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SURNAMES 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR 

AN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY 
OF MODERN ENGLISH 



THE ROMANCE OF WORDS 

A popular book on the sources of the English 
Vocabulary 

{Third Edition 



THE ROMANCE OF NAMES 

Tells how Surnames came into being, and gives 
explanations of the author's etymological method in 
dealing with them. 

[Second Edition 



SURNAMES 



BY ERNEST WEEKLEY, M.A. 



" Indeed, there is a woundy luck in names, sirs, 
And a main mystery, an a man knew where 
To vind it." 

(BEN JONSON, Tale of a Tub, iv. a.) 






b 9 



LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

1917 






M 



FIRST EDITION . . . September 1916 
SECOND EDITION . . July 1917 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



PREFACE 

THE volume now offered to those who were kind enough 
to be interested in my Romance of Names is a second 
offshoot of the Dictionary of English Surnames on 
which I have been engaged for some years. It differs 
in several ways from the former booklet. The Romance 
of Names was an attempt at a general survey of the 
subject, and, like all such first attempts, it contained 
a good many inaccuracies and dubious statements 1 
of which I have tried to purge later editions. It made 
no special attempt to deal with the curiosities of 
surname etymology, and the temptation to explore 
by-ways was firmly resisted. 

The present volume treats much more completely, 
and hence more ponderously, of certain groups of sur- 
names which I have investigated with some approach 
to thoroughness. It includes a very large proportion 
of names of etymological interest, 8 the majority of 

1 Sometimes due to accepting definite statements of my pre- 
decessors ; e.g. Bardsley says, " It is a well-known fact that Haddock 
is an imitative variant of Haydock." It may be, but John Haddok 
(Fine R., Close R., and City B.) shows that it was also a nickname 
c. 1300. There are so many " well-known facts " that become 
fictions when tested with a little evidence. 

2 Many of these are so odd and fantastic that I may be suspected 
of having invented them, but, with perhaps half a dozen doubtful 

v 



vi PREFACE 

which have not been mentioned by earlier writers, and 
hardly any of which have been hitherto explained. Its 
relation to the Romance of Names is that of a more or 
less erudite treatise to a primer, matter which in the 
former book was dismissed in a paragraph or two being 
here expanded into a chapter. This involves a certain 
amount of repetition which I hope may be forgiven. 

As the theories and etymologies proposed are to a 
great extent novel, I have thought it well to give some 
of the data on which they are based. Consequently 
the book will be found duller than its predecessor, and 
will, I fear, have little attraction for any but the sur- 
name enthusiast. The author's own inclination, suc- 
cessfully fought against, was to give for each name a 
mass of evidence, variants and early examples, which 
most readers would rather be spared. The method 
actually followed has been the rather unsatisfactory 
compromise of giving evidence and foreign parallels 
in a certain number of cases, and the author cannot 
hope that this has been done with much system or 
consistency. After the alternative plans had been 
considered of relegating the medieval examples to 
footnotes or to an appendix, it was finally decided 
to insert them in square brackets after the modern 
names to which they refer, an arrangement which will 
perhaps irritate the rapid reader without satiating the 
student. The chief sources of these early examples are 

cases, every English name printed in italic type and included in the 
index is, or was as late as the nineteenth century, actually existent 
in this country. 






PREFACE vii 

enumerated on pp. xvi-xvii, but many other documents 
have been consulted and are indicated with more or 
less fullness when quoted. 1 To my colleague Mr. E. L. 
Guilford, Lecturer in History at University College, 
Nottingham, I am indebted for many medieval names 
drawn chiefly from unpublished Midland records. It 
will be noticed that a native or foreign parallel has 
often been preferred to direct evidence. This arises 
out of the comparative method which I have 
adopted, the only method which can lead to results 
of any value. 

The index contains some six thousand existing sur- 
names, including a certain proportion of French and 
German names and a sprinkling from other countries. 
In the body of the book appear probably almost an equal 
number of names which are presumably extinct, though, 
as a matter of fact, it is never safe to assume this even 
in the case of the most fantastic name. No student 
of the subject would be seriously startled at finding 
Longshanks and Strongbow dwelling side by side in 

1 To date exactly each example would have involved an amount 
of labour and verification incommensurate with the result. The 
source quoted usually shows the century. The great majority of 
the examples come from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and 
names later than 1338 are as a rule dated. The names are given just 
as they occur, except that baptismal names, when their form is not 
in question, are normalized, while / and v are put for i and u where 
these latter are consonants. I have also occasionally, for the sake 
of clearness, added to final -e the acute accent which was unknown 
to the Middle Ages. The county is sometimes given when the 
habitat of the name is in question, but readers in search of an 
ancestor should notice that in many cases the county is simply that 
in which the bearer of the name happened to be hanged. 



Vlll 



PREFACE 



some remote village, though he would experience some- 
thing of the exultation of a naturalist encountering 
a dodo in Kensington Gardens. 

The author's excuse for publishing this second 
instalment of his harmless researches is that the end 
of his Dictionary, like that of all similar undertakings, 
has a way of receding as it is approached. It seemed 
possible that information representing the leisure 
amusement of several years might be doomed to the 
waste-paper basket by harassed executors, in which 
case some students of the English language might be 
the losers. 1 

The " practical man," when his attention is accident- 
ally directed to the starry sky, appraises that terrific 
spectacle with a non-committal grunt ; but he would 
receive with a positive snort any suggestion that the 
history of European civilization is contained in the 
names of his friends and acquaintances. Still, even 
the practical man, if he were miraculously gifted 
with the power of interpreting surnames, could hardly 
negotiate the length of Oxford Street on a motor-bus 
without occasionally marvelling and frequently chuck- 
ling. As a review of my former book puts it 

"We go about our dignified proceedings, solemnly addressing 
each other by the names of beasts and birds and kitchen implements ; 
we are dressed like savages in fantastic feathers, and the most 
important list of honoured personages contains a set of nicknames 
graceless enough to keep us laughing for a month " (The Times, 
February 22, 1914). 

1 See p. 22. 



PREFACE ix 

I should like to thank by name all the friendly cor- 
respondents who have, often at real cost of time and 
labour, sent me information on the subject of surnames ; 
but the list would fill several pages. So I must limit 
myself to saying in the words of Captain Grose that 
" Several gentlemen (and ladies), too respectable to be 
named on so trifling an occasion, have also contributed 
their assistance." 

ERNEST WEEKLEY. 



UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, NOTTINGHAM, 
April, 1916. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

THIS edition differs from the first in a few small details 
only. A number of misprints have been corrected, 
and some statements as to the origin or survival of 
unusual surnames have been modified. The index 
has also been overhauled and a few omissions repaired. 
For most of the corrections I am indebted to the 
vigilance and knowledge of friendly correspondents. 

E. W. 

February 1917. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

BIBLIOGRAPHY ...... XV 

ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED . . , . 



CHAPTER I 

% 

THE STUDY OF SURNAMES .... I 

CHAPTER II 

THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM .... 26 

CHAPTER III 

SOME LOCAL SURNAMES ..... 47 

CHAPTER IV 

THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES . . 86 

CHAPTER V 

SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES . . . .102 

i 



xii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER VI 

PAGE 

PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 124 

CHAPTER VII 

COSTUME NICKNAMES 145 

CHAPTER VIII 

MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES . . . 164 

CHAPTER IX 

VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 184 

/ 

CHAPTER X 

PAGEANT NAMES 198 

CHAPTER XI 

SOME COMPOUND NAMES . . . . 225 

CHAPTER XII 

THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME . . 252 



CONTENTS xiii 
CHAPTER XIII 

PACK 

FRENCH SURNAMES . 278 

CHAPTER XIV 

GERMAN SURNAMES . . 2Q2 

CHAPTER XV 

DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES . . . 306 

INDEX . ... 331 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



A. BOOKS ON NAMES 

Camden, Remains concerning Britain (London, 1605). 

Lower, Patronymica Britannica (London, 1860). 

Lower, English Surnames 4 (London, 1875). 

Guppy, Homes of Family Names in Great Britain (London, 

1890). 

Bardsley, English Surnames 7 (London, 1901). 
Bardsley, Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames (Oxford, 

1901). 
Bjorkman, Nordische Personennamen in England (Halle a. S., 

1910). 

Macbain, Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, 2 

PP- 396-412 (Stirling, 1911). 

Matheson, Report on Surnames in Ireland (Dublin, 1909). 
Jenner, Handbook of the Cornish Language, pp. 192-202 

(London, 1904). 
Moore, Names, Place-names and Surnames of the Isle of Man 

(London, 1890). 

Ritter, Les Noms de Famille (Paris, 1875). 

Langlois, Table des Noms propres compris dans les Chansons 

de Geste (Paris, 1904). 

Chastelain, Vocabulaire Hagiologique (Paris, 1694). 
Schatzer, Herkunft und Gestaltung der franzosischen Heiligen- 

namen (Miinster i. W., 1905). 



XVI 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Pachnio,* Die Beinamen der Pariser Steuerrolle von 1292 

(Konigsberg i. Pr., 1909). 
Kremers, Beitrage zur Erforschung der franzosischen Fami- 

liennamen (Bonn, 1910). 

Heintze, Die deutschen Familiennamen 3 (Halle a. S., 1908). 

Salverte, Essai historique et philosophique sur les Noms de 

Peuples et de Lieux (Paris, 1824). 
Yonge, History of Christian Names 2 (London, 1884). 



B. SOURCES FOR MEDIEVAL NAMES 

Searle, Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum (Cam- 
bridge, 1897) .... Searle 

1086. Domesday Book .... DB. 

1158-1192. Pipe Rolls (Pipe Roll Soc., 34 vols.) Pipe R. 

1189-132 7. Abbreviatio Placitorum, 

Richard I. Edward II. . Pleas 

1195-1214. Fines, sive Pedes Finium, sive 
Finales Concordiae in Curia 
Domini Regis . . . Feet of Fines 

1199-1216. Rotuli de Liberate ac de Misis et 

Praestitis, regnante Johanne Lib. R. 

1199-1326. Charter Rolls . . . Chart. R. 

1199-1332. Fine Rolls .... Fine R. 

1200-1400. Documents illustrative of Eng- 
lish History in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, 
from the Records of the 
Queen's Remembrancer in 
the Exchequer . . Doc. III. 

1202-1338. Patent Rolls .... Pat. R. 

1205-1337. Close Rolls .... Close R. 

* Pachnio's dissertation, giving a great number of thirteenth- 
century French nicknames, is extremely valuable for comparative 
purposes, and is freely quoted, especially in chapters vi. to viii. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



xvu 



1216-1307. Calendarium Genealogicum, for 
the reigns of Henry III. and 
Edward I. . . . Cal. Gen. 

1216-1307. Testa de Neville sive Liber Feo- 
dorum, temp. Henry III. 
Edward I. . . . Testa de Nev. 

1216-1377. Rotulorum Originalium in Curia 
Scaccarii Abbreviatio, 
Henry III. Edward III. . Exch. R. 

1216-1336. Inquisitiones post Mortem sive 

Escaetae .... IpM. 

1272-1338. Register of the Freemen of York, 

Vol. I.(SurteesSoc., 1897) . F. of Y. 

1273. Hundred Rolls . . . Hund. R. 

1275-1377. The Letter-Books (A. to F.) of 

the City of London . City A., B., etc. 

1277-1326. Calendar of various Chancery 
Rolls : Supplementary Close 
Rolls, Welsh Rolls, Scutage 
Rolls .... Chanc. R. 

1 2 84-1 431. Inquisitions and Assessments re- 
lating to Feudal Aids . Feud. Aids 

Ancient Kalendars and Inventories of the 

Treasury of His Majesty's Exchequer . Exch. Cal. 

Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis (Surtees 

Soc., 1841) Lib. Vit. 

In addition to the above a great number of county Assize 
Rolls, manor Court Rolls, abbey Cartularies, etc., have been 
consulted, the titles of which are given more fully. 



C. SOURCES FOR MODERN SURNAMES 



Return of Owners of Land in England and 
Wales, 1873, generally called the Modern 
Domesday Book .... 

Dictionary of National Biography . 
2 



MDB. 
DNB. 



xviii BIBLIOGRAPHY 

London Directory, 1842. 
Various Provincial Directories. 
Navy List, September 1914. 
Army List, January 1915. 
The London Gazette. 
The Daily Paper. 
The Casualty Lists. 

Paris Directory, 1907 . . . Bottin. 

Rangliste der Kaiserlich Deutschen Marine, 



D. DICTIONARIES QUOTED 

The New English Dictionary . . NED. 

The English Dialect Dictionary . . EDD. 

Wright-Wulcker, Anglo-Saxon and Old 

English Vocabularies 2 (London, 1884) . Voc. 

Promptorium Parvulorum (1440), ed. May- 
hew (EETS.) Prompt. Parv. 

Catholicon Anglicum (1483), ed. Herrtage 

(EETS.) Cath.Angl. 

Levins, Manipulus Vocabulorum (1570), ed. 

Wheatley (EETS.) .... Manip. Voc. 

Skene, De Verborum Signification (Edin- 
burgh, 1599). 

Cowel, The Interpreter or Booke containing 
the Signification of Words (London, 
1607). 

The same, enlarged (London, 1708). 

Blount, Law Dictionary (London, 1691). 

White Kennett, Glossary (London, 1816). 

Nares, Glossary, ed. Halliwell and Wright 
(London, 1872). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY xix 

Halliwell, Dictionary of Archaic and Pro- 
vincial Words 10 (London, 1887) . . Hall. 

Skeat and Mayhew, Glossary of Tudor 
and Stuart Words (Oxford, 1914). 

Palsgrave, Lesclarcissement de la Langue 

fransoyse (1536) . . . . Palsg. 
Cotgrave, French- English Dictionary (1611) Cotg. 



E. SOURCES OF QUOTATIONS 

Chaucer, ed. Pollard (Globe Edition) . . Chauc. 
Piers Plowman, ed. Skeat . . . Piers Plowm. 

The Wycliffite Translation of the Bible . Wye. 
Skelton, ed. Dyce. 
Cocke Lorelles Bote, sixteenth century 

(reprint, Aberdeen, 1848). 
Stow, Survey of London (1603). 



< ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED 



AF. . 

AS. . 
Ass. . 
Bottin 
Cal. Gen. 

Cart. . 

Cath. Angl. . 

Chanc. R. 

Chart. R. . 

Chauc. 

City A., B., etc. 

Close R. 
Cotg. . 
DB. . 
dial. . 
dim. . 
DNB. . 
Doc. III. 



Du. . 
EDD. . 
Exch. Cal. . 

Exch. R. 



Anglo-French 

Anglo-Saxon 

Assize 

Paris Directory, 1907 

Calendarium Genealogicum (1216- 

1307) 

Cartulary or Chartulary 
Catholicon Anglicum 
Chancery Rolls (1277-1326) 
Charter Rolls (1199 . . .) 
Chaucer 
City of London Letter- books (1275 



Close Rolls (1205 . . .) 
Cotgrave's French Dictionary (1611) 
Domesday Book (1086) 
dialect 
diminutive 

Dictionary of National Biography 
Documents Illustrative of English 

History (thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries) 
Dutch 

English Dialect Dictionary 
Ancient Kalendars and Inventories 

of the Exchequer. 
Rotulorum Originalium in Curia 

Scaccarii Abbreviatio (Henry III. 

Edward III.) 
films or nlia 

xxi 



XX11 



ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED 



Feet of Fines 
Feud. Aids . 

Fine R. 

F. of y. . 

Fr. . 
Ger. . 
Goth. . 
Hall. . 
Hund. R. . 
Inq. . 
IpM. . 

Let. . 
LG. . 
Lib. R. 

Lib. Vit. . 
Manip. Voc. 
MDB. 
ME. . 
OF. . 
OG. . 
ON. . 
Palsg. 

Pat. R. 
Piers Plowm. 
Pipe R. 
Pleas . 

Prompt. Parv. 
Reg. . 
Sc. . 
Testa de Nev. 
Voc. . 
Wye. . 



Fines, sive Pedes Finium (1195-1214) 

Inquisitions and Assessments relat- 
ing to Feudal Aids (1284 . . .) 

Fine Rolls (1199 . . .) 

Register of the Freemen of York 
(1272 . . .) 

French 

German 

Gothic 

Halliwell. 

Hundred Rolls (1273) 

Inquests 

Inquisitiones post Mortem (1216 
. . .) 

Letters 

Low German 

Rotuli de Liberate ac de Misis et 
Praestitis (1199 . . .) 

Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis 

Manipulus Vocabulorum 

Modern Domesday Book (1873) 

Middle English 

Old French 

Old German 

Old Norse 

Palsgrave, Lesclarcissement de la 
Langue franfoyse (1536) 

Patent Rolls (1202 . . .) 

Piers Plowman 

Pipe Rolls (1158 . . .) 

Abbreviatio Placitorum, Richard I. 
Edward II. 

Promptorium Parvulorum 

Register 

Scottish 

Testa de Neville 

Wright-Wulcker, Vocabularies 

Wyclimte Translation of the Bible 



SURNAMES 

CHAPTER I 

THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

" Nomen quum dicimus, cognomen quoque et agnomen intelli-, 
gatur oportet " (CICERO). 

THE study of surnames in England is chiefly asso- 
ciated with the names of Camden, Lower, Ferguson, 
and Bardsley, though many other writers have dealt 
with the subject, or with special aspects of it, both 
in books and magazine articles. Of these Camden, 
the first in date (Remains concerning Britain, 1605), is 
still in many ways the best. His brief essay, weak as it 
necessarily is from the philological point of view, gives 
by far the clearest and most sensible introduction to 
the subject that has yet been penned. 

The first attempt at anything like a comprehensive . 
Dictionary of Surnames is Lower's Patronymica 
Britannica (Lond. 1860), which contains some 12,000 
names. He had previously published English Sur- t 
names (Lond. 1842, 4th ed., enlarged, 1875). Lower 
seems to have been a genial antiquary, with a good 
deal of miscellaneous information, but no serious know- 
ledge of European languages. On the surnames of his 



2 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

native county, Sussex, he has often good first-hand 
information, but outside that he is quite untrust- 
worthy. He knew, however, something about the 
general history of surnames and had read all that had 
already been written in English on the subject. 
Some of his suggested etymologies are rather funny, 
and in many cases he does not seem to have taken 
the trouble even to open the Gazetteer. A couple 
of examples will suffice 

" Bicker staff. The O. Eng. bicker means to skirmish or contend, 
and a ' bicker-staff,' therefore, probably signifies a weapon analo- 
gous to a quarter-staff, or single-stick. The name belongs to the 
same class as Longsword, Broadspear, etc." 

" Rigmaiden. Two gentry families, settled respectively in 
Counties Lincoln and Lancaster, bore this remarkable name, which 
at the commencement of the present century was still extant. I 
can give no better etymology for the name than I have already 
assigned in Eng. Sum. ; viz., ' a romping girl.' " 

Now Bickerstaff, formerly Bickerstath (whence Bicker- 
steth), is a Lancashire parish near Ormskirk, Rigmaden 
is a seat in Westmorland, and the local surnames de 
Biker staf and de Riggemaden can be easily attested 
from the medieval records of the north. I have noticed 
fifteen variants of Bickerstaff in the Lancashire Assize 
Rolls (1176-1285) and Rigmaiden is also found in 
several forms. Similarly, Lower explains Fifehead 
as from a promontory in Scotland, whereas Fifehead, 
formerly Five-hide, is a place in Dorset, in which 
county Fifehead, Fifett is a common surname. But 
there is a good deal of useful antiquarian, as distin- 
guished from etymological, information to be gleaned 
from Lower, and his rather ponderous good-humour 
does not excite the irritation which is evoked by the 
confident imbecility of some of his successors. 



EARLY THEORISTS 3 

Lower was followed by Ferguson, author of English 
Surnames and their Place in the Teutonic Family, 
The Teutonic Name System, and Surnames as a Science. 
He was by trade a cotton-spinner, by inclination an 
amateur philologist, and eventually a Member of 
Parliament. Like most people who dabble in the 
study of German, he was struck by its similarity to 
English, and jumped to the conclusion that our 
surname system, like our language, was chiefly of 
Teutonic origin. 1 In other words, he became the 
victim of a fixed idea, a more deadly enemy in philo- 
logical matters than ignorance itself. The consequence 
is that his Surnames as a Science 2 bears some resem- 
blance to an elaborate lark, which begins by amusing, 
but soon palls. It is, of course, true that thousands 
of our surnames can be traced to personal names 
which were in use in Anglo-Saxon times, but, to 
establish such connection, it is just as well to supply 
a little in the way of evidence. For Ferguson it is 
quite sufficient to find a somewhat similar Anglo- 
Saxon name in Kemble 3 or Thorpe, 4 or, failing these 
sources, an Old German name in Forstemann, 6 or, 
failing Forstemann, in his own imagination, to ex- 
plain Tom, Dick, and Harry as coming straight from 
the Twilight of the Gods into the London Commercial 
Directory. So Thompson, whom the ignorant might 
connect with Thomas, is really the son of doom \ 
That a surname is obviously taken from a trade does 

1 Which it is, of course, though not as Ferguson understood it. 

2 Second edition, revised, London, 1884. 

3 Codex diplomaticus JEvi Saxonici, London, 1845-8. 

4 Diplomatorium Angliciim JEvi Saxonici, London, 1815. 

6 Altdeutsches Namenbuck : part i, Personnel amen, Nordhausen, 
1856. 



4 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

not disturb him. Archer, Iremonger, and Prentice, 
which are recorded by hundreds as " le archere," " le 
iremonger," " le prentice/' are " Old Prankish " 
names, " and the resemblance to anything English is 
only an accident." Archer, we learn, is from OG. 
Erchear, Iremonger is related to Arminius the Cherus- 
kerfiirst, and Prentice comes from "an" AS. Premtsa. 
An unrecorded Old German name is just as useful 
for his purpose as one copiously attested. It is only 
a case of " not yet turned up," a phrase that recurs 
constantly in his book. Occasionally the intrusive 
place-name annoys him, but only for a moment. 

1 Prendergast is derived from an imaginary Pendgast, 
" an ancient compound, from the stem bend, with gast, 
hospes." A footnote admits that it may perhaps, 
however, be from a Welsh place-name (as of course it 
is), but it " illustrates the principle just the same." 

A contemporary, and to some extent a disciple, of 
Ferguson, Dr. Charnock, published in 1868 a small 
lexicon of unusual surnames under the title Ludus 

v . Patronymicus , or the Etymology of Curious Names. 
On Shakespeare he gives us the following remarks 

" I have elsewhere (see Notes and Queries, vols. ix. and x.), 
stated that Shakespeare might be a corruption of Sigisbert, which 
would translate ' renowned for victory ' (sige, victory) ; in answer 
to which Mr. Ferguson seemed to think that the name might be 
from Sicisper, Sigisper, or Sigiper, which he would translate ' vic- 
torious bear ' (perhaps rather ' victorious man '). My suggestion 
would seem probable from the fact that the name Shakeshaft might 
be from Sigishaft, Sighaft, used by the Franks for ' victorious,' 
or from Sigishaved, ' head of victory,' ' victorious leader.' I 
am, however, disposed to think that the latter name is merely a 
corruption of Shakestaff ; and, as I have shown elsewhere, most 
names compounded of staff are derived from AS. sted, a place. On 
further consideration I am inclined to doubt my former derivation 



CRAZY ETYMOLOGY 5 

of the name Shakespeare, although it would easily corrupt from 
Sigisbert, by contraction of the first vocable, and by dropping of 
the final t. I agree with another correspondent of Notes and 
Queries in tracing the name to Jacques Pierre. . . . The nearest 
names to Jacques Pierre that I have been able to find are James 
Peters, Jacques Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, and Petrus 
Jacobus." 

Perhaps, after all, it is only the gentleman's fun. 

Theories every whit as crazy are constantly put for- 
ward by amateur philologists. A few years ago I 
read in Notes and Queries that Jennins is of Norse 
origin and means the " iron man/' and that this family 
gave its name to Jenningham, now corrupted into 
Birmingham ! This statement easily beats the famous 
definition of the crab both in quality and on points. 
More recently, in the same publication, the suggestion 
was made that the puzzling name Shillito or Silito was 
from the medieval " de Sigillo." Even if this were 
phonetically possible, the theorist should have sup- 
ported his case with modern names corrupted from 
Molendinarius, Albo Monasterio, Veteri Ponte, or 
Sexdecim Vallibus. 

In fact, the study of English surnames, being a 
region of knowledge which has never been scientifically 
explored, is a regular happy hunting-ground for the 
unauthorized amateur. Even men of learning, who 
should know how dangerous it is to stray from their 
own sphere of knowledge, occasionally trespass dis- 
astrously. I have recently read a most interesting 
and informative article on the " Place of the Wood- 
pecker in Religion," the author of which points out 
quite rightly that many of our surnames go back to 
instincts surviving from this prehistoric cult. But 
when he proceeds to tell us that the name Peckover 



6 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

is the OF. pic vert, green woodpecker, we are re- 
minded of those guileless etymologists who derive the 
Oxfordshire Shotover from chateau vert, while the 
suggestion that Woodhatch (Surrey) takes its name 
from the woodhack, or woodpecker, makes us wonder 
whether there is some similar explanation for Colney 
Hatch. 

The documentary study of English surnames began 
with Bardsley, who shifted the field of investiga- 
tion from the migration of the Aryans to the Middle 
Ages. He realized that practically all our sur- 
names came into existence between the Norman Con- 
quest and the end of the fourteenth century. His 
English Surnames 1 contains a wealth of material 
drawn from various medieval sources, and his Die-. 
tionary of English and Welsh Surnames, published 
(Oxford, 1901) from his notes after his death, contains 
a valuable, though often wrongly grouped and wrongly 
interpreted, collection of authentic instances. Among 
all who have written on the subject, he appears to be 
the only one who knows that there are such things as 
chronology and evidence, and, where he goes wrong, 
it is simply from ignorance of medieval languages. 
I have given a few examples in the preface to my 
Romance of Names. Similar blunders are to be found 
on almost every page of his Dictionary, but it would 
be ungracious to insist on them. Personally I have 
derived the greatest help from his work, and, though 
I have never, when possible, used one of his instances 
without verifying it, I have often been guided to the 
origin of a name by his copious provision of early 
examples. His Dictionary is especially valuable for 

1 Seventh edition, London, 1901. 



VARIOUS SOURCES 7 

the later history of names, because of the careful 
study of church registers by which he is often able 
to show the identity of surnames which have become 
widely divergent. This part of the subject can only 
be nibbled at by one individual, and a real Diction- 
ary of Surnames cannot come into existence until 
every county has been thoroughly documented by 
competent investigators. 

The study of surnames is, for historical reasons, 
more complicated in England than in any other Euro- 
pean country. In all European nations there is a 
strong foreign element, especially in frontier regions, 
but our Directory is perhaps the greatest hodge- 
podge of all. Taking the various elements in chro- 
nological order, we have first the " Celtic fringe," 
names from which (Gaelic, Welsh, Irish, Manx, Cor-^ 
nish) are now to be found in every corner of Eng- 
land. In fact, it is quite possible that the real old 
Welsh names (Cradock, Ennion, Traherne, etc.), now 
replaced largely by the unimaginative Jones, 1 Hughes, 
etc., are more numerous in England than in their 
native country. Then come the race whom we call 
traditionally the Anglo-Saxons, and from whom those 
few of us whose ancestors neither came over with 
the Conqueror nor escaped miraculously from the 
Massacre of St. Bartholomew are mostly descended. 
In the East and North, in Scotland, and sporadically 

1 The MDB. contains the names of 196 landholders in the Isle 
of Anglesey whose name begins with /, and every single one of 
them is Jones. The same phenomenon is observed in other coun- 
tries in which the adoption of fixed surnames is comparatively 
recent. Thus in Sweden about one-half of the population is ac- 
counted for by some fifteen patronymics of the type Olsen (Olaf), 
Jakobsen, Petersen, etc. 



8 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

all round the outer edge of the islands, names of 
Norse 1 origin are abundant ; and these, from the 
strictly philological point of view, should be divided 
into East Scandinavian and West Scandinavian. 
With 1066 we have the Norman irruption, and, 
through the centuries, a constant percolation from 
various French provinces, 2 culminating in the great 
Huguenot invasion of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. On the East coast Dutch and Danish names 
are not uncommon ; while London, as the commercial 
focus of the world, has for centuries attracted immi- 
grants from various European countries, many of 
whom have been fruitful and have multiplied. In 
quite recent times there has been a steady peaceful 
penetration from Germany, and London and our 
manufacturing towns are largely colonized by this 
energetic race, no doubt destined to be the ruling 
class of the future. 8 

But, difficult as is the task of classifying and deriv- 
ing English surnames, it is nothing compared with 
that offered by American surnames. In the States 
the wear and tear of names, which in England extends 
over ten centuries, has been concentrated into one, 
and instead of half a dozen elements we have sources 
innumerable. In the early days of the Republic the 
problem was simpler, for the sparse population was 
drawn from practically four sources, British, Dutch, 
French, and German. In the earliest census taken, it 

1 I have described all names found before the Conquest as Anglo- 
Saxon, but many of them are really Norse. Those interested 
should study Bjorkman. 

