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Full text of "The Suppressed book about slavery! Prepared for publication in 1857,--never published until the present time"

AUBURN UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARIES 




Spec 

E 

.S9592 




This Yolume may be taken from the 
Library with special permission. 




CAT. 2- 








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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/suppressedbookabOOcarl. 



THE 



ABOUT 



PREPARED FOR PUBLICATSON |N 1857,- 

NEVER PUBUSHED UNTIL THE PRESENT TIME. 



Uc 






NEW YORK: 
CAMLETON, PUBLISHER.. 

1864. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1864, by 

GEO W. CARLETON, 

in the Office of the Clerk of the District Court of the United States for the 

Soutliern District of New York. 






FEB 26 71 
HENRY 



^ PREFACE. 



The people of the United States are a Slave-holding people. 
How much that term means we learn when we better understand 
what Slavery is, and what is the complicity of the people of the 
"free States" with it. 

' In the original draft of the Declaration of Independence one 
of the oppressive acts charged against the Mother country was 
the continuation of the Foreign Slave Trade, contrary to the in- 
terests and in spite of the remonstrances of the Colonists. It 
was afterwards omitted, at the dictate of those Southern Colonies 
who could not consistently complain of that as a wrong which 
they meant to claim as a privilege. When, at the close of the 
war, a Convention of Delegates from all the States met to form a 
Constitution, the two questions which threatened to be insur- 
mountable obstacles in the way of a Federal Union were, whether 
the system of Slavery, which was cherished in some of the States, 
should be tolerated by those which had abolished or proposed to 
abolish it ; and whether the traffic in African Slaves should be 
continued. The difficulty was evaded by a "Compromise." The 
Foreign Slave Trade was permitted, but only for twenty years. 
The rendition of fugitive Slaves was provided for by the Con- 
stitution, because they were "property;" but the Slaves were 
reckoned as three-fifths of the free population, as a basis of Con- 
gressional representation, because they were men. On the other 
hand, in case of direct taxation the same method of enumeration 
was observed. On the side of the Slaveholder was not only 
power, but "wisdom." The Foreign Slave Trade lasted as long 
as it was Avanted, and till a more profitable Domestic Trade was 
about to arise to take its place. The Slaveholders have always 
had, by virtue of the three-fifths rule, a compact representation, 
as Slaveholders, in Congress, and have ahvays held the balance 

3 



4 PREFACE. 

of power. The Slave States, on the same basis of representation 
as the "free/^ would be entitled to only sixty-five representatives 
in Congress, yet they have ninety; that is, twenty-five extra. 
This discrepancy between population and representation arises 
from the fact that, in determining between the number of repre- 
sentatives to which each State is entitled, five Slaves are reckoned 
equal to three Freemen. The Slaves have a representation equal 
to that of the "free States" of New Hampshire, Vermont, Con- 
necticut, Iowa, and Wisconsin ? 

The Slavehunter may pursue and take his prey wherever he 
can find him, between Canada and Mexico. The Northern man 
is punished with fine and imprisonment who gives the trembling 
fugitive a cup of water or a crust of bread. 

These concessions to the Slaveholders, made for the sake of im- 
mediate harmony and union, were supposed to be merely tem- 
porary. Slavery, it was hoped, would speedily yield to the spirit 
of freedom, and, confined within narrow limits, necessarily and 
rapidly disappear. The leading men of that day have left upon 
record their strong condemnation of the system, and some of them 
were active members of associations formed for its extirpation. 
But with another generation came new circumstances and new 
ideas. The introduction of Cotton-culture opened a profitable 
field for the employment of Slave labour. The acquisition of new 
territory, permitting the extension of Slavery, and an economical 
calculation showing that a planter could profitably "work up" a 
gang of Slaves in seven years, and supply their place — not by 
natural increase, but by new importations from older Slave States 
— created an active Domestic trade, and secured to Virginia, 
Maryland, and the Carolinas an immense return for their "vi- 
gintial" crop of Negroes. The North was reconciled to share 
in the national iniquity by a commercial prosperitj^ based upon 
the steadily increasing production of a great staple export. The 
admission of new Slave States to the Union added to the political 
strength of the Slaveholders — the power to acquire and use 
which the fatal concessions of the Constitution had put" into their 
hands. 

Thus the growth of this Slaveholding despotisni has advanced 
with the grovfth and prosperity of the country. It has rarely 



PREFACE. 5 

excited tlie apprehension of the North. If, as at the time of the 
acceptance of the Missouri Compromise, she has seemed for a 
moment thoroughly aroused, it was easy to amuse and quiet her 
with some cunning sclaeme of a Southern politician, made only 
to be broken the moment the North demanded its promised ad- 
vantage. The history of the Government from the beginning is 
a repetition of similar acts of Slaveholding domination, faithless- 
ness, and pusillanimity. 

In preparing this work the author has not depended on the 
facts or arguments of those who have been known as "Abo- 
litionists," but has chosen rather to rely upon such authorities 
and sources of information as cannot be impeached for their re- 
lation to the Abolition party. For the character of Slavery the 
South is its own witness. The Southern clergyman and his 
Northern ally are permitted to show, in their own words, how 
they reconcile that system to the Divine Will. The Northern 
clergyman, whose standing in the Church and whose orthodox 
integrity are unquestioned, bears impartial testimony to the 
wickedness of an institution, the defender of which he, neverthe- 
less, recognises as a Christian brother. The politician piles fact 
upon fact, and argument upon argument, . in denunciation of 
Slavery and the Slave-power, through the organs of a party 
which denies that it has any wish or intention to interfere with 
Slavery where it already exists, or to withhold from the Slave- 
holder any of the privileges which the Constitution confers upon 
him. Against such witnesses there can be brought no charge of 
fanaticism. If there shall seem to be any glaring inconsistency 
between the avowal that Slavery is a gigantic wrong, or a heinous 
sin, and a position as a Christian or a citizen which gives to it 
that support without which it cannot exist, it is for those between 
whose faith and works such contradiction appears, to explain 
and justify it. The author of this work has done his part if by 
unimpeachable testimony he has shown the true character and 
the true relations of American Slavery. 

1* 



A PAGE FOE 1864! 

WHY SUPPRESSED? Reader, -would you like to know? Read 
the Book, and you -vrill presently discover why. Would you have 
published it when it was written? Would you even have read it? 
Would you not have indignantly put it from you, muttering some- 
thing about " those abominable abolitionists"? 

This Book was written Anno Domini 1857. The stereotype 
plates from which it is now printed, were made then. Since that 
time, as the penalty for having been brought into the world seven 
years too soon, they have slumbered, unknown, unnoticed, and 
undisturbed, beneath the surface of the earth. 

But, while they slept, the nation has been "marching on." 
Awake to its danger, it springs from its former lethargy, and 
wonders at its long-continued apathy to its true interests. We 
are not what we were seven years ago. We dare to read things 
at which we then would have looked with suspicion. We no 
longer tremble at the thought of what the slave power would do 
to us, were it to catch us doing any thing contrary to its bidding. 
We open our mouths to shout aloud what is right, instead of being 
almost afraid to whisper it. We can print, publish, read, speak, 
and listen to — exactly what we please. 

And now, brought to the light of day, the Book discloses the 
hideous skeleton of the institution which we have fondled and 
petted till it has almost been the death of us. It reveals the dark 
deeds of slavery, and opens to view its hideous purposes, its revo- 
lutionary premeditations. It is no hackneyed hash of the woriu 
out things which for a generation have been said about slavery. 
It is fresh, vivid, sparkling, cutting to the very quick. Its pic- 
tures are true to the life. Its almost prophetic utterances are 
borne out by the light of the terrible deeds of the past three years. 

You can re^d it now. You will not have to conceal it in your 
.drawer, or furtively slip it into your waste-paper basket, or under 
the table-cover, if you are interrupted while absorbed in the 
thrilling interest of its pages. You can hold it open before your 
neighbor, for he wants to read it. The nation wants to see it. 
The world needs to knoio the truths contained in it. 

AND NOW LET THE WORLD READ IT. -^ 

6 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 

THINGS PAST AND PRESENT. 

PAGE 

CiiAP. I. — How THE Negro has been Treated 9 

II. — The unfortunate " Sons or Ham," as 

Slaves 37 

III. — Commercial and "Union-Saving" Obe- 
dience TO Slavery 63 

IV. — The Imperious Demands of the Slave 

Power 89 

PART II. 

SLAVES, HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 

Chap. I.— The "Nigger Auction" Business 121 

II. — Coffle Gtangs, and the Separation of 

Families 159 

PART III. 

SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

Chap. I. — The Barbarisms of the Institution 187 

II. — Stripes, Chains, and Tortures 209 

PART IV. 

SLAVE EDUCATION AND RELIGION. 

Chap. I. — Ignorance of the Slave Region 233 

II. — Muzzling the Press and mangling the 

Bible 251 

1 ' 



CONTENTS. 

PART V. 

DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 



PAGE 



Chap. I. — Fugitives and Bloodhounds 277 

II. — Hunting '' Runaway Niggers" 313 

III. — Restoring Lost "Property" 335 

PART VI. 

THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 

Chap. I. — Ostend, Cuba, and Kansas 353 

II. — Slavery to reign supreme in America. 367 



Appendix A. — Colorphobia in Free States 381 

B. — The Rev. Judicious Trimmer, D.D.. 393 
C. — Domestic and Foreign Slave-Trade 407 
D. — Dough-Face Religion. 417 

Postscript, 1864 427 

Particular Index 429 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Human Flesh at Auction (Frontispiece). 

Halting at Noon. 

The Coeple-Gang. 

Sold to go South. 

The Lash. 

Flogging the Negro. 

The Bloodhound Business. 

Running Away. 



PART FIRST. 

A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST AND PRESENT STATE 
OF THINGS. 



CHAPTER I. 



" When I reflect that God is just, and that his justice can not sleep 
for ever, I tremble for my country." — Jefferson. . 

" There is no power out of the churches that could sustain Slavery an 
hour, if it were not sustained in them." — Barnes. 

Under the whole heavens there is not to be found a people 
pursued with a more relentless prejudice and persecution, 
than are the " colored" children of the United States of North 
America. Those who imbibe this prejudice against "color" — 
a practical denial of the Unity of the Human race as taught 
in the Bible — become infidels without suspecting it. Those 
who oppose it, and oppose Slavery, are driven into the infi- 
delity that rejects the Bible by hearing the Bible appealed to 
in defence of them. In the New Testament, we are told that 
" God hath made of one blood all nations of men," (Acts 
xvii. 17 ;) and, that "he is no respecter of persons," (Acts 
X. 34; Eph. vi. 9.) "In Christ," says St. Paul, "all are 
one : there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond 
nor free." And Christ has laid down as the foundation of all 
true religion, and as the rule of our conduct toward him and 
his children, that we love the Lord our God with all our heart, 
and with all our soul, and with all our mind, and our Neighbor 

1* 



10 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE FAST 

as ourselves. On these two commandments hang all The Law 
and the prophets. (Matt, xxii., 37-40.) 

Senator Morrill, of New Hampshire, in a Speech, delivei'ed 
in the United States Senate in 1820, said: "You excluded 
not only your Soldiers of Color from their Constitutional 
rights, but robbed them of the Patents of land you had given 
them. They fought your battles. They defended your coun- 
try They preserved your privileges, but have lost their own^ 
"What did you say to them on their Enlistment ? ' We will 
give you a monthly compensation, and, at the end of the war, 
one hundred and sixty acres of land, on which you may settle, 
and by cultivating the soil, spend your declining years in peace 
and in the enjoyment of those immunities for which you have 
fought and bled.' Now, sir, you restrict them, and will not 
allow them to enjoy the fruit of their labor. "Where is the 
Public faith ? Did they suppose, with a Patent in their hand, 
declaring their title to land in Missouri, with the Seal of the 
Nation and the President's signature affixed thereto, it would 
be said unto them, by any authority, ' you shall not possess 
the premises'? and yet this must follow if 'colored men are" 
not citizens.'" 

He that is not a Citizen is either an Alien or Slave. He 
that is not a Citizen can not inherit house or Jand. He can not 
receive them by devise while he lives, nor bequeath them 
by his Will when he dies. The property given to him reverts 
to the State. His wife has no dower. His children have no 
inheritance. He can not come into the Courts for redress. 
He can neither sue to recover rights nor to obtain debts. He 
can hold no trust and exercise no guardianship. He can be 
hanged or sent to jail, but he can not sit in the Jury-box. He 
can not be naturalized unless he is " white ;" can not acquire 
rights by staying in the country, nor can he have a Passport 
to go to any other. Such is the condition of him who is not 
a citizen of the State under the Common Law, and such is 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 11 

defined to be the condition of every " free colored" man and 
woman, bj the Supreme Court of the United States — that 
Supreme Court which strains every nerve to catch a single 
Slave, but does not scruple a moment to disfranchise seven 
hundred and fifty thousand freemen ! 

At the time of the Declaration of Independence there were 
but two States, South Carolina and Virginia, in which " free 
colored, men" were excluded from citizenship." In all the other 
States no distinction was made as to the right of suifrage, on 
the ground of " color ;" and so the matter also stood at the 
period of the adoption of the Federal Constitution, except in 
the case of little Delaware, she having adopted by that time 
the exclusive policy. 

Thomas Jefferson, the immortal penman of the Declaration 
of Independence, ascribed Citizenship to the Slaves no less 
than to the " free colored men." The following passage, 
quoted from the " Proclamation" he issued in reference to the 
outrage of the British man-of-war Leopard upon the American 
frigate Chesapeake, relates to " free colored men." To under- 
stand the force of this quotation, it should be recollected that 
of the four seamen taken from the American service, the two 
born in the United States were " black men," natives of Mary- 
land. The passage in the " Proclamation" is as follows : — 

" This enormity was not only without provocation or justifiable cause, 
but was committed with the avowed purpose of taking by force from a 
ship-of-war of the United States a part of her crew, and that no circum- 
stance might be wanting to mark its character, it had been previously 
ascertained tliat the seamen demanded were Native Citizens of the United 
States." 

In his " Notes on Virginia," Jefferson shows what he thought 
as to the possibility of Slaves being Citizens of the United 
States. After enumerating some of the horrors of the atro- 
cious concern called the " Peculiar Institution," he proceeds 
as follows : 



12 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

" And with what execration should the statesman be loaded, who, per- 
mitting one half of the Citizens thus to traviple on the rights of the other, 
transforms those into despots, and these into enemies, destroys the 
morals of the one and the amor patrice of the other." 

The Hon. Tristram Burgess, of Rhode Island, in a Speech in 
Congress, in January, 1828, said: " At the commencement of 
the war, Rhode Island had a- large number of Slaves. A regi- 
ment of them were enlisted into the Continental service, and 
no braver men met the enemy in battle." 

Governor Eustis, of Massachusetts, in his Speech against 
Slavery in Missouri, in 1820, bore this testimony to the brav- 
ery of the Colored Soldiers : " The blacks formed an entire 
Regiment, and they discharged their duty v>^ith zeal and fidel- 
ity. The gallant defence of Red Bank, New Jersey, in which 
the Black Regiment bore a part, is among the proofs of 
their valor." 

The glory of the defence of Red Bank, which has been 
pronounced one of the most Heroic actions of the War, be- 
longs in reality to black men ; yet who now hears them spo- 
ken of in connection with it ? Here are a few of the names 
of the Soldiers composing the Regiment : — 

Cato Greene, Philo Philipps, Richard Cozzens, 

Cassar Power, Primus Rhodes, Richard Rhodes, 

Cuff Greene, Prince Greene, Sampson Hazzard, 

Gay Watson, Prince Jenks, Scipio Brown, 

Henry Taylor, Prince Vaughan, Thomas Brown, 

Ichabod Northrup, Reuben Roberts, Yoi-k Champlain. 

Gentlemen, who had at first held back from taking commis- 
sions, finding how matters were going, assumed commands, as 
readily of the Black Companies as if they had been pure Cau- 
casian blood. The nephew of General "Washington, Captain 
Humphreys — take notice, sham democrats of the nineteenth 
century — a nephew of General Washington, acting under thb 
inspirations of his immortal uncle — commanded one of these 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 13 

battalions ; notice, likewise, that their courage Avas equal to 
that of the white regulars.* The following is a list of some of 
the names of the " Black Heroes" commanded by Captain 
Humphreys. They belonged to the Second Company of the 
Ninth Regiment of the Connecticut Line of the Revolutionary 
Army : — 

Alexander Judd, Herman Rodgers, Peter Lyon, 

Andrew Jack, Isaac Higgins, Peter Mix, 

Bill Sowers, Jack Arabus, Peter Morand, 

Bristen Parker, Jack Little, Pliineas Strong, 

Csesar Chapman, James Dinali, Philo Freeman, 

Cato VVilbrow, Jesse Rose, Pomp Cyras, 

Cato Robinson, Job Caasar, Pomp Liberty, 

* It would seem from the record that some black men could lead 
off in a fight, on an emergency. A "descendant of Ham," named 
Crispus Attacks, was advertised in the Boston "Gazette" of N.ov. 
20, 1750, as a "runaway nigger." History does not inform us 
whether or not the "patriarch" who advertised him succeeded in 
catching him. Prabably not. Crispus may have been smart enough 
to keep out of his way But on the 5th of March, 1770, the run- 
away proved that he was no coward. Captain Preston, with a body 
of British soldiers, undertook to repress symptoms of revolution 
then manifest in a crowd of Bostonians at Dock Square and near the 
Custom-House. The "white folks" hesitated a little, probably 
fearing to inaugurate hostilities with the mother-country. At- 
tucks, seeing the need of a leader, placed himself at the head 
of the crowd, and urged them to drive the red-coats from the 
streets. He rushed forward, shouting, "Come on! Don't be afraid! 
We'll drive these red-coats out of Boston I" Two bullets pierced 
his breast, and the black man fell, the first martyr in the struggle 
for the freedom of the United States of America. No monument 
marks the spot where the body of this courageous man lies, 
simply because he was "a nigger." An effort was recently made, 
in the Legislature of. Massachusetts, to erect a monument to 
him, but it failed. Had his epidermis been of the sort com- 
monly known as "flesh-color," a magnificent and costly monu- 
ment would have commemorated his brave deed. "AVho did sin, 
this man or his parents," that he was born with yellowish-brown 
skin ? 



14 



A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 



Cffisar Bagton, 
Cuff Freeman, 
Cuff Liberty, 
Congo Zado, 
Daniel Bradley, 
Dick Freeman, 
Dick Violet, 
Ezekiel Tupham, 
Gamelia Ferry, 
Harry Williams, 



Joe Etis, 
John Ball, 
John Cleveland, 
John M'Lane, 
John Rodgers, 
Juba Dyer, 
Juba Freeman, 
Lent Munson, 
Lewis Martin, 
Ned Freeman, 



Pomp M'Cuff, 
Prince Crosby, 
Prince George, 
Prince Johnson, 
Shapp Rodgers, 
Sharp Camp, 
Solomon Lowtice, 
Shubael Johnson, 
Tim Caesar, 
Tom Freeman. 



Among the traits which distinguished the Black Regiments, 
was devotion to their Officers. In the attack made upon the 
American lines, near Croton river, Westchester County, New 
York, on the 13th May, 1781, Colonel Christopher Greene, 
the commander of the Regiment, was cut down and mortally 
wounded, but the sabres of the enemy only reached him through 
the bodies of his faithful guard of blacks, who hovered over 
him, fighting with the utmost daring to protect him until the 
last man of them was killed. No monumental piles distin- 
guish their " dreamless beds ;" not an inch on the page of 
History has been appropriated to their memory ! 

Not long ago, while the excavations for the vaults of a great 
retail dry goods store, north of the Park, New York, were go- 
ing on, a large quantity of human bones were thrown up by 
the workmen. On inquiry it was ascertained that they wesre 
the bones of Colored American Soldiers, who fell in the bat- 
tles of Long Island, in 1776, and of such as died of wounds 
then received. At that day, as at this, spite of the declara- 
tion that " all men are created equal," the prejudice against 
the " colored man" was intensely strong. The black and the 
white had fought against the same enemy, under the same 
banner, contending for the same object. But in the grave, 
they must be divided. On the battlefield, the blacks and the 
whites had mixed their bravery and their blood, but their 
ashes must not mingle in the bosom of their common mother. 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 15 

The white man, exclusive and haughty even in his burial, must 
have his place of rest proudly apart from the grave of his 
black brother, whom he had once enslaved. Now, after 
seventy-nine years have passed by, the bones of these forgot- 
ten victims of the Revolution are shovelled up, and carted off, 
and thrown into the sea, as the rubbish of the City ! Had 
they been white men's relics, they would have been honored 
with sumptuous burial anew. Now they are the rubbish of 
the Street. What boots it that the Colored man fought for 
American freedom ; that he bled for liberty ; that he died for 
his white brothers ? Does the. Colored man deserve a tomb ? 
(See Appendix A.) 

Three quarters of a century have passed by since the re- 
treat from Long Island. What a change since then ! From 
the Washington of that day to the world's Washington of this, 
what a change ! Under the pavement of Broadwaj', beneath 
the walls of the Bazaar, there still lie the bones of the Colored 
Martyrs of American Independence ! Dandies swarm gayly 
oyer the threshold, heedless^of the dead Colored Soldier, con- 
temptuous of the living. And while these faithful bones were 
being shoveled and carted to the sea, there was " a great 
Slave-hunt" in New England : a man was kidnapped and car- 
ried off to bondage. 

The Hon. Charles Pinckney, of South Carolina, in a Speech 
delivered in the United States Senate, in 1820, bore the fol- 
lowing testimony to the services rendered by the Colored 
Soldiers of 1776 : "At the commencement of the Revolution- 
ary struggle with Great Britain, all the States had this class 
of people. The New England States had numbers of them; 
the Middle States had still more, although less than the South- 
ern States. They all entered into the great contest with sim- 
ilar views. Like brethren they contended for the benefit of 
the whole, leaving to each the right to pursue its happiness in 
its own way. They thus nobly toiled and bled together, real- 



16 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

\y like brethren. The colored portion of the population then 
were, as they still are, as valuable to the Union as any other 
equal number of inhabitants. They were in numerous in- 
stances the Pioneers, and in all, the Laborers of your Armies. 
To their hands were owing the erection of the greatest part 
of the Fortifications raised for the protection of our country. 
In the Northern States, numerous bodies of them were enlist- 
ed, and fought side by side with the whites the battles of the 
Revolution." 

The Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, of Massachusetts, in his 
Speech in Congress, on the Imprisonment of Colored Seamen, 
September, 1850, bore this testimony to the gallant conduct 
of the Colored Soldiers of the War of 1812 : "I have an im- 
pression that, not, indeed, in these piping times of Peace, but 
in the time of the War, when quite a boy, I have seen Black 
Soldiers enlisted, who did faithful and excellent service. But, 
however it may have been in the Northern States, I can tell 
the Senator what happened in the Southern States at this 
period. I believe that I shall be- borne out in saying, that no 
Regiments did better service at Neiv Orleans, than did the 
Black Regiments, which were organized under the direction 
of General Jackson himself." 

While the British force was approaching Louisiana, Gen- 
eral Jackson learned that among its ranks were Regiments of 
Colored Men, and he wished to excite the sentiments of loyalty 
in the bosoms of the " colored people" of that state. The 
condition of affairs was such, that not a man could be spared. 
The Government at Washington had left New Orleans utterly 
without defence, and the general had to avail himself of all 
the means within his reach to get together a force strong 
enough to make resistance with something like a chance in his 
favor of success. To this end, on the 21st of September, 
1814, he issued from his Headquarters, at Mobile, Alabama, 
a " Proclamation," of which the following is a true copy : 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 17 

Headquarters, 7th Military District, 
Mobile, September 21, 1814. 
To THE Fkee Colored inhabitants or Louisiana : 

Through a mistaken policy you have heretofore been deprived of a 
participation in the glorious struggle for National Eights, in which your 
country is engaged. This no longer shall exist. As sons of freedom, 
you are now called on to defend our most inestimable blessings. As 
Americans, your country looks with confidence to her colored children for a 
valorous support. As fathers, husbands, and brothers, you are summoned to 
rally around the Standard of the Eagle, to defend all that is dear to exist- 
ence. Your country, although calling for your exertions, does not wish 
you to engage in her cause without remunerating you for the services 
rendered. In the sincerity of a Soldier, and in the language of Truth, I 
address you. To every noble-hearted man of Color, volunteering to 
serve during the present contest Avith Great Britain, and no longer, there 
will be paid the same bounty in money and land now received by the 
white Soldiers of the United States, viz. : $124 in money, and \&Q acres 
'of land. The non-commissioned officers and privates will also be entitled to 
the same monthly pay and daily rations, and clothes, furnished to any white 
American soldier. The major-general commanding will select officers for 
your government from your white fellow-Citizens. Your non-commis- 
sioned officers will be selected from yourselves. Due regard will be paid 
to the feelings of Freemen and Soldiers. You will not, by being asso- 
ciated with white men, in the same corps, be exposed to improper com- 
parisons, or unjust sarcasm. As a distinct independent battalion or 
regiment, pursuing the path of glory, you will, undivided, receive the 
applause and gratitude of your countrymen. To insure you of the Sin- 
cerity of my Intentions, and my anxiety to engage your valuable services 
to our country, I have communicated my. wishes to the Governor of 
Louisiana, who is fully informed as to the manner of enrolments, and 
will give you every necessary information on the subject of this address. 

ANDREW JACKSON, 

Major- General Commanding. 

There is an elaborate Engraving of the Battle of New 
Orleans, eighteen by twenty inches, executed by M. Hya- 
cinthe Laclotte, the correctness of which was certified to, by 
eleven of the Superior Officers in New Orleans, July 15, 1815, 
when the drawing was completed. In the battle. General 
Jackson and his staff were just at the right of the advancing 



18 A GENERAL VIEW OP THE PAST 

left column of the British, and near him were stationed the 
Colored Soldiers. He is numbered " 6," and the position of 
the Colored Soldiers, " 8." The chart explanation of" Report, 
No. 8," from the American Army, reads thus : " 8. Captains 
Dominique and Bluche, two 24-pounders ; Major Lacoste's 
battalion, formed of Men of Color, of New Orleans, and Major 
Daquin's battalion, formed of the Men of Color of St. Domingo, 
under Major Saverj, second in command." "When it is re- 
membered that the whole number of Soldiers claimed by the 
Americans to have been in that battle reached only 3,600, it 
will be seen that the " Men of Color" were present in larger 
proportion than their numbers in the country warranted. 
General Jackson in his second " proclamation" said : 

New Orleans, December 18, 1814. 
To THE Free People of Color : 

Soldiers ! when on the banks of the Mobile, I called you to take up 
arms, inviting you to partake the perils and glory of your white fellow- 
Citizens, I expected much from you, for I was not ignorant that you 
possessed qualities most formidable to an invading enemy. I knew with 
what fortitude you could endure hunger and tliirst, and all the fatigues 
of a campaign. I knew xoell how you loved your Native country, and that 
you as ivell as ourselves, had to defend ivhat Man holds most dear — his 
Parents, Wife, Children, and Property. You have done more than I ex- 
pected. In addition to the previous qualities I before knew you to possess, I 
found among you a noble enthusiasm which leads to the performance of great 
things. Soldiers ! the President of the United States shall hear how praise- 
worthy xvas your conduct in the hour of danger, and the Representatives of 
the American people ivill give you the praise your exploits entitle you to ! 
Your General anticipates them in applauding your noble ardor ! The 
enemy approaches — his vessels cover our lakes — our brave Citizens are 
united, and all contention (about color) has ceased among them. Their 
only dispute is who shall win the prize of valor, or who the most glory, 
its noblest reward. By order. 

THOMAS BUTLER, Aid-de-Camp. 

How have these promises been kept ? Alas ! alas ! What 
a spectacle do we witness in the year of our Lord, 1857. A 



AND PKESENT STATE OP THINGS. 19 

country reaching from Sea to Sea, from the Gulf of tropic 
heat to Lake Superior's arctic cold, and not one inch of free 
soil all the way! A country 2,936,166 square miles, and not 
a foot where a poor heart-broken fugitive from Slavery can be 
free from the grasp of his " Master" or his agents ! And this 
not the^deed of a State reluctantly performing in her sovereign 
right a Constitutional obligation, but, in hurried obedience to 
despotic will ! 

Slavery, which was left to " die with decency," has become 
the vital and animating spirit of the . National Government. 
The Slaveholders no longer conceal their purpose or deny 
their assumptions. They control the Foreign and Domestic 
policy, make War and Peace, enact and trample under foot 
Laws, and Treaties, and Constitutions, as suits their despotic 
'wills. Their avowals are no less insulting than their acts are 
insufferable. In the " temple of liberty," Liberty herself is 
derided. In the Senate of the United States 'the dicta of its 
founders are denounced as a lie. The celebration of the 
" Fourth of July," in all the States, is looked upon as little 
else than a treasonable emeute. The laws of Congress and 
the " constitutional privileges" of the Citizens of the several 
States are alike denied validity when conflicting with the 
opinions or interests of the Slaveholders. Courts of justice, 
which are denied in one State for the liberation of Citizens, 
are perverted in another to the destruction of the liberties 
of all. 

Jefferson's prediction is fulfilled. The danger he dreaded 
has come upon the people of the '■'■free States." Here is his 
warning, written thirty-five years ago. Every line and word 
applies with startling distinctness, to the decision made by the 
Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Dred Scott, 
on the 7th of March, 1857 : — 

" We ah-eady see the power installed for life, responsible to no author- 
ity, (for impeachment is not even a scare-crow) advancing with a noise- 



20 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST ' 

less and steady pace to the great object of consolidation. 2'he founda- 
tions are already deeply laid by their decisions for the annihilation of Consti- 
tutional State Rights. This will not be borne. You will have to choose 
between reformation and revolution. If I know the spirit of this country, 
the one or the other is inevitable. Contrary to all correct example, they 
go out of the question before them, to throw an anchor ahead, and grapple 
further hold for future advances of power. They are, then, in fact, the 
corps of Sappers and Miners, steadily working to undermine the inde- 
pendent rights of the States. Nothing in the Constitution has given them, 
a right to decide for the Executive more than for the Executive to decide for 
them. The opinion which gives to the Judges the right to decide what 
laws are Constitutional, and what not, not only for themselves in their 
own sphere of action, but for the Legislature and Executive also in their 
spheres, would make the Judiciary a despotic branch. If this opinion be 
sound, then, indeed, is our Constitution a complete felo de se. For in- 
tending to establish three departments coordmate and independent that 
they might check and counterbalance one another, it has given, according 
to this opinion, to one of them alone the Right to prescribe Rules for 
the Government of the others — and to that one, too, which is unelected by 
and independent of the Nation." 

Such is the portrait of Chief-Justice Taney and his Slave- 
holding associates, drawn by the pen that wrote the Declara- 
tion of Independence. Acknowledging no control either by 
Congress, the Executive, or even "the People," this Court 
issues edicts to each, and directs or forbids the action of all. 

Never did man speak more truly than did Daniel "Webster, 
when he declared — "There is no North;" for there is none. 
The South goes clear up to the Canada line. The New York 
Tribune of the 9th of March, 1857, says : " The people of the 
free States have been accustomed to regard Slavery as a 
' local' matter for which we were in no wise responsible. As 
we have been used to say, it belonged to the Slave States 
alone, and they must answer for it before the world. We can 
say this no more. Now wherever the Stars and Stripes wave, 
they protect Slavery and represent Slavery. The cursed 
stain is on our hands also. From Maine to the Pacific, over 
all future conquests and annexations, wherever in the islands 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 21 

of western seas, or in the South American Continent, or in 
the Mexican Gulf, the Flag of the Union, by just means or 
unjust, shall be planted, there it plants the curse, and tears, and 
blood, and unpaid toil of this ' Institution.' The Star of 
Freedom and the Stripes of Bondage are henceforth one. 
American Republicanism and American Slavery are for the 
future synonymous. This, then, is the final fruit! In this all 
the labors of our statesmen, the blood of our heroes, the life- 
long cares and toils of our forefathers, the aspirations of our 
scholars, the prayers of good men, have finally ended !" 

There is not upon the face of the earth so despotic a Gov- 
ernment as that of eitlier of the Slaveholding States of the 
American Republic. Take, for example, the State of South 
Carolina. What are the " qualifications of a Representative" ? 
He must he legally seized and possessed, in his own right, of a 
settled freehold of five hundred acres of land, and ten Slaves ; 
or, of real estate of the value of seven hundred and fifty dol- 
lars, clear of debt. If a man does not own Slaves, he must 
own more land ; because when a man owns a certain amount 
of land, he generally finds it necessary, in order to make it 
profitable, and increase its value, to purchase Slaves ; and 
thus, as he increases the quantity of his land, he becomes 
interested in " Slave property." In this way, even those dis- 
tricts whei'e there are but few Slaves will be represented by 
the owners of those Slaves in the legislature. They, there- 
fore, will concur generally in measures for the support of the 
Slave interest — and thus the whole House of Mepresentatives 
must belong to the Slaveholders. But to be a Senator requires 
twice the amount of freehold property qualification, that it 
does to be a Representative. It will, therefore, follow, that 
both Houses must represent the Slave interest, not by a cer- 
tain majority only, but with absolute unanimity. And the 
Governor of the State, whose duty it is to recommend meas- 
ures for the action of the legislature, must be worth not less 



22 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

than seven thousand dollars in settled estate. The governor; 
therefore, is the Executive of the Slave interest. 

The two United States Senators are elected by the State 
Legislature. They must, therefore, represent the Slave in- 
terest of their State. Again, the Legislature divides the 
State Congressional Districts, and it so does it that the Repre- 
sentatives in Congress shall represent the Slaveholding Dis- 
tricts, chiefly. The State is entitled to seven Representatives 
in Congress. Now mark how these " Liberty-loving" Caro- 
linians have arranged it. The lower country, with a White, 
population of little over half that of the upper country, has 
four Representatives, while the latter has only three Repre- 
sentatives. In Congress, therefore, as well as in the State 
Legislature, it is the Slaveholding interest that is provided 
for.* Again, the Electors for President of the United States 
are chosen, not directly by " the People," but by the Legisla- 
ture ; and they, therefore, also represent the Slave interest. 
Again, the Judges and the ordinary Magistrates are chosen by 
the Legislature. Thus the Legislative, Executive, and Judi- 
cial departments of the Government are all the Representa- 

* South Carolina has seven Representatives in Congress, while New 
Hampshire, with a free population greater by thirty-four thousand, has 
only three ; and Virginia has thirteen, while Massachusetts, with a "free 
population" greater by forty-five thousand, has only eleven ; and Missis- 
sippi has Jii'e, while Wisconsin, with about ten thousand greater "free 
population," has only three. The Slave States, on the same basis of 
representation as the " free," are entitled to only sixty-Jive Representa- 
tives in Congress ; yet they have ninety ; that is, twenty-five extra. 
This discrepancy between population and representation arises from the 
fact that, in determining between the number of representatives to which 
each State is entitled. Jive Slaves are reckoned equal to three Freemen ! 
The Slaves have a representation equal to that of the "free States" of 
New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, Iowa, and Wisconsin ! With- 
out the representation allowed to " Slave property" by the Compro- 
misers of the "Jree States," the Slaveholders would have been kept in 
proper check. 



AND PRESENT STATE OP THINGS. 23 

tives of the Slaveholding interest. And to make it sure that 
this order of Government shall perpetually exist, the Consti- 
tution of the State provides that no part of this Constitution 
shall be altered unless a bill to alter the same shall have been 
read three times in the House of Representatives, and three 
times in the Senate, and agreed to by two thirds of both 
branches of the whole representation ; neither -shall any alter- 
ation take place until the bill so agreed to, be published three 
months previous to a new election for members of the House 
of Representatives, and if the alteration proposed by the Legis- 
lature shall be agreed to in their first Session, by two thirds 
of the whole representation in both branches of the legislature, 
after the same shall have been read three, times, on three sev- 
eral days in each House, then and not otherwise the same shall 
become a part of the Constitution. 

Now, we ask, when will this Slaveholding legislature, by a 
vote of two thirds of both Houses in two different Sessions, 
so alter the Constitution as to throw the majority of that body 
upon the side of the non-Slaveholding interests of the State, 
where it rightfully belongs? They will never do it so long as 
their Slaves can be of any profit to them. The non-Slave- 
holders or poor whites, therefore, who have no interest in 
Slaverji-, but whose interests are directly opposed to it, are 
tied down, " neck-and-heels," politically speaking, by the 
Slaveholding Power. They put their votes in the Ballot-box, 
it is true, hut can not vote for one of themselves. They must 
make election from one of the Traffickers in Men, Women, 
and Children! 

Of what account, then, is the vote of the non-Slaveholding 
portion of the white population of the State ? It does not help 
them out in the least, but it serves to delude them with the 
idea that they are " freemen," that they may not raise a clamor 
about their "rights." And who are their " Masters"? Why, 
the Slaveholding gentlemen, who, living upon the labor, &c., 



24 A GE^"ERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

(fee, of Slaves, often their own Children, care not a straw 
what is the. condition of the poor but industrious white man, 
nor what becomes of him or his family. If they can get some 
of them for their Overseers, these they will take interest in, 
according to their skill in " managing and driving" their " col- 
ored brethren," The poor whites have no social equality — 
no political force — no moral influence. Steeped in ignorance 
and poverty, the Slaveholders neither respect their opinions 
}ior fear their power. The ostensible Representatives of 
'• the People," in obedience to their " Masters," have not only 
reduced the " laboring masses" to servitude, but added insult 
to injury, by openly avowing that " Slavery is the rightful 
state of the laborer, everywhere, white or black." 

The 32,000 Slaveholders in the State not only have De- 
spotic Power over their 384,988 Slaves, but entire Political 
Power over 242,567 white native-born freemen, Avho can not 
by any Constitutional means redress themselves when op- 
pressed by Legislative authority — who are so completely 
kept under the iron hoof, that they can not even have the 
question of their proper rights brought into discussion in the 
only body that can Constitutionally effect a change in the 
Government. Is there so great a despotism under the sun ? 

In the non-Slaveholding States, we do not often find a 
person who can not read ; but in South Carolina one fourth 
of the adult whites can not read ; and there are few of the 
other three fourths who can even do this with anything like 
correctness. Nor are the non-Slaveholding portion of the 
"genuine white population" of the other Slaveholding 
States highly celebrated for their learning. Yet the De- 
mocracy of the '■'■free States" sympathize with this abhor- 
rent power, which makes their Laws, builds their party Plat- 
forms, and makes their " Public Opinion." They are egre- 
giously humbugged — are they not? or do they begin to 
understand it ? 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 25 

Concerning this class, the poor whites, Mr. William Gregg, 
of Charleston, in a pamphlet, called " Essays on Domestic In- 
dustry, or an Inquiry into the Expediency of establishing 
Cotton Manufactures in South Carolina," in 1845, says : 
" Shall we pass unnoticed the thousands of poor, ignorant, de- 
graded white people among its, who in this ' land of plenty,' 
live in comparative nakedness and starvation ? Many a one is 
reared in South Carolma, from birth to manhood, ivho has 
never passed a month in lohich he has not, some fart of the 
time, been stinted for meat. Many a mother is there xvho will 
tell you that her children are hut scantily provided with bread, 
and more scantily with meat ; and if they be clad with com- 
fortable raiment, it is at the expense of these scanty allowances 
of food. These may be startling statements, but they are 
nevertheless true ; and, if not believed in Charleston, the 
members of our legislature, who have traversed the State in 
electioneering campaigns, can attest their truth. While we 
are aware that Northern and Eastern States find no difficulty 
iH educating their poor, we are ready to despair of success in 
the matter, for even penal laws against the neglect of educa- 
tion would fail to bring many of our country people to send 
their children to school. I have long been under the impression, 
and every day's experience has strengthened my convictions, 
that the evils exist in the wholly neglected condition of this 
class of persons. 

" Any man who is an observer of things could hardly pass 
through our country without being struck by the fact that all 
the capital, enterprise, and intelligence, is employed in direct- 
ing Slave labor ; and the consequence is, that our poor white 
people are wholly neglected, and are suffered to while away 
an existence in a state but one step in advance of the Indian 
of the forest. It is an evil of vast magnitude, and nothing but 
a change in ' public sentiment' will effect its cure. These peo- 
ple must be brought into daily contact with the rich and intel- 

2 • 



26 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

ligent — they must be stimulated to mental action, and taught 
to appreciate' education and the comforts of civilized life ; and 
this, we believe, may be effected only hy the introduction of 
Manufactures. My experience at Graniteville has satisfied me, 
that unless our poor people can be brought together in villa- 
ges, and some means of employment afforded them, it will be 
an utterly hopeless effort to undertake to educate them. We 
have collected at Glraniteville about 800 people, and as likely- 
looking a set of country girls as may be found — industrious 
and orderly people, but deplorably ignorant, three fourths of the 
adults not being able to read. It is very clear to me that the 
only means of educating and Christianizing our poor whites, 
Avill be to bring them into such villages, where they will not 
only become intelligent, but a thrifty and useful class in our 
community." 

Governor Hammond, in an address before the South Caro- 
lina Institute, in 1850, describes these poor whites, or non- 
Slaveholders, as follows : " They obtain a precarious subsist- 
ence by occasioned Jobs, by hunting, by fishing, by plundering 
fields or folds, and too often by what is in its effects far worse, 
trading with Slaves, and seducing than to plunder for their 
benefit." Governor M'Duffie openly declared, in 1835, that' 
the laboring population of any country, "bleached or un- 
bleached," was a dangerous element unless reduced to Sla- 
very. He predicted that the laboring people of the "free 
States" would be virtually reduced to Slavery within thirt}'- 
years. Hear him : — 

" If we look into the elements of which all political communities are 
composed, it will be found that servitude, in some form or other, is one 
of the essential constituents. In the very nature of things, there must 
be classes of persons to discharge all the different offices of society, from 
the highest to the lowest. Where these offices are performed hy mem- 
bers of the political community, a dangerous element is obviously intro- 
Juced by tlie body politic. Domestic Slavery, therefore, instead of being 
an evil, is the Corner-Stone of our Republican edifice." (Message to South 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 27 

Carolina Legislature, 1835.) Of the Abolitionists he said: "The laws 
of every community should punish this species of interference with death, 
without benefit of clergy." 

A mechanic, who was " doing well" in Massachusetts, but 
wanted to " do better," removed with his family to South Car- 
olina, wrote back the following account of the country and its 
inhabitants : " You ask me how I like the country and the 
people thereof. As to the land, it is cheap as dirt, but the cli- 
mate is rather llowy and sultry. The owners of ' the people' 
are distinguished for their chivalrous bearing. Cruelty, deceit, 
and cowardice, are unknown among them. They are extreme- 
ly philanthropic and wonderfully religious. Human sacrifices 
are not very frequent, and cannibalism is scarcely ever heard 
of. The principal exports of the State are cotton, rice, and 
Negroes." 

A man on Long Island, New York, a carpenter, who, as 
master-workman had become successful, by industry, honesty, 
and intelligence, in the pursuit of his business, and learning 
that there was great demand for his work in the " land of 
gentle gales," and thinking he might more rapidly acquire a 
competency there, closed up his business and went South for 
that purpose. He had hardly got into his shop, when a man 
sent for him to make a contract with him for repairing and in 
effect rebuilding some part of his establishment. He desired 
him to make a computation of the cost, and to let him know 
the lowest price at which he would undertake the business. 
The bill somewhat exceeded his expectations. He reflected 
a while, and at length told the man that on the whole he con- 
cluded not to engage him. The work would take two or three 
months, and he thought he could do better to huy a, carpenter, 
and sell him again in the spring. The man left the house, 
went to his shop, packed up his tools, took passage for New 
York, declaring that a country where men could buy their 
carpenters and sell thera again in the spring, was no place for 
hira or for free-labor to live in. 



28 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

The Slave-traders of Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, &c., have 
made sad work with the Sons and Daughters of South Caro- 
lina. In 1790, the State had a " genuine white population" 
of 140,178 souls, and in 1850, only 274,567. What has be- 
come of the natural increase of the 140,178? 

There ought to have been, in 1850, a population of 840,000. 
The " Peculiar Institution" is chargeable with the defi- 
ciency. 

A book has recently been published in the South — a book 
that has been indorsed by The Richmond (Va.) Enquirer, the 
ablest organ of the Democratic party in the United States — 
an organ that sustained the Administration of Franklin Pierce, 
and sustains the Administration of James Buchanan. Here 
are a few extracts from the work : 

1. Make the laboring man the Slave of one man, instead of the Slave 
of Society, and he would be far better off. Two hundred years of labor 
have made white laborers a pauper banditti. Free society has failed, and 
that which is not free must be substituted. Free society is a monstrous 
abortion, and Slavery is the healthy, and beautiful, and natural condition 
which they are trying unconsciously to adopt. Nature has made the 
weak in mind and body Slaves. 

2. The Slaves are governed far better than the free laborers of the 
North are governed. Our negroes are far better off as to physical com- 
foit than the free laborers, and their moral condition is better. Slavery, 
black or white, is right and necessary. Men are not born entitled to 
equal rights. It would be far nearer to tnith to say that some were bom 
with saddles on their backs, and others booted and spurred to ride them, 
and riding does them good. They need the reins, the bit, and the 
spur. 

3. Life and liberty are not inalienable. The Declaration of Independ- 
ence is exuberantly false and aborescently fallacious. lias not the ex- 
periment of universal liberty failed *? ■ Are not the evils of free society 
insufferable ? We repeat, then, that policy and humanity alike forbid the 
extension of the evils of free society to a new people and coming genera^ 
tions. We would not have your rich, vulgar, licentious bosses, and your 
brutal insubordinate factory hands in our nudst, for all " the wealth of 
Ormus and Ind." We would not exchange our situation for the count- 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 29 

less millions of paupers and criminals who build up and sustain the 
cowardly, infidel, licentious, revolutionary edifice of free society. 

4. Until recently, the defence of Slavery has labored under difficulties, 
but its apologists (for they are mere apologists), took halfway ground. 
They confined the defence of Slaveiy to the mere Negro Slavery ; thereby 
giving up the Slavery principle, admitting other forms of Slavery to be 
wrong. The line of defence, however, is now changed. The South 
maintains that Slavery is light, natural^ and necessary, and does not depend 
upon difference of complexion. The laics of the Slave States justify the 
holding of white men in bondage. Repeatedly have we asked tlie^jNorth, 
"Has not the experiment of liberty failed? Are not the evils o^ free 
society insufferable ? And do not thinking men among you propose to 
subvert and reconstruct it 1" Still no answer. This gloomy silence is 
another conclusive proof, added to many other conclusive evidences we 
have furnished, that free society in the long run is an impracticable form 
of society. 

The people of Virginia certainly are "a people blessed 
above all other people." They might have Wealth ; they 
might have Manufiictures ; they might have Commerce ; but 
they do not want a Society that it woiud bring along with it ! 
They are content now : give them territory enough so that they 
can extend their " Institution" and sell annually $25,000,000 
worth of their Sons and Daughters, and that " Commonwealth" 
is content. 

The party papers throughout the Southern States echo the 
sentiments of the Richmond Enquirer boldly, while at the 
North and West they do the same. No Democratic paper 
has dared to deny or controvert its position,' nor will any do 
so. The Democracy of the South may be regarded, as the 
Democracy of the Nation, for it has always given to the entire 
party shape and direction as, well as Platforms. The party 
being, according to its own averment, exclusively " National," 
*it must, of necessity, be the same North that it is South. The 
Enquirer says, in its issue of June 16, 1856 : ' . 

The South contends for the equal extension of Slavery with othei 
social forms, and must contend that it is equally worthy of extension. 



30 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

Her old grounds of apology and excuse will avail her nothing. She 
must prove that Slaves are as well provided, as happy and contented, as 
hired laborers. She can easily show that they are better off in all these 
respects than hirelings, and far less addicted to crime. She must alsc 
show that Slaveholders are the equals in Morality, Piety, Courage, and 
Intelligence, to the Bosses and Employers of the Northern States. It 
will he easy to prove that they are their Superiors. It will only remain for 
her to show that the Bible sanctions Slavery, and her victory will be complete. 
The Democrats of the Slaveholding States can not rely on the mere 
Consfftutional guarantees of Slavery, for such reliance is pregnant with 
admission that Slavery is wrong, and, but for the Constitution, should be 
abolished. Nor will it avail us aught to show that the Negro is most 
happy and best situated in the condition of Slavery. If we stop there we 
weaken our cause by the very argument intended to advance it ; for we 
propose to introduce into new territory human beings whom we assert to 
be unfit for liberty, self-government, and equal association with other 
men. We must go a step further. We must show that Slavery is a 
Moral, Religious, National, and a Necessary Institution of Society. We 
know that we utter bold threats, but the time has arrived when their 
utterance can be no longer suppressed. The true issue stands out in bold 
relief, so that none may mistake it. This is the only line of argument 
that will enable the South to maintain the doctrines of State Equality 
and Slavery Extension. 

2'he South Side Democrat, whose Editor was in the Winter 
of 1855, a Candidate for Clerk of the House of Representa- 
tives, and w^as supported by the Democratic members, says ; 
" We have got to hating everything with the prefix free, from 
free Niggers down and up thi'ough the whole catalogue — free 
Farms, free Labor, free Society, free Will, free Thinking, 
free Children, and free Schools — all belonging to the same 
brood of detestable isms. But the worst of all these abomina- 
tions is the system of free Schools." Another leading press 
of the Democratic party, and a worthy organ of Pierce^ 
Buchanan, & Co., published in South Carolina, sustains the 
views taken by The Enquirer. It uses this plain language 
on the subject : " Slavery is the natural normal condition of 
the lahoring man, whether white or hlach The great evil of 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 31 

Northern free Society is, that it is burthened with a Servile 
class of Mechanics and laborers, unfit for self-government, and 
clothed with the attributes of Citizens. Master and Slave is 
a relation in Society as necessary as that of Parent and Child ; 
and the Northern States of this Republic will yet have to in- 
troduce it. Their theory of a ' free Government' is a delusion." 
Another prominent organ of the Democratic party, The Mus- 
cogee (Ala.) Herald, a journal which goes even further than 
its Virginia contemporaries, says : " Free society ! "VYe sicken 
of the name. What is it but a conglomeration of greasy me- 
chanics, filthy operatives, smallfisted farmers, and moonstruck 
theorists. All the Northei'n, and especially the New England 
States, are devoid of society fitted for a well-hred gentleman. 
The prevailing class one meets with, is that of mechanics 
struggling to be genteel, and small farmers who do their own 
drudgery ; and yet who are hardly fit for a Southern gentle- 
man's body-servant. This is your free Society which the 
Northern hordes are endeavoring to extend into the Terri- 
tories." 

The New York Day Book, a journal which aspires to the 
leadership of the Democratic forces of the entire country, 
in its issue of June 21, 1856, says: "Negro Slavery is 
the Basis of American Democracy. The insubordination 
of an Inferior race has secured and always will secure, the 
Equality of the Superior race." In its " Campaign Pros- 
pectus" (a copy of which was sent to every Postmaster in the 
United States and Territories, to be hung up in their respective 
Offices), occurs the following portentous announcement: "We 
have enlisted for the War against Abolitionism and its Impos- 
tures, and we do not intend to stop until we subdue them." 
The same Journal, in a leader on the "gallant conduct" of the 
" chivalrous Brooks," of South Carolina, for his assault on the 
defenceless Sumner of Massachusetts, says : " The time is 
close at hand when such statesmen as Sumner, Seward, Hale, 



32 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

and Wade, will have justice, full justice done ttem, when, in 
short, an Abolitionist will be lynched as readily in New York 
or Boston, as in Charleston or New Orleans." 

The deadliest foe of the Northern Free Laborer is the 
Slaveholder; as one increases must the other decrease. They 
are natural antagonists. Yet so wily has the Slave power 
been that, while it has with one hand grasped the reins of 
government, it has with the other moulded the Free Laborer 
of the North into a willing subservience to its interests, and 
obedience to its commands. 

At a " Mass Meeting" of the Democracy of Philadelphia, 
held September 17, 1856, in "Independence Square," in com- 
memoration of the Federal Constitution, Governor Johnson, 
of Georgia, in a Speech on the "glories of Slavery," said: 
" The results of the Listitution shows that it is a great instru- 
ment of Providence, intended to work out a magnificeiit des- 
tiny for the Democracy of the entire country — and the con- 
tinent of Africa ! And I would venture to throw out another 
idea: the great contest that is now being waged, call it by 
what name you will, is a contest between Capital on the one 
hand and Labor on the other ; and the only question is whether 
it is better for the Southern States of our glorious Union to 
own their labor or to hire it. (Cheering and hissing.) The 
South did not interfere with the settlement of the Slavery 
question in the Northern States of our happy Union, and all 
I ask of the free States in return is, 'Hands off! in God's 
name stop this excitement, this outrageous agitation, and let 
us do as we please.' (Groans, hisses, and cries of 'Bravo!') 
The South has determined that Capital shall oion Labor. 
Why ? It is better upon this ground, if no other, that their 
Agricultural products are of such a character that they can 
not hire labor to cultivate them. They can not hire labor to 
cultivate rice swamps, ditch their low ground, or drain their 
morasses. (Laughter, hisses, groans.) And Avhy ? Because 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 33 

the climate is deadly to the white man — he could not go there 
and live a week, and therefore the vast territory would be a 
barren waste unless Capital owned its Labor."* (Applause.) 
The calculation has been made, and not been disputed, that 
India could supply Cotton equal in staple to that of America, 
and twenty-five per cent, cheaper. A regular trade in that 
product, the raw material of England's most important branch 
of industry, has been established between the districts of 
Broach and Surat, and England. These territories lie along 
the seaTCoast, the Cotton lands being in no case more than 
twenty miles from watei'-carriage to Bombay, where the ship- 
ments are made ; but the produce is not of a high quality 
owing to the small demand, and the consequent limitation of 
price. A larger demand and higher prices would act naturally 
as encouragements to native agriculture. The lowest average 
price of American Cotton is seven cents (three pence half- 
penny) per pound — sufficient to act as a powerful stimulus to 
its cultivation in India. Governor Adams, of South Carolina, 
in his "Annual Message" to the Legislature of that State, in 
November, 1856, said: " Whenever England and the Conti- 
nent can procure their supply of the raw material elsetvhere 
than from us, and the Cotton States are limited to the Home 
market, then ivill our doom he sealed. Destroy the value of 

* At the same time, in this same city of Philadelphia, a cotton- 
ridden church was trying to get rid of its minister, a faithful servant 
of God, for "having dared to speak from his pulpit plain ^Yords in 
reference to the giant power to which the nation and the Church had 
sold themselves. It was necessary, "in order to save the Union," 
that this minister should not rebuke certain Christians in his congre- 
gation, who were in receipt of large incomes from the unrequited 
toil of the colored brethren on their plantations in the South, whom 
they claimed to own. The slave power in the church succeeded in 
accomplishing its purposes. It almost killed the church, however, 
in the struggle. The valiant soldier of the Cross is now doing duty 
only a few blocks off, preaching to a congregation vvho are willing 
to listen to an undiluted gospel. 



84 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

Slave labor, and Emancipation follows inevitahly. This, 
England, our commercial rival, clearly sees, and hence her 
systematic efforts to stimulate the production of Cotton in the 
East. During the year 1855 the shipments of Cotton to 
Great Britain were, from the United States, in round numbers, 
six hundred and seventy-nine millions of pounds, and the East 
Indies, Egypt, and Brazil, two hundred and two millions of 
pounds ! France, too, is encouraging and stimulating its 
growth in Algeria, with like advantages of soil and labor. 
To maintain our position, we must re-open the African Slaves 
trade." 

Governor Adams ought to be satisfied with the thirty-five 
Slavers now in the field. (See Appendix C.) So long as 
public opinion tolerates Slavery itself and the " Domestic" 
traffic connected therewith, laws against the stealing of Men, 
Women, and Children, from Africa, for the purpose of enslaving 
them in the " Model Republic," must necessarily be a farce. 

■ The Hon. F. W. Pickens, of South Carolina, in a Speech 
in Congress, said : " All society settles down into a classifica- 
tion of Capitalists and Laborers. The former will own the 
latter, either collectively through the Government, or individ- 
ually in a state of Domestic servitude, as exists in the Southern 
States of this glorious Confederacy. If laborers ever obtain 
the political poioer of a country, it is in fact in a state of 
revolution. We have already not only a right to the proceeds 
of our laborers, but we own a class of., laborers themselves. 
But, let me say to gentlemen who represent the great class of 
Capitalists at the North, beware how you drive us into a sep- 
arate system." Chancellor Harper, of the same State, in a 
communication to The Southern Literary Messenger (arehgious 
periodical, published at Charleston), says: "Would you do a 
benefit to the horse, or the ox, by giving him a cultivated 
understanding, a fine feeling ? So far as the mere laborer has 
the pride, the knowledge, or the aspiration of a freeman, he is 



AND PRESENT STATE OF TUINGS. 35 

unfitted for his situation. If there are sordid, servile, laborious 
offices to be performed, is it not better that there should be 
sordid, servile, laborious beings to perform them ? Odium has 
been cast upon our legislature on account of its forbidding the 
elements of education being communicated to Slaves. But, 
in truth, what injury is done them by this ? He who works 
during the day with his hands does not read in the intervals 
of leisure, for his amusement or the improvement of his 
mind." 

Professor De Bow (the Compiler of the United States 
Census, of 1850), in the January number, 1850, of his 
Review, in an article on Manufactures in South Carolina, 
expresses his fears of bringing together masses of non-Slave- 
holding Southern white population even for Manufacturing 
purposes : — 

So long as these poor but industrious people could see no mode of 
living except by a degrading operation of work with the Slave upon the 
plantation, they were content to endure life in its most discouraging forms, 
satistied that they were above the Slave, though faring often worse than 
he. But the progress of the world is " onward," and though in some 
sections (New England, for instance) it is slow, still it is onward. The 
South hitherto has attempted to justify Negro Slavery as an "exception 
to a general rule, or, if wi'ong, as a matter of bargain between the North 
and the South. The laws of God and Nature are immutable, and man 
can not bargain them away. While it is far more obvious that Negroes 
should be Slaves than "Whites — for they are only fit to labor, not to 
direct — yet the principle of Slavery is itself right, and does not depend 
on difference of complexion. 

When the mind once becomes familiarized with the process 
of Slavery — of Enslaving first, Black, then Indian, then 
Mulatto, then Quadroon, and when " blue eyes and golden 
hair" are advertised every day of the year as properties of 
Negroes, what protection is there for poor white people ? 
"We boast," says General John H. Eaton, of Washington, 
D. C., " of Liberty and National justice ! How frequently 
have I seen in the Southern States of our country weeping 



36 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

Mothers leading guiltless Infants to the Sales, with as deep 
anguish as if they had led them to the Slaughter-house. 
When I see these enormities practised upon beings whose 
Complexion and Blood claim kindred with my own, I curse 
the perpetrators, and weep over the wretched victims of their 
rapacity." 

A walk on the street in Washington is one of the best and 
most touching commentaries on the character of the " Peculiar 
Institution." A man's eyes are only needed to carry to his 
mind the conviction of the servitude it entails upon the de- 
scendants of the whites themselves. Along with the " blacks," 
side by side, stand the Mulatto, the Quadroon, the tenth part, 
the twentieth part, the thirtieth part black, absolutely undis- 
tinguishable from the white, all chained alike to the same in- 
exorable and soul-breaking sorrows of Slavery. It results 
froni,this that there is a class of Slaves in all respects Equal, 
and in many cases Superior, to the " Master" or " Mistress" 
who owns or controls them. 



CHAPTER II. 

" Slavery," .says the Hon. Charles J. Faulkner, of Virginia, 
"is an Institution which presses heavily against tlie best inter- 
ests of the State. It banishes /ree white labor ; it exterminates 
the Mechanic, the Artisan, the Manufacturer. It deprives 
them of bread. It converts the energy of a community into 
indolence — its power into imbecility — its efficiency into 
xoeakness. Sir, being thus injurious, have we not a right to 
demand its extermination ? Shall society suffer that we Slave- 
holders may continue to gather our Crops of Human Flesh ? 
What is the Slaveholdei''s mere pecuniary claim, compared 
with the great interests of the common weal. Must the coun- 
try languish, droop, die, that the Slaveholder may flourish ? 
Shall all interests be subservient to one ? all rights subordi- 
nate to those of the Slaveholder? Has not the Mechanic, 
have not the middle classes their rights ? — rights incompatible 
with the existence of Slavery? Sir, I am gratified to perceive 
that no gentleman has yet risen, in this hall, the avowed Ad- 
vocate of Slavery. I even regret, sir, that -we should find 
those among us who enter the list of discussion as its Apolo- 
gists. Sir, if there be one who concurs with the gentleman 
(Mr. Golshon) from Brunswick County, in the ' harmless char- 
acter' of this Institution, let me request him to compare the 
condition of the Slaveholdiug portion of this State — barren, 
desolate, and seared as it were by the avenging hand of Heaven 
— with the descriptions which we have of this same country 



38 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

from those who first broke its virgin soil. To what is this 
change ascribable ? Alone to the withering and blasting 
effects of Slavery. Sir, if this does not satisfy him, let me re- 
quest him to extend his travels to the Northern States of this 
Union, and beg him to contrast the happiness and contentment 
which prevail throughout that portion of our country — the 
busy and cheerful sound of Industry — the rapid and swelling 
growth of their Population — their means and Institutions of 
Education — their Skill and Proficiency in the Useful arts — 
their Enterprise and Public spirit^- the Monuments of their 
Commercial and Manufacturing industry. 

" To what, sir, is all this ascribable ? To what vice in the 
organization of Society by which one half of its inhabitants are 
arrayed in interest and feeling against the other half — to that 
unfortunate state of Society in which freemen regard labor as 
disgraceful, and Slaves shrink from it as a burden tyrannically 
imposed upon them — to that condition of things in which over 
half the population of the State can feel no sympathy with the 
Society in the prosperity of lohich they are forbidden to parti- 
cipate, and no attachment to a Government at whose hands 
they receive nothing but injustice. If this should not be suffi- 
cient, and the curious and incredulous inquirer should suggest 
that the contrast which has been adverted to, and which is so 
manifest, might be traced to a difference of Climate or other 
causes distinct from Slavery itself, permit me to refer him to 
the two States of Kentucky and Ohio. No difference of soil, 
no diversity of Climate, no diversity in the original settlement 
of those two States, can account for the remarkable dispropor- 
tion in the National advancement. Separated by a river 
alone, they seem to have been purposely and providentially 
designed to exhibit in their future histories the difference 
which necessarily residts fro?n a country free from, and a 
country afflicted with, the curse of Slavery. The same may 
be said of the two States of Missouri and Illinois. What, sir, 



AND PRI<:SENT STATE OF THINGS. 39 

have you lived for two hundred years without personal effort 
or productive industry, in extravagance and indolence, sus' 
tained alone by the returns from the Sales of the Increase of 
Slaves, and retaining such a number as your now impover- 
ished lands can sustain as Stock !"* 

The subsequent acquisition of new Slave States, and the 
consequent rise in the price of Slaves, appear to have decided 
Mr. Faulkner to " hold on a little -longer," for he is now, in 
1857, not only a Member of Congress, but one of the most 
determined advocates of the infamous traffic he so warmly 
condemned in 1832. (See Proverbs xxvi. 11, and St. Luke 
xi. 24—26.) Only the other day, six of his party-colored chat- 
tels — all of them the children, as a matter of course, of the 
" unfortunate Ham" — made their escape from his plantation, 
at Martinsburg, Virginia, to Canada. 

The following " Circular" to the Postmasters, throughout 
the Union, will give the reader a more correct idea of Mr. 
Faulkner's position in July, 1856. It shows the effort that 
was made, and the means used to train the " foreign-born pop- 
ulation," and bring them into rank and file for the purpose of 
electing Buchanan, and still further Extending the area of 
Slavery. It will be seen from the questions propounded that 
the National Executive were prepared for any kind of elec- 
tioneering. If they but knew a man's religion they could 
meet his wants — exactly: — 

Democratic National Residents' Committee Rooms, 
Washington, D. C, July 2, 1856. 

To , Esq., Chairman of Democratic Committee, 

County of , State of ; 

SiK : Though the Executive National Committee have the most im- 
plicit reliance in the discretion and sound judgment of the people and the 
correctness of the principles maintained and asserted by the Democratic 
party, upon which they are to pass their verdict at the impending Presi- 
dential election, on the 4th Novembei-, 1856, they deem it, nevertheless, 

* Speech in the Virginia House of Delegates, in 1832. 



40 A GENKKAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

as a high duty, in view of the vast stake at issue — even' the continuance 
of the Union — to do all in their power to secure the success of the 
Democratic cause, and the triumphant election of the nominees of the 
Democratic Convention. We are now sure that Victory will follow our 
banners [see chaps, i. and ii., of Part II.; and chap, ii., of Part V.], but 
to make Victory doubly sure, we invite you to send us an immediate 
answer to the following queries : — 

First : What is the probable number of Voters in your County who 
speak the German language ?. Are they American-born or immigrants, 
and in what ratio ? . - 

Second: Are there any French, Dutch (Hollanders), Norwegians, or 
Swedes, in your County 1 and if so, what is approximately the number 
of votes cast by each respectively 1 

Third: Are there any German newspapers printed in your county? 
and if so, give the title of such paper or papers, and the place or places 
of such publication. You will confer a favor on the National Commit- 
tee by sending, during the whole canvass, a number of the weekly issue 
of such paper or papers printed in the foreign language to the under- 
signed. Chairman of the National Resident Committee. 

Fourth : To what religious denominations do the German, French, 
Dutch, Norwegian, or Swedish voters in your county belong ? 

Fifth : What are generally the political sentiments entertained by the 
adopted citizens in your county, especially in regard to principles now 
before the people, viz., the equality of the individual States in the settle- 
ment of our Territories ; the equality of all Citizens in relation to Politi- 
cal rights, and the rights of Conscience 1 

Sixth : Have you appointed disti'ibutors in the different townships and 
School districts of your county, who will place the documents sent by 
the National Committee into the hands of your voters 1 or do you prefer 
to have them sent to you franked to be directed by you 1 

Seventh: Have you fonned Democratic Clubs or Associations through- 
out your county 1 and if so, please to report the Officers to the National 
Committee, with their Postoffices. 

Eighth : How are the Democratic nominations in your county received, 
and what is the probable vote the Democracy will cast 1 

Ninth : Will you furnish us with the names of two active and zealous 
Democrats contiguous to each Postoffice in your county, who can be 
relied upon to see the prompt distribution of documents forwarded to 
them? 

Tenth : Will you inform us the grounds upon which the Democratic 
party is principally assailed in your county and suggest to us the kind 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 41 

of documents which would best promote the success of the Democratic 
party '? 

Please report the names and Postoffices of some reliable German citi- 
zens, living in the different townships of your county, in order to enable 
the National Resident Committee to enter into a correspondence with 
them. Please direct all communications to me. 

CHARLES J. FAULKNER, 
Chairman N. D. R. Committee. 

Mr. Faulkner does not trouble his head about the Irish- 
American Vote, he merely addresses his German, French, 
Dutch, Norwegian, and Swedish " fellow-Citizens." As re- 
spects the Irish-Americans, they are "all right." There is 
,no denying the fact. As a mass, they go for Slavery, and its 
Extension. The Freemaji's Journal, the Archbishop's organ, is 
open for Slavery, for the degradation of that sort of labor, es- 
pecially unskilled labor, which seven Irishmen out of every ten 
pursue in the United States ; and thus these men are made to 
degrade their own status to the level of Slavery ! 

The Irish- Americans are great advocates of " European 
Liberty," and great friends of American Slavery. The " Irish 
patriots" of old were famous for making bulls ; in modern 
times they would seem to be no less skilful in making asses — 
of themselves. This fact accounts for the extraordinary con- 
duct of Mitchel, Meagher, & Co. 

The shoe of Slavery will yet pinch the toes of the Irish- 
Americans. An able-bodied " Irish-American Nigger" can, 
even now, be purchased for about one third the price of an 
able-bodied " black Nigger." Only the other day, the Hon. P. 
T. Herbert, M. C, purchased from Judge Crawford, of AVash- 
ington, the right of shooting an Irishman for three hundred 
dollars. " Irish- American Niggers" are preferred to either 
Dutch or German " Niggers," as being more " evangelical," 
and therefore, " more manageable" and " less likely to run 
away." Accordingly, The Richmond (Va.) Enquirer, after 



42 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

joining The Charleston (S. C.) Mercury and The New Orleans 
Delta, in declaring the revival of the African Slave-trade " ne- 
cessary, inevitable, and desirable," now turns a short corner 
and opposes the introduction of "African Niggers." 

$300 Reward. — Ran away from the subscriber, on the 5th day of 
July last, a white Neyro boy, 29 years of age; height 5 feet and IO5 
inches ; has blue eyes, a very fair skin, and a Roman nose. He will, no 
doubt, endeavor to pass himself off for *a white man. 

A. BEARD. 

[New Orleans Picayune.] 

$250 Rewaed. — Ran away from the subscriber, on or about the 29th 
of November last, a Negro girl, named Biddy, about sixteen years of 
age, quite white, and reddish hair. She has three front teeth bucked out 
and a cut on her upper lip ; about five feet and seven inches high ; has a 
scar on her left buttock ; she passes for free ; talks English, French, and 
Mountain-Irish or "Bog-Latin." She will try to pass herself off for 
an Irish girl. 

57 Common street, New Orleans. THOMAS FOSTER. 

$500 Reward. — Ran away from the subscriber, on the 15th of May 
last, a Negro girl, named Fanny. Said girl is twenty years old ; is 
rather tall ; can read and write, and, consequently, can forge passes for 
herself. She earned away with her a pair of ear-rings and a Bible with 
a red cover. She is very pious ; she prays a great deal, and was, as 
supposed, contented and happy. She is as white as most white women, with 
straight light hair and blue eyes, and can pass herself for a white woman. 
I will give $500 for her apprehension and delivery to me. She is very 
intelligent. 

JOHN BALCH. 

$100 Reward. — Ran away from the subscriber, in Randolph county, 
on the 18th of October last, a boy, named Jim. This boy is 19 years 
of age, of a light color, with sun-burned hair, inclined to be tolerably 
straight ; he is about five feet and seven inches high, and slightly made. 
He had on when he left, a black-cloth cap, black-cloth pantaloons, a plaid 
sack-coat, a fine shirt, and brogan shoes. One hundred dollars will be 
43aid for the recovery of the above-described Nigger, if taken out of tlio 
State, or fifty dollars if taken in the State. 

Huntsville, Missouri. Mrs. S. P. HALL. 



AND PRESENT STATE OP THINGS. 43 

"We might go on giving advertisements and multiplying 
proofs, of this sort, until our task swelled into a dozen vol- 
umes, instead of one ; but enough has been said (see chapters 
i., ii., and iii., of Part V.), to prove that White Slavery not 
only actually but Legally exists in the United States of North 
America. Will not those, then, whose ears are closed to the 
cry of anguish of the millions of the despised and hated black, 
brown, orange, drab, yellow, straw, and peach-blossom color- 
ed " Niggers," extend a helping-hand to relieve the anguish 
of the tens of thousands of " White Niggers," who are now in 
chains in eleven of the Slave States of the Union ? 

The Hon. S. W. Downs, late Senator from Louisiana, has 
just published an elaborate Speech, on the "peculiar advan- 
tages of Slave labor over free labor." In his discourse, this 
" enlightened statesman" assumes that the white laborers'of the 
North are not so happy, contented, or comfortable, as the colored- 
and party-colored " Niggers" of the South. Reduce, there- 
fore, the white laborer of the North to the condition of the 
Southern Slave, and the sum of human happiness will be 
promoted. 

If this be the treatment reserved for the Democracy of the 
North, it may well be supposed that the poor immigrants, 
who are classed with " Niggers," can scarcely look for more 
favorable treatment. Here is the remedy proposed for per- 
sons of this class who may be found unable to support their 
families — mark, it is not said for acknowledged mendicants, 
or for persons who have applied for relief from the public 
funds, but simply for those who may fall into poverty, and be 
unable to support their families . Says Mr. Downs : 

" Sell the parents of these children into Slavery. Let our Legislature 
pass a Law, that, whoever will take these parents and take care of them 
and their offspring, in sickness and in health, clothe them, feed them, 
and house them, shall be Legally entitled to their services ; and let the 
same Legislature decree, that, whoever receives these parents and their 



44 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

children and obtains their services shall take care of them as long as they 
live." 

"Sir," said James M'Dovvell, jr., " Virginia is withering under 
the leprosy which is piercing her to the heart. Proud as are 
the names, for intellect and patriotism, which enrich the vol- 
umes of our history, and reverentially as we turn to them at 
this period of waning reputation — that name — that man — 
above all parallel would have been chief who could have blotted 
out this curse from his country.* In this investigation there 
is no difficulty — nothing has been left to speculation or in- 
quiry ; for, however widely men have differed upon the power 
and justice of touching this ' property,' they have yet united 
in a common testimony to its character. It has been frankly 
and unequivocally declared from the very commencement of 
this debate, by the most decided enemies of Abolition them- 
selves, as well as by others, that this ' property' is an ' evil.' 
Yes, Sir, the danger is inevitable and is increasing.! 

* What has been the conduct of the people of Virginia, and the other 
Slave States, toward the man who has been battling, to this end, for the 
last twenty-seven years 1 It has been most atrocious. Nor has he 
fared better at the hands of the people of the "free States." He has 
sought nothing for himself — neither office, nor mone}"-, nor yet praise. 
He has aimed to do his duty to his Neiglibor and his God ; who ever did 
both moi'e manfully 1 See what his reward has been ! Outwardly, 
abuse, scorn, hatred, loathing, from the State, and the hoC curses of the 
" evangelical Churches." But he has that inward recompense which 
fails no man — the satisfaction of duties done, yes, of cruel sorrows, in- 
nocently and nobly borne. In the history of mankind, there is no man 
who has more courageously gone on a forlorn hope, none who has borne 
a cross so heavy with more sweetness and generous forbearance. Com- 
ing generations will do justice to his memory. 

t Every three and a half minutes that passes witnesses a " colored" 
native American born to be a Slav©, That child whom God made free, 
and for whose happiness Christ suffered, bled, and died, is seized by the 
Slaveholder, perhaps its own father, and blotted out from the Human 
race. 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 45 

" Who that looks upon his family with the Slave in its bosom, 
ministering to its wants, but knows and feels that this is true 
— who but sees and knows how much the safety of that fam- 
ily depends upon forbearance, how little can be provided by 
defence ? Sir, you may exhaust yourself upon schemes of 
domestic defence ; and when you have examined every project 
which the mind can suggest, you will, at last, have only a 
deeper consciousness that nothing can be done. The curse 
which, in combination with others, has been denounced against 
man as a just punishment for his sins — the curse of having an 
enemy in his household — has come upon us. "We have an 
enemy thei'e to whom our dwelling is at all times accessible — 
our persons at all times — our lives at all times, and that by 
manifold weapons, both visible and concealed. But, Sir, I 
will not expatiate further on this view of the subject. Suffice 
it to say, that the defenceless situation of the ' Master,' and 
the sense of injured rights in the Slave, are the best possible 
preparatives for conflict — a conflict, too, which may be consid- 
ered as more certainly at hand whenever and wherever the 
numerical ascendency of the Slave shall inspire him with con- 
fidence in his force."* 

If Virginia had not a settler Avithin her territory, and should 
be opened at once to free Settlement, in ten years she ivould 
have nearly as many white inhabitants as she now has, two 
hundred and fifty years after her Settlement, and in twenty 
years she woidd have nearly as many whites as the whole 
number of Slaveholding States note have, provided 60,000 
settlers should go in the first year, and that the rate of increase 
should be as great as that of Wisconsin, Iowa, or Minnesota. 
Even with this population of twenty years, she Avould not be 
so densely peopled as Massachusetts was in 1850. The figures 
prove it: thus, Wisconsin had, in 1840, 30,749 whites; in 

* Speech in the Virginia House of Delegates, in 1832. 



46 A GENEEAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

1850, 304,756. Eatio of increase 89.11 per cent. Assume 
60,000 whites in Virginia at the close of the first year, and 
the rate of increase as above, in ten years she would have 
594,660 white inhabitants, and in twenty years 5,793,475. 
Number of whites in Virginia in 1850, 894,800 ; in the Slave- 
holding States, 6,184,477. Thus, as to population, Slavery in 
two hundred and fifty years has done the work of twenty. As 
to the value of lands, it has done still worse. Thus, in little 
more than ten years, Wisconsin had brought up the value of 
her farms per acre to $9.54; Virginia, in two hundred and 
fifty years, had barely raised the price of her lands to 
$8.27 per acre. 

Only a little while ago an auction of Virginia lands took 
^lace at the Philadelphia Exchange. Some 40,000 acres 
•^|5^ed in the Counties of Doddridge, Gilmer, and Monongalia, 
near Ohio and Pennsylvania, brought two cents (a penny) an 
acre, and some 70,000 acres in the Counties of Montgomery 
and Washington, near North Carolina and Tennessee, sold for 
one cent (a halfpenny) an acre. The whole quantity sold on 
the occasion, 150,000 acres, brought $1,800. Both prices 
show the blighting influence of Slavery. Think of it ! Lands 
lying near Navigable rivers and Railroads, in the oldest State 
of the Union, endowed with Unsurpassed Fertility and Un- 
bounded Mineral Wealth, selling in an open market, where 
there are millions of capital for any tolerable speculation, for 
one or two cents by the thousand acres ! 

The Hon. Willoughby Newton, of Virginia, in his Agri- 
cultural Address, in 1850, said : "I look upon the introduction 
of Guano, and the success attending its application to our 
barren lands, in the light of a special interposition of Divine 
Providence, to save Virginia from reverting into its former 
state of wilderness and utter desolation. Until the discovery 
of Guano — more valuable to us than the mines of California — • 
I looked upon the possibility of renovating our soil, of evei 



r^-i. 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 47 

bringing it to a point capable of producing remunerating crops, 
as utterly hopeless." 

Is Virginia, then, " saved" by Guano ? Mr. Newton recom- 
mends the application of two hundred pounds per acre. The 
number of acres of land under cultivation in Virginia in 1850, 
was 26,152,311. The amount of Guano requisite to cover 
this land, at the rate of two hundred pounds per acre, would 
be 2,615,231 tons. This, at $50 per ton, would cost 
$130,761,550. Guano must be applied every other year. 
This would give the annual amount, 1,307,615 tons, and the 
annual cost, $65,380,775. Where is the rnoney to pay this an- 
nual tax to come from ? How long would it take the per- 
manent registered tonnage of Virginia (9,246 tons in 1855) 
to import enough for one year's use? 

" Mr. Speaker," said Henry Berry, " coming from a coirtWy 
[Jefferson] in which there are over 4,000 Slaves, being my- 
self a Slaveholder — and I may say further, that the largest 
' property' I have in Virginia lies about a hundred miles east 
of the Blue Ridge, and consists of land and Slaves — under 
these circumstances I hope I shall be excused by my brethren 
of the North for saying a few words on this important and 
deeply-interesting subject. That Slavery is a grinding curse 
upon this State, I had supposed would have been admitted by 
all, and that the only question for debate would have been the 
possibility of i-emoving the evil. But, Sir, in this I have been 
disappointed. I have been astonished that there are advocates 
here for Slavery, with all its effects. Sir, this only proves 
how far, how very far, we may be carried by pecuniary in- 
terest ; it proves what has been said by an immortal bard : 

" ' That man is unco weak, and little to be trusted 

If self the wavering balance shake, 'tis rarely right adjusted.' 

*' Sir, I believe no cancer on the physical body was ever more 
certain, steady, and fatal, in its progress, than is this cancer on 



48 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

tlie political body of the State of Virginia. It is eating into 
her very vitals. Like a mighty avalanche the evil is rolling 
toward us, accumulating weight and impetus at every turn. 
And, Sir, if we do nothing to avert its progress, it will ulti- 
mately overwhelm and destroy us for ever. And although I 
have no fears for any general results from the efforts of this 
class of our population now ; still. Sir, the time will come 
when there will be imminent, general danger.* Pass as severe 
laws as you will to keep these unfortunate creatures in igno- 
rance, it is in vain, unless you extinguish that spark of intel- 
lect which God has given them. Let any man who advocates 
Slavery, examine the System of Laws that we have adopted 
(from stern necessity, it may be said) toward these creatures, 
and he may shed a tear upon that, and would to God, Sir, the 
memory of it might thus be blotted out for ever. 

" Sir, we have, as far as possible, closed every avenue by 
which light might enter their minds ; we have only to go one 
step further — to extinguish the capacity to see the light — and 
our work would be accomplished ; they would then be reduced 
below the level of the beasts of the field, and we would be 
safe ; and I am not certain that we would not do it if we could 

* The late Eev. John O. Choujes, D. D., of Newport, Ehode Island, 
who, while attending a Baptist Convention at Richmond, Virginia, had a 
conversation with an Officer of the Baptist Church in that City, at whose 
house he was a guest, says : I asked him if he did not apprehend that the 
Slaves would eventually rise and exterminate their Masters 1 " Why," 
said the gentleman, "I did use to apprehend such a catastrophe, but 
God has made a providential opening, a merciful safety-valve, and now 1 
do not feel alarmed, in the prospect of what is coming." What do you 
mean, said Mr. Choules, by Providence opening a merciful safety-valve ? 
"Why," said the gentleman, "I will tell you. The Slave-traders come 
from the Cotton and Sugar plantations of the South, and are willing to 
buy up more Slaves than we can part with. We must keep a Stock for 
the purpose of Breeding, but we part with the most dangerous, and the 
demand is very constant, and is likely to be so, for Avlicn they go to thosu 
Southern States, the average existence is only five years." 



~ AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 49 

find out the necessary process, and that under the jdea of ne- 
cessity. But, Sir, this is impossible ; and can man be in the 
midst oi freemen and not know what freedom is ? Can he feel 
that he has the power to assert his liberty, and will he not do 
it ? Yes, Sir, with the certainty of the current of time, will he 
do it whenever he has the power. Sir, to prove that the 
time will come, I need offer no othei' argument than that of 
Arithmetic ; the conclusions from which are clear demonstra- 
tions of this subject. The data are before us all, and every 
man can work out the process for himself. Sir, a death- 
struggle must come between the two classes, in which one or the 
other will be extinguished for ever. Who can contemphite such 
a catastrophe as even possible and be indifferent or inactive ?"* 
The neighborhood of Slavery lessens the value of lands in 
the Free States ; the neighborhood of Freedom increases it 
in the Slave States. To such an extent is this true, that in 
Virginia, for example, the lands in counties naturally poor, 
are, hy the proximity of freedom, rendered more vcduahle than 
the lands in the better portions of the State. The value, per 
acre, of land in the Slave States, on the dividing line betweea 
Freedom and Slavery, is suggestive : thus, in the Free States, 
the value of Farms, per acre, is as follows, viz. : New Jersey, 
$43.67; Pennsylvania, $27.27; Ohio, $19.99; Indiana, 
$10.66; and Illinois, $7.99: average, $22.17. In the bor- 
der Slave States, the value is as follows, viz.: Delaware, 
$19.75; Maryland, $18.81; Virginia, $8.27; Kentucky, 
$9.03 ; and Missouri, $6.49 : average, $9.25. If we take 
the Slave States which by position, population, or intercourse, 
feel least the influence of the Free States, we find the value 
of farms, per acre, is, in North Carolina, $3,24 ; South Caro- 
lina, $5.08; Tennessee, $5.16; Florida, $3.97; Georgia, 
$4.19; Alabama, $5.30; Arkansas, $5.87; Texas, $1.44; 
and Mississippi, $5.22 : average, $3.74. 

* Speech in the Virgini.a House of Delegates, in 1832. 
3 



50 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PASf*"^ 

If Tennessee had been a Free State, her lands would have 
been worth as much as those of Ohio — $19.99 per acre, in- 
stead of $5.16 as now; and who can not see that, in that 
event, the lands of North Carolina, South Carolina, and 
Georgia, would have been worth more, per acre, than the 
sums of $3.24, $5.08, $4.19, respectively? 

" New England" (says " A Perfect Description of Virginia," 
published in London, in 1649) "is in a good condition of live- 
lihood ; but for matter of any great hope but fishing there is 
not much." Compared to Virginia, " it is as Scotland is to 
England, so much difference, and lies upon the same land 
northward as Scotland does to England ; there is much cold, 
frost, and snow ; their land is barren, except a herring be put 
into the hole when you set the corn in it, it will not come up ; 
and it toas a great pity all those plajiters, now about 20,000, did 
not seat themselves at Jirst in Virginia, in a warm and rich 
cotmtry, where their industry could have produced Sugar, 
Indigo, Ginger, Cotton, and the like commodities." Said Sir 
Thomas Dale, in 1612, speaking of Virginia: " Take four of 
the best kingdoms in Christendom, and put them all together, 
they may in no way compare with this country either for com- 
modities or goodness of soil." Says Beverley, at a later peri- 
od : "In extreme fruitfulness Virginia is exceeded by no other 
portion of the earth. No seed is sown there but it thrives, 
and most of the northern plants are improved by being trans- 
planted thither." Says Lane, the Governor of Raleigh Col- 
ony, in 1585, speaking of Virginia and Carolina: "It is the 
goodliest soil under the heaven, the most pleasing territory of 
the world. The climate is so wholesome that we have not one 
sick since we touched the land. If Virginia had but horses 
and kine, and were inhabited with English, no realm in Chris- 
tendom were comparable to it." 

Who would have dreamed that in Vii-ginia, the Eden of the 
Republic, the average price of farms per acre would be, on 



liif^*"AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 51 

the 1st day of January, 1850, $8.27, while in Massachusctu it 
was $32.50 

The Hon. Tliomas Marshall, another Slaveholder, bore tliis 
testimony : " Slavei-y is ruinous to the whites ; it retards im- 
provement — roots out an industrious population — banishes 
the yeomanry of the country — deprives the Spinner, the 
Weaver, the Smith, the Shoemaker, the Carpe7iter, of employ- 
ment and support. It is increasing, and will continue to in- 
crease, until the whole country will be inundated by one hlack 
wave, covering its entire extent, with a few genuine white 
faces here and there floating on the surface. The Master has 
no capital but what is vested in Human flesh ; the Father, in- 
stead of being richer for his Sons, is at a loss to provide for 
them. There is no diversity of occupations, no incentive to 
enterprise. Labor of every description is disreputable, be- 
cause performed mostly by Slaves. Our towns are stationary, 
our villages everywhere declining ; and the general aspect of 
the country marks the curse of a wasteful, idle, reckless popu- 
lation, who have no interest in the soil, and care not how 
much it is impoverished. Public improvements are neglected ; 
and the entire continent does not present a region for which 
nature has done so much, and art so little. If cultivated by 
free labor, the soil of Virginia is capable of sustaining a dense 
population, among whom labor would be honorable, and where 
the busy hum of men would tell that all were happy, and that 
all were free."* 

Virginia, free, and as thickly settled as Massachusetts, 
would have had, in 1850, 7,751,324 whites, instead of 894,800. - 
Massachusetts, a Slave State, and as thinly populated as Vir- 
ginia, would have had, in 1850, 102,351 white inhabitants, 
instead of 985,450. Vii-ginia, free, would have had an annu- 
al product of Manufactures amounting to $1,190,072,592, in- 
stead ot $29,705,387. Massachusetts, a Slave State, would 
* Speech in the Virginia House of Delegates, in 1832. 



■ *.'!.' 



A 



52 A. GENEKAL VIEW OF THE PAST "^ > 

have had manufactures amounting to $3,776,G01, mstead of 
.$151,137,145. Virginia, free, would have been worth, in 
real and personal property (on the basis of the Census esti- 
mate), $4,333,525,367, instead of (value of Slaves deducted) 
$203,635,238. Massachusetts, a Slave State, would have 
been worth $48,604,335, instead .of $551,106,824. Boston, 
with Slavery, according to the increase of population in Vir- 
ginia, would have contained 3,489 people, instead of 136,881. 
In the whole South there are less than fifty cities with a pop- 
ulation of 3,500. Richmond, Virginia, free, according to the 
increase of population in Massachusetts, would have contained 
1,076,669 free people, instead of 17,643. (See Appendix D.) 

The Hon. Henry A. Wise, of Virginia, now Governor of , 
the State, in 1855, during the canvass for Governor, speaking 
to the Virginians, said : " You all own plenty of land, but it is 
poverty added to poverty. Poor land added to poor, and 
nothing added to nothing, makes nothing ; while the Owner 
is talking Politics at Richmond, or in Congress, or spending 
the summer at the White Springs, the lands grow poorer and 
poorer, and this soon brings land. Slaves, and all, under the 
hammer. You have the otvnei-s sMnning the Slaves, and the 
Slaves shinning the land, until all grow poor together. You 
have relie.d alone on the single po'.ver of Agriculture, and such 
Agriculture ! Your sedge-patches outshine the sun ; your in- 
attention to your only source of Wealth has seared the bosom 
of Mother Earth. Instead of having to feed cattle on a thou- 
sand hills, you 'have to chase the stump-tailed steer through 
the sedge-patcl\es to procure a tough beef-steak." 

While such admissions come from Slaveholders — while the 
evils, social and moral, of Slavery are so deprecated by those 
who have been reared amid its influences — while its blrghtiiig 
effects are so abundantly and constantly manifest — is it not 
enough to disgust one with Human nature to find men styling 
themselves " Ministers of the Gospel of Jesus Christ" writing 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 53 

Eulogies on the blessedness of bondage. They -will not allow 
that "Niggers" are Men, beeause, if they did, it would show 
that they themselves were not Christians. They have the 
efirontery to say, " Slavery is right, natural, and necessary, 
and does not depend upon difference of complexion ;" that 
" the Slaves are far better off, phj^sically and morally, than 
the laboi'ers, black or white, of the free States ;" that " policy 
and humanity alike forbid the extension of the evils of free 
society to a new people and coming generations." After per- 
secuting the '"'free Negi'oes," and driving the wretched fugi- 
tives from their doors (see chaps, i., ii., and iii., of Part V., 
and Appendix A), they turn round and tell us that the Slaves 
are the happiest class of laborers in the world, and the most 
perfectly contented ! Hear them : 

" The free Negro is in a worse condition than the Slave, 
physically and morally — less happy, less healthy, less con- 
tented, less secure, less religious. Many of those that have 
escaped have returned to their Masters of their own accord, 
glad to escape from the Avretehedness of their freedom." (See 
chaps, i., ii., and iii., of Part V., and Appendix A.) "It is noto- 
rious that in the Southern Spates the Slaves look down upon 
the free Negroes with pity, and often with disdain, as being 
altogether in a position inferior to their own. For they feel 
themselves to be connected for life with the family of their 
Master, sure of protection, sure of a comfortable home, sure of 
a plentiful subsistence, sure of kind attendance in sickness and 
old age, and sure of affection and confidence, unless they for- 
feit them by unfaithfulness or rebellion. These advantages 
are lost to the free Negro, and the Slaves have no difficulty 
in understanding that he has nothing to replace them. True, 
they must work. But so must the free Negro : so must the 
laboring class in every civilized community. And when we 
cornpare their condition with that of our hirelings" (that is, the 
free white laborers of the North), " there are many points 



54 A. GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

Avhicli seem to be greatly in their favor. For their work is 
light and regular, as a general rule. They have abundant 
time allowed for recreation find for holidays. They are not, 
like the free laborer, liable to be dismissed at a moment's 
warning, and forced to beg or suffer for want of work to do. 
They are not tempted to strike for higher wages, when the 
ordinary rates are too low for the necessaries of life. 

"The Slaves are not exposed to the melancholy refuge of 
the poorhouse, and turned out to die in poverty and neglect, 
after their strength has been exhausted in a long struggle with 
hardship and toil. They are not sent adrift among the dens of 
infamy and pollution which contaminate all our cities" (that is, 
of the North), "bidding defiance to the hands of the police and 
the hearts of the benevolent. And if it be indeed a disadvan- 
tage that they can not change their Masters, it is in most cases 
more than a counterbalance for this that they could gain noth- 
ing by the change ; since every laborer must have a Master 
in order to live, and the Slave possesses the only security of 
always having a Master who is bound to keep him from destitu- 
tion, for years after the decays of nature have taken the power 
of earning his livelihood away. When philanthropy, therefore, 
gets rid of prejudice, and surveys the comparative advantages 
of the two systems" (that is. Slavery and Freedom), "with im- 
partial candor, and casts aside the odium which attaches to the 
name of Slave, it will not appear so easy to determine that 
Slavery is a calamity to the race of Africa.* On the contrary, it 

* " That our Slaves," says tlie Presbyterian Synod of Kentucky, 
" will be worse off if emancipated, is, we feel, but a specious pretext for 
lulling our pangs of conscience, and answei-ing the arguments of tlie 
philanthropist. None of us believe that God has so created a whole 
race that it is better for them to remain in Slavery. But it is not the 
Slaves alone that suffer." No, Slavery crushes not only .5,000,000 
souls of " the race of Africa" to the level of the swine in the gutter, but 
dooms the 6,500,000 poor whites in the Slavcholding States to "hopeless 
ijinorance." 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 55 

exhibits the nearest approach to tlie Patriarchal times, Avlieii 
Abraham had 318 Servants"* (meaning Slaves) "born in his 
own house, over whom he ruled with absolute power, ^ut with 
far more substantial comfort and advantage to them than if 
they had been a band of ordinary hirelings. 

" These statements may appear too highly colored or other- 
wise, just as my readers may have been accustomed to regard 
the subject. But however this may be, the fact remains un- 
deniable that the Slaves of the South are, on the whole, the 
happiest class of laborers in the world, and the most perfectly 
contented with their own condition, and this fact is of more 
value than all the reasonings of abolitionism."t 

Where did " the race of Africa" now in the North Ameri- 
can Republic, come from ? Yellov/, straw, Jersey -white, and 
apple-blossom colored " Niggers" do not grow in " Africa." 
No, these poor children of the " cursed seed of Ham" are na- 
tives of the United .States — Sons and Daughters of the Slave- 
holding nobility and their drivers or " hirelings," and are as 
justly entitled to the " Rights" of American citizenship as are 
•the native-born white sons and daughters of New England ; 
and infinitely more so than are nine tenths of the Irish and 
Dutch immigrants who Crowd the Docks and flood the Natural- 
ization offices for their " Papers" — to enable them not only 
to vote away the rights of the true " Sons of the Sires of 1776," 
but to " rivet more firmly the chains" of the poor Slaves ! 

When we shall see a Slaveholder arm his "318 Servants," 
and lead them hundreds of miles, over mountain, river, and 
desert, unto a foreign country where no law or power can 

. * Tlie Pro-Slavery definition of the word " Servant" is given in eliap. 
ii., of Part IV. 

t " The American Citizen : his Rights and Duties according to the 
Spirit of the Constitution of the United States. By John Henry Hop- 
Ivins, D. D., LL. D., Bisliop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 
the Diocese of Vermont," (pp. 131.) "New York: Pudney & Russell, 
79 John street, 1857." 



56 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

bind them to his service — when we shall see him thus lead* 
ing his own trained and equipped household, for the rescue of 
an unfortunate kinsman, and dividing with them the spoils of 
war, we may begin to trace in that " SUvveholder" some re- 
semblance to the patriarch Abraham. (See Gen. xiv. 13-24.) 
Or when we shall see Henry A. Wise of Virginia, William 
Aiken of South Carolina, the " Right Reverend Father in God, 
Leonidas Polk, D. D., LL. D., of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in the Diocese of Louisiana," or any other '' evangeli- 
cal" Slaveholding Democrat, commissioning a Slave to go to 
Canada — beyond the reach of " plantation discipline," equip- 
ped with southern mules and a lot of otlier ''likely nig- 
gers" to take care of them — laden with Jewels and Gold — 
having every facility for escape — yet trusted to choose a 
Wife for his Master's son, and to negotiate the Marriage con- 
tract, then again we may discern the features of patriarchal 
Slavery in the Slavery of " Christian America." How palpa- 
ble it is, that Abraham did not hold his " Servants" as chattel- 
Slaves.* 

No sane man or non-" hireling" will question the com- 
petence of the Rev. Robert J. Breckenridge, of Kentucky, to 
describe what the Northern. " evangelicaF't Pro-Slavery D. 

* "VVe have no record of any auction sale of Eliezer, or of the 
other "likely fellows," after the death of Abraham, in order tq settle 
that patriarch's estate. See Gen. xv. 2, 3. 

Had Abraham died childless, Eliezer's prospects would hove been 
very ditferent from those of the Southern "chattel." 

f It is not the thing to use the term "evangelical" in connection 
v/ith a Slave-trafficking religion. True evangelical religion is that which 
claims the most entire accordance with the' Gospel in faith and practice. 
■ It is a religion; which takes the Gospel view (tf sin"; a religion which in- 
sists upon laying the axe at the root of ^ery fomi of iniquity; a religion 
whicJi^i^ards selfishness as supremo wickedness, and insists upon the 
need* i^^cncration ; a religion which wbuld bring the precepts and 
•' spirit" : prChrist to bear against every evil in the heart and the life, in 
the individual and society. 



AKU TKESKNT STATE OP THINGS. 57 

D. s and LL. D. s call the " lieaven-born Institution" — as 
it is. And how does he — a Slaveholder himself — describe 
it.'' He says: " The man who can not see that involuntary 
domestic Slavery, as it exists among us, is founded upon the 
principle of taking that whiqh is another's, has simply no 
moral sense. Hereditary Slavery is M'ithout pretence except 
in avowed rapacity." After enumerating the defences of 
Slavery by his Southern brethren and their Nortliern "hire- 
lings," he adds: "These are reasons for a Christian land to 
look upon and then ask, ' Can any system which they are ad- 
vanced to defend be compatible with virtue and truth ?' " He 
gives the following analysis of Slavery : 

What is Slavery as it exists among us 1 We reply, it is that condition 
enforced by one half of the States of this confederacy, in which one por- 
tion of the community called " Masters," is allowed such power over an- 
other called " Slaves ;" as, 1. To deprive them of the entire earnings of 
their own Labor, except only so much as is necessary to continue labor 
itself by continual healthful existence, thus committing robbery. 2. To 
reduce them to the necessity of universal Concubinage, by denying to 
them the civil rights of JIarriage, thus breaking up the dearest relations 
of life and encouraging universal Prostitution.* 3. To deprive them of 
the means and opportunities of moral and intellectual culture, making it 
a high penal offence to teach them to.. read ; thus perpetuating whatever 
of evil there is that proceeds from ignorance. 4. To set up between 
Parents and their Children an authority higher than the impulse of Nature 
and the Laws of God; which breaks up the Authority of the Father over 

*■ The form of Marriage in use among the Slaves of Kentucky is that 
in general use in all the Slavcholding States, and is as follows : " Sambo ! 
do you take Dinah to be your wedded Wife, to live together in God's 
holy ordinance of Matriniony. until death shall you part, or as long as cir- 
cumstances ivill perntit ?" " Yes, mass'r." The Eev. Doctor then puts 
the same question to DinaK^ and receives the same response, when he 
stretches out his hands with due solemnity, and says, "I prongnnce you 
man and wife according to the laws of God — a7id the State qf-K^tucl-y." 
The Georgia method of "Marrying by the Blanket" (described in chap, 
ii., Part III.) is an improvement on the Kentucky plan. 

