depuratus, purified. 

Det., detur, let it be given. 

Dieb. alt., diebus alternis, every other day. 

Dieb. tert., diebus tertiis, every third day. 

Dig. digeratur, let it be digested. 

Dil. dilue., diluius, dilute (thin), diluted. 

Diluc, diluculo, at break of day. 

Ditn., dimidius, one -half. 

D. in 2 plo., deter in duplo, let it be given in twice the quantity. 

D. in p. ceq., dividatur in partes cequales, let it be divided in equal 

parts. 
D. P., directione propria, with a proper direction. 
Donee alv. bis dej., donee cdvus bis dejeeerit, until the bowels have 

been twice opened. 
Donee alv. sol.,fuer., do7iec alvus soluta fuerit, until the bowels have 

been loosened. 
Donee dol. nepli. exulav., donee dolor nephriticus exulaverit, until the 

nephritic pain has been removed. 
D., dosis, a dose. 
Eburn., eberneus, made of ivory. 
Ed., edidcorata, edulcorated. 
Ejusd., ejusdem, of the same. 
Elect., electuarium, an electuary. 
Enem., enema, a clyster. 
Exhib., exhibeatur, let it be administered. 
Ext. sup. alut, moll., extende super alutam mollem, spread upon soft 

leather. 
F..fae, make; fiat,Jiant, let it be made, let them be made. 

H 



^8 EXPLANATION OF TERMS 

F. pil.^fiant pilulcE, let pills be made. 

Fasc, fasciculus, a bundle. 

Feb. dur.^fehre durante, during the fever. 

Fern, intern., femoribus i?iternis, to the inside of the thighs. 

F. ven(ES.,fiat vencesectio, let venesection be performed. 

F. H.,fiat haustus, let a draught be made. 

Fict.,Jictilis, earthen. 

Fil.,Jiltrum, a filtre. 

Fist, arm., fistula armata, a clyster-pipe and bladder fitted for use. 

Fl.,fiuidus, fluid. 

F. L. A., fiat lege artis, let it be made by the rules of art. 

F. M.,fiat mistura, let a mixture be made. 

F. S. A., fiat secundum artem, let it be made according to art. 
Gel. quav.^ gelatina quavis, in any jelly. 

G. G. G., gummi guttce gambcB, gamboge. 
Gr., granum, a grain ; grana, grains. 

Gr. vi. pond., grana sex jjotidere, six grains by weight. 

Gtt., gutta, a drop ; guttce, drops. 

Gtt. quibusd., guttis quibusdam, with some drops. 

Guttat., guttatim, by drops. 

Har. pil. sum. iij., harum pilularum sumantur ires, of these pills let 

three be taken. 
H. D., or hor. decub., hord decubitus, at bed-time. 
H. P., haustus pur gans, purging draught. 
H. S., hord somni, at the hour of going to sleep. 
Hor. un. spatio, horce unius spatio, at the expiration of one hour. 
Hor. interm., horis intermediis, in the intermediate hours. 
Hor. llmd. onat., hord undecimd matutind, at 11 o'clock in the 

morning. 
Ind., indies, daily. 
In pulm., in pulmento, in gruel. 
Inf., infunde, infuse. 
Jul.,julepus, julapium, a julep. 

I?ij. enem. injiciatur enema, let a clyster be thrown up. 
Kal. ppt., hali prceparatum, prepared kali (po^«^.s'<^ carbonas. Ph. L.) 
Lat. doL, lateri dole7iti, to the affected side. 
M., misce, mix; mensurd, by measure; manipulus, a handful; mini- 

mum, a minim. 
Mane pr., mane pjimo, early in the morning. 
Man., manipulus, a handful. 

3Iin., 7ninimum, a minim, the GOth part of a drachm measure. 
M. P., massa pilularum, a pill mass. 
M. R., mistura, a mixture. 
Mic. pan., micapanis, crumb of bread. 
Mitt., mitte, send ; mittanlur, let them be sent. 
Mitt. sang, ad ^xij., mitte sangiiincm ad ^xij.^ take blood to t\velve 

ounces. 
3Iod. jrrcescr., modo prtescripto, in the manner directed. 
Mor. diet., more dido, in the way ordered. 
Mor. sol., more solifo, in the usual way. 



USED IN PRESCRIPTIONS. 99 

Ne tr. s. 7iicm., ne tradas sine nummo, do not deliver it without the 

money. 
N. M., mix moschata, a nutmeg. 
No., niimero, in number. 
O., octarius, a pint. 

01. lini s. i., oleum lini sine igne, cold-drawn linseed oil. 
Omn. lior.^ omni hord^ every hour. 
Omn. bid., omni hiduo, every two days. 
Omn. bih. omni bihorio, every two hours. 
O. 31., or omn. man., omni mane, every morning. 
O. N., or omn. noct., omni nocte.^ every night. 
Omn. quadr. hor., omni quadrante liorce, every quarter of an hour. 
O. O. O., oleum olives optimum, best olive oil. 
Ov., ovum, an egg. 
Oz., the ounce avoirdupois, or common weight, as contradistinguished 

from that prescribed by physicians. 
P. ce., part, cequal., partes cequales, equal parts. 
P. d., per deliquium, by deliquescence. 
Past.,pastillus, a pastil, or ball of paste. 
P., ponder e, by weight. 
Ph. I)., Pilar tnacopceia Dubliniensis. 
Ph. E., Pharmacopoeia Edinensis. 
Ph. L., Pharmacopoeia Londinensis. 
Ph. U.S., Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 
Part, vie, partitis vicibus, in divided doses. 
Per. op. emet., per acta operatione emetici, the operation of the emetic 

being over. 
Pocul., poculum, a cup. 
Pocill., pocillum, a small cup. 

Post sing. sed. liq., post singulas sedes liquidas, after every loose stool. 
Ppt., prceparata, prepared. 
P, r. n., pro re nata, occasionally. 
P. rat. cetat., pro ratione cetatis, according to the age. 
Pug., pugillus, a pinch, a gripe between the thumb and the two first 

fingers. 

Pulv. pulvis, pulverizatus, a powder, pulverized. 

Q. I., quantum lubet 1 , i 

/i ' ^ ^ 7 w as much as you please. 

V. P"> quantum placet J "^ ^ 

Q. s., quantum sufficiat, as much as may suflBce. 

Quor., quorum, of which. 

Q. v., quantum vis, as much as you will. 

Hed. 171 pulv.., redactus in pulverem, reduced to powder. 

Redig. in pulv., redigatur in pulverem, let it be reduced into powder 

Keg. mnbil., regio umbilici, the umbilical region. 

Repet., repetatur, or repetantur, let it, or them, be repeated. 

S. A.^ secundum artem, according to art. 

Scat., scatula, a box. • 

S. iV., secimdum naturam, according to nature. 

Semidr., semidrachma, half a drachm. 

Semih., semihora, half an hour. 

K 2 



100 SYMBOLS USED IN PRESCRIPTIONS. 

Sesunc, sesuncia, half an ounce. 

Sesquih., sesquihoj-a, an hour and a half. 

Si n. val., si non valeat^ if it does not answer. 

Si op. sit, si opus sit, if it be necessary. 

Si vir. perm., si vires permittant, if the strength allow it. 

Signal., signatura, a label. 

Sign. n. pr., signetur nomine propria, let it be written upon, let it be 

signed with the proper name (not the trade name). 
Sing., singulorum, of each. 

S. S. S., stratum super stratum.^ layer upon layer. 
Ss., semi^ a half. 

St., stet, let it stand ; stent, let them stand. 
Sub Jin. coct., sub Jinem coctionis, towards the end of boiling, when 

the boiling is nearly finished. 
Sum. tal., sumat talem, let the patient take one such as this. 
Summ., summitates, the summits or tops. 
Sum., sume, sumat, sumatur, sumantur, take, let him or her take, let 

it be taken, let them be taken. 
S. v., spiritus vini, spirit of wine. 

S. v. R., spiritus vini rectificatus, rectified spirit of wine. 
S. V. T., spiritus vini tenuis, proof spirit. 
Tabel., tabella, a lozenge. 

Temp, dext., tempori dextro, to the right temple. 
T. O.j tinctura opii, tincture of opium. 

T. O. C, tinctura opii camphorata, camphorated tincture of opium. 
Tra., tinctura, tincture. 

Ult. prcescr., idtimo prcEScriptus, last prescribed. 
V. O. S., vitello ovi solutus, dissolved in the yoke of an q^^. 
Vom. urg., vomititione urgente, the vomiting being troublesome. 
V. S. B., vencesectio bracliii, bleeding from the arm. 
Zz., zingiber, ginger. 



SYMBOLS USED IN PEESCRIPTIONS. 

R, recipe, take. This sign is really a modification of the symbol 11 , 
which was the old heathen invocation to Jupiter, imploring his 
blessing on the prescription. 

gr., granum, a grain, the 60th part of a drachm. 

3, scrupulus, or scrupidum, a scruple = 20 grains troy. 

3, drachma, a drachm = 3 scruples. 

0, uncia, an ounce troy. 

lb, libra, a pound weight. 

irt, minimum, a minim, the 60th part of a fluidrachm. 

f3, fiuidrachma, a fluidrachm, the 8th part of a fluidouuce. 

i^,Jiuiduncia, a fluidounce, the 20th part of a pint. 

O, octarius, a pint, the 8th part of a gallon. 

C, congius, a gallon. 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL CALENDAR. 101 



SYMBOLS USED IN GERMAN PHARMACY, 

ff, Sugar. -^ Spirit. 

gg, Gum. X Ammonia. 

5 Powder. ^ Mercury. 

V Water. ^ Antimony. 

^° Oil. $ Sulphur. 



THE PHAEMACEUTICAL CALENDAE. 

Containing a notice of Plants to be collected^ and Operations to he 
performed, at particular periods of the year, 

JANUARY AND FEBRUARY. 

Taraxacum Root is sometimes collected in these months, for the pre- 
paration of extract ; but it affords a watery juice, the inspissated 
extract of which is different from that made in September, October, 
and November, when the root possesses a greater amount of medicinal 
activity. 

The following roots are considered by some persons to be in perfec- 
tion in these months :— 

Aconitum napellus. 
Polygonum bistorta, 
Potentilla tormentilla, 
Mumex hydrolapathum, 
Eryrigium campestre. 
Inula helenium. 
Savine (Juniperus sabina) is in proper condition for making the 
ointment, and for distilling for the oil. 

Few vegetables, excepting some cryptogamic plants, such as Boletus 
igniarius, Boletus laricis, and Cetraria islandica, are collected in these 
months. 

Any operations which require a low temperature should be per- 
formed during the cold frosty weather which frequently prevails at this 
time : thus, 

Oleine is obtained by separating the fluid from the congealed part 
of olive oil in cold weather. 

The powdering of some gums, gum-resins, and other similar sub- 
stances, such as Scammony^ Ammoniacum^ Aloes, Sac, is more easily 
effected in cold than in warm weather. 

MARCH. 

The flowers and leaves of Coltsfoot ( Tussilago farfara) are in season. 
Puds of the Poplar, {Poptdus nigra,) in a fit state for the pre- 
paration of the ointment, ( Unguentum Popideum ;) also for tincture. 
Almo7id flowers and Mistletoe may be collected. 
Violets begin to flower. 



102 THE PHARMACEUTICAL CALENDAR. 

APRIL. 

Violet Jlowers, ( Viola odorata,) for making syrup and for drying. 

Asarabacca, (Asarum Europceum,) 

Great Celandine, (Chelido?iium majus,) 

Scurvy-grass, ( Cochlearia officinalis,) are in season during this and 
the next month. 

Roots ofEryngo {Eryngium campestre) may be obtained for candying. 

Tlte entire plant of Taraxacum, ( Taraxacum dens-leonis,) which is 
sometimes used medicinally, is collected in this and the next month. 

MAY. 

Roots of Horseradish, ( CocJdearia armoracia,) for making the spirit, 
or distilled water. 

Flowers of Hearfs-ease ( Viola tricolor) are occasionally used me- 
dicinally ; they are more extensively employed as a substitute for 
Viola odorata in making syrup of violets ; but this practice is very 
unjustifiable, and the substitution ought to be carefully guarded against. 

Tops of Wormivood, (^Artemisia ahsintliium,) and Juniper, (Juni- 
perus communis,) may be collected. Also, 

Cuckoo-flowers, ( Cardamine pratensis,) and 

Cowslips, {Primula veris.) 

JUNE. 

Tops of Wormtvood, {Artemisia absinthium.) 

Tops of Broom, {Spartium scoparium ;) in season. 

Wormivood is collected during this and two following months, for 
making extract, and for distilling oil. 

Monkshood, {Aconitum ?iapellus,) 

Belladonna, (Atropa belladonna,) 

Hemlock, {Conium maculatum,) 

Foxglove, {Digitalis purpurea,) 

Henbane, {Hyoscyamus niger,) 

Lettuce, {Lactuca sativa, and Lactuca virosa,) to be obtained while 
in flower during this and next month, for the preparation of extract, 
and the preservation of tlie leaves. 

Soap-wort, {Saponaria offici?ialis,) for making extract. 

Elder- floivers, {Sambucus niger,) during this and part of next 
month, for preserving and for making elder-flower water. 

Petals of Red Poppy {Papaver rha^as) should be collected in dry 
weather, for making the syrup. 

Roses {Rosa centifoUa and Rosa gallica) are in season during this 
and next month for making rose-water, and for drying tiie petals. 

The leaves of Leopard' s-hane, {Arnica montana.) 

The leaves of Elder, {Sambucus 7iiger,) for making elder ointment 
and green oil. 

Rosemary, {Rosmarinus officinalis.) 

Wake-Robin, or Cuckoo-pint, {Arum maculatum^ 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL CALENDAR. 103 



JULY. 

Many of the plants mentioned under last month are in season also 
during this. 

Seeds (if Colchicum ( Colchicum autumjiale) are collected in this, or 
the end of last month. 

Capsules of White Poppy ^ {Papaver somniferum^ may be obtained 
in the green state, for making extract, which, prepared at this period, is 
preferred by some persons. 

Roots of Tormentil, (^Potentilla tormentilla,) common in dry, hilly 
pastures. 

Peppermint, (Mentha piperita.) 
Pennyroyal, {Mentha pulegium.') 

Mint, {Mentha viridis,) supplied for making distilled waters. 
Lavender fiowers, {Lavendula vera,) in season. 
Garlic, {Ali^im sativum,) comes into season this month. 
The Cormi of Meadow Saffron {Colchicum autumnale) are some- 
times dug up towards the latter end of the month. 

TJie fruit of Squirting Cucumber {3Iomordica elaterium) is in a 
lit state for the preparation of Elaterium during the latter end of this, 
and part of next month. 

Rosemary, {Rosmarinus officinalis,) for distilling. 
Green Tobacco leaves, {Nicotiana tabacum,) for making Tobacco 
ointment, are to be obtained about this period of the year. 
The following herbs may be obtained in the fresh state : — 
Common Balm, {Melissa offici?ialis.) 
Hyssop, {Hyssopus officinalis.) 
Horehound, {Marrubium vidgare.) 
Melilot, {Melilotus cmridea.) 
Yarrow, {Achillea millefolium.) 
Common Sorrel, ( Rumex acetosa.) 
Wood-sorrel, { Oxalis acetosella.) 



AUGUST. 

Flowers of Camomile {Anthemis nobilis) are gathered during this 
month and next. The wild camomile is more active than the cultivated. 
There is a distinct variety that yields a blue-coloured oil. 

The Cormi of Meadow- Saffron {Colchicicm autunmale) are in per- 
fection during this and next month. 

The Squirting Cucumber {Momordica elaterium^ is generally in a 
better condition for yielding elaterium in this than in the previous 
month. The pepos should be gathered after some of the most forward 
have discharged the seed. They are generally gathered too early. 

Green Tobacco leaves {Nicotiana tabacum) may still be obtained. 
The preparation of the ointment should not be neglected. 

Poppy Capsules {Papaver somnifermri) are becoming ripe. They 
are more active if they are gathered before they are quite ripe. 



104 THE PHARMACEUTICAL CALENDAR. 

Stramonium^ {JDatura stramonium^ The herb is no^v fit for 
collecting. 

White Briony-root, {Bryonia dioica.) 
Black Brio?iy-root, (Tamus co^nmunis). 
Winter Cherry, {Physalis alkeke7igi.) 

Pomegranate^ or BaJaustine Jiowers, {Punica granatum^ in season. 

The Hop {Humulus lupulus) grows wild in many parts of the 
country, and may be collected at this period for medicinal use. Com- 
mercial hops are exposed to the vapour of sulphur, during the drying 
process to which they are submitted, by which the flavour is somewhat 
injured. 

The fruit of the Mulberry {Morus nigra) is coming to maturity. 
The ripe fruit should be used for the syrup. 

The fruit of Barberry, {Berheris vulgaris^ ripe. When prepared 
as a conserve, it forms, with water, an agreeable and refreshing 
beverage in fevers. 

Root of Marsh-malloiu {Althcea offici?ialis) is in the best condition 
for yielding the mucilage on which its medicinal efficacy depends. 

Boot of A?igelica {Archangelica officinalis) may be obtained for 
candying. 

The fruit of Buchthorn, {Rhamnus catharticus,) found in woods 
and hedges. The unripe berries are used as a yellow dye. The juice 
of the ripe fruit, when inspissated, forms sap-green ; it also enters 
into the composition of the syrup of buckthorn. These preparations 
should be made about this time. It is often later than this before the 
fruit ripens. 

SEPTEMBER. 

Hips, fruit of Dog-rose, (Rosa cani?ia,) collected from the hedges, 
for making Conserve of Hips. 

Elder-berries, (Sa??ibucus niger,) collected from the hedges for 
making Elder Rob. 

Buckthorn-berries (Rhamnus caiharticus) may also be collected 
now. 

This is the season for collecting the following roots : — 

Roots of Aconitum napellus. 

„ Archangelica officinalis. 

,, Arnica montana. 

„ Althcca officinalis. 

,, Glycyrrhiza glabra. 

,, Helleborus niger. 

„ Polygonum bistorta. 

,, Rumex aquatica. 

„ Valeriana officiricdis. 

The Root of Taraxacum {Taraxacum deiis-leonis) is now fdkd 
with a white milky juice, which it yields in abundance, and which, 
when inspissated, forms a bitter and efficacious extract. The extract 
should be made during this and following month. 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL CALENDAR. 105 

The JRhizomes of Male fern, {Aspidiumjilix mas,) 
„ Sweet flag, (^Acorus calamus,) 

J, Orris, (^Irisjiorentina^ 

„ White Hellebore, ( Veratrum album,) 

may be collected ; also, 

The Cormi of indigenous Salep, (^Orchis mascula.) 

OCTOBER. 

Some of the fruits already noticed are still in season. 

The fruit of the Juniper (Juniperus communis) may be collected. 

This is the month for collecting most barks. 

Saffron, the stamens of Crocus sativus, is gathered during this 
month. 

Quince seeds ( Cydonia vulgaris) may be got at some of the fruit- 
shops. 

JEringo root {Eryngium campestre) is again in season for candying. 

Taraxacum Root is still in a good state for making extract. 

The bark of Mezereon-root {Daphne mezereum) may be collected. 
It is not yet too late for Buckthorn-berries, 

NOVEMBER AXD DECEMBER. 

2%e tops of Savine {Juniperus sabind) may be got for making the 
ointment. 

The stems of Woody Nightshade {Solanum didcamard) are col- 
lected. 

Liquorice Root, ( Glycyrrhiza glabra,) in season. 



106 



AJ^IMALS YIELDING PRODUCTS 



EMPLOYED IN 



MEDICIM, DOMESTIC ECOXOMY, AXD THE ARTS. 



CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS. 

The following arrangement of the animal kingdom was adopted by 
Cuvier, whose system has been followed, although in some cases with 
modifications, by most subsequent writers on tins branch of natural 
history. 

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM INTO 
FOUR GREAT DIVISIONS. 

If, on entering upon a consideration of the animal kingdom, we 
divest ourselves of previous opinions, founded on the divisions formerly 
recognized, and direct our attention merely to the organization and 
nature of animals, and not to their size, their use, the greater or less 
extent of knowledge which we have of them, nor to any of the other 
accessory circumstances connected with them, we shall find that there 
are four principal or leading forms — four general plans, according to 
which all animals seem to have been modelled, and the ulterior divi- 
sions of which, under whatever title naturalists may think fit to cha- 
racterize them, are but slight modifications, founded on the develop- 
ment or addition of some parts, which occasion no essential change in 
the nature of the plan. 

I. Animalia Vertebrata. Vertebrate Animals. In this, the first 
of these forms, which is that of man, and the animals most closely re- 
sembling him, the brain and principal trunk of the nervous system are 
enclosed in a bony envelope, consisting of the cranium and vertebras ; 
to the sides of this middle column are attached the ribs and the bones 
of the extremities, w^hich constitute the frame-work of the body ; the 
muscles, in general, cover the bones, which they bring into action ; 
and the viscera are enclosed witiiin the head and the trunk. 

Animals of this form all have red blood ; a nmscular iieart ; a mouth 
with two jaws placed the one above or anteriorly to the other ; distinct 
organs for sight, hearing, smell, and taste, all placed in tiie cavities of 
the face ; never more than four extremities ; sexes always distinct ; and 
a similar distribution of the medullary masses and of the principal 
brandies of the nervous system. 



ANIMALS. 107 

On examining more closely each of the parts of this great series of 
animals, we invariably find some analogy, even in the species most 
remote from each other, and we can trace the gradations of one and 
the same plan from man even to the least of the fisiies. 

II. Ammalia MoLLusCA. Molluscous Animols. In this, the second 
form, there is no skeleton ; the muscles are merely attached to the skin, 
which forms a soft envelope, capable of contracting in different direc- 
tions ; in which stony laminee, called sliells, are produced in several 
species, the position and production of which are analogous to those of 
the corpus mucosum : the nervous system is, together with the viscera, 
in this general envelope, and is constituted of several scattered masses,, 
united by nervous filaments, and the chief of which, placed on the 
oesophagus, is called the brain. Of the four proper senses, we only 
distinguish the organs of that of taste and of that of vision ; even these 
latter are frequently wanting. Only one family exhibits organs of 
hearing. There is always a complete system of circulation, and of the 
particular organs for respiration. Those of digestion and of the secre- 
tions are nearly as complex as in the vertebrate animals. 

III. Animalia Articulata. Articulated Animals. This, the 
third form, is that observed in insects, worms, &c. The nervous 
system consists of two long cords, extending along the abdomen, swell-- 
ing out at different intervals into knots or ganglions. The first of 
these knots, placed above the oesophagus, and called the brain, is 
scarcely larger than those placed along the abdomen, with which it 
communicates by filaments which encompass the oesophagus like a 
necklace. The envelope of the trunk is divided by transverse folds 
into a certain number of rings, the integuments of which are sometimes 
hard, sometimes soft, and the muscles are always attached to the inte- 
rior. The trunk frequently carries articulated members at its sides j 
frequently, too, it is destitute of them. 

It is among these that we observe the transition from the circula- 
tion in short vessels to nutrition by imbibition ; and the corresponding 
transition from the respiration in the circumscribed organs, to that 
which takes place by tracheae and air-vessels diffused throughout the 
entire body. The organs of taste and of sight are most distinct in 
them ; only one family exhibits those of hearing. The jaws, when they 
have any, are always lateral. 

lY. Animalia Radiata. Radiated Animals. In all the pre- 
ceding classes of animals, the organs of motion and of the senses are 
arranged symmetrically on two sides of an axis. There is a posterior 
aspect, as well as an anterior, both dissimilar. In the animals of this 
division they are like radii around a centre, and this is true even 
when there are but two series, for then the two aspects are similar. 
They approximate to the homogeneousness of plants ; we see in them 
neither a distinct nervous system, nor organs of particular senses ; in 
some we scarcely perceive traces of a circulation ; their respiratory 
organs are almost always on the surface of their body ; most of them 
have but a short sac for the entire intestine, and the lowest families 
present but a sort of homogeneous pulp, possessing moving and sensi- 
tive properties. 



108 



ANIMALS. MAMMALIA. 



The following- table exhibits the distribution of the animal kingdom 
into the foregoing four great divisions, and these latter into nineteen 
classes : — 



General Forms. 



/ 



I. Vertebrate 



II. Molluscous 



Animals 



III. Articulated 



IV. Eadiated 
or 
Zoophyte 



Classes. 



CMammalia (^Mammals) 
|Aves {Birds) . 
IReptilia {Reptiles) 
[Pisces {Fishes) 

'Cephalopoda 
Pteropoda . 
Gasteropoda 
Acephala 
Bracheopoda 
^Cirrhopoda . 



V 



/■Annelida 

1' Crustacea . 
Arachnida . 
Insecta . 

fEchinodermata 
I Intestinalia 
{ Acalepha . 
|Polypa . 
(.Infusoria 



1 
2 
3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

li 
12 
13 
14 

15 
16 
17 

18 
19 



dTtrst iBibisioit of tijc .Animal iimgtJom. 

VEETEBRATA. (Cuv.) -VERTEBRATE ANIMALS. 
Myelencepliala. (Owen.) Spinecerebrata. (Grant.) 

CLASS L MAMMALIA. 

The Mammalia have a heart with two auricles and two ventricles- 
They have a perfect and complete circulation of the blood ; that is to 
say, the whole of the blood which returns from the extremities of the 
body passes through the lung, before returning to nourish them. The 
females nourish their young for some time after birth by means of 
organs called mammce. They have in general four extremities. 
(The cetacea have but the rudiments of the posterior extremities.) 

The number of vertebrae varies ; there are three kinds,^ — the cervical, 
the dorsal, and the lumbar. Man, who is comprised in this class, 
has the body naturally vertical, by which he is distinguished from the 
others, which are quadrupeds, and covered with hair, or cetacea. 



ANIMALS. MAMMALIA. 



109 



The 

genera, 
orders : 



mammalia are divided into nine orders, and these into families, 
sub-g-enera, and species. The following is a table of the 



o 



Having nails, 

or 
unguiculated. 



Having hoofs, 
or uno;ulated. 



< 



' Three sorts of 
teeth — molar, 
canine, incisor 



Less than three 
kinds of teeth. 

Xot ruminant, 
Eumiuant. 



! Thumb free. \ ^ ' 

Without thumb,J3. 
or fingers united. \4. 

'Absence of ca-^l^ 
nine teeth. J 

Absence of in-lr. 
cisors. / 

7. 



Orders. 



Bimana. 
Quadrumana, 
Carnaria. 
Marsupialia. 

Rodentia. 

Edentata. 

Pachydermata. 
lluminantia. 



Havino; the extremities obliterated. 



9. Cetacea. 



Order 1. BIMANA. 

Homo. 3Ian. This is the only genus in this order. In the pre- 
sent day, the only product obtained from the human body for use in 
medicine is urea, which is sometimes procured from human urine. 
In the old Pharmacopoeias, many other products or parts Avere in- 
cluded in the Materia Medica. The Lond. Pharm., 1639, orders the 
" OS triquetrum'' oftliehumaji skull ; — human fat ; — human excrement ; 
— human milk; — human blood; — and humati urine. The Lond. 
Pharm., 1650 — the skull of a man who has suffered a violent death, 
and mummy, which was a favourite remedy. The Lond. Pharm., 
1677, — calculus from the human bladder. Other parts were usedjin 
medicine about the period of the above dates, such as the parings of 
the nails, which were esteemed a good emetic ; the ivax of the ears, 
and the moss growing on a dead marts skull, w^ere also used. 



Order 2. QUADRUMANA. 

Animals of this order are distinguished by having four extremities,, 
each of which is furnished with long flexible fingers, and a thumb 
capable of being opposed to the fingers, in the same manner as in the 
human hand. Hence the name of the order. 

SiMiA. The Monkey. One of the Bezoars, formerly esteemed in 
medicine, was said to be obtained from the intestine of a species of 
monkey. 

Order 3. CARNARIA (Carnassiers, Cuv.) 

The animals included in this order possess, like man and the quad- 
rumana, three kinds of teeth, but have no thumb capable of bjing 
opposed to the fore-fingers. 

They all live on animal substances, and so much the more exclusively 
as their molar teeth are more cuttins^. Those which have them either 
entirely or in part tuberculated, consume more or less of vagetable 
substances. The articulation of their lower jaw admits of n:> lateral 
or horizontal motion ; the mouth can merely open and shut. 



110 ANIMALS. — MAMMALIA. 

There are three families of the Carnassiers ; viz., the Cheircpiera- 
Insectivora^ and Carnivora. 

The Cheiroptera have some affinity to the quadrumana, by havincr 
the mammae on the chest. Their distinctive character consists in a 
fold of skin, which, commencing at the sides of the neck, extends be- 
tween their fore-feet and their fingers ; this sustains them in the air, 
and even allows those to fly that have the hands sufficiently developed. 
— Ex. The Vespertilio or Bat. 

The Insectivora, like the Cheiroptera, have the molar teeth set 
with conical points ; they generally live a nocturnal and subterraneous 
life. They have not, like bats, lateral membranes, and still they never 
want clavicles ; their feet are short ; their mammas are placed beneath 
the abdomen ; none of them have a csecum. They vary in the position 
and relative properties of their incisor and canine teeth. — Ex. The 
Erinaceus, or Hedgehog. 

The Carnivora. In the two preceding families, the comparative 
weakness of the animals, and the presence of conical tubercles on their 
molar teeth, oblige them to confine their carnivorous propensities to 
the destruction of insects. It is in the Carnivora alone that the 
sanguinary appetite is combined with the strength necessary to gratify 
it. This family is characterized by four large and long canine teeth, 
separated one from the other, between which there are six incisors in 
«ach jaw. 

This family has been subdivided into three tribes : — 
1st. Plantigrade^ comprising the Bear, Badger, c&c. 
2nd. Digitigrade, comprising the Dog, Cat, Tiger, &c. 
3rd. Amphibious, comprising the Phoca, &c. 

Family 1. Cheiroptera, (x^^p, hand, and Trrspov, wing.) 

Yespertilio. (Linn.) The Eat. 

Hah. Dark places in general ; they fly abroad in the evening. 

Food. Gnats, flies, flesh, &c. 

Use. The flesh of the animal is said to have been used by Galen 
against the gout. Avicenna employed an oil obtained from it in tlie 
same disease. 

Family 2. Insectivora. 

Erinaceus europ.^us. (Linn.) The Hedgehog. 

Dental Formula. — Incisors -7-; canines ; molars ^— = 36. 

Hah. Everywhere, except Crete, according to Pliny. 

Food. Various fruits, as well as insects. 

Use, The adeps is mentioned as a simple in some of the old Phar- 
macopoeias. This was considered useful in diarrhoia. 

Talpa europ^a. (Linn.) The Mole. 

Hah. Almost everywhere ; they lead a subterraneous life. 

Food. Worms, roots of herbs, &c. 

Use. The excrements of the mole, mixed with honey, were supposed 
useful in scrofulous ulcers. The earth cast up with the head '• helps 
wens and imposthumes." " The ashes of a mole taken inwardly with 
beer or wine, help running gout." 



ANIMALS. — MAMMALIA. Ill 

Family 3. Carnivora. Tribe 1. Pla7itigrade. 

Uesus americanus. (Pallas.) The American Black Bear. The 
Sass of the Cbippewayaii Indians. 

Uab. Every wooded district of the American continent, from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, and from Carolina to the shores of the Arctic 
Sea. 

Food, habits^ S)C. Its chief food seems to be berries of different 
kinds — also roots, insects, fish, eggSj birds, and quadrupeds ; it, how- 
ever, prefers vegetable diet. It generally selects a spot for its den 
nnder a fallen tree. Dr. Richardson allots sixteen weeks as the pro- 
bable time of gestation to the American Black Bear. It is, however, 
so characteristic for the female to conceal itself, that little can be 
known with certainty on this point, with respect to either the brown 
or black bear. " No man. Christian or Indian," according to Brickell, 
" ever killed a she-bear Avith young." Aristotle made the same remark 
long since, in Chap, xxx., Book vi. Kvovaav ce apKrov epyov eart 

Use. The skin of the black bear w^as formerly sold at from twenty 
to forty guineas ; it now hardly fetches more than so many shillings. 
The soft fat obtained from different species of the bear has long been 
celebrated as an application for promoting the grow^th and preservation 
of the human hair. 

Ursus arctos. (Linn.) The Brown Bear. Aoktoc, of Aristotle. 

Be?iial Formula. — Incisors — r; canines , — ; ; molars j— 7. = 42. 

6 ' 1 — 1' 7--7 

Hub. Mountainous districts of Europe, from very high latitudes in 
the north, (Arctic Circle,) to the Alps and Pyrenees in the south ; 
Siberia, Ivamschatka, and even Japan to the eastward, and a portion of 
the northern regions of America, Africa, and the Moluccas. 

Food, habits, 8^c. The brown bear is a solitary animal. Its retreat, 
during hybernation, is the natural hollow of a tree or some cavern ; 
or, for want of these, some habitation constructed by the animal itself. 
The bear was at one time common in the British isles. The Lap- 
landers hold this bear in great veneration. Seven months is the 
period of gestation. 

Use. To the Kamschatkans this bear seems to have given the neces- 
saries and even the comforts of life. The skin forms their beds and 
coverlets, bonnets and gloves. The flesh and fat are dainties ; of the 
intestines they make covers for their faces, to protect them from the 
glare of the sun in spring, and use them for glass over their windows. 

Ursus gulo. (Linn.) Common Glutton, or Wolverene. 

Dental Formula. — Incisors — -; canines :; — :; molars = — - ox^——- 

' 1 — 1 — 5 6 — 6 

34 or 38. 

Hab. The northern part of the American continent — Lapland. 
According to Lesson, the animal inhabits a complete circle round the 
North Pole in Europe and Asia, as well as America. 

Food, ^c. It feeds chiefly, according to Dr. Richardson, on the 
carcases of beasts which have been killed by accident. Tiie wolverenes 



112 ANIMALS. — MAMMALIA. 

are represented as extremely mischievous, doing more injury to the 
small fur-trade than all other animals conjointly. They follow the 
marten-hunter's path round a line of traps, extending forty, fifty, or 
sixty miles, and render the whole unserviceable, merely to come at the 
baits, which are generally the head of a partridge, or a bit of dried 
A'enison. 

Use. Chiefly valued for their furs. 

Ursus meles. (Storr.) The Badger. 

Dental Formula. — Incisors —\ canines -j^^ ; molars -—^ - 36. 

Hah. The whole of Europe, Northern and Central Asia, and North 
America. 

Food., habits, S)C. The badgers sleep all day at the bottom of their 
burrows, and move about at night in search of food, which consists of 
rabbits, game, lambs, roots, and fallen fruits. Their habits are in 
general solitary. 

Use. Their flesh is relished as an article of food. 

It may be well to remark, that the Meles of Cuvier, a genus of 
plantigrade carnivorous animals, included by Linn^us among the bears, 
has been, as veil as the gluttons, racoons, &c., separated from that 
group by succeeding naturalists. 

Family 3. Carnivora. Tribe 2. Digitigrade. 
Canis. 
Dental Formula. — Incisors —r\ canines , — , ; molars ^^-^ = 42. 

According to M. F. Cuvier, dogs in general have forty-nine teeth ; 
viz., six incisors, two canines, three false molars, one carnassier, and 
two tubercular teeth in the upper jaw ; and six incisors, tv^o canines^ 
three false molars, one carnassier, and two tubercular teeth in the lower 
jaw. 

Fore-feet with five toes ; hind-feet with four toes ; claws not retrac- 
tile. 

Canis familiaris. (Linn.) Tlie Domestic Dog. 

Hob. In all countries. 

Food. Chiefly flesh. 

Use. In the editions of the Lond. Pharm. of 1618, 1650, and 1677, 
the adeps, as also the excrement {album grcBcum) of this animal were 
ordered as articles of the Materia Medica. Various and extraordinary 
virtues were ascribed to the diflferent parts of the dog ; a young puppy 
applied to the bowels was considered caj)able of affording relief. The 
fat was supposed good in paralysis. 

Canis lupus. (Linn.) The Wolf. 

Hab. It may be found from Egypt even to Lapland, and it seems to 
have passed into America. 

Food. Chiefly the flesh of animals. This is perhaps the most vora- 
cious of all the carnivora. 

Uses. In the Lond. Pharm., 1618, the , liver and intestines of the 
wolf are enumerated among the Medicamenta SimjAicia, and the same 
parts, as well as the adeps, in the Lond. Pharm of 1650. The adeps 



ANIMALS. MAMMALIA. 113 

was employed as an ointment among other articular remedies. Pliny- 
mentions it as an application for modifying- the uterus, and also as 
being useful in ophthalmia tarsi. The liver was recommended in 
hepatic diseases. Avicenna employed it in indurated liver. 

Canis vulpes. (Linn.) The Fox. 

Hah. In Hussia, the Alps, England, &c., from Sweden, in fact, to 
Egypt. The animal is also an inhabitant of the new continent of 
America. 

Food. Liens, geese, hares, &c. &c. &c. 

Uses. The adeps has been mentioned among the simples in some of 
the Pharmacopoeias. It appears to have iiad the character of a re- 
solvent, antispasmodic, and anodyne. 

Felis. 
Dental Formula. — Incisors — ; canines -; — r-; molars ■;; — ~ = 30. 

o 1 — ■! o — o 

(The formation of these teeth is beautifully shown in four prepara- 
tions in the Museum of the R. C. Surgeons, London; see Nos. 329, 
330, 331, 332 ; Catalogue, Physiological Series.— Gallery, V. i., p. 93.) 

Felis catus. (Linn.) The Cat. 

Hah. In its orioinal state of Vvdldness an inhabitant of the forests 
of Europe. In its domesticated state, in which its appearance becomes 
much modified, it is to be found in almost all countries. 

Food. Flesh, in general, and fish. 

Uses. Various medicinal properties have been assigned to the parts 
of this animal. The flesh, it was supposed, " helpeth the pain of 
haemorrhoids, heateth the reines, and helpeth the pain of the back." — 
Ursin. "■ The fat of a wild cat is of like nature with the flesh." — 
Sylvius. " The ashes of the head of a black cat, burned in a glazed 
vessel, and put into the eye with a quill, helpe the haw, wert, and web 
in the eye. And if there be heat in the night, two or three oak-leaves 
applied wet in water help the same." — Galen. "The liver burned 
and drunk helpeth the stone." — Plmy. 

Felis leo. (Linn.) The Lion. 

Hob. This animal, which was formerly to be found in several parts 
of Europe, Asia, and Africa, is now almost entirely confined to Africa, 
and some of the adjoining parts of Asia. 

Food. Flesh in general ; more especially, that of men, beasts, and 
birds. 

Use. We find the fat of the lion enumerated among the simples in 
the Lond. Pharm. of 1618. Various, and many of them very fanciful, 
virtues, were assigned to it by the old physicians. According to 
Galen, lion's fat resists poison ; used with wine, it expels evil beasts, 
and the smell drives away serpents. According to Pliny, mixed with 
oil of roses, it preserves and whitens the skin of the face. Injected in 
the form of a clyster, it relieves dysentery. 

Felis lynx. (Temm.) The Lynx. 

Hah. The Felis lynx, originally an inhabitant of the temperate parts 
of Europe, has almost entirely disappeared from the populous countries 



114 ANIMALS.— MAMMALIA. 

of that quarter of the globe. It is still to be found in the Pyrenees, 
the mountains in the kingdom of Naples, and, according to some, in 
parts of Africa. 

Food. Flesh of beasts, as cats, &c. 

Use. The ungula, or hoof of the animal, is enumerated among the 
simples of the Lond. Pharm. of 1618. It was supposed to possess 
certain virtues in the cure of the " fallen sickness," and in the treat- 
ment of nervous and spasmodic diseases in general. 

Felis pardus. (Linn.) TJie Leopard. 

Hah. Africa and some parts of Asia. 

Food. Flesh, as of dogs, apes, and lambs. 

Use. The adeps of this animal is among the simples of the Lond. 
Pharm, of 1618. It was supposed to be beneficial in paralysis, and 
nervous affections of the heart. Mixed with oil of bays, it was " found 
useful in ringworm." 

Felis Tigris. The Tiger. 

Hah. Chiefly Asia. 

Food. The flesh of animals, chiefly that of goats. 

Use. The Indians are said to use the buttocks as meat. 

LuTRA COMMUNIS. (MusTELA LUTRA. Liuu.) The CommoTi 
Otter. 

Dental Formida. — Incisors -; canines -; — r; molars ~ — r = 36. 

6' 1 — 1' 5 — 5 

Hah. In various parts of Europe ; they inhabit the rivers, on the 
banks of which they are frequently seen. 

Food. Fishes, tops of plants, fruits, and barks. 

Use. Various and absurd uses, not worth noticing in this place, 
have been assigned to them. 

MusTELA ruRO. (Binn.) The Ferret. 

Hah. Almost everywhere. 

Food. Mice, moles, serpents, hares, eggs. 

Use. The blood, drunk in wine, was considered good against the 
stings of scorpions, according to Dioscorides. According to Galen, 
the liver " helps the epilepsy." " The lungs help diseases of the 
Imigs." 

VivERRA. (Cuv.) 

Generic characters. A deep pouch situated between the anus and 
the sexual organs, divided into two bags, filled with an abundant con- 
crete secretion of the consistence of j^omade, exhaling a strong musky 
odour, secreted by glands which surround the pouch. Pupil of the 
eye round during the day. Claws only half retractile. 

De7ital Formula. — Incisors „— r ; canines :; — ^ ; molars :; — , = 48. 

Of the genus Viverra there are two species commonly described,, 
the Viverra civetta, or African Civet Cat, and the Viverra zihetha, 
the Asiatic Zibet Cat. 

Viverra civetta. (Linn.) The Civet. 

Asli-coloured, irregularly barred and spotted with black; the tail 
less than the body, black towards the end, with four or five rings near 



ANIMALS. MAMMALIA. 115 

its base ; two black bands surrounding the throat, and one surrounding 
the face ; a mane along the whole length of the spine and tail that 
bristles up at the will of the animal. 

Habitat, The dry and mountainous regions of Africa from 31° N. 
to 25° S. lat. 

Habits, S)-c. In its habits the civet approaches rather near to the 
foxes and smaller cats. In a state of captivity, it becomes in a degree 
tame, but never familiar, and is dangerous to handle. The young are 
fed on farinaceous food, with a little flesh or fish, and the old on raw 
flesh. Many of them are kept in North Africa for the sake of the 
perfume, which bears the name of the animal, and brings a high price. 
The secretion of Civet is favoured by scraping the pouch with an iron 
spatula about twice a week. About a dram is obtained each time. 

YiVERRA ziBETHA. (Linn.) The Zibet, 

Ash-coloured, spotted with black ; black half rings on the white 
tail, and black bands on the sides of the neck. 

Habitat. Between 31° N. lat., and 9° S. lat., in Hindostan, Malabar^ 
Ceylon, Bengal, Siam, &c. &c., to the Philippine islands, and the 
island of Buro. From the Philippines it is said to have been carried to 
America ; it is found in the wild state in Guatimala, Mexico, Nicaragua, 
Cuba, &c. 

Habits, Sfc. Similar to those of the African species, except that, 
accordins: to Miiller, its bite is dano-erous, and it burrows in the c:round 
like the rabbit. 

The specific names civetta and zibetha are derived from the Arabic. 
The substance obtained from the Hasse* agrees ■with the civet afforded 
by the Viverra civetta and zibetha in colour, consistence, and odour. It 
is a very favourite perfume among the Javanese, and is applied both to 
their dresses, and, by means of various unguents and mixtures of flowers, 
to their persons. Even the apartments and the furniture of the natives 
of rank are generally scented with it to such a degree as to be offen- 
sive to Europeans. 

As sub-genera of the Viverra, Cuvier mentions the Genetta and 
Paradoxurus. 

Viverra genetta. (Linn.) Genet. 

Sub-generic character. Odoriferous pouches reduced to a slight 
depression, formed by the projection of the glands, and without any 
perceptible excretion, although the odour is manifest. The pupil has 
a vertical slit, and the claws are retractile, as in the cats. 

Description. Gray, spotted with small black or brown patches, 
sometimes round, sometimes oblong ; the tail, which is as long as the 
body, is ringed with black and white, the black rings being to the 

* Dr. Hoi'sfield, in his Zoological Researches in Java, figures and describes tviro 
Javanese Yvcerra;, viz., Viverra Musanga, var. Javanica, and Viverra rasse. The 
I'ormer of these very much infests the coffee-plantations in Java, and from this cir- 
cumstance it is called the coffee-rat in several parts of that island. These injurious 
effects in the coffee-plantations are fully counterbalanced by its propagating the plant 
in various parts of the forests, and particularly in the declivities of the fertile hills. 
The same writer gives a description of the V. rasse and of the V, zibetha ; which latter 
is called by the Malays Tanggahmg. 

I 2 



116 ANIMALS.— MAMMALIA. 

number of nine or eleven. White spots on the eyebrow, cheek, and 
on each side of the end of the nose. 

Hab. From the south of France to the Cape of Good Hope. It 
prefers lowlands, the banks of rivers, and the neighbourhood of 
springs. 

Paradoxurus. (Fr. Cuv.) 

Suh-generic character, generally that of the Civets and Genets. 
Tail capable of being rolled from above downwards to its base, but not 
prehensile. Toes five, nearly palmated ; sole of foot tuburculous. Eyes 
with pupils slit longitudinally. No pouch. 

Dental Formula. — Incisors — ; canines -^ ; molars ^— = 40. 

6 1—1 ' 6—6 

Family 3. Carnivora. Tribe 3. Amphibious. 

Phoca communis. {Phoca vitulina, Linn.) Sea-calf, Sea-dog, or 
Seal. 

Hab. Both sea and land. This species, according to some authors, 
inhabits the Caspian Sea, and the extensive fresh-water lakes of 
Russia and Siberia. 

Food. Fish. 

Use. The flesh was supposed to be good in epileptic diseases. The 
fat was used, both internally and externally, in female diseases. Tlie 
flesh is considered delicate. The skin, fur, and oil, are used, 

Phoca jubata. (Gm.) Sea-lion of Steller, &c. 
Flesh of the young, nutritious. vSkin used for tanning. 

Phoca leonina. (Linn.) Sea-lion of Anson ; Sea-elephant, or 
Sea-horse of the Enolish. Yields blubber. 

Order 4. ]\IARSUPIALIA. Marsupial Animals. 

The marsupial animals (from marsupium, a pouch) bear some 
resemblance to the carnaria ; but are distinguished from the latter, as 
v/ell as from the other mammals, by the existence of a pouch formed 
by the skin of the abdomen in the female, which serves to contain the 
young ones, which are born when they are but very imperfectly 
formed, until they are developed to the degree at which animals 
are usually born. Linnseus had given them the name of didelphi, a 
term signifying a double uterus, (or rather twin brothers.) die, twice, 
and ceXcpoc, uterus, or uceXcjyog, a brother. This order comprehends 
the different species of opossum, kangaroo, &c. ; but none of these 
animals yield anything to medicine. 

Order 5. PvODENTIA. (Cuv.) Rodents. 

Essential characters. Two large incisors in each jaw, separated 
from the molars by a vacant space. No canine teeth. Molars witli 
flat croAvns, or blunt tubercles. Extremities, the posterior longest, 
terminated i3y unguiculated toes, the number varying according to the 
species. Manmise variable in number. Stomach empty. Intestines 
very long. When speaking of this order^ Cuvier remarks that two 



ANIMALS. MAMMALIA. 117 

great incisors in each jaw could hardly seize a living prey, nor rend 
iiesh ; they could not even eat aliments ; but they might serve for re- 
ducing them, by continued labour, into fine molecules — in a \yord, for 
gnawing them, whence the term Rodents, or gnaivers (i^odo, to gnaw). 
With these weapons they attack the hardest vegetable productions, 
and frequently feed on wood and bark. In order to effect this, these 
incisors have enamel only in front, so that their posterior border being 
more worn away than their anterior edge, they are always kept set 
like a chisel. The lower jaw is articulated by a longitudinal condyle, 
so as to have no horizontal movement, except from behind forwards, 
and vice versa. The molars consequently have flat crowns, the 
enamelled eminences of which are always transversal, so as to be in 
opposition to the horizontal movements of the jaw. The <?enera in 
which these eminences are simple lines, and which have the crown 
very flat, are more exclusively frugivorous. 

Castor fiber. (Linn.) The leaver. 

Dental Formula, — Incisors , — r ; molars \—, = 20. 

1 — 1 ' 4—4 

This animal is distinguished from all the rest of the order (Rodentia) 
by a broad horizontally flattened tail, which is nearly oval and covered 
v.ith scales. Five toes on each of the feet ; those of the hinder 
ones only are webbed, the webs extending beyond the roots of the 
nails. 

Uab. Europe and Asia. The inhabitants of the former are bicr- 
roivers, the latter builders. 

JFood. Bark of trees, fish and fruits. 

Use. Castoreum, a substance contained in two sacs situated near 
the anus of the animal, has been used in medicine since the time of 
Hippocrates. It was considered to exercise a peculiar influence on 
the internal functions. The pods are said to be prepared by first 
boiling them in a ley of wood -ashes, then dr3ing and smoking them 
over a fire into which birch bark has been put. 

There are two kinds of Castor or Castoremn, distinguished in com- 
merce as Russian and Araerican. The former is considered the best, 
and is much the most expensive. 

Russian Castor usually occurs in smaller sacs than the American. 
The castoreum contained in the sacs is somewhat pulverulent, and of a 
dull, ash-grey colour. It occasions effervescence when added to hydro- 
chloric acid. 

Arnei'ican Castor is met with in sacs of various sizes, and which 
are sometimes very large. Two sacs are usually united together by a 
ligament. The castoreum has a resinous appearance, and frequently 
a bright yellow or red colour. 

The fat of the castor is enumerated among the simples of the Lond. 
Pharm. of 1618. The fur has been valued for its application in the 
manufacture of hats. 

Hystrix cristata. (Linn.) TJie Porcupine. 

Hob. Italy, France, and Spain ; also Africa and India. 

Food. Various kinds of fruit and vesretables. 

Use. The Jlesh was considered beneficial in various diseases, as 



118 ANIMALS. MAMMALIA. 

leprosy ; being salted, it was said to cure dropsy and incontinence of 
urine. 

Lepus. 

Mr. S\vainson defines the genus Lepus thus : cutting teeth -, the 
upper in pairs, two in front, large and grooved, and two smaller be- 
hind ; lower teeth square : grinders -^—-^ composed of tMO soldered 

vertical plates ; a sixth very small in tlie upper jaw ; soles of feet 
hairy ; anterior feet with five toes ; posterior with four ; tail very short, 
turned upwards. 

The sub-family, Lcporina, seems to be strictly natural, consisting 
entirely of those species, and they are not few, which are usually 
known by the name of hares and rabbits. 

Dental Formula. — Incisors — ; molars -^ = 28. 

2 5 — 

The common hare, or Lepus timidus, which is generally considered 
as the type, is the Aayo^c (Lagus) of the Greeks. 

Lepus cuniculus. (Linn.) llie Rabbit. 

Hab. Originally a native of Spain, but may now be found all over 
Europe. 

Food. Various plants and herbs. 

Use. The fat of the rabbit is among the simples of the London 
Pharm. 1618. 

Lepus timidus. (Linn.) The Hare. 

Hah. In most countries of Europe; also in various parts of Africa. 

Food. Grass, corn, and the like. 

Use. Several parts of the hare, as the adeps^ tlie astragalus, the 
blood, &c., are enumerated among the simples in the Lond. Pharm. of 
1618. Thus the brain of the hare, when roasted, was said to " help 
trembling, to make children breed teeth easily, their gums being 
rubbed v/ith it." The small bones in the fore-feet of the hare, when 
pulverized, and drunk in wme, were considered powerfully diuretic. 

Mus MuscuLUS. (Linn.) The 31ouse. 

Hab. Almost everywhere, in houses, barns, &c. 

Food. Bread, cheese, corn, tallow, &c. &c. 

Use. The adeps and excrement of the mouse are mentioned among 
the simples of the Lond. Pharm. of 1618. Various virtues were as- 
signed to the flesh of the mouse when eaten. 

SciURUS VULGARIS. (Linn.) The Squirrel. 

Hab. Almost in all countries. 

Food. Apples, chestnuts, \valnuts, &c. 

Use. The fat v/as recommended by Galen in earache. 

Order 6. EDENTATA. 

This order of animals is characterised by the absence of teeth in the 
front jaw. Claws large. They possess more strength than agility. 
Cuvier divides them into three tribes. 

1st. The Tardigrades. Example, the Sloths. {Bradypus^ Linn.) 



ANIMALS. MAMMALIA. 119 

2nd. The Ar7nadillos {^Dasypus, Linn.). ChlamypJiorus comes under 
this tribe, as well as Orycteropus, Myrmecophaga (^A?it- eater), and the 
Pangolins (3Ia?iis, Linn.). 

3rd. The Monotrernes. [^Echichia, OrmthoryncJius , &c.] 

Ornithorynchus paeadoxus. (Blum.) The Common Ornitho- 
rynchus, or Water-mole. 

Dental Formula, — Incisors — ; canines --^^ ; molars -^^^- = 8. 

Description. Molar teeth fixed only in the gum ; body covered with 
hairs, anteriorly terminated by a broad, depressed, duck-like beak; 
legs four, pentadactyle, palmated, with a spur on the hind ones in the 
male. 

Hah. The rivers and marshes on the eastern coast of New Holland, 
and in the vicinity of Port Jackson. 

This animal is reniarkable for having the bill of a duck, and the 
limbs of a quadruped. The male has a spur, resembling that of the 
domestic cock, attached to the hinder legs, with which dangerous and 
even fatal wounds are inflicted. 

Order 7. PACHYDERMATA. (Cuv.) Pachydermes. 
(Thick-skinned — -ayvg, thick, and depfxa, hide.) 

Essential characters. Three kinds of teeth. Four extremities^ the 
toes varying in number, and furnished Avith strong nails or hoofs. No 
clavicles. 

This order is divided into three families: 1. The Proboscidiana, oy 
those furnished with a proboscis, including the elephant, and some 
fossil animals. 2. The common Pachydermata, including all the 
rest except the horse, which belongs to Family 3. Solipeda, or solid- 
footed. 

Family 1. Proboscidiana. 

The only living type of this order is the 

Elephas. (Linn.) The Elephant. 

The Elephants of the present day are only found in the torrid zone 
of the eastern continent, where hitherto only two species have been 
ascertained, scil. Elephas Indicus, (Cuv.,) the Indian Elephant; and 
E. Africanus, (Cuv.,) the African Elephant. 

f . . . 2 4 

I Afripsn Elpnlianr. inpiRors - — -• molars - 

Dental Formulce. 



African Elephant, incisors ~; molars — = 10. 



Asiatic Elephant, incisors -^; molars -^ = 6. 

Food, Herbs, leaves of trees, various kinds of fruits, &c. 

Use. Elephant's tooth was once recommended as an astringent in 
leucorrhoea ; it was also given in yellow jaundice, and for the purpose 
of removing sterility in females. It forms the ivory of commerce. 

Family 2. Common Pachydermata. 

Hippopotamus amphibius. (Linn.) The Hippopotamus.^ River- 
horse. 

Dental Formula. — ^Incisors — ; canines -f— ; molars -^^ = 38. 

4 ' 1—1 6—6 



120 ANIMALS.— MAMMALIA. 

Hah. The rivers of the central and southern parts of Africa. 

Food. Roots, and various sorts of vegetables. 

Use. The fat of the animal was applied to the pulse or stomach to 
relieve fits of ague. The tongues are preserved by drying. The 
teeth {inorse-teeili) are harder and whiter than ivory, and not so apt to 
become yellow \ used for making artificial teeth. 

Hyrax capensis. (Cuvier.) Cavia Cupensis. (Pallas.) TJie 
Cape Badger, the Dasse, the Coney. 

Dental Formida. — Incisors -^ ; canines ; molars — — - = 34. 

Hab. The Cape colony and mountains of Africa. 

Use. A substance called Hyraceum is deposited by the animal on 
the mountains on which it dwells. This substance has been supposed 
by the natives of the Cape to be the inspissated urine of the animal ; 
but Dr. E. Marting and others regard it as a secretion connected with 
the sexual functions. It has been proposed as a substitute for castor, 
which it somewhat resembles in smell. It is of a blackish-brown 
colour, and presents in places a rather resinous appearance. 

Rhinoceros unicornis. (Linn.) Rhinoceros indicus. (Cuv.) 
The Rhinoceros. 
Dental Formula. — Incisors — ; canines ; molars ^-—^ = 36. 

4 7 — 7 

Hab. In the deserts of Africa, and several parts of Asia. 

Food. Herbs and prickly shrubs. 

Use, The horn was supposed to be useful in cases of poisoning, 
contagion, &c. The skin, steeped in wine, was supposed to be bene- 
ficial in malignant diseases. 

Sus SCROFA. (Linn.) The Hog. 

Dental Formula. — Incisors —or—; ca:nines J--.J_; molars-^ — 

6 (3 ' 1 i ' 7 7 

= 43 or 44. 

Hah. The temperate parts of Europe and Asia ; northern parts of 
Africa ; America. 

Food. Various roots, and many animal and vegetable substances. 

Use. Nearly every part of the pig contributes to the wants of man. 
The liesh, preserved in different ways, constitutes pork, bacon., ham., 
&c. The strong hairs, called bristles, from the neck and back, are 
used by shoemakers. Tlie skin is sometimes tanned for saddle-seats. 
The intestines are fried and eaten, and the blood is made into a 
food called black-pudding . The fat of the animal, called adeps suillus, 
and by some axungia, axunge, or lard, is officinal in all the modern 
Pharmacopoeias. 

Family 3. Solipeda. 
Equus. 

The family of horses, or Equidas, have but a single finger or toe 
terminating each extremity, incased in a horny hoof or shoe. There 
are, however, on each side of the metacarpus and metatarsus two 
small rudimentary processes, representing two lateral toes. The fol- 



ANIMALS. MAMMALIA. 121 

lowing is the form of dentition belonging- to this family of Pachy- 
derms. 

Dental Formula. — Incisors — ; canines ^^ ; molars -^^^ = 42. 

6 ' 1—1 ' 6—6 

Equus asinus. (Linn.) TJie Ass. 

Hah. Everywhere. 

Food. Grass ; it can eat almost any kind of food. 

Use. Extraordinary medicinal virtues have been attributed to 
various parts of the ass's body. The ass's hoof occurs among the 
simples of the Lond. Pharm., 1618 ; it was considered an effectual dis- 
cutient ; Avhen burned it was said to be useful in epileptic and hysterical 
aitections. The flesh has been eaten and esteemed a delicacy ; the 
skin is made into shagreen ; the milk is considered nutritious. 

Equus caballus. (Linn.) The Horse'. • 

Hob. In almost all countries. 

Food. G-rass, hay, oats, &c. 

Use. The fat, excrement, and hoof of this animal may be found 
among the simples of the Lond. Pharm., 1618. Mare's milk is laxa- 
tive. The flesh and dung were considered useful in the bites of ser- 
pents. The fume of the fat " expels the dead birth and secundine." 
The stone found in the stomach, called hippolithus, was considered to 
possess virtues similar to those of the bezoar. The bones are boiled 
for the grease they contain, and burned in close vessels to make animal 
charcoal. The skins are tawed to make thongs of whips ; and catgut 
is prepared from the intestines. Of all animals the horse ^is most 
useful to man. 

Order 8. RUMINANTIA. {Pecora, Linn.) 

Essential characters. No incisors in the upper jaw ; eight generally 
in the lower. Molars twelve in each jaw, the crown marked with two 
double crescents of enamel, of which the convexity is outwards in the 
lower jaw, and inwards in the upper. No clavicles. Extremities dis- 
posed for walking. Two toes furnished with hoofs ; metacarpal and 
metatarsal bones united ; four stomachs ; intestines long ; two or four 
inguinal mammse. Horns in the males, and often in the females, of 
most species. 

The term Ruminantia indicates the singular faculty possessed by 
these animals of masticating their food a second time, by bringing it 
back to the mouth after a first deglutition. This faculty depends on 
the structure of their stomachs, of which they have always four ; the 
first is called the paunch, which receives the vegetable matter coarsely 
bruised by mastication, whence it passes into the second, called the 
honeycomb or bonnet. From this second stomach the food, after being 
moistened and compressed into little pellets, reascends to the mouth to 
be re-chewed. The aliment, thus re-masticated, descends directly into 
the third stomach, called the leaflet, (feuillet,) so called from its being 
laminated longitudinally like the leaves of a book ; and thence it de- 
.scends to the fourth stomach, the caillette, the true organ of digestion. 
This order has been divided into two families, those without horns, or 



122 ANIMALS.— MAMMALIA. 

Akeratophora, (a priv. Kepag, horn, and (pEpoj, to carry,) and Kekato- 
PHORA, or those carrying horns. Under the first family are ranged 
the Camehts (Linn.), Camel. Moschus (Linn.), Musk. Under the 
second are contained the Cervus (Linn.). Species C. alces, the Elk, 
or Moose-deer. CameJopardalis (Linn.), sp. C. Girafa, (Fr. Cuvier,) 
the Giraffe. Antelope, (Linn.) Sp. A. dorcas, the Gazelle, &c. &c. 
Ovis, the sheep, and Bos iaurus, or common Ox. 

Bos TAURUS (Linn,). The Ox. 

Dental Formula. — Incisors — ; canines ; molars — - = 32. 

8 6 — o 

Hah. In every part of the world. 

Food. Grass, hay, leaves, &c. &c. 

Use. The importance of this animal is fully recognised for its ser- 
vices in tillage, for its fle^h, the milk it affords, and its skin ; even the 
horns are turned to good account. Various parts of the animal have 
also been recommended as useful in medicine ; the blood, fat, and 
excrement, have been enumerated among the simples in the Lond. 
Pharm. of 1618. The filings of the horn, taken with ^vater, w^ere 
thought useful in arresting haemorrhage and intestinal fluxes. The ex- 
crement was supposed caj^able of dispersing tumours and hard swellings. 

Goldbeater s skin is prepared from the peritoneal membrane of the 
C£ecum, wiiich, as soon as it is detached, is pulled out to the extent of 
two feet or upwards, then dried. The dried membrane, which has the 
appearance of a piece of packthread, is then soaked in a very weak, 
solution of potash, and spread out flat on a frame ; another membrane 
is then taken and applied to the other, so that the two surfaces which 
adhered to fhe muscular membrane of the intestine may adhere together ; 
they unite perfectly, and soon dry. The skins are then glued on a 
hollow frame, cashed with alum water, dried, washed with a solution 
of isinglass in white wine, to which spices, such as cloves, nutmegs, 
ginger, or camphor, have been added, and varnished with white of e^^. 
These skins are used to separate the leaves of gold while being beat to 
the proper degree of thinness ; they are used also as a defensive for cuts. 

The allantoides of calves are prepared in a somewhat similar manner 
to the above, for making air-balloons for lecturers, &c. 

The bladders and intestines of oxen and calves are prepared by re- 
moving the fat, washing them in solution of chloride of lime, blowing 
them out, and then drying them. These are used for covering pots, 
and other similar purposes. 

Bos BUB ALUS. (Linn.) The Buffalo. 

Originally a native of India, but brought to Egypt, Greece, and 
Italy, during the middle ages. The buffaloes generally herd in marshy 
places, and feed on large plants, such as would not suit our oxen. 
The skin makes good leather ; the flesh is coarse and not much 
esteemed ; the milk is good. Some of the buffaloes of India have very 
large horns, wiiich are brought over to this country. 

Camelus. (Linn.) Camel. 
Dental char. Teeth, thirty-four. Sixteen in the upper jaw ; viz. 
two incisors — for the camels and the llamas have these, and form the 



ANIMALS. MAMMALIA. 123 

exceptions, the other ruminants being without any incisors in the 
upper jaw — two canines, twelve molars. Eighteen in the lower jaw ; 
viz. six incisors, two canines, ten molars. 

Gen. char. Lower incisors in the form of cutting wedges ; upper 
incisors sub-lateral : canines conical, sub-erect, strong ; false molars 
situated in the interdentary space on either side. Head long, ears 
small, neck elongated. Back with fleshy bosses or haunches ; tail 
moderate. Toes united below. Teats, ventral, four in number. There 
are two species. 

1. Camelus BACTRiANUS. (Linn.) TJie Bactrian Camel. 
Char. Two humps on the back. Length about ten feet. Colour 

generally dark brown. 

Ilab. Persia, Turkey, &c. 

2. Camelus dromedarius. (Linn.) The Dromedary. 

Char. One hump in the middle of the back. Length about eight 
feet. Hair pale brown. 

Hah. Arabia, Africa, &c. 

Use. Great virtues were assigned by the old physicians to the milk 
of the camel in various diseases. Avicenna states that when the camel 
is newly impregnated, the milk from the animal relieves asthmatic 
affections. According to Rhases, " it strengthens the liver, openetli 
obstructions, looseneth the hard spleen, and helpeth the dropsy, being 
drunk hot, especially sugar being mixed therewith." In the writings 
of Rhases and Avicenna, more especially, frequent mention is made of 
the medicinal virtues of camel's milk. 

Capra. (Linn.) The Goat. 

Char. Horns directed upwards and backwards ; chin generally fur- 
nished with a long beard. Forehead generally concave. 

Hah. In almost all parts of the world. The Capra cegragus, which 
seems to be the original stock of our domesticated goats, dwells in 
troops along the mountains of Persia, and probably on those of other 
countries also, as on the Alps. The oriental bezoar is a concretion 
found in its intestines. 

Cervid^. 

A family of solid-horned ruminants; the horns caducous, and 
belonging, generally speaking, to the male only. 

The reproduction of the horns is annual in the deer of temperate and 
cold climates ; it is supposed that some of the species inhabiting hot 
climates do not cast them every year. The palmated horn seems more 
especially to belong to those deer which inhabit the northern latitudes. 

Dental formula. — Usually the same as in the giraffes, goats, ante- 
lopes, sheep, oxen, &c. ; viz. 

Incisors — : canines — ; molars — = 32. 

8 ' 0—0 ' 6—6 

In the above formula the canines are noticed as absent : this rule, 
ho^vever, is not without exception, some of the species presenting 
canines similar to those of the Mushs {Moschus) in the upper jaw. 

Cervus alce?. (Linn.) The Moose, or Elk. 



124 ANIMALS.— MAMxM ALIA. 

Descrij)tion' As large as a horse, and sometimes larger ; muzzle 
cartilaginous and inflated ; a pendulous swelling under the throat ; hair 
stiff, and of a more or less deep ash-colour. Horns increase with age 
so as to weigh from fifty to sixty pounds ; body round, compact, and 
short ; tail about four inches long. During its progress, it holds the 
nose up. This attitude prevents it from seeing the ground distinctly ; 
hence it sometimes trips by treading on its fore-heels, and gives itself 
heavy falls. From this circumstance it was supposed to have frequent 
attacks of epilepsy, and to be obliged to smell its hoof before it could 
recover. Hence the Teutonic name of Elend, (miserable,) and the 
reputation of the fore-hoofs, especially, as a specific against epilepsy. 
The elk was undoubtedly the AXkt] of Pausanias, who describes it as 
being eXa(j)ov kul Kajxi]\ov [derat,v, " between a stag and a camel." It 
was the Alee of Csesar and Pliny. 

Habitat. The marshy forests of the north of both continents, espe- 
cially Sweden, Norway, Canada, Russia, Prussia, Hungary, &c. 

Food. The moose-deer feeds on the tops of large plants and the 
leaves of trees in summer, and in the winter on the tops of willows 
and the small branches of the birch-tree. 

Use. The flesh of the elk is said to be excellent, that of the young 
especially. The tongue and the nose are by some considered great 
delicacies. As a medicinal substance, the hoof of the elk occurs 
among the simples of the Lond. Pharm. of 1618, as a remedy in epi- 
lepsy. 

Cervus dama. (Linn.) The Deer. 

Gen. char. Incisors — ; canines — : or — : molars — . 

8 ' ' 6 6* 

Canines, when present, compressed, and bent back. Head, long, 
terminating in a muzzle. Ears, large and pointed. Body slender- 
Horns solid, deciduous, palmated, branched and simple, in the males ; 
females, in general without horns. 

Hab. In all parts of the world. 

Food. Grass, hay, herbs, and leaves of shrubs and trees. 

Use. Decoction of hartshorn, nutritive and demulcent. Hartshorn 
shavings are ordered in the preparation of the Pulv. Ant. Compositus. 
The marrow of the leg of the deer, as also the suet, are among the 
simples ordered in the Lond. Pharm. 1618. 

Cervus elaphus. (Linn.) The Stag. 

Description. Horns with three anterior antlers, all curved upwards, 
the summit forming a crown of snags from a common centre. Lachry- 
mal sinuses. Fur red-brown in summer, with a blackish line along 
the back, and on either side a number of small marks of a pale fawn 
colour ; in winter, tlfe fur is of a uniform grey-brown colour. 

Hab. Europe, Asia, and north of Africa. 

Use. The antlers of this species are used for the same purposes as 
those of the Cervus Dama. 

Cervus tarandus. (Linn., Euff.) TJie Rein-Deer. 
Description. Size of a stag, but has shorter and stouter legs ; both 
sexes liave antlers divided into several branches, terminating by age in 



ANIMALS. MAMMALIA. 125 

broad denticulated palms. Fur, brown in summer, and becoming 
nearly white in winter.* 

Hab. Norway, Lapland, Sweden, the northern parts of America. 

Use. The flesh, the milk, and the hide, contribute to the food and 
clothing of the Laplanders. 

MOSCHID^. 

The Moschidae are a family of ruminant animals familiarly known 
as Musk-Deer. 

Linnseus divides the genus Moschus, which he places between 
Camelus and Cervus, under his order Pecora, as having no horns, and 
the upper canine teeth solitary and exserted. Cuvier gives it the same 
position assigned to it by Linnaeus. Cuvier states that the Musks only 
differ from the other ruminants in the absence of horns, in having 
a long canine tooth on each side of the upper jaw, which comes out 
of the mouth in the males, and finally, in having in their skeleton a 
slight fibula, which has no existence in the camels. 

Moschus moschiferus. (Linn.) The Musk-bearing Animal. 
Gen. char. Incisors — ; canines — ; molars — — . No 

8 0' 66 

canines in the females. Ears long and acuminated. Body slender. 
Feet hoofed. Two inguinal mammce. 

Sp. char. Fur grey-brown ; hair coarse. Pouch, before prepuce 
of the male, filled with a musky substance. 

Hab. Siberia, China, and Thibet. 

JFood. Spikenard, and other sweet plants. 

Use. The substance called Musk is a dark-brown or blackish, 
granular, and slightly unctuous matter, contained in a sac, situated 
near the organs of generation of the male animal. There are three 
principal varieties of musk met with in commerce — namely, Chinese, 
Russian, and Indian. Musk is a powerful stimulant and antispasmodic, 
and has been found a valuable remedy in all diseases attended with 
spasms and low fever. 

Ovis ARIES. The Sheep. 

Dent. Form. — Incisors -r- ; canines — — \ molars -7 — = 32. 

Gen. char. Horns (generally present in both sexes) wrinkled trans- 
versely, turned laterally in a spiral form. Ears small. Legs slender. 
MammcE two. 

Sp. char. Horns arched backwards. Colour generally fawn. 

Hab. This animal is generally domesticated everywhere. 

Food. Herbs, leaves, &c. 

Use. It is principally used in medicine for the suet, which is em- 
ployed as a basis for ointments and cerates. The flesh both of the 
young and adult animal is much used as food in this country, and is 
considered easily digestible and nutritive. 

Coarse catgut is made from the intestines, by removing the mucous 
and peritoneal membranes, then soaking them in water, to each gallon 

* The ancients ascribed to this animal the power of assuming any colour it wished, 



126 ANIMALS mammalia. 

of wliich is added an ounce or two of carbonate of potash ; tlien scrap- 
ing- them with a copper plate liaving a semicircular notch, twisting- 
them according to the use for which they are intended, and some- 
times colouring them, and exposing them to the fumes of burning 
sulphur. 

Fine catgut is prepared in much the same way as the above de- 
scribed, but more care is taken, and a longer time occupied in the 
process. 

The ccvcal mtestines are prepared by soaking them in an alkaline 
solution, then cleaning, scraping, stretching, sulphuring, and finally 
cutting them into the proper length, when they constitute the baudruehes, 
condoms, or French letters. 

Order 9. CETACEA. 

These are mammiferous animals without hind feet. To the genera 
which, up to this time, naturalists had ranked among the Cetacea, 
Cuvier adds those which had previously been confounded with the 
Walrusses. This order is now divided into two families : — 1st. The 
Herbivorous Cetaceans, whose teeth have a flat crown, which deter- 
mines their mode of life, as they often leave the water to creep and 
feed on the banks. They have two teats on the breast, and have 
hairy nioustaclies. 2nd. The Ordinary Cetaceans, which are distin- 
guished from the preceding by the apparatus from whicli they have 
received the name of Soujfleurs^ or Blowers. They take into their 
capacious mouth, together with their prey, large volumes of water, 
the latter of which it is necessary subsequently to separate ; this is 
effected by forcing the water through a small aperture, passing from 
the mouth to the upper part of the head, while the prey is retained 
by a kind of strainer formed of the substance called whalebone. 

The second family, tlie Ordinary Cetaceans, are subdivided into 
two tribes : — 1st, those, the size of whose heads bears an ordinary 
proportion to that of their bodies ; 2nd, those whose heads are dispro- 
portionately large. 

Family 1. Herbivorous Cetaceans. 

Halicore. (111.) The Dugong. 

Gen. char. Body elongated ; tail-fin in form of a crescent ; molars 
composed each of two cones united by the side ; small pointed tusks 
inserted in the incisive bones ; skin very thick and without hairs. 

4 5 — -5 

Dent. Form. — Incisors - — r ; canines ; molars .. , = 30 or 32. 

b or 8 ' ' o — o 

Hah. Sumatra and all tlie Marm seas of the Indian Archipelago. 

Use. Flesh superior to the bufialo or common ox. A very sweet, 
pure oil, is obtained from this animal, wliich has been proposed as a 
substitute for cod-liver oil, from whicli, however, it differs in its che- 
mical reaK3tion. 

Manatus. (Cuv.) 3Ianatee. Sea- Cow. 

Gen. char. Body oblong ; molar teetli marked with two transversal 
elevations on their crown ; no canities in the adult ; vestiges of nails 
on the edges of their anterior extremities or pectoral fins ; pectoral 



ANIMALS.— MAMMALIA. 127 

mammae ; skin very thick and naked ; whiskers very strong and close 
set : horizontal tail, thick, tegumentary, and elongated oval. 

Dental Formula. — Incisors — ; molars ^_^ = 34. 

JIab. The warmer parts of America and its islands. Western Africa. 

Use. The flesh is excellent, either fresh or salted. 

Family 2. Ordinary Cetaceans. Tribe 1. 

« 

DELPHiNiDiE. The Dolphins. 

These have an elongated body ; jaws more or less projecting in the 
form of a beak ; no tusks ; they have a great number of teeth, simple 
and equal in size, which are, however, wanting in some species ; no 
baleen, or whalebone ; blowholes, with a common opening on the head. 

The dental formula may be stated generally as consisting of from 
84 to 9S teeth in the upper jaw, and from 84 to 95 in the lower 
= 168 to 190. 

Delphinus PHOCiENA. (Linn.) Common Porpoise. 
Gen. char. Muzzle short, convex, and not terminating in a rostrum ; 
teeth numerous, placed irregularly in each jaw ; a dorsal fin. 

Dental Formula. — Molars ~^^^-^ = 80 to 92. 

40 to 46 

Ifab. Atlantic Ocean ; seas of Europe. 

This seems to be the (pwKuiva {phoccena) of Aristotle. Some have 
supposed it to be the Tursio of ^liny. It is the porco pesce of the 
Italians (whence probably the English term porpesse) ; the Meer- 
schivain of the Germans. 

Use. The oil produced from the fat surrounding the body is of the 
purest kind ; the skin, when tanned and dressed, is used for wearing 
apparel. The flesh is by some much esteemed. 

Delphinapterus leucas. (Gm.) Delph. albicans. (Fabr.) The 
Deluga, or White Whale. 

Gen. char. Head obtuse ; muzzle short and conical, or terminated 
in an elongated rostrum ; number of teeth variable ; no dorsal fin. 

Dental Formula. — According to F. Cuvier ^_^ = 34. 

Hah. The Northern Ocean. 

Use. The oil is said to be of the best, whitest, and finest quality, 
and of tlieir skins a sort of morocco leather is said to be made, which, 
though thin, will resist a musket-ball. The flesh is said to resemble 
beef. 

MoNODON MONOCEROS. (Linn.) Narval. Nonvhal, or Unicorn 
Whale. 

Gen. char. Body elongated; a slight longitudinal projection, or 
crest, in the place of the dorsal fim ; flippers oval. 

A long, straight, and pointed tusk, projecting from the upper jaw, 
has been long known as the unicorn's horn. The tusk is sometimes 
ten feet long, marked with spiral grooves. The animal has the germ 
of a second of these defensive appendages, but usually onlj^ that on the 
left side becomes fully developed. 



128 ANIMALS.— MAMMALIA. 

Hob. The Northern Ocean. 

Use. The blubber yields a very superior oil, which, as well as the 
flesh, is considered a great dainty by the Greenlander, who regards 
the norwhal as the herald of the mysticete. The ivory of the tusk is 
considered superior to that of the elephant. 

Family 2. Ordinary Cetaceans. Tribe 2. 
Balenid^, or Bal^nas. 

Gen. char. Head not so convex forward as that of the cachalot : 
both sides of the upper jaw furnished with transverse plates of a 
fibrous horny substance, with loose or unwrinkled edges, being Ihe 
baleen or whalebone ; lower jaw entirely unarmed. No dorsal lin, 
which in some species is replaced by a boss or hump. 

In this genus, the baleen, or whalebone, is most highly developed. 
J. Hunter describes this extremely flexible animal substance as being 
of the same nature as horn, — a term used by him to express what 
constitutes hair, nails, claws, feathers, &c. It consists, he remarks, of 
thin plates of some breadth, and in some of very considerable length, 
their breadth and length in some degree corresponding to one another ; 
when longest, they are commonly the broadest, but not always so. 
The plates differ in size in different parts of the same moutli, more 
especially in the large whalebone whale. " They are placed," says 
Hunter, "in several rows, encompassing the outer skirts of the upper 
jaw, similar to teeth in other animals. They stand parallel to each 
other, having one edge towards the circumference of the mouth, the 
other towards the centre or cavity." — (See Hunter on Whales.) 

Bal^na mysticetus. (Linn.) Greenland WJiale. 

Description. Colour velvet-black, grey, and white, with a yellow 
tinge. Head very large, forming nearly one-third of the entire bulk, 
the under part being flat. On the most elevated part of the head are 
situated the blowholes, two longitudinal apertures, like the holes in 
the belly of a violin, and from eight to twelve inches long. There 
are upwards of three plates of whalebone on each side of the ja\\'. 
There is no dorsal fin. The horizontal tail is flat and semilunar, 
indented in the middle. The eyes not much larger. From sixty- 
five to seventy feet appears to be the extreme length of a full-grown 
mysticete. 

Hah. This is usually stated to be very extensive : it is said by 
some that it inhabits all the seas of the globe, especially the \\\o 
poles. 

The Common Whale, Greenland Whale, or Great Mi/sticete,.?ip\)(iiiYs 
to be the jjivartKriTOQ of Aristotle (Hist. Anim. iii. 12) ; it is the JBaleine 
FrancJie and JBaleine Ordinaire of the French ; Greenlands Waljisk 
of the Swedes ; and Morjil Cyjfredin of the Ancient British. 

Food, habits, Sfc. In the whale, the sense of hearing seems to be 
rather obtuse. Throat so narrow as scarcely to admit a hen's egg. 
The usual rate of swimming about four miles an hour ; but m hen 
harpooned, they will descend at a velocity of seven or eight miles an 



ANIMALS.— MAMMALIA. 129 

hour. The mysticete seldom remains longer than two minutes at the 
surface to breathe, during which period it blows eight or nine times ; 
it then descends for five or ten minutes. Though having no voice, 
according to Mr. Scoresby, it makes a loud noise in blowing. The 
smallness of the gullet is only fitted for swallowing small animals, 
such as the Clio horealis, numerous specimens of which will be found 
in the preparation No. 323 A. of the Physiological Series of the 
Museum of the R. C. S., London. This small mollusc is said to con- 
stitute the chief support of the mysticete, and the structure and dis- 
position of the whalebone plates are such as to retain these or any 
other small species of animal in the capacious mouth of their devourer, 
while the water taken in along with them drains through the inter- 
stices of the plates. Nine or ten months is supposed to be the term 
of utero-gestation ; and so attached is the mother to her young one, 
or " sucker," as it is called, that it is often struck as a snare to the 
aflfectionate parent, for she will not leave it, and so falls a victim to 
her maternal love. 

Use. The mysticete is everything to the Esquimaux and the 
Greenlander. They eat the flesh and fat with great relish. The 
membranes of the abdomen serve them for clothing, and the thin 
transparent peritoneum admits light through the windows of their 
huts, while it keeps out the weather. The bones are made into props 
for their tents, or aid in the formation of their boats, and supply them 
with harpoons or spears. To civilized nations the oil made from its 
fat or blubber, and the whalebone, have long made it a great com- 
mercial object. The fat, or blubber, lies immediately beneath the skin, 
being from ten to twenty inches in thickness, varying in diiferent 
parts of the body. The colour is not always the same, being white, 
red, and yellow. It is chiefly for the blulDber that the Greenland 
fishery is carried on. It is cut from the body in large lumps, and 
carried on board the ships, and then cut into smaller pieces. The 
fleshy parts and skin, connected with the blubber, are next separated 
from it, and it is again cut into such pieces as Avill admit of its being 
passed into casks by the bunghole, which is only three or four inches 
in diameter. In these casks it is conveyed home, where it is boiled 
in vessels capable of containing from three to six tons, for the purpose 
of extracting the oil from the fritters, which are tendinous fibres, 
running in various directions, and containing the oil, or rather con- 
necting together the cellular substance which contains it. The follow- 
ing table, taken from Mr. Scoresby's work, shows the average quantity 
of oil a whale of each size of bone will produce : — 

Bone. Oil. 

1 foot IJ tons. 

2 feet ....... 3 ,, 

3 3* ,. 

4 4 ;; 

6 5* „ 

7 7 „ 

K 



130 ANIMALS.— MAMMALIA. 

Bone. Oil. 

8 9 tons. 

9 . • 11 „ 

10 13 „ 

11 16 „ 

12 20 „ 

Physeter, or Cachalot, (^vcaw, to blow.) 

Gen. char. Length of head = | or -^ the whole length; upper 
jaw large, elevated, and either without teeth, or with very few, whicb 
are short and nearly hidden by the gum ; lower jaw narrow, and 
armed with stout conical teeth ; orifices of the blowholes united ; no- 
dorsal fin. 

In a specimen given by M. F. Cuvier, and found in the Paris 
Museum, no teeth were observed in the upper jaw ; — in the lower there- 
were 27 on each side : = 54. 

Physeter macrocephalus, or Spermaceti Whale. 

Hah. This species has been seen in almost all seas; but it is now 
principally found in the Southern Ocean, on the coasts of America^ 
Japan, ISew Guinea, &c. Cachalots have occasionally been stranded 
on the British Islands, as in the Frith of Forth, the Orkneys, &c. 

Use. From this animal it is that the commercial spermaceti {ceta- 
ceum ; spermaceti) is obtained. This substance is found in several 
parts of the body, mixed with the common fat. The head is, how- 
ever, the great reservoir of this substance. Here, it is found (mixed 
with oil) in a large cavity in the upper maxillary bone, anterior to, 
and quite distinct from, the true cranium. There are two places in 
the head which contain the oil, the one above and the other below 
the nostrils. The purest oil is contained in the smallest cells, lying 
above the nostril, along the upper part of the head. The " case," as 
it is called, which is situated on the right side of the nose and upper 
surface of the head, contains spermaceti mixed with oil. Into this an 
opening is made, and the liquid contents are taken out by a bucket. 
This is called " head-matter." The spermaceti is separated from the 
oil by pressure, and purified by boiling it with a caustic ley. -4m- 
bergris is obtained from the caecum of this animal. 



CLASS II. AVES, BIRDS. 



Birds are oviparous vertebrata, with a double system of circulation 
and respiration, organized f )r flight. Their distribution into orders 
is founded, like that of the mammalia, on the organs of manducation, 
or the beak, and on those of prehension. This class comprises six 
orders: — 1. Accipitres {Birds of Prey). 2. Passeres {Sparrow- 
kind). 3. ScANsoRES {Climbers) . 4. Gallinace.e {Poultry -kind), 
5. GnAi^LJE {Waders). 6. I^aIuMITedes {Web-footed). 



ANIMALS.— AVES. 131 



Order 1. ACCIPITRES. (Linn.) Birds of Prey. 

These birds are distinguished by their hooked beaks and talons. 
They are among birds what the carnaria are among quadrupeds. The 
muscles of their thighs and legs indicate the strength of their claws ; 
they all have four toes ; the nail of the thumb and that of the internal 
toe are the strongest. This order forms two families, the diurnal and 
nocturnal — the former including the two .great genera of Linnaeus, the 
vultures and falcons ; the latter his genus of owls. These genera have 
been subdivided by Cuvier into several sub-genera. 

Falco buteo. (Linn.) The Buzzard. 

Hah. Almost everywhere. 

Food. Herbs, and the flesh of animals. 

Use. The testicles, boiled fresh with honey, were said to strengthen 
those men whose procreative powers had been enfeebled from any 
cause. 

Falco fulvus. (Gm.) Aquila. (Cuv.) The Eagle. 

Hah. They dwell on the mountains in various parts of the globe. 

Food. Birds and quadrupeds. 

Use. Various parts of the eagle were supposed to be endowed with 
medicinal virtues. The bones of the head were considered good for 
removing headache. The wings placed under the feet promoted 
labour. The gall was converted into an errhine, in affections of the 
head. The brain steeped in wine useful in jaundice. The tongue, in 
incontinence of urine. 

Falco milvus. (Linn.) The Kite, 

Hah. In almost all countries. 

Food. Birds, carrion, and the like. 

Use. The powder of the flesh " helpeth the gout." " The testicles 
drunk fasting with spring water promotes fecundity." " The blood 
applied with nettles helps the gout." 

Stryx otus. (Linn.) The Owl. 

Hah. England, France, Germany, and several other places. 

Food. Wasps, bees, lizards, and mice. 

Use. The flesh was recommended in paralysis and in melancholy. 
The brain, eaten, removed headache. The gall used to remove specks 
from the cornea. 

VuLTUR GRYPHUS. (Linn.) The Vulture. 

Hah. Various parts of Asia and America, more especially South 
America. 

Food. Dead bodies ; birds. 

Use. The flesh was used to remove various tumours in the body, as 

also gout and convulsion. The brain used to remove headache. The 

liver considered a prophylactic against the bites of serpents. The 

fume of the excrement, as also of the feathers, used to promote par- 

• turition. 

K 2 



132 ANIMALS.— A VES. 



Order 2. PASSERES. (Passer, a Sparrow.) 

This order is the most numerous of the whole class. The birds 
composing it have neither the violence of birds of prey, nor the fixed 
regimen of the gallinaceae, nor of the water-birds ; insects, fruits, and 
grain, constitute their food, which consists the more exclusively of 
grain, in proportion to the largeness of their beak, and of insects, as it 
is the more slender. Among them are found the singing birds, and 
the most complicated inferior larynx. The first division is founded 
on the feet ; recourse is then had to the beak. The first and most 
numerous comprehends those genera in which the external toe is 
united to its fellow by one or two phalanges only ; the second are 
called the syndactyles, in which the vniion extends to all but the last 
articulation. The first division contains the families Dentirostres, 
Fissirostres, Conirostres, and Tenuirostres, with their several genera 
and sub-genera ; the second form but one family containing six genera. 
The Dentirostres contains the various species of the genus Lanius, 
(Linn.) ; of the genus 2Vmf/^<?r (Linn.) ; of the genus Turdus (Linn.), 
as the Turdus vierida, or common blackbird ; Turdus rnusicus, or 
common thrusli ; of the genus Motacilla, as the Mot. ruhicola, or 
stonechat ; 3Iot. richecida, or red-breast ; Mot. luscinia., or nightingale ; 
also the wren, wagtail, &c. &c. Among the family of the Fissirostres, 
we have the swallow. Among the Co7iirostres, we have the skylark, 
house-sparrow, chaflSnch, goldfinch, linnet, canary-bird, &c. &c. 

Alauda arvensis. The Skylark. 

Alauda CRiSTATA. The Lark. 

Hab. England, France, Italy, and several other parts of the globe. 

Food. Corn and worms. 

Use. The Alauda cristata, eaten roasted or boiled, "helps the 
colic," according to Galen and Dioscorides. The heart, applied to the 
thigh, " helps the colic." 

Alcedo ispida. (Linn.) The Kinafisher. 

Hab. Almost everywhere by rivers and ditches. 

Food. Fishes. 

Use. Eating the flesh of this bird, or applying the eyes in a linen 
cloth to the head of those that sleep too much, was said to cause waking. 
" The heart dried and hung about the necks of children helpeth the 
falling sickness." 

CoRVUS coRNix. (Linn.) The Croiv. 

Hah. Desolate, humid, and high places that are tilled. 

Food. Corn, apples, cherries, and worms. 

Use. " The eggs with myrtles make the hair black, as also the 
blood and brain with black wine." The brain, with vervain water, 
^' helpeth the epilepsy." " The dung, with wool, helps the toothache. 
The eggs cause abortion." 

Fringilla DOMESTicA. (Naum.) The House Sparrow. 
Hah. Almost everywhere. 



ANIMALS.— AVEs. 133 

Food. Corn, seeds, flies, &c. 

Use. The flesh was considered good against epilepsy, and also in 
renal calculi. The fat considered good against hard tumours. The 
dung was considered good against toothache. 

HiRUNDO APUS ] [ Common Sicallow. 

. HiiiUNDo KiPARiA f -r . j Rivev Sivalloiv. 

HiRUNDO RUSTiCA j * ] Chimney Swalloio. 

HiRUNDO URBicA j ( Windoiu SwcdloW' 

Hab. In all countries. 

Food. Insects. 

Use. The excrement of the swallow is found among the simples of 
the Lond. Pharm. 1618. Drunk in sheep's milk, it was said to be 
good against quartan agues. The heart was said to help the memory 
and to sharpen the wit. The flesh, often eaten, was considered good 
against epileps}'-. The stones in the ventricles of the swallow were 
used to expel things fallen into the eyes. 

MoTACiLLA LusciNiA. (Linn.) TJie Nightingale. 
Mob. In woods in almost all countries. 
Food. Worms, ants, eggs, and bread. 

Use. The gall of this bird with honey was said to clear the eyes. 
" The flesh eaten helps the cachexy." 

Sturnus vulgaris. (Linn.) The Starling. 

Hah, Almost everywhere. 

Food. Berries, grapes, &c. 

Use. " The dung cosmetic — good in ringworm, being abstersive 
and drying." Flesh considered good after poison had been taken, but 
is injurious in haemorrhoids, according to Arnold. 

TuRDUS MERULA. (Liuu.) The Blackbird. 
Hab. England, and, in fact, almost everywhere. 
Food. Haws, sloes, misleberries, &c. 

Use. The "flesh roasted, with myrtle-berries, helps the flux of the 
belly." Aldrovand. 

Order 3. SCANSORES. Climbers. 

This order includes those birds, whose external toe is directed 
backwards like the thumb, by which conformation they are the better 
enabled to support the weight of their bodies, and by which certain 
genera cling to and climb upon trees, whence the name scansores, or 
climbers. The climbers usually nestle in the hollow of old trees ; their 
food, like that of the passeres, consists of insects or fruit, in proportion 
as their beak is more or less stout. This order is distributed into 
thirteen genera, and the latter into sub-genera and species. Among 
the species we find the jackamar, the woodpecker, the various species 
of the cuckoo, the cockatoo, parrot, &c. 

CucuLUs CANORUS. (Linn.) The Cuckoo. 

Hab. Almost everywhere. 

Food. Flesh, flies, eggs, fruit, &c. 



1 34 ANIMALS.— AVES. 

Use. A decoction of the dung" was considered good against the 
bite of a mad dog. The "ashes help the pain and moisture of the 
stomach, as also the stone ;" " good also in epilepsy." 

Order 4. GALLINACE^. GalUncB, Linn. (Gallus, a Cock.) 

These birds have been so called from their affinity to the domestic 
cock ; and like it, they generally have the upper mandible arched. 
Most of our barn-door fowls, and many excellent game birds, are to be 
found in this order. It is composed in a great measure of one natural 
family, and is divided into genera, sub-genera, and species. *| 

CoLUMBA MiGRATORiA. (Lath.) Passenger Pigeon. Carolina 
Pigeon. 

Description. Body ash-coloured ; nape golden purplish green ; wing- 
coverts with oval spots ; chest rufous ; belly white. Female grey- 
brown ; beneath whitish ; chest yellowish- white. 

Hah. North America. 

Use. Yields an oil. 

CoiiUMBA PALUMBUS. (Linn.) The Ringdove. 

Hah. In almost all countries and places. 

Food. Corn and other seeds. 

Use. The flesh of the pigeon was recommended to persons in a 
languishing condition. When frequently eaten, it was said to prevent 
plague ; good in epileptic and paralytic cases. The brain and testicles 
said to occasion venery. 

NuMiDA MELEAGRis. (Linn.) Tlie Turkey. 
Hah. Most parts of the globe. 
Food. Grain and the like. 

Use. Flesh very delicate and nutritious. The rough inner skin of 
the gizzard, salted and dried, used to curdle milk. 

Pavo cristatus. (Linn.) The Peacock. 
Hah. Various parts of the world. 
Food. Barley, herbs, and serpents. 

Use. The broth, if fat, recommended in pleurisy; the excrement 
recommended for the eyes, as also in gout. 

Phasianus gallus. (Linn.) The Domestic Cock. 

Hah. In almost all countries. 

Food. Corn, seeds, flies, and snails. 

Use. The flesh, when young, is easily concocted ; was considered 
beneficial in consumptions and hectic fevers. The flesh of capons 
seven or eight months old was much esteemed by the old physicians for 
its nutritious properties. The white dung was considered beneficial 
in colic. " The dry comb of a hen stops the involuntary discharge 
of urine." 

Phasianus colchicus. (Linn.) The Pheasant. 

Hah. England, France, and other countries. 

Food. Corn, seeds, and berries. 

Use. The flesh was recommended in phthisis. The gall was said 



ANIMALS—AVEs. 135 

to sharpen the sight. The fat recommended in the affections of the 
kidneys." 

Tetrad coturnix. (Linn.) Hie Common Quail. 

Description. Back brown, undulated with black ; a pointed white 
stripe on each feather ; throat brown ; eyebrows whitish. Celebrated 
for its migrations. The bird, heavy as it is, finds means to traverse 
the Mediterranean. 

Imported from Turkey, preserved in oil ; and from Cagliari, potted 
with clarified butter. 

t^l , Tetrao cine reus. (Linn.) Perdix. (Briss.) The Partridge. 
Hah. Almost everywhere. 
Food. Corn, chickweed, snails, and ants. 
Use. The liver dried was given in epilepsy. 



Order 5. GRALL^. (Linn.) Waders. 

The birds of this order derive their names from their habits, and 
from the conformation which causes them. They are generally long- 
legged wading birds, generally living in the vicinity of water, except 
the ostrich and cassowary, which did not originally belong to this 
order, as established by Linnaeus. Those which have a strong bill 
feed on fish and reptiles, while such as have a weak one consume 
worms and insects. The external toe is most commonly united at its 
base with that of the middle one by means of a short membrane. 
Cuvier has divided the order into five families. 

Ardea ciconia. (Linn.) The Stork. 

Hah. Egypt, Ethiopia, and other places. 

Food. Frogs, snakes, and fishes. 

Use. The flesh was said to prevent lippitude. The ashes of the 
young ones were deemed good for spots in the eyes. The oil good 
for palsy. The gall was recommended for clearing the sight. The 
excrement drunk in water of use in epilepsy. 

Ardea cinerea. (Linn.) The Heron- 

Hah. England, France, and several other countries. 

Food. Fishes, oysters, &c. 

Use. The bill was supposed to possess a hypnotic effect. The flesh 
considered bad for those with hemorrhoids. The fat recommended as 
relieving the pain of gout. 

FuLiCA CHLOROPUS. (Linn.) The Moor Hen. Coot. 
Hah. Fenny and watery places. 
Food. Herbs, seeds, and the like. 

Use. The heart was recommended in epilepsy. The flesh was 
deemed good for the biting of spiders. 

Grus cinerea. (Bechst.) The Crane. 

Hah. Libya, Egypt, and Ethiopia. 

Food. Fruits and herbs. 

Use. The eggs were supposed good against a variety of diseases, as 



136 ANIMALS— A VES. 

cancers, palsy, and as a defence against venomous creatures. The 
powder of the head and eyes good in fistulas and all sorts of ulcers. 

Struthio camelus. (Linn.) TJie Ostrich. 

Hah. Africa, Libya, Ethiopia, Arabia, &c. 

Food. Almost anything. 

Use. The flesh has a very strengthening effect on the system. The 
fat useful to allay the pain of gout, as also the eggs. The feathers, 
which are used as articles of dress, are preserved by dipping them in 
weak lime-water, and then drying and stoving them. They are 
brought from Africa. 

Order 6. PALMIPEDES. Web-footed Birds. 

This order contains generally such birds as are web-footed, and 
fitted for an aquatic life. It is divided into four natural families : — 
1. The Brachyptera, or divers. 2. The Longipennes^ or high-flying 
birds. 3. The Totipalmes, in which the thumb, as well as the other 
toes, is included in the common web, or membrane of the foot : and 
4. The Lamellerostres, having the bill furnished with rows of laminae, 
resembling fine teeth. 

Anas cyanoides. (Linn.) TJie Duck, 

Hah, "Watery and fenny places. 

Food. Roots and seeds of aquatic plants. 

Use. The liver was recommended in fluxes occasioned by liver 
disease. The excrement applied was said to be good for venomous 
bitings. The womb is recommended, in the Antidotus Ecloge of 
Myropsus, against the cceliac passion and spitting of blood. 

Alca impennis. (Linn.) The Great Penguin. The Razor-hill 
of the English. 

Description. About the size of a goose, which bird it somewhat re- 
sembles in some respects. It stands with its head and body vertical ; 
has a black compressed, beak, with eight or ten furrows in it. The 
colour of the back is black, that of the breast, belly, and sides, white, 
or partly grey. There is an oval white mark between the beak and 
the eye. The wings are undeveloped, constituting what are called 
flippers. It is said to lay but one large ^^^<, which is marked with 
purple blotches. When young, the beak is smooth, and there is no 
white frontal spot. 

Hah. The Arctic seas of both continents. 

Alca torda, et pica. (Gm.) The Common Penguin. 

Description. This bird has some resemblance to the duck, being 
smaller than the preceding species. The colours resemble those of the 
great penguin, but there is a white mark on the flippers, and one or 
two on the beak. This as well as the preceding species is web-footed. 

The penguin of a small species, about fourteen inches in height, is 
found in the Sandwich Islands. On the coast of Chili, a large species, 
twenty-four or twenty-five inches high, is usually met with. The 
same bird, with a little variation of colour, is found at Cape Horn in 



ANIMALS.— REPTiLiA. 137 

immense numbers on the rocks and islands, especially on Penguin 
Island : also on the islands on the east coast of South America, the 
Falkland islands, Tristan D'Acunha, and the islands and rocks along 
the African coast. These birds cannot fly, having no wings adapted 
for such purpose. They are frequently seen on the water in groups 
of six or eight, and are excellent divers. They breed on rocks and 
islets, where they congregate in vast numbers, and where their excre- 
ments accumulate in immense quantities, and constitute the chief part 
of the substance called Guano, which is now so extensively used in 
agriculture. 

Anas olor. (Gm.) The Swan. 

Hah. Almost everywhere ; it is amphibious. 

Food. Grass, grain, and fish spawn. 

Use. The fat was considered good for the nerves. The eggs were 
thought useful in erysipelas. The skin, dressed with the down, and 
applied to the breast, was said to assist concoction. 

Anser anser. (Linn.) The Goose. 

Hah. Almost everywhere. 

Food. Grain, grass, and the like. 

Use. The flesh, eaten, was said to cause length of life, as also the 
fat. It was said to cure hydrophobia, and to excite venery. Goose- 
grease, with honey, was supposed good against the bitings of a mad 
dog. The large feathers of the wings, quills, prepared by dipping into 
lime-water, hardening by the fire, and the barrels coloured with dilute 
nitric acid, used for making pens. 

Pelecanus aquilus. (Linn.) The Frigaf. 

Hah. They were formerly to be found in great numbers in the 
island of Guadaloupe. 

Food. Small fish. 

Use. The oil or fat of this bird was once considered a sovereign 
remedy for sciatica pains. 

Pelecanus carbo. (Linn.) The Cormorant. 

Hah. Seas, rivers, fens, and such places. 

Food. Eels and congers. 

Use. The flesh, roasted and eaten, useful in elephantiasis and in the 
spleen. The blood was considered alexipharmic. The heart was 
thought good against quartans. " The old liver, drunk with hydromel, 
bringeth out the secundine. The gall, with rosin of cedar, hinders the 
growth of hair on the eyelids after evulsion." 



CLASS III. REPTILIA. REPTILES. {Repo, to crawl.) 

The structure of the heart in Reptiles is such, that at each contrac- 
tion a portion only of the blood it has received from the diiferent parts 
of the body is transmitted to the lungs, the remainder returning to 
those parts without being passed through the pulmonary organs, and 
without having respired. The result of this arrangement is, that the 



138 ANBIALS.— REPTiLiA. 

oxygen acts less upon the blood than in the mammalia. As it is from 
respiration that the blood derives its heat, and the fibre its susceptibility 
of nervous irritation, the blood of reptiles is cold, and the muscular 
energy less than that of quadrupeds, and much less than of birds : thus 
we find their movements confined usually to crawling and swimming. 
In cold or temperate climates almost all of them pass the winter in a 
state of torpor. The smallness of the pulmonary vessels permits 
reptiles to suspend the process of respiration without arresting the 
course of the blood. No reptile hatches its eggs. The young batra- 
chians, on quitting the egg, have the form and branchiae of fishes, and 
some of the genera preserve these organs, even after the lungs have 
become developed. 

Reptiles are divided into four sufficiently natural orders, the Che- 
Ionian, Saurian, Ophidian, and Batrachian, severally represented by 
the tortoise, the lizard, the serpent, and the frog. The last of these is 
remarkable for presenting in early life a structure different from that 
which it is to assume when adult ; thus the young tadpole, it is well 
known, breathes by gills, and in some genera of this order the gills are 
never lost. An easy transition is thus formed from the class reptiles 
to the fishes. 

Order 1. CHELONIA. 

. Testudo europ^a. (Schn.) T. orbicularis. (Linn.) The fresh- 
water European Tortoise, or Spotted Tortoise. 

Hah., &c. The southern and eastern parts of Europe. Its carapace 
is oval, but little convex, rather smooth, blackish, and marked with 
yellowish points. It scarcely attains ten inches in length. It is 
brought up on bread, herbs, insects, small fishes, &c. 

Use. This is sometimes employed in Paris to make soups, and a cer- 
tain kind of syrup. 

Testudo GRiUCA. (Linn.) The Land Tortoise, or Common Tor- 
toise. 

Hah., &c. Greece, Italy, Sardinia, and in fact all around the Medi- 
terranean. It is distinguished by its carapace, which bulges out 
equally ; by its elevated scales, granulated in the centre, streaked at 
the edge, and marked with black and yellow spots. It scarcely attains 
a foot in length ; and feeds on leaves, fruits, insects, worms. 

Testudo iMBRiCATA. (Linn.) The Care^ of the French. 

This is not so large as the T. mydas ; its muzzle is more elongated ; 
its jaws are indented ; it bears thirteen yellow and brown scales, which 
lie one upon the other like tiles ; the flesh is disagreeable and unwhole- 
some, but its eggs are a great delicacy : this it is which yields the most 
beautiful tortoise-shell for use in the arts. 

Testudo mydas. (Linn.) T. viridis. (Schn.) The Green 
Tortoise, or Green Turtle. 

This is distinguished by its greenish scales, to the number of thirteen, 
which, however, are not imbricated, those of the middle row being 



ANIMALS.— REPTiLiA. 139 

nearly regular hexagons. It is from six to seven feet in length, and 
from seven to eight hundred pounds in weight. Its flesh affords a 
pleasing and wholesome food for navigators sailing on the torrid zone. 
Its eggs are also much prized, but no use is made of its shell. 



Order 2. SAURIA. (Savpoc, Lizard.) 

JEss. char. Heart like that of the Chelonians ; ribs moveable ; mouth 
armed with teeth ; and toes, with few exceptions, furnished with nails ; 
skin covered with scales, or scaly granules ; tail more or less long ; 
most of them have four legs. 

This order has been divided into six families, represented severally 
by the Crocodiles, Monitors, Iguanas, Geckos, Cameleons, and Skinks. 
Of these families, the first and fifth have each only one genus ; the 
second, two ; and the others have several genera. 

Draco. (Limi.) The Dragon, 

The dragon is distinguished from all the other Saurian reptiles by 
reason of the first six false ribs, instead of turning round the abdomen, 
being extended in a right line, and sustaining a production of the skin, 
which forms a species of wing somewhat resembling that of the bat, 
but independent of the four feet ; it sustains the animal like a para- 
. <jhute in its leaping from branch to branch, but it is incapable of 
enabling it to fly. All the known species come from the East Indies. 

Lacerta agilis. (Linn.) The Lizard. 

There are very many species of the Lacerta which have been con- 
founded by Linnaeus under the name of Lacerta agilis. The most 
striking of these are the 

Lacerta ocellata. (Daud.) 

Lacerta viridis. (Daud.) The Green Lizard, 
Hah. France, Spain, Italy, &c. &c. 

Use. This Saurian reptile has been extolled as a sudorific in syphi- 
litic diseases when eaten raw. 

SCINCOIDII. 

These constitute the sixth and last family of the Saurian reptiles. 
They are characterized by short feet, tongue not extensible, and by the 
equal scales which cover the body and tail like tiles. 

Lacerta scincus. (Linn.) Scincus Officinalis. (Schn.) The 
Seine, or Skink. 

From six to eight inches long ; tail shorter, than the body ; feet 
short ; body yellowish, and traversed with blackish bands, covered 
with shining scales. 

Hab. Egypt, Nubia, Arabia, Abyssinia, &c. 

Use. In order to preserve this animal, the intestines were drawn 
out, and their place supplied by aromatic plants ; the body was then 
dried, and wrapt up in dried wormwood leaves. It was considered 
aphrodisiac ; it formed a constituent in the Electuarium Mithridatis. 



140 ANIMALS.— REPTiLiA. 

Iguana delicatissima. (Linn.) Ig. Qiudicollis. (Cuv.) 

Hab. The Brazils, Guadaloupe. 

Use. This was considered a valuable sudorific, when eaten raw', 
in syphilitic diseases. The flesh is an agreeable food ; preserved by 
salting. 

Order 3. OPHIDIA. {ocpic, a serpent.) Ophidian Reptiles, 

Serpents are reptiles without feet. Their very elongated body 
moves by means of the folds it forms when in contact with the ground. 
This order is principally divided into three families : — 1. The snakes, 
{Anguis ;) 2. The true serpents ; and 3. The naked serpents. Of these, 
the first and third contain each but one genus ; the second contains all 
the rest, and as these differ in several respects, is subdivided, first, 
into two tribes, the double-mar che?irs, that is, those that move with 
either end foremost ; and the serpents proper, which always advance 
with the head in front. The serpents proper are then divided accord- 
ing as they are non-venomous or venomous ; and afterwards these 
latter according as they have isolated fangs, or fangs accompanied by 
the ordinary jaw teeth. Finally comes the division into genera, sub- 
genera, and species. Among the Anguis, or first family, we find 
the species Lacerta apoda, Pall. Ang, ventralis, L., glass serpent. 
A.fragilis, L., common blind-worm. A. meleagris, L., javelin snake, 
or Cape Pintado snake. Among the serpents or second family, we 
have the Amphisboena alba, Lacep. Anguis scytale, L., whip-lash 
snake, {(rKvraXr), a whip). Uropeltis ceylanicus, Cuv. Soa Constrictor^ 
L. Coluber Javanicus, Sh. Great adder of the Sunda Isles. Cro- 
talus horridus, L., American rattle-snake. Then the various sub- 
genera and species of the Vipera, Daud., as Col. berus, L., the common 
viper. The third and last family, or Naked serpents, consist of bat 
one very singular genus, the Ctscilia of Linnaeus. Species, Ccbc. an- 
7iulata, annulated caecilia. 