2 French names are particularly common in Devon, a result no 
doubt of intercourse with the Channel Islands. 

3 This was written before the War. 



SURNAME GROUPS 9 

is interesting to notice the distribution of these names. 1 
We find, as we should expect, the French in the south, 
the Dutch in and around New York, and the Germans 
in Pennsylvania. But, since the time of the first 
census (1790), immigrants have crowded in from most 
countries, civilized and uncivilized, and their changed, 
distorted, or adapted names form a pathless etymo- 
logical morass. Even in 1790 one is struck by the 
prevalence of crude and grotesque nicknames, often 
obvious perversions of foreign names, but frequently, 
no doubt, deliberately assumed by, or conferred on, 
men who had cut even the surnominal tie with Europe. 
In one respect only are our English surnames easier 
to trace than those of continental countries. The 
possible variants and derivatives of any given personal 
name run theoretically into thousands, and in France 
and Germany, to take the two most important 
countries of which the surname system is related to 
our own, there has been no check on this process of 
differentiation. By contraction, aphesis, apocope, dia- 
lect variation, and many other phonetic factors, one 
favourite name often develops hundreds of forms, many 
of which appear to have nothing in common with the 
original. Thus Ger. Nolle can be traced step by step 
to OG. Arinwald, eagle mighty. The Old German 
names passed into France, underwent a new phonetic 
development, and were again varied ad infinilum. 
Thus Naudol is also from OG. Arinwald, which became 
Fr. Arnaud, whence, by aphesis, Naud, and, with the 
dim. suffix, Naudot. This dim. suffix again, which 

1 A Century of Population Growth in the United States (1790- 
1900), Washington, 1909. A copy of this elaborate and valuable 
work was most kindly sent to me by G. F. Parker, Esq., of New 
York, formerly U.S. Consul in Birmingham. 



io THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

many other names share with Naudot, became, by 
a second aphesis, Dot, and then, with a new dim. 
suffix, Dottin. Many such series could be quoted 
among modern French surnames, e.g. Hanotaux, for 
Hanotot, from Hanoi, from Han, from Jehan, i.e. John ; 
or Denis, Denisard, Nisard, Sard, Sardou. 

Now in England the parallel process was suddenly 
interrupted by the Norman Conquest. The Anglo- 
Saxon names which persisted remained in a state of 
arrested development and seldom produced familiar 
derivatives. Those which seem to form exceptions 
do so because the corresponding name existed in Old 
French and thus preserved a vitality which the Anglo- 
Saxon form had lost. Thus Rawle, Rawlins, Rawkins, 
etc., belong t6 Fr. Raoul, from OG. Radwulf, counsel 
wolf, and our Tibbs, Tibbets, Tibbies, etc., derive from 
the Fr. Thibaut, OG. Theodobald, people strong, rather 
than from the cognate AS. Theodbeald, a rather rare 
name. From the Conquest the favourite names were 
French names of Germanic origin, e.g. William, Robert, 
Richard, or Biblical names, e.g. John, Thomas, Peter, 
of Greco-Latin or Eastern origin, and generally in- 
troduced in a French form. Nomenclature thus made 
a fresh start, and this start falls within historic and 
well-documented times. Practically all our surname 
groups of baptismal origin date from after the Con- 
quest and have no direct or conscious connection with 
their Anglo-Saxon or Celtic cognates. Taking at 
hazard, from vol. ii. of the Hundred Rolls, a list of 
people from various counties described as sons of 
Adam, we find that the font-names represented are 
Clement, Eustace, Geoffrey, Gregory, Henry, Hugh, 
Humphrey, John, Nicholas, Peter, Philip, Ralph, 



CLASSES OF SURNAMES n 

Richard, Robert, Roger, Simon, Thomas, William, not 
one of which was in real English use before the Battle 
of Hastings. 

But a close study of the cartularies of ancient 
manors and abbeys reveals the survival of thousands 
of Anglo-Saxon names among the peasantry, and 
most of them still exist. They do not, however, form 
groups of derivatives. Even when Anglo-Saxon names 
survived as such, they were often affected in sound by 
the Norman pronunciation, for it must be remembered 
that, during the period of formation of our surnames, 
French was the official language and a considerable 
proportion of the population was bilingual. For in- 
stance, Alphege is the Norman form of Elpkick, AS. 
^Elfheah, and the v of Elvin (Qfwine), Colvin (Ceol- S 
wine), is due to the same influence. Wace makes 
Edward into Ewart, a name which has other origins, 
and Leofwin into Lewin 

" Lewine e Guert furent od lui " (Roman de Ron, 7857). 

The font-name is, strictly speaking, the only true 
name, the other classes of surnames, patronymic, 
occupative, or nickname, being descriptions, while the 
local surname is an address. Of all surnames those 
of local origin are of least interest, difficult though it 
often is to recognize the village or homestead in its 
archaic, distorted, or popular form (see chap. iv.). 
Probably at least half of our surnames are of the 
dull, unimaginative local kind, 1 but their etymological 

1 It is rather curious that a few names of this type should have 
acquired an aristocratic flavour. Cholmondeleyis simply the " lea " 
of Ceolmund, who is now usually Coleman, and Ponsonby is the 
" by," or homestead, of Punshon. The exclusive Carlton represents 
the most commonplace of our village names, Ceorl's, or the churl's, 
"tun," or homestead. 

3 



12 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

explanation belongs to the student of place-names. 
As there is hardly a spot in England which has not 
given its name to a family, it follows that a complete 
etymological dictionary of English surnames would 
have to include a complete etymological dictionary of 
place-names, i.e. that one impossibility can only be 
achieved by the preliminary accomplishment of an- 
other. The study of these names would have to be 
carried on by counties or regions. If a circle, with 
say a ten-mile radius, were drawn on an ordnance map 
round a city such as Nottingham, it would be found 
that all the village-names in that circle existed in the 
town or county as medieval surnames. With the en- 
largement of the circle, these names would thin out 
in number and become more corrupted in form, until, 
except for their accidental appearance here and there 
in modern England, they would fade away like the 
last ripple produced by a stone in the water. A 
profound historical knowledge of the earlier forms 
and of the local pronunciation would of course be 
essential for the study of these names. 

In investigating the origins of names we can work 
either backwards or forwards. The field is immense 
and the materials are available in overwhelming mass. 
Lower seems to have used as general sources only 
Domesday Book and the Hundred Rolls, the latter a 
kind of later Domesday Book compiled in 1273. These 
are perhaps the two most valuable documents we have, 
because they give not only the name but the locality 
in which it occurs. But there are many other sources 
of hardly less value. For pre-Conquest names we 
have Searle's Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum, a com- 
plete list of names extracted from all manner of 



SOURCES 13 

sources, including the earlier compilations of Birch, 
Thorpe, Kemble, etc. After Domesday Book (1086) the 
most important sources are, for the twelfth century, 
the Pipe Rolls, beginning in 1158, and, for the thir- 
teenth century, the four great series of the Charter 
Rolls and Fine Rolls, from 1199, the Patent Rolls, from 
1202, and the Close Rolls, from 1205. The earlier parts 
of these were printed in extenso early in the nineteenth 
century, and they are now continued in the form of 
Calendars, i.e. abstracts. Then we have the In- 
qitisitiones post Mortem, from 1216, a number of minor 
rolls and documents dealing with special regions, and 
the numerous local records published by various 
antiquarian societies, such as the Camden, Chetham, 
Surtees, and Lancashire and Cheshire Record Societies. 
These latter sources are especially rich for the north 
of England, but most counties have now their anti- 
quarian societies, from the Transactions of which any 
amount of information can be acquired. An ordinary 
lifetime would not suffice for the investigation of a 
fraction of the superabundant material, and the con- 
tribution of any individual to the subject must 
necessarily be but a drop in the ocean. 

The Rolls are nearly always written in medieval 
Latin, but the names which occur in them are put 
promiscuously in latinized form, e.g. Johannes Arcu- 
balistarius, English, John the Arblaster, or Anglo 
French, Jehan le Arbalestier. There is nothing 
like uniformity of spelling. Even a monosyllable like 
Bruce has dozens of forms, and in one north-country 
document I have noted fifteen spellings of so simple 
a name as Bradshaw. This applies, of course, equally 
to the spelling of other words, but while this has now 



14 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

been normalized by a kind of collective effort and the 
authority of the printer, the differentiation in the 
spelling l of names has gone on unchecked. 

From about the middle of the fourteenth century 
the records become of less etymological value, because 
the significant prefixes, le and de, del, atte, etc., tend 
to disappear. But even in the earliest Rolls caution 
is necessary. Many accidents and misunderstandings 
may have occurred between the verbal communica- 
tion made by the medieval peasant to the government 
official, who often had difficulty in understanding him, 
and the printed copy or abstract which we now pos- 
sess. It is never safe to draw inferences from isolated 
entries, which may be original mistakes, errors in 
transcription, misreadings of medieval contractions, 
or modern misprints. Le is constantly confused with 
de, especially in the Hundred Rolls, and in the earlier 
issues of the other series, and de is also often found 
prefixed to obvious nicknames and personal names 
which can be certified from much earlier records. 2 The 
entries are to a great extent artificial. The common 
patronymics in -s and -son rarely occur, and the font- 
names are given in full instead of in the abridged 
form actually in use. We find Egidius f. Waltarii for 
Giles Watson, and Reginaldus, Dionysius, Petronilla, 
and Theophania for people who were certainly known 
to their neighbours as Reynold, Dennis, Parnell, and 
Tiff en. 

1 It is considered a terrible solecism to write of the poet Spencer 
or of " rare Ben Johnson," but in Westminster Abbey these two 
spellings may be seen over adjacent tombs. 

2 Some of our county histories are not blameless in this matter, 
and sprinkle de's in ludicrous fashion among the ancestors of the 
local gentry. 



ARTIFICIAL ENTRIES 15 

It may be noted here that the nomenclature of 
the Middle Ages is much more ornate than the super- 
ficial study of history would suggest. Female names 
especially have much of the penny novelette about 
them. I have come across Amanda, Bonajoia, Dulci- 
bella, Glorietta, Licoricia, Orgoylosa, Orielda, and 
many others. These gorgeous names seem to have 
been especially common among the Jews, e.g. the 
four Jewesses mentioned in vol. xxxiii. of the Pipe 
Rolls are Belleases, Duzelina, Pulcella, and Regina. 
In a great many cases it is impossible to say whether 
a modern name is a patronymic or a metronymic, for 
most of the male medieval font-names had a feminine 
form also, e.g. Almarica, Alwina, dementia, Eustachia, 
Huelina, Theobalda, etc., and, as in modern times, 
we sometimes find a female font-name manufactured 
from that of the father or ancestor, e.g. Lescelina, 
daughter of Matthew f. Leising (Lane. Inq. 1205- 
1307), the latter gentleman's "by," or farmstead, 
having been the home of the Lazenby family. 

Occupative names given in Latin or French form 
have sometimes persisted (Faber, Bullinger}, but we 
may be sure that Ricardus Molinarius or Richard le 
Mouner was generally in private life Dick Miller. 
There are few commoner entries than Cocus and le 
Keu, both now represented by Cook, 1 The same is 
true of nicknames. Many a modern Whitehead descends 
from a Blanchef or Blaunkfrunt of the Rolls, and the 
Caprons of to-day are far less numerous than those 
of the Middle Ages, most of whom were simply Hoods. 
The form which any name takes in the Rolls is due 

1 Kew still exists, but is not common, and often comes from 
Kew in Surrey. 



16 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

largely to the personality of the recorder, often doing 
his best with a population whose dialect was to him 
a meaningless jargon. Ralph Omnibon (Fine R.) 
looks like the official interpretation of Allgood, AS. 
^Elfgod, and le Petit Chose has a thirteenth-century 
prototype in Stephen Aliquid whom we find in Cam- 
bridgeshire in 1273 (Hund. R.), apparently an un- 
couth fenman whose name the official compiler gave 
up as a bad job. 

The accidental character of modern^iames is illus- 
trated by the fact that the same man is often found 
with more than one description. With Publius 
Cornelius Scipio Africanus we may compare the 
humbler Adam Kokke in le Grene Pulter (F. of Y.), 
whose descendants may, along with other possibilities, 
now be Adams, Cox, Green, or Poulter, and Ricardus 
le Nouthird de Stanley Porter (ib.), who may now be 
represented by Richards, Nothard, Stanley, and Porter. 
So with Ralph Thomasman Fairfax (Pat. R.), Edmund 
Johanser jaunt Emmesone (ib.), Walter le Hore de 
Elmham called Starling (City D.), William Jones- 
someter Burdelays (Pat. R.), Nicholas Rogersser jaunt 
le Norreys (Cor am Rege R. 1297), Everard Williamsman 
Attemersche (ib.), Richard Williamsser jaunt Pykerell 
(ib.), William Rogereswarener of Beauchamp of Son- 
day (Pat. R.). John le Cappeler, called " le prest " 
(City B.), appears in the same volume as John Prest, 
cappeler (hatter). This brings us to the fact, which 
may comfort some people, that trade-names were very 
often nicknames, e.g. Stephen le Espicer, called le 
Horn ere (City E.), William Priour, cossun, i.e. horse- 
dealer (ib.), John le Naper, King's huntsman (Chart. R. 
1259), Elias Webster dictus Harpur (F. of Y.), Walter 



MODERN SURNAMES 17 

le Taillour, vicar of Crediton (Cham. R.). It is pretty 
obvious that a man could not be Prentice by trade, 
nor could the Mawer or Plowman make much of a 
living by " mowing " or " ploughing " alone. Many 
names of this latter type date back to the manorial 
system, under which tenants had to put in a certain 
amount of time in mowing, ploughing, hedging, etc., 
for their masters. 

Just as a well-established medieval name must 
have modern representatives, a well-established modern 
name must occur under some form in medieval records. 
By a well-established modern name, I do not mean 
one which is chiefly attested by the contemporary 
London Directory, or even in our great manufacturing 
centres, for these may be of Huguenot or later foreign 
origin, but one that has a regional existence dating 
back for a few centuries. This brings us to the ques- 
tion of modern sources. For a general dissertation 
on surnames the London Directory" 1 is sufficient. For 
the historical investigation of the subject it is useless. 
The method must be regional, and a great historical 
Dictionary of Surnames can only be compiled when 
the names of every county have been scientifically 
studied. This task is now being gradually carried out 
for place-names, and perhaps surnames will one day 
have their turn. Just as the main features in the 
political history of a country could be inferred from 

1 I generally use the edition of 1842, which, appearing before the 
conquest, is comparatively free from such misleading forms as 
Arbiter, Ger. Arbeiter, Freedman, Friedemann, Blooming field, 
Blumenfeld, Brilleslipper, Brillenschleifer, lens grinder. The 
modern Directory is full of such names, sometimes half translated, 
e.g. Althouse, Diamondstein, or fully, e.g. Bathmaker, Brilliantstone, 
or wrongly, e.g. Coopersmith, Kupferschmied, copper-smith. 



i8 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

a study of its language alone, so the history of each 
county and region, political, ethnical, 1 and industrial, 
is imbedded in its surnames. 

For even now our population is largely stationary 
in abode. The Welsh milkman comes to London, 
drives his cart for twenty years, and then builds him- 
self a snug villa on the coast of Cardigan Bay. If he 
remains in London, his dynasty generally dies out 
within a few generations. Moreover, in most families 
some members, at any rate, remain on the native soil, 
and there are now probably many people inhabiting 
the very spot where their ancestors dwelt when Domes- 
day Book was compiled. It is sometimes thought 
that all names get to London sooner or later. They 
may do so, but they do not remain, and I do not 
believe that half of our surnames of long standing are 
represented in the London Directory. 

The name Fillery is a good example of stationary 
character. The only Fillery 2 I ever heard of used to 
bowl for Sussex some thirty or forty years ago. From 
the Percy Cartulary I find that Henry Filleray or 

1 Here is a concrete example. Guppy, Homes of Family Names 
(p. 53), says, " The isolated colony of the Norfolk Howells and 
Powells invites some further explanation." I have also been struck 
by the frequent occurrence of Welsh names in medieval Norfolk. 
In an early volume of the Patent Rolls I find that Humfrey de 
Bohun, Earl of Hereford, complains that while he was absent in 
Wales on the King's service, assaults were committed on the ser- 
vants of his household at Norwich. Were there among these ser- 
vants some Welshmen from the Marches who settled down and 
married Norfolk wives ? Some such solution is no doubt the true 
one. In Canada at the present day there are plenty of Macdonalds, 
Macgregors, etc., who speak French only, being descendants of 
disbanded Highland soldiers who took to themselves French- 
Canadian wives in the eighteenth century. 

2 I have since found the name in a casualty list of the Sussex 
Regiment. 



LOCAL CHARACTER OF SURNAMES 19 

Fyleray, also called Fiz le Rey, i.e. king's son, was a 
Sussex landholder in the thirteenth century. The 
casualty lists now being issued tell the same tale. 
In to-day's (Feb. n, 1915) paper occurs Wyartt, the 
name of a private in the Suffolks, and, opening 
Bardsley, I find his first example is Lena Wyard, 
(Hund. R., Suff.). My own name, which is very un- 
common, is derived from a village in Northants. It 
has occurred in the casualty lists as that of a private 
in the Northamptons. Peverall is found among the 
Sherwood Foresters, largely recruited from the Peak 
country. The famous name Paston naturally occurs in 
the Norfolk Regiment. Hundreds of similar cases could 
be quoted. It is among the rank and file also that we 
find the great Norman names (Marmion, Maltravers, 
etc.), which have almost disappeared from the peerage. 
The best single source for modern names is un- 
doubtedly the Return of Owners of Land, officially com- 
piled in 1873 and generally called the Modern Domes- 
day Book (MDB.). From the two volumes devoted to 
England and Wales we find that, contrary to the 
opinion of the stump orator, the land of the country 
is held by nearly a million people, the immense majority 
of whom are small holders of the peasant class. As 
the return is by counties, it is easy to trace the names 
regionally in all their forms and corruptions, and to 
establish the locality in which any given surname 
first came into existence. Very often we may find 
the more correct form still borne by the squire and 
all manner of perversions represented by the cottagers 
who are his distant cousins. An odd-looking name 
can often be solved by a comparison with its neigh- 
bours. When we find Bathos by the side of Bathurst 



20 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

we recognize a natural corruption. The last five 
names in /- in Essex are Judd, Judson, Justums, Jut- 
son, Jutsum. Here Jud, i.e. Jordan, has given the 
patronymic Judson, altered to Jutson as Hudson has 
become Hutson. Then our love of final -m (cf. Bran- 
som, Hansom, Sansom) has produced Jutsum, from 
which, with a common metathesis (cf. Cripps for 
Crisp), we get the new patronymic Justums. When we 
find Phizacklea in Lancashire, we hardly need the 
intermediate Phizakarley, or the imitative Fitzackerley, 
to guide us to the original Fazakerley, the name of an 
ancient parish now absorbed in Liverpool. In the 
East Riding we find Mainprice in the same locality as 
the perverted Mamprize, and even Mempriss, Mim- 
press, Mainpidge. If a name occurs in isolation, and 
no rapprochement with characteristic names of the 
county is possible, we have to do with an immigrant 
whose kin must be sought elsewhere. In this way 
we can to some extent cover the same ground which 
would be explored in the impossible undertaking of 
examining the parish registers of the whole country. 
As a matter of fact, many of the surnames which 
seem to defy interpretation are found copiously 
represented in special districts. A few hours devoted 
to turning over the leaves of the MDB., or even a 
glance at Guppy, reveals the existence of numbers of 
unfamiliar names which surprise by their forbidding 
uncouthness. The explanation is that they represent 
the name of some medieval homestead, swallowed up 
centuries ago by the growth of towns, or even some 
field-name ; or they may spring from some dialect 
word which had died out before dialects became a 
matter of interest. Some of them might be solved 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF SURNAMES 21 

by local antiquaries, but they defy the philologist. 
Such are Benja field, which swarms in Dorset, Bosom- 
worth, common in Yorkshire, Cudlipp, 1 found all over 
Devon, Enticknap, common in Surrey and Sussex, 
and the great Cumberland name Routledge. 

Altogether local distribution must be taken into 
account in proposing an etymology. Bardsley derives 
Godsall, Godsell from Godshill (Isle of Wight) ; but it is 
almost entirely a Gloucestershire and Herefordshire 
name [Geoffrey de Godeshale, Fine R., Glouc.J. In 
Norfolk and Suffolk we find Garwood existing strongly 
side by side with Garrood, Garrod, Garrett. This sug- 
gests that Garwood, sometimes local (garth wood), is in 
these counties also the representative of AS. Gaerweard, 
with a change such as we find in Grimwood from 
Grimweard. The northern Yarwood is the same name. 
In the same region we find the similar parallelism of 
Legwood, Legood, Leggott, all probably from AS. Leod- 
geard, of which Leggett is the regular diminutive. 
Gaunt has two well-attested origins, the gaunt [Gilbert 
le Gant, Fine R.~\, and of Ghent [Richard de Gaunt, 
City F.]. But the home of the name is Lincolnshire, 
which is also, as a fen country, one of the great centres 
of bird nicknames. In that county the crested grebe is 
called the gannet, or gant, and hence we may conclude 
that most of the Lincolnshire Gaunts take their name 
from the bird 

" These birds frequent . . . the great east fen in Lincolnshire, 
where they are called gaunts " (Pennant). 

The fairly common name Bray has two quite clear 
local origins, viz. from one of the many places in France 

1 This may be identical with Cutcliff, common in the same county, 
but neither is this a specific place-name. 



22 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

called Bray, and from Bray in County Wicklow [Robert 
de Bree, provost de Develine, 1 Doc. III.]. No doubt 
Bray in Berks must also be considered. But the great 
home of the Brays is Cornwall, and Benedict le Bray 
(Close R., Cornwall) shows it to be a nickname from 
a Cornish adjective meaning " fine, brave." 

Finally, in dealing with nicknames, it must be 
remembered that, extraordinary and numerous as 
medieval nicknames are, many of them have gone 
unrecorded. As we have seen (p. 16), many indi- 
viduals, in fact perhaps the majority, had four names, 
of the type John Wilson at Town's End Saddler. But 
most John Wilsons had a fifth name, such as Whitehead, 
Shorthose, Nightingale, or Dolittle, and this fifth name 
stood the poorest chance, as a rule, of getting into 
official records. Therefore, although no solution of 
a name can be accepted as final without documentary 
evidence, it is at least probable that no common 
adjective or noun that could conceivably be used as 
a nickname is altogether absent from our surname list. 

The study of surnames may be regarded as a harm- 
less pastime or as a branch of learning. As a pastime 
it is as innocent as stamp-collecting, and possibly as 
intellectual. As a branch of learning it is an inex- 
haustible, and hitherto practically unworked, mine 
of philological knowledge. A complete dictionary of 
English surnames would not only form a valuable 
supplement to the NED., but would in a great measure 
revolutionize its chronology. This may seem of little 
practical importance at a time when our leaders of 
science, a word which used to mean knowledge, are 
exhorting us in unattractive English to do away with 
1 Dublin, hence the common Irish Devlin. 



NAMES OLDER THAN WORDS 23 

" ce vieux fatras de grec et de latin " and bend all our 
efforts on transforming the rising generation into a 
nation of super-plumbers. 1 But among the little band of 
attardes who rally round the tattered flag of intellectual 
pursuits, there will always be some to whom the study 
of our glorious language will have an irresistible appeal 
Now language consists of words, and the oldest 
articulate words are names. It is more or less an 
accident that some of these, having become proper 
names, are excluded from the dictionaries. Others 
still discharge a double function and are equally 
the prey of the lexicographer and the name-hunter. 
Dictionaries draw, as a rule, on literary sources, i.e. 
on language which has already reached a somewhat 
artificial phase of evolution, but in the names and 
nicknames of the Middle Ages we hear the every- 
day speech of our ancestors, a disconnected speech 
perhaps, and without that thread of continuity 
which enables us to trace the dictionary word back 
through the centuries, but all the same a speech which 
is generally far older than literary records. Among 
words which occur as surnames in this volume there 
are few of which the examples do not ante-date by 
some centuries the earliest records in the NED. This 
applies especially to obsolete or dialect topographical 
words 2 (ch. iii.), and to trade-names 8 (ch. v.). 

1 These gentlemen are apparently unaware that the uncanny 
efficiency of the Germans is not due to the neglect of " useless " 
studies. Even in such a by-way of knowledge as the study of 
surnames, almost the only work that can be taken seriously has 
been done by Germans or German-trained philologists. 

2 See, for instance, Borstall (p. 54), Fostall (p. 60). 

8 The NED, has cheesemonger (c. 1510), quilter (1563), charwoman 
(1596). The first two are surnames in the Pipe R. for 1186, and 
Alice Charwoman lived in Nottingham in the fourteenth century. 



24 THE STUDY OF SURNAMES 

But there is hardly a noun or an epithet which can 
be used as a nickname, apart from the everyday 
Anglo-Saxon vocabulary, which is not found in the 
Rolls long before its first appearance in literature. 
The nocturnal mammal called a " bat " is usually 
bakke in Middle English, and this is one origin of the 
name Back [Henry le Bak, Cor am Rege R. 1297] 

" Moldewarpis and baches, var. rere-myis " (Wye. Is. ii. 20). 

The NED. dates the form bat from c. 1575. But it 
is a common thirteenth-century nickname [Geoffrey 
le Bat, Fine R., Reginald le Bat, Hund. R.I and 
of course one origin of Bait. 1 

The study of surnames also reveals the existence 
of a large Anglo-French vocabulary which is other- 
wise almost unrecorded. These words must have 
been colloquially current during the period when 
the two elements were in process of fusion. In the 
long run they were rejected in favour of the native 
equivalents and dropped out of the language, except 
in so far as they had become fossilized as surnames. 
Examples of such words will be found passim in this 
volume, but they are chiefly illustrated by nicknames 
taken from adjectives or derived from names of birds 
and beasts. These two great classes of surnames, 
which would require a volume to themselves, are not 
included in the present work. One, unfortunately 
obsolete, nickname of this type may, however, be men- 
tioned here. Our familiar " pussy-cat," a word that 

1 Also from Bartholomew and from the AS. Beorht- names. 
Probably also an archaic spelling of "boat" [Stephen del Bat, 
Close JR.]; cf. Barge, Galley, etc. (p. 171). Bateman is no doubt 
sometimes for " boatman." 






AN EARLY OCCURRENCE 25 

we should expect to find in popular use long before it 
was put down in black and white, is a modernized 
" puss-cat " 

" Micia, a pusse-kat, a kitlin " (Florio). v 

The NED. first finds it in 1565. But it was a sur- 
name three centuries earlier 

" Ilyf le Messer vulneravit Robertum Pusekat juxta pontem de 
Corebrigge, ita quod statim obiit " (Northumb. Ass. R. 1256). 



CHAPTER II 

THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

" It seemeth to have been the manner, at giving of names, to 
wish the children might perform and discharge their names, as 
when Gunthram, King of the French, named Clotharius at the font, 
he said, ' Crescat puer et hujus sit nominis executor ' " (CAMDEN). 

THE names in use among all the Germanic races, 
including Scandinavia and Iceland, go back to that 
period in the history of the world when all men seem 
to have been poets. When we consider the beauty 
of the oldest of these names, their picturesque connec- 
tion with gods and heroes, war and the wilds, and with 
the great elementary abstract concepts which we no 
longer understand, and compare with them the name 
creations of the Romans, and still more of the Middle 
Ages, commonplace, prosaic, spiteful, or obscene, we 
feel thankful that there was once an age of poetic 
bandits and imaginative pirates. These Teutonic 
names were originally all dithematic, 1 i.e. each name 

1 This very natural formation is common to the Aryan races, 
with the rather striking exception of the Romans. The chief Celtic 
names exemplify it, e.g. Donald, world- wield er, " much the same 
meaning as Dumnorix " (Macbain), Dugald, black stranger, i.e. 
Dane, Duncan, brown warrior, Morgan, sea-white. It is seen also 
/ in Oriental names, such as the Biblical Absalom, father of peace, 
Jeremiah, exalted of the Lord, Jonathan, the Lord's gift. This 
latter is a very favourite combination ; cf. Godiva (Godgifu), 
Theodore, Dorothea, Deodatus, Dieudonne, etc. So also in Arabic 

26 



THE DITHEMATIC TYPE OF NAME 27 

consisted of two elements, e.g. Alfred, fairy counsel, 
and there can be no doubt that in the earliest times 
the elements were understood by those who bore the 
names, as were the Greek names which they so strik- 
ingly resemble in structure and spirit. This resem- 
blance has often been pointed out, e.g. Godwin, God 
friend, Theophilus, Folkard, people strong, Demos- 
thenes, Sebert, Sebright, victory bright, Nicophanes. 

At the period with which our historical documents 
deal, these names had largely ceased to have a real 
meaning. The elements of which they were composed 
were drawn chiefly from the archaic and poetic lan- 
guage and these elements were often combined so as to 
make no sense. A very common practice in naming 
children was to compound the name from that of the 
father and mother, somewhat after the practice fol- 
lowed by modern racehorse owners. Or one element 
persisted in a family, e.g. in the six generations from 
Edward the Elder to Edgar Atheling practically all 
the kings and royal princes have names in Ead, 
bliss. The elements are juxtaposed without anything 
to show their grammatical relationship, so that in 
interpreting them one can only indicate the general 
idea which each half expressed. Still, there are many 
examples of these compound names which still occur 
in Anglo-Saxon poetry as common nouns, e.g. Gold 
wine, gold friend, whence our surname Goldwin, 1 is 

Abdallah means " servant of God " (cf. AS. Godescealc), Saladin 
is " honour of the faith," and Nureddin, the name of the Turkish 
commander in Mesopotamia, means " light of the faith." 