3* 



58 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

his Offspring, and at pleasure Separates the Mother at a returnless dis 
tance from her child ; thus abrogating the clearest laws of nature, thus 
outraging all decency and justice, and degrading and oppressing hun- 
dreds of thousiinds of beings created like themselves in the image of God. 
This is Slavery as it is daily exhibited in the Slave States of this Republic. 
A system which is utterly indefensible on every correct human principle, 
and utterly abhorrent from every law of God.* 

Does any one point out the crying evils of this frightful 
system of iniquity — political, economical, and moral, and in- 
sist that " something ought to be done," if not for its imme- 
diate abolition, at least for restraining in some degree the "ab- 
solute dominion" of the " Master," and, by bestowing upon the 
Slaves the privilege of Marriage and of permanent family ties, 
providing the first basis of social advancement for what con- 
stitutes in many of the States of the Union the larger half of 
the entire population — the man who makes these moderate 
demands on behalf of humanity, Christianity, and civilization, 
finds himself met by some " evangelical" Cat's-paw or " hire- 
lin"-" of the Slave Power, and his mouth attempted to be stop- 
ped by the cry : 

" Sir, these Slaves for whose benefit you would thus undertake to legis- 
late, are property, and property is a sacred thing — a gift from above — a 
Patriarchal Institution, and in strict accordance with Natural and Re- 
vealed religion, and can not be touched !" 



* The Presbyterian Synod of Kentucky, describing the extent of the 
"Domestic Slave-trade," its barbarities, &c., informs us, that "pro- 
fessors of the religion of mercy, who hold to our communion, have torn 
the Mother from the Children, and sent them into returnless exile. Yet 
acts of discipline have never followed such conduct." In the General 
Assembly of that Church, it was stated hj Mr. Stewart, and without 
contradiction, that "even Ministers of the Gospel and Doctors of Di- 
vinity may engage in this unholy calling." "Elders," said he, "Min- 
isters and Doctors of Divinity, arc, with both hands, extensively en- 
gaged in the practice." Yet nothing was done or said by the Assembly 
in condemnation of it ! 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. ^'^ 

This cry of " proj^erty !" is the least objectionable thing 
Tibout Slavery. It labors under the more serious objections 
of being fals<', iiypocritical, and intended to deceive. It is the 
cry of stop thief! raised by those who have just committed a 
robbery, and who, in hopes of committing many others, raise 
I his cry by way of saving themselves from innuediate arrest. 
Wise fellows they, those Slaveholders and their Cat's-paw 
" hirelings," to set themselves up as the champions and advo- 
cates of " property" in Men as good, if not better, than them- 
selves. What saith the Rev. Nathan Lord, D. D., LL. D., 
President of Dartmouth College, New Hampshire ? Listen : 

I. " Slavery is an Institution of God according to Natural religion." 
II. " Slavery is a positive Institution of Revealed religion." III. " The 
holding of Slaves, or the Carrying on of a System of Slavery" (that is, 
breeding and selhng Slaves), " b}' Civil regulations, in accordance with, 
the Divine plan, as understood by Natural and Revealed religion, is not 
inconsistent with any ideas or principles suggested or enjoined by Provi- 
dence or the Word of God." IV. " The Nebraska bill, passed by the 
Congress of 1854, was a politic measure and suited, by extending the 
area of Slavery, to promote the best interests of the country." V. "It 
is unwise and hazardous for Christian men to denounce or oppose the 
Institution of Slavery, or to give encouragement, directly or indirectly, 
to romantic and excited persons, who would subvert it." VI. " Min- 
isters of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and all other Christian men, should 
tiike the doctrines of the Abolitiourtsts into serious consideration, and use 
the most effectual means in their power to withstand them, and save the 
Nation from their pernicious influences." (See the Doughface and the 
Rev. Judicious Trimmer, D. D., Appendix B.) VII. "Whether a 
Minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, who has become convinced that. 
Slavery is a Divine Institution, and who could without conscientious mis- 
givim/s, and who with gratitude to God for such an opportunity of bene- 
Jiling his degraded and suffering creatures, become himself a Slave- 
holder, may not still hope for the foi-giveness and charity of his brethren, 
though he differs from them in the honest profession of his views." 

It is difiicult to treat the ludicrous idea and wicked refuge 
of oppression that " God devoted Ham to perpetual Slavery," 
either with patience or gravity ; for, in the first place, it was 



60 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

not God, but Is^oah, who — immediately after waking from a 
drunken debauch — pronounced the curse ; in the second place, 
the curse fell, not upon Ham, but upon Canaan, whose de- 
scendants were as white as the Hehreios themselves, or the 
people of New M^ gland ; in the third place, the descendants 
of Ham, as the Pro- Slavery Doctors of Divinity, North and 
South, claim the Africans to be, have nothing to do with this 
curse. Their pretensions to a right from Heaven to lay this 
curse upon them, and hold them as their " property," is the 
wildest, most sweeping and diabolical forgery ever conceived 
or committed. They pretend to be, by charter from Heaven, 
the ministers of God's vengeance against a whole continent of 
men — a whole race of mankind — whom, in the execution of 
that vengeance, they are to hold and sell as their " property."* 
Where is the sentence in which God ever appointed them, the 
Anglo-Saxon race — they, who can not tell whether the blood 
of Shem, Ham, Japhet, St. Patrick, Dick Turpin, or Job Von 
Pronk, mingles in their veins — they, the asserters of a right 
to traffic in Human flesh ? The whole thing is a forgery. 
" Ah, very true/' says the trafficker in his fellow-men, " I 
admit that Ham's race are not foreordained strangers, but 
Slaves, and I am only executing God's predestination in turn- 
ing Pirate for the benefit of the Kingdom of Christ Jesus. 
The foreign heathen must be brought in."t 

The Southern view of " Foreign Missions" is an exceed- 

* " Some people" appear to imagine that becatisc an event has been 
foretold, therefore all the parties concerned in bringing about that event 
must be set down as free from sin, but this is not true. "It must needs 
be," said Christ, " that offences come, but cursed be he by whom they 
come ! Better for him were it that a millstone were tied about his neok 
and that he were cast into the depths of the sea." 

t There is no word for sm- in the Chinese language. When a China- 
man commits Burglary, Arson, Rape, or Murder, he does not feel that 
he has committed sin, because his " Book of Discipline" is silent on "the 
sin question " 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 61 

ingly comfortable doctrine. The Slaveholders point to the 
savage condition of unenlightened Africa, and to the meagre 
results of missionary labor there. Then, looking at the con- 
verted Slaves in their midst, they say, '' Sec what Slavery has 
done for these poor benighted niggers ! It has accomplished 
more than Foreign Missions." So, purely for the purpose 
of converting these heathen, and converting them here, 
rather than in their native laud, they say that God sub- 
jected Ham to bondage, and that they — the " evangelical" 
Pro-Slavery Churches — are God's appointed instruments to 
fasten the chains upon him, the curse, the vengeance, of per- 
petLxal Slavery. But then, in another breath, in order to 
excuse themselves for this instrumentality, and under a galling 
sense of its odiousness and shame, they say that " God is a 
God of wondrous mercy and love," and has appointed the poor 
Africans to be Ciiristians, and has made them no longer the 
executioners of his wrath, but the almoners of his bounty, to 
convert them, by means of Slavery, to Christ Jesus ! They 
are appointed to put chains upon them, and buy and sell them 
as their " property" for ever, in order to make freemen of 
them, in Christ ! They are God's appointed missionaries, to 
Christianize them by the Gospel of Slavery ! 

Now is it to be supposed that God does not see to the very 
bottom of such hollow — such diabolical professions, or that 
His indignation against such hypocrisy is any less at this day 
than it M'as when Pie told the Jews that all their obligations, 
and their approaches to Him, were an offence to him, in- 
stead of gaining his approbation ; and that even when they 
burned incense to Him, it was no better than if they blessed 
an idol ? " Yea they have chosen their own ways, and their 
soul delighteth in their abominations." They fasted, but 
refused to break a single yoke. They prayed, they made long 
prayers, and then turned and gave their influence against all 
pi'eaching and all efforts to establish Freedom instead of Sla- 



62 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

very, which was quite equivalent to making long prayers and 
then " devouring widows' houses." Just so now the " evan- 
gelical" Slaveholding and Slave-breeding Churches of the 
South, and their allies in the "/ree North," pray for " Revivals 
of Religion," but if any " brother from the country," too sim- 
ple-hearted to understand the atmosphere and the currents of 
the prayer-meeting, happens to pray for the deliverance of 
the oppressed and the enslaved, a feeling runs through the 
room as if a " foreign heathen" had appeared in the assembly. 
The vital principle of the Bible is to love God with all your 
heart and your Neighbor as yourself, and every " Law" that 
interferes with this, pierces the vitals of the Christian religion 
as the spear of the Roman soldier pierced the heart of the 
Saviour on the Cross. Dr. Lord's idea of liolding Christian 
men in Slavery, to preserve them from a worse fate, is founded 
neither on Scripture, nor on common sense. No worse fate is 
possible. He that is a Slave, has lost all" tliat he had to lose, 
except life, and that is his only in a very qualified sense. As 
an animal he might suffer more in the hands of one "Master" 
than in the hands of another ; but his rights as a Man are 
sacrificed to the same extent, whatever may be the character 
of his " Master." The Slaveholder who recedes from the 
" property" principle, does not execute the " Law," and in so 
far, is not a Slaveholder. If the " Christian" respects his 
Slave,^ and counts him a "brother" — as he must do — the 
Slave law is no longer in force, and he can not be said to hold a 
Slave. But if he does apply the " Law," and reduce the Man 
or the Woman to a "chattel," what better is he than another 
— than the common run of Slaveholders? It is no matter 
what hand does the deed. Robbery, committed by "a pious 
man" is just as much robbery as if committed by a profes- 
sional highwayman. The assassin's knife, plunged to the 
heart by the hand of a " friend," i i not less fatal than if driven 
there by the hand of an enemy. 



CHAPTER III. 

All the commercial cities of the "free States" are threat- 
ened with the loss of " Soutliern trade" unless they consent to 
remain true to the interests of Slavery. By this means Bos- 
ton is made to vie with New York, and New York to vie 
with Philadelphia, and Philadelphia to vie with Cincinnati, in 
doing whatever work the Slave power may require at their 
hands. Tlie tariff is alsa a most effective instrument in the 
hands of the Slave power in controlling Northern capitalists. 
The North desires protection for her Manufactures ; the Slave 
power will grant it only on condition of the most faithful alle- 
giance on her part to its one great interest — its own preser- 
vation and aggrandizement. Here, tlien, we have the two 
dominant classes of society — the wealth and talent — placed 
entirely at the disposal of the Slave power, and ever listening 
to catch its word of command. Whatever crime is perpe- 
trated against freedom, it is done to " save the Union." Is a 
Slave to be recaptured, it must be done to " save the Union." 
Is a Christian fined, imprisoned, or murdered for hiding the 
outcast, it is done to " save the Union." Is the freedom of 
speech cloven down by the lawless violence of a ruthless m"ob, 
or by a sliamefnl perversion of the law by a faithless Court, it 
is done to " save the Union." Does a Doctor of Divinity 
offer up his Mother or Son on the altar of Slavery (see Ap- 
pendix B), to serve in the harem, or toil in the rice swamps, 
it is to " save the Union." Indeed, no language can (^escribe 



64 A GENEKAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

the depth of degradation to Avhich this guiUy connection with 
Slavery has reduced " the People." It has led them into the 
perpetration of crimes at the bare mention of which all Chris- 
tendom turn pale with horror. 

" Great men," says Elihu, " are not always wise ; neither do 
the aged understand judgment. Therefore I said, Hearken to 
me; I also will show you mine opinion." (Job xxxii. 9, 10) : 

" Many Southern Slaveholders," says the Rev. Moses Stuai-t, D. I)., 
LL. D., of Andover, Massachusetts, "are true Christians, and sending 
back a fugitive from Slavery to them is not like restoring- one to an idol- 
atrous people. We may piti/ the fugitive, yet the Gospel does not 
authorize the rejection of the claims of the, Slaveholders to their stolen 
properti/."* 

Is this in accordance with " Laws" of Him who said : " Thou 
shalt not deliver unto his Master the Servant which is escaped 
from his Master unto thee ; he shall dwell with thee, among you, 
in that place which he shall choose in one of thy gates, where 
it liketh him best; thou shalt not oppress him." (Deut. xxiii. 
15, 16.) And in Isaiah xvi. 3, 4: " Hide the outcast; betray 
not him that wandereth. Let mine outcasts dwell with thee ; 
be thou a covert to them from the face of the spoilers." Such 
were the commands of God to his own " chosen people." The 
Golden Rule does not enjoin us to " do unto white men [only] 
as we would have them do to us ;" the Good Samaritan was 
not commended for humanity to one of his own relations, 
but for cherishing a wronged fellow-man of a despised and 
detested race. The rights of Humanity know no distinction 
founded on a difference of " color." 

Professor Stuart served the Slaveholders, not by rebuking 

'*■ 
* A runaway Slave assigned as his reason for not communing with 

the Church to which he belonged, that the Church had Silver fui-niture 

for the administration of the Lord's Supper, to procure which they sold 

his Mother, and he could not bear the feelings it produced to go forward 

and receive the Sacrament from vessels which were the> purchase of his 

poor Mother's blood. 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 65 

them and calling lliem to repentance for their sins, but hy 
showing them how, with Christ's name upon their lips, they 
could most effectually serve their employer, and " rivet more 
firmly the chains" of the poor Slaves. To be sure he does 
not assert that Christianity Avas positively friendly to Slavery. 
The Slaveholders did not ask him thus to stultify himself for 
their sake. ; They only wanted to be assured that Slavehold- 
ing, under the " peculiar" circumstances in which they were 
placed, were not offences that should exclude them from the 
" evangelical Churches ;" and this assurance Professor Moses 
Stuart, D. D., LL. D., of Andover, Massachusetts, with the 
" full weight" of his authority, as " a learned interpreter of the 
Word of God," ventured to give them ! 

Another " evangelical " Pro-Slavery Doctor of Divinity, the 
Eev. Samuel B. How, D. D., of New Brunswick, New Jersey, 
speaking of the " divine origin of Slavery," thinks the tenth 
Commandment places Wives, Maid-Servants, Men-Servants, 
Oxen, and Asses, on the same Platform : — 

" The objection that the New Dispensation had abolished all this -was 
of no avail since Christ himself had, in many instances, held fellowship 
with Slaveholders. The Apostle Paul, in his remarks to believing 
Slaveholders, did not command them to liberate their Slaves. Suppose 
that Onesimus, the Slave of Philemon, the Slaveholder, should come to 
us and ask to sit at the Communion-table with us, would we reject him 1 
I trust we have not come to that point in the Church in which wo make 
the holding of a Slave a term of communion. Abraham was a Slave- 
holder, and, indeed, at one time owned three hundred and eigliteen 
Slaves. Still God made the Covenant with him, that Covenant which, 
alienated by the Jews in the crucifixion of Christ, has descended to the 
visible Church, of whicTi we" (Samuel B. How & Co.) "are a portion. 
Christ has pictured the happiness of Heaven as consisting in lying in 
Abraham's bosom, and I hope to lie in the bosom of that good old 
Slaveholder. The tenth Commandment proves that ' Servants' and 



66 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

' Maid-Servants' stood on precise!}- the same footing as other chattels 
enuhierated in that Commandment" (viz. : Wives, Oxen, and Asses). 
" This not only forbade depriving a man of property, which the Law of 
the land secured to him, but even the secret thought of so doing. It 
taught us" (Samuel B. How & Co.) "that there were rights of property ' 
(that is, in Human flesh). " That there were Masters and that there 
were Slaves. This distinction of property lay at the foundation of 
Civilization. Slavery is one of the penal effects with which God, in his 
wrath, visits the sins of his people. If we were pure there would be no 
such thing as Slavery."* 

The Mormons vindicate Polygamy by precisely the same 
arguments. They with great gusto appeal to the civilized 
world, saying : " Have we not Abraham to our Father?" If 
Abraham be good authority in the one case he ought to be 
in the other. These " evangelical" Pro-Slavery D. D.'s and 
LL. D.'s know well enough that the Dispensation under which 
men now live, abrogates everything in the Old which is not 
moral in its nature. But that feature of the Old Dispensa- 
tion which allowed the existence of " bond-service" was no 
part of the moral law. Hence even the Jews under the New 
Dispensation, can have no warrant for the institution of 
" bond-service" arising out of Mosaic allowance ; much less can 
a " Christian nation" have such a warrant. Who would think 
of pleading for the lawfulness of Polygamy for any cause 
now, simply because it was tolerated under the Old Dispen- 
sation ? 

With regard to Slavery, Moses himself was an Abolit^on- 

* It would have been nearer the truth to have said : If it had not 
been for Cotton there would have been no such an animal as a Dough- 
face or Time-server in New-Jersey. Show us the balance on the wrong 
side of the ledger, and we will find you thousands of Doctors of Divin- 
ity who would not only "pray" for the "cursed seed of Ham," but 
maintain that Onesimus was not a Slave. Pro-Slavery piety, therefore, 
begins and ends in Cotton. It is an exceedingly convenient religion. 
It can be worn as a dress, or thrown over the shoulders as a wrap- 
rascal. 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 67 

ist of the most ultra type, for he killed a Slave-driver on the 
premises (see Exodus ii. 11-14), and "ran" about two mil- 
lions of Slaves out of Egypt. Egyptian theologians and poli- 
ticians may have said hard things of him for not respecting 
the " rights of property" which had been recognized for some 
time in Egypt. But he, having the right on his side, could 
alFord to listen in patience to their arguments and their abuse. 
The controversy was settled beyond dispute by the settlement 
of a certain army under the waters of the Red Sea. 

Nor does the New Testament, so often alluded to by the 
Pro-Slavery D. D.s and LL. D.s, and their employers, give 
any comfort, for we find that Christ denounced Slavery in 
such words as these : " Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thy- 
self." " Do unto others as you would they should do unto 
you." The Parable of the good Samaritan, and nearly every- 
thing else he uttered, condemned both Slavery and Polygamy, 
•by enunciating principles and rules of conduct which inevita- 
bly forbid them. He did not frame a Code ; he inculcated a 
"Spirit" that showed forth a life with which all moral evil — 
all that degrades or imbrutes our weaker or more benighted 
fellow-beings — is incompatible. The Bible disciplines the 
Moral sense to the intent that we may judge of right and 
wrong without the aid of Specific precepts. The Roman Em- 
pire was Slaveholding, and the Apostles to the Gentiles were 
brought into daily contact with it. Watched as they were by 
the jealous and bitterly hostile Jews — hunted by accusations 
of conspiracy, implacable hostility to the existing sway, and 
"setting up another King, whose name is Jesus" — they were 
constrained to great circumspection, especially in their pub- 
lished writings. Why did the Herodians take counsel against 
Christ to destroy him ? why did the Nazarenes rise up and 
thrust him out of their city? why were the Galileans filled 
with madness against him ? why did the Jews take up stones 
and stone him ? why did the chief Priests and Pharisees send 



68 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

Officers to take liim ? Why? Because he preached no ab- 
stract Gospel emasculated of all reference to the crimes of his 
hearers. 

Another prominent Pro-Slavery Doctor of Divinity, the 
Rev. Nehemiah Adams, D. D., of Boston, in the '■^free State" 
of Massachusetts, speaking of the atrocious Fugitive Slave 
Law, of 1850, says : — 

" It seems hard, if some good undei-standin<T can not be had, to the 
effect that travellers" (that is, Slaveholders) "from the South, visiters, are 
to be protected in the enjoyment of services rendered 'by Members of their 
families. Now they must stay at home, or leave their favorite Servants 
beiiind them." (By no means, thanks to Dr. Adams and his co-workers 
in the " free States" — see Appendix A.) " Ai-e we afraid that the sight 
of the happy relation subsisting between Masters and Slaves will make 
our j)f ople in love with the Institution ? We must put a stop to the un- 
lawful seizure of colored Servants passing with their Masters through a 
■free State."* " Whatever our repugnance to Slavery may be, there is 
a lav.^ of the land, a Constitution to which we must submit, or employ 
suitable means to change it. While it remains, all our appeals to a 
' Higher Law' are fanaticism." " We have been the assailants, she (the 
South) the mark; we the persecutors, she the defendant; we the accu- 
sers, she the self-justifying respondent." " The best thing which we at 
the North can do to pacify the country, to help the colored race, to pre- 
vent further Nebraska Measures, and promote our common interests, is 
to reconsider our feelings and conduct in times past toward the South. 
A penitent state of mind becomes us." 

" The Apostolic spirit with regard to Slavery, surely is not of the 
same tone with the spirit which encourages Slaves to run away from 
their owners, and teaches them his boat, his purse, are theirs, if they wish 
to escape. Philemon travelling with Onesimus, was not annoyed by a 

* Is it not as "hard" that a Citizen of Massachusetts — Dr. Adams's 
own State — can not ti-avel into either North or South Carolina, or into 
either Indiana or Illinois, attended by his " free colored Servant," with- 
out running the risk of losing him altogether 1 A " free Nigger," on 
entering either of these States, is imprisoned, and in case, at the end of 
that imprisonment, he is not able to pay a heavy "fine," and bill for 
"board" and "jail-fees," he is liable to be sold into perpetual Slavery. 
(See chaps, i. and ii., of Part V., and A^jperidix A.) 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 69 

Vigilance Committee of Paul's Christian friends, with a ' habeas corpus' 
to rescue the Servant from his Master ; nor did these friends watch the 
arrival of ships to receive a fugitive consigned by 'the saints and faith- 
ful brethren which were at Colosse' to ' the friends of the Slave' at Cor- 
inth. True, these disciples had not enjoyed the light which the Decla- 
ration of American Independence sheds on the subject of Human rights. 
Moses, Paul, and Christ, were their authorities on moral subjects; but 
our injidds" (that is, the friends of the oppressed) " tell us that we should 
have a far different New Testament, could it be written for us now." — 
A South-Side View of Slavery, by Nehemiah Adams, D. D., pp. 128, 156, 
and 199. 

Only a little while ago, while the Members of one " evan- 
gelical" Church, in Boston, were Kidnapping the MemberjfoE 
another Church, there was hardly a " respectable" Clergyman 
in the City to lift up his voice against the hideous iniquity. 
Husbands and Fathers were torn from their Families ; and 
Mothers, with poor, helpless Children, fled at midnight, Avilli 
bleeding feet, through snow and ice, toward Canada ; and, in 
the midst of these scenes, which have made America a by- 
word and a hissing and an astonishment among all nations, 
there were found men, " Christian men," " Ministers of tlie 
Gospel" — :alas! that this should ever be written — who, 
standing in the Pulpit in the name of Jesus Christ, justified 
and sanctioned these enormities, and used that most loving 
and simple-hearted letter of the captive Paul to Philemon, to 
justify these atrocities ! St. Paul speaks of tbis very Onesi- 
mus as his own Son ; and beseeches Philemon to receive liim 
as such, to receive him not as a "Servant;" not as a "run- 
away nigger" is received when 'liis master recovers him, 
but as a Brother, beloved both in the flesb and in the 
Ix)rd. If Onesimus o^ocd Philemon anytliing^ the Apostlo 
tells himlfco set that to his (St. Paul's) account; but intimates 
a strong belief that no claim of that sort would be preferred. 
And he expresses the fullest confidence that Philemon would 
readily do all he had requested, and more. And there is 



70 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

every reason to believe that his wishes and expectations were 
fully realized ; that the former " Master" and " Servant" met 
together in the faith and fellowship of the Gospel, as Brethren 
in the Lord, mutually dehghting to promote each other's hap- 
piness. 

If Judas was worthy of his reward for betraying one whom 
he knew had the power to extricate himself from the hands of 
his crucifiers, then much more is he worthy of his reward Avho 
casts — or helps to do it — into the hands of men more brutal 
than Jewish crucifiers thousands of unoffending, weak, and 
helpless Fathers and Mothers, Sons and Daughters, accused 
of^o infraction of Religious or Civil Law, and whose blood is 
called for by no maddening populace, but by cold-blooded 
avarice and the foulest of passions.* 

At the " Commencement of Rutgers College," New Bruns- 
wick, New Jersey, on the 1st of July, 1856, the "Orator of 
the Day," the Rev. Dr. Junkin, President of Washington 
College, Lexington, Virginia, on being introduced by Rodman 
M. Price, Governor of the State, said : — 

" Our first duty is to spread the Bible among the heathen Nations of 
the old world. The Bible lias made us what we are ! We are bound to 
contend against the atheistic systems of Eui'opean nations. Our great 
and glorious expansion, our Prospective population, our Tremendous 
power and high Moral position among the nations of the earth, enforce 
the question, ' What will the/oreign heathen expect of us V " [Sensation.] 

* In the "Memoir of Mrs. Ann R. Page," sister of Bishop Meade, of 
Virginia (see chap, ii., of Part IV.), we are told that by her Marriage 
she came into the relation of Mistress to some two hundred Slaves, the 
" property" of her husband ; and her efforts for their improvement and 
emancipation occupy the first two chapters of the book. She portrays 
the " Jieaven-horn Institution" in these words : "Have j^ju considered, 
my friends, the full amount of the evils of Slavery ? No ; ^j/tfy can not 
be seen by Human eyes. Thej^ form a part of those hidden things of 
darkness, which are linked by a chain which reaches into the dominion 
of Satan, not only here on earth, but into his more complete dominion 
ui the realms of deepest hell. 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 71 

" Slavery is represented as the great bar to the continuance of our glori- 
ous Union. Look at it ! God has painted some five millions of people 
black* and hrougkt them here ! They are more thoroughly Christian- 
ized and Civilized than the people of the Old World this day !" [Ap- 
plause.] " More converts have been made to Christianity among this 
pcoplCj during their dwelling among us, than in the rest of the World." 

Here the speaker sketched the progress of what he was 
pleased to call "our American territory," and spoke of the 
time when " our people would be obliged to throw the protec- 
tion of the Stars and Stripes over the benighted countries on 
our Southern border, to preserve them from civil suicide." 
ISfay, more, " we must turn Northward and carry forward the 
work of benevolence — of regeneration, until British America 
is brought under the influence of our glorious Institutions, and 
' £ Pluribus Unum' covei'S our misguided runaway Servants 
(see chaps, i. and ii., of Part II.), and this Continent from the 
frozen pole to the burning zone !" 

In February, 1856, the Rev. William S. Plumer, D. D., of 
Richmond, was invited by the Cleveland (Ohio) Young Men's 
Christian Association to deliver a lecture in the course then 
before them. Dr. Plumer was absent from Richmond when 
the letter of invitation reached his residence. On his return, 
he lost no time in communicating to the Chairman of Corre- 
spondence the following precious sample of Slave-holding 
theology : — 

" I have carefully watched the Anti-Slavery movement from its earli- 
est existence, and everything I have seen or heard of its character, both 
from its patrons and its enemies, has^ confirmed me, beyond repentance, 



* Since they have been brought here, however, they have been 
painted so many other shades of color, that the original '■'■black" 
has well M^v faded out. Perhaps it is their " conversion to Chris- 
tianity" that has taken away the Hamite curse of the darker shades 
of complexion. When they shall have "dwelt among us" till they 
are all converted, the whole race may be bleached white. 



72 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

in tlie belief that, let the character of the Abolitionists be what it may, 
in the Sight of the Judge of all the Earth, this is the most meddlesome, 
impudent, reckless, fierce, and wicked excitement I ever saw. If the 
Abolitionists will set the country in a blaze, it is but fan* that they should 
receive the first warming at the fire."* 

Can the Missouri ruffians and cut-throats do more ! Have 
they attempted, or ever threatened to do, anj'thing more than 
carry out the principles here so piously advocated ? It is an 
old maxim, that " like Priest, like People." Is it any wonder 
that the Country is filled with Atchisons and Stringfellows 
thirsting, for the blood of freemen, when she is taught her re- 
ligion by such kind of Christians as the Rev. William S. 
Plumer, D. D. ? Charity compels us to believe that the 
Young men who invited this ferocious Slave-breeding " minis- 
ter" of the "heaven-horn Institution" to insult the Anti-Slavery 
sentiment of Cleveland, by his lecturing, were entirely unac- 
quainted with his character, and deceived by his position. 
Let us compare the sentiments of this advocate of fire and 
fagot — this pretended " minister" of the blessed Saviour — 
with that of the " infidel Jefferson," who says, " All men have 
inalienable rights, among which are liberty and the pursuit of 
happiness" (heavenly sounds compared with the cruel breath- 
ings of the Rev. William S. Plumer, D. D.) Speaking of 
Slavery, he says : — 

" When I reflect that God is just, I tremble for my country ;" 

and in view of the possibility of a Slave insurrection, he says : 
"•There is no attribute in the character of the Deity that can 
take part with us Slaveholders in such a contest." The Al- 

*■ At a public meeting of the American Bible Society, held in the 
Rev. George B. Checver's Church, Union Square. New Y«^-, on the 
6th of April, 1856, this man (William S. Plumer, D. D., ofRichmonr], 
Virginia,) " acted a prominent and acceptable part." The object of the 
meeting was to consider the expediency of giving a copy of the Bible to 
every poor v/hite family in the United States. (See I Cor. xv. 33.) 



AND rilESENT STATE OF THINGS. 73 

mighty lias left us an unmistakable indication of his hatred of 
Slavery in the destruction of an immense army of Slaveholders 
in the Red Sea, who were obeying their Fugitive Slave Law. 
" Proclaim," saith the Lord, " liberty throughout all the land 
to all the inhabitants thereof." That is Aljolitionism of the 
strongest kind ; plain and positive. Yet the Rev. William S. 
Plumer, D. D., raises his defiant arm, shakes his fist in the 
face of the God of eternal justice, and, Slaveholder like, 
says : " That is impudent !" 

Liberty for the white man; slavery for the "nigger," so 
long as the white man is able to hold him. Let the Reverend 
Doctor be in the power of a very big black man, and the 
question might be opened, who should be Master and who 
should be " Servant." 

The Rev. Thornton Stringfellow, D. D., of Richmond, Va., 
has published in that city what he calls " Scriptural and Sta- 
tistical Vieivs in favor of Slavery" which has met with so 
much favor in that latitude as to have reached its fourth edi- 
tion. In this edition, he undertakes to answer a letter writ- 
ten by a man called Elder Galusha to the Rev. Richard Fuller, 
of S. C. Here is a specimen of his logic : — 

"His second Scripture reference to disprove the lawfulness of Slavery 
in the sight of God, is this : ' God has said a Man is better than a sheep. 
This is a Scripture truth which I fully believe — and I have no -doubt, 
if we could ascertain what the Israelites had to pay for those Slaves they 
bought with their money according to God's law, that we should find 
they had to pp^y more for them than they paid for Sheep, for the reason 
assigned by the Saviour; that is, that a Slave-man is better than a 
Sheep ; for when he is done ploughing, or feeding cattle, and comes 
in from the field, he will, at his owner's bidding prepare him his meal, 
and wait upon him till he eats it, wliile the owner feels under no obliga- 
,tion even to thank liim for it, because he has done no more than his du- 
ty. (Luke xvii. 7, 8, 9.) This, and other important duties, which the 
people of God bought their Slaves to perform for them, by the permis- 
sion of their Maker, were duties which Sheep could not pei-form." 

This "evangelical'' apologist and trafficker in his "colored 

4 



74 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

Brethren and Sisters," must know that the Bible recognizes 
no such traffick as that of property in Man, except as a wicked 
oppression ; and the Mosaic legislation guarded the people at 
every point against such oppression, and was admirably con- 
trived to render it impossible. In consequence of these care- 
ful and humane Statutes, both the spirit of the Hebrew con- 
stitution and the letter of the Law so effectually secured Free- 
dom as a personal Birthright, that the idea of Slavery, in the 
American sense of the term, was never embodied in the lan- 
guage. There is no word to" signify what we call a Slave — 
a Human being degraded into an article of " property." And 
the laws were minute and specific in regard to the treatment 
of Servants, and their rights, to such a degree, with such e"x- 
plicitness and exactness, in order that there might never be 
any temptation to introduce or establish Slavery in the land, • 
it being from the outset made so impossible, that without direct 
defiance of Almighty God, no man could intend such a thing, 
and no tribe could accomplish it. And accordingly, notwith- 
standing all the oppression of which the Jews were guilty, and 
the instances and forms in which they evaded the law, and at 
length attempted to establish Slavery itself instead of the sys- 
tem of voluntary paid service prescribed by law, yet never at 
any time in Palestine was there a Slave-mart or public Slave- 
traffick. Babylon and Tyre, Greece and Rome, and other 
heathen nations, maintained the Slave-trade ; and never a phi- 
losopher, unenlightened by God's Word, l-ose high enough to 
see its wickedness ; but in Judea, its violation of the first 
principles of justice and humanity was so manifest by the 
Law of God, and so many Statutes combined to render it im- 
possible, that though the idol altars of the heathen world were 
at length naturalized in Israel, and in the seductions of idof* 
worship the people were carried headlong, yet the Slave-ti-affic 
and the Slave-marts never once obtained a footing. 

At Platte City, the county-seat of Platte county, Missouri, 



AND PRESENT STATE OF T^I^•GS. 75 

Senator Atchison's home, on the 5th of March, 1855, a Pro- 
Slavery " Mass-Meeting" was held. Several speakers ad- 
dressed it, among them the Rev. Leander Kerr, D. D., United 
States Chaplain to the Ai-mj at Fort Leavenworth, who 
said : — 

"And now to ascertain your position and what arc your duties in the con- 
test before you ; let us ascertain the cause for which you are contending ! 
What is that cause 1 It is the most just, righteous, and holy in which men 
were ever engaged ! Go, then, to Kansas as men, as patriots, as Chris- 
tians, and do your duty to yourselves, your country, and your God ! Do 
you talk of ' lawful and honorable means' to prevent these New England 
infidel Abolition vagabonds from entering among you ! If a midniglit 
robber were to attempt to break into my quarters I would avail myself 
of the most efficient means at my command to expel him. I would not 
sit down to ponder upon ' honorable and lawful means ;' the only law I 
would recognize, in the case, would be the law of self-preservation. 
Talk not of ' honorable and lawful means,' save the law of self-preserva- 
tion, against men who trample alike the laws of heaven and your countiy 
under their feet ; men who know as little of honor in their souls as a 
monkey- knows of the mechanism of a steam-engine ! Away with such 
p'altiy sentimentalism ! It is as much out of place as lullaby songs and 
nurseiy tales are out of place in the heat of battle, or in the midst of 
storm and shipwi-eck ! Honorable wai-ftire'is for honorable heroes, not 
for robbers and banditti, and such these Abolition infidels are !" 

How 'this " minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ" must 
have rejoiced at the success of his teachings and the faithful 
practice of them, by his fellow-Ruffians, shooting unarmed 
men in cold blood, bayoneting single disarmed, wounded men, 
shooting men by placing musket muzzles in their mouths, 
scalping living citizens, cutting out, tearing, and mangling the 
hearts of freemen, Avhom they hunted from their homes, by 
going to their houses to commit rape upon their defenceless 
Christian wives and daughters ! Well have they practised on 
the preaching of a " minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ" 
who stigmatizes honor and justice as " paltry sentimentalism !" 
Nor is the " Rev. Leander Kerr, D. D.," the only cut-throat 



76 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

" minister of the Gospel of Jesus Chi-ist" in Missouri, for Ave 
find the Sev. John Bull, D. D., a " distinguished Clergyman'' 
of Weston, Missouri, " engaged, soul and body, in the good 
cause." Hear him : — 

" I could stand by and not have one nerve quiver, and see any man 
cut up into inch pieces, who would say one word in defence of Aboli- 
tionism, or a Northern Emigration Aid Society." 

The Church Session of the First Presbyterian Church (New 
School) in St. Joseph, Missouri, advertise in The Christian 
Observer for a Pastor, to take the place of the Rev. T. S. 
Reeve, who had resigned. Hear them : — 

" We will give from five to eight hundred dollars a year ; but wc want 
a man who is strictly religious and Southern in his feelings, and care not 
where he was born or educated." 

It is very evident that neither St. Paul nor any of the other 
Apostles would suit the " First Presbyterian Church in St. Jo- 
seph, Missouri." Not one of them would have been " Southern" 
in his "feelings" — only cosmopolitan and Christian. Neither 
was the admiration of Paul for " bonds" of the N. S. Order. 
He held them as the last thing one man should invoke for 
another. In his magnificent appeal for Religion and Liberty 
before the Roman Governor he has left nothing for the 
scourges of party-colored Men, Women, and Children, to build 
a theory upon. The Saint Joseph Christians should have 
an edition of the Bible prepared to be read to them by this 
" strictly religious" man, if they should get one of sufficient 
education to read without skipping the hard words. This 
edition should omit the history of Moses, the Ten Command- 
ments, the Psalms, the Book of Proverbs, the prophecies of 
Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, the Life of our Saviour, and 
the epistles of Paul, Peter, James, John and Jude ; and should 
cut out such passages from other parts of the Sacred Word 
as speak of God's justice, and His hatred of sin. They 



AND PRESENT STATE OP THINGS. 77 

should inscribe over the pulpit, ^^Prophesy unto ns smooth 
tilings, prophesy deceits." 

The Rev. James Smylie, a minister of the State of Missis- 
sippi, in a Pamphlet written in defence of Slavehokling, allu- 
ding to the charges of the Abolitionists, admits the facts ad- 
duced by them, but denies their criminality. " If Slavery be 
a Sin," says he, " and advertising and apprehending Slaves 
with a view to restore them to their oivners, is a direct viola- 
tion of the Divine law, and if the buying, selling, and holding 
Slaves, for the sake of gain, is a heinous sin and scandal, 
then, verily, three fourths of all the Methodists, Episcopalians, 
Baptists, and Presbyterians, in the Slave States of this Union, 
are of the Devil. They hold, if they do not buy and sell 
Slaves, and they do not hesitate to apprehend and restore 
runaway Slaves, when in their power. The right to buy, sell, 
and hold Men, Women, and Children, for purposes of gain, 
was given by express permission of God. The laws which 
forbid the education of the Slave are right, and meet the ap- 
probation of the reflecting part of the Christian community." 

To call such a man a Christian, still more a Christian min- 
ister, is to libel Him who came to deliver men from bondage, 
not to enslave them. 

What is it with which these Reverend Doctors are so des- 
perately in Love ? It is that System of iniquity which denies 
the right of a man to himself — to his Wife, to his Children! 
It is that System of Satan which reduces a man, born in the 
image of his God, with a soul immortal, to a condition below 
the beasts of the field ! He possesses nothing in the Avorld 
that he can call his own, and serves a " Master" who may 
beat him, blister him, bruise him, and burn him, and do what- 
soever he will with him and his " Wife and Children." This 
is the System the " evangelical" Pro-Slavery Churches call a 
" heaveti-hovn Institution" — "a gift from above" and to refuse 
to bow down to Avhich is " blasphemy in the sight of God." 



78 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

The Rev. Mr. Nelson, a conscience-stricken Slaveholder, 
of North Carolina, says : — 

" I have resided in North Carolina forty years, and been intimately 
acquainted with the System" (that is, Slavery), " and I can scarcely 
think of its operations without shedding tears." (See chap. ii. of Part 
IV.) " It causes me excessive grief to think of my own poor Slaves, for 
whom I have for years been trying to find a free home. It strikes me 
with equal astonishment and horror to hear Northern people make light of 
Slavery. Had they seen and known as much of it as I, they could not 
thus treat it, unless callous to the deepest woes and degradation of hu- 
manity, and dead both to the religion and philanthropy of the Gospel of 
Christ Jesus. But thousands of them are doing what the hard-hearted 
tjTants of the South most desire. If it were not for the support of the 
North, the fabric of blood would fall at once. Of all the upholders of this 
frightful system of iniquity, none is so potent as that of the Pro-Slaveiy 
' religious Periodicals and Newspapers ' of the free States. They afford 
just the kind of succor demanded by the Slaveholders. The abuse of 
the Abolitionists is music in Southern ears ivhich operates as a charm.- But 
nothing is equal to their harping upon the ' religious privileges and instruc- 
tions' of the Slaves of the South. And nothing could be so false and inju- 
rious (to the cause of freedom and religion) as the impressions they give on 
that subject. I say what I know when I speak in relation to this matter. 

" I have been intimately acquainted with the religious opportunities 
of Slaves — in the constant habit of hearing Sermons which are preached 
to them. And I solemnly afiinn, that, during the forty years of my 
residence and observations in this State, I never heard a single one of 
these Sermons but what was taken up with the obligations and duties 
of Slaves to their masters. Indeed, I never heard a Sei-mon to Slaves 
but what made obedience to Masters by the Slaves the fundamental and 
supreme law of Religion. Any candid and intelligent man can decide 
whether such preaching is not, as to religious pui-poscs worse than none 
at all." (See chap ii. of Part IV.) "It is wonderful how the credulity 
of the North is subjected to imposition in regard to the 'kind treatment' 
of Slaves. Por myself, I can clear up the apparent contradictions found 
in writers who have resided at or visited the South. ' The majorit_y of 
the Slaveholders' say some, 'treat their Slaves with kindness.' Now 
this may be true in certain districts, setting aside all questions of treat- 
ment, except such as refer to the body. And yet, while 'the majority 
of Slaveholders' in a certain section may be ' kind,' the majority of Slaves 
in that Section will be treated with cruelty. This is the tmth in many 



AND rUESENT STATE OF THINGS. 79 

such cases, that while there may be thirty men who may have but one 
Slave a piece, and that a house Servant, a single man in their neighbor- 
hood may have three hundred Slaves — all Hald-hands, half-fed, luorked 
excessively, and whipped most cruelly." 

We have frequently heard it denied that there are any 
Slaveholding and Shwe-breeding ''ministers" in the Northern 
Metliodist Episcopal Church. No one denies but there are 
thousands of Slaveholding members, but it is stoutly denied 
that there are " Slaveholding preachers" in the Northern 
Church. Listen to the testimony of the Kev. B. F. Sedge- 
wick, a Presiding Elder in Western Virginia, as published in 
the Richmond journals, in 1855 : 

" There are many Members of the Methodist Episcopal Church North, 
residing in Slave States, ivho are Slaveholders for gain, and icho buy and 
sell Slaves. Such things, I know, have occuiTcd and are still occurring. 
I speak of that which I do know, and declare that the buying of Men, 
Women, and Children, for the purpose of Enslaving them is of more 
frequent occun-ence in the M. E. Church, North, of late years, than it 
was in former times, and that their crime is passed by in every case 
with an apology, ' That to buy and sell Slaves is not buying Men to 
enslave them ;' and so the woi'k goes on pleasantly. Deny it who dare ! 
And it can be proven that Slavery has for years, and does at this mo- 
ment, exist in the ministry of the Church, North." 

The Rev. J. Cable, of Indiana, in a letter to The fiercer 
(Pa.) Luminary, says : " I have lived eight years in Virginia, 
and received my Theological education at the Union Theologi- 
cal Seminary, Hampden Sidney College. Those who know 
anything about Slavery, know that the worst kind is 'jobbing 
Slavery' — that is, the hiring out of Slaves from year to year, 
while the Blaster is not present to protect them. It is the 
interest of the one who hires them, to get the worth of his 
money out of them, and the loss is the Master's if they die. 
What shocked me more than anything else was the Church 
engaged in this jobbing of Slaves. The College Church which 
I attended, and which was attended by all the students of 



qU a general view of the past 

Hampden Sidney College and Union Theological Seminary, 
held Slaves enough to pay their Pastor, Mr. Stanton, one 
thousand dollars a year, of" which the Church members did 
not pay a dollar. The Slaves, who had been left to the 
Church by some "pious Mother in Israel," had increased so 
as to be a large and still increasing fund. These were hired 
out on Christmas day of each year, the day in which they 
celebrate the birth of the Saviour, to the highest bidder ! 
This was the Church in which the professors of the Seminary 
and the College often officiated. There were four Churches 
near the College Church, that were in the same situation as 
this, when I was in that country, that supported the paetoi-, in 
whole or in part, in the same way, viz. : Cumberland Church, 
John Kirkpatrick, Pastor; Briny Church, William S. Pliim- 
er, Pastor; Buffalo Church, Mr. Cochran, Pastor; Pisgah 
Church, near the peaks of Otter, J. Mitchell, Pastor." 

Strange as it may seem, it is nevertheless true, there are 
some Members of the Methodist Church, who believe that, since 
the " Division" they are now entirely free from all connection 
with Slavery and Slaveholders. For the benefit of all such 
" simple souls," we give the following statement of one who 
has recently returned from a visit to Missouri. The author is 
a highly-esteemed member of the North Indiana Conference : — 

"A person, who is in good standing in our Church, a few months 
since" (in April, 1855), "sold a Member of the Church to a Southern 
Slave-trader. When the poor fellow was delivei-ed to his new owner, 
they had to tie him, hand-and-foot, and throw him upon a dray, and send 
him in this way to the Steamboat that was to convey him to the New 
Orleans Slave-Market. And in the same city where this occurred, there 
was, for many days, in that Slave-pen or prison, a colored man left for 
sale to the highest bidder, whoever he might be, either a St. Clair or a 
Legree, all the same ; after a few days, he was purchased by one of his 
old neighbors, who was not willing to see him sold to the Southern 
Slave-driver ; and this man that was thus sold was not only the property 
of a Methodist, but also a Methodist preacher, of the Church, North. I 
stood by on one occasion, and saw a Member of our Church, a Class- 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 81 

leader, purchase a Slave girl, the last and only Child that a Slavo 
mother had left. I stood and looked upon that poor mother, as sho 
kneeled hef'ore him ; I heard her say, as she sohhed bitterly, ' Oh, massa, 
spare my Child! Oh, please spare my last earthly comfort !' And in 
this way she continued to pray. It seemed to me almost enough to 
move a heart of stone ; but -he soon turned scornfully away, saying he 
had not bought her to sell again, and thus tore her Child away where 
they would never meet again in this world. 

"I might continue and enumerate many similar cases that I could 
vouch for their truth, but the above is sufScient. 

" J. G. D. Pettijohn." 

President Bfanchard, of this Church, in a letter to the 
Cleveland (Ohio) True Democrat, September 26, 1851, said: 
"The Methodist Episcopal Church North, has about one fifth 
part as many Slaveholding Churches as the entire South. It 
reports in the Slave States three Annual Conferences, 857 
Preachers, 86,627 Members, all in actual and full fellowship 
with Slaveholders." At the present moment (5th July, 
1857), the Chuj-ch North is " about" one third part owner of 
the " race of Africa" or " cursed seed of Ham" in the Slave- 
holding States. 

The Rev. D. R. M'Annaly, in a letter to The St. Louis 
(Mo.) Advocate, speaking of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
North, says : 

" You could not make them more indignant than to intimate that 
they had any sympathy with the Anti-Slavery cause. 'They operate 
against Slavery !' I would like to know when, where, or how ? We 
have had some knowledge of the operations of these Missionaries for some 
two or three years past to the present time" (July, 1855), "and if ever 
one of them preached, lectured, or exhorted, for the overthrow of Slavery, 
we have never heard of it. Slavery is no bar to Communion in the M. E. 
Church, North, any more than in the Church, South. 

The Charleston (S. C.) Baptist Association, in a Memorial 

to the Legislature of the State, insisted that '' the Divine 

Author of our holy religion adapted the Institution of Slavery 

4* 



82 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

as one of the allowed relations of Society. And neither 
Society nor individuals have any authority to demand a re- 
linquishment of this species of property without an equivalent, 
We would resist, to the utmost, every innovation of this right, 
come from what quarter and under what pretence it may." 
Of course, " Why should God's people part with Endowments 
with which their Creator has blessed them, or the money and 
Niggers inherited from their Ancestors ?" 

In' the settlement of the estate of the Rev. Dr. Furman, of 
the same sect, in the same State, his legal representatives ex- 
ercised this " right" in an advertisement of a public sale of his 
property at Auction. Hear them : 

" A plantation or tract of land on and in Wateree Swamp, a tract of the 
first quality of fine land in the town of Camden ; a Library of Miscel- 
laneous character, chiefly Theological; twenty-seven Negroes, some of 
them very Prime articles; two Mules, one Horse, and an old Wagon.'' 

This is Baptist religion at the South. What is it at the 
North ? The late Rev. Lucius BoUes, D. D., of Massachusetts, 
Corresponding Secretary of the American Baptist Board for 
Foreign Missions, said: "There is a pleasing degree of Union 
among the multiplying thousands of Baptists throughout the 
land. Our Southern brethern are generally, both Ministers 
and People, Slaveholders." 

The Baptist Churches and Associations have repeatedly, and 
publicly, decided that Slaves separated by Sale or Removal 
from their " Wives" or " Husbands" might " Marry again," 
without any violation of the " Book of Discipline," such sepa- 
ration being equivalent to death ; and that every Slave Hus- 
band or Wife may thus " Marry again as often as the separation 
is repeated" A similar rtiorality prevails in all the Slave- 
holding Churches of the South. Why are these Churches so 
inconsistent as to deny Mormonism a " privilege" which they 
claim for Slavery "i They all allow the " privilege" of Bigamy 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 83 

or Polj'gamy " to all persons similarly situated." Yes, and to 
all persons not similarly situated. 

A Slaveholder, of Charleston, brought to Pennsylvania a 
Slave-mother and two of her Children and emancipated them, 
being unable to secure their freedom in South Carolina. This 
woman, before her emancipation and since, has borne a high 
character for integl'ity and intelligence. She was Married by 
the Church according to the usual method of marrying " all 
persons similarly situated" (see chap. ii. of Part III.), to a 
man whom she loved with the devotion of a true wife, and to- 
gether they were members of the M. E. Church, of Charleston, 
and it was the only grief that darkened the brightness of her 
joy that she was separated from him. By the assistance of 
friends, arrangements were made for his i3urchase, and some 
three hundred dollars were collected toward the object. Her 
hope brightened, the satisfaction of her heart's yearning seemed 
almost at hand, when the news fell upon her, crushing and 
consuming to ashes all her anticipations, tlmt her husband had 
" married another looman." She got a friend to write to his 
Class-leader in the Church, to secure his and the Church's aid 
in briM^j^ing her husband to see the cruelt}^ of his course, and 
inducing him to abandon it. The Class-leader laid the case 
before the Church, and afterward wrote to the heartbroken 
wife the following letter, communicating their views of the 
case : 

Charleston, May 26, 1853. 
I duly received j'our letter desiring me to inform you 
of the reasons by which j^our husband justified his recent conduct. I re-" 
gret, indeed, tluit such should ever have been the case, but considering 
the circumstances by which he is surrounded, I can not think him wholly 
unjustifiable. It is a fact known to you, that he is not Master of his own 
time, and can not, therefore, employ it at hjs will. He has been separated 
from you two years, and has not the possibility of ever again seeing you. 
It is out of his power to go to you, if so disposed. Conscious of this, 
ind having been assured of your comfort and happiness, he availed him- 
self of the privilege the Church allows all persons similarly situated, and 



84 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

took to himself another wife. It is natm'al to mankind to seek and de- 
sire companionship, and when deprived of this liigh privilege by circum- 
stances beyond his control, and for so long a time, he becomes literally 
a widower. Such being the case, it seems to me that one would be par- 
donable if he sought those pleasures of sympathy and companionship in 
the bosom of another. The precedent he has given leaves it optional 
Avith you to follow his example if desirous. Sympathy and charity cover 
a multitude of sins, and to these ennobling qualities of the mind this case 
loudly appeals. Think not. Madam, from what I have said, that it is 
my wish to defend or justify him. It is my desire only to present the 
matter in a plain and reasonable light, and to reconcile you to the change, 
if possible. Concerning his feelings, and the rest of his conduct, I can 
not assure you of anything with the certainty of truth, but must leave you 
to decide, as, in your judgment, his conduct justifies you. Yours, &c. 

JACOB WESTON. 

A truly Christian spirit of resignation to surrounding 
circumstances. Cool comfort to the worse than agonized 
wife. Mr. Weston's letter is a signal illustration of the 
moral pollution and death which Slavery has wrought in the 
Churches. The Church does not yield to a necessity it de- 
plores, and is striving to avert. So far from it, the Slave sys- 
tem, with its traffic in Human beings, its merciless sundering 
of Families, and its degradation of soul and prostitution of 
purity, finds 4ts strongest bulwark in the Churches. The State 
makes it " Legal," Custom makes it " Expedient," Avarice 
pronounces it " Necessary and Profitable," but the Churches 
consecrate it as " Divine ;" the especial object of Heaven's 
favor, to oppose which is " Infidelity" and " Blasphemy." 
They seek to perpetuate and extend the " Institution" to mul- 
tiply its victims, both in and out of the Churches, " rivet their 
chains for ever ;" and that, too, while hourly witnessing its 
character and results, ay, while actively helping to form that 
character and produce those results ! Thus, then, these self- 
stjded " Christian Churches" commit themselves before the 
world to the righteousness of Bigamy and Polygamy ! It is 
an odious Monopoly ; since it is mathematically certain that 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 85 

every " genuine white brother" can have as many " colored 
sisters" as he may desire ; and all this the Churches proclaim 
as a " beautiful arrangement," and " in perfect conformity to 
the Laws of God" 

If Polygamy, and the continual practice of it among " all 
persons similarly situated," affords no ground for refusing to 
those who give other " credible evidence of piety" admission 
into the Churches, how can it be made an objection to admit- 
ting Utah and the Mormons into political and social religious 
fellowship and brotherhood ? If a " converted" Slaveholder 
may still " take" with safety to his soul, and without scandal 
to his brethren, five, ten, twenty, forty, eighty, one hundred 
and sixty, or three hundred and twenty " wives," on what 
principle is the same privilege to be denied to Brigham 
Young, or any other who may expound God's law after this 
fashion ? 

Professor W. T. Brantly, a "leading Southern Baptist," 
has published an article to show that his denomination is gain- 
ing more rapidly in the Slave States than in the Free. He 
infers from this that " Slavery is consistent with the purest 
.form of Christianity, and can not therefore be sinful." This is 
the way that the moral sentiment of the world is occasionally 
outraged by those who disgrace the office of the Christian 
Ministry. What wonder then infidelity should increase, and 
the most fearful immorality should stalk abroad in open day, 
when the pretended embassadors of our holy religion are 
propagating such views ! Who that has a soul worth saving 
would not turn away in disgust from a religion that could by 
any course of reasoning be brought to acknowledge Slavery 
as " consistent with its purest forms !" In the " great day of 
accounts," when the hidden purposes of all hearts shall be 
made known, and the outraged Slave with his chains stricken 
from his redeemed limbs, shall stand before the " great white 
throne," side by side with his oppressor and this "leading 



86 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

Southern Baptist," the wickedness and blasphemy of such 
men will meet their reward. In that " final day of reckon- 
ing," will sucli men take their blasphemy with them, as 
they stand before the Judge of all the earth ? 

The following query was propounded to the Savannah 
Kiver (Georgia) Baptist Association of Preachers: "Wheth- 
er in case of involuntary separation of such a character as to 
preclude all further intercourse, the parties may be allowed to 
Marry again ?" To this query the answer was as follows : 
" That such separation, among persons situated as our Slaves 
are, is civilly a separation by death, and we believe that, in 
the sight of God, it would be so viewed. To forbid Marriages, 
in such cases, would be to expose the parties not only to great- 
er hardships and temptations, but to Church censure for acting 
in obedience to their owners, who can not be expected to ac- 
quiesce in a regulation at variance with justice to the Slaves, 
and to the spirit of that command which regulates Marriage 
between Christians." The Slaves are not free agents, and a 
dissolution by death is not more entirely without their consent 
and beyond their control than by such separation. Resolved, 
therefore, " That without a new Revelation from Heaven, no 
Man is entitled to pronounce Slavery wrong." 

" Brethren," such a religion came not down from " heaven" 
— " wafted hither on fragrant gales" — but steamed up from 
the bottomless pit, laden with foulest exhalations, and preg- 
nant only with curses. May the Friend of the poor, the 
wretched, the oppressed, send it to its " own place," that 
Mankind may no longer be deceived by its wiles or bewitched 
with its sorceries. 

" Down let the shrine of Moloch sink, 
And leave no traces where it stood : 
No longer let its idol drink 

His daily cup of Human blood ; 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 87 

But rear another altar there, 

To Truth, and Love, and Mercy given, 

And Freedom's gift, and Freedom's prayer, 
Shall call an answer down from Heaven !" 

James M'Dowell, Jr., of Virginia, a Slaveholder, in a 
Speech in the House of Delegates of that State, in 1832, 
said : — 

" You may place the Slave where you please — you may dry up, to 
your utmost, the fountain of his feelings, the springs of thought — you 
may close up his mind to every avenue of knowledge, and cloud it over 
witli artificial niglit ; — you may yoke him to your labor, as .the ox whicli 
liveth only to work ; — you may put him under any process which, with- 
out destroying his value as a Slave, will debase and ci'ush him as a 
rational being — you may do this, and the idea that he was born to be 
Free will survive it all. It is allied to his hopes of immortality ; it is 
the etenral part of his natui'e, which oppression can not reach. It is a 
torch lit up, in his soul by the hand of the God of eternal Justice that 
can never be extinguished by the hand of the oppressor." 

If in the countenances of their " Masters" only the Slaves 
discovered the visage of a foe, not another sun would go down 
upon an unbroken fetter. " We of the South," says the 
Marysville (Tenn.) Intelligencer, " are emphatically surround- 
ed by a dangerous class of beings — degraded, stupid savages 
— who, if they could but once entertain the idea that imme- 
diate and unconditional death would not be their portion, 
would react the St. Domingo tragedy. But the consciousness, 
with all their stupidity, that a tenfold force, superior in disci- 
pline, if not in barbarity, would gather from the four corners 
of the United States and slaughter them, keeps them in sub- 
jection. But to the non-Slaveholding States particularly are 
we indebted for a permanent safeguard against insurrection. 
Without their assistance, the white population of the South 
would be too weak to quiet that innate desire of Liberty which 
is ever ready to act itself out with every Rational creature." 

The Charleston (S. C.) Religious Telegraph says : " Hatred 



88 A GENERAL TIEAV OF THE PAST 

to the whites, with the exception in some cases of attachment 
to the person and family of the Master, is universal among the 
Slave population. We have then a foe cherished in our own 
bosoms — a foe willing to draw our life-blood whenever* the 
opportunity is offei'ed." 

If there be any mandate of Christianity binding on man, it 
is that which commands us to " do unto others whatsoever 
we would have them do unto us ;" and he who holds his fel- 
low-man as " property," while he himself is unwilling to be 
converted into a brute, is an infidel. 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. CD 



CHAPTER IV. 

Slavery is advancing. In 1776, it only reached on the 
Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to the Gulf of Mexico ; but 
in no case did it extend two hundred and fifty miles into 
the interior. Now it has spread over every foot of Territory 
in the Union ; it has crossed the Alleghanies, and finds a 
home in the great basins of the Mississippi. It is to be found 
even in California ; and notwithstanding their Constitution 
prohibits bondage, yet Slaves, black, red, and white, are to be 
found there, and their owners are protecte<i by the authorities 
of the United States. 

• It is no longer a question of Slavery and Anti-Slavery, but 
of Liberty on one side and Despotism on the other. The 
■viper, warmed into life by mistaken sympathies, has recovered 
its ancient venom, and threatens to drive from the home of the 
United States Constitution the rightful owners of the hearth- 
stone ! 

The question is not, " Shall there be Slavery in one part 
of the Nation ?" but if it is, then the question is, " Shall there 
be Freedom in the other part ?" It is not possible. Slavery 
is not and can not be a " local" influence, simply because it is 
an " Institution." A morass may have a local position, but 
the malaria which it exhales will poison the whole atmosphere, 
and be wafted by winds in every direction : — 



90 



A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 



FREE STATES. 

O Maine 

O New Hampshire 

O Vermont 

O Massachusetts 

O Rhode IsUxnd 

O Connecticut 

O New York 

i^ New Jersey 

■f^ Pennsylvania 

O Ohio 

("^ Indiana 

ii§ Illinois 

O Michif,^an 

O Wisconsin 

O Iowa 

it^ California 

Total Square Miles . . . 



TERRITORIES. 

^ District of Columbia. . 

(^ Kansas 

^ Minnesota 

^ Nebi-aska 



Sq. JIs. 



31,766 

9,280 

10,212 

7,800 

1,306 

4,674 

47,000 

8,320 

46,000 

39,964 

33,809 

55,405 

56,243 

53,924 

50,914 

55,980 



612 597 



60 
114,798 
166,025 
335,882 



SLAVE STATES. 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina. . . 

South Carolina . . . 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Georgia 

< Florida 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

I Arkansas 

I Missouri 

Texas 

Total Square Miles 



ter'ritories. 

New Mexico 

Oregon 

Utah 

Washington 



Sq. Ms. 



2 
11 
61 
50 
29 
37 
45 
50 
58 

■ 59 
47 
41 
52 
67 

257 



120 
124 

352 
704 
385 
680 
600 
722 
,000 
268 
156 
255 
198 
,380 
,504 



871,448 



207,007 
185,030 
299,170 
123,022 



Who has not seen a thorn in the finger produce fever, in- 
crease the pulse, and destroy the appetite? And whoever has 
seen this, has seen the brain, the heart, and the stomach, three 
most vital organs, disturbed by a little irritation in the end of 
the finger. A scratch has been known to produce lock-jaw and 
death. Every surgeon knoAvs the wide range of sympathies 
which ever attend wounds and injuries. The brain, suffers in 
a very marked degree, the stomach loses its tone, the action of the 
heart becomes fitful and irregular. When the secondary fever 
sets in, the skin is hot, the face flushed, the pulse increased in 
frequency, the appetite poor, and the tongue furred. And if 
all these sympathies may come from a trifling " local" injury 
in an unimportant part of the Human body, surely we ought 
to feel no surprise that the cancer Slaver}^, festering and ulcer- 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 91 

ating so vital an organ as " tlie South" or " lower extremities" 
of tlie Republic, should set up a chain of morbid sympathies 
involving the entire Union. 

Slavery is felt in every fibre of the Nation, It has dead- 
ened the public feeling to that Liberty which was purchased 
with the blood of the Sires of 76 — purchased, too, with the 
blood of " Our Colored Fellow-Citizens." It has suppressed 
every generous expression of Liberty except when cautiously 
guarded and limited to a certain description of white men. 
"It sits" — to use the words of the Rev. George B. Cheever 
— "like a nightmare on the genius of the Gospel. It is a 
mountain of despotism and the fear of man upon the truth." It 
has taught the young men of the Rising generation to use all 
specious reasoning that the despots of bygone ages employed 
in defence of oppression. There has not been since the days 
of the fii-st Man-stealer, to this hour, a plea for injustice, a 
sophistry in favor of the absolute power of one man over another, 
that the young " Democrats," North and South, have not been 
taught to employ. That sense of the sacredness of Man's nat- 
ural rights, which every one of the old Revolutionary documents 
breathe, and of which the Declaration of Independence is a type, 
has become unpopular (practically so), and is very widely re- 
garded as a " patriotic flourish." What says TJiS Washington 
(D. C) Union, the recognized Organ of the Government — of 
Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, and the National Demo- 
cratic Party ? 

" There is no equality among Men, except in the universality to obey 
the laws" (that is, of the traffickers in Men, "Women, and Children) " of 
the land. Freedom and equality are necessarily determined in any 
given society or community by the varying influences of the origin of 
caste, numbers, geographical position, and contact with other societies 
and communities. The terms 'Liberty' and ' Freedom' are not in them- 
selves expressive of a standard of freedom wliich exchides tlie Idea of 
dependence or Slavery." 

Was this the " Idea" of the Declaration of Independence ? 



92 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

"Was this the " Idea" of the founders of the Republic ? Was 
this the '"Idea" which combined the " Sires of '76" on Bunker 
Hill ; which carried Washington through a seven years' war ; 
which inspired Lafayette; which touched with coals of fire the 
lips of Otis, Adams, and Patrick Henry? In the days of the 
Revolution, men held with Franklin, that " Slavery is an atro- 
cious debasement of human nature" — with Adams, that "con- 
senting to Slavery is a sacrilegious breach of trust" — with 
Jefferson that " one hour of American Slavery is fraught with 
more misery than ages of that which we rose in rebellion to 
oppose" — with Madison, that "Slavery is a dreadful calamity," 
that " imbecility is ever attendant upon a country filled with 
Slaves" — with Monroe, that " Slavery has preyed upon the 
vitals of the community in all the States where it has existed" — 
with Patrick Henry, that " we should transmit to posterity our 
abhorrence of Slavery," and with Montesquieu, that " even the 
very earth, which teems with profusion under the cultivating 
hand of the free-born laborer, shrinks into barrenness from the 
contaminating sweat of the Slave." But the sentiment is changed 
now. The whole power of the GoTernment is wielded for its 
benefit. The Administration never sends an " appointment" 
to the Senate for confirmation, that the question is not asked, 
" Is he sound on the Slavery question?" 

This abhorrent power puts its hand upon the Pulpit, and it 
is dumb ; upon the Press, and it is silent ; upon Capital, and 
straightway, for the sake of its per cent., it parts with its birth- 
right ; upon Literature, and it is self-emasculated. 

In the whole length and breadth of the country (2,936,166 
square Miles) there is not a man, holding a Government oflice, 
who says anything against Slavery. They do not dare. Was 
there a breath of " freedom" in the Federal oflScers — Secre- 
taries, Judges, &c. of the Administration of Franklin Pierce ? 
Ask the Cabinet ; ask the Supreme Court ; ask the Federal 
officers ; they were almost vt'ithout exception, '■ Servants" of 



AND PKESENT STATE OF THINGS. 93 

Slavery. Out of 43,000 Government officers 40,000 were 
strongly Pro-Slavery ; and from the other 3,000 who were at 
heart Anti-Slavery, we have never heard the first Anti-Slavery 
lisp. We listened from the 4th of March, 1853, until the 4th 
of March, 1857, and heard not a word. On that " most glorious 
day of his life" — the 4th of March, 1853, President Franklin 
Pierce said : — 

" I believe that involuntary servitude, as it exists in different States 
of this confederacy, is recognized by the Constitution. I believe that it 
stands like any other admitted right, and that the States where it exists 
are entitled to efficient remedies to enforce the Constitutional provisions. 
I hold that the laws of 1850, commonly called the ' Compromise Meas- 
ures,' are strictly Constitutional, and to be unhesitatingly earned into 
effect." 

Consider, for a moment, some of the atrocities which one of 
these " Measures" — the infamous Fugitive Slave Law of 
1850 — solemnly requires the Authorities and People "unhesi- 
tatingly" to commit: 1. It subjects the wretched fugitive or 
runaway from bondage, to the power of the Man-stealer or a 
perjured person, who may seize him by stratagem or violence. 
2. It grants to the Man-stealer in this pursuit the aid of the 
Nation ; the aid of Statutes, the Courts, and Treasury, to- 
gether with the Executive, Naval, and Military power of the 
Nation. And the National Legislature demands that " All 
good Citizens" shall say Amen ! 3. It offers to Slaveholders 
facilities, helps, inducements, and therefore strong temptations, 
to pursue those whom otherwise they might have suffered to 
go free. 

This atrocious "Law" knows no " color" or condition. It 
puts it in the power of any stranger to swear that any person 
whom he chooses was or is his Slave, and a Commissioner 
must be satisfied and deliver him or her up in a "' summary 
manner." Say not this will never be done. It has been done 
(see chapters i., ii., and iii., of Part V.), and while you sleep 
your Son or Daughter may be doomed to hopeless bondage — 



94 A GENERAL VIE-W" OF THE PAST 

" according to Law." Let the young woman of " bilious tem- 
perament," and the young man with " sun-burnt hair," be cau- 
tious about travelling where they are personally unknown. 
The time has come when " Ladies and Gentlemen" must car- 
ry Certificates of Freedom in their pockets, and let them take 
good heed lest they be lost or stolen from them. 

The process of intermixture of the races is now so far ad- 
vanced, and is so rapidly going forward, that a " perfectly 
white complexion, light blue eyes, and flaxen hair," are 
scarcely pi'esumptive evidence of freedom. Persons thus de- 
scribed are advertised as runaway Slaves, and are liable to be 
pursued with Muskets and Bloodhounds, shot, maimed, cap- 
tured, brought before the United States Marshals, sworn to be 
Slaves, given up, and sent to the Rice-swamp, and Cotton and 
Sugar plantations of the South, without trial by Jury, and by 
a "summary process" that precludes anything deserving the 
name of an investigation. Sometimes, under a peremptory 
refusal to wait a few minutes for witnesses (see chapters i. and 
ii. of Part V.) Yet " the People" of the Northern States im- 
agine themselves " free," and their " liberties" secure under 
the enactment of what Presidents Fillmore, Pierce, and Bu- 
chanan, call the " Compromise Measures" — enacted under 
cover of the infamous Fugitive Slave Law of 1S50 ; which, 
while it makes no distinction of " color" forbids them under 
pains and penalties to harbor or entertain each other when 
thus pursued ! 

"Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring 
the poor that are cast out to thy house? when thou seest llie 
naked, that thou cover him ; and that thou hide not thy-self from 
thine own flesh?" Isaiah 58, 7. 

Whoso does this, says the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, 
whoso shall harbor a fellow-man, accused of no crime, fleeing 
from the vilest system of Slavery that has ever cursed the 
earth, and seeking only freedom without molestation or op- 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 95 

pression, he shall be fined one thousand dollars, and shall be 
imprisoned six months for each and every instance in which 
he thus transgresses ; and shall furthermore pay to the owner 
or owners of such Slave or Slaves the assessed Money-value 
of every fellow-man whom in obedience to the Gospel of 
Christ, he has fed, or clothed, or sheltered, or visited. 

It would seem that such a law must have been passed by 
mistake ; or that, if passed in a time of heated excitement 
culminating in the escape of a few Slaves of a Southern 
Senator, it would be suffered to remain as a dead letter ou 
the Statute-Book of a "free" Nation. But the Slave power, 
ruling the Nation, set the Nation at work doing its will. It 
was supposed by many, at the time of the passing of the 
Law, that no case would ever occur of its being put into 
operation, and under this supposition some gave their con- 
sent, for the sake of peace, to the enactment of that which 
they would otherwise have opposed. The law was enforced, 
as everybody knows, amid scenes of violence disgraceful to a 
Christian Nation. There is no denying the fact that every 
Fugitive-Slave case made thousands of Abolitionists, of those 
who witnessed and read the proceedings. What low crea- 
tures could have been found, so. debased as to take delight iu 
carrying into execution the fiendish details of such a law ? 
Not merely obscure country magistrates, but no less persons 
than Franklin Pierce, President of the United States, and 
Caleb Cushing, his Attorney-General. Ptead Caleb's letter, 
for evidence of the fixed purpose of "The President" of the 
United States and all others in authority." 

" Washingto!*, Saturday, October 2^, 1853. 

" Dear Sir, **«**********. if there be any purpose more 

fixed than another in the mind of the President and those with 

whom he is accustomed t-o consult, it is that the dangerous 

element of Abolitionism under whatever guise or form it may 



96 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

present itself, Shall he GrusJied Out, so far as his Administra- 
tion is concerned. This the President declared in his In- 
augural Address — this he has declared ever since, at all times, 
and in all places where he had occasion to speak on the sub- 
ject. While he does not presume to judge of the- hearts of 
men who publicly avow sound principles" (that is, Sound on 
the Slavery" question), " he only needs overt acts to show 
where they are, in'order that his settled policy in the conduct- 
ing the affairs of the Government shall be unequivocally 
manifest ! Those who have apprehended halting or hesita- 
tion on the part of the Pi-esident, in treading any path which 
Truth and Patriotism open to him, Depend upon it, no matter 
what consequences may impend over him, he will never al- 
low it to be shaken by Abolitionism ! but will set his face 
like flint as well against right-handed backsliding as against 
left-handed defections" (that is, against the friends of liberty 
and justice), "which may embarrass the onward" (and down- 
ward) " progress of the Republic ! 

" I remain very truly yours, 

"C. GUSHING, Attoknet General. 
" Hon. E. Feothingham, Boston, Mass." 

The Rev. George B. Cheever, of New York, in a Sermon 
on the atrocious " Law" which gave rise to the above letter to 
Mr. Frothingham, said : " To what conceivable degradation 
or abuse can immortal beings be subjected more detestable than 
to be put to a service which degrades even the animals em- 
ployed in it, the Bloodhounds trained with ' peculiar' scent and 
ferocity for the pursuit of Human victims? The most odious 
-tyranny that ever existed never had such an atrocious feature 
as that of compelling its subjects to execute the wickedness 
of enslaving one another. Such a law is an execrable tyran- 
ny, debasing every man beneath the swine in the gutter that 
obeys it ; it is a hundred-fold worse thau physical compulsion, 



"^M , 




AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 97 

for it makes the man the acquiescent instrument in his own in- 
famy. A being in the form of Humanity to be changed into 
a Hound on the track of poor wo-begone fugitive Men, Wo- 
men, and Children ! — pointed and ordered by the Slave- 
holder, and his Northern allies, to precisely the same hunt on 
which he unleashes the keen and hungry tigers of his kennel ! 
The veil of the forms of ' Law,' the refinement of its process, 
the change of scene from swamp, forest, or river, to the City 
or Court-House can not conceal the reality. The mind looks 
through the deception and sees at the bottom the victim and 
the hound ! And to think of the 'Sons of Sires of '76' en- 
gaging in such a work ' unhesitatingly !' " 

'' The Slave feels," says the Rev. Henry "Ward Beecher, " that 
God never gave to anybody the ' right' to own anybody. Every 
one of these poor hunted children of poverty and shame have 
just as much right to freedom as you or I. There are Men 
and Women among them who, through day and night, have 
performed unrecorded he^-oism. When such Men and Women 
come from the Slave States, seeking the yet further North, I 
think that a man who would not, in such circumstances, stretch 
out his hand to help them, is, before God, ' worse than an in- 
fidel.' And if that is Christianity it is a Christianity only of 
Satan ; for a Christianity that teacheth me to deny every in- 
stinct of my nature and of humanity, to deny every sympathy 
which a struggling Man craves from the bosom of love, needs 
another Christ to die for it." 

The Hon. Charles Sumner, of Massachusetts, in a Speech 
delivered in the United States Senate, said : " As the throne 
of God is above every earthly throne, so are his Laws and 
Statutes above all the laws and statutes of man. To question 
these, is to question God himself. But to assume that human 
laws are beyond question, is to claim for their fallible authors 
infallibility. To assume that they are always in conformity 
with the laws of God, is presumptuously and impiously to exalt 



98 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

man to an equality with God. Clearly human laws are not 
always in such conformity ; nor can they ever be beyond ques- 
tion from each individuaf. When the conflict is open, as if 
Congress should command the perpetration of murder, the 
office of conscience as final arbiter is undisputed. But 
in every conflict the same Queenly office is hers. By no 
earthly power can she be dethroned. Each person, after 
anxious examination, without haste, without passion, solemnly 
for himself must decide this great controversy. Any other 
rule attributes infallibility to human laws, places them beyond 
question, and degrades all Men to an unthinking passive obe- 
dience. * * * The mandates of an earthly power are to be 
discussed ; those of Heaven must at once be performed ; nor 
can any agreement constrain us against God. Such is the 
rule of Morals. Such, also, by the lips of Judges and Sages,, 
has been the proud declaration of the English law. 

" And now. Sir, the rule is commended to us. The good 
citizen, as he thinks of the shivering fugitive — guilty of no 
crime — pursued — hunted down like a wild beast, while pray- 
ing for Chi-istian help and deliverance, and as he reads the 
requirements of this Act, is filled with horror. Here is a 
despotic mandate, to aid and assist in the prompt and efficient 
execution of this ' Law !' Again, let me speak frankly. Not 
rashly would I set myself against any provisions of law. This 
grave responsibility I would not lightly assume. But here 
the path of duty is clear. By the Supreme law, Avhich com- 
mands me to do no injustice ; by the comprehensive Christian 
law of Brotherhood ; by the Constitution, which I have sworn 
to support, I am hound to disobey this Act. Never, in any 
capacity, can I render voluntary aid in its execution. Pains 
and Penalties I will endure, but this great wrong I will not do. 
' I can not obeyj but I can suffiir,' Avas the exclamation of the 
author of Pilgrim's Progress, when imprisoned for disobedi- 
ence to an earthly statute. Better suffijr injustice than do it. 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS- 99 

Better be the victim than the instrument of wrong. Better be 
even the poor Slave, returned to bondage, than the unhappy 
Commissioner. 

" There is, Sir, an incident of history which suggests a 
parallel, and affords a lesson of fidelity. Under the triumph- 
ant exertions of tliat Apostolic Jesuit, St. Francis Xavier, 
large numbers of the Japanese, amounting to as many as 
200,000 — among them Princes, Generals, and the flower of 
the Nobility — were converted to Christianity. Afterward, 
amid the frenzy of civil war. Religious persecution arose, and 
the penalty of Death was denounced against all who refused 
to trample upon the effigy of the Redeemer. This was the 
Pagan law of a Pagan land. But the delighted historian re- 
cords that scarcely one from a multitude of converts was guilty 
of this apostacy. The law of man was set at naught. Im- 
prisonments, torture, death, were preferred. Thus did this 
people refuse to tram^sle on the painted image. Sir, multi- 
tudes among us will not be less steadfast in refusing to trample 
upon the living image of their Redeemer. 

" Sir, less by genius or eminent services, than by sufferings, 
are the fugitive Slaves of our country now commended. For 
them every sentiment of humanity is aroused. Rude and 
ignorant they may be, but in their very efforts for Freedom, 
they claim kindred with all that is nohle in the past. They are 
among the heroes of our age, Romance has no stories of more 
thrilling interest than theirs. Classical antiquity has preserved 
no examples of adventurous trial more worthy of renown. 
Among them are men whose names will be treasured in the 
annals of their race. By their eloquent voice they have al- 
ready done much to make their wrongs known, and to secure 
the respect of the world. History will soon lend them her 
avenging pen. Proscribed by you during life, they tvill pro- 
scribe you through all time. Sir, already judgment is begin- 
ning. A righteous public sentiment palsies your enactment !" 



y 



100 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

It relieves the humiliating picture of human weakness and 
cupidity, to contemplate the image of a Man whom gold 
could not bribe, nor honors seduce. Such a Man is Charles 
Sumner. 

" Of all evil things," says the Rev. George B. Cheever, " a 
law that embodies in itself the example of wrong, the instruc- 
tion, the authority, sanction, justification, and command of 
injustice and oppression, in principle and in act, it is the 
highest and the worst. It is worse than arsenic in the foun- 
tain ; it is poison for the souls of men, poison for the great 
heart of society — running through all the veins and corrupt- 
ing the whole system. Well did Edmund Burke say, that of 
all bad things bad laws are the very worst, and that they derive 
a particular malignity from the good laws in their company, 
under which they take shelter. If a system of wicked laws 
be deliberately contrived, and fastened on a people for the 
purpose of consolidating and rendei'ing immovable the Gov- 
ernmental despotism, and if, under those laws, a system of 
Immoi'ality and Cruelty is inaugurated as the Central fountain 
of the Country's policy, to enter into both the Domestic and 
Civic life of the People, to regulate all their Institutions, to 
impose conditions on the Gospel itself; to compel Men in 
every sphere of Society, every branch of Commerce, every 
agency of active Business, to swear faithfulness to that im- 
moral interest ; and if the Word of God itself, for the sake 
of shielding all this iniquity, is either suppressed or perverted, 
what really is the attitude of such a people toward God, and 
what their character in his sight ? can anything cover up this 
wickedness ? Can any professions of Religion induce him to 
wink at it, or to connive at the Prostitution of religion itself 
for its support ? God's own voice shall answer ; here is his 
judgment from the Prophets : — 

"'"Wo unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, and that write 
gricvousness which they have prescribed, to turn aside from judgment, 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 101 

and to take away the right from the poor of my people. Shall the 
throne of equity have fellowship with thee, which frameth mischief by a 
law V 

" If a man could take the bolt of God's thunder in his hand 
and could flash the lightning in the face of the tyrannical, 
usurping legislator, there could not be anything more direct 
than this. Aiid is not this to be preached'? And if the 
Government of any Nation be guilty of this sin, is it not to 
he charged upon them ? And on whom rests the responsi- 
sibility of doing this, and who have the right and authority 
from God to do it, but the Preachers of the Word ? And will 
any man dare to call this ' political preaching' ? It is indeed 
the bringing of Religion into politics, according to God's com- 
mand, and the application of the instructions and principles 
of God's Word to the conduct of the nation and the people. 
And such application the prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah were 
commanded to make, and the Son of God enjoined upon the 
Preachers of the Gospel the same faithfulness. ' Cry aloud, 
spare not, lift up thy voice like a trumpet, show my people 
their transgressions, 5nd the house of Jacob their sins ?' 

" The conservatism that would prevent the utterance of God's 
Word on this fearful system of iniquity is a conservatism that 
stands in the ways of righteousness, and yet it makes great 
pretensions to sobriety and uprightness. It reminds one of the 
prophet Jeremiah's satirical description : ' They are upright as 
a palm-t7-ee, hut sjjeaJc not.' It preserves a sober and dignified 
silence, when God commands a fearless, outspoken rebuke of 
cherished sins. Preaching religion in politics, is God's own 
command, both in the Old and New Testaments ; but the 
Preaching of politics in religion is quite another thing — the 
work of inti-iguing politicians and of Satan, seeking to blind 
the minds of men, and keep God's light and God's authority 
away from their hearts and consciences. If i-eligion be not 
preached and practised in the politics of a Nation, that Nation 



302 A GENERAL TIEW OF THE PAST 

is on the high road to perdition. It is not possible for the 
individuals of a nation to support the nation's sins or apologize 
for them, or ward off the light of God's Word from rebuking 
them, and not put in peril their own piety and salvation. 
Already over more than seven eighths of the Pulpits in the 
North American Republic, there hangs the ban of Excom- 
munication if a single page of God's Word be applied against 
Slavery ; the thing must not be mentioned, and a Political 
silence prevails. The drums of God's Word are muffled, and 
they beat a Funeral march instead of a Gospel onset. The 
conservative Christians have turned Sextons ; they are for 
Burying the truth instead of Publishing it. Their whole 
terror is against the living truth, dead Men's bones and all 
uncleanness have less that is repulsive for them than rousing, 
cutting, and exciting truth — the truth of God, that brings 
religion into their Cotton and Dry Goods speculations and 
their Politics. 

" ' My people ask counsel at their stocks, and their staff declareth unto 
them. Ephraini is a Merchant ; the balances of deceit are in liis hands ; 
he loveth to oppress. Yet he saith, I am become TJiich ; I have found out 
substance; in all my labors they shall find none iniquity in me that 
were sin.' 

" There may be iniquity in the ' abstract,' but nothing is sin 
'per se' if there be great profit in it ; and where the pecuniary 
interest of any system becomes vast there are enough of such 
prophets as Nehemiah Adams, Nathan Lord, Moses Stuart, 
John Henry Hopkins, to justify Ephraim in its preserva- 
tion. Now, then, let such dead as these bury their dead, but 
the Gospel is not to walk as a mourner at the Grave-digger's 
bidding. Preach thou the kingdom of God. Undertakers for 
the dead ; Preachers for the living. Let not the first presume 
to give instructions to the last. It is a different process, that 
of nailing up Truth in a coffin, and putting it five feet under 
ground, lest it be a stench in the nostrils of Cotton-Brokers 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 103 

and Dry Goods Jobbers, and that of revealing its grand and 
noble forms, as glorious Messengers from the Creator of 
Heaven and Earth. Now, who have any interest to keep 
Religion out of Politics except those who wish to serve Satan 
by Politics ?" 

In the judgment-hall of Pilate, Christ Jesus himself tran- 
scendently glorified and illustrated the duty of bearing testi- 
mony to oppressed and persecuted Truth, by declaring that 
his own object, even in becoming incarnate, was to give it 
utterance, and to stand up in behalf of it: "To this end was 
I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should 
bear witness unto the truth." 

John Randolph predicted that the Slaveholding Democracy 
of the Union would be obliged to run away from their party- 
colored brethren long before this time. He did not foresee the 
events which have given a new impulse to Slavery, and made 
Slave-breeding the most profitable occupation in the country. 
Some of them, indeed, nobody could foresee. The opening 
of new and rich Cotton-fields on the Low^er Mississippi, and 
the extension of -Slavery into Texas, were far beyond the 
reach of human foresight. But could Mr. Randolph, with all 
his contempt for Northern dough-faces, have imagined it to be 
possible that fifty Members of the United States House of 
Representatives — from the "free States" — would be found 
voting to admit Slavery into Territories, from which it was 
excluded by a Solemn and time-honored compact, entered into 
in 1820? Could Mr. Randolph, with all his patrician disdain 
for Northern pettifoggers, have imagined it to be possible that 
a Northern President would, if he had the power, plunge the 
country into a War with Spain, or pay five times the price of 
Louisiana and Florida for the acquisition of Cuba, and this for 
the simple and avowed, purpose of propping up the Institution 
of Domestic Slavery ? In short, could Mr. Randolph, with 
all his knowledge of the means and appliances by which the. 



104 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

Slaveholders maintain their power, have imagined it to be 
possible that, in 1857, with two thirds of the White population 
in the " free States," the Government of the country should 
be administered as if it had but one object — of extending and 
perpetuating the traffic in Men, "Women, and Children ? 

The annexation of Texas, the passage of the Fugitive 
Slave bill, in 1850, and repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
of 1820, have had the effect to advance at least one third the 
price of "Slave property P So by these " beneficent and 
righteous acts," obedience to which is proclaimed by the Px'o- 
Slavery Churches and Press, " the Slaves States will be 
greatly enriched." ' The demand for Slaves will be increased 
ten-fold. The injunction to "multiply and increase" — "Nig- 
gers" will be obeyed by the " race of Africa" and the race 
of the Slave States, with a zealous alacrity, since lust and 
profit lie in the same direction. Few " Southern farmers" 
will vex the unwilling earth as long as " Nigger-raising is less 
laborious and more profitable." 

This furnishes the " Key" to the extraordinary exertions of 
the older Slave States in behalf of Slavery extension. It has 
been a subject of marvel why such States as Virginia and 
Maryland are so much fiercer advocates of the " Peculiar In- 
stitution" now than Louisiana, Tennessee, or Texas. The 
vulgar or North side View explanation is that " the Abolition- 
ists have wrought this mischief." Preposterous notion ! Vir- 
ginia was infinitely more interested in introducing Slavery 
into Kansas and Nebraska than Louisiana, for it opened a 
New source of Life to her in her decrepitude ; so that while 
her Representatives voted unanimously for the repeal of the 
Missouri Compromise, of 1820, the foremost and ablest mem- 
ber of the latter voted against it, and with the approbation of 
his constituents. The rankest defenders of the Slave Power 
in Congress are not from Louisiana and Texas, but from Vir- 
ginia, Georgia, and the Carolinas. While Senator John Bell, 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 105 

of Tennessee, and Senator Sam Houston, of Texas, have sub- 
stantially stood by the North, Senator George E. Badger, of 
North Carolina, and Senator Robert Toombs, of Georgia, have 
been leading champions of Slave aggression. In fact, the 
ground taken by Virginia now is — Slavery for ever, and its 
extension over the whole country. Tke Richmond Examiner, 
a leading Journal of the State, says : — 

" It is all hallucination that we ai-e ever going to get rid of Slavery 
or that it will be desirable to do so. It is a thing that this glorious Re- 
public can not do without. It is righteous, profitable, and permanent, 
and belongs to Southern society aS inherently, intrinsically, and durably; 
as the white race itself. Southern men should act as if the canopy of 
heaven were inscribed with a covenant, in letters of fire, that the Negro 
is here, and here for ever — is never to be emancipated — is to be kept 
hard at work and in rigid subjection all his days. *********** 
* * In the early days of our glorious Republic, the superior sagacity 
of Virginia statesmen enabled them to Rivet so firmly the Shackles of 
the Slave, that all the Abolitionists, and other Infidels in the world, will 
never be able to unloose them ! A wide and impassable Gulf separates 
the Proud and glorious South from her Northern traducers." (See St. 
Luke xvi. 25-26.) " The Mastiff dare not willingly assail the Skunk! 
"When Virginia takes the field, she Crushes the whole Abolition or In- 
fidel party; her slaughter is Wholesale, and 100,000 Anti-Slavery fanat- 
ics are cut down — Crushed Out — and trampled in the dust when she 
issues her commands ! She makes and unmakes Presidents ; she dic- 
tates her terms to the Northern Democracy, and they bow down and 
obey her !"* 

* Of thirteen Presidents, eight were born in the Slave States, and^i-e 
in the Northei'n States ; and of these the one most Northern in his birth 
is Southernmost in his principles. For he who was born nearest the 
North Star of Liberty, went down like the Serpent in the Book of Gen-. 
esis, crawling on his belly, that he might do his "Master's" will. Who 
could have believed that " a Son of New England" would be found to 
head movements that trailed her honors in the dust, brought reproach 
upon her good name, and caused the Christian world to blush over the 
coerced degradation of her Children 1 Of the Southern Presidents, ^Ji-'e 
have been re-elected ; of the Jive Northern, not one has been chosen 
twice. The South has had her sons for President fifty-twQ years ; the 
North twenty. 

5* 



106 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

There was a time when Virginia produced great M'-n, but 
the breed of noble blood is lost. In the Federal Convention 
which drew up the Constitution, Virginia counted members 
like Washington, Madison, and Mason. So sincere was his 
love of freedom, that Washington, besides being a gentleman, 
was an avowed Abolitionist ;* Madison, another gentleman, 
considered it disgraceful for the Constitution to mention the 
word Slave ; and what that great man, Mason, also a polished 
gentleman, thought of Slavery we cite as novel and commend- 
abli- to Slave-breeding Virginia at this moment : — 

" The present question concerns not the Slave importing; States alone, 
but the wliole Union. The evil of having Slaves was experienced during 
the late war. Had Slaves been treated as they might have been by the en- 
emy, they would have proved dangerous instruments in their hands. But 
their folly dealt by the Slaves as it did by the Tories. Slavery discour- 
ages Arts and Manufactures. The poor whites despise labor when per- 
formed by Slaves. They prevent the ivimigration of ivhites, loho really en- 
rich and strengthen a country. They produce the most pernicious effects 
on inanners. Everj'- owner of Slaves is born a petty tp-ant. They bring 
the judgment of Heaven on a country. By an inevitable chain of causes 
and effects Providence punishes National sins by National calamities. I 
lament that some of our eastern brethren, from a lust of gain, have em- 
barked in this nefarious tralBc. As to the State being in the possession 
of the right to import Slaves, that was the case with many other rights 
now to be given up. I hold it essential in every point of view that the 
General Government should have power to prevent the increase of Sla- 
very." 

Such was the language of a truly great man, whose National 
reputation is not such as his genius deserves, for he was in no- 
wise second to Jefferson in constructive power. Compare 
such nobility of sentiment and clearness of mental vision on 

* In a letter to Robert Morris, dated Mount Vernon, April 12, 1786, 
"Washington said: "lean only 'say that there is not a man living who 
wislies more sincerely than I do to see a plan adopted for the Abolition 
of Slavery ; but there is only one proper and effectual mode in which it 
can be accomplished, and that is by Legislative authority; and this, so 
far as my suffrage will go, shall never be wanting." 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 107 

the effect of Slavery — on it as a thing which the Nation has 
to deal with, because the Nation will be punished by the irre- 
sistible Moral law of the universe. Compare this with the 
coarse-mouthed rant of Henry A. Wise, who bullies Aboli- 
tionists, and foams about his " property" in Men as good, if 
not better, than himself — and think that such a person has 
been chosen Democratic Governor of Virginia — and then 
measure, if you can, the depth of her fall. 

" If the people of the '■free States,' " says the New York 
Evening Post, " must be governed by the Slaveholders, it 
would be far better that they should govern them directly in 
their own name, than through a set of canting dependants on 
their favor, recruited from the Northern politicians, and prt?'- 
tending to impartiality in the differences which have arisen 
between the Slave States and the ' Free.' It is better to live 
under a rule which is simply unjust, than under one which is 
both unjust and hypocritical." 

To-day, July 5, 1857, twenty-seven millions of people, 
" free" and enslaved, " colored," party-" colored," and " pure 
white," are under the feet of the Slaveholders. The South 
now claims, and is constitutionally right in claiming, that the 
election of James Buchanan instead of John C. Fremont, has 
settled the question that the majority of " the People" of the 
United States are willing that Kansas, and the other Terri- 
tories, should be " cut up into strips" and brought into the 
Union as Slave States. It will be useless for the people of 
the '•^free North" to deny that they intended any such thing 
by their votes. The reply will be, and it will be unanswera- 
ble : "This was the issue between the two Parties — between 
James Buchanan and Millard Fillmore, on the one side, and 
John C. Fremont on the other ; and if you did not so under- 
stand it, you have only yourselves to blame. This was the 
issue plainly made, and we never denied it, It is on this 



108 



A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 



plain issue that we gained the battle (on the 4th day of Nov- 
ember, 1856), and now you have nothing to do but submit. 
If you are opposed to the measures, which we intend to pur- 
sue, you should have voted against us when your vote would 
have effected something. It is now too late. You ought to 
have understood better." 

By reference to the following Table it will be seen that 
there is a Majority of fifty-six Electoral votes in favor of the 
'^'■free States." With this remedy at hand, " the People" of 
the '■'■free States" who voted against Fremont — to wit, of New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana, lUinois, and California — have 
proven to the world how utterly unworthy they are of the 
name of " freemen" : — 



FREE STATES. 


Vote. 

8 

5 

5 

13 

6 

4 

35 

7 

27 

23 

13 

11 

6 

4 

.5 

4 

176 
296 


SLAVE STATES. 


Vote. 

3 

8 

15 

10 

6 

10 

12 

12 

6 

7 

8 

9 

4 

3 

4 

120 

56 

149 


Maine 


Delaware 


New Hampshire 


Maryland 


Vermont 


Virijinia 


Massacliusetts 


North Carolina 




South Carolina 


Rhode Island 

New York 


Georgia 


Kentucky 




Tennessee 




Louisiana , 

Mississippi 


Ohio 




Alabama 




Missouri 


Michigan .__. 

Iowa 


Arkansas 


Florida . . 


W^isconsin 


Texas 


California 


Total 


Total 

Grand total 


Free State majority .... 
Necessary to a choice. . . 





The election returns prove that Fillmore, and " our South- 
ern customers," threw the election into the hands of Buchanan. 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania alone could have prevented 
Buchanan's election. Here are the figures : — 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 



109 



FOR FREMONT 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Massacliusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Vermont 

New York 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Iowa 

Total 



FOK FILLMORE. 

IVlaryhind 



114 



FOR BUCHANAN. 



New Jersey 

Pennsylvania. . . 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Delaware 

Virginia 

North Carolina. 
South Carolma. 
Georgia ....... 

Alabama 

Mississippi . . . . 

Florida 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Missouri 

Louisiana 

California 



Total 174 



The Popular vote of the States going for Fremont is 47 per 
cent, of all. His Electoral vote is only 39 per cent. Bucha- 
nan's States cast only 51 per cent, of all the votes, yet give 
him 59 per cent, of the Electors. Counting all the scattering 
Votes not returned until too late to be put in the " Official," 
we may call the aggregate vote of the Union 4,200,000, divided 
thus:— Fremont 1,400,000; Buchanan, 1,'900,000 ; Fillmore 
900,000. 

There were tens of thousands of men in the South who 
sympathize with the Republicans, but had no opportunity to 
express their sentiments at the Ballot-box. 

The Chronicle and Sentinel, Augusta, Georgia, is unwilling 
to let the Nullifiers of Virginia and South Carolina take to 
themselves the entire credit of defeating Fremont by threaten- 
ing to " dissolve the Union." It insists, very fairly, that a share 
of the honor is to be accorded to its Fillmore brethren, say- 



110 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

" These valiant gentlemen deceive themselves. They have had no 
hand in the defeat of Fremont. The same men among them, ifany such 
there are, know very well that if Mr. Fillmore had not divided the Nortli 
— if the Fillmore men had not stood firmly against the Free-Soil host — 
Mr. Buchanan would have been utterly overwhelmed, in spite of all the 
Government patronage, all the bi'ibery and corruption unscrupulously 
used in his favor. To Mr. Fillmore and his men, and to them alone, is 
due the credit of defeating Fremont. The Free-Soil candidate would 
have been at this moment President elect of the United States, but for 
Fillmore. Not a Northern State would have voted for Buchanan!" 

In the same spirit The Richmond (Va.) Enquirer exults that 
" All danger of a dissolution of the Union is now over. Slavery 
will hereafter be, as it always has been, the Strongest bond 
and Cement of our Union ;" and proceeds to show that Slavery 
is growing popular at the North : for 

" In the year 1 800 more than six per cent, of the population of New 
Jersey were Slaves, but the public opinion was opposed to Slaveholding, 
and she found no difficulty in abolishing it. Now" (November, 1856), 
■' Delaware does not own half as many Slaves in pi'oportion to population 
as New Jersey did then, yet Delaware clings to Slavery, and which is 
another striking evidence of the growing popularity of Slavery.* In 
talking of disunion, in the event of Fremont's election, we were advoca- 
ting the cause of union, while those who talked of submission were dis- 
unionists of the worst character. Union man as Govenier Wise has al- 
ways been, his patriotism was put to the hardest test when he found it 
necessary to threaten a dissolution of the Union, in order to save it. 
Here again he took the lead, and was more exposed to misconstruction, 
abuse, and obloquy, than any other man in Virginia. But he did not 
stand alone ; the whole Democracy of the North and the South stood by him 
and fought shoulder to shoidder with him. We notice him especially be- 
cause he has been most vilified and abused." 

