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F. P. YOUNG, B. S., M. D., D. O., 






Chief of the operating staff of the a. t. still infirmary and vice 
president of the american school of osteopathy, 


One hundred and fifty-six Illustrations in Etchings and Halftones. 

UJS 94d 

C0PYRI3HT 1904. 

N»# M 

■a f* 
■■■. i 


TN THIS volume an endeavor has been made to present the 
essential facts of practical Surgery, modified by the science of 
Osteopathy, as taught and practiced by its discoverer, Andrew 
Taylor Still. That Osteopathic practice has revolutionized 
Modern Surgery may be evidenced by a perusal of the following 
pages. In the preparation of this work the writer has attempted 
to be as brief as is compatible with clearness^ But few operative 
methods have been detailed, since it is believed that these prop- 
erly belong to works on operative surgery. For the Osteopathic 
treatment of the various surgical affections the writer has fol- 
lowed the teachings of Dr. Andrew Taylor Still and the 
instructions of Dr. Charles E. Still, collaborator of the text. 
Special credit is due Dr. George M. Daughlin for valuable 
advice in the preparation of this work, and also for the radiographs 
made by him and kindly loaned for the purpose of illustration. 

The illustrations in this text, with the exception of the radi- 
ographs, were made from original drawings by Miss Agnes 
Dandy and Mr. William Richardson, students at the American 
School of Osteopathy. Credit is given the various standard 
works on surgery to which the author has had occasion to 
Credit is also due Dr. Harriet F. Rice for valuable assis 
in the preparation of the manuscript. 

F.J^ ^OUN 
June 1st, 1904. f\ \KiriSvLlle, Mo 

** Qir. jjs*iJ &/ &fr. (&■ C 

<? . ^ 

~ V 


table: of contents 



Inflammation 1 

Surgical Bacteria 8 

Antiseptics , 16 

Asepsis 20 

Suppuration, Abscess, Ulcer, Fistula and Sinus 23 

Gangrene 37 

Septic and Infective Diseases 48 

Wound Fever 49 

Sapremia 49 

Septicemia 50 

Pyemia 53 

Wound Diphtheria 55 

Erysipelas , 56 

Tetanus 60 

Hydrophobia 64 

Actinomycosis 66 

Malignant Pustule 66 

Tuberculosis 67 

Glanders 75 

Syphilis " 76 

Gonorrhea 85 

Rachitis 87 

Scurvy 88 

Tumors 88 

Cysts 100 

Bandaging 103 

Anesthesia 110 

Process of Repair 113 

Wounds 118 

Shock 119 

Burns and Scalds 143 



Heart an d Pericardium 146 

Arteries 146 

Aneurysm 148 

Ligation of Arteries 161 

Veins 171 

Embolism 175 

Thrombosis ^76 

Lymphatics 179 

Skin 183 

Nerves 186 

Bones and Joints 190 

Fractures 202 

Diseases of Joints 252 

Dislocations 273 

Diseases and Injuries of the Spine 306 

Diseases and Injuries of the Head 324 

Diseases and Injuries of Muscles, Tendons, Fascia and Bursae 338 

Club-foot 346 



Face, Lips, Tongue, Mouth and Throat 351 

Chest 359 

Digestive Tract, Abdomen and Pelvis 361 

Rectum and Anus 389 

Urinary Organs 394 

Male Genitalia 405 

Female Genitalia • 413 

Mam mary Gland 417 



Principles and Practice. 




Definition. — Inflammation may be defined as the reaction of the 
tissues to an actual or referred injury, providing that injury is not t-o 
great as to produce death. Contrary to what was formerly believed, 
inflammation is essentially a reparative process, instead of a disease 
producing entity. It is a disease process which varies according to the 
nature of the injury and condition and character of the tissues. It has 
been defined as "nature's effort at the process of repair." 


The changes taking place in inflammation may be grouped in the 
following manner: — Vascular and circulatory changes. (2) Exudation 
of fluids and the migration of leukocytes through the blood vessels, 
and (3) Changes in the perivascular tissues. 

Vascular and Circulatory Changes. — When an irritant is applied 
to a vascular area, a momentary contraction of the blood vessel^ may 
or may not occur, but this is quickly followed by a dilatation of the capil- 
laries, arterioles, and venules. The blood flows more swiftly to the 
injured area, hence we have "determination of the blood to the part." 
This engorgement with flowing blood is called active hyperemia, or 
congestion. If the blood current be slowed and the engorgement still 
continues, it is then termed passive congestion. This is usualhy due to 
some obstruction to the return circulation, perhaps, also, to a lack 
of tonicity to the vessel walls, or to a, weak heart. But the active 
hyperemia continues and perhaps pulsation may occur in the venules 
and other smaller vessels. Capillaries previously . invisible become 
highly distended. During this stage no exudation of fluid takes place. 
If the irritant be removed the blood vessels promptly return to their 
normal size and all evidences of hyperemia disappear. This is what 
often occurs in hives. If the irritation continues, certain changes will 
occur in the blood; white corpuscles will become separated from the 


general blood stream and will align themselves along the vessel Avail, 
the red corpuscles still continuing in the centre of the stream. Pres- 
ently it will he noticed that the leukocyte finds an opening (stoma) in 
the vessel wall, through which it succeeds in escaping (diapedesis). In 
violent inflammation numbers of the red corpuscles may also escape at 
the same time (rhexis). It must he remembered that the leukocyte 

Inflammatory changes in a small vessel: a, normal circulation; b, dilatation; ^leu- 
kocytosis; d, migration of the leucocytes. 

is an ameboid cell, which explains its ability to escape through the 
stomata in the vessel wall, which act, it readily and quickly accom- 
plishes — variously estimated by different observers at from one-half to 
one and one-half hours. But during this time the blood current is 
slowed perceptibly until finally it actually stops (stasis), then the liquid 
elements of the blood pour out through and between the cells in the 
vessel wall, while the leukocytes swarm out in vast numbers, the num- 
ber depending largely upon the severity of the inflammation. Migra- 
tion of the leukocytes to the inflamed area next occurs. It is believed 
that the leukocytes are attracted by certain chemical substances (posi- 
tive chemotaxis). It is also believed that they are repelled by other 
substances (negative chemotaxis). Certain it is that they are attracted 
to the inflamed area from the blood vessels from whence they come. 

Phagocytosis. — It is known also that the leukocyte has the power to 
eat up, as it were, certain offending materials, such as portions of dead 


Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. .4. 


A. B and C illustrating- the various stages of diapedesis 
and migration of the leucocyte. 

cells or effete materials, but more important than all, bacteria which 
may have gained entrance into bhe body. The white corpuscle is able 
to destroy the bacteria by means of certain chemical compounds which 
it contains (phagocytosis), and it is also believed that certain connec- 
tive-tissue cells and endothelial cells also have the same phagocytic 
properties, but to a 
less degree. If the 
inflammation is very 
severe the exudation 
of the fluids into the 
tissues ma}^ occasion 
great swelling. The 
blood vessels are 
g r e a 1 1 3^ distended 
and, if the stasis is 
complete and extends 
to the arterioles, os- 
cillation will take 
place in the blood 
stream, occasioning a 
throbbing sensation 
to the patient. Eed- 
ness will be marked, 
and in severe inflam- 
mations where r e d 

corpuscles escape from the vessels, the area will be of a dark bluish color. 
The skin is often stretched to the utmost where the affection is super- 
ficial, presenting a shiny appearance. Considerable local heat is 

Changes in the Perivascular Tissues. — In addition to the exudation 
of the fluids and the migration of the leukocytes, there are other impor- 
tant changes in the tissues. Eapid proliferation of the resident connec- 
tive-tissue cells takes place ; these cells, with the assistance of the leuko- 
cytes, form more or less of a wall or barrier around the source of in- 
flammation, or irritant, as if to prevent it spreading or extending to 
other tissues. These new cells are embryonal in character, but- if the 
irritation continues some length of time they will become differen- 
tiated into other forms, chiefly fibrous tissue, and then if the 
irritation should be removed without the destruction of any 
cells-, the part would perhaps be permanently altered by the 
formation of this new tissue. Where any tissue is destroyed, as 
in case of abscess formation, ulceration, or wounds, these proliferated 
resident tissue cells take the place of the destroyed tissue and 
will always remain as an evidence of the inflammation. In open 
wounds it constitutes the scar tissue or cicatrix. The changes taking 
place in the tissues depend largely upon the nature and cause of the 


Causes of Inflammation. 

(A) Predisposing and (B) Exciting. 

Predisposing Causes. — (1) Abnormal blood supply; abnormal in 
quantity as in obstruction to arterial, venous, or lymphatic circulation 
by bony lesions, contractions of fascia or muscles, or because of insuffi- 
cient food, lack of fresh air, hemorrhage, anemia, etc. Abnormal in 
quality because of certain poisons circulating in the blood as occurs in 
chronic alcoholism, Bright's disease, diabetes, gout, syphilis, lead, mer- 
cury and phosphorus poisoning, etc. 

(2) Abnormal nerve influence because of pressure on the nerve or 
disease of the nerve trunk supplying the part affected. 

Exciting- Causes. — These may be best considered as (1) chemical 
and (2) mechanical. By mechanical cause is meant any trauma, as a 
bruise, cut or other injury. The chemical causes consist of irritating 
chemical compounds and micro-organisms. These irritating chemical 
compounds consist of caustic alkalis and acids and toxic animal and 
vegetable substances. Micro-organisms cause irritation by means of 
certain chemical compounds which they produce either by the meta- 
bolism of their own bodies or by their action upon the tissue cells. It 
is a recognized fact that some of the most toxic substances known are 
produced by bacteria, further, that micro-organisms are perhaps the 
most important factor in the majority of inflammations, being always 
present, the injured cells give them an opportunity of entering the tis- 
sues, when inflammation will result. In the treatment of inflammation 
this cause should always be kept in mind. 

Terminations of Inflammation. 

Inflammation terminates in (1) resolution, (2) new formation, (3) 
ulceration and abscess formation, and (4) necrosis. 

Resolution. — By resolution is meant that when the cause of the 
morbid process is removed or ceases, the tissues return to the normal 

New Formation.. — This consists of inflammatory tissues, the result 
of proliferation of the resident connective-tissue cells ; especially is this 
true of inflamed joints where injury, attended by long continued irri- 
tation brought about by efforts to use the member, results in the forma- 
tion of fibrous tissue about the joint, binding down the tendons and liga- 
ments, destroying bursae, lessening the range of motion, whilst termi- 
nal nerves are compressed, which results in more or less constant pain. 
Wherever injury or disease destiws any tissue, the tissue taking the 
place of that destroyed consists of regenerated nerves, muscles or other 
tissues as the case may be. Tissue the result of proliferation and devel- 
opment of the connective tissue cells is called a scar or cicatrix. 

For other terminations of inflammation see Ulceration and Abscess 
Formation and jSTecrosis. 


Varieties of Inflammation. 

The varieties of inflammation are acute, when the tissue changes are 
active, and chronic, when the tissue changes are slow and the cause is 
long standing. 

Chronic Inflammation. — The causes of chronic inflammation, are, as 
in acute inflammation, local and constitutional, but there is more fre- 
quently some constitutional cause operating. The color usually indi- 
cates venous congestion due to continued dilatation of the veins from 
obstruction or the return circulation. The pain, which is less severe 
than in acute inflammation, is usually of a dull, aching character, is 
more or less constant and is often severest at night. Swelling is often 
one of the most pronounced of the symptoms. The increased heat is 
often not perceptible when the inflammation is on the surface of the 
body. When an important organ is affected a slight rise of temperature 
may occur. The changes taking place in chronic inflammation are the 
same as those which occur in acute, except they are less rapid. 

Other forms of inflammation are traumatic, that which is due to 
injury; infective or specific when produced by specific micro-organisms; 
sthenic when happening in full blooded people; asthenic when occur- 
ring in the old or debilitated; parenchymatous when affecting the paren- 
chyma of an organ; interstitial when it involves the connective tissue of 
an organ; serous when accompanied by a serous exudate; purulent when 
attended by the formation of pus; fibrinous when the exudate is coag- 
uable ^hemorrhagic when the exudate contains red blood cells; croup- 
ous when a membrane forms over the inflamed area; diphtheritic when 
the membrane formed resembles that in diphtheria; gangrenous when 
the inflammation is accompanied by death of a mass of tissue; simple 
when due to no specific cause; catarrhal when it affects mucous mem- 
branes; idiopathic, a term formerly used to indicate an inflammation 
without a cause; neuropathic when there is an impairment of the 
trophic nerves to the part; sympathetic when inflammation takes place 
in one part because of an irritation in another part, as sometimes hap- 
pens in the eye. 

Signs and Symptoms. 

The symptoms of inflammation are (1) pain, (2) heat, (3) redness, 
(4) swelling, (5) interference in function. 

Pain is due to pressure upon the peripheral sensory nerves of the 

Heat is produced by local irritation and by the circulation of certain 
products in the body which disturb the heat producing and heat regu- 
lating mechanism. 

Redness may vary from a bright red, in acute inflammation, 
to a dark blue, in chronic inflammation, or in abscess formation to a 
dusky or very dark bluish color. 


Swelling.— This varies with the part involved. In some loose cellu- 
lar tissues the swelling may v be very great. In the inflammation of bone 
little swelling may be evident, yet the pain may be extremely severe. 

Interference in Function will largely depend upon the part involved., 
the severity of the inflammation and the violence of the other symp- 
toms. As a general rule the severity of the symptoms varies with the 
violence of the inflammation. 

Treatment of Inflammation. 

(A) Osteopathic measures, and (B) Other measures. 

Osteopathic Measures. — The results of inflammation depend largely 
upon the freedom of the circulating fluids and their quantity and qual- 
ity. Degenerations, ulcerations, and necrosis are the result of impaired 
nutrition or its sudden arrest, therefore it should be the first duty of 
the physician to remove any obstruction to the lymphatic or venous 
circulation so as to prevent congestion, or anjr obstruction to the arter- 
ial circulation so that the tissues may receive their proper quota of 
fresh blood. Unless stasis occurs, destructive changes will not happen, 
hence it is of the utmost importance to prevent a stopping of the circu- 
lation. This may be done by encouraging the circulation through the 
agency of the vasomotor system. Furthermore, the metabolism and 
the tissue changes may be directly influenced by relieving the pressure 
on a nerve to a part, or reflexly by stimulating or inhibiting them as 
may be required. Bacteria constitute the most important factor in 
inflammation. Years ago Dr. A. T. Still contended that the most effi- 
cient germicide within the body was a free flow of fresh blood; this is 
now generally admitted. It is a recognized fact that under all circum- 
stances nature heals the sore if given a chance. No salve, medicine, or 
other application has such properties. No chemical reagent will destroy 
the germs without destroying tissue as well. Bacteria are only destroyed 
by nature's forces, therefore it is of the utmost importance that a good 
free flow of fresh blood should be secured. This can be done by remov- 
ing any obstruction to the arterial flow or to the return circulation, 
either lymphatic or venous. An increased flow of fresh blood can best 
be secured by stimulating the vasomotor nerves to the part. Lesions 
affecting the inflamed area may be found in the planes of fascia, in con- 
tracted muscles, or in the partial displacement of bones. 

Other Measures. — The local treatment of inflammation consists of 
(1) removing the irritant, (2) cleanliness and asepsis, (3) antisepsis, (4) 
rest, (5) elevation of the part, (6) cold, (7) heat, (8) incisions, and (9) 

Removing the Irritant consists, in case of wounds, in searching for 
foreign bodies or the removal of any noxious chemical product. 

Cleanliness and Asepsis. — Asepsis means not only that the part be 
apparently clean, but that it be surgically clean, which means that it 


must be germ free. This can best be obtained by the methods detailed 
under "Asepsis." . . 

Antisepsis in inflammation consists in using those agents which in- 
hibit the growth of. or destroy, the micro-organisms which play such an 
important part in inflammation; this, however, is but another means of 
removing the cause of inflammation. The kind of antiseptics used and 
the method of their application is given elsewhere. 

Rest must be both functional and physiological; it may be obtained 
by position or by immobilizing a joint. Physiological rest, in case of 
ulcer of the stomach, can best be obtained by fasting for a time. 

Elevation of the Part is of great importance in inflammation of the 
lower extremity. Here elevation assists return circulation and secures 
a better blood supply to the inflamed area, which is of the greatest im- 
portance in chronic inflammation or in old ulcerations or varicose ulcers 
of the leg or foot. 

Cold is of the greatest value in the early stages of inflammation and 
is best applied by means of an ice-pack or cold water coil; intense cold 
should be used. It is especially serviceable in sprains. 

Heat applied early in inflammation is said to cause dilatation of the 
arterioles and to assist the circulation. In the later stages it hastens and 
localizes pus formation. It is best applied in the form of hot stupes, 
hot fomentations, hot water bags, poultices, and dry heat. . Hot stupes 
may be applied by rinsing flannel, doubled so as to make three or four 
thicknesses, in boiling water. That this may be done without scalding 
the hands, a strip of flannel six inches wide and two feet long, the two 
ends being sewed together, is necessary. Now with two sticks about a 
foot long ; this flannel mny be dipped into the boiling water, when the 
sticks may be quickly twisted and the flannel thoroughly wrung out. 
While the flannel is very hot a few drops of turpentine may be dropped 
on the cloth, when a turpentine stupe is made. This is very effective in 
deep seated inflammations and where there is not a broken surface. 
The turpentine is an active antiseptic but is too irritating to be used on 
an open wound. Hot cloths may be wrung from a boiling saturated 
solution of boracie acid and placed over the inflamed area, when, in ad- 
dition to heat, antisepsis is also secured. In the application of these 
hot stupes or fomentations, sheet-rubber should be applied over the hot 
cloths until they are changed, which should be every five or ten minutes 
to be effective. A poultice may be made of ground flaxseed, elm bark, 
starch, bread and milk, potatoes, etc. To make a flax-seed poultice, stir 
the ground flax-seed in a basin with a little boiling water; keep adding 
the flax-seed and stir constantly until it is of the consistency of thick 
mush. It can now be spread, upon, a piece of aseptic or antiseptic gauze, 
which can be doubled over the poultice to prevent its sticking to the 
surface of the body. It may then be applied to the inflamed area with a 
piece of sheet-rubber or oil-silk covering to retain the heat. The func- 
tion of the poultice being heat and moisture, as soon as the heat has dis- 


appeared a new poultice should be applied, which, will be from every quar- 
ter to a half hour. In violent and very painful inflammations a sedative 
poultice is of- value. Tins can be made by adding from ten to twenty 
drops of laudanum to the poultice — being well stirred in previous to 
spreading on the cloth. An antiseptic poultice may be made by rinsing 
several thicknesses of gauze in a saturated boric acid solution and ap- 
plying to the inflamed area, placing over it oiled silk or sheet rubber, and 
then applying a hot water bag; by this means heat and antisepsis are 
likewise obtained. Dry heat may be applied in the form of hot water 
bag or hot sand bag, which is often times of service in deep seated 
inflammations, as of joints. When suppuration is imminent the appli- 
cation of heat gives great relief and should be applied until pus forma- 
tion is evident, then a free incision should be made, the pus discharged 
and rigid antisepsis maintained. 

Incisions are sometimes useful to relieve congestion in the case of 
tonsilitis and. edema of the glottis. 

General Treatment. — The old idea in the treatment of inflammation 
was diet, drugs, and blood letting. The drugs used were diuretics, dia- 
phoretics, purgatives, emetics, anodynes, and other remedies, such as 
aconite, quinine, salicylic acid, mercury, etc. These have been elim- 
inated and are no longer necessary. Phlebotomy and leeching are relics 
of the days of barber surgery. In the general treatment of inflammation 
diet, attention to the secretions, and the relief of the various symptoms 
arising are of importance. In severe inflammation the diet should be 
restricted to milk, gruel, soup, beef-tea, barley water, toast, and other 
easily digested foods. The urinary secretions should be kept free, the 
bowels open, and the liver acting. The secretions of the mouth should 
not be allowed to become foul. In severe cases of erysipelas and typhoid 
fever the mouth should be rinsed with Listerine or boric acid solution 
to prevent sordes forming on the teeth. The secretions of the skin 
should be kept active by baths. Symptoms arising may easily be com- 
bated; pain, the chief symptom, is an evidence of pressure on the 
nerve; by manipulation this pressure may be removed. In the treat- 
ment of chronic inflammation it is very essential to determine whether 
or not there are any constitutional causes operating, whether it is be- 
cause of vicious habits of the individual or because he lives in unhealthy 
surroundings. Whatever the cause is, this should be corrected^ the 
mode of life changed, the person should be well nourished, and the 
inflamed area protected from further irritation. Eecovery from an old 
inflammation ofttimes takes place slowly and many times the prog- 
nosis is unfavorable. 


Definition — A bacterium is a minute, one-celled vegetable organism. 
They belong to the class of moulds or fungi. Fungi may conveniently 
be divided into three classes: 

1. Saccharomycetes, or yeast fungi. 


2. Hyphomycetes, or moulds. 

3. Schizomyeetes, fission fungi, or bacteria. 

Of these three classes of fungi the last is of the greatest import- 
ance to the physician, inasmuch as many of them produce disease, while 
not many of the moulds or yeast fungi are harmful. 

Morphology of Bacteria. 

Bacteria may be divided into three general classes — cocci, bacilli, 
and spirilla. Cocci are spherical shaped organisms and may, or 
may not have flagella. Flagella are small hair-like processes 
which project out from the bodies of the bacteria and furnish 
them means by which they may move. They are similar to the 
cilia upon ciliated epithelial cells. Bacilli are rod shaped organisms 
which may be joined end on end, forming a delicate thread called lep- 
tothrix. Spirilla are spiral shaped organisms, which, when joined end 
to end and showing no evidence of division are called spirochetae. 
Cocci vary in size from .15 to 2.8 mikrons. Bacilli vary from .2 by 
1 mikron to 1.5 by 5 mikrons, while some of the spirilla may be as long as 
40 mikrons. The weight of a bacterium has been estimated by Xageli 
to be 1-10,000,000,000 of a milligram. 


As before mentioned, some of the bacteria are capable o? 
motion (motile), while others are not (non-motile), while some have 
flagella and others have not. In some cases bacteria may be capable 
of exceedingly rapid motion, while others move more slowly and are 
loss active. 


Bacteria are capable of reproducing themselves by at least three 
different ways; by fission, endospores, and arthrospores. It has been 
estimated by Buchner that under favorable circumstances a bac- 
terium can reproduce itself in from fifteen to forty minutes. At 
this rate he estimates that it would be possible for one bacterium, under 
favorable circumstances, to be the origin of sixteen million in twenty- 
four hours. It has been estimated that if bacteria were supplied with a 
sufficient amount of food, within three days one would develop a mass 
weighing 4752 tons; but fortunately the conditions are rarely present 
for such appallingly rapid reproduction. This likely accounts for the 
fact that bacteria produce disease less often than might be expected, 
also that many times when conditions are favorable it likely accounts 
for the rapidity of the course which the disease runs. 

Bacteria group themselves in many different ways. Diplococci are 
cocci existing in pairs, as the diplococcus lanceolatus, or the diplococcus 
Xeisseri. Tetrads are cocci grouped in fours, as happens with the micro- 


coccus tetragenus. Sarcina is where the bacteria increase in all direc- 
tions alike and where they present the formation of groups or blocks. 
Streptococci is where the bacteria exist in chains, which may be short 
or long. Staphylococci is where the bacteria form an irregular group 
or mass. Leptothrix is a condition where the bacilli form in long 
chains and where the division between the individual bacilli can not be 
readily made out. Spirochetae is where the spirilla form in 
long spiral-Hke threads. These are the commonest forms of bacteria. 
For a more extensive description, works on Bacteriology should 
be consulted. 

Distribution in Nature. 

Air. — Bacteria are found almost everywhere in nature, in the 
dust of the air, in water and in the soil. In 1686 Francesco 
Bedi proved that maggots arising in putrid meat did not arise 
de novo, but that they came from the flies buzzing around the 
meat and frequently alighting thereon. It has been proven that 
fermentation, wherever found, comes from bacteria which may 
have gotten into the fermenting substance or liquid. Bacteria exist 
almost evenw/here in nature except perhaps in mid-sea or at very high 
altitudes. John Tyndall proved that practically no bacteria were found 
at high Alpine altitudes. He furthermore proved that the bacteria 
causing decomposition very often come from the dust particles in the 
atmosphere. He proved that meat lying in a dust-proof chamber would 
keep for a long time, while that exposed. to the dust particles of the air 
would quickly decompose. By experiment it has been shown that there 
are from 100 to 1000 bacteria of various kinds to each cubic meter of 
air. In crowded houses and in cities this number would be much 
greater, whereas in rural districts it likely is much smaller. 

Water. — Bacteria are found extensively in all water, especially is it 
true of infected river water. In good pump water the number varies 
from 100 to 200 per cubic centimeter; in unfilterecl river water from 
6,000 to 20,000 per cubic centimeter. Contrary to what is popularly 
believed bacteria may frequently live in ice. Prudden proved that the 
average Hudson river ice contained 398 micro-organisms per cubic cen- 

Soil. — It has been estimated that virgin soil contains 100,000 germs 
per cubic centimeter. These germs exist only in the upper strata of 
the soil, perhaps in the first two feet only, except where water contain- 
ing a considerable amount of decomposing animal or vegetable matter 
is percolating through the ground, at which place the bacteria may be 
found at a depth of several feet. It would seem from these statements ] 
that one might be readily infected with disease germs, but it must be 
remembered that for the most part these germs are harmless sapro- 
phytes and will not produce disease. It is only when water or soil 
becomes infected with disease producing germs that infection spreads. 


Human Body. — It is a known fact that about liuman habitations 
and about the animal body bacteria exist in large numbers, apparently 
living on the effete material or the excreta. They are found in the 
secretions of the mucous membranes, in the various mucous membranes 
and in the superficial layers of the surface epithelium. On the parts of 
the body covered with hair and in the flexures they are found in very 
large numbers, hence wounds in these regions are much more liable to 
infection. One thing is certain, that the fluids of the body are free 
from bacteria under normal conditions, and when bacteria are found 
in the body-juices it is an evidence of disease. In the salivary secretions 
large numbers of bacteria are found, likewise in the lachrymal secre- 
tions. Large numbers of bacteria are constantly being taken into the 
respiratory tract, lodging in the crypts of the tonsils and in the crevices 
of the pharynx, hence this cavity is teeming with them. Many of them 
are carried on into the stomach, escaping the gastric secretion they 
thrive in the intestines, so the contents of the intestines are exceed- 
ingly septic. Bacteria are not generally found in the urine within the 
bladder, but in diseased conditions they frequently get into the urine in 
large numbers. 

Conditions Affecting Growth. 

Oxygen. — Some bacteria live best without oxygen; these are called 
anaerobic; others grow best in oxygen; these are called aerobic. Some 
bacteria grow best without oxygen but can grow with it; these are called 
faculative aerobics; likewise some of those growing in oxygen may 
thrive without oxygen; these are called faculative anaerobic germs. 

Nutriment. — Bacteria are not able to derive their nourishment from 
purely inorganic matter, but live for the most part, it seems, on highly 
organized compounds. They seem to grow best where diffuse albumins 
are present. 

Moisture. — A certain amount of water is always necessary for the 
growth of bacteria, as with any other form of vegetable life; however, 
this does not mean that drying will destroy them, for bacteria may live 
upon clothing apparently dry, in some cases for some months, and if the 
clothing be damp, even a longer time. Bacteria may also be wafted 
great distances in a dried condition by means of dust particles in the 
atmosphere and they may live in this condition a considerable length 
of time. 

Reaction. — The pabulum upon which bacteria thrive, to be most 
suitable for their growth, should be faintly alkaline or faintly acid; 
strong alkalis or strong acids destroy bacteria. 

Light. — Most species of bacteria are not influenced to a great extent, 
in their growth, by the presence or absence of light ; however, many of 
the bacteria will grow best in a dark room, while there are others whose 
growth seems to be retarded by the direct rays of the sun's light. Some 
colors, especially blue, are prejudicial to their growth. 


Movement. — A condition of perfect rest seems to be most favorable 
for the development of bacteria. Movement of the culture medium, as 
sudden agitation, if kept up, will destroy the bacterial growth. It is 
this agency acting which seems to be one of" the greatest sources of 
destruction of bacteria, and flowing water, especially falls and rapidly 
flowing streams, are peculiarly free from bacteria. Other things being 
equal, the water from such streams should be best for drinking pur- 

Association. — Very often in disease processes of the body several 
forms of bacteria are associated and it is not unusual that this associa- 
tion makes one or the other of the bacteria more virulent and active. 
Still it is known that in some cases one infection will, to some extent, 
render the individual more or less immune to the onslaughts of certain 
other bacteria. 

Temperature. — Frankel states that bacteria grow best between the 
temperatures of 16 and 40 degrees C. Many bacteria will flourish in 
a higher temperature than 40 degrees C, many will flourish fairly well 
in a temperature lower than 16 degrees C. A temperature from 60 to 
75 degrees C. (108 to 135 degrees F.) if continued for some length of 
time will arrest the growth of most bacteria. Boiling for a few 
minutes will entirely destroy nearly all bacteria. This is of the utmost 
importance to the physician, as it furnishes him a harmless method by 
which he may secure asepsis. 

Results of Vita] Activity. 

1. Fermentation. — The various forms of fermentation, wherever 
found, are generalhy due to the development of bacteria. Some of 
these bacteria may be harmless, while many times they may be exceed- 
ingly poisonous. 

2. Putrefaction. — The term putrefaction differs from fermentation, 
in that it especially refers to the fermentative process taking place in 
nitrogenous bodies. The manner in which this takes place seems to be 
that the albumins are converted into peptones and these are split up 
into gases, acids, bases, and salts. It is in this reaction that many times 
some of the most virulent poisons are produced. Ptomains, for instance, 
are the result of putrefactive changes taking place in organic matter, 
cither animal or vegetable. According to Vaughan and Novy, ice- 
cream, meat, and cheese poisoning are really ptomain poisoning, the 
ptomains having been produced by putrefactive changes in the food 

3. Gases. — It is not unusual for the bacteria to produce noxious 
gases. Many times this gas production gives rise to offensive odors. 
This is ofttimes seen in foul and infected wounds where the secretions 
are teem ins: with bacteria. 


4. Enzymes. — That bacteria produce enzymes, or ferments, is well 
known and it is also known that many times these enzymes or ferments 
are exceedingly poisonous. Whether they result from the secretion of 
the bacteria themselves, or the action of the bacteria upon other mat- 
ter, is not certainly known. These poisons are sometimes extremely 
virulent, as for instance, the purified toxin, tetanin, of the tetanus germ 
was found by Brieger and Colm to be fatal to mice in doses of 
0.00000005 gram. Lambert holds that this is the most poisonous sub- 
stance ever discovered. It is to these enzymes that bacteria owe their 
ability to produce disease. 

5. Disease. — Bacteria are divided into two general classes, patho- 
genic, those capable of producing disease, and non-pathogenic, those 
not capable of producing disease. It is believed that their ability to 
produce disease depends very largely npon whether the substances pro- 
duced by the bacteria are poisonous. These poisonous substances, as 
before stated, are either the result of the secretion of the bacterium 
itself, or the result of the action of the germ upon the body cell. 


Ziegler defines infection as "The entrance of bacteria into the 
body and their increase there/' This means, of course, the multiplica- 
tion of the bacteria within the tissues. Certain conditions are neces- 
sary before infection can take place; these are now generally admitted 
by most authors to be: 

1. The bacteria must be present in sufficient numbers. 

2. There must be an avenue of entrance into the tissues. 

3. There must be a diminished resistance of the tissues. 

There are other conditions, however, which modify infection: — 
These are the virulence of the germ and immunity of the subject. It 
is known that germs vary in virulence, some species of a certain germ 
may be extremely virulent and active, while others may scarcely pro- 
duce evidence of disease. The infected subject may be to some extent 
immune to the organism in question. These conditions will modify the 
development of the bacteria within the tissues. This likely explains 
why infection occurs in some cases and not in others. 

Avenues of Infection. 

Skin. — Inasmuch as bacteria are found in large numbers upon the 
surface of the body, wounds are very liable to become infected; and as 
the bacteria are much more numerous in the hair, in the sweat glands, 
in the sebaceous arlands, and in the roots of the hair, on parts of the 
body where these structures are found, infection is much more likely to 

Mucous Membranes. — Abscess of the tonsil likely arises from bac- 
teria taken in through the air or by means of food or drink and lodging 


in the crypts of the tonsil. The secretions of the mouth cavity are septic 
and it is essential in wounds of the mouth that measures be taken to 
cleanse the cavity. The lower bowel contains immense numbers of bac- 
teria and in constipated conditions poisons of these germs are not in- 
frequently absorbed; furthermore, were it not for the resisting power 
of the tissues, wounds of the lower bowel would always result in infec- 
tion. It seems to be true that it is this resisting power of the tissues 
which protects the individual from infection, for often it is that every 
individual has sustained small wounds, either on the surface of the body 
or in some of the cavities of the body, when bacteria were undoubtedly 
present in large numbers, yet infection did not take place. This can 
readily be explained by the fact that the tissues prevented the entrance 
and multiplication of the bacteria. 

Characteristics of Infection. 

According to McFarlaud these are (1) phlogistic, (2) toxic, and (3) 

By phlogistic is meant an inflammatory reaction. The toxic effects 
consist of local growth with absorption of toxins. The septic effects 
are those characterized by the dissemination of the bacteria through 
the lymphatic fluids and the blood. In most instances the actual damage 
done by these germs and the poisonous effects produced are due to the 
ferments developed by the germ. 


Bacteriologists seem not to be able as yet to classify the poi- 
sons generated by bacteria. They are likely all proteid substances, 
most of which probably belong to the class of substances called toxal- 
bumins. The poisons of diphtheria and tetanus seem to belong to a 
class by themselves, inasmuch as they give no albumin reactions. As a 
general rule the poisons are highly organized and are readily destroyed 
by temperatures above 108 degrees F., also exposure to air and sun- 
light seem to readily destroy them. Some of the substances seem to be 
alkaloidal in nature and are readily soluble and quickly diffuse through 
the body. It is believed that this explains why some diseases run such 
a very rapid course and arc so alarmingly fatal, since the poisons are 
readily soluble and are quickly diffused through an animal membrane 
and are carried through the body before the germ has actually entered 
the tissues. 


Many writers include ptomains under toxins. They are best con- 
sidered as putrefactive alkaloids and are the result of the decomposi- 
tion or breaking up of organic substances, in contradistinction to the 
decomposition or breaking up of organic substances, especially by 
bacterial action, 



Leucomains are alkaloidal substances existing normally in the 
body and which arise from retrograde metamorphosis or chemical 
changes in the cells. It is not unusual that these substances may 
be retained in the body and not eliminated, when autointoxication 
occurs. Certain substances found in the urine belong to this class, as 
xanthin and hypoxanthin. There are substances which exist normally 
in the bowel, but which under certain circumstances are absorbed and 
which will produce febrile, circulatory, and other disturbances. 


The exact nature of antitoxin is unknown. Some maintain 
that it is a toxin in a changed form, others that it is a ferment 
produced by culture, and still others that it is produced b}^ cellular 
activity. This last idea seems to have the most foundation in fact. 
Whatever is the nature of antitoxin, it is obvious that after the system 
has gotten rid of a certain infection it is not in the same condition that 
it was previous to the infection: that many times it is left more or less 
immune, for varying periods of time, to subsequent infections. It is 
believed by some that this resisting power of the body is contained 
largely in the blood and that the resisting power of the blood is due 
largely to the chemical changes which have taken place in the leuko- 
cytes. It is known that the antiseptic property of the blood from im- 
mune individuals is much greater with reference to the bacteria in 
question, than the blood from an individual not having such immunity. 

Forms of Bacteria. 

The forms of bacteria in which the surgeon perhaps is most inter- 
ested are the following: 

Staphylococcus Pyogenes Albus. — Passet found this germ in pure 
culture in four cases of suppuration out of thirty-three examined. 

Staphylococcus Pyogenes Aureus. — This is the most common of the 
pus germs and is nearly always present in the pus of boils and furuncles. 

Streptoccocus Pyogenes. — According to Rosenbach this germ is pres- 
ent in eighteen out of thirty-three cases of suppuration. The pus pro- 
duced is usually thin, white, and flocculent. It produces diffuse pus for- 
mation and its activity is much greater than the other pus germs. 

Streptoccocus Erysipelatis or Fehleisen's germ seems to be identical 
with the streptoccocus pyogenes of Rosenbach. It often produces pus 
and can be obtained in pure culture from serum which oozes from a 
puncture made at the margin of an erysipelatous area. 

Bacillus Pyocyaneus is the germ of blue or green pus: it likewise 
produces disagreeable odors. It is rarely found in pure culture in pus, 
but is generally associated with other germs. 


Micrococcus Gonorrhea (Neisser), when inoculated in any mucous 
membrane produces a characteristic ulcerative process, attended with 
pus formation. 

Other germs which are associated with pus formation, but less fre- 
quently, are Diplococcus intracellularis meningitidis, Diplococcus pneu- 
moniae, B. Tuberculosis, Leprous Bacillus, Streptothrix Actinomycosis, 
B. tetanus. B. diphtheriae, Micrococcus tetragenus, B. anthracis, B. 
typhi abdonvinalis, B. coli communis, B. pestis bubonicae, and B. mallei. 


An antiseptic is an agent which retards or inhibits the growth and 
development of bacteria. A germicide or disinfectant is an agent which 
destroys bacteria. A deodorant is an agent which destroys offensive 
odors, but which may not be a very active antiseptic. Chemical anti- 
septics are soluble substances which retard or inhibit the growth, 
or in some cases destroy the activity, of micro-organisms. It is easy to 
develop an antiseptic which will destroy bacteria in a test tube in the 
laboratory, but unfortunately it is not so easy to secure an antiseptic 
which will not be harmful to the tissues with which it comes in con- 
tact. Our best antiseptics are most destructive to the tissues. Perhaps 
the best of all known chemical antiseptics for practical use are bichlo- 
ride of mercury and carbolic acid. These substances are well known 
active poisons and can be used only with certain limitations and under 
certain circumstances. The ideal antiseptic is yet to be devised. The 
most powerful of these antiseptics is corrosive sublimate and it is per- 
haps the most reliable. It is used in the strength of from 1:500 (in 
exceptional cases) or 1:1000 to 1:10,000 or 1:20,000 parts of distilled 
water. It can not be used in metallic vessels, nor can it be used to dis- 
infect instruments. It is irritating to wounds and often causes copious 
exudation and in this way does harm. It is perhaps most useful as a 
disinfectant for the hands or the surface of the body or certain arti- 
cles of clothing. When used on the various parts of the body these 
rules must be observed. In the eye it is used in the strength of 
1.10,000; in the mouth and throat, never. In the vagina and uterus 
in strengths of 1:1000 to 1:5000, depending upon the requirements. 
In abscess cavities it may be used where there is free drainage, but under 
no circumstances must it be used where it is likely to be retained. In 
joints it may be used in strengths of 1:5000 or 1:10,000. It should 
not be used in the ear, nose, urinary tract, bowel, or the peritoneal 
cavity. In spite of its draw-backs, bichloride of mercury is generally 
considered to be the best of the antiseptics. It is prepared m two 
forms, a small tablet containing 1.41-50 grains, which when dissolved in 
a pint of water makes 1 :4000 solution or in a larger sized tablet contain- 
ing 7.5 grains, which when dissolved in a pint of water makes a solution 
of 1:1000. These tablets also contain muriate of ammonia, which 
hastens their solubility. 


Carbolic Acid is very valuable as a germicide in strengths varying 
from 1:20 to 1:100. It has the advantage that it will not attack metal, 
hence the antiseptic: solution can be made in any sort of an aseptic ves- 
sel. It is readily absorbed and produces toxic symptoms, hence it mast 
not be used in cavities of the body where absorption may take place. 
Neither can it be used in the mouth or throat where it is liable to be 
swallowed, nor in the bowel, inasmuch as rapid absorption might take 
place with collapse and death. It is best used in a liquid form. Liquid 
carbolic acid is prepared by heating the crystals and adding five per 
cent, of water. For practical purposes a tcaspoonfui of the liquid drug 
added to a tin cup of boiling water makes a serviceable antiseptic solu- 
tion. If a more active solution is desired, two teaspoonfuls of the drug 
should be added to the pint of water. It is irritating in wounds, and 
likewise has marked anesthetic properties, often attacking the surgeon's 
hands to the extent that it will materially interfere with an operation. 
It may be used in the mouth in the strength of one to two per cent. 
In tubercular abscesses and suppurating joints it may be used in a five 
per cent, solution. In the vagina and uterus it may be used in a two 
per cent solution. It should not be used in an abscess cavity where it 
is likely to be retained. Pure, it is of great service in cauterizing chan- 
croids and sloughing ulcers, also old abscess cavities or old infected 
ulcers. It is likewise serviceable as an antiseptic when incorporated 
with vaselin. It has the advantage in from 1 to 5 per cent, strengths 
with vaselin, that it is a good anesthetic and will often allay itching 
and irritation; especially is this true about a wound or open sore. 

Creolin is an active antiseptic and is prepared from coal-tar. It has 
not the toxic effect^ of carbolic acid or bichloride of mercury and is a'so 
not irritating, li is used in strengths of from 1 to 5 per cent, as an 

Peroxid of Hydrogen has active oxidizing properties and is a service- 
able; cleansing agent. Some preparations are slightly irritating but are 
not toxic. It has the advantage that it can be used almost anywhere 
and in any location of the body, with the exception of an abscess cav- 
ity with a small opening. It oxidizes the dead material and detritus in 
the abscess cavity, so that if there is but a small opening from the cav- 
itv, the active production of gas will force dead materials into other 
parts of the tissues leading to the extension of the infection, whereas, 
if the abscess cavity has a free opening the application of the peroxid 
of hydrogen loosens up and gets rid of the dead material. It is useful 
with other antiseptics, for instance, a pus cavity may be washed out 
with peroxid of hydrogen and when cleansed of the dead material it 
may then be washed out with bichloride of mercury or carbolic acid, 
which are much more active antiseptics. Furthermore, its long con- 
tinued use is prejudicial in many ways. It prevents wounds healing. 
It should not be used in bed-sores, except occasionally for cleansing pur- 
poses. If used regularly the bed-sores will refuse to heal. It should 
not be used in large abscesses on the neck, inasmuch as the formation 


of gas might dissect through the connective tissue planes and press 
upon the air passages. It is used in the strengths found on the market, 
or diluted, one part of the solution to one, two, three or more parts of 
boiled water, as is reo ( uired. It may be used in suppuration of the middle 
ear. In weak solutions it is useful for cleansing the throat and mouth 
and the nasal mucous membrane. 

Boracic Acid is mildly antiseptic, and while irritating in a fresh 
wound, or a granulating sore, it is of great advantage in many cases. 
It is useful as a dry powder sprinkled over an ulcer, or as a saturated 
solution for syringing out cavities. It has the advantage that it is not 
toxic, no poisonous effects resulting from its use. In the eye it is used 
in the strength of ten grains to the ounce and is perhaps the best of all 
antiseptic solutions for such use. When it is very irritating there may 
be combined with it cocaine (two grains to the ounce). In abscess of 
the middle car, a saturated solution is of service in a fountain syringe 
with an ear-nozzle, the stream being directed into the external meatus. 
It washes out the pus and destroys the micro-organisms. It is useful 
for washing out the bladder in cases of cystitis or purulent inflamma- 
tion of the bladder. Here it is useful in a saturated solution. 

Permanganate of Potassium is an active oxidizing agent. It is irri- 
gating and will stain the skin or tissues, but yet it is useful in the 
strength of 1 :200 or 1 :400 to 1 :3000 or 1 :4000 in distilled water for 
washing out foul ulcers or old abscesses and many times it acts with a 
happy result where other antiseptics apparently failed. It is useful 
as a disinfectant in stronger solutions in gangrene after the tissues 
have died. 

Nitrate of Silver, introduced by Crede, is used in strengths of 1 :300 
to 1:1000. It is valuable in gonorrheal affections in the strength of 
1 :1000 and in from V 2 to 1 grain to the ounce it is a valuable antiseptic 
in purulent inflammation of the eye, e. g., gonorrheal ophthalmia and 
old cases of trachoma. It is of advantage in from 10 to 30 per cent, 
solutions in cauterizing sores, mucous patches in the mouth, ulcers 
of the gums, or old ulcers of the leg which refuse to heal. 

Salicylic Acid exists in the form of small, needle-shaped crystals 
which are slightly soluble in water. It is best used as a powder or as an 
ointment, being most useful as a dusting powder in wounds. It is use- 
ful in ointments in skin affections to allay itching. It is valuable as a 
deodorant and disinfectant in eczema of the feet. 

Iodoform is a bright yellow powder and is extensively used in the 
treatment of wounds. Its offensive odor is the greatest objection to its 
use. It is a valuable powder in the treatment of fresh wounds ; however, 
poisoning has followed in numerous cases. It is especially valuable in 
tubercular cases. It may be used as a dry powder or as a ten per cent, 
emulsion with glycerin. This may be injected into the abscess cavity 
or tubercular joint. Many substitutes for iodoform have been pre- 
pared. The best of these are iodol, salol, aristol, and dermatol. These 


may be of advantage used as a dry powder on wounds. Aristol is odor- 
less and non-poisonous and is valuable in various skin diseases. It is 
also useful in the treatment of sores in the form of an ointment (5 or 
10 per cent.) or as a dusting powder. 


Ichthyol Ointment is a valuable antiseptic in inflammations, such 
as erysipelas, in strengths of 5 to 10 per cent. 

Boracic Acid Ointment is an excellent preparation and is best pre- 
pared as three parts boracic acid, five parts vaselin, and ten parts par- 
affin, or, three parts boracic acid, four parts white wax, and twenty 
parts olive oil, or, a saturated solution of boracic acid and glycerin. 
These are excellent preparations as the case may require. 

Salicylic Acid Ointment consists of one part salicylic acid, six parts 
white wax, twelve parts paraffin, and twelve parts olive oil. 

Protonuclein is of advantage as a dusting powder in the treatment 
of ulcers. 

Formalin is a valuable antiseptic and is useful for the disinfection 
of instruments and hands of the operator, but is too irritating and poi- 
sonous to be of use in wounds. It is used in strength of two per cent. 

Surgical Dressings. 

Surgical dressings consist of gauze, cotton, lint, lamb's wool, or 
other substances which have the property of absorbing moisture or 
secretions from wounds or abscess cavities. Surgical dressings have 
the following objects in view: First, protection of the part from fur- 
ther infection; second, to absorb the secretions and keep the wound 
thoroughly dry to prevent further development of any noxious material 
which may be already present in the wound. Formerly, during the era 
of antiseptics, antiseptic gauzes were very popular and in most cases 
were very excellent dressings, but it is a recognized fact that many 
times these gauzes are irritating because of the chemical antiseptics and 
do harm rather than good. This has led to the production of aseptic 
dressings. Aseptic dressings are produced by superheating the article 
for some length of time at different periods until all germ life has 
been destroyed. Things prepared in this manner probably furnish the 
best surgical dressings in any form of fresh wound. Where the wound 
is septic and foul, antiseptic dressings are needed. In such conditions, 
bichloride gauze in the strength of 1 :1000, carbolic acid 5 per cent., 
borated gauze 10 per cent., or iodoform gauze 10 per cent, may be used. 
These gauzes are prepared by impregnating aseptic cheese cloth with 
the drug. Cotton is a very useful article for the protection of a wound 
and for absorption of the secretions. Surgeon's absorbent cotton is the 
kind used. This is prepared by removing the oil from the cotton, after 
which it is asepticized, and is then ready for use. Surgeon's aseptic 
or antiseptic lint is useful in inany cases. 



Different theories are advocated concerning the methods by which 
the human blood resists infection. Metschnikoff advocated the theory 
of phagocytosis. This has recently been attacked and quite seriously. 
Some have maintained that the leukocytes do not have the power of 
destroying bacteria, but in all probability they possess such power. The 
antiseptic properties of the blood do not come entirely from the leuko- 
cytes but come largely from substances imparted to the blood by means 
of the red marrow of the bones, adenoid tissues generally, and fibro- 
blasts, and perhaps the tissues of certain glands. These tissue cells, 
when the occasion demands, produce certain substances named by Hen- 
kin as "defensive proteids" and these impart to the blood its antiseptic 
properties. Therefore, in the reaction of the tissues to injury the 
antiseptic properties of the blood are markedly increased. Because of 
such properties a dry method of operation has been devised by certain 
operators. This consists in not introducing airy liquids into an aseptic 
wound, but allowing the wound surfaces to be bathed with the blood, 
only dry sponges being used, so that after closing the wound the cut 
ends of the tissues and the margins of the wound are covered with 
blood. Some operators maintain that the antiseptic properties of the 
blood are equally as great as any safe antiseptic which might be intro- 
duced into the wound. Without doubt it is a most excellent method of 
operation. Yaughan and others attribute the antiseptic properties of 
the blood to nucleins or cell globulins which it contains. He says that 
the origin of these substances is in the leukocytes, fibroblasts, and 
adenoid tissues generally. 


By asepsis is meant surgical cleanliness. "Sepsis" comes from the 
Greek and means putrefaction. The term asepsis refers to that condi- 
tion where all agents and substances causing putrefaction or decompo- 
sition are absent. Inasmuch as sepsis is the condition against which 
nearly all the surgeon's efforts are directed, an aseptic condition would 
be ideal if it could be obtained. Since Dr. Henle in 1840 propounded 
the germ theory of disease, physicians have sought for methods to pre- 
vent bacterial growth. Lord Lister, believing that the source of sepsis 
was largely through, the atmosphere, devised means whereby the air 
and the surfaces of the wound were impregnated with pulverized anti- 
septics. The extremes to which this and other antiseptic methods were 
carried undoubtedly resulted in great injury many times. The mon- 
strous outcome of such applications, however, was the result of an 
erroneous idea of the sonrce of infection. It is now known that infec- 
tion comes largely from the hands of the operator, from his instru- 
ments, from the surface of the body, and foreign bodies coming in 
contact with the wound and that very few, if any, pathogenic micro- 


organisms gain access to the wound by means of the air. Therefore, 
because of the irritating qualities of the antiseptics, antiseptic methods 
really introduced into the wound irritating substances, destroyed tissue 
cells and added this burden to the healthy tissues and did not render 
infection less likely. Having recognized the source of infection, more 
simple and less harmful means nave been devised for destroying the 
pathogenic germs. It bar, led to the theory of asepsis. The most diffi- 
cult thing to obtain in a surgical operation, or in any surgical condition, 
is a condition approaching asepsis, and yet it is the condition hoped for 
by every operator; and every method known to destroy germs without 
the use of irritating chemical compounds should be used and is justifia- 
ble. Heat is the best of all agents to destroy micro-organisms, therefore 
instruments of any description used about the body, under any circum- 
stances whatever, wb ether a fresh wound is present or not, universally 
such instruments should be boiled. The bands of the operator can 
readily be sterilized, at least made sufficiently clean for all practical 
purposes, by the following means. The nails should be pared closely 
and all dirt removed from beneath them; the hands and arms should 
then be thoroughly scrubbed with soap, water, and a brush which has 
previously been made sterile by boiling. The best soap, such as green 
soap, or castile soap, should be used. After the hands have been thor- 
oughly scrubbed, they may be washed in alcobol to remove the oil from 
the sebaceous glands and the skm Lastly the hands may be bathed in 
1:1000 solution of bichloride of mercury. Under ordinary circum- 
stances, after such preparation, the hands will be sufficiently clean. If 
the hand is to be introduced into the peritoneal cavity, more elaborate 
preparations may be made. The idea of using sterile rubber gloves in 
operative procedures was looked upon favorably by many most excellent 
surgeons, but they have gradually given way to approved methods of 
cleansing the hands. The surface of the body in the neighborhood of 
the wound or in the field of operation may be similarly treated. After 
having been thoroughly scrubbed it may be washed with an antiseptic 
solution, and if the antiseptic causes any uneasiness, it should after- 
wards be removed with boiled water. Surgical dressings/ ligatures, 
and any other objects going in or about wounds should be sterilized, 
not by antiseptics, but by heat. Substances entering into and going 
about wounds impregnated with antiseptics are uniformly irritating 
and harmful. 

Preparations for an Operation. 

When an operation is to take place in a room in a dwelling house, 
all furniture, tapestries, and curtains should be removed, and the floor 
and walls thoroughly scrubbed and cleansed. The table should be an 
iron portable one, easily rendered sterile. Where this is not obtainable, 
an ordinary wooden table, well scrubbed and washed with an antiseptic, 
will do. Other small tables, one for the anesthetist, one for sponges, 
one for the instruments of the operator, and another for a basin con- 


taining an antiseptic solution are needed. Previous to the operation the 
surgeon should see that he has a goodly number of sterile towels. For an 
ordinary operation, say resection of the knee-joint, two or three dozen 
towels should be available. These towels may be made sterile by 
means of heat, and placed conveniently at hand for use during the oper- 
ation. The patient, in any major operation, or where a general anes- 
thetic is to he given, requires preparation. Uniformly the bowel should 
be evacuated of its contents by means of a high enema previous to the 
operation. Under no circumstances, if the operation is to take place 
in the morning, should the patient be allowed breakfast, as the stom- 
ach should be entirely empt}\ The patient should be free from any 
excitement, and stimulants or drugs of any kind should not be allowed. 
A general bath should be given. The body should be scrubbed about 
the flexures, genitalia, and perineum, and the head shampooed. If the 
operation is to be on a part of the body covered with hair, the hair 
should be removed by shaving, when the skin may be thoroughly 
scrubbed and cleansed. The method of applying antiseptic poultices, 
soap poultices, or other such means is needless. The field of operation 
may be thoroughly scrubbed and cleansed by means of soap and water, 
alcohol and bichloride of mercury, when several layers of sterile or 
antiseptic gauze may be strapped to the surface to prevent any contam- 
ination of the part so cleansed. There should also be at hand a large 
quantity of boiled water or of normal salt solution for the purpose of 
thoroughly washing out the wound. This is of the utmost importance. 
Water does not act as an antiseptic, but, on the other hand, dilutes and 
washes away the substances upon which the bacteria live. Inasmuch 
as it is in no case harmful, the wound may be flooded with large quanti- 
ties of water and all irritating and harmful substances can be removed 
without difficulty. Ten gallons of water ma}^ be run through, and into 
all parts of a large abscess cavity with very beneficial results. The 
present practice of injecting antiseptics into such cavities with the 
hope that they will destroy the bacteria is a most vicious practice. In 
operations where the peritoneal cavity is opened and where septic 
material becomes diffused between the viscera, large quantities of nor- 
mal salt solution should be run through, and into every nook 
and cranny so as to wash out all offending materials. The sponges 
used in an operation can be made of gauze or cotton enveloped by 
gauze. Gauze pads are perhaps the most serviceable, as they are easily 
sterilized. Marine sponges are rarely used and formerly in the hands 
of many surgeons were the vehicles of infection instead of performing 
the function of removing offensive materials. All the sponges entering 
into an operation should be counted, so that if it becomes necessary at 
any time to account for them, this may be done. The misfortune 
of closing a wound in the peritoneal cavity with a sponge in situ has 
happened to good operators. The towels just previous to the operation 
should be spread over all parts of the table and those parts of the 
patient's body in the region of the operation, so that previous to oper- 


ating the operator has a sterile ''field''' before him. This field of opera- 
lion should, at all hazards, be maintained aseptic. During the opera- 
tion no one should be allowed to touch any septic object and then touch 
the field of operation. The instruments selected by the operator should 
be those required in the operation. Any useless array of instruments 
is needless and certainly looks bad. The instruments should be wrapped 
in a towel previous to the operation and'be allowed to boil for fifteen 
minutes. If the operator means to Kgate an artery, bone forceps are 
hardly necessary. On the other hand a good supply of artery forceps, 
which are reliable, should be at hand. 


Pus formation was at one time supposed to be the inevitable out- 
come of wounds. It has been proven erroneous. This was followed by 
the belief that all pus was produced by micro-organisms, which is like- 
wise untrue. Pus, in a large majority of cases, is the result of the oper- 
ations of micro-organisms within the tissues. It is not a specific infec- 
tive process, but it is a form of reaction which may happen from various 
injurious agents. The pustules of croton oil contain true pus, and yet 
the pus is free from micro-organisms. Pus may be looked upon as a 
termination of inflammation, which may be caused by chemical agents, 
or bacterial action. An acute abscess is generally the result of the 
development of bacteria within the tissues, and as such, it will be 
described. Bacteria get into the tissues in various ways; sometimes at 
hair follicles, other times in small abrasions of the skin, and at other 
times at the open, mouths of lymphatics in wounds. They circulate 
either in a healthy state or in the form of spores until they lodge in 
some part of the body where an inflammatory reaction follows. The 
beginning of the inflammation does not differ from the inflammation 
arising from other causes, but if the bacteria are present in large num- 
bers the tissue changes are very rapid and the symptoms and signs of 
the process are more intensified. The invasion of the system by bac- 
teria or the pus micro-organisms, in the case of suppuration, has been 
likened to the invasion of a country by a hostile army. The leukocytes 
which swarm to the inflamed area, attracted by chemotactic influences, 
pounce upon the germs and attempt to destroy them. The connective-tis- 
sue cells increase in number rapidly; these, too, exhibit phagocytic prop- 
erties. Nature attempts to destroy the irritant. When this is impossi- 
ble the proliferated connective-tissue cells, now called the round-cells 
of inflammation, or fibroblasts, and the leukocytes, form a wall around 
the bacteria. Inasmuch as the inflamed area is so crowded with leuko- 
cytes and round-cells it interferes with the flow of the fluids and the 
nutrition is cut off to the center of the inflamed area. Death of this 
central area follows. The first change occurring is a coagulation of the 
albuminous principles in the cell, the nucleus becomes less distinct, the 
protoplasm granular and cloudy (Coagulation Necrosis). Coagulation 

24 CASE A riON. 

necrosis is the first step in pus formation. Now this central mass which 
has undergone coagulation necrosis becomes liquefied by the peptoniz- 
ing influence of certain ferments which are developed by the micro- 
organism (Liquefaction Necrosis). The result of the liquefying of the 
tissues is pus. This pus in ordinary abscess formation is limited 
by a membrane. It was called by the old writers a pyogenic membrane, 
inasmuch as they thought it produced pus. Now it is called the Limit- 
ing Membrane since it is this membrane which prevents the extrava- 
sation of the pus into the other tissues. Pus forms only after stasis 
occurs, and after the nutrition to the inflamed area has been arrested; 
therefore, to prevent pus formation, circulation of the fluids must be 
kept up. Pus of abscesses varies largely, depending upon the cause of 
its formation and the condition of the tissues. 

Laudable Pus. — This term was formerly used by surgeons to indicate 
the pus flowing from a wound. It is usually of a specific gravity of 
1028, is yellowish, yellowish-white, or a greenish fluid of the consistency 
of cream, with or without odor. 

Ichorous Pus is a putrid fluid which is thin and watery and contains 
large numbers of the micro-organisms of putrefaction. 

Foul Pus may be ichorous and may be due to various micro-organ- 
isms. Certain abscesses discharge this character of pus. Ischiorectal 
abscesses and those following typhoid fever are notoriously foul and 

Sanious Pus is a term applied to bloody pus or that which contains 
coloring matter. Sometimes it is thin, reddish, and corroding. 

Fibrinous Pus contains fibrinous masses or coagulated purulent 
masses. It is met with in the pus of serous cavities. 

Blue or Green Pus is due to the presence of the B. Pyocyaneus. 

Serous Pus is a serous-like fluid containing flakes of purulent matter. 

Tubercular Pus is generally curdy, containing cheesy-like masses. 

Muco-Pus is a term applied to the decomposed or purulent mucus 
found in catarrhal conditions. 

Caseation is a term applied to the fatty degeneration of pus and 
dead tissues. These caseous masses may undergo calcification. 

It may then be considered that pus only happens from micro-organ- 
isms when their onslaughts are so severe as to overwhelm certain por- 
tions of the tissues, thus causing death and destruction. This pus is 
confined, as before stated, by a limiting membrane. Pus is an offending 
substance nature wishes to get rid of, therefore, by the action of certain 
forces it burrows in the direction of least resistance. This is not always 
toward the surface. In the case of purulent synovitis of the knee-joint 
the pus generally burrows upward on either side of the thigh. Pus 
forming on the front of the body of a vertebra in the lumbar region, 
along the attachment of the psoas magnus muscle, forms a cavity in 
the sheath of this muscle, then burrows along down the sheath and 


opens beneath Poupart's ligament. Pus may burrow a long distance. Pus 
from an abscess of the appendix may rupture at the umbilicus. The 
writer operated upon a case of this sort where the abscess had been 
of more than a year's standing. A rapid and complete recovery fol- 
lowed. In abscess on the thumb or little finger, as happens in whitlow, 
the pus may burrow along the sheath of the tendons and open 
above the anterior annular ligament of the wrist-joint. Pus may bur- 
row from the chest cavity down the arm. Pus forming in the hip-joint 
may burrow in several directions. (See hip-joint disease). When it is 
toward the surface it gives the appearance of "pointing." This point- 
ing is evidenced by a dark-bluish spot which afterwards becomes 
necrosed, and as the pus approaches the skin, it shows a yellowish color 
through the translucent epithelium. When pus ruptures from an 
abscess without the assistance of a knife, the opening is rarely suffi- 
ciently large; furthermore, necrosis of the superficial tissues results in 
the formation of an ugly scar; hence it should be a uniform practice, 
whenever pus formation is detected, to make a free incision and evacu- 
ate the pus. Pus formation is attended with an intensification of the 
symptoms of inflammation. The pain is more severe and more of a 
throbbing nature, the redness becomes more dusky, and the swelling 
very often edematous. The loss of function becomes more complete 
while the heat is greater and in large abscesses the absorption of the 
toxins from the abscess may be such as to cause fever and other sys- 
temic disturbances, such as anorexia and partial arrest of the 
secretions. Previous to the pointing of the abscess the skin becomes 
adherent to the deeper structures. Many times this is an indication 
of the formation of pus before fluctuation can be obtained. Fluctuation 
is the sensation obtained by holding the finger upon one side of the 
abscess and tapping the other side. This causes a wave-like motion in 
the fluid, which is transmitted to the finger. If the abscess be of suffi- 
cient size, a chill may attend the formation of pus. This chill is the 
result of circulatory disturbances brought about by the effect of the 
poisons upon the vasomotor centers. Following the chill there is 
usually a high fever and a drenching sweat. If the abscess be large 
and deep seated and is not soon evacuated of its contents, irregular 
chills may occur. This is one of the sure signs of pus formation. If 
the diagnosis can not yet be made, a tubular exploring-needle may be 
introduced into the abscess cavity, when the character of the contents 
may be determined, to a certainty. 

Abscess formation is generally of two kinds, Circumscribed and 
Diffuse. Circumscribed abscess formation is similar to that which 
occurs in a boil or furuncle. Diffuse pus formation is called Phlegmon 
or purulent infiltration. 

Phlegmon. — This process may involve areas of varying sizes, from a 
small patch to the entire limb, and is generally due to the infection of 
the streptococcus pyogenes or streptococcus erysipelas. These germs 
are very often extremely virulent and active. The barrier set up by 


the leukocytes and connective-tissue cells will not restrain them. They 
disseminate through the intercellular spaces and lymph channels and 
spread rapidly, causing intense inflammation, marked swelling, pain, 
and great discoloration. The pain very often is of a burning character. 
Necrosis of the superficial areas, because of the arrest of the circula- 
tion, is not unusual. Neighboring lymphatic glands become inflamed 
and enlarged. Chills may occur at the onset of the inflammation, or 
there may be severe chills at short intervals in conditions of rapid 
infection. Fever, under such circumstances, is more or less continuous, 
but following each chill there is a rapid rise, when it again falls 
to a minimum. In severe cases the fever may take on a typhoid charac- 
ter. In case of broken-down health, compound fracture with great 
destruction and injury to the soft-parts, in extravasation of the urine 
through the tissues, or in pus formation following an attack of an acute 
infectious disease, it is not unusual for the fever to be of a typhoid 
nature. It is a very grave condition, and means a septic intoxication, 
and unless evacuation of the pus and cleansing of the abscess cavity can 
be made, death is imminent. About the edges of the inflamed area there 
are red, fiery lines extending from it in forked directions, indicating 
that the inflammation extends along the lymphatics. Like cases may not 
suppurate, the leukocytes having destroyed the poisons. As soon as the 
tissues assert themselves and win the battle waged against the germ, a 
circumscribed abscess will follow, when the pus may be evacuated and 
the case recovers. When the pus cavity is evacuated, granulation tissue 
fills it up. This cicatrizes and a scar results which permanently marks 
the location of the abscess. 

Varieties of Abscess. 

1. Acute, which is the result of an active inflammatory reaction. 

2. Chronic, which is one due to certain conditions of the tissues 
rather than germs. They are less active and are sometimes called 
strumous, cold, or tubercular. 

3. Circumscribed, when the abscess has a well defined limiting mem- 

4. Diffuse, when no limiting membrane occurs. 

5. Hypostatic, when it is the result of pus gravitating into a part. 

6. Embolic, where the abscess is the result of an infective embolus. 

7. Encysted, where the abscess is enclosed by a fibrinous wall. 

8. Fecal, when the abscess contains feces. 

9. Metastatic, when the abscess is caused by pyogenic cocci from 
another abscess. 

10. Hematic, which arises from bloodclot. 

11. Milk Abscess, an abscess of the breast in nursing women. 

12. Psoas, an abscess in the psoas muscle. 


13. Tropical, an abscess of the liver occurring in hot countries. 

14. Thecal, when it occurs in the sheath of a tendon. 

15. Urinary, when caused by the extravasation of urine. 

16. Brodie's Abscess, is a chronic abscess of bone, most commonly 
occurring in the tibia. 

17. Deep Abscess, when it occurs beneath the deep fascia. 

18. Superficial Abscess, when it is above the deep fascia. 

19. Pag'et's Abscess, one occurring from the residue of an old abscess 
after several years. 


Acute Abscesses of Various Regions. 

1. Abscess of the Brain. — See Cerebral Abscess. 

2. Abscess of the Appendix "Vermiformis. — See Appendicitis. 

3. Abscess of the Liver may follow dysentery, appendicitis, or sup- 
purative processes in other locations of the body. Where the abscess 
obstructs the gall-duct, jaundice will occur. In addition to the pain and 
tenderness over the iiver and the enlargement of the liver, fever of an 
intermittent t} r pe is present, and there will be severe pain in the shoul- 
der and back. The burrowing of the abscess towards the surface is 
announced by edema of the skin. Occasionally the condition is not 
diagnosed until late. 

4. Subphrenic Abscess, as the term indicates, arises beneath the 
diaphragm, and is generally of the lesser peritoneal sac. It may arise 
from perforation of some of the hollow viscera, from Pott's disease, or 
from infection or injury of some of the viscera. 

5. Abscess of the Mediastinum is difficult to diagnose except by the 
systemic signs. 

6. Abscess of the Lung occurs in conditions of pyemia after pneu- 
monia, or after injuries and perforating wounds of the lung. 

7. Perinephritic Abscess is difficult to diagnose, but occasionally 
causes pain down the back of the leg, simulating hip-joint disease. 
Edema and fluctuation in the lumbar region may announce the point- 
ing of the abscess. 

8. Ischiorectal Abscess is caused by an infection of the cellular tis- 
sues of the ischiorectal fossa, by means of micro-organisms which have 
migrated from the rectum through the intestinal wall. See fistula in 

9. Abscess of the Antrum of Highmore. — See Abscess of Antrum. 

10. Postpharyngeal Abscess may come from caries of the cervical 
spine. This may occasion difficulty in swallowing and breathing and 
puffiness in the postphar}'ngea! wall. Fluctuation may be felt. 

11. Prostatic and Urethral Abscesses are attended by painful and fre- 
quent micturition or retention of urine, together with chills and fever. 


12. Abscess of the Breast is caused by pyogenic micro-organisms 
entering from abrasions of the nipple, or is cine to an obstruction of the 
milk-ducts, .by pendulous breasts, or by luxations of the ribs, affecting 
the return circulation. The symptoms of this abscess are similar to 
those of abscesses in other regions. 

13. Palmar Abscess and Felons. — See Thecal Abscess. 

Symptoms of Acute Abscess. 

(A) Local, and (E) Constitutional. 

Local Symptoms. — 1. Pain, throbbing or burning. 2. Dusky hue 
of the skin. 3. The skin is adherent to the underlying tissues. 4. 
Edema. 5. Fluctuation. 6. Great heat. 

Constitutional Symptoms. — 1. Chills, varying from a chilly sensa- 
tion to distinct rigors. There may be one or several, happening irreg- 
ularly, usually at the formation of each new abscess, as in 
pyemia. 2. Headache. 3. Muscular soreness. 4. Coated tongue 
5. Loss of appetite. 6. Sleeplessness. 7. Fever, varying from 
half a degree to a rise of several degrees, 8. Highly colored and 
scanty urine. 9. The bowels are confined. 10. Certain nerve symp- 
toms which vary from irritability to delirium of a noisy character. 
Where the abscess is old and long continued it gives rise to what is 
called a hectic fever, which is sometimes attended by a peculiar flush 
upon the cheek (hectic flush). This is characteristic of tuberculosis, 
the fever in which is produced hy pus formation. 

Diagnosis of Acute Abscess. 

The diagnosis of acute abscess formation is made by weighing the 
symptoms present. Where there is doubt the physician should tempor- 
ize, unless urgent measures must be adopted. An exploring-needle 
may be introduced, which will determine the character of the con- 
tents of the tumefaction. 

Abscess may be confounded with Aneurysm, Avhen it is seated over 
an artery because it is pulsatile. Tt may be confounded with Cyst; an 
exploring needle will determine this. A tubercular abscess is differ- 
entiated by means of the absence of the inflammatory signs and the 
general condition of the patient. A rapidly growing Sarcoma has 
deceived some physicians, but here again an exploring-needle would 
determine the nature of the tumefaction. Where the character of the 
contents of the cavity is doubtful, cultures may be made to determine 
whether micro-organisms are present. 

Treatment of Acute Abscess. 

(A) Osteopathic and (B) Operative. 

The Osteopathic treatment is of great value in the treatment of 
abscess when brought into use before pus is formed. Suppuration in 


almost all foims of abscess may be arrested if seen sufficiently early. 
The treatment in general is similar to that of any inflammation, but is 
more especially directed toward relieving stasis, which must take place 
before pus is formed. Death of tissue anywhere is always the result of 
the arrest of nutrition. The treatment consists in relieving any obstruc- 
tion to the circulation, whether it is within the fascia, muscles or other 
tissues. Eelieving the obstruction and encouraging the circulation pre- 
vents stasis and the formation of abscess. In many cases the obstruc- 
tion may be from bony displacements. These will be at once recognized 
and relief given immediately. By appropriate treatment resorption of 
the inflammatory products can be secured by opening up the mouths of 
the lymphatics and increasing this circulation. Where the pain is great 
it can be relieved by removing the obstruction to the circulation, thus 
relieving the tension. The fever may be reduced by appropriate treat- 
ment. The urinary secietions may be stimulated so that the poisons 
circulating within the body may be eliminated, while the bowels, if 
confined, should be freely opened. 

Operative. — When suppuration is imminent, heat in the form of hot 
fomentations or hot poultices may be applied. In small abscesses it is 
perhaps the best practice to hasten pus formation and allow it to rup- 
ture of itself, unless the boil occurs on an exposed part of the body, 
when an incision by a small tenotome or dermal lancet may be made to 
evacuate the pus. Should such incision be made, the abscess should 
be washed out with an antiseptic solution and the cavity swabbed out 
and thoroughly cleansed so as to prevent further pus formation. In 
case of an abscess of large size a free incision should be made. The 
abscess cavity should be washed out with an antiseptic solution and 
good drainage established. Drainage is best obtained by introducing a 
strip of gauze, which is not too large to obstruct the free flow of the 
■fluids, to the very bottom of the abscess. If the abscess is of large size 
and collapsible and of long standing the gauze should be lightly packed 
in so as to keep the abscess cavity distended to permit of drainage from 
all its parts. Drainage is the most important feature in the treatment 
of an open abscess. In an abscess that has opened of itself, it should 
be seen to by the attending physician that the opening is large enough 
to permit of free drainage of the fluids from it. If there be no general 
cause for the abscess, no systemic ailment, such as a strumous condi- 
tion, syphilis, alcoholism, or a diathesis of any kind, and free drainage 
and antisepsis is maintained by washing out the abscess at least once 
daily, the abscess will readily heal in a short time. Should the abscess 
continue for some length of time, the antiseptics used to wash the 
cavity should be changed, e. g., carbolic acid one week, bichloride the 
next week, etc. 

In abscess of the Appendix, the appendix may be removed and the 
pus cavity washed, out. A cigarette drain may then be inserted. 

In Pelvic Abscess drainage may be had by means of a glass tube. A 
fenestrated rubber tube may be serviceable in establishing drainage 


from an abscess in joints, pleura, or other locations, but Treves' method 
of gauze drainage is usually the best. 

In opening an abscess care should be taken to make the incision in 
the direction of the vessels and so as to not injure any important 
structures. Hilton's method of opening an abscess is an excellent one 
in case of abscess of the neck. This method consists in making a small 
incision or puncture in the abscess with a bistoury or small scalpel, 
when a closed arter} r forceps is introduced into the abscess cavity, then 
opened and withdrawn. While this operation is painful it is safe, for 
the arteries and nerves will not tear as readily as the connective tissues 
by which they are surrounded, hence you enlarge the opening at the 
least possible risk. After the abscess is evacuated, a small strip of 
gauze may be introduced to prevent closing of the opening and to estab- 
lish drainage. The abscess should always be opened at the most depen- 
dent part so as to secure the benefit of gravit} r in drainage. Where the 
abscess is large it may be punctured and a grooved director inserted, 
and when it is known that no important structures lie between the 
grooved director and the surface the tissues may be readily divided and 
a large opening secured. In case of old abscess it is advisable to scrape 
out, with a dull curette, the inside of the abscess to get rid of the dead 
materia], flocculent pus, and masses of dead tissue, and to permit the 
antiseptic solution, with which the cavity must be flooded, to get into 
every nook and cranny. The antiseptics used in abscesses should be, 
in acute abscesses, corrosive sublimate or carbolic acid solutions where 
free drainage can be had and there is no likelihood of the fluids being 
retained. Under no circumstances* must peroxid of hydrogen be used 
unless there is a large opening and free drainage and plenty of oppor- 
tunity for the gas to escape, as sometimes large quantities of gas are 
evolved when it comes in contact with pus. In acute abscesses, where 
there is not good drainage and there is much absorption of pus, the 
cavity should be washed out two or three times daily. Where there is 
good drainage once daily is sufficient, depending upon the nature of the 
discharge. As the abscess begins to heal the discharge will become 
less purulent and at the same time more serous, and as the discharge 
becomes less, and as the abscess heals from the bottom up, the gauze or 
other drainage material may be left out ; not, however, until there is no 
possibility of any pockets forming. Boroglyeericle solution and emul- 
sions of iodoform are extensively used in chronic abscesses. 

Dangers of Abscess. 

1. Hemorrhage. — In certain conditions of pus formation where the 
pus burrows about blood-vessels, the walls of the vessels may become 
eroded and burst. Fatal hemorrhage has occurred from such cause. 

2. Rupture into Large Cavities. — Where an abscess ruptures into a 
joint or serous cavity such as the pleura or peritoneal cavity, rapid 


absorption of the pus will take place, inasmuch as these cavities are 
but large lymph spaces and furnish opportunity for very rapid absorp- 
tion of pus, therefore a rupture into any such cavity is likely to be rap- 
idly fatal. 

3. The Formation of Sinus or Fistula occurs where foreign bodies 
remain at the bottom of the abscess cavity, where bone becomes 
necrosed and sequestra are formed or where the pus has burrowed 
through a long tortuous tract, where the abscess is poorly drained or 
where there is some constitutional disturbance. The fistula occurs 
where the pus has burrowed from one normal cavity of the body to 
another, or to the surface of the body. 

4. General Sepsis takes place in diffuse pus formation where the pus 
extends around, through, and along the planes of connective tissue 
which extends around and between muscles, over bones, nerves, and 
blood-vessels in such a manner that rapid absorption of the toxins may 
take place. General sepsis may occur following the rupture of a circum- 
scribed abscess into a large serous cavity or into the planes of connective 

5. Deformity. — Pas formation may result in serious deformity, as 
happens in palmar abscess, caries of the spine, and in abscesses of the 
neck large and hideous scars may be formed. Abscesses of the middle 
ear oftentimes permanently impair the hearing. Such deformities 
should be anticipated and the abscess opened early so as to limit the 
formation of new tissue, which may bind down important structures, 
and the contractions of which may be unsightly. 

Chronic or Cold Abscess. 

A chronic or cold abscess is one which is not inflammatory, the signs 
of active inflammation being absent. It differs from acute abscess, in 
that it generally forms slowly ; and, while the signs of inflammation are 
present to some extent, only in a minor degree. This abscess does not 
depend upon the presence of pyogenic micro-organisms. The contents 
of 'a cold abscess differ markedly from that of the acute, being very 
often thin and curdy, instead of thick and creamy. There 
are cases of superficial chronic abscess where the contents vary 
but slightly from the pus of an acute abscess. Its chief char- 
acteristics are that it is not inflammatory and the cause more obscure. 
It was formerly said to be idiopathic. They generally arise from carious 
bone, chronic joint disease, caseating lymphatics, and from retrograde 
changes taking place in connective tissue planes. The real causes of 
chronic abscess are bon) r , muscular, or fascial lesions affecting the cir- 
culation and nutrition. The tissues become debilitated and lose their 
resisting power. They easily undergo degeneration and form pus be- 
cause of a trivial injury. These lesions may affect a part directly or 
reflexly. They not only constitute the most important causative factor 
in this disease, but also their removal will be attended by a disappear- 


ance of the abscess. The depraved condition of the tissues local or 
general, directly the result of certain lesions, permits of the deposit 
of the tubercle bacillus, resulting in the formation of the tubercular 
abscess. By' no means are all of these chronic abscesses tubercular. In 
the pus from some of them the tubercle bacilli may be demonstrated, 
but in many others not only can the tubercle bacilli not be found in the 
pus, but (likewise not in the surrounding connective tissues. The prac- 
tice of some physicians in calling all of these chronic abscesses "tuber- 
cular" is certainly bad. These abscesses may exist for months, and 
even years, without rupturing externally, during which time there may 
be no febrile reaction. Ofttimes the pus burrows for a long distance, 
and the sinuous tract is lined with fibrous tissue which may even, in 
some cases, be cartilagenous. 


Symptoms of Chronic Abscess. 

The svmptoms are various, differing according to the location of 
the abscess; when it is due to a carious spine it is accompanied by 
marked spinal curvature ; when associated with bone abscess it is usually 
very painful and accompanied by great thickening of the bone and 
in. Juration of the tissues. Prior to the opening of the cold abscess no 
constitutional symptoms appear — no chill, no fever, no loss of appetite, 
or nervous symptoms, but on the other hand there is a certain amount 
of general debility in a large number of cases. After the abscess opens 
or is opened, pyogenic infection will most likely take place, when a 
general hectic fever follows and many times where the abscess is insuf- 
ficiently drained and putrefactive changes take place in the retained 
discharge, the patient may grow r rapidly worse and the case terminate 
fatally. This led old practitioners to avoid opening the abscess as long 
as possible, and to attempt to get rid of the diseased condition by other 
means. Where a chronic abscess becomes infected and the patient is 
debilitated, suppuration may extend over a long period. A hectic fever 
with the characteristic evening rise and morning remission, giving the 
mental picture of a wasting disease, will follow. The case may be 
terminated by exhaustion, renal disease, a diarrhea, or by an abscess 
forming in the liver. 

Diagnosis of Cold Abscess. 

The diagnosis of a cold abscess is somewhat difficult. It may be 
taken for blood extravasation, soft tumor, lipoma, cyst, etc. Where the 
diagnosis is questionable, a needle may be introduced and some of the 
fluid, if any is present, withdrawn. 

Terminations of Cold Abscess. 

A cold abscess after remaining quiescent for months, or even years, 
may again become active, enlarge, and rupture. A cold abscess may 
rupture upon mucous surfaces, in a serous cavity, or upon the surface 


of the body. The contents may be only watery, containing curdy-like 
masses, or the fluids may be absorbed and this cheesy-like material may 
undergo, calcification and remain quiescent for years. Perhaps after an 
injury or the person has become debilitated an abcess may arise from 
this cheesy mass. This is called by some writers, Kesidual Abscess. 

Treatment of Cold Abscess. 

In the treatment of cold abscess, constitutional derangement or bony 
lesions should be looked for. Whatever the derangement is, or what- 
ever the lesion is, this should be corrected. The flow of the fluids and 
the nutrition in the affected tissues should be encouraged. If a person 
is of a constipated habit, this should be corrected. If he is suffering 
from general debility, his system must be built up. Every effort should 
be made to cure the abscess without opening, unless it enlarges, when 
aspiration should at first be resorted to, and the general treatment con- 
tinued. In a large chronic abscess a person should lead an ouodoor 
life. If the abscess is opened it should be scraped well with a Volk- 
mann's spoon to get rid of the detritus and dead material clinging to 
the abscess walls. Irrigation of the abscess cavity with antiseptic solu- 
tions and the enforcement of the most rigid cleanliness is essential. 

Tubercular Abscess. 

Tubercular abscess may occur wherever the deposit of the tubercle 
bacilli may take place, but this is generally in connection with bones, 
joints, lymphatics, an'd connective tissues. It differs from the ordinary 
chronic abscess in that the exciting cause of the disease process is the 
tubercle bacilli. ^Lesions, as misplaced bone or contracted muscle, 
affecting the flow of the fluids and weakening the tissues, render possi- 
ble the deposit of the germs. Many of the abscesses which are tuber- 
cular, so-called, may not be turbercular, inasmuch as it is quite impossi- 
ble to demonstrate the presence of the tubercle bacilli. They often 
happen in connection with the spine, where it is called "Pott's disease," 
or the hip-joint, where it is called "Morbus Coxarius," or the knee- 
joint, where it is popularlv termed "White Swelling." They are found 
in persons who have inherited weakness of some sort, often where the 
parents or near relatives have been subjects of tuberculosis. 

Symptoms of Tubercular Abscess. — It presents many of the symp- 
toms of other forms of tuberculosis with chronic abscess formation. The 
pathology of this abscess formation is that of the deposit of the tubercle 
in the tissues. 

Treatment of Tubercular Abscess. — The treatment of tubercular 
abscess has been greatly modified by the practice of osteopathy. The 
most important part of the treatment is to relieve any constitutional 
derangement or bony lesion which may account for the condition pres- 
ent. This latter idea is ridiculed by other practitioners, but the uni- 

34 ULCER. 

formity with which good results have been obtained by correcting such 
lesions and increasing the blood supply to the part, no longer leaves 
it open to question. In addition to the osteopathic treatment which 
may be instituted according as the case requires, the local treatment of 
the abscess may be included under the following heads : 

1. Aspiration of the pus will sometimes lead to its disappearance. 
Eepeated aspirations, together with other manipulative treatment, as 
the case requires, ought, in a large majority of cases, to be suffi- 

2. Tapping and Irrigation consist in removing the fluid and irrigat- 
ing the cavity with an antiseptic solution. This treatment is fairly suc- 
cessful in some cases. 

3. Extirpating the Tubercular Area. — This consists in dissecting out 
the abscess and its wall, thoroughly cleansing the wound and closing the 
incision or wound without drainage. This has been successful in some 

4. Iodoform Emulsion Treatment. — Iodoform was at one time ex- 
tremely popular with surgeons, but the writer has" never, in his experi- 
ence, had any success which he felt he could conscientiously attribute to 
the action of iodoform emulsion injected in these cases. It may be 
useful as an antiseptic, but to inject it subcutaneously in the tubercular 
abscess or joint, is not good treatment and is hardly warranted. 

5. Simple Drainage With Antiseptics, which is the same method as 
is used in the treatment of acute abscess, can be resorted to at any time, 
but here it should be understood that the most rigid antisepsis is nec- 

6. Open Method. — This method consists in laying the cavity open and 
cauterizing the area freely Avith carbolic acid and allowing the wound 
to heal from the bottom. 


An ulcer is an open sore produced by the destruction of surface tis- 
sues. The term "ulceration" means molecular destruction of the soft- 
parts, in contradistinction to "gangrene," which is death of the soft- 
parts by mass. Molecular death of bone is called "caries." "Necrosis" 
means death of bone by mass. Soine writers maintain that any open 
wound is an ulcer, but this view is hardly a good one. Ulceration is best 
considered as a process similar to abscess formation, which takes place 
in surface tissue and results in death of certain small masses of tissue 
— gangrene — which are cast off, or which soften and break down and are 
discharged. The causes of the ulcer are similar to the causes of abscess 
formation, viz., an abnormal circulation, deficient nerve supply, obstruc- 
tion to the return circulation, deficiency in the quality and quantity of 
the blood distributed to the part, or to the circulation of poison within 
the body, or to infection, or injury — pressure, or to the application of 


corroding chemicals, or the existence of some constitutional affection, 
viz., syphilis, gout, tuberculosis, etc. Inasmuch as the ulcer is open, 
pyogenic cocci always play an important part in the process. 

Varieties of Ulcers.— 1. Simple.— A simple or healthy ulcer presents 
smooth, shelving edges and a granulating base and has but little dis- 

Treatment. — Promote the nutrition and circulation by proper treat- 
ment and wash the ulcer daily with an antiseptic solution. Use a pro- 
tective ointment in small ulcers, with several thicknesses of antiseptic 
gauze and cotton, the bandage being applied in the direction of the 
return circulation. Where the ulcer is on a part of the body where 
a scar will produce serious deformity, skin grafting should be resorted 
to. This operation will promote cicatrization. There are three meth- 
ods generally employed. One (Tiersch's method) is that the ulcer 
should be brought into a healthy condition by the use of strong anti- 
septics, lastly being washed by boiled normal salt solution. The surface 
of the body from which the skin is to be removed is made aseptic and 
the superficial layers of the epidermis scraped off, when by means of a 
razor or sharp knife, small longitudinal strips of the epidermis only are 
removed and laid over the healthy ulcer. 

The second method is to remove small bits of skin by sticking a needle 
between the true and false skin and then by means of a knife cutting 
off a small patch of epithelial cells above the needle. Numbers of these 
patches are removed from the part of the body, which has previously 
been thoroughly cleansed, and are set around over the ulcer, which has 
been previously rendered thoroughly aseptic. The part is then pro- 
tected from any irritation or injury, when healing generally takes place 
rapidly. From these small "grafts" the epithelium spreads out over 
the healthy granulating surface. 

The third method, of closing an ulcer is quite successful, when it is 
so located that the operation is feasible. This is a sliding flap opera- 
tion. A suitable flap can be taken from near the ulcer and 
turned over so as to cover it. After the edges of the flap have united 
with the margins of the ulcer the pedicle of the flap may be cut off. 
The wound from which the flap is removed can be closed by interrupted 

2. Fung-ating Ulcer. — A fnngating ulcer is generally due to an ob- 
struction to the return circulation. This may be due to undue contrac- 
tion of the tissues between the ulcer and the heart. The edges of the 
ulcer are apparently healthy, but the granulations rise above the surface 
and are exuberant, are very red and bleed easily. The discharge is gen- 
erally purulent. 

Treatment. — Eemove such obstruction, cauterize the fungus growth 
with creosote, copper sulphate, or nitrate of silver. Afterwards it may 
be treated as a healthy ulcer. 


3. Edematous Ulcer. — Edematous ulcers happen in a part of the body 
where the tissues are weakened and there is an obstruction to the return 
circulation.. The person suffers from a condition of general debility 
and the tissues about the ulcer are edematous because of the poor circu- 
lation. The ulcer is unhealthy. The discharge is watery and quite 

Treatment. — Remove the cause, i. e.. obstruction to the circulation, 
treat the general condition, enforce cleanliness, and antisepsis. Boracic 
acid powdered in the ulcer or equal parts of boracic acid and acetanilid 
make an excellent dressing. 

4. Inflamed Ulcer. — This term applies to ulcers where the inflamma- 
tory reaction is the most marked feature. These ulcers are generally 
irregular and ragged, or they may be sharp cut. The skin about is red 
and edematous. The discharge is generally quite watery. It is due 
to septic conditions where the part is frequently irritated. 

Treatment. — Rest, relieve the irritation, elevate the part, and assist 
the return circulation and use antiseptic lotions frequently until the 
ulcer presents a healthy appearance. 

5. Sloughing Ulcer. — This is a severe form of ulceration. It is more 
frequently met with in venereal diseases, unclean conditions or in per- 
sons who have diminished vitality or suffering from general debility 
or some constitutional disease. The ulcer spreads rapidly, the edges 
are undermined and inverted ; the surfaces of the ulcer are ash-gray or 
black. There is geuerally great pain and a continued fever. If the 
person is syphilitic, the syphilis should be treated. The dead tissues 
must be removed, the ulcer washed out twice daily with a 1:1000 mer- 
curial solution, while the surfaces of the wound should be powdered 
with equal parts of boracic acid and acetanilid. 

6. Phagedenic Ulcer. — These rarely occur except in very unsanitary 
conditions and in connection with venereal diseases, or in persons with 
broken-down health, or in those who are intemperate. These ulcers 
spread rapidly and are very destructive. In a case treated in the free 
clinic in the American School of Osteopathy, an ulcer arising on the 
side of the penis extended over the scrotum and around the buttocks. 
The ulcer was full of maggots and was extremely foul, yet by the use 
of antiseptics and proper osteopathic treatment the patient entirely 
recovered and suffers but little inconvenience from the extensive de- 
struction of the tissues. The ulcer was washed out with a strong solu- 
tion of permanganate potassium twice daily; after a few days a solution 
of mercuric chloride (1:1000) was used. It is essential to build up the 
person's general health before a satisfactory result can be obtained. 

7. Indolent Ulcer. — This is a form of ulcer which simply refuses to 
heal and is caused by some local lesion, some, constitutional defect, or 
by continued irritation and neglect. It is most common on the inner 
side of the lower third of the leec or foot where the circulation is defect- 


ive. The edges of the ulcer are white and calloused, and often the 
ulcer is insensible to touch. The skin is often congested and edema- 

Fig. 5. 

Chronic Ulcer of the Leg. 

tous. The base of the ulcer contains a whitish discharge and shows few, 
if anjr, granulations. These ulcers may exist for years. Simple oste- 
opathic treatment cured a case of extensive ulceration of both lower 
legs which had existed continuously for thirty-eight years. Sometimes 
the discharge from these ulcers is very great. There is another peculiar 
thing in relation with these ulcers, and that is the system seems to have 
accommodated itself to their presence and to the discharge which takes 
place. Astringents or other agents arresting the secretions must not 
be used, but the ulcer must be allowed to gradually heal while the per- 
son's general health is improved. It was formerly thought that the 
healing of such ulcers would be accompanied by constitutional disturb- 
ances, inasmuch as the discharge could no longer get out of the body. 
The discharge from these ulcers is not a humor of any kind, but is a 
result of the devitalized condition of the tissues of the part. 

Treatment. — Better the Circulation to the Inflamed Area. — Boracic 
acid powdered on the ulcer twice daily or washing it with an antiseptic 
solution twice daily, and a little carbolized vaselin smeared around the 
edges to prevent the gauze dressing from sticking to the ulcer, after 
which equal parts of boric acid and acetanilid, or pure boracic acid 
powdered over the ulcer, will assist healing. The important points in 
treating an indolent ulcer are (1) to remove the source of irritation; 
(2) remove the obstruction to the return circulation; (3) stimulation of 
the ulcer; (4) antisepsis. Where the circulation is poor the limb affected 
must be bandaged from the toes upward by a figure-of-8 bandage. The 
bandage should be silk or cotton elastic or a wet woolen bandage. 

8. Varicose Ulcer. — A varicose ulcer is an indolent ulcer happening 
in a condition of varicose veins. For treatment see "Varicose Veins/' 

9. Irritable Ulcer. — The term "irritable ulcer" is applied to two 
kinds of ulcers, one opening about the inner surface of the ankle in 
women beyond middle life. It involves some of the peripheral nerves. 
The other is a small ulcer occurring in the rectum at the margin of the 


Treatment. — Improve the general health. Lotions of carbolic acid 
or carbolized ointment are generally sufficient. 

10. Tubercular Ulcer. — These happen in tubercular subjects and are 
peculiar, in that the}^ refuse to heal and are very painful. They occur 
in the larynx, mucous membranes, rectum, etc. The treatment should 
be directed toAvards relieving the tubercular conditions. Cauterization 
is sometimes useful. 

11. Syphilitic Ulcer. — These occur in persons who have secondary 
or tertiary syphilis. In secondary syphilis small ulcers (mucous patches 
or serpiginous ulcers) occur in the mucous membranes of the mouth, 
pharynx, arid larynx. The treatment should be directed toward reliev- 
ing the syphilitic conditions. In secondary syphilis the ulcers are infec- 
tious and should always be cauterized as soon as seen to prevent any 
further spread of the infection. In tertiary syphilis the ulcers gener- 
ally occur upon the surface of the bo'dy. These ulcers are not infectious. 

12. Gouty Uicer. — Gouty ulcers occur in gouty subjects and can 
not be cured until the diathesis is relieved. 

13. Scorbutic Ulcer. — Scorbutic ulcers happen in subjects afflicted 
with scurvy. Proper diet and cleanliness will give relief. 

14. Mucous Ulcer. — This is a form of tubercular ulceration of the 
skin. The treatment consists in cauterizing the ulcer or thoroughly 
scraping it out and then cauterizing the base. 

15. Rodent Ulcer or Jacob's Ulcer is a form of epithelioma which 
requires cauterization or removal by the knife. 

16. Trophic Ulcer is caused by some injury or disease of the central 
nervous system or of a nerve trunk, whereby the trophic fibres distrib- 
uted to the part are destroyed, thereby cutting off this source of nutri- 
tion. These ulcers happen on the bottom of the foot in cases of hemi- 
plegia and are frequently called perforating ulcers. 

17. Decubital Ulcer or Bed-sore is really a form of gangrene. (See 

The general treatment of Ulcers consists in treating constitutional 
defects which may in any way be the cause of the ulcer, removing any 
obstruction to the nerve or blood supply, and removing any source of 
irritation whatsoever; to use cleanliness and antisepsis, to dress the 
ulcer once or twice daily with antiseptic gauze, first having powdered 
over the ulcer protonuclein, boracic acid, equal parts of boric acid and 
salicylic acid, aristol, or some other such powder, then over the gauze 
is applied a sufficient amount of absorbent cotton to absorb all the dis- 
charges. The dressing should be changed daily and the parts bandaged 
so as to assist the return circulation. Obstruction to nerve and blood 
supply can be relieved by removing whatever lesions are present. 



Sinus is generally the result of pus burrowing through the tissues, 
and is an opening which leads from an abnormal cavity to one of the 
normal cavities or surface of the body. Examples of sinuses are seen 
in caries of the spine, psoas abscess, necrosis of the bone, in the forma- 
tion of any deep seated abscess, or in the discharge of pus from the knee 
or hip joint. Frequently a sinus is long and tortuous. It may be 
lined with a pyogenic membrane or with fibrous tissue, or, in cases of 
long standing where the irritation has been severe, it may be lined with 
cartilagenous tissue. The origin of a sinus is really an unhealed abscess, 
healing having been prevented by bad circulation, irritating discharges, 
foreign bodies, general ill health, want of rest, or because of the rigidity 
of the walls preventing collapse. Foreign bodies, such as pieces of 
dead bone, bits of wood, septic ligatures, etc., may be the cause. 


A fistula is an abnormal canal or opening connecting two normal 
cavities, or a normal cavity and the surface of the body. There are 
three varieties, (1) congenital, (2) traumatic, and (3) suppurative, or 
those produced by abscess formation and the burrowing of pus. 

Treatment. — The treatment consists in removing the foreign body, 
relieving the irritation, and correcting the general health. When this 
is not sufficient, scrape out the sinus well and secure good drainage. In 
fistula, the walls should be freshened, the fistula thoroughly 
cleaned and made to heal from the bottom. Fistula of various parts 
will be discussed under "Disease and Injury of Begions." 


Definition — Gangrene is death of the tissues by mass. It may he 
simply a patch of skin, or mucous membrane, or an entire limb. While 
this has been given as one of the results of inflammation, it may have 
other causes, in fact, gangrene is caused by more or less sudden arrest 
of the nutrition to a part, and, inasmuch as this may occur without in- 
flammation, gangrene may happen without inflammatory reaction. In 
severe cases of inflammation, where the reaction brings about arrest of 
the nutrition to a part, gangrene in one of its forms is" sure to develop. 


Gangrene from ergotism. 

TAidwig's Angina. 

Gangrene from frost-bite. 


Symmetrical or Raynaud's. 








Infective or Hospital. 


Cancrum oris. 


Decubital (Bed-Sore. ) 





- 1. Dry. 2. Moist. 3. Senile. 4. Microbic. 

Gangrene is so classified because of the peculiar appearance it pre- 
sents under certain circumstances. 


Gangrene is caused by any means which will interfere with the nutri- 
tion to a part as (1) injury, (2) infection, (3) thermal causes — freezing 
or scalding will arrest nutrition to the parts, bringing about chemical 
changes witbin the tissues thereby causing death. (4) Drugs, such as 
eruot, which in large closes causes a contraction of the peripheral arteri- 
oles so as to more or less cut off the circulation to a certain area. In the 
long continued use of carbolic acid as a lotion or where it is continu- 
ously in contact with the tissues, necrosis frequently follows. (5) Em- 
bolism and thrombosis. Plugging of an artery, either by a clot form- 
ing within the vessel or a clot lodging in the vessel and arresting the 
circulation to a part, may cause gangrene. 

Signs and Symptoms. 

1. Lack of pulsation in the vessels in an apparently dead area. 

2. Loss of heat. 

3. Anesthesia. 

4. Loss of function of the necrosed area. 

5. Changes in color. 

In inflammatory gangrene in an area which was previously red, the 
color is changed into yellowish, yellowish-green, or an earthy hue, or it 
may be dark or even black. While approaching death may have caused 
pain, the part is now painless and when touched with the finger is cold, 
as the heat quickly departs from the dead tissues. If rubbed with the 
hand, the epidermis loosens from the true skin, leaving the true skin 
a moist surface, or if the epidermis has not been removed the exudation 
of the fluids underneath it will cause blebs and these may be filled with 
yellowish or reddish fluid, due to the disorganization of the red cor- 
puscles and a breaking up of its coloring matter. Small cavities may form 
in the deeper tissues, some of these being filled with a dark fluid. When 
the tissues are pressed upon with the hand crepitation is felt. This 
crepitation is due to the formation of gases from putrefactive changes 
which have taken place within the tissues. An emphysematous condi- 
tion of the tissues is one of the siirest signs of death. As the condition 
proceeds, foul odors will arise, due to the decomposition of the albumins 
and the presence of saprophytic bacteria. There will be evidences of 
lymphangitis and phlebitis, shown by reddish streaks extending from 
the inflamed area into the healthy tissues. Should the tissues arrest 
the spread of the gangrene, a bright red line — a line, of demarcation — 


will be established. On one side of this line is healthy tissue, on the 
other side dead tissue. Here nature has arrested the process and. later 
attempts at amputation. The tissue changes which lead to leath in 
gangrene are similar to those which take place in abscess formation, but 
are more extensive. The leukocytes swarm into the inflamed area, active 
proliferation of the tissue cells occurs, the micro-organisms have gained 
entrance in enormous numbers, the warfare between the micro- 
organisms and the tissue cells is extremely severe and in 
the effort of the leukocytes and connective-tissue cells to over- 
come the micro-organisms they crowd into the inflamed area 
in such vast numbers as to obstruct the circulation. Throm- 
bosis of the smaller arterioles occurs. This leads to gangrene. Gan- 
grene is partly due to the mechanical obstruction of the circulation and 
partly to the action of the poisons produced by the bacteria. As the 
tissues decompose sulphureted gases are liberated which produce dis- 
agreeable odors. If bacteria do not enter the tissues mummification 
will likely take place. At the line of demarcation the ulcerative pro- 
cess is set up and in the treatment of gano-renc we really have a large 
ulcer with which to deal, and when the dead tissues are removed granu- 
lations will spring up and cicatrization takes place, as in healing of an 
ordinary ulcer. If the gangrene has been at all extensive there will 
be absorption of certain toxic products, decomposed albumins, and tox- 
ins of bacteria. These produce a condition similar to sapremia, or 
septic poisoning. The heart and circulation are markedly depressed, 
pulse feeble and quickened, the tongue is dry, furred, and brown, breath 
foul, features pinched and drawn, the lips, teeth, and tongue are cov- 
ered with sordes, and the appetite is lost. If the necrosed tissues are 
not removed death from septic intoxication or exhaustion will -occur. 
If the gangrene is of a vital part of the body, as a knuckle of the intes- 
tines, the constitutional effects of the gangrene are very great and col- 
lapse is certain and rapid. Where it is of the superficial tissues they 
may slough off, the ulcers healing with but little care. There are two 
distinct types of gangrene, which present different symptoms; these are 
dry and moist gangrene. Dry gangrene is the variety where apparently 
the fluids seem to depart from the member affected and it 
Avithers and dies. The causes of these two forms seem to be the state 
of the tissues at the time gangrene occurs. In dry gangrene there is 
an obstruction to the arterial flow and none to the venous return and 
the fluids already in the part are carried out. In moist gangrene there 
is an obstruction to the venous return, as well as an obstruction to the 
arterial blood, the liquid being unable to get out of the tissues. It is 
not unusual to find conditions where the two forms of gangrene will 
run into each other. Moist gangrene also occurs in tissues where there 
has been a pre-existing inflammation. 

Senile Gangrene is really one form of dry gangrene. It happens in 
old people, or persons whose tissues have undergone degeneration be- 
cause of the action of some disease or certain pathologic conditions 


brought about by vicious habits. It nearly always happens in the foot 
or one of the toes. Close examination will reveal the fact that there 
is a condition of atheroma or sclero-endarteritis. There will also be 
arcus or annulus senilis. The disease may happen in a person 40 or 50 
years of age, but usually occurs in subjects from 70 to 80 or 90. In 
hea^y drinkers and syphilitics, the arteries undergo degenerative 
changes, the walls become weakened because of endarteritis, calcification 
of this inflammatory tissue occurs, the artery is no longer able to 
respond to the call of the tissues for an increase in the nutritious mate- 
rials. Sometimes the arteries may be so calcified as to be very brittle. 
Cases may happen which are due to thrombosis of the superficial femoral 
artery. In any case, because of the limited blood suppty, any little in- 
jury will lead to destructive changes. It maj- begin as a pin prick, it 
may arise from an in grown toe nail, or from a scratch or cut sustained 
in trimming the nail, or in paring a corn the skin may be slightly 
wounded. The wound becomes extremeh r painful and burns terrifi- 
cally. Tbe tissues become red and swollen and finally die. The tissues 
undergo the same changes as in other forms of gangrene, except that it 
is nearly always a dry process. The tissues show no evidence of establish- 
ing a line of demarcation or limiting the gangrenous process. There may 
be considerable absorption of septic materials from the gangrenous area 
which will cause great depression, death generally following quickly. 
In some instances the case may continue over a period of some months 
or even years. Nature will establish a line of demarcation at that point 
where the tissues receive the proper amount of nutrition. When gan- 
grene happens in the toe, amputation should be done above the ankle. 
If it extends back onto the foot, it is advisable to amputate above the 
knee. Amputation should not be performed until there is some indica- 
tion of the point where the chief obstruction to the circulation is 
located. The operation should be done above this point, if possible. 

Microbic or Spreading Gangrene, as it is sometimes called, is that 
form whose chief cause is infection by certain micro-organisms; it may 
be the Streptococcus pyogenes, or erysipelas, B. edematous maligni, 
B. coli communis, etc. Bapid infection in conditions where the blood 
supply is limited or where the part has sustained injury and the person 
is in a debilitated state, will cause the spreading gangrene accompanied 
by an emphysematous condition of the tissues, produced by the develop- 
ment of gases from the action of the micro-organisms. Some writers 
hold that the gangrene is brought about by the action of the poisons of 
the germ, but these poisons only act by limiting the nutrition to the 
part. In fact gangrene is always caused by defective nutrition, except 
perhaps in cases where the injury is so great as to pulverize or crush the 
tissues, so the germs act only by arresting the nutrition. Fortunately 
this form of gangrene is rare. It happens in illy-nourished people under 
bad hygienic surroundings. It is alarmingly and rapidly fatal. It is 
most common after bad fractures with extensive injuries to the soft- 
parts. The limb becomes enormously swollen and the pulse below the 


injury is absent. The member becomes cold within 3G to 48 hours and 
it ma;y turn green or a greenish-black hue. Death does not seem ro take 
place in a single patch, but an extensive area, in fact sometimes the whole 
limb dies apparently almost simultaneously. The products carried back 
into the healthy tissues cause extensive inflammation and enlargement 
of the lymphatics. No line of demarcation forms, while the patient 
suffers from septic intoxication; death quickly follows from collapse. 
It is not unusual to find the temperature subnormal. Traumatic or 
spreading gangrene must not be confounded with erysipelas. Erysipe- 
las shows a red inflamed area. Traumatic or spreading gangrene is at 
first purple and finally turns to a dark greenish color. The surgeon is 
often at a loss to know when to amputate. If, in his judgment, the in- 
jury is so extensive as to cause gangrene, amputation should be done 
at once. After spreading gangrene has set in he may amputate higher 
up or he may wait for a line of demarcation, which sometimes never 
forms. In such cases, death follows quickly. If it is doubtful what 
should be done, the conditions presenting in each individual case should 
decide that one. If the surgeon feels that it requires an amputation to 
save the life of the patient, it is his duty to perform such an operation 
with the least possible delay. If he believes it is best to temporize, that 
should be done. At all events the conditions should be explained to the 
patient or the patient's next friend, so he may appreciate them and his 
consent obtained for amputation. In case the person is in an uncon- 
scious state and he has no next friend, or any relatives, the surgeon 
should do that which he feels is his duty. 