Anguis fragilis. (Linn.) Bliiid-worm, 
Hab. Very common in all parts of Europe. 
\ Food. Worms and insects. 

They bring forth their young alive. 

Anguis meleagris. (Linn.) Javelin Snake, or Cape Pintado 
Snake. 

Hab. The Cape of Good Hope. 

Angdis scytale. (Linn.) The Whip-lash S?iake. 
Description. About two feet long, marked with irregular black and 
white bands. 
Hab. America. 

Anguis ventralis. (Linn.) The Glass Serpent. 

Description. Colour, yellow-green, with black marks above ; the 
tail is longer than the body ; it is so easily broken as to have received 
from this circumstance the name oi glass -serpent, 

Hab. The southern states of North America. 



ANIM ALS.— REPTiLi A. 1 4 1 

Use. Many virtues were formerly ascribed to the liver, fat, and 
other parts of various species of Anguis, The liver was said to be 
STOod for stone in the bladder. 

o 

Boa. 

The boas, properly so called, have a hook on each side of the 
anus, a compressed body, thickest in the middle, a prehensile tail, and 
small scales on the head, at least on its posterior portion. In this 
genus the largest of all serpents are found ; some species attain the 
length of thirty or forty feet. A subdivision of the boas has been 
made, founded on differences in the integuments of the head and jaws, 
as follows : 

1 . Head covered to the end of the muzzle with small scales, like 
those of the body. The plates, with which the jaws are provided, not 
dimpled. Under this head comes the Boa Constrictor^ L. 

Boa consteictoe. (Linn.) Boa empereur. (Daudin.) The Devin. 

Description. Known by a broad chain extending along the back,, 
formed alternately by large, blackish, irregularly-hexagonal spots, and 
by pale oval ones, the two ends of which are notched, or jagged, form- 
ing a very elegant pattern. 

Hab. The New World. 

Food. Animals of all kinds. 

2. Scaly plates from the eyes to the end of the muzzle. No dimples 
on the jaws. Examples. Boa scytale, and Boa murina. (Linn.) 
Boa aquatica of Prince Maximilian. 

Boa scytale. (Linn.) Boa murina, (Linn.) 
Description. Bro\Mi : a double suit of round black spots along the 
back : ocellated spots on the flanks. 
Hah. South America. 
Food. Chiefly mice ; whence the name Murina. 

3. Scaly plates on the muzzle, and dimples upon the plates at the 
sides of the jaw. Ex. Boa cenchria. (Linn.) Boa centliris 
(Gmel.) 

Boa cencheia. (Linn.) 

Description. Yellowish, with a row of large brown rings running 
the whole length of the back, and variable spots on the sides. These 
are generally dark, containing often a whitish semilunar mark. 

Hah. South America ; the marshy places of the warm parts. 

Food. The various quadrupeds that come to drink. 

4. Plates upon the muzzle and sides of the jaw hollowed into a 
kind of slit under the eye, and beyond it. Example. Boa canina. 
(Linn.) 

Boa canina. (Linn.) 

Description. Greenish, with white irregular longish spots, some- 
what annularly disposed. 

Use. The excrement of the Boas, usually the Boa constrictor^ is 
the source from which uric acid is most abundantly and economically 
procured. 



142 ANIMALS.— REPTiLiA. 

Coluber ^sculapii. (Sh.) 

Description. Brown, superiorly ; straw-coloured inferiorly and on 
the flanks ; scales of the back almost smooth. It is this which the 
ancients have represented in their statues of Esculapius, and it is pro- 
bable that the Epidaurian serpent belonged to this species. 

Hab. Italy, Hungary, Illyria, &c. &c. 

The Coluber esculapii of Linnaeus is a different species. 

Coluber berus. (Linn.) Vipera berus. (Daud.) The Common 
Viper. 

Hab. Arabia, Africa, and Europe. 

Food. Herbs, horse-flies, cantharides, &c. 

Use. According to Culpeper, " The flesh of vipers being eaten 
clears the sight, and helps the vices of the nerves." According to the 
same author, the head of the viper, which gave the bite, is the best 
remedy. 

Crotalus horridus. (Linn.) The American Rattle-snake. 

This is a species of the genus Crotalus. (Linn.) 

The Crotali are distinguished from all other serpents by the fatal 
subtility of the poison. Like the JBoa^ they have simple transverse 
plates under the body and tail. But what best distinguishes them is 
the noisy instrument which they carry under the tail, and which is 
formed of many scaly cornets, embossed loosely in each other, which 
move and resound when the animal moves his tail. The number of 
these cornets increases with age, and there remains an additional one 
at each moulting. The muzzle of these serpents is hollowed, with a 
small round fosset behind each nostril. All the species, whose country 
is well known, come from America. They are more dangerous in 
proportion to the heat of the climate or season. Their natural dispo- 
sition, however, is tranquil, and rather lethargic. 

Food, &c. Birds, squirrels, &c. It was once believed that it had 
the power of torpifying them by its breath, and even of fascinating, 
that is, of forcing them by its glance alone to precipitate themselves 
into its mouth. It appears, however, that it is able to seize them 
only during those irregular movements which the fear of its aspect 
causes them to make. 

Order 4. B ATRAC HI A. (ySarpaxoc, a frog.) 

Ess. char. Heart, consisting of one auricle "and one ventricle; two 
equal lungs, to which at first are added branchiae. Most of them lose 
their branchiae, and the apparatus which supports them, when they 
attain maturity. The envelope of the ova is membranous. The eggs 
become much enlarged in the water. The young diflfer from the adult 
not only in the presence of branchiae, but in having feet which are de- 
veloped by degrees. Some species are viviparous. 

This order has been divided by Gray into two very natural orders 
or families, according as they do or do not undergo metamorphosis. 
Cuvier has adopted the same division, and then subdivides. The first 
genus is the 



ANIMALS.— .REPTiLiA. 14S 

Rana (Linn.), of which there are several sub-genera. 

Ess. char. Four legs, in the perfect state, but no tail ; head flaty 
muzzle rounded ; tongue generally soft, not attached to the bottom of 
the gullet but to the edge of the jaw, and folds inwards ; four toes to 
anterior feet ; the hind ones usually exhibit the rudiment of a sixth ; 
no ribs to skeleton. Inspiration effected by muscles of the throat, 
which, by dilating, receive air from the nostrils; expiration, on the 
contrary, effected by the muscles of the abdomen. The principal 
species of this genus are Rana temper aria, L., common frog. R. ar- 
horea, L., tree-frog. R. hufo, L., common toad. R. papa, L., Suri- 
nam toad. The second genus is the Salamandra, Brongn. The 
principal species are the Lacerta Salamandra, L., common salamander ; 
Salam marmorata, L., marbled salamander. 

Rana bufo. (Linn.) The Common Toad. 

Description. Reddish or brown gray, sometimes rather olive and 
blackish ; back covered with many rounded tubercles as large as lentiles. 
Hind feet semi-palmate. 

Hab. It remains in obscure and sheltered places, and passes the 
winter in holes which it excavates. Coupling takes place in the 
winter, and in March and April. The common toad lives more than 
fifteen years, and produces at four years of age. 

Rana esculenta. (Linn.) The Green Frog. Gibbous Frog. 

Description. Of a fine green, spotted with black. Three yellow 
stripes on the back, the belly yellowish. Four legs and no tail, in the 
perfect state. The tongue, which is soft, is attached, not to the 
lower part of the throat, but to the edge of the jaw, and is folded 
inwards. 

Hab. This is the species so common in all stagnant waters, and in 
grassy places near rivers, and which is so troublesome in summer, 
from the continuity of its nocturnal clamours. 

Use. It furnishes a wholesome and agreeable aliment. It spreads 
its eggs in clusters in the marshes. The liver of the frog was among 
the simples of the Lond. Pharm,, 1618. It was considered beneficial, 
when dried, in quartan agues. 

Rana paradoxa. (Linn.) Tlie Paradoxical Frog. 

Of all the species of this genus, this is that- whose tadpole grows 
the most. The loss of an enormous tail, and of the envelopes of the 
body, cause even the adult animal to be smaller in size than the tadpole, 
so that the earliest observers believed that it was the frog wliich was 
metamorphosed into a tadpole, or, as they said, into a fish. 

Char. Greenish, spotted with brown, and particularly recognised by 
irregular brown lines along its thiglis and legs. 

Hab. Guiana. 

Use. Flesh used as food. 

Rana tinctoria. (Linn.) Hyla T. The Stained Tree Frog. 

A very remarkable species of the genns Hyla, or Tree Frog. It is 
said, that if some of the feathers of a parrot be plucked out, and the 
skin be imbued with the blood of this animal, it causes a reproduction 



144 ANIMALS.— PISCES. 

of red or yellow feathers, and forms that peculiar appearance which is 
termed by the French Tapir e.* It is a brown species, with two 
whitish bands transversely united in two places (Daud. pi. viii.) ; the 
toes of the hind feet are almost free. 

Salamandra maculosa. (Laur.) Lacerta Salamandra. (Linn.) 
The Common Salamander. 

Description. Black, with great spots of a lively yellow ; on its sides 
are ranges of tubercles, from which, in times of danger, oozes a bitter 
milky fluid, of a powerful odour, and poisonous to weak animals. This 
jDrobably has given rise to the fable that the salamander can resist the 
flames. In consequence of the length of the body and tail, which 
assimilates it to the Lizard, this animal was placed by Linnaeus among 
the Lacertse. 

Hah. In the Alps, Germany, &c. ; in cold moist places. 

Food. Worms, insects, humus, and, according to some, milk, 
honey, &c. 

Use. According to Avicenna, the powder is a good application for 
corns, and is septic. 

CLASS IV. PISCES. FISHES. 

The class of fishes is composed of Oviparous Vertebrata, with a 
double circulation, but in which respiration is altogether eflfected 
through the medium of water. For this purpose they have, on each 
side of the neck, an apparatus called branchige or gills, which consist 
of laminae suspended on arches that are attached to the hyoid bone, 
each composed of numerous separate lamina, and covered with a 
tissue of innumerable blood-vessels. The water which the fish 
swallows escapes between these laminae through the branchial openings, 
and, by means of the air it contains, acts on the blood tJiat is con- 
tinually arriving in the branchiae from the heart, which only repre- 
sents the right auricle and ventricle of warm-blooded animals. This 
blood, having received the benefit of respiration, is poured into an 
arterial trunk under the spine, which, exercising the functions of a left 
ventricle, distributes it to every part of the body, whence it returns 
to the heart by the veins. In several species immediately under the 
spine, there is a bladder filled with the air, which, by compression or 
dilatation, varies the specific gravity of the fish, and assists it to rise or 
descend. Progression is effected by the motion of the tail, which, by 
striking the water alternately right and left, forces them forward ; 
the branchiae, by impelling the water backwards, may also contribute 
to this eflfect. The fins, which correspond to the anterior extremi- 
ties, are termed pectorals., those answering to the posterior, ventrals. 
Fishes are divided into two distinct series, the Ossei and Chon- 
DROPTERYGii ; in the former, the skeleton is formed of true bone, 
while in the latter it always remains in the state of cartilage or gristle, 
()(oj'3f>og, cartilage, and TrTspvt,, a fin.) The former (Ossei) is divided 
into six, the latter into two orders ; the principal characters being 

* And hence its Fieuch name Hamette a tapircr. 



ANIMALS.— PISCES. 



145 



derived from the first gills, as is evident from the names of the 
orders. 



Fishes. 



/ Series. 



I. OssEi, (bony fishes.} 



II. Chondropterygii, 

|(cartilaginous fishes.) 

\ 



Order. 
'1. Acanthopterygii. 
2. Malacopterygii Abdominal es. 
1 3, Malacopterygii Subbrachii. 

4. Malacopterygii Apodes. 

5. Lophobranchii. 
'>6. Plectognathi, 

'7. Eleutherobranchii, (gills free; 

£kf.vd£pog, free.) 
8. Pectobranchii, (gills confined 
or fixed ; TrrjKTog, fixed.) 



First Series of Fishes. OSSEI. 

Order 1. ACANTHOPTERYGII. 
(Spiny-finned ; aKavOog, a spine.) 

Ess. char. Spines occupying the first rays of their dorsal, or which 
alone support the first fin of their back, when there are two : some- 
times, instead of a first dorsal, there are only a few free spines. The 
first rays of their anal are spines, and there is generally one to each 
ventral. 

The Acanthopterygians make three-fourths of all the fishes known. 
The families into which they are divided are in general very natural, 
but present so many varieties with respect to their characters, on 
Avhich it might be supposed they could be grouped into orders or other 
subdivisions, that it has been found expedient to leave them all 
together. There are fifteen families of the Acanthopterygians. 

CoTTUS scoRPius. (Liuu.) The leather Lasher. 
Hah. On our sea-coast. 
Use. Pressed for oil. 

Gasterosteus aculeatus. (Linn.) The Sticklehach. 
This extremely small fish is in some places so plentiful as to be 
pressed for its oil ; the marc being used as manure. 

MUELUS BARBATAS. The Mullet. 

Hah. In the Northern Ocean, and in the Mediterranean. 

Food. Almost anything. 

Use. Difl[icult in digestion, but nutritious. " Good in colic from 
cold, and pituitous humours. Applied fresh, they help the bitings of 
the sea-dragons, scorpions, and spiders." 

Scomber scombrus. (Linn.) The Mackerel. 

Hah. The Ocean and Mediterranean. 

Food. They feed near sandy shores. 

Use. Supposed good for those labouring under hepatic diseases. 

Scomber thynnus. (Linn.) The Tunny. 



146 ANIMALS. — pisces. 

Hab. The Mediterranean Sea. 

Imported from Italy ; preserved in oil, or salted. 

Sparus aurata. (Linn.) Lunulated Gilt Head. 

A beautiful fish, called by the ancients Chrysoyhris^ (golden eye- 
brow,) from a golden-coloured band passing from one eye to the other. 
The flesh is salted. 

Sparus pagrus. (Linn.) 

Hah. The Indian seas, and the shores of the United States, The 
flesh said to be poisonous, and used foj* suicide. (Gray.) 

Order 2. MALACOPTERYGII ABDOMINALES. 

(Soft-finned ; fxaXciKog, soft.) 

Char. Ventral fins behind the pectorals ; rays soft or articulated. 

There are five families of this order. The first of these is the 
Cyprinoides, or the carp family : this includes the following species 
among others, the carp, the barbel, the gudgeon, the tench, the bream, 
the roach. The second family, or the Esoces, contains the species of 
pike. The fourth family, or salmons, contains the Salmon^ properly 
so called^ or the Trout. The fifth family, called Clupes, comprehends 
the herring, shad, sprat, the Clupea encrasicholus (Linn.) or Anchovy. 

Ceupea encrasicholus. (Linn.) The Anchovy. 

A little sea-fish, as thick and as big as one's finger, having a thick 
head. The little anchovies are valued more than the larger ones. 
The anchovies are taken in several parts, as in the river of Genoa, in 
Catalonia, at Nice, Antibes, St. Tropez, and other places in Provence. 
They are generally taken in the night, always in May, June, and July, 
when they come from the great ocean into the Mediterranean to go to 
the Levant. 

Use. Aperitive and stimulating to the stomach. Pomet. 

Clupea harengus. (Linn.) Tlie Herring. 
Hab. In the Baltic. 
Food. According to some, only water. 

Use. When salted, they are said to promote the secretion of urine. 
The j)ickle was used in clysters, in pains of the hips, and dropsy. 
Clupea catulus, white liiat. Clupea jnlchardus, pilchard. 

Clupea sprattus. (Linn.) The Sprat. 

Hab. Abundant on our coasts. 

Use. A cheap article of diet among the poor. The whole fish, not 
gutted, is preserved in brine. Gutted, headed, and pickled in vinegar, 
it is used for anchovies. 

Cyprinus alburtnus. (Linn.) The Bleah, or Bley. 
Hab. Throughout Europe. 

Use. Said to furnish false pearls. The scales used to make oriental 
essence. (Cuvier and Gray.) 

Cyprinus brama. (Linn.) Abramis. (Cuv.) The Bream. 
Hab. Clayey rivers and pools. 
Food. Mud and herbs. 



ANIMALS.— PISCES. 147 

Use. The Cud-bream^ or Scarus ruminans, is the best and lightest 
fish of the river, fit for sick and weak persons. 

Cyprinus carpis. (Linn.) The Common Carp. 

Hah. Rivers, ponds, and lakes. It was introduced into England in 
1574, by Leonard Maschall. 

Food. Larvae of insects, worms, roots, and young sprouts of plants. 

Use. " The spawn serveth to make red caviare of." The fat was 
considered aphrodisiac. The gall was supposed good in dimness of 
sight. Some medical men have ascribed to this fish, when eaten in 
excess, the property of inducing fits of gout. 

Cyprinus gobeo. (Linn.) Gobius Vulgaris. (N.) The Gud- 
geon. 

Hah. Almost everywhere ; in England, &c. 

Food. Worms, grubs, and the fry of other fishes. 

Use. The white was considered better than the black. When roasted, 
*' they help dysenteries." According to Dioscorides, " they help the 
bitings of mad dogs." 

Cyprinus leuciscus. (Blaine.) The Dace. 

Hah. The Khine. 

Use. Scales used to make oriental essence. 

Cyprinus rutilus. (Linn.) The Roach. 

Hah. Almost in all rivers, and in streams. 

Food. Worms of various kinds, &c. 

Use. This was considered a very healthful fish, whence the proverb, 
" as sound as a roach." The flesh was considered light, sound, and 
wholesome. 

Cyprinus tinca. (Linn.) Ttte Tench. 
Hah. Standing waters among reeds. 
Food. Mud. 

Use. " Laid to the soles of the feet, they often draw away the ague." 
The old physicians used them to ease pains of the head and limbs. 

Esox LUCIUS. (Linn.) The Pike. 

Hah. Rivers and pools, almost everywhere. 

Food. Fishes and frogs, &c. 

Use. " The ashes of the jaws helpeth the stone. Drunk in wine 
will act as a diuretic. The powder of the teeth considered good in 
leucorrhoea. The gall cures the ague." The fat (to be found among 
the simples in the Lond. Pharm, 1618) was considered to act bene- 
ficially as a revellent in catarrhs, when rubbed to the soles of the feet 
and breasts of infants. 

Salmo ALPiNus. (Linn.) The Trout of the Alps. 
Hah. It inhabits the lakes of Lapland. 

Use. It is a valuable source of food to the Laplanders in the summer. 
The flesh preserved by potting is called Potted Char. 

Salmo salar. (Linn.) The Salmon. 

Hah. The northern seas, from which it enters our rivers, in large 
shoals, in the spring. 

L 2 



148 ANIMALS.—PiscES. 

Food. Little fishes. 

Use. This is too well known to require description. 

SiLURis GLANis. (Linn.) TJie Shad. 

Description. The largest of the fresh-water fish of Europe, being some- 
times six feet or more in length, and weighing three hundred pounds. 

Hab. It is found in the rivers of Germany, Hungary, Russia, &c., 
and in the lake of Haarlem. This or other species of the same genus 
are met with in the JNile, the Danube, the Orontes, and some of the 
rivers of Asia Minor. ^ 

Use. It contains a large quantity of fat, which has been used in 
place of lard. It yields isinglass, — the kind known in commerce as 
the Samovey isinglass is said to be obtained from it by the Russians. 

Six,URUS Parkerii. (Trail.) The Geelbrick, or Gilbricker, 

Description. About three feet in length, and weighing from twenty 
to thirty pounds. The upper parts are of a fine olive-green, and the 
sides and belly of a rich yellow, hence it is sometimes called " Yellow 
bellyr 

Hab. The muddy waters of the rivers of Guiana. 

Use. Esteemed as an article of food. The dried air-bladder is the 
isinglass of Demerara, and probably constitutes at least a part of the 
Brazilian isinglass of commerce. The dried ovaries have been im- 
ported into London, and described as False isinglass^ but they possess 
none of the properties of isinglass. 

Order 3. MALACOPTERYGII SUB-BRACHIL 

Char. Vejitrals inserted under the pectorals; the pelvis directly 
suspended to the bones of the shoulder ; it contains almost as many 
families as genera. The first family or Gadoides, i. e. the Cod family, 
contains the cod, whiting, hake, ling, &c. ; the second family, the Plani, 
or flat-fish, contains the flounder, halibut, brill, &c. &c. 

Gadus ceglefinus. (Linn.) The Haddock. 

Hab. Northern seas. 

Use. The flesh is split and dried. 

Gadus brosme. (Gm.) The Forsk. (One fin on the back.) 
Hab. Does not come down lower than the Orkneys. 
Use. This fish is salted and dried ; when merely split and dried, it 
goes by the name of stoch-Jish. 

Gadus merlangus. (Linn.) The Common Whiting. 
Hab. Along the shores of the ocean. Very abundant. 
Use. Esteemed as a light food, and easy of digestion. 

Gadus molua. (Linn.) Tlie Ling. 

Hab. Northern seas. 

Use. A common article of food among the poor. 

Gadus morrhua. (Linn.) The Cod. 

Hab. The seas of the northern hemisphere, from the 40° to the 75°. 

Food. Sand-eels, plaice, &c. 



ANIMALS.— PISCES. 149 

Use. The flesh used as food. The oil obtained from the liver 
( Cod-liver oil) has been administered with advantage in rheumatic and 
scrofulous affections. 

Order 4. MALACOPTERYGII APODES. 

These constitute one natural family, viz., — the Angtdlliformes, {an- 
guilla, eel, 3iud forma, form,) or the various species of the eel. 

Gymnotus electricus. (Linn.) The Electric Eel. 

So called from its resemblaace to an eel, and the electric power it 
possesses. 

Description. About five or six feet in length ; the head rather broad 
and depressed ; the muzzle obtuse ; the body compared with that of the 
common eel, stunted and shorter in proportion ; the anterior part nearly 
cylindrical ; the pectoral fins small and rounded ; colour brownish black. 

Hob. The rivers of South America. 

Use, &c. This eel is said to communicate shocks so violent that 
men and even horses are overpowered by them. This power is de- 
pendent on the will of the animal, but decreases, if frequently repeated, 
unless at considerable intervals. 

MuR^NA ANGUiLiA. (Linu.) TTic Eel. 

Hah. Almost everywhere. 

Food. Frogs, worms, fishes, roots, herbs, &c. 

Use. Laxative. Are not considered wholesome. " The fat is con- 
sidered good against stripes." It is among the simples of the Lond. 
Pharm. 1618. 

MuR^NA CONGER. (Linn.) The Conger Eel. 
Hah. It is found in all our seas. 

Use. It is not much esteemed at table when fresh; the flesh is 
salted, and the fat which runs out is collected. 

Order 5. LOPHOBRANCHII. (Tufted gills, Xod)oe, a tuft.) 

Char. Gills in tufts ; operculum fixed by a membrane which only 
affords a small aperture for the escape of the water. 

There are two genera, Scil. Syngnathus (Linn.), or Sea Eels ; and 
Pegasus (Linn.) 

Order 6. PLECTOGNATHI. (Cheeks united by suture, .., 
TrXefcrw, to weave, and yvaQog, cheek.) 

Char. Maxillary fixed to the intermaxillary bones, and the palatal 
to the cranial. Opercula covered in. 

This order comprises two very natural families, characterised by 
their mode of dentition. 1st. The Gymnodentes, (naked teeth, yvfxvoQ, 
naked, and olovg, tooth.) 2nd. Sclerodermata, (rough-skinned, (tkXtjpoc, 
hard, and dspfxa, skin.) 

DiODON ATINGA. (Bl.) 

Use. Sounds are made into isinglass ; gall poisonous. 



150 ANIMALS.— PISCES. 

Tetraodon lineatus. (Linn.) 
Hab. The Nile. 

Use. The flesh is said to be poisonous. Some species of the Tetrao- 
don are said to be electrical. 

Second Series of Fishes. CHONDROPTERYGII. 

This series is divided into Eleutherobranchii, whose branchiae are 
free, {tkevQepoQ, free,) and the Pectobranchii, those whose branchiae are 
fixed, (TTtjKTog, fixed.) To the former belong the following- species : 
SciL the Acipenser Sturio, L., or common sturgeon ; the Chimcerd 
Monstrosa, L., king of the herrings, &c. To the latter belong the 
several species of shark, the saw-fish, the torpedo, the lamprey. 

Order 7. ELEUTHEROBRANCHII. {Free Bra7ichice.) 
Acipenser.* (Linn.) Tfie St^irgeons. 

Gen. char. Body furnished with osseous bucklers implanted on the 
skin in longitudinal ranges. Their head cuirassed in the same man- 
ner externally ; their mouth, placed under the muzzle, is small, and 
devoid of teeth ; the palatine bone is cemented to the maxillaries, and 
we find the intermaxillaries in the rudimentary state, in the thickness 
of the lips ; supported on a pedicle with three articulations, the mouth 
is more protracted than that of the squali ; their eyes and nostrils are 
at the sides of the head ; some barbels depend from the muzzle. The 
labyrinth is entire in the bone of the cranium ; but there is no vestige 
of an external ear. The dorsal is behind the ventrals, and the anal is 
under it. The caudal surrounds the extremity of the spine, and has a 
salient tube underneath, shorter, however, than its principal point. 
Internally we find the spiral a alve of the intestine and the pancreas 
united into a mass ; but there is, moreover, a very large natatory 
bladder, communicating by a wide hole with the oesophagus. 

The sturgeons ascend in abundance from the sea into certain rivers,. 
where they constitute very profitable fisheries. Most of their species 
have well-flavoured flesh. Caviare is made of their eggs, and isinglass 
of their natatory bladder. 

Acipenser huso. (Linn.) The Large Sturgeon. "" 

Description. Bucklers more blunt, muzzle and barbels shorter than 
in the ordinary sturgeon ; the skin also is smoother. It often attains a 
length of from twelve to sixteen feet, and a weight of more than 1200 
pounds. 

Hab. The Caspian Sea, and the rivers which empty themselves into 
it, as the Wolga. 

Food. Sea birds and small seals are often found in the stomach. 

* The origin of this term is uncertain, and the mode of spelling it is twofold, Aci- 
penser and Accipenser. The more correct mode, however, is with one c, as appears 
from a verse in LuciLius, in Cic, de Fin. 1. 2 : Consumis squilla atquc Acipcnsere cum 
decumano. Martial also, xiii. 91, Ad Palatinas Acipensera mittito mensas. Some 
write Aquipenser. 



ANIMALS.— PISCES. 151 

Use. The roe is prepared to form the substance called caviare. The 
flesh is not considered so good as that of some other species. The best 
isinglass is said to be obtained from the swimming-bladder of this 
species. 

ACIPENSER GULDENSTADTII. 

Under this head two varieties are found. In the one, the osseous 
skin-scales, together with the bucklers and radiated streaks, as well as 
all the cutaneous scales, are very much developed ; it accordingly ap- 
pears rough, and bears the name of Kostera. 

The other has the skin-scales less developed, so that on a superficial 
examination, when the skin is much covered with mucus, it seems to 
be almost smooth, though it feels rough. A specific difference between 
them is not to be found. 

AciPENSER RUTHENUS. (Linn.) A. Pygmceus, (Pall.) The Sterlet.^ 
or Small Sturgeon. 

Description. This is supposed to have been the Elops, and Acipenser, 
so celebrated among the ancients. It seldom exceeds two feet in 
length. 

Hab. The Black and Caspian Seas and their tributary rivers, and the 
Arctic Ocean. 

Use. The flesh of this species is much esteemed ; and the caviare 
obtained from it is reserved for the court. The swimming-bladder 
yields isitiglass. 

Acipenser steulatus. (B1.) A. helops. (Pall.) 

Description. Attains a length of four feet. The snout is longer 
and smaller than that of the other species, and the bucklers more 
bristled. 

Hab. The Caspian and Black Seas and their tributary rivers, where 
it is exceedingly abundant. 

Use. Yields caviare and isinglass. The flesh is not so good as that 
of the common sturgeon. 

Acipenser sturio. (Linn.) The Common Sturgeon. 

Description. The body is elongated and angular ; defended by in- 
durated plates and spines, arranged in longitudinal rows ; the snout 
is pointed ; the mouth small, on the under side of the head, and with- 
out teeth. This species usually attains to a length of six or seven 
feet. 

Hab. The Caspian and Black Seas and their tributary rivers, but 
it is found on our coasts, and has been caught in the river Thames. 

Use. The flesh is considered to resemble veal. It is pickled in 
brine, or sliced and frozen, (imnkel?) The sounds are made into a 
kind of isinglass ; the back-bone, which is soft, is preserved by smok- 
ing, {chinolia. spi^iachia.) The roe is made into caviare ; the skin is 
dressed for leather ; that of the young fish is transparent, and some- 
times used for covering windows. 

Several species of sturgeon are found in the lakes, rivers, and seas 
of North America, which are peculiar to that country. Among these 
are the Acipenser oxyrhyncuSj Acipenser brevirostris, Acipenser rubi~ 



152 ANIMALS.— PISCES. 

cundus, wliich very much resembles the sterlet ; and the Acipenser 
maculosus, which resembles the common sturgeon. 

Order 8. PECTOBRANCHII. {Fixed braiicJiioi.) 

Petromyzon BRANOHiAiiis. (Linn.) Pride, Lampern. 
This is employed as a bait for fishing-hooks. 

Petromyzon fluviatilis. (Linn.) The River Lamprey. 
Hah. This is found in fresh water. 

Petromyzon marinus, (Linn.) The Great or Sea Lamprey. 

Hah. This fish ascends in the spring as far as the mouths of rivers. 
It is much esteemed as a delicacy for the table. Its flesh, however, 
is very difficult of digestion. It is glutinous, and is preserved — potted 
lampreys — by high seasoning. It was by indulging in this dish to 
excess that Henry I. lost his life. 

Kaia batis. (Linn.) The Skate. Blue Skate. Grey Skate. 

Raia clavata. (Linn.) The Thornhack. 

Kaia oxyrinchus. {Raia rhinohatus. Linn.?) White Skate. 
Use. The flesh of these different varieties of Raia is nutritive ; it is 
generally salted, and dried for exportation. 

Raia sephen. Rousette. 

Skin dressed, {galuchat.^ fish skin^ transparent, used to cover 
boxes, cemented on green-stained paper, the tubercles filed down, 
polished, and the skin stained with verdigris; spots, circular, large, 
very beautiful. 

Raia tuberculata. Shagreen Ray. 

The skin dried {sharKs skin, shagreen) is used to cover boxes. 

Squalus catdlus (et sq. stellaris,) (Linn.,) the male ; and 
Squalus canicula, (Linn.,) the female. The Spotted Dog-fish, or 
Rough-hound ; the Chien de mer of the French. 

Use. The skin dressed {shark-skin'), rough, used for polishing wood 
and ivory. 

Squalus carcharias. (Linn.) Sometimes called Canis marinus, 
or Sea-dog. The White Shark. The French call it Requiem, from 
its proving so destructive to man. 

Hah. AH seas indiscriminately. 

Use. The flesh, though eaten sometimes, is not good ; the liver is 
pressed for the oil. The teeth have been used to rub children's gums 
with, to make their teeth cut. 

Squalus galens. (Linn.) Melandre. 

Squalus spinax. (Acanthias. Linn.) 

The skins of these are dried, and used either as fish-skin for cover- 
ing, or for polishing wood. 

Torpedo galvanii. (Riss.) TJie Cramp-fish. 
Hah. In the Nile and muddy parts of the sea. 
Food. Fishes. 



ANIMALS. — MOLLUSCA. 153 

Use. Aperient when eaten. According to Dioscorides, being ap- 
plied to the head it relieves pain. This and other species of the 
same genus have the property of communicating an electric shock 
when touched. 



SecontJ iSibi^ioit of t^e Animal Bmgtfom. 
MOLLUSCA (Cuv.)— SOFT ANIMALS. 

Heterogangliata. (Owen.) Cyclogangliata, (Grant.) 

The Mollusca have neither an articulated skeleton, nor a vertebral 
canal. Their nervous system is not united in a spinal marrow, but 
merely in a certain number of medullary masses dispersed in different 
points of the body, the chief of which, termed the brain, is situated 
transversely on the oesophagus, and envelops it with a nervous collar. 
Some of them respire elastic air, others salt or fresh water. The cir- 
culation in them is always double ; that is, their pulmonary circulation 
describes a separate and distinct circle. The blood of the Mollusca is 
white or bluish. Their muscles are attached to various points of 
their skin. Their motions consist of various contractions, which pro- 
duce inflexions and prolongations of the several parts, or a relaxation 
of the same, by means of which they swim, creep, and seize on 
various objects. Their irritability is in general very great, and remains 
for a long time after they are divided. Nearly all the Mollusca have 
a development of skin which covers their body, more or less resem- 
bling a mantle. The Naked Mollusca are those in which the 
mantle is merely membranous. When the substance constituting the 
mantle becomes so much developed that the contracted animal finds a 
shelter beneath it, it is then termed a shell, and the animal is said to 
be Testaceous. 

The Mollusca are divided into six classes. 

' 1. Cephalopoda, (KecpaXrj, head, ttovq, food, from their 
crawling by means of appendages on the head.) 

2. Pteropoda, {ttteqov, a fin, the organs of locomotion 
being fins attached to the neck.) 

3. Gasteropoda, {yaaT-qp, belly, from their crawling 
by means of a fleshy disc on the belly.) 

4. AcEPHALA, (a priv., Ke(pa\T}, head ; having no appa- 
rent head.) 

5. Brachiopoda, (brachium, an arm, having fleshy or 
membraneous arms.) 

6. CiRRHOPODA, (cirrus, from the abdomen being fur- 
nished with filaments named cirri, or ciliated articu- 

\ lations, corresponding to feet, or fins.) 



Mollusca . . \ 



154 ANIMALS. — mollusca. 



CLASS I. CEPHALOPODA. (Class Y. of General Division.) 

This class of animals, which contains but one order having the same 
name, includes six genera. These animals are remarkable for a peculiar 
and intensely-black secretion, with which they darken the surrounding 
water when they wish to conceal themselves. 

Sepia elegans. (Blainville.) 

Hah. The coasts of Sicily, where it is called Sepia mezzana. 

Use. Yields part of the cuttle-fish bone of commerce. 

Sepia loligo. (Linn.) Calamary. Anclior-fish. Poor Cuttle. 
The flesh well washed, after the ink has been let out, is white, and 
being dressed has the taste of veal. 

Sepia officinalis. (Linn.) Cuttle-fish. 

Hah. Found in all our seas. 

Food. Small fishes and Crustacea. 

Use. The bone, os sepice, is sometimes given to calves as an astrin- 
gent. It is often used in tooth-powders ; for polishing metals, and to 
make moulds for casting small gold and silver work, as it takes a good 
impression from the pattern. The fluid contained in the ink-hag is used 
as a pigment. 



CLASS II. PTEROPODA. (Class VI. of General Division.) 

In the animals of this class the organs of locomotion have the appear- 
ance of wings, or fins. These animals yield nothing to medicine. 



CLASS III. GASTEROPODA. (Class VII. of General 

Division.) 

This is a very numerous class of molluscous animals. They are 
either naked or testaceous. The class has been divided into eight 
orders — namely, 1. Pulmo7iaria, to which order belong the Helix 
pomatia^ or snail, and the Limax rufus, or slug. 2. Nudibranchiata, 
to which belongs the genus Doris. 3. Inferohranchiata. 4. Tecti- 
branchiata, 5. Heteropoda. 6. Pectinihranchiata, containing the 
genera Purpura, Turbo, and Murex. 7. Scutibranchiata, containing 
the Haliotis. 8. Cyclohranchiata. 

Doris. (Linn. Cuv.) Beche de Mer. 

Description. The anus opening on the posterior part of the back, 
and the branchiae arranged around the anus, in the form of small 
sprouts, resembling altogether a kind of flower. The mouth is a small 
projection situate beneath the anterior edge of the mantle, and furnished 
with two small conical tentacula. Two other tentacula proceed from 
the superior and anterior part of the mantle. The organs of genera- 
tion open near its right border. The stomach is membranous. A 
gland interlacing with the liver pours out a peculiar liquor through a 



ANIMALS. GASTEROPODA. 155 

foramen situate near the anus. The species are very numerous, and 
they attain a considerable size. 

Hab. They are found in all seas. Collected on the west coast of 
New Holland. 

Use. When dried, they are used for making a rich soup. 

Haliotis. (Linn.) Sea-ear. {aXg, sea, and ovg, ear.) 

Description. One of the most ornamented of Gasteropods. All 
round its foot to its mouth there is a double membrane cut out into 
leaflets and furnished with a double row of filaments. On the outside 
of its long tentacles are two cylindrical projections, for carrying the 
eyes. The mantle is deeply divided on the right side, and the water, 
which passes by means of holes in the shell, can, through this slit, pene- 
trate into the branchial cavity. The mouth is a short proboscis. 

The most common species is the Haliotis tuberculata. This there 
can be no doubt is the aypiaXsTrac, "qv tlveq kuXovctl OaXarrtov ovg, " the 
wild lepas, which some call the sea-ear j" of Aristotle, Hist. An. lib. iv. 
0.4. 

Ilab. This is very common at Guernsey and Jersey. 

Use. The flesh is pickled in vinegar, and very highly spiced, and is 
imported as food from Guernsey. The inhabitants of this place and 
Jersey ornament their houses with the shells, placing them so that their 
bright interior may catch the rays of the sun. 

Helix pomatia. (Linn.) Escargot. The Garden Snail. 

Description. Shell globular, of a reddish colour, marked with stripes 
of a somewhat paler colour. Aperture almost semicircular and oval. 
Border of the aperture a bluish, rose-red colour. Umbilicus covered. 

Hab. England, France, Prussia, Denmark, and Sweden. 

Food. Succulent plants. 

Use. In some countries they are used for the preparation of snail- 
broth. Snails have been recommended in certain diseases of the lungs 
and air-tubes. 

LiMAX. (Linn.) The Slug. 

This animal belongs to the Terrestrial Pulmonaria, which genus is 
generally characterized by having four tentacula ; such as have no 
apparent shell, form in the Linnasan system the genus Limax. To this 
belongs the 

LiMAX RUFUS. (Linn.) The Slug. 

This is to be met with at every step we take in wet weather ; it is 
sometimes almost entirely black. 

Use. The soup of this slug has been recommended in pulmonary 
affections. 

MuREx. (Linn.) 

Gen. char. Animal furnished with two long and approximated 
tentacles ; mouth without jaw\s, but armed with hooked tentacles in lieu 
of a tongue ; foot rounded, generally rather short ; mantle large, often 
ornamented with rings on the right side only ; branchiae formed of two 
unequal pectinations ; anus on the right side in the branchial cavity ; 
orifice of the oviduct on the rigfht side at the entrance of the same 



156 ANIMALS. — gasteropoda. 

cavity ; orifice of the deferent canal at the end of the exciting- organ, on 
the right side of the neck. 

Shell, oval, oblong, more or less elevated on the spiral side, or pro- 
longed forwards ; external surface always interrupted by rows of 
varices in the form of spires, or simply tubercles, generally arranged in 
regular and constant order ; aperture oval, terminated anteriorly by a 
straight canal, more or less elongated and closed : right tip often plaited 
or wrinkled. Operculum horny. 

MUREX BRANDARIS. 

Description. Shell subovate, surrounded with straight spines ; beak 
moderately long, subulate, straight, and obliquely surrounded with 
spines. 

Hab. It inhabits the Mediterranean and Adriatic seas ; the shell is 
white, cinerous, or brownish, with a triple row of small spines, the third 
row shorter, rarely a single row, with the beak unarmed. 

Purpura. (Brugiere.) Purple-fish. 

It is known by its flattened columella, which is trenchant near the 
end opposite to the spine, and which, with the external margin, forms 
a canal there, sunk in the shell, but not salient. The Purpuras were 
scattered anions: the Buccinee and Murices of Linnaeus. The animal 
resembles that of a true Buccinum. 

It has been usual to confound together the genera of the Murex 
and Purpura, and to use the words as synonymous ; but though there 
is some general resemblance between many of the shells of the two 
genera, yet they are easily distinguished by this, that the mouth of 
the purpura is less long, and is less dentated and alated than that of 
the murex. The body and the head of the shells of this genus are 
not so elevated as those of the murex kind, and are not covered with 
points or buttons at the mouth. If a shell is therefore found to have 
a small, smooth, and round mouth, and a body covered with undu- 
lated leaves, and sometimes with long points, and its tail, whether 
long or short, be hollowed and somewhat bent, this may be called a 
purpura, and not a murex. Linnaeus makes the purpura a species of 
murex. 

Use. The purpura, as well as the murex, served among the ancients 
to afford the fine purple dye they were so fond of, and some of the 
Buccinae {e. g. the Lapillus of Linna3us) have been of late found to 
possess the same property. 

Hab. The purpura and murex are both fished up in great plenty in 
the Gulf of Tarentum, but the small quantity of the coloured juice 
which each fish contains, and the necessity of using it before the 
animal dies, render it impossible to make it a regular article of traffic. 
The ancients used this colour only on cotton and woollen stuffs ; 
whereas our cochineal, which was unknown to the ancients, strikes 
equally well on silks and stuffs. These shells are also found in various 
parts of the Mediterranean. In the seas of the Spanish West Indies, 
about Nicoya, is found a shell-fish which perfectly resembles the 
ancient purpura, and is probably the very same. The purple dye is 
said to lie in the throat of the fish. On the coast of the South Sea, 



ANIMALS. — ACEPHALA. 157 

near the equator, there are found certain sea-snails, sticking to the 
stones, whicii contain a, liquor or juice having the true colour of 
purple. The modern purple fish is a kind of Buccinum, and it appears 
from Pliny, that part of the ancient purple was taken from this kind 
of shell-fish. 

Food. The purpura lives on other fish. It usually hides itself at a 
small depth in the sand, and as it lies hid, it thrusts up a pointed tongue, 
which wounds and kills anything that comes near it. 

Turbo. (Linn.) 

This comprehends all the species with a completely and regularly 
turbinated shell and a round aperture. Lamarck has thus described the 

Turbo, (properly so called.) 

Description. Shell round or oval, and thick ; the aperture completed 
on the side next the spire, by the penultimate whorl. The animal has 
two long tentacula, and the eyes placed on pedicles at their external 
base ; the sides of the foot are provided with membranous wings, 
sometimes simple, at others fringed, and sometimes furnished with one 
or tM'o filaments. 

Use. The shelly operculum of one of the species of the genus 
Turbo — namely, T. pullus — called Guernsey eye-stone^ when put into 
the corner of the eye, works its way out at the other corner, and 
brings out any substance with it that may have been accidentally 
introduced. 



CLASS ly. ACEPHALA. (Class VIII. of General Division.) 

The acephala have no apparent head, but a mere mouth, concealed 
in the bottom or between the folds of their mantle. The latter is 
almost always doubled in two, and encloses the body, as a book is 
clasped by its cover ; but it frequently happens that, in consequence of 
the two lobes uniting, it forms a tube ; sometimes it is closed at one 
end, and then it represents a sac. This mantle is generally provided 
with a calcareous bivalve, and sometimes multivalve shell, and in tv/o 
genera only is it reduced to a cartilaginous, or even membranous 
nature. The brain is over the mouth. The branchiae usually consist 
of large lamellae covered with vascular meshes, under or between whicli 
passes the water. From these branchiae the blood proceeds to the heart, 
generally unique. 

All the acephala are aquatic. 

Cardium edule. (Linn.) The CocMe. 

A species of the genus Cardium, a name given to it from some 
resemblance of its figure to that of a heart. 

Use. Flesh eaten raw or dressed ; it is also pickled for sauce. 

Mya MARGARiTiFERA. (Linn.) Pearl Mussel. 
This is a species of the genus Unio ; the anterior tooth in it is more 
or less stout and unequal. 

Hab. Found in fresh water in running streams in France. 



158 ANIMALS.— ACEPHALA. 

Use. The mother-of-pearl of this large thick species is so beautiful, 
that its concretions are used in dress as pearls. 

Mya pictorum. (Linn.) 

This is also a species of the genus Unto. It is an oblong and thin 
species, known to every one. 

Use. Shells — colour shells — used to spread colours upon. 

Mytilus edulis. (Linn.) Common Mussel. 

Hah. The common mussel is frequently seen suspended in extended 
clusters, along the whole coast of France, to rocks, piles, &c. 

Use. It forms a considerable item of food ; but is dangerous if eaten 
to excess. 

Mytilus margaritiferus. (Linn.) The Pearl Mussel. 

This is a species of the genus Avicula of Brugiere. It has nearly 
a semicircular shell, greenish without, and ornamented with the most 
beautiful nacre within. 

Use. The nacre is employed in the arts, and it is from the extrava- 
sation of this substance that the oriental or fine pearls are produced, 
taken by the divers at Ceylon, in the Persian Gulf, &c. 

Mytilus HiRUNDO. (Linn.) 

This is a species of Avicula of Brugiere. It is remarkable for the 
pointed ears which extend its hinge on each side. Its byssus is coarse 
and stout, resembling a little tree. 

JIab. The Mediterranean. 

Ostrea edulis. (Linn.) The Commoji Oyster. 

Linncean definition of the genus Ostrea. A?iimal tethys. Shell 
bivalve, inequivalve, subaurited. Hinge edentulous, with a hollow, 
ovate, little excavation, and lateral transverse strise. 

The true oysters have been divided into two groups : — 

A. True oysters with simple or undulated, but not plaited, valves. 

B. True oysters with the borders of their valves distinctly plaited. 
A. This considerable group, which consists of between thirty and 

forty recorded species, (recent,) may be illustrated by the well-known 
Ostrea edulis, or common edible oyster of the European seas. These 
are the Ostrce of the ancient Italians ; Ostras of the Spaniards ; 
Austern of the Germans ; and Huitres of the French. The Roman 
epicure well knew the value of the British oyster. (Juv. iv. 140.) 
There are gradations, however, in the quality of the British oyster, the 
animal varying much, both in size and flavour, according to the nature 
of the coast, and the food with which the locality is furnished. The 
oysters on the south coast are generally very well flavoured ; the best 
being found at Purfleet, and the worst at LiverjDOol. Colchester and 
other places in Essex are the great nurseries or feeding-grounds for 
supplying the metropolis ; and indeed, in a great measure, England 
generally. 

Food. The favourite food of the oyster consists of a green navicida 
( Vibrio naviculai'is,) and various species of that and other genera of 
Infusoria ; these make the oyster fat, tender, and peculiarly well- 
flavoured. 



ANIMALS. — ciRRHOPODA. 159 

Use, Flesh eaten raw, or dressed, also pickled in vinegar and brine. 
The shells, exposed to the air for months to bleach, {testcB ostreorum^ 
used in medicine as an absorbent. 

Pecten maximus. (Brug-.) Ostrea maxima. (Linn.) The 
Scollop. 

The scollops found on the French coast have convex valves, one 
whitish and the other reddish, each having- fourteen ribs, broad and 
longitudinally striated. 

Use. The flesh, when dressed, is eaten. They are also pickled in 
vinegar. 

Pinna. (Linn.) 

Gen. char. Two equal valves forming a segment of a circle, or 
resembling a half-opened fan, closely united by a ligament along one 
of their sides. 

Pinna nobilis. (Linn.) 

This species is distinguished by the valves being roughened, with 
recurved and semitabular plates. It remains half buried in the sand, 
and anchored by its byssus. 

Use. The byssus, which is extremely fine and brilliant, is used as 
silk for fabricating the most costly stuffs. It also produces pearls of 
considerable size, but tinged with brown. 



CLASS V. BRANCHIOPODA. (Class IX. of General 

Division.) 

These, like the acephala, have a bilobed mantle, which is always 
open. Instead of feet, they are provided with two fleshy arms. The 
mouth is between the bases of the arms. All the branchiopoda are 
invested with bivalve" shells, fixed and immovable. 



CLASS VI. CIRRHOPODA. (Class X. of General Division.) 

The cirrhopoda, in several points of view, are intermediate be- 
tween this division and that of the articulata. Enveloped by a mantle, 
and testaceous pieces which frequently resemble those seen in several 
of the acephala, their mouths are furnished with lateral jaws, and the 
abdomen with filaments called cirrhi, arranged in pairs composed of 
a multitude of little ciliated articulations, and corresponding to a sort 
of feet or fins similar to those observed under the tail of several of the 
Crustacea. Their heart is situated in the dorsal region, and the 
branchiae on the sides ; the nervous system forms a series of ganglions 
on the abdomen. The position of these animals in the shell is such 
that the mouth is at the bottom and the cirrhi near the orifice. These 
animals are always fixed. Linnseus comprised them all in one genus, 
Lepos. Brugiere has divided them into two. 



160 ANIMALS. — Annelida. 



C^Jirtf 23i^i^ion ol tl)t Animal Wiingfiom* 

ARTICULATA. (Cuv.) AETICULATED ANIMALS. ' 

Homogangliata. (Owen.) Diploneura. (Grant.) Annulosa. 
(Macleay.) 

This, the third general form, is as well characterized as that of the 
vertebrata ; the skeleton is not internal, as in the latter ; the articulated 
rings which encircle the body, and frequently the limbs, supply the 
place of it, and as they are usually hard, they furnish to the powers 
of motion all requisite points of support ; so that here, as among the 
vertebrata, we find the walk, the run, the leap, natation, and flight. 
This great division is divided into four classes. 

1. Annelida, (Lam.,) or worms with red blood. (Cuv.) 2. Crus- 
tacea. 3. Arachnida. 4. Insecta. 



CLASS L ANNELIDA. (Class XI. of General Division.) 

Char. Body soft, elongated, articulated, or divided into segments 
or transverse folds. 

The annelida are divided into three orders — viz. 

\. Tubicola, 2. Dorsibranchiata. 3. Abranchiata. 

Order]. TUBICOLA. 

Dentalum. (Linn.) Dog-like tooth shell. 

This is a pipe of about three inches long, thick at one end, and 
small at the other. This pipe is of a greenish, shining white; is 
hollow, light, of the size of a quill at the tiiick end, and smaller by 
degrees to the other end. It was used in medicine as an absorbent. 
(See Pomet.) 

Order 3. ABRANCHIATA. 

LuMBRicus TERRESTRis. (Liou.) Earth-worm. 

Hah. Almost everywhere. 

Food. Earth. 

Use. According to Pliny, the ashes of earth-worms with oil pre- 
serve hair from hoariness. According to the same authority, drank 
with wine they are beneficial in breaking vesical calculi. Various 
other virtues have been assigned to them. 

H^MOPis sanguisorba. (Sav., Moq. Tand.) Hirudo sanguisuga, 
(Linn.) The Horse Leech. 

This is usually larger than the ordinary medicinal leech ; the colour 
is, above, of a greenish black ; beneath, greenish, cinerous with black 
spots. The teeth are blunt, flattened, and fewer in number than those 
of the medicinal leech, and they are incapable of penetrating the 
human skin. They are said to produce troublesome wounds where 



ANIMALS. ANNEI.IDA. 161 

they have attempted to puncture the skin. They are found throuo-h- 
out Europe in ponds. 

Sanguisuga chlorogaster, (Brandt,) sometimes met with among 

tlie speckled leeches from Russia. Back coloured as the preceding-. 
Belly brighter green tint, speckled with small brownish-red spots. 

Sanguisuga interrupta. (Moq. Tand., Brandt.) Sangsue inter- 
rompue. (Audonin.) Sangsue marquetee. (Bl.) Jlie interrupted 
Gibraltar green, or Morocco leech. 

Char. Back of a beautiful pea or grass green; sometimes in the 
smaller varieties it has an ochre or brownish tint. The two marginal 
bands yellow, broad, and well-marked ; the dorsal interrupted. Belly 
generally of a duller green. These leeches are collected in Morocco, 
and exported by way of Gibraltar. 

Saxguisugu marginata. (Letheby.) 

Char. Back and belly almost black, or very dark green, with no 
spots, but having a bright yellow or orange marginal band running 
the full length of each side of the body. 

Sanguisuga medicinalis. (Sav., Moq. Tand., Brandt.) Hirudo 
inedicinalis. (Linn., Mull., Cuv., Car., Johnson.) Sangsue medi- 
cinalegrise. (Bl.) Hirudo officinalis. (Devh.) Old English, ov speckled 
leech. Hamburg grey, or llussiaji leech. 

Char. Back dark olive, sometimes almost black or brown, with six 
orange or rusty yellow longitudinal bands — two marginal, and four 
dorsal. Belly dirty yellowish, or light olive green, spotted more or 
less with black. This is the most valuable of the commercial leeches. 
It is imported, by way of Hamburg, from the northern countries of 
Europe, as Russia, Norway, Sweden, &c. ; it was formerly to be ob- 
taiwed in England, but from the great demand, and the destruction of 
its haunts, it is now nearly extinct. 

Sanguisuga obscura. (Moq. Tand.) Sangsue noire. (Bl.) 
Char. Back either dark rusty brown, or black, with the central 

dorsal bands very indistinct. The two lateral bands orange yellow. 

Belly greenish, spotted, or not spotted. 

This is frequently met with among the Spanish and French green 

leeches. 

Sanguisuga officinalis. (Sav., Moq. Tand., Brandt.) Sanguisuga 
inedicinalis. (Risso.) Sangsue medicinale verte. (Bl.) Hirudo 
ojficincdis. (Geiger.) Hirudo provincialis. (Carena.) Hamburg 
and French green leech. 

Char. Back brownish olive green, with six yellow or reddish longi- 
tudinal bands. Belly light dirty pea-green, or yellowish-green, free 
from spots, but exhibiting the two lateral stripes. There are two 
varieties of this species in commerce, one being collected in the central 
j)arts of Europe, and called the German., or Hamburg green ; it is 
the largest and best. The other variety is collected in the more 
northern countries, and is known as the French or Spanish green ; 
they are of less value, are of small size, and very unhealthy, from a 
fraud which the natives are guilty of before exporting them — that is, of 

M 



162 ANIMALS.— CRUSTACEA. 

filling them with blood, so as to improve their appearance, and make 
them look larg-er ; they are consequently very indisposed to bite, and 
must be kept some time before they are saleable. 

Sanguisuga VEiiBANA. (Moq. Tand., Brandt, Carena.) Sangui- 
sugacavena. (Risso.) Sangsue medicmale de verbano. (Bl.) Sang- 
sue de sac majeur. (Audonin.) 

Char. Back deep dirty green, with the two lateral or marginal bands 
rusty yellow ; along the middle of the back there is a double row of 
longitudinal ochre yellow stripes, each stripe running for the space of 
three rings ; the back also exhibits a series of black transverse bands, 
which occur about every sixth ring. Belly brownish-green, either 
without spots, or with very small ones. This leech is common in 
some of the Italian lakes. 



CLASS II. CRUSTACEA. (Class XII. of General Division.) 

The Crustacea are articulated animals, with articulated feet, respir- 
ing by means of branchiee, protected in some by the borders of a shell, 
and external in others. Their circulation is double. Their envelope 
is usually solid, and more or less calcareous. 

Cancer astacus. (Linn.) Astacus Jluviatilis. (Fabr.) Hie 
Crawfish. The River Crawjish, or Cray-Jish. 

The crawfish is found in the rivers of Europe, especially those 
having a clayey bottom. It sometimes, although very rarely, attains 
the size of a small lobster, but usually does not exceed four or five 
inches in length. The colour, when alive, is olivaceous, or dark brown. 

The concretions, commonly called craVs eyes, or crab's stones, (La- 
pilli ca?icrorum,) are found in the stomach of this animal, about the 
period at which it changes its shell. Tliese concretions are white, 
and resemble in appearance small mushrooms. They vary in size 
from a quarter to five eighths of an inch in diameter, and consist of 
carbonate, with a little phosphate of lime and animal matter. Crab's 
eyes are said to be procured in the greatest abundance at Astracan. 
They were formerly used as absorbents and antacids. 

Cancer gammarus. (Linn.) Astacus mariims. (Fabr.) The 
Lobster. 

The lobster is met with in the European ocean, the Mediterranean, 
and on the coasts of America. Its flesh is esteemed as an article of 
food. 

Cancer pagurus. (Linn.) The common or blach-clawed Crab. 

Char. Shell, granulated with nine folds on each side ; fi'ont with 
three lobes ; apex of the hand black. 

The crab occurs in great abundance during the summer months on 
all our rocky coasts, especially where the water is deep. It is con- 
sidered to be in season between Christmas and Easter. The tips of 
the claws, and crustaceous covering, when reduced to powder, have 
been used as an absorbent and antacid. 



ANIMALS.— ARACHNIDA. 163 

Oniscus armadillo. (Linn., Gmel.) Armadillo vulgaris. (Lat.) 
'Cloporte armadillo. (Geoff.) Millepedes, common armadillo, or Pill 
millepede. 

This animal is commonly met with amongst moss, and under stones. 
Its length is rather more than half an inch. The body is elongate- 
ovate, somewhat convex above, smooth, and consist of ten crustaceous 
semicircular scales, or segments of a cinerous lead colour ; the poste- 
rior margin of the segments are whitish. It has seven pairs of very 
short legs, each terminated by a minute horny claw. When touched, 
it rolls itself up into a ball, like the singular quadrupeds called Arma- 
dillos. 

Millepedes are prepared by exposing them to the vapour of hot alcohol, 
which kills them. In this state they are alvvays contracted into the 
globular form, and are thus distinguished from wood-lice, which have 
sometimes been confounded with them. 

They were formerly administered in medicine, and considered to be 
expectorant, aperient, and diuretic. 

Oniscus asellus. (Gmel.) Oniscus murarius. (Fabr.) Cloporte 
ordinaire. (Geoff.) The Wood-louse, Soiv-louse, Church-louse, 
Pig's-louse, or Carpenter. 

The French name, Cloporte, applied to this and the preceding 
species, is abbreviated from Clous-a-porte. The wood-louse is met 
with throughout Europe, in rotten wood and old walls. It is somewhat 
larger than the millepede, being about three-fourths of an inch in 
length. The body is oval, with crustaceous imbricate segments, rough 
above, and of a livid brown, or dirty ash-colour ; the sides are 
yellowish, and the belly nearly white. The body is not capable of 
contracting into a ball. 



CLASS IIL ARACHNIDA. (Class XIII. of General Division.) 

The Arachnida, comprising the third class of articulated animals, 
provided with moveable feet, are, as well as the Crustacea, deprived of 
wings, are not subject to changes of form, or do not experience any 
metamorphosis, simply casting their skins. They differ from the 
Crustacea, as well as from insects, in several particulars. Like the latter, 
the surface of their body presents apertures called stigmata, for the 
introduction of air. Respiration is effected either by air-branchiae, or 
by radiated tracheae. Most of the Arachnida feed on insects, which 
they either seize alive, or to which they adhere, abstracting their fluids 
by suction. Others are parasitical, and live on verteb rated animals. 
Some are found in flour, cheese, and in various vegetables. The 
Arachnida are divided into two orders: 1. Pulmonaria. 2. Trachearia, 
The former have pulmonary sacs, a head with distinct vessels, and six 
or eight ocelli. The Tracheariae respire by tracheal, and have no 
organs of circulation, or if they have, the circulation is not complete. 

AcARUS scABiEi. Savcoptis hominis, (Raspail.) The Itch Acarus. 
This little animal is thought by some to be the cause of the disease 

M 2 



164 ANIMALS. — arachnida. 

called itch. It is found in the neighbourhood of the pustules on persons 
affected with this disease. 

Aranea domestica. (Linn.) The common House Spider. 

Hah. Almost everywliere, in corners of houses, &c. 

Food. Flies, wasps, &c. 

Use. Pliny used the cobwebs of the house spider in the cure of 
epiphora. Theophrastus mentions it as a useful application for stopping 
hsemorrhaares. 

Aranea tarentula. (Linn.) Lycosa Tareatula. (Latr.) The 
common Tareniiila. 

The bite of tliis spider has been described by travellers as being 
generally fatal, and curable only through the influence of music. It 
is a native of the south of Europe, and is generally found during 
winter in a deep hole formed in the declivity of small hillocks, but in 
the smnmer it keeps in the air and spins its web. It is one of the 
largest of the European spiders ; the upper part of the body is of a 
greyish-brown colour ; the margin of the thorax is grey, with a radiated 
dorsal line of the same colour ; tlie anterior part of the dorsum of tlie 
abdomen is marked with triangular spots ; the belly is of a fine deep 
saffron colour, with a transverse black band. 

The name Tarentula is derived from Tarentum, (now Taranto,) in 
the kingdom of Naples, near which place they were supposed to be 
found in the greatest abundance. 

Scorpio afer. (Linn.) TJie Indian Scorpion, 

Hah. India, Persia, and some parts of Africa. 

This is the largest and most formidable of the scorpion tribe, 
measuring eight or ten inches in length. It is much dreaded on 
account of the poisonous effects of its sting. 

Scorpio americanus. (Linn.) The American Scorpion. 
Hah. South America, and Sierra Leone, in Africa. 

Scorpio australis. (Linn.) The African Scorpion. 
An inhabitant of Africa; the body is brown ; the legs reddish; the 
hands long, smooth, rufous, and furnished with filiform claws. 

Scorpio europ^sius. (Latr.) The European Scorpion. 

This species is met with in the south of Europe, especially in many 
parts of Italy. Much pain and inflammation are caused by its sting, 
but it is not considered dangerous. 

Scorpio maurus. (Linn.) The Barhary Scorpion. 
An inhabitant of Barbary. 

Scorpio occitanus. (Amor.) The Yelloiv Scorpion. 

This is the animal with whose poison Redi and Maupertuis made 
their experiments. It is very common in Spain, under stones, in 
Avarm, sandy mountainous situations. It is rather a small species, of 
a pale-yellowish colour. The body is oblong, ovate, about an iiich 
and a half in length, and divided into six or seven segments. The 
legs are eight in number, slightly hairy underneath, and terminated by 
two small curved claws. 



ANIMALS. — iNSECTA. 165 

Scorpions feed on worms, spiders, small insects, and even one 
another. All the species are natives of warmer climates than ours. 
They run quickly, bending their tails in the form of an arch over their 
back. They are ovo-viviparous, the body of a pregnant female ex- 
hibiting, wdien dissected, between forty and fifty young. 

The poison of scorpions, though much more active, is said to resemble 
that of bees and wasps in many of its chemical characters. 



CLASS IV. INSECTA, INSECTS. (Class XIV. of General 

Division.) 

Insects form the most numerous class of all the animal kingdom. 
The bodies of this class of animals (with the exception of the Myria- 
podcL) have been divided by naturalists into three parts : the head, 
which bears the antennae, the eyes, and the mouth : the thorax or 
corslet, which bears the feet and the wings, when there are any ; and 
the abdomen, which is suspended behind the thorax, and contpans 
the principal viscera. Those insects which have wings do not receive 
them till they are of a certain age, and frequently pass through two 
forms, more or less different, before they assume that of the winged 
insect. In all their states of existence they respire by means of 
tracheae, that is to say, by elastic vessels, which receive the air through 
stigmata, or external apertures in the sides of the body, and dis- 
tribute it, by means of numberless ramifications, to all parts of the 
body. There is but a vestige of a heart perceptible, and this 
consists of a vessel which lies along the back, and which exhibits 
alternate contractions, but from which no branches can be discovered 
to go off ; so that we must conclude that the nutrition of the parts is 
carried on by imbibition. It is probably this sort of nutrition which 
induced the necessity of that kind of respiration peculiar to insects, 
because the nutritious fluid which was not contained in vessels, not 
being capable of being directed towards pulmonary organs so cir- 
cumscribed as to receive the air, the air must be diffused throughout 
the entire body, in order to act on this fluid. It is for this reason 
that insects have no excretory glands, but only long spongy vessels, 
which appear to absorb through their great extent of surface, from 
the mass of the nutritious fluid, the peculiar juices which they are 
to produce. 

The class of insects has been divided into twelve orders :— 

The three first are composed of apterous insects, (a priv., and tttecov, 
wing,) undergoing no essential change of form or habits, but merely 
subject to simple changes of tegument, or to a kind of metamorphosis, 
which increases the number of legs, and that of tlie annuli of the 
body. The organ of sight in these animals is usually a mere assem- 
blao'e, more or less considerable, of ocelli resembling granules. 

The first order, the Myeiapoda, (jdvpioi, ten thousand, and ttovq, 
a foot,) has more than six feet — twenty-four and upwards — arrano-ed 
along the whole length of the body, on a suite of annuii, each of which 



166 ANIMALS.— iNSECTA. 

bears one or two pairs, and of which the first, and in several in-^ 
stances, even the second, seem to form a part of the mouth. They 
are apterous. In the second, or the Thysanoura, {Qvaavot, fringe, 
and ovpa, a tail,) there are six legs, and the abdomen is furnished on 
its sides with moveable parts, in the form of false feet, or terminated 
by appendages fitted for leaping. In the third, or the Parasita, 
{jrapa, and airoj', food, or corn,) we find six legs, no wings, and no 
other organs of sight than ocelli ; the mouth, in a great measure, is in- 
ternal, and consists of a snout, containing a retractile sucker, or in a 
slit between two lips, with two hooked mandibles. In the fourth, or the 
SuCTORiA, (siigo, to suck,) there are six legs, but no Avings ; the mouth 
is composed of a sucker enclosed in a cylindrical sheath, formed of two- 
articulated portions. In ihejifth, or the Coleoptera, (koKeoq, sheath^ 
and TTTspov, a wing,) there are six legs, and four wings, the two 
superior of which have the form of cases, and mandibles and maxilla 
for mastication ; the inferior wings are simply folded cross-wise, and 
the cases, always horizontal, are crustaceous. They experience a com- 
plete metamorphosis. In the sixth, or the Orthoptera, (^ooOoq, straight, 
and -Krepor, wing,) there are six legs, four wings, the two superior in 
the form of cases, and mandibles and jaws for mastication, covered at 
the extremity by a galea; the inferior wings are folded in two 
directions, or simply in their length, and the inner margins of the 
cases, usually coriaceous, are crossed. They only experience a semi- 
metamorphosis. In the seventh, or the Hemiptera, {-njxt, half, and 
irrepoy, a wing,) there are six legs, and four wings, the two superior 
in the form of crustaceous cases, with membraneous extremities, or 
similar to the inferior, but larger and firmer, the mandibles and jaws 
are replaced by setae forming a sucker, enclosed in a sheath, composed 
of one articulated, cylindrical, or conical piece, in the form of a 
rostrum. In the eighth, or the Neuroptera, (^vevpov, nerve, or view^ 
and TT-epor, a wing,) there are six legs, four membraneous and naked 
M'ings, and mandibles and jaws for mastication ; the wings are firmly 
reticulated, and the inferior are usually as large as the superior, or 
more extended in one of their diameters. In the ninth, or Hymen- 
optera, there are six feet, and four membraneous and naked wings, and 
mandibles and jaws for mastication ; the inferior Mings are smaller 
than the others, and the abdomen of the female is almost always ter- 
minated by a terebra , or sting. In the terith, or Lepidoptera, (\g7rtr, 
scale, and Trrepov,) there are six legs, four membraneous wings, covered 
Avith small coloured scales resembling dust ; a horny production in the 
form of an epaulette, and directed backwards, is inserted before each 
upper wing, and the jaws are replaced by two united tubular fila- 
ments, forming a kind of spirally-convoluted tongue. In the eleventh, 
or the RniPiPTERA, {pnriQ, a fan, &c.,) there are six legs, two mem- 
braneous wings, folded like a fan, and two crustaceous moveable 
bodies, resembling little elytra, situated at the anterior extremity of 
the thorax ; the organs of manducation are simple, setareous jaws, with 
two palpi. In the twelfth, or the Diptera, (cic, two, and Trrspov,) 
there are six legs, two membraneous extended wings, accompanied in 
most of them by two moveable bodies, or halteres, placed behind 



ANIMALS.— iNSECTA. 167 

them ; the organs of manducation are a sucker, composed of a variable 
number of setae, enclosed in an articulated sheath, most frequently in 
the form of a proboscis, terminated by two lips. 

Order 1. MYRIAPODA. 

ScoLOPENDRA ALTERNANS. (Leach.) Alternate Centipede. 

Description. Segments transverse, alternately longer and shorter. 
Hinder legs, Avith the first joint rounded, and internally spinulose. 

Hab. Unknown. 

ScoLOPENDRA GiGAS. (Lcach.) Gigantic Scolopendra. 

Description. Body, with the segments nearly equal. Length, eleven 
inches. 

Hah. Unknown. 

ScoLOPENDRA MORSiTANS. (Linn.) Tlie Venomous, or Biting 
Centipede. 

Descriptio7i. Body, with the segments elongate, or sub-elongate, irre- 
gular. Colour, yellowish-brown ; feet, forty-two, with the first joint 
spinulose on the internal side. Usual length, nine or ten inches, but 
sometimes longer. 

Hab. Asia, Africa, and America. 

The centipedes are animals of a very formidable appearance, and in 
warm climates, where alone they are found, they are viewed with fear 
and disgust. They are armed with strong horny jaws, furnished, like 
the sting of a scorpion, with a small orifice, visible under a common 
lens, from which a poisonous fluid issues, capable of producing violent 
local inflammation, fever, and, it is said, even death. De Geer, 
Catesby, and other authors, however, assert that the bite of the scolo- 
pendra, although more painful than that of the sco}pio?i, seldom proves 
fatal to man and the larger animals. 

Order 3. PARASITA. 

Pediculus humanus capitis. (De Geer.) The Human-head 

Louse. 

Description. An oval, lobed, cinerous body, marked with an inter- 
rupted band on either side. It deposits single nits or eggs in the hair 
of the head, and does not spontaneously quit the scalp or its natural 
covering. 

Pediculus humanis corporis. (De Geer.) The Human-body 
Louse. 

Description. It is white and nearly immaculate ; it seldom appears 
on the head, but resides on the trunk of the body and on the garments. 
The nits are conglomerate, and usually deposited on the folds of linen 
and other articles of dress. 

Pediculus pubis. (Linn.) The Crab Louse. 

This parasite inhabits the eyebrows, pubes, &c., of men and women. 
It is distinguished by the cheliform structure of its legs, whence its 
name crab-louse. It frequently perforates the skin, and completely 
buries itself, so as to be with difficulty dislodged. In common with 



168 ANIMALS.— iNSECTA. 

the rest of the family, it is furnished witli a mouth consisting: of a 
tubulose very short haustellum, but it lias no mandibles, properly so 
called. 

Order 4. SUCTORIA. 

PuLEX IRRITAXS. (Linn.) TJie Commoii Flea. 

This animal is too well known to require description. It lives on 
the blood of man and other animals, such as the dog, the cat, &c., on 
whose body it is frequent] 5^ found. 

PuLEX PENETRANS. (Linn.) Tlie Chcgoe. 

This is one of the most troublesome and noxious insects of the lower 
reg-ions of South America and the West India Islands. It is furnished 
with a rostrum as long as the body. It often introduces itself into the 
skin, usually under the nails of the toes, where it deposits its egg's, and 
produces malignant and sometimes fatal ulcers. Waterton, in his 
" Wanderings in South America," says, in alluding to this insect, '' It 
looks exactly like a small flea, and a stranger would take it for one." 

Order 5. COLEOPTERA. 

Cantharis albidus. (Latr.) Lytta albida. (Say.) 
Description. Body black, entirely covered with dense prostrate 
greenish or yellowish-white hairs ; head with a longitudinal impressed 
line ; antennse subglabrous, first and second joints rufous, the latter 
nearly equal in length to the first ; length nearly one inch. An in- 
habitant of the United States of America. 

Cantharis atomaria. Employed in the Brazils. 

Cantharis ATRATA. (Latr.) {^Lytta atrata. (Fabr.) Black ca7i- 
iharis. 

Description. Entirely black, immaculate; length of male four lines ; 
of female, five lines or more. 

Hah. The United States of America and Barbary. 

Cantharis cinerea. (Latr.) Lytta cinerea. (Fabr.) Ash- 
coloured CantJiaris. 

Description. Body black, covered with a cinerous down ; length six 
lines. 

Habitat. United States of America. It feeds on the leaves of the 
potato, English bean, wild indigo, and several other plants. It appears 
in July and August. Said to be equal, if not superior, as a vesicating 
agent, to any of the species of cantharis. 

Cantharis gigas. Lytta ccerulea. (PfafF.) A native of Guinea 
and the East Indies. 

Cantharis marginat.i. (Latr.) Lytta marginata. (Fabr.) 
Marginated CantJtaris. 

Description. Head, thorax, and abdomen black, but nearly covered 
with an ash-coloured down ; elytra black, with margins and suture 
ash-coloured ; upper part of the abdomen, under the wings, marked 
with two lonjjitudinal lines of a bright clav colour ; length about six 
lines. 



ANIMALS. — iNSECTA. 169 

Hah. Fabricius mentions this species as a native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. It is also found in the United States of America, on the leaves 
and flowers of different species of Clematis. 

Cantharis nuttallii. (Latr.) Lytta nuttallii. (Say.) 
Description. Body glabrous ; head deep greenish, witn a rufous spot 

on the front : antennge robust, surpassing the base of the thorax, black ; 

thorax golden green ; feet black ; thighs blue or purplish. Length 

nine-tenths of an inch. 

Hah, The State of IMissouri, North America, and seems to be 

limited to the western region of the State. 

Cantharis ruficeps. A native of Sumatra and Java, and is said 
to possess extraordinary blistering properties. 

Cantharis syriaca. Lytta segetum. Employed in Arabia, ac- 
cording to Forskal. (Pereira.) 

Cantharis violacea. Lytta gigas mas. (Buchner.) A native 
of the East Indies. 

Cantharis vittata. (Latr.) Lytta vittata. (Fabr.) Tlie 
Striped Cantharis, or Potato-Jiy. 

Description. Head light red, with vertical spots ; antennae black ; 
thorax black, with three yellow lines ; elytra black, with a central 
longitudinal fillet, and the whole margin yellow ; abdomen and legs 
black, covered with a cinerous down. Length six lines. 

Hah. The United States of America, principally the middle and 
southern States. 

This species feeds principally on the wild potato plant, living in the 
soil about the roots of the plant, and ascending in the morning and 
afternoon, but avoiding the heat of the sun at noon. All the parts of 
this fly possess a vesicating property, and it is even said to be more 
certain in its efiects than the common Spanish fl\^ 

Cantharis vesicatoria. (Latr.) Meloe vesicatorius. (Linn.) 
Lytta vesicatoria. (Fabricius.) Dlistering Beetle, or Spanish Fly. 

Gen. char. Antennce elongate, simple, filiform. Maxillary palpi 
with terminal joint somewhat ovate. Head large, heart-shaped. 
Thorax small, rather quadrate, narrower than the elytra, which are as 
long as the abdomen. Wings two, ample. (Stephens.) 

Sp. char. Bright glossy brass-green or bluish, glabrous ; beneath 
more glossy, with a few hairs. Breast densely pubescent. Head and 
thorax with a longitudinal channel. Elytra with two slightly-raised 
lines. Tarsi violaceous. Antennae black. (Stephens.) 

Form elono-ated. Lensfth six to eleven lines. Breadth one to two 
Ihies. Colour brass or copper green. Odour nauseous. Body covered 
with whitisli-grey hairs, most numerous on the thorax. Head large, 
subcordate. Eyes lateral, dark brown. Thorax not larger than the 
head, narrowed at the base. Elytra from four to six lines long, and 
from three-fourths to one and a-half lines broad. Legs stout, from 
four to six lines long. Abdomen soft, broadest in the female. 

Hah. Europe, originally ; perhaps, the southern parts, as Italy and 
Spain ; no'A', however, found in France, Germany, Hungary, Russia, 



170 ANIMALS.— iNSECTA. 

Siberia, and England. They are found on species of oleacece, and of 
caprifoliacecE . 

Food. Tiie ash, rose, wild olive, corn, &c. 

Cantharides should be kept in well-stopped bottles ; by the addition 
of a few drops of strong- acetic acid, they may be preserved from the 
attack of mites {Acarus domesticus) . They are imported from St. 
Petersburg, and also from Messina, chiefly towards the close of the 
year. T!ie cantharides from St. Petersburg are the largest and most 
esteemed. 

Meloe isiajalis. (Linn). The True Mayivorm. 

Description. Entirely black, glossy. The abdominal rings on the 
postericn* brim generally present a rust-yellow margin. 

Hah. Portugal, Spain, and the south of France. 
Use. Its medicinal application is not satisfactorily established. (This 
must not be confounded with the M. majalis of Fabricius.) 

Meloe variegatus. (Donav. Brit. Insect.) 

Description. Green, with a purple-red and a golden lustre, sheath- 
wings rugose. 

Hah. Germany, England, France, and Italy. 

Meloe proscarab^us. (Linn.) The Oil-heetle. 

Description. Bluish-black, with a violet and reddish-violet shade. 
Thorax somewhat elongated and quadrangular, considerably dotted. 
Sheath-wings leather-like and wrinkled. 

Hab. Portugal, Spain, France, Germany, and as far as Sweden, 
Siberia, &c. 

Uses, &c. This has been used for a considerable time in several 
countries as a medicine, as in several forms of gout, renal diseases, 
dropsy, also in syphilis, gonorrhoea, intermittent fever, and jaundice. 
Its action is that of an acrid diuretic, somewhat similar to that of can- 
tharides. 

Mylabris cichorii. (Fabr.) The Banded Mylabris, Meloe 
Cichorii. (Linn.) 

Description. About one inch and four lines in length. The sheath- 
wings black, each presenting anteriorly two almost quadrate, brownish- 
yellow spots ; behind these, two brownish-yellow bands, each of which 
equals about one-sixth of the length of the sheath-wings. 

Hab. The East Indies and China. 

Use, &c. This insect, from its containing cantharidin, is used in the 
East for the same purpose for which we employ the Spanish fly. Dios- 
corides must have alluded to this animal, when he says, " The most 
efficacious cantharides are those of many colours, which have yellow 
transverse bands, with the body elongated, bulky, and fat ; those of a 
single colour have no virtue." It is found on the flowers of the suc- 
cory plant. 

Order 7. HEMIPTEPvA. 

Cicada orni. (Linn.) Tettigonia ami. (Fabr.) Manna-pro- 
ducing Cicade. 



ANIMALS, — iNSECTA. ' 171 

Hab. Italy, and especi^illy Calabria. 

This insect is found on the manna ash, by puncturing the leaves of 
which it causes the exudation of a sort of manna, called Manna foliata, 
or Manna defronde. The insects, and also their larvae, were formerly 
used by the Eastern nations as articles of food, for exciting the appetite, 
and also as a remedy for colic and affections of the urinary organs. 

CiMEX LECTULARius. (Linn.) The Bed-bug. 

Hab.^ &c. It is general! j'' believed that the bug was first introduced 
to this country in the fir timber which was brought over for the pur- 
pose of rebuilding this metropolis after the great hre of 1666. 

Food. Blood more particularly ; they will also feed on dried paste, 
size, deal, beech, osier. It is said that they will not touch oak, walnut^ 
cedar, or mahogany, but this is not true. 

COCCINELLA BIPUNCTATA. (Linn.) 

Description. Circumference of the body rather oval than round. The 
entire lateral edge of the corslet white. Sheath-wings mostly redy 
with two black points ; rarely black, with four or six red spots. 1^ — 2^ 
lines in length. 

Use. Employed for the yellow fluid in which it abounds. 

CocciNELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA. (Linn.) The Common Ladybird. 
Description. Sheath-wings posteriorly entirely blunt, generally pre- 
sentinoc seven dots. 3 — Z\ lines in length. Verv finely dotted. 
Hab. All over Europe. 
Use. The same as that of cochineal in general. 

Coccus CACTI. (Linn.) Cochineal. 

The cochineal insect is a native of Mexico ; it feeds on various 
species of Cactus and the allied genera, especially the Opuntia coche- 
nillifera. The insects are collected at different seasons. The product 
of the first collection, consisting of impregnated females, is best. They 
are killed by immersion in boiling water. They are imported into this 
country from Vera Cruz and Honduras. In this state the insect forms 
a roundish plano-convex body, rough and somewhat ringed on the back, 
weighing about one-tenth of a grain, and scarcely two lines in length. 
There are two sorts in commerce, the silver and the black cochineal. 
The silver is the most valued ; it has a greyish-red colour, and the 
furrows of the rings are filled with a white bloom, which consists of a 
fine down. 

Use. Used in medicine only as a colouring matter for giving a pleas- 
ing tint to other preparations. It is said to possess sedative or anti- 
spasmodic properties, and hence it has been sometimes employed in 
hooping-cough. 

Coccus iLicis. (Linn.) Kermes ilicis. (Dumeril.) The Kermes 
insect. 

This insect lives upon the leaves of the Quercus ilex. The dried 
bodies of the female insects of this species constitute the Kermes 
grains. 

Hab. The south of Europe ; the female has no wings, is of the size 
of a small pea, of a brownish- red colour, and is covered with a whitish 



172 ANIMALS. — insecta. 

dust. The kermes have been employed from time immemorial in India 
to dye silk. 

Coccus POLONicus. (Linn.) Cochineal of Poland. 

This is found upon the roots of the Scleranthiis perennis and the 
Scleranthus annuus. in the sandy soils of Poland. It has been em- 
ployed for the same purposes as the preceding. In Germany, during 
the 9th, 12th, 13tli, and 14th centuries, the rural serfs were bound to 
deliver annually to the convents a certain quantity of kermes, the Coccus 
polonicus^ which, from being- collected on St. John's day with certain 
religious ceremonies, was called Johannisbluh, 

Coccus LACCA. (Kerr.) Coccus Ficus. (Fabr.) TJie Lac- 
insect. 

Description. Head and body uniformly continued ; both together oval, 
compressed, consisting of twelve cross-rings. Abdomen flat. An- 
tennae filiform, obtuse, about one-half of the body giving oft' two or 
three diverging hairs. Tail, a small white point, sending off" the 
horizontal hairs about the length of the body. Feet, half the length 
of the insect. About the size of a louse. 

Hab. The East Indies. According to Kerr, the insect is to be 
found on both sides of the Ganges. 

Food, &c. The animal lives on various trees, as the Ficus religiosa 
(Linn.) ; the Ficus ind'ica (Linn.) ; the Ramnus jujiiba ; the Croton 
lacciferum ; and the Butca frondosa, which grow in Siam, Assam. 
Pegu, Bengal, and Malabar. 

The male is about twice the size of the female, and has four wings ; 
there is one to 5000 females. In November or December the young 
brood escapes from tlie eggs, lying beneath the dead body of the 
mother ; they crawl about and fasten themselves to the bark of the 
shrubs. About this time the branches often swarm to such a desfree 
with this insect, that they seem covered v/ith a red dust. These insects 
produce small nipple-like incrustations on the twigs, their bodies 
being apparently glued by means of a transparent liquor, which goes 
on increasing to the end of March, so as to form a cellular texture. 
At this time the animal resembles a small oval bag, without life, of 
the size of cochineal. At first a beautiful red liquor only is perceived, 
afterwards eggs appear ; and in October or November, when the red 
liquor gets exhausted, twenty or thirty young ones bore a hole through 
the back of their mother and come forth. The empty cells remain on 
the branches. The twigs, encrusted with the radiated cellular sub- 
stance, constitute stick-lac of commerce. When the resinous concre- 
tion is taken off the twigs, coarsely pounded and triturated with water 
in a mortar, the greater part of the colouring matter is dissolved, and 
the remaining granular matter, dried in the sun, constitutes seed-lac. 
Lac-dye is the vvatery infusion of the ground stick-lac, evaporated to 
dryness, and formed into cakes. 

Coccus SINENSIS. (Wcstwood.) TJie Chinese lohite-wax insect. 

Hab. China. 

Use. Produces the Insect white-wax of China., importations of 
which took place in 1846 and 1847. This wax, which was imported 



ANIMALS.— iNSECTA. 173 

in cakes about 13 inches in diameter, and 3? inches in thickness, is a 
beautifully- white crystalline substance, without smell or taste. It has 
been used for making- candles. The production of Chinese white-wax 
has been erroneously ascribed to Cicada limbata. 

Family 9. IIymenoptera. 

Apis indica. (Fabr.) The Indian Bee. 

Description. Black, with a grey cinerous down, the first two seg- 
ments of the abdomen, and the base of the third, reddish-brown. 
Hah. Bengal, where, as well as at Pondicherry, it is cultivated. 

Apis ligustica. (Spin.) 

This species is very similar in appearance to our common hive-bee. 
It is a native of Italy and the islands of the Archipelago, where it is 
also cultivated. 

Apis mellifica. (Linn.) The Honey Hee^ or Hive Bee. 

This species is common, in the wild state, in the forests of Kussia, 
and in different parts of Asia, occupying cavities in trees and rocks. 
It is very rarely found wild in this country, and has therefore probably 
been domesticated at a very remote period, or introduced from abroad. 
It is very common in the woods of America, where it is supposed to 
have been carried in the sixteenth or seventeenth century. 

The societies of bees include three kinds of individuals : — the 
neuters, or workers, forming the greater portion of tiie hive ; the 
males, or drones, which are much less rmmerous ; and the females, of 
which there is generally but one in each hive, known by the name of 
the Queen Bee. The neuters and the females are armed with a 
sting. 

Apis unicolor. (Latr.) Inhabits the Isle of France and Mada- 
gascar. It is almost black, sinning ; the abdomen without spots or 
coloured bands. The honey obtained from this species is much 
esteemed. 

Cynifs. (Linn.) 

Description. They appear, as it were, humped, having the head small, 
and thorax thick and raised. The abdomen is compressed, cavinated 
at its under part, and truncated obliquely at its extremity. 

Cynips brandtii. (Eatzeburg.) 

Ess. char. In the female the antennae consists of only twelve 
joints, the third joint scarcely longer than the others, the last the 
longest. Posterior part of the body entirely black. Male not to be 
distinguished from that of the Cynips JKosce, (which see). 

Cynips gall/e TiNCxoRiiE. 

Diplolepis gallce tinctorice. (Oliver.) Cynips a la galle a teinture, 
(Latr.) Cynips quercus infectorim. (Nees ab. Es.) 

Ess. char. 2^ — 3 lines in length, and when the wings are expanded 
7 — S lines in breadth ; a dirty yellowish-brown, only above, at the 
base of the back part of the body a shining blackish-brown. Areola 
of the upper wins^s very large and closed. Antennee short, and of a 
brownish-yellow colour. 



174 ANIMALS. — insecta. 

Hah. Asia Minor, Turkey in Europe, &c. 

Food. These insects live on the oak, chiefly the Quercus infectoria. 

Cynips ROSiE. (Linn.) Le Cymps duhedeguar. (Latr.) Diplolepis 
hediguaris. (GeofFr.) 

Ess. char. In the female the antennae consist of fourteen joints ; the 
third joint longer than the others. The hind-body reddish-yellow, 
black at the summit. Male entirely black, only from the third to the 
thirteenth joint of the antennae, as also the haunches and the last tarsal 
joint brown. 

Hah. The entire of Europe ; very common throughout Germany. 
They live only on roses, and are found on the Mesa caniiia, the Rosa 
villosa, and the Hosa sepium. 

Formica rufa. (Linn.) TJie Ant, Emmet, Pismire. 

Hah. Almost everywhere. 

Food. Fruits, seeds, serpents, &c. 

The ant, like the bee, is a social animal, and, as in the hive, three 
sexes are distinguished in an ant-nest — males, females, and mules. 
The latter alone labour, and take charge of the ova and young larvae ; 
Ihey are destitute of wings. The males and females have wings, and 
do nothing but enjoy themselves ; they copulate in the air, the males 
perish soon after, and the females deposit their ova in the ant-nest; 
but they do not live mucli longer than the males, for they perish at 
the approach of winter. Tlie red ant contains a free acid in abundance. 
It also contains a resinous oil, acrid and odorous, which may be 
obtained, mixed with the acid, by means of alcohol ; the resulting 
tincture is Hoffman'' s Water of Magnanimity., and iias been supposed 
to possess aphrodisiac properties. The free acid of ants, or formic 
acid, has been taken by some chemists for acetic acid ; but its particular 
and distinct nature was first ascertained by Arvidson and Oehrn. M. 
Doebereiner has shown that this acid is formed by a great number of 
reactions on organic principles, and more particularly by treating 
citric, or tartaric acid, sugar, starch, &c., with peroxide of manganese 
and sulphuric acid. This acid is hydrated, liquid, volatile, not crystalliz- 
able ; the property which distinguishes it most readily from acetic 
acid is that of reducing, by the help of ebullition, the oxides and salts 
of mercury and silver. Combined with bases, and anhydrous, its 
composition is C"^, H"^, O^. 

Vespa crabo. (Linn), The Hornet. 

This is the most formidable species of the genus met with in this 
country. It is much larger than the wasp, and its colours not so 
bright. The hornet's nest is usually builr, in hollow trees, or dry 
stonv banks ; it is composed of the bark of the ash-tree, detached in 
filaments, and ground by the mandibles of the insect into a paste, 
which hardens as the work goes on. 

The sting of tlie hornet causes much pain and inflammation. 

Vespa vulgaris, (Linn. ) The Wasp. 

The wasp's nest is made in much the same way as the hornet's nest. 
Both wasps and hornets frequently attack bee-hives, destroying the 
bees, and taking possession of, and consuming the honey. 



ANIMALS.— ANIMALIA RADIATA. 175 

Order 10. LEPIDOPTERA. 

BoMBYX MORI. (Linn.) TJie Silkworm Bombyx. 

Description. The moth is whitish, with two or three obscure 
transverse rays, and a spot crossing the upper wings. Its caterpillar 
is the silkworm. 

It feeds on mulberry-leaves, and spins an oval cocoon of a serrated 
tissue of very fine silk, generally of a bright-yellow colour, but some- 
times white. It will also feed on the lettuce and other plants ; but it 
then yields silk of inferior quality. It was originally a native of the 
southern provinces of China. 

Hepialus virescens. 

This moth is a native of New Zealand, and is found only at the 
root of the rata tree, (^Metrosiderus rohusta^') a myrtaceous plant. The 
fungus, called Sphceria Hobertsii, is found growing on the larva of this 
insect. 



ANIMALIA RADIATA. (Cuv.) RADIATED ANIMALS. 

The Radiated Animals, or Zoophytes, as they are called, include 
a number of beings whose organization, always more simple than that 
of the three preceding divisions, also presents a greater variety of 
degrees than is observed in either of them, and seems to agree but in 
one point, viz., their parts are arranged around an axis, and on one or 
several radii, or on one or several lines, extending from one pole to the 
other. Even the entozoa, or intestinal worms, have at least two 
tendinous lines, or two nervous threads proceeding from a collar round 
the mouth, and several of them have four suckers situated around a 
proboscifurm elevation. In a word, notwithstanding some irregularities, 
and some few exceptions — those of the Planaria, and most of the 
Infusoria — traces of the radiating form are always to be found, which 
are strongly marked in the greater number, and particularly in Asterias, 
Echinus, the Acalepha, and the Polypi. 

Thus Cuvier has included in this division all those animals which 
are not comprehended in the three preceding ; but, in doing so, he has 
departed from the principle upon which the classification of his three 
first divisions is founded. In all the animals comprising the verte- 
brata, mollusca, and articulata, the arrangement of the nervous system 
forms the essential distinguishing character ; whilst in those com- 
prising the radiata, the structure of the nervous system has been 
allowed to give place in importance to other cliaracters, so that this 
division embraces creatures of very dissimilar and incongruous forma- 
tions. 

The success of Cuvier in selecting the nervous system as the great 
point of distinction in establishing the higher divisions of the animal 



176 ANIMALS.— INTESTINALIA. 

kinp:flom, has led succeeding naturalists to attempt a further sub- 
division of the radiata in accordance with the same principle. From a 
carerlil examination of the creatures included in this division, it is 
found, that whilst in some of them nervous filaments are distinctly 
visible, there are, on the other hand, others in which no trace of dis- 
tinct nervous matter can be discerned. The former of these liave 
been classed by themselves, and designated by Mr. Owen, the Nema- 
TONEUiiA ; {ry'ifia, a thread, and vsvpov, a nerve ;) and the latter have 
been formed into a distinct group, which has been denominated by Mr. 
M'Leay the Acrita (a, priv., and Kpu'w, to discern.) 

The Nematoneura (Owen) includes, 1. Bryozoa, or Polyps ivith 
cUiafpd arms. 2. Rotifera. 3. Epizoa. 4. Cavitary entozoa, or 
Ccelelnmitha. 5. Ecliinodermala. 

The Acrita, (M'Leay,) Cryptoneura, (Rudolphi,) includes, L 
Sponges. 2. Polyps. 3. Polygastric animalcules. 4. Acalephcc. 
5. Parenchymatoits entozoa. 

As there are but few animals in this division requiring notice, we 
shall adhere to Cuvier's arrangement of them. 



CLASS I. ECIIINODERMATA. {ex'voQ, sea-urchin, and hpiia, 
skin.) (Class XV. of General Division.) 

These derive their name from the Echinus, or sea-urchin, whose 
skin is usually covered with spines or tliorns. They possess a distinct 
intestine floating in a large cavity, and accompanied by several other 
organs for generation, respiration, and a partial circulation. 



CLASS IL INTESTINALIA. (Cuv.) ENTOZOA. (Eudolphi.) 
{evTOQ, intns, within, and 400J', animal.) Intestinal ivorms. 
(Class XVI. of General Division.) 

The greater number of these inhabit the interior of other animals, 
and there only can propagate. There is scarcely an animal that is not 
the domicile of several kinds; and those which are observed in one 
species, are rarely found in others. They not only inhabit the ali- 
mentary canal, and the ducts that empty into it, such as the hepatic 
vessels, but even the cellular tissue, and tlie parenchyma of the most 
completely-invested viscera, sucii as tiie liver and brain. Tiiey have 
neither vessels, even for a partial circulation, nor respiratory organs; 
they must, therefore, receive tlie influence of oxygen througli the 
medium of the animal they inhabit. Their body is generally elon- 
gated or depressed, and their organs are arranged longitudinally. 

AscARis LUMBRicoiBES. (Gmel.) The Long Round Worm. 

This worm is about the thickness of a goose-quill, and from twelve 
to fifteen inches long. It is generally of a brownish-red colour, but 
varies according to the aliments with which it is filled. The head is 



ANIMALS. — iNTEsriNALiA. 177 

disting'uislied from the rest of the body by a circular depression, and 
it is furnished with three tubercles or valves found in no other eutozoa. 
These worms usually occur in the small intestines of man. The 
cabbage-tree bark ( Geoffroya inermis) has been recommended for their 
expulsion. 

AscARis VERMicuLAHis. (Gmcl.) Oxyuris vcrmicularis, (Brem- 
ser) The Maii\ or Thread Worm. 

This, which is commonly known as the Ascaris, is a small worm, 
the female being four or five lines in length, and the male only a line 
or a line and a lialf. The body is thread-like, very elastic, and of a 
faint yellow colour. They inhabit the intestines of children, even of 
those newly born, especially the rectum. 

EciiiNOCOCcus HOMiNis. (Rudol.) The Hydatid. 

The Hydatid is a spherical body, consisting of one, and sometimes 
of two membranes, enclosing a fluid, most commonly limpid and 
transparent, but which is sometimes found of a tough, hard, and opaque 
consistence. On the inner coat of the membrane are attached a num- 
ber of small granular bodies, which are called echinococci. Rodolphi 
divides the hydatids into vivenf.es and noji viventes. He denies the 
vitality of the hydatid, properly so called, and supposes that the small 
granular bodies, or echinococci, only, which cover the internal surface 
of the membrane, are endowed with life. Others, however, consider 
the whole vesicle as a distinct animal. Hydatids have been found in 
all the textures and cavities of the human body, except the intestinal 
canal. These are species peculiar to the sheep, the ox, the pig, &c. ; 
their presence in the last gives rise to the condition in pork commonly 
called measly. 

FasciOjLA HUMANA. (Gmel.) The Liver Fluke. 

This worm is three or four lines in length, of an oblong ovate shape, 
obtuse at each extremity, and of a dirty-whitish or brown colour. It 
is formed in the gall-bladder, and according to Dr. Bremser, in the 
liver of man. It is said to be common in sheep, and to cause the dis- 
ease called rot in those animals. 

FiLARiA MEDiNiNsis. (Gmel.) The Guinea-worm. 

It is of the thickness of a voilin-string, tapering a little at the tail, 
which is slightly curved, and several feet in length. Its colour is 
white. It occurs only among the inhabitants of Africa and the 
southern parts of Asia, and is found in the cellular tissue below the 
integuments, exciting intolerable itching, swelling, pain, and ultimately 
suppuration, in the part, accompanied by fever. It is generally 
coiled up circularly, and may be felt upon pressure being made with 
the finger. When the tumour breaks, and the head of the worm 
protrudes, it is cautiously pulled, day after day, until the whole is 
extracted. 

Strongylus gigas. (Rudol.) The Large Strongyle. 

This species varies in length from five inches to three feet, and in 
diameter from two to six lines. The body is slender, cylindrical, 
tapering towards each extremity, and composed of annular rings. 



178 ANIMALS.— ACALEPiiA. 

The female is larger than the male. It is found in the kidneys, and 
has frequently been passed by the urethra. It is said to be met with 
in many of the lower animals as well as in man. 

T^NiA SOLIUM. (Gmel.) The Common Tape-worm. 

This is the species of the tape-worm most common in the inhabit- 
ants of this country. It consists of a series of articulations, form- 
ing" a flattened, riband-like worm, which varies in length from three 
to fifteen or twenty feet. In this species, the articulations are some- 
what irregular, being transverse, oval, rhomboidal, or quadrangular, 
wrinkled transversely, and having marginal pores, sometimes on one 
side, and sometimes on the other. The mouth is situated on the an- 
terior part of the head ; it is a small orifice, and when viewed with a 
microscope, exhibits a projecting margin, surrounding an excavation 
of a striated appearance. On the head there are four orifices, 
which are supposed to be suckers, by which the worm adheres to the 
intestines. This worm is more frequent in adults than in children. 
It occupies the small intestines, especially of females. This species 
was formerly supposed to be solitary, and hence the specific name 
solium ; it is now, however, found to be gregarious, two or three gene- 
rally occurring in the same individual. 

T^NiA VULGARIS. (Gmcl.) The Broad Tape-icorm. 

In this species the articulations are generally broader than long, of 
an oblong square form, and studded with minute papillae. On the 
flattened surface, near the edge of each of these joints, there are one 
or two small round openings or pores, surrounded by the oviducts, 
which are disposed in the form of a star. The tail is generally round 
and simple, but sometimes bifurcated. It infests the small intestines 
of the inliabitants of Poland, Russia, Switzerland, and some parts of 
France, but is rarely found in this country. 

Triciiocepiialus hominis. (Gmel.) Trlchocephalus dispar, 
(Reid). The Long Thread-worm, 

When full grown, this worm is about two inches long, and of a pale 
yellowish colour. The anterior end is capillary, and double the length 
of the posterior. This species was first discovered in 1761, by Rhceder, 
at Gottingen, in the bodies of some French soldiers, who had died of a 
contagious disease. It is found chiefly in the caecum, and is generally 
more numerous in infants than in adults. Rudolphi found more than 
a thousand in one individual. 



CLASS III. ACALEPHA. (aKa\r]((>r), a nettle.) 
(Class XVII. of General Division.) 

These have neither circulatory nor respiratory organs ; their form 
is circular and radiating ; in general the mouth holds the place of the 
anus ; they difier from polypi only in possessing more development in 
the tissue of their organs. 



ANIMALS.— POLYPI. 179 

CLASS IV. POLYPI. (iroXvg, many, and ttovc, foot.) 
(Class XVIII. of General Division.) 

These are small gelatinous animals, whose mouth, surrounded by 
tentacula, leads into a stomach, which is sometimes simple, sometimes 
followed by intestines in the form of vessels ; it is in this class that we 
find those numberless compound animals with a fixed and solid stem, 
which were for a long- time considered to be marine plants. The 
various species of coral, and the sponge, belong to this class. 

Antipathes spiralis. (Lamarck.) Slack Coral. 

This species of coral is branched, and has a cortical covering, which 
is so soft that it entirely decays after death. The dried coral has the 
appearance of a branch of dry wood. It was formerly used in medicine. 

Coralium rubrum. (Lamarck.) Isis nobilis. (Linn.) Red Coral. 

Its general appearance is that of a small shrub, which is found fixed 
by its base to submarine rocks and other bodies, and, it is said, always 
in a pendant or reversed position. It is principally obtained in the 
Indian or Mediterranean seas. The branches seldom exceed three feet 
in height, and about two inches in diameter. In the recent state, the 
stem and branches are covered with a soft cortical substance, or epi- 
dermis, which is the habitation of numerous small, whitish, soft, semi- 
transparent polypi. The coral consists principally of carbonate of lime 
and magnesia, with a small quantity of oxide of iron. 

Corallina officinalis. (Linn., Gmel.) Coralline, or Sea-moss. 

This marine production is found in the Mediterranean and other seas, 
attached to rocks and shells. It consists of several slender articulated 
.stems, subdivided into fine ramifications, and has some resemblance to 
certain mosses, among which, indeed, it was placed by Tournefort. 
When fresh, it has a greenish or reddish colour, but from exposure to 
the air, becomes nearly white. Like coral, it consists principally of 
carbonate of lime. It was formerly used in medicine. 

Although the corallines have been dlassed among the animal creation 
by Cuvier, Lamarck, and others, yet they are said to be proved by 
microscopical examination to possess the cellular structure appertaining 
to vegetable organization, and are, therefore, placed by many naturalists 
amono;' the vesretables. 

Madrepora. (Linn.) Madrepore. 

Some of the species of madrepore have been known under the name 
of White Coral. It occurs sometimes branched, sometimes in rounded 
masses, in slender filaments, or foliaceous ; but it is always furnished 
with a lamellar covering, the divisions of which are joined concentri- 
cally, so as to form star-like points, or sometimes lines of a more or less 
serpentine figure. 

Spongia officinalis- (Linn.") The Officinal Sponge. 

Sponge, in the state in which it is met with in commerce, is a soft, 
light, elastic, and very porous substance, which readily absorbs liquids 
into which it is immersed, and yields them up again on compression. 
It may be considered as the skeleton of an animal, from which the soft 

N 2 



180 ANIMALS. — infusoria. 

gelatinous part representing the flesh has been removed at the time of 
its collection. In the living state it is found attached by its base to 
rocks at the bottom of the sea. It occurs in the Indian, American, and 
Norwegian Seas, and the Mediterranean. The best sponges are brought 
from the Grecian Archipelago, and are called Turkey sponges. An 
inferior kind is brought from the AYest Indies, and is called West India, 
or Bahama sponge. Sponge is extensively used for various domestic 
purposes ; the ashes resulting from its combustion in close vessels have 
also been used in medicine, on account of a small portion of iodine 
Avhich they contain. 



CLASS V. INFUSORIA. (Class XIX. of General Division.) 

The term infusoiiia has been applied to numerous minute animals 
found in Avater. They are also called animalcules. It has been ascer- 
tained by the microscope that a drop of water, though appearing to the 
naked eye perfectly clear, is sometimes swarming with living beings. 
Elirenberg. to whom we are chiefly indebted for our knowledge of these 
animalcules, has described species not larger than from one thousandth 
to one two-thousandth of a line in diameter, and which are separated 
from one another by intervals not greater than their own size. A 
cubic ineh of water may thus contain more than 800,000 millions of 
these beinirs, estimating them only to occupy one-fourth of its space ; 
and a single drop, measuring a line in diameter, placed under the 
microscope, will be seen to hold 500 millions. Linnaeus, not being 
acquainted with the structure of these minute animals sufficiently well 
to enable liim to distribute them according to their relations in his 
several classes, placed them at the end of his last class, Vermes, in a 
genus to which he gave the name of chaos. Miiller first separated 
them as a distinct order, and gave them the name of infusoria., from 
the circumstance that the greater number of animalcules had been dis- 
covered in liquids, in which vegetable or animal matters had been dis- 
solved by infusion. Miiller based his arrangement of the different 
genera not on their varieties of structure, but on the differences of 
their external form. After some time. Dr. Ehrenberg of Berlin 
directed his attention to the subject, and made numerous observations 
on the internal structure of tliese animals by means of feeding them 
with particles of colouring matter, Avhich he diffused in the 'water con- 
taining' them. Pure indigo was the substance he employed. By the 
use of these means, he arrived at very interesting conclusions. He 
demonstrated, by means of a powerful microscope, the existence of 
distinct digestive organs in all the species. No iW&tmct muscular Jibres 
have been detected in the simpler or polygastric forms of infusoria, 
but in the rotiferous species they have. AYith respect to the other 
systems, discoveries equally interesting have been made by Ehrenberg. 
This observer has separated from what he calls the true infusoria 
several families of animalcules formerly included in the same class. 
The principal genera so separated are the Spermatozoa, Cerearia, and 
Vibrio, which are now considered to belong to the class Entozoa. The 



PRESERVATION OF ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 181 

true infusoria have been separated into two distinct divisions: the 
Pohjgastrica^ and the Rotifera, or wheel animalcules. 

Habitat. These animalcules are not only met with in water con- 
taining large quantities of organic matter in solution, but in common 
sea-water, stagnant fresh-water, and well-water exposed for a short 
time to the air. 

Origin. It has been supposed that they are generated spontaneously ; 
but as they never are observed in fluids secluded from the air, we may 
suppose that ova of extreme minuteness are always floating in the air, 
and only require a proper medium to develop themselves. These 
animals live on fine particles of animal and vegetable matter held in 
solution in water, and the larger species devour the smaller ani- 
malcules. 



Various processes are employed for preserving animal substances 
from undergoing decomposition. 

1. Drying in a stove or oven. This is effected by the applicadon 
of a temperature sufficient to cause tlie evaporation of all the mois- 
ture, without burning any of the external parts, or causing the juices 
to run out. 

2. The action of cold is applied in the northern regions for the pre- 
servation of rein-deer tongues, fish, and other animal substances. 

'6. Brine, or a solution of common salt, is an efficient preservative 
agent. Dissolve one part of salt in two and a haif parts, by weight, 
of water, and immerse the meat or other animal substance in this so- 
lution, placing a board on the surface of the liquor, loaded with a lump 
of salt, so as to insure the entire submersion of the animal matter, 
and at the same time to keep up the strength of the brine by the so- 
lution of more salt to compensate for the dilution caused by the animal 
juices. After the animal substance has remained in the brine for 
three or four days, it is to be taken out and dried, by rubbing it with 
bran or pollard, or with dry salt; and it may then be packed in barrels 
with intermediate layers of large-grained salt, if intended for long 
keeping, or it may be hung up in a smoking-room. The addition of 
one ounce of saltpetre to each pound of salt will tend to preserve the 
red colour of the meat, and the further addition of a small quantity 
of brown sugar is said to improve its flavour. 

The following pickle has been recommended for preserving meat, 
to which it is said to give a mild and excellent flavour ; — 

R Brown sugar, 
Bay salt, 

Common salt, of each ibij. 
Saltpetre Ibss. 
Water, cong. ij. Mix. 

4. Pacldng in dry salt is a mode of preservation sometimes re- 
sorted to. For this purpose, salting-tubs are used, having false bottoms 



182 PRESERVATION OF ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 

perforated Mdth holes. A layer of coarse-grained salt is first made^ 
and then alternate layers of meat and salt. After a week or ten days^ 
the meat is taken out, and again repacked with more dry salt. Some- 
times the dry salt is merely rubbed into the meat. 

5. Bucaning meat is a rude kind of smoking practised by hunters 
in the forests. Forked branches of trees are stuck in the ground, and 
by this means a grating of rods, two or three feet higli, is made. The 
flesh, to be preserved, is cut into thick slices, and placed on this grating, 
while a fire is lighted underneath, so that the meat is rendered fit for 
keeping, partly by drying and partly by smoking it. 

6. Jerking meat, or char qui, is a method sometimes resorted to in 
hot climates. It consists in cutting the lean part of meat into thin 
slices, and exposing these to the full action of the sun, turning the 
pieces when necessary until perfectly dried. The dried pieces are 
then pounded in a mortar, and put into pots. 