1 Hence also Jeudwin, an Anglo-French form [Richard Joldewin 
or Jeudewyne, IpM.]. Jawdewin's Lane, Oxford, was perhaps 
named after Richard Jeodewyne, who is mentioned in the Godstow 
Cartulary. 

4 



28 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

used of a liberal patron, Heremann, army man, whence 
Harman, means a warrior, Maegenheard, might hard, 
our Maynard, is found as an adjective in the sense of 
strong. 

Of the names dealt with here the great majority 
are common to the Teutonic languages, with certain 
small differences according as the forms are German, 
Scandinavian, or English. Some belong especially 
to one or other of these language groups, e.g. the 
names which contain the elements Brand, flame, sword, 
Cytel, cauldron, are Scandinavian, while those in 
-nand, bold, e.g. Ferdinand, are continental and of 
rare occurrence in Anglo-Saxon. In the following 
paragraphs I give the names in the normalized West- 
Saxon spelling, from Searle's Onomasticon Anglo- 
Saxonicum, calling attention occasionally to the Norse 
or continental forms and the surnames which they 
have produced in English and other languages. I have 
already (Romance of Names, ch. vii.) mentioned a 
number of obvious examples. Here I have rather 
selected those of which the origin is not immediately 
apparent or which have an unusual appearance. The 
great variation in the modern English forms is due 
to many accidents of time and place, but chiefly to 
the fact that the same name has often reached us 
through different channels English, French, and 
Flemish. Possibly some of them are really Celtic 
names which have assumed an imitative form. It is 
thought, for instance, that Cerdic may be for Cradock, 
Caractacus. If this is so, Scott was doubly unfortunate 
in choosing a Welsh name for a typical Anglo-Saxon 
and then turning it into the ghost-name Cedric. 

The Teutonic name- system was carried into every 



MALE AND FEMALE NAMES 29 

corner of Europe, first by the Vikings, and later by 
those valiant Norman knights who were in the habit 
of setting out with a handful of followers to carve 
themselves out a kingdom. Thus Roderick, fame 
mighty, is found as wide apart as Wales (Pr other o,Ryrie, 
Prytherick) and Russia (Rurik), and has named such 
national heroes as the Spanish Cid (Don Rodrigo), 
Roderick Dhu, and Rory O'More. For fuller informa- 
tion on the historic warriors and saints who caused 
certain names to be popular in special regions those 
interested should consult Charlotte Yonge's Christian 
Names, a book which contains a vast amount of learn- 
ing couched in gracious form, though the etymological 
theories put forward are sometimes inaccurate and 
out of date. 

Most of the elements l used in these names can be 
put indifferently first or last, e.g. Her eric, whence 
Herrick, Richere, whence Richer, Readier. Some are 
used only initially, e.g. Mcegen, as in Maegenfrith, 
whence Manfred, others only finally, e.g. -laf, as in 
Frithulaf, now Freelove, or -mund, as in Frithumund, 
whence Freemont. Generally the gender of the second 
theme corresponds with that of the person, e.g. names 
in the feminine nouns -thryth and -hild were given to 
females only. Examples are JEth el thryth, Awdrey, 
Gaerthryth (Gertrude), Gartrude, and the two fierce 
queens Brunehild and Chriemhild. But this was not 
a fixed rule ; there are, for instance, many male 
names ending in the feminine -mund. 

The elements which enter into the composition of 
Teutonic names fall into various groups, such as 
deities and supernatural beings, animals, abstract 

1 The meanings of these elements are discussed further on. 



3 o THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

ideas, weapons, titles and epithets, adjectives. The 
chief divine elements are God, Ans, Ing. 1 The great 
names of Odin and Freya seem to have been avoided, 
but Thor is very common. The element God appears 
to have been often felt as identical with good. 
Hence, perhaps, the later forms such as Goodrich, 
Goodwin, and also the shortened Good, which is by 
no means always a nickname. Here belong such 
apparently insignificant names as Gobb, Gobbett, 
Gobby, shortened from such compounds as Godbeorht 
(Theophanes), Godbeald (Theocrates). The latter 
survives more fully as Godbolt and Goble, while the 
former is represented in French by Gobert and Joubert. 
Shortened forms of God names are German Goethe 
and Italian Giotto. It appears also as the second 
element in many modern English surnames, e.g. 
Wingood, from AS. Winegod, Osgood, Hosegood, Horse- 
good, from AS. Osgod. 

The Aasir, as Miss Yonge calls them, the Ansen, as 
they are named by the Germans, were the divine race 
inhabiting Asgard, the Norse Olympus. This very 
interesting prefix, which may be taken as almost 
equivalent to God, appears in three forms. The Norse 
is As, the Anglo-Saxon is Os, and the German is Ans. 
From Ascytel we have Ashkettle and the contracted 
Askell, Astell, etc., while in France a kind of com- 
promise between the Norse and German forms produced 
Anquetil, introduced into England as Ankettle. So 
also Fr. Angot is the doublet of Osgood. In Haskell 
we have the common addition of the aspirate [Has- 
chetill Werglice, Salisbury Chart.]. Several surnames 

1 The final -ing, which appears in an immense number of names 
derived from Anglo-Saxon, was a tribal or patronymic suffix. 



COMPOUNDS OF THOR 31 

preserve the Anglo-Saxon form (Osborn, Osman, Osmond, 
Oswald, etc.), while the German gave the famous 
Anselm, whence our Ansell, Hansell, and the Dutch 
dim. Enslin. Ing, the name of a demi-god, seems 
to have been early confused with the Christian angel 
in the prefix Engel, common in German names, e.g. 
Engelhardt, anglicized as Engleheart. 1 In Anglo-Saxon 
we find as prefixes both Ing and Ingel. The modern 
name Ingoll represents Ing weald (Ingold), and Inglett 
is a dim. of similar origin. The cheerful Inglebright 
is from Ingelbeorht. The simple Ing has given, 
through Norse Ingwar, the Scottish Ivor. 

The Norse Thor became AS. Thur, which in the 
compound Thurcytel gave Scottish Torquil (whence 
MacCorquodale), and our Thur kettle, Thurkell, Thurtle, 
Thir kettle, Thirkell, Thirkhill, Turtle, and Tuttle* as 
in Tuttlebee, from Thirkleby (Yorks). Thoroughkettle 
is found in the eighteenth century. Turketine may be 
formed in the same way as Anketin, Rosketin (p. 33), 
but Henry de Turkedene (Glouc. Cart.} suggests a local 
origin, from Turkdene (Glouc.) with the ending 
changed as in Heseltine (Hazeldean). Other com- 
pounds of Thor are Thurgisl, whence Thurgell, 
Thurgser, now Thurgar, and Thurfrith, the wife of 
Hereward (Torfrida), surviving as Turfery, Tuffery, 
Toll free. The Thur names did not flourish in 
Germany, but the Norsemen took them to France, 
whence as Turbert, Turgis, Turpin, they came to 
England and gave Turbott, Tur goose, etc. The 
common Thurstan became in France Tustain, Tustin, 

* This may, however, be native [Petronilla f. Engelliert, Fine R.] 
2 This has also a local origin, from foothill, a watch-tower 
" David dwellide in the tote hil " (Wye. 2 Sam. v. 9). 



32 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

Tutin, all now well-established English surnames. I 
fancy that this will one day be found to be the 
origin of the supposed Celtic Tristram, of which 
the oldest form appears to be Durstan. Tarbath is 
a curious corruption of Thurbeorht and Tarbun of 
Thurbeorn. 

With these mythological names maybe grouped those 
inEalh, temple, and the legendary Hun, giant, and JElf, 
fairy. In connection with the first it should be noted 
that four of the commonest Anglo-Saxon elements, 
Mlf, Mthel, Eald, Ealh, very easily became confused, 
especially after the Conquest, and hence modern sur- 
names in AI-, Ayl-, El- (Alwin, Aylward, Elwiri) may 
belong to any of them. We find historic Ealhfriths 
who were known also as Alfrith and Alfridus, which, 
as surnames, would easily fall together with those 
derived from Alfred and ^Elfric. So Aymer, Aylmer 
may represent, and do in individual cases, both 
JElfmaer and ^Ethermaer. The most famous name in 
Ealh is Ealhwine (Alcuin), which survives as Allchin, 
Alkin, and is perhaps not altogether foreign to Hawkins. 
Allcard is AS. Ealhheard, while Fr. Aucher corresponds 
to AS. Ealhhere, and may be ^derived directly from 
it, as the corresponding element is scarcely found in 
continental German names. Names in Ml] are very 
numerous and correspond to continental forms in Alb. 
Thus our Avery, less commonly Affery, Affray, All free, 
which stands for both Alfred and ^Elfric, is the same 
as Fr. Aubrey from Alberic. A Iflatt, Elfleet, Elflitt is 
from ^Ifflaed, elf purity, Alliott from ^Elfgeat, Elver 
from ^Elihere, Elvidge, Elvish from ^Elfheah, Elnough 
from ^Elfnoth, Elston from ^Elfstan, Elwall from 
^Elfweald, and very probably Halsey from ^Elfsige, 



ANIMAL NAMES 33 

with the incorrect H- 1 which we find in many names 
of this class. The tribal name of the dwarfish Huns 
was applied, curiously enough, in Old German to 
legendary giants, and is still so used in poetic style. 
It is not common in purely Anglo-Saxon names, though 
we have a few good examples, e.g. Hunfrith, whence 
Humphrey, and Hunbeorht, which is Fr. Humbert and 
appears also in the Ger. Humperdinck. Hunbeald is 
so rare that we dare hardly invoke it to explain our 
Honeyball, but it is represented by Ger. Humboldt. 

When we come to the names of animals which were 
used in the formation of human names, we naturally 
find a great difference between the Greeks and the 
Teutons. Among the former we find chief honour 
paid to the lion (Leonidas, Timoleon), and the horse 
(Philip, Hippolytus, Xanthippe). To the old Teutons 
the lion was unknown, though the rather late name 
Leonard, lion strong, formed from it, appears in most 
European languages. The horse was also of little 
account on the salt seas and in the German forests, 
and the legendary nicknames of the Jutish invaders, 
" stallion " and " mare" (Hengist and Horsa), alluded 
to their flag, on which the white horse was a strange 
exotic beast to be classed with dragons and griffins. 
The only common Anglo-Saxon name formed directly 
from " horse " is Roscytel. This is fairly common in 
Middle English, and still survives as Roskill [Swein 
f. Roskil, Pipe R.], while the derivative Rosketin 

1 Examples are Hatchard (OF. Achard), Hansell (p. 3 1 ), 
Haskell (p. 30), Hasluck (AS. Aslac), Hosmer (AS. Osmaer), and 
Hansard, from OF. Ansard, OG. Anshard. The use of " Hansard " 
by modern writers on economics in the sense of a member of the 
Hanse League is a blunder. The first example of this use in the 
NED. is dated 1832! 



34 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

(cf . Anketin from Anscytel) has given Ruskin [Andrew 
Rosekin, Pat. R.]. The original Roskill has generally 
been swallowed up by Russell. Rosamond, Roseman 
contain the same element, but are of continental origin. 
For the Teutons the two kings of the. forest were 
the bear and the boar, in connection with which we 
observe a very curious phenomenon. Beorn, so com- 
mon in Anglo-Saxon names, means warrior, while in 
Norse and German it means bear. Eofor, equally 
common, means boar in Anglo-Saxon and German, but 
warrior in Norse. In each case one language has 
personified the formidable beast into a human being. 
Any modern Barnard or Everard is therefore etymologic- 
ally a strong bear or boar, or a strong warrior, accord- 
ing as his ancestry is pure Anglo-Saxon or continental. 
The favourite Beorn name was Beornheard, whence 
Burnard, Burnett, Barnard, Barnett, etc. It has also 
many derivatives in French and German (Behrens, 
Bernhardi, etc.). Other names of this group which 
have survived are Beornheah, now Barnish, Burnage, 
Burnish (cf. Alphege, Elvish, from ^Elfheah), Beornher, 
one origin of the common Fr. Bernier, and of our 
Berner, Beornstan, now Burnstone, Beornweald, now 
Barnwell, Bernal, Burnell, and Beornwulf which would 
give the same result ; but some of the English names 
here enumerated have an alternative origin. The 
same element is final in Sigebeorn, now Siborne, 
Thurbeorne, now Thorburn, Wigbeorn, now Whyborn, 
etc. The simple Ber does not appear in Anglo- 
Saxon names, but Fr. Beraud, Beroalde, OG. Berwald, 
is the chief source of our Barrett. But the most inter- 
esting of the " bear " names in Fr. Berenger, OG. 
Beringar. It was very popular in England and shows 



THE WOLF 35 

the common confusion of -r-, -1-, -n-, in the modern sur- 
names Barringer, Berringer, Ballinger, Bellinger, Ben- 
ninger [John Beringer or Beniger, IpM.]. Its latest 
transformation is Bellhanger. Eofor is less common in 
Anglo-Saxon than the corresponding Eber in Germany 
(Ebers, Eberlin, etc.), and it is possible that the 
favourite Everard, Everett came to us from Eberhard, 
via Old French. But AS. Eoforwine, besides giving 
Everwin, has run riot with the vowels * in Erwin, Irwin, 
Or win, Urwin. 

"^Quite as important as the bear and the boar are 
the mysterious wolf and raven, the companions of 
Odin. AS. Wulf appears initially in a great number 
of names, and the modern name Wolfe, Woof is some- 
times a shortened form of these rather than a nick- 
name. Most historical of all is the dim. Ulfilas, the 
name of the translator of the Gothic Bible. Among 
compounds of Wulf are Wulfgar (Woolgar), Wulfnoth 
(Woolnough), Wulf red, Wulfric (Woolfrey, Wool fries), 
Wulfstan, whence the local Wolstenholme and Wolston- 
craft, Wulfwig (Woolley), and Wulfwine (Woolven, 
Woollen). In the Norse forms the initial has disap- 
peared, e.g. Ulph, Uff, and Uffendell, the doublet 
of the native Wolfendale. In French these names 
replace initial W- by G- or Gu-, e.g. Golfier (Wulf here), 
one source of our Gulliver and the origin of the local 
Montgolfier. L~ Almost as numerous are the names in 
which -wulf is final, but here the origin is generally 

1 Our surnames come from the dialects, and the dialects do as 
they like with the vowels, e.g. from Lamb we have Lomb, Lumb, 
common Middle English forms, and also Lemm, Limb (see p. 130, n.). 
Long is also Lang, Lung, Leng, and possibly sometimes Ling. Cf. the 
local Crankhorn and Crankshaw, the first element of which, meaning 
" crooked," also occurs as Crenk-, Crink-, Cronk-, Crunk-. 



36 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

disguised, 1 e.g. Addle from ^Ethelwulf, with which cf. 
the fine German name Adolf and its atrocious " latiniza- 
tion " into Adolphus, Raddle, Rattle, from Raedwulf, 
Kinnell from Cynewulf, etc. In French names of 
similar origin the termination usually becomes -ouf, or 
-oul, e.g. Burnouf, Renouf correspond to AS. Brun- 
wulf, Regenwulf, while Raoul is our Ralph,* Relf, i.e. 
Rsedwulf. 

The raven appears initially in Raefencytel, whence 
Rankill, Raefenhild, which is one source of Ravenhill, 
and Raefensweart, now Ravenshear, Ramshire, Ramsker. 
Wselraefen survives as Wallraven. The simple Raven, 
common also in place-names, is more often an Anglo- 
Saxon personal name than a later nickname from the 
bird. The raven names are especially Norse, and the 
corresponding German names, and hence Old French 
names also, are not numerous, but we have con- 
tractions of OG. Raban in the well-known dithematic 
names Bertram and Wolfram. More numerous are the 
eagle names, beginning with Earn in Anglo-Saxon. 
By far the commonest of these is Arnold, a favourite 
German name, which takes in Low German the form 
Arend, the source of the Norfolk name Arrand. It is 
rare in Anglo-Saxon, so the probability is that our 
Arnall represents rather the much commoner Earnwulf. 
Two especially interesting Anglo-Saxon names are 
Earnthur, whence the so-called Celtic Arthur, and 
Earncytel, now Arkell, Arkle, Argles, Arkcoll, etc. From 
Arthur come the imitative Authors and Earthy. With 

1 Endings such as -weald, -wulf, -hild are often confused, e.g. 
Gunnell represents both Gunwulf and Gunhild. 

8 Ralph itself is, however, due to French influence, as is shown 
by the loss of the medial -d-. 



NAMES OF WAR 37 

the same group may be classed the Norse Orm, dragon, 
serpent (worm), whence the famous Guthorm, still 
existing as Guthnim, Goodrum, while Wormald from 
Wurmbeald shows the Anglo-Saxon form. We have 
also a few names in Swan, e.g. Swanhild, now Swannell ; 
but this is for AS. swan, a " swain " (see p. 42). The 
modern name Swan is more often a nickname. Many 
names similar to the above were used as cognomina 
by the Romans, e.g. Ursus, Aper, Lupus, Corvus, 
Aquila, but these were nicknames pure and simple. 

Among common Anglo-Saxon names we find no 
fewer than five elements, Bead, Gund (Guth), Heath, 
Hild, Wig, which contain the idea of war or battle. 
The names of Hildebrand and his son Hadubrand are 
thus identical in meaning. Sometimes these elements 
occur in combination, e.g. Gunhild (Gunnell), Heath- 
wig (Hadaway, Hathaway *). Other examples are 
Beaduric (Badrick, Batters), Gundwine (Gunwin), 
Heathured (Hatred), Heathuwine (Hadwin), Hildegar 
(Hilger, Hilly ar), Wigman (Wyman). Hilditch, Hildick 
looks local, but is AS. Hildheah, though the name is 
not in Searle [William f. Hildich, Close R.]. Wig is 
especially common as second element and is responsible 
for many names in -way which have a local appearance, 
e.g. Ellway (^Elfwig), Harraway (Herewig), Kennaway 
(Coenwig), Goodway (Godwig), Redway, Reddaway 
(Raedwig), Otway, Ottoway (Othwig), Bothway, Bother- 
way (Bodwig *), and Hadaway (v.s.). So also in the 
first syllable we get Way-, as in Way mark (Wigmearc), 
Way good (Wigod), alternating with Why-, Wy-, as in 

1 Also local, of the " heath way." 

8 Not in Searle, but certified by the Norman form Bovig (DB.) 
and Alan Butewey (Hund. R.). 



38 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

Whybird (Wigbeorht), Whyborn, Wyburn (Wigbeorn), 
etc. With this group may be classed also names in 
Sige, victory, e.g. Sibbald (Sigebeald), Sibary, Sibree ! 
(Sigebeorht), Sinnott, Sennett (Sigenoth), Syrett, Secret 
(Sigered), Search,* Surch (Sigeric), Brixey (Beorhtsige) ; 
in Here, army, e.g. Folchere, whence Folker, Fulker, 
Fulcher, Futcher, etc., Heregod, now Hargood ; and in 
Fczr, danger, e.g. Faerman (F airman* Farman, Fire- 
man). It is not impossible that our homely Farthing 
may sometimes derive from Fserthegn. 

Equally warlike are the numerous names derived 
from weapons. Arms of offence and defence are 
Msc, spear (ash), as in ^Escwine (Ashwin), Bil, sword, 
as in Bilheard (Billiard), Bilweald (Billiald), Brand, 
sword (flame), as in Colbrand (Colbrain), Ecg, edge 
(of the sword), as in Ecgheard (Eachard), Gczr, spear, 
as in Gserwine (Garvin), Othgger (Odgers), Helm, helmet, 
as in Helmaer (Helmer), Ord, spear point, as in Ordwig 
(Ordway), Ordgser (Or gar), shortened also to Ord 
[Humphrey FitzOrd, Salisbury Chart.], and Rand, 
shield, as in Randwulf * (Randall, Rendle, Rundle), 
Beorhtrand (Bertrand), to be distinguished from Beorht- 
ram, 5 bright raven (Bartram). But some names in Bil 
belong to William, for we find William " dictus Byl " 
in the thirteenth century. Here 'belongs probably 
the dim. Billion. Brand is much commoner alone 
than in compounds, and has also become Brond. 

1 For this rather unusual development cf. the pronunciation of 
Kirkcudbright. 

2 Reginald Serich or Serche (Cor am Rege R 1297). 

3 Of course also a nickname ; cf. Fr. Belhotnme. 

* Randolph (shield wolf), Ranulf (raven wolf), Radulf, Ralph 
(counsel wolf), are separate names, though often confused. 
6 Neither name is in Searle. They came to us through French. 



ABSTRACT IDEAS 39 

Gellibrand, Gillibrand must represent Gislbrand [John 
Gilibrond, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], though the name 
is not in Searle. Cytel, Ketvl, cauldron (of the gods), 
is now found as Kettle, Kittle, Chettle, Cattle, etc., as 
well as initially in Kettleburn [Henry Ketelbern, 
Chart. R.], and in many names of local origin. 
Chilvers is for Cytelweard, found in DB. as Chilvert. 
Hence also Kilvert. 

Forming a transition from war to peace we have the 
important elements Burg, refuge, castle, and Mund, 
protection, as in Burgheard (Burchard, Burchett], 
Wilburg (Wilbur], ^Ethelmund (Almond], Faermund 
(Farrimond). Here also we might put Weard, guard, 
the derivatives of which easily get mixed with those of 
Heard, e.g. Coenweard (Kenward, Kennard). Frithu, 
peace, has given us many favourite font-names which 
have later become surnames, e.g. Domfrith (Dumphrey, 
Dumpress), Frithugar (Frieker], Frithumund (Fiddy- 
ment *). To the last name, or to some other com- 
pound of Frithu, such as the once favourite Frithu- 
swith or Friswid, patron saint of the University of 
Oxford, belong Fiddy, Fiddian, Phythian, Phethean. 
This element often becomes Free in modern surnames, 
e.g. Freestone from Frithustan, Freelove from Frithulaf 
[Frelof Pollard, Chart. R.]. It also appears via Old 
French in Frizzle, Froysell, which in Scotland has 
unaccountably become Frazer 

" Simond * Frysel 
That was tray tour and fykell " (Song, temp. Ed. I.) 

1 The r is lost, as in Biddy (Bridget), Fanny (Frances). 

1 The common Middle English use of Simond for Simon suggests 
that the modern Symonds, Simmonds is only occasionally from AS. 
Sigemund " Sy mound, I have sum thing for to seye to thee " 
(Wye. Luke, vii. 40). 



40 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

and in Fr. Froissart, represented by our Frushard, 
F rusher. 

The importance of the tribal idea is reflected in the 
frequent occurrence of Folc, Leod, Theod, all meaning 
people, nation, e.g. Folcweard (Folkard, Vaulkhard), 
Leodgar (Ledger), Theodric (Terry, Derrick, Dethridge, 
Derry, Todrick), Theodbeald (Theobald, Tibbies, 
Tipple, Tidball, Tidbald, Tidboald, Tudball, Deeble, 
Dipple, Tebbutt, Debutt, Dyball, etc.). We have also 
the shortened Theed, Teed [William Thede, Hund. R.]. 
With this important group may be compared the 
numerous Greek names in demos and laus, e.g. Demo- 
critus, Laomedon, Nicodemus, Agesilaus, etc. The 
public meeting of the tribe is commemorated by names 
in Mcethel and Thing, both meaning assembly. From 
the first come Mauger, Major (Maethelgaer), Maber, 
Malabar, and Fr. Maubert (Msethelbeorht) ; from 
the second our Dingle, Tingle, a common personal 
name in Middle English [William Dingel, Hund. R.], 
from AS. Thingwulf or Dingolf. Similarly Greek had 
names such as Anaxagoras, Pythagoras, derived from 
the agora, which was to the Greeks what the forum 
was to the Romans. The modern surname Lawman 
may be AS. Lagmann, lawyer, the name of the poet 
whom we call Layamon, but the latter is so rare a 
name that it is probably safer to refer Lawman to 
Lawrence (cf. Jackman, Hobman, etc.). 

A very common element connected with authority 
is Weald (wield), rule, as in Wealdwine, now Walwin, 
Wallen, but occurring much more commonly as a 
suffix, e.g. Beorhtweald (Brettle, Brittle], Grimbeald 
(Grimble), Hygebeald (Hubble), Winebeald (Wimble), 
etc. Property and its rights are represented by 






MISCELLANEOUS COMPOUNDS 41 

Geard, enclosure, " garth," Haga, enclosure, " haw," 
Mearc, mark, boundary, and Stan, stone, probably 
also in this case a boundary mark. Examples are 
Frithugeard (Freeguard), Haganfrith (Henfrey), Wig- 
mearc (Wymark, Waymark), Goldstan (Goldstone), 
Stanmaer (Stammers), Stanbeald (Stumbles 1 ). To Haga 
belongs the famous Nibelung Hagen, while Hammond 
is Fr. Ramon, short for OG. Haganmund. The Middle 
English contraction of Hagan was Rain 

" Heyne hath a newe cote and his wyf another " (Piers Plowman) 

the origin of our Haines, Haynes, which may also be 
from the same word in its literal sense of hedge, en- 
closure. Land and sea have given us Lambert (Land- 
beorht), Saffrey, Savory (Saefrith), Seagram, Seagrim 
(Saegrim), and especially Sagar, Sayers, Sears and, 
many other variants (Saegaer). These compounds are 
often not to be distinguished from those of Sige (p. 38), 
e.g. Seawright may represent Saeric or Sigeric. 

From a very large number of abstract ideas we may 
select the following Amal, work, as in Amalric, 
whence, or from the transposed Almaric, come, chiefly 
through French, our Amory, Amery, Emery, Imray, 
Imrie, while the Italian form Amerigo ultimately 
named a continent ; D<zg, day, as in Daegheard, 
Daggett, Daegmaer, Darner, Daegmund, now Daymond, 
Dayman, Damant, etc., often altered to Diamond, 
and the shortened Jorms Dack and Day, the latter 
of which has other and more common origins ; Ead, 
bless, the first element in so many Anglo-Saxon 

1 Alan Stumbel (Pat. R.) ; cf. Rundle for Randle. " Rondulf 
the reve " (Piers Plowm. A. ii. 78) is in the variants Rainald and 
Reynald. 



42 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

names, some of which are now a little disguised, e.g. 
Ager, Adger from Eadgar, Admer from Eadmser ; 
Hyge, mind, courage, as in Hygebeorht, whence 
Hubert, Hubbard, Hibbert,Hobart, and the favourite ME. 
Hugh from which we have so many derivatives (Huggins, 
Howchin, Hewlings, Hullett, etc.) ; Laf, remnant, as 
in Anlaf, 1 now Oliffe ; Maegen, might, as in Msegenhild, 
one source of Meynell [Peter Maynild, Pat. R.] ; Noth, 
fame, as in Nothgaer, whence Ger. Notker, Fr. Nodier, 
and perhaps some of our Nutters ; Reed, counsel, of 
which the most popular compound was Raedwulf, our 
Ralph, Relf, Raw, and, via Fr. Raoul, Raoulin, our 
Rawle, Rawlin * ; Thane, thanks, as in Tancred or 
Tankard and Ger. Danckwertz. Most of these can also 
occur finally, e.g. ^Etheldaeg, Allday, Ealdraed, Aldred, 
Aldritt, Alldread, etc. 

Besides Beorn (p. 34), Anglo-Saxon used Mann for 
warrior, hero. This occurs as second element in a great 
number of compounds of a descriptive kind, e.g. 
Freoman (Freeman), Northman (Norman), Heardman 
(Hardman), etc., many of which are of course also 
nicknames of later formation. For servant we have 
Scealc, as in Godescealc, one source of Godsell, Outsell, 
but much commoner in German (Gottschalk) , and 
Swegen or Swan, 3 usually occurring alone, Swain, 
Swan. All of these elements have poetically the 
meaning of warrior and in prose that of servant. 
Cuth, acquaintance, " kith," occurs in the favourite 
Cuthbeald and Cuthbeorht, the former of which shares 

1 This is the Anglo-Saxon form of Norse Olafr, Oliver. 
Rolfe, Roff have often interchanged with this group, but really 
represent ON. Hrolfr, cognate with Ger. Rudolf, fame wolf. 
8 Norse and Anglo-Saxon forms of the same word. 



EPITHETS 43 

Cobbold with Godbeald, while the latter survives as 
Cobbett, Cubitt. Cuttell, Cottle may stand for either 
Cuthhelm or Cuthwulf. W int, friend, is very com- 
mon both as initial and final, e.g. Winebeald (Winbolt), 
Glaedwine (Gladwiri). The common Unwin, un-friend, 
enemy, is very rare as an Anglo-Saxon name, and must 
generally have been rather a nickname. Vinegar seems 
to be an imitative spelling of Winegaer. Gisl, hostage, 
is the first element of Gilbert, AS. Gislbeorht, but its 
popularity came through French. From Gislhere 
comes Ger. Gessler, the villain of the Tell myth. 
Thurgisl is the origin of Thurgill, and also of Fr. 
Turgis, whence Eng. Sturgess, and Todkill is earlier 
Theodgild, probably for Theodgisl. Waeltheof means 
the thief of slaughter, with a first element which we 
find in Valkyrie and Valhalla, while Friththeof, the 
hero of an ancient saga and a modern North Pole 
expedition, means thief of peace. Some authorities 
think the ending was originally -theow, servant, slave, 
which appears to survive in Walthew, Waltho, Waldo. 
Wiht, creature, sprite, is very common as first element, 
e.g. Wihtric, now Whittrick, Wightgar, now Widger. 
Another form, Uht, appears in the popular Uhtred, 
whence Oughtred and the imitative Outright. 