* The Neivarh (N. J.) Daily Advertiser, of November 7, 1856, says: 
" The Students of Princeton College on Wednesday" (November 5, 
1856), " had a torchlight procession for the purpose of burying John C. 
Fremont. After parading the streets carrying a coffin, and groaning and 
shouting to their hearts' content, they had a general oration, burnt the 
coffin and then dispersed. The procession consisted of 75 students, one 
of whom was di'cssed in woman's apparel" — to represent New Jei-sey. 



AKD PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. Ill 

Thus the Slave Power everywhere understands that it has 
succeeded in electing Buchanan to the Presidency of the 
United States by cracking its Avhip over the head of the Com- 
mercial and Officeholding classes at the North. And it will 
infer that in case of future resistance to the revival of the. 
African Slave-Trade, the annexation of Nicaragua, the seizure ' 
of Cuba, or any kindred project, it has only to crack "a little 
louder" and the North will succumb. 

It will be seen fi-om the following document that as the 
'' President and Council" of the Fillmore-men issued their 
" express and positive orders" to all the faithful to vote for 
Fillmore with a view of electing Buchanan, so the " President 
and Rulers" of Great Salt Lake, Utah Territory, issued their 
orders " to all the Saints throughout the Union" to vote for 
Buchanan ; he, old Bachelor though he is, being the "destined 
instrument in the hands of Providence" for the fulfilment of 
the prophecy of the coming of the day " when seven Women 
shall lay hold of one man and shall say, 'Let us eat of our 
own bread and wear our own apparel; only let us be called 
by thy name to take away our reproach.' " Perhaps Mr. 
Buchanan will now renounce his Bachelorship, and make up 
for lost time by taking seven " Wives." But the Elders and 
Rulers of " The Church of Latter-Day Saints" do not rely on 
Scripture or Prophecy alone. They cite likewise a clause of 
the '' Cincinnati Platform." Hear them : — 

This Avas a "keen move" of the faculty of the College, for " Southern 
patronage." They had an eye to that passage of Scripture which says, 
" Make unto yourselves friends of the mammon of uni-igliteousness." 
The Empire Club of New York turned out in procession in honor of the 
victory, with a transparency representing the scourging of three black 
men, and headed " Bleeding Kansas." We thought that was the depth 
of degradation ; but it has been exceeded, in the Metropolis of the Na- 
tion, and under the eye of the Executive. A procession passed through 
the streets of Washington, headed by a Government official, bearing a 
transparency inscribed " Sumner and Kansas, let them bleed." 



112 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

"TO THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS. 
'■''The Elders and Rulers of the Church of Jesus Christ 

of Latter-Day Saints to the Samts in the United States of 

America : 

" Dear Brethren, Faithful Followers of the 

L AND the Recipients of his Grace : We call upon 

you to stand firm to the principles of our Religion in the 
coming contest for President of the United States. Our duty 
is plain. There are Two principal Parties in the field — one 
for us, the other against us. The Democratic Convention in 
Cincinnati, which nominated James Buchanan for President, 
passed the following resolution : 

" ' Resolved, That Congress has no power under the Constitution of the 
United States to interfere with or control the Domestic Institutions of 
the several States, and that all such States are the sole and proper judges 
of everything appertaining to their own affairs, not prohibited by the 
Constitution of the United States.' 

" This is a principle of the Democratic Party, which they 
have extended to Territories as well as States, and the doc- 
trine of Squatter Sovereignty" (invented by Og, the king of 
Detroit, Michigan) " applies to us in Deseret as well as to the 
settlers in Kansas and Nebraska. The Democratic party is 
the instrument, in God's hand, by which is effected the rec- 
ognition as a sovereign State, with the Domestic Institutions 
of Slavery and Polygamy, as established by the Patriarchs 
and Prophets of old, under Divine authority, and renewed to 
the Saints of Latter days, through God's chosen Rulers and 
Prophets. In the Republican Convention assembled at Phil- 
adelphia, which nominated John C. Fremont for President, 
it was 

'"Resolved, That the Constitution of the United States confers upon 
Congress sovereign power over the Territories of the United States for 
their Government, and that in the exercise of that power it is both the right 
and the imperative duty of Congress to prohibit in the Territories those 
twin rehcs of barbarism, Polygamy and Slavery.' 



AND PKESENT STATE OF THINGS. 113 

" This is a blow aimed directly at our rights as Citizens of 
one of the Territories, at our sacred Institutions" (Slavery 
and Polygamy) " and our hohj religion. Saints of the lat- 
ter days ! to whom God reveals his will through his chosen 
prophets" (that is, through Young, Kimball, Grant, & Co.), 
" stand steadfast in the ancient Scriptures ! — And in that 
day shall seven "Women lay hold of one Man, and they will 
say, ' Let us eat our own bread and wear our own apparel ; 
only let us be called by thy name to take away our reproach.'* 

* The members of the Morman Council (13 persons) have 171 
" Wives." Of these Heber C. Kimball, President of the Council, has 
57; Daniel H. Wells, 19; Albert Carrington, 21 ; Orson Pratt, 7; Wil- 
ford Woodruff, 12; John Stoker, 8; Lorin Farr, 3; Lorenzo Snow, 25; 
LeonaVd E. Harrington, 3 ; Isaac Morlcy (72 years old), 5 ; John A. May, 
2 ; George A. Smith, 5 : total 171. The Members of the House of Kep- 
resentatives (26 persons) have 167 "Wives." Of these the late J. M. 
Grant, Speaker, had 7 ; W. W. Phelps, printer, 9 ; A. P. Eockwood 
(an old man), 8 ; Edwin D. WooUey (a small man), 5 ; J. W. Cum- 
mings, 10 ; Hosea Stout, a Lawyer, 4 ; S. W. Richards, a young Lawj'er, 
15; Jesse C. Little, a Lawyer from Boston, Mass., 3; William Snow, 
from Vermont, 8 ; P. H. Young, elder brother of Brigham, tailor, 5 ; C. 
V. Spencer, a small man from Boston, Mass., 2 ; Ezra S. Benson, an 
old and homely fellow, 15; James C. Snow, 3; Aaron Johnson, 6; 
three of them are sisters. Lorenzo H. Hatch, wagon-maker, 2 ; Jacob 
G. Bigler, farmer, 10 ; George Peacock, fanner, 10 ; John Eldredge, 
phrenologist, 3 ; Isaac C. Haight, coal-digger, 12 ; Jesse N. Smith, 
Lawj^er, 2 ; John D. Parker, an old deaf fellow, 3 ; Jesse Hobson, ox- 
teamster, 10 ; J. C. Wriglit, hotel-keeper, 5 ; James Brown, dairyman, 7 ; 
Enoch Reese, farmer, 2 ; W. A. Hickman, 3 : total 167. To which add 
the officers of the House, to wit : Thomas Bullock, Clerk, 4 ; J. Grimshaw, 
Assistant Clerk, 5; Chandler Holbrook, Foreman, 4'; Jacob F. Hutch- 
inson, IMessenger, 2; Joel H. Johnson, Chaplain, 7: total 22. To 
which add 76, the number now living of Governer Young's " Wives," 
and 3'ou have the wliole number of females thus represented by the 
members of the Legislature, Officers of the same, and his Excellency, 
amounting to 438 ; or, in other words, 40 Men have 438 "Wives." The 
Mormons boast or exult in calling things, as they say, " by their right 
names ;" all parts of the human body are spoken of familiarly, in terms 
that would make any but a Mormon blush, and they say it is a part of 



114 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

" Given by Order of the Pi-esident and Rulers, at Great 
Salt Lake, Utah Territory, on the 14th day of August, 1856. 
" BRIGHAM YOUNG, President. 
"HEBER C. KIMBALL, 



t-\ 



"JEDIAH M. GRANT, <■ I^^i-eks. 

While the election of Buchanan " is sure to make the fortune 
of the King of Dahomey," it will bear hard on Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, the Carolinas, Kentucky, &c. What will become of 
" Old Virginia" afud her " Home Markets" for her " surplus 
Stock ?" What will become of Governor Wise and the " evan- 
gelical Churches ?" -Re-open the Trade with Africa direct, 
and the King of Dahomey would so far undersell Governor 
Wise that the party-colored " Stock" of the latter would soon 
become a drug in the Market. His kidnapping Majesty could 
deliver a cargo of " black Niggers" in Norfolk, Charleston, 
Savannah, or New Orleans, at a Hundred Dollars a head, and 
make money by the operation. The consequence, in a short 
time, would be such a glut of " black Niggers" in all the Slave 
States — including California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, 
and New Jersey — as to reduce Governor Wise and his co- 
breeders to utter poverty and bankrupt the State.* 

The (New Orleans) Delta, speaking of the " glorious fields" 
opened up, through Buchanan's election to the Presidency of 
the United States, says : " Numbers of Slaveholders have al- 
ready written to us to know if they could safely take their 
Slaves into Nicaragua to cultivate sugar, coffee, rice, indigo, 
or chocolate plantations, as the case might be. We have al- 
ways assured our correspondents that though Slaves were not 

their duty, if not of their religion, to teach their Childi-en a knowledge 
of the " issues of life," as they tei-m it. 

* It is reported that the King of Dahomey has sent two of his sons to 
the College at Marseilles, France. A prominent Pro- Slavery Journal, 
of New York, commenting upon this "piece of intelligence," says: 
"What effect it will have upon the price of our Southern Slaves — no 
mortal man can foresee." (See Appendixes A and B.) 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 115 

recognised by law in Nicaragua, we had no doubt they would 
be secured to their owners during Gen. Walker's administra- 
tion, and that ultimately Slavery tvould have an established ex- 
istence there of laio as well as fact." 

This " "Walker" is the same who went to Nicaragua to " re- 
generate a fallen race," and commenced his " holy mission" 
by plunder, and confiscation, and the introduction of Slavery. 

The Carolina Times fears that the New York, Boston, and 
Philadelphia capitalists and shipownei'S who have given such 
ardent support to Buchanan, would rush into the traffic with 
such eagerness to make money out of it as not only to run 
away with all the profits, but by their recklessness " to give 
some cause for the reprehension of cruelty." 

The South now proposes to " parcel off" twenty-eight addi- 
tional Slave States, in the following order : Kansas to give 
three ; Nebraska, two ; Texas, three ; Washington Territory, 
two; Oregon Territory, two; New Mexico Territory, four; 
Utah Territory, four ; Minnesota Territory, two ; South Cali- 
fornia, one ; Nicaragua, two ; Cuba, three. 

It would seem to be impossible that people in their senses 
should vote for their worst enemies, the Slaveholders, anni- 
hilating themselves. But still it is so, and the blame of it be- 
longs to corrupt demagogues and an equally corrupt press. 
Formerly the masses had political morality enough to keep 
corrupt men out of office, and to elect only men of probity and 
character. But this ceased under the operation of the prin- 
ciple, " the spoils to the victors." The popular conscience ex- 
pired. Men of character had fair play, and now, character- 
lessness and consciencelessness, so to speak, have become the 
two indispensable recommendations of an " Office-seeker." 
The country is in such a state that a good Citizen is compelled 
either not to vote at all or from a number of " tall men" choose 
the shortest. Really good and true men seeking the welfare of 
the people, are as rare as white crows or " black Niggers" in 



116 A' GENERAL YIEW OF THE PAST 

the Slave States ; and if corruption progresses in the ratio in 
which it has for the last twenty -five years, there will be no 
more such to be found, as no good man will longer care to 
have any " Office." 

" Human nature," says the Rev. George B. Cheever, " never 
sunk to a greater debasement than it has in those men who, 
under the light of Christianity, will, for the sake of an imagined 
greater security of property, establish, or vote to establish, the 
frightful curse of Slavery where it has not gone. To set this 
cancer in the vitals of a new land, to inoculate with this awful 
plague the heart of a new society, with the full knowledge of 
all the evils it will entail, generation after generation, is a 
climax of wickedness, a sublimity of crime, such as no other 
nation under heaven before ever had a possibility of attaining. 
Divine Providence has never once committed such a possi- 
bility to mortals, and would not have done it now except to ' a 
nation educated, trained, disciplined under the light of the 
Gospel,' and therefore prepared to repel the evil and elect the 
good. And now, for such a nation, having the power to de- 
termine the policy, the social and civil institutions of another 
State or States, and, in the words of God in Isaiah, to raise up 
the foundations of many generations, deliberately, after long 
dispute and discussion, to set the atrocious system of Slavery 
at the heart of it or them, is a crime so gigantic, a cruelty so 
infinite, that eternity alone can reveal its enormity. It is a 
transaction without a parallel on the face of the earth. 

" Nations have made Slaves, have practised Slavery ; but to 
compel another Nation abhorring it into the endurance and 
establishment of this iniquity, puts a complication and intensity 
of malignity into the transaction beyond the power of the 
imagination to measure and of language to describe. If the 
'good Democrat' could take one immortal being, and set within 
the circle of his faculties, for his profit, regardless of his fate, a 
spring and machinery of incessant sin and misery, that would 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS, 117 

be the supernatural wickedness of a fiend ; but who can ade- 
quately illustrate or characterize the enormity of setting such 
a spring at the heart of a whole Nation — of placing there this 
productive cause of all miseries — this fountain and creative 
agency of fraud, robbery, and murder ?" 

But deep as is the guilt of the South, the North is still 
more responsible for the existence, growth, and extension of 
Slavery. In her hands — in the hands of the Northern 
Churches — has been the destiny of the Republic from the 
beginning. They could have Emancipated every Slave long 
ere this had they been upright in heai-t and "free" in spirit. 
They have given respectability, security, and the means of 
subsistence and attack, to their deadliest foe. And if ever the 
Union is dissolved or the Republic destroyed, ih6 Christian 
world, and the Historian, will hold the American Churches, 
and not the Abolitionists, responsible for it. 

" Let the time come," says the Rev. Albert Barnes, of Phila- 
delphia, " when in all the denominations of Christians, it can 
be announced that trafficking in the bodies and souls of Men, 
Women, and Children, is ceased with them for ever, and let 
the voice of each denomination be lifted up in kind, but firm 
and solemn testimony against the system — with no mealy 
words, with no attempt at apology, with no wish to blink it, 
with no eflPort to throw the shield of religion OA^er the hideous 
eystem — and the work is done. There is no public sentiment 
In the country' — there could be none created — that would 
resist the power of such testimony. There is no power out of 
the Churches that could sustain Slavery an hour, if it were not 
sustained in them." 

Can the Churches do less than this, without incurring the 
charge of "holding the truth in unrighteousness"? Can the 
language of the one Master whom alone they acknowledge, 
" All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, 
do ye even so to them," be so interpreted as to require less ? 



118 A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PAST 

If the relative positions of the Slaves and the Church members 
were the reverse of what thej are — if those who are now the 
Slaves were in\*fested with the rights and franchises of the 
Church members, and if those who are now the Church mem- 
bers were enslaved — what would the latter desii'e that the 
former should do for them ? That desire, whatever it might 
with propriety be, is the measure of their present duty — a 
duty which they may not neglect without the guilt of " holding 
the truth in unrighteousness." It is because this duty is so 
shamefully neglected that Slavery is perpetuated. It continues 
to exist, and its domain is extended, and its power is augmented, 
from year to year, because the Churches are, on the whole, and 
with some rare exceptions, willing that it should be so ! A few 
despised Samaritans — "infidels," who have been driven out 
from the Churches, or who are likely to be, bear testimony 
against this gigantic system of iniquity, and are doing what 
they can to relieve its lacerated and bleeding victims. But the 
Priest and the Levite, as of old, together with the great ecclesi- 
astical and other religious -organizations that acknowledge their 
leadership, pass by on the other side. 

The position taken by Dr. Barnes is one which no man of 
intelligence will have the hardihood to question or deny, as 
the facts which go to substantiate it are patent to all the world. 
If Dr. Barnes and his "evangelical" Anti-^XnYiivj brethren 
would only act consistently in their opposition to Slavery, the 
infamous " Peculiar Institution" could not live over a dozen 
years. But alas! their garments are red with the Slaves' 
blood ! Over four millions five hundred thousand of their 
fellow-men — of the "cursed seed of Ham" — natives of the 
United States of North America, " walk in darkness and grope 
for the wall at noonday like them that have no eyes," while 
those whose business it is to enlighten their "benighted souls" 
devote their time and money to the cultivation of the arid soil 
of " foreign paganism." 



AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 119 

So long as trafficking in ]Men, Women, and Children, is 
regarded at the North as compatible with a Christian profes- 
sion ; so long as Abolitionism is branded as an "Infidel" 
movement, so long as the Bible continues to be interpreted on 
the side of Slavery, and yet accepted as the inspired Word of 
God ; so long as Church-fellowship and denominational unity 
exists between the Episcopalians, Pi-esbyterians, Congrega- 
tionalists. Baptists, and Methodists of the North and South, 
just so long will the Slave Power succeed in lengthening its 
cords and strengthening its stakes, and accomplishing all its 
purposes, however desperate and diabolical. 

Dr. Adam Clarke, the learned commentator, said : " How 
can any Nation pretend to fast, or worship God, or dare profess 
to believe in the existence of such a being; while they traffic 
in the souls, blood, and bodies of men ? Oh, ye most flagitious 
of knaves and worst of hypocrites ! Cast off at once the 
mask of religion, and deepen not your endless perdition by 
professing the faith of Jesus Christ, while you continue in 
'.his traffic." (Comment on Isaiah xlviii. 6.) 

" The advocates of oppression," says the Rev. George B. 
Cheever, " are always saying to those who open the batteries 
of truth, when noise and fury follow the cannonading, ' Had 
you kept silence there would have been nothing of this agita- 
tion ; you are stirring up nothing but contention and wrath.' 
This was the very accusation brought against Jeremiah him- 
self, when he proclaimed the Word' of God in Jerusalem and 
Judea against sins which the Government commanded, and 
which the people declared they would defend and practise, 
and which not a few among prophets and priests themselves 
affirmed were no sins at all, but just a profitable policy : — 

" ' Wo is me, for I am become a man of contention and strife. I love 
peace, and I love my people, and I love my country, and out of love I 
speak to them this Word of the Lord! I have ti'^iMier lent on usury, 
nor men have lent to me on usury, yet every one of them doth curse me.' 



120 PAST AND PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. 

" Ah, Jeremiah, there are other ways to touch men's pockets, 
and invite their avarice, beside charging two-and-a-half per 
cent, a month for your money. Lay the tax of the Word of 
God upon their profitable, legalized, and cherished sins, and 
instantly they cry out violence and spoil, and the Word of 
God itself will be made a reproach unto you and a derision, 
daily : — 

"'Then, said they, Come and let us devise devices against Jeremiah; 
for the law shall not perish from the priest, nor council from the wise, 
nor the word from the prophet. Come, and let us smite him with the 
tongue, and let us not give teed to any of his words/ " 

The only hope for the deliverance of the land from bond- 
age is from the Northern Churches ; and if the Churches in 
the North will not act and hold up the mirror, that their re- 
flections may tell upon the Churches in the South, the Satanic 
system will be perpetuated for ever. 






PART SECOND. 

AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, HORSES, AND OTHER 
CATTLE. 



CHAPTER I. 



"Cursed be he that oppresseth the Poor and they that Sell the Poor 
for Silver, and the Needy to increase tiieir Wealth." " The pride of 
thine heart hath deceived thee, ihon whose habitation is high ; that saith 
in thine heart, WJio shall bring me down to the ground 1 Though thou 
shalt exalt thyself as the Eagle, and though thou set thy nest among the 
iStars, thence will I bring thee down, saith the Lord." 

The friends of the oppressed are accused of using harsh 
language. They admit the charge. They confess the "• sin." 
They have not been able to find soft words to describe villany, 
or to identify the perpetrator of it. The man who makes a 
"chattel" of his brother — what is he? The man who keeps 
back the hire of his laborers by fraud — what is he? They 
who prohibit the circulation of the Bible — what are they? 
They who compel nearly five millions of Men and Women to 
herd together, like brute beasts — what are they? They who 
sell Mothers by the pound, and Children " in lots to suit pur- 
chasers" — what are they? "We care not what terms are ap- 
plied to them, provided they do apply. If they are not 
thieves, if they are not tyrants, if they are not Men-stealers, 
what is their true character, and by what names may they be 
called ? It is as mild an epithet to say a thief is a thief, as it 
is to say that a spade is a spade. Strong denunciatory Ian- 

6 



122 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

guage is consistent with gentleness of spirit, long-suffering, 
and perfect charity. It was the God whose name is Love, 
who could speak, even to his chosen people, in the following 
terms : — 

"An end, the end has come upon the four comers of the land. I will 
send mine anger upon thee, and will judge thee according to thy wajs, 
and will recompense upon thee all thy abominations. And mine eye 
shall not spare, neither will I have pity." "A third part of thee shall 
die with the pestilence, and with famine shall they be consumed in the 
midst of thee : and a third part shall fall by the sword, round about thee, 
and I will scatter a third part into all the winds, and I will draw out a 
sword after them V It was the Lamb of God who could exclaim, " Wo 
unto you, Scribes and Pliarisees, hypocrites ! for ye devour widows' 
houses, and for a pretence make long pi-ayers : therefore ye shall receive 
the greater damnation. Ye blind guides ! which strain at a gnat and 
swallow a camel. Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye 
escape_the damnation of hell? — " Why do ye not understand my speech ? 
even because ye can not hear my words. Ye are of your father the devil, 
and the lusts of your father ye will do : he was a murderer from the 
beginning, and abode not in the truth ; because there is no. truth in hun. 
When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of liis own : for he is a liar, and the 
father of it.'' It was the martyr Stephen, who, though in his dying ago- 
nies, supplicated forgiveness for enemies, and, a few moments before his 
cruel death, could address his countrymen in the following strain : — "Ye 
stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the 
Holy Ghost : as your fathers did, so do ye. Which of the prophets have 
not your fatliers persecuted? and ye have slain them which showed 
before of the coming of the Just One : of whom ye have been now the 
betraj'^ers and murderers." 

If Jefferson trembled for his countrj^ when he thought that 
God is just, in view of the enormous injustice of the Slave sys- 
tem, how much more may we tremble for Christianity, when it be- 
comes its apologist and defender. Let those " South-side View" 
preachers and professors, who have not considered the matter, 
open Eheir eyes to the undeniable fact, that infidelity gloats upon 
their admission that Slavery is sanctioned by Revelation. Let 
them consider how millions of deluded men, judging of the 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 123 

Bible more by its interpreters tban by its own teachings, have 
been, and are now, bewildered by the zeal of " evangelical min- 
isters of the Gospel of Jesus Christ" put forth in behalf of the 
most atrocious system of iniquity that ever cursed the earth, 
and the venom with Avhich they pursue the defenders of the 
oppressed. When " Christian ministers" abjure the plainest 
teachings of common sense, in sustaining such an infamous 
" Institution ;" wlien, with the language of piety on their lips, 
they are recreant to every obligation of the religion of the 
meek and lowly Jesus, so far as to vindicate on Scriptural 
grounds the right to hold those for whom lie suffered, bled, 
and died in bondage, and the consistency of oppression with 
religious character, what wonder that men should be disgusted, 
and exclaim, "Away with such a religion !" 

Wo to the Churches when the moral standard of the " infi- 
del" is higher than the standard of the professed Christian ! 

Men will not receive, and love, and cherish, as from Heaven, 
a religion that allows men to impose the yoke upon the necks 
of their fellows ; that sanctions outrage upon human rights, in 
the persons even of the least of God's children ; that will not 
freely and heartily lend its sympathy and advocacy openly and 
boldly to the cause of the oppressed. All the laws of God 
against oppression, all the manifestations of his abhorrence of 
it, go to show his intense feeling and judgment against Sla- 
very. Listen : — 

" Cursed be be that Oppresseth the poor, and they that Sell the poor 
for Silver, and the needy to increase their "Wealth." — " Cursed be he 
that useth his neighbor's Service without Wages, and giveth him not for 
his hire." — " He that gettetli riches, but not by right, shall leave them in 
the midst of his days, and at his end shall be a fool." — "Blessed is he 
that considerctli the poor : the Lord will deliver him in time of trouble. 
The Lord will preserve him, and keep him alive; and he shall b% bles- 
sed upon the earth: and thou wilt not deliver him unto tlie willof his 
enemies. The Lord will strengthen him upon the bed of languishing : 
thou wilt make all his bed in his sickness." 



124 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

Ten dollars a pound is about the Selling price for a com- 
mon article. " Choice specimens" sell for fiftfeen dollars, and 
*' extra fine," for twenty -five dollars a pound. We quote the 
Market Report of The Washington (D. C.) Union, the recog- 
nized Organ of the President of the United States : — 

"At Charlotte Courthouse, on Monday of last week, fifty Slaves, 
belonging to the estate of John M. Thomas, were sold at Public Auc- 
tion for the aggregate sum of $35,400. Some other Slaves were sold at 
the same time. A likely Girl, 18 years of age, weighing 113 pounds, 
brought $1,776. Two boys, weighing 95 pounds, brought $950." 

The Lynchhiirg Virginian, speaking of the state of the 
Market in Maryland, says : " C. C. Magruder, Esquire, ad- 
ministrator of Margaret A. Ghiselin, sold at Public Sale on 
Wednesday last, in Prince George's County, a lot of Slaves, 
some of whom brought very high prices. One Boy sold for 
$1,365 ; another for $1,425 ; one for $1,150, and a fourth for 
$1,120. In the present state of the Money-market these may 
be considered as high prices, being Sold for Cash. These are 
about the rates at which Men, Women, and Children, have 
been Selling for some time in our own State. It was pre- 
dicted, by some of our Northern friends, that the passage of 
the Compromise Measures of 1850, would have the effect of 
cheapening, if not rendering valueless, this species of property • 
Behold the result!" 

This is a strong argument in favor of the " Compromis« 
Measui-es." The people of the "/ree States" must be very 
obstinate, indeed, if they can any longer oppose a " Law" 
w^hich Enhances the value and Quickens the Sale of Men, 
Women, and Children ! There must be something potent in 
the elements of a " Law" which enables the Slaveholder to 
sell a Slave-husband for $1,425. And why should not all 
men be denounced as traitors who refuse to shout hosannas to 
a series of "Measures" which run up the value of a Boy to 
$1,365. 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 125 

The Wilinington (N. C.) Journal, speaking of the condition 
of the Markets, says : — 

" We know not to what cause to attribute it, bat better prices have 
been offered by Traders for this description of property, than we have 
ever before known. Niggers, of ordinary appearance, 'are bringing 
$1,000 very readily. Women, from 16 to 20 years of age, arc selling for 
very large prices, varying from $1,000 to $2,000. Boys, weighing about 
fifty pounds, can be sold for $500. This is the time for selling, if any 
one is so disposed. We know one Broker (Mr. M. Conly), who sold a 
number of Men, Women, and Children, last week, at prices ranging 
from $825 to $1,350 ; and we learn that he has also sold Men without any 
trade, as high as $1,500. One fancy Girl, 18 years of age, weighing 
ofie hundred and thirty-one pounds, brought $1,750. It really seems 
that there is to be no stop to this upward tendency of things. Good 
breeders are at least 30 per cent, higher now (in the dull season of the 
year) than they were in January last. What our Servants will bring 
next year, no mortal man can tell. An intimate acquaintance of ours 
had occasion, on Saturday last, to bu}^ an ordinary house Girl, and the 
price was $1,000." 

That boys weighing only " 50 pounds" should fetch $500 a 
piece, shows that Human flesh, when young and tender, is' 
worth about $10 a pound, though it is not usual to sell it so 
— out of the Feejee Islands. That those ordinary looking 
" Niggers" should fetch $1,000, who probably weigh, on the 
average, 150 pounds, proves that their flesh is hardly worth 
$7 a pound, the odds being the difference as to toughness. 
Young Women, weighing, say, 130 pounds, are fetching $1,750. 
This is a fair price a pound : their flesh is tender again. Al- 
together, the prices are extraordinarily favorable. 

Another prominent Carolina Journal cautions its readers to 
be wide-awake as the Traders are about : " Speculators in 
Slaves are to be found in every Court-yard, and at every 
Corner, where Men, Women, or Children, are to be disposed 
of. We would, therefore, recommend to such of our friends 
as have Men, Women, or Children, to Sell to keep a steady 



126 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

eye upon tlie Market, as this species of property seems to be 
'looking up,' constantly improving in value." 

" The Hon. J. R. Giddings, of Ohio, in a Speech delivered 
in Congress, in 1853, said: "You, Sir, lately saw an Adver- 
tisement in the leading "Whig Journal of this City, in these 
words : ' J^or Sale a Handsome and Accomplished Lady's 
Maid — aged just Sixteen years^ Now, Sir, except in this 
City of Washington, D. C, and Terra del Fuego, I do not 
think an}' Government within the bounds of Civilization would 
have permitted such an outrage upon decency. I speak of 
Terra del Fuego without intending any disrespect to the peo- 
ple of that Island by comparing their habits with ours. The^ 
buy Men and Women for Food only.* The object is far 
more honorable and ' Christian-like' than that for which the 

j^ ^ . "^ Wyoung Women of this City are Advertised and Sold." 

•>*■• rj^j^g advertisement above referred to by Mr. Giddings, ap- 

1^ peared in The National Intelligencer, and was as follows : — 

" For Sale : An accomplished and handsome Lady's Maid. She is just 
Sixteen years of age, was raised in Maryland ; and is now oifered for 
Sale, not for any fault, but simply because the Owner has no further 



* An Officer of the United States Navy, in a letter to The National 
Intelligencer, in August, 1855, says : " In Terra del Fuego every man has 
at least two Wives, some of them more, probably each as many as he 
requires to take care of him, to paddle his canoe and collect his food, 
for the whole labor devolves upon the Female portion of the commu- 
nity. We were informed that these Savages were never Cannibals unless 
when driven to it by absolute starvation, and they only eat their old 
Women. Upon being asked why they did jjot kill and eat their Dogs, 
of which animals they have great numbers, in preference to their old 
Women, a gallows-looking fellow replied that Dogs were useful in help- 
ing them' to catch Otters, but old Women were good for nothing. On 
being interrogated as to which they prefen-ed for dinner, an Englishman 
or a Yankee, they spoke strongly in favor of the former, for the i-eason 
that he was * more juicy.'" \ 



\ 

\ 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 127 

use for her. A note directed to 0. K., Gadsby's Hotel, Washington, 
D. C, will receive prompt attention." 

The Editor of the Worcester (Mass.) Spy, commenting upon 
this advertisement, saj^s : " This man offers for Sale an ac- 
complished and handsome Girl of sixteen, simply because he 
has no further use for her ! Now what does this plainly and 
unmistakeably mean ? It means that an American democrat 
— the fatlier of this girl — under the Sanction of and with 
the Authority of the United States Government, will consign 
a young and accomplished girl to Prostitution, for a Pecuniary 
consideration, to be agreed upon by him and her purchaser. 
She has been hitherto instructed in all the graces and accom- 
plishments of a refined and cultivated woman, and doubtless 
the inborn modesty and purity of her maiden sensibilities have 
been quickened and increased by her education, but now she 
is Publicly doomed to a fate from which she must recoil with 
horror, and which no Man, who ever had a Daughter or Sister, 
can contemplate, but with loathing and indignation. The con- 
signment of this accomplished and handsome girl to Prostitu- 
tion, it must be borne in mind, is not accidental. It is an act 
Deliberatehj 'perpetrated by Professing Christians, under the 
full Authority and Sanction of the Government. It is not 
the mere act of Southern Slave-breeders, either, but it is an 
act deliberately consented to by every Northern man who rec- 
ognises the legality of Slavery, in any shape or form what- 
ever." 

The case of this young girl is only a living illustration of 
'the " Compromise," or bargain between the "free" and Slave 
States, which has- been made the standing test of the Politi- 
cians and Rhetoricians for several years past. It reveals 
what that perdition-begotten word conceals, and what it is 
meant to conceal. What does the " Compromise," and " per- 
petuity of the Compromise," signify, in connection with this 
particular illustration of Slavery in the "District of Columbia? 



128 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

Does it signify the "perpetuity" of the assumed right to sell 
innocent girls for purposes denounced in the law of God, com- 
pletely subversive of the Sanctities of Social Life, and met 
with utter reprobation and disgust by even the most savage 
tribes of men ? Every " minister of the Gospel" in the United 
States, or elsewhere, who has preached or spoken in favor of 
this Bargain or Compi-omise, and every Citizen who has con- 
sented to it, as a Legal and Constitutional basis of Law, has 
consented to ignore the seventh Commandment, and to con- 
sign this innocent young Woman, and tens of thousands like 
her, to the clutches of the wretches who sell and buy them. 

It was no doubt easy, in many cases, to consent to the pas- 
sage of the " Compromise" in the abstract. " Compromise" is 
only a word, and to millions of minds never seemed anything 
else but a sound. But when we draw it aside, like a veil, and 
see below it the pretended "Abolition of the Slave-trade in the 
District of Columbia" resolved into the Sale of " handsome and 
accomplished" j^oung Women — and when we see the Fugitive 
Slave Law become authority for Kidnappers to murder the 
Citizens of what are called by courtesy, the '■'•free States," we 
find the v/ord " Compromise" become a Sword, and the abstrac- 
tion turned into an act of Rebellion against Heaven and PIu- 
manity, and a Practical Disgrace to the American name as 
Men and Freemen. Did you endorse the " Compromise," 
Northern father and brother? If you did, then you endorsed 
this sale, and the primary and ulterior purposes of it. , You 
legitimatized, as far as in you lay, the cupidity of the wretch 
who offered this Girl for Prostitution, and the lust of the 
equally execrable Monster who Bought her. Think of this as 
you look upon your beautiful Daughters and innocent Sisters ; 
think of this as you contemplate what they are, and what they 
may be ; think of this in connection with their future Joys and 
Loves, and feel, if you can, when you do think so, that your 
allegiance to a Political party demands the Ruin of such be- 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 129 

ings, and all Domestic joy that God and Love promised 
tliem. 

" What means that sad and dismal look, ^ 

And why those falling tears ? 
• No voice is heard, no word is spoke. 

Yet naiight but grief appears. 
Ah ! Mother, hast thou ever known 

The pain of parting ties ? 
Was ever Infant from thee torn 
And sold before thine eyes 1" 

Is there a "Woman with Woman's heart and "Woman's love, 
whose soul does not bleed for the wrongs of the Slave ? How 
could the "Woman be lovely or attract virtuous love who should 
fail to do this ? How could she respect herself, how could a 
wise and manly husband confide in her, or how could she claim 
for herself the respect due a "Woman should she be justly 
charged or suspected of indifference when "Woman shrieks un- 
der the Lash, when Woman's affections are outraged, when 
Woman is torn from Husband and Child, when Woman is 
crushed and Polluted by lawless and domineering lust, when 
Woman is transformed into a beast ? 

And this is all done for what ? For place, for Official hon- 
ors ; for a temporary lease of high station ; for a day of au- 
thority. Here they go ! and there they go ! From every 
"free State," and from every County in every '^free State," 
the examples of this humiliation crowd forward with a dis- 
graceful alacrity. They come from hill and valley. High 
and low throng in supple subserviency around the throne of 
Slavery. They are called upon to disavow and repent of every 
sentiment in favor of Freedom they ever expi'essed, and they 
do it ! They apostatize from the faith of their fathers. They 
repudiate their principles. They renounce their opinions. 
They learn, embrace, and repeat the " Catechism" of the Power 
at whose feet they cower. They begin, "I believe in one polit' 

6* 



130 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

ical god, and that god is Slavery. I will not resist nor oh' 
struct his sway. I will perform his services according as I 
smxll he ordered. I will set up the symhols of his worship in 
every Office. I shall hold under him" &c. 

The moral degradation which has been reached in tliese 
e-fibrts is unspeakable. The apologies which are made bj 
Northern men for having entertained sentiments favorable to 
Freedom make a man blush to own himself a Citizen of a 
" free State." • 

"Auction Sale. — On Saturday morning, Dec. 11, 1853, in front of the 
Auction-rooms, Wasliington City, D. C, I shall Sell, without reserve, 
at 12 O'clock ; One Boy, 18 years of age; one Girl, 10 years of age; 
three Horses, Saddles, Bridles, and Harness; one Carryall; two Carts; 
one Wheelbarrow; one Hay-rake; two Ploughs; one Cultivator; one 
Hay-cart; and a ;ot of Farm-harness. Terms Cash. 

"JAMES C. UAG\5lViY., Auctioneer." 

The above advertisement appeared in The National Intel- 
ligencer, Washington, D. C, for several days prior to the Sale. 
Pursuant thereto a crowd collected at the corner of Pennsylva- 
nia Avenue and 1 0th Street. After the Sale of several Horses, 
Cows, and Farming utensils, the Human cattle were called for. 
On putting up the Boy, the Auctioneer said that he would give 
any man $25 if he would relieve him of the disagreeable duty 
of Selling those Children. No one offering to relieve him, 
he proceeded to sell them. He stated that the boy was deaf, 
had a running of the ears, and was an invalid ; that he was the 
pet of his Mother, who was present, in great distress, and de- 
sired not to be separated from him. These children were part 
of the estate of Jesse Brown, deceased, late proprietor of 
Brown's Hotel, and it was known that Marshall Brown (one 
of the heirs) was present for the purpose of buying the Boy, if 
sold at a reasonable price, that he might not be separated 
from his Mother. The bidding commenced, and he was struck 
off to Mr. Brown at $325, when a man by the name of Nay- 



HORSnS, AND OTHER CATTLE. 131 

lor, a Slave-trarler, claimed the bid as his, and insisted upon 
the Boy being struck off to him. Mr. Brown averred that the 
bid was his, and claimed the Boy. Naylor threatened to ^ms- 
ecute the Auctioneer, if he did not get him. After much 
cavilling amongst the bidders, the poor Boy was again put up. 
The Slave-trader advaj;iced the bid to $330, when the Auc- 
tioneer, prompted by feelings of humanity, offered him $25 if 
he would not bid any more. This offer was accepted by Nay- 
lor, with the Satanic-like remark, that he "would as lief make 
$25 in that way as to make it out of a Nigger.'' So the $25 
\\ as paid over, and the poor trembling Boy was delivered to 
Mr. Brown. 

The little Girl was next set up, and in the presence of her 
agonized Mother, was struck down to Judge Sturgis, of Georgia, 
where she is now leading the most wretched life that can be 
imagined, with 

" No arm to o'uard her from oppression's rod, 
Her will subservient to a tyrant's nod ! 
No gentle hand, when life is in decay, 
To soothe her pains, and cTiarm her cares away; 
But helpless left to quit the horrid stage, 
Harassed in youth, and desolate in age !" 

Reader, this all took place in a " Christian country" — under 
the shadow of the Capitol of the American Republic, where 
sat, at the very hour this disgraceful scene was going on, the 
Representative? of a people whose " laws are based on the 
principle of equal rights and privileges," and who declare to 
the woi'ld that '' all men are created free and equal !" 

The Hon. J. R. Giddings, speaking, during the recent Ses- 
sion of Congress, of the flourishing condition of this abomina- 
ble traffic in the District of Columbia, said: "Yesterday after- 
noon a servant man came to my room (at Brown's Hotel, 
Washington, D. C), saying a colored woman wished to see 
me. 1 told him to show her up. He soon returned with her. 



132 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

She was sobbing and in great distress of mind. I asked the 
cause of her grief. It was some time before she could so far 
ciMpose her mind as to relate to me her misfortune ; which 
consisted in living under the barbarous ' Fugitive Slave Law/ 
or 'Compromise Measures' enacted by Congress in 1850, for 
the government of this District. She said her Husband had 
just been Sold to a Slave-dealer and taken to the Barracoons 
of Alexandria — that his purchaser would take him to Ala- 
bama in two or three days — that she had four Children at 
home. At this point she burst into tears, exclaiming, ' O my 
Saviour ! O Jesus, pity me ! O my dear Children ! O 
my husband ! ' Then appealing to me, ' Sir, for the bless- 
ed Saviour's sake, do try to get back the Father of my Babes ! ' 
" I learned that her Husband's name was George Tooman. 
His former 'owner' being a female named Martha John wood, 
living east of the Capitol some half mile. George went to 
work in the barn, at husking or shelling Indian-corn, without 
any suspicion of the fate which awaited him. The Slave-dealer 
and an assistant went to the barn, seized him, handcuffed and 
hurried him off to one of the Slave-pens of Alexandria. The 
poor Wife hearing of it followed him on foot, and returned, 
and then sought me in the vain hope that I should be able to 
assist her. The day was said to be the coldest ktiown in 
"Washington for years, yet she was exposed to the keen pier- 
cing winds, although wretchedly clad. She had not seen her 
children since morning, when she left them without firewood. 
I endeavored to soothe her sorrows by expressing some faint 
hope that her husband might yet be redeemed — that I would 
make inquiry, and ascertain if I could find some one who 
would repurchase him, and permit him to remain in the District. 
It was dark when she left my room to return to her desolate 
home. The cold winds rocked the Hotel, and howled mourn- 
fully about the corners. I reflected upon the barbarous ' Com- 
promise Measures' by which Congress had authorized and en- 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 133 

couraged such fearful crimes and inflicted such misery upon the 
down-trodden of God's poor. I trembled for my country when 
' I reflected that God was just, and that his justice will not Sfcep 
for ever.' I asked myself the question, will Heaven permit such 
dreadful -wickedness, such barbarous cruelty, to go unpunished?" 

" Oh, when shall Columbia's 'colored' sons find grace, 
And know their dreadful bondage o'er 1 
When shall the unoffending race, 
Be bought and sold no more \" 

At the conclusion of the Sermon in " Plymouth Church," 
Brooklyn, New York, on Sunday morning, June 1, 1856, the 
Pastor — the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher — announced to his 
congregation that he was about to perform an action of a most 
extraordinaiy nature, which he would preface by reading a 
portion of the 12th Chapter of St. Matthew. He accordingly 
read the 10th, 11th, and 12th verses of that Chapter, after 
which he proceeded to give a sketch of the later history of a 
Slave girl, Sarah by name, an appeal in w-hose behalf he had 
lately received. " She was," he said, " the daughter of a 
Southern planter, acknowledged by himself as his own off- 
spring, and reared in his own family until his other daughters 
growing up had treated her so cruelly that she attempted to 
escape. She was captured and taken back to her paternal 
' Master,' who made immediate preparations to sell her to the 
Extreme South, refusing to dispose of her to any one who 
would permit her to remain in her native State. Many per- 
sons in the vicinity knowing her to be a most faithful, efficient, 
and therefore ' valuable piece of property,' were anxious to 
purchase her ; but her owner utterly refused to sell her to 
them, his object being to have her removed to so great a dis- 
tance that her near relationship to his other children could 
occasion them no further mortification. She was accordingly 
sold to a Southern man, who held her at $1,500, but who 
finally consented to part with her for $1,200. A Slaveholder 



134 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, « 

in Washington, pitying the girl, bought her for the latter r.um, 
immediately, however, setting on foot a subscription to enable 
her* to purchase her freedom, he himself contributing $100, 
another man, also a Slaveholder, gave $100, and $700 were 
finally obtained. At this juncture," said Mr. Beecher, " I re- 
ceived a letter asking if we could do anything toward making 
up the rest of the money, to which I replied, ' that I would 
promise nothing unless we could see her here.' " 

The reverend gentleman here stepped from his d^sk, and 
with an encouraging, " Come up, Sarah," he led upon the altar 
a young, intelligent-looking mulatto-girl, whom he presented to 
the crowded audience as the Slave-girl in question. She was 
apparently about twenty-three years of age, probably five 
eighths white, and of very pleasing and modest appearance. 
Mr. Beecher seated her in a chair by his side, while he con- 
tinued his remarks. " She was here," he said, " on her parole 
of honor. She had promised to go back, and she must return, 
either with or without the five hundred dollars which were yet 
necessary to make her a free woman. A collection would be 
taken up, and the result would show their verdict." By this 
time there was hardly a dry eye in the congregation of nearly 
three thousand people. Men wept, and women sobbed — not 
shamefacedly, but openly and without any attempt at conceal- 
ment. All seemed to be touched to the very heart. The 
like scene has never been witnessed in any of the nations of 
the old world. In the " Model Republic," on the Christian 
Sabbath, in the '■'■free State" of New York, in the Pulpit of a 
Christian Church, by the lips of a Christian minister, a trem- 
bling, shrinking woman begged money to save herself from a 
life of Slavery and further compulsory prostitution ! One 
gentleman here arose and announced that the money should 
be forthcoming to " make her free" and that if necessary he 
would be personally responsible for the entire amount. This 
announcement was received with hearty and long-continued 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 135 

applause, the audience being no longer able to j-estrain their 
feelings, Mr. Beeclier expressing his approval of the jubilant 
demonstration. 

Sarah, the Slave-girl, had, up to this time, preserved a tol- 
erable composure, but when the certainty was declared that 
she should not go back to a life of Slavery, she buried her 
face in her handkerchief and wept aloud. As the collectors 
passed among the audience, the plates were actually heaped 
up with the tokens of substantial sympathy, one man took a 
breast-pin from his shirt-bosom and cast it into the fund. The 
amount collected and subscribed for on the spot was $784, 
w'hich, besides completing the sum necessary for the purchase 
of Sarah, would also rescue her child, a boy of four years of 
age, who was then held in bondage by its own Father — the 
Father, too, of its unhappy Mother ! The scene was one of 
the most remarkable and exciting ever enacted before a Re- 
ligious congregation. 

The Washington (D. C.) Star, the junior Organ of the 
Pierce Administration, of February 23, 1857, contains the 
following advertisement. TVe have no objection to advertise 
the goods and chattels of Mr. Francis Y. Naylor, levied upon 
by United States Marshal Hoover, President Pierce's escort 
to New Hampshire on his late visit, including " ventilators," 
" saucepans," and a " Woman !" Here it is : — 

"Marshal's Sale. — In virtue of a writ of fieri fiicias, issued from the 
Clerk's Office of the Circuit Court for the County of Wasliington, in the 
District of Columbia, and to me directed, I shall expose to public sale, 
for cash, on Friday, the 27th day of February, 1857, commencing' at 10 
o'clock, A. M., at the Store-room of Francis Y. Naylor, on Pennsylvania 
Avenue, between 3d and 4^ streets, south side, the following goods and 
chattels, in part, to wit : One Woman ; 2 bedsteads ; 1 looking-glass ; 
1 ventilator; 1 saucepan; 1 dripping-pan; 1 ice-cream mould; and a 
lot of other household goods, seized and levied upon as the goods and 
chattels of Francis Y. Naylor, and will be sold to satisfy Judicial No. 1, 
to October term, 1856. "J. D. Hoovkr, 

" Marshal of the District of Columbia." 



136 AUCTION SALE3 OF SLAVES, 

The correspondent of the New Torh Tribune says : " I 
attended the Auction Sale of the Woman, on Pennsylvania 
Avenue, yesterday. She was sold according to the terms of 
the advertisement. I have no story to tell. Tears rolled 
down the poor woman's cheeks, and she turned away her face 
and wept. And this is the Nineteenth Century, and this the 
Capitol of the ' great Republic' of modern days !" 

The Hon. J. R. Giddings, in his Speech on the Slave ques- 
tion, delivered in the House of Representatives of the United 
States, December 10, 1856, said : — 

" I never saw a panting fugitive flying from bondage that I 
did not pray God most earnestly to speed him in his flight, 
and to enable him to make good his escape. The whole sym- 
pathy of my nature is at once enlisted in his behalf. I always 
feel anxious that he may escape from the crushing power un- 
der which he has been borne down. And yet President 
Franklin Pierce assumes to lecture me because I choose to 
obey God rather than him. Why, sir, gentlemen may listen 
while I tell them that I have seen at one time nine fugitives 
dining in my own house — fathers, mothers, husbands, wives, 
and children, fleeing for their liberty, and, in spite of the Pres- 
ident's censure, I obeyed the Divine mandate to feed the hun- 
gry and clothe the naked. I fed them, I clothed them. I 
gave them money for their journey to Canada, and sent them 
on their way. Was that treason ? If so, make the most of it ! 

"Mr. Bennett, of 'Mississippi. — I want to know if the 
Gentleman would hot have gone one step further ? , 

"Me. Giddings. — Yes, sir, I would have gone one step 
further. I would have driven the Slave-catcher who dared 
pursue them from my premises. I would have kicked him 
from my door-yard, if he had made his appearance there. 

" Mr. Bennett. — Would not the Gentleman have justified 
the taking of them by force or stealth in the first instance ? 

" Mr. Giddings. — I would smite down the infamous Slave- 



HOKSES, AND OTIIEK CATTLE. 137 

catcher if he were to enter my door to arrest and enclave a 
brother man. I hope the President will feel no unhappiness 
at what I am saying. Mr. Speaker, I make these state- 
ments in order that the people of my native State of Ohio, 
the people of our Northerly States, may express their Man- 
hood, and not be held in silenc.e by Executive insolence. It 
is the duty of every mail, it is a Christicm duty, that toe should 
speak out 0U7' honest sentiments in condemnation of those in- 
famous crimes. But I want to speak a little further. I do 
not mean to speak of Slavery as a mere crime. The Slave- 
holder controls the Slave by the lash. He scourges him into 
submission to his own will. But further than this, no person 
is alloioed to teach a Slave to read the Bible under a penalty 
of imprisonment. Ignorance is encouraged by legislative 
enactment. Now, sir, further than this, whenever a ' Master' 
attempts to correct a Slave, and the Slave resists, the 'Master' 
is at liberty to shoot down such Slave. Thus, the ' Master' 
holds the power of life and death over his Slave, a tyranny 
which sets at defiance all antediluvian despotisms. 

"Mr. Bennett. — I want the member from Ohio to draw 
the distinction between the Slaveholder bringing his Slave 
into subjection by the lash, and the Northern men bringing 
their poor people into subjection by starvation ? 

"Mr. Giddings. — The Gentleman understands that the 
' v/ife' of a Slave held by the ' Master' is liable to his pollu- 
tions, and dare not resist her ' Master's', approaches. He sells 
her children — ay, his own offspring, born of his Slave — for 
paltry pelf. There is no such thing in our Northern code. 

" Mr. Bennett. — I would ask the Gentleman from Ohio, if 
he is not aware that in a certain case of a separation of a child 
from its mother, by articles of separation, a Northern man was 
the purchaser of the child, and not a Southern man ? 

" Mr. Giddings. — I know not of the particular case refer- 
red to by the Gentleman, but here, in the City of Washington, 



138 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

as told you by that ' old man eloquent,' J. Q. Adams, twenty 
years ago, a Slave-dealer, reeking in iniquity, purchased a 
Mother and Child, up in Montgomery county, Md., and sepa- 
rated them from the husband and father and other children 
imprisoned them in that hell which once existed at the corner 
of Seventh street and Maryland avenue. There the Mother, 
with no eye but that of her God upon her contemplating the 
past, and looking forward to the horrid future, saw the doom 
to which she and her children were condemned, and when her 
soul was Avrought up with frenzy, she took the life of her 
offspring, and then severed the thread of her own existence, 
and rushed to the presence of her God, and there made her 
appeal against those who uphold and apologize for Slavery. 
In Covington, Kentucky, a Father and Mother, shut up in a 
Slave-dungeon and doomed to a Southern Slave-Market, when 
there was no eye to pity and no arm to save, by mutual agree- 
ment, sent the souls of their children to Heaven rather than 
have them descend to the hell of Slavery, and then committed 
suicide, and rushed into the presence of God, and made their 
appeal against those who now sustain crimes which rise to 
Heaven and call for vengeance upon our guilty land. 

"Mr. Bennett. — I desire to call the Gentleman's atten- 
tion to another fact. I understand the Gentleman to take the 
position that there is no authority in the Constitution for sur- 
rendering up those who are held to service who flee from one 
State into another. 

"Mr, Giddings. — I do; and whenever a Slave sets foot 
upon free soil, if I had the power, I would make him as free 
as the air which he breathes. 

" Mr. Bennett. — I would ask the Gentleman if he is pre- 
pared to violate an express provision of the Constitution ? 

"Mr. Giddings. — No, Sir. I understand the Constitu- 
tion of the United States ; and I know that those who formed 
it never intended to degrade me or my fellow Republicans, by 

V 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 139 

making us the bloodhounds to chase the panting fugitive. Sir, 
I repudiate and detest sucli doctrine. It never was the doc- 
trine of the Constitution, and never will be. 

"Mr. Bennett. — Another question. I ask the Gentle- 
man to draw a distinction between the provision of the Con- 
stitution which requires the rendition of Slaves, and that pro- 
vision of the Constitution which in the Electoral vote, gives a 
three-fifths Representation to Slaves. The words used are 
identically the same. In the one instance it provides for the 
rendition of those who are bound to Service; and, in the other, 
in fixing the rates of representation, it uses the words, ' those 
bound to service.' And although the same words are used, 
the Gentleman says, one means Slaves and the other Ap- 
prentices. 

"Mr. Giddings. — If the Gentleman will propound ques- 
tions to me pertinent to the subject under consideration, I will 
listen to them until my hour expires, but I am unwilling 
that he should occupy my time with such interrogatories as 
that now proposed. It has no relation to the remarks I was 
making. 

"Mr. Bennett. — I desire to propound a question to the 
Gentleman. The provision of the Constitution which the 
Gentleman denies to be of binding force, uses identically the 
same language as that contained in the provision giving three- 
fifths representation. It says that persons escaping from ser- 
vice shall be rendered, upon application, to him to whom that 
service is due. The same language is used in the other clause 
of the Constitution to which I referred. 

"Mr. Giddings. — I will always hear Gentlemen courte- 
ously who propound questions which are directed to the subject 
which I am discussing ; but I can not be led off into the field 
which the Gentleman now asks, but he must not abuse my 
courtesy, by misrepresenting me as denying any part of the 
Constitution, when I distinctly mformed him that I hold to that 



14.0 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

instrument and will obey it. I was speaking of the right of 
the people of the North to utter their sentiments upon this 
question of returning fugitive Slaves. 

" Mr. Bennett. — I desire the Gentleman to answer the 
question which I have propounded. 

" Mr. Giddings. — It takes the Gentleman from Missis- 
sippi quite too long to propound questions. He has abused 
my courtesy and transgressed all bounds of propriety. I will 
not suffer him longer to encroach upon my brief hour. I was 
about to proceed with remarks upon the opinions of the Pres- 
ident and his usurpation and attempted tyranny, in thus en- 
deavoring to exercise a supervision over the people who have 
made him, politically, what he is. But as I have but a minute 
left, I will, without going further into that subject, remark, that 
in what I have said touching the President, I have felt no 
spirit of unkindness. I feel a pity, a sympathy for him. He 
is somewhat advanced in life, and now cast off by his former 
friends. In his old age, the South — having got all the ad- 
vantage they can make out of him, used him, body, and soul, 
and intellect — have now repudiated him ; and, now that he is 
about to retire to private life, I would not add a single pang to 
his remorse." 

A correspondent of the New Torh Evangelist,, writing from 
Richmond, Virginia, says : " In my ramble through this City 
I passed a dismal-looking place, which, on inquiry, I found to 
be appropriated to the buying and selling of Men, Women, and 
Children. Curiosity prompted me to go in, and the scene I 
witnessed will never be forgotten. It was painfully impressive, 
and I suppose the great mass of the people of the '■free States' 
would have felt just as I did. There I saw one feature of 
Slavery, an awfully abhorrent one. The weather was un- 
pleasant, and the number of Slaves brought in for sale did not 
exceed twenty. I looked round upon them, and did not 
wonder that the Nations of Europe should point the finger at 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 141 

US, for our utter inconsi;?tcncy in proclaiming ' Liberty,' while 
we tolerate the abominable traffic in Men, Women, and Chil- 
dren. All these were there. One young Woman, about 
twenty years of age, atti'acted my special attention. She was 
remarkably well proportioned, possessed a fine open counte- 
nance, and, in spite of all her ignorance and degradation, was 
vastly superior to her brutal ' Master.' I was shocked at the 
revolting manner in which the ' gentlemen Buyers' examined 
her, to see how much muscle and power of endui'ance she pos- 
sessed. Says one, ' Open your mouth ;' and then the wretch 
made his observation, as he would into the mouth of a horse. 
She held in her arms a Child about two years old, as I judged. 
I said to her, ' How old is your Child ?' The reply I shall 
never forget, coming from one who was treated worse than a 
brute : ' He will be two years old. Sir, on the 11th day of next 
February.' What a burning indignation I felt, that my country 
should be so disgraced in the eyes of the civilized world, by 
such a spectacle ! 

" At length she was ordered to take the stand. The bidding 
was spirited, and soon she was run up to $1,175. At this 
point, the Auctioneer was about striking her down. Her 
brutal ' owner' perceiving it, called out, ' She shall not go at 
that price ; I would sooner take her hack to North Carolina. 
So fine a Woman has not been in the Market for twelve 
months.'' And took her from the stand. Much as I detested 
him, I talked a little with him about her good qualities. He 
told me what an amount of labor she could perform — how 
many rails she could split in a day, and remarked, ' She left 
one Child at home. I was sorry for it, hut I could not help it.' 
I tell you, my friend, my blood got almost to the boiling-point. 
But it was well that I exercised a little prudence. I could 
not have helped the poor Woman, and should have been 
lynched. I saw and heard things, that filled me with the 
dii'est apprehensions with regard to the Slavery issue." 



142 ' AUCTION SALES OF SLATES, 

A correspondent of The Free Presbyterian, writing from 
Augusta County, Virginia, says : " Observing in one of the 
daily papers of this place that a Sale of Slaves vras to take 
place at Hill's Auction-rooms, I vs^ent down to see it. When 
I an-ived there, I found the room nearly filled with men who 
had assembled to speculate in the flesh and blood of their fel- 
lows ; and observing a crowd in one corner, between which 
and the street-door a screen was placed, I stepped up, when I 
saw a young Man, stripped entirely naked, and, amid the jeers 
of Traders, examined in a manner too revolting to rehearse, 
except it were in Newspapers published in a community where 
such things are permitted. In these examinations Sex forms 
no barrier. The Auctioneer announcing that the hour of Sale 
had arrived, a fine-looking Man, aged about twenty, was placed 
upon the stand. The Auctioneer commenced with enumerating 
his good qualities, and asked for a bid. $1,000 was the first 
offer, and soon run up to $1,300, and then to $1,350. He 
was now ordered to get down and walk across the room and 
back again ; and several came up, asking questions and ex- 
amining his teeth, &c. He again mounted the stand, and 
bidding continued until $1,375 was offered. He was again 
ordered down, and a similar course of examination took place. 
He was finally knocked off at $1,550. Next came a Boy, 
fifteen years of age. The same process was gone through as 
with the Man, and he was knocked off at $1,050. Next came 
a beautiful girl, about eighteen years of age, the same routine 
of exhibition and examination gone through with, and knocked 
off at $1,725. 

" I left the Slave shambles with a sad sickened heart. But 
a few days previous, I had seen two men leavmg their homes 
in the morning in perfect health ; and before the sun had sunk 
behind the tall mountains, I had witnessed their mangled 
corpses disentombed from beneath the mountain rock, that had 
fallen upon and buried them. I had heard the shrieks and 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 143 

witnessed the tears of the wife, the parents, brothers, and sis- 
ters of the deceased ; and I hope never to pass through such 
another scene. But what I witnessed at Hill's Auction-rooms 
was more horrible still. For my own part, I w'ould infinitely 
rather bury every friend I have, than see them put on the 
Auction-block ; and I would have declared the same to every 
Man in the room, were I not well assured by persons who 
could have no motive for misrepresentation, that it is but too 
notorious that many here Sell their own jiesh and hlood. In 
fact, not only Sell their oicn Daughters but the Children of 
these Daughters, and of which they are also, not unfrequently, 
the Fathers. Such is the polluting, soul-withering influence 
of Slavery." 

The following letter, from a gentleman travelling in the 
Slave States, embodies a fair, unprejudiced, and impartial ac- 
count of a regular Human cattle Sale in Vii'ginia : " I came 
here from Washington, D. C, on the 14th of April last, with- 
out stopping in Fredericksburg!), as I intended. Richmond is 
the Capital of Virginia, and has about 35,000 inhabitants. 
******* In this City one can have a better opportunity 
of observing the ' Peculiar Institution' than he could in Balti- 
more or Washington. Yestei'day, I visited two Auction Sales 
of Slaves. I saw eleven sold, seven Men and Boys and four 
Girls. There was one lot, apparently a Family, of fine, 
healthy, sprightly Boys with their Sister. The Auctioneer 
told me that they were brought there by a Man, who was said 
to be their Father. The Girl was, I should judge, about 18 
years of age, and the Boys say 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17. The 
youngest Boy was Sold first, and brought $750 ; the others 
from $875 to $1,325. The purchasers would feel their arms, 
legs, &c., poke them in the ribs, look into their mouths, exam- 
ine their hair, and ask them all manner of questions about 
themselves. They were taken — male and female — behind a 
muslin screen, stripped naked, ' thoroughly examined,' and 



144 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

then made to ' show their paces,' by walking backward and 
forward on the long floor. 

" One of the most beautiful young Women I ever saw in 
my life now mounted the stand. The Auctioneei-'s assistant, 
a Slave, exposed the victim's person, to show the ' muscles,' 
&c. The Auctioneer then told the wretched girl to ' look 
up,' and began : — 

'"Gentlemen: This is a very choice specimen — a very likely Girl, 
warranted sound, in every respect, and the title is perfect ! — she's a tip- 
top Seamstress and threatens to become magnificently prolific ! What 
will you give for her, how much ? Do I hear, $1,000 1 $1,000 I'm only bid 
Tor this superb piece of property ! [Here one of the ' gentlemen' in a dis- 
tant.part of the I'oom cried out, ' Send her this way,' and the Auctioneer 
stopped while the merchandise was told to ' walk out there, step lively 
now !' The ' gentleman' then turned the Girl round and round, told her 
to ' grin,' to show her teeth, and pushed her lips aside with his fingers, 
and then examined her person, from head to foot, asked her several 
questions about herself, and sent her back to the stand ; the Sale then 
went on.] $1,100 — $1,200 — $1,300, and going at $1,300! Why, 
gentlemen, I'm really astonished at your backwardness ! This Girl is 
none of your every-day Niggers ! She's a specimen that some of your 
Abolitionists would give almost any price for ; but they shan't have her! 
— no we've looked out for that. The man that buys her must give 
bonds never to let her go North again. $1,350 — $1,375 I'm only bid, 
and going at $1,375, once, $1,375, twice, $1,375 — going — going, gone 
to Cash for $1,375.'" 

A young gentleman of New York, on his "first Southern 
tour," and not yet Cottonized by the new influences surround- 
ing him, in a letter to the Editor of the JVew York Tribune, 
said : " Since I left home, I have seen the original ' Declara- 
tion of Independence,' and I have seen it ' illustrated' in this 
City of Richmond, Virginia. O my .God ! O my Coun- 
try ! I have been an eye-witness this morning" (March 3, 
1853) "to scenes such as have never been described, and never 
can. I was told by some of my Pro-Slavery friends at the 
North, that the evils of Slavery were 'exaggerated.' But 



HOKSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 145 

they have not been half told. I have neither the ability nor 
the heart to describe the scenes I have this moment come 
from witnessing. I have spent two hours at the Public Sales 
of Men, Women, and Children. There are four of these 
Man-Markets, and all in the same street, not more than two 
blocks from the Exchange Hotel, where I am staying. These 
Slave Depots are in one of the most frequented streets of the 
City, and the Sales are conducted in the building on the first 
floor, and within full View of the passers-by. There are small 
screens, behind which the Women of mature years were taken 
for inspection, but the Men and Boys were pubhcly examined 
in the open room, before an audience of over one hundred 
persons. These examinations were carried on by the vai'ious 
parties interested, and were, I should think, enough to shock the 
feelings of the most hardened vagabond on earth. You really 
can not conceive that beings in Human shape could conduct 
themselves so brutally ; each scar or mark was dwelt upon with 
great minuteness — its cause, its general effect upon the health, 
&c., &c. I saw full twenty Men and Women stripped this 
morning, and only tliree of them had what the Traders termed 
' clean backs,' and some of them — I should think full one 
quarter of them — were scarred with the Whip to such an extent 
as to present a frightful appearance ; one in particular was so 
cut up that I am sure you could not lay your finger on any 
part of his back, without coming in contact with a scar. The 
scars were mostly from the Whip or Cowhide, and were from 
two inches to one foot in length. The marks damaged his 
sale ; although but 40 years old, he only brought $675 ; but 
for the scars, he would have brought $1,000. I saw several 
Children sold. The handsomest Girls brought the largest 
prices. Girls, from 12 to 18 years of age, brought from $575 
to $1,530. 

" One of the Slave-mothers attracted my attention. She was 
a beautiful-looking Woman, about 25 years of age, with three 

7 



146 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

Children that would have done honor to any Lady m Christen- 
dom. Her Children, as well as herself, were neatly dressed. 
I took my stand near her to learn answers to the various ques- 
tions put to her by the Traders. One of them asked her 
what was the matter with her eyes ? Wiping away the tears, 
she replied, ' I s'pose I have been crying.' ' Why do you cry ?' 
' Because I have left my husband behind, and his Master won't 
let him come along.' ' Oh, if I buy you, I will furnish you 
with a better husband than your old one.' ' I don't want any 
better, and won't have any other as long as he lives.' ' Oh, 
but you will, though, if I buy you.' ' No, massa, God helping 
me, I never will.' The most indecent questions were put to 
her, all of- which, after a little hesitation, she answered. But 
when asked if she thought she could ' turn out a chattel a 
year,' she replied, 'No, massa, I will never have more, and I 
am sorry I got these.' She was then ordered to ' take the 
stand,' and the Sale commenced : — 

'" Gentlemen, said the Auctioneer, look at this Gh-1 ! Did jou ever 
see a more likely Nigger 1 — what will you give foi" her, how much 1 
$1,000 is offered — $1,200 — $1,300 — $1,400 is offered for this magnifi- 
cent article — something that no I'espectable man can do without! — a 
supei'b piece of property going off at a sacrifice ! — going off at a dead 
loss! — liow much am I bid? — that's it! — I see you, Sir — $1,500 is 
hid — $1,550 — couldn't think of selling such a beautiful Nigger at such 
a rate ! — did you say $1,600 1 — never mind speaking if you don't like 

— a nod will do for me — $1,650 — $1,700, shall I say? $1,700 it is ! 

— $1,700 — that looks something like business — go it, gentlemen ! and 
see who'll get tired first, you or me — keep at her ! — nothing like prog- 
ress — this is an age of progress — what have you got up over there? — 
'$1,725' — $1,750, did I hear? $1,750 it is! — go on! — you see, 
gentlemen, I'm getting excited ! Come, go on !—^ never mind that fcl- 
lov/ at the other stand! — our side for ever! $1,775, do I hear? — ■ 
$1,775 it is! — that's it! — encourage true merit — don't be looking 
over there. Sir — if you don't mind what you're about, you'll lose your 
chance ! — you'll let her slip through your fingers ! Do I hear, $1,800 ? 

— $1,800 is offered, and going at $1,800 — $1,825 — $1,850, go it! — 
$1,875! — that's the ticket ! — $1,875, that's well nigh prime cost! 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 147 

$1,875, and going at $1,875, once, $1,875, twice, $1,875, going — going, 
gone to Casli for $1,875."' 

A correspondent of the New York Independent, in a letter 
to that journal, says : " While travelling not long ago in one 
of the Southwestern counties of Virginia, the following in- 
cident took place. Starting in the stage-coach, soon after 
breakfast, the morning being a delightful one in the latter part 
of the month of May, I took my seat on the box by the side 
of the driver, and behind me, on the top, was seated a bright, 
intelligent-looking mulatto boy apparently of 18 or 19 years 
of age. After being on the road a few minutes, I turned 
about and asked him where he was going. He replied he was 

' going down a few miles to live with Master ,' who kept 

the stagehouse at the west stand ; that he had lived with him 
the last summer, and that his owner had sent him down to live 
with him the coming season. Turning from the boy, the 
driver remarked to me in an under tone, ' The boy is deceived; 
I am taking him down to the Slave-pen, a few miles on, where 
Slaves are kept preparatory to being sent to Louisiana; this 
deception is practised to get him from his home and mother 
without creating a disturbance on the place.' 

" Shoi-tly after we drew near to the place where the boy sup- 
posed he was to stop ; he began to gather up, preparatory to 
leaving the stage, the few articles he had brought away from 
his home. The driver said to him in a decided tone of voice, 
' You are not to get off the stage here.' The boy, in astonish- 
ment, replied: 'Yes, I is; I'se got a letter for Master — I 'se 
going to live there this summer.' By this time we had 

reached the house, and ' Master' making his appearance, 

John (for that was the name of the boy) delivered his letter 
and appealed to ' Master' to be delivered from the com- 
mand of the driver. The 'Master' made no reply, as this 
kind of deception was no new thing to him. After reading 
the letter and folding it up, he was about putting it in his 



148 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

pocket, when it flashed on the mind of the boy that he was 
sold and was bound for the Slave-pen. He exclaimed, in 
agony, 'Tell me. Master, if I'se sold!' No reply was made. 
He exclaimed, again, ' Tell me if I 'se sold !' This last appeal 
brought the response : ' Yes, John, you are sold.' The boy 
threw himself back on the top of the stage, and rolling in 
agony, sent up such a Avail of wo as no one in the stage could 
endure ; even the Hotel-keeper walked away in shame, and 
the driver hurried into his box and drove oiF in haste, to 
drown the noise of his cry. The passengers were all deeply 
moved by the distress of the boy, and tried in various ways 
to soothe his crushed spirit, but his agony was beyond the 
reach of sympathy. 

" When his agony had somewhat abated, he exclaimed : ' Oh, 
if they had only let me bid my Mother good-by. They have 
lied to me ! They have lied to me ! If they had a' told me 
I was sold and I could a' bid my Mother good-by, I 'd a gone 
without making them trouble, hard as it is.' By this time we 
we had passed on some two or three miles since leaving the 
stand; when drawing near to a pretty thick wood the boy be- 
came tranquil. Waiting till we had entered the wood a few rods 
he jumped from the top of the stage and ran into the wood, 
as agile as a deer, no doubt with the feeling that it was for his 
life. The driver instantly dropped his reins and pursued the 
boy. Pi'oving himself no match, he returned, exclaiming : 
'You see, I have done what I could to catch him.' He 
mounted his box and drove on a mile or so, when he reined 
up his horses to a house, and calling to the keeper, asked, 
' Where are your sons ?' He replied, ' They left home this 
morning, with the Hounds, to hunt a Nigger, and would not 

be home before night.' The driver said to him Mr. had 

sent his boy, John, on the stage that morning to be delivered 
at the pen, and that he had jumped from the top of the stage 
and taken to the- woods. His reply w\as : ' We will hunt him 



HOKSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 149 

for you to-morrow.' The driver said he wished only to notify 
him of being in tiie woods. 

" As we dro";e on, I made the inquiry, ' How long have you 
driven a Stage on this road?' He replied, 'About fifteen 
years.' ' Do you frequently take Negroes down to the Slave- 
pen?' 'Yes, frequently.' 'What will become of this boy, 
John ?' He replied, ' He will skulk about the woods until he 
is nearly starved, and will some night make his way up to his 
Master's house, and in about two weeks, I shall bring him 
down again to the Slave-pen in hand-cuffs.' After a pause, 
even this driver feeling his degradation in being the instrument 
of such misery, broke out into the exclamation : ' This is a 
cursed business ; but in this case this is not the worse feature 
of it. The man who sold him is his own father !'" 

Dr. C. G. Parsons, of Boston, Massachusetts, the Author 
of a Book on Slavery, entitled " A Tour among the Planters," 
in 1852, says : " The female Slaves can not be otherwise than 
degraded. Subjected at all times to the passions of the whites, 
chastity and refinement are out of the question. They are 
stripped entirely naked to be punished, not only on the Plan- 
tations, but by the city marshals in the cities, to whom the 
Slaveholders or ' Masters' send them for this purpose." (See 
chaps, i. and ii., of Part III.) " And often they are exposed 
in Public for Sale, in the same condition. Let the Northern 
tourist visit the Slave-Market, or the "Whipping-post, and he 
will frequently behold scenes at which the most degraded 
African ever imported, would hang his head in shame. Only 
think of a Woman, entirely naked, surrounded by a profane 
vulgar crowd, while she writhes under the Lash, or is offered, 
for purposes of Prostitution, to the highest bidder ! Such is 
the ' Christianizing influences' of which Northern Drs. of 
Divinity so loudly boast." 

Dr. Ell wood Harvey, in a letter dated December 25, says : 
" I attended a ' Sale of Land and other Property,' near Peters- 



15C AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

burg, Virginia, and unexpectedly saw a great number of 
Slaves sold at Auction. The wretched creatures were told 
they would not be sold, and were collected in front of the 
quarters, gazing on the assembled multitude. The land being 
sold, the Auctioneer's loud voice was heard, ' Bring up the 
Niggers !' A shade of astonishment and affright passed over 
their faces, as they stared first at each other, and then at the 
crowd of purchasers, whose attention was now directed to 
them. When the horrible truth was revealed to their minds 
that they were to be sold, and nearest relations and friends 
parted for ever, the effect was indescribably agonizing. Wo- 
men snatched up their Babes, and ran about the place scream- 
ing. Children hid behind their distracted Mothers, and Hus- 
bands, Fathers, and Brothers, stood in mute despair. The 
Auctioneer stood on the portico of the house, and the ' Men 
and Boys' were ranging in the yard for inspection. It was 
announced that ' no warranty of soundness' would be given, 
and ' Persons intending to Purchase must examine the Niggers 
for themselves.' A few decrepit old Men were Sold at prices 
from fifteen to thirty dollars, and it was painful to see the 
poor creatures, bowed down with years of toil and suffering, 
stand up to be the jest of brutal tyrants, and to hear them tell 
of their disease and wortblessness, fearing that they would be 
bought by the Traders and taken ' down the river.' 

" A white Boy, about fifteen years of age, was now placed 
on the stand. His hair was brown and straight, his skin 
exactly the same hue as that of other white persons and no 
discernible trace of Negro features in his Countenance. Some 
vulgar jests were passed on his ' color,' and $750 was bid for 
him ; but the Auctioneer said that was ' not enough to begin 
on for such a likely young Nigger.' (Here a Slaveholder, 
said to be the Father of the Boy, said to me, in a sneering 
way, that it was ' wrong to Sell white Niggei's.') Just before 
the Boy was bid off, his Mother, a fine-looking Woman, and 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 151 

as white as nine tenths of the Ladies of New England, rushed 
from the yard upon the portico, crying in frantic grief, ' My 
dear Son! — Oh, my poor Boy! — they will take away my 
dear — ' Here her voice was lost, as she was rudely pushed 
back and the door closed. The Sale was not for a moment 
interrupted, and none of the crowd appeared to be in the least 
affected by the scene. The poor Boy, afi'aid to cry before so 
many strangers, who showed no signs of sympathy or pity, 
trembled and wiped the tears from his cheeks with his sleeves. 
During the Sale, the place resounded with cries and lamenta- 
tions that made my heart ache . 

" ' Oh, I pity the poor little slave, 

Who labors hard through all the day, 

And has no one, 

When day is done, 
To teach his youthful heart to pray. 

" * No words of love, no fond embrace, 

No smiles from pai-ents, kind and dear; 

No tears are shed 

Ai'ound his bed 
When fevers rage and death is near. 

" ' None feel for him when heavy chains 
Ai-e fastened to his tender limbs ; 
No pitying eyes, 
No sympathies. 
No prayers are raised to Heaven for him.' 

" A Woman was next called by name. She gave her infant 
one wild embrace before leaving it with an old "Woman, and 
hastened mechanically to obey the call; but stopped, threw 
up her hands, screamed and was unable to move. One of my 
companions touched my shoulder and said, ' Come, let us leave 
here, I can bear no more.' We left the ground." 

What keeps down the consciences of Ihese traffickers in 
the Children of the Slave States ? It is the " Public senti- 



152 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

ment" of the community wliei-e they live ; and that " Public 
sentiment" is made by v,'hat are called " Evangelical Ministers 
and Members of the Churches of Jesus Christ," North and 
South. The Slaveholder sees plainly enough that, if " Slavery 
is sanctioned by God," and it is right to set it up in new terri- 
tory, it is right to take means to do this ; and, as Slaves do 
not grow on bushes in Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, Utah, New 
Mexico, &c., it is necessary that there should be traders to 
gather up coffles and carry them there ; and as they can not 
always take whole families, it is necessary that they should 
part them ; and, as Slaves will not go by moral suasion, it is 
necessary that they should be forced ; and, as gentle force will 
not do, they must whip and torture. Hence come gags, 
thumbscrews, cowhides, blood — all necessary measures for 
carrying out what the " evangelical Churches" say God sanc- 
tions. 

A correspondent of The Brooklyn (N. Y.) Times, writing 
from Petersburg, Friday, March 21, 1856, says : ^' Gentlemen, 
one of your friends while in Richmond yesterday, attended an 
'Auction Sale of Negroes,' and it being an entirely new scene 
to him, he thought some account of it would interest you. 
The Sale was in progress when I got there. On the block or 
stand was a large and powerful Man in the prime of life ; after 
several biddings he was knocked down at $1,350. I counted 
fourteen Women, and about the same number of Men, beside 
several small Children, all waiting their turn to be sold. Most 
of the Men were from 20 to 35 years of age ; they brought 
from $900 to $1,150; and Women, aged from 14 to 30 
years of age, brought from $700 to $1,850. A smart little 
Boy, apparently about 8 years of age, brought $500 ; and some 
girls, aged about 12, were sold at from $700 to $850. 

"The Auctioneer had a 'Niggei*' to assist him, whose busi- 
ness was to bring his fellow-Slaves to the stand and exercise 
them, in order to display their ' points' to the bidders, that they 



HORSES, AND OTIIEll CATTLE. 153 

might judge of their value ; and accordingly, as soon as one 
was sold, the poor fellow would go and bring up another. 
' Now, gentlemen,' said the Auctioneer, standing near the vic> 
tira, ' here is a fine Boy' (Men generally are called ' Boys,* 
and Women ' Girls,' regardless of age), 'and warranted sound, 
clear title, and is sold for no fault.' In the meantime the as- 
sistant made the man pull off his coat and vest, I'oll up his shirt- 
sleeves, take off his shoes and stockings, and pull up his pan- 
taloons, that the audience might see his limbs. ' Hold up your 
head ! Stand up straight ; open your mouth, and show the 
gentlemen your teeth,' said the Slave-assistant. ' Gentlemen, 
how much am I offered ?' asked the Auctioneer — ' $600, $650, 
$700, $725, $750' — and, bids beginning to drag, 'Gentle- 
men,' said the Slave-assistant, 'you do not see this Boy.' 
(Auctioneer meanwhile stops.) ' Come down here,' said the 
assistant, and he walked him up and down the room. ' Walk 
fast ; hold up your head ; now get up there again.' The Auc- 
tioneer then went on — $750, $775, $800, $825.' ' Bring that 
Nigger here,' called out one of the bidders from the back part 
of the room, which the assistant did. The gentlemen traffick- 
ers examined him closely, looked at his teeth and limbs, asked 
him various questions, and back he went to the stand again, 
and was finally sold for $1,125, and taken off to make room 
for the next. 

" ' Here, gentlemen, is a young lady for you,' said the as- 
sistant, as he led along a beautiful Girl, of 16 or 17 years of 
age. The Auctioneer began again, assistant rolling up her 
sleeves ; all her limbs being more or less shown by him, and 
examined by the ' gentlemen traders,' and she went through 
the walking exercise, which was done in every case. ' There, 
gentlemen,' said the Auctioneer, as another Girl was put upon 
the stand, ' is as handsome a piece of furniture as can be pro- 
duced in our glorious Republic,' and she was a fine-looking 
Woman, neatly dressed. ' Bring that Nigger here,' said a 

7* 



154 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

man near me ; the examination, and the questions he asked, 1 
may as well omit. I remained in the room long enough to see 
from 25 to 30 sold. All were knocked down singly, except 
in one case, where a ' Brother and Sister' were sold together. 
Among the groups to be disposed of were a ' Man and his 
Wife,' with a Child some six months old ; and opposite them 
sat a Woman with a Child about three years of age." 

The Staunton (Va.) Spectator, speaking of the late "pres- 
sure in the Money-market," says it did not seem to affect the 
price of Slaves : 

"On New- Year's day, the Slaves belonging to the estate of John Fra- 
zier, deceased, were Sold at Public Sale in this place, at prices which 
show that Money can not be very scarce, notwithstanding the 'hard 
times.' A gang of Men, Women, and Childi'en, varying from 3 months 
to 45 years old, averaged $900 each." 

At a Sale of " Slaves, Horses, and other Cattle," in Abing- 
don, Va., in front of the Court-House, on the 25th of Decem- 
ber, " very high prices were obtained." A large concourse of 
persons were present and the bidding was extremely spirited. 
" Good breeders were much sought after." At a Commission- 
er's Sale, in Danville, a Man sold for $1,270, and a Woman 
with a Child 5 months old, for $1,315. The rest of the " gang" 
sold for proportionately high prices. 

The Slave population of Virginia, in 1830, as shown by the 
Census of that year, was 469,757. In the ten years following 
that Census, the Slave population of the United States in- 
creased to within a fraction of 24 per cent. According to this 
the Slave population of Vii-ginia, in 1840, would have been 
581,559, had there been in the meantime no deportation of 
Slaves. In the next ten years (viz.: from 1840 to 1850) the 
Slave population of the Union increased 28 per cent. At that 
rate of Natural increase, the Slave population of Virginia, in 
1850, without any deportation in the meantime, would have 
been 749,106. But the actual Slave population of Virginia, 



HOUSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 155 

in 1850, as shown by the Census, was only 472, 528. The 
difference of 276,578 is to be accounted for by the deportation 
of Slaves. In other words, this difference is the result of the 
Virginia Slave trade. 

This then is the fact which we commend to the attention of 
all, who ignore the hideous atrocity of the American " Domes- 
tic Slave Trade," and who in that willing ignorance affirm that 
" the Sale of a Converted Slave, except by the Slave's own Con- 
sent, is an almost unheard-of occurrence." The denial of this 
fact by mercenary scribblers may deceive persons at a distance, 
but it can impose upon no one in the Slave States. In sepa- 
rating a " Husband and Wife," or " Parent and Child," the 
trader or " owner" violates no " Law" of the State — nei- 
ther Statute nor " Common Law." He buys or sells at 
auction or privately that which the "Majesty of the Law" has 
declared to be " property." The natural increase of Slaves in 
Virginia has been diminished by deportation at the rate of 
15,828 Souls every year, for the twenty years preceding the 
Census of 1850. Those dry tables of the Census, with all the 
pains-taking of the Government to prevent any information 
about '' Slavery" and " The Slave Trade" getting in-to them, 
have, nevertheless, a terrible testimony to give upon a careful 
Cross-examination. ^ 

The New York Journal of Commerce (an inveterate Pro- 
Slavery journal), of October 12th, 1835, contains a letter from 
a Virginian, whom the Editor calls " a very good and sensible 
man," asserting that 20,000 Slaves had been driven to the 
South from Virginia that year, but little more than three 
fourths of which had then elapsed. The Virginia Times (a 
weekly newspaper, published in Wheeling) estimated, that in 
the year 1836, the number of Slaves exported for Sale from 
Virginia alone, during " the twelve months preceding," at 
40,000 souls ; the aggregate value of whom may be computed 
at $35,000,000. Since 1836, the Trade has greatly increased. 



156 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

Thomas J. Randolph, in a Speech in the Virginia House of 
Delegates, in 1832, said : " How can an honorable mind and a 
lover of his country bear to see this 'ancient Dominion,' ren- 
dered illustrious by the noble devotion and patriotism of her 
Sons in the cause of Liberty, converted into one grand Me- 
nagerie, where Men and Women are reared for the Market, 
like oxen or hogs for the shambles ?'' Is it better, is it not 
worse than the African Slave Trade ; that trade which enlisted 
the labor of the good and wise of every »civilized_nation of the 
world to abolish ? The Pirate-captain receives the stolen Man, 
a stranger in language, aspect, and manners, from the Mer- 
chant-kidnapper who has brought him from the interior. The 
ties of father, mother, husband, and child, have all been rent in 
twain ; before he receives him, his soul has become callous. 
But here in Virginia, Sir, individuals whom the ' Master' has 
known from infancy, whom he has seen ' sporting in the inno- 
cent gambols of childhood,' who have been ' accustomed to look 
to him for protection,' he tears from the Mother's arms, and 
sells into a strange country, among strange people, subject to 
cruel taskmasters. It has been attempted to justify Slavery 
here, because it once existed in ' heathen lands.' Upon the 
same principle, the upholders of this withering system could 
justify Mahometani^, with its plurality of wives, petty wars 
for plunder, robbery, and murder, or any of the abominations 
and enormities committed in our midst — by the Christian 
Churches ? Does Slavery exist in any part of Europe ? No, 
Sir, in no part of it." 

The Neio York Herald, of January 21, 1857, says: "The 
Warrenton (Va.) Whig was informed by Messrs. Dickinson, 
Hill, & Co., Auctioneers, of Richmond, that the gross amount 
of their Sales of men. Women, and Children, in 1856, reached 
$2,000,000. The entire Sales of houses in Richmond alone 
would make the amount go over $4,000,000, and still the 
business is increasing. 'We ourselves,'- says the Wliig, 'wit- 



HOUSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 157 

nessed the Sale of thirty-five Slaves at an average value of 
$700. Girls, not ten years of age, sold for $800. A Car- 
penter, nearly forty years of age, brought $l,Glo, In Wil- 
liamsburg, last week, Mr. R. Saunders, executor of the estate 
of the late Rev. S. Jones, exposed for sale twenty Slaves, all 
of whom commanded a most excellent price.' " 

The Richmond (Va.) Dispatch says : " There has been a 
greater demand for Slaves in this city than ever known before, 
and they have commanded better prices. Prime field hands 
(Men) now bi'ing from $1,250 to $1,500 ; and Women, from 
$900 to $1,100. Not long since a likely Girl sold in this 
city at private sale for $1,700. A large number of Men, Wo- 
men, and Children, are bought on speculation, and probably 
there is not less than $2,000,000 in town now seeking inves- 
ture in such property." 

The Hon. Charles Sumner thus alludes to his tour in the 
Slave States, and to what fell under his personal observation : 
" It has been my fortune latterly to see Slavery face to face in 
its own home, in the Slave States ; and I take this early oppor- 
tunity" (December 2, 1855) "to oflfer my testimony to the open 
barbarism which it sanctions. I have seen a Human being 
knocked oiF at Auction on the steps of the Court-House, and, 
as the sale went on, compelled to open his mouth and show 
his teeth like a horse. I have been detained in a Stage-coach 
that our driver might, in the phrase of the country, ' help lick 
a Nigger ;' and I have been consti-ained, at a public table, to 
witness the revolting spectacle of a poor Slave, yet a child, 
felled to the floor by a blow on the head from a clenched fist. 
Such incidents were not calculated to shake my original con- 
victions. The distant Slaveholder who, in 'generous solici- 
tude' for the Truth which makes for Freedom feared that like 
a certain Doctor of Divinity" (Nehemiah Adams), "I might, 
under the influence of ' personal kindness' be hastily swayed 
from these convictions, may be assured that I saw nothing to 



158 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

change them in one tittle, but to confirm them, while I was 
entirely satisfied that here in Massachusetts, whei'e all read, 
the true character of Slavery is better known than in the 
Slave States themselves, where ignorance and prejudice close 
the avenues of knowledge." 



CHAPTER II. 

" We should transmit to posterity our abhorrence of Slavery." 

Patkick Henkt. 

The Hon. J. K. Paulding, late Secretary of the United 
States Navy, gives the following picture of a scene he wit- 
nessed in Virginia : — 

" The sun was shining out very hot, and in turning an angle 
of the road, we encountered the following group : first, a little 
cart drawn by one horse, in which five or six half-naked col- 
ored children were tumbled like pigs together. The cart had 
no covering, and they seemed to have been actually broiled to 
sleep. Behind the cart marched three colored women, with 
head, neck, and breasts, uncovered, and without shoes or stock- 
ings ; next came three men, bareheaded, half-naked, and fas- 
tened together with an ox-chain. Last of all came a white 
man on horseback, carrying a brace of pistols in his belt, and 
who, as we passed him, had the impudence to look us in the 
face without blushing. I should like to have seen him hunted 
by bloodhounds. At a house where we stopped, a little fur- 
ther on, we learned that he had bought these miserable beings 
in Maryland, and was marching them in this manner to some 
of the more Southern markets. Shame on the State of Mary- 
land ! I say — and shame on the State of Vii'ginia! and every 
State through which this wretched cavalcade was permitted to 
pass. Do they expect that such exhibitions will not disgrace 



160 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

tliem ill the eyes of strangers, however they may be recpnciled 
to them by education and habit?" 

The Washington correspondent of the New York Indepen- 
dent, in a letter to that Journal in July, 1856, spoke of a case 
of peculiar hardship in that city, growing out of the atrocious 
Slave system. The sequel of the case has recently transpired, 
and we give it to illustrate the working of the " institution" : — 

A noble specimen of colored manhood was born, in Virginia, 
of a Slave mother. On the demise of his " owner" he was 
manumitted. The heirs-at-law broke the Will, and Charles 
was remanded to servitude again. Through the influence of 
some Quakers in the vicinity who knew the man, a nominal 
price of five hundred dollars was set upon his head, which, 
with the aid of his friends, he promptly met, and rejoiced in 
the possession and full ownership of his own body and soul. 
But the sad part of the story was, that " his wife and three 
children" were still doomed " to grind in the prison-house," 
and their descendants after them for ever. By the solicita- 
tions of the neighbors and friends, a man in the vicinity pur- 
chased the family for six hundred dollars, and offered the hus- 
band and father a " bill of sale" of his household when he 
should be able to refund that amount. This man was, and is, 
a member of the Methodist Episcopcd Church, and the head 
Steward of that Ghurch in his vicinity. The " loy" Charles 
was a Memher of the same Church, and for years communed 
at the same altar. 

Twelve years had gone by, and the family of Charles had 
toiled faithfully for the " owner." He himself had early gone 
to Washington (D. C.) to labor, and, if possible, raise the re- 
quired sum to ffee his little household, and gather them around 
an humble altar which he could call his own. He had visited 
" his family" four times a year, sometimes taking down clothing, 
and such little things as a " husband and father," in such cir- 
cumstances, would be prompted by affection to carry. In the 



HOKSKS, AND OTHER CATTLE. IGl 

meantime, the " family" had increased to six children. When 
the case was made known to a " Friend" by Charles himself, 
this " Friend" offered to see that the six hundred dollars was 
forthcoming, and he could, at the first opportunity, seek an 
interview, with the " owner" of " his family," and make all 
}iecessary preparations for their liberty. He sorrowfully told 
his " Friend" that a generous man in Washington had made 
him the offer of assistance previously, but from certain indi- 
cations he had observed, he did not believe this professed 
Christian steward would comply with his promise. However, 
he tried, and his fears were fully realized, when this old sin- 
ner, of seventy years, coolly asked " four thousand dollars for 
the family." The man ! all the man, in the freed and noble 
father and husband rose at this wanton and wilful violation 
of all decency, Christianity, and honor. He attempted to 
reason, basing his claims upon the God-given conjugal and 
parental affections supposed to have a lodgment in the pei'son 
of the " owner" of another man's wife and children, but was 
peremptorily ordered to hold his tongue, and to mention the 
subject no more ! The sequel is as follows : Within three 
months, Charles visited his family in Virginia, and went up to 
the " Master's house," as usual. He again introduced the sub- 
ject of the purchase of his family, and the steward of the stony 
heart persisted in his demand of four thousand dollars. His 
offer was accepted, and he was asked to give a writing to that 
effect, specifying that upon payment of that sum the " tvife 
and children" should be free. This also he refused to do. 

The next day, he himself went to the nearest town and 
made a complaint against Charles, on a trumped-up story, 
that he was engaged in running off Slaves, and had the 
ofBcers out in pursuit of him. It is sutTicient to say, that due 
notice was given the victim, and the officers of the law did not 
succeed in finding his " brother communicant." The son and 
heir-at-law of the gray-headed steward, not being fully initia- 



162 -AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

ted into his father's duplicity, toolc sides against the officers, 
and in favor of Charles, stating that he was well known iu 
that vicinity, and was respectable and strictly honest. The 
officers, not relishing the business, or the denunciations, in- 
formed the son as to who made the complaint, and a small 
family scene ensued. Of course, a hasty retreat had been 
beaten by the poor sufi'erer, and wearied, foot-sore, and 
broken-hearted, he entered again Washington city, after trav- 
elling on foot fifty miles without daring to stop and rest himself. 
The Savannah (Ga.) Republican, speaking of the '' flourish- 
ing condition" of the Mai'kets of the South, in December, 1856, 
says : " On Monday last, at Warrenton, Va., many Slaves 
were sold at Auction, and brought extremely high prices. A 
boy, about eighteen years of age, sold for $1,245, and another 
boy, not over ten, for $799. A little, girl sold for upward of 
$600. At a recent sale of the estate of Zeph. Turner, de- 
ceased, Rappahannock county, eighty Slaves, ranging from 
twelve to thirty-seven years of age, averaged $1,115." 

In November, 1855, a Slaveholder with a family of his 
chattels, consisting of " husband, wdfe, and several children,'" 
took passage at Louisville, Kentucky, for Memphis, Tennessee, 
where he intended to take all except the husband ashore. The 
latter was hand-cuffed, and although his " Master" said nothing 
of his intention, the poor fellow made up his mind from ap- 
pearances, as well as from the remarks of those around him, 
that he was destined for the Southern market. The Steamer 
reached Memphis during the night, and while within sight 
of the city, the heart-broken man caused " his wife" to divide 
their things, as though resigned to the separation, and then 
taking a moment, when his " owner's" back was turned, ran for- 
ward and jumped into the river. He sank, and his " Master" 
was $1,500 poorer than a moment before. 

"Commissioner's Sale of Slaves. — As Commissioner, under a 
Decree of the Bourbon County Court, at the March Term, iu the case 



HOUSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 160 

of Alpheus Lewis and Margaret his wife, I will expose to Public Sale, at 
the Court-House door in Paris, on the 2d day of April next. County 
Court day for said County, on a credit of four months, two valuable 
Slaves, to wit : a Woman aged about twenty-five, and a Girl about 
twelve. Persons wishing to purchase, can see said Slaves by calling on 
J. Porter. Bond, with approved security, will be required, having the 
force and effect of a replevy bond. 

" THOMAS A. TAYLOR, Commissionek. 
"Paris (Ky.), March 22, 185.5." 

The younger of the two Slaves above spoken of, was found, 
"upon close examination," to have been cruelly treated. She 
showed burns that evidently were made with hot-irons upon 
her neck, hands, under both arms, and between her legs, both 
behind and before ; besides bruises upon her head, and bleed- 
ing at the ears. It was also made known by white men in 
Mr. Lewis's employ, that Sally, the oldest Slave and the 
Mother of several Children, had been stripped, by Mrs. Lewis's 
direction, entirely naked, and her feet tied to a tree, about four 
feet from the ground. She then made a Woman force the 
pump, and another direct the hose so as to drench poor Sally 
with water, while she would stand off a pace and pelt her with 
stones, and then take to her more favored method of torture, 
the hot-iron. Sally had old scars upon her back and legs that 
could scarcely be covered with the palm of the hand. Both 
Slaves had suffered dreadfully from hunger and cold. 

Mr. Alpheus Lewis is the son of Alpheu^J Lewis, of Clarke- 
County, Ky. Mr. Lewis, senior, is a Member of the Baptist 
Church, a man of wealth, and reputed to be of one of the " best 
families" in the State. Mrs. Lewis's maiden name was Scott, 
daughter of Robert Scott. 

A Committee of the Synod of the Presbyterian Church, of 
Kentucky, who had been appointed to make a Report on the 
condition of the Slaves in that State, said : " After making all 
allowances, the ' colored' population of the State, bond and 
free, can be considered, at the most, but semi-heathen. As to 



164 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

their temporal estate — Brutal stripes, and all the various 
kinds of personal indignities, are not the only species of cruelty 
•which Slavery licenses. The law does not recognise the 
family relations of the Slave, and extends to him no protection 
in the enjoyment of domestic endearments. The members of 
a Slave family may be forcibly separated, so that they shall 
never more meet until the final judgment. Brothers and 
Sisters, Parents and Children, Husbands and Wives, are torn 
asunder never more to meet on earth. Those acts are daily 
occurring in the midst of us. The shrieks and the agony often 
witnessed on such occasions proclaim with trumpet-tongue the 
iniquity and cruelty of the ' Institution.' There is not a 
neighborhood where these heart-rending scenes are not dis- 
played. There is not a village or road that does not behold 
the sad procession of manacled outcasts, whose chains and 
mournful countenances tell that they are exiled by force from 
all that their hearts hold dear. Our Church, years ago, raised 
its voice of solemn warning against this flagrant violation of 
every principle of mercy, justice, and humanity. Yet, we 
blush to announce to the world that this warning has been dis- 
regarded, even by those who hold to our communion. Pro- 
fessors of the Religion of mercy have torn the Mother from 
her Children and sent her into merciless and returnless exile. 
Yet acts of Church discipline have never followed such con- 
■ duct." 

The Rev. James H. Dickey, speaking of the horrors of 
Slavery in Kentucky, says : " As I was returning with my 
family from a visit to the barrens of Kentucky, I witnessed a 
scene such as I never witnessed before, and such as I hope 
never to witness again. Having passed through Paris, in 
Bourbon county, Ky., the sound of music (beyond a little 
rising ground) attracted ray attention. I looked forward, and 
saw the Flag of my Country waving. Supposing that I Avas 
about to meet a Military parade, I drove hastily to the side of 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 1G5 

the road, and having gained the ascent, I discovered about 
forty Men, all chained together after the following manner : 
each of them was hand-cuffed, and they were arranged in 
rank-and-file. A chain was stretched between tlie two ranks, 
to which short chains were joined, which connected with the 
hand-cuffs. Behind them were about thirty Women, in double 
rank, the couples tied hand to hand. A solemn sadness sat on 
every countenance, and the dismal silence of this march of 
despair was interrupted only by the sound of two Violins, yes, 
as if to add insult to injury, the foremost couple were furnished 
with a Violin a-piece ; the second couple were ornamented with 
Cockades, while near the centre waved the ' Star-Spangled 
Banner.' — the Flag of the 'Model Republic,' carried literally 
in chains ! I could not forbear, as I drove by, exclaiming, in 
the w^ords of Whittier, to the blear-eyed monster-captain of the 
©■an"" f — 

" 'Wliat, ho ! our countrymen in chains ! 

The whip on woman's shrinking flesh ! 
Our soil yet reddening v.'ith the stains, 

Caught from her scourging, warm and fresh ! 
What ! mothers from their children riven ! 

