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(for ^ribatc ^isfributioit. 







B 1M4 L 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1857, by 


In the Clerli's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 


printed by john wilson and son, 

22, School Street. 



Introduction v 


Prefixes and Postfixes xxix 

Surnames 1 

Corrigenda 86 

The First Edition of this work (June, 1855) was written on the spur of 
the moment, and principally for my own amusement. By reason of its 
many imperfections, I have made this new edition, in the hope that, upon 
its receipt, my friends will kindly consign the old one to the flames. 

Etymologies are, however, at all times deceptive; and I feel assured 
that many errors will still be discovered in my deductions, but plead in 
apology the old proverb, " Noli equi dentes inspicere donati." 


ALL Surnames originally conveyed a meaning; but from 
the corruption in spelling, and number of words that in the 
course of time have become obsolete or wholly lost, it is often 
impossible to discover their true signification. 

Until within about the last two centuries, the orthography of 
but few had become fixed ; they being generally written according 
to the fancy of the writer, and, when spelt as pronounced, often 
lost all trace of their original. 

To show how easily transformations can be made, we have only 
to look for the Barnes of the Alehouse, Andrew Mackay, Billy 
Ruffian, and Currant Juice, in a Royal Navy List ; for so were 
generally styled the ^olus, Andromache, Bellerophon, and Coura- 
geux. These, to be sure, were misnomers of the illiterate ; but it 
is not many years ago that all England was talking of " Abraham 
Parker," in whom I must confess I did not at first recognize one 
whom I had learnt to like, after seeing in the East the deeds he had- 
performed. It is very true that Ibrahim Pacha was so called in 
jest; but undoubtedly many of the lower classes believed it to be 
his real designation. 

Even in the names of the nobility, what stranger would for 
Chulmley write Cholmondeley ; Marchbanks, Marjoribanks ; Bee- 
cham, Beauchamp ? 



A source of great confusion in the middle ages was the trans- 
lating and retranslating of names. One family in Cornwall are 
called, in various records, de Albo Monasterio, Blanchminster, 
Whitminster, and Whitchurch. In all its four changes, this name 
was never misinterpreted. But they did not always understand 
what they translated ; as, for instance, the names Goodrick and 
Godshall were turned into de Bono fossato and de Casa Dei, when 
I think it probable that both are personal names, — the first being 
Powerful or Rich in God ; the other, God's servant ; a name simi- 
lar to the German Gottschalk, the Gaelic Gilchrist, the French de 
Dieu, etc., — all tantamount to Christian. 

Wingfield became, in medifeval Latin, Ali Campi, when it is 
apparently either Battlefield or Field of victory ; and Freemantle 
was rendered Frigidum Mantellum : but I prefer my own defini- 
tion ; viz.. Frieze-mantle, or cloak made of Friesland cloth. 

Beaufoy has been Latinized both de Bella fago and de Bella 
fide, — in the one case signifying Dweller by or Lord of the Beau- 
tiful beech-tree plot, and in the other equivalent to Trueman or 
Trusty. That the first, however, is really the name is clear ; for its 
earliest forms are de Bella fago, Belfou, Beaufou, and Bewfewe. 

As early as the ninth century, the significations of many Gothic 
names were lost, as appears by their strange transformations in a 
record of the year 81G, of the Abbot Smaragdus, of St. Michael's 
Convent in Lorraine, wherein Altmir becomes vetulus mihi ; Rat- 
munt, consilium oris ; Rainmir, nitidus mihi ; Ainard, unus durus. 

In the following pages, I have collected a few surnames from 
the principal Teutonic branches of the Gothic language, — viz., 
Old and Anglo Saxon, English, Lowland Scotch, Frisian, Dutch 
(of the Netherlands), Low German (Piatt Deutsch), and High 
German ; from all the branches of the Celtic excepting Manx, — 
viz., British, Armoric, Welsh, Cornish, Erse, and Gaelic ; and from 


some branches of the classical, as French, Italian, and Spanish, 
which are derived from the Latin. 

Of living tongues, the Frisian resembles the English more than 
any other. The principal characteristic of the true Frisian patro- 
nymics is their almost invariably ending in a, as ^binga, Abbema, 
Albada. In the termination of their local names, the Saxon "heim" 
is generally changed to "um;" as van Ewsum, q. v., van Ittersum, 
van Oestrum. This latter peculiarity occurs in our American idiom 
in such names as Barnum, Bfrkum, Farnum and Varnum, Hannum, 
and Van Ai-num and Van Ornum, for Barnham, Birkham, Farnham, 
Hanham, and van Arnhem, q. v. 

In Britanny, " poul " and " ker " answer to the Cornish " pol " 
and "car." With this trifling difference only, the old rhyme — 
" By Tre, Ros, Pol, Lan, Caer, and Pen, you may know the Cor- 
nish men " — will apply as well to Breton men. 

"When it is remembered that names were formerly adopted and 
changed with but little ceremony, it is singular that so many inele- 
gant ones have not only been appropriated, but also retamed and 
handed down to posterity. 

At the present day, there is a Bi'itish peer surnamed Parnell, 
a German count styling himself Barefoot (von Barfuss, q. v.) ; and 
there is, or was lately, a noble Spanish family named Frying-pan 
(Padilla, q. v.), and an Italian called Little-pots (Pignatelli, q. v.). 
In Belgium, a family bear the name Teashop (Vermoelen de Thee- 
winkel, q. v.) ; while, in England, Arms have been granted to the 
name Beanshop ; and Ship's coppers would probably be a sailor's 
definition of the Spanish name Calderon de la Barca. Even in 
our own city, a family are styled Trull. They may claim relation- 
ship, by name at least, both with the Trollope who visited this 
country a few years since, as well as with the Right Honorable 
John Vesey Parnell, Lord Congleton. 


In the lists of English gentry made in 1433 appear the names 
Gotobed, Halfeknight, Yonghousbond, Whittehede, Swiueshede, 
Slyhand, Cachepolle, Popyngeay, Chantclere, Spynache, and Dan- 
dylion ; together with local names, as At-mille, atte Chambre, 
atte Dean and Yatynden, Atteford, Attelane, Atte Lee, Attepitte, 
Attewode, Bythewode, By Watyr, del Bothe, del Eyre, Delmere, 
Haymowe, Hoggepound, Wodesend. 

Among early French names are Quite-amiable (Toutdoulx), 
Everybody or All the world (Jehan Toutlemonde, A.D. 1417), 
Everywhere (Partout), Good child (Bonenffant), the Night (la 
Nuit), Short steps (Petit-pas), of Short leg (de Courtejambe), the 
one-eyed Fulk (le borgne Foucault), the stutterer of Villaines (le 
begue de Villaines), the Hare (le Lievre), the hare of Flanders 
(le haze de Flanders), Good lance (Bonnelance), the Red 'Squire 
(le Rouge Ecuyer), Bad-hands (Malesmains), Ignorant (Mauclerc), 
Bad neighbor (Mauveisin), Bad knight (Walter Mauchevaler, 
A.D. 1200). 

Nobody's friend (van Niemantsvrient, q. v.) is a Dutch sur- 
name lof the thirteenth century ; and nearly coeval with it are the 
names, Without thanks (Sonderdank), Without land (Sonderlant, 
q. v.), the Big (die Brede), the Bald (de Calewe), Saucy child 
(Stoutkint), the Shoemaker (den Scomakere), Stallion (Stalpaert), 
Smelt (Spiering), the Crane (de Crane), Nightingale (Nachtegaal), 
Rough or Coarse coat (Ruychrok), Out of or From the defile 
(Uyteneng), from the Enclosure (uytten Hamme), From the field 
(Uytencampe), and of the Wood (van den Woude). In 1504, one 
of the municipal councillors of Mechlin bore the name of Peter the 
Apostle (Mr. Pieter den Apostel). 

Surnames may be divided into several classes; one of the 
largest being those derived from the father's Christian, baptismal, 
given, or fore name, and sometimes even from the mother's name ; 


as, Anson (if not son of Hans), Marion and Marryatt {Marie, 
Mariotte), Mac Bride {son of Bridget, if not son of Gillcbride), 
and in early Dutch records are found such names as Nicholas Dame 
Arnout's son (Claes Fer Arnoutsz., A.D. 128G), John Dame Diede- 
wien's son (Jan Vere Diedewien sone, A.D. 1314), Conrad Dauie 
Neesen's son (Coenraed Ver Neesen soen, A.D. 1328), Henry John 
Dame Ida's son's son (Heinric Jan Ver Yden soens sone, A.D. 

They were formed from the father's name in at least four 
modes ; viz. : — 

First, By prefixing ab or ap in Wales ; mac and o' in Ireland ; 
MAC in Scotland; fitz in England; de and des in France, as 
d'Andre, de Blanchard, d'Hugues, de Lamiable, de Prudhomme 
(i. e., son of Andrew, of Blanchard, of Hugh, of 'The amiahle, of 
Sage or Wiseman), des Guillots, des Isnards, des Laurents (i. e., 
of the Wilkinses or Wilmots, of the Isnards, of the Lawrences) ; and 
Di, de' or DEI, and degli, in Italy ; as, di Cola, di Giacomo, di 
Giovanni (i.e., .son of Nicholas, of James, of John) ; Filippo di Ser 
Brunelleschi, Nanni d' Antonio di Banco (i. e., Philip son of Sir 
BruneUeschi, Ferdinand son of Anto7iio of Banco) ; de' Malatesti, 
dei Buonaguidi, Antaldo degli Antaldi (i. e., of the Headstrongs or 
Headstrong family, of the Good Guys, Antaldo of the Antaldi). 

The Norman French prefix Fitz (i. e., fils, son), introduced into 
England at the time of the Conquest, has disappeared in the 
country of its origin. There is, it is true, a French Duke de Fitz- 
James ; but he is of Enghsh descent. 

"When the prefixes de, di, etc., precede the names of Saints, 
such surnames, although sometimes local, as frequently signify that 
their original owners had dedicated themselves to the Saints' ser- 
vice ; as, de Saint Simon, di San Giovanni, di Santa Marta, de los 
Martiros (i. e., serf, servant, or vassal of St. Simon, of St. John, of 
St. Martha, of the Martyrs). 


Secondly, By adding ing, inck, and inga, to the termination in 
the Anglo-Saxon, Old German, Dutch, and Frisian ; as, Deering, 
Frocung, Jenning, whence Jennings, Eawling, whence Rollins, Tim- 
ming, whence Timmins, Baring, Dirckinck, -^binga, q. v. (i. e., son 
of Deor, Sage or Wiseman, John, Rawle or Ralph, Tim or Timothy, 
Bear, Theodorick not Theodore, and Eahe) ; son in Great Britain; 
SOHN, often corrupted to "son" and " sen," in Germany ; and zooN, 
also generally changed to " son," " sen," and " se," or abbreviated 
to " z," in Holland. 

The Anglo-Saxons sometimes bore their fathers' names with 
the addition of " son ; " as, iElfgare iElfan suna, Sired -Siilfrides 
suna, Godwine Wolfnothes suna: but these were not hereditary 
surnames, which did not come into common use in England until 
after the Conquest. 

The word "Ing" often forms the penult of local names; as, 
Frodingham (i. e.. Home of Sage's son) ; Washington, anciently 
Wassingatun (i. e., Town of Wasa's so7is). Inc, inck, or ing, signi- 
fies likewise home, enclosure, dwelling, pasture, meadow, and tract 
of land or country. Ing was, moreover, a personal name borne by 
one of the three sons of Mannus. A son of Odin was named 
Ingvi ; and the» ancient kings of Sweden were called Ynglmgar, or 
Descendants of Ingvi. • 

In Holland, about the middle of the fourteenth century, a 
strange fashion of adding two or more " sons " to the name arose, 
and obtained for more than a century. 

Many examples occur among the municipal authorities of Am- 
sterdam ; the first, an alderman, of the year 1367, is Claas Dirck 
William's Son's Son (Claes Dirck Willems Soons Soon) ; another, 
in 1422, is Gilbert Peter Allerd's son's Son's Son (Gijsbert Pieter 
Allerdsz. Zoens Zoen) : but they are all surpassed by one of the 
year 1445, styled Matthew Peter Reynold's son's Son's Son's Son's 
Son (Meeus Pieter Reyniersz. Soons Soons Soons Soon) ! The 
last of this form is a burgomaster of 1489, named Champion Ber- 


nard William's son's Son's Son (Vechter Barencl Willemsz. Zoons 

An alderman of 1446 is called Big Simon Mr. John's son 
Traveller (Groote Symon Mr. Jansz. Reyser). In this, it will be 
perceived that the father's forename precedes the surname, — a 
custom that prevailed for a few centuries (vide de lluyter and 
Tromp), and was also applied to women's names, the letter d, for 
" dochter," taking the place of the z ; as, Adi'iana Simon's daughter 
Hasselaer (Adriana Simonsd. Hasselaer). 

The father's Christian name was also placed after the surname ; 
as, John Brown Jacob's son (Jan Bruijn Jacobsz.) ; and, even at 
the present day, the father's initials are often borne after the sur- 
name ; as, M. Jansz. Az., A. Luden J. Hz. ; i. e., M. Jansz A's son, 
A. Luden J. H's son. 

In France, another form of diminutives existed. It was, and 
is I think still, customary in the departments of the Aude and Py- 
renees Orientales to apply diminutives to the Christian name or 
surname of the father. Thus a person named Cassand would call 
his eldest son Cassando, and the youngest Cassandito or Cassan- 
detto ; and there must be some rule of the sort in Italy, where 
diminutives are in common use. 

In the Italian language, there are many syllables added to nouns 
for increasing or lessening their value, both in an ordinary as well 
as in a good or bad sense. And they constantly occur in surnames ; 
as, Gamberucci, Fabrucci, Ambrosini, Amaduzzi, Giovanozzi, Mich- 
elozzi ; which, literally translated, are Little-legs, Little Smiths, 
Handsome little Ambroses, Mean little Amadei, Handsome large 
Johns, Handsome large Michaels : but I presume, when these addi- 
tions in the plural form parts of surnames, they are equivalent 
simply to sons, race, or descendants, and have therefore so rendered 
them in the following pages. 

They are found also in the singular number. Tintoretto, or 
The little dyer, whose family name was Robusti, obtained his sobri- 


quet as being the son of a Tintore. Angelo di Bondone was called 
Giotto, an abbreviation of Augiolotto, or Good strong Angelo ; and 
a late jiopular orator, Angelo Brunetti, was known as Ciceroacchio. 

There are many other diminutives applied originally to fore- 
names, and which thus compounded have become surnames; but 
the desire of keeping'this little work within bounds compels me to 
pass them over very briefly, as follows : — 

In England, kin, lin, OT, et, and cock; as, Lukin, Perkin, 
whence Perkins, NickHn, Tomlin, Eliot, Philpot, Bartlet, Paulett, 
Alcock, Hancock, and Wilcock, whence Wilcocks and Wilcox (i. e.. 
Little Luke, Peter, Nicholas, Thomas, Elias, Philip, Bartholomew, 
Paul, Hal or Henry, Hans or John, and William'). 

In France, eau, el, et, in, ot, etc. ; as Bretonneau, Rousseau 
and Roussel, Pliilipeau, Philipon and Philipot, Thomasseau and 
Thomassin, Jeanet, Jeanin, Jeanot, Jehannot and Johaunot, Gu-ar- 
dot, Frerot, Brunet and Brunei, Blondel, Michelet (i. e.. Little 
Breton, Roux or Red, Philip, Thomas, John, Girard, Frere or 
Brother, Brun or Broivn, Blond or Fair, and Michael) ; and the 
name of the inventor of the terrible engine of the revolution, con- 
taining two diminutives, is tantamount to Little Billy, — GuUlotin. 

In Brittany, IK is, I think, the only diminutive to names. The 
Christian name, Albin, may be changed to Albik or Albinik ; Barna- 
bask becomes Baskik ; Anna, Annaik ; but the only Armoric sur- 
name of this class that I have met with is Gwazik, q. v., from Gwaz. 

In Holland, je, ke, gen, jen, ken, jes, and kes are used ; 
and the following surnames are from the Amsterdam Directory : 
Fijnje, Henke and Heineken, Huijgens, Lutjens and Lutjes, Harij- 
ken, Tulleken, Guijkens, and Sijpkens and Sipkes (i. e.. Little Fijn, 
Henry, Hugo's, Luke's, Harry, TuUy, Guy's, and Syp's) ; and Ketjen 
and Eoselje, which appear to be from the women's names Ketje 
or Cornelia and Rose. 

The common modern diminutive to children's names is je ; as, 
Keesje, Jantje, Toontje (i. e., Corny, Johnny, Tony). 


In Germany, chen, gen, ken, ei., ke, lein, and lin ai-e tlie 
pi-incipal diminutives ; as, "Weibchen, from Wybe, an old German 
name ; Oelimichen, from Ohm or Uncle ; Janichen, Janicke, Janke, 
and Jencken, from Johann or John ; Sclionichen and Schonke, from 
Schon or Handsome ; Schottgen, from Schotte or Scot ; Herscliell, 
from Ilirsch; Eberlein and Eberlin, from Eber ; Evelein, from 
Eva ; Federlein, from Feder ; Knablein, from Knabe, etc. 

Thirdly, In Great Britain, Holland, Germany, and Spain, by 
adopting as a surname the genitive case of the father's name ; as, 
Adams, Andrews, Edwards, for Adam's, Andrew's, Edward's, in 
England ; Hendriks, Pieters, Willems, in Holland ; Ulrichs, and 
"Wilhelms and Wilckens, in Germany. 

The genitive of the English John, when used as a surname, 
becomes Johnes or Jones ; which explains the change of name of 
a hero of the revolution, John Paul, who entered the American 
navy as John Paul Jones, — i. e., John Paul John's or son of John ; 
and the late James King of William, of San Francisco, bore his 
father's Chi-istian name, in addition to his own, to distinguish him- 
self from another James King. 

In Friesland, the genitive was anciently formed by adding da, 
ma, na, ta, etc., to the termination ; as, Abbema, q. v., from Abbe ; 
AUena, from Alle ; Folperda, from Folpert ; Lauta from Lauwe. 

In Spain, it would seem as if they retained an old Gothic geni- 
tive in such names as Diaz, q. v., from Dia or Diego ; Lopez, from 
Lope ; Martinez, from Martin ; Perez, from Pero or Pedro ; and 
Rodriguez, from Rodrigo. 

Fourthly, In Italy, they appear sometimes to have used as a 
surname the plural of the forename ; as, Dosso Dossi, Guide Guidi, 
Vito Viti, Michelozzo JNIichelozzi. 


A second class are those derived from Nicknames ; and our 
ancestors appear to have willingly borne such as few would like to 
acknowledge now. 

"William, Prince of Orange, a contemporary of Charlemagne, 
having lost a part of his nose in battle, was called William with the 
Short nose (as cort nase) ; and, satisfied with the appellation, he 
bore a cornet upon his seal, in allusion to it. 

Halfdan, one of the Vikings, was called the Munificent and 
Food Sparing ; because he gave his followers plenty of money, but 
nearly starved them to death. He was father of Haralld hinn 
Harfagra, Harold the Fairhaired, who banished from Norway the 
Jarl HeiruliFor Gangerolf ; i. e., Walking Wolf, so called on account 
of his great size, which obliged him to go on foot, as no horse could 
carry him. To us moderns, this Walking Wolf is only known as 
EoUo, Duke of Normandy. 

Fulk, Count of Anjou, in the tenth century, the first Planta- 
genet, was so called from the switch with which he was scourged ! 
In atonement for the murder of his nephew Drogo, Count of Brit- 
tany, he was sent by his confessor to Jerusalem, attended only by 
two servants, one of whom was to lead him by a halter to the holy 
sepulchre, the other to strip and whip him there. The planta- 
genista, or broom-plant, being the only tough, pliant shrub in 
Palestine, was the instrument chosen for his chastisement. 

In the Eoyal Family of England, there have been an Unready, 
a Sansterre or Lackland, two Crouchbacks, a Longshanks, and a 
Wryneck. Henry II. was surnamed Fitz-Empress ; his eldest son 
was styled Short-mantle (Henri au court-mantel) ; and a daughter 
of Edward III., born in the Tower, was called Blanche de la Tour. 

Among the Kings of France were a Bald, a Stutterer, a Simple, 
a Lazy, and a Noisy or Quarrelsome (Hutin). 

An Emperor of Germany was called The Pale Death of the 
Saracens (der bleiche Todt der Saracenen). 

The youngest son of Garcia Sanchez, Duke of Gascony, in the 


tenth century, was called Arnoud the Unborn ! Possibly this was 
present in the mind of Lord Bacon (?) when he wrote Macbeth. 

A Duke of Wurtemberg was named Eberhard of tlie Beard ; 
a King of Denmark, Foi-ked-beard ; a King of Poland, Boleslas 
the Curled ; a Duke of Guicnne, Tow-head (Tete d'Etoupes) ; and 
William de Percy, a companion of the Conqueror, "William with 
the Whiskers (alz gernons, and Algernon is still retained as a fore- 
name in the Northumberland family). Another Norman baron 
was called Hamon with the Teeth, or simply Dan as denz ; i. e., 
Lord with the Teeth. 

The eldest son of Owen Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales 
(ob. 1169), was called Edward Broken Nose (Jorwerth Drwyn- 
dwnn) ; and one of Prince Albert's ancestors was Frederick with 
the Bitten Cheek (Friedrich mit der gebissenen Wange). 

The last Countess of Tyrol (ob. 1369) was styled Margaret the 
Pocket-mouthed (Maultasche) ; and a Scottish lady with the same 
deformity bore the sobriquet of Muckle-mou'ed Meg. 

In Wales, in the fourteenth century, lived one Howell the 
Scabby (y grach). His grandson subscribes himself Llywelyn ab 
Gwilym ab Hywel y grach; and the wife of Sir David Gam, a 
hero of Agincourt, is called in pedigrees Gwenllian, daughter of 
Hywel y grach. 

The name Gwenllian — i. e., White linen — appears to have 
been borne as early as the beginning of the eleventh century by a 
daughter of Eineon ap Howel Dda. 

Charles, Duke of the Franks, grandfather of Charlemagne, was 
called Charles Martel, probably from the weapon he generally used. 
Two Counts of Anjou were likewise styled Martel. A Duke of 
Normandy was surnamed Longsword ; a Count of Flanders, Bald- 
win with the Axe ; a hero of Poictiers, Sir Howel of the Battle- 
axe (Hywel y Fywall) ; and the clan Maclean claim descent from 
Gillean of the Battle-axe (Gillean na Tuaidh). 

A Count of Brandenburg was called Otto with the Arrow ; for, 


having been wounded in liis bead by an arrow, the iron point 
remained a year in the wound before it was extracted. 

England and Brandenburg have bad their Ironsides; Sicily 
and Flanders, their Iron arms. A Lord of Hesse and a Duke of 
Glogau were called Iron ; and a Duke of Savoy, Iron head : but 
before them all was Biorn Ironside (Jarnsida), King of Upsala, in 
the ninth century. He was supposed to be invulnerable except on 
the right side, which he covered with a plate of metal. 

A companion of the Conqueror was surnamed Strong shield 
(Fortescue) ; and in the same century a nobleman of Touraine, 
Sulpice de Busancais, was called Thousand bucklers (mille bouc- 

Otto, Duke of Brunswick, was named the Child ; and a Lord of 
Hesse, the Child of Brabant. 

A King of Denmark was called the Lamb ; a Count of Maine, 
Watchdog (Eveille-chien) ; an Elector of Brandenburg, the Boar ; 
and a Duke of Saxony, the Lion. 

A King of Norway was styled Olaf the Woodcutter (Olafr 
Tretelgia) ; a Count of Hainault, Baldwin the Builder ; a Viscount 
of Melun, William the Carpenter ; and a scion of the house of 
Arkel, Hugo Butterman (Hughe Butterman, heere van Bottersloot, 
ob. 1302), probably from the measure of butter which he bore in 
his Arms as a mark of cadency. 

A Count of Holland was called Florence the Fat ; a Count of 
Gelderland, Otto with the Horse's foot (met de Paardevoet) ; a 
Count of Lorraine, Godfrey the Hunchback ; a Count of Flanders, 
Arnolph the Unlucky ; a Count of Anjou, Fulk the Melancholy 
(Rechin) ; a Duke of Normandy, Robert the Devil ; and Giovanni 
de' Medici, the Great Devil. 

Among the Counts of Savoy were Humbert with the White 
hands ; Amadeus with the Train, from his long suite of followers ; 
Humbert the Very strong (Renforce) ; Peter the httle Charle- 
magne; and Amadeus the Green Count (le Compte Verd). 


A Count of Maine was called the White bachelor, from having 
worn a white shirt over his armor upon a certain occasion. A 
Duke of Austria was surnamed Albert with the Tress, from his 
gallantly ; for, having received from a lady a lock of her hair, he 
had it braided into his own, and even instituted, in 1376, a Company 
of the Tress (Gesellschaft des Zopfs). A Duke of Brunswick bore 
the name of Magnus with the Silver chain; and Lord John of 
Egmond, father of Anient, Duke of Gelderland, was styled John 
with the Bells, because he Avore in battle a belt covered with silver 

A Welsh gentleman was called David Bobtailed horse (David 
Ceffyl Cwtta). He was brother of Sir Rhys ap Thomas, K. G., 
Avho died circa 1525. The foster-brother of King Edward II. was 
surnamed Sir Howel of the Horse-shoes (Hywel y Pedolau). Like 
Augustus the Strong, Duke of Saxony, he could bend or break a 
horse-shoe with his hands. 

Olaus, King of Denmark in 108G, was surnamed the Hungry ; 
Stephen, King of Hungary in 1114, Thunder; Ladislas, King of 
Poland in 1081, the Careless ; his successor, Boleslas the Wry- 
mouthed (der Krummaulige) ; and Ladislas III. was called Big 
Legs (aux grosses Jambes). A member of the ducal house of 
Brunswick was known as Big-feet (Wilhelm mit dem grossen 

Duke Frederick of Austria (ob. 1439) was styled Frederick 
with the Empty pocket (rait der leeren Tasche) ; William, Count 
of East Friesland in 1198, was called Lackland (sender Land) ; 
and the same name (Sansterre) was borne by Philip, Duke of 
Savoy in 1496. 

When sovereigns received such sobriquets and surnames, their 
inferiors could hardly expect to be spared. 

Hence we have Black-mouth and Wry-mouth (Boccanegra, 
Campbell), Hare-lip and Goose-bill (de Bec-de-Lievre, Gansneb), 
Crooked-nose and Turned-up-nose (Cameron, Cochran), Crooked- 


leg and Splay-foot (Cruickshank, Pauncefoot), Squint-eye and 
Bad-eye-siglit (Leepoog, Malavista), Short and Stout (Groote- 
koort), Penniless (Habeniclit), Good-beer, Small-beer, and Sour- 
beer (Gutbier, Dunnebier, q. v., Sauerbier), as well as Sour-broth, 
Sour-vinegar, Sour-wine, and Soui'-man (Sauerbrey, Saueressich, 
Sauerwein, Sauermann); together with all the colors of the rain- 
bow, given or taken in allusion to the complexion, hair, and dress. 

Only as late as the close of the seventeenth century, at least 
four Highland chieftains were distinguished by deformities ; viz., 
Mackenzie the Black-kneed (M'Keinich Glundu), M'Intosh the 
Squint-eyed (Mac an Toshich Claon), Chisholm the Crook-eyed 
(Shisalach Came), and Hugh Fraser, Lord Lovat (b. 1666), who, 
from a large black spot on his upper lip, was called Black-spotted 
son of Simon (Mac Shimi Baldu). 

A to-name for Lord Lovat was superfluous ; as, among some 
five thousand souls called Mac Shimi, he was still •' par excellence " 
the Son of Simon. Even so late as in the time of the last Lord, 
had any one in the shire of Liverness inquired for Mac Shimi, he 
would have been unhesitatingly directed to Castle Beaufort. 

With the clansmen, however, the case was different ; for there 
was always a paucity of Christian names in the Highlands. An 
Irish gentleman once told me, that in his youth the Fraser Fenci- 
bles were quartered near his father's residence, and that he had 
many times heard the roll called. It commenced, Donald Fraser, 
Senior ; Donald Fraser, Junior ; Donald Fraser, Baine ( White) ; 
Donald Fraser, Ruadh {Red) ; Donald Fraser, Buidhe ( Tellow- 
haired) ; Donald Fraser, Dubh (Black) ; Donald Fraser, No. 1 ; 
Donald Fraser, No. 2 ; and so on to No. 18, before a new baptismal 
name appeared. 

Simon is, I think, the favorite forename of the Mac Shimis, or 
Frasers of Lovat; and, with my own old Border Clan, perhaps 
Thomas is the most common. 

The Dicksons are still numerous on the marches, but no longer 


united as in the good old times, when the word was " Snaffle, Spur, 
and Spear ;" " Best riding by moonlight," a Buccleuch's motto ; and 
" Ye shall want ere I want," a Cranstoun's ; for, to replenish his 
larder, the Lowlander had merely to cross the frontier. 

To be sure, the day of reckoning sometimes came ; and many 
a Dickson, Elliot, TurnbuU, Irving, Scott, and gallant Gramme, have 
said their neck-verse at Hau'ibee, as the hangman's records of 
Carlisle could testify ; for, incredible as it may appear, the gentle- 
manly amusements of the Riding Clans were considered by the 
English little better than thieving. 

Equally unkind was the treatment, by the inhabitants of the 
Hanse towns, of those jolly German knights, one of whom is still 
represented by Baron Robber of Plankenstein (Freiherr Rauber 
von Plankenstein), whose ancestors undoubtedly deemed themselves 
sovereign lords, with power to levy war against whom they pleased ; 
while for the Marchmen there was always war, — at least when the 
larder was empty. 

The surname Robber is not peculiar to Germany : for de 
Roover, q. v., is a Dutch name ; and a noble Spanish family are 
styled Ladron de Guevara. Pillager (Taillebot, q. v.), Boor's 
enemy (Bauernfeind), and Land's ruin (Landschaden), are like- 
wise names of noble houses ; and, in the sixteenth century, a chief 
of Clan Grant was called James of the Forays (Shemish nan 

Another class are Local names, — those derived from particular 
situations and places, or names of places ; as, Aikenhead, Wood- 
head, Atwood, Bydale, Cornfoot, Townsend, d'Anvers, van Buren, 

Although landowners often assumed as a surname the names 
of their manors, still, in general, this class originated from persons 
having dwelt at the head of the oaks, at the head of the wood, at 


the wood, by the dale, at the foot of the cornfield, at the end of the 
town ; or having been born in Antwerp, Buren, or Boston. 