Among simple adjectives the commonest are Mthel, 
noble, as in ^Ethelweard (Aylward, Adlard, Allard) ; 
Beorht, bright, as in Beorhtman (Brightman ; cf . Greek 
Androcles), Beorhtgifu (Bright-eve), Beorhtmaer (Bright- 
more, Brimmer), also very common finally, e.g. 
Gundbeorht, whence Fr. Gondibert, our Gombert, 
Gumpert, and Ger. Gompertz ; Beald, bold, as in Beald- 
here (Balder), Daegbeald (Day bell, D obeli] ; Cene, 
keen, bold, as in Cenered (Kindred), equivalent to Ger. 
5 



44 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

Conrad (Thrasybulus) ; Cyne, royal, as in Cynesige 
(Kinsey), Cynewulf (Kinnell) ; Deor, dear, as in Deor- 
weald (Dorrell, Durrell] ; Eald, old, as in Ealdwig 
(Aldwy) ; Eorp, swarthy, as in Eorpwine (Orperi), 
common also in the shortened form Earp, Orpe ; Freo, 
free, as in Freobeorn (Freeborn) ; Grim, grim, as in 
Grimbeald (Grimble), whence also, by a common meta- 
thesis, Gumbrell 1 ; Healf, half, as in Healfdene (Hal- 
dane), the " half Dane" ; Heard, hard, strong, as in 
Heardbeorht, which has contributed to Herbert, Har- 
bord, etc., Stanheard (Stannard) and Gifheard (Giffard), 
the latter rare in Anglo-Saxon, but a favourite Norman 
name (cf. Ger. Gebhardt) ; Leof, dear, as in Leofsige 
(Livesey, Lovesey), Leofred and Leofric (Livery, Luffery); 
Hlud, loud, famous, rare in Anglo-Saxon, but very 
common in German names, e.g. Ludwig, Luther, whence 
Fr. Louis, Lothair, etc. ; Ric, powerful, rich, as in 
Ricbeald (Richbell), Ricweald (Riggall), Ricweard 
(Richard* Rickwood, Record), Leofric (Leveridge, 
Loveridge) ; Snel, swift, valiant, as in Snelgaer (Snelgar) ; 
Wacer, bold, as in Eadwacer (Edicker), corresponding to 
the continental Odoacer ; Wealh, foreign, as in Walkling, 
Wakeling, a dim. of Old French origin, Vauquelin. 

Two common elements which hardly fall into any 
of the classes already mentioned are Regen and Gold. 
The former, related to Goth, ragin, counsel, seems to 
have been used in Anglo-Saxon as a simple intensive. 
From shortened forms of the common Regenweald 
(Reginald, Reynold, Fr. Renaud), Regenheard (Reynard, 
Renyard, Fr. Renard), Regenhere (Rayner, Fr. Regnier), 

1 For the change of vowel cf. Grimmett, Grummett, which are 
common side by side in Lincolnshire. 

2 This is also from Richard. 



SHORTENED FORMS 45 

etc., we sometimes get Raine, Raines, while Raybould is 
from Fr. Reybaud, corresponding to Regenbeald. Gold 
occurs both as initial and final, e.g. Goldhavoc (Gold- 
hawk), Goldwine (Goldwin, Jeudewin), Inggold (Ingold, 
Ingle) . Goldmore represents Goldmaer, though this is not 
in Searle [Guldemor w. of Richard Astmund, Fine R.]. 

The frequency with which any given Anglo-Saxon 
name occurs as a modern surname is not so much due 
to its wide use before the Conquest as to its associa- 
tion with some great personality. After the Conquest 
our baptismal system became, in the main, French, 
although the French names in use were largely cognate 
with the Anglo-Saxon names which they superseded 
(see p. 10). But the memory of famous saints, like 
Guthlac and Cuthbert, or abbots like Thurcytel and 
Ealhwine, was reverenced in those districts where they 
had lived and worked, and their names were given to 
children born of parents who had worshipped at their 
shrines. 

As we have noticed here and there, the modern 
surname often represents only the first element of the 
dithematic personal name. A notable example is 
Folc, which owed its popularity to the Angevin dynasty. 
We find among its variants, Folk, Fulk, Fewkes, 
Foulkes, Foakes, Fooks, Fowkes, Folkes, Volks, Yokes, 1 
and, with metathesis, Flook, Fluke, Fluck, Flux, while 
Fogg, Fuge, Fudge, Fuke are shortened from its com- 
pound Fulcher (Folker, Fulker, Futcher, Fudger, Volker, 

1 Here sometimes belongs Vaux, usually local, from one of 
many French place-names formed from val. Vauxhall was once 
a manor belonging to the notorious Falkes de Breaute. His name, 
really the nominative of Falcon, Facon, survives as Fakes, Fawkes, 
Feakes, Feggs. Though distinct from Fulk, the two names have 
been confused. 



46 THE TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM 

etc.). Foggathorp (Yorks) is Fulcartorp in DB., while, 
in the Cor am Rege R. (1297), the same man is referred 
to as Henry Fulcher and Henry Fouch. The famous 
French name Foch is of course cognate. Other 
shortened names of this type, not already mentioned, 
are Or am from the Norse Orm [Orum solus, Lib. Vit.] 
and Worms from the Anglo-Saxon form, as in Wurm- 
here, Fm#, Frow, from Freowine, whence Frewin, Fruen, 
Gold, generally shortened from some such name as 
Goldwine, Main, Mayne, from Maynard or some other 
compound of Mczgen, Wigg from one of the many 
Wig names, Winks, perhaps from Wincthryth (Lib. 
Vit.), etc. Many of these are simple, but a great 
many of our short names of Anglo-Saxon origin are 
very difficult to identify. This difficulty is increased 
by the fact that names of this type are seldom recorded 
in the Rolls. The latter give almost invariably, in 
whatever language they are written, the font-name in 
its full conventional form. Occasionally a clue helps 
us, as in the case of Fogg and Fudge (v.s.), but the task 
of extending the work of Kemble : by identifying the 
great mass of these names with their originals still 
awaits an enthusiast. 

N.B. To have included many medieval examples 
would have made the foregoing chapter quite unread- 
able. The author's Dictionary of Surnames, if it is 
ever completed, will contain evidence of the survival 
and alteration of these Anglo-Saxon names. 

1 In his pamphlet, The Names, Surnames, and Nicknames of the 
Anglo-Saxons (Lond. 1846). This task has already been attempted, 
for German, by Starck, in his Kosenamen der Germanen (Vienna, 
1868). 






CHAPTER III 

SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

" Nor indeed is he capable to beare any rule or office in town or 
countrey, who is utterly unacquainted with John an Okes and John 
a Stiles " (Ho WELL, Forraine Travell). 

APART from the innumerable names derived from 
towns, villages and estates, we have a very large 
number which originate from features of the land- 
scape (Hill, Wood, Field), or from specific buildings or 
parts of buildings (Church, House, Kitchen). Many of 
the words from which such names come are quite 
obsolete or survive only in local dialect. Some of 
these, such as Hurst, Shaw, Thwaite, etc., survive very 
strongly in compounds, and are often curiously cor- 
rupted. For these, of which I have given a summary 
account in my Romance of Names, see ch. iv. Here 
I propose to deal rather with a number of obsolete or 
unfamiliar words which occur more often in their 
simple form. A few others are included because of 
their peculiar use as surnames. The list, though by 
no means exhaustive, contains a very large number 
of names which have never been explained, and the 
examples by which they are illustrated are usually 
some centuries older than the earliest records in any 
dictionary. A few others belonging to the same class 

47 



4 8 



SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 



will be found scattered about in other chapters of the 
book in which accident has led to their mention. 

In many cases names of this type are now specific 
place-names. We find constant references to " the 
Devizes," as to la Burcote, la Haye, la Poole, la Rye, 
la Sele, la Woodrow, etc., now known as Burcote, 
Hayes, Poole, Rye, Seal, Woodrow, but the entries 
show that the corresponding surnames often belong to 
the general as well as to the specific use of these words. 
In the early Rolls these names, or rather these addresses, 
are always preceded by prepositions, which have now 
generally disappeared. The following examples are 
put down just as they are printed in the Rolls : 



John Abovebrok 
Roger Abovetun or Bovetun 
Roger ad capud villae de Weston 
Laurence Atepleystowe . 
Alan ad le Loft 
Thomas Attehallyat 
Walter Attenovene 
Richard A ten orchard 
John atte Churchestyghele 
Robert Attekirkstiel 
William Attelyhetewater . 
Adam Blakothemor * 
William Bithekirke . 
Walter Biendebrok . 
Thomas Bihunde Watere . 
John Binetheinthetowne . 
Geoffrey Bynethebrok 
William Binoptheweye 
Richard Bysowthewimpel 
Ughtred Bithewater 
William del Holewstret . 
Paul de Subburgo 
Richard de sut le Vile 
William de sut le Bois 



(Hund. R.) 
(Pat. R.) 

(Coram Rege R. 1297). 
(Hund. R.) 
(Hund R.) 
(F. of Y.) 
(Hund. R.) 
(Hund. R.) 
(Pat. R.) 
(F. of Y.) 
(Cal. Gen.) 
(Exch. R.) 
(Close R.) 
- (Fine R.) 
(Hund. R.) 
(Pat. R.) 
(Hund. R.) 
(Hund. R.) 
(Hund. R.) 
(Cal. Gen.) 
(Hund. R.) 
(IpM.) 
(Pat. R.) 
(Fine R.) 



1 A misprint for Bakothemor, back of the moor. 



SURVIVAL OF PREPOSITIONS 49 

Henry de ultra Aqua . . (Pipe R.) 

Edric de Ultra Usam ' . . (Pipe R.) 

Henry in le Dyk . . . (Leic. Bor. Rec.) 

Peter in le Hawe . . . (Hund. R.) 

William in le Trees . . . (IpM.) 

John in the Lane . . . (City A .) 

William Ithelane . . . (Fine R.) 

William Inthewro . . . (Fine R.) 

Peter Ofthechircheyard . . (Fine R.) 

John Sourfleet . . . (Coram Rege R. 1297.) 

Walter sub Muro or Onderwal . (Leic. Bor. Rec.) 

William subtus Viam . . . (Nom. Villantm Yorks.) 

Martin super le Wai . . (Hund. R.) 

William Surlewe . . . (Pat. R.) 

William ultra Swalle . . (IpM.) 

Thomas under the Hou . . (Coram Rege R. 1297) 

John uppe the Hull . . (Pleas) 

Robert Wythouthetown . . (Hund. R.) 

Names in which the preposition has survived are 
still common in English as in other languages, e.g. 
Fr. Doutrepont, Ger. Zumbusch, Du. Bezuidenhout, 
south of the wood. At survives in many obvious 
names such as Atwood, Attewell. The following are 
less simple, Athawes (haw, a hedge enclosure), Atheis 
(hays, hedges), Athews (ME. hiwisc, homestead, whence 
Huish), Athoke (hook, bend), A they (quay), Ato, Attoe, 
Ratio (hoe, a sand-spit), Athow (how, a hill), Attack, 
Attick, Attock (oak), Attenbarrow (barrow, a mound), 
Attrie (rye, seep. 72), Attrill, AS. at thcerehylle [Thomas 
Atterhill, Exch. R.], Attread (reed), Attride (ME. rithe, 
ride, a small stream), Attru (trough, see Trow ; or per- 
haps from rew, street, row), Attwooll (Wool, 2 Dors.), 
Atyeo (a Somerset surname, apparently from the river 

1 The Ouse ; cf . Surtees. 

1 I do not know the origin of this place-name, but Attwooll is a 
Dorset surname, and this suggests that Wool has some general 
meaning. 



50 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

Yeo). Atterbury is " at the bury," i.e. borough, and 
though there is an Attenborough in Notts, the fact 
that Attenborough is found along with Atterbury in 
many counties suggests that the two names are often 
of identical origin. So also Athemll, Attreall, at the 
heal (see p. 62). An interesting name of the same 
type is Ather smith, ME. at ther smethe, or level field, 
for which see p. 77. Athersuch probably contains Sich 
(q.v.), but the ending may be Such, a variant of Zouch, 
Fr. souche, a tree- stump. The reduction of At is seen 
in A' Barrow, A' Burrow, A' Ream (corner), as in Abear 
(see p. 53), Avann (see p. 59), A gutter. In the 
last name [Robert atte Gotere, Pat. R.] gutter means 
stream 

" The guter of waters " (Wye. Hob. iii. 10). 

It seems to have been equivalent to gote, a channel, 
whence Gott [William atte Gote or de la Gotere, of 
Boston, Pat. R.]. At- is also changed to Ad- and even 
Ed-, Et-, as in Edmead, Ethawes. 

Names such as Nash, Noakes, Nail are well known 
to be aphetic forms of atten ash, atten oaks, atten hall. 
With these go Niles, Nayland, Nyland [Thomas Atteny- 
londe, Pat. R.], N orchard, Nendick (end dike). We 
also get aphetic forms in which the initial A- alone has 
disappeared. The stock example is Twells, at wells. 
Here belong Tash (at ash), Taw (Athaw, v.s.), Toe, 
Toes (Atto, v.s.), Trill (Attrill, v.s.), and probably 
Trood [Margaret atte Rude, Pleas.}. The Border name 
Trodden may be similarly formed from northern dial. 
roddin, a sheep-track. 

Occasionally the AF. al (a le] and a la seem 
to survive, e.g. Algate, Allchurch, Allpass, Allpike 



SURVIVAL OF PREPOSITIONS 51 

(Hallpike 1 ), Alltoft, Altree, Allabyrne (burn), but alter- 
native explanations could be given for most of these, 
e.g. the prefix may be aid, old, or Allabyrne may be 
only an elaboration of Alabone, Allibone, which in its 
turn is a perversion of Alban [Hugh Alybon, Cor am 
RegeR. 1297]. Allhusen seems to represent aland the 
old dat. plur. husum, houses. But del, de la, are 
common, the former being often altered to dal, deal, 
dil, dol. Example's are Delahunte, Delahunty, Delhay, 
Dallicoat, Dallicott, Dallamore, Dillamore, Dollymore, 
Dellaway, Dilloway, Dolloway, Delbridge, Dealbridge, 
Dealchamber, Dillistones, Dallywaters, to which many 
more could be added. Dellow probably contains how, 
a hill [William Delhow, Hund. R.], while Dellew is 
for del ewe, water, also a common entry. 

Names in Du-, e.g. Dupree, Duppery, Fr. Dupre, of 
the meadow, Duberley, i.e. du Boulay (birch grove), are 
generally of more recent introduction from French. 
The retention of de in names of French origin, Danvers 
(An twerp), Darcy (Arsy, Oise), Davers (Auvers, Manche), 
Dorsey (Orsay, Seine-et-Oise), is common, but we 
seem also to have a few cases of this preposition 
coalescing with a purely English word. Such appears 
to be the explanation of Dash or Daish (ash) and Dash- 
wood, Delderfield ; cf. Nicholas Dinkepenne, i.e. of 
Inkpen (Chart R.}. 

Besides the obvious Bycroft, Byford, Bysouth, Bythe- 
way or Bidaway, Bythesea, Bywater, we have By- a 
in Bygrave, Bygreaves, where the second element may 

1 The aspirate need not trouble us ; cf . Edward Hupcornehill 
(Stow), John Sterthop (Close R.}. 

* In some cases this may be the noun bye, homestead, e.g. Byas, 
Dyers, Bias, " by-house," may mean the farm-house. 



52 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

mean grove (ME. greve) or quarry, trench (ME. grcef), 
Bygott, which being a Lincolnshire name goes rather 
vfith-Gott (v.s.) than with the nickname Bigod (bigot), 
and Eying (see ing, p. 64). To these should, I think, 
be added Bidlake and Bidmead, Bitmead, which con- 
tain the definite article, and probably Behagg, dial. 
hag, hedge, enclosure. For Ovcry, see p. 71. Names 
in Under- and Up- are fairly numerous and generally 
simple. Undrell is for Underhill and Upfill for Upfield 
or Upfold. With Upward cf. Downward or Downhard, 
Forward, Southward, etc. Sometimes in such names 
-ward is substituted for -wood (cf. Homeward for 
" holm wood," i.e. holly wood), but they are also to be 
taken literally. With Bartholomew Forward (Hund. 
R.) cf . Robert Avant (Ramsey Cart.) or Julian a Nether- 
ward (Hund. R.), evidently one origin of Netherwood. 
Downton and Upton must sometimes have been applied 
to men who lived " down town " and " up town " 
respectively. 

A few other prepositions occur sporadically. Inder- 
wick, Enderwick is ME. in ther wick, i.e. homestead, 
village, etc. The existence of Walter Underwater 
(Lane. Inq. 1205-1307) suggests that Bowater is for 
bove-water. 1 Neathway is " beneath the way," and 
Withinshaw, if not a corruption of " withy shaw," 
willow wood, belongs to the same class. In Hindhaugh 
and Hindmarsh the prefix may have adjectival or 
prepositional force. 

The following are examples of obsolete, dialect, or 

obscure place-words which have given surnames. It 

will be noticed that they are mostly monosyllables of 

Anglo-Saxon origin, but they include a few Old French 

1 Bove is older than above. 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 53 

words. Some are quite simple, but are mentioned 
because of their compounds. Others I am unable to 
explain. Quite a remarkable proportion are names 
given to small strips of land, boundary ridges, trenches, 
etc. They seem to reflect the proprietary tenacity 
of the Anglo-Saxon. 

Bache, Batch, Bage. ME. bache, a river valley 
[Robert de la Bache, Pat. R.] 

"Over baches and hulles " (Piers Plowm. C. viii. 159). 

It is common in Cheshire place-names. Compounds, 
Greatbatch, Huntbach. 

Bale, Bayles. AF. bail, an outer fortification, later 
replaced by bailey [Tessaunda del Bayl, Pat. R., John 
de la Baylle, Lond. Wills, 1258-1358]. Hence also the 
official Bailward. 

Ball. A common field-name in Somerset [John atte 
Balle, Kirby's Quest, Som.]. The name has other 
and more usual origins. Newball is a corruption of 
Newbold, new building. 

Barff, Bargh. Northern forms of barrow, a mound 
[Thomas atte Barghe, Pat. R., Yorks]. 

Earth. Sheltered pasture for cattle or calves 

" Warme barth give lams 
Good food to their dams " (Tusser). 

Bay. A dam or pool. Hence the common Cam- 
bridgeshire name Bays [John atte Bey, Hund. R., 
Camb.]. Bay is also a colour nickname [Robert le 
Bay, Testa de Nev.]. 

Bear, Beer, Bere. West-country word for wood, 
AS. beam [Morin de la Bare, Hund. R., Dev., Henry de 



54 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

la Bear, ib., Elias de la By ere, ib.]. Compounds 
Langabeer, Conybeare, Shillibeer, and the deceptive 
Shebear. This is perhaps one origin of Byers ; cf. the 
parallelism of Bubear, Boobyer, in Somerset, but in 
this group of names there has been confusion with byre. 

Bent. Very numerous meanings in Middle English, 
ranging from bent grass to battle-field (see NED.). 
Also confused with Bend [Robert de la Bende, Testa de 
Nev.]. Compound Broadbent. 

Sinks. Northern form of Banks [John de Nighen- 
binkes, i.e. near banks, F. of Y.]. See NED. The 
intermediate form was " benks " [Robert Neynbenkes, 
Bp. Kellawe's Reg.]. 

Boak, Boakes. Northern form of balk, ridge, especi- 
ally as a boundary [Thomas del Bouke, 1429]. 
Boag is probably a variant. From balk also come 
Belk and Bilke [Henry del Belk, IpM., Norf .]. 

Boam. A common Derbyshire surname [John del 
Bom, IpM., Notts, 1279-1321]. I suppose it to be 
a phonetic variant of beam (p. 184). 

Boosey. A cattle-shed, byre. 

Borstall, Bur stall. A winding hill-path, especially 
on the Downs [John Atteborstalle, Hund. R., Kent]. 
The example is just four centuries older than the first 
NED. record of the word. 

Boss. A conduit, fountain [Bartholomew de la 
Bosse, Close R.] 

" Bosses of water made at Belingsgate about the year 1423 " 
(Stow). 

Breach. An opening, also fallow-land [Andrew de 
la Breche, IpM.]. 

Breeks, Brack. A northern dialect word, cognate 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 55 

with above and also used of rocks [Robert del Brek, 
Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. It is ON. brekkr, a brink. 

Brend, Brent, Brind. Brow of a hill [Simon del Brend, 
F. of Y., Richard del Brynd, *&.]. 

Brewill, Brow ell, Bruel. OF. breuil, wood, thicket 
[Simon del Bruill, Chart R.]. Part of Savernake Forest 
is called the " Broyl of Bedewind " in IpM., and the 
Broyle (Suss.) has the same origin. Cf. Fr. Dubreuil 
and de Broglie, the latter of which has given us Brolly. 

Brush. Broom, undergrowth, heather [Adam del 
Bruche, Exch. R.]. Cf. Fr. Delabrousse, des Brosses, 
etc. Hence also Brushett (see p. 128, n. i) 

" Brusshe to make brushes on, bruyere " (Palsg.). 

Budden. This surname is sometimes of baptismal 
origin [Ermegard Budun, Hund. R.], from Baldwin or 
from one of the Bod- names ; cf. Fr. Bodin. But it is 
also local, a variant of bottom, which occurs as bodan 
in one of the earliest Anglo-Saxon glossaries [Stephen 
de la Buden, Pleas, Hants]. It is still a Hampshire 
name. 

Buggins. ME. bugging, a variant of bigging, a build- 
ing 

" Cometh the maister budel brust ase a bore, 
Seith he wole mi bugging bringe ful bare." 

(Song of the Husbandman, temp. Ed. I.) 

Buist. ON. bustadr, homestead, whence also the 
Orkney and Shetland Isbister. 

Bumbey. A quagmire (Norf. and Suff.). 

Biirst. A break in the land, from AS. geberst. It is 
so used in the Abingdon Chronicle [Hamelet de la 
Burste, Exch. Cal.]. 

Butt. A ridge or balk in ploughed land. Also a 



56 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

measure of land. But the surname Butt is often for 
Buck, altered in the same way as bat from bakke (see 
p. 24) [Roger le Buc or But, Close R., Hugh le But, 
Pat. R., James le But, ib.]. 

Cage. This may go with Penn, Mewis (p. 98), 
etc., or may be connected with a local prison 

" Cage, catasta " (Prompt. Parv.}. 

" Catasta, a cage to punish or sell bond men in " (Cooper). 

In the Coventry Mysteries it is used of the " pageant " 
on which a king stands [John del Cages, Bp. Kellawe's 
Reg.]. 

Callow. Applied in the west to bare land [William 
de la Calewe, IpM., Her el], the same word as callow, 
hairless, unfledged, which is the more usual origin of 
the surname. 

Cheyne. This is simply a Middle English spelling of 
" chain," probably meaning the barrier by which 
streets were often closed at night [Richard de Catena, 
Close R.] ; cf. Ban 

" For other wey is fro the gatis none, 
Of Dardanas, there opyn is the cheyne " 

(Chauc. Troilus and Criseyde). 

Chuck. A tree-stump, OF. chouq, apparently re- 
lated to souche, a stump [Henry de Chokes, Close R., 
Roger de la Zuche or de la Suche or de la Chuche, ib.]. 
Hence Choak, Chugg, Chucks. Also a nickname 
[Robert Choc, Pipe R., William Choc, Hund. R.]. 
Cf. Block (p. 156). 

Clench, Clinch. I can find no clue to the meaning 
of this word, apparently the origin of Clinch in Wilts. 
[Richard de la Clenche, Fine R., Wilts, John de la 
Clenche, Hund. R., Wilts]. A stream called the 
Clenche is mentioned in Glouc. Cart. 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 57 

Cloud. ME. elude, a rock [Robert atte Cloude, 
Kirby's Quest], the same word as cloud (cumulus). 
Hence also Clout and possibly Clodd. 

Clyne. Old Welsh chin, clyn, a meadow [William 
ate Clyne, Exch. R.]. Also Clunn. 

Cock. The very common entry " atte Cok " refers 
not only to a shop-sign, but also to the same word 
commonly used of a water conduit. Cf. Boss. Hence 
also sometimes Acock, Adcock, Atcock [Ralph Atecock, 
Lond. Wills, 1282]. 

Cockshott, Cockshoot. " A broad way or glade in a 
wood, through which woodcocks, etc., might dart or 
shoot, so as to be caught by nets stretched across the 
opening " (NED.) 

" Cockesshote to take woodcockes with, voice " (Palsg.). 

Cradle. A place in Sussex called " le Cradele " is 
mentioned in the Percy Cartulary [Richard atte 
Cradele, Percy Cart., John de la Cradel, Pat. R.]. In 
Middle English, as now, the word was used of various 
arrangements in the way of framework or scaffolding, 
but its meaning here is very dubious. Perhaps the 
ending is the same as that of the next name. 

Crundall, Crundle. More than sixty crundels are 
mentioned in Thorpe's Codex Diplomaticus. AS. 
crundel is dubiously explained by Sweet as a chalk-pit, 
cavity, pond. Its modern dialect meaning of a ravine 
with running water in it suggests rather " crooked dell," 
from the adjective which has given the nickname 
Crum, Crump. 

Curtain. Dial, courtain, court-yard, straw-yard, 
Late Lat. cortina. 

Deal, Dole. These are ultimately the same word, 



58 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

meaning boundary , division [Alexander de la Dele, Fine 
R., William de la Dole, Hund. R.]. Dale is often for 
Deal. The word is still in use in various forms. Here 
generally belong also Dowell, Dowl, Dewell, Duell ; 
and the Kentish dowel, a marsh, is perhaps the same 
word. Most of the words for boundary appear also 
to have been applied to a piece of waste land between 
two cultivated patches 

" The waste called le dole " (Pat. R., Salop). 

Delf, Delph, Delves. ME. delf, quarry. [Hugh del 
Delf, Cal. Gen.] 

" And thei gaven that monei to the crafti men and masouns, for 
to bie stoonys hewid out of the delves, var. guarreris " 1 

(Wye. 2 Chron. xxxiv. n). 

Dibb. Usually bapt. for Dibble, i.e. Theobald (see 
p. 40), but also from dial, dib, a dip, or valley [John 
del Dybbe, F. of Y., 1469]. 

Dillicar. A dialect name, in the lake country, for 
a small field. No doubt a compound of the very 
common Can, Kerr, a fen, of Norse origin. 

Doust. ? A Middle English variant of " dust " [John 
del Doustes, Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. Cf. such names as 
Chalk, Clay, Mudd. 

Drain, Drane. Obviously from the drain or channel 
[John atte Drene, Kirby's Quest, Som.], a word first 
recorded by the NED. for 1552. Cf. Simon Drane- 
land [Hund. R., Camb.]. The examples are from the 
two chief fen counties. 

Dron. Dial, trone, a trench, a west-country word 
[Geoffrey Attedrone, Glouc. Cart.]. 

Dunt. I suppose this to be a phonetic variant of 

1 This is the origin of Quarrier [Nicholas del Quarere, Pat. R.]. 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 59 

dent, dint, meaning a hollow [William Attedunt, Hund. 
R., Kent], 

E 'aland, Eland. A dial, form surviving from AS. 
igland, now corruptly written island under the influence 
of OF. isle. 

Eaves. Used in Middle English for edge, especially 
in the compound " wood eaves," whence Wouldhave. 
In Whiteaves the first element is probably with (p. 84). 

Fall. It is a little doubtful what this means as a 
surname [Richard del Fal, Hund. R., Gilbert de la 
Falle, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], at any rate in com- 
pounds. In Horsfall, -fall may be for an earlier -fald, 1 
i.e. fold, enclosure, while in Woodfall it means the 
place where trees have been felled [Richard del 
Wodefal, Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. Still, although the 
NED. has no record of fall, cascade, till 1579, " the 
water's fall" (Spenser), the name Waterfall [Richard 
de Watterfa.ll, Hund. R.] points to a much earlier use 
of the word. 

Fann. The winnowing fan [Gervase de la Fanne, 
Chart R.]. The west-country Vann is commoner 
[Richard atte Vann, Pleas, Wilts.]. Cf. the occupative 
Fanner and Vanner. 

Farndell. The obsolete farthingdeal, or fourth part 
of an acre. Cf. Halfacre 

" Farding deale, alias Farundell of land, signifieth the fourth part 
of an acre " (Cowel). 

Hence also Fardell, Varndell. Farthing was also used 
in the same sense. 

Flatt. A common field-name in Yorkshire, and used 

1 The home of Hoys/all is the West Riding, where it occurs side by 
side with H or s fie Id. 

6 



60 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

in Suffolk of a flat oozy shore [Thomas del Flat, 
mariner, F. of Y.]. Hence also the Suffolk name 
Flatman. 

Force, Forse, Forss. This may be the northern 
force, a Scandinavian word for waterfall 

" The fishery del fors " (Pat. R., Westm. 1320). 