What ! God's own image bought and sold ! 
Americans to market driven, and bartered as the brute for gold !' 

" Heaven will curse that man who engages in such a traffic, 
and the Government that protects him in it. I pursued my 
journey until evening, and put up for the night, when I men- 
tioned the scene I had witnessed. ' Ah !' cried my landlady, 
' that is my brother !' From her I learned that his name is 
Stone, of Bourbon county, Kentucky, in partnership with one 
Cunningham, of Paris ; and that a few days before he had 
purchased a Woman from a man in Nicholas county. She 
refused to go with him ; he attempted to compel her, but she 
defended herself Without further ceremony, he stepped back, 
and by a blow on the side of her head with the butt of his 



166 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

whip, brought her to the ground ; he then tied her, put her on 
a cart, and drove oif. I learned further, that there were 
'about seventy Niggers,' besides the drove I had seen, shut up 
in the Paris prison for safe-keeping, to be added to the gang, 
and that they Avere designed for the New Orleans market." 

The following letter, the publication of which caused Mr. 
J. Brady, a New England Schoolmaster, to be Lynched, at 
Lexington, Kentucky, by the " free and enlightened Demo- 
crats" of that place, will help the reader to a more correct 
knowledge of the workings of the " •heave7i-horn mstitution" of 
the Republic : 

"Lexington, Kt., Tuesday, December 25, 1855. 

" Mr. Editor : Christmas has come around again. It is a 
great day here" (perhaps I should say week), " especially for 
two classes — Slaves and School-children. Most of the former 
have that day as a holiday ; the latter in most places in this 
State, have a week, sometimes including New Year's Day. 
Christmas is regarded as a great occasion, and was celebrated 
in the Episcopal and Catholic Churches. I have just returned 
from attending the service of the former. Both these 
Churches regard the day with much veneration, and well they 
may, being the Anniversary of the birth of our Saviour — of 
him ' who spake as man never spake,' Avhose wisdom and 
righteousness was above that of all men, and who gave him- 
self a sacrifice for the sins of guilty humanity, so that all who 
Avould come unto him might have eternal life. To hear of 
this Saviour we assembled. Although it was so great an An- 
niversary, and the expected presence of the Bishop was an- 
nounced, yet but a few persons were scattered over the Church. 
Notwithstanding the small attendance, all the ceremonies of 
that denomination were faithfully rehearsed. These were fol- 
lowed by a short but very eloquent discourse on the birth, life, 
and death of our Saviour. The prophecies in relation to his 
coming into the world, his holy life, and victorious death, were 



HOESES, ANI> OTHKK CATTLE. 167 

repeated ; the actual verification of these prophecies in his real 
life and character was dwelt upon ; and the noble sentiments 
which he had uttered, and the rules of conduct which he laid 
down for the observance of his followers, were made the sub- 
ject of comment. In conclusion, the minister, on behalf of 
himself and congregation, in loud strains, thanked our Father 
in Heaven, that he had given to tlie World his Only Begotten 
Son to die for sinners ; that he had cast our lots in a ' Christian 
land ;' and especially, that he had cast them 'in the most en- 
lightened community in all the earth, where peace, liberty, 
happiness, and Christian privileges, are vouchsafed to all.' 

" We listened attentively, wondered that so few were present, 
and regretted that more were not in attendance to learn the 
extent of our blessings, and to receive upon their minds a still 
more forcible impression of the beauty and excellence of the 
sentiments uttered by the second person of the adorable Trin- 
ity, An invocation to the Father, Son, and Ploly Spirit, that 
their blessings might rest upon us, closed the exercises, and 
we went forth in thoughtful mood, reflecting on that maxim of 
our Saviour. ' Whatsoever ye xooidd that men should do to you, 
do ye even so to them,' which is said to contain the essence of all 
our duties to our fellow-men, and on -those two commandments. 
' hang all the law and the prophets.' Scarcely had we pro- 
ceeded two squares ere our footsteps were arrested by a crowd 
of men on the sidewalk, so dense that ladies could not pass, 
but were compelled to cross to the next sidewalk, pass round 
and recross beyond them. Curiosity at beholding a crowd 
so much denser than at the Church attracted my attention, and 
led me to halt a moment, when lo ! there came to my ears the 
hoarse notes of the Auctioneer selling a fellow-creature, a 
Human being to the highest bidder ! Never were my feelings 
so much shocked. Though I had before witnessed the horrid 
spectacle of the sale of a Human being, yet, upon this day, com- 
memorative of such an event as can never be known again on 



168 A.UCTION SALES OF SLATES, 

earth — the birth of the immaculate and only Son of God — 
and after such a discourse as that to which we had listened, to 
witness a deed so revolting at any time to the feelings of any 
one in the least degree imbued with Christian philanthropy, 
and so contradictory to every precept of Him for whom the 
day has been named, was shocking beyond description. The 
Auctioneer was crying with stentorian voice : — 

"'Only $1,285 is bid for this Boy — a fine, likely Nigger going at 
$1,285 — must be sold to the highest bidder — $1,300 — $1,325, and go- 
ing at $1,325, once, $1,325, twice, and going at $1,325 — going, gone to 
Cash for $1,325.' 

" Oh ! what a contrast was this scene, almost at the door of 
the Church, to what we might have expected of that ' com- 
munity' of which we had just heard so favorable an account. 
If this scene was thought to be in accordance with the 
Christian character, and the minister had such scene in view 
Avhen speaking in such high terras of the ' community' (as he 
must have had), / wondered, as the hour suited, after the 
Sermon, and before the Benediction, they had not held the Sale 
at the Church, the 3Iinister being Auctioneer. Perhaps, how- 
ever, they knew that they could not get such a crowd there as 
they wanted, and, therefore, they came to the way leading up 
to the Temple of Justice. Oh ! how I Avished for a Paul to 
stand up before them, at the entrance of this Temple, and 
' reason to them as to Felix, of righteousness, of temperance, 
and of judgment to come.' Like Felix, they must have 
' trembled' at his reasoning ; but like him, those who could be 
guilty of such an act of inhumanity, with all the lights of the 
Nineteenth century beaming upon them, would probably an- 
swer, ' Go thy way for this time ; xolien I have no more Nig- 
gers to sell I will call for thee.'" — (See chapters i. and ii. of 
Part III.) 

A correspondent of the New York Tribune, writing from 
Cleveland, Ohio, under date August 9, 1856, says: "During 



HOKSICS, AND OTHER CATTLK. 1G9 

the past winter and summer I hfive been travening tbrougb 
Western Missouri and Kansas, and on tlie 21st of February- 
last I was in Lexington, Missouri. On the morning of that 
day I was, for the first time in my life, a spectator of the Sale 
of Slaves. , Two young men, and a girl, about eighteen years 
of age, were placed upon the block, surrounded by forty or 
fifty Slaveholders. The first put up was a ' Nigger' of great 
beauty and fine form. The Auctioneer commenced by exhort- 
ing the farmers to remember that the hemp was all down — 
hands were scarce — Niggers had taken a rise ; and told them 
that there stood one of the best-looking ' Niggers' in the 
Republic; that he was sound — had good teeth and ej^es. In 
short, was an ' excellent Nigger.' The bidding proceeded 
until $1,250 was reached. During the sale the Auctioneer, 
and others, indulged in witticisms and puns upon the boy, 
which set the crowd to laughing ; but the Slave did not laugh. 
Not a smile did I notice during the whole time. His expres- 
sion was that of deep despondency. Being called away, I did 
not see the other two sold." 

A woman and several children were sold at Goldsboro', 
North Carolina, a short time since, at prices ranging from 
$710 to $827. The Goldsboro' Patriot says :— 

" They were the children of a free Negro by the name of Adam Wynne, 
who had purchased their Mother, his wife, jDrevious to their birtli. Tliey 
were, consequently, his Slaves ; and he having become involved, they 
were sold for his debts." 

We have seen many phases of the workings of Slavery 
presented, but none more revolting than the above. Here is 
a Man who has shown a most devoted attachment to one who 
afterward became his "Wife" — having purchased her free- 
dom for that purpose ! She was thus raised to equality with 
himself; and after years have passed of domestic happiness, 
she and her children are seized by the remorseless Demon- 

8 



170 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

* 

power of Slavery, and sold from the husband and father into 
life-long servitude, to appease the inexorable demands of the 
creditors of this unhappy Man ! Ever since the days of 
Shakespeare, the name of Shylock has been held in abhor- 
rence ; but the exaction of the pound of flesh, of the Mer- 
chant of Venice, as " nominated in the bond" was merciful 
when compared to that of these Slaveholding fiends in human 
shape. Yet this is Slavery as it exists by " Law" in more 
than one half of the States and Territories of the " Model 
Republic" — which has been declared by the Presbyterian 
General Assembly to be " no bar to Christian communion." 

" 100 Slaves for Sale. — I shall offer at Public Sale, on the premises, 
commcucuig on the 22d clay of February next, 100 Slaves, comprising 
some excellent Mechanics, such as Carpenters, brick and stone Masons, 
and the best Field-hands, many of whom have been, for the last few 
years, employed in the cultivation of Cotton on my plantation in the 
South ; several excellent House-servants, Cooks, Washers, Ironers, &c. 
All of these Negroes were either raised by myself or purchased, for my own 
use, and I hazard nothing in saying, comprise altogetlier, the likeliest lot 
of Slaves ever before offered for Sale in this Eepublic, almost all of them 
being young, and consisting, chiefly, of able-bodied Men, Boys, and 
Girls. At the same time and place, I shall hire out 15 or 20 likely 
female Slaves to the highest bidders, some of them excellent House- 
servants. "N. T. Green, Warren County, N. C." 

In South Carolina, the " Market is firm." The demand for 
" Good breeders" is active. " The arrivals are below the 
wants of the trade" — and "the tendency is still upward." 
" A moderate business has been done in Women and Children 
for export." 

The Columbia (S. C.) Times, speaking of the " happy con- 
dition of things" in that place, says : — 

"There was a large amount of property sold yesterday (January 1), 
which we can not enumerate in full. Mi*. A. E.. Phillips sold an im- 
mense number of Men, Women, and Children. We subjoin some of 
the prices: One ordinary JIan, 22 years of age, $1,085; 1 ordinary 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 171 

Woman, 20 years of age, $1,070 ; 1 Boy, 15 years of age, $780 ; 1 Wo- 
man, 36 years, and Son, 4 years, $1,175; 1 Woman, 30 years, and 3 
Children, $1,750; 1 Woman, and 5 Children, $1,960; 1 Woman, 32 
years, and two Cliildren, $1,380; 1 Girl, $580. JTor Commissioner in 
Eqnity: 1 Woman and 1 Child, $1,776." 

A friend writing from Columbia (S. C), says: "Never 
having seen a Slave-Auction, I determined to be a witness to 
one. Accordingly, about fifteen minutes before the appointed 
hour, I left my Hotel, and while yet within some distance of 
the Court-House, I heard the voice of the Auctioneer, as he 
appraised his Human chattels, and rattled out — '$750 — no 
more than $750 for this likely Nigger fellow — $775,' &c. 
This was early on Monday morning. Scarcely had the echoes 
of the high anthem that pealed from the Episcopal organ and 
choir, a few hours before, yet died away. Hardly had the 
swell of the tune that rose from Dr. Palmer's Presbyterian 
Church yet murmured to the stars ; and the loud Psalm-shout 
that ascended from the throats of a thousand Baptists the 
preceding Sabbath evening had as yet hardly time (if time it 
takes) to ' mingle with the triumphal and eternal chorus of the 
harps of heaven.' Having so lately heard all these, with 
what harsh and grating discord did the horrid voice of the 
Man-seller shake the heavens and strike upon my eai*. 

" ' Is it, man, with such discordant noises. 
With such accursed instruments as these. 
Thou drownest nature's sweet and kindly voices, 
And jarrest the celestial harmonies 1' 

" The Sale took place on the steps of the ' Court of Justice' 
(ironically so called). Of the seventy-five or one hundred 
persons that composed the bidders, such a collection is never 
seen in a civilized community. There were groups of petty 
Merchants of the town, hai'd, close-fisted, money-loving, mean- 
looking men. There were a number of the poor Clay-eaters, 
from the Sand-hills, who were easily distinguishable by their 



172 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

cadaverous, ashen-white and half-human appearance. There 
were the gross, vulgar, and lecherous youths of the town. 
And (must I tell it, or shall I go backward and hide the 
shame ?) there was a professed ' minister of the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ,' with the badge of his order round liis throat, 
and who but a sun previous, had offered ' salvation and heav- 
en' to all. Bidding was tolerably brisk, and competition keen. 
The first offered was a middle-aged Man, of, I should judge, 
about forty years of age, whose cai'e-worn, broken-down, and 
dispirited countenance and deeply-wrinkled brow, intimated 
that the toil and trouble of at least twice forty years had been 
compressed into his brief existence. He sold for $875. 
Another Man sold for $1,345. A middle-aged "Woman then 
took the stand. She had a vacant, careless look, and as the 
Auctioneer praised up her qualities, a malignant-like grin 
Avould now and then flit across her countenance. He de- 
claimed about her, and continued repeating her praises as. 
' This splendid Seamsti'ess and Cutter. As a seioer and cutter. 
I am told Lucretia has no equal — besides being a valuable 
Jlousekeeper,' &c. She was sold to a man who I learned was 
going to keep a Tavern. The next victim was a young 
Woman, who (her 'owner' and the Auctioneer said) was 'just 
eighteen years of age;' she was of an Olive-color, and had a 
pleasing countenance and mild, lustrous eyes. Her 'owner' 
(who was said to be her Father) took off her hood, to show 
her countenance, and, when she replaced it, again took it off; 
and in appraising her, by word and action, ajjpealed to the 
lowest and basest passions of the assembled crowd. She clasped 
to her bosom a light-colored, blue-eyed child only three months 
old, and who, young as it was, cast a mournful look upon its 
Father, the ' owner' of its unhappy Mother, as much as to say, 
' father ! O father !' The Sale now commenced : — 

"'Gentlemen,' said the Auctioneer/ (taking off her hood), 'did you 
ever see such a Face and Head, and Form as that ? Look at this !' 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 173 

(piillingf up her clothes and showing her limbs,) 'she's only eighteen 
years of age, and already has a child — a Male child — three months old, 
and will, consequently, make a valuable piece of property for some one. 
She's a splendid Housekeeper and Seamstress. Gentlemen, you have 
only to look at her and you will behold the most lovely Nigger you ever 
saw! That's a fact, Sir, and I'll put you down at $1,.500! You say 
you didn't say anything — well, if you didn't, you smiled, and nobody 
has a right to smile at this stand unless they mean something ! Smile 
again. Sir, if you please — that's it — $1,600 — $1,6.50 — don't mind the 
fifties — go it by hundreds ! You all know what Shakespeare says about 
beautiful Niggers — don't damn him. Sir — and he's good authority — 
$1,700 — $1,800, did you say, Sir? $1,800 then! I don't want to 
make any reflections on the character and standing of the ' highly re- 
spectable gentlemen' before me, but you must all be aware that nothing 
improves a man's taste so much as the study of the works of nature — 
don't damn them. Sir, and by buying this magnificent specimen you will 
have an opportunity of indulging it to the fullest extent ! Come, gentle- 
jnen, how much more am I bid for this splendid Nigger — how much — 
iiow much ■? Why, gentlemen, the speech I am making upon her is 
woith the money alone — how much for her with the Child — how much ? 
$1,900 — $1,925 — $1,950 — $1,975 — that's it! — go ahead! — $1,975, 
I'm only bid for these remarkable specimens of humanity! — $1,975. 
Gentlemen, you're not going to let me be beat by that fellow at the 
Northern stand there, are you? — no, I am sure you won't — see how 
he looks at me, as much as to say, ' You can't come it !' — come now, 
bid up for the credit of our side of the Republic ! — it will never do to let 
me he beat by that Northerner — I know you're all friends and will stand 
by my side of the Union — that's it! — $2,000 — that's the way to fetch 
me up ! $2,000 — our side of the Republic for ever ! — they can't hold 
a candle to us! $2,000, and going at $2,000, once — $2,000, twice — 
going, gone to Brother Foster, for $2,000.' 

" The tears stood glittering in the poor Girl's eyes, and at 
every licentious allusion, she cast a look of pity and of" wo at the 
Auctioneer, and at the crowd — which was responded to only 
by a brutal laugh. She was knocked down to ' Brotlier Fos- 
ter,' a beastly-looking fellow about sixty-five years of age. 
She descended from the Court-House steps, looked at the 
audience, looked fondly into her Child's face, pressed it warm- 
ly to her bosom, with the Auctioneer's hard-hearted remark 



174 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

ringing in her ears, that ' that Child won't trouble her pur . 
chaser long.' I made my way to my temporary home, over- 
powered with a chaos of horrors. And when I entered the 
hall of the house, the merry glee and loud laugh of the female 
inmates too plainly announced to me the fact that the ' colored' 
daughters of ' the golden-rivered land of the plantain' find but 
few on earth who will shed for their sorrows a sisterly tear." 

Surely the Virgins of the Heavenly land will descend at 
times to comfort their woful hearts — while God himself will 
*' gather their teafs in his bottle." He whose heart was so 
tender that he wept at the grave of Lazarus, over a sorrow 
that he was so soon to turn into joy — what does he think of 
this constant heart-breaking anguish ? 

" By permission of the Court of Ordinary, on the first Tuesday in Jan- 
uary next, will be Sold at the Court-House in Gilli'sonville, Beaufort 
Disti'ict (S. C), fifteen Slaves, belonging to the Estate of William H. 
Mangin, deceased, and sold for the benefit of said estate. Terms Cash. 

"J.J. ^TO^Y, Executor. 

•'N. B. — In connection with the above, will be Sold, in addition, ten 
Slaves, the property of John Stoddard, comprising the Families of the 
foregoing." 

Now look at the cruelty of the above advertisement. First 
are to be sold the Parents, separately, or in the lot, as pur- 
chasers may incline. Then follow the Children, "' comprising 
the Families of the foregoing" — a stroke of the Auctioneer's 
hammer settling the question whether the Parents go in one 
direction, and tlie Children in another. 

" On Tuesday next, will be Sold at the North of the Exchange, at 10 
o'clock, A. M., a prime gang of Negroes, accustomed to the culture of 
Cotton and Provisions, owned by ' The Independent Church,' in Christ 
Church Parish. " THOMAS N. GADSDEN, Auctioneer." 

A correspondent of the New York Evening Post, writing 
from Charleston, says : " I have just seen a family of Slaves 
sold at Auction at noon-day, in the Public Square of this City. 



HORSES, a>;d othek cattle. 175 

They were placed on a cart as if for punishment. A red 
Flag was hoisted at their side — fit emblem of Crime and 
Slavery. The Auctioneer (Thomas N. Gadsden), who, I was 
told, was ' well received in Society,' praised the qualities of a 
poor Slave as ' very intelligent, and first-rate gardener.' The 
purchasers went up to the Men, Women, and Children, opened 
their mouths, and examined their teeth, limbs, &c., &;c. The 
bidding then commenced, and the bargains were struck off. 
Twenty steps oft", precisely in the same manner, they were 
Selling an Ass and an old Man. The ass sold for $71, and 
the Man for $69 — $2 less than the ass !" 

" For Sale. — A Girl, about 29 years of age, raised in Virginia, and her 
two female children, one two and tlie other one year. The girl never 
had a day's sickness, with the exception of the small-pox, in her life. 
The children are fine and healthy. She is very prolific in her generating 
qualities, and affords a magnificent opportunity to any man who wishes 
to raise a family of healthy Niggers for his own use. Any man wishing 
to purchase will please leave his address at this office." — Charleston 
(S. C) Mercury. 

A Slave-mother, " belonging to Derapsey Weaver, Esq.," 
of Nashville, Tennessee, having committed some fault, Weaver 
threatened to sell her next day to a Mississippi trader. But 
she determined not to be sold or separated from her child, and 
jumped into the river with her babe in her arms, and were 
both drowned. 

A young gentleman, who, like many other foolish young 
men, went South " for the benefit of his health," writing from 
New Orleans, says : " While at Tyrel Springs, twenty miles 
from Nashville, Tennessee, on the border of Kentucky, my host- 
ess said, one day, ' Yonder comes a Gang of Slaves, chained.' 
I counted them and observed their position. They were di- 
vided by three one-horse wagons, each containing a ' driver,' 
armed to the teeth, and so posted as to command the whole 
gang. The old Men and Women were unchained ; sixty 



176 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

were chained in two companies, thirty in each, the right hand 
of one to the left hand of the opposite one, making fifteen each 
side of a large ox-chain, to which the hands were fastened, 
and necessarily compelled to hold up — Men and Women 
promiscuously, and about in equal proportions, all young peo- 
ple. No Children here, except a few in a wagon behind, 
which were the only Children in the four gangs. I said to a 
mulatto-Woman in the house, ' Is it true that the Negro- 
traders take Mothers from their Babies?' — ' Massa,, it is 
true ; for here, last week, such a Girl' (naming her), ' who 
lives about a mile off, Avas taken after dinner — knew nothing 
of it in the morning — sold, put into the gang, and her Baby 
taken away. She was a beautiful young Woman, and brought 
a high price.'" 

The Savannah Georgian, of the 7th January, 1856, has 
the following Market intelligence : " Tuesday last was Gen- 
eral Sales-Day throughout many of the States of the Repub- 
lic — a day when Sheriffs, &c., offer 'property at Public Sale, 
to satisfy Executions, to close Estates, &;c. We notice, from 
reported Sales in various localities that Men, Women, and 
Children, generally brought good prices — affording gratifying 
evidence that the times are not as hard as has been supposed. 
We need no better evidences than are thus afforded that the 
Money pressure is by no means of a general or serious char- 
acter. As we have already said, the country is Solvent, and 
business affairs will soon regulate themselves. In short. 
Stock-raising" (that is to say, Slave-breeding) " was never in 
a more flourishing or glorious condition." 

The Georgia Annual Conference of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church resolved as follows : " Resolved, That the testimony 
of colored Members of the Churches shall not he taken against 
a white person." In the Day of Judgment " Nigger" testi- 
mony will be received, and there will then be heard the voices 
of the " evangelical" traffickers in Human flesh saying to the 



HORSES, AND OTHEIt CATTLE. 177 

mountains and the rocks, " Fall on us and hide us irom thti 
face of Him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of 
the Lamb." Think of it ! 

The Augusta (Ga.) Sentinel, speaking of the " property" of 
Ulm & Walker, which^was advertised in its columns, says : 
•' The Slaves averaged $499 per head, although there were 
among them a large number of Children, several at the breast, 
old Men and old Women, two superannuated, and one old fel- 
low dead. The mules and jackasses averaged $148 per head. 
We are glad to see the propei-ty of our friends selling so well." 
What under the sun could have induced any " living man" to 
pay $499 for a "dead Nigger?" — 

" 'T'was not meat foi' a Christian you'll own ; 
'T'was plenty of skin — with a good deal of bone." 

What respect can a community in which such things are 
done and reported so coolly, have for Human nature ? The 
man or woman who would sell the " Dead" at Public Auction, 
and the people who would '' Sanction" such infamy, would not 
hesitate to sell the body of our Saviour — were it in their 
clutches. Why is it that " the People" do such things ? Is 
it because they " live in a land of Bibles and Protestant priv- 
ileges ?" Why is it that " heathen nations" never commit such 
deeds ? Is it because they are not " blessed" with such "priv- 
ileges?" Why is it that all the efforts of the Pro-Slavery 
Churches in " heathen lands" have, thus far, done no good but 
positive evil ? 

The New York Dispatch (a Pro-Slavery Journal), of March 
20, 1856, says: "The Hawaiian nation which seventy years 
ago was estimated variously at 150,000 to 200,000, now only 
counts 72,000, a decrease within this period of at least two 
thirds. Vast tracts of land once under cultivation, are left to 
the rule of grass and weeds. The island of Kaui, remarkable 
for the productiveness of its soil, and able to sustain a popula« 
tion of 100,000 souls, contains a population of 6,000. ' It is 

8* 



178 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

not to cruel and devastating wars that is attributed tlds unfar-- 
alleled fulling off in so short a time, but to the social contact 
with civilized nian^ So writes one who is thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the history of the Sandwich Islands. And yet 
this same Hawaiian nation is constantly pointed at by the 
American Foreign Missionary Society as the evidence of their 
work. ' We have civilized and Christianized that people,' say 
they, ' by the untiring efforts of our Missionai-ies have the in- 
habitants of those islands been brought to a saving knowledge 
of the Gospel !' With truth they could add : ' It is true, they 
were a happy though a rude people, before our teachers went 
among their garden islands, once well populated and well cul- 
tivated; and, save a few incidental complaints, which native 
herbs could remove, they were tolerably ignorant of sma^/-pox 
and other loathsome diseases — diseases which have since taint- 
ed the blood of every Haviaiian, and fearfully reduced theu' 
number ; but then we have taught them the value of rum, to- 
bacco, silver coin, and Christianity.' There will not be a 
thousand Kenackers alive twenty years hence ; their doom 
is sealed, but have they not been 'saved'? — saved by the 
words of our Missionaries, backed by our Bible and New 
England rum." 

Dr. C. G. Parsons, of Boston, Massachusetts, in his " Tour 
among the Planters," speaking of an Auction Sale of Slaves he 
vritnessed in Georgia, says : " The doomed 'fathers and moth- 
ers' were standing with their arms around the necks of their 
' wives and husbands,' from whom they were the next moment 
to be torn. These mothers were to become the mothers of 
yet more unfortunate children in Louisiana. The sale over, 
the Slaves were ordered to take their departure. They broke 
away iTom their ' wives and husbands' at the sound of the whip 
and started for that City of the Graveyard — New Orleans. 
One of them — whose name was Robinson — bounded back 
and gave ' his wife' a ' last kiss' of affection, and was then 



HORSES, AND OTHEF. CATTLE. 179 

pushed on board. The heart-broken ' wife' had a present tied 
up, in an old handkerchief, which she designed to give her 
' husband' as the last token of her love for him. But in the 
more than mortal agony of parting she had forgotten the pres- 
ent until the cars had started; and then she ran -^screaming 
— as she threw the bundle toward the car; ' Oh, here, Robin- 
son ! I meant to give you this !' But instead of reaching 
him, it fell to the ground through the space between the cars, 
and such a shi'iek as that Woman gave, when she saw that 
solitary emblem of love for her ' husband' fail to reach him. 
Her heart was breaking ! She could no longer sup2:)ress her 
grief, and for some distance after the cars started, the air was 
rent with her bitter lamentations." 

A Slave-mother was hung lately at Cedartown, Georgia. 
Her " owner" told her that he had sold her four Children to a 
man, to whom they were to be delivered next day. The pur- 
chaser was known through the neighborhood as a tyrant and 
miser, who not only half-starved his Slaves, but "beat them 
brutally at every opportunity. The mother, who tendei-ly 
loved her Children, was overcome with grief at the thought 
of having them sold to such a monster. She begged her 
" Master," on her knees, to keep the Children, or if they must 
be sold, to let them go to a more humane " Master." But all 
her efforts proving vain, and being driven to desperation, she, 
on the following night murdered the Children. This was the 
crime for which she was hung. (See chap. t. of Part Y.) 

At the Sale of the property of the late Edwin Townsend, 
of Huntsville, Georgia, the Slaves, 285 in number, all Field- 
hands, and a large proportion of them Children, sold for 
$207,195, being an average of $727. A young "man and 
wife," having no children — but thought to be "good breeding 
stock," sold for $3,005. Many boys and girls, from 1 6 to 22 
years of age, brought from $1,300 to $1,750. Two twdn-brothers, 
15 years of age, sold for $2,350; a sister of these twins, 16 



180 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

years of age, sold for $1,796, and a twin-sister for $1,630. 
The entire amount of the sale was w^ithin a fraction of $330,000. 
" My poor Children," said a Slave-mother, " We are going 
to be Sold to-morrow, and we will never see one another again ; 
when you are far away from your poor mother, remember that 
I shall see the same Moon and Stars that you look at, and 
when we die, we shall go to Heaven and be evermore with 
Jesus ! O my Saviour ! my Children I O my Saviour ! 
O my poor Children !" 

"For Sale. — The Executors of the late Col. John H. M'Intosh, oifer 
for Sale, and are ready to receive applications for the Purchase of all his 
real and personal properti/, consisting of mules, hogs, plantation imple- 
ments, and about 221 Slaves, &c., all of which are on the plantation called 
' Burlington,' Duval County, Florida." 

By a refinement of contemptuous cruelty, the mules, hogs, 
and the very implements of toil, receive precedence of the 
despised Slaves. The Auctioneer is not even sure of their 
number — "about" and the " &c." are full of meaning. T/iey 
tell of /Slaves unborn, who will open their eyes on nothing hut 
Slavery, hut whose advertised existence, as yet unconscious to 
themselves, may screw some dollars additional out of the hard 
list of the thin-lipped, ashen-faced Trader, or the unpitying- 
featured Yankee " admirer" of the " heaven-horn Institution." 

The National Intelligencer, published at Washington, D. C, 
and " renowned for its taste and talent," informs us that there 
" Will be Sold at Auction, at Bank's Arcade, on Magazine 
street, in the City of New Orleans, at 12 o'clock, on Tuesday, 
January 16, 1855, the Slaves {about 385 in number) of the 
late H. B. W. Hill, including choice Plantation Slaves, accus- 
tomed to the culture of Sugar and Cotton, and considered to 
be one of the most likely gangs in the South, and comprising 
all the requisite Mechanics, such as Sugar-Makers, Engineers. 
Blacksmiths, Coopers, Carpenters, Bricklayers, choice House- 
Servants, Cooks, and Field-Hands, and are to be Sold in 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 181 

Families, and Singly, by a descriptive Catalogue. The Slaves 
are guarantied in title only." 

Who and what was this "Hill" — dead or alive — that 
Human beings — skilled Mechanics — belonged to him? By 
what right, beyond that rewarded with the gallows in civilized 
communities, did he own them, and by what right were they 
conveyed to Executors ? 

" For Sale. — Twelve Slaves, Men, Women, and Children; a small 
Schooner, a Ferry-Boat ; some Cows, Calves, Heifers, Bulls, Sheep, and 
four Philadelphia Hogs ; a lot of Furniture ; the contents of a Grocery 
Store, consisting v{ Hardware, Crockery-Ware, Gi'oceries, Dry-Goods, 
a Boar-Pig," &c. [New Orleans Bee.] 

A correspondent, writing from New Orleans, on the 18th 
of January last, says : " I have just returned from a Slave 
Auction, the most hideous exhibition of human depravity on 
earth. I as little dreamed, two hours ago, of attending a 
'Nigger Auction,' as I did of taking a trip to the Cannibal 
Islands, or to the Kingdom of Siam. Let me tell you how it 
came about : I was sauntering along St. Louis street, when I 
observed a gang of Slaves, composed of Men, Women, and 
Children, marching, under the escort of a mean-looking Irish- 
man, toward the St. Louis Hotel. A moment afterward, I 
obsei'ved another gang going in the same direction, and soon 
after a third. I had the curiosity to follow them, and as I en- 
tered the rotunda of the Hotel, observed, I should presume, 
no less than two hundred and fifty Slaves ranged in front of 
the different Auctioneers' stands. ' Operations' had not yet 
commenced. ' Fresh lots of Niggers' were constantly coming 
in, and the various ' dealers' were making examinations of the 
different 'ai'ticles' on exhibition. The immense Rotunda — 
an elegant and fashionable affair — was thronged with specu- 
lators, buyers, dealers, and lookers-on. Some were smoking 
their Havanas — some were taking their toddies — some were 
chattering on politics, the money-market, and the w^eather. 



182 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

The laugh — the smile — the cordial greeting of friends — the 
courteous Auctioneers — the elegant hall — the flash of fashion, 
and the atmosphere of gentility pei'vading the gay throng — 
how unlike the horrors of my gloomy imaginings. Yet, what 
amazing callousness ! 

" The clock struck 12 ! A change came over the spirit of 
the scene. The batons of the Auctioneers, brought down 
against the soKd marble, acted with the potency of magic upon 
the babbling throng. Four Auctioneers, in several sections of 
the Rotunda, hammered away with frightful gesticulation at 
four several parcels of Human ' chattels.' The four ' gentle- 
men Auctioneers' shouting at the top of their voices, as if each 
made a point of striving to drown the voices of the others. But 
the 'gentleman' on my right seemed to carry off" the honors, 
both as respected strength of lungs and rapidity of utterance. 
I wish you were standing near me, for I can give you but a 
very indiiferent Daguerreotype of the effbrts of this popular 
orator. Having ordered a Woman, with a sad, sickly coun- 
tenance, to the stand, he informed the spectators that ' this 
Girl' (she was not under forty) ' is always pretending to be 
sick,' and did ' not, therefore, warrant her.' He sold her, how- 
ever, for $6i5, and the next instant her place was supplied by 
a fine-looking, bright-eyed, young mulatto Woman, with an 
Infant, perfectly white, in her arms. He informed his patrons 
that ' this Girl is named Ann, aged twenty-two, and free from 
the diseases and vices designated by law,' and proceeded after 
the following fashion : 

" ' Gentlemen, look at this Girl ! Good nurse and seamstress. Do I 
hear $1,000? — $1,100 — Sl,200 — $1,250 — $1,275 — $1,300 — $1,325 
— $1,350, and going at $1,350 — going — going, gone to Cash for 
$1,350.' 

" The next victim, a Plantation-hand, named Onesimus, was 
bought by a man who gave his name as Nehemiah Adams, at 
which everybody laughed, and some strange allusions were 



HOUSES, AND OTIIEU CATTLE. 183 

made to the condition of the Churches in Boston, calling the Roll 
at Bunker Hill, &c. For a few moments the Sale flagged, and 
many stood on tip-toe to get a look at the last Buyer, whom they 
supposed to be the veritable Author of the 'South-Side View.' 
Tiie next chattel, a girl about eighteen years of age, was sold 
to John H. Hopkins, for $1,776. The crowd, again stared, 
and those near the purchaser eyed him from head to foot ; 
some asking him questions about the state of the Markets in 
Vermont, &c. Our eloquent friend having disposed of his 
entire ' stock,' proceeded witii hardly a moment's interruption, 
to sell a ' lot of real estate.' The three other " gentlemen 
Auctioneers' were driving on an equally flourishing, though 
not quite so rapid a trade. One of them — a very handsome 
young-looking man — was devoting himself exclusively to the 
sale of young mulatto "Women. On the block, at the time I 
approached his stand, was one of the most beautiful young 
Women I ever saw. She was aged about sixteen years, was 
dressed in a cheap striped woollen gown, and bare-headed. I 
could not discover a single trace of. the African about lier 
features. She was much wfhiter than the average of white 
New England women ; her form was graceful in the extreme, 
and she carried a pair of eyes that pierced one.thi'ough and 
through. Unlike many of her fellow-captives, she seemed 
fully sensible of her degraded position, and shi-ank with true 
maiden timidity from the stare of the hai'd-featured throng 
about her. She was struck off for $1,725, to one of the most 
lecherous-looking old brutes I ever set eyes on. 

* 
" ' Oh, how my very heart fills with sadness and grief, 
As I think of that poor girl's fate ! — 
Not a friend to protect or shield her from crime, 
Nor lift from her spirit the weight. 

" ' That vile Slavery's curse must evermove bind 
On all who are held in its thrall : 



184 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

Poor delicate, sensitive, heart-bowed quadroon, 
You must bear the rudeness of all. 

" ' You stand on that block to be sold for a sum 
That to you is nothing at all ; 
The one who bids highest will claim as his own 
Your body, your spirit, your all. 

" ' How sad and how hopeless your young life must be ! 
How hard to endure its rough blast ! 
Oh, may you but hear of the Saviour's kind power, 
And on Jesus yom* sorrows all cast.' 

" But I was destined a moment after to witness a far-sadder, 
more heart-rending scene. A noble-looking mulatto Woman 
was sitting upon a bench holding in her arms two little Chil- 
dren — one an Infant, and the other a beautiful bright-eyed 
little Boj of some seven or eight years. Her face wore a 
troubled and frightened look, as if she was conscious that some 
great evil was about to befall her. When her turn to be sold 
came, she ascended the platform, the Babe in her arms, and 
the little Boy clinging to her skirts. The Auctioneer offered to 
"sell the lot together," but no bids having been made, the 
Mother and the Children were put up separately, and sold to 
separate parties — the Mother going to Texas and the Children 
to Georgia. The final separation of the Mother and her 
children took place a few minutes afterward. I shall never 
forget the horror and agony of that parting. The poor frantic 
Mother implored ' Massa' to ' buy the children too' (and I will 
do him the justice to say that he was much moved by her 
appeals), and when she found that her efforts were in vain, 
she burst forth into the most frantic wails that ever despair 
gave utterance to. At last Mother and Children were forcibly 
separated and hurried off, to see each other no more. 

" I asked a noble-looking Man, nearly white, who was on 
the point of being sold, if he had a family. ' Yes, massa,' he 
said, ' a Wife and three Children, two Boys and a Girl. One 



HORSES, AND OTHER CATTLE. 185 

of my Boys was sold on Thursday last, to a Dealer from 
Mississippi ; the other to a man fi-om Georgia ; and my poor 
Daughter, over there' (pointing to a beautiful Girl, of fifteen 
or sixteen years of age) ' has just been purchased by that big 
red-headed Irishman, and my Wife is now on her way to 
Kansas.' The allusion to his family seemed too much for 
him, for his frame quivered, and the tears began to flow. 

" The Hotel, above and around this mart for the sale of 
Human flesh was filled with ' wealth and beauty,' and the 
music of piano and guitar were blending with the ' still sweeter 
music of glad voices.' Above the hoarser din of the mart 
below, was heard the loud laugh and ' heartful glee' of many 
of the Slaveholding nobility of the Sunny South. Gay 
equipages were drawing up before the stately pile and 'fair 
women and brave men' were proudly disappearing through its 
portals to swell the throng. Within the ' sumptuous halls' — 
amid that gay and gleeful throng — amid the '"flash of beauty, 
fashion, and wealth,' where so many _ splendors were gathered 
— who would dream that, under the same broad dome, and in 
the effulgence of the same 'golden sun-light' — crime, sin, and 
despair, were holding high revel ? Who would dream that 
the former drew their sustenance from the latter ?" 

The New Orleans Delta, of the 24th of February last, has 
among the cold facts and speculations of its " Money-article," 
the following statement : — 

"Within the last six weeks, upward of $1,000,000 in value of Men, 
"Women, and Children, have been thrown upon the Market, and the 
means to pay for them have been extracted from the floating capital of 
the place. This amount, in the various ramifications through wliich it 
has gone, has liquidated a much larger amount of indebtedness, but as 
it has merely wiped out an amount which was unnatural and redundant, 
tlie benefit is rather of tlie negative sort, in preventing embarrassment, 
than of the kind which positively aids, by going into new channels and^ 
fertilizing new fields." 



186 AUCTION SALES OF SLAVES, 

There is something worthy the arch-fiend himself in this 
mode of speaking of liquidating " indebtedness" to the amount 
of a million of dollars. Whoever heard of a Slaveholder 
" fertilizing" the soil ? Slavery disgraces labor by making the 
laborer a brute — a "chattel," while it makes the Slaveholder 
the immediate rival of the free laborer in all the markets of 
the world. Hence Tiberius Gracchus, one of the greatest of 
Roman citizens, early saw that in a State where Slaveholders 
at the same time monopolized and disgraced labor, there would 
necessarily be a vast demoralized population, who would 
demand support of the State, and be ready for the service of 
the demagogue, who is always the tyrant. Gracchus was 
killed, but the issue proved the prophet. The canker which 
Rome cherished in her bosom ate out her heart, and the 
Empire whose splendor^flashed over the whole world, fell like 
a blighted tree. Not until Slavery had barbarized the great 
mass of " the People" did Rome fall. 

Slavery annihilates the conditions of human progress. Its 
necessary result is the destruction of humanity ; and this not 
only directly upon the Slave, but indirectly by its effect upon 
the " Master." In the one it destroys the self-respect which 
is the basis of manhood, and is thus a capital crime against 
humanity. In the other it fostei's pride, indolence, luxury, 
and licentiousness, which equally imbrute the human being. 
Therefore in Slave States there is no literature, no art, no 
progressive civilization. Manners are fantastic and fierce ; 
brute force supplants moi'al principle ; freedom of speech is 
suppressed because the natural speech of man condemns Sla- 
very ; a sensitive vanity is called " honor," and cowardly 
swagger, " chivalry ;" real respect for Woman is destroj'ed 
by universal licentiousness; lazy indifference is called "gal- 
lantry," and an impudent familiarity, " cordiality." 



PART THIRD. 

SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 



CHAPTER I. 



"Avarice alone can drive, as it does, this infernal traffic, and the 
wretched victims of it, lilie so many post-horses whijjped to deatli iu a 
mail-coach. Ambition has its cover-sluts m the pride, pomp, and cir- 
cumstance of 'glorious war;' but where are the trophies of avarice, the 
hand-cuiF, the manacle, the blood-stained cowhide 1" Randolph. 

It used to be thought that Christianity was the religion of 
brotherly love, which had virtually annulled distinctions of 
I'ace among men, by the revelation of their common father- 
hood in God ; but the Slaveholders, and their allies, insist that 
this is a lamentable mistake. Christianity, according to them, 
means the right of one man to appropriate the faculties and 
labors of another, the right to reduce him to the level of the 
brute — to deny him education and the means of spiritual 
growth — to control his most sacred domestic relations, and to 
buy and sell and scourge him, under no other restraint than 
simple self-interest. In excuse of this robbery, it has been 
pretended by the Slaveholders, and their abettors, that though 
indeed these children of the " cursed seed of HdnC are torn by 
fraud and violence from their homes, yet, " they thereby be- 
come the happier, and their condition the more eligible." 
They assure us that the Slaves are " well fed," " well clothed,'" 
and as " happy as kings." In fact, " perfectly contented !" Of 



188 SLAVE LIF13 ON THE PLANTATION. 

course they are contented ! do not the " misguided runaways" 
sing, nightly, to admiring audiences, " Oh, cai'ry me home to 
Tennessee !" 

, Do tliey not clamor to be taken liome to the arms of the 
-loving "patriarchs" whom, in a moment of hasty ill-judg- 
ment, they have forsaken ? Do they not mourn over their in- 
gratitude in running away from " cottage, food, and raiment" ? 

In Baltiniore, Maryland, a Slave was killed a short time 
since by his " Master," and " without any adequate provoca- 
tion," as was proven. The deceased was esteemed by all who 
knew him as an honest, industrious, and inoffensive man. This 
man's " wife," on hearing of the death of her " husband," 
jumped out of the window of the jjlace in which her beastly 
" owner" had confined her, and immediately took the nearest 
route to throw herself *nto the river. She was rescued, but 
begged the bystanders to let her drown herself, saying: "J 
would sooner he dead, than go back again to be beaten, and 
otherwise abused, as I have been." 

A friend, writing from Baltimore, states that the Slave of a 
Farmer in Jefferson County, having been jumped upon and 
stamped by his "Master," with spurs on so as to cruelly lacerate 
his face as well as his body, was found, next morning, in au 
adjacent pond, having tied a stone to his own neck and plung- 
ed in, under feelings of desperation, caused by the fiendish 
treatment of his " owner." 

At a fire which recently took place in the Eastern section 
of the City, the firemen found a beautiful girl tied in the gar- 
ret of a house, and bearing the marks of improper chastisement. 
She stated that she had been kept in that condition for nearly 
four weeks, and with scarcely a sufficiency of food to sustain 
life. As soon as she was loosed from her prison-house, she 
escaped and sought refuge in the house of an acquaintance in 
the Western part of the pity. There was another woman, of 
a darker complexion — found in the same house, who had re- 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLAXTATION. 189 

ceived the most barbarous treatment at the hands of tlie same 
parties. Her back, face, and hmbs, were most horribly muti- 
lated, while there was a severe contusion on her head, and it 
was thought that the skull was fractured. This poor girl was 
sent to the Infirmary, where her wounds could receive proper 
treatment. 

A male Slave, belonging to a " lady" residing in Baltimore, 
and moving in the ''first circles,'' died in the winter of 1855, 
at the Hospital in that City. He was her Coachman. Dur- 
ing the severest weather he used to be kept sitting on the car- 
riage-box, opposite to the lady's window, half clad, and, as was 
well known to be the case Avith this woman's Slaves, half 
starved. In this condition the man suffered, and eventually 
froze. The poor fellow becoming thus disabled and wholly 
unfit for service, a physician was sent for, who, after examin- 
ing him, declared that he was frost-bitten from head to foot 
and could not live. He was sent to the Infirmary, where both 
his feet "were amputated, and he shortly afterward died. A 
few years previous this same man's " wife," who also belonged 
to his Mistress, was so badly treated that she ran away and 
prevailed upon old Slater, the Slave-dealer, to buy her out of 
her Mistress' clutches. He did so ; and she was ever after 
prohibited all intercourse with her " husband," who was kept 
from his " wife" to be treated in the manner we have described. 
This woman, on hearing that her " husband" was at the Infir- 
mary, went to inquire after him. She Avas informed that he 
was dead, whereupon she fell on the floor in a fit and died. 

Another female Slave, belonging to this woman, also ran 
away. Her son, a young man, was sent in pursuit of the fu- 
gitive. She was found at Cockeysville, 18 miles from Balti- 
more. He seized her, tied her to his buggy, and in that way 
drove her into the City at a rapid rate, with the woman run- 
ning by the side of the vehicle. It was stated by some whc 
witnessed the scene that it was hard to tell which was whipped 



190 SLAYE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

most on the road, the horse or the Woman. Another female 
Slave belonging to the same fiend-woman fell from the third 
story of her Mistress' house, while engaged in washing the 
windows, and was taken up a cripple for life. It turned out 
that her Mistress, by way of punishment, had deprived her of 
sleep by compelling her to pass the night standing by her side, 
and that thus she fell asleep, which circumstance caused the fall. 

" In Virginia," says the Hon. Alexander Smythe, "the Slaves 
are ill-fed. They are doomed to scarcity and hunger. They 
get only two meals a day; breakfast from 10 to 11 o'clock, 
A.M., and supper from 7 to 9 or 10 at night, as the season 
and crops may be." Another Virginian, Mr. William Left- 
witch, says : " The Slaves generally take their meals, without 
knife, dish, or spoon. They have neither beds nor bedsteads." 

The Hon. T. T. Bouldin, of Virginia, in a Speech in Con- 
gress, said he knew " that many Slaves had died from expo- 
sure to the weather ;" and added, " The Slaves are clad in a 
flimsy fabric, which will turn neither wind nor weather." 
The Rev. C. S. Renshaw, speaking of the shocking condition 
of the Slaves in Virginia, says : " I have seen Men and Wo- 
men at work in the 'fields, more than half naked." In the 
South generally Men and Women have scarce clothes enough 
to hide their nakedness, and the boys and girls, eight and ten 
years of age, are often entirely naked among their Master's 
non-colored children." 

In the "Will" of John Randolph, distinguished as a "kind 
Master," we find the following clause : " To my old and faith- 
ful Servants Essex and Ms icife Hetty, I give and bequeath a 
pair of strong shoes, a suit of clothes, and a blanket each, to he 
paid them annually; also a hat annually to Essex " !No socks, 
stockings, bonnets, cloaks, handkerchiefs, or towels — no change 
either of outside or inner garments. And a solemn " Last 
Will and Testament" was deemed necessary to secure to them 
even the articles specified ! 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE TLAKTATION. 191 

" Slavery," we are told, " is remarkably mild in Virginia ;" 
but the following specimens explain what is meant by the 
phrase : On the 1st day of September, 1841), Simeon Souther, 
a Slaveholder of Virginia, tied liis Slave Sam to a tree, and 
then whipped him with switches, and afterward with a cow- 
hide; and, when fatigued with the labor of whipping, he called 
upon another Slave to cob Sam Avith a paddle.* He also 
called upj»n Sam's " wife" to cob him. And, after cobbing 
and whipping, he applied fire to * * * * * * and other parts 
of his person. He then caused him to be washed down Avitli 
warm water, in Avhich pods of red pepper had been steeped. 
After this tying, whipping, cobbing, burning, and washing, he 
kicked, stamped upon, and otherwise tortured, his wretched 
victim, until he died.f 

On the 18th of July, 1854, a Slave, a young Man in the 
prime of life, was stripped, tied, strung up, and whipped in the 
most shocking manner, by an Overseer, in the neighborhood 
of Richmond. He was whipped for a very trifling offetice. 
When so exhausted that he fainted, he was washed with brine ; 
then whipped again. This was repeated several times. He 
was tied up early in the morning, and was released about one 
o'clock, and sent out to work. He fainted in the field. A 
shoWer came up, and he contrived to get into the barn, where 
he died. While the Overseer was beating him, he begged 
him to shoot him ; while he could speak, he kept moaning, 
" Oh, pray, Massa ! Oh, my Saviour ! Oh, pray, Massa I 
Oh, my Saviour ! Oh, pray, Massa !" The murderer moved 
about as if he had done nothing uncommon. 

" Some people" have thought, and still think, that Legree 

* The " paddle" is a thin shingle-like piece of wood, in which many 
holes are bored ; when a blow is strack, these holes, from the rush and 
partial exhaustion of air in them, act like diminutive cups. 

t " Souther vs. The Commonwealth," Grattan's Reports, vol. vii., p, 
673, 1851. 



192 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

was too great a fiend to be natural. We, however, sometimes 
see a symptom of his un-Christian spirit even among " gentle- 
men moving in the highest ranks of society." For instance, a 
'■'•free Negro," named Fleming, had a dispute with a Mr. and 
Mrs. Poe about a small sum of money due him, and becoming 
excited, told his debtors what he thought of them. They had 
him arrested, .and the Mayor directed that he should have 
" thirty-nine stripes, well laid on," on that day, anH " thirty- 
nine more" the next, and then ordered his commitment " for 
twelve months in default of $500 security to keep the peace 
,and be of good behavior," &c. The Richmond Eepuhlican, 
in its Report of the case, said :— 

" Our only regret is, that the Mayor did not assess the punishment at 
three hundred lashes, well laid on with a hot iron-rod, to be repeated 
twice a week for twelve months. Such an impudent Nigger should no 
more be permitted to go at lai-ge than a mad dog." 

On examining the Police reports of a single number of this 
"highly respectable journal," we find that "Jordan Goode, 
Slave of Haxall and Brother, was caged on Sunday night for 
not having his pass endorsed. The Mayor let him off, but for 
the next offence, won't he catch it ?" — " Isaac Allen, a gentle- 
man of color, Slave to Goode & Allen, received a part of his 
holiday suit yesterday, by order of the JIayor, for failing to 
have his Pass endorsed, and running from the watchman." — 
" Felix Harwood, Slave to George Turner, was caught by the 
wa-tch when stealing a stick of firewood, on Sunday night last, 
and was caged. The Court ordered him a warm jacket, that 
his system might be heated by additional dressing. A striped 
jacket must have felt fine yesterday, as cold as the wind 
blowed." — " Joe Shieaway says he is a 'y*ree Nigger,' but as 
he was without a register to prove it, and no one felt disposed 
to take his word for it, the Mayor directed his delivery into 
the kind keeping of the old Commodore." — "Thomas JefFer- 
ison — what a big name for a Nigger! — was brought before 

K 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 193 

the Mayor yesterday, and ordered thirty-nine lashes for firing 
pop-cracliers in Carey street, on Saturday evening last. A 
lady of color was caged and condemned by the Mayor to re- 
ceive thirty-nine lashes for being found without papers, and 
assaulting Elizabeth King, and endeavoring to make her 
escape from the City, attired as a Man." 

If the word diabolical does not apply to the malicious delight 
in suffering and utter heartlessness of the foregoing, it should 
be discharged from the dictionary as useless. Think of talk- 
ing of a torture which savages would be ashamed to inflict, as 
a " holiday suit," or a " warm jacket," and notice the offences 
for which poor creatures were flogged ! 

The following facts, gleaned from the examination of John 
Capheart, in one of the rescue trials, at Boston, Massachusetts, 
throws some light upon this "deeply interesting subject": — 

'■^Question. Mr. Capheart, is it a part of your duty, as a 
Policeman, to take up colored persons who are out after hours 
in the streets ? 

''^Answer. Yes, sir. 

" Q. "What is done with them ? 

'M. We put them in the lock-up, and in the morning they 
are brought into Court and ordered to be punished — those 
that are to be punished. 

" Q. What punishment do they get ? 

"^. Not exceeding thirty-nine lashes. 

" Q. Who gives them these lashes ? 

"^. Any of the Officers. I do, sometimes. 

" Q. Are you paid extra for this ? How much ? 

"A. Fifty cents a head. It used to be sixty-two cents. 
Now, it is only fifty. Fifty cents for each one we arrest, and 
fifty. more for each one we flog. 

" Q. Are these persons you flog Men and Boys only, or are 
they Women and Girls also ? 

"J. Men, Women, Boys, and Girls, just as it happens." 
9 



194 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

|"Here the Government interfered, and tried to prevent any 
furtner examination ; and said, among other things, that he 
" only performed his duty as Police-Officer under the Law." 
After some discussion, Judge Curtis allowed it to proceed.] 

"Q. Is your flogging confined to these cases? Do you not 
flog Slaves at the request of their Masters ?* 

"A. Sometimes I do. Certainly, when I am called upon.' 

" Q. In these cases of private flogging, are the Negroes sent 
to you ? Have you a place for flogging? 

"^. No ; I go round, as I am sent for. 

" Q. Is this part of your duty as an Officer ? 

"J. No, sir. 

* Hence such advertisements as the following: — 

"Committed to jail as a runaway, a negro woman named Martha, 
17 or 18 years of age, has numerous scars of the M'hip on her back." 
— Nashville Banner. 

"Ten dollars reward for my woman Sally, very much scarred 
about the neck and ears by whipping." — Slobile Com. Adv. 

"Lodged in jail, a mulatto boy, having large marks of the whip 
on his shoulders and other parts of his body." — Milledgeville Stand- 
ard of the Union. 

"Committed to jail, a mulatto fellow — his back shows lasting im- 
pressions of the whip, and leaves no doubt of his being a slave." — 
Fayetteville Observer. 

"Was committed, a negro boy named Tom; is much marked with 
the whip." — Charleston Courier. 

"Ean away, a negro man named Johnson — ^Iie has a great many 
marks of the whip on his back." — Augusta Chronicle. 

"Ran away, a mulatto boy named Quash; considerably marked 
on the back and other places with the lash." — N. 0. Bulletin. 

"One hundred dollars ireward for my negro Glasgow, and' Kate, 
his wife. Glasgow is 24 years old — has marks of the whip on his 
back. Kate is 26 — has a scar on her cheek, and several marks of 
the whip." — Macon Messenger. 

"Ran away, a negro fellow named Dick — has many scars on his 
back from being whijiped." — Vicksburg Sentinel. 

"Brought to jail, a negro man named George— he has a great 
many scars from the lash." — Milledgeville Journal. 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 195 

"^. In these cases of private flogging, do you inquire into 
the circumstances to see what the fault has been, or if there is 
any? 

"A. Tiiat's none of my business. I do as I am bid. The 
Master is responsible. 

" Q. In these cases, too, I suppose you flog Women and 
Girls, as well as Men ? 

"A. Women and Men. 

" Q. Mr. Capheart, how long have you been engaged in this 
business ? 

M. Ever since 1836. 

" Q. How many Negroes do you suppose you have flogged, 
in all. Women and Children included ? 

" A. (Looking calmly round the room.) I don't know how 
many Niggers you have got here in Massachusetts, but I 
should think I had flogged as many as you 've got in the 
State." 

The same man testified that he was often employed to pur- 
sue fugitive Slaves. His reply to the question was, " I never 
refuse a good job in that line." 

" Q. Don't they sometimes turn out bad jobs ? 

" A. Never, if I can help it. 

" Q. Are they not sometimes discharged after you get 
them ? 

" A. Not often. I don't know that they ever are." 

Hon. John P. Hale : " Why, gentlemen, he sells agony ! 
Torture is his stock-in-trade ! He is a walking scourge ? He 
hawks, peddles, retaitsy groans and tears about the streets of 
Norfolk !" 

The obligations of Marriage can not be performed by a 
Slave. The " husband" promises to protect his " wife" and 
provide for her. The " wife" promises to be the help-mate of 
her " husband." They mutually promise to live with and 
cherish each other till parted by death. But what can such 



196 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

promises by Slaves mean ? The legal relation of " Master" 
and Slave renders them utterly void. It forbids the Slave- 
" husband" to protect even himself. It clothes his " Master" with 
authority to bid him inflict deadly blows on the "Woman he has 
sworn to protect. It prohibits his possession of any property 
wherewith to sustain her. The labor of his hands it takes 
from him. It bids the Woman to assist, not her " husband," 
but her " owner." Nay, it gives him unlimited control and full 
possession of her person, and forbids her, on pain of death, to 
resist him. The following is a case in point : 

A Slaveholder, named Richard Dudley, having been " re- 
fused" by a young Slave-" wife," and being urged thereto by 
her Slave-" husband," ordered two stakes or posts to be driven 
deep into the earth in his barn-yard. Two of the strongest 
Slaves on the plantation were compelled to perform this task. 
When the stakes were well driven, he commanded George 
and Caroline, " man and wife," to be tied fast, one to each 
stake. The stakes were about five feet apart and six feet 
high. The victims had their hands tied together fast to the 
top of the post, so that they stood on tip-toe, and their feet were 
tied fast to the stake just above the ground. In this way their 
bodies were exposed to the keen lash of the whipper, a poor 
white vagabond, called Robinson. The barn-yard was filled 
with sad and unwilling spectators of the infamous scene ; some 
slov/ly sauntering about, others looking gloomily on, and others 
still turning their faces away. While the preparations were 
being made for the execution of the sentence, the Slaveholder 
continued to curse and upbraid Caroline with her obstinacy 
and disobedience in not acceding to his lustful desires. "I'll 
put an end to your fun," said he ; "I'll make it a dear job for 
you both," he continued. 

Meanwhile, poor Caroline was overcome with terror. Every 
now and then her unhappy " husband" would address her, in 
an undertone, in words of consolation and encouragement ; but 



SLAVE LIFE O^ THE PLANTATION. 197 

he dared not so speak as to be heard by his " Master," else liis 
sympathy would but excite his rage still more. Caroline — 
who was as white and good-looking as any Woman in the 
State — was strung up high against the post, with her back to 
the whipper. Her chemise, a light cotton one, afforded no 
protection to the heavy blows of the whip. " Begin now !" 
shouted the Slaveholder, while he stood back some yards, 
placing his arms akimbo, and leisurely taking a survey of the 
scene. Robinson stepped up, took his stand at the requisite 
distance from his victims, raised his whip, swung the long and 
heavy lash scientifically around him several times, and brought 
it down with such force upon the back of poor Caroline, that 
it seemed to jar and shatter her whole frame. Instantly the 
blow extorted from her a loud and long scream of agony, which 
rent the air, and appalled every listener; and she writhed 
in intense pain. But Robinson was well used, to such things. 
Her awful scream did not engross his attention for an instant, 
and he returned to repeat the exploit upon the more vigorous 
frame of his other victim. He cut and carved his broad back 
and shoulders scientifically, and exerted his utmost strength to 
make the blow tell upon him. George did not move. Yet he 
xiould not but utter one deep groan of suffering, forced from 
him by the pain which the blow inflicted. Next came Caro- 
line's turn. The same blow, and the same scream, so heart- 
rending and affecting, were repeated. But Robinson paused 
not in his work. He had no time to lose. It would be night 
before his task was ended, and he had to hurry himself. Fast 
and thick the blows fell upon the two young Slaves. George 
gave but little proof of his sufferings. Caroline, long before 
a hundred blows had been dealt her, had ceased to scream, or 
to wail ; but hung insensible by her hands to the post which 
sustained her lacerated body. And long before her " two hun- 
dred and fifty lashes" had been given, not only her chemise 
had been cut to pieces by the thong of Robinson's whip, but 



198 SLAVE LIFE OX THE PLANTATION". 

her whole back was cut into deep gashes ; blood flowed plenti- 
fully down her person, and every time the lash touched her 
body it sank deeply into the soft, mashed, and lacerated flesh. 

Caroline had already ceased to feel. She was for a few 
moments beyond the power of her " Master's" rage. She had 
fainted. By the Slaveholder's orders she was untied from the 
stake, and several of the elder Slaves carried her insensible 
body back to the hut, where they left her to recover as best 
she might, as they were afraid to offer her any assistance, lest 
they themselves might excite the wrath of their " Master." 
George still remained tied to the stake. He had yet one hun- 
dred and fifty blows to endure. As Robinson resumed his 
bloody task, the poor wretch could endure it no longer, and 
broke out into earnest supplication, " Oh, Master Richard, 
don't, don't whip me any more. I'm most gone!" said he, 
frantically. " Lay it on the scoundrel, lay it on," Richard 
peremptorily commanded Robinson, w^ho obeyed him with 
alacrity. The body of George was by this time covered with 
scars, and cuts, and welts. The blood flowed freely. His 
sobs and groans alternated with the heavy blows of Robinson's 
whip. By the time his allotted four hundred lashes had been 
inflicted, the flesh hung in stripes from his bones. George, 
too, had fainted. His nature, strong and vigorous as it was, 
had sunk beneath the agony of that fierce struggle between 
fiendish wrath on the one hand, and enduring constancy on 
the other. 

The four hundred lashes had been told, and Robinson's 
execrable work was done. George's body was covered Avith 
blood. The Slaveholder approached him and examined his 
wounds, while Robinson stepped back to sit down upon a log 
and rest himself. The Slaveholder seeing the loose flesh hang- 
ing in stripes from George's lacerated back, took his jack-hiife 
from his pochet, and amid the screams of his victim. Just re- 
tutning again to consciousness, cut off the stripes of flesh, and 



SLAVE LIFE ON Till': PLANTATION. 199 

threw the pieces to the hogs in the ham-yard, whiitli ate them 
with avidity. He then commanded George to be untied. 
The poor wretch fell immediately to the earth. He could not 
stand, and moaning in his great agony, he, too, was canied to 
his quarters among the Slave-huts. 

Mr. George A. Avery, of Rochester, N. Y., says : " I know 
a local Methodist minister in Virginia, a man of talents, and 
popular as a preacher, who took one of his party-colored Girls 
into the barn to whip her, and she was brought out a corpse." 
Mr. Avery states further, that the friends of this " minister" 
seemed to think it of no importance to his ministerial stand- 
ing. He was not indicted. Mr. Avery also says, that he 
knew a young Man in Virginia who had been out hunting, and 
returning with some of hp friends, seeing a Slave in the road, 
at a little distance, deliberately drew up his rifle and shot him 
dead. This was done without the slightest provocation, or a 
word passing. Another wretch killed a Woman with an axe- 
helve, for stealing a little salt. No notice was taken of the 
affair. 

Lillburn Lewis (nephew of Thomas Jefferson, the penman 
of the Declaration of Independence), of Livingston county, 
Kentucky,' was the owner of "' about" fifty Slaves, whom he 
drove constantly, fed sparingly, and lashed severely. The 
consequence was, that some of them were in the habit of run- 
ning away. This gave Lewis great anxieties until he found 
them, or until they had starved out and returned. Among 
the rest was a boy named George, about seventeen years of 
age, who, having just returned, was sent to a spring for water, 
and let fall a pitcher breaking it. This was the occasion. 
It was night. Lewis then collected all the Slaves into an out- 
house, and ordered a rousing fire to be made. When the 
door was secured, that none might escape, either through fear 
or sympathy, Lewis opened the design of the meeting, namely, 
that they might be effectually taught to sta}^ at home and obey 



200 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

his orders. All things being now in train, he called up George, 
ivho approached his " Master" with the most unreserved sub- 
mission. He hound him with cords, and laid him. on a meat- 
hlock, and seizing a hroad axe, proceeded to chop him into 
pieces, commencing at the anJdes. 

In vain did the unhappy victim call upon his " Master" to 
forgive him. In vain did he scream. Not a Slave durst 
interfere. Casting the feet into the fire, he lectured the Slaves 
at some length. He then chopped oif below the knees, and 
admonished them again, throwing the legs into the fire. He 
then chopped off above the knees, tossing the joints into the 
fire, lecturing as he proceeded. The next two or three strokes 
severed the thighs from the body. These were also committed 
to the flames. And so were the ai;ms, head and trunk, until 
all was in the fire. Still protracting the intervals with lec- 
tures, and threatenings of like punishment, in case of dis- 
obedience and running away. The Slaves were then per- 
mitted to disperse. 

When the monster returned to his house, Mrs. Lewis ex- 
claimed, " Oh! Mr. Lewis where have you heen, and what 
have you done !" She had heard a strange pounding, and 
dreadful screams, and had smelled something like fresh meat 
burning ! He replied that he had never enjoyed himself at a 
ball so well as he had enjoyed himself that evening. 

John Randolph, speaking of the wretched condition of the 
Slaves, said : " When the measure of their tears is full, when 
their groans have involved heaven itself in darkness, doubtless 
a God of justice will listen to their distress." And when that 
day of retribution comes it will be the -lore terrible from this 
long delay, and the attempts to deceive the people and defraud 
them of their rights. On another occasion, in a Speech in 
Congress, he said : " What man is worse received in society 
for being a hard master ? Who denies the hand of a sister 
or a daughter to such a monster ?" 



SLAVE I.IKIO 0\ Tlir: PLANTATION. 201 

Had Mr. Randolph lived in these tinaes, and put forth such 
sentiments, he would have been denounced by the whole pack 
of Administration followers, who train under the desecrated 
name of Democracy, as an " abolition fanatic," an " enemy to 
the Constitution," and a " treasonable sectionalist." 

The Rev. James A. Thome, a native of Kentucky, and the 
son of a Slaveholder, says : " Slavery in the American Repub- 
lic is the parent of more suffering than has flowed from all 
other sources since the days of Sodom and Gomorrah. Such 
sufferings too ! Sufferings inconceivable and innumerable ; 
unmingled wretchedness from the ties of nature rudely broken 
and destroyed ; the acutest bodily tortures, groans, tears, and 
blood ; lying for ever in weariness and painfulness, in watch- 
ings, in hunger and in thirst, in cold and in nakedness." 

" The poor ^ave," says the Hon. C. M. Clay, of Kentucky, 
" rolls himself in his blanket about midnight, and is called up 
between three and four o'clock to commence another day's 
work." 

Those who know anything about Slavery in the Southei'n 
States, agree that whipping Men and Women to death does 
frequently occur, but all will not believe that any one for con- 
science's sake, has died by the lash in '■'•free America," but 
this is a mistake. One afternoon, while passing a Church in 
Walnut sti-eet, in Louisville, we heard the voices of the con- 
gregation singing. A clergyman who was with us, said it was 
a congregation of Methodists, and assured us that he had 
once dropped in and heard a sermon he liked. We went in 
and took a seat. A plain-looking elderly man preached in 
t'le style usual for Methodist preachers in country places — 
all about religion — its comforts in life and triumphs in death. 
Like Uncle Tom, he insisted, with great earnestness, that it 
was a great thing to be a Christian. Religion — it made the 
weak sti'ong, and the meanest most honorable. To illustrate 
this grand truth, he told an anecdote as something coming 

9* 



202 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

within the range of his own knowledge, of an old Slave who 
had " got religion." His " Master" was kind, but irreligious 
and reckless, and was, withal, much impressed by the earnest- 
ness of his Slaves' prayers and exhortations. But one day, one 
evil day, on the Sabbath, too, this same " kind Master" was 
drinking and playing cards with a visiter, when the conversa- 
tion turned upon the " religion of Slaves." The visiter boasted 
that he could '' whip the religion out of any Nigger in the State 
in half an hour." The " Master," proud of possessing a rare 
specimen, boasted that he had one out of whom the religion 
could not be whipped. A bet was laid, and the martyr sum- 
moned. A fearful oath of recantation, and blasphemous 
denial of his Saviour, was required of the poor Slave, upon 
pain of being whipped to death. The answer was — " Bress 
de Loud, Massa, I can't." 

Threats, oaths, and entreaties, were tried, but he fell on his 
knees, and holding up his hands, pleaded, " Bress de Lord, 
Massa, I can't ! Jesus, he die for poor Nigger ! Massa, 
please, Massa, I can't." The executioner summoned his aids, 
the old man was tied up, and the whipping commenced; but 
the shrieks for mercy were all intermingled with prayer and 
praises — prayers for his own soul and those of his murderers. 
When fainting and revived, the terms of future freedom from 
punishment wei-e offered again, and again he put them away 
with the continued exclamation, " Jesus, he die for me ! Bress 
de Lord, Massa, I can't." 

The bet was to the full value of the *' property" endangered. 
The men were flushed with wine, and the experimenter on 
" Nigger religion" insisted on " trying it out." Honor de- 
manded he should have a fair chance to win his bet, and the 
wretched victim died under the lash, blessing the Lord, that 
Jesus had died for him. The preacher gave his recital with 
many tears, and before he was done, we do not think there 
was a dry eye, except our own, in the house. Our pulses all 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 203 

stood Still with horror, but the speaker did not af)pear to dream 
that his storj^ had any bearing against the " Institution" with 
which he was surrounded. Pie gave us this story of " suffer- 
ing for conscience's sake" of a member of his own Church, to 
show what a good thing religion was. Of those who heard it, 
and the many persons there to whom we related it, we found 
not one who appeared to doubt it. Any indignation felt and 
expressed was against the individual actors in the tragedy. 

On Saturday, July 8, 1854, the Rev. Joel Lambert, of 
Hendersonville, was seen to knock down one of his "colored" 
Boys several times with a loaded whip, and give him more 
than one hundred lashes. The wretched creature died in a 
few hours. The Coroner, Mr. James Rouse, held an inquest 
over the body, and the verdict was, that the Slave came to his 
death by " overheating and imprudent whipping." 

Mrs. Nancy Lowry, a native of Kentucky, gives us an ac- 
count of the deaths of three Slaves, named John, Ned, and 
James, " caused by severe whipping." Mr. Long, the inflict- 
or and " owner," was " a strict pi'ofessor of the Christian re- 
hgion." 

The Rev. Francis Hawley, of Kentucky, states that a son 
of a Slaveholder " took the wife of one of the Slaves. The 
poor husband felt himself greatly injured, and expostulated 
with him. The wretch drew a pistol and deliberately shot 
him dead." 

The "owner" of a girl (said to be his own daughter), a 
Methodist Class-Leader, proposed criminal intercourse with 
her ; she refused. He sent her to the Overseer of his planta- 
tion to be flogged. Again he made advances — again she re- 
fused, and again she was flogged. Afterward she was com- 
pelled to yield. 

The Cincinnati (Ohio) Commercial, of the 28th December, 
1855, says that two Slaveholders (Dobyns and Bacon), of 
Maysville, Kentucky, had, the day before, murdered one of 



204 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

the waiters at the Parker House, in that place. The poor 
fellow, having been kept up until a very late hour, was so 
overcome with fatigue that he fell into a " deep sleep." The 
Slave-breeders concluded they would set fire to him, to awaken 
him. With this view they took a Camphene lamp and poured 
the fluid over his face, neck, and chest, which became instantly 
wrapped in an intense blaze. The sufferings of the victim 
were dreadful in the extreme. No refinement of torture could 
have produced more excruciating misery. But strange to say, 
death did not release him from torment till after the lapse of 
two weeks. The poor creature was the Slave of Mr. Ball, 
proprietor of the Parker House, who says that " no human 
suffering could exceed that of the Boy" (said to be his own 
son) "during the fortnight that he lived after the burning." 
The Slave-breeders are young men and wealthy. They com- 
promised the matter " by paying to Mr. Ball $1,200 for the 
loss of his Boy." No movement has been made toward a legal 
investigation of the matter. 

The Presbyterian Synod of Kentucky, speaking of the hor- 
rible condition of the Sons and Daughters of the " cursed seed 
of Ham" in that State, say : " The poor creatures suffer all 
that can be inflicted by wanton caprice, by grasping avarice, 
by brutal lust, by malignant spite, and by insane anger. Their 
happiness is the sport of every whim, the prey of every pas- 
sion that may occasionally infest the Master's bosom." 

The Neio Tork Tribune, of May 9, 1857, contains the fol- 
lowing paragraph, copied from The Cincinnati (Ohio) Gazette : 
" A man in Pulaski County, a few days since, whipped one of 
his Slaves to such an extent that he died. He punished him 
six mornings in succession, and on the seventh day the Slave 
died. The poor fellow desired to see his ' wife,' who was 
owned by and lived with another party. The ' Master' re 
fused permission ; the Slave disobeyed, and visited his ' wife' 
in the evening, returning early next morning. For this the 
unfortunate man was whipped to death." 



' SLAVE LIFE ON THE TLANTATION. 205 

The Missouri Express has an account of the death of a 
Slave, in June, 1855, at the hands of his "Master," Josephus 
Hicklin, from which we make the following extract : — 

" The only fault alleged against the Negro was that he was dissatisfied 
with his Master, and wanted to be sold. Tor this alleged offence he 
was put to the torture. It would be difficult to find any case that, in 
point of cruelty, afibrds a parallel to this. The gag, the lash, fire, 
gouging out of eyes, beating over the head, and rnbbing of cayenne pep- 
per and tobacco-juice into his eyes, wounds, &c., were some of the appli- 
ances used, not for a single hour, a single day, or a single week, but 
every day for more than three weeks, until he died." * 

A German family emigrated to the United States, in May, 
1853, and on the passage out the Father died. Subsequently, 
and after arriving in St. Louis, Missouri, the Mother died, 
leaving a small Boy, who, being entirely destitute, was picked 
up by a man named Chi-istopher Herbert, then living in St. 
Louis. Herbert moved to a farm in Jefferson County, taking 
the boy with him and treating him with severity. Occasion- 
ally the boy would be sent into the woods to search for the 
cattle, and if he either got lost himself or failed to find them, 
was invariably beaten inhumanly. At length, the treatment 
became so harsh that the boy could no longer stand it, but 
would often pass night after night in the woods ; but upon 
returning for something to eat would only receive severer 
punishment. It seems that the lad, thus intimidated, remained 
out several nights, and was seeking some food in the evening 
late, when he was caught by Herbert, tied with a rope, the 
flesh stripped almost from his body with a Slaveholder's cow- 
hide, and then tied and thrown into an outhouse, where he re- 
mained twenty-four hours. When released he again escaped, 
and endeavored to sustain life by going into the orchard at 
night and plucking fruit ; but Herbert, it seems, suspecting 
this also, lay in wait for him, and again caught him. The 
punishment then inflicted is too inhuman for repetition. It is 
sufficient to add that the next morning the boy endeavored to 



206 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

crawl to a neighbor's house, but failed to do so, and lay ex- 
hausted in an adjoining field for tvfo days before he was found. 
When discovered, his back was a mass of putrid Jlesh ; he was 
fly-blown" and covered with vermin, and evidently beyond the 
hope of recovery. The person who discovered him carried 
him in his arms to Herbert, the nearest place, and it is said 
that the moment Herbert saw his victim it was with difficulty 
he was prevented from again punishing his " runaway Slave," 
as he called him. Death, however, soon put an end to his 
miseries. The body was then thrust into an old boot-box, 
without clothing, and unceremoniously buried in a " mud-hole," 
dug by Herbert. 

A correspondent of the Neiv Yorh Tribune, writing from 
Lexington, Missouri, under date August 11, 1856, says: "On 
Friday" (February 8, 1856), " a scene was presented in the 
Court-House of this place which almost beggars description. 
Sheriff Withers, having a ' Nigger Woman,' who, on the pre- 
vious day, had been neglectful of her task-work, sent for a 
blacksmith to come and chastise her. He came, bolted the 
door, tied the woman's hands together, and lashed them over 
her head to the ceiling, and commenced whipping. The 
screams of the woman brought her ' husband' to the rescue. 
He broke open the door, and with a butcher's knife in his 
hand rushed forward to cut his ' wife' loose. The Slave and 
blacksmith encountered each other, and in the affray the latter 
got his arm cut. The Slave finally surrendered, and was led 
away to Jail, while the woman received a double whipping. 
News of this ' horrible outrage' was soon circulated, and the 
excitement became intense. One leading man was heard to 
say, 'I'll be hanged if I don't put a stop to this Slave rebel- 
lion, if I can only get three men to join with me.' When 
asked how he would do it, he said, ' I will take this Slave and 
that other one in Jail, and hang them both upon the same tree, 
and let them hang there a month !' Three men came forward 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE TLANTATION. 207 

to assist him, and the hour of four o'clock that afternoon was 
agreed upon for the execution. The excitement grew, wax- 
ing wilder and fiercer every hour, until such a storm of pas- 
sion raged as was fearful to behold. 

" At four o'clock, the mob. numbering about three hundred, 
moved toward the Court-House. The ' boy,' a quadroon, of 
al)out 40 years of age, was brought into the building and placed 
within the bar. Col. Reed was called upon to preside, and Col. 
Walton explained the object of the meeting. He said : 'A 
great crime has been committed — an outrage upon one of our 
citizens by a Nigger. We have come together not to imbrue 
our hands in the blood of innocence, but rebellion of Slaves is 
becoming common. Something must be done to put a stop to 
it, to protect our Wives, our Children, and our Sacred homes.' 
A member of the Legislature earnestly remonstrated against 
mob law, and recommended that a day be appointed to whip 
the Slave, and have all the Slaves in the County present. He 
was not heard through, for the speech did not suit the mob. 
A Committee of twelve was appointed to decide immediately 
what punishment the Slave should receive. That Committee 
retired, but soon returned, with Col. Reed at their head, who 
read the following announcement : 

" ' Your Committee have decided that the Slave shall receive one thoa- 
sand lashes on his bare back, two hundred to be administei-ed this eve- 
ning, and the remaining eight hundred from time to time, as in the judg- 
ment of the Committee his physical nature can bear under it. Also, we 
advise that a Committee of three Citizens be chosen to whip him. Also, 
that the pei'son whose arm was cut by the Slave have the privilege of 
giving him the last two hundred lashes.' 

"The whipping commenced. More than a hundred heads 
were peering in to get a sight of their victim. But before a 
dozen lashes had been administered, the Slave fell to the floor, 
bleeding and writhing in agony. The whipper struck the 
harder, and ordered him to get up. Some one declared that 



208 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

lie could never stand a thousand such lashes. Another cried 
out : ' 988 yet to come,' and the whipping was resumed. Lash 
upon lash was inflicted, until one hundred had been given, 
when his whole back, from the top of his shoulders down to 
his feet, w'as a mass of blood and mangled flesh. The whip- 
ping was continued without cessation amidst the most piteous 
and beseeching wails and cries, such as : ' O gentlemen, O gen- 
tlemen, have mercy !' ' O Lord ! Lord, come down in 
mercy !' ' O gentlemen ! O Lord ! Lord !' until they be- 
came fainter and died away upon the ear. 

" When they commenced giving him the second hundred, I 
left the room in anguish of spirit, exclaiming to myself: ' Oh 
that I ivere a dog, that I might not call man my hrother !\ He 
was not permitted to rise until the two hundred lashes were 
given. He was taken out the next day, but it was decided he 
was too sore to whip. On the third day he was taken out and 
whipped again in the presence of a large crowd ; but when 
they had given him twenty, his strength completely failed him. 
"Whether the whole of the thousand lashes were administered 
or whether he gave out before receiving the complete penalty, 
I have no means of knowing ; but I do know that some of the 
leading Slaveholders pledged themselves to each other to carry 
it through, despite the indignation of a portion of the commu- 
nity and of the entreaties of his ' Mtister,' although at first the 
' Master' had given him up to the mob heartily, and was even 
willing they should hang him. He also acquiesced in the 
judgment of the Committee. 

"On the next evening (Saturday, Feb. 9, 1856), after the 
200 lashes had been inflicted upon the Slave, Gov. Shannon 
arrived en route for Kansas Territory. A grand reception 
supper, costing some $300, was got up for him. The Gover- 
nor was largely toasted, and replied in a speech, boasting of 
the power he had received from President Franklin Pierce, and 
how he would ' compel submission to the laws.' " 



'•£'■. 



CHAPTER II. 

In North Carolina the greater part of the Slaves go half- 
starved most of the time. The breakfast is generally from 10 
to 11 o'clock, A. M., and the dinner from 7 to 11, p. m. In 
the pine-tree country, the Slaves are employed in manufactur- 
ing turpentine. The allowance of the " turpentine hands" 
varies. The Slaves in the rural districts receive one peck of 
Indian meal per week. On the turpentine plantations some 
" bosses" allow, in addition, one quart of molasses. On many 
plantations the Slaves are allowed only one peck of meal a 
week, without any other provisions. Several who received no 
pork, or only two pounds a fortnight, complained that " we's 
not fed 'nuf, Massa, for the work they takes out on us," and 
others said the sameness of the diet was sickening. 

The Manchester and Wilmington Railroad hands sleep in 
miserable shanties along the line. Their bed, a board — nothing 
softer. Their covering, a blanket. This road runs through 
the most desolate-looking country in the Union. Nothing but 
pine-trees can be seen from "Wilmington until you enter South 
Carolina. Poor fellows, in that dreary section of country, they 
seldom see a woman from Christmas to Christmas. If they 
are " married" Men, they are tantalized with the thought that 
their " Wives" are performing for others those services that 
would gladden their weary life. They have still sadder re- 
flections. 

A " minister of the Gospel" in South Carolina, had a " Sab- 



210 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

bath appointment" to preach, about eight miles from his resi- 
dence. He was in the habit of riding thither in his " gig," 
with a swift trotting horse, which he always drove briskly. Be- 
hind him ran one of his party-colored boys on foot, who was 
required to be at the place of appointment as soon as his 
" reverend Master," to take care of his horse. Sometimes he 
could not keep up, and kept his " Master," waiting for him a 
few minutes, for which he was always punished. On one oc- 
casion of this kind, after sermon, the " reverend gentleman" 
told the Slave that he would this time take care to have him 
keep up with him, going home. So he tied him by the wrists, 
with a halter, to his gig, behind, and drove rapidly home. The 
result was that, about two or three miles from home, the Slave's 
feet and legs failed him, and he Avas dragged on the ground 
the rest of the way ! Whether the " Master" knew it or not 
till he reached home is not certain ; but on alighting and look- 
ing around, he exclaimed, " Well ! I thought you would keep 
up with me this time !" so saying, he coolly walked into the 
house. Some of the Slaves came out and took up the poor 
sufferer for dead. After a time he revived a little, lingered- 
for a day or two, and died. These facts were known all over 
the neighborhood, but nothing was done about it ! The " rev- 
erend gentleman" continued preaching as before. 

There really appears to be no end to the crimes against the 
Slaves committed by men living under the garb of a " Christian 
profession." 

In a public address, recently delivered at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
by the Rev. Edward Smith, of Pittsburgh, Pa., he stated that 
a certain D. D. of his acquaintance, a Slaveholder, and a 
severe ohe, too, often, with his own hands, applied the cowhide 
to the naked backs of his Slaves. " On one occasion, a Woman 
that served in the house, committed, on Sabbath morning, 
some slight offence, but which was considered of too great 
magnitude to go unpunished until Monday morning. The Dr. 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 211 

took' his Woman into the cellar, and as is usual in such cases, 
stripped her, and then applied the lash. The woman writhed 
under each stroke, and cried, ' O Lord I O Lord ! ! O 
Lord ! ! !' The Doctor stopped, and his hands fell to his sides 
as though struck with palsy, gazed on the Woman with aston- 
ishment, and thus addressed her (the congregation must par- 
don me for repeating his words), ' Hush, you ******* 

b h, will you take the name of the Lord in vain on the 

Sabbath day ?' When he had stopped the Woman from the 
gross profanity of crying to God on the Sabbath day, he 
finished whipping her, and then went and essayed to preach 
that Gospel to his congregation which proclaims liberty to the 
captive, and the opening of the prison-doors to them who are 
bound." 

Recently, at a meeting of the Planters in South Carolina, 
the question was seriously discussed, " whether the Slave is 
more profitable to the owners, if well fed, well clothed, and 
moderately worked; or, made the most of at once, and ex- 
hausted in some five or six years." The decision was in favor 
of the last alternative ! 

The Southern Cultivator, for May, 1855, has the following 
hideous announcement, copied from The Edgefield (S. C.) 
Advertiser, and which The Cultivator strongly recommends 
" to other Masters and employers :" — 

" Overseers, Read This ! — It will be remembered by tlie Overseers of 
Edgefield, that Col. M. Frazier has offered a fine Watch as a reward to 
the Ovei'seer (working not less than ten Slaves) who will report the best- 
managed plantation, largest crop per hand of cotton, corn, wheat, and 
pork for the present year. Col. Frazier has just returned froni the North 
and laid before us this elegant prize. It is a fine English lever Watch, 
encased in a heavy silver hunting-case upon the back of which is beauti- 
fully engraved ' Presented by M. Frazier, Edgefield, S. C, as a reward of 
Merit.' We assure those who are contestants for this valuable prize 
that it is eminently worthy of the donor and calculated to call forth the 
utmost energy and skill of which the candidates may be possessed. 



212 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATIOK. 

Remember, then, that the prize is now fairly upon the stake, and that the 
longest pole knocks down the persimmon. Whip ! whip ! ! Hurrah ! ! !" 

Here we have an appeal to avarice and cruelty of the worst 
sort. Lest the work of the Overseer, however, should not be 
complete under the ordinary incentives of their power, here 
we have a reward offered for blood and sweat extortions — 
prizes for inhumanity — couched in saintly phraseology.* 

"The smack of the whip," says Dr. J. Edwards, "is all 
day long in the ears of those who are on the plantation, or in 
the vicinity ; and it is used with such dexterity and severity 
as not only to lacerate the skin, but to tear out small portions 
of the flesh at almost every stroke. This is the general treat- 
ment of the Slaves. But many suffer still more severely. 
Many are knocked down ; some have their eyes beaten out ; 
some have an arm or a leg broken, or chopped off: and many, 
for a very small, or for no crime at all, have been beaten to 
death." 

At a Planter's dinner-table, one day, a guest — a Dry-Goods 
Jobber from Philadelphia — remarked upon the "hypocrisy 
of all religious Slaves." The planter dissented. "He was the 

* " Were it not for the din and clamor of Noi*thern invectives ajjainst 
Slavery, we should hear more distinctly the candid expressions of our 
Southern friends with regard to the evils of the system. They tell us — 
and, indeed, every one sees it — that Slave labor in many cases is oppres- 
sively expensive, and the more so in proportion to the conscientiousness of 
the owners. It takes more hands to do the same amount of work than 
with us" (in New England) ; " the Slaves are hearty, and great con- 
sumers, frequently costing more for theii- food than the rest of the fam- 
ily." — " A South-side View of Slavery," &c., " Bi/ Nehemiah Adams, 
D. D." p. 90. And, pray, at whose expense did " the rest of the family" 
get their living ? Dr. Adams i-easons like a man wlio has stolen an 
estate which belongs to a family of orphans. Out of its munificent 
revenues, he gives the orphans "food and clothing," while he retains tho 
rest for liis own use, declaring that he is thus rendering to them that 
which is just and equal. 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE TLANTATION. 213 

"owner" of one who would rather die than deny Christ. This 
was ridiculed. The Slave was brought in and jjut to the test. 
He was ordered to deny his behef in Christ. He refused ; 
was terribly whipped ; retained his integrity ; the whipping 
was repeated, and he died in consequence. 

" In Tennessee," says the Rev. John Rankin, " thousands 
of the Slaves are pressed with the gnawings of hunger; and 
suffer extremely both while they labor and when they sleep, 
for want of clothing to keep them warm." The Maryville 
(Tenn.) Intelligencer says of the Slaves of the South and 
W|jt, generally, that " their condition through time will he 
second only to that of the wretched creatures in hell." 

Recently, one of the Slaves of Matthew Raynor ran away. 
He pursued the fugitive and apprehended him in Memphis, 
and took him home. The next day Raynor commenced his 
cruel and fiend-like punishment, and after inflicting upon the 
poor fellow hundreds of lashes, and washing him down with 
brine, finished by cutting off both his ears, close to his head. 

In Georgia the allowance of food is not adequate to the 
support of a laboring man. The corn is ground in a hand- 
mill, by the Slave, after his task is done. Generally there is 
but one mill on a plantation, and as but one can grind at a 
time, the mill is going sometimes very late at night. 

Any person of " color," bond or free, is forbidden to occupy 
any tenement except a kitchen or outhouse, under penalty of 
from twenty to fifty lashes. Some of these laws are applicable 
only to particular cities, towns, or counties ; others to several 
counties. The huts are generally put up without a nail, and 
contain neither chairs, table, nor bedstead. On the cold ground 
they must lie without covering, and shiver while they slumber. 

The best possible testimony as to the condition of the 
Slaves, is that of the Slaveholders themselves, when given 
incidentally. They certainly can have no motive to represent 
their condition as worse than it is, and they have abundant 



214 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

means of knowing. We take the following from "A Detail of 
a Plan for the Moral Improvement of Negroes on Plantations," 
by Thomas Clay, a Slaveholder, and one of the most promi- 
nent men in the State. He says, on p. 13: "A subject, not 
less important, presents itself in the dwellings of the Slaves, 
and until greater attention is paid to this subject, it will be 
impossible to inculcate and maintain that regard for decency, 
which is so essential to good morals. Our physical habits 
have a vast influence on our moral ; neither can they be en- 
tirely separated. Man is a physical, as well a moral being ; 
and this fact must always be kept in view, in our endeavoi^ to 
give elevation to the character. Should we fail to do this, the 
subjects of our philanthropy will point out the inconsistency, 
and distrust our sincerity. These reflections are strikingly 
applicable to the evils obviously arising from the mode of 
lodging in Slave-houses. Too many individuals of different 
sexes are crowded into the house, and the proper separation 
of apartments can not be observed. That they are familiar 
loith these inconveniences, and insensible to the evils arisin.g 
from them, does not, in the least, lessen the unhappy conse- 
quences in which they result." 

The Slaves have often been spoken harshly of in conse- 
quence of their " thievish habits." " In walking in the vicinity 
of Augusta, Georgia, one day," says John Ball, jr., " I came 
up to a Slave, who M'as carrying a bag of provisions from town 
to his owner's plantation. We talked a long time about the 
' patriarchal Institution.' He said that plantation Slaves in 
this vicinity generally received one peck of meal and from one 
to two and a half pounds of pork a week. He knew one 
planter who gave a very 'short' allowance of meat: 

"'So you see, Mass'r, his Slaves steal whatever they can 
lay their hands on. He's constant a whippin' 'eiA; but it 
does n't stop 'em. My ' Boss' gives us two and a half pounds, 
and so we never takes anything ; we 's above it.' 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 215 

" ' Are you a married man ?' 

" ' Yes, Mass'r.' 

" ' Were you married by a clergyman ?' 

" ' No, Mass'r ; I was married by the blanket !' 

" ' How 's that ?' 

" ' Wall, Mass'r, we comes together into the same cabin ; and 
she brings her blanket and lays it down beside mine ; and we 
gets married that-a-way.' 

" ' How many suits of clothes are you allowed a year?' 

« ' Two, Mass'r.' 

" ' How many shirts ?' 

" ' Two, Mass'r ; only one at a time.' 

" ' Plow do you get it washed ?' 

" ' I washes it at night, and sleeps naked till it 's dry.' 

" ' Do preachers never marry you ?' 

" ' Yes, Mass'r, sometimes ; but not often. Mass'r, has you 
got a chaw o' 'bacco ?' 

" This question has been asked me dozens of times by 
Slaves — in fact, every time that I have gon6 into the country. 
Negroes, with an humble air and with hand touching hat, have 
asked me for it. ' A chaw o' 'bacco' has seldom failed to be 
the 'instrument' of conveying Republican ideas." 

Dr. C. G. Parsons, of Boston, Massachusetts, speaking of 
his " Tour among the Planters," in 1853, says : " A few weeks 
before I left Savannah, I boarded at the Marshall House. A 
friend of mine who boarded at the same house for several 
years, and who had become an advocate of Slavery, not ha\'ing 
witnessed much of the privations and sufferings of the Slaves, 
inquired of me if the Slaves in that city did not appear to be 
in better condition than the '■free Negroes of the North.' And 
I was constrained to admit that, so far as I had been able to 
judge ff6m what I had seen, the Slaves vv^ere ' cared for.' 
But before I left that house, some facts came to my knowledge 
in relation to the treatment of Slaves at public boarding-houses, 



216 SLAVK LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

which astonished some of my brother Yankees, who had been 
there for years. Mr. L., of Maine, contracted with Mr. Johnson, 
proprietor of the Marshall House, for a lease of the premises 
for several years. The keys were put into his hands on the 
third morning of January, 1853. When Mr. L. opened the 
bar-room door, he found three male-slaves sleeping on narrow 
hoards placed on chairs, the floor being sanded, without a pillow 
or blanket. He opened the boot-room, and there found two of 
the boot-blacks in a place too short for them to lie down at full 
length, with nothing but boots for pillows. In the kitchen there 
were five female-cooks sleeping on the solid brick hearth. Mr, 
L. inquired of Mr. Johnson, if there were no beds furnished, 
and sleeping apartments appropriated to the Slaves ? ' No,' 
replied Mr. J., ' Niggers never sleep on beds in the public 
houses in this State.' This being mentioned to a gentleman 
who was boarding at the Pulaski House, he said, ' Mr. Johnson 
is a brute not to furnish his Negroes with beds, for they have 
to work very hard.' The gentleman was then asked, ' Do they 
have beds at your house ?' ' Of course they do,' was the re- 
ply. ' Are you sure ? Because Mr. Johnson says they never 
have beds at the taverns.' 

" The next day the gentleman asked Captain W., the pro- 
prietor of the Pulaski House, what kind of beds were fur- 
nished for his Slaves. ' BedsP exclaimed Captain W., ^ don't 
you know that Niggers never sleep on beds ? Put one of my 
Niggers on the best bed there is in the house, and he wonH lie 
there half-an-hour. Niggers prefer sleeping on the floor.' " 

The frightful spectacle of " burning a Nigger alive," took 
place in Sumter County, on the 28th of May, 1855. The 
pyre was composed of several cords of light dry wood, in the 
centre of which was a green willow stake, selected in conse- 
quence of its indestructibility by fire. On the top of the pile 
the " Nigger Dave" was placed, and securely chained to the 
stake. The match was then applied, and in a few moments 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 217 

the dCvpuring flames were enveloping the doomed Man ; his 
fearful cries resounded through the air, while tlie surrounding 
Slaves who witnessed his dreadful agony and horrible contor- 
tions sent up an involuntary howl of horror. His sufferings 
were excruciating ; in a few minutes the flames had enveloped 
him entirely, revealing now and then, as they fitfully swayed 
hither and thither, his black and burning carcass, like a demon 
of the fire, grinning as if in triumph at his tormentors. Soon 
all was over, nothing was left but the burning flesh and char' 
red skeleton. The heavens were reeking with the stench. 

Had a white man committed similar crimes to those for 
which " Dave" suffered, upon the Wife or Daughter of a 
Slave, he would have got clear on the payment of the " as- 
sessed Money value" of such Slave to the " owner." Had tlie 
'' owner" himself committed such a crime, it would have been 
simply a " loss of property." 

A Slaveholder in Stewart County, had two fine young Men, 
brothers, for whom he was offered $1,350 and $1,500, for 
some cause or other he had entertained a dislike to them, and 
was constantly punishing them for the most trivial offences. 
He had them laid on the ground, and successively paddled 
them from the neck to the heels. He then, with the flat part 
of a handsaw, broke all the blisters caused by the holes which 
had been bored in the paddle. He then bathed their backs in a 
solution of red pepper and salt brine. Such were the torments 
inflicted on these poor suffering sons of humanity, that they 
determined upon absconding. The day following they wer-e 
absent. He, fearing they had made their way northward, got 
up a party of his neighbors, armed to the teeth, and wjth a 
pack of bloodhounds went in pursuit. After a long search 
they came up with them on Flint River. When they heard 
the hounds baying (that is, the moment the dogs came close 
upon their prey, they utter a most hideous and mournful howl), 
the runaways plunged into the river. In went the hounds after 

10 



218 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. ' 

them, some at one Slave, and some at the other. They hit them 
on the necks, arms, hacks, and tried to pull them under the 
water. TIlc poor fellows fought as long as they coidd, hut got 
paralyzed, and not being able to swim and contend with the 
dogs at the same time, they appeared to resign themselves to 
their fate. A feio gurgling sounds ascended to heaven, and 
their spirits had fled to Christ. 

Another Slaveholder had a woman who was in the habit of 
smoking a pipe in the field ; the overseer cautioned her several 
times not to do so — liowever, one day she clandestinely carried 
some fire to the field, and was lighting her pipe. All of a 
sudden, the Overseer made his appearance. He said, " I 
thought I told you the next time I saw you smoke, I would 
blow your brains out," and immediately shot her dead. 

. Another Slaveholder had a " Nigger" who ran away. The 
day he was brought home, he had a dog die of the distemper ; 
he called the " cook," and desired her to cut off the hind leg, 
skin, hair and all, and slice it up, this he had fried in fat, and 
made the captured runaway eat it. 

" In Georgia," says "William Savery, Minister of the Friends' 
Society, " we rode through many rice swamps, where the Slaves 
were numerous — working up to the middle in water. Men and 
"Women nearly naked." John Parrish, Minister of the Friends' 
Society, says : " In the rural districts, both male and female 
go without clothing until the age of eight or ten years." 

In Alabama the Slaves are, as a general thing, wretchedly 
provided for. Thousands have hardly a rag of clothing on 
them. Generally the only bedding is a blanket, and that of 
the poorest manufacture. 

Mr. Nero Geldersleve, of Georgia, formerly an elder in a 
Presbyterian Church at Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, descri- 
bing the flogging of a Slave, in which one hundred lashes were 
inflicted on his naked body, says : " I stood by and witnessed 
the whole without feeling the least compassion ; so hardening 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 219 

is the influence of Slavery." Such an admission does Mr. 
Geldersleve no credit. Cold-blooded selfish natures, like his^ 
are very rarely, if ever, troubled with " compassion." Show 
a man of Mr. G.'s ilk a glittering bait, and he would do the 
work of Satan. 

The Rev. Robert Jones, of Chambers county, a preacher 
of the Methodist denomination, lately stripped and tied one of 
his Boys to a tree, and whipped him to death. The account 
of this bai'barity is given in The Alabama Herald. A neigh- 
boring clergyman, to whom a friend mentioned this case, said 
there was " nothing in the act contrary to the Book of Disci- 
jjhne. The man had a perfect right to do what he pleased 
with his own property." 