In many cases, however, local names may be derived from 
signs. Hotels and shojDS are still often named after places and 
towns ; and it is by no means a modern fashion : for, as early 
as 1483, there was living in Amsterdam Pieter Jacobsz. Sael in 
Hamburg ; and later, Arent Hendriksz. Loef in Weesp. In a list 
of town officers of Middleburg, in the sixteenth century, appear 
Simon Jacobse in Galissien, and Simon Jansz. van Roomen. 

A fourth class are those derived from Office, Occupation, or 
Condition ; as. Abbot and I'Abbe, Deacon, Granger, Page, Knight, 
Franklin and Freyhofer, Master of the guild (Overman), the Head 
of the household (le Tiac), The ai-riere-vassal (Levavasseur), Car- 
penter and Zimmermann, Cutler and Messei'schmidt, Cook, le Keux 
and de Koch, Brewer, Brasseur and Brouwer, Butler and KeUer- 
mann, Thatcher and den Decker ; Smithson, Widowson, Masterson, 
Mac Master and de Maistre, Son of the Abbot (Mac Nab, in Scot- 
land; deir Abbate, in Italy), Son of the Parson (McPherson), Son 
of the Barber (del Barbiere), Son of the Tailor (del Sarto), Son of 
the Physician, or literally of the Physicians (de' Medici). 

The last class to which I shall here allude is that derived from 
Signs and Arms. 

It was customary with the nobles to have their coats of arms 
cut in stone over the entrances of their castles, and upon the fronts 
of their town residences ; and, when in strange towns, their shields 
were suspended over their hotels. And the commoners imitated 
them so far as lay in their power ; often the only difference con- 
sisting in the emblem of the nobles being upon an escutcheon, which 
the plebeians could not use, Arms not being allowed them. Many 


of these marks remain, and give names to the buildings, which, in 
Holland at least, arc still often called by such names, and, I think, 
always described by them in bills of sale. 

In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries occur the names Nicho- 
las Jacob's son Kroonenburg in the Paradise (Klaas Jacobsz. 
Kroonenburg in 't Paradijs), Peter Nicholas's son van Neck in the 
Emperor (Pieter Claesz. van Neck in de Keyser), Peter Law- 
rence's son in the Coch (Pieter Lourenz. in den Haan), Nicholas 
Heyn in the Arm (Claes Heyn in den Arm), Arthur Henry's son 
in the Key (Aart Hendriksz. in den Sleutel), Adrian John's son in 
the Claw (Adriaeu Jansz. in de Klau). 

In the case of Simon Drake, a city officer of Middleburg in 
1575, the formation of the name is clearly shown; for in one place 
he is called Simon John's son Apothecary in the drake or dragon 
(Simon Jansz. Apothekar in den di-aek), and, in another, simply 
Simon Draek. 

I think it is Marryatt who mentions a naval officer nicknamed 
Shave the wind, from his hatchet-shaped face. In the following 
list will be found a Cut the wind (Snijdewindt). 

Lovely day and Sunshine (Lievendag, Sonneschein), Present 
time and Unseasonable time (Nieuwentijt, Ontijd), Fair weather 
and Cool weather (Schonwetter, Kuhlwetter), Pouring rain and 
Fine rain (Slagregen, Stofregen), are Dutch and German names; 
and there is a French Good time and Old time (Bontemps, Vieux- 

There are two families in France whose names consist each of 
a single letter, — O and Y, By contrast, the Dutch surnames 
Schimmelpenninck and van Maarschalkerwaard appear ridiculously 
long ; but they are on a par with the English Featherstonhaugh 
(once written de Featherstonehaugh), Cholmondeley (formerly de 
Cholmondeley), and Marjoribanks, and shorter by two syUables 



than the Biscayan Zumalacarregui. Thistlethwayte is more diffi- 
cult of pronunciation than any of them ; Wttewaall, more perplex- 
ing to the orthographer ; and the Breton de Kergournadec'h — i. e., 
of Manor of the man that fleeth not — has the most extraordinary 

A noble Bavarian family are called von Ow ober und unter 
dem Berg ; i, e., of Meadow above and under the Hill; and in Hol- 
land a branch of the house Schimmelpenninck van der Oije is 
styled Willem Anne Baron Schimmelpenninck van der Oije tot 
beide de Pollen en Nijenbeek ; i. e., William Anne Baron Schim- 
melpenninck of the Oije to both the Polls and Nijenheeh. 

I have endeavored to make my definitions as brief and as literal 
as possible ; rendering, for example, such English terminations as 
" ham," " ley," and " ton," by home, field, and town. Ham, Lee, and 
Towne being, however, surnames, by reference to them the entire 
meaning of the words wiU be seen. Holt, hout, wald, woud, etc., 
are simply translated wood ; as, Walcot, Wood cottage ; Waldheim, 
Wood home ; which naturally imply, not wooden houses, but dwell- 
ings in or by a wood or forest. Tre is defined town ; but, under the 
first Armoric and Cornish names beginning therewith, all its diifer- 
ent significations will be found. 

Wood alone, and its equivalent Bush, occur as surnames in many 
languages. The latter, formerly At Bush or Atte Bush, is in other 
countries Busch, Busclikens, Inbusch, Zumbusch, von dem Busch, 
ten Bosch, van den Bosch, q. v.. Bosquet, du Boscage, Dubuysson, 
du Bois, del Bosco, del Bosque, and innumerable other forms ; 
while "Wood or Holt is le Coad or Couad, Coit or Cooth, von Holtz, 
Wald, About, q. v., ten Hout, and van den Woude ; and the Eo- 
mance "gout," "gaut," or "gal," i. e., holt or wood, enters, I think, 
into the name of one of my South-Carolina friends, Manigault, an 
old Huguenot surname. Our Hill is the same as the Dutch and 
German Berg ; and, as in England dwellers under a hill have been 


surnamed Underliill, so also in Holland liave they been called 
Onderberg, and in Germany Unterberg and Unterberger. In fact, 
there is hardly a name, no matter of what class or how singular 
(de Kergournadec'h, q. v., only excepted), the counterpart of which 
cannot be found as an original name in some other country. 

When a word has various meanings, it is often a difficult matter 
to make a selection. As, for instance, the Anglo-Saxon words " win," 
" wine," " winn," and " wyn," signify labor, and what is gained by 
labor, contention, war, trouble ; also wine ; pleasure, joy ; a friend, 
one beloved, a man, etc. Therefore, when connected with field, as in 
the German name Winnefeld, I have rendered it battle or victory ; 
because, as nearly every field is cultivated, field of labor would 
hardly be a distinctive name. Winslow is derived from the place, 
anciently Winneshlaw, evidently Battle gravemound or tumulus ; 
Winstanley, a field marked by a stone or monument of victory ; 
and, as the word wynburh signifies a pleasant city, Winthrop pro- 
bably means a pleasant thorp ; while Winton is simply the word 
wintun, i. e., loine-house or tavern. In the sense of friend, win 
appears in the name Alwin ; i. e.. Altogether beloved, — a surname 
similar to the French Ame, the Dutch de Liefde, and the English 
Wellbeloved. Wine, The beloved, is a name of the ninth century. 
Eadwin, Prosperous in battle ; -3^thelwyn, Noble in battle, or The 
noble joy ; Wynfreda, The peace of man, — are also Anglo-Saxon 

The surnames in this work have invariably been given as they 
have been found written, although not in all their forms ; for names 
are often variously spelled, sometimes even by descendants of the 
same branch. 

One calls himself Brown ; another, Browne ; and a third, 
Broun. In Holland, the Whites are de Wit, de Witt, de Witte, 
and de With. In France, the name sometimes derived from a 
dwelling near a spring is du Puy, du Puys, q. v., Dupui, and 


Dupiiis ; in England, Atwell, Atwill, Twells, Well, Welle, Welles, 
and Wells. The French surname Huissel has been also written 
Buissel, Vissel, and Wissel ; and the Breton name Kergorlay is 
likewise spelled Guergorlay, Quergorlay, Quergorle, etc. 

Lower mentions a document of the sixteenth century, in which 
four brothers, named Rugely, spell their names in as many diiferent 
ways, and cites Dugdale as giving one hundred and thirty-one 
variations of the name Mainwai-ing. 

It will be observed, in the table of prefixes, that " de " means 
the in Dutch, but of in French. The is a common prefix in those 
languages ; as, de Bruijn, the Brown, le Blanc, the White. 

In Scotland and Ireland, the is a distinctive title borne by the 
heads of some old families ; as, The Chishokn, The 0' Conor Don, 
The 0' Grady. 

The same name sometimes bears different prefixes ; as, ten 
Broek and van den Broek. Such are distinct surnames. 

In Holland, " van " only occurs before local names : but, in 
Friesland, it often precedes patronymics ; as, van Eysinga, q. v. 
The German "von" is confined to the nobility, and prefixed to 
names of all the different classes ; as, von Eberstein, of Wild hoar's 
castle ; von Hoffman, of Courtier ; von Bretschneider, of Sawyer ; 
von Voss, of Fox. 

And, lastly, I may remark that it must not be supposed that 
every Courtenay is lineally descended from King Pharamond, nor 
every Percy from Geoffrey, companion of RoUo, nor every Grosve- 
nor from Gilbert le Grosvenor ; for vassals often adopted the names 
of their lords, and servants those of their masters ; while clansmen 
almost invariably took the names of their chiefs, considering them- 
selves as members of the same family, as they were by adop- 
tion, if not otherwise. Without this explanation, the statement 
(p. 20) that the Scottish Dicksons are one family would be simply 


The names contained in these pages have been taken from 
Hei-aklical and Historical works and Directories in my own library, 
and likewise from the " Grosses Vollstandiges Universal Lexicon, 
Halle und Leipzig, 1732-50 " (in sixty-four volumes, folio), and 
MoRERi's " Grand Dictionnaire Historicpie." I am also under some 
obligations to Lower's well-known "English Surnames," and to 
the learned work of Professor Pott, of Halle, but have endeavored 
not to encroach upon them, — not a very difficult task ; for when 
it is taken into consideration, that, by the Report of the Registrar- 
General, there are in England alone nearly forty thousand different 
surnames, it will be evident that the field is a wide one. 

B. H. D. 

No. 1, Walnut Street, corner Beacon Street, 
/ January, 1857. 


^ Armoric. 

QV. N Anglo-Norman. 

C Cornish. 

iD Dutch and Flemish. 

On English. 

£. French. 

^ris Frisian. 

({5 German : High and Low. 

©0 Gothic, Old High Ger- 
man, etc. 

3 Irish. 

Jt Itahan. 

N. (!! New England. 

N. 1} New York. 

H Romance. 

S Scotch: Gaelic and Low- 

0a^ Old-Saxon and Anglo- 

0p Spanish. 


to Welsh. 

anc anciently. 

q. V quod vide : which see. 

CO county of Great Britain. 

After a surname, the letters indicate the country or people to 
which it belongs ; after a word, its language. 

Early forms of some names have been given ; as, Abercrombie, 
q. v., a surname derived from the parish anciently called Aber- 
crumbin ; Abingdon, q. v., derived from the town called by the 
Anglo-Saxons Abbandun. When, however, these explanations are 
preceded by "anc," — as, A'Court (q. v.), anc. att Court; Audley 
(q. v.), anc. de Alditheley, — then old readings of the surnames 
must be understood. 

In a few cases, also, names have been first interpreted in their 
own language ; as, Aartsen, q. v., signifying in Dutch Aarts zoon ; 
Blackler, q. v., from the Anglo-Saxon " blac hleor ; " Cazenove, 
derived from the words " casa nova," which are both Italian and 

Y is not a Dutch letter, but, with the irregularity common in 
surnames, is often used in them instead of IJ. 

As letters with the German diaeresis are not contained in our 
founts of type, those marks have been omitted. 


A' (3E0, ^ (^- N.). -At. (v. A'Court and k Beckett.) 

Aaii de, aaii den, aan het (33. )> -^i ^^*e. 

Ab o)- Ap (jaw.), anc. Mab, So7i. 

Am (®f.), An dem, ^< the. {v. am Ende.) 

An (ffif.), ^< ; an der, at the. 

Ar (^.), r/*e. (v. Ar-Iaouanq.) There is no word in this language answer- 
ing to "of;" but the name ar Koat, or ar Coat, is equivalent to the 
French du Bois, of the Wood. 

Auf (ffif.), At or in. {v. von Schmidt auf Altenstadt.) 

D' or da, di (Et.), Of; dal, dall', de', degli, dei, del, dell', della, of the. 

D' o>- de (ff.), Of; de 1', de la, du, des, of the. 

De (IS.), The; den, the or to the ; der, of the. 

De (^. IK".), O/; del, de la, of the. 

De (Sj).), Q/"; del, de la, de las, de los, of the. 

Detto (Kt.), Called ; e. g., A. AUegri cletto il Correggio ; Pietro Berrettini 
detto Pietro da Cortona. 

Dit (jFO> Called; e.g., Pierre du Terrail dit Bayard; de Gand dit Vilain; 
Locquerelle dit le Riche. 

Geb. (J9. and ®f.), Geboren, Born. Used generally by married women ; as, 
Grafin von Seinsheim, geb. Freiin von Reding ; i. e.. Countess von Seins- 
heim, born Lady von Reding. 



Geiiaamd (IB.), Called; e.g., van Hout genaamd Holler; van Neukirchen 

genaamd Nyvenheim. 
Genannt (CEr.), Called; e.g., Ottenfels genannt von Gschwind; von Scharp- 

fenstein genannt Pfeil. 
Gezegd (19.), Called; e.g., Douglas gezegd Schott; dmi'Rois gezegd van den 

Ilk, of that (S.), Of the same. Used to denote that the title is the same as 

the surname ; as, jNI'Leod of that ilk ; i. e., MacLeod of MacLeod. 
Im (CBf.), In dem, In the. 
In (CK.), In; in der, in the. • 
In't (IB.), In het, In the. (v. in't Yeld.) 

L' or le (if.). The. Before the Armoric names, le Lan, le Run, etc., I con- 
ceive it to be a literal translation of Ar (q. v.) vs^hen du should have been 

Lo (St.), The. {v. Lo Bianco.) 
Mac, Mc, or M« (S. and E.), Son. 

Nee {ff.), Born,; e.g.. La Baronne de Maucler nie Comtesse de Beroldingen. 
O' (K.), anc. Ui or I and Ua, Grandson, Descendant. 

Op (3B.), In or iqmn ; op de, op den, op der, op het, op ter, in or upon the. 
's (D.), Des, Of the. (v. 's Graauwen and van's Gravensweert.) 
't (30.), Het, The. {y. 't Hoen, 't Hooft, and t' Seraerts.) 
Te, toe, tot (3B.), At or to ; ten, ter, at, in, or to, or at, in, or to the. 
Thoe (ifrfs.). At or i!o. (w. van Harinxma thoe Sloten.) 
Van (30.), Of; van de, van der, van den, van het, van 't, of the. 
Van en tot (33.), Of and in; e.g., van en tot Hoensbroek ; i.e., of Hoens- 

brock, and possessor also of the lordship) or domain of Hoensbroek. 
Von (CSf.), Of; vou der, von dem, of the. 
Von und zu {<&■), Of and in; von und zum, von und zur, of and in the. 

The same as Van en tot, q. v. 
Y (S]).), And. The Spaniards often bear the names of both parents ; as, del 

Hio y Ayala ; but, when the mother's is the best family, the father's name 

is frequently dropped entirely. 
Zu (CK.), In, at, on, by; zu der, at or in the; zum, /or zu dem; zur, /or 
zu der, at or in the. 


Examples of all the above prefixes vnU. be found herein. On the conti- 
nent of Europe, they are generally commenced with a small letter, except 
when joined to the name. 

In the names Angove, Atcomb, Atteveld, Aubrebis, Bydale, Bykcrk, de 
Contreglise, Harscouet, Onderberg, Overbeke, Querfeld, Sm-tees, Uiberacker, 
Uitenhagen, Umbach, Under hill, Unterberg, Verbeek, etc., prefixes will also 
be 'noticed. 

The prefixes to the Armoric names are generally French. Observe the 
remark under " L' or le," above. 



A A, van der (JU.), of the Aa. There are several rivers called Aa, 
in Holland. " Auua ," in the old Saxon, " ve" " aja," " ea," or 
"ie," in the Anglo-Saxon, signifies running water ^ a river, a 
stream, water, (v. van der Ee.) 

AARTSEN (tE).)' A.arts zoon, Aart's son, or Arthurson. 

ABADAM (tD.), Adamson (QE.), ^Sore o/^c?am. Ad x^i^, Adam's, 
or of Adam. These have all the same signification ; but in the 
first two the son is expressed, while in the last it is understood. 

ABBATE, deir {^U), of the Abbot; i.e., son of the Abbot. Abbje, 1' 
(f.), the Abbot. Abbt (©.), Abbot. 

ABBEMA (i^ris.), Abbe's, or of Abbe ; i.e., son of Abbe. 

ABEELE, van den (p.), of the Aspen-tree. 

ABERCROMBIE (S.), Abercrumbin, Confiux of the winding 
stream. Abar, a confluence, mouth of a river; marsh, bog. 
Abernetht, Mouth of the Nethin. 

ABINGDON (QJ.), Abbandun, Abbot's down or hill. 

ABKOUDE, van (p.), of Abcoude. In a record of the year 1085, 
the place is called Abekenwalde ; i. e., Abehe's wood. 

ACHTERKIRCHEN ((5-), Behind church, {v. Uytkerke.) 

ACHTHOVEN (tE).), Eight farms. Achtienhovex, Eighteen 
farms. I presume that the "hoven" in these surnames is a 
corruption of " hoeven," farms. If not, however, they are 
Eight courts and Eighteen courts. 


ACKERMAN (Q^.), Ackermann (S-)? Akkeeman (JU.), Farmer. 

ACKROYD ((£.), Oah assart, (v. van Berkenrode.) 

A' COURT (€.) anc. att Court, At Court. 

ACQUAVIVA (Jt.), Spring-water. 

ACQUILA, deir (M.), of the Eagle, {v. de Aguilar and Arend.) 

ACRES de TAigle, des {£.), of the Acres of the Eagle. There is 

a place called I'Aigle in Normandy. 
ACTON ((£.)' Oak-town. (v. Towne.) 
ADELMANN von Adelmansfelden (©.), Nobleman of Nobleman's 

ADRIAANSZ (?D.), Adrian's son. 

^BINGA (iTris.), Eabe or Eebe's son or descendant. This ter- 
mination in a resembles the Anglo-Saxon plural ; but Frisian 

plurals end in ar. (v. Suringar.) 
AGNEAUX, d' {£•), of Lambs. Arms : Az. three lambs ar. 
AGNEW (S.), Lamb. A family of French extraction. 
AGNOLO, d' (It.), of Angel. Ange, de 1' {£.), of the Angel. 
AGUILAR, de (5p.), of Eagle. Arms: Or, an eagle sa. 
AHOUT (53.), Aan't hout. At the wood. {v. Awater.) 
AIKENHEAD (Q^.), Head of the oaks. (v. Berkenhead.) 
AINS WORTH {(B-)i Ains' or Ainulph's farm or manor. 
AISNE, 1' (£.), the Elder or Eldest. 
AIX, des, or Zaix, de {£■), of the Waters. Gen. Desaix was of 

this Auvergne family. 
ALB ADA (iTris.), Vibe's, or of Ulbe ; or perhaps Albe's, if there 

was such a Frisian name, which is not improbable, Alban being 

a Saxon name. 
ALDEKAMP (iH.), Old field. Aldenhoven, Old farms. 
ALFIERI (Jt.), Ensign, Standard-bearer, (v. Hoofdman.) 
ALLAN, Allen, Alleyne, or Alwyn ((£.), All-beloved. 
ALLEMAN, d' {£.), of Germany. 
ALLERTON (ۥ)> Alder-tree town. 
ALL GOOD {(^.), All good. Altrue, All true. 
ALLIBONE (^. N.?), All good^ The name Johannis Allibon 

appears in a list of the gentry of co. Derby in 1433. {v. Allgood 

and Bonefelow.) 

ALMONDE, van (tlD.)> of Almmonde ; i. c, Mouth of the Aim. 
ALTEN-FRAUENBERG, von luul zu {^^.), of and in Old hill 

of Frea or Freya, or Old hill of Our Lady, — tlic Virgin Mary, 

— or Old woman's hill. Frea Avas wife of Odin; Freya, the 

Goddess of Love. 
ALTMANN (©.), Old man. Altmuller, Old miller. Alx- 

VADER, Grandfather, (v. den Ouden and Vader.) 
ALVENSLEBEN, von (©.)' of Ahoin's dioelling. " Leben," in 

this case, resembles the English term for a clergyman's benefice, 

AMADUZZI (3t.), Sons of Amadeus ; i. e.. Lover of God. 
AMBACH (©.), At the brook. Ambron, At the spring. Amfurt, 

At the ford. Amtiior, At the gate. 
AMBAGTSHEER (m.), Lord of the manor. 
AMBROSINI {Hi.), Sons of Ambrose ; i.e., Lmmortal. 
AME de St. Didier {£.), The well-beloved of St. Didier. 
AMERSFOORT, van (t3.), of Amersfoort, a town called in early 

records Hemesfurt and Emesfurt ; i. e., Bern's ford. 
AMESZ (tD.), Nurse's son. Amme (irrisOj nurse. 
AMORY (QE.), Ajialareiks ((So.), Valiant and diligent ruler'? 

Amaler, a valiant, painstaking hero. Amalareiks, or Amala- 

rich, became, in the course of time, Amalric, Almaric, Amaury, 

and Aimery; and from these sprang the suniames Amory, 

Damery, Damer, &c. {v. Emmery.) 
AN-DER-ALLMEND ((S.), At or On the Common. Ander- 

MATT, At the meadow. Anlauf, At current or stream. An- 

SCHUTZ, At guard, bank, dike, or fence. 
ANGOVE or Angowe (Ot.), The smith, {v. le Goflf.) 
ANKERSMIT (iD.), Anchor-smith. 
ANNESLEY ((g.), Anne's field, {v, Audley.) 
ANNIBALDESCHI (Jt.), Sons of Hannibal. 
ANSTRUTHER (S.), The marsh ov swamp? 
AOT, de 1' {%.), of the Bank or Shore. 

AP EVAN and Bevan (tD.), Son of Evan or John. Ap Harry, 
Barry, and Parry, Son of Harry. Ap Rice and Price, Son 
of Rice, q. v. 

APLETREE (Qf.), Apple-tree. Apletresend, End of the Apple- 
trees. Appleby, Apple or Fruit dwelling. Applegarth, 
Orchard. Appelman (2II-)j Apple-dealer, Fruiterer. 

APPLETON (©.), Orchard. John Appleton, of co. Suffolk, 
gent., died in 1414. From him sprang Samuel Appleton, 
who emigrated to New England in 1635, and was ancestor of 
the Hon. Nathan Appleton, Member of Congress, and the 
Hon. Williah Appleton, M.C. 

ARBUTHNOT (S.), Aberbothenoth, Conflux of the stream hy the 
house, hut, or hothie. 

ARCULARIUS (N.^.)> Cahinet-maher. A Latin word. 

AREND (tD.), Eagle. Arenspoot, Eagle's foot. 

AR-IAOUANQ {%.), The young, (v. le Jeune, de Jong, and Jung.) 

ARKEL, van (SD.), of Arhel. A family named in the old proverb, 
" Brederode the noblest, "Wassenaar the oldest, Egmond the 
richest, and Arkel the boldest," of the nobles of Holland. The 
lands, it is said, derived their name from a Roman temple dedi- 
cated to Erkel or Ercol (Sa^.)? Hercules. 

ARKWRIGHT (ۥ), Meal-chest maker. 

ARNHEM, van (SD.), of Arnhem; i. e., Aarn's home. (v. v. d. Heim.) 

ARRIVABENE (Jt.), Well or Happily arrived. 

ARTZT ((!$.), Physician, Leech. 

ASHBURNHAM (^.), Ash-river home. Ashhurst, Ash grove. 
Ashley, Ashfleld. Ashton and Aston, Ash down or hill, 
if derived from Aston, anc. -^cesdun, Berks ; but Hurst town if 
from Aston, anc. Estone, co. Warwick. There are, however, 
more than sixty places in England called Aston or Ashton, most 
of which were undoubtedly named from the ash-tree ; for, accord- 
ing to the Eddaic mythology, the first man was made of and 
called Askur, Ash, — a belief similar to that of the Greeks, 
who held that Zeus created men from ash-trees. 

ASPINALL or Aspinwall (©•), Aspen-tree hall. 

ASTLEY ((£.), Estley, Hurst f eld. (v. Ashton.) 

ATCOMB (Q^.), At valley. Atford, At ford. Athorpe, At 
village. Athowe, At hill. Atsea, At sea. Atte church. 
At the church. Attenborough, At the borough. Attye, 

Atten eye, At the island. Atwatek, At water. Atwood, 

At ioood. 
ATHELSTON ((^.), iEthelstan, The noUe rock. 
ATKINS ((£.)> Atkin's or of Atkin ; i. e., Little Atty or Arthur. 

Atkinsox, Son of Atkin. 
ATTEVELD ((D.), Aan't veld, At the field. 
AUBEPIN, de 1' {£.), of the Hawthorn. 
AUBREBIS de St. Marc {:£.), At or Of the sheep of St. Mark. 

AuMAisTKE des Ferneaux, At or Of the master of Ferneaux. 

AuxcouTEAUX, Of or With the knives; and they carry three 

knives in their Arms. 
AUCHINLECK (g.), Field ov Graves of flag-stones 1 
AUCHTERLONY or Ochterlony (S.), Height of the marsh or 

meadow. Uachdar, summit, upper part. 
AUDLE Y ((£.), anc. de Alditheley. Aldith or Edith's field. 
AUERSBERG, von (®.), of Bison's mount. 
AUHAGEN ((S.), Meadow or Brook hedge. 
AURIOL, d' (jr.), of Oriole; and they bear one in their Arms. 
A WATER (u).), Aan't water. At the ivater. (v. Toe Water.) 
AYLMER (©.), Adalmar (©c), Eenoioned race. Adal, race, 



BAAS, de (im.), the Master-workman. 

BACH (iJO. and QI.), Little. Bach (®.), Brook, (v. Beck, Beek, 
and Zumbach.) 

BACKER ((©.), Barker (tD.), Baxter (S.), Baker. 

BADGER (©.), Pedlar, Corn-factor; also the animal called like- 
wise a " baud," a " brock," and a " gray." 

BAILEY (0:.), Bailiff, Steward. 

BAIN (S.), White, Pale, Fair, Fairhaired. (v. le Cann.) 

BAKENESS, van (l!D.), of Bakeness ; i.e., Beacon cape ov pro- 

BALCH (IX).), Arrogant, Haughty, Proud. 


BALDE ((3.), Bold. Baldwin ((£.), Bold in battle, {v. Forti- 

BAMPFYLDE (ۥ), Wood-field. Beam, a tree. 

BANCROFT ((g.)' ^^ofl or Field by river or sand bank. 

BARCLAY (S.), Birchfield. {v. Berkeley.) 

BARFUSS, von (©.), of Barefoot, as Count von Barfuss, of 
Prussia, explains it; for lie carries three bare feet in his Arms. 

BARING 03.), Bear's son. Barnard (©,), Bernhard ((3.), 
Bernard (if.), Bear's nature ; i. e.. Bold as a bear. 

BARKER (Qr.), ^anjie/". HAUKnAM, Birch home. (v. Berkeley.) 

BARLEBEN, von ((3-), of Bear's living or dwelling-place. 

BARSTOAY {€.), Barley place or dwelling. "Bere" signifies 
both barley and bear. When connected with, "croft," "ham," 
" stow," " worth," etc., it appears to be for barley ; as a corn-farm 
was called " bereton," and " berewic," whence Barton, q. v., 
Berwick : but with " ford," and " wash," bear's may be meant. 

BART, le (a.), the Bard. 

BARTON ((E.), Barred ov Fenced town, Manor ; also Corn-farm 
or village, (v. Barstow.) 

BASSET (01. N.), dim. of Bas, Short, (v. le Bihan and le Court.) 

BATCHELOR (®.), Bachelor, Knight. Knights bachelor were 
those who did not possess four " bachelles " of land, the amount 
requisite to display a banner. 

BATES (C.), Bate's or Bartholomew's, (v. Abadam.) 

BAUER and Bauermann (C!5.), Peasant, Farmer. Bauernpeind, 
Boor's enemy, (v. Laudschaden.) 

BAUMOARTNER (®.), Arborist. Baumhauer, von, of Wood- 
cutter. Baumlein, dim. of Baum, Tree. 

BAY^ARD (if.), Brown-complexioned. Pierre du Terrail dit 
Bayard probably received his name from his complexion ; but 
in Romance "bayard" signifies spectator or gazer, curious, eager, 

BEANSHOP (€.), Bean-shop. 

BEARCROFT (©.), Barley-field, (v. Barstow.) 

BEAUCHATEAU, de (£.), of Handsome castle. Beaucorps, 
de, of Handsome body. Beauharnais, de, of Fine armor. 

BEAUFOY (^. N.)? anc. de Bella fago, Fine leach-tree. Beau- 
PERE, Friar ov Priest. Siicli is the probable signification of 
the name Beaupere of Cornwall. In France it would now 
signify Father-in-law. Beaushin, Fine shin ? (v. Brownshin.) 

BEAWPELL (^. N.), Beaupoil {£.), Fine heard. 

BEC, du {£.), of the Point of land. 

BEC-DE-LIEVRE, de (if.), of Harelip, {v. Boccaferri.) 

BECK ((£. and W.), Brook. Beckmann ((3-), Brook-man. 

BECKETT, a ((g.), at Little brook, (v. Bach.) 

BEDLOW ((£.), Beadlow, Battle-mound? There is a place called 
Beadlow in Beds. A branch of this family appear to have 
removed to Holland, where Arms were granted to them by a 
Prince of Orange. 

Among the earliest Dutch settlers of New York was Isaac 
Bedloo, of Amsterdam, fiither of the first wliite child born in 
what is now the city of New York, and ancestor of Henry 
Bedlow, Esq., of Newport, R.I. Godfrey Bidloo, Physician 
to King WilUam III., and Isaac Bedloo, above named, were of 
the same family. 