But the analogy of Wilberforce, from a place formerly 
called Wilberfoss, suggests that Foss is more often the 
origin. Cf. Forsdyke for Fosdikc, later corrupted to 
Fro stick. 

Fostall, Forrestal. Dial, fore-stall, a paddock or 
way in front of a farmhouse (Kent and Suss.). The 
NED. quotes it for 1661, but it is much older [Osbert 
de la Forstalle, Hund. R., Kent, Albreda de Forstallo, 
Cust. Battle Abbey, 1283-1312]. 

Foyle. Apparently some kind of excavation, Fr. 
fouille [John atte Foyle, Cust. Battle Abbey]. 

Fright. A Kentish form of 'frith, a wood, deer- 
forest, etc., so common in the phrase " frith and fell " 
[Henry del Fridh, Feet of Fines]. 

Gallantree. I only offer the conjecture that this 
Yorkshire name may be for " gallows tree," earlier 
" gallow tree," AS. gealgtreow ; cf. Godfrey de Galowes 
(Fine R.), Ralph de Furcis (Abingdon Chron.). 

Garston. An example of a common noun, AS. 
g&rstun, paddock, " grass town " [Henry de la Garston, 
Fine R], which has become a specific place-name. Cf. 
Gratton, stubble field, AS. greed, grass, Barton, AS. 
beretun, " barley town/' Leighton, AS. leactun, " leek 
town," kitchen garden, and the ubiquitous Burton, 
AS. burgtun, " borough town." From the latter we 
have Haliburton, the holy dwelling. 






DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 61 

Gort. OF. gort, properly a whirlpool (Lat. gurges, 
gurgit-}, but used in England of a kind of weir ; cf. Fr. 
Dugort. See gorce (NED.), which is really a plural 
form, and apparently one origin of Joyce, for Burton 
Joyce (Notts) takes its name from the de Jorz family. 

Grape, Creep. A dial, word for trench, also found 
as grip [John atte Gripe, IpM.]. 

Ground. Used in dialect for a field or farm ; hence 
perhaps the East-Anglian name Grounds. But Roger 
Grond (Hund. R., Hunts), Augustin Grund (ib.) sug- 
gest a shortened form of Grundy, AS. Gundred, as a 
more probable origin of the name. 

Hallows. Possibly ME. halwe, shrine, sanctuary 

" Feme halwes, kowthe in sondry londes " (Chauc. A. 14). 

But more probably a dial, form of hollow [William in 
le Halowe, Hund. R.]. 

Hames. Northern form of "home" [Adam del 
Hames, of le Hames, Cumb., IpM.]. Also Haimes. 

Hanger. A wood on a hillside [William del or atte 
Hanger, Pat. R.]. 

Hard. In the dialect sense of hard or firm ground 
(sixteenth century, NED.), as at Portsmouth [Gilbert 
del Harde, Pat. R.]. Also Hards. In Harder the 
second element is -or, -over, a bank. 

Haugh. This very puzzling word occurs in an 
immense number of place-names and consequently in 
many surnames, but nobody seems to know what it 
means. 1 It has several compounds, Ridehalgh, Green- 

1 " Healh, corner, hiding-place ; bay, gulf " (Sweet), " recess 
corner, hollow " (Miller). " Dr. Mutschmann is mistaken in thinking 
that the exact sense of OE. healh is ' very uncertain ' ; it means 
' river meadow ' " (Sedgefield). " It does not necessarily mean a 
riverside pasture. A hale, in Gloucestershire, may occur on high 
ground away from any stream " (Baddeley). 



62 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

halgh, Hesmondhalgh, Feather stonehaugh. Its dative 
gives Heal, Hale, and most of the names ending in -all, 
-hall, -0// contain it, e.g. Brudenell (at the broad heal), 
Cleall (clay), Greenall, Greenhall, Blackall, Blackhall, 
Whitehall [Gilbert del Whitehalgh, 1397, Bardsley], 
Midgall [Migehalgh, Lane. Inq. 1310-33], Thornell, 1 etc. 
Related to it is ME. halk, a corner 

" As yonge clerkes, that been lykerous 
To reden artes that been curious, 
Seken in every halke and every herne * 
Particular sciences for to lerne " (Chauc. F. 1119). 

Hence Halleck 3 and sometimes Hawke and Hawkes. 
In Halkett, Hallett,' it is compounded with -head (see 
p. 128, n.). Haugh is quite distinct from Hough (Huff), 
How, a hill, though it has been confused with it, e.g. 
in Wardhaugh, probably for " ward hough," the beacon 
hill, equivalent to Wardle (ward hill) and Wardlaw, 
Wardlow, AS. hlcew, a hill, mound. Ridehalgh has been 
confused with Redhough [Thomas del Redhough, Bp. 
Kellawe's Reg.]. From the dial, form eale, we have the 
names Eales, Eeles, and it is probable that Neale is 
sometimes of the same origin (see p. 50). 

Heald. ME. hield, a slope [Isabel de la Helde, Fine 
R.]. Cf. Ger. Halde, very common in place-names 
and surnames. Heald may be also for Heal with 
excrescent -d ; cf . Neild for Neil. 

Heath. This seems to have absorbed " hythe," a 
'quay, harbour. The latter was once a very common 

1 In this, and some other cases, it may have interchanged with 
-hill. 

2 A corner ; hence Hearn, Hum, Horn, etc. 

8 Cf. Frisian hallich, low-lying land near the sea. 
4 Also a dim of Hal, or Harry. 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 63 

name [Eustace de la Hythe, Hund. R., William atte 
Hythe, City F.], but I find no modern examples. 

Helm. Dial, helm, a shelter [John de la Helme, 
Wore. Priory Reg.]. But Helm, Helms are more often 
short for one of the personal names in Helm- (p. 38). 

Herepath, Herapath. AS. herepceth, army path, 
main road. Cf. Ger. Herwegh. Is it too venturesome 
to derive the very common Cambridgeshire name 
Thoday from AS. theodweg, people way, highway ? 
Both this and Tudway may be rather from the Anglo- 
Saxon name Theodwig. Fossey may be from Fr. fosse, 
a ditch, but is more probably from the historic 
Fosse- way. 

Hoath, Hoad. An archaic word for heath 1 [John 
del Hoth, Hund. R.]. 

Honour, Honnor. " A seigniory of several manors 
held under one baron or lord paramount" (NED.) 
[Stephen Adhonour, Pat. R.]. 

Hook, Crook. Both used of a bend in the river 
[Richard de la Hoke, Feet of Fines, John del Crok, 
Lane. Inq. 1310-33], the latter especially in Scot- 
land. The first seems to have been used also of a 
sand-spit. But Crook is usually a nickname [Philip 
le Crok, Pat. R., Croc the huntsman, Chart. R.], and 
Hook is sometimes, like Hucks, a form of Hugh [Huka 
de Thorne, Pipe R.]. 

Hope. Another word of very vague meaning, " an 
enclosure in marsh land," " small enclosed valley " 
(NED.) . But there also seems to have been a measure 
of land called a hope, cognate with Ger. Hube, Hufe, 

1 I have only HalliwelFs authority for this. Is it a mixed form 
due to the constant coupling of " holt and heath " in Middle 
English ? 



64 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

a unit corresponding in use, if not in dimensions, to 
our Hide. In a copy of White Kennett's Glossary 
which I possess, several examples of this use have been 
inserted in MS. by the learned antiquary Sir Edward 
Smirke. In compounds -hope becomes -ap, -ip, -op, 
-up, Harrap, Bur nip, Alsop, Greenup. This rather 
common name has, however, another origin [Hugh le 
Hope, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285, Vital le Hope, ib., 
William le Hope, Archbp. Peckham's Let.] which I 
cannot explain. No doubt also an abstract nickname 
(p. 218). 

Horn. As a local name this is a variant of Hearn, 
a nook, corner. Hence Langhorne, Hartshorn, Small- 
horn, Whitehorn, etc. ; see p. 62, n. 2. 

Hulk. A hut or shed [Agnes atte Hoik, Pat. R.] 

" Tugurium, hulc " (Voc.). 

Idle. An Anglo-French form * of OF. isle, also Me 
[John del Idle, IpM., Christiana del Ilde, Hund. R.} 

" Ilde, lond in the se, insula " (Prompt. Parv.) 

Other island surnames are Ilett, appropriately found in 
Somerset and Cambridgeshire, and the Celtic Inch, 
Ince, Ennis [William del Enese, Hund. R.]. The form 
Enys is very common in Cornwall. 

Ing. A Middle English name for meadow, especially 
a swampy one, and still in dial. use. It is from ON. 
enge [Thomas atte Enge,Fine R., Reginald de If\g&,Pipe 
R.]. This word is very common in composition and 
one source of the name England,* for ing-land. Names 

1 Cf. meddle from OF. meslev, and see Madle (p. 250). 

2 In spite of the existence of English, Inglis, the name England 
is rarely from the name of the country. Deutsch is a German 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 65 

such as Fielding, Penning, etc. have usually been 
explained as " man of the field, fen, etc.," but, 
although this tribal suffix occurs frequently in Anglo- 
Saxon place-names, it is perhaps equally probable that 
in surnames -ing means meadow, e.g. Wilding, wood 
meadow, Greening, Beeching, Bowring (bower), School- 
ing (cf. Scho field t Schooler af t) , Ravening, Watering, etc. 

Knaggs. Northern dial, knag, rock, hill-top. 

Knell, Knill. Apparently a phonetic variant of 
knoll [William atte Knell, Cust. Battle Abbey, John 
atte Knyle, Kirby's Quest, Som.]. Hence also Kneel. 

Knipe. Ridge, a lake-country word, surviving only 
in specific place-names (EDD.). 

Lart. A west-country word for " loft." Hence 
also perhaps Larter. 

Leach. Dial, letch, a boggy stream or a bog, earlier 
lache [John del Lache, Lane. Court R. 1323-4] 

" Ductum aquae, quern vulgo Lacche vocant " (Abingdon ChronJ). 

It is still used as latch in northern dialect. This is one 
origin of the name Leach, Leech, usually the physician. 1 
Its compounds are Blackledge, Bleakledge, Blackleach 

" Between le Misies and Blake-lache unto the end of le Cawsaye " 
(Lane. Inq. 1310-33), 

Cartledge, Cartlick [Robert de Cartelache, Lane. Court 
R. 1323-4], Depledge. 

name, but I do not think Deutschland is found, and the French 
surname France, not very common, is a shortened form of the 
baptismal Francois. England is also an imitative form of the Old 
French font-name Enguerrand, with the common change of r to / 
[John Ingelond, Pat. R., Geoffrey Ingelond, Hund. R., Simon 
Ingelond, i&.] 

1 I find that Surgeon still exists, also the lengthened Middle 
English form Surgenor. 



66 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

Leese. Perhaps generally for "leas " (cf. Meadows) ; 
but there is a dial, lease, 1 pasture, AS. Ices 

" The years have gathered grayly 
Since I danced upon this leaze " 

(Hardy, Wessex Poems}. 

Lew. A sheltered spot [Alice ate Lewe, Hund. R.]. 

Liberty. I have already suggested (Romance of 
Names, p. 123) that this name comes from liberty, in 
the sense of district outside the city walls, but subject 
to the city jurisdiction. I have, however, found no 
early example. I do not think it is an abstract nick- 
name. The apparently parallel Licence is an imita- 
tive spelling of Lysons,* of Lison (Calvados), whence 
also Lessons. 

Ling. This very common East Anglian name 
comes from the plant, and also specifically from Ling 
(SurL), Lyng (NorL), and Lyng (Som.), which accounts 
for the three regions which are the homes of the name. 
But the collocation of the word, in the following ex- 
tract, with sich, a trench, and put, a pit, suggests some 
other local meaning 

" Le Putsich, le Mucheleput, le Litleput, le Ling juxta Coppeswell, 
and le Longsyche versus Clayputtes " (IpM., Warw. 1268). 

Link, Lynch. A ridge, sand-hill, AS. hlinc. Dial. 
linch is especially used of an unploughed ridge making 
a boundary between two fields [Roger ate Lynche, 
Fine R.]. Link is possibly also a variant of Ling 
[John atte Lynk, Pat. R., Norf.]. 

i See NED. 

a Final -s in local surnames of foreign origin is treated as arbit- 
rarily as in native names (p. 71 n.). We have Gamage, Cammidge, 
from Gamaches (Somme), Cormell, from Cormeilles ^Eure), but 
Lascelles from Lacelle (Orne). 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 67 

Lippiatt. The leap-gate, or leap-yate, " a low gate 
in a fence, which can be leaped by deer, while keeping 
sheep from straying " (NED.). Also Lipyeatt, Lippett. 
Cf . the variants of Lidgate, swing-gate, whence Lidgett, 
Lydiate, Liddiatt, etc. 

List. Used in Middle English in the sense of 
boundary [Peter de la Leste, Hund. R.]. Cf. the 
"lists" for a tournament. 

Loakes. East Anglian loke, path, road [Gilbert 
Ithelockes, Fine R.]. 

Lone, Loane. Dial, form of lane [John in la Lone, 
Glouc. Cart]. 

Loop. Used in Middle English of an opening in a 
wall, whence modern " loop-hole " [Edith de la Lupe, 
Malmesbury Abbey Reg.]. But this name, though 
not common, has an alternative origin, the wolf 
[Robert le Lupe, IpM.]. 

Lyth. A Middle English and dial, word for slope, 
AS. hlith [Reginald atte Lith, Fine R.] 

" Steep pastures are called the Lithe " (White's Selborne). 

But Gonnilda le Lyth (Hund. R.) points to a nickname, 
so that the surname, though rather rare, has two well- 
attested origins. For similar cases see pp. 316-19. Lyde 
is a variant. 

Maw. A variant of mow, heap, as in " barley- 
mow." The name is very common in Lincolnshire, 
and medieval examples of " de la Mawe " abound on 
the east coast [William de la Mawe, Hund. R., Suff.]. 
A local surname could, however, hardly come into 
existence in connection with such a transient thing 
as a haystack or cornrick, so that we must assume 
that the word is here used in the wider sense of mound, 



68 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

hillock, or that it meant also the stackyard or barn. 
Maw is also a variant of Maufe, Muff (p. 246). 
/ Meals. ON. melr, dune, sandhill, especially on the 
coasts of Lancashire and Norfolk [Alan del Mels, 
Lane. Inq., 1310-33, Elota del Meles, ib.]. I fancy that 
this word, often meole in Middle English, appears in 
Ashmall, Ashmole, and Cattermole. 

Mears. Two local origins (i) mere, a lake, pool, 
whence also Man, Marrs [Robert de la Mar, Lib. VitJ] ; 
(2) ME. mere, mear, AS. gemcere, a boundary, a very 
common word, also used of a green " balk " or bound- 
ary road. Hence in some cases Marston, ME. mere- 
stone, boundary stone. Mark, March are also some- 
times from ME. mearc, boundary, apparently not 
related to the above [Roger del March, Fine R., 
Robert atte Mark, City D.]. 

Minster. The rarity of this name is surprising, 
although it is represented also by the lengthened 
Minister. As we have Beemaster, Buckmaster, Kil- 
master or Kilmister, and Kittermaster, from Beaminster, 
Buckminster, Kilminster, and Kidderminster respec- 
tively, it seems likely that Master, Masters, Mister 
may also have been sometimes corrupted in the same 
way from the simple Minster. 

Mount joy. Montjoie is a common French place- 
name [Ralph de Mungai, Pipe R.]. The name 
has no connection with the war-cry Montjoie, the 
origin of which is unknown. Also Mungay, Mun- 
chay, Mingey 

" Mont-joy e, a barrow ; a little hill, or heap of stones, layed in 
or near a highway, for the better discerning thereof ; or in remem- 
brance of some notable act performed.or accident befallen, in that 
place " (Cotg.). 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 69 

Mudge. A Devon and Cornwall word for mud, 
swamp. The surname is common in both counties. 

Ness. A headland, but not necessarily on the 
coast. Many of the examples I have found are 
inland [John atte Nesse, Pat. R., Richard atte Nesse, 
Cor am Rege R. 1297, Suss.]. The second example 
may refer to Dungeness. In the Abingdon Chronicle 
ness is used as equivalent to stert. See Sturt. 

Pallant. AS. patent, palace, Lat. palantium for 
palatium ; cf. the Palant at Chichester. 

Pamment, Pament. Middle English form of pave- 
ment, street. In Nottingham are still High, Low and 
Middle Pavement, spelt pament in the Borough 
Records. Cf. Cosway, Cawsey 

" And whenne y was nygh the awter y put of my showy s and 
knelyd on my kneys upon the pament " (Monk of Evesham). 

Pett, Putt. Variants of Pitt. The first is a Kentish 
form ; for the second cf. Hull for Hill. Compounds 
Lampet, Lampitt, Lamputt, loam pit, AS. lampytt, and 
Clampitt, cloam pit. Cloam, AS. clam, clay, is still 
used in dialect for earthenware. Burpitt is possibly 
for " bear pit " 1 ; cf . Bullpitt or Bowpitt, and Buckpit. 

Pickles. The Yorkshire dial, form of pightle, an 
enclosure (see NED.). Hence also Pighills and Pight- 
ling, the latter compounded with ing, a meadow 

(P. 64). 

Pill. A west-country word for a creek [Robert 
Attepile, Hund. R., Som., Bennett de la Pylle, Fine 
R., Dev.]. Hence also Pile, Pyle, Pillman, and Pitta- 

1 Bearblock appears to mean the stump to which the bear was tied ; 
but Bearpark is a perversion of Fr. Beaurepaire , fine home. 



70 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

way, with the intrusive a which is characteristic of 
Devon names (Eastaway, Greenaway, etc.). 

Place, Plaice. ME. place has a wide range of mean- 
ings, including market square, plot of land, large house, 
hamlet, etc. But the modern name has absorbed an 
Old French word related to Plessis (p. 286), and 
meaning an enclosure [Richard de la Plesse, Hund. 
R.]. It is often entered as de Plexito. Cf. the Fr. 
Dupleix, which has assumed in England the imitative 
form Duplex. Hence also Pleass. 

Plank. Used in Middle English of a narrow foot- 
bridge [James de la Plaunche, Fine R.] 

" Planche, a planke, or thicke board ; especially one thats laid over 
a ditch, brooke, or moate, etc., instead of a bridge " (Cotg.). 

Plaskett. A swampy meadow, usually " plashet," 
dim. of OF. plasq. The surname represents a Norman 
form. Also Plashed. 

Plott. The same as Plait, a flat piece of land [Henry 
de la Plot, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], 

Pluck. Apparently a phonetic variant of ME. 
plecke, a piece of ground [Nicholas de la Plock, Glouc. 
Cart.]. It is also found in Duplock, earlier Duplac 
(Norf. Court R.). But Diplock is more probably 
" deep lake." 

Quick. Usually a nickname, but also a northern 
variant of wick, a village [Albert de la Quicke, Lane. 
Inq. 1205-1307]. Cf. Quartan iorWharton, and Quick- 
fall for Wigfall, the latter probably the " wick-fald," 
or Wick field. 

Rain. The name-group Rain, Rayne, Raines, 
Raynes, etc. has various origins. It may be baptismal, 
from the Anglo-Saxon element Regen- (p. 44), as in 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 71 

Rayner, Reynold, etc. [Reine Bacun, Hund. R.], while 
the -s forms represent Rennes [Robert de Rennes, 
Hund. R.] and possibly also Rheims. It is also a 
nickname, perhaps from dial. Fr. mine, a frog 
[Robert le Rane, Pat. R.]. But the home of the name 
is Durham, and in that county rain is a dial, word 
for a strip of land, boundary, etc., which is no 
doubt the origin of most of the northern Raynes. 
The word is common in field-names in north-country 
records. 

Rees. 1 This name, usually for Welsh Rhys, is also 
from an obsolete word for stream, channel [Henry 
del Re or atte Ree, IpM., Heref.]. There are several 
references in IpM. to " la Ree " (Heref.), but the 
word seems to have been in general use. The church 
of St. Mary Overy was in 1502 Saint Mary " over the 
re." Overy and Undery are both existing surnames; 
with the latter cf. Walter Underwater (Lane. Inq.). 
Ree may be related to ride (see p. 49) and Rye (Suss.), 

1 The majority of monosyllabic, and many dissyllabic, local 
names are commonly found with -s, originally due to analogy with 
Wills, Jones, etc., where -s is the sign of the genitive. It will be 
found that this addition of -s in local names generally takes place 
whenever it does not involve an extra syllable or any exertion in 
pronunciation, e.g. Birks but Birch, Noakes but Nash, Marks but 
March, Meadows but Field, Sykes but Sich. The only important 
exception to this phonetic rule is Bridges, which is usually derived, 
not from bridge, but from Bruges, once commonly called Bridges 
in English. This -s is also added to specific place-names, e.g. 
Cheales from Cheal (Line.), Tarbox from Tarbock (Lane.), Burls 
from some spot in Essex formerly called Berle [Robert de Berle, 
Hund. R., Ess.], Rhymes from Ryme (Dors.), etc. This tendency, 
still very strongly marked in uneducated speech, leads to some 
very curious results. I am told that the Earl of Stair is commonly 
called Lord Stairs by the Wigtownshire peasants. Still more ex- 
traordinary is the existing name Steadmances, of obvious origin. 



72 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

which was formerly la Rie [Geoffrey atte Rye, City E. t 
Robert Atterie, IpM., Suss.]. The word is perhaps 
of Flemish origin ; cf. the South African Delarey. 
The scarcity of Ree is due to absorption by Ray 
[Robert de la Reye, Close R.]. 

Rew, Rue. AF. rew, from Fr. rue, street [Robert 
atte Rewe, Pat. R., Dors.] ; cf. Attru (p. 49). But 
Rew is also a nickname, a variant of rough [Walter le 
Rewe, Glouc. Cart.]. 

Rhine. A name given to the large drains or channels 
on the Somerset moors, AS. ryne, a channel. It was 
the Sussex Rhine which proved fatal to Monmouth's 
followers at Sedgemoor. I have, however, no evi- 
dence for a surname thus formed, so Rhine is perhaps 
rather for Rhind, Rind. There is a Perthshire 
hamlet called Rhynd, but the surname seems to be 
rather from a Welsh personal name [Rind Seis, 1 
Chart. R.]. 

Riddy. ME. rithie, apparently related to ride, a 
stream (p. 49) [Walter Atterithie, Glouc. Cart.]. 

Riding. Perhaps from one of the Yorkshire ridings, 8 
but more probably a variant of Ridding, a clearing in 
a wood [Raven del Riding, Pat. R]. 

Risk. An archaic form of rush, AS. rise ; cf. Riss- 
brook. Hence also Rix, usually from Richard, but 
also from Exmoor rix, rushes [John de la Rixe, Hund. 
R., Som.]. 

1 I.e. Rind the Saxon ; cf. Sayce, Seys, etc. 

2 Originally thriding, third part, the initial having been lost by 
confusion with the final sound of the north, east, west which 
always preceded it. We have the converse in the Middlesex 
village of Ickenham, formerly Tickenham. As time went on, 
people who lived "at Tickenham" found they were living "at 
Ickenham." 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 73 

Roath. Apparently ME. roth, variant of root 
[William atte Rothe, Lond. Wills, 1305]. Or it may 
be identical with Routh, ON. ruth, a clearing, whence 
-royd, common in north-country surnames. 

Rood. A cross. Also Rude [Walter de la Rude, 
Fine R.]. Hence also Trood, "atte rood." Com- 
pounds Roodhouse, Roddis, Rodwell; with the last 
name cf. Crosswell. 

Rule. La Riole, near Bordeaux, latinized as Reula 
and Regula, ib constantly mentioned in London records. 
It gave its name to a London street and to the church 
of St. Michael Paternoster "Royal" [Henry de la 
Rule, City B., Alvyn de Reule, Henry de la Riole, 
Exch. Cal.]. In Chesh. Chamb. Accts. (1301-60) is 
mentioned Roger del Reulle, a shipmaster bringing 
wine from Bordeaux. 

Sale, Seal. Related words, the first representing 
OF. sale (salle), the second AS. sele, hall, dwelling- 
house. Compounds are Greensall and Normansell. 
Seal has become Zeal in Somerset. These names have 
become confused with dial, seal, sale, a willow, whence 
the Yorkshire names Sayle, Sayles [Agnes del Sayles, 
1379]. Cf. Sallows, Salliss, from the same tree, AS. 
sealh. 

Salterne. A salt house, also a salt marsh. 

Seath, Seth. AS. seath, a pit, pond, used in dialect, 
generally in the form sheath, of a brine-pit. Hence 
also Sheath and Sheat [Humfrey de la Shethe, Testa 
de Nev.]. It should be noted, however, with regard 
to Sheath, that Fr. Fourreau, whence Eng. Furrell, 
seems to be a costume nickname from the sheath or 
scabbard. 

Seed. I conjecture that this name, common in the 



74 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

north, may represent AS. geset, seat, dwelling, as in 
Somerset and the surname Honey sett. It occurs also 
in Adshead, Adsead (Adsett, Glouc.), and in the simple 
Sait. This would explain Liver seed, Loverseed, from 
the personal name Leo f here ; cf. John de Burysede 
[Hund. R.] and the Lincolnshire name Whit seed. 

Selden, Seldon, Seldom. The dative plural of the 
very common ME. selde, a booth or shop [John atte 
Selde, Lond. Wills., 1294] 

"One fair building of stone called in record Seldom, a shed " (Stow). 

Sell may sometimes represent the singular, but is 
usually baptismal [Nicholas Sell, Pat. R.], perhaps 
from Cecil. 

Shear. AS. scaru, division. Hence Landseer, AS. 
landscam, boundary [Anthony de la Lanscare, Pat. R., 
Thomas de la Landshare, Hund. R.]. One example 
is from Devon, the other from Somerset. Hence this 
is the origin of the Devon name Shears, while Shar- 
land, also a Devon name, may contain the same 
elements reversed. The form Scare, Sheer is also a 
surname. Cheers seems to be a variant * [Walter de 
la Chere, Glouc. Cart.] and Chare also exists. Seear 
may belong here or to Sayer, AS. Saegaer. 

Sheard, Shard. Middle English and dial, sherd, a 
gap in an enclosure or bank [John atte Sherde, 
Pat. R.]. The same word as in "potsherd." Shirt 
is an imitative spelling. 

Shed. A section of land. The same word as in 
" watershed." Hence Shead, Shedd, Shade. No doubt 

1 The substitution of Ch- for Sh- is not uncommon, e.g. Nicholas 
Chepe, Ralph de Chepeye, Osbert le Chephirde occur together in the 
Pat. R. Hence Cheap is sometimes a nickname, " sheep." 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 75 

also from the building, which is also shad, shade in 
dialect. 

Shields, Scales. The English and Norse forms 
respectively for a shieling or shelter. The first is 
very common in Northumbrian farm-names, hence 
Blackshields, Greenshields. It is the same as ME. 
schiel [Adam del Schele, Percy Cart.], whence Shiel. 
From Scales we have the compounds Summerscales l 
and Winterscale, corrupted into Summer skill, Sum- 
mersgill, Wintersgill. Related are the numerous Scan- 
dinavian names in -skjold, such as Nordenskjold, Liljen- 
skjold, etc. 

Shippen, Skippon. A dial, word for cow-house, AS. 
scipen [Richard de la Schepene, Coram Rege R. 1297]. 
Hence also Shippings 

" Thropes, bernes, shipnes, dayeryes " (Chauc D. 871). 

By folk-etymology connected with " sheep-pen," but 
really cognate with " shop." But in Sheepwash, Ship- 
wash, Shipway, Shipsides, and most local names in 
Ship-, the first element is " sheep." 

Shire. Used in the sense of boundary [Thomas atte 
Shyre, Lond. Wills, 1349]. Here belong also some- 
times Shear, Shears (cf. Lankshear, Hamshar) ; but 

1 Various explanations are given as to local names in Summer-, 
Winter-. In Germany the corresponding names are considered to 
indicate a southern and northern aspect respectively. In the 
examples above we no doubt have the summer and winter camp of 
the herdsmen. Other examples are Summerhayes, from hay, an 
enclosure, Winter ford, Winter flood, Winterbottom. Winterburn is a 
burn that runs in winter only. Another name, especially in 
Kent, for an intermittent spring is nailbourn, later eylebourn, whence 
the surname Elborn and probably Eborn. On this interesting word 
see Skeat, Trans. Phil Soc,, 1911-14, p 37. 



76 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

Thomas Palle, called Sheres (Lond. 1376), suggests a 
nickname for a shearsmith or cutler. For the usual 
origin of Shears see p. 74. In compounds other than 
county names -shire is generally a corruption of 
-shaw ; e.g. Ormeshire for Ormeshaw. 

Sich. A trench, AS. sic [Robert de la Siche, 
IpM.]. Hence also Sitch and the Yorkshire Sykes 
[William Enlesik, Pat. R., John del Sykes, Lane. Inq. 
1310-33] 

" Sich, sichettum and sichettus, a little current of water, that uses 
to be dry in the summer, also a water-furrow or gutter " (Cowel). 