7. Olive oil is sometimes used to preserve fish and other animal 
substances. Jars into which the substances to be preserved are put, 
are made quite full M'ith the oil, and are then well closed, and the 
covers cemented down. 

8. Alcohol is the agent most frequently employed for the preservation 
of animal preparations for museums, &c. When used alone, it is sub- 
ject to the objection of its causing the contraction and hardening of 
the finer parts of animal substances, but this effect may be counter- 
acted, at least in part, by the addition of a small quantity of ammonia. 
A mixture of equal parts of rectified spirit, sp. gr. 838, and of water, 
may be used in ordinary cases ; but the strength of the spirit must be 
regulated in some degree by the quantity of fluids contained in the 
animal substance. 

9. Solution of Corrosive Suhlimate is often used for the preserva- 
tion of animal substances, but it renders them very hard. It is ad- 
vantageously employed for dry preparations, and tends especially to 
protect them from the atta^cks of insects. It may either be used by 
injection or by rubbing them over the surface. For the former mode of 
applying it, solution in water answers best ; for the latter mode, solution 
in spirit. 

10. Alum preserves animal substances very well for a certain time, 
but bones are attacked by it. A solution of one ounce of alum in 
eight ounces of water, when injected into veins and arteries, renders 
them capable of resisting decay for a long time. In the process of 
tawing skins, hereafter to be described, ahnn is used. 

11. Goadbijs Solution is a good substitute for alcohol, and has been 
found to answer well in a variety of cases. The following are Mr. 
Goadby's formulae : — 

A 1. 

R Bay salt 5iv., alum Jij., corrosive sublimate gr. ij., water Oij. 
Mix. 

A 2. 
^ R Bay salt §iv., alum §ij., corrosive sublimate gr. iv., water Oiv. 
Mix. 



PRESERVATION OF ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 183 

B. 

R Bay salt Ibss., corrosive sublimate gr. ij., water Oij. Mix. 

BB. 
R Bay salt Ibss., arsenious acid gr. xx., boiling water Oij. Boil 
until solution is effected. 

C 

R Bay salt Ibss., arsenious acid gr. xx., corrosive sublimate gr. ij., 
boiling water Oij. Boil until solution is effected. 

The solution A 1 is that which Mr. Goadby usually employs. A 2 
is used in those cases where there is a tendency to mouldiness, and 
where the animal texture is tender, for the salt, if in too great quan- 
tity, sometimes destroys the tissue. B is used in cases where the 
animal substance contains carbonate of lime, as in those cases alum 
effects a decomposition. BB is intended for old preparations ; and 
C, for preparations of this kind, in whicli there is a tendency to a 
softening of the parts. Professor Owen has found these solutions to 
answer better than alcohol for the preservation of nervous matter, and 
has employed them extensively in the museum of the College of 
Surgeons. 

12. GannaVs Solution owes its efficacy to the presence of Acetate of 
Alumina. Its efficacy is similar to that of the solution of alum, and it 
is subject to the same inconvenience, arising from the action of the 
salt on some animal substances. It is made by dissolving one ounce of 
acetate of alumina in twenty ounces of water. 

13. Solution of Sulphate of Zinc is used to preserve the muscles, 
teguments, and cerebral substances of vertebrata. It does not injure 
the bones, and does not become mouldy. It possesses the singular pro- 
perty of destroying all the parts of caterpillars but the teguments, and 
is therefore well adapted for the preservation of those larvse which are 
not naked. 

Solution of Chloride of Zinc. Sir William Burnett's Solution, 
A patent was taken out by Sir W. Burnett, in 1840, for applying a 
solution of chloride of zinc, one pound of chloride of zinc to a gallon of 
water, for the preservation of animal and vegetable substances. The 
substances to be preserved are immersed in the solution for a period 
varying from 48 to 96 hours, and afterwards dried in the air. 

14. Solution of Sal-ammoniac, or Chloride of Ammonium., has been 
found to preserve the muscular substance of mammalise. The solution 
is made in the proportion of one part of the salt to ten parts of water. 

15. Solutions of Nitrate of Potash and of Persulphate of Iron are 
effective preservative agents, but they change the colour of the pre- 
parations, and the iron salt attacks the bones. 

16. Naphtha mixed with water ^ in the proportion of one part of 
the former to seven of the latter, is said by Mr. Babington to be a 
good antiseptic. 

17. Kreosote preserves animal matter well, but renders the prepa- 
rations brown. Sixteen drops of kreosote may be mixed with one ounce 
and a half of water. 



184 PRESERVATION OF ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 

18. JEsse?itial Oils are good preservatives of all parts but the fat, 
which they dissolve. Oil of turpentine is one of the best. They 
render many parts transparent if previously dried, whicli is sometimes 
advanta2:eous. 

19- The Process of Tanning is applied to the skins of animals, 
with tlie view of preserving- and hardening- them, and rendering them 
more fit for some economical purposes. This process consists in soak- 
ing the skins, from which tiie iiair and grease have been previously 
removed by the application of lime, in a solution of tannic acid, to- 
gether with some extractive matters derived from the barks of certain 
trees, more especially of tlie oak. 

20. 77/6 Process of Tawing is also applied for a similar purpose. 
It consists in first soaking the skins in water with fresh slaked lime 
for several weeks, the water being changed two or three times during 
this period. The skins are then taken out and rinsed, and again 
soaked in water with wheat bran. After this, a paste is made as fol- 
lows : — Eight pounds of alum and three pounds of common salt are 
dissolved in hot water ; to this is added twenty pounds of wheat-flour, 
and the yolks of about one hundred eggs, so much water being used 
as shall form a thin paste. A portion of this paste being diluted with 
water, the skins are soaked in the mixture, and pulled and stretched 
from time to time, and subsequently dried. 

21. Acids are frequently required to dissolve the calcareous parts 
of animals, such as bones, shells, &c. Hydrochloric or nitric acid, 
diluted with four or five parts of water, may be used for this 
purpose. 

22. Alkalies serve to convert grease into soap, to render it capable 
of drying, and to make the jDreparations cleaner. 

1. Weak Ley. 

R Carbonate of soda 5iv. 

Quicklime 5j. 

Water boiling Ov. 

Add the lime to the soda dissolved in the water, stir, and pour ofl 
the clear liquor. 

Greasy bones, where the medulla oozes out, may be placed in this 
for a week or two, and when they begin to whiten, they are to be 
boiled for a quarter of an hour in the same ley, then well washed 
and dried. To saponify the spots of grease on the bones, cotton 
wool dipped in the ley should be laid on. The bones must not be left 
too long in the ley, as it will, after a time, attack the gelatine. 

2. Strong Ley. 

R Carbonate of soda 5iv. 

Quicklime 5j. 

Water boiling Oiiss. 

Proceed the same as before. 

23. Injections. The various injections used by anatomists may be 
conveniently divided into three classes- — viz., 1. Common injections; 



PRESERVATION OF ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 185 

2. Fine injections; and 3. Injections for corrosion. The first are used 
to fill large vessels. The fiallowing- are some of the principal : — 

COMMON INJECTIONS. 

1. R Tallow Sxij., wax ^v., olive oil jiij. Melt and mix. 

2. R Wax o^i]., common turpentine oXJ., tallow 5iij., oil of tur- 

pentine 5J. Melt and mix, 

3. R Spermaceti ^ij., wax jj., common turpentine 5J. A very 

penetrating injection. 

FINE INJECTIONS, 

These injections are used to trace the capillary vessels. 

1. R Gelatine oxij., water Ov. Mix, with a gentle heat. 
In winter only ovij. of gelatine must be used. 

2. R Canada balsam, vermilion, q. s. Mix. 

INJECTIONS FOR CORROSION. 

1. R Bismuth jviij., lead 5^-, tin 5iij. Fuse together. 

(D'Arcet's.) 

2. R Resin ^viij., wax 5x., common turpentine 5 xii. Melt together. 

3. R Wax "3XVJ., resin 5viij., turpentine varnish ovi., vermilion 

5iij. Melt together. (Mr. Knox's.) 



186 



VEGETABLES YIELDING PRODUCTS 



EMPLOYED IN 



MEDICIM, DOMESTIC ECONOMY, AND THE ARTS. 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 

Among the several kinds of classification which have been adopted 
by different botanical writers, that of De Candolle has, perhaps, been 
received with the most general approbation. The arrangenient of 
plants wliich that distinguished botanist has made in his Prodromus, 
so far as that work, which is not yet completed, extends, will be 
followed here. The vegetable kingdom is first arranged in two great 
divisions : — 

1. The Vascular, — Phanerogamous, or Flowering Plants; and 

2. The Acrogens, — Acotyledons, Cellular, Cryptogamic, or Flower- 
less Plants. 

The flowering plants, which have spiral vessels, and distinct flowers 
and sexes, are again divided into Exogetis, or Dicotyledonous Plants ; 
and Endogens, or Monocotyledonous Plants. 

ExogelNS are plants whose leaves have reticulated or branched 
nerves, forming a sort of network ; the stems, w4ien cut across and 
examined, are found to consist of central pith, wood, and bark, and 
froni the centre to the circumference there are fine lines, called medul- 
lary rays ; they increase with growth, by the deposition of layers of 
wood beneath the bark, and there are found to be as many concentric 
circles of wood, in the trunk of a tree of this kind, as the plant is 
years old ; the flowers usually have a quinary division ; and the embryo 
of the seed has two or more cotyledons, opposite. 

Endogens are plants whose leaves have parallel veins ; the stems, 
when cut across, present no distinction of pith, wood, bark, and me- 
dullary rays, but consist of confused bundles of woody fibre ; they 
increase ivith growth, by depositions in the interior of the stems ; hence 
these increase but little in thickness, and there is no appearance of 
concentric circles of wood ; the Jloivers usually have a ternary division ; 
and the embryo of the seed has but one cotyledon, or if two, they are 
alternate. 

Acrogens, or Cryptogamic Plants, have nojlowers, properly so 



VEGETABLES. 18T 

called ; many of them are destitute of leaves, but if they have leaves, 
there are either no veins to them, or the veins are of the most simple 
kind, being- either not branched, or if branched, divided by repeated 
forking ; they consist principally of cellular tissue^ spiral vessels being' 
for the most part absent ; when they have stems, the wood is arranged 
in a sinuous or zigzag manner ; the sexual organs being absent, they 
have no seeds or embryo ; they are reproduced by bodies resembling 
seeds, and answering the same purpose, called spores or sporules. 

These distinctive characters, however, are not found always to 
apply as here indicated ; so that a plant cannot be referred to either 
of the foregoing classes, with absolute certainty, from the presence of 
any one character, but only from a combination of characters. Thus, 
a plant may have one of the characters of a class to which it never- 
theless does not belong, because its other characters are at variance 
with those appertaining to that class. 

In estimating the value of the characters by which a plant should 
be referred to any particular class, they should be placed in the fol- 
io Aving order : — 1st, wood; 2nd, embryo ; 3rd, leaves; 4ih, Jloivers. 
" The structure of the wood is of more importance than all the others, 
because it indicates a whole series of differently-modified vital phe- 
nomena : the embryo is of more importance than the leaves, because 
it is the part which determines all the final structure of the plant ; and 
the leaves are of more importance than the flowers, because they are 
intimately connected with the peculiar manner in which the wood of 
the stem is organized, and determine in the first instance the organiza- 
tion of the flower itself." (Lindley.) 

Exogens are divided by De Candolle into four sub-classes : — 
1. ThalamiflorcB ; 2. CahjciJlorcE ; 3. CoroWfiorce; 4:. BIonochlamydecB. 

Sub-class 1. ThalamiJiGrcE. Flowers furnished with both a calyx 
and corolla. Perianth double. Calyx polysepalous. Petals distinct, 
together with the stamens inserted on the receptacle (thalamus) not 
attached to the calyx. 

Examples. Ranunculus. Papaver. Sinapis. 

Sub-class 2. Calyciflorce. Flowers furnished with both a calyx 
and corolla. Perianth double. Calyx gamosepalous. Petals distinct, 
or more or less united at the base, inserted into the calyx together 
with the stamens. 

Examples. Rhamnus. Glycyrrhiza. Rosa. 

Sub-class 3. Corolli/lorce. Flowers furnished with both a calyx 
and corolla. Petals cohering in the form of a monopetalous corolla, 
bearing the stamens, and inserted on the receptacle (thalamus). 

Examples, Gentiana. Convolvulus. Mentha. 

Sub-class 4. MonochlamydecE. Perianth single ; petals incorpor- 
ated with the calyx or entirely wanting. 

Examples. Rheum. Laurus. Quercus. 

Endogens are divided into two sub-classes : — 1. Petaloidece ; 2. Glic- 
macecE. The Prcdromus has not reached this class. 

Sub-class 1. Petaloidece. Calyx and corolla both present, in three 
or six divisions ; or imperfectly developed in the form of herbaceous 
scales upon a spadix. 



1 88 VEGETABLES.— IIANUXCULACE.E. 

Examples. Crocus. Allium. Scilla. 

Sub-class 2. GlumacecE. Periaiitli usually absent, its place occupied 
by lierbaceous or scabriose bractse, imbricated over each other ; if 
present, surrounded by such bractse. 

Example. The Grasses. 

Cryptogamic plants are arranged in three classes : — 

Class 1. Filicoideas. — The Ferns. 

Class 2. Muscoidese. — The 3Iosses. 

Class 3. Fungoideae. — Tlte Fungi, Lichens, Algm. 



* Plants which have nn asterisk prefixed to the name, grow wild in this country. 
** Plants which have two asterisks prefixed to the name, are commonly cultivated iu 

this country, but are not natives. 



DIVISION I. 

VASCULARES; PHANEROGAMIA ; or FLOWERING 

PLANTS. 

Class I. EXOGENiE. Sub-class I. THALAMIFLOR-ZE. 

Order I— RANUNCULACEJE. 
(De Cand. Prod., t. i. p. 2. Lindl. Nat. Syst., Ed. 2, p. 5.) 

Herbaceous plants, with alternate or opposite leaves, generally much divided, with a 
dilated petiole. Sepals 3 — 6, hypogynous, deciduous; petals 3 — 15; hypogynous; 
stamens, hypogynous, indefinite in number; anthers adnate ; pistils numerous, seated 
on a torus; carpels capsular, baccate, or follicular, one or many seeded; seeds albu- 
minous ; albumen corneous ; embrijo minute. 

Plants acrid ; many are poisonous. 

AcoNiTUM. (De Cand. i. .56.) 

AcoNiTUM AA^THORA. (Liuu.) Ajithora s. Antithora. (Camer.) 
Antliora vulgaris. (Clus.) Wholesome wo(fsha7ie, Yellow helmet 
flower. Mountainous parts ; Europe, Siberia. 

Roots cordial. (G.) Root extremely poisonous, similar in action to 
that of Aconitum uapellus. (L.) 

AcoMTUM FEROX. (WallicJi). Himalaya Mountains. 

Root exceedingly poisonous, tatal either when taken internally, or 
•when applied to wounds. Useci by the Indian practitioners in cases 
of chronic rheumatism. 

Aconitum heteropiiyllum. (Wallich). Atees. India. 

Poot used in Indian medicine as a tonic, and aphrodisiac. (O'Sh.) 

Aconitum lycoctonum. (Liini.) Great yellow wolfsbane. Various 
parts of Europe. 

Root poisonous, occasioning vertigo, stupor, and spasm ; has been 
employed to kill wolves. 



VEGETABLES.— r.A^uNCUI.ACE^. 1 89 

*AcoNiTUM Napellus. (Linn.) (E. B. t. 2730.) Early blue 
luolfshane. 

i'l. purple. June, July. Perennial. Yarious parts of Europe. 

ACONITUM CAMMARUM. ACONITUM NEOMONTANUM. 

These are considered by De Candolle as varieties of Acojiiium 
Napellus. 

These plants are used indiscriminately for each other, and are ex- 
ceedingly poisonous. The roots are more active than the leaves ; both 
parts are employed in medicine. Given in doses of one grain, gra- 
dually increased, they are narcotic, powerfully diaphoretic, and diuretic. 
The extract and aconitine are used externally in chronic rheumatism, 
gout, paralysis, dropsy, &c. 

AooNiTUM PANicuLATUM. (Lam.) Pamcled luolfshane. 

This was the species ordered in the Lond. Pharm. 1836 ; but Aconituni 
Napellus is generally supplied by the herbalists in London, and is now 
introduced into the Pharmacopoeia. Aconitum paniculatum is said by 
some persons to be inactive. 

AcT^A. (De Cand. i. 64.) 

AcT^A ciMiciFUGA. (Linn.) Cimicifugafietida. (Gaertn.) Siberia. 
Ivoot antispasmodic. 

*AcTiEA SPICATA. (Linn.) (E. B. t. 918.) Aconitum bacciferum. 
(C. Bauh.) Christophoriana. Herb Christopher. Bane berries. 
Fl. white. May. Perennial. Europe. 

Vulnerary, astringent ; juice of the berries affords a deep black dye. 

• AcT^A RACEMOSA. (Linn.) Cimicifuga racemosa. (Torr.) Ma- 
crotys racemosa. Black snakeroot. Cohosh. North America. 

Eoot infused in spirit used in rheumatic pains, and also in astringent 
gargles. This is the Cimicifuga serpentaria of the P. U. S., the root 
being employed instead of rattle-snake root. 

Adonis. (De Cand. i. 23.) 

*Adonis VEPi-NALis. (Llnu.) Helleborus 7iiger tenuifoliiis . (C. 
Bauh.) A. Apennina. (Jacq.) Bird's eye. 

*Adoxis adtumnalis. (E. B. t. 308.) Pheasant's eye^ Red mo- 
rocco. 

FJ. scarlet. May to October. Annual. Europe, Siberia. 
Astringent, roots bitter. 

Akemone. (De Cand. i. 16.) 

Anemone cernua. (Thunb.) Hak too icgo of the Chinese. Japan. 

Eoot nuich used am.ong the Chinese and Japanese as a bitter 
medicine. 

* Anemone nemorosa. (Linn.) (E. B. t. 355.) Ranunculus 
sylvarum. (Clus.) Wood anemone, Wood crowfoot. 

Fl. white, or with a shade of purple. April, May. Perennial. 

Anemone sylvestris. (Linn.) White wood anemone. 

Anemone pratensis. (Linn.) Pulsatilla pratensis. (Mill.) 



190 VEGETABLES.— BANuxcuLACEiE. 

Anemone vernalis. (Linn.) Yelloiv anemone. Europe and Asia. 

Plants acrid, caustic, and ulcerating; used in gout and rheumatism ; 
wlien chewed, they act as sialogogues. Fl. poisonous. 

*Anemone PULSATILLA. (Linn.) (E. B. t. 5L) Pulsatilla vul- 
garis. (Mill.) Pasque flower., Pulsatilla. 

Fl. purple. May. Perennial. Europe, Siberia. 
Hoot acrid, sternutatory ; leaves detersive. 

Aquilegia. (De Cand. i. 50.) 

*Aquilegia vulgaris. (Linn.) (E. B. t. 297.) Aquilegia sr/lves- 
tris. (C. Bauh.) Columbine. 

Fl. purple. June. Perennial. Woods and coppices. 

Herb, flovver, and seeds opening, acrid, diuretic, and used in deter- 
sive gargles. 

Caltha. (De Cand. i. 44.) 

*Caltha palustris. (Linn.) (E. B. t. 2175.) 3Iarsh marygold. 
Fl. yellow. March, June. Perennial. Marshy places. 
Herb acrid, caustic ; useful externally in diseases of the reins or 
loins. 

Clematis. (De Cand. i. 2.) 

Clematis dioica. (Linn.) Jamaica. 

Leaves hot and acrid ; an infusion of the bruised leaves and flowers 
forms a good lotion for the skin. 

Clematis erecta. (Willd.) Clematis erecta. (Linn.) Upright 
mrgirHs bower. Austria. 

Clematis flammula. (Linn.) Flammula. (Dodon.) South 
of Europe. 

Caustic, burning ; used for issues and venereal ulcers ; seeds drastic ; 
leaves used outwardly in leprosy, internally in inveterate syphilis. 

Clematis Mauritiana. (Lamb.) Madagascar and Isle of France. 
LTsed as a vesicatory. 

Clematis Sinensis. Cochin China. 

Used in China as a diuretic and diaphoretic. (O'Sh.) 

*Clematis vitalba. (Linn.) (E. B. t. 612.) Vitalba. (Dodon.) 
Traveller's joy. 

Fl. greenish white. May, June. Hedges, on chalky soils. 

Bark and herb caustic, raising blisters ; ophthalmic ; young roots 
eaten as a pot-herb. 

**Clematis viticella. (Linn.) Clematis, Atragene alpina, 
Virgin's bower. (Bot. Mag. bV^D.) 
Fl. purple. .June, September. Perennial. South of Europe. 
Leaves used as a poultice in leprosy ; seeds purgative. 

Coptis. (De Cand. i. 47.) 

CopTis teeta. (Wallich.) Golden thread root of Assam, Mish- 
mee bitter, Mishmee teeta. Assam. 



VEGETABLES.— RANUNCULACE^. 191 

Root intensely bitter, deemed in India a tonic remedy of the greatest 
value. (O'Sh.) It abounds in a yellow bitter principle, soluble in 
alcohol and water, but appears to possess but little astringency. It 
may be administered in the form of powder, infusion, tincture, or 
extract. In Scinde this root is called Mahmira, and is used in 
inflammation of the eyes. Professor Guibourt describes it under the 
name of Racine de chynlen ou de mangoiiste, and he ascribes it to an 
apocynaceous plant. Bergins, and J. A. Murray, describe it under 
the name of Chynlen. Ainslie mentions it under the name of Sou- 
line or Chyn-len. The Chinese call it Honglane. 

CoPTis TRiFOLiA. (Linn.) Helleborus trifolius. Gold thread. 
Canada and Siberia. 

Koot a pure bitter, used in thrush ; leaves dye yellow. 

Delphinidm. (De Cand. i. 51.) 

**Delphinium ajacis. (Linn.) Upright larkspur. 
Fl. blue. Annual. Native of Asia Minor. 

Delphinium elatum. (Willd.) Siberian bee larkspur. Siberia. 

*Delphinium consolida. (Linn.) (E. B. 1839.) Consolida 
regalis, Delphinium, Z,arkspur. 

Fl. blue. June, July. Annual. Sandy or chalky corn-fields. 
Europe, Asia, North America. 

Root, Delphinium, P. U. S. Vulnerary, consolidating wounds, 
ophthalmic. 

Delphinium Staphysagria. (Linn.) Staphysagria, Stavesacre. 

South of Europe, Levant, Canaries. 

Seeds, staphisagriae semina, acrid, nauseous ; imported from Turkey ; 
kill lice and rats; purge violently, in doses of gr. iij. to x. ; used as a 
masticatory in tooth-ache, and also in apophlegmatizant gargles. 

FiCARiA. (De Cand. i. 44.) 

FicARiA RANUNCULOiDES. (Monch.) (E. B. t. 584.) Chelido- 
nium minus. (Fuch.) Ficaria verna. (Persoon.) Ranunculus 
jicaria. (Linn.) Lesser celandine, Pilewort. 

Fl. yellow. April, May. Perennial. 

Juice of root acrid ; styptic ; useful in piles, being weakened with 
wine or beer ; leaves caustic, but mild, and eaten in Sweden, according 
to Linnaeus. 

Helleborus. (De Cand. i. 46.) 

*Helleborus fcetidus. (Linn.) (E. B. 613.) Helleboraster 
maximum. (Lob.) Great Bastard bearsfoot. Setter wort. 

Fl. green, tipped with purple. April. Perennial. Thickets, &c. 

The leaves are emetic and purgative. The juice, obtained by 
moistening the bruised leaves with vinegar, and then pressing, has 
also been used. They have been strongly recommended as a vermi- 
fuge for the large round worm, (Ascaris lumbricoides). 

**Helleborus NIGER. (Linn.) (Bot. Mag., 8.) Veratrum 



1 92 VEGETABLES.— RANUNCULACEiE. 

nigrum. (Dodon.) Helleborus niger^ Melampodium, Black hellebore, 
Christmas rose. 

Fl. white. January. Perennial. Native of the south of Europe. 

The fibres of the rhizome are the parts used in medicine. Nauseous, 
and violently purgative both to man and horse, anthelmintic, diuretic, 
and emmenagog-ue ; also used as an exutory in cattle to keep open issues. 

Helleborus orientalis ? (Lamb.) East Indian hlach hellebore. 
Greece and the Levant. 

Roots very different from the European ; qualities the same. 

*Heli-eborus viridis. (Linn.) (E. B. 200.) H. hyemalis, Wild 
black hellebore, Bearsfoot. 

Fl. light green. April. Perennial. Woods, &c., in chalky soil. 
Qualities the same as black hellebore. 

Hepatica. (De Cand. i. 22.) 

**PIepatica TRILOBA. (Willd.) (Bot. Mag., 10.) Anemone hepatica. 
(Linn.) Hepatica nobilisy Trifoliuni aureum, Hepatica, Liverwort. 

Fl. purple or pink. March. Perennial. Native of the south of 
Europe. 

Aperitive, vulnerary, useful in diabetes and dysentery ; leaves 
detergent ; infusion taken ad. libitum. 

Hydrastis. (De Cand. i. 23.) 

Hydrastis Canadensis. (Linn.) United States and Canada. 
Root, Canada yellow root. Bitter, used for calumba ; gives out a 
most beautiful yellow colour. 

Knowltonia. (De Cand. i. 23.) 

Knowltonia vesicatoria. (Sims.) Cape of Good Hope. 
Used as a vesicatory. 

Myosurus. (De Cand. i. 25.) 

*Myosurus minimus. (Linn.) (E. B. t. 435.) Mouse-tail. 
Fl. yellov/. June. Annual. Corn-fields, &c. 
Astringent, roots bitter. 

NiGELLA. (De Cand. i. 48.) 

NiGELLA SATiVA. (Linn.) Fennel Jlower, Devil in a bush, Gith, 
Nig ell a. 

NiGELLA ARVENSI3. (Linn.) Mclanthium sylvestre. (J. Bauh.) 
NiGELLA indica. South of Europo, &c. 

Seeds acrid, oily, attenuant, opening ; used as a spice. 

PiEONiA. (De Cand. i. 6o.) 

*"*P^EONiA officinalis. (Rctz.) (Bot. Mag. t. 1784.) Peony. 

Fl. crimson, generally double. June- Perennial. Native of the 
soutli of Europe. 

Roots and seeds anti-epileptic, ennnenagogue. (G.) Seeds emetic 
and cathartic; root believed to be antispasmodic. (O'Sh.) 



VP:GETABLES.— RANUNCULACE.E. 193 

Ranunculus. (De Cand. i. 26.) 

**Ranunculus aconitifolius. (Linn.) (Bot. Mag\, 204.) Bache- 
lor's buttons. 

Fl. wliite. May, June. Perennial. Native of the Alps. 
Herb used to cure intermittents, by being- applied to the wrists. 

*Ranunculus acris. (Linn.) (E. B. 652.) Buttercups^ Upright 
meadow croivfoot. 

Fl. yellow. June, July. Perennial. Meadows, t^c. 

Very acrid. Root used, when dry, as a febrifuge in intermittents. 

^Ranunculus aquatilis. (Linn.) (E. B. lOi.) Water crowfoot. 
Fl. white. May, June. Perennial. Ditches and rivers. 

*Ranunculus ARVENSis. (Linn.) (E. B. 135.) Corn crowfoot. 

Fl. yellow. Annual. Corn-fields. 

Very acrid and poisonous, but eaten by animals in some countries. 

*Ranunculus aurtcomus. (Linn.) (E. B. 624.) Wood croivfoot. 

Fl. yellow. April, May. Perennial. Woods and coppices. 

Less acrid ; used while young as a potherb. By drying, most of the 
ranunculi lose their acridness. 

^Ranunculus bulbosus. (Linn.) (E. B. 515.) Bulbous crowfoot, 
Round root crowfoot. 

Fl. yellow. May. Perennial. Meadows, 

Very acrid : kills rats, but not sheep ; root used as a vesicatory ; 
yields a nutritive fsecula. 

*Ranunculus flammula. (Linn.) (E. B. 387.) Ranunculus 
flainmeus minor., Lesser spearwort. 

Fl. yellow. June, August. Perennial. Moist Places. 

^Ranunculus LINGUA. (Linn.) (E. B. 100.) R.flammeus major, 
Great spearivort. 
Fl. large, yellow. July. Perennial. Marshes and ditches. 
Very acrid, cauterise the skin, poisonous to man and horse. 

Ranunculus glacialis. (Linn.) France and North of Europe. 
Called by the mountaineers of Dauphiny Carline or Caraline ; the in- 
fusion in hot water is employed by them as a powerful sudorific in 
colds and rheumatism. 

Ranunculus montanus. (Willd.) White-flowered crowfoot. 

South of Europe. 

Properties similar to those of R. aconitifolius. 

*Ranunculus REPEXS. (Linn.) (E. B. 516.) Creeping crowfoot, 
Crowfoot. 
Fl. yellow. June, October. Perennial. Pastures. 
Herb, used as a potherb while young. 

* 
^Ranunculus scELERATUs. (Linn.) (E. B. 681.) R. palustris, 

Celery-leaved crowfoot, Marsh crowfoot. 
Fl. yellow. June. Perennial. Ditches and sides of pools. 
Very acrid and poisonous : sometimes eaten by animals. 

o 



194 VEGETABLES.— DiLLENiACEiE. 

RANUNCULrs THORA. (Linn.) Thora, Alpine crowfoot. Alps of 
Europe. 

Root extremely acrid and poisonous ; the juice has been employed 
to poison weapons with fatal effect. 

Thalictrum. (De Cand. i. 11.) 
Thalictrtjm ANGUSTiFOLiiTM. (Jacq.) 

Thalictrtjm aquilegifolium. (Linn.) 

Root and herbs bitter, purgative, diuretic ; useful in old ulcers and 
the jaundice. 

*Thalictrum FLAVUM. (Liuu.) (E. B. 367.) Pseudorhabarha- 
Tum, Spanish meadow rue, Common meadow rue. 
Fl. yellow. July. Perennial. Moist meadows. 

*Thalictrtjm MAJrs. (Murr.) (E. B. 611.) English rhubarb, 
Greater meadow rue. 

Fl. yellow. Perennial. Stony pastures in north of England. 

Roots of both of these substituted for rhubarb ; a double dose re- 
quired. 

* Thalictrum MINUS. (Linn.) (E. B. 11.) Lesser meadow rue. 

Fl. yellow. June, July. Perennial. Stony pastures. 
Qualities similar to those of T. angustifolium. 

Trollius. (De Cand. i. 45.) 

*Trollius Europ^us. (Linn.) (E. B. 28.) Ranunculus globosus. 
(J. Bauh.) Ranujicidus montanus. (C. Bauh.) Globe crowfoot. 
Locker gowans, Mountain globe flower. 

Fl. yellow. June, July. Perennial. Moist mountain pastures. 

Trollius Asiaticus. (Linn.) Europe and Siberia. 
Very acrid ; must be used with caution. 

Zanthorhiza. (De Cand. i. Q^^ 

Zanthorhiza apiifolia. (L'Her.) Southern parts of United States. 

Root, Yellow root. Zanthorhiza, P. U. S., extremely bitter ; bitter- 
ness very permanent ; makes a yellow lake. (G.) A valuable tonic 
medicine. (O'Sh.) 



Order 2. DILLENIACE^. (De Cand. i. 67.) 

Parts of the flowers disposed in fives, sepals five, persistent, two exterior, three in- 
terior ; petals five, deciduous, in a single row, hypogynous; stamens numerous, arising 
from a torus ; filaments thread shaped, dilated either at the base or apex ; anthers ad- 
nata, usually bursting longitudinally, always turned inwards ; carpels from two to five, 
either distinct, or cohering together, with a terminate style, and simple stigma, either 
baccate or two-valved ; seeds fixed in a double row to inner edge of carpels, either many 
or only two, sometimes solitary by abortion, surrounded by a pulpy aril ; testa hard ;■ 
embryo minute, lying in the base of solid fleshy albumen. Trees or shrubs with alter- 
nate leaves, rarely opposite, and solitaiy flowers in terminal racemes, or panicles, oftea- 
yellow. 

CuRATELLA. (De Cand. i. 70.) 
Curatella Cambaiba. (Lindl.) Cambaiba. Brazil. 



VEGETABLES.— MAGNOLiACE^. 195 

Astringent ; decoction used in Brazil as an application to wounds. 
Davilla. (De Cand. i. 69.) 

Davilla Brasiliana. (D. C.) Davila rugosa. (Poir.) Cipo 
di carijo, Cambalbinka, Cipo de caboclo. Forests of Brazil. 

Astringent ; decoction used in Brazil in swellings of the legs and 
testicles. 

Davilla elliptica. (Lindl.) Cambaibinha, ^ Brazil. 

Astringent. 

DiLLENiA. (De Cand. i. 75.) 

Dillenia speciosa. (Thunb.) Malabar, Celebes. 

DiLLENiA elliptica. (Thunb.) Malabar, Celebes. 
Fruits used to acidulate cooling drinks. 



Order 3. MAGNOLIACE^. (De Cand. i. 77.) 

The parts of the flowers disposed in threes. Sepals 3 — 6, deciduous ; petals 3 — 27, 
in many rows, hypogynous ; stamens numerous, free, inserted on the torus beneath the 
ovaries ; anthers adnate, long ; ovaries numerous, simple, arranged upon the torus 
above the stamens, generally in a spike ; styles short ; stigmas simple ; carpels equal 
in number to the ovaries, one -celled, one or many seeded, either dehiscent, or inde- 
hiscent, in some follicular or subcarnose, in others samariform, aggregate, or partially 
united into a loose or dense strobilus ; seeds solitary, or many, attached to the inner 
edge of the cai-pels; albumen fleshy; embryo minute, at base of albumen. Fine trees 
or shrubs, with alternate leaves ; flowers large, handsome, often strongly odoriferous. 
The bark of these trees is bitter, astringent or aromatic. 

Drimys. (De Cand. i. 78.) 

Drimys granatensis. (Linn.) South America. 

Drimys MAGNOLiiEFOLiA, and two other species not well known. 
America. 

Bark, slightly bitter, very acrid, heating and aromatic. 

Drimys winteri. (Forst.) Winterana aromatica. (Soland.) 
Winter a aromatica. (Murr.) America. 

Bark, cortex Winteranus, Winter s cinnamon^ Winter's bark ; thick, 
channelled across on the outside, grey ; much cracked on the inside, 
solid, iron grey ; sharp tasted, aromatic, very fragrant ; used in scurvy, 
vomiting, and palsy. Rare at present, being not in such esteem as 
Canella alba. 

Illicium. (De Cand. i. 77.) 

Illicium anisatum. (Linn.) Anisum stellatum, Star anise. China. 

Fruit, fine scented, stomachic, make excellent liqueurs ; also burned 
as incense ; yield an essential oil, Oleum badiaiii, which resembles the 
common oil of anise, but remains fluid at a lower temperature. 

Illicium Floridanum. (Ellis.) Country north of the Gulf of 
Mexico. 

Bark and leaves aromatic and spicy ; the effects are similar to those 
of other aromatic barks. 

o 2 



196 VEGETABLES.— ANONACE.E. 

LiRiODENDRON. (De Caiid. i. 82.) 

**LniiODENDRox TuLiPiFERA. (Liiiii.) (Bot. Mag., 275.) Tidip 
tree. Fl. yellow. June. Large tree ; native of North America. 

Root and bark smell like essence of bergamot, and are used to flavour 
liqueurs ; bark of the root {Liriodendrou,, P. U. S.) used in fevers ; 
contains a bitter principle without tannin or gallic acid. 

Magnolia. (De Cand. i. 79.) 

Magnolia acuminata. (Linn.) IM. auriculata. (Lamb.) M. 
Glauca. (Linn.) M. grandiflora. (Linn.) M. tripetala. (Lamb.) 
Umbrella. (D. C.) America. 

The barks of the above species are febrifuo:e, used for the Peruvian ; 
flowers strongly scented, causing nausea, headache, and even fever. 

Magnolia yulan. (Desf.) Magnolia precia^ Tsin-y, Yti-latr 
China. 

Seeds bitter, febrifuge ; flowers used in perfumery. 

Michelia. (De Cand. i. 79.) 

Michelia champaca. (Linn.) M. suaveolens, Champac. India. 
Flowers used in perfumery. (G.) Bark bitter and aromatic; has 
similar qualities to those of Magnolia acuminata. (O'Sh.) 

Talauma. (De Cand. i. 81.) 

Talauma plumieri. (Swart.) ' Anona dodecajjetala, Magnolia 
plamieriy Elephant wood. West Indies. 

Flowers distilled with spirit to make a spirituous liquor. 



Order 4.— ANONACE^. (De Cand. i. 83.) 

Sepals 3 — 4, persistent, usually partially cohering ; p^^^aJs G, hypogynoiis, arranged 
in two rows, sometimes united in a monopctalous corolla ; stamens numerous, packed 
closely together, covering a large hypogynous torus ; filaments very short ; anthers adnate, 
turned outwards, with an enlarged four-cornered connective, sometimes nectariferous ; 
ooaries usually numerous, closely packed, separate, or cohering ; stales short, stigmas 
simple; carpels either succulent or dry, one or many seeded, distinct, or concrete into 
a fleshy mass ; seeds attached to the sutures in one or two rows, sometimes furnished 
with an aril ; testa brittle ; cmhryo minute, in the base of hard fleshy albumen. Trees 
or shrubs, with alternate simple leaves ; flowers usually green or brown. 

Anona. (De Cand. i. 83.) 

Anona muricata. (Linn.) Soiir sop. AYest Indies. 
Koot in decoction used against fish poison ; fruit eatable ; inner 
bark made into hast. 

Anona palustris. (Linn.) Alligator apple, Water apple. 

Anona reticulata. (Linn.) Nettle custard apple. 

Anona squamosa. (Linn.) Sweet sop. "West Indies. 

Fruit esculent ; imported from the West Indies ; preserved in syrup. 



VEGETABLES.— MENisPERMACE^. 197 

AsiMiNA. (De Cand. i. 87.) 

AsiMiNA TRILOBA. (Dunal.) Nortli America. 
Fruit fleshy ; juice very acid. 

GuATTERiA. (De Cand. i. 93.) 

GuATTERiA viRGATA. (Duiial.) Caiianga virgata, and some other 
species. Jamaica. 

Fruits aromatic, very heating. 

MoLLiNEDiA. (Endl. Gen. PI. 314.) 

MOLLINEDIA REPANDA. 

Fruits yield a purple colour. 

MOLLINEDIA OVATA. 

Fruit yields a violet colour. 

MoNODORA. (De Cand. i. 87. Lindl. 28.) 
MoNODORA MYRiSTiCA. (Dunal.) A?i07ia myristica, American 
nutmeg. Jamaica, Africa. 
Qualities similar to those of the nutmeg, but less pungent. 

PoRCELiA. (De Cand. i. 88.) 

PORCELIA NITIDIFOLIA. (Ruiz Ct Pav.) PcrU. 

Fruit grateful, leaves yield a yellow colour. 

Unona. (De Cand. i. 88.) 

Unona ^thiopica. (Dunal.) Habzelia cethiopica, Uvaria csthio- 
oica. Sierra Leone. 

Capsules, Piper cethiopicum, Ethiopian pejoper, Grains de zelim, 
Monkey pepper^ very aromatic. 

Unoxa aromatica. (Dunal.) Habzelia aromatica. Guiana. 
Fruit pungent, aromatic ; employed by the blacks in the place of 
pice. 
Unona discreta? (Linn.) 
Fruit aromatic. 

Unona tripetaea. (D. C.) Uvaria tripetaloidea, Amboyna. 
Yields a gum by incision. 

Unona xylopioides. (Dunal.) Uvaria fehrifuga, Xylopia longi- 
vlia. Banks of the Orinoco. 

Bark febrifuge, said to be superior to Peruvian bark. The fruit is 
bund a valuable febrifuge on the Orinoco. 

Xylopia. (De Cand. i. 92.) 
Xylopia glabra. (Linn.) Bitterivood. Barbadoes and Jamaica. 
"Wood, bark, berries, warm and bitter. 



Order 5.— MENISPERMACE JE. 

Flowers sometimes tinisexual, very often dioecious, and very small. Sepals and 
■yetals confounded in one or more rows, each of which is composed of either three or 
bur parts, hypogynous, deciduous ; stamens monadelphous, occasionally distinct, 



198. VEGETABLES.— MENISPERMACEiE. 

sometimes opposite the inner sepals, and equal to them in number, sometimes three or 
four times as many ; anthers adnate, turned outwards ; ovaries sometimes numerous, 
each with one style, sometimes cohering, and forming a many-celled body, occasionally 
by abortion, celled ; drupes generally berried ; one-seeded, oblique, or lunate, com- 
pressed ; seed of the same shape as the fruit ; albumen very small ; embryo curved, or 
turned in the direction of t\\e circumference ; cotyledons flat. Shrubs, with a flexible 
tough tissue, and sarmentaceoUs habit, with alternate, simple, rarely-divided leaves ; and 
small, and usually racemose _/?OM'(?rs. 

Abuta. (De Cand. i. 103.) 
Abut A candicans. (Richard.) Liane amere. 

Abuta amara. Bitter pareira. Cayenne. 
Roots bitter. 

Abuta rufescens. (Aubl.) Menispermum abuta, Broiun Pa- 
reira hrava. Cayenne and Guayana. 
Same qualities as Cissampelos pareira. 

CissAMPELos. (De Cand. i. 100.) 

Cissampelos Caapeba. (Linn.) Liane a glacer Veaii, Timac. 
West Indies. 

A very powerful diuretic, in use among the negroes in Martinique 
against bites of serpents. 

Cissampelos glaberrima. (Aug. de St. H.) Brazilian Pareira. 

Cissampelos ovalifolia. (D. C.) Orilha de onga. Brazil. 
Bitter ; roots employed in Brazil in decoction as a cure for inter- 
mittent fever. 

Cissampelos Pareira. (Lamb.) White Pareira brava, Velvet 
leaf. West Indies, &c. 

Trunk and root diuretic, very useful in obstructions, dropsy, or 
gravelly complaints. This is the true Pareira brava. (De Cand.) 

CoccDLUs. (De Cand. i. 96.) 

CoccuLus ACUMiNATUs. (D. C.) Menispermum acuminatum, 
(Lamb.) Coromandel and Brazil. 

Employed as an antidote to the bites of snakes. 

CoccuLUS cebatha. (D. C.) Menispermum edule, Cabatha. 
Arabia. 

Berry esculent, but acrid, producing an [intoxicating liquor by fer- 
mentation. 

CoccuLus PALMATUS. (D. C.) Meuispermum palmatum. (Lamb.) 
Jateorrliiza palmata. (Miers.) Kalumba, Mozambique. 

Root. CalumhcB radix, Calumha or Colombo root. Bitter, 
aromatic, stomachic, anti-emetic, astringent; dose 3ss. frequently in a 
day ; in transverse slices, one or two inches in diameter, and not half an 
inch thick, covered with a bark ; imported from Mozambique in bags 
or cases. 

CoCCULUS BAKIS. (G. P.) C. BURMANNI. (D. C.) C. CORDI- 

FOLius. (D. C.) C. Crispus. (D. C.) (known by the name of 
Funis felleus). C. Epibaterium. (D. C.) C. Fibraurea. (D. C.) 



. VEGETABLES.— BERBERiDE^. 199 

'C PLATYPHYLLUS. C PELTATUS. Also Contain a bitter principle, 
and are used by the inhabitants of the East Indies, Africa, and South 
America, for the cure of intermittent fevers, liver complaints, and 
urinary affections. 

CoccuEus SUBEROSUS. (D. C.) Anamirta cocculus, (Willd.) 
Menispermum cocculus. (Linn.) Cocculus indicus. Malabar, 
Indian Archipelago. 

Capsules acrid, used to intoxicate fish, and to destroy vermin ; also, 
by brewers, to give a false strength to beer. Poisonous to all animals, 
and generally to vegetables also. 

Lardizabaea. (De Cand. i. 95.) 

Lardizabala biternata. (Ruiz et Pav.) Cliili. 
Berry esculent. 

Menispermum. (De Cand. i.- 102.) 

Menispermum fenestratum. (Gaertn.) Coscinium fenestratmn, 
(Colebr.) Cissamjnlos convolvulaceoc. (Moon's Cat.) Pareira medica. 
(Lindl.) Woniivol, Wennewelle, Venivel, or Bangivellzeita. Ceylon. 

Infusion of the root used by the Cingalese as a stomachic and anthel- 
mintic. It has been imported into London in pieces of from twelve to 
eighteen inches in length, and is known as Ccdumha wood. The wood 
yields an inferior yellow dye. (Thwaites.) Transverse sections of the 
Avood somewhat resemble Calumba root in appearance ; and their 
substitution for that substance having been attempted, they have been 
called False Calumha root. The colouring matter of the wood consists 
principally of Beeherine. 

Menispermum eacunosum. 
Fruit used to intoxicate fish. 



Order 6.— BERBERIDE^. (De Cand. i. 105.) 

Sepals 3 — 4 — 6, oblong or oval, often somewhat coloured, arranged alternately in a 
double row, furnished externally with petaloid scales ; 2^^^'^'^^ ^s many as the sepals, 
nnd opposite to them, or in a few instances double the number, hypogynous, and gene- 
rally with a glandular scale at the base ; stamens as many as the petals, and opposite to 
them ; filaments short ; anthers oblong, adnate, bilocular, the cells dehiscing from base 
to apex by a subelastic valve; ovary by abortion solitary, ovate, suboblique, one-celled; 
style sublateral, very short, crowned with a suborbicular stigma ; fruit baccate or cap- 
sular ; seeds 1 — 3, ovate or globose, attached to the base of the lateral placenta; albumen 
fleshy, or subcorneous ; embryo straight ; radicle swollen at the point ; cotyledons flat. 
Shrubs or herbaceous perennial plants, for the most part smooth with alternate, compound, 
usually exstipulate leaves. 

Berberis. (De Cand. i. 105.) 

Berberis lycium. (L.) Mountains in North India. 

In India, an extract prepared by digesting in water sliced pieces of 

the root and stem branches of this and other species of barberry, is 

called Husot, and is used advantageously in cases of ophthalmia. Dr. 

Royle has seen it particularly useful when the acute symptoms have 



200 VEGETABLES.— PODOPHYLLACEiE. 

subsided ; and others say, that it is perhaps the best application in 
ophthalmia ever employed. (L.) 

The other species employed for making rusot are B. aristata 
(D. C.) and B. kunawurensis. (O'Sh.) 

*Berberis vulgaris. (Linn.) (E. B. 49.) JBerheris diimetoriim. 
(C. Bauh.) Oxyccmtha Galeni. (Tabern.) B. oxycantha. Common 
Barberry. 

Fl. Yellow. June. Perennial. Woods and hedges. 

Berries, barberries, pipperidges, very acid, incisive ; astringent, 
hepatic; bark useful in jaundice as an aperitive; root very bitter; 
root, wood, and bark give wool a yellow colour, destructible by air and 
soap. (G.) A refreshing drink prepared by crushing the fruit in 
water is considered serviceable in fevers. (L.) 

Epimedium. (De Cand. i. 110.) 
*Epimedium Alpinum. (Linn.) (E. B. 438.) Alpine barren wort. 
Fl. purplish. May. Perenial. North of England. 
Roots and leaves astringent. 

Leontice. (De Cand. i. 109.) 
Leontice Ciirysogonum. (Linn.) Chrysogonum, Red turnip. 
Greece. 

Leoxtice Leontopetalum. (Linn. Leontapetalon, Black turnip. 
South of Europe. 
Roots stomachic. 



Order 7. PODOPHYLLACEIE. (De Cand. i. 111.) 

Sepals 3 — 4, deciduous, or persistent ; petals in two or three I'ows, each of which is 
equal in number to the sepals; sfamcns hypogynous, 12 — 18, arranged in two, three, 
or more rows; filaments filiform; anthers lineal, or oval, terminal, turned inwards, 
bursting by a double longitudinal line; torus not enlarged; or«r7/ solitary; stigma 
thick, nearly sessile, somewhat peltate ; fruit succulent or capsular, one-celled ; seeds 
indefinite, attached to a lateral placenta, sometimes having an aril ; embryo small, at 
the base of the fleshy albumen. Jlcrbaceous plants, with broad-lobed leaves, and i-adical 
solitary, white Jioioers. 

Jeffersonia. (De Cand. i. 111.) 
Jeffersonia diphylla. (Pers.) Korth America. 

Root purgative. 

Podophyllum. (De Cand. i. 111.) 
Podophyllum peltatum. (Linn.) May-apple, Mandrake iji 

North America. United States. 

Root, Podophylhim, P. U. 6'., purgative, a very valuable, sure, and 

active cathartic ; it is administered in fine powder. Tlie leaves are 

poisonous, and the whole plant narcotic. 



Order 8.— NYMPIIit:ACEiE. (De Cand. i. 113.) 

Torus of the flower expanded into a cup, which encloses the ovaries, and is crowned 
by the stigmas ; sepala 4 — G, coloured, persistent, iuseited on the torus; petals oblong. 



VEGETABLES.— PAPA VERACE/E. 201 

flat, in many rows, each row consisting of as many petals as tliere are sepals ; stamens 
numerous, in many rows, inserted a little above the petals on the torus ; filaments tint ; 
anthers aclnate, introrse, linear, bilociilar, longitudinally birimose ; carpels 8 — 24, en- 
closed within the torus, membraneous, without valves, many-seeded ; stigmas connate at 
the base, free at the apex, radiating over the urceolate torus ; seeds numei'ous, inversely 
ovate, globose, sm-roimded by a follicular arillus, and attached to the parietes of the 
carpels ; embrijo at the base of a farinaceous albumen, small, turbinate, globose, en- 
closed in a separate membraneous bag, and hence it appears to be monocotyledonous, 
but upon opening the bag two foliaceous cotyledons are exposed. Aqxatic herbs, with 
round, repent, horizontal stems; leaves peltate, or cordate, fleshy, floating; Jloicers 
solitary and radical, Avith long peduncles. 

EuRiALE. (De Cand. i. 114.) 

EuRiALE FEROx. (Salisb.) Aneslia spinosa. Calcutta. 

Seeds farinaceous, much eateu by the natives when roasted, or 
rather baked. The Ilindoo physicians consider them possessed of 
powerful medicinal virtues, such as restraining seminal gleets, invigo- 
rating the system, &c. (L.) 

Nelumbium. (De Cand. i. 113. 

Nelumbium speciosum. (Willd.) Faha JEgyptiaca^ NijmplicEa ne- 
himho, Egyptian hean^ Jamaica water lily. AYarm parts of Asia, &c. 

Root used as food ; liquor that runs out of the foot-stalk when cut 
used in looseness and vomiting ; also diuretic and cooling ; seeds nu- 
tritive ; bark is said to form Chinese rice-paper ; others ascribe it to 
A rtocarpus jaca . 

NuPHAR. (De Cand. i. 116.) 

*NuPHAR LUTEA. (Smith.) f E. P). 159.) NymphcBa lutea, (Linn.) 
Nenuphar lutea, (Haynes.) Yelloio water lily. 

Fl. yellow. July. Perennial. Lakes and still waters. 

Root stock slightly poisonous ; beetles and cockroaches are said to 
be killed by its infusion in milk ; it has been reputed sedative and 
anti-aphrodisiac (L.) ; it is also astringent, and contahis a 'quantity of 
fecula. (G.) 

Nymph.?:a. (De Cand. i. 114.) 

^Nympil^a alba. (Linn.) (E. B. 160.) White ivater lily 

Fl. white. July. Perennial. Lakes and still waters. 

Root, astringent, refrigerant ; a weak infusion useful in leprosy, 
dose a pint, night and morning ; it is also styptic, and slightly nar- 
cotic ; has been prescribed in dysentery , and is occasionally chewed by 
singers to relieve the relaxation of the uvula. 

Nymph.ea odorata. (Ait.) United States. 

Stems extremely astringent, sometimes used in the composition of 
poultices, answering a purpose similar to that of lead poultices and 
alum curd. (L.) 



Order 9.— PAPAVERACE^. (De Cand. i. 117.) 

Sepals two, deciduous ; petals, hypogynous, regular, often four, disposed in. a cruciate 
manner ; stamens hypogynous, some multiple of four, combined in parcels ; anthers 
bilocular, innate, opening by a double furrow ; ovary free, consisting eitlier of a few 
carpels (2, o), or of many (10 — 12), often surrounded by a membraneous production 
of the thalamus; sti/le none, or short; 6'??///»(« radiating; c^'jOx^/Ze ovate, or elongated 
and pod-shaped, the carpels being connected by their seminiferous margins; seeds 



202 VEGETABLES.— PAPA vERACEiE. 

numerous ; albumen between fleshy and oily ; embryo straight, minute at the base of 
the albumen ; cotyledons plano-convex. Herbaceous plants, or shrubs, with a milky 
juice, and alternate, more or less divided leaves ; 2^^dancles long, one-flowered ; flowers 
never blue. 

Argemone. (De Cand. i. 120.) 

Argemone Mexicana. (Linn.) Jamaica yellow thistle. North 
America, West Indies. 

Juice and leaves used in ophthalmia ; seeds emetic, yield an oil. 
(G.) Called Figo del inferno by the Spaniards, on account of the 
powerful narcotic effects of the seeds, which are stronger than opium ; 
an emulsion prepared from them acts first as an anodyne, and after- 
wards as a purgative : these effects are denied by some, but in Nevis 
the oil obtained from the seeds is used instead of castor-oil ; juice em- 
ployed in India in chronic ophthalmia, and 'in primary syphilitic sores ; 
infusion said to be diuretic, and to give relief in strangury produced by 
blisters. (L.) 

BoccoNiA. (De Cand. i. 121.) 

BoccoNiA frutescexs. (Linn.) Mexico. 

Root red, used in dyeing. 

Chelidonium. (De Cand. i. 122.) 

*Cheltdonium majus. (Mill.) (E. B. 1581.) Common celan- 
di?ie, Great celandine. 

Fl. yellow. May, June. Perennial. Waste places near towns. 

Root detersive, acrid, purgative ; herb ophthalmic. (G.) Juice a 
violent acrid poison ; it has been regarded, medicinally, as stimulating, 
aperient, diuretic, and sudorific ; it was also considered a powerful de- 
obstruent. It is a popular remedy for warts, and has been employed 
successfully in opacities of the cornea. (L.) 

Geaucium. (De Cand. i. 122.) 

^Glaucium flavum. (Crantz.) (E. B. 8.) Yellow-horned -poppy ^ 
Chelido7iium glaucum. 

Fl. yellow. July, August. Biennial. Sandy sea-shores. 

Properties of the seeds and juice analogous to those of Argemone 
Mexicana. (G.) Juice used in veterinary practice ; two drachms of 
the seed in a pint of water make a good emetic. (O'Sh.) 
Hypecoum. (De Cand. 123.) 

Hypecoum pendulum. (Linn.) Curninum soliquosum, Codded 
icild cu?ni?i. South of Europe. 

Hypecoum procumbens. (Linn.) Hypecoo7i, Horned wild cumin. 
South of Europe. 

Narcotic, yield Cumin opium. 

•Meconopsis. (De Cand. i. 120.) 

Meconopsis aculeata. (O'Sh.) Nepaul. 

Roots reputed to be exceedingly narcotic ; but an alcoholic extract of 
one drachm of the root given to a small dog produced no perceptible 
effect. (O'Sh.) 

Papaver. (De Cand. i. 117.) 

*Papaver Argemone. (Linn.) (E. B. 643.) Argemone capitulo 
longiori. (C. Bauh.) Papaver ervaticum capite ohlongo hispido, 
(Buxb.) Loiig-headed bastard poppy, Long prickly -headed poppy . 



VEGETABLES.— FUMARiACE^. 203 

Fl. scarlet. June. Annual. Corn-fields. 

Leaves used outwardly in inflammations ; the yellow expressed juice 
takes off' spots in the cornea. 

*Papaver rhceas. (Linn.) (E. B. 645.) Papaver erraticum majus. 
(C. Bauh.) P. rubrum^ Rhceas, Common red poppy, Corn rose. 

Fl. scarlet. June, July. Annual. Corn-fields. 

Petals, rhceadas petala, pectoral, slightly anodyne, used also as a 
red colouring- ingredient in medicines. (G.) The beautiful red petals 
are employed in the preparation of the Syrupus rhceados of the Phar- 
macopoeia, usefid merely as a colouring matter ; the plant is not known 
to be narcotic. (Pereira.) 

*Pafaver somniferum. (Linn.) (E. B. 2145.) Papaver offici- 
nale. (Gmel.) P. hortense. (C. Bauh.) White poppy. 

FL white. July. Annual. Originally from Asia, but now often 
cultivated in, and spontaneously growing by, the sides of fields. 

There are two varieties of this plant. 

a. Nigrum, with black seeds. 
/3. Album, with white seeds. 

Seeds, maio seed, put into cakes, used in emulsions, better tasted 
than almonds, yield oil ; capsules without the seed. Poppy-heads, Pa- 
paveris capsulce, used in anodyne fomentations, yield by incision the 
best opium, and by expression a coarser sort ; cultivated by the Lin- 
colnshire cottagers for the purpose of distilling a narcotic water from 
the flowers. (G.) From the wounded half-ripe capsules flows a juice 
which concretes into opium, the well-known powerful narcotic drug ; 
from the dried capsule, the decoction, syrup, and extract of poppies, 
are prepared. Dr. Pereira justly observes, that these capsules, or 
" heads," would be more active, if gathered before ripeness ; when full- 
grown, and just when the first change of colour is perceptible, should 
be the best time to collect them ; the seeds are not narcotic, but yield 
a bland oil, similar to that obtained from olives ; they are given to 
birds as food. 

Sanguinaria. (De Cand. i. 121.) 

Sanguinaria Canadensis. (Linn.) Blood root, Puccoon, Red 

root. North America. 

Juice blood red, used in dyeing ; fruit narcotic ; root Sanguinaria, 
P. U. S., emetic, purgative. (G.) An acrid narcotic ; in small doses 
it lowers the pulse, in smaller still it has some reputation as a tonic 
stimulant ; powder of root acts violently as an emetic, is a useful escha- 
rotic in cases of soft polypi, has been recommended in typhoid pneu- 
monia, phthisis, croup, hydrothorax, jaundice, &c. (L.) 



Order 10.— FUMARIACEiE. (De Cand. i. 125.) 

Calyx of two small membranaceous and deciduous sepals ; petals four, cruciate, 
free, or united at the base, sometimes one free, and three united ; the two exterior 
ones alternate with the sepals, and either one or both having a spur, or gibbosity, the 
two anterior ones oblong, linear, with a callosity at the apex ; stamens with six fila- 
ments, arranged in two phalanxes opposite to the external petals ; anthers six, small, 



204 VEGETABLES.— CRUciFERJE. 

tlie lateral ones of each phalanx are one-celled, the central two-celled ; there are, thero- 
foi-e, eight cells of the anthers, and, strictly speaking, there are but two anthers in each 
phalanx; ornry one, free; style filiform; stigma bilamellate, parallel to the interior 
l>etals; frnit dry, in some a bivalved, polyspermous, dehiscing silique, with opposite 
A'alves, having two persistent, nerviform placentas at the suture ; in some, the fruit is 
two-seeded, and indehiscent, the valves being firmly imited : in others, the fruit is 
without valves, indehiscent, one-seeded by aboi'tion ; seeds ovato-globose, shining, with 
an arillus, or caruncle, horizontally attached to the lateral placenta ; olbumea fleshy ; 
embryo basilar ; cotyledons oblong. Herbaceous plants, with brittle stems, and a watery 
juice ; leaves usually multiplied, alternate, often vv'ith tendrils ; Jiowers purple, white, or 
yellow ; Infloi'escence racemose. 

CoiiYDALis. (De Caiid. i. 126.) 

*'CoTiYDALis BULBOSA. (D. C.) (E. B. 1471.) Fumaria hiilhosa^ 
(Linn.,) Fumaria cava, (IIofFm.,) Btilhous-rooted fumitory. Solid- 
rooted corydalis. 

Fl. white or reddish. April, May. Perennial. Groves and thickets. 

*CoRYDALis CAPNOiDES. (Pers.) (E. B. 588.) Fumaria Intea^ 
Yelloio corydalis^ Yellow fumitory. 

Fl. yellow. May. Perennial. Old walls. 

Very opening", refreshinp,- ; of use in cutaneous disorders, boiled in 
milk ; or their expressed juice taken daily, to jij twice a-day ; infusion 
removes freckles, and clears the skin ; dyes yellosv. 

CoiiYDALis FABACEA. (Pers.) Fumariu fobaceu. (Linn.) Sweden* 
Denmark. 

Corydalis tuberosa. (D. C.) Fumaria cava. Pledges in South 
Europe. 

Roots very bitter, rather acrid ; they are the Radix aristolochice of 
the continental shops, which is principally employed as an external 
application to indolent tumours. 

Fumaria. (De Cand. i. 129.) 

*FuMARiA OFFICINALIS. (Linn.) Comm 071 fumitory. 

Fl. pink, blood-red at tips. .June, September. Annual. Eoad-sides. 

Herbage bitter, slightly diaphoretic and aperient ; the juice was for- 
merly administered in cutaneous diseases, and obstructions of the liver. 
(L.) 

Order 11.— CRUCIFER^. (De Cand. i. 131.) 

Sepals four, cruciate, deciduous ; petals foui', cruciate, alternate with the sepals ; 
Ktamens six, of which two are shorter, and. opposite the lateral petals, sometimes 
toothed ; disk with various green glands ; ovary single ; style one ; stiymas two ; fndt 
a silique, or silicle, one-celled, one or many-seeded, often tipped with the style ; seeds 
attached in a single row by a funiculus to each side of tlui placenta ; albumen none ; 
embryo oily, with the radicle folded upon the cotyledons. Herbs, or shrubs, with 
mostly alternate leaves; racemes opposite the leaves, or terminal, generally without 
bracteit). 

Contain azote (nitrogen) in their composition, and therefore easily 
putrify, and furnish volatile alkali by distillation ; they are generally 
stinmlant, but, when dried, lose their antiscorbutic quality ; seeds soon 
lose their vitality, unless kept moist in a cool place ; these plants are 
always the first to be attacked by insects, and soon destroyed by them, 
when kept in a hortus siccus. 



VEGETABLES.— CRuciFER^. 205 

Alyssum. (De Caiicl. i. 160.) 
Alyssum campestre. (Linn.) Alysson. Spain. 

Seeds, ^yith honey, take away freckles ; used in mania. 

Allaria. (De Cand. i. 196.) 
* Allaria officinalis. ( Andrz.) (E. B. 796.) Erysimum allaria, 
Jack by the hedge, Sauce alone. 

Fl. white. May, June. Perennial. Hedges. 
Antiscorbutic, used in coughs ; externally detersive ; seeds acrid, 
lithontriptic. 

Arabis. (De Cand. i. 142.) 
■^Arabis hirsuta. (Scop.) (E. B. 587.) Turritis hirsuta, Tower 
mustard. 

Fl. white. June. Biennial, Walls, rocks, and banks. 
*Arabis turrita.. (Linn.) (E. B. 178.) Bastard toioer mus- 
tard, Tower-icall cress. 

Fl. white. May. Perennial. Walls at Oxford and Cambridge. 
Juices kill worms, and cure the thrush, 

Barbarea. (De Cand. i. 140.) 
*Barbarea PR.'Ecox. (Brown.) (E. B. 1129.) Erysimum i^rcecox, 
Early lointer cress. 
Fl. yellow. April, October. Waste places, Devonshire. 
Herb acrid, used in scurvy, eaten in salads, 

^Barbarea vulgaris. (Brown.) (E. B. 443.) Ei-ysimum bar- 
barea. Bitter winter cress, Yellow rocket., Winter rochet. 

Fl. yellow. May, August. Perennial. Pastures and hedg-es. 
Antiscorbutic, used in coughs ; externally detersive ; seeds acrid, 
lithontriptic. 

Brassica. (De Cand. i. 213.) 
*Brassica campestris. (Linn.) (E. B. 2234.) Wild naveiv. 
Fl. yellow. June, July. Annual, biennial. Fields. 
Several varieties of this plant are cultivated for different purposes, 
these are— r 

a. Brassica campestris oleifera, Colsa de printems, Navette de 
printems. 
Seeds pressed for oil. 
/6. Brassica pabtdaria. 

Employed for sheep fodder. 
y. Brassica napobrassica, Swedish turnip. 
Used for food. 
*Brassica napus. (Linn.) (E. B. 2146.) Brassica napus oleifera, 
Napus sylvestris. Cole, Rape, Colsa d'hiver^ Navetta d'hiver, 
Fl. yellow. May, June. Biennial. Fields. 
Cultivated for an oil expressed from the seeds. 

Brassica esculenta {variety). Napus dulcis, Navew, French 
turnip. 

Boots nourishing, containing- a sweet juice, which is very pectoral, 
and of gTcat use in coughs, asthma, colds, and consumptions. 

Brassica oleracea. (Linn.) (E, B. 637.) B. Sylvestris, Wild 
cabbage. 

Fl. yellow. May, June. Biennial. Fields, &c. 



206 VEaETABLES.— CRUCiFEBiE. 

The principal cultivated varieties are — 

6. Acephala, Curled kale. 

y. Bullala, Savoy cabbage. 

L Capitata, Cormnoji white and red cabbage. 

£. Caulorapa, Turnip-stemmed cabbage. 

^. Botrytis. 

a. CauliJIora, Caidijioiver. 

h. Asparagoides, Broccoli. 

These, and others, form a copious source of aliment to man and 
beast ; juice a good pectoral, discussive, diuretic, and opens the belly : 
leaves vulnerary, opening-. 

Red cabbage, Brassica oleracea rubra. Leaves used to make a 
test-liquor for acids and alkalies. Pickled red cabbage. The leaves 
sliced, and preserved with vinegar and spices, used as a sauce. 

Saur kraut, Brassica acidulata. Large white cabbages, cut into 
thin horizontal slices, and placed in a barrel, with a layer of salt at the 
top and bottom, and between each layer of cabbages. A board, with 
some weight on it, is then put on the top, and it is kept in a cool place 
for some weeks ; a kind of fermentation takes place, and vinegar is 
formed ; some add juniper berries, coriander seeds, tops of anise, or 
caraway seeds, to the salt, as a kind of spice. It may be dried in an 
oven without any loss of its flavour. 

*Brassica rapa. (Linn.) (E. B. 2176.) Wild turiiip. 
Fl. yellow. April, May. Biennial. 
When cultivated, the root is nourishing. 

Brassica rapa oleifera, Navette de dauphine is a variety cultivated 
on account of the oil expressed from the seeds. 

BuNiAS. (De Cand. i. 229.) 
BuNiAS ERUCAGo. (Linn.) South of Europe. 
Acrid, diuretic. 

Camelina. (D.e Cand. i. 201.) 

*Camelina SATivA. (Crautz.) (E. B. 1254.) My agrum sativum, 
Wild gold of pleasure. 

Fl. yellow. June, July. Annual. Fields among flax. 

Vermifuge ; seeds, Sesamum seeds, useful in palsy ; yield oil. 
Capsella. (De Cand. i. 177.) 

*Capsella bursa pastoris. (Munch.) (E. B. 1485.) Thlaspi 
bur so pastoris, Shepherd's purse. 

Fl. white. Whole year. Annual. Very common. 

Seeds acrid, detersive, astringent. 

Cakile. (DeCand. i. 185.) 

*Cakile MARiTiMA. (Scop.) (E. B. 231.) Bunias cakile, Purple 
sea-rocket. 

Fl. purple. June, August. Annual. Sandy sea-shores. 

Antiscorbutic ; useful in the colic. 

Cardamine. (De Cand. i. 149.) 

* Card AMINE praten SIS. (Linn.) (E. B. 776.) Nasturtium pre- 



VEGETABLES.— CRuciFER^. 207 

tense, magneflore. (C. Bauh.) Flos cuculi, (Dod.) Cuckoo-fiower. 
Ladies-smock, 

Fl. purple or violet. May. Perennial. Moist meadows. 

Said to be stimulant, diaphoretic, and diuretic. The dried flowers 
have been a popular remedy for epilepsy in children. (L.) Depura- 
tive, and antiscorbutic ; used in obstructions and calculous cases. 
Flowers, cardamines jiores, antispasmodic, in doses of 5j to 5ij twice 
or thrice a day. Flowering tops, are still more successfully used in 
epileptic fits. (G.) Recommended by Sir George Baker in cholera 
and spasmodic asthma. (Pereira.) 

Cheiranthtjs. (De Cand. i. 135.) 

*CHEiRANTHirs CHEiRi. (Linn.) (E. B. 1934.) Cheiri, Leucojiim 
lutea, Co?nmo?i wall flower. 

Fl. yellow or dark brown. April, May. Perennial or biennial. 
Walls. 

Flowers cordial, emmenagogue ; used in palsy. 

CocHLEARiA. (De Caud. i. 172.) 

*CocHLEARTA Anglica. (Linn.) (E. B. 552.) C. Britannica 
marina, English scurvy grass. 

Fl. white. May, June. Annual. Sea-shores. 

*CocHLEARiA Armoracia. (Linn.) (E. B. 2403.) Armoracia, 
Haphanus rusticanus, (C Bauh.) it. sylvestris, (J. Bauh.) Armoracia 
Hivini, (Rupp.) Horse-radish. 

Fl. white. May. Perennial. A doubtful native ; gardens. 

Root ArmoracicB radix, powerfully antiscorbutic, antirheumatic, 
acrid ; taken, cut into small pieces, without chewing, cochl. j., every 
morning ; incisive, used as a sauce. (G.) Root stimulant, diapho- 
retic, and diuretic, and externally rubefacient ; it is used in paralysis, 
rheumatism, dropsy, and some cutaneous affections ; a syrup made with 
a concentrated infusion of it removes hoarseness arising from relaxa- 
tion. (Thomson.) Steeped in cold milk, it is said to form one of 
the best cosmetics, (Burnett.) 

*CocHLEARiA OFFICINALIS. (Linn.) (E. B. 551.) C. hortensis, 
C. JBatava. (Blackw.) Common scurvy grass. 

Fl. white. May, June. Annual. Muddy places near the sea. 

These herbs abound in valuable principles, which are dissipated by 
heat ; they are the most valuable of antiscorbutics, when eaten raw, or 
only their juice, 3J to ^iiij 5 ^^ excellent whey may be made from 
them. 

CoRONOPus. {Senebiera, De Cand. i. 202.) 

*CoRONOPUS RUELLi. (E.B. 1660.) Senebiera coronopus (D. C), 
Cochleara coronopus, Swine's cress. Wart cress. 

Fl. white. June, September. Annual, biennial. Waste ground. 

Properties the same as those of Cochlearia officinalis. 
Crambe. (De Cand. i. 225.) 

*Crambe maritima. (Linn.) (E. B. 924.) Brassica marina 
Anglica, Sea-cabbage, Sea-coleicort, Sea-kale. 

Fl. white. June. Perennial. Sandy sea-shores. 

An excellent pot-herb when blanched. 



208 VEGETABLES.— CRuciFER^. 

Dentaria. (De Caud. i. 1.54.) 
' Dextaria diphylla. (Miclix.) North America. 

Dried roots used as mustard. 
Dentaria heptaphyela. 
Root astringent, attenuant. 

Draba. (De Cand. i. 166.) 
*Draba muralis. (Linn.) (E. B. 912.) Wall whitlow grass. 
Fl. white. Ma}''. Annual. Limestone mountains and walls. 
Opening, detersive ; seed, English pepper, hot, used for pej3per. 

Erophila. (De Cand. i. 172.) 

*Erophila VULGARIS. (D. C.) (E. B. 586.) Drahaverna^ Paro- 
nychia, vulgaris. Whitlow grass. 

Fl. white. March, May. Annual. Walls and dry banks. 

Qualities the same as those of Draba muralis. 
Eruca. (De Cand. i. 223.) 

Eruca sativa. (Lamb.) JBrassica eruca, Garden rocket. South 
of Europe. 

Antiscorbutic, diuretic, flatulent ; seeds acrid, stimulant, exciting the 
stomach ; may be substituted for mustard, but are less pungent. 
Erysimum. (De Cand. i. 196.) 

^Erysimum cheiranthoides. (Linn.) (E. B. 942.) Cameliiia, 
Treacle mustard, Worm seed. 

Fl. white. June. Annual. Fields, &c. 

Herb, vermifuge, stomachic. 

Hesperis. (De Cand. i. 188.) 

^IIesperis matronalis. (Lamb.) (E. B. 731.) Dames violet, 
Hocket. 

Fl. purple. June. Perennial. Hilly pastures. 

Incisive ; used in dysury, strangury, and dyspnoea. 
Iberis. (De Cand. i. 178.) 

Iberis amara. (Linn.) (E. B. 52.) Bitter candytuft. 

Fl. white. July. Annual. Clialky soil, rare. 

Antiscorbutic ; may be eaten in salads. 

IsATis. (De Cand. i. 210.) 

*IsATis TiNCTORiA. (Linn.) Glastiim, Isatis, Dyer^s woad, Woad, 

Fl. yellow. July. Perennial. Cultivated fields. 

Desiccative, astringent ; used as a blue dye ; and indigo is said to have 
been manufactured from it. /. Lusitanica is also used in dyeing. 
Lepidium. (De Cand. i. 203.) 

*Lepidium campestre. (Brown.) (E. B. 1385.) Thlaspi cam- 
pestre, Bastard cress, Mithridate mustard^ Mithridate pepperivort. 

Fl. white. July. Annual. Very common. 

Seeds acrid, detersive, astringent ; cultivated as a salad. 

Lepidium Ibp:ris. (Linn.) Sciatica cress. South of Europe. 

Made into a poultice with curd, used in sciatica. 

*Lepidium LATiFoLiUM. (Liiui.) (E. B. 182.) Piperitis, Broad' 
leaved pepperwort, Dittandcr. 



VEGETABLES.— csuciFER^. 209 

Fl. white. July. Perennial. Wet places near the sea. 
Acrid, irritative, useful in sciatica ; infused in beer, facilitates deli- 
very ; sialogogue. 

**Lkpidium sativum. (Linn.) Nasturtium hortense. (Dodon.) 
Garden cress. Native of Asia. 

Cultivated as a salad. Seeds opening-, incisive, antiscorbutic. (G-.) 
Seed used in India by the native practitioners as a gentle stimulant. 
Bruised and mixed with lime-juice, it is deemed useful for checking- 
local inflammation. Taken whole in half-drachm doses, it answers as 
a gentle and warm aperient. (O'Sh.) 

LuNARiA. (De Cand. i. 156.) 

**Ltjnaria rediviva. (Linn.) Honesty^ Moonwort, Satin floioer. 

Fl. purple, fragrant. May, June. Perennial. South of Europe. 

Roots detersive ; leaves diuretic ; seeds extremely acrid, used in 
epilepsy. 

Mathiola. (De Cand. i. 132.) 

*Mathiola incana. (Brown.) (E. B. 1935.) Cheiranthus in- 
camis, Leucojum alhicm, Stock gilJiJiower^ Hoary shrubby stock. 

Fl. purple, red, white, or variegated. May, June. Biennial. Cliffs 
near Hastings. Doubtful native. 

Flowers used in inflammation, and to cleanse ulcers. 

NASTURTiUi>r. (De Cand. i. 137.) 
*Nasturtium AMPHiBiUM. (Brown.) (E. B. 1840.) Ra.phanus 
aquaticus, Sisymbrium amphibium, Amphibious cress, Water radish, 
Fl. yellow. June, August. Perennial. Watery places. 
•Acrid, used in scurvy, eaten- in salads. 

^Nasturtium officinale. (Brown.) (E. B. 155.) Nasturtium 
aquaticum, Sisymbrium aquaticum, Water cresses. 

Fl. white. July. Perennial. Brooks, &c., common. 

Depurative and antiscorbutic, used in obstructions and calculous 
cases. 

Raphanus. (De Cand. i. 228.) 

*E,APHANus RAPHANisTRUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 856.) Jointed char- 
lock. Wild mustard. 

Fl. yellow, veined. June, July. Annual. Corn-fields. 
**Raphanus sativus. (Linn.) M. hortensis, Common radish 
Fl. white, with violet veins. July. Annual. Native of Asia. 
The principal varieties cultivated are, 

a. Rotundus. Root subglobose. White or red. 

)6. Oblongus. Root oblong. White or red. 

y. Niger. Root hard ; black ; oblong, rarely round. 
Aperitive, diuretic, and excite the appetite ; seeds attenuant, pressed 
for oil. (G.) They are said by Von Martins to be emetic. The 
roots are diuretic and laxative ; the expressed juice is sometimes used 
on the continent. (L.) 

SiNAPis. (De Cand. i. 217.) 
*SiNAPis alba . (Linn.) (E. B. 1677.) White mustard, 
Fl. yellow. July. Annual. Waste ground. 

p 



210 VEGETABLES.— CRuciFERiE. 

Seeds ground for mustard, but not so stimulant. (G.) Seeds 
powerfully acrid and pungent, employed in the state of flour in the 
common table mustard, and in their entire state as stimulating 
cathartics ; ulceration of the intestines has, however, been produced 
by the use of them, when they have been lodged in the vermiform 
appendages of the caecum. (L.) 

*SiNAPis ARVENSis. (Linn.) (E. B. 1748.) Eruca arvensis 
vulgaris. (Rupp.) Irion. (Fucli.) Yelloiv charlock. 

Fl. yellow. June. Annual. Waste ground. 

Seeds detersive and digestive ; when given to birds instead of 
rape, they heat and kill them ; ground for mustard, but of inferior 
flavour. 

SiNAPis Chinensis. (Linn.) Chinese mustard. China. 
Seeds considered by the Mahometan and Hindoo practitioners 
stimulant, laxative, and stomachic. (L.) 

*SiNAPis NIGRA. (Linn.) (E. B. 969.) Eruca rapi folio. 
(Rupp.) Sinapi, Common mustard. 

Fl. yellow. June, Annual. Waste ground. 

Seeds, Sinapis semiiia, unbruised, coch. min. j. stimulant, and 
generally laxative ; cure vernal agues ; farina of the seeds used as a 
rubefacient, and as seasoning ; when mixed with water or vinegar, 
has a bitter flavour, which after some time goes off; hull of the seed 
sold for ground-pepper, under the name of P. D., i.e., pepper dust, 
and pressed for oil. (G.) Seeds acrid, stimulating, and bitter; the 
oil is purgative, and has been proposed as a rubefacient in paralysis, 
and as a vesicant ; the distilled water has been used in itch ; the flour 
forms an useful local irritant in the form of a poultice. (L.) 

Sinapis dichotorna, Sersoon. 
Sinapis ramosa. Raee. 
Sinapis glauca, Sheta sersha. Toria. 
Sinapis juncea. (Linn.) Biinga serson. 

Seeds pressed for oil. (G.) Employed in India as mustard ; the 
last three species extensively cultivated for their oil. (O'Sh.) 

Sisymbrium (De Cand. i. 190.) 
*SiSYMBRiuM iRio. (Linn.) (E.B. 1631.) Erysimum latifolium, 
Broad-leaved hedge mustard, London rochet. 

Fl. yellow. July, August. Annual. Waste places. 
Herb used as a heating pot-herb. 

*SisYMBRiuM OFFICINALE. (Scop.) (E. B. 735.) Erysimum 
o^cinale., Hedge mustard. 

Fl. yellow. June, July. Annual. Waysides, common. 

Antiscorbutic, used in coughs ; externally detersive ; seeds acrid, 
lithon trip tic. 

*SisYMBRiuM Sophia. (Linn ) (E. B. 963.) Sophia chirurgorwn, 
Flixiveed. 

Fl. yellow. August. Annual. Waste places. 
Vulnerary, astringent, detersive. 



VEGETABLES. —CAPPARiDEvE. . 211 

Teesdalta. (De Cand. i. 178.) 
*Teesdalta iberis, (D. C.) (E. B. 327.) Bursa pastoris 
minor, Iberis nudicaulis. 

Teesdalia nudicaulis. (Brown.) Lesser shepherd's purse, 
Naked-stalked teesdalia. 

Fl. white. May, June. Annual. Battersea, common. 

Antiscorbutic, may be eaten in salads. 

Thlaspi. (De Cand. i. 175.) 

*Thlaspi ARVENSE. (Linn.) (E. B. 1659.) Mithridate mustard, 
Penny cress. Treacle mustard. 

Fl. white. June, July. Annual. Fields and road-sides, rare. 

Seeds acrid, detersive, astringent. 



Order 12.— CAPPARTDE^. (De Cand. i. 237.) 

Sepals 4, either nearly distinct, equal or unequal, or cohering in a tube, the limb 
•of which is variable in form ; petals 4r, cruciate, usually unguiculate and unequal ; 
stamens almost perigynous, very seldom tetradynamous, most frequently arranged in 
some high multiple of a quartcinary number, definite, or indefinite; disk hemispherical 
or elongated after bearing glands; ovary stalked; stijle none, or filiform ; /r(«*i either pod- 
shaped and dehiscent, or baccate, one-celled, very rarely one-seeded, most frequently 
with two polyspermous placentje ; seeds generally reniform, without albumen, but with 
the lining of the testa tumid, attached to the margin of the valves ; embryo incurved ; 
cotyledons foliaceous, flattish. Herbaceous plants, shrubs, or even trees, without true 
stipules, but sometimes with spines in their place ; leaves alternate, stalked, undivided, 
or palmate ; flowers in no particular arrangement. 

Capparis. (De Cand. i. 245.) 

Capparis cynophallophora. (Linn.) Caribbean Islands. 

An infusion of the acrid root has been recommended as a specific in 
dropsy. 

Capparis pulcherrima. (Jacq.) Carhorescens. Carthagena. 

A poisonous fruit, called Fruta de burro, is supposed to belong to 
this or an allied species. 

Capparis spinosa. (Linn.) Caper tree. South of Europe. 

The young flower-buds are the pickled capers of the shops ; they 
are esteemed antiscorbutic, stimulant, and aperient. (L.) Bark of 
the root acerb, discussive, diuretic, splenic ; useful in gout. (Gr.) 
Crat^va. (De Cand. i. 243.) 

Crat.eva gynandra. (Linn.) Garlick pear. Jamaica. 

Bark of root said to blister like cantharides. 

Cratveva tapia. (Linn.) West Indies. 

Bark bitter and tonic ; has been used in the cure of intermittent 
fevers. 

PoLANisiA. (De Cand. i. 242.) 

PoLANisiA icosandra. (Wight and Arm.) Cleome icosandra, and 
dodecandra. (Linn.) C. viscosa. (Linn.) P. viscosa. (De Cand.) 
Pastard mustard. East Indies. 

Used in Cochin-China as a counter-irritant, in the same way as 
sinapisms in Europe, and as a vesicant. The root used as a vermifuge 
in the West Indies (Linn.) ; it is also employed as a sauce. (G-.) 

p 2 



212 VEGETABLES.— BixiNE^. 

Order 13.— ELACOUHTIANEiE. (De Cand. i. 255.) 

Sepals 4 — 7, definite, slightly cohering at base; petals equal to the sepals in number, 
and alternating with them, seldom wanting; stamens hypogynous, either equal to the 
petals in number, or some multiple of them, sometimes changed into nectariferous 
scales; ovary roundish, distinct, sessile, or slightly stalked: style none, or filiform; 
stigmas as many as the valves of the ovary, more or less distinct; fruit one-celled, 
either fleshy and indehiscent, or capsular, with four or five valves, the centre filled with 
a thin pulp; seeds few, thick, usually enveloped in a pellicle formed by the withered 
pulp, attached to the surface of the valves in a branched manner, not in a line, as iu 
Violace.ne and Passifloracete ; albumen fleshy, rather oily ; embryo straight in the axis, 
with the radicle turned to the hilum, and therefore usually superior ; cotyledons Hat, 
foliaceous. Shrubs, or small trees, with alternate simple leaves, without stipules ; 
peduncles axillary, many-flowered. 

Chaulmoogra. (Hoxb. fl. Ind. iii. 836.) 
Chaulmoogra odorata. Chaulmoogra. East Indies, 

The seeds, beaten up with butter into a soft mass, and applied 

thrice a day to the parts affected, are used extensively by the natives 

of India in the cure of cutaneous diseases. 

Flacourtia. (De Cand. i. 256.) 
Flacourtia cataphracta. (Koxb.) East Indies. 

Small leaves and shoots used in India as gentle astringents, in the 
dose of half a drachm in povvder. An infusion of the bark in cold 
water is also employed as a remedy in hoarseness. (O'Sh.) 
Flacourtia sepiaria. (Roxb.) Couroii 77ioelli. East Indies. 
Fruit delicious, eatable ; a decoction of the bark in oil used against 
gout ; a decoction of the leaves and root in cow's milk used as an 
antidote a^^ainst the bite of serpents. 

The fruits of F. ramontschi, and F. sapida, are also eaten. 

Hydnocarpus. (De Cand. i. 257. Hijdrocarpus. Lindl.) 
Hydnocarpus inebrians. (Vahl.) H. venenata. Ceylon. 

Bears a poisonous fruit, which, when eaten, occasions giddiness and 
dangerous intoxication. 

Stigmarota. (De Cand. i. 257.) 
Stigmarota Jangomas. (Lour.) Spina splnarum, Jangomas. Java. 
Fruit eaten. 



Order 14.— BIXINEiE. (De Cand. i. 259.) 

Sepals 4 — 7, either distinct, or cohering at the base, with an imbricated aestiva- 
tion ; petals five, like the sepals, or wanting ; stamens indefinite, distinct, inserted 
upon a receptacle at the base of the calyx ; anthers two-celled ; ovary superior, sessile, 
one-celled ; omdes proceeding from four to seven parietal placenta? ; style single, or in 
two or four divisions ; fruit capsular, or berried, one-celled, many-seeded ; seeds 
attached to parietal placenta;, or enveloped in pulp; albumen either fleshy, or very 
thin ; embryo included, either straightish, or curved ; cotyledons leafy ; radicle point- 
ing to the hilum. Trees, or shrubs, with alternate simple leaves; peduncles a^iW^n-y , 
one or many flowered, with bracts. 

BlXA. 

BiXA Orellana. (Linn.) Onotho incolarmn. (Kunth.) Orleana. 
(Pluk.) Uruku. (Sloan.) An?iotto, or arnotto plant. Tropical parts 
of America. 

The seeds are covered with an orange red waxen pulp, or pellicle. 



VEGETABLES.—vioLARE^. 213 

which substance is the annotto or arnotto of the shops ; it is chiefiy 
used for colouring- cheese, and in the preparation of chocolate ; but 
was formerlj'" reckoned an antidote to the poison of the Manioc, or 
Janipha manihot. 

Order 15.— CISTINEJE. (De Cand. i. 263.) 

Sepals five, persistent, continuous, with the pedicle generally unequal, two exteiior 
heing smaller than the others, and sometimes evanescent, three inteiior contorted in 
aestivation ; petals five, hypogynous, caducous, equal, contorted in astivation, but in 
a direction opposite to that of the sepals; stamens indefinite, few or many, hypogynous, 
erect ; filaments free ; anthers ovate, bilocular, birimose, innate ; ovary free ; style 
one, filiform; stigma simple; capsule of 3 — 5, (seldom 10,) valves ; in some having 
in their centre a placentary longitudinal nerve, and tlien the capsule is one-celled ; in 
others the middle nerve projects internally, forming a more or less perfect septiun, and 
then the capsule is completely or incompletelj- multilocular ; the seeds ai-e therefore 
either parietal, or adnate to the septum, numerous, and small ; albumen farinose ; em- 
bryo spiral or curved, within the albumen. Shrubs, or herbs, having simple, entire, or 
subdontal oj)posite leaves and racemose inflorescence. 

The plants of this order are astringent and pectoral. 
CisTUS. (De Cand. i. 263.) 

CiSTus Creticus. (Linn.) Cistus tauricics. (Presl.) Ladamim 
Creticum, (P. Alpin.) Crete, Syria. 

The gum resin Ladanum is produced principally by this species ; 
esteemed as a stimulant and emmenagogue ; it has also been recom- 
mended in chronic catarrh. 

Cistus ladaniferus. (Linn.) C. Laurefolius. (Linn.) ; and 
C. Ledon. (Lamb.) Natives of the South of France and Spain, are 
also said to yield the same substance. (L.) Tiie inferior sort. (Gray.) 

Cistus incanus. (Linn.) Spain. 

The parasitic plant Hypocistus^ Cytiniis hypocistus, grows chiefly 
upon this plant. 

Cistus salvifolius. (Linn.) C. fcemina^ Female holly rose. 
South of France. 

Cistus viLLosus. (Lamb.) C. mas., Male holly rose. Spuin. 

Leaves and flowers astringent. 

Helianthemum. (De Cand. i. 266.) 

Heliakthemum fumana. (Mill.) Cistits fumana. France. 

*IIelia]\themum guttatum. (Mill.) (E. B. 544.) Cistus giMatus, 
Spoiled annual rock rose. 

Fl. yellow, spotted at the base. June, Juty. Annual. Jer;;ey. 

*P1elianthemum VUI.GARE. (Gaertu.) (E. B. 1321.) Cistus 
helianthemum, Helianthemum anglicum luteum, Dwarf cistus, Little 
sunflower. 

Fl. yellow. July, August. Perennial. Dry pastures. 

These and the other species are astringent. 



Order 16.— VIOLARE^. (De Cand. i. 287.) 

Calyx of five persistent sepals, usually elongated at the base ; petals five, alternate 
with the sepals, hypogynous, equal or unequal, lower one spurred, or cuculate; 
stamens five, alternate with the petals, inserted on a thalamus ; anthers bilocular, 
often free and adpressed to the ovary, sometimes more or less united at the base into 



214 VEGETABLES.— vioLAREE. 

a monadelphous disk ; filaments dilated ; ovary one-celled, with parietal placentas ; 
stijle one, simple; stigma slightly lateral, hooded; capsule three-valved, many-seeiled, 
albumen fleshy ; embryo straight. Herbs, or shrubs, generally with alternate stipulate 
leaves; inflorescence various. 

loNiDiUM. (De Cancl. i. 310.) 

ToNiDiuM MiCROPHYLLUM. (Kuiitli.) CuichunculU . Quito, South 
America. 

loNiDiuM POYAYA. (Lindl.) Poaya do campo. South America. 

Roots emetic, collected as a substitute for true ipecacuanha in 
Brazil. (G.) These lonidia deserve to be attentively studied with 
reference to their medicinal properties. (L.) Cuichunchulli has been 
recommended as a remedy for elephantiasis. 

lONIDIUM BREVICAULE. (Mart.) 
lONIDIUM MAYTENSILLO. 

loNiDiuM PARViFLORUM. (Vent.) Viola parvijloraj V, Ihonhou .^ 

lONIDIUM URTICI-FLORUM. 

Also furnish similar active principles. 

loNiDiuM suFFRUTicosuM. (Ging. mss.) V a suffruticosa. East 
Indies. 

Employed in India as a demulcent. (O'Sh.) 

PoMBALiA. (De Cand. i. 307.) 

PoMBALiA iTUBU. (Ging. mss.) lonidium ipecacuanha, Viola 
ipecacuanha^ Poaya. branca^ Poaya da praja. Brazil. 

Root, white ipecacuanha, emetic, milder than the false kinds, but 
mostly adulterated with them ; dose, gr. v. to 9 ij. ; in small doses, 
gr. ss. to gr. ij. ; given frequently it is diaphoretic, expectorant, and 
stomachic. In both methods it is antidysenteric, gr. v., or enough 
to excite nausea, given an hour before the fit, has been successful 
in intermittents. 

Viola. (De Cand. i. 291.) 

*ViOLA canina. (Linn.) (E. B. 620.) Viola sylvestris, (Volck.) 
Viola inodora. (Dill.) Dog violet, Marsh violet. 

Fl. blue. April, August. Perennial. Woods and banks. 

Considered as a depurative, and recommended for the cure of 
cutaneous affections ; root emetic. 

*ViOLA ODORATA. (Linn.) (E. B. 619.) Viola officinarum. 
(Rupp.) Flos trimtatis, (Camer.) Jacea. Siveet violet, Purple violet. 

Fl. deep purple, fragrant. March, April. Perennial. Woods and 
banks. 

Petals made into syrup. 

* Viola tricolor. (Linn.) (E. B. 1287.) Hearths-ease, Pansy. 

Fl. of one, two, or three colours, blue, yellow, and white. Whole 
summer. Annual. Banks. 

The flowers of these three are moistening and pectoral ; seeds 
diuretic; roots expectorant, slightly emetic, and in doses of 9j. 
cathartic. (G ) Leaves of V. tricolor employed in Italy in the cure 
of Tinea capitis. (L.) Leaves of flower used instead of those of 
V. odorata in syrup. 

Vioi-A pedata. (Linn.) American violet, Viola P. U. S, 

Root emetic. 



VEGETABLES.— RESEDACE^. 215 

Order 17.— DROSERACE^. (De Cand. i. 317.) 

Se2xds five, persistent, imbricated in aestivation ; petals five, distinct, hypogjmous, 
alternate with the sepals ; stamens free, alternate with the petals, and equal to them 
in number, or double, triple, or quadruple their number ; anthers two-celled ; ovarij 
one ; styles 3 — 5, luiited at the base, or distinct ; bifid or ramose ; capsule 1 — 3 celled, 
3 — 5 valved, margin of valves bent inwards, dehiscing at the apex ; seeds attached to 
a central nerve, or only to the base, naked, or enclosed in a thin follicular arillus ; 
albumen cartilaginous or fleshy ; embryo straight, with the radicle towards the hilum. 
Herbaceous plants, with alternate leaves, having stipulary fringes, and a circinate 
Yei'nation ; peduncles, when young, circinate. 

Drosera. (De Cand. i. 317.) 
*Drosera rotundifolia. (Linn.) (E, B. 867.) Rosella vulgaris, 
(Berg.) Rosa soils, Ros solis. (Thai.) Rosella, Round-leaved sundew, 
ri. white. July. Annual. Bogs and moist heaths. 
Acrid, anti-arthritic, detersive, externally rubefacient. 

Parnassia. (De Cand. i. 320.) 

*P^RNASSiA PALUSTRis. (Linn.) (E. B. 82.) Cistus palustris. 
(Volck.) Hepatica alba. (Cord.) Gramen Parnassi. (C. Bauh.) 
Grass of Parnassus. 

Fl. white, with green pellucid nectaries. August, October. Perennial. 
Bogs and wet places. 

Juice ophthalmic ; seeds diuretic, aperitive. 



Order 18.— RESEDACEJE. (De Cand., Bot. Gal. i. 66,) 

Sepals 4 — 6, continuous, with the pedicle persistent ; 2)etals 4 — 6, alternate, with 
the sepals hypogynous, unequal, the upper with squamiform, palmatipartite limbs ; the 
lateral 2 — 3 lobed, and the lower entire; stamens 10 — 24, hypogynous; filaments 
generally somewhat united at the base, monadelphous, or polyadelphous ; anthers two- 
celled ; nectariferous scales very obtuse, inserted on the torus beneath the stamens ; 
torus either short or stipitiform; ovaries 3 — 6, monostylous, sometimes free, inserted 
on the upper part of the torus ; sometimes united into one ovary, which is then crowned 
by 3 — 6 short conical styles ; the carpels are therefore either free, folliculiform, few- 
seeded, and dehiscing internally, or united into a 3 — 6 valved capsule, gaping at the apex, 
one-celled, many-seeded ; placentas 3 — 6, adnate to the middle of the carpels oi v.ilyes, 
many-seeded ; sometimes in the free carpels, 1 — 2 seeded ; seeds subpendulous from 
the placenta in a double row, and furnished with a crustaceous testa ; albumen none, cr 
thin and carnoso membraneous ; embryo arcuate ; cotyledons fleshy ; radicle superior. 
Herbs with alternate leaves ; flowers with short pedicles. 

Reseda. 

*Reseda lutea. (Linn.) (E. B. 321.) 7?. vulgaris, Wild 
mignonette, Wild rocket. 

El. yellow. July, August. Annual. Waste places. 

Discussiv^e, used externally to dissipate inflammations and tumours ; 
dyes yellow. 

*Reseda luteola. (Linn.) (E. B. 320.) Dyers weed, Yellow 
weed. Weld, 

Fl. yellow. July. Annual. Waste places on chalky soil. 

Used in dyeing yellow and green ; French weld, stem much finer 
than the English. 



216 VEGETABLES.— POLYGALE^. 

Order 19.— POLYGALEiE. (De Cand. i. 321.) 

Sepals five, imbricate in aestivation, the two interior generally potaliform, the three 
exterior smaller, two of them are anterior, and sometimes united, the third is posteriory 
petals 3 — 5, hypogj'nous, more or less united by means of the tube of the stamens, 
(I'arely distinct) ; filaments of stamens adherent to the petals, monadelphous, divided at 
the apex into two opposite equal phalanxes ; anthers eight, one celled, innate, dehiscing by 
pores at the apex; ovari/ one, free, two-celled, rarely one or three-celled: style one; 
stigma one; pericarp capsular, or drupaceous, two or one-celled, valves septigerous in the 
middle ; seeds pendulous, solitary, often with a carunculate arillus at the base ; embryo 
straight, generally in the axis of a fleshy albumen, or (rarely) exalbiiminous, in which 
case the endopleuia is turned. Herbs, or shrubs, witli entire, generally alternate leaves, 
articulated on the stem. 

Krameria. (De Cand. i. 341.) 
Krameria ixina. (Linn.) St. Domingo. 

Krameria triandra. (Kuiz et Pav.) Peru. 

Root. Rhotany^ Rhatania, KramericE radix^ astringent and tonic. 
(G.) The extract of K. triandra is styptic and tonic, operates power- 
fully upon tumours, resolving and restoring tone to those parts; 
corrects and cures all kinds of ulcers, when ap})lied to them in plaisters ; 
when administered internally, extract of Riiatany is apt to be rejected 
by the stomach, till three or four doses liave been taken ; if the stomach 
will not retain it, it should be given in pills, the patient immediately 
chewing a little lemon, and drinking and gargling with vinegar diluted 
with water. (Ruiz.) Commonly used in Peru as tooth-powder. (L.) 

MoNNiNA. (De Cand. i. 338.) 

MoNNiNA POLYSTACHYA. (Ruiz ct Pav.) Peruvian Andes. 

The bark of the root, when fresh pounded and moulded into balls, 
or the dry bark, is detergent ; it readily froths when agitated in water, 
and is used by the Peruvians as a substitute for soap ; the silversmiths 
of Huanuco employ it for cleansing and polishing wrought silver. 
Antidysenteric, used with great success in the cure of dysenteries 
and irritating diarrhoeas in Peru, where it is preferred to quassia. 
(Ruiz, L.) 

MoNNiNA SALCIFOLIA. (Fl. Peruv.) Peru. 

Has the same qualities. 

PoLYGALA. (De Cand. i. 321.) 

PoLYGALA AMARA. (Liuu.) Polygcila myrtij'olia. (Dillen.) Poly- 
gala Austriaca. (Cranz.) Poly gala uUgiiiosa. (Reich.) Europe. 

*PoLYGALA VULGARIS. (Limi.) (E. B. 76.) Common milk-wort. 

Fl. blue, pink, or ^^ liite. January, August. Perennial. Dry hills, 
pastures, &c. 

Roots may be substituted for rattlesnake root ; dose in powder jss. 
to 5J., useful in pleurisy ; herbs bitter, diaphoretic, in infusion oiiij., 
taken daily, promote expectoration, and are used in catarrhous coughs. 
(G.) 

PoLYGALA Caracas AN A. (Kunth.) Caracas. 

Root with a taste similar to P. senega, but not altogether equal to 
it. (L.) 



VEGETABLES.— FOLYGALE^. 217 

PoLYGALA Chamjebuxus. (Linn.) Mountain woods, Europe. 
Qualities similar to those of P. senega. 

PoLYGAXA CROTALARIOIDES. (Bucll.) Nepal. 

A reputed cure for the bite of venomous reptiles. (Gr.) U&ed as 
a snake antidote in Nepal and the Himalayas. (O'Sh.) 

PoLYGALA GLANDULOSA. (Kunth.) 

Emetic. 

PoLYGALA POAYA. {Martius Spec. Mat. Med. Bras.) Brazil. 

An active emetic; root used successfully in the bilious fevers of 

Brazil; when fresh, scarcely inferior to ipecacuanha. (Martius.) 

PoLYGALA Rubella. (Pursh.) P. polygama, Bitter polygala, 
United States. 

A strong bitter taste pervades all the parts ; in small doses its infusion 
is found useful as a tonic and stimulant to the digestive organs ; in large 
doses it opens the body, and excites diaphoresis. (L.) 

Poly gala sanguine a. (Linn.) Carolina. 

A supposed antidote to the bite of poisonous reptiles. (L.) 

PoLYGALA SENEGA. (Linn.) Rattlesnake root. SeneJia, S?iake 
roof. United States. 

Roots, Senega, Senegce radix, diaphoretic, diuretic, used in America 
against the bite of the rattlesnake, either in powder 9j. to 3ij., or 5j. 
boiled in rbjss., of water to Ibj., and given by jij. at a time ; black 
snake root is used for it. (G.) Root unpleasant, somewhat acid and 
acrid ; it acts as a sudorific and expectorant in small doses, and as an 
emetic and cathartic in large ones ; employed in pneumonia, asthma, 
croup, dropsy, chronic rheumatism, and especially in such uterine 
complaints as araenorrbcea : Dr. Archer has extravagantly praised it 
in cynanche trachealis. (L.) An exceedingly valuable remedy in 
the latter stao:es of bronchial or pulmonarv inflammation, when this 
disease occurs in aged, debilitated, and torpid constitutions, it appears 
to re-establish a healthy condition of the secreting' organs, to promote 
the resolution of tlie morbid deposits, and to give strength to tlie system. 
(Pereira.) 

PoLYGALA THKEZANS. (Linn.) Java, Japan. 

Mixed with tea in Japan. 

PoLYGALA ULiGiNosA. (Rchb.) P. aiiiara. Germany. 

Whole plant bitter, much extolled by Yan Swieten and others in 
pulmonary complaints and spitting of blood. (L.) 

PoLYGALA VENENOSA. (.JuSS.) 

Said by Commerson to be a poisonous plant, so much dreaded by 
the Javanese, that they are unwilling to touch it. (L.) 

SouLAMEA. (De Cand. i. 335.) 

SouLAMEA AMAKA. (Lamb.) Rex amaroris. Coast of Moluccas. 

All the parts, especially the roots and fruit, intensely bitter ; em- 
ployed in the Malayan Archipelago with extraordinary success in 
cholera and pleurisy, and most valuable as a febrifuge. (L.) Also 
used in ague. (O'Sh.) 



218 VEGETABLES.— CARYOPHYLLE^. 



Order 20.— PITTOSPOREJE. (De Cand. i. 345.) 

Sepals five, deciduous, either distinct, or partially cohering, aestivation imbricated ; 
stamens five, hypogynous, sometimes slightly cohering, jpstivation imbricated, distinct, 
alternate with the petals; ouaz-y single, distinct, with the cells or the placenta 2 — 5 in 
number, and many-seeded ; style one ; stigmas equal in number to the placentae ; fruit 
capsular, or berried, with many-seeded cells, which are sometimes incomplete ; seeds 
often covered with a glutinous or resinous pulp; embryo minute, near the hilum, lying 
in fleshy albumen ; radicle rather long ; cotyledons very short. Trees or shrubs ; leaves 
simple, alternate, without stipules, usually entire ; y?Oifers terminal, or axillary, some- 
times polygamous. 

Several species have a liquid resin round the seeds, which deserves 
examination. (O'Sh.) 

BiLLARDiERA. (De Cand. i. 345.) 

BiLLARDiERA scANDENS. (Smith.) New Holland. • 

Flesh of the berry eatable. 

PiTTOSPORUM. (De Cand. i. 346.) 
PiTTOSPORUM ToBiRA. (Ait.) Japan. 

Seeds surrounded by a kind of resinous birdlime. 



Order 21.— CARYOPHYLLE^. (De Cand. i. 351.) 

Calyx of four or five sepals, continuous with the pedicle, either free or united into a 
tube, imbricated in aestivation, generally persistent ; 2^Gtals four or five, (very rarely 
none,) inserted on a more or less elevated torus, hypogynous, alternate with the 
sepals, unguiculate, with an entire or bifid spreading limb, often furnished with petaloid 
scales in the throat ; stamens equal to, or double the number of the petals, inserted on 
the torus ; filaments subulate ; anthers two-celled ; ovary simple, 2 — 5 valved, inserted 
at the apex of the torus, and crowned by an equal number of styles; capsule of 2 — 5 
valves, united at the base, opening at the apex, either one-celled, or 2 — 5 celled ; 
septa protruding from the middle of the valves, incomplete, or continuous to the axis ; 
placenta central ; seeds numerous, rarely few, or defined ; albumen mealy ; embryo 
curved round the albumen, rarely straight ; radicle directed towards the hilum. Herbsy 
or under shrubs, with knotted stems, opposite, entire, and often connate leaves and 
terminal flowers. 

Arena RiA. (De Cand. i. 400.) 

*Arenaria media. (Linn.) (E. B. 958.) A. marina^ Sea-side 
sandwort, Sea spurry. 

Fl. purple. June, July. Annual. Sea-coast. 

Externally used in whitlows and other inflammations ; very succu- 
lent ; when pickled sold for samphire. 

*Arenaria peploides. (Linn.) (E. B. 189.) Ade7iarum p., Sea 
sandwort. 

Fl. white. July. Perennial. Sandy shores. 
Herb fermented and made into Iceland Leer. 

Cerastium. (De Cand. i. 414.) 

*Cerastium aquaticum. (E. B. 538.) Alsine aquatica major, 
Great marsh chickiveed. 
Fl. white. July. Perennial. Sides of ditches in England. 



VEGETABLES.— CARYOPHYLLE^. 219 

*Cerastium arvense. (Linn.) (E. B. 93.) Field chickweed, Corn 
mouse-ear. 

Fl. white. June, July. Perennial. Dry sandy places in England. 

*Cerastium viscosuM. (Linn.) (E. B. 790.) Alsine hirsuta altera 
viscosa, Narroiv-leaved mouse -ear chickiveed. 

Fl. white. April, September. Annual. Pastures. 

*Cerastium vulgatum. (Linn.) (E. B. 789.) Alsine hirsuta 
myosotis, Broad-leaved mouse-ear chickiveed. 

Fl. white. April, June. Annual. Fields and pastures. 

Cooling moistening herbs, nourishing cattle ; used as spinach. 
DiANTHus. (De Cand. i. 355.) 

DiANTHUS arenarius. (Linn.) Maiden pink, Stojie pink. North 
of Europe. 

*DiANTHUS Armeria. (Liuu.) (E. B. 317.) Caryophillus pra^ 
tensis, Deptford pink. 

Fl. rose-coloured with white spots. July, August. Annual. Fields. 

**DiANTHUs BARBATUS. (Liuu.) (Bot. M. 205.) Siveet William, 

Fl. pink, purple, or white, variously spotted. June, August. 
Perennial. South of France. 

DiANTHUS Carthusianorum. (Linn.) (Eillet des chartreux. Europe. 

*DiANTHUS Caryophyllus. (Liuu.) (E. B. 214.) Caryophyllus 
ruber, Clove gillijiower^ Clove pink, Carnation. 

Fl. pink, white, or variegated. July. Perennial. South of Eng- 
land. 

DiANTHUS SUPERBUS. (Linn.) Fringed pink. 

The flowers, tanicce, of D. caryopliyllus are cephalic, cardiac, anti- 
spasmodic, nervine ; in doses of 3j. to 3J. useful in heartburn and con- 
tagious fevers ; the odour is improved by drying. The otiier species of 
dianthus have similar qualities, but weaker. (G.) 

Gypsophila. (De Cand. i. 351.) 

Gypsophila muralis. (Linn.) France, Germany. 

Gypsophila saxifraga. (Linn.) South of Europe. 

Gypsophila Struthium. (Linn.) Spain. 

Lithontriptic, and used for soapwort in lues ; saponaceous and are 
used for washing. 

Holosteum. (De Cand. i. 393.) 