BEECHER (^.), Dweller near the beech-trees, or on the beach. 

BEEK, op ter (tEl.), at the Brook. Beekman, Brook-man. 

BEER, de (iD-), the Bear or Boar. Beerenburg and Beeresteyn, 
Bears' or Boars' castle. Beerekamp, Bear or Boar field. 

BEGEER (in.), Desire. ■ 

BELBEUF, de {£-), of Fine dwelling. (v. de Criquebeuf.) 
Belcastel, de, of Fine castle. Belhomme, Handsome man. 
Belinfante, Fairchild, q. v. Bellerue, de, of Fine street. 

BELKNAP (01. N.), Bel knape, Fair page. {v. Bonvarlet.) 

BENTINCK (tU.), Bente's son. 

BENVICINI (Jt.), Good neighbors or citizens, or Sons of the good 
citizen, (v. dei Buonaguidi.) 

BERENDSOHN (©•), Son of Barnard, q. v. 

BERESFORD (€.), Bear's ford. Bereham, Barley-home. 
Beerwashe, Beards marsh, bog, fen, or track through a wood. 
Beerwood, Bear's wood, if not synonymous with " wealdbcro," 


hearing wood; i.e., a forest supplying mast for fattening pigs. 

(v. Barstow.) 
BERG (S). and ©.), Hill, 3fount. Bergen, van (HI.), of Bergen 

or Mons ; i. e., Hills. Bergendahl, Hill and valley. 
BERGER {£•), Shepherd. Berger (©.), Mountaineer. 
BERGLEIN ((!$.), dim. of Berg. 

BERKELEY {(^.), Birch-field. Berkenhead, Head of the hirches. 
BERKENRODE, van (tD.), of Berkenrode ; i. e.. Birch assart. 

(v. Ackroyd, Ormerod, von Rode, des Essarts, Herckenrath, 

Nesselrath, and Pfafferott.) 
BERRY (Q^.), Grove, Shady place, Borough. 
BE VERE, van (tH.), of Beaver. Bevervoorden, van, of Beaver- 
fords. Beverwijk, Beaver-quarter. Beverley (QE.), Beaver- 
BIANCO, Lo (Jt.) The White. Bianchi and Bianchini, Whites 

or Sons of Bianco, {v. Blancliard.) 
BIDEMBACH ((S.), By the hrooh. Biedemweg, By the road. 
BIE, de (tID.), of Bie, in Hainault {v. By), or the Bee. They carry 

bees in their Arms. 
BIENFAIT {£.), Comely, Handsome, (v. Hubsch.) 
BIERHAUS ((S.)j Beer-house, {v. Dunnebier and Gutbier.) 
BIGELOW (N. €.), Baguley ((g.). Corner, Brook or Back 

field ? Byga, a corner ; bsec or bee, brook ; base, back. John 

Biggely or BiGELOW, of Watertown in 1642, was the son of 

Randle Baguley, of co. Suffolk. 
BIGGAR (S.), Bigger (€.), Builder. 
BIGOT, Bihot, Vigot, Wigot, or Wihot, le (01. N-), Bigod or 

Bigot (®.), the Visigoth. 
BIHAN, le (C^.), the Little, (v. Vaughan and le Court.) 
BILLARDERIE, de la (£.), of the Billiard-room. 
BLAAUW (IB.), Blue. Blaauwvoet, Lanner-hawk ; lit. Bhie 

foot. Blaawbeen, Blue leg. Blaeuwenhaen, Blue hen. 

Blauboer, Blue farmer. Blaurock (©.), Blue coat. 
BLACKBURN ((g.), Black brook. Blackden, Black valley. 

Blacklock, Black hair, lake or canal-lock. Blackmore, 

Black moor or hill. 

BLACKLER ((E.), Blac hleor, Pale-faced, Fair. 

BLAKE (Q^.)' ^f'^*?- Wulfsic se blaca, WaJfsic the pale, was an 

Anglo-Saxon name. {v. Bleecker.) 
BLANCHARD ((!r. andi^.), White-complexioned. Blanchteste 

(i%), While head. Blaxcke (HI. and ©•), White. 
BLANKENBYL (tD.), Bright axe. Blankensee, von (©.), of 

White lake. 
BLEECKER (D.), Bleacher. Bleekrode, Pale red or Bleach- 
er's assart ? (y. van Berkenrode.) 
BLEIBIMHAUS ((5-), Stay in the house. Bleibtreu, Remain 

true or faithful, (v. Bydgoode). 
BLOEM (JD.), Floioer. Bloembergen, Flower hills. 
BLUMENRODER (©.), Dweller in the flower assart. Blumen- 

THAL, Flower dale. 
BLY, de (tD.), the Happy or Cheerful, (v. I'Heureux.) 
BOCCxVFERRI (Jit.), Iron-mouth, {v. de Bec-de-Lievre.) 
BOEKIIORST ((U.), Beech toood or grove. 
BOER, de (tD.), the Boor. Boerhaave, Farm-house. 
BOEUF, le {£■), the Ox; also the Boohy or Blockhead, (v. de 

Toucheboeuf, Os, and de Belbeuf.) 
BOGAARD, van den (iH.), of the Orchard, {v. Applegarth.) 
BOIS-DE-LA-MOTTE, de {£.), of Forest of the Castle or Hil- 

loch. Bois-LE-Houx, de, of Holly-wood. 
BOIVIN {£.), Drink wine. {v. Drinkwater.) 
BONAPARTE (3t.), anc. di Buonaparte, Good hirth, party, or 

faction ; or Good parts of character, body, or land. (v. dei 

BONEBAKKER ((D.), Bean-laker, {v. Boon.) 
BONEFELOW (%. N.), Good fellow, (v. Belknap.) 
BONJOUR, (£•), Good-day. Bonmarche, de, of Good marhet. 

(v. Goedkoop.) Bonvarlet, Good page. Bonvouloir, de, 

of Good intent. Bonyfant, Good child. 
BONTECOU (N. €.)j Bontekoe (SD.), Brindled cow. (v. Koe.) 

BoNTEKONiNG, Pavty-colorcd, fied, or spotted king ? Bonte- 

MANTEL, Fur cloak. 
BOON (JU.), Bean. Boonzaier, Bean-sower, (v. Bonebakker.) 



BORDMAN ((g.)? Bordrnan. Borclmen were farmers holding 
bords or cottages, and paying rent in kind. Borland, Bord- 
Imid, or land tenanted by bordmen. 
BORGER (©.), Money-lender, or Burgher. 

BORGNE, le (i^.)' ^^^^ One-eyed. {v. Bruijnooge and Leepoog.) 
BOSCH, van den (5II.)» Bosque, del (Sp.)' Bosco, del (Jt.), 

BusCHE, von dem ((S-); Buisson, du {£.), of the Bush. 
BOSTON ((Sc.)) BotolpKs or Bot's toivn. As a surname, it is not 
very common in England ; but it gives a title to the family of 
Irby, Barons Boston. In the Boston (Mass.) Directory for 
1856, there are three of the name. 
BOTTINGA or Botnia (ifris.), Botte's son. 

BOULTON (QE.), House or Hall town. The rebus to the name is 
a crossbow holt in a tun. It is borne by the Boultons of Moul- 
ton and of Toronto as their crest. 

Henry Boulton, of Moulton, co. Lincoln, Esq. {v. Burke's 
"Landed Gentry"), had issue, Henry, D'Arcy, and George. — 
The second son, 

Hon. D'Arcy Boulton, Judge of the King's Bench, m. 
Elizabeth, dau. and co-heir of Mr. Serjeant James Forster 
(Serjeant-at-Law), by Susannah, his wife, dau. of Sir John 
Strange, Master of the Rolls, and settled in Toronto, C.W. — 
His eldest son, 

D'Arcy Boulton, of Toronto, Master in Chancery, m. 
Sarah, dau. of Christopher Robinson, Esq., and sister of Sir 
John B. Robinson, Bart., Chief Justice of Canada West ; and, 
dying in 1846, was succeeded by his eldest son, 

William Henry Boulton, Mayor of Toronto, and Mem- 
ber Provincial Parliament, who m. Harriette Elizabeth Mann, 
only dau. of Thomas Dixon, K.N.L, K.L., of Boston, Mass. 
BOURBLANC, du {£.), of the White burgh. Bourgneuf, de, 

of JSfeiv burgh. 
BOURGCAMUS, or bourg Camus, le (£.), the Flat-nosed bastard. 
BouRG DE Champagne, le, the Bastard of Champagne. These 
are names of the fourteenth century, when this appellation 
was hardly considered disgraceful ; for in 1380 the war-cry of 


the Hare of Flanders — a natural son of the Count of that 
country (whose Arms were a lion rampant) — was, " Flanders 
for the Lion, Flanders for the Bastard ! " and, earlier still, the 
Conqueror styled himself in his public edicts, " Ego Willielmus 
cognomento Bastardus." There is an old family in Devon- 
shire, named Bastard, who have been seated there since the 

BOURNE ((g.), Brook, Rhndet ; Limit, Boundary. 

BOURSE, de la {£.), of the Purse. Arms : Three purses. In one 
of the market-squares of Bruges was an old mansion built by 
a member of this family, with their Arms engraved over the 
portal. This gave to the place a name, and is the origin of 
the Fi-ench word f©r an Exchange. 

BOVELANDER (SD.), Uplander. 

BOVEN, van (iD.), of Above, {v. de Pardessus.) 

BOWEN (U).), Ap Owen, Son of Oioen. 

BOYD (S.), Fair-complexioned, Yellow-haired. 

BOYER (y£^. Cowherd, Drover, (v. de Toucheboeuf.) 

BOYS (©.), anc. de Bois, Wood, Forest. 

BRADBURY (©•)? Large house, castle, court, town, hill, or harroio. 
Bradford, Broad ford. Bradlee, Broad field. 

BRANCALEONE (3t.), Lion's data. (v. Arenspoot.) 

BRANDNER ((3-), Diveller in a barren place"} 

BRAUN (©.), Brown, {v. Brown and de Bruin.) 

BRAUTIGAM ((5.), Bridegroom, {v. le Marie.) 

BRAY^ ((£. and (IT.), Cliff, Hill, Mount. 

BRAZ, le (Ql.), the Great or Fat. {y. le Grand and le Long.) 

BREDERODE, van (tD.), of Brederode ; i. e.. Broad assart. 

BREEBAART (iJD.), Boaster, Braggart, lit. Broad beard. 

BREEVOORT (N. JO.), Bredevoort, Gelderland, Broad ford. 

BREITHAUPT and Breitkopf (S-), Broad or Big head. (v. Kops.) 

BREMEN, van (i3.), of Bremen. Bremer, j5reme«er. 

BRINK, ten (JB.), at the Hillock, (v. du Tertre.) 

BRISTOW (©.), Bricgstow, Bristol, Bridge place or dwelling. 

BROEK, van den {J3.), of the Marsh, Pool, or Fen. Broek also 
signifies small-clothes ; and the family of Abbenbroek (i. e., 


Ahbe's marsh) carry a pair in their Arms ! — a most absurd 
specimen of canting Arms. 
BRONKHORST (B.), Fountain-ioood. {v. Quellhorst.) 
BROOMFIELD {(^.), Field of hroom, heath, or heather. 
BROWN, Broun, Brune, or Bruin ((g.), Broion haired or com- 
plexioned; Burn or Brook; also Beorn or Bear. As the bear 
was king of the northern forests, his name was used principally 
by poets to signify chief, noble, 'prince, king. {v. de Bruin and 
Osborn.) Browneshaugpi, i?roo^-mearioi<7. (z\ How.) Brown- 
shin, Brown shin. {v. Beawshin.) Brownsover, Burn side, 
Brook hank. 
BRUGGHEN, van der (H).), of the Bridges. Bruggenkate, ten, 

at the Bridge-post. Brugman, Bridgeman, Tollman. 
BRUIN, Brune, or Bruijn, de (iU.), Brun, le (J.), the Brown. 
Brunelleschi (3t.), Sons of Broivn. Bruijnooge (ID.), 
Brown eyes. (v. Braun.) 
BRUNN (©.), Well, Spring, (v. Ambron.) 
BUCKLAND ((g.), Bookland ; i.e.. Freehold land, or Stag's or 

Beech land. 
BUIK (iD.), Belly, {v. Rumpff.) 

BUONAGUIDI dei (Jt.), of the Sons of the good Guy, or of the 
Good guides. Buonamici, Sons of the good friend. BuON- 
COMPAGNI, Sons of the good companion. Buondelmonti, 
Good (man) of the hills, or Sons of the good (man) of the hills. 
Buonintendi, Good intentions, or Sons of the good steward. 
BuONTALENTi, Good talents, or Sons of the talented, (v. Benvi- 
cini and Bonaparte.) 
BUREN, van (?U.), of Buren ; i.e., dwellings {bur, Qa^., dwell- 
ing'^ ^ — a town in Gelderland, which has given a name to a 
President of the United States. Burlage, Dwelling hollow, 
Low place of the dwelling ? 
BURG, van den (SD.), of the Castle, Burg, or Borough. Burgher, 

BURNHAM ((£.), Brook home. {v. Brown.) 
BUSCHKENS (©.), dim. of Busch, Bush. {v. van den Bosch.) 
BUTEVISCH ((©.), Flounder, (v. le Goujon and Stokvis.) 


BY ((g.) Dwelling, Hahitation. {v. Colby and Silsbee.) 
BYDALE {(i..), By dale. Byfield, By field. Byfleet, By 

stream. Bytiiesea, By the sea. Bywateu, By ivater. 
BYDGOODE (Qr.), AUde good. (v. Bleibtreu.) 
BYERLEY ((£.), Field near hyar or cow-house. 
BIJKERK (iD.), Beikirch (©.)» By church. BurosT (fD.), By 

post. (v. Bidembach and de Contreglise.) 
BIJLEVELD (tB.), Bilos field. 
BIJLSMIT (B.), Axe-smith, (v. Isenschmidt.) 


CADAMOSTO, da ( Jt.), of Family of Mosto. Casa, house, family. 

CALDAS, Pereyra y Castro, de (S^J.)? ^f Hot-springs, Pear-tree, 
and Castle. 

CALHOUN (N. ۥ)> CoLQUHON (S.)^ Hazel-tree dwelling'^ The 
lands of Colquhon were granted by Alexander 11. to Umphred 
de Kilpatrick, whose son was styled Ingelram de Colquhon. 

CAIM (^.), Gam (to-)? Crump or Crooked, (v. Crombeen.) 

CAMEI, del (3t.), of the Cameos. 

CAMERON (Q.), Crooked or Hooked nose. Caufb-e-lt., Wrymouth. 

CAMMINGA (SxiB.), anc. Kempinga, Kempe's son. 

CAMPO y Camara, del (Sp.)' ^f *^^ -f't'e^c? and Chamber. 

CAMPOBASSO (Jt.)' ^^"^ /^^^- (^' ^6S Champs and van 

CAMSTRA, van (iFris.), of Field-jjlace ? The termination " ster," 
"stera," or "stra," I conceive to be a corruption of "stede," 
"staate" (pron. "stader," "starter"), a stead, estate, or jwsses- 
sion. (v. Dijkstra, Grustera, Hamerster, Heemstra, Hoekstra, 

CAMUS, le {£.), the Flat nose. (v. Cameron and Cochran.) 

CANABER, le (^.), the Goldfinch, (v. Stieglitz.) 

CANN, le (^.), the White, (v. le Gwen.) Cancoet, de, of 


White wood ? " Kann," tohite, brillicmt ; " kan," canal, current 

of water ; also a song. 
CANNEGIETER (tD.)' C'«?J or Tanhard founder, (v. Zurkanne.) 
CANTALAMESSA (Jt.), Sing the mass. 
CAPEL {^.), Chapel or Gloak. Capel is also old English for a 

horse. In the Roman de Rou, mention is made of an Iwan al 

Chapel, elsewhere called Eudo cum Cappello, Eudo unth the 

Cloak or Gotvl. 
CAPELLE (in.)' (Chapel. Capellen, van der, of the Chapels. 
CAPELLI (Jt.), Hats ; and the Capelli family of Venice carry 

a hat in their Arms. {v. Spitshuth.) 
CAPULETTI, de' (Jt.), of the Capidets ; i. e., Sons of Capo, 

Head, Chiefs 
CAREW ((jr.), Caer wy, Castle on the water (v. Carr) ; or Carw 

wy, Stag's water. 
CARGOUET, de {%.), of Stafs loood. Karo, karv, stag. 
CARPONT, de (1^.), of Arcade or Bridge-arch; i.e., arch of a 

stone bridge. 
CARR ((£. and S.), Roch, Hollow place or Marsh, Wood or Grove. 

Car or ker, stout. Caer ((JTeltic), city, castle, place surrounded 

hy a wall. 
CARRE AUX, Massif des {£.), Masonry-ivorh of the Squares ? 

Arms : A wall embattled ar., masoned sa. {v. Quai-re.) 
CARRE G (QI.), Stone, {v. le Roc'h.) Carthew, Caer dew, 

Blach castle ? Carverth, Bush castle ? 
CARY .((£•), Castle, but sometimes a corruption of Carew, q. v. 

Caer is pron., in Cornish, " cerry," "carry," or "cary." Adam de 

Karry was living in co. Somerset in 1198, and John Carew 

or Cary, of the same co., emigrated to N. E. circa 1637. 
CASAS, de las (Sp.), of the Houses, {v. Cazenove.) 
CASTELLO, di (Jt.), of Castle. Castelletto, del, of the Little 

castle. Castelcicala, Cricket's castle. Castelnovo, New 

castle. Castelnau, and Castelnouvel, de {£.), of Newcastle. 

Castillejo, de (Sp.), of Little castle, (v. du Chastel and van 

de Kasteele.) 
CATE, ten (?D.), at the Bridge or Wharf post. 


CATS met de Zwarte Katte (fD.), Cats with the Black Cat. Arms: 
A black cat on a gokl sliiekl. This Zeelancl family became ex- 
tinct about a century since. 

CAYLEY ((P.), Sheepcot^ Caile (U-), sheepfold. The lion. 
"William Cayley, of Toronto, C.W., Inspector-General, traces 
his descent from the lords of Caillie, now Cailly, in Normandy, 
who accompanied the Conqueror. 

CAZEXOVE (N. (£.)' Casa nova, (ilt. or Gp.), New house. 

CIIADBORN ((E-)? Chad's brook. Chad wick, Chad's dwelling. 

CHAMPERNOWNE ((g.), J^c- tie Campo Arnulphi and Cham- 
pernulph, ArnolplUs field. Champs, des {£-), of the Fields. 

CHARBON, {£.), Coal. Charrox, Cartwright. 

CHARDON de la Rochette {£.), Thistle of the Little rock. 

CHASE (©.), Private hunting-ground ; also Wood, Forest. 

CHASSELOUP {:£.), Wolf-hunter. 

CHASTEIGNER de la Chasteignei-aye, de {£•), of Chestnut-tree 
of the Chestnut-tree plot. 

CHASTEL, du (if.), of the Castle. Chastellet, du, of the 
Little castle, (v. di Castello.) 

CHATEAUBRIAND, de (f.), of Castle Briand. Briand, son of 
Thiern, built in 1010, in the Bishopric of Nantes, the castle 
which took his name, and gave a surname to his descendants. 

CHAUF, le {£'•), the Bald. Chaufepie, de, of Foot-stove. 

CHEFDEBIEN, de {£.), of Head of estate. Chef du Bois, de, 
of Head of the Wood. (v. de Penancoet and Pencoit.) 

CHEMINS, des {£•), of the Roads, (v. de Tremen and Strada.) 

CHENDUIT or Chenydoit ((£.), Oak duct or aqueduct, (v. Mau- 
duit.) A cognate name was that of Reynold at Cunduyt, or 
Conduyte, Lord Mayor of London, in the fourteenth century. 

CHEW ((E.), Chwfr (Olcltk), Swift, Rapid? A river in co. 
Somerset. In 1383, John Chew was Chaplain of Salisbury. 

The Hon. Samuel Chew was Chief Justice of Newcastle, 
Pa., and d. 1744. His son, the Hon. Benjamin Chew, was 
Chief Justice of Pennsylvania before the Revolution; and, in 
1790, was appointed President of the High Court of EiTors 
and Ajipeals of the same State. He d. 1810. 

CHIESA (Jt.), Church; and they bear one m their Arms. 


CHOATE (©.), Choaty, Fat, Ghuhhy. 

CHOLMONDELEY ((£.), Calmundelei, Cold mount field. "Cold" 
forms part of many local names in England and the Continent. 

In Prussia is a place called Kalau, Cold meadow or hrooh ; in 

Friesland, a Koudum, Cold home; and, in Hainault, a Froid 

Chapelle, Cold Chapel, {v. Colby.) 
CHOUAN (^O' Ohough or Cornish croiv. 
CHRISTIAANSCHE (H).), Christianhj. 
CLERC, de (CD.), Clerc, le {£.), the Clerk. 
CO AD, Couad, Coat, or Coed, le (C^.), of the Wood or Forest. 
COBB {(^.), Leader, Chief ; also Chuf or Miser, Wealthy person. 
COCHRAN (5), Cock-nose, Turned-up nose. 
COEHOORN, van (a).), of Cow's horn. 
COETBIHAN, de {%.), of Little wood or forest. Coetivy, de, 

of Tew wood. Coetmen, de, of Stony wood. Coetquen, 

de, of White wood. 
COID, Coit, or Cooth (QI.), Wood, Forest. 
COIN, du (f.), of the Corner, {v. Nangle.) 
COLBY (Of.), Cole's or Cold dwelling. Coldham, Cold home. 

{v. Cholmondeley.) 
COLE ((g.), Koyl, Coyll, Coil, or Coel ; an ancient name, borne 

by two kings of Britain, the first of whom reigned A.D. 125. 
COLENBRANDER (JD.), Charcoal-burner, {v. Kohler.) 
COMBE ((g.), Valley, Sharp ridge ; Mass of water. Compton, 

Valley town. 
CONTREGLISE, de {f.), of By church, {v. Bykerk.) 
COOLIDGE (N. ©•)' Gole-field. Cowel, cole, colewort. A name 

derived from Cowling or Cooling, co. Suffolk. The will of 

Thomas Colynge, of Arrington, co. Cambridge, was proved in 

1495. From him descended John Coolidge, who emigrated 

to Watertown, and was a Representative in 1658. 
CORBET {(^.), Corby; i.e.. Crow or Raven, (v. Crowe.) 
CORCORAN or Corcran (3.), Children of Kieran (or the Gray'i). 

Core, corca, children, race, or progeny. 
CORNFOOT (Q^.), Foot of the cornfield, (v. Haselfoot.) 
COURT, le {£.), the Short. Courtpie, Short or Small foot. 
COUSSMAKER (CD.), Stocking-maker. 


COYTMORE (O, Great wood^ (y. Coid.) 

CRAIGHEAD (S.), Head of the crag. (v. Muirlicad.) 

CRAMER (ill- anil (&.), Mercer, Retailer. 

CRANMER (Qc.)j Crane's mere or lahe. 

CRIQUEBEUF, de {£.), of Bay or Creeh dwelling or habita- 
tion, (v. de Belbeuf.) 

CROIX, de la {£.), of the Gross, (v. Lecraw and Kruijs.) 

CROMBEEN (iU.), Crooked leg. Cromhout, Crooked wood or 
timber, (v. Krumholz.) 

CROWE (®.), Croiv. John Crowe came to New England in 
1635, and settled in Yarmouth. He was representative to the 
Colony Court, and a magistrate. His descendants changed 
the name to Crowell. {v. Corbet and Roscrow.) 

CUCINIERE (jjt.), Cook. Cuisine, de la (if.), of the Kitchen. 

CUMMINGS (S.), Chuimein, Cumin? There was an Abbot 
of Icolumkill, in 597, named Cummine ; and another in 657, 
called Comineas Albus. The badge of the clan Cumyn, Comyns, 
or Cummings, is the cumin-plant; and their Arms are, Az., 
three garbs of cumin, or. 

CUNNINGHAM (S.), Churn home or district? Cuning, a butter- 
churn. It may be King's home ; but the Earls of Cunningham 
bear for Arms a shakefork, which accords better with a dairy 
than with a palace. 

CURTIS (€..), CURTEIS (XN.),C0URT0IS (£.), CORTESE (Jt.), 

Courteous. There is a somewhat similar name in Holland, — 
Donker Curtius, Dark Curtius ; but this is probably the Latin, 
Short. There is also a village in Normandy called Les Courtis ; 
i. e.. The Gardens. 

CUSHING (N. €•)» Cb"''* /«^^-^ The will of William Cus- 
SHYN, of Hingham, co. Norfolk, gent., was proved A.D. 1493. 
He was ancestor of Dea. Matthew Cdshing, who came to 
New England in 1638, and settled in Hingham, Mass. 

CUSHMAN (QE-)) Cow's or Cheese man. Cyse, cheese. Cheese 
and Cheeseman are English names. 

CUSINGTON (©.), Cow's field town ? Cow, Cowfield, and Cow- 
ley, are also English surnames, (y. Koe.) 




DALEN, van (tlD.)j of t^^^ Dales. Dall, ten, at the Dale or Vale. 
BALL, le (OV.), the Blind. 

DALLAS (S.)' Watered valley. T)ix\\, field, meadow, plain, valley ; 
uis, ivater. Dallas or Dollas is in co. Elgin. 

Sir William de Dolets, knight, was living in 1286; and 
in 1367 appears John de Dolais, Thane of Cromdale. About 
half a century later, the barony of Cantray came into the pos- 
session of one of the family, whose descendant, James Dallas, 
Laird of Cantray, was killed at CuUoden. A scion of this 

Robert Charles Dallas, of Dallas Castle, Jamaica, 
Esq., native of Scotland, had, int. al, Robert Charles (father of 
Sir George Dallas, Bart., and of Sir Robert Dallas, Lord Chief 
Justice of the Court of Common Pleas of England) ; Alexan- 
der James Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury of the U.S.A. ; 
and a dau. Charlotte, wife of Capt. Byron, R.N., and mother of 
the present Lord Byron. 

The Secretary, who d. 1817, had three sons; viz., (1.) Com- 
modore Alexander James Dallas, U.S.N., ob. 1844 ; (2.) George 
Mifflin Dallas, of whom below ; (3.) Judge Trevanion Barlow 
Dallas, of Pittsburg, Pa., ob. 1841. 

The Hon. George M. Dallas was born in Philadelphia 
in 1792. In 1831, he was elected a Senator of the U.S. ; in 
1837, appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to the Court of St. Petersburg ; from 1845 to 1849, 
he filled the high office of Vice-President of the United States 
of America, and ex officio President of the Senate ; and he 
now represents his country at the Court of St. James. He 
m. Sophia, dau. of Philip NickUn, Esq., by his wife Juliana, 
dau. of Chief Justice B. Chew, and has issue. 
DALRYMPLE (0.), Dail a 'crom poll. Dale of the crooked pool 
Dah-ymple, co. Ayr, lies in a bend or turn of the river Doon. 


Dalzell, White meadow. The old heralds, to make good their 
story of the origin of this family, interpret this, " I dare ; " but 
it is undoubtedly a local name. In early charters, it is written 

DAM, van, and Vandamme (D-), of Bam. 

DANFORTH ((£.), Bane's ford, or Ford of the Ban or Baven. 

D ANTON (f.), Of Anthony, {v. de Jacques.) 

DAVENPORT ((£.), Port of the Ban or Baven. 

DEARBORN ((E.), Beer's hum or brooh 

DECKER, den (u).), the Thatcher. 

DEDEL (D.), dim. of Dedde. Dedem, van, of Bedde's home. 

DEERING (©•), Son of Beor ; i.e.. Bear, Beloved. Dcor, a 
man's name, signified also deer or other loild animals. 

DEGEN (SD. and (5.), Sioord; and perhaps even from Degan, 
Thegan, Thegen, the old Saxon title. Thane. 

DELAFIELD (X N-), Of the f eld. Delamere, Of La Mare, 
in Normandy. Delamore, Of the hill or moor. Delarond 
and Delapoole, Of the jwnd ov j)ool. Delariver, Of the river. 
Delaware, Of the enclosure, (v. Ware.) 

DELANO (N. €■), Of the meadow, {v. de la Noe.) 

DELESSERT {£.), Of the assart. Delprat, Of the meadow, 
court, or place, (v. Prat.) 

DELPHINI (Jt.), Bolphins ; and they carry three in their Arms. 

DEN, Dene, and Dena (©.), Valley, Pasture, Plain, Enclosed grove. 

DEPAU (N. %)• If of Dutch extraction, de Paauw, the Peacock ; 
if French, de Pau, of Pau. (v. van der Paauw.) 

DERBY ((B-), Beor's or Beer's dwelling, (v. Deering.) 

DERNIER, de les (if.), of the Last or Hindmost. 

DEiiE^FFANS (f.). Of the childre7i. (v. der Kinderen.) Des- 
FOURS, Of the ovens. Desmons, Of the hills. 

DESIGNE (i^.). Appointed, Elected, Styled, Besigned. 

DEXTER (Qt-), de Exeter, of Exeter ; or Destrier or Dextrier, 
War-horse ? {v. Pointdexter, den Hengst, and Schimmel.) Jor- 
dan de Exeter, founder of the Irish family of MacJordan, was 
called also Dexcestre and Dexecester. Richard Dexter, 
of Maiden, Mass., was made freeman in 1642. One of his 


descendants, the Hon. Samuel Dexter, was Secretary of the 
Treasury of the U.S. in 1801. 

DIAZ (Sp.), Dia's or of Dia; i.e., son of Dia, Diag, Diago, 
or Diego. 

DIEU, de {£.), Dio, di (Jt.), of God; i. e., Servant of God. 

DIEULEVEULT (f.), God wills it. A family in Normandy 
whose motto is " Diex le volt," the war-cry of the Crusaders. 

DIRCKINCK {(3.), Son of Dirch, Dietrich, or Theodorich ; i. e., 
Rich or Mighty mnong the people, Popular. 

DIXON and Dickson ((£. and S.)j Dick's son. A common name 
in Great Britain. In England, it is generally spelt Dixon ; and 
there are many distinct famiUes so called. 

In Scotland, it has been variously written, at different periods, 
as Dicson, Dykson, Dikson, Diksone, Diksoun, Diksoune, Dixson, 
and Dickson. They are descended from one Richard Keith, 
said to be a son of the family of Keith, Earls Marshal of Scot- 
land, and, in proof thereof, carry in their Arms the chief of 
Keith Marischal. 