Slade. A valley, glade, strip of greensward [John o* 
the Slade, City D.], AS. sited, valley, familiar in the 
phrase the " greenwood slade." Hence also Slate, 
Sleath, and the compound Greenslade. 1 This is another 

1 Our ancestors did not show much imagination in describing 
scenery, and Green occurs with monotonous frequency Greenacre, 
Greenall (heal, p. 62), Greenaway (cf . Eastaway, Westaway, and other 
Devon names), Greenberry (bury), Greenfield, Gren/ell, Greengrass, 
Greenhalgh, Greenhall (p. 62), Greenhead, Greenhill, Greenhongh, 
Greenhow (hough, a hill), Greenhorn (horn, a nook corner, p. 64, 
but possibly a nickname), Greenhouse (cf. Whitehouse, but possibly 
the house on the green), Greening (p. 64), Greenland (ME. laund, a 
stretch of open country), Greenist (seep. 95), Greenlaw (law, a hill), 
Greenlees, Greenop, Greenup (p. 63), Greenrod, Greenroyd, Grinrod 
(royd, a clearing), Greensall, Greensill (see Seal, p. 73), Greenshields 
(p. 75), Greenstock, Gristock (stoke, a homestead), Greensides(p. 138), 
Greenwell, Greenwood, etc. In F. of Y. we find also Greenayk (oak), 
Greenbank, Greenbergh (barrow, hill), Greengare, Greengore (gore, a 
triangular piece of land), Greenshagh. But occasionally there has been 
confusion with the Anglo-Saxon name-element Grim. In Suffolk we 
find Grimweard becoming Grimwood, whence the transition to Green- 
wood was inevitable. The compromise Greenward is also found. 
Conversely the very common northern Grimshaw, apparently 
" Grim's shaw " or " Grim's haw " (enclosure) is generally a corrup- 
tion of " green shaw," once as familiar as " green wood." 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 77 

example of the elusive meaning of these dialect words. 
White Kennett defines it as a long, flat piece of land, 
while Wyclif actually uses it of a, presumably flat, 
ridge 

" Semeye gede bi the slack, var. cop, of the hil . . . and curside" 
(2 Sam. xvi. 13). 

The EDD. offers a very wide choice of meanings : 
valley, hollow ; grassy plain between hills ; side or 
slope of a hill ; small, often hanging, wood ; strip of 
greensward through a wood ; green road ; piece of 
greensward in ploughed land ; strip of boggy land ; 
stagnant water in a marsh ; small running stream ; 
sheep-walk ; bare, flat place on top of a hill. 

Slape. Very puzzling. There is an early Scot, slape, 
a gap, breach, but the examples of de la Slape are 
all from the west, chiefly Somerset. Slope is quite a 
modern word according to the NED. Perhaps related 
to slipe, a long narrow strip, used in several counties, 
including Somerset. This also means the sloping bank 
of a dike or river ; cf. slype, a covered way from the 
transept of a cathedral to the chapter-house. 

Slay. Slope, lane through gorse, etc. (Suss.). Also 
Sice [Stephen atte Sle, Close R., Kent]. Probably 
identical with Slade (q.v.) ; cf. Smee for Smeed. But 
the surname is usually from ME. slegh, sly, skilful. 

Slipp. A long narrow slip (of land) ; see Slape. 

Smeed, Smeeth, Smedes. ME. smethe, a level place 
[Simon de la Smethe, Close R., Thomas atte Smyethe, 
IpM.]. See Athersmith (p. 50) and cf. Smedley, 
Smidmore 

" Smeth or smoth, planicies " (Prompt. Paru.). 



78 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

Hence also Smee and Smy, dialect forms. All these 
are also nicknames from the same word used in the 
sense of smooth, hairless [Philip le Smethe, Hund. R.]. 
So also the compounds Smeathman and Smithett (smeeth 
head) may be local or nicknames. 

Snaith, Snead. Specific place-names (Yorks and 
Wore.), but from AS. snced, a piece of land, from 
snithan, to cut, cf . Thwaite from thwitan, to cut. Also 
Snee. 

Snape. A spring in arable ground, Devon (Hall.). 
But the word is quite undocumented, though recorded 
as a surname in various parts of England [Henry de 
la Snape, Hund. R., Suss., Adam del Snap, Lane. Inq. 
1310-33]. It appears also to have been used of winter 
pasture. Hence also Snepp. Compounds Harsnip, 
Dewsnap, Dew snip. 

Snodgmss. This name contains the dial, adjec- 
tive snod, smooth, trim. 

Splatt. AS. splott, plot of land [William atte 
Splotte, Kirby's Quest, Som.] 

" Landsplot, tantillum terras" (Abingdon Chron.). 

Hence the compound Collinssplatt. 

Spon, Spong, Spun. A long narrow strip of ground, 
also found as Spang. Of doubtful origin, but probably 
Scandinavian [Liulf del Espaune, Feet of Fines, Line.]. 
The dialect glossaries assign it to East Anglia. 

Spring. A dial, word for wood, plantation [Robert 
ad Springe, Ramsey Cart,]. I know several " springs " 
in the woods of Bucks. Cf . Goldspring. Qf course the 
name may be also from spring in its more usual sense 
[Adam de Fonte, Wore. Priory Reg.] ; but it is rarely 
taken from the season. The Teutons divided the year 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 79 

into Summer and Winter, hence the frequency of these 
words as surnames. Still, cf. Fr. Printemps. 

Staite. ME. stathe, a landing-place, as in Bicker- 
steth. Hence also State, Staight. And, as Bicker- 
steth has given Bickerstaff, this local name may be 
one origin of Staff. Stay is a modern dial, variant 
(EDD.). 

/ Staple. A post [Roger Atestaples, City A.]. Gen- 
erally Staples. 

Stent. A boundary, limit ; probably OF. estente, 
extent. 

Stile. AS. stigol, a stile, also an ascent. Hence 
Styles [Geoffrey atte Stile, City F.], Still, Stillman, 
Stiggles [Richard del Stigels, Pat. R.], Steggall, Steggles, 
and even Steckles, Stickles [Robert Atstychele, Malmes- 
bury Abbey Reg.]. This group of names illustrates a 
phenomenon of some importance, viz. that surnames, 
and to some extent place-names, form exceptions to 
phonetic laws. The rigid phoneticians will say that 
the -g- of AS. stigol must disappear (cf. sail from segl). 
The answer is that when it becomes a surname, its 
development may be arrested and an archaic form may 
persist. The home of both Styles and Stickles is Kent 
[Robert atte Estyghele, Hund. R., Kent], where they 
flourish abundantly side by side. The AS. Stigand 
should have become Stiant. It has done so and 
exists in the surnames Styants, Styance ; but it also 
survives as Stigand, Stiggants, Stiggins, Stickings. 
Similarly AS. jugol became fowl, but has also given 
the surname Fuggle [Robert le Fugel, Pipe R.], and 
Tickler perhaps represents a sharpened form of " the 
principal rebel Walter Tighlar " (Stow). 

To Style may belong Stoyle (cf. Royle for Ryle), but 



80 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

a ship called la Stoyle (Pat. R.) is OF. estoile, star, 
and Lestoile is a common French surname. 

Stitch, Styche. Dial, stitch, a ridge, a balk of grass- 
land in an arable field [Richard Attestyche, Pleas.]. 
Styche is a good example of the effect on pronuncia- 
tion of an archaic spelling. 

Stoop. A dial, word for boundary post. Hence also 
Stopes, Stopps [William del Stopp, 1379, Bardsley] 

" ' No stopes or rails,' was the cry at the time of the Notts 
enclosures of 1825 " (EDD.). 

Studd. A variant of Stead, place, dwelling ; cf. 
Richard del Pleystude (Glouc. Cart.), i.e. Playsted. 

Sturt. AS. steort, tail, as in the bird-name redstart, 
used of a tongue of land [William de la Sturte, Hund. 
R.]. Hence also Start. Cf. Start Point. 

" Boscus qui dicitur stert " (Feet of Fines). 

Swale. As this is chiefly a Yorkshire name, we 
must assign it to the river (see p. 161, n.). But swale 
has also various dial, senses, a valley, a salt-water 
channel (between Kent and Sheppey), a pleasant shade, 
to one of which probably belongs Tedric atte Suele 
(Pipe R.). Hence also Swell. 

Swire. ME. swire, neck. The surname Swire may 
be a nickname (cf. Neck, p. 135), but is also a dial, 
variant of Squire. In ME. swire was also swere and was 
evidently used of a " neck " of land. A " bottom " 
called " le Swere," " le Sweres," is mentioned in 
Malmesbury Abbey Reg. Hence Swears. 

Tarn. A mountain lake. Hence Tarnsitt, tarn-side. 

Tart. Fr. tertre, a mound, hillock [Emma sur le 
Tertre, Leic. Bor. Rec.]. 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 81 

Thake, Theak. An East Anglian word for thatch. I 
have found the name in Suffolk. Cf. the occupative 
names Thacker, Theaker, Thackster. 

Thay, They. An existing, though rare, surname, 
which is amply recorded [Philip atte Thegh, Cust. 
Battle Abbey, John de la The, Pat. R.] 

" In la Thegh vi acrae gross! bosci " (Cust, Battle Abbey). 

It seems to be identical with Tye, Tey (q.v.), which 
is latinized as theia in the Pipe R. 

Torr. A west-country word for a rocky hill [Henry 
atte Torr, Fine R., Dev., Robert de la Torre, Coram 
Rege R. 1297, Corn.]. Hence Hayter, Haytor, Hector, 
high tor, and Grinter, green tor [Hugh de Grenetorre, 
Chanc. R., Dev.] Pictor, a Somerset name, prob- 
ably contains the same element. Torr has another 
origin from OF. tor, a bull [Hamo le Tor, Pat. R., 
Gilbert le Tor, City A.]. 

Trow. A Middle English and dial, form of ' ' trough ' ' 
[William atte Trowe, Hund. R.} 

" Trow, vessel, alveus, alveolus " (Prompt. Parv.). 

This is also one origin of Trew [William Attetrewe de 
Bristow, F. of Y.]. The same word is used in the 
west of a small barge, in which sense it is still the sign 
of an inn at Jackfield (Salop). So the surname may 
belong to the same group as Barge, Hoy, etc. (p. 171). 
Tuer. A narrow passage or alley [William de la 
Tuyere or de laTwyere, Archbp. Romeyn's Reg. 1286- 
96]. I am not sure whether Twyer still exists. Tewer, 
Tuer has an alternative origin, the Tawyer, or 
leather-dresser [Martin le Tawyer, City E.] 

" Tewer of skynnes, candidarius " (Cath. Angl.). 



82 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

Tuffill, Tuffield, To field. Dial, tuff old, twofold, a 
small shed, " lean-to," pent-house, ME. tofal, also 
spelt tuff all. Cf. Nicholas de Apenticio (Fine R.) 

" Tofal, schudde, appendix, appendicium " (Prompt. Parv.). 

Tuffill may, however, be equally well derived from 
Theophilus [Simon Theonll, F. of Y.]. 

Twiss, . Twitchen, Twitchell, Twizel. I put these 
together because they are no doubt related. They 
all contain the idea of a fork or branch. Twiss, un- 
recorded by the dictionaries, unless it is the dial. 
twitch, a bend in the road, is probably the original of 
which the others are derivatives [Hugh del Twys, 
Pat. R.]. With excrescent -t it gives Twist. Twitchen 
is used in dialect of a narrow passage connecting two 
streets [Richard de la Twitchene, Fine R.]. Hence 
also Twitching. Twizel, Twissell, Twitchell are AS. 
twisla, fork of a stream, as in Entwistle (Lane.), 
whence the corrupted surname A nthistle. Birdwhistle is 
an imitative spelling of Birtwistle. Elys Bridestwesil 
or Britwesil was almoner to John of Gaunt. The first 
element is probably " bird." 

Tye. An extensive common pasture (Hall.). Also 
Tey, Tee [Hugh de la Tye, Hund. R., Adam de la Teye, 
Cor am Rege. R. 1297]. Tighe represents an archaic 
spelling. 

Verge. Possibly in the sense of edge, boundary, 
but it may be OF. verge, rood, fourth part of an 
acre [Richard de la Verge, Close R.]. Also Varge. 

Voce, Vose, Voice, Voase. Fr. Vaux, plural of val, 
a valley, but common also as a specific French place- 
name [John de Vaus, Lib. Vit.]. This element appears 
in a few English place-names, e.g. Rievaulx, whence 



DIALECT TOPOGRAPHY 83 

Revis, Rivis, and Jervaulx, one origin of Jarvis. With 
these cf. Clarvis, from Clairvaux [Albin de Clairvaux, 
Ramsey Cart.}. 

Vyse, Vize. Of Devizes, once commonly called 
" the Vyse " and latinized as Divisce [Richard del Vise, 
Exch. R.]. 

Walne, Wawn. ME. walm, a well, spring. 

Waud. Variant of weald or wold [Walter de la 
Waude, Pat. R.]. Hence also Weld and Weale, the 
final -d of the latter being lost as in Wiles [Stephen de 
la Wile, Pat. R.] from the related Wild 

" A franklin in the wild of Kent " (i Henry IV. ii. i). 

The Weald of Sussex is also called the Wild. Hence 
the name Wildish 1 and the imitative Wildash. 

Waylett, Waylat. AS. weg-gelcztu, place where two 
or more roads meet [Cecily de la Weylete, Chart. R.] 

" Sche sat in the weelot, var. place of two weyes, that ledith to 
Tampna " (Wye. Gen. xxxviii. 14). 

Way the, Wath, Wathes. ON. vathr, a ford, once 
fairly common as second element in place-names, but 
now usually replaced by -with, -worth, e.g. Langworth 
(Leic.) was Langwath in the thirteenth century. 
Similarly -wade, a ford, its native cognate, has inter- 
changed with -wood, so that Braidwood may sometimes 
be identical in meaning with Bradford [Reginald de 
Braidewad, Pipe R.]. 

Wham, Whan. Possibly from AS. hwamm, a corner 
[William atte W T haune, Cust. Battle Abbey]. Cf. dial. 
wham, a morass. 

1 Cf. Devenish, from Devon, Kentish, etc. 



84 SOME LOCAL SURNAMES 

Wish. A damp meadow, marsh, common in old 
Sussex field-names. Hence Whish, which may, how- 
ever, be for Hewish, Huish, AS. hiwisc, a homestead 

" 'Help yourself, Mr. Whish, and keep the bottle by you.' 
'My friend's name is Huish, not Whish, sir,' said the captain." 
(Stevenson and Osbourne, The Ebbtide.) 

With. ON. vithr, wood, once common in place- 
names, e.g. Asquith (ash). It has interchanged with 
wath (q.v.), and, like that element, has paid tribute 
to -worth, e.g. Askworth, Ashworth. 1 Also Wythe. 

Wong. A meadow, AS. wang. There are several 
" wongs " in old maps of Nottingham. Compound 
Wetwan [Thomas de Wetewange, Archbp. Peckham's 
Let. 1279-92]. Identical with ON. vangr, as in Stavan- 
ger 

" Wong of lond, territorium " (Prompt. Parv.). 

Woodfine, Woodfin. A wood-heap, fairly common in 
Anglo-Saxon, now only surviving as a surname 

" Strues, wudefine " (Voc.). 

Wroe. ME. wra, nook, corner [John in the Wro, 
Pat. R.]. It has usually become Wray [Thomas del 
Wray, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], and has given a num- 
ber of north-country names in -wra, -wray, -ra, -ray, 
-ry, etc., e.g. Doowra (dove), Thackwray, Thackeray 
(thatch), Rothera (ME. r other, cattle), Cawthra, Cawthry, 
Whinray, Winnery, etc. It has also contributed to 
Rowe and, indirectly, to Rose 8 [Simon ithe Rose, Pat. 
R., Yorks]. Hence the Staffordshire name Durose for 
del Wros, and the Lincolnshire Benrose, Bemrose, Bem- 

1 In both of these the -worth is, of course, sometimes original. 
* Cf. Ruse from Rew (p. 72). 



CURIOUS SURVIVALS 85 

roose, in which the first element in probably " bean." 
Here may belong the Yorkshire name Ringrow, Ring- 
rose. Wroe may also sometimes be the second element 
of Morrow, as " le Murwra" (Cumb.) is mentioned in 
IpM., and of Woodrow, Wither ow, the latter having 
the Norse with (p. 84) for Eng. wood. With Bithray 
cf. Bid-lake, etc. (p. 52). 

There are some local surnames which are of obvious 
origin, but whose rarity makes them interesting. 
Such are Cowmeadow, Farmmedows, Forresthill, Ozier- 
brook, Monument, Marthouse l (market-house), Ground- 
water, Bullwinkle, the bull's corner (cf. Bulpitf), Leap- 
ingwell, evidently from some pool associated with the 
old ceremony of leaping the well 

" Leaping the well, going through a deep and noisome pool on 
Alnwick Moor, called the Freemen's Well, a sine qua non to the 
freedom of the borough " (Hall.). 

I do not know whether the name of the famous 
Whig pamphleteer Oldmixon still survives. It is a 
compound of the dial, mixen, a dunghill 

" Futnier, a mixen, dunghill, heape of dung " (Cotg.). 



1 Mart is more probably short for Martin. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

" ' Where d'you live ? ' I demanded. 

' Brugglesmith,' was the answer " (KIPLING). 

THE connection of a surname with a specific place- 
name is often obscured by considerable difference of 
form and sound. Sometimes the surname preserves 
the contracted local pronunciation familiar only to the 
inhabitants of the district. Such are Aram, Arum 
(Averham, Notts), Anster l (Anstruther, Fife), Littler 
(Littleover, Derb.), Wyndham (Wymondham, Norf.), 
Rowell (Rothwell, Northants), Startin (Staverton, 
Northants), Sneezum (Snettisham, Norf.), Bmtin (Bris- 
lington, Som.),Badgery (Badgeworthy, Glouc.), Roster 
(Wroxeter, Salop) . These examples, taken at random, 
can be largely added to 2 by any reader according to 
the district with which he is acquainted. In the 
above cases the local distribution of the surnames 
confirms the origin indicated, e.g. I have found Roster 
only in Salop. So also Finbow, found in Lincolnshire 
as Fenbough, is now chiefly represented at Stowmarket 
(Suff .) within two miles of its birthplace (Finborough). 

1 Hence also, I suppose, Ansterbervy, the borough of Anstruther. 

2 For instance, I have no doubt that the Devon name Widgery 
is from Wid worthy in that county, while Essery is for Axworthy, 
the " ash homestead." 

86 



CONTRACTIONS AND ECCENTRICITIES 87 

Often enough the surname has got back to the actual 
locality from which it was taken on the emigration of 
the ancestor, e.g. there are people called Freshney 
living at Friskney (Line.). Sometimes such contrac- 
tions are made from local names which have not become 
specific place-names, e.g. Timblick for Timberlake. 
The contracted pronunciation of local names in Saint 
is a familiar phenomenon. 1 Some interesting examples 
of French origin are Cinnamond or Sinnamon, from 
Saint-Amant, Cemery from Saint-Mary, Savigar from 
Saint- Vigor [Thomas de Sancto Vigore, 8 Fine R.], 
and Santler from Saint-Helier [Roger de Seinteller, 
Testa de Nev.]. 

Sometimes the local pronunciation or later perver- 
sion appears to be simply eccentric, e.g. Stuckey 
(Stiffkey, Norf.), Escreet (Escrick, Yorks), Orlebar 
(Orlingbury, Northants). Occasionally the surname 
preserves an archaic form,' e.g. Hockenhall (Huck- 
nall, Notts), Keyhoe (Kew, Surrey), Staveley (Staley 
Bridge, Chesh.), or represents a correct and natural 
development of a place-name which has become ortho- 
graphically perverted, e.g.Sapsworth (Sawbridgeworth, 4 
Herts). Tyrwhitt is the older form of Trewhitt 
(Nor thumb.), and Trask of Thirsk (Yorks). Shrosbree 
is evidently more phonetic than Shrewsbury, and 
Linkin is a fair attempt at Lincoln. 

1 Are Smiles and Smirke from St. Miles and St. Mark ? To the 
latter we certainly owe Seamark. 

8 Of Saint- Vigor (Manche and elsewhere). From the personal 
name Vigor come our Vigors, Vigers [Ely Viger, Fine R.]. 

3 Or even an obsolete name, e.g. some of the Dunnetts come from 
Launceston, the earlier name of which was Dunheved. 

4 Etymologically the " worth," or homestead, of Sebert, AS. 
Sacbeorht. Hence the surname Sawbridge. 



88 THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

As a rule, the further a local surname wanders from 
its home, the more it becomes distorted. Perhaps no 
name of this class has a greater number of forms than 
Birkenshaw, birch wood, also spelt Berkenshaw, Bur- 
kenshaw, Burkinshear, Bircumshaw. With the common 
change l of t for k it becomes Bertenshaw, Birtenshaw, 
Burtonshaw, and even Buttonshaw. Metathesis gives 
Briggenshaw (cf. Brickett for Birkett or Birkhead), 
Bruckshaw, and finally Brokenshire. There are prob- 
ably many other variants. The substitution of -shire 
for -shaw is also seen in Blackshire and Kirbyshire 
(kirk bye shaw), while we have the opposite change in 
Wilshaw. Both are unoriginal in Scrimshaw, Skrim- 
shire, the " skirmisher," or fencing master. Shire 
itself has many variants, which are, however, easily 
recognized, e.g. Lankshear, Willsher, Hamshar, etc., and 
Upcher, from Upshire (Ess.). A phonetic change 
which is rather the opposite of the usual tendency is 
the change of shaw to shall in Backshall t Upshall, 
Ringshall. 

Other examples of the corruption of north-country 
names are Barraclough, from a spot near Clitheroe, 
which becomes Barrowdiff in Notts and reaches 
London as Berrycloth and Berecloth (cf. Faircloth for 
Fair dough) ; Carruthers, a Dumfries village, which gives 
Carrodus, Crothers, Cruddas, etc. in the north of 
England, and in the south sometimes Crowdace ; Blen- 
karne (Cumb.), whence Blenkiron, Blenkin, Blinkhorn', 
Birchenough (hough, a hill), found in East Anglia as 
Bicheno, Beechner ; and of course the -thwaite names, 
e.g. Branwhite (Bran thwaite, Cumb.), Michadwaite 

1 Cf. Kirtland for Kirkland, a common north-country place' 
name. 



IMITATIVE CORRUPTIONS 89 

(Micklethwaite), Posselwhite (Postlethwaite), Mussel- 
white, Kibblewhite, and even Whitewhite. Frequently 
-wood has been substituted in the south for this uncouth 
ending, e.g. Thistlethwaite is the original form of Thistle- 
wood, for the first means the clearing or open land 
where thistles grow and the second makes no sense. 
The simple Thwaite appears also as Twaite, Twite, 1 
Dwight, Thoyts. 

Occasionally the perversion of a local surname is 
due to the imitative instinct, e.g. Stmwbridge, Strow- 
bridge for Stourbridge (Wore.), but many names 
which look as though they belonged to this class, e.g. 
Barnacle, Clown, Hartshorn* Stirrup ,* (Styrrup, Notts), 
Unthank, Winfarthing, are genuine place-names re- 
corded in the Gazetteer. A very slight change of 
spelling is often rather disconcerting, e.g. Wincer 
(Windsor), Farnorth (Farnworth), and occasionally we 

1 Cf. Crostwight (Norf.), " cross thwaite." There is, however, a 
dial, twite, meaning a kind of linnet. 

a Here the suffix is horn, a nook of land (p. 64) ; cf . Hearne, Hum, 
etc. But some of the -horn names are probably also nicknames. 
Such are Greenhorn, Langhorn, Rouhorn (rough), Whitehorn [MarkWy- 
thorn, Hund. R.]. In the medieval play of Cain and Abel (Towne 
ley Mysteries) Cain's seven horses are Greynehorne, Whitehorne, 
Gryme, Mall, Morell, Stott, and Lemyng, every one of which is 
now a surname. Leeming [William Leming, Hund. R.] is the present 
participle of the obsolete learn, to shine 

" Radieux, radiant, shining, glittering, blazing, flaring, learning, 
full of beames " (Cotg.). 

3 In the year 1280 occurs the name of Richard Stirrappe (Archbp. 
Wickwane's Reg.}, the form of the entry, and the agreement of the 
spelling with the Middle English form of stirrup, suggesting a nick- 
name. But it is merely an early instance of a wrong entry. Richard 
was a Notts man, and the Archbishop's clerk, unacquainted with 
the little Notts hamlet, took the local name for a nickname and 
omitted the de, a good example of the care that has to be exercised 
in drawing conclusions from old records. 



9 o THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

come across alterations of the most violent kind, such 
as Vicker staff, a well-established Lancashire surname, 
which apparently belongs to Bickerstaffe. 

In fact, local surnames are, when once they stray 
from their habitat, most subject of all to corruption. 
The immigrant possessed of a baptismal or occupative 
name would generally find it accepted in his new 
surroundings without much change, and, if his nick- 
name were unfamiliar, he would soon be provided with 
a new one ; but the man who tried to teach his new 
Midland or East Anglian neighbours the name of the 
Northumbrian village by which he had hitherto been 
known, would be very much in the position of the 
medieval Baskerville or Blondeville, whose descend- 
ants have now become, not only Baskwell and 
Bloomfield, but even Pesterfield and Blunderfield. 
The existence of a well-known town serves in some 
cases to normalize the spelling of a common surname. 
We do not, for instance, find many variants of York 
or Sheffield, but a place-name which has failed to 
develop into a specific settlement is especially subject 
to variation. In Lancashire documents there are 
several references to Gosfordsich [Walter de Gose- 
fordsiche, Lane. InqJ], i.e. the " sich " (see p. 76) by 
the " goose ford," a name which now exists as Gors- 
tidge, Gostige, Gossage, Gostick, Gorsuch. 

The suffix portion of local names varies in bewilder- 
ing fashion. We find -wood, -worth, -with (Norse for 
-wood), -wade, a ford, -thwaite, constantly interchanging, 
not only with each other, but also with the -ward of 
Anglo-Saxon personal names and with the adverbial 
-ward. Thus the common names Norwood, Southwood, 
Eastwood, Westwood are sometimes for names in -ward 






DISGUISED ENDINGS 91 

[Robert a Westward or de la West, Hund. R,]. In 
fact -wood in surnames is generally to be regarded 
with caution, e.g. Stallwood is simply a perversion of 
the nickname " stalworth " or "stalwart." On the 
other hand, Homeward is an alteration of Homewood, 
for Holmwood, ME. holm, a holly. 

Yate, i.e. gate, is well disguised in Boyeatt (bow, an 
arch, town gate), Ditcheatt, Rowatt [Robert de la 
Rougate, Hund. R.], Windeatt (wynd, an alley), 
Whiddett, Widdeatt (Woodgate x ) ; Burnyeatt has in 
Scottish the special meaning of small watercourse. 
Gate itself, whether meaning gate or street, is not at 
once recognised in Norkett (north gate), Forget, Forkett 
(fore gate), Claggitt, Cleggeti (clay gate), Foskett (foss 
gate), Poskitt (Postgate), Sloggett, Sluggett (slough gate). 
To these may be added Felgate, for field gate [Robert 
de Fildegate, Pat. R.] and Falgate, Folgate, for fall 
gate [Peter de le Falgate, Hund. R.], the latter mean- 
ing a gate across a high-road. 

We have a large number of surnames in -fitt, which 
may represent -field, -foot, or -ford, e.g. M or fitt, Murfitt 
(moor field or moor foot ?), Belfitt (Belfield or Belford ?), 
Breffitt (brae foot), Brumfitt (Broomfield), Rumfitt (Rom- 
ford), Wei fitt (Welford). So also we find Kerfoot for 
Kerfield (Peebles), Playfoot for Playford (Suff.), Fifoot 
for Fifield (see p. 128, n. 3), Linfoot for Linford, etc. 

One of the most interesting cases of suffix change is 
the confusion between -cock and -cote, -cott, a confusion 
that we find already in the Rolls. Grewcock, Growcock, 
Groocock, Grocott, Groucutt, Growcoit all spring from 

1 Whiddett may also be for Woodhead. In fact this group is 
easily confused with that of local names in -head (p. 128, n. i.). 
There is not much difference between Ditchett and Ditcheatt. 
8 



92 THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

an original of the same type as the nicknames Pea- 
N cock, Woodcock, and represent ME. grew-cok, from 
Fr. grue, a crane [Henry Grucok, Cal. Gen., Gerard 
la Grue, Fine R.]. On the other hand, Ellicock, 
Elcock, possibly dims, of Ellis, may also be for Ellicott, 
from Elcot (Berks), formerly Ellecotte (Chart. R.). 
The derivation of these names is, however, complicated 
by the existence of Elacota la Regrateresse (City 
B.) and William Alicot (Pat. R.), the latter of whom 
may also be responsible for some of the apparently 
local Alcotts, Aucutts, etc. To get back to firmer ground, 
the Oxfordshire name Didcock is certainly from Didcot 
(Berks), Slocock is for " slough cote/' Woolcock for 
Woolcott (Som.), and Bulcock for Bulcott (Notts). 
Even Peacock is sometimes an alteration of the common 
Fr. Picot [Nicholas Pikot or Pyekoc, City A.]. Chil- 
cock is for Chilcote, and Peter de la Polecok (Testa de 
Nev.) should be " pool cot/' while Robert Balkoc or 
Barkoc or Balkot (Cal. Gen.) shows how early the two 
endings were confused. Moorcock, which might be 
identical with Murcott (moor cote), is certified as a 
nickname by Martin Morkoc (Testa de Nev.) and by 
the existence of Morehen. Heathcock is also a nickname 
[Walter Hathecok, Hund. R.]. Among genuine com- 
pounds of -cote the most interesting is Caldecote, with 
a very large number of variants, such as Coldicott, Goldi- 
cott, Calcott, Cawcutt, and Corkitt \ Cf. with these Adam 
de Caldesete (Bp. Kellawe's Reg.) ; see Seed (p. 73). 