*Holosteum umbellatum. (Linn.) (E. B. 27.) Caryophyllus 
arveyisis, Field pink, Umbelliferous jagged chickiveed. 

Fl. white, or reddish. April. Annual. Kare. Norfolk. 

Cooling, moistening, used as spinach. 

Lychnis. (De Cand. i. 385.) 

Lychnis cceli rosa. (Lamb.) Agrostemma cceli rosa. Sicily. 

**Lychnis coronaria. (Lamb.) (Bot. Mag. 24.) Agrostemma 
coronaria, Crown lychnis. 

Fl. red or white, single or double. July, August. Perennial. 
Native of Italy. 

Lychnis flos Jovis. (Linn.) Agrostemma Jlos Jovis. 

*Lychnis Githago. (Lamb.) (E. B. 741.) Agrosternmagithago^ 
Corn cockle. 



220 VEGETABLES,— CARYOPHYLLE.E. 

Fl. purple. June, July. Annual. Corn-fields. 
Roots vulnerary, astringent ; seeds purgative. 

*Lychnis DioiCA. (Linn.) (E. B. 1580.) Saponaria dioica. (Willd.) 

Var. 1. DiURNA. Red Campion^ Campion cuckoo fioiver, 

Fl. red, scentless. May — September. Perennial. Hedges, ditches, 
and moist woods. 

Var. 2. Vespertina. White Camjnon, or Cuckoo Jiower, Bache- 
lor s button. 

Fl. White. June, July. Perennial. Road-sides, hedges. 

*Lychnis FLOS cucuLi. (Linn.) (E. B. 573.) Cuckoo Jioiver, 
JMeadoiu pink, Ragged robin. 

Fl. rose-coloured. June. Perennial. Moist meadows. 

*Lychnis viscaria. (Linn.) (E. B. 788.) Red German caichjiy, 

Fl. rose-coloured. June. Perennial. Scotland. 

Roots cordial. 

Saponaria. (De Cand. i. 365.) 

*Saponaria OFFICINALIS. (Linn.) (E. B. 1060.) Lychnis saponaria, 
(Volck.) Saponaria, Soap-ivort. 

Fl. rose-coloured. Jidy, August. Perennial. Road-sides. 

Attenuating, opening, antivenereal, saponaceous. 

Saponaria vaccaria. (Linn.) Co^u basil, Vaccaria. Europe. 

Seed hea,ting, diuretic ; the plant is said to increase the lacteal 
secretions of cows fed upon it. 

SiLENE. (De Cand. i. 367.) 

*SiLENE Armeria. (Linn.) (E. B. 1398.) Behen alburn^ LobeVs 
catchfiy. 

Fl. purple. July. Annual. Commonly in gardens. 

Silene Beiie?j. (Linn.) 

*Silene inflata. (Smith.) (E. B. 1081.) Behen album, Cuca- 
halus behen, Spatting poppy. White behen. White bottle. 

Fl. white. August. Perennial. Pastures and road-sides. 

The root of the White Behe7i was used by the Greeks and Arabs of 
the middle ages. It is said to be slightly bitter or acrid, and odorous. 
(Guibourt.) 

Silene muscifula. (Linn.) Red catchfiy. Spain. 

Roots cordial. 

Silene saxifraga. (Linn.) Saxifraga antiquorum, Great saxi- 
frage. Alps. 

Herb used in calculous disorders. 

Silene Virgin ica. (Linn.) United States. 

Root said to be anthelmintic. 

Spergula. (De Cand. 394.) 

*Spergula arvensis. (Linn.) (E. B. 1535.) Corn spurrey, 

Fl. white. June. August. Annual. Corn-fields. 
Stellaria. (De Cand. i. 396.) 

Stellaria alsine. 

*Stellaria holostea. (Linn.) (E. B. 511.) Greater Stichwort. 

Fl. white. jMay. Perennial. Hedges, &c. 

Stellaria media. (Smith.) (E. B. 537.) Alsine media^ Chickweed. 



VEGETABLES.— Malvace^. 221 

Fl. white. The whole year. Annual. Road-sides. 

All cooling, moistening- herbs, nourishing- cattle ; used as spinach. 

Order 22.— LINE^. (De Cand. i. 423.) 

Sepals 3 — 4. frequently five, pei-sistent; petals equal in number to the sepals, Ijy- 
pooynous, with a twisted a}stivation, caducous; stamens equal in number to the petals, 
and alternating with them, cohering at the base into a monadelphous ring, with an 
abortive filament, or tooth between each ; anthers ovate, innate ; ovary sub-globose, 
with as many cells as there are sepals, rarely fewer ; styles equal in number to the 
cells : capsule globose, pointed with the base of the styles, opening with two valves at 
the apex; seeds in each cell single, ovate, compressed, inverted; albumen often absent; 
embryo straight, fleshy. Herbs, or shrubs, with entire exstipulate leaves^ and pedun- 
culated inflorescence, 

LiNUM. (De Cand. i. 423.) 

*LiNUM CATHARTicuM. (Linn.) (E. B. 382.) Dicarf luild jlax^ Mill 
mountain^ Purgmg Jiax. 

Fl, white. June, July. Annual. Pastures. 

Bitter, and powerfully cathartic ; a drachm of the dried plant is a 
convenient purgative, or we may employ an infusion of a handful of 
the recent plant. (Pereira.) Purgative in doses of 3ss. to 3j, ((x.) 
Leaves, when fresh, strongly purgative^ but uncertain in their action, 
(O'Sh.) 

LiNUM SELAGiNOiDES. (Lamb.) Monte Yideo and Chili. 

Herb bitter and aperitive. 

*LiNUM usiTATissiMUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 1357.) Limim arvense, 
(C. Bauh.) Common jiax, 

Fl. purplish blue. July. Annual. Corn-fields. 

Seeds^ Liiii usitatissimi semina^ Lin^eed^ Lini semina, emollient, 
diuretic; meal, Lini farhia, used for cataplasms; imported from 
Russia, Poland, and North America ; yield oil, Lini oleum^ Linseed 
oil ; Lvni placenta, Linseed cake, left after the oil has been pressed 
out, used for feeding cattle and broken-winded horses. (G.) 

Order 23.— MALYACE^. (De Cand. i. 429.) 

Sepals usually five, rarely three or four, more or less united at the base, valvate in 
restivation, often bearing external sepals or bracts, fomiing an involucre, or outer 
calyx ; petals alternating with, and equal in number to, the sepals, hypogynous, with a 
contorted aestivation, either distinct or adhering to the lower jjart of the tube of the 
stamens; stamens nvimerous, or as many as the petals, hypogynous, filaments mona- 
delphous ; anthers one-celled, reniform, bursting transversely ; ovary of many carpels, 
verticillate round an axis, sometimes distinct ; styles equal in number to the carpels ; 
either united or distinct ; stigmas as many as the carpels, more or less distinct ; fruit 
capsular, or baccate, having one, two, or many-seeded carpels; seeds usually ovate, 
often hairy ; albumen none ; embryo straight, with cotyledons twisted like a chrysalis. 
Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with alternate divided stipulate lea>u^s, and stellate hairs. 

Alth^a. (De Cand. i 436.) 

*Ai,TH^A HiRSUTA. (Linn.) (E. B. 2674.) 

Fl. pale rose-coloured. August, September. Perennial. Hedges. 

Leaves emollient, cleansing to ulcers ; seeds opening-, diuretic. 

* Althaea OFFICINALIS. (Linn.) (E. B. 47.) Malva Bismalva offi- 
cinarum. (Yolck.) Althcea, Bismalva, Lbiscus, Marsh mallow. 

Fl. pale rose-colour. August, September. Perennial. Hedges 
and pastures. 



222 VEGETABLES.— MALVACE^. 

Roots, althcBCE radix, and leaves, altlicecB folia, very emollient, par- 
ticularly useful in diseases of the bladder ; flowers pectoral. 

**Alth/ea rosea. (Cav.) Alcea rosea. (Linn.) Malva arborea, 
Hollyhock. 

Fl. various in colour. July, September. Biennial. From India. 

Same qualities as Althsea officinalis. 

GossYPiTjM. (De Cand. i. 456.) 

GossYPiuM Barbadense. (Linn.) West Indies. 

Seeds pressed for oil. 

GossYPiuM HERBACEUM. (Liuu.) Bomhax, Cotton. India, America. 

Seeds pectoral, antiasthmatic ; down of seeds used as a caustic 
instead of moxa ; young buds very mucilaginous, pectoral. 
Hibiscus. (De Cand. i. 446.) 

Hibiscus Abelmoschus. (Linn.) Bamiamoschata^H.moscliatus, 
Mnsli ochra, Musk mallow. East Indies, South America. 

Seeds, Musk seeds, Grains d* amhrette , smell like musk ; are cordial, 
cephalic, stomachic, and emetic ; used in coffee and mixed with hair- 
powder. 

Hibiscus cannabinus. (Linn.) 

Acidulous. 

Hibiscus escueentis. (Linn.) Abelmoschus esculentus Ohra. West 
Indies. 

Unripe pod used as a pot-lierb ; contains a kind of gelatine ; used in 
hot countries as a means of thickening soup ; decoction of leaves and 
pods demulcent, pectoral. 

Hibiscus rosa sinensis. (Linn.) 
Flowers astringent. 

Hibiscus sabdariffa. (Linn.) Guinea sorrel, Red sorrel. 
Herb acid, refreshing, diuretic. 

Hibiscus surrattensis. (Linn.) 
Acidulous. 

Lavatera. (De Cand. i. 438.) 
*Lavatera arborea. (Linn.) (E. B. 1841.) Malva arhorea^ 
Tree malloio. 
Fl. pink. July, August. Perennial. 

Lavatera Thuringiaca. (Linn). Germany. 

Lavatera triloba. (Linn.) Spain. 

Have the same qualities as Althaea officinalis. 

Malva. (De Cand. i. 430.) 

Malva alcea. (Linn.) Alcea, Vervain mallow. Europe and Asia. 

Malva CKisPA. (Linn.) Curi-leaved mallow. Europe and Asia. 

*Malva moschata. (Linn.) (E. B. 754.) Musk mallow. 

"*Malva rotundifolia. (Linn.) (E. B. 1092.) Dwarf mallow. 

*Malva sylvestris. (Linn.) (E. B. 671.) M communis, Com- 
mon mallow. 

The English species have purple or rose-coloured flowers. Flower 
from June to August, and are perennial. 



VEGETABLES.— BOMBACE^. 223 

" All these herbs are eminently emollient and moistening ; proper to 
cool and open the belly ; flowers pectoral. 

Pavonia. (Lindl. Fl. Med. 142.) 
Pavonia diuretica. (Ang. de St. H.) Brazil. 

Decoction used with success in cases of dysuria. (L.) 

Sph^ralcea. (Lindl. 142.) 
Sph^ralcea cisplatina. (Aug. de St. H.) Brazil. 

Decoction used in Brazil in inflammations of the bowels, and gene- 
rally as the marsh mallows of Europe. 

SiDA. (De Cand. i. 459.) 
SiDA Abutilon. (Linn.) Indian mallow. East Indies. 

Has the same qualities as Althaea officinalis. 

SiDA CORDIFOMA. (Linn.) East Indies and Africa, 

Mixed with rice used in dysentery. 

SiDA Indica. (Linn.) East Indies. 

Used in India as an emollient. 

SiDA rhomboidea. (Roxb.) East Indies. 

Emollient, used as marsh mallows. 

Urena. (De Cand. i. 441.) 
Urena lobata. (Linn.) East Indies. 

Decoction used in Brazil as a remedy in windy colic ; flowers in 
inveterate coughs as an expectorant. 



Order 24.— BOMBACE^. (De Cand. i. 475.) 

C.:(l]jx either naked, or surrounded with an involucre, consisting of five sepals, 
united at the base; petals five, or none; stamens definite, or indefinite, variously mo- 
nadelphous ; anthers one-celled ; carjyels of ovary five, rarely ten, sometimes distinct, 
sometimes closely cohering, bursting in various ways ; styles either distinct, or more 
or less ccAering; fruit various; seeds often woolly, or surrounded with a pulp, some 
without albumen, with corrugated or convoluted cotyledons, others albuminous, with 
fiat cotyledons. Trees, or shrubs, with alternated bistipulated leaves ; pubescence often 
stellate. 

Adansonia. (De Cand. i. 478.) 
Adansonta digitata. (Linn.) Baobab. Africa. 

Emollient ; fruit acidulous, used in pulmonary affections, and instead 

of tamarinds. Has been recommended for intermittent fevers as a 

substitute for quinine. 

Bombax. (De Cand. i. 478.) 
Bomb AX ceiba. British Guiana. 

Yields a fibre called Silk cotton, which is said to be imported to the 
United States, and used in the manufacture of hats. 

Bombax Malabaricum. (Rheed.) B. heptaphyllum. (Cav.) India. 

Yields a gum resin called Moocheriis ; roots constitute the Sufed 
mooslie of the Hindoos. Much used in India as a nutritious demulcent 
for convalescent persons. (O'Sh.) 



224 VEGETABLES.— BY TTNERACE.«. 

Carolinea. (De Cand. i. 478.) 
Carolinea princeps. (Linn.) Pachera aqiiatica, Sergeant ^ Wild 
cacao. Guiana. 

Seeds esculent, similar to almonds. 

Eriodendron. (De Cand. i. 479.) 
Eriodendron anfractuosuai. Bomhax petitandrum, (Linn.) 

Cotton tree. India. 
Yields Cotton-tree gum. (G.) Gum given in solution with spices, 

in bowel complaints. (O'Sh.) 



Order 25.— BYTTNEEACE^E. (De Cand. i. 481.) 

Calxjx either naked, or surrounded with an involucre ; sepals five, more or less joined 
at the base, with a valvate aestivation; petals five, hypogynous, alternate with the 
sepals, convoluted in .-Estivation, varying in form, rarely unequal, or none; stamens either 
equal in number to the petals and sepals, or some multiple of them; filaments more or 
less monadelphous ; anthers two-celled, turned outwards ; carpels five, very rarely 
three, distinc;t, or cohering into one ovary ; stijles as many as the carpels, whether dis- 
tinct, or cohering ; albumen oily, or fieshy, rarely none ; cmbrj/o straight, with an inferior 
radicle ; cotyledons either foliaceous, fiat, and plaited, or rolled round the plumule, some- 
times very thick, but this only in the seeds without albumen. Trees and shrubs, with 
alternate simple leaves ; inflorescence vaa-iable. 

Byttneria. (De Cand. i. 487.) 

Byttneria cordata. (Lamb.) Peru. 

Leaves applied to bites of spiders. 

GuAzuMA. (De Cand. i. 485.) 

GuAZUMA TOMENTOSA. (Kunth.) Bidjroma guazuma, Bastard 
cedar. South America. 

Old bark employed as a sudorific ; young bark mucilaginous ; em- 
ployed for cleansing sugar. (O'Sh.) 

GuAZUMA TJLMiFOLiA. (Lamb.) Theobroma guazuma. South 
America and West Indies. « 

Young bark used, on account of its mucilage, to clarify sugar. 

Helicteres. (Lindl. 138.) 
Helicteres sacaroeha. (Aug. de St, H.) Brazil. 

Decoction of roots administered in Brazil in venereal complaints. 

Kydia. (De Cand. i. 500.) 
Kydia calycina. (Roxb.) East Indies. 

Bark used in India to clarify sugar. 

Peistapeti:s. (De Cand. i. 498.) 
Penta petes ph(Eni(?ea. (Linn.) 3Iucliucunda. East Indies. 
Flowers expressed yield a mucilaginous and refrigerant juice used in 
gonorrhoea. 

SouTiiwELLiA. (Lindl. 136.) 
South WELLIA tragacantha. (Scliott.) Stcrculia tragacantha. 
Sierra Leone. 

Known at Sierra Leone as the Tragacanth tree, as it exudes a gum 
resembling Tragacanth when Mounded. 



VEGETABLES.— TiLiACE^. 225 

Stekculta. (De. Cand. 481.) 
Sterculia acuminata. (Beauv.) Kola. Africa. ' 

Fruit, Kola ?iufs, much esteemed in Africa, as brackish water tastes 
well after eatins: them. 

Sterculia Balanghas. (Linn.) Cleompanos minor, Cavalam. 
Malabar. 

Pulp of fruit esculent ; kernels toasted and eaten. 

Stercueia fcetida. (Linn.) Cleompanos major, S. digit/folia, 
Karil root. 

Leaves and fruit in decoction, useful in pains of the joints. (G.) 
Leaves considered aperient, and a decoction of the fruit mucilaginous 
and astringent. (O'Sh.) 

Stercueia peatanifolia. (Linn.) 
Seeds pressed for their oil. 

Sterculia urens. (Roxb.) Cavallium urens. Hindostan. 

Yields a gum extremely like Tragacanth. 

Theobroma. (De Cand. i. 484.) 

Theobroma cacao. (Linn.) Cacao theobroma. (Tuss.) Cacao 
minus. (Gart.) South America. 

Seeds, Chocolate nut, Island cacao, Cacao des antilles, Cacao des 
isles, Cacao antillanum, flattened, covered with a red paper-like enve- 
lope; kernel brown, fat, tastes agreeable, slightly acrid, yields oil; 
chocolate and cacao are made from it. Caracca, Cacao Caraque, 
Cacao Carraccense, seed larger, round, covering reddish-brown ; kernel 
pale brown, friable, dry, and strong tasted, is often mouldy, as having 
jjeen buried thirty or forty days, to get rid of some of its acridness. 

"Waltheria. (Lindl. 136.) 
"Waltheria Doueadinha. (Aug. de St. Hil.) Brazil. 

Used in complaints of the chest, and also in venereal complaints. 



Order 26.— TILIACEiE. (De Cand. i. 503.) 

Calyx externally naked ; sepals 4t — 5, with a valvular sestivation ; petals equal in 
number to the sepals, alternating with them, frequently having a little pit at their base, 
entii'e, very seldom wanting ; stamens hypogynous, distinct, generally indefinite in 
number ; anthers two-celled, dehiscing longitudinally ; glands as many as the petals, 
opposite to them, adhering to the stalk of the ovary ; ovary single, formed of from four 
to ten carpels ; styles as many as the carpels, united into one ; stigmas as many as the 
carpels, free ; capsule many-celled ; seeds numerous in each cell ; embryo erect ; cotyledons 
flat, leafy. Trees, or shrubs, with simple bistipulate leaves. 

Abatia. (De Cand. i. 503.) 
Abatia parviflora. (Ruiz et Pav.) Peru. 

Abatia rugosa. (Ruiz et Pav.) Peru. 

Leaves dye black. 

CoRCHORus. (De Cand. i. 504.) 
CoRCHORUS capsularis. (Linn.) Ghee, Nalthapaut. 

Corchorus OLiTORius. (Liuu.) Bunghee 2^ciut, Jew's mallow. 
Tropical parts, Asia, Africa, America. 

Q 



226 VEGETABLES.— DiPTERACE^. 

Leaves emollient, eaten as spinach in hot countries. (G.) Infu- 
sion of the leaf much employed as a fever drink in India. (O'Sh.) 

Grewia. (De Cand. i. 508.) 

Grewia FLAVA (D. C.) Brandewyii hosli. Cape of Good Hope. 
Berries make a spirituous liquor. 

Grewia orientaeis. (Linn.) East Indies. 

Fruit and leaves boiled in water make a kind of drink. 

Grewia microcos. (Linn.) Microcos paniculata^ ScJiageri cottan. 
East Indies. 

Juice with sugar, used as an astringent gargle ; also internally in 
dysentery. 

TiLiA. (De Cand. i. 512.) 

TiLiA intermedia. (Ilayn.) (E. B. 610.) T. Europea, Linden, 
JBast, Lime-tree. 

FI. straw-coloured. July. Tree. Woods, &c. 

Flowers antispasmodic, cephalic; bark and lealves drying, astringent, 
diuretic, emmenagogue ; berries astringent, slime of the bark used in 
burns and wounds. 



Order 27.-ELEOCARPEiE. (De Cand. i. 519.) 

Sepals 4 — 5, with a valvate aestivation, no involucre; petals 4 — 5, hypogynous, 
alternate with the sepals, lobed, or fimbriated at the apex; torus glandulai-, somewhat 
projecting; stamens hypogynous, or rarely perigynous, some multiple of the sejials 
(8 — 10); filaments short, distinct; anthers long, filiform, four-cornered, two-celled, 
the cells opening by an oblong pore at the apex ; ovary many-celled ; stale one, very 
raiely four ; seeds one, two, or more, in each cell ; albumen fleshy ; embri/o erect, with 
flat foliaceous cotyledons. Trees, or shrubs, with alternate leaves and racemose //o'-fcrs. 

DiCERA. (De Cand. i. 520.) 
DiCERA SERRAT.i. (Forst.) ElcEOcurpus seriatus, Ganitrum, 

El/EOCARpus. (De Cand. i. 519.) 
El^ocarpus hinau. Hinau. Tropical Asia, New Zealand. 

The bark of this tree is used in New Zealand for dyeing black, and 
affords a remarkably deep and brilliant dye. 

El^ocarpus integrifolius. (Lamb.) East Indies, New Zealand. 
El^oc ARPUS OBLONGUS. (Smith.) Ganitrum ohlongum. 
Fruit eaten either raw, or preserved in sugar, or salt and vinegar ; 
strengthening. 

Vallea. (De Cand. i. 520.) 

Vallea cordifolia. (Ruiz et Pav.) Peru. 

Leaves dye cloth yellow. 



Order 28.— DIPTERACEiE. (Lindl. Nat. Order 74, p. 98.) 

Calyx tubular, five-lobed, unequal, persistent, and afterwards enlarged, naked at 
base, aestivation imbricated ; petals hypogynous, sessile, often combiued at the base, 
jtstivation contorted ; stamens indefinite, hypogynous, distinct, or slightly arid irregu- 
larly polyadelphous ; anthers innate, subulate, opening longitudinally towards the aj)ex ; 



VEGETABLES.— DiPTERACE^. 227 

filaments dilated at base ; ovary superior without a disk, few-celled ; ovules in pairs, 
pendulous ; style single, stigma simple ; fruit coriaceous, one-celled by abortion, three- 
valved, or indehisceut, sui-rounded by the calyx, having tough, leafy, enlarged permanent 
divisions, which crown the fruit; s^ec? single, without albumen; cotyledons twisted and 
crnmpled, or unequal, and obliquely incumbent ; radicle superior. Elegant trees, abound- 
ing in resinous juice, with alternate leaves, and large fioicers, in terminal racemes, or 
panicles. 

DiPTEROCARFUS. (Endl. Gen. PI. 1013.) 

DrPTEROCARPUS TRiNERVis. (Blume.) Java. 

Yields a resinous secretion called Gurgun^ used by the natives as 
salve for inveterate ulcers, when it is desirable to excite the wound 
and correct the pus ; dissolved in spirits of wine, it has the same effect 
as balsam of copaiba upon the mucous membranes, and hence has been 
recommended as a substitute for that article. (L.) This and other 
species, such as Dipterocarpus larvis, (Hamilt.,) and D. turhinatus, 
(Roxb.,) yield the substance called Giirjun balsam, or Wood oil. The 
balsam is obtained by cutting a large notch in the trunk of the tree 
near the ground, and then lighting a fire, which is allowed to char the 
wound, soon after which the liquid begins to ooze out, A tree yields 
about forty gallons in a season, according to Roxburgh. The balsam 
varies in thickness from that of honey to a light oily liquid. The 
colour is a pale grey or light brown. The smell resembles a mixture of 
copaiba with a little naphtha. The sp. gr. is '962. It is insoluble in 
water, soluble in warm spirit sp. gr. 'SSo, and difficultly soluble in 
ether. On distillation with water, it yields about thirty-five or forty 
per cent, of volatile oil, and a thick resin remains. Numerous experi- 
ments have proved this balsam to be nearly equal in medicinal efficacy 
to the balsam of copaiba. It is given in the same doses. (O'Sh.) 

Dryobalanops. (Endl. Gen. PI. 1013.) 
Dryobaeanops aromatica. (Gart.) Dryobalanops campliora, 
(Coleb.) Pterygium teres. (Corr.) Shorea camphorifera. (Roxb.) 
Java. 

JBorneo camphor, and Camphor oil, are found in cavities in the 
trunk of this tree. This kind of camphor is said to be very valuable, 
but on account of its high price is not brought to Europe, but is chiefly 
-exported to China and Japan, where it is highly valued for its stimulant 
and tonic properties. 

Shorea. (Endl. Gen. PI. 1014.) 
Shorea robusta. (Roxb.) East Indies. 

Yields the resinous substance called Dammer, in India used for 

various economical purposes. (L.) Dammer unites with the oxide of 

lead and forms plasters. (O'Sh.) 

Vateria. (Endl. Gen. PI. 1013.) 

Vateria Indica. (Linn.) Elceocarpus copalliferus. (Retz.) 
Panoe. (Rheed.) East Indies. 

Exudes a resin like copal, which hardens of a deep amber colour ; 
in its fluid state it is the Panoe varnish of the south of India ; it also 
yields Moschat resin, and Pcenoe tallow ; in its solid state it has been 
said to constitute the resin called Anime in India, but generally known 

Q 2 



228 VEGETABLES.— CAM ellie.^. 

as Copal in this country. This resin, however, is more frequently 
ascribed to Hymence verrucosa. O'Shaug-hnessy states that candles are 
made of the resin of Vateria Indica in Malabar, which diffuse in burn- 
ing an agreeable fragrance, give a fine clear light, with little smoke, 
and consume the wick without snuffing. 



Order 29.-— CAMELLIEiE. (De Cand. i. 529.) 

Sepals 5 — 7, imbricated in a-stivation, tlie inner one generally larger, sub-concave, 
coriaceous, deciduous ; pe^r^f/s as many as the sepals, alternate with them, often sub- 
coherent at the base ; stamens numerous ; the filaments filiform, monadelphous, or 
polyadelplious at the base ; anthers ellipsoid or round, versatile ; ovartj one, ovato-rotund ; 
styles 3 — 6, filiform, more or less coherent; capsule three-celled, three-valved, dehiscent; 
three-seeded by abortion ; A'alves sometimes septiferous in the middle, sometimes having 
the margin iuHexed ; seeds few, large, thick, attached to the central margin of the septa ; 
albumen none ; cotijlcJons large, thick, oleaginous, plano-convex, and articulated at the 
base ; radicle very short, obtuse, turned towards the hilum ; plumula scarcely perceptible, 
ascending. Evergreen shrubs, or trees, with altei'nate coriaceous leaves, and large, Avhite, 
pink, red, or yellow fioicers. 

Camellia. (De Cand. i. 529.) 

**Camellia Japonica. (Linn.) (Bot. Mag. 42.) Common ca- 
mellia, Japanese camellia. 

Fl. pink, white, red, or variegated. February, May. Small tree. 
Japan. 

Leaves frequently mixed with those of tea by the Chinese. 

Camellia Sesanqua. (Thunb.) Japan. 

Leaves used for those of tea ; are odoriferous, and are also added to 
tea to scent it ; seeds expressed for their oil. 

Camellia drupifera. (Lour.) Cochin China. 

Seeds expressed for their oil. 

Thea. (De Cand. i. 530.) 
Thea Chinensis. (Sims.) 
Two varieties of this plant are cultivated in China, they are — 

a TiiEA viRiDis, (Linn.) Green tea. 

Doubtful whether a distinct species, or only the young leaves of the 
boliea, slowly dried in the shade : the infusion narcotic in a small dose, 
and appeases the qualms of intoxication, but taken largely brings 
on watchfulness, nervous agitation, and is even emetic : this irrita- 
bility is best allayed by butter-milk. The green teas of Des Guignes 
are — 

\. SoNGLO TEA, (froui the place where it is grown,) has a leaden 
cast, the infusion is green, the leaves are longer and more pointed 
than the black teas ; the inferior sorts have yellow leaves and a smell of 
sprats. 

2. Hyson tea, {he tchune, first crop,) is of a leaden cast, the infusion 
is a fine green, the leaves are handsome, without spots and open quite 
flat ; it has a strong taste, and a slight smell of roasted chestnuts. 

3. Tcheu tcha, of which he gives no characters. 

Besides these, there are imported into England these green teas : 



VEGETABLES.— CAMELLiE^. 229 

Hyson shin, or bloom tea, being the large loose leaves of the hyson : a 
faint delicate smell; infusion a pale green ; the bloom is given by means 
oi indigo heated under it. — Supei^ior hyson shin, intermediate l3etween 
hyson and hyson skin. Gunpowder tea, a superior hyson in small 
round grains, of a blooming, greenish hue. Chelian, or cowslip hyson^ 
a scented hyson, mixed with small berries, that give it a cowslip 
flavour. The Ankoy teas, obtained from An Khe, have the same 
appearance as the Canton teas, but are inferior in flavour, and gene- 
rally sell from 4:d. to Is. a lb, lower. They are supposed to be picked 
from wild tea plants. The leaves of tea having little or no smell, they 
are rendered fragrant by mixing with them the leaves of Olea fragrans, 
and Camellia sesanqua. The leaves of Polygala theezans, and of Ram- 
iius theezans, are also mixed witii China tea. 

Mr. Warington has lately discovered that the bloom and much of 
the colour of green tea is produced by means of Prussian blue, instead 
of being caused by drying the leaves upon copper plates, as formerly 
supposed. Large quantities of Prussian blue were formerly sent from 
this country to China, but the demand has ceased for some years, owing 
possibly to the circumstance of the Chinese having discovered the 
method of making it themselves. 

y6. Thea Bohea. (Linn.) Black tea. 
Des Guignes gives the following characters of the different kinds of 
black tea, as he observed them in China, using the common English 
orthography, with their usual price at Canton ; they are supposed to be 
picked from old trees, and are dried in shallow pans over charcoal 
fires. 

1. Bohea tea, ( Vo he^ the name of a place,) is of a black cast, and 
yields a deep yellowish infusion ; sells in China for 12 to 15 taels. 

2. Congou tea, (cong fou, great care,) the infusion is lighter than 
that of bohea, rather green, and seldom of an agreeable smell ; pre- 
ferred by the Chinese and Indian islanders for their own use. 

3. SouTCHONG TEA, (se oiv cJiong^ a very little sort,) the infusion is 
a fine green, smells agreeably ; the leaves ought to have no spots on 
them. 

4. Pekao tea, {pe koiu, white leaf bud,) the infusion is light and 
rather green, has a violet scent, and a very fine perfume in the mouth. 

o. Imperial tea, (jnao tcha^ has a green cast, the infusion is also 
green ; the leaves large and of a fine green : lias a slight smell of soap. 
To these may be added, Campoi tea, which is intermediate betw^een 
congou and soutchong. 

6. Padre tea, (^pou cho?ig tchct) a very fine soutchong, imported 
in pound papers, for presents ; being the best and most delicious. 
Caper tea, made into balls with gum, and scented, imported only in 
small boxes. 

China tea is not turned black by being put into water impregnated 
with sulphuretted hydrogen gas, nor does it tinge spirit of hartshorn 
blue. The infusion is amber-coloured, and is not reddened by adding 
a few drops of oil or spirit of vitriol to it. The leaves of speedwell, 
wild germander, black currants, syringa or mock orange, purple-spiked 
willow-herb, sweetbriar, cherry-tree, sloe, are all substituted for tea, 



230 VEGETABLES.— AuiiANTrACE.E. 

either singly or mixed. In foreign countries a variety of plants are 
used instead of Chinese tea, as Capraria bifolia, Alstonia tliecLoformis^ 
Gualtheriaprocumhens, Myrtus ugni, LeptosperniKmscnparium, Ceano- 
thus A)n€rica7ius, Prinos glaher, Ledum latifolium^ CJienopodium am- 
hrossoides, Monardakalmiana, •Psoralia yicmdulosa^ Cassine perugua, 
Zenopoma thea Sinensis is beginning to be cultivated in France as a 
substitute for Chinese tea. In Hindostan, those with whom the com- 
mon tea does not agree, use an infusion of lemon grass, or of Ocymum 
album. 



Order 30.— AURANTIACEiK. (De Cand. 535.) 

Calyx urceolate, or campanulate, subadnate to the disk, short, 3 — 5 toothed, wither- 
ing ; petals 3 — 5, broad at the base, free, or slightly united together, inserted on the 
outside of a hypogynous disk; stamens either equal in number to, or some multiple of,, 
the petals, inserted on the sides of the hypogynous disk ; filaments flattened at the 
base, free, or variously united, alwaj's free at the apex : anthers terminal, innate, erect ; 
ovarij ovate, many-celled; sti/le one; stigm,n thick, subdivided ; //v/iY pulpy, separated 
into many cells by the membraneous partitions ; seeds attached to the inner angles of 
the carpels, numerous, or solitary, usually pendulous, exalbuminous ; embrijos some- 
times many, straight; rajyhe and chalaza distinct. Trees, or shrubs, almost alwavs 
smooth, and filled everywhere with little transparent receptacles of volatile oil, with 
alternate, often compound leaves, articulated on the stem. 

-^GLE. (De Cand. i. 538.) 

-^GLE MARMEL.OS. (Corr.) Cratfivci mar melos, B ilea or Mahura. 
East Indies. 

Fruit nutritions, warm, cathartic, delicious ; its efficacy in remov- 
ing habitual costiveness has been proved by constant experience ; root, 
bark, and leaves, reckoned refrigerants by the Malabar physicians. (L.) 
The mucus of the seeds is for some purposes a very good cement. (O'Sh.) 

Bergeua. (De Cand. i. 537.) 

Bergera KoNiGii. (Linn.) Coast of Coromandel. 

Bark and root used as stiniulants by the natives of India, and em- 
ployed externally against the bites of poisonous animals ; green leaves 
prescribed to be eaten raw in dysentery, also bruised and applied ex- 
ternally to cure eruptions. (L.) An infusion of the toasted leaves 
used by the Hindoos to stop vomiting. (O'Sli.) 

Citrus. (De Cand. i. 539.) 

**CiTRUS AURANTiUM. (Risso.) C. Sinensis^ China orange, Com- 
mon orange, Siceet orange. 

Fl. white. June. Small tree. Cultivated in gardens and green- 
houses. 

Fruit sweet, imported from Faro, Lisbon, Port St. Michael's ; price 
very variable ; juice of the fruit contains a saccharine, as well as an 
acid matter ; mixed with salt is a common purge in the West Indies : 
flowers, naplicp, sweet-scented, used to make orange flower-water, are 
collected every morning in May and June, for tliirty miles round 
Paris, fi-om both public and private gardens ; buds, Auraniice fores., 
that fall from the trees, used to make orange-Hower water ; Flores 
aurantiiim conditio Candied orange Jioicers, orange flowers freed from 



VEGETABLES.— AURANTiACE^. 231 

their cups, stamina, and pistils ; four ounces are put into Ibij. of sugar, 
boiled to a candy height, and poured on a slab, so as to be formed into 
a cake ; stomachic, antispasmodic ; Malta orange^ pulp red, juice very 
sweet ; Chota chia, East Indian small clove orange, rind used to make 
the best orange marmalade ; East Indian country orange, Korda, pulp 
austere and coarse ; rind added in small quantity to orange marmalade 
to give it an agreeable flavour. (G.) The leaves of the orange tree 
have been used in the form of powder, or infusion, in spasmodic 
diseases ; the young unripe fruit, dried and turned in a lathe, are the 
issue peas of the shops ; the rind is a mild tonic and aromatic, a large 
quantity said to be sometimes productive of mischief; juice refreshing 
in fevers ; orange flowers yield the officinal oleum aurantii, or oil of 
7ieroli. (L.) 

Citrus decumana. (Linn.) Pampelmus, Shaddock, West Indies. 

Fruit, very large, esculent. 

Citrus l,imetta. (Risso.) C. I. hergamium, C. bergamia, C. 
medica hergamotta, Limon bergamotta, Bergamot lemon tree. Culti- 
vated in the South of Europe. 

Rinds of the fruit very thick, yield the essence or oil of bergamotte 
of the shops, used in medicine on account of its odour. (G.) Em- 
ployed as a perfume only. 

**CiTRUS LiMONUM. (Risso.) Citrus medica acida, Lemon tree, 

Fl. white, externpJly purplish. June. Small tree ; greenhouses. 

Pulp juicy, very acid ; juice of the fruit yields citric acid ; when 
properly diluted, and slightly sweetened, it is a most agreeable and 
refreshing beverage ; the essential oil of the rind recommended by Mr. 
Foote as a stimulant in various inflammations of the eye ; jieel aromatic 
and stomachic, but does not agree with all stomachs. (L.) The fruit, 
Limonia mains, imported from Malaga and Lisbon, in chests, each 
lemon in a separate paper ; juice of the fruit more acid than that of 
the citron ; rind of the fruit, Limonum cortex^ aromatic, not so hot as 
orange peel, yields essence of lemons ; Candied lemon peel, cortex 
limonum condita, prepared as candied citron peel, a stomachic sweet- 
meat. (G.) 

Citrus medica. (Risso.) Citron. 

Fl. white, externally purplish. June. Small tree. Native of Asia. 

Fruit, Citria malus, citrus, excites the appetite, stops vomiting, is 
acidulous, antiseptic, antiscorbutic, and used along with cordials as an 
antidote to the manchineel poison ; rind of the fruit, Citri cortex, 
aromatic, tonic, yields essence de cedrat ; seeds bitter, vermifuge. 
Candied citron peel, cortex citri condita ; soak the peels in water fre- 
quently changed, until their bitterness is exhausted, put them into 
syrup until they become soft and transparent, then take them out and 
drain them ; stomachic used as a sweetmeat. 

Lime tree. Citrus medica acida, C. acida, C. limetta. Fruit, Lime^ 
Limetfa, used to rub floors to cleanse them, and also to scent the 
rooms. Juice of the fruit very acid, and even acrid ; used to acidulate 
spirituous drinks. % 

**CiTRUS VULGARIS. (Risso.) C. auvantium, C, bigaradia, 
Aurantium amarum, The Seville orange. 



232 VEGETABLES.— iiYPERiciNE^, 

n. wliite. June. Small tree. South Europe, Asia. 

Leaves and flowers antispasmodic, cordial 5<s. to 3j., his terve in 
die, or in a decoction ; fruit, Seville orange, Aurantia malus, Aurantice 
hacccE, imported from Seville. (G.) Rind of the fruit, A?ira?itii 
cortex, more bitter and tonic than tliat of the last species, and there- 
fore more employed medicinally. (L.) Unripe fruit. Orange peas, 
Curasso oranges, JBaccce aurantice, Aurantia curassoventia, used to 
flavour liqueurs, and for issue peas ; Candied orange peel, Cortex 
aurantiarum condita, made the same way as candied citron peel ; 
stomachic. (G.) 

Feronia. (De Cand. i. 538.) 

Feronia elephantum. (Corr.) Capittha, Elephant, or wood 
apple. East Indies. 

Both leaves and flowers exhale a powerful odour of anise. (L.) 
Young- leaves employed by the native practitioners as a gentle sto- 
machic stimulant in the bowel complaints of children ; yields a ginn 
much resembling gum arabic in its chemical and sensible properties. 
(O'Sh.) 

Order 3L— HYPERICINEtI^:. (De Cand. i. 54 L) 

Sepals 4 — 5, either more or less cohering, or wholly distinct, persistent, with glandular 
dots, often unequal, i. c. the two outer ones smaller, the three inner lai-ger : petals 4 — 5, 
hvpnojvnous, alternating with the lo\)es of the calyx, contorted in aestivation ; stamens 
indefinite, hypogynous, in three or more parcels ; anthers versatile ; f laments long ; 
ovarii one, superior, free; stijles numerous, long, sometimes united into one; stiguias 
simple, rarely capitate; fruit a capsule or berry of many valves, and many cells ; cells as 
many as the styles ; placenta entire and central, or multipartite, and affixed to the 
incurved margin of the valves ; seeds very numerous, generally round ; embri/o straight ; 
radicle inferior ; alhiua'sn none. Herbaceous plants or shrubs, with a resinous juice, and 
opposite, entire, sometimes dotted leaves, occasionally alternate and crenelled, with 
generally yellow floicers. 

Andros/emum. (De Cand. i. 543.) 

*Andros^mum officinale. (All.) (E. B. 1225.) Clymenum 
Italorum, Hijpericum androscemum. Park leaves. Tutsan. 

Fl. yellow. July. Hedges on gravelly soil. 

Resolvent, attenuant. (G.) Leaves once much esteemed as vulne- 
rary, still employed in cures of recent wounds by rustic nurses. (L.) 
Hypericum. (De Cand. i. 543.) 

Hypericum ascyuon. (Linn.) Ascgron, St. Peter s ivort. 
Siberia. 

Seeds purgative, useful in sciatica. 

Hypericum coris. (Linn.) Coris, Bastard St. John^s tvort. 
South of Europe. 

Seeds diuretic, antispasmodic. 

Hypericum perforatum. (Linn.) (E. B. 295.) Hypericum, 
Common St. Join)! s -wort. 

Fl. yellow, with a few black dots at the tips. July. Perennial. 
Hedges. 

Resolvent, attenuant, nervine, employed in maniacal cases ; contains 
resin ; leaves astringent, give a good red dye to wool and oil ; an infu- 
sion has been used in o-arirles and lotions. 



A^EGETABLES.— GUTTIFER.1-. 233 

VisMiA. (De Cand. i. 542. 

ViSMiA GuiANENSis. (Pers.) Hypericum gidanense. Guiana. 

Bark, when wounded, yields a gum resin, which, when dry, re- 
sembles gamboge ; leaves and fruit also yield a similar secretion ; it is 
purgative in doses of 7 — 8 grs. ; a decoction of the leaves taken inter- 
nally is valued as a cure for intermittent fevers. (L.) Several other 
species of Vismia, as V. guttifera, V, sessilifolia, &c., yield a similar 
secretion, known in Europe under the name of American or Mexican 
gamboge. 



Order 32.— GUTTIFERiE. (De Cand. i. 557.) 

Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual ; sepals 2 — 6, usually persistent, round, membrane- 
ous, frequenth' unequal and coloured; pcfa^s hypogynous, from four to ten; stamens 
numerous, hypogynous, rarely definite ; filaments of various lengths : anthers adnate, 
bursting inwards ; otanj solitary, free ; style very short, or none ; stigma peltate, or 
radiate ; fniit a berry, or drupe, or capsular, and opening by many valves, one or many 
seeded; sc'eJs with a thin membraneous coat ; albumen nonQ; <??»'>/7/f> straight ; cotyledons 
thick. Trees or shrubs, yielding resinous juice, with exstipulate, generally opposite, 
coriaceous, entire leaves, and numerous axillary or terminal flowers. 

Calophyi^lum. (De Cand. i. 562.) 
Calophyllum calaba. (Jacq.) Saiita Maria tree. Travancore. 
Yields Oleum Sanctce Marice. (G.) Produces the true East Indian 
Tacamahaca, or Calaba balsam. (L.) 

Calophyllum inophyllum. (Lamb.) C. tacamahaca. (Willd.) 
Alexandrian laurel, Poonamarum, Poon-ivood tree. India. 

Yields Mauritius tacamahaca. (G.) Seeds yield nn oil ; resin of 
roots, supposed by some authors to be the same as the Tacamahaca of 
the Isle of Bourbon. (L.) 

Calysacciox. 

Calysaccion JLOXGiFOEiUM. (Wight.) Soorger. Malabar Ghauts. 
The dried flower-buds, called Nag-kassar, have a fragrant smell, and 
are said to be used for stuffing pillows. 

Canella. (De Cand. i. 563.) 

Canella aeba. (Murr.) Wiiiterania canella. (Linn.) Wild 
cinnamon. West Indies, America. 

Berry aromatic, used as a spice ; bark, White cinnamon., CanellcB 
cortex, rolled, peeled, whitish, thicker tlian cinnamon, pungent, and 
sweet smelling ; warm, stimulant, antiscorbutic, dose gr. x. to 3ss,, used 
also as a stimulatory : Alouchi is said to be the produce of this tree. 
(G.) Bark yields by distillation a warm aromatic oil, reckoned car- 
minative and stomachic ; it is often mixed with oil of cloves in the 
West Indies ; in this country it is principally employed as an aromatic 
addition, either to tonics or purgatives, in debilitated conditions of the 
digestive organs. Canella bark has also been employed in scurvy. 



(Pereira.) 

Clusia 
Glusia 
Juice used as pitch. 



Clusia. (De Cand. i. 558.) 
Clusia alba. (Linn.) 
Clusia rosea. (Linn.) America. 



234 VEGETABLES.— GUTTiFEK.^. 

Garcinia. (De Cand. 560.) 

Garcinia Cambogia. (Desrous.) Camhogia gutta. (Linn.) 
Mangostana Cambogia. (Gart.) Carcapuli Acoste. (Pluk.) Cod- 
dam-pulli. (Rheed.) Camboge tree. Lidia. 

Produces gamboge. (G.) 

Garoinia Moeella. (Desrous.) Hebradendron cambogioides . 
(L,) Gokatu, or Kana goraka. Ceylon. 

This plant lias been proved to yield a kind of gamboge, not dis- 
tinguisliable chemically or medicinally from that of Siam : it is, how- 
ever, doubtful whether the plant producing that is the same as this; it 
has also been proved by Drs. Graham and Christison, that the gam- 
bogioid exudation from Slalagmitls cambogioides, Garcinia Cambogia, 
and XatitJiOchymiis pictorius differ from the real drug in texture, 
effects, colour, and chemical composition. (L ) 

Garcinia riCTORiA. (Roxb.) Hebradendron pictorium. (L.) India. 

Roxburgh says, he uniformly found the gamboge from this tree, 
even in its crude uniefined state, superior in colour, while recent, to 
any other kind he had tried, but not so permanent as that from China. 
(L.) Several other species of Garcinia produce gamboge. (OSh.) 

Garcinia purpurea. (Roxb.) India. 

The Indian name of the Mangosteen is Kbkum. The Portuguese 
term it lirindao. The fruit, which is of the size of a crab apple, is 
of a purple colour throughout, when ripe, and is eaten by the natives. 
Workers in iron use the acid juice as a mordant. From the seeds of 
this plant the article known as Kokiun butter, Cocum oil, or Concrete 
oil of Mangosteeyi is obtained. It is used in various parts of the 
peninsula, to adulterate ghee or butter, and to be exported to England 
for mixing with bears' grease, in the manufacture of pomatum. It is 
a white or pale greenish-yellow, solid oil, brittle, or rather friable, having 
a faint but not unpleasant smell, melting at about 98°, and when 
cooled after fusion remaining liquid to 75°, and when it then begins to 
solidify, the temperature rises to 92°, at which it becomes solid. It is 
imported from Bombay. 

Stalagmitis. (De Cand. i. 562.) 
Stalagmitis cambogioides. (Murr.) Ceylon. 

Produces a kind of gamboge. 

Stalagmitis ovalifolia. (L.) Xanthocliymus ovalifolius. South 
of India, Ceylon. 

Dr. Wright considers this as yielding one kind of true gamboge. 
The properties of gamboge are acrid and cathartic. 

Mammea. (De Cand. i. 561.) 

Mammea Americana. (Linn.) Abricot sauvage. West Indies. 

Fruit eaten, skin and seeds very bitter and resinous ; bark abounds 
in a strong resinous gum, used by the negroes for extracting chigoes 
from their feet ; melted down with a little lime juice, and dropped 
into sores, it is effectual in destroying maggots at the first dressing ; a 
bath of the bark hardens the soles of the feet, like Mangrove bark. (L.) 



VEGETABLES.— MALPiGHiACE^. 235 

Order 33.-HIPPOCRATEACEJE. (De Cand. i. 567.) 

Sepals five, rarely 4 — 6, very small^ combined as far as the middle, persistent ; petals 
five, rarely 4 — 6, equal, hypogynous, somewhat imbricated in aestivation ; stamens three,. 
very seldom 4 — 5 ; filaments cohering almost to the apex into a tube, dilated at the base, 
forming round the ovary a disk-like cup; anthers one-celled, dehiscing ti-ansversely 
at the apex, two, or even four celled ; otanj concealed by the tube, three-cornered, free ; 
style one ; stigmas 1 — 3 ; fruit either composed of three samaroid carpels, or berried,, 
with from one to three cells; seeds four in each cell, attached to the axis in pairs, some 
occasionally abortive, erect, exalbuminous ; embnjo straight ; radicle tending towards the 
base ; cotyledons flat, elliptical, oblong, somewhat fleshy, cohering when dried. Arbo- 
rescent, or climbing shrubs, with opposite, simple, entire or toothed leaves midi a. racemose 
inflorescence. 

HiPFOCKATEA. (De Caiid. i. 567.) 

HiPPOCRATEA COMOSA. (Swartz.) H. multiflora. Hispaniola. 
Nuts, white, sweetish. 



Order 34.— ERYTHEOXYLE^. (De Cand. i. 573.) 

Sepals five, combined at the base, persistent ; petals five, hypogynous ; stamens ten,., 
monadelphous ; anthers innate, erect, two-celled, dehiscing lengthwise ; ouory three-celled, 
Avith two cells spurious ; styles three, distinct ; stigmas three, capitate ; omde solitary, 
pendulous, anatiopal ; fruit drupaceous, one-seeded ; seed angular ; albumen horny ; 
embryo straight, central; cotyledons plano-convex; radicle superior; plumule incon- 
spicuous ; shrubs or trees ; leaccs alternate, usually smooth ; floicers small, whitish or 
greenish. 

Erythroxyi-um. (De Cand. i. 573.) 
Erythroxylum Coca. (Lamb.) Andes of Peru. 

The leaves constitute the celebrated Coca or y)x/<:Zrt of the Brazilians,. 
by whom they are chewed in the same way as tobacco. A small pinch 
is wetted with saliva, and made into a ball with unslaked lime. It is 
a powerful stimulant, acting- on the nervous s^'stem in the same way 
as opium, but less powerful and more permanent in its effects. 



Order 35.— MALPIGHIACE^. (De Cand. i. 577.) 

Calyx five, often persistent ; petals five, unguiculate, inserted in a hypogynous disk,, 
sometimes rather unequal, rarely wanting ; stamens ten, alternating Avith the petals, very 
seldom fewer, sometimes solitary ; filaments either distinct, or cohering for a short space- 
at the base ; anthers roundish ; ovary one, usually three-lobed, formed of three carpels 
more or less combined; styles three, distinct, or combined; ovules suspended; fruit 
dry or berried, three-celled or three-lobed, occasionally by absorption 1 — 2 celled ; 
seeds solitary, pendulous, exalbuminous; embryo more or less curved or sti.'aight ;. 
radicle short ; lobes leafy or thickish. Small trees or shiaibs sometimes climbing, with 
opposite, rarely alternate leaves, generally with stipules and a racemose or corymbose 
inflorescence. 

Byrsonima. (De Cand. i. 579). 

Byrsonima crassifolia. (D. C.) Malpighia crassifolia. (Linn.) 
M. moureila. Guiana. 

Bark employed as a febrifuge ; under the name of Chapara mantica, 
it is used in infusion as an antidote to the bite of the rattlesnake ; it is 
also said to be employed successfully as a remedy for abscesses in the 
lungs. (L.) 



236 VEGETABLES.— HirrocASTANE.E. 

Alcortioca bark has been said to be the produce of Byrsonima laiiri- 
folia, rhopalcefoliay and coccolohcefoUu. (Liiid. Veg. K. 390.) 

Malpighia. (De Cand. i. 577.) 

Malpighia glabra. (Linn.) Cerasus Jamaicensis, Barbadoes 
cherry. Warm parts of America. 

Fruit subacid, carminative, stomachic. 

Triopteris. (De Cand. i. 586.) 

Triopteris Jamaicensis. (Linn.) Switch sorrel, Jamaica. 
Acerb, bitterish. 



Order 36. ACERIKE^. (De Cand. i. 593.) 

Calyx 4 — 5 — 9 partite ; petals 4 — 9, inserted around tlie hypogyiious disk, alternate 
with, and generally of the same colour as, the calyx, lobes rarely wanting ; stamens 
inserted into the hypogynous' disk, generally eight, raiely 5- — 12 ; anthers oblong; ovar>/ 
didymous ; style one ; stiyiiuis two ; fruit consisting of two indehiscent carpels, which 
separate when ripe, forming a samara, /. e. a one-celled 1 — 2 seeded carpel, compressed at 
the upper part, and terminating in a diverging membraneous wing, thickened at the 
lower part ; seeds oblong, attached to the base of the cell ; endopleura subcarnose ; 
alijtnnen none; embryo curved or convolute; cotyledons foliaceous; radicle directed 
towards the base of the cell. 7\-ecs with opposite simple leaves. 

Acer. (De Cand. i. 593.) 
*AcER campestre. (Linn.) (E. B. 304.) Acer minus^ Common 
maple. 

El. pale green. June. Large tree. Hedges, &c. 
Root used in liver complaints. 

Acer platanoides. (Li mi.) Norway maple. Europe. 

*Acer pseudo-peatanus. (Linn.) (E. B. 303.) Acer majiis. 
Greater maple, Sycamore. 

Fl. yellowish green. Jmie. Large tree. Hedges, &c. 

AcEit SACCHAKiNUM. (Linn.) Suyar maple. Canada. 

The sap of tiiese trees, as well as tliat of the common maple, is used 
for making sugar and wine. 

Acer rubrum. (Linn.) Viry'mia maple. Nortli America. 

Decoction of the inner bark used as an astrin2:ent eve-M'ater. 



Order 37.— HIPPOCASTANE^. (De Cand. i. 597.) 

Calyx campanulate, five-lobed ; petals five, or four by abortion, hypogynous, un- 
equal ; stamens 7 — 8, inserted on a hj^pogynous disk, unequal, free; ovary roundish, 
hree-cornered ; style one, filiforni, conical; fntit coriaceous, 2 — 3 valved, 2 — 3 celled; 
seeds large, roundish, with a smooth shining coat, and a broad ash-coloured hilum; 
albumen none ; embryo curved, inverted, with thick tleshy cotyledons and a very large 
phnnula. Trees or shrubs with compound, opposite, exstipulate leaves; fiouers in 
terminal racemes. 

^scuLus. (De Cand. i. 597.) 
**^iLscuLUS nippocA8TANUM. (Linn.) Horse chestnut. 
FL white, spotted with red and yellow. May. Large tree. India. 
Bark reconnnended as a valuable febrifuge in intermittent and other 



VEGETABLES.— SAPINDACE.E. 237 

fevers (as well as the skin of the fruit), astringent, used for Peruvian 
bark in doses of 3ss. to 3J. ; it deserves to be the subject of a series 
of well-conducted experiments ; a decoction has been recommended in 
gangrene, and its powder is errhine ; seeds farinaceous, but must be 
soaked in an alkaline ley to take off their bitterness. 

Pa VIA. (De Cand. i. 598.) 

Pa VIA RUBRA. (Lamb.) ^sculiis pavia, Scarlet-Jlowered horse 
chestnut. 

Bark febrifuge : root used for soap : seeds, buck eyes, used to poison 

fish. 



Order 38.— RHIZOBOLE^E. (De Cand. i. 599.) 

Sepnls five, more or less combined, imbricated in a?stivation ; 2^ettt^s five, thickish, 
iuiei|ual, arising along with the stamens from a hypogynous disk ; stamens extremely 
nuuioi-ous, slightly monadelphons, arising in a double row from a disk, the innermost 
being shorter and often abortive; anthers roundish; ovary superior, 4 — 6 celled, 4 — 6 
seeded; styles 4 — 6; stigma simple; ovules peltate; fruit consisting of 4 — 6 nuts 
combined together, part of which are sometimes abortive, each nut indehiscent, one- 
seeded, one-celled, with a thick double putamen ; seed reniform, exalbuminous, with a 
funicle which is dilated into a spongy excrescence ; radicle very large, constituting 
nearlv the whole of the almond-like substance of the nut, with a long two-edged caulicle, 
having two small cotyledons, and lying in a furrow of the radicle. Trees with opposite- 
stalked compound exstipulate leaves and racemose flowers. 

Caryocar. (De Cand. i. 599.) 

Caryocar butyrosum. (Willd.) Pekea butyracea, Rhizobolus 
butyrosus, Suraivah^ Smvarrow^ or Souari nut. Guiana. 

Seed esculent. The kernel of the nut is considered one of the most 
delicious of the nut kind. The wood is excellent for ship timber, mill 
work, &c. (Schomburgk.) 

Cary'OCAr tomentosum. (Willd.) Pekea tuberculosa^ Wiizoholus 
2)ekea, M, tuberculosa, Guiana almonds., Brazil 7iuts. Guiana, &c. 
Seeds esculent, imported from the Brazils. 



Order 39.— SAPINDACEiE. (De Cand. i. 601.) 

Flowers polygamous. Males: calyx more or less deeply 4 — 5 parted, or 4 — 5 
leaved, with an imbricated aestivation ; petals 4 — 5, or occasionally absent, alternate 
with the sepals, hypogynous, sometimes naked, sometimes with a double appendage 
on the inside, aestivation imbricated ; disk fleshy, sometimes occupying the base of the 
calyx, regular, nearly entire, expanded between the petals and stamens, sometimes 
glandular, incomplete, the glands stationed between the petals and the stamens ; 
stamens 8 — 10, rarely 5 — 6 — 7, very seldom 20, sometimes inserted into the disk, 
sometimes into the receptacle between the glands and the pistil ; filaments free, or 
combined just at the base ; anthers tm-ned inwards, dehiscing longitudinally ; rudiment 
of a 2}istil very small or none. Hermaphrodite flowers: calyx, petals^ disk, stamens, 
as in the males; ovarji three-celled, rarely 2 — 4 celled, the cells containing 1 — 2 — 3, 
A-ery seldom more ovules ; style undivided, or more or less deeply two or three cleft ; 
ovules, when solitary, erect or ascending, rarely suspended ; when double, the upper 
ascending, the lower suspended; fniit sometimes capsular, 2 — 3 valved, sometimes 
samaroid, sometimes fleshy and indehiscent ; seeds usually with an aril, the outer in- 
tegument ci'ustaceous or membraneous, the interior pellucid ; albumen none ; embryo 
seldom straight, usually curved or spirally twisted ; radicle next the hilum ; cotyledons 



238 VEGETABLES.— sAPiNDACEyE. 

incnmbent, sometimes combined into a thick mnss ; phmvde two-leaved. Trees or shrubs 
■which often climb, and have tendrils, seldom climbing herbs : leaves alternate, compound, 
very rarely simple, with or witlioiit stipules, often marked with lines or pellucid dots ; 
flowers in racemes, or racemose panicles, small, white or pink, seldom yellow. 

Cardtospermtjm. (De Caiid. i. 601.) 
Cardiospermum Halicacabum. (Linn.) East Indies. 

Hoot aperient ; juice used as an emollient in gonorrhoea ; herb used 
as food. 

Euphoria. (De Cand. i. 611.) 

Euphoria Litchi. (Desf.) E. punicra. (Lamb.) Dlmocarpiis 
Lychi. (Lour.) Lit-chi Chinensis. (Sonn.) Scytalia Chineusis. 
(Gaertn.) Nephelium. (Linn.) Sapindua edulis^ Lit-schi. India 
and China. 

Fruit esculent. 

Magonia. (L.) 

Magonia pubescens. (Aug. de St. H.) Pliceocarpus campestris. 
(Mart.) Brazil. 

Ashes extremely alkaline; bark used for subduing the swellings 
produced in the hides of horses by ihe stings of insects ; leaves lethal 
to fish. (L.) 

Melicocca. (De Cand. i. 614.) 

Melicocca bijuga, (Linn.) Genip tree. West Indies. 

Seeds oily, esculent. 

JiIelicocca trijuga. (Juss.) Schleichera trijyga. (Willd.) India. 
Bark astringent ; rubbed up with oil, the natives of India use it to 
cure the itch. The pulpy subacid aril is edible and palatable. (L.) 

Paullixia. (De Cand. i. 604.) 
Paullinia australis. (L.) Brazil. 

Supposed to be the plant from which a species of Polistes prepares 
a venomous honey in the woods of Brazil, (Auguste de St. liilaire.) (L.) 

Paullinia sorbilis. (Mart.) South America. 

The Indians of Para are said to prepare the substance called Guarana 
from the seeds of this plant. 

Paullinia subrotunda. (Pers.) Woods in Peru. 

Arillus esculent. 

Sapindus. (De Cand. i. 607.) 

Sapindus EMARGiNATUS. (Vahl.) India. 

Employed by the Hindoo" physicians as an expectorant. (Ainslie.) 
When mixed wdth water froths like soap, and is used instead of that 
substance for many important purposes ; Dr. Slierwood states that the 
seeds pounded with water often put an end to the epileptic paroxysm, 
a small quantity being introduced into the patient's mouth. (O'Sh.) 

Sapindus saponaria. (Linn.) Saponaria, Soap-berry tree. West 
Indies. 

Fruit used with rum as an embrocation in rheumatism ; tops, leaves, 
and seed vessels, form a lather with water, and cleanse linen, &c. ; the 
plant intoxicates and kills fish. (G.) Fruit detersive and very acrid, 
they lather freely in water, and are used in the West Indies instead of 



VEGETABLES.— MELiACEJi:. 239 

soap; " a few of them will cleanse more linen than sixty times their 
Aveight of soap ;" pounded and thrown into water they intoxicate fish ; 
a tincture of the berries has been recommended in chlorosis ; S. ince- 
qualis is said to have similar detersive qualities. (L.) 

ScHMiDELiA. (De Cand. i. 610.) 
ScHMiDELiA SERRATA. (D. C.) Omitrophe serrata. Bengal. 
Root astringent, employed by the Telinga physicians in substance to 
stop diarrhoea ; ripe berries eaten by the natives of Coromandel. (L.) 
Serjania. (De Cand. i. 602.) 
Serjania triternata. (Willd.) Liaiie a persil. "Warm parts 
of America. 

Used to poison fish. 



Order 40.— MELIACE^. (De Cand. i. 619.) 

Sepals 4 — 5, more or less united; petals as many as tlie sepals, alternating with them, 
hypogynous, nsually conniving at the base or even cohering ; stamens twice as many as 
the petals ; filaments cohering in a long tube ; ovary solitary ; sf.j/le one ; stigmas distinct 
or combined ; fruit berried, drupaceous, or capsular, many-celled, often by abortion one- 
celled ; seeds albuminous, or sometimes without albumen. Trees or shrubs with alternate 
exstipulate leaves. 

Carapa. (De Cand. i. 626.) 

Carapa GrUiANENSis. (Aubl.) Pcrsoonia guareoides. (Willd.) 
The bark has a high reputation as a febrifuge ; the oil, Oil of Carapa, 
which is obtained from the fruit, is applied to the skin, also to the hair 
to promote its growth, and is administered internally as an anthelmintic. 
It is said to be excellent for preventing iron from rusting. 

Carapa obovata. (L.) Xylocarpus obovatus. 

Carapa Moluccensis. (Lamb.) Carapa Indica. (Juss.) Xyio- 
carpus granatwn. (Kaen.) Various parts of the East Indies. 
Contain an extremely bitter principle. (L.) 

Carapa Touloucouna. C. Guineensis. Africa. 

A concrete fixed oil is obtained from the fruit, called Tallicoonah or 
Kitndah oil. It has a bitter, acrid, and disagreeable taste, and is used 
by the natives as an anthelmintic and purgative. It is also used for 
burning in lamps, and as an application to the skin. 

Chloroxyeon. (De Cand. i- 625.) 

Chloroxylon Swietenia. (D. C.) Sicietenia chloroxylon. (Roxb.) 
East Indies. 

The wood of this tree is the Satin-ivood of the cabinet-makers. It 
is said to be one of the trees yielding the wood-oil of India. { L.) 

Cedrela. (De Cand. i. 624.) 

Cedrela odorata. (Linn.) C. rosmarinus? Barhadoes cedar. 
Wood slightly odoriferous, antirheumatic; yields a resin. (L.) 

Cedrela Toona. (Roxb.) C.fehrifuga. Poma. Toona. Ben- 
gal, Java. 

Bark used as a febrifuge. (G:.) It has been employed in Java 
with much success in the worst epidemic fevers, diarrhcea, and other 



240 VEGETABLES.— MELiACE^. 

complaints; and also in various cases of dysentery, but in the last stao:e 
only, when the inflammatory symptoms had disappeared ; it has also 
been considered especially useful in bilious fevers and inveterate 
diarrhoea arising from atony of the muscular fibre. (L.) 

GuAREA. (De Cand. i. 623.) 

GuAREA AuBLETii. (A. de J.) TricliUia guarea. (Aublet.) 

Bark a violent emetic and purgative; a decoction is said to produce 
similar eflects, but in a milder manner ; possibly the same as the next 
species. (L.) 

GuAREA TRiCHiLioiDES. (Cav.) Melici guarci. (Jacq.) Cuba. 

Juice of bark purgative and violently emetic. (L.) 

HuMiRiA. (De Cand. i. 619.) 

HuMiRiA BALSAM IF ERA. (Aubl.) Myrodendron amplexicaule, 
Houmiri, or Touri. Guiana. 

Yields balsam houmiri ; bark resinous. (G.) The balsam is very 
similar to that produced by 

HuMiRiA FLORiBUNDUM. (Mart.) Brazil. 

This plant, the Umiri of the people of Para, yields from its trunk, 
when wounded, a valuable, fragrant, limpid, pale-yellow balsam, called 
Balsam of umiri, possessing the same medicinal qualities as balsam of 
copaiva ; compared by Martius to that of Peru. (L.) 

Melia. (DeCand. i. 621.) 

Me LI A AZEDARACii. (Linn.) Azedarach, Bread-tree. Syria and 
South of Europe. 

Seeds yield oil ; bark, azedarachta P. U. S., used for the Peruvian ; 
leaves vulnerary, vermifuge, diuretic ; root bitter and nauseous, used in 
]N'orth America as an anthelmintic ; the pulp that surrounds the seeds 
said to be poisonous, but this is denied by Turpin ; trees yield gum, 
and also toddy. 

Sandoricuai. (De Cand. i. 621.) 
Sandorictjm Indicum. (Cav.) East Indies. 

Root aromatic, stomachic, and antispasmodic ; it is employed in 

Java against leucorrhcea, combined with the bark of the root of Ca- 

rapa ohovata ; it is extremely bitter. (L.) 

SwiETENiA. (De Cand. i. 625.) 

SwiETENiA FEBRiFUGA. (Roxb.) Soymidci fehrifugu. (L.) Red 
wood tree. India. 

Bark an efficient remedy for tlie dangerous jungle fever of India 
when cinchona produces no effect : it has also been employed success- 
fully in India in bad cases of gangrene, and in Great Britain in typiius 
fever, and as an astringent. (L.) Dose in powder 3ss. (G.) 

SwiETENiA CHiCKRASSA. (Roxb.) Chickrassia tu.bularis. (L.) 
East of Ben oral. 

Bark powerfully astringent, without bitterness. (L.) 

SwiETENiA MAiioGONi. (Linu.) Cedvus mahogoni. (Mill.) Maho- 
gany tree. Hotter parts of America. 



VEGETABLES.— AMPELiDEiE. 241 

Wood astringent ; an extract is made from it. (Gr-) Has been 
used in the West Indies as a substitute for Peruvian bark, but inferior 
to it. (L.) This is the Mahogany wood used for furniture, &e. 

SwiETENiA Senegalensis. (Desrous.) Khaya Senegalerisis. (L.) 
Borders of the Gambia. 

Bark very bitter, called Cail cedra, febrifuge ; the blacks use it in 
infusion and decoction, never in powder ; it is emplo3^ed as a remedy 
for the fevers so common in the damp districts of the Gambia. 

The Jaribali, or Eiiribali, is a plant possibly allied to this genus ; 
the bark is a potent bitter and astringent ; it appears to be far superior 
to Peruvian bark in fevers of a typhoid or malignant nature; it is cor- 
dial and purgative, and is also a powerful diaphoretic, especially if 
taken warm. (Dr. Hancock.) It is not known to what genus this be- 
longs. (L.) 

Trichilia. (De Cand. i. 622.) 

Trichilia emetica. (Yahl.) Yemen, Senegal. 

Fruit used by the Arabs as an emetic under the name of Djouz 
elkai ; ripe seeds formed with sesamum oil into a salve against the 
itch. (L.) 

Trichilia spondioides. (Swartz.) Bastard Brazil. Jamaica 
and Hispaniola. 

Wood used in dyeing. 

Trichilia spinosa. (Willd.) East Indies. 

Berries boiled for their oil. 

Trichilia trifoliata. (Linn.) Curacoa. 

The female slaves in Cura9oa use a decoction of the roots to produce 
abortion ; the Dutch call the tree Kerseboom, tlie Spaniards Ceraso 
macho. (L.) 

Walsura. (O'Sh.) 

Walsura piscidia. East Indies. 

Bark employed to intoxicate fish, which are not deemed unwhole- 
some in consequence. (O'Sh.) 



Order 41.— AMPELIDE^. (De Cand. i. 627.) 

Calyx small, entire or toothed at the margin ; petals 4 — 5, alternate with the teeth 
of the calyx, inserted on a disk which surrounds the ovary ; stamens as many as the 
petals, inserted upon the disk ; anthers ovate, versatile ; ovary free, globose ; style very 
bhort or none ; stigma simple ; herry often i)ulpy, one-celled ; seeds 4 — 5 or fewer by 
abortion, erect, osseous ; albumen fleshy, hard ; emhryo erect ; cotyledons lanceolate. 
Climbing shrubs with tumid separable joints, the lower leaves opposite, the upper alter- 
nate ; small gYeenish. Jlowers. 

Cissus. (De Cand. i. 627.) 
Cissus acida. (Linn.) South America. 

Cissus SETOSA. (Roxb.) Bengal. 

Every part of these plants exceedingly acrid; the leaves toasted 
and oiled are applied to indolent tumours to bring them to suppura* 
tion. (L.) 



242 VEGETABLES.— GERANIACE.E. 

Cissus sALUTARis. (H. B. et Kunth.) South America. 

Has a root useful in dropsical cases. (L.) 

YiTis. (De Cand. i. 633.) 

**ViTis viNiFEKA. (Liim.) Graj^e vine. 

June. Native of Asia. 

Numerous varieties of this plant are cultivated ; fruit, grapes, uvce, 
esculent when ripe, cooling and antiseptic ; in large quantities diuretie 
and laxative, very useful in bilious and putrid fevers, dysentery, and 
all inflammatory affections ; raisins more laxative then the fresh fruit ; 
juice made into a variety of wines, also inspissated, and made inta 
sugar. Dried grapes, Uvce siccatce. Raisins, from Barbary, in jars. 
Raisins of the sun, Uvcb passce majores ; these and the other raisins- 
are prepared by being left to wither a little on the vine, the stalk 
being cut half-way tlirough, then gathered and dipped in a ley of" 
wood-ash and barilla, at 12 or 15 deg. Baume, sp. gr. 1*094 to 1'116, 
to every four gallons of which are added a handful of salt and a pint of 
oil, or a pound and a half of butter, and then drying them in the sun ; 
they lose about two-thirds of their weight, and become covered with a 
saccharine exudation ; Denia raisins, Malaga raisins, Valencia raisins, 
JBelvidere raisins, Lexia raisins. Muscatel raisins. Bloom raisijis, Sul- 
tana raisins, Uvce ap?/re7i(E (small, yellowish red, without stones) ^ 
Black Smyrna raisins. Red Smyrna raisins, Currants, Uvce minores 
CorinthiaccB , East Indian raisins (Kishmish, from the small Schiraz 
grapes). All these dried grapes are used for food, or fermented with 
water, and made into wine. Rape, Vinacea, the cake left on pressing 
grapes : it is fermented with water, and distilled for brandy. 



Order 42.— GERANIACE^. (De Cand. i. 637.) 

ScpaU five, persistent, ribbed, more or less unequal, with an imbricated aestivation, 
one sometimes saccate, or spurred at the base ; petals five, alternating with the sepals, 
imo-uiculate, equal or unequal, either hypogynous or perigynous ; stamens usually mona- 
delphous, hypogynous, double the number of the petals, some occasionally sterile, equal 
or unequal; ovartj in appearance, five-celled, terminating in a long thick style, crowned 
bv five stigmas, but in reality the torus is elongated over the slender, subpentagonal 
axis ; carpels five, submembraneous, indehisccnt, one-celled, two-seeded, addressed to 
the base of the torus, having at their apex five filiform styles, which are closely adnate- 
to the furrows in the torus, and terminate at the apex in five short, simple, acute stigmas ; 
after fecundation, the styles twist up in various modes from base to apex, and thus 
draw the carpels out from the calyx, and in a short time both fall off' from the torus ;. 
seed in the carpels solitary, pendulous, exalbuminous ; emhnjo curved ; radicle deflexed 
and turned towards the base of the carpel ; cotyledons foliaceous, convolute, and plaited. 
Herhaceous plants or shrubs, with tumid stems separable at the joints, and either oppo- 
site or alternate leaves, with pedunculate inflorescence. 

Slightly acrid or acid, vulnerary and astringent. 
Erodium. (De Cand. i. 644.) 
*Erodium cicutarium. (Leman.) (E. B. 1768.) Hemlock stork^s-bill. 
Fl. pale red. May, September. Annual. Waste ground. 

*Erodium moschatum. (Willd.) (E. B. 902.) Alitskg stork' s-bill. 
Fl. rose-coloured. June, July. Annual. Mountainous pastures. 
Astringent and detersive, used in poultices. 



VEGETABLES.— GEBANiACE^. 243 

GERA^'IUM. (De Cand. i. 639.) 

*Geranium columbinum. (Linn.) (E. B. 157.) Long-stalked 
crane s-hilU Doves-foot. 

Fl. bluish or rose-coloured. June, July. Annual. Dry pastures. 

*Geranium hobertianum. (Linn.) (E. B. 1486.) Gratia Dei, 
Herb Robert. 

n. deep crimson, sometimes white. May, August. Annual. Common. 

*Geranium ROTUNDiFOiiiUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 157.) Round- 
leaved crane" s-bill. 

Fl. reddish-purjjle. June, July. Annual. Pastures and waste 
grounds. 

*Geranium sanguineum. (Linn.) (E. B. 272.) Bloody crane's-bill. 
Fl. reddish-purple. July. Perennial. Alpine or limestone pastures. 

*Geranium syevaticum. (Linn.) (E. B. 121.) G. batrachyoides, 
Blue dove' s-foot, Wood crane' s-bill. 

Fl. purplish-blue, with crimson veins. July. Perennial. Woods. 

Astringent and detersive ; used in poultices. (G.) G. Robertia- 
mim is a popular remedy in Wales in nephritic complaints. (L.) 

Geranium maculatum. (Linn.) American crane's-bill. Canada 
and Carolina. 

Root, Geranium, P. U. S., boiled in milk, used in the cholera of 
infants. (G.) A most powerful astringent, containing considerably 
more tannin than kino ; according to Bigelow, it is particidarly suited 
to the treatment of such diseases as continue from debility after the 
removal of the exciting cause ; tincture an excellent local application 
in sore throat and ulcerations of the mouth ; used in powder, extract, 
or tincture. (L.) 

Geranium tuberosum. (Linn.) Bulbous-rooted crane's-bill. 
South of Europe. 

Poot in wine used as a wash in inflammation of the vulva. 

Pelargonium. (De Cand. i. 649.) 

Pelargonium capitatum. (Ait.) Rose-scented Pelargonium, 
or Stork' s-bill. Cape of Good Hope. 

Pelargonium odoratissimum. (Willd.) Sioeet-scented Pelar- 
gonium, or Stork' s-bill. Cape of Good Hope. 

Pelargonium roseum. (Ait.) Rose-coloured Pelargonium, or 
Stork' s-bill. Cape of Good Hope. 

These three species of Pelargonium yeild an essential oil by distilla- 
tion, which somewhat resembles otto of roses in flavour, and is much 
used for adulterating otto of roses. The oil of Pelargonium contains 
an acid, called Pelargonic acid, which combined with ether is used for 
giving the whiskey flavour to spirits. Pelargonic acid is produced 
artificially by the action of nitric acid on oil of rue. 

R 2 



244 VEGETABLES.— BALSAMixE.^. 



Order 43.— TROP^OLE^. (De Cand. i. 683.) 

Calyx five-paitite, coloured, upper segment spurred at the base, spur free ; petals 
five, unequal, irregular, inverted on the cah'x, two upper sessile and remote, inserted 
on the fauces of the spur, three lower stalked, smaller, sometimes abortive ; stamens 
eight, jjerigynous, distinct; anthers innate, erect, two-celled; ovary three-corncied, 
made up of three carpels; sf///c's three, united into one; stigmas Hhxe^; carpels three; 
one-celled, one-seeded ; seeds large, exalbuminous ; embryo large ; cotyledons straight, 
distinct when young, afterwards closely coherent ; radicle hidden between the processes 
of the cotyledons. Smooth herbaceous plants, wnth altei'uate peltinerve leaves and axillary 
one-flowered ped an cl es . 

Trop^eolum, (De Cand. i. 683.) 

**TROPiEOLUM MAJus. (Linii.) Garden nasturtuwi, Lidicui cress. 
Fl. deep orange. July, August. Annual. Native of Peru. 

TROPiEOLUM MINUS. (Liuu.) Smaller nasturtium. Peru, 

Eaten in salads, antiscorbutic, excite the appetite, assist digestion, 
externally used in stubborn itch. 

Trop^olum tuberosum. (Flor. Per.) Peru. 

Root eaten. 



Order 44.— BALSAMINEiE. (De Cand. i. 685.) 

Calyx two-sepalled ; sepals small, deciduous, opposite, often mucronate, with an im- 
bricated a?stivation; petals four, hypogynous, cruciate, two outer ones alternate with the 
sepals, and callous at the apex, upper one arched, emarginate, lower entire, piolonged 
at the base into a spur, two inner ones alternate with the former, equal, often bitid or 
appendiculated ; stamens five, hypogynous ; filaments short, thickened at apex ; anthers 
subconnate, the three lower stamens opposite the petals, with bilocular antliers, the two 
upper opposite the upper petal, with one or two celled anthers ; anthers dehiscing by a 
longitudinal chink ; ovary one ; style none ; stlymas five, or united into a single sessile 
short stigma; capsule of five valves, dehiscing elastically; placenta central, five angular, 
the membraneous angles extending into the valvular suture, and therefore the young 
capsule is five-celled ; seeds pendulous, numerous, exalbuminous ; embryo straight ; radicle 
superior. Succulent herbaceous jilants, with simple, opposite, or alternate leaves, without 
stipules, with an axillary pedunculated inflorescence. 

Tmpatiens. (De Cand. 687.) 

*Impatiens koli tangere. (Linn.) (E. B. 937.) Touch-me- 
not. Yellow Balsam.. 

Fl. yellow, spotted with red. July, August. Annual. Rare. 
Near Guildford, Surrey ; Yorkshire. 

Herb diuretic, capable of producing a diabetes, but extremely 
uncertain in its operation. (G.) 

LiQuiDAMBAR. (Liudl. Fl. Med. 32L) 

LiQUiDAMBAR ALTiNGiA. (Blume.) Alt'cugia excelsa. (Noronha.) 
Ras-sa-ma-la. Java. 

Bark with a hot and bitterish taste, yielding, when wounded, a 
fragrant honey-like balsam ; tiie latter is liquid storax, a stimulating 
expectorant substance, acting in the same way as solid storax, that is 
to say, influencing the mucous membranes, especially that wliich lines 
the air passages. But although this tree undoubtedly produces the fine 
liquid storax, or Rasamala of the Malaj'an Archipelago, it is probable 
that the principal part of that in use is obtained from L, orientale, for 



VEGETABLES.— OXALIDE.E. 245 

it has been ascertained by Dr. Pereira tliat all the storax imported for 
seven years came from Trieste. (L.) 

LiQUiDAMBA RORiENTAiiE. (Mill.) L.imberbe, Platauus orieutaliS' 
Cyprus and East of Europe. 

Produces by incision excellent white turpentine. The common 
Cypriots toast and suck morsels of the wood and bark, esteeming them 
a specific remedy for fevers. (L.) 

LiQuiDAMBER STYRACiFLUA. (Linn.) Styrax aceris folio. (Paj.) 
Sweet-gum. Mexico, and Southern States of North America. 

A balsamic juice flows from the trunk of the tree when wounded, 
which is called Liquidamher, or Copalm balsam. This is a transparent 
liquid, of the consistence of thin honey, of a yellowish colour, agreeable 
balsamic odour, and bitter, acrid taste. An inferior product is obtained 
by boiling the young branches in water, and skimming off the fluid 
which rises to the surface. 



Order 45.— OXALIDE^. (De Cand. i. 683.) 

Cahjx of five, persistent, equal sepals, or five-parted ; petals five, hypogynous, equal, 
unguiculate; stamens ten, the five opposite the petals longest; filaments subulate, 
generally monadelphous ; anthers two-celled ; ovanj free, with five angles and five cells ; 
styles five, filiform; stigmas capitate or somewhat bifid; cajysule ovate or oblong, mem- 
braneous, with five cells, and from five to ten valves ; seeds few, fixed to the central angle 
of the cells, ovate, striated, enclosed in a fleshy arillus, which opens with elasticity; 
enihryo inverted ; cotyledons foliaceous. Herbaceous plants or under shrubs, with alter- 
nate, rarely opposite leaves. 

AvERRHOA. (De Cand. i. 689.) 
AvERRHOA BiLiMBi. (Linn.) Bengal. 

A syrup is prepared with the juice, and a conserve with the flowers, 
employed in India in the treatment of fevers. (O'Sh.) 

AvERRHOA CARAMBOLA. (Liuu.) Kamarunga. Bengal. 

Fruit used in pickle, in curries, and as an ingredient in several 
native electuaries. The dyers also employ it very extensively. (O'Sh.) 
The fruits of both of these are acid, and are made into preserves with 
sugar. (G.) 

OxALis. (De Cand. i. 690.) 

*OxALis ACETOSELLA. (Linn.) (E. B. 762.) Acetosella, Allelvja, 
Lujula, Trifolium acidiun, Common mood, sorrel, Green sauce. 

Fl. white. May, June. Perennial. Woods. Common. 

Herb in salads very refreshing, acidulous, antiputrescent, makes a 
very pleasant whey ; used for the extraction of salt of sorrel. (O.) 
Taken as a salad, it forms a good scorbutic ; infused in milk or water, 
it forms a grateful drink in fevers and inflammatory cases. (L.) 

*OxALis coRNicuLATA. (Liuu.) (E. B. 1726.) Yellow procumbent 
wood sorrel. 

Fl. yellow. May, June. Annual. Shady waste ground, Devon. 
Qualities the same as those of O. acetosella. 

OxALis coMPREssA. (Jacq.) Cape of Good Hope. 

OXALIS FRUTESCENS. 



246 VEG ET ABLES.— zYGOPHYLLE^. 

OXALIS DODECANDRIA. 

OxALis STRiCTA. (Linn.) Jamaica ivood sorrel. 
Acid, cooling. 

OxALis TUBEROSA. (Sav.) Chili. 

Root like potatoes, herb acici. 



Order 46.— ZYGOPHYLLE^. (De Cand. i. 703.) 

Ccthjx of five sepals, distinct, or very slightly connected at the base ; petals five, 
alternating with the sepals, inserted on the receptacle ; stamens ten, distinct, hypogy- 
nous, five opposite the petals, five alternating Avith the petals ; ovai^n simple, five-celled ; 
styles five, coalescing in one; fruit capsular, with four or five angles or wings, and four 
or five cells; seeds usually numerous, sometimes exalbuminous ; embryo straight; radicle 
superior ; cotyledons leafy. Herbaceous plants, shrubs, or trees, with opposite, stipulate, 
genei-ally pinnate leaves ; with white, blue, red, or yellow flowers, either solitary, or in 
pairs or threes. 

Balanites. (De Cand. i. 708.) 
(Placed by Endlicher under genus " Olacinies affiiieJ') 

Balanites ^gyptiaca, (Delille.) Ximenia ^gyptiaca, (Linn.) 
Africa, cultivated in Egypt. 

Leaves anthelmintic. Unripe drupe acrid, bitter and purgative, but 
when ripe eaten without inconvenience. The fruit, Egyptian myro- 
balans, sometimes mixed with true myrobalans in commerce. 

GuAiACUM. (De Cand. i. 707.) 
GuAiACUM officinale. (Linn.) Lignum-vitce tree. India. 

Wood, guaiaci lignum^ lignum sanctum, lignum vitce^ resinous, hot, 
aromatic, diaphoretic, diuretic, used in dropsy, gout, and especially 
in the venereal disease ; in warm climates, yields gum guaiacum, or, 
more correctly, guaiacum. resin ; leaves detergent, used in scouring 
floors, and washing printed linens ; the wood is excessively hard and 
compact. (G.) Internally taken, either wood or resin excites a sensa- 
tion of warmth in the stomach, and dryness of the mouth and throat. 
It increases the heat of the skin, accelerates the pulse, and proves 
diaphoretic if the patient be kept warm, or diuretic if the surface of 
the body be exposed to the air. In large doses it acts as a purgative. 
It is also given in cases of foul ulcers, hospital gangrene, thickened 
ligaments, mercurial ulcerations, and in various forms of scrofula. 
(O'Sh.) Continued use of the wood occasions heartburn, flatulence, 
and costiveness. (Pereira.) 

Guaiacum sanctum. (Linn.) Porto Rico, South America. 

Guaiacum in tears, Guaiacum in laclirymis, is said to be exuded by 
this sjDCcies. 

PoRLiERA. (De Cand. i. 707.) 
PoRLiERA HYGROMETRiCA. (Ruiz et Pav.) Chili, Peru. 

Wood sudorific, antirheumatic. Properties similar to those of 
Guaiacum. (L.) 

Tribulus. (De Cand. i. 703.) 

Tribulus TERRESTRis. (Linn.) Caltrops. South of Europe, Barbary. 
Herb detersive ; astringent, vermifuge ; seeds cordial. • 



VEGETABLES.— RUTACE^. 247 

Zygophyllum. (De Cand. i. 705.) 
Zygophyllum Fabago. (Linn.) Bean caper. Syria. 

Vermifuge. 



Order 47.— RUTACEiE. (De Cand. i. 709.) 

Calyx 3 — 5 sepaled, the sepals more or less united together, thus making the calyx 
either dentate, cleft, or partite ; ^jef«/s (very rarely none) generally as many as the 
sepals, often unguiculate, distinct ; disk fleshy, glandular, surrounding the ovary, aris- 
ing from the receptacle, external to the petals, bearing the stamens on the upper part; 
■stameiis usually double the number of petals ; carpels as many as the sepals, (sometimes 
by abortion fewer,) either distinct, or united at the base, or perfectly connate ; style 
arising from the centre of the ovary, single, divided into as many stigmas as there are 
ovaries ; carpels when ripe generally distinct, one-celled, dehiscent ; seeds inverted, 
affixed to the inner angle ; embryo straight, compressed ; radicle superior. Herbs or 
shrubs, with opposite or alternate stipulate leaces, and axillary or terminal flowers. All 
the parts are aromatic. 

Antidesma. (Endl. Gen. pL 287.) 
Antidesma alexiteria. (Willd.) Noela tali. Laurel-leaved 
antidesma. East Indies. 

Fruit acid, like the barberry ; a decoction of the leaves is reputed 
to be an antidote against the bite of serpents ; the bark is used for 
making ropes. 

Dicta MN us. (De Cand. i. 712.) 

'^*DiCTAMNUs fraxinella. (Pcrs.) Dictamnus albus. (Var.) 
Bastard dittany. Fraxinella. 

FI. purple or white. June, July. Perennial. South of Europe. 

Root rather bitter, cordial, cephalic, alexiterial, uterine, anti-epileptic, 
vermifuge ; in powder 3j. twice a day. 

DiosMA. (De Cand. i. 714.) 

DiosMA crenata. (D. C.) Barosma crenata, Bucku. Cape of 
Good Hope. 

Powder of the leaves strong smelling, tonic, astringent, and diuretic ; 
in gleet and other diseases of the urinary passages. 

DiOSMA ODORATA. (D. C) D. CRENULATA, D. SERRATIFOLIA. 

(Lodd.) Cape of Good. Hope. 

Plants whose leaves are collected in South Africa under the name of 
Bucku ; the infusion is much praised as a remedy in chronic inflamma- 
tions of the bladder and urethra, and in chronic rheumatism. 

Elaphrium. (De Cand. i. 723.) 
Elaphrium tomentosum. (Jacq.) Fagara octandra. (Linn.) 
Zaiithoxylurn octandra. Cura^oa and neighbouring islands. 

The tree abounds in a fragrant, balsamic, glutinous resin, which is 
believed to furnish one of the sorts of Tacatnahaca. (L.) Yields 
Tacamahacam the shell. (G.) 

EvoDiA. (De Cand. i. 724.) 
EvoDiA AROMATIC A. Agathophyllum aromaticum, E. ravensara, 
Ravensara aromutica^ Ravensara. Madagascar. 

Bark aromatic, red ; nut resembles both cloves and pimento ; kernel 



248 VEGETABLES.— RUTACE^. 

Clove nutmeg^ 3Iadayascar nutmeg, extremely hot, biting-, with a 
strong spicy smell ; leaves an excellent tonic cordial spice, form an 
agreeable cordial, yield an oil. 

EvoDiA FEBRiFUGA. (St. Hil.) Brazil, 

Bark and young wood extremely bitter and astringent ; used with 
great success in Brazil as febrifuges. (L.) 

Galipea. (De Cand. i. 731.) 

Galipea cusparia. (St. Hil.) Cusparia fehrifiiga, Boiij^landia 
trifoliata. Tropical America. 

Bark, Angosiura hark, CusparicB cortex^ in pieces of different 
lengths, aromatic, intensely bitter, tonic, stimulant, very useful in 
dyspepsia, diarrhoea, and dysentery ; dose, gr. :v. to xx. Imported 
from Cadiz and West Indies in casks. (G.) Said by Humboldt to 
produce Angostura bark, but denied by Dr. Hancock, who assigns it to 
G. officinalis. 

Galipea officinalis. (Lindl. p. 211.) South America. 

Oraguri of the natives. According to Dr. Hancock, this, which 
he found to yield the true Angostura, or Carony hark, is essentially 
different from the Cusparia febrifuga of Humboldt. He considers it 
one of the most valuable febrifuges we possess, being adapted to the 
worst and most malignant bilious fevers, while those in which cin- 
chona is administered are simple intermittents. The natives use the 
bruised bark as a means of intoxicating fishes. 

Malamho hark, an aromatic bark with very active, bitter, astringent, 
febrifugal properties, a native of Columbia, the tree of which is un- 
known, is supposed by Bonpland to be furnished by some plant allied 
to Galipea. 

Peganum. (De Cand. i. 712.) 

Peganum Harmala. (Linn.) Huta si/lvestiis, Harmel wild rzie. 
East of Europe. 

Seeds very inebriating, soporific, causing a happy forgetfulness and 
pleasant delirium. 

Ptelea. (Lind. Fl. Med. 215.) 

Ptelea TRIFOLIATA. (Linn.) Carolina sliruh trefoil' United States. 

Young green shoots anthelmintic ; fruit aromatic and bitter, a good 
substitute for hops. 

EuTA. (De Cand. i. 710.) 

PuTA ANGusTiFOLiA. (Pers.) Narroiv-leoved rue. South France. 

Vermifuge. 

**PuTA GRAVEOLENS. (Linn.) Ruta hortensis. Rue. 

Fl. yellow. June, July. Perennial. Soutii of Europe. 

Leaves, Rutcc folia, powerfully resolvent, emmenagogue, carmina- 
tive, diuretic ; also alexiterial, nervine, cephalic, antispadmodic, and 
anaphrodisiac ; dose gr. xv. to 3ij. ; externally rubefacient. 

TicoREA. (De Cand. i. 730.) 

TicoREA FEBRIFUGA. (St. Hil.) Brazil. 

Bark intensely bitter, astringent, febrifugal. 



VEGETABLES.— siMARiTBE.^. 249 

TicoREA JASMiNiFLORA. (St. Hil.) Brazil. 

A decoction of the leaves taken by the Brazilians as a cure for 
framboesia . 

Zanthoxylum. (De Cand. i. 725.) 

Zanthoxylum alatum. (Roxb.) (Lind. Med. Bot. 217.) Nepal, 
and north of Bengal. 

Aromatic and pungent ; seeds used medicinally by the natives. 

Zanthoxylitm Avic;enne. (D. C.) Fagara AvicenncE. China. 
Used in China as an antidote against all poisons, undoubtedly a 
powerful stimulant. 

Zanthoxyeum Ceava Herculis. (Linn.) Tooth-ache tree. West 
Indies. 

Leaves sudorific, diuretic, sialagogue, when taken internally ; used 
in rheumatism and palsy ; expressed juice of the roots, cochl. ij. anti- 
spasmodic ; roots in infusion used as a collyrium ; powder of bark of 
roots useful in dressing putrid sores ; tincture found by Dr. Gillespie 
to be a good febrifuge ; according to others, the decoction is anti- 
syphilitic. 

Zanthoxyeum fraxineum. (Willd.) Z. carihbccitm, Prickly ash. 
Prickly yellow ivood. United States. 

Bark, Zardhoxylon, P. U. S., febrifuge, dyes yellow. (G.) Has a 
good deal of reputation in North America as a remedy in chronic rheu- 
matism, generally given in decoction ; has also been used as a topical 
stimulant, producing a powerful effect when applied to secreting sur- 
faces and to ulcerated parts. (L). 

Zanthoxyeum hermaphroditum. (Willd.) Fagara guianensis, 
Cucatin . G uiana . 

Used as spice. 

Zajvthoxyeum piperitum. (D. C.) Piper Japonicum^ Japan 
pepper. Japan. 

Bark, leaves and fruit, powerfully aromatic, used as spice : the 
active principle is chiefly in the fresh leaves, the dry bark, and the 
pericarp ; the doctors of the country apply a poultice, made of the 
bruised leaves and rice flour, to sore throats. 



Order 48.— SIMARUBE^. (De Cand. i. 733.) 

Flovcers hermaphrodite, or occasionally unisexual ; calyx 4 — 5 parted, pei-.sistent ; 
2yetals 4 — 5, hypogynous, erect, deciduous ; stamens equal in number to the petals, or 
twice as many, inserted on a hvpogynous disk, free ; ovanj with as many lobes as there 
are petals ; style one, filiform, enlarged at the base ; carjyels as many as the petals, 
attached to a common axis, capsular, bivalved, opening inwards, one-seeded ; seeds with- 
out albumen, pendulous ; cotyledons two, thick ; radicle short, superior. Trees or 
shrubs, found principally in the tropical regions of the New World, with very bitter 
bark, and milky juice, having alternate, pinnate, exstipulate leaves, and whitish, green, 
or purple floicers. 

NiMA. 

NiMA QUAssioiDES. (Hamilt.) Simaruha quassioides. (Don.) 
Nepal, Himalaya mountains. 

Extremely bitter. Used as a substitute for quassia. 



250 V EGET ABLES.— OCHNACE.I;. 

Quassia. (De Cand. 733.) 

Quassia amara. (Linn.) Coissi quassia. South America. 

Wood of the root very bitter, febrifuge, stomachic : used in gout, 
dose gr. x. to 3j., three or four times a day, or in infusion ; bark of the 
root esteemed in Surinam the most powerful, but not to be had in 
Europe. (G.) 

SiMABA. (De Cand. i. 733.) 

SiMABA CEDRON. (Planchou.) Cedroii. Kew Granada. Banks 
near San Pablo of the Magdalena. Isle de Caybo, coast of the 
Pacific. 

The cotyledons of the seed are the officinal part, and are said to 
possess invaluable specific qualities against the bites of snakes, inter- 
mittents, and stomach complaints generally ; by some, considered to be 
also a specific against madness. The method of administering it is to 
mix a little with water, and apply it to the wound, and then to scrape 
about two grains into brandy or water, and administer it internally. 
Doubts are entertained of the alleged specific qualities of the drug. 

SiMARUBA. (De Cand. i. 733.) 

SiMARUBA EXCELSA. (D. C.) PicrcEnu excelsa ( (Lind.) Quassia 
excelsa. (Swartz.) Quassia polygama, ]3itter wood. Jamaica. 

Wood makes a good bitter infusion, 3ii — iv. to lib of cold water; 
or the powder, gr. xv. may be taken. (G.) The intensely bitter 
timber furnishes the Quassia chips of the shops. (L.) 

SiMARUBA OFFICINALIS. (Dc Cand.) S. amara. Quassia sima- 
rouha, Simaruha, Mountain damson, Stave wood. Guiana. 

Bark SimarubcE cortex^ inodorous, bitter, astringent ; useful in 
dysentery, intermittent fever, dyspepsia, the whites; dose 3j. to 3ss. 
(G.) Infusion more bitter than iha decoction. (L.) 

SiMARUBA VERSICOLOR. (Aug. dc St. H.) Brazil. 

So intensely bitter that no insects will attack the wood. 



Order 49.— OCHNACEiE. (De Cand. i. 735.) 

Sepals five, persistent, a'stivation imbricated ; petals liypogynous, definite, sometimes 
twice as many as the sepals, deciduous, spreading, imbricated in sestivatiou ; stamens 
five, opposite the sepals, or ten, or indefinite, arising from a hypogynous disk; filaments 
persistent ; anthers bilocular, innate, opening by poies : carpels equal in number to the 
petals, lying upon an enlarged tumid fiesliy disk (the gynobase), their styles combined 
in one ovule, erect ; frnit composed of as many pieces as there were carpels, somewhat 
drupaceous, one-seeded, articulated with the gynobase, which grows with their growth ; 
seeds without albumen; emhri/o sti'aight; radiele short; eoti/ledons thick. Trees and 
under shrubs, sometimes downy, having a Avatcry juice, with alternate bistipulated 
Id tees, and racemose inflorescence. 

GoMPHiA. (De Cand. i. 736.) 

GoMPHiA ANGUSTiFOLiA. (Yalil.) Ceylou and continent of India. 
Boot and leaves bitter ; a decoction in milk or water employed in 
Malabar as a tonic, stomachic, and anti-emetic. 



VEGETABLES.— CELASTRiNE.ij. 251 

Walkera. (De Cand. i. 739.) 
Walkera serrata. (Willd.) Ceylon and Malabar. 

Properties the same as Gomphia angustifolia. 



Order 50.— CORIACE^. (De Cand. i. 739.) 

Flowers either hermaphrodite, oi- monoecious, or dioecious; calyx campamilate, five- 
parted, ovate; ])etals five, alternate with the lobes of the calyx, and smaller than they 
are, fleshy, with an elevated keel in the inside ; stamens ten, arising from the torus, five 
betweeen the lobes of the calyx and the angles of tlie ovary, five between the petals and 
the furrows of the ovary ; filaments filiform ; anthers oblong, two-celled ; ovary seated 
on a thickish gynobase, five-celled, five-angled; style none; stigmas five, long, sub- 
ulate; ovules solitary, pendulous, or ascending; carpels five, when ripe close together, 
but separate, indehiscent, one-seeded, sometimes surrounded with glandular lobes ; seed 
pendulous or ascending; albumen none; embryo straight; cotyledons two, fleshy. 
Shrubs with opposite branches, often three on each side, two of them being secondary to 
an intermediate pi-incipal one ; leaves opposite or alternate, simple, entire ; huds scaly ; 
racemes terminal and axillary. 

CoRiARiA. (De Cand. i. 739.) 

Coriaria MYRTiFOLiA. (Linn.) Myrtle-leaved sumaclu Shores 
of Mediterranean. 

Leaves used in tanning and dyeing, the same as sumach ; sometimes 
mixed with senna. (G.) Fruit a dangerous poison, exciting violent 
fits of tetanus, giving place to apoplectic coma ; senna adulterated with 
the leaves equally dangerous ; many fatal cases on record. (L.) 



Sub-class II.— CALYCIFLOR^. 



Order 51.— CELASTRINE^. (De Cand. ii. 2.) 

Sepals 4 — 5, coherent at the base, not adherent to the ovary, imbricated in aestivation ; 
2^etals as many as the sepals, and alternate with them, very rarely wanting : stamens as 
many as the sepals, alternate with the petals, and therefore opposite to the sepals, ambi- 
guously perigynous in their insertion ; anthers two-celled ; ovary free, surrounded by a 
leshy disk, 2 — 3 — 4 celled, cells one, or many-seeded ; ovules erect, rarely pendulous ; 
style one or none ; stigma 2—4 cleft ; pericarp capsular, baccate, drupaceous, or sama- 
roideous, vai-ious in form, and often deformed by the abortion of the cells ; seeds in many, 
especially in the capsular ones, with an arillus ; albumen none or fleshy ; embryo straight 
in the axis of the seed. Shrubs or trees often with stipulated alternate or opposite 
leaves. 

Catha. (Endl. Gen. PI. 1086.) 

Catha edudis, and Catha, spinosa. (Forskal.) Suhharee Kctt, 
Muktaree Kdt. Kdt or Khdt. 

The Arabs make use of this plant in large quantities as an excitant ; 
it heightens the spirits, and creates wakefulness. The part of the plant 
used is the leaf, and the Arabs believe it to be a preventive against 
infections of all kinds. The Subbaree variety is the most esteemed. 

Celastrus. (De Cand. ii. 5.) 
Celastrus mackocarpus. (D. C) Peru. 

Seeds oily. 



252 VEGETABLES.— CELASTRiNE^. 

Celastrus tanicueatis. (Willcl.) C. nutans. (Roxb.) East Indies. 

A stimulant and useful medicine according to Dr. Royle. (L.) An 
empyreumatic black oily fluid is distilled from the seeds, which is ad- 
ministered in doses of a few drops daily in emulsions, with a beneficial 
effect. (O'Sh.) 

EuoNYMus. (De Cand. ii. 3.) 

EuoNYMUS EuRor^us. (Linn.) (E. B. 362.) Fusian prich-ioooJ, 
Spindle-trec. 

Fl. g-reenish-white. May. Large shrub. Hedges. 

iSeeds, three or four, emetic and purgative ; externally used as a 
powder to kill lice, &c. ; wood makes good charcoal ; fruits dye a 
yellowish-red, or rusty colour. (G.) 

EuoNYMUS TiNGENS. India. 

Used to mark the Tiha on the forehead of the Hindoos, and is con- 
sidered by the natives as useful in diseases of the eyes. (O'Sh.) 

ELiEODENDRON. (De Cand. ii. 10.) 

El/eodendron Roxburgiiii. (W. and A.) Necrija dicJiotoma. 
(Roxb.) India. 

The fresh bark of the root, rubbed witli plain water, is applied by 
the natives externally to almost every sort of swelling ; it is a very strong 
astringent, possessing scarcely any other sensible quality. (Roxb.) 

Ieex. (De Cand. ii. 13.) 

*Ilex Aquifolium. (Linn.) (E. B. 496.) Common holly. 

Fl. wiiite. May, June. Large shrub. Hedges and woods. 

Root, bark, berries, acrid, purgative ; externally used, emollient, 
and resolvent; berries roasted, used for coffee; bark yields birdlime. 
(G.) Dr. Rousseau asserts that the leaves are equal to Peruvian bark 
in the cure of intermittent fever ; the root and bark are said to be 
emollient, expectorant, resolving, and diuretic. Haller recommends 
the juice of the leaves in icterus ; Keil also affirms that he has used 
the bark successfully in cases of epidemic intermittent fever, when 
Peruvian bark has failed. 

Ilex VOMITORIA. (Ait.) Cassine perigua. (Mill.) Ilex ligustrina. 
(Jacq.) Florida and Carolina. 

Leaves, Paraguay tea, diuretic in infusion, and diminish hunger, 
but if too much is used, emetic ; an infusion of the high-dried leaves, is 
drank as an exhilarant. (G.) A strong decoction of this plant, called 
Black drink, is used by the tribe of the Creek Indians at the opening 
of their councils. (L.) 

Maytenus. (De Cand. ii. 9.) 

Maytenus Chilensis. (D. C.) Celastrus maytenus. (\YilId.) 
Senacia maytenus. (Lamb.) Chili. 

A decoction of the yoimg branches used in Chili as a wash for swell- 
ings produced by the poisonous shade of the tree called Lithi. (L.) 

Myginda. (De Cand. ii. 12.) 
Myginda Uragoga. (.Jacq.) Carthagena. 

Root, in infusion or decoction, a most powerful diuretic. 



VEGETABLES.— EHAMNE^. 253 

Myginda Gongonha. (D. C.) Cassine Go7igonha. (Mart.) Ilex, 
faraguariensis. (Aug-, de. St. Hil.) Mate. Yapon, Yerha de palos^ 
Paraguay tea. 

Said by Von Martius to deserve notice as a diuretic. 

Prinos. (De Cand. ii. 16.) 

Prinos glaber. (Linn.) Apalachian tea. North America. 
Leaves used as tea. 

Prinos verticillatus. (Linn.) Black alder. United States. 

Bark febrifuge. (G.) Considered as a valuable tonic, especially 
in cases of great debility, accompanied by fever ; as a corroborant in 
anasarcous and other dropsies, and especially as a tonic in cases of 
incipient sphacelus or gangrene : berries also reputed tonic, but Bigelow 
asserts that they are emetic. (L.) 

Staphylea. (De Cand. ii. 2.) 
Staphylea trifolia. (Linn.) Bladder-nut tree. North America. 
Kernels eaten. 



• Order 52.— RHAMNEvE. De Cand. ii. 19.) 

Tube of the cahjx adhering to the ovaiy ; lobes 4- — 5, valved in aestivation ; 2)ci«'^s 
equal in number to, and alternate with, the lobes of the calyx ; stamens as many as the 
petals opposite to them ; cmthers bilocular; ora/7/ supei-ior, or half superior, from two to 
four celled, cells with one ovule ; stjjle single ; stijpaata 2 — 4 ; joericarp generally inde- 
liiscent, a berry or drupe ; seeds erect, without avillus ; albumen none, or mostly fleshy; 
embryo straight, with an inferior radicle, and large flat cotyledons. Shrubs or small trees, 
with simple, alternate, very rarely opposite leaves often stipulate. 

Berchemia. (De Cand. ii. 22.) 

Berchemia volubieis. (D. C.) jBnopilia volubilis, (Schult.) 
Bhamnus volubilis. (Linn.) Carolina and Virginia. 

Roots prescribed in cachectic disorders ; said to be antisyphilitic, 
(O'Sh.) 

Ceanothus. (De Cand. ii. 29.) 

Ceanothus Am eric anus. (Linn.) Neia Jersey tea. United States. 

Leaves used for tea. (G.) An infusion of the twigs has been em- 
ployed on account of its astringency to stop gonorrhoea] discharges ; 
root said to be antisyphilitic. (L.) 

HovENiA. (De Cand. ii. 40.) 

Hovenia duecis. (Thunb.) Japan. 

Peduncle fleshy, sweet- tasted, esculent. 

Paliurus. (De Cand. ii. 22.) 

Paeiurus acueeatus. Bhamnus paliurus. South Europe. 

Seeds diuretic ; root and leaves astringent, detersive ; fruit incisive. 

Rhamnus. (De Cand. ii. 23.) 
**Rhamnls alaternus. (Linn.) Evergreen privet. 
Fl. greenish. April, June. Large shrub. South Europe. 

Some sap green is made from it ; laxative. 



254 VEGETABLES.— RHAMNE^. 

*Rhamnus catharticus. (Linn.) (E. B. 1629.) Spina cervina, 
^Buckthorn. 

Fl. yellowish-green. June. Large shrub. Hedges. 

Berries a powerful hydragogue, purj^ative ; usually made into a 
syrup ; juice made into sap green ; iDark, dyes yellow ; inner bark is 
cathartic. The berries are globular, bluish-black, with four cells, 
and as many seeds, by which last character they may be easily dis- 
tinp-uished by druggists from the fruit of R. frangula, which is supposed 
to be less active. 

*IIhamnus frangula. (Linn.) (E. B. 250.) Alnus nigra. 
Black alder tree, Berry-hearing alder tree. 

Fl. greenish. May. Large shrub. Woods and thickets. 

Unripe berries used to make sap green; ripe berries purgative and 
emetic ; bark bitter, emetic, detersive, aperitive, and dyes yellow ; 
bark of root violently purgative ; wood, Black dogwood, makes the 
best charcoal for gunpowder. 

Rhamnus infectorius. (Linn.) South Europe. 

Berries purgative ; unripe berries dried, French berries, Grana 
avenionensia, dye yellow ; Turkey berries^ preferred by the dyers, are 
a larger variety. They are principally used for dying Maroquin 
leather yellow. 