This Richard was commonly called " Dick ; " and his sons, 
with the carelessness of the age, were styled " Dickson." It is 
probable that he was the son of the great Marshal Hervey de 
Keth (ob. 1249), by his wife Margaret, dau. of WilHam, third 
Lord Douglas ; because it was customary in those days, in 
Scotland, for cadets to compose their Arms by adding to their 
paternal bearing a part or the whole of their mother's Arms, 
to show their maternal descent, and to difference themselves 
from other descendants of the family ; and the oldest Arms of 
the Dicksons are Azure three mullets argent, on a chief or, 
three pallets gules. Azure three mullets argent, was borne by 
the house of Douglas before the death of Bruce in 1329. 

The first Dickson on record was also a retainer of the 
Douo-las, and a man of wealth and influence. — This 

Thomas Dicson, of Heysleside, co. Lanark, was born A.D. 
1247, and, if grandson of the aforesaid Hervey, was second 
cousin to William, seventh Lord Douglas. The fief of Hazelside 
was granted to him by this William of Douglas. Archdeacon 


[DIXON, continued.] 

Barbour, who wrote in 1375, calls him a good and rich man, 
who had very many friends. He died March, 1307, a;t. GO, and 
was succeeded by his son, Thomas Dicson, of Heysleside. 

The family increased rapidly, and became one of the princi- 
pal Border Clans of the East Marches. These Foraying or 
Riding Clans, as they were otherwise styled, were broken up 
about the time of the union of the Crowns ; and, although most 
of the Dicksons remained in the Border counties, some went 
farther north. One branch removed to the highlands of Perth ; 
and of this line was — 

Henry Dickson, of Dunblane, co. Perth, whose son, 
Tho:\ias Dickson or Dixon, born in Dunblane, 1739, 
m. Elizabeth, dau. of Alexander Mann, of Penny, co. Ross, an 
officer in the army, and his wife Katharine, dau. of John Eraser, 
of Lovat, son of Thomas, Lord Lovat, and settled in the city of 
Westminster, where he adopted the English mode of spelling 
his name. In 1788, he removed to the Netherlands, where he 
died in 1824, a3t. 84, and was succeeded by his only son, 

Thomas Dixon, K.N.L., K.L., who was born in Westmin- 
ster, CO. Middlesex, England, in 1781. He was made Chevalier 
of the Order of the Lily by H. R. H. the Count d'Artois, after- 
wards King Charles X., by patent, dated Pax'is, Aug. 25, 1814; 
and was created Knight of the Order of the Netherlands Lion 
by H. M. the King of the Netherlands. He m. Mary B., dau. 
of Benjamin Parrott Homei*, of Boston, Mass., and d. in Boston, 
in 1849, aet. 68, leaving — with one dau., Hai'riette E. M., who 
m. William H. Boulton, of Toronto — three sons ; one of whom, 
Thomas Henry, d. unm. in Paris, in 1853. The survivors are, — 
(1.) B. Homer Dixon, of Boston, Mass. 
(2.) FiTz Eugene Dixon, who m. Catherine Chew, dau. of 
the Hon. George M. Dallas, and resides in Philadeli)hia. 

DODINGA or Donia (irris.), Doede or Dode's son. («'. Dudley.) 

DOLLEMAN (m.), Madman. 

DOMINGUEZ (Sp.), Domingo's, OY of Domingo. (?». Diaz.) 

DONODEI, de {£.), of Gift of God. The language is Latin. 


DOORNIK, van (SD.)) of Doornih (in French, Tournay) ; i. e., 
Thorn side or edge. Eg (Sa^.)? ^dg^- 

DOOTSHOOFT (D.), Death's head. The name of an Amster- 
dam churchwarden of 1615. 

DORP, van (?D.), of Village. Dorper, Villager. 

DOUGLAS (S.), Diibh glas, Darh-gray or Azure, if, as is most 
probable, it originated with the river, which may have been so 
called from the color of its waters. The first of this family was 
Theobald the Fleming, who, between the years 1147 and 1160, 
received a grant of lands on Douglas Water, in Lanark. He 
was called "Theobaldus Flamaticus" in the charter; and his 
immediate successor assumed, for the first, the name " de Duglas." 

DOURDUFF, de (OV.), of Black water. 

DOW and Duff (S.), Blach. Du and Duff, le {%.), the Black. 

DRINK WATER (Qt.)) Drink water, {v. Boivin.) 

DROOGHBROODT (il).), Dry hread. {v. Pannekoek.) 

DRUMMOND (9-)' Di'uman, Ridge, Summit, High ground. ^ 

DUBOCAGE {£.), Of the grove. Duchesne, Of the oak. Du- 
COMMUN, Of the common, corporation, or parish. Dutilh, 
Of the linden-tree. Duval, Of the valley. Duverge, Of the 
rood or orchard, (v. des Acres and de la Verchere.) Duvi- 
VI ER, Of the fish-pond. 

DUDLEY ((£.), Dodo or Dado's field, {v. Tottenham.) 

DUHRING (©.)' Buurd or Djurre's son. (v. Deering.) 

DUNBAR (3.) Bars hill is the signification of the local name. 
The family of Dunbar were called by the Gaels Barridh ; i. e., 
Descendants of Bar. Dun, a castle, a height. Dundas, ffill 
of the fallow-deer. DviiLOF, Castle of the elbow or bend, (v.du 
Guesclin and von Katzenellebogen.) 

DUNEMANN (©•), -Down dweller. 

DUNN ((£.), Swarthy; Mountain, Hill, Down. 

DUNNE BIER ((B-)? Small-beer. A modern German surname, 
but centuries ago nickname, of a nobleman of Holland, Floris 
van Egmond, called Floorke Dunbier, Little Florence Small-beer. 

DUPEE (N. at-), The same as du Puys, q. v. 

DUSHEDEN (U.), Thus to-day ? An Alderman of Amsterdam 
in 1381. 


DUYCKINCK (N. ^.), The same as Dirckinck, q. v. 

DUYN, van der (tEI.) of the Dune or Sand-hill. 

DUYVEL (til.), Devil Jacob Bocl, called Devil (Jacob Boel 
geseyd Duyvel), was Burgomaster of Amsterdam in 1421 ; and 
Jacob Boel Claas' son Devil (Jacob Boel Claesz. Duyvel), 
Alderman in 1470. In 1578, tliere were two military leaders 
named John and Dirk Devil (Jan and Dirk Duyvel). Burke 
blazons the Arms of the names Devill and Diable ; but the first 
is simply De ville, Of the toion. 

DIJKSTRA (irris.). Dike place or stead, {v. van Camstra.) 


EAMES (©.), Eam, Uncle, {v. Oom.) 

EATON ((£.), Water town. {v. van der Aa.) 

EAU, de 1' {£.), of the Water, {v. de Laigue and des Aix.) 

EBERHARD (©•)» Bold as a wild boar. Eberstein, von, of 
Wild hoards castle. 

ECK von Eckendahl ((S-), Oak of Oak dale. 

ECKLEY ((£.), Oak field, or Ecclesia (£.), Church. 

EDGECUMB (iX).), Edge of the valley, {y. Combe.) 

EE, van der (S).), of the Ee, a river in Friesland. 

EGMOND, van (iJD.), of Eymond ; i.e., Mouth of the Hegge, a 
river in North Holland. Klaas Kolyn, who wrote in 1170, spells 
it indifferently Hegmonde, Hegmunde, Egmont, and Agmont. 

EICHWALD ((5.), Oak wood. {v. du Quesnoy.) 

EIKENDUIN (iD.), Oak dune. {v. van der Duyn.) 

EINMAHL ((S.), Once. Einsiedel, Hermit. 

EISENBEIL (0.), Iron axe. Eisenmenger, Ironmonger. 

ELLERY (N. (£.), Hillary ((£.), Hilderich ((5o.), Battle- 
ruler, or In war powerful. In the early records of Gloucester, 
the name is often spelt lUery. 

ELLIS (€•)> Elias. Elles, elUs, or ells {€.), son-in-law. 

EMINGA, van (ifris.), of Eme or Eeme's race. 


EMMERY (S-), Armanakeiks {(3o.), Most exalted or Universal 
ruler. The Gothic name became changed to Armanarich, Er- 
manarich, Ermenrich, Emmerich, etc. ; and from it were pro- 
bably derived the English surnames Emerich, Emeryke, and 
sometimes Emery, (v. Amory.) The forename of the Italian 
Vespucci was also a coiTuption of this name of a king of the 
Goths in the fourth century. 

ENDE, am {(3.), Ende, op den (ID.), at the Mid, Cape, or Head- 

ENDICOTT ((£•)> ^^^y Border or Corner cottage, {v. Haverkotte 
Kingscote, Oldenkot, Prescott, and Wildcodt.) 

ENGELEN (IB-), Angels. Engelenburg, Angel's hurgh. 

ENGL von und zu AYagrain ((©•), Angel of and in Wagrain. 

ENRIQUEZ (Sp.), Enrique's or of Enrique or Henry, {v. Diaz.) 

EPERVIER, 1' {£.), the Haivh. {v. Habicht.) 

ESCURES, des {£.), of the Mews or Stables, {v. Verschuur.) 

ESSARTS, des {£.), of the Assarts, (v. van Berkenrode.) 

ESTANG, de 1' {£.), of the Pool or Fish-pond. (v. v. d. Weyer.) 

EULENBERG, zu ((^.). in OwVs mount, {v. Uhlefeld.) 

EVANS (tt)-), Jeuans, John's or Jones. 

EVELETH (N. ۥ)' EvELEiGH (QE-), Euwaleah, Sheep-field. 

EVENBLIJ (iH.), Justly happy, {v. de Bly.) 

EVERETT (Qc-), Eferhard, Bold as a wild hoar. 

EWBANK (QE.) Water, Sheep, or Yew-tree lank. 

EWESMA (ifris.), ^we'SjOro/^we. (v. Abbema.) The found- 
er of the family was Ewe in den Oerdt, living A.D. 1278 ; and 
his descendants were sometimes styled van Ewsum ; i. e., of 
Ewe's home. 

EYRE or Ayre (^.), anc. le Eyre, i. e., the Heir; and del Eyre, 
i. e., of the Place or of the Aire, a river. Aire (E.)> place, 
small place, threshing -place. 

EIJROND (?D.), Oval; lit., Round as an egg. 

EYSINGA, van (ifris.), of Eyse's race. {v. iEbinga.) 



FABRUCCI (St.), Sons of Fabhro or Smith, {v. le Fevre.) 

FACHINETTO (St.), Little porter, or aSow 0/ Faccino, Porter. 

FAIRBANKS (€•)» ^^^c? &anZ;s. Fairchild, Pre«?/ cliild. 
Fairfax, Fair-haired. Fairfield and Fairlie, Fair field, 
Fairford, Good ford. Fair weather, Fair weather. 

FAIRBROTHER (S.), Farebrother, Father-brother, Uncle. 

FANE (to.), Slender, {v. Vane.) 

FANGE, de la {£.), of the Mire or Mud ? 

FARNIIAM (J^.), Ferns home. Farnsworth, Ferns farm. 

FA-SOL. The musical name of an Alderman of Amsterdam in 
1541. I find it mentioned twice ; and the first time connected 
by a hyphen, making the surname two notes of the gamut ! 

FAULBORN ((!5-)> Muddy spring. Yxvi^y^K^^^^, Muddy river. 

FAUNTLEROY or Eufantleroy (01. N.), King's child. 

FAY, du {£.), of the Beech. Fayette, de la, of the Little beech 

FE (Jft.), Faith. Cav. N. Fe, of Brescia. 

FEATHERSTONHAUGH ((£.), Frith stan haugh, Peace-stone 
hilloch ? Camden says there were two stones on the lands called 
" fether stones," which were the origin of the name. " Fether " 
is, however, the Anglo-Saxon for feather, wing ; and what are 
feather-stones ? They were probably erected to commemorate 
a truce made upon the spot, and called Frithestanes, Monuments 
of peace. 

FELTON (Qc.)j Garden, Enclosed place. 

FENNER (€.), Fen-dweller, (v. Veeneman.) 

FERRERS (®.), Ferrieres, de {£.),of Ferrieres ; i.e., Forges 
or Iron-worhs in Normandy. 

FERWARDA {£x\b), 0/i^erM>ere?,anc. Feddewert; i.e.,Fedde's 
castle, (v. Ware.) 

FEUERSTEIN von Feuersteinberg (®.), Flint of Flint-hill. 

FEUNTEUNSANT, de (^.), of Holy well or fount. 

FEVERYEARE (N. (£•)» ^^^^^ V^^^ ^ 



FEVRE, le (J^.), the Smith, (v. le Goff, Schmidt, and Smid.) 

FEYERABEND ((§.), Evenmg-time, Eve, Vigil. 

FILIOLL {%. N.), Godsoji. (v. Trautsohn.) 

FINCK von Finckenstein ((3-), Finch of Finch's castle. 

FISHBORNE (e), i'^■s/^-iroo^. FiSK,i^M. (v. Vis and Stokvis.) 

FITZGERALD (OV. N.), Son of Gerald. Fitz-James, Son of 

FLECHE, de la {£.), of the Arrow, {v. Pfeilschmidt.) 
FLEET (©.), Stream, River, or Brook; also Swift. 
FLETH, zum ((g.) at the Brooh. (v. van der Vliet.) 
FLIKKENSCHILD (S).), Shining shield. 
FLO or Floc'h, le (1i.), the Esquire. 

FLORISSEN (JB.), Florence's son. Name of Pope Adrian VL 
FONTAINE, de la (S.), of the Fountain or Spring. 
FOREST, de la (f.), of the Forest. 
FORSTER and Foster (©. and 0.), Forester; also Fosterer, i.e., 

Fosterfather or brother. " 

FORTEBRACCI (Jt.), Strong arms. One of the Seigniors of 

Perugia was Braccio Fortebracci, Arm Armstrong. 
FORTIGUERRA (Jt.), Strong in battle, (v. Baldwin.) 
FOTHERBY (f^.), Fodder er' sot Feeder's dwelling. Fotheegill, 

Fodderer's rivulet, ravine, dell, or ditch, {v. Futtermenger.) 
FOURNEAU {£.), Furnace, (v. Giesenhausen.) 
FRANKLIN (©.), Freeholder, (v. Freyhofer and Sondermann.) 
FRAPPE (£.), Struck, or perhaps Spirited ? (v. Designe.) 
ERASER (S.) Eraser, Fresar, Frisel, Frisele, Freshele, de Fraser, 
and de Frisle, are the seven different ways in which this name 
is written in " Ragman Roll " (A.D. 1292-1297) by seventeen 
of the family ; one of them being Chancellor of the Kingdom, 
and another Grand Chamberlain and brothei'-in-law of Kins 
Eobei't Bruce. 

This surname is generally said to be of Norman origin ; but 
is more probably Celtic, and a corruption of Frith siol. Forest 
tribe or race. In Gaelic, the family are called " na Friosalaich," 
the Erasers, or " Clann Friosal." 

Those who claim for them a Norman descent say that the 


[FRASER, continued.] 

name was derived from the " fraises " or strawberry-leaves in 
tlieir Arms, and that they were identical with the French 
Frezels ; but, in my opinion, the latter is an entii'ely diflferent 
name (v. Frezeau). I believe, moreover, that the Scotch name 
is far older than the Arms ; and that when the latter were 
adopted, or perhaps granted, canting Arms were taken, and the 
pun made in the court language of the times. 

Gilbert de Fraser, living temp. Alex. I. (1107-1124), 
is the first who is to be found in charters. He possessed large 
estates in Tweeddale and Lothian, and was ancestor of Simon 
Fraser, who m. Margaret, dau. of John, Earl of Orkney and 
Caithness, and d. 1333. He was the immediate ancestor of 
the family of Lovat, which, as well as the Clan Fraser, ai-e 
styled in the Highlands Mac Shimi, from him, their first chief. 
His descendant, Thomas Fraser, Lord Lovat, d. 1G99, leaving 
two sons ; viz., (1.) Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, Chief of the 
Clan Fraser, and Lord-Lieutenant of the co. Inverness, attainted 
for high treason in 1747 ; and (2.) John Fraser, who was 
born at Tanich, Urray, co. Ross, circa 1674. He was an active 
Jacobite, and therefore generally lived under an assumed name 
in Great Britain ; being sometimes known as Mac Omas, — 
such being his patronymic, — and sometimes as John Dubh or 
Dhu. In France, however, he was styled the Chevalier Fraser 
de Lovat. 

FRAUENTRAUT ((g.), Women's dear, Beloved of women. Hen- 
ry von Meissen, the Minnesanger (ob. 1318), was called Frauen- 
lob, Women's praise, or Praise the ivomen. 

FREEBODY ((£.), Liberal fellow ? Freeborn, Born free. 
Freeland, Allodial land. Freeman, Freeholder ? (v. Frank- 
lin and Freimann.) 

FREEMANTLE ((£.), Frieze mantle, or cloak made of the cloth 
for which Friesland was formerly celebrated. 

FREIMANN (©.), Freeholder; but, as a prov. word, "freimann" 
signifies hiacker. Freimuth, Frank. 

FREUDENBERG (©.), Mount of joy. Freudenburg, Castle 
of joy. 


FREYHOFER ((3-), Free farmer, Freeholder, (v. Franklin.) 

FREZEAU, or Frezel de la Frezeliere (£^.), Ash of the Ash plan- 
tation. Fraysse (U.), ash-tree. {v. de Chasteigner.) 

FRODHAM or Frodsham (©.), Sage's home. Frod, advanced in 
years, old, prudent, wise. {v. de Vroe, a corruption of de 
Vroede.) Eroding, Sage's son or descendant. Fkodingham 
or Frothingham, Some of Sage's son. 

FUCHS, von ((g>.), of Fox. ^(w. Tod.) 

FULFORD ((£.), Foulford, Muddy ford. (v. Faulbom.) 

FULLERTON (S.), Fuller's or Fowler's town. 

FUNFKIRCHEN {(&.), Five churches. 

FUR, le C^.), the Wise or Sage. 

^URSTENHAUPT ((55.), Prince's head. {v. Testa d'Oro.) 

FUTTERMENGER (©.), Fodder or Food mixer, {v. Fotlierby.) 

FIJNJE (SEI.), dim. of Fijn; i. e., Sly, Cunning. 


GALE (©.), Gael or Scot. Gall, le {^'), the Frenchman. 

GAMBACORTA (St.), Short legs. Gambalunga, Long legs. 
Gamberucci, Sons of Gamba. 

GANS (IJD.), Coose. Gansneb, G^oo5e-5^7?. Gansevoort (N- 13-)> 
Goose's ford. 

GARIBALDI (Jt.), Garibald {(3a -), Bold spear, {v. Gerard.) 

GARTH (€.), Yard, Orchard, Weir, Warren. 

GATES ((E.)> Gate (v. v. d. Poort and Yates); also Goat; Farm- 
yard; Path, Way, Street, or Road. 

GATESDEN {(^.), Goat's pasture, (v. Den.) 

GATTA, deUa (Jt.), of the Cat. 

GEBHART (®.), Generous nature, Liberal, {v. Giffard.) 

GEDULT (CD. and ®.), Patience, (v. Gnaden and Treurniet.) 

GEELE (W.), Yellow. Geelhand, Yellow hand. Geelhoed, 
Yellow hat. Geelhuyzen, Yellow houses. Geelkerken, van, 
of Yellow churches. 

GELTSAK (H.), Money-hag. {v. de la Bourse.) 


GELUK (J3.), Fortune. Geselschap, Company, Society. 

GERARD (Qc.)j Gerhard (Q5o.)) Hard spear, {v. Garibaldi.) 

GEVERS ((JD.), Geijbeks (C5.)' ^''«-er, Liberal, as Gebhart, q.v. 

GIANFIGLIAZZI (Jt.)? John's sons. Figliazzi, dim. of figlio. 
GiANiBELLT, Sons of Jolui the handsome. Giovanelli, John's 

GIBSON ((£.), Son of Gib or Gilbert, anc. Gislebert; i.e., Bright 
pledge. Illustrious hostage. 

GIESENHAUSEN (©.), Foundries, (v. Ferrers and Fourneau.) 

GIFFARD ((£.), Liberal, as Gebhart and Gevers, q. v. 

GILCHRIST (S.), Giolla Christ, Servmit of Christ. 

GILDEMEESTER (iD.), Deacon of a guild, Foreman of a cor2-)0- 
ration. (v. Overman.) 

GILMAN ((£.), The same as Villemain, q. v. 

GLASS (S.), Grey, Pale, Wan. Glaz, le (^.), the Gray. 

GLE {£.), Mouse. Arms : Or, five mice gules. 

GNADEN zu Thur (®.), Grace in Thur. 

GODARD (f&.). Divine nature or disposition. Godbold, Bold 
in God, or God's house, (v. Newbold.) Goderich and Good- 
rich, Prosperous in God. Godsall and Godschall, God's ser- 
vant. Godwin, Lover of God. (v. Amaduzzi.) 

GOEDBLOED (H).), Good blood. Goedkoop, Cheap. Lit. 
Good bargain ; or Good market ? {v. Goodchepe, de Bonmar- 
che, and Middelkoop.) 

GOETHALS (SD.)? -^^n goede hals, A good-natured felloto. A 
Dutch expression, but literally a good necTc ; and the Arms of 
the family of Goethals, in Flanders, have been made to agree 
with the latter signification ; viz., " tliree female busts." And, 
to crown the whole, the origin of the Arms is stated to be, that 
an ancestor saved three Christian virgins from being massacred 
by the infidels ! 

GOFF, le (^.), the Smith, {v. Angove and Trengove.) 

GOLDTIIWAITE (©.), Wild myrtle assart, or Thioaite in a gole 
or narrow valley, (v. Thvvaites.) 

GONZALES or Gonzalves (Sp.), Gonzalvo's. {v. Diaz.) 

GOODACRE (Cg.), Good field. Goodbodt, Good fellow or 


messenger, (v. Peabody.) Goodbow, Good hoy, or archer? 
GoODCHEPE, Good market, (v. Goedkoop.) Goodenough 
and Goodenow, Good enoitgh. Goodfellow, Boon compa- 
nion, or synonymous with Goethals, q. v. Goodhue, Good 
Hugh. GoODMADAM, Patroncss. (v. Godard.) 
GORDON (S.), Goirtean, Little cornfield. The parish of Gordon 
is in the co. Berwick ; and the founder of the family so called, 
who came from England, temp. Dav. I., obtained from him the 
lands from which the name was taken. 
GORHAM (©.), Gorram, now Goron m the pro v. of Maine. 
GOTTS CHALK {(3.), Servant of God. {v. Godsall.) 
GOUDOEVER {W.), Gold shore. Goudswaaed, As good as 
gold! But this is probably derived from the village of Gouds- 
waard ; i. e., Goudds defence, castle, or polder, {v. Ware.) 
GOUGH or Goch (tJD.), Red. 

GOUJON, le {£.), the Gudgeon. Arms: Az. three gudgeons or. 
GRAAF, de (H.), the Count. 
GRAAUWEN, 's (iU.), Gray's, or of the Gray; i.e., son of the 

Gray. (v. Gray and de Grijs.) 
GRACE (J.), anc. le Gros, Big, Fat. (v. le Gras.) 
GR^ME or Graham (0.), Gritn, Savage; for this name resem- 
bles rather the Anglo-Saxon word " grim " — i. e., sharp, savage, 
cruel, grim — than the Celtic " gruamach," — i. e., sidlen, morose, 
gloomy, — and is of the same class as the German name Grimm, 
the French le Sauvage, the Dutch de Wilde, q. v., and the 
English Savage and Wild. 

The traditionary descent of this family from one Grime, 
who in the fifth century made a breach in the wall of Severus, 
probably saved them from being classed with the Campbells, 
Cumyns, Erasers, Grants, and many other great Scottish houses 
to whom a foreign origin was given, as this name has really an 
Anglo-Norman appearance ; the Romance word " grams or 
graims" (gram, grom, Qa^.), i.e., furious, fierce, angry, pas- 
sionate, not differing much from the surname of the first of 
this family who appears in charters ; viz., William de Graeme, 
A.D. 1128, 


[GR^SIE, continued.] 

The ancestor of the GroBmes of the Debatable Land was 
styled John with the Bright Sword. He was second son of 
Malise Graham, Earl of Meuteith. 

GRAFTON (QT-)? Grove or Grave town, or Grass toion, if derived 
from Grafton, anc. Gi'astone, co. Warwick. 

GRAINDORGE {£.) Barleycorn. 

GRAND, le (if.), the Great, Tall, or Long. Grandoten, Head 
dean. Guandjean, Great John. (v. le Braz and Grace.) 

GRANT or Graunt ((£•), Great, Tall, Long. But it may in some 
cases be a local surname derived from the river Grant or Cam. 

GRANT (S.) Griantach, or Sliabh Grianus, The heath of Grian 
or the Sun, in Strathspey, where there are many Druidical 
remains, is doubtless the place from which the clan Grant 
derived their appellation ; and their crest, a burning mount, 
apparently has reference to the worship of Baal, after whom 
May Day is still called in Scotland Bealltainn, BaaVs fire. 

GRAS, le {£.), the Fat. (v. Grace.) 

GRASHOF (JB.), Grass court. Grasmeyer {(3-), Grass farmer. 

GRAVENSWEERT, van 's (m.), of Counts castle, {v. Wai-e.) 
Grave SAND E, van 's, of Counts sands. 

GRAY or Grey (©.), Gray-haired ; also a Norman name derived 
from the town so called in France. It appears as de Gray in 
the roll of Battel Abbey. Some of the name, however, claim 
descent from John de Croy, a Picai'd, who accompanied the 

GRAYSTOKE (©.), Place of grays or ladgers. 

GREEFKES {^.), Son of little '' greef graaf" or counts 

GREENFIELD ((£.), Green field. Greenham, Green home. 
Greenhow and Greenhaugh, Green kill or meadow, (v. How.) 
Greenshields, Green shielings. Greensmith, Smith dwell- 
ing on the village green. 

GRENZEBACH ((5-), Boundary hrooL {v. Tusschenbroek.) 

GREW (©.), Greek; also Greyhound. 

GROEN (i3.), Green. Groenenberg, Green hill. Groene- 
WOUD, Green wood. Groenveld, Green field. 


GROOTEKOORT (H.), Stout and short. Grootenhuis, ten, 
at the Great house. Grootjan, Big John. {v. le Grand.) 

GROSTETE (if.), Big head. (y. Breithaupt and Kops.) 

GROVESTINS, van {£x\Q.), of Strong castle. 

GRUND (©.), Ground, Land, Valley, {v. Zumgrunde.) 

GRUNSTEIN (®.)' Green castle, or the stone called Greenstone. 

GRUSTERA or Groenstera (iTris.)* Green place, or Gruno's 
place ? (v. van Camstra.) 

GRUTT, am (©.), at the Grotto. 

GRIJS, de (Cm.), the Gray. {v. 's Graauwen.) 

GUE, du {£.), of the Ford. {v. de Quebriac.) 

GUESCLIN, du (01.), of the Elhoio of the stream. The castle of 
Guesclin is situated upon a rock in the sea, at the mouth of a 
river, which forms a bend there by winding round the rock. 
(y. Dunlop.) 

GUIDI del Bagno (St.), Guys, or Guy's sons of the Bath. 

GUNTER (€.), GuNTHER {<^o.), In battle chief, {v. Heringa.) 

GUTBIER {%.), Good beer. (v. Sauerbier.) Gutknegt, Good 
servant. Gutschmidt, Good smith, (v. Goedbloed.) 

GWAZIK (QV.), Little man. (v. Rozek and Piccolomini.) 

GWEN, le {%.), the White. Gwtnn f iX).), White, (v. Wynne.) 

GIJZELAAR, de (CD.), the Hostage. 


HAAG, van den (HD.), of the Hague ; i. e., the Hedge, or Place en- 
closed by a hedge. The proper name of the city of the Hague 
is 's Gravenhage, the Counts hedge, {y. Haig.) 

HAAN, de (SD.), the Goch {v. 't Hoen.) 

HABASQUE C^.), Sioeet, Amiable, (v. Swett.) 

HABENICHT (®.), Penniless, LacEand. {v. St. Savoyre.) 

HABICHT {%.), Haivh. {v. I'Epervier.) 

HAGEDOORN (jH.), Hawthorn. Hagen, zum (®.), at the 

HAHNEMANN (®.), Hedge man or dweller. 


HAIG (0.), Hedge, (v. van den Haag, zum Hagen, and Hay.) 

HALE ((£.), Healthy, Strong, (v. Sain.) 

HALL ((£.), House, Manor-house, Dwelling. 

HALL, van (tU.), of Halle? There is a place so called in Bra- 
bant. Sir Frank van Halle (ob. circa 137 G) was an early 
Knigbt of the Garter. 

HALLET ((g.)j L^^t^<^ ^«^ or Henry. 

HALLIDAY (S.), Holy day. A name derived from their slogan, 
" A holy day, a holy day ; " this border family probably viewing 
the contest with their old enemies of England in the light of a 
Holy war. 

HALLO WELL ((P.), Holy ivell {v. Holyoke.) 

HALLSTROM (©.), Stony stream. Hall, hanh of roch. 

HAM (QE.) Home, House, DtoelUng, Village, Toion, Farm, is the 
signification of the Anglo-Saxon word " ham." The provincial 
word " ham " means rich level pasture ; plot of ground near a 
river ; small triangular croft, {v. van der Heim.) 

HAM, ten (SH.), at the Enclosure. Ham signified anciently a place 
sxirrounded hy willows, or where rushes grow ; also land planted 
xoith wicker betiveen a dike and river, {v. von Hamme.) 

HAMDEN (Qc-)> Home valley or pasture. 

HAMEL, du {£.), of the Hamlet, (v. Weiler.) 

HAMER and Hammer ((£.), Hammer. Hamer may have been 
an old Saxon forename ; for there is in co. Lincoln a place called 
Hameringham ; i. e., Home of Hamer' s son. One of the Ger- 
man names of Thor was Hamar. Hamerton, Hamer' s, Thor's, 
or Hammer toxon. Hajoiersley, Hamer' s, Thor's, or Hammer 
field. Hamek (u).), Hammer. Hamerster, Hamer's, Thois, 
or Hammer place, (v. van Camstra.) Hammer, von {<&.), 
of Hammer, (v. Homer and Martel.) 