Another deceptive ending is -acre, a field, as in 
Hardacre, Hardaker, Har dicker. Its compounds are 
less simple than they look, e.g. Oldacre, sometimes 
equivalent to Old field, represents more often the ME. 
alder car, a " car," or marshy waste, overgrown with 



COMPOUNDS OF -ACRE 93 

alders. This is of frequent occurrence in Middle 
English, and is still used in dialect in the form 
owdaker 

" Aleyr keyr, alnetum " (Prompt. Parv.). 

" All the londs, merys, marysses, alderkars " (Will, 1484). 

With Oldacre cf. Older shaw, the " alder shaw," and 
the still earlier form in Ollerhcad, Ollerenshaw [John del 
Holerinchawe, 1332], and Lightollers, 1 Lightowler. 
Whittaker, which represents not only " white acre " (cf. 
Whit field), but also "wheat acre" and "wet acre/' 
is also sometimes a -car name [Adam de Whitekar, 
Lane. Court R. 1323-4]. Four acre, Foweraker looks 
simple enough, but may very well come from the dialect 
foreacre, headland of a ploughed field, whence certainly 
Farraker. The well-known Lancashire name Stirzaker, 
Sturzaker, less commonly Steriker, is a genuine -acre 
name, the first element being ME. steor, a steer, bull. 
In Dunnaker the first element may be dun, a hill, or 
dun, brown. Waddicar, Waddicker is from a spot in 
Lancashire formerly known as Wedacre. In Waraker 
the first element is Domesday wara,* an outlying por- 
tion of a manor. This is further corrupted into 
Warwicker, a name which has been assimilated to 
Warwick by imitative spelling. Half -acre was used 
in Middle English for any small piece of ground ; cf . 
Halfhide (p. 128, n. 3). Part of Brentford High Street 
is still called the Halfacre. Ranacre, Ranigar, Runacres 
seem to represent the Anglo-Saxon name Rsefengar, 
raven spear. 

1 Cf . with this Lightbirkes, a Northumberland shieling mentioned 
in the Fine R. 

1 On this important word see Round's Feudal England (p. 115). 



94 THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

Among names compounded from trees the oak 
easily takes first place. Most villages have, or at any 
rate had, before the devastating effects of enlighten- 
ment were really felt, an old oak, gallows oak, haunted 
oak, or some other oak out of the common. In com- 
pounds the word often becomes -ack, -ick, -ock, -uck, 
and in some of the following examples the identifica- 
tion is more or less conjectural. Whiteoak, Whittock, 
Whitlick, and Greenoak [Thomas de Greneayk, F. of 
Y.] are simple cases, also Shurtock, Shorrock, Sharrocks 
[Herbert de Schirhoc, Fine R.]-^- 

" Shire oak, an oak tree marking the boundary of a shire or a 
meeting-place for a shire court " (NED.). 

Holy oak, Holly oak may represent both the " holly " or 
"holm" oak, i.e. the evergreen oak, and the "holy 
oak " or " gospel oak " at the parish boundary where 
the procession stopped for the reading of the gospel 
when " beating the bounds" 

" Dearest, bury me 
Under that holy oke, or gospel tree " 

(Herrick, To Anthea). 

Coppock, Coppack may be for " copped/' i.e. polled, 
oak, for the earliest example of the word "cop" in the 
NED. is " coppede ac." Bantock, Bantick is for " bent 
oak" ; cf. Adam del Crokedaik (IpM.), and Cmmmock, 
Cromack, crump, i.e. crooked, oak, Cammack, from 
dial, cam, crooked. But the last three names may 
be dims, of crum and cam used as nicknames. In 
Brideoke, Briddock, the first element is probably ME. 
brid, bird, while Triphook, Trippick may be for 



THE ENDINGS -THORP AND -WlCH 95 

"thorp 1 oak" (v.i.). There is also the classical 
example of Snook, Snooks, from Sevenoaks, not neces- 
sarily always the place in Kent so called, for a spot 
called the " seven oaks" is mentioned in the Abingdon 
Chronicle. The intermediate Sinnocks also survives, 
and I find that John Hardyng, of Senock, Kent, was 
indicted for horse stealing in 1551. Snake is probably 
the same name. In Buckoke we have the name of 
some famous trysting oak of medieval hunters. 

Another word that assumes very numerous variant 
forms when used as a suffix is -thorp* e.g. Hilldrop, 
Guntrip, Westrope, Redrup, Gilstrap, Winthrop, etc. 
Whatrup, which looks as though it belonged to the same 
class, is an illiterate alteration of Wardrop [Thomas de 
la Wardrobe, Hund. R.]. Hurst, a wood, is slightly 
disguised in Fairest, Greenist, Everest. The last name, 
of reposeful appearance, belongs almost exclusively 
to Kent [Tenentes de Everherst, Hund. R., Kent]. 
The prefix is AS. eofor, a boar, common as first 
element in place-names. Wich, a dwelling, as in 
Norwich, has, as a suffix, often assumed the deceptive 
form -age, e.g. Swanage (Dors.) is Swanewic in the 
AS. Chronicle. Similarly Colledge represents Colwich 
(Staff.), and Stoneage, Woodage, Middleage, Winterage, 
which suggest epochs of civilization and of human life, 
also contain the ending -wich. Curiously enough, from 
the alternative -wick we get the equally deceptive 
Middleweek, while Nunweek is of course Nunwick 
(Northumb.). 

1 Browning has " The glowing triphook, thumbscrews and the 
gadge " (Soul's Tragedy, i. 332), but two out of the three instru- 
ments are ghost-words. 

* See examples in Baddeley's Gloucestershire Place-Names (p. x). 



96 THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

But hardly any suffix is so well represented as the 
simple word house. We have from it many quite 
obvious compounds, e.g. Newhouse and Whitehouse, 
and others whose survival is interesting, such as Ale- 
house, 1 Barkhouse, i.e. tan-house, Duekhouse, Dyhouse, 
Porthouse (gate-house), Sainthouse, Seedhouse, Tap- 
house, Woolhouse, together with the somewhat dis- 
guised Felthouse (field). Childerhouse, though not in 
the NED., presumably means orphanage [John de 
la Chyldrehus, Chart. R.] ; cf. Children [John Atte- 
children, Pat. R.] and Fr. Auxenfants (p. 280). The 
well-known Suffolk Aldhouse is generally an imita- 
tive form of a personal name Aldus, well recorded 
in the Rolls [Nicholas f. Aldus, Close R., Aldus 
Waveloc, Hund. R.]; it is also found as Aldus, AUous t 
Aldis, Awdas, etc. 

But often -house as a suffix is changed into -ows, -ers, 
or -as, -ess, -is, -os, -us, e.g. Bellows, Churchers, Dyas, 
Portess,* Burdis, Stannus, Stannas, Stannis, all obvious 
except Burdis (Burdas, Burdus), which may be for 
" bird-house," or for Bordeaux. Bellows has a variant 
Billows, and Windows 8 is probably for Windus, i.e. 
wynd-house. Meadows is sometimes for " mead 
house," whence also Meadus. Other examples in -ers 
are Duckers and Drakers, Smithers, Smeathers (see 
Smeeth, p. 77), Sailers, Charters (charter-house), Slathers 
(ME. slalhe, landing-place), Parkers, J ewers,' Childers 

1 The two bearers of this name in the Lond. Dir. (1843) are both 
publicans. 

8 This may be for Porteous (p. 156), but it is quite possible that 
the latter name is sometimes altered from Porthouse. 

3 Cf., however, the French name Lafenestre. 

* Cf. the Jew-house at Lincoln, said to be the oldest inhabited 
building in England. 



COMPOUNDS OF -HOUSE 97 

(for Child erhouse, v.s.), Hillers, Boggers, Suthers. We 
have something similar to these forms in Janders, 
which actually represents the heroic Chandos [Robert 
de Jaundos, Lib. R.]. 

Examples of the other endings are Dyas, Hallas, 
Hollas or Wholehouse, for " hole house," Dallas (dale), 
Beddis, Biddis, from AS. bedhus, chapel, the origin of 
the common Welsh place-name Bettws and, sometimes, 
of the name Bed-does [John del Bettis, Nott. BOY. Rec.]. 
With Bullas [Simon de la Bulehouse, Fine R.] cf. 
Ramus and Coultas, Cowtas, Coultish. Brockis is 
for Brookhouse, Nunniss for Nunhouse, Roddis for 
" royd-house," from the northern royd, clearing, or 
for " rood-house." Charteris is for Charterhouse, an 
imitative corruption of Chartreuse. For Millhouse we 
have Mellers, Mellis [Richard de Mellus, Chart. R.], 
and even Millist, the latter with an excrescent -/ as 
in Middlemist for Middlemiss (Michaelmas) ; cf. 
Bonus, Bonest, for " bone-house," i.e. charnel-house. 
I am not sure whether Porterhouse still exists, but 
Pendrous, Pendriss is for " pender-house," the Fender 
being the same as the Pinder or Pounder. Malthus, 
Brewis, 1 Cottis, Loftus, Lowas, Lowis, Newis are ob- 
vious. With Boggis cf. Finnis [William del Fenhus, 
Hund. R., Suff.], and Cams, Car ass, Caress, from 
car, a marsh (see p. 93). Harkus is for "hawk- 
house," as Barker is for Hawker. Fawcus, Falkous 
suggest early shortened forms of Falconas, but are 
more probably variants of the personal names Fawkes 
(falco), as -s for -es is common in some Middle English 

1 Possibly also one of the many variants of Bruce ; Alan del 
Breuhous (Pat. R.) confirms the first derivation, but John de Brew- 
ouse (Close R.) might be for either, 



98 THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

texts. With Falconas goes Mewis, from " mew," in 
its original sense of a cage for hawks. 1 

Wortos contains the archaic " wort," vegetable. In 
Pettus we have the Kentish Pelt, for Pitt. With Crannis 
[Richard de Cranehous, Pat. R.] cf. Duckers. Barkis 
was an East Anglian name long before Dickens [Alfred 
de Barkhus, Pat. R., Suff .]. Barrass may be for " bar 
house," the house at the entrance' to a town (cf. Gatus), 
or from the obsolete barrace, a barrier or outwork of 
a fortress, whence the French name Barras. Baylas is 
for " bail-house " (see Bale, p. 53), and the very common 
Bayliss must also sometimes belong here. Burrus is 
" bower-house " and Burrows may sometimes have the 
same origin. Day us is still used in dialect for a dairy 
(see Day, p. 233), and Adam del Cheshus (Hund. R.) 
suggests that Buttress may sometimes represent 
"butter-house." The Lincolnshire Govis is perhaps 
connected with the dial, verb to gove or goave, i.e. 
to store corn in a barn, whence the occupative Gover, 
Govier. Copus [Thomas del Cophous, Fine R.] may 
be the house on the " cop," or hill, or the house with 
the pointed roof, like the " copped hall " of the City 
which still survives in Copthall Buildings. Names of 
the type here dealt with are especially common in the 
north and the Roll of the Freemen of York has many 
early examples of them. The above list is far from 
complete. Circus perhaps belongs to the same group, 
though I can suggest no origin for it. Lewtas is 
probably connected with AS. hleow, shelter (see Lew). 
Wyclif has the inverted houselewth. Dwerryhouse, 
formerly also Dwarryhouse, means " dwarf house " 

" No dwery is but lyke a gyaunt longe " (Lidgate). 
1 On the origin of our " mews " see my Romance of Words, p. 120. 



COMPOUNDS OF -LAND 99 

The compounds of -land l offer no phonetic difficulty, 
but include some names of antiquarian interest, and 
others of deceptive aspect. Olland, old land, is still 
used in Norfolk and Suffolk for land that has lain 
some time fallow. Buckland a is etymologically " book 
land," i.e. land held by written charter. Headland is 
not necessarily a cape 

" Headland, that which is ploughed overthwart at the ends of the 
other lands " (Worlidge, Diet. Rust. 1681). 

The Scottish term is Headrigg (ridge) . Frankland, AS. 
Francland, was used in ME. for France. Eastland was 
applied specifically to the Baltic countries [Eremon 
de Estland, Hund. R., Godeschalke de Estlaund, ib.], 
and Norland, Westland, Southland may also refer 
to large geographical areas. Britland once meant 
Wales. The Devon name Yalland, Yelland, Yol- 
land contains the adj. yald, a West Saxon form of old 
[John de la Yaldelonde, Hund. R., Dev.]. Mark- 
land was originally a division of land of the annual 
value of a mark. The surname has an alternative 
origin from mark, a boundary. In Trueland the 
adjective has the archaic sense of good, suitable, 
genuine. Cf. Truefitt, where the suffix is probably 
field (p. 91). Both Freeland and Goodland are some- 
times personal names [Hugh Freeland, Hund. R., 
Hugh Godland, ib.]. They would be AS. Frithuland 
or Freoland, and Godland, names which are not given 

1 But it should be remembered that the ending -land often repre- 
sents ME. laund, open country, F. lande, a moor. 

2 Like all place-names in Buck-, it may also have to do with 
either bucks or beech trees. 



ioo THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 

by Searle, although the elements of which they con- 
sist are copiously attested. Other -land names cor- 
rupted from personal names are Checkland, for Checklin, 
a variant of Jacklin [Ranulf Jaklin, Pat. R.], Jose- 
land, for Jocelyn [Joselan de Nevill, Yorks Fines, 
temp. John], and Candeland [Kandelan de Slyne, 
Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], more usually Candlin, 
from Gandelyn. 

Many apparent compounds of -way are from AS. 
personal names in -wig (p. 37). Genuine local com- 
pounds are Birkway (birch), Buckaway (AS. hoc, 
beech), Salway, Selway * (AS. sealh, willow), Rodaway 
(road), Narraway, etc. Carroway is probably for 
Garroway, from Garway (Herel). Faraway is from 
Farway (Dev.), with the -a- which is characteristic of 
Devon names (see Greenaway, p. 76, n.}. The Dorset 
Samways was formerly (1517) Samwise, which seems 
to point clearly to AS. samwis,* dull-witted, lit. half 
wise. Jennerway is one of the many variants of 
Janways, the Genoese. Jackways shows the the old 
dissyllabic pronunciation of Jacques 

" The melancholy Ja-ques grieves at that " 

(As You Like It, ii. i). 

Spurway seems to be a phrase-name, the native equiva- 
lent of Pickavance (p. 268), and I should assign a like 
origin to Harkaway, though the NED. has no early 
record of the phrase. Cf. Rumbelow, no doubt a nick- 

1 This even is dubious. It may be AS. Selewig [Richard Salewy, 
Wore. Priory Reg.]. 

a This sam still survives in the perverted " sand-blind " and 
some dialect expressions. 



THE CORRUPTION OF LOCAL SURNAMES 101 

name for a sailor. Stephen Romylowe was Constable 
of Nottingham Castle in 1355 

" Your maryners shall synge arowe 
Hey how and rumby lowe " 

(Squire of Low Degree). 



CHAPTER V 

SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

" Sitot entre, le premier moutardier salua d'un air galant et se 
dirigea vers le haut perron ou le Pape 1'attendait pour lui remettre 
les insignes de son grade : la cuiller de buis jaune et 1'habit de 
safran " (ALPHONSE DAUDET). 

BESIDES the large number of occupative surnames of 
obvious meaning (Draper, Fuller, Singer, etc.) and 
those which, though a little more difficult to trace 
(Gardner, Latimer, Pitcher, etc.), have a well-docu- 
mented history and have not got far from dictionary 
forms, there are a good many names of somewhat 
rare occurrence or of deceptive appearance, of which 
I propose to give here a selection. Many of them 
present no difficulty, but their survival seems 
interesting. First it must be noted that many sur- 
names in -er, suggesting an occupation or a habit, do 
not belong to this class at all. Some of them are 
Anglo-Saxon personal names, e.g. Asker, Asher, Asser, 
AS. jEschere, Fricker, AS. Frithugar, Hollier, Hull- 
yer, AS. Holdgar [William f. Holdegar, Pipe R.~\, 
Ringer, 1 AS. Regengar [Richard Reynger, Chart. R.]. 
Diver and Ducker are no doubt nicknames, both 
words being used of various kinds of diving birds, 

1 Possibly also for Bellringer, or even for " wringer " [John le 
Wringer, Fine R.] ; but Ringer is still a font-name in Norfolk. 

102 



NAMES IN -ER 103 

while the two surnames are found especially in the 
fen-country. Diver has been a Cambridge name smce 
1273 [Gunnilda Divere, Hund. R., Camb.], while Ducker 
is common in Lincolnshire. Cf. William Plungun 
(Nott. Bor. Rec.) and Fr. Leplongeon 

" Plongeon, the water-fowle called a ducker " (Cotg.). 

Duckering, also a Lincolnshire name, is local, the 
" ing " frequented by " duckers " ; cf. Ravening 
(p. 64). Dipper, which looks as if it belonged to the 
same class as Diver and Ducker, is local, of Ypres 
[John de Ipre, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285]. Diaper 1 is 
a variant. The same place has given the Scotch name 
Wiper, Wypers, and the medieval Ypre, locally 
"Wipers," Tower of Rye reminds us of the connection 
between the Cinque Ports and Flanders. Thus history 
repeats itself. 8 

Many names in -er are from specific place-names, 
e.g. Docker (Lane.), Hever (Kent), Laver (Ess.), and 

1 The old etymologists also derived, though wrongly, the material 
called diaper from Ypres. 

8 A chapter could be written on war-maps and surnames. If 
we follow to-day (Feb. 28, 1916), as the great struggle for Verdun 
is proceeding, the sketch-map in the Times from Nieuport to that 
fortress, we see to the immediate east and west of the allied line, 
as we go through the country of the Flemings, Pickards, Champneys, 
Lorings, and Burgoynes, the original homes of the families of 
Bethune, Lyle, Dowey, Aris, Amy as, Cambrey (Kembery, Gambray) 
Noon (Noyon), Sessions (Soissons), Reames, Challen, Vardon, to note 
the chief places only. Armentieres ought to be represented, for it 
is very common in the Rolls, and John Darmentiers was sheriff 
of London in 1300. All the above are amply attested and there 
are many variants. A little farther south the famous salient of 
Saint-Mihiel reminds us of the popular form of Michael, which has 
given us Mighill, My hill, Miall, and is the chief source of Miles. 
With the intermediate Higgles cf. Span. Miguel.- 



104 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

others represent the local or vulgar pronunciation, 
which is very fond of substituting -er for a more dis- 
tinctive ending. Such are Laidler (Laidlaw), Powner 
(Pownall), Pepler (Peplow), Scatter (Scottow), Crafer 
(Cray ford), Stanner (Stanhoe), Snusher (Snowshill), 
Bearder (Beardall *), Priestner (Priestnall *), Hensher 
(Henshaw), Brister (Bristow, i.e. Bristol) 

" Nunk ! did ever I tell thee o* my Brister trip, 
Ta zee Purnce Albert an' the gurt irn ship ? " 

(John's Account of his Trip to Bristol, 1843). 

With this cf. Brisker for Briscoe. All the above 
place-names also exist as surnames in their more correct 
form. 

So also Mesher is for Measure, which, in its turn, is 
Fr. masure, a hovel, tumble-down dwelling ; cf. Fr. 
Desmasures. The Yorkshire name Greaser, Creazer 
appears to be for cress-over, where over, which regularly 
becomes -er in compounds, 8 is an archaic word for bank 
[John de la Cressovere, Close R.]. Stopper is a variant 
of Stopher, for Christopher, Mailer is the Welsh name 
Meyler [Mayelor Seysenek, i.e. the Sassenach, Exch. 
CaL], or, as a Scotch surname, means a payer of rent, 
and Hinder is the comparative of hind, courteous, a 
later form of ME. hend 

" As hinde as an hogge 
And kinde as any dogge " 

(Skeltonica). 

Cf. such names as Elder, Richer, Younger, and even 
Better (p. 323). 

1 Neither name is in the Gazetteer. They represent small spots 
in -heal (p. 62), probably the " priest's heal " and the " bird heal." 
1 As in Greener from green- over. 



DOMESTIC NAMES 105 

The multiplicity of occupative names is largely due 
to the infinite differentiation of functions in the 
Middle Ages. Nowhere is this more apparent than in 
the names derived from domestic office. We even find 
the name Household, with which we may compare 
Fr. Menage. In a fifteenth-century Courtesy Book 1 ^ 
we find precise directions as to the duties of each Sar- 
vant, viz. the Marshall, Groom, Usher, Steward, Panter, 
Ewer, Sewer, Cook, Squire, Yeoman, Amner, Carver, 
Waiter, Gentleman, Page, Porter, Butler ; and several ' 
of these genera were further subdivided into species. 
Other names of the same type are Chamberlain and 
Seneschal, the latter also corrupted to Scnskell and 
Sensicall. The Storer, Storrar [John the Storiere, Pat. 
R.] was also the convent treasurer. And there were, 
of course, a number of assistants to each of the digni- 
taries mentioned above, e.g. the Cook had the help 
of the Sculler, Squiller, S killer [John le Squiller, City 
E.] in the " squillery " or scullery, and of the Skeemer 
[Richard le Skymere, Cal. Gen.} and Easier in the more 
delicate processes of his art. A more responsible 
office was that of the Guster, or taster [Robert le 
Gustur, Fine R.]. Jester is also a surname, but the 
ancestor was not necessarily a buffoon 

" Of alle maner of mynstrales, 
And gestiours that tellen tales " 

(Chaucer, House of Fame, iii. 107). 

In many cases the official bore the name of his realm, 
e.g. Chambers appears as de la Chambre, 2 so that 

1 "A generall Rule to teche every man that is willynge for to 
lerne to serve a lorde or mayster in every thyng to his plesure" 
(ed. Chambers, EETS. 1914). 

* Cf . Roger atte Bedde, king's yeoman (Close R.}. 



io6 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

corresponding to the above names we find not only 
the obvious Kitchen and the rather uncommon Draw- 
bridge, but also many less simple names. The Mar- 
shalsea l was originally a court which had jurisdiction 
over the royal household ; the name is also found as 
Marshallsay. With the Usher, Rusher, is connected 
Hush, Fr. huts, a door, and also Lush [Thomas de 
le Uisse, Hund. R.] and Lusher [Geoffrey le Ussher or 
Lussher, Lib. Cust. Lond.]. Witcher, Whitcher are 
variants of the same name [Richard le Wicher, Feet of 
Fines}. The Panter, now sometimes Panther, has also 
given the name Pantrey [John de la Paneterye, Pleas], 
while Lewry, Lury, from the office of Ewer, even sur- 
vives as the fuller Delhuary. Cf . also Lewer and Lower 
[Robert Lewer or le Ewer, IpM.]. Spence, from the 
" dispense," or store-room, is also found as Expence 
[Ralph de Expensa, Bp. Kellawe's Reg.]. With Cook 
is connected John de la Cusyn (City F.), possibly now 
represented by Cushion, Gushing, which run parallel 
in Norfolk. With the Amner, or almoner, goes Am- 
ber y, Ambrey. This might be from the archaic and 
dialect aumbry, a cupboard, store-room, Fr. armoire f 
but it is also a corruption of " almonry " 

" The almonry (of Westminster), now corruptly called the Ambry " 
(Stow). 

The Butler's domain was the " butlery," whence 
Buttery [William de la Botelrie, Yorks Knights' Fees, 
1303]. Even Nursery exists as a surname. 

There are many other names which come from the 
various offices of great households and monasteries. 

1 Perhaps no surname of the occupative class has so wide a 
range of meanings as Marshall. See NED. 



OFFICIAL NAMES 107 

Spittle, i.e. hospital, is also found as Ashpital. Farmery 
is for infirmary [Robert de la Fermerie, Pat. R.] 
" Fermory, infirmarium, infirmatorium " (Cath. Angl.). 

The misericord, " an apartment in a monastery in 
which certain relaxations of the rule were permitted " 
(NED.), has given the contracted Mascord [John de la 
Misericorde, I4th century]. Prater, which looks like 
the latinization 1 of " brother," is Middle English for the 
monastery refectory [Thomas del Freytour, F. of Y.] 

" ffreytowr, refectorium " (Prompt. Parv.). 

or the name may be for ME. f rater er, the superinten- 
dent of the f rater [Walter le Freytur, Glouc. Cart.]. 
Saxty, Sexty are for sacristy (cf . sexton for sacristan) and 
Vester, Vesty are both related to the vestry, or robing- 
room [John del Vestiarie, IpM.]. The first represents 
the French form vestiaire, while in the second the -r- 
has been lost, as in Laundy for Laundry (p. 108) and 
Dunphie for Dumphrey (p. 39). Herbage is OF. her- 
berge, hostel, shelter, and a similar origin must some- 
times be assigned to Harbour, Arber [William le 
Herberere, Lond. Wills, 1318-9]. The Herber, or Cold- 
harbour, was at one time the mansion of Sir John 
Poultney, near Dowgate 

" A great old house called the Erber " (Stow). 

Wimpress is " winepress." For Fann, Vann, the 
winnowing -fan, seep. 59 

" Van, a vanne* or winnowing sive " (Cotg.). 

1 Pater is a variant of Peter, Mater of Mather, mower. 

* This is not always a result, as in Vowler for Fowler, of west- 
country pronunciation. Fan is Anglo-Saxon from Lat. vannus, 
while van is the same word though French. Cf . William le Fannere 
or Vannere (Lond. Wills, 1292-3). 



io8 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

Other names connected with the subdivision of 
labour are Furnace, Furness, corruptly Furnish, Var- 
nish, Darey [Alan de la Dayerie, Pat. R.] } and Landry, 
Laundry [Robert de la Lavendrye, Fine R.]. But the 
last, though not common, has an alternative origin 
from the French personal name Landry, OG. Landrich 
[William Landri or Laundry, Fine R.]. Another un- 
common name with a double origin similar to that 
of Prater is Parlour [Ralph le Parlour, Fine R., Henry 
le Parlour or del Parlur, Cal. Gen.]. The parlour 
was originally the conversation and interview room 
at a monastery. Gennery, 1 Ginnery are from the 
" enginery," some kind of workshop. The NED. has 
the word first for 1605, in the sense of the art of 
constructing military engines, but William del Engin- 
nerie (Close R., temp. Hen. III.) shows that its popular 
form was . in use more than three centuries earlier. 
Among the many forms of Jenner, the engineer, is 
Genower. Chevery is OF. chevrerie, goat- fold, and John 
Chivery, if the name is genuine, was of like descent. Of 
the same type is Bargery, fromFr. bergerie, a sheep-fold. 
I suppose that Gallery may be from an official whose 
duties lay in that part of the mansion, while Roof may 
have been the sentinel on the tower. Bardsley explains 
this name as a variant of the Norse Rolf, but Bartholo- 
mew del Rof (Pat. R.), the common Fr. Dutoit, and 
the Du. Vanderdecken point to an alternative origin. 
Still more limited is Carnell, Crennell, AF. quernel, 
F. creneau,.s. battlement [William de la Karnayle or 
Kernel, Ramsey Cart.]. And it is probable that Garrett 
owes something to OF. garite, a watch-tower, turret, 

1 January may be an imitative alteration of this, or from OF. 
genevroi, a juniper thicket [Roland de la Genveray, Close R.]. 



ACCIDENTS OF LOCALITY 109 

which is also the oldest meaning of our garret ; cf . 
Soller [John del Soler, Pat. R.], still used in dial, of a 
loft or upper room 

" Solleve, a loft, gamier " (Palsg.). 

" Thei wenten up in to the soler " (Wye. Acts, i. 13). 

Postans is derived from the postern gate [John de la 
Posterne, Testa de Nev.]. 

Some of the above names may be simply due to the 
accident of locality rather than to occupation. This 
applies still more to the following, which I put here 
because they approach the others in character. Frary 
is Middle English for a brotherhood, or Friary. Chan- 
try, Chantrey is from residence near a chantry, an 
endowment or endowed chapel with the function of 
praying for the soul of the benefactor. Chaucer's 
Poure Persoun of a Toun looked after his flock 

" He sette not his his benefice to hyre 
And leet his sheepe encombred in the myre, 
And ran to Londoun, unto Seint Poules, 
To sekcn hym a chaunterie for soules " 

(Prol. 510). 

It has absorbed the domestic chandry, or chandelry, 
the candle-store [John of the Chandry, John of Gaunt' 's 
Reg. 1372-6]. Charnell meant both a mortuary chapel 
and a cemetery [Alice de Cimiterio, Malmesbury Abbey 
Reg.]. Mossendew is the ME. measondue, synonymous 
with hospital 

" Maison Dieu, an hospitall, or spittle, for the poore " (Cotg.). 

Lower suggests that Domesday, Dumsday may be the 
same name latinized, domus dei, but, in default of 
evidence, it is perhaps safer to regard it as a pageant 
nickname (ch. x.), from some representation of the 



no SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

Day of Judgment. Maudling may also derive from 
a religious institution [Nicholas atte Maudeleyne, 
Pat. R.]. Monnery is OF. moinerie, a monastery, 
and I imagine that Mendary, found in the same 
county, is an altered form. Tabernacle was used 
in Middle English, not only in connection with the 
Jews, but also of a canopied structure, niche, etc., 
and in dial, for a woodman's hut. Monument, Mone- 
ment probably record residence near some elaborate 
tomb, the oldest meaning of the word in English. 
Checker, Chequer is official, of the exchequer [Ralph del 
Escheker, Fine R., Roger de la Checker, Hund. /?.], 
and I conjecture that Tolputt may be for tolbooti, 
now associated only with Edinburgh, but a common 
word in Middle English 

" A pupplican, Levy bi name, sittynge at the tolbothe " (Wye. 
Luke, v. 27). 