Infective or Hospital Gangrene is said by some writers to be the 
same as Wound Diphtheria and Sloughing Phagedena." The term 
"Hospital Gangrene'"' seems to refer to a kind of gangrene which does 
not happen in this age, but formerly occurred in poorly ventilated and 
unsanitary and overcrowded hospitals. In short, it occurs under filthy 
conditions in debilitated people. It is a rapidly spreading and infec- 
tious form of microbic gangrene. Hutchinson says it is Syphilitic 

Treatment of Gangrene. — As soon as the injured member comes 
under the observation of the physician, if it is not dead, it should be 
enveloped in cotton wool, heat applied, and the part elevated to assist 
the return circulation. All efforts should be made to restore life to the 
part by assisting the circulation by whatever manipulation may be nec- 
essary. The patient should be supported with nourishing food and 
stimulants. If there is a wound in the tissues the strictest cleanliness 
and asepsis should be maintained. The part should be thoroughly 
cleansed and good drainage secured. If the member begins to die it 
should be constantly kept moist with a solution of 1:5000 bichloride of 
mercury and as- soon as the line of demarcation sets up amputation 
should be performed. If the line of demarcation is tardy in forming, 
the dead tissues become swollen and edematous and noxious gases are 
produced, punctures in the dead tissue should be made by a sharp 


instrument and the member wrapped with cloths saturated with a 
1 :1000 solution of bichloride of mercury. Every eifort should be made to 
destroy all .micro-organisms in the dead tissues. If this is thoroughly 
done the part will not emit any stinking odor; also the tissues will more 
likely arrest the spread of the gangrenous process. As soon, then, as 
the line of demarcation is set up, amputation can be performed far 
enough up so that a healtiry flap can be secured. In cases of hospital 
gangrene, stronger antiseptics may be necessary over the sloughing 
area. A solution of 1:500 mercuric chloride should be used and the 
slough and dead tissues should be trimmed off and the antiseptic solu- 
tion be introduced into ali crevices of the slough by means of a swab. 
One or two such treatments will be sufficient to stop the destructive pro- 
cess, then milder antiseptics may be used. The part should be kept dry by 
being powdered over with iodoform or equal parts of boric acid and ace- 
tanilid. It should be dressed frequently in order to get rid of the secre- 
tions from the slough and to not allow the fluids to decompose in the 
dressing. In traumatic gangrene the treatment will largely depend 
upon the judgment of the physician as to whether or not he can save 
the limb; if he feels be can not, amputation is necessary. After ampu- 
tation, the stump should be treated, the same as an ordinary ampatation 
stump. If the amputation is done after gangrene has set up, the dead 
part should be thoroughly wrapped in cloths saturated in a 1 :5000 solu- 
tion of bichloride of mercury so as to permit of no opportunity for 
infection or the return of the gangrene in the stump. 

Cancrum Oris is sloughing of the inside of the cheek in ill-fed and 
ill-nourished children. The course of the disease is extremely rapid 
and terribly destructive. If not treated with the utmost vigilance 
sloughing will take place through the cheek onto the face. As soon 
as the case is seen, the physician should at once cauterize the slough 
with carbolic acid or nitric acid. After cauterization the mouth should 
be rinsed and cleansed thoroughly and frequently with an antiseptic 
solution and the patient should be kept in a well-ventilated and clean 
apartment and be given supportive treatment. 

Phagedena is described under Hospital Gangrene and Sloughing 
Phagedenic Ulcers. 

Carbuncle. — Occasionally in debilitated persons where the case is 
neglected the formation of a carbuncle, which is evidenced by numerous 
small boils over a certain area, may lead to gangrene of a mass of the 
tissues. The treatment for the case is to open the boils and wash them 
several times daily with a 1:1000 solution of bichloride of mercury. 
The patient's general health should be treated and any local or spinal 
lesions found sbould be removed. These cases usually terminate favor- 

Decubital Gangrene is a variety of gangrene which occurs from pro- 
longed pressure upon an area, cutting off the circulation and causing it 
to slough. It happens in persons confined to their beds because of 


sonic wasting disease, or in paralytics where the tissues are deprived of 
nerve supply. The trophic influences being withdrawn, pressure cuts 
off the circulation and the part dies. The first sign of decubital gan- 
grene is perhaps a little reddish pimple, upon the top of which a little 
black spot appears and this gradually spreads to an area of considerable 
size, depending upon the state of the tissues. Occasionally, in paralytic 
cases, the urine is voided. involuntarily and as it dribbles away and sat- 
urates the clothing it adds to the irritation, when a little fold of the 
sheet or a small pin scratch or insect bite may be the starting point of 
an inflammation which results in the destruction of the tissues, 
forming what is popularly known as a a Bed-sore." The loca- 
tion of these sores is usually over the hack part of the sacrum and the 
posterior part of the ilium or over the trochanter or sides of the but- 
tock, because of the patient lying continuously upon these bony promi- 
nences. A pressure-sore sometimes happens upon the heel or one of the 
condyles of the humerus because of the unequal pressure of a splint. 
The Treatment of decubital gangrene or bed-sore is first preventive. 
The preventive treatment is especially important because in many cases 
it is almost impossible to heal the sore after it is once formed, there- 
fore if it is prevented an infinite amount of pain and trouble may be 
avoided. It is well enough in these cases, as soon as the part shows any 
signs of irritation, to rub the surface with alcohol and dust it with 
oxid of zinc or talcum powder. When any particular point shows irri- 
tation an air-cushion may be used to remove the pressure from that 
point. If the person is a paralytic and can afford it, a water-bed 
should be used. This equalizes the pressure on all parts of the body 
in contact with the bed. Furthermore the strictest cleanliness should 
be maintained. If the urine has been in the habit of coming in contact 
with the skin it should be collected by means of a urinal. Care should 
be exercised in the use of a bed-pan and the parts kept dry and free 
from irritation or pressure. After a bed-sore is once formed it should 
be treated the same as an ordinary ulcer, pressure being kept off and 
the strictest cleanliness enforced. Do not use peroxid of hydrogen 
continuously as a cleansing agent, as it will stop cicatrization/ There 
are numerous preparations which are of advantage. The history of 
these sores will extend over a period of some weeks, perhaps some 
months, so that the antiseptic will necessarily need to be varied. The 
ulcer should be dressed at least twice daily. The edges of the sore 
should be greased with a little carbolized vaselin and several layers of 
antiseptic gauze applied after the sore has been dusted with equal parts 
of boracic acid and acetanilid. Over the gauze a considerable mass of 
cotton should be placed. This will prevent any secretions getting into 
the sore and will keep it clean. If pressure is removed, the ulcer may 
then be in condition to administer another part of the treatment, which 
is of the very greatest importance, that is, to stimulate the nerve and 
blood supply to the ulcer. Osteopathic practice has shown that many 
very extensive decubital ulcers can be successfully treated. In fact it 


seems to be the only method of curing very bad cases or the only hope 
of saving the life of persons whose spines have sustained extensive 
injury high up. This manipulation must be varied according to the 
cause, but is directed towards seen ring the proper blood and nerve sup- 
ply. The method by which these sores may be cleansed is this: Kelly's 
rubber-pan should be placed under the buttocks. The sore is washed 
out by means of an irrigating apparatus filled with an antiseptic solu- 
tion. The irrigating aj^paratus may be either a fountain syringe or a 
large glass jar having a small rubber hose leading from it. Protonuclein 
or other antiseptic powder may be dusted over the sore, the edge of the 
ulcer smeared with earbolized vaselin, and several layers of antiseptic 
gauze should be applied twice daily. Sometimes the destruction of the 
tissues from these bed-sores is very extensive, but as soon as the dead 
tissues slough away, if the part becomes healthy it will show a red or 
pink granulating surface. Sepsis under unsanitary and neglected con- 
ditions may occur, the gangrenous process extending to the deeper 

Diabetic Gangrene. — It is a peculiar fact that gangrene happens 
with the slightest provocation in diabetes mellitus. The gangrene seems 
to be caused by the general defective nutrition, perhaps also by the 
presence of sugar in the blood. It may happen in the feet or legs, in 
the genitalia, or over the buttocks, back, hands, or face. It may simply 
affect a small area or a large mass of the tissues. It may happen at 
any time in the clinical history of diabetes. An injury seems to be 
necessary, but this may be only trivial. Very often there are some 
prodromic symptoms, sometimes not. If it comes from traumatism 
there are prodromic symptoms, such as violent pain, together with a 
red inflamed condition of the surface. The part turns cold and loses 
sensation. This form of gangrene is generally moist. The line of 
demarcation is not so readily set up. The case calls for the treatment 
of diabetes conjointly with gangrene. It spreads more rapidly than 
senile gangrene and is very often covered over with blisters. Opera- 
tions should be performed only where nature establishes a line 
of demarcation. Diabetes mellitus is best treated by well known 
osteopathic methods. Should nature show an effort at arresting the 
process, 'the remainder of the treatment is clearly surgical. 

Gangrene from Ergotism. — Ergot, when taken internally, among 
other things produces a spasm or contraction of the muscular fibres in 
the walls of the arteries. This affects the peripheral arterioles more 
than the large arteries. The spasm may be sufficiently great to so 
arrest the nutrition that gangrene may occur. Osier says that the 
gangrene is first preceded by anesthesia, muscular cramp, tingling, pain, 
itching, and gradual blood sepsis in certain vascular areas. History 
of the taking of ergot, together with the presence of the above named 
symptoms, should be sufficient to make a diagnosis. The gangrene is 
generally superficial and terminal and is very often symmetrical and 
may involve the toes of both feet, or may involve both limbs. Death 


is said to have occurred in from ten to twelve days in very acute cases. 
Where the gangrene is superficial the parts should be washed twice 
daily with antiseptic solutions and the dead crusts should be trimmed 
off with forceps and scissors. 

Ludwig's Angina is hardly a form of gangrene, hut is a form of 
abscess of the submaxillary gland. It is said to be a condition of infec- 
tion of the gland with the streptococcus pyogenes. Occasionally the 
abscess formation is attended by gangrene. The swelling is rapid, and 
the pain extremely severe, the person being unable to open the mouth. 
Occasionally the swelling may extend back into the pharynx and back 
part of the tongue and cause edema of the glottis. As soon as fluctua- 
tion can be detected the abscess should be opened and the inside of the 
mouth and the abscess cavity should be thoroughly cleansed with an 
antiseptic solution and the person given supportive treatment. 

Gangrene from Frost-Bite. — Frost-bite is more common on the 
exposed parts of the body and is extensive according to the exposure. 
It causes contraction of the arterioles, drives the blood out of the tis- 
sues, arrests the nutrition and the part becomes stiff, cold, and numb. 
After the tissues become warm the vessels dilate because of weak- 
ness, and congestion and inflammation follow. If the part has been 
Cold sufficiently long to entirely arrest the nutrition, the part will 
likely die, but if the tissues have become only seriously devitalized a 
severe inflammation may result and this inflammation terminate in 
gangrene. The inflammation which is caused by exposure to cold is 
attended by a severe burning sensation, followed by great pain. Some- 
times the cold is sufficiently great to actually disorganize the tissues. 
Especially is this true where the part is very cold, or is cold for a con- 
siderable length of time and then quickly brought to its normal tem- 
perature. The rapid changes in temperature seem to bring about 
destructive chemical changes in the blood and tissues. The area which 
has become livid with cold and which is not yet believed to be dead, 
should be first treated by friction with snow or towels soaked in ice 
water, and the part gradually brought to the normal temperature. This 
will frequently avoid serious inflammation. Amputation should be done 
only after the line of demarcation has been thoroughly established. 
Where the ends of the fingers and toes have died the part should be 
treated antiseptically and here it must be borne in mind that if the 
tissues slough and a sore results, that this sore will heal very slowly and 
that the slough should be removed after it has been loosened by nature. 
The ulcer should be treated as an ordinary open sore. If gangrene fol- 
lows in a considerable area, the treatment, before the line of demarca- 
tion has been set up, is hot fomentations of antiseptic solutions. As in 
all cases of gangrene, the support of the patient is of the utmost 

Postfebrile Gangrene is a form following a severe attack of continued 
fever. It most frequently follows enteric fever, but may follow typhus 
fever, scarlet fever, measles, influenza, etc. It is most usual in the lower 


extremities, but may happen in the upper extremities or in the upper 
parts. oi' the body. The gangrene is generally believed to be due to 
embolism following endocarditis. In young girls gangrene is apt to 
occur in the genitalia. It is said that now and then the disease arises 
from phlebitis with the formation of thrombi. So in continued fevers 
examination of the extremities should be made from time to time to 
determine the presence of gangrene. The treatment after gangrene has 
set up, is antisepsis until the line of demarcation is established. Sec- 
ondly, remove any lesions which will obstruct the return circulation 
or interfere with the nutrition of the tissues. This being removed and 
the line of demarcation set up, if the gangrene is sufficiently extensive, 
surgical interference is demanded. 

Symmetrical or Raynaud's Gangrene occurs in Eaynaud's disease. 
This disease is said to be a vasomotor neurosis which occurs in children 
and } r oung adults. Clinical experience shows that there are distinct 
spinal lesions which account for the condition. The attacks appear in 
the tissues symmetrically, e. g., lingers and toes. The parts become cold, 
d^ad and bloodless, following severe mental excitement or injury. In 
some cases the part becomes livid and there is local asphyxia similar to 
a chilblain. The patient complains of shooting pains and tingling in 
the part. After local asphyxia occurs the prognosis should be guarded 
for gangrene is likely to happen. When death is about to occur the part 
becomes dark and blebs may arise. There is local coldness and anes- 
thesia and the line of demarcation is generally quickly set up. The treat- 
ment is to restore the circulation and remove the pressure from the 
nerves. After the part has died antisepsis and surgical measures are 


A. Septic Diseases. 

1. Septic Inflammation. 3. Sapremia. 

2. Traumatic fever. 

B. Infective Diseases. 

1. Suppuration. 10. Malignant pustule. 

2. Cellulitis. 11. Actinomycosis. 

3. Septicemia. 12. Tuberculosis. 

4. Pyemia. 13. Glanders. 

5. Hospital gangrene. 14. Syphilis. 

6. Wound diphtheria. 15. Gonorrhea. 

7. Erysipelas. 16. Scrofula. 

8. Tetanus. 17. Rachitis. 

9. Hpdrophobia. 18. Scurvy. 

Septic Diseases. 

The diseases included under this head are due to the absorption of 
certain chemical products of putrefaction which causes local inflamma- 
tion and certain systemic disturbances. Fevers following injury are 
variously classified by different writers, but the author prefers to 
include under septic diseases those conditions due to the absorption of 

SAPREM/.l. 49 

certain alkaloids or putrefactive substances which are not necessarily 
the result of bacterial action, but perhaps may be due to the decomposi- 
tion of albuminous products in the wound. The nature of these products 
is not known. They do not multiply in the body and when the wound 
is freely opened the disease symptoms disappear. The symptoms to 
which they give rise are often severe in proportion to the amount of 
absorption, as is instanced in poorly drained abscess cavities. The 
freer the drainage the less fever and other constitutional symptoms. 
Furthermore, the poisons are not infective and the disease process does 
not extend to other parts of the body. It is said by some that the poi- 
sons are due to the multiplication of saprophytic bacteria in the secre- 
tions of the wound or cavity, so that the disease is virtually a toxemia. 
There seems to be considerable ground for this belief, inasmuch as in 
foul wounds and poorly drained cavities there is generally a considera- 
ble amount of dead tissue upon which these otherwise harmless sapro- 
phytes may grow. Also, in cases .of gangrene after the member has 
died, amputation is many times followed by recovery. Previous to the 
amputation there may have been marked systemic disturbances, high 
fever, delirium, etc., the symptoms being produced by the absorption 
of the poisonous products from the decomposition of the albuminous 
fluids in the tissues and by the growth and development of the sapro- 
phytic bacteria. The reason for no absorption of poisons afterward is 
that the bacteria being saprophytes, live only on the dead tissues. 

Septic Inflammation. — The pathological process of septic inflamma- 
tion is similar to that of acute suppuration or acute inflammation from 
chemical cause. 

Traumatic or Wound Fever. —There are various grades of traumatic 
fever. Following a major operation it is not unusual, in fact it is the 
rule, for the temperature to rise from one-half to one and one-half 
degrees. The person is more or less uncomfortable and may manifest 
some nervous symptoms. Under other circumstances the temperature 
may rise to 103 degrees F., this being accompanied by a general malaise 
with delirium. In the milder form the absorption of the broken-up 
nitrogenous compounds in the w r ound probably causes the fever, whereas 
in the severe form a certain number of germs may have entered the 
wound and these having caused more or less putrefaction the fever and 
other symptoms follow. These processes come within twelve to twenty- 
four hours after the injury. They disappear without serious damage. 
Either the poisonous products are taken up by the lymph channels and 
carried elsewhere and gotten rid of by the eliminating organs, or the 
products are discharged from the wound, nature having set up a wall 
of granulation tissue for the protection of the system from the absorp- 
tion of these toxic products. This is traumatic fever or wound fever. 


Sapremia is generally considered to be the expression of the absorp- 
tion of the toxic products from retained secretions wdiere bacteria are 


causing active fermentation. In fact, sapremia may be associated with 
severe forms of poisoning. It is thought milder grades of sepsis termi- 
nate in severer forms, therefore, what first was a sapremia may termi- 
nate in septicemia or pyemia. Sapremia calls for quick and vigorous 
treatment. If it be from a wound, it demands immediate drainage. If 
the wound has been closed it should be opened and thoroughly washed 
out, all the poisonous products and germs removed and free drainage 
established. Sapremia occurs under three conditions: (1) exten- 
sive wounds imperfectly drained which were not previously ren- 
dered aseptic; (2) wounds of serous cavities where there is abundant 
opportunity for the absorption of poisonous products, and (o) from 
granulating abscess cavities where the external opening is too small to 
permit of drain as e. Very severe conditions may be fatal — this is 
unusual. The poisons act chiefly upon the blood and nerve centers, very 
often producing decomposition of the red corpuscles, resulting in a 
form of petechia. It sometimes acts upon the nerve centers, producing 
delirium, or sometimes thrombosis of some of the capillaries may 
occur. Microscopic examination made immediately after death shows 
that the tissues contain no micro-organisms. 

Symptoms of Sapremia. — Chill or chilly feelings, vomiting or loss of 
appetite, headache, malaise, muscular soreness; the pulse is rapid and in 
severe cases becomes very weak, the temperature in the severe forms 
reaches 103 or 104 degrees F. If the absorption is very rapid, collapse 
may take place rapidly. Under such circumstances coma follows uncon- 
sciousness and delirium and the patient dies. 

Treatment. — The treatment is directed towards the removal of the 
source of the poisons. Opening the wound and washing it out freely 
with antiseptics is sufficient. In operation cases, sapremia calls for the 
removal of part of the sutures and establishing drainage. Peot-up 
and decomposed pus or secretions give rise to the disease, hence treat- 
ment should, as in the treatment of any ailment, be directed towards 
removing the cause. 

Suppuration and Cellulitis 

have been described under circumscribed and diffuse abscess formation. 


Septicemia or "Blood-poisoning"' is a general infective disease 
usually produced by the pyogenic micro-organisms, in contradistinction 
to septic processes, which are caused by the products of saprophytic 
bacteria. In septicemia these pyogenic micro-organisms develop at such 
an appallingly rapid rate and are present in such immense numbers that 
they swarm into the tissues, passing by means of the blood and lymph 
channels into the planes of connective tissues and producing such viru- 
lent poisons that the patient is overwhelmed. Sometimes he 
looks as if he had been struck down by some terrible mal- 
ady. The disease called "Septicemia" presents a clinical picture 


often seen and easily recognized. In some cases diagnosed as septicemia, 
micro-organisms are not found in the blood, but they exist in the tissues 
around the wound and the toxic products of the bacteria are produced in 
such immense quantities that the clinical picture is the same, whether 
the germs exist in the circulation or not. It differs from pyemia, in that 
in the latter there is multiple or metastatic abscess formation. It does 
not follow that because the bacteria have entered the circulation 
that multiple abscess will occur. Death may follow a rapid absorption 
of the germs before the formation of multiple abscess can take place. 
Conditions of septicemia and pyemia may occur coincidently or septi- 
cemia merge into pyemia. 

Pathology. — First there is local infection of the pyogenic cocci and 
there may be phlegmonous signs of a rapidly spreading inflammation. 
The wound, if there be one, is generally foul, coated over with a grayish 
covering and looks unhealthy The secretion is yellowish and has a 
peculiar odor. The cocci develop within the tissues and spread through 
the lymphatics. In some cases they reach the circulation, when they 
increase and multiply in the blood. It is not unusual that cultures made 
from the blood will show large numbers of streptococci. These travel 
into the minutest vessels and finally reach the heart and develop 
upon the valves, which condition happens in malignant endo- 
carditis. This may finally lead to the formation of infective emboli 
and result in pyemia. In other cases thrombi may form in the veins in 
the infected area. These clots being dislodged, form infective emboli, 
which may finally lead to general pyemia. On post-mortem examination 
there is a general congestion of the viscera in the gastro-intestinal 
tract. The intestines and peritoneum are frequently covered with flakes 
of coagulated lymph. These coagula often represent pure cultures of 
the streptococcus pyogenes. The peritoneum and pleura, together with 
the nerve centers, are all congested and frequently petechial spots may 
be seen. In more prolonged cases peritonitis or pleurisy or pneumonia 
or inflammation of other viscera may be present, and it is not 
unusual for the serous cavities to contain blood-stained serum. The 
spleen and lymphatic glands, in fact, all adenoid tissues, are greatly 
enlarged and congested. Doubtless man}?- times micro-organisms enter 
the blood and are lost sight of, perish and do no harm. When they lodge 
in the parenchyma of the lung, liver, or kidney, they may increase and 
multiply and result in pyemia. 

Cause. — The cause of septicemia, as has been indicated, is pyogenic 
micro-organisms. Sometimes several germs may be associated, bacilli 
and micrococci being present. In virulent cases there may be only one 
micro-organism doing the damage, but in all cases these germs have 
been introduced into the tissues in immense numbers, either through 
a wound or the open mouths of vessels, as in cases of puerperal septi- 
cemia. Where infection takes place in wounds the result of operation, 
it is caused by the septic condition already present in the patient, or 


because of an unelean condition of the field of operation, or the germs 
have been derived from the instruments, sponges, ligatures, or the hands 
of the operator, or from something introduced into the Avound during 
the operation. It is singular how much filth nature will apparently 
get rid of sometimes. Still, on the other hand, septicemia 
may follow when apparently considerable precaution has been taken. 
This may be explained by the fact that while streptococci are present, 
they may vary in virulence, in one case not producing serious symp- 
toms, whereas in another the infection is obviously fatal at the begin- 
ning. The importance and frequency with which streptococci infection 
accompanies many of the acute infectious diseases in the puerperal state 
and in injuries is probably not sufficiently appreciated. In premature 
delivery brought about by measles, whooping cough, and similar dis- 
eases, septicemia is very likely to happen and is usually alarmingly 
fatal. While other of the pus germs may produce this disease, none 
is so rapidly fatal or produces such alarming symptoms as the strep- 
tococcus pyogenes or streptococcus erysipelatis. In hospitals where these 
cases occur they should be isolated. Clothing infected by them should 
be fumigated. 

Symptoms. — The disease is generally introduced by a chill or chilly 
feelings. The rigor may be very severe. There may be several chills 
closely following each other, during the first twelve to twenty-four 
hours, but after that, if there are other chills, it usually indicates 
renewed absorption of toxic material or the formation of an abscess. 
The temperature rises rapidly to 103, 104, or 105 degrees F. There 
is at first nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and the person looks 
dazed. The symptoms may take on a typhoid nature . The secretions 
are arrested, urine high-colored, and the patient greatly prostrated. 
The pulse, at first rapid and thready, becomes soft and weak. 
The patient soon becomes unconscious and delirium appears. In some 
cases there is great and rapid prostration, so that the person dies in a 
few days. The writer once saw a case of puerperal septicemia, following 
delivery at term attended by a mid-wife, where death occurred within 
forty-eight hours. On autopsy the peritoneum and bowels were 
markedly congested and of a reddish-black color. The lymph in the 
peritoneal cavity was coagulated in flakes. 

Treatment. — The treatment is almost entirely preventive, for little 
can be done in the way of cure. The reason is, no agent introduced 
into the system is of any use after the poisons have entered the circula- 
tion. Antistreptococcic serum has been used, and some have claimed to 
obtain good results, but the statements are unreliable. Antistrepto- 
coccic serum is worthless. After infection has taken place, free inci- 
sion, drainage, and curetting, together with frequent lavage of the in- 
fected area, may accomplish some good, but it is hardly likely, for blood 
infection is fatal. Nourishment and support of the patient, together 
with free use of stimulants, may assist the tissues in overcoming the 
onslaughts of the germ. 



Pyemia is distinguished from septicemia by the formation of metas- 
tatic abscesses in other parts of the body. It is but a special stage of 
septicemia in which abscesses are formed. Prior to the formation of 
the abscesses the clinical history of the two diseases is alike and indis- 

Cause. — Without doubt the cause of the disease is the entrance into 
the tissue of pyogenic micro-organisms which have found their 
way there through the open mouths of lymphatics or veins. 
The disease generally develops amidst unhygienic surroundings 
or in ill-nourished and debilitated subjects, in over-crowded hospitals 
which are poorly ventilated and drained, and where there exist numbers 
of foul wounds. It occurs in alcoholic and diabetic subjects, or in per- 
sons with low resisting power. It generally occurs in connection with 
a wound. The poisonous chemical products absorbed from the wound 
debilitate the person to that extent that the micro-organisms absorbed 
circulate through the fluids in the body, lodging, in the parenchyma of 
some organ, producing the disease. The abscesses are often caused by 
infective emboli. Where these emboli lodge suppuration occurs, and, 
inasmuch as this generally takes place in some internal organ, clots form 
in the small veins and capillaries. These becoming dislodged, are carried 
back to the heart, when they are sent to some distant organ, where 
they lodge and, being infected, form another abscess. There are, there- 
fore, two chief agents acting, one the poisonous products produced by 
the cocci, debilitating the system, and the other the deposit of the 
cocci and the formation of abscess. This abscess interferes with the 
function of the tissues in which it is located, causing the symptoms to 
vary in individual cases. Old writers mention idiopathic pyemia, but 
such cases do not occur. Abscesses may arise from various causes. (See 
abscess formation.) These abscesses, then, may be the exciting cause of 
the pyemia, pus having been absorbed from this cavity. Pyemia may 
follow typhoid fever, but in this case absorption takes place from the 
septic ulcers in the lower part of the small intestine. It is frequently 
associated with bone disease, osteomyelitis, osteitis, or periostitis. In 
some cases it arises from hospital gangrene, diffuse cellulitis, or 
abscesses of erysipelatous origin, or from gonorrhea. Ulcerative endo- 
carditis may happen in rheumatism and many of the acute infectious 
diseases. Pyogenic cocci have entered the system through abrasions of 
the skin and lodge on the valves because of the weakened and unresisting 
condition of the tissues, then because of the clot, infective emboli occur, 
pyemia resulting. It has been known to follow dysentery. Trivial 
operations seem in some cases to have caused the disease, but here it is 
evidently due to infection introduced by the operator. 

Pathology. — The post-mortem appearance of the tissues is similar to 
that of septicemia, with the addition of collections of pus distributed 
through the body in small masses. Thereis the same rapid tendency to the 
disintegration of the blood, subserous and subcutaneous extravasation 


and congestion as occur in septicemia. The body is generally greatly 
emaciated, of ten jaundiced, and of a dirty or dirty-yellowish color. Puru- 
lent collections may be found in the serous cavities or in the joints or 
connective tissues generally. The abscesses vary from pin-head foci to 
the size of a nut. The lung may be honey-combed with abscesses the 
size of a pea. The viscera affected are, in order of frequency, the 
lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and brain. The abscesses occurring in the 
parenchyma of an organ are caused by thrombosis of the peripheral 
arterioles. Where pyemia is caused by wounds in the rectum, visceral 
abscesses occur first in the liver, since the blood must pass through the 
capillaries of that organ before it enters the general circulation. The 
pus is generally of a sweetish odor and is rarely, if ever, fetid, and in 
case of abscess in the lung the breath of the patient has a sweetish 
odor. As in septicemia, when there is a wound it is unhealthy and is 
surrounded by an inflammatory area and covered over by pus or dying 
• tissues, or oftentimes by a grayish membrane. The veins leading from 
the wound generally contain a large number of thrombi which undergo 
purulent softening. The fragments which protrude out into the blood 
stream become dislodged and are carried to other parts of the body. 
Sometimes these thrombi form in small veins, extending back towards 
the heart into large venous trunks. Besides the foregoing condi- 
tions, inflammatory masses containing numbers of micro-organisms may 
be found in various parts of the body. The conditions present in pyemia 
may be caused in several ways. The visceral abscesses are 
largely due to embolism of the peripheral arterioles or capillaries, the 
septic products having come from venous thrombi, vegetations on 
the valves of the heart, or at the beginning of the arteries. In other 
cases the micro-organisms may have migrated through the walls of the 
vessels and upon entering the circulation may lodge in an organ where 
the circulation is weak, or having penetrated a mucous or serous mem- 
brane, they get into the lymphatics, finally the general circulation, when 
they may be deposited in a joint, causing purulent inflammation. The 
diffuse purulent infiltration of a joint is said by some to be due to the 
general poisoned condition of the system, and the lodgement at the 
joint of poisonous products. In many cases, as is indicated 
above, ulcerative endocarditis is caused by the germs getting into the 
system. An infected clot is formed upon the valve, when ab- 
scesses in various parts of the body are produced, this being the dis- 
tributing point from which infectious emboli arise. Follow- 
ing typhoid fever, after some months an abscess may arise. 
This can only be explained by the fact that the pus micro-organisms get 
into the circulation, and not being destroyed, lodge and remain in a 
quiescent state for some time, finally forming abscesses. From this 
focus general infection may follow. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of pyemia may at first be quite similar 
to septicemia, but differ in that at the formation of each new abscess 
a separate and distinct rigor occurs, followed by a high temperature and 


a drenching sweat. The fever is of a mild or severe hectic type. After 
the chill the temperature may rise to 105 degrees F., depending upon 
the amount of absorption of pus. It will rise in the evening to 103 or 
104 degrees F., and drop in the morning to perhaps 100 or 
101 degrees F. While the pus is pent up in the system the patient is not 
free of fever. In some instances where nature is fairly successful in 
walling off the abscess the temperature may almost approach normal. 
The pulse is quick and weak, the tongue, at first red and moist, becomes 
dry and brown as the case is more prolonged. Sordes form in the mouth, 
on the lips and teeth, and the breath becomes foul. The body wastes 
rapidly, the skin is frequently jaundiced (hepatogenous) because cf the 
formation of an abscess in the liver which obstructs the gall-duct, or 
it may be caused by the disintegration of the blood (hematogenous) by 
the pyogenic micro-organisms. The face is anxious and pinched, the 
features drawn, the temperature high, and the hectic flush usually 
marked. It is not unusual for eruptions to take place on the skin or 
ulcerations in the fauces. The breath and exhalations from the body 
bave a peculiar sweet odor. As the different structures are affected, 
peritonitis, pleuritis, or pericarditis may occur. Diarrhea may set in 
and this is generally exhausting and followed by delirium. The patient 
generally dies of exhaustion during the second or third week of the dis- 
ease. It is said there are rare cases where the primary wound may heal. 

Prognosis. — The prognosis is extremely unfavorable. It is only when 
the disease seems to run a chronic sort of course that there is any hope 
of recovery. In this case the viscera do not seem to be affected, but 
the connective tissues and joints suffer most. The patient may 
die after some weeks of lingering or may finally recover after the 
disease has existed for some months. 

Treatment. — Little or nothing can be done in the way of treatment, 
inasmuch as we must depend upon the system to get rid of the micro- 
organisms, and when the infection is rapid this seems impossible. When 
abscesses form the pus should at once be evacuated. This is impossible 
when it occurs in the lung, brain, or other important organ. Where 
the seat of trouble can be reached it should be treated at once. Carious 
bone should be removed. If it arises from a wound, this should at once 
be irrigated with a solution of 1 :1000 bichloride of mercury. All dead 
material should be immediately removed. The disease seems to be gen- 
erally caused by the staphylococcus pyogenes aureus. Antistrep- 
tococcic serum is of no use. We must depend upon nourishing diet and 
support of the patient. If he resists the onset of the disease and the 
preliminary abscess formation, it is possible that he can be built up and 
the system enabled to get rid of the pus. 

Wound Diphtheria. 

Wound diphtheria is maintained by some to be a form of 
hospital gangrene. It may be due to the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus or 


pyogenic cocci. In any case, it usuall3 r occurs in ill-nourished people or 
where there is some lesion which markedly devitalizes the tissues, per- 
mitting the entrance of the organisms with very little resistance. The 
wound looks unhealthy and is coated over with a membrane, which in 
some cases is quite thick and tough. The membrane is composed of a 
fibrinous mass, in which there are generally dead granulation tissue 
cells and leukocytes, together with numerous chains and colonies of pus 
micro-organisms and perhaps diphtheria bacilli. If the membrane is 
pulled off it leaves a bleeding surface. The onset of the disease is sud- 
den. The wound quickly takes on an unhealthy appearance, the temper- 
ature rises, and the other constitutional symptoms are quite marked. 
The patient does badly. Sigid antisepsis and cleanliness are demanded 
at once. The wound should be thoroughly irrigated with a strong anti- 
septic solution and the patient given a nourishing and stimulating diet. 
All the secretions must be kept active by appropriate treatments. The 
disease arises most frequently in unsanitary surroundings, illy- 
nourished people, and poorly ventilated quarters surrounded with filth. 
Fnder good hygienic conditions, if the patient has reasonably good 
health, the prognosis should be favorable, but in diabetic or rheumatic 
conditions, or in alcoholics, the prognosis is unfavorable. 


Erysipelas is an acute, diffuse, infective inflammation (lymphangitis) 
of the skin and subcutaneous tissues produced by the streptococcus ery- 
sipelatis (Fehleisen.) A wound or abrasion of the skin is also necessary 
for the entrance of the organism. In the description of idiopathic erysip- 
elas by older writers it was said to arise from no particular cause. Such 
a disease does not exist. In facial erysipelas it is believed the organism 
often gets into the tissues through abrasions of the nasal mucous mem- 
branes. The contagion is likely conveyed by the air or water or the 
instruments or imperfectly sterilized dressings or ligatures. The morph- 
ology and characteristics of the streptococcus erysipelas do not dif- 
fer from the streptococcus pyogenes, which produces diffuse pus forma- 
tion. The clinical course of the case depends upon the condition of the 
tissues and the rapidity of infection and the virulence of the germs. 

General Pathology. — When the virus effects an entrance into the 
tissues, it increases and multiplies rapidly and spreads quickly through 
the lymphatics and connective tissue spaces. The germ is 
found only, or at least in greatest abundance, along the mar- 
gins of the inflamed area. If incisions are made through the 
skin, the serum which exudes will contain large numbers of the micro- 
organisms, whereas, in the center of the erysipelatous area there are 
no germs. Apparently the tissues have either gained mastery over the 
micro-organisms through the agency of the connective-tissue cells and 
the leukocytes or the germs have exhausted their food materials. At 
any rate, the germs continue spreading until their progress is arrested 


by the combined efforts of all the tissues to rid themselves of this invad- 
ing enemy. The constitutional symptoms of the disease are produced 
by the poisons being carried into the general circulation by the lymph- 
atics. 5ow and then, where the inflammation is extremely severe, it is 
accompanied by exudations of serum beneath the epidermis, producing 
blebs or blisters. Sometimes the inflammation will extend into the 
larynx, producing edema of the glottis, or through the cribriform plate 
of the ethmoid into the brain, producing meningitis. It may produce 
middle ear disease and infect the lateral sinus, meningitis or abscess of 
the brain following. 

Classification.- Erysipelas has been classified by writers generally 
into (1) simple or cutaneous, (2) cellulo-cutaneous or phlegmonous, and 
(3) cellular, which form is similar to acute diffuse cellulitis. Erysipelas 
is sometimes accompanied by pus formation, but not very often. This 
rarely, if ever, happens in the simple variety. 

Signs and Symptoms. — (A) Local and (B) General. 

Local Symptoms — Inasmuch as the pathology of the disease is that 
of an effective inflammation, the local symptoms are also similar. The 
patient complains of a burning or stinging pain, with stiffness of the 
tissues. The area is a rose-red, which in the majority of cases after a 
time changes into a dusky hue. The skin has a leathery feel and is hot to 
the touch. Generalh r the inflamed area presents sharply defined edges 
which fade into the healthy skin. These spread irregularly, frequently 
in the direction of the lymphatics, and in severe cases the edges of the 
inflamed area are forked. The lymphatic glands in the neighborhood 
are swollen, turgid, and painful. The inflammation may spread now 
in this direction, now in that, subside here and arise at another point. 
This previously has been looked upon as one of the whims of the 
disease, it choosing an erratic course, but this is explained by 
bony or muscular lesions. The inflamed area may be slightly or con- 
siderably raised above the surrounding tissues. If the inflammation is 
severe and exists about the eye, scrotum, or other location where there is 
an abundance of loose connective tissue, edema may be a marked 

General Symptoms. — Previous malaise is followed by a distinct chill 
and a rapid rise in temperature. This chill generally precedes the 
inflammation from twelve to twenty-four hours. The temperature is 
high, according to the severity of the attack. In some cases it may be 
103 degrees F. and in others 105 degrees F. At first there is more or 
less loss of appetite, the secretions are generally affected, and as the dis- 
ease becomes more severe, there may be constipation. The urine is less 
in amount and highly-colored, tongue coated, breath foul, together with 
more or less muscular soreness and weakness. In debilitated states 
where the infection is rapid and the disease becomes progressively 
worse, the patient may enter a typhoid state, attended with high fever, 
albuminuria, and delirium. The pulse is generally very rapid and often. 


in mild cases of facial erysipelas the pulse may be 120 or 130, with but 
a slight rise of temperature. 

Varieties. — 

1. Migratory or wandering erysipelas is a form where it spreads 
widely over the body. 

2. Bullous erysipelas is a form where the inflamed area is covered 
with blebs or blisters. 

3. Metastatic erysipelas is a form where it leaves one part of the 
body and appears at another or appears on more than one place simul- 

4. Erythematous erysipelas is a mild form of cutaneous erysipelas 
where a red blush spreads over a certain area. 

5. Erysipelas neonatorum is a term applied to erysipelas from an 
unhealed navel in the new-born. 

6. Typhoid erysipelas is a form arising in adynamic conditions in 
alcoholics and diabetics and is attended by grave symptoms. 

7. Edematous erysipelas where it is accompanied by marked edema 
of the skin. Sometimes the edema may be enormous. 

8. Phlegmonous erysipelas is a variety where pus formation occurs. 

9. Mucous erysipelas, a form which affects the mucous membranes. 

10. Venous erysipelas is a term applied where there is marked 
venous congestion. 

11. Lymphatic erysipelas is a term applied to certain cases where 
the inflammation is mostly confined apparently to the lymphatic chan- 
nels, showing red lines in various directions. 

Clinical Course. — The clinical course of the disease will depend upon, 
the tissues affected. In simple erysipelas the inflamed area desqua- 
mates after the disease subsides. The disease may subside 
abruptly, which may be explained by the fact that the obstruc- 
tion has been overcome and the circulation freed. The termina- 
tion of simple erysipelas is generally favorable, as it readily responds 
to treatment. The parts may be weak for a long time after the disease 
subsides. In phlegmonous erysipelas, which is accompanied by abscess 
formation, the affected area is generally boggy and edematous and the 
redness is changed to a dark purple. Many times blebs appear filled 
with blood stained serum. The swelling is brawny. Just before pus 
formation happens, secondary chills occur. Sometimes instead of ab- 
scess formation there will be a sloughing of a patch of the tissues, leav- 
ing a ragged, ugly, and unhealthy sore. Often upon opening the abscess, 
the tissues, after the pus is evacuated, will present a white, stringy ap- 
pearance. Eepeated abscess formation may happen. Certain other 
diseases may set up, such as broncho-pneumonia, septicemia, pyemia, 
etc., when death generally follows. The severer forms of erysipelas 
are most fatal in case of chronic kidney disease. Phlegmonous erysipe- 
las may often cause destruction of bone. In cellular erysipelas or dif- 
fuse cellulitis, the disease spreads through the planes of connective tis- 


sue around the muscles and blood-vessels and may be attended by 
sphacelus or gangrene of a considerable area. The prognosis in these 
cases is not favorable. 

Treatment. — Erysipelas is wrongly divided into idiopathic and trau- 
matic by most authors. Trauma is responsible for all cases of erysipe- 
las. It matters not whether the injury be external or some interference 
to the blood flow leading to such an amount of stasis as to deteriorate 
the resisting power of the organism, the result is the same. There must 
be some injury producing the conditions favorable for the growth of 
the germ. We know there are many organisms daily taken into the 
body which are capable of producing disease, but they are destroyed 
by agencies within, so that any cause which leads to the obstruction of 
the circulation through a part, the condition is then existing which 
favors the multiplication of the organisms, hence disease. In case of 
erysipelas the favorite site is the face, beginning at the upper part of 
the nose. It is usually found that some obstruction to the facial vein 
exists, e. g., at its junction with the jugular. Belief of this obstruction 
at once removes the condition upon which depends the possibility of the 
disorder continuing. In this case nature has cured the patient just as 
soon as given the power to act. The osteopath must be sure that the 
venous channels are free from obstruction and endeavor to flush the 
arterial blood to that part, as healthy blood is the greatest germicide. 
It must be remembered that while we handle a case of erysipelas with 
perfect immunity to ourselves, we may readily carry the organisms on 
our hands or clothing; it therefore behooves all who attend such cases 
to be scrupulously clean, especially so the one who does surgical and 
obstetrical work. Our experience with erysipelas has been sufficient 
to satisfy ourselves that all cases are handled successfully by osteopathic 
treatment. I do not at the present time recall a case in which we 
were not able to give relief in a very short time, and in most cases im- 
mediately. The treatment of such cases of course must be governed 
according to the location of the disease, as there is nothing to go by, 
and each case must be an individual one. If it is erysipelas around 
the face it is a facial disturbance, and if some other location it is a 
disturbance at that point. Erysipelas is nothing more than the blood 
being held in a place until it decomposes and it is nature's effort to 
dispose of it that causes the spread. It is a condition of a low grade 
of life coming immediately upon death of some structure. I have seen 
cases of chronic erysipelas, that have been of as long standing as seven 
or eight years, relieved by setting a partially dislocated angle of the 
jaw. I have seen cases of erysipelas in the leg caused by an interference 
at the saphenous opening or a twist of the hip which caused contraction 
of some of the muscles at that point. On some occasions the limb may 
be swollen to twice its natural size, when after the first treatment it will 
be reduced to almost normal within twenty-four hours. Osteopathic 
treatment should cure all cases, and if not, it is on account of the in- 


ability of the practitioner in locating the cause. Great stress should 
be placed on the examination, and if the cause is found there is no rea- 
son why the effect cannot be relieved. Pulling teeth is a common cause 
of dislocating the jaw. Inasmuch as eifect follows cause within the sys- 
tem, when the cause is removed the effect disappears, therefore it is the 
duty of the physician to locate and remove the obstruction. Abscess 
formation demands evacuation of the pus and the enforcement of 
rigid asepsis. 


Tetanus is a toxemia accompanied by more or less tonic spasm of the 
voluntary muscles, beginning in the muscles of mastication and gradu- 
ally extending into the muscles of the back and extremities, finally in- 
volving nearly the entire muscular system. These more or less tonic 
spasms are attended with clonic exacerbations. The toxemia arises 
from the infection of a wound by the bacillus tetani (Mcolaier). The 
disease is much more common in hot climates and among the negro ra<*e. 
It is said that in Jamaica one-fourth of the new born negroes succumb 
to tetanus. The disease is likewise more common in men than in 
women, also in military than in civil practice. The germ produces the 
most exquisitely toxic substance known. The toxin circulating through 
the body seems to have an affinity for the nerve tissues. It produces 
marked congestion and inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal 
cord. The germ is found extensively throughout nature, especially is 
it found in dust, garden earth, manure and about stables. It is more 
common in some kinds of earth than others and in some countries than 
in others. In the islands of the iSlew Hebrides the natives poison their 
arrows by dipping thejn in clay containing large numbers of tetanus 
bacilli. The wound in which infection takes place may be small or 
large, may vary from a pin scratch to a capital operation. It may hap- 
pen at the stump of the umbilical cord in the new born child. It may 
arise from abrasions of the intestines, as the germ is frequently found 
in the contents of the intestines of animals. The so-called idiopathic 
tetanus likely arises from infection of a small wound in the mucous 
membrane of the intestines. Tetanus infection is especially common 
after lacerated or punctured wounds and burns. It has been observed 
that infection is more common when there is suppuration. This has 
been explained by the fact that the micro-organisms of suppuration 
use up the oxygen and as the tetanus bacillus is a saprophyte, it makes 
the conditions for its growth more favorable. Tetanus may be inocu- 
lated from animal to animal or from animal to man. Deaths have 
occurred in persons who have sustained small wounds in holding an 
autopsy on an animal which died of tetanus. Exposure to cold and 
sudden changes in temperature seem to predispose to tetanus. This 
observation may have been made because of the fact that the premoni- 
tory symptom of the disease is generally that of stiffness of the muscles, 
which the patient often attributes to cold or exposure. It has 


been advocated that since the germ docs not circulate within the 
body and lies in the tissues adjacent to the wound, that to remove the 
tissues would be a successful way to get rid of the poison. This has led 
to the observation that the poison is in the nature of a ferment and 
after the symptoms of the disease have appeared, if all the germs were 
removed, death would follow just as quickly. The noison, because it is 
of the nature of a ferment, sets up such destructive changes in the 
tissues that death results. Before the days of asepsis and antisepsis,, 
tetanus caused the death of many patients undergoing surgical opera- 
tions. It is said that a famous surgeon lost ten successive cases by 
lock-jaw following major operations, when he accidentally discovered 
his instruments were the source of infection, and having boiled these 
he lost no more cases. Illustrating how readily this disease may be 
transmitted from animal to man, the terrible, unfortunate, and fatal 
experience of the city of St. Louis, Mo., in the manufacture of the 
diphtheritic antitoxin shows how, by negligence, the poison could be 
dispensed with the diphtheritic antitoxin and injected into the diph- 
theria cases, producing death by tetanus. More than a dozen deaths 
resulted from the injection of the infected diphtheritic serum. 

Pathology. — The pathology of the disease seems to be that of a tox- 
emia, as proved, in the cases of death happening as before mentioned in 
St. Louis. The germ is not necessary to the production of the disease, 
but the toxin only may be injected into the system and all the disease 
symptoms produced. The germ, if it gets into the tissues at all, stays 
in the margins of the wound and is more virulent when associated with 
the common bacillus of the colon and with the pus micro-organisms. 
The germ is found about horses, in horse stables, in manure, and in 
decomposing substances, hence wounds by a rusty nail cr cut 
sustained in such localities should be carefully cleansed with an anti- 
septic solution. The opinion held by the laity that the disease is caused 
by pain is erroneous. The disease only happens after infection by the 
above named germ. The disease may be simulated by muscular con- 
tractions from other causes and these may be thought to be tetanus, 
but are not. The poison is eliminated, to a considerable extent," by 
the urine. The period of incubation of the disease is usually about five 
days, but varies from twenty-four hours to two or three weeks, and 
in some cases even longer. 

Symptoms. — In the beginning the patient believes he has caught cold 
and has stiffness of the muscles. This stiffness is most pronounced in 
the muscles of mastication. The patient is unable to open his mouth 
widely and complains of a soreness in his throat and of the muscles of 
his neck. Acute tetanus comes on within ten days, the usual period 
being from three to five days. The muscles of deglutition and of the 
back, arms, legs, and abdomen become at first stiff and are then thrown 
into a tonic spasm. The part of the body upon which the wound occurs 
also shows stiffness and tonic spasm. This spasm finally extends to 


the facial muscles and causes a spasm of the risorius (Santorini) muscle, 
the corners of the mouth are pulled up and the patient's face presents 
a horrible grinning expression (risus sardonicus). Often the contrac- 
tions of the muscles of the back are sufficiently strong that the patient 
will lie upon his head and heels, the spine being markedly curved by 
the contraction of the erector spinae mass (opisthotonos). Sometimes 
the contraction is most manifest in the muscles of the side of the body 
and chest, when the person is turned to one side (pleurothotonos), 
while if the anterior muscles are affected the body and head will 
be drawn forward between the legs (emprosthotonos). The spasms are 
exaggerated by external irritation. The creaking of a door or jarring 
of the bed upon which the patient is lying will cause exacerbation of 
the spasms. The contractions of the muscles of the jaw may be severe 
enough to produce fracture, the teeth may be broken off and where the 
muscular spasm affects the upper extremities the finger nails may be 
buried in the palm. The mouth is sometimes covered with bloody froth 
due to the fact that the person has bitten off a piece of his tongue. The 
face expresses terrible suffering. The person is conscious until the 
last. The muscles of respiration are frequently affected, causing dysp- 
nea. Sometimes the muscles of the glottis are affected, causing ob- 
struction to the ingress and egress of air. While an interne in a metro- 
politan hospital the writer saw a prominent surgeon do a tracheotomy 
"in an unrecognized case of tetanus" to relieve strangulation because 
of spasm of the muscles of the larynx. Sometimes the person suffers 
from an agonizing girdle pain due to the implication of the diaphragm. 
The patient is severely coustipated during the disease because of the 
contraction of the sphincters. Swallowing is almost impossible, and 
talking is difficult. The temperature may be normal, but is generally 
very high. Cases are reported where the temperature has attained a 
height of 111 degrees F. The person suffers from insomnia because of 
the muscular spasms. Death is due to exhaustion and narcosis from 
carbonic acid poisoning, because of the spasms of the respiratory 

Varieties. — Clinically there are several forms of the disease recog- 
nized, viz. : 

1. Idiopathic tetanus, described by old writers, is now known to 
arise from wounds. 

2. Tetanus neonatorum occurs in new-born infants from the in- 
fected stump of the umbilical cord. 

3. Puerperal tetanus from infection of a woman at the lying-in 

4. Cephalic tetanus, resulting from wounds in* the head and accom- 
panied by facial paralysis. 

5. Acute tetanus conies on early and is attended by great severity 
of the symptoms. 


G. Chronic tetanus comes on late and successively involves differ- 
ent parts of the booty and may extend over a long period of time. 

The mortality in all forms of tetanus is about 50 per cent.; in the 
acute form 80 to 90 per cent, and in the chronic form about 20 per cent. 

Diagnosis. — The diagnosis of tetanus is apparently easy. It must 
be differentiated from strychnin poisoning, hydrophobia, and hysteria. 
Strychnin poisoning begins with exhilaration and restlessness. The 
senses are for a time sharpened. The muscular symptoms develop rap- 
idly and generally commence in the extremities. Sometimes it affects 
the whole body simultaneously, especially if the dose is large. The jaw 
is the last part of the body to be affected. If the convulsions are very 
severe the jaw may be set, but after the convulsion it drops. In strych- 
nia there is muscular relaxation between convulsions, the patient is 
excited and sweats. If there is recovery the convulsions become less 
frequent and less severe. Consciousness is preserved during the con- 
vulsions. "The slightest breath of air" will produce a convulsion. The 
patient may cry out with pain, but his cries are only momentary and 
express fear and apprehension of the spasm. The eyes are stretched 
and wide-open, the legs extended and the feet turned out. 

In hysteria there is often a history of globus hystericus. Muscular 
rigidity begins in the neck and spreads over the body. The patient 
generally persists in opisthotonos and muscular rigidity between the 
convulsions. Consciousness is usually lost and the eyes are closed. 
Crying spells often alternate the contractions. There is often a history 
of a neurosis in h} r sterical spasms. There may be an immense quantity 
of urine excreted, or urination may be frequent or suppressed. 

In tetanus the disease begins with pain, stiffness of the jaw, pro- 
oluced not from pain (as tetany may be), but because of the toxemia. 
This stiffness gradually extends to the umscles of the back, thorax, and 
the lower extremities. It may affect the facial muscles and muscles of 
the upper extremities. The muscles of the neck and back become hard 
and rigid like iron, at no time relaxing. These tonic contractions are 
exacerbated by certain clonic spasms; drafts of air, loud noises, light, 
shaking of the bed, swallowing fluids, visceral actions, etc., bring on the 
spasms. In hysteria the spasms come on without cause, and sometimes 
are associated with the choice of the patient. 

Treatment. — The treatment of tetanus consists of preventive and 

The preventive treatment is careful antisepsis. Aseptic and anti- 
septic methods in surgical operations will eliminate this complication 
in operative proceolures. As soon as the disease appears the wound 
should be cleansed with 1:500 solution of bichloride of mercury, the 
patient kept in a dark, well ventilated room and should have absolute 
cjuietude, not even being exposed to drafts of air or rays of light. If 
the urine is retained it should be withdrawn by a catheter. If the 
bowels refuse to move, enemas should be given of soap-suds or castor oil. 


After the bowel is cleaned out, the patient being unable to swallow, 
predigested food should be injected into the rectum. The patient 
should be fed regularly and supported, every effort being made to pre- 
vent a recurrence of spasms. Bromide of potassium in gram doses every 
three to six hours has been advised, but the writer has failed to observe 
where the administration of this drug was attended by favorable results. 
Other drugs, such as the application and use of alcohol, fomentations 
of tobacco, anesthetics, etc., have been used. So far there seems to be 
no remedy for the cure of tetanus. It remains to be proven whether 
an antitoxin can be developed which will effect a cure. The antitoxin 
serum of Tizzoni is said to be little short of useless. In chronic cases 
the antitoxin may be of value. Some recommend hypodermic injections 
of iodoform, three to five grains, three times a day. This treatment is 
valueless. If death does not occur before the ninth day the patient 
may be said to have a fair chance of recovering. Acute tetanus gen- 
erally kills before that time. Osteopathic treatment consists in secur- 
ing muscular relaxation and relieving the spasms whenever they 


Hydrophobia is an acute specific toxemia, most common in the dog, 
wolf, cat, and skunk. It is said by some to have occasionally occurred 
in poultry, it may be transmitted to horses, cattle, and other animals, 
and often to man. The saliva of the affected animal seems to be the 
vehicle by which the poison is transmitted, consequently if the bite is 
through clothing the disease is less likely to follow than when the injury 
is on some exposed part of the bod}'. I^o micro-organism has ever yet 
been discovered to which this disease may be attributed. The peculiar- 
ities of the affection leave little or no doubt in the minds of bacteriolo- 
gists that one exists, and it is thought if there is a specific micro- 
organism that it is present in the saliva. It is believed the micro- 
organism flourishes in the tissues about the wound and that its growth 
and development result in the production of a toxin which affects the 
central nervous system. The masses of gray matter in the medulla, 
cerebral hemispheres, and the pia mater are markedly congested, caus- 
ing the peculiar symptoms of the disease. The varying period of incu- 
bation has caused serious doubts to arise in the minds of many physi- 
cians as to whether the disease, rabies or lyssa, as it is sometimes called, 
actually exists. The period of incubation varies from a few days to 
twelve months. The average duration is said to be six weeks. 
Only about 14 per cent, of the bites of supposedly-rabid dogs result in 
the production of the disease in man. This is perhaps due to the fact 
that the bile very often takes place through clothing. It is said that 
bites on exposed parts are productive of the disease in 60 to 80 per 
cent, of the cases. Inasmuch as nothing can be done in the way of 
treatment, it is necessary to recognize the disease in the animal and 
prevent infection. Hydrophobia is not so common in this country as it 

H } r DR O PHOBIA . 65 

is in Europe. In central Russia, where there are many wolves, the 
disease is quite common. The animal when affected begins to droop, 
shuns the light and is restless. The disease manifests itself in two 
forms, one a furious form, where there is marked frenzy and madness. 
The symptoms after the preliminary drooping condition are alarmingly 
dangerous. The animal is insensible to pain and its taste is perverted 
so that it eats sticks, hay, and any objects it meets. Oftentimes on 
autopsy, if the stomach shows such foreign bodies or objects,- it is safe 
to make a diagnosis of hydrophobia. There is a profuse secretion of 
ropy, sometimes frothy, mucus. Soon there is paralysis of deglutition, 
spasms of the muscles of the larynx and pharynx and the bark is 
changed. "Respiration is rapid and the pupils dilated. The animal 
trembles and runs about wildly, madly biting everything with which it 
comes in contact. 

The other is a paralytic form where the subject is quiet and the 
lower jaw becomes paralyzed early and drops down and the tongue 
hangs out of the mouth. If the animal is "suspicious" it should be 
kept under surveillance. If the animal has bitten another animal or 
a person, they should be kept under surveillance until it is determined 
whether they have the disease. If they have, the animal should be 
killed at once. 

The symptoms in man are first respiratory. There is rapid respira- 
tion and more or less halting speech. The person becomes melan- 
cholic and anxious and shows great despair. Deglutition is 
interfered with because of reliex spasms. The word "Hydrophobia" 
indicates that the subject fears water, but this is not true. Any irrita- 
tion of the throat will set up a reffex spasm of the pharynx and iarynx, 
causing more or less suffocation. There is great palpitation of the heart 
and sometimes a breath of air will precipitate a paroxysm. The par- 
oxysms are often furious, the delirium wild and muttering, and during 
the spasms of the muscles of the larynx the voice is hoarse and unnat- 
ural and ofttimes somewhat resembles the bark of an animal. There 
is great muscular tremor, followed by paralysis and death. The medulla 
nnd hemispheres of the brain, as before mentioned, seem to be the parts 
fitfeeted, together with certain areas of gray matter in the spinal cord. 
Hyperemia seems to take place, largely in the adventitious tissues of the 
nervous system. There are very often hallucinations during the disease. 
In the paralytic form the person has preliminary mental anxiety, 
and great depression and despair. The muscles of mastication become 
paralyzed, the lower jaw drops, the tongue hangs out of the mouth and 
the person looks haggard and wild. Paralytic symptoms supervene. 
The wound generally heals and the person may have forgotten about it, 
but at the time when the disease appears the scar becomes inflamed 
and congested. 

Treatment. — No drugs seem to have any effect upon the disease, 
hence when the wound is made it should at once be relieved of infec- 


tion. This can best be done, first, by thorough and exhaustive suction 
to remove the virus; second, cupping; third, the wound should be 
enlarged and allowed to bleed freely. Lastly, it should be washed out 
with an antiseptic solution or cauterized with carbolic acid. If the 
wound has not been immediately treated and it is believed that the 
animal is mad, emulsions should be made of the central nervous system 
of the animal and this injected into rabbits to determine whether or 
not the animal was the subject of hydrophobia. This will require three 
or four weeks' time, so it is essential to determine, if possible, whether 
or not the animal has hydrophobia without such experiment, since it 
delays treatment. The best treatment seems to be that administered 
by the Pasteur institutes, which is done by means of injecting within 
the tissues of an animal attenuated virus until the subject becomes 
immune, then emulsions are made from the spinal cord of this immune 
animal and this is injected into the subject thought to be infected. The 
treatment is said to be successful. Mad-stones, which have efficacy 
according to the beliefs in the minds of people, are of course one of the 
monstrous fallacious fancies handed down from generation to genera- 
tion. The disease is always fatal when not treated. 

Malignant Pustule. 

Malignant pustule is sometimes called "Wool sorter's disease," inas- 
much as it is generally contracted by the handling of wool or hides from 
infected sheep. The cause of the disease is the anthrax bacillus. The dis- 
ease is not so common in this country as it is abroad. The incubation 
period appears to be two or three days. The disease generally appears on 
the face, hands, or arms and is first manifest by a little papule, after 
Avhich follows a small vesicle. This enlarges and a mass of the tissues 
dies. The papule is indurated and inflamed, but there is no pain. Necro- 
sis is manifest by the fact that a small patch turns black and sloughs 
out, leaving a ragged hole. Sometimes where there are several points 
of infection it may resemble a bad carbuncle. Sometimes the infection 
is pretty general on the body and may extend into the viscera, when 
death will result. The anthrax bacillus is extremely virulent and 
infectious, hence should be handled with great care. Where the case is 
seen early the prognosis is generally favorable. 

Treatment. — The treatment is first local, by cautery. The entire 
sore should be burned out by means of a thermal cautery or by means 
of fuming nitric acid or carbolic acid and then the part treated in an 
antiseptic manner.. The general treatment consists of cleanliness and 
support. After the necrosed area sloughs away the ulcer should be 
washed out twice daily with an antiseptic solution, 1 :1000 bichloride of 
mercury, and boracic acid dusted over the sore. Then several layers 
of antiseptic gauze and cotton should be applied and held firmly by 
suitable bandage. 



This disease is rare in man. It is most common in cattle, where it is 
called "lumpy jaw" or "swelled head." The cause of the disease is the ray 
fungus. This consists of long, irregular, club-shaped prolongations which 
radiate from a common center. The infection is acquired by man from 
some of the lower animals. It is generally accompanied by pus format ion 
and the pus is peculiar in that it contains yellowish gritty particies. The 
disease is more common on the face and neck and may involve the jaw, 
the pharynx and even the larynx, producing multiple abscess formation. 
It may also involve the bones and glands. The diagnosis can be made 
by the history of the case, by small yellow particles in the pus, and lastly 
by the microscope. The treatment is extirpation of the infected area. 


Tuberculosis is an infective disorder, characterized by its slow 
course and the formation of granulomatous masses. The cause of the 
disease is the bacillus tuberculosis (Koch), .which varies in size from 1.5 
to 3.5 mikrons long, and from .2 to .5 mikron broad. The rod-shaped 
organisms are very often undulated or beaded, lying parallel or with the 
ends of the bacilli closely approximated. The tubercle bacillus will 
affect any of the tissues of the body, and in fact almost all warm 
blooded animals. Cold blooded animals are less susceptible, but they may 
often contract it. That it is the cause of most of the processes called 
tubercular, is a fact beyond dispute, but there are many conditions 
which are called tubercular, simply because of the chronicity of the 
course and because the disease refuses to abate. 

The source of infection to man lies in the dust particles in the air, 
in the food supply, and in the water. The germ resists drying, 
hence it may readily be carried through the air, where it gets into 
clothing, when it may infect the skin, or it may be breathed in, picked 
up by some leukocyte and carried to other parts of the body, where it 
may be lodged and set up the disease. The germ is readily found on 
articles of furniture, in carpets, in the dust, and on the walls of the 
apartments of a tubercular patient. Tts infection is rather mild, but 
after infection takes place it is extremely fatal. 

Pathology. — The characteristic lesions caused by the tubercle bacil- 
lus are simply small nodules or tubercles. These small nodules have 
been variously described, but consist for the most part of a central area 
in which there is a giant cell, containing one or more of the germs, 
around which there is an area of what are termed "epitheloid" cells, 
which seem to be derivatives of the resident connective tissue cells. 
These giant cells are said by some to be the result of fusion together of 
more or less wounded or destroyed connective-tissue cells; by others 
that their vitality is largely destroyed by the presence of the tubercle 
bacillus and the cell is unable to divide, that the nucleus divides with- 
out the cell dividing, somewhat resembling an endogenous form of cell 


division. Around this there is a peripheral zone of leukocytes or round- 
cells. - This forms a mass ahout the size of a millet seed or mustard 
seed. Several of these tubercles may be near each other and fuse 
together, making a larger mass. These tubercles are avascular, and the 
cells crowding in closely, more or less cut off the nutrition to the central 
area, when the mass dies and undergoes coagulation necrosis. Some- 
times pus is formed, sometimes not. Even if pus is formed the fluids 
may be absorbed and the residuum undergoes caseation or may become 
calcified, forming a hard calcareous mass which may lie latent in the 
body for many years. It may undergo caseation with the tubercle still 
present, the mass being surrounded by an inflammatory area, the leuko- 
cytes having built up a solid wall or cordon, preventing the bacillus 
from getting into the fluids of the body. This may exist for years, 
finally, because the body becomes generally debilitated, the tissues inac- 
tive, and the resistance diminished, the germ takes on renewed activity 
and the patient develops acute tuberculosis. As before mentioned, the 
case is generally chronic, but it may run a rapid course. The writer 
once treated a man who had taken a large dose of laudanum because 
of a love affair. He recovered fairly well from the opium poisoning, 
but this seemed to have so weakened the system that it made him a 
suitable prey for the tubercle bacilli which were present in quiescent 
Pott's disease of the spine. This disease had been quiet for a number 
of years and the man enjoyed good health and had worked at hard labor. 
After recovering from the opium poisoning he contracted tuberculosis 
and died on the eleventh day, after taking the opium, of acute miliary 
tuberculosis. The germs, as before stated, lie in the center of the tuber- 
cle and because of the resistance of the surrounding tissues are kept 
imprisoned there. Some venturesome leukocyte attacks one of the 
germs and carries it away into the lymph spaces, only to fall a prey 
to its prisoner. Then the bacillus is transported by the lymph into the 
general circulation and perhaps into the distant tissues. The edge of 
the tubercular zone, or the zone of lymphoid cells, presents a character- 
istic inflammatory reaction. As before indicated, the tubercle bacillus 
may be walled up within the nodular mass and may remain there 
quiescent for a number of years. In some cases the germs may be 
entirely destroyed and almost all evidence of the tubercular inflamma- 
tion removed by the absorbents. It is peculiar of tuberculosis that 
there is little tendency to recovery; that the cells developed fall short 
of maturity. 

Changes in the Tubercle. — The changes following the deposit of the 
tubercle in the tissues are: — (1) Absorption of the bacillus and its con- 
sequent destruction, wherein there is no appreciable pathological 
change. (2) Caseation. (3) Fibrosis (Encapsulation). (4) Calcification. 
(5) Pus formation. 

In caseation the tissues undergo coagulation necrosis. True pus is 
not formed, or if it is formed, the liquid elements are absorbed and the 


mass undergoes cheesy degeneration and forms a cheesy mass. This 
may later become calcified, or the epitheloid cells which are about the 
dead mass may become converted into spindle-shaped cells of fibrous 
tissue, when a hard fibrous wall is formed about the tubercle bacilli. 
This is the condition of "fibrosis." Calcareous materials may be depos- 
ited in this fibrous tissue or the cheesy mass may be converted into a 
calcareous mass by the deposit of lime salts, when it is said to undergo 
calcification. Now and then in tuberculosis subjects these calcareous 
masses or gritty particles may be expectorated. A substance quite akin 
to pus may be formed, but true or characteristic pus is rarely, if ever, 
formed unless there is infection by means of the pyogenic micro-organ- 
isms in addition to the tubercle bacillus. This sometimes happens. The 
pus in tuberculosis is more like that of a chronic abscess, and in fact 
they so closely resemble each other that some writers have held that all 
chronic abscesses are tubercular, which opinion is unwarranted. 

Causes. — (A) Predisposing. (B) Exciting. 

The predisposing causes of tuberculosis are (1) heredity. By heredity 
is meant, not the direct transmission of the disease from the mother 
or father to the child, as may happen in syphilis, but a tendency 
towards the disease is inherited so that children of consumptive parents 
are more prone to the disease than children born of healthy parents. 

(2) Strumous diathesis, which means a condition in which there is a 
general tendency to the enlargement of the lymphatics and the produc- 
tion of adenoid tissue. 

(3) Bad hygienic surroundings. The disease happens in persons who 
have not had sufficient out-door exercise and who breathe air of poorly- 
ventilated rooms. The tissues become devitalized and weakened and 
permit the bacillus to gain a foot-hold. More important than all these 
predisposing causes, and perhaps the actual cause in chronic conditions 
where the tubercle bacillus can not be found, may be stated 
Osteopathic Lesions. 

(4) Osteopathic lesions. In all forms of infection osteopathic lesions 
are of the utmost importance. That a part may not receive its proper 
blood supply and proper nerve supply is a fact too well known to be dis- 
puted It is generally known that disuse of a part causes a weakening; 
furthermore, that when a bone assumes an abnormal position, which 
it frequently does, it interferes with the blood supply to a certain area, 
also presses upon the nerves so it interferes with the trophic influence. 
Other things being equal, the point to which these compressed nerves 
and arteries are distributed would be weakest. Now the fact that such 
lesions make tubercular infection possible can not be disputed. Further- 
more, the irritation set up by the abnormal condition of the bony frame- 
work of the body brings about muscular contraction. This interferes 
markedly with the circulation, rendering weaker the parts to which 
the compressed arteries are distributed. Collateral circulation in some 
cases may be thoroughly established, but in other cases this may be 


impossible, when then the part receives a small injury, inadequate to 
produce the disease under ordinary circumstances, yet in this weakened 
state inflammations are set up and a condition of the tissues suitable 
for the development of the germs is produced. This injury, and nearly 
always a history of one can be obtained, is of more importance than 
has generally been considered, for most likely it very often results in 
conditions of subluxation and contractions of muscles, fascia, ligaments, 
etc., interfering with the normal blood and nerve supply to the part, 
so that the lesions found may be at the joint affected or there may be 
spinal lesion affecting the structures upon the side of the body below. 
Very often the treatment of this spinal lesion will be attended by a 
cessation of the disease symptoms in some distant part. This happens 
when the spinal lesion has been the chief predisposing cause of the 
disease. The importance of this must not be under-estimated. Under 
all circumstances an eager and thorough search should be made for the 
above named causes. 

The exciting cause, is the Bacillus tuberculosis. It enters the 
body in many ways, through the air, food or drink, or may enter through 
the skin. They become disseminated in the following manner: (1) In 
conditions of lupus and anatomical tuberculosis the disease seems to 
be confined to one spot and spreads only by the extension of the inflam- 
mation of the skin, not affecting the connective tissues and muscles and 
lymphatic glands beyond to any great extent. 

(2) They may spread to the lymphatic glands, where they excite 

(3) They may enter the lymphatic or hemic circulation and lodge in 
some distant organ where the characteristic tubercle is found. The 
tubercle bacillus seems to have an affinity for serous membranes. The 
organs most prone to be affected are the lungs. Next in frequency are 
the testicle, kidney, brain, liver, spleen, adrenals, ovaries, mucous mem- 
branes of the larynx and intestines. Bones and joints are affected in 
the following order of frequency: Hip-joint, knee-joint, joints of the 
ankle, foot, hand, and elbow, while the shoulder and collar bone are 
rarely affected; the scapula, ilium, and bodies of the vertebrae may be 
affected. The skin is affected less frequently than many other tissues. 
The inflammation is set up by apparently slight causes and is progres- 
sive, indolent and chronic in its nature, and has little tendency to 

Tubercular Abscess. 

The most important termination of the tubercular process is a cold 
abscess. It has the characteristics of an ordinary chronic abscess. 
There is present little inflammation. The symptoms of inflammation 
may be almost entirely absent. The most characteristic point about 
the cold abscess is its limiting membrane. This was formerly called a 
pyogenic membrane, as was the membrane lining an ordinary abscess 


cavity. This limiting membrane is a defence-wall, built up by the tis- 
sues to prevent absorption of micro-organisms and the products of 
the decomposition and disorganization of the tissues. Strange to say, 
the tubercle bacilli are rarely, if ever, found in the contents of a cold 
abscess. It is said they exist in the margins of the limiting membrane. 
As a general rule the abscess causes but little trouble until it ruptures, 
when pyogenic infection follows, causing a severe systemic reac- 
tion. The abscess may gravitate and open at a distant point. It may 
exist for months, the fluid contents being finally absorbed. The solid 
residuum afterwards undergoes cheesy or calcareous degeneration. The 
common forms of these abscesses are gravitation abscess, psoas abscess, 
retropharyngeal abscess, lumbar abscess, etc., which will be discussed 

Tubercular Gummata. 

Tuberculosis is an infectious granulomatous disease similar 
to syphilis, leprosy, and glanders, so that the formation of gumma, as 
happens in these other diseases, may happen in tuberculosis. Gumma 
consists of a fusing together of tubercles which have undergone degen- 
eration, together with a large mass of ill-formed and ill-developed 
granulation tissue cells. It consists of a mass of fungus granulations 
which readily break down and ulcerate. They happen in the cranial 
and peritoneal cavities least often, but are common in bones and joints. 
The gumma consists of a mass of condensed tissues, often uninfected. 
It has a poor blood supply and a tendency to break down and ulcerate. 


Scrofula is not a disease, but a condition of the system 
whereby the tissiies become an inviting host to the tubercle bacillus. 
It is generally of congenital origin, one or the other of the parents 
being tubercular. The lymphatic glands are prone to enlarge and sup- 
purate. Joints and bones are liable to be affected. Often there is a 
chronic catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membranes or chronic 
eye disease, granulated lids, etc., eczema of the scalp or face, all of 
which are evidences of bad health, malnutrition, etc. Generally the 
patient is a victim of unsanitary surroundings or poorly ventilated 

Tuberculosis of Various Regions. 

Skin.— (1) Lupus is tuberculosis of the skin. ' It usually happens 
upon the face, beginning before the age of twenty-five. The nose seems 
to be its choice point of origin. Three varieties are described. (a) 
Lupus Vulgaris is the most common form and appears as pink nodules, 
which ulcerate after a time and then cicatrize. This process of forming 
nodules, ulceration and cicatrization keeps up continuously, perhaps 
disappearing here, but appearing with renewed activity at another point, 
(b) Lupus exedens is characterized by severe ulceration. (c) Lupus 


hypertrophicus is a form in which very large nodules appear. Lupus 
generally begins as a pimple, or group of pimples, which finally break 
down and ulcerate, leaving a soft irregular, not shelving, ulcer, which 
discharges a yellowish colored fluid. The bottom of the ulcer looks 
unhealthy and the skin about the ulcer is more or less inflamed. It is 
said the disease is painless, but sometimes it is extremely painful. It 
is not unusual that the ulcerating process may entirely heal up, but it 
finally recurs. It will heal up at one point and become more active at 
another, always destroying tissues over some part of the area. Cicatri- 
zation may have occurred, which will draw the surrounding tissues, 
often producing deformity. The process may be quite destructive, sim- 
ilar to a rodent ulcer, and produce hideous deformity. Scars produced 
by lupus are firm and hard, but yet break down easily. One of the char- 
acteristics of lupus is that the tuberculous secretions, drying, form yel- 
lowish crusts, often more or less scaly. Clinically it may be differen- 
tiated from a rodent ulcer, inasmuch as the rodent ulcer presents an 
everted appearance and is deep, while in the ulcer numerous vessels 
are visible. It does not spontaneously heal and its base and edges are 
hard and fibrous. 

Treatment. — The best treatment for lupus is a free removal of the 
diseased tissues with a knife, curette, or cautery. If possible, the entire 
mass should be removed and the wound be made to heal by first inten- 
tion. If the wound is allowed to heal hj second intention, it is better 
that the cautery or curette be used. Where the curette is used, subse- 
quent application of caustic, such as nitrate of silver or chloride of 
zinc (5 to 10 per cent.), or the electric cautery, may be made. After the 
cauterizing of the lupus the wound should be treated with an ointment 
of aristol. Concentrated electric or sunlight from which the heat rays 
have been removed seem to have given satisfactory results in some 
cases, but the treatment requires a long time, inasmuch as but a limited 
area can be exposed at a sitting. The result of the exposure to light 
is a sloughing out of the lupoid area. 

(2) Anatomical Tubercle. — This lesion of the skin happens in sur- 
geons or in operators holding post-mortems where infection takes place 
in wounds by means of tuberculous material. The anatomical tubercle 
is a red inflamed mass, often pustulating. 

(3) Tubercular guminata. — Tubercular gummata of. the skin are 
characterized by edematous inflammation and ulceration. The ulcers 
have grayish bases, show no tendency to heal and have inverted ^edges. 
Sometimes there is a chronic thickening of the skin, called sclero-derma. 

Subcutaneous Connective Tissues. — In subcutaneous connective tis- 
sues the tubercular process is usually manifest in the form of cold 
abscess. It may be manifest by gummata and tubercular nodules. 

Lung. — Pulmonary tuberculosis does not belong to the province of 
surgery and is best treated by well known osteopathic methods. 


Alimentary Canal. — Tuberculosis of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, 
stomach, and intestines is very rare. The germ may pass through the 
lining membranes of these cavities and set up inflammation in the 
deeper structures. The adenoid glands found in the mucous mem- 
branes of the intestines may become involved. 

Peritoneum and Pleura, — Tuberculosis of these membranes becomes 
surgical only when abscesses are formed. 

Bone. — Tuberculosis of bone is common in youth and is always pre- 
ceded by injury. There exist osteopathic lesions which make the injured 
bone a point of least resistance. The deposit of the tubercle causes the 
characteristic inflammation, attended with softening of the bone and 
even of the production of an abscess. This calls for surgical interven- 
tion. (See necrosis of bone). 

Joints. — Tuberculosis of joints is popularly termed "White Swell- 
ing" and consists of a chronic inflammation and degeneration of the 
synovial sac. Children are especially susceptible to the disease. It is 
brought about by injury and subluxation. The deposit of the tubercle 
may occur in the end of the bone, in the synovial sac or in the con- 
nective tissues just outside of the synovial sac or in the epiphyseal 
cartilage. Lesions affecting the circulation to the joint are responsible 
for the disease. 

Lymphatic Glands. — Tuberculosis of lymphatic glands is known as 
"Tubercular Adenitis." The frequency with which enlargement of 
lymphatic glands occurs in tuberculosis is even popularly recognized. 
This enlargement is due to the fact that the inflammatory products 
and the tubercle bacillus are carried back through the lymph stream 
and lodge in the lymphatic glands. Caseation often occurs. 
Residual abscess may follow. Tubercular adenitis is more common 
in the neck and mesenteric glands, but may occur anywhere in the 
body. It may in some cases become very general. Suppuration arises 
from mixed infection. While the disease is generally local, it may 
became a source of infection, general tuberculosis folloAving. It must 
not be confounded with lymph adenoma, which usually occurs in the 
lymphatics of the posterior triangles of the neck, whereas cervical 
lymphadenitis generally occurs in the anterior triangles of the neck. 
Tubercular glands very often run together and form a large inflamed 
mass. In every case obstruction to the local circulation may be noted, 
which is responsible for the inflammation. 

Testicle. — Tuberculosis of the testicle is not rare. Generally but 
one testicle is affected in the beginning, but later both are affected. It 
is a form of painless epididymitis and orchitis. The tubercular mass 
many times softens and breaks down, forming an abscess which bur- 
rows towards the surface. The layers of the tunica vaginalis, the skin, 
and subcutaneous tissues become adherent and it may rupture exter- 
nally. The diagnosis is made purely by the clinical facts presenting. 
The use of the microscope is of no avail, as the bacilli are not in the dis- 


charge. In fact, it is not necessary to make the diagnosis of tubercu- 
losis,- for it does not modify the treatment. 

Prognosis.— The prognosis varies with the condition of the patient, 
the structures involved, the extent of the infiltration and the rapidity 
of the process. 

Treatment of Tuberculosis. 

(1) Hygienic, dietary, and climatic. (2) Osteopathic. (3) Surgical. 

Hygienic, dietary, and climatic treatment are of inestimable value in 
tuberculosis. The hygienic treatment consists chiefly in an open-air 
life in pleasant surroundings, etc. The chief dependence of the tuber- 
culous patient seems to be in an appetite satisfied with wholesome and 
nourishing food. The patient should be instructed, if he has extensive 
tuberculosis, to eat less in amount and more frequently. The diet 
should consist of eggs, if they are well borne, from three to six daily, 
milk in large quantities, good steak, beans, rice, cereals, etc. If the 
person has lost his appetite, or if he has indigestion, predigested foods 
should be given, such as beef tea, prepared in the following manner: 
Place a piece of minced lean beef in a glass fruit jar which is then sealed 
up and put in a pan of water and gradually heated to boiling. The juice 
is decanted and the remaining liquid elements pressed from the beef. 
This juice may be seasoned to taste and is usually well borne and nour- 
ishing. Commercial beef tea is usually of not much value. Fruit 
juices are often well borne, encourage an appetite, and are pleasant. 

Climate. — The pine covered hills of northern Georgia, the dry atmos- 
phere of New Mexico, and the altitude of Colorado are all favorable to 
the health of tuberculosis patients. They encourage deep breathing, 
secure a better blood supply to the chest and cause the patient to do 
what he otherwise would not do, take more lung exercise. 

The Osteopathic Treatment consists in increasing the blood supply to 
the affected area, adjusting vertebrae, ribs, clavicles, relaxing contracted 
muscles, etc., that may have excited or are aggravating the diseased 
conditions. Since our only hope of curing tuberculosis is in increasing 
the vitality and nutrition of the tissues, osteopathic treatment has this 
in view when it removes pressure from artery, vein or nerve or when it 
increases the blood supply to a part by means of stimulating the vaso- 
motor nerves. It has been advocated by enemies of the practice of 
osteopathy that there is danger in manipulating a tubercular joint or 
area on account of scattering the germs and causing acute general tuber- 
culosis. Clinical practice of the entire osteopathic profession in the 
enormous number of these cases treated shows that there is no such 
danger in this treatment properly applied. It is unnecessary to state 
here that drugs administered internally are of no value in the treatment 
of tuberculosis. 

The surgical treatment consists in extirpating the tuberculous area 


when it is accessible. Cold abscesses when opened should be thoroughly 
cleansed with a solution of bichloride of mercury (1:1000), then the 
abscess cavity should be scraped out and free drainage established. 
Iodoform emulsion in glycerin (10 parts iodoform to 90 parts glycerin) 
may be injected into the cavity, providing the drainage is good, after 
it has been thoroughly washed out with an antiseptic solution. The 
tuberculous area should be kept as nearly aseptic as possible and like- 
wise at rest. 

Koch's Tuberculin. — The specific treatment demised by Koch has 
been proven worthless and is no longer used. 

Bier's method consists in placing an elastic band around the limb 
above the tuberculous area and is founded upon the principle of Laen- 
nec, that cyanosis was unfavorable to the tuberculous process. The 
elastic band causes venous congestion. Surgical interference should be 
advised only as a dernier resort, when it is shown that the condition can 
not be relieved by osteopathic treatment properly applied. 


Glanders is an infectious disease produced by the bacillus mallei. It 
manifests itself in acute and chronic forms. It is classified as one of 
the infectious granulomatous diseases, because of the granulomatous 
masses formed in the mucous membranes and in the skin and connective 
tissues at which points the micro-organisms have obtained entrance, or 
having gotten into the circulation, have lodged at these points and set 
up the characteristic pathological changes. The disease is common in the 
horse, but is rarely seen in man, and then only in laborers about stables. 
It is contracted by laborers about stables from the fact that the pus 
is blown into the face or onto the body, from which point it either gets 
into a small wound in the skin or it effects an entrance through the 
mucous membranes. In man the disease is characterized by (1) copious, 
foul, and sanious discharge from the nose, (2) an eruption over the body 
quite resembling small-pox, and (3) enlargement of the lymphatic glands 
with formation of nodes, which break down and ulcerate, forming foul 
ulcers, which discharge a disagreeable pus. The onset of the disease is 
often announced by a chill. The febrile reaction is of a typhoid type, be- 
ginning with a slight elevation of temperature, which gradually rises, 
and after several days reaches its maximum intensity. The symptoms 
of the disease are, in addition to the chill and fever, evidences of pleiir- 
isy. pneumonia, or diarrhea. These symptoms will vary, depending upon 
the mucous membranes and the tissues most affected. The symptoms 
often resemble a septic intoxication like sapremia. Later, after the 
forming of foul ulcers, the symptoms may be those of septicemia and 
pyemia because of the rapid infection of the pus micro-organisms which 
are introduced into the ulcer. Usually death occurs within a week. 
In the acute form the mortality is from 85 to 90 per cent. In the 
chronic form it is much less severe and the patient may linger for 


several weeks and even months. The disease runs a slow course and 
repeated abscesses form, which rupture, and the pus is discharged. 
Finally the patient may wear the disease out or the abscesses may have 
been opened and the pus discharged, the patient recovering after symp- 
toms of chronic pyemia. Cases have been reported where twenty or 
more abscesses have been successively opened and the contents removed. 
The mortality in the chronic form is 50 per cent. In the acute form 
the pustules form over the face, hands, and arms and exposed parts of 
the body. The formation of the pustules in the skin is accompanied by 
edematous swelling so that the features are often horribly distorted. 
The history of the case and the eruption, together with the lymphatic 
enlargement and edematous swelling and evidences of pus forming, 
would be sufficient on which to base the diagnosis. The chronic form 
quite resembles syphilis, from which the diagnosis can be made by care- 
ful inquiry into the history of the case. 

Treatment. — The treatment consists of (1) supportive, (2) surgical, 
and (3) antiseptic. The person should be given concentrated, highly 
nourishing, and digestible foods, and if necessar}^ stimulants may be 
administered. Surgical treatment consists in opening the abscess as 
soon as it appears, removing the limiting membrane and the dead tis- 
sues. Rigid antisepsis should be maintained. All the abscesses, where 
they can be reached, should be drained and washed out with 1 :20 solu- 
tion of carbolic acid or 1:1000 mercuric chloride. 


Syphilis is an infectious, contagious constitutional disease which runs 
a slow course and affects successively mucous membranes, lymphatic 
glands, skin, connective tissues, bone, eye, and nervous system. The 
cause of this disease is unknown, but it is believed to be due 
to a micro-organism. There are those who believe it to be caused by 
the absorption of inflammatory products, which seriously damage the 
general metabolic process. Others believe that the micro-organisms, or 
its products, are absorbed into the body and these circulating through 
the fluids bring about the changes characteristic of the affection. Lust- 
garten's bacillus was thought to have been the cause of the disease, but 
this has been proven not true, inasmuch as the germ is found in gum- 
matous formations in the tertiary stage, whereas these are not infec- 
tious. It is a well known fact that the disease may linger for years 
within the system, finally breaking out and assuming many peculiar 
forms. It is hardly likely that the micro-organisms could have existed 
in the body during this long period. The symptoms of the disease have 
been explained by the absorption of the inflammatory products, the 
toxins of which disturb the metabolic process and bring about the pro- 
duction of granulomatous tissue, which is prone to break down and ulcer- 
ate. Whatever is the cause of the disease, it seems to come in almost 


all instances in a certain way and seems to run the same peculiar 
chronic or slow course. While the eruption may vary, yet it fol- 
lows in sequence other symptoms, so that likely, as our bacteriological 
methods are improved, the cause of the disease will be determined. It 
is characterized by a period of incubation varying from two to four 
weeks, usually about twenty clays, at which time a local sore appears, 
which is soon folloAved by lymphatic enlargement. This local sore is gen- 
erally located on the genitalia, but may be found on the hands of the 
accoucheur, or upon the lips, tongue or nipple. Two to three months 
from the time of inoculation, or from forty to sixty days after the 
appearance of the primary sore, the skin and mucous membranes are 
affected. These are secondary manifestations or changes, the chief 
characteristics of which are that they are generally symmetrical. The 
second stage lasts from two months to two years, depending upon the 
treatment the case receives, and upon the habits of the patient and his 
surroundings. In some cases no further changes may be manifest. The 
disease seems to wear out, or after a few months or a few years, tertiary 
changes develop. The} r are usually asymmetrical and attack, besides 
the superficial tissues, the deeper structures, such as the connective 
tissues, bone, periosteum, muscles, viscera, liver, lungs, etc. The path- 
ological formations in this stage consist chiefly of gummata. These 
gummata often lead to suppuration or to fibroid changes, perhaps to 
necrosis or to contractions of the tissues producing distortions or they 
may cause paralysis. Fibroid changes sometimes occur in the nervous 
system; these are manifest in various ways. The tertiary stage may 
last for life, the person dying of an intercurrent disease, whereas it 
may terminate fatally or the person may apparently get' rid of the ail- 
ment after some years. Another peculiar fact about syphilis, which 
indicates that it is a specific disorder due to a micro-organism, is that 
it confers immunity to further attacks. Chancre, which is the pri- 
mary sore of syphilis, may be multiple, where two points were infected 
simultaneously, but if a chancre has appeared at one point, having been 
thoroughly established, repeated efforts at inoculation at another point 
on the body have failed. Furthermore, after the chancre has healed 
and the patient is then the victim of secondary or tertiary syphilis, 
chancre will not again appear, nor can a person, under any circum- 
stances, be inoculated. The disease is produced by direct contact with a 
chancre or the virus may linger upon a drinking cup or it may be intro- 
duced into the system by means of lymph in vaccination. The location 
of the chancre, as before mentioned, may be on the fingers, lips, tongue, 
tonsils, walls of the pharynx, or genitalia. In the female the chancre 
is usually located on the labia minora. It may be on the walls of the 
vagina or on the cervix uteri. In the male the chancre is usually found 
on the prepuce, but may be found upon the glans or situated in the 
skin back of the glans. It ma} r be located in the meatus urinarius 
externus or back some little distance along the urethra. The appear- 
ances of a chancre are peculiar. 


Chancre — Primary Syphilis. — Primary syphilis is the first stage in 
which there appears a chancre with enlargement of the lymphatic 
glands. The chancre must not be confounded with venereal ulcer or 
chancroid. Chancre exists in three forms: 

1. Hunterian chancre is a hard, round, elevated, and inflamed mass 
which has ulcerated on the top. It does not suppurate and has a vel- 
vety edge or surface and "bleeds easily. Hunter described the ulcerated 
surface as looking like raw ham. The discharge from the chancre is 
watery. This is not the most common form of chancre. 

2. A hard, red, indurated mass which is situated beneath the epi- 
dermis, and from which the epidermis ma} r , or may not, have been 
peeled off. This seems to be the most common form of chancre. 

3. The rarer form is a purplish-red or purple patch situated in the 
skin, and which is exposed by removing the epidermis. This chancre 
is neither indurated nor ulcerated. Ulceration in a chancre seems to be 
brought about by irritation or friction or the presence of filth. A 
chancre is nearly always single. ■ In most cases it has well defined mar- 
gins which feel like encapsulated cartilagenous masses. These may 
be readily picked up between the fingers. The hard base is produced 
by inflammatory exudates. If the chancre is not properly treated it 
may exist for months, but the induration usually disappears after the 
secondary symptoms present themselves. 

Chancroid. — A chancroid is a local sore which is very often multiple. 
It may be single in the beginning, but if allowed to remain for a few 
days will quickly become multiple. It appears in from one to ten days, 
never afterwards. The sore begins as a pustule, which ruptures, dis- 
charging a fluid which spreads over the surface and causes various other 
ulcers. The ulcer has thin undermined edges and is sharp-cut, and 
looks like it is punched out from the skin or mucous membrane. It 
looks sloughy and has a grayish base. The discharge is offen- 
sive. The tissues over which this pus flows will become inoculated. If 
the first sore was in the vestibule, other sores will be f otmd along down 
the labia minora and labia majora, over which the discharge has run. It 
is a soft sore. They do not bleed or cause constitutional symptoms, 
but are followed (when situated on the genitalia) by inguinal adenitis 
or bubo. The lymphatic enlargement is on the side corresponding to 
the side of the genitalia affected. Should the chancroid be in the 
middle line, lymphatic enlargements may be manifest on both sides. 
This is unusual. 

Herpetic Ulceration. — Herpetic ulceration may follow febrile re- 
action, but is usually due to an irritation set up by foul discharges or 
to filth. It first appears as a vesicle or group of vesicles, which rup- 
ture, discharging a clear fluid. These vesicles may run together, 
finally forming an ulcer. These ulcers are superficial, having no ten- 
dency to spread and are not indurated. They are, like chancroids, pain- 
ful. Unless suppuration appears they are not attended by bubo. 


Mixed Sore. — A mixed sore is a condition where the subject is in- 
fected with chancroidal poisoning and at the same time with syphilitic 
poisoning, hi these cases the sore has the appearance and characteris- 
tics of a chancroid, but later along it comes to have a hard indurated 
base. These sores should always be regarded as "suspicious." In no 
case should an absolute diagnosis be made by the appearance of the 
sore, but in all cases they should be treated alike — cauterized — and then 
treated as simple sores. Before the diagnosis of syphilis is made, the 
attending physician should await the development of secondary symp- 
toms. Instituting treatment before secondary symptoms have devel- 
oped will in no way benefit the case, for just as soon as the chancre 
appears, just so soon is syphilis a constitutional disease. Amputation 
of the chancre, followed by the proper healing of the wound, will in 
no way affect the course of the disease. Secondary symptoms will ap- 
pear in due time. Chancre may be mistaken for cancer of the tongue. 
Chancre of the tongue is brownish red, whereas cancer is bright red. 
The discharge from the cancer is bloody, from the chancre it is non- 
purulent and free from blood. Cancer appears late in life. The 
lymphatic enlargements in cancer are painful, while those of chancre or 
syphilis are indolent. At all events, the diagnosis can be made in two or 
three months. 

Syphilitic Phagedena. — This is a condition existing in persons sur- 
rounded by filth and debilitated by disease, in diabetics, drinkers, etc. 
Foul and spreading ulcers may happen coincident with the chancre 
or afterwards and these are best treated by methods advised for slough- 
ing phagedena. 

Relapsing Chancre. — After syphilis has been apparently cured for 
many years, the scar left by the chancre may become inflamed and en- 
larged, the chancre apparently returning. 

Bubo. — A bubo is the enlargement from inflammation of the lym- 
phatic glands above Poupart's ligament. In syphilis it is generally 
bilateral and indolent. They may be small or large, usually freely 
movable underneath the skin and rarely ulcerate. In debilitated sub- 
jects the glands may enlarge enormously. In cases of "mixed sore the 
buboes are very often suppurative. Where the chancre appears in the 
mouth the bubo appears below the jaw. They may remain for many 
months and finally disappear by absorption or fatty degeneration. 
After some months there may be general lymphatic involvement. This 
lymphatic enlargement affects all of the lymphatics, but those found in 
the posterior triangles of the neck and in the epitrochlear space back 
of the humerus are characteristic of syphilis. In syphilis the bubo con- 
sists of a chain of enlarged lymphatic glands, whereas in chancroid 
the bubo consists of an inflamed mass, seemingly produced by the in- 
flamed glands fusing together. Syphilitic buboes grow slowly and are 
almost painless and are not red and inflamed. Chancroidal buboes 
are extremely painful, are red and inflamed and show a tendency to 


suppurate. It is maintained by some that a positive diagnosis of syph- 
ilis can be made when an indurated sore is followed by bilateral buboes 
with involvement of other lymphatic glands. I should not advise the 
diagnosis to be made so early, but would wait until the development 
of the secondary symptoms. 

Secondary Syphilis. — Secondary syphilis consists of certain changes 
in the skin and mucous membranes with general lymphatic involvement, 
and in some cases it is said to attack the iris. These secondary signs 
appear about forty clays after the appearance of the primary sore or 
about two months after inoculation. They may be so slight as to be 
overlooked or in some cases entirely absent. During the secondary 
syphilis the disease is very readily transmitted to the offspring through 
the ovum or spermatozoon, or by contact with the sores. 

Skin. — The skin eruptions are various. It is peculiar that the erup- 
tion in syphilis may simulate the rash of almost any of the exanthe- 
mata. Frequently the onset of the rash is attended by a chill, high 
fever, and may be scarlatinous. In some cases it may be erythema- 
tous, in other cases it may resemble measles, while in still others it 
may be mistaken for small-pox. The eruption is usually a roseolous 
rash spreading over the back, chest, and abdomen. It is generally 
accompanied by a sore throat. The rash seems to be caused by a local 
congestion, since it fades under pressure. It usually disappears in 
a short time, but if the rash continues, inflammation of the skin will 
occur at the points of the rash. Sometimes the epithelium will form 
scales; these are called scaly syphilides, the eruption taking on the ap- 
pearance of psoriasis. It may manifest itself in a distinctly papular 
rash, which is called a 'papular syphilide. In other cases, where it is 
still more severe, little vesicles may form on top of the papules, ves- 
icular .sypliilides. In a certain class of vesicular syphilides, where 
the process seems to be more severe and there is marked exudation of 
serum, large bullae are formed; these are called hullous syphilides or 
syphilitic pemphigus. In some cases the contents of the vesicles are 
converted into pus. pustular syphilides, or syphilitic ecthyma, a condition 
where the pustules form scabs, which afterwards dry up and fall off, 
leaving no scar. Syphilitic rupia is a condition where marked ulcera- 
tion takes place underneath the scabs. 

Mucous Membrane. — Following the eruptions, ulcers appear upon 
the mucous membrane of the mouth and throat. They are called 
mucous patches. The first ulcers are usually symmetrical. They 
are usually painless and often temporary and superficial. Sometimes 
the mucous patch presents an appearance of condyloma. Mucous 
patches may also appear upon the mucous membranes of the genitalia 
and rectum. Mucons patches are prominent in smokers or people with 
badly neglected teeth. These patches sometimes affect the larynx, 
causing hoarseness and even loss of voice. The nasal mucous mem- 
branes may be affected so as to produce a discharge and evidence of 


catarrh. It is not unusual that mucous patches may occur in the 
urethra, causing an infectious discharge. It is during this stage that the 
disease is communicated as the sores are very infectious. 

Hair. — The hair falls out, sometimes rapidly and extensively. It 
may he so widespread as to affect the beard and eye-brows, or it may be 
limited to the production of bald spots on the scalp. This baldness, 
which is known as alopecia, begins about the time of the appearance of 
the eruption. The baldness is not permanent, as the hair will again 
appear. The bald places are not as smooth as in other forms of alopecia 
and the skin is scaly. 

Nails. — The nails may be entirely or partially cast off, due to inflam- 
mation of the matrix. The new nail formed is often diseased. 

Eyes. — Iritis is the commonest eye trouble in secondary syphilis. It 
appears about four months after the chancre; in fact, acute iritis devel- 
oping is said to be a strong symptom of syphilis. It is shown by a pink 
zone around the sclera and a muddy, reddish iris. The pupil is irregular 
and there is intense photophobia and pain. The pupil may be hazy. 
The patient usually recovers from the syphilitic iritis with good vision. 
The retina may become affected by diffuse retinitis or there may be a 
choroiditis. The diagnosis of these affections can be made by means 
of the ophthalmoscope. 

Ear. — Barely temporary impairment of hearing takes place, gen- 
erally sjonmetrical. Sometimes it may lead to deafness. 

Bones and Joints. — Barely there may be a periostitis set up, but this 
is usually a manifestation of tertiary syphilis. Likewise the synovial 
sacs may be affected, causing more or less synovitis, but these inflamma- 
tions are more or less transitory and not very painful. No destructive 
disease either of the bones or joints occurs. Intense headache may 
appear because of periostitis of the bones of the skull. 

Testicle. — Sometimes the epididymis and testis may become 
inflamed. This is sometimes followed by atrophic cirrhosis, while in 
others the plastic exudate is absorbed without injury to the organs. 

Tertiary Syphilis. — Tertiary syphilis appears after a latent period 
which follows the secondary syphilis. This latent period varies in 
length; in fact, the secondary syphilis may exist for from four or five 
to eighteen months. Tertiary syphilis will appear within six months 
or two years. There are some cases in which the tertiary symptoms 
are manifest after a few months, in other cases they are greatly 
delayed. The tertiary symptoms are announced by chronic inflamma- 
tion of the various organs and tissues leading to the formation of gum- 
mata. These gummata may vary from the size of a pea to that of a 
walnut and are very intimately blended with the surrounding tissues. 
These gummatous formations may undergo caseation and break down, 
producing, when in the submucous tissues, a characteristic ulcer or they 
may continue for some length of time, disappearing under favorable 
treatment, or in other cases may leave a hard fibrous mass, contractions 


of which seriously interfere with function and produce great deformity. 
These gummata are formed of granulation tissue and are made up, for 
the most part, of three zones, a central zone, indicating degeneration, 
principally fatty. This is surrounded by a matrix made up of cells 
undergoing fibrillar changes. The outer zone contains numerous rami- 
fying vessels between which are the granulation tissue cells. 

Tertiary Lesions. — The tertiary lesions are (1) gummatous inflam- 
mations of the periosteum and of the bones leading to caries or necrosis 
occasioning deformity. When the nasal bones are affected the ulcer- 
ative and necrotic process may destroy the entire nose, the nasal septum 
and pterygoid bones, producing horrible deformity. 

(2) Gummatous inflammations in the skin and mucous membranes 
(tubercular syphilides). This is a condition in which tubercles are 
formed. These sometimes break down and form serpiginous ulcers. 
These are symmetrical, involve the deeper tissues and show no tendency 
to heal. When the larynx, pharynx, and rectum are affected, serious 
damage may result by the formation of strictures and gummata. 

(3) Gummata may form in the muscles, producing paralysis and 
injury to the muscles affected. Where this occurs in the tongue, serious 
damage from ulceration and cicatrization may take place. 

(4) Gummata of the nervous system produce paralysis and when they 
involve the anterior or frontal lobes of the brain they produce marked 
psychical symptoms. It may lead to fibroid changes in columns of the 
cord, medulla, or in the cerebellum. 

(5) Gummata of the blood vessels. The arteries are chiefly affected 
and this results in the formation of thrombi, emboli, and aneurysm and 
rupture of the arteries. 

(6) Lastly, gummata may form in the viscera, liver, lung, or kidney, 
producing symptoms according to the nature of the organ and the 
extent of involvement. 

Hutchinson enumerates the lesions of tertiary syphilis in this man- 
ner: Diseases of the skin of the nature of rupia or lupus, periostitis 
of bone forming nodes, causing hypertrophy, caries or necrosis; gum- 
mata in various parts, as of the tongue, causing sclerosis, of the nervous 
system introducing structural changes, causing ataxia, ophthalmople- 
gia, internal and external; general paresis, paralysis of cerebral nerves, 
optic atrophy, myeloid degenerations; and chronic inflammations of 
certain mucous membranes, such as the mouth, pharynx, vagina, and 
rectum, with ulceration, thickenings, and strictures. It may affect the 
spine in the form of spondylitis, at the same time involving the men- 
inges of the cord. Unilateral enlargements of the testicle and epididy- 
mis may take place. Serpiginous ulcers in tertiary syphilis are preceded 
by brown or copper colored spots. These spots break down often, form- 
ing crescentic shaped ulcers. They are more common about the lips 
and nostrils and on the face. Involvement of the periosteum and con- 
nective tissues will lead to severe pains, syphilitic rheumatism, so that 



pressure on the front of the tibia will usually occasion considerable 
pain. These rheumatic pains are greater when a person becomes warm 
after retiring at night. They often involve the ribs, showing tender- 
ness throughout the extent of one or more. 

Syphilis of the nervous system comes on late and is indicated by 
meningitis, atheromatous condition of the vessels, fibrosis, and gum- 
matous formation. Syphilitic paralysis is progressive, limited and not 
complete. Epilepsy appearing after the thirtieth year, not due to alco- 
holism, is likely due to latent syphilis. A syphilitic patient often has 
persistent headaches, insomnia, muscular tremor, paralysis, slowness 
of utterance, and vertigo. Spinal syphilis is manifested in the form of 
sclerosis as in Landry's paralysis. There may be a condition of soften- 
ing and tumor. Syphilis sets up a neuritis of a chronic form, accom- 
panied by degenerations as in locomotor ataxia. 

Congenital Syphilis. — Congenital syphilis occurs in children only 
when both of the parents are syphilitic. It is transmitted to the child 
by means of the ovum or spermatozoon. The child is born healthy, while 
the disease usually appears from the fourth to the sixth wee!: after 
birth. There are cases where it is said the child was born with evidence 
of syphilis. There are other cases where the development of the dis- 
ease seems to be considerably delayed. The symptoms of the affec- 
tion in general are those of "snuffles" or a chronic catarrh. Mucous 
tubercles and ulcerations are present about the mouth and anus. The 
discharge from the nose is generally copious and non-purulent. A rash 
appears on the body similar to that in secondary syphilis of the acquired 
form, later copper colored spots appear about the genitalia and buttocks 
and on the hands and feet. These may be followed by ulcerations. 
Eruptions may be papular, vesicular, or pustular. Generally the child 
is anemic and wasted . It has a shriveled and shrunken appearance and 
looks old, so that a child of a few months has the face of an old man. 
The hair falls out and eyes become affected, ulcers and keratitis produc- 

ing an opaque condition of the cornea, 
while the bones and joints and viscera are 
all affected. Where the symptoms appear 
late or where the child seems to survive the 
secondary symptoms,, changes in the bones 
occur, producing a broad bridge of the nose. 
Ulcerations take place at the angles of the 
mouth. These on healing leave scars 
(Hutchinson's lesion). Usually there is 
a peculiar conformation of the skull. The 
head is square with prominent frontal emi- 
nence. The incisor teeth are characteristic; 
the edges are serrated and concave, and 
sometimes they look as if they were cut 
out. Enlargements on the bones sometimes 
occur. These are called Parrot's nodes. 