HAMME, von ((&.), of Hedge or Fence, (v. ten Ham.) 

HAMMOND (®.), Home defender or protector, {v. Redmond.) 

HANCOCK (©.), Little Hans, Johannes, or John. 

HANLEY ((£.), Cock's f eld. Hana (Sa^.), acock, (r. Henscot.) 

HANWAY (Q^.), Hainaidter. (v. Janeway.) 

HARAUON ((£.), Hare's doim or hill. Harig (ID.), Hairy. 



HARINGKARSPEL (iD.), Haare's sons parish. Harinxma 
tlioe Sloten, van {£x\^-), of Haare's race at Sloten. {v. Heringa.) 

HARRINGTON (®.)» Haveringtun, Heifer's meadow town. There 
is another place from which the surname may have been de- 
rived, a seaport in co. Cumberland, called Harrington ; i. e., 
Herring town ? 

HARSCOUET (1i.), Near wood. (v. By dale and Bykerk.) 

HARTMANN ((S-)? ffardy man. (v. Heilmann.) 

HARTOGVELT, van (?D.), of Duke's field. 

HASELFOOT (Qf.), Foot of the hazel-trees. Hazelrig, Hazel- 
ridge. HASS^i^A^n (IB.), Hazel-tree. In 1573, when Haarlem 
was besieged by the Spaniards, Kenau Simonsd. Hasselaer, — 
i. e., Catherine Hasselaer, Simon's daughter, — a lady of an honor- 
able family, formed a battalion of three hundred women, who 
bore a conspicuous part in all the perils and labors of the siege. 
Hasselbach (©.)> Hazel hrooh. 

HATCH {^.), Dam or Mound, Gateway. 

HATEBUHR (CD.), Hate neighbor, (v. Naber and Mauvoisin.) 

HATHERLEY (QE-)> Heather field. Hathorne, Hawthorn. 

HAUTERIVE, d' (I.), of High bank. 

HAVEN (Q^.), Port or Harbor. In Scotland, the hollow or shel- 
tered part of a hill is called a " hope, howif, haaf," and " haven." 

HAVERKAMP (iD.), Oat's f eld. Haverkotte, Oat's cottage. 

HAVERSHAM (SD.), Heifer's or Oat's home. (v. Harrington.) 

HAWES (©.), Haw or Hedge, (v. Hay.) Perhaps sometimes a 
corruption of How, q. v. 

HAY (S.), Hedge, (v. Hawes andHaig.) 

HEATHCOTE (f^.), Heath cottage, (v. Endicott and Westcoat.) 

HEEMSTEDE (iD.), Farm. Heemstra, van, of Hemme's place ? 
or of Home place. {i\ van Camstra.) 

HEERE (llD.), Lord, Sir, Master. Heeren, Lords, Gentlemen, 
Sirs. But these surnames are probably derived from the fore- 
name Heer, Heere, or Herre. (v. Heringa.) Heerenberg, 
van 's, of Lord's hill. 

HEIDE, ter (iU.), at the Heath. Heideblom, Wild thyme. 

HEILIGENMANN (C^.), Saint's man ; i. e., Servant of the 


saints, (v. de' Sanctis.) Heiligenschmidt, Saint's smith or 
worker ; i. e., probably, malcer of images of saints. 

HEILMANN (©•), trappy man. {v. I'lleureux.) 

HEIM, van der (?D.)' ^f ^^^ Home. The Saxon "lieim" was the 
same as the Anglo-Saxon " ham." (r. Ham.) 

HEITMANN ((g.), Heath man. {v. ter Heide.) 

HELBORNE ((£.), Hill brook Hellier, Thatcher, Tiler. 

HELL, van der (?I).), of the Hollow, Low, or Beep place. 

HELLEGANGER (ID.), Hell-walker f Two of the name m 
Amsterdam Directory for 1851. 

HELLER von Hellersperg ((S.), Vivary of Vivary mount. 

HELLFURTH ((S.), Clear ford. Hellmann, Clear-headed man. 
The same as the English Brightman. 

HEMELOP (iD.), Heaven up ; As high as heaven ? 

HENGST, den (SD.), the Stallion. A name still extant, and cer- 
tainly an ancient one ; for it was borne by Hengst, or Hengist, 
who, with his brother Horsa, landed in England A.D. 449. 

HENNEBONT, de (^.), of Bridge road. (v. des Chemins.) 

HENSCOT ((g.). Hen's cottage. Henshall, Hen's hall. Hen- 
SHAW or Henshaugh, Hen's meadoio. (v. Hanley and How.) 

HERCKENRATH {(&.), Heerhe, Herke, or Herck's assart. 
Herckenroder, Dweller in Herck's assart. 

HERINGA (i^ris.), Haare, Heere, Heer, or Herre's son. Hari 
(C5o.), army, also a single champion. One of Odin's names 
was Har, The high. Har also signifies hairy. Hermann, (©.), 
Har's or Chief man, or Man of the army. Herm annsen, Her- 
man's son. 

HEUREUX, 1' {£.), the Happy, (v. de Bly and Heilmann.) 

HEYLIGERS (13.), Saints, (v. Heiligenmann.) 

HIDE ((E.), Field, Hide of land. 

HIGHMORE ((g.), High hill, or High in the moor. 

HIMMEL (O.), Heaven, {v. Hemelop and Paradise.) 

HINMAN ((S.)? Farmer, (v. Ackerman, Bauer, and Meyer.) 

HOAR ((£.), Hoary, Aged, Gray. 

HOCHBERG, von (©.), of High mount. Hochschluss, von, 
of High castle, {v. Hogendorp and Hoog.) 


HOCHE (J^.)' OuUivated land enclosed by a hedge or ditch, Plot of 
ground near house. 

HOCHEPIED {£.), Haggard falcon, {v. Blaauwvoet.) 

HOEFIJZER (HD.), Horseshoe, {v. Trip.) 

HOEK, van den (m.), of the Corner. Hoekstra (iTrisO^ Corner 
place ? {v. van Camstra.) 

HOEN, 't (tO.), the Fowl. Hoendervoogd, Poultry-master. 

HOENSBROEK, van en tot (iH.), of and in Hen's marsh. 

HOE YEN, ter (Wi.), at the Farms, {v. Hovy.) 

HOF, van 't (J^.), of the Court ov Garden. -^ 

HOFER ((©.)' Hufner, Possessor of a hide of land, or Hofherr, 
Courtier, Landlord, Lord of the manor. In the Tyrol, " hofer " 
signifies huchster. 

HOFF, von ((©.), of Court, Yard, Manor, or Farm. Hoffman 
von Hoffmansegg, Courtier of Courtier's corner. Hofzuma- 
HAUS, Court or Farm hy meadow house, or Matthew's court ? 

HOGENDORP (iD.)' High village, {v. Hoog.) 

HOHENFELD, von ((^.), of High field. Hohenloh, von, of 
High place ov forest, (v. van Loo.) 

HOLBROOK and Holburne ((£.), Wood ov Holly-tree hrooh HoL- 
COTT, Wood or Holly cottage, or Cottage in a hollow. Holland, 
Hollow or Flat land, or Woody or Holly land. Hollinshed, 
Head of the hollies. Holt, Wood ov Grove. Holtoft, Wood 
or Holly croft, or Toft in a hollow. Holyland, Holly land. 

HOLLANDER, de (iH.), the Hollander. The Dutch name Hol- 
land first appears in the year 1054 ; and, in 1083, Count Dirk 
V. is styled " Comes Hollandensium." The latest authorities 
consider that the names were given to Holland and Zeeland by 
the Danes, after the places so called in their own fatherland. 

HOLMES (Qc-)? Hollies, Lsland in a river, Flat land, Meadow sur- 
rounded hy water. 

HOLTHUYZEN (?B.), Wood or Forest houses. Holtrop, Holt 
dorp, Wood village, (v. Lothrop.) 

HOLYOKE ((£.), Holy oak. (v. Hallowell.) 

HOLZBRUCK, von ((©.), of Wooden bridge. 

HOMER (GE.) Hammer is the signification of the Anglo-Saxon 


f HOMER, continued.] 

word "homer" or "hamor." In 12 Edw. III., A.D. 1338, 
lands in co. Dorset were granted to Tuomas de Homkre, 
believed to be tbe earliest of the name on record. He may 
have been so called, either from the "martel de fer," or hammer, 
being his favorite weapon, or from a manor named " Homere." 
(v. Hamer.) 

A family surnamed Homer have been settled in Stafford- 
shire for centuries. According to tradition, their ancestor, an 
officer, removed theVe in the fourteenth century, in consequence 
of having fought a duel. One of his descendants built a house 
at Ettingshall, near Bilston, parish of Sedgley, co. Stafford; 
and from him sprang — 

Edward Homer, of Ettingshall, whose son, Capt. John 
Homer, b. 16-47, immigrated to Boston, Mass., circa 1672; 
m. Margery Stephens ; and d., leaving, int. al, a son, Benja- 
min Homer, b. 1698, who m. Elizabeth, dau. of John Crowe, 
and Bethia Sears, his wife. His son, Benjamin Homer, b. 
1731, m. Mary, dau. of Bryant Parrott, and Ruth "Wadsworth, 
his wife, and d., leaving one son, of whom presently, and four 
daus. ; viz., Ruth, m. Mons. P. R. Arsonneau ; Elizabeth, m. 
Judge A. Paine; Mary, m. Judge L. Hall; and Bethia C, 
m. Col. O. Gallup. The only son, Benjamin Parrott Homer, 
b. 1761, m. Abigail, dau. of David Pearce, of Gloucester, and 
Bethia Ingersoll, his wife, and d. 1838, leaving one son, of whom 
hereafter, and two daus. ; viz., Mary B., m. Thomas Dixon, 
K.L., K.N.L., and Georgiana A., m. Philo S. Shelton, Esq. 
The only son, Fitzhenrt Homer, b. 1799, m. Nancy B., dau. 
of the Hon. J. D'Wolf, of Bristol, R.I., a senator of the U.S., 
by his wife, Nancy, dau. of Lieut.-Gov. W. Bradford, of Rhode 
Island, U. S. Senator, and d. 1856, leaving two daus., one of 
whom, Josephine M., m. Henry Bedlow, Esq. 

HOMEIJER (tD.), Hay-mower, or High farmer ? {v. Nieder- 
meyer and Upjohn.) 

HOMODEI (Sp.), Man of God. {v. de Dieu.) 


HOND, de (W-), the Dog. Hund, von (®.)j </ ^^9- (^- ^^ 

Quien and Keigwin.) 
HONDERTMARK (t)-), One hundred marks ; money or land. 
HONEYPOT (©.)' Honey-pot. (v. Olievat, Pot, and Zuber.) 
HOOD (QE.), Wood, and perhaps also from the name Odo. 
HOOFDMAN and Hopman (W.), Cajjtain, Headman, Deacon. 
HOOFF, Op den (iD.)^ -^t the Court or Garden, (v. Hof.) 
HOOFT, 't (13.), the Head. (v. Kops, Pen, and de Malteste.) 
HOOG (W-), Tall HooGKAMER, High chamber. Hoogenboom, 

High tree. 
HOOP ((ID.)} Hill. HooPEN, ten, at the Hills. 
HOPE (ۥ), Small field, Valley, Stream, Hill. {v. Haven.) 
HORSEPOOL (ۥ), Horse-pond. Horsley, Horse-field. 
HOTTINGA (iTris.), Hotte's son. {v. ^binga.) 
HOUT, ten {W), at the Wood. Houx, du {£.), of the Holly. 
HOVIJ (H).), Hoeve, Farm, or Hove, Courti {v. ter Hoeven.) 
HOW and Hoo (€.), Hill, Deep or Loiv place. Meadow in a valley; 

also Haugh, i. e., Hillock, Flat ground by river side. Meadow in 

a valley. 
HOWE (C.), Hugh, or the same as Hawes or How, q. v. 
HOWELL (to.), Hual, Generous, Frank ? {v. Powell.) 
HUBSCH ((g.), Handsome, {v. Bienfait and Joliffe.) 
HULL (®.), Hill, Hovel, Holly-tree. 
HULSEMANN (©.), Dweller by the hollies. 
HULST, van der (D.), of the Holly. 
HUMBOLD (Cg.), HuNiBALD ((So.), Bold as a giant. 
HUMPHREY (QE-), Hunfrid (®0.), Protecting giant, or Secure 

as a giant. 
HUNOLT STEIN, Vogt von und zu (©.), BailifT of and in Hu- 

noWs castle. Vogt, a title changed to Baron in 1471. 
HUNSTON ((£.), Dofs town. (v. de Hond.) 
HUNT (Q^.), Huntsman. Huntingdon, Huntena tun, Hunter's 

HUIJDE COPER (iB.), Hide-dealer, {v. Skinner.) 



IDE (N. (£.)> The same as Hide, q. v. 

IDSINGA, van {£x\5.), of Ids' race. (v. iEbinga.) 

IHM (tg.)> To him ? Iiinen, To you or them ? Ihne (N. 13-)» 

The same as Ihnen ? {v. des Nos and Zijnen.) 
BI-GRUND ((g.), In the Valley. Imhorst, In the wood. Im- 
HULSEN, In the holly-hush. Imobeksteig, At the bridge. 
Im-Thurn, In the Tower. Imwall, In the wall. 
IMHOFF (©•)? Immo^s court, yard, farm, or manor. 
INBUSCH ((5.)> -^^ 01* ^" ^"«^*' Indematte, 7n <Ae meadow. 
Ixdereie, In the island. Indermaur, At or In the wall or 
Moor ; i. e., sign of the Moor. 
INCHES (S.)j Islands, also Meadoivs, as at Perth, 
INFANT ((P.), Ghild- Arms: Three boys' heads. 
INGE (Gr-)» Home, Enclosure, Meadow. Ingham, Ing's home. 
INGERSLEBEN, von ((S-)? of Inger's living or dwelling. 
INGERSOLL (Qc-)^ Ing^i^'s hall or palace. I have never met with 
the name Inger by itself: but that there is such a Saxon name 
is evident ; for, besides this and the preceding surname, there 
are in Germany places called Ingersheim and Ingersdorf, and, 
in Yorkshire, an Ingerthorp. 

In 1433, Rob. Hynkebsell, gent., was living in co. York. 
The first who emigrated to this country was Richard Inker- 
SALL, or Ingersoll, who came from Bedfordshire, and settled 
in Salem in 1629. 
INIGUEZ (0p.), Inigo's or Ignatius's. {v. Diaz.) 
INKPEN or Inkepenne (©•), Ing's pen or enclosure. 
INMAN (®.), Innholder. Inselmann ((©.), Islander. 
IN 'TVELD (D.), In the f eld. (v. in 't Velt.) 
IPENBUUR (tD.), Mar the elms. 
ISEBRANTS (©.), Iron sword. Isenbart, Iron-colored beard. 

IsENSCHMiDT, Iron smith, {v. Staal and Yzer.) 
ISELIN (<©•)> <li'^- of Ise, an old Saxon name. 


ISLIP ((£.), Gightslepe, Station of sleep 1 
ISNARD {£.), IsANiiART {(^0.), Hard as iron. 
ISSELSTEIN, van (iD.), of IJsselstein, q. v. sub Y. 


JACKSON (QE-), Son of Jack, Jacobus, or James. 

JACOBIN, le (£•), the Dominican friar. 

JACQUES, de (iF.), of James. Jacqueson, de, of Jackson. 

JAGER (tm. and (3-), Hunter, (v. Hunt and "Wymans.) 

JANE WAY {(^.), Genoese, {v. Hanway.) 

JANSEN and Jansz ((H.), Jans zoon, JolirHs son. 

JEFFRIES (G^.)' Geoffrey's, or of Geoffrey or Godfrey; i.e., In 

God secure. 
JENKINS (^.), Jenhin's, or Little John's, (v. Atkins.) 
JEUNE, le (if.), the Young, (v. de Jong and Jung.) 
JODE, de (211.), the Jew. Jdif (f.), Jew. 
JOHANNSEN ((©.), Johans sohn, John's son. 
JOHNSTON (S.), Johii's toion. (v. Ralston.) 
JOLIFFE (©.), anc. Joli, Pretty, Pleasing, (v. Hubscli.) 
JONG, de (JB.), the Young. Jongebloed, Young blood. Jonge- 

BOER, Young boor. Jonge Flaming, de, the Young Fleming. 

JoNGKiND, Young child. 
JUNG ((S.), Young, (v. Ar-Iaouanq.) 
JUWINGA (iTris.), Jouw or Juw's son or descendant. 

KAAL {iB.),Bald. Kak^bben, Jawbone. Kalf, Calf. (v. Koe.) 
KAISER (®.), Keizer (SD.), Emperor, (v. Lempereur.) 
KAMMANN (®.), Combmaker or Woolcomber. 
KAMPEN, van (W-), of Xampen ; i.e., Fields, (v. Toekamp.) 
KANE and Kean (J.), The same as Pen and Penn, q. v. 
KASTEELE, van de (SD.), of the Castle, (v. de Tregastel.) 


KATZENELLEBOGEN, von ((&.), of Blboivs or Corners of the 
Chatti's country, (v. Duiilop, du Guesclin, and Keith.) As 
early as 1292, thei'e was a Count von Katzenellebogen ; and, in 
a document of the year 13G6, another of the house is called 
" Wilhelm, Greven zu Kazenellebogen." 

KEIGWIN (iD. or or.), White dog ; and they carry three in their 
Arms. {i\ de Hond and Machell.) 

KEITH (S.) This family derive their origin and descent from 
the Chatti or Catti, now Hesse, a tribe of the Germans, who 
dwelt in what is now called Hesse-Cassel, and whose name 
(which may have been taken from the animal sacred to Freya) 
is preserved in Katzenellebogen, q. v., Katzenfurt, Katzhausen, 
Katzenbuchel, Katzenberg, etc., in Germany. 

About B. C. 100, a part of this tribe descended the Rhine, 
and settled in Batavia or Holland, where the name is also main- 
tained in Katwijk aan Zee, Katwijk aan den Rhijn, Katten- 
drecht, Kattenbroek, Katswoude, etc. 

During the reign of Corbred II., King of Scotland, circa 
A.D. 76, a part of these Catti emigrated to Britain ; some of 
whom, called by Fordun " Catti Meliboci," were driven to the 
northern parts of Scotland, and landed in that part called 
Kateness, or Caithness ; i. e., Catti'' s promontory. The Celtic 
name for that district is " Catt taobh," Catti'' s side ; and the 
inhabitants are styled " Cattich," or " Cattegh." Caithness is 
also called " Gall taobh," Strangers' side, way, or shore. 

The first of the tribe named by the Senachies is Gilli 
Chattan Moir, chief of the Catti, temp. King Alpine (A.D. 
831-834), from whom descended the Kethi, Keychts, Keths, 
or Keiths ; and also the MacPhersons, Macintoshes, Suther- 
lands, etc., known under the general name of the Clan Chattan. 
The ancient Celtic title of the Earls of Sutherland is " Morf hear 
chat," Lord Cat; literally. Great-man Cat. 

Robert, chief of the tribe, was, it is said, created Hereditary 
Grand Marshal of Scotland by King Malcolm II., A.D. 1010, 
and badlands granted to him in the south, which he called after 



his own name. From liim descended Herveus de Ketli, who 
in authentic documents, made between the years 1164 and 1178, 
is styled " Marescahus Regis Scotia?," and also " Great Mari- 
schal." His descendant, Sir WilHam Keith, Great Marischal, 
was created Earl Marischal in 1458. 

KELLERMANN ((3-), Steward, (v. Spencer.) 

KELLOCK (S.), Church or Wood lake ? Cil ((SacUc), church. 
Kel (Qleltic), wood, grove. 

KELSEY ((£.), Wood or Ship's isle ? Ciol, a ship. 

KEMPE (©.)» Soldier, Warrior, Champion, (v. Camminga.) 

KENNEGOTT (0$.), Know God. 

KENRICK ((£.), Eich in Icindred. 

IvERAMANAC'H, de (^.), of Monk's town. Ivear or ker, 
house, manor, village, town. Kerambelec, de, of Priest's town. 
Kerampuil, de, of Pool town. Kerantour, de, of Tower town. 
Kergoff, de, of Smith's town. Kergournadec'h, de, of 
Manor of the man who does not flee ! The founder of this 
family is said to have slain, in the sixth century, a dragon 
which desolated the county of Leon ; and to have been rewarded 
by a grant of lands, which, in remembrance of his exploits, 
were called " Ker gour na dec 'h." Kergoz, de, of Old town. 
Kerlosquet, de, of Burnt town. Kersaintgilly, de, of St. 
Giles' town. Kersauzon, de, of English town. 

KERBY ((£.), Wood, Marsh, Rock, or Kirk or Church dwelling. 

KERKHOFF (iH.), Churchyard, (v. Capelle and Chiesa.) 

KERR (G.), The same as Carr, q. v. 

KETTERSVLIET (tD.), Heretic's brook, (v. Monnickendam.) 

KEUX, le {£.), the Cook. (v. de Koch and Kuchmeister.) 

KILHAM ((Jc.)j Kilham and Killum (N. (S-)' ^^^"- ''^^^• 

KILLIGREW ((£.), Kagle's grove. 

KILPATRICK, de (J.), of St. Patrick's church. Kil, a cell or 

KINDEREN, der (tH).), of the Children, (v. Desenffans.) 

KINDERVATER (Cg.), Child's father. 

KINGS COTE ((B.), King's cottage. Kinsley, King's field. 

KINLOCH (5.), Head of the lake. (v. Kane.) 


KIP (N. $)•)' ^^^'^- I^yp6, Tub (kuip) ? A Dutch name, wliicli, as 
now si^elt, signifies chicJcen. (v. Zuber and de Ilaan.) 

KITCHINGMAN ((£.), Kitchen-man! A grant of Arms to this 
name in 1612. 

KITTREDGE or Keteridge (©.), Cottage on the ridge. 

KLAASSEN (?D.), Klaas zoon, Son of Nicholas. 

In 1606, Vice- Admiral Renier Klaassen, of Amsterdam, 
being attacked by the Spanish admiral, Fiascardo, Avith eight 
heavy ships, who completely surrounded him, defended himself 
for two entire days, and until his ship was such a complete 
wreck that the pumps could no longer keep her afloat. He 
then called together the sixty survivors, nearly all of whom 
were wounded, and, telling them of his intention to blow up 
the ship, gave permission to all who desired to swim to the 
enemy. Not a man would leave him. They fell on their 
knees, and, after a short prayer, fired the magazine. Two 
were picked up alive, but expired in a few hours. 

KLAVERWEIDE (iD.), Glover-field, (v. Wiesenthal.) 

KLEERSNIJDER ((H.), Tailor, (v. Schneider and Schroeder.) 

KLEIDIJK (D.), Clay dike. (v. Steendijk.) 

KLEIN (!D.), Little. Kleinpenning, Little j^enny. Klein- 
SCHMIDT (©.), Little smith, (v. Littleboy.) 

KLINGENTHAL, von ((g.), of Brook valley. Hlinga ((S0.), 
brook, mountain-stream. Klinge (pro v.), hill, narrow valley. 
Klinghammer, Hammer works on a stream, or Clinking or 
Ringing battle-hammer. Klingjiuller, Brook-miller. Klixg- 
SPOR, Jingling spur. (y. Pointdexter.) 

KNAPP ((£•)? Hillock, Top of a hill ; or Knave, Boy, or Page. 

KNOBLAUCH {^.), Garlic. 

KNOTT ((£.), Rocky summit ; also Knut or Camiie. 

KNOWLES (€.), Knoll or Hill. Oldknow, Old hill. 

KOCH, de (iD.), the Cook. (v. Cuciniere and le Keux.) 

KOE (t!D.)» ^ow. (v. Bontekoe, Metcalf, la Vache, and Os.) 

KOIILER ((£.), Charcoal-burner, Collier. 

KOLK, van der (S).), of the Pit or Abyss. 

KONIG (©.)> KoNiNG (tD.), King. (y. le Roy and Kaiser.) 


KONIJNENBERG (IB.), RahUt-warren. 

KOOPMAN (U.), Kaufmann ((©.)» Chapman (€•)» Merchant. 

KOPERSMIT (nD.), Coppe7'sm{th. (v. Isenschmidt.) 

KOPS (m.), Head. {v. 't Hooft, Kouthoofd, Grostete, de' Mala- 

testi, Kane, Pen, and Testa d'Oro.) 
KORTHALS (tl).)? Short neck. Kortman, Short man. 
KOSTER (tlD.)j Sexton. Laurens Jansz. Koster — Lawrence Kos- 

ter, John's son — was the inventor of printing, circa 1440. 
KOUTHOOFD (iD.), Gold head. (v. Kops and Breithaupt.) 
KROMVLIET (tD.), Crooked or Winding brook. 
KRUMHOLZ (05.), Crook timber, Crooked oak. {v. Cromhout.) 
KRUIJS (tD.)^ Cross. GuLDE Kruys, Golden Cross. 
KRIJGSMAN (m.), Warrior, Soldier, (v. Kempe.) 
KUCHMEISTER ((g.), Head cook. (v. de Koch.) 
KUHL WETTER {(&.), Cool weather, (v. Schonwetter.) 
KUHN ((S.), Bold, Daring, (v. Balde and le Preux.) 
KUIPER (iD.), CowPER, Cooper, and Hooper, (Q^.), Cooper. 


LADRON (Sp.), Robber, (v. Rauber and de Roover.) 

LAIGUE, de {£.), anc. de Aqua, of the Water. Lamagdeleine, 
The Magdalene. Lamaison, The house. Lamartine, de, of 
The martin or swallow. Lamort, The death, {v. Dootshooft.) 
Lamour, Love. Lamoureux, Tlie amorous. Langlois, The 

LAMEERE (JT.), La mere, The mother 1 Perhaps Lamier, Tin- 
sel-maker, or Lemaire, q. v. {v. Modder, Moeder, and Mutter.) 

LAN, le C^.)' ofth^ Church. Lan, church, m.onastery. Lann or 
Ian, territory, country, region. Lann, shrub, bush. Langouez- 
NOU, de, of St. Goueznou's church. Lanilis, I^and of the 
church. Lanouzouarn, de, of Iron land. Lanros, de, of 
Church of the plain, (v. de Roscerf.) 

LANDEW ((!!•), St. David's church. Llan, church, smooth area, 
enclosure. Lansant, Holy church. 


LANDS CH ADEN (©.), Land's ruin. {v. Bauernfeind.) 
LANG ((£., 6., and (D.), Laing (Q.). Lange {(&.), Long, Tall 
LANGDON ((£.), Long down or hill. Langeniiovkn (D.), 
Lo7ig farms. Langenhuyzen, Lo7ig houses. Languals, 
Long neck. Langenmantel ((6-)> Long cloak. Langkock, 
Lo7ig coat. 
LARKINS {(B-), Larkin's, or of Little Larry or Lawrence. 
LASTDRAGER (El.), Porter. Launder (ۥ)> Washer. 
LAW ((g.)) m^h Eminence, (v. Low.) 
LAWRIE (S.), Crafty, Fox-like disposition. 
LECRAW (N. ©.), La Croix (£.), The cross. 
LEDIGE (fH.), Idle. 
LEDOUX (i^.), The amiable. Lefroy, The reserved. Legen- 

DRE, The son-in-law. Lemaire, The mayor. Lempereur, 

The emperor. Leneant-Dieu, The infant Saviour ; and they 

bear the holy child in their co^t of arms. Letemps, The time. 

Levavasseur, The arriere vassal. Levieux, The old. 
LEE ((£.), Leah, Field, Field enclosing a thicket or loood ; lea 

(prov.), meadow, pasture ; ley, a lake; He {\^.),' place, dwelling, 

LEE, van der (HI.), of the Lee or Leede, a river in Holland. 

Leie or leije, a leat. 
LEEPOOG (al.), Squint-eye. {v. "Wijdoogen.) 
LEE^UW, de (tD.), the Lion. Leeuwenhoek, Lion's corner. 

Leeuwenkuil, Lions den. 
LEHMANN, von {(!S>.), of Liegeman, Vassal, or Tenant. 
LEMAN or Lemon ((g.) L>ear or Beloved person is the original 

signification of the word " leman ; " but this surname may some- 
times be Lee man, Dweller in tlie field. 
LEPEL (CD.), Spoon. 
LESGUEN, de (^.), of White court. Lesquelen, de, of Holly 

court, or Near the hollies. Lesquiffiou, of Near the stumps. 

Lezcouet, de, of Wood court, or Near the wood. Lez, a palace, 

court; \ez, near. (v. Harscouet.) 
LEVEN, van 't (ID.), of the Life. (v. von Alvcnsleben.) 
LEYBURN ((£.), Field or Meadow brook. 


LIBRI, da (It.), of the Boohs. 

LICHTENHAIN, von (®.), of Light forest. 

LICHTENVOORT (a).), -Light or Clear ford. A town in Gelder- 
land, named, perhaps, from a ford where the water was clear. 
The name sounds like " Licht hun voort ; " i. e., Light them 
forth ; and it is for that reason, I presume, that the family of 
Lichtenvoort give for Arms, " Az., three candlesticks or, with 
candles lighted ppr." {v. van Amersfoort.) 

LIEBEGOTT (©.), Lov^ God. (v. Godwin and Kennegott.) 

LIEFDE, de (HJ.); t^^^ Beloved. Lievendag, Lovely day. 

LIGTVOET cm.), Light foot. (v. Piedefer and Zierfuss.) 

LILBURNE ((g.), Lily brook. Lillienthal (©.), Lily vale. 

LINDE, zur {(3-), o-t the Limes. 

LINDSAY (6.), LiNZEE (N. ^■), Lindesig, Lime-tree isle. 

LIONS, des {£.), of the Lions, {v. de Leeuw and Lowe.) 

LITTLEBOY ((J?.), Little boy. Littleiiale, Little hall or house, 
or Little Hal or Barry. Littlejoiin, Little John. Little- 
man, Little man. (v. Basset, Klein, and Piccolomini.) 

LLOYD (tU.), Brown or Gray ; for "llwyd" signifies both colors. 

LOBWASSER {(3-), Love water, (v. Drinkwater.) 

LOCKE ((iz.), Lake, or Lock of a stream or canal. 

LOMBARD ((£.), Banker, also Native of Lombardy. 

LONG, le {£.), the Tall. (v. le Grand, Lang, and Hoog.) 

LOO, van (IB.), of Loo. Loh (QajC.), place, seat, stead, gidf deep 
pit; also same as "leah." {v. Lee.) Loh (({$. prov.), morass, 
bog, wood, forest. 