Rhamnus amygdalinus, (Desf.) buxifolius, (Poir.) oleoides, 
(Linn.) pubescens, (Poir.) and saxatilis, (Linn.) have similar 
properties. 

Rhamnus lycioides. (Linn.) R, niger, Black ramihorn. Spain. 

Fruit in decoction relieves the pain of the gout. 

Rhamnus sanguineus. (Pers.) Spain. 

Bark boiled in milk used for the itch. 

Rfiamnus theezans. (Linn.) China. 

Leaves used to reduce tea, or as a substitute, by the poor in China. 

Rhamnus siculus. Blaodendron argan. 

Nuts pressed for their oil. 

ZizYPHus. (De Cand. ii. 19.) 

Zizyphus iENOPLiA. (Mill.) Z. napeca, Rhamnus cenopUa, Great 
jujubes. India. 

Unripe fruit stomachic, astringent ; juice of the ripe fruit laxative. 
(G.) The fruit is eaten by tlie natives, the taste is a very pleasant 
acid ; a decoction of tlie fresh bark is said to promote the healing of 
fresh wounds. (Roxb.) 

Zizyphus Jujuba. (Lamb.) Rhamnus jujuba. East India and 
China. 

Fruit styptic ; bark employed in the Moluccas as a remedy for diar- 
rhoia ; the root, with some warm seeds in infusion, in fever. (O'Sh.) 

Zizyphus vulgaris. (Lamb.) Rhanmus zizyphus, Jiijvhe tree. 
Syria, Persia, India. 

Fruit, Jujubes, Jtijubcc, nourishing, mawkish, mucilaginous, pectoral. 
From this and tlie former species are prepared the pleasant pectoral 
lozenges called Pcde de jujubes when genuine. 



VEGETABLES.— TEiiEBmTnACE.E. 255 

ZiZYPHUS Lotus. (Lamb.) Lotus, Sicily, Portuo-al. 

Fruit eatable, makes a pleasant wine. 

ZiZYPHUS SOPORIFERA. (Schult.) 

Fruit anodyne, soporific, used in decoction. 



Order 53.— HOMALINE^. (De Cand. ii. 53.) 

Calyx funnel-shaped, superior, with from five to fifteen divisions ; petals alternate 
with the segments of the calyx, and equal to them in number ; glands present in front 
of the segments of the calyx ; stamens arising from the base of the petals, either sino-lv. 
or in threes or sixes; anthers two-celled, opening longitudinally; ovary half inferior,, 
one-celled, with numerous ovules; styles from three to five, simple, filiform, or subu- 
late ovules attached to as many parietal placenta as there are styles ; fruit berried or 
capsular; seeds small, ovate or angular, with an embryo in the middle of the fieshr 
albumen. Trees or shrubs ; leaves alternate with deciduous stipules, toothed or entire ; 
flowers iu spikes, racemes or panicles. 

Aristotelia. (De Cand. ii. 56.) 
Aristotelia maqui. (L'ller.) A. glandulosa. Chili. 

Fruit eaten with sugar, or rubbed down with water for a drink. 



Order 54.— TEREBINTHACE^. (De Cand. ii. 61.) 

Calyx of 3 — 5 sepals, more or less united at the base ; petals most frequently equal 
in number to the sepals, and alternate with them, usually distinct, imbricate, or valved 
in asstivation ; stamens rising with the petals from the bottom of the calyx, or from the 
calycine disk, sometimes equal in number to the petals, and alternate with them, some- 
times twice as many ; carjpels numerous, sometimes united, sometimes distinct, monosty- 
lous, some in either case generally abortive, and thence the carpels in many instances 
appear solitary and one-celled ; fruit drupaceous or capsular ; seeds few, generally soli- 
tary, and without albumen ; embryo straight, arcuate, or replicate ; cotyledons various ; 
radicle often superior. Trees or shrubs with alternate generally compound leaves ; 
resinous, balsamic, or gummy bark, and small flowers generally panicled. 

Amyris. (De Cand. ii. 81.) 

Amyris hexandra. (L.) (Hamilt.) Nevis. 

Mr. Hamilton, who has given an account of this tree, says, that it 
produces the fragrant fennel-scented substance called Gum elemi in 
Nevis. There is, however, great doubt respecting the origin of this 
resin. According to Dr. Pereira, Gttm elemi is brought into this country 
in three forms: — 1st, Elemi in flag leaves, Mcsine elemi en painSy 
(Guibourt ;) Resina elemi orientalis, (Martins,) imported from Holland 
in masses enveloped in palm-leaves, weighing from one to two pounds 
each ; 2nd, Elemi i?i the hmip, differing in nothing but colour, being 
paler, from, 3rd, JBrazilia?i elemi. These varieties appear to be pro- 
duced by different trees, as Canarum balsamiferum, Icica icicariba, 
Salsamodendrcn zeyla7iicum, &c. According to the Edinburgh Col- 
lege, it is the produce of one or more unascertained plants ; the London 
and Dublin Colleges call it the resin of Amyris elemifera. (Linn.) Its 
principal use is as a constituent of the Unguentum elemi. * 

Amyris Plumieri. (D. C.) A. elemifera. (Linn.) 
Yields by incision Gum elemi ; wood. Bois de chandelle noir, split 
in laths and burned for lights. 



256 VEGETABLES.— TEREBINTHACEiE. 

Amyris toxtfera. (AVilld.) A. balsa mif era. (Linn.) West Lidies. 

Wood, Jamaica rosewood. Lignum rhodium^ used in cephalic fumi- 
gations, burning with a scent of roses ; leaves in infusion diaphoretic, 
aromatic, cephalic ; berries used for balsam of copaiba ; it also yields 
a resin, used as a poison in war and imnting', which is, perhaps, that 
called Ticuna. From undescribed trees of this genus Amyris, are 
produced true or male frankincense and liquid myrrh. 

Anacardium. (De Cand. ii. 62^ 

Anacardium occidentale. (Limi.) Cassuvium occidentale, 
Cashew-nut tree. East and West Indies. 

Peduncle of the nut astringent, eatable; juice astringent, made into 
a kind of wine ; kernel of the nut aphrodisiac, used to increase the 
memory, as also to quicken the genius ; shell of the nut contains an 
acrid oil ; exudes gum. (G.) The oil is caustic and thick, blistering 
when applied to the skin ; has been used as a caustic for warts, corns, 
obstinate ulcers, ringworm, &c. ; the vapour of the oil when roasting 
will often produce violent swelling and inflammation ; a gum resembling- 
gum arable, and called Casheic gum., exudes from the bark. (Pereira.) 
This gum, which in its properties almost entirely agrees with gum 
arable, is rather more astringent, is used in Brazil in the same manner 
as that substance ; the bookbinders in the principal towns sometimes 
wash books with it, which is said to keep off the moths and ants ; the 
fresh acid juice of the flower-stalks is used in lemonade ; wine and 
vinegar, too, are made of it by fermentation ; the sympathetic effect 
which the nut borne about the person has upon chronic inflammations 
in the eyes, especially such as are of a scrofulous nature, is remarkable. 
(Martins.) (L.) The black balsam of the fruit is used for the same 
purposes as that of Semecarpus Anacardium. (O'Sh.) 

Balsamodendrox. (De Cand. ii. 76.) 
Balsamodendrox Gileadense. (Kunth.) Amyris gileadensis. 
(Linn.) A. opohalsamum. (Forsk.) Protium gileadense^ Salm of 
Gilead tree. Arabia. 

Yields by incision the true Balm of Gilead in very small quantities, 
generally at the rate of three or four drops a day from a branch ; even 
the most resinous trees not yielding more" than sixty, whence arises its 
value; fruit carpohalsammn, and branches xylohahamum, vulnerary, 
antiseptic, and used against barrenness. (G.) The wounded bark 
yields opohalsamum, according to Forskal ; this, which is also called 
Balsam of Mecca, is reckoned by the Orientals a perfect panacea, 
being, according to them, vulnerary, stomachic, alexipharmic, &c. ; 
according to Prosper Alpinus its different qualities depend upon its 
preparation. (L.) 

Balsamodendrox kafal. (Kunth.) Amyris kafal, Protium kafal. 
Arabia. 

A very fragrant resin is obtained from the fruit of this tree ; the gum 
is purgative. (L.) 

Balsamodendrox kataf. (Kunth.) Amyris hataf Protium kataf 
B. myrrha. Arabia. 



VEGETABLES.— TEREBINTHACE^. 257 

According to Ehrenberg, this is the plant yielding myrrh, which 
exudes from the bark like gum from the bark of a cherry-tree ; it 
promotes the appetite, creates an agreeable warmth in the stomach, 
and occasions slight constipation. The Indian bdelliiun, a gum-resin 
resembling myrrh, is supposed to be obtained from some tree of this 
genus. (L.) 

Balsamodendron mukul. (Hook.) The Mukul, Googul, or 
Gtiggar tree. Scinde. 

Yields the gum-resin called Googul, the Mukul of the Persians and 
Arabians, and the Bdellium of Dioscorides. This is esteemed cordial 
and stimulant. (Dr. Stocks.) 

Balsamodendron pubescens. (Stocks.) The Bayee balsam- 
tree. India. 

Young shoots and buds remarkably fragrant when bruised. Yields 
a tasteless, inodorous, brittle gum, almost wholly soluble in water. 

BoswELLiA. (De Cand. ii. 76.) 

Boswellia glabra. (Roxb.) India. 

Exudes koondricum. and by incision yields the gugul, or googul of 
the Coromandel coast. The latter is a coarse resin caller Koonder gum, 
which is said to be used for pitching the bottoms of ships. 

BoswELLiA serrata. (Stackh.) IB. thurifera. (Roxb.) Lihanus 
thiirifera. Incense^ Male incense, Indian incense. India. 

Yields a gum-resin called Ol.ihanum, Indian olihanum, chiefly used 
in the Indian temples as an incense, but also stimulant, astringent, and 
diaphoretic ; prescribed by the native Indian doctors, mixed with clari- 
fied butter, in gonorrhcca and bloody flux. There is also a variety of 
this gum-resin, called African olibanum, the source of which is un- 
certain, the tree supposed to yield it has been named Plosslea Jiori- 
bunda, by Endlicher, and placed among Sapindaceae ; but Dr. lioyle, 
and, after him, other botanists, consider it to be a species of Boswellia, 
and have accordingly named it B . Jioribunda. 

Brucea. (De Cand. ii. 88.) 

Brucea antidysenterica. (Mill.) IB. ferruginea. (L'Her.) 
JVoogifios, False angostura. Abyssinia. 

Inner bark astringent, used to make brucine. (G.) Considered in 
Abyssinia a most valuable remedy in dysentery and severe cases of 
diarrhoea, but not known in Europe ; it was supposed that a poisonous 
bark called false angostura was yielded by this plant, but it is now 
ascertained that it is the bark of the nux vomica ; all the statements, 
therefore, concerning the danger of brucea bark and brucine belong to 
strychnos, and have nothing to do with brucea itself. (L.) 

Brucea sumatrana. (Roxb.) Gonus amarissimus. (Lour.) 
Sumatra. 

Properties similar to those of B. antidysenterica"; Dr. Horsfield 
thinks it would be as serviceable a tonic as quassia. (L.) 



258 VEGETABLES.— TEREBINTHACE^. 

BuRSERA. (De Cand. ii. 78.) 

BuRSERA AcuMixATA. (WilM.) West Indies. 

A yellow concrete essential oil is yielded by this plant. (L.) 

BuRSERA GUMMiFERA. (Jacq.) Jamaica birch-tree. West Indies. 

Yields Resina chibou, cackibou, or resine Gommari : bark has the 
qualities of Simarouba ; root astringent. 

Balsam of Rahasira is said to be produced from Bursera balsami- 
fera. (Pers.) Hedwigia balsamifera. (Swartz,) 
Canarium. (De Cand. ii. 79.) 

Canarium balsam iferum. 

Yields a resin resembling elemi. 

Canarium COMMUNE. (Linn.) Boisdecolophajie. Canarium vulgare. 
(Rumph.) Cajiarium mehenbethene. (Gaertn.) Amyris zeylanica. 
(Retz ) Bursera j^aniculata. (Lamb.) Indian Islands. 

Nuts, Java almonds, eaten and made into bread ; kernels yield an 
oil. (G.) The bark yields an abundance of limpid oil with a pungent 
turpentine smell, congealing into a buttery camphoraceous substance, 
having the same properties as balsam of copaiba ; raw fruit eatable, 
but apt to bring on diarrhoea ; said to yield East Indian elemi. (L.) 

This plant, Balsamodendron zeylanicum, De C, and Colophonia 
mauritiana, De C, appear to be the same. Vide Lindl. Med. Bot., 
p. 170. 

Cneorum. (De Cand. ii. 83.) 

Cneorum trtcoccon. (Linn.) Chamcelea. (Dioscorid.) Camelee. 
Widow wail. Spain, France. 

Acrid, caustic, drastic ; a powerful detersive, but dangerous. 

Commiphora? (Lindl. Flor. Med.) 
Commiphora madagascariensis. (Jacq.) Amyris commiphora. 
(Roxb.) Supposed to be the same tree as Balsamodendron Roxburghii, 
Silnet, Assam, Madagascar, 

Produces Indian bdellium.^ a substance resembling myrrh, according 
to Professor Royle ; Guggtd or Bengal elemi, according to Guibourt. 
(L.) Bengal elemi is met with in pieces of bamboo, about 12 inches 
long and 2h, inches diameter. (Guibourt.) Indian bdellium is in 
roundish pieces, of a dark dull-red colour, more moist than myrrh, 
and not brittle like it, softening even with the lieat of the hand ; bitter 
and a little acrid in taste, with a less agreeable odour. It often has 
portions of the birch-like bark adhering to it. (Royle.) It is very 
similar to myrrh, and is sometimes sold for it. 

CoMOCLADiA. (De Cand. ii. Qh.) 
Comoceadia dextata. (Jacq.) Cuba, St. Domingo. 

Wood, Bastard Brazil, dark red, dyes like Brazil wood ; juice dyes 
the skin of a nearly indelible black colour (G ) ; juice milky, glutinous, 
becoming black by exposure to the air, staining the linen or the skin 
of the same colour, only coming off with tjje skin itself, and not 
removable from linen by washing, even if repeated for many years 
successively ; it is supposed by the inhabitants of Cuba that it is death 
to sleep beneath its shade, especially for persons of a sanguine or fat 



VEGETABLES.— TEREBINTHACE^. 259 

habit of body : this is firmly believed, and there is no doubt that it is 
the most dangerous plant upon the island. (L.) 

CoMOCiiADiA iLiciFOLiA. (Swartz.) C. angulosa. (AVilld.) Como- 
cladia tricuspidata. (Lamb.) Ilex dodoncea. (Linn.) St. Domingo. 

Wood, *S'^. Domingo braziletto, used in dyeing ; juice stains the skin 
black. 

Heudelotia. (L. Med. B. 286.) 

Heudelotia Africana. (Guillem ) Balsamodendron Africanum, 
(Arnott.) Niouttout. Senegal. 

Supposed to produce the African bdellium. This gum resin is met 
with among the gum Senegal of commerce; it is in roundish tears of 
about an inch in diameter, of a yellowish-grey, reddish, or greenish 
colour, semitransparent, but becoming opaque when long kept. 

HoLiGARNA. (De Cand. ii. 63.) 
HoLiGARNA liONGiFoLTA. (Roxb.) East Indics. 

Similar in qualities to Stagmaria verniciflua, which see. 

TciCA. (De Cand. ii. 77.) 

IciCA HETEROPHYLLA. (D. C.) /. oracoucliini. (Aubl.) Amyris 
heterophylla. (Willd.) Guiana. 

The wounded branches yield an abundance of a yellow^ish balsamic 
aromatic liquid, of a terebinthinous nature, which preserves its fluidity 
for a long time, and is the Balsam of acouchi, esteemed highly by the 
Caribs as a vulnerary. (L.) 

IcrcA CARANA. (L.) (H. B. K.) Banks of the Oronoco. 
Yields the fragrant substance called Caranna^ according to most 
writers. 

IciCA HEPTAPHYLLA. (Aubl.) AmyHs ainbrosiaca. (Willd.) Woods 
of Guiana. 

Trunk yields a liquid, limpid, resinous, fragrant substance, which is 
a valuable remedy for coughs, hardens into a whitish resin, called by 
the natives Hyaiva or Arou aou. (L.) 

IciCA iciCARiBA. (D. C) Amyris ambrosiaca. (Linn.) Brazil. 

Yields Coumia. (G.) The fragrant fennel-scented resin of Brazil, 
called Elemi, is said to be produced by this tree. De CandoUe says, 
Resin of coumia comes from it, but I do not find such a substance in 
books. (L.) De CandoUe, in the Prodromus, says it is found in 
Brazil, " ubi dicitur Icicariba et resina Icicce Elemio succedanea." 

IcicA TACAMAHACA. (H. B. ct Kuiith.) South America. 

Produces one of the bitter resins called Tacamahaca. (L.) 

Another supposed species of this genus is the Copal of the Mexicans 
of Papantla and Misantla. 

Mangifera. (De Cand. ii. 63.) 
Mangifera Indica. (Linn.) Mangifera amba. (Forsk.) Blan-- 
gifera domestica. (Gaertn.) Mangoe. East Indies. 

Fruit eaten raw ; pickled mangoes, used as a sauce ; preserved man- 
goes, the fruits peeled and pressed into sheets like brown paper. (G.) 
This fruit is to the inhabitants of India what the peach is to the Euro- 

s 2 



260 YEGETABLES.— TEREBINTHACEiE. 

peans, but the inferior kinds have so much of the turpentine flavour 
as to be uneatable ; from wounds made in the bark there issues a soft 
reddish-brown resin, which age hardens and renders exceedingly like 
bdellium ; burnt in the flame of a candle, it emits a smell like that of 
Cashew-nuts while roasting ; it softens in the mouth, adheres to the 
teeth, has a slightly bitter taste, with some degree of pungency ; dis- 
solves almost entirely in spirits, and in a great measure in water. (L.) 

Melanorrhcea. (Endl. Gen. PL 1132.) 
Melanorrhcea usitatissimum. Tlietsee, Theet-see, or Varnish- 
tree. India. 

This tree extends over a wide range of country. It attains it^ 
greatest size in the valley of Kubbu, about two hundred miles distant 
from the sea-shore. The trees average from thirty to forty feet high, 
and have a circumference of from five to eleven feet, four feet above 
the ground. A good tree yields about ten or twelve pounds of varnish 
annually, and its value at Frome, on the Irrawaddy, is about tenpence 
per pound. It is used in enormous quantities by the natives, who are 
said by Dr. Wallicli, never to experience the ill effects of handling it 
in the liquid state, which Europeans are said to do. In the fresh state 
it has very little pungency of taste, and is entirely devoid of smell. 
The natives are apt to adulterate that brought to market with 
sesamum oil. The Burmese style it the Theet-see, or Varnish-tree. 

Omphalobium. (De Cand. ii. 85.) 
Omphalobium Lambertii. Connarris Guianensis. (Lamb.) Guiana. 
Yields the beautiful zebra wood of the cabinet-makers, according to 
Schomburgk. 

PiCRAMNiA. (Endl. Gen. PI. 1138.) 
PiCRAMNiA ANTiDESMA. (Willd.) P. triundra, Pseudo Brasilium, 
Prasilletto. Jamaica and Hispaniola. 
Wood used to dye red. 

PiSTACiA. (De Cand. ii. 64.) 
PiSTACiA Atlantica. (Desf.) Barbary. 

Yields Barhary mastich, called Turn ; fruit acidulous. 

PisTACiA LENTiscus. (Linn.) Mastich-tree. Shores of Mediter- 
ranean. 

Yields by incision Mastich ; berries yield oil ; wood used in dyspeptic 
affections, gout, and dysentery. (G.) It is also employed to strengthen 
and preserve the teetli, in old obstinate gleet, diarrhoea, &c. (L.) 

PiSTACiA TEREBINTHUS. (Linn.) Turpeutine-trce. Syria. 

Yields by incision Scio turpentine ; fruit styptic, pickled for eating ; 
bark resinous, substituted for narcaphte. (G.) Cyprus turpentine 
is obtained from the trunk by incision ; when pure, this is very thick, 
yellowish, sweet-scented, resembling lemon or fennel in some degree, 
"witii an agreeable and by no means acrid taste ; follicular iiorn-like 
galls are produced on this species, which have been used, according to 
Clusius, in the manufacture of a sanative and glutinous balsam. The 
purest turpentine is obtained by crushing these young galls and filter- 
ing the juice. (O'Sh.) 



VEGETABLES.— TEREBINTHACE^. 261 

PiSTACiA VERA. (Linn.) Pistacia-nut. (Var. y6.) P. trifolia. (Linn.) 

Kernel oily, sweeter than those of almonds, forms a green emulsion, 
cooling-; fruit eaten. (G.) Fruit commonly employed in the south of 
Europe at the dessert, for confectionary ; it contains a considerable 
quantity of fixed oil, and makes a excellent emulsion for irritation of 
the uretin'a, and for other purposes. (L.) 

Protium. (De Cand. ii. 78.) 

Protium Javanicum. (Burm.) Amyris protium. (Linn.) Java. 

Shells of the fruit yield an essential oil. 

Rhus. (De Cand. ii. 66.) 

Ehus copallina. (Linn.) North America. 

Has been said to yield West Indian copal. See Hymencea Cour- 
haril and verrucosa. 

**Rhus coriaria, (Linn.) M. obsoniorum, Common elm-leaved 
sumach. 

Fl. whitish green. July, August. Large shrub. Native of South 
of Europe. 

Bark, leaves, flowers, and fruits, acidulous, very astringent ; shoots 
and leaves imported and sold ground, for dyeing. 

**Rhus cotinus. (Linn.) B,ed sumach, Venice sumach, Venus 
sumach. Native of South of Europe. 

Very astringent ; w ood, young fustick, yellow, dyes coffee colour, 
and with nitro-muriate of tin an orange colour ; fruit, Sumach berries, 
astringent. 

Rhus glabra. (Linn.) Common Pennsylvanian sumach. 

Bark febrifuge, used in dyeing red. 

Rhus javanicum. (Willd.) 
' Berries boiled in water yield resin. 

Rhus metopium. (Linn.) Hog-gum tree. West Indies. 

Yields hog-gum. 

Rhus perniciosa. (H. B. et Kunth.) North America. 

Rhus pumila. (Michx.) North America. 

Both poisonous ; the latter is the most venomous of the whole 
genus. (L.) 

Rhus radicans. (Linn.) North America. 

Juice vesicatory. 

Rhus striata. (Flor. Per.) South America. 

Juice of bark yields a black colour. 

Rhus toxicodendron. (Linn.) Poison oak, Poison ivy. United 
States. 

Juice caustic, dyes linen, &c. black ; raises blisters on the skin, and 
is poisonous taken internally ; leaves. Toxicodendron, P. (J. S., Toxi- 
codendri folia, stimulant, narcotic, used in palsy ; dose gr. ss. to gr. iv., 
twice or thrice a-day. (G.) Yields abundantly a yellowish, narcotic, 
acrid, milky juice, which becomes black when exposed to the air, and 
forms an indelible ink when applied to linen ; this juice, and even the 
exhalations from the plant, are extremely poisonous to many persons, 



262 VEGETABLES.--TEREBINTHACE^. 

though not to all ; they bring on itching, redness, and tumefaction of 
the affected parts, particularly of the face, succeeded by blisters, sup- 
puration, aggravated swelling, heat, pain, and fever, but these effects 
are rarelj'^ fatal ; it is employed in powder, infusion, and extract, inter- 
nally in certain diseases ; it has been administered with success, in the 
dose of a tea-cup of the infusion, to consumptive and anasarcous patients ; 
has been employed with supposed benefit in consumption, and is well 
spoken of in cases of herpetic eruption, palsy, mania, and paralysis. (L.) 

Rhus typhinum. (Linn.) H. viroinianum, Virginian sumach. 

Berries astringent, used in fluxes of different kinds ; juice of the stem 
raises blisters on the skin. 

Rhus venenata. (D. C.) H. vernix, Poison tree, Poison ash, 
Poison sumach. North America. 

Yields by incision Japanese varnish; milky juice dyes linen, &c. 
black. (G.) The juice, or even air impregnated with the volatile 
principle of this plant, is to many persons a serious poison, producing 
severe and dangerous erysipelatous swellings. Kalm mentions a per- 
son who, by the simple exhalation, was swollen to such a degree, that 
he was as stiff as a log of wood, and could only be turned about in 
sheets; some constitutions are, however, but slightly or not at all 
affected by it. (L.) 

Semecarpus. (De Cand. ii. 62.) 

Semecarpus anacardium. (Linn.) Anacardium orientale, A, 
latifolium, A. officinarum. (Gaertn.) Marking nut. East Indies. 

Nut, Malacca bean, boiled for the oil ; contains a caustic, black, 
oily mucilage, and then a sweet M'hite kernel, which is cephalic, and 
increases the memory ; the mucilage is used externally in disorders of 
the skin ; green fruit used for marking, eatable. (G.) Wood con- 
tains juucli acrid juice, which renders it dangerous to those who work 
upon it ; receptacles eaten like apples when roasted ; the pure black 
acrid juice employed externally by the natives of India to remove 
rheumatic pains, aches, and sprains, a little being rubbed over the 
parts affected, and is an efficacious remedy, except in such consti- 
tutions as are subject to inflammations and swellings ; universally used 
to mark linen ; employed by the Telinga physicians, mixed with garlic 
and other substances, in almost every sort of venereal complaint ; bark 
mildly astringent. (L.) 

vSchinus. (De Cand. ii. 74.) 

ScHiNUS molle. (Linn.) Mexico and Peru. 

Yields Peruvian mastich ; wood purgative, detersive, astringent ; 
fruits make a kind of wine, rather acrid, soon turning into vinegar. 
(G.) A white odoriferous substance, resembling gum elemi, is also 
procured from the leaves, and, dissolved in milk, is used in diseases of 
the eyes ; of the bark boiled in water, lotions are made for healing 
tumours and reducing inflammations. (L.) 

Spondias. (De Cand. ii. 74.) 
Spondias dulcis. (Forst.) S. citherea, Otaheite apple. South 
America, &c. 

Fruit edible, acid, cooling. 



VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos^. 263 

Spondias entra. Hog -plum. 

Bark used externally as a fomentation in anasarca. 

Spondias lutea. (Linn.) S. myrobalanus, Momhin. Warm 
parts of America. 

Yields resin ; fruit acerb, acidulous, laxative. 

Spondias mangifera. (Pers.) S. amara. East Indies. 

Trunk when wounded yields large quantities of a mild insipid gum, 
exactly like gum arabic. (L.) 

Stagmaria. (L. Med. B. 286.) 

Stagmaria vernicifi.ua. (Jack.) East Indies. 

Resin copious, extremely noxious and acrid, causing excoriation and 
blisters when applied to the skin ; the exhalations from the tree are so 
deleterious as to render it unsafe to remain beneath its shade ; it yields 
one of the celebrated hard black lackers or varnishes of China. (L.) 



Order 55.— LEGUMINOS^. (De Cand. ii. 93.) 

Calyx of five (rarely four) sepals, more or less united al the base, and therefore five- 
dentate, five-cleft, or five-partite ; sepals generally unequal, sometimes sub-equally cohe- 
rent, sometimes concreted into two lips, the upper consisting of two sepals, which are 
either free at the apex, or entirely united ; the lower of three sepals, generally distinct 
at the apex ; ^Mals five, or by abortion 4 — 3, 2 — 1, or none, generally unequal, inserted 
into the base of the calyx, (seldom on the torus,) generally imbricated in aestivation, 
(rarely valved,) almost always free, (sometimes united into a gamopetalous corolla ;) 
stamens inserted with the petals, generally double their number, (seldom three or four 
times their number or fewer ;) the filaments free, variously united, being either mono- 
petalous, with the tube entire or cleft, open above, or diadelphous, nine and one, or five 
and five, very rarely triadelphous ; anthers two-celled ; carpel generally one, the others 
being abortive ; ovary sessile or stipitate, free; style one, Hliform, arising from the upper 
suture ; stigma terminal or lateral ; legume two-valved, membraneous, coriaceous, dehis- 
cent, or indehiscent, one-celled, or, by the folding in of one of the sutures, longitudinally 
two-celled, or, by transverse membranes or articulations, many-celled ; seeds one, two, or 
more, affixed to the upper suture, inserted alternately into each valve, generally oval or 
reniform ; funiculus various, seldom expanded into an arillus ; testa smooth ; endopleura 
often tumid, resembling an albumen; embryo sometimes straight, at other times bent over 
the commissure of the lobes, in either case directed towards the hilum ; cotyledons folia- 
ceous or fleshy, the first exsert, the latter germinating within the spermoderra under 
ground. Trees, shrubs, or herbs, with alternate, bistipulate, simple, or variously com- 
pounded petiolated leaves. 

Abrus. (De Cand. ii. 381.) 

Abrus precatorius. (Linn.) Glycine ahrus. India and America. 

Root, Jamaica wild liquorice, yields an extract like liquorice, but 
diaphoretic, pectoral, demulcent; seeds. Jumble heads, sold at the 
china shops, ophthalmic, cephalic. (G.) The seeds have been incor- 
rectly stated by some to be very deleterious, two or three being, 
according to Hermann, a mortal dose; they are, on the contrary, per- 
fectly innocuous, and although hard and indigestible, form an article of 
food in Egypt. (L.) 

Acacia. (De Cand. ii. 448.) 

Acacia amara. (Willd.) East Indies. 

Bark bitter. 



264: VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos^. 

Acacia Arabica. (Willd.) A. nilotica. (Delil.) Mimosa ara- 
hica. (Lamb.) JBarhura^ Babul. India and Arabia. 

Yields yellow gum arable. (G.) Bark a powerful tonic. The pods 
are used by the tanners of Egypt, who call them Neb-neb. (L.) (Said 
by Ehrenberg to be a mere variety of A. vera.) 

Acacia catechu. (Willd.) Mimosa catechu. East Indies. 
Yields Terra japonica. (G.) YieXdiS Bengal catechu^ hnt, diccovddng 
to Dr. Pereira, of inferior quality. (L.) 

Acacia farnesiana. (Willd.) Mimosa farnesiana, Vachelliaf. 
East and West Indies. 

Bark exudes a considerable quantity of gum. Flowers distilled yield 
a delicious perfume. (L.) 

Acacia ferruginea. (D. C.) Mimosa ferruginea. India. 

Bark strongly astringent; added to jagghery water in India forms an 
intoxicating liquor. (L.) 

Acacia giraffe. (Willd.) Africa. 

Yields a superior gum. 

Acacia gummifera. (Willd.) Africa. 

It is by no means certain that the Sassa gum., ascribed by some to 
Inga sassa, is not produced by this plant. Dr. Pereira refers Barbary 
gum to it. (L.) 

Acacia horrida. (Willd.) Doornboom. The Cape Colony. 
A large tree, which yields an inferior gum, called Cape gum. 

Acacia leucophlea. (Roxb.) Mimosa leucophlea, A. alba. 
Coast of Coromandel. 

Properties similar to those of A. ferruginea. 

Acacia orfota. Mimosa orfota. (Forsk.) Arabia. 

Leaves prevent fresh camel's milk from becoming acid for several 
days ; fumigation with the wood and resin employed with success by 
the Arabs in epilepsy. (L. ex Forsk.) 

Acacia scandens. (Willd.) Mimosa scandens^ Coccoon. Brazil. 
Seeds eaten. 

Acacia vera. (Willd.) Mimosa nilotica. (Linn.) 
From this the best gum arabic is said to be obtained. 
The following species also yield a gum like gum arabic. 

A. Ehrenbergii, a. Senegal, A. seyal, A. tortilis. 

Several New Holland species also yield a gum like catechu, espe- 
cially A. mollisima, A. decurrens, and A. melanoxylon. The extract 
of this bark has been exported in considerable quantity, under the name 
o^ extract of mimosa bark, from Van Diemen's Land. The bark itself 
is also brought in in large quantities. (L.) 

Adenantiiera. (De Cand. ii. 446.) 

Adenanthera pavonina. (Linn.) East Indies. 

Wood substituted for red sanders. It yields a deep-red dye. 



VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos^. 265 

Agati. (De Cand. ii. 266.) 

Agati grandiflora. (Desv.) JEschinomene grandifiora. (Linn.) 
Coronilla grandifiora. (Willd.) Seshaiia grandifiora. (Poir.) 
Bastard sensitive plant. India. 

Seeds eatable ; yield Gum agati ; used in dyeing. (G.) Bark prin- 
cipally bitter and tonic. (L.) 

Alhagi. (De Cand. ii. 352.) 

Alhagi maurorum. (Tourn.) Hedysarurn alhagi. (Linn.) 
Manna hebraica, CameVs thorn. Ka-ri-shuter . Joursa. Egypt, 
Syria, Persia, &c. 

Yields Persian manna. (G.) From the branches of this plant 
there exudes a sweet substance of the nature of manna, the Tereng- 
jabim of the Arabs, which is gathered by merely shaking the branches ; 
some writers are of opinion that this was the manna on which the 
children of Israel were fed in the wilderness. The manna is not 
secreted from this plant in India, Arabia, or Egypt. (L.) 

Aloexylon. (De Cand. ii. 518.) 

Aloexylon agallochum. (Lour.) Aquilaria ovata. Cochin China. 

Wood, Aloes-wood, Calambac, Eagle-wood, Lignum aloes, white, 
buried for some time becomes dark and resinous ; cordial, alexiterial ; 
used in fumigations and pasfiles; Aghilcuttay, Lignum aspalathe, 
reddish, resinous, added to Sandal-wood to increase its fragrancy. (G.) 
This tree produces one of the two soits of Calambac, Eagle-iuood^ or 
Lign aloes, a fragrant substance, which, Loureiro states, consists of a 
concretion of the oily particles into a resin in the centre of the trunk ; 
it is brought on by some disease, and the tree in time dies of it. Of all 
perfumes, this is the most grateful to Oriental nations ; it is stimulant, 
corroborant, cephalic, cardiac ; the scent is used against vertigo and 
paralysis ; the powder prevents vomiting, and stops diarrhoea by its 
tonic but astringent properties. Its name, Aloe-iuood, has nothing to do 
with aloes, being a corruption of its Arabic name Allowat or Allieh. 

Anagyris. (De Cand. ii. 99.) 
Anagyris fcetida. (Linn.) Stinking bean trefoil. South Europe. 
Leaves emmenagogue, cephalic ; seeds diuretic. (G.) Seeds said 
to be poisonous like those of Cytisus laburnum. (L,) 

Anthyllis. (De Cand. ii. 168.) 
Anthyllis Hermanni^. (Linn.) Cytisus grcecus, AspalatJms^ 
Spartium spinosum, Trefoil acacia. Greece, Spain. 
Roots diuretic. (L.) Yields Italiayi acacia. (G.) 

* Anthyllis vulneraria. (Linn.) Wound-wort. 

Fl.'^-ellow or reddish. May, August. Perennial. Dry pastures. 

Has had great reputation as one of the best of styptics. (L.) Dyes 
yellow. (G.) 

Andira. (De Cand. ii. 475.) 

Andira inermis. (H. B. et Kunth.) Genffroya inermis. (Swartz.) 
Geoffroea inermis. Cabbage tree. Worm bark tree. Tropical America. 

Bark bitter, astringent, febrifuge, and vermifuge, in doses of 3j. to 



266 VEGETABLES.— i^EGUMiNOs^. 

3j., but the dose should be less at first, and gradually increased, lest 
it should occasion vomiting, delirium, and fever. (G.) Bark anthel- 
mintic, it has a disagreeable smell, and a sweet mucilaginous taste ; its 
effects are drastic, emetic, purgative, and narcotic ; poisonous in large 
doses, producing violent vonuting, fever, and delirium. (L.) 

Andira retusa. (H. B. et Kunth.) Cayenne. 

Has similar properties to the preceding. 

Apios. (De Cand. ii. 390.) 

Apios tuberosa. (Monch.) Glycine apios. (Linn.) North America. 

Root farinaceous. 

Arachis. (De Cand. ii. 474.) 

Arachis hypog^a. Munduli. America and Africa. 

Seeds, Earth peas, Pindars, Ground nuts, nourishing, yield oil, 
made into chocolate ; root sweet. (G.) The pods, as they increase 
in size, force themselves under ground, where the seeds are ripened ; 
hence the name as above, or tinder-ground kidney hean. 

AsTROLOBiuM. (Dc Cand. ii. 311.) 
AsTROLOBiUM scoRPioiDES. (D.C.) Omithopifs scorpioides. (Linn.) 

Scorpioides, Scorpicn-icort. South of France, Italy, and Spain. 

Herb stimulant, applied externally to bites of venomous animals. 

(G.) Leaves vesicant. (L.) 

Astragalus. (De Cand. ii. 281.) 
Astragalus Creticus. (Lamb.) Crete. 

Astragalus gummifer. (Labill.) On Lebanon. 

Exude Gum tragacanth. (G.) A. Creticus is said by Martius to 
produce the sort of tragacanth that is received in the form of threads 
or slender strips ; that produced by A. gummifer also is inferior in 
quality, while A. tragacantha is said by De Candolle to yield no traga- 
canth. (L.) 

^Astragalus glycyphyllos. (Linn.) (E. B. 203.) Liquorice 
vetch, Sweet milk vetch, Wild liquorice. 

Fl. dingy yellow. July. Perennial. Woods and thickets. 

Root sweet, used for liquorice ; leaves used in retention of urine. 

Astragalus Syriacus. (Linn.) Astragalus, Milk vetch. Syria. 

Root astringent, diuretic. 

Astragalus verus. (Oliv.) Persia. 

The principal part of the Tragacanth used in Europe is said by 
Olivier to be yielded by this plant; Martius also ascribes the Cake 
tragacanth to it. (L.) 

Baphia. (De Cand. ii. 424.) 

Baphia NiTiDA. (Lodd.) Sierra Leone. 

Yields the red dye-wood, known under the name of Cain-wood. 

Baptista. (De Cand. ii. 100.) 

Baptisia tinctoria. (R. Brown.) Podalyria tinctoria. (Sims.) 
United States. 

Root dyes black. (G.) Yields indigo of indifferent quality ; roots 
and herbage antiseptic, sub-astringent, cathartic, and emetic. (L.) 



VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos^. 26T 

Bauhinia. (De Cand. ii. 512.) 

Bauhinia tomentosa. (Linn.) India. 

Dried buds and young flowers prescribed in dysentery in India. 

(L.) The leaves of several species of Bauhinia are employed in Brazil 

under the name of (Jnha de boy, or Oxhoof-, as mucilaginous remedies. 

(L. ex Martius.) 

BowDiCHiA. (De Cand. ii. 519.) 
BowDiCHiA viRGiLioiDES. (H. B. et Kunth.) South America. 
Said by Humboldt to produce Alcornoco hark. 

BuRTONiA. (De Cand. ii. 106.) 

A poisonous leguminous plant, which has proved very destructive to 
sheep and cattle belonging to settlers on the Swan River, !New South 
Wales ; has been said to belong to this genus or that of Gompholobium. 

BuTEA. (De Cand. ii. 414.) 

BuTEA FRONDOSA. (Roxb.) ErythHna wonosperma. (Lam.) India. 

Yields by incision, Gummi rubrum astringens. (G.) The juice, 
which exudes naturally from cracks and wounds in the bark, hardens 
into a most beautiful ruby-coloured astringent gum, which dissolves 
perfectly in water, and partially in spirit ; infusions of the flowers dye 
cotton cloth previously impregnated with a solution of alum, of a 
beautiful bright yellow ; a little alkali changes it into a deep yellow 
orange ; lac insects are frequent on the small branches and petioles. 
Guibourt considers that this plant produces the Cachou en masse, or 
Cachou lucide ; but Dr. Pereira doubts it. (L.) Furnishes Palass 
goond, or Bengal kino, a powerful astringent, used in chronic diar- 
rhoea. As an external astringent application it is quite unrivalled. 
Flowers give a fine yellow dye. (O'Sh.) 

BuTEA suPERBA. (Roxb.) India. 

Properties the same as the preceding plant. (L.) 

CiESALPiNiA. (De Cand. ii. 481.) 

C^SALPiNiA Bahamensis. BrazUetto. Imported from New Pro-^ 
vidence ; yields a dye. 

C^SALPiNiA Brasiliensis. (Linn.) Brasiletto. West Indies, 
and Forests of Brazil. 

Wood, Brazil-wood of commerce, according to Lindley ; used to dye 
red ; gives a deep colour to water. 

C^SALPiNiA CORIARIA. (Willd.) Poinciaua coriaria, (Jacq.) 
South America. 

Pods, Libidibi, or JDividivi, used in tanning. 

C^SALPiNiA CRISTA. (Linn.) South America. 

Wood, Brazil wood, Lignum brasiliense, very hard, sinks in water,, 
pale when fresh cut, but turns nearly black by exposure to the air ; 
used to dye red, and for ink. (G.) 

C^SALPiNiA ECHiNATA. (Lamb.) GuHandiua echinata, (Spreng.) 
South America. 



268 VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos-^. 

Wood, Pernambuco wood^ or Brazil wood, of best quality, hard, 
compact ; pale-red or yellowish, becomes brownish-red on exposure to 
the air. Inodorous and almost insipid ; scarcely colours cold water, 
affords a pale-reddish decoction with water, and a darker tincture with 
spirit. Used for dyeing. 

C^sALPiNiA NUGA. (Ait.) GuUcmdina nuga. Moluccas. 

A decoction of the roots used, according to Rumph, in calculous and 
nephritic complaints. (L.) 

CiESALPiNiA SAPPAN. (Linn.) Guilandina sappan. East Indies. 
Wood, Chappungham sappan, or Bukkum-ivood, Bois d* Inde, 
Brisellet des hides ; used to dye red. 

C-iESALPiNiA BiJUGA. (Swartz.) C vesicaria. (Linn.) Poinciana 
hijijga. (Linn.) Jamaica. 

V/ood, Bastard nicaragua wood, brown, dyes red. 

Nicaragua wood, or Peach wood. St. Martha wood. California 
wood. Terra Firma ivood, and Sappan ivood are inferior kinds of 
Brazil ivood, supposed to be obtained from different species of Caesal- 
pinia. Accordino: to Guibourt, the St. Martha wood is probably the 
production of C. Brasiliejisis. 

Caragana. (De Gaud. ii. 268.) 

Caragana arborescens. (Lamb.) Rohinia caragana, (Linn.) 
Siberia. 

Seeds oleaginous, eatable. 

Cassia. (De Cand. ii. 489.) 

Cassia absus. (Linn.) Egypt and Ceylon. 

Leaves, reverse ovate, two awl-shaped glands at the base of the 
petiole; mixed with those of C. acutifolia ; seeds, Tschischim semince, 
applied with sugar to the eyes in the Egyptian ophthalmia. (De 
• Cand.) 

Cassia acutifolia. (Delile.) C. senna. (Lindl.) Cassia medica. 
(Forsk.) C. orientalis. Upper Egypt and Nubia. 

Leaves, Seyina Alexandrina, Alexandria7i senna. This plant fur- 
nishes the principal part of the senna consumed in this country, and 
when unadulteiated, it is one of the best of all purgatives, but is very 
much mixed — in some samples it is said to the extent of twenty per 
cent. — with leaves of Tephrosia apollinea and Cynanchum argel, and 
it is even reported to be mixed with Coriaria myrtifolia ; these adultera- 
tions are, however, easily detected by any careful observer. The leaves 
of T. apollinea are obovate, almost wedge-shaped ; those of Cynan- 
chimi argel thick, veinless, longer, downy or smooth ; and of Coriaria 
ribbed. (L.) 

Cassia JEthiopica. (Guib.) C. ovata. (Merat.) Sene de Nubia. 
Nubia. 

This furnishes exclusively the Se7ina of Tripoli, which, according 
to Guibourt, is extremely uniform in its appearance. (L.) Leaves, Tri- 
poli senna, Senna 2ripolita7ia, large, blunt, rough, darkish green. (G.) 



YEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos.^. 269 

Cassia alata. (Linn.) C. herpetica. (Jacq.) Ringworm hush. 
Warm parts of America. India. 

Flowers used to cure tetters ; bruised leaves and expressed juice, 
used against itch, tetters, and ringworm. (G.) The Telinga and 
Tamul physicians say that this plant cures all poisonous bites and 
venereal outbreakings, and also strengthens the body; fresh leaves- 
often employed to cure ringworm. (L.) 

Cassia Brasiliana. (Lamb.) O. woZ/z* (Vahl.) C.javanica. Brazil. 
Pods, Horse cassia^ or Brazilian cassia, sometimes substituted for 
Cassia fistula. 
Pulp purgative, bitter. 

Cassia cham^crista. (Linn.) Cassia putchella. (Sal.) Cane- 
piece sensitive plant. West Indies. 

Used against the poison of the nightshade. 

Cassia elongata. (Lemaire Lisanc.) C. Lanceolata. (Royle.) India. 
The dried leaves form the finest senna of commerce, known by the 
name of Tinevelly senna. (L.) 

Cassia emarginata. (Linn.) West India senna. West Indies. 
Pulp of the pods laxative ; leaves purgative, used as senna. 

Cassia fistula. (Linn.) Cathartocarpus fistula. (Pers.) JBac- 
tyrilobium fistula. (Willd.) Cassia stick tree. East Indies, &c. 

Fruit ; Cassia fistula, two feet long, size of the thumb, imported 
from the West Indies ; pulp purgative, cooling ; an extract of the 
pulp gently laxative ; seeds in the dose of 4 — 6 drachms purgative; 
roots reputed an excellent febrifuge. (L.) 

Cassia lanceolata. (Forsk.) Cassia orieiitalis. (Pers.) Arabia. 

Leaves, Mocho senna, Mecca senna, Senna Arabica, very long, 
lanceolate, equal-sided, smell weak. (G-) Forskahl asserts that this 
is the true senna of Mecca, and not C. elongata, as supposed by some. 
(L.) It must be here remarked, tliat the C. lanceolata of D. C. ap- 
pears to be the same as C. acutifolia, and not the true lanceolata. 

Cassia Marylandica. (Linn.) American senna. Wild senna. 
North America. 

Leaves purgative. (G.) Nearly resembles senna in its properties ; 
according to Bigelow about one -third more of the leaves of this plant 
than of true senna is required to produce a given effect. (L.) 

Cassia medica. (Velloz.) Brazil. 

Poot called Febra-fuye ; used instead of cinchona, (L.) 

Cassia obovata. (Coll.) Cassia senna. (Nectoux.) Cassia 
senna Italica. (Linn.) India, Africa, &c. 

The leaves of this furnish the inferior senna, known by the name of 
Aleppo and Italiaii senna. (L.) 

Cassia occidentalis. (Linn.) Jamaica piss-a-bed, Stinking weed. 
West Indies. 

Expressed juice useful in eruptions; root diuretic. (G.) The 
root greatly stimulates the lymphatic system, and is, therefore, very 
beneficial in obstructions and weakness of the stomach and al::?© inci- 



270 VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos^. 

pient dropsy, against which disease it is used as a diuretic. (L. ex 
Marti us.) 

Cassia senna. 

Leaves, Italian senna^ Coromandel senna, Country senna ; nearly- 
ovate, petiole not glandular ; more numerous, and less active than the 
Alexandrian ; used in the East Indies for senna. 

Cassia tora. (Linn.) C. obtusifolia. Senna tora. Arabia. 

Leaves used to adulterate C obovata, to wliich it bears a good deal 
of resemblance ; it may, however, be readily known by its leaflets 
never being in more than three pairs, by their distinctly cuneate form 
and ciliated margin, by the gland between the lowest pair, and espe- 
cially by the pods, which are long, slender, and quadrangular, instead 
of being flat and falcate. (L.) . 

Ceratonia. (De Cand. ii. 486.) 

Ceratonia siliqua. (Linn.) Caroba ceratia, Siliqua dulcis. (C. 
Bauh.) Carob tree^ St. John's bread. Africa, East Indies. 

Pods used as food for man and beast, and by singers to improve the 
voice. They have been imported from Spain under the name of Al- 
garoba beans, tiie tree being known in that country by the name of 
Algaroba. There is, however, another tree, the Prosopis pallida, a 
native of Chili, which is called Algaroba. 

Cercis. (De Cand. ii. 518.) 

Cercis siliquastrum. (Linn.) Siliquastrum orbiculatum. (Monch.) 
Judas tree. South Europe. 

Flowers piquant, antiscorbutic in salads. (G.) 

CiCER. (De Cand. ii. 354.) 

CiCER ARiETiNUM. (Linn.) Cicer, Chickpea. South Europe. 
Seeds, Calavanches, Bhoot, Horse grain, heavy but wholesome ; 
roasted for coflee ; farina resolvent. (G.) 

Clitoria. (De Cand. ii. 233.) 

Clitoria ternatea. (Linn.) Ternatea vulgaris. (H. B. et 
Kimth.) Lathyrus spectabilis. (Forsk.) Clitoria spectabilis. (Sal.) 
East Indies. 

Root emetic, (a.) 

CoLUTEA. (De Cand. ii. 270.) 
**CoLUTEA arborescens. (Linn.) Colutea hirsuta. (Roth.) C, 
arborescens. (Burm.) Bladder senna. 

Fl. yellow. June, August. Large shrub. Native of South Europe. 
Leaves and pods purgative ; used for adulterating senna. (G. L.) 

Colutea cruenta. (Ait.) C. orienta.lis. (Lamb.) South Europe. 
Has similar properties. 

CoPAiFERA. (De Cand. ii. 508.) 

Copaifera coriacea. (Mart.) Province of St. Paul, Brazil. 

CoPAiFERA Langsdorfii. (Dcsf.) Provincc of St. Paul, Brazil. 
Copaiva balsam is furnished by these according to Spix and Martius. 



VEGETABLES — leguminos^. 271 

CoPAiFERA MULTIJUGA. (Hayne.) Para. 

According to Hayne this yields the copaiva exported from Para. 
The balsam of copaiva, an acrid, bitter, nauseous, liquid resin, with 
stimulant, diuretic, and cathartic properties, is apparently furnished by 
all the species of this genus. Hayne, however, discontinues the name 
of C. officinalis, which appears to have been given indiscriminately to 
many different species. (L.) 

CoPAiFERA OFFICINALIS. (Linn.) C. Jacqui7ii. (Spreng.) "West 
Indies. 

From this is obtained the Copaiva balsam of the West Indies. (L.) 

CoRONiLLA. (De Cand. ii. 309.) 
**CoiiONiLLA EMERUS. (Linn.) Coronilla, or Scorpion senna. 
Fl. yellow. April, June. Large shrub. Native of South Europe. 
Leaves purgative, used instead of senna by the country people. (G.) 
Leaves cathartic, like those of senna, but less active. (L.) 

CoRONiLiiA JUNCEA. (Linn.) Polygala vera, Milk vetch. South 
France. 

Herb in decoction increases the milk. 

CoRONiLLA SECURiDACA. (Willd.) Sccuridaca. 
Seed extremely bitter, purgative. (G.) 

CoRONiELA VARiA. (Linn.) South Europe, Crimea. 

Juice emetic. (G.) Leaves diuretic and cathartic ; juice said to be 
even poisonous. (L.) 

Crotolaria. (De Cand. ii. 125.) 

Crotolaria JUNCEA. (Linn.) Coimbatore. 

This plant yields the fibre known as Sunn, Janapam, and Indian 
hemp. 

Cytisus. (De Cand. ii. 153.) 

Cytisus cajan. (Willd.) 

Seeds, Pigeon peas, Angola pea, Orror, used as food, strong tasted ; 
young shoots pectoral ; root aromatic. (G.) 

Cytisus hirsutus. (Linn.) Pseudo cytisus. Hairy shrub trefoil. 
South Europe. 

Leaves cooling, diuretic. 

**Cytisus laburnum. (Linn.) Cytisus alpinus. (Lamb.) Common 
laburnum. 

Fl. yellow. May, June. Tree. Native of lower range of Alps. 

Leaves diuretic, resolvent. (G.) Seeds highly poisonous, possessing 
narcotico-acrid properties, supposed to be o\Aing to the presence of an 
active principle called cytisin. (L.) Bark also poisonous. 

Cytisus scoparius. (Link.) (E. B. 1339.) Genista scoparia. (Lamb.) 
Sparlium scoparium. (Linn.) Common broom. 

Fl. yellow. June. Shrub. Dry hills. 

Decoction of the young tops diuretic and cathartic ; seeds said to be 
emetic ; Mead and Cullen found tiiem useful in dropsy. (L.) Tops, 
Spartii cacumina, diuretic, even to animals, who browse on them ; 



272 YEC4ETABLES.— LEGUMiNOSE. 

flowers used as a pickle for the table ; seeds emetic, catliartic, roasted 
and used as coffee. (G.) 

Dalea. (De Cand. ii. 245.) 
Dalea enneaphylla. (Willd.) Psoralea enneaphylla. (Linn.) P. 
Carthagenensis. (Jacq.) Carthagena. 
Dyes yellow. (G.) 

Derris. (De Cand. ii. 415.) 
Derris riNNATA. (Lour.) Cochin China. 

Root used for areca nut. 

Dipterix. (De Cand. ii. 477.) 

DiPTERix ODORATA. (Willd.) Baryosmu tonga, Coumarouma odorata, 
Guiana. • 

Kernel, Tonca hean^ odoriferous; used to scent snuff; contains Cou- 
marme, which exudes between the lobes. 

DoLiCHOS. (De Cand, ii. 396.) 
DoLiCHOs BiFLORUS. (Linn.) Coolthi. East Indies. 

DOLICHOS BULBOSUS. (Willd.) 
Seeds eaten. 

DoLiCHOS CATiANG. (Linn.) Barhaty. East Indies. 

Seeds used to make soy ; eaten in soup. 

DoLiCHOS SINENSIS. (Liuu.) D. CyHndricits. (Mbnch.) China. 
Seeds eaten. 

DoLiCHOs TUBERosus. (Lamb.) Martinico. 

Roots eatable. 

DoRYCNiUM. (De Cand. ii. 208.) 
DoRYCNiuM HiRSUTUM. (Scr. MSS.) Lotus hirsutus. (Linn.) Tri- 
foliujn hcemnrrhoidale, Pile lotus. South of Europe. 

DoRYCNiuM suFFRUTicosuM. (Vill.) Lotus dorycnium. (Linn.) 
White lotus. South of Europe. 
Seeds useful in piles. 

Ervum. (De Cand. i. 366.) 

Ervum ervilia. (Linn.) Vicia ervilia. (Willd.) Ervilia sativa. 
(Link.) Bitter vetch. South of Europe. 

Farina maturative and resolvent. (G.) Seeds poisonous ; mixed 
with flour and made into bread, tiiey produce weakness of the extre- 
mities, especially of the limbs ; horses become almost paralytic. (L.) 

Ervum lens. (Linn.) Leiis escidenta. (Monch.) Germany. "' 

vSeeds lentil, lens vidgaris, massooi', difficult of digestion, astringent, 
hurtful to the eyes. (G.) 

Erythrophyllum. (Endl. Gen. PL 1323.) 
Erythropiiyllum. Sp. incert. (Afzel.) Sassy harh, Saucy hark, 
Ordeal hark, Boom bark, Cassa hark. Africa. 

Used by the natives, as a means of determining the guilt or innocence 
of persons accused of crimes ; for this purpose a strong infusion of the 
bark is administered, or the bark itself is chewed, and it is stated to 



VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos^. 273 

liave an instant and convulsive o)3eration as a most violent emetic and 
purge. If the poison remains on the stomach, and the party dies, he is 
considered guilty ; if, on the other hand, he is relieved by vomiting, he 
is deemed innocent. The tree that yields it does not appear, as yet, 
to be satisfactorily determined. It is probably a leguminous tree, and 
contains much tannin. 

Faba. (De Cand. ii. 354.) 
**Faba vulgaris. (Monch.) Vicia faba. (Linn.) 
Fl. white, with a black silky spot in the wings. June, July. 

Annual. Native of borders of Caspian. 

Seeds, Garden bean., Faba major, nourishing, difficult of digestion, 

flatulent. Vicia faba j3. Seeds, Horse bean, Faba minor, F. equina^ 

nourishing, roasted for coffee. 

Galega. (De Cand. ii. 248.) 

Galega officinalis. (Linn.) B,uta capraria. (Gesner.) Goats' rue, 
South of Europe. 

Sudorific, vermifuQ^e, alexiterial, useful in epilepsy and convulsions. 
(G-.) 

Genista. (De Cand. ii. 145.) 

Genista Canariensis. (Linn.) Canary rosewood. Canary islands, 
Spain. 

Root, Lignum rhodium, yellowish, with red veins ; has the scent of 
roses, used for fumigation, is cordial and cephalic ; yields oil of rhodium 
by distillation. 

Genista ovata. (Waldst.) South of Europe. 

Used to dye yellow. 

Genista purgans. (Linn.) Spartium purgans. France. 

Leaves and seeds purgative. 

^Genista tinctoria. (Linn.) (E. B. 208.) Genista inermis. (Hall. 
Goett.) Spartiumtinctorium. (Roth.) Dyer' s broom, Dyer^s greenweed, 
Wood ivaxen, Sereque. 

Fl. yellow. July. Small shrub. Pastures and tliiekets. 

Flowers and leaves aperitive, diuretic, used to die yellow. (G.) 
Chiefly employed in dyeing ; the whole plant affords a good yellow 
colour, and with woad a good green. Ray says the milk of cows 
feeding upon it is rendered bitter, which flavour is communicated to 
butter and cheese. (L. ex Smith.) 

Gleditschia. (De Cand. ii. 479.) 
Gleditschia triacanthos. (Linn.) Triple-thorned acacia. Vir- 
ginia and Carolina. 

Seeds used to feed animals ; sap yields sugar. (G.) 

Glycyrrhiza. (De Cand. ii. 247.) 

Glycyrrhiza echinata. (Linn.) Prickly liquorice. Apulia. 
Root sweet, juice used in tetters and ringworms. 

**Glycyrrhiza glabra. (Linn.) Glycyrrhiza IcBvis. (Pall.) 
Liquiritia officinalis. (Monch.) Liquiritia officinalis, Liquorice. 

T 



274 VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos^. 

Fl. pale blue. June, September. Perennial. South of Europe. 

Root, Stick liquorice, Liquoritia, Glycyrrhizce radix, sweet, open- 
ing, expectorant, pectoral, diuretic; chewed, it extinguishes thirst: its 
infusion covers the taste of unpalatable druofs more effectually than 
sugar. (G.) The roots abound in a saccharine mucilaginous matter, 
which is slightly bitter, and readily soluble in water; a powder and 
the well-known comu^on extract are prepared from it ; the decoction in 
different forms is a common remedy for coughs, and hectic or phthisical 
cases. (L.) 

GoMPHOLOBiuM. (De Cand. ii. 105.) 

According to Mr. .James Drummond the destruction done to the 
flocks of sheep on the vSwan River was occasioned by their cropping 
a leguminous plant belongmg to this genus. Others have ascribed it 
to a Burtonia, which see. 

GuiLANDiNA. (De Cand. ii. 480.) 
GuiLANDiNA BONDUC. (Ait.) Ycllow nickar-trec. East and West 
Indies. 

Nuts, Yellow nickars, astringent, used in gonorrhoea, yaws, and con- 
vulsions. (G.) The seeds in powder are a powerful tonic. (L.) 

GuiLANDiNA BONDUCCELLA. (Liun.) Grcy nickar-trce. A variety 
of the preceding. 

Nuts pressed for oil. 

H/EMATOXYLON. (Dc Cand. ii. 485.) 
H^MATOXYLON Campeachianuai. (Liuu.) Logwood. Campeachj^ 
Exudes a gum ; wood, Lignum Campeachense, Hcetnatoxyli lignum, 
in large lo,^s without any bark, solid, inside pale-reddish brown, 
sweetish, astringent, used to dye red or purple. (G.) Chiefly used by 
dyers; it is a powerful astringent, and may be employed as a substitute 
for kino, catechu, &c. In diarrhoea and dysentery the decoction is 
used with benefit. (L.) 

HiPPOCREPis. (De Cand. ii. 312.) 
*HiPPOCREPis comosa. (Linn.) (E. B. 31.) Ferrum equinum como- 
sum, Tufted horse-shoe vetch. 

Fl. yellow. July. Perennial. Chalky pastures. 

Leaves purgative; used by the country people instead of senna. (G.) 

Hymen^ea. (De Cand. ii. 511.) 

Hymen^a courbaril. (Linn.) Courharil hifolia. (Plum.) Arbor 
siliquosa ex qua gummi anime elicitur. (C. Bauh.) Jetaiha. (Pis.) 
Jataba. Lotus courbaril, Locust-tree. Tropical parts of America. 

Exudes Gum anime ; pods contain an acidulous nutritive farina. (G.) 
The mealy substance, or farinaceous pulp, in which the seeds are em- 
bedded, is sweet and pleasant, but apt to purge when recently gathered ; 
it loses this property when it becomes old ; a decoction of the pulp^ 
allowed to ferment, forms an intoxicating drink resembling beer ; a 
fine transparent resin of a yellowish or red colour exudes from wounds 
in the bark, and from between the principal roots; it is the Gum 
anime, or A7time resin, of the shops ; it burns readily, emitting a fra- 



VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos^. 275 

grant smell, and has been employed by way of fumigation in attacks 
of spasmodic asthma, and other embarrassments of respiration. In so- 
lution, it is given internally in doses of a tea-spoonful, as a substitute 
for gum guaiacum, and employed externally as an embrocation. 
(Hamilton.) The resin called Jatahy, Jatchy, or Copal, and in Minas 
Geraes, Jatoha, is used, not only for various kinds of varnish, but 
also against tedious coughs, weakness of the lungs, spitting of blood, 
and incipient phthisis pulmonalis; the Caradores have a method of 
mixing it with sugar and rum, so as to make a very agreeable emul- 
sion, or syrup. (Martins.) A decoction of the inner bark is said to 
act as a vermifuge. (Macfadyen.) 

Hymen^a verrucosa. (Mart.) Trachylobium Gdrtnerianum. 
(Hayne.) Taurouk-rouchi. Madagascar. 

Forests of this tree, in Madagascar, yield large quantities of a trans- 
parent resin, which is known in this country by the name of Copal. 

There is much confusion in the accounts given by authors of the 
sources of this resin, and that called Anime. The name Copal is said 
to be of Mexican derivation, while Anime is an Indian name ; yet the 
resin brought from America is called Anime in commerce, and that 
brought from India is called Copal. Both kinds have many characters 
in common, and there is rea^^on to suppose that they are, as above 
represented, both produced by the same genus of plants. 

Indigofera. (De Cand. ii. 221.) 
Indtgofera anil. (Linn.) West Indies. 

Yields much of the Indigo of the West Indies ; powdered leaf used 
in hepatitis. (L.) 

Indigofera argentea. (Linn.) Indigofera articulata. (Gow.) 
/. glauca (Lamb.) /. ti?ictoria. (Forsk.) Egypt. 
Cultivated for indigo in Egypt. 

Indigofera c^erulea. India. 

Said by Roxburgh to produce the finest indigo he knew. (L.) 

Indigofera enneaphylla. India. 

Expressed juice given as an alterative by the native physicans in 
old syphilitic diseases. (O'Sh.) 

Indigofera tinctoria. (Linn.) Indigo plant. East and West Indies. 

Yields Indigo. (G.) A decoction of the root effectually destroys 
vermin; the juice of the young branches mixed with honey is recom- 
mended for aphthae of the mouth in children, and indigo in powder is 
sprinkled on foul ulcers to cleanse them ; the disease in poultry known 
by the name of yaws is cured by the application of a solution of 
indigo by means of a rag ; indigo is also used in epilepsy and erysi- 
pelas ; the valuable dye obtained from it is a highly-dangerous vegetable 
poison : the other species are equally important in regard to their 
dyeing qualities. (L.) Disagreeable and even alarming symptoms have 
sometimes occurred on commencing the administration of indigo, but 
these frequently subside, and it is then given in large doses. Dr. 
Pereira mentions its being given to the extent of half an ounce or an 
ounce daily ; and Mr. Ince, of the house of Godfrey and Cooke, says, 

T 2 



276 VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos^. 

that a delicate lady took fifteen troy pounds of indigo within twelve 
months, made up in five-grain pills. 

Inga. (De Cand. ii. 432.) 

Inga Burgoni. (D.C.) Mimosa fagifolia. (Linn.) I.fagifolia, 
Guiana and West India Islands. 

Seed purgative, but eaten. (G.) Bark acrid and astringent. (L.) 

Inga Marth^e. (Spreng.) Santa Martha, New Carthagena. 

This is sai5 to yield the astringent substance called Algaruvilla, 
consisting of bruised pods, agglutinated more or less by the extractive 
exudation of the husks. These pods possess more than four times the 
power of good oak bark in the tanning of leather. They have also 
been ascribed to Prosopis pallida. (Ure.) 

Inga saponaria. (Willd.) Molucca and Cochin China. 

Bark makes a kind of soap. (G.) 

Inga sassa. (Willd.) Abyssinia. 

According to Bruce, this tree exudes gum in such quantity as to 
appear deformed by the size of the concretions ; Guibourt says he met 
with a case of it called Gum tragacanth, and he reckons it among 
the false tragacanth s. (L.) 

Inga unguis cati. (Willd.) Mimosa unguis cati, (Linn.) Cat's 
claw. West Indies. 

In decoction diuretic. (G.) A decoction of the bark is very as- 
tringent, has the reputation of acting as a diuretic, and has been em- 
ployed externally as a lotion and injection in cases of relaxation of the 
parts. (L.) 

Lablab. (De Cand. ii. 40L) 

Lablab vulgaris. (Savi.) Dolichos lablab. (Linn.) Black 
Egyptian bean. 
Seeds nutritive. 

Lathyrus. (De Cand. ii. 369.) 

*Lathyrus aphaca. (Linn.) (E. B. 1 1 67.) Yellow vetclding. 

Fl. yellow. June, August. Annual. Borders of sandy and gravelly 
fields. Rare. 

Seeds narcotic, producing excessive headache if eaten abundantly in 
the ripe state ; young and tender, they are served sometimes at table 
like green peas, and then are harmless. (L.) 

Lathyrus cicera. (Linn.) Spain. 

Flour, with which the seeds have been ground up, is poisonous. (L.) 

Lathyrus sativus. (Linn.) Chick-pea^ Keesari. Spain. 

Seeds nutritive. 

Lathyrus tuberosus. (Linn.) Tuberous vetch. Various parts 
of Europe. 

Root tuberous, sweet, yields fecula ; sold for salep roots. (G.) 



VEGETABLES.— i^EGUMiNos^. 277 

Lotus. (De Cand. ii. 209.) 

*LoTus CORNICULATUS. (Linii.) (E. B. 2090.) Common bird's 
foot trefoil. Yellow lotus. 

Fl. yellow. July, August. Perennial. Pastures. 

Anodyne, emollient, used in burns ; petals turn green in drying. 

LupiNus. (De Cand. ii. 406.) 

**LupiNus ALBUS. (Linn.) Lupimis sativus. (Gater.) White lupine. 
Fl. white. July, August. Annual. Native of Asia. 
Seeds rather bitter, emmenagogue, vermifuge, used as food, and ex- 
ternally in resolvent poultices. 

LupiNus VARius. (Linn.) L. sylvestris. (Lamb.) Wild lupine. 
Spain. 

Seeds bitterish, but nutritive. 

Medicago. (De Cand. ii. 171.) 

*Medicago circinata. (Linn.) Anthi/llis, Sea kidney vetch. South 
of Europe. 

Herb used in dysury. 

*Medicago eupueina, (Linn.) (E. B. 971.) Trifolium luteum mi- 
nimum^ Black medick or nonsuch^ Little yellow trefoil^ Mslilot trefoil. 
Fl. small yellow. May, August. Annual. Waste ground. 
Herb lenifying. 

*Medicago sativa. (Linn.) (E. B. 1749.) Lucerne. 
Fl. purple. June, July. Perennial. On chalky soils. 
Seeds dye yellow. 

Melieotus. (De Cand. ii. 186.) 
Meeieotus c^rueea. (P. S.) Blue melilot. Germany. 

Properties similar to those of M. officinalis. 

Meeieotus Itaeica. (Lamb.) M. vera, Trifolium melilotus Ita- 
Uca, Italian melilot. Italy. 
Herb suppurative. 

^Meeieotus officinaeis. (Willd.) (E. B. 1340.) Trifolium 
melilotus officinalis. (Linn.) Yelloiv melilot. 

Fl. yellow. June, July. Annual. Bushy places. 

Herb pectoral, discussive, causes the peculiar flavour of the Schab- 
ziger or scraped cheese of Germany. (G.) Decoction emollient, and 
occasionally employed in lotions and enemas ; the odoriferous principle 
very fugacious ; it was asserted by Vogel to be benzoic acid, but ac- 
cording to Guibourt and others it is Coumarine, the aromatic principle 
of the Tonka-bean. (L.) 

Mimosa. (De Cand. ii. 425.) 

Mimosa ferox. 

Seeds purgative, but eaten. 

Mimosa natans. 
Eaten as a salad herb. 



278 VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNosiE. 

MoRiNGA. (De Cand. ii. 478.) 
MoRiNGA APTERA. (Gaertii.) Egypt, East Indies. 

From the seed is obtained by pressure the Oil of Beri^ much used 
by perfumers as the basis of various scents, and by watchmakers be- 
cause it does not readily freeze ; the seeds are acrid, and have been 
employed in fevers, and also as rubefacients. (L.) Said also to be 
purgative and emetic in small quantities. (O'Sh.) 

MoRiNGA PTERYGOSPERMA. (Gaertu.) Guilafidhia moringa' 
(Linn.) Hyperanthera moringa. (Vahl.) M. oleifera, M, zeylanica, 
Mouringon^ Smooth bonduc-tree. East Indies. 

Root, Mouringhy root. East Indian country horseradish^ acrid, used 
as a sauce ; wood. Lignum tiephriticurn, diuretic, used for dyeing blue ; 
nuts, Ben?iuts, Pois queniques.,Nuces behen, Balanus myrepsica, Glans 
unguentaria^ yield oil by pressure ; pods, leaves, and flowers eaten as 
pot-herbs. (G.) Leaves, flowers, and seed-vessels used in curries. 
Roots similar in flavour to horseradish, and have the same properties ; 
employed when bruised as an external irritant ; oil of the seeds pos- 
sesses the same qualities as that of the first species, said by Royle to 
be aperient; much used by the natives as an unguent in gout and 
rheumatism. Seeds used internally for their pungent and stimulating 
virtues. (O'Sh.) Green root employed as a stimulant in paralysis, 
and in intermittents, in scruple doses, also in epilepsy and hysteria. 
In Jamaica the wood is employed for dyeing a blue colour. (Ainslie.) 

MucuNA. (De Cand. ii. 404.) 

MucuNA PRURiENS. (D. C.) DoUclios pruriens. (Linn.) West Indies. 

Pods, Siliqua hirstita^ eaten when young, imported from the West 
Indies; closely covered with strong, brown, stinging hairs; Coivhage, 
JDolichi pubes^ occasions violent itching, which is allayed by a solution 
of green vitriol or oil ; vermifuge by scraping the hair off a pod and 
taking it with treacle or syrup for a morning dose, and giving a brisk 
purge after two or three doses of the cowhage; root in decoction 
diuretic, and very useful in dropsy. (G.) 

MucuNA PRURiTA. (L.) (Hook.) East Indies. 

Pod covered with white, erect, stinging hairs, which are brown 
when ripe, and turn black in drying; they are used as a mechanical 
antiielmintic, and together with the former species constitute the sub- 
stance called Cowhage^ or Cowitch. (L.) 

Myrospermum. (De Cand. ii. 94.) 

Myrospermum peruiferum. (D. C-) M. pedicellatum. (Lamark.) 
Myroxylon pedicellatum. (Lamb) Myroxylon peruijeruni. (Linn.) 
Original Jesuit's bark-tree^ Kina kina, Quinquino. Forests of Peru. 

The first Isind of Peruvian bark brought to Europe ; speckled on the 
outside, resinous when held to the sun, odoriferous, not so bitter or 
astringent as the present sort from the Loxa-tree ; yields a resin. (G.) 
The stem yields tiie fragrant, bitter, aiomatic balsam called Balsam of 
Peru, having stimulant, tonic, expectorant properties, employed in 
palsy, chronic asthma, gleet, leucorrhoea, &c. ; applied externally in 
the form of plaster, it mitigates lieadache and toothache ; the balsam 



VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNOs^. 279 

closes recent wounds. (L.) Some doubt has existed with regard to 
the species of Myrospermum yielding- 3alsam of Peru. Specimens of 
the plant were received by Dr. Pereira from Central America, and 
have been described by him under the designation of Myrospermum of 
Sonsonate. From the account derived from the same source, it appears 
that tlie tree yielding the balsam grows in the state of Saint Salvador, 
upon the Pacific coast, and that the balsam is collected within a small 
district, called the Balsam Coast, extending from Acajutla to Port 
Libertad. The Black Balsam, or Balsam of Peru, is obtained by 
making incisions into the bark, which is slightly burned to cause the 
juice to flow. A substance, called White Balsam, is obtained by ex- 
pression from the fruit. A tincture, or essence, called Balsamito, is 
prepared by digesting the fruit in spirit. 

Myrospermum: toluiferum. (Ach.) Myroxylon toluifera. (H. B. 
et Kunth.) Toluifera balsamum. (Mill.) Carthagena, and espe- 
cially the neighbourhood of Tolu. 

The warm, sweet, fragrant, solid, stimulant balsam, called Balsam 
of Tolu, is obtained from this tree, by making incisions into the trunk, 
from which the juice exudes ; it is used in coughs and chronic pulmo- 
nary complaints, and is preferred to the preceding on account of its 
flavour. 

Onobrychis. (De Cand. ii. 344.) 

*Onobrychis sativa. (Lamb.) (E. B. 96.) Hedysarum onohry- 
chis. (Linn.) Saifitfoin cockshead. 

Fl. crimson. June, July. Perennial. Dry places in a chalky soil. 
Herb ripening, discussive, useful in strangury. 

Ononis. (De Cand. ii. 158.) 

^Ononis spinosa. (Wallr.) (E. B. 682.) Anonis, Resta bovis, 
'Cam?nock, Petty ivhin. Rest harrow. 

Fl. red or white. June, July. Small shrub. Dry heaths. 
Root diuretic, detersive, aperient, used in decoction. (G.) 

Ornithopus. (De Cand. ii. 31 L) 

*Ornithopus perpusillus. (Linn.) (E. B. 369.) Small bird' s-foot. 
Fl. white, with red lines. June. Annual. Sandy heaths. 
Herb lithontriptic, and used in ruptures. 

Orobus/ (De Cand. ii. 376.) 
Orobus luteus. (Linn.) O. Tournefortii. (Lapeyr.) Alps. 

*Orobus NIGER. (Linn.) (E. B. 2788.) Black bitter vetch. 
Fl. purple. June. July. Perennial. Shady rocks, Scotland. 

*Orobus sylvaticus. (Lipn.) (E. B. 518.) JVood bitter vetch, 
Bastard vetch. 

Fl. purplish white. May, June. Perennial. North of England. 

Orobus vernus.. (Linn.) East of Europe. 

Seeds yield a resolvent farina. 



280 VEGETABLES.— LEGUMixos-^. 

*Okobus TUBEROSUS. (Linn.) (E. B. 1153.) Bitter Vetch, Heath 
jyea^ Tuberous orobus. 

Fl. purple or pink. May, June. Perennial. Woods. 
Boots nutritive ; seeds yield a resolvent farina. 

Phaseolus. (De Cand. ii. 390.) 

Phaseolus aconitifolius. (Jacq.) Dolichos dissectus. (Lamb.) 
Moot. 

Phaseolus lujvatus. (Linn.) Duffin bean, Vellore bean. 
Phaseolus Max. (Linn.) Krishna moog, 

Phaseolus Tunkinensis. 

Natives of the East Indies ; seeds eaten as pulse. 

**Phaseolus multiflorus. (Wild.) Scarlet runner. 

Var. a. Phaseolus coccineus. Scarlet bean. Fl. red. 
Var. /3. Phaseolus albiflorus. Fl. white. 
July, August. Annual. Cultivated in gardens. Native of Cen- 
tral America. 

Pods eatable, nourishing ; flour of the seed emollient, diuretic, nou- 
rishing. 

Phaseolus Mungo. (Linn.) Halli Moog. East Indies. 

Seeds made into sago. 

Phaseolus radiatus. (Linn.) Mash calhj. East Indies. 

Seeds eaten as pulse. (G.) Roots narcotic. (L.) 

Phaseolus trilobus. (Roth.) Dolichos trilobus. (Linn.) East 
Indies. 

Leaves considered by tlie Hindoo j:)ractitioners cooling, sedative, 
antibilious, and tonic, and useful as an application to weak eyes. (L.) 

Phaseolus tubekosus. (Lour.) Cochin China. 

Eoot esculent. 

**Phaseolus vulgaris. (Sav.) French bean, Feve de Home, 
Haricot, Kidney hean^ 

Fl. lilac or white. July, August. Annual. Native of India. 
There are several varieties cultivated. 

a. Unicolor. Seeds of one colour. 

/3. Fasciatus. Variously striped. Zebra striped bean. 

y. Variegatus. Variously spotted. Speckled bean. 
And a dwarf one, Ph. nanus. 
Qualities the same as those of P. multiflorus. 

Piscidia. (De Cand. ii. 267.) 

PisciDiA erythrina. (Linn.) Erytlirina piscipula. (Linn.) Dog- 
wood. Spanish Main, &c. 

Bark of the root thrown into ponds or still water stupefies the 
larger fish, without rendering them unwholesome, and kills the smaller 
ones ; used to cleanse foul ulcers. (G.) Tincture of the bark most 
powerfully and remarkably narcotic and diaphoretic ; a specific in the 
removal of pain caused by carious teeth ; it is also used as a common 
fish poison. (Hamilton.) 



YEGETABLES.-LEGUMixos.E. 281 

PisuM. (De Cand. ii. 368.) 
**PisuM SATIVUM. (Linn.) Motor pea, Garden pea. 
n. white or red. May, September. Annual. JS^ative coimtry 

unknown. 

Green pods used in the scurvy ; fresh seeds saccharine, nutritive ; 

dry seeds heavy and flatulent. 

PoiNCiANA. (De Cand. ii. 483.) 

PoiNCiANA PULCHERRiMA. (Linn.) CcEsalpiiia pidcherrima. 
(Swartz.) Barbadoes pride, Barhadoes floiver fence, Spanish car- 
nations. Originally from East Indies. 

Tea of the leaves and flowers, and syrup of the flowers, purgative 
and emmenagogue ; also the seeds in powder, dose 3j., in common ust^ 
with the negro slave girls to procure abortion. (G.) The leaves, when 
bruised have a smell resembling that of savine ; the infudon either of 
them or the flowers is considered a powerful emmenagogue, so as even 
to bring on abortion ; the leaves are said to have been used as a sub- 
stitute for senna ; the seeds in powder are stated to form a remedy for 
the bellvache ; a decoction of the leaves and flowers has also been em- 
ployed with success against the fevers of Tortola ; root acrid, and even 
poisonous; the wood makes the best of all charcoal. (L.) 

PoNGAMiA. (De Cand. ii. 416.) 
PoxGAMiA GLABRA. Tropical Asia. 

The seeds of this plant, and those of the Galedupa arborea, yield 
an oil, Kanagn nunc or Kuminj oil ; it is honey- brown and almost 
tasteless, fluid at common temperatures but gelatinizes at ^o^ , 
Prosopis. (De Cand. ii. 446.) 
pROSOPis ALGAROBA. An intoxicating drink, called Chica, much 
used by the inhabitants of South America, is made from the sweet 
pods, it is said, of this species. These are chewed by old women, 
mixed with the bitter stalks of the Schinus molle, and left to ferment 
with water. 

Prosopis dulcis. (Kunth.) Mexico. 

Yields a gum, Mesquitina or Goma mesquitina, which is used 
instead of gum arabic. 

Prosopis HORRiDA. (Kunth.) The pods called ^4/^aro5a. (DeCand.) 

Prosopis Juliflora. (D. C.) Mimosa Julijiora. (Swartz.) 
M. pilijiora. (Swartz.) Cashew. Jamaica. 

Leaves and twigs fatal to cattle which browse upon them, unless 
they are accustomed to them ; legumes, although sweet, are also held 
to be noxious ; this, however, is denied by Dr. Macfadyen, who says 
that the young shoots, leaves, and pods are very nutiiiious, and may be 
browsed upon by cattle of every kind with impunity during dry 
weather, and the pods are said to be as nutritious as corn ; after rains, 
he states that the pods do become pernicious, and are fatal to horses ; 
this he ascribes to the seeds at that time being prepared to sprout, 
germinating in the stomach, and giving off carbonic acid, wiiicli induces 
inflammation of the stomach and bowels. Great quantities of gum, 



282 VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNOS^. 

having" all the properties of gum arabic, may be obtained by wounding 
the stem and large branches. (L.) 

Prosopis pallida. (Kanth.) South America. 

The astringent pods, called Algarovilla or Algaroba. have been said 
to have been produced by this tree. (See I?iga Marthce.) 

Prosopis siliquastrum. Chili. 

The pods are called Chili algaroba. (De Cand.) 

Prosopis spicigera. (Linn.') India. 

Pods esculent. 

PsoRALiA. (De Cand. ii. 216.) 
Psoralia bituminosa. (Linn.) Trifolium bituminosum^ Stinking 
trefoil. South of Europe. 

Leaves diuretic, anticancerous ; seeds yield oil. 

Psoralia corylifolia. (Linn.) Trifolium unifolium. (Forsk.) India. 
Seeds considered in India stomachic and deobstruent. (L.) 
Psoralia glandulosa. (Linn.) Paraguay tea. Chili. 

Leaves stomachic, vulnerary, vermifuge. 

Psoralia pentaphylla. (Linn.) Mexico. 

Root, Spanish cofitrayerva, Co7itrayerva, slightly aromatic, taste 
sharp, used in typhoid fevers. 

Pterocarpus. (De Cand. ii. 418.) 
Pterocarpus dalbergioides. (Roxb.) East Indies. 

Wood, Ajidaman red wood. Rood hout, used in dyeing. 

Pterocarpus draco. (Linn.) Pterocarpus officinalis. (Jacq.) P. 
hemiptera. (Gaertn.) West Indies and South America. 

Bark when wounded yields drops of red juice, which soon harden 
into crimson tears ; these are collected under the name of Dragons 
blood. (L.) Bark, wood, and leaves remarkably astringent. (O'Sh.) 

Pterocarpus ERiNACEUS. (Lamb.) P. Senegalensis. Woods of the 
Gambia. 

When the branches are wounded a red juice flows, which hardens 
upon exposure to the air, and becomes a dark-coloured, brittle, glit- 
tering, astringent substance, the real ori_«^inal Gum hino of the shops, 
(L.) For the origin of the East Indian kino, see P. marsupium. 

Pterocarpus Indicus. (Willd.) East Indies. 

Yields Dragon! s blood. 

Pterocarpus Marsupium. (Roxb.) P. bilobus. Circar mountains. 

Roxburgh suspects this to be the tree that produces Gum kino. 
The red juice hardens into a dark-red, very brittle gum resin, which 
on being powdered changes into a light brown, not unlike Peruvian 
bark ; its taste is strongly but simply astringent. (L.) Dr. Royle has 
proved that East Indian kino is the insitissated juice of this tree. The 
whole of the kino brought to this country is prepared at Anjara 
Kandy, near Tellichery. 

Pterocarpus santalinus. (Linn.) Mountains of Coromandel. 
Wood, Hed sa?iders,Dresille rood, Ccdiatour hout, Sanlalum rubrum. 



VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos^. 283 

Pterocarpi lignum, resinous, odoriferous, austere, astringent, tonic, 
used as a red colouring ingredient in spirituous tinctures ; yields a 
resin analogous to dragon's blood. (G.) From this is obtained Red 
sandal tvood^ a timber chiefly used by the dyers and colour manufac- 
turers of the present day ; but also employed to colour several officinal 
preparations, such as the compound tincture of lavender. (L.) Also 
employed as the basis of various dentifrice mixtures. (O'Sh.) 

PuERAKiA. (De Cand. ii. 240.) 

PuERARiA TUBEROSA. (D. C.) Hedysarum tuherosa. Circar moun- 
tains. 

The root peeled and bruised into a poultice is employed by the 
natives of the mountains where it grows to reduce swellings of the 
joints. (L.) 

Sabinea. (De Cand. ii. 263.) 

Sabinea FLORIDA. (D. C.) jRohiuia Jlorida. (Vahl.) West Indies. 
The violet flowers are considered as poisonous. (Schomburgk ex L.) 

ScHOTiA. (De Cand. ii. 5G7.) 
ScHOTiA SPECIOSA. (Jacq.) Guaiacum afrum. (Linn.) Cape of 
Good Hope. 
Seeds eaten. 

Sesbania. (De Cand. ii. 264.) 

Sesbania u3Egyptiaca. (Pers.) JEscliynoniene sesban. (Linn.) Ses- 
ban. Egypt, East Indies. 

Seeds stomachic, emmenagogue. (G.) Yields an excellent charcoal ; 
used at the gunpowder works of Ishapore. (O'Sh.) 

Soja. (De Cand. ii. 396.) 
Soja hispida. (Monch.) Dolichos soja. (Linn.) Soja Japonica, 
(Savi.) Japan, East Indies. 

Seeds used to make soy ; eaten in soup. 

SopHORA. (De Cand. ii. 95.) 

SoPHORA heptaphylla. (Linn.) 

SoPHORA Japonica. (Linn.) Sopliora. 

The roots and seeds, termed Radices and Semina anticholerica, 
have been employed as a remedy against cholera ; and, according to 
X. Landerer, produce remarkably drastic effects in doses of 3 or 4 
grains. They are imported from the East Indies. 

Spartium. (De Cand. ii. 145.) 
Spartium junceum. (Linn.) Genista juncea. (Lamb.) Spanish 
broom. South of Europe. 

Qualities the same as common broom. 

Tamarindus. (De Cand. ii. 458.) 
Tamarindus Indica. (Linn.) SiliquaArabica. {C.^Siuh.) Palam- 
pulli. (Rheed.) Tamarind. Egypt, East Indies, &c. 

Pulp acidulous, cooling, laxative ; stones baked, soaked in water to 
get off the skins, and the kernels boiled or fried, used for food. (G.) 
The leaves are subacid, and according to Prosper Alpinus were em- 



284 VEGETABLES.— LEGUMiNos.E. 

ployed by the Arabians as an anthelmintic. (L.) Tamarinds in the 
pod, Tamarindi fnictus iiaturalis^ from Egypt, in bags of six cwt. 
each ; Red tamarinds, Tamarindi ruhri, Tamarindi pra^parati, the 
shells broken off and syrup added to preserve the pulp ; Black tama- 
rinds, the shell broken off and salt added to preserve the pulp ; East 
Indian tamarinds, the shell broken off, and the pulp dried in the sun. 

Tephrosia. (De Cand. ii. 248.) 

Tephrosia APOLrLiNEA. (D. C.) Galega apollinea. Egypt and 
Nubia. 

The leaves are often found mixed with those of senna ; cultivated 
for its indigo in Nubia. (Hoskins ex L.) 

Tephrosia PUHPUPvEA. (Pers.) (L.) Galega purpurea. (Linn.) 
Coast of CoromanHel. 

Root bitter, a decoction prescribed by Indian doctors in dyspepsia, 
lientery, and tympanitis. (L.) 

Tephrosia senna. (H. B. et Kunth) Popayan. 

Leaves used instead of senna by the people of Popayan. (L.) 

Tephrosia toxicaria. (Pers.) Galega toxicaria. Cayenne. 

Employed in Jamaica for the purpose of poisoning- the fish in rivers. 
It has been suggested that this plant might be substituted for digitalis, 
where that plant does not grow, as its action on the human system is 
probably the same ; as the roots of T. leptostachya and the leaves of 
T. senna are purgative, it is probable th'dt this plant might act as an 
evacuant, combined with some peculiar depressing infiuence on the 
nervous system. (Macfadyen by L.) 

Tespesia? Cercis? Wood, C'am ivood lied wood, Bois de chain, 
Pao zaban, red with black veins, more porous, lighter and smoother 
than either logwood, brasilietto, or Nicaragua green wood, from Africa. 

Trifolium. (De Cand. ii. 189.) 
Trifolium AiiPiNUM. (Linn.) Alpine trefoil, Mountain liquorice, 
Alps of Europe. 

Root sweet. (G.) Possesses the same qualities as liquorice. (L.) 

*Trifolium arvense. (Linn.) (E. B. 944.) Lagopus, Pes lepo- 
rinus, Hare's foot, 

Fl. pale red or whitish. July, August. Annual. Sandy barren fields. 
Leaves pectoral, anti-dysenteric. 

Trifolium cceruleum. Lotus urhana, T. odoratum^ Field trefoil. 
Herb diuretic, vulnerary, anodyne. 

*Tri folium pratense- (Linn.) Lotus herba sylvestris, Common 
purple trefoil, Clover. 

Fl. purple. May, September. Perennial. Meadows and pastures. 
Herb laxative. 

Trigonella. (De Cand.) ii. 181.) 
Trigonella fcenum GRiECUM. (Linii.) Fcenum grcccum. (Fuchs.) 

Fenugreek, Maytee. South of Europe, India. 

Seed odoriferous, mucous, resolvent, stomachic, roasted for coffee, 



VEGETABLES.— RosACEiE. 285 

dyes yellow. (G.) A decoction of the seeds used as an emollient; 
poultices are made of the flour ; only used in veterinary medicine. (L.) 
Used in India in dysenteric affections, and the Arabs employ it in 
poultices and fomentations. (Ainslie.) 

Ulex. (De Cand. ii. 144.) 

*Ulex EuROPiEus. (Linn.) (E. B. 742.) Ulex grandiflorus. 
(Pourr.) Uvernalis. (Thore.) Genista spinosa^ Furze, Gorse, Whins. 

Fl. yellow. February, November. Shrub. Heathy places. 

Plant attenuant, diuretic, determining to the skin, occasioning 
nausea. (G.) 

YiciA. (De Cand. ii. 354.) 

*ViciA SATiVA. (Linn.) (E. B. 334.) Common vetch, 

FI. purple or red. June. Annual. Cultivated ground. 

Seeds, tares, detersive, astringent. The Canadian variety makes 
good bread. 



Order 56.— PvOSACE^. (De Cand. ii. 525.) 

Calyx generally of five sepals, often cohering into a tube at the base, and so live- 
lobed, generally persistent, most frequently free, sometimes adhering to the orary ; 
■petals as many as the sepals, inserted into the calyx, with a quincuncial aestivation, 
generally regular ; stamens inserted with the petals, most frequently indefinite, filaments 
incurved in festivation; anthers bilocular, dehiscing with a double opening; ovaries 
many, one-celled, sometimes solitary from abortion, sometimes by union with each 
other, or with the tube of the calyx, converted into what at first sight appears to be 
a single ovary ; styles simple, dilated at the summit into stigmas of various forms, 
generally rising from the sides of the ovary, most frequently distinct, but sometimes 
united ; seeds generally one or two in each carpel, rarely numerous, erect or inverted, 
exalbuminous ; embryo straight ; cotyledons sometimes leafy, sometimes fleshy. Herhs, 
shrubs, or trees, with alternate leaves, having two stipules at the base, simple or com- 
pound; inflorescence various. 

Agrimonia. (De Cand. ii. 587.) 

*Agrimonia EuPATORiA. (Linn.) (E. B. 1335.) Agrimonia Eupa- 
torium Grcscorum, Agrimony. 

Fl. yellow. June, July. Perennial. Borders of fields. 

Herb used in gargles, also as tea. (G.) Celebrated as a vermifuge, 
also used in decoction as an astringent gargle and lotion. (L,) 

Alchemilla. (De Cand. ii. 589.) 

*Alchemilla Alpina. (Linn.) (E. B. 244.) Alpineladies-mantle. 

Fl. green, with a tinge of yellow. July, August. Perennial. 
Mountains, North of England. 

*Alchemilla vulgaris. (Linn.) (E. B. 597.) Beards foot, Com- 
mon ladles- mantle. 

Fl. yellowish. June, Jnly. Perennial. Alpine pastures. 

Very astringent, used in decoctions as a bath, to render women's 
breasts firm. (G.) Decoction slightly tonic. (L.) 

*Alchemilla arvensis. (Scop.) (E. B. 1011.) Aphanes 
arvensis. Parsley piert. 

Fl. green. May, July. Annual. Fields, gravelly soils, &c. 
Diuretic. 



286 VEGETABLES.— rosacea. 

Amygdalus. (De Cand. ii. 530 ) 
**Amygdalus COMMUNIS. (Liiin.) Almond tree, 
' Fl. rose-coloured or white, single or double. March, April. Tree. 
Native of north of Africa. 

Kernels, Siveet almonds, Aiiiygdaloe c?«/Zce5, pectoral and cooling, but 
mawkish ; imported from the south of Europe and the Barbary coast ; 
Moo-adore Blanched alm09tds, tiirown into boiling water until the skin 
comes off by pressing them between the finpjers ; the hot water is then 
strained away, the almonds thrown into cold watei, peeled and dried, 
either in a stove or in the sun, until they are brittle ; Burnt almonds^ 
used to colour and flavour liqueurs ; Bitter almonds, Amygdalce amarce, 
a variety imported from Mogadore ; used to relieve the flavour of the 
sweet, and to clear muddy water ; both pressed ior oil ; Almond cake, 
Amygdalce placenta, left on pressing the oil, used for washing the 
hands. (G.) The bitter and sweet almonds of the shops are both 
produced from varieties of this tree. Sweet almonds are scentless and 
farinaceous, containing a large quantity of fixed oil, used in emulsion 
and confection, and are a common article of food, but are apt to prove 
indigestible, and to bring on Urticaria febrilis ; their skin is irritating, 
and should always be removed before the almond is eaten. (L.) They 
also contain a peculiar substance called emulsin. Bitter almonds yield 
a fixed oil like that of the last variety. They also contain emulsin, 
and a peculiar substance called amygdalin, which is not contained in 
the sweet almond, and to which is due the production of the volatile 
oil of almonds and prussic acid, produced by the action of water and 
heat. (Ed.) Many fatal cases of poisoning, from the incautious use 
of these seeds, are recorded by medical writers ; bitter almonds have 
nevertheless been recommended as a remedy for intermittent fever, 
when mixed with decoction of bark ; a liqueur, called Mandel amara, 
is fabricated from them by the Italians, but it is unsafe for persons out 
of health, or with weak stomachs, to drink it; they also produce urti- 
caria, and have the reputation of being an antidote to intoxication. (L.) 

Amygdalus persica (Linn.), vide Persica vulgaris. (Mill.) 

Amygdalus pumila. (Willd.) Divarf almond. 

Flowers purgative. 

Armeniaca. (De Cand. ii. 531.) 

**Armeniaca vulgaris. (Lamb.) Prunus Armeniaca. (Linn.) 
Apricock, Tree apricot. 

Fl. white, with a tinge of red. February, March. Small tree. 
Native of Armenia. 

Fruit, Apricocks, Apricots, Armeniaca mala, PrcBcocia, nourishing, 
laxative, febrile ; seeds bitter, saponaceous, 

Armeniaca Brigantiaca. (Pers.) Brandon apricots. 

Fruit acid ; kernels yield oil. (G.) From the seeds is expressed the 
oil called Huile de marinote. (De Cand.) 

Brayera. (De Cand. ii. 588.) 

Brayera Anthelmintica. (Kunth.) Cabotz. Kosso. Abyssinia. 

Small packets of the dried flowers are sold by the Abyssinians, and, 



VEGETABLES.— ROSACEA. 28T 

according to Mr. Brayer, are an effetual remedy for taenia, when all 
other medicines have failed. (L.) 

Cerasus. (De Cand. ii. 535.) 

Several species of Cerasus are cultivated for their fruit, and these 
have produced many varieties ; the principal are — 

Cerasus aspera. (Loisel.) Prunus aspera. (Thunb.) Japan. 
Fruit edible. 

Cerasus avium. (Monch.) (E. B. 706-) Prunus cerasus avium, 
Wild cherry. 

Fl. white. May. Small tree. Four varieties. 

Fruit, Black cherries, Cerasa nigra, asti'ingent, nauseous, but gives- 
an agreeable flavour to wine or brandy. The cultivated varieties are 
called merries in Herts and Bucks, from the French merise. 

Cerasus capolliiv. (D. C.) Mexico. 

Bark considered a good febrifuge. (L.) 

**Cerasus caproniana. (D. C) May duke, Morello cherry. 
Much culiivated, yielding some of our best cherries ; nine varieties.. 

** Cerasus duracina. (D. C.) 

Fruit known as white, black, and red-heart cherries ; three varieties. 

Cerasus hyemalis. (Michx.) Prunus hyemalis. 
Fruit acerb, edible in winter. 

**Cerasus JULIANA. (D. C.) Gean and Guiguiers cherry, 
Black eagle, Herefordshire black, &c. Two varieties. 

Flowers of all these white. About May. Trees. 

For the cultivated varieties of cherries, see Don^s Syst, Gard., 
vol. ii. p. 505. 

The fruit of the clierry is cooling-, nutritive, laxative ; leaves used as 
tea in fevers ; Brandy cherries, Morello cherries preserved in brandy ; 
Sour cherry, Amarelle, Prunus cerasus acida. Fruit esculent. 

**Cerasus laurocerasus. (Loisel.) Prunus laurocerasus. (Linn.) 
Common laurel. Cherry laurel. 

Fl. white, or cream-coloured. April, May. Large shrub. Native 
of Trebizond. 

Leaves have been used in cookery for those of the bay-tree, but are 
less aromatic, and communicate the flavour of bitter almond- ; as they 
yield prussic acid, they act on the nervous system, and are dangerous; 
distilled oil of the leaves poisonous to animals. (G.) 

Cerasus mahaleb. (Mill.) Prunus mahaleb. (Linn.) Perfumed 
cherry-tree. South Europe. 

"Wood, Saint Lucie wood, odoriferous, sudorific ; kernels, Macanet 
grairis, used to scent wash-balls. 

*Cerasus pajdus. (D. C.) (E. B. 1833.) Prunus padus. (Linn.) 
Bird cherry i 

Fl. white. May. Small tree. Woods and coppices. 

Yields a volatile oil, similar to oil of bitter almonds, and consequently 
a dangerous poison. (L.) 



288 VEGETABLES— KOSACE-1-. 

Cerasus serotina. (Loisel.) Primus Virginiana. (Mill.) Wild 
cherry-tree. Virginia and Carolina. 

Bark febrifuge ; plum and leaves poisonous to many animals. 

Cerasus undulata. (Ser.) C. capricida, Primus undulata. 
(Ham.) Himalaya mountains. 

So poisonous as to kill goats in Nepal. (L.) 

Cerasus Virginiana. (Miclix.) Prunus rubra. Woods of Vir- 
ginia and Carolina. 

Leaves considered poisonous ; bark a good febrifuge. (L.) 

Chrysobalanus. (De Cand. ii. 525.) 
Chrysobalanus icaco.* (Linn.) Cocoa Phi m. Africa, West Indies. 
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius. (Miclix.) Georgia. 

Fruits eaten raw and preserved. 

Cotoneaster. (De Cand. ii. 632.) 
*Cotoneaster vulgaris. (Lindl.) (E. B, 2713.) Mespilus coto- 
neaster. (Linn.) Cotoneaster. 

Fl. white. June. Small shrub. Limestone cliffs, Carnarvonshire. 
Fruit astringent. 

Crataegus. (De Cand. ii. 626.) 

Crataegus azarolus. (Linn.) Pyrus azarolus. (Scop.) Azarole. 

Fruit of a sharpish taste, saccharine, refreshing. 

"'Crataegus oxYACANTHA. (Linn.) Mespilus oxyacantha. (Gaertn.) 
Spina cdba^ May^ Hawthorn^ White thorn. 

Fl. white or red. May, June. Large siirub. Hedges. 

Flowers odoriferous ; fruit. Haws, Ceiiellce, yields by fermentation a 
refreshing acidulous liquor. 

**Crat;egus pyracantha. (Pers.) Mespilus pyracantha. (Linn.) 
JBver green thorn. 

Fl. white. May, June. Large shrub. Native of the south of Europe. 

Fruit astringent. 

Cydonia. (De Cand. ii. 638.) 

**Cydonia VULGARIS. (Pcrs.) Cydonia Europcea. (Sav.) Cotonea, 
Pyrus cydonia. (Linn.) Quince-tree. 

Fl. white. May, June. Small tree. Native of Candia. 

Fruit, Qui7ice,Cydonm, rough, astringent, binding, very stomachic; 
seeds, Cydonice semi?ia, very mucilaginous. (G.) The seeds are 
officinal for the sake of the mucus they are covered with, and which 
can be extracted with hot water. The fruit forms an agreeable mar- 
malade, and is sometimes used in the preparation of a domestic wine 
of some excellence. (L.) 

Fragaria. (De Cand. ii. 569.) 

Fragaria vesca. (Linn.) (E. B. 1524.) Alpine strawberry, 
Strawberry plant^ Wvod strawberry. • 

Fl. white. May, July. Perennial. Woods and thickets. 

Roots aperient ; fruit, stratvberries, cooling, opening, diuretic ; 
dissolves the tartar of the teeth, diaphoretic ; used in calculus, gout, 
and consumption. 



VEGETABLES.— ROSACEA. 289 

Geum. (De Cand. ii. 550.) 

Geum Canadense. (Mur.) Geum Aleppicum. (Jacq.) G. 
strictuni. (Ait.) Chocolate root, Blood root. North America. 

Hoot and leaves employed in Prince Edward's Island as a mild 
tonic. It is agreeably bitter, and found particularly useful in the 
diarrhoea of children. (L. ex Med. Bot. Trans. 1829, p. 8.) 

Geum montanum. (Linn.) Alps of Europe. 

Root, Pink root, imported from the south of Europe, and for the 
same purposes as avens. 

Geum rivale. (Linn.) Geum nutans. (Rafin.) (E. B. 106.) 
Water avens. 

Fl. purplish-orange. June, July. Perennial. Marshes in north 
of En»-land. 

*Geum URBANUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 1400.) Caryophyllataurhaiia. 
(Scop.) Avens, Herb bennet. 

Fl. yellow. June. Perennial, Hedges and woods. 

Roots scented like cloves ; sudorific, tonic, antipodagric, stomachic, 
febrifuge ; may be substituted for bark ; when young, they give a 
pleasant flavour to ale, and prevent it from growing sour. (G.) They 
are also said to be useful in diarrhoea. (L.) 

Gillenia. (De Cand. ii. 546.) 

GiLEENiA trifoliata. (Mouch.) SpircBa trifoliata. (Linn.) 
An\erican ipecacuanha, Indian physic. North America. 

Bark of the root, Gillenia P. U. S., gr. xx., emetic, tonic. (G.) 
It requires a larger dose than ipecacuanha, with whose properties it 
agrees, but is considered uncertain in its operation. (L.) 

GiELENiA STiPUEACEA. (Nutt.) Spircea stipidata, (Willd.) North 
America. 

A mild and eflicient emetic, sometimes acting on the bowels. The 
dose is from twenty to thirty grains, repeated at intervals of twenty 
miimtes until it operates. (Wood and Bache.) 

LicANiA. (De Cand. ii. 527.) 

LiCANiA INCAXA. (Aubl.) Hedycvea iiicana. (Willd.) Guiana. 
Fruit eaten. 

MEsriLus. (De Cand. ii. 633.) 

*Mespilus GerxMAnica. (Linn.) (E. B. 1523.) Dutch Medlar. 
Fl. large, white. May. Small tree. Hedges. 
Fruit extremely astringent, even when ripe ; leaves and seeds used 
in detersive gargles. (G.) 

Persica. (De Cand. ii. 531.) 

Persica vulgaris. (Mill.) Amygdalus Persica. (Linn.) 
Common peach. 

Fl. rose-coloured. April, May. Small tree. Gardens. Native of 
Persia. 

There are two varieties of the peach : — 

a. Flesh separating from the stone. Freestone peach, 
(3. Flesh adhering to the stone. Clingstone peach. 

u 



290 VEGETABLES.— ROSACE/E. 

The peach yields an oil similar to the oil of bitter almonds, espe- 
cially the flowers and kernels, and these parts are dangerous ; Dr. 
Christison quotes the case of a gentleman who died in consequence of 
having swallowed a salad of the flower, in order to purge himself; and 
another of a child, which perished after taking a decoction of the 
flowers, in order to kill worms. (L.) 

**Persica l^vis. (D. C.) Aynygdalus Persica. (Lamb.) Nectarine. 

Fl. rose-coloured. April, May. Small tree. Native country unknown. 

Tlie two varieties of the nectarine are distinguished, by the same 
characters as those of the peach. 

The leaves and flowers of both these plants are purgative ; fruit, 
Persica mala, in hot countries the same ; wood used in dyeing ; sold 
in chips, and ground. (G.) 

PoTENTiLLA. (Dc Caud. ii. 57L) 

*PoTENTiLLA ANSERiNA. (Liou.) (E. B. 861.) Fvagavia aiiseriua. 
(Crantz.) Argentina, Silver weed, Wild tansy. 

Fl, yellow. June, July. Perennial. Road sides, 

*PoTENTiLLA ARGENTEA. (Linn.) (E. B. 89.) Hoary cinquefoH. 

Fl. yellow. June. Perennial. Pastures and road sides. 

^PoTENTiLLA CoMARUM. (Scop.) (E. B. 172.) Comar 11171 palustre, 
(Linn.) Pentapliyllum ruhrum palustre. Purple marsh cinquefoil. 

Fl. dingy purple. July. Perennial. Marshes and peat bogs. 

Febrifuge; root of this last dyes a dirty red. 

*PoTENTiLLA FRAGARiA. (Poir.) (E.B.I 785.) Frogaria steriUs. 
(Linn.) Parren straicherry. 

Fl. white. INIarch, April. Perennial. Woods, banks, &c. 

Root astringent, dyes red. 

*PoTENTiLLA REFTANS. (Linu.) (E. B. 862.) Pentaphyllum vul- 
gare. (J. Bauh.) Quinqvefolium vulgare. (Volck.) Frag aria pen- 
taphyllum. (Crantz.) Five-leaved grass, Creeping cinque-foil. 

Fl. yellow. June, August. Perennial. Meadows and pastures. 

Bark of the root used as a gargle for loose teeth ; leaves febrifuge, 
taken as tea. (G.) Other properties the same as the next species (L.) 

PoTENTiLLA TORMENTiLLA. (Ncstl.) Heptapliyllum^ Sept-foH^ Tor- 
mentilla, 2hrmentilla erecta, (Linn.) Tornientil. 

Root, Tormentillm radix, very astringent, febrifuge, and not stimu- 
lant. (G.) In the opinion of some, this is otje of the best medicines 
of its class, as it produces its astringent effects without causing excite- 
ment. Dr. A. T. Thomson recommends it in some kinds of diarrhoea; 
it was once considered a specific in syphilis. (L ) 
PoTERiUM. (De Cand. ii. 594.) 

*PoTERiUM SANGUisoRBA. (Linn.) (E. B. 860.) Pimpinella san- 
guisorba, (Gaertn.) Salad burnet. Small burnet. 

Fl. dull purple. July. Perennial. Dry and chalky pastures. 

Used in salads ; cordial. 

Pbunus. (De Cand. ii. 532.) 

Prunus cocomilia. (Tenore.) Woods of lower mountains of 
Calabria. 



VEGETABLES.— ROSACEA. 291 

The bark of this plant, which seems to be nothing more than a wild 
state of our domestic plum, is spoken of in the highest terms, as a 
remedy for the intermittent fevers of Calabria; in the Neapolitan hos- 
pitals it has been found superior to cinchona. (L.) 

*Prunus domestica. (Linn.) (E. B. 1783.) Wild plitm-trce, 
Fl. white. May. Small tree. Rather rare, and a doubtful native. 
There are many cultivated varieties of this plant ; the principal are — 
a P. armenoides^ Mirabelle plum, 
/6 P, claudiana. Green gage, 
y P. turonensis, Orleans plum. 
^ P. aubretiana, Magnum bo7ium, or Mogul plum, 
e P. pruneauUana, Damson. 
For varieties (270) and culture of plums, see Don^s Syst. of Gard.^ 
ii. p. 499. 