Deafness usuallv follows 

Fig. 6. 

Hutchinson teeth in hereditary 


Kiiles governing the inheritance of syphilis may he summed up in the 
following : 

1. Colles's Law. — Children having inherited syphilis from the father, 
the mother never having manifested the disease, the mother is immune 
to syphilis so that she will not contract it from the nursing child. A 
wet nurse would. 

2. If one parent is syphilitic the child may be. 

3. Syphilitic parents may bring forth healthy children. 

4. If the mother, while enceinte, contracts pox, the child may have 
syphilis. Under such circumstances it becomes infected in utero. 

5. The more recent the syphilis the more likely it is the child will 
be infected, and the more latent the syphilis the more tardy and less 
likely will be the development of the syphilis in the child. 

6. Syphilitic parents may beget several syphilitic children when 
afterward they may bring forth healthy children. 

7. Syphilis not having manifested itself for a number of years, the 
child may not have syphilis. 

8. Syphilis in the mother is much more dangerous to the child. She 
often aborts at the fifth month. 


A. Osteopathic. B. Other measures. 

Osteopathic. — The treatment has not as yet been tested in full to 
determine its effects in all forms of this disease. We hold it to be a 
nutritive disorder due to the absorption of inflammatory products. In 
the lesions of tertiary syphilis osteopathy has been peculiarly successful. 
Especially is this true of gummata, paralysis, rheumatism, eye affec- 
tions, and ulcerations. In all these conditions we depend upon increas- 
ing the blood supply to the diseased part. This enables the young 
granulation tissue cells to mature. It further hastens the resorption 
of the inflammatory, degenerated, and other products present in the 
disease. This treatment if properly applied ought to relieve the various 
forms of tertiary syphilis readily and completely. The treatment is the 
surest and most powerful method of reconstructing and renovating the 
tissues. The poison is eliminated by the excretories while the recuper- 
ative powers are replenished by securing a good free flow of fresh and 
wholesome blood. 

Other Treatment. — Chancre. — As soon as seen a chancre must be 
cauterized with fuming nitric acid or carbolic acid. Afterwards it 
should be treated as a simple sore — dusted with calomel, and borated 
gauze and cotton applied and held in place by a bandage. When on a 
mucous surface an antiseptic solution may be used twice daily. 

Bubo. — The treatment as advised in inflammation will be found ap- 
plicable here. They rarely cause trouble. It will do no good to rub 
in salves or apply liniments. If the treatments are persisted in the 
inflammatory products may be absorbed. 


There are three methods now in use which affect very favorably the 
course of syphilis. They are the following: 1. The inunction treatment 
consists of rubbing into the skin on different parts of the body fifteen 
to thirty grains of mercurial ointment daily. liubber gloves are neces- 
sary. The treatment is extensively used. 

2. Daily hypodermic injections of one-fourth grain of the bichloride 
of mercury over the back and buttock for one month is a treatment 
said to be very successful. If the disease reappears one-sixth grain of 
the drug raaj be similarly injected for a period of one month. If it 
again reappears one-eighth of a grain may be injected in the same 

3. Iodid of potassium in a saturated solution is extensively used in 
the treatment of old syphilitic lesions. It is begun with ten drops three 
times daily in a glass of water and increased one drop at each dose until 
two hundred drops are taken three times daily. 

Diet and Hygiene. — In syphilis it is of the utmost importance that 
the patient eat plain, wholesome, and non-stimulating food. He should 
take frequent baths, drink copiously of pure water, avoid stimulants of 
all kinds such as tea, coffee, tobacco, and alcoholics. Good clothing 
should be worn and the victim should receive a good night's sleep. All 
the secretions should be kept active and regular. 


Gonorrhea is a specific ulcerative inflammation of the urethra in the 
male, and the vagina in the female. This inflammation frequently ex- 
tends into other organs, sometimes even affecting the eye, it having 
been inoculated by pus transported to it from infected hands or cloths. 
There are two forms of urethritis usually described in the male, the 
specific and non-specific. 

The non-specific form of urethritis is produced by irritating dis- 
charges, by injury or by micro-organisms. The symptoms are usually 
mild, the inflammatory reaction is not severe and it generally runs a 
short course. The sequels are of no consequence. 

The specific form of urethritis is produced by infecting the mucous 
membrane with the diplococcus Neiseri. This micro-organism finds 
its way into the deeper layers of the epithelial cells and into the connec- 
tive tissues, setting up an ulcerative process. There may be several 
ulcers along the urethra. These may extend partially or entirely around 
the canal, usually only upon one side. The inflammation is quite severe, 
the inflammatory products being carried through the lymphatic chan- 
nels into the glands in the groin set up an inguinal adenitis producing 
bubo. In severe forms the dorsal veins may become involved, phlebitis 
occurring so that they appear as hard, fibrous, and painful cords. The 
corpus spongiosum becomes infiltrated with inflammatory material and 
is not capable of distention and stretching, as normally, when 
upon erection of the corpora cavernosa it occasions a condition of 


chordee or Lowing of the organ. The gonococci are found in large num- 
bers in the pus discharged from the urethra. The germs inhabit the 
pus cells, epithelial cells, and the albuminous fluids. They can be readily 
stained with the ordinary anilin stains (dilute methyl blue or methyl 
violet). It is claimed that there is a certain proportion of cases where 
no gonococci can be found, in which the symptoms are cjuite as severe 
as in specific urethritis. The cause in these cases seems to be pus micro- 

Symptoms. — Gonorrheal urethritis may be divided into three stages. 
The first stage is from the time of inoculation until inflammation is set 
up. The second stage is the acute inflammatory stage, which lasts about 
ten days. The third stage is the defervescence of the inflammation, 
and lasts two or three weeks, sometimes less. 

The first symptom of gonorrhea is an irritation within the meatus 
urinarius externus. The meatus becomes swollen, congested, and a 
watery fluid exudes. There is pain on urination and during the inter- 
vals a teasing sensation. The discharge becomes purulent within a few 
days. The disease, after inoculation, generally appears in from one 
to four or five days. The purulent discharge, as soon as the ulceration 
is set np, becomes quite copious and is sometimes greenish, due to the 
association of some of the pus germs. The organ becomes badly swol- 
len, urination causes excruciating pain, while there is a continual ache 
extending along the back of the organ and about the rectum, sometimes 
being referred over the trochanters. After the acute stage is over the 
inflammation gradually subsides, the discharge becomes less free and 
thinner — seropurulent and finally seroiis, and eventually disappears. 
Cicatricial contractions take place in the ulcer formed within the ureth- 
ra. This contraction may narrow the caliber of the urethra, producing 
stricture. In chronic cases the ulcer never quite heals, but cicatricial 
contraction takes place and because of the obstruction by the stricture 
the urethra behind the narrowed pointJbecomes distended by the urinary 
flow. It is from this distended portion that the discharge in gleet or 
chronic urethritis comes. 

Complications. — The complications of gonorrhea are: 

1. Balanitis, and inflammation of the glans penis. 

2. Posthitis, a condition where the prepuce becomes inflamed. In 
balanitis if the prepuce is redundant and becomes inflamed while behind 
the glans a condition of paraphimosis may result. If posthitis is set 
up a condition of phimosis may be caused, in which condition the pre- 
puce cannot be brought back over the glans. (See Phimosis and Para- 

3. Chordee is a condition of bowing of the organ and happens in 
many cases. The treatment consists of the application of cold or other 
means of preventing erection. The patient should be instructed to 
sleep on his side and with but little cover. 

4. Stricture of either large or small caliber is a frequent result of 


gonorrheal inflammations because of cicatricial tissue formed in the 
urethral wall, the contractions lessening the lumen of the urethra, 

5. Prostatitis. In some cases the inflammation extends hack the 
urethra into the prostate gland. Prostatitis can he recognized because 
of the swollen and inflamed condition of the prostate, and because of 
the febrile reaction due to the absorption of pus. 

6. Epididymitis. The inflammation may travel back along through 
the vesiculae seminales and the vas deferens into the epididymis, caus- 
ing epididymitis, or even the testicle itself may become inflamed, 

6. Gonorrheal Eheumatism. This is caused by the absorption of 
the inflammatory products of gonorrhea, which are carried about over 
the s}''stem and lodge in the connective tissues about joints, causing in- 
flammation. It is not a rheumatic condition. 

Treatment. — The Osteopathic treatment consists in increasing the 
urinary flow and lessening its acidit} r as recommended by Dr. A. T. Still. 
This will lessen the irritation during urination and quiet the desire for 
frequent micturition. The blood supply to the urethra must be stimu- 
lated and the penis carried in a sack containing cotton to catch the dis- 
charges. The acute inflammation will subside in a week or ten days. 
The bowels must be kept regular and the patient instructed to avoid 
undue exercise or excitement. He should get good sleep, avoid the use 
of stimulants and eat good plain food. By all means avoid injections. 
They do harm. Never good. In clxronic gonorrhea or gleet a 1 per 
cent, solution of nitrate of silver may be injected gently into the urethra 
and held there just two minutes.' If this does not effect a cure, every 
other day a 2 per cent, solution of the silver salt may be injected — care 
should be taken not to force the fluid into the bladder. The irrigation 
treatment is very popular. It consists of daily running through the dis- 
eased part of the urethra, or even into the bladder, a 1 :4000 solution of 
permanganate of potassium. Two or three' quarts should be allowed to 
pass through the urethra at a sitting. The treatment is said to be very 
successful. In the female the treatment is similar. When the disease 
is chronic the vagina ma}'' be tamponed daily with a boroglyceride tam- 
pon and irrigated with a solution of a teaspoonful of acetate of zinc to 
a pint or quart of distilled water. 

Rachitis, or Rickets, 
Is a disease of childhood. It occurs in children from eighteen months 
to two and a half years of age. It affects the entire system more or less, 
but especially the long bones and the bones of the skull. The cause of 
rickets is malnutrition. This malnutrition may be the result of lesions 
causing malassimilation or because of an insufficient quantity or quality 
of food. It may be caused by the debility of the mother or by the child 
being surrounded by bad hygienic conditions. It is characterized by the 
formation of embryonic tissues. These embryonic tissues never develop 
into the mature cell for which they were originallv intended. Bones 


are not properly formed, the cells proliferate, but the ossific process 
does not take place. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of the disease are, first, its occurrence in 
children eighteen months to two and a half years — or in the late form 
it may happen in children from nine to twelve. This is said to be a 
recrudescence of the disease. The cbild is at first restless and may have 
night sweats. Phosphates are abundant in the urine, and there are evi- 
dences of gastro-intestinal disturbance and iiatulence. Swellings occur 
on the ends of bones, radius and tibia, beading of the ribs and thickening 
of the cranial bones at the sutures. The bones frequently bend, causing 
bowing of the legs. There may be bowing of the forearms. There 
may be many deformities, the most common being pigeon-breast. The 
person is often knock-kneed or bow-legged and there is curvature of 
the spine. There are various kinds of deformed pelves. The fontanels 
close late and the head is square. Dentition is delayed or may not 
occur at all and even if the teeth appear they may decay early and fall 
out. Ofttimes there are symptoms of bronchitis. There may be lar- 
yngismus stridulus, convulsions, diarrhea, etc. 

Treatment. — The treatment of rickets is to locate the cause of the 
disease, if there is any. Generally there are Osteopathic lesions which 
account for the malnutrition. The reduction of the lesion, together 
with the proper food, will be attended by relief. 


Scurvy is a disease of malnutrition and malassimilation from im- 
proper food. The cause of the disease is lack of vegetables. It has occur- 
red inprolonged sieges or Arctic expeditions. Scurvy was common among 
those who visited the Klondike. The pathology of the affection is the 
pathology of a condition of malnutrition. Improper food materials 
lead to disorganization of the blood and there is degeneration of muscles 
and great prostration. The skin becomes jaundiced (hematogenous). 
There is malaise, torpor, loss of appetite, and insomnia. The gums be- 
come inflamed, of a bluish-purple hue, are friable and break down and 
ulcerate. The breath becomes fetid, the skin dry and brittle and be- 
cause of the changed condition of the blood there are ecchymoses under- 
neath the skin and around through the muscles, even under the perios- 
teum. The prognosis is generally good unless the case is in a very bad 
condition before the proper treatment can be administered. In pro- 
longed and neglected cases death results from marasmus and sepsis. The 
treatment is a vegetable diet in small quantities, frequently repeated, 
fresh fruits, cranberries, lime juice, buttermilk and cider. 


Definition. — A tumor is an atypical neoplasm or new formation which 
is not the result of inflammation. The word "tumor" means a swelling, 


but all swellings are not tumors. The term tumor is applied to those new 
formations which arise from other than inflammatory causes, although 
the tumor may be attended by an inflammatory reaction, and, further- 
more, a long continued irritation and inflammation may even operate 
as one of the causes of a tumor. 

Cause. — "All have agreed long since that tumors and issues mark a 
cut-off in an artery, vein, or nerve." (A. T. Still, Philosophy of Oste- 
opathy, page 200.) Lesions acting in this manner occasion nutritional 
disturbances. These disturbances vary in nature and degree, causing ab- 
normal development or destruction of cells from perverted nutrition or 
retained secretions. Among the various other causes which seem to have 
to do with the origin and development of tumors may be mentioned: 

1. Constitutional Dyscrasia. By this is meant a certain morbid con- 
dition of the system which predisposes to the development of tumors. 

2. External Irritation. External irritation seems in some instances 
to assist in the formation of tumor. It is not unusual that a cancer 

arises from a crack in the lip which has existed for several months 
or years. 

3. Embryonic Eemains. During development of the fetus embry- 
onic tissue may be included in parts of the body where it should not 
be and afterwards in growing or developing forms a tumor. This with- 
out doubt explains teratomata, but does not explain sarcomata and 
many other tumors. 

4. Parasites. Cancers can be readily transmitted. Because of this 
some writers maintain that a cancer is due to a parasite. This remains 
to be proven. Numerous forms of certain parasites have been described 
but they are most likely optical illusions. 

5. Spermatic Influence on Cells. It is maintained by some path- 
ologists that certain cells have a spermatic influence over others, chang- 
ing their method of development and producing abnormal growth. 

6. Defective Tissue Resistance. This has been advocated in ex- 
plaining cancer. Cancer consists of a condition where the epithelial 
cells, instead of groAving towards the surface, grow down amongst the 
deeper tissues and in the lymph spaces. Because of a lessened resist- 
ance which the connective tissues seem to have for the epithelial tis- 
sues, they grow the wrong way. This would not explain some of the 

7. Certain Predisposing Causes. It is said that in some people there 
is a predisposition to the development of cancer. Xot that they have 
a dyscrasia, but that they have inherited the condition from a cancerous 
mother or father. This remains to be proven. 

Structure. — The structure of a tumor varies according to its location 
and the issues from which it arises. The tissues of a tumor always resem- 
ble the tissues from which they grow and develop. Metaplasia of tissue 
never occurs. By that we mean that from connective tissues epithelial 
cells never develop. If a tumor is derived from the connective tissues, 


it will always be a mesoblastic tumor, not hypoblastic or epiblastic. 
Wherever a cancer is found it is always developed from epithelial tissue. 
Wherever a sarcoma is found it is developed from mesoblastic tissues, so 
that in structure the tumors resemble certain tissue types. Some 
tumors differ but very little from the normal tissues, while in others 
the cells vary in shape and become so distorted as to render it difficult 
to determine their nature. These are atypical. The most atypical of 
all tumors and tumor-cells is the cancer. A tumor is independent of 
the general nutrition of the body. AVhile the body is becoming poor, 
thin and emaciated, a fatty tumor may grow to immense proportions. 
While the more emaciated and debilitated the patient becomes, the more 
luxuriantly does the cancer grow. Many of the tumors do not have a 
distinct blood supply. Many of them grow at the expense of the body. 

Shape. — The shape of a tumor ma}' be ragged or irregular, it may be 
circumscribed and enclosed within a capsule, or it may be difficult to tell 
where the tumor begins and the healthy tissues cease. In such conditions 
the tumor seems to infiltrate the surrounding tissues. The tumor may 
have a fungiform appearance or it may be papillary, or in some cases it 
may present a cauliflower excrescence, as in case of a cancer of the 
mucous surface. 

Effects on the General Health. — The effect of a tumor on 
the general health varies according to the nature of the tumor 
and the tissues involved. The mechanical pressure of the tumor 
may be such as to markedly interfere with the general health. This 
is not the rule. Tumors may grow to enormous size and yet the 
person may be apparently healthy. Still, on the other hand, a little 
cancer not larger than a hickory nut may cause profound cachexia 
and a condition of malnutrition. The effects on the general health 
are produced by mechanical irritation and pressure upon an artery, 
vein, or ner\e, which sometimes may be serious to a part, or by a cer- 
tain form of poisoning whereby noxious chemical products are dis- 
charged into the body from the tumor. These carried about produce 
general systemic effects. Something like this occurring makes a can- 
cer a constitutional affection. The general health is likewise impaired 
in malignant tumors by the using up of a great amount of nutritious 
material, thereby depriving the tissues generally of their nourishment. 


Clinical. — 

A. Benign. 

B. Malignant. 
Tissue Types. — 

A. Mesoblastic. 

I. Simple tissues. 

1. Fibroma. 4. Osteoma. 

2. Myxoma. 5. Papilloma. 

3. Lipoma. 6. Chondroma. 


IT. Complex tissues. 

1. Myoma. 

2. Angioma. 

3. Lymphoma. 

4. Lymphangioma. 







II. Embryonic tissues. 

1. Sarcoma. 

a. Large round -eel led. 
h. Small round-celled, 
c. Large spindle-celled. 
il. Small spindle-celled. 




Alveolar sarcoma 


B. Epiblastic and Hypoblastic. 
I. Carcinoma, or Cancer. 

1. Epithelioma, or squamons-celled carcinoma. 

2. Glandular cancer, or cylindrical-celled carcinoma. 

3. Acinous cancer, or spherical-celled carcinoma. 

A Benign tumor is one which does not affect the general health, but 
the symptoms of which are entirely due to the mechanical pressure or 
irritation which the tumor may exert upon the surrounding structures. 

A Malignant tumor is one which affects the body out of proportion 
to its size. It affects the general health. It usually runs a rapid course 
and results fatally. It is attended by cachexia, great pain, ulcera- 
tion, etc. 

A Fibroma is a tumor made up of bundles of wavy fibrous connec- 
tive tissues. The varieties seen are (1) hard fibroma, (2) soft fibroma, 
(3) molluscum fibrosum, and (4) keloid. In addition to these varieties 
there may be intermingled with the fibrous structure of the tissue, fatty 
or myxomatous tissues, bone, cartilage, etc., or in other cases a degener- 
ated condition of the vessels, making the following additional varieties: 
(5) Myxo-fibroma, (6) Fibro-lipomatodes, ■(?') Osteo-fibroma, (8) chondro- 
fibroma, and (9) angio-fibroma. 

Changes In. — The changes which these tissues very often undergo 
are calcification, ulceration, and mucoid degeneration. 

Location. — The tumors are located in the connective tissues, 
beneatb the mucous and serous membranes. Where they occur 
in the periosteum they produce a condition of fibrous epulis. Where 
they occur in the uterus a condition of myo-iibroma results. A tumor 
may form in the stumps of nerves after amputation. This is improp- 
erly called a neuroma, it is really a fibrous tumor or false neuroma. 
When fibrous tumors occur in the nose and rectum they are generally 
in the form of polypi. In subcutaneous tissues hard and soft fibromata 
occur. Soft fibromata are popularly called "wens." These tumors are 
never malignant. 

Diagnosis. — The diagnosis is usually easy. The tumor is encapsu- 
lated, often lobulated, generally pedunculated, and is a hard fibrous 
mass. It is a benign tumor, may appear at any age and if removed will 
not tend to recur. 


Molluscum Fibrosum. —This consists of an overgrowth of the fibrous 
structure of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. It may affect one side 
of the head or one entire side of the body. The skin may become 
enormously thickened. It is said the origin of the tumor is congenital. 

Keloid. — This is a rare kind of tumor which occurs in two forms, 
spontaneous and cicatricial. The spontaneous consists of a fibrous mass 
beneath the epidermis and is more common in the negro. 

The cicatricial form arises from scars, frequently from piercing of 
the ear. The tumor is benign, but is prone to recur unless every vestige 
is removed. 

A Myxoma is a tumor consisting of mucoid tissues. The tissues of 
the tumor are not matured, but are an undeveloped form of connective 
tissue. The contents of the tumor are identical with the tissues sur- 
rounding the blood vessels in the umbilical cord. It is made up of 
stroma, having within the tissue-spaces a substance similar to Wharton's 
jelly. The tumor appears to the naked eye as being made up of a 
structureless gelatinous mass. It is a soft, gelatinous, grayish, or red- 
dish-white tumor. It conies after middle life and grows slowly. They 
do not recur after removal. They are benign tumors. They may un- 
dergo fatty degeneration, inflammation, ulceration, or may form cysts. 

Location. — They are located in the submucous, subcutaneous, and 

subserous tissues. 

Treatment. — When easily accessible they should be removed. 

A Lipoma is a tumor made up of fatty tissue. Its structure is that 
of ordinary adipose tissue. It is usually lobulated, soft, and pseudo- 
fluctuating. They are ovoid, spherical, and rarely pedunculated. The 
tumor is encapsulated and sometimes becomes slightly attached to the 
surrounding tissues so that gravitation may cause these tumors to 
migrate, say from the side of the chest to the brim of the pelvis. 

Degeneration. — Degenerative changes taking place in these tumors 
are ulceration, calcification, and softening. Ulceration is sometimes 
serious. Calcification may lead to error in diagnosis. 

Location. — The location of these tumors is generally the axilla, back, 
buttock, and thigh. 

Diagnosis. — These tumors are benign, of slow growth, and variable 
in size. They appear at any age, are encapsulated, and if the tumor is 
grasped at its base and the skin stretched, dimpling of the surface will 
take place because of the fibrous bands extending down through the 

An Osteoma is a tumor formation developed in bone after inflamma- 
tion. It generally occurs at the junction of the bone and its cartilage. 
There are three forms usually described, depending upon their struc- 
ture. (1) Eburnated osteoma consists of very dense bony structure, 
made up of lamellae extending parallel with the surface of the tumor. 
They are symmetrical and often multiple. (2) Compact osteoma is a 


variety consisting of campact bone. It is found in the outer layers of 
long bones. (3) Cancellous, or spongy osteoma is a tumor made up of 
cancellous bone. In structure it resembles the spongy bone at the end 
of long bones. The tumor may become sarcomatous or it may undergo 
necrosis following inflammation. Earely caries takes place. 

Diagnosis. — It is a benign tumor of slow growth. It is generally 
arrested as age advances and never attains a very large size. If it ex- 
hibits malignant characteristics it is a sarcoma. 

Papilloma. — The common name of this tumor is a wart and consists 
of a fibrous stroma containing blood vessels and lymphatics. It seems 
to be an overgrown or hypertrophied papilla of the skin. In some cases 
the papilla nmy be short or in other cases long, where it presents a villus- 
like appearance. Where the wart is situated in the skin the epithelial 
covering is sometimes dense and binds the wart in a solid mass. 

Changes In. — Ulceration and hemorrhage; it may become cancer- 

Location. — Skin and mucous membranes. 

Diagnosis. — The diagnosis is easy. They occur at any age, may be 
simple or multiple. They may disappear without operative interfer- 
ence. When they occur on mucous surfaces they are highly vascular, 
prone to bleed, and may occasion considerable trouble. Where they 
are at a point of irritation they should be removed. 

Chondroma, sometimes called enchondroma, is a mass of new tissue 
composed of hyaline, white fibrous, or elastic cartilage. They are usually 
rounded, smooth, iobulated tumors of dense consistency. They some- 
times have a well marked capsule. The cut surface presents a pink 
appearance identical with fresh cartilage. They are non-vascular. 

Location. — Cartilages of the larynx, trachea, and costal cartilages. 

Changes In. — They may undergo fatty, mucoid, or calcareous 
changes and are often found in bone developed from cartilage. They 
are not uncommon in the metatarsal bones and phalanges, and may 
occur in glands such as the testicle, ovaries, and mammae. 

A Myoma is a tumor composed of muscle. There are two forms 
usually recognized, depending upon the kind of muscular tissue. 
That composed of striated muscle is called Ehabdomyoma. That 
composed of unstriped, muscle is called Leiomyoma, Rhabdomyoma 
is very rare and it is maintained by some to never occur. It is usually 
congenital. The muscle fibres are irregularly formed, either spindle 
or club shaped. It is a benign tumor and occurs in the heart, uterus, 
and kidney. Leiomyoma, the variety made of unstriped muscle, fre- 
quently contains more fibrous than muscular tissue. It is most fre- 
quently located in the uterus, but may occur in the prostate, esophagus, 
stomach, and intestines. As a rule, they vary greatly in size; those 
located in the intestines are small, while those located in the uterine 
wall may attain an enormous size. Severanu removed one which 


weighed 195 pounds. They are frequently the size of a fetal head. 
When located in the uterus they may he subserous, interstitial, or in- 
tramural. They may be pedunculated in the form of uterine polypi. 
They are generally encapsulated and made up of elongated, spindle- 
shaped cells with rod-shaped nuclei and have but few blood vessels. 
The tumors may undergo inflammatory changes or calcareous degener- 
ation. They are benign, but may become sarcomatous. 

An Angioma is a tumor made up of blood-vessels. There are three 
different forms, capillary, venous, and arterial, or, simple, cavernous 
and plexiform. 

Simple or capillary angioma is a condition of telangiectasis, or 
mother's mark, or birth mark. It generally affects the skin and 
may be flat or slightly elevated and may vary in color from a pink or 
red to a dark-red or violet. They are generally located on the face, 
about the orbit, and on the neck, and are congenital. They may increase 
in size after birth. On microscopical section it is found that the walls 
of the capillaries and vessels are thin, dilated, and fusiform. They may 
be cylindrical or sacculated, or several large vessels may establish com- 
munication between the nevus, as it is sometimes called, and the main 

Location.— They are generally located in the skin and subcutaneous 
tissues in any of the organs which are vascular. 

Arterial angioma, sometimes called cirsoid aneurysm, is really not 
a tumor, but a pathological alteration of the vessel wall. The vessels 
become distended and convoluted. Pressure upon the nerves and tis- 
sues causes atrophy. The vessel walls usually, thicken because of inflam- 
matory reaction. The tumor may be congenital or acquired. Both the 
venous and arterial angiomata may follow injury of the scalp, frontal 
region, and the pudendum. 

Lymphoma. — The term "lymphoma" means a tumor of the 
lymphatic gland. There are various conditions which may 
perhaps be included under this head. Enlargement of the 
lymphatic glands in tubercle and syphilis is termed by some 
tubercular or syphilitic lymphoma. There is no inflamma- 
tory reaction due to the absorption of the products of inflammation, 
as in bubo or acute and infectious diseases. Sarcoma may occur in the 
lymphatic glands, but it does not differ from a sarcoma in any other 
region, except that it arises in the lymphoid tissue. This tumor is 
called lymphosarcoma. The lymphatic enlargement in leukemia is said 
by some to be malignant. Enlargement of the lymphatic glands with 
enormous hypertrophy, as occurs in Hodgkin's disease, is called 

Lymphangioma is a tumor of the lymphatic vessels. It is very rare 
and consists of dilated and cavernous sacs. It is analogous to a tumor 
of the blood-vessels. It occurs most frequently in the tongue or lips, 
where it is termed macroglossia or macrocheilia, as the case may be. 


A Neuroma is a tumor of the nervous tissue. The existence of these 
tumors is denied by some writers. An amputation neuroma is really 
a fibrous tumor due to the development of fibrous tissue in the stump of 
an amputated nerve. Pathologically there are other neuromata 
described in connection with ganglia and masses of nerve matter, but 
they are rare and not well understood. 

A Glioma is a tumor developed from neuroglia and composed chiefly 
of glia cells. The tissue elements vary greatly. These tumors are often 
located in tbe eye. Some writers believe that they are true sarcomata. 
In the brain the glioma does not involve the membranes, while a sar- 
coma does. They are circumscribed, diffuse slowly, and generally affect 
the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The tumor may 
be very soft or firm and elastic and is single. When metastasis occurs 
it is believed to be sarcomatous. 

An Adenoma is a tumor of the type of glandular tissue. It seems 
to be an enlargement of all parts of the gland. It is believed by some 
that the origin of the tumor is fragments of glandular tissue included 
within the tissues where it is found. Sometimes they are termed 
localized hypertrophies. They are benign, and secondary changes are 
not liable to occur, but when they do, they are fatty or mucoid in nature. 
Where gland tubules are developed, cysts may be formed because of the 
retention of the secretion. 

Location. — Sebaceous glands, mammary glands, thyroid, prostate, 
testicle, liver, spleen, etc. 

There are two forms described, depending upon the nature of the 
formation or structure. They are tubular and acinous. 

A Sarcoma is an embryonic connective tissue tumor. The cellular 
elements of the tumor predominate over the interstitial substance. The 
cell elements tend to infiltrate the surrounding tissues, so 
that it is not always encapsulated. 

Microscopical Structure. — The microscopical structure of a sarcoma 
is of great importance. It consists of embryonic cells, varying in size 
and shape, embedded in a stroma or intercellular substance, which 
varies in amount and character. It generally contains but little fibrous 
tissue. The cells are often protoplasmic masses and rarely possess a 
cell wall. The variety of the tumor depends upon the shape and size of 
the cells. The intercellular substance extends around between all the 
cells and lies in close connection with the individual cell. The blood- 
vessels of the tumor are very numerous and often have no well defined 
walls, the blood apparently flowing into cavernous spaces in the tumor, 
so that the blood is apparently brought in direct contact with the tumor 
cells. Sometimes these embryonic cells which form the vessel wall 
become detached and are carried by the blood current to other parts 
of the body (metastasis). When the tumor grows slowly there appar- 
ently is a condensation of the connective tissues about the tumor, which 
gives it the appearance of being encapsulated. 


Location. — The round-celled sarcomata are situated in the 
periosteum, fascia, eye, antrum of Highmore, breast, testicle, and may 
occur in any of the connective tissues. The giant-celled sarcomata 
occur in connection with hone. The alveolar sarcoma develops 
in the subcutaneous connective tissues and in glands. Melano-sarcomata 
occur in the surface connective tissues. Spindle-celled sarcomata 
occur in the intermuscular septa, subcutaneoiis tissue, fascia, 
periosteum, interior of bones, eye, breast, and testicle. 

Characteristics. — The characteristics of sarcomata are (1) Malig- 
nancy, (2) Occurrence, (3) Metastasis, (4) Infiltration, and (5) Degen- 

Malignancy. The round-celled and spindle-celled varieties are of 
rapid growth and very malignant. Melanotic sarcomata are among the 
most malignant of tumors. 

Occurrence. The tumor occurs at any age, but most frequently in 
early or middle life. They are prone to extend locally and after removal 
to recur locally. It is maintained by some surgeons that the tumor has 
never been successfully removed. 

Metastasis may occur, but always by means of the blood-vessels. 
The neighbouring lymphatic glands are not enlarged unless the sar- 
coma becomes ulcerated. The tumor is generally localized and sharply 

Infiltration takes place into the surrounding tissues and lymphatic 
glands. It disseminates by means of the blood-vessels, secondary 
growths occurring in the lung. 

Degeneration in these tumors is common. Blood extravasations 
are frequent. The tumor rarely ulcerates, but more frequently it under- 
goes fatty degeneration or mucoid softening. 

Cancer, or Carcinoma. — Definition. — Cancers are malignant tumors, 
consisting of masses of epithelial cells contained within alveoli and en- 
closed in masses of fibrous tissue. Like the tissue from which it is derived 
(epithelium) no stroma or connective tissue extends in between the indi- 
vidual cells. Cancers are the most atypical of all the neoplasms. The 
epithelial cells vary greatly in shape and size. One of its most peculiar 
characteristics is that the cells apparently grow the wrong way. 
Epithelial tissues groAV towards the surface normally, but in cancer the 
tumor-cells grow down into the connective tissues in the interstices 
between the fibres and along the lymph spaces, sometimes forming dis- 
tinct cell masses or cell nests, or at other times forming column-like 
prolongations. These columnar-like masses and cell nests are sur- 
rounded by dense la}^ers of fibrous tissues, for when the cells grow down 
into the tissues they act like any other irritant and create a low-grade 
inflammation. This fibrous tissue surrounding the columns of epithelial 
cells extending into the subcutaneous tissues gives rise to the popular 
opinion that the cancer has roots. In some instances the cellular growth 
is very rapid and there is little production of fibrous tissue about the 

CAR CI NO 31 A TA . 97 

cell masses. In this case the tumor is largely cellular. It is then soft 
and called encephaloid cancer. In other cases the tumor-cells pro- 
liferate less rapidly and there is an immense production of fibrous tissue 
about the cell nests, tubules, and columns of cells, when the tumor 
feels, because of the contraction of this fibrous tissue, like a hard nod- 
ular mass. This is called a seirrhns cancer. The blood-vessels of the 
tumor contain thickened walls, so that the wall of the artery is much 
thicker than in the normal tissues, whereas in the sarcoma the vessels 
have no walls, the blood being in actual contact with the tumor-cells. 
The fibrous tissue of the cancer, which is really inflammatory tissue, 
undergoes contraction, as happens in scars. This cuts off the nutrition 
to masses of the tumor, hence the frequency with which the tumor 
breaks down and ulcerates. This ulcerative process often extends into 
small blood-vessels, which accounts for the frequency with which can- 
cer bleeds. The cancer spreads through the lymphatics and the lymph 
spaces and consequently the cells soon spread to the neighbouring 
lymphatic glands, causing enlargements. One of the most pronounced 
symptoms of cancer is cachexia. This cachexia is partly due to local 
ulceration and partly to the dissemination of the growth. The skin 
assumes a sallow, peculiar earthy color. The face is anxious and care- 
worn and the body emaciated. This emaciation continues until the 
strength fails and the patient dies of exhaustion because of the general 
interference in nutrition, pain, mental anxiety, local ulceration, and 

Epithelioma or Squamous-Celled Carcinoma arises from the skin or 
mucous membranes. The cells of this tumor much resemble squamous 
epithelium. The alveolar characteristics of the tumor are not so marked 
as in acinous cancer. 

Location. — Especially at points where the skin and mucous mem- 
branes meet — lips, nose, tongue, scrotum, or in scars, cheek, chronic 
ulcers, etc. In general this variety of cancer consists of solid columns 
of epithelial cells which have pushed down through the basement mem- 
brane and extend into the connective tissues. 

Symptoms. — It usually begins as a warty tubercle which is soon 
converted into an ulcer with indurated, everted, and raised edges. It 
has a hard, warty, and irregular base. The tissues about are inhltrated 
and the neighbouring glands, through which the lymph channels of the 
affected area pass, become enlarged. On mucous surfaces the tumor 
may present a cauliflower excrescence. Sometimes there is a history of 
a crack or fissure of long standing. Unless the epithelioma is removed 
while the disease is local it will recur in the neighbouring 
lymphatic glands or in some distant organ. Frequently cells become 
isolated from the columns which extend into the connective tissues. 
These cells multiply and form masses of cells which are moulded, 
because of pressure, into roundish columns, or they may extend 
as a net-work through the tissues, making it often quite impossible 


to remove all of the cancerous growth. This explains the frequency 
with which the tumor reappears after apparently all of the diseased 
tissue was removed. After removal, if the tumor recurs, it usually grows 
much more rapidly and more seriously affects the general health. The 
pain and ulceration, together with the growth of the tumor, hring about 
exhaustion, from which death is generally the result. 

Glandular Cancer, or Cylindrical-Celled Carcinoma. — This tumor 
is derived from glands and surfaces covered with columnar or 
cylindrical epithelium. It is of slower growth than the other 
varieties. It begins as a warty outgrowth on mucous surfaces. It is 
most common in the rectum, but will occur in other parts of the 
intestinal tract or in the mammary gland. 

Structure. — In structure the tumor consists of irregular tubules 
which are lined by columnar epithelium. These tubules are held 
together by a stroma or connective tissue which is more or less infil- 
trated by certain round-cells. The epithelial cells retain their shape 
more closely than any of the other forms of cancer. In very rapidly 
i growing tumors the alveoli may become entirely filled with cells, when 
under such circumstances the cells are gradually destroyed. They infil- 
trate the surrounding tissues and affect the lymphatic glands and 
become disseminated into the internal organs. The liver is most fre- 
quently affected. With this tumor death occurs from obstruction of 
the bowel and from exudation and hemorrhage, due to the interference 
in the digestive process and to ulceration extending into the vessels. 
The general symptoms are of a malignant tumor. 

Acinous Cancer, or Spherical-Celled Carcinoma. — These occur 
in three varieties, hard, soft, and colloid. The hard variety is 
medium sized, hard and nodular. Later the}' ulcerate and 
become disseminated through the body. Upon microscopic examination 
the alveoli in the older parts of the tumor contain cells undergoing 
fatty degeneration and in many cases the alveoli are shrunken and con- 
tain no cells, the ceils having atrophied. It is around the circumference 
of the tumor where the characteristic microscopical structure is found. 

Location. The usual locations are the breast, pylorus, and rarely in 
other situations. 

The soft acinous cancers were called by the older writers encepha- 
loids because of the resemblance to brain substance. The stroma is 
scanty in amount and does not contract like it does in hard cancer. 
The cells are prone to undergo fatty degeneration. On section they 
appear creamy colored or grayish-white. Frequently the cells may be 
diffluent. It is not unusual that ulceration may take place into the 
blood-vessels, leaving a fungating bleeding mass called fungits hem- 

Location. Glands generally, as the breast, ovary, kidney, bladder, 
liver, testes. Secondary growths in other organs. 



Colloid cancer is a term applied to any form of cancer undergoing 
mucoid or colloid degeneration. The colloid degeneration begins with 
the development of the cancer-cells; later the alveoli become distended 
with colloid material. 

Location. The favorite location of this cancer is in the stomach, 
intestines, and ovary. It may occur in the breast or even in the. throat. 

Differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumors, sar- 
coma, carcinoma, and lupus. 


1. Age. Appear at any age. 

2. Growth. Generally slow. 

Dissemination. Does not infiltrate 
the surrounding tissues nor does 
it disseminate through the lymph 
or blood stream. 

Capsule. Generally encapsulated. 

Adherent. Not adherent to the 
surrounding: tissues. 



Ulceration. Rarely break down 
and ulcerate. 

Retraction. The tissues covering 
the tumor are not drawn and re- 

Lymph glands. Lymphatic glands 
in the neighbourhood are net en- 

Pain. Generally not painful. 

Microscopical appearance. Closely 
resemble the tissues from which 
they grow. 

Metastasis. Never occurs. 

12. Cachexia. No cachexia. Affects 
the body mechanically only. 


1. Age. Appear at any age. 

2. Growth. May be rapid or slow. 

3. Dissemination. Surrounding tis- 
. sues are more or less infiltrated 

and they desseminate by means of 
the blood-vessels. 

4. Capsule. Sometimes encapsulated. 

5. Adherent. Adherent to the sur- 

rounding tissues. 

6. Ulceration. Rare. 

7. Retraction. The tissues over the 
tumor are not so contracted as in 

8. Lymph glands. Not enlarged un- 

less the tumor is ulcerating. 

9. Degeneration. More common than 

in cancer. 


1. Age. Generally appear late in life, 

except sarcoma, which may ap- 
pear at any age. 

2. Growth. Generally rapid, but may 

be slow. 

3. Dissemination. Surrounding tis- 

sues are infiltrated and dissemina- 
tion takes place through the lymph 
spaces and blood channels. 

4. Capsule. Rarely encapsulated. 

5. Adherent. Generally adherent to 

the surrounding tissues, and are 
more or less fixed 

6. Ulceration. Prone to break down 

and ulcerate. 

7. Retraction. The retraction of the 

tissues over the tumor gives it a 
u bacon-rind" appearance. 

8. Lymph glands. Lymphatic glands 

in the neighbourhood are very 
often involved, except in sarcoma. 

9. Pain. Generally painful. 

10. Microscopical appearance. Very 


11. Metastasis. Secondary tumors usu- 

ally occur in situ or in distant 
12. Cachexia. Pronounced cachexia 
and emaciation. Affects the body 


1. Age. Rare before thirty-five. 

2. Growth. Generally rapid. 

3. Dissemination. Infiltrates the sur- 

rounding tissues and dissemina- 
tion takes place by means of the 

4. Capsule. Never encapsulated. 

5. Adherent. Adherent to the sur- 

rounding tissues. 

6. Ulceration. Very common. 

7. Retraction. The tissues overlying 

the tumor have "bacon-rind 1 ' ap- 
pearance. In cancer of the breast 
the nipples are retracted. 

8. Lymph glands. Neighboring lym- 

phatic glands are enlarged. 
9. Degenerations are not common. 

100 \CYSTS. 

10. Origin. Mesoblastic tissues. 10. Origin. Always from epithelial 


11. Blood-vessels. Have no walls. 11. Blood-vessels. Have distinct and 

thickened walls. 

12. Stroma. Stroma lies in between 12. Stroma. Is around the cell masses 

the individual cells. and not between the individual 


13. Metastasis. Distant metastasis not 13. Metastasis. Distant metastasis is 
common. common. 


1. More frequently resembles epi- 8. Never appears like a fungus growth. 

thelioma. 9. Its base is level with the surface. 

2. Does not precede the first evidences 10. Generally not painful. 

of disease-nodules. 11. Cicatrization follows ulceration so 

3. Evidences of tubercular ulcer or that while ulcerating at one point 

diathesis present. it heals at another. 

4. Occurs at more than one point. 12. Hemorrhage is rare. 

5. No thickening around the ulcer. 13. It occurs at any age. 

6. The areas coalesce. 14. The discharge is generally not 

7. Abrupt and irregular borders. Has offensive. 

an "■eaten" appearance. 

Treatment of Tumors. — The principle of the treatment of tumors 
is the removing of mechanical obstructions and irritations which will 
occasion nutritional disturbances. Not all cases may be so cured, but 
many may be. Where the tumor is small, benign, pedunculated, or 
encapsulated and is superficial, it may readily be removed by a minor 
surgical operation, but where the tumor is large and can be reached only 
with considerable risk to the patient's health and life, manipulative 
treatment should be advised. In whatever part of the body the tumor 
is located, lesions will be found affecting the lymphatic stream, venous 
or arterial blood flow, or impinging upon the trunk or roots of the 
nerves of the part. Usually the favorable effect of the treatment will 
be evidenced within a short while. The tumor if hard will become 
softer, and if adherent, more movable. Absorption will gradually take 
place, following the correction of lesions and the removing of obstruc- 
tions to the circulation. Not all tumors can be successfully treated. 
Many cases have been cured even after master minds have declared 
them incurable. This alone should commend the treatment in all cases 
before the knife is recommended. Should the tumor not yield to 
osteopathic treatment and should it manifest any malignant tendencies, 
or should it interfere with the general health, the knife should be 
resorted to and all parts of the tumor removed. 


A cyst is a tumefaction made up of an enclosed sac filled with fluid, 
semi-fluid, or other material. 

Varieties. — 1. Retention. 2. Exudation. 3. Extravasation. 4. 
Dermoid. 5. Hydatid. 

Retention Cysts. — A retention cyst is generally due to the secretions 
of a gland being retained within the tissues, with a consequent 

CYS-TS. 101 

dilation of the tubules or acini of the gland. The wall of the 
cyst is formed of inflammatory or fibrous tissue, while the lining 
of the cyst is generally flattened epithelium. There are several forms 
of retention cysts described, viz., (a) sebaceous cyst, due to the closure 
of the duct of the sebaceous gland, which opens into a hair follicle, and 
a consequent dilatation of the gland tubules because of the retained 
secretion. The cells continue secreting until the cyst attains enor- 
mous size. They are generally semi-fluctuating and movable. They are 
adherent to the skin. They can be distinguished from fatty tumors, 
inasmuch as the tumor will not slip underneath the fingers. These 
tumors may undergo numerous secondary changes. Occasionally when 
the tumor is opened, the contents will be found to be extremely offen- 
sive, or the more liquid portion of the contents may exude and the 
remainder become hardened, or the cyst may become inflamed, causing 
suppuration and ulceration, or a sinus may result. Wounds may heal 
and cysts reappear, or while the sinus still exists, granulation tissue may 
form within the tumor, making the mass resemble an epithelioma. The 
treatment is often surgical. The tumor should be laid open and the 
contents evacuated and the sac scraped out. The wound is allowed to 
heal by granulation. 

(b) Mucous Cysts. — These occur frequently in the mouth, or 
they may be due to the distension of Bartholin's glands at the 
entrance of the vagina. The walls are usually thin and they may 
attain great size. 

Treatment. — Lay the tumor open and cauterize the interior. 

There are other forms of retention cysts, such as those formed by 
the closure of Wharton's duct — ranula, encysted hydrocele and galac- 

Exudation Cysts. — Exudation cysts are produced by the exudation 
of fluids into cavities which have no ducts or outlets. Examples of 
these cysts may be found in the ovary where distension of the Graafian 
follicles may occur, or in the bursae over the olecranon, or about the 
knee, or ganglia which happen in connection with extensor tendons on 
the back of the hands. These will be described under "Diseases of 

Extravasation cysts are produced by the extravasation of blood into 
the closed cavities of the body or into connective tissue spaces. They 
are called hematoceles. These may occur in the pelvis, tunica 
vaginalis, beneath the scalp or following the rupture of an artery within 
the skull. 

Dermoid cysts are of congenital origin and are formed by the inclu- 
sion of a portion of the epiblastic tissues within the mesoblastic. In 
after life these inclusions develop epithelial tissues. There are certain 
of the dermoid cysts which can not be explained in this manner, as 
those containing hair, bone, cartilage, teeth, etc. These are said to be 
produced by the inclusion of blighted ovum in a part of the embryo. 



By others it is said to be due to the development of atrophied fetal 
structures. Dermoid cysts occur in the tunica vaginalis, in the middle 
line of the neck, arising from, the thyro-glossal duct, from the paro- 
varium near the ovary, or they may arise from the ovary or testicle. 
Other forms of congenital cysts may occur in the axilla and scrotum. 
Dermoid cysts are the most common. In these are found all the struc- 
tures forming the true skin and its appendages, such as hair, sebaceous 
glands, teeth, nails, etc. The contents vary, hut consist for the most 
part of secretions of the glands in the cyst wall. 

Fig. 7. 

Method of applying a spiral reverse bandage. 

The treatment of these cysts is most likely surgical, and where possi- 
ble they should be removed. 

Hydatid or Parasitic Cysts are produced by the tenia echinococcus, 
one of the forms of tape-worm or cestoda. The worm normally inhabits 
the intestine of the dog, but it sometimes gets into the intestine of the 
human from uncooked garden vegetables, the parasites having been 
deposited on them from the excreta of the dog. The ova taken into the 
system, hatch out and develop and the embryo makes its way by some 
channel to the liver or to some other organ, where the development of 
the embryo results in the production of a cyst. 

The diagnosis of the cyst varies according to the locality in which 
the cyst is found. 

The treatment is entirely surgical. Puncture of the cyst is sometimes 


attended by urticaria. Peritonitis and general infiltration of the tissues 
will produce death in some cases. Fortunately the disease is rare. 

In general, cysts should be treated on the same principle as tumors. 

After a fair trial of the treatment, if the cyst does not recede, opera- 
tion may be advised. 

Fig. 8. 

The gauntlet bandage for the fingers and hand. 


Bandages are used tc hold splints and dressings in place, to support 
parts, protect injured structures, and assist the return circulation. 
The materials usually used are unbleached muslin, gauze, crinolin, 
flannel, or rubber. Fabrics impregnated with plaster-of-Paris and 
starch paste, are often used as fixed dressings where support and 
immobility must be maintained. To hold surgical dressings in place the 
muslin or crinolin bandages are best. To assist the return circulation, 
a wet flannel or a rubber bandage should be used. A figure-of-8 bandage 



is best and, if possible, should a" ways bo applied. It gives the most 
uniform pressure. The spiral reverse bandage is easy to apply, but is 
not so' satisfactory. In applying the bandage, it should always be 
rolled out. It should be carried, twice directly around the member at the 
beginning to anchor the bandage, after which the figure-of-8 turns may 
be made. Care should be taken to keep the lower edges of the turns of 
the bandage parallel. A part should always be bandaged, if possible, in 
the direction of the return circulation. Each turn of the bandage 
should be drawn equally tight and should cover one-half of the previous 
turn. To do this the bandages should consist of strips of from one to 
nine yards in length and should be rolled up into a single or double 
roller. In bandaging the fingers or thumb, a figure-of-8 bandage is 
used. Successive tarns may be made over the end of the finger, while 
afterwards the bandage is carried around the finger to hold the turns 

Fift. 9. 

Spica bandage of the thumb. 

in position. This same method may be used in amputation stumps. 
For the knee or elbow a figure-of-8 bandage is best. The first turn of 
the bandage is made opposite the joint with succeeding figure-of-8 loops 
above and below. In bandaging a shoulder or thigh, a spica bandage is 
applied. The bandage is begun at the middle of the arm or the thigh 
and. carried upward by figure-of-8 turns. A head bandage is best applied 
by means of a double roller which unrolls in opposite directions. One 
roller is carried around the head as successive turns from before back- 
ward are made by the second roller. The over-and-over turns may be 
made from before backward, or from, side to side. The ends of the 
bandage must be firmly anchored by safety pins. 

The figure-of-8 bandage is also useful in bandaging up an inflamed 
breast. A posterior figure-of-8 bandage is quite serviceable in case of 
fracture of the clavicle. 

Velpeau's Bandage. — A bandage three inches wide and nine yards 
long is required. Pad the axilla on the injured side and place the hand 



on the sound shoulder. The bandage is begun on the scapula of the 
sound side and carried across the back over the injured shoulder, down 
the front and outside of the arm, turning upward toward the axilla to 
the starting point. A second turn is made to fix the bandage. The 
third turn is made circularly around the chest and over the arm on the 

Fig. 10. 

Spica bandage of the shoulder. 

injured side, while the fourth turn is as the first. These turns are 
alternated so as to resemble an ascending spica (see figure). The turns 
of the bandage should be fastened over the arm. In bandaging the foot, 
care should be taken to cover all parts of the member by regular figure- 
of-8 turns. If there is faulty circulation the bandage should be car- 
ried beyond the calf of the leg. Barton's bandage, or a figure-of-8 of 
the lower jaw, is useful in case of fracture of the lower jaw. A crossed 



figure-of-8 bandage is useful for both eyes, while single turns are suf- 
ficient for one eye. 

A many-tailed bandage is made by means of a piece of cloth the 
width of the part to be bandaged and in length more than twice its cir- 

Fig. 11. 

Spica bandage of the groin. 

cumference. The ends of the piece of cloth are torn into strips three 
inches wide, the torn part of the bandage comprising about half its 
length. These opposite strips of the torn ends are then tied together 
around the member to be bandaged. This bandage is suitable for the 
thigh or abdomen. 

The "T" bandage is suitable for the perineum. It consists of a cir- 



cular strip extending around the body and a vertical strip attached 
behind, passing between the thighs and fastened to the circular strip 
in front. 

Fixed Dressing's. 

Starch Paste Dressing 1 . — This bandage is made by means of a many- 
tailed bandage, pasteboard, and starch paste made by cooking a little 
flour or starch into a paste. The strip of pasteboard is smeared on one 
side with the starch paste and then applied to the middle of the many- 

FlG. 12. 

Head bandage applied by means of a double roller. 

tailed bandage. This is then applied to the injured member after it has 
been suitably enveloped with cotton for protection. Several strips of 
pasteboard may be used and they may be placed on all sides of the 
member. If two layers of the pasteboard are used, a bandage of great 
strength may be made. The tails of the bandage are tied around the 
member. The bandage has the advantage that it can be enlarged to 
accommodate swelling. This bandage is preferred by Br. Still. 

Plaster-of-Paris Dressing. — A piece of crinolin four yards long 
should be torn in strips from three to six inches broad, depending upon 
the part of the body upon which the dressing must be applied. If it is 



on the thigh it should be torn in strips six inches wide, but if for the 
lower leg or foot, three or four inches wide may be sufficient. Into this 
erinolin should be rubbed dry powdered plaster-of -Paris, which can 
best be done by heaping the plaster on a table, taking the bandage 
before it is rolled up and with a thin board or table knife, the plaster- 

Fig. 13. 

Figure-of-8 bandage applied to support the breast. 

of-Paris may be pushed along over the bandage, an effort being made 
to scrape from the bandage as much of the plaster-of -Paris as possible. 
As the plaster-of -Paris is scraped off, the bandage is rolled up so that 
when the bandage is entirely rolled up it is thoroughly infiltrated with 
the dry plaster. This may be wrapped in oiled paper and kept ready for 
use. For fracture of the tibia and fibula at least one dozen of such 
bandages are required. Providing the limb has been put in proper posi- 
tion with the bones in apposition, the limb must be enveloped in lamb's 



wool, surgeon's cotton or lint, and a roller bandage applied evenly over 
all. The cotton should be carried higher than the bandage. The 
plaster-of -Paris dressing is now immersed in warm water in which there 
has been a small quantity of common salt dissolved. Powdered alum 
will serve the same purpose, viz., to make the plaster set more quickly. 
When the bandage is thoroughly soaked, it may be applied as an ordinary 

Fig. 14. 

A posterior figure-of-8 bandage. Useful in fracture of clavicle. 

bandage. Three or four layers of the plaster bandage should be applied. 
In case of fracture of the femur, a counter-extending apparatus may 
be applied before the leg is enveloped in cotton-wool. After the dress- 
ing is applied, extension and counter-extension should be kept up until 
the plaster sets, which may be within an hour. If the plaster bandage 
has been applied too tightly and interferes with the return circulation, 
as soon as it sets it may be cut along one side and pulled open so as to 
allow the blood to circulate freely in the limb. On the outside of this, 
a roller bandage may be put on to draw the plaster sufficiently close 



to the limb to maintain immobility. In this condition the plaster 
bandage forms an excellent adjustable splint. The indications that 
the bandage is too tight are signs of obstructed circulation in the 
extremity, together with numbness and great pain. These demand 
immediate attention. The plaster dressing is of especial advantage in 

Fig. 15. 

Velpeau's bandage. 

what is called the ambulatory method of treatment of fractures. It is 
bulky, cumbersome, and many times unclean. 


Anesthesia means insensibility to pain. The word was coined by 
Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes in November, 1846. It may be local, when 
produced b}* applications or injections or sprays of cocain, eucain, 



Fig. 16. 

ethyl chlorid, etc., or general when produced by the inhalations of ether, 
chloroform, nitrous oxid, ethyl chlorid, etc. Before the discovery of 
these drugs, alcohol and opium, together with the application of cold, 
were used for the purpose of deadening the sensibility. Ether was 
first discovered by Dr. Morton, a dentist in Boston, in September, 1846, 
while chloroform was discovered by .Simpson, of Edinburgh, in 1847. 
Ether is the safest of the general anesthetics. The death rate of its 
administration is variously estimated by different observers, from 1 in 
16,542, to 1 in 23,204, while in chloroform the death rate is 1 in 5,860, 
to 1 in 3,258. These proportions are given from more than one-half 
million collected cases. 
More than fort}^ thou- 
sand etherizations have 
been collected without a 
single death reported. 

Ether.— The chief ob- 
jections to its use are its 
irritating qualities and 
inflammability (which 
makes it dangerous to 
use at night), while it 
often produces nausea, 
vomiting, and cerebral 
excitement. In adminis- 
tering an anesthetic it is 
best to have a third per- 
son present, inasmuch 
as curious mental impres- 
sions may be retained by 
the patient after recov- 
ery. In general, the 
heart, lungs, kidneys, 
great vessels, and the 
nervous system should be 
observed before -the anes- 
thetic is given. The patient should have nothing to eat for four hours 
previous. It should be looked to that the patient does not have false 
teeth, a chew of tobacco, or other objects within his mouth. The clothing 
should be loose about the chest. The anesthetic should always be given 
while the patient is in a recumbent position, with the head low. The anes- 
thetist should have a mouth gag, and a pair of forceps handy with which 
to pull out the tongue if necessary. Ether is best administered by 
means of a cone which is made of several thicknesses of newspaper and 
a towel. 

Chloroform is best administered by means of an Esmarch's inhaler, 
or a paper cone, containing within its apex a pledget of gauze, or a 
small handkerchief. The vapor of chloroform is more grateful, the 

Method of bandaging both eyes. 




Fig. 17. 

patient goes under the anesthetic easier and quicker and if is less irri- 
tating. It should be given when an anesthetic is required in children 
under ten years of age, or in elderly people over sixty who have no 
heart disease. It should he given in kidney diseases, diabetes, and in 
bronchial inn animations. It is used in labor because of its quick action. 
In operations on the mouth and nose, or in operations for cleft palate, 
it is best. Ether should be used in all other cases. In the administra- 
tion of ether, the cone should be so held over the patient's face that 
the proportion of admixture of gas and air will be five per cent, of the 
air to ninety-five per cent, of the vapor, while in chloroform just the 
opposite condition is desired — from five to ten per cent, of the vapor of 
chloroform should be mixed with ninety-five to ninety per cent of air. 
Operable anesthesia is reached just after the conjunctival retlex has 

been paralyzed, and before stertor- 
ous breathing occurs. The pupils 
should always be Watched. Sudden 
dilatation of the pupil is grave. It 
is more essential to watch the respi- 
rations than the circulation. Because 
of the irritating qualities of the an- 
esthetic, the patient may hold his 
breath and thus deceive the anes- 
thetist. Especially is this true in the 
second stage of anesthesia, which is 
accompanied by excitement and 
muscular rigidity. It is essential 
that the drug should not be pushed 
under such circumstances, especial- 
ly if the patient is strong and vig- 
orous. During the early stage of ex- 
citement, the patient may shout, 
sing, fight, and swear, and it is necessary to give the drug easily and 
carefully, but surely, paying attention strictly to the condition of the 
patient. By touching the conjunctiva it will be observed that the 
reflex has disappeared. The patient is then ready for operation. Just 
enough of the drug should be given to keep the patient in this condi- 
tion. Some operators give chloroform first, and after complete anes- 
thesia ether is given, inasmuch as it stimulates the circulation. The 
face and neck are usually warm, moist, and flushed during the admin- 
istration of ether. Not so with chloroform. Accidents may happen 
during the administration of anesthetics, the first and most important 
of which is the arrest of respiration. The tongue should at once be 
pulled out of the mouth, the drug removed, and the head fully extended 
in order to raise the epiglottis. At this same time the patient shou'd 
be everted and artificial respiration performed by Sylvester's method. 
Laborde's method of rythmical traction of the tongue is of advantage. 
The tongue should be drawn out of the mouth sixteen times per minute, 

The towel and paper cone suitable for ad- 
ministering ether or chloroform. 


while in Sylvester's method, the manipulation should be done with the 
same frequency. The patient must be placed with the head low, while 
the flexed arms are compressed against the chest to expel the air, then 
extended above the patient's head to raise the ribs. These alternate 
motions must he done so as to simulate respiration. Should the cir- 
culation fail, the patient should immediately be suspended by his feet 
while the vasomotors are stimulated. 


The reparative process is, in many respects, similar to the inflam- 
matory process. Having removed the irritant from the tissues, as will, 
more than likely, sooner or later occur in the history of an inflammation, 
the return of the tissues to the normal condition, or as nearly the 
normal as is possible, is termed the reparative process. It has been 
falsely stated by some writers that it is a process taking place in aseptic 
inflammation. Obviously such conditions never exist about the human 
body. The reparative process differs according to the nature of 
the wound, the tissues involved, and the nature of the irritant in ques- 
tion. These differences are minor. Where pus formation occurs, the 
reparative process is greatly modified and thwarted because the tissues 
must not only repair the injury, but must get rid of the irritant (micro- 
organism). In reference to wounds the reparative process has been 
divided into healing by first intention, by second intention, and by third 

Healing by First Intention. — In healing by first intention, the repar- 
ative process in the open wound begins just as soon as the tissues have 
recovered from the injury and. the hemorrhage has been arrested and 
the cells are again receiving their proper quota of nutritious materials. 
If the edges of the wound are coaptated and the suppurative process is 
not set up, the inflammation will be slight and just sufficient to bring 
about adhesion of the tissues. During the first day or two, there will 
be a little redness extending slightly into the surrounding tissues and 
there will perhaps be a little swelling and a slight elevation of the local 
temperature, but the wound will be devoid of pain and only slightly 
tender to pressure. An effort to pull apart the edges of the wound 
will show that adhesion has occurred and in a few days the union is 
formed. Along the line of injury there will be a number of new cells 
formed which assist in welding together the tissues. It is hardly likely 
that in any case there is absolute adjustment of the tissues, as fascia 
to fascia, muscle to muscle, etc., therefore, even in healing by first inten- 
tion, there would be some need for the formation of new tissue, but as 
before mentioned, this new formation is of the slightest amount possi- 
ble. The tissue changes occurring in healing by first intention are 
worthy of note. Immediately in the surrounding area there is a dilata- 
tion of the vessels, stasis occurs, proliferation of the connective-tissue 
cells and the escape of the leukocytes and serum from the capillaries. 


They infiltrate the surrounding tissues and fill up the lymph spaces. 
Proliferation of the connective-tissue cells results in the formation of 
new round cells which crowd into the mass of coagulated fibrin which 
fills up the slight spaces between the edges of the injured tissues, so that 
in a few days the entire wound is filled with new cells (granulation-tissue 
cells). The inflammation extends but a short distance back from the 
wound. The coagulated lymph, blood, and serum, which first filled up 
the wound and which later have become invaded by the granulation- 
tissue cells, now become absorbed. The inflammatory reaction becomes 
less and finally ceases, so that if in a few days a section of the part be 
made, it will be found that a layer of small round cells unites the 
edges of the wound. This mass of small round cells is permeated by 
capillaries which have stretched across the wound and serve the pur- 
pose of furnishing the new cells with nutrition. These capillary loops 
are thrown out coincident with the proliferation of the resident con- 
nective-tissue cells. This vascularization of the tissues is one of the 
characteristic parts of the process and furnishes the cause for the color 
of the scar immediately after the wound has healed. These round-cells 
which form the scar now become differentiated into fibrillar connective 
tissue which, like other fibrous connective tissue, contracts. The cells, 
at first elongated and spindle shaped, become wavy. This contraction 
of the scar squeezes the blood out of the capillary loops, when the scar 
is changed from a pink color to white. The fibrous tissue formed is 
generally in excess of the required amount, but absorption of the excess 
of new formation takes place and in a few months or years after, the 
scar will depreciate materially, or in some cases apparently disappear. 
After union takes place, if the wound be an incised one, only a faint 
streak remains to mark its site, and as time goes on this line changes, 
at first pink, later becoming white and after awhile it may entirely dis- 
appear so far as external appearances are concerned. There are few or 
no constitutional 83> r mptoms following or attending the repair of wounds 
in this manner. This is the condition which should be aimed at by 
every physician in the treatment of wounds. Considering that large 
bodies, such as bullets, splinters, thorns, or the penetrating object 
which produced the wound, have been removed, the only other agency, 
outside of constitutional defects or irregularities of circulation, etc., 
which would prevent the union by first intention, is the presence of 
micro-organisms. Other things being equal, the micro-organisms are 
the objects which prevent union by first intention, or in other words, 
cause immoderate inflammation or produce suppuration, therefore, 
before the wound is coaptated it must be rendered as nearly aseptic as 
possible. There are cases where coaptation of the wound has never 
been obtained and the wound having become filled with blood, heals 
up. This is said to be one special form of healing by first intention, 
or healing by blood clot. There is another method which properly 
belongs to healing by first intention— it is where, after a slight Avound, a 
scab is formed and without suppuration the healing takes place under- 


neath the scab. This is properly healing by first intention without any 
destruction of the tissues. 

The conditions preventing union by first intention may be sum- 
marized as follows: — - 

1. Extensive contusion and destruction of the tissues. 

2. Presence of septic material or foreign bodies. 

3. Diminished vitality of the tissues because of debility or the use 
of alcohol, or the presence of diabetes, bad hygiene, etc. 

4. The parts not having been kept at rest. 

5. Insufficient drainage. 

All of these conditions operate to permit of infection, and if 
infection occurs, the granulation tissues will be converted into pus, 
when healing by second intention will be necessary 

Healing by Second Intention. — In healing by second intention, either 
coaptation of the wound has not taken place or infection has occurred 
through the operation of some of the above named conditions. If pus 
forms because of insufficient drainage, sepsis, etc., after coaptation of 
the wound, there may be a reaction quite similar to septic intoxication. 
Many times this will occur and has led to the popular belief that 
wounds may heal too quickly. If a wound is completely healed, under 
no circumstances may the repair take place too quickly, but the trouble 
is, because of the vascularity of the deeper layers of the true skin, it 
becomes glued together before the connective tissues beneath 
heal. The presence of foreign bodies, or the effusion of fluids which 
later become septic, cause pus formation. The tissues become 
distended and the wound opens and discharges pus. If the 
wound is large and the pus formation great, there may be a severe 
systemic reaction. After this change has taken place, the wound must 
then heal by second intention. If there has been extensive destruction 
of tissue or a mass of the tissue dies because of the injury, as soon as 
the hemorrhage is arrested and the wound has been cleansed, the con- 
nective-tissue cells begin to proliferate. The area becomes very vas- 
cular because of the dilatation and the formation of new vessels. The 
round cells, the source of which is the resident connective-tissue cells, 
increase and multiply and fill up the wound from the bottom. Capil- 
lary loops are formed which extend out into these layers of granulation 
tissue which are formed one above the other, extending from the bot- 
tom of the wound towards the top. When the wound is filled, the sur- 
face epithelium creeps out over the top from the surrounding epi- 
thelium. This epithelium is usually dwarfed, most likely because of 
an insufficient blood supply, so that the epithelial covering of a scar 
is not like that over the surrounding healthy tissues. After healing 
has taken place the scar, which is now red and elevated, grows smaller 
because of contraction. This cicatricial contraction is due to the differ- 
entiation of the round cells, which become spindle-shaped and long, and 


afterwards contract into wavy bundles. Where the scar is extensive, this 
cicatricial contraction may produce great deformity, often rendering 
a member useless. In wounds through the cheek, cicatricial con- 
traction and scar formation, if there is not good coaptation of the 
wound, may prevent the person from opening the mouth. Cicatricial 
contraction may bind down the tendons of the hand so as to render it 
useless. In burns about the face, the cicatricial contraction may distort 
the features. Should it happen that there is much destruction of the 
tissues, healing will not take place until all of the destroyed tissues are 
removed. These are removed by process of ulceration and gangrene. 

Healing by Third Intention. — Should it happen that the wound is 
so extensive that it may not be coaptated, healing by second intention 
will continue and after a time the wound will become comparatively 
small. It may then be possible to coaptate the edges. Considering that 
the surface of the wound has been rendered aseptic, if the edges of the 
wound are brought together and held in apposition by some means, 
union of the two granulating surfaces will take place readily and 
quickly. This is healing by third intention. 

Repair of Special Tissues. 

Epithelium. — The repair of epithelium is generally complete. The 
new cells are derived from the epithelium at the margins of the injury 
by a process of division and subdivision, the cells spreading out over the 
basement membrane, but if the injury extends into the subepithelial 
tissues, a scar will be formed. 

Skin. — Eepair of the skin is accomplished by scar formation. 
Fibrous tissues take the place of the other structures. No nerves are 
found in the scar. After a time even the blood-vessels disappear. Hair, 
sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and the other appendages of the skin 
are not reformed. The rete Malphigii is not reformed, which likely 
accounts for the fact that the epithelium over the scar in the skin is 
imperfect. Inasmuch as a scar contains a poor epithelial covering, few 
vessels, few or no lymphatics, and no nerves, it is liable to injury. 

Fascia and Tendons. — The repair of fascia means practically regen- 
eration, inasmuch as it consists almost entirely of fibrous tissue. The 
repair of tendons is not quite so complete, the scar always remains in 
evidence, but a scar formation may fill up a considerable gap between 
the divided ends of the tendons, producing an excellent result, even 
though the tendon is somewhat defective. 

Muscle. — Muscular tissue is only repaired by means of scar tissue 
derived from the endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium, or from 
the endothelial tissue elements. Eegeneration of the muscles may fol- 
low to a limited extent, but as a general rule, no highly organized tis- 
sues, such as muscle, will regenerate. It is possible where there is 
absolute coaptation of muscle fibres, that union by adhesion will take 


place. According to some writers, severed ends of muscle fibres die and 
the' ends of the damaged muscle cells break up into spindle-shaped 
fragments, which undergo fatty degeneration and totally disappear by 
the twenty-first day. The disappearing fibril is then replaced by a bun- 
dle of longitudinally striated fibres, which are differentiated from the 
muscle nuclei. The growth of the muscle fibre into the granulation 
tissue and the disappearance of the destroyed muscle tissue, begin about 
the sixth day. The outgrowths of muscle may bifurcate and terminate 
in club-shaped extremities. The longitudinal striations may appear 
as early as the second week. The new muscle filaments which are 
formed, should this occur, interlace and extend in various directions. 
The interlacing of the fibres from the opposite side of the wound con- 
tinues until the muscle is made thoroughly strong, when the interlacing 
fibres are gradually absorbed and the muscle seems to return to the 
normal condition. 

Blood- Vessels. — The repair of blood-vessels frequently depends upon 
the organization of thrombi. A wound of an artery may heal by the 
formation of cicatricial or scar tissue. More or less arrest of the blood 
current is necessary for this to take place. If a thrombus forms it may 
undergo secondary changes. Capillaries are developed by the sprouting 
out of the endothelial cells. These outgrowths become united with 
other outgrowths, forming loops. The cells of these loops become hol- 
lowed out, in some manner, forming capillary loops. 

Nerves. — Under proper circumstances the repair of nerves (nerve 
fibres) is complete. The immediate union of nerve fibres with the 
restoration of their power is said to have occurred clinically, but as 
yet has never been done experimentally. When nerve cells are destroyed, 
they are not reproduced, but when the fibre is destroyed, it may be 
regenerated or reproduced. When the fibre is cut off, the whole distal 
end of the nerve dies and degeneration of the proximal end takes place 
back to the first node of Ranvier. Regeneration of the nerve then 
takes place by the outgrowth of the proximal extremity. Zeigler 
maintains that the distal segment takes an active part in the regenera- 
tion of the nerve. The process which most likely takes, place is as fol- 
lows : In four or five days after section, the myelin sheath becomes seg- 
mented and the axis cylinder divides up into fragments in the distal 
portion of the nerve. As early as the seventh day, active proliferation 
begins in the neurolemma with migration of the newly formed cells, 
several occupying one internode. During the following week the 
myelin sheath and fragmented axis cylinder become absorbed and are 
completely removed by the fourteenth day. The nuclei in the inter- 
nodes then acquire an investment of protoplasm. This process con- 
tinues until a single-celled protoplasm fibre with imbedded nuclei is 
formed. It sometimes happens that more than one sheath and more 
than one protoplasmic fibre may occupy the old sheath. The fibre now 
grows down through the newly formed sheath and the function begins 

118 WOUNDS. 

to return by the twenty-first day and is complete in eighty days. These 
are the results of experiments upon dogs under favorable circum- 

Bone. — The repair of bone takes place in the same manner as in 
soft tissues. Ossification follows in the soft callus, or in other words, 
the granulation tissue is converted into bone in much the same manner 
as bone is formed in cartilage or in membrane. The union may be suf- 
ficiently complete under very favorable circumstances, that it would be 
difficult to determine the point at which the fracture occurred. 


Definition. — A wound is a solution of the continuity of the living 
tissues. In general, wounds may be divided into two great classes, 
open and closed. Open wounds are those in which there has been a 
solution of the continuity of the surface or the skin is broken. Wounds 
vary according to the instruments which produce them, the tissues 
affected, and the amount of force used. A slight force may produce 
an extremely severe wound in some tissues, while in others the effects 
would be but slight. The amount of damage inflicted by an object is 
by no means apparent by the slight wound at the surface, but on the 
other hand, the gravity of the wound will depend largely upon the 
nature and extent of the wound and the tissues involved. 

Effect. — The effects of wounds are (A) Local and (B) General. The 
local effects are (1) pain, (2) hemorrhage, (3) retraction of the edges 
of the wound, and (4) more or less interference in function. 

Pain, Retraction of Edges, etc. — The pain occasioned by a wound 
will depend upon the nature and location of the wound. In contused 
wounds, the bruising of the tissues will destroy the sensibility. More 
or less contusion attends a gunshot wound, and in moments of excite- 
ment, persons may not discover that they have been injured, unless a 
nerve trunk or some other vital structure has been injured. The 
pain may be quite severe, due to irritation of the peripheral nerves, 
or it may subsequently become more severe, due to secondary changes 
taking place in the wound, e. g., sepsis. Inflammatory changes will 
cause pressure on the terminal nerves. Pain at first acute will perhaps 
be converted into a dull ache, and if severe inflammation follows, the 
pain may become intense. Sometimes retraction of the edges of the 
wound will be very great, especially if muscular tissue has been severed. 
If the wound is directed across the cutaneous muscular fibres, instead 
of parallel to them, the retraction will be much greater. The interfer- 
ence in function will depend upon the extent of the injury and the 
structures involved. 

The General Effects of wounds are (1) shock, and (2) hemorrhage. 

SHOCK. 119 


Shock constitutes the systemic eifect of severe injury in which vaso- 
motion and inhibition are profoundly disturbed. 

Cause. — It is produced by the profound effects of afferent impulses 
on the centers. There is a marked fall of blood pressure, due to tem- 
porary paralysis of the splanchnic area. This results in the engorge- 
ment of the abdominal viscera and consequent anemia of the nerve cen- 
ters. Where it is suddenly fatal, it is perhaps due to the effect of severe 
impressions directly on the centers or to the effect on certain nerves, 
such as the pneumogastric. Death is said to result in such cases from 
inhibition. Shock is more disastrous in old people and in the debili- 
tated or in victims of heart disease, diabetes, or alcoholism. Injury to 
the viscera, or even simple exposure of the intestines to the air, as in 
the opening of the peritoneal cavity, very often occasions great shock. 
Operations on the urethra or injury to the testicle or ovary or uterus 
are attended with great shock. Burns over considerable areas, even 
though it is but an injury of the epithelium, may cause fatal shock. 
Especially is this true where it involves the trunk. Irritant poisons or 
profound mental emotions may superinduce fatal shock. Prolonged 
anesthesia or the removal of a tumor or a considerable quantity of fluid 
from the abdominal cavity may bring about considerable shock. The 
constant abstraction of the body heat may occasion great shock. Hem- 
orrhage will cause shock according to its severity. 

Symptoms. — The onset of shock is sudden and is generally easily 
recognized. It may be confounded with hemorrhage. The symptoms 
may be thus summarized : 

Mental. — The person may be conscious or semiconscious, depending 
upon the severity of the shock or upon its prolongation. 

Skin. — The person is blue, the lips are blanched, and the skin is 
generally covered with a cold, clammy sweat. The extremities are 
especially cold. 

Circulation. — The heart is quick, pulse feeble and fluttering. Very 
often the pulse can not be detected in the extremities. It may not be 
appreciable in the radials. 

Temperature. — The temperature is generally subnormal. 

Eyes. — The eyes are half-closed, lusterless, and glazed. The pupils 
are dilated and react slightly to light. 

Respiration. — The respiration is shallow, quiet, and slow and may 
be of the Cheyne-Stokes character. 

Muscular System. — The muscles are usually relaxed. There may 
be more or less muscular tremor. The sphincters yield and there may 
be involuntary actions of the bowels and bladder. There may be 
nausea and vomiting. In severe forms of shock, the urine may be sup- 
pressed and the patient subsequently die of uremia. The symptoms 

120 SHOCK. 

may come on with such sudden onset that the patient will die of syn- 
cope, .or if the shock is prolonged, the patient will go into a semicon- 
scious or delirious state, followed by collapse. Keaction may be estab- 
lished. This will be attended by the color returning, the skin becoming 
hot, face flushed, and the temperature rising to normal, or perhaps 
slightly elevated. The bowels will be confined, the urine scanty and 
high-colored and the patient will feel feverish. The pulse becomes full 
and strong. The secretions will be established slowly. 

Treatment. — The treatment of shock is to first remove 
the cause. If it is hemorrhage, this should be at once 
arrested. If it is due to an anesthetic, it should be with- 
drawn and the patient given plenty of fresh air. If it is 
due to exposure the person should be protected. Often in cases of 
operation the shock may be brought about partly by exposure of the 
patient, the surface of the body becoming chilled. If the shock is due 
to the presence of a dead limb, which may sometimes occur, the limb 
should be amputated. If due to the presence of a fracture or disloca- 
tion, this should be reduced and the member put in an eas}^ position as 
soon as possible. Never administer morphine in case of shock, even if 
the shock is largely brought about by pain. Bandage the limbs with 
hot flannels; especially should this be done if the shock is brought 
about by hemorrhage. Wrap the patient in hot blankets. Hot water 
bottles should be applied over the heart and generally about the body. 
If the shock is severe, hot fluids, such as hot coffee, etc., may be given. 
Artificial respiration should be kept up. The head should be lowered 
to allow the blood to get to the centers. Enemata of hot normal saline 
solutions may be given. The solutions should be heated to 110 
degrees F. 

Osteopathic Measures. — It is of the greatest importance that a good 
circulation be secured to the nerve centers in the medulla and brain. 
This can be done by stimulating the superior cervical ganglion. The 
vasomotors to the general body should be stimulated so as to equalize 
the general circulation. The heart itself, if weak, will require stimula- 
tion. This can be successfully done by manipulation in the upper 
dorsal and upper cervical regions. Raising the ribs — especially the upper 
ribs on the left side — will be of service. 

Prevention of Shock. — Shock may be prevented by protecting the 
patient, seeing that he is properly covered and the surface of the body 
not too much exposed. Prolonged operations are sometimes the source 
of shock, hence it is a great and important factor. Operations should 
be clone rapidly. Do not allow purging of the patient previous to under- 
going an operation. In shock, hot, strong, black coffee will be found 
useful. It is perhaps of advantage before the operation. Where the 
shock is from pain, relief may be obtained by pressure upon the 
nerve involved. In case of injury to the eye, or at a point where it is 
impossible to reach the injured nerve, morphine may be given hypo- 


dermically or opium administered per os. However, there are but few 
instances where such remedies are necessary. Osteopathic methods are 
sufficient in almost all cases. 


Hemorrhage is frequently spoken of as (1) arterial, (2) venous, (3) 
capillary, (4) parenchymatous, (5) interstitial, and (G) internal. 

By Arterial Hemorrhage is meant bleeding from an artery. This 
can usually be told by the bright red color of the blood and the pulsa- 
tion or irregularity of the stream, the blood escaping in jets. 

In Venous Hemorrhage the blood, while flowing rapidly, is a con- 
tinuous stream and is blue or purplish-red in color. 

In Capillary Hemorrhage the blood oozes from the tissues and seems 
to come from all points in the wound and not from any distinct local- 
ity. There are conditions, though, in which venous and arterial hem- 
orrhage can not be distinguished. In case of prolonged anesthesia, the 
blood is generally purplish, or if the blood has flowed some little 
distance and is directly exposed to the air, it ma}' become oxygenated 
and very bright red, even though it has come from a vein. Where 
bleeding takes place from cavernous tissues or tissue spaces, such as 
occurs in the corpora cavernosa or from the spleen, it is called 
parenchymatous hemorrhage. Where the hemorrhage takes place in the 
tissues of a limb between the muscles and along the fascia, it is called 
interstitial hemorrhage. This interstitial hemorrhage may be sufficiently 
severe to cause a large puffy tumor and to so press upon the blood- 
vessels of a limb as to obstruct the circulation below. 

Internal Hemorrhage is a condition where there is bleeding into one 
of the large cavities of the body, as the peritoneal or pleural cavity. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of hemorrhage are both local and gen- 
eral. The local effects are the presence of large quantities of blood. 
When it occurs in the subcutaneous tissues it forms a puffy tumor, or in 
a cavity of the body an evidence of fluid. The extravasation of blood 
takes place along the tendon and muscle-sheaths, or underneath planes 
of fascia, and after a time causes considerable discoloration of the tis- 
sues. The general effects of hemorrhage are the following: If the 
hemorrhage is rapid, death may follow from syncope. If it is not so rapid, 
the pulse will be found weak, at first rapid and then slow and fluttering. 
The skin becomes covered with a clammy sweat and it may often have 
a greenish tinge. The face becomes pale and the lips blanched. The 
patient will often complain of vertigo and the eyes will have a fixed and 
glassy stare and the pupils are dilated. In less severe cases one of the 
first symptoms is defective sight. The patient complains of objects mov- 
ing in the room and of everything suddenly turning black, or there may 
he little objects dancing before the eyes (muscae volitantes). The hear- 


ing will be defective and the patient may complain of tinnitus aurium. 
The more severe the hemorrhage, the harder the hearing of the patient. 
Thirst is inordinate and it is not relieved by frequent draughts of 
water. The patient is restless and sometimes there is muscular tremor. 
Especially is this true if there is considerable blood lost. Convulsions 
generally precede death. Vomiting and regurgitation of the contents 
of the stomach are not uncommon. Where the hemorrhage is severe 
and rapid, dyspnea is a marked symptom and the patient ofttimes gasps 
for air and clutches his chest. A loss of one-half the blood of the body 
is usually fatal. This amount will vary according to the individual. 
It is said from four to six pounds is fatal. Ofttimes in cases of con- 
cealed hemorrhage, the first evidence may be yawning. The patient 
complains of a close feeling — not sufficient air and of thirst. An exam- 
ination should at once be made to determine if there is hemorrhage. 

General Treatment of Primary Hemorrhage. 

Position. — To prevent syncope and collapse from hemorrhage, it is 
essential to keep the head low and the centers supplied with blood, 
hence the affected part should be elevated and the head lowered. In 
case of uterine hemorrhage, or hemorrhage from the bowels in typhoid 
fever and in similar conditions, the foot of the bed should be elevated 
six inches and the pillows taken from under the head of the patient 
and absolute quiet enjoined. 

Bandaging. — The limbs should be closely bandaged with hot flannel 
bandages. This is of the greatest value in that it renders the circula- 
tory system smaller in size until the quantity of the blood may be 

Increase of Blood to the Medulla and Other Manipulative Measures. 

Manipulation in case of hemorrhage should not be directed toward 
increasing the heart's action, since it may cause a greater loss of blood. 
The blood flow to the nerve centers may be increased by securing 
dilation of the carotids and vertebrals and their branches. This can 
be accomplished by stimulating the vasomotors in the neck. Any manip- 
ulation should be gentle and not sufficient to disturb the patient. 

Heat should be applied to the body by means of hot blankets and hot 
water bottles. This should be kept up to relieve the shock incident to 
the hemorrhage and to restore the heat which the loss of blood has 
taken away. 

Hot Saline Enemata are of the greatest advantage. In some cases 
intravenous injections of hot saline solutions are used. This is unneces- 
sary if the enemata are used sufficiently early. A quart of normal salt 
solution should be allowed to run into the bowel and must be retained. 
If it is voided by the patient, more should be introduced by means of 
a fountain syringe. 


-Diet. — The subsequent effects of hemorrhage may be best treated 
by the administration of highly concentrated and digestible foods. 
Give water, beef broth or beef juice, eggs, milk, and such other nourish- 
ment in small quantities, frequently repeated. 

Methods of Arresting Hemorrhage. 

Nature's Method. — .Nature's method of arresting hemorrhage is to 
bring about a lowering of the blood pressure. This is accomplished 
by dilating the blood-vessels in the splanchnic area so that the blood 
pressure is markedly lowered in the bleeding artery. Then the flow of 
blood from the artery becomes less rapid. Furthermore, the inner coat 
of the artery is made up of elastic tissue and when this is torn or injured 
it has the property of contracting and curling np. As it contracts it 
more or less obstructs the lumen of the vessel and furnishes numerous 
points which are favorable to the coagulation of the blood. As the 
blood flows more slowly and as it is brought in contact with the atmos- 
phere, the lumen of the vessel being reduced, the end of the artery 
may become plugged by a clot. This clot will form in the vessel 
extending back to where the first branch is given off. In this way nature 
endeavors to arrest the hemorrhage. It is not unusual that the hem- 
orrhage may become arrested, and then by means of the contractions 
of muscles or movements, these clots may become disturbed. With the 
rise of blood pressure, as the heart becomes stronger, these plugs are 
forced out of the ends of the arteries and a subsequent hemorrhage 
occurs. Kepeated hemorrhage of this kind may continue until the 
patient dies, so that it is necessary to enjoin the strictest quietude 
where the methods are not at hand to stop the hemorrhage and we 
must rely upon nature's effort. Where hemorrhage takes place into a 
cavity, such as the pleural cavity, it will continue until the pressure 
within the cavity is equal to that within the vessels. This, it can be 
readily seen, would require a considerable amount of blood. There are 
two chief factors which have to do with the formation of clots within 
the vessels in the operation of nature's method for the control of the 
bleeding vessels. They are (1) enfeeblement of the heart and (2) the 
absorption of the watery fluids from the tissues. These seem to assist 
the coagulation process. Should the clot remain within the artery, it 
will most likely undergo reorganization and the artery will become 
permanently plugged. Coagulation of the blood in the wound and 
around the sheath of the artery, and its subsequent contraction, pre- 
vent the artery from dilating, consequently the clot is not readily dis- 
lodged. The internal clot, because of its adherence to the vessel wall, 
prevents the escape of blood. Leukoc}d;es migrate from the clot. Pro- 
liferation of the connective-tissue cells occurs and the clot becomes 
organized. After a short time inflammatory exudates occupy the place 
of the clot until finally it becomes changed into granulation tissue and 
then into fibrous tissue, forming a hard, fibrous plug. This description 


of the method of arresting hemorrhage applies to injury of smalJ 
arteries. When an artery is punctured or when the aorta or one of the 
larger vessels is injured, this process may not take place. The hem- 
orrhage is likely to be fatal. If the artery is divided in its course, the 
distal end heals in the manner described-. The proximal end will heal 
in this manner, providing the conditions are favorable and the artery 
is not too large, so that hemorrhage will destroy life. 

The methods employed by the older surgeons in the treatment of 
hemorrhage were in some cases terribly barbarous, as, for instance, 
in the amputation of a limb, a red hot knife was used. It was the com- 
mon practice, until the days of Ambrose Pare, to pour boiling oil over 
an amputation stump to check the hemorrhage. Sometimes the stump, 
after amputation, was immersed in boiling pitch, but after nature's 
method of arresting hemorrhage became better understood, the methods 
of the surgeons were made to comply with and to imitate it. Nature's 
method depends upon these conditions: — The fall of the blood pressure, 
the contraction of the arterioles brought about by the action of the 
muscular coat, the curling up of the internal coat with the terminal 
plugging of the vessel, together with the increase of the coagulability 
of the blood. This increase of the coagulability, as before mentioned, 
is brought about by the slowing of the blood and the increase of its 
watery elements and by being brought in contact with the air. 

Surgical Methods. — (A) Temporary. The temporary methods of 
controlling hemorrhage are (1) direct pressure on the bleeding artery, 
which can be at once accomplished by placing the thumb or finger over 
the bleeding point and holding it, or pressure may be made upon the 
bleeding point by means of surgical dressings and a suitably applied 
bandage. (2) Pressure between the bleeding point and the heart, which 
may be accomplished in the following ways: — digital pressure, forced 
flexion, and the tourniquet. The femoral artery may be compressed 
where it passes underneath Poupart's ligament.- The dorsalis pedis 
artery may be compressed on top of the foot. The popliteal artery 
may be compressed by forced flexion. The posterior tibial artery may 
be compressed above the internal malleolus. In severe hemorrhage 
from the palmar arch, the brachial artery may be compressed at the 
insertion of the coraco-brachialis muscle. The axillary artery may be 
compressed by pressing it against the head of the humerus. The sub- 
clavian artery may be compressed where it comes over the first rib. 
The temporal artery may be compressed anywhere upon the side of the 
face and head. The occipital artery may be compressed as it passes 
up behind the ear. In this manner hemorrhage can be arrested until 
other means can be used. Where a limb is torn and mangled and there 
are numerous arteries injured, a tourniquet may be necessary. This 
can be applied by taking a handkerchief or piece of cloth and tying it 
loosely around the limb, then inserting a stick and twisting it. The 
knot in the cloth should be placed over the leading vessel. The tourni- 


quet may be twisted sufficiently tight to arrest the hemorrhage. It 
must not be twisted sufficiently tight as to entirely cut off the circula- 
tion, or gangrene of the stump will take place, providing the tourniquet 
is allowed to remain for any length of time. Even a few hours may be 
fatal to the tissue beyond the point of compression. Morton's elastic 
bandage or an elastic tourniquet is often very valuable where it is at 

(B) Permanent methods. The permanent surgical methods of con- 
trolling hemorrhage are the following: — (1) Cold, (2) Heat, (3) Pressure, 
(4) Ligature, (5) Torsion, (6) Acupressure, (7) Forcipressure, (8) 
Cautery, and (9) Styptics. 

Cold may be applied in the form of a cold water coil or ice-pack, 
preferably in the form of ice. It seems to cause the muscular coat of 
the artery to contract and drives the blood out of the part. Severe 
cold favors coagulation of the blood in the smaller vessels. Ice-pack 
to the right iliac fossa is of advantage in hemorrhage in typhoid fever. 
Ice applied directly to the bleeding surface is of benefit. 

Heat. — In the control of venous and capillary hemorrhage, heat is 
the most valuable agent, next to ligature, that we have. Water should 
be used as hot as can be borne. The water should be at least 120 degrees 
F. and in man} r instances water of greater heat is of great advantage. 
The best method of application is fry sponges wrung from hot water 
and applied to the bleeding surface. This causes the con- 
traction of the arterioles and coagulation of the blood in the mouths 
of the •vessels. By rapid and constant changing of the sponges, together 
with the local pressure, hemorrhage may be quickly staunched. The 
success of the method depends upon its rigid application. 

Pressure has been mentioned as one of the temporary methods of 
controlling hemorrhage. It likewise can be considered as one of the 
permanent methods. In injuries where the arteries may be compressed 
between the dressing and bone, as in wounds of the temporal or occipital 
artery, a mass of gauze and cotton may be placed over the artery and 
a tight bandage placed about the head. Here pressure is made directly 
upon the artery by the bandage which is sufficient to control the hem- 
orrhage and yet will not interfere with the nutrition of the tissues and 
the healing of the wound. Pressure can be applied in a similar manner, 
by a tight bandage, to stumps. Care should be used in the application 
of the bandage, not to interfere with the return circulation. In hem- 
orrhage from a varicose ulcer or injury to an artery or vein of the 
lower leg, the part may be bandaged snugly from below up. The 
bandage may be allowed to remain until nature completes the work by 
causing coagulation in the mouths of the vessels, thereby arresting the 
hemorrhage. In case of hemorrhage from the uterus, tamponing the 
vagina is a valuable method. In hemorrhage from the nose, tamponing 
the posterior and anterior nares is of the utmost value and many times 
will save life when all other efforts are futile. The posterior nares 


may be best tamponed in the following manner: — Take a small rubber 
catheter and tie to it a string several feet in length. The catheter may 
then be pushed back through the nose until it enters the pharynx, 
where it may be grasped with forceps and pulled through the mouth. 
We now have a string coming out of the mouth and nose. A pledget 
of cotton of sufficient size, which when compressed will be about as 
large as the patient's thumb, should be used. This is tied to the string 
coming out of the mouth, when by means of the string coming out of 
the anterior nares, the cotton may be pulled back up into the posterior 
nares. This will successfully cut off the hemorrhage in that direction. 
The anterior nares may be readily plugged by inserting cotton. The 
plug in the posterior nares may be allowed to remain thirty-six hours 
or longer, or untii the physician is sure that the mouths of the vessels 
have been closed by nature. An instrument may then be pushed in 
through the nares and the plug pushed out in the pharynx and removed. 

Fig. 18. Fig. 19. 

A reef knot, the kind used in A granny knot, the kind not to 

the ligature of an artery. use in ligaturing a vessel. 

Ligature is the most reliable of all the methods of permanently 
arresting hemorrhage and it is one which is frequently used. Material 
used for the ligature are chromicized and asepticized catgut, sterilized 
silk, and kangaroo-tendon. Of these ligatures, silk is most generally 
used because it is more readily rendered aseptic. Before asepsis and 
antisepsis were thoroughly understood, it was customary in ligature of 
an artery to allow the ends of the ligatures to hang out of the wound. 
Each day as the surgeon visited his patient he would pull the ligature 
slightly until finally the end of the artery was pulled off and the ligature 
pulled out. The wound was then allowed to heal by second intention. 
It has now been shown by experience that silk, if aseptic, under reason- 
ably favorable circumstances, will remain as an inert body within the 
tissues and will not occasion any mischief, but will become encapsulated, 
perhaps partly absorbed. Kangaroo-tendon and chromicized catgut 
have the advantage that they will after a while become absorbed, but 
they have the disadvantage that they can not he so successfully ster- 
ilized as silk. In the application of a ligature it should be tied suf- 
ficiently tight to prevent its slipping, and none of the tissues surround- 
ing the artery should be enclosed with it. The artery should be tied by 


means of a reef knot or a friction knot. When the ligature is applied, 
the internal coat is broken, the end retracts and curls up and becomes 
crumpled, coagulation of the blood readily takes place and secondary 
changes, organization of the clot and encapsulation of the ligature, fol- 
low in sequence. 

Torsion consists in seizing the end of a bleeding artery with an artery 
forceps, drawing it from its sheath and twisting it several times until it 
is felt to partly yield. Four or five complete turns will be sufficient. 
Where the artery is large it should be pulled out a half inch and grasped 
by one artery forceps, while another grasps the end of the artery. The 
one forceps holds the artery firm, while with the second forceps, or the 
one grasping the end of the artery, torsion is made. This method of 
arresting hemorrhage is applicable to arteries the size of the radials, 
brachials, and even the superficial femoral, hi this method no foreign 
body is left in the wound, hence there is less danger in the wound heal- 
ing, likewise less danger of scar. This method can not be itsed if the 
artery is diseased. It is said that in some cases necrosis of the artery 
has taken place. This method was employed even b} r ancient surgeons. 
In small arteries or where suppuration would be especially disastrous, 
this method is valuable. 

Acupressure is controlling hemorrhage by means of pins. It was 
devised by J. Y. Simpson. The pin passes underneath the vessel, leav- 
ing as little tissue on either side and between the pin and the vessel 
as possible. Silk is then twisted in a figure-of-S over the ends of 
the needle. There are other means of applying acupressure needles, 
but they need not be mentioned, as they are obsolete. 

Forcipressure consists simply of using a hemostatic forceps 
to grasp the end of the artery. It is the means used during an opera- 
tion to control hemorrhage and in many cases will be permanent. It 
is occasionally used to arrest hemorrhage where the artery is deep and 
it is impractical to further operate, or where the artery can not be 
ligated. Apply the forceps and allow them to remain for twenty-four 
hours, when they can be quietly removed, the patient being kept very 
quiet and the wound afterwards closely watched. By this time nature 
has formed a clot within the artery and the subsequent changes, as 
occur in nature's method of arresting hemorrhage, will take place. 

Cautery arrests hemorrhage by the coagulation of the blood and 
partly by charring the tissues, which form an eschar, preventing 
further flow from the vessels. It is best applied by means of the 
Paquelin cautery or the Galvano-cautery. The wound or bleeding sur- 
face is dried by the application of surgeon's lint or cotton, and the 
cautery, which is at a full red heat, should be immediately applied. 
Where these cauteries are not at hand a cautery iron which is heated 
in the fire may be used. The chief objection to the use of the cautery 
is that the charred tissues will separate and subsequent hemorrhage 


result. It is useful to arrest hemorrhage in the nasal mucous mem- 
branes or the tonsils or in some location which is not readily accessible. 
Styptics should never be used to arrest hemorrhage until all other 
methods have been exhausted. Personally the writer considers them 
of little value. The drugs produce coagulation of the blood in the 
mouths of the bleeding vessels. The agents most frequently used are 
the tincture of the chloride of iron, in fairly strong solutions, one-half 
to one dram to an ounce of water; tannic or gallic acid, either in a dry 
powder or a strong solution. Sloughing of the tissues is often brought 
about by the application of these styptics and they should be used with 
the utmost care. 

Recurrent or Reactionary Hemorrhage. 

Recurrent or reactionary hemorrhage occurs because of the slipping 
of a ligature or because the clot has been washed out of the mouth 
of the vessel. It calls for immediate treatment, some permanent 
means being used and the wound redressed. The blood soaked 
dressings must be removed or infection will take place. Where there 
is oozing from a stump, it is hardly reactionary hemorrhage. The part 
should be redressed and perhaps more firmly bandaged. 

Secondary Hemorrhage. 

Secondary hemorrhage is that which occurs after twenty-four or 
thirty-six hours and which is generally the result of defective formation 
of the clot within the vessel, or perhaps the result of faulty surgical 
means. In some cases it may be because of disease of the vessel wall. 
Infection may lead to ulceration; this, extending into the blood-vessels, 
may bring about secondary hemorrhage. 

Cause. — The causes of secondary hemorrhage may be summarized 
as follows: (1) Bad treatment. This bad treatment may consist of 
failure to maintain cleanliness and asepsis or ligature improperly 

(2) Infection. When infection follows, necrosis of the end of the 
bleeding vessels may occur. The application of modern methods will 
prevent infection and secondary hemorrhage. 

(3) Disease of the vessel wall. Thrombosis and degeneration of the 
vessel walls may be such that the ligature will not hold or the artery 
will break, secondary hemorrhage occurring. 

(4) Certain constitutional conditions, as in hemorrhagic diathesis, 
and in conditions where the patient has a tendency to bleed. 


Treatment of Wounds. 

The treatment of wounds may be conveniently grouped under the 
following heads: — 

1. Arrest of hemorrhage, prevention 4. Prevention of sepsis by proper care 

of shock, and relief of pain. and the proper dressings rightly 

2. Cleansing the wound. applied. 

3. Closing the wound and providing 5. Attention to the general health. 

proper drainage. 

Arrest of hemorrhage, prevention of shock, and relief of pain have 
been discussed. 

The cleansing of the wound consists in the removal of foreign bodies 
and irritants of any kind. If the wound has been made by a septic 
object it is presumed that the wound is septic. If the opening is suf- 
ficiently large, as in the case of an incised or lacerated wound, in fact, 
any wound in which there is an opening sufficient for drainage, the 
wound should be washed out with an antiseptic solution, either a 1:1000 
solution of bichloride of mercury or 1 :20 carbolic acid solution. After 
the wound is thoroughly washed out and cleansed in every part, all for- 
eign bodies removed, such as splinters, bullets, dirt, pieces of glass, 
etc., provisions may be made to establish drainage and to close the 
wound. In some wounds where it is believed that the wound tract is 
not very septic and the opening is small, as happens in a gunshot wound 
or punctured wound, the surface of the wound only should be cleansed 
and hemorrhage should be encouraged by compression and all the 
blood expressed out of the wound, if possible. After washing 
the surface with an antiseptic solution the wound should be dressed 
antiseptically by means of cotton and gauze properly applied. It is 
the best policy not to introduce fluids into these wounds unless in the 
judgment of the physician they are distinctly septic. It is a well known 
fact that the tissues of the body may take care of a considerable quan- 
tity of septic material under favorable circumstances so that it is well 
enough to temporize with these wounds and permit nature to handle 
the case. If evidences of undue inflammation arise, the tract of the 
wound may be laid open, disinfected, and drained, and allowed to heal 
from the bottom up by granulation. 

The establishing of drainage is perhaps, next to asepsis, the most 
important factor in the treatment of wounds. Where the wound is 
large and tbere is liable to be much exudation, it is of the utmost 
importance to establish drainage. Drainage should always be estab- 
lished at the most dependent part of the wound. If the wound is on 
the head and the person will be lying down during the time the wound 
is healing, the drainage should be at the most dependent point, but if 
the patient will be in an erect posture most of the time, drainage would 
perhaps be best established at some other point. At all events it should 
be so arranged that it will take place in the easiest manner possible. 

The materials used for drainage may be strips of antiseptic gauze. 



Fig. 20. 

which are laid in the bottom of the wound, or a fenestrated rubber tube, 
which. has been previously sterilized, may be introduced. If the wound 
is large, the drainage tube should be transfixed with a safety pin to 
prevent it from dropping into the wound beyond reach. The rubber 
tube furnishes an additional advantage in that, if the wound is septic, 
it affords a means of irrigating the interior of the wound with antiseptic 
solutions. In operations upon the abdomen a cigarette drain is best. 
The drainage tube or other material should be covered over with a good 
sized mass of surgeon's cotton to prevent infection and to absorb the 
wound secretions. In ordinary wounds, especially small wounds, gauze 

drainage is, perhaps, best. The chief object 
of drainage is to permit the free escape 
of serum and other materials which may 
exude into the wound and which, being re- 
tained, would furnish a good pabulum for 
the growth and development of micro-or- 
ganisms. Furthermore, the exudation of 
the serum into the wound prevents union 
and renders sepsis more likely, inasmuch 
as it causes great tension of the flaps and 
interferes with the circulation in the tis- 

Closure of Wounds. — The surfaces of 
the divided tissues must be accurately co- 
aptated, or brought together, and perma- 
nently held in that position until the tis- 
sues have had time to establish firm union. 
Where the wound involves different layers 
of tissues, as fascia, skin, muscle, nerve, 
etc., if a good result is obtained the nerves 
should be brought in apposition, also 
muscle to muscle, fascia to fascia, skin 
to skin, so that, when union takes 
place, the tissues are in as nearly a 
normal position as is possible for them to be. There are numerous 
methods of Avound closure. The method which is of the greatest value 
and most universally used, and in fact is absolutely necessary, is by 
some kind of a suture. The materials used for sutures are silver wire, 
silk, horse-hair, silkworm-gut, catgut, and kangaroo tendon. The 
qualities, which these different forms of sutures possess, vary. An ideal 
suture should be one which is, first of all, aseptic, secondly, that it must 
be of sufficient strength to hold the tissues in position, and thirdly, that 
it is not absorbent, that is, that it will not absorb the fluids from the 
tissues nor from the surface of the body. Silver wire has this advantage, 
that it is very easily sterilized, is non-irritating and is not absorbent, 
but on the other hand, it is not so easily applied and, after union takes 
place, it is more difficult to remove. It causes pain and irritation upon 

Cigarette drains. 


removal. Silkworm-gut is, in many respects, the ideal suture and is 
suitable for closing the abdomen or for use in perineal operations or 
in very large wounds, but it is not absorbable and of course must be 
removed. It is an animal suture and is best sterilized by boiling for 
at least an hour, when afterwards it may be kept in strong alcohol until 
used. Sometimes it becomes more or less brittle and breaks easily. 
This is one objection to its use. But as a superficial suture, in many 
respects, it is superior to any other form. In superficial sutures, horse- 
hair is not irritating, is readily removed, and being fine, is of advantage 
where a small suture is demanded. It is suitable for superficial suture 
in closing wounds on the face. Silk suture is the most universally used. 
It can be readily sterilized by boiling or lyv the use of antiseptics. Its 
chief objection is that it is absorbent and when used on the surface, a 
stitch-abscess may result. But with all its defects, silk is a most excel- 
lent suture material. It was formerly believed that silk could not be 
used in the tissues where it was allowed to remain, but it has been shown 
that if it is sterile it will not act as an irritant, but will become encap- 
sulated and be harmless. Silk may be sterilized by boiling, or by 
immersing in a superheated strong solution of mercuric chloride, or 
1 :20 solution of carbolic acid. The carbolic solution may be heated to 
boiling, and when the suture material is immersed in it, in a short time 
it will become sterile. After the sutures are sterilized, they should be 
kept in an air-tight, thoroughly sterile jar or container made for the 
purpose. Catgut has the advantage over the sutures before mentioned 
in that it is absorbable, being liquefied by the fluids from the tissues. 
The suture is made from the submucosa of the intestine of the sheep. 
The method by which it is made is as follows : The mucous membrane 
is first rubbed or scraped off, and then the muscular coat is scraped off 
until only a thin submucosa is left. This is cut into strips and rolled 
and dried. Afterwards it is rendered aseptic by various methods, boil- 
ing in cumol or by heating to a certain degree at stated intervals, 
for several days, or a week or more. Several of these methods are now 
known to be reliable and catgut can be obtained which is aseptic; but 
with all that, it is not a suitable superficial suture. Healing of the 
wound will not take place readily, since, Avhen the suture becomes 
liquefied, it furnishes a pabulum upon which the bacteria will develop, 
and infection at the stitch-holes is common; in fact, it may lead to gen- 
eral infection of the wound. It is useful as a buried suture where the 
wound is closed and subsequent removal of the suture would be impos- 
sible without a secondary operation. It is put up in several forms, 
carbolated, chromicized, etc. Chromicized gut is rendered harder by 
the action of the chromic acid and therefore becomes liquefied much 
less rapidly, remaining in the tissues for a long time. Chromicized 
gut is used for the ligation of arteries. It will generally become lique- 
fied within ten days or two weeks. Three or four days is sufficient for 
the liquefaction of the ordinary catgut. Kangaroo tendon is used to 
a considerable extent for subcutaneous sutures; it is not used on the 


surface. It has the advantage that it is readily absorbed and is not 
irritating. The methods by which these sutures can be sterilized are 
various and -are only successful when they are thoroughly carried out. 
Keliable suture material can be obtained from certain supply houses. 
Unless the surgeon is equipped to do his own sterilizing thoroughly 
and successfully, it is better to get the sterilized sutures already pre- 

According to the manner of their application, sutures may be classi- 
fied into buried and superficial. By buried suture is meant a suture 
which has been placed in the tissues for the purpose of coaptating some 
of the deeper structures and which is allowed to remain in situ and not 
afterwards removed. Superficial sutures may be readily removed at 
any time. Of the method of application, the following are some of the 
varieties in use: 

1. Superficial or coaptation. 

2. Deep or relaxation. 

3. Interrupted. 

4. Continuous. 

5. Quilled. 

6. Figure-of-8. 

7. Halsted's. 

8. Lembert's. 

9. Button. 

The needles in use for the appli- 
Fig. 21. cation of these sutures should have 

Friction knot, the kind used in tying a sharp point and may be either 
sutures - curved or straight. There are two 

needles which are in most general use. These are Peaslee's and Hage- 
dorn's. The Hagedorn needle has the advantage that the slight cut 
made by the needle entering the tissues is parallel with the direction of 
the suture or is transverse to the wound, whereas the cut made by the 
Peaslee needle is parallel with the wound. In tying a suture introduced 
by a Peaslee's needle, the little cut made by the needle is pulled open. 
Troublesome hemorrhage has followed such application of suture. This 
is not true of the Hagedorn needle, as the thread pulls in the end of 
the cut, and the more tightly the suture is drawn the more closely do 
the cut surfaces of the needle-hole press against each other and thus 
hemorrhage is avoided. The needle, having been previously sterilized, is 
threaded with the kind of suture material best suited for the occasion 
in question and should be introduced, wherever possible, with the fin- 
gers. Numerous needle holders have been invented by mechanics and 
by operative surgeons, but no needle holder is so good as deft fingers. 
Then, too, the best needle holder is liable to break. Where the needle 
is small and where the surgeon is operating in a cavity, it may be neces- 
sary to use a needle holder. A suitable automatic one should be at hand. 
Unless a surgeon has a number of assistants, the needle holder may 
entail useless delay. In the closing of an ordinary wound, the suture 
should be introduced dow r n to the bottom of the wound, so that when 



it is drawn up snugly and tied, all parts of the wound-margins are 
brought in apposition. If this is not done, serum will exude into the 
lower part of the wound. A cavity is thus formed, filled with serum, 
which furnishes an excellent nidus for the development of bacteria. 