The mutilation and murder of Slaves are thought to be so 
slight or unimportant matters, that not more than one case in 
twenty or thirty is ever reported in the papers at all. In fact, 
the Editors dare not do it. 

A Slaveholder, near Courland, of the name of Thompson, 
recently shot a beautiful Slave girl, because she refused to 
comply with a proposition he had made to her. He buried 
her in an old log heap. 

Two men found a fine-looking " colored man" at Dandridge's 
Quarter, without a " pass," and flogged him so that he died in 
two or three hours. They were not punished. Colonel Block- 
er's overseer attempted to flog one of the Slaves. He refused 
to be flogged, whereupon the overseer seized an axe and split 
his head open down to the neck. The Colonel justified it. 
One Jones whipped a half-starved Woman to death for grab- 
bing a few potatoes. 

-An overseer of another Plantation came up to a Woman 
who was rather lagging behind. Naming her, he said : " I 
say, I thought I told you to mend your gait." — "Well, 
Mass'r," she replied, with tears trickling down her wo-begone 
face, "I'se so sick, I can hardly drag one foot after the othei." 



220 . SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

The monster laid down his lash, and took up a pine-root and 
made a blow at her head. The wretched creature tried to 
avoid the blow and received the weight of it on her neck. 
Her " husband" was obliged to stand aside to let her fall. She 
was taken up insensible and lingered till the following day. 

The New York Tribune, of April 9, 1856, says: "Burn- 
ing at the stake for heresies and crimes no longer exists in 
Europe, not even in Turkey. Roasting martyrs and evil-doers 
alive is a system which belongs there to the past. And yet 
Europe is almost entirely Monarchical. Saving Switzerland, 
the hereditary system of privilege is practically acknowledged 
in every European State.. But, notwithstanding that such is 
the mitigation of the old severities there, here in Democratic 
America, the flames roar around the criminal, for if a Slave, 
he may he hurned alive. It is false to call us civilized ; toe are 
not so. Some five millions of human beings are held in abject 
submission and ignorance, and hence habitually tending to 
commit violent crimes in the same proportion ; and according- 
ly the necessities of the barbarous society which so debases 
them, cause the kind of punishment of which we are treating. 
We admire, therefore, the consistency of the local Southern 
press in despatching the matchless horrors of burning a Man 
to death in three lines, which we copy from The Montgomery 
Journal, published at the capital of Alabama, one of the sov- 
ereign States of the Union. That paper, on the 3d instant" 
(April 3, 1856), "made the following statement: — 

"'Burning of a Negro. — Wc learn that the Negro who murdered Mr. 
Capheart'" (see p. 193) "'was burned to death yesterday at Mount 
Meigs. He acknowledged himself guilty.' 

" This is at least consistent. A state of society essentially 
barbarous causes the 'burning of a Negro;' and such inflam- 
matory procedures must multiply with the mental improve- 
ment of the Slave, and his increased restlessness. So, burn 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 221 

awa}', 'brother Democrat,' but no sentiment, if jou please, 
thereupon !" 

In Mississippi the Slaves are h«lf-starved. They receive 
two wretched meals a day. Breakfast about eleven o'clock, 
A. M. ; the other meal during the evening. The Rev. H. B. 
Abbott, of Augusta, Maine, says : " I am acquainted with a 
Baptist preacher in Mississippi, who compelled his Slaves, 
men, women, and children, to labor on the Sabbath, and jus- 
tified himself under the plea that if they were not at work 
they would be roving about the fields, thereby desecrating the 
Lord's day more than by laboring under an overseer." 

A young man, who went South in the hope of "bettering" 
his condition, stopped at a village in Mississippi, and obtained 
employment in the largest and most influential house in the 
place, as book-keeper. " A Slaveholder," Avrites this young 
man, " residing near the village, a bachelor, thirty years of 
age, became embarrassed, and executed a mortgage to my 
employer on a noble-looking Slave. He was quick-witted, 
active, obedient, and remarkably faithful, trusty, and honest — 
so much so that he was held up as an example. He had a 
' wife' that he loved. His owner cast his eyes upon her, and 
she became his paramour. The poor ' husband' remonstrated 
with his owner, and told him that he tried faithfully to perform 
his every duty, that he was a good and faithful Nigger to him, 
and it was cruel, after he had toiled hard all day, and till ten 
or eleven o'clock at night, without wages, for him to have the 
' wife' of his heart taken from him, and his domestic relations 
broken up. The white man denied the charge. One night 
the heart-broken ' husband' came home earlier than usual. It 
was a wet dismal night ; he made a fire in his cabin, went to 
get his supper, and found ocular demonstration of the guilt of 
his owner. He became enraged, as any man would, seized a 
knife and cut his owner's throat, stabbed his ' wife' in over 
twenty places, and came to the village and knocked at the 



222 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

OiEce door. I told him to come in. He did so, and asked 
for my employer. I called him. The man then told him 
that he had killed his owner, and his 'wife,' and what for? 
My employer locked him up, and he and a doctor and myself 
went to the house of the old bachelor, and found him dead, 
and the wretched ' wife' nearly so. 

" My employer and myself returned to the village, watched 
the ' Imsband' until about sunrise, left him locked up, and went 
to get our breakfasts, intending to take him to jail (as it was 
my employer's interest, if possible, to save him, having $1,000 
at stake in him), but while we were at brealcfast, some per- 
sons, who had heard of the murder, broke open the door, seized 
the poor fellow, put a long chain round his neck, and started 
him for the woods at the point of the bayonet, marching by 
where we were eating with a great deal of noise. Sly em- 
ployer hearing it, ran out, and rescued the man. The mob 
again broke in, and took him, and marched him out of town. 
My employer begged them not to disgrace their town in such 
a manner ; but to appoint a jury of twelve men, to decide what 
should be done ; whereupon twelve of the mob stepped for- 
ward and said he must be hanged. They then tied a rope 
round his neck, and set him on a horse. He made a speech 
to the mob, which I at the time thought, if it had come from 
some Senator, would have been received with rounds of ap- 
plause ; and withal, he was more calm than I am now in wri- 
ting this. And after he had told all about the deed, and its 
cause, kicked the horse out from under him, and was launched 
into eternity. My employer has often remarked, that he never 
saw anything more noble in his life, than the conduct of that 
poor Slave." 

A shocking murder of an inoffensive Slave-mother was re- 
cently committed by John Manning, an Ovei'seer on a Cotton 
plantation near Natchez, IMississippi. The Slaves, men and 
women, were " hoeing" each their " row" of Cotton, and about 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE TLANTATION. 223 

twenty yards from a fence, when suddenly the Babe of one of 
the Women began to scream as though its little heart-strings 
would break. No Slave being allowed to leave off work with- 
out permission from the Overseer, the state of the poor Moth- 
er's mind may well be imagined 4 but in this case, the mater- 
nal feelings got beyond the fear of orders, and she rushed to 
the rescue of her Child, which was struggling with a huge 
snake. Manning cried out, '•'Stick to your work, your b — h, or 
Til cut you in pieces.'" But the poor trembling Mother kept 
on her maternal errand of mercy, snatched up the little one 
with the snake wound around it ; the Overseer followed clo.~e 
upon her heels with curses and imprecations for leaving her 
work without orders. He stripped her as naked as the day 
she was born, fastened a rope upon her wrists, and ordered two 
Slaves to climb a tree with the other end of the rope, and pull 
her up so that her feet would be about two feet from the ground. 
This done, Manning whipped her until he literally cut her in 
pieces, as he said he would. She screamed as the lash went 
into her flesh, in these words : '■'•Pray, massa ! Pray, massa ! 
pray, massa ! Snake lite chile, massa I massa, forgive 
vie, massa f Snake bite chile, massa ! Lord make massa liave 
a little feeling for poor Nigger ! massa, forgive me, mas- 
sa ! Snake bile chile, massa! Jesus, pity me I pity me! 
Massa, forgive me! forgive me! Snake bite cliile." 

Her voice became more and more faint, till the faculty of 
speech was whipped out of her, so that she hung without any 
motion whatever. Rousing herself for a single moment she 
glanced in the direction of her child, and murmured — ''Jesus 
— heaven — chile, come — co — " and her spirit took flight to 
a happier world. 

" massa, let me stay, to catcli 
My baby's sobbing breath ; 
His little glassy eye to watch. 
And smooth his limbs in death, 



224 SLATE LIFE ON THE FLAKTATION. 

And cover him with grass and leafj 

Beneath the plantain tree ! 
It is not suUenness, but grief — 

Massa, pity me \" 

The condition of Solomon Northrop, during the nine years 
that he was in the hands of Eppes, was of a character nearly 
approaching that described by Mrs. H. B. Stowe, as the con- 
dition of " Uncle Tom," while in Mississippi. During that 
whole period poor Northrop's hut contained neither a floor, 
nor a chair, nor a bed, nor a mattress, nor anything for him to 
lie upon except a board about twelve inches wide, with a block 
of wood for his pillow, and with a single blanket to cover him, 
Avliile the walls of his hut did not by any means protect him 
from the inclemency of the weather. He was sometimes com- 
pelled to perform acts revolting to humanity, and outrageous 
in the highest degree. On one occasion, a party-colored girl 
belonging to Eppes, about 17 years of age, went one Sunday, 
without the permission of her " Master," to the nearest planta- 
tion, about half a mile distant, to visit another girl of her ac- 
quaintance. She returned in the course of two or three hours, 
and for that offence she was called up for punishment, which 
Solomon was required to inflict. Eppes compelled him to 
drive four stakes into the ground at such distances that the 
hands and ankles of the girl might be tied to them, as she lay 
with her face upon the ground ; and having thus fastened her 
down, he compelled him, while standing by himself, to inflict 
one hundred lashes upon her bare flesh, she being stripped en- 
tirely naked. Having inflicted one hundred blows, Solomon 
refused to proceed any further. Eppo- tried to compel him to 
go on, but he absolutely set him at deflance, and refused to 
murder the girl. Eppes then seized the whip and applied it 
until he was too weary to continue it. Blood flowed from her 
neck to her feet, and in this condition she was compelled the 
next day to go into the field to work. 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATIOX. 225 

On the 21st of March, 1853, while at dinner in a Public 
House, at Wabluck, Miss., a man was telling of having his 
saddle-girth cut ; and said he got out his dogs (blood-hounds), 
and put them on the track, and followed to a hut, where they 
seized a Slave by the throat, whom they took to his " Master" 
to whip hira. The owner contended that the dog-testimony 
was not evidence, and that the man should not be whipped on 
the strength of it. But his captor, who had two friends with 
him, told tlie owner they were determined to whip him. Ac- 
cordingly, they commenced whipping him by turns, till they 
had given him three hundred lashes. His owner then asked 
him, " Did you cut it?" "Yes, massa, I did." His owner 
then beat him to death. 

James Clark, a well-known citizen of Clark county, made 
an assault upon one of his Slave women, for an object which 
need not be stated. He then ordered her into a corner of the 
room, and commenced pitching his knife at her, point foremost. 
^5 the knife would enter her flesh, he would compel his victim 
to draw it forth, and return it to him. This demoniacal 
amusement was continued until the poor Slave was covered 
with some fifty bleeding gashes ! The same day he whipped 
his own wife, cut her all over the head with his knife, in a mass 
of cruel and painful punctures. He also cut off her eyelids ! 
This drama wound up on the following day by the commission 
of murder. Clark ordered his wife to go and call Lewis, a 
Slave belonging to the family. She obeyed, but the Slave re- 
fused to come, through a dread of his enraged " Master." Mrs. 
Clark returned, and was whipped by her husband for not 
bringing the Slave. Five times was she sent up on this capri- 
cious mission, five times was it fruitless, and each time she was 
whipped for her failure. Clark then called to Lewis, inform- 
ing him that he would shoot hira next morning. The Slave, 
it seems, did not heed the Avarning, for while splitting rails the 
next day, he was deliberately shot by Clark. The wound was 

10* 



226 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

fatal ; poor Lewis ran two or three hundred yards, and fell in 
mortal agony. Clark confessed that he had committed these 
crimes, but justified his conduct by quoting Scriptui'e, saying, 
" the Bible commands Wives and other Servants to obey their 
Owners, and if they will not, the Master should make them." 

The Rev. J. A. Lyon, Pastor of the Presbyterian Church, 
in Columbus, in a lecture delivered in that City, and pul)lished 
in Mississippi, in June, 1855, says: "The reckless manner in 
which the sixth Commandment, which forbids murder, is dis- 
regarded in this community, is truly alarming, and should 
excite the well-grounded fears of every friend of morality and 
good order. An army is slain every year by the hands of vio- 
lence in our country, boasting of more intetligence, freedom, 
and civilization, than any other upon the globe ! We find that 
of the murdered host, only thirty-two fell in the six'New 
England States, only one hundred and six in the Middle 
States, including the largest States and Cities in the Union. 
The blood of all the rest was spilt in the South and West. 
Three hundred and forty-six have been slaughtered in the 
South alone ; that is, in the Southern St.ates proper, not in- 
cluding Missouri, Kansas, or California. I am sorry to say 
that as many as thirty-two have been slaughtered in Missis- 
sippi." 

Mr. Lyon does not appear to have kept a record of more 
than one murder in every seven committed. 

In Louisiana there is a great deal of suffering among the 
Slaves from hunger. Thousands perish every winter for 
want of pi'oper food and clothing. Until recently the Sugar 
planters usually found it necessary to employ twice the amount 
of labor during the " boiling season" that was required during 
the season of raising, but can now, by excessive driving, day 
and night, during the boiling season, accomplish the whole 
labor with "one set of hands." By pursuing this plan they 
can " afford to sacrifice one set of hands once in seven years." 



SLAVE LIFE OX THE PLANTATION. 227 

The late Mr. Samuel Blaekwell, of Jersey City (N. J.), 
visited many of the Sugar plantations in Louisiana, and said : 
" The planters generally declared to me that they were obliged 
to teo overwork their Slaves, during the Sugar-making season" 
(from ten to twelve weeks), " as to use them up in five or six 
years; for, said they, 'after the process is commenced, it must 
be pushed without cessation, night and day, and we can not 
afford to keep a sufficient number of Slaves to do the extra 
work at the time of Sugar-making, as we could not projitahly 
employ them the rest of the year.' " 

The late Hon. Henry Clay, of Kentucky (himself a Slave- 
holder), in a conversation with James G. Birney, said that, 
Outerbridge Horsey — formerly a Senator in Congress, and 
the owner of a Sugar plantation in Louisiana — declared to 
him that his Overseer worked his hands so closely that one of 
the Women brought forth a Child while engaged in the labors 
of the field. Also, that he was at a brick-yard in the environs 
of New Orleans, in which one hundred hands were emplo}'ed ; 
among them were from twenty to thirty young "Women, in the 
prime of life. He was told by the proprietor that there had 
not been a Child born among them for the last two or three 
years, although they all had " husbands." 

When a Child is a week old the Mother is considered to be 
" in working " order." 

One of the most revolting deeds, for the benefit of Slavery, 
ever witnessed in a '' Christian community," took place at 
Alexandria (La.), in September, 1855. It w£ts the public 
execution of a lad not quite ten years of age, and, strange to 
say, " Christian men and women" rode forty miles to see it. 
As an evidence of how mere a child he was, some gentlemen 
who called to see him the day before his execution, found him 
playing with marbles in his cell. On telling him that he was 
to be hung the next raprr^ipg, and asking hiiu what he thought 
of it and why he did not pi'ay, he answered that it was noth- 



228 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

ing, adding that he had been hung many a time. He was 
playing all the time in jail, never once realizing the dreadful 
fate that awaited him. When brought out to die, and seeing 
the px'eparations that had been made for his execution, for the 
first time he began to have some idea of what was before him. 
He then asked that he might be allowed to pray, after doing 
which he began to cry, and in the midst of his childish wail- 
ings was sent out of the world. 

The secret of this aifair is, that he belonged to the " race 
of Africa" or " cui'sed seed of Ham" and was executed for 
giving his tyrannical owner, the Rev. J. J. "Weems, a knock on 
the head. For the purpose of " impressing the surrounding 
Slave population" a boy of ten years of age was just as good 
as an adult who had arrived to years of moral responsibility, 
and possibly better. 

The Pro-Slavery Pulpits and the Pro-Slavery Presses, 
protest against Uncle Tom's Cabin, on the ground that its 
incidents are " exaggerated," in fact, " a stupendous lie," al- 
though the accomplished writer, m her " Key to Uncle Tom," 
has justified every event and circumstance which it describes, 
by citing parallel facts. But if the Key had never been pre- 
pared, the columns of the Southern journals themselves would 
have furnished ample evidence of the substantial truth of Mrs. 
Stowe's representations. No one of her incidents, for instance, 
has created more remark than the death of Uncle Tom by 
means of the violence of Legree, and it has been said that no 
such wretch ?ls he is represented to be could exist in a " Chris- 
tian country," and that no such event as the murder of an 
old, faithful, and pious Slave by his owner, was likely to occur. 
Yet read the following paragraph from The Garrollton (La.) 
Star : — 

" We grieve to have to record an outrage practised on the body of an 
old Negro of this place, named Johnson, the Slave of Charles Hiues, by 
Hiues himself, which resulted in death. The Negro was ncarlv ninetu 



SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 229 

• 
years of age, and venerated for his honesty, as well as for his Revol utionary 
reminiscences. The Master, taking umbrage at some petty offence, delib- 
erately whipped, stamped, and kicked him to death. Persons who wit- 
nessed poor Johnson's sufferinys, say that the sight was extremely sicken- 
ing — his whole back cut and bruised into jelly, and the lower part of 
his person kicked to pieces." 

Only think of the hideous cruelty of murdering an old man 
who had reached the Patriarchal age of nearly ninety, and who 
appears to have served in the Revolutionary war ! — deliber- 
ately whipped and kicked to death ! Is there anything in any 
of the " Novels" that have been written to show the fiend-like 
influence of Slavery more clearly than this ? Yet we are told 
that these '' Novels" do Southern society the greatest injustice, 
and are libels upon the truth ! 

A Slave little girl, named Louise, aged ten years, on the 
7th of October, 1855, presented herself at the Police office of 
the Second district. New Orleans, seeking protection from the 
cruel treatment of her " Mistress," Madame E. Cruzelle. The 
Slave had been brutally beaten, her back, and other parts of 
her body, being literally cut to pieces. She stated that her 
owner had beaten her in this manner because she did not sell 
enough cakes, &c., to gratify her cupidity. She was placed 
in jail to await an investigation of the matter. 

Society in New Orleans appears to be resolving itself into 
its pristine elements, and the community bounding onward to 
political chaos. Just look at the chronicle of the City for a 
single month, as recorded in The True Delta; and, as a pri- 
vate letter says, " bad as it is, it does ?iot include more than 
half of what has taken place :" On November 1, there was an 
inquest upon the body of Joseph Steiner, and on the same day 
Joseph Damon snapped a pistol at a Slave named Long. On 
the 2d, a man named Cullen shot Daniel Hallem in a coffee- 
house, and Thomas Armstrong was arrested for wounding his 
sister with a Cotton-book. On the 3d, Henry Kelter was 



230 SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

charged with firing a pistol at Herman Baurichter, and two 
men named Fitzgerald were examined for murdering their 
sister ; it was recorded, likewise, that Dr. Meighan was stabbed 
in several places at his own door. On the 4th, an unknown 
man was found drowned in a saw-mill pond ; a record was 
made of the murder of Mike Anderson by George Thomas, 
in a coffee-house, and examination of James Coyle for stabbing 
John Reilly, with intent to kill, was postponed. 

On the 5th, a German named Allemande was badly wounded, 
and Antoine Freiler killed ; Major Blaize was shot at and 
wounded ; E. S. White, the contractor, was slung-shotted ; a 
tailor was stabbed, and a man named Patterson was knocked 
down and kicked severely ; Joseph Nutter was shot in the 
leg ; James Boyle and Edward Jones were shot at ; a man 
was shot dead ; James Peterson was stabbed, and Edward 
Evans was beaten so unmercifully that his life was despaired 
of. On the 6th, Dr. C. Sherener was shot at his own door 
and died, and Nicholas Gavin was stabbed. On the 7th, 
Watchman Tate was brutally beaten while discharging his 
duty. On the 8th, Mr. A. B. Bacon, a lawyer, was badly 
beaten at the polls with a slung-shot. On the 9th, a grocer 
named McCogga knocked down Joseph Goddard, and further 
maimed him by biting off his nose and two fingers. On the 
10th, a German named Krost had several fingers bitten off ; 
an engineer on the railroad was stabbed ; Alderman Dural was 
knocked down with a pair of brass knuckles ; a Slave was 
prevented from shooting his owner; and a gang of rowdies 
beat Felix Bosquillon to death for I'efusing them liquor. On 
the 11th, one murder and five robberies were committed. On 
the 12th, Daniel Sullivan beat awfully and tried to kill his 
brother-in-law by firing a pistol. 

On the 13th, A. H. Dobbins wounded Christian Shaffer with 
a drinking glass, and Charles Smelsey struck Jean Loze with 
a slung-shot. The 14th was a day of rest. On the 15th, 



SLAYK LIFE OX THE PLANTATION. 231 

Jack Allen was arrested for murder ; and a free colored man 
stabbed another. On the 16th, an application was made and 
refused on behalf of Charles Bell, charged with shooting 
murderously at his brother-in-law ; Owen Marth stabbed Mrs. 
Burns, and her son, who interfered ; Pierre Trousky as- 
saulted John, a Slave, and attempted to shoot Clarissa, an- 
other Slave ; Thomas Farris stabbed Michael Henly at the 
polls ; and Captain Snow was arrested for cutting C. A. Clai'k. 
On the 21st, J. G. Cabore was fired at. On the 23d, John 
Feehan was badly cut by a police officer; and Samuel Smith 
badly wounded Andres Quitana. On the 25th, Martin Gray 
cut off the finger o^' Patrick Nolan. On the 26th, F. Barsicola, 
an Italian, was murdered. On the 27th, C. de la Terra died 
of intemperance ; Thomas Hussey was badly cut ; the body 
of a new-born infant was found — a case of infanticide; a 
woman and child were wounded in the streets, from the shot 
of parties fighting with double-barreled, guns in a grocery ; an 
English sailor was thrown down stairs, and had his skull frac- 
tured ; James M'Gregor was thrown from a window, and 
died ; and J. Dabill was stabbed by robbers. 

On the 28th, Barletta Walker, a German woman, far gone 
in pregnancy, was brought to the Hospital, stabbed by her 
husband ; and Major Blaze was assaulted by a man with in- 
tent to kill ; John Graham died of his wounds, and Mrs. C. 
Howard was stabbed by Thomas Foley ; and another woman 
and a man besides were stabbed. On the 29th, a German 
named Eczinger, was shot and wounded in three places ; 
John ShaefFer and Moran Meinnich were stabbed ; a Slave 
stabbed a free colored man ; Patrick Brown was stabbed ; a 
German named Dreyfuss was stabbed ; Hayes, an Irishman, 
was stabbed ; Charles Gavin slung-shotted and shot. 

The (New Orleans) True Delta, of the 4th November, 1856, 
has the following paragraph : " The assassination of citizens 
has now become so common that the reporters of the daily 



232 SLAVE LTFE ON THE PLANTATION. 

press scarcely deem them worth an item. Literally and truly 
we have no laAvs. Equally literally and truly may it be said 
that we have no public opinion."* 

These facts need no commentary. They show the horrible 
cruelty of the Slaveholding Democracy of the " Model Re- 
public," and the unmitigated diabolism of a Slaveholding re- 
ligion. What meaning can there be in the words justice or 
mercy, what significance in the doctrine of human brotherhood, 
or what force in the precepts, " Love thy neighbor as thyself," 
" Remember them that are in bonds," &c. In every Slave- 
consuming State see the " Receiving-houses," whither these 
poor wrecks and remnants of families are constantly borne ! 
Who preaches the Gospel to the Slave-coffles ? Who preaches 
the Gospel in the Slave-prisons ? Is it not mockery to pray, 
" Thy Kingdom come," and refuse to engage in labors like 
these ? If the work of elevating depressed humanity be 
Christ's work, should not the " undoing of the heavy burthens," 
and " letting the oppressed go free," be the work of Christians, 
the mission of the Church of Christ ? If you turn away in- 
different from this cause — " if you forbear to deliver them that 
are drawn unto death, and those that be ready to be slain ; if 
thou sayest. Behold, we knew it not, doth not He that pondereth 
the Heart consider it, and He that keepeth the soul, doth He 
not know it, shall He not render to every man according to his 
works ?" 

The bodily tortures endured by the Slaves ai'e, indeed, 
enough to awaken profound sympathy and excite an intense 
indignation ; but, oh ! how much more appalling is the violence 
done to those higher faculties, through which they ai'e allied to 
God, and made heirs to an immortal life ! 

* A correspondent of one of the "evangelical" Pro-Slavery journals 
of New York, writing from the interior of Turkey, enlarges upon the 
" barbarous habits of the people," and states, as an appalling' fact, that 
" in the course of a year, one man has been killed in public, and three 
brutally beaten." The " interior of Turkey" must try again. 



PAKT FOURTH. 

EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION OF "SER- 
VANTS," AND OTHER NEGROES. 



CHAPTER I. 



" We should march up to the very verge of the Constitution to destroy 
the traffic in Human flesh." — Franklin. 

The Slave Power goes further. It lays its deadly grasp 
on the very souls of its victims. It subjects all the " religious 
privileges" of the Slave — we beg the reader's pardon, of the 
" Servant" — to the absolute will of the " Master," whether he 
be "Christian" or infidel. It does more, it prohibits the 
" Master" from teaching his Slaves to read, even the Word of 
God, and thus cuts off the unfortunate creature from one of 
the greatest privileges which God has ever bestowed on man. 
It aims to keep the mind in abject ignorance and degradation, 
lest the enslaved should grow dissatisfied, and claim the in- 
alienable rights of humanity. 

Nor is the non-Slaveholding white portion of the population 
scarcely in a better condition. Ignorance is an " Institution" 
in the Slaveholding States. It is a political necessity, and is 
as much provided for by legislation and by " public senti- 
ment," and guarded by enactments, as intelhgence is in the 
"/ree States." It must be. The restrictions which keep it 
from the Slaves keep it from the "/ree whites," excepting, al- 



234 EDUCATION AND UELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

ways, the few who live at the top. There can not be an 
atmosphere of intelhgence. Slaves would be in danger of 
breathing that. " Knowledge is Power," not only, but Powder, 
putting the South in the risk of being blown up, by careless 
handling and too great abundance. 

The self-preservation of the Slaveholders, requires that 
Negroes, bond and^ree, should be treated worse than asses — 
beaten, and cruelly tortured, or murdered if refractory. In 
consonance with this '• opinion," we deem such resolutions as 
the following, passed a short time since at a public meeting in 
Upper Marlboro', Prince George county, Maryland, absolutely 
necessary : 

"Resolved, That, in a Slaveholdino: community like this, it is unwise, 
inexpedient, and dangerous, to allow large bodies of Slaves or free 
Negroes to assemble at night for any purpose whatever, whether it bo 
Religious, Social, or Moral; such assemblages are sure to beget feelings 
of Physical superiority, in regard to numbers of the white race, and, even 
when unaccompanied by tumult, have always a natural tendency to en- 
gender discontent and insubordination on the part of the colored race. 

"Resolved, That this meeting is animated by no feelings of Political 
or Religious excitement whatever, but as Slaveholders alone, reijardftd 
of their own personal rights and safety, they have met together to express 
their unqualified disapprobation of such night meetings of their Slaves." 

In Virginia, it is enacted " that all meetings or assemblages 
of Slaves, free Negroes, or mulattoes mixing and associating 
with such Slaves at any Meeting-house or houses, &;c., in the 
night ; or at any school or schools for teaching them reading 
or writing, either in the day or night, under whatsoever pre- 
text, shall be deemed and considered an unlawful assemblage." 
— '' Corporal punishment may be inflicted on the offender or 
offenders, at the discretion of any Justice of the Peace, not 
exceeding twenty lashes. If a Postmaster, or deputy Post- 
master, know that any book or other writing has been received 
at his office in the mail, he shall give notice thereof to some 
Justice, who shall inquire into the circumstances and have such 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 235 

hook or writing burned in his presence ; if it appear to him 
that the person to whom it was directed subscribed therefor, 
knowing its character, or agreed to receive it for circulation to 
aid the purpose of Abolitionists, the Justice shall commit such 
person to Jail. If any Postmaster, or deputy Postmaster, 
violate this section, he shall be fined not exceeding two hundred 
dollars." — (Revised Code, p. 434.) 

The liichmond Enquirer (a leading Buchanan journal), of 
August 29, 185G, says: "Every school and college in the 
South should teach that Slave society is the common, natural, 
rightful, and normcd state of society. Any doctrine short of 
this contains Abolition in the germ ; for, if it be not the right- 
ful and natural form of society, it can not last, and we should 
prepare for its gradual but ultimate Abolition. They should 
also teach that no other form of society is, in the general, right 
or expedient. There are exceptional cases, such as desert or 
mountainous countries, where the small patches of fertile land 
are inadequate to support a larger family than husband, wife, 
and children — such as Lapland, Sweden, Norway, Switzer- 
land, and parts of Africa — such, also, as New England, and 
Eastern New York, and Eastern Pennsylvania, which, though 
admirably adapted for commerce, manufactures, and fishing, 
are little fitted for Cotton or Sugar raising. Our schools should 
also teach that the Slaves should be a different race or nation 
from the Master, and the wider the distinction the better, as in 
such case the Slave is less apt to be degraded, or wish to as- 
sert his freedom and equality. To teach such doctrines we 
must have Southern teachers. It is from the school that pub- 
lic opinion proceeds, and the schools should be set right. No 
teacher should be employed in a private family or public 
schools at the South, who is not ready to teach these doctrines. 
Parents, trustees, and visiters, should look to this thing." 
~ The citizens of Caroline county, held a mass meeting in 
September, 1855, to consider the proper course to be pursued 



236 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

with regard to '■'•free Negroes" in their midst, when the follow- 
uig pregnant preamble and resolutions, reported by a Commit- 
tee of twenty prominent citizens appointed at a former meet- 
ing, were unanimously adopted : — 

" All Governments restrict and diminish the liberties of the People, in 
order to promote the happiness and well-being of society. They who 
are governed can not be free. Various forms and degrees of govern- 
ment have ever existed in society, each answering equally well for all 
nations and individuals endowed with various degrees of self-control, 
morality, and civilization. The least degree of government to which 
men most civilized, moral, and enlightened, can be subjected, consistent- 
ly with good order and security, is that of being governed by laws made 
by representatives chosen by themselves. But this degree of liberty cau 
be safely given bat to a small fraction of individuals, even in the best 
and purest society. The children must be governed by parents and 
guardians; the apprentices by Mastei's" (that is. Slaveholders); "the 
soldiers and sailors by superior ofScers ; wives must be subjected to hus- 
bands ; lunatics and idiots to trustees and committees, and criminals bo 
confined in jails and penitentiaries. In all cases, it is not the law of the 
land that governs, but the will of a Master" (that is, a Slaveholder). "All 
experience, all history, shows that man is only fitted for the government 
of mere law when he has become so highly civilized, prudent, and moral, 
as to regard liberty in its broad and common sense as a thing to he aiioided 
as an evil, rather than as a good to he sought after. With the whites, we 
carefully adapt the mode and degree of government to the wants of the 
governed. Let us adopt the same wise and just rule with our Servants. 
Let us not attempt to govern those by mere law, who when adults, re- 
quire, as much as white children between sixteen and tweuSy-one, to be 
governed by the will of another. Call that other 'guardian,' 'Com- 
mittee,' 'captain,' or 'Master,' 'tis but a different name — the mode of 
government is the same. The strong and stringent measures adopted by 
many of the 'free States' to exclude 'free Negroes' from their territories, 
justify our present course, and rebuke our past tardiness, because the 
reasons and necessity for their exclusion exist in tenfold greater in- 
tensity with us than with them. 

"A. S. BROADUS, aiairman. 

" Brokenbrough Peyton, Secretary." 

The Constitution and Statutes of " /ree States" debarring 
their "free colored Citizens" from eligibility to Office, and 



OF SERYANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 237 

from equal access to the Ballot-box, are among the most 
marked and mischievous specimens of injury to the colored 
race. This greatly encourages and sustains the Slave States 
in their oppression of both the bond and iho, free. 

"Virginia," says The Richmond Argus, of March 24,1854, 
"is a very great State — very great! Virginia in this con- 
federacy is the Impersonation of the Well-born, Well-edu- 
cated, Well-bred Aristocrat." Well-born, indeed, while, the 
Children of Jefferson and the only Children of Madison are a 
" connecting link between the human and brute creation ;" 
Well-educated, with 25 per cent, of her White adults unable 
to read the vote they cast against the unalienable rights of 
man ; Well-bred, when her great product for exportation is — 
the Children of her own loins ! Slavery is a " patriarchal in- 
stitution ;" the democratic Abrahams of Virginia do not " Of- 
fer up" their Isaacs to the Lord ; that would be a " Sacrifice 
of property^ They only sell them. Virginia is, indeed, " a 
veiy great State," so far as this article of export is concerned, 
for she Sells $25,000,000 worth of her Sons and Daughters 
every year. 

At the Sunday School Convention, which was held in 
Lynchburg, in June, 1855, a Committee of twelve Clergymen 
and Laymen representing the '•'• evangelicaV^ denominations in 
the town, was appointed to prepare an Address in behalf of 
Christian education in Southwestern Virginia. It has been 
published and presents some suggestive statistics. According 
to the Census of 1850, the entire Avhite population of the 
State was 971,770. Of these there are over 20 years of age, 
452,832 ; of whom there are who can not read, 86,183. That 
is nearly one in five of the grown whites of the State. Where 
will these adults learn to read, if not in the Sunday School ? 
They are too old, or too poor, or too proud, to attend any 
other. But again, there were in 1855, in Virginia, 379,845 
young persons between 5 and 20 years of age, of whom there 



238 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

were at school or college only 111,327; leaving as attending 
no school at all 268,416; that is, for every young person in 
the State between 5 and 20 years of age receiving instruction, 
there are two who receive none ! In other words, two thirds 
of that portion of population who are to become Citizens with- 
in the next fifteen years, are, in these most precious years of 
their history, going totally untaught. 

To the questions, " What can be done to change this sad 
prospect?" "How is light to be poured upon the darkness 
which is thus settling all around the people ?" " How are the 
blessings of general, and especially of Christian instruction to 
be here diffused?" the Report answers as follows : — 

" The best hope, we have no hesitation in answering, is in that ad- 
mirable institution of our age, which is peculiarly conformed to the spirit 
of Christianity, the Sunday School. This agency, whether conducted 
on individual responsibility, or under denominational direction, we cor- 
dially recommend as eminently beneficial in tendency. But there is one 
great Sunday School organization of which we would especially speak 
as peculiarly adapted to the wants of the land — The American Sunday 
School Union. This is a great National association of good men, be- 
longir«g to the leading evangelical denominations of the country," &c. 

These facts are startling. One in five of the grown white 
persons of Virginia — the " Old Dominion" — unable to read ! 
An education is due to them, such as will enable them to un- 
derstand their duties and their rights. But will even these 
simple suggestions be carried out ? Of course not. The peo- 
ple in twenty-six counties even, of a State which will tax its 
downtrodden "yV-ee Negroes" $50,000 for sending the afore- 
said "yree Negroes" — who don't want to go — to Africa, and 
then steal the money and throw it into the Treasury for State 
purposes, as Virginia has lately done, will raise no money by 
taxing themselves for Sunday Schools, or any other schools, 
to educate their own ignorant whites, so long as they can 
thrust an arm into the vaults of a Northern Sunday School 
Union for such an object. 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 239 

The Washington Star, in reference to some observations 
made by the JVeio York Tribune, in January, 1856, on the 
shocking condition of the poor whites of the Slave States and 
Territories of the Union, put the following question : — 

" The theory is that the existence of Slavery in a community degrades 
free labor therein. Now, throughout the Slaveholding States no others 
are more emphatic enemies of Abolitionists and Abolitionism than our ivork- 
imjmen, in all callings. Far moreyj-ee to do and say as they please, than 
those who live by the employment of the Capital of others at the North, 
not an Abolitionist is to be found among them ! If they are degraded, why 
is it that they do not show something like restiveuess under their con- 
dition ? Why do they, the freest, most independent, and se//-willed 
laborers on the face of the globe, who have been living since the forma- 
tion of the Government in this alleged degraded condition, hate and de- 
spise Abolitionism with unanimity and heartiness such as loas never before 
exhibited on any other subject by any other people in our country ? Here is 
a nut to crack." 

Unfortunately the great bulk of the poor whites of the 
Slave States and Territories are altogether too ignorant to 
have any precise idea of the extent of their degradation, and 
still less of the causes of it, and of the means of its removal. 
The enmity of the whites, and especially of that most de- 
graded class of them, the inhabitants of villages and towns, to 
Abolitionists and Abolitionism, is very easily explained. De- 
graded as they are, they still have the consolation of seeing 
beneath them a class, and a large class, still more degraded in 
the eye of the law. What a consolation to that pride so in- 
nate in the human heart, and one of the mainsprings of human 
action, for the most worthless, idle, pauper vagabond of a white 
man still to be able to set himself down as standing in the social 
scale above the great mass of the laboring population, and in 
the Slave States above the majority of the whole population! 

The poor whites are able to see that the abolition of Sla- 
very would deprive them of this " glorious advantage ;" that 
if Slavery were abolished, capacity and industry would then 



240 EDUCATION AND EELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION " 

hecome the test, and that in order to keep in advance of ih<^ 
Slave population, it would he necessary to surpass them in 
lahor, intelligence, usefulness, and productive skill. Tliej see 
plainly enough what they would lose ; they are not able to see 
what they might gain. Never having known a state of society 
different from that in which they live, they have no means of 
conceiving of the advantages which Freedom gives to the in- 
telligent and industrious laborer, and their Slaveholding neigh- 
bors make it a point to do their best to prevent anybody from 
giving them the needed information. The Slaveholder knows 
very well that when you have taught a man what are his nat- 
ural rights, he will begin to inquire why he is deprived of 
them. He reads in his Bible that God has given the earth to 
the children of men ; he knows himself to be a man's child, 
and he therefore asks, " Where is my portion of the Earth ?" 
He perceives he has no interest in the soil, and has nothing 
which he can call his own ; that he is a Slave, not the Slave 
of a particular individual, but of the State. 

The Hon. Cassius M. Clay, of Kentucky, himself formerly 
an extensive " owner" of Slaves, whom he had emancipated, 
in an address to the Slaveholders of his native State, said : — 

"No! it is you who repress Ed ucatioii and Moral instruction — who 
dare deny the Holy Scriptures to the poor Slaves and all the non- Slave- 
holding White Millions of this accursed South — who sear the conscience 
and imbrute men to violate female innocence and mui-der infants ! The 
fact is on i-ecord, in divers places, that you have been the cause of the 
committal of those crimes upon the Wives and Daughters of the friends 
of the poor Slave and caused the perpetrators to run off." Agaiu: 
"Under your infamous Statute, 2d and 3d Sections, the liberty of over 
700,000 of the native White population of the State is insidiously en- 
dangered. Whenever a man is true enough to the instincts of nature to 
refuse to become your watch-dog, some one of your number — and you 
are not wanting in that virtue — has only to ssvear that he suspects him 
of an intent to induce a Slave to runaway, and the poor devil is thrown 
into prison to die, or forced to sign the warrant of his own exile from 
his native land." Again : " Shall the poor man have no home 1 Shall 



hd 



s ^J 



ca 




OF SKKVANTS, AKD OTHER NEGROES. 241 

the Sanctitij of the Bedchamber and the Hearthstone be hioion only to the 
wealthy Slaveholder ? Shall the laborer's Wife and Children have no rest- 
ing-place where brutal intruders dare not come ? Where are the sons of the 
Boonos and the Kentons ? Does no rusty rifle rest upon the rack, to 
teach our tj^rants that, among freemen, the cabin and the palace are 
alike inviolable." 

Mr. Clay, in a Lecture on the " Despotism of Slavery," de- 
livered in the Tabernacle, New York, said : " Citizens of ]Si ew 
York, where are your rights South of Mason and Dixon's 
Line ?" (that is, South of the State of Delaware.) " Where is 
your right to petition? Does the Senate at this day respect it 
and give you a hearing ? Has not the Postoffice been viola- 
ted, and letters of friendship and affection rudely broken open 
hy those who are in search of information against the lovers 
of liberty and haters of oppr-ession." 

Judge Hall, at the opening of the United States Circuit 
Court, Canandaigua, New York, in June, 1855, in his re- 
marks to the Grand Inquest, alluded to this infamous practice, 
and charged that no man, whether in the employ of the Gov- 
ernment or not, had any right whatever except in case of 
" dead lettei-s," to open a letter intrusted to the Mail, or to de- 
tain such letter. Judge Hall was at the head of the Postoffice 
Department during the Administration of Millard Fillmore. 
The same infamous practice was pursued during the Admin- 
istration of Franklin Pierce, and will be continued under the 
Administration of James Buchanan. 

The Held York Tribune, in June, 1855, said: ''The United 
States Government, as the reader is aware, has an army of 
employees called ' Mail Agents,' who travel with the mails on 
our leading thoroughfares. The Mails go under their guard- 
ianship, and it has heretofore been supposed that the people 
were gaining something by the arrangement in the way of 
security to their communications. But this appears to be an 
entire mistake. These Mail Agents have free access to the 
mails ; and not only so, but it seems they take the liberty of 

11 



242 EDUCATION AKD KELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

opening letters whenever they see Jit to do it. If Mail Agents 
are in the habit of opening letters, may they not sometimes 
pocket the contents^ They may as well do it as to break 
open a letter and copy it." 

A few days later (June 23, 1855) the Tribune said: 
" There is certainly an immense number of letters mailed 
which never reach their destination ; scarcely a day passes that 
we do not at this office obtain letters stating that money has been 
remitted to us which we have never received. A business firm 
writes us from Illinois : ' AVe consider the management of the 
Postoffice past all endurance. Our own losses from stolen 
letters during the last year amount to $2,G85.' " 

Every Postmaster acts as a Spy and a Judge Lynch on 
every document that comes into his hands. Nor is this sys- 
tem confined to the Slave States and Territories. You will 
find it, as we have, to our great cost and injury, in New Jer- 
sey, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, and other Stales of the 
"/ree North." But the worst of all the "-free States" is New 
Jersey, because the most Pro-Slavery. 

In the city of Louisville, when, on a recent occasion, an 
attempt was made to assert the " rights" of the working-classes 
of Kentucky, the men who made the attempt were met witir 
the Revolver and Bowie-knife. 

The " people" of Kentucky, if permitted to breathe free 
air, would be brave and generous ; but Slavery has broken 
their spirit, and they now wink at crimes and outrages which 
would make savages stare with astonishment. 

When Mr. Brady, the Lexington schoolmaster, was sur- 
rounded — in December, 1855 — by a gang of ferocious poor 
whites, all burning wnth a desire to " taste the blood of an 
Abolitionist," and peering through the windows to see that he 
did not escape, there were in the same apartment with him, 
the School Committee, four Members of the City Council, the 
City Marshal, and the Mayor. They urged him to sneak out 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 243 

of the back-door ! He asked them whether it was not their 
business, in such a case, to protect him ? They shrank from 
the task, and rephed, that " it would cost them their lives if 
they did ;" in other words, it would be dangerous to do their 
duty ! Mr. Brady bravely, nobly, manfully told them, that he 
scorned to fly when he had committed no crime ; so he went 
forth to meet the mob ; and the mob, taking advantage of his 
defenceless condition, wreaked their cowardly vengeance upon 
him. The " chivalrous" officers did sneak out of the back 
door ; but the " trembling Abolitionist" fearlessly conft'onted 
the mob. "What a contrast does this present ! Alas for Ken- 
tucky ! (See p. 1G6.) 

It having been rejoorted that the Abolitionists of New Eng- 
land intended to establish an Anti-Slavery paper at Lexing- 
ton, on account of the outrage on Brady, the Louisville 
Times, the leading " Democratic paper" of the place, replied 
as follows : — 

" Those that commence the paper had better get all the hair taken off 
their heads, so that the Lexington people will only have the trouble of 
taking off their skin." 

Barbarians have a natural antipathy to a stranger. Should 
one by chance come among them, he is looked upon as a 
" natural enemy" and killed, perhaps cooked, without further 
ceremony. There is some sense in the custom, if it be ad- 
mitted that barbarism is a good thing, and worth keeping in 
repair. Strange eyes and " foreign tongues" are bad for 
abuses of any kind. So that those who thrive by them, or 
think they do, may well be jealous of such prying intrusions. 
The Slaveholding Democracy of the Slave States and Terri- 
tories share to a considerable degree in this suspiciousness. 
They don't like spies about them, and there are thousands of 
instances of their dealing with lookers-on who had unpleasant- 
ly excited their notice, in a way that would have done no dis- 
credit to a Feejee Islander. 



244 EDUCATION AND KELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

In North Carolina, to teach a Slave to read or write, is 
punished with thirty-nine lashes or imprisonment, if the of- 
fender be a "y)-ee Negro ;" but if a white man, then with a 
fine of $200. The reason for this " law," assigned in its pre- 
amble, is, that teaching Slaves to read and write " tends to 
dissatisfaction in their minds, and to produce insurrection and 
rehellion." The patrols search every hut for books or prints 
of any kind. Bibles and Hymn-books are looked upon as 
" most dangerous to the welfare and happiness of the domes- 
tic institutions" (Slavery and Polygamy) "of the South." 

In 1853, the Mechanics of Concord, Cahawus county, with- 
out consulting the Slaveholders of the place, held a meeting to 
discuss their own business, and consult on matters of mutual 
interest ; to discover particularly what their position was in 
relation to the colored and party-colored population about 
them. Their great complaint was that weailthy men, who had 
"Slave mechanics,'^ were in the habit of underhidding them on 
contracts, and that '•'■free Negroes" who bound their own bodies, 
to be security to white men for Money loaned, came into the 
county and took away business that belonged to the ivhite la- 
borers. The principal speaker at the meeting wa^ a young 
man of more than ordinary intelligence, to which he united 
the irascibility of his countrymen. He spoke in favor of res- 
olutions to employ no Slaves or " free Negroes" as journey- 
men' while whites could be had. This young man was un- 
married but supported an aged Mother. 

The next day the meeting was discussed by the '•' influen- 
tial" men. The speeches and resolutions were condemned. 
Mark this, by men who were not mechanics, and who had no 
interest in common %oith mechanics. The leader in this move- 
ment was a fiery fellow, entirely unworthy the confidence of 
the community — a " Nigger speckylator," illiterate and un- 
reasonable — as an evidence of which we mention the faot 
that about .that time he nearly killed with a knii'e, while in a 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 245 

passion, his brother-iii-law, whom he cut severely many times 
before he could be made to comprehend that he had hold of 
the wrong man, and that his antagonist had escaped. This 
person advised to send the chief speaker out of the country — 
he was a dangerous man to have about. This course was 
agreed upon, and one of ^^ the freest, most independent, self- 
willed laborers on the face of the globe" had to leave his home 
on the demand of a " Nigger-driver," because he dared talk 
as if he had '' rights." 

In South Carolina, it is declared that " having Slaves taught 
to write, or sulFering them to be employed in writing, may be 
attended with great inconveniences." It is therefore enacted 
that '' all and every person or persons whatsoevei", who shall 
teach or cause any Slave or Slaves to be taught to write, or 
shall use or employ any Slave as a scribe, in any manner of 
writing whatsoever, hereafter taught to write, eveiy such 
person or persons shall for every such offence, forfeit the sum 
of $500." (Brevard's Digest, p. 243.) Again : "All assemblies 
of Slaves, free Negroes, Mulattoes, and Mestizoes" (mixtures 
of white and Indian), " whether composed all of any such 
description of persons, or of all or any of the same, and of a 
portion of white persons met together for the purpose of 7nen- 
tal instruction, are declared to be an unlawful meeting, and 
the Officers dispersing such unlawful assemblage may inflict 
such corporal punishment, not exceeding thirty-nine lashes, as ■ 
they may judge necessary. It shall not be lawful for any 
number of Slaves, free Negroes, Mulattoes, or Mestizoes, even 
in company with white persons, to meet together for the pur- 
pose of mental instruction, either before the rising of the sun, 
or after the going down of the same." — (Brevard's Digest, 
p. 254.) 

The Southern Presbyterian, published at Charleston, S. C, 
thinks that " if Slaves are taught to read the Bible, they may 
read other books ; and then they may rebel ; and our Wives 



246 EDUCATION AND KELIGIOUS INSTRUOTION 

and our Daughters may fall victims to their vengeance." 
Where did the party-colored population of the Slaveholding 
States come from? 

A short time since the Methodist Conference of South Car- 
olina appointed a Missionary to " labor among the colored peo- 
ple," but it was soon *' suppressed by the citizens." A Com- 
mittee was appointed, who addressed a letter to the Missionary 
requesting him to desist. This was backed up by a remon- 
strance to the same effect, signed by James S. Pope and'^TG 
others. The document argued at length the incompatibility 
of Slavery with the "mental and religious instruction of Slaves." 
Hear them : 

" Verbal instruction," said they, " will increase the desire of the Slave 
population to learn. We know of upward of a dozen Negroes in the 
neighborhood of Cambridge (S. C), who can now read, some of whom 
are members of your societies at Mount Lebanon and New Salem. Of 
course, they will supply themselves with Bibles, Hymn-books, and Cate- 
chisms. Open the Missionary sluice, and the current will swell in its 
gradual onward advance. We thus expect that a progressive system of 
improvement will be introduced, or will follow, from the nature and force 
of circumstances, and, if not checked — though they may be shrouded iu 
sophistry and disguise — will ultimately revolutionize our Civil institu- 
tions." 

The document referred to the " Laws of the State," and 
hoped that " South Carolina is yet true to her lutal interests." 
The missionary enterprise was at once relinquished. 

The Editors of The Mountaineer, published at Greenville, 
said : " The opposition to the late Home Missionary among us 
comprised the great body of our most respectable citizens." 

In Georgia, if a white man teach a free Negro or Slave to 
read or write, he is fined $500, and imprisoned at the discre- 
tion of the Court. If the offender be a " colored" man, bond 
or free, he may be fined or whipped, at the discretion of the 
Court. Of course, a father may be flogged for teaching his 
own child. " No congregation, or company of Negroes, shall, 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 247 

under any pretence of divine worship, assemble themselves, con- 
trary to the act regulating patrols." {Prince's Digest, p. 342.) 

No poor white laborer dare show any sympathy with Anti- 
Slavery sentiments ; if suspected of having a pitiful heart to- 
ward the Slave, he is marked and doomed ; there is no rest 
for him till he finds it in a ^^free State." And as the majority 
of that class can not readily command the means to move their 
families into a " land of freedom," the condition of remaining 
where they are is silence on the subject of Emancipation and 
opposition to all forms of Anti-Slavery. 

We have known of Northern men strongly opposed to Sla- 
very, whose business called them temporarily to the South, who 
have bought one or more Slaves, in order to quiet the suspi- 
cions and gain the confidence of the oppressors who give 
" chai*acter and tone" to Society. Northern Anti-Slavery 
clergymen become Slaveholders with the design, apparently, 
of disproving the sincerity of their former opinions. 

It is well known to those who know the South that Slave- 
holders resort to various tyrannical methods to free their neigh- 
borhoods of poor whites, especially if they show any discon- 
tent with Slavery. If they can not buy the little property 
owned by those poor people, they often set up false claims to 
it, or find some pretended ground of legal action against them ; 
and as the Courts always favor the Slaveholder, the result is 
always disastrous to the helpless and friendless non-Slave- 
holder. Instead of being, as The Washington Star afiirms, 
^'' Xha freest, most independent, and S(°//-willed laborers on the 
face of the globe," they are the most dependent and obsequious 
white men in the world, and as much the objects of pity as the 
Slaves themselves. They are too ignorant and too poor to 
escape from their degradation, and remain quietly where they 
are only by loving and hating what the fierce, unreasoning 
Slaveholder loves and hates. 

The Rev. Charles C. Jones, of Georgia, address-ing " Mas- 



248 EDUCATION AND RELTGIOrS INSTRrCTION 

ters,"- says : "You have the power to open the kingdom of 
Heaven or to shut it, to your Slaves." {Religious Instruction 
of the Negroes, p. 158.) 

The Georgia, a prominent journal of the State, commenting 
on the deploi'able condition of the non-Slaveholding white 
population, says : " By reference to the last Census, it will be 
seen that between 1840 and 1850 the rate of increase of the 
entire white population was a little under 28 per cent. Dur- 
ing the same time the rate of increase of the number of adult 
Citizens in the State, unable to read, was over 341 per cent. 
It is only by distinctly observing this rapid increase that we 
see the facts in their appalling magnitude. This vast arm}' of 
ignoramuses will he more than douhled in thirty years ! At 
the rate of the increase shown by the Census, it will have 
within its ranks, in the year 1900, one hundred and seventy 
thousand of the citizens of Georgia. This is the rigid result 
yielded by the figures. The boy of to-day, who may live to 
old age, will see the time when this host of unlettered, uncared- 
for multitude in our State will have grown to over two hun- 
dred tJiousand, unless an entirely new and effective effort be 
made to drive this sore evil from the land." 

The nature and value of that " liberty" which a community 
enjoys in conjunction with Slavery, is thus frequently illus- 
trated by the Slaveholders themselves, but seldom more forci- 
bly than in the recent outbreak at Mobile, Alabama. Here is 
one of the Slaveholding mob's own version of the affair and its 
provocation : 

"Mobile, Saturda;/, August 16, 1856. 
" There has been great excitement here to <;:i_v, which had its origin in 
' the sale of Abolition books by a stationery firm in this city. The name 
of the firm in question is Strickland ^-- Co. ; the individual members be- 
ing Wm. Strickland and Edwin Upson. The only charge against them 
was the selling of books" that were regarded as of an incendiary cliarac- 
ter, inasmuclt^as thejj favored the freedom of the Slave. This, however, 
was more than our people could submit to, and a Committee of Five of 



t 

OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 249 

our Citizens was accordingly formed, who waited upon the individuals 
ahove alluded to, and ordered them to leave the city in five days. As 
soon as the action of the Committee became generally known, the excite- 
ment rapidly increased, and the parties, for foar of more desperate meas- 
ures against them, fled the City in the most secret manner possible. 
The firm was in the enjoyment of a large business, and have heretofore 
been liberally patronized by our Citizens." 

It is not pretended that these booksellers had violated any 
law ; if they had, there was no need of a " Committee of Five" 
to " order them to leave the city in five days." On the con- 
trary, they would have been prosecuted, arrested, and held to 
answer for their offence. They were only charged with " sell- 
ing books that were regarded as of an incendiary character, 
inasmuch as they favored the freedom of the Slave." Jeffer- 
son's Notes on Virginia, might suffice to sustain this allegation. 
It was charged that they sold such books to Slaves, nor even 
to '■'•free Negroes." Of course, they only sold to such Citizens 
as wanted books of that character ; had there been no buyers, 
there would have been no sale. And for thus supplying ^^free 
Citizens of Alabama" with such books as they desired and 
chose to read, in violation of no law and no right, these book- 
sellers were hunted like wolves from Alabama, and had "their 
business broken up. 

The Mobile Tribune, of August 17, 1856, gives the fol- 
lowing list of " gentlemen" present at the meeting : " Dr. J. C. 
Nott, the Hon. John Bragg, the Rev. W. Hawthorne, Dr. J. 
H. Woodcock, Dr. H. S. Leverett, Wm. F. Cleaveland, A. 
Brooks, Joseph Sewell, the Hon. A. P. Bagby (Minister to 
Russia, in 1848), A. G. Humphreys, the Hon. J. "W. Lesesne, 
Dr. G. A. Ketchum, Wm. Boyles, Esq., J. H. Daughdrili, 
John Scott, Jacob Magee, the Rev. Dr. F. A. Ross, Joseph E. 
Murrill, R. C. Macy, the Hon. E. S. Dargan, Wm. Harris, 
John Hall, Goddard Bailey, S. C. Stramler, John Mann. 

" The examining Committee was composed of the following 
gentlemen: The Hon. J. W. Lesesne, Dr. J. C. Nott, the 

11* 



250 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

Hon. John Bragg, Dr. J. H. Wooclcock. J. S. Secor, Esq. 
The Committee who were appointed to wait on Messrs. Strick- 
land & Co., were Dr. J. C. Nott, Dr. II. S. Leverett, W. F. 
Cleveland, P^sq." 

To the Rev, W. Hawthorne, Messrs. Strickland & Upson 
are indebted for the loss of their business, he having acted the 
spy and informer. A pretty "follower of Christ," to be sure ! 

The night following that on which Strickland & Upson were 
examined, immense columns of smoke were seen issuing from 
the chimneys of several of the bookstores. 



OP SERVANTS AND OTHER .\EGROES. Zol 



CHAPTER II. 

In Louisiana, the law declares, that using language in any 
public discourse, from the bar, bench, stage, or pulpit, or in 
any other place, or in any private conversation, or making use 
of any signs or actions having a tendency to produce discon- 
tent among the free colored population, or among the Slaves, 
or who shall be knowingly instrumental in bringing into the 
State any paper, book, or pamphlet, having the like tendency, 
shall, on conviction, be punished with imprisonment or death, 
at the discretion of the Court. 

The Pro-Slavery Churches, North, " fear" that if Emanci- 
pation of the Slaves took place it would be followed up by 
Amalgamation ! just as if Slaveholders would be getting mar- 
ried to "• black girls." This argument is cei-tainly paying a 
fine comphment to "black women" and a very poor one to 
white ones. "Amalgamation !" — why, a Slaveholder would no 
sooner give up amalgamation than he would his life. There 
is no adjunct of Slavery that he so much fancies as amalgama- 
tion. Where did the party-colored population of the Slave 
States come from ? The various shades of complexion every- 
where tell the story. The very first "Act" of Slavery was to 
abolish the Marriage relation, and the result is that we dare 
not reveal the horrors of that infamous concern, called the 
" Peculiar Institution." 

The slang about amalgamation generally proceeds from men 
who have its odor strong upon them. "Whoever needs any 



f?r»9 EDUCATION AND KELIGIOUS IXSTRUCTTON 

confirmation of its truth has only to trace out the origin of a- 
half dozen of the " colored" sons of the " cursed seed of Ham" 
nearest him. Of the whole class, now in the United States, 
there is no man who doubts that ninety-nine of every hundred 
of the white fathers are Slaveholders, or at least vehemently 
hostile to Abolition. Every city in the Slaveholding States 
and Territories is checkered with half-bleached and three- 
quarters-bleached " Niggers," while the birth of one in an Anti- 
Slavery community is as rare as that of an Albino. 

It is common to suppose that the creeds of the Slaveholding 
Churches are " derived from the Bible," that this is a " sym- 
bolical book." No mistake could be greater. They are 
founded in the Slaveholder ; he is the hope of these Churches, 
North and South, and Slavery is " translated out of the original 
tongues" and " appointed to be read in the Churches." 

The word " Servant" is a most convenient term in the " re- 
ligious instruction" of Slaves, as it brings them within all the 
Scriptural injunctions respecting Servants, and by keeping out 
of view Human chattelization, it adroitly places, as we shall 
see, the Slave on the same level with every Man who receives 
Wages or a salary. Thus, in one of the Sermons composed by^ 
Bishop Meade, of the Episcopal Church, for Slaves — '"to 
be read to them," and " preached to them," they are told, 
" You must let your light shine as Se}'va7its. Some of us 
must always be Servants. The richest and best man among 
us must be a Servant to some one. Every clerk in a store is 
a Serva7it. Every lawyer is a Servant to the men who em- 
ploy him. Every minister of the Gospel is a Servant to liis 
people, and every physician a Servant to his patient." 

Little, indeed, can the Slave be raised above idioc3% if he 
does not perceive and despise such contemptible sophistry. 
His grievance is, not that he works for another, but that, unlike 
the lawyer, the physician, and the preacher himself, he works 
without pay and under the lash. 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 253 

The abhorred word " Slave" is rarely mentioned by the 
preachers. Circumlocution is resorted to. They seek to 
escape a guilty confession ; they call it by the reputable name 
of " Servant," instead of the accursed word " Slave." As the 
Syrian queen, about to perpetrate a deed which would consign her 
character to infamy, called it by the sacred name of " marriage" 
and committed it, so the " ministers of the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ," speaking of the most guilty and cruel of all relations 
between man and man, seek to avert their eyes from the act, 
and to pacify the remonstrances of conscience against every 
participation in the atrocious crime, by hiding under the re- 
putable word '" Servant ;" but the day is coming when God will 
lay bare their hypocrisy. 

" Now," continues this precious Doctor of Divinity, " when 
correction is given you, you either deserve it, or you do not 
deserve it. But whether you really deserve it or not, it is 
your duty, and Almighty God requires, that you bear it 
patiently. You may, perhaps, think this is hard doctrine ; 
but if you consider it rightly, you must needs think otherwise 
of it. Suppose, then, that you deserve correction, you can not 
but say that it is just and right you should have it. Suppose 
you do not, or, at least, if you do not deserve so much or so 
severe a correction for the fault you have committed, you, per- 
haps, have escaped a great many more, and are at last paid 
for all. Or, suppose you are quite innocent of what is laid to 
your charge, and suffer wrongfully in that particular thing, is 
it not possible you may have done some other bad thing which 
was never discovered, and that Almighty God, who saw you 
doing it, would not let you escape without punishment one 
time or another ? And ought you not iji such a case to give 
glory to Him, and be thankful that he would rather punish you 
in this life for your wickedness than destroy your souls for it 
in the next life ?" 

The preacher seems doubtful whether it will satisfy his 



254 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

" colored brother," writhing under the lash, or sinking under 
his labor, to be told that he is only a " Servant," like the 
richest and the best man in the country ; hence the " power 
of religious faith" is called in to produce passive obedience, 
and he is told again that God has made him what he is — that 
God has placed him where he is. Hear him : 

" All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye 
even so unto them ; that is, do by all mankind just as you would desire 
they should do by you, if you were in their place, and they in yours. 
Now, to suit the rule to your particular circumstances, suppose you were 
Masters and Mistresses, and had Servants under you, would you not de- 
sire that your Servants should do their business faithfully and honestly, 
as well when your back was turned as while you were looking over them ? 
Would you not expect that they should take notice of what you said to 
them ■? that they should behave themselves with respect toward you and 
yours, and be as careful of everything belonging to you as you would be 
yourselves ? You are Servants : do, therefore, as you would wish to be done 
by, and you will be both good Servants to your Masters and to God, who 
requires this of you, and will reward you well for it, if you do it for the 
sake of conscience, in obedience to His commands. Take care that you 
do not fret or murmur, grumble or repine at your condition, for this 
would not only make your life uneasy, but would greatly offend God. 
Consider that it is not yourselves, it is not the people that own you, it is 
not the men that have brought you to it, but it is the will of God, who 
hath by his providence made you Servants, because, no doubt, he knew 
that condition would be best for you in this world, and help you the 
better toward Heaven, if you would but do your duty in it. So that any 
discontent at j'our not being free, or rich, or great, as you see some 
others, is quarrelling with your heavenly Master, and finding fault with 
God himself, who hath made yon ivhat you are. If others will run the 
hazard of their souls, they have a chance of getting wealtli and power, of 
heaping up riches, and enjoying all the ease, luxury, and pleasure, their 
hearts long after. But you can have none of these things ; so tlsat, if you 
sell your souls for the sake of what poor matters you can get in this 
world, you have made a very foolish bargain indeed. Brethren, beware 
of temptation." 

We find the South Corolina Episcopal Church declaring, 
through Bishop Freeman's Tract, that " Slavery, as it exists 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 255 

at the present day, is agreeable to the order of Divine Provi- 
dence." And Slavery of the present day virtually denies the 
Bible to 4,500,000 of the colored and party-colored natives of 
the country. But let them be comforted, their want of the 
Bible is a matter of no consequence. Listen to the consoling 
words of the preacher : 

" The sun is sometimes siiut up behind a cloud, so that you can not 
see it : j-ou can not point where it is. Yet you can see all around you 
liglit enough to answer your purposes. You work by that lirjht" (that is, 
a Pro-Slavery Christianity). " You enjoy that liy'it, and for all common 
things" (that is, Niggers) " it answers Just as well as if there was no cloud, 
and the sun was pouring down upon you. It is just so about the Bible. 
You can not read. The Bible is hid from you just like tlie sun behind 
the cloud." 

Surely there are Bibles enough in New York, Boston, Phila- 
delphia, Cincinnati, and the other Union-saving Cities of the 
Republic, to give light behind the cloud. Let the Bible So- 
cieties cease to waste the people's money in printing more. It 
is sickening to see men styling themselves " ministers of the 
Gospel of Jesus Christ," instead of sympathizing with the poor 
Slave and condemning his grievous wrongs, resorting to all 
sorts of tricks, and sophisms, and falsehoods, to make him be- 
lieve that his privations and sufferings proceed not from cruel 
laws and wicked men, but from God himself, and that " re- 
ligious privileges," which are deemed of " inestimable value" 
to white men, are not needed by the Slaves and "//-ee blacks." 

Mrs. Douglas, a pious lady of Norfolk, Virginia, not em- 
bracing this " doctrine" about the Bible shining behind the 
cloud, undertook to teach some ^^free colored children" to read, 
and was committed to Jail. As God enslaves the " race of 
Africa," or "cursed seed of Ham" so, perhaps, He imprisoned 
this lady, and therefore her imprisonment was, like Slavery, 
"just and holy." Mrs. Douglas suffered imprisonment, not 
because it was actually a crime to teach a "free colored child" 



256 EDUCATION AKD KKLIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

to read, hut because intelligence is dangerous to Slavery. It 
Avas deemed necessary to make an example of her to deter all 
future offenders. Judge Baker, in vindication of the "justice 
of the sentence," said : 

" Ingood sense and sound morality, my discretionary power to imprison 
for six months or less does not authorize a meie minimum punishment. 
Your guilt is beyond a doubt, and there are many aggravating- circum- 
stances. Therefore, as a terror to those who acknowledge no rule of 
action but their own evil will and pleasure, and in vindication of the ^((sf- 
ness of the laws, the judgment of the Court is, that you be imprisoned for 
a period of one Month in the City Jail." 

On the imprisonment of Mrs. Douglas every Anti-Slavery 
heart in the "free States" cried "Shame!" "Shame!!" 
" Shame ! ! !" The Slaveholders then offered to release her on 
condition that she would leave the State, &:c. This, with true 
nobility of soul, she utterly refused to do, preferring to suffer 
the full penalty of the " law," though her jailers hoped she 
would leave the city. It Avas then (February 9, 1854) that 
The Norfolk Argus said : " On this refusal becoming known 
all sympathy departed, and in the breast of every one rose a 
righteous indignation toward a person who would throw con- 
tempt in the face of the laws, and brave the imprisonment for 
the ' cause of humanity.' " 

Such a burlesque of all that is truly enlightened and just 
can not be improved by any comment. It is an admirable 
illustration of the significance attached to that clause in the 
Declaration of Independence which guaranties "life, liberty, 
and the pursuit of happiness" to every American citizen, 
whether applied to Mrs. Douglas or the "free colored chil- 
dren." It explains the fact that of the 971,770 white or non- 
" colored" sons and daughters of Virginia, there are 86,180 
adults who can not read. 

We have another Sermon about the Bible, and a queer one 
it is. How could that be morally right which renders obedi- 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 257 

ence to Divine command Impossible ? How could Slaves aiid 
'''•free blacks," forbidden to read, search the Scriptures ? The 
late Rev. C. K. Nelson, of North Carolina (see chap. iii. of 
Part I., p. 78), answers the question. Taking the Bull by the 
horns, he has published a Sermon to Slaves, on the command 
itself! After showing the necessity of the Bible, its great ex- 
cellency and the goodness of God in giving it, he comes to the 
passage — " Search the Scriptures." But they can not read ; 
no matter, God does not command impossibilities. Hear him : 

" Brethren, it is not necessary j'ou should know how to read to search 
the Scriptures. Don't, your Master or Mistress read this book every 
morning and evening at prayers ? Don't your minister read it at Church 
every Sunday? Can't j^ou go there and search the Scriptures? Have 
you no young Master or.Mistress who would read the Bible to you? 
Have you ever asked them ? Brethren, God tells you to ' Search the 
Scriptures,' and God would not tell you to do so unless you could." 

In the whole range of Pro-Slavery Theolog}', it would be 
difficult to match the cool impudence of this Sermon. In his 
last days, Mr. Nelson appeared to have an instinctive dread 
of the future, and hence his remai'ks, given at page 78. If 
the Sermons and Catechisms " prepared for Slaves" and ^^ free 
blacks," are wretchedly adapted to win their faith to a religion 
which, instead of condemning, approves and sanctifies their 
wrongs, still less are the men who minister to the Slaves and 
'''•free blacks," fitted to attract their confidence and affection. 
With veiy rare exceptions, they are themselves dealers in 
Human flesh, and identified in feeling and interest with their 
brother Slaveholders. 

Bishop Polk, brother of Ex-President James K. Polk, was 
lately lauded in The Neio York Observer for the excellent 
management of his plantation. The Hon. Erastus Brooks, 
the principal Editor and proprietor of the New York Express, 
visited, in 1853, the plantation of this " eminent Churchman," 
and was so much delighted with its management, that we can 



258 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

Scarcely avoid wishing that, instead of laboring as an Editor 
to strengthen and extend Slavery, he could personally experi- 
ence its pleasures under Episcopal sway. The Bishop, it 
would seem, '■'•prefers raising his Stock to buying if." He 
had, according to Mr. Bi'ooks, " ninety children under ten years 
of age." Eor these lambs of his flock the Bishop established 
no school in which they could be taught to read the word of 
God. No spelling-books, no hymn-books, no Sunday-school 
books, were theirs. But, says Mr. Brooks, " The young ones 
eat hominy and possum-fat, sweetened with sugar, jplentifidly 
supplied, and, with an appetite that one might envy." 

That the Bishop's lambs are well-fattened for Market, there 
can be no doubt. " Eighteen Children had been horn upon the 
'plantation in less than a year, and a Ghild twenty four hours 
old is worth $100." A crop of Babies, in less than a year, 
worth $1,800 is rather a novel source of revenue for "a Ser- 
vant of Jesus Christ," but it fully warrants a liberal supply of 
hominy and sugar, especially as these black lambs, under ten 
years old, "are worth about $12 per pound." 

The Rev. Prelate is too good a manager to let his Mothers 
waste their time in taking care of their Children : " The 
Children have their Nurseries, where the very old take care 
of the very young, while the Mothers are at work on the 
plantation." Thus the Slaves who can not labor are turned to 
account as Nurses, while the Mothers are sent to the field. 
" The Bishop's Slaves, about 340 in number," Mr. Brooks 
assures us, " fare sumptuously." 

" Oh, 'tis den we are so happy, when we all sit a watchin' 
As de last piece go from de bones ob de possum." 

Bishop Polk, according to The New York Observer, " rules 
his Slaves in obedience to Christ's command." The Eight 
Reverend Father in God, Leonidas Polk, Bishop of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church of Louisiana, therefore, '• is a 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER XEGROES. 259 

Servant of Christ." The Bishop of course, breeds and fattens 
them for the Market, in pursuance of a command from the 
same authority. Happy is it when " rehgious duty" coincides 
with " pecuniary interests." Who can fail to see and feel what 
powerful influence in hastening the Abolition of Slavery in 
Louisiana the Gospel must exert, when preached as it is 
throughout the State by a Right Rev. Father in God, holding 
" about 340" of his fellow-immortals in abject bondage, and 
deriving an annual addition to his wealth of $1,800 from his 
crop of Babies, in addition to the unpaid labor of their 
Parents ? 

With no exceptions worthy of consideration, the Churches, 
" ministers and people," are banded together in maintaining 
the Satanic traffic. Yes, the " servants of Christ," and the 
servants of Satan are united, heart and soul, in spreading the. 
horrors and abominations of Slavery. Thus we find the " re- 
ligious Press" urging the establishment of Slavery in Kansas. 

The " evangelical" Stock -raisers forego, for " a week," the 
services of their " colored sisters in Christ," and permit them 
to become Mothers, and then, instead of knocking them on the 
head, "mercifully raise the helpless and Infant ofl^spring," and 
are rewarded for their benevolence by the value of the " prop- 
erty" thus acquired. 

What estimate can a true disciple of Christ have of the 
piety of a teacher, however " venerable" he may be in years, 
who would torture the truths of Revelation to support open 
Robbery and universal Prostitution ? 

The House of Bishops, of the Episcopal Church, now, 
January 1, 1857, consists of the following Doctors of Divinity. 
The stars attached indicate Slave States and Territories : — • 

The Right Rev. Dr. Brownell, of Connecticut, 
Right Rev. Dr. Meade, of Virginia,* 
Right Rev. Dr. H. U. Ondcrdonk, of Pennsylvania, 
Right Rev. Dr. B. T. Onderdouk, of New York, 



260 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

Right Eev. Dr. John Henry Hopkins, of Vermont, 
Rij;lit Rev. Dr. Smith, of Kentucky,* 
Right Rev. Dr. M'llvane, of Ohio, 
Right Rev. Dr. Doane, of New Jersey, 
Right Rev. Dr. Otey, of Tennessee * 
Right Rev. Dr. Kemper, of Wisconsin, 
Right Rev. Dr. M'Coskry, of Michigan, 
Right Rev. Dr. Leonidas Polk, of Louisiana,* 
Right Rev. Dr. Delancy, of Western New York, 
Right Rev. Dr. Whittingham, of Maryland,* 
Right Rev. Dr. Elliot, of Georgia,* 
Right Rev. Dr. Lee, of Delaware,* 
Right Rev. Dr. Johns, of Virginia,* 
Right Rev. Dr. Eastburn, of Massachusetts, 
Right Rev. Dr. Chase, of New Hampshire, 
Right Rev. Dr. Clark, of Rhode Island, 
' Right Rev. Dr. Cobb, of Alabama,* 

Right Rev. Dr. Hawks, of Missouri,* 
Right Rev. Dr. Freeman, of Texas,* 
Right Rev. Dr. Boone, Missionary Bishop, 
Right Rev. Dr. Southgate, Missionary Bishop, 
Right Rev. Dr. Potter, of Pennsylvania, 
Right Rev. Dr. Burgess, of Maine, 
Right Rev. Dr. Upfold, of Indiana, 
Right Rev. Dr. Green, of Mississippi,* 
Right Rev. Dr. Payne, Missionary Bishop, 
» Right Rev. Dr. Rutlcdge, of Florida,* 
Right Rev. Dr. Williams, of Connecticut, 
Right Rev. Dr. Whitehouse, of Illinois, 
Right Rev. Dr. Davis, of South Carolina,* 
Right Rev. Dr. Atkinson, of North Carolina,* 
Right Rev. Dr. Kipp, of California, 
Right Rev. Dr. Scott, of Oregon, ^ 
Right Rev. Dr. Lee, of Iowa, 
Right Rev. Dr. H. Potter, of New York. 

Tlie Riglit Reverend Father of the North echoes the 
sentiments of the Eiglit Reverend Father of the South. 
While Leonidas of Louisiana raises providentially accursed 
children of an inferior race, ou his plantation, John Ileury 



or SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 2G1 

of Vermont exerts himself, in his diocese, to keep up the value 
thereof. The principal undertaking of Bishop Hopkins' book, 
"The American Citizen, his Rights and Duties," is to prove 
that it is the duty of each citizen to assist in returning fugi- 
tive slaves; and Bishop Polk writes to his fellow Bishops of 
the South, on the necessity of adopting more stringent mea- 
sures against the "Abolitionists or infidels of the North." 

Piety is, as a general thing, proportionate to the number of 
Slaves held by the " elect" brethren. If a saint in crape be 
twice a saint in lawn, a saint with a hundred Slaves may well 
take precedence in the path to Heaven of one that onlj' owns 
fifty ; and if a confessor rise to the possession of three hundred 
Slaves, the halo that irradiates his brow is enough to illumi- 
nate a whole Church, not to say a presbytery or a diocese. 
Nor must it be supposed that the " evangelicaf Slaveholding 
" Churches of Jesus Christ" are only for the purity of the 
faith that hath been committed unto them. They exercise, 
also, a strict surveillance over the lives and conversations of 
Clergymen and Professors, and either correct gently lapses 
from '■^ pure morality," or else cut off the offending member 
and cast it from them — as was done in the case of the "gross 
heresy and immorality" of the Rev. Mr. Boardman, by which 
he had shocked the saints of Beaufort, S. C. 

The crime of dancing hath more than once exercised their 
anxious thoughts, and the offence of " profane stage-plays" is 
one that weigheth heavily on their hearts. " The posture 
suitable to be used in prayer" is another question which hath 
powerfully agitated their souls, and hath not been entirely set 
at rest yet. It is true that some of the more material of the 
discussions to which these " vital" matters have given rise 
have been held in the Northern States. But it has been 
generally on the frontier, where the " Southern brethren" are 
in strong force, and greatly influence^if they do not entirely 
control, the assembly of the good. There is plenty of mint, 



262 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

anise, and cummin tithed everywhere, as is well known to all ; 
but we think the more zealous of the exactors of the tenths 
of these herbs will be found among the " Southern Christians" 
and their " South-side" brethren farther North, 

An important question has lately been settled by the Lu- 
theran Synod of Missouri. It touched a matter no less " vital" 
than the mode of distributing the " Sacramental-loaf" among 
the believers. The Godly were divided in opinion as to the 
point w'hether it were more orthodox to cut it or to break it. 
Grave doubts hung over that portion of the Vineyard, and 
there was a danger of schism and a divided Zion. The dis- 
pute was finally settled — Slaveholder-like — in favor of the 
knife, on the ground that " breaking the bread was connected 
with the Popish Doctrine of the Ileal presence ;" and this, 
although it was admitted that breaking, and not cutting, Avas 
the example set by Christ and the Apostles. We do not per- 
ceive, ourselves, the precise pertinency of the argument on 
Avhich the decision was made, but we feel that we can leave 
this important matter in no better hands than those of the 
" eminent" Divines and " pious" Laymen, North and South, 
who have undertaken the " holy cause" of perpetuating the 
cancers of Slavery and Polygamy by hallowing them with the 
sanctions of Religion. 

William Aiken, an Irish-American, of South Carolina, one 
of the present Members of Congress, and who came within two 
Votes of being elected Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives, goes ahead of Bishop Polk as a trafficker in his fellow- 
men. He owns "about 1,300" of the unfortunate sons and 
daughters of the " race of Africa" or " cursed seed of Ham" 
They are " valued at $1,300,000." What a commentary on 
Republican institutions ! So it is. The Irish- American traf- 
fickers in INIen, Women, and Children, occupy seats in Con- 
gress, and make laws iov " freemen." It is such glaring in- 
consistencies as this that induces "outside barbarians" to "^ 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 2G3 

mock at the Republic. They can not see how supporters of 
the most shocking system of iniquity on the face of the earth 
can be honest in their " patriotic" speeches for freedom. 

The Rev. Robert Fair, of Abbeville, South Carolina, 
argues in favor of giving the Bible to Slaves, as the best 
means of convincing them of the Divine authority of the in- 
stitution of Human bondage. Hear him : — 

" There is enough between the lids of the Bible upon the subject, fully 
impressed upon the mind and heart of the Slave by human and divine 
instrumentalities, to guaranty the stability and perpetuitj' of the institu- 
tion of Slavery, without one line of legislation upon our part, looking to 
the accomplishment of such an end. So rooted and grounded are wc in 
the faith of the entire Scriptural propriety of Slavery, from the fullness 
of the Bible upon the subject, we can not discard from the mind the be- 
lief, that It is by means of the teachings of his Word, in justification of the 
institution, operating by divine influence upon the heart of the Slave, and 
we may say of the Master too, the Almighty intended to secure its per- 
petuation ; and we should trust him for the accomplishment of His pur- 
poses, apd look alone to these means in hopes of maintaining the insti- 
tution ; for it is by them alone that it can be maintained." 

We advise the " Rev. Robert Fair" to lose no time in pro- 
curing a copy of a little work published by M. W. Dodd, 
Broadway, near Broome Street, New York, entitled, " The 
Converted Murderer." By Rev. William Blood. {See Rev- 
elation, xxii. 15.) 

In a Report from a Committee of the Synod of South Car- 
olina and Georgia, printed in Charleston, we have the follow- 
ing opinion of Slave piety : — 

"From long-continued and close observation, we believe that the 
Moral character and Religious condition of the Slaves is such that they 
may be justly considered the Heathen of this Christian country. * * * 
* * * * The influence of the Negroes upon the Moral and Religious in- 
terests of the whites is destructive in the extreme. We can not" (dare 
not) " go into detail. It is unnecessary. We make our appeal to uni- 
versal experience. We are chained'to a putrid Carcase ; it Sickens and 
Destroys us. We have a millstone hanging about the neck of our Soci- 



264 EDUCATION AND KELIGIOUS INSTKUCTION 

ety to sink us deep in the Sea of Vice. Our children are con-upted from 
their infancy; nor can we preiient it. Many an anxious pai-ent wishes 
that liis children coukl be brouglit up beyond the reach of these corrupt- 
ing influences. Nor are these influences conflned to mere childhood. 
If that were all, it would be tremendous ; but it follows us into youth, 
into manhood, and into old age." 

What else could be expected, when we find that this same 
" Synod of South Carolina and Georgia" were, and are, traf- 
fickers in the blood and bones of their fellow-men? Here is 
the proof from The Savannah (Ga.) RepuhUcan, of the 23d 
March, 1855:— 

"Also, at the same time and place, the following Slaves, to wit: 
Charles', Peggy, Antonet, Davj', September, Maria, Jenny, Isaac, &c., 
levied on as the propei-ty of Henry T. Hall, to satisfy a mortgage _/?./7;., 
issued out of the Supreme Court, in favor of the Board of Directors of 
the Theological Seminary of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, 
vs. said Henry T. Hall. Conditions, Cash. " C. O'NEAL, Sheriff." 

An article of the creed of this very Committee, of the Synod 
it represents, and indeed of all the Soul-destroying and Child- 
corrupting Churches of the Slaveholding States, is, that "the 
Institution is of Divine appointment," and, as Bishop Freeman 
asserts, and the Churches respond, " No man is entitled to pro- 
nounce it wrong!" But it will be said, '' This 'putrid carcase' 
consists of the heathen, not of the ^Christian Slaves' — not 
those who have been ' baptized' and ' confirmed' and ' received 
tlie communion,' and ' committed to memory' the ' Catechism 
for Slaves.' " Then hear the Committee once more : — 

" The offences of colored communicants against Christian character 
and Church order are very numerous, and frequently heinous. The 
di-^cipline is difficult, wearisome, and unpleasant." 

These " revelations," be it remembered, are not the 
" ravings of fariatical Abolitionists," but the solemn assevera- 
tions of Southern " evangelical" Clergymen and Laymen of 
the City of Charleston, South Cai'olina, the very hotbed and 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 265 

focus of Slavery propagandism and Cotton divinity ; made by 
men who are themselves engaged in defending and upholding 
the accursed system and blessing it " in Name of tlie Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost." They dread and deplore the 
contamination of their " white children," but show no compas- 
sion for their party-colored children, deprived by law of all 
conjugal and parental rights. They are zealous in sending , 
Bibles to black, blackish-brown, brown, and peach-blossom 
colored " foreign heathen," but to the yellow, ashy-pale, and 
French-white heathen at home, the Bible is as a Sun hid be- 
hind a Cloud, and they need not its bright effulgence. 

" There are," we are told, " very pious men indeed among 
the Southern clergy," but their piety seems never to prompt 
them to remove the " putrid carcase" from among them. They 
love the corpse ; they behold it with delight ; they hug and 
kiss it ! — it is their cow, their bread, and their butter.* They 
acknowledge it to be " a Gift from heaven." They are anx- 
ious to transmit it to their white children, and fly into a pas- 
sion with those who would fain relieve them of it. But it 
does, they admit, smell very bad, and injures their white chil- 
dren's health ; and hence they go to work, not like sensible 
men, to bury it, but like a party of midnight conjurers, to dis- 
infect it by certain religious incantations and strange Cate- 
chisms, and equally repugnant to common sense and the glori- 
ous Gospel of Jesus Christ. 

Thomas Jeiferson (the immortal penman of the Declaration 
of Independence), in a letter to M. Warville, Paris, February, 
1788, speaking of the intercourse between "Master" and 
Slave, says : " The parent storms, the child looks on, catches 

* Dr. Bowinng, in his " Manners in China," says : " A dead body is 
an object of so little concern thai, it is sometimes not thought worth 
while to remove it from the spot where it putrifles on the surface of the 
earth. Often have I seen a corpse under the table of gamblers — often 
have I trod over a putrid body at the tlu-eshold of a doer." 

12 



266 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

the lineaments of wrath, puts on the same airs in the circle of 
smaller Slaves" (see Engraving at the head of chap, i., of this 
Part) " gives loose to his worst passions ; and, thus nursed, 
educated, and daily exercised in tyranny, can not but he 
stamped hy it with odious peculiarities" 

The Hon. Lewis Summers, Judge of the General Court of 
Virginia, and a Slaveholder, said in a Speech before the Vir- 
ginia Legislature, in 1832 : '' Lisping infancy learns the vocab- 
ulary of abusive epithets, and struts the embryo tyrant of its 
domain. The consciousness of ' superior destiny' takes posses- 
sion of his mind at its earliest dawning, and love of power and 
rule ' grows with his growth and strengthens with his strength.' 
Unless enabled to rise above the operation of those powerful 
causes, he enters the world with miserable notions of self-impor- 
tance, and under the government of an unbridled temper." 

What a state of society that must be to afford opportunity 
to escape from the influence of which "gentlemen" send their 
children to foreign lands to be educated ! 

Well has it been said by The True American, published at 
Trenton, New Jersey, that " the greatest impediment to the 
success of the Anti-Slavery cause is the opposition to it by 
those men who profess to have been commissioned by heaven 
to go abroad and use their efforts for the mitigation of human 
wrong. This assertion, which appears so monstrous, will not 
surprise any one who lives among Slaveholdex's. Our convic- 
tion of its truth has been confirmed by extensive observation. 
North and South." 

Sunday after Sunday, Church-members meet to listen to the 
garbled presentation of God's word, members of one Church, 
claiming one God as their Father, one Heaven, to which there 
i«, according to Jesus Christ — but one strait and narrow 
way of entrance ; yet here iij> the visible Church, divided, 
black from white, by a wooden fence, and on Sacrament days, 
after the white members had partaken of the " bread and 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 267 

wine," the partj-colored members crawled through a little 
gate, left open only on that day, and came forward, ten or 
twelve at a time, to take the bread and wine.* We have lis- 
tened to one of these " ministers of the Gospel" read the 
" Discipline" and explain the clause forbidding to Church- 
members the traffic in Slaves, by remarking that it referred to 
the African Slave Trade, but had no allusion to American 
Slavery, or to the exchange of Slaves already in bondage, and 
then proceed to an harangue of an hour's length on the sin of 
wearing jewelry and artificial flowers'. 

" As in water face answereth to face," so will Southern and 
Northern Pro-Slavery piety, in all religious denominations an- 
swer this picture. And this religion, the very embodiment of 
Atheistic selfishness, cruelty, and oppression, baptizes itself 
(what astounding blasphemy !) in the name of Him who came 
to proclaim liberty to the captives and opening the prison to 
them that are bound ! 

The Cincinnati (Ohio) Christian Press, a Journal which 
vaunts itself as the especial champion of " Evangelical" Or- 
thodoxy, while it brands the friends of the Slave, as " infidels" 
with whom no Christian can associate without being defiled, 
says : — 

* 'Tlie Neio York Tribune of December 6, 1855, speaking of the 
Churches of that City, says: "Each congregation seems to enjoy and 
desire only the most exchisive attendance of its own members and pew- 
holders ; they do not literally post up a notice at the holy gate, prohibit- 
ing visiters, or any species of outsiders, from the sacred fold, but they 
do morally, and quite as effectively, the same thing. He must indeed 
be bold who ventures, a stranger and alone, into a great Church in this 
City ; his nerves need to be well-balanced, and his temper under steady 
control." Such Churches need another Christ to die for them. They 
are dying for lack of the poor in the midst of them. The real Church, 
it seems, even in the nineteenth century of the Christian era, is to be 
found among " publicans and sinners." Not only has a " Church of 
Christ" no right to withdraw its worship and ordinances from the lowly, 
but by so doing it utterly destroys its own vitality. 



268 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRlrCTION 

" The external forms of religion, a compliance with which costs no 
sacrifice, receive from a large majority of its professors far more atten- 
tion than the practical godliness which affords the only true evidence of 
a saving union with Christ. There is not one in ten of the professed 
followers of Christ who maintain a consistent regard of his requirements, 
and are governed by the principles of his gospel. Probably not one in 
fifty of those who profess to love Christ, and the souls of their fellow- 
men, feel any real practical interest in the salvation of sinners, or put 
forth any adequate efforts for their conversion. There is not one in 
twenty of tliose who pretend to preach the Gospel who declare the whole 
counsel of God, and who do not seek the praise of men more than the 
praise of God. The amount of money expended in building and decora- 
ting Churches, not for the purer worship of God, but the gratification 
of pride, exceeds a hundred-fold the amount contributed to give the 
blessings of an uncorrupted Gospel to the destitute, and to those who 
are p£rishing in ignorance and sin. The amount of talent and money 
expended for the propagation and support of denominational interests — 
in other words, sectarianism — exceeds a hundred-fold the amount ex- 
pended for the dissemination of the essential saving doctrines of the 
Gospel. The Churches, for many years, have put forth vastly more ef- 
fort for the unity of the Churches in sin than for their purification from 
sin. This is especially true in regard to the enormous sin of Slavery. 
It is admitted and declared by the leading teachers of Religion, that if the 
Churches would purify themselves from the sin of Slavery, there is no other 
poioer that could sustain that sin, and it would speedily be removed from 
the land; yet many leading men in the Churches, those who have the 
pre-eminence, oppose to the utmost all efiicient measures for the removal 
of Slavery from the Churches. Hence the sacerdotal robes of the 
Cliurches are stained with blood of millions of Men, Women, and 
Children^ in bondage under the yoke of oppression." 

Now the opponents of" Slavery affirm that the Churches 
and Ministry, whose portraits are thus sketched, are not the 
Churches and Ministry of Him who came to preach dehver- 
ance to the oppressed, but an arrant imposture — synagogues 
of Satan. At this The Christian Press waxes indignant, and 
affirms that, notwithstanding their manifold corruptions, " they 
are the Official representatives of Christ, having in their hands 
His commission, which endows them with authority of which 
they can not divest themselves." Which of these parties ex- 



OF SJiRVAM'S, AXD OTHER NEGROES. 2G9 

liibits the spirit of tlie Naziirene, and which tliat of the Phar- 
iaees ? 

The Slaveholding Chni-ches boast, with regard to the 
" heathen of foreign hmds," of the " peculiar" advantages they 
enjoy by means of -what they are pleased to call " an express 
revelation from heaven" forgetting that they themselves are, in 
effect, these very heathen ; for, with all their " superior light," 
they instil into those whom they call " benighted heathen," the 
most despicable opinion of Human nature. They, to the ut- 
most of their power, weaken and dissolve the universal tie 
that binds and unites mankind. They sacrifice their reason, 
their humanity, their Christianity, to an unnatural sordid gain. 
How can Churches and Missionary Boards, who traffic in Hu- 
man flesh — who are steeped to tlie eyelids in the pollutions 
of Slavery, dare to offer the Bible to " foreign heathen" ? 
How are they to " give the Bible to all the nations," while 
consenting to the withholding of Bibles from 4,500,000 of 
their fellow-men at home ? How teach Christian marriage 
abroad, while they consent to and assist in its abrogation at 
home ? How teach that " the Polygamy of the Mormon 
Church is of Satan," while they constantly practise, sanction, 
and sanctify it in their own Churches. How call '' foreign 
heathen to repentance" for " their barbarity, their injustice, 
their violations of human rights, their spirit and their usages 
of caste, their concubinage, impurity, and lust," while they 
quietly and complacently sit down at the " Communion Table" 
with the same sins at home ? 

The fact is the Slaveholding Churches have tinkered the 
" foreign heathen" quite long enough to prove their utter im- 
potency — heavenward. These Churches have become so 
perfectly coated with "professional piety" that they are "like 
unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful out- 
ward, but are within full of dead men's boues and all un- 
cleanness." 



270 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

It is easy to wear a long face and make long prayers, and 
eat bread, and drink wine in the name of a " crucified Saviour." 
This is done by the greatest robbers and oppressors the world 
ever saw — by men who fatten on the unpaid toil of the outcast 
and imbruted Slave, and sell him on the Auction-block to 
raise Money with which to convert the " foreign heathen ;" 
compassing Sea and Land to make Proselytes, and leaving' 
them fifty-fold more the children of Perdition than they were 
before, by teaching them, in addition to all other vices which 
fester and grow under a spurious Christianity — 

" To break the bondman's heart for bread. 
Pour out the boudmau's blood for wine ;" 

in confirmation of the infinite love manifested in that sublime 
death on Calvary, 1800 years ago. Conversion to such a 
Religion, instead of indicating any progress in the cause of 
Justice, Freedom, and Christianity, or furnishing any occa- 
sion for congratulation, is a sure sign of Moral degeneracy, 
Judicial blindness, and Pharisaical malignity. 

On the 29th of November, 1856, " Thanksgiving Day," the 
Rev. George B. Cheever (Editor of a Religious Family News- 
paper, called " The Inde'pendent" published weekly, by Joseph 
H. Ladd, at No. 22 Beekman st., New York), delivered, be- 
fore a large Congregation, a most interesting discourse, taking 
for his text the 14th verse of the 29th chapter of Proverbs : 

" The King that faithfully judgeth the poor, his throne shall 
he established for ever." 

In the course of his Sermon, the worthy Doctor said, that 
although it was not stated in the text that a nation that op- 
pressed its poor, or does not faithfully judge them should not 
at any time prosper, but on the contrary, in the Word of God, 
it was admitted that for a season, even by means of oppressiim, 
there might be great apparent power, luxury, and riches, yet 
God demonstrated to us that the end thereof was death, and 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 271 

that such a nation was on the high road to perdition ; the most 
striking example of which was given in the history of the 
Jews. The most pointed and tremendous illustration of the 
text might be found in the 22d and 34th chapters of the 
Prophecy of Jeremiah. In regard to these people, they be- 
came so in love with power, and of such insatiable avarice in 
the desire of turning their " Men servants" and " Maid ser- 
vants" into Slaves and articles of property, whom they could 
hold at their pleasure and exact their service without hire; that 
they combined to introduce and establish in place of the system 
of freedom and 'paid labor which God had appointed, the sys- 
tem of Slavery which he had forbidden. They concocted and 
completed this enormous crime under the reign and guidance 
of Zedekiah, the last King of Judah, and they had no sooner 
done it than the sentence of God's wrath followed, from uihich 
there was no reprieve, and in only three years time Jerusalem 
was burned with fire, and the tohole people were swept into 
captivity or destroyed with sivord and famine. 

The 22d chapter of Ezekiel and oth chapter of Jeremiah 
were also cited in illustration of the text. (At this point a 
prominent member of the Church left his seat and bustled 
out of the Church, slamming the door as he left the house.) 
" Now although," said the speaker, "some may wish that all ref- 
erence to such a subject as that of Slavery could be avoided on 
every such occasion as this (and would to God there were no 
such thing as Slavery, so that there never need be any occa. 
si(fn to mention it), yet all must be compelled to achnowledge 
that the view of that subject which we find in God's word is 
God's own vieio in regard to it, and is put there for his 
creatures' guidance; and it is neither wise nor safe for us to 
hide ourselves from God's judgment on that or any other sub- 
ject. And after all our circuitous political turnings and wind- 
ings, we shall have to present ourselves at the bar of God's 
word. It must oorae to that, for God is the judge, and pro- 



272 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

motion cometh neither from the east .nor from the west, noi 
from the south; but God is the judge — he putteth down one 
and setteth up another. And although this is a sore spot for 
us, and the whole region of the sore very tender to the touch, 
and easily irritated, yet I will not think so poorly of an audi- 
ence in the Church of the Puritans as to deem any apology 
necessary for presenting any of God's messages, historical or 
perspective. It is the selfish pursuit of wealth, prosperity, and 
power, as ends and not means, with the iieglect at first, and 
afterward the oppression, of the poor, the weah, and the unpro- 
tected, that has brought nearly every great Nation of tlie globe 
in turn to destruction. Slavery has always been one of the 
producing causes of national poverty, though it has been ranked 
among the sources of national wealth ; but Slavery is ignorance 
and poverty combined, and oppression added. The Roman 
Empire fell by this cause — the selfish luxury of the wealthy, 
and the frightful ignorance of the poor." 

The 82d Psalm, against unjust governors and judges, no- 
gether with the 94th, 74th, and 72d, was consulted in illustra- 
tion of the text. The provision appointed in the word of 
God — the speaker said the faithful judgment and right govern- 
ment of the poor requires and comprises their Education in 
Eeligious knowledge, which is at the bottom of everything 
else, and is the only secui-ity and pledge of perseverance in 
any and every effort of benevolence that can be resorted to. 

If the pulpits of the Northern States were supplied with 
true men — with men who really cared for the oppressed, 
they would produce a revolution more sublime than any wliich 
the world has yet witnessed. American Slavery could not 
last a year under such preaching. Heaven speed the day 
when every Pro-Slavery pulpit in the ''free States" shall be 
sent to quarantine, and kept there — until their '^' owner" calls 
for them. 

" If there is in the world," says a writer in a late number 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 273 

of the Revile des Deux 3fo7ides, "a great nation which has 
need to turn back upon itself and to sound by reflection the 
dangers of the future concealed beneath present prosperity, it 
is surely the United States of America. The»^reat increase 
of their population, the boldness of their enterprises, the prog- 
ress of their wealth, may doubtless dazzle the traveller who 
runs through them, and may bewilder themselves. Of such 
illusions there are abundant examples. In the political order, 
the equality of men has been proclaimed as the absolute basis, 
and, as it were, special prerogative of this Republic. Alone 
among nations it fretends to follow this principle to the end, 
and yet to-day not only the maintenance hut the extension and 
consecration of Slavery has become the pivot of its entire politi- 
cal movement. This so shameful question agitates the elec- 
tions, absorbs the press, and floats as a flag at the head of a 
party ; and this party, which wishes to keep in eternal Slavery 
a whole race of Men, is the preponderant party ! Within, it 
controls the Administration ; without, it makes conquests of 
Territories, for the sole purpose of legalizing Slavery there, in 
order that this crime may be represented in Congress by so 
many additional members that it may secure a .perpetual 
majority, and may become the palladium of the sanctuary of 
equality. 