LORING (©.), anc. le Loreng, Lorrainner, or Native of Lorraine. 

LOTHROP {^'), Thorp in a low place, or on a low. 

LOW ((£.), Hlaw, Tamidus, Grave, Heap, or Barrow ; Small hill ; 
also Tract of ground gently rising. Lows (prov.), low, level land. 

LOWE' (©•)> Lion. Lowenstein, von, of Lion's castle. 

LUGTHART (tU.), Light heart. Gay. (v. de Bly.) 

LUNA, della (Jt.), of the Moon. Lupo, di, of Wolf. 

LUTHER (®.), Renowned chief, or Famous in the army. Hlut, 
famous, renowned, (v. Heringa.) 
<i7YCKLAMA a Nyeholt, van {SnQ.), of Lyckle's at New forest. 


LYLE and Lyell (01. N.), The isle. 

LYMAN (©•)? Lymne. Lympne ov Lymne, co. Kent, was also 
called in ancient records Limne and Limeue, and, in the Itine- 
rary of Antoninus, Lemauus. In 39 Hen. HI. A.D. 1254, 
Robert of Limon was one of the Sheriffs of London and 
Middlesex. John Lyman, of Barking, co. Essex, d. 14G2. His 
will was proved Dec. IG, 1462. Among the early settlers of 
Dorchester, Mass., was Richard Lyman, of co. Essex, who 
was made Freeman in 1633. 


MAANDAG (JU.), Montag ((S.), Monday, {v. Zondag.) 

MAARSCHALKERWAARD, van (®.), of MarshaVs castle or 
polder, {v. Ware.) 

]\IACCARTHY (3.;, Son of Carrthach, King of Cork. Mac 
Mahon, Son of Bruin or Bear. They derive their descent 
from Walter Fitz Urse, who slew Becket in 1171. {v. Brown.) 
Mac Manus, Son of Maonas. (v. Man.) 

MACHECOUL (£.), Machicolation. A family, now extinct, who 
derived their name from the town so called near Nantes. 

MACHELL ((S.), anc. Mains catulus and Mauchael, Fierce or 
Ugly whel]} ; and they bear three greyhounds in their Arms. 

MACKENZIE (S.), Son of Kenneth. This clan derive their 
name from the third Baron of Kintail (ob. 1328), who, bearing 
the same forename as his father, was styled Kenneth McKen- 
netli. Macleod, Son of Leod ; but who he was is not quite 
clear, (y. Lloyd.) Malcolm, son of Tormod Macleod, obtained 
a charter from King David II. before 1360. McMaster, Son 
of the Master. Mac queen, anc. Macsweene, Son of Sweijne. 
Mac Shimi, Son of Simon, the Gaelic name of the Erasers of 

MACWORTH ((^.), Son's farm? Maecg (Qajc), mail, son. 

JVIAIN WARING ((£.), anc. de Mesnilwarin, Warren house or 
manor. Garenne (J^.), poidtry-yard, fsh-pond, stable, preserve, 


MAISONETTE, de (f.), of Little house. Maisons, des, of the 
Houses, (v. de Sesmaisoiis.) 

MAISTRE, de (iF.), of Blaster, Schoolmaster, or Lord of the 
manor, {v. Aumaistre, McMaster, and de Meester.) 

MALATESTI, de' (St.), of the Headstrongs. The Malatesti were 
counts of Rimini. Malavista, Bad eyesight. 

MALEBRANCHE (i^.), 3fale line. 

MALEMAINS {£-), Bad hands. Maz-e^io^, de, of Bad meadoiv. 
Malestroit, de, of Bad street or road. Malteste, de, of 

MAN, Main, or Mann (Q^., 0., and J[.), Man (?D.), Mann (®.), 
3fan, Servant, Vassal ; also, in the Celtic, Hero ; for, in Erse, 
" maon " signifies a hero. {v. McManus.) The name may also 
be derived from Maine (the province), Man (the island), manas 
or mains (S.), farm oy fields, maen (tX)-)? stone, Man (R.), Nor- 
man ; or from Mani, the Moon, as, in the ancient Teutonic lan- 
guages, the moon, called Mani, is of the masculine gender, and 
the sun feminine ; and it was formerly customary in some parts 
of Germany to show them proper respect by calling them Mr. 
Moon and Mrs. Sun. 

According to Tacitus, the Germans had a tradition that they 
were descended from Mann (Mannus), son of Tuisco, son of 

When "man" occurs as a termination, it appeal's to have 
various meanings ; as, firstly, in the names Adelmann (q. v.), 
Bannerman, Spearman, Prettyman, which require no explana- 
tion. Secondly, to signify dealer, maker, or worker ; as, Appel- 
man (q. v.), Cheeseman, Kammann (q. v.), Saltman, Woolman. 
Thirdly, dweller in or hy ; as, Hulsemann (q. v.), Parkman, 
Templeman. And, fourthly, serf or vassal ; as, Heiligenmann 
(q. v.), Konigsmann (q. v.). 

Sir Walter Maign, Knight, lived temp. King David 
Bruce (1331-1370), from whom he got a charter: "domino 
Waltero Maign, Militi, terrarum de Auchluchry in Vice Comi- 
tatu de Aberdeen." His descendants, some of whom settled in 
other counties, wrote the name Mayne, Main, and Mann. 


MAN, de (tll.)j the Man. Mandemaker, Basket-maker. 

MANBY (Of.), 3fan's dwelling. Manning and Manspn, Man's 
son. Manningha:.!, 3Tan's son's home. 

MANIGAULT, (f.), Maner gault, Hamlet of the wood. 

MANNINGA in Manningaborch (Svis.), Mamie's son in Mamie's 
son's castle. 

MANS, du (i^.), of Le 3Ians ; i. e., The Mansion or Habitation. 

MANSELL {(i..), Native of Maine. 

MARC'HALLAC'H, du (\.), of the Pid)lic square. 

MARC'IIEC, le {^.), the Horseman, (v. de Ruyter.) 

MAREE, de la {£.), of the Marsh, (v. de la Palue.) 

MARIE, le (£.), the Bridegroom, {v. Brautigam.) 

MARJORIBANIvS (Q.), Margery's banks. A local name, said to 
have been given to the lands from their early owner, Margery, 
dau. of Robert Bruce. The original surname of this family 
was Johnston ; and they still bear the Johnston Arms, but have 
been known for centuries by the first-mentioned name. 

MARK, van der (JB.), of the March or Frontier. 

MARICHAM ((E.), Field or Frontier home. 

MARKT, van der {m.), of the Market. 

MARTEL {£.), Hammer, {v. Hamer, Homer, and Skene.) 

MAUDE ((£.), anc. de Monte Alto, Montalt, and Moald, High 

MAUDUIT {£.), Bad aqueduct, (v. Chenduit.) Matigoret, 
Bad or Ugly pig. Maupas, de, of Bad strait or defle. Mau- 
PEAu, Bad skin. Mauvoisin, Bad neighbor, (v. Hatebulu-,) 

MAURENBRECHER (III.), Battering-ram. 

MAXWELL (0.), anc. de Macusvill, Machus's ioivn. 

MAYNARD {(£•), Manly nature or courage. 

MEARS ((£•)> ^^^^^ or Lake, March or Boundary. 

MECHELEN, te (jD.), at Malines. 

MEER, van der (CD.), of the Lake. Meerjian, Lake-man. 

MEESTER, de (SB.), Maistre, le (i^.), the Master. Meister 
(©.), Master, (v. de Maistre.) 

MELDRUM (0.), Hill ridge or summit, (v. Drummond.) 

MERODE, de (©.), of Merode. (v. van Berkenrode.) The 



Counts of Merode derive their name from Eode, i. e., Assart, 
or Merode, in tlie Duchy of Juliers. One of this family was 
a General in the Catholic army during the Thirty Years' "War ; 
and from him was derived the word marauder. His troops 
were noted, even in that day, for their plundering propensities, 
and were called, from their leader, " Merodeurs." There is a 
Dutch expression, " op merode gaan," to go a-marauding. 

MESANGUEN, de {^.), of White field. Mesanrun, de, of 
Field of the hillock. 

MESSER ((J$.), Surveyor. Messerschmidt, Cutler. 

METCALF (GB.), Meat calf— the Anglo-Saxons used the word 
" metecu," meat cow — or " Mutty-calf" i. e.. Very young calf, 
also Simpleton. Calfe, Bull, Bullock, Cow, etc., are English 
surnames, (v. Kalf, Koe, and la Vache.) 

MEULEN, ter (tD.), at the Mill. Meulenaar, de, the Miller. 

MEIJBOOM (H.), May-pole. 

MEYER and Meier ((D. and ^.), Farmer, Bailiff, Seneschal, 

MEZZABARBA (Jt.), Half uncle ov Half heard. Mezzanotte, 
Midnight. Mezzofanti, Half servant or Half-infantry sol- 

MICHELS, des (iT.), of the Michaels, or Michael family. 

MICKLETHWAITE (©.), Great pasture. 

MIDDELBEEK (!D.), Middle brook. Middelkoop, Tolerably 
cheap, or Central market ? (v. Goedkoop.) 

MIDDENDORP (ID.), Middle village. 

MIDDLECOT ((E.), Middle cottage, (v. Endicott.) 

MILCHAM (©.), Milk home. Milkman (N. (E-), Milkman. 

MILDMAY (QE.), anc. Mildeme or Mildme, Merciftd judge. 
Mildred, Mild in counsel. 

MILLEDOLLAR (N. 12-), One thousand dollars, if the name is 
of French extraction. 

MILLESIMO (3t.), The one-thousandth. 

MILTON (Of.), Mill town, sometimes ; but at least three places 
now called Milton were styled by the Anglo-Saxons Middletun. 

MITTAG (®.), Mid-day. (v. Mezzanotte.) 


MITTERMEYER ((3.), Middle-farmer, {v. Nieclermeyer.) 
MODDER ((£.), Mother, Lass, Girl Moderby, Mother's dwell- 
ing, (v. Moeder and Mudder.) 
MOEDER (Si).), Mother. Jaep Moeder, Jahe Mother, was a 

churchwarden of Amsterdam in 1573. {v. Vader.) 
MOHLAU (@.)) Mill hrooh or meadow, (v. von Ow.) , 
MOHRING ((3-), Mor or Moro's son. (v. Moreau.) 
MOLEN, van der (iU.), of the Mill (v. du Moulin.) 
MONDE, van der (ID.), of the Mouth, (v. van Egmond.) 
MONNICKENDAM (?D.), Monk's dam. (v. KettersvUet.) 
MONTBRUN (£.), Brown hill Montfaucon, de, of Falcon's 

mount. MoNTFORT, Strong mount. 
MONTELUPO, da (3t.), of Wolf's mount. Montenero, de, of 

Black mount. Montekossi, Red mount. 
MONTFOORT {W.), Mouth of the ford. (v. van Amersfoort.) 
MOREAU and Morel {£.), Black, Tawny, Dark-brown; also 
Negro, Moor. In modern French, "moreau" means a black 
horse. Morell ((!C-)> Murrey or Dark red or brown. 
MORGAN {\X^.), By sea. (v. Bythesea.) 
MORGENLAND ((g.), Levant, Orient. Morgenroth, Aurora, 

Morning twilight, (v. Mittag.) 
MORO, dal (Jt.), of the Moor or Midberry-tree. 
MOTTE, de la {£), of the Castle or Hillock. 
MOULIN, du {£.), of the Mill (v. von und zur Muhlen.) 
MOUTON, le {£.), the Sheep, {v. Agnew and Scliaap.) 
MUDDER and Mutter {&.), Mother, Matron. Mudder (prov.), 

mud. (v. Modder, Moeder, and Mutterlein.) 
MUHLEN, von und zur {(&.), of and in the Mills, (v. v. d. Molen.) 
MUIRHEAD (5.), Head of the moor. 
MULES ((i^.), anc. de Molis, Mills. Muller ((3-), Miller. 
MURA, de' (Jt.), of the Walls, (v. Indermaur and Terwal.) 
MURRAY (S.)) Mor taobh or tav. Sea-shore. The co. of Moray, 
anc. Mureve, was called by the Highlanders Murav or Morav. 
The name is said to be derived from a colony of Moravians 
who came over in the first century ; but at that time the Mora- 
vians were called Marcommanni or Quadi. 


MUTER and Muterer (5.)? Taker of multure or mill-toll, or Mut- 

terer, Grumhler ? 
MUTTERLEIN {<iB-), Mother dear. Dim. of Mutter. 
MYNLIEF (?ID.), % ^o^e. {v. Lamour.) 


NABER {J3.),'^&^n\\v, Neighbor 2 (v. Hatebulir.) 

NACHTGLAS (iD.), Hour-glass. 

NAESMITH or Nasmyth (S.), Nail-smith; but they bear two 

broken hammers in their Arms, as if the name were No smith ! 
NANGLE (J.), anc. de 1' Angle, of the Nook or Corner. 
NANTS (OT.), Valley, Brook, {v. Trenance.) 
NASH ((g.), Atten ash, At the ash. 
NEDERHORST, van (iD.), of Nether or Low wood. 
NEEDHAM ((g.), Nete or Neofs home. 
NEEF (iD.), Nephew, Cousin, or Grandson, (y. Oom.) 
NEPVEU, le (J.). <^*e Nephew, {v. le Ny.) 
NES, van (^.), o/A'es; i.e., Gape, Promontory. 
NESSELRATH, von (CS.), of Thistle assart, {v. van Berken- 

rode and Thistlethwayte.) 
NETTELBLADT, von {(&.), of Nettle-leaf. 
NEURATH, von (©.), of New assart, (v. van Berkenrode.) 
NEWBOLD ((^.), New house, {v. Boulton.) 
NIEDERMEYER ((©.), Loiver farmer, (v. Mittermeyer.) 
NIEMANDSVERDRIET (iU.), Nobody's affliction, sorrow, grief, 

or vexation. From the Directory of Netherlands India for 

1847. The name is also to be found in Schiedam. 
NIEMANTSVRIENT, van (iB.), of Nobody's friend or relation. 

A nobleman of HoUand, A.D. 1277. 
NIEUWENHUIZEN (l3D.), New houses. Nieuwentyt, Present 

time. (v. Ontijd.) 'Nievwyej.t, ran, of New field. 
NOAKES ((^.), Atten oaks, At the oaks. 
NOBILI, de' (Jt.), of the Nobles, or des Nobles, as a French 

branch of the family are called. 


NOE or None, tie la {£.), of the Meadow or Pasture, (v. Delano.) 
NOEL (jr.), Nedelec (QV.), Chuistmas ((£.), Christmas. 
NONE ((£•) A person so called was buried at Windham ; and, 
as be gave nothing to the Abbey, the following epitaph was 
. made to his memory : — 

" Here lyefch None, — one worse than none for euer thought ; 
And because None, of none to thee, Christ, giues nought." 

NONUS (B.), The ninth. A Latin word. 

NOORDBERG (tD.), Mrth hill. Noordendorp, Mrth village. 

NOOTEBOOM (tD.), Walnut-tree. {v. Quittenbaum.) 

NORCROSS (ۥ)> ^orth cross, (v. Kruys.) 

NORDMEYER {(£>.), North farmer, (v. Homeyer.) 

NORMAN, de (B.), the Norman. 

NOS, des {£.), of Ours f (v. Ihm and Zijnen.) 

NOTTHAFT ((3.), Needij. Notthaft, Freiherr von Weissenstein, 

Needy, Baron of White castle. 
NY, le C^.), the Nephew, (v. Neef and le Nepveu.) 
NYE (Q:.), Atten eye. At the island, {v. Attye.) 
NIJE (5D.), Nieuw, iVew? Nijhuis, iVew /wwse. Nijkerk, iVeif 

church. NiJPELS, New furred coat. 


O, d' (i^.), of 0. An ancient house, whose name was taken either 
from the seigniory of O, or from the town of St. Mai'tin d'O. 
The first on record is Robert, Seignior d'O, temp. Henry, tenth 
Duke of Normandy. 

OBENAUF ((5-) J Above, Uppermost, {v. van Boven.) Oben- 
THAL, High valley. 

OBERMANN ((©.), Superior, Umpire. Obermuller, Upper 
miller, {v. Niedermeyer.) Oberwarth, Chief xoarder or 
landlord ? 

O'BRIEN (3.), Descendant of Brien ; i.e., Brien Boiroimhe, 
King of Ireland, A.D. 1002. O'Connor, Descendant of Con- 
nor, King of Comiaught. O'Kelly, Descendant of Cellach, 


Prince of tlie Ui Many in the ninth century. O'Neill, De- 
scendant of Neill, or Niall Noygiollach, Niall of the Nine hos- 
tages, or Niall the great, Monarch of Ireland in the fourth 

ODELL or Odehall ((£.), Old house ? 

ODESCALCHI (St.), Gottschalk, q. v., or Servant of God. 

OEHLENSCHLAGER {(3.), Oil-presser. {v. Olie.) 

OEVER, ten (H).), at the Shore, {v. Okeover and Overing.) 

OGDEN (dE-)? ^^^ valley oy pasture. 

OGILVIE (S.), O'gille buidh, Descendant of the yellow-haired 
hoy. I know of no other Scotch name with this Erse prefix. 

OILLIAMSON, d' {^£^, of Williamson, {y. de Jacqueson.) 

OKEOVER (©•)' Oak-hank. Ofer, margin, hrink, hank, shore. 

OLCOTT (QE.)) Old cottage, or Holcott, q. v. 

OLDENBARNEVELD, van (iB.), of Old barren field. Olden- 
boom, Old tree. Oldenkot, Old cottage. 

OLDERSHAW (Of.), Alder grove or ivood. 

OLIE {J^.), Oil. OhiEY AT, Oil-cask. (y. Pignatelli and de Yas.) 

OLMEN, van (iU.), of Dims. 

OLRICHS ((3-), UoDALRiCH {(3o.), Freeholder or Freehold 
ruler ? 

ONDERBERG (W.), Under hill Ondekdonk (N- IOj Under 
Donk ? There is a place called Donk in Brabant, (y. Underhill.) 

ONEBYE {(£.), One or Lone dwelBig. (v. van de Woestyne.) 

ONTHANK (On.), iVo thanks, Ingratitude, Rudeness. A surname 
probably derived from Unthank, co. Northumberland, which 
may have been a barren, ungratefid soil. {v. Sonderdank.) 

ONTYD (im.), Unseasonable time. {v. Nieuwentyt.) 

OOM (SD.), OiiM (®.), Uncle. Oomkens (tD.)j t!™- of Oom. 

OOSTDYK (iU.), Fast dike. Oosten, van, of Fast. Ooster- 
ZEE, van, of Baltic sea. Oostiioek, Fast corner. 

OPDENHEYDE (tID.), At or On the heath. Opdyke, At dike. 
Ophof, At court. Ophoven, At courts or gardens. Opmeer, 
At lake. Opstal, At stable. 

OPPERMAN (SD.), Hodman. 

ORD (^.), Point, Fdge, Promontory, (v. am Ort.) 


ORMEROD (©.), Elm's assart, (v. van Berkenrode.) 

OROLOGIO, dair (Jt.), of the Watch ov ClocTc. 

ORT, am {<3.), at the End or Comer, (v. Ord.) 

OS (?D.)> Ox. OsKAMP, Ox-jield. {v. le Bocuf, Koe, and Torello.) 

OSBORN (©.)> Hero's son. An Anglo-Saxon sheriff of Here- 
fordshire was named Osbearn. Bcarn must not be confounded 
with "beorn," hear. {v. Brown.) Osborn may sometimes be 
a local name derived from the place in co. York, at the head 
of the Ouse, called Ousebourn ; i. e., Ooze or Spring hrooh. 
Osgood (N. (E.)^ Oswald; i.e., Brave lord or ruler. The 
wapentake of Osgold, or Osgood-cross, co. York, derived its 
name from St. Oswald. 

OTIS or Ottis (ۥ)' Out^s, or of Outi, Otto, or Otho. An Outi 
held lands in co. Warwick temp. Edw. Conf., and Fitz Otes was 
a Norman name. The first of the surname in this country, John 
Otis, of Hingham, Mass., in 1635, came from co. Somerset. 

OTTERBEEK ((D.), Otterborne ((£.), Otter hrooh. 

OUDEN, den (tU.), the Old. Oudermeulen, van der (511.), of 
the Old mill. Ouderogge, Old rye. In 1548, there was Uving 
a Jan Oom Jansz. in de Roghe ; i. e., John Uncle John's son in 
the Rye. Outhuis, Old house. 

OUSEFOOT (©.), Foot of the spring. Ouselet, Spring-field. 

OVERBEKE (^.), Over, Opposite, Across ot Above hrooh. Over- 
FELD, Over field. Overhoff, Over court. Overryn, Over 
Rhine. Overstege, Over lane. Overwater, Over stream, 
(v. Querfeld.) 

OVERING ((£.)» Banh or Shore meadow. Overman, Shore-man. 
Overton, Shore-town. (v. Okeover.) 

OVERMAN (tO.), Master of a guild. 

OW ober und unter dem Berg, von ((5.), of Meadow above and 
under the Hill. Au, hrooh, meadow, pasture. 



PAAUW, van der (HD.), of the Peacock. 

PACKARD (QE.), Picard, Native of Picardy. 

PADILLA (5p.)' Frying-pan ; and they carry three m their Arms. 

PAINE or Payne (©.)' PO'ynim or Infidel; Field, Plain. 

PALLAVICINI (Jt.), Near the pales ; and they cari-y a palisade 
in their Arms. 

PALUE, de la {£.), of the Marsh, {v. van der Poll.) 

PANNEKOEK (SD.), Pancake, {v. Drooghbroodt.) 

PAOLO, di (Jt.), of Paid. Pietro, di, of Peter. 

PAPENHAUSERHEIDE ((g.), Prieses house heath. 

PARADISE ((£.), Paradijs (JI).), Paradise, (v. Himmel.) 

PARDESSUS, de (I.), of Above, (v. Obenauf.) 

PARKER and Parkman (QC-)? Park keeper or dweller. 

PARKINSON or Parkinson (QE-), LUiie Peter's son. 

PARROTT or Perrott ((^.), Little Peter, from the French Pier- 
rot ? One of the name, it is said, accompanied the Conquei'or, 
and was father of Stephen Perrott, who settled in co. Pembroke. 

PAS, du (S), of the Strait or Defile, {v. de Maupas.) 

PASDELOUP {£.), Wolfs step. {v. Piedelou and Petitspas.) 

PATER (JD.), Father. In 1648, there was an Alderman of Am- 
sterdam named A. Dirksz. Pater, the Latin, and another 
official styled C. Dirksz. Abba, the Syriac, ^ov father. It would 
seem that they were brothers, being both sons of Dirk ; and 
that, while adopting the surname of Father, they had translated 
it into different languages. 

PATERNOSTER (Of. and W), Our Father; also the Lord's 
Prayer, and the heads used hy Roman Catholics. A surname in 
England and Belgium ; but the words are Latin. 

PAUERNFEINDT {(&•), Boor's enemy. In Bavaria, h is often 
changed to p, and g to k. (v. von Perkhausen.) 

PAUNCEFOOT (€.), anc. de Pede planco, Splayfoot. 

PEABODY ((E-)? ^iic. Paybody, Pae hody ; i.e., One handsome 
as a pae or peacock ? The name first appears temp. Hen. VIII. 


Prettyinan, Freebody, Goodbody, Lightbody, and Truebody, 
q. v., are English names ; and likewise Body, which is probably 
from the Anglo-Saxon " boda," messenger, preacher. (v. de 
Beaucorps, Belhomme, and Rumpff.) 

PEARCE, Pierce, Peeres (€•)» Piers (QV. N-), P<iter. Abra- 
iiAJi Pierce was the first of the name who settled in N. E. 
He was in Plymouth as early as 1627. A branch of his family, 
who afterwards wrote their name Pearce, settled in Gloucester, 
Mass. {v. " N. E. Hist. Geneal. Register," Boston, 1852.) 

PELHAM (Qc-)? P^^^ 01' Tower home, or Fool home. Pell (prov.), 
deep standing water. 

PEMBROKE (U).), Head country. Bro, countrg. 

PEN (^.), Penn {(£..), Head, Magistrate, Chief; also End, Ex- 
tremity, Top of a hill. {v. Kane.) 

PENAMPONT, de {%.), of Head of the Iridge. Penancoet, 
de, of Head of the wood. Penanros, de, of Head of hillock or 
plain, (v^ de Roscerf ) Penanru, de, of Head of the street. 
Penfeunteniou, de, of Head fountains or springs. Penlan, 
de, of Headland, {v. le Lan.) Penmarc'h, de, of Horse's 

PENCOIT (01.), Head of the tvood. (y. Woodhead.) Penden- 
Nis, Head of the hill. Penfowne, Head of the spring f Pen- 
hallow, Pen helga. Holy head. Pennant, Head of the valley. 
Penrose, Head of the heath, (v. Roscrow.) 

PENNA, della (Jt.), of the Feather or Flume. 

PENNEFATHER ((£•)? Fenny-father, or penurious person. 

PERKHAUSEN, von ((5.), of Hill or Birch houses, (v. Pauern- 

PETIT (i^.). Little. Petiteville, de, of Little town. Petits- 
PAS, Short steps, (v. Pasdeloup and Courtpie.) 

PFAFF (©.), Friest, Farson. Pfafferott and Paffenrode, 
Friest's assart, (v. van Berkenrode.) 

PFEILSCHMIDT (©.), Arrow-smith, {v. van der Pijl.) 

PFLUGHAUPT (^.), Head of the crowd. Pflug, plough, is a 
provincialism for a troop of people. 

PFORTEN, von der (©•), of the Gates, (v. van der Poort.) 


PICCOLOMINI (3t), Sons of Piccolo uomo or Little man. 
(v. Littleman, Kortman, and StumpfF.) 

PIEDEFER (if.), Iron foot. Piedelou, Wolfs foot. Piede- 
VACHE, Cow's foot. (v. Platvoet, Troaclek, and von Barfuss.) 

PIGNATELLI (Jt.), Little pots, literally translated, being the 
diminutive of " pignatta ; " but, like other names of this kind, I 
take this to be Sons or Family of Pignatto or Pot. Pope Iimo- 
cent XII. was of this family. His arms were Or, three pots 
with ears sa. (v. Pot.) 

PIGOT (Cg.), PicOT (jr.), Pitted with the small-pox. 

PILLSBURY (N.®-)) ■^'>">'ow or Peel or Tower burgh; being pro- 
bably derived from the town named Pilesborough, in England. 

PIN-DE-MONTE (3t.), Mountain Pine. 

PINS, des (if.), of the Pines, (v. Pijnakker.) 

PISTOLLET (ir.), Pistol; and they carry two in their Arms. 

PLATVOET (JD.), Broad foot. {v. Pauncefoot and Ligtvoet.) 

PLOUNEVEZ, de (^.), of Neio village. Ploue, country. 

POINTDEXTER ((g.), Poigndestre (X N-), Prick or Spur 
steed. A Percy was called Hotspur ; and a Scott of Harden, 
Wadspurs. {v. Klingspor.) 

POLAK ((D.), Pole, Native of Poland. 

POLGREEN (Or.), Pol Goran, Pool of St. Goran ? Polwhele, 
Pwllheli, Salt-water pit or pool. 

POLK or Pollock (S.), Pollag, Little pool, pit, or pond"? The 
Pollocks of that ilk were a family of good standing in the shire 
of Renfrew. 

Robert Polk or Pollock, born in Ireland, and probably a 
descendant of the Scotch family, emigrated to America early in 
the eighteenth century, and was ancestor of James Knox Polk, 
President of the U. S. of A., b. 1795 ; ob. s. p. 1849. 

POLL, van de (51).), of the Pool, Fen, or Marsh, (v. de la Palue.) 

PONT, du {£.), of the Bridge, (v. de la Puente.) 

POOK (tD.), Bagger, (v. Skene, Degen, and Zuckschwerdt.) 

POORT, van der (H.), Porte, de la {£.), Porta, della (It.), 
of the Gate. (v. von der Pforten and Gates.) 

POORTER, de (23.), the Citizen or Burgher. 


PORC, le (£".), the Hog. (v. Maugoret and Schaap.) 

PORZAMPARC, de (%.), of Gate oftheparL 

POSTHUMUS (tD.)' -Posthumous. A Latin word. 

TOT (id.), Pot. Nobles of Flanders, knighted 1421. Arms: Or, 
a pot with two eax-s and three legs sa. (v. Honeypot.) 

POULDOURAN, de (^.), of Otter's pool? PouU, moat, ditch, 
hole. PouLGuiziAU, de, of Pool of the rivulet? Poulpry, 
du, of the Clay-int. A Seigneur du Poulpry was a Crusader 
in 1248. 

POWELL (to.), Ap Howell, Son of Howell, {v. HoweU.) 

POWER (J.), anc. le Poer, Poher (H.), or Native of Poix. 

POWYS (Id.), Lordship on the Wye. Po or pou, province, lord- 

POYVRE, le (f.), the Poor. (v. St. Savoyre.) 

POZZO di Borgo (Jt.), Well of the Suburb or Town. 

PRAAT, de (m.), the Proud, (v. Balch.) The Saxon "prut" 
has become " prat " in Dutch, and " proud " in EngUsh. 

PRATBIHAN, de (^.), of Little meadow. 

PRATO, dal (It.), Pre, du (£.), of the Meadow. 

PRATT or Prat (©.), Crafty, Subtle, Politic. A like name to 
that of a king of Norway, called Ingialldr the Cunning. This 
surname may also sometimes be the same as " de Praat," q. v., 
but perhaps more frequently a corruption of the Latinized name 
de Prato, — i. e., of the Meadow, Pasture, Green, or Common, — 
or from the French du Prat. In the patois of Gascony and 
Auvergne, "prat" signifies a meadow, green field, court, or 

PRESCOTT ((g.), anc. de Prestecote, Priesfs cottage. 

The Hon. William H. Prescott, of Boston, the historian, 
is son of the Hon. Judge William Prescott, grandson of 
Col. William Prescott, an officer of the Revolution, and 
great-grandson of the Hon. Benjamin Prescott, of Mass., 
member of the Governor's Council (ob. 1735), whose grand- 
father came from co. Lancaster. 

PREUX, le {£.), the Brave, {v. Kuhn.) 

PRIDEAUX {%. N.), Near the waters. 