Fig. 23. 

Fig. 22. 

Coaptation and relax- 
ation sutures. 

Interrupted suture. 

Fig. 25. 

Suppuration is almost sure to occur unless the wound is closed in all 
its parts. 

The method of application may be an interrupted or continuous 
suture. The interrupted suture is the one most frequently used and has 
the advantage that it can be 
applied evenly. A moderate Fig. 24. 

amount of swelling will not 
interfere seriously with the 
suture. A continuous suture 
will not so readily accomo- 
date itself to other condi- 
tions than those present at 
its introduction. It is not 
so easily removed. It is use- 
ful for closing large wounds 
quickly where the wounds 
are upon the surface, or it is 
suitable for use in buried 
suture in apposing fascia. 
Halsted's continuous subcu- 
ticular suture is an excellent 
superficial suture of silk, 
which need not be removed. 

By deep or relaxation sutures are meant sutures which are intro- 
duced a distance back from the edge of the wound, including all the 
deep tissues, and are for the purpose of lessening the tension upon the 

A continu- 
ous suture 

Method of ending a continuous 



sutures which are at the margins of the wound. Coaptation sutures 
are those which are put in at the margin of the wound and are for the 
purpose of accurately apposing the surfaces. The quilled suture is no 
longer used. The figure-of-8 suture is still popular in plastic surgery, 
especially in harelip. It is applied by the insertion of silver harelip 
pins (an ordinary commercial iron pin may be used). The pins are first 
sterilized and then inserted, and a sterilized thread is placed in a figure- 
of-8 manner over the ends of the needle. It has the advantage that 
there is but little scarring of the skin and it holds the superficial tis- 
sues in position. Halsted's suture is a valuable suture under some cir- 
cumstances. By the use of this suture, the scars, the result of the 
wounds made by the needle, are avoided. The button or shot suture 
is still sometimes used. Lembert's suture is useful in suturing wounds 
in the small intestines or any of the hollow viscera. Other forms, such 
as the mattress suture or Ford suture, may be used if the occasion 
demands, but these occasions are few, if they ever arise. In the use of 
needles and suture material for the closure of wounds, it is the best 
policy to use as small a needle as possible, the finest silk for coaptation 

sutures, and for retention 
Fig. 26. sutures, the larger silk. The 

.,- . ,- . twisted silk is the stronger. In 

tying sutures the knot should 
not be drawn too tightly. If 
the suture is drawn tightly it 
will more or less arrest the cir- 
culation to the tissues under- 
neath it and sloughing of the 
skin,orstitchabscessmayfollow. If the suture is aseptic, it will not oper- 
ate as an irritant unless it interferes with the physiological process of re- 
pair. There are a few other means of wound closure which should be un- 
derstood, and which are useful in small wounds where other methods are 
not available. These consist of adhesive plaster, collodion, etc., which 
have the property of adhering closely to the skin, and if the wound is 
small, holding the edges in apposition. Tear the adhesive plaster in very 
small strips, dry the surfaces of the wound, heat the adhesive plaster 
and as the tissues are held together, the adhesive plaster is applied. 
Collodion may be used in a similar manner. Little strips of iodoform 
or borated gauze may be laid over the wound, which has been dried, 
and the whole painted thoroughly with collodion. Another fairly suc- 
cessful method of closing a wound, where sutures are not at hand, is 
to stick firmly to the skin strips of adhesive plaster which extend par- 
allel with, and not too far distant from the wound. Then by means 
of a needle and ordinary thread, apposition can be secured 
by bringing the thread through the strips of adhesive plaster and 
then tying it. This will be found successful in small wounds 
or where suture material is not at hand. After a suture ie ap- 
plied, if the tension becomes so great on the flaps that there is 

Halsted's sub-cuticular suture. 


indication of the suture cutting the tissues, some of the sutures should 
be removed. 

To remove a suture successfully, it must he done in the following 
manner: The part of the suture which is without the tissues is more 
than likely septic, so in removal the suture should be cut off below the 
skm. While the suture is lifted up with a dressing forceps, the tissues 
may be pressed down so that a margin of a quarter of an inch of the 
suture, which was formerly within the tissues, may be pulled out and 
the suture can be cut off at this point. This will prevent stitch- 
abscesses. The length of time sutures are allowed to remain in the 
tissues will vary according to the nature of the wound and the nature of 
the tissues. In the face, coaptation sutures should not be allowed to 
remain longer than thirty-six to forty-eight hours. A retention suture 
should be allowed to remain longer, until there is no danger of the 
wound being pulled apart. In case of lacerated perineum, the suture 
should be allowed to remain ten to fourteen days, providing evidences 
of inflammation do not appear, for the reason that the motions of the 
body and the evacuation of the bowels may cause the newly united 
structures to separate. Ordinarily in a vascular area like the hand, 
the suture may be removed on the third, fourth, or fifth day. In an 
area, as over the back, or on the thigh, union will not take place as 
quickly and the suture should be removed on the sixth or seventh day. 

Prevention of Sepsis. — Providing the wound has been thoroughly 
cleansed, no drainage being necessary, the wound is coaptated and lastly 
washed thoroughly to get rid of all materials which might remain. The 
wound may be dressed with or without antiseptics. The object of the 
dressings is to prevent sepsis and protect the wound. Dressings then 
should be sterilized and should be of a material which will readily soak 
up any wound-secretion or discharge. An antiseptic or aseptic gauze 
is found to be the most serviceable. Outside of these gauzes may be 
placed a considerable amount of aseptic cotton. The cotton prevents 
any micro-organisms getting into the wound and will, at the same time, 
absorb any of the secretions which are discharged. 

Removal of Dressings. — Providing there is but little discharge, the 
dressings should not be disturbed until it is necessary to remove the 
sutures. If drainage has been established, the dressings should be looked 
into within the first twenty-four hours, or sooner. Under no circum- 
stances should the dressing be allowed to become saturated. Should 
this happen, infection quickly travels into the wound from the outside. 
The drainage tube should be removed in from twenty-four to thirty- 
six hours, for the reason, if it remains there too long, it will act as an 
irritant and cause inflammation in the tissues round about and prevent 
the wound healing. The idea which the surgeon should have in mind 
is that the wound should not, under any circumstances, be disturbed 
unless he feels that it is not doing well, or that it requires change of 
dressing because of its having been disturbed or because of an excess of 


secretions. The wound should be properly dressed in a manner accord- 
ing with the principles of modern surgery, and when once dressed should 
be allowed to remain quiet until conditions have arisen which demand 
intervention. If there is evidence of sepsis upon removal of the dress- 
ing, an antiseptic solution may be thoroughly used. Under clean 
conditions, considering that the surface has been thoroughly irrigated 
with an antiseptic solution, several thicknesses of sterilized gauze may 
be applied to the surface. On top of this is placed a considerable mass 
of absorbent cotton. If conditions are not very clean, the surgeon may 
apply boracic acid, iodoform, equal parts of boric acid and acetanilid, 
salicylic acid, aristoL protonuclein, etc., in fact, any antiseptic drug 
which prevents fermentation. The gauze may be carbolated five per 
cent., boracic acid ten per cent., iodoform ten per cent., bichloride of 
mercury 1:5000 or 1:1000. Any of these gauzes are excellent. 
Bichloride of mercury is the strongest antiseptic, but is irritating. The 
borated gauze secures mild antisepsis and asepsis and is, perhaps, the 
best of all the gauzes. Where there is abundant discharge from the 
wound, a dressing quickly becomes saturated and should be renewed 
sufficiently often to keep the wound dry. It will then heal more rap- 
idly. If the dressings are sodden with secretions of the wound, instead 
of operating as a protection, they furnish a bed for the micro-organ- 
isms in the same manner as a fiax-seed poultice. 

Rest. — Functional and mechanical rest is of the greatest importance 
in the treatment of wounds. The process of repair is accomplished by 
the reproduction of new cells. These granulation-tissue cells are very 
delicate and easily destroyed. Every movement of the injured part 
will destroy some cells and call upon the tissues for renewed activity 
to produce others. In fact, if the irritation is great, it may either pre- 
vent the wound healing or may cause a considerable "formation of 
fibrous tissues, which is always detrimental in any location in the body. 
At best, the process of repair is difficult, and the tissues have an added 
burden in order to properly repair the injury. 

Constitutional Treatment. — In the healing of wounds, much depends 
upon judicious constitutional treatment. It is necessary that the 
bowels act daily, unless there are circumstances which require their 
quiescence. The urine should be voided at stated intervals. The per- 
son should be fed properly and should get the proper amount of sleep 
and rest. After the shock has been combated and the patient has ral- 
lied from the operation or from the wound, he should be placed in the 
most comfortable position, so that he is as nearly at ease as possible. 
The room should be sufficiently ventilated, the patient should not be 
exposed to drafts. In the sick room a temperature of 60 degrees 
F. is necessary. Many cases will require 70 degrees F. The room 
should be kept scrupulously clean and especially should the patient's 
bed be kept clean and his clothing changed daily. The bowels should 
be kept regular by proper treatment. This treatment will vary accord- 


ing to the condition. Sometimes it ma}' be necessary to resort to the 
use of an enema. In the administration of an enema, a little castile 
soap diffused in a quart of boiled water should be used. Where the 
strength of the patient has been markedly reduced, either by shock, 
injury, or operation, or severe loss of blood, a stimulating diet will be 
found necessary. Where there is suppuration, it is of the utmost 
importance that cleanliness be obtained ; furthermore, that the patient 
be given a nourishing diet. The pulse and temperature should be care- 
fully watched, in case of severe wounds, and where there is not a rise 
of temperature and the patient feels well, it will not be necessary to in- 
vestigate the wound at the end of the first twenty-four hours, nor may 
it be necessary even at the end of forty-eight hours. In recovery from 
old wounds or wounds in the ill-nourished, diabetic, or syphilitic cases, 
or conditions of tuberculosis and Bright's disease, proper treatment 
should be administered tending towards the support of the patient and 
the relief of the exisiting conditions. 

Kinds of Open Wounds. 

1. Incised. 5. Poisoned. 

2. Contused. 6. Gunshot. 

3. Lacerated. 7. Fracture. 

4. Punctured. 

Incised Wound. — An incised wound is one having an evenly divided 
edge and smooth surface and generally made by a sharp instrument. 
A wound quite similar to an incised wound may be made with the edge 
of a hard object, as a brick on the scalp. Often the hemorrhage 
is very severe in an incised wound, in fact, it is the chief danger. Pro- 
viding the wound is properly cleansed and good apposition secured, 
healing takes place by first intention. There is nothing special in the 
treatment of this form of wound. 

Contused" Wound. — A contused wound is one in which the wound 
area and edges are severely bruised and injured. It is made by 
objects which distribute the wounding force over a considerable area. 
It is usually attended by an extravasation of blood within the tissues. 
External hemorrhage is slight, the reason being that the mash- 
ing of an artery renders the conditions for coagulation of the blood 
more favorable, hence nature arrests the hemorrhage more quickly. 
The dangers of this wound are sloughing of the tissues, together with 
infection. The bruising of the tissues may so devitalize them that it 
renders infection easy. Under all circumstances, if the skin is not 
broken, the wound should be handled with the greatest care, so that 
the skin may not be broken. Any parts of the skin which may have 
become more or less detached should always be preserved. Contused 
wounds require more careful measures than incised wounds because of 
the devitalization of the tissues as the result of the injury. 

Lacerated Wound. — A lacerated wound is one which is torn. Lacer- 
ated wounds are in many respects more harmful than others. 
Certain of the tissues will be torn and perhaps killed, while others will 


have become so devitalized as to be unable to resist the onset of the 
invading bacteria. Furthermore, lacerated wounds contain many crev- 
ices and nooks in which septic material may lodge, so that the proba- 
bilities are the wound will not be thoroughly cleansed. Apposition can 
not be so readily obtained, therefore scar formation is common. The 
wounds will frequently heal by second intention. The primary hem- 
orrhage is not so great and, as a rule, it should be encouraged. 
The clangers in lacerated wounds are infection and deformity from scar 
formation. The edges of the wound should be closed and drainage 
provided for. Sutures can not be applied as closely as in an incised 

Punctured Wound. — A puneturecLwound is one made by a long sharp 
instrument. The margins of the wound are not contused. The depth 
of the wound is much greater than its breadth. The chief dangers of 
these wounds are hemorrhage and infection. Puncture of the viscera 
or large vessels is liable to be fatal. Suppuration is common in 
punctured wounds and very often leads to general sepsis. The wound 
heals on the surface and the infected secretions being retained, pus is 
formed. Punctured wounds in the body-cavity (thoracic and abdominal) 
are generally fatal. As a rule these wounds should be caused to unite 
by second intention. If the wound gives evidence of sepsis, it should 
be thoroughly cleansed with an antiseptic solution and a piece of gauze 
introduced to the bottom. Where it is made with a septic instrument, it 
is advisable to introduce a drainage tube to the bottom of the wound, 
and each day as the wound is dressed, the drainage tube may be drawn 
out a half inch or more, until it is finally removed, allowing the wound 
to heal from the bottom. 

PoisonedWound. — A poisoned wound is one in which some poisonous 
product is introduced. These poisonous products may be classified as 
bacteria, bacterial toxins, and chemical poisons, such as are. 
present in the bite of snakes, sting of bees, etc. Wounds 
containing bacteria are called septic and infective. A sep- 
tic wound should be washed with peroxid of hydrogen, provid- 
ing the opening from the wound. is sufficiently large, and 
then washed with a solution of bichloride of mercury (1:1000). If 
infection is arrested, the wound should be kept at rest and the most 
rigid cleanliness maintained. In post-mortem or dissection wounds we 
have an example of poisoned wounds. The result will largely depend 
upon the treatment, the amount of poison introduced, and the condi- 
tion of the health of the person sustaining the injury. x\s soon as the 
wound is infected, it should be washed and treated with suction. Every 
effort should be made to have the wound bleed freely. Afterward, the 
wound may be cauterized with pure carbolic acid or strong acetic acid. 
The hands may then be cleansed with a strong solution of bichloride of 
mercury. There is, perhaps, the most danger in holding a post-mortem 
on patients who have died of typhoid fever, septicemia, pyemia, peri- 
tonitis, erysipelas, etc. The changes which take place following 


infection are, a pustule may be formed and evidences of lymphangitis 
and phlebitis. Antiseptic lotions should be applied to the wound at 
once. If the wound is located in the upper extremity, the axillary 
glands will enlarge and may suppurate. As soon as there is evidence of 
suppuration these should be removed. Where the infection is rapid and 
severe, and nature shows an effort at limiting it, an amputation should 
be performed. The prognosis, in these wounds, is not favorable when 
one can not prevent general infection. Where severe constitutional 
symptoms set in, death usually occurs in from ten days to two weeks, 
or if recovery takes place, it is only after a long, tedious illness. The 
nature of the inflammation is that of a cellulitis or a condi- 
tion resembling cellulo-cutaneons erysipelas. As soon as infection is 
evident at the wound, incisions may be made in the tissues about, 
bleeding encouraged, and the wound thoroughly cleansed with a strong 
corrosive sublimate solution (1:500). 

Snake-Bite. — The venom of certain reptiles introduces into the cir- 
culation, through the wound, substances which may produce alarmingly 
fatal results. These poisons, in some cases, are extremely rapid in their 
action, depending upon whether the poison is introduced into the circu- 
lation or whether it reaches the circulatory system through the con- 
nective tissues and the lymphatics. Snake-bite may be likened to a 
hypodermic injection of a chemical poison. The poison acts directly 
upon the muscular and connective tissues, and when it enters into the 
circulation, it affects the nervous tissues generally. Many of the reptiles 
reputed to be poisonous, have no special poison. On the other hand, 
bites of animals, such as ratsj or even the bite of a person, may 
at times be poisonous, depending upon the materials carried into the 
tissues by the teeth. The poisonous snakes in this country are the 
rattlesnake (of which there are*perhaps eighteen different species), the 
water moccasin, copperhead, and, perhaps, the viper, although the ordi- 
nary spreading viper or puffing adder is believed to be harmless. There 
are also said to be some poisonous lizards. The exact nature of the 
poison is not definitely known. It seems to be a collection of compounds 
containing peptones, globulins, and, perhaps, toxic alkaloids, which act 
like ferments, inducing wide-spread chemical reactions. The effect 
of the poison upon the body varies according to the dose and according 
to the animal from which the poison was extracted. The poisons of 
the various reptiles differ not only in their chemistry, but in their 
toxicity. The poison in almost all seems to have a paralyzing effect 
upon the wall of the artery, while it brings about disorganization of 
the blood. Most of the poisons apparently have an affinity for the 
nervous tissues, uniformly bringing about paralytic changes. The 
poison of the serpent is introduced by means of a hollow fang, and is 
produced by a special gland. The duct of the gland leads to the hollow 
tooth, and in the working of the jaws, the poison is compressed out of 
the gland through the hollow tooth, and in this manner introduced into 


the tissues. If the poison-bag and the fangs are removed, the snake will 
be harmless. 

The Symptoms of poisoning are as follows : The pain is excruciating, 
coming on very rapidly after the bite. The part of the limb swells rap- 
idly and becomes mottled because of the effect of the poison upon the 
blood. It is not unusual that the swelling of the member is 
enormous. Consciousness is more or less affected. This varies in degree 
from slight lethargy and stupor, to complete unconsciousness. The 
symptoms are those of profound shock, which may be attended with 
delirium. Death may come on within an hour or it may be delayed 
several hours. Where death does not occur during the first twenty- 
four to forty-eight hours, gangrene and sepsis frequently arise. 

The Treatment for snake-bite is to at once tie a tight band about 
the member, above the wound. Several of these bands should be placed 
around so as to restrict the return circulation. The wound should be 
treated with suction, either by the person himself, when possible, or by 
some friend or relative who is not afraid to take the risk. Care should 
be taken that the person performing this suction has no wounds on the 
lips or mouth, as they likewise may become poisoned. A crucial incision 
should be made at the bite and hemorrhage encouraged. As soon as 
the wound is thoroughly sucked, it should be cauterized. Hunters fre- 
quently cover the bite with powder, which, upon being ignited, chars the 
skin. A hot iron may be used for a cautery or pure carbolic acid may 
be applied. A strong solution of permanganate of potassium is excel- 
lent, inasmuch as it seems to have the property of destroying the 
poison. A two per cent, solution is sometimes injected into the tissues 
about the wound. The wound and member should be kept soaked in 
alcohol. It is said to be more efficient if the alcohol contains one-third 
of camphor. Where a surgeon is at hand, amputation of the member is 
advised if the bite of the reptile is very poisonous. Strong ammonia- 
water applied to the wound seems to be an excellent method of destroy- 
ing the poisons. 

Bites and Stings of Insects and Certain Animals. — There are certain 
lizards whose bites are said to be poisonous. These bites should be 
treated in the same manner as a snake-bite. The bites of certain 
spiders are productive of severe inflammation, great prostration, and, 
in some cases, death. These spider-bites should be treated similarly to 
snake-bites. As soon as the bite is made, suction should at once be 
applied. If this can not be done, enlarge the wound and encourage 
bleeding. Tie a fillet around the member, if it is possible, and cauterize 
the wound with strong carbolic acid or strong ammonia and use alcohol 
as a local application. The bite of the centipede is not so fatal as is 
popularly believed. The effects are, generally, only local. The bite of 
the scorpion produces much severer symptoms. Very often there is 
great prostration, vomiting, delirium, with local swelling rapidly extend- 
ing, and severe burning pain. There may be vertigo or severe head- 


ache, together with great sweating and diarrhea. Bee-stings, if multi- 
ple, may cause severe symptoms or even death. A bee-sting is in the 
nature of a poisoned wound, being made by two little lancets which 
are pushed out and the poison is squeezed in between them and then 
inserted into the wound. When the wound is over the cellular tissues 
of the body, swelling is sometimes very rapid and great. Sometimes 
the pain is extremely excruciating. Where there are several stings, 
constitutional symptoms, such as delirium, vomiting, diarrhea, and con- 
siderable shock, may be manifest. Where death follows these severe 
symptoms, it is usually from heart failure. Stings in the mouth may, 
without causing these symptoms, bring about edema of the glottis 
which may be fatal. Such stings should be looked upon with fear. 

Treatment. — Wash the part with a strong solution of soda or salt 
and apply ammonia-water. Ice applied is very grateful, as it lessens the 

Gunshot Wound. — A gunshot wound is peculiar, in that the open- 
ing is very often small, surrounded by a contused area, and the tract 
of the bullet very often long, giving an example of a deep wound with 
a small opening. Drainage is difficult to obtain. The wounds arising 
in military and civil practice vary greatly, inasmuch as projectiles vary 
and are discharged in one case with much more force than in the other. 
Bullets may sometimes cause fracture of a long bone or they may cut 
off a nerve to a part or may button-hole a large artery. They very 
often glance around these structures unless hurled with terrific force. 

Injury to the Soft Parts. — The course of the bullet in the tissues 
varies according to the velocity and nature of the bullet. The bul- 
lets may be deflected by fascia, bones, and ligaments. If the skin be 
struck at the proper angle, and the bullet be '•spent", it will be only 
grazed, or merely a streak left. The opening made by the bullet is 
very often, unless fired at close range, accompanied by laceration of the 
soft parts. The exit of the bail is in some cases marked by much more 
extensive laceration than in the entrance. Especially is this true of the 
soft-nosed bullets. There the core projects out and forms a mushroom- 
like mass and is terrifically destructive. Ordinary pistol-balls are not 
nearly so destructive. They may bury themselves in the ends of the 
long bones, but rarely pass entirely through the bone, while the injury 
to the bone is generally not so great. In civil practice the injury to the 
joints is usually not very extensive. The chief element of clanger seems 
to be sepsis. The results of gunshot wounds may be summarized as (1) 
hemorrhage. Hemorrhage nnw be very severe, but it is usually speed- 
ily arrested by natural processes. Gunshot wounds, even of the internal 
jugular, may not prove fatal. Especially is this true' if there is con- 
tusion. The contusion causes the middle and inner coats to curl up 
and plug the ends of the arteries and veins. Secondary hemorrhage 
is not uncommon, and is usually due to sepsis. Where the wound is 
aseptic, secondary hemorrhage is not likely to occur. 


(2) Pain. The pain is variable, depending upon whether a large 
nerve is injured. \n ease the injury is within the explosive action of 
the ball, the part may be anesthetized more or less because of the con- 
tusion. It may be that the anesthesia due to the contusion is great 
and, if occurring during mental excitement, a person may not know that 
he is struck. In such cases infection is more likely. Where fracture 
is caused by the bullet, the pain is very often excruciating. Shock 
attending bullet injuries varies greatly. A small wound of the extrem- 
ity, although trivial in nature, may be accompanied by general shock. 
Perhaps the effect is largely due to mental emotion. On the other hand, 
penetrating wounds of the abdomen in many cases occasion but com- 
paratively little disturbance. Often pistol wounds of the brain may 
cause less disturbance than would be expected. 

Treatment. — In civil practice, the treatment of gunshot wounds will 
differ from that of military practice. Where the patient can 
have the advantage of a hospital and of a clean operating 
room, in fact, where asepsis can be secured, it may be the 
best policy to uniformly investigate these wounds; but it must 
be kept in mind that the presence of the bullet and the little 
material which the bullet may have carried into the wound, 
are in no wise as serious a menace as will be the septic materials 
introduced by unclean hands and instruments, in the effort to 
locate the ball. Too many physicians, in treating the bullet wound, seem 
to feel that they must get the bullet regardless of the effect of their 
operations or methods upon the life of the individual. Miscellaneous 
probing of bullet wounds is extremely bad. Of all the objects introduced 
into the wound, a clean finger is the least harmful. Where the wound 
is too small to permit of the introduction of the finger, and none of 
the large cavities of the body has been entered or viscera perforated, 
the best treatment seems to be to cleanse the surface thoroughly by 
means of antiseptic solutions, encourage bleeding and dress the wound 
with antiseptic dressings and await developments. If the bullet causes 
subsequent trouble it may be removed by operation. The truth of the 
maxim, that "when a bullet has ceased to move it has ceased to do 
harm," has but few exceptions. These are perhaps where the bullet may 
ulcerate into a large cavity, or when present in the brain, by gravity may 
cause pressure symptoms, but generally when located within the tis- 
sues, unless especially septic, it will not occasion any very considerable 
trouble. The probe used to investigate the wound should be metal 
and as large as can be conveniently introduced into the wound. It 
should be blunt-pointed so as not to injure the tissues in any way. 
Nelaton's porcelain- pointed probe is valuable in some cases in locating 
a bullet, inasmuch as the lead will leave a mark on the point. Grird- 
ner's telephonic probe is, perhaps, the best of the various electrical 
devices, but its virtues are questionable. Where the bullet is super- 
ficial it should be removed, but if deep and not readily reached and it 
is believed to be in a part of the body where it will not occasion much 


harm, the surface of the body should be cleansed and the wound treated 
in an antiseptic manner and allowed to heal of itself. If it is believed 
that a patch of the clothing is carried in with the bullet, an 
effort should be made to remove such material. Where it is possible 
to use it, the x-rays sheald be utilized in locating the bullet. A bullet 
forceps may be used in the extraction of the bullet, or the wound may 
be enlarged, when it may be seized with forceps or a scoop, or a Volk- 
mann spoon may be of advantage. 

Other Foreign Bodies in Wounds. — Bits of glass, needles, and other 
objects may be blown, hurled or driven into the tissues and their pres- 
ence occasion great harm. Glass can be- located by the x-ray, as can 
most of the other objects. Universally these foreign bodies should be 
removed. A needle is perhaps the worst of these penetrating foreign 
bodies. Especially is this true where the needle enters the palm of 
the hand or sole of the foot. The needle should be removed at once. 
Muscular contractions will often cause the needle to follow along the 
tendon-sheaths or planes of fascia or along through the muscles, so that 
each contraction drives the needle farther distant. In removing a 
needle it should first be accurately located and a sufficiently large inci- 
sion made, so that it can be successfully reached. Under no circum- 
stances should a little wound be made and the tissues sep- 
arated in an attempt to reach the needle, as the efforts of the surgeon 
may push the foreign body further in. After the needle is removed, the 
wound may be given ordinary treatment. 

Contusions. — Contusions, not attended by an open wound, may, in 
some cases, cause considerable damage to the soft-parts and may 
require special attention. Where a contusion is small it is commonly 
called a bruise. If this bruise breaks blood-vessels beneath the skin, 
subcutaneous hemorrhage will occur among the tissues, causing the 
surface to become black, as in the case of a blacked eye. These ecchy- 
moses may be extensive in some cases. Coagulation of the blood will 
follow and afterwards the coagula will break down as the serum and 
other elements are removed. The surface changes into a blue-black 
or purplish or reddish-black color, while later the skin may assume a 
greenish tinge. This extravasation of blood may sometimes extend, 
where it occurs at the shoulder, even to the tips of the fingers, follow- 
ing the fascia. Muscular action is responsible for this. In muscle- 
bruises, very often the extravasation of the blood is quite severe. These 
extensive contusions are best treated by rest and a suitably applied 
woolen bandage, and later, manipulation to assist in breaking up the 
clot and securing absorption of the fluids. Even though a large tumor 
be formed by the extravasation of blood, on no account should it be 
opened, for if once opened and air admitted an abscess will result. If 
allowed to remain, nature will take care of the effused material and the 
part will finally return to its normal condition. 

Burns and Scalds. — Burns and scalds are merely wounds from ther- 
mal causes, but deserve special mention because of the difference in 


the symptoms and treatment. Burns differ from scalds in that they 
are more destructive. If a barn has been produced by boiling 
oil or by molten metal, the destruction of the tissues is sometimes very 
great. The effects of burns are both local and constitutional. These 
depend sometimes upon the severity of the burn, that is, whether it is 
attended by extensive destruction of the tissues in any part, or if the 
burn is slight and extends over a large area. Burns of the trunk are 
more serious than burns of the extremities. Burns and scalds have 
been classified by Dupuytren in the following manner: 

1. A burn of the first degree consists of an erythema of the surface 
which is not attended by any destruction of tissues and leaves no scar. 
This burn is usually not serious unless it affects a large area of the 
body, when it may be fatal. 

2. A burn of the second degree is where the cuticle is raised from 
the cutis and blisters result. Should the blisters burst and the cuticle 
be removed, it leaves a red and inflamed true skin. This burn is more 
painful and more serious. If it affects a considerable part of the body, 
it may seriously interfere with the functions of the skin. These blisters 
may become infected and later, ulceration take place. 

3. A burn of the third degree is where the cuticle is entirely 
destroyed and also part of the true skin is affected. Inasmuch as the 
true skin contains the tips of the nerves and capillary tufts, these are 
affected. The terminal nerves may be injured or even destroyed, and the 
congestion and inflammation which follow, occasion severe pain, and 
sometimes, destruction of the tissues. 

4. In burns of the fourth degree the cuticle and true skin are 
entirely destro}^ed, with perhaps some little of the subcutaneous tissues. 

5. In burns of the fifth degree, muscles, connective tissues, and 
fascia, together with the skin and subcutaneous tissues, are destroyed. 

6. In burns of the sixth degree an entire member is destroyed. 
Slight burns involving a limited area, and which do not extendbeyond 

the skin, while they occasion considerable pain, are not serious. They 
may be immersed in cold water, which will relieve the nervous chill 
or rigors and the excruciating pain, or some oil, as sweet oil, may be 
applied so as to protect the surface from the air. Where these burns, 
simply of the surface, affect a large area, the shock to the nervous sys- 
tem may be so great as to bring about collapse and death. In burns 
of the first degree, where only the cuticle is involved, if a fatal result 
should follow, it will occur within thirty-six hours. Where the effect 
upon the nervous system is great, it calls for immediate treatment to 
prevent this fatal termination. Within twenty-fonr hours the patient 
enters into the stage of reaction: and subsequent trouble, providing 
sepsis does not occur, will not be serious unless ulceration should follow 
in the duodenum, which complication occurs in some burns. This 
ulceration may extend through the wall of the duodenum into the 
peritoneum, causing peritonitis. There are other burns of the mucous 


membrane, as scalding of the respiratory tract from inhaling steam. 
In some cases this will set np edema of the glottis and, in other cases, 
bronchitis or pneumonia. These may he fatal. 

The first symptoms of burns of any considerable extent are those 
of shock. Later there are symptoms of reaction and inflammation, 
while lastly there are those of sepis because of infection. 

Treatment of Burns. — If the burn is extensive, the clothing should 
be removed with great care. The burned area should be cleansed with 
a warm, normal salt solution. It may be thoroughly dusted with flour 
in emergencies. White lead, ready mixed for house painting, has been 
extensively used. The part may be coated over with the lead mixture. 
Linseed oil and lime water, equal parts, called carron oil, is more gen- 
erally used than any other application. x\bsorbent cotton saturated 
with this mixture is applied after cleansing the surface. It is a filthy 
application and results in much pus formation. Surgeon's lint clipped 
in a two per cent, solution of carbolic acid in olive oil is an excellent 

Where the burn is small, an ointment of benzoated oxid of zinc may 
be used. Picric acid has a great reputation in burns. It is used in the 
strength of one per cent, in water. Lint saturated with the solution, 
is applied with a thick layer of absorbent cotton over it. The dressing 
is reapplied in three or four days and not again until recovery. Later 
if there is sloughing and pus formation, the sore must be cleansed daily 
with a mercurial solution (1:5000) and then dusted with a powder 
composed of three parts of boric acid to one part of salicylic acid. 
Healing may be hastened and scar formation lessened by skin grafting. 
Exuberant granulations will require cauterizing with nitrate of silver. 
Later the cicatricial contractions must be overcome by manipulation. 



Diseases and Injuries of the Blood Vascular System, Heart and 


There are cases of persisting pericardial effusion which may require 
removal. Paracentesis of the pericardial sac may be performed with 
an ordinary aspirating apparatus. The surface should be thoroughly 
cleansed before the introduction of the needle. The fluid may then 
be pumped out and the opening dressed antiseptically. An aspirating 
needle should be inserted an inch and a half from the left border of 
the sternum in the fourth or fifth intercostal space. This is done to 
avoid the internal mammary artery. Wounds of the heart and great 
vessels are so quickly fatal that it is hardly necessary to dis- 
cuss the injury. Injuries to the pericardium, whether they are by knife 
or bullet, are attended by hemorrhage into the pericardial 
sac and this blood, clotting around the heart, so interferes with its 
action, that death occurs. Very often, where this hemorrhage is not 
great enough to produce death, infection and suppurative pericarditis, 
which is generally fatal, will follow. Little can be done in the way of 
operative treatment. The most essential thing is to keep the person 
quiet, with his head low. The wound should be cleansed, but during 
the stage of shock, no operative means should be attempted. If the 
patient recovers from the shock, the wound in the pericardium may 
be closed. 


Arteries are subject to acute or chronic inflammation, the result 
of injur}-, sepsis, or constitutional disorders. 

Acute Arteritis is extremely rare, but is said to be occasionally met 
with in septic and infective inflammations, where infective emboli 
lodge in the artery and create ulcerative inflammation. Of course, 
plastic arteritis occurs in the healing of an artery in an open wound, 
but the changes attending infection of the artery from infective emboli 
are different in that they are destructive. 

Chronic Arteritis is frequently spoken of as atheroma, endarteritis, 
or sclero-endarteritis. The tunica intima and media only, are involved. 
It is the most common disease of the artery and is present in many 
people over forty years of age. It is most common in the large arteries, 
especially those of the lower extremities. It is the result of increased 
intra-arterial pressure, the arteries becoming overtaxed. It is very 



much more common in men than in women. Excitement, alcoholism, 
syphilis, Bright's disease, plethora, gout, together with lesions affect- 
ing the integrity of the artery-wall, may be set down as among 
the causes of the disease. 

The pathology of the disease is that of a chronic inflammation. The 
middle coat and the tunica intima become infiltrated with round cells. 
These may break down and ulcerate (ulcerative endarteritis), or the 
inflamed part may undergo calcification (pipe-stem artery), or the 
round cells may form fibrous tissue. Soft inflamed areas may fuse 
together, making a hard artery (sclerosis). Sclerosis of the arteries 
may become general. The artery feels like a hard, fibrous cord, and at 
certain places, the artery-wall may become thickened and calcareous, 
when it will feel knotty or beaded. In some cases, the degeneration is 
so great that the artery can not be tied and, being grasped with an 
artery forceps, it will be found brittle and will break off. The elastic 
tissue in the tunica intima is most affected, likewise the large arteries 
which are made up largely of elastic tissues, are affected to a greater 
extent than the medium sized or smaller arteries. But the inflammation 
nearly always extends into the tunica media and impairs the integrity 
of the muscular coat, so that the arteries are unable to dilate to answer 
the call of the tissues for nutrition. 

The degenerative changes which come on later are (1) fatty, (2) 
calcareous, and (3) fibrous. The effect of this condition in the arteries 
is that the limb below is cold, congested, and often ill-nourished. 
The arterv becomes tortuous. Aneurysm frequently results because of 
a weakening of the artery. This occurs when the tissues of the tunica 
intima break down and ulcerate. Thrombosis may be caused by the 
debris from the ulcer within the artery, being carried to other parts of 
the body, also, coagulation of blood at this roughened area may occur. 
This clot may be detached and carried elsewhere and result in the plug- 
ging up of an artery (See Thrombosis and Embolism), or rupture of the 
artery sometimes occurs because of fatty or calcareous changes, which 
so weaken the artery that muscular effort or excitement results 
in apoplexy. Gangrene is not an infrequent result of this endarteritis. 
(See Gangrene). 

The symptoms of chronic endarteritis are: — 

1. Evidences of degeneration generally, arcus senilis, the person 
is prematurely aged. 

2. History of syphilis, tuberculosis, alcoholism, or Bright's dis- 
ease, etc. 

3. The presence of atheroma of the superficial vessels. 

4. Lesions affecting the integrity of the vessel walls. 
Obliterative endarteritis sometimes follows in small arteries where 

thrombosis occurs, or if the inflammation is more violent, it results 
in the obliteration of the artery and occasions great pain and suffering. 
It is fortunate that the disease is rare. Chronic endarteritis may con- 


tinue for years, and if a person leads a quiet life, he may never know 
that his arterial system is fragile and may at any time rupture, caus- 
ing his death. Degenerative changes will continue until the larger 
arteries are affected, when in excitement, or because of the weakened 
artery, at a certain point it dilates and an aneurysm results. 


An aneurysm is an abnormal dilatation of the living artery, 
or a pulsating tumor filled with blood, connected either directly 
or indirectly with an artery. Aneurysms are either spontaneous or 
traumatic. The spontaneous aneurysms result from disease, while a 
traumatic aneurysm results from an injury of the artery. Spontaneous 
aneurysms are the result of obstructions to the circulation, endarteritis, 
atheroma, arterio-sclerosis, or any diseased condition which makes the 
artery weaker at one point than another. 

Aneurysms are further classified into false and true. A false 
aneurysm is one having no coat of the artery intact. A true aneurysm 
is one which has one or more coats of the artery intact. 

Varieties. — Besides (1) false, (2) true, (3) spontaneous, and (4) 
traumatic aneurysm, there are (5) fusiform, in which there is a long, 
spindle-shaped dilatation of the artery, (6) sacculated, where it is in the 
shape of a saccular dilatation of the artery, (7) circumscribed, where it is 
outlined by a wall of resisting tissue, (8) diffuse, where it has not such 
a definite outline, (9) artero-venous, where the aneurysm occurs in con- 
nection with a vein (See traumatic aneurysm), (10) cirsoid, where a num- 
ber of arteries are dilated and pulsatile, and (11) cylindrical, where 
the dilated artery has the same dimensions for some distance. 

Causes. — The causes of aneurysm are, predisposing and exciting. 

The predisposing causes are male sex, occupation, excitement, and 
the presence of certain diseases, as alcoholism, Bright'" s disease, syphilis, 
etc. It happens more frequently in laborers, inasmuch as during violent 
muscular contraction, which to some extent will obstruct the circula- 
tion, or during the time when the heart's action is increased because 
of stimulants, the artery may give way at a weak point. Diseases of 
the arteries, as atheroma and the formation of emboli, also operate as 
predisposing causes. 

The exciting causes are obstructions to the circulation, mechanical 
violence or injury to the artery, abnormal heart action, muscular con- 
tractions, blows, strains, etc. 

Formation. — Aneurysms are formed in several different ways. 
When due to atheroma or to an ulcerative endarteritis, the middle and 
inner coats usually give way. These diseases do not affect the external 
coat, therefore, it only, forms a covering for the artery. The dilatation 
may be medium or may be quite great. A'a the artery dilates, inflamma- 
tory tissues form which prevent the sa . rupturing. Sometimes it may 


be the result of a weakened condition of the artery or era- 
holism of the vasa vasormn and there may he a general dilatation of 
a piece of the artery when none of the coats is absent. The vessel 
may rupture at the point of ulceration in the artery, and the flow of 
blood into the tissues be slow and may excite inflammation and the for- 
mation of fibrous tissue, limiting the diffusion of the blood by a distinct 
sac formed of this inflammatory tissue. In other cases, the blood may 
extravasate in the middle coat separating the internal and a part of the 
middle coat from the external coat, with dilatation of the external 
coat following. This form of aneurysm is called dissecting or consecu- 
tive aneurysm. It may happen that from ulceration or injury, the 
external coat may be weakened so that the middle or internal coat is 
pushed out through the opening in the external coat, this forming 
the wall of the sacculated aneurysm. This is rare. In structure the sac 
may be made up of: — 

1. All the coats of the artery. 

2. It may be the condensed tissues external to the artery, none of 
the coats being intact over the tumor. 

3. The walls of the sac may consist of the external coat only. 

4. The walls of the sac may be the external and part of the middle 
coat (rare). In other cases, still more rare, the inner wall of the sac may 
consist of the middle coat, as in dissecting aneurysm. 

Contents. — The contents of the aneurysm consists more or 
less of clot. Coagulation and organization of the blood within 
the aneurysm, seems to be nature's method of obtaining a cure. The 
blood flows less swiftly inside the sac, the inner surface of the aneurysm 
is rough and the conditions are favorable to coagulation. The 
clot in the aneurysm may be white, or it may be partly white and partly 
red, or it may be entirely red when it forms quickly. It depends upon 
how rapidly the clot forms and under what conditions. 

Results. — Spontaneous recovery in an aneurysm occurs because of 
the deposit of fibrin in the aneurj^smal sac, layer after layer being 
formed until, after a time, the entire sac is filled up. This may become 
orpjinized, forming a hard fibrous mass. The artery beyond the 
aneurysm may be pervious because of collateral circulation having 
been established, or it may become obliterated, the tissues to which 
this artery was originally distributed, being nourished from other 
channels, when a fibrous cord would be the remains of the artery. In 
other cases, a hard, nodular mass the size of the aneurysm, somewhat 
shrunken, will remain. The artery above and below being plugged up, 
an abscess forms and burrows towards the surface and ruptures, the 
disintegrated blood being discharged, and finally, the wound healing, 
leaves a mass of fibrous tissue which is the result of the inflammatory 
process. The arrest of the circulation in the aneurysmal sac is brought 
about by pressure upon the artery between the aneurysm and the heart, 
or pressure upon the artery beyond the aneurysm. In other cases, the cir- 


culation in the artery is slowed and coagulation may set in. If it sets up, 
it may continue until the coagula fill up the entire aneurysmal sac. 
The clots which are formed are classified by some writers as active and 
passive, but whether some of the clots may be more productive of 
favorable reults than others is, perhaps, not known. Coagulation of 
the blood in the sac seems to be the end sought for in almost all the 
operations for aneurysm. 

Eupture of the Sac may lead to very disastrous results in the case 
of aneurysm. Eupture within a joint or the tissues of a member, 
followed by hemorrhage, will result in the obstruction of the circula- 
tion to the limb below and gangrene will occur. Eupture of a popliteal 
aneurysm within the knee-joint, is an indication for amputation. In 
aneurysm of the superficial femoral artery which ruptures within the 
tissues, the blood extravasating along the fascia and muscle-planes will 
sooner or later obstruct the circulation to the leg, and gangrene will 
result. Eupture of an aneurysm within the chest, or on a mucous mem- 
brane, or in the peritoneal cavity, or externally, will result fatally. 

Sloughing during suppuration, folloAving inflammation in the 
aneurysmal sac, may result in serious secondary hemorrhage. 

Destructive changes may follow the pressure of the aneurysm upon 
other tissues. It is a curious fact that the pressure of an aneurysm 
upon hard bone will result in the wearing away, erosion, and absorp- 
tion of the bone. Elastic tissues are less aifected by the pressure of 
the aneurysm than any other. It may result in the paralysis of nerves 
and the obstruction of veins. Aneurysm of the arch of the aorta may 
caose absorption and erosion of the sternum and it may appear beneath 
the skin on the front of the chest. Aneurysm of the descending por- 
tion of the arch of the aorta will cause erosion of the bodies of the 
vertebrae and finally, paralysis, due to pressure upon the nerves. In 
such cases the intervertebral discs are less affected than the bone, 
because of the fact that cartilagenous tissues do not yield to the pres- 
sure of the aneurysm as does bone. It may press upon the artery, of 
which the aneurysm is itself a part, causing obstruction to the circula- 
tion through the aneurysm, or at least an interference with it, to that 
extent that coagulation of the blood may occur within the aneurysm, 
a spontaneous cure resulting. One of the serious results of the pres- 
sure of the aneurysmal sac is pressure upon the accompanying veins of 
the artery, thus obstructing the circulation. 

Gangrene is one of the serious terminations of an aneurysm. It is 
caused by pressure on the main artery, vein, or nerve of a member, or 
by rupture of the aneurysm, thus interfering with the nutrition. 

The effects upon the general health are various, depending largely 
upon the local conditions. The presence of a diseased condition of the 
artery affects the nutrition to the tissues generally, and the person is 
found to be in a conditiou of bad health. 


Symptoms. — The symptoms of aneurysm are (1) pulsation. This 
pulsation is synchronous with the heart-beat. Aneurysm may be mis- 
taken for a tumor which lies immediately over the artery and which 
raises up at each heart-beat because of the distension of the artery. 
The aneurysm not only raises up, but enlarges in all directions, a point 
which must be kept in mind. The pulsation of the tumor is arrested 
by pressure on the artery between the aneurysm and the heart. The 
pulsation in the tumor is markedly increased by pressure on the artery 
beyond the tumor. After a little time, because of pressure on the 
artery beyond the tumor, the pulsation in the aneurysm will disappear. 

2. Pulse. The pulse be} 7 ond the aneurysm is very small, weak, 
or even absent, while, on the proximal side of the aneurysm, the pulse 
is equally as strong as it is in corresponding parts of the body. 

3. Bruit. Upon auscultation, an abnormal sound may be heard 
over the tumor. It is a swishing sound produced by the liquid rushing 
from a smaller into a larger space. This is synchronous with the heart- 

4. Circulatory disturbances are often very marked. In consequence 
of pressure upon the venae comites of the artery, there is edema of 
the part below or beyond the tumor, and there may be even a varicosity 
of the superficial veins in some cases. The pulse beyond the tumor is 
less, and if the limb is raised, it may be absent. Upon elevating the limb 
in which the aneurysm is located, the tumor will be found less tense 
and the circulation to the limb almost arrested, whereas, on lowering 
the limb, the tumor becomes more turgid and the return circulation of 
the limb is affected.. Sphygmographic tracings show that the dicrotic 
wave has disappeared and that the pulse beyond the tumor is some- 
what delayed. 

5. Changes in arteries and other degenerative changes. The pres- 
ence of arcus senilis and degenerative changes in the arteries 
generally (atheroma), and a history of the case, of diabetes, syphilis, 
Bright's disease, etc., will be sufficient, when taken with the symptoms 
present, to make a diagnosis of aneurysm. 

Internal Aneurysm. — Internal aneurysm is more difficult to recog- 
nise. There is no tumor which can be palpated and the signs are often 
obscure. It may be mistaken for valvular heart disease. Pressure upon 
the thoracic viscera, producing dyspnea, violent cough, obstruction to 
the circulation upon the side of the neck and head, or dilatation of the 
pupil, or evidence of pressure upon the large nerves of the neck, will 
be important evidences of thoracic aneurysm. \Yhen taken into con- 
sideration with the interference with the general circulation, or the 
interference in the circulation upon one side of the body and not the 
other, together with the abnormal sounds of the heart upon ausculta- 
tion, the diagnosis of thoracic aneurysm may be made. Aneurysm of 
che abdominal aorta is more easily diagnosed, inasmuch as the tumor is 
more readily accessible. The evidences of rupture of an aneurysm 


Fig. 27. 

^SS^&^l^l^ - the ao rt , 
of Osteopath. branc ^s.- From laboratory Q • %£*"«££££«**. 


into one of the serous cavities of the body, are those of internal 
hemorrhage with rapid collapse. Where the rupture takes place 
within the tissues of a limb, there will he rapid distension of the tissues, 
together with an obstruction to the return circulation. The pressure 
in the tissues occasions great pain. Oftentimes there will he, from 
escape of blood in the tissues, a loss of the pulse beyond and a disap- 
pearance of the bruit. The rapid and intense swelling ends in edema 
and coldness below. Where the loss of blood in the tissues is not suffi- 
ciently great to immediately bring on death, gangrene in the member 
below will follow. Where the rupture of the aneurysm is in one of the 
large cavities, death results quickly from hemorrhage. The rupture 
of a carotid aneurysm may result in almost instant death, whether in 
the tissues of the neck or in the pharynx. Eupture of an aneurysm 
externally, is so rare, and the symptoms so evident, that it merits no 
description. Sometimes an aneurysm is spontaneously cured. Evidence 
of spontaneous cure will be the increased hardness of the tumor and 
the fact that it diminishes in size. There is loss of pulsation and the 
disappearance of the bruit. Sometimes, where the aneurysm involves 
a nerve by the formation of fibrous tissue, because of cicatricial 
contraction occasioned by the plugging of the aneurysm, great pain 
will be experienced. 

Diagnosis. — The diagnosis of aneurysm is sometimes difficult. It 
may be mistaken, under certain circumstances, for (1) tumor over 
the artery, (2) an abscess about an artery, (3) enlarged thyroid, and 
(4) valvular heart disease. The diagnosis between aneurysm and unior 
can be made upon careful examination. The tumor, while it raises up 
with each pulse beat, is not expansile. There is no bruit heard over 
the tumor. Very frequently the tumor may be raised up away from 
the artery. The history of the case and the absence of atheroma will 
be sufficient to form the diagnosis. Furthermore, the pulse beyond the 
tumor is not seriously affected. 

In abscess, the inflammation is more severe. Traumatic aneurysm, 
the result of injury of one or more coats of the artery where inflamma- 
tion is excited, may be puzzling. As for instance, a lady 
in ironing, while turning around to face She table upon which an iron- 
ing board lay, struck the inside of her leg in Scarpa's triangle, against 
the side of the table. She experienced some pain from the injury, but 
gave it little thought and continued with her duties. Swelling fol- 
lowed and within four or five days, an acute inflammation set up. There 
was considerable interference with the return circulation. Upon exam- 
ination it was found that the tumefaction, which had been diagnosed 
as an abscess, was an aneurysm of the superficial femoral artery. The 
inflammation was not severe enough for an abscess, and an abscess 
would not have occasioned the interference with the return circula- 
tion. The bruit heard over the tumor was distinct and upon operation 
the diagnosis was confirmed. The aneurysm was removed and the case 
recovered without untoward symptoms. 


Aneurysm of the common carotid artery and an enlarged thyroid 
gland, are frequently confounded. In exophthalmic goitre, where the 
exophthalmos is not very great and where there is a bruit or abnormal 
sound over the gland, together with a cardiac murmur and tumefaction 
in the neck, the case is often called aneurysm of the carotid artery. In 
these cases the pulse beyond the tumor is found not to be affected. If 
the case is inquired into carefully, this mistake need not be made. In 
goitre there is tachycardia and Graves's sign is present, that 
is, widening of the palpebral fissure. The pulse in the temporal arteries 
on either side is alike. This would not be true of aneurysm. Further- 
more, the enlarged thyroid gland will move with the larynx on degluti- 
tion, the aneurysm will not. In cases where there is no pulsation in 
the aneurysm, the diagnosis is extremely difficult. At all events, where 
the diagnosis is in cloubt, an opinion should be withheld until every 
means of obtaining knowledge of the case is exhausted. 

The diagnosis of aortic aneurysm will ofttimes depend upon one's 
knowledge of, and skill in, physical diagnosis. 

Treatment. — The treatment of aneurysm is (A) Osteopathic, (B) 
Operative, and (C) Dietetic and General. 

Osteopathic Treatment has for its purpose, to decrease the intra- 
arterial tension and to favor coagulation of the blood within the sac. 
Should such coagulation take place, the tumor will become organized 
and harmless. In brief, it simulates nature's method of spontaneous 
cure. When the obliteration of the aneurysm is not possible, as where 
the aorta is involved, the sac wall may be strengthened by removing 
lesions affecting the trophic and vasomotor nerves distributed to the 
arterial wall. For a full discussion of the osteopathic methods of 
treatment, lesions, etc, a text book on the Practice of Osteopathy should 
be consulted. 

The operative treatment consists of (1) pressure. Pressure may be 
administered in several ways:— (a) Digital pressure, which is made by 
the thumbs, assisted by a shot-bag. Pressure is kept up by means of 
intelligent assistants. Pressure is made on the proximal side of the 
tumor "in order to lessen the circulation in the tumor, with .the hope that 
coagulation of the blood will follow. Cases of good results from this 
treatment are reported to have taken, place within a few hours. The 
aneurysm having fdled up with a clot, the clot later becomes organized 
and the aneurysm cured. This method is not practicable in certain 
parts of the bod}', as in the neck, but it is practicable in the gluteal 
region or in the femoral, popliteal, or tibial aneurysms. (b) Flexion. 
Pressure by flexion may be made in cases of popliteal aneurysm, or a 
hollow ball of rubber may be used in case of axillary or subclavian 
aneurysm, the arm being held to the side, while pressure is exercised 
directly upon the tumor, (c) Direct pressure by tourniquet. This 
was formerly used quite extensively, the object being to excite inflam- 
mation in the sac and adhesion of its walls or the formation of clot. 


This method is now rarely used, (d) Pressure by bandage is of ser- 
vice and might be tried in aneurysms in the extremities. This con- 
sists of applying snugly to the limb an Esmarch's elastic bandage, (in 
case of the lower extremity, from the toes up to above the aneurysm. 
The bandage must be loosely applied over the aneurysm and rather 
tightly above it. This cuts oil' the blood supply to the aneurysm some- 
what, making the flow of blood through it slower, rendering coagula- 
tion more likely. This method is said to be quite successful. In all 
these forms, the pressure should not be kept up continuously. In digital 
pressure, the operator may press for a period of ten minutes, when the 
assistant takes up the duty and keeps up pressure for the same length 
of time. This may be kept up for four or five hours during the day, 
on successive clays, and should be left off at night. Esmarch's bandage 
may be applied so long as it can be borne by the patient, or so as not 
to seriously interfere with the circulation to the limb, or so as not to 
cause excruciating pain. It can be applied during the day time and 
removed at night. This method, or the method of digital pressure, 
may be used before operative means are begun. 

(2) Ligature. Ligation of the artery is, perhaps, the best method 
of treatment. It should be tried where the aneurysm is a menace, 
especially after other methods have failed. Operation for ligature of 
the artery varies according to the part of the body in which the 
aneurysm is located. Of the methods in use, the following may 
be mentioned as being of interest, if not the safest to follow: 
(a) Hunter's method. This method consists in ligating.the artery at a 
distance from the aneurysm. It was devised by the illustrious John 
Hunter, recognizing the fact that the artery adjacent to the aneurysm, 
is often diseased, and that ligation some distance above is safer. 
If the operation is done within the healthy tissues, it does not entirely 
interfere with the circulation to the part below. Pulsation does not 
return in the tumor. Secondary hemorrhage is not so common. Col- 
lateral branches finally distend and take up the function of the artery 
below, the inflammation disappears, and the aneurysm becomes more 
or less absorbed. Occasionally it is found that after Hunter's operation, 
an abscess, or symptoms like those of an abscess, follow. Should 
this happen, as soon as pus is evident, the abscess is opened and drained 
and the cavity packed with gauze. 

(b) Anel's method. x\nel's method was to ligate the artery imme- 
diately above the aneurysm. This operation is no longer used except in 
special locations. Furthermore, it has no advantage over the Hunterian 

(c) Antyllus's method. The old operation of Antyllus is no longer 
used, inasmuch as abscess or suppuration is likely to occur. This 
method consists of ligation of the artery immediately above and below 
the aneurysm. It is perhaps valuable for traumatic aneurysms, but is 
not a good method for the treatment of a spontaneous aneurysm where 



there is disease of the artery. This method has given way to extirpa- 

(d) Basdor's method. Basdor's method consists of ligation of the 
artery beyond the aneurysm. This prevents blood going from the 
aneurysm, but allows it to go in. It arrests pulsation in the tumor, 
favors coagulation and the formation of a clot. Tbe clot, of course, 
may become organized and the aneurysm disappear. 

(e) Wardrop's operation. This consists in ligating the main branch 

Fig. 28. 

Method of Antyllus for treatment of aneurysm. 

of the ■ artery beyond the aneurysm, in an effort to arrest the rapid- 
ity of the circulation through the tumor. These operations are hardly 

(3) Excision. Of late years excision has grown into favor. The 
objection to excision is that it is a prolonged and difficult operation, 
•md that it is frequently necessary to remove the venae comites with 
the aneurysm. Where this occurs it may so interfere with the return 

Fig. 29. 

Anel's method of ligaturing an aneurysm. 

circulation through the limb that gangrene will follow. With im- 
proved technic and a knowledge of the tissues in which the aneurysm 
is located, together with a careful consideration of the condition of 
the artery, it is perhaps the. safest operation. Should the patient be 
feeble and aged, a prolonged operation should not be undertaken. 
Then the .Hunterian operation is, perhaps, tbe best, or Wardrop's or 
Basdor's operation may be undertaken. These operations are not so 
difficult nor are they attended with such danger. But where the 
patient is in good, physical condition, excision may be undertaken. The 



argument that the artery near the sac is diseased, is not of sufficient 
weight to warrant going higher than the end of the aneurysmal sac, 
since, if there is a condition of general atheroma, it will be at all points. 
In an excision under approved surgical conditions where the ligatures 
are absolutely sterile, suppuration will be less likely than by ligation 
above and below the tumor. 

(4) Galvano-puncture or Electrolysis and Injections are all now ob- 
solete. They are attended with too much danger and should never, 

Ftg. 30. 

Basdor's method of operation. 

under any circumstances, be undertaken. Xone of them has been 
attended with sufficient success to warrant any such procedure. Irri- 
tation of the inside of the sac by McEwen's method, is of no value. 

(5) Manipulation is one of the operative methods which may be un- 
dertaken in the treatment of aneurysm. It consists in manipulating 
the aneurysm, with the idea that a piece of the clot may be dislodged 
and plug up the mouth of the sac. This method is not unattended with 
danger. In case of aneurysm of the common or external carotid artery, 

Fig. 31. 

Wardrop's method of operation. 

a piece of clot may be dislodged; embolism of one of the cerebral 
arteries results, producing hemiplegia. It may be undertaken in 
an aneurysm of the lower extremity. Here it would not likely be 
attended by any such serious results. 

Dietetic and General Treatment.— Absolute physical and mental rest 
should be enjoined. The person should be free from excitement and 
mental worry. All muscular effort in the member should be stopped. 
The patient should be confined to his room, and, at least a part of the 
time, in bed. Where it is an unfavorable case, it should be explained to 


the patient, that he carries his life in his own hands and that a sudden 
rupture of the aneurysm would be serious. The diet should he simple 
and only sufficient to nourish the hod}', and should consist of plain food 
well cooked and not a great variety. 

Cirsoid Aneurysm. — The treatment of cirsoid aneurysm is somewhat 
different from the treatment of ordinary aneurysm. This variety of 
aneurysm consists of a general dilatation and pouching and lengthening 
of one artery, or several arteries, with their branches. After the disease 
continues for some length of time, it involves even the veins and capil- 
laries in the same area. The walls of the vessels become thin, lose their 
contractility and there seems to be absorption of the muscular and elas- 
tic coats, only the outer coat remaining. Eupture is not unusual. Their 
location is on the face and scalp. In some cases, they may em- 
brace the whole of one side of the head. They are more common in the 
temporal artery. The diagnosis is easy, but differs somewhat from 
ordinary cases of aneurysm. The thrill and bruit are somewhat difler- 

FiG. 32. 

Hunter's method of ligation of an artery for aneurysm, 

ent. ligation of the larger arteries which supply the tumor, is a failure. 
Subcutaneous ligation seems to be successful in some cases. Direct 
pressure is also successful in certain cases and should be tried 
in all cases at first. Ligation en masse is the only successful method of 
treatment. Where the veins and capillaries are involved, the treatment 
is somewhat different. (See Nevus.) 

Traumatic Aneurysm. — In this condition, there has been puncture or 
rupture of the artery, which results, either in the formation of a sac 
with part of the artery for its wall, or an effusion of blood within the 
tissues sets up an inflammation and the resulting tissues become con- 
densed and form a wall for the slowly flowing blood. In trau- 
matic aneurysm, there is a large, and somewhat oblong, fluctuating 
tumor. In the limb below the aneurysm, there is no pulse, and it 
is cold and perhaps swollen. The skin is purple, and if the 
vein is also ruptured, the obstruction to the circulation may be com- 
plete or, if there is rupture in a joint, an amputation is indicated. 

The most frequent aneurysm produced by injury is the artero-venous 
or Pott's aneurysm. This aneurysm is now rare. In former times, when 
bleeding was common, an aneurysm was frequently seen on the front of 
the elbow. It was produced by wounds of both the vein and artery, the 
two healing together. There are two forms of this aneurysm, one the 


varicose aneurysm, in which the communication between the artery and 
vein is through an intervening sac. The second variety is aneurysmal 
varix, a condition in which there is no such intervening tumor between 
the connecting vein and artery, but the vein dilates and forms a tume- 
faction, the blood flowing directly from the artery into the vein. Con- 
ditions may still arise in civil practice, in case of punctured 
wounds, where the artery and vein are both wounded, the blood flowing 
from the artery directly into the vein. Where the opening into the 
vein is not so large as that in the artery, more blood will perhaps get 
out of the artery than goes into the vein, under which condition 
the varicose aneurysm will result, that is, a considerable sac will exist 
between the artery and the vein. The vein will not be so dilated. 

Symptoms of Artero- Venous Aneurysm. — The symptoms of this form 
of aneurysm are a large swelling, with pulsation. On auscultation, a 
loud bruit is heard which is transmitted along the veins. The veins 
above and below the tumor, are tortuous and pulsatile. The 
limb is swollen and congested and the parts painful. There is a dis- 
tinct thrill in the tumor, which is lessened on pressure. The diagnosis 
between anep.r) r smal varix and varicose aneun r sm is often very difficult. 
When the pressure upon the main artery causes a disappearance of the 
tumor, it is said to be one of aneurysmal varix, but when such disappear- 
ance does not occur, it is said to be varicose aneurysm. Varicose an- 
eurysm may be emptied by direct pressure. Palliative measures should 
be used. The vein does not tend to rupture, but becomes 
thickened and, after a time, cease to enlarge. Usually some form of 
support is necessary. The part is much swollen and very painful. The 
artery should be tied abore and below the tumor. Both vessels may 
be ligated, providing they can be separated with ease. Ordinary pres- 
sure treatment for aneurysm should be used here before any other 
kind of treatment is applied. Tf this fails, the artery should be tied. 
It is a good plan in these cases, to excise the mass if it can be readily 

Indications for Amputation. 

Amputation is frequently required in case of aneurysm. The condi- 
tions which demand amputation may be summarized as follows: 

1. When gangrene of the limb is im- it recurs it often becomes much 

minent. worse. 

2. Suppuration of the aneurysm after 5. Rupture of the aneurysm into a joint, 

other methods have been tried. or the erosion of bones. 

3. Where severe secondary hemorrhage 6. Rupture of the aneurysm subcutane- 

follows and threatens life. ously, causing rapid effusion of 

4. Recurrence of the aneurysm. When blood, may call for amputation. 


Wounds of arteries may be classified as wounds of other tissues, or 
incised, contused, punctured, gunshot, etc. 

Contused Wounds. — A contused wound of an artery may entirely 
destroy the vitality of the coats, and sloughing, followed by hemorrhage, 


result, or the contusion may rupture the blood-vessel, which will he 
evidenced by the effusion of blood among the tissues. The evidence 
of rupture- of the artery will he plain — a rapidly forming, fluctuating 
tumor and absence of the pulse beyond the injury. There will he no 
bruit and likely no pulsation over die swelling. The limb will become 
cold from effusion of blood causing obstruction to the return 
circulation. If collateral circulation is more or less set up and 
there is not too much obstruction to the return circulation, swell- 
ing will occur only at the site of injury. The swelling may extend to 
other parts of the limb. If there is rupture of a large vein, a tumor 
occurs at the point of rupture, and if the obstruction to the return cir- 
culation is very great, which happens if the main vein of the 
part becomes ruptured, edema of the member will be one of the chief 
signs. In contusions of an artery, unless it is of a very large artery, 
nature will arrest the hemorrhage. The internal coat curls up and 
favors coagulation. If collateral circulation is not sufficient after the 
formation of the clot which may involve some of the branches of the 
artery, gangrene of the member will follow. The results of contusion 
might be summed up as gangrene from thrombosis and secondary 

Irscised Wounds. — Incised wounds of an artery are more apt to be 
serious. Hemorrhage is rapidly profuse, but contraction of the middle 
coat and a curling of the inner coat will, after a time, occur. A trans- 
verse wound causes profuse bleeding, but is not so serious as an oblique 
wound. The clot which forms within the artery is called the internal 
clot. That which forms on the outside is called the external clot. The 
place of the internal clot will be taken up by fibrous tissue. The 
external clot will be absorbed. Circulation will take place around this 
area. The small arteries will become enlarged and if the circulation is 
sufficient, the vitality of the member will be only temporarily held in 
abeyance. If the circulation is almost entirely cut off, necrosis will 
likely follow. 

Lacerated Wounds. — A lacerated wound of an artery causes little 
primary hemorrhage, as a rule, since the conditions present favor coag- 
ulation. Secondary hemorrhage may come on, which will give consid- 
erable trouble sometimes. This should be looked for in all cases of 
lacerated wounds affecting arteries. 

Punctured Wounds. — Punctured wounds are not immediately 
serious, but traumatic aneurysm often follows. 

Gunshot Wounds. — Gunshot wounds may, because of contusion a 
the artery wall, result in thrombosis, hemorrhage, gangrene, etc., or 
may cut the artery entirely off, serious hemorrhage resulting. In some 
cases, the wound will be clean-cut, in other cases it will be in the nature 
of a contusion. When the wound is adjacent to an artery, in some cases 
it may cause laceration. The results of these wounds are similar to 



The ligature of an artery in continuity is sometimes required in the 
treatment of aneurysm, as it may he the only method, other than ampu- 
tation, which will give relief. The operation consists in dividing all 
the tissues evenly, parallel to the vessel in question, and opening the 
sheath of the artery, without disturbing the neighboring structures, 
then passing a ligature of silk, chromicised catgut, or some other suita- 
ble ligature material about the artery and tying it so as to obstruct the 
flow of blood along the artery. The ligature should be tied sufficiently 
tight to entirely constrict the lumen of the artery. 

Instruments. — The instruments needed are a scalpel and dissecting 
forceps, a grooved director, artery forceps (a half dozen or more), 
retractors, aneurysm-needles, blunt hooks, ligature material, and ordi- 
nary needles for the closure of the wound. 

Operation. — In general, the operation consists of the following pro- 
cedure. The strictest asepsis must be maintained in every particular. 
The ligature material must be not only properly prepared, but 
it must be known to be aseptic. After every preparation has been 
made, the line of the artery marked out, the muscular guide located, 
an incision is made, generally parallel with the artery, and all of the 
structures divided in equal length down to the sheath of the artery. 
The skin and fascia may be divided with a scalpel. A dissecting forceps 
may then be used and the fascia lifted up and divided until the sheath 
of the artery presents itself, then the sheath of the artery must be 
lifted up and divided and the artery itself entirely separated from the 
surrounding structures. Where it is deep seated, a double curved 
aneurysm-needle is necessary. The aneurysm-needle may be 
threaded with a very fine strand of catgut or silk and passed around 
the artery. To the end of this fine strand of silk is attached the 
ligature material proper, which is then pulled through, bringing the 
ligature beneath the artery. It is said this subjects the artery to less 
irritation. Under most circumstances the artery can be so exposed 
and the needle so readily passed around the artery to be ligated, that 
the above procedure is hardly necessary. In making the incision in the 
sheath of the vessel, the back of the knife should be kept towards the 
artery. The sheath should be picked up, a delicate incision longi- 
tudinal to the artery should be made, when the sheath may be stripped 
off by means of dissecting forceps. The opening in the sheath should 
be from three-fourths to one inch in length. The sheath of the artery 
may then be grasped in forceps and held steacty while the operator 
passes an aneurysm-needle around the artery. He should note that he 
has no other structures engaged than the artery itself. The ligature 
may then be passed through the eye of the needle around the vessel. 
It is tied in a direction exactly at right angles to the longitudinal axis 
of the artery. Under no circumstances should the artery be dragged 
out of the wound, but it should be tied in the position in which it is 


found. A reef knot is the one used. It is better than a fric- 
tion knot and is not so complicated as other knots. It is a general rule 
that, when.passing the needle around the artery, it should be directed 
away from the other important structures which may lie adjacent to 
the artery. If, by accident, the accompanying vein to the artery is 
punctured, the needle must be withdrawn and the opening in the vein 
ligatured before further procedure. In case of small arteries, no trou- 
ble will arise from the ligation of the accompanying vein along with 
the artery, but this should not be done in case of the brachial or 
femoral, inasmuch as it will interfere quite seriously with the return 

The ligature used should be a specially prepared form of chromi- 
cized catgut and should be at least a foot or more in length to permit 
of the ends being sufficiently long that tying may take place easily 
and rapidly. No one should attempt the operation until he is thor- 
oughly familiar with the location of the artery and the landmarks or 
muscular guides. Both deep and superficial guides should be kept in 
mind at all times. Every structure divided in continuity by the surgeon 
should be recognized. . When the artery is reached, it can be told by 
pulsation. It is more easily recognizable in the living subject than in 
the dead. 

After Treatment.— The after treatment of the operation consists 
in maintaining the strictest asepsis and cleanliness. Under ordi- 
nary circumstances, the wound should be healed and the stitches re- 
moved in from seven to ten days. A limb must be elevated and kept 
quiet. It should be bandaged snugly with a woolen bandage to keep 
the limb warm, and if it is necessary, hot water bottles should be 
applied. In debilitated conditions, or in elderly people, the patient 
should be kept quiet a longer period than ten days, to allow the tissues 
to consolidate, so that subsequent inflammation will not arise. Should 
the operator be afraid of gangrene, for some little time before the 
operation, the limb should be thoroughly washed several times with 
antiseptics, while the limb may be elevated and enveloped in aseptic 
lamb's wool. 

Dangers of Ligation. — The dangers of ligation of an artery are sec- 
ondary hemorrhage and gangrene. 

Secondary hemorrhage from the ligation of an artery occurs in 
sentic conditions, where the arterv sloughs and the clot formed within 
the artery is not sufficient to entirely plug it up, or where the ulcera- 
tion extends into the accompamnng vein. This secondary hemorrhage, 
if it is severe, may necessitate amputation unless the artery can be 
liga+cd a second time higher up. 

Gangrene may arise from several different conditions; usually it 
is simply from a loss of vitality. The maximum amount of blood dis- 
tributed to the limb by means of collateral circulation is not sufficient 
to keep the tissues alive. Collateral circulation will depend upon the 


condition of the artery and the location. If arterio-sclerosis or atheroma 
is present, collateral circulation will not likely be sufficient. In any 
case where gangrene occurs, it will begin in the terminal structures, 
e. g., in the ends of the fingers, ends of the toes, or the structures near 
the cortex of the brain. 

Should primary or secondary hemorrhage occur, the gangrene is 
then of the dry form. Gangrene occurs also where there is an 
obstruction to the venous return. It frequently happens that, in the 
removal of an aneurysm or the ligature of an artery, the accom- 
panying vein is caught up with the artery, or because of some other 
condition existing, there are inflammatory tissues thrown out. These 
form an obstruction to the return circulation. A sufficient amount 
of blood enters the limb, but after getting in, it can not get out, there- 
fore the tissues die from a lack of nutrition. The kind of gangrene 
occurring under such circumstances, is moist. Bandages, too 
tightly applied, may operate as an obstruction to the return circulation 
with similar effect. Gangrene may also occur because of an attack 
of erysipelas, or because of injudicious after-treatment, in the use of 
ice-bags, or in not keeping the limb warm, or in too high elevation. 
Every precaution should be taken to prevent the occurrence of gan- 
grene and when it does appear, every precaution should be taken to 
limit it. It is not unusual that in ligating the femoral artery there will 
be death of the toes. Gangrene may extend no farther if the patient 
is well nourished and the limb is properly treated. Such parts, after 
having dried,- may be removed by a secondary operation, when the 
circulation seems to have been thoroughly established to the limb. 

Position of the Patient During' an Operation. — The position of the 
patient during the operation should be that which makes the artery 
most easily accessible and exaggerates the outline of the muscular 

Ligation of Special Arteries. — Arteria Innominata. — To ligate the 
innominate artery, an incision should be made along the lower one- 
third of the anterior border of the sterno-cleido-mastoicl. The incision 
is usually extended down across the suprasternal notch. The inner ten- 
don of the sterno-mastoid should be divided and the anterior jugular 
veins secured. The sterno-hyoid and sterno-thyroid muscles should be 
successively divided. The carotid sheath should be located and fol- 
lowed and opened, and the artery traced down to where it is given 
off from the arteria innominata. At this point the innominate artery 
may be ligated. It has been ligated six times successfully out of thirty 
or more operations. The tissues to be avoided are the internal jugular 
and innominate veins which lie to the outer side of the vessel. The 
vagus nerve and the pleura also, are to the outer side, and these should 
be carefully separated from the artery. The aneurysm-needle should 
be passed from without in. Collateral circulation is established by 
means of the vertebral, basilar, circle of Willis, branches of external 


carotid, superior intercostal, aortic intercostals, deep epigastric, inter- 
nal mammary, and phrenic arteries. 

Carotid. — The carotid artery is ligated below the omo-hyoid in the 
inferior carotid triangle or above the omo-hyoid in the superior carotid 
triangle. It should always be ligated in the superior triangle if possible. 
The superficial muscular guide is the sterno-mastoid, the deep muscular 
guide, the omo-hyoid. The vessel should be uncovered at a point where 
this muscle crosses the artery and it may then be ligated above or 
below. The course of the artery may be indicated by a line drawn 
from the sterno-clavicular articulation, to a point midway between the 
angle of the jaw and the mastoid process. An incision, two and one- 
half inches long, should be made along the anterior border of the sterno- 
mastoid. The edge of the muscle should be uncovered and pulled back, 
which exposes the common sheath, including the common carotid 
artery, the jugular vein and pneumogastric nerve. The artery is on 
the inner side, the vein on the outer side, and the nerve between the 
two, but on a plane posterior to both, while in front of the sheath will 
be found the filaments from the loop of communication between the 
descendens and communicans noni nerves. The sheath should be 
opened with care not to destroy these nerves. Preliminary hemorrhage, 
incident to uncovering the sheath, should be staunched. After the 
sheath is opened, the sheath of the carotid itself should be opened and 
separated and the needle passed around the artery. The needle should 
be passed from without inward. The sheath should be opened suf- 
ficiently, so it will be plain that the pneumogastric nerve is not included 
in the ligature. The operation above the omo-hyoid does not differ 
in any way from that below, except it may be necessary to pull the 
depressors of the os-hyoid inward, while the sterno-mastoid may be 
pulled outward. It may be necessary to divide the anterior fibres of 
the sterno-mastoid. The effect of the ligature of the common 
carotid artery is curious and interesting. Either soon after, or in a few 
days, brain symptoms manifest themselves in about twenty-five per 
cent of the cases. These symptoms are in the nature of syncope, 
because of anemia, and in a few days there are evidences of cerebral 
softening, convulsions, coma, and death. In the cases thus affected, 
about one-half will terminate fatally. In some cases there may be 
congestion of the lungs, perhaps due to irritation of the pneumogas- 
tric nerve. In other cases, the sympathetic nerves seem to be affected; 
perhaps inflammatory tissue involves the sympathetic trunk. Collateral 
circulation is then established chiefly by means of the vertebrals, pro- 
funda cervicis, arteria princeps cervicis, inferior thyroid, superficial 
cervical, and occipital arteries. 

Internal Carotid. — Ligature of the internal carotid artery may be de- 
manded, under rare circumstances, for aneurysm and hemorrhage. It 
may be done in any part of its course, but preferably, just after the 
bifurcation of the common carotid. The operation is similar to that 


for ligation of the common carotid, but a trifle higher up. A. three- 
inch incision along the anterior border of the sterno-rrrastoid muscle, 
(which is the muscular guide), opposite the greater cornu of the os- 
hyoid, should be made. The aneurysm-needle is.passed toward the middle 
line, away from the internal jugular vein. Collateral circulation is 
established chiefly through the circle of Willis. 

External Carotid. — The external carotid artery may be ligated in 
any part of its course, but the operation seems easiest above the point 
where the superior thyroid branch is given off. A three-inch incision 
is made along the anterior margin of the sterno-mastoid, when the 
muscle is uncovered and drawn backward and the digastric muscle is 
exposed. Care should be taken not to injure the hypoglossal nerve. 
The sheath should be opened below the hypoglossal nerve, where it 
winds around the occipital artery. The ligature is applied below the 
cornu of the os-hyoid, and the aneurysm-needle should be passed under 
the artery toward the middle line of the neck. Enlarged glands make 
the operation difficult. Furthermore, any irregularity in the position 
of the anterior branches of the artery, will make the operation more 
difficult. It is also necessary to avoid the loop of communication 
between the descendens and communicans noni and the superior laryn- 
geal nerve which lie in close connection with the external carotid. 

Superior Thyroid. — An incision is made as in ligating the external 
carotid. The superior thyroid is tied just where it is given off. 

Lingual. — Ligature of the lingual artery is sometimes done for 
malignant disease or injury of the tongue. The operation is difficult 
and requires the utmost care. The artery is preferably ligated beneath 
the hyo-glossus in the submaxillary triangle of the neck. It may be 
ligated just at its origin in a manner similar to the ligation of the 
external carotid. For the technic of the operation, larger works should 
be consulted. 

Facial. — The facial artery is best ligated where it crosses the lower 
jaw in front of the masseter muscle. A vertical incision, an inch long, 
dividing the skin and deep fascia, will uncover the artery, when it may 
be readily tied. 

Temporal. — The temporal artery is best tied where it crosses the 
zygoma. At this point it is quite superficial and is covered only by 
skin and fascia. Sometimes the auriculo-temporal nerve is in relation 
with the temporal artery and care should be taken not to wound it or 
to engage it within the ligature. 

Occipital. — An incision, two inches long, backward and upward from 
the mastoid process of the temporal bone, should be made, uncovering 
the posterior fibres of the sterno-mastoid. The fibres of the trachelo- 
mastoid and the splenius capitis are divided. This will expose the 
artery as it emerges from behind the mastoid process, when the ligature 
may be readily applied. 


Subclavian. — This artery is most frequently ligated in the third 
part of- its course, between the scalenus anticus muscle and the lower 
border of the first rib. The operation may be done for the purpose of 
controlling hemorrhage after wound of the brachial, or aneurysm of 
the subclavian, or because of injury. The patient should be placed in 
a recumbent posture and the face turned to the opposite side. The arm 
should be depressed and the shoulders drawn close to the edge of the 
table. A four-inch incision is made over the clavicle after the skin has 
been drawn down, so that on relaxation, the skin is returned over the 
clavicle. The deep structures are exposed beneath the sterno-mastoid 
and trapezius in the subclavian triangle. The external jugular and 
communicating veins are drawn to one side. The connective tissues are 
divided, care being taken to avoid severing the suprascapular and the 
transversalis cervicis arteries. If the posterior belly of the omo-hyoid 
muscle presents itself, it should be drawn upward. The connective tis- 
sues are separated, when the linger may be introduced and the 
scalenus tubercle on the first rib located. The artery should then be. 
isolated from the vein, and the cords of the brachial plexus may be 
pulled to one side. Great care is necessary to avoid wounding, injur- 
ing, or including any of the cords of the brachial plexus, inasmuch as 
one cord is on the inside, one posterior, and one on the outside of the 
artery. Serious injury may be done to the veins in the neck, also the 
pleura may be wounded. These are the chief dangers of the operation. 
Collateral circulation is set up through the branches of the thyroid 
axis and subclavian, axillary, and external carotid. 

Internal Mammary. — The internal mammary artery is best ligated 
on the front of the chest, by removal of a costal cartilage. The costal 
cartilage is either incised or removed and the artery exposed without 
opening the pleura. It lies a half-inch to an inch from the margin 
of the sternum. In case of hemorrhage, it may be necessary to 
secure both ends of the artery. 

Vertebral. — The vertebral artery can readily be ligated just before 
it enters the foramen at the base of the transverse process of the sixth 
cervical vertebra. A three and a half -inch incision is made along the 
posterior border of the sterno-mastoid. The scalenus anticus muscle 
must be located and the phrenic nerve by all means avoided. The 
interval between the scalenus anticus and longus colli muscle, should 
be noted. It is in this interval in which the vertebral artery is found. 
If a few sympathetic nerve branches are included in the ligature, con- 
traction of the pupil results. 

Inferior Thyroid. — The inferior thyroid artery must be tied by an 
operation in the inferior carotid triangle. The operation is difficult. 
An incision three inches long is made along the anterior border of the 
lower part of the sterno-mastoid muscle, the muscle is drawn back- 
ward and the sheath of the carotid vessels drawn upAvard. It may be 
necessary to divide the sterno-hyoid and the sterno-thyroid. Behind 


the sheath of the common carotid artery, the inferior thyroid is found 
as it arches upward and inward. Care should be taken not to injure 
the sympathetic trunk. The middle cervical ganglion lies directly on 
the artery. 

Axillary. — The axillary artery is tied, in preference to the brachial, 
when injury or aneurysm require ligature high up. There are two 
operations which are practiced, either one of which is good. The arm 
should be fully abducted and the operation performed from the axilla, 
if possible. The surgeon should stand between the patient's arm and 
his body. An incision is made along the course of the vessel, which is 
at the junction of the anterior and middle third of the space between 
the two folds of the axilla. The coraco-brachialis muscle should be 
clearly defined, as it is the muscular guide to the artery. The muscle 
should be drawn outward, which exposes the median and external 
cutaneous nerves, which are drawn inward. This exposes the artery. 
The needle should be passed from the vein accompanying the artery, 
after the nerves have been thoroughly separated from it. The anas- 
tomosis about the shoulder is free. 

Brachial. — The brachial artery requires ligature in wounds of the 
palmar arch or for aneurysm or artero-venous wounds at the bicipital 
space. The arm should be held away from the side and not supported 
on the table, but rather held by an assistant. The surgeon may stand 
between the arm and the trunk. The biceps muscle is the muscular 
guide. A two-inch incision is made along its border and the skin and 
fascia divided, when the biceps is drawn slightly outward and the 
median nerve ex.posed. As the nerve, which crosses the artery in the 
middle part of its course, is brought into view, it should be drawn 
inward. The artery should be separated from its venae comites, care 
being taken not to inclose any other structures within the ligature. 
Collateral circulation takes place through the free anastomosis of the 
profunda, anastomotica magna, and recurrent arteries about the elbow. 

Ulnar. — The ulnar artery may be tied in the middle of the fore- 
arm or at the wrist. The muscular guide is the tendon of the flexor 
carpi ulnaris. An inch incision is made, the flexor carpi ulnaris drawn 
inward, and the artery exposed. The venae comites should be sep- 
arated. The ulnar nerve will be found, on the inner side of the artery, 
which should be avoided in passing the ligature. In the middle of the 
forearm, a line drawn from the inner condyle to the pisiform bone, will 
mark the line of incision. The incision should be made at the inter- 
muscular septum between the flexor carpi ulnaris and the flexor 
sublimis digitorum muscles. The artery lies under cover of the flexor 
carpi ulnaris, and if one succeeds in finding this intermuscular septum, 
the artery is easily discovered and tied. It is said that the most com- 
mon mistake which happens is, that the operator will separate portions 
of the flexor sublimis digitorum, or that he will get too far to the radial 
side between the flexor sublimis digitorum and the palmaris longus. 


Radial. — The radial artery may be tied at three points, in the 
upper one-third of the arm, above the wrist, and at the back of the 
wrist. The supinator longus is the muscular guide. An incision is 
made along the inner border of this muscle, when it is raised up, expos- 
ing the artery. The radial nerve is on the outer side and 
separated by a small interval. The artery may be readily tied at this 

Above the wrist, the artery lies between the tendons of the flexor 
carpi radialis and the supinator longus and is subcutaneous. An in- 
cision is made between these two tendons. The artery is readily exposed. 

On the back of the wrist, the radial artery is ligated in what is known 
as the anatomical snuff-box, or inter-tendinous hollow, below the styloid 
process of the radius. The artery is here found directed towards the 
first interosseous space underneath the extensor tendons. 

Abdominal Aorta. — Ligation of the abdominal aorta, according to 
Tillaux, has been done fourteen times. Death is reported in all cases, 
although a patient operated upon by Keene lived until the forty-eighth 
day. The operation is both difficult and dangerous. Patients usually 
die of sepsis. For a description of the operation, the student is referred 
to large works on operative surgery. 

Common Iliac. — The common iliac arteries may be ligatured by two 
methods, one by an extraperitoneal method, where the peritoneum is 
not opened, similar to operation for ligation of the external iliac, and 
by the trans-peritoneal operation, where the artery is ligated through 
the peritoneum. The operation is rather difficult and requires a thor- 
ough knowledge of the technic. With strictest asepsis the operation 
is not necessarily fatal. The method of procedure will be found dis- 
cussed at length in more extensive texts. 

Internal Iliac. — Occasionally, the internal iliac artery is ligated for 
hernia, hemorrhage, or aneurysm. The trunk is short, hence ligation 
is done just after the bifurcation of the common iliac. 

Gluteal. — Ligation is necessary in case of gluteal aneurysm. The 
gluteal artery emerges from the pelvis through the great sacro-sciatic 
notch above the pyriformis muscle. A line drawn from the great 
trochanter to the posterior superior iliac spine at the junction of the 
upper one-third of this line with the middle one-third, will mark the 
point of incision. An incision is made along this line just mentioned, 
and the fibres of the gluteal muscles are separated and held apart. 
Through the space between the gluteus medius and minimus, the 
pyriformis muscle is located. The artery may now be ligated. Some 
believe that it is wiser to deal with the trunk of the internal iliac, inas- 
j much as the operation is difficult. 

Sciatic and Pudic. — The sciatic and pudic arteries are rarely ever 
; tied, but are best located opposite the sciatic spine. 


External Iliac. — The external iliac artery is accessible in any part 
of its course. It has but two branches, the deep epigastric and deep 
circumflex iliac, and these come off in the lower portion. A line drawn 
from the bifurcation of the aorta to the middle of Poupart's ligament, 
will indicate the course of the artery. The following operation is 
one of the various operations described, which is generally utilized: 
An incision four inches in length extends from a point one and a half 
inches above the anterior superior spine, to one-half inch below the 
middle of Poupart's ligament. The muscles are successively divided 
until the fascia transversalis is reached. At this point, if the trans- 
versalis fascia is thick, it should be opened. Sometimes it is not well 
developed, when, unless eare is taken, the peritoneum may be opened. 
The peritoneum and its contents are now stripped from the pelvic wall 
with the hand by careful dissection. The incision should be large 
enough and the peritoneum separated sufficiently far back to uncover 
the psoas muscle; the artery lies on the inner border of this 
muscle. It can be readily found enveloped in fascia, while lying over 
it is the genito crural nerve, the vein being on the inner side of the 
artery. The sheath is opened and the artery separated from the vein 
and the genito crural nerve. The aneurysm needle is passed from 
within out. This is Abernathy's method of operation. Collateral cir- 
culation is established through the internal mammary, superficial and 
deep epigastric, lumbar arteries, lower intercostals, also by means of 
the crucial anastomosis on the back of the leg; also, by the anastomo- 
sis of the ilio-lumbar and gluteal with the circumflex iliac and external 
circumflex arter}^ and with the anastomosis of the obturator artery. 

Common Femoral. — This artery is rarely ever ligated, except in hip 
amputation. The superficial femoral is usually ligated because it 
permits of much better collateral circulation. The artery is located 
by a line drawn from the mid point of a line extending from the 
anterior superior spine to the symphysis, to the internal condyle of the 
femur. If the limb is flexed and abducted, the artery may be readily 
picked up at the apex of Scarpa's triangle or in Hunter's canal. 

In Scarpa's triangle an incision is made over the direction of the 
arter3 r , about a hand's breadth below Poupart's ligament. The incision 
should be about three or four inches long. The border of the sartorius 
muscle is the muscular guide. The middle cutaneous nerve presents, 
lying over the sheath of the artery. The muscle is drawn aside and 
the sheath may be opened and the artery exposed. The needle may 
be passed in either direction, especial care being taken not to enclose 
any other structures. 

When possible, the artery should be .ligated in Hunter's canal. A 
four-inch incision is made over the line of the artery and after the 
fascia lata is divided, the sartorius muscle is exposed. The outer border 
of the muscle is located and the muscle drawn inward. As it is drawn 
inward it discloses the aponeurotic covering of Hunter's canal. This 


canal is opened, which exposes the femoral artery and vein and long 
saphenous nerve. The nerve to the vastus internus lies on the outer 
side of the artery. The long saphenous nerve crosses the artery from 
without inward, while the vein lies to the inner side and behind. The 
needle may he passed in either direction, hut with great care. ]STo mis- 
take need he made in locating Hunter's canal, if it is borne in mind 
that it is directly beneath the sartorius muscle, and as the sartorius 
muscle is raised up in its sheath, the glistening surface of the. 
aponeurotic covering of the canal may he seen. 

Popliteal. — The popliteal artery may be ligated just after the 
femoral artery has passed through the opening in the adductor mag- 
nus, but the operation is more troublesome and has no advantage over 
the ligation of the femoral. The artery may also be tied in the lower 
part of its course where it lies on the popliteus muscle in the popliteal 
space. But this operation has no advantage over the ligation of the 
superficial femoral in Hunter s canal. 

Posterior Tibial. — Ligature of the posterior tibial artery may be 
required in case of hemorrhage. It may be ligated in the calf, in the 
lower one-thiid of the leg, or just behind the internal malleolus. An 
incision should be made an inch behind the inner border of the tibia. 
The incision should be at least four inches long. The internal saphe- 
nous nerve is met with and should he pulled to one side. The artery 
lies just underneath the soleus muscle. The incision should expose the 
tibial origin of the soleus which is severed at the oblique line of the 
tibia. The muscle is pulled up and the artery exposed. If possible, the 
venae comites should be separated. The nerve should be distinguished 
from the artery, which is easily done, and the aneurysm-needle passed 
around the artery away from the nerve. 

In the lower one-third of the leg, an incision is made midway 
between the border of the Achilles tendon and the inner border of the 
tibia. The artery is found lying on the flexor longus digitorum muscle. 
The nerve is on the outer side and behind. In passing the needle this 
nerve should be avoided. 

Behind the malleolus the incision is made a finger's breadth behind 
the internal malleolus. The deep fascia is divided between the extensor 
longus digitorum and the flexor longus hallucis, and the artery is ex- 
posed. The sheaths of the tendons should not be opened. 

Anterior Tibial. — The anterior tibial artery is located by a line 
drawn from a point midway between the outer tuberosity of the tibia 
and the head of the fibula, to a point midway between the two malleoli. 
It may be tied either in the upper, middle, or lower third of the leg. 
In the upper third of the leg the artery lies between the tibialis anticus 
arid the extensor longus digitorum muscles, on the interosseous mem- 
brane. The anterior tibial nerve is on the outer side. 

In the middle one-third of the leg it lies between the tibialis anticus 


and the extensor propius hallucis. The nerve generally lies on the 

In the lower one-third of the leg the artery lies between the tendons 
of the tibialis anticus and the extensor propms hallueis. The nerve is 
on the outer side. 

Dorsalis Pedis. — This artery extends from a point midway between 
the two malleoli and the interval between the first two metatarsal 
bones. An incision made along this line will uncover the artery which 
is found lying between the tendons of the extensor propius hallucis 
and the extensor brevis digitorum. Sometimes it is said the artery is 
rather difficult to tie, and it will be best to cut the artery and then ligate 
the cut ends. 

Peroneal. — The peroneal artery will be found lying on the inner 
side of the fibula on its postero-internal border. It is in an osseo- 
aponeurotic canal and is rather difficult to tie. 


Phlebitis is an inflammation of a vein. Two forms are recognized, 
(1) plastic and (2) infective. 

Plastic Phlebitis usually results from a wound and often arises 
from the reparative inflammation extending into the vein. It may also 
result from injury. It is a localized inflammation of the vein, and is 
often attended by thrombosis. Continued pressure or irritation of the 
vein may set up a plastic phlebitis, thrombosis resulting. It is also 
said that inflammation of the perivascular tissues, as occurs in septic 
conditions, may induce plastic phlebitis within a vein. 

Infective Phlebitis is a much more serious condition, inasmuch as the 
thrombus formed is infected and may become a means whereby the 
micro-organisms are disseminated through the body. This septic or in- 
fective phlebitis was the source of trouble among the older surgeons, as 
infection was introduced directly into the veins, and rapid sepsis re- 
sulted. Septic phlebitis never occurs now as the result of a surgical op- 
eration. In neglected wounds or in suppurating diseases, it may arise, 
forming a serious complication. It follows mastoid disease, the infec- 
tion traveling through the bone into the lateral sinus. Localized 
phlebitis often arises around foul ulcers or in cases of gonorrhea, but 
where the infection gets directly into the vein, as occurs in septic 
phlebitis, general edema will result. 

Symptoms. — The vessels are swollen and hard, forming red and pain- 
ful cords underneath the skin. Nodular enlargements corresponding to 
the valves may be felt. The skin is edematous and there are areas which 
are dusky and congested. When the deeper veins are involved, 
the diagnosis is more difficult. It is accompanied by a peculiar 
white edema of the tissues. In case the deep veins of the leg are in- 
volved, a condition called "milk leg" follows. In this condition per- 


haps, lymphatic obstruction operates as a part of the cause of the condi- 
tion. The onset of septic phlebitis is attended by a chill with rapid 
extension of- the inflammation, unless but a small area is affected, and it 
is usually followed by sepsis and rapid invasion of the general system. 
Diffuse suppuration sometimes follows. Eepetition of the chills and 
acceleration of the temperature would indicate pyemia. 

Treatment. — The treatment of phlebitis is absolute rest and eleva- 
tion of the part. In the case of a limb, it should be enveloped in 
lamb's wool or cotton and well bandaged. The limb should be kept hot 
by means of hot water bottles. The limb may be manipulated to assist 
the return circulation. Vigorous local manipulation should be avoided 
since coagulation may occur in the veins. Dislodging of the clot would- 
be followed by embolism. The circulation to the affected part must 
be assisted by relieving any obstruction and encouraging the flow of 
blood through the agency of the vasomotors. Any spinal or other 
lesions affecting the nerves to the inflamed vessels should receive es- 
pecial attention. The diet of the patient should be non-stimulating and 
nutritious. Septic phlebitis, with the formation of pus, should be treated 
the same as an abscess. As soon as pus formation is made evident by 
means of fluctuation, the abscess should be opened and freely drained. 
In some cases it is possible to ligate the vein above the septic area and 
scrape out the inflamed mass. This is very often attended by sepsis. 
This method of treatment could only be used where a single trunk is 
involved: it is rarely ever feasible. 

Varicose Veins, or Varix. 

This disease is sometimes called phlebectasis. The vein becomes 
very prominently dilated and lengthened and more or less tortuous. 
It is said to occur in twenty per cent of adults, more frequently 
in men than in women. The locations where they are usually found 
are the internal and external saphenous veins (generally the internal); 
the spermatic veins which surround the spermatic cord (varicocele) and 
in the veins of the rectum, where a condition of hemorrhoids or piles is 
produced. Varicocele and hemorrhoids will be considered elsewhere. 
Other veins may be affected, as, for instance, the veins over the abdomen 
may be dilated in conditions of cirrhosis of the liver. Sometimes vari- 
cosities of the veins of the viscera happen, and rarefy they occur in the 
deep veins of the extremities. Sometimes congenital varicose veins 

Pathology. — It need hardly be mentioned that the cause of varicose 
veins is an obstruction to the return circulation at some point. The 
cure of the condition depends upon the physician determining the 
point of obstruction. Changes take place within the vein-wall. It 
becomes thickened by the formation of inflammatory tissue and when 
the vein is cut it will remain distended. Pouch-like dilatations occur 


along the course of the vein at the location of the valves. After some 
length of time, fibrous changes occurring in the veins, entirely displace 
the normal tissues of the intima and media. Superficial varicose veins 
are evident on inspection. They appear enlarged, thickened, distended, 
and tortuous. 

Results. — The results of varicose veins in the leg, as these are the 
most common, consist of a general impairment of the circulation. In 
severe cases, edema of the limb is common. The tissues of the limb 
often become debilitated because of the bad circulation and at 
the least possible injury, ulcers result. These varicose ulcers are diffi- 
cult to treat and sometimes seriously affect the general health. Where 
the skin is subject to irritation, eczema sometimes develops. This ec- 
zema oftentimes results in ulceration, and after the ulceration is estab- 
lished, the secretions flowing over the tissues may again cause eczema. 
Inflammations of the vein frequently occur in this ill-nourished and 
distended condition. This phlebitis may result in the formation of 
thrombus or it may result in the partial occlusion of the vein or the for- 
mation of an abscess. Where the injury to the vein results in the 
coagulation of the blood and the formation of thrombus, later the vein 
may be more or less absorbed, only a fibrous cord being left. Rome- 
times calcareous degeneration of the thromhus occurs, Avhen a phlebolith 
results. Persons of rheumatic and gouty tendency who have varicose 
veins are very liable to phlebitis. Varicose veins are accelerated by the 
formation of what is known as the "vicious circulation." Sometimes 
blood from the internal saphenous vein empties into the external or 
short saphenous vein and thence into the deep veins, whereas the blood 
from the deep veins flows from the femoral vein into the saphenous, so 
that a certain amount of blood would, as it were, go round and round 
this vicious circuit. Whether this is true is questionable, but it is said to 
sometimes occur. 

Treatment. — The treatment of varicose veins depends on recogniz- 
ing the cause. The obstruction in the leg may be caused by enlarged 
lymphatic glands at the saphenous opening. Muscular contractions 
may produce tension of the fascia lata and cause impingement of the 
return circulation. Partial and complete dislocations of the hip will, 
in like manner, directly or indirectly interfere with the return circula- 
tion. Prolapsus of the abdominal viscera will produce obstructions in 
the pelvis. Pressure on the ascending cava where it passes through the 
diaphragm may be the cause. Where there is a general lack of tone, 
lesions affecting the vasomotor nerve supply to the vessels of the legs 
will be found. These lesions may be at the sacro-iliac joint, between 
the sacrum and lumbar spine, or in the lower dorsal or lumbar regions. 
Luxations of the lower ribs may operate similarly. A cure in any case 
depends upon removing the cause and securing the proper nerve sup- 
ply by removing the lesions found, and also in stimulating the vaso- 
motors to the veins affected. 



Nevus is a condition of dilation of the veins, venules and arterioles 
and is classified as one of the tumors. (See Angioma.) The capillaries 
are dilated and this dilation may extend into the small veins and 
arteries, and large cavernous spaces may be formed. Considerable pig- 
mentation of the tissues about may occur, since the blood may flow 
in cavernous spaces, and the circulation being weak at this point, it may 
be partially obstructed. The disease is very often congenital. It may 
wither and disappear after a time or it may enlarge and spread over 
a considerable area. Two varieties are usually described. 

1. Capillary nevus, or mother's mark, occurs usually as a bright 
red or purplish colored mass, slightly elevated above the skin. It con- 
sists of a mass of capillaries lined with endothelium. They are small and 
often do not extend over a space of more than an inch or two in diame- 
ter, but they may, in some cases, cover the side of the head and face. 
Where a certain amount of pigmentation occurs, it is called the '"'port 
wine" stain. If they are injured, hemorrhage is usually very free, but 
is readily stopped by pressure. 

2. Cavernous angioma is a condition where the veins are largely in- 
volved. They lie in the skin and subcutaneous tissues. They are soft 
to the touch, easily compressible, but return to their dilated condition 
so soon as the pressure is removed. They are often lobulated, and 
when the blood' is pressed from them, they give evidence of sinuses be- 
neath the skin. They are generally situated beneath the skin and show 
as a blue lobulated mass. In the mucous form, where the capillary and 
venous angiomata are mixed, it is usually of a dark red color. Venous 
nevi are really masses of venous sinuses lined with endothelium. They 
may be associated with injury, may occur spontaneously, because of 
local weakness and obstructions, and may be congenital. 

Treatment. — The treatment of nevus, where it can be accomplished, 
especially the venous form, is (1) excision. The veins are ligated, sep- 
arated from the subcutaneous tissues and the skin, and removed. (2) 
Subcutaneous ligation ma}*" be used with advantage in some cases, and 
if excision cannot be done, it should be tried. (3) Injection of coagu- 
lating fluids into the tumor, such as perchloride of iron or a strong solu- 
tion of carbolic acid, is no longer practiced. (4) Electrolysis. Where 
excision and subcutaneous ligation are impossible, electrolysis forms an 
excellent method of treatment of nevus. This treatment is especially 
valuable where the nevus occurs upon the face or where it is necessary 
to avoid cicatrization. It consists in the passing of a strong current of 
electricity through the mass. This produces chemical and physical 
changes and brings about coagulation and organization of the tissues. 
Both poles of the battery may be introduced into the tumor, but this 
is not the wisest plan. It is better to employ a one or two 
needled positive electrode and introduce it into the tumor while the 
negative pole is applied to a different part of the body. The needle 


should be made of steel, inasmuch as the treatment corrodes the needle, 
which has an advantageous effect upon the tumor. The use 
of the negative pole in the tumor is more liable to cause scar. A cur- 
rent equal to about two-hundred milliamperes should be passed through 
the tumor for about fifteen minutes. Should both poles be applied to 
the tumor, a current of only about half this strength is necessary. Gen- 
eral anesthesia is required. The immediate effect on the tumor is to 
cause it to become hard through the coagulation of the blood. In some 
cases the treatment is not successful. It is best to deal with the pe- 
riphery of the nevus first. Some scarring will be inevitable. It is wise 
not to do too much at one sitting. If the nevus be treated at several 
sittings, there will be less scar formation. The nevus should be treated 
sufficiently long to permit of complete cicatrization. 


An embolus is any floating object in the blood. It may be composed 
of the following materials: 

1. Thrombi. (2) Parasites. (3) Fat. (4) Air. (5) Glandular Cells. 

The method by which thrombi become emboli can best be seen in 
forms of valvular heart disease or endocarditis. In valvular heart dis- 
ease the valves become roughened and clots are readily formed, when, 
because of the action of the heart, these clots become detached and are 
whirled away along the blood-stream and finally plug up some artery. 
This is the most frequent origin of emboli. Emboli may contain para- 
sites and wherever they lodge, an abscess results. In case of fracture, 
especially of long bones, particles of fat may be dislodged, and finally 
entering the veins, are carried back to the heart. This will cause 
dyspnea by plugging up the branches of the pulmonary artery. Air 
embolism sometimes occurs where there is a wound of a large vein and 
where the intravenous pressure is negative, or it sometimes happens 
after giving a hypodermic injection of a drug, where the syringe con- 
tains some quantity of air. Embolism by other cells sometimes occurs 
in cases of cancer and sarcoma. The cells enter the circulation and 
are carried elsewhere, and a secondary tumor results. 