" And to arrive at this end, this party does not fear to favor 
aggressions which touch not merely feeble neighbors, but which, 
to a certain degree, infringe upon the interests, the ideas, the 
honor, even of European nations ; so that, under the actual 
circumstances, a European war against America, whatever 
might be the cause or pretext of it, would be likely to take on 
the character of a Monarchical crusade for the rights of Man 
against a Republic which disregards and oppresses them ! If 
these fundamental contradictions of this internal anarchy do 
not develop themselves in some exterior discord, if this contest 
of principles does not tend to manifest itself in events, then 

12* 



274 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTKUCTION 

Amei'ica muht be a part of the world where facts and thoughts 
have no connection with each other — a state of things even 
more lamentable than would be revolutions from which it is 
saved at such an expense. 

" In consequence of not having listened to Jefferson, America 
still drags this chain, growing daily still and still heavier — • 
herself the Slave of Slaves. She proceeds in a course oppo- 
site to that of other nations, and notwithstanding the prodigies 
of productive industry which she exhibits, she runs, with all 
steam up, headlong toward barbarism. It is impossible that in 
this mad course she will not dash against some roch which God 
will put before her. Heart-rending delineations of American 
Slavery, which, obliged to defend itself against universal re- 
pulsion hy atrocious laws, corrupts the family of the Master, 
teaches ferocity to his children" (see Engraving at the head of 
chap. i. of this Part), " and unsexes the heart of his wife, have 
found readers even here. This will be the first instance of a 
Republic maintaining itself by perverting morality at its source, 
and in the face of the common idea that the strength of Re- 
publics is in their morality. This, too, will be the fir.-^t time 
that a State has set itself to run counter to the movements of 
the whole world without being trodden under foot. May the 
voices, as yet but too few, which raise themselves in the United 
States against this scourge, grown now almost irresistible, be 
better listened to." 

The French writer, quoted above, has missed the most 
alarming symptom in the case. It has insinuated itself into 
the heart's blood of the Churches, North and South. It has 
diffused its poisonous and disorganizing leaven through all the 
great institutions of benevolence. It subjects the religious 
books, tracts, and all other publications, to a Pi'o-Slavery cen- 
sorship, and is constantly attempting to gag the few Pulpits 
whose occupants have the courage to speak " a seasonable 
word ibr freedom." 



OF SERVANTS, AND OTHER NEGROES. 275 

The preachers, with rare exceptions, refuse to say anj-thing 
about Slavery or political wickedness. They complain that it 
makes them nervous and spoils their dinner. In their prayer- 
meetings the subject of American oppression is never alluded 
to, because they '' never heard of such a thing as Slavery or 
oppression in the United States !" Ah, they did, indeed, some- 
times in India, and the South Sea Islands, and other places in 
distant heathen regions, where the missionary work was going 
on, but not in " Christian America," for this was too near 
home, and too political. It is easy and popular to preach 
about idolatry and persecution, and distress among " the heathen 
of the old world," and speak about " breaking their chains," 
and they sing : 

" Go to many a tropic isle, 
In the bosom of the deep, 
Where the skies for ever smile, 
And the oppressed for ever weep." 

This is very proper, but to talk about Slavery and idolatry, 
and the oppressed in the United States and Territories, only 
rouses up opposition and wrath, and makes "• some people" 
nervous, and " grieves the Spirit of God, and prevents Revi- 
vals of Religion." So the iniquity is shielded, is concealed 
from exposure, and all mention of it is abhorred. The preach- 
ers do in effect iTiake Christ the minister of sin ; and in forbid- 
ding the manifestation of this fearful system of wickedness, as 
God's Word condemns it, and in exciting men's prejudices and 
aversion against all reference to it, they keep the people in 
the dark in regard to it, and thus prevent that repentance on 
account of it, on the part, of the people, which would forbid Us 
extension, procure God's forgiveness, and secure the country 
from ruin. 

Every reason that demanded or made necessary God's ven- 
geance against the Jews exists in full force against the people 
of the United States and Territories, and their iniquity being 



276 EDUCATION AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION, 

tlie same as theirs, what possible imagination can any man in- 
dulge, that whereas the Jews perished, the traffickers in Men, 
Women, and Children of "Christian America," shall escape; 
the Jews in the furnace of Divine wrath, " Young America" 
walking at large in the area of his exultant oppression unre- 
buked, unvisited ; the Jews in the mire of the Nations, trod- 
den under foot, begging for the privilege of selling " old clothes," 
Young America on the throne claiming international sanction 
for the breeding and trading of " property" in Human flesh, 
frequently the Children of his own loins ! 

How can any man but see, who believes in a God, and re- 
flects at all, or has examined the record, that every attribute 
of Jehovah is pledged against the Churches, the Preachers, 
and the People, who uphold or connive at such an atrocious sys- 
tem of iniquity. The glory of His name, the majesty and 
purity of His law, the truth of His predictions, the Divine na- 
ture of His statutes, their wisdom and benevolence, requiring 
to be demonstrated against the blasphemous libel of their being 
a cover and shield of the most execrable avarice and oppres- 
sion ; the vindication of the New Testament, as well as the 
Old, and its religion of love, from such a burning odium as that 
of practically going against its own great law of doing to others 
as we would they shoidd do to us ; the vindication of Chris- 
tianity against infidelity, and the rescuing of imprisoned souls 
made infidel hy the Churches enshrining oppression as a form 
of Christianity — all these things compel the descent of God's 
curse upon the " evangelical" traffickers in their colored and 
party-colored fellow-men, and for whom, with us, Christ Jesus 
sutfered, bled, and died. 



PAET FIFTH. 

DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 



CHAPTER I. 



" They all lie in wait for blood ; they hunt every man his brother with 
a net. That they may do evil with both hands earnestly, the prince ask- 
eth, and the judge asketh for a reward ; and the great man he uttereth 
his mischievous desire : so they wrap it up." 

" It is really astonishing," said the Right Reverend Father 
in God, Leonidas Polk, D. D., LL. D., Bishop of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church of Louisiana, " how little our colored 
Servants appreciate the special blessings of their condition." 
(See chap. ii. of Part IV.) And yet, strange to say, to get out 
of it, one secretes himself in the hold of a vessel; another 
packs himself in a cask ; a third threads woods and swamps in 
the dark, guided only by the North star ; a fourth swims rivers 
and risks bloodhounds and rifle-bullets sooner than be taken ; 
a fifth disguises himself and sets out for Canada without a 
penny in his pocket ; a sixth plunges into the river, preferring 
drowning to capture. One day it is a boy that has run away, 
the next day a girl ; then a man and his " wife ;" then a mother 
and her children ; then a superannuated old man. Last week 
we heard of six from Virginia, yesterday of eleven from Ar- 
kansas, to-day sixteen from Kentnckj'. One is half-naked, 



278 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

another has a scarred cheek, a third a branded forehead, a 
fourth a mangled back, a fifth a bullet in his leg, a sixth an 
arm broken, a seventh an ear cut off, an eighth an eye put out 
Yet all these were " better fed, clothed, and treated," and more 
kindly " cared for in old age," we are expected to believe, 
" than the laborers of the New England States," &c. . 

If Slavery is so agreeable a condition tr the Slaves ; if they 
are so well nurtured and " cared for" under it, how comes it 
that Women are crazed by the thought of being returned to 
it? How comes it that they forget all the dictates of a Moth- 
er's heart, and condemn their Children to death by their own 
hands, rather than relinquish the possession of them to their 
pretended owners ? How comes it that their companions, who 
are arrested as accomplices in this crime of murder, say that they 
would rather be tried for their lives, and afterward marched to 
the gallows, than be sent back to Slavery ? They know what 
Slavery is, and they know what Death is, and, with many that 
have gone before them in this world, they cry, " Death before 
Slavery." 

There is something in the heart of the poor Slave which 
whispers to him that the body is more than raiment, and the 
freedom of the soul infinitely greater than the comforts of the 
body. Like the rest of us, he yearns for Freedom, and hav- 
ing achieved freedom, though but for a few days, he welcomes 
the grave as the alternative to bondage. But in doing this he 
has in History some pertinent and illustrious examples. The 
annals of man are filled with similar incidents. There are 
names that have been rescued from that mortality which fol- 
lows all human affairs, solely on the ground of such exhibitions 
as we have seen in Ohio and other sections of the '■'■free North," 
not to mention the thousand occurrences in barbarian times 
— when fathers and brothers despairing of safety destroyed 
those who were most dear to them. 

"When Mithridates was defeated by LucuUes he ordered the 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 279 

sacrifice of his wife and sister to prevent their falling into the 
hands of the enemy; and writers who relate the tale are 
accustomed to dilate upon the act as a proof of the dignity and 
grandeur of his soul. When Virginius, summoned by Appius 
Claudius to surrender his daughter as a Slave, plunged the 
dagger into her bosom rather than yield to the demand, the 
pen of the historian warmed into eloquence as he described 
the heroic virtue of the Roman father, and the imaginations 
of the poets were kindled into tragic sublimity. 

The finest of the Lays of Rome, wi-itten by Maeaulay, is 
decidedly that which tells of the fate of the hapless Virginia ; 
one of the most touching and effective of recent tragedies is 
founded upon the same subject. We have seen the latter, 
indeed, as enacted upon the stage, melt the eyes and stir the 
inmost depths of emotion in large audiences, in whose shud- 
dering sympathy with the child was always mingled a lurking 
admiration for the stern heroism of the parent. Yet in what 
respect does the act of the Roman Virginius differ from that 
of the poor Slave-mother on the banks of the Ohio ? In the 
one case the daughter was claimed as a Slave, under an in- 
famous law of Rome, trumped up for the occasion, and the 
father, rather than submit to it, plunged his knife in the heart 
of his daughter. In the other case the child is claimed as a 
Slave, under an infamous " Law" of the United States of 
America, and the Mother, rather than yield to it, drew the 
knife across the throat of her child. In the former, however, 
the crime becomes classic ; History celebrates it ; Artists 
spread it on their canvass ; poets embalm the memory of it in 
undying lines ; and the world does not cease to admire it, 
while it shudders, as a manifestation of the sternness and 
grandeur of Roman courage. But, in the latter case, where 
there is even more to excuse the criminal aspect of the trans- 
action, and more to lieighten its pathetic interest, because the 
perpetrator is a Woman and a Mother, she is hurled to prison 



280 DOMESTIC AMUSEMEXTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

as a murderess, either to suffer the penalty of the " Law," in 
that character, or to be restored to a bondage which she re- 
gards as infinitely worse than Death. 

" Oh, thou mother, maddened, frenzied, when the hunter's toils ensnared 

Thee and thy brood of nestlings, till thy anguished spirit dared 

Send to God, uncalled, one darhng life that round thine own did twine — 

Worthy of a Spartan mother was that fearful deed of thine ! 

Worthy of the Roman father, who sheathed deep his flashing knife 

In the bosom of Virginia, in the current of her hfe ! 

Who, rather than his beauteous child should live a tyrant's Slave, 

Opened the way to freedom through the portals of the grave .'" 

The New Bedford (Mass.) Standard, of September 5th, 
1855, says: "Mrs. Peterson called upon us, yesterday morn- 
ing, with two Slave children, of whom we befoi'e spoke as 
having been purchased in Washington, D. C, by the liberality 
of some of our Citizens and persons in Boston. The children 
are little girls, of the ages of six and eight years. They are 
bright, intelligent-looking and quite pretty, with a remarkable 
regularity of features. The most acute observer would not 
discover the slightest evidence that African blood flowed in 
their veins, and, the fact of their having been Slaves to the 
contrary, we can scarcely believe that they are not as pure 
Anglo-Saxon as any children in Massachusetts. There is not 
about either of them the first physical peculiarity indicating 
that they belong to the ' colored' race, and not one person in a 
hundred thousand would ever entertain a suspicion that such 
was the case. We trust that some one, if not all, our Da- 
guerrean artists will take pictures of thesg little girls, and 
place them in their case of ' specimens' by the street side, 
so that the world may see what an American ' Nigger' is 
made of." 

There are hundreds of thousands of just such instances of 
Avhite children in bondage in the Slave States of the " Model 
Republic." That the " Niggers" are fast " bleaching out" is 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 281 

well known, and that thousands with the blood of Southern 
Statesmen and Northern " hirelings" in their veins are now in 
chains, can not be disputed. In a few years moi'e there will 
scarcely be a " black Nigger" in Slavery. 

A Southerner arrived in New York City in March, 1856, 
and made known to a confidential friend — a Cotton Broker, 
that he had come in pursuit of a " runaway Nigger," his own 
property, and from the fact of the Slave being " a beautiful 
female Nigger, about sixteen years of age, and perfectly 
white," he thought it advisable not to attempt to recover her 
by making application in any quarter where the fact of his 
pursuit would be likely to be made known to the public, as his 
object might thereby be frustrated. His friend advised him, 
therefore, to offer a reward of three hundred dollars, to some 
intelligent . Police officer, for the arrest of the fugitive, and 
trust to his prudence and discretion. The advice was taken, 
and after a while a clue was got to the whereabouts of the 
" beautiful Nigger," but before she could be arrested she was 
" up and gone," the graceless girl, and away to Canada, and 
beyond the reach of her " legal owner." 

There was nothing unusual or marvellous in all this, but it 
was discovered during the time that the search for the fugitive 
was being made, that the '• beautiful Nigger" was his own 
daughter, and had escaped from a lecherous old wretch, to 
whom he had hired her for five years. Soon after her arrival 
in New York, she had captivated the heart of a white gen- 
tleman who married her. He did not suspect her origin. 
The husband having by some means or other got scent of the 
danger, instead of playing the part of Inkle to his Yarico, had 
the manliness to start with her to Canada. 

Isaac Johnson and his wife, who recently escaped from 
Slavery, give a narrative of the hardships they endured, and 
from which we deduce the following facts. They were held 
as "property" in the State of Mississippi, a short time since. 



282 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

and were the parents of an only child, which was about thir- 
teen months old. A few days before they started on the 
hazardous voyage to Canada, the mother learned that she was 
sold to a Slave-trader, who intended to separate her from her 
" husband" and child, never more to see them on earth. But 
they resolved on running away with their child or perish. 
They succeeded in reaching what is called a '■''free State" 
(Indiana), with their child, where they were chased until it 
was sacrificed. On seeing that they were closely pursued, 
they broke and ran to a corn-field — the "wife" first got over 
the fence, and the " husband" handed her the child, with which 
she ran as fast as she could. She heard the pursuer saying, 
" stop, stop, or I'll shoot you down ;" and before she had pro- 
ceeded far, a gun was fired, and her child w^s shot dead from 
her back — and the ball, which passed through the child's 
neck, cut off one corner of the mother's ears. At this moment 
the poor mother fell down with her lifeless babe, when she 
was rushed upon by two men, who tried to tie her with cords ; 
but when she cried for help, her " husband" came to her relief 
— the contest was desperate for a few moments; the "wife 
and husband" both fought until they brought down the mur- 
derer of their child, and his companion fled. The " husband 
and wife," fearing that they would soon be surrounded and 
overpowered, and seeing that their little one was dead, and 
that they could do it no good, reluctantly left it l}'ing by the 
villain who shot it. Fortunately for them, they soon found a 
depot of the " underground railroad," and one of the con- 
ductors thereof was kind enough to put on an extra train, 
which soon landed them on Canadian soil. 

On Sunday evening, October 5, 1856, about nine o'clock, 
the steamship Roanoke arrived at her dock, in New York, 
from Richmond, Virginia, and during the night, as they were 
discharging her cargo, one of the hands discovered a box, in 
which was secreted a Man, who being nearly suffocated for the 



DOMESTIC AMUSKMENTS ilv TIIK SLAVE STATES. 283 

want of air, had forced the hd, when it was discovered that he 
was a fugitive Slave. The Steamer was immediately sent 
from her dock, and anchored off" Sandy Hook, and the Slave 
put on board one of the Richmond packets, to be taken back 
to " Old Virginia." 

In September, 1851, a warrant was issued in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, by Edward D. Ingraham, United States Mar- 
shal, authorizing the arrest of two party-colored Men, claimed 
to be the " property" of Edward Gorsuch, a prominent Mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church, who with his two 
Sons, Dickinson and Joshua, and his nephew. Doctor Thomas 
Pierce, and several other persons, reached the place where 
the fugitives were harbored at daybreak, on the 11th of Sep- 
tt5mber, 1851. This was a two-story stone building on the 
farm of Levi Pownall, three miles from the village of Ciiristi- 
ana, in the county of Lancaster. The Slaves were sum- 
moned to surrender, and the United States warrant read aloud 
by the Marshal. The owner of the house denied that the 
Slaves were in the house, although the hunters had seen them 
at the upper window, and called upon them to descend. Upon 
their refusal to do so, the Marshal attempted to ascend the 
stairs, whereupon an axe was hurled at him from above, and 
a gun fired from the window ; the Marshal then fired a pistol, 
and his fire was returned by the Slaves. The Marshal and 
his party then withdrew from the house, and were again fired 
upon from the upper windows. 

The Marshal again read aloud his warrant, and Mr. Gor- 
such entreated his property to surrender. During this parley, 
two white men, Elijah Lewis and Castner Hanway, came up 
— a horn was blown, and several "colored men" rushed to the 
scene from the surrounding woods. Some of them were armed 
with guns and pistols, and others with scythes and corn-cutters. 
The Marshal and his posse requested Lewis and Hanway to 
aid in making the arrests, and exhibited and read the warrant. 



284 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

But. this they refused to do. Upon this encouragement, the 
party outside surrounded the Marshal and his men, shouted 
and fired upon them. Edward Gorsuch fell dead. Dickin- 
son, his son, while running to his aid, was shot through the 
heart ; and Joshua received a shot in the head. Dr. Pierce 
fought desperately. He was wounded in more than twenty 
places. 

A most disgraceful and brutal occurrence took place at 
Wilkesbarre, on the 2od of September, 1853. About 7 
o'clock, A. M., an attempt was made by " Deputy Marshal 
Wyakoop" (a brother to Colonel Wynkoop) and "Joe Jen- 
kins," and three assistants from Virginia, to arrest, as a fugi- 
tive Slave, a waiter, in the Dining-room of the Phoenix Hotel. 
Immediately after receiving their breakfast at the hands of 
" Bill," the unsuspecting fugitive, who is a tall, noble-looking, 
remarkably intelligent, and active man, they suddenl}^, from 
behind, knocked him down, and partially shackled him ; but, 
by a desperate effort, and after a most severe struggle, with 
the whole five upon him, he shook them off", and with the aid 
of his handcuffs, which were only fast upon his right hand, 
he inflicted wounds on the countenances of the hunters, the 
marks of which they will carry to their graves. But, notwith- 
standing the odds against him, he broke from their grasp, and, 
covered with blood, rushed from the Hotel, and plunged into 
the River close by, exclaiming, " / will drown myself rather . 
than he taken alive /" His pursuers fired twice at him on his 
way, without checking his speed, and, on reaching the bank, 
they presented their revolvers, and called on the fugitive, who 
stood up to his neck in the water, to come out and surrender 
himself, or they would blow his brains out. He replied, 
'•'•There's no use — Til never go bach — Til droion myself Jirst J" 
They then deliberately fired at him five times; the last ball was 
supposed to have wounded his head, for his face was instantly 
covered with bloo;], and the pooi- fellow shrieked out in agony, 



DOMESTIC AJXUSEMEKTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 285 

and no doubt would have sunk, but for the buoyancy of the 
■water holding him up. The wretched, chicken-hearted Citi- 
zens, who had by this time collected in large numbers, were 
becoming excited, and could no longer refrain from crying 
out, " Shame, shame !" and which had the effect of causing the 
hunters to retire a short distance, in evident consultation. 

The Slave, not seeing his pursuers, came to the shore ; but 
not being able to support himself in the water, he lay down 
exhausted, and was supposed to be dying, on hearing which 
the Slave-catchers remarked that " dead Niggers were not 
Avorth taking South." A poor '•'•free colored woman" brought 
a shirt and a pairof pantaloons and put them on the fugitive, 
who, in a few minutes, unexpectedly revived, and was walking 
off from the river, partly held up by the husband of this poor 
woman, whose name was Rex ; on seeing which the hunters 
again headed him, and presented their revolvers, and called 
upon him to stop, threatening to shoot any one who assisted 
him. The white doughface friends of Rex instantly shouted, 
" Stand away ! stand away. Rex ! You '11 get shot, too." 
This was bad advice, as it had the effect of encouraging the 
pirates, who kept advancing toward the fugitive, and at the 
same time intimidated Rex, who drew back, exclaiming to the 
Slave : " Away, Bill, to the water again ; don't be taken 
alive !" 

The poor fellow, seeing himself deserted (for there was a 
general drawback of the doughfaces, on the Revolvers being 
presented), turned, and plunged into the river, and this time 
swam out of the range of pistol-shot, where he remained upward 
of an hour, covered with blood, and in full view of hundreds 
of tilings called " white men," who lined the banks of the river. 
His pursuers dared not follow him into the water, for, as he 
afterward remarked, " I would have died contented could I but- 
have carried two or three of them doicn -with me.''' In the 
meantime, some few " Men" had arrived, who were deter- 



286 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

mined to have the hunters arrested. Judge Collins questioned 
them as to their names and authoritj^ to which they replied: 
" You act more like a lunatic than a Judge," &c. They, how- 
ever, saw the sentiment was strong against them, and drove off 
before an officer could be found to arrest them. A telegraphic 
despatch to the constable in Hazleton caused their detention 
there ; but he was overawed by such pompous United States 
officers, and they were allowed to go. 

After the departure of the pirates, the poor fugitive, afraid to 
come out there again, swam some distance up stream, and got 
out above, and was found by some " colored women," flat on his 
face in a corn-field ! These Christian women carried him to 
a place of safety, dressed his wounds, and at night he was so 
far recovered as to be able to start for Canada. 

There was a general dread of the pirates, who bullied and 
browbeat any one who ventured to speak above his breath, ex- 
claiming, occasionally : " Gentlemen, you can have him for 
$1,500; but we are United States Officers ; resist us at your 
peril." 

On the 18th September, 1854, at 4 p. m., a suspicious-look- 
ing carriage-full of white men was seen near Byberry ; they 
lurked about in the neighborhood until nightfall, when they drove 
up and rushed into a house and seized a " colored man," in the 
presence of his wife and another woman, threatening to shoot 
them if they interfered, and dragged him out, beating him over 
the head at the same time. The poor fellow continued to 
scream for help, but they forced him into their carriage and 
drove off, before any assistance could be offered. The neigh- 
borhood is cut up by several roads, leading in various direc- 
tions, which facilitated their diabolical deed, making it impos- 
sible, under cover of the night, to tell which road they had 
taken. The kidnapped man had resided several months in 
Byberry, previous to which he had lived in New Jersey. 
Whether he had ever been a Slave or not, none could tell. 



DO-AIESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 287 

He had gained the respect of the people of Bjberry by liis 
sober and industrious habits. He left a heart-broken wife and 
one child to mourn his loss. 

Byberry is a Quaker neighborhood not more than fifteen 
miles from the Hall where the Declaration of Independence 
was signed on the fourth day of July, 1776. 

The borough of Harrisburgh was thrown into a state of 
"considerable excitement" on the 23d of February, 1855, in 
consequence of a daring attempt to Kidnap Geoi-ge Clark, a 
'■'•free colored boy." The circumstances of this case are briefly 
these : Clark had been lured from a dance-house, kept by a 
" colored man," under the pretext of being sent on an errand 
for brandy for the occasion. Two white men. Dr. Thompson 
and J. Jackson, accompanied him, and took him to Solomon 
Snyder's residence, in the lower section of the borough, and 
invited him up-stairs to get some " grog." Immediately after 
entering Snyder's room, the latter fastened the door and said: 
" Clark, I am going to take you back to your ownei*." A 
struggle ensued : the boy made for a window frontirig on the 
depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad, broke the sash through — 
severely cutting his arm — and raised a cry of "Murder!" 
A number of people made for the spot, and found Clark hang- 
ing out of the window, some forty feet from the ground, head 
downward, and Snyder and his wife holding on to his legs. A 
party rushed up-stairs, and learned from the boy that he was 
" free ;" that an attempt had been made to knock him down and 
gag him, and that his only refuge was to jump from the window. 

Snyder, who stood like a felon detected in his wicked act, 
had nothing to say for himself, and was taken before a magis 
trate and thence to prison. Jackson was captured, but Thomp- 
son made his escape. 

Judge Stroud, of Pennsylvania, in his " Sketch of Slavery," 
says : " Remote as in the City of Philadelphia from those of 
the Slaveholding States in which the introduction of Slaves 



288 DOilESTIC AHUSEMENTS IK THE SLAVE STATES. 

from jjlace to place v/ithin the United States is freely periuit- 
ted, and where also the market is tempting, it has Ijeen ascer- 
tained that more than thirty free colored persons, mostly Chil- 
dren, have been kidnapped here and carried away within the 
last two years.* Five of these, through the kind interposi- 
tion of several humane gentlemen, have been restored to their 
friends, though not without gi-eat expense and ditficulty. The 
others are still retained in bondage." 

On the 13th of December, 1854, Mary E. Parker, a young 
woman, residing in Chester county, was seized, in the evening,, 
by two kidnappers, and carried to Baltimore, sold, and trans- 
ported to New Orleans. A fortnight later, December 30th, 
her sister, Racliael Parker, was forcibly taken from the house 
of Joseph C. Miller, by two men, who took her to Baltimore 
and sold her. 

Mary Gilmore, of Philadelphia, claimed as a "runaway 
Slave," was proved to be the child of Irish parents, and had 
not a drop of African blood in her veins. 

Another outrage, of this sort, was perpetrated on Sunday 
evening, July 1, 1855. The faults of the case are as follows: 
Benjamin Johnson, a lad 15 years of age, was on his way 
from the residence of his parents, near Evansburgh, to Samuel 
Jarrett's, near JefFersonville, with whom he had been living. 

* The New York Tribune, of the 7 th of October, 1856, says : " It may 
surprise many of our readers to learn that from thirty to foi'ty white 
Cliildren are stolen every year in New York from tlieir parents, and 
never heard of more. Yet such is the fact. A child is lost, search is 
made by the parents ; days, weeks, months pass, but no tidings of their 
little one are ever heard. At last the search is given over, and the mat- 
ter is forgotten until a similar calamity brings anguish into another fam- 
ily. The mystery is, what is done with them? Something ought to be 
done to preserve the children and save parents the anguish of losing 
them." The kidnappers invariably seize the handsomest children, nine 
out of ten being female children. Handsome "white Nigger girls" are 
" anxiously sought after" — in the Southeiu Markets. 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 289 

Pie was overtaken by a well-dressed, genteel-look in j;; young 
man in a carriage, who asked him where he was going, and 
then told him that as he was going to. Jefferson ville if he 
would get into the carriage he would take him there. The 
boy at first declined, but finally consented. The man then 
drove in the direction of Jeflfersonville for about a mile, con- 
versing with the boy meanwhile on various subjects. He then 
drove off at a rapid pace on another road. Night coming on, 
the boy became fearful that all was not right, and resolved, if 
possible to make his escape. He made an effort to spring 
from the carriage, when the villain caught him and di'ove off 
at full speed, and by threats and blows prevented him from 
making any alarm. He drove to the stone hills, fifteen miles 
from Jeffersonville, where, in Consequence of his whole atten- 
tion and strength being required to manage the horse, the boy 
succeeded in escaping from the carriage and making off, and 
reached his father's residence at sunrise next morning. 

On Friday, July 9th, 1855, at an early hour in the morn- 
ing, a white girl, fourteen years of age, the daughter of Samuel 
Godshall, residing within three miles of Downington, Chester 
county, was carried away by two men, in a close carriage, a 
distance of twelve miles from her home, toward the Maryland 
line. The girl had been with a neighbor for the past two or 
three weeks taking care of a sick child, and on the morning 
of Friday, while going along the road to drive a cow from the 
pasture-field, she was accosted by two men, very genteelly 
dressed, who were standing near a carriage. They asked her 
name, and where she lived, to which inquiries she gave an- 
swers without hesitation, supposing that they were friends or 
acquaintances of a gentleman residing in the neighborhood. 
Without any further conversation, one of them opened a tin 
box, and took therefrom what appeared to be a pitch-plaster, 
which he instantly clapped over her mouth, when both of theiu 
dragged her into the carriage and drove off, by an indirect 

13 



290 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

route from the place, through Coatesville, three miles from her 
home. Here she managed to jump from the carriage and run 
into a wood. 

The poor girl, faint and sick from mental excitement and 
terror, scarcely knew where she was or what to do, when she 
was met by two colored m,en, who assisted her and advised 
her as to her course homeward. She reached her home late 
in the evening. She stated that when her sobs and efforts to 
cry prevailed, the kidnappers threatened to knock her brains 
out. 

Among the freight which passed through Pittsburgh recent- 
ly, on the "Underground Railroad," was a daughter of "a 
wealthy and influential citizen" of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, a 
young lady of remarkable beaufy and no mean supply of spirit 
and intelligence. She had been well brought up and kindly 
cared for by her father ; but a creditor levied on her for debt. 
She was taken to New Orleans and placed in a calaboose for 
safe-keeping, and for the inspection of purchasers. Among 
those who thought of buying the article "was one gentleman, 
who wished to learn if her bust was indebted to padding for 
its form ; but the girl resented this pursuit after knowledge as 
a personal insult, whereupon the wretch drew a heavy whip 
and dealt her a blow, which she caught upon her right arm 
and shoulder. That night — the night before the sale — some 
one came into her prison, and gave her a suit of gentleman's 
clothing, bade her dress quickly, and follow. She did so, and 
was placed by the unknown friend on a Steamboat bound for 
Pittsburgh, where she arrived safely. Her arm and shoulder 
were disabled from the effects of the blow by her " chivalric" 
would-be purchaser, but she was thankful to have got off so 
cheaply ; Avas hopeful for the future, and, with a considerable 
company of emigrants, was promptly forwarded to Canada. 

We learn from The Pittsburg (Pa.) Dispatch, of the 6th 
of August, 1856, that a grand " Nigger-hunt" had just come off 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 291 

in Greene county, in which fifty armed white men were en- 
gjiged in the pursuit of nine Slaves, who had runaway from 
Booth's Creek, Harrison county, Virginia (eight miles from 
Clarksburg), a few days before. The fugitives, three men and 
six children, escaped, and the Pennsylvania " Nigger-huntcr.s" 
earned, not the reward they so anxiously sought, but the con- 
tempt of all honorable men. In one township half a dozen of 
them drew their Revolvers on a "Woman, who had refused to 
allow them to search her house for the runaways. 

The JVew York Tribune, of the 7th of August, 1856, says: 
" Two runaway Slaves from the northern part of Kentucky 
arrived in Erie (Pa.) on Saturday last. Some of their friends 
in town secreted them and arranged for their translation to 
Canada, which last stage in their journey was safely traversed, 
although the poor fellows were hotly pursued by a man who 
claimed to own them. He arrived in Erie in time to learn 
that they had evaded him." 

Not long since a runaway Slave, from a plantation in 
Western Maryland, was captured and taken to Baltimore, half 
doubled up with the w^eight of irons around his neck, which 
the poor fellow said he had worn for nearly ten months. This 
iron-collar was so arranged as to have a bell in it behind his 
shoulders. When he was brought in, a crowd of the " poor 
whites" collected around him to know where he was from, and 
who he belonged to ; and in the crowd was one more bold 
than the rest, who spoke, and said, " Take off his irons, take 
off his irons." But an old gray-headed man spoke up and 
said, " Oh, no, no, I would not take off his irons ; make the 
Mack rascal keep them on." And that same old man had, only 
the day before, received the " Holy Sacrament" at " Christ's 
Church," the Rev. Dr. Johns. 

Mr. John H. Pope, of Frederick, Maryland, addressed a 
letter, in January, 1855, to the Editor of The Montreal Ga- 
zette, in relation to his proposed " Nigger-hunt" on British 



292 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

ground. It is so exquisitely " cliivalric," so thoroughly indica- 
tive of the " great beauties of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850," 
and of the means proposed " to conquer the prejudices" (to quote 
from Daniel Webster's 7th March speech) of the people of 
free communities, that we can not refrain from copying it 
entire. Here it is : 

"Frederick (Md.), Jan. 16, 1855. 
" To the Editor of the Montreal Gazette: 

" Sir : Properly to reply to the article in your paper, commenting' on 
a letter received by the Sheriff of your City, would be impossible, as I 
have been unable, as yet, to obtain the article, and can only speak of it 
as I gather its import from Jlie Baltimore Sun. The generous reception, 
and still more generous treatment which you promise, in anticipation of 
my coming, is fully appreciated, and is as much as could be expected 
from one of Her Majesty's ' most loyal subjects.' What a magnanimous 
people the Britons are ! Why, Sir, with my dog ' Taylor,' named after ' old 
Zack,' and six good mounted riflemen, I would not hesitate to invade Can- 
ada, hang Her Mnjesty's sheriff, tar and feather Her loving editors, and 
place myself 'at tlie head of affairs.' Pear to enter Canada in pursuit of 
my runaway property ! No, Sir ; the wife of that German Prince will 
soon be compelled to relinquish her American possessions, and the least 
violence offered to a free and enlightened American Citizen would only 
anticipate the event. Her Majesty's ' black regiment,' composed mostly 
of runaway Niggers from Western Maryland, would likely be the first to 
yield the ground, as many of them are familiar with the bark, if not the 
bite of ' Taylor,' and Her Majesty's editor, whom we suppose either 
black or tinctured with the blood, had better not be in command, for fear 
that ' Tayloi"' might want his accustomed provisions. 

"In conclusion, we have only to say that Her Majesty's editor and 
Her Majesty's sheriff have only to prepare against an invasion which in- 
volves more than runaway Niggers, and which, in result, will give free- 
dom to Canadians, and a defeat to that power which has ruled the wave 
and the land for the last few years ; save when General Jackson, with 
his 'forces, lick'd the devil out of 'em at New Orleans.* " Now I have 
done with you, Mr. Editor, and have only to request that you will be 



* Since which time he appears to have been the " particular patron" 
of the "good people" of Western Maryland. 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 293 

honest, and give my sentiments to the world ; then honest men may 
judge between us, and ascribe to each his proper share of praise. 

" JOHN H. POPE." 

Travellers, with Sun-burnt complexions, should be extremely 
cautious as to how they " circulate" themselves in Western 
Maryland.* But the Slaveholding States are not the only 
States where bloodhounds are kept to hunt down and iiestroy 
" the race of Africa' or " cursed seed of Ham." The Cleveland 
(Ohio) Plaindealer, says : " Ephraim Whitehead, son of JMr. 
R. Whitehead, who lives on Cedar street, was missing on Sat- 
urday (March 29, 1856), about 11 o'clock. After dinner the 
family became alarmed, and search was instituted for him. A 
nephew of Mr. Whitehead discovered the boy in a field, some 
twenty rods from the house, nearly dead, having been attacked 
and torn in a most shocking manner by a bloodhound slut. 
The poor little fellow lived only half an hour after he was 
found. When he was discovered, the question was asked 
if it was the bloodhound that had attacked him. He had 
barely strength enough to half articulate ' Yes.' The boy was 
about eight years of age, and was a general favorite with the 
family. The hound is of the same breed used by Slaveholders 

* The Philadelphia (Pa.) Bulletin, of the 28th July, 1856, contains the 
following, which it gives as perfectly reliable : " It seems that in some of 
the border counties of Maryland there is a patrol established to prevent 
the escape of Slaves. A few days ago two men belonging to this patrol 
were walking along, when they met with a Slave whom they accosted, 
asking where he was from. He replied, naming a well-known place. 
One of the parties questioned him further, and for a reply the Slave sud- 
denly drew a weapon, and, with a back-handed blow, severed his inquis- 
itor's head from his body ! The headless trunk dropped on the road. 
The sui-viving man's first impulse, after the shock, was to pursue tlie 
Slave, but he gave up the chase, and the Slave escaped, A bowie-knife 
and revolver w-ere found upon the person of the dead man. The scene 
of this tragedy was in Cecil County, near the head of Sassafras river. 
The Maryland people have published nothing about it, as it is consider- 
ed ' more prudent to keep quiet about all such things.' " 



294 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

to hunt runaway Negroes. We hope that this sad event will 
teach and enforce the necessity of killing all Slaveholders' 
dogs, as it is dangerous to the safety of Women and Chil- 
dren to have such animals in a thicTcIy-popidated City like 
ours." 

Ohio is full of such animals. The Dry-goods Jobbers, &;c., 
of the State have to look after the interests of those in Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, and other Slave States, with whom they "do 
business." 

The Cleveland Herald, of June loth, 1856, has an article 
stating that great havoc had been committed by Slaveholders' 
bloodhounds among flocks of sheep in different parts of the 
State. One farmer had 90 killed in one night ; another lost 
80, and so on. 

The following incident occurred in the Township of Orange: 
A Slaveholder's bloodhound kept by a Mr. Honeywell, rush- 
ed into a School-house among the children, biting them right 
■find left, ^ne little girl was dragged all around the School- 
room by the brute, and six children were bitten. One little 
girl had a large piece taken from her hip. The children 
sought refuge under the benches and wherever they could, to 
get out of the reach of the brute. A man came with an iron 
bar to the relief of the children and killed the monster. 

The assertion has been frequently reiterated by the Pro- 
Slavery Doctors of Divinity and their allies, that the fugitives in 
Canada are incompetent to provide for themselves, tliat many 
persons consider it no act of kindness to aid them in their 
flight from bondage. Determined to ascertain their actual 
condition, a gentleman of the highest respectability, a resi- 
dent of Cleveland, Ohio, who visited In Dec, 1855, parts of 
the Upper Province, in which a great many of them reside, 
says : " My efforts were both successful and highly satisfactorv. 
Everything appertaining to this persecuted people I found had 
been misrepresented. Evidences in abundance were discover- 



DOMESTIC AMUSEHENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 295 

ed to show that they are as competent to take care of them- 
selves as the white folks of New England. Their Farms, 
Dwellings, "Workshops, day and Salabath schools, are as well 
managed as similar matters and things among our Yankee 
population. If you should travel from house to house, in any 
direction from Cleveland, among the New England Farmers, 
you would not find stronger evidences of advancement and 
comfortable living than were discoverable among an equal 
number of these colored Families. On the score of Kindness, 
Affability, and Good manners, it is feared the former would 
suffer by the comparison. 

"It is evident that the present generation of colored men 
are rapidly accumulating wealth and power, and it requires no 
spirit of prophecy to predict that the ensuing generation will 
make its mark upon the page of history. The young, of both 
sexes, harbor a deadly hatred toward the South, and even 
against the whole Union. From infancy they have heard one 
constant narrative of wrongs suffered by their parents, and. 
many of them expressed both an anxiety and determination to 
seek revenge whenever circumstances would permit. With- 
out knowing how to read or write, many of them are sensible 
and judicious in their conversation and actions. The want of 
Education evidently stimulates them to furnish means for in- 
structing their Children." 

" Ran away from the subscriber, living near Upper Mariboro', Prince 
George's coiintj^, MaryUmd, on Monday, the 28th August, a Negro boy, 
who calls himself Allen West. He is about 20 years of age, a bright 
light color, freckled face, straight red hair ; has a large scar on one of his 
wrists (caused by the bile of Mr. Pope's dog 'Taylor'); he is about 5 
feet 6 inches in height. He has relations living in Washington City. 
He has also a brother belonging to Kichard B. B. Chew, Esq., and a 
sister belonging to Thomas Talbert, Esq. ; and his father belongs to 
Colonel William D. Bowie, and stays at his ' Bellfield plantation.' I 
have reason to believe he is endeavoring to pass himself off as a white 
boy ! I will give $300 reward for his apprehension, if taken in a free 



296 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

State, or $100, if taken elsewhere, provided he is brought to me or se- 
cured in some jail so that I can get him. 

"CHAELES CLAGETT." 

"$100 Reicard. — The above reward will be paid for the apprehension 
of my Slave man William. He is of a very light color, and has straight 
yellowish hair. I have no doubt he will change his name, and try to pass 
liimself for a white man, which lie may be able to do, unless to a very 
close observer. " T. S. PITCHAED." 

The staple argument in favor of Slavery is based on the 
inferiority of the Ajrican blood, but as in more ths^n half the 
States of the Republic three fourths or more of the blood is 
mixed with the blood of the " first families," such advertise- 
ments as the above are of every-day occurrence. Fathers 
advertise for, and hunt down with bloodhounds, their runa- 
way Sons and Daughters, and Grandchildren, and catching 
them, sell them into Slavery. If a Slave can '■'pass himself 
off for white" he is essentially white ; and the " Nigger argu- 
ment" falls to the ground. 

Notwithstanding the constant boastings by the champions 
of Slavery of the '' kind indulgence extended to the Negro 
race in Slaveholding communities," how uniformly do facts 
disprove the truth of such boastings, and hold up to scorn the 
heartless exercise of power by the fearful and, consequently, 
cruel oppressors of their fellow-men. A short time since one 
of the Washington Newspapers contained an account of the 
arrest of a dozen or more '■'■free men of color," who had, as 
was proved, assembled in a room, at night (the only time they 
probably could have taken), for the purpose of raising a suffi- 
cient fund, out of their own means, in good part, to purchase the 
freedom of a young woman whom they wished to befriend ; 
and of their being detained in the watch-house all night, and 
in the morning compelled to pay, to the Corporation of Wash- 
ington, fines exceeding in the aggregate the amount of the 
fund they had collected for the noble purpose they had in 
view ! 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 297 

"Ran Awnij from the plantation of James Surgett, the following Ne- 
groes : Randall has one ear croi)ped ; Bob has lost one eye ; 

Kentucky Tom has one jaw broken." — Southern Telegraph, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

"$3(^0 Heward. — Ran away from the subscriber on 'Difficult Run/ 
near George W. Hunter's Mill, Fairfax county, Va., on Sunday, the 
13th inst., a Negro woman, having M'ith her a child six months of age, 
almost white. The said woman is delicately made, of a very light color, 
is five feet two inches in height, and is supposed to be in the neighbor- 
hood of Georgetown, D. C. The above reward will be given if she be 
taken in Georgetown or Washington, or the adjoining counties, and 
secured so that I can get her. " CHAS. W. ADAMS." 

Washington Star, Jan. 18, 1856. 

There can be no difficulty in deducing from facts like these 
the moral and religious condition of tiie people of the District 
of Columbia. Evils, crimes, and purposes like these, can only 
spring from a public sentiment utterly corrupted, no matter 
what may be the Religious pretensions and professions of the 
people. " By their fruits shall ye know them." 

To run away from Slavery has been declared to run away 
from God. The " evangelicaf Slaveholding " Church of 
Jesus Christ at Union, Farquier county, Virginia," has pro- 
nounced excommunication against one of its members for run- 
ning away from his " evangelical" owner, a member of the 
same establishment, and " seeking freedom in the North." 
This " Nigger" (see Engraving at the head of this chapter) 
" who so disobeyed the laws of God and man," in the lan- 
guage of that Church, was caught, and by the active endeavors 
of President Franklin Pierce and his Agents, and the Agents 
of Cotton and Doughfacery, was restored to " Christian Soci- 
ety," and the " pious owner" who bewailed his Slave's back- 
sliding into Massachusetts. After a season of repentance, un- 
der the exhortations of the " blood-stained cow-hide" and the 
Rev. John Clark, this member of the blood-stained menagerie 
was bought out of Slavery by the Abolitionists of Boston, 

13* 



298 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

Massachusetts, and presented to himself. Taking the gift, he 
straightway went to Oberhn, Ohio, to Educate it for the min- 
istry. Arrived there, he, Child-like, wrote back to Union, to 
his old Pastor, for a letter of dismission from the Church he 
so wickedly ran away from when he ran away from Slavery. 
The Pastor, the Rev. John Clark, made the follou-ing answer : 

" The Church of Jesus Christ, at Union, Fauquier Co., Va. : 
" To all ivhom it may concern. 
"Whereas, Anthony Burns, a member of the Clmrch, has made appli- 
cation to us by letter to our Pastor, for a letter of dismission in fellow- 
ship, in order that he may unite with another Clmrch of the same faith 
and order ; and. Whereas, it has been satisfactorily established before us 
that the said Anthony Burns, absconded from the service of his owner, 
and refused to return voluntarily, thereby disobei/inp both the laws of God 
and man, although he subsequently obtained his freedom by purchase, 
yet we have vow to consider him only as a fugitive from labor (as he was 
before his arrest and restoration to his owner), have, therefore, Resolved, 
unanimously, that he be excommunicated from the Communion and 
Fellowship of the Church of Jesus Christ — Done by order of the 
Church, in regular Chui'ch-meeting, this 20th of October, 1855. 

"W. W. WEST, Clerk." 

"With this " evangelical" Slave-breeders' " Bull" of excom- 
munication went a letter from the Pastor, which '* pitched 
into Burns" in a fashion which would be called " diabolically 
vicious" if it did not proceed from an " evangelical minister of 
the Gospel." He convicts him, " logically and from the Holy 
Scriptures," of having denied the Christian character in seek- 
ing Freedom while his owner wanted him to remain a Slave 
— recommends him when licensed to preach, to select for his 
field of labor the North bank of the Ohio River, and taking 
the text about Onesimus, to exhort therefrom all "runaway 
Niggers" from Virginia to run straight back to their owners. 
" By so doing," adds this precious Slave-breeding Saint, " you 
may measurably make amends to Jesus Christ for stealing 
yourself away from your legal owner." 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 299 

The fate of Anthony Burns is indeed a, warning to all slip- 
pery and slipping sinners of his slippery class. He now 
knows what he has lost by his perverseness in allowing the 
rebellious old Adam to harden his heart. He thought it hard 
to work for another man for nothing, and to be beaten with 
stripes to boot. He yielded to' the promptings of his own 
carnal nature, and now what is his condition ? Cut off from 
" the Church," denied the sympathies and prayers of its mem- 
bers, shut out from the ordinances of Religion, the door of 
Heaven slammed in his face, and he given over to be buffeted 
by the great Adversary of Mankind ! Poor Anthony ! Much 
as we blame him, we can not but feel some natural yearnings 
of compassion toward him. Indeed, he is as Touchstone said 
to Corin, " in a parlous state." 

If the Church, at Union, Fauquier county, Virginia, is losing 
members by what the " evangelical" Pro-Slavery Doctors of 
Divinity call the " Infidel love of Freedom," is it not " lai'gely 
growing in grace ?" 

" The Richmond (Va.) Enquirer, of the 10th December, 
1856, says: "Every day develops some fresh scheme of 
revolt among the Slaves of the Western and more Southern 
States. To those ali-eady reported in our Columns, we ha^'e 
to add another prepared plan of insurrection just detected and 
defeated in South Carolina. Occurring at the same time in 
so many separate localities, these discoveries suggest the sus- 
picion of a veiy general spirit of insubordination among the 
Slave population. Why should this State alone be exempt 
from the danger which impends over nearly the entire 
Southern community ? In Montgomery county and in the 
Vicinity of Williamsburg, facts have been brought to light 
which warrant the apprehension of an outbreak, and justify 
the owners in the most summary measures of suppression. 
It is a remarkable circumstance in all these schemes of medi- 
tated insurrection that Christmas was selected as the day of 



300 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

their accomplishment. Now observing so wide-spread a spirit 
of revolt among the Slaves, perceiving that the same incendiary 
causes operate in full vigor in this State, and seeing, indeed, 
that indications of intended outbreak have been detected in 
more than one County in Virginia, we venture, at the hazard 
of even exciting unnecessary apprehension, to inquire if it is 
not the duty of the authorities and of the people to provide 
every possible precaution against any demonstration of vio- 
lence among our own Slaves ? Shall we not be admonished 
by timely discoveries in other States ? Or, shall we neglect 
our own security until we too, are exposed to extreme alarm, 
if not to actual peril ? 

" The military system of Virginia is in utter dilapidation. 
Out of the cities we have no organized means of protection 
against a sudden emergency. Every consideration, then, 
suggests the necessity of adopting immediate measures of 
prevention. Obviously the best thing to be done under the 
circumstances, is to appoint patrols for the counties, and to 
stimulate the police of the towns to more rigor and vigilance. 
It is especially important that the counties should be thoroughly 
patrolled, so as to interrupt extensive communications among 
the Slaves, and to prevent them from assembling in large 
numbers." 

" Ran A\uay from the subscriber, living in the County of Eappahan- 
nock, on Tuesday last, Daniel, about 5 feet 8 inches high, about 35 years 
old, very intelligent, has been a wagoner for several years, and is pretty 
well acquainted from Richmond to Alexandria. He calls himself Daniel 
Turner ; his hair curls, without showing black blood, or wool; he has a scar 
on one cheek,, and his left hand has been injured by a pistol-shot, and he 
was shabbily dressed, when last seen. I will give $25 reward if taken 
out of the county, and secured in jail, so that I can get him, or $10, if 
taken in the comity. "A.M.WILLIS. 

"Rappahannock Co., Va., Nov. 29." 

"$I00 Reivard will be given for the apprehension of my Negro, 
Edward Kenney. He has straight hair, and complexion so white that it 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. oOl ' 

is believed a stranger would suppose there was no African blood in him. 
He was with my boy Dick a short time since in Norfolk, and offered him 
for Sale, and was apprehended, but escaped under pretence of being a 
white man ! " ANDERSON BOWLES." 

Richmond (Va.) Whig. 

A colored man Avho had obtained his freedom, by placing 
the Ohio river between him and his " Master," a liberty which 
he, however, held by a precarious title, though it was previous 
to the enactment of the Fugitive law, was compelled to leave 
his " wife" behind him in bondage. He did not, however, forget 
her. Freedom without her Avas but half enjoyed, while the 
thought of what she was suffering embittered his days. He 
meditated many a scheme for her delivei^ance, which, however, 
he was unable to put into execution. Her " owner" Avas a 
Presbyterian clergyman " in good standing" with his Churcli 
in Louisville, Kentucky. He, however, had no inclination to 
practise that portion of the Gospel which proclaims " deliver- 
ance to the captive," and the enslaved " wife" was held, like 
hundreds of thousands of her fellow-Slaves, in forcible separa- 
tion from her " husband," by one who professed to be a " fol- 
lower of Christ." 

The " husband" of this w^oman was brave and determined, 
and he had a brother, of a spirit like unto his own, wdio was 
also a fugitive from Slavery. The two concerted a plan for 
the deliverance of the " wife." Inasmuch as the brother was 
unknown to the " owner," and would therefore be less likely to 
be intercepted in his enterprise, it was determined that he 
should cross the river, visit the plantation, and attempt her 
rescue. The " husband," meanwhile, was to prepare himself, 
and meet them at the Ferry on the Kentucky side of the river. 
Late on Saturday night the bf other reached the Plantation of 
the clergyman, and on Sabbath morning, just before the time 
for service, it was ascertained that one of the preacher's Slave 
women had fled. The first impulse of the Rev. Doctor was 



302 DOMESTIC AMUSE3IENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

to make instant pursuit himself, but remembering his pulpit 
duties, he mounted his horse, and having given the alarm, and 
started some " well-armed brethren" on the track, he applied 
himself to the duties of the day, preaching in person and hunt- 
ing Slaves by proxy. The fugitives had the advantage of the 
night travel, but the pursuers were mounted, and at the very 
instant when the brother met, and congratulated his "wife" 
and brother on the bank of the river, the " evangelical" horse- 
men in pursuit dashed down to the Ferry, and sprung from 
their horses to secure their prey. They at once remonstrated 
with the Slaves, and spoke of the loicJcedness of stealing them- 
selves from a " minister of Christ." To this the brothers re- 
plied with a contemptuous laugh. 

Large promises of better treatment were made, but this 
made no impression. The hunters enraged, drew their re- 
volvers ; the " husband" and brother coolly presented theirs 
•also, and told them they were also ready to shoot. They stood 
close by a small skiff used at the Ferry, its bows just clinging 
to the shore. The Slaves facing their pursuers, and with 
pistols presented, Avith the "wife" behind them, marched back- 
ward to the boat. Tlie woman and brother seated themselves, 
and the " husband" stepped in and shoved off. The water was 
shallow, and a Kentuckian rushed forward and seized her bow, 
and attempted to drag it back to the shore, but a bullet fiom 
the brother's pistol grazing the top of his head, stunned him 
for an instant ; he seized once more the boat, when the " hus- 
band" shot him through the breast, and he fell, while the boat 
was shoved rapidly into the river, in the midst of a volley of 
shots. 

The wounded hunter was placed in a house near the Ferrv, 
and seemed to be rapidly approaching his end. Tlie next 
morning the reverend trafficker in human flesh hurried to the 
scene. He found that his Slave had, indeed, escaped, and that 
his hired pursuer was mortally wounded. Finding that noth- 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. oOo 

ing could be accomplislied by remaining, he gave liis friend 
some "excellent counsel" about "life's uncertainties," and 
departed. The Slave hunter, of course, went to heaven, the 
final abode of all good Slave catchers, and their defenders. 
Had he not obeyed the Lord's will in carrying out, to the 
utmost of his ability, the duty to curse the wretched seed of 
Ilam ? Had he not spent the Sabbath in this holy business 
of fulfilling prophecy ? Did he not depart in expectation 
that the Slaveholder, Abraham, would reach out his arms and 
welcome him to glory ? No Abolitionists in heaven ! No 
Nigger-stealers in Abraham's bosom ! 

" Thou shalt not deliver unto his master the sei'vant which is 
escaped from his master unto thee : he shall dwell with thee, 
even among you, in that place which he shall choose in one of 
thy gates, where it liketh him best : thou shalt not oppress him." 

A party of men, three of whom were Kentuckians from 
MH>on and Fleming counties, recently passed through New 
Petersburg, Ohio, in pursuit of three Slaves, the " property" of 
one of the hunters, named Pierce, and another "owner." It 
seems that they had information from a Pro-Slavery Doctor of 
DivHiity in Ohio, which put them " on the track," and led 
them to believe that the Slaves were on the route through New 
Petersburg to Greenfield, but they had not yet crossed Rattle- 
snake Creek, which runs about a mile east of Petersburg. 
From Petersburg there are two roads leading to Greenfield, 
one of which crosses the creek over a bridge, and the other by 
a ford half a mile further up. Three of the hunters stationed 
themselves at the bridge, and two at the ford, and awaited the 
coming of the Slaves. The hunters at the bridge had not 
waited long, when the Slaves, two men and a woman, made 
their appearance, escorted by a white man and a boy, as guides. 
As soon as they were fairly within the bridge, Avhich is a 
covered one, the Kentuckians sprang upon them and a des- 
perate fight ensued. The fugitives were armed with guns, 
pistols, and knives, and fought with the utmost energy and 



304 DOMESTIC AaiUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

desperation. The battle lasted for nearly an hour. The re- 
sult was, that one of the Slaves was captured, after being shot 
and cut up in a most shocking manner. The others escaped. 
Pierce, the " owner" of the captured Slave, was " done up 
brown." The desperate character of the affray may be judged 
from the fact that the broken britch of a gun and pistol was 
found on the spot, and the place was covered with blood. 

The Editor of The Oberlin (Ohio) Times, speaking of the 
death and burial of a fugitive Child, which occurred a short 
time since in that village, says : " We were present last Sab- 
bath afternoon at one of the most affecting scenes that has ever 
occuiTcd in our town. Many of our friends were not, and 
perhaps a brief sketch of the exercises may not be uninterest- 
ing to many, although it can not convey the impression made 
upon the minds of eye-witnesses. The audience, as usual, 
was large, numbering, at a low estimate, two thousand souls. 
After an able and truly eloquent sermon from Prof. Thome, 
founded on the words, ' Jesus wept,' it was announced to the 
congregation that the Funeral exercise of a little slave hoy 
would take place after service, and those of the congregation 
who chose to remain in the Church could do so. Tlie entire 
audience remained. The Corpse was then brought in, and 
the mourners took their seats in front of the pulpit. They 
consisted of the gentleman and his wife at whose house the 
little one had died the day before, and also a young lady — 
' Dorcas' — who had watched over the little sufferer with a 
tenderness and self for getfulness that toe fear is thought less of 
on earth than in Heaven. Prof Peck, who took charge of the 
funeral, then remarked : 

" ' My friends, we meet this afternoon under ' peculiar' cir- 
cumstances, to pay our respects to the lifeless form of what, 
according to the Laws of the United States is, at most, a ' chat- 
tel.' The brief history of this little Child is simply this. He 
was the son of his ' Master,' his mother being a Slave. Two 



DOMESTIC AMDSKMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 305 

years since, when llie little one was three years old, his mother 
dying, left him to the care of a fellow Slave. The ' husband' 
of this caretaker was sold South, and she then determined to 
flee. A few weeks since she left her hut in Kentucky, and 
took with her seven of her children, hut forgot not tlie promise 
made to the dying one ! She folded it to her hosom mid gave 
it frotection with her oivn. The weather was damp and cold, 
the travelling was bad, and close at hand and hard after, was 
the ' Master,' the father of the little boy, in hot pursuit, to drag 
back to the prison-house his own offspring. The poor woman, 
with her precious charge, arrived here, and escaped the 
clutches of the Slaveholder, but fatigue and cold had done its 
work upon the little boy, and .he was left to die among 
strangers. After a week's suffering he has gone to a Court 
that knows no ' Compromise Measures,' or ' Fugitive Slave 
Law.' What a commentary on the ' institution' of Slavery is 
this. A father huntiitgjiis own son to doom him to the prison- 
house of Slavery! Can anything be more abominable? 
Look at the corpse of this little one ! I thank God that seven 
hundred young people are assembled in this place to be in- 
structed, and may we not hope that all of you will be found 
on the side of Justice and Humanity — that no one of you 
will yield to the ' Slave-power,' and thus degrade your nature ? 
Cursed be the hand that shall be raised to help the miserable 
wretch who comes to tear away the poor and stricken ones 
frdm all life holds dear and sacred, and consign them to the 
awful doom of Slavery.' 

" At this point in the Doctor's address our pencil would not 
write — our heart was in the Coffin with the little fellow, or it 
had gone (on a fool's errand in the ' Model Republic') to seek 
an altar to Liberty to renew its vows to her. 

" Professor Thome, following, said : ' My friends there is 
more than ordinary interest connected with this case. I feel, 
as I have observed my brethren feel, a sentiment struggling in 



306 DOMESTIC AMUSEMEIvTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

my breast for utterance, a sentiment that I can not fully ex- 
press. A motherless babe is left with us to be unwept — a 
victim of that atrocious system of 'chattel' Slavery. And yet 
it is not in view of this single case alone that our sympathies 
are drawn out. It is for the millions of helpless sufferers that 
this one comes-to represent. It conjures them up before us! 
They hover around us ! They ask us to remember their 
wrongs — the wi'ongs of two hundred and fifty years inflicted 
upon their race by American ' Democrats !' and to look along 
down the dark future, and weep for the •woes of millions — yet 
unborn. My young friends, no better occasion could be fur- 
nished 3''ou, than is granted you tu-day in the Sanctuary of 
the Religion of Jesus Christ, to gather around this Coffin and 
swear eternal allegiance to the interests of Humanity, and 
ceaseless hostility to Slavery !' 

" His remarks to the friends who had taken care of the de- 
ceased were extremely affecting. We can not attempt to give 
them. He concluded : ' Let that Grave be a Sacred spot. 
Plant there the flower, to be watered by the tears of the future 
visiter. Erect a Monument to the Memory of the little Slave 
boy, bearing the inscription ' Resurgam !' and believe that as 
certainly as this little one shall rise again, so surely is it written 
on the ' institution' of Slavery, ' it shall fall !' ' 

"The day with its Sabbath stillness — the place, a Christian 
Church, sacred to Civil and Religious freedom — the large 
congregation of young people preparing for active public life 
— the effect of a Sermon representing so clearly the Son of 
God as identifying himself with Human suffering — the sweet 
innocence of the poor, hunted little boy — all contributed to 
make common words eloquent, and eloquent words almost 
divine. We could but wish, from our inmost heart, that the 
father of that little boy and every Slaveholder and trafficker 
in the flesh and blood of their fellow-men in the American 
Republic were present. 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES, 307 

"After the exercises at the Church, a large company went 
to the Grave and gave' the little fugitive a pernianeut home. 
Then by its side — poor Child ! were sung the following 
verses, composed by a heart that loves and feels for the 
crushed and bleeding race : — 

" ' Shielded by an Almighty arm, 

Thy griefs and sufferings now are o'er ; 
Beyond the reach of "tyrant's harm, 
Freed spirit, rest for evermore ! 

" 'Lone little wanderer, now no more 

'Mid stranger hearts to seek for love, 
Thou'st gained thy home, thy native shore 
And boundless love thy bliss will prove. 

" ' Thy Father called thee, suffering one, .. 
He knew and felt thy untold grief, 
To him complexions all are one, 
He died alike for their relief. 

*' ' Thy Angel-mothcr waits her child. 

Without a pang she'll bless thee now; 
She fears no scenes of danger wild. 

There's heavenly calmness on her brow.' " 

On the 1st of August, 1855, there arrived in Delav/are, 
Ohio, six runaway Slaves — a man and his " wife" and four 
children. They were taken to Church and placed behind a 
screen. During the service, a clergyman made some eloquent 
and touching remarks on the horrors of Slavery, and then 
drew the curtain, not only in language, but in reality. " There," 
said he, " is a specimen of the fruits of the infernal system of 
Slavery, as practised in the ' great Republic' " The audience 
were surprised and horror-stricken. Eyes were filled with 
tears, and money was at once contributed to pay their way, 
by the " Underground Railroad," to Canada. 

The Cincinnati Gazette, o\' i\\e 29th of January, 185G, says: 



308 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

"A party of seventeen Slaves escaped from Boone and Ken- 
ton counties" (sixteen miles from the Ohio river), " Kentucky, 
on Sunday night last, and taking with them two horses and a 
sled, drove that night to the Ohio river, opposite Western 
Row, 'in this City. Leaving the horses and sled standing 
there, they crossed the river on foot on the ice. Five of them 
were the Slaves of Archibald K. Gaines, three of John Mar- 
shall, both living in Boone county, a short distance beyond 
Florence, and six of ' Misther L. F. Dougherty,' of Kenton 
county. We have not learned who claims the other three. 
About seven o'clock this morning the owners and agents ar- 
rived in })ursuit. They swore out a warrant before J. L. Pen- 
dery. United States Commissioner, which was put into the 
hands of Deputy United States Marshal Geo. S. Bennet, who 
obtained infc)rmation that they were in a house belonging to a 
son of Joe Kite, the thii-d- house beyond Mill-creek. The son 
of Kite was formerly owned in the neighborhood from which 
they had escaped, and was bought from Slavery by his father. 

"About ten o'clock the Deputy United States Marshal pro- 
ceeded there with his. posse, including the Slave-owners and 
their agents and ' Misther Murphy,' an extensive Slaveholder. 
On the Slaves being ordered to surrender, a firm and decided 
negative was the response. The officers, backed by a large 
crowd of Cotton-Brokers, Dry-Goods Jobbers, Sugar and To- 
bacco dealers, and other persons, ' doing business with the 
Slave States,' then made a descent. Breaking open the doors, 
they were assailed by the Slaves with pistols and cudgels. 
Several shots were tired, but only one took effect, so far as we 
could ascertain. A bullet struck a man named John Patter- 
son, one of the Marshal's Deputies, cutting off a finger of his 
right hand, and dislocating several of his teeth. 

" On looking around, horrible was the sight which met our 
eyes. In one corner of the room was a Slave-child bleeding 
to death. His throat was cut from ear to ear, and the blood 



DOMESTIC AMUSEEENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 309 

was spouting out profusely, showing that the deed was but re- 
cently committed. Scarcely was this fact noticed, when a 
scream issuing from an adjoining room drew attention tliither. 
A glance into the apartment revealed a Slave-mother holding 
in her hand a knife literally di'ipping with gore, over the 
heads of two of her children, who were crouched to the floor 
and uttering the cries whose agonized peals had fii-st startled 
them. Quickly the knife was wrenched from the hand of the 
mother, and a more close investigation instituted as to the con- 
dition of the childi'en. They were discovered to be cut in 
several places and the blood trickled down their backs and 
upon their sleeves. 

" The woman avowed herself the Mother of the children, and 
said she had killed one, and would like to kill the other three, 
rather than see them returned to Slavery. On being asked 
whether she would rather go back to bondage or be tried for 
murder, with a chance of being hanged, she said : 

" ' Rather than go back to Slavery, I would go Dancing to the Gallows.'. 

" To the inquiry if she was not excited almost to madness 
when she committed the act : ' No,' she replied, '/ was as cool 
as I now am; and would much rather kill them at once, and 
thus end their sufferings, than have them taken back to Slavery, 
and be murdered by piecemeal.^ " 

But this poor heart-broken Mother did not have an oppor- 
tunity to " go Dancing to the Gallows." The United States 
Judge (Leavitt) decided that if a runaway Slave commits 
a murder in the State of Ohio, the Slaveholder's claim takes 
precedence over Ohio latv, and the murderer must be delivered 
up into bondage, and the Laws of Ohio trodden undoi- the hoof 
of the Slave-Power ! 

John Joliffe, Esq., of Cincinnati, defended the Slave-mother 
through the arduous struggle, without the slightest hope of re- 
ward. Several citizens, however, of Cincinnati, appreciating 



olO DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

such noble conduct, contributed a handsome sum, and present- 
ed it to him as a Testimonial of regard for his humane efforts, 
with an appropriate letter. Among the names of the Com- 
mittee, signing this letter, was that of Samuel Straight, a 
member of the house of Straight, Demming & Co., wholesale 
grocers. Hereupon some " dear lover of the Union," and of 
"good customers," marked the letter in The Cincinnati 
Gazette, and sent it to sundry Southern firms dealing with 
Cincinnati, whence it elicited the following response : — 

" Nashville, March 6, 1856. 
" To Messrs. Straight, Demming ^ Co., Cincinnati : — 

" Gentlemen : We notice in The Cincinnati Gazette, of the 1st inst., 
a letter addressed to Mr. John JolitFe, tenderinrc hira sympathy, and re- 
munerating him, pecuniarily, for his defence of fugitive Slaves, to which 
we observe the name of S. Straight attached. From our former pleasant 
business correspondence with you, we feel at liberty to ask you if this 
Mr. S. Straight is a member of your firm, and if his name was placed to 
that letter by his own free will and accord, and if that letter expres- 
ses his views upon the subjects therein discussed. A prompt reply is 
respectfully solicited. Yours, respectfully, 

"HART, MACRAE & CO., " S. N. HOLLINGSWORTH, 
"B. LANIER & CO., " MERRIT S. PITCHER, 

"B. W. MACRAE & CO., "LANIER & PHILLIPS, 
"ROBB & SMITH." 

To this inquiry, Mr. Straight very courteously replied, ad- 
mitting that he was a signer of the letter in question, but ex- 
plaining that its phraseology was not chosen l)y him, and did 
not precisely express his views, and trusting that " the free ex- 
pression of views conscientiously cherished'^ would not be 
deemed offensive by his Southern customers. But this " soft 
answer" did not turn away the wrath of the Nashvilliaris. 
Hear them : — 

"Nashville, March 24, 1856. 
" S. Straight, Esq., Cincinnati : ***** You say you are unable 
to divine the objects of our favor of the 6th inst. One of our objects was 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 311 

to afford you a fair opportunity to disclaim, excuse, or juslifij your parti- 
cipancji in the presentation letter to Mr. Joliffe. Some of us iiave been in 
pleasant business correspondence witii you for several years, in which 
position we could not conscientiously remain, provided you answered our 
questions in the aflirmativc ; and as you have done so, we here take 
occasion to say, that though we grant you the fullest privilege in regard 
to freedom of thought and expression of cherished views, we, as South- 
ern merchants, possessing the same free privileges as yourself, can not 
longer contribute to sustain by our patronage a merchant, however cor- 
rect as such he may be, who entertains views so hostile to institutions 
which we cherish" (that is, Slavery and Polygamy), "and have been 
reared up from childhood to look upon as the most sacred rights guaran- 
tied by the Constitution of the United States." 

A " new beauty" of the infamous Fugitive Slave Law, of 
1850, was developed in the trial of this Slave-mother: that 
while the Government, at Washington, will pay the fees of 
witnesses who testify in favor of the kidnappers, it is its prac- 
tice to refuse compensation to all witnesses who testify in be- 
half of the freedom of the alleged Slave. 

The Cincinnati (Ohio) Freeman, of the 7th August, 1856, 
says : " On Monday last, a mother and a son, haggard with 
long travel, crossed the river, en route for Canada. The 
bloodhounds, two-legged and four-legged, were after them. 
The boy was remarkably handsome ; his mild, bright eyes 
were full of intelligence, his head was finely shaped, and the 
curling ringlets of auburn hair that clustered about his brow 
were extremely beautiful. The mother was a woman some- 
what darker than her son, of great intelligence and energy. 
She was a Christian mother tlying, wtin tier chua, trom itie 
demon of Slavery." 

" Wicked laws," says the Rev. George B. Cheever, " are 
no excuse for personal wickedness, nor any apology for dis- 
obedience to God. They are not to be obeyed, but. on the 
contrary, denounced and rejected ; and only by being thus 
faithful to God can a people keep their freedom. And while 
it shows that a people are on the high road to ruin who will 



312 DOMESTIC AMUSEilENTS IN THE SLATE STATES. 

suff(?r and obey wicked Statutes, it also shows the terrific re- 
sponsibility and wickedness of those who concoct and endeavor 
to enforce such Statutes, and who set the example of such in- 
iquity. If there he a lower pit in hell than any other, such 
men will, beyond all question, occupy it, along with those who 
have put out or concealed the lights of God's Word, and have 
put up false lights to lure men to perdition. It is such as 
these, whom God gives judicially over to a reprobate mind, to 
be filled with all unrighteousness, who, knowing the judgment 
of God, that they who commit such things are worthy of 
death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that 
do them. 

"Nothing can go beyond this wickedness. It is a fountain 
sin, a germinating sin, an accumidating and nndtiplying sin, 
a sin that causes others to sin, a sin that enlarges from- genera- 
tion to generation all the way into the eternal world. If it 
brings a million of souls under its power this year, it may 
bring two millions the next ; this generation ten, the next gen- 
eration twenty, the next forty. ' Cursed be he that maketh 
the blind to wander out of the way, and all the people shall 
say. Amen !' But he that strikes out the eyesight of a whole 
nation, that obliterates the law of justice and humanity, and 
sets in its place Statutes of injustice and inhumanity, and thus 
compels a nation, so blinded, to wander in iniquity, what shall 
be said of such a monster ? "What curse is heavy enough for 
such an incarnation of malignity, or what curse can measure 
in retribution the dreadful consequences of such crime ?" 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 313 



CHAPTER II. 

" This is a people robbed and spoiled ; they are all of them snared in 
Holes, and they are hid in Prison-houses ; they are for a prey, and none 
delivereth ; for a spoil, and none saith, Restore." 

" The glorious tree of American liberty," says Tlie Colum- 
lia (S. C.) Telegraph, "is springing up everywhere, and the 
benighted Nations of Europe will recline — one of these days 
— in its shade. Our example is contagious." 

In another column, of the same number of The Telegraph, 
the Editor says : " Let us declare that Slavery shall not be 
open for discussion ; that the system is too deep-rooted among 
us, and must remain for ever ; that the moment anybody at- 
tempts to lecture us upon its immoralities —in the same mo- 
ment his or her tongue: shall he cut out and cast upon the dung- 
hill. Let us, with the friends of freedom and Justice every- 
where, make common cause against all disorganizing influ- 
ences, isms, and invasions of the glorious principles of the 
Constitution of our highly-favored country." 

Nothing could be more fitted to create contempt for a Re- 
publican form of Government, than such barefaced and shame- 
less hiconsistency. The Roman Republic feared death from 
the advance of barbarians ; the North American Republic 
fears it from the retreat of " Niggers," ninety-nine- in a hun- 
dred of whom are the Children of her own loins. 

U 



iiii DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE 8TATB3. 

"Ran aivay from the subscriber, in November last, a Negro man, 
iibout 35 years of age ; height about 5 feet 8 or 10 inches , has blue eyes, 
liellow hair, very fair skin, pariicularly under his clothes. Said Negro 
was raised in Columbia, S. C, and is well known by the name of Dick 
M. Frazicr." (See p. 211.) "He was lately known to be working on 
the Railroad in Alabama, near Moore's Turnout, and passed as a white 
man by the name of Joseph Tears. I will give a reward of two hundred 
dollars for his delivery in any jail so that I can get him ; and I will give 
five hundred dollars for sufficient proof to convict, in open court, any 
man who took him away " J. D. ALLEN." 

"Baknwell Court-House, S. G." 

7''he Montgomery (Ala.) Advertiser, of the 13th December, 
1856, says: "Under our Telegraph head will be found the 
startling intelligence of a Slave insurrection in South Caro- 
lina. To what extent the insurrectionary spirit of the Slave 
population of the State extends, we are not apprized. We 
trust it is confined to a small extent of country, but our fears 
are for the worst. For years past Northern emissaries have 
been in our midst tampering with our Slaves. We have too 
often suffered them to depart unhung. Simply tarring and 
ejecting an Abolitionist is but a child's remedy ; and so far 
from its having the effect to stop his mischief, it will only case- 
harden and make him worse. Hang them when you catch 
them in your midst. Your self-preservation, the security of 
yourselves and families, and the perpetuity of the institution 
itself, demand that the life of an Abolition emissary should 
pay the forfeit of his temerity. Wherever you catch an 
Abolitionist, there let him find his grave." 

While Mr. Core, a planter, of Fayette county, South Caro- 
lina, was on his plantation, a short distance from his residence, 
he perceived, approaching him from the woods, a stout, able- 
bodied runaway Slave. Mr. Core awaited his approach, 
thinking he belonged to one of his neighbors, and had been 
sent upon, some errand. He came boldly up to Mr. C, and 
accosted him thus : " Your name is Core ; I am a runaway 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 315 

and have long wished to have a conversation with you. I do 
not f'eai- being apprehended — I am well armed" (exhibiting a 
brace of Pistols and a Bowie-knife) — "but I have long want- 
ed to see you." 

Mr. Core, doubting the propriety of attempting to arrest 
hira, as he was alone, concluded he would question him about 
two runaways, who had been gone some time, and asked him 
if he knew them, and when he had seen them. The fugitive 
promptly replied, that he did know them, and volunteered to 
assist Mr. C. in arresting them, and told him, " if he would 
meet him alone, at the same place, the next day, he would 
carry him where he could arrest both, as they had been very 
troublesome to him, and he wanted to get i-id of them." Mr. 
Core promised to meet him at the place and time appointed ; 
but, instead of going alone, he took with him his Overseer, 
and another man, and secreted them, armed Avith double- 
parrelled guns, in the vicinity of the place of meeting. 

At the appointed time the fugitive made his appearance, but 
instead of finding Mr. C. alone, found the two men with their 
guns levelled upon him. He at once surrendered, and gave 
up his weapons, begging them not to hand-cuff or tie him, as 
he wanted to be taken, and was tired of staying out, having 
been in the woods long enough ; and he belonged to a man in 
Alabama, and that he would still go with them and show them 
the two runaways as he had promised. They concluded to 
trust him, and all four proceeded in company to an old deserted 
cabin close by. Upon approaching it he informed his captors 
that their runaway "property" was in it — that if they would 
suffer him to approach the cabin first, as soon as they entered 
the door he might close it up, and thus capture them with his 
assistance. They agreed to this plan, and he proceeded cau- 
tiously toward the cabin, and as he entered the door beckoned 
to them to rush up. They did so ; but lo and behold ! they 
perceived a back window, through which their prisoner had 



3lG DOMESTIC ASrUSEMENTS IN THE SLAA'E STATES. 

jumped, and mounting Mr. Core's horse, made good his 
escape.* 

The Rev. Edward Mathews, an agent of the American Free 
Mission Society, recently visited Richmond, IMadison County, 
Kentucliy, and took occasion to advocate from the pulpit Anti- 
Slavery sentiments, after which he was assailed hy a mob, and 
driven from the town. Returning in a short time, he left a 
comrrlunication respecting the transaction at the office of The 
Richmond Chronicle, and again departed, but had not gone far 
before he was overtaken by four men, who seized him, and 
led him to an out-of-the-way place, where they consulted as to 
what they should do with him. They resolved to duck him, 
ascertaining first that he could swim. Two of them took him 

* The Macon "Telegraph" gives us a description of an under- 
ground den in which such runaways hide : — 

"A runaway's den was discovered on Sunday near the Washington 
Spring, in a little patch of woods, where it had been for several 
months, so artfully concealed under ground that it was detected only 
by accident, though in sight of two or three houses, and near the 
road and fields where there has been constant passing. The entrance 
was concealed by a pile of pine straw, representing a hog-bed — 
which being removed, discovered a trap-door and steps that led to a 
room about six feet square, comfortably ceiled with plank, containing a 
small fireplace, the flue of which was ingeniously concealed in the 
straw. The inmates took the alarm and made their escape f but Mr. 
Adams and his excellent dogs, being put upon the trail, soon ran 
down and secured one of them, which proved to be a negro fellow 
who had been out about a year." 

Hurrah for the "excellent dogs" of the excellent Mr. Adams! 

Doubtless some people say, "What a fool the nigger was, to live 
in such a miserable place, when he might have had ' enough and 
to spare' if he had stayed with his master!'' So he might; but it is 
a noteworthy fact that some other people are so fond of liberty as 
to take it under any circumstances they can get it. AYe are told in 
the eleventh chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews, that some ex- 
cellent persons, "of whom the world was not worthy," lived in 
"dens and caves of the earth." 



DOHESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 31 7 

and threw him into a pond, as far as tliey could, and on his 
rising on the surface, bade hil»i come out. lie did so, and on 
his refusing to promise never to come to Richm'ond, they threw 
him in again. This operation was repeated four times, when 
he yielded. They next demanded of him a promise that he 
would leave Kentucky, and never return again. He refused 
to give it, and they threw him in the water again, when, his 
strength failing, and they threatening to shoot him, he gave 
the pledge required, and left the State. 

On the 16th of June, 1855, evidence was obtained that a 
Mr. Pullam, of Garrard county, had induced some Slaves to 
runaway. Accordingly a warrant was issued by a J\Iagistrate 
of Bryan tsville for his arrest. The constable, with five assist- 
ants, went to the field where he was working and arrested him. 
They started to return, but after progressing a short dj^stance 
the prisoner broke away. He outran the officer and his posse, 
and the constable seeing his prize about to escape, fired a pistol, 
hitting him on the back. He instantly fell, screaming with 
pain, but just as the pursuing party came up, he arose and fled 
toward the river. Coming to a high cliff he fell first about 
seven feet, then ten, and finally over a precipiece thirty feet 
high, making the fall altogether forty-seven feet. 

Pullam seemed endowed with more than mortal vigor, and 
rising, plunged into the river. Nothing has been seen or heard 
of him since. The poor fellow merited a more fortunate end. 
His blood will be found, at the Day of Judgment, on the skirts 
of the Pro-Slavery Churches. 

" Ran Away from the subscriber, at the Gait House, Louisville, a Negro 
Woman named Polly, aged about forty years. She has long auburn hair, 
and a blemish on her right hand, caused by a burn, which stiffens her 
fingers. She has a quantity of good clothing, and most of the time 
dresses in black. Her general appearance is modest and genteel. I will 
give $250 reward for her if taken out of Kentucky, or $100 if in this city 
or State, and secured so that I can get her. 

" MRS. ELLEN A. JAR VIS." 



318 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAYE STATES. 

Long auburn hair, well dressed, modest, and genteel. That 
will do very well. • 

Miss Mary Ci^ibson, another "beautiful Slave girl," escaped 
recently from Marysville, and succeeded in reaching Canada. 
Miss Gibson is as white as any woman in the United States. 
Unless informed of the fact, no one would have the remotest 
suspicion that she had a drop of " colored" blood in her veins. 
Her' eyes are blue, her hair brown, her complexion fair and 
clear. She is very intelligent, and her appearance exceedingly 
prepossessing. The name of the "high-born aristocrat" who 
owned Miss Mary Gibson is not given. The man who 
would keep such a fair chattel should be known, but in default 
of such knowledge, let us imagine a public dinner, and the 
company, with that " chivalrous" man present, and the pro- 
ceedings, at Toast No. 13 : 

" Woman !" (Nine clieers.) 

" 0, woman ! in our hours of ease, 
Uncertain, coy, and hard to please," 
&c., &c., &c. 

(Immense applause, the whole company rising and using 
their glasses, some bi-eaking them.) 

The gallant Colonel Fitz, of Kentucky, being called upon to 
respond to this toast, rises and speaks as follows : 

" Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen : It is a time-honored 
custom to toast ' Woman' at public dinners ; and, what is more, 
to reserve the toast till the close of the feast, when our hearts 
are warmest, and, under the inspiration of jolly Bacchus, 
our feelings mellowest." (Cheers and laughter.) " Woman ! 
what shall not be said in her favor? When too young to 
know love or gi'atitude, who nurtured us at her breast, and 
soothed our helplessness and infant sorrows ?" 

A Voice — "Yer Mother!" (Cheers.) 

"Who ran to lielp me when I stumbled? 
Who raised me gently when I tumbled ? 
Who flogged me soundly when I grumbled ?" 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 319 

A Voice — " Yer Mother !" (Laughter.) 

" When a little older, the first beam of divine feeling comes 
from the rainbow of undefined passion which overarches our 
existence, even in the dawn of youth." (Applause and dis- 
order.) " Then in our days of ripened passion, what makes 
the stars shine, the floweret perfume, the grove vocal — what 
makes life worth the toil of existence but the love of woman ! 

" Who sewed the buttons on my shirt V 

A Voice — " Yer Wife!" (Cheers and laughter.) 
" how poor, how mean is our boasted ambition, our public 
honors, our private labors, without her smile !" (Applause and 
hiccoughs.) " But how doubly, trebly, quadruply blest, are 
we in this 'land of liberty,' where alone Woman is respected 
and protected by the law ! Look at Europe, and you find her 
ever and evei-y where doomed to the coarsest toils. War's 
greatest martyrs, and the shame of Peace ! She plows, digs, 
delves, carries loads, plays scavenger, and is habitually pros- 
tituted. But in our glorious country — the 'land of the free 
and the home of the brave' — Woman first finds a place due 
her honor, nobility, and tenderness. Here she is respected. 
Free as virtue can render her, respected, beloved, venerated — • 
this is her paradise." (Cheering and hiccoughing ad libitum.) 
" Go where you will in the thirty-one States, and the Ter- 
ritories (including the District of Columbia) of our glorious 
Republic, and a halo of idolatry encircles her fair brow !" (A 
gentleman who hiccoughs, " All except Niggers.") '' The gen- 
tleman need not correct me — I said^ajr brow." (Great cheer- 
ing and laughter.) '• Woman, Mr. Chaii'raan and gentlemen, 
now and for ever — God bless her !" 

Need we add that, beyond doubt, the gallant Colonel sat 
down amid loud applause, long continued, and that in spite of 
his speech. Miss Mary Gibson found it necessary to run away 
from his proprietorship. 



oW DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

"Si 00 Reward. — Ran away from James Hj'hart, Paris, Ky., the 
boy Norton. Would be taken for a white hoy, if not very clostly ex- 
amined. His hair is black and straight." 

The Indianapolis (Ind.) Journal gives an account of the 
capture of two fugitive Slaves by John Mancourt, conductor 
on the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, and William Mun- 
roe, Adams & Co.'s Express Agent, It seems that the poor 
Slaves had been hunted by bloodhounds on the Kentucky side 
of the river, but had in a desperate fight killed the animals 
ivith knives. They then crossed the river and were wander- 
ing from Sunday night till Friday without provisions. Worn- 
out, ragged, and foot-sore, having had nothing to eat but what 
the orchards and forest trees provided, they despaired of es- 
cape, and hailed the cars. They were taken on board and 
cai'ried to Vernon to the United States Commissioner, and be- 
fore sundown were again in Slavery in Kentucky. 

A native or citizen of a '■'■free State," who would thus vol- 
unteer to restore a fellow-man to bondage, is no better than a 
pirate. 

The Rev. T. B. M'Cormick, of this State (Indiana), was 
suspended in October, 1855, from the functions of the ''Gospel 
ministry," on suspicion of having been concerned in the " un- 
derground railroad" — helping poor fugitives from Slavery, on 
their way to Canada. For this he was compelled to flee from 
his family, and from the '■'■free State" of which he is a citizen, 
to escape arrest under a warrant of Gov. Wright of Indi- 
ana, issued in compliance with a requision of Gov. Powell of 
Kentucky. 

If there are heights of tyranny or dcjjths of servility not yet 
reached by the Slaveocrats and their cringing sycophants, we 
are becomijig curious to learn what they can be. Here is a 
Citizen of a "//-ee State" suspected of no crime but that of as- 
sisting some of his fellow-men to ''secure the blessings of lib- 
erty," by sending them to Canada. This Christian minister, 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 321 

for this " un-Christian conduct," or rather on mere suspicion of 
it, is gravely arraigned and authoritatively " suspended from the 
functions of the Gospel ministry !" This otherwise blameless 
citizen, suspected only of assisting his fellow-citizens to " se- 
cure the blessing of liberty," is placed under the ban of a '■^free 
State" and hunted from off its soil as a felon ! 

The statement of such a case appears more like fiction than 
like reality. A writer even of romance should be criticised 
when his narratives, by being overdrawn, do violence to that 
innate instinct of probability, so necessary to invest fiction with 
the interest of imagined fact. An effort will be required in 
the reader before he can fully realize that the facts of this case 
are facts. He will wish to see, as we have seen, the man him- 
self, and have the attestation from his own lips. He will wish to 
see and handle, as we have done, the Official document, under 
the Seal of the State of Indiana, and signed by her Secretary, 
the attested copy of the indictment of the Kentucky grand jury; 
and the requisition of the Kentucky Governor. The significancy 
of an event like this awaits a full revelation afterward. Judge 
Kane and Passmore Williamson, Gov. Wright and T. B. M'- 
Cormick — names long to be pondered — letters of an alpha- 
bet yet to be mastered, wherewith seeing eyes may divine 
nameless and yet shapeless things. The elements of a fu- 
ture — the cypher of a coming American history may be in 
process of development in these dim beginnings. There is 
much yet to be learned, much yet to be attempted, much yet 
to be achieved. A great nation is to be delivered from the 
fangs of the " evangelical" Pro-Slavery Churches. 

In October, sixteen Slaves, Men, Women, and Children, ar- 
rived in Chicago, Illinois, worn down with fatigue, and sick- 
ened by the exposure which they had undergone in travelling. 
They were not only poor, but destitute, and sought not only 
bread and meat, but that protection and support which they 
had a right to expect from people who profess to be fol- 

14* 



322 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

lowers " of the meek and lowly Je?us," and which neither Turk 
nor Algerine has ever refused to give to weary strangers who 
cast themselves upon their hospitality. Several of tliese per- 
sons had long passed the meridian of life. Four of them were 
fathers, the same number were mothers, and they all possessed 
those earnest affections which are alone developed by that cir- 
cumstance, and which would entitle them to honor and respect 
even among heathens. Two were young men, with strong 
arms and hearts, that throbbed for "liberty." «Two also were 
young girls just in the bud of womanhood. Four were little 
babes, not taken from their mothers' breasts, and entirely 
oblivious to the deep emotion which stirred the fountains 
whence they drew their life. Poor things ! how little did they 
know that the tears which trickled down upon them, and the 
cold and hunger which those mothers had endured for many 
long weary days and nights, were that they should not be torn 
from their hearts and ti^ained up in physical and spiritual pros- 
titution. 

If the angels of Heaven who had never heard of the Pro- 
Slavery Churches or the "lower law" D. D. s and LL. D. s, 
could have looked on this little group, hoAv their hearts would 
have exulted in the expectations of seeing the thousands of 
professing " Christian people" who dwell in the city meet them 
as they entered it, and welcome them to their protection and 
hospitality — each one striving to perform those little offices 
of kindness which Christ blessed, saying, " Inasmuch as ye did 
it unto the least of these ye did it unto me." But no ! they 
came into the city when it was dark — when the Churches of 
Cotton-divinity or " lower law" were fast asleep, so that they 
might not be seen by those who were ready to let loose upon 
them the bloodhounds of " the law." Their arrival was not 
heralded abroad but whispered from one to another, as if it 
were a fearful responsibility to know of their presence, and in- 
volving one still more fearful to tender them the aid which 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 323 

their destitute comlition demanded. But their presence did 
become known. The bloodhounds, in human shape, were upon 
their tracks. The Governor of the State, from his higli place, 
had commanded the Military Companies to get ready, with 
swords drawn, bayonets set, and cartridges rammed down, to 
aid the bloodhound minions of a bastard Democracy to take 
and bind these helpless way-worn and sick fugitives, and send 
them — where, and what for? The men and fathers, who had 
toiled, early and late, all their lives for their self-constituted 
" Masters," were wanted to toil more. The mothers who had 
scrubbed, washed, baked, and drudged from infancy, and who 
had given birth to children that had been taken from them 
and sold at Auction in order to fill their " Masters' " pockets, 
were v\ anted to scrub and drudge the remainder of their days, 
and to give bii'th to more babes to sell to the Mississippi, 
Louisiana, and Nebraska speculators in Human cattle, or to 
the libertine, just as the demands of the one or the other pre- 
ponderated. 

The young men were also " wanted" for Slaves that their 
*' Master's" cupidity might be gratified. And the young wo- 
men, with their full round forms, their bright orange-colored 
faces, deep black eyes, pouting lips, and gently cui'ling tresses 
■ — what were the two-legged bloodhounds so anxious to take 
them for?* And those little babes — helpless little creatures, 
whom the Saviour requested* might be permitted to come unto 
him, because of such was the Kingdom of Heaven — the}', too, 
were " wanted," that they might be torn from their mothers' 
hearts, and turned over to the Auctioneer like so many pigs or 

* The Author of the " South-Side View of Slavery" sa,js, at p. 87, that 
"the only object of the Slaves in running away is to form a neic adulter- 
ous marriage," While hxws exist to punish swindling in the sale of a bo- 
gus watch, we do not see why there should not be laws to punish the 
"g^tter-up" of a book intended to deceive. But so it is. The world 
has got into its head that laws to punish lying iu the " eyangelical" Pro- 
Slavery Churches are unnecessary. ^ 



324 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

calves for the butcher's shambles. And it was for this that 
the Governor of the "/ree State" of Illinois issued his mandate, 
and that the National Guards, commanded by a " good Demo- 
crat," one " Misther Thomas Shirely," paraded the streets of 
Chicago with the " Star-spangled Banner" flying, their bayonets 
set, and their muskets charged with powder and ball, ready to 
shoot down all persons who might dare to interfere between 
the ravisher and his victim ! Brave men ! voluntarily becom- 
ing parties to the ravishment that was sought to be accom- 
plished ! — standing by, with the United States flag flying, and 
swords drawn to compel the victim to submit ! 

We have not learned words that suflftciently express our 
detestation of the 7nen — mankind, forgive the insult! — who 
thus lend themselves to the capture of Women and little 
Children, that they might be consigned to physical and moral 
prostitution. It was an act of meanness, so atrocious in every 
light by which it caa be viewed, that it has no parallel in the 
history of the most brutish nation of the antediluvian world ; 
and if men's spirits pervaded their bodies, the worms that 
feast and riot with luxury upon a dead dog would turn from 
the carcass of the Slave-breeder with loathing and disgust. 

Had any person asserted that there was a single individual 
in Chicago who would lend his aid, directly or indirectly, in 
hunting down modest young women, that they might he debauched 
hy force, or in tearing little babies from their mothers' breasts, 
to be sold — where, and to whom, God only knows — the citi- 
zens Avould have repelled it as the veriest libel that ever was 
perpetrated. But, alas! the National Guards — National? — 
God forbid — showed that tht^y, like their brethren of Boston, 
Mass., in the case of Anthony Burns, were infinitely below 
the point we had thought poor weak humanity could reach. 

" We have just met," says the Chicago Fi-ee Press, " with 
another white American Slave-mother. We could detect no 
trace of African characteristics about her. Her employment 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 325 

in South Carolina — tlie land of 'chivalry' — was that of a 
Field-hand. Her patience held out until her last child was 
sold to satisfy the claims of her 'Master's' creditors, when, to save 
herself from the like calamity, she set her face Canada-ward." 

In December, 1855, an attempt was made by a Slaveholder, 
to bribe the Chief of Police of Montreal, Canada, to aid in 
enticing to " the other side of the river" an unfortunate " chat- 
tel" who had escaped from bondage. It seems that the ill 
success attending the efforts of this Southern specimen of 
humanity has not had the effect of deterring others from 
making similar ventures. 

Mrs. Sylvia Young, a "colored" woman — now residing 
with Mr. Thomas, of the Shakespeare Restaurant, Stratford, 
Canada, was formerly the " property" of a lady of the name 
of Dustin. Mrs. Young is an excellent cook, and in the Slave 
States of the " Model Republic," where such " property" is an 
article of merchandise, would have sold for about $1,300. 
The woman, Dustin, got married to a fellow, named Stewart, 
and removed to Chicago. Stewart, like a " good Democrat," 
then thought of looking after his wife's runaway " property," 
and, putting their heads together, they hit upon what they, 
doubtless, conceived to be a cunningly-devised scheme, to be 
rewarded with success. Accordingly in pursuance of their 
plan, the wife addressed a letter to her runaway " chattel" or 
Human cow, of which the following is a copy : — 

" Chicago, Illinois, December 23, 1855. 
" Sylvia : You see, from the date of my letter, that I have changed 
my place of residence. We have been living here about four months ; 
we like the place very much. I at first thought I would not answer your 
letter at all, but the children seemed so anxious to see you and liear from 
yon again, that I have consented to wi'ite to you and make a proposition, 
and let j'our feelings and judgment decide for you. You say you ai'e 
happy. I can not think one with your strong feelings can be happy so 
far from your relations and native home. Now, if you are disposed to 
come here — which is a short journej^ — and live \\\t\\ me, and serve me . 



326 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

faithfully two years, I will give you your free papers. Then you will be 
at liberty to settle among your old friends, and not be compelled to 
confine yourself to Canada. Write to me and let me know what you 
think of my proposal. Besides, Sylvia, you know you will, in a few 
years, at farthest, inherit considerable from your father. 1 do not wish to 
persuade you against joux will ; but, located in a strange place, I would 
be glad to have the services of one that understands my ways as well as 
you do. The children all send their love. " Your friend, 

"E. G. DUSTDJ." 

On the same day that the above ingenious and loving letter 
arrived, Mr. Townsend, Chief-Constable of Stratford, received 
a very different communication from her husband, W. G. 
Stewart, proprietor of the Boone House, corner of Clarke and 
Jackson streets, Chicago, Illinois : — 

" Chicago, Illinois, Monday, Dec, 24, 1855. 
" Chief-Constable — Sir: I enclose you a letter from a runaway 
Slave, who belongs to my wife as well as myself, late residents of Louis- 
ville, Kentucky. You see what she says about going to Cincinnati. / 
want to catch her there! If you will put her into my possession there, or 
in the custody of the State Marshal in that city, so that I can secure her, 
/ will pay you the sum of $200. Should you feel disposed to act in this 
matter, it would be necessary for my wife and self to be in Cincinnati at 
the time she would be there. You might follo.w her on to that city and 
trace her to where she would stop, and if you could notify me to be there, 
1 would do the rest, and pay you the $200. 

" W. G. STEWAET." 

Mr. Touiisend, very properly, handed this letter to the 
magistrate of the town, and wrote Stewart an evasive reply, 
so as to induce him to visit Canada, in order to secure his 
missing " property." Had he done Stratford tlie honor of 
visiting it, he would have " caught" something which he would 
have had good cause for remembering to the last hour of his 
villanous life. 

"Bloodhounds! I would respectfully inform the citizens of Mis- 
souri that I still have my Nigger Dogs, and that they lu-e in prime train 



DO:\rESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 327 

inj;, and ready to attend to all calls of Hunting and Catchina; runaway 
J^iggers, at the following rates : Hunting per day $5, or if I have to 
travel, every day will be charged for, in going and returning, as for hunt- 
ing, and at the same rates. Not less than five dollars will be charged in 
any case where the Niggers come in before I reach the place. From $>\5 
to $2.5 will be cliarged for catching; according to the trouble; if the 
Nigger has weapons, the charge will be made according to the difficulty 
had in taking him, or in case he kills some of the Dogs, the charge will 
not be governed by the above rates. I am explicit to prevent any mis- 
understanding. The owner of the Nigger to pay all expenses in all cases. 
I venture to suggest to any person having a Nigger runaway, that the 
better plan is to send for the Dogs forthwith when the Nigger goes oif, if 
they intend sending at all, and let no other person go in the direction, if 
they know which way the runaway went ; as many persons having other 
Niggers to hunt over the track, and failing of success, send for the Dogs, 
and then, perhaps, fail in consequence to catch then- Nigger, and thus 
causelessly fault the Dogs. Terras cash. If the money is not paid at 
the time the Nigger hunted for is caught, he will be held bound for the 
money. I can be found at home at all times, five and a half miles east 
of Lexington, except when professionally engaged — in hunting with 
the Dogs. "JOHN LONG." 

Lexington (Mo.) Democratic Advocate, Feb. 14, 1855. 

In April, 1856, a female Slave of a Mr. Pond, living near 
Palmyra, Missouri, ran away, and, after several days' search, 
she was captured on the Ferryboat crossing from Missouri to 
Quincy, Illinois. She had been kept at the house of a Mr. 
Davids, a German, in Palmyra, for a few days, and brought 
from thence by a Mr. Scheible, another German, to the Ferry- 
boat opposite Quincy. When she was taken back to Palmyra, 
both Germans were imprisoned. Upon the examination of 
Scheible, he swore that he did not know the girl loas a Slave, 
OS she was as white as any woman in the State. Several 
gentlemen were called on the witness stand, who testified that 
they had seen her while she was at Davids, and thought 
she was a genuine white woman. After a three days' trial 
Scheible was discharged, on the ground of his ignorance of her 
being a Slave ; hut '"'■ ha iouuiX it necessary," said the Palmyra 



o2a DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

Whig, " to leave the State forthwith." Davids, it was inti« 
mated, would be sent for five years to the Penitentiary. 