PRINGLE (0.), Pilgrim. Such is said to be the meaning; and 
there appears to be some probability in the tradition ; for they 
carry in their Ai-ms escallop shells, the badges of a pilgrim. 

PRUDHOME C^. N.), Pridham ((£.), Preud'homme (E.), Wise 
and prudent man. 

PUCKLER ((©.), Buchler. {v. Pauernfeindt.) 

PUENTE, de la (Sp.)' of the Bridge, {v. du Pont.) 

PUGH (ilJ.), Pew (0.), Ap Hugh, Son of Hugh. 

PURDEY (®.), Proud, Surly, Rude; also a little thick-set fellow. 

PUTNAM or Puttenham (QE-)? -^ome of the pits or wells. 

PUTTEN, van der (SI.), of the Wells. 

PUYFERRE, de (f.), of Chalybeate spring. Puts, du, of the 
Well, Hill, or Hill pasture. Puy (U0> hillock, eminence, pasture 
071 a hill. 

PIJL, van der (tU.), of the Arroiv. (v. de la Fleche.) 

PIJNAKKER {m.), Pine-field, {v. Pin-de-Monte and des Pins.) 


QUAATGELAAT {W.), Bad face. Evil countenance. 

QUADTMANN (O.), Bad, Cunning, or Deceitful man. 

QUAKENBOSCH, van {J3-), of Quacking wood. Kwaken, to 
croak, as frogs ; to quack, as ducks. 

QUARLES ((£•), Stone-quarries, (v. Umbgrove.) 

QUARRE (S.), Square, (v. Massif des Carreaux.) 

QUARTDEVILLE, de (J.), of Fourth part of the town, or of 
Town watch, or of Ward or Quarter of the town. 

QUAST ((3.), Fop, Coxcomb ; literally. Knot, Tassel. 

QUATREBARBES, de {£.), of Four barbs or horses. Quatre- 
FAGES, de, of Four beeches. Quatremaires, Four mayors ? 
QuATREMARES, Four pools or marshes ? Quatremeee, Four 
mothers ? These three may all be corruptions of the same 
name ; and, if the last is its true form, it may have originated 
with one who had had three step-mothers. Quatresols, Four 


soils or lands, or Four pence. Quatrevaux, de, of Four val- 
leys. Qdatee-Yeux, Fotir Eyes. Perhaps he wore spectacles. 
QuATREMAiTs'ES (QV. N.)> Foiir haiids. Arms : A fesse be- 
tween four hands. Quatkocciii (Jt.), Four eyes. Quattro- 
MANi, Four hands, {v. von Vieregg.) 
QUEBRIAC, de (QV.), of Brieuc's ford. Querengal, de, of 

Frenchman's ford. 
QUEINGOFF (QV.), Whitesmith ? (v. le Goff and le Gwen.) 
QUELEN, de (X.), of Holly. Kelen, a holly-tree. 
QUELLIIORST (<©.), Well wood, Spring grove, (v. Bronkhorst.) 
QUERENGASSER ((g.), Diveller in a cross-street, {v. de Belle- 
rue, de Penan ru, and Strada.) 
qiJ^RY^'LT) {(3.), Across field. Querfurt, Across /ore?. Quer- 

UBER, Across, Over against, {v. Uiberacker.) 
QUERHOENT or Kerc'hoent, de, of Handsome castle, {v. de 

Keramanac'h and de Beauchateau.) 
QUESNOY, du {£.), of the Oaks. (v. Duchesne.) 
QUICK ((Jc.), Active, Nimble, (v. Sprague, Swift, and Fleet.) 
QUIEN, le (£.), the Bog; and they bear one in their Arms. 
QUIN (3.), White? (v. le Cann, le Gwen, and Wynne.) 
QUINBY (QE.), Queen's dwelling. Quinton, Queen's town. 
QUINCY ((it'), Quince-tree plot. An English name since the 
conquest ; derived from a place in France. As early as A.D. 
654, an abbey was founded near Poitiers, called Quincay, Quin- 
5ay, or Quincy. (v. du Quesnoy and de Saulcy.) 

Edmond Quinsey, of Boston, Mass., was a Deputy to the 
General Court in 1634. 
QUINQUABRES, or Cinq-arbres, des (I.), of Five trees. 
QUINTUS (CD.), The fifth. A Latin word. 
QUITTENBAUM ((©.), Quince-tree. (v. Nooteboom.) 
QUIXLEY ((£.), QuiGLEY (N. €•)» ^^eld of hedge-plants, or 
Field surrounded by a quick-set hedge. 



EADCLIFFE (0^.)' a^^c. de Rubro clivo, Red cliff. 

RADEMAKER (iD.), Wheelwright, (v. Cliarron.) 

RALEIGH (QE.), Eoehuch' s field, (v. Reehorst and van Eenesse.) 

RALSTON (9.), Ralph's town. (v. Johnston.) 

RAMS BOTTOM ((£.), Wild-garlic valley or low ground. Rams- 
den, Wild-garlic valley or pasture. 

RAMSEY {^.), Rammesig, Ram's island. 

RAMSPERGER ((55-)? Dweller on the Ramherg or Ram's mount. 

RAUBER (©.), Roller, (v. Ladron, Taillebot, and Bauernfeind.) 

RAVEN (IB.), Ravens. Ravenswaai, van, of Ravens' lake. 

READ, Reed, or Reid (©.), Red, and perhaps sometimes Wood. 
Reid (pro v.), a very small wood. (v. Rothe and le Rouge.) 

REDHAM (QE-)) ^etZ or Reed home. Redmere, Red or Reedy 
lake. Redmond, Protector or Safe in counsel, (v. Hammond 
and Mildred.) 

REEHORST (ID.), Beer's wood or grove, (v. Raleigh.) 

REEVES and Rives (€.), Reeve, Sheriff, Steward, Bailiff. 

REGT, de (lIEI.)^ ^^^^ Right, the True. Regtsom, To the right. 
On the right hand. Regtdoorzee, Right through sea. 

RENESSE, van (iB.),of Renesse; i. e.. Beer's cape. (v. vanNes.) 
Pierre du Terrail dit Bayard is world-renowned ; but two 
centuries before " le bon Chevalier, sans peur et sans reproche," 
there lived a noble Zeelander, John van Renesse, who was called 
" De vroorae en onversaagde Ridder ; " i. e., The pious and 
fearless knight. 

RENSSELAER, Van (N-f.)? Of Rensselaer ; i. e., Beer's couch, 
Hart's harlor. The Van Rensselaers came from Gelderland. 
(v. Raleigh.) 

REVERE (€.), River, (v. du Rieu and del Rio.) 

RICE, Rhys, or Rees (tD.), Red? A name borne nearly eight 
centuries ago by Rhys ab Tewdwr ab Eineon ab Owen ab 
Howell Dda, or, as sometimes styled, Rhys ab Tewdwr Mawr ; 
i. e., Rice, son of Tudor, son of Eineon, son of Owen, son of 
Howell the Good, or Rice, son of Tudor the Great, (v. le Roz.) 


RIDDER (m.), RiTTER (©.), J^^niffht. 

RIDLEY or Redlcigh ((E.)? Reed ov Rush field. 

RIEMENSCHNEIDER {^.), Hamess-maher. 

RIEU, du {£.), of the River, (v. del Rio.) 

RIO, del (Sp.)' of the River. Rios, de los, of the Rivers. 

RIPLEY (i!^.), River-bank field. 

ROBINSON ((jF.), Robin's son. Sir John Beverley Robinson, 

Bart., Chief Justice of Canada West, is son of Christopher 

Robinson, Esq., an American Loyalist, and an officer of the 

Queen's Rangers, who d. 1798. 
ROC'II, le (X), o/</ie^ocL Roc'li, a rock on terra firma. Kar- 

reg, a rock in or near the sea. Roc'hmelin, de, of Fellow rock, 

(v. de la Roche.) 
ROCHE, de la (i^.), of the Rock or Castle. Rochefort, de, 

of Strong castle. Rochefoucauld, de la, of Fidk's castle. 

RoCHEjACQUELEiN, de la, of Little James's castle, (v. von und 

zum Stein.) 
RODDAM or Rodham (®.), Rood or Cross home. 
RODE ((£.), Rood or Cross, or perhaps Rodeland. (v. von Rode.) 
RODE, von ((3-), of Assart, (v. van Berkenrode.) 
RODENBEEK (tl).). Red brook. Rodenberg, Red mount. 

Rodenburgh, Red castle or borough. Rodenwald, Red or 
Uprooted ivood. {y. von Rode.) 
ROODE, de (til.), the Red. Roodhuyzen, Red houses. 
ROORDA, van {£x\5.), of Ruurd's. (v. Abbema.) 
ROOSEBOOM (tB.), Rose-tree. Rosecrans, Rose-wreath. 
ROOVER, de (D.), the Robber. The first of this family on record 

was Edmond de Roover, Lord of Rode, in the mayoralty of 

Bois-le-Duc, living A.D. 1179. {v. Rauber.) 
ROPER (©.), Rope-maker, Crafty fellow, Rogue. One family of 

the name were, however, originally styled Musard ; which was 

changed to de Rubra spatha, and corrupted to Rospeare, Rou- 

spee, Rooper, and Roper. 
ROS (m.), Horse. Roskam, Horse-jockey ; lit., curry-comb. 
ROSCERF, de C^l.), of Stag's hillock. Ros, a hillock, ground 

gently rising, a plain. Ros, a rose. Roscoet, du, of the Rose- 


wood. Arms : Ar. three roses gu. Rosmadec, de, of Plain 
of richness. Rostreenen, de, of Thorn roses, or Hill of 
thorns. Rosvern, de, of Hill of alders. 

ROSCROW (C), Heath hut. Ros, heath, moor, champaign, mea- 
dow, promontory ; also a rose. Crou, hiU. Roscruge, Heath 
hillock or mound. 

ROTCH and Roach (N- (5.) The same as de la Roche, q. v. 

ROTHE {(^.), Red., you, of Hed shield. 

ROUGE and Roux, le {£•), the Red. Rousseau and Roussel, 
Red haired or complexioned. Diminutives of Roux. Rouge- 
MAisON, de, of Red house, {v. Rice, de Roode, Rothe, Roy, 
le Roz, and Russell.) 

ROY (S.), Red. Roy, le {£.), the King. 

ROZ, le C^V.), the Red. Rozek, diminutive of Roz ? Ruz, red. 
{y. Gwazik.) 

RUGELY ((£.), Rye-field. 

RUIGROK (iD.), Rough, Woolly, or Shaggy coat. {v. Schonrock.) 

RUITENS CHILD (t©.), Diamond or Lozenge shield. 

RUMPl^F ((g.), Trunk, Body, Torso, {v. Buik and Peabody.) 

RUN, le (^.), of the Hillock. 

RUSSELL ((£.) The same as Rousseau and Roussel, q. v. 

RUYTER, de (JB.), the Rider. Michiel Adriaansz. de Ruyter, — 
i. e., Michael de Ruyter, Adrian's son, — was the greatest Admi- 
ral of the Netherlands. At the battle of the Four Days, in 
1666, with a fleet of eighty-five ships, he attacked the English 
fleet of eighty sail under Monk and Prince Rupert. The 
combat lasted four days, when the English retreated, having 
lost eight thousand in killed and wounded, besides twenty-three 
vessels ; while the loss of the Dutch consisted only of two thou- 
sand killed and wounded, and four vessels. 

RIJCKEVORSEL, van (JD.), of Rijckevorsel ; i.e., Rich frog ; 
and the Baron van Rijckevorsel carries golden frogs in his Arms, 
which are Vert, three frogs or. 

RIJK or Rijke (tU.), Rich. The latter form is generally written 
in New York as pronounced ; viz., Riker. 



SACHTLEBEN (©.)» Sachtleven (SD.), Quiet or Peaceable 
dwelling, (v. vou Alvensleben.) 

SACROBUSTO, de {Hi.), of Holy bust. 

SAIN de Boislecompte (i^.), Sound or Healthy of the Counts wood, 
{v. Hale.) 

SAINT ANTHOINE, de {£.), of St. Anthony. Saint Sauveur, 
j^/'y Saviour. Sainte Helene, de, of St. Helena. Sainte 
Suzanne, de, of St. Susan. 

ST. SAVOYRE or St. Saviour (^. N.), anc. Saunzavier, Without 
estate, {v. Sonderlant.) 

SALTONSTALL ((IC-)^ Salt-town place, stead, or abode. 

SAN JUAN EVANGELISTA, de {%i^.), of St. John the Evan- 
gelist. Santa Cruz, de, of Holy Cross. Santos, de los, of 
the Saints. 

SANCHEZ (Sp.), Sancho's. (v. Diaz and Yanez.) 

SANCTIS, de' (Jt.), of the Saints. Sangiorgio, da, of St. 
George. San Giovanni, di, of St. John. S. Catiiarina da 
SiENA,\di, of St. Catherine of Siena. 

SANDE, ten (U).), at the Sand. Sanford (©.), Sand ford. 

SARGENT (C.), Sergeant. In the twelfth century, the Royal 
body-guai-ds of England and France wei*e called Servientes 
Armorum, or Serjens d'armes ; i. e., Servants at Arms. 

SAUER ((J5-)> Sour, Crabbed, Peevish, {v. Zuurmond.) There 
is one old family styled Sauer whose name may be derived 
from the river Sau near their estates. Sauerbier, Sour beer. 
(v. Dunnebier.) Sauerijrey, Sour broth. Saueressich, Sour 
vinegar. Sauermann, Sour man. Sauerwein, Sour wine. 

SAULCY, de {£.), of Willow-tree plot. {v. Frezeau.) 

SAURET {£.), Sorrel, Brownish yellow, (v. Geele.) 

SAYER (C), Saer, Sawyer, Carpenter, (v. Timmerman.) 

SCALA, della (Jt.), of the Ladder. 

SCARLET (ۥ)> bright red? (v. Vermiglioli and Rousseau.) 

SCHAAP (CD.), Sheep, (v. le Mouton and Kalf.) 



SCHAARWACHTER ((©.)» Watchman, (v. Wakeman.) 

SCHABRACQ ((3-), Sousings, Caparison. 

SCHELTINGA, van (Svis.), of Schelte's race. (v. JEblnga.) 

SCHERMER (H).), Fencer, Fighter; but the name may some- 
times be a corruption of " Bescliermer," Defender, Protector^ 
Patron. Schermerhorn (N- ^•), Corner of the Schermer, a 
polder in Holland. The New-York surname is undoubtedly 
derived from the village of Schermerhorn in North Holland. 

SCHIMMEL (ID.), White or Gray horse, {v. Whitehorse.) 

SCHIMMELPENNINCK (?D.), White horse penny. An old 
family, whose origin is uncertain, but who have for centuries 
ranked among the nobles of Gelderland and Zutphen. One of 
the name was also a burgomaster of Cologne in 1409 ; and, the 
same year, another held the office of alderman of Brussels. 

Perhaps they came originally from Cologne, the Electors of 
which bore the white horse of "Witikind in their Arms ; and 
they may have been mint-masters, and coiners of a penny 
stamped with a " schimmel," that emblem of our Saxon ances- 
tors still preserved in the Arms of Hanover. Or they may 
have been Treasurers, and receivers of a tax paid in " Schim- 
mel pennies." I presume there have been pennies so styled, 
either properly or vulgarly ; for horses are to be found on many 
of the old German coins. Their Arms are, " Ar. two keys in 
saltii'e sa., in the bows or rings a cross of the first." I do not 
know how the office of Ti'easurer was confei-red in Germany ; 
but, in England, it was formerly done by the delivery of the 
golden heys of the Treasury. The first quarter of the Arms of 
Cologne is, " Ar., a cross sa. ; " hence, perhaps, the cross in the 
bows of the keys. 

SCHLEYSS, zu der (©.), at the Sluice, {v. Versluys.) 

SCHLOSSGANGL ((g.), Castle lane. (v. Smallegang.) 

SCHMETTERLING (©•), Butterfly. 

SCHMIDT auf Altenstadt, von ((S.), of Smith at or in Old town. 
This house, nobles of the H. R. E., anciently bore the Latin 
name Fabricius ; which was translated into German, with the 
addition, "auf Altenstadt," by imperial license, in 1713. 


SCHNEIDER ((g.), Tailor. Schneiderwirth, Tailor host; 
i. e., Landlord of Tailor's Inn. {v. Schroeder.) 

SCHOENMAKER (iD.), Shoemaher. {v. Schuchardt.) 

SCHONAU {(&.), Fairfield, q. v. Schonrock, Fine coat. 
ScHONWETTER, Fair weather, q. v. {v. Lievendag.) 

SCIIOONHEID (?D.), Beauty. ScnooNiiovEN, van, of Schoon- 
hoven. " Hoven " means courts ; " lioeven," farms : but the 
latter part of this name is probably a corruption of " haven," 
as the town has a good harbor for small craft, and might safely 
be styled " Schoonhaven," Fairhaven. 

SCHREIBER ((&.), Schrijver (13.), Scrivener, Clerk, Purser. 

SCHROEDER (©•)» Tailor, (v. Schneider and Kleersnijder.) 

SCHUBART and Schuster ((&.), Cobbler. Schuchardt and 
Schumacher, Shoemaker, (y. Schoenmaker.) 

SCIiUITEMAKER ((JD.), Boat-builder. 

SCHWAGER ((S.)) Brother-in-law or Postilion; for German 
postboys are often so called, (v. Sustermann.) 

SCHWARZ ((6.)» Black. Schwarzenberg, von, of Black 
mount, (v. Zwart.) 

SEARS (GE.)> ^'^c. Sare, Sayer, Seyer, etc., Wiseman, Seer? 
From Adam Sare, of Hougham, co. Kent, who d. 1346, de- 
scended the Sears of Colchester, co. Essex ; one of whom, 
Richard Satres, removed in 1537 to Holland, whence, in 
1630, his great-grandson, Richard Sears, emigrated to New 
England. He had three sons, Knyvet, Paul, and Sylas. From 
the eldest descended the Hon. David Sears, of Boston, a 
Senator of Mass., b. 1787, now the representative of the family. 

SENHOUSE ((2.), anc. de Sevenhouse, Savin-tree house ? 

SEPTCHENES, de (if.), of Seven oaks. (v. Sevenoke.) 

SERAERTS, t' (H).), the Sir Arthur's. The style "Ser" for 
nobles has been obsolete in the Low Countries for centuries. 
In the abbreviation of het, in Flanders, the apostrophe was 
formerly placed after instead of before the t, as at present. 
Serroelofs, t', the Sir Ralph's. Serooskerken, van, of Sir 
Joost or Justus's church. Sersanders, Sir Sander's, (v. Sire- 
Jacobs and T'Serclaes.) 


SESMAISONS, de (JT.), of His houses, or of Six houses. 
SESTICH, van t' {B.), of the Sixty. An old Flemish family, 

who carry six Roman X's in their Arms. 
SEVENBURGEN, van {\^.), of Zevenhergen ; i. e., Savin or 

Seven hills. 
SEVENOKE (€.), Seven oaks. (v. Siebeneicher.) 
SEYMOUR (Q^.), St. Mcmr, also Seamere ; i. e., Seamer, Tailor. 
SHAPLEIGH {(t.), Schepleah, Sheep-field, {v. Eveleth.) 
SHATSWELL (ۥ), Chad's well? Shattuck, Chad's oak, if a 
corruption of the name Chadock ; or Chad's hollow, brook, or 
corner. Doke (pro v.), small hollow, small brook. Hoke, nook 
or corner, (v. Chadborn.) 
SHAW (^. and 0.), Thicket, Grove, Wood, in England and the 
Lowlands ; but the Highland family of Shaw are a branch of 
the M'Intoshes, in whose early history often occurs the forename 
of Scha, Schea, or Shaw, probably the same as the Erse Shawn ; 
i. e., John. 
SHEEPSHANKS (ۥ), Sheep's legs. (v. Piedevache.) 
SHELDON (©.), Shell hill. Shelly, Island in a river. 
SHELTON (€•)» 'S'/ieZ? town. The rebus to the name is a shell 
upon a tun. Daniel Shelton, of co. Derby, Eng., emigrated 
to N. E., and settled in Stratford, Conn., where, in 1680, he pur- 
chased lands still held by his descendants ; one of whom, Philo 
Strong Shelton, Esq., removed to Boston, m. Georgiana 
Albertina, dau. of Benj. Parrott Homer, Esq., and has issue. 
SHERBURNE ((£.), Clear or Shire brook. 
SHERMAN (©.), Shearman or Clothworker. 
SHURTLEFF (Of.), Shire cliff, or White or Bright cliff, cave, or 

dwelling. A sui*name derived from Shiercliff, co. York. 
SICKINGA (iFris.), Sikke's son or descendant, (v. ^binga.) 
SIEBENEICHER (B-), Dweller by the seven oaks. 
SILSBEE (N.<K.)» Selbt orSilby (e), Good dwelling. (t;.By.) 
SILVER ((E.), Silver, {v. Zilver.) Silvertop, White head? 
SIRE-JACOBS (JU.), Sir Jacob's, (v. t' Seraerts.) 
SIXMA (Jris.), Sikke's, or of Sikke. (v. Abbema.) 
SKENE (S.), Dagger, (v. Pook, Degen, Isebrants, and Homer.) 


SKINNER ((£.)' Dealer in sMns, Flayer. 

SLADE ((£.)' i^«%j Ravine, Plain. 

SLAGREGEN (?H.), Pouring rain. {v. Stofregen.) 

SLOOT, van der {m^), of the Ditch. 

SLOTEMAKER (SD.), Locksmith. 

SMALLEGANG (CD.)? Narrowlane. (v. Schlossgangl and Strada.) 

SMID, Smidt, Smits, and Smitt (H.), Smith, {v. Schmidt.) 

SNELL (dr.), Agile, Hardy. Shelling, aSow of Syiell. 

SNELLEBRAND {W), Quichfire. {v. Tizzoni and Vuurpijl.) 

SNIJDEWINDT (tU.), Cut the wind. (v. de Tranchemer.) 

SOMERBY (Qz-), Summer dwelling. Somerfield, Somerland, or 
Ground that lies fallow all summer^ 

SOMMERFELD {'&.), Field soivn ivith spring corn. 

SONDERDANK (jD.), Without thanks, Thankless. Willem Son- 
derdank, a noble of Holland, A.D. 1346. {v. Ontliank.) There 
was a Count of Oostervant called Jolin without Grace or Mercy 
(Johan sonder Genade) ; and a Bishop of Liege bore the same 
name (Jean sans Pitie). 

SONDERLAND (®.), Freehold land. (y. Sunderland, Buck- 
land, and Freeland.) Sondekmann, Freeholder, Franklin, q. v. 

SONDERLANT (iD.), Without land. Lackland. Willem Sonder- 
lant was living in 1374. As he was a follower of Albert of 
Bavaria, Count of Holland, the name may be German (Son- 
derland, q. v.) ; but it does not bear the prefix " van," as local 
names then generally did. {v. Habenicht, Notthaft, le Poyvre, 
and St. Savoyre.) 

SONNESCHEIN (@.), Sunshine, {v. Schonwetter.) 

SPENCER (®.), Steward, Butler, (v. Kellermann.) 

SPESSHARDT, von ((•$.), of Woodpecker's hill. Hart or harz, 
a woody hill. 

SPEYARD (CD.), Sorroivful, Sad, or Cross disposition ? 

When the Archduke Maximilian visited Ghent, in 1485, he 
sent for the chief magistrate, Matthew Speyard, and said that he 
intended to create him knight. Speyard instantly fell upon his 
knees, taking the Duke by surprise, as he was in the act of being 
disrobed, and therefore disarmed ; but, seeing him kneeling, 


Maximilian snatched a boot, still covered with mud, from the 
hands of his valet, and gave the accolade therewith. 
SPITTLE (0.), Hospital 

SPITZIiUTH (05.), Pointed hat. {v. Stahlhuth and Capelli.) 
SPONER or Spooner (^.), Spoon-maker ? Ralph Spooner (prov.), 

a fool. 
SPRAGUE (®.), Sprag or Sprack, Quid, Lively, Active. 
SQUARCIALUPI (3t.), Jiend wolves. Wolf-destroyer? 
STAAL (H.), Steel. Stahlhuth (®.)> '^^^^^ ^«^- (^- ^P^*^^' 

STAD, van de (Wi.), of the Town or City. (v. Duyvel.) 
STAMKART (tB.), Genealogical chart! Two of the name in 

Amsterdam Directory for 1851. 
STANHOPE ((£.), Stone hill. Stanton, Stone toivn. 
STARCKE {j3.). Strong. Starkenborgh (tD.), Strong castle. 
STEEGH, van der (D.), of the Lane. {v. Tersteeg and Strada.) 
STEENBERGEN (?D.), Stone hills. Steendtk, Stone dike. 

Steenstrand, Stony strand. 
STEIN, von mid zum (^.), of and in the Castle. Steinbach, 

Stony hrook. 
STERK (in.). Strong, {v. Starcke and le Ver.) 
STEWART (S.), Steward. One of the most common names in 

Scotland. Queen Mary spelt her name Stuart, there being no 

w in the French or Gaelic languages. 
STIE GLITZ (®.)» Goldfinch, {v. le Canaber.) 
STINSTRA (ifris.). Castle place? {v. van Camstra.) 
STOFREGEN {m.), Fine rain, 3Iist. (v. Slagregen.) 
STOKVIS {m.), Stockfish, (v. Butevisch, Fisk, and Vis.) 
STORER (9.), Storare, Storour, Overseer of flocks. 
STOUTKIND (iU.), Naughty or Saucy child. 
STRACHAN (S.), Strath Aan, Valley of the Aan. 
STRADA (Jt.), Street. Stradella, Lane. Straatmann {%.), 

Street man, Streeter. Strasse, Street. Straten, van der (til.), 

of the Streets, (v. Querengasser, Smallegang, van der Steegh, 

op de Weegh, Whiteway, and Zellweger.) 
STRICKLAND (€.), Stirkland, or pasture for steers. 


STRINGER and Stringfellow ((£.), Boio-string maher. 

STRONGI'TIIARM ((£.), Strong in the arm. (r. Fortebracci.) 

STUIVER (HD.), Penny, {v. Kleinpenning.) 

STUMFF {(3.), Stump or Trunk of a tree; also Dull or Stupid, 
Infirm, Stumpy, or Short, (v. Zouclie.) 

STUYVESANT (N. Ij}.). Stuifzand (HD.), Quichsand. 

SUNDERHOF ((<$.)> Oyster court ? 

SUNDERLAND ((£.), Freehold land. {v. Sonderland.) 

SURINGAR (irris.)? Sjoerd or Syurd's sons or descendants. The 
only Frisian name known to me having this plural termination. 
(v. -^binga.) It bears some resemblance to that of the Serin- 
gas (Seringum) mentioned in the Traveller's Song. 

SURTEES (3.. N.), anc. Sur le Tayse, On the Tees. 

SUSS (©.)j Sweet, Amiable. Susskind, Sweet child. Suss- 
MILCH, von, of Fresh milk. 

SUSTERMANN (©.)» Sister's husband, Brother-in-law. 

SWANENBURG, van ((3).), of Swan's castle, (v. Zwaan.) 

SWARTWOUT (N. 13.), Black wood. (v. Zwart and van 't Wout.) 

SWETT and Sweet ((£.), Amiable, {v. Habasque, Ledoux, Suss, 
and de Zoete.) 

SWIFT {i^.), Agile, Fleet; also (prov.) Stupid fellow. 


TAILLEBOT {£.), Pillager. Talebot (U-), pillager, thief. A 

Capt. Taillebot was ennobled in 15 G2. {v. Ladron.) 
TAILLEFER, de {£.), of Cut iron. Arms: A hand holding a 

sword cutting a bar of iron. (y. de Tranchemer.) 
TAIv, van der (?3).), of the Branch. 
TALBOT {%. N.), Marsh end or abode ? Tal (H.), mire, mud, 

ooze, marsh ; hot or bod, extremity, end ; bode, small house, 

TALCARNE (d.), Front or Head of the heap or barrow. 
TALHOUET, de {^), of Front of the wood. 
TALLBOYS (^. N-), Taillebois, Co/^se, Hurst, Underwood. 


TAPPER (©.), Innkeeper. Tasker, Thrasher. 

TASSO (Jt.), Badger, (v. von Thurn und Taxis.) 

TAUBMANN (©.), Deaf man. 

TENGELER (?B.), Ten hengelaar, At the Angler % Tengel- 

HOFF, Ten engelhof, At the AngeVs court ? Tentije, Ten 't IJ, 

At the river IJ? Tenwinkel, At the shop or corner, (v. von 

TENISON (Q^.), Son of Denis ; although a family of the name 

claim that it was anciently Tunesende ; i. e., Townsend. 
TERBRUGGEN ((31.), At the bridges. Tersteeg, At the lane. 

Terveen, At the fen. Terveer, At the ferry. Tervtal, At 

the wall. Terwindt, At the wind? (v. van der Wind.) 
TERPSTRA (iTris.), Iloimd place? (v. van Camstra.) 
TERRY ((g.), Thierry or Theodorich. (v. Dirckinck.) 
TERTRE, du (f.), of the Hilloch. {v. de la Motte and le Run.) 
TESSIER and Texier {£.), Weaver, (v. Weber.) 
TESTA D'ORO (3t.), Head of Gold. (v. Kops.) , 
THISTLETIIWAYTE ((£.), Thistle assart, (v. von Nesselrath 

and Thwaites.) 
THORP (©.), Village, (v. van Dorp.) 
THROCKMORTON (€•)» ^^'^ rock moor toivn. 
THURN und Taxis, von (©.), of Tower and Badger. The 

Prince de Tour et Taxis, as styled in French, carries in his 

Arms a tower and a badger, {v. Tasso.) 
THWAITES ((E-)? Assarts, Reclaimed land, Pasture, Rough 

marshy ground. 
THYNNE ((£.), anc. Of th' inne. Of the Inn of Court. 
TIAARDA, van (irris.), of Tjaard's. (v. Abbema.) 
TIAC, le C^.), the Bead of the household. 
TICHBORNE (ۥ), Ticceburne, Kid's brook. 
TICKNOR (©•)' dTtchenor, of Itchenor ; i. e., Brink or Bank of 

the Icen. 
TIMMERMAN (H).), Carpenter, (v. Zimmermann and Sayer.) 
TIZZONI (31.), Firebrands ; and three are burning in their Arms. 
TODD ((£•)» I'c^^ ^1^0 Bush. Todhunter, Fox-hunter. 
TOEKAMP (211.) At the field. Toewater, At the water. 