Effects of Embolism. — The effect of embolism is to cut off the circu- 
lation to the part. If it occurs in the brain, paralysis results. If it hap- 
pens in other organs, other symptoms. These effects may depend 
somewhat upon the nature of the clot. They may be classified as fol- 
lows : 

1. Changes in the clot. Subsequent changes in the clot may oc- 
cur. Becoming organized, as in case of thrombi, the artery is perma- 
nently obliterated. Collateral circulation may be established and 
the function of the part restored. 

2. Anemia. Where collateral circulation is fairly good, the part may 
give evidence only of anemia. This will be recovered from in due time. 

3. Necrosis. In terminal arteries, necrosis Avill occur, as in case of 


gastric iilcer. In terminal arteries of the brain, necrosis of a portion 
of the brain very often happens. This necrosed area becomes lique- 
fied, afterwards forming either an abscess or cyst, depending upon 
whether the clot is infective. 

4. Infarction. Where the embolism is of an organ like the kidney 
or spleen, infarcts are formed. This infarct consists in the plugging 
of a terminal artery in some such organ as mentioned, and a subsequent 
engorgement or swelling in the area to which the artery is distributed. 
Inflammatory changes and fibrous tissue changes very often take place 
in these infarcted areas. There are two kinds of infarcts — the white, 
in which there is no obstruction to the return circulation, and red in- 
farcts, where there is more or less obstruction to the return circulation, 
or where there is at least some collateral circulation. 

Evidences of Embolism. — The evidences of embolism are similar to 
those of thrombosis, with the exception that they come on more sud- 
denly. The effect on the brain is sudden and complete paralysis of 
the area affected. Embolism of the arteria centralis retinae and its 
branches would destroy sight in the eye affected. It at once destroys 
the function of the area to which the artery, which is plugged, is dis- 
tributed. In the organs where infarction takes place, there will be evi- 
dences of congestion and edema. Should the blood supply be entirely 
cut off, necrosis of a mass of tissue will occur. If the embolus is infec- 
tive an abscess results. In any case the symptoms will be obscure and 
diagnosis difficult, and it can only be made, in many cases, by elim- 
inating other conditions. 


Thrombosis is the formation of a clot in a living blood-vessel. 
Causes. — The causes of thrombosis may be classified as follows : 

1. Disease or injury to the vessel wall. Any disease or injury to 
the vessel wall, whereby it becomes roughened or thickened or a portion 
is removed, may furnish more favorable conditions for coagulation. Ath- 
eroma, sclero-endarteritis, etc., are conditions which bring about throm- 

2. Certain changes in the blood. Changes in the blood, whereby it 
becomes more coagulable, favor thrombosis. These changes are, per- 
haps, problematical and theoretical, but that the blood is more coagu- 
lable under some circumstances than in others, is likely true. 

3. Foreign bodies or the presence of micro-organisms. These for- 
eign bodies furnish a point upon which the coagula may be deposited or 
to which the leukocytes may cling, thereb}'- assisting the formation of 
a clot. 

4. Eetardation of the blood stream. Eetardation or slowing of the 
blood stream may occur under several conditions. It occurs after (a) 
ligature of the artery in operations for thrombosis, or from injury to 
the artery or vein, from aneurysm, or in any operation where the artery 
is tied. 



(b) From tight bandage. Pressure of a tight bandage may lead to 
such obstruction to the circulation that coagulation will occur. 

(c) Diminished force and frequency of the heart-beat, lessening the 
vis a tergo, perhaps assist in the formation of the clot. 

(d) The pressure of a tumor or luxated bones or other objects upon 
the vessel above, may lead to coagulation and the formation of throm- 
bi. This occurs, perhaps, in cases of phlegmasia alba dolens or milk leg. 
When the clot is formed, it may extend in both directions from the 
point of origin, but it usually extends in the direction of the blood 
current. If it entirely fills up a branch of the artery it will extend 
back only so far as the main trunk. At this point it may stick out and 
form a projection into the blood stream of the larger artery. It will 
extend in the direction of the blood stream as far as where branches 
are given off, or where the blood flow is influenced by 

collateral circulation. The thrombi may be occlud- Fig. 33. 

ing where they entirely fill up the vessels or they 
may be only partial. The effects they produce and 
the symptoms of thrombosis will depend upon the 
subsequent changes which take place in the throm- 
bus, or upon whether it is occluding. 

Changes in Thrombosis. — 1. Organization. A 
thrombus may become organized; this takes place in 
the following manner: As soon as a clot forms in 
any vessel, it becomes infiltrated with leukocytes and 
proliferated endothelial cells and connective-tissue 
cells — in other words, round cell infiltration occurs. 
Subsequently the clot becomes displaced by means 
of this new formation. Small blood vessels may ex- 
tend from the vasa vasorum through the vessel wall 
out into the clot. The artery becomes organized and 
forms a hard fibrous cord. 

2. Softening. Softening of the clot may occur venous thrombus, 
because of fatty degeneration of its elements. Fatty 
degeneration may be because of. the limited nutrition of the infiltrated 
tissue cells or the softening may be the result of bacteria. The clot 
may become softened and a portion of it dislodged and carried into the 
general circulation, embolism resulting. It may break down, the ele- 
ments become liquefied and a small cyst result, or, on the other hand, 
fatty degeneration and liquefaction and absorption of the elements 
may occur. 

3. Calcification. Sometimes the fatty material which is formed 
as the result of fatty degeneration of the clot, will become displaced 
by means of calcareous material, when the remains of the thrombus and 
the artery will be a calcified mass. 

4. Absorption and tunnelling of the clot may sometimes occur. This 
is accomplished by means of the clot apparently opening up because of 
the blood pressure or the liquefying effects of the blood, or perhaps be- 


cause of fatty degeneration. The clot becomes tunnelled out and a sin- 
uous or tortuous tract is made through the clot and it becomes pervious 
to the extent that it will permit of regular circulation taking place 
through it. 

Effects of Thrombosis. — The effects of thrombosis depend upon 
whether it occurs in an artery or vein, or whether it is in a terminal 
artery, or upon the extent to which the circulation is cut off from the 
tissues to which the vessel is distributed. 

1. Swelling and edema. The swelling and edema are usually great. 
It will depend upon whether the obstruction is in the vein or artery. 
If the obstruction is in the vein, the swelling will be enormous. If the 
clot becomes organized in the vein and the collateral circulation is 
poorly established, this edema may remain and become hard (solid 
edema). This sometimes occurs in phlegmasia alba dolens. 

2. Gangrene. It is not unusual for gangrene to result from ob- 
struction to the return circulation or from the formation of a thrombus 
in an artery or vein. The gangrene following is of a moist vari- 
ety, especially where the thrombus is in the vein. The extent of the 
gangrene will depend upon the extent to which the circulation is cut off. 

3. Fhlebitis. Inflammation of the vein walls will very likely occur, 
especially if the clot is infected or if the patient is in a debilitated 
condition. It may take on a suppurative form. If it does, it more 
than likely arises from an infected clot. 

4. Embolism. Embolism consists in the plugging up of an artery 
by means of a floating clot or other material which has become de- 
tached and loose in the blood. If the material forming the embolus is 
not infective, the results are not so serious, but if it is infective, pyemia 
will likely result. 

Symptoms of Thrombosis. — The symptoms of thrombosis depend 
upon the location of the clot. In case it occurs in a vein, it will be 
attended by marked edema and dilatation of the veins, together with 
phlebitis. Blood extravasations are not uncommon. The pain is severe 
and the part to which the arteiw is distributed, or from which the vein 
comes, will lose its function. Thrombosis of one of the cerebral arteries 
would be attended by paralytic or mental symptoms. If it should occur 
in the lower limb, paralysis and edema of the member will follow, to- 
gether with more or less pain. In case the vein is affected the symp- 
toms of phlebitis will supervene. 

Treatment, — The treatment depends upon the conditions present. 
In general, it is directed toward securing resorption of the clot and stim- 
ulating collateral circulation. Vigorous manipulation to dislodge the 
clot is not advisable. Often the clot can be absorbed if the case is seen 
early. When gangrene results, operation is necessary. In paralysis, 
the result of thrombosis and embolism, an effort should be made to estab- 
lish collateral circulation. In this, nature can be assisted. If the part 


can be prevented from dying, the integrity of the tissues will be restored 
in time. 


Injury to veins should be treated in much the same manner as 
injury to arteries. It demands prompt methods to arrest the hem- 
orrhage, and later, the bleeding points may be ligated. In all cases the 
proximal and distal ends of the veins should be ligated, as hemorrhage 
may occur from either end. Especially is this true of the external jug- 
ular, inasmuch as the valves are imperfect and do not entirely close the 
vessel. Operations on veins are done with the same precautions as are 
taken in the ligature of arteries. (See Ligature of Arteries.) 



There are two forms of lymphangitis, acute and chronic. 

Acute Lymphangitis is a rapid invasion of the lymphatics by septic- 
material or the products absorbed from poisoned wounds. 

Cause. — The cause is micro-organisms or other toxic material asso- 
ciated with obstruction to the lymph stream. 

Pathology, — The wall of the lymphatic is infiltrated and inflamed 
as in an ordinary acute inflammation. The tissues round about are 
more or less involved. It is said by some that the lymph within the 
vessels coagulates and forms a pink clot. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of an acute lymphangitis are fine red 
lines, edematous swelling and a violent inflammation closely resembling 
erysipelas. There seems to be two forms, one in which the larger lym- 
phatics are involved, a tubular form, and the other in which the smaller 
lymphatics are involved. Where the small lymphatics only are involved, 
it may closely resemble erysipelas. The disease may be attended by 
chill, vomiting, and sweats. The pulse is rapid and the fever ranges 
from 102 degrees to 104 degrees F. The diagnosis is sometimes difficult, 
but it is not so essential. Erysipelas itself is a lymphangitis due to a 
special micro-organism. It has more of a rose-red color, the skin is more 
brawny, and the onset of the disease more marked than in acute lym- 

Treatment. — It is essentially that of erysipelas. (See treatment of 

Chronic Lymphangitis. — A chronic inflammation of the lymphatics 
resembles a chronic inflammation in any of the connective tissues. It fol- 
lows the acute form where recovery is not entire, or it happens in cases of 
syphilis and tuberculosis. There are people who seem to have a ten- 
dency to the proliferation of connective tissue elements. In these sub- 
jects, chronic lymphangitis often develops. There are enlargements 
of the lymphatic glands and thickening of the connective tissues gen- 


Treatment. — The treatment is the same as the acute form. Kemove 
the obstruction to the lymphatic circulation. 

Lymphangiectasis or Lymphangioma. 

This is a condition of chronic dilatation of the lymphatic vessels. It 
is sometimes congenital and other times acquired. It may be localized 
to small areas or involve a considerable part of a member. Chronic 
distension of the lymphatics is oftentimes accompanied by overgrowth 
of the connective tissue elements of the part, leading to chronic hyper- 
trophy, as seen in inacroglossia. Distension of the lymphatics may be 
shown by small vesicles which persist and which are not accompanied 
by evidences of inflammation. When these vesicles or lymph spaces are 
opened, there is a considerable flow of fluid (lymphorrhea). They are 
found most frequently on the inner side of the thigh and the genitalia 
of the male. 

Treatment. — Eemove the fascial obstruction to the lymphatic circu- 
lation. This will drain the sodden tissues and give relief. 

Lymphatic Obstruction. 

Lymphatic obstruction may take place in any of the large lym- 
phatics, as the thoracic duct or any of its branches. The obstruction 
may be due to muscular contraction, contraction of the fascia, abnormal 
position of the bony structures, and to chronic lymphatic obstruction 
arising from the deposit of tuberculous material, as occurs in long 
standing inflammations of the fascia or connective tissues generally. 
Repeated attacks of eczema may cause enlargement of the lymphatic 
glands, which operates as an obstruction to the lymphatic circulation 
and will sometimes finally result in a thickening of a member. This 
lymphatic obstruction and enlargement of the part is called elephan- 


There are two forms of elephantiasis: (1) Elephantiasis Arabum 
and (2) Pseudo-elephantiasis. It may affect the foot, leg, genitalia, etc., 
where it is known as elephantiasis pedis, elephantiasis cruris, elephan- 
tiasis labium, etc. The phenomena of elephantiasis consist of (1) 
edema. This edema is lymphatic in origin and solid. The fluid cannot 
be pressed out of the tissues and the part appears to be permanently 
thickened. (2) Hyperplasia. Hyperplasia of the connective tissues 
takes place. The subcutaneous connective tissues become infiltrated 
and thickened and increased in amount. The skin becomes coarse and 
warty in appearance and ulcers are common. Where injuries or ulcera- 
tions occur in the enlarged part, the lymph will seep out (lymph fis- 
tula). This continual discharge of lymph is called lymphorrhea. 

Pseudo-elephantiasis arises from tuberculous conditions and ulcers. 
It is sometimes called Barbados leg. It is a disease of the tropics and 
need not be discussed here. It affects the leg, scrotum, vulva, face, 
and breast. The disease may persist for years. 


Lymphadenitis or Adenitis of the Lymphatic Glands. 

Canse. — Inflammation of the lymphatic glands is produced by the 
absorption of toxic materials and obstruction to the return circulation. 
This material is carried back through the lymph channel into the lym- 
phatic glands where tissue changes are produced. This inflammation in 
the lymphatic glands operates as an obstruction to the flow of lymph. 
As soon as the source of the irritating products and the obstructions are 
removed, the swelling and inflammation of the gland disappear. If 
pyogenic micro-organisms get in, suppuration is very likely to follow. 
Suppurative adenitis is a slow process and may be prolonged over a 
considerable period. Some writers look upon the lymphatic glands as 
filters whereby poisonous products are kept from entering the general 
circulation. This perhaps accounts for the fact that when a consider- 
able amount of poisonous material finally gets into these glands, suppu- 
ration is very apt to occur. Occasionally, acute lymphangitis occurs. 
In these cases it is believed that muscular injury, irregularities in the 
circulation, and bony lesions, etc., may be set down as the cause. 

Pathology. — The pathology of the disease is simply that of an in- 
flammation in any of the tissues. If suppuration occurs, it is usually 
localized, rarely diffuse. If it becomes diffuse, it may persist for a 
considerable length of time. 

Symptoms. — The evidences of acute lymphangitis are the symptoms 
of inflammation", together with the enlargements of the glands. They 
are extremely painful and hard, and the tissues about are sometimes 
edematous. As soon as suppuration is evident, the lymphatic gland 
should be freely opened and drained. Sometimes the suppurative process 
may extend into the neighboring glands and each one in succession 
breaks down and ulcerates. The absorption of toxins and disturbance of 
the digestion and secretions will follow and the patient becomes debili- 
tated, and a chronic abscess results, if the disease is not properly treated 
at once. Any obstruction to the nerve or blood supply, or the lymph 
stream, should be relieved at once and any anatomical lesions account- 
ing for the condition, should be corrected. As soon as suppuration is 
evident, the abscess should be opened and freely drained. Not only 
should there be free drainage, but the abscess should be frequently 
dressed, each time being washed with an antiseptic solution. Before 
suppuration takes place, hot fomentations are valuable. The glands 
most frequently involved are the axillary, inguinal, and cervical. 
Where suppuration occurs, they should be treated as acute abscesses. 
It is worthy of note that the osteopathic treatment, which will be indi- 
cated in each individual case, is of the utmost importance. Next to this 
should be cleanliness, proper diet, and hygiene. 

Chronic Lymphadenitis. 

Chronic lymphadenitis is a chronic inflammation of the lymphatic 
glands and may result from acute inflammation or from constitutional 
conditions, but, in all events, the chief underlying cause is anatomical 


derangement. The disease is most common in the neck in scrofulous 
children. Sometimes the disease can be traced to exciting causes, such 
a? carious teeth, chronically inflamed tonsils, sore mouth, and is said 
to be produced in some cases by lice. In every case syphilis and tuber- 
culosis should be eliminated. The glands usually enlarge slowly and 
become infiltrated with round cells, as in chronic inflammation of other 
tissues. The enlargement is first fleshy in nature and usually not pain- 
ful. The person may improve in health and the enlargement disappear, 
or the inflammation may continue for some length of time. The in- 
flammatory reaction becomes apparent, slowly accelerated and may or 
may not be painful. Finally the gland undergoes caseation, or it may 
even break clown and ulcerate. Other times, the liquid elements of the 
caseous mass may be absorbed, leaving a hard mass, which finally 
atrophies and disappears. It is claimed by some that general tubercu- 
losis may be derived from these chronically enlarged glands. The 
glands, which are at first singly enlarged and movable, often become 
adhered into a mass. Evidence of suppuration will be shown by the 
fact that the skin over the gland becomes red and adherent. After a 
lymphatic gland breaks down and suppurates, it leaves a purplish, foul, 
undermined, and indolent ulcer. After awhile this may heal. They 
leave a peculiar, puckered, white scar. After suppuration has oc- 
curred and fluctuation is distinctly felt, the abscess cavity should be 
opened and well drained. If the opening is large enough for the finger 
to be introduced, all loculi of the cavity should be dug out. A 
Yolkmann's spoon is an excellent instrument with which to scrape out 
the dead parts of the gland. Strictest asepsis should be maintained to 
prevent scarring. The scars are peculiar in these cases, in that they 
retain their pink color much longer than ordinary scars. In treating 
acute and chronic lymphangitis, painting the glands with belladonna and 
glycerin, the application of the tincture of iodine, or the oleate of mer- 
cury, or other such drugs, is of no value. The treatment should be 
first directed towards restoring the circulation and relieving the obstruc- 
tion to the return circulation, not only the lymphatic, but the venous as 
well. Besides the cause must be removed, whether it is carious teeth, 
anatomical lesions, or a sore. Some surgeons advise a radical treatment 
for enlarged lymphatic glands, but this is unwise. This treatment is to 
enucleate the gland as soon as it enlarges. If proper attention is paid 
to the cause of t.he disease, the treatment will be plain. 


A non-inflammatory enlargement of lymphatic glands may occur 
sometimes; this is called a condition of lymphadenoma. Two forms 
are described by various writers, (1) benign or the simple form, which 
consists in the enlargement of a single lymphatic gland or the lymphatic 
glands of a small area, viz., the groin, neck, or axilla. The cause of the 
disease is due to lymphatic obstruction or to errors of the nerve and 


blood supply. (2) Malignant lymphadenoma, or Hodgkin's disease/ or 
pseudo-leukemia, is usually met with in adults and consists in an over- 
growth of all the lymphoid tissues of the body — spleen, lymphatic 
glands, and the lymphoid tissues in the bowels. The proportion of 
white corpuscles is much greater than should be. but not so great as 
exists in true leukemia. The subject has one white, to fifty or seventy- 
five red, corpuscles. The disease is said to be incurable. 


This is a condition of sarcoma of the lymphatic glands. (See Sar- 
comata.) The disease occurs more often in the tonsil than any place 
in the body. It grows rapidly and is painless. It seriously affects the 
health and rapidly becomes fatal. The disease usually occurs in adults. 
The dissemination of the growth to the viscera results fatally. 

Secondary growths of the lymphatic glands and tubercular enlarge- 
ments of the lymphatic glands or syphilis of the lymphatic glands, are 
discussed elsewhere in the text. 



One of the most common inflammations of the skin is the toxic form, 
the result of poison sumach. There are three forms of the poison 
sumach more especially toxic, the poison oak, poison ash, and poison 
ivy. Contact with the plant is not always necessary to bring on the 
inflammation. The symptoms are a papillary or vesicular inflammation 
of the skin. Edema may result. In bad cases there is fever. 

Treatment. — Apply sweet spirits of nitre to moisten the surface of 
the skin. Oxid of zinc ointment containing ten drops of carbolic acid 
to the ounce of ointment is an excellent application. Extract of witch 
hazel applied several times daily is of great service many times. A 1 :5000 
solution of bichloride of mercury will relieve some cases. 


A furuncle, or boil, is a circumscribed inflammation of the true skin 
and the connective tissues beneath it. The cause of a boil is infection 
of a hair follicle by the pus germs, generally the staphylococcus py- 
ogenes aurus, sometimes the albus. Conditions making inoculation 
possible are the same as those operating in other infections. They are 
common in disorders of digestion, in constipation, diabetes, Bright's 
disease, and conditions of general debility. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of a boil are too well known to require 
description. Sometimes boils apparently come in crops or they may 
be scattered over the body. In such instances the pus is usually ex- 
pressed by the hand and gets onto the body in other locations and in- 
fection occurs. 


Treatment.— As soon as pus is evident, the boil may be lanced or 
allowed to rupture itself. The cavity must be thoroughly cleansed with 
an antiseptic solution, as peroxid of hydrogen. Where the boils come 
in crops, scrubbing the skin with soap and water and afterwards thor- 
oughly washing it with an' antiseptic solution, or fomentations of a weak 
solution of bichloride of mercury, or a saturated solution of boracic acid, 
is of great service. 


A carbuncle is really a condition similar to a boil, but which is at- 
tended by extensive infiltration of the skin in the neighborhood of the 
pus formation. The cause is the staphylococcus pyogenes aurus, 
coupled with certain conditions of the body or a devitalized condition 
locally. It differs from a boil in that the constitutional symptoms are 
severer and the base is hard, indurated, and boggy. Instead of the 
pus pointing at one place, several pustules will form with a bloody serum 
contained in them. It is not unusual that a considerable mass of 
tissue will necrose, pus forming in below this, will burrow out 
through it. Where the patient is debilitated and the absorption of pus 
is veiw great, general sepsis may follow, when it may result in phlebitis 
or lymphangitis. The most usual location for carbuncles is the neck, 
back, and buttock. 

Treatment. — The treatment is to relieve local lesions and whatever 
general ailment the patient may have. The carbuncle should be freely 
incised and cauterized with pure carbolic acid. It should then be 
treated as a simple sore by washing with antiseptics and sprinkling with 
Senn's powder (one-third salicylic acid to two-thirds boric acid). Some- 
times a hot saturated solution of boracic acid accomplishes much. This 
treatment should be kept up until the sloughs are separated. The 
sore should then be dressed with dry antiseptic gauzes. 

Clavus or Corn. 

A corn is a thickening of the epidermis, due to inflammation of the 
skin, brought about by irregular pressure of ill-fitting boots. The 
treatment is to remove the pressure by the use of plasters and 
then subsequently to remove the corn by scraping. In old persons the 
corn should not be cut. but should be soaked in hot water and scraped, 
care being taken not to injure the skin. In painful feet, the result o* 
corns, direct the patient to soak the feet in hot water and afterwards 
wrap them in cloths saturated with a mixture of equal parts of linseed 
oil and lime water. Suitable plasters to remove the pressure from the 
corn, will relieve the inflammation, when the corn can be removed. The 
following formula will be found useful in removing corns: Paint the 
corn each night with a mixture of salicylic acid, one and one-half drams, 
extract of cannabis indica ten grains, and flexible collodion one dram. 



Chilblains are circumscribed congestions and inflammations of the 
skin, the result of excessive cold. They are more common in young 
persons. They consist of localized reddish or bluish-red ery- 
thematous areas. They give rise to intolerable itching and burning. 
In some cases the skin may be a purplish-red and so congested as to 
cause rupture — broken chilblain. 

Treatment. — The application of equal parts of spirits of turpentine 
imd olive oil, or the oxid of zinc ointment, or the tincture of cantharides 
and soap liniment in the proportion of one to six, will give relief. 


Onychia is an inflammation of the nail and seems to be due always 
to the infection of the matrix with pyogenic organisms. The inflamma- 
tion usually starts at the side or base. The common form is perio- 
nychia or ungual whitlow. Pus forms beneath the nail and the affection 
is extremely persistent and painful. 

Treatment, — The treatment consists in removing the nail with fine 
scissors and cleansing the sore thoroughly with antiseptics. The 
patient is usually run down in health. Strictest antisepsis and care 
of the nail is necessary. When suppuration is taking place, hot lotions 
of 1:50 carbolic solution are most comforting. All parts of the diseased 
nail should be trimmed away with fine scissors 
and all exuberant granulations touched with 
lunar caustic. 

Fig. 34. 

Ingrowing Nail. 

Ingrowing nail is an ulcerative condition of 
the side of the toe (generally the great toe) pro- 
duced by the curling up of, and pressure on, 
the nail, caused by pressure of ill-fitting boots 
and neglect of the feet. Extensive inflammation 
and thickening of the tissues alongside of the 
nail may result, so that the flesh will, in some 
cases, extend out over half the nail. 

Treatment.— The treatment is to take the ^Sl"^ 
condition in hand early and prevent pressure by ar °und the toe and excise 

.'.ii .; part of the nail. 

correcting the footwear. Then insert a piece 

•of surgeon's cotton underneath the edge of the nail to prevent the sharp 
edge from cutting into the flesh, also, the middle of the nail should 
be scraped thin so as to permit it to bend; also, in trimming the nail, it 
should be cut straight across and the corners allowed to grow out. 
These should be turned up. The disease seems to be produced by the 
nail being thick and the corners having been cut off on the sides. As 
the nail grows out the flesh is pushed by the boot against the sharp edge 
-of the nail, which causes the inflammation. 


Of the various operations for relief of ingrowing toenail, there is 
but one that gives permanent relief. The redundant tissues on the 
side of the toe should be cut off and one-fourth of the nail should be 
removed, care being taken to destroy the matrix so the nail will not 
return. After the operation the wound should be treated antiseptically 
and allowed to heal. 

Molluscum Contagiosum. 

This is an affection which shows itself by small, hemispherical nod- 
ules, about the size of a split pea. They are yellowish-white in color and 
umbilicated. These masses undergo hyaline or waxy degeneration. The 
depression in the center is usually occupied by dried material. They 
are common on the face, especially of a child, and may appear upon 
the breast of the mother. The nature of the affection is unknown. The 
origin seems to be in a hair follicle. 

Treatment. — The treatment is to incise the mass, express out the 
contents and touch the capsule with a stick of nitrate of silver. 


Injuries to the nerves consist of: 

1. Contusions. 4. Compression. 

2. Strains. 5. Puncture. 

3. Rupture. C. Division. 


Contusions may be transitory in their effect, but in persons subject 
to gout, syphilis, rheumatism, or in neurotic individuals, neuritis may 
result. Simple contusions cause a tingling sensation as of a pin pricking 
the skin. This may wear off in a few hours. In severe cases there may 
be complete loss of motion and sensation. 

Treatment. — The treatment consists in securing the proper nerve 
and blood supply to the affected nerve trunk. Massage and friction will 
be found serviceable. 


Strains are produced by extraordinary muscular efforts during 
times of excitement, and the results are similar to contusions. The 
treatment is likewise similar. 


Rupture of a nerve rarely occurs except in connection with 
fractures where there is considerable laceration of the soft parts, or in 
connection with dislocations. Entire division of a nerve is very rare. 
All of the axis cylinders may be ruptured, with the sheath of the nerve 
still intact. The symptoms of the affection are immediate paralysis 
of motion and sensation. In case the rupture is complete, the paralysis 


of motion and sensation may be permanent, but usually a considera- 
ble amount of repair will take place; sometimes it is complete. 

Treatment. — The treatment consists in relieving the congestion and 
securing the proper blood supply to the injured nerve. Where the 
paralysis exists for some length of time, the part should be thoroughly 
manipulated io prevent atrophy, until regeneration of the nerve takes 
place. Even in old standing cases much improvement may be obtained. 


Compression of the nerve may result in partial or complete loss of 
function. The pressure may serve as an irritation and cause the inflam- 
mation and a neuralgic condition. Pressure may be exercised upon a 
nerve in the following conditions : 

1. Aneurysm. 5. Pressure of a crutch, causing crutch- 

2. Tumor. paralysis. 

3. Fracture. G. Pressure of a splint. 

4. Callus, where it envelops a nerve 7. Chronic osteitis. 

some weeks after the fracture. 8. Syphilitic diseases of bones. 

y. Displacement of bones. 

Displacement of bones consists in partial or complete dislocations. 
Partial dislocations, the result of injury or muscular contractions, are 
more frequently the cause of compression than all other agencies. 
These should be looked for in any given case. When the compression 
can be readily removed, recovery will be complete. If secondary changes 
have taken place in the nerve and muscles, the prognosis is not so 
favorable. lieeovery will be slow. 


Puncture of a nerve is usually associated with inflammation and 
followed by neuralgic pains. Sometimes the pain is very intense. 
Especially is this true in neurotic individuals. The pain will radiate 
along up the nerve trunk and cause muscular spasms. 


The immediate effects of division of a nerve are : 

1. Paralysis of motion, providing the nerve contains motor fila- 

2. Paralysis of sensation in the part to which the nerve is distrib- 
uted. The area of sensation destroyed becomes smaller through the 
development of collateral nerve distribution. 

3. Vasomotor paralysis will be evident by congestion of the part c.t 
first, followed later by the part becoming colder and not sufficiently 
supplied with blood. 

4. The secretions may be arrested because of secretory fibres having 
been destroyed. 

5. Trophic changes may take place in the tissues, as ulcerations, 
degenerations, etc., because of paralysis of the trophic nerves. 


Secondary Effects. — The secondary effects consist in (1) inflamma- 
tion aiicl (2) degeneration of the nerve trunk and (3) the reparative 
efforts of nature. Immediately upon division of a nerve, the space be- 
tween the divided ends becomes filled with blood. After several days 
this is absorbed. Round-celled infiltration takes place, so that the 
spaces finally become filled up with granulation tissue. If there is not ap- 
proximation of the nerve ends, the two stumps become united by means 
of cicatricial tissue. From the proximal extremity of the nerve, the axis 
cylinders will grow out through the connective tissue, and some of the 
fibres will seek out the axis cylinders of the distal end of the nerve, and 
will grow down through the myelin sheaths. This results in the partial 
restoration of the nerve-function. It is said that such outgrowing of 
the nerve trunks ma}'' take place through one and a half inches of cica- 
tricial tissue. Sometimes such regeneration does not occur. Even 
a small scar may result in the complete loss of the nerve-function. In 
case of amputation of a limb, the divided end of the nerve sometimes 
develops a tumefaction (amputation neuroma). This consists of a thick- 
ening of the connective tissues of the nerve, together with the out- 
growth of the axis cjdinders of the trunk of the nerve. These axis cyl- 
inders coil up and sometimes form a bulbous extremity. These bulbs 
may be the cause of severe neuralgias, and may necessitate the removal 
of the end of the nerve trunk. After division of the nerve, in the periph- 
eral extremity, Wallerian degeneration occurs. This is set up about 
the fourth day. It is said to be caused by a separation of the nerve 
trunk from its source of nutrition, the nerve cell. The changes which 
occur are such as are described under "Repair of Nerves." The changes 
which take place in muscles consist of more or less complete paralysis of 
motion. This paralysis is later followed by more or less slowly develop- 
ing atrophy, and finally, the muscle undergoes degeneration. Deformity 
may result because of the paralysis, atrophy, and degeneration; espe- 
cially is this true where the opposing muscles are disturbed. Certain 
electrical changes take place in the muscle. These electrical changes 
are summed up in the reactions of degeneration. As long as the re- 
actions of degeneration are present, there is hope for recovery of the 
muscle, providing the nerve can be restored. This is of little practical 
use inasmuch as the history of the case, together with the anatomical 
conditions present, will enable the physician to determine the amount 
of recovery which may be expected. The sensation which has been 
destroyed as the result of the nerve division, will be more or less re- 
stored. The area of anesthesia will be lessened as anastomosis and col- 
lateral nerve supply is established. The blood supply to the part is 
lessened. The part looks bluish and may appear congested. Some- 
times the skin has a peculiar, shiny appearance, while at other 
times it is rough and covered with scales, or even edematous. 
Wounds heal badly in a paralytic limb. Exposure to heat and cold may 
cause chilblains or vesication. Slight irritants excite ulceration, and 
these ulcers persist for a considerable length of time. In paralysis of 


the fifth nerve, corneal ulceration is common, whereas in hemiplegia, 
perforating ulcers arise on the bottom of the foot. The appendages 
of the skin may become involved, the hair falling out, or the nails be- 
come brittle and rough. The sebaceous glands may become function- 
less or may secrete an over abundance of sebaceous material. Atrophy 
of some of the smaller bones, as the phalanges, and ankylosis of the 
terminal joints, may occur in old cases. When the paralysis occurs 
in young people, the development of the member paratyzed is arrested. 
Occasionally the division of a nerve is attended by certain changes in 
the cortical area. This may result in epileptiform seizures or in severe 
cases of dementia. This is not so common unless a foreign body is in 
relation with the stump of the nerve. Regeneration of the nerve 
will take place according to the method described under "Regeneration 
of Xerve Tissue." 

Treatment. — In case of division of a nerve, the treatment is nerve 
suture. The needle best suited for the purpose is a round one, not hav- 
ing cutting edges. A fine Hagedorn needle may be used. The opera- 
tion of uniting the nerve ends should be done under the strictest asep- 
sis. The suture, which should be of catgut, must be aseptic and only one 
or two applied, sufficient to hold the ends of the nerve in position. 

Secondary nerve suture has, of late years, given some promise. Even 
where a considerable cicatrix has formed between the ends of the nerve, 
it can be removed, the nerve ends approximated, and a good result 

Nerve grafting has been done successfully. It consists in removing 
a piece of nerve from a lower animal (preferably from the spinal cord), 
and grafting it in between the divided ends of the nerve. This operation 
has been done successfully in several instances. It requires the strict- 
est asepsis and a thorough acquaintance with operative technic. After 
the injury, the parts should be manipulated and massaged in order to 
encourage the circulation to the injured part and prevent degeneration 
of the muscles. Ankylosis and contractions of any muscles or liga- 
ments should be prevented. If sepsis has complicated the original 
wound, the prognosis of the case is rather unfavorable. 


Neuritis, or inflammation of a nerve, is not a common condition, but 
may occur from subluxations, injury, gout, or rheumatism. It some- 
times attends necrosis of hone, carious teeth, etc. 

The symptoms vary according to whether the inflammation is acute 
or chronic, and according to the nerve affected. The inflammatory con- 
dition may be sufficient to lead to degeneration of the nerve. Usually 
it results in the formation of fibrous tissue, the slow contraction of 
which so impinges upon the nerve that persistent neuralgic pains result. 

The causes are due to injury, gout, rheumatism, and subluxations. 

The treatment consists in relieving the congestion, improving the 
circulation to the nerve, and removing the cause. If it is rheumatism, 


the rheumatism should he treated; if it is gout, the gout should he 
treated; or if it is a dislocated bone, the luxation should be reduced. 


Neuralgia means ''nerve pain." The term is applied to persistent 
pain in a part along the course of a certain nerve. The pain is usually 
paroxysmal, intermittent, darting, and stabbing in character. It is 
most common in the trigeminus or fifth nerve. The attacks may last 
a few minutes, or several days, or even longer. It may be periodical. 
The pains may extend over a certain part of the nerve, or all of it. 
Trophic changes will take place in the skin. Sensation and motion may 
be more or less affected. Frequently the circulation is impaired. It 
may be brought on apparently by a draft of air. Pressure on certain 
points may relieve or increase the pain. Muscles frequently be- 
come contracted and there may be excessive secretions. Over the area 
of the distribution of the nerve, an herpetic eruption may break out. 
Neuralgic pains ma}' occur in any mixed or sensory nerve or in any of 
the organs, such as the breast, ovary, or testis. 

Causes and Treatment. — Osteopathy in this affection does what 
medicine and surgery have failed to do — accomplishes a cure. The 
cause of this troublesome affection is pressure on a nerve by contrac- 
tions of the muscles and connective tissues, but more especially by bony 
displacements. As for instance, trifacial neuralgia is produced by lux- 
ation of the atlas affecting the medulla and sjnnpathetic nerves. Inter- 
costal neuralgia is produced by a luxated rib or contractions of the 
intercostal muscles which hold the ribs in abnormal position. Operative 
interference is never warranted in view of the results obtained by 
osteopathic treatment. These operations consist of nerve section and 
nerve stretching. 

Diseases of Bones. 

Inflammation of Bone. — Inflammation of bone has for its causes the 
same agencies which produce inflammation of any other tissue. The 
reaction to injury in bone is quite similar to the reaction in other 
tissues. Only the soft tissue of the bone is affected. The inflammation 
usually begins in the periosteum or endosteum and then extends along 
the Haversian canals, lymphatics, and blood stream into the bone itself. 

The results of inflammation of bone are suppuration, caries, 
necrosis, and sclerosis, which are similar to the terminations of inflam- 
mation in other tissues. When the inflammation occurs chiefly in the 
periosteum, it is a periostitis; if the chief changes take place within 
the bone itself, it is an osteitis; or within the medulla of the bone, 
osteomyelitis. The inflammation may be simple or septic. Simple 
inflammations attend fractures and bruises of the bone and 'are repar- 
ative in nature and terminate in resolution, whereas the septic variety 


very often terminates in destructive changes. The septic variety is 
brought about by the absorption of micro-organisms. These are car- 
ried through the body and finally lodge in the connective tissue spaces 
of the bone, setting up inflammation. 


Periostitis, or inflammation of the periosteum, occurs in three 
forms, {1) acute simple periostitis, (2) acute infective periostitis, and 
(3) chronic periostitis. 

Acute Simple Periostitis. 

This is usually the result of injury and occurs in the exposed parts 
of the body. Its pathology is that of simple inflammation. It termi- 
nates in resolution. 

Treatment. — The treatment consists in rest, elevation of the part, 
and the application of cold. Manipulation to assist the return circula- 
tion and to secure a good, free flow of arterial blood, will be found of 
great advantage. Pus formation is rare. The disease usually terminates 
in resolution. Should evidence of suppuration' appear, hot boracic acid 
fomentations should be applied, and as soon as the pus is formed, a free 
incision should be made and the pus evacuated. Eigid antisepsis should 
be employed to prevent ulceration of the bone. 

Acute Infective Periostitis 

Is sometimes called diffuse periostitis. It is of a grave nature and 
leads to death of a considerable portion of bone, or the disease 
may terminate fatally in pyemia or septicemia. 

Pathology. — The disease usually occurs in young people who 
are debilitated. It often follows an injury, although the injury nnay be 
slight. The most probable causes are constitutional conditions and 
certain bony lesions affecting the nutrition, which render infection 
possible. The disease is often the sequel of a continued fever. The 
exciting cause of the affection is. perhaps, the staphylococci or strep- 
tococci which have gained entrance into the system at some point made 
weak by a deficient nerve and blood supply, the result of subluxations 
or muscular contractions. The disease begins as a rapidly 
spreading inflammation, which quickly extends into the bone and 
reaches the medulla. The pus is formed beneath the periosteum in the 
cancellous part of the bone, also in the medulla. In some cases the 
entire shaft of the bone may be destroyed. The epiphysis of the bone 
escapes injury, as the blood supply to this part is through 
another source and is perhaps better. There is no direct connection 
between the blood-vessels which supply the epiphysis and those which 
supply the diaphysis until after ossification is complete, and for this 
reason, neither the epiphysis nor the joint become affected. It is possible 


for the inflammation to spread to the joint, only through the con- 
nection between the capsule of the joint and the periosteum. 

Symptoms. — The onset of the disease is usually announced by a 
chill and an inflammatory fever, which is sometimes attended by 
delirium. The shafts of the long bones, such as the humerus, femur, 
and tibia, are more frequently affected. This disease may be over- 
looked. It begins as a pain, deep-seated, intense, and agonizing. The 
limb can not be handled, which makes it probable that the periosteum 
is affected. The soft-parts over the bone become swollen, edematous, 
and dusky red (indicating a deep-seated inflammation). It can not 
always be differentiated from an abscess, except by incision. If the 
joints become involved, the symptoms are more urgent. After sup- 
puration occurs and the pus burrows towards the surface, it will be 
found, after rupture or opening of the abscess, that a considerable 
mass of the bone has died. If the joint becomes involved, bony anky- 
losis will frequently result. As soon as the diagnosis is made, an inc- 
sion should be made through the periosteum, free drainage established, 
and the wound washed with corrosive sublimate solution (1:2000). 
Should this not serve to arrest the process, and if small particles of pus 
seem to come through the nutrient foramina, an opening should be 
made, by means of a bone chisel or trephine, into the middle of the bone, 
where, some surgeons believe, is the primary seat of the trouble. The 
wound should be washed out twice daily with a 1 :2000 corrosive subli- 
mate solution. At least a gallon of antiseptic solution should be thrown 
into all parts of the abscess each time. The limb should be kept quiet. 
Liquid nourishment should be given regularly at stated intervals. 
Should a joint become involved, suppuration occurring, it should be 
laid open and freely irrigated with some antiseptic solution. If there 
is evidence of general sepsis intervening, amputation should be consid- 
ered. An early incision can not be too strongly emphasized, since by 
this means the shaft of the bone may be saved. Should necrosis of 
bone occur, the dead bone must be removed as soon as it becomes loose. 
If the shaft of the bone dies, a short longitudinal incision should be 
made, the shaft divided and pulled loose from either epiphysis. If this 
is done early, it will save deformity, suppuration, and sepsis. Further- 
more, by applying an extension apparatus, new bone will be formed 
in place of the old shaft, providing pus has not been present a sufficient 
length of time to destroy the vitality of the periosteum. 

Chronic Periostitis. 

It is associated with changes in the connective tissues about the 
bone. It is usually limited and is almost always due to syphilis, tuber- 
culosis, or rheumatism. When it is caused by trauma, it arises from a 
long continued irritation, or perhaps from the extension of an ulcer 
into bone. As in acute periostitis, it may result from continued fevers, 
such as typhoid. 


Pathology. — The pathology is similar to that of acute periostitis, 
except the tissue changes are not so rapid. Round cell infiltration takes 
place in the periosteum, extending finally into the bone. The inflam- 
matory material will, with proper treatment, be absorbed or may be- 
come ossified, or a condition of fibrosis may occur. In another case it 
may break down, forming pus, caries resulting. The ossifying variety 
of the disease forms a hard node of bone. Suppurating chronic perios- 
titis of the long bones is usually due to tuberculosis or typhoid fever, 
whereas, that occurring in the skail is often the result of syphilis. 

Symptoms. — Dull, deep-seated, boring pains, which are worse at 
night than by day. Upon examination it will be found that the bone 
is thickened, presenting hard, irregular nodules along its surface. On 
the head, the tumor is usually soft and fluctuating and looks like a 
sebaceous cyst, but there is always a history of syphilis. 

Treatment. — The treatment is to lay open the soft mass and clean 
out the abscess. If the case is syphilitic, the general condition should 
be treated. Where a mass of bone dies, it should be removed. If the 
inflammation extends into the medullary cavity, the bone should be 


There are three forms of osteomyelitis, (1) Acute simple osteomye- 
litis, (2) Acute diffuse osteomyelitis, and (3) Chronic osteomyelitis. 

Acute Simple Osteomyelitis is a localized inflammation of the 
medulla of the bone and is believed to be of traumatic origin. 
It arises from fractures or from sawing of the bone in an amputation. 
There may be a localized necrosis, when the sequestrum is small and 
conical, because of the spread of the inflammation along up 
the medullary canal. 

The treatment is to keep the wound aseptic and to remove the 
sequestrum, if one forms. 

Acute Diffuse or Infective Osteomyelitis is a more grave affliction. 
It is said to be often spontaneous in its origin, while, in some 
cases there may be a distinct history of trauma. It occurs in debilitated 
and strumous subjects, especially in children. 

Cause. — The cause of the disease is the streptococci and the staphy- 
lococci, which have gained entrance into the system, because of the 
lessened resistance of the tissues at some point, or because of the pres- 
ence of ulcers. It follows, or attends, attacks of acute infectious dis- 
eases or suppurating wounds. It sometimes follows abrasions where 
more or less sepsis complicates the condition. 

Pathology. — The disease is grave. It usually begins with a chill, 
the fever rises rather rapidly, and delirium is common. In children, 
after wounds, the disease comes on suddenly and at night. Where 
there is no evidence of injury, the patient may give a history of becom- 
ing chilled after being apparently over-heated. Locally, there are vio- 


lent aching pains and acute tenderness over the seat of the inflamma- 
tion. The entire medulla of the bone becomes infiltrated and there is 
rapid diffusion of the pus germs. The toxins absorbed give symptoms 
of sapremia, septicemia, or pyemia. It is not unusual that infective 
osteomyelitis is the gravest of the staphylococci infections. The disease 
can probably be prevented in many instances, but in others not. 
The entire diaphysis of the bone may be destroyed and sometimes the 
neighboring joints are involved. In some cases, only a central mass of 
bone is destroyed. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms are similar to those of periostitis, ex- 
cept that the local signs are not evidenced so soon. The systemic dis- 
turbances are usually greater and more sudden, but as soon as the 
inflammation extends through the bone to the periosteum, the local 
symptoms are the same, and perhaps the two diseases can not be differ- 
entiated. High fever, rigors, and edematous swelling of the limb are 
present. In cases of fractures or amputation, the periosteum recedes, 
leaving the dead end of the bone protruding. The granulations about 
the dead bone are fungating in character. 

Treatment.— In osteomyelitis, not the result of wounds, an early 
free incision seems to be the best treatment. Even before pus is formed, 
the medulla of the bone should be exposed. In cases, the result of 
operation or injury, the wound should be thoroughly cleansed with an 
antiseptic solution. Some operators scrape out the medulla of the bone 
and follow this curetting process with antiseptic washes. The treat- 
ment is similar to that of sapremia or septicemia. Should general sep- 
sis supervene, a high amputation is necessary. When septicemia and 
pyemia seem to have been established, amputation will be of no use. 

Chronic Osteomyelitis can not be differentiated from chronic perios- 
titis. It may end, as other chronic inflammations, in the formation of 
fibrous tissue in the medullary canal, or it may end in the formation 
of pus. The disease is believed to be tubercular. The abscess following 
is called Brodie's abscess. The disease may be the result of sj'-philis or 
typhoid fever. The medulla of the bone and the tissues within the 
Haversian canals, seem to be equally affected. The cancellous part of 
the bone suffers most. It is difficult to differentiate this disease from 
osteitis until after the diseased tissues have been exposed by operation. 


Osteitis means inflammation of the bone tissues, but this is said 
to occur rarely, if ever, without involving the medulla or periosteum, 
hence it is difficult to differentiate between it, periostitis and osteomye- 

Cause. — The cause seems to be the same as in other disease of bone. 

Pathology. — The pathology is likewise about the same. There is 
usually a history of injur}'-, together with lesions affecting the tissues 
locally, or certain constitutional conditions. The tissue changes 


occurring in osteitis, are similar to those occurring in inflammations of 
other tissues. The Haversian canals and other spaces in the bone be- 
come infiltrated with proliferated bone cells. There are certain large 
bone corpuscles formed which bring about a ratification, or thinning, 
of the bone. By this process all of the bony spaces are enlarged and 
by destroying the septa between the spaces, larger spaces are formed. 
The periosteum wdl become more or less inflamed and perhaps sep- 
arated by exudations from the bone itself. When the periosteum be- 
comes separated, the nutrition i.s cut oft to a portion of the bone mass. 
Death of this mass occurs (necrosis). In some cases, resolution of the 
inflammation may take place, while in other cases, fibrous tissue and 
bone formation will result, the bone becoming permanently thickened 
and hardened (sclerosis). In other cases suppuration ma}^ follow and 
abscess of the bone occur. This abscess of the bone is attended with 
molecular death or caries. Sometimes caseation, may take place in 
the abscess. It is said that osteitis will sometimes occur in connection 
with periostitis, as the result of strains or traumatism, or will follow 
any of the acute infectious diseases. Periostitis, and sometimes osteitis, 
will occur at the attachment of the patellar tendon to the tubercle on 
the front of the tibia in football players, causing a football knee. 

Osteitis may terminate in destruction and absorption of part of the 
bone, the process being similar to abscess formation with absorption of 
pus. This is called "rarefied osteitis." 

Symptoms. — Osteitis can not be differentiated from periostitis. The 
signs vary according to the intensity of the inflammation. Pains are 
deep-seated and boring, and they are worse at night, and increase on 
moving about. The edema is slight, with little redness. If the 
periosteum is involved, the redness will be considerable. There may 
be no swelling at first, although subsequently, the limb maj^ become 
considerably enlarged. The deep-seated character of the pain, 
the fact that it has continued for a long time, and that pres- 
sure relieves the pain, together with the absence of much redness and 
swelling, indicate osteitis. Pain of a more superficial character, and 
which is increased upon pressure, would indicate that the periosteum 
and superficial tissues are affected. In the chronic form of the disease, 
the diagnosis can not always be made. 

Treatment. — The treatment should be directed towards increasing 
the arterial blood flow, relieving the return circulation, and 
any general or svstemic ailment which may be present. Eelief 
may not be obtained until the bone is laid bare and a piece chiseled 
out. This will let out the engorged blood and pus. If gout, rheumatism, 
or tuberculosis exist, special treatment will be required. 

Abscess of Bone. 
Abscess of bone is always chronic. Acute inflammation of bone 
causes necrosis rather than abscess formation. After enteric fever, an 
area of suppuration may slowly form at the end of one of the long 


bones. This is said to be due to the action of the typhoid bacilli. It 
may occur after tuberculosis, the end of the bone being the point, of 
least resistance. The disease is more commonly found in the tibia 
than any other bone. Often great thickening of the bone 
covering the abscess occurs. The pus may burrow into the joint, 
inasmuch as there is no periosteum there to form a shell of bone to 
act as a barrier, [inasmuch as this abscess of the bone may be the 
result of any chronic inflammation of the bone, it may be located 
within the medullary canal, within the bone itself, or beneath the 
periosteum. The process by which pus is formed in bone, is similar to 
that occurring in suppuration in the soft tissues. After the central 
portion of the inflamed area dies, caries of the surrounding bone 
follows until a distinct abscess cavity is formed. This is lined 
with a thick, tough, pyogenic membrane. The abscess may be 
latent in the bono for years. zVfter the abscess cavity forms, it may 
burrow through the periosteum to the surface and discharge most of 
its contents. The opening through the outside shell of bone may close 
up and the abscess remain quiescent for a considerable period of time, 
and when the system again becomes debilitated, or because of injury 
or exposure, the abscess takes on renewed activity and pus is again 
formed. At the second formation of pus it may burrow through a new 
sinus, making an additional opening. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms are somewhat obscure and frequently 
lead to the diagnosis of chronic rheumatism. The pain is rather a 
dull ache and is described by the patient as giving a sensation like 
boring into the bone with a gimlet. The pain is said to be worse at 
night. Previous to the discharge of pus through the small sinuses lead- 
ing down to the cavity, the pain will be intense ; afterwards the patient 
may be able to get up and about and suffer no very great inconvenience. 
As the abscess approaches the surface, there will be edema and other 
evidences of pus formation. The enlargement of the bone, the redness 
of the skin, and the character of the pain, will be sufficient to make the 
diagnosis. It may be impossible to distinguish whether it is a case of 
osteitis, periostitis, or osteomyelitis, but it does not matter with which 
of these ailments we have to deal, the treatment is practically the same. 
Where there is doubt, exposure of the limb to the x-rays will indicate 
the nature of the affection. In a case operated upon by the author in 
the clinics of the American School of Osteopathy, an abscess in the 
lower part of the tibia was opened. The history of the case extended 
over a period of seventeen years. There were two openings leading 
through the thick, hard shell of bone Avhich surrounded the abscess 
cavity. The cavity itself was perhaps the size of a walnut. The tibia 
was several times its natural size. A button of bone was taken out by a 
trephine and the abscess cavity well curetted out and then packed with 
gauze and afterwards treated antiseptieally. Appropriate osteopathic 
treatment afterwards, to restore the general health, resulted in com- 
plete recovery. 



Caries in bone is a process similar to ulceration in the soft-parts. 
Tt means a limited molecular death of the hone substance. The general 
tendency is to inflammatory exudates which are prone to suppurate 
and afterwards, perhaps, to caseate. 

Cause. — The cause of the disease is deficient nutrition from abnor- 
mal blood supply and obstruction to the return circulation. Syphilis 
and a general debilitated state of the system are also causes. 
Conditions of caries usually give a history of an injury and a period 
of failing health. Like abscess, caries is one of the terminations of 
chronic inflammations of bone. The process ma3 r be tubercular. 

Pathology. — The pathological changes taking place are similar to 
those of abscess formation, except that the condition is more chronic 
and takes place slowly. The bone and periosteum become infiltrated 
with granulation-tissue cells, the circulation becomes more or less 
arrested at a certain point and coagulation necrosis of a small mass 
results. This mass may break down and form pus, or it may undergo 
caseation and absorption. Liquefaction necrosis may occur. Some- 
times the adjacent trabeeulae of bone become absorbed because of the 
destructive process, and a considerable cavity in the bone results. It 
is said that the granulation-tissue cells may form distinct masses some- 
times. These masses will increase or extend through the soft tissues. 
This is called funrjating caries. There are cases where these granula- 
tion tissue cells seem to break down and afterwards dry up, or the fluids 
are absorbed, but the bone has already been destroyed by their action, 
so that there is no pus formation and little evidence of inflammatory 
tissue. This is a condition of dry caries (caries sicca). Should a con- 
siderable mass die so as to form a sequestrum of bone, and afterwards 
the caries follow, as in other instances, the condition is called 
caries necrotica. In some instances, it is claimed the tubercle bacilli and 
giant cells have been found in among the granulation tissue. This 
has led to the claim that all these cases are tubercular. Caries occurs 
in cancellous bone, and more often in the vertebrae than in any other 
part of the body, whereas necrosis happens in compact bone and more 
often in the long bones. The tuberculous variety more frequently under- 
goes caseation and is attended by a crumbling away of the bone, with but 
little tendency to repair, and the destructive process is more wide- 
spread. There seems to be no method of determining whether or not 
these cases are tubercular. It matters little, since the treatment is 
the same in all cases. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms are pain, more or less swelling (some- 
times not evident), contraction and rigidity of muscles about the in- 
flamed area, redness, and other evidences of inflammation when the 
process becomes superficial. If pus forms, it will burrow along the direc- 
tion of least resistance until rupturing. The discharge is a peculiar, 
foul-smellins; material which contains a considerable number of bone 


cells. Around the opening of the sinus there is a mass of granulation 
tissue which is more or less exuberant and puckered. At the point 
where caries occurs, the bone is found to be friable, rough, and yielding. 
Treatment. — The surgical treatment is to enlarge the sinus and 
cleanse the cavity. If it is possible to reach the carious bone, it should 
be scraped out and a healthy ulcerating surface produced. Afterwards, 
antiseptics, as boroglyceride solution, may be applied. 


Necrosis is the death of bone en masse, and with reference to bone, 
it means the same as gangrene of the soft-parts. Necrosis of bone is 
rather frequent and is more common, as before mentioned, in compact 
than in cancellous bone. It more frequently follows acute inflamma- 
tion. Necrosis is always due to an arrest of the nutrition to a mass of 
bone, therefore, any inflammatory process which would interfere with 
the nutrition to compact bone, will result in its death. 

Cause. — The cause in all cases is arrest of nutrition, that is, the 
blood supply is cut off. This may be due to inflammation, injury, tissue- 
contractions, or luxations. The cause of the inflammation may be 
injury or constitutional disease, or, perhaps, acute, specific febrile pro- 
cesses. Fracture of bone and injury of the nutrient artery may result 
in death of the bone, or necrosis. Injury of the main artery to the 
part, or the main nerve, or vein, or extensive laceration of the soft 
parts, or phosphorous or mercurial poisoning, may result in death of the 

Pathology. — The pathological changes, which occur in the death of 
bone, consist, for the most part, in depriving the bone of its membrane 
(periosteum), and in plugging up the blood-vessels which enter the 
bone through the Haversian canals. If undue inflammation occurs, 
it will interfere with the nutrition and result in death. In necrosis, 
from various causes, different parts of the bone will be affected. In 
simple periostitis, the outer lamellae of the bone are usually 
affected, whereas, in osteomyelitis, the layers of bone surrounding the 
medulla are mostly affected. If, in acute osteomyelitis, the entire bone 
is affected, the whole diaphysis will die. If the necrosis is due to ostei- 
tis or simple periostitis, it is very often attended with, and followed 
by, caries. A piece of dead bone is called a sequestrum. This piece of 
bone is devoid of periosteum, and is usually white, hard and bloodless. 
Sometimes, after it has been exposed for a length of time to decompos- 
ing discharges, it may turn black. The resonance of dead bone and 
live bone is different. LI the bone has been inflamed, the surface of the 
sequestrum will be rough and irregular. Usually, the surface next 
the periosteum is smooth and the margins are ragged and serrated. 
In inflammations, where caries has occurred, the sequestrum will be 
porous and friable, but where there is more or less fibrosis, the mass 
will be found hard and unyielding. After a piece of bone has died it 


may, of itself, act as a source of inflammation, as it becomes a foreign 
body and is therefore irritating. Nature endeavors to get rid of it by 
an ulcerating process. In some cases, the ulcerating process may con- 
tinue for some considerable length of time and the mass of bone may 
be discharged (exfoliation). Often there is caries of the bone 
around a sequestrum, forming a cavity. After the discharge 
of a piece of bone or after its removal by surgical methods, the cavity 
fills up with fibrous tissue, which undergoes ossification. It may 
happen that, as the mass of bone dies and becomes separated, the 
periosteum, not being destroyed, forms new bone around the outside of 
it, so that the sequestrum lies in a mass of pus walled in by bone on all 
sides. The sequestrum is then said to be invaginated. Sometimes this 
cavity containing a sequestrum and pus, surrounded by a shell of bone, 
is called an involucmm. Occasionally, the pus may burrow through this 
shell of bone and discharge on the surface. The opening of the sinus 
has a drawn appearance and is called a cloaca. 

Diagnosis. — The diagnosis between caries and necrosis can not 
always be made, nor is it essential. The pus is usually foul smelling, 
and the appearance of the opening of the sinus is characteristic. A 
probe may be introduced to the bottom of the sinus and the roughened 
or loose bone detected. There are cases of necrosis without the 
■formation of pus. These somewhat resemble new growths. This form 
of the disease can not be diagnosed unless an incision is made. The 
dead bone exfoliated in carious conditions is soft and crumbles, whereas 
that derived from conditions of necrosis is thick and hard. 
The skin over necrosis is more edematous and inflamed. The dis- 
charge in caries may be thin and more or less watery, whereas in the 
case of necrosis, it is thick and purulent. In case of necrosis, 
there may be great thickening of bone, while in caries, there may not 
be. In abscess of the bone there likewise may be found great thicken- 
ing of the bone and a discharge of pus. The diagnosis can be eorrectly 
made only by exploratory incision. 

Treatment. — The treatment in diseased bone is to extirpate the 
diseased area when it is possible. In case of necrosis, as soon as the 
diseased bone is found, it should be removed. The inflammation should 
be treated as any acute inflammation. In chronic conditions, an opera- 
tion, uncovering the sequestrum and removing it will be found neces- 
sary. The presence of several cloacae and a thickened condition of the 
bone will be sufficient to warrant a diagnosis of involucrum. A bone 
chisel or trephine should be brought into use, the abscess cavity opened 
and the sequestrum removed, and all of the dead or diseased bone 
scraped out. The abscess cavity may then be cleansed thoroughly and 
a boroglyceride solution applied once or twice daily. In case the 
abscess cavity is larsre, and severe hemorrhage follows the operation, 
the cavity from which the diseased bone has been removed should be 
packed with borated gauze. Cleanliness, together with supporting 


treatment and a correction of any local lesions, malposition of the 
limbs, bones, muscles, and contractions of fascia, will effect a cure. 

Atrophy of Bone. 

Atrophy of bone is often an accompaniment of old age. It 
results because of pressure or non-use. It may occur about joints, 
because of disease or non-use, or in the stumps of amputated limbs. 
This atrophy may be attended by a friable condition of the bone, or 
the bone may become considerably smaller, rendering it more liable to 
fracture. Fatty degeneration, more or less, attends atrophy of the bone. 

Hypertrophy of Bone. 

Hypertrophy, as the term indicates, is an overgrowth of the osseous 
structures. The general causes of hypertrophy operate. It is the result 
of an increased blood supply, excessive use, etc. In case of the removal 
of the radius, the companion bone, the ulna, will become enlarged and 
hypertrophied. In such cases it depends upon an increased demand 
upon the bone. The term "hypertrophy" should not be applied to 
fibroid thickening, the result of inflammation. 

Syphilis of Bone. 

In tertiary syphilis, certain pathological changes take place in the 
bones. The nature of these changes are gummatous formations 
occurring usually in the periosteum. They are nodes of inflammatory 
thickening or infiltration. These extend into the bone itself. Ofttimes 
they lead to caries, necrosis, or sclerosis. Ulceration and destruction 
of bone may occur because of this low-grade inflammation set up, and 
because of the general condition of malnutrition existing in syphilis. 

Tuberculosis of Bone. 

Tubercular disease of bone refers to that variety of osteitis set up 
by the deposit of the tubercle bacillus. 

Pathology. — The pathology of the affection is the pathology of the 
deposit of the tubercle anywhere, except that it occurs in bone. The 
deposit of the tubercle always takes place at a point in the bone where 
there is the least blood supply and where the bone is the weakest. It 
develops after an injury has set up an inflammation. In the largest 
per cent of the cases, tuberculosis of other organs does not occur. 
Patients suffering from Pott's disease of the spine, which results in the 
formation of psoas or lumbar abscess, may live out a long life, after 
apparently extensive destruction of the tissues. There seems to be no 
way by which we can determine whether or not a given case is tubercu- 
lar, therefore the same treatment should be applied in all cases, viz., to 
increase the general nutrition, relieve any constitutional conditions, 
support the patient by proper diet, hygiene, and habits, and above all, 
correct any lesions which may be found, Avhich might be the cause of the 
ailment by interfering with the circulation and nutrition of parts of 
the bone. 


Mollities Ossium, or Osteomalacia. 

Mollities Ossium is a disease in which the earthy salts are absorbed, 
leaving the bone soft so that it will bend. There may be numerous bones 
involved. Usually it comes on late in life, and is said to be more fre- 
quent in women than in men. It may occur during pregnane}'. The 
medullary structures of the hone increase in size and become more 

Cause. — The cause of the disease is unknown. Some writers main- 
tain that it is produced by the development of lactic acid in the system, 
but this is only theory. In some cases the medulla of the bone seems 
to be filled with material much resembling spleen pulp. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of the disease are those of rheumatism. 
There is a general weakness and obscure pains. This is followed by a 
sudden fracture or perhaps a bending and distortion of the bones. The 
long bones become misshapen, as do the pelvis and thorax. The urine 
is said to contain albumen, phosphates, and lactic acid. Death usually 
comes on from exhaustion. If it occurs during pregnancy, the patient 
may die during parturition. 

Treatment. — Inasmuch as the cause of the disease is unknown, the 
treatment is likewise not definite. It is reasonable to suppose, when 
we consider the many affections in which Osteopathic treatment has 
been eminently successful, where other methods failed, that in these 
cases there will be found lesions accounting for the conditions present. 
Where this is true, the removal of these lesions and the abatement of 
the symptoms would indicate to the physician that he had found the 
source of the trouble. At all events, whatever lesions are found, they 
should be removed with the hope that a specific treatment may be 


In this disease there is general, symmetrical enlargement of the 
bones and connective tissues of the hands, feet, head, and face. The 
nasal and inferior maxillary bones are the most affected. Prognathism 
of the lower jaw and prominence and thickening of the nose and supra- 
orbital ridges are marked symptoms. The larynx, bones of the shoulder- 
girdle, ribs, and vertebrae may also become affected. The cause of the 
disease is obscure. It can. most likely, be attributed to some 
lesion of the nervous s} r stem. 

Virchow's Disease, or Leontiasis Ossium. 

This disease consists of hypertrophy of the facial and cranial hones. 
It is symmetrical and usually involves the superior maxillary bone. 
The hypertrophy is progressive, symmetrical, and causes persistent 
headaches. Great deformity results. Where the disease has continued 
for some length of time, the removal of a mass of bone may give some 


Tumors of Bone. 

The tumors of bone are: 
1. Osteomata. 2. Enehondromata. 3 Fibromata, -i. Sarcomata. 
5. Carcinomata. 

Osteomata. — These tumors are reproductions of true bone. They are 
circumscribed and diffuse. The diagnosis of the tumor can be made by 
eliminating the other forms. 

The treatment consists in, removing the tumor by means of a chisel. 

Enehondromata. — These are reproductions of cartilage in connection 
with bone. They occur more frequently in the bones of the fingers or 
at the end of the long bones. They are multiple and often 
congenital. Sometimes, in developing within a bone, the} r expand it 
into a thin shell, maybe rupturing it. They are thought to arise from 
periosteum. They may grow in any direction in the bone, or out 
towards the surface. They rarely ossify, but calcification or mucoid 
softening may occur. 

Diagnosis. — They may be diagnosed by great hardness and their 
even attachment to the bone, slow growth, and no glandular enlarge- 
ments attending. 

Fibromata. — These sometimes occur in connection with the bones at 
the base of the skull or lower jaw. They are said to constitute the 
nasal polypi and epulis, and rise from the periosteum of the bones of 
the naso-pharynx. 

The treatment is to remove the tumor. 

Sarcomata. — Sarcomata of bone are common. They are of the 
mveloid variety, occasionally the round and mix-celled. They are de- 
rived from the deeper layers of the periosteum and may surround the 
bone or extend to the bony tissues. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of sarcoma are the symptoms of a sar- 
coma anywhere on the body. They grow slowly and occasion consider- 
able pain, but do not affect the lymphatic glands. Some forms of- sar- 
comata may grow rapidly. The pain may not be severe, or it may be 
absent. The tumor occurs more frequently in young people and is 
attended by great loss of weight and strength. In some cases the tumor 
is pulsating and there is considerable redness and edema of 
the soft-parts. If possible, the tumor should be removed. Some forms 
of the tumor are very malignant. 

Carcinomata. — Cancer of bone never occurs primarily. It may 
spread to the bone from any of the organs or from any of the surfaces 
of the bod)^. Amputation seems to be the only relief. 

Fractures — A fracture is a broken bone, or a sudden and forcible 
solution of the continuity of bone. 
Causes. — A. Predisposing. 

1. Age. 3. Occupation. 

2. Sex. 4. Certain diseased conditions. 


Age. — Fractures are more common after the age of forty-five, be- 
cause of the fragile condition of the hones, and less common in small 
children on account of the elasticity of the bones and because the sub- 
ject is less liable to injury. Fractures increase in frequency from six 
years upward, being more frequent in very old people. 

Sex. — The male sex is more liable to fracture, because of greater ex- 
posure to violence and injury. 

Occupation. — Laborers, because of the greater risks they are com- 
pelled to take in life, are more liable to fractures. 

Certain diseased conditions, which render fractures more likely, may 
be enumerated as follows: Atrophy, either senile or from pressure or 
disuse; rickets; fatty degeneration; fragilitas ossium; osteomalacia; 
nervous disorders; tuberculosis and syphilis; caries and necrosis; malig- 
nant growths, and in fact, any condition which impairs the strength of 
the bone renders it more liable to fracture. 

B. Exciting causes. 

1. External violence. 2. Internal violence. 

a. Direct. 

b. Indirect. 

Direct Violence. — By direct violence we mean violence applied to the 
spot where the fracture occurs. It is evident that in cases of this kind 
there will be more or less contusion of the soft-parts at the site of 
fracture. The fragments are more liable to be comminuted and the 
injury to the soft-parts is likely to be greater in fractures from direct 
than from indirect violence. 

Indirect Violence. — Fractures from indirect violence take place 
where the force is transmitted through the axis of the bone or through 
other structures, as for instance, intra-capsular fracture of the femur 
takes place in twisting the leg from catching the toe; fracture of the 
clavicle may occur from falling on the hand ; fractures of certain verte- 
brae or the base of the skull may be produced by falls upon the but- 
tocks; fractures on the back part of the skull may take place because 
of injury upon the front of the skull (fractures by centre coup). 

Internal Violence. — Internal violence consists of muscular action. 
Fractures from muscular action may take place in the long bones, in 
diseased conditions, as in the case of spastic paralysis. Under ordinary 
circumstances, they are more common in the patella. 

Varieties of Fracture. 

All fractures are divided into simple and compound, depending 
upon whether there is an open wound leading to the site of fracture. 

1. Simple Fracture is one in which air is not admitted to the site of 

2. Compound Fracture is one in which air is admitted to the site of 
fracture or the wound leads to the surface. A flesh-wound attending a 



fracture does not necessarily mean that the fracture is compound. The 
wound may not lead to the site of fracture. 

All fractures may also he divided into complete and incomplete. 

3. Complete Fracture is one in which the hone is separated into two 
or more fragments. 

4. Incomplete Fracture is one in which the hone is not separated 
into fragments, hut is only partially fractured. The most common form 
of incomplete fracture is green-stick fracture, where the hone is par- 
tially hent and partially hroken. 

Other forms of fracture may he described as: — 

5. Multiple Fracture, a condition where there 
is a fracture at more than one point in the hone. 

6. Comminuted Fracture, where the hone is 
fractured at two points and these lines of frac- 
ture unite. 

7. Impacted Fracture, a condition where one 

Fig. 35. Fig. 36. 

Fig 3/ 

Comminuted fracture 
of upper extremity of 

An impacted fracture of the up- 
per extremity of the femur. 

Transverse frac- 
ture of the tibia. 

fragment telescopes the other, or the ends of the hones are driven 
into each other. 

8. Fissured Fracture, a condition where the hone is simply fissured, 
not entirely hroken off, and there is no displacement. This variety 
occurs most frequently in flat hones. 

9. Depressed Fracture occurs in bones of the skull most frequently. 
One edge of the hroken bone is driven below its opposing edge. 

10. Punctured Fracture is one which is produced by a pointed in- 
strument without disjolacement of the fragments. 

11. Splintered Fracture is a condition where the ends of the bones 
ore splintered and separated into numerous fragments. 

Other forms, described according to the line of fracture, may he: 



. 12. Transverse, where the line of fracture is transverse to the long 
axis of the hone. 

13. Oblique, where the line of fracture extends obliquely to the shaft 
of the bone. 

14. Longitudinal, where the line of fracture extends lengthwise in 
the bone. 

In. Spiral, where the line of fracture extends spirally around the 

16. Y or T Fractures are those occurring at the end of hones, 
as in the lower end of the humerus or femur, the line of fracture 
resembling the letter Y or T. 

IT. Stellate Fracture is one occurring in the skull where several lines 
of fracture radiate from a single point. 

18. Epiphyseal Fracture is 
one extending through the epi- 
physeal cartilage which unites 
the epiphysis and diaphysis. It 
consists in the separation of the 
epiphysis from the diaphysis. 

19. Complicated Fracture is 
one which is associated with 
extensive injury to the soft- 
parts, or is attended by rup- 
ture of the main arterv of the 
part, or by concomitant dislo- 

Fig. 49. 

Fig. 38. 

Fig. 39. 

Kxample of ob- 
lique fracture of 
the tibia. 

Longitudinal fracture 
of the tibia. 


Y fracture of the lower extrem- 
ity of the humerus. 

cation or other severe injury which interferes with treatment 
and union of the fracture. 

20. Ununited Fracture is one in which union has not taken place 
within a reasonable length of time after the injury. 

Signs of Fracture. — The signs of fracture are, in general, those of 
local injury and may be enumerated as : 

1. Pain. 

2. Swelling. 

3. Deformity. 

4. Impaired function. 

5. Preternatural mobility. 

6. Crepitus. 

7. Shortening. 

8. Sensation of sudden snap. 

9. History of the accident. 


The pain of a fracture is not diagnostic. It may be severe, or slight. 
Sometimes it is so severe as to cause great shock; especially is this 
true where a large nerve, p uch as the sciatic, is pressed upon by the 
jagged end of the bone. 

The swelling may be slight, or it may be severe, depending largely 
upon the amount of injury to the soft-parts, and the amount of effusion 
of blood amongst the tissues. 

The deformity varies. It may be simply an enormous swell- 
ing or it may be angular, such as to indicate at a glance that there is a 
broken bone. Deformity, crepitus, shortening, and other signs will 
depend largely upon the displacement of the fragments. The displace- 
ment of the fragments depends upon three things, viz. : 

1. Continuation of the fractur- 2. Muscular action. 

ing force. 3. Weight of the limb. 

Sometimes, because of these agencies acting, the deformity will 
depend upon the amount of the swelling, the degree and nature of the 
displacement of the fragments. 

Impairment of the Function will depend largely upon the nature of 
the fracture. Sometimes the function will be only slightly impaired, at 
other times the function may be entirely lost. 

Preternatural Mobility means mobility at a point where there should 
be none. The mobility may be increased and at other times 
diminished. In case of fracture of the shaft of a bone, there is mobility 
at an abnormal location. In case of fracture at the end of a bone, the 
mobility may be decreased. Preternatural mobility may be absent in 
fissured fractures, in incomplete or green-stick fractures, or in impacted 
fractures. When it can be obtained, preternatural mobility is proof 
positive of fracture. 

Crepitus is the sensation imparted to the surgeon's hands by the 
scraping together of the roughened ends of the broken bone. This 
scraping together of the ends of the bone may be sufficient that 
a grating sound can be heard, but the crepitus refers to the sensation 
which is obtained by touch. There are two kinds of crepitus, false and 
true. False crepitus is obtained at joints Avhere there are roughened 
tendon-sheaths or articular cartilages, or where fibrous adhesions have 
been formed between the ends of the bones, so that motion of the joint 
causes grating. In some cases this so closely resembles crepitus as to 
make the sign of but little value. True crepitus is of great import- 
ance. It is sufficient evidence upon which to base the diagnosis where 
there is proof that it came from the bone, and not from other 

Shortening" varies according to the fracture and according to the 
condition of the member. It is produced by muscular contraction, the 
muscles normally being slightly contracted, and when the bone is 


broken the ends are pulled past each other. Sometimes the weight oi 
the member, with no other agencies acting, may overcome this muscu- 
lar contraction, when the shortening may not. be so great. 

Sensation of Sudden Snap and .History of the Accident. — A history of 
the accident, and the fact that the patient felt a cracking of the bone, 
may be of some value. Subjective symptoms are often of not much 

Diagnosis of Fracture.— The diagnosis of fracture is made by weigh- 
ing the symptoms and evidences obtained. Sometimes the fracture will 
be extremely difficult to make out. The diagnosis may be clouded under 
the following circumstances: 

1. When the fracture occurs in the neighborhood of a joint. 

2. When there is much fluid effusion and extravasation of blood and 
serum about the site of fracture, so as to render it impossible to make 
suitable examination. 

3. In conditions where there is no displacement of the bones, or 
where the fragments are held together by a companion bone. 

4. Subperiosteal fractures or fissured fractures of the skull. 

The sign? of fracture may be so meager and difficult to obtain that 
a diagnosis is impossible. Where it is possible, in doubtful cases, 
the injured member should be exposed to the x-rays. The diagnosis 
can be made by successfully obtaining the various signs of fracture. 
Crepitus can be obtained by making extension and counter-extension 
where the fracture occurs in a long bone, thus bringing the 
ends of the bone in apposition. Crepitus may be gotten 
by grasping the limb above the site of fracture and rota- 
ting the limb below. Sometimes effort at muscular action by 
the patient will develop crepitus. Where crepitus can not be obtained 
without the use of force, other signs must be looked for , Shortening is 
an important sign in man} r fractures and is obtained by measuring, 
a'fter placing the body in a normal position. Measurements should be 
taken from fixed points. In case of fracture of the humerus, the short- 
ening is determined by measuring from the acromion process to the 
external condyle. Preternatural mobility is one of the most important 
of the signs and is obtained, in some instances, by grasping the limb 
above and below the fracture, and an effort at motion will determine 
whether there is mobility at a point where there should be none. 

How Fractures Heal.— As a rule, a broken bone heals, under favora- 
ble circumstances, much better than any other tissue. The way in Avhich 
union takes place is of the greatest importance, and should be thor- 
oughly understood in order to appreciate the importance of the methods 
of treatment. As soon as the fracture occurs, extravasation of blood 
takes place in the soft parts and between the ends of the broken bones. 
This extravasation may be great or it may be small. Sometimes it is 
so great as to form a complication of the fracture, but under average 
circumstances the hemorrhage into the site of fracture will cease when 


the pressure becomes equal to that within the blood-vessels. The tissue 
changes and inflammation which follow will be sufficient only to repair 
the injury in case of simple fracture. In case of compound fracture, 
the inflammation will likely be greater because of the introduction of 
a certain amount of septic material. The periosteum, Haversian canals, 
medulla of the bone, and soft tissues about, all become infiltrated with 
leukocytes and round cells. These new cells are derived 

from the endothelial cells in the Haversian canals, from the 
endosteum (membrane lining the medullar cavity) and periosteum. 
The blood which has extravasated between the ends of the bones, 
becomes absorbed within four or five days in ordinary frac- 
tures. In case of green-stick fracture, perhaps earlier, while if there is 
extensive injury to the soft parts, the absorption might not be completed 
before the sixth or eighth day. In young persons the reaction of the 
tissues to injury is quicker and greater than in old people, so that the 
absorption takes place more quickly. The formation of granula- 
tion tissues at the site of fracture takes place just as soon as 
the clot is sufficiently absorbed. When the diffused blood disappears, 
its place is occupied by granulation-tissue cells which comprise the soft 
callus. The formation of this soft callus begins, in children, as early 
as the third or fourth clay; in very old people as late as the tenth or 
twelfth day, but ordinarily it begins by the fifth or sixth day, so that 
the fracture should be set before that time. This soft callus becomes 
penetrated by delicate capillary loops which are derived from the vessels 
in the Haversian canals and periosteum. The soft callus which fills 
up the spaces between the ends of the bones is the permanent or defini- 
tive callus. Within the medullary cavity the endosteal callus is 
formed, whereas on the outside of the bone and derived from the per- 
iosteum is formed the periosteal, or ensheathing callus. This new 
tissue becomes firm and hard and highly organized until it is converted 
into a fibrous or cartilagenous mass. Over the ensheathing callus new 
periosteum forms because of a growing out of the periosteum from 
either side of the fracture. All this has occurred, under average cir- 
cumstances, by the fourteenth day after the fracture. At this time 
ossification of the callus begins, usually at the point where the 
ensheathing callus meets the periosteum. The ossifying process ex- 
tends over either edge of the ensheathing callus until it meets in the 
middle line and also extends down in through the definitive callus into 
the endosteal callus. Ossification in the definitive callus begins at 
the edges next to the healthy bone, Avhile ossification of the endosteal 
callus starts where it is in contact with the endosteum and takes place 
in the same manner as ossification from the periosteal callus. When 
ossification is complete, the endosteal and periosteal callus become 
absorbed and disappear, leaving the permanent callus sufficiently 
strong to maintain the integrity of the bone. The new callus is vascu- 
lar in the beginning, but becomes solid by the process of ossification. 
The large vascular spaces are filled up by layers of bone successively 


built in. In cases where the fragments overlap, the space is filled 
up by the ensheathing callus, and under such circumstances the en- 
sheathing callus will not be absorbed. When the fragments are in 
good apposition and kept at rest, all the ensheathing and endosteal 
callus will disappear. Where there is much motion, or not good appo- 
sition, none of the ensheathing callus may be absorbed and a large 
knot will always remain as an evidence of fracture. It is the rule in 
children, for a considerable amount of ensheathing callus to be devel- 
oped because of the energy of the tissues. 

Treatment. — The indications in the treatment of fractures are: 

1. Reduction. 3. Restoration of function. 

2. Maintaining apposition. 4. Attention to the general health. 

Reduction of fracture consists in bringing the ends of the bones in 
apposition in as nearly normal position as possible. 

Temporary Methods. — When a fracture is first seen, the member, 
should be put in the best position possible to prevent injury. Effort 
at reduction should not be made until the proper materials for splints 
and bandages are at hand. In case of a fractured femur, the limb may 
be tied to the opposite one, or it may be bound to an umbrella or stick, 
so that further manipulation of the member will not injure the soft- 
parts. Where the patient is already in bed, sand-bags or pillows may 
be propped about the limb. Before efforts at reduction are made, the 
clothing, shoes, etc., should be cut off and the limb exposed, so that a 
careful examination can be made to determine the nature of the frac- 
ture and amount of displacement. The conditions preventing reduc- 
tion are: 

1. Swelling. The swelling may be such as to interfere with the set- 
ting of the fracture or the application of the proper dressings. Under 
such circumstances anti-inflammatory measures, such as cold and rest, 
should be employed for the first twenty-four or thirty-six hours, the 
part having been kept immovable during this time. When tjhe swelling 
has sufficiently subsided, efforts at reduction may be made. 

2. Contraction of muscles may be such as to interfere with the re- 
duction. When this occurs, a pulley and weight should be secured, so 
when reduction is once made, the fragments may be kept in position by 
means of extension and counter-extension. 

3. Interposition of fascia, muscle, tendon, etc. The interposition of 
some of the soft structures, as a piece of periosteum, tendon, muscle, 
etc., may prevent the surgeon from securing apposition of the frag- 
ments. It is necessary to get rid of this interposing tissue or union will 
not take place. 

4. Impaction of fragments will also prevent reduction; in fact, in 
cases of impacted fracture, reduction should not be made. The frac- 
tured bones should be allowed to heal in that position. Before efforts 
fire made at reduction of a fracture, a suitable splint, such as the sur- 
geon believes to be the best for the condition at hand, should be selected, 


and all materials prepared before a reduction of the fracture is 
attempted. The nature of the dressing will depend largely upon the 
choice of the surgeon, inasmuch as there are many suitable dressings 
that are known and tried, and if properly applied will bring about good 

Methods of Reduction of Fracture. — The reduction is usually 
accomplished by extension and counter-extension. This overcomes mus- 
cular contraction, when the pressure of the soft-parts will push the ends 
of the bone in the proper position. This is not always true. In case of 
fracture of the upper extremity of the femur, extension and counter- 
extension will not bring about relaxation of the contractured muscles. 
In this case the psoas and iliacus muscles tip the lower end of the upper 
fragment forward and prevent the operator from securing the desired 
apposition of the fragments. In such cases it is necessary to partially 
flex the thigh upon the abdomen. In case of fracture of the lower 
extremity of the femur, contraction of the muscles of the calf turns 
the lower fragment backward, preventing apposition, and no amount 
of extension and counter-extension will secure apposition. Here, by 
flexing the leg at the knee, the limb may be properly manipulated and 
apposition secured. In general, to secure reduction, extension and 
counter-extension, rotation and flexion, and manipulation should be 
made to mould the parts in position, and when once the bones ore got- 
ten in good apposition, every effort should be made to maintain them in 
such position. 

Position of the Limb. — The limb must be put in such position as 
to secure the greatest muscular relaxation and greatest ease to the 
patient. Opposing muscles rarely act with equal force and it is neces- 
sary to determine the muscles which are contracted. The limb must 
be placed in such position as to secure relaxation of the contracted 

Position of the Fragments. — When the fragments are impacted, they 
should be alloAved to remain in this condition. The reasons are, 
that because of the injury to the ends of the fragments, one being 
driven into the other, the effort at union will not be sufficient and 
therefore a bad result may be obtained; whereas, if the impaction is 
allowed to remain, good union may be obtained, but there may be some 
deformity. It is better to have the slight deformity attending an 
impacted fracture than lose the use of the member, which might occur 
providing the impaction is broken up. 

Maintaining Apposition. — In the treatment of fracture it is neces- 
sary to maintain apposition in order that nature may, by the reparative 
process, heal the injury. This apposition must be maintained at all 
times until union is complete, when the apparatus used for the purpose 
may be dispensed with. To maintain the fragments in apposition, it is 
necessary to use splints, bandages, strappings, etc., such means as are 
known to be reliable. These splints, bandages, and strappings vary ac- 
cording to the location of the fracture and its nature. 



Rules for Applying Splints. — Rules for applying splints may be best 
considered under the following heads: 

1. The splint must be well padded. The padding is best made by 
means of aseptic lamb's- wool, borated lint, or surgeon's cotton. The 
splint should be thoroughly padded to give the member a nice, soft, 
easy bed in which to rest. 

2. The splint should not press upon bony points. This should be 
observed for fear a pressure-sore might result. Also unequal pressure 
would result in displacing the fragments. 

' 3. The bandage must not be applied too tightly, so that constriction 
of the limb will take place. It may be possible, in the application of the 
bandage, that it will so obstruct the return circulation that gangrene 
will result, or it may so interfere with the nutrition of the limb as to 
cause non-union. 

4. Splints, in general, must render immovable the joints' above and 
below the fracture. Inasmuch as the muscles which move the member 

Fig. 41. 

Extension apparatus applied, suitable for fractures of the femur. It consists of a long 
strip of adhesive plaster extending up on either side of the leg. The adhesive plaster is 
held in place by a roller bandage. 

have their origins from above the joint, and their insertion is frequently 
beyond the joint below, it is necessary to render both immovable in 
order to secure immobility of the fragments. 

5. The splint must not cover the wound, in case of compound frac- 
ture. This is necessary, inasmuch as the wound must be treated. In 
case of severe simple fracture, the site of fracture should be left exposed 
in order to observe any changes which may take place. 

6. The patient must be seen within twenty-four hours after apply- 
ing the first dressing. This is necessary, inasmuch as the swelling 
which follows fracture, may be such as to operate as an obstruction to 
the return circulation. The bandage may become too tight. 

7. Should the circulation not be disturbed and the fragments held 
in apposition, the dressing should be left alone. This rule should be 
followed conscientiously. It is not necessary to look at the site of frac- 
ture every day, but it is necessary to see that the dressings accomplish 
the desired purpose. 

8. Where the splints will not maintain apposition, an extension 



apparatus must be applied to overcome muscular contraction. This is 
preferably done by a weight and pulley, the extension being made on the 
lower fragment. On the lower extremity in strong men, the weight 
should be five to ten pounds; in persons less strong the weight should 
be less. 

Fig. 42. 

A plaster cast which encloses a rod by which the member 
may he suspended. 

Dressings. — There are many forms of dressings. Some surgeons 
prefer one kind and some another. Some have secured better results 
with one kind of dressing and, perhaps, are more adept at applying that 
dressing. Dr. A. T. Still prefers a starch-paste dressing made with 
starch-paste, pasteboard, and a many-tailed bandage. 

Other forms of dressing consist of splints made of thin board, paste- 
board, gutta percha, or a plaster-of-Paris dressing. At pres- 

FiG. 43. 

' VWW — ~^v^rf^= 

A plaster trough applied to the lower leg It is an ex- 
cellent dressing for fractures of the tibia or fifoula. 

ent the plaster-of-Paris dressing is the most popular. It has 
many advantages, viz., great strength and durability. A plas- 
ter-of-Paris dressing is often applied at once, in case of frac- 
ture, where there is not much injury to the soft parts, or 
much swelling, or where the case is in a hospital and can be watched 



Fig. 44. 

by an intelligent attendant. In private practice this is not best, inas- 
much as it may obstruct the return circulation. It is best to put on a 
temporary dressing until the swelling reaches its maximum intensity, 
when the gypsum splint may be applied. 

Restoration of Function. — Eestoration of function is accomplished, 
in the greater part, by manipulation. This manipulation assists the 
return circulation, prevents adhesion among the soft-parts and main- 
tains the integrity of the joint. This 
manipulation should be begun at 
the end of the second week in almost 
all cases. Some fractures in old people 
may form exceptions to the rule. The 
former method of treating fracture 
by not manipulating them until after 
four or five weeks has been found to 
be bad, inasmuch as by manipulation 
you can assist the circulation and se- 
cure union in many cases where other- 
wise non-union would occur. Where 
the fracture is in the neighborhood 
of a joint, or involves the joint, just 
as soon as the inflammation and swell- 
ing disappear, which will be in four 
or five days, manipulation to assist 
the return circulation, to prevent the 
formation of adhesions, will be found 
of the greatest advantage. This ma- 
nipulation should be gentle and not 
vigorous and destructive, hut should 
be regularly kept up. The manipula- 
tion consists in pronating and supi- 
nating, extending and counter-extend- 
ing, rotating and circumducting the 
member, and in loosening up the 
soft-parts in the neighborhood of the 
fracture in a mild way. 

Attention to the General Health. — This can best be subserved by 
placing the person upon a suitable bed. In general, the bed should be 
smooth. "Where there is a tendency to bed-sores, a water-bed or air- 
cushion should be provided, while the skin should be treated with 
lotions of alcohol and an ointment of benzoated oxid of zinc. If availa- 
ble, a fracture bed may be supplied. The patient should be placed upon 
a suitable diet, consisting of substantial food which will sustain 
the strength. The bowels should be kept acting daily. . Old 
people should not be kept in bed too long, as edema of the lung is liable 
to arise. 

Time Within Which a Fracture Should Heal. — Complete union 

The ambulatory method of treating 
fractures of the leg. 


takes place in fractures, in the average case, in from four to six 
weeks. . In a child, good union may take place within three weeks, 
whereas, in an old person, it may be considerably longer. If union has 
not taken place in eight weeks, it may be considered a condition of 
delayed union, but delayed union is liable to occur under many cir- 

Ununited Fracture. — An ununited fracture is a condition in which, 
within a reasonable time, the fractured ends of the bones are not united 
with suificiently strong callus to enable the restoration of the function 
of the member. There are various conditions of ununited fracture, 
which may be classified as follows: 

1. Delayed Union. This is a condition where, because of debility 
or disease, or because of the treatment, the union is delayed beyond the 
time when it should have taken place. 

2. Fibrous Union. Fibrous union is a condition which may occur, 
even under favorable circumstances, as in fractures of the patella, intra- 
capsular fractures of the neck of the femur in old people, or fractures 
of the anatomical neck of the humerus, where the parts of the bone at 
the site of fracture are poorly supplied with blood. It occurs at other 
locations, where the parts are not kept strictly immovable. 

3. False Joint (Pseudo-arthrosis). A condition of false joint oc- 
curs where the fracture has not been kept immovable, and the ends of 
the bones become worn off; a thin covering of cartilage forms, and a 
capsule is developed. 

4. No Effort at Union Whatever. There are conditions of malnutri- 
tion, where there is no effort at union whatever. The causes of non- 
union or ununited fracture are local and general. The local causes 
may be enumerated in this manner : 

(a) Failure to maintain immobility, which may be because of im- 
proper dressings, or because the patient did not properly follow the 
instructions of the physician. 

(b) Failure to secure apposition, not from the bungling work of the 
operator, but from (1) muscular contractions which will cause overlap- 
ping of the fragments; (2) interposition of muscle, tendon, fascia, per- 
iosteum, etc. ; (3) the loss of a piece of bone. Where there is com- 
minution, a piece of the bone may be destroyed. This loose piece of 
bone may act as a foreign bod)'', preventing apposition. 

(c) Defective nutrition to the injured bone may be brought about 
by the following conditions: (1) injury to the nutrient artery of the 
bone: (2) injury to the main artery of the limb; (3) defective nerve 
influence, because of injury or rupture of the main nerve to the limb, 
or because of injury to the spine, so that the trophic and vasomotor 
impulses to the injured area are either interfered with or destroyed; 
(4) poor blood supply to the site of fracture. This occurs in case of 
fracture through the ends of the bone, as in the upper extremity of the 
humerus or femur. (5) Necrosis of a fragment of bone may occur, 


where it has been detached from the soft tissues and from the shaft 
of the hone, its source of nutrition being thereby cut off. 

The general causes of non-union are the following: Old age, gen- 
eral debility, malnutrition, or sudden alteration of the patient's habits. 
If the patient has been addicted to the use of stimulants, the sudden 
withdrawal of them, may markedly interfere with the nutrition. Gen- 
eral diseases, as Bright's disease, diabetes, syphilis, gout, tuberculosis, 
rickets, and scurvy,' certain forms of paralysis, such as tabes dorsalis, 
or paralysis agitans, will interfere with the general nutrition of the 
body to that extent that there will be little or no effort at union. 

Disunited Fracture. — A disunited fracture is a condition where the 
fracture has once healed and, because of acute fevers or some general 
disease, the callus is absorbed, and the fracture left ununited. 

Treatment of Delayed Union. — The treatment of delayed union 
°hould be taken up methodically. The first thing to determine is the 
cause, and this should be corrected. In general, the following pro- 
cedure should be strictly adhered to: 

1. Keapply and fix a dressing, correct in every detail, which will 
maintain the fragments in apposition and immovable. The general 
health should then be corrected. If there are any local or spinal lesions, 
or any condition wbich would interfere with the nutrition to a certain 
area, these conditions must be relieved. At this same time, thorough 
manipulation of the soft-parts, and of the member should be kept up, 
to secure a good blood supply to the site of the fracture. If this fails, 
the following should be tried: 

2. Friction of the fragments should be made under anesthesia. 
"When the muscles are thoroughly relaxed, the two fragments should be 
grasped and raked together vigorously and thoroughly, in order to excite 
the reparative process. Then a fixed dressing should be applied and 
the parts kept in apposition, until the fracture has had an opportunity 
to heal. In the meantime, any constitutional defect should be corrected. 
Any lesion interfering with the circulation, general nutrition, or the 
secretion of any organs, such as the kidneys, liver, etc., should be treated 
and removed. If this method fails, the following should be tried: 

3. Operative Procedure. The operative procedure, to unite an old 
fracture, consists in drilling through the ends of the fragments with 
a bone drill, and fastening the fragments together by means of aseptic 
ivory pegs or steel nails, or the ends of the bones may be wired together. 
Where the bones are subcutaneous, as in the case of the tibia, instead 
of fraction, the bone drill may be introduced through the skin, and a 
hole bored through the ends of the fractured bone to excite inflamma- 
tion and union. Senn's bone-ferrules may be used. These are service- 
able in the treatment of non-union, especially in case of the humerus 
or femur. 

Vicious Union. — Vicious union is a condition which sometimes 
occurs in improperly adjusted fractures, or where the condition has 


had bad treatment. An enormous amount of callus will be thrown out, 
which will involve a nerve or a companion bone and interfere with the 
use of the member. 

Complications of Fractures. — Fractures may be complicated by the 
following conditions, which must receive appropriate treatment: 

1. General conditions, such as shock, delirium, retention of urine, 
etc., brought about by the effects of the injury upon the general system. 

2. Infection. Infections, such as erysipelas, tetanus, sepsis, etc., may 
complicate fracture and interfere with union. Sepsis is rare, except in 
compound fractures, but erysipelas and tetanus may occur in simple 
fractures. These infections will likely bring about non-union and death, 
unless they are successfully combated. 

3. Dislocations. When a concomitant dislocation occurs, the heal- 
ing of the fracture may be markedly interfered with, inasmuch as it 
will be more difficult to secure apposition of the fragments and main- 
tain immobility. 

4. Injury to Other Structures. Injury to a joint, main artery to 
the limb, or the nutrient artery to the bone, or to the nerve to the part, 
may form a serious complication and prevent union, or, in some cases, 
e\en demand amputation. Extensive extravasation of blood may form 
a serious complication in the healing of a fracture. 

5. Fat Embolism. Fat embolism may occur in case of fracture of 
the long bones. This fat embolism is serious, but may be recov- 
ered from. The fat gets into the deep veins, and, after passing through 
the heart, will not circulate through the capillaries of the lung, causing 
obstruction in the branches of the pulmonary artery. 

6. Gangrene from tight bandage. Dr. A. T. Still advises the use of 
his dressing, because the nutrition to the part below is not interfered 
with, and the tightness of the bandage can be readily regulated. A 
fixed dressing, as of plaster-of-Paris, may bring about gangrene of the 
extremity, if it interferes with the return circulation. 

7. Bed-sores and Pressure-sores. Unless guarded against, bed-sores 
and pressure-sores may form such a serious complication of the fracture, 
as to interfere with the general health of the patient and bring about 
non-union. The attendant should be cautioned to watch for any indi- 
cation of such sore. 

8. Hypostatic pneumonia is a serious complication, in case of old 
people, and should be avoided, if possible. If an old person is kept in 
bed too long, the circulation being weak, the fluids settle in the lower 
and back part of the lung, hypostatic pneumonia resulting. When once 

.set up, it is fatal. 

9. Paralysis may occur under at least two conditions. Crutch 
: paralysis, because of the pressure of the crutch, or the nerve may become 
involved in the callus, where the nerve is in relation with the bone, as 
, the musculo-spiral in the upper arm. 

10. Suppuration may occur, where the circulation is cut off, or 
arrested to a certain portion of the tissues at the site of fracture, or 


"it may- occur because of infection. This will interfere with the forma- 
tion of the callus. 

The combating of these conditions of fracture can best be 
accomplished by a strict watch of the case and by relieving the condi- 
tions, as they arise, by approved methods. An old person should 
be propped up in bed, pressure should be kept from pressure-sores, and 
the bandage must be properly applied. If an injury to the other 
structures, such as the artery, nerve, or extravasation of blood, 
it may demand amputation. Suppuration can be prevented by 
aseptic treatment. Infections may be prevented, and if they arise, 
should at once be combated by appropriate methods. Shock, delirium, 

^and the retention of urine, should be relieved by proper manipulation. 
If the shock is from loss of blood, the patient's health should be restored 

-by appropriate treatment. 

Epiphyseal Fracture. — Forcible removal of the epiphysis from the 
diaphysis, consists of a fracture through the film of cartilage which 
unites them. Obviously this fracture occurs before the age of twenty 
or twenty-one. The signs of the fracture are not so pronounced as those 
of ordinary fracture. Crepitus is moist, and being so near the joint, 
it may be difficult to obtain. Inasmuch as the bone grows long from 
the epiphyseal cartilage, permanent shortening will result, because of 
this injury. It is easy enough to get union, but the patient should be 
made to understand that deformity will result. The treatment is the 
same as in other kinds of fractures. .: 

Compound Fracture. 

Compound fractures are those which are attended by a wound of 
the soft parts which lead to the site of fracture. 

How Produced. — 1. By the fracturing force. The fracturing force 
may, in addition to breaking the bone, destroy the soft-parts down to 
the site of the fracture. This wound, produced by the fracturing force, 
may be incised, contused, lacerated, or punctured, as the case may be, 
therefore a bullet might produce a compound fracture, being_made com- 
pound by the fracturing agent. 

2. Muscular action of the patient. Sometimes in the effort of the 
patient to move about or perforin some physical act, the sharp end of 
one of the fragments may be forced through the skin. 

3. Later, fractures may become compound by sloughing of the soft- 
parts down to the site of fracture. This is unusual. 

Dangers in Compound Fractures. — (1) Hemorrhage, (2) shock, and 
(3) sepsis. 

Hemorrhage may be arrested by ligation of the ends of the artery 
or by proper dressing. The shock may be relieved by appropriate 
means. Sepsis may be guarded against by means of cleanliness. 

Union in Compound Fracture. — Union in compound fracture, takes 
place in the same manner as in simple fracture, but is longer delayed, 


and accompanied by the formation of more callus. This callus some- 
times involves the soft parts to a considerable extent. 

The treatment of compound fracture consists in the following : 

1. The wound should be rendered aseptic. All foreign bodies .should 
be removed, loose fragments of bone, if detached, should be removed. 

2. The fracture should be set and the wound dressed with suitable 
antiseptic dressings. Splints should be applied which must maintain 
immobility and at the same time allow the wound to be free from pres- 
sure, and so it can be readily exposed. 

3. The wound should be treated, from day to day, in an antiseptic 
manner, to prevent sepsis and other complications. 

Indications for Amputation. — One of the most troublesome questions 
arising from compound fractures, or even from a bad simple 
fracture, is whether or not the member can be saved. The older sur- 
geons held that the following conditions demanded amputation: 

1. Extensive injury to the soft-parts. 

2. Where there is great comminution of bone. 

3. Where there is involvement of a large joint. 

4. Rupture of the main artery of the limb. 

5. Old Age. In case the patient is very old, and his strength believed 
not sufficient to heal the fracture, the member might be amputated with 
advantage. The procedure adopted by the surgeon, in any case, will be 
that which, in his judgment, is best. Where he is doubt about what 
should be done, a consultation should be held. The patient should be 
apprised of the condition, and under no circumstances should amputa- 
tion be performed without the consent of the patient or his next friend. 
If the patient is unconscious, it is the duty of the physician to do that 
which he believes best. With modern aseptic and antiseptic methods, 
wounds of the soft parts should be rendered aseptic and, if the circula- 
tion to the part below is not too seriously interfered with, gangrene may 
be avoided. Should the case be doubtful, it should be put in suitable 
dressing and closely watched. Should evidence of gangrene appear, 
amputation must be performed at once. Every attempt must be made 
to save the member, but the patient's life must not be sacrificed in so 


Fractures of the Nasal Bones. 

Fracture of the nasal bone is produced by direct violence. The in- 
jury is severe. The line of fracture is usually transverse, but may 
be longitudinal and comminuted, also may be complicated by emphy- 
sema of the tissues. The fracture may extend into the cribriform plate 
of the ethmoid. The diagnosis is readily made by evidences of severe 
injury and crepitus. There is often considerable deformity. Union 
takes place quickly, and is, as a rule, good. 

Treatment. — Tbe bones may be manipulated into position with the 
fingers externally, or by covered probe or director internally. If the 


bones will not remain in position of themselves, a tampon, made by 
wrapping a section of a linen catheter with gauze, may be introduced. 
This will assist in holding the fragments in position until the soft callus 
is formed, which will be in five or six days. Should the treatment not be 
successful in maintaining the bones in proper position, a Mason's pin 
may be used. Should the fracture be compound, the wound must be 
treated as an ordinary wound by antiseptic methods. 

Fracture of the Lachrymal Bone. 

Fractures of the lachrymal bones are produced by direct violence and 
attended by severe injury of the soft-parts. The chief trouble is, that 
the fracture may result in obstruction of the nasal duct, and in treat- 
ment, this should be looked after. 

Fracture of the Superior Maxillary Bone. 

The superior maxilla is rarely fractured. The break is the result of 
direct violence. The diagnosis is readily made by mobility and crepitus. 
Deformity, the result of this fracture, is usually very great and is exag- 
gerated upon the production of callus. The fracture through the 
alveolar process will result in inability to chew. This fracture may be 
produced in extracting teeth. Fracture of the nasal process may inter- 
fere with the nasal dtict. If the antrum is fractured, emphysema 
of the soft-parts may occur, or it may result in considerable depression 
in the cheek. The infra-orbital nerve may be involved, frequently caus- 
ing great pain. To manipulate the bone into position, put a finger of 
one hand in the mouth and apply the other hand externally, when the 
fragments may be approximated. Where the malar bone is driven into 
the antrum, the antrum should be opened and the bone lifted out. 
Loose teeth should be extracted. If the fracture is compound, the wound 
should be kept aseptic. The mouth should be frequently washed to keep 
it clean and the patient supported by liquid diet. Where the teeth are 
irregular and out of line, they should be put in regular position and held 
together by thongs. 

Fracture of the Malar Bone. 

The malar bone is rarely fractured. Where fracture occurs it is 
the result of direct violence. If the bones are in abnormal position, 
they should be put immediately in correct position. If chewing exag- 
gerates the deformity the fragments should be wired. Fractures of the 
zjrgomatic arch may be similarly treated. 

Fractures of the Inferior Maxillary Bone. 

Fracture of the lower jaw usually occurs at, or near, the symphysis, 
but may occur anywhere on the body or ramus. The coronoid process 
may be broken off or the line of fracture may extend through the neck. 



Fig. 45. 

Illustrating the locations of fractures of the inferior 

The fracture is very liable to be compound in the mouth. The fracture 

may be bilateral. The cause of the fracture is usually direct violence. 
Diagnosis. — Laceration of the gums, blood-stained saliva, and the 

irregular line of the teeth, together with pain and crepitus, will be suffi- 
cient upon which to 
base the diagnosis. 
Where the fracture is 
through the neck or 
the coronoid process, 
the signs are more ob- 
scure. When the frac- 
ture occurs far back, 
the anterior frag- 
ment is pulled down, 
while the posterior 
fragment is pulled 
up and may override 
the anterior. This is 
caused by the oppos- 
ing action of the 
supra-hyoid muscles 

and the muscles of mastication. 

Treatment. — A splint of gutta-percha, leather or perforated tin is 
made to fit over the chin. A Barton's bandage is then applied which 
holds the jaws togetber. The patient should be instructed to avoid talk- 
ing and chewing. The diet should be liquid and should be passed be- 
tween the teeth or the gap beyond the last molar. Where the fracture is 
compound within the mouth, suppuration 
may occur. It is necessary to exercise the 
strictest cleanliness; after taking food, the 
mouth should be rinsed with an antiseptic 
lotion — a saturated solution of boric acid or 
Listerine. Union will take place in four or 
five weeks. Where there is much displacement 
and the patient is unruly, the fragments may 
be held in apposition by means of thongs 
passed between the teeth. Where this method 
fails, wiring of the fragments may be advised. 
Where the suppurative process is active, the 
site of fracture should be cleansed and main- 
tained aseptic until the inflammation sub- 
sides, when apposition of the fragments can 
be secured. 

Fracture of the Hyoid Bone. 