This case presents the true features of the " peculiar insti- 
tution" in a stx^ong light. An honest German brings what he 
supposes to be a white woman in his carriage from Palmyra 
to Quincy. He is suddenly arrested, thrown into prison, held 
up to the community as a " Nigger-stealer," subjected to a 
trial, and would have been sent to the State-prison for five 
years had it not been for the fortunate circumstance that sev- 
eral gentlemen in Palmyra had seei7 the girl, and had the moral 
courage to come into court and testify that they believed her to 
be a white looman ! And even after being discharged, the man, 
for fear of personal violence from the " poor whites" of Pal- 
myra, had to leave the State, because he did not know that a 
white woman was a " "Nigger" ! After this, travellers in Mis- 
souri must be "cautious whom they ride with. Before a man 
can safely admit a woman into his carriage he must insist upon 
seeing her " dockymints" — her '■'•free papers," or have legal 
evidence that she is not a " Nigger." 

The Missourians, not content with managing the affairs of 
Kansas, seem also to have undertaken a similar good office for 
the State of IlHhois. We find in The St. Louis Republican 
the following rather singular notice : — 

"Runaway Notice. — Was taken up in Union County, in the State 
of llUnois, as a runaway Slave, on the 15th of October, 1855, a jVegro 
man, who calls himself Nicholas, and says he belongs to Umprey White, 
in Onslow County, in the State of North Carolina. Said Negro is dark 
copper color, five feet five inches high, aged about 40 years, weighs about 
150 pounds, and had on when taken up, a drab cloth coat, stripped worsted 
pants, cloth cap, and is blind in his right eye. The owner of said Negro 
is hereby required to come and prove said property, pay all charges in- 
curred on account of said Negro, within three months, othei'wise he will 
be sold on Saturday, the 7th day of March, 1857, at the Court- House m 
Jackson, Cape Girardeau County, State of Missouri, for ready Cash. 

"JOHN F. BURNS, 
" Sheriff of Cape Girardeau County, Mo." 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 329 

From this Advertisement, it would appear that the Jlissouri 
sberifFs of the border counties of that State, consider the adja- 
cent counties of the bordering '■'■free States" as fuUing witliin 
their respective bailiwicks, so far as the " colored population" 
are concerned. Or, is there a sort of private partnership 
between Sheriff Burns and certain residents of Union County, 
Illinois, by virtue of which they are to Kidnap and to convey 
to Missouri all the stray "Niggers" on which they cfin lay 
their hands, while the said sheriff is to sell them, for the joint 
benefit of the parties ? 

The Missouri Democrat, of the 4th of December, 1856, 
says : " In calling attention to the frequency and increase of 
the reported plots on the part of the Slave population within 
the past year, we design not so much to speak of the measures 
which have been found necessary for their repression, as to 
point to one great cause which has more than all else encour- 
aged and instigated them, and that is the agitation of the 
Slavery question by every demagogue in the Slave States, 
who wishes to acquire transient notoriety. In IMissouri, es- 
pecially, have we felt the effect of this Slavery agitation and 
Slavery extension policy upon the part of the nullification 
faction, who have sought to float into power and office by con- 
tinually exciting the passions of men, and provoking discus- 
sion in regard to tliis theme ; and we venture to assert that in 
consequence thereof more Slaves have been induced to run 
away, more desperate resolutions having been put into their 
heads, and more general insecurity entailed upon that species 
of property within the past year, than during any five years 
preceding. The ferment excited in the minds of the Masters 
soon extended itself to the Slaves — for all who have lived in 
Slaveholding communities well know how eagerly every scrap 
of parlor conversation, every excited harangue on the stump, 
or loud-toned dispute in the streets, is treasured up by the 
Nigger, and made the burden of comment during the night." 



330 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

" Ean Awat from the subscriber, living near White's Store, Anson 
county, on the 3d of May last, a bright boy, named Robert. He is about 
five feet high, will weigh about 130 pounds ; is about 22 years old, and 
has some beard on his upper lip. His left leg is somewhat shorter than 
his right, causing him to hobble in his walk; has a very fine face, and 
will show color like a white man. It is probable he has gone off with 
some wagoner or trader, or he may have fiee papers and be passing as a 
free white man. He has straight hair. I will give a reward of two hun- 
dred and twenty-five dollars for the delivery to me of said Nigger boy, 
or for his confinement in any jail, so that I can get him. 

Newbern (N. C.) Spectator. "ADAM LOCKHART." 

" $250 Reward will be given, for the apprehension and delivery to me 
of the following Slaves : Samuel and Judy, his wife, with their four chil- 
dren, belonging to the estate of Sacker Dubberly, deceased. I will give 
ten dollars for the apprehension of William Dubberly, a Slave belonging 
to the estate. William is about nineteen years of age, quite white, and 
would not readily be taken for a Nigger. 

Newbern (N. C.) Spectator. "JOHN L. LANE." 

The West Tennessee Democrat, edited by the Rev. Mr. 
Brownlow (commonly called " Parson Brownlovv"), of Knox- 
ville, is horrified at the impiety of Mrs. H. B. Stowe, whom 
the " pious Editor" sets down as a " dangerous infidel," and 
styles her book — Uncle Tom's Cabin — "a fling at the 
Christian religion in general, and Southern Methodism" (of 
which the Parson is a burnin' and shinin' light) " in particu- 
lar." The "pious Editor" waxes wroth at the inhumanity of 
such a publication, but has no word of comment upon the fol- 
lowing, which appears in the same number of his paper : — 

" Bloodhounds ! I have two of the finest Dogs for catching runaway 
Niggers in the South- West. They can take a trail twelve hours after the 
Nigger has passed, and catch him with ease. I live just four miles 
south-west of Bolivar, on the road leading from Bolivar to Wliitesvillc. 
I am ready at all times to catch ran&w ay property of every description. 

"BoLivAK, West Tennessee." "DAVID TURNER. 

This " Rev. gentleman," speaking of the '' burning alive of 
a Nigger," for a crime that would have only sent a white 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLATE STATES. 331 

Southerner to jail for a week or two, if at all, says : " We im- 
hesitatingly affirm that the punishment was unequal to the 
crime. Had we been there, we would have taken a part, and 
even suggested the pinching of pieces out of him with red-hot 
pinchers — of cutting off of a limb at a time, and then burn- 
ing them all in a heap.* The true-hearted Citizens of Ten- 
nessee and jDroper/y-holders, ought to enter into a league, and 
whip black, and ride on a rail, irrespective of age, calling, or 
family associations, every Clergyman, Citizen, or Traveller, who 
dares to utter one word in opposition to our Domestic Institu- 
tions" (Slavery and Polygamy), " or who is found in posses- 
sion of an Anti-Slavery document. These are our sentiments, 
and we are willing and ready to help others to carry them 
out." 

" Ran Awat from the subscriber on the 23d of June last, a brio;ht 
mulatto Woman, named Julia, about twenty-five years of age. She is 
common size, very nearly white, and very good-looking — for a Nigger. 

* What a difference between the Methodist John Wesley, and the 
Methodist Brownlow! Southern Methodists "swear by" Wesley, 
but indignantly insist that he never called slavery "the sum of all 
villainies." We need no further proof that it is, than to see how 
thoroughly it has imbued this good brother Brownlow with the spirit 
of the devil. Brownlow would be at home among the tortures of the 
Inquisition, and would clap his hands for joy, to see some poor 
mortal (provided he were a "nigger" mortal or an "abolitionist") 
broken alive upon the wheel. From all such preachers, and from all 
their preaching; from all who uphold them, and from all the hellish 
things by which they are upheld; from the smitings of their own 
conscience (if they have any conscience) here on earth, and from 
the eternal tortures of remorse in the world to come — worse than 
red-hot pincers and pinching, cutting" and burning and mangling — 
may the Good Lord deliver us ! There is every reason to believe 
that John Wesley was a good Christian; and that, with his clear 
convictions of gospel truth, and his stern views of church dis- 
cipline, he would have turned Brother Brownlow out of meet- 
ing. 



332 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAYE STATES. 

Slie is a good Seamstress, and reftds a little. She may attempt to pass 

for white: dresses fine. She took with lier Anna, her Child, eij^ht years 

old. She once belonged to a Mr. Helm, of Columbia, Tennessee. I 

will give a reward of $50 for said Nigger and Child if delivered to me, 

or confined in any jail in Tennessee so I can get them, or $100 if taken 

in any other Slave State ; and $200 if caught in any free State, and put 

in any good jail in Kentucky or Tennessee, so I can get them. 

"A. W. JOHNSON." 
Republican Banner and Nashville Whig. 

"Notice to Peopeety-Holdeks. — On the first of November last, 
I took up and committed to jail a runaway Nigger — nearly white, cal- 
ling himself Ireneus Prime. He had on a large Neck-iron, with a huge 
pair of horns, and a band or clog of iron on his left leg. He lost his 
hat and bundle in a cane-brake while running from my Dogs. The 
owner of said Nigger is requested to prove property, pay charges, and 
take him away. The rascal says his father is a white man and lives in 
New York. " "N. ROSS. 

" Randolph, Tipton county, Tennessee." 

In March, 1855, we saw a poor heart-broken Slave pass 
through the streets of Nashville, who had been captured by a 
pack of four-legged and two-legged bloodhounds, belonging to a 
"gentleman" of that city. His coat, pantaloons, and shirt, were 
torn to pieces, and his person mangled in a most shocking man- 
ner ; the blood was streaming from his face, hands, legs, &c. 

When a wretched runaway is killed, either designedly or 
by accident, the Southern newspapers speak of it merely as a 
" loss of property." Nothing is ever said about the bereaved 
Widow, Children, or Parents of the deceased. 

Bloodhounds ! " The undersigned, having purchased the well-known 
Nigger-Dogs of David Turner, formerly of this County, offers his ser- 
vices to the Citizens of this and adjoining Counties, for the purpose of 
Hunting and catching runaway Niggers. All who have Niggers in the 
woods will please give me a call. I live three miles north of Bolivar, on 
the Jackson road. " JAMES SMITH." 

Bolivar {Tenn.) Democrat, May 9, 185.5. 

" $500 Reward. — Ran away from the subscriber, on the 25th of May 
last, a Nigger boy, twenty-one years of age, named Washington. Said 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 333 

Nigger, without close observation, miglit pass himself for a ichite man, as he 
is light colored, has sandy hair, blue eyes, and a fine set of teeth. He is an 
excellent bricklayer; but I have no idea that he will pursue his trade, 
for fear of detection. Although he is like a white man in appearance, he 
has the disposition of a black Nigger, and delights in comic songs and 
witty expressions. He is an excellent house servant, very handy about 
a hotel; tall and slender, and has rather a down look, especially when 
spoken to, and is sometimes inclined to be sulky. I have no doubt but 
he has been decoyed off by some Abolition scoundrel ; and I will give 
the above reward for the apprehension of the boy and thief, if delivered 
at Chattanooga; or I will give $200 for the boy alone, or $100 if con- 
fined in any jail so that I can get him. 
Tlte Chattanooga (Tenn ) Gazette. " GEORGE 0. EAGLAND." 

The leading Journal of the National Democratic Party — 
Pierce, Buchanan, & Co.'s '' Own," speaking of the " deplorable 
condition of the down-trodden people of the Nations of the Old 
World" says: 

"Ignorance of the real state of political parties in this Country, and 
the force and direction of our National currents, may naturally be ex- 
pected among a class of men whose interests are all wrapped in old laws 
and customs. Being foreigners, they can not know our Character, or 
judge correctly of our Social, Moral, Religious, or Political condition ; 
for »io one can understand, thoroughly, the Opinions, Feelings, and Habits 
of Americans, who has not studied them on their own Soil, and at their 
own Firesides. Being opposed to a Republican form of Government, 
they are naturally prejudiced against us, are liable to be deceived, and 
are pleased when they can seize upon anything that can be twisted into 
an argument against a free and happy people. Our citizens" (that is, the 
genuine whites) " know that their arguments in favor of Monarchical and 
Despotic forms of Government are not supported by fiicts. Here tlie oi> 
prcssed children of the Old World can bask in the sunshine of Civil and 
Religious liberty, and be protected in their natural rights. We must let 
our light shine." 

The Persians have an old saying, to the effect, that it is well 
to aim at the Sun, for, although the arrow will not hit the 
mark, it will fly higher than if aimed at an object on tlie plane. 
There are, however, two sides to this "question," and the other 



334 DOMESTIC AMUSE5IENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

view is given and illusti-ated by the veritable historian ^sop, 
in the flible of the Frog that attempted to blow himself up to 
the size of an Ox, and made a melancholy failure of it. It 
will be remembered that he not only fell far short of the di- 
mensions of the Ox, but utterly blighted his career of useful- 
ness as a Frog, by bursting himself into a great number of 
small speckled or party-colored fragments, each one of which 
impressively set forth the melancholy consequences of inor- 
dinate ambition. Sad as was the fate of the lamented ba- 
trachian gentleman, who not improbably left behind him a 
Aveeping widow and a large family of mourning tadpoles, all 
mortals do not take to heart the lesson, but are far more influ- 
enced in their actions by the " glittering generalities" of the 
Persian proverb, than by the mournful speciality of the 
Phrygian fable. 

The National Democratic Party — Pierce, Buchanan, & 
Co.'s " Own" — have yet to learn the true signification of the 
parable of the Good Samai-itan. (See Hebrews xiii. 3 ; Ro- 
mans i. 14 ; and James ii. 4-9.) 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 335 



CHAPTER III. 

"When the measure of their tears is full, when their Groans have 
involved Heaven itself in darkness, doubtless a God of Justice will 
listen to their distress." — Jefferson. 

The Savannah Republican^ printed in a State which boasts 
a Senator, Robert Toombs, who says he will yet "call the 
roll" of his Slaves ''at the foot of Bunker Hill monument," 
has in its impression of the 15th October, 1855; the follow- 
ing advertisement : — 

"Ran Away from the subscriber, on the 22d ult., my Negro man, 
Albert Jock, who is twenty-seven years of age, very white, so much so 
that he would not be suspected of being a Negro. He has blue eyes, and 
light hair. Wore when he left, a long thin beard, and rode a sorrel 
horse. He is about 5 feet 8 inches high, weighs about 140 pounds, 
has an humble and meek appearance, can neither read nor write, 
and is a kind and amiable fellow, speaks much like a low country 
Negro. He has no doubt been led off by some infidel during my 
absence to New York. $50 reward will be paid for his delivery to 
me, or to Tison & Mackay, or for his apprehension and confinement 
in any jail where I can get at him. 

"J. M. TISON. 

"Bethel, Glynn Co., Georgia." 

"There was ne'er a loon in a' the toun like our little Jock, 
There was ne'er a loon in a' the toun like our little Jock; 
But since he became a member o' the Young Band o' Hope, 
There's a wonderfu' improvement on our little Jock. 
He wadna bide within the door, nor gang to kirk or schulc — 
He tore a suit o' claes to rags frae AVhitsunday to Yule; 
He ran through Winter's frost an' snaw without a shoe or sock, 
Sic a hardy little customer was our little Jock." 



S3 6 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

Dr. C. G. Parsons, of Boston, Massachusetts, speaking of 
his " Tour among the Planters," gives us an account of a Slave- 
hunt he witnessed on Flint River. Having ascended a small 
hill, he saw a man coming up on the other side slowlj^, and 
almost naked. The instant the man saw Mr. Parsons, he 
threw up both hands, and exclaimed imploringly, " O Goddy, 
Massa !" Mr. Parsons supposing that the poor runaAvay 
thought he would betray him, said : " I will not betray you." 
But before he had time to inquire into his history, two blood- 
hounds came dashing over another hill, half a mile distant. 
The "moment the baying of the dogs reached the ear of tlie 
Slave, he made for the river, jumped in, and swam a long dis- 
tance under water toward the opposite bank; on reaching 
which, he ran to a large tree, got up into it, and seated him- 
self on a limb. The hounds came following the track — and 
well they might, for the blood of the wretched fugitive was left 
in every footstep — keeping up a constant baying. They 
rushed up the hill, plunged into the river where the Slave did, 
swam across, and ran up to the tree baying in blood-thirsty 
tones in triumph of success. Soon two men came over the 
hill on horseback, and when they saw the Slave in the tree, 
and heard the hounds baying beneath it, they shouted and rode 
on at full speed. 

" One day," says Dr. Parsons, " while I was in Macon, 
there was a cry of ' a Nigger in the river !' Besides the 
' Nigger,' three bloodhounds were in the river also, endeavor- 
ing to catch him ; but the poor fellow, being a good swimmer, 
every time the hounds came close upon him, would dive a 
long distance under water, so deep, that the hounds could not 
see the direction he took, but when he raised his head above 
the water to breathe, they swam toward him and seized his 
limbs and held on till he jerked them away, leaving his flesh 
in their teeth. Soon his two-legged bloodhound pursuers were 
seen coming from the woods, and perceiving that farther at- 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 337 

torapts to elude them were in vain, he told them if they would 
call off the dogs he would come out. This they did. Two of 
the hunters dismounted, and took him, one by either arm, to 
lead him over the bridge into the city, in the midst of hosts of 
the exulting ' poor whites.' No sympathy was manifested for 
the suffering Slave, whose naked limbs were horribly lacerated 
by the hounds. And what most shocked the feelings, as the 
two-legged hounds were leading him, was to hear the 'poor 
whites,' men and boys, tell the dogs to bite him — saying, ' Seek 
him !' ' Take hold of him !' — just as they would set the dogs on 
swine, and with as little pity." 

The following letter was received lately in Oberlin, Ohio, 
from a prominent Member of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
Georgia. Its authenticity is guarantied by the Editor of 
The Oherlin Evangelist: 

" Dear Sir : I take my pen to write to you once mere, though it is not 
I that write to you, but the Lord that writeth through me. Permit me 
to inform you that since I wrote you last I have come out and embraced 
the Religion of the Lord Jesus Christ, and am now living in the light 
and liberty of the children of God. We have had quite an interesting 

Church meeting here last week in relation to Deacon D . It was 

thought by many that he would be disfellowshipped ; but his case was 
set forth in such a vivid light by the influential members of the Church, 
our Pastor among the rest, that he was honorably discharged. For fear 
you will think the case worse than it is, I will just state the facts : The 
Deacon had an old Slave that had been in the habit of running away, 
but had always been caught, until finally about two weeks ago, he made 
another escape. No sooner was the old fellow missing than cousin H — 

borrowed neighbor P 's hounds and started in search of him. He 

had not proceeded far in the woods before he found the old man perched 
upon the limb of a large tree. He ordered him several times to come 
down, but the old fellow, stubborn as an ass, still maintained his position. 
The deacon then becoming excited, fired his gun at him. The ball passed 
through the old man's ankle, and mangled it in such a manner that it 
mortified and he died. But as I have before stated, our good Pastor 
(may the Lord prosper him} held for the ju:t'fication of the Deacon ia 
such a vivid, Aea?;e?i-approving style, that he was discharged upon the 

15 f 



338 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

ground that he had a right to do what he pleased with his own propeiiy 
— a judgment that would have been passed by any righteous man. Your 

Uncle J died last week. We had the greatest kind of a time when 

he was a-dyin' — he went straight to glory, anyhow. His Niggers are 
a-goin' to be sold on Saturday next. 

"I have partly bargained for fifty Niggei's belonging to a neighbor. 
If I can get them as cheap as I expect to, I shall make a handsome profit 
on them, for I understand that the Orleans market is quite good now. 
I expect to send them down as soon as my Driver recovers ; for in flog- 
ging one of my old Slaves the other day, he received avery severe wound 
from him, he having struck him with his hoe, whereupon the Driver in- 
stantly drew his pistol and shot him dead upon the spot, a fate which he 
justly merited. From his extreme age (being a little over 79 years), I 
consider his death a gain and not a loss to me. 

" In your last letter you spoke of visiting us next year. If you come, 
I pray you to leave your Abolitionism beiiind, and show yourself a man. 
It is now time to go to Prayer-meeting, and I must close. M-j wife joins 
me in love to you." 

It is a question which becomes tlie more hardened compara- 
tively in iniquity — a nation or an individual? The individ- 
ual has his moments of reflection, but the nation once on the 
downward slope appears to have neither brains nor bowels. 
There is a familiarity with evil which the Apostle calls being 
" dead in trespasses and sins." There is an awful paralysis 
of the Moral sense when deeds unholiest and crimes most fear- 
ful cease any longer to affect the nerve. The bloodhound, the 
emblem of cowardly distrust and brutal cupidity, is now a 
household word — a " domestic institution" of more than one 
half the States and Territories of the Union. He is as regular- 
ly advertised as the animal Man. Shame is no longer felt in 
this regard. Hear them : 

"Bloodhounds! The undersigned having a magnificent Pack of 
Hounds, for Trailing and Catching runaway Nigger?, takes this method 
of informing his Friends and the Public, generally, that his prices are as 
follows: For each day employed in either Hunting or Trailing; S2. 50; 
for catching each Slave, $10; forgoing over ten miles and catching a 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 339 

Slave, $20. If sent for, the above prices will be expected, in Cash. Tho 
subscriber lives one mile and a half south of Dadeville. 
Dadeville (Ala..) Banner. "B. BLACK." 

Was this the " Idea" which blazed and culminated on the 
lips of the "Sires of 76"? Was this the " Idea" which 
prompted that spirit of fraternal affection which produced the 
last great fruit of the Revolution — the Union of the States 
under a Constitution of confederated Republican Government? 
Was this the " Idea" of the men who penned the Declaration 
that "All men are born Free and Equal, and entitled to Life, 
Liberty, and the pursuit of — of — of — of — Happiness" ? 

" Bloodhounus ! The undersigned having purchased an entire Pack 
of Hounds, of the Hay and Allen Stock, he now purposes to Catch run- 
away Niggers, of every description. His charges will be $3 a day for 
Hunting, and $15 for Catching. 

North Livingston [A\-3..) Whig. "WILLIAM GAMBREL." 

" Bloodhounds ! The undersigned would respectfully inform tho 
Citizens of Montgomery and the surrounding Country, that ho is sta- 
tioned one mile from the Court-House, on the South Plank Road, with 
the Well-known Pack of Hounds formerly owned by G. W. Edwards, 
and will attend to all calls he may be favored with. Terms of Hunting 
as follows : Catching, $10, if in or near the City, and charges in propor- 
tion to distance and trouble. Information by any person or persons of 
Niggers lying about their jDremises will be attended to, without charge, 
if they are not their own.* ' "A. V. WORTHY. 

" MoNTGOMERT (Ala.), May 29, 1855." 

The Christian reader shudders — and well he may — at the 
reading of such advertisements as these, but in Alabama, or 
any of the Slaveholding States and Territories, they excite no 
more attention than the reading of the ordinary advertisements 

* The New York Ledger, of the 9th August, 1855, says : "A fugitive 
Slave, that was hunted with Dogs among the swamps of Alabama, a few 
days since, finding escape impossible, turned at bay, and after a despe- 
rate fight, was torn in pieces by the Hounds, but not until he had killed 
two of them and severely damaged three others." That " Nigger" de- 
served a better fate. 



S40 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

published in the towns and cities of the '■'■free States." What, 
then, must be the " pubHc sentiment" of such a people? — to 
■what must it have sunk, when scenes like these can not only 
be advertised, but continually enacted, and the people mean- 
time, instead of blushing for shame, at such abominations, 
boastingly declare themselves the " Model Republic," and in- 
vite all the people of Europe to institute similar Governments 
for themselves. 

Did the eccentric imagination of Rabelais or the morbid 
misanthropy of Swift ever conjure up such grotesque mon- 
strosities and incredible contradictions ? What is the "Ameri- 
can Idea" or " Machine" worth when the Press of Anglo- 
Saxondom enforces diabolism unknown, in the desperate 
meanness and cruelty of its details, to the scalping Savage ? 
He at least scents out his victim and runs his mortal risk. 
But the Hunters with Bloodhounds of the poor shivering 
Slaves, sons of poverty and shame, what shall we say of 
them ? Why, perdition itself has scarcely an adequate state 
of punishment for such wretches. 

There are thousands of poor runaways whose story the 
woi'ld never hears. Their bones lie bleaching in the lone 
forests, in the dismal swamps, in the caves, and in the river- 
beds, not onlj^ of the South and West, but of the '■^ free North." 
Oh, if they could speak, they would tell us of the intolerable 
cruelties from which they fled, to encounter cold and heat, 
darkness and tempests, bears and wolves, nakedness and 
starvation, and bloodhounds, or their more brutal " Masters." 

" Ran Awat from the subscriber, -working on ttie plantation of Col. 
II. Tinker, a boy, named Alfred. He is about eigliteen years old, pretty 
well grown ; has blue eyes, light flaxen hair, and skin disposed to freckle. 
He will try to pass as frceborn. " S. G. STEWART." 

" Greene County, Ala." 

" Will be Sold, in front of the Court-House, in this County, on the 
first Monday in November next, for cash, between the houi-s of 11, a. m., 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 341 

and 4, p. m., of said day, a Nigger woman, named Elizal)eth Johnson, 
who says she is free, and that she is from Charleston, South Carolina. 
She is about 27 years of age, five feet six or seven inches high, of very 
light copper complexion, and has very straight hair. Said woman was 
committed to jail on the 5th of January, by Thomas Durden, a Justice 
of the Peace for Montgomery County, as a runaway Slave ; and her own- 
er having failed to come forward, prove property, pay charges, and take her 
aioay, she is, therefore, to be sold, in compliance with the Statute in 
such cases made and provided, to pay jail fees, &c. 

" J. J. STEWART, 
" Sheriff of Montgomery County, Alabama." 

"$100 Reavaed. — Ran away from the subscriber, a bright mulatto 
man-Slave, named Sam. Light, sandy hair, blue eyes, and ruddy com- 
plexion — is so white as very easily to pass for a free white man. 

"Mobile, Ala." "EDWIN PECK." 

Two runaway Slaves, from Alabama, sought protection in 
Billy Bowlegs' camp, in Mississippi. Repeated demands for 
their return to their " Master" had been denied by that Chief 
of the Seminoles. On the 4th of July, two of Billy's men, 
Toney and Simon, visited the United States troops. They 
were seized and heavily ironed, and placed in the custody of 
the Camp guard, to be held until Billy sent in the two run- 
away Slaves for their ransom. One of the Slaves was brought 
in and one of Billy's men demanded. To this demand, the 
Indian Agent refused to accede. The Slave was taken into 
custody and returned to his " owner." 

The first treaty made with the Creek Indians, contained a 
provision for the return of fugitive Slaves. That treaty was 
violated. The Indian, debased as he was, could not return 
his flying brother into the horrors of Slavery. He had not 
been corrupted by Theological dissertations. To "teach" the 
poor Indians a' "lesson," $125,000 due them were according- 
ly withheld, to pay the value of fifteen Slaves ! Besides this, 
$150,000 were also "appropriated" to repay Slave-breeders 
for children not yet born. 



S42 DOJIESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

" Ran Aw at. — A Nigger girl, called Mary Orville Dewey ; has a scar 
over her left eye, a green patch over the other, a piece bitten out of her 
upper lip, and a good many teeth missing. The letters M. O. D. are 
branded with a hot iron on her forehead, cheeks, and the inside of her 
legs, half way between her knees and buttock." — Natchez (Miss.) Conner. 

The practical illustration of the " peculiar institution" of the 
" Model Republic" has no limits ; its honors swell into infinity. 
Human language can not describe its cruelties. No pencil 
can portray them ; no statistics exhibit the sum total. The 
Slave Code is sufficiently horrible, but every syllable of it can 
be written, printed, and measured by pages. 

" Notice to Property Owners. — A Negro's head was picked up 
yesterday, which the Owner can have by calling at this Office, on pay- 
ing for this advertisement." — Natchez (Miss.) Free-Trader. 

" Ran Away, or stolen, from the subscriber, living near Aberdeen, 
Miss., a light-colored Woman, of small size, and about 23 years of age. 
She has long, black, straight hair, and she usually keeps it in good order. 
When she left she had on either a white dress, or a brown calico one 
with white spots or figures, and took with her a red handkerchief, and a 
red or pink sun-bonnet. She generally dresses very neatly. She calls lier- 
self Mary Ann Paine — can read — has some freckles on her face and 
hands — Shoes No. 4 — had two rings on her fingers. She is very intel- 
ligent. Fifty dollars reward will be given for her, if taken out of the 
State, and twenty-five, if taken within the State. 

"U. M'ALLISTER." 

" $25 Reward will be given for the apprehension and confinement in 
any jail of the Slave-man Hardy, who ran away from the subscriber, re- 
siding at Lake St. John, near Rifle Point, Concordia parish. La., on the 
9th of August last. Hardy is a remarkably likely Nigger, entirely free 
from all marks, scars, or blemishes, when he left. He is about six feet 
high, of light complexion, fine countenance, unsually smooth skin, good 
head of hair, fine eyes and teeth. Address the subscriber at Rifle Point, 
Concordia Parish, Louisiana. "ROBERT Y. JONES." 

Daily Courier, Natchez, Miss. 

" S25 Reward. — Ran away from the undorsigncd, a Negro man by 
the name of Allen, about 23 years of age, near six feet high, of dark 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 343 

mulatto color, rib mark, save one, and that caused by the bite of a dog ; liad 
on, when he left, Lowell pants, and cotton shirt; reads impeifectly, can 
make a short calculation correctly, and can write some few words. Said 
boy has runaway heretofore, and when taken up was in possession of a 
free pass. He is quick-spoken, lively, and smiles when in conversation 
I will give the above reward to any one who will confine said Negro in 
any Jail, so that I can get him. "THOS. K. CHEATEM." 

Natches (Miss.) Free Trader. 

A Slave belonging to Captain Newport, of East Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana, while closely pursued by the bloodliounds 
of an Irish-American " Demmycrat," of the name of Roark, 
ascended a tree and hung himself. " Misther Roark," with Cap- 
tain Newport's son-in-law and an Overseer, were in pursuit 
of a runaway Slave. They did not know this one was " out," 
and were surprised upon their arrival, a few minutes in the 
rear of their fellow-bloodhounds to find him suspended by his 
neck, with his feet dangling only a foot or two from the earth. 
Every effort was made to restore animation, but without suc- 
cess, although on their coming up the body was still warm. 
The act was one, it would seem, of resolute predetermination, 
as the Slave was well provided with cords, which he made u.-e 
of to perpetrate his suicidal purpose. This " speaks volumes" 
for the " tender mercies" of the " divine institution." 

The St. Francisville (La.) Chronicle has an account of a 
" Nigger-hunt," from which we learn that a gentleman of that 
Parish while out hunting runaways came upon three of them 
on Cat Island. He succeeded in itrresting two, but the third 
made fight, and upon being shot in the shoulders fled to a 
sluice, where the hounds succeeded in drowning him before 
assistance could arrive. 

"Bloodhounds! The undersigned would respectfully inform the 
Citizens of Ouachita and adjacent Parishes, that he has located about 
two miles east of Deacon John White's, on the road leading from Mon- 
roe to Bastrop, and that he has a superb Pack of Hounds for catching 
runaway Niggers, of every variety. Ladies or gentlemen wishing Nig- 



344 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

gers caught ^Till do well to give him a Call. He can always be found at 
his stand, when not professionally engaged. Terms as follows : $5 per 
day and found, when there is no. track pointed out. When the track is 
shown, $25 will be charged for Catching. "M. C. GOFF." 

Ouachita Register, Monroe, Louisiana. 

Pardon Davis, a citizen of Berlin, Marquette county, "Wis- 
consin, had been spending some time in Tensas Parish, La., 
engaged in business. In September, 1855, having settled up 
his business, he was upon the point of returning to the North, 
when he was met by Perkins and his bloodhounds, who drew 
a revolver and threatened to fire upon him in case he moved 
or made a noise. He was then handcuffed and brought before 
a Magistrate, who informed him that he was accused of "aid- 
ing Slaves to escape from their owners." The whole town 
was soon assembled, and in a high state of excitement. The 
citizens, fearing that the evidence against Mr. Davis would 
prove insufficient, formed themselves into a mob for the pur- 
pose of inflicting lynch-law, in case he should be acquitted. 
Some cried, " Hang him ;" some, " Shoot him," others, " Give 
him a thousand lashes on the bare back." No one dared speak 
a word in his behalf, save a Mississippi lawyer, who informed 
the prisoner that the chances were against him — that if he had 
been charged with larceny or even murder, there might be hope, 
but little hope as the case was. He was conducted to jail, 
through a heavy rain, where he was handcuffed and his feet 
put in stocks. Mr. Davis,»the prisoner, subsequently had his 
trial, and was sentenced to twenty years confinement in the 
State Prison of Louisiana, and is now in Baton Rouge, suffer- 
ing this penalty. 

The arrest of Mr. Davis was brought about in this way. 
A man in Mississippi having discovered a trail of runaway 
Slaves sent for Perkins to come, with his hounds, and catch 
them. Perkins went and caught them, after a chase of thirty- 
five miles. Upon overtaking them, they all ran to a tree, and 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 345 

got Up into it. Perkins, with his four-legged bloodhounds, 
dashed up, drew his revolver, and asked the Slaves who they 
belonged to. They, poor fellows, .gave a fictitious name, and 
presented their passes, which he read ; but being, like all other 
cat's-paws of Slavery, North and South, a villain at heart — and 
wishing to show his employers the dangers he had to encoun- 
ter — ordered them down, two at a time, and then set the 
hounds on them. The poor creatures, after being torn in a 
shocking manner, promised, if he would desist, they would tell 
the truth.* The hounds being called off, the wretched men 
made the following confession : 

" We belong to Mr. Dunkin. The overseer, Mr. Higgins, whipped 
us nearly every night, because being new hands, we could not pick Cot- 
ton enough. We stood it as long as we could, and then ran away. We 
went to Mr. Davis's woodyard and told him our complaint. He let us 
hide in the wood and canied us bread and water until last Saturday 
night. He baked us some bread, gave one of us a pair of shoes, an- 
other a hat, another a shirt, three quilts, to sleep under, some money, 
these passes, and then took us across the river in a canoe, one at a time, 
and told us to go toward the sunrise, but, getting entangled in tlie 
swamp, we lost our way." 

" Oh, if you could," said Mr. Davis, in a letter to his friends 
at Berlin, " be on the plantation near where I have lived, and, 
at night, when the Cotton is weighed, out of two hundred 
Slaves, not less than twelve are 'whipped every night — Oh! 
could you hear the shrieks, cries, groans, prayers to God, to 
Christ — yes, if you could hear all this, and see the victim on 
his knees praying with all the earnestness a man is capable of, 

* " Stranger," said a two-legged bloodhound of St. Francisville, La., 
" if I can catch a cuss'd runaway Nigger without killing him, very 
good ; though I generally let the Hounds punish him a little, and some- 
times give him a load of squirrel-shot. If mild measures, like these, do 
not suffice, I use harsher puni-shment." The moment the honnds come 
■ close upon their prey, they utter a hideous and mournful howl. Then 
heaven pity the poor Slave. 

15* 



o46 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

to that brutal overseer, and promising to strain every nerve 
on the morrow to pick more Cotton — it would melt your 
hearts. Who can look on such .scenes as these and not be 
moved to tears ? I feel that my days are numbered. And 
now, my friends, when you meet to pray for the ' heathen of 
foreign lands,'' remember, Oh, remember, our own country. 
Watch over the declining steps of my parents ; 'tis the greatest 
boon I can ask, for I fear that this intelligence will bring the 
gray hairs of a loving father and an affectionate mother to the 
grave. Comfort them with the thought that we may meet in a 
happier world." 

"Ran AWAY from the plantation of the undersigned, the Nigger Shad- 
rach, a preacher, 5 feet 9 inches high, about 40 years of age ; has the letters 
M. B. stamped on his breast, and both small toes cut off. He is of a very 
dark complexion, with eyes small but bright, and a look quite insolent. 
He dresses well, for a Nigger, and was taken up as a runaway at Donalds- 
ville some three years ago. A reward of three hundred dollars will be 
paid for his arrest, by addressing Messrs. Armant, Brothers, St. James' 
parish, or A. Miltenbergcr & Co., 30 Carondelet St., New Orleans." 

This is the loudest " call" for a pi'eacher we have seen lately. 
Clergymen of the " right stripe," we are glad to learn, " are in 
great requisition." The fact indicates a pervading religious 
sentiment highly creditable to the "/ree and enlightened 
Democracy" of the " great Republic." But it is quite unusual 
to offer a reward for preachers who, for any cause, change 
their parish. Shadi'ach must have been a very "acceptable 
dispenser of the word" to have his return pressed so earnestly. 
But poor Shadrach succeeded in escaping the " tender mercies" 
of his " beloved brethren," North and South, and now keeps 
an eating-house at 12\ Notre Dame street, Montreal, Canada, 
and displays upon his show-board the words, " Uncle Tom's 
Cabin, by Shadrach." 

The following case — the circumstances of which are a 
romance of themselves — show how inexorable the Slave law 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 317 

contends with the kind designs of the " Master :" Elisha 
Brazeulle, a planter, was attacked with a loathsome disease. 
During his illness he was faithfully nursed, by a beautiful 
Slave girl, to whose assiduous attentions he felt that he owed 
his life. He was duly impressed by her devotion, and soon 
after his recovery took her to Ohio and had her educated. 
She was very intelligent, and improved her advantages so 
rapidly that when he visit«d her again he determined to marry 
her. He executed a deed for her emancipation, and had it 
recorded, and made her his wife. Mr. Brazealle returned 
with her, and in process of time had a son. After a few years 
he sickened and died, leaving a " AVill," in which, after reciting 
the deed of emancipation, he declared his intention to ratify it, 
and devised all his property to his wife and son, acknowledging 
them in the will to be such. Some poor and distant relations 
in North Carolina, whom he did not know, and for whom he 
did not care, hearing of his death, came on, and claimed the 
property thus devised. They instituted a suit for its recovery, 
and the case (it is reported in Howard's Reports, vol. ii., p. 837) 
came before Judge Sharkey. He decided it, and in that decision 
declared the act of emancipation " an offence against morality, 
and pernicious and detestable as an example." He set aside 
the " Will," gave the property of Brazealle to his distant 
relations, condemned Brazealle's son, and his wife, that son's 
mother, again to bondage, and made them the Slaves of these 
North Carolina kinsmen, as part of the assets of the estiite ! 

In March, 1818, three ships arrived at New Orleans bring- 
ing sevei'al hundred German emigrants from the province of 
Alsace on the lower Rhine. Among them was Daniel Muller 
and his two daughters, Dorothea and Salome, whose mother 
had died on the passage. Soon after his arrival at New Or- 
leans, Muller, taking with him his two daughters, both young 
children, went up the river to Attakapas parish, to work on 
the plantation of John F. Miller. A few weeks later, his 



348 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

relatives, who had remained at New Orleans, learned that he 
had died of the fever of the country. They immediately sent 
for the two girls, but they had disappeared, and the relatives, 
notwithstanding repeated and persevering inquiries and re- 
searches, could find no traces of them. They were at length 
given up for dead. Dorothea was never again heard of, nor 
was anything known of Salome from 1818 till 1843. In the 
summer of that year, Madame Karl, a German woman, who 
had come over in the same ship with the Mullers, was passing 
through a street in New Orleans, and accidentally saw Salome 
in a wine-shop, belonging to Louis Belmonte, by whom she 
was held as a Slave. Madame Karl recognised her at once, 
and took her to the house of IMrs. Schubert, who was Salome's 
cousin and God-mother, wdio declared, the moment she saw 
her, " My God ! here is the long-lost Salome Muller !" 

" Ran Awat from the plantation of Madame Fergus Duplantier, on or 
about the 27th of June last, a boy named Ned ; he is stout-built, about 
Qye feet eleven inches high, and speaks English and French ; he is about 
thh'ty-five years of age. He may try to pass himself for a white man, 
as he is of a very clear color, and has sandy hair. Twenty-five dollars 
reward will be paid to whoever will bring him to Madame Duplanticr's 
plantation, Manchac, or lodge him in some jail, where he can be obtained." 

New Orleans Picayune. 

" Ran Away from a Gang, in Febmaiy last, a boy, named Nehemiah 
Adams. He is about five feet three inches in height, with hazel eyes and 
brownish hair. He will not acknowledge that he is a Slave ; says his 
. father is a white man and lives somewhere in Boston, ^Massachusetts. 
He is an habitual runaway, and was shot in the ankle while endeavoring 
to escape from Baton Rouge Jail. A reward of $325 will be paid on 
his delivery to me, or for his apprehension and commitment to any jail 
from which I can. get him." " A. L. BINGHAJM." 

New Orleans Delta. 

The Cincinnati (Ohio) Colnmhian, says, that a legal gentle- 
man of that City was called on in March, 1855, to write a 
deed of manumission to be given by a Louisiana planter to 



DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 349 

one of his Slaves, a young girl whom he had brought with 
him. As the description of the girl was somewhat curious, 
the Editor of The Columbian copied it from the deed : '■'■Said 
Sarah Maria is 17 years of age, medium height, and rather 
slim figure, very fair complexion, with straight light brown 
hair, and hazel eyes, xvith features of the Caucasian race." 

" Bloodhounds ! The undersigned would respectfully inform his 
Friends and the Public generally, that he will keep in the County of 
Brazoria, the celebrated Pack of Hounds formerly owned by Deacon 
John Glascock. Price for Catching a runaway Nigger $25, or $5 per 
day. "J. PORTICE. 

"Brazokia County, Texas." 

" Bloodhounds ! The undersigned would respectfully inform his 
Friends and the Public generally, that he has just purchased Mr. Ruff 
Pen-y's famous Nigger Dogs, and will give his undivided attention to 
the business of Hunting and Catching runaway Niggers. His tei-ms are 
$20 for Catching, or $3.50 per day. "JOHN DEVEREUX. 

"Marshall, Texas." 

In July, 1855, a fight took place between Sam Jones, a 
notorious desperado of Texas, and fifteen Lipau Indians. 
Jones was in a corn-field when the " Sons of the Forest" 
made their appearance, but managed to escape, with an old 
German, into his cabin. The Indians soon surrounded the 
house. Jones had but little ammunition, and was anxious 
that every shot should tell. When the Indians attempted to 
break in the door, he would shoot ; and while he was loading, 
the German kept them at bay, by pointing an unloaded gun 
at them through the crevices of the house. They managed in 
. this way till the outside of the house was bristling with arrows, 
aimed at them between the logs, and Jones' powder had given 
out. At this moment, the Indians retreated a short distance 
to hold a council of war. The besieged availed themselves of 
the chance to get the assistance of a dozen of4iloodhounds that 
were confined in an outbuilding;. Under cover of the two un- 



850 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

loaded guns, Mrs. Jones liberated the dogs. Here was a rein- 
forcement the Indians had not calculated upon, and, in the 
twinkling of an eye, five of them were torn to pieces. The 
others came to the rescue, and soon shot the remainder of their 
arrows into the hounds, and beat a retreat, leaving their dead 
and wounded. After the fight, the field exhibited seven dead 
Indians and five dogs, sundry pieces of buckskin, mingled with 
clotted masses of Indian flesh, and hundreds of arrows and 
pieces of bows. 

" The origin of all Slavery on the Globe," says the Eev. 
George B. Cheever, " has been violence and theft. An un- 
righteous predatory war is theft. A man taken from his 
family and thrust into bondage is a stolen man, no matter 
whether ten men did the deed or ten thousand. The first 
gang of captives landed in Virginia, the origin of Slavery in 
the United States, were brought in as the prey of Kidnappers, 
Slave-traders, the most abandoned, degraded, infernal mis- 
creants on the face of the earth, hovering on the coast, steal- 
ing up the creeks and rivers, prowling about the unguarded 
hamlets, and like vultures, grasping their victims in their 
talons, or with stratagems and lures, bribing others to entrap 
them. The Slave-ships and the Slave-pens, have been 
crowded, and are still, for still the accursed ti'affic rages, with 
such outraged and down-trodden human beings, bought and 
sold, and the ' Slave property,' so called, in the United States 
and Territories is the result of bloody violence and theft. 
Though the Slaveholder may tell as much as he pleases of his 
Slaves having been ' inherited,' or as having been the ' prop- 
erty' of his father, or grandfather, or great-grandfather, yet 
every increase from every ship's cargo ever landed in the 
United States, from the latest importation in this generation, 
back to the landing and enslavement of the very first gang, is 
piracy ; and all the increase by natural propagation is the 
result of it, and the race is a stolen race. 



DOHESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 351 

" The quality of crime, the taint of theft, the essential ele- 
ment of man-stealing, is in the very title by which the Slave- 
holder claims his fellow-man as ' property.' It is a brand that 
no art can efface, no file of sophistry rasp out, no machincr^^ 
of law erase. The brand of ignominy which he puts upon 
the man when he calls him a ' chattel,' and treats him as 
such, is the brand burned deeper in his bargain, in his com- 
plicity with robbery, in the immorality of his ' legal title,' and 
generation after generation can not eliminate it; can not so 
vulcanize it, but that the fires of the Judgment-Day will bring 
out its essence of oppression and iniquity. 

"The sum of $100,000,000 might be paid for a man by a 
Slave-trader, but he would have no more right of ' property' 
in him, after he had paid that sum, than before, or than if lie 
had paid but one farthing. The common law lays down this 
principle, even in regard to a horse, which, if it be stolen and 
sold forty times over, neither the selling, any more than the 
stealing, can take away the right of the lawful owner ; but 
whenever, and wherever, he appears he can claim his proper- 
ty. Now a stolen man may have been passed through five hun- 
dred hands, and the five-hundredth may have paid more for 
him than all the four hundred and ninety-nine put together ; 
but the last purchaser has no more rightful claim over him, 
no more right of ' property' in him, than the first stealer. And 
if he purchased him with the knowledge of his being originally 
stolen, he is himself also a thief, a conspirator, a pirate — on 
the principles of common law and righteousness. And if he 
had not that knowledge, but made the purchase ignorant of 
the original theft, his ignorance can not change right into 
wrong, can not take away the man's indefeasible and inalien 
able right of ownership over himself. The price of a world 
might have been paid for him, but he is still his own, 

" The Slave holds, under God's own hand, a note against 
the robbers of his liberty, with compound interest, for the 



352 DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS IN THE SLAVE STATES. 

crime committed against his father ; and. when the Slavehold- 
er lays his grasp upon his children, and takes them as his 
' property,' the note is more than doubled against him, and the 
interest runs on." (See the Slave-Trade, Appendix C.) 

Ah ! there is a God in heaven that looks on, and his jus- 
tice takes account of these atrocious transactions. Think of 
it! (See Matt. xxv. 34—46 ; Hebrews xiii. 3 ; Romans i. 14; 
and James ii. 4-9.) With nations, as with individuals, when 
the course of corruption begins, it is too often the principle — 

" I am in blood 
Steeped in so far, that, should I wade no more. 
Returning were as tedious as go o'er." 



PART SIXTH. 

THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 



CHAPTER I. 



" It has often been observed by lawyers skilled in criminal 
jurisprudence," says the New York Tribune, " as well as by 
those who in civil practice have obtained a wide knowledge 
of human nature, that if you can get a rogue to write a series 
of letters, he is sure, while attempting to give plausibility to 
his falsehoods, to involve himself in such contradictions as 
can not fail to betray his real character and objects. Since 
the advent of Franklin Pierce's Administration" (on the 4tli 
March, 1853), "in the only important cases which have 
arisen, the foreign policy of the country has been governed by 
one invariable rule. This rule .may be stated, in brief, as sim- 
ply to truckle to the strong, and bully the weak." What 
saith the historian ? 

And it came to pass aftei- these things, that Isabella, the Spaniard, had an 
Island called Cuba, hard by the Model Republic of Uncle Sam, the Yan- 
kee; and Uncle Sam spake — through his servant, Soule — unto Isabella, 
the Spaniard, saying, Give me thy Island, that I may have it for breeding 
Niggers, because it is near unto my dominions, and I will give thee the 
worth of it in money ; or else, if it please thee, I will give thee another 
down the river — in the Mississippi. And Isabella, the Spaniard, said 
to Uncle Sam, the Yankee, The Lord forbid it me, that I should give tlio 
inheritance of ray fathers unto thee. And Uncle Sam came into his 



354 THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 

"White House, heavy and displeased because of the words Isabella, the 
Spaniard, had spoken unto him, and he laid him down upon his bed, and 
turned away his face, and would eat no bread. But his servant, Marcy, 
said unto him. Why is thy spirit so sad, that thou eatest no bread 1 And 
he said unto him, Because I spake unto Isabella, the Spaniard, and said 
unto her, Give me Cuba, for money; or else, if it please thee, I will give 
thiee another for it down the river — in the Mississippi; and she an- 
swered, The Lord forbi'3 it me, that I should f!;ive the inheritance of my 
fathers unto thee. Aiid his servant, Marcy, said unto him. Dost thou 
not now go ueni the Model Republic'? arise, and eat bread, and let thine 
heart be merry : I will give thee the Island of Isabella, the Spaniard. 
So he wrote letters, in Uncle Sam's name, and sealed them with his 
seal, and sent the letters unto his fellow-servants, Soule, Buchanan, and 
Mason ; and he wrote in the letters, saying. You are hereby command- 
ed to proceed, forthwith, to Ostend, in the Kingdom of Belgium, and 
there await further orders. (See 1 Kings xxi. 1-16.) 



The 0.>tend correspondence reveals a most remarkable 
Executive, Administrative, and Diplomatic confusion. First, 
we have a Minister to Spain apparently selected because of 
his known fillibustering tendencies with reference to the fair- 
est portion of Spain's territories — a selection most indecorous 
in itself, and involving conduct unworthy of a great power to- 
ward a weak one. To make the matter worse, that Minister 
made, on the very eve of his departure upon his Mission, a 
street harangue to a band of lawless persons, avowedly organ- 
ized for the purpose of wresting that territory from Spain, in 
which he expressed' sympathy with their design, and very 
broadly intimated that he was empowered to employ his 
official powers for that object. A mission thus begun could 
not be otherwise than unfortunate in its progress and conclu- 
sion. The whole business was a playing at cross purposes, 
the parties to the sharp practice being Franldln Pierce^ the 
President of the United States — the greater the pity that it 
should have to be said — William L. Marcy, Secretarv of 
State; Pierre Soule, Minister to Spain ; and a j\Ir. Perry, liig 



THE SLAVE TOWER ADVANCING. 355 

(Soule's) Secretary. Each seems to have been chiefly aim- 
ing at outwitting the other. 

The President consigned Mr. Soule to Secretary Marcy for 
instructions, and Mr. Marcy gave them, in accordance, as he 
beheved, with the views of the President. Mr. Soule re- 
ceived them with all apparent respect, as though he designed 
in good faith to follow them. Then the President supplied 
him (Soule) with a secretary (Perry), after, with seeming 
delicacy, consulting his wishes, and Mr. Soule received him 
(Perry) into his confidence accordingly, and Mr. Perry ap- 
peared to work harmoniously in his subordinate capacity to 
the Minister. So far, each kept his secret and preserved the 
semblance of candor, harmony, and good faith. But it is pro- 
verbially difficult for two persons to act disingenuously toward 
each other for any length of time without a rupture ; and the 
difficulty is more than quadrupled where four persons are 
playing at a game of cross purposes. The structure of dis- 
ingenuousness gives way, and what an exposure follows ! 

President Pierce seems to bear the palm of disingenuous- 
ness, for it does not admit of a doubt that — -while leaving his 
Secretary of State to suppose that, in virtue of his office, he 
had alone given Mr. Soule instructions — secret, and superior 
orders, were received by the Minister from the President ; and 
while the President virtually encouraged Mr. Soule to place 
unlimited confidence in his secretary (Perry), he at the same 
time permitted, if he did not invite, that officer to act the part 
of a spy and informer upon his superior officer. Nor was this 
all. The Pi-esident seduced the Minister, temporarily, from 
his post, on the pretence that he would highly value the joint 
council of himself and others on an important question ; and 
during his absence at Ostend, his secretary (Perry) had abun- 
dant opportunity and leisure to peruse the records and corre- 
spondence of the legation, and make to his employer (Presi- 
dent Pierce) a full report against his superior (Soule). No 



356 THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 

one will say that in this matter the Chief Magistrate of the . 
Model Republic appeared in a very dignified or favorable 
light. 

, Mr Perry having finished his work of espionage, Mr. Soule 
returned to Madrid from Ostend, and a communication from 
the Secretary of State, in the President's name, opened his 
eyes to the fact that the Ostend Conference was but a trap, 
and that he must straightway undo and unsay all that he had 
done and said under his former instructions from the President 
and Secretary of State, and then he had been tripped up at his 
highest speed by his own confidential secretaiy (Perry) with 
the connivance of Pierce and Marcy ! 

There can be no doubt but that from the first the President 
was playing a double game with the Secretary of State, as well 
as with Mr. Soule. But Mr. Marcy had more experience in 
political life than President Pierce, and is altogether a 
shrewder and abler man, and it is by no means improbable 
that Mr. Marcy appreciated the relative position of the Presi- 
dent and Mr. Soule, and comprehended from an early day the 
understanding that existed between them ; but maintaining his 
seeming ignorance of such duplicity, skilfully manoeuvred to 
lead the plot to its final development. That he has, by his 
adroitness and prudence, saved the country a needless and not 
reputable war with Spain, and with other powers, which em- 
broilment was evidently the object of the President and Mr. 
Soule's proceedings, is now beyond a doubt. But that does 
not exonerate Marcy from connivance at and encouragement 
of the clandestine con-espondence of Mr. Perry and his 
espionage over his superior. Mr. Marcy partakes, equally 
with the Piesident, in the disgrace of that complicity with a 
ppyjjpon the actions of a gentleman in whom the}- both pro- 
fessed to have confidence, and whom they treated as though in 
correspondence with him alone. 

While Mr. Marcy ^vas deceiving Mr. Soule, Mr. Soule was 



THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 357 

deceiving Mr. Marcy (but preserving some degree of good 
faith with the President), for while pressing the acquisition 
of Cuba, in obedience to the President's instructions, he was 
purposely retarding the settlement of the " Black Warrior" 
claim by withholding from the Spanish Government commun'- 
cations made to him from the State Department by Marcy for 
the purpose of being laid before that Government. And he 
was himself deceived in turn by his secretary (Perry), who 
was making notes of his proceedings and passing his own com- 
ments upon them in a clandestine correspondence with the 
Government at Washington ! 

The conduct of Mr. Perry has been excused, on the ground 
that he saw that the interests of his country were being wilfully 
sacrificed by Mr. Soule, and thought it his duty to acquaint 
his Government of the fact. 

There is not a redeeming point of honor in the whole busi- 
ness. If the Executive is to stoop to these acts of duplicity 
and fickleness, what is to become of the '' high character" of 
American diplomacy ? What gentleman, what man, with a 
spark of self-respect, or innate sense of honor, will consent to 
wear the title of " American Minister" abroad, if it is to be un- 
derstood that the President has placed a spy and informer at 
his elbow, to supervise his diplomacy and whisper secretly in 
the President's ear his own interpretation of his (the Minister's) 
acts, and that informer is his (the Minister's) subordinate, his 
own President appointed secretary ? What security has Mr. 
Buchanan, late Minister to England, and now President of the 
United States, that Mr. Dan Sickles did not review his every 
act in secret correspondence with President Pierce ? Or Mr. 
Mason, the Minister to France, or any other Minister, that his 
secretary does not clandestinely pursue the same course, with 
the President's approval and encouragement ; and that a 
similar correspondence to Mr. Perry's awaits an opportunity 
to be used against him ? 



358 THE SLAVE POTTEK APVANCINO. 

As to Mr. Soule's successor, General C. A. Dodge, no one 
can pity him if he is betrayed, like his predecessor, for he ac- 
cepted the mission with the same secretary (Perry) attached 
to it ! 

The country is deeply disgraced when its first Magistrate, 
and its Officials, stand before the world in the light of such 
revelations as these. Every citizen shares in the disgrace. 
This is no " pa;rty matter." It can not be made a party ques- 
tion. No party will be quite mean enough to attempt its de- 
fence. Just imagine how utterly suicidal it would be for any 
party — Whig, Democrat, Fusion, or Know-Nothing — to in- 
corporate this plank into its platform : 

" Resolved, That it is honorable to the man, and befitting to the Chief 
Magistrate of the United States, as well as delicate and proper toward 
the Ministers of this Kepublic, accredited at Foreign Courts, that a sys- 
tera of secret espionage shall be exercised over those Ministers by the 
President, and that their subordinates in office be employed for that pur- 
pose ; for which end they shall open a clandestine correspondence witli 
the President of this Republic, and cultivate the fullest confidence of their 
superiors. And the more honorably to fulfil this duty, the President shall 
occasionally send the leading Ministers on a fool's errand to Land's End, 
that their trusted secretaries may have opportunity and leisure to study 
the correspondence of the legation, and so make a better show of service 
to the Chief of the Spy Department at Washington, D. C." 

The bombardment of Greytown, and the Sacking and burn- 
ing of Lawrence and Osawattomie, are the " great achieve- 
ments" of President Pierce's Administration. What a spec- 
tacle it was — a great power directing its force against a 
helpless little seaport of five hundred inhabitants, which had 
committed no offence, except that its territory was coveted bv 
Slaveholders. In respect to Lawrence, the " free-State men" 
were able and ready to defend themselves from merely " border 
ruflBan" attacks, but a " border ruffian" attack, led by LTnited 
States officers, and instigated by President Pierce himself, 
was more than t|hey could stand up against. 



THE SLAVE POAVER ADVAXCING. 359 

In the "packing" of Lawrence, assassinations, robberies, and 
outrages of" every description were freely practised. Otlier 
and still more infamous deeds were committed — deeds that 
should have aroused the "/ree States," from Maine to Iowa, as 
one man, and shaken the Nation to its centre. 

At a " Mass Meeting of the Citizens of New York," held at 
the Tabernacle, in that City, on the 27th day of August, 1856, 
Ex-Governor Reeder, of Kansas Territory, said: 

" The robbers, ravishers, and murderers of Kansas, have in then* own 
hands the arms of the law, and they are made the ministers of this awful 
and horrible system of civil, political, and social oppression. I shall 
not undertake to give you a catalogue of the robberies, the housc-bum- 
ings, the plunderiiigs, the horse-stealings, the murders and oittragcs, that 
have been perpetrated upon the soil of Kansas ; for, did I undertal;c 
such a task I should request you to camp here a week. It is beyond the 
limits assigned any speaker to present such an inventory. Should I un- 
dertake even to give you any portion of the details, where the acts of our 
oppressors were stained with blood, and with every attribute that could 
disgrace humanity, I should not know where to begin or end." * * * 
* * *- "I have seen not long since. Representatives of the people, 
from the 'free States,' whose conduct I could not explain or reconcile, 
except on the supposition that if the South should demand it of them, 
they would have Slavery among you in the North. And I believe there 
are men among you now, who, were the question raised, would be ready 
to introduce it into New York. At one time, I should have considered this 
idle talk ; but that time has gone b}', and the existence of this fact should 
put every man upon his guard, and make him exceedingly sensitive to 
public opinion upon this subject." 

The Hartford (Ct.) Press, of August 30, 1856, cont:iins 
what it calls " verbatim copy" of a Speech delivered at a 
" Kansas Aid Meeting," held in that city, on Friday, August 
29, 1856, by a "runaway border ruffian," Mr. vSelden C. 
Williams, formerly of Meriden, Ct. The Connecticut journals 
endorse Mr. "Williams as " a reputable and reliable man." It 
would seem, according to Mr. Williams's account, that Buford's 
men are not only ruffians and murderers, but also partake 
somewhat of the character of cannibals : 



360 THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 

" In one of the forays upon which we were sent, we came upon a small 
party of ' free-State men.' They resisted oui- taking away their property, 
and Buford's men left them dead upon the gi-ass ! When we were in 
the Shawnee Country, we were invited to call at one of the Mission 
Churches. As the doors opened before us, what a sight presented itself! 
Three Massachusetts men were hanging by the neck. For daring to 
say they were for 'free-Soil,' fr^vo had been shot and one stabbed to the 
heart, and they were hung up, to strike terror to the hearts of the people 
from the East. Tour days after, one of Buford's men came into the 
camp, holding upon the point of a Bowie-knife a human heart ! ' Boys,' 

said he, ' see here is the heart of a d d Abohtionist ; he told me he 

was an Abolitionist, and I up with my rifle and dropped him. I cut his 
heart out, and it ain't cold yet ; and now I'll cut it open and see how it 
looks inside ; then I shall fry it and see how the d d thing tastes !' " 

General J. H. Lane (Commander of the " free-State party"), 
in a letter to the New York journals, dated Fremont County, 
Iowa, September^ 22, 1856, says: 

" On my amval in Kansas I found the border papers teeming with in- 
flammatory denunciations of our citizens, and boldly pi-oclaiming against 
them a war of extermination ; and in response to their incitements, 
hordes of depraved, misguided desperadoes entered the country, many of 
them having inscribed on their hats, ' Death to Abolitionists, and no 
quarter.' A mother and her two daughters, in the absence of the hus- 
band and father, were violated by nearly one hundred fiendish men. 
The gifted Major Hoyt, who had gallantly sers'ed his country in the 
Mexican war, was brutally liacked to pieces, and a few sods thrown over 
him, leaving his arms and feet projecting from the eaith, a prey for 
wolves. Prisoners were murdered in a manner exceeding the shocking 
barbarity of savage tribes, and afterward scalped. One man was scalped 
wliile alive, and who yet lives to exhibit his skinless head to an outraged 
world. Dwellings were burned over helpless women and screaming 
cliildren." 

The Sub. Committee, of the National Kansas Committee, in 
obedience to instructions, waited on President Pierce, on Sat- 
urday, the 30th August, 1856, and prayed his interposition 
against his border ruffian herds. The following is a sum- 
mary of results. We give it without remark. Comment is 
not needed. The President said : 



THE SLAVE POWEU ADVA^'CING. 3G1 

"Wliilc Govenimciit hns been exhausting its Constitutional powers, 
to maintain order, Kansas Aid Societies have been actively stirring up re- 
bellion. A foetious spii-it among tlic people of Kansas respecting insti- 
tutions which they need not have concerned themselves about, and which 
would have all come right in time, originated the troubles. From the 
nature, habits, and education of the border-men, it was natural to find 
them excited at such an agitation. The sufferings of the settlers are of 
their own seeking, and the legitimate fruits of that gunpowder-Bible- 
preaching which they and their supporters at the North have advocated." 

REPLY OF THE COMMITTEE. 

"Mr. President, during the eigliteen months or more thiit 
Executive power has been exerted, as is alleged, to preserve 
peace in Kansas, and vainly exerted, it Avould seem, from ad- 
missions here made, the disorders of that Territory have grown 
only worse. At this moment, they are more threatening than 
ever ; a peaceful solution of its troubles seems still more un- 
certain than at any period of its former history. The Presi- 
dent affirms that he has exhausted all his Constitutional powers. 
And yet ' order' is not restored. Under such circumstances, 
may it not be worth while to inquire whether the germ of the 
evils is not to be found in the Territorial laws themselves?" 

President — " This question I do not propose to discuss, at the present 
time." 

Committee — " From whatever source, then, sir, the difficul- 
ties in Kansas have originated, this one thing is patent to the 
country and the world : that notwithstanding all the efforts of 
the Government, disorders of the most frightful character have 
prevailed ; disorders that would shame the worst despotism of 
the worst ages ; disorders so wide-spread and so atrocious, so 
bloody and so infernal, so deeply damning and inhuman, that 
to escape them, the wretched inhabitants would make a gain 
if transferred to the most despotic Government that ever ex- 
isted in the antediluvian world. Daring this dark reign of 
blood and terror ; during this fearful tempest of violence and 
anarchy, these poor unshielded victims of plotted vengeance 

16 



S62 THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 

have broken no law and committed no crime. For hating 
Slavery, because they loved Liberty, all these things have 
come upon them. Such, Sir^ is the nature and character of 
the events which have transpired in Kansas during the past 
eighteen months' policy of the Government. As representa- 
tives of the National Kansas Committee, we are here to-day 
to ask whether any change in this policy of the Administration 
is to be expected f^ 

President — " No, Sirs ! There will be none ! ! the laws of the Terri- 
tory must be obeyed ! ! !" 

" Such, gentlemen of the National Kansas Committee, is the 
substance of our interview with President Franklin Pierce. 
The duty of commenting on the facts here stated we leave to 
you. Our mission is ended. 

"Respectfully, etc., 

"THADDEUS HYATT, 
" W. F. ARNY, 
"EDWARD DANIELS, 
New York, Sept. 1, 1856. "Sub. Com. of Nat. Kansas Com." 

Reader, look for a moment, and see what those " laws" are 
which President Franklin Pierce says, " must be obeyed." 
Here is a specimen : — 

" Section 1. Be it enacted, by the Governor and Legisla- 
tive Assembly of the Territory of Kansas, That every person, 
bond or free, who shall be convicted of actually raising a 
rebellion, or insurrection of Slaves, free Negroes or mulattoes, 
in this Territory, shall suffer death. 

" Sec. 2. Every free person, who shall aid and assist in any 
rebellion or insurrection of Slaves, free Negroes, or Mulattoes, 
or shall furnish Arms, or do any overt act in furtherance of 
such rebellion or insurrection, shall suffer death. 

" Sec. 3. If any free person shall, by speaking, writing, or 
printing, ndvise, persuade, or induce any Slave to rebel, con- 



THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 363 

spire against, or murder any Citizen of this Territory, or 
shall bring into, print, write, jiublish, or circulate, or cause to 
be brought into, printed, written, published, or circulated, or 
shall knowingly aid or assist in the bringing into, printing, 
writing, publishing, or circulating in this Territory, any book, 
paper, magazine, pamphlet, or circular, for the purpose of 
exciting insurrection on the part of the Slaves, free Negroes, 
or Mulattoes, against the Territory, or any part of them, such 
person shall be guilty of Felony and suffer death. 

" Sec. 4. If any person shall entice, decoy, or carry away 
out of this Territcay, any Slaves belonging to another, with 
the intent to deprive the owner thereof of the services of sucli 
Slaves, or with intent to effect or procure the freedom of such 
Slaves, he shall be adjudged guilty of grand larceny, and, on 
conviction thereof, shall suffer death, or be imprisoned at hard 
labor for not less than ten years." 

SECTION I. 

Be it enacted by our noble band 
Of Border-Ruffians (bowie-knife in hand), 
That should a sneaking Yankee from the East 
Come here, and dare to meddle, in the least, 
With any of our Niggers, and incite 
Them to resist our sacred right ; 
Then, whether they be Niggers, black as night. 
Or those in whom we've m^ix'd a little white. 
Whether they wear the chains of Slavery, 
Or have the sad misfortune to be free. 
Any Missourian, happening to be here, 
May cut that Yankee's throat from ear to ear. 
1 

SECTION II. 

If Northern whites, pi'Ctending to be free, 
Shall aid our Niggers to gain their liberty, 
Or furnish rifle, cannon, shot, or shell. 
To help them send their owners back to hell, 
Then some good friend of order and of law. 
Around the Traitor's necks the hemp shall draw. 



3C4 THE SLAVE TOAVER ADVANCING. 

SECTION III. 

If any Yankee in this Temtoiy, 

Shall circulate an Abolition story. 

That tends to make the happy, M^ell-fed Slave 

Begin to think his owner is a Knave, 

And when he feels the lash, to snarl and pout. 

Until, at length, he e'en presumes to doubt 

Our right to trade in Human flesh and bones ; 

Then brave Stringfellow, or gallant Jones, 

Or Atchison, or any man of note, 

May cut his cuss'd Anti-Slavery throat. 

SECTION IT. ^ 

If any notion-pedlar shall induce 

A Nigger from his owner to cut loose. 

And slope for Canada — shall aid his flight, 

And thus deprive his owner of his right — 

Shall coax the Nigger thus to flee, 

With horrible intent to make him free. 

He shall be guilty of Grand Larceny ; 

And, if we catch him, on a gallows high 

Th' infernal Abolition cuss shall die, ^ 

Or toil ten years in prison with a throng 

Of thieves and robbers, should he live so long. 

Ex-Governor Robinson, of Kansas, in a Speech on the suf- 
ferings of the people of that Territory, at the Academy of 
Music, New York, Oct. 22, 1856, said :— 

" But many will ask here to-night, ' Are not these things exaggerated V 
'Have the people of Kansas really suffered as it is said they have?' 
'Are the Newspaper reports true"?' Novo, 1 tell you that 1 have not the 
power to depict to you the outrages that have been committed there, and if 1 
had the power, you could not believe them. I tell you that you can have no 
adequate conception of the outrages perpetrated there. No ! the tongue of an 
angel could not show them." 

The Providence (R. I.) Journal, contains a letter from 
General Pomeroy, to the Rev. S. Wolcott, dated Lawrence, 
Kansas, October 22, 1856, in which he says: — 

'' The prairie fires have spread over our rich, rolling grass- 



THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 365 

fields, and a terrible fire of war and passion has burned up 
every green thing in society and in our comforts, and our 
prospects are dark and dreary. There are men, women, and 
little children, who are reaping a harvest of sorrow from seeds 
sown by invaders from Missouri and the South. I visited, 
the other day, a family of six little girls. Their mother left 
them sorrowfully last spring, for ' that undiscovered country.' 
Tlieir father, a noble man, is a prisoner at Lecompton ; and 
for a month the oldest girl, of twelve years, had to support all. 
the little ones by getting corn from the fields and grinding it 
upon a tin pan, punched full of holes with a nail, then making 
a cake and baking it in the ashes. I am unused to weeping, 
but I wept like a child at such a scene. I could only supply 
them temporarily, and commend them to the Great Shepherd 
' who tempereth the wind to the shorn Iamb.' Oh, what a 
record of sorrow and crime stands charged to the Administra- 
tion of Franklin Pierce ! There are scores of men, unknown 
to fame, but whose record is on high, who lie sleeping in their 
Moody shrouds, uncoffined, ivithout a stone to mark the place 
of their resting. Day before yesterday we followed to the 
grave, Mr. Bowles, who died a prisoner at Lecompton. He 
came here from a Slave State, to get away from Slavery, and 
early identified himself with the bravest defenders of Free- 
dom. His long marches, exposures, and night watches, brought 
on a fever, and after forty-eight hours of suffering, unattended 
by physician or relative, death, the despairing prisoner's friend, 
came to his release. There are over a hundred of our young 
men now in prison, and some are sick — all confined for acts 
and efforts which an angel might envy." 

The Chicago (Illinois) Tribune has the following statement. 
We presume the informant of that journal is Governor Gor- 
man of Minnesota Territory : — 

" We are told by a Democrat of unquestioned faitlifulness to his party, 
himself a Goveriwv, that in a late conversation with Governor Geary, 



366 THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 

that gentleman stated that, daring a trip on a much frequented road, soon 
after his arrival in the Territory, he saiv the bodies of twenty-sir murdered 
Free-State men. Some of these had been shot or biained, and thrown 
out by the roadside to rot under the burning sun. Others had been 
scalped as Indians scalp their victims. One was pinioned to a tree by a 
bowie-knife driven thi'ough his heart into the solid wood at his back ; on 
his breast was fastened a written warning to all other " Abolitionists." 
Some were buried just beneath the prairie sod, their hands and arms left 
sticking out of the shallow holes into which they had been thrown. 
Upon others, the nameless mutilations of private parts had been com- 
'mitted. In all cases, brutality seemed to have exhausted itself in insult- 
ing what, among civilized men, whether friend or foe, are looked upon 
with respect — the bodies of tiie dead." 

Even in this world, retribution sometimes follows hard upon 
the heels of sin. Franklin Pierce thought he had secured his 
renomination to the Presidency of the United States by pur- 
suing the course we have described. But the Slaveholders 
demanded an exhibition of virtue even sterner than this ; they 
demanded a larger sacrifice, and Mr. Pierce, like Mr. Douglas, 
gave himself away — " sold out." 

There were some such apostles of Democracy in the days 
of old, and of one of these Jeremiah the prophet speaks thus : 

" Therefore, thus saith the Lord concerning Jehoiakim, the son of 
Josiah, king of Judea : They shall not lament for him, saying. Ah, Ah, 
Lord ! or Ah, his Glory ! Ah, my brother ! or Ah, my Sister ! but he 
shall be buried with the burial of an ass." 

There have been such funerals in all the ^'fi-ee States" of 
the Union, and there will be many more. (See the Dough- 
face, Appendix B.) 



CHAPTER II. 

During the debates on the repeal of the " Missouri Com- 
promise," in the United States House of Representatives, in 
1854, the following language was addressed to the opponents 
of that " Measure" by Senator Alexander H. Stephens, of 
Georgia : 

" Well, gentlemen, you make a great deal of clamor on the 'Nebraska 
Measure,' but it don't alarm us at all. We have got used to that kind 
of talk. You have threatened before but never performed. You have 
always caved in, and you will again. You are a mouthing, white-livered 
set ! Of course you will oppose : we expect that, but we don't cai'e for 
your opposition. You will rail, but we don't care for your railing. You 
are like the devils that were pitched over the battlements of heaven into 
hell ! They set up a howl of discomfiture, and so will you ! But their 
fate was sealed, and so is yours ! You must submit to tlie yoke. But 
don't chafe. Gentlemen, we have got you in our power. You tried to drive 
us to the wall in 1850, but times are changed. You went a wooling and 
came home fleeced. Don't be so impudent as to complain. You will 
only be slapped in the face. Don't resist, you will only be lashed into obe- 
dience." 

On the 22d of May, 1856, Avhile Senator Charles Sumner, 
of Massachusetts, was writing at his desk, in the United States 
Senate Chamber, he was violently assaulted by two men — 
Preston S. Brooks and Lawrence M. Keitt, members of tlie 
House of Representatives, from South Carolina. They had 
armed themselves with Revolvers and heavy Bludgeons, and 



368 THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCI^'G. 

approaching the Senator, while sitting at his desk, engaged in 
"writing, Brooks struck him with his bludgeon a violent blow 
on the head, which brought him stunned to the floor, and 
Keitt, with his weapons, kept off the bystanders, while Brooks 
repeated the blows upon the head of the apparently lifeless 
victim. 

The Richmond (Va.) Whig, speaking of this assault, ranted 
its joy after the following fashion : " A glorious deed ! a 
most gloi'ioiis deed ! ! Mr. Brooks, of South Carolina, ad- 
ministered to Senator Sumner, the notorious Abolitionist, from 
Massachusetts, an effectual and classical caning. We are re- 
joiced. The only regret we feel is that Mr. Brooks did not 
employ a Slave-Avhip, instead of a stick. We trust the ball 
may be kept in motion. Seward and others should catch it 
next." 

The Petersburg (Va.) Intelligencer , said : "We entirely con- 
cur with The Richmond AVhig, that if thrashing is the only 
remedy by which the Abolitionists can be controlled, that it 
will be well to give Senator William H. Seward a double 
dose at least every other day until it opei-ates freely on his 
political bowels." 

The JRichmond (Va.) Examiner, one of the most blasphe- 
mous and " highly respectable" journals in the State, com- 
menced thus : " Good ! — good ! ' — very good ! ! ! The Aboli- 
tionists have been suffered to run too long without collars. 
They must be lashed into submission. Sumner, in particular, 
ought to have nine-and-thirty early every morning. There is 
the blackguard, Senator Wilson, an ignorant Natick cobbler, 
swaggering in excess of muscle, and ;;bsolutely dying for a 
beating. Will not somebody take him in hand ? Senator Hale 
is another huge, red-faced, sw^eating scoundrel, whom some 
gentleman should kick and cuff until he abates something of 
his impudent talk. We trust other gentlemen will follow the 
example of Mr. Brooks, that a curb may be imposed upon the 



THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 369 

truculence and audacity of Abolition speakers. If need be, 
let us have a caning or cowliiding every day." 

The Examiner -v^iixa. but eclioes the all-prevailing sentiment 
of the unhappy South, whose feverish writhings and contor- 
tions seem to indicate " the torments of the damned," and may 
appropriately exclaim in the language of Milton's Satan : 

" Me misei-able ! Whither shall I fly'? 
Which way I turn is hell — myself am hell !" 

The South Side (Va.) Democrat said : " The telegraph has 
recently announced no information more grateful to the feelings 
of the chivalrous sons of the South than the caning which this 
Abolitionist received in the United States Senate, on the 22d 
instant" (May 22d, 1856), "at the hands of the chivalrous 
Brooks, of South Carolina." 

It is clear, that if Senators and Representatives from the 
"/^■ee States" can not enjoy the right of free speech or free dis- 
cussion, without being liable to brutal assaults, they must, of 
necessity, arm themselves with Bowie-knives, Sword-canes, 
and Revolvers. To think of enduring quietly such attacks as 
that upon Mr. Sumner is craven and pusillanimous. The 
" chivalrous" champion traffickers in Human flesh will never 
learn to respect Northern men until a few of their number 
have rapiers thrust through their ribs or feel bullets in their 
throats. It is the only way to put a stop to their " classical" 
Slave-breeding nonsense. Once admit the idea of the pre- 
dominance of brute force — of the right of individual appeal 
from words to blows — and human society becomes a state of 
T,ar diversified by interludes (jf fitful and hollow truce. And 
t'ley who, as legislators, editors, public speakers, or in what- 
ever capacity, suggest apologies for ruffian assaults, or intimate 
that words can excuse them, make themselves partners in the 
crime and the infemy. 

2Vie New York Jownal of Commerce apologized for the 
16* 



370 THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 

brutality of Brooks and Keitt, by saying that Sumner was 
guilty of " wholesale denunciation and bitter personalities," 
and quoted what one of the Slaveholder's Organ, The Wash- 
ington (D. C.) Star, said of the character of Mr, Sumner's 
speech. What the Star said was nothing to the purpose, the 
question is, what Mr. Sumner said, and as his speech was pub- 
li.-hed prior to t!ie publication of The JournaVs article, the 
" pious editors" of that " highly respectable evangelical journal" 
should have |)laced it before their readers. They had, how- 
ever, an eye to the " Southern department" of their business, 
and prudently kept the provocation out of sight. 

Every press, North and South, in the employment of Satan 
and Slavery, has a thousand times iterated and reiterated the 
cry of " slander" and " falsehood," but no one has made a 
single specification. They dare not make the attempt. They 
know the charges are true, and that every villany Mr. Sumner 
charged them with they have committed. It is, in very truth, 
because it is not false, that he has offended. If his charges 
were false, all that was necessary to consign him to disgrace 
was to prove them so. But no number of canings or murders 
will ever prove these charges false. They are irrelevant 
testimony. They do not touch the case, or if they do, they 
only go to confirm the truth of Mr. Sumner's statement. 
He says that " Slaveholding is aggressive, insolent, and over- 
bearing." Keitt says it is a " lie," and a " slander," and 
Brooks, to prove it a lie and a slander, clubs him for saying so. 
He does this " as a gentleman," and this the Slaveholders and 
their "■ white Niggers," North and South, consider conclusive 
proof that Sumner's charges ar^ false ! 

In countries not essentially barbarous, when a man commits 
a murder, everybody has a right to speak of it. The criminal, 
instead of being permitted to kill, or to threaten to kill, like 
Brooks, those who speak of it, is shut up in jail and considered 
the culprit. 



THE SLAVE TOWER ADVANCING. 371 

General James Watson "Webb, Editor of The New York 
Courier and Enquirer, in a letter to his Journa), dated Wash- 
ington, D. C, May 24, 1856, says : 

" To attempt to describe the actual state of affairs here in the 
Capitol of the Nation, would be a hopeless task. It would not 
he believed were one from Heaven to proclaim it trumjjet-tonguea 
through the ?fmo?,.and yet no one can live here, as I have for 
the last six months, without feeling his blood boil at witness- 
ing the fears and apprehensions of fatal consequences, on the 
part of our Northern men, if any one ventures openly and 
manfully to speak the truth in the bar-rooms, on the corners 
of the streets, and on the floor of Congress. And there is 
reason for these fears ! This is a city in a Slave District, 
visiters are mostly from the Slave States, and a large majority 
of them (not the better portion of them), carry Revolvers and 
Bowie-knives ; and what is more, they have both here, and 
elsewhere, proved that they will not hesitate, on occasion, 
freely to use them. Tliey are overhearing, threatening, and 
defiant in their manners, and our people have been overawed 
and roioed. It is the right of Freemen boldly to express their 
sentiments here, as well as elsewhere ; I tell them, in all sin- 
cerity, that the time has arrived when they must do so, courte- 
ously, andfearlessly, on all proper occasions, and in all proper 
places, or we shall all, and speedily too, become as completely 
the Slaves of the Slave Power as are their plantation chattels ; 
or, what is far more degrading, we shall become the same pliant, 
cringing, and sycophantic instruments of the Slaveocracy as 
are the Northern doughfaces" (see Appendix B), " who are 
made by the present Administration to discourse just such 
music as their Southern Masters may be pleased to dictate for 
the time being. 

" Aside from the favored few in the Slave States, nineteen 
twentieths of their population carry Arms, Bowie-knives, Re- 
volvers, and Sword-canes. This is conclusive as regards the 



372 THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 

demoralizing tendencies of an ' institution' which the Admin- 
istration, acting under the dictation of the Slave Poiver, and 
aided hy unscrupidous politicians of the North, are endeavor- 
ing to force upon the free people of Kansas. To this end, the 
entire influence and patronage of the Government, its Civil, 
Military, and Moral power, are all directed ; and alongside of 
these, prominent and threatening, stands the bullying of the 
Slaveocracy, boastingly pointing to the Bowie-knife, the Re- 
volver, and the Bludgeon, and impudently taunting the entire 
North with cowardice ! I can not blame them for their love 
of power and their' desire to extend it ; I do not quarrel with 
their ruder civilization, the natural offspring of their ' peculiar 
institution ;' and I do not wonder at their believing that the 
douo-hfaces of the North, who so meekly do their behests, are 
but a type of our whole people, and that we can be buHied, 
whipped, or ' kicked' into any course of policy which they may 
please to dictate to us. 

"Will the North — the ^ree, and educated, and civilized, 
and peace-loving North — tamely submit to the impudence 
and the bullying of the Slave Power ? This is the question 
which I desire to put, directly, to every law-abiding and 
Union-loving freeman of the North." (See Appendix B.) 
" I would have the entire North awaken to the atternpt of the 
Slave-Power to extend the ' institution' into free Territory, 
and the means resorted to, to accomplish that nefarious pur- 
pose. I would have them feel that the time for action has 
arrived ; and that not only must that action be prompt and 
efficient, if we would protect ourselves from the encroachments 
of Slavery, but that if we tamely submit to the bullying habit- 
ually resorted to here, in the Capital of the Nation, we shall 
very soon be taught that Liberty of Speech is a boon which 
we hold subject to the caprices of the Slave Power, and to in- 
dulge in it equallj'" with themselves may, at any time, be visit- 



THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 373 

ecI by the discretionary application of tlie Revolver and the 
Bludgeon. 

" Of the purposes of the Slave Power and its Northern 
allies in the coming Presidential Election" (November 4th, 
1856), "there is no longer any doubt. It is openly declared 
by the Democratic press from Maine to Texas ; and only this 
day, the Government organ" (^The Union) "published in thi: 
City, boldly declares that ' whatever other question may enter 
into the coming contest, the Slavery issue, as included in the 
Kansas measure, must and will take precedence. In compari- 
son with it, all other questions are of minor importance.' And 
in allusion to Mr. Buchanan's past Federalism, and the sus- 
picion only that it may cause him to prefer his country, and 
the rfghts of freedom, to mere party, it adds : ' We want no 
man whose record is not thoroughly Democratic' 

" These declarations are significant ; and richly will the 
people of the North have merited the outrages and contumely 
which are daily heaped upon them by men immeasurably 
their inferiors as regards manhood and civilization, if they 
hesitate to vindicate their right to freedom of speech, or falter 
in their determination to drive back into the fens and marshes, 
where it properly belongs, the 'institution' which Washington, 
and Jefferson, and Madison, alike condemned, but of which 
Pierce, and Douglas, and the doughfaces of the North, acting 
under the lash of the Slave Power, have become the willing 
propagandists." 

The General, speaking of the cowardly assault on Mr. 
Sumner, adds : " Upon receiving the blows, given in quick 
succession, and with great force, Mr. Sumner attempted to 
rise from his seat, to which he was in a measure pinioned, by 
his legs being under the desk — the legs of which, like all the 
desks of the Senate Chamber, have plates of iron fastened to 
them, and these plates are firmly secured to the floor. His 
first attempt to rise was a failure, and he fell back into his 



874 THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING 

cliair, and the blows of his assailant continued to fall merci- 
lessly upon his uncovered head. His second attempt ripped 
up the iron fastenings of his desk, and he precipitated himself 
forward. He was prostrate on the floor, and covered with 
blood. The assault was justified 'and even applauded by 
Douglas, Toombs, and their fellow Senators, and by every 
Representative of the people, save two" (Humphrey Marshall, 
of Kentucky, and Henry W. Hoffman, of Maryland), "from 
the Slave States, and by every Representative of the people, 
North and Sc«uth, who speaks the sentiments or sustains the 
measures of the Administration of the countrv." 

That General Webb, Editor of The New York Courier and 
Enquirer, hitherto one of tht bitterest enemies of the Anti- 
Slavery cause, and the instigator of the Pro-Slavery riots of 
1835, should now be found battling, side by side, with the 
Abolitionists, is, to say the least of it, "the very biggest 
piienomenon of the Nineteenth Century." "We hope the 
General won't backslide from the faith. 

In October, 1835, the General, speaking of the friends of 
the oppressed, said : " These dangerous men" (that is, the 
Abolitionist>!, the true friends of the country) " must be met ! 
They agitate a question that must not be tampered with ! 
They are plotting the destruction of our Government, and 
they must not be allowed to screen themselves from the enor- 
mousness of their guilt, under canting pretences !" ****** 
" And now, we ask the Citizens of the United States, if they 
are prepared to bring such a catastrophe upon the country, to 
gratify the visionary projects of a band of canting fanatics f^ 
*********** Are they willing, by giving countenance 
and currency to such a man as William Lloyd Garrison, to 
put in jeopardy the fair fabric of ourWheriy — the last and the 
only hope of Civil and Religious fieedom on earth?" 

The good book assures us that " the wise man's eyes are in 
his head." The General's eyesight was " considerably ob- 
scured"— in 1835. 



THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 37.) 

As respects the great pioneer and leader of the Anti- 
Shivery cause, he has the consolation of reflecting, that when 
the falsehoods of the day are witiierrd and ro!len, he sjiall 
be respected and esteemed. And if the name of Geneial 
James Watson Webb, and his co-\voi-kers, should descend lo 
posterity, they will be known only as the recorded instru- 
ments of part of his persecutions, sufferings, and misfortunes. 
The Governor of South Carolina, in his " Message," for the 
year ISo-i, said: " South Carolina must hereafter exist as a 
tiiiUtary people. The history of our counti-y for tiie last ten 
years affords abundant proof that, as long as the Union en- 
dures, there is to be no peace for the Slaveholder. An eter- 
nal warfare against his rights and property, under the associa- 
ted influence of the people and States of .the North, has been 
solemnly and deliberately decreed. For this i-eason it is 
essential that the State should be prepared at any moment for 
every emergency." 

South Carolina is rather a talkative little State. She has 
about 274,567 "genuine white inhabitants," and about 393,580 
party-colored ones. But these "white inhabitants" makeup 
for their paucity of numbers by an immensity of brag and 
bluster, which is truly terrible to listen to. See what 
South Carolina has done in a military way. In 1775, after 
the battle of Bunker Hill, Congress voted that each State 
should raise its contingent of Soldiers, for the common defence. 
South Carolina asked that her soldiers might remain at home, 
in consequence of her '■'■peculiar institutions." The request 
ivas granted, and her soldiers stayed at home. Compare her 
revolutionary services with New England. In the nine years 
of the Revolution, South Carolina sent into the continental 
army 6,417 soldiers ; Connecticut, 32,039. Yet Connecticut 
had not so large a population as South Carolina. At the same 
time, Massachusetts sent into the continental army 83,162 
soldiers. The six Slave States sent only 59.336 soldiers tc 



376 



THE SLAVE FOWER ADVAKCING. 



that war, while New England alone sent 119,305, besides 
Militia. 

Nevertheless, the children of South Carolina are taught to 
despise such names as Bunker Hill, Lexington and Mon- 
mouth, when compared with Eutaw Springs, Cowpens and 
Fort Moultrie. The Northern child, when asked, " Who was 
the greatest man of America?" is apt to reply, "George 
Washington;" the Carolina child pertly answers, John C. 
Calhoun! The Southern child needs an honest ''History of 
the United States of America." 

The following Table shows the number of " Troops" and 
" Militia" furnished by the several States, for the support cf 
the Revolutionary war, from 1775 to 1783, inclusive: — 



NORTHERN" STATES. 


No. of Continen- 
tal trooi.s. 


No. of Militia. 


Total number of 
Troops. 


Conjcrtural esti- 
mate ol' Militia. 


New Hampshire 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 


12,496 
67,937 
5,908 
32,039 
17,781 
25,608 
10,727 


2,093 
15,155 
4,284 
7,792 
3,312 
7,357 
6,055 


14,598 
83,092 
10,192 
39,831 
21,093 
32,965 
16,782 


3,700 

9,500 
1,500 

3,000 


New York 

Pennsylvania 


8,7.50 
2,000 
2,500 






Total 


172,496 


46,048 


218,553 


30,9.50 


SOUTHERN STATES. 


2,387 
13,912 
26,672 
7,263 
5,508 
2,679 


376 
5,464 
4,163 
2,716 


2,763 
19,376 
30,835 
9,969 
5,508 
2,679 


1,000 


Maryland 


4,000 . 




21,880 


North Carolina 

South Cai'olina 

Georo'ia 


12,000 

28,000 
9,930 






Total 


58,421 


12,719 


71,130 


76,810 



Yet, so great is the spirit of. " brag" in that chivalrous 
State, that a Senator from South Carolina had the eifront- 
ery to attribute the independence of the country to the Slave- 
holders of that State. The records of the country disown the 
suggestion. The State of South Carolina itself, by authentic 



THE SLAVE POWEK ADVANCING. 377 

history, disowns it. "We have " peculiar" and decisive testi- 
mony on this head, under date of March 29, 1779, from the 
Secret Journals of the Continental Congress : " The commit- 
tee appointed to take into consideration the circumstances of 
the Southern States, and the ways and means for their safety 
and defence, report that the State of South Carolina (as rep- 
resented by the delegates of the said State, and by Mr. Huger, 
who has come here at the request of the Govei'nor of the 
said State, on purpose to explain the circumstances thereof), 
is unable to make any effectual efforts with Militia, hy reason 
of the great projjortion of citizens necessary to remain at home, 
to prevent insurrection among the Slaves, and to prevent the 
desertion of them to the enemy. That the state of the country, 
and the great number of these people among them, expose the 
inhabitants to great danger, from the endeavors of the enemy 
to excite them to revolt or desert." {J^ife of Gen. Greene, 
vol i., p. 105.) 

"There is not," said a Member of Congress from South 
Carolina, " a gentleman on the floor who is a stranger to the 
feeble situation of our State, when we entered into the war to 
oppose the British power. We were not only without money, 
without an army or Military stores, but were few in numbers, 
and likely to be entangled with our Slaves, in case the enemy 
invaded us." (^Annals of Congress, 1789, 1791, vol. ii., p. 
1474.) 

Similar testimony to the weakness engendered by Slavery was 
borne by Mr. Madison, in debate in Congress : '' Every ad- 
dition Georgia and South Carolina receive to their number of 
Slaves, tends to weaken them and render them less capable 
of self-defence." (^Annals of Congress, vol. i., p. 340.) 

Dr. Ramsey (the Historian of South Carolina), a contem- 
porary observer of the scenes which he describes, exposes this 
weakness : " The forces under the command of Gen. Provost 
marched through the richest settlements of the State, where 



378 THE SLAVE POWER ADVANCING. 

are the fewest white inhabitants in proportion to the number 
of Slaves. The hapless Slaves, allured with the hope of free- 
dom, forsook their owners, and repaired in great numbers to 
the Royal Army. They endeavor to recommend themselves 
to the British by discovering where their owners had conceal- 
ed their property, and were assisting in carrying it off." 
{History of South Carolina, vol. i., p. 312.) The same can- 
did historian, describing the invasion of the next year, says : 
"The Slaves a second time flocked to the British Army." 
(Vol. i., p. 336.) 

At a still later period, Mr. Justice Johnson, of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, and a Citizen of South Carolina, 
in his elaborate life of General Greene, speaking of the Slaves, 
makes the same admission : " But the numbers dispersed 
through the Southern Slates was very great ; so great as to 
render it impossible for the Citizens to muster free men enough 
to withstand the pressure of the British arms." (Vol. ii., p. 
427.) 

From the letters of Gen. Otho Holland Williams, of Mary- 
land, one of the noblest men of the time, the intimate friend 
and right-hand man of Gen. Nathanael Greene, many passages 
could be quoted in proof of the abject state of South Carolina 
during the War of Independence. One or two will suffice. 
Gen. Williams, writing to his brother, in Maryland, after the 
capture of Charleston by Sir Henry Clinton, says : 

" You may rely on it, my dear brother, that the enemy have had such 
footing and influence in this country, that their success in putting the in- 
habitants together by the ears has exceeded even their own expectations ; 
the distraction that prevails surpasses anything I ever before icitnessed, and 
equals any idea which your imagination can conceive of a desperate and 
inveterate civil war. There are a few virtuous and good men in this State 
and in Georgia, but a great majority of the people /s composed of the most 
infamous scoundrels that ever existed on earth. The daily deliberate mur- 
ders committed by pretended Whigs and reputed Tories (men who are 
actually neither one thing nor the other in principle), are too numerous 



THE SI.AV:: POVrKR ADVANCING. 379 

and shocking to relate. The licentiousness of various 'classes and de- 
nominations of villains desolate this country, impoverish all who attempt 
to live by any other means, and destroy the strength and resources of the 
country, wliieh ought to be collected and united against a common 
enemy." 

Toward the close of the war, Gen. Williams thus writes to 
a brother Officer, Major Edwards, vindicating General Greene 
from the slanderous charges heaped upon him : 

" The late revolution in South Carolina is owing not*nly to a change 
of circumstances, but to a change of men in the Government of that 
country. How daringly impudent is it for those who have been rescued 
from misery and dejection, to arraign the virtue that saved them. Gen. 
Greene exercised a superior judgment, changed the system of Military 
operations in that country, and used the only possible means of recover- 
ing it — and dare the ingrates now accuse him of any interested design, 
or any view of ambition, other than that which receives its highest grati- 
fication from the thanks and approbation of a 'free people' ? And do 
the devils dare to treat with neglect and contempt that little corps of 
gallant men who saved them from despair ! There are sensible, amiable 
characters ia Carolina, but I always feared the niajoritij loere envious, jeal- 
ous, malicious, designing, unprincipled people. Come one, come all of you 
away and leave them ! I am glad to hear the Northern troops are re- 
turning. Though I can not flatter myself with the pleasure of seeing 
them rewarded as they deserve, there will be something done for them ; 
they will not starve on the same fields in which they have bled." 

General Williams' original letters, from which these extracts 
have been made, are now in the possession of his grandson, 
residing in Baltimore. 

But " never mind all that," South Carolina is growing mar- 
tial — *' a crisis is approaching," as witness the following para- 
graph from the " Message" of Governor Adams, delivered in 
the South Carolina Legislature, on the 27th day of November, 
1855: 

" The agitation in relation to Slavery continues to increase, and is rap- 
idly tending to a bloody termination. Measures, which it was hoped 
by some, would give quiet to the country and dignity to its deliberations, 
have served but to redouble the efforts and augment the power of Aboli- 



bbO THE SLAVE POWER ADYAXCING. 

tion. Civil war is a direful calamity, but its scourges are to be endured 
in preference to degradation and ruin. The people of South Carolina 
are alive to the issue, and are mindful of their obligations ; they are calm, 
because they are prepared and self-reliant. They have not forgotten their 
history, and will not fail to vindicate its teachings. The right to | rovide 
new guards for their future security, has been sealed by the blood of their 
ancestors, and it will never be surrendered." 

Tlie imperious spirit of ISoutli Carolina is not confined to 
that fussy little State. The whole row of cotton-growing 
States are agitating the re-opening of the African Slave- 
Trade, with all its horrors and its hideous enormities. The 
entire South is wild with excited clamor about its "rights," 
and about the wrongs which it claims to have suffered at the 
hands of the "infidel Abolitionists of the North." Pam- 
pered with official patronage, puffed up by political victories, 
the Slave Power defiantly shakes its fist in the Nation's face, 
crying, "More! more!" 

Men of America! Shall Slavery rule the Nation? Or 
shall not the spirit of freedom be heard and felt in her 
Councils ? 

"All men are created equal : they are endowed by 

THEIR Creator with certain inalienable 

eights; among these are life, 

liberty, and the pursuit 

OE happiness." 



APPENDIX A. 

COLOEPHOBIA m THE "FEEE STATES." 

In Heaven, according to the theology of America, a " colored 
man" may sit down with the just made perfect, his sins washed 
white " in the blood of the Lamb :" but when he comes to a 
certain Baptist Church in Boston, Massachusetts, he can not 
own a pew. And there are few Churches where he can sit in 
a pew at all. 

In the earlier years of the Anti-Slavery effort in Boston, 
before it became absolutely certain that the clergy were to be 
" out-and-out" opposers and not helpers of it, the prayers of 
the Churches, on Sundays, were hundreds of times requested, 
in the ordinary form, by Anti-Slavery men and women, in 
behalf of Slaves whose cases were then before the public, and 
hundreds of times refused. To ascertain whether any change 
had taken place between the years 1831 and 1851, an Anti- 
Slavery man made trial as follows. The Old South Church 
(Rev. Dr. Blagden's, equally with Park Street Church the head- 
quarters of Boston orthodoxy) had for many years maintained 
in its vestry a daily morning Prayer-nieeting. Finding it 
customary to present requests, sometimes verbal and sometimes 
written, that particular bodies or individuals might be made 
the subjects of special prayer, one morning in May, 1851, 
while the Boston court-house was in chains, and the case of 
the kidnapped Sims yet unfinished, he handed in the following 
note: — 



382 COLORPHOBIA IN THE FKEE STATES. 

" The prayers of this congregation ai-e requested in behalf of a brother 
who is now in imminent danger of being torn away from the religious 
privileges of Boston, and carried as a Slave to Georgia, where the laws 
forbid him to read the Bible ; also, that God would be pleased to arouse 
the Churches of this city to a sense of the duty of not delivering agaiu 
to his Master" (that is, Kidnapper) "the Servant" (that is, the Stolen- 
man) " who has escaped from his Master" (that is, his Kidnapper) " unto 
tliem." 