Fruit laxative ; French plums, Pruna gallica, black, acidulous, cool- 
ing, laxative, apt to purge. Prunelloes, Imperial plums, Brignoliensa, 
yellow, not apt to purge. Prunes, Pruna, Damascena, black, purgative, 

*Prunus SPINOSA. (Linn.) (E. B. 842.) P. sylvestris, Black thorn, 
Sloe tree. 

Fl. white. April, May. Large shrub. Hedges. Common, 
Leaves substituted for tea ; bark powdered 5ij. used in intermittent 
fevers ; flowers 5j., infused in water or whey are a pleasant purge ; 
fruit. Sloes, Prima sylvestria, gives a pleasant flavour and red colour 
to wine ; juice of the fruit stains linen of an indelible colour. (G.) 
Fruit globidar, black, rather larger than a black currant, acid, astrin- 
gent, and very austere, not eatable except when baked or boiled with 
a large proportion of sugar; the juice, inspissated over a slow fire, is a 
substitute for catechu; in some form or orher this juice is said to be 
used in factitious or adulterated port wine ; the leaves also are reckoned 
among the adulterations of tea in England ; they possess, in fact, a 
portion of that peculiar aromatic flavour which exists in Spiraea ul- 
maria, the American Gualtheria, and some other plants, and which 
resembles the more delicate perfume of green tea : a water distilled 
from the blossoms of the sloe is said to be used as a medicinal vehicle 
in Switzerland and Germany. (L. ex Smith.) 

Pyrus. (De Cand. ii. 633.) 

*Pyrus ARIA. (Ehrh.) (E.B.I 85 8.) Cratcegus aria, White beum- 
tree, Wild pear. 

Fl. white. June. Large shrub. Woods and hedges. 

*Pyrus TORMINA lis. (Ehrh.) (E. B. 298.) Crafcegus torminalis. 
(Linn.) Sorb-tree, Wild service-tree. 

Fl. white. April, May. Large shrub. Woods and hedges. 

Fruit, Wild service, Sorb, Sorbus, ripened upon straw until soft, 
eatable, astringent, useful in fluxes. 

*Pyrus aucuparia. (Gaertn.) (E. B. 337.) Fraxinus sylvestris, 
Sorbus aucuparia, (Linn.) Mountain ash. Quicken, Moan. 
Fl. white. May, Jane. Tree. Mountainous woods. 
Fruit astringent, dried and powdered makes a kind of bread ; in- 

u 2 



292 VEGETABLES.—RosACE^. 

fusion acidulous ; seeds yield oil ; bark tans better than oak bark. (G.) 
Flowers, bark, and root yield fully as much hydrocyanic acid as that 
procurable from an equal weight of cherry laurel leaves. (Lind. ex 
Buch. rep. xxvii. 238.) Fruit yields malic acid. 

*Pyrus communis. (Linn.) (E. B. 1784.) Pear-tree. 

Fl. Avhife. April, May. Small tree. Woods and hedijes. 

677 varieties of cultivated pear are enumerated in Don's Syst. of 
Gardening^ ii. p. 606. 

Fruit, pear^ 'pyrus, nearly the same as that of the apple, but becomes 
much sweeter by cultivation ; yields sugar. 

*Pyrus MALUS. (Linn.) (E. B. 179.) Sorhusmahis. (Crantz.) 
Apple-tree. 

Fl. pale pink. May. Small tree. Woods and hedges. 

Fruit of the Avild crab. Malus sylvestris, rou^h to the taste, contains 
an astringent principle, and much malic acid ; fruit of the cultivated 
apple malus, sweet, eatable. 

Don, in his Syst. Gard., ii. p. 624, enumerates 1400 varieties of the 
cultivated apple. 

Mennet apple, Poma. renettia, C. P., the sort to be used in p^larmacy► 

*PyrusSorbus. (Gaertn.) (E. B. 350.) P. domestica. (Smith.) 
Sorhits domestica. (Linn.) True service-tree. 

Fl. white. May. Large tree. Cornwall and Staffordshire. Rare. 

Fruit rough, very astringent, even when softened. 

Rosa. (De Cand. ii. 597.) 

**RosA ALBA. CLinn.) R. aiha vidgaris major ^ White or blush rose. 

Fl. white, or delicate blush, generally semi-double or double. June, 
July. Large shrub. Native of Germany. 

Petals smell less agreeably than those of the hundred-leaf rose ; 
more purgative. 

*RosA ARVENSis. (Huds.) (E. B. 188.) Trailing dog-rose. 

Fl. white. June, July. Small shrub. Woods and hedges. 

*RosA CANiNA. (Linn.) (E. B. 992.) Cynorrhodo7i, Dog-rose biish? 
Wild briar. 

Fl. pink. June. Small shrub. Fledges. Very common. 

Root has been recommended in hydrophobia ; a decoction of it used in 
dysentery; fruit, hips, Cynosbatos, lithontriptic, opening; the pulp, Roscc 
cani?ii pulpa, makes a fine conserve ; excrescences made by an insect, 
Bedeguar^ Spongia rosos, used in calculous diseases ; petals cathartic. 

**RosA C'ENTiFOLiA. (Linn.) Rosajiore albople7io, Cabbage rose. 
Hundred leaved rose. 

Fl. white or red. generally double. Gardens. Very common. 

Petals, Flores rosarum albarum, Rosce centifolioi petala, astringent, 
puroative, yield an odoriferous distilled water, and attar of roses. (G.) 
The petals are collected for the distillation of rose-water ; they are 
laxative, and used in infantile diseases. (L.) Provins rose, Rose de 
proviiice, Rosa rubra, C. P., R- provincialis, petals deep red, scent 
powerful, which they preserve after dryinir; astringent, tonic, cephalic: 
may be kept for a year or eighteen months by being closely pressed 



VEGETABLES.— ROSACEA. 293 

together ; some prefer iron vessels for this purpose. All the varieties 
of the Provins roses belong- to Rosa centifolia. 

* * Rosa Damascena. (Mill.) Damask rose. 
Fl. deep red. June, July. Small shrub. Native of Syria. 
Petals, Flores rosarum damascenarum, pale red, good scent, more 
purgative than some others. 

**RosA Gallica. (Linn.) jK. pallida, C. P., M. rubra, jP. L., 
Pale red rose hush, French rose. 

El. red. June. Small shrub. South of Europe. 

Petals, Flores rosariim ruhrarum, Rqscb nallicce petala, less odori- 
ferous than those of the Provins rose ; powder laxative. Don enume- 
rates more than 200 varieties of this speciesi. The dried petals of the 
unexpanded flowers, deprived of their white claws or peels, constitute 
the red rose leaves, Flores rosce ruhroe, of the shops. (Pereira.) 

Rosa moelissima. 
Fruit edible. 



**RosA RUBiGiNOSA. (Linn.) (E. B. 991.) Sweetbriar. 
Fl. rose coloured. June. Small shrul 
Leaves odoriferous, substituted for tea. 



Fl. rose coloured. June. Small shrub. South of Ensrland. 

o 



Rosa SEMPERViRENS. (Linn.) Ever greeji rose. South of Europe. 
Petals musky, very purgative, used for distilling attar of roses. 

*RosA STYLOSA. (Desv.) (E. B. 1895.) R. systyla. Close-styled 
dog-rose. 

Fl. pink. June, July. Small shrub. Thickets and hedges. 
Hips fine flavoured. 

RuBUs. (De Cand. ii. ^^Q.^ 

*RuBus c.Esius. (Linn.) (E. B. 826.) Dewberry bush. Small 
bramble. 

Fl. white. June, July. Small shrub. Thickets and borders of 
fields. 

Properties the same as R. idssus, but sourish. 

*RuBus CHAM.EMORUS. (Liuu.) (E. B. 716.) Cloudberry, Knot- 
berry bush. 

Fl. large, white. June. Perennial. Alpine moors. 

Fruit, Cloudberry^ Knotherry, acerb, astringent, dyes a bluish 
purple ; leaves and tops astringent. 

*RuBUS FRUTicosus. (Liuu.) (E. B. 715.) R. vulgaris, Black- 
berry, Dramble. 

Fl. rose coloured, or white. July, August. Small shrub. Hedges, &c. 

Fruit, Blackberry, rather acerb, eatable, but soon sickening ; green 
twigs used in dyeing black ; root used in chin cough. 

*RuBus iD^us. (Linn.) (E. B. 2442.) Raspberry. 

Fl. white. May, June. Small shrub. Woods. 

Fruit, Raspberry, Hindberry, cooling, cordial, communicates a fine 
flavour to liqueurs ; leaves form astringent and detersive gargles. 
Varies by cultivation, producing white or red fruit. 



294 VEGETABLES.— ROSACE.E. 

*RuBus SAXATiLis. (Linn.) (E. B. 22S3.) Chamceimhtis, Stone 
bramble. 

Fl. white. June. Perennial. Stony mountainous places. 
Berry esculent. 

RuBUS viLLosus. (Ait.) American blackberry. Humid woods. 
Europe and America. 

RuBus HisPiDus. (Linn.) H. trivialis. (Michx.) American 
dewberry. Canada. 

Bark of the roots febrifuge, used instead of cinchona. 

SriR^A. (De Cand. ii. 541.) 

Spiraea filipendula. (Linn.) (E. B. 284.) Filipendula vul- 
garis. (C. Bauh.) Drcpwort, Filipendula. 

Fl. white, tipped with pink. July. Perennial. Dry pastures in 
chalky and gravelly soils. 

Herb astringent, diuretic ; roots, dried and powdered, used for bread 
in famines. (G.) Both this and S. ulmaria are accounted tonics on 
account of their bitter astringent qualities. 

*Spir^a salicifolia. (Linn.) (E. B. 1468.) Spiked ivilloiVj 
Willoio-leaved spircea. 

Fl. rose coloured. July. Small shrub. Moist woods in north of 
England. 

Seed astringent. 

Spiraea tomentosa. (Linn.) Hard hack, America. 

Root Spiroea, P. U, S. Tonic. 

*SpiRiEA ULMARIA. (Linn.) (E. B. 960.) Filipendida idmaria^ 
(Berg.) Regina prati. (Dodon.) Ulmaria. (J. Bauh.) Meadow 
sweet, Queen of the meadotvs. 

Fl. cream-coloured. July. Perennial. Meadows and watery 
places. 

Herb sudorific, astringent, antispasmodic ; flowers give a fine flavour 
to warm water. (G.) Taste of the herbage and flowers aromatic; a 
fragrant water, forming an agreeable aromatic beverage, may be dis- 
tilled from the flowers. (L.) The volatile oil obtained by distillation, 
Oleum SpircecE ulmarice, is remarkable as being identical with hydruret 
of salicyle, (C* H^ 0*4-H,) which is obtained artificially by dis- 
tilling a mixture of one part of salicine, one part of bichromate of 
potash, two and a half of oil of vitriol, and ten of water. 

SUDIA. 

SuDiA HETEROPHYLLA. Mauritius ipecacuanha. 
Bark emetic. 



Order 57.— CALYCANTHEiE.— (De Cand. iii. 1.) 

Cahjx coloured, tube urceolate, enclosina- the ovaries, limb multipartite, the lobes 
unequal ; petals r.one ; stamens numerous, inserted in many rows on a fleshy disk at 
the fauces of the calyx, the inner ones sterile; anthers two-celled, adnate, dehiscing: 
eAtornally and longitudinally ; carpels numerous, enclosed within the }iarietes of the 
calyx (as in the roses) ; ovary one-celled, two-ovuled, and, by the abortion of one ovule^ 



VEGETABLES.— GRANATE^. 295 

one-seeded ; styles terminal, distinct, exsert from the tube of the calyx ; stigmas sin^.ple ; 
akenes enclosed within the tieshy tube of the calyx ; one-seeded, the pericarp subcorneous ; 
seed ascendinsj, hilum almost opposite the cicatrix of the pericarp ; embryo exalbuminous, 
straight ; cotyledons convolute ; radicle inferior, Shruhs with opposite, simple, exstipulate, 
rough leaves ; flowers solitary, pedicellated. 

Calycanthus. (De Cand. iii. 2.) 

**Calycanthus floridus. (Linn.) (Bot. Mag-. 503.) Carolina 
allspice. 

Fl. dark purplish brown. May, June. Large shrub. Native of 
Carolina. 

Root emetic ; seed poisonous. 



Order 58.— GRANATE J^. (De Cand. iii. 3.) 

Tube of the calyx turbinate, limb coriaceous, 5 — 7 cleft, with lobes valved in aesti- 
vation ; petals 5 — 7 ; stamens indefinite, filaments free ; anthers bilocular, dehiscing 
in front with a double opening; style filiform; stigma capitate, papulose ; /rwjY large, 
spherical, crowned with the limb of the calyx, indehiscent, unequally divided into two 
chambers by a horizontal diaphragm, the upper chamber containing from five to nine 
cells, the smaller and lower one three-celled, with membraneous septa ; seeds very nume- 
rous, exalbuminous ; embryo oblong, with a short straight radicle, and cotyledons 
foliaceous and spirally twisted. Ismail trees, or shrubs with four-sided, somewhat 
thorny branches ; leaves deciduous, opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, often fascicled 
in the axils, oblong, entire, without dots ; flowers 2 — 5, scarlet, nearly sessile. 

PuNiCA. (De Cand. iii. 3-) 

PuNiCA GRANATUM. (Linn.) Malus punica. (C. Bauh.) Pome- 
granate. Persia and the East. 

Fruit, Pomegranate, Mala punica, Granata, very cooling, antibi- 
lious, astringent, cordial; rind of the fruit, Pomegranate peel, Granati 
cortex, Malacorium, astringent, detersive, vermifuge ; used in tanning ; 
from the south of Europe ; double flowers of the wild trees, Palaustio?, 
of the cultivated trees Cytini, tonic, astringent. (G.) A decoction of 
the bark of the root a powerful anthelmintic ; flowers and bark of the 
fruit tonic and astringent ; used in leucorrhaa, chronic dysentery, &c. 

The acid juice of the fruit used in bilious fevers. (L.) 



Order 59.— COMBRETACE^. (De Cand. iii. 9.) 

Calyx adhering to the tube of the ovary, limb 4 — 5 lobed, deciduous ; petals 4 — 5, 
inserted into the upper part of the tube of the calyx, alternate with the lobes, sometimes 
wantino- ; stamens inserted into the same part, twice as many as the lobes of the calyx, 
very rarely equal in number, or three times as many ; filaments distinct, filiform, or 
subulate; anthers two-celled, dehiscing longitudinally; ovary one-celled, with from 
2 — 4 ovules hanging from the apex of the cavity; style one, slender; stigma simple; 
fruit drupaceous, baccate, or nut-like, one-celled, by abortion one-seeded, indehiscent, 
often winged ; seed pendulous, filling the cavity of the pericarp, exalbuminous ; embryo 
with the radicle turned towards the hilum, plumule inconspicuous; cotyledons leafy, 
often convolute, sometimes plaited. Trees or shrubs with alternate, opposite, exstipu- 
late, entire leaves ; flowers in terminal or axillary spikes. 

Bark generally artringent. 



296 VEGETABLES.— coMBRETACEJE. 

Pentaptera. (De Cand. iii. 14.) 

Pentaptera tomentosa. (Roxb.) Terminalia alata. (Roth.) 
T, tomentosa. India. 
Bark astringent ai^d febrifug-al. (L.) 

Terminalia, (De Cand. iii. 10.) 

Terminalia angustifolia. (Jacq.) T. benzohi, Catapha 
benzoin., Croton henzoe. East Indies. 

A milky juice flows from tne stem and concretes into a fragrant sub- 
stance resembling benzoin, used in churches in the Mauritius as a kind 
of incense. (L. ex Royle.) 

Terminalia belerica. (Roxb.) Myrohalanusbelerica. (Breyw.) 
Tani. India. 

Fruit, Beleric myrobalcms. Myrobalani belerici, taken from 5\j. to 
5jss., are astringent. (G.) Kernels of the fruit eaten in India and 
reckoned intoxicating : bark abounding- in a gum resembling gum arabic, 
soluble in water, burning away in the fl^ame of a candle. Ainslie reckons 
the fruit astringent, tonic, and attenuant. (L.) Much used in the 
arts as an astringent, and as the basis of several colours. (O'Sh.) 
The fruit, JSeleric myrohalans^ is about the size of a nutmeg, neaily 
spherical or slightly pentagonal, but is distinguished from the other 
kinds of myrobalans by the angles being rounded, and the surface not 
rugose ; it is terminated on one side b}^ a projecting point resembling a 
peduncle. 

Terminalia CATAPPA. (Linn.) Adamarum. East and West Indies. 

Fruit, Indian almond., nourishing, used by the sick : yields an oil. 
The kernels of several other species are eaten. (G.) Bark and leaves 
very astringent, and yield a black paint. (O'Sh.) 

Terminalia chebula. (Retz.) Myrobalanus chebula. (Gaertn.) 
Forests of Benoal. 

Fruit, Hurr nut, Ink nut, Chebulic myrobalans, Myrobalani chebuli ; 
galls on the leaves, Aldecay^ excellent for dyeing. (G.) Galls power- 
fully astringent, as fit for making ink as oak galls ; they yield the 
chintz-painters on the coast of Coromandel their best and most durable 
yellow. (Roxb.) With a ferruginous nmd they strike an excellent 
black. (L.) The fruit, Chebidic myrobalans, is the largest kind of 
myrobalans ; it is usually about the size of a date, oblong and elongated 
in the form of a pear at the extremity which is fixed to the peduncle ; 
it is but slightly or not at all ribbed, of a dark-brown colour, and in- 
ternally more compact than the citrine or yellow myrobalans. 

Indian myrobalans, or Black myrobalans^ are said to be obtained 
from the same tree as the foregoing, but to be gathered before the fruit 
is mature. It is much smaller than either of the other kinds, black, 
and shining on the surface. 

Terminalia citrina. (Roxb.) Myrobalanus citrina. (Gaertn.) 
Yellow myrobalans. India. 

Pickled iuyrobalans, the yellow myrobalans preserved in brine. (Ct.) 
Fruit a common article in the Hindoo Materia "Medica ; usually em- 
ployed as a gentle purgative. (L.) Citrine or Yelloiu myrobalans are 



VEGETABLES.— RHizoPHOREiE. 297 

rather smaller than the Chebulic, of an ovoid form, having five longitu- 
dinal ridges distinctly marked, and five more intermediate but less 
marked. The surface is shining, and the colour varying from pale to 
brown yellow. 

Terminalia latifolia. (Swartz.) Jamaica. 

Root used in Jamaica in diarrhoea. (L.) 

Terminalia Moluccana. (Lamb.) East Indies. 

Uses the same as those of T. belerica, for which it is substituted in 
Lidia, (L.) 

Terminalia vernix. (Lamb.) Varnish-tree of China. Moluccas. 

Produces the resin used in varnishing the Indian cabinets. (G.) One 

^^ the trees which furnishes the celebrated Chinese black lacquer. (O'Sh.) 



Order 60.— EHIZOPHOREiE. (De Cand. iii. 31.) 

Tube of the cahjx adhering to the ovary, limlD 4 — 13 lobed, lobes valrate in aestiva- 
tion ; petals inserted into the calyx, alternate with its lobes, and equal in number to 
them ; stamens inserted with the petals, and twice or thrice their number ; filaments 
Tree, subulate, erect ; anthers ovate, erect, inserted into the base ; ovarij adnate to the 
calyx, two-celled, each cell containing two or more pendulous ovules; fruit indehiscent, 
crowned by the calyx, one-celled, one-seeded ; seed pendulous, exalbuminous ; radicle 
long; cotyledons two, flat. Trees or shrubs growing on the sea-shores, with simple, 
opposite, entire, or toothed leaves, with stipules between the petioles ; peduncles 
axillary. 

RhizophorjV. (De Cand. iii. 31.) 

Rhizopkora GYMNORHizA. (Linn.) Bruguiera gymnorhiza. (Lamb.) 
East Indies. 

Fruit, leaves, and even bark, eaten. 

Rhizopiiora Mangle. (Linn.) 3Iangrove. Warm parts of Ame- 
rica, East Indies. 

Fruit and bark used in tanning ; imported from the West Indies, 
(G. ;) bark very astringent. (O'Sh.) 



Order 61.— ONAGRARI.E. (De Cand. iii. 35.) 

Tube of the calyx either entirely adnate to the o\'ary, or adherent to its base and 
produced beyond the ovary; limb 2 — 5 lobed, generally four-lobed, the lobes valvate in 
icstivation ; petals as many as the lobes of the calyx, generally regular, alternate with 
its lobes, contorted in jestivation, and inserted in the upper part of the tube (very 
rarely wanting) ; stamens sometimes as many as the petals, sometimes twice as many, 
and 'in a few cases half as many; filaments free, filiform; anthers oblong or ovate; 
ocar^ many-celled, often crowned by a cupular gland; styles filiform; stiyma capitate 
or lobate; fruit capsular, baccate, or drupaceous, two or four celled; seeds numerous, 
(or rarely solitary,) in each cell, fixed to the central angle; albumen wanting, the 
tumid endopleura sometimes resembling albumen ; embryo straight, with a long taper- 
ing radicle, and two short cotyledons. Herbaceous plants or shrubs with alternate or 
opposite leaves, entire or toothed, and red, purple, white, blue, or yellow, axillary or 
terminal flowers. 

CiRCGEA. (De Cand. iii. 63.) 
*CrRCCEA LUTETiANA. (Linn.) (E. B. 1056.) Circoea vulgaris. 
(Monch.) C. puhescens. (Pohl.) C. ovalifolia. (Gray.) Common en- 
chanter's nightshade. 



298 VEGETABLES.— oxAGRARm. 

Fl. white, or rose-coloured. June, July. Perennial. Woods and 
shady places. 

liesolvent, vulnerary ; formerly supposed to possess wonderful pro- 
perties in regard to magic and sorcery. 

Epilgbium. (De Cand. iii. 40.) 

*Epilobium angustifolium. (Willd.) (E. B. 1947.) French wil- 
low, Persian willow, Rosehuy icillow lierb. 

Fl. purplish, rose-coloured. July. Perennial. Margin of woods. 

Suckers eatable ; an infusion of the herb intoxicates ; down of the 
seeds, mixed with cotton or fur, has been felted. 

Epilgbium mgntanum. (Linn.) (E. B. 1177.) Ckamoenerion 
montanum. (Scop.) Broad smooth-leaved luillow herb. 

Fl. rose-coloured. July. Perennial. Dry shady banks, &c. 

*Epilgbium tetraggnum. (Linn.) (E. B. 1948.) Square-stalked 
luillow herb. 

Fl. rose-coloured. July. Perennial. Ditches and watery places. 
This, and the foregoing species, are used to cleanse foul ulcers. 

JussiiEA. (De Cand. iii. 52.) 
Jussi^A Peruviana. (Linn.) Peru. 

Leaves emollient. 

OENOTHERA, (De Cand. iii. 45.) 
*CEngthera biennis. (Linn.) (E. B. 1534.) Common eve7iing 
primrose. Tree primrose. 

Fl. yellow. July, September. Biennial. Sandy soils, Suffolk, &c. 
Koot cleanses foul ulcers, and is eaten in salads. 
Trapa. (De Cand. iii. 63.) 

Trapa natans. (Linn.) Tribulus aquaticus, Water caltrops. 
Europe and Siberia. 

Herb cooling ; nuts, Nitces aquaticce, farinaceous and nourishing. 
(G.) Fruit, called Singara^ used extensively in Cashmere as an article 
of food, and also in China, where the kernel is roasted or boiled like 
the potato. (O'Sh.) 

Order 62.— LYTHRARIEiE. (De Cand. iii. 76.) 

Calyx monosepalous, free, tubular, or bell-shaped ; the lobes during aestivation valved 
or separate, the sinuses sometimes produced into small exterior lobes ; petals in- 
serted on the upper part of the tube of the calyx, between the lobes, various in number,, 
sometimes none, generally very caducous ; stamens inserted into the tube of the calyx 
below the petals, sometimes as numerous as they are, sometimes two, three, or four, 
times as many; anthers oval, two-celled, versatile ; ovari/ free ; style filiform; stigma 
usually capitate; capsule membraneous, covered, or surrounded with the calyx; when 
young, of two to four cells, eventually one-celled from the disappearance of the septa, 
opening longitudinally, sometimes bursting irregularly all round ; seeds vei-y numerous, 
small, exalbuminous, adhering to a central placenta; embryo straight; radicle turned 
towards the hilum; cotyledons flat, foliaceous. Herbs with opposite, rarely alternate, 
exstipulate, simple leaves, and axillary or terminal, spiked or raceraed _/7ou-(?7\s. 

Ammannia. (De Cand. iii. 77.) 
Ammannia vesicatoria. (Roxb.) Daud maree, Blistering am- 
mannia. Hindostan. 



VEGETABLES.— LYTHRARiEiE. 299 

Leaves acrid, universally employed by the natives of India to raise 
blisters in rheumatic pains, fevers, &c. ; the fresh leaves, bruised, per- 
form their office actually in half an hour. (Lindl. ex. Roxb.) In 
eight trials of this article, blisters were not produced in less than 
twelve hours in any, and in three individuals not for twenty-four 
hours. The bruised leaves had been removed from all after half an 
hour. The pain was absolutely agonising till the blister rose. We 
should not be justified in recommending these leaves for further trial, 
as they occasion more pain than cantharides, and are far inferior to 
the plumbago (Lalchitra) in celerity or certainty of action. (O'Sh.) 

GiNORiA. (De Cand. iii. 9L) 
GiNORiA Americana. (Jacq.) Hanchinoll AYest Indies. 

Juice, oiiijv is diaphoretic, diuretic ; used in syphilis. (G.) 

Heimia. (De Cand. iii. 89.) 
Heimia SALiciFOLiA. (Link, et Ott.) Nescea salicifolia. (H. B. 
et Kunth.) New Spain, on the Volcano of Jorullo. 

A powerful sudorific and diuretic ; the Mexicans consider it a patent 
medicine in venereal disorders, and call it Hcmchinol. (L.) 
Lafoensia. (De Cand. iii. 93.) 
Lafoensia amminata. (Vand.) Calyplectus acuminatus. Peru, 
Leaves yellow, affording a yellow dye. 

Lawsonia. (De Cand. iii. 90.) 
Lawsonia alba. (Linn.) L. inermis. (Linn.) Henna, North 
of Africa. 

Used to colour the nails of females of a reddish colour. (G.) It 
is also employed for dyeing hair. 

Lythhum. (De Cand. iii. 80.) 

*Lythrum salicaria. (Linn.) (E. B. 1061.) Salicaria vul- 
garis. (Berg.) Lysimachia purpurea spicata. (C. Bauh.) Purple- 
spiked willow herb^ Spiked purple lousestrije. 

Fl. purple. July. Perennial. Watery places. 

Ophthalmic, astringent, used in the winter diarrhoeas of northern 
countries; also as tea, and to make beer. (G.) An astringent which 
has been recommended in inveterate cases of diarrhoea. (L.) Demul- 
cent and astringent. (Pereira.) 

Physocalymna. (De Cand. iii. 89.) 

Physocalymna FLORIDA. (Pohl.) Brazil. 

This is said by Don to yield the rosewood of the cabinet-makers, 
but others ascribe it to a Mimosa. 



Order 63.— TAMARISCINE^. (De Cand. iii. 95.) 

Calyx 4 — 5, parted, persistent, with an imbricate aestivation ; petals 4 — 5, alternatt- 
with the sepals inserted into the base of the calyx, withering, imbricated in aestivation ; 
stamens equal to, or double the number of the petals, the filaments being either free, or 
united into a long monadelphons tube; ovary free, trigonal ; style one; stigma three; 
capsule three-vaived, one-celled, many-seeded ; seeds parietal, erect, or ascending, 
covered with down at the apex; albumen none; em6r^o straight; radicle small, inferior; 
cotyledons plano-convex, oblong. Shrubs or ?ierbs, with slender branches; leaves alternate, 
like scales, entire ; flov:ers in close spikes or raceme? 



300 VEGETABLES.— MELASTOMACEJE. 

Tamarix. (De Cand. iii. 95.) 
Tamarix Afkicana. (Poir.) T. Gallica. (Willd.) Egypt and 
theEast. 

*Tamarix Gallica. (Linn.) (E. B. 1318.) French tamarisk, 
lamarisk. 

Fl. pink. July. Small shrub. South coast of England. 

Ashes contain sulphate of soda : a species of tamarisk u^^or^s Arabian 
manna. (G.) From this species is collected in the vicinity of Sinai 
an abundance of a white gummy substance resembling manna, which, 
however, is said to contain no niannite, but chiefly to consist of pure 
mucilaginous sugar, supposed to be produced by a species of coccus 
which inhabits the tree ; the bark of the plant is slightlj'- bitter and 
astrino:ent ; the galls and young shoots of this and some other species 
or varieties are highly astringent, and used in India both in medicine 
and dyeing. 

Myricaria. (De Cand. iii. 97.) 

jMyricaria Germanica. (Desv.) Tamarix germanica. (Linn.) 
German tamarisk. 

Properties the same as those of the former species. 

Order 64.— MELAvSTOMACEiE. (De Cand. iii. 99.) 

Cahjx divided into fuur, five, or six lobes, cohering more or less with the angles of 
the ovar}-, but distinct from the surface between the angles, and thus forming a num- 
ber of cavities, within which the young anthers are curved downwards; petals equal to 
the segments of the calyx, arising from their base, or from the edge of a disk that lines 
the calyx; twisted in aestivation; stamens usually twice as many as the petals, some- 
times equal to tliem in .number; in the former case, those which are opposite the seg- 
ments of the calyx are alone fertile; filaments curved downwards in asstivation; anthers 
long, two-celled, usually bursting by two pores at the apex, and elongated in various 
ways beyond the insertion of the filament; sometimes bursting longitudinally ; before 
iiowei-ing contained within the cases between the ovary and sides of the calyx ; ovar// 
more or less coherent with the calyx, with several cells and indefinite ovules ; style 
one; stigma simple, either capitate or minute ; a cup often present upon the apex of 
the ovary, surrounding the style ; pericarp either dry and distinct from the calyx, or 
.succulent and combined with it, with several cells ; if dehiscent, bursting through the 
valves, which thereibre bear the septa in the middle; placcntjB attached to a central 
column; seeds innumerable, minute, with a brittle testa and no albumen, usually with 
appendages of some kind ; einbr;/o straight, or curved with equal or unequal cotyledons. 
Trees, skrnhs, or herbaceous plants, with opposite, undivided, usually entire leaves, not 
dotted and with several ribs ; Jloiiers terminal, usually thyrsoid. 

Melastoma. (De Cand. iii. 144.) 

Melastoma a lata. 

Melastoma succosa. 

Juice used to wash wounds. The berries of various species of 
Melastoma dye a black which is very lasting, and many of them are 
eatable. 

Melastoma hirta. (Willd.) Hairy melastoma, Jamaica. 

Leaves powdered used to sprinkle on ulcers ; berries yield a juice 
like that of myrtle berries ; also used for ulcers. 

TococA. (De Cand. iii. 165.) 

TococA GuiANENsis. (Aubl.) Guiana. 

Berries eatable. 



VEGETABLES.— rHiLADELPHE.E. 301 

Order 65.— ALANGIE^. (De Cand. iii. 203.) 

Cali/x superior, campanulate, 5 — 10 toothed; petals 5 — 10, linear, reflexed ; stamens 
long, exserted, two or four times the number of the petals; filaments free, filiform, 
A'illous at the base; anthers adnate, bilocular, linear, turned inwards, dehiscing longi- 
tudinally by a double opening, often empty ; disk fleshy, at the base of the limb of the 
calyx ; dnipe oval, somewhat crowned by the calyx, fleshy, slightly ribbed and downy, 
nucleus without valves, one-celled, bony, with a foramen at the apex ; seed one, (or three, 
according to Rheed,) inverted ovate ; albumen fleshy, friable ; embryo straight ; radicle 
long, ascending; cotyledons flat, foliaceous, cordate, ovate. Large trees, branches often 
spinous; leaves alternate, exstipulate, ovate, lanceolate, entire, without dots; flowers 
axillary, fascicled ; fruit eatable. 

Alangium. (De Cand. iii. 203.) 
Alangium decapetalum. (Lamb.) Grewia salvifolia. (Linn.) 
Alangi and Angolum. Stony mountains of Malabar. ,; 

Aeangium hexapetalum. (Lamb.) Kura aiigolam, Namedoce. 
Malabar. 

Roots aromatic, cathartic. (G.) Said by the Malays to have a 
purgative hydragogue property. (L. ex Royle.) The juice of the 
Alangium is said to be piirf^ative, but the fact is not well established. 
(O'Sh.) 

Order 66.— PHILADELPHE^E. (De Cand. iii. 205.) 

Tube of the calyx tui'binate, adhering to the ovary, limb with from four to ten divisions, 
persistent ; petals equal in nitmber to, and alternate with, the segments of the calyx, 
convolute, imbricate in aastivation ; stamens 20 — 40, inserted into the fauces of the calyx, 
in. 1 — 2 rows; styles either distinct, or more or less consolidated into one ; stigmas many ; 
capsule semiadnate to the calyx, 4 — 10 celled, many-seeded ; seeds scobiform, subulate, 
smooth, heaped in the angles of the cells upon an angular placenta, with a loose mem- 
braneous aril ; albumen fleshy ; embryo inverted, almost as long as the albumen ; cotyledons 
oval, obtuse, rather flat ; radicle longer than the cotyledons, superior, straight, obtuse. 
Shrubs, with exstipulate, opposite, not dotted leaves, with axillary or terminal flowers in 
trichotomous cymes ; fl.owers always white. 

Philabelphus. (De Cand. iii. 205.) 

**Phii.adelphus coronarius. (Linn.) (Bot. Mag. 39L) 
Syringa suaveoleus. (Monch.) Syringa, Mock orange. 

Fl. white, odorous. .June, Large shrub. South of Europe. 
Flowers strong scented ; leaves detersive, used as tea. 



Order 67.— MYRTACEJE. (De Cand. iii. 207.) 

Calyx of 4 — 6, generally five sepals, united into a tube, adnate with the ovary; petals 
inserted on the calyx, equal in number to its segments, and alternate with them, quin- 
cuncial in aestivation, very rarely none; stainens inserted with the petals, often in many 
rows, double in number, or some multiple of them ; filaments sometimes free, sometimes 
connected in several parcels, curved inwards at the apex before flowering ; anthers ovate, 
two-celled, small, dehiscing with a double opening; carpels four to six, generally five, 
often by abortion fewer, cohering into a many-celled ovary, adnate with the calyx ; style 
simple ; stigma simple ; fruit various, generally many-celled and many-seeded ; seeds 
variable in form ; embryo exalbaminous. Trees, or shrubs, with leaves generally opposite, 
rarely alternate, without stipules, entire, dotted with pellucid glands, and with a nerve 
running parallel to the margin; inflorescence variable, usually axillary; flovsers red, 
white, occasionally yellow, never blue. 



302 VEGETABLES.— MYRTACE.^. 

Barringtoxia. (De Cand. iii. 288.) 
Barringtonia RACEMOSA. (Blume.) Eugenia racemosa. (Linn.) 
Stravadium racemosum. Malabar. 

Root slightly bitter, but not unpleasant; considered by the Hindoo 
doctors valuable on account of its aperient, deobstrnent, and cooling 
properties ; bark reputed to possess properties similar to tliose of Cin- 
chona. (L. ex Ainslie.) 

Bertholletia. (De Cand. iii. 293.) 

Bertholletia excelsa. (II. and Bonpl ) Brazil. 

The seeds constitute the well-known Brazil nuts of the shops of 
London. 

Calyptranthes. (De Cand. iii. 256.) 

Calyptranthes aromatica. (St. Hil.) Rio Janeiro. 

Young flower-buds have much the same qualities as cloves, for 
which they might be advantageously substituted. (L. ex Aug. de St. 
Hilaire.) 

Caryophyllus. (De Cand. iii. 26L) 

Caryophyllus aromaticus. (Linn.) Myrtus caryophyllus. 
(Spreng.) Eugenia caryophyllata. (Thuni}.) Clove tree. Molucca 
Islands. 

Flower-buds of the tree, before they open, dried and smoked, Cloves, 
Girojie anglais, Caryophyllus aromaticus^ Caryophylli^ hot, stimulating, 
and aromatic; imported from the West Indies in chests; an inferior 
kind from Cayenne, Girofle de Cayenne; preserved cloves are also 
imported ; the ripe fruit, Mother cloves, Fusses, Antophylli, large, less 
aromatic ; Preserved mother cloves, stomachic and antispasmodic ; the 
foot-stalks, Griffes de girofle, used to tiavour distilled spirit. (Gr.) 
Stimulant and carminative, similar in effect to Eugenia pimenta ; the 
cloves of the shops are the dried flower-buds ; Oil of cloves is a com- 
mon remedy for the tooth-ache. (L.) 

Eucalyptus. (De Cand. iii. 216.) 

Eucalyptus maxnifera. (Mudie.) New Holland. 

Exudes a saccharine mucous substance, resembling manna in action 
and appearance, but less nauseous ; it is not produced by insects, and 
only appears in the dry season (Med. Bot. Trans. 1. c.) ; other species 
yield a similar secretion at Moreton Bay and in Van Dieman's Land ; 
Mr. Backhouse says it coagulates and drops from the leaves in particles 
often as large as an almond. (Comp. Bot. Mag. ii. 69.) (L.) 

Eucalyptus piperita. New Holland. 

Yields an oil by distillation, which is very similar, if not identical 
with oil of cajeput; it is a powerful solvent of caoutchouc. It may be 
probably used with advantage in tiie manufacture of varnish, as it 
readily dissolves copal, and when its solution is spread over a surface, 
the oil soon evaporates, leaving a hard, brilliant, and uniform coating 
of the resin. 

Eucalyptus resinifera. (Smith.) Metrosideros gummifera, 
(Gaertn.) Brown gum tree> Iron bark tree. New Holland. 

Yields the Brown gum, or Botany Bay kino, which is the inspis- 



VEGETABLES.— MYRTACE^. 303 

sated juice of the tree. It, is said that as much as sixty gallons of 
juice is sometimes obtained from a tree. Both the bark and the in- 
spissated juice have been imported as astringent substances. 

Eucalyptus hobusta. (Smith.) New Holland. 

Often contains large cavities in its stem, between the annual con- 
centric circles of wood, filled with a most beautiful red, or rich vermi- 
lion-coloured gum. (L. ex Smith in Bot. Trans.) 

Eugenia. (De Cand. iii. 262.) 

Eugenia pimenta. (D. C.) 3Iyrtus pimenta. (Linn.) Pimento^ 
or Allspice. West Indies. 

Myrfifs pimenta, Allspice tree: fruit dried before it is thoroughly 
ripe, Allspice^ Jamaica pepper., Clove pepper^ Piper jamaicense, Pi- 
menia^ PimentcB bacccE, Piper odoratmn, P. caryophyllatum, is heating, 
aromatic, used as a sauce, and in liqueurs ; yields an essential oil. ((jt.) 
All the plant, especially the unripe fruit, abounds in an essential oil, 
^vhich is a powerful irritant, and is often used to allay toothache ; the 
bruised berries are carminative, stimulating the stomach, promoting 
digestion, and relieving flatulency. (L.) 

GusTAviA. (De Cand. iii. 289.) 

Gustavia speciosa. (D. C.) Pirigara speciosa. (H. B. et Kunth.) 
New Granada. 

Produces singular effects upon the constitution ; according to Hum- 
boldt and Bonpland, children are very fond of the fruit, and become 
quite yellow after eating it, but in 24 — 48 hours they regain their 
natural colour without any remedy ; in Burnett's Outlines of Botany, 
it is asserted, by some strange mistake, that after it remains for 24 or 
48 hours, nothing can erase the colour. (L.) 

Jambosa. (De Cand. iii. 286.) 

Jambosa vulgaris. (D. C.) Eugenia jamhos. (Linn.) Eugenia 
jamboo. (Roxb.) Myrtus jambos. (H. B. et Kunth.) Malacca. 

Fruit eatable, aromatic. The fruit of this and other species called 
Rose apples, in the East. 

Lecythis. (De Cand. iii. 290.) 

Lecythis ollaria. (Linn.) Ollato^ Sapucaya. Brazil. 

This is one of the most gigantic trees of the forests of Brazil. The 
bark is easily separable, by beating the liber into a number of fine dis- 
tinct layers, which divide so neatly from each other that they have the 
appearance of satin-paper. The seeds of this and other species are 
eatable, but leave a bitter after-taste. 

Lecythis zabucajo. (Aubl.) Quatele, Zabitcojo. Guiana. 
Seeds eatable. Have been called Brazil nuts. 

Leptospermum. (De Cand. iii. 226.) 

Leptospermum scoPARiUM. (Smith.) Philadelplms scoparius. 
(Ait.) Melaleuca scoparia. (Wendl.) New Holland. 
Leaves used as tea. 



804 VEGETABLES.— MYRTACEiE. 

Melaleuca. (De Cand. iii. 211.) 

Melaleuca minor. (Smith.) M. Cajiqmti. (Roxb.) Ky a putty 
tree. Moluccas. 

Leaves yield an essential oil, called Cajuput, Cajeput, or Kyapnotie 
oil, which is obtained by distillation. It is a green aromatic oil, and is 
used in toothache and rheumatic affections, and as an internal remedy 
in hysteria and epilepsy, flatulent colic and cholera. A powerful anti- 
spasmodic, diffusible, stimulant, and sudorific. 

Melaleuca leucadendron. (Linn) Molucca Islands. 

Bv some said to give Cajupuli oil, but has been asserted by 
Roxburgh to possess little or no fragrance in its leaves, and not to be 
ever employed as far as he could discover in the distillation of that 
drug. (L.) 

Myrclv. (De Cand. iii. 242.) 

Myrcia acris. (D. C.) Eugenia acris, Wild clove. West India 
Islands. 

Supposed to have been confounded with Eugenia pimenta, in whose 
aromatic qualities it altogether participates. (L.) 

Myrtus. (De Cand. ii. 238.) 

**Myrtus communis. (Linn.) Common wyrtle. 

Fl. white. July, August. Large shrub. South of Europe. 

Leaves odoriferous, cephalic, astringent ; bark and leaves used in 
tanning ; berries used in dyeing, and to form an extract ; flowers and 
leaves yield an essential oil by distillation, and the berries a fixed oil, 
Myrteiim. (G.) Myrtle buds and berries were eaten as spice by the 
ancients, and are still used in Tuscany instead of pepper; the Tuscans 
also prepare a sort of myrtle wine, which they call Myrtidanum ; the 
distilled water of myrtle flowers is that very agreeable perfume known 
bv the name of Eau d'auge. (L. ex Burnett.) 

Myrtus cheken. 

Juice from the green wood used in glaucoma. (G.) 

Myrtus luma. 

Berries used to make wine ; leaves make a very good cordial tea ; 
root astringent. (G.) 

Myrtus ugni. (Molin.) Chili. 

Root used in dysentery ; leaves used as tea. 

PsiDiuM. (De Cand. iii. 232.) 

PSIDIUM POMIFERUM. (LiUH.) McxicO. 

Fruit esculent. 

PsiDiuM PYRiFERUM. (Linn.) Psidium vulgare. (Rich.) Guayava 
pyriformia. (Gaertn.) Bay plum, Guava tree. America. 

Young leaves, buds, and fruit, in decoction, astringent ; marmalade 
of the fruit the same. 

Robin soNiA. 

RoBiNSONiA MELiANTHiFOLiA. (Schr.) To2(ro2tUa GuajancHsis. 
(Aubl.) 

Berry edible. (G.) 



VEGETABLES.— cucuRBiTACE.^. 305 



Order 68.— CUCURBITACE^. (De Cand. iii. 297.) 

Floicers hermaphrodite, monoecious, or dioecious, axillary; calyx gamosepalous ; 
sepals five, more or less coherent at the base, and adhering to the carpels through the 
medium of the torus ; petals five, free, or somewhat cohering, distinct from the calyx, 
or rarely adhering to it, arising from the margin of the torus, entire, or rarely imbri- 
cated ; stamens five, free, or generally triadelphous, rarely triadelphous and syngeno- 
sious ; filaments sometimes hairy ; anthers bilocular, very long, flexuose, rarely ovate 
and short; style short; stigmas 3 — 5, bilobed, thick, velvety, rarely fimbriated ; carpels 
3 — 5, fleshy, surrounded by the torus and calyx, forming a pepo or gourd, the middle 
nerve of the carpels being central, and the seminiferous margins external ; umbilical 
cord tumid near the seed; arillus watery, becoming membraneous by drying; seeds 
generally obovate, compressed, attached to the parietes of the fruit, the apex being 
more or less directed towards the centre, the margin often tumid by drying, appearing 
2 — 3 lobed at the apex and base; hilum oblique at the apex of the seed, the spermo- 
derm being there abruptly perforated by the vessels of the stigma, while the vessels of 
nutrition encircle the margin of the seed ; embryo straight, exalbuminous ; cotyledons 
leafy, pelmatinerved ; radicle basilar, directed towards the hilum ; root annual or peren- 
nial, fibrous, or tuberous ; stem sarmentaceous, herbaceous, or shrubby, generally 
striated; leaves palmate, nerved, or often covered with very rough hair; cirrhi (or abor- 
tive leaves), solitary, lateral, undivided or divided; _^OM;e/'s solitary, paniculated, or fasci- 
culated, yellow, white, or rose-coloured; bracteas generally wanting ; branches arising 
from between the leaves and cirrhi. 

Fruits mostly esculent, but a few have the laxative power so in- 
creased as to become drastic purgatives. 

Bryonia. (De Cand. iii. 304.) 

Bryonia Abyssinica ? (Lamb.) Abyssi7iian bryony. Africa. 
Root esculent when boiled. 

Bryonia alba. (Linn.) Bryonia nigra. (Rupp.) Black-berried 
bryony. South of Europe. 

Properties the same as B. dioica. 

Bryonia callosa. 

Seeds vermifug-e, yield an oil. 

*Bryonia dioica. (Jacq.) (E. B. 439.) B. alba. (Reich.) 
Hed-berried bryony, White bryony. 

El. with greenish veins. May, June. Thickets and hedges. 

Root acrid and purgative, owing to the presence of an extractive 
matter called Bryonine ; it produces violent vomiting and purging. 
Tormina, profuse watery evacuations, and fainting ; it is not admitted 
into the British Pharmacopoeias, but is a frequent instrument in the 
practice of quack doctors in the country ; Burnett says it is sold in 
Co vent Garden market as a discutient to remove the bruise of a 
blackened eye ; Withering considers it one of the best cathartic medi- 
cines for horned cattle. (L.) 

Bryonia epig^a. (Rottl.) ' India. 

Powder of the root given by the native practitioners as an aperient 
and alterative in doses of a pagoda weight once daily for a week in 
chronic dysentery and venereal atfections. (O'Sh. ex Ainslie.) 

Bryonia rostrata. (Rottl.) Tranquebar. 

Root prescribed in India as an astringent and emollient poultice in 
cases of piles ; it is also used as a demulcent in form of a powder. (L. 
ex Ainslie.) 

X 



306 VEGETABLES. — cucurbitace.^. 

CucuMis. (De Cand. iii. 299.) 

CucuMis Angueia. (Linn.) \ Water melon /^^"'aic^- 

CucuMis CiTRULLUs. (Ser. MSS.) i ' ) Africa & Lidia. 

Fruit eatable, refreshing ; flesh of the fruit saccharine and watery. 

CucuMis Chate. (Linn.) Egypt and Africa. 

Fruit has a sweet refreshing juice. 

CucuMis CoLOCYNTiiis. (Linn.) Coloci/iithis, Coloquintida, koXo- 
Kvrdic, {D'losc.) Egypt, Turkey, Coromandel. 

Fruit, Shell colocynth,, imported from the Levant ; pulp of the dry 
fruit, Bitter apple ^ Peeled colocy nth, ColocmfhidisjjMlpa, also imported ; 
purgative ; the fruit contains the intensely bitter resinoid called Colo- 
cynthin ; it is very acrid, and a considerable number of severe cases of 
poisoning have occurred in the human subject ; nevertheless, in com- 
bination with otlier substances, the extract is one of the commonest of 
cathartics. 

CucuMis itahdwickii, (Royle,) called by the natives Puharee in- 
drayun, or Hill colocynth. Foot of the Himalaya. 
Properties similar to those of C colocynthis. (L.) 

**CucuMis Melo. (Linn.) Melo, melon. 
Fl. yellow. July, August. Annual. Native of Asia. 
Fruit very refreshing, much eaten in France, where it takes the 
place of our potatoes. 

CucuMis PSEUDO COLOCYNTHIS. (Roylc.) Lidraywi, Bisloombha- 
India. 

Substituted in India for the true Colocynth. (L.) 

**CucuMis SATivus. (Linn.) C. hortensis, Cucumher. 

Fl. yellow. May, Jul)-. Annual. Xative of India. 

Fruit eaten, cooling ; young fruit, Girkins^ pickled for a sauce ; 
Salted Cucumbers, imported from Russia ; seeds yield oil. 

CucuMis UTiLissiMUS. (Roxb.) Bengal. 

Powder of the toasted seeds said to be a powerful diuretic, and 
serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel. (L. ex Roxb.) 

CucuRBiTA. (De Cand. iii. 316.) 

CucunBiTA Melopefo. (Linn.) Squash. 

Fruit better tasted than that of C. pepo, but of the same quality. 

**CucuRBiTA Pepo. (Linn.) Pepo, Common gourd or Pumpkiny 
Pumpion. 

Fl. yellow. June, August. Annual. Kative of Asia. 

Seeds cooling; leaves. No. 15 — 20, in decoction, form a purgative 
clyster, applied externally to burns, erysipelas, &c. (G.) 

**CucuRBiTA oviFERA. (Linn.) Vegetable marrow. 

Fl. yellow. July, September. Annual. Native of Astracan. 

Fiuit an excellent pot-herb, coming into use in England. 

Feuille.!. (De Cand. iii. 297.) 
Feuillea cordifolia. (Poir.) F. hederacea. (Turp.) Cocoon 
antidote. West Indies. 



VEGETABLES.— CUCURBITACE.E. 307 

Alexiterial, febrifuge, used in venomous bites ; kernel of the fruit 
called in St. Domingo Noix de serpent, infused in rum or water, used 
against sedative poisons. 

Fjeuillea TRiiiOBATA. (Linn.) F. scandens. (Linn.) Calabash 
cocoon antidote. West Indies, 

Seeds bitter and laxative, a large dose vomits. (G-.) The bitter 
seeds of this and the last are said by Drapiez to be a powerful antidote 
against vegetable poisons. They purge and vomit with rapidity. (L.) 

Lagenaria. (De Cand. iii. 299.) 
LagenAria vulgaris. (Ser. MSS.) Cucurbita lagenaria, (Linn.) 
Calabash gourd, Bottle gourd. East Indies. 

Seeds cooling; leaves, No. 15 — 20, in decoction, form a purgative 
clyster. (G.) In the wild state the fruit is poisonous ; some sailors 
died at one of our outports a few years since from drinking beer that 
had been standing in a flask made of a bottle gourd ; Dr. Royle says 
that he learned from a very respectable and intelligent native doctor, 
attached to the gaol hospital at Saharumpore, that he had seen a case 
of poisoning from eating of the bitter pulp, in which the symptoms 
were those of cholera. (L.) 

Luffa. (De Cand. iii. 302.) 

LuFFA AMARA. (Roxb. fl. Ind. iii. 715.) East Indies. 

Every part extremely bitter ; fruit violently cathartic and emetic. 
Juice of roasted young fruit applied to the temples by the natives of 
India to cure headache. Ripe seeds, either in infusion or substance, 
used by them to vomit and purge. (L.) 

LuFFA Bir^DAAL,. (Roxb. fl. Ind. iii. 717.) Hindostan. 
Considered in northern India a powerful drastic in cases of dropsy. 
(L. ex Royle.) 

Luffa Egyptiaca. (Mill.) Momordica luffa. (Linn.) Arabia. 

Used to rub the body in cutaneous eruj)tions ; fruit eatable. 

Luffa purgans. (Mart.) Momordica. oncha. Brazil. 

Fruit called Cabacinha or JBuchinha, used by the natives of Per- 
nambuco as a substitute for colocynth. A peculiar active prmciple, 
called Buchanina, is said to have been extracted from it. 

Melothria. (De Cand. iii. 313.) 
Melothria pendula. (Linn.) South America. 

Extremely drastic ; four ripe fruits will purge a horse. (L.) 

Momordica. (De Cand. iii. 311.) 
Momordica Balsamina. (Linn.) Balsam apple, Cerasse. East 
Indies. 

Root purgative, 9 ij. in powder ; plant vulnerary, balsamic, refresh- 
ing; leaves used in decoctions for clysters; fruit, infused in oil, makes 
a vulnerary balsam ; the juice that exudes upon cutting the ripe fruit, 
used for fresh wounds. (G.) This plant is supposed to be that called 
Neurosperma cuspidata by Rafinesque, the fruit of which is said to be 
a dangerous poison, but in moderate doses to act as a powerful hydra- 
gogue. (L.) 

X 2 



308 VEGETABLES.— cucuRBiTACE^. 

MoMORDicA Charantia. (Linn.) Papareh. East Indies. 

Very bitter, vermifuge ; used in brewing- in the East Indies. 

MoMORDiCA Elaterium, fLinn.) Ecbalium officinarum. (Richard.) 
Cucumis agrestis. (Blackw.) C. asininus. (C. Bauh.) Zikvc aypioc, 
(^Dioscor.) Spirtiiig cucumber, Wild cucumber. South of Europe. 

Root and herb hydragogue, vermifuge ; leaves used externally, 
detersive and resolvent ; fruit, Elaferii poma, yields Elaterium ; juice 
of fhe fruit hydragogue. (G.) Elaterium., a substance obtained from 
the juice surrounding the seeds of this plant, is so powerful a poison, 
that a single grain has been known to act powerfully on man, but its 
strength and effects are uncertain ; it is used in practice, in the form of 
an extract as a violent cathartic and hydragogue. Dr. Christison 
quotes a case of a medical man in Paris, who, after carrying a specimen 
to his lodgings in his hat, was seized with acute pain &c. in his head, 
succeeded by colic pains, fixed pains in the stomach, frequent watery 
purging, bilious vomiting, and some fever. (L.) 

MuRiciA. (De Cand. iii. 318.) 
MuRiciA CocHiNCHiNENSis. (Lour.) China and Cochin China. 
Seeds and leaves astringent and aperient ; employed by the Chinese 

in obstructions of the liver, tumours, and malignant ulcers. Externally 

employed in fractures and dislocations. (L.) 

Trichosanthes. (De Cand. iii. 313.) 
Trichosanthes amara. (Linn.) St. Domingo. 

Fruit very bitter, purgative, emetic, used to destroy rats. (G.) 
Seeds bitter and astringent, sometimes emetic. (L. ex Martius.) 

Trichosanthes cordata. (Roxb. fl. Ind. iii. 703.) Boomeekoomura. 
Hindostan 

Root used by the natives of India as a substitute for Columbo root. (L.) 
Trichosanthes cucumerina. (Linn.) Hedges in Bengal. 

Fruit reckoned in India an anthelmintic. (L.) 

Trichosanthes dioica. Bengal. 

An alcoholic extract of the unripe fruit is described as a powerful 
and safe cathartic in three to five grain doses, repeated every third hour 
till the desired effect is produced. (O'Sh.) 

Trichosanthes palmata. (Roxb. fl. Ind. iii. 704.) India. 

Fruit reckoned poisonous. (Roxb.) Pounded small and intimately 
blended with warm cocoa-nut oil, it is considered a valuable applica- 
tion in India for cleansing and healing the offensive sores that ^^onle- 
times form within the ears ; it is also supposed to be a useful remedy, 
poured up the nostrils, in cases of ozeena. (L. ex Ainslie.) 

Trichosanthes villosa. (Blume.) Java. 

Fruit acts like colocynth. (L.) 



Order 69.— PAPAYACE^. (Endl. Gen. PI. 932.) 

scent t 
daced by culti\ 



Lactescent trees, with cylindi-ical trunks, indigenous to tropical America, but intrtS* 
ration into Asia and Africa. Allied to Cucurbitaceoe and Passifloreje. 



VEGETABLES.— PAssiFLORE^. 309 

Carica. (Endl. Gen. PI. 933.) 
Carica Papaya. (Linn.) Papaw. West Indies. 

Fruit nutritive; seed an excellent vermifug-e, leaves saponaceous, 
milky ; juice corrosive ; is mixed with water, and used to wash meat 
to make it tender. (G.) The milky juice is a powerful vermifuo-e ; 
the powder of the seeds has the same property ; fibrine is contained in 
the juice in such abundance that the latter bears a most extraordinary 
resemblance to animal matter; water impregnated with the milky 
juice makes meat washed with it tender; the same effect is produced 
when the meat is suspended among the branches of the trees ; it first 
becomes tender, and then passes into a state of putridity. Vauquelin 
says that a sample of the juice which he examined had the taste and 
smell of boiled beef; the leaves are used by the negroes to wash linen 
instead of soap, and the fruit is eaten as a vegetable. (L.) 



Order 70.— PASSIFLORE^, (De Cand. iii. 312.) 

Sepals 5—10, coherent into a tube, free at the apex, in 1 — 2 rows, the outer lobes 
large, foliaceous, the inner ones alternate with the former, more petaloid in appearance, 
sometimes wanting, fauces naked or adorned Avith coloured filamentous or membraneous 
appendages, in one or many rows, and the lower part often closed by an operculum ; 
petals none (in Passiflora) ; stamens five ; filaments opposite the external lobes of the 
calyx, monadelphous, the tube sheathing the stalks of the ovary; anthers versatile, 
appearing extrorse, but in reality introrse ; ^orz(s elongated into a long cylindrical stalk; 
ovary free, ovate ; style none, or short ; stigmas three, thick, sub-bilobed at the apex ; 
fruit naked, or surrounded by the calyx, supported on the stipitate torus, three-valved, 
one-celled ; valves either dry and dehiscent, or fieshy, coherent, indehiscent, having a 
longitudinal placenta in the middle; seeds attached to the placenta in many rows, 
covered with a large and often pulpy arillus, compressed, generally furrowed. Herbaceous 
plants, or shrubs, usually climbing, seldom erect ; with alternate stipulate leaves, and 
axillary or terminal flowers. 

Passiflora. (De Cand. iii. 322.) 

**Passiflora ccerulea. (Linn.) (Bot. Mag. 28.) Common blue 
passion Jioiver . 

Calyx green and rose-coloured, corolla in circles of red, white, and 
blue. August, September. Shrub. Brazils and Peru. 

Passiflora incarnata. (Linn.) Red passion-jiower. Virginia. 
South America. 

Passiflora normalis. (Linn.) Wild passion-flower. South 
America. 

Koots sudorific. 

Passiflora contrayerva. (Smith.) i Mexico. 

Said to be alexipharmic and carminative. 

Passiflora fcetida. (Cav.) Passiflora variegata. (Mill.) P, 
Idrsuta. (Lodd.) West Indies. 

Esteemed an emmenagogue ; thought to be serviceable in hysteria ; 
the infusion of the flowers is also taken as a pectoral in the West 
Indies. (L.) 

Passiflora LAURiFOLiA. (Linn.) Sweet Calihash. South America . 
Passiflora maliformis. (Linn.) Water lemon. 
Fruit esculent. 



310 VEGETABLES.— PORTULACEvE. 

Passiflora quadrangularis. (Linn.) Granadilla. 

Root emetic; powerfully narcotic, said to be cultivated in several 
French settlements for the sake of its root ; said to owe its activity to 
a particular principle called Passiflorine ; the fruit, called Granadilla, 
is a common article in a Brazilian dessert. (L.) 

Murucuja. (De Cand. iii. 333.) 

MuRUCUJA ocELLATA. (Pers.) Passiflora murucuja. (Linn.) BulVs 
hoof, Dutclimaiib s laudanum. West Indies. 

Herb made into a syrup, or flowers infused in rum, narcotic ; used 
for laudanum. 

Order 71.— PORTULACE^. (De Cand. iii. 351.) 

Sepals two, seldom three or five, cohering by the bnse ; petals generally five, some- 
times 3 — 4 — 6, rarely none, either entirely free, or connected at the base into a short 
tube, and when equal in number alternate with the sepals ; stamens inserted along with 
the petals either into the base of the calyx, or perhaps on the torus, variable in number 
even in the same species ; all fertil^; filaments free among themselves, but connected 
to the petals, to which they are also opposite; anthers versatile, two-celled, opening by 
;i double chink ; ovary superior, one-celled ; style one, (sometimes wanting,) filiform ; 
stigmas several, much divided ; capsule one-celled, dehiscing either transversely or by 
three valves, from apex to base, rarely indehiscent, one-seeded ; seeds numerous, affixed 
to a central placenta ; albumen farinaceous ; embryo surrounding the albumen, with a 
long cylindrical radicle. Succulent herbs, or shrubs; leaves alternate, seldom oppo- 
site, entire, exstipulate, or with membraneous ones; flowers axillary or terminal, usually 
ephemeral, expanding only in bright sunshine. 

Calandrinia. (De Cand. iii. 358.) 

Calandrtnia umbellata. (D. C.) Talinum umbellatum. (Ruiz, 
et Pav.) Chili. 

Flowers used as a cosmetic. 

Claytonia. (De Cand, iii. 360.) 

Ci.AYTONiA PERFOLiATA. (DouD.) C cubensis. (Bonpl.) West 
Indies, America. 

Used both as a salad and potherb. 

PoRTULACA. (De Cand. iii. 353.) 

PoRTULACA OLERACEA. (Linn.) Poftulaca, Purslane. Europe, 
India, America. 

Used as a potherb, cooling, useful in scurvy, heat of urine, and 
bilious disorders ; seeds vermifuge. 

PoRTULACA PiLOSA. Jamaica purslajie. West Indies. 

In salads diuretic, as also its expressed juice. 

PoRTULACA QUADRiFiDA. (Linn.) P. UnifoUa. (Forsk.) India. 

The bruised fresh leaves are prescribed as an external application in 
erysipelas, and an infusion given in dysuria. (O'Sh.) 



Order 72.— PARONYCHIE^. (De Cand. iii. 365.) 

Calyx of five (rarely 3 — 4) sepals, more or less concreted together, hence the calyx 
is five-partite, five-cleft, or five-toothed; petals small, squamiform, a])pearing like 
sterile stamens, generally as many as the sepals, and inserted into the tube of the calj-x, 
exactly opposite the lobes, even in the apetalous geneia, equal in number to the sepals, 
or by abortion iewer; filaments distinct; anthers two-celled; ovary free; styles two 
or three ; distinct^ or more or less united ; fruit dry, small, generally membraneous, 



VEGETABLES.— PABONYCHiE^. 311 

sometimes v/ithout valves, indehiscent., sometimes three-valved ; seeds numerous, affixed 
to a central placenta, or solitary, suspended bv a long cord which arises from the 
bottom of the cell; albumen iarinaceous; embryo cylindrical, lateral, curved, or sur- 
rounding- the albumen ; radicle turned towards the hilum. Branched Jierbs, or shrubs, 
with leaves generally opposite, with or without scariose stipules; Jiowers sessile, 
small, entire. 

AcHYRANTHES. (Endl. Gcti. PI. 303.) 
AcHYRANTHES EANATA. (Linii.) Illecebrimi lanatum. Bengal. 
Root demulcent, jDrescribed in strangury. (O'Sh.) 

CoRRiGioLA. (De Cand. iii. 366.) 
*CoRuiGiOLA LiTTORALis. (Linn.) (E. B. 668.) Sand strapworL 
Fl. whitish. July, August. Annual. Coast of Devon and Cornwall. 
Herb coolino;'. 

Herniaria. (De Cand, iii. 367.) 

^Herniaria GLABRA. (Linn.) (E. B. 206.) Herniaria alpestris. 
(Aiibry.) H.fruticosa. (Govan.) Glabrous rupture-wort. 

FI. green. June, Aug-ust. Perennial. Rare. Lizard Point, 
Newmarket. 

Rather saltish, astringent, diuretic ; juice removes specks in the eye. 

iLiiECEBRUM. (Ds Cand. iii. 369.) 

*Illecebrum: verticillatum. (Linn.) (E. B. 895.) Whorled 
knot grass. 

Fl. white. July. Perennial. Marshy ground, Devon and Cornwall. 
Refrigerant and astringent. 

PoLYCARroN. (De Cand. iii. 376.) 

'^POLYCARPONTETRAPHYLLUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 1031.) MollugO 

tetraphijlla. (Linn.) Arenaria, Four-leaved allseed^ Sea chickweed. 
Fl. greenish. May, September. Annual. Southern coasts. 
Herb applied to whitlows. 

ScLERANTHus. (De Cand. iii. 378.) 

*ScEERANTHUS ANNUUS- (Linn.) (E. B. 351.) Knavel annuumt 
(Scop.) Annual knawel, German knot grass. 

Fl. greenish. July. Annual. Corn-fields. 

Diuretic, astringent, the vapour arising from a decoction of it is 
used in the tootliache. 

*ScEERANTHUS PERENNis. (Linn.) (E. B. 352). Perennial 
knawel. 

Fl. greenish. August, October. Perennial. Dry sandy places. 

Coccus polonicus is found upon its roots. 

Trianthema (De Cand. iii. 351.) 

Trianthema decandra. (Linn.) Zaleya decandra. (Burm.) 
Lidia. 

Root aperient. (O'Sh.) 

Trianthema obcordata. 

Root cathartic, given in powder to the extent of two tea-spoonsful 
twice daily, with a little ginger. (O'Sh.) 



3 1 2 VEGETABLES.— CRAssuLACE^. 

Order 73.— CRASSULACEiE. (De Cand. iii. 381.) 

Cah/x consisting of many sepals, 3 — 20, more or less, concreted at the base, and 
thei'efore multipartite ; jwtals equal in number to the sepals, alternate with theni, and 
inserted into the base of the calyx, either tree or concreted into a gamopetalous corolla, 
stamens inserted with the petals, either equal in number to, and alternate with, them, 
or double their number, those alternate with the petals longer and earlier, those opposite 
the petals shorter and later in arriving at perfection ; filaments free, subulate ; anthers 
oval, two-celled, dehiscing by a double chink ; nectariferous sqnamce at the base of the 
carpels solitary ; carpels as many as the petals, and opposite to them, verticillated about 
an ideal axis, free, one-celled, dehiscing by a longitudinal chink at the inner angle ; seeds 
fixed in a double row to the inner angle of the carpel ; athnmen ihxn, fleshy; embrt/o 
straio-ht ; radicle directed to the hilum. Succulent hc?'bs, or shrubs, with entire or 
pinnatifid leaves, without stipules; flowers usually in cymes, sessile, often arranged 
unilaterally along the divisions of the cymes. 

The thick juicy leaves are used outwardly as cooling and astringent 
applications ; many of them contain malate of lime. 

SedUxM. (De Cand. iii. 401.) 

*Sedum ACRE. (Linn.) (E. B. 839.) Illecehra,Sedum minimum, 
Stone-crop, Wall pepper. 

FI. yellow. June. Perennial. Walls, rocks, and sandy ground. 

Emetic, cathartic, detersive, used in cancers and scrofula ; aiitiscor- 
butic ; externally rubefacient. (G.) Leaves acrid. This plant has 
been recommended in cancerous cases, and also in epilepsy. (L.) 

*Sedum album. (Linn.) (E. B. 1578.) Sediim mimis, Lesser 
house-leek, Prick madam, White stone-crop. 

Fl. white. July. Perennial. Rocks in Somersetshire, 

Cooling and astringent ; used in salads. 

Sedum Anacampseros, (Linn.) Evergreen lesser house-leek. 
South of France, &c. 

Cedum cep/ea, (Linn.) Annual white house-leek. South of 
Europe. 

Equally cooling, astringent, and diuretic, 

*Sedum Rhodiola. (D. C.) (E. B. 508.) Rhodiola rosea, 
(Linn.) Sedum roseum, (Scop.) Rhodiola odorata, (Lamb.) 
Mhodia radix. Rose root, Rose jvort, 

Fl. yellow. June. Perennial. Wet rocks on high mountains. 

Root cephalic, astringent, 

*Sedum Telephium. (Linn.) (E. B. 1319.) Crassula, Faharia 
telephium, Livelong ojpine, 

Fl. purple. July. Perennial, Borders of fields and stony hedges. 

Astringent, easing pain in fresh wounds or in old ulcers, eaten as a 
potherb, leaves a slight but disagreeable irritation in the throat. (G.) 
Refrigerant, and slightly astringent ; leaves boiled in milk are recom- 
mended in diarrhoea. (L.) 

Sempervivum. (De Cand, iii. 411.) 

*Sempervivum tectorum. (Linn.) (E. B. 1320,) Sedimi 
mojus, (C, Eauh,) Sempervivum, Common great house-leek^ 
Fl, red. July. Perennial. Housetops, and on walls. 
Cooling, astringent, used externally to corns, (G.) The leaves are 



VEGETABLES.— FicoiDE.^. 31 3 

cooling when applied externally and frequently renewed ; they possess, 
moreover, an astringent property, which is rather salutary in many 
cases; the dispensatory describes a beautiful, white, highly volatile 
coagulum, formed of the filtrated juice of these leaves with an equal 
quantity of spirits of wine. (L, ex Smith.) 

Umbilicus. (De Cand. iii. 399.) 

^Umbilicus pendulinus. (D. C.) (E. B. 322.) Cotyledon um- 
bilicus. (Linn.) Umbilicus veneris. (Blackw.) Navel-wort, Wall 
penny-iuort, Kidney -lo or t., has been recommended by Dr. Salter, and 
others, as a remedy for epilepsy. Used also for curing corns and warts. 

Fl. yellowish green. June, August. Perennial. Rocks and walls. 

Refreshing, detersive, cooling, very diuretic, useful in inflammations 
of the skin. 

Cotyledon orbiculata. Cape of Good Hope. 

The fresh juice is of service in epilepsy. The leaves form an 
excellent application to hard corns. (Dr. Papper.) 



Order 74.— FICOIDE^. (De Cand. iii. 415.) 

Sepals definite, varying from 4 — 8, usually five, more or less combined at the base; 
either distinct from the ovary, or adherent to it, equal or unequal, with a quincuncial 
or valvate aestivation ; petals sometimes wanting when the calyx is petaloid within, or 
numerous, inserted into the calyx, in many .rows, opening beneath bright sunshine; 
stamens arising from the calyx, indefinite, free ; anthers oblong, incumbent ; ovary 
free or adnate to the calyx, many-celled ; stigmas numerous ; capsule either naked or 
surrounded by the fleshy calyx, many or five-celled, opening in a stellate manner at 
the apex ; seeds numei"ous, very rarely solitaiy, fixed to the inner angle of the cells ; 
embryo straight, curved, or spiral. Shrubby or herbaceous plants, with succulent, 
opposite, simple leaves ; and usually terminal jloicers. 

Mesembryanthemum. (De Cand. iii. 415.) 

Mesembryanthemum Copticum. (Linn.) Egypt. 

Burned for barilla. 

Mesembryai^jthemum crystallinum. (Linn.) Ice plant. Cape 
of Good Hope. 

Contains acetate of potash : like the other species of this genus, it is 
very mucilaginous, and useful in inflammatory and bilious fevers. 

Mesembryanthemum eduee. (Linn.) Cape of Good Hope. 
Esculent. 

Mesembryanthemum nodifeorum. (Linn.) Egypt. 

Used in the preparation of morocco leather, and burned for barilla. 

Reaumuria. (De Cand. iii. 456.) 
Reaumuria vermicueata. (Linn.) Sicily, Barbary, Egypt. 
Exudes common salt mixed with saltpetre. 

Sesuvium. (De Cand. iii. 453.) 
Sesuvium portueacastrum. (Linn.) Aizoon Canariense. (Andr.) 
Mexico, Senegal, &c. 
Used as a potherb. 



314 VEGETABLES.— GROssuLARiE.i^. 

Tetragoxia. (De Cand. iii. 451.) 
Tetragonia expansa. (Ait.) Dimedovia tetragonoides. (Pall.) 

New Zealand, Japan. 

Antiscorbutic, cooling, used as a potherb. 



Order 75.— CACTEiE. (De Cand. iii. 457.) 

Calyx consistincf of numerous sepals, usually indefinite in number, and confounded 
■with the petals, either crowning the ovary, or covering its whole surface ; petals nu- 
merous, usually indefinite, arising from the orifice of the calyx, sometimes irregular; 
■statnens numerous, indefinite, more or less cohering with the petals aiid sepals ; Jilanients 
long, filiform; anthers ovate, versatile, bilocular; oua/v/ obovate, fleshy, one-celled, with 
many ovules arranged upon a series of parietal placentas, equal in number to the lobes of 
the stigma ; style filiform; stigmas numerous, in some aggregate, in others spreading; 
fruit succulent, one-celled, many-seeded, either smooth, or covered with scales, scars, or 
tubercles ; seeds at first parietal, when ripe, having lost their adhesion, nestling in the 
pulp of the fruit, ovate or obovate, without albumen ; embryo either straight, curved, or 
spiral, with a short thick radicle ; cotyledons flat, thick, foliaceous, sometimes almost 
obsolete in the leafless species. iSucculent shrubs varying greatly in form ; stems usually 
angudar, two-edged or foliaceous ; leaves almost always wanting, when present fleshy, 
smooth and entire, or spine-like ; Jioicers either showy or minute, usually lasting only one 
day or night, always sessile. 

Opuntia. (De Cand. iii. 471.) 

Opuntia cochinielifera. (Mill.) Cactus cochinillifera. (Linn.) 
Warm parts of Aniercia. 

Tiie food of the grana fina cochineal. 

Opuntia ficus indica. (Haw.) Cactus Jicus indlca. (Linn.) 
South America. 

The food of the grana sjdvestria. 

Opuntia vulgaris. (Mill.) Cactus opuntia. (Linn.) Indian fig ^ 
Priclily pear. Southern parts of North America. 

Fruit sweetish, diuretic ; j)l:ints very cooling ; Juice contains a red 
colouring principle, which colours the urine of those that eat the fruit. 



Order 76.— GROSSULAKIE^.. (De Cand. iii. 477.) 

Limb of the calyx superior, 4 — 5 partite, regular, coloured ; petals 5 — 4, inserted into 
the throat of the calyx, alternating with its segments, equal ; stamens 4 — o, very rarely 
6, inserted between the petals on tbe calyx, all of equal size ; jilamcnts conical, or cylin- 
drical, free ; anthers two-celled, dehiscing longitudinally and internally, (in some varieties 
of Kibes rubrum traRsversely and laterally;) ovary one-ceWiid, placc7ita3 two, opposite, 
parietal; ovules abundant; style one, 2— 3 — 4 cleft ; fruit succulent, subglobose, one- 
celled, crowned with the persistent calyx ; seeds numerous, susj)ended by long filiform 
cords; outer integuments gelatinous or membranaceous, inner one a thin membrane 
closely adherent to the all)umen ; albumen horny; embryo minute, straight, placed in the 
narrow extremity of the seed ; radicle obtuse. Prickly or unarmed s/irw^s, with alternate, 
lobed, and incised leaves. 

Fruit eatable, acidulous and cooling. 

RiBEs. (De Cand. iii. 477.) 
RiBES albinervium. (Michx.) Korth America. 



VEGETABLES.— sAxiFE AG ACE.E. 315 

Rises alpinum. (Linn.) (E. B. 704.) Tasteless mountain currant, 
Fl. yellowish. May. Small shrub. Woods, Yorkshire and Scotland. 

Kibes fragrans. (Pall.) Siberia. 

Kibes macrobotrys. (Ruiz, et Pav.) Woods on the Andes. 

Kibes punctatum. (Ruiz, et Pav.) Peru. 

Kibes viscosum. (Ruiz, et Pav.) Chili. 
Fruits eaten. 

*Ribes nigrum. (Linn.) (E. B. 1291.) Ribes olidum. (Monch.) 
Black currants, Quinsy berries. 

Fl. greenish, tipped with purple externally. May. Small shrub. 
Wood and river sides ; also cultivated. 

Odour similar to that of bug-s ; leaves in infusion aperitive, diuretic, 
used in gargles ; young leaves substituted for tea ; fruit aperitive, used 
in calculous affections ; the juice boiled made into wine. (Gr.) Fruit, 
leaves, and wood, tonic and stimulant; a juice prepared from the fruit 
is used in domestic medicine against catarrhs. (L.) 

*RiBEs RUBRUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 1289.) Ribesia, Ribes, Red 
and white currants. 

Fl. greenish. May. Small shrub. Alpine woods in north of Eng- 
land and Scotland. 

There are two varieties cultivated — 
/3. R. hortense, Red currant, 
y, R. album, White currant. 

Red currants, Garnet berries, acid, cooling ; juice of the fruit, with 
sugar, drank as lemonade or orgeat, and made into wine. White cur- 
rants, fruit less acid ; juice made into wine. (G-.) Juice of the fruit 
refrigerant, very grateful to the parched palates of persons suffering 
from fever. (L.) 

RiBEs TRiSTE. (Pall.) Siberia. 

Berry black, used to colour wines. 

*RiBEs UvA CmsPA. (Linn.) Ribes grossularia. Common goose- 
berry. 

Fl. pale purple. April, May. Small shrub. Hedges and thickets. 
A doubtful native. 

Don, in his Syst. Gard. 3, p. 179, enumerates nearly two hundred 
varieties of cultivated gooseberries. 

Berries used as a sauce for mackerel and other fish, astringent, but 
when very ripe laxative ; make wine and vinegar ; seeds, washed and 
roasted, substituted for coffee. 



Order 77.— SAXIFRAGACE^. (De Cand. iv. 1.) 

Sepals generally five, (rarely 3 — 7.) more or less united at the base; tube either more 
•or less adnate to the ovary, or free ; limb toothed or lobed, generally persistent ; petals 
iis many as the sepals, inserted into the tube of the calyx, alternating with its lobes, 
deciduous or persistent, rarely wanting ; stamens inserted on the calyx, either equal in 
number to, and alternate with, the petals, or double their number, half being opposite 
to, and hall alternate with, the, petals ; filament one, subulate ; anthers ovate, bilocular ; 



316 VEGETABLES.— UMBELLiFER^. 

ovary composed generally of two carpels, rarely of 3 or 5, concrete ; styles as many as 
the carpels, therefore generally two, either distinct from the base, or more or less con- 
crete, terminated by a capitate or a clavate stio-ma; fruit two-celled, dehiscing either by 
an opening from the base to the apex, or by one between the styles from the apex to the 
base ; seeds minute, numerous ; albumen fleshy ; embryo small ; radicle short, turned 
towards the hilum ; cotyledons short, ovate. Herbs or shrubs. 

Chrysosplenium. (De Cand. iv. 48.) 

*Chrysosplenium alternifolium. (Linn.) (E. B. 54.) Saxi- 
f'raga aurea, golden saxifrage. 

Fl. jellow. March, April. Perennial. Moist places among rocks, 
in north of England. 

*Chrysosplenium oppositifolium. (Linn.) (E. B. 490.) Common 
golden saxifrage. 

Fl. yellow. May, June. Perennial. Sides of rivulets and springs. 

Aperitive, diuretic, anti-asthmatic, and pectoral. 

Heuchera. (De Cand. iii. 5L) 

Heuchera Americana. (Linn.) Heuchera viscida. (Pursh.) H. 
cortusa. (Michx.) American Sanicle. North America. 

Root, Alum root^ Heuchera, P. U. S., astringent ; used externally 
in cancer. (G.) Root a powerful astringent. (L.) 

Saxifraga. (De Cand. iv. 17.) 
vSaxifraga Cotyledon. (Linn.) Narrow-leaved saxifrage. North 
Europe. 

*Saxifraga Geum. (Willd.) (E. B. 1561.) Kidney-shaped saxi- 
frage. 

Fl. cream-coloured, spotless. June. Perennial. Ireland. 

*Saxifragagranulata. (E. B. 500.) S. alba. White meadow 
saxifrage. 

Fl. wliite, large. May, June. Perennial. Hedgebanks, &c. 

*Saxifraga tridactylites. (Linn.) (E. B. 501.) Paronychia, 
Rue-leaved whitlow grass, Three-leaved saxifrage, 

Fl. white. May, June. Annual. On walls, common. 

These, and most others of this genus, are aperitive, diuretic, useful 
in jaundice, obstructions, and scrofula. (G.) 

Weinmannia. (De Cand. iv. 8.) 

Weinmannia. Red tan. 

Bark astringent, frequently mixed with that of the Loxa tree, or 
Peruvian bark. (G.) Used in Peru for tanning leather. (L.) 



Order 78.— UMBELLIFER^. (De Cand. iv. 55.) 

Calyx superior, adherent to the ovary, either entire, five-toothed, or obsolete ; petals 
five, inserted on the top of the tube of the calyx, alternate with its lobes, sometimes 
entire, sometimes emarginate or bifid, usually inflexed at the point, involute, imbricate, 
rarely valvate in a'stivation ; stamens five, alternate with the petals, and inserted with 
them on the calyx ; replicate in lestivation ; anthers ovate, bilocular ; ovary inferior, 
two-celled ; styles two, generally persistent, thickened more or less at the base into a 
fleshy disk or stylopodia; fruit (called a diakenium or cremocarp) consisting of two 



r^^GET ABLES.— UMBELLIF ER.E. 317 

mericarps' or carpels, separable from a common axis to which they adhere by their face 
(the commissure), each carpel traversed by five nerves or ridges,\vhich are called pri- 
mary, and occasionally with four alternate ridges, which are named secondaiy, the ridges 
are separated by interstices or channels, beneath which are often situated, in the substance 
of the pericarp, longitudinal canals or vittas, containing a gummy, resinous, aromatic 
juice ; seed solitary in the carpel, pendulous, usually adhering firmly to the pericarp ; 
albumen large, fleshy, somewhat horny : embryo pendulous at the base of the albumen ; 
radicle superior. Herbaceous plants, with fistular furrowed stems ; leaves usually divided, 
sometimes simple, sheathing at the base ; flowers in umbels, white, pink, yellow^ or, blue, 
generally surrounded by an involucre. 

^GOi'ODiuM. (De Cand. iv. 114.) 
*JSgopodium Podagraria. (Linn.) (E. B. 940.) Trayoseli- 
num Angelica. (Lamb.) Pimpinella a?igeliccefolia. (Lamb.) Li- 
gusticum podagraria. (Crantz.) Seseli JEgopodium. (Scop.) Po- 
dagraria j^gopodium. (Mbnch.) Sison podagraria. (Spreng.) 
Ash iceed, Gout wort, Herb gerande. 

Fi. white, with p irple anthers. May, June. Perennial. Gardens 
and wet places. 

Koots and herbs used in the g-out ; young" leaves used in salads. 

JEthusa. (De Cand. iv. 141.) 

*-^THusA Cfnapium. (Linn.) (E. B. 1192.) Coriandrum Cij- 
napium. (Crantz.) Cicuta cynapium. (Targ.) Cicutaria fatua, 
FooV s parsley , Lesser hemlock. 

Fl. white. June, August. Annual. Cultivated ground, very 
common. 

Poisonous, liable to be mistaken for parsley, but is inodorous and 
insipid. (G.) The leaves are poisonous, producing nausea, vomiting, 
headache, giddiness, drowsiness, spasmodic pain, numbness, &c. ; they 
are dark in colour, and nauseous in smell, which ought to prevent the 
mistaking of this plant for common parsley. (L.) 

Ammi. (De Cand. iv. 112.) 

Ammi ma jus. (Linn.) A. vulgare, Common bishop's weed. Mid- 
dle and south of Europe. 

Fruit sold for that of Ammi verum. 

Ammi Visnaga. (Lamb.) Daucus silvestris, D. visnaga. (Linn.) 
Visnaga daucoides. (Gaertn.) Wild carrot. South of Europe. 
Fruit diuretic, antipleuritic ; rays of the umbel Spanish toothpicks. 

Anethum. (De Cand. iv. 185.) 

Anethum graveolens. (Linn.) Anethum minus. (Gouan.) PaS' 
tinaca Anethum. (Spreng.) Selinum Anethum. (Koth.j Anethum^ 
Dill. South of Europe. 

Fruit discussive, galactopoietic, stopping vomiting and the hiccough ; 
leaves ripen tumours. (G.) Fruit carminative and stimulant, taken 
with tlie food may be regarded as condimentary ; it is used in the colic 
of children to relieve hiccough ; it has also been supposed to promote 
the secretion of milk ; Aqua anethi is chiefly employed ; the fruit also 
yields by distillation a volatile oil. (L.) 

Anethum segetum. (L.) Fceniculum dulce, Sweet fennel. 
South of Europe. 



318 VEGETABLES.— uMBELLiFERA. 

Blanched stem used as a potherb ; fruit carminative, used in soups ; 
imported from Italy. (G.) See Fceniculum. 

Anethum Sowa. (Roxb.) Womum. East Indies. 

Fruit carminative. (G.) Fruit aromatic and carminative ; used in 
the curries of the East Indies. (L.) 

Angelica. (De Cand. iv. 167.) 

Angelica atrofurfurea. (Linn.) American Angelica, Angelica, 
P. U. S. North America. Cordial, aphrodisiac. 

Angelica nemorosa. Naples. 

Root acrid, used as a remedy for the itch. (O'Sh.) 

* Angelica sylvestris. (Linn.) (E. B. 1128.) Selinum syl- 
vesfre. (Crantz.) Sel. angelica. (Roth.) jSel. pubesce?is. (Monch.) 
Wild Angelica. 

Fl. Avhite. July. Perennial. Maist places in woods and near rivulets. 

Cordial, aphrodisiac. 

Anthriscus. (De Cand. iv. 222.) 

*Anthriscus Cerefolium. (HofFm.) (E. B. 1268.) Chcero- 
phyUiim sativum. (Lamb.) Scandix cerefolium. (Linn.) Garden 
chervil. 

Fl. white. July. Annual. About gardens. 

A common potherb, with eatable roots. (L.) Very resolving-, 
diuretic, lithontriptic. (G.) 

Anthriscus cicutaria. (Duby.) Cheer opliyllum cicutaria. (Vill.) 
Hemlock chervil. The Alps. 

Roots j)oisonous as well as the leaves. 

*Anthriscus sylvestris. (Hotfm.) (E. B. 752.) Chcerophyllum 
sylvestre. (Linn.) Cicutaria, vulgaris, Coio-weed, Wild cicily. 

Fl. white. April, June. Perennial. Hedges, &c. ; very common. 

Strong- smelling, acrid, diuretic, dyes woollen yellow and green. 
(G.) Recommended by Osbeck, in 1811, in the form of an extract in 
syphilitic complaints. Reputed to be similar in its effects to hemlock, 
only rather less narcotic. (L.) 

'••Anthriscus vulgaris. (Pers.) (E. B. 818.) Scandix anthriscus, 
Common heahed parsley , Rough chervil. 

Fl. white. May, June. Annual. Waste places, common. 

Deleterious. Some Dutch soldiers, who gathered it by mistake for 
common chervil, were poisoned by the soup into which it was put. 
(L. ex Burnett.) 

Apium. (De Cand. iv. 100.) 

^Apium graved lens. (Linn.) Seseli graveolens. (Scop.) Slum 
Apium. (Rotli.) Sium graveolens. (Vest.) Apium. Eleoselinum, 
Celery, Smallage. 

Fl. greenisli-white. August, September. Perennial. Marshy 
places, especially near the sea. 

Root opening, diuretic, used in jaundice and the gravel; fruit more 
active; blanched stalks eaten in salads. (G.) When wild, growing 
in w^et meadows and in ditches, it is acrid and poisonous ; when culti- 



VEGETABLES.— UMBELLIFER.E. 319 

vated in dry ground, and partially blanched, it is the celery well 
known as a salad. (L.) 

AscH ANGELICA. (Do Cand. iv. 169.) 
*Arciiangelica OFFICINALIS. (HofFm.) (E. B. 2561.) Angelica 
Archangelica. (Linn.) Garden angelica. 

Fl. white. June, September. Biennial. Banks of Thames. 
Root stomachic, carminative, aperitive, diaphoretic, useful in typhus 
fever ; fruit aromatic. (G.) Root fragrant, bitterish, pungent, sweet 
when first tasted, but leaving a glowing heat in the mouth ; the 
Laplanders extol it not only as food, but as medicine. In coughs, 
hoarseness, and other pectoral disorders, they eat the stalks roasted in 
hot ashes ; they also boil the tender flowers in milk, till it attains the 
consistence of an extract, which they use to promote perspiration in 
catarrhal fevers, and to strengthen the stomach and bowels in diarrhoea. 
The leaves, seeds, and root, are certainly good aromatic tonics. (L. 
ex S. & C.) Candied angelica, Caules angelicce conditi ; the fresh 
stalks are boiled in water to take away the bitterness and some of the 
strong scent, then put into syrup, boiled to a candy height, taken out 
and dried ; cordial, aphrodisiac. (G.) 

Arctopus. (De Cand. iv. 236.) 

Arctopus echinatus. (Linn.) Plaidoorn, or Ziekte-troGst of 
the Boers. South Africa. 

The root (Radix arctopi echinati) is used in South Africa as a 
substitute for sarsaparilla. It has been imported into this country in 
irregular pieces, formed by cutting the root transversely, and presenting 
somewhat tlie appearance of small and much-discoloured Calumba root. 
It has a weak bitter, somewhat acrid taste, causing a sliglit flow of 
saliva, and is almost devoid of odour. It is demulcent and diuretic, 
and is administered as decoction in lues, lepra, and for chronic eruptions, 
of all kinds. 

Artedia. (De Cand. iv. 208.) 

Artedia squamata. (Linn.) Gingidium, Oriental picktooth. 
Leaves diuretic, stomachic, used as a potherb, or eaten raw ; rays of 
the umbel used as toothpicks. 

AsTRANTiA. (De Cand. iv. 86.) 
AsTRANTiA MAJOR. (Linn.) JBlacli mastor-wort. 
Roots acrid and purgative. (L.) 

AsTRANTIA MINOR. (Limi.) 

Roots of this and of the former used in scirrhus of the spleen and 
mania. (G.) 

Athamanta. (De Cand. iv. 154.) 

Athamanta Cretensis. (Linn.) Daucus crelicus. Middle and 
south of Europe. 

The fruits are aromatic, with a warm, agreeable flavour, and a smell 
like that of marjoram ; they were used in the preparation of Diapiiosnix, 
Venice treacle, and compound syrup of wormwood. (^iSemina dauci 
cretici, officin.) (L.) Fruit odorous, carminative, diuretic, anti- 
hysteric, and nervine. (G.) 



320 VEGETABLES.— UMBELLiFER.^. 

Athamanta Matthioli. (Wulf.) Seseli, Turhith ? Alps of 
Carinthia and Carniola. 

Roots acrid, and purge upwards and downwards very violently. 

BuBON. (De Cand. iv. 184.) 

BuBON Galbanum. (Linn.) Selinum Galhanum. (Spreng.) 
Agasillis Galbanum. (Spreng.) Cape of* Good Hope. 

Yields Galbanum. (G.) Valde dubium ex hac stirpe Galbanum 
hauriri. (De Cand.) Vide Galbanum. 

BuPLEURUM. (De Cand. iv. 127.) 

BuPiiEURUM FRUTicosuM. (Linn.) Seseli cethiopicum, Shrubby 
hartioort. South of Europe. 

Fruit carminative, very acrid and odorous. 

BuPEEURUM PERFOLiATUM. PerfoUata, Tliorougliwax. 

Vulnerary ; used externally in tumours. 

*BuPLEURUM ROTUNDiFOLiuM. (Liuu.) (E. B. 99.) AuHcula 
leporis, Comtuon hares ear, Thorougltwax. 

ri. yellow. July. Annual. Corn-fields on chalky soil. 

This, and other species of the same genus, are aperitive, discussive, 
and diuretic. 

Cachrys. (De Cand. iv. 236.) 

Cachrys Libanotis. (Linn.) Sicily, north of Africa. 

Root very heating and detersive ; used externally in piles. 

Cachrys odontalgica. (Pall.) Siberia, the Crimea, &c. 

Used in toothache. (G). The root excites salivation, and is said 
to cure pain in the teeth. (L.) 

Carum. (De Cand. iv. 114.) 

Carum Bulbocastanum. (Roch.) Bunium Bulbocastanum, 
(Linn.) Siam Bulbocastanum. (Spreng.) Bunium minus. (Gow.) 
Scandix Bulbocastanum. (Monch.) Various parts of Europe. 

Tuber, Earth nut, Kipper nut, Pig nut, Haugh nut, very nourish- 
ing, stimulant, useful in bloody urine, and spitting of blood. (G.) 

*Carum carui. (Linn.) (E. B. 1503.) Carvi carum, Caraway. 

Fl. white. June. Perennial. Meadows and pastures. 

Fruit, Caraway seeds, Carui semina, stomachic, carminative ; root 
sweet, nourishing, and better eating than parsnips. (G.) Similar in 
action to dill and anise ; used in the flatulent colic of children ; the 
fruit or the oil obtained from it enters as an adjuvant or corrective 
into various officinal preparations, as the confection of opium, of rue, 
and of scammony, the compound tincture of cardamoms and of senna. 
(L. ex Pereira.) 

Carum nigrum. (L. Med. Bot. 38.) 

Called Zeera seeah, is imported from Kunawur into India as a car- 
minative. (L. ex Royle.) 

Caucalis. (De Cand. iv. 216.) 
*Caucaeis daucoides. (Linn.) (E. B. 197.) Conium Royeni. 
(Linn.) Caucalis leptophyUa. (Lamb.) Baucusleptophyllus. (Scop.) 
Fine-leaved bastard parsley, Small bur parsley. 



VEGETABLES.-— uMBELLiFER^. 321 

Fl. white, tipped with red. June. Annual. Corn-fields on a 
chalky soil. 
Diuretic. 

Caucalis I.EPTOPHYLLA. (Linn.) C. humulis. (Jacq.) C. parvi- 
flora. (Lamb.) Middle and south of Europe. 
The same. 

Ch^rophyli-um. (De Cand. iv. 224.) 

*Ch-^iiophyi.lum AROMATicuM. (Jacq.) (E. B. 2636.) Broad- 
leaved chervil, Musk chervil. 

Fl. white. June. Perennial. Near Forfar, Scotland. 
Very resolving, diuretic, lithontriptic. 

CicuTA. (De Cand, iv. 99.) 
CicuTA MACULATA. (Linn.) Snake-imed. United States. 
A most dangerous poison resides in the roots ; a drachm of the fresh 
root has killed a boy in an hour and a half, and in America, fatal acci- 
dents, arising from its being mistaken for other apiaceous plants, are not 
uncommon ; has been used as a substitute for conium, with similar 
eifect, except that it is more energetic. (L.) 

*CicuTA vmosA. (Linn.) (E. B. 479.) Cicutaria aquatica. 
(Lamb.) Coriandrum cicuta. (Roth.) Slum cicuta. (Vest.) Sium 
cruccefolia, Coiu-bean, Long-leaved water parsnip, Water hemlock. 

Fl. white. July, August. Perennial. Margin of watery places, 
not common. 

Acrid, poisonous, especially the roots ; emetic, and acts upon the 
nervous system ; used externally, powerfully resolvent, anodyne, and 
used in scrofulous and scirrhous tumours, and in inflammation of the 
penis; juices yellow, poisonous. (G.) A dangerous poison, pro- 
ducing effects similar to those of hydrocyanic acid ; it appears to cause 
true tetanic convulsions in frequent paroxysms, and death on the third 
day. (Christison.) Haller considered it as the conium of the Greeks ; 
it appears to be fatal to cattle. (L.) 

Conium. (De Cand. iv. 242.) 

* Conium MAcuiiATUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 1191.) Cicuta maculata. 
(Lamb.) C. major. (Lamb.) Coriandrum cicuta. (Crantz.) Corian- 
drum maculatum. (Roth.) Cicuta, kiovelov (Dioscorid.) Common 
hemlock. 

Fl. white. June, July. Biennial. "Waste places, very common. 

Very poisonous in warm countries, but less active in cold ones, 
powerfully narcotic ; used in many obstinate disorders, as scirrhous 
cancer, chronic rheumatism, ill-conditioned ulcers, and glandular 
tumours ; dose of the dried leaves, Cicutce folia, Conii folia, in powder 
gr. j., gradually increased to 3j., every four hours, to be exhibited 
with caution, especially when a fresh parcel of the powder is used. 
(G.) A powerfully narcotic acrid plant, occasioning stupor, delirium, 
palsy, and asphyxia ; some authors state that it produces death with 
the most dreadful convulsions, but this is at variance with the accounts 
of Drs. Christison and Pereira. It is recommended in cancerous and 
scrofulous disorders, syphilis, dropsy, epilepsy, as an anodyne, &c. &;c. ; 

Y 



322 VEGETABLES.— UMBELLIFEB^. 

it is said by Aretaeus to be anti-aphrodisiac, by Storck and Bergius to 
be the reverse ; the leaves are the parts usually employed, but the 
preparations from them are frequently inert : this may arise in part 
from the manner of preparing them, or from the time when they have 
been collected. Fothergill long since stated, what is quite comformable 
to theory, that conium was to be obtained in its most active state 
when the flowers are just past, the fruit forming, and the plant inclin- 
ing to yellow, and that the quality of that collected when the herbage 
is strong and succulent is very inferior. {FotliergiW s Works, 266.) 
Drs. Pereira and Christison recommend an alcoholic tincture of the 
bruised ripe fruit, instead of the leaves. (L.) 

CoRiANDRUM. (Dc Caud. iv. 250.) 

*CoRiANDRUM SATIVUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 67.) Coriander. 

Fl. white. June. Annual. About Ipswich and in Essex. 

Herb eaten as a salad too frequently occasions fatuity. (G.) Fruit 

carminative and aromatic ; Cullen considered it as more powerfully 

correcting the odour and taste of senna than any other aromatic. (L.) 

Crithmum. (De Cand. iv. 164.) 

*Crithmum MARiTiMUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 819.) Crithmum, Herha 
sancti Petri, Fceniculum maritimum, Samphire. 

Fl. greenish white. August, September. Perennial. Sea-shore. 
Excites the appetite ; Pickled samphire, used for sauce. 

CuMiNUM. (De Cand. iv. 201.) 

CuMiNUM Cyminum. (Linn,) Cyminum cumin. Cumin. Upper 
Egypt. 

Fruit carminative, as in other plants of the order, but the smell 
disagreeable ; chiefly used in veterinary surgery ; combined with resin 
they make a warm stimulating plaster. (L.) 

Daucus. (De Cand. iv. 209.) 

*Daucus Carota. (Linn.) (E.B.I 174.) D. nostras, D. vidgaris. 
(Neck.) Commo7i carrot. 

Fl. white, with a dark purple abortive floret in the centre. July. 
Biennial. Fields, very common. 

Roots, Dauci radix, saccharine, alimentary ; used externally to carci- 
nomatous and foul ulcers ; a sugar is made from them. (G.) A poul- 
tice for correcting the foetid discharge, allaying the pain, and changing 
the action of ill-conditioned, phagedsenic, sloughing, and cancerous 
ulcers, is prepared from the root ; fruit carminative, but supposed to 
act more particularly on the urinary organs. (L. ex Pereira.) 

Daucus Gingidium. (Linn.) Rocky shores of Corsica. 

Properties same as 

Daucus gummifer. (Lamb.) Sea-coast of Sicily. 

Yields one sort of Opopanax. (G.) The roots yield the Bdellium 
sicidum of the old Pharmacopojias, according to Boccone ; it has a bitter 
balsamic taste, and a weak but unpleasant odour. 

N.B. De Candolle considers the plant thus called by Lamarck the 
same as our British Daucus maritimus, and reduces it as a synonym 



VEGETABLES.— UMBELLiFER^. 323 

to the D. hispanicus of Gouan ; he then refers Boccone's Bdellium 
carrot toD. Gingidium, but Gussone, the greatest of all authorities con- 
cerning Sicilian plants, retains D. gummifer as a distinct species. (L.) 

DoREMA. (Don in Linn. Trans, xvi. 601.) 
DoREMA AMMONIACUM. Persia. 

Stem and roots yield a great abundance of the foetid gum resin Am- 
7noniacum ; its action is similar to that of assafoetida ; it is chiefly em- 
ployed as a discutient and expectorant. (L.) Also applied externally 
as a warm and stimulating plaster. (O'Sh.) 

Ertngium. (De Cand. iv. 87.) 
Eryngium aquaticum. (Linn.) Button snake-weed. North 
America. 

Root, Eryngium^ P. U. S. 

*Eryngium campestre. (Dod.) (E. B. 718.) Eryngo, Middle 
and south of Europe. 

Fl. blue, or yellowish. July, August. Perennial. Near Plymouth 
and Daventry ; very rare. 

Roots aphrodisiac, diuretic, sudorific, may be used for contrayerva. 
(G.) The root is sweet, aromatic, and tonic; Boerhaave reckons it 
as the first of aperient diuretic roots ; it has been recommended in go- 
norrhoea, suppression of the menses, and visceral obstructions, parti- 
cularly of the gall-bladder and liver ; it has also the credit of being a 
decided aphrodisiac ; a good deal of candied root is sold. (L.) Caridied 
eryngo, Radex eryngii condita ; roots slit, washed in cold water, and 
then put into syrup. (G.) 

Eryngium fcetidum. (Linn.) Stinking weed. America. 
Leaves in infusion anti-hysteric, either internally or in clysters. (G.) 
*Eryngium maritinum. (Linn.) Sea eryngo, or Sea holly. 
Fl. blue. July, August. Perennial. Sea-shore. 
Shoots boiled eaten as asparagus. 

Eryngium TRicuspiDATUM. (Linn.) Tliree-leaved eryngo. South 
of Europe. 

These two have similar properties to E. campestre, but in a less 
degree. 

Ferula. (De Cand. iv. 171.) 

Ferula assafcetida. (Linn.) Assafoetida disgunensis. (Kaempfer.) 
Hingisch, Narthex assafcetida. (Falconer.) Persia. 

Old roots yield assafoetida; young roots roasted and eaten; leaves 
eaten as greens ; some fruits found in Sagapenum produced an unknown 
fecula. (G.) A foetid, alliaceous, gnm resin, is obtained by slicing the 
fleshy perennial roots ; collecting the juice which exudes, and 
exposing it to the sun to harden ; it is acrid, bitter, and antispas- 
modic. This is the most genuine assafoetida plant, which is hardly 
known to modern botanists ; probably the same substance is yielded by 
other species of Ferula; as the Ferula persica. Professor Roy le says 
he obtained two diflerent fruits from the bazaars in India ; see also 
Ferula persica and Ferula hooshee. Dr. Pereira is of opinion that the 
tear and lump Assafoetida of the shops are the produce of different 

Y 2 



324 VEGETABLES.— UMBELUFERiE. 

species. It was formerly considered to yield the Sylphium, or Laser 
of the ancients ; this, however, seems to have been produced by the 
Thapsia sylphion (Viviani). 

Ferula communis. (Linn.) F.femina. (Plinii.) F. nodiflora. 
(Linn.) Ferula,, Fennel giant. South of Europe. 

Fruit carminative ; green pith of the stem used in spitting of blood. 

Ferula Ferulago. (Linn.) Ferula^ F. galbariifera, F. nodifiora. 
(Jacq.) Coasts of the Mediterranean. 

Fruit found in Galbanum produced this plant. (G.) Yields abun- 
dantly a gum-resinous secretion, and was thought to produce Galba- 
num. See Galbanum officinale. (L.) 

Ferula hooshee. (L. Med. Bot. 46.) Beloochistan. 

Resembles F. assafoetida in size and appearance, and has a gum, but 
it is not collected, and resembles the Opopanax of the European shops. 
{Mrs. MacneiVs Letter^ Mar. 1833.) Referred to in Professor Royle's 
Illustrations, p. 231, as resembling Opopanax; not, however, in the 
structure of the fruit, but in the quality of the produce. (L.) 

Ferula orientalis. (Linn.) F. a.mmonifera, Fashook, 'AjifiMviaKoy, 
{the drug,') 'AyacrvWic, (the pla?it,) Dioscorid. Asia Minor, Greece. 

What is supposed to be this plant yields, in the state of Morocco, a 
gum resin similar to Ammoniacum, whence it has been thought to be 
really the origin of that substance, and with good reason, so far as the 
drug of Dioscorides is concerned, for certainly there is no ground 
whatever for regarding Ammoniacum a corruption of Armeniacum, as 
Professor Don supposes ; Dioscorides expressly points to the meaning 
of the word, when he says, yevydrai ci kv Ai/ivr] Kara' Ajifiwva, "It is 
produced in Libya, in the district of Amnion." Mr. Don seems, how- 
ever, to have produced evidence of the Ammoniacum of the shops being 
obtained from a Persian plant. (See Dorema.) (L.) 

Ferula Persica. (Willd.) F. sagapemim. Persia. 

Also said to yield gum ammoniacum. (G.) This plant is said by 
"Willdenow, Sprengel, and Fee, to produce sagapenum, but without 
sufficient evidence ; Michaux sent its fruit from Persia as that of 
assafcetida ; Nees and Ebermaier regard it as one of the plants yielding 
the latter substance, and probably with justice. (L.) 

Ferula Tingitana. (Linn.) Barbary. 

Sprengel considers this as the Silphio?i of the ancients, from which 
the Laser cyreniac7im, or Asa dulccs, was produced ; but Vi^ iani 
asserts that F. Tingitana does not grow in the country of Cyrene, but 
only occurs more to the westward. (See Thapsia.) (L.) 

FcENicuLUM. (De Cand. iv. 142.) 
FcENicuLUM DULCE. (Bauh.) Siveet fennel. Italy, Portugal, &c. 
Considered by the Italians as only a variety of the common fennel ; 

oil of sweet fennel is obtained from the fruit. (L.) ( Vide Anethum 

segetum.) 

FcENicuLUM Panmorium. (D. C) Anethu?7i panmori. East 
Indies. 



VEGETABLES.— uMBELLiFERiE. 325 

Used medicinally in India as a warm aromatic and carminative, in 
flatulent colic and dyspepsia. (L.) 

*FoENicuLUM VUJLGARE. (Gaertn.) (E. B. 1208.) AneiJium 
famculiim. (Linn.) 3Ieum fceniculum, Common fennel, 

Fl. yellow. July, August. Perennial. Chalky cliffs near the sea. 

Fruit aromatic, hot, carminative; roots opening; leaves diuretic; 
used as seasoning to fish. (G.) Oil of wild fennel is obtained from the 
fruit. (L.) 

Galbakum. (Don in Linn. Trans, xvi. 603.) 

Galbanum officinale. Barzud, (Arab.) Biruja (Hindoost.), 
the drug ; Kinneh and Nafid, the plant, according to Royle. Xa\[3a.vr}. 
(Dioscorid.) Syria, according to Dioscorid. 

The gum resin Galbaniim is less powerful than assafoetida, but its 
action is of the same kind, and their uses the same ; the drug comes 
from Smyrna and India. It M'ould appear that the opinion of this 
drug being furnished by Bubon galbanum or Ferula ferulao-o is 
unfounded. (L.) (See Opoidia.) 

Helosciadium. (De Cand. iv. 104.) 
*Helosciadium nodiflorum. (Roch.) (E. B. 639.) Siwn no- 
diflorum. (Linn.) Creeping icater-parsnip^ Procumbent marsh-wort. 
Fl. white. July, August. Perennial. Sides of rivulets, &;c. 
Juice used in cutaneous diseases, dose for children three tea-spoon- 
fuls twice a day, and for adults Jiij. every morning. 

HERACiiEUM. (De Cand. iv. 19L) 
Heracleum gummiferum. 
Yields gum ammoniacum. (G.) 

Heracleum gummiferum. (Wiild. 312.) Supposed to be the 
same as H. pubescens. (De Cand. iv. 193.) Has been erroneously 
supposed to yield opopanax. (L.) 

Heracleum lanatum. (Michx.) Master-wort. North America. 

Root, Heracleum^ P. U. S., emollient. 

Heracleum panaces? (Linn), and some other species are added to 
fermented liquors, and distilled by the northern nations. 

*Heracleum Sphondylium. (Linn.) (E. B. 939.) Sphondylium, 
Cow parsnip, Cow parsley. 

Fl. white, rayed. July. Biennial. Meadows and bushy places. 