Fracture of the hyoid bone is rare and is produced by compression of 
the throat. The fragments are pulled apart by the supra — and infra- 

FlG. 46. 

Barton's bandage applied 
in fracture of the inferior 



hyoid muscles. The bones may be manipulated into position, and the 
neck strapped with adhesive plaster to keep the bones in apposition, 
while the person should avoid talking or using the throat as much as 

Fracture of the Ribs. 

Fractures of the ribs are fairly common. They arise in two different 
ways, by direct violence, as a blow upon them, or by compression of the 
chest. The fifth to the eighth ribs are those usually injured. There, 
may be contusion and laceration of the viscera, caused by driving the 
sharp end of the fractured bone into the underlying structures.' The 
fracture may be compound from within. 

Signs. — The signs are evident. There is localized pain, which 
is stabbing in character, and is increased on effort at breathing or 
coughing. If there is much dis- 
placement of the fragments, FlG - 47 - 
there will be considerable local 
extravasation of blood and 
swelling. Crepitus may be ob- 
tained. Emphysema of the tis- 
sues is an indication of perfora- 
tion of the lung. If the patient 
is fleshy, the diagnosis may be 
difficult. Emphysema of the 
tissues over the thorax without 
external wound, is evidence of 

Treatment. — The treatment 
of fractured ribs is to strap the 
side with adhesive plaster. The 
strips of plaster should be two 
inches wide and extend from the 
spine to the middle of the ster- 
num, around the portion of the 
rib broken. The ribs above and 
below should be immobilized, so 
that several strips, each overlap- 
ping the other, are necessary. - 

The strips must be applied at the end of a forced expiration. A figure- 
of-8 bandage may then be applied over the plaster. When the lower ribs 
are broken, tight bandages around the chest are, as a rule, contra-indi- 
cated; troublesome hiccough may result. Union takes place within two 
or three weeks. The mobility between the ends of the floating ribs is 
so great that only fibrous union is obtained. 

Fracture of the Costal Cartilages. 

The costal cartilages are liable to fracture. The treatment is the 
same as in fracture of the ribs. 

Method strapping side with adhesive plaster 
in fracture of the ribs. 



Fig. 48. 

Fracture of the Sternum. 

Fracture of the sternum is produced by direct violence. The iine of 
fracture is usually transverse. The fragments generally remain in situ. 

Where there is displacement of the frag- 
ments, great dyspnea may result. 

Treatment. — The patient should be 
kept in bed with a small pillow between 
the shoulders and the chest strapped, as 
in case of fracture of the ribs. 

Fractures of the Clavicle. 

The clavicle is one of the most fre- 
quently fractured bones. The only other 
bone so often fractured is the radius. 
The clavicle is broken by direct and in- 
direct violence, by blows directly upon 
the clavicle, and by falls upon the shoul- 
der or arm. The injury is common in 
children and the fracture may be green- 
stick. The bone may be broken in three 
different locations, at the sternal ex- 
tremity (least often), in the middle third 
(most often) and in the outer third. 
Sternal End. — This fracture is rare, 
usually transverse, and the displacement slight. 

Middle One-third.— This is the common site for fractures of this 
bone. The line of fracture is 
usually oblique. The deform- 
ity is characteristic, the 
shoulder falls downward and 
inward, due to the weight of 
the arm and the action of the 
chest muscles. The outer ex- 
tremity of the inner fragment 
projects prominently against 
the skin and appears to be 
drawn up, but is not. It is 
held in position by the sterno- 
mastoid muscle, and by the 
rhomboid ligament. The fall- 
ing of the shoulder stretches 
the skin over the sharp 
outer end of the inner frag- 
ment. The head is inclined 
to the affected side and the 
of a fall. 

Fracture of the sternum. 

Fig. 49. 

Fracture of the clavicle, showing how deformity 
takes place. 

arm is useless. There is a history 



Outer One-third. — This fracture is produced by direct violence, falls 
upon the shoulder, or a blow upon the acromion. The deformity is not 
great, the clavicle being held in relation with the scapula by means of 
the coraco-clavicular ligament. 

Signs of Fracture of the Clavicle. — The deformity is characteristic. 
Pain, crepitus, deformity, evidences of injury, and history of accident. 

Treatment. — Fracture of the clavicle is best treated by one of the 
following methods : 

1. A posterior figure-of-8 bandage serves the purpose of drawing the 
shoulders backward, and a sling will sustain the weight of the arm. Suf- 
ficient padding should be put in the axilla so as to prevent the arm from 
falling against the chest. Velpeau's bandage, as far as appearance is 
concerned, makes an excellent dressing, but it is believed that it exag- 
gerates the deformit} r . 

Fig. 51. 
Fig. 50. 

Sayre's Dressing. Method of ap- 
plying the first strip of adhesive 
plaster, which extends around the 

Sayre's Dressing. Method of ap- 
plying the second strip of adhesive 
plaster, which extends over the 
shoulder and under the elbow. 

2. Sayre's dressing is very successful, especially in children, as it 
serves the purpose of holding the arm immovable. Two strips of ad- 
hesive plaster, two to four inches wide, are necessary. A suitable pad 
should be placed in the axilla. A strip of adhesive plaster of sufficient 
length is fastened around the arm at the insertion of the deltoid. Tt is 
then carried entirely around the body, and fastened on the back. An- 
other strip is started on the scapula of the sound side, passed across the 
back, doAvn the back of the arm, over the elbow, and up over the shoulder 
of the sound side. Where the plaster passes over the elbow a slit should 
be made to prevent pressure on the olecranon. This second plaster 



should be drawn sufficiently tight to raise up the arm. The hand placed across the chest on the shoulder of the sound side, so. 
that the plaster extends along up the forearm and over the hand. In 
children this serves the purpose of maintaining immobility of the en- 
tire arm. 

3. Moore's dressing consists of a figure-of-8 bandage around the 
_, _„ elbow, and over the arm and 

r IG. 52. 

shoulder, to the shoulder of 
the opposite side. 

4. Where even the slight- 
est deformity is undesirable, 
the patient should lie on a 
smooth bed, with a small pad 
between the scapulae, for at 
least three weeks. A small 
sand-bag can be placed over 
the shoulder and the arm may 
be strapped to the side, the 
patient being cautioned to 
avoid all unnecessary motion. 
A considerable callus is the 
rule in these fractures. When 
the fracture is properly at- 
tended to, a good result can 
be obtained. In fractures 
where there is violent injury, 
the outer fragment may be 
driven downward until it per- 
forates the apex of tbe lung. Emphysema of the tissues will follow and 
complicate the condition. 

Fractures of the Scapula. 

The scapula may be fractured in the following locations: 

Moore'S dressing for fracture of the clavicle. 
The arm is carried in a sling. 

1. Acromion process. 

2. Coracoid process. 

3. Body. 


Glenoid cavity. 

The. acromion process may be broken by direct violence. The arm 
and hand are helpless and there is evidence of local injury. The bone 
is subcutaneous, and if seen early, there will be no difficulty in making 
out the condition. Treatment. — If may be strapped in position and the 
arm carried in a sling. 

The coracoid process is rarely broken and then only from direct vio- 
lence. There is little displacement. The arm should be raised and put 
in a sling and the fragment of bone drawn up as far as possible. 

:The body of the scapula is rarely broken and then only from direct 
violence. The fracture may be longitudinal or transverse. It is a re-, 
suit of injury to the spine of the scapula. The diagnosis can be made 



by obtaining crepitus and preternatural mobility. The fragments may 
be held together by strapping and by supporting the arm. 

Fracture of the neck of the scapula is produced by great violence 
to tiie shoulder. It may occur in two locations, through the neck, or 
through the suprascapu- 
lar notch back of the Fig. 53. 
coracoid process. The 
deformity resulting re- 
sembles a dislocation of 
the humerus downward. 
These conditions are 
readily differentiated, 
since when the shoulder 
is pushed up, as the arm 
is lifted, crepitus is ob- 
tained. On allowing the 
arm to hang by the side, 
the deformity returns. 
The arm should be 
bandaged to the side 
and kept immovable. 

Fracture of the glen- 
oid cavity is extremely 
rare. The prognosis of 
the injury is good. It 
should be treated as a 
fracture of the neck of 
the scapula. 

Fractures of the Humerus. 

These are divided into: — 

1. Fractures of the upper extremity. 

2. Fractures of the shaft. 

3. Fractures of the lower extremity. 

Fractures of the upper extremity are: — 

A. Fractures of the anatomical neck (Intracapsular). 

B. Fractures of the surgical neck (Extracapsular). 

C. Fracture of the greater tuberosity. 

D. Fracture of the epiphysis. 

Fractures of the anatomical neck are : — 

Fracture through the glenoid cavity of the scapula. 



A non-impacted fracture of the anatomical neck is extremely rare, 
but is more frequent than the impacted form. The line of fracture is 
partly within and partly without the capsule of tjtie joint. The signs 
of the fracture are obscure, and consist of pain, swelling, loss of func- 
tion, deformity (loss of rotundity of shoulder), crepitus, and absence 



of the signs of dislocation and other injury. The fracture 
occurs in old people. The prognosis is not very good, inasmuch as only 
fibrous union may be obtained; furthermore, the upper fragment 
may become turned in its position so that the fractured ends of the 
bone can not be brought into position. Perhaps this can only be made 
out by an x-ray examination. Should such a condition occur, an opera- 
tion will be necessary to remove the upper fragment. Where there is 
not much displacement of the fragments, and the patient has good gen- 
eral health, the prognosis is fairly good. 

In impacted fracture of the neck of the humerus, the head is driven 
into the lower fragment. The 
cause is from direct violence. The Fig. 55 . 

signs are even more obscure than 
in the non-impacted variety of frac- 
ture. There is shortening, which is *P=^»««m 
determined by measuring from the 
acromion process to the external 
condyle, and a slight prominence of 
the acromion process. There is loss 

Fig. 54. 

Impacted fracture of the 
anatomical neck of the 

Fracture of the surgical neck of the 
humerus. S, scapula; D, deltoid; P. 
M., pectoralis major; t,. D., latissimus 

of rotundity of the shoulder, and later the head of the bone can not 
be felt in an abnormal position, and there is no crepitus. There is 
absence of the signs of dislocation. The signs of this fracture are 
chiefly negative. 

Treatment. — A shoulder-cap, extending down as far as the insertion 
of the deltoid, should be made of a starch-paste dressing, leather, or 
gutta-percha. The axilla should be well padded and the shoulder en- 
veloped in cotton, and a figure-of-8 bandage applied from the fingers 
up, to prevent edema. Obstruction to the circulation is produced by 


the callus compressing the deep ^eins in the axilla. Manipulation of 
the soft-parts should be begun early, within ten days, and kept up reg- 
ularly, in order to prevent a stiff joint. 

Fracture of the Surgical Neck. — This fracture may be impacted or 
non-impacted, but the impacted form is extremely rare, and when it 
occurs, the lower fragment is driven into the upper one. The non- 
impacted form, which is the most common, is caused by direct violence. 

Displacement. — The upper fragment is rotated out by the muscles 
which are attached to the greater tuberosity, while the deltoid, biceps, 
and triceps, together with the pectoral muscles, draw the lower frag- 
ment upward and forward, so that the roughened end of the lower 
fragment makes a prominence against the anterior fold of the axilla. 
The arm is helpless and is supported by the hand of the opposite side. 

Signs. — There is marked pain, swelling, and some shortening. The 
roughened upper end of the lower fragment makes a prominence against 
the anterior fold of the axilla. Preternatural mobility is very evident 
as the operator grasps the head of the humerus. The arm may be rotated 
while the upper fragment remains stationary. There is increased 
mobility upon manipulation by the surgeon, also loss of function. 
Upon extension of the arm and approximation of the fragments, crepi- 
tus is obtained. 

Union. — In fracture of the surgical neck, union is bony, and the 
result good. The only complication arising may be paralysis of the 
deltoid, because of the involvement of the circumflex nerve in the cal- 
lus. Where fracture is not attended by other injury, a good result 
can be assured. 

Treatment. — Tbe treatment consists in reducing the fracture by 
extension and counter-extension. A firm pad should then be placed in the 
axilla. A shoulder-cap, covering the outer, anterior, and posterior sur- 
faces of the shoulder and upper arm, extending down below the inser- 
tion of the deltoid, should be applied. Previous to the application of 
the shoulder-cap, a moderate film of surgeon's cotton may be placed 
over the shoulder. A figure-of-8 bandage should be applied from the 
hand up and carried entirely over the shoulder. The arm is put in a 
sling, and in a muscular person a one or two pound weight is hung on 
the elbow to overcome muscular contraction. This is unnecessary in 
weak people. 

Fracture of the Greater Tuberosity is rare, and is the result of direct 
violence. There is evidence of great local nn"ury; sometimes the bone 
may be split. 

Treatment. — The treatment must be modified according to the re- 
quirements of the condition. If the tuberosity is drawn away from the 
bone, it should be brought back and held there by adhesive strips. The 
arm should be bandaged from the hand up and carried in a sling. 

Epiphyseal Fracture of the upper extremity of the humerus is rare. 
It happens before the age of twenty and resembles a fracture of the sur- 



Fig. 56. 

gical neck. The upper fragment carries with it the greater tuberosity. 
The signs of the fracture are the same as the signs of fracture of the 
surgical neck, with the exception that crepitus is moist, and the projec- 
tion made against the anterior fold of the axilla is from a smooth, rather 
than a roughened, end of the bone. The treatment is the same as treat- 
ment of the surgical neck. 

Fractures of the Shaft. — The shaft of the humerus is broken by di- 
rect violence, while, in some rare cases, it may be by indirect violence. 
In case of softening of the bone, muscular contraction has been said to 
produce the fracture. The displacement of the fragments will depend 
upon the location of the fracture. Where the line of fracture 
is above the insertion of the deltoid, the upper fragment 

is rotated outward by 
means of the muscles 
attached to the greater 
tuberosity, while the 
deltoid, biceps, and tri- 
ceps, pull the lower 
p ragment upward and 
lift it outward. The up- 
per fragment is drawn 
inward towards the 
chest by the muscles at- 
tached to the bicipital 
ridges. Where the frac- 
ture occurs below the 
insertion of the deltoid, 
the upper fragment is 
drawn outward and for- 
ward by the action of 
the pectoralis major 
and deltoid, and short- 
ening is produced by the 
biceps and triceps. 

Signs. — The signs of 
the fracture are very ev- 
ident and may be enum- 
erated as pain, swelling, preternatural mobility, crepitus, deformity, 
and loss of function. 

Union. — Good union may be obtained in treatment of fracture of 
the shaft of the humerus, but it must be borne in mind that non-union 
more often happens in this fracture than in any other. The chief 
reason seems to be that the fragments are not maintained immovable 
and in apposition. Complications may arise which consist of paralysis 
of the extensor muscles because of the involvement of the musculo- 
spiral nerve in the callus. 

Oblique fracture of the lower extremity of the shaft of the 
humerus, showing the displacement of the fragments. 



Fig. 57. 

Treatment. — The treatment of fracture of the shaft of the humerus 
is simple, but whatever method is used, it should be attended to thor- 
oughly. The splints used are the following: 

1. A posterior trough, which is perhaps the best splint to use, is 
made of perforated metal, or of pasteboard and starch-paste, and ex- 
tends from the shoulder to the hand. It should be well padded, so as 

to make a nice bed for the arm. 

2. An internal angular splint, 
which should extend from the shoul- 
der to beyond the wrist, so as to im- 
mobilize the hand. This may be re- 
inforced by three simple splints, one 
on the front of the arm, one on the 
outer side, and one on the posterior 
surface. These should extend from 
the axilla to the elbow. The arm 
should be well enveloped in cot- 
ton and the splints, which are made 
of heavy pasteboard or thin boards, 
are then applied. A figure-of-8 
bandage should be applied from the 
hand entirely over the arm and en- 
veloping the shoulder. The splint 
should maintain extension and 
counter-extension. The dressing 
devised by Dr. A. T. Still is the 
most suitable dressing after the 
preparation has dried. Extension 
and counter-extension may be made 
after twenty-four hours and the 
bandage readjusted. 

3. A plaster-of-Paris dressing is 
advocated by some physicians, but 
it is not satisfactory. 

Fractures of the Lower Extrem- 
ity of the humerus consist of the 
following : 

Transverse fracture of tte humerus, show- 
ing little displacement of the fragments. 

A. Transverse. 

B. T- or Y-shaped. 

C. Internal condyle. 

D. External condyle. 

E. Epiphyseal. 

A transverse fracture of the lower extremity of the humerus may 
occur in two locations, one above the condyle, and the other below. 
Transverse fracture below the condyles, taking off a portion of the lower 
epiphysis, is an extremely rare condition. Transverse fracture above 
the condyles is the common fracture. 



Cause. — Direct violence, as falls on the elbow. 

Displacement of Fragments. — The triceps, acting upon the olecranon, 
draws the forearm backward; the biceps, brachialis anticus, triceps, and 
other muscles, draw the forearm upward, while the lower end of the 
upper fragment is carried forward and makes a prominence above the 
crease at the bend of the elbow. 

Signs. — Deformity in this fracture resembles the deformity in dis- 
locations of both bones of the forearm backward. A diagnosis can be 
made by careful examination. In fracture, the relation of the condyles 
and the olecranon is unchanged, whereas in dislocations, the relation of 
these bony points is changed. In case of fracture, upon reduction of the 
deformity, crepitus is obtained, while in dislocations, no crepitus is ob- 
tained. In case of fracture, the deformity will return after reduction; 

Fig. 58. 

Fig. 59. 

Fracture of the outer con- 
dyle of the humerus. 

Fracture of the internal con- 
dyle of the humerus. 

in dislocations the deformity will not return. In fracture there is short- 
ening, the distance from, the external condyle to the acromion process 
is shorter on the injured side, while in dislocation, there is no shortening. 
In fracture, the lower end of the upper fragment makes a prominence 
above the crease at the bend of the elbow, while in dislocation, the 
prominence is below the crease at the end of the elbow. 

In T-shaped fracture there is not only a transverse fracture, but the 
line of fracture extends into the joint. The signs are similar to those 
of transverse fracture, with the exception that upon motion of the con- 
dyles of the humerus, crepitus is obtained. Where the case is seen early, 
crepitus may be obtained by compressing the condyles. Where great 
fluid effusion has taken place in the joint, this sign may be absent. 

Fracture of the condyles is the result of direct violence. The line 
of fracture may, or may not, invade the joint. In case the internal 



Fig. 60. 

condyle is fractured, the fragment is drawn downward by the pronator 
radii teres and the iiexor muscles of the arm, whereas in fracture of the 
external condyle, it is drawn downward underneath the fibres of the 
supinator longus. The loose fragment is readily manipulated, and when 
drawn into position, crepitus can be obtained. 

Epiphyseal fracture is the same as transverse fracture, with the ex- 
ception that moist crepitus is obtained. The fracture occurs in young 

Diagnosis. — The diagnosis in all these fractures is difficult; further- 
more, great swelling is the rule. The best treatment, where the case 
is not seen early, and before the 
swelling is intense, is to place the 
arm on a pillow, keep it in an im- 
movable position, and apply cold to 
combat the swelling, after which, a 
correct diagnosis can be made. Fur- 
thermore, the bones may be manip- 
ulated in the proper position and a 
permanent dressing better applied. 
Where the diagnosis is uncertain, 
an x-ray examination should be 
made, if possible. It is of the great- 
est importance to correctly deter- 
mine the condition. The prognosis 
should be guarded. Fractures ex- 
tending into the elbow-joint are al- 
ways serious, and it is difficult to 
obtain good union without deform- 
it} r , or without interference in some 
of the functions. 

Union. — Union takes place with 
more or less deformity. In epi- 
physeal fra tares, or fractures within the capsule of the joint, the union 
is fibrous. In transverse fractures, and in fractures of the condyles, 
the union is bony. 

Treatment. — As before mentioned, where there is much swelling, the 
arm should be placed upon a rubber cushion and cold applied. 
When the swelling has been reduced sufficiently, the diagnosis may be 
made, and a suitable dressing applied. A posterior trough, or 
an external or internal angular splint, may be applied. The internal 
angular splint is preferable in all cases, with the exception of fractures 
of the internal condyle. Manipulation should be made early in all cases, 
with the exception of transverse fracture, where the line of fracture does 
not invade the joint. In all cases where the fracture invades the pint, 
manipulation should be begun at the end of the first week. In case 
it does not invade the joint, it may be delayed until the end of 

Method of dressing the arm in acute 
flexion for'T-fractures or for fracture of the 
internal and external condyles of the hu- 



the second week. The success in the treatment of these fractures will 
depend upon the proper management of the case. 

Fractures of the Forearm — Both Bones. 

Fracture of both bones of the forearm is the result of direct 
violence, when both bones are broken at the same level. Where 
the bones are not broken at the same level, it is the result of in- 
direct violence, the bones breaking at the weakest point. In the latter 
condition, the radius breaks in the upper one-third, while the ulna 
breaks in the lower one-third. 

Displacement. — The upper fragment of the radius is drawn toward 

the upper fragment of the ulna by 
the pronator radii teres, while the 
lower fragment of the ulna is 
drawn toward the lower fragment 
of the radius by the pronator quad- 
ratus, and in this manner the in- 
terosseous space is more or Jess ob- 

Signs. — Deformity, crepitus, 
history of accident, pain, swelling, 
preternatural mobility, etc. The 
signs are \ery evident. 

Treatment. — Flex the elbow to 
a right angle and place the forearm 
midway between pronation and 
supination. In this position, the 
thumb is directed upward. A 
well-padded internal and exter- 
nal splint should be applied. 
The internal splint should ex- 
tend from the axilla to the tips 
of the fingers, while the external 
splint need only extend from the 
elbow to beyond the wrist. Both splints should be broader than the fore- 
arm, so that the bandage may not compress the bones towards each 
other, thus lessening the interosseous space. Manipulation of the hand, 
fingers, and muscles of the forearm should be begun within two weeks. 
If either the elbow-joint or wrist joint is involved, manipulation 
should be begun earlier. Pronation and supination may be lost if this 
manipulation is not begun early, and kept up regularly. The patient 
should be seen within twenty-four hours after the accident, because of 
the liability to constriction of the return circulation by the bandage. 
Here, again, the dressing advised by Dr. Still will be found to be of the 
greatest advantage. The fracture may be green-stick, in a child. 

Fractures of the Radius. — Fractures of the radius are of the (1) neck, 
(2) shaft, and (3) lower extremity. 

Posterior trough, suitable for fractures of 
the humerus and both bones of the forearm. 




Fracture of the lower extremity of the shaft of the 
radius showing deformity. 

Fracture of the neck of the radius is the result of direct, or indirect, 
violence. The diagnosis is sometimes difficult. The signs are crepitus, 
obtained by extension and manipulation; preternatural mobility, ob- 
tained by grasping the head of the bone and pronating and supinating 
the arm. The head does not move. Occasionally, in young persons, the 
upper epiphysis may be separated. This condition is difficult to diag- 
nose. It gives moist crepitus, and evidence of a foreign body in the 

Treatment. — The treatment of fracture of the neck of the radius 
consists in flexing the arm at right angles, to relax the biceps, when a 
posterior angular trough, or internal angular splint, may be used. Mild 
manipulation should be begun at the end of the second week. 

The shaft of the radius is broken by direct, or indirect, violence, 
such as blows upon the arm, or 
falls upon the paim. Displace- 
ment of the fragments varies, 
depending upon whether 
the fracture is above or below 
the insertion of the pronator 
radii teres. Should it be above, 
the upper fragment will be 
flexed and supinated, while 
the lower fragment will be 
pronated and drawn towards 

the ulna. When the fracture is below the insertion of the pronator 
radii teres, the upper fragment is flexed and drawn inward, while the 
lower fragment is approximated to the ulna, 

Treatment. — The forearm should be placed midway between prona- 
tion and supination, and flexed at right angles at the elbow. A posterior 
or internal, angular splint may be used, with sufficient interosseous pad 
to prevent the approximation of the bones. The splints should be car- 
ried from below the wrist to above the middle of the arm. Manipulation 
should be begun at the end of the second week. 

Fracture of the 
lower extremity of the 
radius is called 
Colles's fracture. 
This injury occurs 
most frequently in 
elderly women, and 
is produced by falls 
upon the outstretch- 
ed palm, while the 
hand is completely 
pronated and ex- 
tended. The fracture may be an inch from the wrist-joint, but is 
usually less. The deformity is characteristic, and is described as 

Fig. 63. 

Colles's fracture, showing displacement of the fragments. 



"silver-fork," because of the position of the hand resembling a dinner 
fork. . 

Displacement. — The lower fragment of the bone is carried backward 
and upward, because of the direction of the application of the violence. 

_, „. Often there is some 

Fig. b4. ; 

impaction of the 

fragments. This im- 

paction, together 

with the action of 

the extensor carpi 

radialis longior and 

b r e v i o r muscles, 

maintain the de- 

Silver-fork deformity in Colles's fracture. „ • j -r> 

iornii t y. Because 
the main violence is directed on the ball of the thumb, the outer side 
of the lower fragment is displaced more than the inner side. This 
causes a prominence of the styloid process of the ulna, which will be 
found in this injury on^a lower level than the styloid process of 
the radios. The upper fragment is pronated and approximated to the 
ulna. These forces acting, likely produce the characteristic deformity. 

Signs. — The characteristic deformity is a prominence on the back 
of the wrist, while there is a corresponding depression on the front of 
the wrist. The styloid process of the radius is on a higher level than 
that of the ulna. In case the fracture is not impacted, there is crepitus. 
The history of the accident and the age of the patient may be consid- 
ered. It may be confounded with dislocation of the wrist, but this dis- 
location is rare, and the deformity different. The styloid process of 
the radius is on a lower level than that of the ulna, while there is no 
crepitus. If the deformity is reduced, it will not return. 

Treatment. — The treatment of Colles's fracture is. first, to set the 
fracture, providing it is not im- 
pacted. Where there is impac- 
tion, without much deformity, 
the member should be treated in 
that position. There are num- 
erous splints which are of ex- 
cellent service in the treatment 
of this fracture. The chief ob- 
jection to all of them seems to 
be that a stiff joint is liable to 
result. Levis's splint is, per- 
haps, the most popular. A 
splint similar to Levis's may 
be made of Dr. Still's dressing. 

Bond's splint is an excellent dressing. This splint has a pad which fits 
over the lower end of the upper fragment, and a dorsal pad which fits 

Deformity liable to result in the treatment of 
Colles's fracture with a straight splint. 



over the lower fragment. It tends to correct the deformity. The fingers 
and thumb are allowed to he free. Passive motion should he begun in 
four or five days, and kept up until cured. 

Fracture of the Ulna. 

Fractures of the ulna consist of fractures of the: 

Coronoid Process. 

3. Shaft. 

4. Styloid Process. 

Fig. 66. 

Fracture of the olecranon process, showing upper frag- 
ment pulled up by the triceps muscle. 

Fractures of the olecranon are produced by direct violence, as by 

falls upon the elbow, 
.,.,/„ ^ and bv muscular con- 

WJtif* traction, in conditions 
of disease of the bone. 
Nature of the In- 
jury. — Usually there 
is considerable contu- 
sion of the tissues 
over the olecranon, 
while the loosened, 
fragment is drawn 
upward by the tendon 
of the triceps and can 
be readily felt be- 
neath the skin, an inch or more above the joint. The diagnosis is easy, 
inasmuch as it cannot be mistaken for any other injury. 

Union. — The union is sometimes fibrous, but in young and middle- 
aged people, in good health, the union is good. 

Treatment. — The arm is best treated in complete extension and by 
strapping the olecranon in its normal position by means of adhesive 
strips. Some surgeons advise the use of a right-angle splint and strap- 
ping the bone in position. In case of non-union, the olecranon may be 
wired in position. The arm should be kept in an extended position for 
three weeks, when slight flexion should be made. Manipulation should 
be instituted late. 

Fractures of the coronoid process occur most frequently at the time 
of dislocation of the ulna. It is said that contraction of the brachialis 
anticus may produce this fracture. The fracture is attended by con- 
siderable injury. Where it complicates a dislocation, a bad result is 
liable to follow. It is best treated in flexion, with an internal angular 
splint. Manipulation should be begun early, in order to prevent a 
stiff joint. 

Fractures of the shaft are caused by direct violence. The line of 
fracture may be transverse, or oblique. The upper fragment is 
held in position while the lower fragment is approximated to 
the radius by the pronator radii teres. The diagnosis is easy, inas- 


much as the posterior border of the ulna is subcutaneous. A finger run 
along the posterior border would discover an offset in the bone. Union 
is good. 

Treatment. — It is best treated in a manner similar to fractures of 
the shaft of the humerus. A splint, the length of the forearm and 
hand, slightly wider than the forearm, applied to the inner side, will 
be sufficient. The splint should be well padded, and held in position 
by a figure-of-8 bandage. If extension and counter-extension are kept 
up while the splint is applied, the bones will be held in apposition. 

Fractures of the Carpus. 

Fractures of the carpus are produced b} r severe, direct violence, and 
very often the fracture is compound. 

The diagnosis is readily made by crepitus. The injury is 
more serious than is indicated at first glance. Because of the limited 
blood supply to the carpal bones, one of the fragments may die, and 
suppuration and abscess result. Should this occur, it will produce 

Treatment. — The bone should be manipulated into position, and 
held by a well padded anterior splint, extending beyond the middle of 
the forearm. 

Fractures of the Metacarpus. 

Fracture of the metacarpal hones is produced by direct violence. 
The signs are evident, and consist of deformity and crepitus. 

Treatment. — The bones may be readily manipulated into position, 
while an anterior splint, extending beyond the wrist, should be applied. 
In fractures of both the carpus and metacarpus, manipulation should 
be begun early, in order to prevent fibrous adhesions of tendons and the 
involvement of the joints. 

Fractures of the Phalanges. 

Fracture of one of the phalanges may take place because of direct 
violence. The diagnosis is easy. It is best treated by a palmar splint 
immobilizing the metacarpo-phalangeal, as well as the phalangeal 
joints. The hand should be carried in a sling during the first two 

Fractures of the Pelvis. 

Fractures of the pelvis are caused by heavy, direct violence, such as 
the wheels of a loaded wagon passing over the body, or by falls from 
a considerable distance. The nature of the injury depends upon the 
line of fracture. If the line of fracture extends through the crest of 
the ilium, it may not involve any of the pelvic viscera, but it may 
extend through the ramus or body of the pubes and ischium, thus sep- 
arating the two sides of the pelvis. Such fractures of the true 



pelvis are usually attended by lacerations of the pelvic viscera, of the 
rectum, vagina, urethra, and bladder. 

Signs. — The signs will vary, depending upon the viscera injured. 
There is severe contusion of the soft-parts. Crepitus is ob- 
tained by pressing upon the ilia, or upon the pelvis ante'ro-posteriorly. 
Bloody urine will indicate that the fracture extends into the bladder, 
or blood may be voided from the bowel. A history of the accident may 
lead to a suspicion of fracture. If any of the viscera are involved, the 
prognosis of the fracture is grave. Infection, abscess formation, and 
non-union, wall bring about exhaustion and death. Where there is 
laceration of the viscera, the patient may be kept quiet with sand-bags 
at the side, and with proper care and attention, may recover. The 
acetabulum may be fractured because of blow r s upon the hip. This in- 
jury is rare, and the diagnosis can be made by eliminating fractures 
and dislocations of the hip, and by the presence of pain and crepitus. 
In fractures of the pelvis, little dressing, beyond keeping the patient 
quiet, will be required. A flannel roller may be applied around the 
pelvis and the patient not allowed to move. 

Fractures of the Femur. 

Fractures of the femur are divided into: — 

I. Fracture of the upper extremity. III. Fractures of the lower extremity. 
II. Fracture of the shaft. 

Fractures of the upper extremity are divided into: — 

A. Intracapsular. C. Fractures of the greater tuberosity. 

B. Extracapsular. D. Epiphyseal. 

Intracapsular fractures are divided into: 

1. Impacted. 2. Non-Impacted. 

The non-impacted fracture is the most 

Cause. — The causes of non-impacted 
fracture of the neck of the femur are : 

1. The fragile condition of the bone. 

2. Fatty degeneration of the neck. 

3. Indirect violence. 
The fracture happens in old people, and 

is produced by slipping on cobble-stones, 
etc., or catching the toe. The limb is 
wrenched, and the neck of the bone easily 
breaks off 

Nature of the Injury.- — The fracture 
may be transverse, or oblique, and the dis- 
placement will depend somewhat upon the 
line of fracture. In some cases, the fracture 
is subperiosteal. In other cases, where the 
periosteum is torn, or lacerated, greater dis- 
placement of the fragments takes place. 

Fig. 67. 

Non-impacted intra-capsular 
fracture of the neck of the fe- 



Fig. 68. 

Signs. — 1. Shortening — three-fourths of an inch, to one inch. 

2. Eversion of the foot, which is produced by the weight of the 
limb as it lies in a helpless condition. 

3. Lessened arc of rotation of the great trochanter. This sign is 
obtained by grasping the great trochanter and rotating the limb out- 
ward and inward. 

-1. Crepitus. 

5. The great trochanter is nearer the anterior superior spine. This 
may be determined by accurate measurements. These measurements 
may be made in one of two ways. First, by Nelaton's line, which is a 
line drawn from the anterior superior spine of the ilium to the most 
prominent part of the tuberosity of the ischium. Under normal con- 
ditions it crosses the upper edge ©f the great trochanter. 

It may also be made by Bryant's line, which consists of a line drawn 
around the body at the level of the anterior superior spines. A second 
line is drawn upward from the great trochanter to this line. This sec- 
ond line is shorter on the injured side than on the sound side, in case of 

displacement of the great trochan- 
ter upward. 

6. A history of the accident. 

7. Age of the patient. The 
fracture happens in old people, and 
from slight injury, by catching the 
foot, or in slipping. It should be 
noted that there is no injury to 
the tissues over the trochanter. 

Allis's Sign. — This is the relax- 
ation of the fascia lata. The re- 
laxation is caused by shortening, 
lessening the tension on the ilio- 
tibial band. 

Impacted Intracapsular Frac- 
ture of the neck of the femur is 

Signs. — 

1. No crepitus. 

2. Very slight shortening. 

3. Absence of the signs of other 
injury or dislocation. 

4. History of the accident and 
age of the patient. 

5. Eversion of the limb. 
Occasionally in these fractures 

the limb is not helpless, and the 
patient may even attempt to walk. 


Method of determining Allis's sign in frac- 
ture of the neck of the femur. 


The diagnosis is sometimes very difficult, inasmuch as the signs are 
chiefly negative. 

Extracapsular Fracture of the neck of the femur occurs in young, 
or middle-aged people, and is either impacted, or non-impacted, but is 
usually impacted. It is caused by direct violence, as heavy falls on, 
or severe injury over, the trochanter. In the impacted variety, the upper 
fragment is driven into the lower one. 

Nature of the Injury. — The injury is brought about by severe direct 
violence, therefore there is evidence of bruising of the skin and soft 
tissues. The trochanter is considerably thickened. There is shorten- 
ing of at least one inch, and is greater than in the intracapsular 
fracture. There is a lessened arc of rotation of the trochanter, no 
crepitus, eversion of the foot, while the trochanter is displaced above 
Nelaton ; s line. 

In the non-impacted extracapsular fracture of the neck of the femur, 
it is believed that the impaction is broken up by the extension of the 
fracturing force, or by the efforts of the patient to move, or by subse- 
quent manipulation. The cause of the injury is, great direct violence 
over the trochanter. 

Nature of the Injury. — The injury is very severe. There is intense 
contusion of the skin and soft-parts. The line of fracture may even 
extend through the base of the great trochanter, or may extend 
through the line of union of the neck with the great trochanter. 

Signs. — 1. Crepitus, which is pronounced, and is evidenced by 
grasping the trochanter. 

2. Shortening (one or two inches). 

3. Evidence of great injury to the soft-parts over the trochanter. 

4. History of the accident, and age of the patient. 

5. Eversion of the limb. 

Treatment. — ISTon-impacted Intracapsular Fracture. — As this frac- 
ture occurs in old people, long confinement in the recumbent posture 
is liable to result in hypostatic congestion of the lungs, and in bed- 
sores, either of which may destroy life ; therefore, it is best to keep the 
patient in bed the shortest time possible. The patient may be put to 
bed, and an extension apparatus applied, with sand-bags along the side 
of the femur, and the limb kept immovable until the preliminary sore- 
ness disappears. At the end of the first week, and not later than the 
second week, the patient should be allowed to sit up, or. if possible, to 
get up and about on crutches. Where it is deemed advisable, and the 
condition of the patient's health will permit it, a fixed-dressing should 
be applied, which will immobilize the hip and knee. In the majority of 
cases, this dressing can not be used. Fibrous union is the rule. Some- 
times, because of the limited blood supply, and the enfeebled condition 
of the patient, no union takes place, and the end of the bone may be- 
come worn off. Sometimes the limb is left helpless. In order to secure 
a good result, confinement in bed for six or eight weeks is usually neces- 


sary, and where the patient is young, this may be permitted. A stiff 
apparatus applied over the hip is necessan r , even after a considerable 
length of time in bed. This stiff dressing over the hip may be in the 
nature of a leather casing, or a pasteboard and starch-paste dressing, 
and so constructed as to fit closely over the hip and thigh. 

In the impacted form, a similar treatment should be followed, except 
that the extension apparatus is unnecessary. No attempt should be 
made to break up the impaction. Generally a good result can be ob- 
tained, but the hip should be rendered immovable by some fixed dress- 
ing. A plaster dressing in old people is bad. 

Extracapsular Fracture. — In the impacted variety, it is only neces- 
sary to keep the limb at rest. No extension apparatus is necessary. 
Sand-bags should be placed along the side of the hip, and the limb 
kept at rest until the soreness and swelling have disappeared, and then 
the patient may get up and go about on crutches. Subsequent manipu- 
lation may obtain a good result. 

In the non-impacted variety, an extension apparatus will be neces- 
sary. An eight or ten pound weight, sufficient to overcome the mus- 
cular contractions, should be applied, and the patient kept quiet in 
bed, and the limb kept immovable, by sand-bags, until the preliminary 
swelling and inflammation have subsided, when a plaster dressing, encac- 
ing the leg and pelvis, may be applied. This plaster dressing is kept on 
for two weeks, when the patient is gotten up on crutches. The plaster 
dressing should be removed at the end of four weeks. Some surgeons 
advise, in the impacted variety, if the person is in good general health, 
to pull the impaction apart and apply a plaster dressing, but this 
method of procedure is questionable. Deformity, following this fracture, 
is the rule. While the extension apparatus is used, the foot of the bed 
should be raised from four to six inches, so that the weight of the 
patient will operate as a counter-extending force. 

Fractures of the greater tuberosity are very rare, and are accom- 
panied by extensive local injury. The diagnosis is usually not difficult. 
The broken fragments should be strapped into position, and the patient 
kept at rest in bed until fibrous union, at least, has taken place. 

Epiphyseal fracture is also rare, and occurs in young people. 

Signs. — The signs are the same as non-impacted extracapsular 
fracture, with the exception that there is moist crepitus. A history of 
the case, and the age of the patient, indicate the nature of the 

Fractures of the Shaft. 

Fractures of the shaft of the femur are best considered in fractures 
of the upper, middle, and lower one-third. The cause is usually direct 
violence, but may be due to indirect violence, especially when occurring 
in the upper one-third of the shaft. The line of fracture is usually 
oblique. Muscular contracture may produce the fracture, in conditions 



Fig. 70. 

Fig. CD. 

of softening of the bone, or in fragile conditions of the bone attending 
paralysis agitans. 

Upper One-third. — Displacement of the 
Fragments. — In the upper one-third, the 

upper fragment is tilted 

forward by the action 

of the iliacus and psoas 

muscle s, while the 

quadriceps extensors, bi- 

c e p s, semitendenosus, 

semimembranosus and 

the adductors draw the 

lower fragment upward, 

so there is marked 

shortening, the upper 

end of the lower frag- 
ment slipping past the 

upper fragment. Ex- 
tension made upon the 

limb in an extended po- 
sition, will not bring 

about apposition of the 

fragments. The limb 

must be treated in a 

semi-flexed position, in 

order to relax the psoas 

and iliacus muscles. 
In fractures of the 

middle one-third, a sim- 
ilar displacement of the 

fragments may occur, 

but it is not so pro- 
nounced. In fracture of the lower one-third of the femur, 
the upper end of the lower fragment is usually turned back- 
Fig. 71 

Fracture of the up- 
per extremity of the 
shaft of the feinur, 
showing- displacement 
of the upper fragment 
by the psoas and ili- 

Union with angular deformity in 
fracture of the upper one-third of 
the shaft of the femur. 

Deformity in fracture of the middle of the shaft of the femur. 



Fig. 72. 

ward, because of the action of the calf muscles on the upper 
and back part of the condyles, whereas, the upper fragment is 
usually tilted more or less forward, and there is marked shortening. 
This deformity may not occur where the fracture is caused by direct 
violence and the line of fracture is transverse. In fractures of the 
middle one-third of the shaft, extension will bring about ap- 
position of the fragments, and, the limb may be treated in a fixed dress- 
ing in an extended position, but in fractures of the upper and lower 
one-third, the thigh should be flexed on the abdomen, and the leg 
partially flexed on the thigh. In fractures of the upper extremity, 
union with angular deformity may occur, when good apposition has 
not been obtained and the fragments are not kept immovable. 

Signs. — The signs in fracture of the 
shaft of the femur are so obvious that a 
diagnosis is easy. The limb below the frac- 
ture is helpless, and any effort at motion 
causes great pain. There is shortening to 
the extent of two or three inches. Preter- 
natural mobility and crepitus, with deform- 
ity, will be sufficient to enable the operator 
to determine the injury. The foot is everted 
and helpless. Sometimes this fracture is 
attended by great shock and intense pain, 
because of injury to the sciatic nerve. Fat 
embolism forms a rare complication. 

Dressing. — Numerous dressings, splints, 
extension apparatus, and other forms of 
dressings, have been devised for these frac- 
tures. Whatever is used, the operator must 
keep in mind the condition of the limb to 
be treated. Dr. Still advises the use of a 
dressing made of starch-paste, pasteboard, 
and a many-tailed bandage, which is applied 
to the thigh and leg. Each day the physi- 
cian visits the case, to see that the bones 
are kept in good apposition, and the dress- 
ing does not interfere with the return cir- 
culation. He has never had a failure with 
this method of treatment. For fractures of 
the upper and lower thirds of the femur, 
Hodgeir's dressing is of great value. This 
dressing consists of a cradle made of muslin, fastened to two iron bars, 
which are bent at the knee. Two cross pieces, which can be readily de- 
tached, hold the two bars a certain distance apart. Fastened to these 
bars is a suspension apparatus, which is attached to a hook in the ceiling. 
By this means the limb is swung in the cradle, which will accommodate 
itself to the shape of the thigh, and by regulating the suspension appa- 

Fracture of the lower extrem- 
ity of the shaft of the femur, 
showing the deformity produced 
by the action of the calf mus- 



ratus, any degree of extension can be obtained. For hospital use, this 
dressing has no superior. The splint in most common use, both in the 
hospital and private practice, is the double inclined plane. This, 
in case of fracture of the upper one-third of the femur, re- 
laxes the psoas and iliacus muscles; in case of the lower 
one-third, it relaxes the calf muscles. Extension is made 

Hodsren's dressing: for fractures of the shaft of the femur. 

in the direction of the lower fragment. The difficulty in the 
treatment of this fracture in small children is to maintain im- 
mobility. Perhaps the dressing which yields the best result is a ver- 
tical suspension of the limbs in a plaster dressing. This enables the 
attendant to easily reach the excretories, so that cleanliness can be 

Fig. 74 

Double inclined plane and extension apparatus for fracture of the upper extremity of the 
shaft of the femur. 

maintained. Fracture of the middle third of the shaft can be treated 
successfully with a plaster-of-Paris dressing, which is applied from the 
foot up the thigh and around the pelvis, in the form of a spica bandage, 
as high as the tenth rib. It does not matter how successfullv this dress- 



ing is applied, it will soon become loose, so if a good cast is originally 
put on, and along the site of fracture, the bandage, reinforced by two 
or three narrow wooden strips, the plaster may be incised, and a roller 
bandage applied over all, and the splint drawn snugly to the thigh. If 
this splint is used, the patient should be gotten up at the end of two 
weeks and made to go about on crutches. The reason for this is that 
considerable atrophy of the muscles will take place, unless some such 
method is used. In hospitals, a plaster-of- Paris bandage is applied 
immediately. This is not wise in private practice. The best method 
would be to put on an extension apparatus, keep the limb immovable 
between sand-bags until the preliminary swelling has disappeared, and 
then the plaster bandage can be put on, and in ten days, or two weeks, 
the patient may get about on crutches. In fractures of any part of the 
thigh, the hip-, knee-, and ankle-joints should be rendered immovable. 
The knee and ankle may easily be rendered immovable, but the hip- 
joint only with great difficulty. The reason is, that it is necessary for 
the bowels to move daily, and the inserting of the bed-pan, and care of 
the patient, will cause more or less motion at the hip-joint. Where it 
can be obtained, a fracture-bed will be found of great service. If a 

Fig. 75. 

Long splint, fracture bed and extension apparatus used in fractures of the femur. 

fracture-bed can be secured, only an extension apparatus will be re- 
quired. The function of the fracture-bed is to raise the patient, by 
means of canvas stretched on a frame. A hole through the sheet and 
canvas, in the neighborhood of the buttocks, will allow the contents of 
the bowel to be evacuated without motion of the body. 

Fractures of the Lower Extremity. 
Fractures of the lower extremity of the femur are: — 

A. Transverse. 

B. Y or T. 

C. Internal or external condyle. 



Transversa — The diagnosis of a transverse fracture is fairly easy, 
when it is produced by direct violence. There may not be much dis- 
placement. Where it is produced both by direct and indirect violence, 
there may be considerable displacement. The upper end of the lower 
fragment may be turned directly backward. When this occurs, some 
difficulty may be experienced in setting the fracture. Cases are on 
record where it was necessary to tenotomize the tendo Achilles in order 
to effect relaxation of the calf muscles, so as to permit of manipulating 
the lower fragment into position. When once in proper position, the 
limb should be treated in a semi-flexed position by a double inclined 
splint. The diagnosis is made by means of preternatural mobility, de- 
formity, crepitus, history of the accident, and the nature of the injury. 
Generally a good result is obtained in the treatment of the fracture. 
The fracture may be kept immovable for three weeks in a young person, 
and in older persons four weeks, when they may be gotten up on 
crutches. Care should be taken in the preliminary use of the limb, that 
the soft callus is not broken up. There is no danger of ankylosis at 
the knee, inasmuch as the line of fracture does not invade the joint. 

T or Y fracture is an extremely serious injury. It is produced by 
direct and indirect violence, and the violence is usually of such 
nature that it produces contusion and injury of the soft-parts, as well 
as the fracture. This adds to the gravity of the case. Inasmuch as the 
fracture invades the joint, effusion of blood will take place within the 
joint cavity, and the swelling will be intense. Where the case is not 
seen early, it had best be treated by antiphlogistic measures until the 
swelling disappears, when an accurate diagnosis can be made. Where 
it is possible, the limb should be exposed to the x-rays, in order to de- 
termine the exact nature of the fracture, then a fairly accurate prog- 
nosis may be made. Boivy union takes place between the 
condyles and the shaft of the bone. Only fibrous union will take place 
between the two condyles. The space between the condyles is widened, 
and they will no longer fit the articular surfaces of the tibia, nor will 
the patella fit in between the condyles, so that the joint will be per- 
manently enlarged, and other deformity may result. The diagnosis 
of the fracture is easily made. Crepitus is marked. There is 
effusion in the joint. Motion of the patella will occasion crepitus. 
More or less evidence of dislocation will be present. These, together 
with the histor} r of the accident, and evidences of severe injury of the 
knee, will be sufficient to make the diagnosis. 

Treatment. — The limb should be kept immovable for a period of 
ten days or two weeks. The parts adjacent to the injury may be manip- 
ulated, to assist the return circulation. The patient should be kept 
in the best possible condition and every effort made to get rid of the 
inflammation. At the end of two weeks, slight manipulation of the 
joint may be begun. This manipulation will prevent the formation 
of adhesions. Where there is not much contusion of the parts, the 



joint may be manipulated as early as the twelfth day. This manipu- 
lation-is kept up lightly for two weeks, when the person may be gotten 
about on crutches, and a leather knee-boot constructed, which can be 
laced up closely to the limb, and which will hold the fragments in 
position. This splint may be removed daily, to permit of manipulation 
of the joint. If this treatment is followed out with care, the integrity 
of the joint will be maintained and a fairly good result obtained. 

Fracture of Either Condyle is produced by direct and indirect vio- 
lence, either or both. The signs of fractures are the mobility of the 
condyle and crepitus, together with evidence of injury. Usually a good 
result will be obtained. Even if the union is but fibrous at first, it 
will become bony, especially if the fracture occurs in a young person. 
Such a fracture happening in an old person, is more grave, and the 
integrity of the joint will be permanently lost. Deformity is the rule 
in this kind of a fracture, inasmuch as more or less callus must form 
between the condyle and the end of the bone. This slice of callus so 
inserted, as it were, elongates the condyle, and in case of fracture of 
the inner "condyle, the person will have knock-knee, whereas, if it hap- 
pens in the external condyle, by lengthening it, a bowed condition of 
the leg will result. This fracture should be treated with a double in- 
clined plane and motion begun early (within two weeks) and kept up 
until the freedom of the motion of the joint is not impaired. 

Epiphyseal Fracture of the lower extremity of the femur is ex- 
tremely rare. Moist crepitus, history of the accident, age of the 
patient, evidence of a foreign body in the joint, and other signs of frac- 
ture, will enable the physician to make the diagnosis. 

Treatment. — The treatment is the same as in the other forms of 

fracture. Tbe family should be notified that considerable deformity 

results from this fracture. Destruction of the lower epiphysis will 

result in marked shortening of the limb, since the limb will no longer 

grow from this joint. 

Fig. 77. 
Fig 76 

Transverse fracture of the 

Fracture of the patella with 
separation of the bone into 
three fragments. 

Fractures of the Patella. 

The patella is fractured by direct violence. The line of fracture 
may be vertical or transverse, but is usually transverse. The trans- 



verse fracture is said to occur sometimes from muscular contraction, 
by vigorous and forced action of the quadriceps extensors. The diag- 
nosis of the transverse fracture is easy. The upper fragment is pulled. 

Fig. 78. 

Fig. 79. 

Fracture of the patella, showing 
displacement of the upper fragment. 

Fracture of the patella, showing 
the nature of the injury. 

up above the knee, by the action of the quadriceps muscles, while the 
lower fragment remains in situ. There is a gap between the fragments. 
In the vertical fracture, the diagnosis is equally easy. It is so rare 
that it scarcely merits description. 

Treatment. — The treatment in case of a transverse fracture of the 
patella is not followed by a very good result. Fibrous union is the rule, 
although bony union may occur. The blood supply to the bone is in- 
sufficient to secure strong union. In elderly people, it is perhaps best 
to wire the bones together at the outset. Under aseptic conditions this 
operation may be done without impairing the integrity of the joint. 
In young or middle-aged healthy people, the limb may be dressed in 
extension, while the upper fragment is drawn downward by means of ad- 
hesive strips. The limb should be kept in an extended position for at 
least six weeks, and then manipulation and passive motion should be be- 
gun, but only mildly. The reason for not permitting motion of the 
limb earlier is that the callus, which is yet only fibrous, will stretch 
and allow the fragments to be pulled apart. This will lengthen the 
distance between the origin and insertion of the quadriceps extensor 
muscles and thereby impair their usefulness, and deformity will result. 
Should fibrous union occur an operation may be advised. A slice of 
callus may be sawed out and the ends of the bones united. It may 
be treated by means of McBurnej^'s hooks, but this treatment is not 
often used. 

Compound Fracture of the Femur and Patella should be treated in the 
same manner as a simple fracture, with the exception that the wound 




should be cleansed and asepticized at once and thereafter dressed anti- 
septically. Should a plaster bandage be applied, a window may be cut 
in the plaster over the site of the wound, so as to permit of daily treat- 
ment and cleansing of the wound and provision for drainage. 

Fracture of the Lower Leg. 

Fractures of the lower leg may be divided into: 

I. Fractures of the tibia and fibula. 
II. Fractures of the tibia. 
III. Fractures of the fibula. 

Fracture of Both Bones is most common, with the exception, perhaps, 
of fractures of the lower extremity of the fibula. The cause is direct 
and indirect violence. If both bones ai*e fractured at the same level, 
and the line of fracture is transverse, the cause is 
direct violence. If the bones break at their weakest 
point, because of falls on the foot, and more or less 
force distributed to the leg at the same time, the 
line of fracture will be oblique. In the latter case, 
the tibia breaks in its lower third, while the fibula 
breaks in its upper third. In the transverse frac- 
ture, which is the result of direct violence, there is 
not much deformity. The diagnosis is easy. The 
tibia is subcutaneous and fracture can readily be de- 
termined in it. It may not be so easy to determine 
whether the fibula is broken, but in case only the 
tibia is broken, preternatural mobility would not be 
very marked, because, of the presence of the com- 
panion bone, whereas if both bones were broken, the 
preternatural mobility would be more marked. In 
the oblique fracture, which is a much more serious 
condition, there is great danger of the fracture be- 
coming compound. The reason is, because the lower 
end of the upper fragment projects forward against 
the skin, while the action of the muscles pulls the 
lower fragment past the upper. The lower end of 
the upper fragment usually makes a sharp projection 
against the skin, and unless great care is exercised 
in handling the member, the skin may be broken. 
Signs. — The signs of fracture are obvious. Evidences of 
injury, preternatural mobility, crepitus, deformity, loss of motion, etc., 
are present. 

Treatment. — In treating fractures of the tibia and fibula, it is impor- 
tant to keep in mind that both the ankle- and knee-joints should be 
rendered immovable. Furthermore, in setting the fracture, it is of the 
greatest importance that the physician sees that he does not have union 
with deformity. Eversion of the foot is the rule. The con- 
traction of the tibial muscles will be greater than the peroneal, 

Transverse fracture of 
both bones of the leg as 
results froni direct vio- 


Radiograph by George M. Laughlin, D. 0. 

Radiograph of a compound fracture of both bones of the lower leg six weeks after the 

iniury Note that the bones are fragmented and that there is non-union. 

There is a multiple fracture of the fibula. The wound became 

infected and inflammatory tissue shows on the 

fibular side of the leg. 



and a condition of varus, especially if the fracture is low down, may 
occur. This can be prevented by making extension and having the 
inner side of the great toe, the inner malleolus, and the inner border 
of the patella in the same plane. As long as these points are kept in 
the same plane and extension and counter-extension is maintained, a 
good result will follow. The best dressing, and the one easiest 
to apply, is the one advised by Dr. Still. The dressing used in hos- 
pitals, where there is not too much injury to the soft-parts, or where 
there is no comminution of the bones, is a plaster-of-Paris dressing. 
It is carried to just beyond the middle of the thigh, sufficiently 
high to render the knee immovable. Should the dressing become 
loose, it can be cut in front and a roller bandage applied over the pla- 
ter splint, so as to draw it tight to the leg. Extension is made on the 
lower fragments by weight and pulley, in the same manner as for frac- 
tures of the thigh. It is not necessary to keep this extension up if the 
bandage is properly applied. 

Fig. 81. 

Fracture box for fractures of either or both bones of the leg. 

Fractures of the Tibia. — Fractures of the tibia may occur in any part 
of the bone, but fractures in the upper one-third are rare, except as 
the result of great direct violence, when the fracture may be multiple 
and comminuted. This is a very severe form of fracture, and may 
demand amputation. Where the vitality of the patient is good, and 
there is fairly good circulation, the limb may be put in a fracture-box 
for a few days and watched. Where the fracture is not compound, this 
procedure should always be followed. Amputation may be deferred 
until there is evidence of deficient circulation, or gangrene appears. 
Fracture of the middle or lower third of the shaft is caused by direct 
and indirect violence — blows directly upon the bone or falls upon the 
foot, either or both. Usually there is but little displacement, because 
the companion bone, the fibula, is uninjured. The diagnosis of the in- 
jury is easy, inasmuch as the bone is subcutaneous. As the finger is 
passed along the anterior border of the tibia, at the site of the frac- 
ture preternatural mobility and crepitus will be obtained, and there will 
be evidences of local injury. Fractures of the upper and lower third of 
the tibia may be treated similarly. It is necessary to carry the splint 
only to the tuberosity of the tibia. Where there seems to be a consid- 



erable wrenching of the ligamentous attachments between the tibia and 
fibula at the time of the injury, and where it appears to the physician 
that there is mobility between the ends of the bones, it may be neces- 
sary to carry the splint or dressing up to the middle of the thigh. In 
all these fractures of the lower leg, the patient should be gotten up 
within two weeks after the fracture. A plaster dressing may be ap- 
plied over the foot and up to the tuberosity of the tibia. In this frac- 
ture, Dr. Still's dressing is of the greatest service. It is easy to apply, 
and is light, and if applied with care, will maintain the bones in appo- 
sition, and will permit the patient to go about on crutches. The objec- 
tion to the plaster-of-Paris dressing is, that it is weighty and cumber- 
some and in numerous ways troublesome. 

Fractures of the Fibula. 

Fig. 82. 

Fractures of the fibula are more common than fractures of the tibia. 
The cause is direct violence, as blows directly upon the fibula, and indi- 
rect violence, such as wrenches of the foot. 
There is not much displacement of the bones 
in fractures of the fibula. The diagnosis is 
easy. The lower part of the bone is subcutan- 
eous. There will not be much preternatural 
mobility, but the normal springiness between 
the tibia and fibula will be destroyed and there 

Pott's fracture with the de 
formity reduced. 

lower extremity 
the bone, the 

will be crepitus. The 
fracture most com- 
mon in the fibula, and 
the one which merits 
the best description, 
is that which occurs 
in the lower one-fifth 
of the bone, or two or 
three inches above 
the malleolus. This 
fracture was first de- 
scribed by Percival 
Pott, and has since 
borne his name. It is 
usually caused by the 
patient slipping on 
the foot, as in step- 
ping from a car or 
cab upon a cobble- 
stone. The astragalus 
is driven against the 
of the fibula, the force is 
fracture occurring two o: 

Fig. 83. 

Pott's fracture, showing the 
characteristic deformity. 

transmitted up 
three inches 




the malleolus. The upper end of the lower fragment is directed 
in towards the tibia, while the astragalus is dislocated outward. The 
internal lateral ligament is ruptured, or the tip of the internal malleo- 
lus is broken off. The deformity in this fracture is characteristic. 
The inner side of the sole of the foot is directed downward, while the 

The foot is displaced 
Fig. 84. 

sole itself is directed downward and outward, 
outward, and at the same time everted. The 
internal malleolus stretches the skin and is 
markedly prominent. There is a depression on 
the outer side of the leg above the external 
malleolus. This is by far the most common 
fracture. There are two or three similar frac- 
tures described, one of which is Dupuytren's. 
In this fracture, the fibula is broken, as before 
mentioned, the tip of the internal malleolus is 
broken off, while the tibio-fibular ligaments 
are likewise torn, i. e., there is a separation of 
the lower articulation of the tibia and fibula. 
In the third variety of fracture, the fibula is 
broken in the same situation, and the tibia 
is broken transversely just above the articu- 
lation. In these last two fractures, the deform- 
ity is very similar to that of a Pott's fracture, 
but the internal malleolus does not form such 
a sharp prominence on the inner side of the 
foot. Should the tip of the internal malleolus 
be broken off in Pott's fracture, the fragment 
of bone will be felt beneath the skin. Frac- 
ture of the internal malleolus does not occur 
in the majority of cases. In mild cases of 
Pott's fracture, with but little injury to the 
<?oft-parts, the patient may be able to walk 
some distance, or may not discover that he has 
a fracture, believing it is a sprain. There is a 
rare form of this fracture described by some 
authors, in which the foot is displaced inward, instead of outward. In 
this case, the upper end of the lower fragment projects outward against 
the skin, instead of inward. The diagnosis in Pott's fracture is fairly 
easy. Where the characteristic deformity is present, it is only neces- 
sary to determine the nature and amount of injury. If the surgeon 
grasps the ankle, the natural springiness of the fibula is ab- 
sent. Crepitus will be obtained upon extension. Eversion or in- 
version of the foot will disclose preternatural mobility. In cases 
where the physician is in doubt, it should be treated as a fracture. This 
is equally true of all injuries to bones. 

Treatment. — The treatment is to correct the deformity by traction 
and manipulate the foot in proper position. When the inner side of 

Dupuytren's fracture, which 
closely simulates a Pott's frac- 


the great toe, the inner malleolus, and the patella are in the same plane, 
a suitable fixed dressing may be applied. Dr. Still's dressing is prefer- 
able. An externa] splint, with a vertical foot-piece, or a plaster-of-Paris 
dressing may be used. In any case, the patient should be gotten up, 
so that he can get about on crutches, within two weeks after the injury. 
The foot may be manipulated and the integrity of the joint restored. 
It is necessary, in all cases, to maintain immobility of the frac- 
ture. If this is not done, eversion of the foot may take place and a 
condition of talipes valgus, or flat-foot, will result. 

Fractures of the Tarsus. 

Fracture of the tarsus is rare, except as a result of great direct vio- 
lence. The diagnosis is usually easy. Preternatural mobility and 
crepitus are easily obtained. In cases where there is great swelling, the 
diagnosis cannot be readily made. The foot should be kept immovable 
and at rest, and antiphlogistic measures applied until the swelling is so 
reduced that a diagnosis may be readily made. An x-ray examina- 
tion should be made when possible. The prognosis should be 
guarded in these fractures, inasmuch as death of one of the fragments 
may occur. Union is good. The fracture may result in the 
letting down of the arch of the foot. The person should not be 
allowed to walk until after good union has been obtained. 

Fractures of the Metatarsus. 

The metatarsal bones are fractured by direct violence, blows on top 
of the foot, or by weighty objects falling upon the foot. The diagnosis 
is easy. A stiff splint moulded to the sole of the foot and the member 
snugly bandaged to assist the return circulation, will be all that is nec- 
essary. The foot should be allowed rest for three or four weeks. In the 
meantime, the parts may be manipulated. 

Fractures of the Phalanges. 

Fractures of the phalanges are common, and the diagnosis is made 
without difficulty. The treatment is similar to treatment of the meta- 
tarsal bones. 



Synovitis is an inflammation of the synovial membrane of a joint. 
These inflammations may be divided into (1) acute, and (2) chronic. 

Acute Synovitis is caused from injury, such as contusions, sprains, 
wrenches, exposure to wet and cold, and to the deposit of certain in- 
flammatory products, or micro-organisms, about the synovial membrane. 
The abnormal relation of the articular surfaces of the joint, or partial 
dislocations and contractions of fascia and muscles interfering with the 


return circulation, operate, as the most usual causes, in a large number 
of cases. 

Pathology. — The synovial membrane becomes congested and red; 
following this there is an exudation of fluid into the synovial sac, which 
prevents the inflamed surfaces of the membrane coming in contact. 
This effusion ma} r be very great, or may be only slight. There is always 
more or less inflammation about the joint, sometimes the congestion of 
the periarticular structures is considerable. Where the activity of the 
cause is not too great, and the case is properly treated, resolution may 
take place without any organic changes occurring in any of the joint 
structures. On the other hand, the inflammation may extend into the 
cartilages, the connective tissues about the joint, or into the 
bone. Suppuration and abscess may follow, and the cartilages and 
bones become eroded and destroyed, resulting in osteo-arthritis and bony 

Symptoms. — The joint is swollen and painful; movements are im- 
peded. Spasms of the muscles and a "fixed" condition of the ligaments 
serve to hold the joint in a position (generally a flexed one) of the great- 
est ease. In septic cases, congestion and inflammation are much greater 
and the case is attended by considerable fever, while in the milder cases, 
the fever may not rise to more than 100 degrees or 101 degrees F., or in 
very mild cases there may be no febrile reaction whatever. In xhe se- 
verer forms a chill may occur, together with a rise in temperature, 
sordes, loss of appetite, coated tongue, confined bowels — indications of 
the absorption of pus. If the joint is not covered with too many sur- 
rounding tissues the swelling is quite manifest. The outline of the 
distended synovial sac can be mapped out with ease. In the case of a 
Tcnee-joint the greatest distension takes place on either side of the liga- 
mentum patellae and just above the joint underneath the quadriceps 
extensor muscles. In some cases, this distension may be enormous. 
If pus forms within the joint, it burrows in the direction of 
least resistance, which may be along the sheath of some muscle, a dis- 
tance away from the joint. In case of the eTboiv, the distension of the 
membrane takes place upward underneath the triceps. In the ankle, 
there is puff mess behind the malleoli and underneath the extensor ten- 
dons. Sometimes the fluid effusion is so small that it is difficult to 
detect it. In conditions of the hip and shoulder, it may be overlooked. 
In the knee-joint, the patella may even be lifted away from the con- 
dyles (riding of the patella). In other cases, it may be necessary for the 
person to bend at the hips in a standing position, with the legs extended, 
and the hands resting on the front of the thighs (Fisk's method), when 
fluctuation may be felt on the inner side of the patella. The severer 
forms of septic synovitis will be indicated by the evidence of sepsis, the 
increased pain, and redness about the joint, together with the general 
systemic conditions already mentioned. 

Treatment. — The treatment of acute synovitis is distinctly osteo- 


pathic, until pus forms, when surgical interference may be necessary to 
evacuate the pus, and prevent erosion of the articular cartilages, and 
subsequent involvement of the ends of the bones. Destruction of the 
joint tissues to any extent means ankylosis, which will more than likely 
permanently interfere with the integrity of the joint. If the synovitis 
arises from a penetrating wound, by which infectious materials have 
been introduced, it is imperative to at once wash out the wound and 
joint with an antiseptic solution, as a saturated solution of boric acid, 
or 1:50 solution of carbolic acid in boiled water. Drainage must be 
provided and the wound washed and dressed twice daily until all dan- 
ger of infection of the synovial membrane has passed. When the inflam- 
mation is set up by bruising the joint, and not by an open wound, cold 
should be applied during the first twenty-four hours, then manipulative 
measures, to secure normal circulation. 

If the synovitis is the result of the deposit of germs in the joint, 
and of obstructions to the circulation, or from subluxations or malposi- 
tion of the bones, only manipulative measures will afford relief. Where 
the joint is a point of least resistance, lesions will be found directly 
affecting the blood supply, or spinal lesions ail' ecting the nerves to the 
joint. The treatment consists of removing these lesions, releasing 
the nerves, and in stimulating the circulation. Slight passive motion 
must be kept up, to prevent ankylosis. Obstructions to the circulation, 
and local congestion, may be relieved by appropriate methods. When 
pus forms, which will be evidenced by chills and fever, loss of appetite, 
confined, bowels, etc., a free incision should be made at| the most con- 
venient point and the pus evacuated. The joint may then be washed out 
daily with an antiseptic solution. Even though pus forms in the joint, 
and the S3 r novial fluid drains out for weeks, there is no clanger 
of ankylosis, unless the cartilages become eroded and destroyed. As 
the inflammation subsides, more vigorous manipulation of the joint 
should be made. Should any adhesions form, they may be readily 
broken up and the inflammatory tissues absorbed. 

Chronic Synovitis, or subacute synovitis, frequently follows an attack 
of acute inflammation of the synovial membrane, or it may be subacute 
from the beginning. It is stated by excellent authors that many of these 
cases of chronic synovitis are tubercular inflammations. The opposite 
of this might be stated with perhaps equal truth, that many cases diag- 
nosed as tubercular synovitis are nothing more than simple cases of 
subacute synovitis, the result of lesions, subluxations, and contractions 
of fascia or muscles, which interfere with the circulation and bring about 
the inflammatory conditions. The habit of calling these prolonged 
cases of chronic synovitis which do not yield to the treatment admin- 
istered, "tubercular," is nothing short of vicious. Without doubt, many 
cases are due to the deposit of the tubercle bacillus outside of the mem- 
brane, or within the membrane, and this low-grade inflammation results, 
but there are other causes more important than these bacilli, and those 


causes might be summed up in the interference with the circulation to 
the joint and bad general health. 

Pathology. — The synovial membrane may be congested, but the 
villus-like projections around the edges of the articular surfaces become 
hypertrophied and edematous. A considerable amount of fluid may 
exude into the joint. This may be so great as to give rise to a condi- 
tion called ''hydrops articuli.*' The nature of the fluid effused into the 
joint may be that of ordinary serum. The joint may remain in this 
condition for years without change, while on the other hand, absorption 
may take place and the disease disappear. The synovial membrane may 
become thickened and liypertrophied. and as it becomes distended, it 
may extend along sheaths of muscles in pouch-like dilations 
(Baker's cvsts). The cartilages of the joints may become inflamed and 
thickened. Sometimes degenerations of the thickened portions of the 
synovial membrane may take place. 

Symptoms. — Evidences of effusion in the joint, together with a his- 
tory of acute synovitis or lesions, indicating interference with the return 
circulation, or a history of injury, together with the presence of fluid in 
the joint. Tn some cases there may be false crepitus in the joint, occa- 
sioned by the formation of weak fibrous adhesions. On motion these 
are broken up. If the joint is aspirated, a viscid, straw-colored fluid 
will be obtained. 

Treatment. — In the treatment of chronic, as in acute, synovitis, 
osteopathic methods have accomplished wonderful results. If these 
manipulative measures are persisted in, good results will be obtained, 
and amputation rendered unnecessary. It does not matter whether the 
case is tubercular or not, the same methods should be employed, while 
uniformly good results may be expected. Even in cases of long 
standing. where surgical authorities have advised amputation as the only 
means of relief, good results have been obtained in many cases. It is 
in this class of cases that osteopathic practitioners have achieved some 
of their most brilliant results. 

The treatment consists in securing the proper blood supply, remov- 
ing obstructions to the circulation, and reducing subluxations. Certain 
spinal lesions, affecting the nutrition to the joint, may be the cause of 
the disease. These should be removed at once. Eesorption of the in- 
flammatory thickenings and fibrous tissues about the joint may be 
secured by obtaining the proper circulation. 

Acute Arthritis. 

Arthritis is an inflammation of all the tissues of a joint. In synovitis, 
the inflammation is limited to the synovial membrane. In arthritis, the 
synovial membrane also may be involved, but the inflammation ex- 
tends into the connective tissues about the joint. The origin of the 
disease mav be within the svnovial membrane, as svnovitis, or it may 


be within the bone, as osteitis, but at all events, the inflammation in- 
volves- -all of the articular structures. 

Cause. — The causes are the same as in synovitis. In arthritis, there 
is usually a history of greater injury, often penetrating wounds, or 
a history of osteitis, periostitis, osteomyelitis, or abscess in the soft- 
parts which may ha-ve involved the joint, or there may have been the 
absorption of septic poisons from certain acute fevers, which have 
lodged in and about the joint, setting up a general inflammation. 

Pathology. — The changes occurring in the joint vary according 
to the course of the disease, and according to its origin. It usually 
begins as an acute inflammation of the synovial membrane, which 
spreads into the surrounding tissues, the cartilages become eroded and 
softened, and may be entirely destroyed. The ligaments become infil- 
trated with inflammatory elements, softening may take place, with 
marked increase in the connective tissue elements. Because of the mus- 
cular spasm, and the weakened condition of the ligaments, luxation of 
the articular ends of the bones follows, while because of the interference 
in the circulation, and the partial arrest of the nutrition to the tissues 
about the joint, disorganization is followed by the formation of pus and 
further destruction of the articular structures. The pus will burrow in 
the direction of least resistance, finally rupturing, perhaps, some, 
distance from the joint. It will continue discharging pus for a consid- 
erable length of time, afterward the abscess may heal and fibrous 
tissues form between the articular ends of the bones, producing true 
ankvlosis. This ankylosis may. in some cases, be bony, leaving a perma- 
nently stiff joint. The cartilages are destroyed by the process of infil- 
tration and degeneration. The ends of the bones may often be greatly 
eroded or destroyed by a process of caries. Sometimes, before the 
epiphysis has been united to the diaphysis, the entire epiphysis may be 
destroyed, because of interference to the circulation. There is a certain 
class of these cases in which the pus burrows in many directions 
into the muscles and along the bones, giving rise to a general septic 
condition. In such cases, the pus may even get into the medullary cav- 
ity, setting up an osteomyelitis. Such cases end unfavorably. 
In most cases, the pus will rupture in the neighborhood of the joint, 
afterward healing by third intention. After prolonged suppura- 
tion in the worst cases, lardaceous disease and affections of the viscera 
may occur. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms ma}' be those of an ordinary attack of 
synovitis, but as soon as the structures about the synovial membrane 
begin to be involved, the symptoms are more intense, greater swelling, 
edema about the joint, and a bluish-reel color, will serve to distinguish 
it from synovitis. The temperature is higher, and the pulse more 
rapid. Where pus develops in the septic forms of the disease, 
there will be chills, followed by rigors, a quiet condition of the bowels, 
and a loss of appetite. The patient is often considerably debilitated. 


The pain in the joint is xisually very severe, j,rid the reflex irritation of 
the muscles gives rise to painful startings. After rupture of the abscess, 
the condition heals slowly. 

Treatment. — In general, the treatment is the same as in synovitis. 
The pus must be evacuated early and good drainage obtained. The 
patient must be given a nourishing diet, while the secretions should be 
made as nearly normal as possible.- Where there is extensive destruction 
of bone, and the case continues a considerable length of time, resection- 
of the joint and scraping away of all the necrosed bone may be neces- 
sary to save the limb. Even in bad cases, if good drainage is secured, 
manipulative methods will obtain good results. Obstructions to the 
return circulation must be removed, spinal lesions corrected, and the 
general health built up. The prognosis should always be guarded, 
although a fair result can usually be obtained. 


Epiphysitis is an inflammation of the epiphysis of the bone in young 
persons. It may be acute, subacute, or chronic, and arises from injury 
or lesions affecting the blood supply, or the abnormal relations of the 
bones. It may, or may not, involve a joint. 

Cause. — The causes are the same as those of synovitis and arthritis. 
The changes taking place in the epiphysis arc such as to terminate 
quickly in suppuration. Should the pus and inflammation extend into 
the joint, arthritis may result. Sometimes the epiphysis may be sep- 
arated from the of the bone, forming a sequestrum, when by 
a process of suppuration, ulceration, and a burrowing of the pus, the 
sequestrum may be dislodged, or even exfoliated by nature. In most 
cases, the injury and destruction of the epiphysis result in a shortened 
limb. There are eases in which the limb even grows longer, because of 
the formation of new tissues within the epiphysis. At all events, stiff- 
ness and fixidity of the joint are the rule. Sometimes a large abscess 

Treatment. — The treatment is essentially the same as for arthritis 
and synovitis. The prognosis should be guarded. Should the case be 
seen before there is destruction of bone, relief may be given almost at 
once. The reduction of the subluxation and the relaxation of the con- 
tracted muscles, thus removing obstructions to the circulation, will 
prevent destructive changes. 

Gonorrheal Arthritis, or Gonorrheal Rheumatism. 

Not infrequently during the course of gonorrhea, the patient may be 
attacked with inflammation of the joints. Cases have been reported 
where these inflammations attended gonorrheal opthalmia. These arth- 
ritic inflammations vary in intensity; some are very mild, while others 
are severe, furnishing a mental picture of the ordinary case 
of acute rheumatism. Not all the rheumatic attacks taking place during 
gonorrheal arthritis are the result of this disease, but many are. 


Cause. — The cause of the joint-inflammation seems to be the ab- 
sorption of the products of inflammation. It may be, in some cases, the 
streptococci; in rare instances, the gonococci may be the exciting cause 
of the inflammation. It is really not a form of rheumatism, but a form 
of arthritis, due to the absorption of the inflammatory products from 
the ulcer found in the urethra, or upon the mucous membrane of the 
vagina. The inflammations are rather intractable, but yield to treat- 
ment. The inflammations usually end in resolution, but may end in 
ankylosis, fibrosis about the joint, and in suppuration. The disease 
occurs during the later stages of gonorrhea, or after the discharge has 
disappeared. It is usually confined to one joint, most often the knee; 
the next most frequently affected are the tarsal-joints, which is often 
followed by flat-foot. It may affect the hands or wrists. The disease 
frequently recurs. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of the disease are those of acute and 
chronic arthritis and synovitis. The presence of chronic gonorrhea, 
together with evidences of rheumatism, will determine the diagnosis. 

Treatment. — In the treatment of gonorrheal arthritis, the organs of 
elimination, especially the kidneys, must be kept active, and the circula- 
tion through the affected joint should be improved. Since the disease 
is produced by the absorption of toxic products from the gonorrheal 
ulcer, it is plain that these elements would lodge and excite an inflamma- 
tion at a weak point. Stimulation of the spinal origin of the nerves to 
the joint, together with local treatment about the joint, impro/ing the 
circulation, and assisting resorption of the inflammatory elements, will 
be necessary. Any subluxation existing must be reduced, as these are 
regarded as responsible for the inflammation. 

Tubercular Arthritis. 

There is a large per cent of cases of chronic arthritis which are either 
tubercular, almost from the incipiency, or become tubercular some time 
within the history of the disease. The disease occurs more frequently 
in' the spine than any other part of the body (See tuberculosis of the 
spine). In order of frequency, the following joints and bones are 
affected: Knee, hip, ankle, tarsus, elbow, wrist, hand, skull, face, 
sternum, clavicle, ribs, pelvis, femur, tibia, fibula, shoulder, scapula, 
ulna, radius, humerus, and patella. The disease is much more common 
in young people. It is claimed that the imperfect structure and the 
irregular contour of the vessels in the epiphyses of the bones entering 
into the formation of the joints involved, constitute an important fac- 
tor in the development of tubercular disease. This is hardly true. The 
presence of spinal lesions, together with partial dislocations, muscular 
contractions, contractions of fascia, etc., all assist in bringing about a 
condition in which there is an abnormal blood supply and abnormal 
nerve influence to the joint or bone, and under these circumstances, the 
tubercle bacilli are deposited and the disease arises. The deposit of the 


germ takes place more frequently in the epiphysis in children, but in 
adults the disease starts in the synovial membrane, or joint-capsule. 

Changes Occurring In. — The pathological changes occurring in 
tuberculosis of joints are, in general, as follows: 

1. The formation of granulation tissue. This is characteristic of all 
tubercular inflammations. Sometimes it is fungating in character. At 
other times there will he but few tubercles and but little granulation 
tissue, but the rule is that a considerable amount is formed. 

2. Caseation and softening of the granulation tissue is sometimes 
termed gelatiniform degeneration. This takes place according to 
whether there is sufficient interference to the nutrition of certain area.- 
of the affected tissues. In some cases, no caseation and softening follow, 
while in other cases the degenerative changes are extensive. 

3. Joint-effusion. Effusion into the joint is the rule. Sometimes 
there is but little joint-effusion, while at other times it is extensive. 
There is a certain class of cases in which there is a considerable y mount 
of granulation tissue, with no effusion and no tendency to caseate. In 
such cases there Avill be but few tubercles formed. 

4. The contour of the joint is changed. The joint becomes spindle- 
shaped, and the tissues are more or less glued together, and the motions 
of the joint become limited. There may be considerable redness of the 
joint, or there may be none. The veins about are often considerably 
enlarged, due to the interference in the return circulation. Especially 
is this true where the granulation tissue involves the deep veins, in case 
of tuberculosis of the knee-joint. 

5. Deformity is one of the most important changes occurring in 
joint-tuberculosis. This deformity arises, many times, before the de- 
posit of the tubercle. Primary injury is an important factor in the 
cause of tubercular disease. This primary injury may be contusions of 
the ends of bones, or it may be a subluxation. The injury of the joint 
ma}* produce spasm of the muscles, holding the bones in an abnormal 
position. This initial deformity is exaggerated in the later stages of 
"tfie disease by muscular spasms, erosions of the bones, destruction of the 
cartilages, and relaxation of certain of the ligaments, and contraction 
of others, producing partial or complete dislocations. Furthermore, 
the position of the limb assumed by the patient in obtaining relief from 
pain, oftentimes results in deformity. 

6. Abscess formation. In a certain proportion of cases, degeneration 
and softening occur, resulting in the formation of a fluid similar to pus. 
This fluid burrows along the sheaths of muscles, or fascia-planes, and 
finally reaches the surface and ruptures, forming a sinus. Occasionally 
infection will take place along back this sinus, which leads to pyogenic 
infection of the joint. Fever and other evidences of the septic process 
will be present. This acute suppuration is very often perilous to life, 
so it should be avoided under all circumstances. 

7. Ankylosis. By the old method of treatment, ankylosis was the 


rule, and in only a very few cases was the disease recognized sufficiently 
early, nor was the treatment sufficiently successful, to permit of a cure 
without limited motion. Osteopathic treatment has improved upon the 
older methods, from the fact that it not only secures an arrest of the 
tuberculous process, but likewise prevents ankylosis in a large number of 
cases. Sometimes ankylosis cannot be prevented. The disease may some- 
times remain quiescent for several years, and again break out anew. 

Treatment. — The treatment of tuberculosis of joints may be fol- 
lowed out on the same principles as of tuberculosis of any other structure. 
The deposit of the tubercle bacilli will not occur unless there is a dimin- 
ished resistance of the tissues. This condition may be overcome by 
building up the system and increasing the nutrition of the tissues at 
the point of least resistance, or those affected. It is conceded 
that our only protection against the onslaughts of the tubercle bacilli 
is normal, healthy blood, and a free circulation. These may be best 
obtained by osteopathic methods. 

The manipulation employed should be at the spinal origin of the 
nerves to the affected part or directly over the vessels carrying the blood 
to and from the diseased area, always working in the direction of the 
circulation ;also local manipulation, to prevent stasis and to increase the 
local nutrition. Lesions directly, or reflexly, affecting the circulation, 
or nerve supply, must be removed as soon as possible. Motion must be 
kept up in the joint, to prevent ankylosis. There is no danger of dis- 
seminating the tubercle bacilli. Very vigorous manipulation 
will do mechanical injury. When abscesses occur, the necrosed 
tissues should be washed away by antiseptic solutions, and rigid 
cleanliness enforced. Antisepsis will not heal the sore — only good, fresh 
blood can accomplish it. 

Tuberculosis of Special Joints. 

Hip Disease. — This affection has a variety of names, such as Morbus 
Coxarius, Morbus Coxae, Coxitis, or Hip-joint disease. 

Causes. — The causes of hip disease are (A) Contributory and (B) Ex- 

The contributory causes consist of luxations and subluxations of the 
hip, or conditions affecting the circulation and nerve supply to the joint 
and surrounding tissues. The nerve supply of the hip-joint comes from 
the anterior crural, obturator, great sciatic nerves, and filaments from 
the sacral plexus. These nerves may be pressed upon by luxations, 
curvatures in the lumbar spine, subluxations at the sacro-iliac joint, 
usually a twisted condition, or at the hip itself, or by contractions of 
the psoas magnus, pyriformis, and other muscles. The blood supply 
comes from "the internal circumflex, sciatic, gluteal and obturator 
arteries. These arteries and their accompanying veins may be ob- 
structed by contractions of the internal femoral, gluteal, obturator, 
psoas, and other muscles, also by certain bony lesions. By the operation 



of these lesions, the joint becomes a weak point, when, because of a 
slight injury, or the deposit of the bacilli, degenerative changes are 
set up. 

The exciting causes are injury and deposit of the tubercle bacilli. 

Occurrence. — The disease occurs 
more frequently in children. It is 
claimed that between sixty and sixty- 
five per cent of all cases occur in chil- 
dren under ten years of age, while 
eighty per cent, of the cases are found 
in individuals under twenty. 

Fig. 86. 

Early hip disease, showing 
obliquity of the pelvis. 

Obliteration of the gluteal fold as 
occurs in hip disease. 

Point of Origin. — In the largest number of cases, the disease arises 
from the deposit of the tubercle in the acetabulum. In a certain propor- 
tion of cases, it first begins in the head of the femur, while other times 
it may arise in the great trochanter. In cases developing in adults, 
the deposit of the tubercle will be in the synovial membrane, or in the 
connective tissues outside. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of hip-joint disease vary with the 
nature of the changes taking place in the joint. They may, perhaps, be 
best understood by classifying them in the following manner: 

1. Sympathetic pain in the knee-joint, which is most likely due to 
the involvement, either directly or reflexly, of the obturator nerve. It 
may be due to pressure upon the obturator nerve, or to an irritation of 
the filaments within the hip-joint itself. The pain is usually localized 
on the inner side of the knee-joint. It may be on the front of the leg, 
or extend along down the inner side of the thigh, leg, and foot. 

2. Faulty position of the limb. The abnormal position of the leg 



early in the disease consists of flexion, external rotation, and abduction. 
The flexion may be slight and the abduction not great, depending upon 
the severity of the symptoms. The cause of this position seems to be 
the tension of the ilio-femoral, or Y-ligament. The fluid effusion in 
the joint apparently lifts the head of the bone out of the socket. This 
produces a greater tension upon the Y-ligament, causing the llexion. 

Fig. 87. 

Flexion of the thieh produced by tension of the Y-ligament as happens in coxitis. 

This flexion gives rise to one of the earliest symptoms, viz., inability 
of the patient to completely extend the limb, or should the limb be com- 
pletely extended, it produces lordosis of the spine. 

3. Later deformity. Later in the disease, because of the muscular 
spasm and contracted fascia, and because of the changes taking place 
in the head of the bone, or in the acetabulum, the limb becomes ad- 

FiG. 88. 

lordosis of the spine, produced by extension of the legs, as occurs in hip disease. 

ducted, rotated inward, and flexed. Should the epiphysis become sep- 
arated from the shaft of the bone, it may resemble a fracture of the 
neck of the femur, while in other cases, the head of the femur is drawn 
against the upper rim of the acetabulum. Here it presses against the 
upper and back part of the capsule, which gives way, and the 
muscular contraction produces a dorsal dislocation. This is the most 
common and the characteristic position of old cases of hip-joint 
disease. From early in the disease, extending through its clinical course, 
there is a marked adductor spasm. Following fluid effusion in the joint, 
there may be extensive erosion of the bones, ligaments, and cartilages. 


The fluid effusions may be so great that fluctuation can be made out. 
Where erosion of the bones and destruction of the cartilages, with 
formation of pus, follow, this pus will burrow through the muscles of 
the thigh, underneath the fascia lata, to the point where the tensor 
fascia femoris muscle is inserted, where it ruptures. In other cases, 
the pus may reach Scarpa's triangle, by passing through the cotyloid 
notch, or by passing through the bursa underneath the psoas muscle. 
In other cases, it may burrow upward underneath the glutei muscles. 

4. Pain is produced in the hip-joint by pressure on the sole of the 
foot and great trochanter. While pain is present in hip-joint disease, 
it is markedly increased by pressure in these localities. 

5. Marked atrophy of the muscles attends hip disease. There is 
flattening of the buttock, and the gluteal crease, or fold, is lessened, or 
absent, and is lower down on the affected side. 

Early Signs. — The early symptoms of coxitis may be entirely over- 
looked. Usually there is evidence of malnutrition, the child has night 
terrors, and on arising in the morning, shows lameness, which wears off 
during the day. The child easily tires at play, and should he lie down to 
rest, the lameness is evident in the hip, which will, perhaps, wear off 
again shortly. Pain may, or may not, occur in the hip, upon tapping 
the sole of the foot, or upon pressure upon the trochanters. There is 
slight adductor spasm, and as the disease grows worse, the little patient 
complains of pain in the hip-joint and on the inside of the knee, while 
there may be more or less tilting of the pelvis to allow the foot to touch 
the ground in walking. 

Diagnosis. — The diagnosis of early hip disease is very difficult;. In 
making an examination, the pelvis should be placed in normal relation 
with the spine, the anterior superior spines of the ilia should be on the 
same level, when shortening of the limb can be detected. If the limb is 
flexed, with the ilia in normal position, and then extended, lordosis of 
the spine will be produced. There is usually limitation of motion in the 
joint in some direction. 

This disease may be confounded with lumbar or psoas abscess from 
caries of the spine, sacro-iliac disease, congenital dislocations of the hip, 
lordosis from rickets, infantile paralysis, gluteal bursitis, or gluteal ab- 
scess. In psoas or lumbar abscess from caries of the spine, there will 
be evidence of disease of the vertebrae, whereas, the abscess ap- 
pears below Poupart's ligament, external to the femoral vessels, at a 
point where hip abscess rarely, if ever, appears. In sacro- 
iliac disease, pressure upon the iliac crests will produce pain, whereas 
tapping of the sole of the foot will not produce pain. There will be no 
limitation of motion in the hip-joint. In congenital dislocations, a his- 
tory of the case, and absence of inflammatory signs, together with an 
x-ray examination, will enable the physician to make a correct diagnosis. 
In rickets, there will be evidence of the rachitic rosary, and the involve- 
ment of other bones and joints than the hip. In infantile paralysis, 


there are no inflammatory symptoms. There is progressive muscular 
atrophy, which takes place rather rapidly. In gluteal bursitis, the symp- 
toms are continuous and unremitting. Exercise aggravates the pain, 
which is moderate. The location of the pain is behind the hip and be- 
hind the knee. 

Treatment. — The treatment of hip disease consists in removing the 
lesions found. Twists in the pelvis and curvature of the spine call for 
attention at once. It is not necessary, in many cases, to manipulate 
the thigh at all. If the thigh is manipulated, it should be done gently, 
and not so as to do injury. Treatment to correct the position of the 
spine and the pelvic lesions will be followed by good results in from two 
to six months. In bad cases, treatment may be required longer — a year 
or more. 

The methods employed in surgical practice are, fixation 
and extension for a long period (six months to a year). By this treat- 
ment, ankylosis is the rule. Ankylosis rarely, if ever, follows osteo- 
pathic treatment. In fact, the ankylosis already present is often 
cured by the treatment. When pus forms, it should be evacuated and 
the cavity well drained and cleansed. No local application of medicine 
is needed. If the strictly osteopathic methods are relied upon, good 
results will follow. Where luxations, or subluxations, of the hip result 
from the disease (which will nearly always occur in cases not treated), 
they should be reduced at once, and the limb kept in an easy normal 
position until the use is recovered and pain ceases. 

Sacro-Iliae Disease. 

Sacro-iliac disease is rare, and comes on after the age of fifteen. It 
may arise from the tubercle bacilli being deposited within the joint, or 
the adjacent bones, or through tuberculous pus burrowing into the joint 
from caries of the spine. It may be associated with extensive disease 
of the pelvic bones. The symptoms of the disease are obscure. It may 
be confounded with vertebral caries, sciatica, or coxitis. There is con- 
siderable limp on walking, stibluxation of the ilium, and pain 
upon pressing the ilia together. The pain may be reflected down the 
leg, because of the close proximity of the obturator nerve. If iliac ab- 
scess results, there may be some fluctuation, otherwise there is none. 

Diagnosis. — The tenderness and soreness over the iliac-joint, to- 
gether with the absence of caries of the spine and hip-joint disease, and 
evidence of inflammatory exudates about the joint, will determine the 

*' !i Treatment. — In sacro-iliac disease, there is a condition of curvature 
of the lumbar spine. This directly affects the nutrition to the joint. 
There is a subluxation at the sacro-iliac joint. Treatment 
.should be directed to these conditions only. When abscess occurs, 
the pus" should be evacuated, and the treatment directed toward improv- 
ing the circulation and nutrition to the affected area. 

Radiograph by George M. Laughlin, D. O. 

Radiograph (posterior view) showing the condition of the hip in an old quiescent 
case of morbus coxarius in a boy aged ten j^ears. There is entire destruc- 
tion of the head and neck of the femur. There was no abscess 
formation. There is good motion and about two inches of 
shortening. Treatment is of no value. 


Knee-joint. — (White Swelling). — The knee-joint is more frequently 
involved than any other of the joints, except in the spine. It is said that 
the disease begins, in case of the knee, in the femoral epiphysis most 
often, but may begin in the synovial sac, or joint-capsule. It is most 
common in young adults. It may follow an acute synovitis. In many 
cases there is but little swelling, while at other times there may be 
enormous swelling, with gelatiniform degeneration. There is great 
muscular spasm. The tissues become glued together and the tibia is 
dislocated backward. The disease may exist for years. Pain is rarely 
severe, and the lameness is usually the result of deformity. The sud- 
den spasmodic muscular contraction is one of the peculiarities of the 
disease. In some cases, there may be rapid destruction of the joint, 
whereas, jn others, it may become quiescent and thus continue for years. 

Treatment. — The cause of the disease is a posterior condition of the 
ilium at the sacro-iliac joint. In many cases, there will be lumbar lesions. 
Muscular contractions, also, may directly affect the circulation. Sublux- 
ations of the hip ma}^ be responsible for the ailment. In a case, in a 
young lady, of one and one- half years standing, after treatment with 
plaster cast and iodoform emulsion injections and various other 
methods, amputation was advised by eminent surgeons. An osteopath 
was consulted. He cut off the plaster cast, reduced the luxation at the 
hip, corrected the lumbar spine, encouraged the circulation to the in- 
flamed joint, and obtained a complete cure within a month. The lady 
had been compelled to use crutches for nearly two years. It has been 
four years since the case was discharged cured. There has been no 
evidence of return of the trouble. 

It is not necessary to manipulate the joint itself, but all attention 
should be directed to correcting the lesions, and securing a good blood 
supply. If. seen early, or there is not too much destruction of bone, a 
cure may be expected in from one to six months. Ankylosis can usually 
be prevented. ~By medical or surgical treatment, ankylosis is the rule; 
in fact, what is looked for. Osteopathic treatment avoids anky- 
losis, secures good use of the affected joint, and cures the disease. 

Ankle-joint. — The evidences of disease in the ankle-joint are simply 
the evidences of tuberculosis anywhere — more or less fluid effusion, pain 
in the joint, lameness and limitation of motion. Caseation and sinus 
may follow, with destruction of some of the bones of the tarsus. The 
disease is caused by luxations of one or more of the tarsal bones, coupled 
with injury and deposit of the germs. The treatment is directed to 
replacing the bones and securing the proper nerve and blood supply. 
If there is any abnormality at the hip, it should be corrected. Should 
abscess occur, the treatment must still be directed to assisting and en- 
couraging the circulation. Uniformly good results will follow the treat- 
ment. Where the patient is in bad general health, and there is a con- 
dition of malnutrition, attention must be directed to any spinal lesions 
likely causing the mischief. 


Elbow-joint. — The disease may arise in the humerus, ulna, or radius. 
The pain is never great, hut is attended by great muscular wasting and 
limitation of- motion. It is produced by subluxations at the elbow and 
shoulder and by lesions in the cervical spine. The treatment in general 
is that of synovitis. If a good circulation can be secured, the disease will 
subside and the inflammatory exudates will be absorbed. The prognosis 
is favorable. 

Wrist-joint. — Tuberculosis of the wrist is rare, and may occur at any 
age. The joint presents signs of chronic inflammation, and it is fusiform 
in shape. All the motions of the wrist are impaired, as are also prona- 
tion and supination. The tubercular inflammation may begin in the 
joint-capsule or within the carpal bones. It is caused by luxations of 
the carpal bones and by lesions in the cervical and upper dorsal spine. 
The disease will extend over a considerable period. By judicious treat- 
ment, attention to the general health, and with the proper diet and 
hygienic surroundings, a good result may be obtained. 

Shoulder -joint. — 'The disease usually begins at the head of the 
humerus. There is more or less destruction of the bone 
by process of dry caries (caries sicca). The disease is said to be more 
common in adults. In some cases, there may be no swelling, simply a 
shrinking and destruction of the joint, because of muscular spasm and 
caries. Pus formation is rare. The disease is occasioned by cervical 
lesions affecting the circumflex or suprascapular nerves. The blood 
supply may be affected by muscular contractions and subluxations of the 
humerus. The treatment is directed toward correcting these lesions. 

Hysterical-joint. — Hysterical-joint, sometimes called Brodie's joint, 
is an affection occurring chiefly in young women. The knee- and hip- 
joints are the ones involved. There are always evidences of 
latent hysteria. The disease may be brought on by an injury, while 
sometimes it may arise almost from suggestion, without apparently any 
cause. It may follow cases of synovitis, or inflammation of the joints. 
The patient complains of pain, stiffness, and soreness. It 
is easy to discover that the patient resists efforts at motion. 
Muscular atrophy is not great, and is because of non-use. There is 
hyperesthesia of the skin, so that a slight touch causes more pain than 
deep pressure. The stiffness of the joint is produced by muscular rigid- 
ity. This muscular rigidity is apparently involuntarily produced, and 
the limb may be in any position of extension or flexion. The position of 
the thigh is changed at different times. The skin is usually cool, but 
may become hot at certain periods, when the pain is more excruciating. 
The pain is more in the nature of a neuralgia. The phenomena attend- 
ing this disease are not all confined to the affected joint. There are 
other conditions which indicate that the subject is neurotic. There 
is evidence of neurasthenia, convulsions, globus hystericus, or other 
nervous disorders. On the whole, the general health of the patient is 
good. The hysterical joint simulates, correctly or incorrectly, a certain 


Radiograph by George M. Laughlin, D. O. 

Radiograph showing white swelling of the knee joint. Infection followed vaccination. The case 
is of one year's standing in a~boy fourteen years of age. Abscesses formed and the 
tibia, patella and the femur are affected. The prognosis is good. 


affection, only as the patient understands the symptoms of the disease 
so simulated. The physician will likely observe that the symptoms dis- 
appear when the attention of the attendant is attracted elsewhere. This 
may not always be true. 

Treatment. — The treatment consists in reducing whatever lesion may 
be found along the spine. Where partial dislocations are present, the 
reduction of these relieve the impinged nerves and will give instant re- 
lief, and the patient may be permanently cured. The application of local 
remedies and treatment will do no good. 

Neuralgia of Joints. — The term "Neuralgia of a joint" applies to 
those conditions described in texts as "obscure pains within the joint." 
Pains do not arise de novo. The presence of neuralgia simply indicates 
that there is a nerve impinged somewhere. The location of this pressure 
upon the nerve can be accurately determined by proper physical exam- 
ination. There is no excuse for labeling a case of sublux- 
ation which may give rise to a terrific pain, idiopathic neuralgia of the 
joint. Neuralgia of the joint is an impingement of the nerve of the 
joint without inflammatory reaction. Eeduction of the subluxation re- 
lieves the condition. 

Acute Rheumatic Arthritis, or Acute Rheumatism. 

This is an acute febrile reaction, characterized by an inflammation 
and a fluid effusion in the joints, together with acid sweats and a general 
interference in the metabolism of the body. The disease begins with 
malaise and fever, when one or more joints may be affected. Where joints 
are simultaneously affected, they are apt to be symmetrical, or after the 
inflammation subsides in one joint, it is apt to reappear in another 
(metastasis). When the inflammation begins it is evidenced by a burning 
and pricking pain within the joint. The swelling is often considerable. 
The joint is hot, red, and stiff, and there may be considerable effusion. 
As soon as the fluid effusion is sufficient to separate the inflamed sur- 
faces of the synovial membrane, the pain more or less disappears, when 
in several days inflammation subsides, and finally disappears. 
Suppuration rarely, if ever, takes place. The disease is at- 
tended by pronounced anemia, and the exhaustion is very great. The 
sweat is markedly acid, the urine scanty, highly colored, and highly 
acid. Diseases of the heart, such as endocarditis, pericarditis, or myo- 
carditis, frequently result from the circulation of this changed condi- 
tion of the blood, apparently brought about by the presence of the 
rheumatism. Occasionally cases are found in which there is a condition 
of hyperpyrexia. 

Treatment. — The treatment consists in removing lesions affecting the 
kidneys and liver, or in stimulating the function of these organs, thus 
eliminating the poisons retained in the system. Other bony lesions 
directly affecting the joints inflamed must be removed. The contractions 
of the- fascia, ligaments, and connective tissues about the joints, must 


be relaxed. The lesions are not constant and should be searched for in 
any given case. The most essential point is to keep the eliminative 
organs active and the patient well nourished. 

Chronic Rheumatic Arthritis. 

Occasionally this disease is the result of an acute attack, but more 
often it arises from other conditions. Associated with this disease are 
exposure to cold and damp weather, poverty, and hardships. It seems 
that the tendon-sheaths and the joint-capsules are more or less con- 
gested and inflamed, and there may be effusions into the joint. 
Conditions simulating chronic rheumatism, such as painful joints, are 
frequently due to spinal lesions, subluxations, muscular con- 
tractions, partial dislocations of the hip, involvement of the peripheral 
nerves, etc. In pronounced cases of chronic rheumatism, affecting sev- 
eral joints, there is a general tendency to the formation of fibrous tissue. 
The joints become thickened and enlarged, and the muscles atrophy. 
The contraction of these inflammatory tissues which form about the 
joint, results in erosions of the articular ends of the bones and in great 
deformity. Sometimes this deformity may be frightful. 

Symptoms. — The joints are enlarged, painful, and stiff. Changes 
of the weather, dampness, cold, etc., seem to aggravate the condition. 
Only one joint may be involved, but usually several are implicated. 
Effort at motion causes crackling In the joint and false crepitus. This 
may be within the joint itself, or along the tendon-sheaths, and is pro- 
duced by the roughened condition of the tendons gliding in the sheaths 
or the roughened ends of the bones scraping over each other. Complete 
ankylosis may take place in the joints. There is great wasting of the 
muscles, with profound anemia. There is little tendency to pus forma- 
tion, although suppuration and caseation sometimes. form a disagreeable 
complication. There is little or no tendency towards recovery. 

Treatment. — In this disease, bony lesions are the rule. The removal 
of these lesions will be attended by a cessation of the pain. Where 
fibrous tissues have formed extensively, and there is persistent contrac- 
tion of muscles, not much can be done, especially if the case is of old 
standing. Nature does not have suificient recuperative power. Eesorption 
of the fibrous tissues will not take place, and degenerative changes are 
apt to occur in the tendons, muscles, and ligaments. 

Gouty Arthritis, Rheumatic Gout. 

This disease arises in the tarsal and metatarso-phalangeal 
articulations of the feet and hands. It is maintained that, 
the disease is caused by the deposit of the urates of sodium 
in the periarticular structures. This chemical irritant excites 
the inflammation leading to the infiltration of the connective tissues 
about the joint by granulation tissue. This afterward is converted 


into fibrous tissues, when contraction, with consequent deformity, arises. 
The mobility of the joint is lessened. Sometimes the deposit of the 
urates may be sufficiently large as to cause chalk-stones. Premonitory 
signs are not the rule, but in some cases they may be observed. The 
seizure is acute and occurs in the morning when the patient 
is asleep. He is aroused by excruciating pains in the metatarso-phalan- 
geal articulations (usually the great toe), the joint becomes swollen, 
painful, and hot to the touch. There may be considerable fever. The 
intensity of the seizure usually abates within a short time, whereas 
a recurrence, often with renewed violence, happens the following morn- 
ing. These attacks recur with varied intensity for several days (six to 
ten), when the disease subsides. Unless the person gets en- 
tirely rid of the cause of the disease, and the system is more or less 
regenerated, subsequent attacks will lead to a chronic condition, in 
which there may be great deformity and stiffness of the joint. In some 
cases, ulceration takes place, and these chalk-stone deposits may be ex- 
foliated. The disease arises in people who eat highly concentrated and 
highly seasoned foods, and who have been addicted to the use of stimu- 
lants. It is attended by hypertrophy of the heart and increased arterial 

Treatment. — The treatment is directed toward removing lesions, 
causing a retention of these urates and to reducing subluxations of the 
affected joints. Lesions affecting the kidneys are responsible for most 
of the mischief. When these are removed, and the kidneys act nor- 
mally, the irritating deposits are absorbed and eliminated. The sub- 
luxations of the bones forming the affected joints, as the phalanges and 
metatarsal, and tarsal, should be adjusted. The circulation to the 
affected part must be improved and the inflammatory products absorbed. 
Eelief may be given almost at once by this means. The prognosis is 
favorable. The system must be renovated and the patient placed on a 
plain, wholesome diet, and stimulants must be avoided. 

Osteo-Arthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, or Arthritis Deformans 
(Paget's Disease). 

This is a progressive disease, which leads to great deformity, and, 
oftentimes, to complete impairment of the function of the joint. One 
of the marked peculiarities of the disease is that it is attended by a great 
deal of destruction of the cartilages, enlargement and alteration in the 
articular ends of the bones, and the formation of osteophytes in the 
fibrous tissue about the joint. Because of the formation of the fibrous 
tissue and the erosions of the ends of the bones, great shortening of 
certain bones, such as the phalanges and metacarpal bones of the 
thumb, may occur. The joints of the extremities are most frequently 
involved, although it may affect the spine or lower jaw. 

Causes. — Exposure to cold, lesions affecting the central nervous sys- 
tem, or the roots of the spinal nerves, and a general depressed condition 
of the nervous system, are believed to be the causes of the disease. 