This note was presented during the singing of a hymn. 
The chairman (Rev. Dorus Clarke), having cast his eye over 
it, beckoned to Deacon Safford, who sat near him, and after 
he also had read the note, they held a brief whispered con- 
ference together. The purport of this could only be con- 
jectured, but as the note was not read to the meeting, nor any 
allusion whatever made to it, it was manifest they had decided 
that the poor man who had fallen among thieves belonged to 
another parish ; that they were neither his " keepers" nor his 
" neighbors," and that the interests of their Zion would pros- 
per quite as well whether he were adjudged a Slave or a 
freeman. 

In Boston, as in New York, the " colored" man is turned 
out of the Omnibus, out of the Burial-ground. There is a 
burial-ground in the neighborhood, and in the Deed that con- 
fers the land it is stipulated that no person with Negro blood 
in his or her veins can ever be buried there. Nowhere but in 
the jail and on the gallows has the black man equal rights 
with the white in American legislation. 

A Congregational Church in New Haven, Connecticut, 
parcelled out in its Cemetery, a side lot for the burial of '* Nig- 
gers." But it became necessary to enlarge the Cemetery and 
bury whites on the other side of the " Niggers," so that they 
now — "to the great mortification of the more respectable 
members of the Church" — occupy the centre. One "brother" 
proposed to erect a wall three feet in height, on both sides of 
the " Nigger ground." This was assented to, with a proviso 



COLOKPHOBIA IN THE FREE STATES. 383 

that tlie wall be five instead of three feet. The pastor of the 
Church thought "a wall five feet in height altogether too low," 
and proposed one of seven. The good man evidently thought 
there would be a practical difference between a wall of seven 
and one of five feet. A " Nigger"-soul might be capable, 
he thought, of jumping over a five-feet wall, but could be kept 
at bay by the height of a seven-barred gate ; " black souls" 
being inferior to white ones in leaping according to the Pro- 
Slavery or " Lower Law" estimate. 

Alexander Crummel, a colored young man of the city of 
New York, made application to become a candidate for " holy 
Orders." He received from his Bishop the usual circular in 
such cases, in which he was encouraged to " belong to the 
General Theological Seminary," located at New York. In 
the Statutes of the Seminary it is expressly said, " Every 
person producing to the Faculty satisfactory evidence of his 
having been admitted a candidate for holy Orders," &c., 
" shall be received as a student of the Seminary." He was, 
however, referred to the Board of Trustees. A Committee 
was appointed to consider and report, consisting of Bishop 
Doane, Rev. Drs. Milnor, Taylor, and Smith, and Messrs. D. 
33. Ogden, Newton, and Johnson. The next day (June 26, 
1839), Bishop Doane, on request, was excused from further 
service on this Committee, and Bishop Onderdonk, of Penn- 
sylvania, appointed to fill the vacancy. This Committee 
reported, June 27th, that " having deliberately considered the 
said petition, they are of opinion that it ought not be granted," 
and they recommended a resolution accordingly, which, on 
motion of Rev. Dr. Hawks, was adopted. Mr. Huntington 
moved that the subject be referred to the Faculty, which was 
lost. Bishop Doane, June 28th, asked leave to state to the 
Board his reasons for dissent, with a view to the entering of 
the same on the minutes. Leave was not granted. During 
these proceedings Mr. Crummel was advised by the Bishop 



i}B4 COLORPHOBIA IN THE FREE STATES. 

of New York to withdraw his petition, and was assured that 
" the Facuhy were wiUing to impart to him frivate instruction." 

In the minutes of the proceedings there was a careful 
avoidance of all allusion to the cause of excluding Mr. Crum- 
mel, leaving it to be inferred that it was for some cause besides 
his " color," which was not the fact. Mr. Crummel afterward 
became a member of the Theological department of Yale 
College, New Haven, Connecticut, but not being treated there 
as white students are, he was compelled to complete his educa- 
tion in Europe. 

This unchristian prejudice has stood in the way of the 
emancipation of thousands of Slaves ; and it will be at once 
perceived that, should the position of the " free colored people," 
be conspicuously reversed in the '•'•free States," the effect upon 
the emancipation of the Slave would be very great. They, 
then, who, in the '■'■free States," keep up this prejudice are no 
less Slaveholders than their " brethren" of the South. 

The Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, in a letter to the New 
York Independent, of September 4, 1856, says: — 

" The most miserable creatures that we know of are those 
who attempt to unite a love of Slavery and of Liberty. Like 
all hermaphrodites, they are merely monsters. Every day, 
we meet men who hate Abolitionists more than they love 
liberty. They turn away from every step toward Liberty with 
aversion. They are eager to believe falsehood against Anti- 
Slavery men. They are reluctant to believe the truth. When 
any event occurs tending to deepen the public feeling in favor 
of liberty and against Slavery, they refuse to aid in publishing 
it. They eye it askance, with sneering jealousy. But the 
moment that means and opportunity are affoi'ded to discredit 
such movement, they become zealous and active. We have 
never seen this more illustrated than in the case of the Slave- 
woman Sarah, whose substantial emancipation took place in 
Plymouth Church not long ago." (See p. 133.) "As much 



COLORPHOBIA IN THE FREE STATES. 385 

as we knew of the vindictiveness of the ' we-disUke-Slavery-as- 
much-as-anybody' men, we were surprised at their conduct in this 
matter. There could hardly be a case to appeal more irresisti- 
bly to the human soul. Indeed, there were present in Church, 
at the time, many Southerners, and several Slaveholders. Not 
one of them was unmoved. They ivept, and contributed liber- 
ally. Sarah behaved herself with such modest and womanly 
propriety, her case was so affecting, the Slave of her own 
father, sold by him to go South, bought by a Slave-trader 
through sympathy, who offered to sell her to herself for a 
hundred dollars less than he paid for her, her little daughter 
of four years old, kept from her by her own white father, the 
spontaneous uprising of three thousand strangers,' and their 
eager charity to put into her hands that golden key which 
should unlock the door of her prison — all these things consti- 
tuted one of the strongest cases that could arise. 

" What has been the result ? All papers and persons who 
had hearts worthy of men rejoiced in the deed and spread it 
abroad. But others, what did they ? Scarcely a day had 
passed before rumors were set in motion that it was all a 
deception. Pro-Slavery papers, in New York, Boston, Phila- 
delphia, Cincinnati, and elsewhere, were shocked that s^h a 
violation of the Sabbath-day and of the sacredness of a Church 
should be tolerated ! The poor woman's character was grossly 
assailed, and she was charged with voluntary immoralities. 
Fabulous incidents were paraded — such as, that a diamond 
cross had been put into the contribution by some fair child of 
wealth, whose sympathies had been deceived, and it was as- 
sumed that probably the cross was a gift of love, and squan- 
dered upon a lie ; whereas, no cross of any kind was ever 
contributed, and nothing except money, with the exception of 
a small common breastpin, worth one dollar, given by a poor 
man who had nothing else to give. Sarah's story was pror 
nounced a forgery, the whole thing was declared to b« a specu- 

17 



386 COLORPHOBIA IN THE FREE STATES. 

lation, and finally, it was hlazoned abroad that she ivas tired 
of liberty, and had of her own accord gone bach to her master 
and to Slavery. This last story roused up the Slave-trader 
who had bought her of her father, and he sent the following 
letter to the Editor of the The New York Daily Times, which 
duly appeared in that paper : — ^ 

. " 'Richmond, Wednesday, August 6, 1856. 
" 'Dear Sir : I saw a correspondence in your paper, that the Slave- 
girl, Sarah, had returned to me, which is a base falsehood, which I wish 
to correct. I had nothing to do with her going to New York, nor her 
coming away from there. I purchased the girl through motives of sym- 
pathy, for $1,200, and agreed to emancipate her on the payment of $1,100, 
which amount lias been paid to me, and I have executed to her her eman- 
cipation papers in the usual way. I have not seen her, or had any con- 
trol over her for the last two months. I understand that she is living in 
Washington City with a widow lady. Yours, respectfully. 

'"F. SCHEFPEH.' 

" But there is a Southern side of this story. This Mr. 
Scheffer, who in the whole transaction has labored with a 
humanity worthy of all praise, and who has proved himself a 
man of feeling in spite of his ignominious trade, this man loas 
subject to such animosity on account of his simple kindness, 
thaltke was in danger of being mobbed, and was obliged, for a 
time, to seclude himself. What is the condition of a community 
when its Slave-traders are liable to popular violence for hu- 
manity to Slaves ? This was in Richmond, Virginia. In a 
State whose wealth largely depends upon the Slaves, it is not 
deemed safe to allow Slave-brokers and Slave-traders to pos- 
sess over-nic^ feelings about their cattle. When Sarah re- 
turned from New York to Washington, for the purpose of col- 
lecting the subscriptions which had been made toward her 
freedom, she found multitudes who refused to pay their sub- 
scriptions. Some because she had been among the Aboli- 
tionists, and many of the clerks in Government employ refused 
to keep their promises, because, if known, it would cost them 



COLORPHOBIA IN THE FREE STATES. 387 

their places. On this account, it became necessary to use all 
tliat had been raised for the purchase of Sarah^s child, and to 
raise a hundred dollars more for the completion of her own 
purchase-money, and the child is still in bondage. 

" In another age this story will figure in history. Such in- 
cidents as these are characteristic of the age and communities 
in which they happen. And men will recount this incident as 
an evidence of the utter corruption both of human feeling and 
of moral courage, wrought in a '■free Nation' by that universal 
corruptor — Slavery. For though the Slaves live only in the 
South, the spirit of Slavery pervades the Nation — a contempt 
of man in his weakness, a contempt of liberty, except for the 
strong, and a hatred of everything that works for liberty. 
Slavery, like a dismal swamp, is local, but its miasma is Na- 
tional. It has poisoned the very Constitution, the laws, the 
customs, and the people themselves, of a Nation which boasts 
of nothing so much as its Love, its hereditary Love of Liberty 
for all ! "HENRY WARD BEECHER." 

A Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia advertised burial 
lots for sale, with the particular recommendation of them, that 
no colored persons or executed criminals were buried in the 
cemetery. 

The New York Evening Post, of May 21, 1857, says : 

"Robert Purvis, of Pennsylvania, the ' lir^ht-complexioned mulatto,' 
who spoke so eloquently at the recent Anti-Slavery Convention against 
the Dred Scott decision, has a special reason to feel ajrgrieved by oppres- 
sive legislation and prejudice against the colored race. It appears that 
Mr. Purvis, who enjoys the advantages of wealth and a foreign educa- 
tion, and who once received from James Forsyth, Secretary of State, a 
passport recognising his citizenship, is the largest school-tax payer but 
one in the county where he resides, and yet the law forbids his children 
from attending the very schools he does so much to suppoit." 

In March, 1855, Miss Isabella Newall, a teacher in one of the 
Public schools in Cincinnati, Ohio, " discovered" a " Nigger" 



388 COLORPHOEIA IN THE FREE STATES. 

in her school, and immediately applied to the Board of Edu- 
cation of the City, soliciting his dismission, not for improper 
conduct, nor on account of his inability or unwillingness to re- 
ceive instruction, but because his skin was " darker than that 
of some of the other scholars." The matter was brought be- 
fore the Board, and appears to have received considerable dis- 
cussion in that body, but it was finally decided he " must take 
his walking papers." The vote stood fifteen to ten. Upon 
the announcement of the result, two of the Board resigned, 
both members from the District in which the contemptible 
Miss Isabella teaches. The young Miss is said to be the 
daughter of a most " venerable" Pro-Slavery saint, having an 
extensive business connection in Kentucky, which may account 
for her repugnance to " Niggers" — especially educated ones. 

The Cincinnati Times, of March 9, 1855, gives the gene- 
alogy of this poor boy, which we copy — " for the benefit of 
mankind :" 

" The great-grandfather was a full-blooded whiteman, and a Methodist 
clergyman in the State of Indiana, where he died. The father, David 
E. Graham, was a Baptist clergyman, in Athens County, Ohio, where 
he preached to several white congregations. The wife of Allen E. 
Graham was half Indian and half white blood, making the grand-parents 
on the mother's side — the grandfather, one eighth African and the rest 
white. The grandmother had no African blood at all in her veins, but 
had a small portion of Indian blood. The mother of the boy is about 
one-sixteenth African blood, and about the same amount of Indian blood, 
but is of fair complexion. The boy Graham has one thirh/second part of 
African blood in his veins, and about the same of Indian. 77ie lot/ has 
fair skin, a high Roman nose, and light straight hair, and has no African 
features about him." 

The cutaneous democracy of Ohio vindicated itself in the 
State Senate by the exclusion of William H. Day, Editor of 
The Cleveland Alienated American, a colored man of the 
highest respectability, and graduate of Oberlin (Ohio) College. 

The "/ree State" of Illinois fmay God save our feet from 



COLORPIIOBIA IN THE FIIICE STATES. 389 

ever touching her soil), passed, on the 24th February, 1853, 
one of the most atrocious laws ever written in a Statute-book. 
It is not enough for the " Evangelical" Pro-Slavery Law- 
makers of this State to insist that no Slave shall be freed — it 
will not suffice to re-fetter every colored or party-colored man, 
who, in horrible anguish, had snapt asunder his chains. No ! 
the " //-ee and enlightened Democrats of Illinois" must begin 
the work of manufacturing Slaves — at the North where people 
shout themselves hoarse for " liberty, equality, and fraternity !" 
And the cursed busines^commenced, too, in a State that ought 
I to have been proud of its liberties, but will for ever after this 
be a by-word among the Nations. Legree, or Satan himself, 
would have shrunk back with affright from such an iniquity. 
To be a Slaveholder is one thing — but to sell at Auction free 
Men in a "/ree State," is a more stupendous wickedness. 

This infamous law is called, " An act to prevent the immi- 
gration of free Negroes into the State of Illinois" 

To cap the climax, the " act" provides that, after paying to 
the prosecutor one half of the money accruing from the prose- 
cution and sale of '■'■free Negroes," the remainder shall be kept 
as a distinct and separate fund, " to be called ' The Charity 
Fund,' and said fund shall be used for the express purpose of 
relieving the poor" ! ! ! This is intended as a religious conse- 
cration to devilism. 

" Ran Awat. — Committed to the County Jail of Alexander County, 
Illinois, on the 31st day of October, 1854, by L. L. Lightner, County 
Judge, a Negro boy about 30 years of age, weighs about 155 pounds, dark 
copper color ; has a small scar over his right eye, two upper front teeth 
out, and several jaw teeth gone. Calls himself Samuel Sears. The owner • 
is requested tc come forward, prove property, pay charges, and take him 
away. " W. C. MASSEY, Sheriff of Alexander Co. 

" Thebes, Illinois, October 31, 1854." 

Look at the style of this advertisement. How glibly a 
Sheriff of "/;-ee Illinois" uses the Southern phraselogy, as if 



300 COLORPHOBIA IN THE FREE STATES. 

all his life had been passed on a plantation in Mississippi, 
Louisiana, or Texas, and the crack of the " Nigger"-driver's 
whip familiar to his ears. 

The Government has lately reiterated the petty and pitiful 
injustice and lawlessness of refusing Passports to " colored" 
native Americans — Rice's Minstrels — who intended to travel 
in Europe, that refusal being based on the ground, that, al- 
though "born free" in the States of New York and Pennsyl- 
vania, they are not citizens of the United Spates ! 

"Department of State, i 
"Washington, November 4:, 1856. ) 

" H. H. Rice, Esq., New York City : — Sir : Youx- letters of the 29th 
ultimo and 3d. instant, requesting passports for eleven colored persons, 
have been received, and I am directed by the Secretary of State" (Wil- 
liam L. Marcy) "to inform you that the papers transmitted by you do 
not warrant the Department in complying with your request. A pass- 
port is a certificate that the person to whom it is granted is a citizen of 
the United States, and it can only be issued upon proof of this fact. In 
the papers wliich accompany your communication, there is not satisfactory 
evidence that the persons, for whom you request passports, are of this 
description. They ai-e represented in your letters as ' colored,' and de- 
scribed in the affidavits as 'black/ from which statements it may be 
fairly inferred that they are Negroes. If this is so, there can be no doubt 
that they are not citizens of the United States. The question whether 'free 
Negroes' are such citizens is not now presented for the first time, but 
has repeatedly arisen in the Administration of both the National and 
State Governments. In 1821, a controversy arose as to whether 'free 
persons of color' were citizens of the United States, within the intent 
and meaning of the acts of Congress regulating foreign and coasting 
ti'ade, so as to be disqualified to command vessels ; and Mr. Wirt, 
Attorney-General, decided that they were not ; and, moreover, held that 
the words ' citizens of the United States' were used in the acts of Con- 
gress in the same sense as in the Constitution. This view is also fully 
sustained in a recent opinion of Mr. Gushing, the present Attorney- 
General. 

" The judicial decisions of the country are to the same effect. In Kent's 
Commentaries, vol. ii., p. 277, it is stated that, in 183.3, Chief-Justice 
Dagget, of Connecticut, held that 'free blacks are not citizens within the 



COLORniOP.IA IN THE FREE STATES. 391 

meauinn; of the term as used in the Constitution of tlie United States ;' and 
the Supreme Court of Tennessee, in the case of the State against Chii- 
borne, held tlie same doctrine. Such being the construction of the Con- 
stitution in regard to free persons of color, it is conceived that they can 
not be regarded, when beyond the jurisdiction of this Government, us 
entitled to the full rights of citizens ; but the Secretary directs me to say, 
that though the Department could not certify that such persons are citi- 
zens of the United States, yet if satisfied of the truth of the facts, it 
ivoald give a certificate that they were born in the United States, and free ; 
and that the Government thereof would regard it to be its duty to pro- 
tect them if wronged by a foreign Government, while within its jurisdic- 
tion for a legal and proper purpose. 

" I am, Sir, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"J. A. THOMAS, Assistant Secretary/." 

Supposing Christ was now on earth, as he was once, what 
course is it probable jhat he would pursue with regard to this 
unchristian prejudice of " color" ? There was a class of men 
in those days as much despised by the Jews as the party-col- 
ored native Americans are by the " genuine white" portion of 
the population ; and it was a complaint made of Christ that he 
was a " friend of publicans and sinners." And if Christ should 
enter, on some sabbath morning, into one of the " evangelical" 
Pro-Slavery Churches of the "/ree North," and see a "• Nig- 
ger" sitting afar off by himself, would it not be just in his 
spirit to go there and sit with him, rather than to take the 
Beats of his richer and more prosperous brother ? 

" A poor wayfaring man of grief. 

Hath often crossed me on my way, 
Who sued so humbly for relief, 

That I could never answer nay. 
I had not power to ask his name. 
Whither he went, or whence he came ; 
Yet there was something in his eye. 
Which won my love, I knew not why. 

" Once, when my scanty meal was spread, 
He entered — not a word he spake — 



392 COLORPHOBIA IN THE FKEE STATES. 

Just perishing for want of bread, 

I gave him all ; he blessed it, brake, 
And ate, but gave me part again : 
Mine was an angel's portion then. 
For while I fed Avith eager haste. 
The crust was manna to my taste. 

" 'T was night. The floods were out ; it blew 

A winter hurricane aloof : 
I heard his voice abroad, and flew 

To bid him welcome to my roof; , 
I warmed, I clothed, I cheered my guest, 
I laid him on my couch to rest : 
Then made the ground my bed, and seemed 
In Eden's garden while I dreamed. 

" I saw him bleeding in his chains. 

And tortured 'neath the driver's lash, 
His sweat fell fast along the plains. 

Deep-dyed from many a fearful gash : 
But I in bonds remembered him, 
And strove to free each fettered limb. 
As with my tears I washed his blood. 
Me he baptized with mercy's flood. 

" I saw him in the ' Nigger-pew/ 

His head hung low upon his breast, 
His locks were wet with drops of dew, 

Gathered while he for entrance pressed 
"Within those aisles, whose courts are given 
That Black and White may reach one Heaven ; 
And as I meekly sought his feet. 
He smiled, and made a throne my seat. 

" In prison, I saw him next condemned 

To meet a traitor's doom at morn ; 

The tide of lying tongues I stemmed. 

And honored him midst sliame and scorn. 
My friendship's utmost zeal to try. 
He asked, if I for him would die ; 
The flesh was weak, my blood ran chill. 
But the free spirit ci'ied, ' I will.' 



THE DOUGHFACE. 393 

" Then in a moment, to my view, 

The stranger darted from disguise ; 
The tokens in his hands I knew, 

My Saviour stood before my eyes ! 
He spoke, and my poor name he named — 
' Of me thou laast not been ashamed ; 
These deeds shall thy memorial be ; 
Fear not, thou didst them unto me.' " 

Montgomery and Denison. 

There is power enough in true religion to melt down the 
most stubborn prejudices, to overthrow the highest walls of 
partition, to break the strongest caste, to improve and elevate 
the most degraded, to unite in fellowship the most hostile, and 
equalize and bless all its recipients. (See St. James ii. 2-9.) 



APPENDIX B. 

THE DOUGHFACE AND THE REV. JUDICIOUS 
TRIMMER, D. D. 

I. — The Doughface is a man facile and ductile in the 
hands of those who have him in possession, and who have an 
object to serve in moulding him. 

John Randolph used, for the first time, the term " dough- 
faces." He applied it to Senators and Members of Congress 
from the '•'■free States," and said : " We will drive you back ! 
"We will nail you to the counter, like base coin !" All North- 
erners were angry. John Randolph has kept his word. We 
are not aware that Mr. Randolph himself ever gave any ex- 
planation of the true orthography of the term which he em- 
ployed, or of the precise sense in which he used it. Probably 
he was willing to allow it to be taken in all the senses suggest- 
ed, according to the difference of humors and fancies ; trust- 
17* 



394 THE DOUGHFACE. 

ing, like a good rhetorician as he was, that each person would 
understand it in the sense that seemed to hira most forcibly 
contemptuous. Backed up, however, by a quotation from 
Hosea, as explained by Matthew Henry's Commentary upon 
it, the spelling " doughface," and the idea of " dough-head," 
have pretty generally prevailed as the true orthography and 
real meaning of an epithet so essential at the present moment 
to the haters of oppression — to the ti'ue friends of the Slave. 

The genuine dougiiface loves " our glorious Union." He 
venerates the American Eagle. If he has an enthusiasm, it is 
for the Star-Spangled Banner, and he says so on all occasions. 
He denies that there are any Legrees at the South ; denies 
that Families are separated at Private sale, or at the Auction- 
block ; denies that Bloodhounds are kept on the larger Plan- 
tations, to hunt up runaway " property ;" denies that "Women 
are flogged on their naked backs, or murdered in cold blood ; 
denies that the Slave-breeding States sell tens of thousands of 
their '' colored" Children every year ; denies that young Wo- 
men are picked out, like four-legged animals, and set apart as 
Breeders ; denies that young Women are sold as Mistresses to 
any one Avho pays most; denies that fathers — often members 
of Churches — sell their own Children; denies that the 
Churches sanction Polygamy among their members, or are 
supported, in part, by the wages of Prostitution ; denies that 
Education and the Bible are forbidden the Slaves and free 
people of color. He " would like to know how some people 
came to be so much wiser than our forefathers? Why didn't 
they abolish Slavery? Why didn't they mention Niggers in 
the Declaration of Independence, if they meant to include 
'em?" He is confident that the Fugitive Slave bill, or 1850, 
and the Nebraska bill, of 1854, would have received their ap- 
proval ; in fact, he -is inclined to think that the original drafts 
of them were made by Jay and Hamilton. " To be sure they 
emancipated their Niggers," but he doubts " whether they 



THE DOUGHFACE. 395 

iN'Ould have done it if they had foresfen the use some people 
Mould make of it. And if Wa.-hiugton did emancipate his 
Kiggere, it was when he was on his death-bed, and, probably, 
after liis mind began to wander." 

Tiie Doughface is "an American, in the true sense of the 
word." He is " not an Abolitionist, or a Disunionist, or an 
Araalgamationist, or anything of that sort — nothing but a 
mon ;" that is aU. He has been brought up to reverence the 
Union ; he has no notion of dissolving it himself or having 
anybody else do it. He is also a great lover of " Law and 
Order." He considers Mob attacks on Kidnappers shameful 
outrages. He is not a Lawyer himself, but his ''opinion is 
that such offences come under the head of high treason, in the 
first degree." He is confident he has seen a decision some- 
where, to that effect, by Judges Taney and Kane. He is sure 
of one tiling: That the entire safety of Society depends upon 
the maintenance of "law." The laws may be imperfect; 
they may seem wrong; but they must be supported. The 
only cliance of getting better is to obey such as exist. He is 
an Abolitionist; he abhors Slavery. But with the Slave 
Stiites none can legally interfere ; the extension of the System 
can not be legally resisted ; the Constitution guaranties the 
return of Fugitives. He is very sorry, but it can not be 
helped. He is particularly fond of quoting Daniel Webster's 
Speech against " South Carolina Secession" where it talks 
about "the broken fragments of a once glorious Union, dis- 
severed, discordant, and drenched with fraternal blood," which 
he says, was " intended as a warning to posterity not to elect 
A.iiti-Nebra.-.ka members of Congress." He considers Slavery 
"a moral and political evil; and yet, what can be done to 
get rid of it, without some Greater evil happening? — that is 
the question." Again : " As to my own position and opinio:is 
on the Slavery question — all my friends" (he is a Commission 
Merchant in the lovver section of New York city, ind receives 



396 THE DOUGHFACE. 

large consignments, of Cotton, Sugar, etc., from the South) 
" understand me very well, and know that I am opposed to it, 
root and branch, in All places, and under All circumstances." 
But he thinks that by weakening the South it gives the North 
greater commercial advantages and political preponderances. 
Nothing would give him greater pleasure than to help forward 
the Anti-Slavery cause, but really he has " no time to attend 
to such matters. My Anti- Slavery friends must know, from 
seeing me so constantly pressed for time, in my Office, with 
my own business, that J can not do anything else" He has, 
nevertheless, written to his " particular" and " very respect- 
able" friends, male and female, some rather strongly- worded 
letters, favoring the Anti-^\2i\evj cause, but " would not, for 
the world," see lithograph copies of one or more of them in an 
Anti-Slavery book, as that would be certain to cause the 
transfer of his Southern clients into other hands. 

The doughface admires the Southern character. He de- 
plores the much misrepresented condition of the Slaves — 
" well fed and well clothed, and taken care of in their old age. 
"What more do they want ?" He is for ever talking about 
what he calls " the horrors of sectional strife," his great object 
being to " pour oil upon the troubled waters," to conciliate th-e 
conflicting interests of opposing localities and at all hazards to 
" Save the Union."* He did not justify the butchery of 

* The history of Congressional proceedings for the last thirty 
years may be summed up in one sentence, namely, that the Slave 
Power legislators have demanded what legislation they wanted, with 
the threat that they would dissolve the Union if they did not get it ; 
and that the legislators of the North have, with trembling hearts, 
granted all their demands, "to save the Union." The Lord have 
mercy on the poor souls who have not had the manliness to do what 
they knew to be their duty! Likewise on their constituents, who, 
for the sake of holding on to their Southern customers, have stuffed 
cotton in their ears, that they might not hear the cry of black 
brethren, pi-aying for deliverance from worse than Algerine bondage ! 



THK REV. JUDICIOUS TUIMMEK, 0. D. u07 

Senator Sumner, of Massachusetts, by Brooks and Keitt, of 
South Carolina; but, then, if a man chooses to insult people, 
by telling the truth in plain language, as plain as that used in 
telling lies on the other side, he must make up his mind to 
take the consequences. In short, that though Brooks and 
Keitt were entirely wrong, still, they served Mr. Sumner 
exactly right.* 

The doughface is a perfect enthusiast in his admiration of 
the Holy Bible, yet loves his own race better than any other, 
and has a peculiar horror of that kind of preaching which 
drives a man into the corner of his pew and makes him think 
the devil is after him. 

II. The Rev. Judicious TpaMJiER, D. D. — Dr. Trimmer 
began to study the " signs of the times." He became con- 
vinced that reformatory movements could not be " crushed 
out." He must look out for his interest, and like Uzzah who 
was a martyr to his extreme caution, he conceived it to be his 
mission to steady the ark. Radicalism he hated ; but in order 
to head radicalism, he must turn moderate reformer. Aboli- 
tionists could not be held back from doing something, unless 
it was hy men xoho had some reputation as reformers. By 
gaining such a reputation. Dr. Trimmer could be useful to 
himself in various ways. The conservatives would pay him 
for holding back the radicals, and the radicals would pay him 
for dragging along the heavy conservatives. He could get up 
a reputation as a reformer cheap. He could '■' pray for the 
enemies of our glorious Union," and that would catch the 
* moral-suasion Abolitionists." He could denounce " infidel 
reformers," and that would keep peace with the " conservative 
theologians." He could talk about Slavery as a "sin," but 

* If the Uniou should happen to be saved, small thanks to Mr. 
Doughface and his time-serving friends and adherents. 



398 THE REV. JUDICIOUS TRIMJIETt, D. D. 

denounce those who secluded themselves from the Churclies 
which upheld the sin. After each Sermon or essay in favor 
of " gradual emancipation," he could assert his determination 
to live and die in his Church, whether it went for emancipation 
or not. Thus he would be able to get support and praise 
from both sides. 

By preaching a little ^?z<z-Slavery himself, he could keep 
itinerant brethren out of his pulpit. The Elders could say, 
" our minister preaches on the subject, and we have no need of 
lecturers." He could thus hold the people under his hand, 
and could keep all things steady. He did not like Senator 
Sumner's speech, but thought Brooks had not done altogether 
right. He believed that Mrs. Stowe did injustice to the 
Slaveholdei''s character, but he thought her genius noble and 
fine. He did not vote for Fremont ; he did not like the 
array of hostility to the South which the Republican party 
presented. He does not profess to know what is politic, or 
what is not ; he seeks only to see the truth, and as he sees it 
to express it; and he thinks it would be just as well to let 
such simple persons as himself have a place in the world, to 
say their say, unharmed. He is no time-server ; but he does 
not believe that all the truths of man's nature are violated by 
his friends at the South any more than by his friends at the 
North ; neither is altogether right, or altogether wrong ; still 
less that it is just for either side of the Republic to charge the 
other with crimes never committed. In this conviction he 
expects to live and die. 

Dr. Trimmer pursued the same course in regard to " Chris- 
tian union." He hated Sectarianism, he said, but he was 
equally afraid of come-out-ism. When a man came into the 
place to preach " Christian union," he proposed to exchange 
with his Baptist brother, and thus show how friendly they 
were, so as to " take the wind out of the sails of this U7iion 
movement." 



THE REV. JUDICIOUS TUT^niKK, D. D. 309 

Mr. Judicious Trimmer, D. D., like the Editors of certain 
milk-and-water A/itiSh\very joiirnalts of New York, Boston, 
Philadelphia, Cincinnati, and other Cotton-ridden Cities, adopt- 
ed this absorption system generally. That is, when any re- 
form began to (/roiu popular, he would engage in it just enough 
to keep "peace in thg Church," and quiet the community, un- 
der the impression that the " minister" was a " reformer," and 
yet be careful not to render any real aid*fo radicalism. Words 
of reform were cheap. He could use them, too, with a "good 
conscience;" and as these reformatory words pleased the peo- 
ple, he became an adept in their use. At the samt time, he 
kept at peace with his denomination. If any grew restless 
under the idea that the denomination was not advancing fast 
enough, Mr. Trimmer was just the man to be put forward to 
restore quiet. Was he not a reformer ? and did he not re- 
main in the Church ? Did he not talk against Slavery and 
Sectarianism, and keep in the organization ? Such a man 
must be right. Thus, you see, he formed a kind of break- 
water on both sides, and catched any stray " donation" or " rise" 
in Salary which floated up from either side. Pie is " not a 
professed friend nor a professed enemy of Slavery" — he re- 
gards it as a " perplexing question" — and thinks it does not 
" professionally" belong to his calling, etc. 

Mr. Trimmer went for " restricting and limiting evils" — but 
was not so fanatical as to think of abolishing them. Wherever 
there was a Church which was likely to lose some of their 
members by secession, he was just the man for that place. He 
could be reformer enough in words to keep the radicals quiet, 
and he never did any deed to disturb the others. On -sev- 
eral occasions he attended " protracted meetings" with such 
Churches, and "healed all their breaches, by his judicious 
course." True, his meetings, with all his reform talk, left the 
Church dead on such subjects, practically ; but Mr. Trimmer 
became all the more popular. Some of the radicals C07n2}lm?i' 



400 "the abolitionists did it all." 

ed of him as loorse than a dozen opposers, for they said that 
his reputation as a reformer gave him double power to stab the 
cause. Many young ministers took him as a " model." The 
seminaries taught hi^ system of clerical tactics, under the head 
of " Pastoral theology," and the Rev. Solomon Straw-watcher, 
D. D., often referred young students to his success, as an illus- 
tration of the system. He won praise from all parties, and 
his wealth increased, thus showing how to obey that passage 
of Scripture which says, " Make unto yourselves friends of the 
mammon of unrighteousness." 

The judicious trimmers know the infamous character of the 
*' heaven-horn institution." • They know it is an " institution" 
opposed to God's law of love, and man's sense of right. They 
know it is a blight to every state which cherishes it, and a 
curse to the *' free States." They know that it degrades labor; 
begets indolence, fosters violence, and drags down society to a 
permanent barbarism. They know that from the first it has 
been, and until it is destroyed it will be, a cause of dissension, 
and strife, and practical disunion, in the land. But they are 
time-servers, they have an eye to the golden calf. Therefore 
they cry to this hideous monster of perdition, " Be thou our 
God !" and bow to it, and worship it. 

On the whole, the Doughface is the most contemptible spe- 
cimen of humanity on earth. 

The Slaveholders and their allies — the doughfaces — accuse 
the Abolitionists of having done the Anti-Slavery cause more 
injury than good; but this is denied; and no better reply to 
such nonsense can be given than that which we find in a letter 
of Wendell Philips, Esq., of Boston, Massachusetts, to a 
" friend" in England : 

" My Dear Sir : Your letter needed no apology ; it was a 
pleasure to receive it; such criticisms do us good, they show 
us how we strike strangers (distance of place performs the 
part of distance of time), and recall us to the duty of recon- 



"the ABOLlIIOMSiS DID IT ALL." 401 

sidering our course, and the reasons on which it is based. It 
is not ckiming much to ask that you will not suppose us so 
foolish as to wish the lives we give to a hard duty utterly 
thrown away, by a bad choice of means or misdirected effort. 
If we are in error, therefore, he does us a kindness who sets 
us right ; and our gratitude should be in proportion to the 
worth of the cause such error harms — the value we set on 
ours, and our sincere conviction of the goodness of the means 
we use to forward it, we have shown by the lives we devote 
to them. Your letter objects to the language and temper in 
which the Anti-Slavery agitation is conducted, and the per- 
sonal character it often assumes. You ask us to consider 
whether such a course is either justifiable or expedient ; and 
I judge from a letter which enclosed yours, that you think our 
mistake in these respects, has injured the Anti-Slavery cause 
in the Slave States, and put back emancipation, especially in 
Virginia, Delaware, Kentucky, and Maryland. 

"I will tell you my views on these points; though frequent 
experience leads me to doubt whether, except in rare cases, 
any but an American can fully understand our position. Na- 
poleon, you know, always maintained that Wellington ought, 
according to all military rule, to have been beaten at "Waterloo. 
The world, I believe, has never had the patience to listen to 
his explanation. The victory settled for us the military suffi- 
ciency of the means that gained it. Our case, allow me to 
say, is precisely similar. In 1830, the cause of the Slave was 
desperate enough. The reaction, after the intense political 
excitement of the Missouri question, was perfect ; and the 
whole nation went to sleep. The pulpit was dumb, the press 
discreetly silent, and every politician avoided the fatal ques- 
tion with the instinct of self-preservation. Since then, the 
Anti-Slavery agitation, under Mr. Garrison, has achieved a 
wider and more immediate success than any similar cause ever 
gained in the world before. It has aroused the whole country, 



402 "the abolitionists did it all." 

di-iven the South to that madness and those rash counsels, 
which, according to the Greek proverb, always precede destruc- 
tion ; swallowed up, like Aaron's rod, all th.e other political 
issues — Bank — Tariff — Internal Improvements, etc. ; drew 
into the vortex of its own excitement all the great statesmen 
who had again and again pledged themselves never to touch 
the question, Webster, Benton, Clay, etc. ; blotted out the 
lives of the two parties that have ruled us for half a century, 
and turned every man into Pro or Anti-slavery — unionist or 
disunionist — broken to pieces the two greatest sects, Presby- 
terian and Methodist, and is putting the rest on their good be- 
havior ; it has filled every pul2Dit, railroad car, lyceum, pub- 
lic hall, and private fireside, every arena, literary, religious or 
pnlitical, with discussion; witness (the last instance) Mr. 
Clioate so desperate as to steal the occasion of a literary ad- 
dress for a caucus speech. In a word, it has taken up the 
Nation by the four corners, and shaken it out of all its old 
habits and trains of 'thought, turning it into an Anti-Slavery 
Debating Society ; and all this, living in a country ruled by 
Public Opinion, and conscious that Truth is on our side, we do 
not despair of success. If God grant us as much during the next 
twenty years as we have had the past, our first of August will 
be near, if not over, unless some other and bloody Exodus is 
before us in the providence of God. 

" I know you may say all this would have happened with- 
out Mr. Garrison and his friends. So, perhaps, the Reforma- 
tion would have come some time or other, without Luther, and 
our Revolution without Washington or Adams. But he who 
maintained that either event would have taken place as and 
when it did, without these men, will recollect that the pre- 
sum])tion is the other way, and that the burden of proof rests 
upon him. You may urge also, that the Anti-Slavery agita- 
tion would have succeeded better if differently conducted. 
But when the success has been so unparalleled, the ohjector 



"the abolitionists did it all." 403 

must recollect that the burden of proof rests iipon him, and 
that, until the contrary is shown, such u?iequalled success is 
conclusive evidence that the method of agitation was well de- 
vised. It may be very natural for parties whom Mr. Garrison 
has annihilated, and sects which he has broken to pieces, to 
find fault with him ; hut it was hardly to he expected they should 
allege that the campaign in which they have been so signally 
defeated, by a miserable minority, was ill planned and worse 
executed. 

" What I wish you to observe is, that you are calling on the 
conqueror, in a case where accident could have no part, to 
prove his military capacity. He answers you, in Wren's 
epitaph, ' Circumspice !' Look around you. As you remark 
in your letter, all American discussions, political and religious, 
are carried on with such personality and frank and blunt cen- 
sure as are distasteful to an Englishman. Granted. It ought 
then, to be no matter of surprise that the Anti-Slavery agita- 
tion shares in the national fault ; nor should it be matter of 
special blame, that a man, in becoming an Abolitionist, did not 
cease to be an American in his habits and tastes. Indeed, we 
might claim that if there be any cause which could justify the 
most direct and harsh censure, and the utmost personality, it 
must be ours. Could we sit down together, and compare the 
Anti-Slavery with the religious and political press of the United 
States, I think that you would allow that its higher aims and 
purer principles have elevated and refined, as you think they 
should do, the tone of its discussions. Indeed, making fair 
allowance for difference of individual tastes, recollecting the 
priceless right we are battling for, and that our ranks are too 
poorly filled to refuse any man who offers his aid, I can say I 
have no fault to find with the language or temper of the Anti- 
Slavery press. To Alexander's criticism of their weapons, the 
Scythians made answer, ' If you knew how sweet freedom was, 
you would think it right to defend it even with axes.' 



404 "the abolitionists did it all." 

" Consider our position and recollect our object. Living in 
a land governed exclusively by Public Opinion — ruled by men 
not by laws — we are attempting to abolish a system of Slavery 
sanctioned by Public Opinion. To effect our object we must 
entirely change this Public Opinion. We are a minority ; all 
the posts of influence are held against us, the pulpit, the press, 
the senate-house, and the market-place. Yet to succeed, we 
must reach every class in the community, the thoughtless and 
the thoughtful — the calm and the enterprising — the rude and 
the refined, the ignorant and the educated. In such circum- 
stances, to expect every Abolition speaker to model himself on 
Dr. Channing is the greatest mistake. Dr. Channing spoke 
to the man of refinement and culture, with feelings sensitively 
alive to every consideration of duty and humanity. But with 
the exception of these, a few thousands at best, he was of no 
avail till lips more Saxon than his translated him for the benefit 
of the masses. The world has been criticising, for a century, 
the Methodist and the Moravian for their want of taste, and 
the rude familiarity with which they speak of things held sacred, 
and usually approached only with great decorum. But the 
Methodist and Moravian have touched more hearts than all 
the educated pulpits. The Quaker, while his words were 
half battles and stung like adders, made converts. He has 
become staid and decorous and ceased to grow. The fact is a 
new idea, the germ of Reform, is first a sentiment, then a 
thought — and afterward a principle. Hence almost all Re- 
f6ims have originated among the masses and worked their way 
upward. I do not know that a single great Moral Reform has 
sprung from the schools ; and when any Moral Reformer has 
appeared there, he has found himself speedily ejected and 
forced into the company of those who live in their sentiments, 
the mass of mankind. Their language is rough, blunt, and 
often coarse, as some over-fastidious ears count coarseness. 
Reformers are usually made of the same stuff, and share these 



"the abolitionists did it all." 405 

faults. And one of a different stamp seeking to bridge over 
the space between him and his audience, borrows for tlie mo- 
ment their vocabulary. 

" You allude to the personality of our discussions. In a 
country like ours, governed, as I have reminded you already, 
entirely b}' Public Of)inion, the opinions of those who either 
in the pulpit, at the head of the press, or in political station, 
represent and seek to mould the moral sentiment of the com- 
munity, are practically _/ac^s of momentous import to all of us. 
Our immediate welfare and our future destiny are inevitably 
and deeply affected by them. In such circumstances those 
persons have no right to complain if their opinions and actions 
are scanned and criticised with relentless scrutiny by parties 
so deeply concerned in them as we are. If they shrink from 
this responsibility they must quit the post which entails it. 
The politician is our servant, whose acts it is our duty and 
right to criticise — the mistakes of the clergyman and the 
editor make our farms less valuable and our lives less secure — 
endanger free speech and jeopard the welfare of our children — 
they must expect to be vigilantly watched. 

" If you object to our frequent judgment of motives, I need 
only remind you that such judgment is necessarily made upon 
a very close consideration of the thousand minute circumstances 
of a man's past history, present position, previous declarations, 
known associates, general character, &c., &c., which none but 
those near at hand can properly estimate, so that tee may be 
oftener right than your general hioivledge of our country would 
lead you to think. As to the expediency of openly stating that 
which is generally surmised, who can doubt that it is one 
powerful means of destroying the influence of the plausible ar- 
guments of designing men to point out to those they are likely 
to delude, the corrupt and interested motives by which they 
are led. It seems to me that nothing but very false charity 
would require that we should omit from our criticisms of 



405 "the abolitionists did it all." 

"Webster the well-known fact, that he did not believe his own 
statomenls or rely on his own arguments, mid would never 
have used either but from calculations of political expediency 
and the hope of the Presidential choir. Our cause must be 
very strong, indeed, when it can afford to forego, in its unequal 
battle with a Nation, so potent a means of opening men's eyes 
to the treachery of his conduct, and the fatal course on which 
he was leading the Nation. After all, the masses judge of opin- 
ions more hy the men who hold them than by the arguments on 
which they rest. Our aim is to free the Slave, by changing 
the sentiment of this Nation. We must take human nature as 
we find it, and use all honest means to reach and mould the 
National heart. 

"As for the here oft-answered objection about Delaware, 
Maryland, &c., it is one of the stale pretences of Pro-Slavery 
hypocrisy. Ever}* candid man, of all parties, North and South, 
laughs at such statements. They served their purpose years 
ago, but have long since fallen into the kennel of exploded lies. 
Intelligent Southerners have again and again confessed that 
the agitation had weakened the whole system ; Cassias M. 
Clay acknowledged it for Kentucky — Mr. Vaughan, his part- 
ner in the editorship of the Louisville Examiner, added his 
testimony for that and other States. If you wish more palpa- 
ble evidence, take it in the clouded close of the life of John C. 
Calhoun, who sank to his grave, confessing that the days of 
Slavery were numbered, and throwing all the blame on the 
Anti-Slavery agitation. Indeed, if the Garrison movement, 
with the political efforts which have resulted from it, is putting 
back emancipation, how comes it that for twenty years the 
South has gone frantic with fear, and been calling on the 
North to quell it? threatening to dissolve the Union if it were 
not stopped, and rushing on the maddest course to regain the 
balance of power, which they felt was slipping from their 
hands. Do men usually exhibit such fear and hatred toward 



THE DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN SLAVE-TRADE. 407 

those who are confirming their power and adding value to their 
property? Have the manufacturers of your country offered a 
reward of £5,000 for the head of Sir Joseph Paxton ? or did 
your landholders, during the late corn-law excitement, tar and 
feather the Dukes of Richmond and Buckingham ? Judge 
the South by its acts, not its pretences — and you will easily 
learn by those alone the true effects of our agitation on Slavery 
even in the Slave States." 



APPENDIX C. 

THE DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN SLAVE-TRADE. 

It has often been said that the Slave-Trade was still carried 
on from New York, Boston, Philadelphia, &;c., but as the 
charge has been of a vague and general character, it attracted 
little attention. The world is, however, beginning to get light 
on the subject. There is now lying in Prison, in New York, 
a man (Captain James Smith) who has been tried, in the 
United States Circuit Court, before Judges Nelson and Belts, 
found guilty, and sentenced to two years' imprisonment, and to 
pay a fine of $1,000, for being engaged in the trade. The 
testimony in the case was ample, and although Smith protest- 
ed against his condemnation, on the ground that he was a 
" foreigner," and not amenable to the laws of the United 
States, he did not deny the fact of his share in the business. 
He spoke of it to his friends, and related, with unconcealed 
exultation, the particulars of his wild and desperate career. 

The Editor of The New York Evangelist, who had seen 
and talked with Smith in his prison, says that he told his 
story, not like a criminal making a confession, but rather with 
the freedom and pride of an old soldier relating his battles. 



408 THE DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN SLAVE-TRADE. 

Nor did he intimate a wish that what he said should be kept 
pi'ivate. Indeed, he had previously boasted to others his vil- 
lanous deeds on the African coast. His disclosures, therefore, 
are public property. Some of these are curious. Whether 
he told the truth the world must judge. It is not very prob- 
able that a man would make up a story which implicated him- 
self in a capital crime. Besides, his account is consistent with 
itself; it agrees perfectly with what was proven on the trial, 
and with the descriptions in Captain Canot's book. We be- 
lieve, therefore, that Captain Smith let out the truth : — 

" New York," said Captain Smith, " is the chief port in the 
world for the Slave-Trade." He repeated two or three times, 
"i^ is the g7-eatest place in the universe for it. Neither in 
Cuba nor in the Brazils is it carried on so extensively. Ships 
that convey Slaves to the West Indies and South America are 
fitted out from New York. Now and then one sails from 
Boston and Philadelphia ; but New York is our headquarters. 
My vessel was the brig Julia Moulton. I got her in Boston, 
and brought her here, and sailed from this port direct for the 
coast of Africa." " But do you mean to say that this business 
is going on now ?" " Yes, all the while, Not so many vessels 
have been sent out this year — perhaps not over twenty-five. 
Bat last year there were thirty five'' 

"Are there large shipping-houses engaged in it?" "Yes; 
I can go down to South street, and go into a number of houses 
that help to fit out ships for the business. I do n't know how 
far they own the vessels, or receive the profits of the cargoes. 
But these houses know all about it. They know me. They 
see me sail out of port with a ship and come back a passenger. 
They sometimes ask me, ' Captain, where is your ship ?' " 
(with a shrug). " They know what has become of her."* 

* The profits accruing from a successful run to and from the West 
Coast of Africa are so gi'cat, that the captain generally hides all traces 
of his crime immediately after landing his cargo, by either setting on fire 



THE DOMESTIC AND FOnEIGN SLAVE-TRADE. 409 

" But how do you manage to get away without exciting sus- 
picion ?" " Why, you see, we keep close, and get everything 
aboard, and do not ask for our papers until we are just ready 
to sail. Then we go to the Custom-house, and take out papers 
for Rio Janeiro, St. Helena, the Cape de Verde islands, or any 
port we please — it don't matter where — and instantly clear.'' 
" But if you were seized at that moment, could the officers 
tell, by searching a ship, that she was a Slaver?" "Oh, yes, 
they couldn't help knowing. Besides, they must suspect 
soraetliing from seeing such an almighty crew. My little 
brig carried but 200 tons, and could be manned by four men. 
But I had fourteen before the mast. The moment of leaving 
port is the one of danger. But we don't lose time. A steam- 
er is kept ready, and we get away immediately.* Often tivo 
or three Slavers leave at once. We steam down the hay and 

or scuttling the vessel. In this way a steady market has been established 
for light swift-sailing schooners and brigs, which are built "for one voy- 
age only." 

* Formerly these vessels took out weapons to overawe the blacks as 
well as to fight off intruders ; they also can-led shackles enougli to secure 
as many Slaves as they could carry. Now they depend upon their speed 
to elude cruisers, and instead of binding their human cargo, they simply 
cany a keg or two of shai"p carpet-tacks ; and, if the Slaves become res- 
tive, a handful or two of these sprinkled among them soon reduces them 
to submission. The Slaves being naked and closely packed, can not 
make any movement against their captors without being subjected to the 
most excruciating pain — every step which they take forcing the sharp 
points of the nails into their feet. They also stow the coppers away ; 
and, if boax'ded by a cruiser before the Slaves are taken on board, the 
vessel presents the appearance of a legitimate trader. A few scattered 
bricks might perhaps be found, as well as a barrel of lime, on a close 
scrutiny; but the former may easily pass for ballast; and if anybody 
should be inquisitive enough to ask the use of the latter, why it would 
be the easiest matter in the world to convince him that it was required to 
purify the ship. Once on the Slave coast, however, and the Slaves on 
board, the bricks and mortar would serve just as well to fit up the coppers 
for cooking their food. Such ai-e a few of the modern improvements. 

18 



410 THE DOMESTIC AXD FOI^EIGN SLAYE-TKADE. 

over the har, and then the ocean is before its, and uie set our 
course for any quarter we please." " But when you reach the 
African coast, are you not in great danger from British Sliips- 
of-War?" "Oh, no, we don't care a button for an Enghsh 
squadron. We run up the American flqg, and if they come 
aboard, all we have to do is to show our American papers, and 
they have no right to search us." " That may be very well 
when you are going in empty. But suppose you are coming 
out with a cargo of Slaves on board?" " Even then we can 
get along well enough, if the Niggers loill keep quiet. We put 
them all below deck, and nail down our hatches, and then pre- 
sent our papers. The oncers have no right to go below. The 
■vnly danger in this case is that they will stay on board too 
long, and the Niggers begin to get smothered and make a noise." 
" How many Slaves could you carry on your vessel ?" 
" We took on board 664. "VVe might have stowed away 800. 
If she had been going to the Brazils, we should have taken 
that number. She would carry 750 with ease. The boys 
and women we kept on the upper deck. But all the strong 
men — those giant Africans that might make us trouble — we 
put below on the Slave deck." " Did you chain them or put 
on handcuffs ?" " No, never ; they would die. We let them 
move about." " Are you very severe with them ?" " We 
have to be pretty strict at first — for a week or so — to make 
them feel that we are masters. . ^'hen we lighten up for the 
rest of the voyage." "How d'd you pack them at night?" 
" They lie down upon the deck, on their sides, body to body. 
There would not be room enough for all to lie on their backs." 
" Did many die on the passage ?" " Yes. I lost a good many 
the last cruise — -more than ever before. Sometimes tSe find 
them dead when we go below in the morning. Then we throw 
them overboard." "Are- the profits of the trade large?" 
"Yes, sir, very large. My Brig cost $13,000 to fit her out 
completely. My last cargo to Cuba was worth $220,000." 



THE DOMESTIC AND FOKKIGX SLATE-TRADE. 411 

"Did jou ever get chased by the English shijjs?" ''Yes; 
once a Man-of-War chased two of us. The mate betrayed 
me. I never liked the man. He was scared. He liaii no 
heart. You see, it takes a man of a particular constitution to 
engage in our business. When once at sea with a Slave cargo, 
we are in free bottoms. We belong to no country. We are 
under the protection of no law. We must defend ourselves. 
A man must have a great deal of nerve in such a situation 
■when he is liable to be chased by ships-of-war, or perhaps, linds 
himself suddenly in the midst of a whole fleet. The Mate 
once served me a trick for which I should have been perfectly 
justified in shooting him dead. We were running in between 
the islands of Martinique and Dominique, when suddenly 
tliere shot out from behind the land an English steamer. Tlio 
Mate thought it was a Ship-of-War, and so did I. He was 
frightened and instantly turned the vessel off her course. This 
was the very movement to bring down the enem}^ in cha^e. I 
saw the danger and flew to the helm, and put her back again, 
and we passed by in safety." " But are you not tired of this 
business ?" " Why, I dichi't want to go out the last voyage. 
I tried to get another Captain to take charge of my ship. I 
wanted to stay at home and get married.* But good men iii 
our business are scarce. And I had to go." 

A short time since, The New York Daily Times said, ''The 
Slave-Trade is now actively carried on between New York 
and the coast of Africa. Tiie conduct of the Federal officials 
on this subject is absolutely incredible. Vessels are fitted up 
almost every week, ostensibly for Cuban ports, or for legiti- 
mate trade on the coast of Africa, which almost any trader to 
that coast will not have a moment's hesitation in identifying 
as destined for the Slave-trade. Yet not one of them has the 
slightest difficulty in securing regular American papers. 

* What a lovely husband the scoundrel would be ! Who speaks 
first, young ladies? 



412 THE DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN SLAVE-TRADE. 

" There are Merchants in our streets to-day who are making 
their tens and hundreds of thousands of dollars yearly by a 
traffic condemned alike by the laws and the public sentiment 
of the civilized world." Again : " There are hundreds of Mer- 
chants in New York, who are constantly and largely engaged 
in this traffic; who carry it on as their regular business — 
"who grow rich by it, and live in splendid style, and claim and 
hold high rank in the rich circles of our metropolis by virtue 
of their wealth thus acquii'ed. This fact is generally known, 
and not a week passes in which vessels are not cleared at 
the Custom-House, of whose destination and employment in 
the Slave-trade, the houses who ship crews for them, and even 
the Officials who prepare and sign their papers, are morally 
certain. New York and Baltimore are now, and have been 
for years, the great head-quarters of the African Slave-trade." 

The Richmond (Va.) Dispatch^ speaking of the African 
Slave-trade, says : " It is a notorious and undeniable fact, that 
the African Slave-trade alwaj^s has been, is now" (Nov., 1856), 
" and in all probability always will be, carried on by Northern 
hands. The vessels engaged in the trade are built in and 
owned in New York and New England, and are manned 
mostly by New-Englanders." 

The conscience of the Nation has been utterly debauched 
on the whole question of Slavery, and nothing short of a com- 
plete extermination of the "evangelical" Pro-Slavery Churches 
can work a cure of the wide-spread corruption. If emancipa- 
tion is such an evil that Doctors of Divinity " can not pray 
for it," why should not the "evangelical" Merchants — mem- 
bers of those Churches — be allowed to import hundreds of 
thousands of Slaves every year, without forfeiting their stand- 
ing either in the Churches or in Social life ? 

It is a common subterfuge of the Slaveholders and their 
allies, in order to shield themselves from the just condemnation 
of an indignant world, to claim that the transfer of the Africans 



THE DOMESTIC AND FOKEIGN SLAVE-TRADE. 413 

from their native land to America lias greatly improved tlicir 
condition. As if the true method to civilize the ignorant and 
to enlighten the superstitious were to ravage their coasts — 
give their dwellings to the consuming fire — shoot down all 
who offer any resistance — seize and manacle such as can 
make no defence — drag them on board of Slave ships — pack 
them to suffocation in the holds of those "floating hells" — 
subject them to all the horrors of the middle passage — drive 
the survivors to unrequited toil under the lash, denying to 
them all the rights of our common humanify, forbidding them 
to learn to read the name of God, legally affirming them to be 
" goods and chattels, to all intents, purposes and constructions 
whatsoever," and trafficking in them as in cattle and swine ! 
Wh}', then, prohibit the African Slave-trade, under such a 
penalty? Why not give unlimited encouragement to it? 
Why not let Christian philanthropy be as broad as the Atlan- 
tic, and Africa be depopulated afresh ? What ! put to death 
those benevolent men who kidnap benighted heathens for 
their good ! What ! brand tliose as pirates who forcibly 
remove the natives of Guinea to the plantations of Carolina, 
seeing the result will be their temporal and everlasting wel- 
fare ! Is not this the command of Christ — "Go ye into all 
Africa, and seize as many of its wretched inhabitants as ye 
can by fraud and violence, that they may be taken to Slave- 
holding America, where my Gospel is proclaimed !" 

The Rev. Mr. Bushnell, an American Missionary on the 
Western Coast of Africa for thirteen years, in a letter to The 
New York Evangelist, in March, 1857, says : 

" The Slave-trade is the gi-eat curse of Africa ; it renders the wildest 
savages still more fierce and cruel, and bafHes all attempts at civilization. 
Of course all other commerce is killed by this traffic. The country is 
rich in natural products and might furnish a large export. But all is 
kept down by this one trade. The moment a British squadron, hovering 
on the coast, puts the Slavers in fear and causes their trade to languisli, 
other branches of industry revive. The chiefs, finding less demand for 



414 THE DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN SLAVE-TrlADK. 

human flesh, bring down other commodities — ivory, palm oil, gold Just, 
dye woods, and ebony. Thus the instant the Slave-trade is checked, 
there springs up a legitimate commerce. But while that is in full blast, 
it kills everything else, for it is more exciting and more lucrative. The 
trade in Slaves is more profitable than trade in ivory, for it is easier to 
steal a child than kill an elephant. 

"But the commercial loss is nothing to the moral desolation which it 
leaves behind it. The Slave-trade is the cause of almost all the wars be- 
tween different tribes. It keeps them constantly fighting to procure fresh 
victims. It excites them to attack defenceless villages, and to seize men, 
women, and children. Thus it stimulates to burnings, to mui'der and to 
massacre. And it is shocking to think that it was ' Christian traders' 
who first taught the poor natives these arts of cruelty. And it is the cu- 
pidity of American traders which spurs on the natives to burning and 
butchery, and which brings upon this desolate coast all the woes of hell. 

" A natural effect of such a trade in human flesh and blood is to produce 
a frightful disregard of human life. It has reduced the value of a man to 
the trifle that he will bring from the trader. Many a man has been 
bought for a keg of rum. Lately the price has risen, so that now an 
able-bodied man will fetch about $40, and a boy or girl half that sum. 

"It is often said that these poor Africans do not suffer much, for that 
they are incapable of feeling. They are little above the beasts, and, like 
animals, all places are indifferent to them. On the contrary, they are a 
very sensitive race. Natives of that torrid clime, they are true children 
of the sun. Living in the open air, they drink in bright influences from 
sunshine and from sky. Their feelings are quick. They have a pas- 
sionate love of music. The gondoliers of Venice, floating on their grand 
canal, are not more spontaneous and gushing in their melody than these 
Africans, floating on their inland waters. As the boat glides along the 
lagoons and rivers, the oarsmen keep time with a rising and falling strain. 
If any incident occurs in the sail they instantly improvise a rude poetry, 
and accompany it with a wild melody. Thus everywhere — in their 
boats or bamboo-huts, in every scene of gladness or of grief, at the wed- 
ding or the funeral — their hearts find vent in song. 

" And do these simple children of nature feel nothing when torn from 
their homes and country 1 When I first landed on the coast, the Slave- 
trade was flourishing, and there were many factories near us. I often 
visited the barracoons, and such utter wo and despair I never saw on 
any human faces. Their lightness and gayety were all gone. Their songs 
were hushed, and thej' sat silent and gloomy. It was not a grief which 



THE DOMESTIC AND FOKEIGN SLAVE-TRADE. 415 

burst forth in wild lament, nor a despair which nerved them to fierce re- 
sistance, but a wan and weary look, a despair which was speechless and 
hopeless, as of those doomed to die. There they sat upon the shore 
chained together, now turning a last fond look to the hills and palm 
groves in the distance, and now looking to the Slave-ship which began to 
show its dark hull on the horizon. Thus they watched and wept, their 
stifled sobs answering to the desolate moaning of the sea." 

The Trade goes on briskly — the dealers separate husbands, 
wives, sons, and daughters ; severing all ihe purest and holiest 
ties. Each year millions of dollars are invested in this in- 
famous traffic, and thousands of its victims perish in the rice- 
swamps and sugar-field of the South ; men whose purses are 
heavy with the gold gained as the price of blood by the sale 
of their Slaves, mingle in the highest social circles North and 
South, sit in Congress, or at the Communion Table, or stand 
in the Pulpit, in fellowship with the great majority of the 
Churches. The bloody Slave-whip is ever doing its cruel 
work, and the red-hot branding-iron hissing in the flesh of the 
wretched victims of cruelty, and sorrow and anguish unutter- 
able dwell in the hearts of millions. 

Such are some of the results of a long career of compromise 
with sin. 

The Nation has sold itself to the Slave Power. That 
Power has hitherto had control of the Government, and is 
now to hold it until 18G1. For the last twelve years, to go 
no further back, each successive Administration has per- 
formed some act of signal service to the Power which con- 
trols it. 

Thus, from 1845 to 1849, Polk, Dallas & Co. were the 
political agents to do the business of the Slaveholder. They 
re-annexed Texas, made the Mexican war, and at great cost 
of money and men, plundered a sister Republic of an enor- 
mous tract of land, whence Slave States are one day to be 
made. 



416 THE SLAVE AND FREE STATES, CONTRASTED. 

From 1849 to 1853, Taylor, Fillmore & Co. had the man- 
agement of the political business. The senior partner in 
that firm, a man too honest to be in such a concern — for it 
was ''a nomination not fit to be made" in more senses than 
one — soon died of "the Washington distemper," and the 
survivors managed as they saw fit. They had a whole Omni- 
bus load of "Compromise Measures." The Fugitive Slave 
Bill was passed; !|j^idnapping became common; practical 
Atheism was proclaimed throughout the land as the first 
principle of Republican Grovernment; the sentence, "No 
Higher Law," was added to the Litany of the Churches of 
Commerce, and the State Rights of the North were broken 
down by the Federal arm of Slavery. 

From 1853 to 1857, Pierce, Cushing, Douglas, Brooks, & 
Co. had a general Power of Attorney to do all matters and 
things pertaining to the triumph of Slavery and the over- 
throw of Freedom; and most diligently did they do their 
work. This firm attended to the minute details of Slave- 
driving, and, while it encouraged Walker's fillibustering in 
Nicaragua, and Lecompte's bloody assizes in Kansas, it 
turned Dr. Jackson out of his postmastership at Cresson^ 
Pennsylvania, because he helped to cure the wounds of 
Senator Sumner. 

Now, from 1857 to 1861, if the firm does not break before, 
Buchanan, Breckinridge, & Co. are to carry on the same 
business at the old stand — sign of the Spread Eagle and 
thirteen Stripes. 



APPENDIX D. 

DOUGH-FACE RELIGION. 

The American Tract Soctety.— The American Tract 
Society has, it seems, full liberty to rebuke ''evangelical 
Christians:" 1. For sending children to dancing-school— but 
not for sending them to the Auction-block j 2. For reading 
novels— but not for preventing millions of colored men, 
women, and children from reading the Bible; 3. For covet- 
ousness— but not for compelling others to labor without 
wages; 4. For trading in intoxicating liquors— but not for 
tracing in the bodies and souls of their fellow-men, or even 
of their "fellow-Christians;" 5. For attending horse-races— 
but not for driving men and women under the lash to the 
Cotton and Sugar fields; 6. For drinking wine— but not for 
robbing millions of men, women, and children of all Civil 
and Religious freedom; 7. For visiting the circus- but not 
for annihilating, by law, the Marriage relation. 

Whenever the books of the Society allude to the existence 
of Slavery, it is as a system unknown to the people of the 
United States, but existing as a phenomenon in distant parts 
of the world. Hear them: — 

"Suppose vou were now in Brazil and the owner of a large esta- 
Wisbmenttofitout Slave-traders with hand-cutfs for the coast of 
Africa, and could not change your business without considerable 
pecuniary sacrifice, would you make the sacrifice, or would you 
keep your iires and hammers going?" And again: "It a man on y 
lives to make a descent on the peaceful abodes of Africa, and to 
tear away parents from their weeping children, and husbands from 
their wives and homes, where is the man that will deem this a 

417 



^ 



418 THE AMERICAN TRACT SOCIETY. 

moral business? Other men will prey upon unoffending Africa, 
and bear human sinews across the ocean to be sold. Have you a 
right to do it?" — (Tract No. 305.) Once more, speaking of tlie 
duty of rescuing the drunkard, it is asked: "What would you not 
do to pull a neighbor out of the water, or out of the fire, or to 
deliver him from Algerine captivity?" — (Tract No. 422.) 

During the twenty-nine years of its existence, the American 
Tract Society has not published a line intended to touch the 
conscience of a Slaveholder. On the contrary, special care 
has been taken to expunge from its reprints of British, 
French, and German books every expression that could 
imply a censure on the stupendous National iniquity. This 
extreme sensitiveness is shown in the mutilation of a passage 
in its reprint of Mr. J. J. Gurney's " Essay on the Habitual 
Exercise of Love to God." On page 142 of the original 
edition, is the following passage : — 

" If this love had always prevailed among professing Christians, 
where would have been the sword of the Crusader? Where the 
African Slave-trade? Where the odious system which permits to 
man a property in his fellow-man, and converts rational beings into 
marketable chattels?" 

This was meat too strong for the digestion of the American 
Tract Society, and hence was carefully diluted, so that it 
might be swallowed without producing the slightest nausea. 
In the Society's edition, page 199, the passage stands thus : — 

" If this love had always prevailed among professing Christians, 
where would have been the sword of the Crusader ? Where the tor- 
ture of the Inquisition ? Where every system of oppression and 
wrong by which he who has the power revels in luxury and ease at 
the expense of his fellow-men ?" 

The Society, in its reprint of the well-known "Essays to do 
good," by the Rev. Dr. Cotton Mather, declares in the Pre- 
face: — "In this edition such portions of the original Essa3's 
are omitted, and such chapges have been made in the phrase- 
ology, as might be expected after the lapse of more than a 



THE AMERICAN TRACT SOCIETY. 419 

century since the work was written." The natural inference 
from this language is, that nothing had been omitted which 
could be of any interest to the reader of our time. Not so. 
In the original edition occurs this passage : — 

"0 that the souls of our Slaves were more regarded by us, and 
not using them as if they had no souls! That the poor Slaves 
which live with us may, by our means, be made the candidates uf 
the heavenly life! that we might give a better demonstration that 
we despise not our souls, by doing what we can for the souls of our 
Slaves. Hiiw can we pretend to Christianity, when we do no more 
to Christianise our Slaves?" 

But in the Society's edition (p. 44,) we read : — 

"0 that the souls of our Servants were more regarded by us! that 
we might give a better demonstration that we despise not our own 
souls, by doing what we can for the souls of our Servants. How 
can we pretend to Christianity, when we do no more to Christianise 
our Servants ?" 

Though " the Ethiopian cannot change his skin," yet 
Slaves have changed to Servants in somewhat "more than a 
century." This "might have been expected." Probably 
owing to the bleaching process going on in the South ! 

The Memoir of Mary Lundie Duncan, of Scotland, by her 
mother, first had a wide circulation abroad, then was pub- 
lished in full by Robert Carter and Brothers, New York, in 
various styles, and some as cheap as could be desired; but 
now it is published, in a mutilated form, by the American 
Tract Society. Both Mary Lundie Duncau and her mother 
hated Slavery, and loved freedom. Therefore the book would 
not be acceptable to the dear brethren who owned " niggers." 

To send forth a book, with two or three short paragraphs 
on the subject of Slavery omitted, and call it "an abridg- 
ment of the original," is an insult to both author and reader. 

The attempts of the " Managers" of the Society to defencT 
themselves against these serious charges have been more 
numerous than successful. It was at first set up that the 



420 THE AMERICAN TRACT SOCIETY. 

cliarge of mutilating the works republished by the Society 
•was "unfounded," and that nothing of the sort — ^at least 
nothing of any consequence — had been done. But this posi- 
tion it was impossible to maintain against the array of facts 
brought to bear upon it. Obliged to admit the fact, the 
Managers of the Society — like their political sympathizers in 
Congress — have been obliged to fall back upon the "Consti- 
tutional" argument. Hear them : — 

" Slavery may, for auglit we know, be exactly what Wesley pro- 
nounced it, 'the sum of all villanies.' We must not be understood 
as denying that, or as committing ourselves to the doctrine that 
Slaveholding is an institution ordained by God, sanctioned by both 
the Old and the New Testaments, and every way compatible with 
Christian life and feeling. Some of us individually may lean to that 
view; but we must not be at all understood as committing or pledg- 
ing ourselves, as a Committee, or the Society for which we act, to any 
such declaration of sentiment. On the other hand, however great a 
sin and wickedness we might regard Slavery to be, there is a Constitu- 
tional lion in the path. The very Charter under which we act for- 
bids us to say a single word about it." 

The friends of truth, however, longed for some more 
decided declaration on the subject than the milk-and-water 
apology of the Executive Committee. Their longings took 
the shape of emphatic demands for a Committee of Investi- 
gation, to examine and see whether the Executives were 
legally and constitutionally hindered from doing their duty 
and speaking the whole truth, or whether they were afraid to 
offend their masters, the Southern members of the Society. 

On the 7th of May, 1856, the " leading Members" of the 
Society met at the Rev. Dr. Spring's church, New York, for 
the transaction of the " regular business," previous to meeting 
at the Tabernacle for the celebration of the Anniversary. 
Chief Justice Williams, of Connecticut, the President of the 
Society, occupied the chair. The attendance on the occasion 
was very large; all the available space, either, for sitting or 
standing, both in the body of the Church and in the gallery, 



THE AMERICAN TRACT SOCIETY. 41! 1 

was occupied. Many " eminent Divines" from the Slave 
States were present. The meeting was opened with prayer 
by the E,ev. Dr. Dewitt. 

The Rev. Dr. Knox, in behalf of the Executive Com- 
mittee, of which he is a Member, then read a communicatiua 
on the extremely happy condition of things in general. He 
assured his audience that " the Executive Committee of the 
American Tract Society had no secrets," and that " the funds 
gathered were not hoarded up or wasted." Also, that "he 
knew of no peculation." He admitted, however, that " some 
people" had assailed the Society, but " he knew of nothing 
that would blight or circumscribe the influence of an institu- 
tion so purely lieavenly in its character." 

The Managers of the Society endeavored to push the regu- 
lar business through and adjourn, so as to avoid the dust 
which these " insane sun-sweepers" would raise, should they 
proceed with their investigation enterprise. But the wires, 
though in the hands of experienced pullers, from some cause 
or other, would not pull right on this "interesting occasion." 
After a stormy time. Judge Jessup succeeded in offering the 
following resolution : — 

'■'■Resolved, That a Special Committee of fifteen be appointed to 
inquire into and review the proceedings of the Executive Committee, 
and to Report to the next annual meeting, or at a Special meeting 
duly convened, to be called by said Committee at their discretion." 

Dr. Knox said that the Executives did not shrink from 
any investigation, and spoke of the pleasure it would give 
them to afford the investigators every facility in making 
searches. 

After a time of unhallowed confusion, during which "Great 
is Diana of the Ephesians" was the prominent idea, the Pre- 
sident " appealed the people," and, with violent voting, the 
Resolution w£Rf put and carried, and the Chair ordered to 

36 



422 THE AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY. 

appoint a Committee of Investigation. The President then 
appointed a Committee of fifteen of his own friends, and added 
his congratulations to the Tract Society on their triumph 
over their Enemies. A prayer and benediction "closed the 
exercises" for the year 1856. 

At the .meeting of the Society on the 13th of May, 1857, 
the "Committee of Investigation" above referred to, sub- 
mitted their Report, which patched up the difficulty with a 
'' harmonious result," on this wise : — 

^^ Resolved, That, in the judgment of your Committee, the political 
aspects of Slavery lie entirely without the proper sphere of this Society, 
and cannot be discussed in its publications ; but that those moral 
duties which grow out of the existence of Slavery, as well as those 
moral evils and vices which it is known to promote, and which are 
condemned in Scripture, and so much deplored by evangelical Chris- 
tians, undoubtedly do fall within the province of this Society, and 
can and ought to be discussed in a fraternal and Christian spirit. 

^^ Resolved, That whatever considerations in the past may have 
seemed to recommend to the Publishing Committee the course 
pursued in its revision of certain works, yet, in the future publication 
of Books and Tracts, no alteration or omission of -the sentiments of any 
author should be made ; but works not adapted to the design of the So- 
ciety in their original form, or by a regular impartial abridgment, should 
be icholly omitted," 

This only muddled the matter more and more. The men 
who used "great plainness of speech" went away from the 
Pro-Slavery concern, and took measures for the revival of 
another ''American Tract Society," whose operations had been 
merged for some years in this one, and which should not be 
afraid to teach the truth concerning the '-'sum of all villanies." 

The American Bible Society. — This Society dare not 
give a Bible to any one in the Slave States who has a drop 
of "colored" blood in his veins. They denounce — like their 
brothers of the Tract House — the " Bulls" of the Pope of 
Rome, and the laws of the papal countries ^lich limit or 
prevent the circulation of the Protestant versiTO of the Bible, 



THE AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY. 423 

while thej are ''dumb" — "as upright as a pahn-trcc, but 
speak not" — in regard to the laws of the Slaveholding States, 
which do the same thing in a huudred-fold worse form ! 

The Slave-power is felt, dreaded, and obeyed in the Pulpit, 
the Counting-house, the Office, the Workshop, the Political 
caucus, in the '' Boards" of the benevolent and religious so- 
cieties. Its pressure, like that of the atmosphere, is uni- 
versal and unremitting, although habit may often render the 
people unconscious of its weight. For proof, see the "last 
Report" of the New York City Female Auxiliary Bible So- 
ciety. This document,, although containing not the most 
distant allusion to the American Moloch, was evidently written 
under fear of the demon. Speaking of the need of a wider 
diifusion of the Scriptures, the ladies assert, " of the 6,000,000 
of families in the United States it is thought that one million 
is without the Bible." Do the ladies, in proof of the accu- 
racy of their estimate, refer us to the millions of native-born 
'■'■ colored" Americans, who are by law prevented from reading 
the Bible? Ah, no ! They dare not thus call attention to the 
abominations of Slavery ; and, as if in terror at having excited 
a train of reflections which might possibly cause the Slaves 
to be remembered, they seek with trembling hand .to direct 
the attention of the reader to a different class, for they add, 
in the same sentence, '■'■and of the 'millions of emigrants iclto 
land on oiir shores, nearly all are destitute of the sacred volume." 
Thus adroitly is the American reader's commiseration turned 
from the millions of his own countrymen, deprived by law of 
the means of reading the Bible, and excited for millions of 
foreigners, who are at full liherti/ to read it if they please. 

The ladies ask, " What lever but the powerful Word can 
raise the prostrate masses of humanity ?" The very question 
is virtually a declaration that the Bible is the only " lever" 
by which the "prostrate masses of humanity" can be raised. 
Now, what masses of humanity, let us ask these ladies, are 



424 THE AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY. 

more "prostrate" than tlie 4,500,000 of their own country- 
men, deprived of marriage, robbed of every personal, do- 
mestic, and civil right, and sold in the Market, parents and 
children, like and with the beasts of the field? Yet, for 
these "prostrate masses," the ladies of the Bible Society 
bestow not one thought, utter not one word of sympathy, but 
they call the reader's attention to the " emigrants who land 
on our shores !" Could " Christian women" have manifested 
such heartlessness on such a subject, except through fear of 
the Demon ? 

A few weeks only before the ladies of the Bible Society 
assembled, a " sister," Mrs. Douglas, had been discharged 
from the gaol at Norfolk, Virginia, in which she had been for 
a month, in pursuance of a judicial sentence, for the "crime" 
of having taught a few children of " free" colored parents to 
read. Mrs. Douglas, speaking of the cruel treatment she 
received for teaching these poor children, all of them native- 
born Americans, says : — 

"I used no books but the Bible, and those which illustrated it." 

And what " greeting" did the ladies of the New York 
Auxiliary Bible Society send to their sister who had thus 
suffered for applying " the only lever that can raise the j^ro.s- 
trate masses 0/ humanity "? Greeting ! why, the Demon forbid 
the Christians of the " ff%e ^States" to notice the case. 

The ladies of the New York Auxiliary Bible Society are 
" free" to eulogize the Parent Society, and this they do " iu 
the fear of God." Hear them : — 

"With a Avide sweep, the American Bible Society passes over the 
whole field of benevolence, allying itself with all forms of Chrtsticn 
philanthrophy, and cooperating with all who ' look for the recom- 
pense of the reward.' " 

If the effort to "raise the prostrate masses of humanity" 
in one-half of the States of the Union be indeed one form 



THE AMERICAN SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNION. 425 

of " Christian philanthropy," it is to be regretted that the 
hidies did not point out the mode in which the Society had 
allied itself to that form. 

The American Sunday-School Union. — This Asso- 
ciation, when it once, by accident, happened to reprint an 
English Anti-Slavery tract, called "Jacob and his Sons; or, 
The Second Part of a Conversation between Mary and her 
Mother," which they had in their depot for twenty years, it 
happened that a few copies of it were sent South, and it was 
discovered by a Slaveholder, in Georgia, capable of scenting 
danger afar oiF, that a certain passage in " Jacob and his 
Sons" was discourteous toward the " peculiar Institution." 
The whole South was instantly aroused. Newspaper editors 
and leading men, in Church and State, were vociferous in their 
denunciations of the Sunday-School Union, and demanded the 
instant suppression of the obnoxious book. . A Vice-President 
of the Union, himself the owner of a large slave-plantation 
in South Carolina, pointed out the objectionable passage to 
the Committee of Publication, who, after an examination of 
the "odious sentences," acknowledged the impropriety of their 
maintaining a place in one of the books of the Union. The 
Committee then discovered that " Jacob and his Sons" had 
other defects, and obsequiously voted to have the book dis- 
continued in the catalogue of the books of the American 
Sunday-School Union. And they printed a " Minute of the 
Committee," explanatory of their action, and caused it to be 
widely circulated in all the Slaveholding States, to propitiate 
their Masters. In the '' Minute" it is said : — 

"It" (Jacob and his Sons) "purports to be a description of the 
condition of Slaves, and though just and true when applied to some 
countries, was regarded as neither just nor true u-hcn applied to ours ; 
this was the only exception taken to the passage, namely: that it 
was not true, in fact, if taken — as it naturally would be — to describe 
the condition of Slaves in tlie United States, and must, of course, 
make a xvrong impression on the mind of the reader." 

36« 



426 THE AMERICAN SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNION. 

Such was the apology offered by the American Sunday- 
School Union to the traffickers in the bodies and souls of 
4,500,000 of their fellow-men, all of them native-born Ameri- 
cans ! The effect of this " Minute" was instantaneous. The 
Slaveholders were '^ appeased/' and again took the Union 
into favor. The South Carolina Auxiliary Society lost no 
time in issuing a " Card/' in which they said, ''The Parent 
Society has given the most substantial evidence of its dispo- 
sition to circulate and publish no Vfork that is exceptionable 
in its character and spirit to the people of the Southern 
half of our glorious Republic." 

The reader will doubtless have a curiosity to see the pass- 
age which was so seriously objected to. Here it is in full: — 

"What is a Slave, mother?" asked Mary; "Is it a Servant?" 
"Yes," replied her mother, "Slaves are Servants, for they Avoik for 
their Masters, and wait on them; but they are not hired Servants, 
but are bought and sold like beasts, and have nothing but what their 
Masters choose to give them. They are obliged to work very liard, 
and sometimes their Masters use them cruelly, beat them, and 
starve them, and kill them; for they have nobody to help them. 
Sometimes they are chained together and driven about like beasts." 
"Poor things !" said Mary ; "but why do they not leave their Mas- 
ters when they use them ill ? The other day Margaret left you, 
mother, because she was tired of living here, though you never 
treated her unkindly; I wonder that the Slaves stay with their 
Masters, who are not kind to them." "They do not like to be 
Slaves," answered her Mother; "but they are not permitted to 
leave their Masters whenever they wish. Servants are p.iid for 
working for their Masters and Mistresses; and, if they do not like 
to stay, they may go and live somewhere else. But the poor, uu- 
happy Slaves are obliged to stay with their Master as long as he 
chooses to keep them. And if the INIaster is tired of his Slaves, 
then he may sell them to another if he wishes." 

''This is a rebellious people, lying children, chil- 
dren THAT WILL NOT HEAR THE LAW OF THE LoRD; 
WHICH SAY TO THE SEERS, SeE NOT, AND TO THE 

PROPHETS, Prophesy not unto us right 

THINGS, SPEAK UNTO US SMOOTH THINGS, 
prophesy DECEITS." Isa. XXX. 10. 



f ostsia'int, I8M 



And now, in the eighteen hundred and sixty-fourth year 
of the Christ who came from heaven to die for the oppressed 
and the slave, and to redeem mankind with an universal re- 
demption, into a common brotherhood of light and liberty, 
— the Slave power has done great things. Not contented 
with occupying its original bounds, it clamored for greater 
extension of territory. It shook its fist in the face of the 
nation, crying, "Give us all we ask for, or we will dissolve 
the Union!" It tried to get the nation into the same posi- 
tion that it got the negro into, — namely, trampled under foot. 
It howled about its wrongs, and clamored for its imaginary 
rights. Its wrongs were that it could not have its own way; 
its rights, to be soundly flogged into obedient submission to 
the law of the land, which for three-quarters of a century 
it had insulted and defied. 

And so it rebelled. It waged war on the power which 
had nursed, and hugged, and protected it. It took the 
responsibility of trying to destroy the nation. The nation 
took the responsibility of defending itself, even at the risk of 
offending-, and perchance destroying, its old pet and master. 

And the black man "marches on!" No longer is his 
equality with his fairer-skinned brother only in the jail and 
upon the gallows. He is a soldier! The nation which for 
generations put its foot upon his neck and trampled him 

427 



-28 POSTSCRIPT, 1S64. 

in the dust ; which bound him with chains and scourged 
him with bloody thongs ; which robbed him of his man- 
hood, and pursued him with bloodhounds when, a fugitive, 
he tried to regain it ; which set upon him fiends to whose 
savage nature the bloodhounds were angels of light ; — that 
nation now comes to the poor, bleeding slave, and says, 
"We are in trouble. Come and fight our battles for us. 
Perhaps we will give you your liberty, — perhap not. At 
worst, your bondage will be no harder than it was before." 

The contest rages ! Not a family in the land but is 
mourning son, brother, father, or friends, sacrificed on the 
bloody altar of the Slave power. Streams of blood have 
flowed in defence of liberty. More will yet be shed! 
Thousands of millions of dollars have been spent in the 
bloody business. Thousands of millions may yet be called 
for, and will freely come. Is it to stop? Is smiling peace 
to revisit this blood-stained land, and to crown it with pros- 
perous happiness? Not till this matter is settled. The 
terrible work has gone too far to stop now. Slavery is 
not dead yet. It is prefending to be dead, only that it 
may be let alone and rise again to do mischief. It has 
had hard knocks, and is half dead. It would be madness 
not to kill the surviving half. We want peace, but not 
peace that will last only till our children shall grow up to 
partake of a legacy of blood and an inheritance of curses. 

Slavery has throttled the Union ! Let Slavery die ! Slavery 
has made the Rebellion-, and filled myriads of graves. Let it 
be put where it can never more rebel. Let it be placed be- 
yond the Dower of ever filling another grave except its own! 



net Sl^^er^ Mit\ 



PARTICULAR INDEX. 



Abolitionists, to bo lynched, 32. 

to be thrashed, 36S. 
Abraham's 318 armed " niggers," 55. 
Accomplished " Lady's Maid" for 

sale, 126. 
Adams, Rev. Nehemiah, D.D., 68, 

212, 323. 
Advance of Slavery, 89. 
Aiken, William, his "property," 262. 
Amalgamation, 251. 
America not "civilized," 220. 
American Bible Society, 422. 
American Sunday-School Union,425. 
American Tract Society, 417. 
Arrest of Free-men, 296. 
Assassination, 231. 
Astonishing ingratitude of Slaves, 

277. 
"Auburn-haired" runaway, 317. 
Auction sales of slaves, 143, 186. 
Barbarians, 213. 
Barnes, Rev. Albert, 9, 117. 
Baptist Association, Charleston, 81. 
Beaten to death, 191. 
"Beautiful nigcjer," 281. 
Beecher, Rev. H. W., 97, 133, 384. 
Bible, only for white people, 255. 
Bigamy compulsory, 83. 
Black lamb?, 258. 
Blacksmiths, coopers, and carpenters 

at auction, 180. 
Black soldiers, 12. 
Bleaching black people, 252, 280, 296, 

300. 
Bloodhounds, 293, 311, 320, 326, 

339, 343, 349. 
Blood-stained cow-hide, 297. 
Bloodthirsty Christianity, 72. 
Boiiksellers banished from Mobile, 

249. 
Border ruffians, 360. 
Border-ruffian laws, 362. 
Boy, ten yeai's old, hung, 227. 
Bottomless pit. 86. 
Brady, schoolmaster, lynched, 166, 

242. 
Branded forehead, 342. 
Brantley, Rev. W. T., 85. 



Erownlow, "Parson," 330. 

Brooks, "Bully," 3u7. 

Buchanan, J., 91, 109, 241. 

Buford's men — Kansas, 359. 

Bull, John, D.D., not "nervous," 70. 

Burning alive, 216. 

Burns, Anthony, excommunicated, 

298. 
Bushnell's letter on Slave-Trade, 413. 
Byberry kidnapping case, 2S{). 
"Call" for a "runaway preacher," 

346. 
Capheart, the torturer, 193, 220. 
"Capital must own labor." 33. 
Captain James Smith, slave-trader, 

407. 
Carnal weapons, 369. 
Carpenter for sale, 27. 
Carpet Tacks, to keep the "cursed 

sons of Ham" quiet, 409. 
Character of society South, 186. 
Cheating a "nigger," 147. 
Cheevcr, Rev. G. B., D.D., 91, 96, 

101, 270, 312, 350. 
Chicago Fugitive Case, 322. 
Children "in lots to suit purchasers," 

121. 
Children killed by their mother. 309. 
Chopped to bits and burneil, 199. 
Christiana Fugitive Case, 283. 
Christian thrown into a slave-pen, 80. 
Church property in slaves, 79. 
Cincinnati Platform, 112. 
Clay, Cassius M., 240. 
Cleveland lecture committee, 71. 
Coffle-gang, 159. 
Cold-blooded selfishness, 219. 
Compromise, 128. 
Missouri, 132. 
Corporation fines on free negroes, 

296. 
Correction, deserved or not, 253. 
Cowhiding on the Sabbath, 211. 
Crispus Attucks, 13. 
Crummel, Alexander, 383. 
Cuba, 103, 353. 
Cursed be Canaan ! 60. 
Cushing, Caleb, his letter, 95. 
429 



430 



INDEX. 



DAHO^rEY, King of, 114 

Dancing, a sin, 261. 

"Dead nigger" sold, 17'7. 

Death to Abolitionists, 27, 360. 

Decrepit niggers, $15 and $oO, 150. 

Degradation of female slaves, 149. 

Delaware, Ohio, Fugitive Case, 307. 

Democratic Postmaster Circular, 39. 

Dickey, Rev. J. IL, 164. 

Dickinson, Warren, Hill & Co., 156. 

Dissolution of the^ Union threatened, 
103. 

Dog testimony, 225. 

Domestic and foreign slave-trade, 
407. 

Double game of Franklin Pierce, 356. 

Dough-face, 393. 

Dough-face religion, 417. 

Douglas, Mrs., put in jail, 255. 

Downs, S. W., outrageous propo- 
sition, 43. 

Editorial prospects, 213. 

Empty negro stomachs, 190, 213. 

Evangelical kidnappers, 69. 

Exaggeration, not at all, 144. 

Excommunication of Anthony Burns 
for running Sn/raj, 298. 

Faulkner, C. J., speech, 37. 

Fears of slave insurrections, 299. 

Field parturition, 227. 

Fillmore, Millard, 94, 241. 

Five "niggers" = three freemen, 22. 

"Foreign heathen," 269, 275. 

Foreign slave-trade, 407. 

Four hundred stripes on the back, 
198. 

Free negroes, 53, 244. 

Freeman, Bishop, on "the sun behind 
a cloud," 255. 

Fremont, J. C, candidate, 107. 

"Pried Dog," 218. 

Frozen to death, 189. 

Fugitive funeral, 304. 

Fugitives in Canada, 294. 

Fugitive Slav* Law, 68, 91, 128. 

Furman, Rev. Dr., his estate, 82. 

Garrison, William Lloyd, 374. 

Gentlemen, work marked out for, 368. 

Germans enslaved, 207, 347. 

Getting rid of the minister, 33. 

Giddinijs, Hon. J. R., 126, 131, 136. 

Girl sold "for want of use," 127. 

Government promises violated, 10. 

"Grand nigger hunt," 290. 



Granitevilie ignorance, 26. 
"Gratif3'ing condition" of slave- 
market, 176. 
Haii and his family, 60. 
Hand-saw flogging, 217. 
"Handsome piece of furniture," 153. 
Hard masters, 200. 
Uarrisburg kidnapping case, 287. 
Haxall & Brother, Richmond, Ya., 

192. 
Henry, Patrick, 92. 
Herbert kills his " German nigger," 

207. 
Hill's auction-rooms, 142. 
Hopkins, Bishop, his book, 65. 
House of Bishops, 269. 
How, Rev. S. B.; funny exposition 

of tenth commandment, 75. 
Human flesh at auction, 125, 130. 
Humbugging poor "niggers," 253. 
Hypocrisy, 60, 119, 253, 270. 
Ignorance a political necessity, 233, 

235. 
Illinois, negro laws of, 389. 
Imprisonment of black sailors, 16. 
"Incendiary" literature burnt, 249. 
"Infidel love of freedom," 299. 
"Infidels," 267- 
Irigraham, E. D., 283. 
Irenseus Prime, 332. 
Isabella the Spaniard, 353. 
Jackson, Andrew, on negro soldiers, 

17. 
Jefferson's prediction, 19. 
' "infidelity," 72, 123. 
opinion of slavery, 265. 
Jeremiah the prophet, 101, 120, 366. 
Joe Shieaway's "warm jacket," 192. 
"Jobbing" negroes out, 79. 
Johnson and wife, escaped, 281. 
Journal of Commerce apologizes for 

Brooks-and Keitt, 370. 
Judicious Tiimmer, Rev., D.D., 397. 
Junkin, Rev. George, D.D., 70. 
Kansas affairs, 358-366. 
Kerr, Rev. Leander; ruflBan speech, 

75. 
Kidnappers, 286, 311. 
King of Dahomey, 114. 
Knowledge is gunpowder, 234. 
Lame negro runaway, 330. 
Latter-Day S.aints, 112. 
Laws of Ohio trampled on, 309. 
Lecompton, 365. 



INDEX. 



431 



Lord, Reverend Nathan,D.D., LL.D., 

59. 
Madison, .James, 92. 
Marks of the lash, 194. 
Marriage denied to slaves, 57, 195. 
Marrying "by the blanket," 215. 
Marshall, Hon. Thomas, on slavery, 

51. 
Maryland slave markets, 124. 
McDowell, J., speech, 87. 
Meade, Bishop, on "servants," 252. 
Men and women reared for market, 

156. 
Merciful safety-valve, 48. 
Methodist missionary work, 246. 
Minister ducked in Kentucky, 316. 
Mobile book-burning, 249. 
Morrill, Senator, speech, 10. 
Mormons, 111. 

Moses a rndical Abolitionist, 67. 
"Mules, hogs, and niggers," 180. 
Munificent bequests, 190. 
Murder of "Caroline," 198. 
of a slave mother, 222. 
Muscogee Herald, sick, 31. 
Mutilation and murder, 219. 
Nakedness and hunger, 190, 212, 

221. 
Negro burial in Boston and New 

Haven, 382. 
Negroes must be contented, 254. 
Negro habitations, 213. 
Ne:^ro religion, 233. 
Negro slavery not Bible slavery, 56, 

74. 
Negro soldiers' bones, 14. 
Nelson, Rev. C. K., 78, 257. 
New England rum, 178. 
New Orleans morals, 230. 
New York slave-trade, 408-411. 
Nicaragua "mission," 115. 
"Nigger Dave;" his execution, 216. 
"Niirger in the river!" 336. 
Northern submission. 372. 
Not allowed to " mind the baby," 223. 
Observing the Sabbath, 221. 
OflRcious Missouriiins, 328. 
One hundred lashes, 218. 
Onesimus, 65. 

Ostend Correspondence, 354-. 
Paddling a "ni'xger," 191. 
Park Street Church, Boston, 381. 
Passports not granted to free negroes, 

390. 



Pastor wanted, 76. 

Patterson, his fingers and teeth, 

308. 
Paulding, Hon. .J. K. 159. 
Penalty for teaching negroes, 246. 
Phillips, Wendell, letter, 400. 
Pickens, his speech, 34. 
Pierce, Franklin, 91, 208, 241, 297, 

353. . 
Pincknev, Charles, testimony, 15. 
Plumer,"Rev. W. S., D.D., 72. 
Plymouth Church, 133. 
Polk. Right Reverend Leonidas, 56, 
277. 
his crop of black babes, 258. 
Pontius Pilate, 103. 
Poor white folks, 239. 
Possum-fat for "black lambs," 258. 
Predestinated piracy, 60. 
Prejudice and persecution, 9. 
Presbyterian Synod of Kentucky, 

54, 58, 163, 204. 
Pro-slavery piety, 66. 
Publicans and sinners, 267. 
Pullam's blood, 317. 
" Putrid carcass," 264. 
Ql-AKEKS, 160. 

Qualifications of slaveholding legis- 
lator, 21. 
Quoer-colorcd "nisgers," 55. 
Randolph, John, 103, 200. 
Raced to death, 189. 
Railroad "niggers," 209. 
Reverend cowhider, 210. 
Religious liberty (so called), 333. 
Returning from church, 210. 
Revolutionary toldier thrashed to 

death. 229. 
Richmond Examiner, 104, 369. 
Richmond "nigger" auctions, 140. 
"Right of propertj'," 350. 
Right Reverend slave-breeders, 259. 
Rights in jail and on the gallows, 10, 

382. 
Robbing a minister, 302. 
Runaway "niggers," 277, 295, 2C7. 
Sabbath slave-hunt, 301. 
"Sale of land and other property," 

149. 
Sale of "nl!rgers"nt St. Louis Hotel, 

New Orleans, 182. 
Sarah, in Mr. Eeecher's chnrch, 133. 
"Save the Union." 63, 261. 
Scarred bodies, 145. 



432 



INDEX. 



"Scribes and Pharisees," 122. 
Seminole outrages, S-il. 
Setting a "nigger" on fire, 20-4. 
Shadrach, keeping an eating-house, 

346. 
Shannon, Governor, big supper, 208. 
SheriflTs sale of men, women, and 

children, 176. 
"Show your teeth," 144, 153. 
Sims Fugitive Case, 381. 
Slave auctions, none in Palestine, 
74. 
after churchjLexington. 167. 
Slaveholder "sold" by a runaway, 

314., 
Slave meetings, 234. 
Slave mother hung, 179. 
Slave revenge, 222. 
Slave suicide, 162, 188, 343. 
Slave-trade, domestic and foreign, 

407. 
Slave trafficking churches, 84. 
Slavery better than liberty, 28. 

pushing Freedom towards Ca- 
nada, 89. 
the basis of Democracy, 31. 
Sleeping "accommodations'" for the 

children of Ham, 216. 
Smylie, Rev. J., defends ignorance, 

77. 
Soul bondage, 233. 
Soule, Pierre, 355-358. 
South Carolina, action of Synod, 263. 
brag and bluster, 378. 
don't like missionaries, 246. 
ignorance, 24, 245. 
military disposition, 375. 
representation, 22. 
slave insurrection in, 314. 
weakness in the Revolution, 
377. 
"South-side" sophistry, 323. 
Southern customers, 63, 108. 
Southern disgust for "free society," 

29. 
"Southern Presbyterian" logic, 245. 
Spurious Christianity, 270. 
Stole the money, 238. 
Stop thief! 59. 
"Stow-aways," 282. 
Stray "darkies" in Illinois, 329. 
Strickland & Go's, book-shop, 248. 
Stringfellow, Rev. Thornton, D.D., 
73. 



Stroud, Judge. 287. 

Stuart, Rev. Moses, D.D., 65. 

Stubborn runaway, 337. 

Subterranean den, 316. 

Sumner, Charles, 97, 157, 367. 

Sunday-School Convention, 237. 

Swindling the poor Indian, 341. 

Sylvia in Canada, 325. 

Sympathy for Mrs. Douglas, not 

much, 256. 
TAMPERiNGf with the mails, 235, 241. 
Taney, Roger, 20. 
Texas, annexation, 104. 
-The "mild" sort of slavery, 191. 
Theological Seminary "niggers," 

264. 
Throat-cutting, 221. 
Too white for a "nigger," 327. 
Trimmer, Rev. Judicious, D.D., 397. 
Tyranny and torture. 188. 291, 297. 
UxEORN slave infants, valued at 

$150,000, 341. 
Underground railroad, 282, 290, 307, 

320. 
United States officers, 286. 
Vengeance on a poor "nigger," 

206. 
Violence and theft, 350. 
Virginia now past help from guano, 

45. 
Virginia, originally fertile, 49. 

dilapidated military system, 300. 
"leprosy," 44. 
slave population, 1 54. 
Virginius and his daughter, 279. 
Washington an abolitionist, 106. 
Washinsjton's nephew, 12. 
Webb, James Watson, 371. 
Whipped to death, 204, 219. 
White boy turned out of school for 

being a "nigger." 388. 
"White niggers" advertised and sold, 

42, 150. 
White runaways, 327, 332, 335, 348. 
White slave children, 280. 
White trash, 25. 

Wilkesbarre Fugitive Case, 284. 
Winthrop, Hon. R. C, 16. 
Wise, Henry A.," stump-tailed steer," 

52. 
Wives and slaves equal, 66, 226. 
Women "thrown upon the market," 

186. 
AVorked out in six years, 211, 227. 



! 



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"S. 




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