Root and leaves emollient ; fruit a specific in hysteric spasms ; juice 
renders the hair of the head curly ; young shoots substituted for aspa- 
ragus ; exudes sugar. (G.) Rind and root acrid, and will ulcerate the 
skin on which they are applied ; inside of the root eaten by the Kam- 
schatdales ; root contains sugar. (L.) 

Hydrocotyle. (De Cand. iv. o9.) 
Hydrocotyle Asiatica. (Linn.) Bevilacqua, Codagen, Pancaga, 

Pes equinum, Tamool of vullarey. 

Moist places of almost all the hot countries of the Eastern hemisphere, 

such as the Malay Islands, India, Ceylon, Central Africa, &c. 

Used externally as a vulnerary, and internally as a diuretic, and 



326 VEGETABLES.— UMBELLIFER^. 

even as food. (Rumphius.) Given in infantile colic and fever, con- 
jointly with fenugrec. (Ainslie.) Given internally as infusions, (half 
an ounce of dried herb to a pint,) and externally as a bath, containing' 
three pounds of fresh herb, for leprosy. (Dr. Boileau.) 

*Hydrocotyle vulgaris. (Linn.) (E. B. 751.) Marsh Penny- 
wort, White rot. 

Fl. often tinged with red. May, June. Perennial. Bogs and marshes. 

Properties the same as those of Eryngium, which see. 

Imperatoria. (De Cand. iv. 183.) 
*Imperatoria Ostruthium. (Linn.) Imperatoria major. (Moris.) 
Selinum Imperatoria. (Crantz.) Peucedanum ostruthium. (Roch.) 
Angelica officinalis. (Bernh.) (E. B. 1380.) Astrantia, Imperatoria, 
Master-wort, 

Fl. white. Doubtful native. Banks of the Clyde. 
Root very restorative after fatigue, formerly chewed by military 
officers and soldiers in forced marches, and other fatiguing duties. (G.) 
Root acrid and bitter, it is used as a masticatory in toothache, and 
many wTiters speak well of it as a febrifuge ; Lango even affirms that 
it has cured agues which had resisted the influence of Peruvian bark. 
(L. ex Burnett.) 

Lagoecia. (De Cand. iv. 233.) 

Lagoecia cuminoides. (Linn.) Cuminum sylvestre, Wild cumin. 
Greece, Persia. 
Fruit carminative. 

Laserpitium. (De Cand. iv. 204.) 
Laserpitium glabrum. (Crantz.) L. latifolium. (Jacq.) Moun- 
tains of Europe. 

The root is gorged with a gum-resinous juice, which is acrid, bitter, 
and even somewhat caustic ; it is reckoned a violent purgative ; the 
French call it Turbith des montagnes, and Faux turhith. (L. ex Fee.) 

Laserpitium Siler. (Linn.) Seseli^Siler montanum^ Hart-wort. 
Mountains in middle and south of Europe. 

The roots of this, and of some other species, are employed in scrofula, 
spitting of blood, and piles. (G.) 

Levisticum. (De Cand. iv. 164.) 
Levisticum officinale. (Roch.) Ligusticum levisticum, (Linn.) 

Lovage. West of Germany, Transylvania. 

Root, leaves, and fruit aromatic, stomachic, and diaphoretic ; stem 

yields English opopanax. 

LiBANOTis. (De Cand. iv. 150.) 

*LiBANOTis VULGARIS. (D. C) (E. B. 138.) Athamanta Ubanotis. 
(Linn.) Gentiana nigra^ Blach gentian. 

Fl. white. August. Perennial. Chalky pastures. Rare, 
Diaphoretic, diuretic ; used in calculus. 

Meum. (De Cand. iv. 162.) 

*Meum Athamanticum. (Jacq.) (E. B. 2249.) JEthusa meum. 
(Linn.) Athamanta meum. (Linn.) Meu, Meum, Baldmoney, Spignel. 



VEGETABLES.— UMBELLiFERjE. a27 

Fl. yellowish. June, July. Perennial. North of England. 

Root gummy, resinous, carminative. (G-.) The Meov adajxavrtKoy 
of Dioscorides ; the roots are sweet and aromatic, something like carrot, 
and contain a small quantity of essential oil : they form an ingredient 
of Venice treacle. (Radix Mei, Officin.) (L.) 

Meum MuTELiiiNA. (Gacrtn.) ^thusa mutellina. (Lamb.) CEnan- 
iJie 'purpurea. (Lamb.) Phellandrium mutellina. (Linn.) Sub- 
alpine meadows in middle of Europe. 

Used like the last. (Radix Mutellinse, Officin.) (L.) 

MoLOPosPERMUM. (Dc Cand. iv. 230.) 
MoLOPOSPERMUM cicuTARiuM. (D. C.) * Ligusticum Peloponesia- 
cum. (Linn.) Seseli pelopo7iense. (Diosc.) Great broad-leaved hem- 
lock. Pyrenees, Alps, &c. 

Root and fruit used in nervous diseases. 

Myrrhis. (De Cand. iv. 23 L) 

*Myrrhis odorata. (Scop.) (E. B. 697.) Scandixodorata. (Linn.) 
Sweet cicily. 

Fl. white. May, June. Perennial. Pastures in mountainous parts 
of England and Scotland. 

Very resolving, diuretic, lithontriptic. (G.) 

QEnanthe. (De Cand. iv. 136.) 

*QEnanthe crocata. (Linn.) (E. B. 2313.) CE. cicutce faciuy 
Hemlock dropwort^ Hemlock ivater-drop. 

Fl. white. July. Perennial. Watery places. 

Acrid, poisonous, especially the roots, emetic, and acts upon the 
nervous system ; used externally is powerfully resolvent, anodyne, and 
used in scrofulous and scirrhous tumours, and in inflammations of the 
penis ; juices yellow, poisonous. (G.) A dangerously-poisonous plant, 
the cause of many fatal accidents ; Dr. Christison considers it the most 
energetic of the narcotico-acrid apiaceae ; it is difficult to conceive how 
it should be mistaken for hemlock by the herb-gatherers, as Godefroi 
asserts ; the roots are usually the parts eaten by those who fall victims 
to it, mistaking it for parsneps, ground nuts, or similar roots ; it has 
been used in lepra and ichthyosis, and Dr. Hope found an infusion of 
the leaves useful in promoting the menstrual discharge. (L.) 

*QEnanthe fistulosa. (Linn.) (E. B. 363.) Common water 
dropwort. 

Fl. white. June, July. Perennial. Ditches and marshes. 

*CEnanthe Phellandrium. (Lamb.) (E. B. 684.) (E. aquatica, 
Phellandrium aquaticum, Fine-leaved water dropwort. 

Properties same as (E. crocata, but less poisonous. 

*aiNANTHE PEUCiDANiFOLiA. (Poll.) (E. B. 348.) Parsley water 
dropwort, Sulphur weed, fVaier dropwort. 

Fl. white. June. Perennial. Bogs and ditches in midland counties. 

*OENAJfTHE PiMPiNELiiOiDEs. (Liuu.) (E. B. 347.) Parslcy water 
dropwort. 

Fl. white. July. Perennial. Salt marshes. 



328 VEGETABLES.— uMBELLiFER^. 

Eoots used as potherbs. (G.) 

This genus contains twenty species according to De Candolle, and 
Fee reckons them all dangerous poisons, notwithstanding that the fleshy 
tubercles of CB. pi7npineUoides and (E. peucidanifolia have occasion- 
ally been eaten. (L.) 

Opoidia. (Endl. Gen. PL 1414.) 

Opoidia galbanifera. (Lind.) Persia. 

The gum-resin, called Galbanum, is now considered to be derived 
from this plant. 

Opopanax. (De Cand. iv. 170.) 

*Opopanax Chironium. (Roch.) Pastinaca opopanax'.^ (JJixm^ 
Ferula opopanax. (Spreng.) ^avavitq ripaKXeiov. (Dioscorid.) Gu77i 
pars?iep. Dry hills, margins of fields, south of Europe. 

Root yields by incision opopanax. (G.) A milky juice exudes 
from the root when wounded, and hardens into opopanax, a fetid gum- 
resin similar in its effects to assafoetida (L.), but much feebler. (O'Sh.) 

Pastinaca. (De Cand. iv. 188.) 

*Pastinaca SATivA. (Linn.) (E.B. 556.) P. hortensis, Parsnep. 

n. yellow. July, August. Biennial. Borders of fields and pas- 
tures in chalky soil. 

Roots nutritive, but their strong smell renders them disageeeable to 
many; sugar and wine are made from them, fruit aromatic. (G^.) 
Petroselinum. (De Cand. iv. 102.) 

*Petrosei,inum sativum. (Hoffm.) (E. B. 2793.) Apiu7n petro- 
selinum. (Linn.) P. vulgar e. (Lamb.) Parsley. 

Fl. greenish white. July. Biennial. On old walls; a doubtful 
native. 

Root diuretic, leaves used as a seasoning to meat, resolve coagulated 
milk in the breasts, but supposed to produce epilepsy and inflammation 
of the eyes; fruit carminative. (G.) The leaves are a pleasant 
stimulating salad, they are diuretic, and are at once recognised by 
their agreeable smell; Burnett says the fruit is a deadly poison to 
parrots. (L.) 

*Petroselinum segetum. (Roch.) (E. B. 228.) Sison segetum^ 
(Linn.) Corn li07ie-wort, Cor7i parsley. 

Fl. white or slightly reddish. August. Annual, Biennial. Moist 
fields on chalky soil. 

Useful in indolent tumours. 

pEUCEDAiMUM. (Dc Cand. iv. 176.) 

*Peucedanum officinale. (Linn.) (E. B. 176.) Hog's fennel, 
Hore strange, Sulphur-wort, Sulphur-iveed. 

Fl. yellow. July, September. Perennial. Salt marshes in Kent, 
Essex, and Sussex. Rare. 

Root very diuretic, attenuant, expectorant, aperitive ; wounded it 
exudes a gum resin. (G.) Juice of the root inspissated in the sun, 
or before the fire, is reputed antispasmodic and diuretic. (L.) 

Peucedanum Oreoselinum. (Cusson.) Athamanta Oreoselinuin. 
(Linn.) Open hills in middle of Europe. 



VEGETABLES.— UMBELLIFER^. 329 

The leaves and stem {Herha oreoselini^ officin.) are bitter and 
aromatic, as is the fruit, but in a higher degree ; they were used as 
powerful stimulants of the intestinal canal, and are still esteemed in 
some countries. (L.) 

Peucedanum montanum. (Roch.) Selinum pahcstre. (Linn.) 
Mountai7i parsley. Marshes and boggy meadows in the north and 
middle of Europe, 

The root abounds in a white, bitter, fetid juice, which hardens into 
a brown acrid resin ; the Russians employ it as ginger ; a famous 
remedy in Courland in epilepsy. (L. ex Rust's Krit rejjert, xii. 2, 
p. 281. 

Peucedanum SYLVESTRE. (D. C.) P. palustre. (Monch.) Atha- 
mantJia flexuosa. (Juss.) A. Pisana. (Savi.) Selinum sylvestre^ 
Milky parsley. North and East of Europe. 

Roots alexiterial. 

Physospermum. (De Cand.) iv. 246.) 
*Physospermum Cornubiense. (D. C.) (E. B. 683) Ligusticum 
cornubiense. (Linn.) Cornish lavage. 

Fl. white. Julj''. Perennial. Near Bodmin, Cornwall. 
Root exudes a resin. 

PiMPiNELLA, (De Cand. iv. 119.) 

-~ PiMPiNELLA Anisum. (Linn.) Anisum officinale. (Monch.) Sison 
anisum. (Spreng.) 'Kvi^ov. (Dioscorid.) Anise. Egypt, Isle of Scio, 
the Levant. 

Fruit cephalic, stomachic, carminative, diuretic, and emmenagogue ; 
our summers not being sufficiently warm to ripen the seeds, they are 
usually imported. (G.) The officinal preparations, especially the 
aqua anisi, aTe employed to relieve flatulence, colicky pains, especially 
of children ; nurses sometimes take it to promote the secretion of milk ; 
it has also been used in pulmonary affections ; its effects are condimen- 
tary, stimulant, and carminative. (L. ex. Pereira.) 

*PiMPiNELLA Saxifraga. (Linn.) P. cW^/>« (Horn.) Tragoselinum 
minus. (Lamb.) Tragoselinum saxifragiim. (Monch.) (E. B. 407.) 
Common Burnet saxifrage. 

Fl. white or slightly reddish. July, August. Perennial. Dry pastures. 

Root, chewed, relieves the toothache ; fruit opening, detersive, and 
lithontriptic. (G.) Root astringent, used as a masticatory to relieve 
toothache, and in decoction to remove freckles. (L. ex Burnett.) 

PiMPiNELLA DissECTA and P. MAGNA (Linn.) have similar properties. 
Prangos. (De Cand. iv. 239.) 

Prangos pabularia (Linn.) Fiturasulioon. North of India. 

Leaves dried and eaten by cattle as winter fodder, its effects heating, 
producing fatness quickly ; destructive of the Fasciola hepatica in sheep. 
(L. ex Moorcroft.) 

Ptychotis. (De Cand. iv. 107.) 

Ptychotis Ajowan. (D. C.) Adjowaen, Daucus copticus, Buhon 
copticum, Ligusticum adjowan. (Roxb.) India. 



330 VEGETABLES.— UMBELLiFER^. 

Fruit carminative, imported from the East Indies. (Gr.) 
The fruit has an aromatic smell, and a warm pungent taste ; one of 
the most useful and grateful of the umbelliferous tribe ; an excellent 
remedy in flatulent colic ; much used in India. (L. ex Roxb.) 

Ptychotis CoPTicA. (D.C.) Daucus copticus. (Pers.) Bunium 
copticum. (Spreng.) Trachyspermum copticum. (Link.) Aimni copti- 
cum. (Linn.) Egypt and Candia. 

Has similar properties. 

Ptychotis heterophyi,i.a. (Roch.) Sesili saxifragum, (Linn.) 
South of Europe. 

Roots purgative, not so acrid as the Thapsise, or as Athamanta 
mathioli. 

Ptychotis invoeucrata. India. 

Used by Europeans in India as a substitute for parsley. (L. ex 
Royle.) 

Ptychotis sylvestris. India. 

An Indian carminative. (L. ex Royle.) 

Sanicula. (De Cand. iv 84.) 

*Sanicula Europ^a. (Linn.) S. ojficinarum, (Bauh.) S. offici- 
nalis. (Gouan.) Astrantia dispensia. (Scop.) Caucalis sanicula. 
(Crantz.) (E. B. 98.) Wood sanicle. 

Fl. white. May, June. Perennial. Woods and thickets. 

Leaves vulnerary, cleansing. 

ScANDix. (De Cand. iv. 220.) 

*ScANDix pecten VENERIS. (Linn.) (E.B.I 397.) Pecten veneris, 
Shepherd'' s needle, Venus" comb. 

Fl. white. May, June, Annual. Corn-fields. 
Young shoots eaten raw or boiled. 

Selinum. (De Cand. iv. 165.) 
Selinum Carvifolia. (Linn.) S. membranaceum. (Vill.) S.p^eudo* 
carvifolia. (All.) Angelica carvifolia. (Spreng.) Laserpitium seli- 
noides. (Scop.) Mylinum carvifolia. (Gaudin.) Europe. 
Roots alexiterial. 

Seseli. (De Cand. iv. 144.) 

Seseli montanum. (D. C) Bastard spignel. Hills in France. 

Roots purgative, not so acid as the Thapsiae, or as Athamanta 
mathioli. 

Seseli leucospermum. (Waldst.) Athamanta leucosper mum. (Poir.) 
Pannonia. 

Root resinous, aromatic. 

Seseli Hippomarathrum. (Linn.) Sium Hippomarathrum. (Roth.) 
Seseli articulatum. (Crantz.) Alsatia, Germany, 

Seseli tortuosum. (Linn.) French hart-wort. South of France. 

Seeds stomachic, aperitive ; roots anti-asthmatic. 

SiLAUS. (De Cand. iv. 161.) 
*Silaus pratensis. (Bess, et Roch.) (E. B. 2142.) Peucedanum 
silaus. (Linn.) Saxijraga vulgaris , Meadow pepper saxifrage. 



VEGETABLES.— uMBELLiFERiE. 331 

Fl. yellowish. July, September. Perennial. Pastures and meadows. 
Root aperitive, used in calculous cases. 

SisoN. (De Cand. iv. 110.) 

*SisoN Amomum. (Linn.) (E. B. 954.) Slum Amomum. (Roth.) 
Sium aromaticus. (Lamb.) Seseli amomum. (Scop.) Cicuta Amomum^ 
(Crantz.) Symrnium heterophyllum. (Monch.) Amomum vulgare, 
Common amomum., Bastard sttotie parsley, Hone-wort. 

Fl. cream-coloured. August. Biennial. Moist ground on a chalky 
soil. 

Fruit warm, aromatic, used in Venice treacle. (G.) Fruit pungent 
and aromatic, but has a nauseous smell of bugs when fresh ; it formed 
the Semen arnomi of the old apothecaries. (L.) 

. SiUM. (De Cand. iv. 124.) 

*SiUM ANGUSTiFOLiUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 139.) Berula angustifolia, 
(Roch.) Siiwi hernia? Narrow-leaved water par snep, Upright water 
parsnep. 

Fl. white. July, August, Perennial. Waterj^ places. 

*SiUM LATiFoLiuM. (Liiiu.) (E. B. 204.) Pastinaca aquatica, 
Broad-leaved water parsnep^ Great xoater parsnep. 

Fl. white. July, August. Perennial. Watery places. 
Root jDoisonous; leaves aperitive, diuretic, antiscorbutic. (G.) 

Sium Sisarum. (Linn.) Sisarum, Shir ret. China, Japan, &c. 

Root used as a potherb, stomacliic, a specific against the bad effects 
of quicksilver ; sugar is made from it. 

Var. ^. Ninsi, Sium ninsi, Ninsi, Ninzen, Nin sing. China and 
East Indian islands. 
Alexiterial and aphrodisiac, and thought to lengthen life ; frequently 
confounded with ginseng, as in the Pharm. Lond. 1 720. 

Smyknium. (De Cand. iv. 247.) 

*Smyrnium olusatrum. (Linn.) (E. B. 230.) S. Mathioli. (Tourn.) 
Hipposelinum, Smyrnium, Alexanders. 

Fl. yellowish green. May, June. Biennial. "Waste grounds, among 
ruins near the sea. 

Root and herb opening, emmenagogue. (G.) Leaves pleasantly 
aromatic ; fruit stimulant and stomachic. (O'Sh.) 

Thapsia. (De Cand. iv. 202,) 

Thapsia Asclepium. (Linn.) T. Apulia. (Mill.) Apulia, Sicily, 

Thapsia Garganica. (Linn.) South of Europe. 

Roots acrid, and purge upwards and downwards very violently. (G.) 
The variety y of the latter of these is found on the mountains of 
Cyrene, and is the T. silphion of Viviani. (Fl. Lybica, p. 17.) The 
Laser cyrenaicum, or Asa dulces of Cyrene, was a drug in high repu- 
tation among the ancients for its medicinal uses ; it had miraculous 
powers assigned to it ; to neutralize the effects of poison, to cure 
envenomed wounds, to restore sight to the blind, and youth to the 
aged, were only a part of its reputed properties ; it was also reckoned 
antispasmodic, deobstruent, diuretic, &c. So great was its reputation, 



332 VEGETABLES.— ARALiACE^. 

that the princes of Cyrene caused it to be struck on the reverse of 
their coins, and the Cyrenean doctors were reckoned among- the most 
eminent in the world ; its value was estimated by its weight in gold ; 
although such extravagant powers were ascribed to it, there can be no 
doubt that it possessed some very active principles, and accordingly it 
has always been a point of much interest to determine what the plant 
was ; it has been successively referred to Opopanax, to Ferula tingi- 
tana, to Laserpitum siler, and gummiferum, and to Thapsia asclepium ; 
but the discovery of Cyrene by Delia Cella seems to set the question 
at rest ; it is the only umbelliferous plant inhabiting those regions 
which will at all answer to the figure struck on the Cyrenean coins, and 
this agrees as well with such rude representations as can be expected 
from any plant. While, however, it may be considered certain that 
the Silphion of Cyrene was yielded by Thapsia silphion, it by no 
means follows that all the Silphion was from that species; on the 
contrary, Pliny {Hist. Nat. lib. xxii. c. 23) expressly states, that in 
his time it was chiefly imported from Syria, the worst kind being the 
Parthian, the Median of better quality, and that of Cyrene altogether 
lost. (L.) 

Thapsia villosa. (Linn.) South of Europe. 

Root purgative ; may be used for jalap. 

ToRDYLiuM. (De Cand. iv. 197.) 

^ToRDYLiuM officinale. (Liun.) (E. B. 2440.) Small hart's 
wort. 

Fl. white, with large rays. June, July. Annual. Doubtful native. 
Roots and fruit diuretic. 

ToRiLis. (De Cand. iv. 218.) 

*ToRii.is Anthriscus. (Gmel.) (E. B. 987.) Caucalis Antliriscus. 
(Scop.) C. aspera. (Lamb.) Torilis rubella. (Monch.) Caucalis 
minor, Tordylium anthriscus. (Linn.) Hedge parsley^ HeiH s foot. 

Fl. white, with a reddish tinge. July. Annual. Hedges and 
waste places. 

Roots and fruit diuretic. 

Trinia. (De Cand. iv. 103.) 

Trinia vulgaris. (D. C.) Var. y3. Sesili glaucum, Glabrous 
hone-wort. 

Fl. white. May, June. Perennial. Limestone rocks. 

Roots purgative, not so acrid as Athamanta mathioli, or the 
Thapsioe. 



Order 79.— ARALIACE.^. (De Cand. iv. 251.) 

Tube of the calyx adnate to the ovary, limb entire or toothed; petals 5 — 10, alternate 
with the teeth of the calyx, valvate in a-stivation, very rarely wanting, and then (in 
Adoxa) perhaps converted into stamens ; stamens as many as the petals, rarely double 
their number, inserted into the margin of the large epigynous disc; anthei'S two-celled, 
peltate ; ovary adnate to the calyx, composed of two, or many one-seeded cells ; styles 
many, simple, either distinct and diverging, or concreted into one (rarely none) ; 
stig7nas simple; berry 2 — 15 celled, crowned by the entire or dentate limb of the calyx. 



VEGETABLES.—ARALiACE^. 



ooo 



cells equal in number to the styles, one-seeded ; seeds angular, erect ; testa crustaoeous ; 
eiKhpleura membraneous ; embryo small, inverted, surrounded by a copious fleshy albu- 
men. Trees, herbs, or shrubs, sometimes climbing or adhering by root-like fibrillar ; 
leaves alternate, exstipulate, petiolated, simple, or variously compounded ; j^^HoIes long, 
often dilated and thickened at the base; flowers axillary or terminal, more or less 
umbelled. 

Aralia. (De Cand. iv. 257.) 

Ar.alia HispiDA. (Michx.) Wild elder. Dwarf elder. Virginia 
and Pennsylvania. 

Sudorific. 

Aralia ivudicaulis. (Linn.) liaise sarsaparilla. Wild sarsa- 
parilla, Sinall spikenard. North America. 

A gentle stimulant and diaphoretic, used in rheumatism, syphilis, 
and cutaneous affections, in the same way as common sarsaparilla. 

Aralia racemosa. (Linn.) American spikenard. North America. 

Roots bitter. (G.) The first is alterative and tonic, and is con- 
sidered by the American writers to be as valuable a medicine as sarsa- 
parilla. (L.) 

Aralia spinosa. (Linn.) Angelica tree. Toothache tree^ some- 
times called Prickly ash. North America. 

Bark astringent ; berries used in rheumatism and colic. (G.) A 
tincture of the wood is also employed to allay the spasms in colic. (L.) 

Hedera. (De Cand. iv. 261.) 
■ *Hedera Helix. (Linn.) (E. B. 126.) Common ivy. "* 

Fl. pale green. October, November. Large shrub. Trees, rocks, &c. 

Leaves used internally in atrophy, and to dress issues ; also boiled in 
wine as a wash to kill vermin ; berries purge ; the trunk yields a gum 
resin. (G.) It is also mentioned as a sodorific, and was once reputed 
to prevent drunkenness, and to dissipate the eflfects of wine. (L.) 

Hedera umbellifera. (D. C.) Aralia umbellifera. (Lamb.) 
Mountains of Amboyna. 

Yields a blackish or dull-brown resin, with a very powerful aromatic 
camphorated smell. (L.) 

Panax. (De Cand. iv. 252.) 

Panax fruticosum. (Linn.) Scutellaria tertia. (Rumph.) 
Ternate, Java. 

Herb diuretic. 

Panax MoROTOTONi. (Aubl.) P.undulata. (Pers.) Cayenne. 

Wood, bark, leaves, flowers, and fruit aromatic. 

Panax quinquefolium. (Linn.) Ginseng. China and North 
America. 

Root cordial, alexiterial, and aphrodisiac, dose 5J.^ — ij. ; chewed, or 
sliced and made into tea, often confounded with nin sing. (G.) Root 
an agreeable bitter sweet, with some aromatic pungency ; has a prodi- 
gious reputation among the Chinese as a stimulant and restorative, 
under the name of " Ginseng ;" by Europeans and Americans con- 
sidered nothing more than a demulcent approaching liquorice in its 
properties ; this, however, requires further investigation, for we cannot 
believe that all the Chinese say, believe, and practise, is fabulous or 
imaginary. (L.) ^ 



334 VEGETABLES.— LORANTHACE^. 

Order 80.— CORNER. (De Cand. iv. 27.) 

Calyx of fonr sepals, united together into a tube, adnate to the ovary, limb four-lobed ; 
petals four, oblong, broad at the base, inserted into the upper part of the tube of the 
calyx, regular, valvate in aestivation ; stamens four, inserted with the petals and alternate 
with them ; anthers ovate, oblong, bilocular ; style filiform ; stigma simple ; drupe 
baccate, crowned by the remains of the calyx, having a bilocular nut ; seed solitary, 
pendulous in the cells ; albumen fleshy ; radicle superior, shorter than the two oblong 
cotyledons. Trees and shrubs, rarely herbs ; leaves (excepting in one species) opposite, 
whole, or toothed : flowers capitate, umbellate, or corymbose, naked, or with an involucre, 
rarely by abortion dioecious ; fruit edible. 

CoRNUs. (De Cand. iv. 271.) 

CoRNus ciRCiNATA. (L'Her.) C. tomentosida. (Michx.) C- 
rugosa. (Lamb.) Round-leaved dogivood. America. 

Bark of root used as a poultice. (G.) Has been recommended in 
diarrhoea. (L.) 

CoRNUS FLORIDA. (Linn.) American dog-tvood. North America. 

Bark a powerful bitter, with an astringent and somewhat aromatic 
taste ; it acts as a tonic, astringent, and antiseptic, approaching Cin- 
chona in its general effects, and not inferior to it in the cure of inter- 
mittents. (Bigelow.) The young branches stripped of their bark, and 
rubbed with their ends against the teeth, render them extremely white ; 
from the bark of the roots the Indians extract a good scarlet colour. 
(Barton.) (L.) 

**CoRNUS MAS. (Linn.) C. mascula. (L'Her,) Cornelimi cherry') 
Male cornel. 

Fl. yellow. February, March. Small tree. Europe. 

Fruit edible, very astringent, useful in loosenesses. (G.) Bark has 
been employed with great success in intermittent fevers. (O'Sh.) 

■^CoRNUs SANGUiNEA. (Linn.) (E. B. 249.) Cornus fcemina. (Lob.) 
Dog-wood^ Gutter tree, Wild cornel. 

Fl. white. June. Large shrub. Hedges, &c 

Seeds yield oil, as well as those of the former species ; wood used for 
making charcoal for gunpowder. (G.) Flavour of oil very agreeable ; 
a good substitute for olive oil. (O'Sli.) 

Cornus sericea. (L'Her.) C. ccerulea. (Lamb.) C. lanuginosa. 
(Michx.) Sicamp dog-ivood. Moist woods in the United States. 

Said to be one of the best tonics in North America, nothing having 
been found in the United States that so effectually answers the purpose 
of Peruvian bark in intermittent fevers. (L. ex. Barton.) 

*CoRNUS SuECiCA. (Linn.) (E. B, 310,) C. herhacea. (Linn.) 
Dwarf cornel. 

Fl. dark purple. July, August. Perennial. Alpine pastures. 

Is reputed to have tonic berries, wliich increase the appetite, whence 
its Highland name Lus-a-chrasis, or plant of gluttony. (L.) 



Order 81.— LORANTHACE^. (De Cand. iv. 277.) 

Flowers hermaphrodite, or of different sexes ; tube of the calyx surrounded at the 
base by scales, and adnate to the ovary: limb, short, entire or lobed ; petals 4 — 8, free, 
or more or loss coherent, valvate in aestivation ; stamens as many as the petals, and 



VEaETABLES.— CAPRIFOLIACE^. 335 

opposite to them ; filaments more or less adnate to the corolla, or wanting ; style filiform 
or none ; stigma capitate ; hemj one-seeded ; seed surrounded by a membraneous integu- 
ment ; albumen fleshy ; radicle superior, thickened or truncated at the apex. Generally 
parasitical plants, with opposite, more or less fleshy, entire leaves. 

Bark astringent ; berries contain a principle analogous to caoutchouc, 
called bird-lime. 

LoRANTHUS. (De Cand. iv. 286.) 

LoRANTHUS Edrop^us. (Linn.) Viscum quercinum^ Mistletoe of 
the oak. 

Esteemed a sacred plant by our ancestors, hence extirpated by them, 
but still found plentifully on the oaks in those parts of Europe where 
the druidical religion was not established ; the common mistletoe, 
which is rarely found on the oak, is still used as a substitute for it in 
medicine, and also to deck our churches and preserve our homes from 
evil spirits. 

Viscum. (De Cand. iv. 277.) 

*ViscuM ALBUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 1470.) Viscum mistletoe, Mis- 
tletoe. 

Fl. yellowish. May. Small shrub. Parasite on apple and thorn 
trees, and on the oak near Basingstoke, &c. 

Berries very purgative, used to make bird-lime ; leaves anti-epilectic, 
in doses of 9j. to 3j. twice a-day. 



Order 82.— CAPRIFOLIACE^. (De Cand. iv. 321.) 

Calyx consisting of five (rarely foui') sepals, coherent in a tube, adnate to the ovary ; 
corolla inserted into the calyx, gamopetalous, or of as many petals as there are lobes of 
the calyx, more or less united at the base, sometimes irregular, not valvate in aestivation ; 
stamens inserted into the calyx, adnate to the base of the corolla, equal in number to, and 
alternate with, the lobes of the corolla ; style exserted or none ; stigmas 1 — 3 ; berry 
generally crowned by the limb of the calyx, one or many celled, cells one, many-seeded, 
spermoderm, crustaceous; embryo in the centre of the albumen, which is fleshy; radicle 
superior ; cotyledons ovate, oblong. Shrubs with opposite, or alternate exstipulate leaves ; 
flowers generally corymbose, sometimes terminal or axillary. 

LiNNJEA. (De Cand. iv. 340.) 

*LiNN^A BOREALis. (Linn.) (E. B. 433.) Two-floioered linn(Ea. 

Fl. rose-coloured, yellowish within, fragrant. May, June. Peren- 
nial. Northumberland ; rare. 

Used in rheumatism and gout ; astringent and diuretic. 
LoNicERA. (De Cand. iv. 330.) 

*LoNiCERA Capri FOLIUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 799.) Peryclimenum 
Italicum. (Mill.) Caprifolmm hortense. (Lamb.) C. rotundifolium, 
(Morich.) C. Italicum \ Room.) Honeysuckle., Pale perfoliate honey- 
suckle. 

Fl. yellowish. June. Climbing shrub. Oxfordshire and Cambridge- 
shire ; rare. 

*LoNicERA PERiCLYMENUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 800.) Ca.prifoliuin, 
Matrisylca, Periclymemim, Common honeysuckle, Woodbine. 

Fl. buft-coloured, externally red. June, October. Climbing shrub. 
Woods and hedges ; common. 

Leaves used in detersive gargles ; flowers anti-asthmatic. 



336 VEGETABLES.— CAPraFOLiACE^. 

Sambucus. (De Cand. iv. 321.) 
Sambucus Canadensis. (Linn.) Americaii elder. North America. 
Berries, Sambucus, P. U. S., used as those of Sambucus nigra. 

*Sambucus Ebulus. (Linn.) (E. B. 475.) Dwarf elder, Dane 
wort, Ebidus, 

Fl. white. July. Perennial, TVaysides and waste places. 

Root 3Jss, a strong purge ; leaves used in poultices for the gout and 
piles ; berries used to dye blue, and also to make wine. 

*Sambucus nigra. (Linn.) (E. B. 475.) Sambucus, Common elder. 

ri. cream-coloured. June. Small tree. Coppices and hedges. 

Inner bark, gr. v.'to 3j., very active, antihydropic ; leaves a nauseous 
purgative ; flowers diaphoretic, useful in disorders of the chest, dis- 
cussive and attenuant ; berries used to flavour sugar and wine, poisonous 
to poultry ; dry berries, Grana actes, useivA in dropsy. (G.) Inner 
bark purgative, in large doses emetic: flowers employed in French 
pharmacy as expectorants. (L.) 

Sambucus nigra virescens. White-berried elder. Var /3. of S. 
nigra. (D. C.) 

Flowers used to give wine the flavour of Frontignac. 

Sambucus racemosa. (Linn.) Mountain elder. Middle and south 
of Europe. 
Narcotic. 

Triosteum. (De Cand. iv. 329.) 

Triosteum perfoliatum. (Linn.) T. majus. (Michx.) Fever root, 
Wild ipecac. United States. 

Root, Triosteum, P. U. S., emetic, and cathartic ; bark of the root 
bitter, tonic. (G.) Leaves diaphoretic, efficacy impaired by age, 
should be kept in closely-stopped jars, and renewed annually. (L.) 

Viburnum. (De Cand. iv. 323.) 

Viburnum cassinoides. (Linn.) Cassine peragua, Perygua, CasJiio- 
berry bush. North America. 

Leaves purgative, sometimes emetic or diaphoretic, used as a specific 
in diabetes. 

^Viburnum lantana. (Linn.) (E. B. 331,) Mealy guelder rose, 
Pliant mealy tree, Wayfaring tree. 

Fl. White. June. Large shrub. Woods and hedges on chalky soil. 

Berries drying, astringent ; bark of root made into bird-lime. 

*ViBURNUS OPULUS. (Linn.) [(E, B. 332.) V. lobatum. (Lamb.) 
Opulus glandulosus. (Monch.) Common guelder rose. 

Fl. white, outer ones abortive, large. June, July. Large shrub. 
Woods and coppices ; common. 

Leaves and berries refreshing, and used in astringent gargles. 

**Viburnum tinus. (Linn.) (Bot. Mag. 38.) Laurestinus, Wild 
boy. 

Fl. white, tinged with pink. December, March. Large shrub. 
Native of south of Europe. 

Berries purge violently. 



VEGETABLES.— RUBiACE^. 337 

Order 83.— RUBIACE^. (De Cand. iv. 381.) 

Calyx adhering to the tube of the ovary, 4 — 5, rarely six-lobed ; corolla gamopetalous, 
inserted into the upper part of the tube of the calyx, with 4 — 5, rarely 3 — 8 lobes, 
cohering variously, twisted or valved in testivation ; stamens equal in number to the 
segments of the corolla, alternate with them, and more or less adnate with its tube ; 
anthers oval, two-celled, bursting inwardly ; ovary within the calyx, and united with it, 
usually two, or many-celled, rarely one-celled, crowned with a fleshy urceolus or calycine 
limb; style single, springing from the urceolus; stigmas generally two, distinct, or 
more or less united ; fruit baccate, capsular, or drupaceous, two or many celled, cells 
1 — 2, or many-seeded; seeds, in the cells containing but one, fixed by the apex, or more 
generally by tlae base ; in those which contain many, generally horizontal, and attached 
to a central placenta ; albumen large, horny, or fleshy ; embryo straight, or slightly 
curved, imbedded in the centi-e of the albumen, with a terete radicle turned towards the 
hilum ; cotyledons foliaceous. Trees, shrubs, or herbaceous plants, with simple, very 
entire, opposite, rarely verticillate leaves, generally bistipulate ; flowers small, rotate, 
or tubulose. 

Antirrhcea. (De Cand. iv. 459.) 

Antirrhcea verticillata. (D. C.) a. borhonica. (Gmel.) Cuii- 
ninghamia verticillata. (Willd.) Malanea verticillata. (Lamb.) Isles 
of Bourbon and Mauritius. 

Eoot and bark said to be powerful!}^ astringent. In Bourbon it is 
employed as a styptic to restrain haemorrhage, and is known by the 
name of Bois de Losteau. (L.) 

AsPERULA. (De Cand. i. 58 1. 

Asperula arvensis. (Linn.) A. ccErulea. (Dod.) A. ciliata, 
(Monch.) A. diibia* (Willd.) Field woodruff. 

Fl. blue. July. Annual. Corn-fields near Devonport. 

Asperula tinctoria. (Linn.) Galium tiiictorium. (Scop.) Europe. 
Roots dye red ; herbs opening. 

*AsPERULA CYNAiiTcniCA. (Linn.) (E. B. 38.) liuhia cynanchica. 
Squinancy wort. 

FL white, or blush coloured. June, September. Perennial. On 
chalk downs. 

Used externally in quinsy. 

*AsPERULA ODORATA. (Dod.) (E. B. 755.) Asperula, Sweet wood- 
ruff. 

El. white, odorous. May, June. Perennial. Woods. 

Hepatic and deobstruent internally ; antipsoric externally. (G.) 
Also reckoned diuretic. (L.) 

Borreria. (De Cand. iv. 540.) 

BoRRERiA FERRUGINEA. (D. C.) Spermacoce ferruglnea. (St. Hil.) 
Spermacoce globosa. (Pohl.) Brazil. 
Root emetic. (L.) 

Borreria POAYA. (D. C.) Spermacoce poaya. (St. Hil.) Brazil. 
Root emetic, substituted for ipecacuanha ; leaves at first sweet, but 
afterwards acrid ; a decoction of them used in the cure of colic. 

BuENA. (De Cand. iv. 356.) 

BuENA HEXANDRA. (Pohl.) Ciiicliona liexandra, Ccsmibuena hcx- 
andra. Brazil. 



338 VEGETABLES.— RUBiACE^. 

An indifferent sort of fever-bark is produced by this tree ; M. Guibourt 
thinks it may be what has been known in common as Quinquina 
colorada ; he received the latter under the name of Brazilian quin- 
quina. It contains a very little cinchonine, is thin, blood-coloured 
within, very bitter. (L.) 

BuENA OBTUSiFOLiA (D. C.) Cincliona grandijiora. (Euiz et 
Pay.) Cosmibuena obtusifolia. (Kuiz et Pav.) 
Bark slightly febrifuge. 

Canthium. (De Cand. iv. 473.) 

Canthium parviflorum. (Lamb.) Wehera tetrandra. (Willd.) 
India. 

Poot bitter, red. (G.) A decoction of the leaves used in certain 
stages of liux, is also anthelmintic ; bark and young shoots used in 
dysentery. (L. ex Ainslie.) 

Cei»haelis. (De Cand. iv. 532.) 
Cephaelis ipecacuanha. (Rich.) Callicocca ipecacuanha. 
(Brot.) Brazil, New Granada. 

The well-known emetic root called ipecacuanha is obtained from 
this plant. In commerce it is called the annulated, Brazilian, or 
Lisbon ipecacuanha, to distinguish it from the roots of other emetic 
plants also collected in Brazil for officinal use ; it is chiefly used as an 
emetic, sudorific, and expectorant ; its powder acts upon the respira- 
tory passages as an irritant, producing spasmodic asthma : in some 
cases the mere odour of the root seems sufficient to excite difficulty of 
breathing, with a feeling of suffocation. (Pereira.) The outside con- 
tains sixteen per cent, of emetine ; the woody fibre in the centre only 
one quarter per cent. 

According to Pereira, tlie varieties of ipecacuanha are: — • 

o. Brown annulated ipecacuanha, Pichard ; Brown ipecacu- 

a?iha, Lemery ; Grey, or annulated ipecacuanha of Merat. 
/S. Red annulated ipecacuanha, Pichard ; the Red-grey ipeca- 
cuanha of Lemery and Merat. 
y. Grey annidated ipecacuanha, Pichard ; White-grey ipeca- 
C2ianha, Merat ; Greater annulated ipecacuanha, Guibourt. 

Cephaelis muscosa. (Swartz.) Morinda muscosa. (Jacq.) 
Tapogomea muscosa. (Poir.) Jamaica and West Indies. 

Cephaelis punicea. (Willd.) Tapogomea elata. (Poir.) Jamaica 
and West Indies. 

Are also emetic, according to Von Martius. 

Chiococca. (De Cand. iv. 482.) 
Chiococca anguifuga. (Mart.) C. brachiata. (Ruiz et Pav.) 
C. racemosa. (H. B. et Kunth.) South America and West Indies. 

Chiococca densifolia. (Mart.) Cahinca. Brazil, 

The roots of these two species, under tlie name Cahinca, or Cainca, 

are employed with confidence by the natives of Brazil, as a certain 

remedy for serpent bites ; an infusion of the bark of the root produces 

the most violent emetic and drastic effects ; copious perspirations fol- 



VEGETABLES.— KUBIACE.E. 339 

low, and these are succeeded by a gentle sleep ; their violent action 
renders them dangerous to employ, except in cases of poisoning, or in 
such maladies as require a prompt and complete evacuation of the 
intestines. (L.) 

Cinchona. (De Cand. iv. 351.) 

The bark of different species of Cinchona has, for about two cen- 
turies, been extensively and most successfully used in medicine. It 
has been used under the names of Countess's Powdei\ Pulvis ComitisscB, 
Jesuits' Bark, Pulvis Patrum, Lugo's Powder^ Talbor^s Powder, ^^c. 
The tree yielding the bark was first made known to botanists in 1737 
by La Condamine, a French academician, who collected specimens in 
the province of Loxa, and published a description of them on his 
return to Europe. Linnaeus, soon afterwards, gave to it the name of 
Cinchona officinalis, in honour of the Countess of Chinchon, wife of 
the Viceroy of Peru, who is said to have first introduced the bark into 
Europe about the year 1639. For sometime after the first botanical 
description of the tree had been published, all the commercial varieties 
of Peruvian bark were ascribed to one species, the Cincho?ia officinalis, 
of Linngeus. In the course of time, however, specimens were collected 
by several botanists who visited the bark districts, and numerous species 
became recognised. The botanists who, after La Condamine, personally 
exauiined the tree yielding Peruvian bark were Joseph de Jussieu, 
Mutis, Zea, Ruiz and Pavon, Humboldt and Bonpland, Popping, and 
lastly Weddell. Joseph de Jussieu visited the districtof Loxa in 1739. 
Mutis and his pupil Zea examined the Cinchona trees of New Granada 
in 1762 and succeeding years. Ruiz and Pavon explored the central 
portions of Lower Peru in 1777. Humboldt and Bonpland visited the 
bark districts of Peru about 1790. Popping travelled in the same 
districts in 1832, and Weddell in 1845 to 1848. 

The genus Cinchona of Linnaeus was divided into two sections, or 
sub-genera, by Endlicher, and these have been made two distinct genera 
by AVeddell, the one being called Cinchona and the other Cascarilla. 
The former of these alone yields the Cinchona barks of commerce and 
the true Cinchona alkaloids. Weddell notices twenty-one species, 
thirteen of which are supposed to yield barks which are met with in 
commerce. These twenty-one species will be first described, and then 
some species referred to by other botanists. 

1. Cinchona amygdalifoi^ia. (Wedd.) Bolivia and Peru. 
Bark called in Peru Cascarilla Echenique, and by the Bolivians 

Cascarilla- Quepo, or Quepo- Cascarilla. It is sometimes met with in 
English commerce, being one of the so-called spurious ov false Calisaya 
barks. 

2. Cinchona asperifolia. (Wedd.) Bolivia. 
Bark not met with in commerce. 

3. Cinchona Austkalis. (Wedd.) South Bolivia. 
Bark called bv the Bolivians Cascarilla de la Cordillera, or de 

Peray, or Cascarilla de Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Perhaps occa- 
sionally met with in commerce. 

z 2 



340 VEGETABLES.— RUBiACE^. 

4. Cinchona Boliviana. (Wedd.) Bolivia and Peru. 
Bark called Calisaya morada, or Cascarilla verde morada. It is 

mixed with the Calisaya bark of commerce, and is one of those some- 
times distinguished as light ov flimsy Calisaya bark. 

5. Cinchona Calisaya. (Wedd.) Bolivia and South Peru. 
There are two varieties of this species : — 

a. C. Calisaya vera. (Wedd.) This yields the yellow, or true 
Calisaya bark of English commerce, which is one of the 
species of bark most rich in quinine. It is generally mflat, 
but also in quilled pieces. It is sometimes distinguished as 
Royal yellow bark, or China Regia. 
yS. C. Calisaya Jesephiana. (Wedd.) Ichu Cascarilla, or 
Cascarilla del Pajonal. The bark of this tree is sometimes 
imported mixed with the true Calisaya bark. 
' 6. Cinchona Carabayensis. (Wedd.) Peru. 

Bark very thin ; has not been collected for commercial purposes. 
This species does not yield the Carabaya bark of commerce, whicli is 
referred by Weddell to C. ovata var. vulgaris. 

7. Cinchona Chomeliana. (Wedd.) Bolivia. , 
Bark similar to that of C. ovata, but not known in commerce. 

8. Cinchona Condaminia. (Wedd.) 
Weddell describes five varieties of this species. 

a. C. Condaminia vera. (Wedd.) Cinchona officiiialis. 

(Linn.) Cinchona lancifolia (Rohde.) C. Condaminea (H. 

and B.) Mountains near Loxa. 

There seems to be no doubt that this tree furnished the Pale, 

Crown, or Loxa bark formerly known in English commerce, or at all 

events a principal part of it. 

yS. C. C. Candollii. (Wedd.) C. Macrocalyx. (Pav.) 
Quina nigra. Black Cinchona. Cuenca. 

The bark of this tree probably forms part of the Loxa bark of 
commerce. 

y. C. C. Lucumcsfolia. (Wedd.) Cinchona lucumcefolia. 

(Pav.) C. macrocalyx var. lucuma^folia. (De Cand.) Loxa. 

Bark, in large quills, with white, silvery, lustrous coat, occasionally 

mixed in Loxa bark. Pereira refers White Crown bark to this variety. 

c. C. C. Lancifolia. (Wedd.) Cinchona lancifolia, 

(Mutis.) Cinchona angustifolia. (Ruiz and Pav.) Peru, 

Equador, and New Granada. 

Bark, Caqueta, or Coquetta, or Bogota bark, is largely imported 

into England from Carthagena and other ports of the Caribbean Sea. 

It is the Spongy Carthagena bark of Guibourt, the Fibrous Carthagena 

bark of Goebel, or Mutisms Orange-coloured bark. This bark is much 

used for the manufacture of sulphate of quinine. 

£. C. C. Pitayensis. (Wedd.) Cinchona lanceolata. (Ben- 
tham.) Cascarilla roja de Pitaya. New Granada, 

Bark, supposed to be the Pitaya bark of commerce, one of the most 
esteemed sorts for the manufacture of sulphate of quinine. It is also 
known as Colombia, or Antioquia bark. 



VEGETABLES.— RUBiACE.^. 341 

^ 9. Cinchona cordifolia. (Wedd.) 

"VVeddell describes two varieties of this species : — 

a. C. Cordifolia vera. (Wedd.) Cinchona cordifolia. 
(Mutis.) C. puhescens var. cordata. (De Cand.) New- 
Granada and Peru. 
Bark, called Velvet bark in New Granada, and known in England 
as Hard Carthagena bark. It has also been called the Yellow bark 
of Santa Fe. It is considered an inferior bark for manufacturing 
purposes. 

y6. C. C. rotundifolid. (Wedd.) Cinchona rotundifoUa. 
(Pavon.) Loxa. 

Bark, probably the Ashy Crown bark of commerce. 

10. Cinchona discol,oii. (Weddell, and Klotzsch.) Cascarilla 
hoja de Olivia. Olive-leaved Cinchona. Peru. 

Bark not known in commerce. 

11. Cinchona GLANDULiFERA. (Weddell, and Ruiz and Pavon.) 
Peru. 

Bark, called, Cascarilla negrilla, or JBlackish bark, forms, accord- 
ing to Poeppig, part of the Huanuco bark of commerce. 

12. Cinchona hirsuta. (Weddell, and Puiz and Pavon.) Peru. 
Bark, called Cascarilla delgada, or delgadilla (^Slender bark^ by 

the Peruvians, has been supposed to form the Wiry Crown bark of 
commerce. 

13. Cinchona Humboldtiana. (Lambert.) Cinchona villosa. 
(Lind.) 

Bark not known in commerce. 

14. Cinchona micranth a. (Wedd.) Bolivia and Peru. 
W^eddell makes two varieties of this species : — a. rotu?idifolia ; and 

fi. oblongifolia. 

Bark, called by the inhabitants of Huanuco, Cascarilla provinciana ; 
in Carabaya, Motosolo ; and in Bolivia^ Cascarilla verde. The quilled 
pieces form part of the Huanuco or Grey barks of commerce ; the 
flat pieces are sometimes mixed with Calisaya bark. 

15. Cinchona MuTisii. (Lambert.) Cinchona glandulifera (JLmu.) 
Loxa. 

Weddell makes two varieties of this species : — 

a. C. M. microphylla. (Wedd.) Cinchona raicrophylla (Mutis.) 
Cinchona quercifolia. (Pav.) 

/3. C. M. crispa. (Wedd.) Cinchona quercifolia var. crispa (Pav.) 
Bark not known in commerce. 

16. Cinchona nitida. (Wedd. and Ruiz and Pav.) Cinchona 
lancifolia, var. nitida. (Roem.) Peru, especially Huanuco, &c. 

Bark forms part of the Huanuco, or Grey bark of English commerce. 

17. Cinchona ovata. (Wedd.) 

Weddell makes three varieties of this species : — 

a. C. 0. vulgaris. (Wedd.) Cinchona ovata. (Fl. Per.) 
Cinchona pubescens. (Lamb.) Peru and Bolivia, 



342 VEGETABLES.— RUBiACE^. 

Yields the Ash, Jaen, or Ten bark^ of English commerce. This 
bark is known in Peru by the name of Cascarilla pata de Gallareta. 
The bark known as Carabaya bark is ascribed to this species by Dr. 
Weddell. 

^. C. 0. rujinervis. (Wedd.) Carabaja in South Peru. 

The bark of this species is called Cascarilla Carabaya in Peru. 

y. C. 0. erythroderma. (Wedd.) Peru 

Yields a red bark, which may probably be the red bark of commerce. 

18. Cinchona pelalba. (Weddell, and Pavon.) Peru. 
Bark not known in commerce. 

19. Cinchona pubescens. (Wedd.) Peru and Bolivia. 
Weddell makes two varieties of this species : — 

a. C. J). Pelletieriana. (Wedd.) Cinchona pubescens. (Yahl.) 
Bark, Arico, or Cusco bark, inferior in quality. 

yS. C. J)- purpurea. (Wedd.) Citichona purpurea. (Ruiz and Pav.) 
Bark called mulberry-leaved booby bark. 

20. Cinchona purpurascens. (Wedd.) Bolivia. 
Guibourt ascribes what he calls White Loxa bark to this species. 

21. Cinchona scrobiculata., (Wedd.) 
Weddell makes two varieties of this species : — 

a. C. s. genuina. (Wedd.) Cinchona scrobiculata. (Humb. 
and Bonpl.) Cinchona purpurea. (Lamb.) Cinchona 
micrantha. (Linn.) 

The JRed Cusco bark of the Peruvians, which is one of the Cusco 
barks of English commerce, is derived from this tree. The bark is also 
known as St. Ann's bark, or Cascarilla de Santa-Ana. The younger 
quilled and coated pieces are supposed to form part of the bark now met 
with as Croivn bark in commerce. 

yS. C. s. Delondriana. (Wedd.) Middle Peru. 

The bark of this variety is known in English commerce as Peruvian 
Calisaya. 

Cinchona acutifolia. (Ruiz et Pav.) Cascarilla acutifolia. 
(Wedd.) Cascarilla de hoja aguda. (Ruiz.) Low groves of the 
Peruvian Andes in Chicoplaya by the river Taso. 

One of the worst species for medicinal purposes, sometimes found in 
parcels of the other barks. (Ruiz and Pavon.) 

Cinchona CADUCIFLORA. (Humb.) Cascarilla magnifoUa. (Wedd.) 
Near the town of Jaen de Bracamoros. 

It is stated in the Plantcs ^quinoctiales, that this is called Casca- 
rilla bora, and that no use is made of the bark, although that of the 
trunk contains a great deal of resin. (L.) 

Cinchona dichotoma. (F1. Pernv. ii. 53 to 197.) Ladenbergia 
dichotoma. (Klotzsch.) Cascarillo ahorquillado, (R. and P.) Andes, 
near Pueblo Nuevo. 

Uncertain whether this is really a cinchona; according to R. and P. 
the bark lias the reputation in Chicoplaya of being one of the Quinas 
Jinas, or best for medicinal purposes. (L.) It is excluded from the 
Cinchonas by Weddell. 



VEGETABLES.— RUBiACE^. 343 

Cinchona macrocarpa. (Vahl.) Cinchona ovalifolia. (Mutis.) 
Cascarilla macrocarpa. (Wedd.) Loxa, Santa Fe. 

Bark, Guaiana bark, in long pieces, thick, bitter, scentless. (G.) 
It is excluded from the Cinchonas by Weddell. 

Cinchona oblongifolia. (Mutis, not of Lambert.) Cinchona 
magnifolia. (Ruiz and Pa von, and Lambert.) Cinchona grandifolia. 
(Poir.) Cinchona caducijtora. (Humb. and Bonpl.) Cascarillo 
amarillo. (Ruiz, Quinol. 7L) Cascarilla magnifolia. (Weddell.) 
New Granada. Abundant on the mountains of Panatahuas, about 
Cuchero, Chincao, Chacahuassi, &c. 

This tree is known in the districts in which it grows by the name of 
Cascarillo de jior de Azahar, M^hicli is derived from the resemblance 
which the smell of its beautiful flowers bears to those of the orange. It 
was long considered, having been so assigned by Mutis, as the source 
of the Hed Cincho?ia bark of commerce. This error arose from Mutis 
having confounded the red bark of Nevv Granada with that of Loxa, 
the former being derived from this tree, while the latter is a perfectly 
distinct species. The bark of Ci?icho?ia oblongifolia (Mutis), is the JRed 
Carthagenabark, sometimes known as Quina nova or New bark. For 
manufacturing or medicinal purposes it is worthless, being deficient in 
the alkaloids. The tree has been excluded from the genus Cinchona by 
Weddell, who makes it the type of his new genus Cascarilla. 

Cinchona oblongifolia. (Lambert, not of Mutis.), Cascarilla 
Riveroana. (Wedd.) Jean de Loxa. 

According to Lindley, the bark of this species is unknown in com- 
merce. It is excluded from the Cinchonas by Weddell. 

Cinchona rosea. (Ruiz et Pav.) Lasionema rosea. (Don.) Peru. 

Bark thick, woody, long, straight, flat, smooth ; coat whitish ; inside 
red or flesh-colour, mawkish, tiien acrid, nauseous ; infusion and tinc- 
ture astringent, not bitter, slightly febrifuge. 

Cinchona triflora. (Wright.) Exostemma triflora. (Berg.) 
Bark, Jamaica bark., in a full dose emetic. 

Officinal and Commercial Cinchona Barks. 

Three varieties of Cincliona bark are included in the Materia Medica 
of the London Pharmacopceia of 1851, under the popular names of 
Pale bark., Yellow bark, and Red bark. 

Pale bark, is referred by the London College of Physicians to 
C. Condaminia. (Weddell.) Of this species, however, Weddell makes 
five varieties, the barks of two of which certainly do not come under the 
demonination of Pale bark, and the authors of the Pharmacopseia do 
not indicate which of the varieties they intend to be used. 

1. Loxa, or Crown bark, is the sort of bark to which the name of 
Pale bark is most frequently applied in commerce, and as the Loxa 
bark which was originally imported is considered to have been derived 
principally from Weddell's variety vera of Condaminea, but partly also 
from varieties Candollii and Lucumctfolia of the same species, it may 
be inferred that this is the bark referred to by the College. But the 
Crown bark now usually occurring in commerce, which is known as 



344 VEGETABLES.— RUBiACE^. 

H. O. Crow7i hark, is probably derived from C. scrobiculata, var. 
gamina, or C. glandulifera ; this, therefore, is not the pale bark of the 
pharmacopoeia. 

Under the general denomination of Pale hark may also be included 
some other varieties of quilled bark, which more or less resemble Crown 
bark in external appearance, and in the alkaloids present, among which 
cinchonine predominates. These are, — 

2. Grey, Silver, or Huanuco hark, which is referred to C. nitida, and 
C. micrantha. The former is supposed to yield the best or Fi?ie Grey 
hark, and the latter the Inferior or Coarse Grey hark. 

3. Huamalies hark, which, when quilled, is of a dull-grey externally. 
This has been ascribed to C. puhescens, var. purpurea (Weddell), but 
according to Mr. J. E. Howard, it is more probably derived from C. 
Condaminea^ var. vera. 

4. Ash, Jaen, or Ten hark, which is derived from a variety of 
C. ovata. 

Yellow bark, is referred by the London College of Physicians to 
C. Calisaya (Weddell). Tliis species, of which Weddell makes two 
varieties, furnishes the bark known in commerce as, — 

1. Calisaya, Royal, or Yellow hark, which is usually in flat, but 
sometimes in quilled pieces. This sort of bark is richer than any other 
in quinine. It is principally derived from C. Calisaya, var. vera, of 
Weddell, but the bark of the other variety of this species, and barks of 
other species are sometimes mixed with or substituted for the true 
Calisaya bark. The false or spurious Calisaya harks are derived 
from C. Soliviana, C. ovata, var. rujinervis, C micrantha, C. amygda- 
lifolia, C. scrohiculata, varieties^ genuinn and Delondriana. 

Under tlie general denomination of Yellow hark may be included 
the following, — 

2. Carabaya hark, which is probably derived from C. ovata, 
varieties, vulgaris and rujinervis. 

3. Cusco hark, which is derived from C. puhescens, var. Pelletie- 
riena. 

4. Pitaya hark, known also as Colombia or Antioquia hark, derived 
from C. Condaminea, var. Pitayensis. 

5. Hard Carthagena bark, derived from C. cordifolia, var. vera. 

6. Fibrous or Spongy Carthagena hark, derived from C. Conda- 
minea, var. lancifolia. 

Red bark, according to the London Pharmacopseia of 1851, is 
derived from an uncertain species of Cinchona. It is probable that 
the colour of the Cinchona barks is not peculiar to any particular species 
of the genus, but is rather due to the conditions under which the bark 
has been produced or prepared, such as climate, soil, age of the tree, 
mode of drying the bark, &c. W^eddell states that he has f^und the 
barks of C. ovata, C. scrohiculata, C. puhescens, and C. Calisaya, 
sometimes to assume a more or less red tint from such causes. Nothing 
has been satisfactorily made out respecting the origin of the Hed hark 
of commerce. Weddell was at one time disposed to ascribe it to C 
ovata, var. erythroderma, but has since been induced to doubt this. 



VEGETABLES.— RUBiACE^. 345 

The bark of C, ohlongifolia of Mutis, which was at one time considered 
to yield the red bark of commerce, may be distinguished as the Red 
Carthagena bark, 

CoFFEA. (De Cand. iv. 468.) 

CoFFEA Arabica. (Linn.) Coffi, Coffee shrub. Low mountains 
of Arabia Felix. 

The fresh seeds are febrifuge, diuretic, and tonic ; decoction used 
for that of Peruvian bark. (G.) The albumen of the seeds consti- 
tutes the coffee of commerce, the agreeable stimulating effects of which, 
after being roasted, are well known. It has the power of removing 
drowsiness, and of retarding the access of sleep, for some hours. 
CoNDAMiNEA. (Dc Cand. iv. 402.) 

CoNDAMiNEA CORYMBOSA. (D. C.) Macrocnemum corymbosum. 
(R. et P.) Peruvian Andes. 

Bark bitter, viscid, inside white, often mixed with that of cinchona. 
(G.) Bark febrifugal ; the bark -gatherers of Peru are said by Ruiz 
and Pavon to use this plant for adulterating cinchona ; its bark is only 
slightly bitter, and may be easily recognised by its being white inside, 
rather bitter and viscid. (L.) 

CouTAREA. (De Cand. iv. 350.) 

CouTAREA SPECiosA. (Aubl.) Portlanditt hexandra. (Jacq.) 
Guayana, Cayenne. 

The bark of French Guayana is said to be procured from this shrub ; 
its properties are similar to those of cinchona. 

ExosTEMMA. (De Cand. iv. 358.) 

ExosTEMMA BRACHYCARPUM. (Rosm.) Ciuchoiia brachycarpa. 
(Swartz.) Jamaica. 

Bark emetic in a full dose. (G.) 

ExosTEMMA Carib^um. (Rocm.) Cinchona caribcea^ (Jacq.) C. 
Jamaicensis, (Wright,) Quinquiiia pilon, Sea-side beech. West Indies 
and Mexico. 

Bark, Caribbee barky Quinquina des antilles, cinnamon colour, bitter, 
scentless, cheap. (G.) Febrifuge and emetic ; smell nauseous, ex- 
cessively bitter and disagreeable ; according to Dr. Wright, the flavour 
is at first sweet, with a mixture of horse-radish and aromatics, after- 
wards excessively bitter. 

ExosTEMMA coriaceum. (Roem.) Cincho7ia coriacea. (Poir.) 
St. Domingo. 

Bark highly esteemed in America. 

ExosTEMMA floribundum. (Roem.) Cinchona Jloribunda, (Swartz,) 
C. Montana, (Badier,) C. sanctce LuzicE, (David,) C. Luziana, (Vitm.) 
Vv^est India Islands. 

Bark, St. Lucie bark. Quinquina piton, thick, brown, rugged ; inside 
rusty fawn ; mostly used externally, being apt to excite vomiting and 
purgin«-. (G.) Bark similar to that of E. Caribccum, but rather drastic ; 
Pelletier and Caventou found in it neither quinine nor cinchonine ; it 
is also called Quinquina of St. Lucia. (L.) 

ExosTEMMA Peruvianum. (Humb.) Ciyichona Peruviana. (Poir.) 
Colder parts of Peru. 



346 VEGETABLES.— RUBiACE^. 

Bark very bitter, sweetish, smell nauseous. (L.) Supposed to 
yield Quina bicotorata, but this is doubtful. 

ExosTEMMA SouzANUM. (Mart.) Brazil. 

According to Guibourt, tliis plant produces an excessively bitter 
febrifugal bark, called Quinquina de piautri. It colours the saliva 
yellow, and is said to contain cinchonine ; Buckner found in it an alkali, 
which he called Eseiiheckine, upon the erroneous supposition that the 
bark belonged to Esenbeckia febrifuga. (L.) 

Guibourt has ascribed the bark sometimes called Pitaya bark (not 
the Pitaya described at page 340), the Quina bicolorata of the French, 
to a species of Exostemma. 

Galium. (De Cand. iv. 593.) 

*Galium aparine. (Linn.) (E. B. 816.) Aparine hispida. 
(Monch.) Rubia tinctorum. (Lapeyr.) Aparine, Cleavers, Goose 
grass. 

FI. white. June, July. Annual. Hedges. Very common. 

^Galium ULiGi.NOsuM. (Linn.) (E. B. 1972). Mollugo montana, 
Rough marsh bedstraiv. 

Fl. white. August. Perennial. Sides of ditches. Common. 

*Galium verum. (Linn.) (E. B. 660.) Cheese renning bedstraw. 
Yellow bedstraiv. 

Fl. yellow. July, August. Perennial. Dry banks in sandy soil. 
Common. 

Vulnerary, infusion used to curdle milk ; roots dye a red colour. 
(G.) Flower-stalks used as a yellow dye, and employed for colouring 
Cheshire cheese. (O'Sh.) 

*Galium Mollugo. (Linn.) (E. B. 1673.) G. luteum. (Monch.) 
Rubia sylvestris Icevis, Great hedge bedstraw. Wild madder. 

Fl. white. July, August. Perennial. Hedges and thickets. Common. 

Galium SYLVATicuM. (Linn.) Most parts of Europe. 

The roots of this and of the preceding species dye red ; herbs opening. 

*Galium Cruciata. (Scop.) G. cruciatum. (Smith.) G. Vaillantia, 
(Wett.) G. Valantia. (Baumg.) Aparine latifolia. (Monch.) Cruciata^ 
Valantia cruciata. (Linn.) Cross-leaved bedstraw, Crosswoi^t. 

Fl. yellow. May, June. Perennial. Hedge-banks and thickets. 

Root used in dyeing. 

Gardenia. (De Cand. iv. 379.) 
Gardenia campanulata. (Roxb.) East Indies. 

Fruit cathartic and anthelmintic. (Roxb.) 

Gardenia gummifera. (Linn.) Ceylon, Coromandel. 

Exudes a gum-resin like elemi. 

Gardenia lucida. (Roxb.) G. resinifera. (Roth.) East Indies. 

The young shoots and flower-buds exude a resin called Dihki-malei, 
Dik-millei, or Cumbi gum of Hindostan. Ainslie describes this as a 
gum-resin resembling myrrh in appearance, and possessing nearly 
similar virtues, but more active. Mr. Edward Solly found it to contain 
83 per cent, of a yellowish-brown resin, mixed with impurities. 



VEGETABLES.— RUBiACE^. 347 

Genipa. (De Cand. iv. 378.) 
Genipa Americana. (Linn.) Gardeni Genipa. (Swartz.) West 
Indfes. 

Berry eatable. 

Geophila. (De Cand. iv. 537.) 

Geophila macropoda. (D. C.) Psychotria macropoda, (Ruiz 
et Pav.) Psychotria cordifolia. (Dietr.) South America. 
Emetic. 

Geophila reniformis. (Cham, et Schlecht.) Cephaelis reni- 
formis. (H. B. et Kunth.) Psychotria herbacea. (Linn.) Hotter 
parts of America. 

Root emetic, substituted for ipecacuanha. (L.) 

Hydrophilax. (De Cand. iv. 576.) 

^ Hydrophilax maritima. (Linn.) Sarissus anceps. (Gaertn.) 
Malabar and Coromandel. 

Fibres of the roots, Muddi awl, imported from the East Indies ; 
used for dyeing reds and browns. See Morinda and Patabea. 

Hymenodictyon. (De Cand. iv. 358.) 

Hymenodictyon excelsum. (Wall.) Cinchona excelsa. (Roxb.) 

East Indies. 

The two inner layers of bark possess the bitterness and astringency 

of Peruvian bark ; the bitterness is not so quickly communicated to 

the taste on chewing the bark, but is much more durable, especially 

about the upper part of the fauces. (L. ex Roxb.) 

IsERTiA. (De Cand. iv. 437.) 

IsERTiA cocciNEA. (Vahl.) Guettarda coccinca. (Aubl.) Guayana. 
Bark very bitter. (G.) A decoction of the leaves employed by the 
Creoles as a fomentation to cure swellings ; bark febrifugal. (L.) 

Manettia. (De Cand. iv. 362.) 

Manettia cordifolia. (Mart.) 31. Glabra. Buenos Ayres, &c* 
Bark of the root considered a valuable remedy in dropsy and dysentery ; 
given in powder, dose 5ss. to oiss., acts as an emetic. (L.) 

Morinda. (De Cand. iv. 446.) 

Morinda ciTRiFOLiA. (Linn.) Bancudus latifolius, Cada pilava, 

Morinda umbellata. (Linn.) India. 

Fibres of the roots, Muddi awl, imported from the East Indies ; 
used for dyeing reds and browns. See Patabea and Hydrophilax 
NoNATELiA. (De Cand. iv. 466.) 

NoNATELiA OFFICINALIS. (Aubl.) Psychotria involucrata, 
(Swartz.) Cayenne and Guayana. 

Pectoral in infusion. (G.) 

All the parts, when bruised, give out a slight aromatic odour. The 
Creoles call it Azier a Vasthme, because they find an infusion of the 
leaves an excellent remedy for asthma. (L.) 



348 VEGETABLES.— RDBiACE.^. 

Oldenlandia. (De Cand. iv. 424.) 
Oldexlandia umbellata. (Linn.) Indian madder. Java, Co- 
romandeL • 

Root, Chay root, used in dyeing. (G.) 

Leaves expectorant ; roots substituted for madder in the East 
Indies. (L.) 

Employed in Coromandel to dye an excellent red on cotton cloth. 
(O'Sh.) 

Ophiorhiza. (De Cand. iv. 415.) 

Ophiorhiza Mungos. (Linn.) Java, Ceylon, Sumatra. 

The parts are so intensely bitter that it is called by the Malays 
Earth-gall ; it has the reputation of being a most powerful alexiphar- 
mic, but this requires confirmation. (L.) Has liigh reputation as a 
remedy for snake-bites ; but Roxburgh altogether discredits its supposed 
virtues. (O'Sh.) 

PiEDERiA. (De Cand. iv. 471.) 

P^DERiA FCETiDA. (Linn.) Apocynum fa^tidum. (Burm.) CoU' 
volvidus fcetidus. East Indies, Japan. 

Leaves very foetid and alliaceous ; used to impregnate baths, and in 
decoction are administered internally in retention of urine, and in cer- 
tain febrile complaints. Root employed as an emetic. (L. ex Roxb.) 

Palicourea. (De Cand. iv. 524.) 
Palicourea crocea. (D. C.) Psychotria crocea. (Swartz.) West 
Indies. 
Emetic. 

Palicourea Marcgravii. (St. Hil.) Galvania vellozii. (Rcem, 
et Schult.) Ervado rato. (Mart.) Brazil. 
A poisonous plant, used to kill rats and mice. 

Palicourea officinalis. (Mart.) Brazil. 

In small doses powerfully diuretic ; used both in human and veteri- 
nary medicine. (L.) 

Palicourea DiuRETiCA. (Mart.) P. strepeus, (Mart.) P. sonans, 
(Mart.) and P. longifolia, (H. B. et K.) are said to have similar 
properties. 

Palicourea speciosa. (H. B. et Kunth.) ^ Douradinlia da Campo. 

Leaves antisyphilitic. (G.) New Granada, Brazil. 

The decoction, which in large doses is poisonous, acts especially by 
an increased action of the skin and kidneys, and the digestion is not 
hindered by moderate doses. (L. ex Martins.) 

Palicourea sulphurea. (D. C.) Psycliotrea sulphzirea. (Ruiz 
et Pav.) Peru. 

Extremely bitter ; yields a fine yellow tincture, used as a tonic. 

Patabea. (De Cand. iv. 537.) 
Patabea coccinea. (Aubl.) Cephcelis sessiliflora. (Willd.) 
One of the plants, the fibres of whose roots, under the name of Muddi 

awl, are imported from the East Indies, and employed in dyeing reds 

and browns. See Hydrophilax and Morinda. 



VEGETABLES.— RUBiACE^. 349 

PiNKNEYA. (De Cand. iv. 366.) 
PiNKNEYA PUBENS. (Michx.) Ciiichoua Caroli?iiana, P. puhescens* 
South Carolina and Florida. 

Bark febrifugal, and used in Carolina as a substitute for cinchona. 
(L.) 

PsYciiOTRiA. (De Cand. iv. 504.) 

PsYCHOTRiA EMETiCA. (Mutis.) Cephaelis emetica. (Pers.) 
Ronahea emetica. (Richard.) New Granada. 

Root, Brown ipecacuanha, Ipecacuanha noir, Ipec. 7ion annele ; 
emetic ; contains nine per cent, of emetine. (G.) It is the striated 
ipecacuanha of Guibourt, Pereira, &c. ; the black or Peruvian ipeca- 
cuanha of others, (L.) Similar to the true ipecacuanha in its pro- 
perties but weaker. It is not found in the English market. (Pereira.) 

PsYCHOTRiA NoxiA. (St. Hil.) Brazil. 

Is a reputed poison. (L.) 

Randia. (De Cand. iv. 384.) 

Randia dumetorum. (Lamb.) Canthium coronatum. (Lamb.) 
Gardenia dumetorum. (Retz.) G. spinosa, (Thunb.) R. spinosa. 
(Blum.) Gardenio spinosa. (Linn.) Posoqueria dumetorum. (Roxb.) 
Ceriscus Malaharicus. (Gaertn.) Coast of Coromandel. 

Root, Malabar ipecacuanha, emetic. (G.) The fruit, when bruised 
and thrown ^into water, intoxicates or even kills fish, which are not 
considered less wholesome in consequence ; in the form of powder, it 
is a powerful emetic ; an infusion of the bark of the root is employed 
to nauseate in bowel complaints. (L.) O'Shaughnessy states, that the 
fruit was carefully examined during a search made by himself and others 
for an efficient substitute for ipecacuanha ; the result was, the opinion, 
that little or no dependence can be placed on it as an emetic remedy. 

Randia Ruiziana. (D. C.) Gardenia long^Jlora. (Ruiz et. Pav.) 
South America. 

Berry eatable. 

Remijia. (De Cand. iv. 357.) 

Remijia ferruginea. (D. C.) Cinchona f err uginea. (St. Hil.) 
Brazil. 

Remijia Vellozii, (D. C.) Cinchona Vellozii. (St. Hil.) Brazil. 

These are substituted in Brazil for cinchona bark, under the names 
of Quina de serra, or Quina de remijo, but are said to be of inferior 
quality. (L.) 

RiCHARDSONiA. (Dc Cand. iv. 567.) 

RiCHARDSONiA ROSEA. (St. Hil.) i?. emetica. (Mart.) Brazil. 

Von Martius speaks highly of the excellence of the root of this plant, 
as an agreeable emetic, in doses of one or two drachms. (L.) 

RiCHARDSONiA SCABRA. (St. Hil.)i?. BraziUcnsis. (Gom.) Richardia 
scabra. (Linn.) Righardia pilosa. (Ruiz et Pav.) Spermacoce hirsuta. 
(Roem. et Schult.) Spermacoce hexandra. (Rich.) Brazil.*^ 

Root imported as a substitute for ipecacuanha, and forms the undu- 
lated, amylaceous, or white ipecacuanha of pharmaceutical writers. It 



350 VEGETABLES.— RUBiACiE. 

does not contain, according to Pelletier, more than six per cent, of 
emetine. 

KuBiA. (De Cand. iv. 588.) 

EuBiA MUNGiSTA. (Roxb.) i?. maugith, (Roxb.) R. cordata. 
(Thunb.) Bengal. 

Root, Bengal madder, Mu7igeet, employed in dyeing. 

RuBiA TiNCTORUM. (Linn.) R, j)eregrina. (Murr.) E. syhestris. 
(Mill.) R. tinctorum. (Mill.) Madder. South of Europe. 

Root, madder, grappe, meekrappe, lizari, ruhice radix, slightly 
astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, and aperitive ; used in the rickets ; 
dose in powder 9j. to 3ss. ; chiefly used as a valuable dyeing root; 
dyes red. (G.) The roots of both of these contain a red colouring 
matter, Alizarin, (Robiquet,) and also a yellow colouring matter, 
Xanthine (Kuhl). The former occurs in orange-red crystals, taste- 
less, inodorous, little soluble in cold, but soluble in boiling water ; also 
in alcohol, ether, the fixed oils, and alkalies. A solution of alum 
added to a solution of alizarin, and precipitated by potash, gives a rose 
lake of the most charming tint. Xanthine is yellow, very soluble in 
water, and alcohol, slightly in ether ; the solution passes to orange- 
red by contact with alkalies, to lemon-yellow by acids ; it is inodorous, 
but has a sweetish-bitter taste. (O'Sh.) According to Runge, there 
are no fewer than five colouring matters in madder — viz.. Madder 
purple (purpurin) ; Madder red (alizarin) ; bladder orange ; Madder 
yellow (xanthin) ; and Madder brown. He also mentions two colour- 
less acids of madder, viz., Maderic and Rubiacic acids. (Pereira.) 
The bones of animals fed on madder are coloured red. 

Sherardia, (De Cand. iv. 58L) 

*Sherardia arvensis. (Linn.) (E. B. 89L) Herb sherard, Little 
jield madder. 

Fl. blue. June, August. Annual. Cultivated fields. Common. 
Qualities the same as those of galium. (G.) ^ 

SiDERODENDRON. (Dc Cand. iv. 478.) 
SiDERODENDRON TRiFLORUM. (Vahl.) Iroii wood. South America. 
Bark diuretic, stomachic. 

Stenostomum. (De Cand. iv. 460.) 

Stenostomum acutatum. South America. 

The bark called Quina bicolorata has been ascribed by some authors 
to this tree. 

Uncaria. (De Cand. iv. 347.) 

•Uncaria Gambir. (Roxb.) Nauclea gambir. (Hunt.) Indian 
Archipelago. 

Gutta gambir is made from it. (G-) An extract, called Gambier, 
is prepared by the Malays from the leaves of this shrub ; with some 
sweetness, it has a more astringent taste than Ter^a Japonica ; Rox- 
burgh considered it one of the drugs, if not the only one, formerly 
called by that name in Europe. The extract is chewed by the natives 
with betel-leaf and areca ; the leaves are chewed to relieve aphthous 



V EGET ABLES.— VAI.ERI ANE^. 35 1 

eruptions of the moutli and fauces. Dr. Pereira considers this gambier 
not to form any of the kinos of the shops, but to be one of the substances 
called catechu in commerce. (L.) 

Vanguiera. (De Cand iv. 454.) 
Yanguiera edults. (Vahl.) V. cymosa. (Gaertn.) V. Madagas- 
cariensis. (Gmel.) V. Commerso7iii. (Desf.) Madagascar, China. 
Seeds like almonds. 



Order 84. VALERIAN E^. (De Cand. iv. 623.) 

Tube of the calyx adnate to the ovary, limb either dentate or partite, or pappiforui 
and involute ; corolla tubular, infundibuliform, generally five-lobed, rarely 3 — 4 lobed, 
lobes obtuse, tube equal, or gibbous, or spurred at the base ; stamens adhering by their 
filaments to the tube of the corolla, free at the apes, alternate with the lobes of the 
corolla, five, or by abortion, four, three, two, or one ; anthers ovate, bilocular ; style 
fihform ; stigmas 2 — 3, free, or concreted into a single one ; fruit membraneous, or 
subnucamentaceous, indehiscent, crowned when young by the limb of the calyx, either 
one or three celled, two being empty ; seeds in the fertile cell solitary, pendulous, ex- 
albuminous ; embryo straight; radicle superior; cotyledons flat. Annual or perennial 
hei^bs, the latter having strong-scented roots ; leaves opposite, exstipulate, varying 
much in shape, not only in different species, but also in the same individual ; flowers 
cymo-corymbose. 

Centranthus. (De Cand. iv. 631.) 

*Centranthus RUBER. (D. C) (E. B. 1532.) C.latifolius. (Dufr.) 

C. maritimus. (Gray.) Valeriana rubra. (All.) Red valerian. 
Fl. rose-coloured. June, July. Perennial. Chalk pits in Kent. 

Doubtful native. 

Young shoots eaten as a salad. 

Nardostachys. (De Cand. iv. 624.) 
Nardostachys jatamansi. (D. C.) Nardus indica. (Bauh.) 

Patrinia jatamansi. (Don.) Valeriana jatamansi. (Jones.) Nap^oe 

ivhiKT]. (Dioscor.) Spikenard. 

This, the true spikenard of the ancients, has been highly esteemed 

both as a perfume and as a stimulant medicine. Oriental writers give it 

as a remedy for a multitude of diseases, and it appears to be really 

valuable in hysteria and epilepsy. (L.) 

Vaxeriana. (De Cand. iv. 632.) 

Valeriana Celtic a. (Linn.) Nardus celtica, Celtic nard. Alps, 
France, and Italy. 

Roots much esteemed in the Levant as a cosmetic and perfume. 
(O'Sh.) 

Valeriana Montana. (Linn.) Mountain valerian. Mountainous 
parts of Europe. 

Roots of this and the former species aromatic ; used in hysteria and 
epilepsy. (G.) 

*Valeriana dioica. (Linn.) (E. B. 628.) V. sylvestris. (Gray.) 
Phu minus J Small marsh valerian. 

Fl. white, tinged with red. Perennial. Marshy meadows. Common. 
Root an active tonic, exhibited in spasmodic diseases. 



352 VEGETABLES.— DiPSACE^. 

Valeriana Dioscoridis. {Fl. GrcBc.) ^ov. (Dioscorid.) Near 
Limysus in Lycia. 

According to Sibthorp this is the real Phu of Dioscorides, an(i 
therefore the most powerful of the Valerians, for which V. officinalis is 
to be merely considered the northern substitute. De Candolle refers the 
species to V. sisymbrifolia of Desfontaines, an oriental plant ; but this 
does not appear to be certain, and the former learned botanist was not 
personally acquainted with the subject. (L.) 

Valeriana Hardwickii. (Wall.) Mountains in north of India. 

Tiie thick, fleshy, strongly-scented root used in medicine in Nepal 
and the north of India. (Royle.) 

^Valeriana officinalis. (Linn.) (E. B. 698.) F. sylvestris, 
Officinal valerian, Wild valerian. 

Fl. pale flesh-colour. June, July. Perennial. Ditches and sides 
of rivers. Common. 

The aromatic, or rather foetid roots, are stimulant, not only acting 
upon the secretions, but producing a specific influence over the cerebro- 
spinal system, bringing on, as is well known, a kind of intoxication in 
cats, and in large doses occasioning in man scintillations, agitation, and 
even convulsions ; it is chiefly employed in asthenic fevers, epilepsy, 
chorea, hysteria, and as an anthelmintic. (L.) 

Valeriana phu. (Linn.) Phu, Valeriana major. Great valerian. 
Alps of Switzerland, &c. 

Hoot an active tonic, used in spasmodic diseases. 

Valerianella. (De Cand. iv. 625.) 
*Valerianella OLiTORiA. (Monch.) (E. B. 811.) Fedia olitoria. 
(Vahl.) Valeriana locusta, Corn salad, Lamb's lettuce. 

Fl. blue. April, June. Annual. Banks and corn-fields. Common. 
Younc: shoots eaten as a salad. 



Order 85.— DIPSACE^. (De Cand. iv. 643.) 

Tube of the cahjx adherent to the ovary, limb in the form of a variously-divided 
pappus, often surrounded by a scariose involucel ; corolla gamopetalous, tubular, in- 
serted into the upper part of the calyx ; limh oblique, 4 — 5 cleft ; stamens four, inserted 
into the tube of the corolla, alternate with its lobes, and distinct; style filiform; 
ovarii one-celled, one-seeded, generally covered by the involucel ; seed pendulous ; 
albumen fleshy ; embryo straight ; radicle superior ; flowers in dense heads, veiy rarely 
in verticels. 

DiPSACUs. (De Cand. iv. 645.) 

*DiPSACUs FULLONUM. (Mill.) (E. B. 2080.) Cardimsfullonum, 
Dipsacus sativus. (Gmel.) Fuller's teasel, Fuller^ s thistle. 

FL pale purple. July, August. Biennial. Waste places. Doubtful 
native. 

Root bitter and tonic. 

* Dipsacus sylvestris. (Mill.) (E. B. 103|.) D. vulgaris. 
(Gmel.) D.fullonum. (Thor.) Luhrum veneris ^ Wild teasel. 

Fl, purple. July. Biennial. Road sides and ditches. Common 

Roots unti.scrofulouSj and in wine, diuretic. 



VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 353 

Knautia. (De Cand. iv. 650.) 

*KisrAUTiA ARVENSis. (Coult.) (E. B. 659.) Scahiosa, S. arvensis. 
(Linn.) Field scabious. 

FI. bluish. July. Perennial. Pastures and corn fields. Common. 

Leaves depurative, used in diseases of the skin, of the lungs, and in 
quinsy. 

ScABiosA. (De Cand. iv. 654.) 

ScABiosA SuccisA. (Linn.) (E. B. 878.) Aster ocephalus Succisa. 
(Wall.) Succisa pratensis, (Monch.) Succisa, 3Iorsus diaboli, 
DeviFs bit. 

Fl. violet, or dark blue. July, August. Perennial. Meadows and 
pastures. 

Roots used in syphilis and scrofula. (G.) 



Order 86.— COMPOSIT-^. (De Cand. v. 4.) 

Calyx superior, closely adhering to the ovary, its limb entire, membraneous, toothed 
and formed of scales or hairs called pappus ; corolla monopetalous, superior, either 
ligulate, or tubular, and 4 — 5 toothed ; stamens usually five, filaments distinct ; anthers 
cohering into a cylinder (syngenesious) ; ovary inferior, one-celled ; style simple, 
passing through the tube of the anthers ; stigma bifid ; fruit consisting of an achene 
and calyx, closely connected, and enclosing the embryo; the achene one-celled, arti- 
culated on the receptacle, generally sessile, rostrate, or not rostrate at the apex ; seed 
attached to the base of the fruit by a very short funiculus ; embryo erect ; radicle short, 
straight, inferior ; plumula inconspicuous ; florets collected into dense heads (capi- 
tules), either all hermaphrodite, or the outer ones female or neuter, the inner being 
hermaphrodite, or male, or they are entirely composed of florets of distinct sexes; 
capitides with the florets sometimes all tubular, sometimes all ligulate, sometimes the 
central florets are tubular and the outer ones ligulate ; involucre of one or many rows, 
of more or less united scales, surrounding the receptacle. Herbs, or shrubs, rarely 
trees, forming almost a tenth part of the vegetable kingdom ; leaves simple, alternate, or 
opposite. 

Achillea. (De Cand. vi. 24.) 

Achillea A GERATUM. (Linn.) Ageratum, Eupatorium mesties, 
Sweet maudlin. South of Europe. 
Stomachic, cordial, cephalic. 

^Achillea Millefolium. (Linn.) (E. B. 758.) Millefolium, 
Milfoil, Yarrow, 

Fl. white, sometimes rose-coloured. June, September. Perennial. 

Dry hilly pastures. ^ 

Achillea NOBiLis. (Linn.) Shotoy Milfoil, South of Europe. 

Astringent, tonic, and vulnerary, used in haemorrhages, and externally 
in headache, tumours, &c. ; added to beer to render it more intoxicat- 
ing, and lately recommended to smokers in lieu of tobacco ; root warm, 
used for contrayerva ; Dr. Stokes, of Dublin, has found milfoil useful 
in dropsies. 

AcHYROPHORUS. (De Cand. vii. 92.) 

*AcHYROPHORus liiAcuLATUs. (Scop.) (E. B. 225.) HypochcETis 
macidata. (Linn.) Herba costa, Hungarian hawk-weed, Spotted 
cafs ear. 

•2 a 



354 VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 

Fl. deep yellow, July. Perennial. Open chalky and limestone 
pastures. 

Used in pulmonary affections, and pains of the side. 

Adenostyles. (De Cand. v. 203.) 
Adenostyles glabra. (D. C.) Cacalia alliariafolia. (Lamb.) 

Cacalia alpma. (Jacq.) Tussilago cacalia. (Scop.) Cacalia alpina. 

(Linn.) C. glabra. (Vill.) Alps of France, Italy, &c. 
The leaves have been recommended in coughs. (L.) 

Ambrosia. (De Cand. v. 525.) 
Ambrosia maritima. (Linn.) South of Europe. 

Cardiac, cephalic, astringent. 

Anacyclus. (De Cand. vi. 15,) 

Anacyclus Pyrethrum. (D. C.) Anthemis pyrethrum. (Linn.) 
ChamcBmelum specioso Jiore radice fervente. (Shaw.) Pellitory of 
Spain. Barbary, &c. 

The root is imported from the Levant under the name of Pellitory 
of Spain. It is brownish externally, whitish internally ; its taste is hot, 
acrid, and permanent, depending on a fixed acrid oleo-resin deposited in 
vesicles in the bark ; this oleo-resin renders the root a powerful rubefacient 
and stimulant. It is principally employed as a masticatory in rheu- 
matic affections of the face, or in the form of tincture in the tooth- 
ache. Sometimes gargles are made of it, and used in relaxations of 
the uvula. Internally it has been taken as a gastric stimulant. (L. ex 
Pereira.) The powder is used in large quantities by the Mahometans 
to excite transpiration, being rubbed on the skin ; it is also used inter- 
nally as a cordial and stimulant in lethargy and palsy, and in certain 
stages of typhus fever. (Ainslie.) The root is pickled while young 
as a sauce. (Gr.) 

Anacyclus radiatus. (Lois.) Anthemis valentina. (Linn.) 
Puphthalmum, Ox-eye. South of Europe. 

Vulnerary, aperitive, dyes a good yellow. (G.) 

Anthemis, (De Cand. vi. 4.) 
Anthemis arvensis. (Linn.) (E. B. 602.) ChamcEmelum arvense. 
(All.) Coryi chamomile^ Wild chamomile. 
Fl. disk yellow, ray white. July. Biennial. Corn fields. 

*Anthemis nobilis. (Linn.) (E. B. 980.) A. odorata. (Lamb.) 
A. aurea. (Brot.) Chamcemelum nobili. (All.) Chamcemelum, Com- 
mon chamomile. 

Fl. disk yellow, ray white. August. Perennial. Dry heaths. 

Chamomile heads, in the shops c^iWe^floioers, contain a volatile oil, 
resin, and bitter extractive ; the oil and resin render them stimulant, 
while the bitter extractive communicates tonic properties ; the warm 
infusion is used externally as a fomentation, and internally to promote 
vomiting ; the cold infusion, or the extract, is taken as a tonic, in any 
cases in which tonic substances are indicated, as dyspepsia. (Pereira.) 
Chamomile in substance has, in some instances, proved useful in in- 
termittents ; Dr. Schall affirms that it is not only an effectual pre- 



VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 355 

ventitive of nightmare, but the sole certain remedy for that complaint. 
(Burnett.) 

*Anthemi5 tinctoria. (Linn.) (E. B. 1472.) Chamoamelum 
tinciorium. (AIL) Ox-eye chamomile. 

Fl. yellow. July, August. Perennial. Durham, Essex, 

Flowers dye a good yellow. 

Arnica. (De Cand. vi. 316.) 

Arnica Montana. (Linn.) Doronicum montanums (Lamb.) Ger- 
man leopard's bane. Mountain tobacco. Meadows of the cooler part of 
Europe. 

Root discussive ; leaves attenuant, diaphoretic, and diuretic ; in large 
doses they induce vomiting, until the stomach is used to them. The 
emetic action of Arnica was found by M. Dupuytren to depend on par- 
ticles of down which remain suspended in the infusion ; hence the 
necessity of filtering. Much used in bruises from falls; flowers have 
been substituted for Peruvian bark in intermittents and gangrenes. In 
their effects the flowers are stimulating, and when administered in small 
doses, they are very beneficial in raising the pulse, in exciting the action 
of the entire sanguiferous system, in checking diarrhoeas, and particu- 
larly in removing paralytic affections of the voluntary muscles ; they 
have also been recommended in chronic rheumatism, in retention of 
urine from paralysis of the bladder, and in amaurosis. (G.) It is said 
to owe its noxious qualities to the presence of cytisine. The activity 
of Arnica seems, however, to have been exaggerated. It has been re- 
commended in the cure of putrid fever, ague, palsy, amaurosis, cfcc. &c., 
and on the continent is called Panacea lapsorum. (L.) 
Aronicum. (De Cand. vi. 319.) 

Aronicum scorpioides. (D. C.) Arnica scorpoides. (Linn.) Do- 
ronicum grandijiorum. (Lamb.) Grammarthron scorpioides. (Cass.) 
Doronicum radice dulci^ Creeping leopards bane. Alps of Europe. 

Poots aromatic, used by sportsmen in Alpine countries against gid- 
diness. 

Artemisia. (De Cand. vi. 92.) 

**Artemisia Abrotanum. (Linn.) Abrotanum mas, Old man. 
Southernwood. Native of south of Europe. 

Fl. yellowish. September. Small shrub. Gardens. 

Tops discussive, antiseptic, vermifuge and tonic. (G.) A powerful 
anthelmintic. (L.) 

* Artemisia Absinthium. (Linn.) (E. B. 1230.) Absinthium 
vulgar e. (Lamb.) Common ivormwood. 

Fl. dingy yellow. August. Perennial. Waste places on chalky soils. 

Bitter, stomachic, excites the appetite, promotes digestion, antiseptic 
and vermifuge ; it was recommended by Haller for keeping oflT fits of 
the gout, for which it is said to have served the Emperor Charles V. 
This plant is thought to drive away insects from clothes and furniture, 
for which purpose it is often laid into drawers and chests in the country. 
A very bitter matter called absvithin, has been obtained from it. 
Brewers are said to add the fruit to their hops, to render beer more 
heady, and rectifiers to their spirits. 

2a 2 



356 VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 

*Artemisia campestris. (Linn.) (E. B. 338.) Artemisia, Fine^ 
leaved mugwort, Field southernwood. 

Fl. dusky yellow. August. Perennial. Dry sandy heaths. Eare. 
Herb astringent, antiseptic, discutient. 

Artemisia Chinensis. China. 

Chinese moxa has been said to be prepared from the downy leaves of 
this species. 

Artemisia Dracunculus. (luinn.) D racwiculus hortensis, Tarragon, 
All the north of Russia in Asia. 

Excites the appetite and the menses; heating ; carminative; eaten as 
a potherb, and communicates a peculiar fine flavour to vinegar and to 
mustard. (G.) The inspissated juice of the leaves considered by many 
a powerful sudorific. (O'Sh.) 

Artemisia Indica. (Willd.) Nepal, China, Japan. 

Leaves slightly aromatic and bitter, considered in India as a powerful 
deobstruent and antispasmodic. (L.) Substituted for A. absinthium, 
but weaker. (O'Sh.) 

Artemisia Judaica. (Linn.) Syria, Egypt. ^ 

The seeds. Worm seeds, Semen contra, S. cincE, used as a vermifuge, 
in doses of gr. x. to 3ss., three or four times a day ; they are also 
stomachic ; tansy seeds are substituted for them. (G.) vide A. sieheri. 

Artemisia maritima. (Linn.) (E. B. 1706, and 1 101, vars. a and /3.) 
Absinthium maritimum, Common Roman wormwood. Sea wormwood. 
Fl. yellow. September. Perennial. Sea-shores. 
Properties the same as A. absinthium. 

Artemisia Moxa. (D. C.) Absinthium moxa. (Bess.) Moxa 
tveed. China. 

Described by Gray as A. sinensis, and A. maderaspatana. Down 
of the leaves, 3Ioxa, formed into small cones, is bi^rned on the place 
affected, in gout, rheumatism, diseases of the joints, &c. (G.) It is 
from the woolly leaves of this, and not A. Chinensis, that the Chinese 
prepare their moxa ; this substance, employed as a convenient means of 
applying the actual cautery, is, however, obtained from many other 
plants. (L.) 

Artemisia Pontica. (Linn.) Artemisia halsamita. (Willd.) Ab- 
sintJiium Romaiium, True Roman toormwood. South Europe. 

Artemisia rupestris. (Linn.) Artemisia grandiflora. (Hoff'm.) 
Absinthium rupestre, Alpine wormwood. Aland, Siberia. 

Properties like those of A. Judaica. (G.) The latter is much 
esteemed as an application to injured parts, and also taken internally, 
and supposed to be tonic and diaphoretic. (O'Sh.) 

Artemisia santonica. Santonicum, Tartarian southernwood. 
(W. B. 122.) 

Properties the same as those of A. Judaica. 

Artemisia Sieberi. (D. C.) A. contra, A. glomerata. Palestine. 

According to Batka, this produces the substance called Semen contra, 

or Barbotine, a strong aromatic bitter drug imported from Aleppo and 



VEGETABLES.— coMPOsiTiE. 357 

Earbary as a vermifuge; it is employed in powder, in aqueous infusion, 
or in syrup. A beautiful crystalline substance called santonine, has 
been obtained from wormseed. It also yields volatile oil, resin, &c. 

^Artemisia vulgaris. (Linn.) (E. B. 978.) Artemisia, Mugwort. 
Fl. whitish-yellow. August. Perennial. Hedges; common. 
Tops active uterines, employed in decoction and as a bath ; mixed 
with rice and sugar, are by the Chinese women used as a pessary. (G.) 
Besides these, the following have been employed medicinally : — 

A. PROCERA. (Willd.) A. ARBORESCENS. (Linn.) A. GLACIALIS. 

(Linn.) A. sricATA. (Jacq.) and A. Vallesiaca. (All.) 
Aster. (De Cand. v. 226.) 

Aster Amellus. (Linn.) Star-wort. Middle and south of Europe. 
Leaves discussive, vulnerary, resolvent, and useful in angina. 

Atractylis. (De Cand. v. 549.) 

Atractylis humilis. (Linn.) Cirsellium humili. (Gaertn.) South 
Europe. 

Analogous to Cnicus henedictus. Flowers coagulate milk. 

Baccharis. (De Cand. v. 398.) 
Baccharis concava. (D. C.) Molina concava. (Ruiz et Pav.) 
Baccharis tridentata. (Poepp.) JB. resinosa. (Hook.) South America. 
Leaves dye a black colour. 

Baccharis dependens. (Pers.) Molina dependens. (Ruiz et Pav.) 
South America. 

Baccharis emarginata. (Pers.) Molina emarginata. (Ruiz et Pav.) 
South America. 

Baccharis oblongifolia. (Spreng.) Molina oblongifolia. (Ruiz et 
Pav.) South America. 
Vulnerary and consolidant. 

^ 

Baccharis genistelloides. (Pers.) Conyzagenistelloides. (Lamb.) 
Molina reticulata. (Less.) Peru and Brazil. 

This and B. venosa, a nearly-allied species, are called in Brazil 
Carqueja dolce, and C. amarga, on account of the quantity of bitter 
extractive matter they contain, and which is combined with a specific 
aroma ; they are particularly useful in all intermittent fevers, and for 
all disorders in which Artemisia is employed in Europe. Both the 
extract and the decoction are used ; it is particularly serviceable in 
chronic diseases of horses, which are very fond of this herb. (L. ex 
Martins.) 

Baccharis prostrata. (Pars.) Molina prostrata. (Ruiz et Pav.) 
South America. 

Decoction used in dysury. 

Bellis. (De Cand. v. 304.) 

*Bellis perennis. (Linn.) (E. B. 424.) Bellis minor, Consolida 
minima, Day's eye, Daisy. 



358 VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 

FI. with a white ray, in cultivated varieties red or variegated, and 
all semi-ligulate. April, October. Perennial. Pastures. 

Root antiscrofulous ; leaves in salads open the body ; used in vul- 
nerary fomentations. 

BiDENS. (De Cand. v. 593.) 

*BiDENS TRIPARTITA. (Linn.) (E. B. 113.) Eiipatorium cannabis 
num fceminum, Trifid burr marygold. Water hemp agrimony. 

Fl. yellowish. July. Annual. Wet places. Common. 

Strong smelling, hepatic, vulnerary. (Gr.) The whole plant is acrid, 
and when chewed, excites salivation powerfully. (L.) 

BiDENS CHRYSANTHEMOiDES. (Michx.) Corsopsis bideus. (Walt.) 
Carolina. 
Has the same properties. (L.) 

Calea. (De Cand. v. 671.) 

Calea Jamaicensis. (Linn.) Santolina Jamaicensis. (Linn.) 
Halbert weed. West India islands. 

The leaves contain a powerful bitter, and, steeped in wine or brandy, 
form a stomachic medicine in the West Indies ; it is, however, not 
certain that this account does not rather apply to Neurolaena lobata (L.) 

Cacalia. (De Cand. vi. 327.) 

Cacalia kleinia. (Linn.) Kleinia neriifolia. (ITaw.) India. 

Decoction of the leaves given in rheumatism, syphilis, and lepra, 
and in similar cases to those in which sarsaparilla is given by European 
practitioners. (O'Sh.) 

Calendula. (De Cand. vi. 451.) 

Calendula ARVENSis. (Linn.) C.caltha. Calthaarvensis. (Monch.) 
Caltha amplexifolia. (Holl. et Reich.) Field marygoldy Wild mary- 
gold. South of Europe. 

Herb cordial. 

**Calendula officinalis. (Linn.) Caltha officinalis. (Monch.) 
Caltha vulgaris. (Bauh.) Common marygold. 

Fl. yellow. Annual. Native of south of Europe. 

Flowers cordial, hepatic, diaphoretic, and emmenagogue. (G.) 
Formerly much employed as a carminative, now chiefly used to adul- 
terate saffron. (L.) 

Carlina. (De Cand. vi. 545.) 

Carlina acanthifolia. (All.) C. acaulis. (Lamb.) C. chardousse. 
(Vill.) C.utzka. (Hacq.) Chamcdeonalbus. (Dalech.) South of Europe. 
Receptacle esculent. 

Carlina gummifera. Atractylis gummifera. 
Analogous to Cnicus benedictus ; flowers coagulate milk. 

Carlina subacaulis. (D. C.) Carlina^ C. acaulis. (Linn.) C. cha- 
mceleon. (Vill.) Carline thistle. Mountains of Europe. 

Root restorative; useful after great fatigue, when proper refresh- 



VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 359 

ments cannot be procured ; formerly in common use with military men 
and foot travellers. 

*Caiilina VUI.GARIS. (Linn.) (E. B. 1144.) Carline thistle, Prickly 
carline thistle. 

FI. purplish, with a yellow ray of scales. June. Biennial. Dry 
hilly pastures. 

Diuretic and diaphoretic ; the dried calyx may serve as a hygro- 
meter; in fine weather it opens horizontally, and is even sometimes 
reflexed ; on the contrary, in wet weather it is closed. 

Carthamus. (De Cand. vi. 621.) 

Carthamus TiNCTORius. (Linn.) Carthamus^ Cnicus tinctorius, 
Bastard saffron, Dyer^s saffron. East Indies. 

Flowers, Safflower, used to colour broths, also in dyeing, and to 
adulterate saffron ; the East Indian is oiled ; seeds. Parrots' corn, pur- 
gative, emetic, yields oil. (G-.) The most lovely tints are imparted by 
this dye to silk and cotton ; rouge is a mixture of the dry carthamic 
acid and finely-powdered talc. The pink saucers used for giving a 
flesh tint to silk are prepared from this dye, with a small portion of 
soda. The Chinese card rouge is a carthamate of soda, colourless 
when applied, but being decomposed by the acid secreted by the skin, 
produces a most beautiful rosy tint. (O'Sh.) 

Catananche. (De Gand. vii. 83.) 

Catananche ccerulea. (Linn.) Blue gum succory. 
Similar to wild succory. 

Centaurea. (De Cand. vi. 565.) 

Centaurea Behen. (Linn.) Piptoceras Behen. (Cass.) Behen 
album. (Ranw.) Persia. 

Root, White ben, Ben album, Rhapontic blanc, Rhubarbe indigene, 
Rhaponticum behen, used for rhubarb ; very astringent. (G.) Has 
similar properties to C. calcitrapa. (L.) A bitter tonic; used for 
seasoning among the Persians. (O'Sh.) 

*Centaurea Calcitrapa. (Linn.) (E. B. 125.) Calcitrapa steU 
lata. (Lamb.) Hypophoestum. (Gaertn.) Calcitrapa. (Linn.) Car- 
duus stellatus. Star thistle. 

Fl. rose-coloured. July, September. Perennial. Gravelly and 
sandy places. 

Root diuretic, deobstruent, lithontriptic ; leaves alexiterial in in- 
fusion ; seeds diaphoretic. (G.) Has been used as a febrifuge, and 
has even been preferred to gentian. (L.) 

Centaurea Centaurium. (Linn.) Centaurium majus. (Clus.) 
Great centaury. Alps, Italy. 

Root vulnerary, astringent, anti dysenteric. (G.) Has similar pro- 
perties to C. calcitrapa. (L.) 

*Centaurea Cyanus. (Linn.) (E. B. 277.) Cyanus arvensis. 
(Monch.) C. vulgaris. (Lob.) Jacea segetum. (Lamb.) Cyanus 
segetum, (Bauh.) Corn blue-bottle. 



360 VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 

FI. of disk purple, of the ray blue. July, September. Annual. 
Corn fields. 

Flowers cooling, astringent, make a fine blue ^vash colour. (G.) 
The distilled water was once so esteemed as an application to weak 
eyes, that the plant received the popular appellation of Casse lunette, 
or Break your sijeclacles. The fine azure colour prepared from the 
petals is much used by miniature painters. (O'Sh.) 

*Centaurea Jacea. (Linn.) (E. B. 1678.) Jacea nigra. Mat- 
fellon, Srown radiant knapioeed, Knapweed. 

Fl. purple. August, September. Perennial. Waste places. Sussex. 

Flowers cooling, astringent. 

Centaurea MONTANA. (Linn.) Cijanits major^ Great blue-hottle, 
3Iountain knapweed. 

Fl. of disk purple, of ray blue. June, August. Perennial. Native 
of the Alps. 

Properties similar to those of C. cyanus. 

*Centaurea soLSTiTiALis. (Linn.) (E. B. 243.) Calcitrapa sol- 
stitialis. (Lamb.) C. sicula. (Leyss.) Calcitrapa, St. Barnahy's 
thistle, Yelloiv star thistle. 

Fl. yellow. July, September. Annual. Borders of fields. 

Herb and seed opening, deobstruent. 

Centaurea Stcebe. (Linn.) South of Europe. 

Flov/ers cooling, astringent. 

Cephalophora. (De Cand. v. 661.) 

Cephalophora glauca. (Cav.) Sa?itolina tinctoria. (Mol.) South 
America. 

Afibrds a yellow dye. 

Ceradia. (Lind. Veg. Kingd.) 

Ceradia furcata. Coral Plant. The most sterile regions of the 
south-west coast of Africa, near Ichaboe. 

The whole plant, bark, Mood, and pith, abounds in a resinous juice, 
which concretes on exudation, forming a transparent yellowish resin, 
Resin of Ceradia., or African bdellium, which burns with a fragrant 
odour. The plant is named from its forked character, which, with the 
absence of leaves, excepting at the summits of the horn-like branches, 
gives it somewhat the appearance of coral. 

Cham/epeuce. (De Cand. vi. 657.) 

Ciiam^peuce Casabon^. (D. C.) Cardans polyacanthus. (Lamb.) 
Cnicus casabona. (Willd.) Cirsium trispinosum. (Monch.) Lamyra 
triacantha. (Cass.) Bolyacanthus casahonce. (Bauh.) Acarna, Car- 
dials casabona. (Linn.) Fish thistles. Europe. 

Eaten as a potherb while young. 

Chondrilla. (De Cand. vii. 141.) 

Chondrilla juncea. (Linn.) Rushy gum succory. North of 
Europe. 

Laxative, diuretic, used in dropsy. 



VEGETABLES.— coMPosiTiE. 361 

Chrysanthemum. (De Cand. vi. 63.) 

Chrysanthemum coronarium. (Linn.) Chrysanthemum Dios- 
coridis, Garden chrysanthemum. South of Europe. 
Flowers used to discuss steatomatous tumours. 

^Chrysanthemum segetum. (Linn.) (E. B. 540.) Corn chry- 
santhemum. 

FI. yellow. June, August. Annual. Corn fields. 

Discussive and attenuant when used externally ; and given against 
the jaundice, asthma, and shortness of breath. 

Cichorium. (De Cand. vii. 83.) 
**CiCHORiUM Endivia. (Willd.) Cichorium, Seris, Garden 
endive. 

Fl. blue. August, September. Annual. Native of India. 
Roots used as a potherb ; blanched stem as a salad and potherb. 

* Cichorium Intybus. (Linn.) (E. B. 539.) C. agreste, Wild 
succory^ Chicory. 

Fl. blue. July, August. Perennial. In gravelly and chalky soils. 

Aperitive, hepatic, attenuant, used in fevers : root used for coffee. 
(G.) The root is said to be tonic, and in large doses aperient ; it has 
been used in chronic, visceral, and cutaneous diseases, especially in the 
form of a decoction. (Pereira.) The root is extensively cultivated, 
especially in France, as a substitute for cofiiee ; when full grown it is 
cut into dice, roasted, and ground down, when it cannot be distin- 
guished by the eye from that substance ; it agrees with it also in taste, 
but wants the pleasant aroma. The French maintain that the quality 
of coffee is improved by the addition of succory root, if not in too large 
a quantitv. It certainly affords a most harmless means of adulterating 
it. (L.)" 