Pathology. — Inflammatory changes take place in and about, the 
joints, - cartilages, ligaments, synovial membranes, etc., leading to 
fibrosis. The cartilages become eroded and cracked, and by friction on 
each other, gradually wear away. The pathological process is essen- 
tially that of fibrosis, together with a softening of the matrix of the 
cartilage and the absorption of its elements. It is claimed by some that 
the process is one of ulceration, but this is hardly true. The changes 
taking place in the synovial membrane are similar to those which occur 
in chronic synovitis. Some fluid effusion takes place in the joint. This 
comes from the congestion of the synovial membrane and the edematous 
condition of the villus-like processes and fringes of the synovial sac. 
Sometimes these processes become detached and form loose bodies with- 
in the joint. Occasionally cartilages entirely disappear, and because of 
the ends of the bones rubbing together, they become hard and polished 
(eburnated) and look like porcelain. This solid condition of the bone 
is likely due to the development of bony lesions within the Haversian 
canals and the cavities within the bone. In some cases, erosions take 
place before the development of such osseous tissues can take place, 
when the end of the bone presents a honey-combed appearance. Ossi- 
fication may take place in the tendons and the connective: tissues about 
the joint. 

Symptoms. — The following symptoms will be sufficient to determine 
the disease early. First, a rapid action of the heart, together with vaso- 
motor disturbances, resulting in an increased arterial tension. Second, 
trophic conditions, clue to the affection of the central nervous system, 
together with a clamminess of the skin and a bronzing of certain areas. 
Pain is especially marked along the inside of the wrist and over the ball 
of the thumb. There is characteristic creaking of the joints as in rheu- 
matism, and the pain is increased upon motion of the affected parts. 
Loose bodies are detected outside of the joints. The' margins of the 
joints are not only thickened, but bulge out; the center of the bone 
is absorbed, while the margins of the articular surfaces become thick- 
ened, because of ossific deposit. Motion is limited and deformity is 
usually great. 

Treatment. — The treatment is directed first 'to removing the spinal 
lesions affecting the nerve roots supptying the affected joint. Any 
lesions affecting the central nervous system must be removed. The 
treatment of the joint itself is directed toward encouraging the circu- 
lation and nutrition. Eesorption of the fibrous tissue must- be secured 
before a cure is obtained. The prognosis, especially in old cases, should 
be guarded. 

Charcot's Disease, or Neuropathic Arthritis. 

This disease is a peculiar affection of the joints attending the course 
of certain nervous diseases, especially locomotor ataxia. The exciting 
cause of the disease may be injury, but the chief cause seems to be cer- 


tain lesions of the spine or certain diseases of the nervous system, which 
bring about the changes in the joint. The disease seems to be charac- 
terized by lightning-like pains, and with more or less effusion into the 
joint of light colored serum, which may diffuse into the surrounding 
bursae, causing marked enlargements and deformity. It is said, in some 
cases, that the distension of the joint may be so rapid as to cause dis- 
location. The joints most frequently affected are the hip, shoulder, and 
knee. In some cases, the fluid effusion is entirely absorbed, and the joint 
returns to its normal size, although, apparently, it is considerably 
weakened. Sometimes the attacks recur, and the patient becomes still 
more crippled. In certain cases, it may so weaken the ligaments and 
perivascular structures as to leave a condition of flail-joint. Osseous 
outgrowths are not unusual, and, in continued cases, this will lead to 
stillness of the joint. Where the disease runs a chronic course, hyper- 
trophy of the periarticular structures, and erosion of the ends of the 
bones, is the rule. Some cases resemble osteo-arthritis, but the rapidity 
of the onset, together with but one joint being affected, the general ab- 
sence of pain, subsequent atrophy of the ends of the bones, and the 
presence of flail-joints, will serve to enable one to make the diagnosis. 
Treatment. — The treatment is directed towards removing the spinal 
lesions affecting the cord and nerve roots supplying the joint. Unless 
further pathological change in the nervous system can be arrested, and 
a better nerve supply to the joint can be secured, the prognosis will be 
unfavorable. If seen early, the locomotor ataxia can be cured. In bad 
cases, it may be arrested. Usually this will serve to arrest further 
joint involvement. 

Loose Bodies in Joints. 

Loose bodies in joints consist of several varieties, which may be clas- 
sified as f oIIoavs : 

1. Masses of articular cartilages, which have been broken off by vio- 
lence, and which, by friction, have been worn off into rounded, smooth 
masses. There may be a nucleus of bone within the center. 

2. "Melon seed-like" bodies, the result of fibrinous exudates. 

3. Occasionally the villus-like fringes of the synovial membrane be- 
come detached, or worn off, and form loose bodies, which have been 
described by some as being fetal residue. 

4. Certain portions of bone may become detached from the sur- 
rounding bone, and become covered with cartilage, and exist as foreign 
bodies. These foreign bodies are nourished by nutritious fluids, by which 
they are surrounded. The diagnosis of these loose bodies may occasion- 
ally be difficult. In the knee-joint, they must be differentiated from 
displaced semilunar cartilages. The fact that the joint locks in certain 
positions, would indicate a loose body. 

Treatment. — If the foreign body is a serious obstacle to the mobility 
of the joint, it should be removed by a surgical operation. 



Ankylosis is a condition of immobility, partial or complete, of a 
joint. It usually results from, inflammation. 

Varieties. — (1) false, (2) true, (3) fibrous, and (4) bony. 

False Ankylosis is a term applied to that form of stiff joint or anky- 
losis which arises from changes without the capsule and among the 
ligaments, tendons, etc., around the joint. Cicatricial contraction in 
the skin, and formations of fibrous tissue between the tendons and their 
sheaths, as occur in palmar abscess, are examples of false ankylosis. 

True Ankylosis is caused by changes within the joint-capsule, 
and is the result of inflammation or injury. It is the result of the 
formation of fibrous tissue, or because of osseous deposits, which bind 
together the articular ends of otherwise movable bones. 

Fibrous Ankylosis (incomplete) may be either false or true, and is 
the result of thickening cr contraction of the ligaments (as happens in 
rheumatic conditions), or of the formation of fibrous bands, or adhe- 
sions, between the ends of the bones (as occurs in synovitis), or in 
erosion of the cartilages, the result of inflammation, and the subsequent 
formation of fibrous bands between the cartilages. Some motion is 
possible in the majority of the cases, although the joints may 
be entirely fixed. 

Bony Ankylosis (complete), sometimes called synostosis, is developed 
from the union of the whole, or part of the opposing surfaces of two 
bones, from which the cartilages have become eroded and destroyed. 
The union is at first fibrous, but afterwards ossification takes place. 

Causes. — The causes of ankylosis are various, but may be enumerated 
as follows: 

1. Injury involving the articular surfaces of a joint, the injury being 
sufficient to destroy the cartilages. 

2. Eheumatic or gouty inflammations, which result in the progres- 
sive formation of fibrous tissue about the joints. 

3. Erosions of the articular surfaces, the result of acute or chronic 
suppurative conditions. 

4. Certain nervous disorders, such as spina bifida, locomotor ataxia, 
peripheral neuritis, Raynaud's disease, or operations on nerves. 

5. Subluxations. The abnormal relations of the bones operate as a 
source of irritation. Subsequent formation of fibrous tissues may occa- 
sion more or less fibrous ankylosis. 

Diagnosis. — It is of the utmost importance to determine whether the 
case is one of true, or bony, ankylosis. The history of the case will deter- 
mine whether the ankylosis is the result of extensive injury, such as 
fracture in the joint, or if it is the result of suppuration within the 
joint. In such cases, the ankylosis will be bony. It is of importance 
to determine whether there was much abnormality of position or rela- 
tion of the bones at the time ankylosis occurred. The more abnormal 


the position, the greater will be the irritation, and the worse the anky- 
losis. Dislocations, complicating fractures, will often lead to extensive 
callus formation and the ankylosis will most likely be complete. 

Treatment. — When the inflammatory reaction has not 'been severe, 
or within the joint, the prognosis is favorable, even though there is no 
motion whatever in the joint. All cases, except bony ankylosis, may be 
benefited. If not entirely cured, very great improvement may be ob- 

The treatment consists of persistent manipulative efforts to break 
up the old adhesions, and secure resorption of the connective tissue ele- 
ments forming the adhesions and thickening the joint structures. Vig- 
orous efforts once or twice a week, kept up for a period of from one 
month to two years, should cure all cases. Bony ankylosis is incurable. A 
surgical operation will do no good. Anesthesia is not necessary to break 
up the adhesions in false ankylosis, unless it is done at one treatment. 
It is better to break up the adhesions gradually, as less pain results, and 
there is no danger to the joint. The patient should be instructed to use 
the joint as much as possible, consistent with comfort and good health. 


A dislocation is a partial or complete separation of the articular sur- 
faces of two bones which normally should be in apposition. In fact, any 
displacement, however slight, whether or not accompanied by injury to 
the ligaments or other articular structures, constitutes a dislocation. 
Without doubt, in many cases, such abnormality of relation exists. 
This abnormality of relation comes under the head of partial disloca- 

Varieties. — Dislocations are divided with reference to degree into 
partial and complete. 

1. Partial or Incomplete dislocation is a condition in which the artic- 
ular surfaces of two bones, which should normally be in relation, are 
partly separated, but not sufficiently, as a rule, to rupture the liga- 
ments. This variety of dislocation is more common than any other. 
They are caused by slight external violence and muscular action. 
The effects of the dislocation are often overlooked, inasmuch 
ns they may be slight at first. Where the bones continue in abnormal 
rehtion, structural and functional changes are set up. Dr. A. T. Still 
di-covered the relation between these subluxations and disease. He 
proved beyond question that subluxations will affect nerve and blood 
supply directly, or reflexly through the vasomotors. The nutrition of 
some structure is interfered with, when inflammation, degeneration, 
atrophy, tumefaction, etc., result. A reduction of these subluxations 
is attended by a cessation of the diseased symptoms and a return to 
health. This has formed the foundation of the science of osteopathy. 
These subluxations are more common in the spine than in any other 
•virt of the body. Subluxation of a vertebra may be anterior, posterior, 


lateral, or it may consist of a twisting of the bone on the axis of its 
body. Any of these lesions will cause pressure on the spinal nerve 
roots, Or interfere with the blood supply to the cord itself. This con- 
stitutes the most important causative agent in the production of disease. 
Similar luxations of other bones, as the ribs, bones of the pelvis, thigh, 
leg, ankle, foot, clavicle, humerus, forearm, wrist and hand, may occur. 
In any case, disease production will depend upon whether a nerve, 
artery, or vein is compressed, or if there is an obstruction to the flow of 
the fluids in the tissues, thereby partially, or completely, arresting the 
nutrition. Therefore, certain lesions will be found uniformly associated 
with certain diseases. They constitute the underlying cause, rendering 
bacterial action, fermentative, and other destructive processes possible. 

2. Complete dislocation is one in which the articular surfaces of two 
bones are entirely separated from each other. 

3. Simple dislocation is one in which there is no wound leading to 
the surface. 

4. Compound dislocation is one in which there is a wound leading 
into the joint, in addition to the articular surfaces of the bones being 

5. Complicated dislocation is one which is attended by fracture or 
laceration of the soft-parts, rupture of an artery, great injury to a 
nerve, etc. 

6. Recent dislocation is one which is not sufficiently old to permit 
of the formation of fibrous adhesions which bind the ends of the bones 
down in an abnormal position. 

7. Old dislocation is one which has been standing for some months. 
The inflammatory signs have disappeared, and fibrous adhesions have 
formed about the head of the bone, binding it down in an abnormal 

8. Habitual dislocation is one occurring in a joint in which the con- 
ditions are such as to predispose to a dislocation, as a rent in the cap- 
sule not having healed, and the joint cavity being shallow, dislocation 
takes place readily. 

9. Congenital dislocation is one which happens because of a lack of 
development of the joint cavity, or the articular end of the bone, or 
because luxations have occurred in utero. 

10. Spontaneous dislocation, or pathological dislocation, is one re- 
sulting from slight injury or disease of the joint. 

11. Traumatic dislocation is one which is caused by injury. 

Congenital Dislocations. 

Congenital dislocations should not be confounded with those occur- 
ring at delivery, as they are not properly congenital. 
The causes of congenital dislocations are : — 
1. Malformation of the joint. 


Radiograph by George M. Laughlin, D. O. 

Radiograph (posterior view) of a congenital dislocation of the left hip in a girl aged 
ten years. Note the malformation of the acetabulum and the smallness of 
the femur. To effect reduction a radical operation is required. 
The prognosis is doubtful. Several months' treat- 
ment established good motion. 


2. "Violence in Utero. These dislocations nearly always take place at 
the hip, but may occur in the shoulder. The causes are obscure. Without 
doubt, they sometimes follow injury. Because of the fact that sometimes 
the head of the bone is too large for the cavity, i. e., the head of the bone 
develops and the cavity does not, or that the cavity is poorly developed, 
or the head of the bone malformed, leads to the belief thal^ it is one of 
the results of lesions of the nervous system. Quite likely lesions of the 
spine bring about this condition, these lesions having been produced by 
certain positions or injuries in utero. 

Condition of the Joint. — The most universally present condition is 
that the head, of the bone is malformed, or, if the head is of proper size 
and shape, the joint cavity is too small. There is marked atrophy of the 
muscles, and if the child has attained some age, a new cavity has formed 
where the head of the bone rests, which, in case of the hip, is on the 
dorsum of the ilium. The patient has a waddling gait, and if only one 
hip is involved, there is marked shortening, and when both are affected, 
there is marked lordosis of the spine. In a grown person, a new 
capsule has been formed, a new articular surface, and the head of the 
bone is rounded off so as to fit the abnormal conditions. 

Treatment. — The treatment of congenital dislocation varies 
according to the age of the patient and the conditions present. Usually 
the case can be successfully treated before the age of ten years, but 
after that, not much can be clone. In some cases, even afterward, the 
condition of the limb may be greatly improved by treatment, but the 
dislocation can not, as a rule, be reduced. The methods of reduction 
are the same as used in recent dislocations. Where shortening of the 
mnscles has occurred, they will require stretching, and perhaps ruptur- 
ing, to permit of reduction. Some months of energetic treatment may 
be required to prepare the muscles and other structures for the opera- 
tion of reduction. The hip should be manipulated twice a week until 
such time as it is believed reduction may be made. In some cases, the 
dislocation may be reduced by the ordinary methods and a good result 
obtained. In these cases, there is a good socket, and the head of the 
femur is nearly normal. Where there is a malformed saucer-shaped 
socket, even if reduction can be made, the dislocation will recur. It is 
necessary to hold the femur in place by a stiff dressing, such as a plaster 
cast. In many of these older cases, it will be necessary to rupture the 
adductors before reduction can be made. As little injury to the soft 
parts should be done as is compatible with reduction. In general, a 
modification of the Lorenz method is best. An essential feature of the 
treatment is to secure a good blood and nerve supply to the joint, so 
that development of the muscles, ligaments, and joint structures, may 
be encouraged. 

Lorenz's Method. — Lorenz devised what he has styled a bloodless 
method of reducing congenital dislocations of the hip, in contradis- 
tinction to the open method of division of the muscles, tendons, liga- 
ments, etc., with the knife, and subsequently replacing the bone. It is 


far from a bloodless method, and is condemned by many surgeons as 
brutal and in many cases harmful. The limb is forcibly abducted and 
the shortened adductors are torn asunder. All ligaments, or other 
structures, are torn or stretched by forcibly dragging down the limb. In 
some cases, a block is used as a fulcrum above and the thigh forcibly ab- 
ducted, thus compelling the head of the bone to enter the cotyloid cav- 
ity. The limb is then fixed in extreme abduction by a plaster cast. 
After several months a new cast is applied and the limb put in about 
50 degrees of abduction and 45 degrees of flexion. The patient is then 
encouraged to walk. After several months more, this cast is taken off 
and the limb straightened. The treatment, when modified and supple- 
mented by osteopathic methods, is less harmful and more successful. 

Pathological or Spontaneous Dislocations 

Are those which occur with slight force, insufficient in the average 
case to bring about dislocation. The conditions which render these 
dislocations possible are: — 1. A weak condition of the ligaments and a 
relaxed capsule. 2. Nature of the joint, which may not be thoroughly 
developed. 3. Chronic synovitis. 4. Tubercular disease. 5. Eheuma- 
toid arthritis. 6. Typhoid fever. 7. Charcot's joint. 8. Locomotor 
ataxia. 9. Any irregularity in the cavity or head of the bone. 

Dislocations, especially in typhoid fever, may take place (usually on 
the dorsum of the ilium) without the attending physician knowing any- 
thing about it, unless examination especially for this condi- 
tion be made. A careful examination should occasionally be 
made during the course of this disease, to determine if a dis- 
location has occurred. A reduction is usually easy, if at- 
tempted early. Later, a reduction may be extremely diffi- 
cult. Fluid effusions in the joint may lift the head of the bone 
out, or so relax the capsule that dislocations follow. Tubercular 
disease brings about fluid effusion in the joint, and by thickening of the 
ends of the bones, muscular contractions in certain positions will draw 
the head of the bone from its articular surface. In most cases of tuber- 
cular disease, dislocation, either partial or complete, is the rule. In 
rheumatoid arthritis, because of the formation of fibrous adhesions and 
a consequent contraction, dislocations occur. 

Traumatic Dislocations 

Are those following injury. The causes are, predisposing, 
and exciting. 

The predisposing causes are: (1) Age. (2) Sex. (3) Muscular de- 
velopment. (4) Occupation. (5) Kind of joint. (6) Location of the 
joint. (7) Diseases of bone, joint, and ligaments. (8) Weakness of liga- 
ments, etc. 

Dislocations are most common in middle life, and more common in 
men than women, because of their occupations. Persons of great liius- 


> v 

So 3 


c =s a 


cular development are more liable to dislocations, because of the vigor- 
ous muscular action. People of certain occupations are more lia- 
ble to dislocation than those of others, it being necessary for them to 
take greater risks. Dislocations are more common in ball-and-socket 
joints than in hinge -joints. Diseases, because they affect the integrity 
of the ligaments, the amount of fluid within the joint, and sometimes 
the contour of the articular ends, predispose to dislocations. Some 
joints, because of their exposed position, are more liable to luxation. 
In atonic conditions, and in certain spinal lesions, the integrity of the 
ligaments may be affected to that extent that dislocation may occur. 
The ligaments require a nerve supply as well as do muscles, skin, ar- 
teries, and other structures, and any interference in the nerve or blood 
supply of these ligaments will necessarily interfere with their integrity. 
Weakness of the ligaments is a predisposing cause to traumatic dislo- 
cations, but more especially to partial dislocations. 

The exciting causes are external violence and muscular contraction. 
External violence may be direct, or indirect. All of the causes may 
operate at the same time to produce dislocation. Deformity is the 
result of muscular contraction, tension upon the ligaments, and exten- 
sion of the dislocating force. 

State of the Parts in Dislocation. — Usually there is more or less 
laceration of the ligaments and of the capsule of the joint. There may 
be no laceration of the capsule, or the opening may be small, or large. 
When the opening in the capsule is small, it may operate as an impedi- 
ment to reduction. When there is no laceration of the capsule, re- 
duction is easy. It is only in conditions of lax capsule that 
will permit of complete dislocation without laceration of the capsule. 
There may be extensive injury to the soft-parts, such as rupture of 
muscles, tendons, nerves, or of large vessels. This injury sometimes 
operates as a complication, and may be of such severity as to demand 
operative interference. 

Later Changes. — Should the dislocation not be reduced soon after 
its occurrence, inflammation will arise because of the irritation. This 
inflammation results in the formation of fibrous tissue. This fibrous 
tissue will be in the nature of adhesions about the ends of the bones. 
The inflammation may be sufficient to fill the socket which the bone 
normally occupied. The joint cavity will not be obliterated 
unless the inflammation is suppurative, when there may be 
erosion and destruction of the cartilages. Sometimes this inflam- 
mation and the pressure of the surrounding tissues cause the forma- 
tion of a compact capsule, which will hold the bone in abnormal posi- 
tion. In very old cases, a new socket may be formed, while the old 
socket may still be good, but be filled with fibrous tissue, which of itself 
will operate as an obstacle to reduction. The muscles about the joint 
will atrophy "because of non-use, and will be bound down because of the 
inflammation and the formation of the adhesions. Because of the 


spasms which result from irritation, the muscles become perma- 
nently contracted and shortened. The ligaments undergo changes and 
become shortened, and in some cases weakened, and in other cases 
thickened. It may be that a fairly good joint will be formed in the 
new situation of the head of the bone. In old standing cases where 
a fairly good new joint is formed, and the history of the case indi- 
cates that there has been severe inflammation which would likely ob- 
literate the joint structures, or at least interfere with their integrity, 
it may be advisable to not attempt reduction. In the treatment of all 
these old standing dislocations, even if the dislocation is not reduced, 
treatment will always be followed by benefit. 

Signs. — The signs of dislocation may be classified as follows: (1) 
Pain of a nauseating or sickening nature. (2) Alteration in the general 
outline of the joint. (3) Rigidity of the muscles about the joint, which 
is increased on effort of the surgeon to manipulate the limb. (4) 
Change in relation of the bony prominences about the joint, as in dis- 
locations of the humerus, the greater tuberosity is not found a little 
below and external to the acromion, as occurs normally. (5) Altera- 
tion in the length of the limb. In some cases there may be shortening, 
in other cases, lengthening of the limb. (6) Alteration in the axis of 
the limb. (7) The head of the bone may be felt in an abnormal position. 
(8) The head of the bone can not be felt in its normal cavity. (9) Loss 
of function, which is more or less complete. Where the 
diagnosis is impossible, or the signs are obscure, an x-ray examination 
should be made to determine, if possible, the nature of the injury. 

Methods of Examination. — To determine whether or not a disloca- 
tion exists, or to definitely make out the pathological condition in the 
joint, an accurate knowledge of the anatomy of i^he part and the rela- 
tion of the structures is necessary. The relation of the bony promi- 
nences and of the tendons, muscles, etc., must be observed. The 
examination should be complete and methodical. All available signs 
should be taken into consideration, and an effort should be made to 
determine the relation of each structure in turn. An accurate history 
of the injury should be obtained. The nature of the deformity should 
be considered, and whether or not it has recurred. A dislocation may 
be mistaken for a sprain, for effusions in the joint, or for fracture. 
Where the condition can not be made out, and there is too much swell- 
ing, antiphlogistic measures may be used to get rid of the inflamma- 
tion and swelling, so an accurate diagnosis can be made. Where the 
parts are painful, it is better to administer an anesthetic and make a 
complete and careful examination. If a dislocation exists, it should be 
reduced at once. When it is possible, an x-ray examination should be 
made, which may lead to a diagnosis. Furthermore, when luxations 
occur, if they are reduced, usually they will not recur. Deformity 
from other injuries may recur. 

Treatment. — (1) The luxation should be reduced. (2) The bones 

I k5 

nf .2 - 

Hi Jj 

5 5 


should be maintained in a normal position until the capsule of the joint 
heals and the ligaments return to their normal condition. 

Methods of Reduction.— A. Manipulation. — In general, this con- 
sists of : — 

1. Adduction. 4. Extension. 

2. Abduction. 5. Rotation. 

3. Flexion. 6. Circumduction. 

Or any combination of these movements which have for their pur- 
pose : 

(a) To relax tense muscles, tendons, ligaments, etc. 

(b) To disengage any bony prominence or the head of the bone. 

(c) To direct the luxated bone so that it will return to its articula- 
tion over the same route by which it got out. That this manipulation 
may be properly executed, it is very necessary that the anatomical 
relation of the structures be understood; furthermore, what muscles 
or ligaments are put on a stretch, or what structures operate against 
reduction. The reasons why manipulative methods are more successful 
in the hands of some operators -than others, is because they more thor- 
oughly understand the condition of the parts. This method is by all 
means best, because it is attended by little or no injury. That it will 
be successful in all cases, if attempted within a reasonable length of 
time, is proven by osteopathic methods and results. 

B. Extension and Counter-extension. Extension and counter-exten- 
sion should be used only as a demur resort. This contemplates forcibly 
dragging the bone into the normal position, regardless of the way in 
which it got out. Great harm has been caused by this method of 
reducing dislocations, and as we better understand the anatomy of the 
joints, and the morbid conditions of dislocations, the more we will use 
manipulative methods. The old method of reducing a dislocation of the 
humerus under the coracoid process was to put the unbooted foot in 
the axilla and make traction on the arm, forcibly dragging the bone 
into the socket. Now we have better methods, although this method 
may be used with great advantage sometimes. Ofttimes extension and 
counter-extension can be used with great advantage with manipulation. 
It is of service many times in breaking up adhesions in old standing 
dislocations. Extension and counter-extension is made by the hands or 
by a clove-hitch, by weight and pulley, or by hooks. The hooks are 
fastened into one of the fragments, in case of fracture, and by this 
means traction can be made. 

After Treatment. — The limb should be kept quiet until the opening 
in the capsule has had an opportunity to heal. A suitable bandage 
should be applied and the parts allowed rest. 

Compound Dislocations. 

Compound dislocations are those in which not only the bone is dis- 
located from its normal cavity, hut there is a penetrating wound into 
the joint. The treatment depends largely upon the state of the 


parts. Operative interference may be necessary. It may require ampu- 
tation or excision, depending largely upon the amount of destruction of 
the bone. Should there be extensive destruction of the bone, and a 
stiff joint would render the limb useless, amputation may be advised. 
The wound should be treated rss an ordinary wound, by the strictest 
asepsis, and provision for drainage. Manipulation should be begun 
early and kept up regularly in order to prevent fibrous adhesion. Some- 
times fairly good results can be obtained in children after extensive 
injury to a joint, especially if manipulation is begun early and kept 
up. As* a rule, in elderly people, true ankylosis of a permanent nature 
will develop if there is extensive injury. 

Old Dislocations. 

When a dislocation has existed for from four to eight weeks, fibrous 
adhesions form around the ends of the bones, the opening in the 
joint capsule close , while other periarticular structures, such as ten- 
dons, arteries, veins, nerves, etc., become bound down in abnormal 
positions. By old methods, the reduction of these dislocations was often 
attended by frightful injury, as evulsion of the limb, or fracture. An 
open cutting method was advised, whereby all impediments to reduction 
were cut and the bone put back in its proper position. This operation 
is also unsuccessful. Hence the question, "How long after the dislocation 
happens may reduction be safely attempted/' was a most important 
one. Here, as in many other instances, the results obtained by 
osteopathic methods are such as to revolutionize the science of surgery. 
Dr. Still has reduced dislocations of the hip of seventeen years' stand- 
ing. Because of his great skill in reducing old dislocations of years' 
standing, when the most eminent practitioners of other schools had 
failed, he has earned a wide and enviable reputation. The methods are 
simple, but require a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the joint 
and periarticular structures. The adhesions should be gradually 
broken up and the ligaments and muscles stretched to permit of 
reduction without injury. In some cases it may require some time to 
thoroughly prepare the joint. In other cases, reduction may be effected 
at once. In general, the manipulative methods are similar to those 
used in recent dislocations. It will be necessary in many cases to pro- 
mote a healthv circulation and nerve supply to the joint to secure 
resorption of the inflammatory tissues before reduction may be safely 
attempted. No definite time may be set down as to when dislocations 
become irreducible. It all depends upon the condition of the tissues 
about the joint and the joint itself. Where too extensive injury has 
taken place, and the tissues will not yield readily to treatment, the 
prognosis is unfavorable. 

Injuries Attending Reduction. — Sometimes, because of the vigorous 
methods used, injury to the articular or periarticular structures will 
occur. These may be classed as: — 



1. Fracture. This is sometimes the result of using the bones as 
levers, or where too great force is used. 

2. Extensive injury of the soft-parts, i. e., injury to nerve, vein, 
artery, muscle, or tendon. 

3. An adhesive or suppurative inflammation may he excited, which 
may bring about ankylosis. 

4. Eupture of the skin and soft-parts, producing a compound condi- 
tion, will render sepsis possible. 

5. Evulsion of the limb. Cases have occurred where such great 
force has been used in traction that a limb has been torn from the body. 
There is no need of any of the above injuries being produced. Dislo- 
cations may be reduced without such barbarous methods. 

Fig. 89. 

Dislocation oi the lower jaw forward. 

Special Dislocations. 

Lower Jaw.— The lower jaw may be dislocated forward or backward 
(very rare). The forward dislocations may be unilateral or bilateral. 
They occur more frequently in women in middle life, and seem to be 
brought on by vigorous efforts at yawning, laughing, and vomiting. 
The condyle is drawn from its normal position, chiefly by the external 
pterygoid muscle. The condyle is usually luxated into the zygomatic 
fossa, while the temporal, masseter, and internal pterygoid muscles 
hold the bone fixed in the abnormal position. 

Signs. — There is a hollow behind the luxated condyle. The mouth 
is permanently wide open, and the saliva dribbles away. The person 
attempts to talk, or to explain the condition, and is unable to because 
of inability to close the mouth. In the unilateral dislocation, there is 
a hollow on but one side of the head and the teeth are out of line. 


Unilateral dislocations are rare. Backward dislocation is questionable, 
and the .symptoms are not worth considering. 

Treatment. — The reduction of dislocation of the jaw is best accom- 
plished by wrapping the thumbs with a handkerchief, so as to protect 
them, and inserting them in the mouth, one on either side. Strong 
pressure is made downward upon the molar teeth, while at the same 
time the operator should lift up on the symphysis by means of the 
fingers. In this manner, the condyles are moved back into the glenoid 
fossa. Should this fail, a cork may be placed between the molar teeth. 
This acts as a fulcrum when pressure is made upward on the symphysis, 
and as the bone is lifted from its position, it may be carried backward 
into the articulation. As a rule, unless the thumbs are wrapped, be- 
cause of the contraction of the muscles when the reduction is accom- 
plished, the operator may have his thumbs wounded. 

Subluxation of the Lower Jaw. 

Subluxation or partial dislocation of the lower jaw may refer to 
one of two conditions. There may be a partial dislocation of the con- 
dyle from the interarticnlar fibro-cartilage, or there may be a subluxa- 
tion of the fibro-cartilage from the eminentia articularis. In either 
case, it may interfere markedly in chewing, so that the person may, on 
effort to close the mouth, find motions of the jaw suddenly arrested. 
In several months, perhaps, this will disappear of itself, or there may be 
permanent difficulty in closing the mouth. The luxation can readily 
be relieved by the proper manipulation. 

Dislocation of the Clavicle. 

The clavicle may be dislocated both at its sternal and acromial ex- 

Sternal Extremity. — Dislocations of the sternal extremity are: 1. 
Forward. 2. Upward. 3. Backward. 

Forward dislocations are produced by falls and blows upon the 
shoulder. Usually the blows are directed backward and the falls for- 
ward, so that the shoulder is driven backward. The sternal extremity 
is tilted forward and is driven on the front of the sternum. 

Signs. — The symptoms are plain. The clavicle makes a marked 
prominence on the front of the sternum. Its relation Avith the sternum 
is impaired. The head of the bone lies over towards the middle line of the 
body. The distance to the acromion process is less than on the sound 
side. The sterno-mastoid and other muscles of the neck are put 
violently upon a stretch. The method of reduction is to place the knee 
in the interscapular space over the spine, and to make traction outward 
and backward on the two shoulders. In this manner, the head of the 
bone is drawn into its normal position. Should this not be successful, 
while an assistant makes traction outward and backward on the 


shoulders, the operator may manipulate the bone and push it into place. 
This injury is best treated by means of a posterior figure-of-8 bandage. 
While the bone is held in position, a gutta-percha splint may be moulded 
to the surface of the body. This, when lightly padded with lint, may 
be bandaged into position. This, in addition to the figure-of-8 bandage, 
will be sufficient to maintain the bone in its normal position. A Vel- 
peau's bandage may also be used. Where there is complete rupture of 
the ligaments, it is difficult to maintain the bone in position, so that 
more or less deformity will result. The original dressing to hold the 
bone in position should be kept on for a period of three or four weeks. 
After that, a dressing which will draw the shoulders backward will 
assist in keeping the bone in position. 

Upward dislocation of the clavicle is very rare. The cause is a fall 
upon the shoulder, which drives the acromial end downward and inward, 
tilting the clavicle upward and inward. The diagnosis is easily made. 
The shoulder falls down and in, and the clavicle makes a marked prom- 
inence in the suprasternal notch. It may be possible that the head of 
the clavicle presses so much upon the trachea that dyspnea will resiilt. 
The dislocation is easily reduced. Extension can be made upon the 
arm outward from the body, and the counter-extending force may 
be made by a sheet passed around the body beneath the arm. As the 
bone is dragged into position, it may be held in situ by means of a 
Velpeau's bandage. A firm pad, or gutta-percha splint, is placed over 
the sterno-clavicular joint. In some cases it may be advisable to wire 
the bone in position. Usually, if the case is seen sufficiently early, a 
good result may be obtained by the application of proper dressings. 

Backward dislocation of the clavicle is rare. The causes are severe 
direct violence. The symptoms are pronounced and urgent. 
There is marked pain, interference in breathing, and dysphagia. The 
shoulder has fallen downward and inward, while there is a depression 
oyer the point where the head of the clavicle should normally be felt. 
Occasionally there may be obliteration of the pulse in the arm, because 
of pressure on the subclavian artery, or there may be great venous 
congestion of the head, because of pressure upon the external jugular, 
and to some extent, upon the internal jugular. The dislocation may 
be reduced by means of traction outward and backward upon the 
shoulders, with pressure by the knee between the scapulae. In 
some cases this method of reduction is said to have failed. Still more 
vigorous traction may be made upward and backward upon the affected 
side. In other rare instances it is said that an operation may be neces- 
sary to remove the end of the clavicle. After reduction, the head of 
the bone may be held in position by a posterior figure-of-8 bandage. 

Acromial Extremity. — Dislocations of the acromial end of the clav- 
icle may be upward or downward. If upward, the clavicle may lie on top 
of the acromion, and if downward, it may lie beneath it. These dislo- 
cations are produced by blows forcing the scapula forward, or by blows 
on top of the clavicle, forcing it downward. 


Signs. — The signs in case of dislocation of the clavicle upward 
are a prominence of the clavicle on top of the acromion; more or less 
impaired function of the arm, as inability to raise the arm. The head 
is usually inclined to the affected side, and there is more or less con- 
traction of the trapezius muscle with an outlining of its clavicular 
border. The arm is apparently lengthened. This dislocation upward 
is reduced by pulling the scapula backward, which can be done by trac- 
tion on the arm and by pressing downward upon the clavicle. By 
former methods considerable- deformity often resulted from this dislo- 
cation. A strip of adhesive plaster, carried around underneath the 
elbow and over the top of the clavicle, may be sufficient to hold the bone 
in proper position. Ehoads's dressing consists of a strap passing un- 
derneath the elbow and over the top of the clavicle, with a second strap 
extending around the chest underneath the axilla, and which is fastened 
to the perpendicular strap, thus preventing it from slipping off. This 
may be buckled sufficiently tight to hold the clavicle in position. In 
reducing a dislocation downward, the clavicle is raised, while the 
scapula is pushed outward and backward. Not much difficulty will be 
experienced in effecting reduction. The same kind of dressing is used 
as in dislocation upward. 

Dislocation of both ends of the clavicle may occur in rare instances 
simultaneously. The treatment would be a combination of the methods 
used in reducing dislocations of the outer and inner extremity. 

Dislocation of the Scapula. 

A condition which was formerly called a dislocation of the scapula, 
as when the lower angle was believed to slip out from under- 
neath the latissimus dorsi muscle, is now considered to be a condition of 
paralysis of the posterior thoracic nerve. Attending this condition will 
be found a vertebral lesion, which if reduced, will result in restoring 
the integrity of the serratus magnus muscle and the apparently luxated 
condition of the scapula will disappear. There are some cases where 
the latissimus dorsi muscle takes a portion of its attachment from the 
scapula, and because of injury, this attachment may be torn loose. In 
this condition, no vertebral lesion will be found. 

Dislocations of the Shoulder-joint. 

Dislocations of the Humerus, both partial and complete, 
are common, because of the exposed condition of the joint, shallowness 
of the glenoid cavity, and, in some cases, because of a relaxed or weak- 
ened condition of the ligaments. These dislocations are most fre- 
quently found in muscular adults. 

Cause. — Falls on the extended arm or elbow, or directly upon the 
shoulder. It may result from twists of the arm, or from muscular 



Varieties. — 1. Subcoraeoid. 2. Subglenoid. 3. Subclavicular. 4. 

Symptoms. — In addition to the general symptoms of dislocation, 
there are certain signs in connection with dislocations of the shoulder, 
which are of great importance, and merit careful consideration. 
(1) Perhaps the most prominent symptom is prominence of the acro- 
mion process, together with (2) flattening of the shoulder. This will 
contrast sharply, when compared with the sound side and the normal 
rotundity of the shoulder. Sometimes this flattening of the shoulder 
will even be exaggerated into a depression beneath the acromion pro- 
cess. It is increased by raising the arm. (3) Change in the axis of the 
bone. (4)Alteration in the length of the limb when compared with the 
sound side. (5) Absence of the greater tuberosity from a little below and 
Fig. 90. Fig. 91. 

Subcoraeoid dislocation of the 

Subspinous dislocation of the 

external to the acromion process. In all cases, unless the condition is 
obvious, the examination should be taken up methodically. 

Tests. — The following tests will be of use in determining the nature 
of the condition in question : 

1. The circumference of the luxated shoulder is at least two inches 
greater than on the sound side. This is determined by passing a tape- 
line underneath the axilla and over the top of the acromion. 

2. Straight edge test (Hamilton's). A straight edge, which touches 
the external condyle and the acromion process, proves that there is a 
dislocation. Normally, it will not touch these two points, because of 
the presence of the greater tuberosity a little below and external to 
the acromion. 

3. Change in the axis of the bone. With the hand on the opposite 
shoulder, the elbow can not be brought in relation with the chest. 

I. In a thin subject, the greater tuberosity may be felt a little below 
and external to the acromion process. 

In doubtful cases, the shoulder should be exposed to the x-rays. 



Subcoracoid Dislocation is more frequent than all other disloca- 
tions of the shoulder. In this injury the head of the bone is 
displaced forward, downward, and inward under the coracoid 
process. The head of the bone rests on the anterior surface 
of the neck of the scapula, just beneath the coracoid process, while 
the groove just back of the head of the humerus rests on the 
anterior margin of the glenoid cavity. The capsular ligament is 
torn at its lower and inner portion. It may be detached from the 
glenoid cavity. The subscapulars muscle is often raised up, or 
partially torn loose, from the anterior surface of the scapula, 
while the muscles which are attached to the greater tuber- 
osity (supraspinous, infraspinatus, and teres minor) are put tightly 

FtCx. 92. 

Fig. 93. 

Subglenoid dislocation of the humerus. 

Subclavicular dislocation of the 

on a stretch. The subscapularis may be torn at its insertion, as 
may also happen with the muscles attached to the greater tuberosity. 
In rare instances, it is said that the greater tuberosity may be detached. 
This dislocation is described by the old writers as intracoracoicl, inas- 
much as the head of the bone rolls underneath the coracoid process. 
In this dislocation, the signs are distinctive ; the head of the bone 
may be seen making a marked prominence on the front of the chest; 
the elbow projects outward and backward; there is shortening of the 
humerus, depending upon how far the head of the bone is displaced 
inward. All the other signs of dislocation of the humerus are present. 

Subglenoid Dislocation. — Next to the subcoracoid, the sub- 
glenoid dislocation is the most common. In this disloca- 
tion, the head of the bone rests upon the anterior border of 
the scapula, below the glenoid cavity. The capsular ligament 


is ruptured in its lower portion, while the muscles attached to the 
greater tuberosity are put violently on a stretch. The deltoid muscle 
may be paralyzed, because of pressure or injury to the circumflex nerve. 
The symptoms of this dislocation are distinctive. In general, all the 
evidences of dislocation of the shoulder are present. There is length- 
ening of the arm, i. e., the distance betAveen the external condyle and 
the acromion process is greater than on the sound side, and, in addition, 
there is a marked depression beneath the acromion process. Tbe head 
of the bone can be felt in the axilla. In a moderately thin subject, a 
marked space of two inches can be felt between the head of the bone 
and the acromion. The elbow is carried away from the side; in some 
cases, it may be directed backward, and in others, forward, depending 
upon the position of the bone. In exaggerated conditions, it is said 
that the elbow will be raised on a level with the head, being neither 
abducted nor adducted — this was formerly called luxatio erecta. 

Subclavicular Dislocation. — Subclavicular dislocation is rather 
rare, and it seems to be but an exaggerated form of the 
subcoracoid dislocation. The head of the bone is carried in- 
ward beyond the coracoid process, underneath the clavicle. The 
capsule is ruptured in the lower and inner part. The head 
of the bone plows up the pectoral muscles and rests on the ribs, 
beneath the clavicle. The subscapularis muscle is torn from its attach- 
ment to the anterior surface of the scapula; it is detached from the 
humerus. The attachments of the muscles to the greater tuberosity are 
more or less torn, but they retain their attachments, as a rule, to the 
capsular ligament. The head of the bone may be seen, making a marked 
prominence, beneath the clavicle. The shaft can be felt in the axilla, 
ami there is marked shortening of the arm. It lies in close relation 
with the chest. The elbow usually projects backward, and a little out- 

Subspinous Dislocation. — Subspinous dislocation is very rare. 
The head of the bone is forced out of the glenoid cav- 
ity, between the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles, and 
rests on the dorsum of the scapula, just beneath the spine, 
in the infraspinous fossa. In some cases, the head of the 
bone will be found just behind, or resting upon the edge of the glenoid 
cavity. The elbow is directed forward and outward. The humerus is 
rotated inward. The head of the bone makes a marked prominence 
on the dorsum of the scapula, while the other signs of dislocation are 
present. In addition to the signs already mentioned, there may be evi- 
dences of injury to the soft tissues. These are evidences of injury 
to the brachial plexus, intense pain or numbness, and even paralysis 
in some cases, or the pressure upon the axillary vein causes intense 
edema of the arm. The axillary arte^ may be compressed to such an 
extent as to obliterate the pulse at the wrist. There may be great effu- 
sion of blood, especially where there is considerable laceration of the 
capsule and other soft tissues about the joint. These severe symptoms 



and the signs of dislocation before mentioned, are not present in condi- 
tions of subluxation or partial dislocation at the shoulder-joint. These 
conditions are common, and are produced by pushing the 
head of the humerus underneath the coracoid process, without ruptur- 
ing the capsule, but with injury to the long head of *the biceps, or the 
long head of the biceps may be luxated from its tendinous groove. 

Fig. 94. 

First step in Kocher's method of reducing anterior dislocations of the 

Treatment. — 1. Kochers method, suitable for anterior dislocations, 
consists of external rotation, adduction, and internal rotation. External 
rotation should be complete, and is performed in order to relax the 
muscles attached to the greater tuberosity. The elbow is then carried 
to the middle line of the body in order to bring the head in relation 
with the opening in the capsule, and, as internal rotation is accom- 
plished, the head of the bone will slip through the rent in 
the capsule without difficulty. 

2. Other manipulative methods are as follows: If the dislocation 
is in the right shoulder, the head of the bone is grasped by the left 



hand, while the elbow is seized with the right hand; the arm, in case 
of an anterior dislocation, is rotated outward, with more or less exten- 
sion from the body. The knee, against the chest wall, may be used as 
a counter-extending force. The head of the bone may be dragged by 
the left hand into the cavity. This manipulation may be modified to 
suit all the dislocations. 

3. Manipulative methods, with extension, may be made with the 
patient sitting in a chair, when the operator's foot is placed on the edge 

Fig. 95. 

Second step in Kocher's method of reducing anterior dislocations of the 

of the chair, with the knee in the axilla. The knee is used as a ful- 
crum, while the arm is seized above the elbow, the humerus being used 
as a lever, when the head of the bone is lifted into the socket. 

4. Extension may be made from the body with counter-extension "by 
means of a towel or sheet passed underneath the axilla. This method, 
may be successful when other methods have failed. 

5. Forcible extension downward. The unbooted foot may be placed 
in the axilla, so as to rest against the lower border of the glenoid cavity, 
and strong traction is made on the arm. Where sufficient grasp can 



not be gotten on the arm, a clove-hiteh may be used around the arm. 
By this means the head of the bone may be forcibly dragged into the 

6. Air-cushion in the axilla. Where the dislocation can not be 
reduced, an excellent treatment is to place an air-cushion in the axilla, 
and bind the arm to the side. This air-cushion may lift the head of 
the bone out of its position, when reduction can easily be effected. In 

Fig. 96. 

Completion of the manipulation in Kocher's method of reducing anterior dis- 
locations of the humerus. 

reducing a dislocation of the shoulder, care should be taken not to in- 
jure the axillary vessels, the brachial plexus, or to fracture the bone. 
The old method of placing the foot against the chest wall, and making 
traction on the arm, has resulted in fracture of the upper ribs. These 
methods are barbarous. Extension by means of pulley and tackle 
should not be used, as it has resulted in severe and extensive injury. 
Milder methods are more successful. All recent dislocations should be 
reduced by manipulative methods. Anesthesia may be necessary, but, 
in nearly all cases, the dislocation may be reduced without it. After 
the dislocation is reduced, a Velpeau's bandage may be applied or the 


arm may be bound to the chest, for a period of three weeks. After the 
first week, manipulation will assist the return of the tissues to their 
normal condition, and, after the third week, the bandage may be 

Eeduction of old dislocations of the shoulder is best effected by 
means of manipulation. Extension under ether is a bad procedure. 
The great mortality of anesthesia, in the reduction of shoulder dislo- 
cations, is brought about by the fact that the chest is compressed and 
respiration interfered with, together with the fact that profound anes- 
thesia is necessary to effect the entire relaxation of the muscles. Such 
vigorous methods are unwarranted. Milder methods will be found 
successful, if persisted in. Manipulation might not be successful at 
first, but it may be successful later. Continued manipulation, 
breaking up of adhesions, relaxing contracted muscles, releasing 
bony prominences, and securing a better circulation to the injured tis- 
sues, all tend to make reduction easier. If the dislocation is compli- 
cated by fracture, an ef- 
fort at reduction should FlG " 97 ' 
be made by traction and 
manipulation of the 
head of the bone. This 
should be done very 
cautiously. If reduction 
is impossible, McBurney 
advises an open incision 
and a hook attached to 
the scapula, with an- 
other hook fastened to Tlie c lov e-hitch applied as a means of making- extension. 

the humerus; by these, 

traction is made, and the dislocation reduced, when the frag- 
ments are subsequently wired together. Usually, there is suf- 
ficient periosteum, which unites the fragments, and the muscular 
attachments are such that the dislocation can be reduced without oper- 
ative procedure. In emergency cases, gimlets have been used to bore 
into the bones and traction made from them. This is hardly warranted. 
Subluxations are reduced by methods similar to those used in com- 
plete dislocations. The condition may return, when subsequent reduc- 
tion is necessary. If the nerve and blood supply to the joint and 
other structures are properly improved, a cure will be effected. 

,, . x . Dislocations of the Elbow, 

v aneties : 

1. Dislocation of both bones (ulna and radius). 

a. Backward, b. Inward, c. Outward, 
d Forward (with fracture of olecranon.) 
e. Ulna backward and radius forward. 

2. Dislocation of the ulna backward. 

3. Dislocation of the radius. 

a. Forward, b. Outward, c. Backward. 


Fig. 98. 

Dislocation of Ulna and Radius Backward. — Causes. — The causes are 
direct and indirect violence, operating together, as falls upon 
the hand or wrenches of the arm. The injury is more frequent in young 
people, and is often accompanied by laceration of the soft-parts. Tne 
injury to the tissues depends somewhat upon the nature of the dis- 

Condition of the Parts. — In dislocation 
backward, (which is the most common 
dislocation at the elbow) there may be, 
at the same time, more or less displace- 
ment of the bones inward or outward. 
As a rule, the coronoid process will be found 
in the olecranon fossa. If the coronoid process 
is not broken off, the attachment of the 
brachialis anticus muscle is, more or less, torn 
loose. The neck of the radius will be found in 
relation with the articular surface of the hu- 
merus. The anterior ligament is nearly always 
torn, while sometimes the lateral ligaments are 
ruptured. The olecranon and the head of the 
radius form a marked prominence on the back 
of the arm, while the lower end of the humerus 
makes a marked prominence below the crease 
at the bend of the elbow. The relation be- 
tween the condyles and the olecranon will be 
found changed. The forearm is fixed, flexed 
and shortened. 

Dislocation of Both Bones Inward is pro- 
duced by falls upon the elbow and forearm. The internal and external 
lateral ligaments are ruptured unless the dislocation is but slight. The 
relation of the condyles and the olecranon will be found changed. The 
outer condyle stands out prominently, while the inner condyle is ob- 
scured by the upper extremity of the ulna lifting up the flexor muscles. 
Tbe upper extremity of the ulna 
will be found to stand out promi- 
nently on the ' inner side of the 
arm, while the head of the ra- 
dius can not be felt. The de- 
formity resulting may be twisted or 

Dislocation of Both Bones Out- 
ward will be evidenced by the mark- 
ed prominence of the inner condyle 
of the humerus, and the prominence 
of theheadof the radius beneath the 
supinator longus on the outside of 
the arm. The relation between the 

Dislocation o f both bones of 
the forearm backward. 

Fig. 99. 

Dislocation of the radius forward and 
the ulna backward at the elbow. 


condyles and the olecranon is altered. There is loss of function, 
and the swelling and elevated muscles more or less obliterate the 
external condyle. 

Dislocation of Both Bones Forward. — In this dislocation, fracture of 
the olecranon process usually takes place, although rare cases have oc- 
curred where there is no fracture, the dislocation having been produced 
by dragging down both bones, and, at the same time, forcing them for- 
ward. In either case, a marked lengthening of the limb, the absence 
of the olecranon process on the back of the humerus, and alteration in 
the relation between the condyles and the olecranon, will serve to make 
the diagnosis. 

Treatment. — Reduction of the backward dislocation is best accom- 
plished by the following methods: 

1. Dr. Still makes traction on the forearm in exaggerated extension, 
the object being to lift the coronoicl process out of the olecranon fossa. 
This method will be found successful in all recent cases. 

2. Some operators use the following method: The front of the 
knee is placed against the front of the elbow-joint; this operates 
as a fulcrum against the upper extremity of the forearm. Traction and 
flexion are made simultaneously, the forearm being used purely as a 
lever. In this way, the coronoicl process is lifted out of the olecranon 
fossa and reduction is accomplished. In dislocations inward, outward, 
or forward, extension and counter-extension are made to overcome the 
rigidity of the muscles and the contracted ligaments, while the operator 
molds the bones into position. The same course should be pursued in 
dislocations of the ulna backward and the radius forward. Where the 
diagnosis can not be made, an x-ray examination should be made, 
if possible. Great swelling is the rule. This swelling ob- 
literates the landmarks about the elbow-joint. Sometimes 
the elbow is so painful that even a superficial examination 
can hardly be made. Tinder no circumstances should the 
patient be treated, except, perhaps, for a few days, to combat the swell- 
ing, unless an accurate diagnosis has been made. The reasons for this 
are that old dislocations of the elbow are difficult to reduce, and the 
great liability of fibrous adhesions impairing the integrity of the joint. 
Perhaps in no other location of the body are injuries attended by worse 
results; still, there are many cases where the severest forms of injury 
have been attended by the most remarkable results, but these cases are 
unusual. In old cases, the family or friends of the patient should be 
notified of its gravity. A too favorable prognosis should not be made. 
The treatment will depend upon the nature of the injury. In eld dis- 
locations of both bones backward, the prognosis is not favorable, 
especially if there has been extensive inflammation following the in- 
jury. The coronoid process will become, as it were, glued into the ole- 
cranon fossa. Fibrous adhesions will prevent reduction. In disloca- 
tions inward, or outward, and both bones forward, or the ulna back- 
ward and the radius forward, reduction can be accomplished better, and 



more readily, and the results are better. In reducing these 
old dislocations, it is necessary to prepare the joint for the operation 
of reduction. . This means that the fibrous tissue must be gotten rid of. 
While the bones may not be gotten into absolutely normal relation, the 
treatment by manipulative methods will be attended by improvement 
of the condition of the joint, x^ot only the range of motion will be 
increased, but the pain will be lessened, and the deformity more or 
less removed, so that the prognosis in old cases is much more favor- 
able where osteopathic methods prevail. 

Dislocation of the Ulna Backward. — This injury is rare and occurs 
because of force directed upon the ulna itself. The most common dis- 
location of the ulna is a condition of subluxation of the upper extremity 
brought about by falls upon the hand, where more or less force is 
directed against the inner side of the arm. The head of the radius is 
used as a fulcrum, while the forearm is adducted. Partial dislocation 
of the upper extremity of the ulna may take place without rupture of 
any of the ligaments. This injury is often overlooked. Eeduction is 
accomplished by exaggeration of the deformity, the thumb being placed 
against the inner border of the coronoid process. While extension with 
abduction and adduction is made, the ulna will be returned to its normal 

Dislocation of the Radius Forward is said to be the most common 
dislocation at the elbow, and is caused by falls upon the hand with the 

arm extended, and the 
Fig. 100. forearm pronated. Some 

writers have maintained 
that forced pronation and 
muscular contraction will 
produce the dislocation. 
The head of the radius 
rests against the front of 
the humerus, the arm is in 
a semi-flexed position, 
while the head of the bone 
can no longer be felt be- 
neath the external condyle. 
The arm may be flexed 
voluntarily, but will come 
to a sudden stop, because 
the head of the bone, being 
drawn upward by the bi- 
c e p s muscle, will be 
brought forcibly against 
the anterior surface of the 
lower extremity of the humerus. At the point beneath the external 
condyle, where the head of the radius should be, there is more or less of 
a hollow. The arm can not be fully supinated, but can be pronated. 

Dislocation of the radius forward at the elbow. 


The diagnosis of the dislocation is difficult, especially in muscular or 
fleshy subjects. The injury may be confounded with fracture of the 
neck of the radius or an epiphyseal separation. 

Differential Diagnosis. — 1. Crepitus. In fracture, crepitus may be 
obtained, while in dislocation, crepitus will be absent, except in case of 
adhesions or roughened conditions of the ends of the bones, when false 
crepitus only will be obtained. 

2. Preternatural mobility. In fracture, preternatural mobility may 
be obtained, by grasping the head of the bone and pronating and supi- 
nating the arm; the head of the bone will be found not to move. In 
dislocation, if the head of the bone can be grasped, it will be found to 
rotate with the shaft of the bone, upon pronation and supination. 

3. Keduction of the fracture will be followed by a return of the 
deformity, whereas, in dislocation, if it is reduced, the deform- 
ity will not return. In epiphyseal separation, where there is not 
much swelling, a sensation as of a foreign body in the joint may be 
obtained and moist crepitus is present. Where the diagnosis is 
clouded, an x-ray examination should be made. Where this is not pos- 
sible, the prognosis should be guarded. Where the diagnosis can not 
be made, the deformity should be reduced and treated as a fracture. 

Reduction of the dislocation is accomplished by extension applied 
more particularly to the radius, while the bone is manipulated into posi- 
tion, or the knee may be used as a fulcrum against the upper part of the 
forearm, as the forearm itself is used as a lever , at the same time, 
more or less extension is made. 

Dislocation of the Radius Backward is produced by falls upon the 
hand in supination. The head of the bone can be readily felt beside 
the olecranon back of the external condyle. The forearm is flexed and 
pronated. The diagnosis is usually easy. While extension is being 
made, the bone is manipulated into position. The knee may be used 
as a fulcrum, as the head of the bone is drawn into position. 

Dislocation of the Radius Outward is rare. The head of the bone is 
displaced to the outer side of the outer condyle, where it makes a 
marked prominence. The head of the bone can be readily felt rotating 
in this position, upon pronation and supination. Potation of the 
radius, together with forced extension, will easily effect reduction. 

Subluxation of the Radius. — Subluxation of the head of the radius 
is a common injury, more frequent in children. It is the result of mus- 
cular action, twisting or traction of the forearm. Various explana- 
tions have been offered for the injury. Some operators say that extension 
and adduction produce the injury, while others say that only extension 
is necessary. In a child, the injury is called "pulled-elbow," and usually 
occurs between two and four years of age. Complete supination or 
falls produce subluxation. The symptoms are various, depending 
upon the amount of displacement and the extent of injury to the liga- 
ments. There is not much deformity at the elbow. Pressure over the 
upner extremity of the radius will cause severe pain. The arm is usually 


flexed at an angle of about sixty degrees. Some movements of the arm 
are painless, while complete extension of the arm causes great 
pain. Complete pronation and supination also cause pain. Forced 
supination will cause a distinct clicking sound. The subluxation can be 
reduced by completely flexing the arm with supination and pronation, 
together with abduction and extension. In some cases the edge of the 
fibro-cartilage will be displaced or slip between the head of the bone 
and the articular surface of the humerus. After reduction has been 
accomplished, it is necessary to put a figure-of-8 bandage around the 
elbow and carry the arm in a sling for a few days until the ligaments 
return to a normal condition. In all dislocations at the elbow 
starch-paste dressing may be put over the joint by means of paste-board 
and a four-tailed bandage and the arm carried in a sling. After the 
preliminary inflammation has disappeared, which will take place within 
a week, the joint may be manipulated every few days, so as to prevent 
ankylosis. Recovery is complete in uncomplicated cases. 

Other peculiar conditions which may occur at the elbow, and which 
may cause pronounced symptoms are: 

1. Slight posterior displacement. 

2. Slight anterior displacement of the head of the radius. 

3. Luxations of the interartieular cartilages. 

4. Locking of the tuberosity of the radius with the inner edge of 
the ulna. 

5. Intracapsular fracture of the head of the radius. 

fi. Paralysis or neuritis of one of the large nerves of the arm brought 
about by injury. « 

The conditions may be made out only by careful physical examina- 
tion by one who has an accurate knowledge of anatomical relations. 
Dislocations of the Wrist are common and may be classified as : 
1. Dislocations forward. 2. Dislocations backward. 

3. Backward luxation of the ulna from the radius. 

4. Forward luxations of the ulna from the radius. 

5. Subluxations. 

Dislocations Backward. — This dislocation is produced by falls upon 
the hands. The carpus stands out prominently on the back of the wrist, 
while the fingers are flexed and the lower extremity of the radius and 
ulna project prominently in front of the forearm. It must be noted 
that the styloid process of the radius is upon a lower level than that of 
the ulna. 

Fracture through the base of the styloid process of the radius 
(Colles's fracture) simulates dislocation of the wrist, but the styloid 
process of the radius is on the same level or higher than that of the 
ulna. There is muscular rigidity and an absence of crepitus. Extension 
and manipulation usually reduce the deformity. 

Dislocations Forward. — In dislocations forward the carpus makes a 
prominence on the front of the wrist, while the ulna stands out prom- 



inently on the back of the forearm. This injury is very rare. Reduction 
is accomplished by extension and counter-extension. 

Dislocation of the Ulna from the Radius, either forward or backward, 
is accomplished by forced supination or pronation, as occurs in violent 
twisting of the hand. In the backward dislocation, the forearm is pro- 
nated and the space between the styloid processes of the ulna and radius 
is diminished. The ulna stands out prominently on the back of the 
wrist. In the forward dislocation, the ulna projects in front, while the 
distance between the two styloid processes may be found lessened. The 
arm is supinated. Reduction is accomplished by traction, exaggeration 
of the deformity, and pressure upon the head of the bone with nexion 
or extension, as the case may be, when it may be readily forced into 

Dislocation of the Carpus. — Dislocation of one of the carpal bones 
may take place because of injur}- or forced movements of the wrist. The 
deformity may not be great, but the involvement of the nerve filaments 
causes great pain. The diagnosis can be made by a careful ex- 
amination. The wenkest point in the wrist is between the scaphoid, 
os magnum, and semilunar bones. Reduction is accomplished by exag- 
geration of the deformity, and pressure upon the projecting bone, with 
forced flexion or extension as the case ma} r require. 

Dislocation of the Metacarpus. — Dislocation of the metacarpal bones 
in their articulation with the carpus is rare. Subluxations are fairly 
common, and when any nerve structures are involved, severe pain is 
the chief symptom. The deformity is not great. 
The first metacarpal bone is the one most frequently 
dislocated. The diagnosis is usually readily made 
upon careful examination. Flexion and extension 
with adduction and abduction, while compres- 
sion is made by the thumb upon the end of the dis- 
located bone, will accomplish reduction. 

Dislocations of the Metacarpophalangeal Articu- 
lations are rare. The dislocation usually takes place 
backward, and is caused by falls on the outstretched 
hand. The diagnosis is made without difficulty. 
Reduction is accomplished by manipulation as ex- 
tension is being made. In only one of these disloca- 
tions will any difficulty be found in making reduc- 
tion, i. e., dislocation of the first phalanx of the 
thumb. This dislocation takes place backward. The 
obstacles to reduction are the margin of the capsu- 
lar ligament, together with a stretched condition of 
the flexor longus pollicis and the sesamoid bones 
developed in the tendons of the flexor brevis pollicis. 
Reduction is accomplished by forced extension and 
lifting the head of the bone into place. Extension 
should be made until the phalanx is at right angles 

Fig. 101. 

Dislocation of the 
first phalanx of the 


with the head of the metacarpal hone. This enlarges the opening 
through which the dislocation took place. In some cases tenotomy may 
he necessary. 

Dislocations of the Phalanges are fairly common. The diagnosis is 
easy and reduction is accomplished hy extension and counter-extension. 
Where sufficient extension can not be made hy grasping the finger, a 
Levis's splint may be used. This splint is made by means of a narrow 
board, having two rows of holes the width of the finger. Tape is passed 
through the holes so as to form loops upon one side of the splint. The 
finger is inserted into these loops and the tape is drawn tightly to the 
finger. Traction can be made by means of the splint. 

Dislocations of the Ribs. — Clinical experience shows that traumatic 
dislocations of the ribs often take place. These may accompany 
fractures of the spine, or the luxation may take place without other 
injury, being caused by direct or indirect violence. The displacement 
of the head of the rib may be forward or backward, upward or down- 
ward. The signs are: 

1. Elevation or prominence of the luxated rib. 

2. Depression or lessened prominence of the luxated rib. 

3. Widening or narrowing of the intercostal space. 

A history of the accident, together with the deformity present, will 
easily enable the physician to make the diagnosis. Conditions of sub- 
luxations are more thoroughly described in works on Osteopathic 
Practice, to which the. reader is referred. 

Reduction is accomplished by manipulation. These are elaborated 
upon in works on osteopathic methods. 

Dislocation of the rib from its costal cartilage may be produced by 
direct or indirect violence. Inasmuch as the bone is subcutaneous, the 
condition can readily be made out. Pain will be a prominent symptom, 
together with an offset in the rib at that point. Eeduction is accom- 
plished by manipulation. It may be held in position by strapping. In 
severe conditions of luxation of the head of the rib from its articulation 
with the spine, strapping of the rib, as in case of fracture, may be re- 

Dislocation of the Costal Cartilages at their articulation with the 
sternum may also take place and is the result of direct vio- 
lence. The symptoms are pain and deformity. If the ribs are raised, 
and that part of the chest kept immovable by strapping, complete re- 
covery will take place without any troublesome symptoms. 

Dislocation of the Sternum. — Inasmuch as bony union takes place 
between the three portions of the sternum late in life, dislocations of 
these parts of the bone may take place in children. Dislocation of the 
gladiolus from the manubrium may take place because of great direct 
violence. The symptoms are usually evidences of severe local injury, 
together with a ridge at the point of union of the two bones. Where 
the injury is very severe, there may be marked dyspnea, and 
irregular heart action. Dorsal flexion, with pressure over the manu- 



brium and a raising of the ribs, will draw the bone into position. A 
figure-of-8 bandage about the chest, to limit motion, will relieve the 
pain and hasten recovery. 

The Ensiform Cartilage may be dislocated by means of pressure, or 
blows received. The displacement may be slight, or the deformity may 
even be angular, and it may interfere with taking food. Cases are re- 
ported where persistent vomiting followed such injury. The symptoms 
are usually plain ; a history of the injury and pressure upon the carti- 
lage are indicative; also there is a marked depression at the lower end 
of the sternum. Eaising the ribs will lift out the cartilage. Operative 
treatment is necessary. 

Dislocation of the Sacro-iliac Joint. — Sacro-iliac dislocations partake 
of the nature of subluxations. They are common and consist of dis- 
placements backward, forward, upward, or downward, or of combina- 
tions of these, as a luxation upward and backward. One or both sides 
may be affected. It will produce inequality in the length of the limbs 
and tilting or twisting of the pelvis. The posterior superior iliac 
spines may be more prominent, or less so, and may be higher up, or 
lower down, than normally. It may be evidenced by pain at the sym- 
physis pubis, in the back, down the thigh, or within the joint. It may 
cause hip-joint disease, white swelling, sciatica, pelvic disease, neural- 
gic conditions, and various other diseases. A careful examination will 
reveal the condition. The luxations are reduced by manipulation, or 
well known osteopathic methods. Fig. 102. 

Dislocations of the Hip. — Dislo- 
cations of the hip are more common 
than dislocations of many othei 
joints, although the nature of the 
anatomy of the joint is such as to 
rather protect it from injury. The 





cotyloid cavity is deep 
the head of the femur 
in with such nicety and the 
aments are sufficiently strom 

render dislocations unlikely. They 
form, perhaps, ten per cent, of all 
dislocations. They are more common 
between the ages of twenty and 
thirty, but may occur at any age. It 
is important to thoroughly under- 
stand the anatomy of the hip-joint 
to understand the dislocations. The 
most important of the ligaments is 
the Y-ligament, which is the form 
of an inverted Y, whose upper 
attachment is the anterior inferior 
spine of the ilium, and the lower 

The Y-ligament intact. 



Fig. 103. 

attachment, the outer limb, at the upper extremity of the anterior 
intertrochanteric line, and the inner limb to the inner extremity of the 
anterior intertrochanteric line. This Y-ligament is really a thickened 
anterior portion of the capsular ligament. It is this ligament which 
determines the position of the thigh in what are understood as the reg- 
ular dislocations. Eegular dislocations are those in which the Y-liga- 
ment is intact. The irregular dislocations are those in which the Y- 
ligament, either the inner or outer limb, is ruptured. 

The causes of the dislocations are those of dislocations of other 
joints, but the luxations may happen in typhoid fever or they may be 
produced by the assumption of habitual attitudes. The exciting cause 
of the dislocation in certain abnormal conditions may be slight force, 
as turning in bed. Muscular contractions play a great part in some of 
the dislocations. In eighty per cent, the head of the bone gets out of 

the capsule at its posterior portion. In other 
cases, the head of the bone may rupture the 
lower or the inner portion of the capsule. It 
is believed that the dislocation takes place 
largely by leverage. This may not always be 
true. Many different classifications will be 
found, but it is more important to understand 
the nature of these dislocations than the par- 
ticular classification. They may be best under- 
stood as follows: 

A. Regular. 1. Iliac, where the head of 
the bone rests on the dorsum of the ilium. 2. 
Sciatic, where the head of the bone is dislo- 
cated beneath the obturator interims muscle. 
3. Obturator or tlryroid, where the head of the 
bone is displaced in the thyroid foramen. 4. 
Pubic, where the head of the bone is displaced 
inward on the front of the pubes. 

B. Irregular. 1. Anterior oblique. 2. 
Everted dorsal. 3. Perineal. 4. Supracoty- 
loid. 5. Ischial. 

Both iliac and sciatic dislocations are back- 
ward displacements of the bone. The bone 
gets out of the lower or upper part of the cap- 
sule during flexion, adduction, and internal ro- 
tation of the thigh. There are cases where 
a drawing illustrating dorsal a thyroid dislocation may be transformed into 
a dorsal, but this is unusual. The Y-ligament 
is intact and stretched, producing flexion of the thigh. The ligamentum 
teres is usually ruptured. The quadratus femoris, the gemelli, and per- 
haps the obturatur internus and pyriformis muscles, are injured. The 
head of the bone dissects up the glutei muscles, and in fairly thin sub- 
jects; can often be felt imperfectly on the dorsum of the ilium. 

as «j 



In the sciatic dislocation, the head of the hone gets out at the lower 
and posterior part of the capsule. The head of the bone becomes en- 
gaffed beneath the tendon of the obturator interims muscle and usually 
Ties between it and the pyriformis. .Sometimes it may rest upon the 
piriformis muscle. It seldom ever reaches the sciatic notch. As a rule, 
if the head of the bone leaves the cavity at the lower and posterior part 
of the capsule, a sciatic dislocation will result. If it leaves at a higher 
point, the iliac dislocation results. The rim of the acetabulum may be 
chipped off, or the head of the femur may be broken. Fifty per cent, of 
all dislocations of the hip are dorsal; thirty per cent, are sciatic. 

The symptoms of these dislocations are adduction, internal rotation, 
and flexion. There may be considerable tilting of the pelvis, caus- 
ing marked lordosis of the spine. The lower extremity of the femur 
on the injured side, if projected, would cross the lower extremity of 
the femur on the sound side, while in the erect position, the foot rests 
on the top of the foot of the sound side. The hip is broadened, the 
trochanter is elevated above Nekton's line, while Bryant's line is short- 
ened, also indicating the ascent of the trochanter. The voluntary 
movements are for the most part lost. Passive movements are possible 
in flexion and adduction, but are impossible in 
extension and external rotation or abduction. 
Much shortening is the rule, but this comes 
largely from the adduction and flexion of the 
thigh. The adduction and flexion are pro- 
duced by the tension on the Y-ligament and 
the adductor muscles. The signs of a sciatic 
dislocation are similar to those of an 
iliac dislocation, but are not so pronounced. 
The shortening is less upon extension of 
the thigh and greater upon flexion of the 

Obturator or Thyroid Dislocations consti- 
tute eleven per cent, of the hip dislocations, 
and may be produced by blows on the back 
part of the pelvis. The head of the bone is 
displaced downward and inward. The Y-liga- 
ment is intact and holds the limb in abduc- 
tion and flexion. The limb can not be ex- 
tended or adducted. Because of the tilting of 
the pelvis forward, due to the tension upon 
the Y-ligament, the limb is apparently length- 
ened, but is shortened to some extent. While 
the patient stands erect the limb is held for- 
ward in abduction by the Y-ligarcent. In the 
obturator dislocation the head of the bone gets 

out of the cavity through the lower, or lower and inner part of the 

A drawing illustrating a thy- 
roid dislocation of the hip. 



In Pubic dislocations, the head of the hone rests on the front of the 
pubes. It may be a transformed obturator dislocation, or the bone ma}' get 
out through the upper and inner part of the capsule. The injury is pro- 
duced by hyper-extension, or by forced abduction and external rotation. 
The head of the bone rests on the ilio-pectineal emi- 
nence most often, but it may be displaced farther 
inward. The limb is markedly abducted and evert- 
ed. The hip is flattened, and there is considerable 

Irregular Dislocations constitute about two per 
cent, of all the dislocations of the hip. One or both 
limbs of the Y-ligament are ruptured. 

The Everted Dorsal dislocation is the same as 
the dorsal, with the exception that the head of the 
bone is displaced forward and inward, while the 
limb is abducted and extended. The outer limb of 
the Y-ligament is broken. 

In the Anterior Oblique dislocation there is out- 
ward rotation and marked flexion and abduction. 
The head of the bone rests just above the acetabu- 
lum. The Y-ligament is broken. 

Perineal dislocation is the same as the thyroid 
dislocation, with the exception that the head of 
the bone is displaced farther inward, while flexion 
and abduction Fig. 106. 

are more mark- 
ed. Sometimes 
the head of the 
bone may be felt in the perineum. 

In the Supracotyloid dislocation, 
the head of the bone is just above 
the acetabulum. There is eversion 
and abduction. 

A Suprapubic dislocation, which 
is an anterior dislocation displaced 
upward, may resemble the supra- 
cotyloid, or an everted dorsal lux- 

Ischial dislocations are rare. 
The head of the bone is displaced 
downward and backward, and rests 
upon the tuberosity of the ischium. 
The limb is everted, abducted, and 

Methods of Reduction. 

. A drawing showing the method of reduc- 

In the backward dislocations, tion in dorsal and sciatic dislocations. In 

. _ , . . . pubic and thyroid luxations the limb is ad- 

the dorsal and SCiatlC, the manip- ducted instead of abducted and also rotated 


A drawing showing 
the position of the limb 
in public dislocations of 
the hip. 


illation should be directed towards relaxing the Y-ligament and directing 
the head of the bone toward the opening in the capsular ligament. The 
patient should lie flat on his back, while the pelvis is held fixed by an 
assistant. Flex the knee at right angles and rotate the thigh a little 
further inward, then lift up or make traction upon the femur with con- 
siderable force, at the same time rotating the limb outward. This is 
followed by abduction and extension. T>r. Charles Still prefers to lift 
the thigh in position by grasping the trochanter. He is very successful 
with this method. Some operators have the patient lie upon the floor, 
while the pelvis is held fixed, believing that more traction can be made 
upon the thigh during the manipulation. Stimson places the patient 
Avith the face down, with the hips projecting just beyond the end of the 
table. An assistant holds the sound thigh, while the operator grasps 
the foot on the injured, side and allows the weight of the limb to pull the 
thigh in position. Ten or fifteen pounds of weight may be added to over- 
come the tension of the muscles, when the hip may be dropped in posi- 
tion. This manipulation is suitable for the reduction of backward dis- 
locations. Leverage is, perhaps, one of the most important forces to be 
utilized in the reduction of hip dislocations. 

In Obturator dislocations, the thigh should be flexed at right angles, 
while traction should be made upon the femur. The limb should then 
be addncted and extended. It may be necessary to rotate the thigh 
farther outward in order to secure relaxation of the Y-ligament. 

In the Pubic dislocations, traction is made in flexion, while an 
assistant makes pressure against the upper extremity of the thigh, on 
the inner side, thus preventing the head of the bone returning on the 
front of the pubes while internal rotation is performed by the operator. 
In some cases, reduction may not be accomplished, but the skill of the 
physician will depend upon his experience and his knowledge of the an- 
atomical relations. 

Compound Dislocations. — Compound dislocations are very rare, and 
are usually fatal; but a few cases are on record. There is generally such 
extensive injury to the soft-parts, and bone, that sepsis results. 

Old Dislocations. — Unreduced dislocations are treated in the same 
manner as recent dislocations. Should the operator fail to reduce the 
dislocation at the first attempt, he should not be discouraged. Many 
times, by breaking up the adhesions and relaxing the muscles, the head 
of the bone may be made to retrace its steps. If there is no injury to 
the cotyloid cavity, and the inflammatory reaction about has not been 
too severe, reduction may be accomplished after a number of years. Dr. 
A. T. Still has reduced a large number of these dislocations, even after 
they had existed many years. Reduction, in many cases, may be accom- 
plished only after months of treatment preparing the parts for reduc- 
tion. After reduction has been accomplished, treatment may still be 
required for some length of time to prevent the dislocation returning. 

Pathological Dislocations. — Pathological dislocations are very com- 


mon in inflammations of the joint, paralysis, in conditions of rickets, 
and septic fevers, especially in conditions where the person assumes a 
certain position for a considerable length of time. These pathological 
dislocations are reduced by methods similar to those used in recent dis- 
locations. The joint must first be prepared for reduction. The liga- 
ments must be relaxed, the tonicity of the muscles improved, and the 
adhesions broken up. After this has been done, the pelvis must be held 
securely by an assistant while the operator makes traction on the thigh. 
Too much force should not be applied to the limb. It is unnecessary 
and may do harm. The old method of Sir Ashley Cooper of forcibly 
dragging the head of the bone into the socket is bad, inasmuch as it may 
do a vast deal of harm. Eeduction can be made by manipulative means 
much more readily, even in old dislocations. If the femur is dislocated 
inward or downward, the pelvis should be held securely to the table or 
floor, while the physician makes traction on the thigh. Pressure may be 
made on the inner side of the neck of the femur, while at the same time 
the physician performs adduction, thus using the femur as a lever. 
This may force the bone in the socket. Similar methods may be used 
if the femur is dislocated backward. In this case, the assistant may 
press upon the back part of the femur while abduction and extension 
are made. 

Dislocations of the Knee-Joint may be classified as: 

1. Dislocations of the patella. 

2. Dislocations of the tibia. 

3. Dislocations of the semilunar cartilages. 

Dislocations of the Patella. — The patella may be dislocated (a) out- 
ward, (b) inward (very rare), and (c) edgewise (vertical rotation). 

Dislocation Outward is the most common, on account of the 
obliquity of the femur. It occurs in subjects suffering with genu 
valgum, and is produced by direct violence. It occurs while the limb 
is extended. If the luxation is complete, the patella will be felt hying 
entirely on the outside of the external condyle. The knee will be flat- 
tened, while the intracondylar space will be marked by a depression. 
Where the luxation is incomplete, the inner half of the articular sur- 
face of the patella lies in relation with the articular surface of the outer 
condyle. Eeduction is accomplished by means of extension and manipu- 
lation, the thigh at the same time being flexed upon the abdomen, 
which thoroughly relaxes the quadriceps extensors, Avhen the bone may 
readily be moved into position. 

Inward Dislocation is extremely rare, and is due to direct violence. 
The diagnosis is easy. The treatment is similar to that of dislocation 

Dislocation edgewise, or vertical rotation, is a rare condition pro- 
duced by twisting the patella on its own axis. Cases are on record 
where the patella has been turned completely over. Partial rotation of 
the bone is similar to an incomplete dislocation, either inward or out- 


ward, and reduction is accomplished in the same manner as reduction 
of a dislocation either inward or outward. Complete rotation may be 
reduced by relaxing the quadriceps extensors and. rotating the bone into 

Dislocations of the Tibia. — Dislocations of the tibia may occur (a) 
inward, (b) outward, (c) backward, or (d) forward. When the disloca- 
tion is caused by disease it is backward, but when caused by 
traumatism, it is nearly always lateral. Dislocation either inward or 
outward is rarely ever complete, and is accompanied by more or less 
twisting of the leg. One or the other of the lateral ligaments will be 
ruptured. The diagnosis of the dislocation can be readily made, as the 
symptoms are prominent. E eduction of the dislocation is easy. 
While extension is made, the limb is abducted or adducted as required, 
and rotated- either inward or outward, or, while an assistant makes ex- 
tension, the bone may be lifted into position by the operator. 

Dislocation of the tibia forward is more common than dislocation 
backward, when the result of trauma. The dislocation may be complete. 
The lower extremity of the femur will project into the popliteal space 
and obstruct the femoral vessels, while the tuberosity of the tibia will 
stand out prominently on the front of the leg. There may be consider- 
able shortening. Usually, the dislocation is incomplete and the symp- 
toms are not so prominent. Seduction is accomplished by extension 
and manipulation. 

Dislocation of the tibia backward is usually not complete. The 
cause of the injury is direct and indirect violence. The signs are so 
constant and prominent as to be characteristic. The tibia is more or 
less displaced into the popliteal space, and operates as an obstruction 
to the return circulation through the femoral vessels. There will be 
engorgement of the short saphenous vein. A depression beneath the 
condyles of the femur in front will be prominent and the nature of the 
dislocation is evident upon inspection. Like other dislocations of the 
tibia, reduction can readily be accomplished in recent dislocations by 
traction and manipulation. Under no circumstances should this dislo- 
cation be allowed to continue for any length of time, not even a few 
days, before reduction is made. The limb should be kept at rest for a 
few days until the swelling and inflammation have subsided, when a 
knee-boot can be applied, which is drawn tightly to the knee, and 
which prevents a recurrence of the condition. Where there is rupture 
of the ligaments of the knee, it is best to keep the knee at rest for a 
period of two or three weeks, to permit union of the torn ends of the 

Dislocation of the Semilunar Cartilages is sometimes called a sub- 
luxation of the knee. The injury is freouent and happens during 
flexion with rotary motion at the knee. Pressure of the condyles, under 
certain circumstances, tends to displace the cartilages. In a condition 
of flexion, these cartilages are more movable upon the surface of the 


tibia than upon extension, so that in a flexed condition a sudden wrench- 
ing or spraining of the joint may lead to a displacement of the carti- 
lage. The internal cartilage is more frequently displaced than the ex- 
ternal. The extent of the displacement varies, and the coronary lig- 
ament may, or may not, be ruptured. Displacement of' the cartilage 
usually takes place anteriorly, but may take place laterally. In certain 
cases, it is said to have been displaced into the intra-condyloid notch, 
or to have been doubled upon itself. 

Signs. — The first sign of the injury is a cracking sound, as if some- 
thing gives way in the joint, which is accompanied by an intense sick- 
ening sensation. The joint remains fixed in a position of flexion. The 
limb can not be forcibly extended, because of the obstruction afforded 
by the cartilage. Efforts at manipulation cause a sickening pain. 
It may be that, more or less twisting of the leg in a position of flexion 
will result in spontaneous recovery. The disarticulated cartilage forms 
a prominence on the front of the joint. A history of the accident, to- 
gether with the absence of other injury, will serve to complete the diag- 

Methods of Reduction. — The flexion should be exaggerated. Should 
it be the internal cartilage which is dislocated, the operator places his 
two thumbs upon the dislocated cartilage, while his hands grasp the 
hamstring tendons, and an assistant makes extension and abduction. 
Tbe extension and abduction should be forcibly made, while at the same 
time vigorous pressure is made upon the luxated cartilage. Where the 
external cartilage is dislocated, the same procedure is adopted, with 
the exception that at the time of extension the lower leg is aclducted. 
This manipulation should be successful in all cases. Operative treat- 
ment is recommended in various texts for the removal of the cartilage 
where there has been a failure in the attempts at reduction. This opera- 
tive treatment consists in removing the cartilage under the strictest 
aseptic conditions, or by fixation of the cartilage by means of aseptic 
chromicized catgut sutures. In case of such operation, it is necessary 
to drain the joint for a day or two after the operation. Manipulative 
methods, if kept up some length of time, and judiciously applied, will 
be successful in restoring the integrity of the joint in all cases. 

Dislocations of the Ankle-joint. — Dislocations of the ankle are (a) 
outward, (b) inward, (c) backward, (d) forward, and (e) upward. Be- 
cause of the peculiar relation of the astragalus with the tibia and 
fibula, fractures not unusually complicate these dislocations. Disloca- 
tions laterally rarel}' occur without fracture, therefore in reality they 
are fracture-dislocations, as is the case in Pott's fracture of the lower 
one-fifth of the fibula, or Dupuytren's fracture. The diagnosis may be 
difficult, and will require a careful examination, perhaps with the assist- 
ance of the x-rays, to make an accurate diagnosis. The luxation is 
usually readily reduced. 

Dislocation Backward is more common than dislocation forward, and 
usually takes place in jumping. Both malleoli may be fractured, while 


the astragalus is driven behind the lower extremity of the tibia. The 
heel protrudes prominently. The lower extremity of the tibia may 
rest upon the scaphoid or cuneiform bones. 

Dislocation Forward is very common, and is not associated 
with fracture of the bones of the leg. Apparently the foot is lengthened. 
The tibia stands out prominently on the upper surface of the os calcis. 
The heel is not so prominent as normally, and a depression exists 
over the top of the astragalus. 

Dislocation Upward. — In this dislocation, the astragalus, with 
perhaps other bones of the foot, is driven upward between the 
tibia and fibula, after the ligamentous attachments of these bones have 
been forcibly divided. At first glance it may be denied that this dislo- 
cation is possible, but competent observers attest to the fact that the 
dislocation does occur. Widening of the malleoli, together with a short- 
ening of the foot and leg, make the diagnosis easy. There is a 
history of violent injury. 

Treatment. — Dislocation of the ankle may be reduced by means of 
extension, together with rotation, abduction, adduction, and flexion. 
By extension and counter-extension the tense muscles are relaxed, and 
the bones may be manipulated into position. In some cases, it is said 
that it is necessary to divide the tendo Achillis in muscular subjects. 
In fracture-dislocations, the fracture requires special treatment. Where 
there is dislocation pure and simple, it is necessary to keep the foot 
immovable, and to apply antiphlogistic measures, such as assisting the 
return circulation, relaxing the tissues, and keeping the foot immova- 
ble for ten days. After that time, manipulation of the joint, to prevent 
adhesions and to reduce inflammation, will be found necessary. The 
person should go about on crutches within a week, but for a considera- 
ble part of the day the foot should be elevated, to assist the return 

Dislocation of the Astragalus. — Dislocations of the astragalus alone 
deserve special consideration. They consist of a partial or complete 
detachment of the bone from its normal connection. It may be 
luxated either. anteriorly or posteriorly. 

Anterior Dislocation is usually associated with more or less rotation, 
which may be outward or inward. If the dislocation should be com- 
plete, the bone will be found lying in front, of the ankle loose and read- 
ily movable upon the scaphoid. The skin over the dorsum of the foot 
is tightly drawn over the bone. The limb is shortened, while the 
malleoli approximate the bottom of the foot. The lower extremity of 
the tibia usually rests upon the articular surface of the os calcis, in- 
stead of the astragalus. In the incomplete variety, the head of the bone 
simply presses upon the scaphoid or cuboid. Only about half of the 
articular surface is displaced from the tibia. Prominence of the bone 
mav be felt in front of the ankle. 

308 DISL Oca tions. 

Backward Dislocation may also be complete or incomplete. Rotation 
of the - bone may attend the injury. The bone may be readily felt 
making a marked prominence above the os calcis, the degree of promi- 
nence depending upon the degree of luxation of the bone. The diag- 
nosis in either dislocation, forward or backward, with or without rota- 
tion, complete or incomplete, is usually easy, providing the swelling is 
not too extensive. It may be confounded with a sprain, and until the 
swelling is gotten rid of, the diagnosis may not be accurately made. 

Treatment. — Reduction is accomplished in the incomplete form 
of dislocation by exaggerating the deformity, while the operator 
presses upon the bone with his thumbs, extension being made at the 
same time. In this manner the bone is forced into its normal location. 
More or less rotation may be necessary. Not a great deal of force will 
be required, except in muscular subjects, or where the bone is tightly 
wedged in. In complete dislocations an anesthetic may be required. 
If the case is seen early, a reduction can be accomplished without great 
difficulty. In all dislocations, after some hours, great swelling ob- 
literates the characteristic evidences of the injur} 7 , while the pain, 
because of the pressure of the effused fluids, is intense. The joint- 
renexes are exaggerated and muscular spasms occur, so that reduc- 
tion of the dislocation may be difficult. Where there is violent inflam- 
mation, an anesthetic may be necessary for a thorough examination. 
In cases where the diagnosis can not be made, an x-ray examination may 
assist in clearing up the diagnosis. 

Subastragaloid Dislocations. — These dislocations refer to the forci- 
ble separation of the other bones of the tarsus from the astragalus. 
Generally the astragalus maintains its normal relation with the malleoli, 
while the ligaments which attach the astragalus to the other tarsal 
bones have been either considerably stretched, or ruptured. The dislo- 
cations are produced by violent wrenching of the foot. The displace- 
ment of the bones may be inward, outward, or backward, but 
is usually backward and outward, or backward and inward. The 
luxation is incomplete, and while being classified under trau- 
matic dislocations, it properly belongs to partial dislocations. The 
dislocation may even be compound, and yet not be complete. The 
scaphoid is sometimes completely separated from the head of the 
astragalus. Great deformity is the rule. The heel projects 
prominently, while the anterior part of the foot is apparent- 
ly shortened. As a rule, "he toes point downward, the heel being 
drawn upward by contraction of the calf muscles. The tendo Achillis 
is put violently upon a stretch, while beneath the skin on the front of 
the foo'* the astragalus projects prominently. The anterior tibial ves- 
sels and nerves are usually severely injured. The extensor tendons 
may be so engaged about the head 'of the astragalus as to operate 
aerainst reduction. When the bones are dislocated inward, the foot is 
everted so that the outer malleolus stands out prominently, and the 

a o 


normal projection of the internal malleolus is lost. The position of the 
foot resembles that of equino-varus. When the tarsus is displaced out- 
ward, the foot is everted, while the inner malleolus is prominent and a 
depression marks the position of the external malleolus. The position 
of the foot is that of equino-valgus. In either variety, the tendo 
Achillis is put violently upon a stretch and is somewhat curved, depend- 
ing upon the degree and nature of the displacement. Tenotomy may 
be necessary before reduction of the dislocation can be made. Exten- 
sion and rotation and an exaggeration of the deformity, with pressure 
upon the projecting bone, will enable the operator to force the luxated 
bones into position. 

Dislocations of Other Tarsal Bones, as the cuneiform, scaphoid, or 
cuboid, occur but rarely, and are the result of severe direct violence 
and twisting of the foot. The diagnosis is usually easy. The treatment 
is to reduce the dislocation and to keep the foot qniet, to give it rest 
until the ligaments may be restored, since there may be a sinking down 
of the arch of the foot, because of a giving way of the ligaments. This 
condition of subluxation in the tarsal bones will result in a deformity 
which interferes greatly in walking. 

Dislocations of the Metatarsophalangeal, or the Phalangeal Articu- 
lations, occasionally occur, but are easily recognized and readily re- 
duced by extension and counter-extension. They are not sufficiently 
serious to merit description. Subluxations may cause bunions, Mor- 
ton's disease, or other affections. 


Spina Bifida. 

Spina bifida is a congenital condition due to malclevelopment of the 
dorsal plates in embryo. The dorsal plates not having properly closed, 
(the lamina, pedicles, spinous processes, and sometimes part of the 
membranes of the brain and cord, fail to develop. The tension of the 
fluid within the neural canal is such as to form a tumor. The only 
structures lying over the spinal cord are the skin, and perhaps a little 
connective tissue, or the membranes may lie directly in connection with 
the skin. The tumor presenting is produced by a collection of fluid in 
the subdural spaces, or subarachnoidal spaces, or from within the spinal 
canal. Three forms of tumor are usually described. 

A. Meningocele, which consists of a protrusion of the dura mater 
and arachnoid, but contains no part of the cord or spinal nerves. The 
posterior portion of one, two, or more vertebrae mav be absent. The 
tumor may be of considerable size. 

B. Meningomyelocele is a condition where the fluid distension is 
beneath the arachnoid and dura mater, the wall of the tumor containing 
these two membranes, together with the cord and spinal nerves. The 
cord may be spread out over the side of the tumor. 


C. Syringo-myelocele is a condition where the fluid distension is 
within the central canal of the spinal cord, so that the spinal cord is 
spread out around the tumor. Certain spinal nerves which run down 
some distance within the spinal canal before making their exit may be 
included in the tumor, providing it is located in the lumbar region. 

Signs. — The location of the tumor is in the middle line of the back, 
over the lower part of the spine. It may be covered with healthy skin, 
but very often it is apparently scarred. The vessels often are obliter- 
ated and the tumor is translucent. In infants, if the tumor is com- 
pressed, it will be noticed that the fontanels raise up. On coughing, or 
crying, there will be a distinct impulse over the tumor. The edges of 
the bones, which are the imperfectly developed lamina or pedicles, may 
be felt. There is more or less paralysis and imperfect development be- 
low the tumor, because of the pressure upon the nervous tissues. There 
may be talipes, perforating ulcers of the foot, or more or less complete 
anesthesia. The child may be the subject of hydrocephalus. The 
prognosis is not good. 

Treatment. — When the tumor is small, an elastic band may be ap- 
plied, which will, perhaps, prevent its development. Treatment of 
the parts below will be found of service. The circulation to the 
atrophied muscles and partially paralyzed nerves may be increased, but 
by no known methods can the ill-developed vertebrae be restored. Tap- 
ping has been advised. Where the wall of the tumor is not very 
thick, as it enlarges, which may happen in some cases, spontaneous 
rupture may take place. If this occurs, the contents will escape from 
the tumor and the meningeal fluid will continue flowing for some days, 
when the opening will heal up. The tumor will reappear in a short 
time. Tapping has been advised, but it will do but, little good, as the 
tumor will quickly return. Enucleation of the sac has been advised 
by some surgeons, but it is not known whether the operation is attended 
by good results or not. The best that osteopathic treatment can do for 
the affection is to prevent the atrophy of the muscles, and to increase 
the blood supply to the areas of paralysis, or paresis, and to increase 
the nerve impulses to the Aveakened structures. Where perforating 
ulcers are present, usually osteopathic treatment will cause these to 
heal up, but the condition can not be cured. 

Tumors of the Spine. — ISTew growths are of rare occurrence in the 
spine. They may consist of gummata, because of tuberculosis, or syph- 
ilis, or fibromata, lipomata, or gliomata, may develop. Earely secondary 
cancers of the spinal cord occur. Spinal tumor will not 
cause any difficulty until it attains the size of a medium 
sized marble. The symptoms are pain, more or less localized, followed 
by progressive anesthesia, usually ending in paraplegia, monoplegia, or 
evidences of ataxia. The symptoms are those of compression and irri- 
tation of the spinal cord. The reflexes are at first exaggerated, after- 
wards paralyzed. Following exaggeration of the reflexes, there is paresis 


of the muscles, followed by paralysis. Sometimes spasms of the muscles 
form a prominent symptom, because of irritation. Occasionally, instead 
of paralysis, there is a condition of contracted muscles, due to irrita- 
tion of the motor cells. .Different locations of the tumor will occasion 
different symptoms. The diagnosis is usually made by eliminating other 
conditions which might cause the same symptoms. These other condi- 
tions are hemorrhage within the spinal canal, compression from inflam- 
matory products, and luxations. Should the diagnosis be accurately 
made, which in most cases can be clone, the tumor should be removed 
by a surgical operation. The technic of the operation is that of 

Osteomyelitis of the Vertebrae. — Osteomyelitis is a rare, acute, sup- 
purative disease of the vertebral bodies. It is caused by infection 
from the pus cocci, and is often associated with osteomyelitis of other 
bones, or by infection of the viscera. The symptoms, in general, are 
those of osteonryelitis of other parts of the body, with the exception 
that the disease involves the spine, causing, perhaps, paralysis, also 
sequestration of the bodies of the vertebrae and abscess formation. 

Treatment. — The treatment is similar to that for osteomyelitis. 
This disease does not include the chronic suppuration of the bodies of 
the vertebrae, a condition which arises from other causes. Acute 
osteomyelitis of the vertebrae occurs in ill-fed and ill-nourished chil- 
dren, and is a very difficult disease to treat. As soon as pus is evident, 
a free incision and good drainage, with antisepsis, should be made. 
Likely, in each of these individual cases, a certain spinal lesion will be 
found, which will account for the origin of the disease. The general 
condition of the patient will demand treatment, as well as the specific 
inflammatory process. 

Spinal Curvature. 

The more common curvatures of the spine are scoliosis, kyphosis, 
and lordosis. Scoliosis, or lateral curvature, is most common in the 
upper dorsal region. The curvature usually extends to the right. A 
compensatory curve occurs in the lumbar region, while a second com- 
pensatory curve may occur in the neck. There are cases where even 
more curves are found in the spine. The intervertebral discs are un- 
equally compressed, while the ribs form a great convexity upon one side, 
and as a rule, are widely separated. They are more horizontal, and the 
scapula is crowded forward with them. As a general rule, with the 
lateral curvature there exists considerable rotation. This rotation may 
be so marked that the side of the body of the vertebra may look directly 
backward, while the angles of the ribs upon one side may occupy the 
position of the spinous processes. While the ribs are greatly projected 
upon one side, they are markedly depressed upon the opposite side, and 
in some cases the thorax may be so distorted that the lower ribs upon 
one side may touch the iliac crest. One breast is usually much more 
prominent than the other. 


Cause. — The causes of spinal curvature are: A. Lesions of the 
spinal column (bones and cartilages). B. Lesions of the muscles. C. 
Lesions of other tissues. 

A. lesions of the Spinal Column are: 1. Subluxations of the verte- 
brae and. ribs interfering with the nutrition to the intervertebral discs, 
or parts of the body of the vertebrae, thus causing maklevelopment. 2. 
Luxations of the vertebrae and ribs affecting directly the blood and 
nerve supply to the bones. 3. Fractures of the vertebrae. 4. Destruc- 
tive osteitis or Pott's disease of the spine. 5. Spina bifida, etc. 

B. Lesions of the Muscles are: 1. Muscular spasm, producing sub- 
luxations, or luxations, as happens in torticollis. 2. Muscular con- 
tractions, as occur in muscular rheumatism. 3. Muscular atrophy, 
whereby the muscles upon one side of the spine are rendered weak, 
when those acting upon the opposite side produce curvature. 4. 
Muscular hypertrophy, where the muscles upon one side of the spine 
become hypertrophied and stronger than those upon the opposite side. 
5. Contractions from burns. 

C. Lesions of Other Tissues are: 1. Collapse of the lung. 2. Pleu- 
ritic adhesions. 3. Habitual one-sided position of the body. 4. Strauma, 
rickets, etc. 5. Weakness and ill health. 

Kyphosis, or posterior curvature, is produced by: 1. Eelaxed con- 
dition of the ligaments. 2. Failure of development of the anterior 
parts of the bodies of the vertebrae. 3. Pickets and ill-nourished 
conditions. 4. Certain occupations and bad hygienic surroundings. 5. 
Caries of the anterior portions of the bodies of the vertebrae. 

Lordosis, or anterior curvature, is often congenital. It may be sec- 
ondary to Pott's disease, hip-joint disease, or sacro-iliac disease. This 
curvature is usually found in the lumbo-dorsal region. 

Pathology. — In general, pronounced cases of spinal curvature 
are found in persons whose general health is more or Jess affected. There 
may be lesions accounting for this condition. The curvature is the re- 
sult of subluxations, or luxations of the vertebrae. These are really 
pathological dislocations. Curvature of the spine will affect the integ- 
rity of the spinal nerve roots. These nerve roots will be more or less 
impinged upon and the blood supply to the spinal cord more or less 
arrested. The trophic influence of these nerves to certain of the tissue^ 
will be withdrawn. . This results in paralysis, and in disease of organs. 

Treatment. — The treatment of curvature of the spine has been rev- 
olutionized in recent years, and especially by osteopathic methods. 
Formerly braces, plaster casts, the jurymast and other apparatus were 
used to' correct curvature, while no attempt was made to increase the 
nutrition of the weak and diseased structures. The results from such 
treatment were unfavorable. Some authors now advise against the use 
of what Dr. Still condemned } r ears ago. An instance is as follows: 
"Perhaps the most important advice to be given to the general prac- 
titioner in relation to the treatment of this condition is caution against 



Fig. 107. 

the use of braces, corsets, jackets, and other mechanical appliances, 
which by confining the movements of the chest and supplying all arti- 
ficial support in place of the muscle which it is desired to develop, 
actually do great harm to many patients instead of good" (American Text 
Book of Surgery, page 622). The curvature may be cured by means of 
manipulation. Whatever cause exists, this should be removed. Luxated 
vertebrae should be reduced: tense ligaments should be stretched, while 
spastic conditions of the muscles must be relieved by proper manipula- 
tive measures, such as rotating the vertebra upon its axis and removing 
pressure on certain nerves. By securing a better blood and nerve sup- 
ply to the structures outside of the spine, the curvature may be cured. 
Many times the spinal curvature is looked upon as secondary to other 

ailments, when, on the other hand, it is 
primary, or, if secondary, it serves to keep 
up the disease process. If the spinal 
curvature is relieved, the disease usually 
abates. If manipulative means are kept 
up, the most obstinate cases may be cured. 
Cases of complete paraplegia and of the 
worst forms of paralysis have been entire- 
ly cured and the patient restored to health 
by correcting the spinal curvature. 

Caries of the Spine, or Pott's Disease 
is sometimes called tuberculosis of the 
spine. It is claimed by the majority of 
authors that this disease is tubercular. 
The ground for calling this affection a 
tubercular process is its clinical course. 
The pathological conditions do not war- 
rant the statement that the disease is al- 
ways tubercular. There are some cases 
which undoubtedly are tubercular. 

The exciting 1 cause of the disease con- 
sists of blows, wrenches, or strains which 
excite inflammation. 
The predisposing causes to this affection are spinal curvature, sub- 
luxations of the vertebrae, such as spinal lesions, which may consist of 
lateral, rotary, or antero-posterior displacement, subluxations of the 
ribs, and muscular contractions. These interfere, more or less, with the 
nutrition of the parts where the disease arises. This interference in 
the nutrition may be in the shape of an obstruction to the return circu- 
lation and an impingement of the arterial circulation, or a more or less 
interference with the normal flow of nerve force. 

Other Causes are tuberculosis, syphilis, acute infectious fevers, or 
infection by the pus germs. 

Situation of the Disease. — Any part of the spine may be affected, 
but usually the dorsal and lumbar portions are the parts involved. 

Pott's disease of the spine with 
abscess formation. 


The disease nearly always starts in the anterior portion of the body of 
the vertebra, and may result in the destruction of the vertebral body 
and the intervertebral substance, but the vertebral body is destroyed 
before the intervertebral substance. The reason why the anterior part 
of the bodies of the vertebrae is affected is because of the anatomical 
relations. The blood supply to this part of the vertebral body is more 
liable to interference because of displacement of the body of the ver- 
tebra,, or because of rib lesions. 

Pathology. — The tissue changes occurring in this disease are the 
same as those occurring in caries of bone elsewhere, or in formation of 
chronic abscess. For the pathology of which see Caries of Bone and 
Chronic Abscess. Because of the habits of the person, contractures of 
the muscles, rib lesions, and a more or less debilitated state, the circu- 
lation to the anterior portions of the bodies of the vertebrae become 
so affected that sprains, wrenches, bruises, or other injuries, cause an 
inflammation which results in some form of caries. This may be caries 
sicca, caries necrotica, or caries suppurativa (usually caries sup- 
purativa). In Pott's disease of the spine, pus is the rule. When the 
disease occurs in the cervical region, a postpharyngeal abscess arises. 
When in the lower cervical region, the abscess may burrow laterally be- 
tween the scaleni muscles and open above the clavicle. If the disease 
is in the dorsal region, a dorsal abscess may occur, when the 
pus may burrow into the viscera. When the abscess occurs in the 
lumbar region, in the neighborhood -of the attachments of the psoas 
muscle, a psoas abscess arises. In some cases sequestration of the 
bodies of the vertebrae may occur. In other cases, the pus may form a 
distinct abscess, and caseation, and absorption of the pus taking place, 
the active symptoms disappear. The lamina, pedicles, and posterior 
portions of the bodies of the vertebrae are rarely affected. The cord 
membranes are never affected. They may be compressed because of luxa- 
tions of the vertebrae, or the developing of inflammatory products, or 
pus formation, but the disease process does not invade the spinal cord. It 
more often affects certain nerves as they come off from the spinal cord, 
so that the symptoms are localized and refer to the compres- 
sion or irritation of certain nerves. The cord may be compressed to 
some extent, giving evidences of spinal irritation, shown by contracture 
of the muscles, or exaggeration, or interferences with reflexes, but 
paralysis is rare. 

Signs. — The signs of the disease are: 1. Pain. 2. Rigidity of the 
spine. 3. Deformity. 4. Abscess. 5. Muscular spasm. 6. Paralysis. 
The pain manifests itself variously. There is always a localized spot 
over the diseased bone which is painful. Other pains are neuralgic in 
character, and may be in the nature of referred pains — those produced 
by the pressure or irritation upon a nerve. The pain is referred to the 
distribution of the nerve, as, for instance, the genito-crural nerve may 



Fig. 108. 

be affected, or the anterior crural, or some other of the lumbar nerves. 
If the second and third cervical vertebrae are affected, the auricularis 
magnus, occipitalis major and minor nerves will be affected, causing 
pain behind the ear on the back of the head. The pain may be in the 
nature of bilateral cramps. In grown people, the pain is in the nature 
of headache, backache, and girdle-pains. 

Rigidity of the Spine is a constant accompaniment of Pott's disease, 
and is one of the earliest symptoms. It is produced by contracture of 
the muscles and ligaments, brought 
about by irritation. This of itself 
operates against recovery, inasmuch 
as it interferes with a proper circu- 
lation of the fluids. When the low- 
er part of the spine is affected, the 
back is held stiff and causes a pecu- 
liar gait, while the movements of the 
body in sitting or stooping are great- 
ly modified. The patient often be- 
comes weak and supports himself by 
extended arms upon his legs. In a 
little child, this rigidity of the spine 
can be tested by having the patient 
lie prone while the legs are lifted. 
Under normal conditions the spine 
is fairly flexible. It is hardly neces- 
sary for the benefit of the osteopathic 
practitioner to describe the methods 
of determining the rigid condition 
of certain portions of the spine, inasmuch as his teachings include all 
such conditions. Stiffness in the neck, caused by caries, will be evident 
upon forced movements. 

The deformity depends upon the part of the spine involved and 
the extent of such involvement. In the lumbar region, when but one 
or two vertebrae are involved, there may be no deformity appreciable 
upon inspection, but palpation will reveal a lesion. This lesion may be 
of a single vertebra, or three or four, and may be displaced laterally, 
antero-posteriorly, or twisted. When several of the vertebrae are af- 
fected, and there is extensive destruction of the bodies, there may be 
angular deformity, or a considerable area may be markedly curved. In 
the cervical region, much curvature is not common, but the lesion is 
apparent. The most profound curvature is found in caries of the dor- 
sal region. In the cervical region, the deformity present may manifest 
itself as a twisting of the vertebra and a partial dislocation of the 
articular surfaces. 

Abscess in Pott's disease occurs in the majority of cases. The abscess 
may reach large proportions, or it may be small The direction which 
the pus may take will depend largely upon the part of the spine affected. 