TONSTALL (ۥ), Town stead or place, (v. Saltonstall.) 
TOOGOOD (©.), Too good. {v. Allgood and Troplong.) 
TOPLIFFE or Topcliffc ((£.), TadenclifFe, Toad's cliff. 
TORELLO (Jt.), Toung bull. {v. Os and Kalf.) 
TOREN, van der (SD.), Torre, della (Jt.), of the Tower. Tor- 

RiCELLi, Little toivers. Torrey ((E-)? ''^i^c- de Turre, Tower. 
TOTLEBEN (©.), Todo, Dodo, or Dado's dioelling. {v. von 

Alvensleben, Dudley, and Dirckinck.) 
TOTTENHAM ((g.), Deodenham, Deodo or Theodds home. 
TOUCHEBGEUF, de {£.), of Drove of oxen. (v. le Boouf.) 
TOULLGOUET, de (2,.), of Fit of the wood? (v. de Tregouet.) 
TOUR DU PIN, de la (I.), of the Totoer of the Pine. 
TOUTBLANC (£.), All ivhite. {v. Blanchard and Whiteman.) 
TOWNE (C-)j Town. Tun, an enclosed place, field, dwelling, 

house, yard, farm, village, town. (y. van de Stad.) 
TRANCHEMER, de {£.), of Cut sea. Arms : A sword plunged 

in a sea. (v. Snijdewindt and Taillefer.) 
TRAON (X), Fa//e^. Traondoun, de, o/Z)eep ra^%. Traon- 

NEVEZ, de, of Neiv valley. 
TRAUTSOHN ((f5.)» Dear or Beloved son. (v. Zoon and Vader.) 
TREANNA, de C^.)? of Anne's town. Tref, treo, trew, hamlet, 

toion, city. Treffilis, de, of Church town. Tregastel, de, 

of Castle town. Tregouet, de, of Wood town. Tremenec, 

de, of Monies town. Trevelec, de, of Priest's town. 
TREBY (QT.), Tre bighe. Little town'? Tre, tref, house, dwelling, 

toivn. Trefry, Tre vre. Hill town. Trelawney, Grove town ? 

Tremenheere, Column town. Maen hir, stone tall; perhaps 

a Runic stone. Trenance, Valley or Brook town. Treva- 

NiON, Tre fFynnon, Well or Spring town. Trevelyan, Mill 

town. Trevor, Sea town. 
TREMEN, de {%.), of Passage, Road, or Way. (v. de Hennebont.) 
TRENGOVE (OT.), Strong smith, {v. Angove and QueingofF.) 
TRESLONG, van (jJD.), of Treslong ; i.e., Tres long {£.), Very 

long or large. A lordship in Hainault. 
TRESOR, le {£.), the Treasure. Arms: A "tresor" of fifteen 

pieces of gold and silver coin. 



TREURNIET (tH.), Mourn not, Lament not. {v. Gedult.) 

TRIP (tU.), Patten, or woman's wooden shoe. Arms : Gu. three 
" trippen " (plural of " trip ") or. 

TROADEK {%.), Big foot. {v. Platvoet and Zierfuss.) 

TROBODEC, de {%.), of Bushy town. {v. de Treanna.) Tro- 
GOFF, de, of Smith's town. Tromelin, de, of 3Iill or Yelloto 
toivn. Miliu, mill; melen, yellow. Tromenec, de, of Honk's 

TROMP (lU.), Hunter's horn. One of the most famous of Dutch 
admirals was Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp (i. e., Martin Tromp, 
son of Herbert), who in 1652, having defeated the English ad- 
miral, Blake, hoisted a broom at the mast-head, to show that he 
had swept the seas. 

TROPLONG {£.), Too long. {v. Toogood and van Trcslong.) 

TROWBRIDGE (ۥ), Truthabrig, Trumpeter's bridge ? 

TRUEBODY ((£•), Trusty messenger. Treubodi was an Anglo- 
Saxon name. (v. Peabody.) 

T' SERCLAES (D.), The Sir Nicholas's, {v. t' Seraerts.) 

TUDOR, Tewdwr, or Tudur (tO.), Theodore. Tewder,/a;. 

TUFTS (Of-), Grove, Plantation, or Toft; i.e., Homestead. 

TURCO, del (Jt.), of the Turk. {v. dal Moro.) 

TURELLE ((£.), Tourelle, Tower; or Turrold ov Thorold. 

TURNBULL (S.), Tufn bidl. Given to one who turned a bull 
as the animal was attacking King Robert Bruce, from whom 
there, is said to be a charter to "Willielmo dicto TurnbuU." 
The name of these gay Moss-troopers, who belonged to the 
Middle Marches, was generally pronounced Trumbull. 

TUSCHEN (tD.), Between ! Possibly a corruption of Tijssen, q. v. 

TUSSCHENBROEK, van (JB.), of Partition or Division marsh. 

TYLER ((K-), Tiler ; and perhaps sometimes from the Anglo- 
Saxon " tiher," husbandman. Tom Tiler (prov.), a henpecked 

TYNTE ((£■)' Tinged, Stained; for the name of this family is 
said to be derived from their Latin motto, "Tinctus cruore 

TIJSSEN (SD.), Son of Tijs or Matthias. 



UBEL ((3.), Bad, Sick, Sicily, (v. Unwyn.) 

UFFORD (©.), Above the ford, or OtoFs or Ufa's ford. 

UGESBORNE ((£.), Winding brook? Wog, weoli, crooked, bend- 
ing, turning. 

UHLEFELD {(&.), OioVs field. Uhlenbroek {W.), OwVs 

UIBERACKER {(&.), Across ov Above the field, (t'. Overbeke.) 

UITENHAGEN (ID.), Uit den hage, Out of ov From the hedge. 
UiTERNESSE, Out of the cape ov promontory. 

ULLMANN (©.)? Dweller near the elms, or Native of Ulm. Ul- 
MEXSTEiN, Elm's castle. 

UMBACH ((!$.), At or Near brook. Umbgrove, At pit, mine, or 
quarry. Ujibreit, At plain. Umlauff, At current. 

UNDERHILL (f^.). Under hill. {v. Unterberg.) Underwood, 
Under wood, or same as Tallboys, q. v. 

UNIA te Wirdum, van (iTris.)? of Oene or Une's race at Wiard's 
home. Unia, an abbreviation of Uninga. 

UNIACKE (J.), The only one, Unique ; a name said to be a cor- 
ruption of " Unicus est," the ancient Latin motto of the family. 

UNRUH ((S-)j Uneasy, Turbulent, ore Free from care? 

UNTERBERG (@.), Under hill. {y. Onderberg.) Unterber- 
GER, Dioeller under the hill. Unterrichter, Subordinate 

UNWYN (05.) > Unhappy, Joyless, (v. Ubel and Unruh.) 

UPCOTT ((g.), High cottage. Upfold, High field. Upham, 
High home. Uphill, High hill or Upon the hill. Uppleby, 
anc. Applebie, q. v. Upsale, High hall or house. Upton, 
High town. 

UPJOHN ((£.), Up John. Up Thomas, Up Thomas, — ivom 
dwellings up the street or hill. {v. Ilomeyer.) The last may 
be Welsh, — Ap Thomas, Son of Thomas. 

UPPENKAMP (JU.), In the field, {y. Opdenheide.) 


UTENGOYE (D.), Out of or From the Gooiland. Utenhove, 

Out of the farm or court, {v. Uitenhagen.) 
UYT DEN BOOGARD, Out of or From the Orchard. Utten- 

CAMPE, Out of the field. Uttenenge, Out of the defile. 

Uytkebke, Out of the church. Uytwyk, Out of the ward, 

parish, or quarter. 


VACHE, la (iF.), the Ooio. Arms : Gu. a cow arg. An early 
K. G. was styled " Mouns. S"" Richard levaclie ; " and the name 
still remains upon his stall at Windsor, on a plate beaiing his 
Arms (lions rampant), and crest of a cow's leg. {v. Koe.) 

VADER (tU.), Father. W. Vader, a burgomaster in 1847. 

VAL, du (if.), Valle, della (Jt.), of the Valley. Valleher- 
MOSA, de (Sp.), of Lovely valley, (v. ten Dall.) 

VALK (W.), Falcon. Valckenier, Falconer. Valkenburg, 
van, of Falcon's castle. 

VANAME (N. '^■), Of Namen or Namur. Vandenburgh, Of 
the hurgh. (v. van den Burg.) Vandenhoek, Of the corner. 
Vanderbilt, Of the Bildt. Vanderpoel, Of the marsh. 
Vanderheyden, Of the heath, or Of ter Heide. Vander- 
WERKEN, Of the Werhen. Vande water, Of the water. Van- 
GELDER, Of Gelderland. Vanness and Vannest, the same as 
van Nes, q. v. Vanolinda, Van der linden, Of the lime-trees. 
In Holland, the above prefixes are very rarely joined to the 

VANE ((g.), Wan, Pale ? or the same as Fane, q. v. 

VAS, de (?II.), the Vase. (v. Wasservas.) 

VASTO, del (SpO' of the Space or La^ye place? 

VAUBLANC, de (f.), of White valley. Vaudemont, de, of 
Mountain valley. Vaux (QV. N.)> Valleys, (v. du Val.) 

VAUGHAN (to.), Little, (v. le Bihan and Klein.) 

VAYER, le (£.), the Surveyor. 

VEAZIE (N. ©.)' ^i^c. de Vesci, of Vassy, in Normandy. 


VEELWAARD {^.), Much worth. Valuable 2 (r. Goudswaard.) 

VEENEMAN (D.)» Fenman, Fenner. 

Y^Y^R, \i\n\ {J3.), of the Ferry. (?•. Terveer.) 

VEGA, de la (Sp.)' ^f^^^^ ^^«'«- 

VELDE, van dc (?D.), of the Field. Velt, in 't, in the Field. 

VER, le {£.), the Great, Strong, or Powerfid. 

VERBEEK (P.), Van der beek, Of the hrook. Verboeckhoven, 
Of the heech-tree courts. Verbruggen, Of the bridges. Ver- 
KERK, Of the church. Vermoelen de Theewinkel, Of the 
mills the Tea-shop. I give the name as recorded in the Register 
of the Netherlands Nobility, and " de Theewinkel" is pure 
Dutch for the Tea or Grocer's shop : but this " de " may be 
French; and the name, Of the mills of T corner, (v. von Win- 
kel and Beanshop.) Verschuur, Of the barn. Versluys, 
Of the sluice. 

VERCHERE, de la (if.), of the Orchard, {v. Duverge.) 

VERDI (i'.),VRiJDAG (13.), Friday, (t-. Maandag and Mittag.) 

VERDON (2.. N.)^ Verdun, anc. Verodunum ; i. e., Castle of 

VERE ((!J.) The same as Ware, q. v. 

VERME, dal {%{.), of the Worm. 

VERMIGLIOLI (jJt.), Sons of Vermiglio or Vermilion. 

VERNOIS, du (i%), of the Almond valley 2 Ver, valley, meadow. 

VESPUCCI (3t.), Sons of Vespa or Wasp. (v. Emmery.) 

VETTE, de (W.), the Fat. (v. Grace and le Gros.) 

VETTER, von der LeUe {(3-), Uncle or Cousin of the Lily. 

VIEFVILLE, de (£.), of Old town. Vielcastel, de, of Old 
castle. ViEUX-PoNT, de, of Old Bridge. 

VIEREGG, von ((3-), of Four corners, (v. de Quatrebarbes.) 

VILAIN XIV. (£.) Peasant, Farmer, Merchant or Trader, Ple- 
beian, Commoner, was the early signification of the word " vilain." 
The Viscounts Vilain XIV. are descended from Martin de 
Gand- Vilain, Councillor of the Duke of Burgundy, who d. 
1465. His son is styled Adrien de Gand dit Vilain, second of 
the name. It is said thai the XIV. was added on account of the 


birth of an heir to the family while Louis XIV. was passing a 
night at their chateau. 
VILLEMAIN and Guillemin (£.), dim. of Guilleaume, William. 
VILLENEUVE, de {£.),of Ncio town. (r. de Bourgneuf.) 
VINGERHOED (SD.), Fingerhuth (©.), Tliimhle. 
VINTON (€.), the same as Winton, q. v. 

VIS (IB.)' Fish. VisscHER, Fisher, (v. Fisk and le Goujon.) 
VISCONTI, de' (It.), of the Visconti ov Viscounts. 
VISDELOU (I.), Wolfs face. 

VLIET, van der (D.), of the Brook (v. Fleet and zum Fleth.) 
VONDEL, van den (iB.), of the Small wooden bridge. Joost van 

den Vondel, ob. 1G79, is the first of Netherland's poets. 
VOOGT, de (SD.), the Guardian, (v. Hunoltstein.) 
VOORDEWIND (ilD.), Before the wind. {v. van der Wind.) 
VOYLE (tX).), Moel, Bald. The Britons gave to Caesar the name 

of lolo Voel, Julius the Bald. 
VRIES, de (U.), the Frisian. 

VROE, de (jH.), the Wise, Prudent, Sage. (v. Frodham.) 
VROUW, de (til.), the Woman ! I have met with but a solitary- 
instance of this name, — Jan de Vrouw, John the Woman. He 
was living about the time of the Reformation, (v. " Rademaker, 
Ned. Oudheden, D. 4, biz. 88.") 
VRYHEID, van der (J^.), of the Freedom or Liberty. 
VULLER, de (lH.), the Fidler, Tucker, or Walker. 
VUURPIJL (iD.), Sky-rocket, {v. Snellebrand.) 
VIJF EEKEN (iD.), Five Oaks. (v. Sevenoke.) 
VIJVER, van der (U).), of the Fish-pond. (y. van der "Weyer.) 

"WAAL, de (lH.), the Walloon, or Native of Liege. 
WAARD, de (iJD.), the Lnnkeeper. (v. Ware.) 
WADSWORTH (©.), Ford, Woad or Meadow farm. Wad, a 
ford, also woad. Wade, 7neadow. (v. Worth.) In 1277, Peter 


DE Waddewokth was living in tlie wapentake of Strafford, 
CO. York. The'first who came to this country was Christophee 
"Waduesworth, Selectman and Dejiuty, whose name appears 
in the records of Diisbury, Mass., as early as 1G3G. 

WAERELD, van de (m.), of the World. 

WAKEMAN ((P.), Walchman. {v. Schaarwachter.) 

"WALCOT and Woolcot ((£.), Wood cottage. Waldegrave, 
Wood reeve, Steivard of the forest, (r. Woodroffe.) 

WALDIIEIM {(&.), Wood home. Walzhdt, von, of Wood hut. 

WALVISCH, van (D.), of Whale, (v. Vis.) 

WALAVYN (tD.), White loall. {v. de' Mura.) 

WARE ((£.), Enclosure, Wier or Dam, Fish-jyond. In Holland, 
" waard, weert, weer," formerly signified Si fortress or castle which 
served to ward off an enemy ; also a protection of any sort, but 
particularly a dike against water. Waard, q. v., now signifies a 
jjolder, or drained lake ; also a drake and a Landlord. 

WARNER ((P.), Warrener. (v. Mainwaring.) 

WARREN ((£.), Warren, (v. Mainwaring, Chase, and Konijnen- 
berg.) Many of this surname, however, claim descent from 
WiUiam de Garennes or de Warenne, a companion of the 
Conqueror, so called from Varimna (now BeUencombre) in 
Normandy, which derived its name from the Northern Waren- 
gangi ( War-goers ?) or Varangi, some of whom formed the body- 
guard of the Greek Emperoi-s. 

WASHINGTON ((£.), Wassingatun, Town of Wasa's race or 
descendants. Wasa or vasa,/«2m, satyr. 

William de Hertburn, Lord of the manor of Washing- 
ton, CO. Durham, was living in the thirteenth century. His 
descendant, John Washington, of Whitfield, is believed to 
have been the first who assumed the name of Washington. 
From him sprang John Washington, who emigrated to 
America, and was great-grandfather of George Washington, 
Pater Patria?, n. 1732, ob. s. p. 1799. 

WASSENAAR, van (tD.), of Wassenaar ; i.e.. Marsh narroivs, 
or Narrow part of the marsh. Was (Sa^.), « marsh, moor, or 
fen ; nearo, narrow. The lords of Wassenaar were called the 



oldest family in Holland. Their name first appears in history 
A.D. 838. Wassink, Wasa's son. (v, Washington.) 

"WASSERVAS (©.), Water-vase. Arms: Az. three pitchers or. 

WATER, Toe (13).), At Water, (v. Awater and Vandewater.) 

WATKINS ((H..), Watkin's, or of Little Wat or Walter. 

WEBER ((3.), Weaver, Webster, (v. Tessier.) 

WEEGH, op de (SU.), on the Road. Wegewus, Guide or 
Guide-post. (v. des Chemins.) 

WEILER zu Weiler ((S-), Hamlet in Hamlet, (v. du Hamel.) 

WEISSMANN ((S.), Wise 7nan. (v. Wijsman and de Vroe.) 

WEISSMANTEL (®.), White mantle. Weissenwolf, White 
wolf. Weisshaupt, White head, q. v. (v. Wittekop.) 

WELBORNE ((£.), Well-spring, (v. Wyborne.) 

WELD ((£.), Wood, Forest; also Plain. 

WELLBELOVED ((£.), Well-heloved. {v. Ame and de Liefde.) 

WELVAART (u).), Welfare, Prosperity, {v. Geluk.) 

WEMYSS (S.)> Uaimhs, Caves. 

WESTBROEK, van (iD.), of West marsh. Westeinde, van 't, 
of the West end. Westendorp, West village. Westekholt 
and Westervvoudt, West wood. Westerlage, West hollow. 
Westkikch, West church. 

WESTCAR ((£.), West roch, wood, or marsh, (v. Carr.) West- 
COAT, West cottage. 

WETMORE ((£.), Wedmor, Hill of the pledge, vow, or promise? 

WEIJDEN, van der (HJ.), of the Pastures, (v. Klaverweide.) 

WEYER, van der (i3.), of the Pond or Fish-pond. (v. Duvivier.) 

WHIPLEY or Whipple ((£•), Thrashing-field ? 

WHITEBREAD ((£.), White bread. Whitechurch, White 
church. Whiteford, White ford. Whitehall, White house. 
Whitehand, White hand. Whitehead, White head. White- 
horn, White corner. Whitehorse, White horse. White- 
house, White house. Whitehull, White hill or hovel. 
Whitehurst, White grove. Whitelaw, White land or pas- 
ture. Whiteling, White heath. Whitelock, White hair, 
lake, or canal-loch. Whiteman, Man clothed in white. White- 
stones, White stones. Whiteway, White road. 


WHITGRAVE (Qf.), W/iite grove or cave. Whiting, Son of 
Hwit or White. Whitmore, Wittanmor, Wittanmoer, Assembly 
or Council moor or field. Whitney, Wittan ig, Council island^ 
Whitwell, White tvell or spring. Whitavick, White dwell- 
ing. WniTWONG, White marsh, meadow, or grove. Whit- 
worth, Wh ite farm. 

WIESENTHAL ((5.), Meadoiv-valley. {v. van der Wejden.) 

WIGGLES WORTH ((£.), My/e's/am?— Wigle was a Frisian, 
forename, and probably also Anglo-Saxon, — or Wizard's farm. 
Wiglere, a diviner, soothsayer, conjurer. 

WILBRAHAM ((g.), anc. de Wilburgham, Pleasant, or Well or 
Spring toion home. 

WILDCODT ((!$.), Wild or Forest cottage, {v. Walcot.) 

WILDE, de (tD.), the Savage. Wildeboer, Wild boor. Wilde- 
5IAN, Wild man. Wildschut, Poacher. 

WILLIAMS ((£.), WiLLEMS (ID.), Wilhelms (©.), William's 
or of William. Wilhelra, Willing or Devoted defender or pro- 
tector. WiLLARD ((£•)? GuiLLARD and Villard {£.), William. 
WiLLEMSE, Willemsen, and Willemsz (til.), William's son. 
Willing and Willink (tD.), WilVs son. Wilmot and Gillot 
((£.), Guillemot and Guillot {£.), dim. of William, {v. Gil- 
man and d'Oilliamson.) 

WINCHESTER (©.), Wintan ceaster, Winta's castle. 

WIND, van der (JD.), of the Wi?id. From a sign of Boreas? 
(v. Snijdewind, Terwindt, and Voordewind.) 

WINKEL, von (©.), of Corner, (v. Tenwinkel.) 

WINKELAAR (ID.), Shopkeeper, (v. Cramer.) 

WINNEFELD ((g.), Field of battle or victory. 

WINSLOW (©.), Winneshlaw, Battle tumulus. 

WINSTANLEY ((£.), Battle or Victory stone field. 

WINTERBOTTOM ((P.), Winter valley or loio ground. 

WINTHROP (On.), Pleasant village, {v. Freudenburg.) 

John Winthrop, Governor of Massachusetts in 1G30, was 
tlie son of Ada:\i Winthrop, of Groton, co. Suffolk, Eng., Esq. 

WINTON ((£•), Winehouse, Tavern. There are places so called 
in England and Scotland, {v. Vinton.) 



WIT, de (IB-), the White. Witlage, White hollow or vallej/. 
"WiTLANDT, White land. Witmondt, White mouth. "Witte- 
KOP, White head. Wittenberg, White hill or Jlill of council, 
{v. Whitmore.) 

WOESTYNE, van de (iU.), of the Desert, {v. Wildcodt.) 

WOLF or Wolff, de (SD.), the Wolf 

WOLFFENSPERGEE. (©•)? Dweller in the wolves' mount. 
WoLFKAMSDORF, von, of Wolf and Eaven's village ; the wolf 
and raven being united as attendants of Odin, as they were also 
of Apollo. 

WOLKENSBERG ((3-), Cloud's mount. 

WOLVEGA, van (Ixis.), of Wolf's village. Gea or ga, a village. 

WOODHEAD ((E.)j ^e«<^ of the wood. (v. de Chef du Bois.) 
Woodhouse, House of the wood. Wooding, Wood meadow. 
Woodman, Wood-dweller or dealer. Woodroffe, Woodrow, 
or Woodruff, Wood reeve, {v. Walcot.) 

WORTH (QE.), Field, Farm, Manor, Homestead, Estate. 

WOUDE, van den, and Wout, van 't (2D.), of the Wood. {v. ten 

WTTEWAALL or Wttewael (D.), Out of or From the Waal, or 
district called Waalwijk ? {v. Uitenhagen.) 

WUNDERLICH (©.), Wonderful. 

WYBORNE (Q^.), Wylborne, Well spring or hrooJc. 

WIJCK, van (?D.), of Wijh ; i. e., Quarter or Parish. 

WIJDOOGEN (ID.), Large eyes. {v. le Borgne and Malavista.) 

WYKEHAM [(B-), Marsh hoine? Wic, a marsh. 

WIJMANS (tH.), Hunter's, (v. Jager and Chasseloup.) 

WIJNGAARDEN, van (53.), of Vineyards. Wunperse, Wine- 
press. WiJNSTOXv, Vine. 

WYNNE (III.), White, Fair. (v. Bain, le Cann, and le Gwen.) 

WIJS (SD.), Wise. Wijsman, Wise man. (v. Weissmann.) 



XAINTONGE, tie {£.), of Saintonrje. Xaintkailles, de, of 

Saintrailles. Xancoins, de, of Sancoins. 
XANTEN, van (B.), of Xanten, in Prussia. 
XAVIER {^^.), Brilliant. Doubtless a Moorish relic; for this 

surname is plainly the Arabic word " xaver." 
XHENEMONT, de {£.), of Oak hill. (v. du Quesnoy.) 
XIMENES {Q:^.), of Ximene ; for the name appears to be the 

genitive of the Greek Ximene, a district along the Euxine. 

There are, however, two towns m Spain called Ximena. 
XUAREZ or Suarez (5p.)» -Yitero's or Suero's. (v. Diaz.) 
XYLANDER ((*5.), Woodman. The name of a German scholar, 

originally Holzmann, which he translated into Greek. 


Y, d' (£.), of Y. The family of Y, Seigniors of Scrau court, pro- 
bably derive their name from the lands of Y", near Peronne. 

YAGER (N. I}.) The same as Jager, q. v. 

YALDAVIN ((£.), Happy old age. {v. Unwyn.) 

YANEZ (Sp.)' J^f-an's, or of Juan or John. {v. Diaz.) 

YATES (ۥ), Yetts (S.), Gates, {v. v. d. Poort and Amthor.) 

Y^NGE and Yngham ((£.) The same as Inge and Ingham, q. v. 

YOUNGLOVE ((£.), Toung love. {v. de Jong.) 

Y"SABEAU {£.), Isabeau, now Isabel, a woman's forename. 

IJSSELSTEIN, van (SD.), of IJsselstein or Castle on the IJssel ; 
i. e.. Water of the Salii, a tribe mentioned by Tacitus, {v. van 
der Aa.) 

IJTSMA (iTris.), IJtse's, or of IJtse. (v. Abbema.) 

YVER (i;.), Winter. A Normandy family. 

IJZENDOORN (m.), Iron thorn. 

IJZENDYK, van (W.), of IJzendijke ; i. e., Iron dike. 

IJZER (U).), Iron. IJserman, Iron man. {v. Isebrants.) 



ZAALIGHER (ID.), Blessed, (v. Gnaden and Gedult.) 
ZAIX, de (£.), of the Waters, (v. des Aix and de I'Eau.) 
ZEDDES, de (J.), of Z's or Zeds^ Arms: Or, a Z, gu. 
ZEE, van der (ID.), of the Sea. Zeeman, Seaman, Sailor. 

Zeeuw, de, the Zeelander. 
ZELLWEGER {(3.), Dweller on the Zelle road. {v. Strada.) 
ZEVENBOOM (CD.), Savin-tree. Zevenhuisen, Seven houses. 
ZIEGENFUSS {(3.), Goat's foot. Zierfuss, Pretty foot. 
ZILVER (J^-), Silver, q. v. Silvertsek, Silver-iron f 
ZIMMER ((3-), Chamber, Timher. Zimmermank, Carpenter. 
ZOBEL, von (®.), of Sable. Perhaps from their Arms, — Sable, 
on a bend or, a sable proper; but, according to Professor Pott, 
in Swabia, the word " zobel" implies a, fat, slovenly fellow. 
ZOELEVENSOEN (ID.), Sweet life's son. A surname in 1348. 
ZOETE, de (ID.), the Siveet or Amiable, (v. Swett.) 
ZOLLIKOFER or ZoUickhofer (©.), Lord of Zollicken, a baili- 
wick in Switzerland, (v. Hofer.) 
ZOLLMANN ((S.), Tollman, (v. Brugman.) 
ZONDAG (ID.), Sunday, (v. Maandag and Verdi.) 
ZOON (SD.), SoJi. The name of J. Zoon is in Amsterdam Direc- 
tory for 1851 ; and, in another, is Teunis Zoon. (r. Trautsohn.) 
ZOUCHE (%. 53".), Stump of a tree, and perhaps Stumpy or Short, 
(v. Stumpff and de Lesquiffiou.) The first of the name in 
England was William le Zusche, ob. circa 1200. 
ZOUTMAN (ID.), Saltman. 

ZUBER ((S.), Tub. (v. Honey pot, Olievat, and Zurkanne.) 
ZUCKSCHWERDT ((B.), Draw sword, (v. Skene.) 
ZUIL, van der (ID.), of the Pillar or Column, {v. van Zuylen.) 
ZULAUF (©.), At course or current, {v. Anlauf and Umlautf.) 
ZUMBACH {<3'), At the brooh. Zumberge, At the hill. Zum- 
BOHM, At the tree. Zumbrod, At the ford. Brod is a Polish 
word. Zxju^xJ&Cii, At the bush. 7av:sif%\.\), At the field. ZuM- 


GUUNDE, At the valley. ZujiLon, At the loood. {c. van Loo.) 

Zdmsteg, At the bridge. Zumstein, At the stone or castle. 
ZURKANN ((?5-)) ^^ '^''^ ^"'* or tankard. Zurlaubkn, At the 

arbors or boioers. Zurmuhlen, At the mills. 
ZUURMOND (ID.), Grumbler; lit., Sour mouth, {v. Saucr.) 
ZUYLEN, van (D.), of Columns. Arms : Ar. three columns gu. 
ZWAAN (D.), Swan. Zwanenfeld, Swan's Jield. 
ZWART (D.), Black. Zwartjes, dim. of Zwart. 
ZWEIBRUCKEN, von (©•), of Two bridges. The name of this 

family often appears in French, — " de Deux Ponts." 
ZIJNEN (tD.), ^is ! L. Zijnen and T. D. Vrijdag Zijnen, — i. e., 

L. His and T. D. Friday His, — were formerly living at the 

Hague, {v. Ihm.) 
ZIJP, van (D.), of Zijpe, in North Holland. 

" Tote rien se torne en declin ; 
Tot chiet, tot muei't, tot vait a fin ; 
Horn muert, fer use, fust porrist, 
Tur font, mur chiet, rose flaistrit; 
Cheval tresbuche, drap viesist, 
Tot ovre fet od mainz perist." 

Roman de Rou. 


DAM, van. After of Dam, add " in Friesland, and of Damme in Flanders." 

HELLEGANGER. Diveller in the Helle lane is the meaning of this name, 
which is analogous to the English Streeter. As " hel " in Dutch signifies 
hell, and " ganger" walker, I deemed it to be of the class derived from 
nicknames, and not unlike that of Ganging Ralph, as a Lowland Scot 
•would call Gangerolf, Gaungo Rolf, or Ralph the Walker {v. p. xiv), but, 
upon reflection, am satisfied of my error. Compare Querengasser, Zell- 
weger, Smallegang, and Strada. Helle signified a hollow, loio or deep 
jtlace; and also, in the old Frisian, high and dry. 

MIDDELKOOP is probably derived from the place so called; and, if the 
final syllable does not here signify market, it must be a corruption of 
" hoop," and the name thus be Middle hill. 

PIN-DE-MONTE. Pine of Monte or Mountain is a more correct translation. 

ROTHSCHILD, von. There is a Boston name Crowninshield. Compare 
also Flikkenschild, Ruitensehild, and Puckler. If, however, this name is 
not derived from a Red shield, it must be from the Danish town Rotschild 
or Roskild ; i. e., Roe's well. Kilde, a tvell or spring. One of the fabu- 
lous kings of Denmark, living A.M. 3580, was named Roe, 

l^AH 1 6 ISW