CiRSiUM. (De Cand. vi. 634.) 

CiRSiUM eriophorum. (Scop.) Carduus eriocephalus. (Dod.) 
Eriolepis lanigera. (Cass.) Carduus eriophorus. (Linn.) Ctiicus 
eriophorus. (Hotfin.) South of Europe. 

Used in scirrhous tumours. 

CiRsiuM lanatum. (Spreng.) Cnicus lanatus. (Willd.) Atrac- 
tylis, Distaff thistle. East Indies. 

Hoot depurative. 

CiRSiUM laniflorum. (Bieb.) Carduus eriophorus. (Pall.) 
Cnicus laniflorus. (Bieb.) Woolly-headed thistle. Friar s crown. 
South of Europe, Persia. 

Receptacle eaten as artichokes. 

CiRSiuM Mokspessulanum. (All.) Carduus monspessulanus. 
(Linn.) Melancholy thistle. South of France, Spain. 
Hoot bound on varices to assuage the pain of them. 

Cnicus. (De Cand. vi. 606.) 
Cnicus benedictus. (Linn.) Carduus benedictus. (Cam.) 
Centaurea benedictus, calcitrapa lanuginosa. (Lamb.) South of 
Europe, Persia. 



362 VEGETABLES.— coMPosiTiE. 

Root diuretic, deobstruent, lithontriptic ; leaves alexiterial in infusion, 
seeds diaphoretic. (G-.) Once much used as a febrifuge, although 
now neglected. Mr. Burnett says that its properties are such as to 
lead us to a belief that it has been superseded by other not more effica- 
cious remedies. (L.) Herb tonic and mildly diaphoretic ; decoction 
causes vomiting; seeds diaphoretic. The cold infusion is employed as 
a tonic in debilitated conditions of the stomach. Taken warm in bed, 
the infusion has been given as a sudorific in various chronic diseases. 
The decoction has been employed to promote the operation of emetics. 
(Pereira.) 

Cynara. (De Cand. vi. 620.) 

Cynara Cardunculus. (Linn.) Chardoon. South of France, &c. 
Aperitive, diuretic, and aphrodisiac ; flowers used to curdle milk ; 
petioles and ribs of the leaves eaten as potherbs. (G.) 

**CyNARA ScoLYMUS. (Linn.) Cinara, Scolymus, Articliohe. 

FI. purplish blue. August, September. Perennial. Native of the 
south of Europe. 

Peceptacle and base of the calyx scales eaten as a potherb ; the 
bottoms are preserved in brine ; infusion of the flowers used in rennet. 
(G.) 

DioTis. (De Cand. vi. 34.) 

*DiOTis CANDiDissiMA. (Desf.) (E. B. 141.) D. maritima, 
Filago maritima. (Linn.) Santolina tomentosa. (Lamb.) Santo- 
Una maritima. Smith.) Otanthns maritimus. (Link.) Atha?iasia 
maritima. (Linn.) Gnaphalium legitimum. (Gaertn.) Santonica 
maritima^ Cotton weed. 

Fl. yellow. August, September. Perennial. Sandy sea-shores, 
south of England. 

Vermifuge ; used to drive away insects from wardrobes. 

DoRONicuM. (De Cand. vi. 320.) 

*DoRONicuM Pardalianches. (Linn.) (E. B. 2654.) Z>. 
cordatum. (Lamb.) D. i:>rocurrens. (Dumost.) D, romanum, 
Great leopard's bane. 

Fl. yellow. June, July. Perennial. Mountains in the north of 
England. 

*DoRONicuM PLANTAGiNEUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 630.) D. minus. 
Plantain-leaved leopard's bane. Small leopard's bane. 

Fl. yellow. June, July. Perennial. Road sides. Salinghall, 
Essex. 

Roots aromatic, used by sportsmen in alpine countries against 
giddiness. 

EcHiNOPS. (De Cand. vi. 522.) 

EcHiNOPs RiTRO. (Linn.) E. paucijiorus. (Lamb.) Ritro, Little 
globe thistle. South of Europe. 

Root astringent. 

EcHiNOPs SPH^ROCEPHALUS. (Linn.) E. midtifiorus. (Lamb.) 
E. maximus. (Siev.) Crocodilion, Globe thistle. South of Europe. 

Root used internally in bleeding of the nose ; seed diuretic. 



VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 363 

EcHiNOPS STRiGosus. (Linn.) Spain, Portugal. 

The down of the flower and the woolly leaves, Spaiiish tinder, used 
in Spain as amadou. 

Elephantopus. (De Cand. v. 85.) 

Elephantopus scaber. (Linn.) East Indies. 

A decoction of the leaves and roots are given on the Malabar coast 
in cases of dysuria. (L.) 

EcLiPHA. (De Cand. v. 489.) 

Eclipha erecta. (Linn.) E. adpressa. (Monch.) Verbesina 
alba. (Linn.) Cotula alba. (Linn.) 3Iicrelium asteroides. (Forsk.) 
West Indies. Asia Minor. 

Juice used to dye the hair black. 

Emilia. (De Cand. vi. SOL) 

Emilia sonchifolia. (D. C.) E. purpurea. (Cass.) Crassocephalum 
sonchifolium. (Less.) Cacalia sonchifolia. (Wall.) East Indies, China, 
Decoction of the leaves used in India as a febrifuge. (L.) 

Erigeron. (De Cand. v. 283.) 

*Erigeron ACRE. (Linn.) (E. B. 1158.) E.vulgare. (Linn.) 
Trimorphaa vulgaris. (Cass.) Blue Jieabane, Fleabane. 

Fl. yellow in the disk, purple in the ray. August, September. 
Pereimial. Gravelly and chalky pastures, and walls. 

*Erigeron Canadense. (Linn.) (E. B. 2019.) E. paniculatum^ 
(Lamb.) Senecio ciliatus. (Walt.) Canadian fleabane 

FI. yellowish white. August, September. Annual. Waste grounds- 
and walls. 

Are diuretic, lithontriptic, and vulnerary. 

Erigeron Philadelphicum. (Linn.) E. amplexicaule. (Poir.) 
Philadelphia fleabane. North America. 

Said to be a powerful emmenagogue ; commonly used in the United 
States as a diuretic. (L.) 

EupATORiuM. (De Cand. v. 141.) 
EuPATORiUM Ayapana. (Vent.) Eapatorium triplinerve. (Vahl.) 
Ayapana. South America. 

The infusion of this plant is said to be a powerful sudorific and 
alexipharmic ; Heritier recommends it as an antidote against the 
bite of venomous serpents and malignant insects ; for this purpose it is 
used in Brazil ; a quantity of the bruised leaves, which is to be fre- 
quently changed, is laid on the scarified wound, and some spoonfuls of 
the expressed juice are from time to time administered to the patient, 
till he is found to be free from the symptoms, particularly the dreadful 
anxiety which follows the wounds of venomous reptiles. (Martins.) 

*EuPATORiuM CANNABiNUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 428.) E. avicennce. 
Hemp agrimony. 

FL pale-reddish purple. July, August. Perennial. Banks of rivers. 

Herb bitter, hepatic, aperitive, useful in catarrh, cough, and cachexy, 
also diuretic and vulnerary ; root purgative, used for jalap. (G.) 



364 VEG ETABLES— coMPosiT.'E. 

EuPATORiUM GLUTiNOSUM. Soiilh America. 

This is said by Hartweg to be the true Matico of the inhabitants of 
Quito and Riobamba, where it is much used as a styptic. 

EuPATORiUM Perfoliatum. (Linn.) JE. connatum. (Michx.) Bo7)eset^ 
Cross wort. Thorough root, Thorough wax, Thorough wort. North 
America. 

All the parts bitter ; a decoction of the leaves the most active form ; 
a valuable tonic stimulant ; used as a substitute for Peruvian bark in 
the cure of intermittent fevers in the United States ; in large doses, in 
warm infusion and decoction, emetic, sudorific, and aperient ; a good 
substitute for chamomile-flowers in facilitating the operation of an 
emetic. (L.) 

EuPATORiUM PURPUREUM. (Linn.) Korth America. 

Hoot, gravel root, lithontriptic. 

EuPATORiUM TEUCRiFOLiuM. (Willd.) Wild horehouTid. North 
America , 

Astringent. 

FiLAGo. (De Cand. vi. 247.) 

FiLAGO ARVENSis. (Linn.) Gnaphalium arvense (Willd.) Filago 
panicidata. (Monch.) Acharitherium arvense. (Bluff et Fing.) 
Oglifa arvetisis, (Cass.) South of Europe. 

*FiLAGO Germanica. (Linn.) (E. B. 946.) Filago vulgaris, 
(Lamb.) F. cespitosa. (Raf.) F. rotundata. (Monch.) Gnaphalium 
Germanicum. (Willd.) Gifola vulgaris. (Cass.) Impia Germanica. 
(Bluff et Fing.) Gnaphalium, Cudweed, Herb impious. 

Fl. scales yellowish, shining. July, August. Annual. Sandy and 
clayey pastures. 

*FiLAGo MINIMA. (E. B. 1157.) Variety of F. montana. (De 
Cand.) Gnajjhalium minimum. (Smith.) Filago minima. (Pers.) 
Logjia hrevifolia. (Cass.) Least Cudweed. 

il. yellowish. July, August. Annual. Dry heaths. 

Filago Montana. (Linn.) Gnaphalium montanum. (Willd.) 
Xeroiium montanum. (Bluff et Fing.) Logfia lanceolata. (Cass.) 
Gnaphalium gallicum. (Wall.) France. 

Roots, astringent and discussive. 

Galinsoga. (De Cand. v. 677.) 

Galinsoga parviflora. (Cav.) G. quiriqueradiata. (Ruiz et 
Pav.) Wiborgia acmella. (Roth.) South America. 

Vulnerary and antiscorbutic. 

Glossocardia. (De Cand. v. 631.) 

Glossocardia Boswallea. (D. C.) Verbesina Boswallea. (Linn.) 
Glossocardia linearifolia. (Cass.) Pedis mei folia. (Vv^all.) East Ijidies. 

Esculent, having the smell and taste of fennel. 

Gnaphalium. (De Cand. vi. 221.) 

*Gnaphalium luteo album. (Linn.) (E. B. 1002.) G. conglo- 
batum. (Monch.) Jersey cudweed. 

Fl. yellow. July, August. Annual. Jersey, Cambridgeshire, &c. 
Tops used in obstructions and colds. 



VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 365 

*Gnaphalium sylvaticum. (Linn.) (E. B. 913. Var. a.) G. 
tomentosum, Highland cudiveed. 

Flower scales shining-, with broad brown border. August. Perennial. 
Thickets and pastures, Scotland. 

Flowers used in the violent running of the nose in children ; slightly 
astringent and diaphoretic. 

Grangea. (De Cand. v. 372.) 

Grangea Maderaspatana. (Poir.) Artemisia maderaspatana. 
(Linn.) Cotula maderaspatana. (Willd.) Grangea Adanso7iii, 
(Cass.) East Indies. 

Leaves considered by the Indian doctors a valuable stomachic medi- 
cine ; they are sometimes used in anodyne and antiseptic fomentations. 
(L.) Furnish moxa. (G.) 

GuiTzoTiA. (De Cand. v. 551.) 
GuiTZOTiA OLEiFERA. (D. C.) Vevbeshia sativa, Kutrelloo, Kut- 
syelloo, Werinnua, Ramtill. East Indies. 
Seeds pressed for oil. 

HiERACiUM. (De Cand. vii. 198.) 
HiERACiUM Gronovii. (Linn.) North America. 
Leaves bruised used to destroy warts. 

*HiERAciuM MURDRUM. (Linn.) (E. B. 2082.) Pidmonaria 
galLica, Golden lung-wort^ Wall hawkiceed. 

Fl. yellow. July, August. Perennial. Woods, and on walls and 
rocks. 

Herb cordial and pulmonary. 

^IIiERAciuM PiLosELLA. (Liuu.) (E. B. 1093.) Auricula muvisy 
Common mouse-ear, Common mouse-ear haivkiveed. 
Fl. lemon yellow. May, July. Perennial. Banks and dry pastures. 
Leaves sternutatory, vulnerary, astringent. 

Helianthus. (De Cand. v. 585.) 

**Helianthus annuus, (Linn.) H. platycephalus, (Cass.) 
Common sunfioicer. 

Fl. very large, yellow. August, September. Annual. Native of 
Peru. 

Seeds oily, used in emulsions ; young shoots boiled are aphrodisiac ; 
flowers yield turpentine. 

**Helianthus tuberosus. (Linn.) Jerusalem articJioke. 

Fl. 3'-ellow. August, September. Perennial. Native of the Brazils. 

Cultivated for culinary purposes. 

Roots nourishing, diuretic ; give the smell of turpentine to the urine ; 
flowers yield turpentine. 

Helichrysum. (De Cand. vi. 169.) 
*Helichrysum arenarium. (D. C.) GnapJialium arenarium, 

StcBchas citritia Germanica, German golden locks, Sand helichrysum. 
Fl. yellow, July, Septemberc Perennial. Native of the south of 

Europe. 

Herbs and tops stimulant ; used in palsy. 



366 VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 

Helichrysum Orientale. (Tourn.) Chrysocome, Gnaphalium 
orientale. (Linn.) Oriental golden locks. Island of Crete. 

Root astringent. 

Helichrysum Stgech AS. (D. C.) GnaphaliumstcBchas. (Linn.) 
StcEchas citri7ia, Eterrial flower. Sea-shores of south of Europe. 

Tops used in obstructions and colds. 

Homogyne. (De Cand. v. 204.) 

Homogyne alpina. (Cass.) Tussilago alpina. (Linn.) Alpi?ie 
coltsfoot. Alps, Europe. 

Has similar properties to Tussilago farfara. 

Hypoch^ris. (De Cand. vii. 90.) 

*Hypochjeris radicata. (Linn.) (E. B. 831.) Achyrophorus 
radicatus. (Scop.) Hieracium o^cinale, Porcellites radicata. 
(Cass.) Seriola taraxacifolia. (Salzm.) Long-rooted cat's-ear, 
Long-rooted hawkiveed. 

El. yellow. July. Perennial. Meadows and pastures. 

Used in pulmonary affections and pains of the side. 
Inula. (De Cand. v. 463.) 

Inula bifrons. (Linn.) Italian Inula. South of Europe. 

Leaves and flowers stimulating ; used on the Continent. 

*Inula CoNYZA. (D. C.) (E. B. 1195.) Baccharis, Conyza, 
C. squarrostty Ploughmaii s spikenard. Great fleabane. 

El. yellow. August, October. Perennial. Chalky and clayey 

soil. 

Root and leaves used in ointments, against the itch and farcy ; and 
in wine, against the jaundice. 

Inula graveolens. (Desf.) Conyza minor vera, Erigeron graveo- 
lens. (Linn.) Small fleabane. South of Europe. 

Herb diuretic. 

*Inula Helenium. (Linn.) (E. B. 1546.) Aster Helenium. 
(Scop.) Aster officinalis. (All.) Corvisartia Helenium. (Merat 
et Cass.) Enula Ca7npana, Helenium, Elecampane. 

Fl. yellow. July, August. Perennial. Moist pastures. 

Root aromatic, slightly bitter, tonic, diaphoretic, stomachic ; useful 
in asthma, hooping-cough, and in uterine and exanthematous diseases ; 
externally antipsoric ; a decoction of the root said to cure the scab in 
sheep. (G.) Various preparations of the boiled root, mixed with sugar, 
have been recommended to promote expectoration, and to strengthen 
the stomach ; some think a spirituous extract contains most of its 
aromatic and tonic properties : this plant is generally kept in rustic 
gardens, on account of many traditional virtues ; the root contains a 
white starchy powder called Inuline, a volatile oil, a soft acrid resin, 
and a bitter extractive. (L. ex Per.) A decoction of the root is much 
praised as an application in several cutaneous diseases, especially those 
attended with a troublesome itching. (O'Sh.) 

Inula viscosa. (Ait.) Conyza major, Erigeron viscosum, (Linn.) 
Great fleabane. 

Herb suppurative. 



VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 367 

Kleinia. (De Cand. vi. 336.) 

Kleinia Antieuphorbium. (De Cand.) Caculia antieuphorbium. 
Cape of Good Hope. 

Serves as an antidote to Euphorbium. 

Lactuca. (De Cand. vii. 133.) 

Lactuca elongata. (Muhl.) Wild lettuce. Fire weed. North 
America. 

Herb narcotic; said to promote the secretions from the skin and 
kidneys. 

Lactuca perennis. (Linn.) Chondrilla prima. Gum succory. 
Mountainous parts of Europe. 
Herb restrains the menses. 

**Lactuca sativa. (Linn.) Lactuca^ Garden lettuce. 

Fl. yellow. August, September. Annual. Native country un- 
known. 

Many varieties ; has been substituted for opium in checking- diarrhoea, 
allaying cough, and diminishing pain in rheumatism ; leaves refreshing, 
slightly anodyne, laxative, antiphrodisiac. (G.) Yields a milk, which, 
when inspissated, resembles opium in appearance, smell, and effects ; 
it has been said to procure calm and sleep, without some of the ill effects 
of opium ; the drug is called ofiicinally, Thridace, Lettuce opium, or 
Lactucarium. (L.) 

*Lactuca scariola. (Linn.) Scariola, Italian lettuce, Frickly 
wild lettuce. 

Fl. yellow. August. Perennial. On waste ground. 

*Lactuca virosa. (Linn.) Lactuca sylvestris major odore opii. 
Strong-scented wild lettuce. 

Fl. yellow. August, Biennial. Waysides, on chalky or clayey soil. 

The inspissated juice has been given in dropsies arising from visceral 
obstruction ; gently laxative, very diuretic, and somewhat diaphoretic, 
narcotic, and anodyne : occasions giddiness. (G.) The milky juice, 
when inspissated, has been substituted for opium. (L.) It requires 
to be administered in a sixfold dose. (O'Sh.) 

Lappa. (De Cand. vi. 661.) 

* Lappa MAJOR. (Gaertn.) (E.B.I 228.) Arctium lappa. (Willd.) 
Fardana major, Lappa glabra^ Great Burdock. 

Fl. purple. July. Biennial. Waysides, and in woods. 

Young shoots, stripped, eaten as asparagus ; root used in disorders of 
the skin ; diaphoretic, diuretic ; also useful in dropsy ; seeds diuretic, 
diaphoretic, and slightly purgative. (G.) 

*Lappa minor. (D. C.) (E. B. 1228.) Burdock. 

Fl. purple. July, August. Biennial. Waste places. 

Root is reckoned tonic, aperient, sudorific, and diuretic ; it has been 
used in the form of decoction in rheumatism and in diseases of the skin ; 
Sir Robert Walpole praised it as a gout medicine, and others have con- 
sidered it an excellent substitute for sarsaparilla ; the fruit, whicli is 
bitter and slightly acrid, has been used as a diuretic. (L.) The root 



368 VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 

deserves extensive trial; the seeds also are very likely to prove of value 
on further examination of their properties. (O'Sh.) 

Lampsana. (De Cand. vii. 76.) 

*Lampsana communis. (Linn.) (E. B. 844.) Lapsayia communis. 
Common nipple wort. 

FI. yellow. July, August. Annual. Sides of ditches, and culti- 
vated ground, 

Used for healing sore nipples. 

Leucanthemum. (De Cand. vi. 45.) 
*Leucanthemum vulgare. (Lamb.) (E. B. 601.) Bellis major, 

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum^ (Linn.) Great daisy. Great white 

ox-eye^ Ox-eye daisy. 

Fl. of disk yellow, ray white. June, July. Perennial, Dry pastures. 
Properties same as those of Chrysanthemum segetum. 

Leontopodium. (De Cand. vi. 275.) 
Leontopodium Alpinum. (Cass.) Filago leontopodium. (Linn.) 
Gnaphalium leontopodium. Mountainous parts of Europe. 
Koots astringent and discussive. 

LiATRis. (De Cand. v. 1 28.) 

LiATRis SQUARROSA. (Willd.) Scrratula squarrosa. (Linn.) North 
America. 

Known in the southern part of the United States by the name of 
Rattlesnake^ s master ; in case of being bitten by this reptile, they bruise 
the roots and apply them to the wound, vrhile at the same time the patient 
drinks a decoction of it in milk, (Pursh.) The roots have a terebin- 
thiiious odour, and are reputed to be powerfully diuretic, and hence 
antisyphilitic ; it is probable that other species of this genus, particularly 
L. scariosa and L. odoratissima, possess similar properties, at least that 
of being diuretic. (L.) 

LiNOSYRis. (De Cand. v. 351). 

LiNOSYRis VULGARIS. (Cass.) Crinitaria linosyris. (Less.) Chry- 
socoma linosyris. (Linn.) German golden locks. Middle and south 
of Europe. 

Anthelmintic, deobstruent. 

Madia. (De Cand. v. 691.) 

Madia sativa. (Mol. et Don.) M. sativa,M. viscosa, et 31. 7nel- 
losa. (Willd.) Madia. California. 

Seeds yield oil. 

Maruta. (De Cand. vi. 13.) 

^Maruta Cotula, (D. C.) (E. B. 1772.) Aiithemis cotula. 
(Linn.) A.fo^tida. (Lamb.) M.foetida, (Cass.) Chamcemelum ftetida. 
Cotula, May weed, Stinking Chamomile. 

Fl. dark yellow, ray white. July, August. Annual. Waste places. 

Used in hysteric fits ; and the juice in the king's evil. (G.) Every 
part of the plant is foetid and acrid, blistering the skin when nmcli 
handled. Its decoction is a strong and active bitter, in a dose of a tea- 
cupful producing copious vomiting and sweating. (L. ex Barton.) 



VEGETABLES.— coxMPosiT^. 369 

Matricaria. (De Cand. vi. 50.) 

Matricaria Chamomilla. (Linn.) (E. B. 1232.) Chamceme- 
lum vulgara, Common chamomile, German cJiamomile. 

Flower disk yellow, ray white. August. Annual. Corn fields and 
waste grounds. 

Emmenagogue, stomachic, carminativCj anticolic, and used externally 
as a fomentation in nephritic pains. 

MiKANiA. (De Cand. v. 187.) 

MiKANiA GuAco. (H. et Bonpl.) Guaco, Huaco. South America. 

Sudorific, alexiterial, used in bites of serpents and hydrophobia. (G.) 
Reputed in South America to be a powerful remedy for the wounds 
of venomous serpents ; the imported extract having been tried in this 
country against hydrophobia, has produced no .effect, and the remedy 
has fallen into disrepute ; Dr. Hancock, however, asserts that the real 
alexipharmic guaco is an aristolochia. (L.) 

MiKANiA OFFICINALIS. (Mart.) Covogoa de Jesu. Brazil. 

Leaves have an agreeable mixture of bitter, mucilaginous, and 
aromatic ingredients, and are therefore used with great success like 
Peruvian bark and cascarilla. It is said to be particularly eflftcacious 
as well in remitting fevers as in weakness of digestion ; it is taken both 
in decoction and extract. (L. ex Martins.) 

MiKANiA OPIFERA. (Mart.) JEroa. da cobra. Brazil. 

The expressed juice is used externally and internally, and the 
bruised bark, moistened with oil, is applied as a poultice in case of 
wounds caused by the bite of venomous serpents ; it is said to effect a 
cure by its powerful diuretic action. (L. ex Martins.) 

MuLGEDiuM. (De Cand. vii. 247.) 

MuLGEDiuM Plumieri. (D. C-) Sonchus plumieri, SoncJius 
Alpinus. (Linn.) S. cceruleus. (Smith.) S. montanus. (Lamb.) 
S. canadensis. (With.) Hieracium ccEvuleum. (Scop.) Cicerbita 
Alpina. (Wallr.) Aracium Alpinum. (Monn.) South of Europe. 

Calyx exudes resinous drops. 

Nabalus. (De Cand. vii. 240.) 

Nabalus serpentarius. (Hook.) Prenanthes serpentaria. 
(Pursh.) Vejuco. North America. 

Persons inoculated with its juice are said to be insensible to the 
poison of serpents. (L.) 

NoTOBASis. (De Cand. vi. 660.) 
NoTOBAsis Syriaca. (Cass.) Acarnus, Carduus Syriacus. 
(Linn.) Theophrastus' thistle. South of Europe. 
Eaten as a potherb while young. 

Onopordon. (De Cand. vi. 617.) 

*Onopordon acanthium. (Linn.) (E. B. 977.) Acanthium, 
Common cotton thistle. 

Fl. purple. August. Biennial. Waste grounds and roadsides in 
a gravelly soil. 

, Flowers used to coagulate milk ; receptacle eaten as artichokes. (G.) 

2 E 



370 VEGETABLES.— coMPosiTiE. 

Oporinia. (De Cand. vii. 108.) 

*Oporinia autumnalis. (Don.) (K. B. 830.) Leontodon 
autumnale. (Linn.) Hieracium minus, Small hawk^veed, Autumnal 
haivkbit. 

Fl. yellow. August. Perennial. Meadows and pastures. Common. 

Leaves sharpen the sight ; laxative. 

Pacourina. (De Cand. v. 14.) 
Pacourina edulis. (Aubl.) Pacourinopsis integrifolia. (Cass.) 
Cayenne. 

Receptacle and whole plant edible. 

Pallents. (De Cand. v. 487.) 
Pallenis spinosa. (Cass.) Buphthalmum spinosum. (Linn.) 
Aster atticus, Inguindlis, Yellow starwort. 

Vulnerary, used in buboes and other swellings of the groin. 

Parthenium. (De Cand. v. 531.) 

Parthenium integrifolium. (Linn.) Prairie Dock. North 
America. 

Has been used by Dr. Houlton in America, in the treatment of 
intermitting fever with perfect success. An infusion of the flowering 
tops was the preparation employed. 

Petasites. (De Cand. v. 206.) 

*Petasites vulgaris. (Desf) (E. B. 430, 431.) Petasites, 
Tussilago petasites. (Hopp.) Butter bur. 

Fl. pale flesh colour. April, May. Perennial. Wet meadows and 
river sides. 

Leaves used to dress ulcers ; flowers strongly diaphoretic, useful in 
asthma ; root used against the tape-worm. (Gr.) 

PiQUERiA. (De Cand. v. 104.) 
Piqueria trinervia. (Cav.) Ageratum fehrifugum. (Sess.) 
Stevia febrifuga. (Moc.) Xoxo?iitztal, Yoloxiltic. Mexico. 
Used in Mexico as a remedy against intermittent fevers. (L.) 

Placus. (De Cand. vii. 261.) 
Placus l^vis. (Lour.) Cochin China, 

Placus tomentosus. (Lour.) 
Juices used to give a smell to cakes. 

Ptarmica. (De Cand. vi. 19.) 

*Ptarmica vulgaris. (Black w.) (E. B. 757.) Achillea ptar- 
mica. (Linn.) Ptarmica, Bastard pellitory, Sneezeivort. 

Fl. white. July, August. Perennial. Moist meadows. 

Leaves sternutatory ; root acrid. (G.) The whole plant is pungent, 
promoting a flow of saliva ; its dried leaves produce sneezing, but this 
is thought to be owing to their little sharp marginal teeth. (L. ex 
Smith.) 

Pulicaria. (De Cand. v. 477.) 

*PuLiCARiA BYSENTERiCA. (Gacrtu.) (E. B. 1115.) Astcr 
dysentericus. (All.) Inula ccnyzcea. (Lamb.) Aster undulus. 



VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 37 1 

(Monch.) Inula pulicaria. (D'Un.) Conyza media ^ Inula dysen- 
terica. (Linn.) Middle-size fleabane, Common fteabane. 

Fl. yellow. September. Annual. Moist places. Common. 

Tonic, used in diarrhoea. (G.) Linnaeus states, on the authority of 
General Keith, that this plant cured the Russian army of the dysen- 
tery ; but Haller speaks contemptuously of the medical virtues of this 
plant, as he says it abounds in earthy matter. (L. ex. Smith.) 

Pulicaria odora. (Reich.) Inula odora. (Linn.) Sweet-rooted 
starivort. 

Root aromatic. 

*Pulicaria dentata. (D. C.) (E. B. 1196.) Conyza, Inula 
pidicaria, Pulicaria, Small fieabane. 

Fl. yellow. September. Annual. Sandy hollows inundated in 
winter. 

Drives away insects by its smell. 

Pyrethrum. (De Cand. vi. 53.) 

*Pyrethrum Parthenium. (Smith.) (E. B. 1231.) Matricaria 
parthenium. (Linn.) Common fever few. 

Flower of disk yellow, of the ray white. July. Perennial. Waste 
places. 

The whole plant is bitter and strong scented, reckoned tonic, stimu- 
lating, and anti-hysteric. (Smitli.) It was once a popular remedy in 
ague ; its odour is said to be particularly disagreeable to bees, and that 
these insects may be easily kept at a distance by carrying a handful of 
the flower-heads. (L. ex Burnett.) 

Pyrethrum Tanacetum. (D. C.) Balsamita major. (Dod.) B. 
vidgaris. (Willd.) B. suaveolens. (Pers.) B. mas. (Blackw.) Tana- 
cetum balsamita. (Linn.) Cost mary. South of Europe. 

Leaves stomachic, cordial, cephalic, uterine ; supposed to diminish 
the narcotic power of opium ; seed vermifuge. 

Santolina. (De Cand. vi. 35.) 
Santolitsta Cham^cyparissus. (Linn.) Abrotanumfcemina, Cha- 
mcEcyparissus, Lavender cotton. South of Europe. 
Vermifuge, used to drive away insects from wardrobes. 

Santolina fragranti;ssima. (Forsk,) Egypt, Palestine. 

The flower-heads are extremely fragrant when dry, and are sold in 
the shops of Cairo as a substitute for chamomile, under the name of 
Babouny, or Zeysoum. Forskahl says the fresh juice of the plant is 
applied in affections of the eyes. (L.) 

ScoLYMus. (De Cand. vii. 75.) 

ScoLYMUS HisPANicus (Linn.) S. perennis. (Ger.) S. conges- 
tus. (Lamb.) Myscolu microcephalus. (Cass.) Spanish cardoons. 
South of Europe. 

Root and young shoots esculent. 

ScoLYMus MAcuLATus. (Linn.) *S'. angyospermos. (Gaertn.) S. 
pectinatus. (Cass.) Golden thistle. South of Europe. 
Root used instead of eryngo. 

2 B 2 



alZ 



VEG ETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 



ScoRZONERA. (De Cand. vii. 117.) 
ScoRZONERA HisPANiCA, (Linn.) ^S', denticidata. (Lamb.) S. sativa. 
(Gater.) Scorzonera, Viper s grass. Spain. 
Eaten. 

ScoRZONERA PURPUREA. (Linn.) S. suhcmrtilea^ Hungarian viper'' s 
grass. Germany, Bohemia, &c. 
Eaten. 

Senecio. (De Cand. vi. 340.) 

Senecio Cacaliaster. (Lamb.) Cacalia alpina, C. sarracenica. 
(Linn.) South of France. 

Used in coughs, the juice allays the tickling in the throat. 

Senecio Doria. (Linn.) Herba doria, iJoria's tvound icort. Sontli 
of Europe. 

Leaves used internally, and externally in wounds and m.alignant ulcers. 

Senecio Doronicum. (Linn.) Solidago Doronicum. (Linn.) Dg- 
Tonicuin Helveticum. (Mill.) Alpine groundsel. South of Europe. 

Infusion and steam of the infusion used in asthma. 

*Senecio Jacob^a. (Linn.) (E. B. 1130.) Jacobcea, Seggrum, 
Hagivort. 

Fl. yellow. July, August. Perennial. Waysides and pastures. 

Used in poultices and colic pains ; also as a gargle in sore throat. 

*Senecio sarracenicus. (Jacq.) (E. B. 2211.) Consolida Sara- 
c^nica. Broad-leaved ragwort^ iSaracen^s ivound ivort. 

Fl. yellow. July, August. Perennial. Moist pastures in West- 
moreland and Cumberland. 

Leaves used as those of S. Doria. 

Senecio tomentosus. (Michx.) Ciiieraria heterophylla. (Pursh.) 
North America. 

Bark yellow, powerfully anthelmintic. 

^Senecio vulgaris. (Linn.) (E. B. 747.) Erigeroii, Common 
groundsel. 

Fl. yellow. Whole year. Annual. Waste grounds. Common. 
Weak infusion a common purge ; strong infusion or juice used as an 
emetic, and also given to horses to free them from botts ; leaves exter- 
nally suppurative ; flowers given to song-birds as a cooler. (G.) A 
popular but useless vermifuge. (O'Sh.) 

Serratuea. (De Cand. vi. 667.) 
*Serratula tinctoria. (Linn.) (E. B. 38.) Serrattda, Sato wort. 
Fl. purple. July, August. Perennial. Thickets. Common. 
Vulnerary ; dyes yellow with alum, but is inferior to woad. 

SiEYBUM. (De Cand. vi. 616.) 

*SiEYEUM Marianum. (Gaertn.) (E. B. 976.) Silybum macula- 

ium. (Monch.) Clrsium maculatum. (Scop.) Carihamus macidatus. 

(Lamb.) Carduus marice, C marianus, Milk thistle^ Our Lady's thistle. 

Fl. purple. July. Perennial. Waste places. Wimbledon Common. 

Pectoral, antipleuritic, aperitive. (G.) Full-grown leaves said to 

be sudorific and aperient. (L.) 



VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 373 

Solid AGO. (De Cand. v. 330.) 

SoLiDAGO Canadensis. (Linn.) Canada goldeii rod. North 
America. 

With alum dyes wool, silk, and cotton a beautiful yellow. 

SoiiiDAGO ODORA. (Ait.) S. retvorsa, (Michx.) American golden 
rod. North America. 

Leaves, soUdago, P. U. S., carminative, nervine, used as tea, and 
even exported in large quantities from America to China. (G.) Leaves 
delightfully fragrant, }3artaking of anise and sassafras, yielding a vola- 
tile oil, which is aromatic, gently stimulant, diaphoretic, and carmina- 
tive ; also employed as an excellent substitute for tea. (L.) 

SoLiDAGO ViRGA AuREA. (Linn.) (E. B. 301.) Virga aicrea, 
Golden rod. 

Fl. yellow. July, September. Perennial. Heaths and woods. 
Common. 

Herb vulnerary, diuretic, useful in spitting of blood ; infusion used 
in fevers. 

SoNCHUs. (De Cand. vii. 184.) 

*SoNCHUs ARVENSis. (Linn.) (E. B. 674.) Lepicanne spinulosa. 
(Lapeyr.) Hieracium spinulosuin. (Spreng.) Hieracium, H. magus, 
Corn sow thistle, Great liaiak iveed. 

Fl. yellow. August. Perennial. Corn fields. Common. 

*SoNCHus ciLiATUS. (Lamb.) S. oleraceus. (Wallr.) Common soiv 
thistle. 

Var. a. (E. B. 343.) Sonchus Icevis, S. oleraceus Icevis, Harems 
lettuce, Smooth sow thistle. 

Var. /3. (E. B. 2765.) S. asper, S. oleraceus asper, Prickly soiv 
thistle. This variety is also referred to S. Fallax. 

Fl. yellow. August. Annual. Waste places and cultivated ground. 

These, and other species of this genus, as well as those of Picris, 
Crepis, Prenanthes, Hyoseris, &c., possess similar qualities with lettuce. 

Spilantiies. (De Cand. v. 620.) 

Spilanthes Acmella. (Linn.) Verbesina acmella. (Limi.) East 
Indies. 

Diuretic, diaphoretic, attenuant, and anodyne ; leaves and seeds 
used as tea. 

Spilanthes oleracea. (Jacq.) Pidens fervida. (Lamb.) South 
America. 

When masticated, irritates the interior of the mouth, and provokes 
a copious flow of saliva. (G.) The whole plant, but especially the 
involucre and receptacle, act as a powerful stimulant to the salivary 
organs. (L.) 

Stenactis. (De Cand. v. 298.) 

Stenactis annua. (Nees.) Prigeron annuum. (Pers.) Diplopappus 
dubius. (Cass.) Stenactia dubia. (Cass.) Phalacroloma acutifolium. 
(Cass.) Pulicaria annua. (Gaertn.) Cineraria corymbosa. (Monch.) 
North America, 

Employed, in the United States as a diuretic. (L.) 



3 74 VEGETABLES.— COMPOSITE. 

Tagetes. (De Cand. v. 642.) 
**Tagetes patula. (Linn.) French marygold. 
Fl. dark yellow or orange brown. July, September. Annual. 
Native of Mexico. 

Dried juice used in disorders of the eyes ; flowers dye yellow. 

Tanacetum. (De Cand. vi. 127.) 
Tanacetum annuum. (Linn.) Heliochrysum, Golden cud weed. 
Spain. South of France. 

Herb emmenagogue, used in dyeing and for rheumatism. 
*Tanacetum vulgare. (Linn.) (E, B. 1229.) Tansy. 
Fl. yelloAr. August. Perennial. Borders of fields and roads. 
Every part is bitter, with a strong but not unpleasant scent. The 
qualities are esteemed of a tonic and cordial nature, expelling intestinal 
worms, and stengthening the digestive powers ; the plant, however, 
does not agree with every stomach. (Smith.) Withering says, if meat 
is rubbed with tansy leaves, the flesh fly will not touch it. (L) 
Taiiaxacum. (De Cand. vii. 145.) 
^Taraxacum dens leonis. (Desf.) (E. B. 510.) T. officinale. 
(Vill.) T. Leontodon. (Dumort.) Leontodon vulgare. (Lamb.) He- 
dypnois Taraxacum. (Scop.) Dens Leonis^ Leontodon taraxacum. 
(Linn.) Dandelion^ Piss-a-hed. 

Fl. yellow. May, November. Perennial. Meadows and pastures. 
Root, Taraxaci radix, diuretic, roasted and used as coffiee; blanched 
leaves used in salads. The infusion, decoction, and extract of the 
root are tonic, and in large doses aperient ; in some cases it acts as a 
diuretic; in the hepatic complaiuts of persons long resident in hot 
climates, it often afl'ords very marked relief. (L.) Dose of the extract 
from three to ten grains thrice daily. (O'Sh.) It has been employed 
in decoction or extract in affections of the spleen, chronic cutaneous 
diseases, uterine obstructions, &c. (Pereira.) 

Tragopogon. (De Cand. vii. 112.) 
*Tragopogon pratense. (Linn.) (E. B. 434.) Go-to-hed at noon, 
Yellow GoaVs heard, 

Fl. yellow. June. Perennial. Meadows and pastures. 
^Tragopogon porrifolium. (Linn.) (E. B. 638,) T. purpureum,, 
Purple goat's beard, Salsify. 

Fl. purple. May, June. Perennial. Moist meadows. 
Roots eaten as potherbs, opening, and supposed to be useful in 
affections of the chest ; young roots also esculent. (G.) 
Tripolium. (De Cand. v. 253.) 
*Tripol,ium vulgare. (Nees.) (E. B. 87.) Aster iripoUum. (Linn.) 
Sea starwort. 

Flower, disk yellow, ray purple. July, September. Salt marshes. 
Root hydragogue. 

Tussilago. (De Cand. v. 208.) 
*TussiLAGO Farfara. (Linn.) (E. B. 429.) T. vulgaris. (Lamb.) 
T. rupestris. (Yall.) Farfara, Tussilago, Coltsfoot. 
Fl. yellow. March, April. Perennial. Moist clay soils. 



VEGETABLES.— LOBELiACE^. 1 375 

Leaves form the basis of most of the British herb tobaccos ; used 
also externally to diminish inflammation ; an infusion of the dried 
leaves is much used as an expectorant in coughs and shortness of 
breath, as tea, or the steam is inhaled for the same purpose ; a strong 
decoction of them is of considerable service in scrofulous cases ; the 
downy substance on the under side of the leaf, dipped in a solution of 
saltpetre, and dried, is used as tinder ; juice drunk liberally is service- 
able in calculous complaints. (G.) Tiie leaves, either smoked like 
tobacco, or taken in infusion, have been much employed against 
dyspnoea ; it is a demulcent bitter, and acts by soothing irritation of 
the air passages ; Dr. Pereira calls it a very slight tonic. (L.) 

Vernonia. (De Cand. v. 15.) 

Yernonia ANTHELMiNTiCA. (WilM.) Couyza antJielmintica, (Linn.) 
Serratula anthelmmtica^ (Roxb.) Baccharoides anthelminticay 
(Monch.) Ascaricida Indica, (Cass.) East Indies. 

The fruit is accounted in India a very powerful anthelmintic. (L.) 
All the parts of the plant bitter. (O'Sh.) 

Xanthium. (De Cand. v. 522.) 

*Xanthium strumarium. (Linn.) (E. B. 2544.) Bardana 7ninor, 
X. lappa minor, Broad-leaved burdock, Small burdock. 

El. green. August, September. Annual. Waste ground. Rare. 
Root bitter, antiscrofulous, and anticancerous. 

Zacintha. (De Cand. vii. 178.) 

Zacintha verrucosa. (Gaertn.) Chicorium verrucarium, Lap- 
Sana zacintha. (Linn.) Wart succory. South of Europe. 
Herb diuretic, edulcorant, takes off vvarts. 



Order 87.— LOBELIACE^. (De Cand. vii. 339.) 

Calyx superior, five-lobed, or entire ; corolla monopetalous, irregular, inserted in the 
calyx, five-lobed; stamens five, inserted alternately with the lobes of the corolla ; anthers 
cohering ; ovary inferior, 1 — 3 celled, ovules very numerous ; style simple ; stigma 
fringed ; fruit a capsule, one or more celled, many-seeded, dehiscing at the apex ; seeds 
attached either to the axis or the lining of the pericarp : embryo straight, in the axis 
of the fleshy albumen. Herbs, or undcr-shrubs, with alternate, exstipulate leaves, and 
axillary or terminal floicers. 

Isotoma. (De Cand. vii. 412.) 

IsoTOMA LONGiELORA. (Prcsl.) Hippobroma longiflora. (Don.) 
Lobelia longiflora. (Willd.) Rapuntium longiflorum. (Mill.) 
JRapunculus aquaticus. (Sloan.) West Indies. 

Juice corrosive. (G.) One of the most venomous of all known 
plants. Taken internally, it brings on fatal hypercatharsis ; if any of 
the juice touches the lips or eyes, it produces violent burning inflam- 
mation. Horses are said to burst after feeding upon it, whence the 
Spanish West Indians call it Rebenta cavillos. (L.) 



376 VEGETABLES.— CAMPANULACE^. 

Lobelia. (De Cand. vii. 357.) 
**LoBELiA cardinalis. (Liiin.) Common cardinal Jloicer. 
Fl. scarlet. July, August. Perennial. Native of Mexico. Root 
vermifuge. 

Lobelia inflata. (Linn.) Rapuntium infiatum. (]Mill.) 
IB ladder-podded lobelia, Indian tobacco. North America. 

Root, Lobelia P. U. S. used in leucorrhcea. (G.) An acrid narcotic, 
and most powerful emetic, used in asthma with great advantage ; in 
small doses it is expectorant and diaphoretic, exciting expectoration 
without the pain of coughing ; in such doses as a common tea-spoonful 
of tiie seeds and leaves, in which quantity irregular practitioners have 
ventured to give it, it frequently proves fatal in five or six hours ; it 
has been used instead of tobacco in the form of enema, in strangulated 
hernia. (L.) 

Lobelia syphilitica. (Linn.) JRapuntium syphiliticum, (Mill.) 
Slue cardinal flower. North America. 

Root depurative, antivenereal. (G.) Root acrid and emetic, and 
has been used as a remedy for syphilis ; it has the reputation of acting 
as a speedy cure for this disease, but European practice does not con- 
firm its American reputation. Are not its curative properties vola- 
tile? (L.) 

*LoBELiA UREXS. (Linn.) (E. B. 953.) Rapuntium nrens. 
(Mill.) Acrid lobelia. 

Fl. purple. August, September. Perennial. Devonshire. Very 
rare. 

Very active, reputed a poison. 

TuPA. (De Cand. vii. 391.) 

TuPA Feuillei. (Don.) Lobelia tupa. (Linn.) Rapuntium 
tupa. (Prest.) South America. 

Plant and root poisonous in the extreme ; acts as an emetic simply 
by smelling the flowers ; juice caustic. (G.) Has similar properties 
to the last plant ; its very flowers are said to produce vomiting by their 
smell. 

Tupa cirsiifolia. (D. C.) Lobelia cirsiifolia, (Lamb.) 
Very active, reputed a poison. 



Order 88.— CAMPANULACEiE. (De Cand. vii. 414.) 

Calyx adnate to the ovary, generally five-lobed, persistent; corolla gamopetalous, 
inserted into the upper part of the tube of the calyx, five-lobed, generally regular and 
marescent, valvate in jcstivation ; stamens generally five, inserted into the calyx, be- 
neath the corolla, distinct from it and alternate with its lobes ; anthers generally distinct, 
sometimes slightly connate, oblong, two celled, with sjDherical pollen ; ovary glandular 
above; style one, more or less hairy; stigma naked, 3 — 5 cleft; capsules iiixQQ, rarely 
five-celled, dehiscing by 3 — 5 lateral apertures, or by incomplete valves at the apex ; 
cells many-seeded ; seeds attached to a central placenta of the cells ; embryo straight, in 
the axis of a fleshy albumen ; radicle inferior. //c^r6s with a milky juice and alternate 
leaves ; flowers either distinct, or in involucrated heads. 



VEGETABLES.-^vAcciNiE^. 37T 

Campanula. (De Cand. vii. 457.) 
Campanula laciniata. (Linn.) Medium, Syrian hell fiower. 
Greece, Syria. 

Roots restrain the menses ; seeds stimulate their expulsion. 

**CxiMPANULA MEDIUM. (Linn.) Viola mariana, Canterhurjj 
bells, Coventry hells. 

Fl. purple, blue, or white. July, September. Biennial. Native 
of the South of Europe. 

Root used as a potherb ; cooling. 

^Campanula patula. (Linn.) (E. B. 42.) C, BellidifoUa. 
(Lapeyr.) C. decurrens. (Linn.) Field hell fiower, Spreading hell 
flower. 

FI. dark blue. July, August. Biennial. Pastures and hedges in 
south-east of England. Rare. 

Leaves lactescent, bitter. 

'^Campanula Rapunculus. (Linn.) (E. B. 283.) Rapuncidus 
esculentus, HampioJis, Rampion hellfiower. 

Fl. blue. July, August. Perennial. In the southern and eastern 
counties, in gravelly soil. 

Root esculent, far more delicate than turnips or radishes ; juice 
odontalgic ; seeds ophthalmic. 

*Campanula Trachelium. (Linn.) (E. B. 12.) C. urticifolia. 

(Schm.) C. plicatula. (Dumort.) Trachelium, Canterhury hells, 

Great throat wort, Nettle-leaved hell flower. 
Fl. violet blue. July, August. Perennial. Woods, 
Root eaten in salads ; herb astringent ; recommended in quinsey, 

tumours, and inflammation of the mouth. 

Jasione. (De Cand. vii. 415.) 

*Jasione MONTANA. (Linn.) (E. B. 882.) J. undulata. (Lamb.) 
Annual sheep's scahious, Hairy sheep's scahious. 

Fl. blue. June, August. Annual. Dry heathy pastures. 

Herb astringent ; used in inflammations of the mouth and neigh- 
bouring parts. 

Phyteuma. (De Cand. vii. 450.) 

*Phyteuma orbicueae-e. (Linn.) (E. B. 142.) Rapunculus 
corniculatus, Horned rampions, Round-headed rampion. 

Fl. blue. August, September. Perennial. Chalky hills. 

Herb used in syphilis. 

*Phyteuma spicatum. (Linn.) (E. B. 2598.) Spiked rampion. 

Fl. greenish white. June, July. Perennial. Sussex. 

Root astringent, used in quinsey. 



Order 89.— VACCINIE^. (De Cand. vii. 552.) 

Calyx adherent, persistent, or deciduous ; corolla epigynous, gamopetalous, 4 — 5 — G 
divided, the divisions alternating with the segments of the calyx ; stamens double the 
number of the lobes of the corolla, epigynous, filaments free or monadelphous ; anthers 
terminal, often two-horned, opening by pores; ovarj single; style one; stigma one. 



378 VEGETABLES.— ERiCACE^. 

simple; herry persistent, crowned by the calyx, 4 — 5 celled, the cells one, or many- 
seeded; embryo straight, in the axis of a fleshy albumen; cotyledons very short; radicle 
lono;, inferior. Under-shruhs with coriaceous alternate leaves. 

n 

OxYCoccus. (De Cand. vii. 576.) 

OxYCOccus MACROCARPUS. (Pers.) Vacciniummacrocarpum. (Ait.) 
V. hispidulum. (Wang.) American cranberry. North America. 

Berries esculent, used in tarts ; imported in large quantities from 
North America, preserved in water. 

*0xYCOccus PALUSTRis. (Pcrs.) (E. B. 319.) Vaccinium oxy- 
coccus. (Linn.) Cranberry. 

Fl. bright rose colour. June. Under shrub. In peat bogs. 
Properties the same as those of O. Macrocarpus. 

Phalerocarpus. (De Cand. vii. 577.) 
PiiALERoCARPUS SERPYLLIFOLIA. (Don.) Vaccinium hispidulum. 
(Linn.) Arbutus filiformis. (Lamb.) Gaultheria serpyllifolia. 
(Pursh.) Glyciphyllahispidula. (Raf.) O xy coccus hispid ul us. (Pers.) 
White cranberry. North America. 
Berries esculent, used in tarts. 

Vaccinium. (De Cand. vii. 565.) 

*Vaccinium Myrtillus. (Linn.) (E. B. 456.) 3IyrtiUus, Vac- 
cinia, Commoji bilberry. 

Fl. green, with a red tinge. May. Small shrub. In mountainous 
districts. 

Berries, black ivhortle berries, bilberries, acidulous, refreshing, useful 
in fevers; also antiscorbutic; would make wine; dried berries, Z>er7-y 
dye, imported from Germany to colour wines. 

* Vaccinium uliginosum. (Linn.) (E. B. 381.) Great bilberry. 
Fl. flesh-coloured. May. Small shrub. Mountain bogs. 

* Vaccinium Vitis idjea. (Linn.) (E. B. 598.) Ited ivhortle 
berry, or Cowberry. 

Fl. pale flesh colour. May, June. Small shrub. Dry heaths. 

Leaves sold for those of Uva ursi, but are veined in a net- work 
above, dotted underneath, and their infusion precipitates neither isin- 
glass jelly, nor a solution of green vitriol. 



Order 90.— ERICACEiE. (De Cand. vii. 580.) 

Calyx 4 — 5 cleft, generally equal, persistent, entirely free trora the ovary ; corolla 
nionopetalous, regular 4 — 5 cleft, sometimes of 4 — 5 petals, imbricate in aestivation; 
stamens in general twice as many as the divisions of the corolla; anthers bilocular, 
terminated by two horn-like appendages at the summit or base, and dehiscing in general 
by a pore near the summit ; ouar/y surrounded at the base by a hypogynous disk, or by 
scales, many-celled, many-seeded ; style simple, straight ; stigma, with as many lobes 
as there are cells in the ovary ; fruit capsular, opening by as many valves as there are 
cells; seeds minute; embryo cylindrical, in the midst of a fleshy albumen; radicle 
opposite the liilum. Shrubs, or under-shrubs, with evergi'een, simple, rigid, whorled, 
or alternate leaves. 

Roots and leaves mostly astringent, sometimes narcotic ; berries 
often esculent. The brown powder tiiat adheres to the petioles of 



VEaETABLES.-ERicACE^. 379 

almost every species of Kalmia, Andromeda, and Rhododendron, is used 
in America as snuff. 

Andromeda. (De Cand. vii. 606. J 

* Andromeda polifolia. (Linn.) (E. B. 713.) Rhododeridron 
jyoli folium. (Scop.) Marsh andromeda^ Rosemary-leaved andromeda^ 
Wild rosemary. 

n. rose-coloured. June. Small shrub. Peat bogs. 

Used in fomentations and baths against rheumatism and paralytic 
affections, causing perspiration ; dyes a fine yellow, and tans leather. 

Arbutus. (De Cand. vii. 581.) 

Arbutus Andrachne. (Linn.) AndracJuie, Strawberry bay, 
Oreece, Cyprus. 

Fruit acerb and austere, but esculent. 

Arbutus integrifoeia. (Lamb.) Andrachne T/ieophrasti. (Clus.) 
Island of Crete. 
Berry esculent. 

*Arbutus Unedo. (Linn.) (E. B. 2377.) Common arbutus, 
Strawberry-tree. 

Fl. greenish white. September, October. Small tree. Ireland. 

Fruit astringent, yields sugar. (G.) A wine is made from the 
fruit in Corsica, but it is reported to be narcotic if taken in quantity. 
(L.) 

Arctostaphyeos. (De Cand. vii. 584.) 

*Arctostaphyeos Aepina. (Spreng.) (E. B. 2030.) Arbutus 
Alplna. (Linn.) Black bear berry. 

Fl. white, with a tinge of pink. May. Trailing shrub. Highland 
mountains. 

Berry esculent. 

*Arctostaphyeos UvA URsr. (Spreng.) (E. B. 714.) Arbutus 
huxifolia. (Stok.) Uva ursi buxifolia. (Sal.) Uva ursi procumbens, 
(Moncli.) Arbutus uva ursi, Uva ursi, Red bear berry. 

Fl. rose-coloured. May. Trailing shrub. North of England. 

Leaves Uvcb ursi folia, bitter, astringent ; used in disorders of the 
urinary passages, and thought to be lithontriptic. (G.) Used in 
nephritic and calculous cases ; of very doubtful action in the latter, but 
believed to be a decided palliative in nephritic complaints ; also em- 
ployed in dysuria, catarrhus vesicae, leucorrhoea, and gonorrhoea ; exhi- 
bited in the form of decoction, and power of the leaves ; its action is 
slow, and it therefore requires to be given for a considerable period ; 
although the effects are uncertain, they sometimes give astonishing 
relief. (L. ex Pereira.) 

AzALiA. (De Cand. vii. 715.) 

AzALiA PoNTiCA. (Linn.) A. arborea. (Linn.) Rhododendron 
jiavum. (Don.) Georgia, Asia Minor. 

Dioscorides asserted that the honey collected about Heraclea, in 
Pontus, produced alienation of mind, with profuse perspiration ; and 
it has been believed that the pestilence which attacked the soldiers of 



380 VEGETABLES.— ERicACE-E. 

Xenoplion, in the famous retreat of the 10,000, was caused by the 
quantity of this honey then eaten. Tournefort ascribed the poison to the 
flowers of Rhododendron ponticum and Azalia pontica ; but Pallas is 
of opinion that the latter alone is the cause ; he says that the effects 
of the Euxine hone}'' are like those of Lolium temulentum, and occur 
in a country where no Rhododendron grows ; the natives are well 
aware of the deleterious qualities of the plant, and it is related that 
goats which browse on the leaves before the pastures are green, suffer 
in consequence ; and, moreover, that cattle and sheep perish. (L.) 

Erica. (De Cand. vii. 613.) 

Various species of heaths, as E. vulgaris, E. herbacea, E. purpuras- 
cens, are used in fomentations and baths against rheumatism and 
paralytic affections, causing a perspiration; dye a fine yellow, and tan 
leather. 

Gaultheria. (De Cand. vii. 592.) 

Gaultheria procumbens. (Linn.) Winter- greeji, Sox berry, 
Chequer herry, Partridge berry, Mountain tea. North America. 

Leaves, Gaultheria^ P. U. S., used for tea. (G.) Fruit contains an 
aromatic, sweet, highly pungent, volatile oil, which is antispasmodic 
and diuretic ; a tincture has been useful in diarrhoea. Coxe states, that 
the infusion is useful in asthma ; it is used in North America as tea ; 
the brandy, in which the fruit has been steeped, is taken in small 
quantities, in the same way as common bitters. (L.) Has been em- 
ployed as an emmenagogue, and with the view of increasing the secre- 
tion of milk ; but its chief use is to impart an agreeable flavour to 
mixtures and other preparations. It is used in the form of infusion, 
and also of an oil, which last is more used in regular practice than the 
leaves ; instances of death are on record, resulting from the use of the 
oil by mistake, in the quantity of about a fluid ounce ; on examination 
after death, strong marks of inflammation of the stomach were disco- 
vered. (Wood and Bache's America?i JJispetisaioty.) The o'\\, Oleum 
gaultherice, which is obtained by distilling .the plant with water, is said 
to be identical with salicylate of oxide of methyle, having the compo- 
sition (C^ IP 0-I-C14 H^ 0^). It is used in perfumery. 

Kalmia. (De Cand. vii. 729.) 

Kalmia latifolia. (Linn.) Calico bush, Ivy, Lambhill, Laurel, 
Mountain laurel, Spoonwood, United States. 

Leaves poisonous to many animals ; are reputed to be narcotic, but 
their action is feeble and unimportant. Bigelow states, that the flesh 
of pheasants which have fed upon the young roots is poisonous to 
man, and some cases of severe illness are on record, which have been 
ascribed to this cause alone. The flowers exude a sweet honey-like 
juice, which is said when swallowed to bring on intoxication of a 
phrenetic kind, which is not only formidable in its symptoms, but very 
lengthened in its duration. (Bigelow.) A brown powder, whlcii 
adiieres to the shoots, acts as a sternutatory. (L.) Bees and wasps 
feed upon the honey-like secretion, which renders the honey of the 
former powerfully intoxicating. (O'SIi.) 



VEGETABLES.— ERICACEAE. 381 

Ledum. (De Cand. vii. 730.) 

Ledum latifolium. (Ait.) Grmulandicum. (Retz.) L. palustre 
Icdifolium. (Michx.) Wiserpukki, Wishecumpuoivare, Labrador tea. 
Korth America. 

Leaves used for tea. (G.) The leaves, infused in beer, render it 
unusually hecidy, producing headache, nausea, and even delirium ; they 
have nevertheless been used, it is said, with advantage in tertian 
agues, dysentery, and diarrhoea. (L. ex Pallas.) Odour aromatic and 
resinous ; the infusion of the leaves stomachic, but induces giddiness if 
too strong. (O'Sh.) 

Ledum palustke. (Linn.) Marsh cistus. Wild rosemary. North 
of Euro}3e. 

Root astringent. (G.) Has the same properties as the last. (L.) 
Leucothoe. (De Cand. vii. 601.) 

Leucothoe Mariana. (D. C.) Andromeda Mariana. (Linn.) 
North America. 

Decoction used as a narcotic. 

LoisELEURiA. (De Cand. vii. 714.) 
*Loiseleuiiia PROCUMBENS. ( Desv.) (E. B. 865.) Azalea pro- 
cicmbens. (Linn.) Procumhent azalea. 

Fl. flesh-coloured. May, June. Small shrub. liighland mountains. 
Bark and leaves astringent. (G.) Has the reputation of being use- 
ful as an astringent medicine. (L.) 

Pernettya. (De Cand. vii. 586.) 
Pernettya mucronata. (Gaudich.) Arbutus mucronata. (Linn.) 

South America. 
Berries esculent. 

Rhododendron. (De Cand. vii. 719.) 
Rhododendron chrysanthum. (Pall.) M. officinale. (Salisb.) 
Yellow rhododendron. North of Asia. 

The leaves are decidedly narcotic in a remarkable degree ; this was 
first noticed by Stetter, a Russian botanist, who had a tame deer, 
which became so intoxicated by browsing on about ten of the leaves, 
that after staggering about for some time, it dropped into a deep but 
troubled sleep for the space of four hours, after which it awoke free 
from all sign of suffering, but never would touch the leaves again ; 
after this, Stetter's servants took to intoxicating themselves with the 
leaves, without any bad effects. Pallas and Koelpin assert, that a 
strong decoction of the leaves is of the greatest service in chronic rheu- 
matism, and even in venereal complaints, but that it is dangerous in 
acute rheumatism. Its value, as a means of removing arthritic complaints, 
has also been highly spoken of. Finally Pallas mentions an inveterate 
case of nervous sciatica, which had brought the patient to a state of 
lameness and deplorable emaciation, which was completely cured by 
perseverance in the use of the leaves for two years ; no subsequent in- 
convenience was experienced, nor any signs of habitual drunkenness, 
although the dose was as much as four fluid ounces of the concentrated 
infusion daily. (L.) 



382 VEGETABLES.— PYROLACE/E. 

Rhododendron maximum. (Linn.) American rosehay. North 
America. 

An astringent, bnt not narcotic, accordinsc to Bigelow ; Barton, how- 
ever, asserts that it is certainly a poison. (L.) 

Rhododendron ferrugineum. (Linn.) Dwarf rosehay . South of 
Europe. 

Rhododendron Ponticum. (Linn.) West of Persia, Georgia. 

Reported to be deleterious, and to be among the plants whose nectar 
renders the honey of Trebisond poisonous ; but this statement of 
Tournefort is contradicted by Guldenstaedt. Vide Azalea Pontica. 
(L.) The leaves of all these rhododendrons are austere, astringent, 
bitter, stimulant, diaphoretic, and narcotic ; used against rheumatism 
and the gout; 5ij. of the dried leaves infused in half a pint of water, 
kept hot all night, and drank in the morning ; roots astringent. (G.) 



Order 91.— PYROLACEiE. (De Cand. vii. 772.) 

Calyx of 4 — 5 inferior persistent sepals ; corolla of five petals, sometimes free, or 
more or less united, imbricated in aestivation ; stamens twice as numerous as the petals, 
not adnate to the petals ; anthers bilocular, dehiscing by two pores ; ovary 3 — 5 celled, 
placed upon a hypogynous disc ; style one ; stigma subrotund or lobate, sometimes sub- 
indusiate; fruit capsular, 3 — 5 celled, with central placentas; seeds minute, numerous, 
winged; embryo minute, at the base of the fleshy albumen. Herbaceous plants \i\th. 
simple, entire, or toothed leaves. 

Chimaphila. (De Cand. vii. 775.) 
Chimaphila umbellata. (Nutt.) Pyrola umbellata. (Linn.) Chi- 
maphila corymhosa. (Pursh.) American ivinter green, Pijosisseiva. 
North America, Europe, Asia. 

An infusion of the leaves has been found efficacious as a diuretic 
in dropsy. (G.) Astringent, tonic, sudorific, and diuretic. It is 
especially active in the last-named property, combining a speedy 
diuretic with much tonic power. (O'Sh.) The infusion of the dried 
leaves, taken internally, acts as an agreeable tonic ; it promotes the 
action of the secreting organs, more especially the kidneys, over which, 
indeed, it has appeared to exercise a specific influence, increasing the 
quantity of urine, diminishing, as some have imagined, the quantity of 
lithic acid, or lithates secreted, and beneficially influencing several 
forms of chronic nephritic disease ; its qualities are in every respect 
analogous to those of Uva ursi ; it has been employed in dropsy, chro- 
nic affections of the urinary organs, and in scrofula, in which last its 
reputation in America is so high, that it has obtained the title of king's 
cure ; it is given in the form of a decoction or extract ; the latter has 
been employed in doses of ten or fifteen grains. (Pereira ) 

Pyrola. (De Cand. vii. 772.) 

*Pyrola rotundifolia. (Linn.) (E. B. 213.) P. declinata. 
(Monch.) Pyrola, Round-leaved winter green. 

Fl. Avhite. July, September. Perennial. Woods in Norfolk, Suf- 
folk, &c. Rare. 

Vulnerary. 



VEGETABLES.— SAPOTACE/E. 383 

*Pyiiola secunda. (Linn.) (E. B. 307.) Pyrola altera, Serrated 
winter green, Small lointer green. 

Fl. greenish white. July. Perennial. Yorkshire. Eare. Scotland. 
Herb cooling, drying ; leaves diuretic, used in dropsy. 



Sub-class III.— COROLLIFLOR^. 



Order 92.— SAPOTACE^. (De Cand. viii. 154.) 

Calyx five, or rarely 4 — 8 parted, or 4 — 8 lobed, lobes persistent, either in one or 
two rows ; corolla gamopetalous, deciduous, its segments usually equal in number to 
those of the calyx, and alternating with them, seldom twice or thrice as many ; stamens 
arising from the corolla, definite, distinct, the fertile ones equal in number to the seg- 
ments of the calyx, and opposite those segments of the corolla which alternate with 
the latter, seldom more ; anthers usually turned outwards, bilocular ; the sterile stamens 
as numerous as the fertile ones, with which they alternate, sometimes wanting ; ovary 
with several cells, which are often opposite to the lobes of the calyx, in each of which 
is one erect ovule ; style one ; stigma acute, or capitellate, with as many tubercles or 
lobes as there are cells ; fruit drupaceous, or baccate iudehiscent, with several one-seeded 
cells, or by abortion with only one ; seeds nut-like, sometimes cohering into a several- 
celled putamen ; testa bony, shining, its inner face opaque and softer than the rest ; 
embryo erect, large, white, usually enclosed in a fleshy albumen ; cotyledons Avhen the 
albumen is present, foliaceous ; when absent, fleshy, and sometimes connate ; radicle 
short, straight, or a little curved, turned towards the hilum ; plumule inconspicuous. 
Trees or shrubs, abounding in milky juice, with alternate, exstipulate, entire, coriaceous 
leaves, and an axillary inflorescence. 

Bassia. (De Cand. viii. 197.) 

Bassia butyracea. (Roxb.) Frelwa, or Phulwara, Maliva, or 
Madhuca tree. Butter-nut tree. East Indies. 

Bassia latifolia. (Roxb.) Madhuca, or Mahwah. East Indies. 

Seeds yield a large quantity of oil, but they do not appear to be era- 
ployed medicinally. (Gr. and L.) The petals contain sugar, and are 
much used for the manufacture of a very intoxicating spirit. (O'Sh.) 

Bassia longifolia. (Linn.) Illipe, or Illupie tree. East Indies. 

The fruit, when pressed, yields a large quantity of oil, used in India 
for lamps, soapmaking, and also for food ; it is also employed medi- 
cinally to cure the itch, and other cutaneous disorders ; the leaves 
boiled in water, as well as the milk of the green fruit and bark, are 
used in rheumatic affections. (L.) The Shea, or Butter tree of Mungd 
Park, is a species of this genus ; Burnett says that much of the palm 
oil of commerce is vielded by species of Bassia, or other sapotaceae. 
(L.) The Fulwa butter is a soft solid at 95°. (O'Sh.) 

Bassia Parkii. Micadenia. Hindoostan. 

Shea butter or galam butter is obtained from the fruit of this tree. 
It closely resembles the Bassia latifolia, and other species indigenous 
to Hitidoostan. According to Park, the tree is abundant at Bambara; 
the oil is solid, of a greyish-white colour, and freezes at 97°. 

Chrysophyllum. (De Cand. viii. 156.) 
Chrysophyllum Buranheim. (Reidel.) Brazil. 

Bark, 31onesia bark, astringent and bitter. The astringent extract 
called Monesia is made from the bark of this tree. 



384 VEGETABLES.— SAPOTACE.^. 

Chrysophyllum Cainito. (Linn.) Star aj)ple. Tropical America. 
Juice of the unripe fruit, with orange juice, very astringent ; its 
var. yS, C. Jamaicense, has esculent fruit. 

Chhysophyllum Macoucou. (Aubl.) French Guyana. 

Chrysophyllum microcarpum. (Swz.) Hispaniola. 

Chrysophyllum oliviforme. (Lamb.) C.ferrugineum. (Gaertn.) 
Jamaica and Hispaniola. 
Fruits esculent. 

Isonandra. (De Cand. viii. 187.) 

Isonandra gutta. (Hooker.) The gutta-perclia tree. Malayan 
Archipelago. 

The milky juice of this tree becomes concrete by exposure to the air, 
and forms the substance called gutta percha. The tree grows to a 
large size, and yields from twenty to thirty pounds of the gutta percha. 

LucuMA. (De Cand. viii. 165.) 

LucuMA Caimito. (D. C.) Achras caimito. (Ruiz et Pav.) Brazil. 
Tree milky, fruit eatable. 

LucuMA mammosa. (Gaertn.) Achras lucuma, A. mammosa. (Linn.) 
Sapodilla tree. 

Seeds resemble chestnuts ; kernel bitter, makes a strengthening 
emulsion. (G.) Said by Burnett to have an emetic milk. (L.) 

Mimusops. (De Cand. viii. 201.) 

MiMUSOPS Elengi. (Linn.) East Indies. 

Mimusops Manilkara. (Don.) Metrosideros Macassariensis. 
(Rumph.) China, Philippine Islands. 

Pulp of the fruit eatable. The flowers are powerfully aromatic, and 
a fragrant water is distilled from them. The seeds yield abundance of 
oil in much repute among painters. The leaves are said to produce 
an extraordinary noise when burnt. 

Sapota. (De Cand. viii. 173.) 

Sapota achras. (Mill.) Achras sapota. (Linn.) Necseherry^ 
or Naseberry. Sapodilla nispam. West Indies. 

Diuretic, bark used for the Peruvian bark. (G.) Bark, a powerful 
iistringent, used with success as a substitute for cinchona. The seeds, 
stripped of their skins, are considered by the people of Martinique 
powerfully diuretic ; six seeds pounded in a mortar with a spoonful of 
wine or water, form a draught which is given daily, at a single dose, 
in dysury, strangury, and similar disorders. If the dose is much in- 
creased, severe pains, and even danger, are brought on. (Jacquin.) 
Fruit eatable when it begins to blett, in that state considered by many 
as superior to pine apple. The barks of four species of Achras have 
been substituted for those of Cinchona, on account of their bitter and 
febrifugal properties. (L.) 

To this order is supposed to belong the famous Palo de vaca^ or 
Coiv tree of South America, the trees of which are regularly milked 
by the inhabitants of the districts in which they grow. (Loudon.) 



VEGETABLES.— ebenace^. 385 

Yields cow-tree milk. (G.) There seems no reason now to doubt that 
the Cow tree does not belong to this order, but to that of UrticecEf or 
Artocarpece. (L.) See Brosimum. 

Synsepalum. (De Cand. viii. 183.) 
Synsepalum duecificum. (De Cand.) Bumelia dulcifica. (Thon- 
ning-.) Sideroxylon dulcijicum. Miraculous berry of Western Africa. 
Assarvah, Tahme. Africa. 

The fruit is an oblong or oval berry, about two-thirds the size of an 
olive, and somewhat resembling one ; it possesses the singular property 
of causing all acid substances or liquids, as tartaric, citric, or acetic 
acids, and all unripe fruits, to have an intensely sweet taste to the 
palate. The duration of these effects seems to depend on the quantity 
of the fruit used, and its degree of ripeness ; when over ripe the 
property is much deteriorated. 



Order 93.— EBENACE^. (De Cand. viii. 100.) 

Flowers polygamous, or deciduous, seldom hermaphrodite; calyx gamosepalous, 3 — 7 
lobed, lobes varying in aestivation, persistent ; stamens definite, either arising from the- 
corolla, or hypogynous, twice as many as the segments of the corolla, sometimes four 
times as many, or the same number, and then alternate with them ; filaments simple,, 
in the hermaphrodite species generally doubled, in the polygamous and deciduous ones 
both their divisions bearing anthers, but the inner one generally smaller ; anthers a.t~ 
tached by their base, lanceolate, two-celled, dehiscing lengthwise, sometimes bearded • 
poUe7i round, smooth ; ovary free, 3 — 12 celled, each cell having one or two ovules 
pendulous from its apex; styles divided, seldom simple; s^i^mas bifid or simple ; /rwii 
fleshy, round, or oval^ by abortion often five-seeded, its pericarp sometimes opening in 
a regular manner ; seed with a membraneous testa of the same figure as the albumen, 
which is cartilaginous and white ; embryo in the axis, or but little out of it, straight 
white, generally more than half as long as the albumen ; cotyledons foliaceous, some- 
what veiny, lying close together, occasionally slightly separate ; radicle tapering of 
middling length, or long, turned towards the hilum ; plumule inconspicuous. Trees 
or shrubs, without milk and with a heavy wood ; leaves, alternate, exstipulate, entire, 
coriaceous ; inflorescence axillary. 

DiospyRos. (De Cand. viii. 222.) 

DiosPYRos CHEOROXYLON. (Roxb.) East Indies. 

Berries esculent. 

DiosPYROS Embryopteris. (Pers.) Embryopteris glutinifera. 
(Roxb.) E. peregrina. (Gaertn.) East Indies. 

Fruit used as glue ; yields gaub ; seeds yield oil. (G.) Used in 
medicine as a valuable astringent and styptic, and is employed in Ben- 
gal for paving the bottoms of boats. The bark has been given, with 
doubtful results, in the treatment of intermittent fevers. (O'Sh.) 

DiosPYROS Kaki. (Linn.) Ki, Kaki. Si seu Kaki. (Koempf.) 
Diospyros Chinensis. (Blum.) D. Schi-Tse Bung. China, Japan. 
Fruit esculent. 

Diospyros Melanoxylon. (Roxb.) Ebony tree. East Indies. 

The ebony tree is valuable, not only on account of its wood, but for 
the sake of its bark, which is astringent, and, mixed with pepper, is 
given for the dysentery by the native doctors of India. (L.) 

2 c 



386 VEGETABLES.— OLEACE^. 

DiosPYROS Sapota. (Roxb.) Var. fi Nigra. Philippine Islands. 

Berries esculent. 

DiosPYROS viRGiNiANA. (Linn.) Z>. concolor. (Monch.) Per- 
simmon, Pishamin. United States. 

Berries eatable when rotten ripe ; bark, Diospyros, febrifuge, P. U. S. 
(G.) Bark said to be a powerful astringent and febrifuge. (L.) 



Order 94.— STYRACACE^. (De Cand. viii. 244.) 

Calyx inferior, or superior, five, rarely four lobed, persistent ; corolla monopetaIous» 
reo-ular, witii imbricated aestivation ; stamens definite, or indefinite, arising from the tube 
of tiie corolla, of unequal length, cohering in various ways, but generally only slightly ; 
anthers innate, two-celled, dehiscing inwardly ; ovary inferior, 3 — 5 celled ; ovules 
definite, the upper ascending, the lower pendulous, or vice versa ; style simple ; stigma 
somewhat capitate ; fruit drupaceous, containing from one to four bony nuts ; seeds 
ascending, or suspended, solitary, with the embryo lying in the midst of the albumen ; 
radicle lono;, directed towards the liilum ; cotyledons flat, foliaceous. Trees or shrubs, 
with alternate, e.xstipulate leaves, usually toothed, turning yellow in drying, and axillary 
flowers ; hairs often stellate. 

Styrax. (De Cand. viii. 259.) 
Styrax Benzoin. (Dryand.) benzoin laurel. East Indies. 
Yields by incision benzoin. (G.) The resinous acrid substance 
called benzoin is a secretion from the bark ; it is a local irritant, its 
vapour causing violent coughing ; it acts as a stimulant, more particu- 
larly, as is supposed, to the lungs; it has been used in some uterine 
complaints, as chlorosis. 

Styrax officinale. (Linn.) Cane storax tree. The Levant, 
Syria, Palestine. 

Yields by incision storax. (G.) Storax^ a fragrant resinous bal- 
samic substance, is obtained in Asia Minor from the branches, by in- 
cision ; it is brownish-red, friable, but soft and unctuous, and is con- 
sidered a stimulating expectorant, being supposed to influence the 
mucous membranes of the air-passages ; it is chiefly used in affections 
of the organs of respiration ; the tree does not form the secretion in 
this country. (L.) 

Symplocos. (De Cand. viii. 246.) 

Symplocos Alstonia. (L'Her.) Alstonia fheceformis. (Linn.) 
South America. 

Leaves astringent, used as tea. 

Symplocos tinctoria. (L'Her.) Hopea tinctoria. (Linn.) 
North America. 

Leaves used to dye yellow. 



Order 95.— OLEACE^. (De Cand. viii. 102.) 

Floicers hermaphrodite, sometimes diaecious ; calyx monophyllous, divided, persistent, 
inferior ; corolla monopetalous, four-cleft, often tubular and irregular, occasionally of 
four petals, connected in pairs by the intervention of the filaments, sometimes apetalous; 
aestivation somewhat valvate ; stamens two, alternate with the segments of the corolla, 
or with the petals; anthers two-celled, dehiscing longitudinally; ovary simple, two-celled, 



VEGETABLES.— OLEACE-^. 387 

the cells two-seeded, the ovules pendulous and collateral ; style one or none ; stigma two- 
lobed or entire ; fruit a drupe or beny, or alone or two-celled capsule, often by abortion 
one-seeded ; seeds with a dense fleshy albumen ; embryo about half its length, straight ; 
cotyledons foliaceous ; radicle superior ; plumule inconspicuous. Trees or shrubs, with 
opposite, simple, sometimes pinnated leaves ; flowers in terminal, or axillary racemes, or 
panicles, the pedicles opposite, with single bracts. 

LiGUSTRUM. (De Cand. viii. 293.) 
*LiGUSTRUM vuLGARE. (Liim.) (E. B. 746 ) Ligustrzim, Com- 

711071 jjrivet. 

Fl. white. June, July. Large shrub. Hedges and thickets. 
Leaves bitter and slightly astringent ; flowers astringent and tem- 

perant, used in washes and gargles for ulcers ; berries have a dry 

spongy pulp, from which a rose-coloured paint may be obtained. (Gr.) 

Used for colouring wines. (O'Sh.) 

Olea. (De Cand. viii. 283.) 

Olea Europjea. (Linn.) Olea, O. sativa, Olivetree. South of 
Europe. 

Unripe fruit preserved in brine, oily, astringent ; ripe fruit yields 
oil ; leaves astringent ; bark substituted for the Peruvian bark. (G-.) 
From the pericarp is obtained, by pressure, the well-known substance 
called olive oil, the medical properties of which are demulcent, emol- 
lient, and laxative. The bark is bitter and astringent, and has a great 
reputation as a substitute for cinchona, according to De Candolle ; it 
also yields a gum, or rather a gum-like substance, once in repute as a 
vulnerary ; this has been found by Messrs. Poole and Pelletier to con- 
tain a peculiar substance, which those chemists have named olivile, (L.) 

Fraxinus. (De Cand. viii. 274.) 

*Fraxinus excelsior. (Linn.) (E. B. 1692.) F. apetala. 
(Lamb.) F. Ornus. (Scop.) Common ash. 

Fl. greenish, with black scales. April, May. Large tree. Woods 
and hedges. 

Bark febrifuge and diuretic; seeds acrid, bitter; leaves 3ij. to ojss., 
in infusion a good purge, and a decoction of the same has been used 
to cure agues ; exudes a small quantity of manna from the leaves in 
hot weather. (G.) Not only yields manna in the warm climate of the 
south of Europe, but is reported to have a tonic febrifugal bark, and 
leaves almost as cathartic as those of senna, producing an unequivocal 
action upon the kidneys. (L.) 

Fraxinus Oknus. (Linn.) Ornus Europcea. (Pers.) Flowering 
ash. South Europe. 

From the branches there exudes a bitter sweet substance, called 
manna in the shops, well known as a gentle laxative. (L.) 

Fraxinus parvifolia. (Lamb.) F. lentiscifolia. (Desf.) F. 
tamariscifolia. (Vahl.) F. halepensis. (Herm.) Asia Minor. 

Fraxinus ROTUNDiFOLiA. (Lamb.) Ornus rotundifolia. (Pers.) 
Calabria and the Levant. 

Exude manna. The manna yielded by the latter of these is, ac- 
cording to Tenore, of better quality than that obtained from F. ornus. 
In Calabria and Sicily, in the hottest parts of the summer months, the 

2 c 2 



388 VEGETABLES.— JASMINES. 

manna oozes out of the leaves, and from the bark of the trunk and 
larger branches of the Fraxinus, or Calabrian ash. The Ornus like- 
wise affords it, but from the trunk and larger branches only, and that 
chiefly from artificial apertures, whereas it flows from the Fraxinus 
through every litile cranny, and bursts through the large pores spon- 
taneously. The different qualities of manna are from different parts 
of the tree. (Fothergill.) (L.) 

Phillyrea. (De Cand. viii. 292.) 
Phillyrea media. (Linn.) Philhjrea, Mock privet. South 
Europe. 

Leaves astringent, cleansing ulcers of the mouth. 

Syringa. (De Cand. viii. 282.) 

**Syringa vulgaris. (Linn.) (Bot. Mag. 183.) Lilac vulgaris, 
(Lamb.) Common lilac. 

Fl. lilac or white. June. Large shrub. Native of Persia. 

This plant has some reputation as a cure for intermittent fevers. 
The unripe fruit is singularly bitter, without any acrimony ; and, 
according to Curveiller, an extract of it is a remarkably good tonic 
and febrifuge. (L.) 



Order 96.— JASMINES. (De Cand. viii. 300.) 

Flov:ers hermaphrodite, rarely polygamous, regular ; calyx persistent, toothed or lobed ; 
lobes 5 — 8 ; corolla gamopetalous, regular, 4—5 — 8 lobed, or partite, hypocrateriform 
lobes imbricated in estivation; s#am(??is two, inserted into the corolla; filaments s\\ort :; 
anthers two-celled, longitudinally dehiscent, turned inwards ; ovarii destitute of a hy- 
pogyiious disk, two-celled, with one-seeded cells, the ovules in which are erect ; style 
simple; stigma two-lobed; fruit either dry, dehiscent, or indehiscent, and 1 — 2 celled, 
1 — 2 seeded, or fleshy and 1 — 2 celled ; seeds covered with a membranaceous integu- 
ment ; albumen white, fleshy, or horny, sometimes very thin ; iridicle cylindrical, turned 
towards the hilum. Shrubs, having usually twining stems; leaves opposite or alter- 
nate, mostly compound, ternate or pinnate, with an odd one, sometimes simple, the 
petiole almost always having an articulation ; flowers opposite in corymbs. 

Jasminum. (De Cand. viii. 301.) 
Jasminum grandiflorum. (Linn.) Abyssinia. 

Yields an essential oil. 

**Jasminum officinale. (Linn.) J. viminale. (Salisb.) J. vulga- 
vius. (Lamb.) Jasmimim. White jastnijie^ or Jessamine. 

Fl. white. July. Climbing shrub. Native of India. 

Flowers recommended in shortness of breath, and scirrhus of the 
womb. A perfumed oil is prepared from this and the fixed oil of the 
]\roringa. (O'Sh.) 

Jasminum Sambac. (Ait.) Mogorium Sambac. (Lamb.) Jasminurn, 
fragrans. (Salisb.) Nyctanthes Sambac. (Linn.) East Indies. 
Yields an essential oil. 

Nyctanthes. (De Cand. viii. 314.) 
Nyctanthes arbortristis. (Linn.) Tropical Asia. 

This plant yields Hursinghar Floicers ; used as a yellow dye. 
From Kotah, in the States of Rajpootana, and from Cuttack. 



VEGETABLES.— APOCYNACE^. 89 

Order 97— APOCYNACE^. (De Cand. viii. 317.) 

ijalyx gamosepalous, five-divided, persistent; corolla gamopetalous, hypogynous, 
five-lobed, regular, imbricate, or very rarely valvate in aestivation, deciduous ; stamens 
five, inserted into the base of the coi'oUa, and alternate with its segments ; filaments 
■connate or distinct ; anthers two-celled, dehiscing longitudinally ; ovaries two, or 1 — 2 
celled, polyspermous ; styles two or one ; stigma one, capitate ; fruit a follicle, capsule 
or drupe, or berry, double or single ; seed inserted along the margin of the follicle, with 
fleshy or cartilaginous albumen; testa simple; embryo foliaceous; radicle superior, 
turned towards the hilum. Trees or shrubs, usually milky, with opposite entire leaves, 
and an inflorescence tending to corymbose. 

AiiLAMANDA. (De Cand. viii. 318.) 

Allamanda cathartica. (Linn.) A. Linnoei. (Pohl.) Echites 
^alicifolia. (Willd.) A. grandiflora, (Lamb.) Orelia grandiflora 
(Aubl.) Cayenne, Brazil. 

An infusion of the leaves is considered a valuable cathartic medicine 
in moderate doses, especially in the cure of painter's colic ; in over 
■doses it is violently emetic and purgative. (L.) 

Alstonia. (De Cand. viii. 408.) 

Aestonia scholaris. (R. Br.) India. 

This is a large tree, which is named scholaris^ from the circumstance 
of its wood having been used in the form of small planks, for children 
to trace their letters on, a purpose for which it is well adapted, on 
account of its white, fine-grained wood. The bark has been used by a 
Mr. Gibson, of Bombay, in diarrhoea and bowel complaints, with 
success ; and by a Mr. Gray, of Newhaven, in a case of British cholera. 
It is a drug well known to the foreign practitioners in India. 

Alyxia. (De Cand. viii. 345.) 

Alyxia 8TELEATA. (Roem.) A. aromatica. (Rienw.) Gynopogon 
^tellata. (Labill.) Malay Archipelago, South Sea Islands. 

Bark aromatic, with similar effects to those of Canella alba, and 
Drymis Winteri, for which it may be substituted ; lately introduced 
into German practice, as a remedy for chronic diarrhoea and nervous 
<iomplaints ; the bark has the odour of melilot, and traces of benzoic 
acid have been found in it. (L.) 

Apocynum. (De Cand. viii. 439.) 

Apocynum andros^mifolium. (Linn.) American dug'a bane. 
United States. 

Root, Apocynum, P. U. S., emetic. (G.) Root with an unpleasant, 
intensely bitter taste ; acts as an emetic when recent ; in small doses is 
^ usefid tonic. (L.) The recent powder in doses of gr. xxx. emetic ; 
in doses of from gr. x. to gr. xx. tonic. (Wood and Bache.) 

Apocynum Cannabinum. (Linn.) North America. 

Is also emetic, and in decoction diuretic and diaphoretic. (L.) From 
gr. XV. to gr. xxx. of the powdered root emetic and purgative. Bene- 
ficial in dropsy. Called Indian hemp. (Wood and Bache.) 

Apocynum indicum. 
Young shoots eatable. 



390 VEGETABLES.— APOCYNACE^. 

Apocynuim Vexetum. (Linn.) A. Sihiricum. (Pall.) Venetian 
dog's bane. North of China. 

Leaves, mixed up with grease, used to poison animals, 

Cameraria. (De Cand. viii. 388.) 
Cameraria latifolia. (Jacq.) Bastard ma7ichineel tree. West 
Indies. 

It is probable that this plant, which is very abundant in Caba, 
might prove a valuable source of caoutchouc, as the milk gut^hes out of 
the smallest wound, and readily thickens; it is said to be so poisonous, 
as to be used by the AVest Indian natives to envenom their arrows. (L.) 

Carissa. (De Cand. viii. 331.) 

Carissa Carandas. (Linn.) Echites spinosa. (Burm.) Capparis 
Carandas. (Gmel.) India. 

The acid fruit affords the well-known and favourite Caranda jelly 
of our tables. (O'Sh.) 

Cerbera. (De Cand. viii. 352.) 
Cerbera Manghas. (Linn.) East Indies. 

Bark purgative. (G.) The kernels are emetic and poisonous; the 
milky sap is employed as a purgative ; according to Waitz, the leaves 
and bark are so similar to senna in their action, that they are substituted 
for it in Java. (L.) 

Echites. (De Cand. viii. 446.) 
Echites SYPHILITICA. (Linn.) Surinam. 

Used in syphilis. (G.) A decoction of the herb antisyphilitic. (D. C.) 

Hasseltia. (Lindl. Med. Bot. 536.) 

Hasseltia arborea. (Blume.) Java. 

In Java, the milk obtained from the trunk by incision, mixed with 

honey, and reduced with boiling water, is employed as a powerful 

drastic for destroying the tape-worm ; it is, however, apt to produce 

inflammation of the intestines, and is even in some cases fatal. (L.) 

HoLARRHENA. (Dc Cand. viii. 413.) 
Holarrhena antidysenterica. (Wall.) Chonernorpha antidy- 

senterica. (Don.) Echites antidysenterica. East Indies. 

Bark, Tellichery bark^ Conessi bark, Codaga j)ala, bitter, used in 

dysentery ; seeds vermifuge and antisjDa'smodic, used in cholera. (G.) 

Holarrhena pubescens. (Wall.) India. 

Qualities the same as the preceding species. (O'Sh.) 

Ichnocarpus. (De Cand. viii. 434.) 
IcHNOCARPus frutescens. (Browu.) Apocynum frutescens. (Linn.) 

Echites frutescens. (Roxb.) Ceylon. 

Sometimes used in India as a substitute for sarsaparilla, according 

to Professor Royle ; also mentioned as a medical plant by Afzelius in 

his Remedia Guineensia. 

Nertum. (De Cand. viii. 419.) 
Nerium odorum. (Soland.) N. odorantum, N. oleander. (Lour.) 
N. grandijiorwn. (Desf.) India, China. 



VEGETABLES.— APOCYNAC zje. 391 

The bark of the root and the sweet-smelling leaves are considered by 
the native Indian doctors as powerful repellents, applied externally ; the 
root taken internally acts as a poison. (L.) 

Nerium oleander, (Linn.) JV. lauriforme. (Lamb.) Hose bay^ 
South Sea rose. South of Europe. 

Internally poisonous, externally astringent, antipsoric, and sternuta- 
tory ; M'ood used to clear muddy water ; leaves acrid, appear to contain 
free gallic acid, poisonous, infused in oil used in itch. (C:^.) Very acrid ; 
a decoction of its leaves or bark forms an acrid stimulating wash, much 
employed by poor people in the south of France to cure the itch, and 
to destroy cutaneous vermin ; the peasants in the neighbourhood of Nice 
use the powdered bark and wood to poison rats. (L.) 

Nerium tinctoria. Wrightea tinctoria. East Indies. 

A plant flourishing in dry and barren lands, from which Pata, or 
Polar indigo, is prepared in some parts of India. It is said that this 
indigo is occasionally mixed with that of commerce. 

OrHioxYLON. (De Cand. viii. 342.) 

Ophioxylon serpentinum. (Willd.) East Indies. 

Koot, Radix mustela, purgative, bitter, tonic, febrifuge, used in the 
bites of serpents. (G.) Root employed by the Telinga physicians of 
India as a febrifuge and alexipharmic, and also to promote delivery in 
tedious cases. (L.) 

Plumieria. (De Cand. viii. 389.) 

Plumieriaacutifolia. (Poir.) P. acuminata, P.ohtusa, (Lour.) 
Malay Archipelago. 

Root used as a cathartic in Java. (L.) 

Peumieria drastica. (Mart.) Brazil. 

Said to be a powerful purgative. 

Plumieria rubra. (Linn.) Jamaica and Surinam. 

Milk excessively corrosive. 

Strychnos. (L. Med. Bod. 528.) 

Strychnos colubrina. (Linn.) Modira caniram. (Rheede.) 
Malabar. 

Wood, Snakeivood, Lignum coluhrimcm, occasions tremblings, is 
emetic, vermifuge, very bitter, and serviceable in stubborn intermit- 
tents and chronic diarrhoea. (G.) This is the most esteemed of all the 
Ligna colubrina by the natives of India, and fetches so high a price 
among them, as rarely to find its way into Europe ; it is the true Pao 
de cobra of the Portuguese ; the wood of the root is considered an in- 
fallible remedy for the bite of the Naga, or Cobra de Capella, as well 
as for that of every other venomous snake ; it is applied externally, and 
at the same time given internally ; it is also used in substance for the 
cure of intermittent fevers. Blume considers that several different 
kinds of Strychnos are brought into the market under the name of 
Lignum colubrinum, to represent this, especially that of S. nux vomica, 
and probably of S. minor. (L.) , 



392 VEGETABLES.— APocYNACE^. 

Strychnos ignatia. (Berg.) Ignatia amara. (Linn.) Igiiatiana 
philippinica. (Lour.) St. Ignatius^ bean. The Philippines. 

Seed, Faha sancti Ig?iatii, has the form of a nut^ excessively bitter ; 
occasions giddiness, convulsions, and vomiting, but has been used in 
small doses to cure agues. (Gr.) Used successfully in India as a 
remedy for cholera, under the name of Papeeta ; but giddiness and con- 
vulsions are known to follow its exhibition, if given in an over dose. 
(L.) Deemed also an efficacious vermifuge. (O'Sh.) 

Strychnos ligustrina. (Blume.) S. colubrina of some authors. 
Caju- Ular^ and Caju-Nassi. Malayan Archipelago. 

This yields the real ancient Lignum coluhrinum of Timor, once held 
in the highest estimation as a remedy for paralysis of the lower extre- 
mities, and old cachectic disorders, but now omitted from modern prac- 
tice. M. Waitz, a Dutch practitioner in Java, is stated by Blume to 
report most favourably of its effects as an anthelmintic, in cases of 
paralysis of the lower extremities, and in blennorrhoea faucium et 
laryngis, diseases to which Europeans are very subject in Java. (L.) 

Strychnos Nux vomica. (Linn.) East Indies. 

Ripe pulp eatable in small quantity ; seeds nux vomica^ liairy, require 
rasping or roasting, very bitter, emetic and poisonous to many animals ; 
they act as an excitant upon the nervous system, producing tetanus ; 
used in paralysis with some success, and in chronic diarrhoea and 
chronic dysentery ; said to render persons insensible to the venom of 
serpents ; the active principles of it are strychnia and brucea ; its action 
appears to be directed towards the spinal cord, and to have no influence 
on the brain ; it is found useful in paralytic affections of the voluntary 
muscles. (G.) The seeds are extremely poisonous, in large doses 
producing extraordinary risjidity and convulsive contractions of the 
muscles previous to death ; in very small and repeated doses it promotes 
the appetite, assists the digestive process, , increases the secretion of 
urine, and sometimes acts slightly on the bowels ; it is employed medi- 
cinally in paralysis, dyspepsia, dysentery, affections of the nervous 
system, &c., and appears to be very active in removing impotence ; it 
appears, however, that virility is preserved no longer than the use of 
the drug is persevered in ; see Pereira, Med. Gaz. xix. 440. The bark 
of this plant has been sold in Europe as a sort of angostura bark, and 
obtained the name of False angostura ; it was at one time assigned to 
Brucea antidysenterica, but Guibourt suspected it to be produced by 
some plant allied to Strychnos. M. Batka, of Prague, referred it to S. 
nux vomica, and Dr. Christison has found it identical with bark of 
Strychnos nux vomica, obtained from India for comparison : Blume is 
of opinion that a great part of the Lignum colubrinnm of commerce 
consists of the thick roots and wood of the middle-sized branches of 
this species more than of any other ; the poisonous principle in this, and 
other plants of the genus, is the Strychina of chemists. (L.) 

Strychnos potatorum. (Linn.) Titan cotte, Clearing nut, India. 

Wood and seeds very bitter, used to render muddy water clear ; 
flowers aromatic ; ripe fruit emetic ; young fruit preserved used as a 
sweetmeat. (G.) The ripe seeds are dried and sold in every market, 



VEGETABLES.— APOCYNACE.5:. 393 

to clear muddy water ; the natives never drink clear well-water, if they 
can get pond or river water, which is always more or less impure ac- 
cording to circumstances ; one of the seeds is well rubbed for a minute 
or two round the inside of the vessel, generally an unglazed earthen 
one, containing the water, which is then left to settle ; in a very short 
time the impurities fall to the bottom, leaving the water clear and per- 
fectly wholesome. These seeds are constantly carried by the more 
provident part of our officers and soldiers in time of war, to enable them 
to purify their water. The natives of India eat the pulp of the fruit 
when ripe ; Dr. Roxburgh found it disagreeable. (L. ex Roxb.) Ainslie 
informs us that the ripe fruit is deemed emetic by the natives of southern 
India when given in powder to the quantity of about half a tea-spoon- 
ful. (O'Sh.) 

Strychnos pseudo quina. (St. Hil.) Geniostoma febrifugum. 
(Spreng.) Quina do Campo. Brazil. 

Considered by Aug. de St. Hilaire to be the best febrifuge in 
Brazil. With the exception of the fruit, which is eaten by children 
without danger, all the parts, especially the bark, are extremely bitter, 
and rather astringent ; it is universally employed instead of cinchona, 
and is asserted to be fully equal to Peruvian bark in the cure of the 
intermittents of Brazil. Vauquelin analyzed the bark, and could find 
in it neither brucine, strychnine, or quinine. (L.) 

Strychnos Tieute. (Lesch.) Tshettek, or Tjettek. Java. 

From the bark of the root there is prepared, in Java, one of the 
most dangerous of known poisons, acting like nux vomica, only in a 
more intense and violent manner ; it is called Tjettek and Upas 
JRaga. (L.) 

Strychnos toxifera. (Schomb.) Guayana. 

This plant has been ascertained by Mr. Schomburgh to furnish the 
basis of a celebrated poison called Wooraly^ Woorari, Ourari^ or 
Urari^ in Guayana ; according to Dr. Hancock, the bark applied ex- 
ternally is a good remedy for foul ulcers ; in his opinion it is one of 
the most potent sedatives in nature, and could it be safely managed, 
would no doubt become a valuable remedy in the treatment of con- 
vulsive and spasmodic disorders. Med, Gaz. xx. 281. 

Tanghinia. (De Cand. viii. 355.) 

Tanghinia venenifera. (Poir.) Cerbera tanghin, (Hook.) C. 
venenifera. (Stend.) 

The kernel of the fruit is a deadly poison ; although not longer 
than an almond, it is sufficient to destroy twenty people. It was used 
in Madagascar as an ordeal, but the practice is now discontinued. 
There is some doubt, however, whether this plant may not be the 
same as Cerbera manghas. (L.) 

Tabern^montana. (De Cand. viii. 361.) 

Tabern^montana arcuata. (Ruiz et Pav.) Peru. 

Stem lactescent, exudes resin. 



394 VEGETABLES.— APOoYNACEiE. 

Thevetia. (De Cand. viii. 343.) 
Thevetia Ahouai. (D. C.) Cerhera ahouai. (Linn.) BraziL 
Seeds, nux ahouai, violently emetic. (G.) The seeds are very 
poisonous ; bark and sap are emetic and narcotic. (L.) 

Thevetia neriifolia. (Juss.) Cerhera thevetia. (Linn.) Cer- 
hera Peruviana. (Pers.) West Indies. 

Has a dangerous venomous milk ; the bark is bitter and cathartic, 
and is reported to be a powerful febrifuge, two grains only being 
-^affirmed to be equal to an ordinary dose of cinchona. (L.) 
Urceola. (De Cand. viii. 358.) 
Urceola elastica. (Roxb.) Sumatra and Pulopenang. 

Yields elastic gum. (G.) This plant yields a very fine kind of 
caoutchouc, firm, very elastic, scentless and possessing all the qualities 
of the best samples of that substance. (L.) 

Vahea. (De Cand. viii. 327.) 

Vahea gummifera. (Lamb.) TaherncemG7itana squamosa. (Spreng.) 
Madagascar. 

Yields caoutchouc. 

ViNCA. (De Cand. viii. 381.) 

*Vi]\CA MAJOR. (Linn.) (E. B. 514.) Greater periwinkle. 

Fl. bluish purple. May. Perennial. Woods and thickets. 

*ViNCA MINOR. (Linn.) (E. B. 917.) Vinca pervinca, Lesser 
periwinkle. 

Fl. blue or white. May, June. Perennial. Hedges and banks in 
woods. 

Leaves astringent, used in tanning, antidysenteric, contracting and 
strengthening the sexual organs ; in hot climates the plants of this 
genus acquire poisonous qualities. (G.) 

Vinca pusiLLA. (Murr.) V. parviflora. (Retz.) Catharanthus 
piisillus. (Don.) East Indies. 

Applied in India as an external stimulant in cases of lumbago. (L. 
ex Roq.) 

Wielughbeia. (De Cand. viii. 321.) 

WiLLUGHBEiA EDULis. (Roxb.) East Indies. 

Every part of the plant, on being wounded, discharges copiously a 
very pure white viscid juice, which is soon, by exposure to the air, 
changed into an indiflferent kind of caoutchouc. The fruit is eaten 
by the natives of the places where it grows, and is by them reckoned 
good. (L.) 

Wrightia. (De Cand. viii. 404.) 

Wrightia antidysenterica. (Br.) Nereum antidysentericum- 
(Linn.) Edtites antidysenterica. (Roxb.) East Indies. 

This bark is called Conessi in commerce, and has been introduced 
into European practice on account of its astringent febrifuge qualities. 
(L.) For conessi bark, see also Holarrhena. The seeds are intensely 
bitter, and used as a vermifuge ; conessi bark has been given with 
much alleged advantage in chronic dysentery ; the infusion seems the 
best form ; dose 1 oz. thrice daily. (O'Sh.) 



VEGETABLES.— AscLEPiADE^. 395 

Order 98.— ASCLEPIADE^. (Da CinL v. 43). 

Calyx five-cleft, persistent; corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, five-lobed, regular, 
with imbricated, very seldom valvular jestivation, deciduous ; stamens five, inserted into 
the base of the corolla, alternate with the segments of the limb; filaments usually con- 
nate ; anthers two-celled, sometimes almost four-celled, in consequence of their dis- 
sepiments being nearly complete ; ovaries two ; styles two, often very short : stigma 
common to both ; styles dilated, five-cornered, with corpusculiferous angles ; follicles 
two, one of which is sometimes abortive ; j^lacenta attached to the suture, finally sepa- 
rating; seeds nmnerous^ imbricated, pendulous, almost always comose at the hilum: 
albumen thin ; embryo straight ; cotyledons foliaceous ; radicle superior ; plumule incon- 
spicuous. Shrubs, or occasionally herbaceous plants, almost always milky, and often 
twining; leaves entire, opposite, sometimes alternate, or whorled, having cilia between 
their petioles in lieu of stipules ; floioers somewhat umbelled, fascicled, or ramose, pro- 
ceeding from between the petioles. (Lindl. ex K. Brown,) 

AscEEPAS. (De Cand. viii. 564,) 
AscLEPiAS CoRNTJTi. (D. C.) Apocy7ium Syriacum, Asclepias 
Syriaco. (Linn.) Common silk weed. North America. 

Milk of the plant a drastic poison ; leaves resolvent ; root emetic. 

Asclepias curassavioa. (Willd.) Bastard ipecacuanha, Red- 
head. West Indies and Tropical America. 

Root whitish, mixed with ipecacuanha, less active ; expressed juice 
of the plant emetic, coch. maj. j. to ij., or as a clyster in bleeding 
piles ; bruised leaves applied to fresh wounds. (G.) This plant is 
called Wild ipecacuanha in the West Lidies, where it is employed by 
the negroes as an emetic ; the roots, which are the parts used, appear 
to be also purgative ; a decoction is said to be efficacious in gleets and 
fluor albus. (L.) 

Asclepias incarnata. (Linn.) A. incarnata. (Michx.) A. 
amcena. (Michx.) Flesh-coloured asclepias. North America. 
Root diuretic. 

Asclepias tuberosa. (Linn.) A. decumhens. (Linn.) A. tube- 
rosa. (Michx.) Butterfly tveed, Pleurisy root. United States. 

Root diuretic, purgative. (G.) Root expectorant and diaphoretic,, 
employed successfully in catarrh, pneumonj'-, and pleurisy. Bigelow 
says he is persuaded of its usefulness as a mild tonic and stimulant. (L.) 

Asclepias decumbens (Linn.) is probably a mere variety of the 
last, and has similar properties. (L.) 

Root, Butterfiy root, diaphoretic, slightly stimulant, also purgative* 
(G.) 

Calotropis. (De Cand. viii. 535.) 

Calotropis gigantea. (Brown.) Asclepias gigantea. (Willd.) 
Ericu. India. 

Milk inspissated, used in lepra ; inner rind of the root, madar, 
mudar, in syphilis and tape-worm, gr. v. twice a day. (G.) A plant 
of great importance in Indian medicine, employed in epilepsy, hysterics, 
convulsions from coitus immediatety after bathing, spasmodic disorders,. 
such as locked-jaw, convulsions in children, paralytical complaints, 
cold sweats, poisonous bites, and venereal complaints, (Roxburgh.) 
Under the names of mador, micdar, akum, and yercund, the root and 
bark, and especially the inspissated juice, are used as powerful altera- 



396 VEGETABLES.— AscLEFiADE^. 

tives and purgatives ; it is especially in cases of leprosy, elephantiasis, 
and intestinal worms, that it has been found important ; its activity 
appears owing to the presence of mudarine, a singular substance, pos- 
sessing the property of coagulating by heat and becoming again fluid 
by exposure to cold. (L.) Emetic, alterative, diaphoretic and purga- 
tive. (O'Sh.) 

Calotropis rROCERA. (Brown.) C. heterophylla. (Wall.) Apocy- 
num Syriacum. (Clus.) Asclepias procera. Arabia, Persia. 

Juice extremely acrid ; Prosper Alpinus says it was administered 
successfully as a remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections ; 
also a powerful depilatory ; according to Professor Royle, this, or an 
allied species, produces a kind of manna called Shukhr ool askur, (L.) 

Camptocarfus. (De. Cand. viii. 493.) 

Camptocarpus mauritianus. (D. C.) Periploca mauritiana. (Poir.) 
Cynanchum mauritianum. (Lamb.) Isles of France and Bourbon. 
Koot, Isle of France ipecacuanha. 

Cynanchum. (De Cand. viii. 547.) 

Cynanchum acutum. (Linn.) Var, a. C. monspeliacum, Euro- 
pean scammony. Sea-coast of Italy, Spain, &c. 

Yields French scammony. (G.) The inspissated juice is drastic, 
and known officially under the name of Montpelier scammony. (L.) 

Cynanchum ovalifolium. (Wight.) (L. Med. B. 542.) Penang. 

Yields an excellent caoutchouc at Penang, according to Dr. AYallich. 
(L.) 

Cynanchum Vincetoxicum. (Brown.) (L, Med. Bot. 542.) Ascle- 
pias vincetoxicum. (Linn.) Hiriindijiaria, Sivalloiv-wort. Europe. 

Root, German co7itrayerva, irritating, forcing out a sweat, alexite- 
rial and antihydropic. (G.) An emetic and purgative, once celebrated 
as an antidote to poisons, whence its name. (L.) 

Gymnema. (De Cand. viii. 621.) 
Gymnema lactiferum. (Brown.) Asclepias lactifera. (Linn.) 
Ceylon. 

Milk used as food. 

Gymnema sylvestre. India. 

This plant, when chewed, possesses the singular property of rendering 
the palate of those persons who use it, insensible to the taste of saccha- 
rine substances, at the same time exerting no influence on it as regards 
other things. Captain Edgeworth could perfectly distinguish the aroma 
of tea sweetened with sugar, but failed to detect the presence of saccha- 
rine matter ; this he found to be likewise the case with preserves and 
other substances containing sugar ; and on putting some powdered sugar 
in his mouth, it seemed like so much sand, being entirely destitute of any 
saccharine taste. The plant, like most of its order, produces a milky 
juice, and is a native of the plains of Northern India. 

Hemidesmus. (De. Cand. viii. 494.) 
Hemidesmus indicus. (R. Brown.) Periploca Indica. (Willd.) 
Asclepias pseudosarsa. (Roxb.) India. 



VEGETABLES.— AscLEPiADE^. ^ 397 

Root, East Indian sarsaparilla, alterative. (Gr.) The sarsaparilla of 
India is chiefly the root of this species ; a decoction of it is prescribed 
by European practitioners in cutaneous diseases, scrofula, and venereal 
affections. (Ainslie.) It is said to be quite as efficient a medicine as 
the best sarsaparilla of America, and is probably the drug from which 
Mr. Garden obtained what he calls Smilasperic acid ; a great deal of 
it is consumed in London now, as a very fine kind of sarsaparilla. (L.) 
It acts as a diuretic, diaphoretic, and tonic, in the most satisfactory 
manner. (O'Sh.) 

HoYA. (De Cand. viii. 634.) 

HoYA viEiDiFLORA. (Brown.) Apocynum tilicBfolium^ Asclepias 
volubilis. (Linn.) East Indies. 

The root and tender stalks sicken and promote expectoration ; the 
leaves, peeled and dipped in oil, are much esteemed by the natives of 
India as a discutient in the early stages of boils ; when the disease is 
more advanced tliey are employed in the same way to promote suppu- 
ration. (L. ex Wight.) 

OxYSTELMA. (Dc Cand. viii. 54