Method of testing the rigidity of the spine. 
as occurs in spinal caries. 



Fig. 109. 

Retropharyngeal or Postpharyngeal Abscess arises in caries of the 
cervical vertebrae. It forms a soft, iluctuating mass in the back part 
of the pharynx, and may cause difficulty in swallowing and breathing. 
The pus may rupture into the pharynx, or it may burrow down behind 
the esophagus into the chest and posterior mediastinum. It may bur- 
row laterally, opening above the clavicle, or passing beneath the clavi- 
cle behind the axillary vessels. If it ruptures 
within the pharynx, and the opening becomes 
septic, the disease may terminate fatally. 

Dorsal Abscess. — The pus which forms in 
caries of the dorsal vertebrae passes back- 
ward between the vertebral ends of the ribs 
underneath the erector spinae mass, forming 
an abscess four or five inches from the spi- 
nous processes. This abscess yields an impulse 
upon coughing. There are cases where the ab- 
scess burrows along the vessels and nerves 
and appears where the lateral cutaneous 
branches are given off on the side. In some 
cases, it may pass down the spine, going un- 
derneath the ligamentum arcuatum internum 
and into the sheath of the psoas muscle, 
forming a psoas abscess. 

Lumbar Abscess is due to the pus passing 
backward along the posterior branches of the 
lumbar vessels and nerves. It appears on the 
surface of the outer border of the erector 
spinae mass and usually points in Petit's tri- 
angle. Psoas abscess forms in the sheath of 
the psoas muscle, passes underneath Pou- 
part's ligament, forming a tumefaction on 
the front and inner side of the thigh. It may 
then burrow underneath the fascia lata, but 
usually ruptures in Scarpa's triangle. The 
pus appears at a point at the junction of the 
middle and inner one-third of Poupart's liga- 
ment and to the outer side of the femoral 
vessels. The constitutional symptoms at- 
tending the formation of these abscesses are like those attending the 
formation of any chronic abscess. The pain depends entirely upon 
whether the trunk of a sensory nerve is affected. 

Paralysis and Muscular Spasm do not, as a rule, occur in the course 
of spinal caries. The cause is often due to the formation of a mass 
of inflammatory tissue beneath the posterior common ligament. This, 
if the irritation is slight, will cause muscular spasm and pain, or 
if the pressure is considerable, cause areas of anesthesia, or localized 

Psoas Abscess, pointing in 
Scarpa's triangle. 


muscular paralysis. The effect will depend largely upon the rapidity 
of the development of the pressure. Where the pressure comes on very 
gradually, the symptoms are those of sclerosis. Where it comes on rap- 
idly, the symptoms indicate inflammatory softening. Where the paraly- 
sis is sudden, it is due to hemorrhage, or luxations. In conditions of 
paralysis, the disease is usually located in the upper dorsal region. Par- 
aplegia, or paralysis of the body below, happens only in about one case 
in fifteen. Paraplegic symptoms must be differentiated from those of 
pressure upon nerve roots. The pressure upon nerve roots causes 
neuralgic pains, or paresis, or paralysis of a limited area. In compres- 
sion of the cord, motor and sensory symptoms are combined, but the 
motor symptoms usually predominate. At first there is a dragging of 
the toes, a loss of power in the legs, weakness of the sphincters, and an 
exaggeration of the reflexes. Later on paralysis becomes complete, be- 
cause of degeneration of the cord. Afterward, rigidity of the muscles 
and a loss of the reflexes occur. In sacral caries there may be no de- 
formity and but. little pain. An abscess may form on the buttock, or 
in the groin, and may be bilateral. Where the abscess ruptures 
of itself, mixed infection usually occurs, which is followed by hectic 
symptoms, and should the patient's resistance be low, the case will likely 
terminate fatally. Long continued suppuration is of itself exhausting, 
while at the same time lardaceous disease, together with degenerations 
in the organs, may set up, which terminate the case fatally. The pus 
may burrow into the viscera and cause death by rupture, or meningitis 
may be set up, or a condition of pyemia or multiple abscess formation 
may develop upon the absorption of pus germs. In paraplegic cases, 
bed sores often operate as a complication, while septic cystitis may 
bring about a fatal termination from exhaustion. 

Diagnosis. — The diagnosis of the disease is easy. A psoas 
abscess may be differentiated from an abscess of the hip by the fact 
that if it ruptures in Scarpa's triangle the sinus extends back up the 
psoas muscle, while in a hip abscess, should it rupture in the groin, the 
sinus will extend backward and downward. It may be differentiated 
from an iliac abscess by the presence of spinal disease. Occasionally 
abscess of the appendix, in chronic appendicitis, ruptures in this same 
neighborhood. A careful examination will enable the physi- 
cian to distinguish between them. It may be confounded with femoral 
hernia (see femoral hernia). 

Treatment. — A. Osteopathic. — Like chronic abscess, or chronic bone 
disease, this affection has its origin in the fact that the tissues of the 
anterior parts of the bodies of the vertebrae have been partly deprived 
of their nutrition because of luxated ribs, or, subluxated or twisted 
vertebrae. These displacements cause direct pressure on the small 
arteries, depriving the diseased, part of its proper blood supply. The 
question as to whether the diseased process is tubercular or a degenera- 
tive one does not in any way modify the treatment, since the deposit 


of the tubercle is dependent upon the lesions. It is not possible to in- 
troduce into the diseased area any drug which will destroy the germ, 
if present. The only treatment is to build up the tissues so that they 
ma} r , after a time, resist the ravages of the germs, or destroy them. 
Where the disease depends partly upon a general nutritive disorder, 
the removal of the lesions directly responsible for the carious process 
will not effect a cure. Other lesions in these cases will be found respon- 
sible for the general depraved condition of the system. Where the cases 
are seen early, no deformity apparatus will be found necessary, but the 
lesions should be corrected and the blood supply encouraged through 
the vasomotors. In cases seen late, after abscess forms, the same treat- 
ment must be followed out. The abscess may be opened after it points 
and rupture is imminent. Good drainage must be established and the 
abscess cavity must be washed out daily with an antiseptic solution 
1 :2000 bichloride of mercury, or 1 :40 carbolic acid solution. This will 
not always be necessary. Only where streptococcic infection seems likely 
will it be demanded. Where great deformity and paralysis have oc- 
curred, the disease will require treatment for from six months to two 
years. Many cases will get well in four or five months after abscess has 
formed. The patient must have the benefit of a good substantial diet, 
fresh air, and sunshine. As far as can be done, apparatus to limit the 
use of the spine, as the jurymast, plaster casts, etc., should be avoided. 
The results of the treatment are uniformly good. As a rule, the de- 
formity and paralysis can be overcome in time. Hopeless cripples of 
years' standing have been entirely cured by the above methods. 

B. Surgical. — In view of the very favorable results obtained by 
osteopathic treatment in spinal caries, operative measures such as ad- 
vised by Treves and Halsted are not necessary. In the case of a psoas 
or lumbar abscess, before much pus is formed, aspiration of the abscess 
may be done under aseptic conditions, while osteopathic treatment 
is regularly kept up. Usually this will be successful. Where it is not 
successful, the abscess should be allowed to point. After pointing it 
should be freely opened, the cavity thoroughly washed out, and good 
drainage established. The abscess cavit}^ should be washed daily with 
an antiseptic solution until the discharge has apparently ceased. Drain- 
age should be provided for, while the osteopathic treatment is con- 
tinued. Favorable results will be obtained. The application 
of plaster jackets, or extension of the spine, are methods not advisable. 
Formerly, many surgeons advised forcibly straightening the spine to 
overcome the deformity, but this is not needed. Operations for the re- 
moval of the carious bone and all of the diseased tissues have not been 
attended by results sufficiently favorable to warrant such procedure. 
More or less ankylosis of the spine will take place because of the forma- 
tion of inflammatory tissues and a gluing together of the lamina and 
articular processes, the ligaments of the spine remaining intact. The 
deformity and ankylosis resulting may be more or less relieved by ap- 
propriate treatment. The patient should have the benefit of out-door 


air and a nourishing diet. The secretions should he attended to, while 
pressure symptoms may be relieved by a correction of the deformity 
and relief of the inflammation. Septic cystitis developing demands irri- 
gation of the bladder by an antiseptic solution. 

Osteo-arthritis. — Arthritis deformans of the spine is a rare affection. 
The margins of the bodies of the vertebrae become thickened and en- 
larged, resulting in more or less ankylosis of the spine. This ankylosis 
may extend even to the ribs, so as to render them almost entirely im- 
movable. The cause of the disease is obscure. The symptoms will 
depend upon the amount of involvement of the spinal nerves. Paralysis 
and neuralgic pains are the rule. 

Treatment. — Heretofore no favorable results have been reported in 
the treatment. The osteopath should remove whatever lesions he finds. 
Whether or not these wilt be attended by good results will depend upon 
how early the case is seen. 

Dislocations of the Spine may be complete, or incomplete. They are 
more common in the cervical region, but may occur in the dorsal and 
lumbar regions. It has been disputed by many that complete disloca- 
tions of the lumbar spine may take place without fracture, but unques- 
tioned cases have been found upon autopsy (See American Text Book 
Surgery, p. 646). Dorsal dislocations occur in the lower part of the 
dorsal region most frequently. Partial dislocations of the spine are the 
rule, and are believed many times to play a great part in disease pro- 
duction, sometimes operating as the direct cause of disease, at other 
times as the indirect cause. The luxations may be bilateral, or unilat- 
eral. Bilateral dislocations may be produced by forced flexion, or exten- 
sion, and the dislocation may be forward, or backward. It is the rule 
to speak of the upper vertebra as the one dislocated. In complete for- 
ward dislocations, the inferior articular process will rest on the pedicle 
of the vertebra below at a point between the articular process and the 
body. In backward dislocations, the superior articular process will rest 
between the inferior articular process and the body of the vertebra 
above, In this condition there may be little or no pressure upon the 
spinal cord, but there will be pressure upon the nerve roots as they 
leave the spine, hence the paralysis may be only limited. In some cases, 
the paralysis may be extensive, depending upon the amount of injury 
to the spinal cord. Unilateral luxations are produced by extreme lateral 
motions of the spine, with or without rotation. In such cases, it is much 
less likely that there will be pressure upon the spinal cord. There may 
he pressure only upon a single nerve as it passes out of the inter- 
vertebral foramen. Tbis pressure may be evidenced by pain, or by 

The causes of the dislocations are the same as dislocations in other 
parts of the body, forced movements, muscular contractions, direct and 
indirect violence, and wrenching or twisting of the spine. In incom- 
plete dislocations, more or less pressure is made upon the roots of the 


spinal nerves, cutting off the nerve supply to certain structures, making 
a weak point, thus permitting the development of disease. 

The diagnosis of these conditions may be made by palpating the 
articular processes and by noticing the general alignment of the spine. 
The transverse or articular process may be palpated and luxations can 
be made out. The spinous processes will not always give an accurate 
idea of the positions of the bodies of the vertebrae, inasmuch as they 
may often be absent, twisted, or deformed, indicating that there might 
be curvature, or luxation, when there is none. Usually the symptoms, 
direct or reflex, are sufficiently pronounced to lead one to investigate a 
certain part of the spine. Upon close examination, a subluxation, or 
complete luxation, may be made out. 

Reduction. — These luxations are reduced by manipulation. The 
manipulation consists, in the main, of exaggerating the deformity, then 
catching the luxated bone with the thumb, or finger, the body is rotated, 
and the bone pushed into place by firm pressure. In general, this ap- 
plies to all of the vertebrae. Reduction can easily be accomplished 
without injury to the spinal cord. It was the former practice of physi- 
cians of other schools to allow these luxations to remain, for fear death 
would be produced by attempts to effect reduction. Complete disloca- 
tions of the atlas and ads have occurred, reduction has been made, the 
person afterward continuing in good health. Subluxations of these 
vertebrae are much more common, and by the osteopathic practitioner 
will bear an exhaustive study. 

Fractures of the Spine are usually in the nature of a fracture- 
dislocation; that is, a fracture accompanied by dislocation. The most 
common site is in the dorsal and lumbar regions. Dislocations of the 
spine are more common in the upper part of the column. 

Cause. — The cause of the fracture is direct and indirect violence. 
Direct violence, by blows, or heavy falls, where the force is transmitted 
from behind directly upon the spinal column, or by falls upon the but- 
tocks or extended legs. The nature of the fracture varies with the kind 
of violence producing it. 

Nature of the Injury. — When the fracture is produced by direct vio- 
lence, the inferior articular processes may be broken off and the verte- 
brae displaced forward. This results in rupturing of the anterior com- 
mon ligament. The spinous processes, laminae, or pedicles, may be 
broken without fracturing the bodies of the vertebrae. This is the rule 
in fractures from direct violence. In fractures from indirect violence, 
one or two vertebrae may be fissured, the bodies usually being 
affected, inasmuch as the chief force is directed upon them. As a rule, 
the transverse, articular, or spinous processes are not affected, nor are 
the laminae or pedicles. The displacement of the vertebrae may be 
much, or little. 

Nature of the Injury to the Cord. — The importance of a condition of 
fractured spine is not so much the injury to the vertebrae as it is the injury 


to the cord. The cord may bo torn asunder, which will result in complete 
and permanent paralysis of the structures below that point. It may 
be compressed so that its conductivity is only temporarily suspended. 
In other cases, fractures of the spine may occur without any paralytic 
symptoms, nor is the primary injury to the spinal cord always of the 
greatest importance. The nature of the inflammatory reaction which 
follows is, perhaps, of greater importance. The functioning of the 
spinal cord is usually destroyed by inflammatory softening. If the in- 
jury is extensive, this inflammatory softening is more likely to occur. 
Absolute paralysis of motion, sensation, and the reflexes below may be 
followed by a complete recovery with proper treatment, providing the 
inflammation is not too great. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of fracture of the spine vary, accord- 
ing to the region injured, and according to the degree of compression 
of the cord. The clearest mental picture may be obtained from con- 
sidering a fracture at a single location. In fracture of the upper or 
mid-dorsal region the symptoms are, in the main, as follows: There 
is paralysis below, more or less complete — paraplegia. Immediately 
above the site of injury, there quickly appears a zone of hyperesthesia. 
The intercostal and abdominal muscles are more or less paralyzed, 
so that respiration is carried on chiefly by the diaphragm and the elastic 
and involuntary muscular tissues of the lung, the abdomen rising and 
falling with the action of the diaphragm. There is paralysis of the 
sphincters, the urine at first being retained, but after the bladder be- 
comes distended, it dribbles away. There is incontinence of feces. 
In the male, priapisms are liable to occur, especially upon using a 
catheter. There may be a spastic condition of some certain groups of 
muscles, while others raay be completely paralyzed. Some of the deep 
reflexes may be present. Evidences of the reflexes returning, is a sign of 
the conductivity of the cord returning. After a few days, 
bronchial troubles will arise, or, if the fracture is high up, cardiac symp- 
toms may appear, because of injury to the vasomotor fibres in the upper 
dorsal region. The bronchitis will end fatally in a few days. If the 
patient escapes these troubles, he may live two or three weeks, when 
secondary complications, such as bed-sores, cystitis, etc., will cause the 
case to terminate fatally. Bed-sores are the result of the dribbling away 
of the urine, the bed-clothing being continually saturated with the 
urine, which decomposes and brings about a foul condition. A little 
scratch, or slight irritation of the skin, will result in bed-sores which 
arc very difficult to heal. The bed-sores are partially the result of the 
irritation of the urine, and partially the result of vasomotor distur- 
bances and interference in the nerve influence to the tissues. 

Cystitis. — Because the bladder is deprived of the proper nerve and 
blood supply, and because micro-organisms are likely introduced into 
the bladder with a catheter, decomposition of the urine may take place. 
It becomes ammoniacal and will contain toj)j mucus and pus. The ab- 
sorption of this pus brings about a septic condition. This in- 


flammation may extend up the ureters and produce pyonephrosis 
or a suppurative condition of the kidneys. This cystitis is usually 
fatal. Sometimes bed-sores and cystitis will occur conjointly. The 
bed-sores are best treated before the sore appears, by sponging the tis- 
sues off with strong alcohol once or twice daily and dusting talcum over 
the parts, so as to keep them dry, or, as each small pimple appears, apply 
oxide of zinc ointment. After the sore appears, it should be dressed 
once or twice daily with antiseptics. A solution of 1:20 carbolic acid 
for a time, then 1:2000 corrosive sublimate. After the sores are thor- 
oughly washed, boracic acid may be dusted in them, or aristol, or a little 
balsam of Peru applied on cotton. Gauze and cotton may be applied to 
the sore and held in place by adhesive strips. A water-bed is the most 
useful appliance in the treatment of these cases. Cystitis is best treated 
by washing out the bladder with a solution of boracic acid (ten grains 
to the ounce) once or twice daily. 

Terminations. — A. In the cervical region. If the fracture is of any 
of the four upper cervical vertebrae, death is liable to occur, because of 
paralysis of respiration. 

B. Lower cervical and upper dorsal region. Hemorrhage into the 
cord may extravasate upward, pressing upon the roots of the phrenic 
nerve and producing death, or a low bronchitis may develop in a few 
days. Bed-sores, cystitis, etc., usually cause the case to terminate fatally 
within three or four weeks. 

C. Middle and lower dorsal region. If the person survives the in- 
flammatory reaction which follows the injuiy, he will partially recover, 
and in some cases, almost complete recovery may occur, leaving only 
some deformity of the spine as an evidence of the fracture. 

D. Lumbar region. In the lumbar region, a fracture with disloca- 
tion may occur without any paralytic symptoms. Below the second 
lumbar there will be no injury to the cord, but the cauda equina will 
suffer. There may be partial or complete paralysis of a group, or groups, 
of muscles. 

Prognosis. — The prognosis will entirely depend upon the nature of 
the treatment. Osteopathic methods are superior to those of any sys- 
tem of treatment. 

Treatment. — A. First, rest until fibrous and bony union has oc- 

B. Manipulative measures to increase the blood supply to the parts 

C. Guard against cystitis and bed-sores, with attention to the secre- 
tions. In the treatment of bed-sores above mentioned only surgical treat- 
ment has been given. The osteopathic treatment is of greater import- 
ance. Even with the strictest asepsis, a good recovery can not be ob- 
tained unless nature herself can produce it. Osteopathic treatment means 
to assist nature in that it increases the blood and nerve supply to the 
affected areas. Conaestion of the inflamed area of the cord should be 


relieved, and the relieving of this congestion of the inflamed cord 
brings about the recover}' of its conductivity. This is followed by a 
better nerve and blood supply to the tissues generally, so that bed-sores 
are avoided. Extensive bed-sores, attended by necrosis of large masses 
of the tissues involving the erector spinae mass, denuding the iliac 
bones and the lumbar spine, in fact, extending over the entire lower 
back, have been successfully treated by osteopathic methods after all 
hope had been given up by eminent surgeons. This but illustrates the 
osteopathic principle. In almost all cases of bed-sores, unless there is 
absolute paralysis of the tissues below, the sore may be readily healed, 
if simple cleanliness is maintained and appropriate osteopathic treat- 
ment is administered. This osteopathic treatment consists in increas- 
ing the blood supply to the sore, and in gently manipulating the spine, 
so as to increase its blood supply if required, or to relieve the conges- 
tion, as the case may be, or to reduce any luxation present. Where the 
case is seen early during inflammatory softening, appropriate osteo- 
pathic treatment will prevent the appearance of the bed-sore. 

Concussion of the Spine consists of a molecular displacement of the 
anatomical elements of the spine. It is a disarrangement of the cells 
because of severe jarring, as occurs in railway accidents. In some 
cases, there may be punctuate hemorrhages, or even lacerations, at- 
tended by paralysis, or the injury may be simply a partial dislocation, 
more or less interfering with the blood supply to the spinal cord itself, 
rendering it anemic, resulting in paresis. Where paralysis occurs, it 
is likely due to hemorrhage, or laceration. The condition of railway 
spine is the result of certain spinal lesions. The s} r mptoms vary 
in the different cases, according to the lesions present and to their 
length of standing. 

Treatment. — In concussion of the spinal cord, or in conditions of 
railway spine, the treatment is to remove the lesions present. If the 
lesions are not of too long standing, the prognosis is favorable. 

Compression of the Cord. — Compression of the cord is produced by 
(1) dislocations, (2) hemorrhages, (3) inflammatory products, pus, etc., 
(4) tumors, (5) fractures. The differential diagnosis between these condi- 
tions is usually easy. The evidences of inflammation and pus are 
sufficiently plain and have been discussed elsewhere. The presence of 
the fracture, or dislocation, may be determined by the deformity. In 
the case of dislocation, the diagnosis is made by the alteration of the 
alignment of the vertebrae and by crepitus, in case of fracture of the 
spine. The symptoms of compression vary according to the degree 
of compression and the part of the spine affected. 

Traumatic Hysteria. — Traumatic hysteria, or a hysterical condition 
the result of injury, always bears with it the element of suggestion; 
furthermore, the stigmata of hysteria will be found present. There are 
evidences of a neurosis. There are numbers of these cases where the 
removal of a lesion will cure the case, but the prognosis should be 


guarded. Many times the patient will be apparently helpless and the 
removal of the lesion will produce remarkable recovery. As to whether 
or not the lesion will produce the symptoms in question, will be evident 
to the observer. Inasmuch as the patient has no knowledge of the anat- 
omy, the symptoms which are simulated will not be in accordance with 
the anatomy. 

Operations on the Spine consist in operations for tumor, or lami- 
nectomy, for the removal of pieces of bone or foreign bodies pressing 
upon the spinal cord. 


Contusions of the Scalp. — Contusions of the scalp, if sufficiently 
severe, will cause extravasation of blood. This extravasation may take 
place between the aponeurosis of the occipito-frontalis and the perios- 
teum, or may take place beneath the periosteum. In any case, it forms 
a puffy tumor. The blood may coagulate, afterward liquefaction may 
follow, and a sort of cystic tumor result. The tumor will dis- 
appear by absorption. A hematoma may be produced by the blade of 
the forceps in instrumental delivery of a child. The diagnosis can be 
made without difficulty by running the finger around along the edge 
of the tumor, gradually encroaching upon it. The blood will be felt to 
give way, and there will be no erosion of the bone. In the formation 
of a cold abscess, there will be erosion of the bone and a ridge 
of inflammatory tissue around the edge of the tumor. If suppuration 
of the tumor occurs, it should be opened and freely drained. Where 
the tumor persists, the contents may be aspirated. Manipulation, such 
as loosening the tissues about the tumor, relieving contracted muscles 
and fascia of the neck, to assist the return circulation, will secure ab- 
sorption of the fluid. 

Wounds of the Scalp. — Wounds of the scalp are of the varieties 
of wounds in other soft tissues. Two dangers beset wounds of the scalp 
Avhich may not be present in wounds of other parts of the body. These 
dangers are: 

1. Hemorrhage, because of the extensive blood supply. 

2. Sepsis, inasmuch as the scalp is an unclean part of the body. 
Sharp hemorrhage will occur from wounding the anterior or posterior 
divisions of the temporal artery, or branches of the occipital artery. 
This hemorrhage can be readily arrested by compression, but where it 
is very severe, the artery should be caught up with hemostatic forceps 
and the end of. the vessel tied. If the wound is extensive, it is neces- 
sary to provide for drainage, which should be at the most dependent 
portion of the wound. , Small scalp abrasions will require no suturing, 
but extensive wounds will require a few* sutures. The number of 
sutures should be f ew, and the distance between them greater than in 
other parts of the body. A small cicatrix will do no harm, unless it is 
on a part of the scalp where there is no hair. The wound should be 


rendered aseptic by thoroughly washing with antiseptic solutions, the 
hair along the margins of the wound should he shaved off, and the skin 
approximated. The wound may then he dressed with boracie acid, 
borated gauze and cotton. A compress may be applied by means of 
layers of gauze and a mass of cotton, the bandage being applied suf- 
ficiently tight about the head to keep the dressing in position. These 
wounds usually heal ver}- quickly, providing there is no sepsis, since 
there is a luxuriant blood supply. Should the wound become unhealthy, 
it must be freely opened by removing the sutures and every part 
thoroughly washed with an antiseptic solution. 

Contusions of the Bones of the Skull. — Contusions of the bones of 
the skull are not serious in the ordinary healthy individual, but in per- 
sons the subject of tuberculosis, or s} r philis, necrosis of the bone may 
occur. This may be serious. These contusions will require no special 

Fractures of the Skull. — Fractures of the skull may conveniently 
be divided into : 

x\. Fractures of the vault. 

B. Fractures of the base. 

Fractures of the Vault of the skull are nearly always produced by 
direct violence. Fractures by indirect violence may occur, as by contre- 
coup. The varieties of fractures are, in general, those of other bones. 
Tbe most common are fissured, stellate, depressed, and punctured. 
Elevated fractures may occur in military, but rarely in civil, practice. 
The fracture may be simple, or compound, depending upon whether 
there is a wound extending into the site of fracture. 

Condition of the Parts. — This will vary according to the nature of 
the fracture. A simple fissured fracture of the skull may be attended 
by no signs whatever save that of a bruise of the soft tissues. In stel- 
late fractures, several lines of fracture extend out in different direc- 
tions from the same point. These irregularities may be felt. In de- 
pressed fractures, the depression may be round, or oblong, the "pond 
and gutter" fracture of the old writers. The fracture may be fissured, 
with one fragment depressed, or both sides of the fissure may be de- 
pressed. The fracture may be extensive, traversing the parietal, fron- 
tal, and temporal bones. Where the fracture is compound, the diag- 
nosis is easy, but where it is simple, unless the fracture is ele- 
vated, depressed, or punctured, it is difficult to determine. The only 
other symptoms indicating fracture may be evidences of compression. 
Where the case is doubtful, it should be carefully watched, and if sec- 
ondary symptoms, such as headache, epilepsy, evidences of neuritis, etc., 
develop, a flap should be raised and the skull trephined at the point of 
injury. In general, where there are evidences of depressed bone, the 
chisel, or trephine, should be brought into use. The case should not be 
allowed to continue until traumatic epilepsy develops. After epilepti- 
form seizures hav^ developed, the operation may not be attended by 



good results. In some cases of compound or depressed fracture, there 
may be. extensive destruction of the brain substance, or a fragment of 
the fractured bone may extend down through the dura mater, lacerating 
or puncturing the brain. In these cases, a flap should be raised, the 
loose pieces of bone removed, the lacerated tissues placed in normal 
position, the dura mater sutured, and the periosteum having been sep- 
arated from the loose fragments of bone, should be sutured over the 
opening and drainage established. If the wound is extensive, the 
strictest asepsis should be maintained, inasmuch as septic meningitis 
may develop. If possible, drainage should be dispensed with, as it ren- 
ders infection more liable. In any case, it should be removed early. 
Every possible attempt should be made to have the wound heal by first 

Fractures of the Base of the skull may result from direct, or indirect, 
violence. Fractures from direct violence are caused by blows or falls 

directly upon the skull. 
Fig. 110. Fractures from indi- 

r e c t violence occur 
where a person falling 
from a great height 
alights on the feet or 
buttocks; the force is 
transmitted through the 
spinal column to the 
base of the skull, which 
is fractured. 

Site of Fracture. — 
The fracture may ex- 
tend in any direction, 
through the (a) anter- 
ior, (b) middle, or (c) 
posterior fossa, or two 
of the fossae may be 
implicated in the same 
line of fracture. 

Anterior Fossa. — The 
line of fracture may 
extend through Vae or- 
bital plates, or through 
the cribriform plate of 
the ethmoid, so that 
hemorrhage may take place through the nose, or effusions of blood may 
take place within the orbit and appear beneath the conjunctiva. Paraly- 
sis of some of the nerves which enter the orbit may occur. 

Middle Fossa. — Fracture of the middle fossa usually involves the 
middle part of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or may involve 

Fracture at the base of the skull. 


all of the bones. The fracture may extend into the tympanum by 
lacerating the membrana tympani, and may open into the meatus audi- 
torius externus. The lateral sinus may be implicated, or branches of 
the middle meningeal artery being ruptured, blood may effuse into the 
middle ear and come out of the external ear. Blood extravasations 
within the skull, or pressure of fragments of the bone may involve some 
of the cranial nerves at their exit. 

Posterior Fossa. — The fracture usually extends through the fora- 
men magnum. It may extend into the petrous portion of the temporal 
bone, or the fracture may take place through the basilar portion of the 
occipital bone and by rupturing the mucous membrane beneath, hem- 
orrhage will take place into the pharynx. Certain of the cranial nerves 
will also be affected. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms ma^ be divided into (A) General and 
(B) Local. 

The general symptoms of fracture at the base of the skull are those 
of compression of the brain. 

The local symptoms are: 

1. The escape of cerebrospinal fluid. The most characteristic 
feature of this symptom is the large quantity of the fluid escaping. 
The quantity is variously estimated by different writers at from one 
to three or four pints in twenty-four hours, so that numerous dressings 
will be required to absorb the flow. The fluid is clear and somewhat 
resembles serum. A chemical analysis is hardly necessary to determine 
whether the fluid is cerebrospinal or not. The points from which the 
escape of this fluid may be made, are wounds, the nose, mouth, and ear. 
The escape of fluid may take place from wounds when the fracture at 
the base of the skull is compound. It may take place through the nose, 
when the fracture extends through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid. 
It may take place through the mouth, when the fracture extends into 
the vault of the pharynx. It may take place through the ear, when 
the fracture extends entirely into the middle ear and the membrana 
tympani is lacerated. 

2. Blood Symptoms. These consist of hemorrhage and blood effu- 
sions. Hemorrhage is of little value as an indication of fracture at the 
base of the skull, inasmuch as the flow of blood is no more severe than 
when there is but a Avound in the soft tissues, but blood effusion is of 
more value. Blood effusions may be subconjunctival in fractures 
through the orbital plates, and the effusion of blood takes place in the 
orbit, or they may be about the mastoid process in fractures of the pos- 
terior fossa, or the blood effusions may take place in the suboccipital 
region. Blood effusions in these localities, without evidence of local 
injury, are an indication of fracture of the base of the skull. 

3. Paralysis of the Cranial Nerves. These may be manifest in 
strabismus, ptosis, Bell's paralysis (where the facial nerve is implicated), 
the pupils may be irregular and dilated, there may be diplopia, or there 


may be paralysis of accommodation. Where the patient is not uncon- 
scious, the latter symptoms are of importance, but where the patient 
is unconscious, they may not be of as much value. 

Treatment. — The treatment of fracture at the base of the skull is 
rest and attention to the secretions, together with local treatment of 
the wound and manipulation, in general, to assist the return circulation. 
ISTo drugs will be found of any advantage. There are cases where the 
patient is delirious and more or less irritable, but under no circum- 
stances should morphine, alcoholic stimulants or other drugs be allowed. 
If the person survives the early compression, absorption of the fluids 
may be secured, and the paralytic and other symptoms will gradually 
disappear. The prognosis is unfavorable, but many cases recover. 

Concussion of the Brain. — Injury to the brain itself is manifest by 
certain symptoms which are classified, as a rule, under two conditions, 
concussion and compression. The difference in the pathology of these 
two affections is not always well defined, and the symptoms vary. 

Concussion is a condition of extensive jarring of the brain. The 
tissue elements of the brain are shaken up and the connections between 
the cells and groups of cells are for a time suspended. It may be de- 
scribed as a molecular displacement of the brain elements. In some 
cases there may be punctuate hemorrhages; others describe the condi- 
tions as a vasomotor disturbance. A person suffering from concussion 
is popularly said to have been "knocked silly," or "stunned." The 
severity of the symptoms varies with the severity of the injury to the 
brain. There may be cases where the person is temporarily "queer," 
and may stagger about and be unable to speak for a little time, and 
will appear as if drunk, but consciousness will quickly return and the 
queer feeling disappear. Pronounced cases are attended with severe 
symptoms, which may be classified as follows : 

J. State of Mind. The person is more or less unconscious of his sur- 
roundings. In mild cases, he may know something of what is going on 
about him, but in severe cases, he knows nothing. Under all circum- 
stances, he may be aroused to make an intelligent answer in monosylla- 
bles, as "yes" or "no." 

2. Skin. The skin is pale and cold, and the extremities are cold. 
The body-temperature may be subnormal. 

3. Muscular Symptoms. There may only be a giddiness, or a giving- 
way of the muscles, or there may be complete muscular relaxation. 

4. Respiration. Respirations are shallow, quiet, and a little more 

5. Pulse. The pulse is small, soft, irregular, and more rajaid. The 
heart is fluttering. 

6. Pupils. The pupils react to light. They may be dilated, or con- 
tracted, but are unequal. 

7. Paralysis. Paralysis of any part is rare, and if it occurs, is only 
temporary. There may be muscular twitchings in certain muscles. 


There are severe cases of profound concussion in which there is evidence 
of great cortical irritation. This is manifest by the person shunning 
light and curling up in bed, and by more or less rigidity and twitching 
of the muscles. It may be almost impossible to open the person's eyes, 
as it causes pain. 

8. Urine and Feces. The urine and feces may both be voided in- 

9. ISiausea and Vomiting. Nausea and vomiting appear late, 
and are favorable signs, as they are an evidence of reaction which they 

Reactionary Signs. — Eeactionary signs are, as indicated, vomiting, 
followed by headache, lassitude, insomnia, low spirits, perhaps hysteria, 
and in severe cases, epilepsy and insanity. The longer the person re- 
mams unconscious, the more likely is the mentality to be seriously 

Treatment. — The treatment of concussion consists of equalizing the 
circulation and the proper restoration of the vasomotor impulse. In 
conditions of congestion of the brain, this congestion should be re- 
lieved. Cases may be brought out of concussion by manipulation of the 
bowels, which attracts the blood to the splanchnic area. Under no 
circumstances should alcohol be given. The application of hot water 
bottles to the abdomen and legs and restoring the circulation 
by treatment in the neck and upper dorsal region, together with rest 
and quiet, are all that is required. Enemata of hot water, or hot milk, 
after the lower bowel has been evacuated, is advised. A few drops of 
ammonia on a handkerchief may be of some service. Even if obstinate 
wakefulness and cortical irritation are manifest, no opiates should be 
allowed. Sleep can be produced by equalizing the circulation. It is 
believed, in concussion, that the chief difficulty is the suspension of the 
vasomotor function to the cerebral vessels. Undoubtedly in many of 
these cases, cervical lesions will be found, and if these are reduced, the 
concussion will disappear. It is believed that many of the cases which 
are described as concussion are the result of displacement of the atlas 
or some of the cervical vertebrae obstructing the return circulation. 

Compression of the Brain. — Compression of the brain is produced 
by the following conditions : 

1. Fractures, as depressed fractures of the vault, or fractures at 
the base of the skull. 2. Intracranial hemorrhage. 3. Tumor. 4. Pus, 
as in abscess formation. 5. Inflammatory exudates. 6. Foreign bodies. 

Symptoms. — 1. State of the Mind. The state of mind in compres- 
sion of the brain is usually coma. The person may emit articulate 
sounds, but they are not intelligent, in contradistinction to concussion 
in which a reply can be obtained by speaking loudly in the ear. 

2. Skin. The skin is hot and perspiring, while the face is flushed. 
The temperature may be elevated, or may be subnormal. 


3. Muscular System. In general, there is a loss of all voluntary 

4. Kespiration. Inspirations are slow, deep, and noisy, because of 
paralysis of the soft palate, which flaps back and forth during respira- 
tion, and the buccinator muscles being paralyzed, the cheeks flap in and 

5. Pulse. The pulse is full and bounding. It may be slow, or rapid, 
but is usually strong. It may be irregular. 

6. Pupils. The pupils are iixed, and will not react to light. They 
may be regular, or irregular, dilated, or contracted. 

7. Paralysis. Paralysis exists and may be extensive, in- 
volving one entire side — hemiplegia — or it may be limited to a member 
— monoplegia. There may be paralysis of some one of the cranial 
nerves, producing strabismus, ptosis, Bell's paralysis, etc. 

8. Urine and Bowels. There is incontinence of feces and 

9. Nausea and Vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are unfavorable 
signs, indicating involvement of the base of the brain or medulla. 

Differential Diagnosis. — Coma, present in compression of the brain, 
may be simulated by comatose conditions arising in : 

1. Apoplexy. 2. Uremia. 3. Diabetes. 4. Opium poisoning. 

5. Alcoholic intoxication. 6 Epilepsy. 7. Hysteria. 

Confusion in the diagnosis is not so liable in private practice as in 
hospital practice. 

Apoplexy. — Apoplexy may be ushered in by convulsive movements. 
Hemiplegia is the rule. The temperature may be subnormal. It is 
more liable in conditions of arterio-sclerosis during excitement, or in 
a person the subject of syphilitic disease. 

Uremia. — In uremia, albuminuria is one of the chief symptoms. In 
a doubtful case, the urine should be withdrawn and tested. The pres- 
ence of albumen and tube casts indicates Bright's disease. The skin is 
sallow. Puffiness of the eyes and edema about the ankles are present. 

Diabetes. — In diabetes, the quantity of urine is greatly increased 
and has a sweetish odor. The patient also has a sweetish breath. There 
is sugar in the urine. The pupils react to light. 

Opium Poisoning. — In opium poisoning, there is a pin-point pupil, 
and it will not react to light. The respirations are slow and shallow, 
and there may be a history of the drug. In doubtful cases, the urine 
may be withdrawn and tested for the drug. 

Epilepsy. — In epilepsy, the person can be aroused The attitude of 
the person simulates that of natural sleep. The presence of bloody and 
frothy saliva is also indicative. There may be paralytic symptoms, but 
these are usually temporary. 

Hysteria. — In hysteria the coma apparently is the result of 
choice. The patient can not be aroused, but can readily swal- 



low articles put in the mouth. The pupils are normal. The disease 
occurs in neurotic individuals. 

Treatment. — The treatment of compression will depend upon the 
cause. "Where there is a depressed fracture, it should be elevated. 
Where it is the result of a tumor, and the case is operable, the tumor 
should be removed. If caused by pus formation, a button of bone should 
be removed over the site of the abscess and the pus evacuated. If from 
foreign bodies, these should be removed, if possible. "Where the cerebral 
compression is caused by hemorrhage, if the hemorrhage is extradural, 
or subdural, operative treatment may give relief. Where operative 
treatment is questionable, the patient should be kept quiet in bed and 
all efforts made to assist the return circulation. 

Extravasation of Blood Within the Cranium. 

Extravasations of blood within the cranium may be classified as fol- 
lows : 

A. Extradural, where the effusion of blood is between the bone and 
the dura mater. 

B. Subdural, where the effusion of blood is below the dura mater 
and. between it and the brain. 

C. Subarachnoid, when the 

effusion of blood takes place Fig. 111. 

in the subarachnoid spaces. 

D. Intracerebral, when 
the hemorrhage talies place 
within the brain substance. 

Extradural. — Extradural 
hemorrhage results from 
rupture of the middle cere- 
bral artery — usually the 
anterior branch. It is fre- 
quently associated with frac- 
ture of the skull. It may al- 
so be caused by wounds of 
the lateral sinus, superior 
longitudinal sinus, or small 
vessels passing through the 
inner table of the skull going 
to the diploe. 

Symptoms. — While there 
may be symptoms of concus- 
sion, still a distinct period of 
consciousness, as a rule, in- 
tervenes before evidences of 
compression. As the extrav- 
asated blood dissects up the 
dura from the skull and presses upon the brain, the symptoms 

Extradural hemorrhage from rupture of the 
middle meningeal artery. 


will increase in severity, depending upon the amount of the effusion. 
Usually there is paralysis of one side, which gradually increases, in 
volving the face, arm and perhaps the leg. The temperature of the 
affected side is elevated. The paralysis is on the opposite side to the 
injury. At first it is limited. The coma gradually deepens, until death 
may occur within a few days. In some cases the blood may force the 
brain substance out of the site of fracture. 

Subdural. — In subdural hemorrhage, there is no interval of con- 
sciousness between the injury and the pressure symptoms, but paralysis 
comes on at once and is soon complete. As a rule, it cannot be diag- 
nosed from hemorrhage within the brain. 

Subarachnoid. — Subarachnoid hemorrhage, when of any quantity, 
attends lacerations of the brain, hence the symptoms of com- 
pression are immediate. 

Intracerebral. — Intracerebral hemorrhage in nearly all cases comes 
from the rupture of the lenticulo-striate artery of Charcot. It is this 
artery which is ruptured in cerebral apoplexy. For the symp- 
toms and diagnosis, text-books on The Practice of Osteopathy should 
be consulted. 

Treatment of Cerebral Hemorrhage. — When the symptoms show that 
the hemorrhage is extradural, operation should at once be performed 
and the bleeding sinus or artery ligated. In subdural hemorrhage, if 
operation is done early, it will be of use. Where the rupture of the 
artery attends fracture, this is the only method of treatment which will 
give relief. All other methods will result in permanent paralysis, or 
death. Other forms of hemorrhage must be treated by other means. 
No drugs administered will lessen the amount of effused blood. An 
ice-cap may be applied, the person kept quiet in bed, and when the 
hemorrhage is arrested, treatment to encourage the return circulation 
from the brain and the absorption of the fluid may be administered. 

Contusions and Lacerations of the Brain. 

These injuries, like injuries of other soft-tissues, are attended by 
extravasations of blood, subsequent congestion, and inflammation suf- 
ficient to repair the injury. The symptoms, in general, are those of 
compression and concussion. . They will vary from cerebral irritability, 
restlessness, lassitude, headache, and spasms of muscles, to paralysis, 
and perhaps coma. The symptoms vary according to the severity 
of the injury, and also according to its location. If Broca's convolution 
is affected, motor aphasia will result. If the lower part of the motor 
area is affected, the lower part of the face will be paralyzed. Where 
the tissues on either side of the upper part of the fissure of Rolando are 
affected, the leg will be paralyzed. The paralysis may be incomplete, 
localized, and delayed, and involve the entire limb, or but a group of 
muscles. When the laceration is within the brain, the paralysis is im- 
mediate, complete, and extensive. 


Treatment of Cerebral Injuries. — If possible, foreign bodies within 
the brain should be located by means of the x-rays, the aluminium probe, 
or gravity probe, and an operation at once performed and the foreign 
body removed. To determine the site of the injury, or the location of 
a foreign body, tumor, or other object pressing upon the brain tissue, 
it is necessary to understand cerebral localization. The most pro- 
nounced symptoms attend pressure upon the motor area. To 
locate this part of the brain is of the greatest importance. In gen- 
eral, it is situated in the paracentral and postcentral lobules on either 
side of the fissure of Rolando. Inasmuch as extradural hemorrhage 
is from rupture of the branches of the meningeal artery, to locate 
this artery is of importance. The anterior branch of the middle 
meningeal artery may be uncovered by a button of bone removed at a 
point one and one-half inches directly behind the external angular 
process of the frontal bone. Providing the hemorrhage does not occur 
from rupture of this artery, a button of bone may be taken out on the 
same line, just below the parietal eminences. This will uncover the 
posterior branch of the middle meningeal artery. To locate the 
fissure of Rolando, first locate the bregma, which is found by drawing a 
line from one external auditory meatus to the other. The upper end of 
the fissure of Rolando is two inches behind the bregma. The fissure ex- 
tends downward and forward from the bregma a distance of three and 
three-eighths inches. It makes an angle of 67% degrees, with a line 
drawn from the glabella to the external occipital protuberance. The 
lower extremity of the fissure of Rolando will then be found two and 
three-fourths inches behind the external angular process and one inch 
above it. It will be found that pressure upon the tissues on either side 
of the upper part of the fissure of Rolando results in paralysis of the 
leg, while pressure behind the middle part, the arm, and pressure upon 
the lower extremity produces paralysis of the face. For an exhaustive 
discussion of this subject, larger texts should be consulted. 

Intracranial Inflammation. — Intracranial inflammation consists of: 

A. Meningitis, or inflammation of the coverings of the brain. 

B. Encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain substance. 

Cause. — The causes of these inflammations are acute, general dis- 
eases of an infectious nature, middle ear disease, syphilis, tuberculosis, 
injury, lacerations, bone disease, contusions, fracture, rheumatism, and 

Pachymeningitis is an inflammation of the dura mater, usually 
circumscribed, and is caused by inflammation extending from without, 

leptomeningitis is an inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid, 
and may be localized because of infection from without. It is extensive, 
when the inflammation spreads throughout the membranes of the brain 
and cord. 

Pathology. — The pathology of these inflammations is similar to the 


pathology of inflammations of other like membranes. The extent 
of the inflammation depends upon the nature of the cause and the 
condition of the tissues. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms are fever, pain in the head, which is 
greatest over the site of the severest inflammation, intolerance to light 
and sound. There is more or less nausea and retching, while the tongue 
does not indicate any trouble with the intestinal tract. The pulse is 
quick and full, the face is flushed, the pupils usually contract. There 
is restlessness and insomnia, and perhaps delirium. Later, serous ef- 
fusions, inflammatory exudates, or pus formation, etc., press on the 
brain substance, and symptoms of compression supervene. These 
will be recognized by a fixed and dilated pupil on the affected side, slow 
pulse, stertorous breathing, paralysis, and coma. There may be rigors, 
indicating pus formation. In chronic inflammations, the symptoms are 
less severe and the onset sudden. There are localized evidences of sep- 
sis. If the abscess is between the dura mater and the skull, puffiness 
of the skin, and the presence of pus, or a foul wound, would indicate 
abscess. Where there is no injury to the scalp, the symptoms arising 
may be due to the vascularity of the membranes, produced by a concus- 
sion or shaking up of the brain. After four or five da} r s, the pia mater 
and the brain substance may be affected. In bruises and lacerations 
of the pia mater and brain, inflammatory symptoms may supervene 
several days after the injury. 

Cerebral Abscess. — In the formation of a cerebral abscess, the symp- 
toms are often delayed and are more or less obscure. There is evi- 
dence of optic neuritis and paralytic disturbance in the motor area. 
Rigors may, or may not, occur. The temperature may be primarily 
elevated, but as the inflammatory reaction continues, it is usually 
subnormal. Later along in the disease there may be an elevated tem- 
perature of 101 or 102 degrees F. There is persistent headache, which 
is more or less localized, and persists throughout the delirium, in contra- 
distinction to headaches from any other cause. The pulse is 
slow, respirations are shallow, or may be of the Cheyne-Stokes variety. 
Vomiting of a retching character is a frequent symptom of cerebral 
abscess. The symptoms are those of irritation; spasmodic action of the 
muscles, followed by paralysis; the pupil on the affected side becomes 
fixed; choke-disc may be present; later, one or more of the cranial 
nerves may become involved. It is said that more than one-half of all 
the cases of cerebral abscess come from middle ear disease. Cases are 
caused b3 7 fractures of the skull, tubercular disease, and by infections 
through the mouth and nose. 

Intracranial Tumor. 

New growths in the brain are tumors, such as gliomata, psammo- 
mata, gummata (tubercular and syphilitic formations), cysts, and malig- 
nant neoplasms. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of new growth of the brain are, vomit- 


ing, headache, optic neuritis, spasms, and paralysis. Epileptiform seiz- 
ures, in the nature of Jacksonian epilepsy, are a more or less constant 
accompaniment of the development of intracranial tumor. Localization 
is more or less indicated by these symptoms: (1) The beginning of the 
epileptiform seizures may indicate the part of the brain affected. (2) 
Pain. (3) The exaggerated contraction of the flexor or extensor mus- 
cles proceeds from a certain area of the brain. (4) Paralysis of muscles, 
as of the face, monoplegia, etc.; the affection of sensation or the 
special senses, as of sight, hearing, etc. (5) The involve- 
ment of certain cranial nerves. These symptoms may indicate the loca- 
tion of the new growth. 

Treatment. — The treatment of the new growth will somewhat de- 
pend upon its nature and location. Some of these tumors are inopera- 
ble and can best be treated by the ordinary methods in the treatment of 
tumors. In tuberculosis and syphilis of the brain, the general treat- 
ment for these affections will be required. 

Hernia Cerebri. — Hernia cerebri is a condition where there is pout- 
ing of the brain substance from a wound. It looks like a reddish-brown, 
blood stained fungus mass. It pulsates with the brain. It usually over- 
hangs an opening in the skull bone. It may slough off and the wound 
cicatrize and heal, with more or less interference of function, or the 
mass may recede and the patient recover. In other cases, paralysis, 
coma, and death will occur. 

Trephining". — For the treatment of extradural and subdural hem- 
orrhage, cerebral abscess, intracranial tumor, depressed and punctured 
fractures, bullet wounds, etc., and the removal of foreign bodies, 
the operation of trephining is often required. It consists of the 
following procedure : If the patient is in a state of unconsciousness, an 
anesthetic may not be required, but where there is more or less con- 
sciousness, an anesthetic should be given. Preparatory to the opera- 
tion, the head should be shaved, the scalp thoroughly scrubbed, and ren- 
dered as nearly aseptic as possible. A semi-circular flap, including all 
the structures to the bone, should be raised. The flap should be so con- 
structed as to receive the maximum blood supply and to give the best 
opportunity for drainage. The instruments necessary for opening the 
skull are the Gait's trephine, or a good bone chisel and mallet. It is 
necessary to have a small brush for removing the saw-dust, or this may 
be removed by means of irrigation. The trephine should be set upon 
solid bone. A rongeur forceps should be at hand for the purpose of en- 
larging the opening if necessary. Care should be taken not to puncture 
the dura mater. In case of extradural hemorrhage, the dura will not 
need to be opened. In depressed fracture, after the button is removed, 
the chisel may be used as a lever and the depressed bone elevated. In 
case of cerebral abscess, the dura mater may be opened, the abscess in- 
cised, thoroughly drained, and washed out with a saturated solution of 
horacic acid. The strictest asepsis is necessary throughout the operation 


to prevent the development of meningitis. Before the operation, the 
fissure of Rolando and the anterior and posterior branches of the mid- 
dle meningeal artery, or the lateral sinus, or any part of the brain upon 
which the operation is to be made, must be outlined with an anilin pen- 
cil. This will serve as a guide to the operator. The pin of the trephine 
should protrude perhaps one-tenth of an inch beyond the saw's edge, 
and as soon as the diploe is reached, this pin should be withdrawn. If 
it is necessary to open the dura mater, the greatest care should be taken 
not to injure the cerebral vessels. After the removal of the foreign 
body, the dura mater may again be closed by means of sterile catgut or 
tendon sutures. Some surgeons make an osteoplastic flap by raising the 
scalp and skull by means of an incision through the scalp and chisel- 
ing through the bone. The operation, when the technic has been care- 
fully observed in every detail, is eminently successful in the removal 
of many brain tumors, in draining abscesses, and in the removal of for- 
eign bodies and other conditions before mentioned. 


By traumatic epilepsy is here meant that form of epilepsy which is 
usually considered operable. This kind of epilepsy may be due to the 
following conditions : 

1. Fragments or outgrowth of bones. 4. Thickening of the meninges from ■ 

2. Tumors. ehronic'meningitis. 

3. Scars or cicatrices of the men- 5. Hemorrhagic cysts or aneurysms. 


The time to operate in cases of depressed bone, or injuries of the 
brain, is at the time of the injury, and not after the development of 
epilepsy. Too often the epilepsy becomes much worse after the opera- 
tion. Some cases of cure by operation for epilepsy are reported in the 
non-traumatic form, but almost all cases are not benefited, while some 
may be made much worse. It is questionable whether operation in 
either form of epilepsy is of any use. The removal of any object press- 
ing upon the cortex of the brain would be attended by benefit, if not 
by actual relief of the epileptiform seizures. 

Treatment. — The treatment of epilepsy must be considered from 
other standpoints. Osteopathic methods offer more hope than other 
forms of treatment. 

Mastoid Disease. — Mastoid disease is an inflammation of the mas- 
toid cells caused by the extension of the inflammation from the tympa- 
num (in cases of otitis media). The symptoms vary according to 
the severity of the inflammation. The inflammation may be slight and 
terminate in resolution, or it may become chronic and be followed by 
fibroid changes, with subsequent ossification of the inflammatory 
products, thus converting the antrum into bone. Often suppura- 


tion results. Pus may open at the tip of the mastoid process, or 
burrow down the neck. In other cases, the infection may extend into 
the lateral sinus and an infected thrombus result, while in other cases 
cerebral abscess may develop. 

Symptoms. — Where the abscess makes its way into the cranial cavity, 
there will be symptoms of cerebral abscess. Over the mastoid process 
there is deep seated pain upon pressure. Where the periosteum over 
the mastoid is involved, there will be great redness and swelling and in- 
flammation of the tissues behind the ear. Sometimes the abscess is 
but superficial and will point, and after rupturing, discharge its con- 
tents spontaneously, but after pus forms, many cases will require some 
operative interference. 

Treatment. — The treatment of the disease is anti-inflammatory. Hot 
fomentations should be applied, to attract the pus towards the surface. 
As soon as fluctuation is felt, the abscess should be thoroughly opened 
and cleansed. It should then be treated by hot borated poultices and 
any cervical lesions removed, while the contracted fascia and muscles of 
the neck should be relaxed. Suppuration is the rule. No measures are 
entirely successful, inasmuch as the blood supply to the middle ear and 
the mastoid cells must come through bony canals, which will not permit 
of sufficient nutrition to enable the tissues to combat the infection. 
Where the inflammation is deep seated, and the pus does not show a 
tendency to burrow towards the surface, and there are evidences of 
meningitis, the operation for trephining the mastoid should be done. 
To open the mastoid antrum, the trephine should be set a half-inch 
behind and one-fourth inch above the middle of the external auditory 
meatus. In case the anterior surface of the petrous bone and the roof 
of the tympanum are to be excised, the operation should be seven- 
eighths of an inch above the middle of the auditory meatus, while if the 
lateral sinus is to be operated upon, the point of operation is one and 
one-eighth inches behind and one-fourth inch above the middle of the 
auditory meatus. Abscess in the cerebellar region is opened at a point 
one and one-fourth inches behind and a half inch below the middle of 
the auditory meatus. 

Abscess of the Scalp. — Abscess of the scalp, if it occurs beneath the 
aponeurosis of the occipito-frontalis, may be spread over a large area. It 
will require free incision and good drainage. It should be washed out 
twice daily and thoroughly cleansed. 

Microcephalus is a condition of abnormally small head, due to mal- 
development. The skull frequently becomes ossified early. Operations 
for the removal of sections of bone have been performed with the hope 
of the brain developing, but this operation has not been attended with 
any success. These patients should be sent to a home for the feeble- 
minded. It is not known that any treatment will accomplish much 

Meningocele is a congenital tumor of the membranes of the brain 


which contains fluid. The tumor is translucent, and does not pulsate. 
It is usually located in the occipital region. It is small and pedun- 
culated. It may occur at the root of the nose. At this point, it is small 
and sessile. 

Encephalocele is a congenital tumor which is made up not only of 
the membranes, bat of the brain tissues. These tumors are small, 
opaque, and pulsatile. They have a broad base, and compression gives 
pressure symptoms. Operative treatment is advised in some cases. In 
meningocele, the tumor may be excised by plastic operation. In en- 
cephalocele, no treatment is known to be of any use. 

Hydrencephalus is a condition similar to encephalocele, but differs 
from it in that the cavity of the tumor communicates with the ventricle 
The tumor is larger than an encephalocele. 

Hydrocephalus may be acute, or chronic, external, or internal. 

Acute Hydrencephalus is caused by meningitis, and usually results 
in tubercular meningitis. For the symptoms and treatment, texts on 
osteopathic practice should be consulted. 

Chronic Hydrencephalus is a congenital condition. The cranium en- 
larges enormously, and the forehead is broad and overhangs the eyes. 
Sometimes the skull bones are widely separated. The case is usually 
apparent upon inspection. The child is often an idiot, and may not be 
able to learn to walk, or talk. It usually dies young. 

In External Hydrocephalus the fluid is between the membranes and 
the brain, while in Internal Hydrocephalus the increase in the fluid 
takes place within the ventricles. 

Injuries and Diseases of Muscles, Tendons, Fascia, and Bursae. 

Contusion of Muscles. — Contusion of muscles is a common and pain- 
ful injury, and is usually associated with considerable extravasation of 
blood within the tissues. 

Treatment. — Apply cold water the first twenty-four hours; subse- 
quent manipulation to diffuse the blood-clot will be of advantage. Some- 
times intense discoloration of the subcutaneous tissues and skin will 
take place. Unless abscess occurs, no other treatment will be neces- 
sary, even though the condition is quite painful. If abscess occurs, ap- 
plications of heat should be made. As soon as fluctuation is felt, the 
abscess should be opened. However extensive the blood extravasation, 
it should not be opened unless pus forms. Contusion of the muscles 
may result in temporary paralysis, but manipulation and encouraging 
the circulation and nerve force will result in recovery of function. 

Strain and Rupture of Muscles. — Strain and rupture of muscles may 
take place in violent exercise, or while performing athletic feats, or 
from spasmodic action of muscles, such as happen in vomiting, delirium, 
tetanus, and parturition. The muscles most often affected are the 
biceps in raising weights, supinator longus, gastrocnemius, and rectus 


f emoris in tennis, quadriceps extensor cruris in sprinters, and rectus ab- 
dominus in parturition, etc. 

Signs — Often there is a giving-way of the muscle, with a sud- 
den snap and severe pain, while a gap forms between the ruptured ends. 
The ruptured ends of the muscle form hard knots on either side of the 

Treatment. — The ends of the muscle should be approximated as 
nearly as possible by position and relaxation. Keep the limb at rest and 
apply cold water for the first twenty-four hours, then daily manipula- 
tion, together with rest, will bring about recovery. The integrity of 
the muscle may be somewhat impaired. 

Open Wounds of Muscles and Tendons. — The division of muscles and 
tendons requires approximation of the structures by special suture, to 
re-establish their function. This should be done in the manner de- 
scribed in the treatment under "Closure of Wounds." It is best done 
with aseptic catgut, or kangaroo tendon suture. 

Dislocation of Museles and Tendons. — Displacement of muscles and 
tendons takes place more frequently than is generally supposed. Sud- 
den and violent contractions, spasmodic efforts, etc., are the cause. 
Perhaps the long head of the biceps is more frequently dislocated than 
any other individual muscle. The signs somewhat resemble dislocation 
of the shoulder. Where the tendon is not returned to its normal posi- 
tion, it may become absorbed. The peroneus longus and brevis may be 
dislocated from behind the external malleolus. They will stand out 
prominently beneath the skin over the lower extremity of the fibula. 
The tibialis posticus may be dislocated from behind the internal mal- 
leolus. Muscles of the calf, thigh, back, neck, arm, and forearm are 
all liable to dislocation. The diagnosis can only be made by under- 
standing the anatomical relations. 

Treatment. — The treatment is to manipulate the parts into position 
and enjoin rest and quiet until the ruptured sheaths heal. Operations 
to place a halter about luxated tendons may sometimes be necessary, 
where the dislocation becomes habitual. This operation is, if properly 
done, successful. 

Bupture of Tendons. — Tendon-rupture occurs because of violent 
muscular contraction or violence to the tendon itself. The ends of the 
ruptured tendon should be approximated and the limb flexed or ex- 
tended, abducted or adducted, as the case may be, to thoroughly relax 
the muscle. The member should be put in a splint until the tendon 
heals, which will be within two or three weeks. 

Myalgia. — Myalgia, or muscular rheumatism, so-called, is a painful 
affection of voluntary muscles, or of the periosteum and fascia to which 
these muscles are attached and by which they are surrounded. The 
disease is properly not a rheumatism, but is more in the nature of a 
neuralgia. The cause of the disease is a specific bony lesion pressing 


upon the vessels and nerves to the part affected, or congestion of the 
muscles brought about by cold, damp, exposure, and climatic conditions. 
These congestions bring about muscular contractions, producing bony 
lesions, which of themselves serve to prolong the ailment. When it 
affects the muscles of the back, it is termed lumbago; the intercostal 
muscles, pleurodynia; the muscles of the scalp, cephalodynia. Myalgia 
of the muscles of the neck is called rheumatic torticollis. A certain 
class of these diseases is produced by mercury and lead poisoning, 
syphilis, alcoholic excesses, gouty and rheumatic conditions. 

Treatment. — The treatment is distinctly osteopathic. Certain 
lesions are responsible for the affection. Sometimes these are bony, 
and sometimes muscular. Occasionally, bony lesions will irritate certain 
nerve filaments, when spasm of some muscle, or group of muscles, results. 
This serves to perpetuate the lesion and to increase the pain and conges- 
tion. Sometimes congestion of muscles and fascia will produce sufficient 
irritation to bring about muscular contraction and thus cause lesions. 
Wherever myalgia occurs, certain lesions may be found to which the 
disease can be traced. The removal of these lesions will be attended 
by a cessation of pain and recovery. Manipulation directed toward re- 
lieving contracted and congested muscles, fascia, and ligaments, will be 
necessary, as well as the removal of bony lesions. In the largest number 
of cases, spinal lesions, causing pressure upon the roots of the nerves 
as they leave the spinal canal through the intervertebral foramina, are 
the direct cause of the ailment. These may be found upon careful ex- 
amination. In any case, the appropriate treatment of the lesions pres- 
ent will give relief. 

Myositis. — Myositis is an inflammation of muscles produced by in- 
jury and infection. The course it runs is not unlike that of inflamma- 
tions of other structures, and the treatment is similar. Should an 
abscess develop, it should be freely opened and drained. 

Gummata. — Syphilitic gummata may occur as local swellings in 
muscles in tertiary syphilis. History of the disease and the absence of 
other causes will serve to make the diagnosis. The treatment is anti- 

Atrophy and Degeneration. — Atrophy of the muscles may be simple, 
or numerical. Simple atrophy is usually due to non-use. This happens 
in the case of fractures. The muscles do not lose their striations, and 
appropriate treatment, or use, brings about the entire recovery and de- 
velopment. Numerical atrophy often attends critical joint disease, with 
long disuse of the limb. It may be impossible to secure complete re- 
covery of the muscles affected. 

Degeneration of Muscle takes place in acute fevers, progressive mus- 
cular trophy, infantile palsy, and other paralysis. The prognosis is 
only fair, if the case is of long standing. The degenerations are fatty, 
waxy, and albuminoid in nature. The integrity of the muscle may be 
more or less permanently impaired. 


Treatment. — The condition of atrophied or degenerated muscles 
may always he improved. The extent of improvement depends upon 
the amount of pressure on, or injury to, the nerves, and as to whether 
these nerves may he regenerated. Much depends on the condition of 
the circulation, and to what extent the tissues respond to the treat- 
ment. In many instances, withered limbs, or paratyzed members of 
years' standing, have been relieved in a few months, the muscles being 
restored to their normal strength and tonicity. In other instances, not 
much relief can be given. Where there is disease of the nerve cells 
governing the muscles, the prognosis is not favorable. In all other in- 
stances manipulation directed toward assisting the circulation, nerve 
supply, and to removing lesions affecting the nerve and blood supply 
directly, will secure regeneration of the affected parts. 

Ossification of Muscles. — Ossification of muscles may arise from cer- 
tain diseased conditions, chronic irritation, or occupations. The most 
frequent examples met with are the rider's bone in the adductor mus- 
cles, or ossification of the deltoid in soldiers, the result of carrying 
arms. Ossification of the quadriceps extensor is said to take place in 
cases of Charcot's disease. 

Tenosynovitis, or Thecitis. — This disease may occur in the form of 
a simple inflammation of tendon-sheaths, as the result of injury or over- 
exertion. It often affects the common extensor tendons of the thumb. 
It is accompanied by a globular or elongated swelling- over the tendon. 
It is painful until after the swelling takes place. The swelling is more 
or less fluctuating and movable. After the swelling disappears, or in 
chronic forms of the disease, movement will produce a characteristic 
creaking sensation (false crepitus). 

Treatment. — Strapping, as a strap buckled tightly around the wrist, 
will give relief from pain. Local manipulation will assist the circulation 
and may secure resorption of the inflammatory products. The treat- 
ment must be persisted in, since the case yields but slowly. The 
tendons should be given sufficient rest to permit the reparative process 
to take place when there has been injury. 

Thecal Abscess. — (Paronychia tendinosa). This is a suppurative 
form of inflammation occurring in tendon-sheaths. The non-suppurative 
form may occur in gonorrhea, rheumatism, and influenza. It is attended 
by fluid effusions, crepitus, etc. Thecal abscess is one of the forms of 
whitlow, or felon. It occurs in persons who are debilitated. Constipa- 
tion exists, or the urinary secretions are abnormal. In addition, there 
are bony or muscular lesions affecting the circulation or nerve supply 
to the part This renders infection possible. Bacterial invasion 
takes place in a finger or toe. The disease is more common in the 
hand, where it is in the form of a palmar abscess. Thecal abscess of the 
little finger and thumb is more serious than of the middle, index, and 
ring fingers, inasmuch as the effusion of pus may take place along back 
the tendon- sheath which communicates with the sheath of the common 


flexors in the hand. The pus may burrow underneath the annular lig- 
ament and in some cases may extend up the arm. Such extension of 
the pus is not, possible in abscess of the index, middle, and ring fingers, 
inasmuch as the tendon-sheaths do not communicate directly with the 
tendon -sheaths in the palm. The abscess may extend into the palm, 
pass between the heads of the interossei muscles, and open on the back 
of the hand, or may burrow underneath the annular ligament, produc- 
ing a swelling above the wrist, or may even extend up the sheath of the 
muscles into the forearm. Sepsis may result. Necrosis of 
the bone may occur, or a considerable amount of fibrous tissue may 
form and the sheaths of the tendons become glued to the tendon itself, 
producing contractions and deformity, or it may involve the carpal, 
phalangeal, metacarpophalangeal, or wrist-joints, producing ankylosis. 

Symptoms. — Severe throbbing pain, extreme tenderness upon pres- 
sure, swelling, and a dusky redness. Oftentimes there is swelling, 
edema, and redness of the back of the hand. The lymphatics in the 
axilla are enlarged and painful; constitutional symptoms, as rise of 
temperature, are present; the appetite is lost; there is constipation; the 
urine is less in amount and highly colored. Only one other affection 
resembles this disease, and that is acute septic inflammation of the 
connective tissues of the fingers and not involving the tendon-sheaths. 
Care should be taken when the abscess is opened, which will nearly 
always be necessary, not to make an incision into the tendon-sheath, 
unless it is necessary. 

Treatment. — Tbe treatment is manipulative and anti-inflammatory. 
The manipulation consists of removing local lesions, increasing the cir- 
culation and nerve supply to the part, together with correcting the con- 
stipation and urinary secretions. Attention should be paid to any con- 
stitutional defect found. Should suppuration be imminent, an early 
incision is necessary. The incision should be made just a little to one 
side of the middle line of the finger. The abscess should be thoroughly 
washed out once or twice daily with antiseptic solutions (1:20 carbolic 
acid, or 1 :2000 bichloride of mercury). In the meantime, hot borated 
poultices should be applied. This facilitates the flow of pus, loosens 
the tissues and maintains mild antisepsis. As the inflammation disap- 
pears, a dry dressing may be substituted and manipulation of the hand 
be made to prevent adhesions. If the treatment is instituted early, 
before the pus has extended beyond the annular ligament, even though 
a palmar abscess has formed, no deformity ox the hand will follow. In 
opening a palmar abscess, an incision should not be made above the web 
of the thumb, but beyond that point. If made beyond a line on the 
level with the web of the thumb, there is no danger of wounding the 
palmar arch, which would occasion severe hemorrhage. Efforts to ligate 
the palmar arch may be futile, and it may be necessary to ligate the 

Whitlow, or Felon. — Whitlow is a pyogenic invasion of a finger or 


toe. The cause is the same as that mentioned in thecitis. The location 
of whitlow may be: 1. In the superficial connective tissues, which,, 
when it occurs at the root of the nail, is popularly termed a "run- 
around." 2. When within a tendon-sheath "thecitis." 3. Beneath the 
periosteum it is called a bone felon. 

The symptoms vary according to the location of the infection. 
Manipulation to assist the circulation, the application of hot poultices 
to secure the relaxation of the tissues, together with an early incision 
to let out the stagnated blood and pus, and rigid antisepsis afterward, 
form the best treatment. 

Dup'iiytren's Contraction takes place in the palmar fascia. The 
disease begins as a. small, round, fibrous nodule in the process of fascia 
extending from the palm to the fingers. Generally two or three .lingers 
are affected. The skin is drawn and puckered because of its attachment 
to the fascia. In this manner it may be told from contractions of the 
tendons. Local manipulation does but little good. The disease may be 
attended by a cervical lesion, which is indirectly responsible for the 
fascial contraction. Perhaps it is due to chronic inflammation of the 
fascia, or to rheumatic conditions. Incisions between the puckered 
portions and the use of splints to straighten the fingers will be found 
to be successful. An open incision should be made under strictest 

Ganglia. — Ganglia are of two varieties, simple and compound. 
Simple ganglia are cysts in connection with the tendon-sheaths. They 
develop from the synovial fringes in connection with the ex- 
tensor tendons, but may occur on the front of the wrist, palm, or 
about the ankle. They vary in size from a small pea to a guinea-egg, 
and contain a viscid, semi-viscid, or jelly-like material. They impair the 
action of the tendon and produce some deformity. The disease is quite 
common in piano players. 

Treatment. — Eupture by pressure of the thumbs. If this is not suc- 
cessful, the tumor may be struck a smart blow with a piece of shingle. 
Failing in this, the skin should be asepticized, a tenotome introduced, 
the inside of the sac cut in several places, the contents expressed, and 
the wound afterwards dressed antiseptically. The ganglion, will likely 
not return, nor will it affect the use of the part, providing proper 
manipulation is used to prevent adhesion. Compound ganglia usually 
appear on the front of the wrist in connection with the flexor tendons. 
They are oblong, or oval, sometimes containing a dark fluid, or they may 
be filled with melon seed-like bodies, or the bits may resemble rice- 
grains. Often there is some constitutional defect attending these condi- 
tions, which should be treated. These ganglia can not be ruptured by the 
methods mentioned before, but on the other hand, a valvular incision 
should be made, the contents expressed and drained out, while anti- 
septic dressings should be strapped on tightly. 

Bursitis. — Bursitis is an inflammation of bursae, which may lie be- 


tween the skin and the tendons or bone, or between tendons and other 
structures. There are two forms, acute and chronic. Acute inflamma- 
tion is the result of injury, and anti-inflammatory treatment is neces- 
sary. Kest and manipulation will usually relieve the fluid effusion. 
The chronic form arises where the bursa is subject to chronic irritation. 
Fluid effusions into the bursae seem to be more common in persons of 
rheumatic tendency. The contents may be a clear fluid, or may be rice- 
grain or melon seed-like bodies, or may be a fibrinous mass. The most 
common site of this bursal inflammation is the bursa of the patella, 
where it fonns a condition called "housemaid's knee;" or it may occur 
in the bursa beneath the semimembranosus and form an enlargement in 
the popliteal space, which more or less disappears upon flexion. (Baker's 
cyst.) Enlargement of the bursa over the ischial tuberosity is called 
"weaver's bottom."' Inflammation and enlargement of the bursa over 
the olecranon is called "miner's elbow," while inflammation of the bursa 
over the head of the first metatarsal bone occasions a condition called 
"bunion." In other cases, adventitious bursae may form and produce 
corns. These bursae may produce dislocations of bones. Absorption 
of the fluid in these bursae will not, as a rule, take place of itself, un- 
less the part is permitted rest and the irritation and cause removed. 
Manipulative methods may be tried, and failing in this, antiseptic drain- 
ing of the bursae will be found successful. 

Torticollis. — Torticollis, or wry-neck, is a condition of contraction of 
the sterno-mastoid and trapezius muscles. There are two forms, congenital 
and acquired. The congenital form is produced by malposition in utero, 
orinjuryat birth. These produce specific lesions in the cervical vertebrae 
from the first to the fifth, inclusive. The acquired form is produced by 
rheumatism, inflamed lymphatic glands, producing contractions of the 
muscles, hysteria, and by traumatic lesions of the first to the fifth cervi- 
cal vertebrae. These lesions affect the external division of the spinal 
arcc-essory nerve, which is the motor supply to the trapezius and sterno- 
mastoid, or it affects filaments of the cervical plexus, which sometimes 
also supply these muscles. In cases where the lesion was the first cause, 
reduction of the lesion will accomplish a cure. In old cases, congestion 
and chronic inflammation take place within the muscles. This is ac- 
companied by the formation of fibrous tissue, which displaces the 
striated fibres and impairs the integrity of the muscles, and subsequent 
contraction produces permanent shortening, so that a cure may not be 
accomplished by the correction of the lesion. All cases may be 
markedly benefited by treatment. Cases have been cured by os- 
teopathic treatment after section of the muscle and resection of the 
nerve had failed. The treatment consists of correcting the neck lesions 
and improving the general health. 

Tenotomy. — Tenotomy consists in the division of a tendon, or muscle, 
the contraction of which produces deformity. Two methods are in use, 
the open, and closed. The closed method is preferred, since it eliminates 


the danger of sepsis. The tendo Achillis is frequently tenotomized for 
correcting conditions of club-foot, as equino-varus. This operation is 
best performed by having the patient lie upon his back, inclined to- 
wards the affected side. The part is rendered thoroughly aseptic. The 
instruments used are a blunt and sharp-pointed tenotome. A knife is 
inserted flatwise along the anterior border of the tendon until the point 
of the knife may be felt on the opposite side of the leg just beneath 
the skin. Care should be taken not to split the tendon. After this in- 
cision is made, a blunt-pointed tenotome is introduced. After intro- 
duction, the sharp edge of the tenotome is turned towards the tendon 
and brought against it and held in that position firmly, while the tendon 
is thoroughly stretched by flexing the foot. The tendon will snap in 
two. The operation is done one and a half inches above the insertion 
of the tendo Achillis into the tuberosity of the os calcis. The tibialis 
anticus is tenotomized one and one-half inches above its insertion for 
conditions of talipes varus. The peroneus longus and brevis may be 
tenotomized one and one-half inches above the external malleolus. The 
tibialis posticus is divided one and a half inches above the anterior an- 
nular ligament. Fasciotomy of the plantar fascia is sometimes per- 
formed by passing the knife flatwise between the skin and fascia and 
cutting inward, dividing the fascia or the structures which are produc- 
ing the abnormal arching of the foot. Sometimes instead of tenotomy, 
tendon lengthening is performed. This is a plastic operation done by 
splitting the tendon and sliding the two portions a distance apart. The 
operation of tendon lengthening is also sometimes necessary where 
sections of the tendons have been lost because of injury. In case of in- 
jury, it may sometimes be necessary to attach the ruptured tendon to 
adjacent muscles or tendons in order to not entirely lose the use of 
the muscle. For more exhaustive descriptions of these operative pro- 
cedures, an operative surgery should be consulted. 

Syndactylism, or Web Pinger, is a congenital condition and is re- 
lieved by operation. Some such operation as Diday's should be done in 
dividing the fingers. 

Polydactylism is a condition of supernumerary digits. The extra 
finger should be amputated while the child is young, to prevent de- 

Trigger-finger is a condition in which one or more of the fingers are 
held in a flexed condition, but when forcibly extended they will open 
with a snap, as in opening a knife. The hand may be readily closed. ■ 
It is said to be produced by contraction of the transverse ligament of 
the palm. It may be produced by cartilagenous tumors, or ganglia. Some 
maintain it is clue to enlargement or an inflamed condition of the flexor 

Mallet-finger is a condition due to the rupture of the extensor ten- 
don, where it forms the posterior ligament of the phalangeal articula- 
tion. A similar condition is found in base-ball players, and is due to a 



Fig. 112. 

dislocation backward of the first phalanx. The condition may be cured 
by reducing the dislocation which often exists and putting the finger 
in a splint. 

Club-hand is a deformity of the hand due to absence of one of the 
carpal bones. 

Genu Valgum, or Knock-knee, is an abnormal growth of the inner 
condyle of the femur. This condition is brought about by an interfer- 
ence in the nutrition to the outer condyle and outer part of the bone. 
Spinal lesions interfere with the nerve supply to that part of the bone, 
or interference with the blood supply may also cause the deformity, or 
it may be brought about by a general co^ition of malnutrition. The 
improvement of the general nutrition of the body and the correction 
of local lesions will be attended by the correction of the deformity, pro- 
viding this treatment is commenced reasonably early. Where this fails, 
which may happen in long standing cases, an osteoplastic operation, 
such as removing a wedge-shaped piece of bone from the internal con- 
dyle, will be found to give relief. 

Genu Varum, or Bow-legs, may be an inherited condition, or it may 
be brought about by encouraging the child to stand before the bones of 

the legs have properly ossified. It may 
occur in rickety children, or conditions 
of malnutrition. Bony lesions likely ac- 
count for some cases. These bony 
lesions either act directly upon the 
nerve and blood supply, or bring about 
a contraction of the muscles, which in- 
terferes with the nutrition to the inner 
side of the bones of the upper and lower 
leg. The external condjde often grows 
too long, or there may be bowing of 
the femur and tibia. Improvement in 
the general health often markedly bene- 
fits the condition. The correction of 
any bony lesions, reduction of disloca- 
tions, or improvement of the general 
health, will be attended by lessening of 
the deformity. 
Club-foot is a condition where the bones of the tarsus assume an 
abnormal relation with the bones of the leg. It is accompanied by con- 
tractions of the ligaments, fascia, and muscles of the foot and leg, to- 
gether with distortion and twisting of the bones of the tarsus. It may 
be congenital, or acquired. 

A. Congenital Club-foot may be produced by one of the following 
conditions: 1. Spastic contractions of the muscles, due to lesions af- 
fecting the nerve centers governing the foot. 2. Malposition in utero. 
3. Alteration of the tarsal bones, due to interference in the blood sup- 

Genu Varum, 



B. The acquired form is produced by the following conditions : 1. 
infantile paralysis — nearly all of the cases of acquired talipes, or cl uo- 
foot, are produced by infantile paralysis. 2. Injury. 3. Spinal lesions 
which bring about weak ligaments, disease, and fascial contraction. 

Varieties, — The varieties of club-foot are: 

1. Talipes varus. 

2. Talipes equinus. 

3. Talipes calcaneus. 

4, Talipes valgus. 

5, Talipes cavus. 

Combinations of these mav occur in the form of: 

1. Talipes equino-varus. 

2. Talipes equino-valgus. 

3. Talipes calcaneo-valfus. 

Fig. 113. 

Talipes Varus is the most common form 

of club-foot. In this condition the tibialis 

posticus and anticus muscles, together with 

the tendo Achillis, are found contracted, 

while the peronei muscles are correspond- 
ingly relaxed. The foot is twisted so that 

in walking the outer border of the foot first 

comes in contact with the floor. The sole 

of the foot looks, in mild cases, downward 

and inward, but in pronounced cases the 

foot may be turned so that the sole looks 

directly upward, while the back of the foot 

is directed downward. If the condition; 

persists, the abnormal position of the foot 

affects the blood supply to the bones, and 

pressure upon the bones in an abnormal 

position results in their irregular develop- 
ment, so that they become deformed. The 

tracted, and tbese often form the chief obstacle to reduction, even if 

the muscles could be readily relaxed. In 
the congenital variety, the deformity is 
readily reduced. If allowed to persist, it 
will result in extreme deformity. Talipes 
varus per se is not common, but is very com- 
mon when associated with equinus, so that 
equino-varus is the common condition. The 
acquired equino-varus is nearly always the 
result of infantile paralysis, and that 
amount of recovery can be expected com- 
mensurate with the recovery of the part of 
the spinal cord affected. The withdrawal of 
the nerve supply and the interference in the 
blood supply prevent the proper develop- 
ment of the foot. 

Acquired Talipes Varus. 

ligaments become con- 

Fig. 114. 

Congenital Talipes Varus. 



Talipes Equinus is rare, and is either clue to paralysis of the extensor 
tendons or to a spasm of the muscles forming the tendo Achillis. The 
heel is drawn up, while the foot is extended. 

Fig. 115. 

Fig. 116. 

Talipes Equinus. 

Talipes Equino-calcaneus. 

Fig. 117 

Talipes Calcaneus may be congenital, or acquired. When congenital, 
it is due to contraction of the extensor tendons, and when acquired it is 
due to infantile paralysis of the calf muscles. In this condition the foot 
is abnormally flexed upon the leg and the patient walks upon the heel. 

Talipes Valgus, or flat-foot, may 
be due to several conditions: 1. 
Weakening and yielding of the lig- 
aments of the bottom of the tarsus. 
2. Supporting heavy weights for 
some length of time. 3. Eheuma- 
tism and gonorrheal affections of 
the ligaments, together with 
sprains and rachitic conditions. 4. 
Paralysis of the tibialis anticus and 
posticus muscles. 5. Badly set 
Pott's fracture. The arch of the foot sinks down and is lost. In the 
acquired form, the patient is badly crippled and the foot is longer and 
broader than normally. The astragalus and scaphoid bones form pro- 
jections on the inner side of the foot. 

Talipes Cavus or Equino-calcaneus is a condition of abnormal in- 
crease of the arch of the foot and is produced in some cases by contrac- 
tions of the plantar fascia, while in other cases by spastic conditions of 
the peroneal muscles. 

Treatment. — Manipulation, begun early, will cure a large number 
of the cases of club-foot. In congenital club-foot, the treatment should 
be instituted immediately after birth. Whatever dislocation is found 

Talipes Valgus. 




should be reduced. This is important. The blood and nerve supply 
to the weak muscles should be encouraged. If the condition is due to a 
spasm of certain muscles, this spasm can be relieved by removing the 
spinal lesions irritating certain nerve roots causing such spasm. If the 
condition has persisted for a long time, and the spasm of the muscles 
can not be relieved, tenotomy of these muscles may be done with ad- 
vantage. Applying a plaster cast, with or without tenotomy, in all 
cases, and holding the foot in normal position, is bad practice. Where the 
deformity persists in spite of manipulation, a plaster cast may be applied, 
or the foot may be held in normal position by means of some apparatus 
which can be adjusted as required and can be removed for the purpose 
of treatment. Strips of adhesive plaster, passed across the sole of the 
foot and carried up along the side of the leg, will suffice to hold the 
foot in normal position in some cases of talipes varus. These may be 
removed at the time of treatment. Many cases may be cured without 
application of any deformity appa- p IG ug # Fig. 119. 

ratus. In old cases, where the pa- 
tient has walked on the foot and 
it is believed that the bones are 
malformed, the prognosis should 
be guarded. The case may be im- 
proved, but may not be cured. 
Operative treatment is likely nec- 
essary. Where tenotomy will not 
correct the deformity, the fascia 
and ligaments should be divided so 
as to permit the foot to be returned 
to its normal position. Where the 
foot can not be returned to its nor- 
mal position after subcutaneous division of tendons and fas- 
cia, tarsotomy may be performed with advantage. This oper- 
ation, if properly done, offers hope of fair recovery of the 
deformity. Even in old cases, after several unsuccessful opera- 
tions, manipulative treatment will be found of great benefit. It 
must not be expected that the deformed bones can be cured by manip- 
ulative methods, but further deformity can be prevented by proper 
treatment. In talipes cavus, the subcutaneous division of the plantar 
fascia may give relief. In flat-foot, or pes planus, the fitting into the 
sole of the shoe of a steel spring which will assist in raising the arch of 
the foot, will be found of advantage. In equino-varus, tenotomy of the 
ten do Achillis, together with both tibial muscles, should be done, while 
in talipes equinus, tenotomy of the tendo Achillis will be sufficient. 

Hallux Valgus, or Varus, is a partial dislocation of the great toe out- 
ward, or inward. It most often occurs in old men. The cause is from 
wearing narrow shoes, or wearing a shoe which presses against the 
end of the toe and weakens the inner metatarsophalangeal ligament. 
The bone is usually displaced inward, and because of pressure upon the 

Imprint of a nor- 
mal foot. 

Imprint of the 
foot in pes planus. 



head of the first metatarsal bone, bursitis follows. This bunion is fre- 
quently an extremely painful condition. It may be successfully treated 
by reduction of the dislocation. It may be necessary to hold the dislo- 
cated toe in position hj means of an apparatus for straightening the 
toe. Continued reduction and manipulation, to- 
Fig. 120. gether with properly fitting shoes, will cure the ail- 

ment, unless in very old people. 

Hammer-toe is a condition of contraction of the 
plantar fibres of the lateral ligaments. A bunion 
forms on top of the toe. Probably amputation of 
the toe is the best treatment. 

Metatarsalgia (Morton's Disease). — This disease 
is a partial dislocation of one or more of the meta- 
tarsal bones, implicating certain nerve fibres, which 
cause intense pain. The disease may be diagnosed 
by grasping the foot and compressing it transverse- 
ly. This occasions great pain. The disease may be' 
associated with flat-foot, and is produced by wearing 
a shoe that is too narrow. The pain is on the outer 
and inner side of the little, or fourth toe, or about 
the neck of the fourth metatarsal bone. Manipula- 
tion for reduction of the subluxation and a properly 
Hallux valgus, with fitting shoe will give relief. 

the formation of a ° ° 

Coxa Vara is a disease in which there is abnormal 
bending of the neck of the femur, usually laterally. 
It is said to occur most frequently between twelve and 
twenty years of age. Likely the disease is rachitic. The 
disease is frequently diagnosed as dislocation. The neck of the 
femur gives way and the trochanter ascends above JSTelaton's line. 
The condition is frequently greatly improved by treatment, indicating 
that it is due to an interference in the nutrition of the neck of the 
femur. It may be brought about, more or less, by partial dislocation, or 
the existence of certain spinal lesions. It may require the assistance 
of the x-rays to determine the condition. 

Flail-Joints. — Abnormal looseness of joints following infantile par- 
alysis, or prolonged pressure upon a nerve to the joint, is called flail- 
joint. The condition is most common in the hip, knee, and ankle. 
When the condition is produced by dislocations, or spinal lesions, the 
dislocation should be reduced and the spinal lesions corrected, together 
with encouraging the blood supply and increasing the tonicity of the 
ligaments and muscles. Where cases have persisted for years, there is 
not much hope of recovery. 


Face, Lips, Tongue, Mouth, and Throat. 

Cracks and Fissures of the Lip. — Cause. — Exposure, cold, dyspepsia, 
and neglect may lead to fissures of the lip, which obstinately refuse to 
heal. These will require treatment. Compound tincture of benzoin 
should be applied once daily or the fissure cauterized with a stick of 
silver nitrate. If the sore is kept up by a foul condition of the mouth, 
a boroglyceride solution should be used as a mouth wash after each 
meal. If the sores are syphilitic, they should be at once cauterized, since 
they may easily be a source of infection. 

Papillomata or Warty Growths of the Lip should be removed with a 
knife or curved scissors. 

Ulcers of the Lip may be dyspeptic, syphilitic, or tubercular. In dys- 
peptic ulcers, boroglyceride solution should be used as a wash several 
times daily. These ulcers should not be cauterized. Syphilitic ulcers 
occur in secondary syphilis. They should be cauterized with nitrate of 
silver and afterwards treated as a simple sore. 

Nevi or Angiomata may occur on the lips. They may be removed 
by electrolysis or subcutaneous ligature. 

Hypertrophy of the Lip may occur in strumous conditions, or in 
syphilis. Constitutional treatment for these conditions may relieve the 
thickness of the lip. Where the condition persists, a V-shaped mass 
of tissues may be removed by operation. 

Chancre of the Lip. — Chancre of the lips and tongue, and even of the 
tonsil, has been reported in young persons in lower classes. Such sus- 
picious sores should be immediately cauterized to prevent spreading of 
the disease. 

Tumors of the Lip are both benign and malignant. The malignant 
tumors are of the nature of cancer and rodent ulcer, and may be diag- 
nosed by the ordinary signs of malignant tumor, together with later en- 
largement of the lymphatic glands. The enlargement of the lymphatic 
glands does not appear before six months. After the cancer 
ulcerates, the best treatment is a V-shaped incision, removing all ves- 
tiges of the growth. This is more successful than cauterization. Cases 
of persistent ulcer may be cauterized with chloride of zinc or arsenious 
acid, or sulphuric acid paste. This causes extensive sloughing of the 
tissues and may get rid of the malignant sore. 

Harelip.— Harelip is a congenital malformation of the upper lip, 
caused by failure of the fronto-nasal plates to close. It may be a mere 
cleft in the lip, or it may extend into the nostril, or even to the inner 



canthus of the eye. Very rarely it may be bilateral. The most common 
form is- a mere clefting of the lip. In some cases, the intermaxillary 
bone and the septum of the nose are absent, or are partially developed. 
Frequently, there coexists cleft palate, spina bifida, club-foot, etc. 

Treatment. — The edges of the cleft should be pared, approximated 
and held by harelip pins and appropriate sutures to secure union. The 
operation should be done between the third and fifth months, since a 
very small child withstands hemorrhage badly. The object of the op- 
eration should be to secure primary union, without scar, and to prevent 
a post-operative notch in the lip, and keep the margins of the lip in 
lino. It is almost the universal practice to use pins and sutures. 
The incision will depend upon the nature of the cleft. The 
success of the operation frequently depends upon the ingenuity of 
the operator. It requires more skill to secure an elegant result and 
thorough correction of the deformity in many cases of harelip than it 
does to perform many of the major operations. A nice approximation 
of the wound must be secured. The pins should be removed within 
thirty-six hours after the operation, otherwise scarring will result. The 
sutures between the pins should b a allowed to remain until union has 
taken place. After the removal of the pins, the lip should be thoroughly 
strapped, in order to prevent the wound being torn asunder. 

Stomatitis. — The more frequent and mild forms of stomatitis come 
within the province of the physician, and not the surgeon. There are 
two forms in which surgical measures are sometimes necessary. These 
are the toxic stomatitis, mercurial stomatitis, or ptyalism, and the gan- 
grenous stomatitis, or noma. In mercurial stomatitis, or ptyalism, 
there is ulceration and edema of the gums, profuse secretion of 
saliva, the breath is foul, arid the person is in great pain. The disease 
is produced by the administration of some form of mercury, usually 
calomel. The indications in the treatment are to at once remove the 
drug and put the patient upon a nourishing liquid diet. See that the 
other secretions, such as urine and stools, are free. Antiseptic 
mouth washes should be used several times daily. Chlorate of potassium 
in saturated solution, will be found of great service. Peroxid of hydro- 
gen is also useful, diluted with equal parts of water. Boroglyceride 
solution may be used with advantage. The mouth should be thoroughly 
cleansed with an antiseptic solution each time after taking food. 

Gangrenous Stomatitis. — See Gangrene. 

Ranula. — Eanula is a bluish -white, semi-translucent, ovoid tumor 
growing in the floor of the mouth. It is produced by closure of Whar- 
ton's duct, or by distension of a mucous follicle. The operation is to 
clip out a part of the tumor with curved scissors and cauterize the sac 
with a stick of nitrate of silver. 

Dermoid Cysts. — Dermoid cysts occur in the middle line of the neck, 
and sometimes project into the mouth. They are the result of fetal 
inclusions. They may extend up into the mouth, where they may be 


shelled out, or they may develop in the neighborhood of the hyoid bone. 
Where they develop lower down, they should be dissected out, 
otherwise a fistula is liable to result. 

Tongue-tie. — In the treatment of tongue-tie, a little notch should 
be clipped in the margin of the frenum linguae soon after birth. Care 
should be taken not to clip too much of the frenum, or to cut the ranine 

Microglossia is a condition of obstruction of the lymphatics leading 
from the tongue. The tongue develops in some cases to enormous size, 
and may enlarge so as to fill the mouth and to distend it, keeping it per- 
manently open. It is congenital, or acquired. It is sometimes asso- 
ciated with a similar condition of elephantiasis of other parts of the 
body. Where manipulative methods do not give relief, an operation 
should be advised, and a wedge-shaped piece of the tongue removed. 

Acute Glossitis. — Acute inflammations of the tongue result from 
bee-stings and infections, from mercurial poisoning, as in mercurial 
stomatitis, and injury, or acute fevers. Where manipulative methods 
will not give relief by assisting the return circulation and relieving the 
obstruction to the circulation, an incision should be made to provide for 
drainage of the fluids, or pus. 

TJlcers of the Tongue are simple, dyspeptic, syphilitic, tubercular, 
and gangrenous. Simple ulcers may be cauterized with nitrate of sil- 
ver, or the mouth may be rinsed with borax and honey, or boroglyceride 
solution. Dyspeptic ulcers should not be cauterized, but should be 
treated antiseptically. Syphilitic and tubercular ulcers should be cauter- 
ized, but the conditions may return unless systemic treatment is ad- 
ministered to get rid of the general poison. Cancer of the tongue may 
be removed by excision of a considerable portion of the tongue, provid- 
ing the diagnosis is made early. 

Cleft Palate.' — Cleft palate is failure in the development of the hard 
or soft palate, and is due to the arrest of development of the processes 
which normally form the superior maxillary and palate bones, which 
processes subsequently form the vomer. Various degrees of this condi- 
tion may exist. Simply the uvula may be absent, or the cleft may be 
in the soft palate only, or there may be entire absence of the inter- 
maxillary processes, vomer and nasal septum. The cleft may be so ex- 
tensive as to prevent the child nursing. The operation for relief of cleft 
palate is staphylorrhaphy. 

Staphylorrhaphy. — This operation is advised for the relief of cleft 
palate. Uranoplasty may be necessary where the intermaxillary 
processes are absent. These operations should, as a rule, be undertaken 
after the end of the second year. The operation consists in paring the 
margins of the cleft and uniting them by means of interrupted suture. 
Relaxation sutures are often necessary. It may be necessary to make 
a second incision, near the gums, through the soft tissues in order to 
secure sufficient relaxation, that the pared edges may be united. For 


the technic of the operation of staphylorrhaphy and uranoplasty, larger 
texts should he consulted. 

Elongated Uvula is a condition in which the uvula becomes ab- 
normally long, because of chronic inflammation, or because of certain 
relaxed conditions. It may hang down on the back of the tongue and 
act as a source of irritation. Where securing a better nerve supply to the 
uvula does not give relief, and where it is a source of persistent trouble, 
it may be amputated. This is readily done under cocaine, or local anes- 
thesia. The end of the uvula may be grasped by forceps and clipped off 
with curved or straight scissors. No hemorrhage is likely to result. 

Tonsilitis. — Inflammation of the tonsils is considered by texts on 
the Practice of Osteopathy, and the methods there advocated will be suf- 
ficient to relieve almost all cases. Exceptionally abscesses of the tonsils 
occur, or occasionally the tonsils, after several attacks of acute tonsi- 
litis, may become hypertrophied. Abscess of the tonsil should be 
treated in the following manner: Hot poultices should be applied to 
the neck, until suppuration is evidenced by fluctuation, which may be 
determined by bi-manua.l manipulation. The abscess should then be 
opened. A small straight bistoury, or scalpel, should be wrapped 
within half an inch of its point. This is inserted on the line of the 
molar teeth. The knife is introduced, with the sharp edge towards the 
median line of the throat, and pushed directly into the tonsil, and the 
incision is made towards the median line. This is done to avoid the 
carotid artery, which has been cut in lancing abscesses of the tonsil. 
Such an accident would be immediately fatal. 

Hypertrophy of the Tonsil may occasionally require operation. The 
electro-cautery should be used by all means. Eemoving a small portion 
of the upper part of the tonsil projecting will suffice to secure atrophy 
of the organ. 

Ulceration of the Tonsil may be simple, gangrenous, syphilitic, tuber- 
cular, or malignant. It should be treated in the same manner as ulcer 
of the mouth. 

Tumors of the Tonsil are benign and malignant. The benign tumors 
are papilloma and adenoma. These should be removed, but sarcoma 
and carcinoma of the tonsil can not be successfully removed. Manip- 
ulative treatment may give relief. 

Alveolar Abscess results from caries, or periostitis of the teeth and 
alveolar process. The superficial form is known as gum-boil. The 
abscess may expand the alveolus burrowiing into the bone and appearing 
on the face, cheek, angle of the jaw, or may lead to necrosis of the bone. 
In some cases the pus may burrow into the pharynx. The symptoms 
are pain, evidence of carious teeth, inflammation, and swelling. 

The treatment is to remove the carious teeth. Sometimes this will 
not arrest the disease. Application of poultice should be made to 
hasten pointing of the abscess. When pointing occurs, it should be 


opened and thoroughly washed with an antiseptic solution several times 
daily. After the pus has been removed, the abscess will readily heal. 
In old cases, it may be necessary to scrape out the sinus and remove 
the carious bone before the condition will heal. 

Epulis may exist in two forms; one a fibrous tumor which projects 
from between the teeth, and the other a malignant growth developing 
from a fibroma of the periosteum. Complete removal of the tumor will 
give relief. 

Abscess of the Antrum usually arises from carious teeth, or from 
the extension of inflammations of the nose into the antrum. The tissues 
of the cavity are rendered more liable to disease because of 
the existence of certain lesions affecting the nerve and blood supply. 
The chief symptoms of the disease are pain and an edematous swelling 
of the face, which is brought about by the filling up of the antrum with 
pus. Pressure over the front of the superior maxillary bone will elicit 
crepitation. If the patient's head is held between his knees, the pus 
flows into the nose. A small electric light held in the mouth shows 
lessened transillumination of the affected side. 

Treatment. — The treatment is at first manipulative, to encourage 
the circulation, and to relieve any venous obstruction. Failing in this, 
the carious teeth should be removed, and a trochar inserted through the 
root of the tooth into the antrum, with the hope that drainage can be 
secured in this way. Failing in this, a trocar should be introduced 
through the nose, opening the antrum at the lower anterior part. The 
normal opening of the antrum is the upper and back portion, hence the 
pus which accumulates within the cavity can not be discharged. If 
there is no abatement of the symptoms, a bone drill should be set just 
above the second bicuspid tooth and the opening made directly into the 
antrum. The antrum should then be thoroughly irrigated several times 
daily with an antiseptic solution. Where this fails, the bone may be tre- 
phined at this same point and a drainage tube inserted to secure free 


The most frequent injury to the face is in the form of contusion, 
and when about the eye, is accompanied by effusion of blood in the loose 
connective tissue, which is popularly called a black-eye. This can be 
prevented by pressure and the application of ice shortly after the in- 
jury, and later manipulation to diffuse the effused blood. 

Open Wounds of the Face occasion sharp hemorrhage, Avhich should 
be attended to at once, Scarring and deformity will result unless the 
wound is properly closed. Part of the sutures should be removed on the 
second day; the remainder may be removed as soon as possible. 

Wounds in the Neck may involve the superior thyroid, lingual, or 
facial arteries, or the external jugular vein. In efforts at self-destruc- 
tion, some one of these vessels is severed. The hemorrhage 


will be severe, but may not occasion death. Where the internal jugular, 
or the common or external carotid arteries are cut, death will be almost 
immediate, or before help can be secured. The method of treatment 
of wounds in general should be followed in the treatment of injuries of 
this region. The special dangers in these wounds are the entrance of 
air into the veins, edema of the glottis, dyspnea, loss of voice, fistula, 
bronchitis, and scar formation. Where the wounds enter the trachea, 
or larynx, bronchitis and broncho-pneumonia may develop because of 
the septic condition. 

Contusion of the Larynx sometimes occurs. It causes great pain, 
edema glottidis, loss of voice, and hemoptysis. Ice should be applied 
and the patient kept quiet and impediments to the return circulation 

Rupture of the larynx and Trachea is the result of severe local in- 
jury. It is usually fatal. 

Fracture of the Laryngeal Cartilages occurs because of direct vio- 
lence, compression, etc., and occasions great pain, spitting of blood, 
swelling and ecchymosis in the connective tissues, dyspnea, crepitus, 
and irregularity of the cartilages, which are evident upon examina- 
tion. The treatment is to manipulate the cartilages into position, 
where they may be held by strapping. The person should avoid talking, 
and should be kept at rest until healing takes place. 

Foreign Bodies in the Nose. — Foreign bodies, such as beans, beads, 
buttons, or the seeds of fruit, may be pushed into the nose by small 
children. Under certain conditions, foreign bodies may get into the 
nose from behind during vomiting. Usually there are signs of catarrh. 
Cases are on record where foreign bodies have remained in the nose for 
a long time, occasioning an inflammation, and ofttimes a purulent dis- 
charge, as in ozena. A careful examination will reveal the foreign body. 
It may be engaged by mouse-toothed forceps and drawn out. Failing 
in this, the nose may be anesthetized by a four per cent, solution of 
cocaine and a scoop introduced, which may assist in pulling the body 
out. If this fails, a nasal douche should be used. Where all these 
efforts are unsuccessful, the patient should be anesthetized, when the 
object may be readily grasped and removed. 

Foreign Bodies in the Pharynx and Esophagus. — Foreign bodies, such 
as portions of food, onions, beans, etc., may lodge in the pharynx, either 
cross-wise, or become engaged underneath a fold of mucous membrane, 
or they may lodge within the esophagus. In the pharynx, the foreign 
body may be grasped by means of dressing forceps and removed. A 
radioscopic mirror will assist in locating the foreign body. Where it is 
near enough, it may be pulled out with the fingers. In case the pharyn- 
geal reflexes are excited, the mucous membrane may be swabbed or 
sprayed with a four per cent, solution of cocaine, then the finger may 
be introduced sufficiently far into the pharynx to pull out the foreign 
body. If these methods fail, a probang may be introduced, then ex- 


paneled and withdrawn. The hairs usually engage the foreign body and 
withdraw it. This same instrument may be used with advantage in the 
esophagus. To introduce the instrument the patient should be seated 
in a straight-backed chair, with the head well thrown back so as to bring 
the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus on the same line. The instrument 
is coated with glycerine, or white of egg, and then slowly introduced 
over the back of the tongue. A long bullet forceps may be of advantage 
to secure hard objects, such as coins. If these methods fail to secure the 
foreign body, esophagotomy may ue performed. Before this is done, the 
foreign body should be accurately located by means of the x-rays. 

Foreign Bodies in the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi. — Foreign 
bodies may lodge in the larynx above the vocal cords, in the chink be- 
tween the vocal cords, or in the ventricle of the larynx. They may also 
lodge at the entrance of the larynx, or they may pass farther on, falling 
into the trachea, and perhaps, in some cases, entering the bronchi. The 
s} r mptoms depend upon the extent of interference in the ingress and 
egress of air. Sometimes the symptoms are rapidly urgent, but at other 
times they cause but an irritation of the throat. If the foreign body 
falls into the trachea, it excites violent spasms of coughing and dyspnea, 
providing the body is of sufficient size to more or less obstruct the tube. 
Where the foreign body is small, and falls down into the bronchus, it 
may occasion great dyspnea, or the patient may be able to tell by sub- 
jective sensation the location of the foreign body. The foreign body is 
usually gotten in during forced inspiration, and while the head is 
thrown back, rendering it easy for the object to enter. 

Treatment. — -The patient should immediately be swung by his heels 
to prevent the foreign body from falling into the lung. Snuff may 
be administered, with the hope that the body may be expelled without 
operative interference. This usually does no good. With the aid of a 
laryngeal mirror, and a good light, the foreign body may 
be reached with a forceps, if it is in the larynx. If 
not, a probang introduced may engage the foreign body. 
Where this fails, laryngotomy or tracheotomy may " be per- 
formed. Laryngotomy should never be performed in a child under thir- 
teen years of age. In older persons, laryngotomy is an excellent opera- 
tion. In young children, tracheotomy is the rule. There are two oper- 
ations for tracheotomy, the high and the low operation. The high oper- 
ation is done above the isthmus of the thyroid cartilage. At this point 
the trachea is more superficial and there is less danger of hemorrhage. 
It should be performed at this point under all circumstances if possible. 
The trachea should be carefully opened, and the foreign body having 
been previously located, if it exists in the larynx, it may be pushed into 
the pharynx by introducing the little finger into the trachea. The for- 
eign body should be recovered. The lower operation should only be 
done when the foreign body is low down in the trachea, and when the 
high operation is not feasible. For the technic of the operation, the 


student is referred to an operative surgery. Quick laryngotomy is done 
through the crico-thyroid membrane just above the cricoid cartilage, 
avoiding the .. crico-thyroid artery, care being taken not to injure the 
vocal cords. 

Intubation. — Intubation may be performed with advantage in laryn- 
geal croup, diphtheria, or in edema glottidis. For the technic of the 
operation, the student is referred to more extensive texts. 

Examination of the Nose. — In examination of the nose, the cavity 
should be thorough!} 7 illuminated by means of an electric light, or 
rhinoscopic mirror, while the alae are distended by means of a suitable 
speculum. This examination, if thoroughly made, will reveal the pres- 
ence, or absence, of foreign bodies, polypi, inflammation, growths, or 

Polypi. — Xasal polypi are of three forms: 

1. Myxomatous, or gelatiniform tumors. 3. Malignant, which may he either 

2. Fibrous, or forms of soft fibromata. sarcomatous, or carcinomatous. 

The tumors are of various shapes, oval, pedunculated, or sessile. The 
most common forms are either pink, gra} r ish-white, or semi-translucent. 
There may be one, or a number. Polypi should be removed by electric 
snare, or they may be pulled off by a polypus snare and the base cauter- 
ized. This cauterization of the base is necessary, since tumors will re- 
turn in two or three weeks if it is not done. 

Catarrh. — There are various forms of inflammations of the mucous 
membrane of the nose. These are attended by symptoms depen