A few uncommon surnames have an official origin. 
Fitchell itself [William le Fychele, Hund. R.] is the 
natural popular form of " official " [Nicholas le Official, 1 
Pat. R.]. Brevetor meant a bearer of "brevets," 8 
i.e. official documents, especially Papal indulgences 

" Brevigerulus, anglice a brevytour " (Voc.). 

Every antiquarian dictionary of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries contains the mysterious word 
spigurnel, a sealer of writs, on the origin of which the 
NED. throws no light. " It is evident that the word 
had no real currency in English, and its appearance is 
due to Camden and Holland, copied by Phillips, Blount, 

1 Cf. Fr. Lofficiaux (Bottin). 

8 Hence perhaps the Staffordshire name Brevitt ; cf . Porteous 
(p. 156). But it may be rather for the local Brefjitt, brae loot (p. 91). 



RARE OFFICIAL NAMES in 

Harris, Bailey, etc." (NED.). It is, however, of such 
frequent occurrence in the Rolls [Edmund le Spigornel, 
Fine R., Nicholas Spigurnel, Hund. R., Henry Lespi- 
gurnel, Doc. III., Henry Spigornel, City C.], that it is 
surprising that it is not better represented as a sur- 
name. It exists as Spickernell, Spicknell, Pickernell. 1 
To the official class belong also Regester and Macer 

" Macere, or he that beryth a mace, septiger " (Prompt. Parv.). 

The oldest meaning of Sizer, i.e. " assizer," is a " sworn 
recognitor " (NED.), and I imagine that a Vizer or 
Vizor [John le Visur, Hund. R.] had to do with " re- 
vising." Gawler, Gowler [Geoffrey le Cooler, Pleas], 
besides meaning usurer 

" Gonlare, or usurare, usurarius, ffenerator " (Prompt. Parv.) 

may also come from the same word, gaveller, gawler, 
applied to a mining official in the Forest of Dean. 
Alner is the name of the official more usually called 
*' alnager," from Fr. aune, an ell, who attested the 
measurement and quality of cloth. 

Some rather rare occupative surnames are due to 
the fact that in Middle English there were generally 
two words, English and French, for each of the 
commoner callings. The native Flesher has almost 
disappeared, absorbed by Fletcher and superseded by 
the French Butcher. The native Baker has generally 
prevailed over both Bullinger (also found as Pullinger, 
Pillinger] and Pester 1 [John le Pestur, City A.]. So 
,Peacher, Petcher [John le Pechur, Pat. R.], Paster 
[Henry le Pastur, Hund. R.], Scotcher, OF. escorcheur, 
make a very poor show against Fisher, Shepherd, 

1 Cf. Pink for Spink, chaffinch. 

* The Latin form Pistor also survives. 



H2 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

Skinner. The latter is sometimes represented by Flear, 
for flayer. Sotcher is the natural result of OF. and 
ME. soudiour, a soldier 

" Sodioure, miles, bellator " (Manip. Voc.). 

Flecker, Flicker [Simon le Fleckere, Northumb. Ass. R. 
1279] are variants of Fletcher, the arrow-maker, and 
Shermer, Shurmer, Skirmer, Skurmer, etc. represent 
the obsolete scrimer, fencer, sword-player [William 
le Schirmere, Pat. R.] 

" The scrimer s of their nation, 
He swore, had neither motion, guard, nor eye, 
If you opposed them " (Hamlet, iv. 7). 

More common is the extended Scrimygeour, with a 
great number of variants, Scriminger, Scrimger, etc. 
(see also p. 88). Guyer, Gyer, Gwyer is OF. guieor, 
guide [Henry le Gyur, Chart. R.] 

"Conscience, that kepere was and gyoure" (Piers Plowm.B. xx.yi). 

It is also found as Wyer, Wire, from an Old French 
dial. form. Carker, Charker are Anglo-French equiva- 
lents of Carrier, Charrier, formed from cark, chark, a 
burden (charge). 

Many names of deceptive appearance can be solved 
by the study of old records. Bardsley guesses Punter 
to mean the man in charge of a punt. But Ralph le 
Punter, custos pontis de Stanes (Close R.), shows that 
he was a Bridgman l or Bridger, less commonly Brick- 
master.* Rower also savours of the water-side, but a 

1 Punt is of course equivalent to Bridge [Roger del Punt, Pat. R.]. 

8 For " brig-master." Cf. Brick, Brickstock for Brigstock, and 
Bricker for Bridger. But most names in Brick- probably contain 
" birk," e.g. Brickdale, Brickett, Brickland, Brickwood, etc. The 
last may, however, very well be an alteration of the ME. brigge- 
ward, just as Hay wood is often for the official Hay ward. 



ANGLO-FRENCH WORDS u 3 

record (City C.) of a payment made by the Corporation 
of London to Dionisia la Rowere for wheels makes 
it clear that she was of the same craft as Robert 
Rotarius, i.e. Wheeler (Chart. R.). The rare name 
Setter is wisely explained by Lower as " probably some 
handicraft/' Later writers have assumed, I know 
not on what grounds, that a setter was one who put 
on arrow-heads. The NED. gives several mean- 
ings for the occupative setter, but the only one old 
enough for surname purposes is " setter of mes, 
prepositor" (i5th century). It knows nothing about 
arrow-heads. In City E. I find that John Heyroun, 
" settere," and William le Settere were called in as ex- 
perts to value an embroidered cope, hardly the work 
of an arrowsmith. This confirms a suspicion I had 
previously had that this Setter may represent OF. 
saieteur, a maker of sayete, a kind of silk. 

Some rare surnames connected with hunting are 
Varder, the verderer [William le Verder, Exch. R.], 
Berner, OF. brenier, the keeper of the hounds [John le 
Berner, Close R.] t and the synonymous Brackner 
[Gilbert le Braconer, ib.], which in modern French 
(braconnier) has come to mean poacher. Related to the 
latter is Bracher,irom ME. brack, a hound, though there 
has no doubt been some confusion between this and 
the names Brazier and Bracer, the latter of which 
means brewer, Fr. brasseur. Juster, Jewster is evidently 
the jouster [Thomas le Justur, Fine R.], and Punyer 
is from OF. pugneour, poignour, a champion 

" De Sarraguce Carles guarnist les turs, 
Mil chevalers i laissat puigneurs " 

(Chanson de Roland, 3676). 

In the Lib, R. we find William le Poignur or Pugnear 



H4 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

or Punner de la Galee, apparently a formidable mariner. 
Ferler, Purler is OF. fourrelier, a Sheather 

" Fowrelier, a scabberd maker " (Cotg.). 

Stamer is OF. estamier [John le Stamer, FineR.}, now 
replaced by etameur 

" Estamier , a tynner, tynne-man ; pewterer " (Cotg.). 

Fulloon, from Fr. foulon, a fuller [Thomas le Fulun, 
Pat. R.], is an example of the small group of French 
occupative names in -on. The above examples, to 
which many more could be added, show that medieval 
England was bilingual to an extent which has hardly 
been realized. 

Among occupative surnames derived from archaic 
or obsolete words, whether French or English, may be 
mentioned Biller, a maker of bills or axes [Hugh le 
Biller, Fine R.], Power, a sweeper, scavenger [Roger 
le Fower, Hund. R.] 

" ffewar, or clensar, mundator, emundator, pur gator " (Prompt" 
Parv.) 

Kittler, kettle-maker, Alefounder, inspector of ale, 
still found in Suffolk, Flather, a maker of flafhes, or 
flawns, 1 Theaker, a northern variant of Thacker, 
thatch er, 2 Crapper, similarly a variant of Cropper, 
which the NED. defines as " one who crops," Meader, 
a mower, whence Grasmeder, Bester, a herdsman [John 
le Bestere, Hund. R., Hunts 8 ], Keeler, a bargeman, 

1 There is also a surname Flawn ; cf . Cake, Wastell, Cracknell, etc. 

2 Cf. Whattler, from AS. watol, hurdle, also used of thatch. 

8 It is still found in that county. For its deceptive appearance 
cf. Bestman (p. 237). 



ARCHAIC WORDS 115 

still used in the north of a manager of coal-barges and 
colliers, Marler, a worker in a marl-pit [John le Marler, 
Pat. R.], Retter, a common Devon surname, perhaps 
from ME. retten, to rate, reckon 

" Rette not the innocent blood in the myddil of the puple Israel " 
(Wye. Dent. xxi. 8) 

Counter, a keeper of accounts, treasurer 

" A shirreve hadde he been, and a conntour, 
Was nowher such a worthy vavasour " 

(Chauc. A. 359) 

Dyter, an " inditer," or scribe 

" The dyteris, var. endyters, scribis, of the kyng " (Wye. Esther, 
viii. 9) 

Render, Rinder, the Tenderer [John le Render, Archbp. 
Wickwane's Reg. 1279-84], the exact meaning of which 
cannot be decided, Shutter, Shittler, 1 and Spindler, 
makers of shuttles and spindles respectively, Styer, a 
horseman, rider 

" Bite the feet of an hors, that the stiere thereof falle bacward " 
(Wye. Gen. xlix. 17) 

Stickler, an umpire, Heckler, 1 a dresser of hemp or 
flax, Cosier, a cobbler, Oilier, an oil merchant [Reginald 
le Oyler, Leic. BOY. Rec.], Sarter, an " assarter," or 
clearer of forest land, and many more. Some names 
of this class, e.g. Faggeter, Basketter ) Trumpeter, 
Preacher, Teacher, Minstrell, Pronger, Organer, Outlaw, 

1 For this form see p. 130, n. Similarly a Britcher is not a 
maker of " britches," but a thinned form of Bracher (p. 113). 

8 Hence our verb to heckle, i.e. to " tease." See Romance of 
Words, p. 12. With the name Heckler cf. Burler, a cloth-dresser 
" Burler, extuberarius " (Cath. Angl.). 



n6 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

are interesting only by their survival. Cheeper, 
Chipper means buyer, or rather, haggler, cheapener 

" So many chepers 
So fewe biers 
And so many borowers 
Sawe I never " 

(Skelton, Maner of the World, 105). 

In Lincolnshire occurs the compound Colcheeper, but 
this is perhaps Du. koohchipper, a collier, for Dutch 
names are not uncommon in the county. 

Then we have a number of names which look very 
simple, but the exact meaning of which is very difficult 
to establish. Such are Borer [Robert le Borier, City 
E.], Drawer, Dresser, Gatherer, Sealer, all susceptible 
of various interpretations, e.g. a Sealer [William le 
Seeler, Pat. R.] may have made, or affixed, seals. In 
Acts of Parliament he is coupled with the " chaff -wax " 
(see p. 317) and also denned as identical with the 
" alnager," or official measurer of cloth (p. in). The 
earliest sense given by the NED. for dresser is cloth- 
dresser (1520) ; but John le Dressour (Chesh. Chamb. 
Accts. 1301-60) may have been something quite 
different 

" Dresseur, a straightner, directer, leveller ; settler ; a raiser, 
erecter ; framer, fashioner, orderer, instructer " (Cotg.). 

Still, as it is a Yorkshire name, it very probably has to 
do with cloth. A Rayer [Ralph le Rayer, Fine R.] 
11 arrayed," but the verb is almost as vague as " dress." 
So we cannot decide whether the original Drawer drew 
wire, water, beer, pictures, or a barrow. In the sense 
of tavern waiter it appears to be a Tudor word. In 
modern dialect a Gatherer works in the harvest fields. 



COMPOSITE ORIGINS 117 

Binder means book-binder [Nicolas le Bokbindere, 
Lond. Wills, 1305-6, William Ligator Libror', Hund. 
R., Oxf.]. It is still an Oxford name. 

A certain number of these surnames have two or 
more possible origins. An obvious case is Porter, 
which may mean a door-keeper or a bearer. 1 Burder 
may be for " birder," i.e. Fowler, but would equally 
well represent OF. bourdour, jester [John le Burdeur, 
Pat. R.] 

" Bonrdeur, a mocker, j caster ; cogger, Her, foister, guller of 
people " (Cotg.) 

" Godes mynstrales and bus messagers and hus murye bordiours " 
(Piers Plowm. C. x. 136). 

Bowler, Boaler, a maker of bowls, had also in Middle 
English the meaning of one who loved the bowl. In 
1570 two inhabitants of the parish of St. Martin in the 
Fields were presented as " common bowlars " 

" For hit beth bote boyes boilers atten ale " 

(Piers Plowm. C. x. 194). 

Disher means dish-maker [Richard le Dischere, 
Pat. R.]. But in Piers Plowman " Dawe the dykere " 
or " Dawe the delvere " is also called " Dawe the dis- 
schere." Therefore Disher may be for " ditcher." 
Cf. Dishman for " ditch-man." Pillar, Filler is 
generally local [Thomas Attepiler, Close R.], but also 
occupative [Dike le Pilur, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], 
perhaps a plunderer 

" Pylowre, or he that pelyth other men, as cachpolls or odyre lyk, 
pilator, depredator " (Prompt. Parv.) 



1 It has very probably also absorbed the " portrayer " [Nicholas 
ie Portreour, City D.]. 



n8 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

but quite as possibly a respectable " peeler " of trees. 
As late as 1732 I find in the Nottingham Borough 
Records a payment to 

" The pillars of the bark for work done in the copies." 

Sailer has two origins besides the obvious one. It 
7 may mean a player on the psaltery [Pagan le Salterer, 
Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79] and also a Leaper, Dancer, 
Hopper, Saylor, Tumber, Fr. tombeur 

" Master, there is three carters, three shepherds, three neatherds, 
three swineherds, that have made themselves all men of hair ; they 
call themselves saltiers ; and they have a dance which the wenches 
say is a gallimaufry of gambols " (Winter's Tale, iv. 3). 

This suggests Skipper, 1 which is not always a sea- 
faring name. Cicely la Skippere (Pat. R.) was evi- 
dently so named from her agility. The word skip had 
in Middle English no suggestion of youthful frivolity 

" And whanne the apostlis Barnabas and Poul herden this . . . 
thei skipten out among the puple " (Wye. Acts, xiv. 13). 

Curlier, Kirtler may be identical and mean a maker 
of kirtles, or short gowns, ME. curtil, but Gilbert le 
Curtiler (Pat. R.) may represent OF. courtilier, a 
gardener, found occasionally in Middle English as cur- 
tiler. Sellar, Seller means not only a saddler, Fr. sellier, 
but also what it appears to mean in plain English a 

1 Oddly enough Saylor, Sailer, F. sailleur, leaper [Hugh le 
Saylliur, Hund. R.], is also unconnected with the sea, although G. H. 
Le Seilleur, A.B., H.M.S. Lion, was mentioned in Admiral Beatty's 
despatch, January 24, 1915. The very numerous American Saylors 
are mostly German Sellers, i.e. Ropers. 

z It is of course also connected with " cellar " [William atte 
Selere, City F., Ranulf le Celerer, Pat. R.]. 



NAMES OF DECEPTIVE APPEARANCE 119 

[Gilbert le Seller, City A., William le Vendur Chanc 
R.]- 

"The sellers of Saba and Reema, thei thi marchauntis " (Wye. 
Ezek. xxvii. 22). 

A few occupative names are of somewhat deceptive 
appearance. Foister, Foyster is a variant of Fewster, 
Fuster, the maker of the wooden frame of saddles. 
This is also one source of Foster [Thomas Foster or 
Fuster, Kirby's Quest, Yorks, 1285], which more usually 
represents Forster, forester 

" Forty fosters of the fe 
These outlawes had y-slawe " 

(Ballad of Adam Bell). 

Nor can we doubt that the name Foster also represents 
ME. foster, used both of a foster-child and foster- 
parent ; cf. Nurse, Gossip, etc. 

" The Greekes, whom wee may count the very fathers and fosters 
of all vices " (Holland's Pliny). 

Caller means a maker of " cauls/' net- work head- 
dresses. Robert le Callere was sheriff of London in 
1302 

" Call for may dens, retz de soye " (Palsg.). 

Milliner is for Milner, i.e. Miller, or is a thinned form 
(see p. 130, n.) of the synonymous AF. Mulliner. 
Copper represents the once common Cupper [Roger 
le Cuppere, Chart. R.], now almost swallowed up 
by Cooper, as " buttoner," a common trade-name 
in the City Letter-Books, has been by Butler. Comer 
may be a variant of Comber, but a ME. comer e [John 
le Comere, Pat. R.] was a newcomer, stranger 

" For knowynge of comeres thei copyde hym as a frere " (Piers 
Piowm. C. iii. 240). 



120 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

Cf. Guest, Strange, New come, etc. Pardner, Partner 
are from " pardoner " [Matthew le Pardonner, Close R.]. 
Booer is for " boar " or " boor," which have become 
indistinguishable as surnames [Robert le Boor or le 
Bore, Exch. R.]. Ripper is a variant of rippier, one 
who carried fish inland for sale in a rip, or basket, and 
is also a dialect form of reaper. Sirdar is quite a 
modern alteration of ME. serdere, a sword er [John le 
Serdere, Pat. R.]. Swindler is altered from Swingler, 1 
a beater of flax. Cheater is for the official escheater, 
but may also, like Chaytor, come from Fr. acheteur, 
which we have generally rejected for the Norman 
form acatour, Cater, Cator. Tricker, a Suffolk name, 
is probably Du. trekker, as hard to define as our own 
Drawer (p. 116), but Treacher [Matilda le Tresshere, 
Pat. R] is OF. trecheor (tricheur), a traitor 

" Knaves, thieves, and treachers by spherical predominance " 
(Lear, i. 2). 

Pooler, Puller represent OF. poulier, hen-keeper, or 
poulter [John le Pulier, Pleas] 

" Poulier, a poulter " (Cotg.). 

Nipper and Plyer which seem to have some affinity 
with each other, occur in the country of the Nappers, 
or Napiers, and the Players respectively. Poucher has 
a parallel in Purser, a maker of purses, but its habitat, 
Lincolnshire, suggests something more adventurous. 
A Powncer "pounced," i.e. pulverized, various pro- 
ducts, e.g. woad (p. 275). Latter appears to mean a 
lath-maker. Wader has not to do with " wading," but 

1 We have the opposite change in Shingler, for our shingle, a 
roof-lath, is ultimately Lat. scindula, whence Ger. Schindel. 



NAMES IN -STER 121 

with " woad " [Robert le Weyder or le Wodere, Lond. 
Wills, 1305]. It is common in north-country 
records. With Wadman, Wademan, cf. Thomas le 
Maderman (Lond. Wills, 1258-1358), who was not 
necessarily more insane than other men. Finally, the 
original Bircher was not an educationist but a shep- 
herd [Alan le Bercher, Hund. R.]. Fr. berger, variants 
berchier, berquier, latinized as bercarius or bercator, 
is one of the commonest .entries in cartularies and 
manorial rolls [Martin Bercarius, Cust. Battle Abbey, 
Richard Bercator, ib., Geoffrey le Berkier, Testa de 
Nev.]. It has usually become Barker, as in Piers 
Plowman 

" Thyne berkeres ben al blynde that bryngyth forth thy lambren " 
(C. x. 260.) 

The NED. follows the late Professor Skeat in errone- 
ously explaining these blind shepherds as " barking 
dogs." 

The ending -ster, originally feminine, soon lost this 
distinction in Middle English. It has given us Bolster 
[Robert le Bulester, Pat. R.] for Bowler (p. 117), and 
possibly Bolister, though the latter may be for Ballister, 
Balster, the " balestier," or cross-bow man, who has 
generally become Bannister. Broster is for ' ' broiderer ' ' 
[Gelis Browdester, F. of Y. 1375], and Sumpster, spelt 
Somister in Manchester l in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, is the obsolete summister, explained 
by Halliwell as " one who abridges." 

Many names in -er are rather to be regarded as nick- 
names. Laker means one fond of fun, from a dialect 

1 Now Sinister, a common Manchester name. Cf. Simner for 
Sumner, summoner, and see p. 130, n. But Sinister is also for 
" sempster." 



122 SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 

verb which has now become " lark " [Robert dictus 
Layker, Bp. Kellawe's Reg.] 

" Lakers, such is the denomination by which we distinguish 
those who come to see our country, intimating thereby not only 
that they are persons of taste who wish to view our lakes, but idle 
persons who love laking ; the old Saxon word to ' lake/ or play, 
being of common use among schoolboys in these parts" (NED. 1805). 

Scambler may be a maker of " scambles," 1 or benches, 
but in Scottish it means a, parasite, sponger 

" Scambler, a bold intruder on one's generosity or table " 
(Johnson's Dictionary). 

Ambler, a nickname of gait, has absorbed the occupa- 
tive " ameller," i.e. enameller [John le Aumayller, 
goldsmith, City B.]. With Copner, ME. copenere, 
lover [Richard le Copenere, Testa de Nev., Dors.], cf. 
Lover, Paramor, Woor [John le Wower, Hund. R.]. 
Shuter, Shooter was once, as is shown by numerous 
puns, the regular pronunciation of " suitor," whence 
also Sueter, but the " wooer " sense is much later than 
that of litigant ; cf. Adam le Pledur (Fine R.). It is 
possible that Spouncer may be a nasalized form of 
" espouser " [Thomas le Espouser, Hund. R.], explained 
by the NED. (1653) as an arranger of marriages. Spycr, 
whence Spire, is rather official, the watchman [William 
le Spiour, Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 1301-60] 

" The wayte, var. spiere, that stode upon the toure of Jezrael " 
(Wye., 2 Kings, ix. 17). 

Revere is the Middle English form of reiver, robber 
[Alwyn le Revere, Oust. Battle Abbey] 

" The revere of Gentilis hymself shal reren " (Wye. Jer. iv. 7.) 



1 Hence shambles. See Romance of Words, p. 106. 



SOME OCCUPATIVE SURNAMES 123 

The first Trouncer was presumably a man of his 
hands, though the verb was not always colloquial 

" But the Lorde trounsed Sisara and all his charettes, and all hys 
hoste, with the edge of y e swerde, before Barak " (Judges, iv. 15 
transl. of 1551). 

Boxer is probably for Boxall (Boxwell, Glouc.), though 
Stephen Pugil is found in the Pipe R. Yarker, Yorker 
are from dialect yark, for jerk, 1 used of the " jerky " 
manner of sewing of shoemakers 

" Watt Tinlinn was by profession a sutor, but by inclination and 
practice an archer and warrior. The captain of Bewcastle is said 
to have made an incursion into Scotland, in which he was defeated 
and forced to fly. Watt Tinlinn pursued him closely through a 
dangerous morass. The captain, however, gained the firm ground ; 
and, seeing Tinlinn dismounted and floundering in the bog, used 
these words of insult : ' Sutor Watt, ye cannot sew your boots ; 
the heels risp and the seams rive.' ' If I cannot sew,' retorted 
Tinlinn, discharging a shaft which nailed the captain's thigh to the 
saddle, ' if I cannot sew I can yerk ' " (Scott, Note to Lay of the 
Last Minstrel, iv. 4). 



1 The late Professor Skeat suggests with much probability 
(Trans. Phil. Soc. 1911-14, p. 51) that this is the origin of the 
cricket " yorker." 



IO 



CHAPTER VI 

PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

" He brought me some chops and vegetables, and took the covers 
off in such a bouncing manner that I was afraid I must have given 
him some offence. But he greatly relieved my mind by putting a 
chair for me at the table, and saying very affably : ' Now, six-foot I 
come on ' " (David Copper field) . 

THE most puzzling class of surnames consists of those 
which appear to be taken from some adjunct of the 
personality, whether physical, moral, or external, 
tacked on to the baptismal name without further 
qualification. I mean such names as Head, Shanks, 
Belt, Mantell, apparently descriptive of appearance 
and costume, or those which are the names of objects 
(Baskett, Staff] , commodities (Mustard, Wheat], articles 
of diet (Cake, Beer], plants and flowers (Garlick, Lilly], 
and all manner of minute portions of creation down to 
Barleycorn and Hempseed. When such names occur 
as compounds (Broadhead, Crookshanks, Broadbelt, 
Longstaff, Goodbeer, Lillywhite, etc.) they may almost 
always be accepted as genuine sobriquets, which can 
easily be paralleled from the other European languages 
or from historic names dating back to the earliest 
times, such as Sweyn Forkbeard, Rolf Bluetooth, 
William Longsword, etc. But, when they occur with- 

124 



PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 125 

out qualification, 1 they are often rightly suspected of 
being merely imitative spellings of, or accidental 
coincidences with, names which are really of baptismal, 
local, or occupative origin. Thus Armes is from the 
personal name Orme (cf. Armshaw for Ormshaw), Eye 
is simply " island," and Gaiter is AF. gaitier, a watch- 
man, guard. So also Hamper is a maker of hanaps, 
or goblets [John le Hanaper, City D.], Tankard is 
the personal name Thancweard, whence also Tancred, 
Tubb is one of the innumerable derivatives of Theobald, 
Ban ell is the personal name Berald, OG. Berwald, bear 
mighty, Billett is a reduction of AS. Bilheard, spear 
strong, whence also Billiard, Pott is an aphetic form of 
Philpot, i.e. little Philip, etc. 

Writers on surnames have usually dealt with these 
names in two ways. One method is simply to give a 
list of such names without comment or history, the 
other is to explain conjecturally, without evidence, any 
name of this class as a perversion of something else. 
The truth is, as usual, a compromise between the two. 
It can be shown, by documentary evidence and by a 
comparison with the surname system of France and 
Germany, 2 that the majority of these names are what 
they appear to be, though many of the more common 
have been reinforced from other sources. For instance, 
the common name Head is sometimes undoubtedly a 
nickname [William de Horsham called le Heved, City 

1 Such names, when genuine, undoubtedly indicate something 
conspicuous or abnormal in the feature selected. Such a name as 
Foot would have been conferred on a man afflicted with a club 
foot. 

2 There are also many Latin examples, e.g. Caligula, small buskin, 
Caracalla, Gallic cloak, Scipio, staff, Scapula, shoulder-blade, Struma, 
hump, etc. 



126 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

B.], with which cf. Walter Caboche (Malmesbury 
Abbey Reg.) 

" Caboche bien tymbree, a well-garnished head-peece, well-tackled 
braine-pan, a stayed, or discreet pate " (Cotg.). 

But it is also local [Thomas del Heved, Hund. R.], 
the word being used either in the sense of top end (cf. 
Muirhead, Woodhead, etc.) or possibly as a shop-sign. 
We find also as common surnames Ger. Haupt, Kopf, 
and Fr. Tete, the latter being often the origin of our 
Tait, Tate, though this is also found as an Anglo-Saxon 
personal name, from ON. teitr, merry. 

In dealing with these names a little common sense 
and familiarity with life are required. We know 
that the popular tendency has always been to make 
the unfamiliar significant. But, if we have been to 
school, we know that there is no limit to the possi- 
bilities of nickname manufacture ; and, if we are 
philosophers, we know that human nature never 
changes. In some comic paper lately I came across 
the following gracious piece of dialogue 

" Who was that bloke as I see yer with last night ? " 
" Wot ? 'Im with the face ? " 
" No ; the other one." 

If we go back to the thirteenth century we find that 
Philip ove (with) la Teste (Pat. R.) and Emeric a la 
Teste (ib.) owed their names to a similar play of fancy. 
The great difficulty is that when such names are 
recorded in our Rolls in their English form the sobri- 
quet, as a rule, is simply added to the baptismal name 
without any connecting particle, e.g. Richard Thumbe 
(Pat. R.), John Tothe (ib.), so that we can never be 
absolutely sure whether we have not to do with an early 



FRENCH AND GERMAN PARALLELS 127 

case of folk-etymology. In French records, and, 
though to a less extent, in German, the use of preposi- 
tions makes the nickname origin clear. Thus Thomas 
Aladent and Pierre a la Dent (Pachnio), with whom 
we may compare Haim as Denz (Roman de Ron), may 
be considered to certify our Tooth and Dent 1 [Quidam 
Capellanus Willelmus Dens nomine, Royal Let. 
Hen. III.] as genuine nicknames, while Peyne mit der 
Vust (Heintze, 1366), whence Ger. Faust, would incline 
us to accept the nickname origin of Fist, whence also 
Feast, even if it were not absolutely confirmed by 
Johannes cum Pugno (Pipe R.) and Simon Poynge 
(Nott. Bor. Rec.). Cf. Poincare (p. 288) and Robert 
Poinfer, i.e. poing de fer (City E.}. 

If we examine man from top to toe, first anatomically 
and then with an eye to his costume, we shall find that 
there is hardly a detail of either inventory which has 
not produced a surname, many perhaps now obsolete or 
corrupted beyond recognition, but the great majority 
still in use and easily recognised. It will be noticed 
that English and Anglo-French words occur indifferently 
in names of this class, and that among the latter are 
many terms which the language has since rejected. 
Names of the physical class also reveal the same 
habits of observation and gift for describing conspicu- 
ous features which are to be noticed in rustic names of 
birds, plants, etc. Education has changed all that, 
and we cannot imagine a modern peasant giving any 
one the nickname Larkheel (p. 142) or christening a 
flower the " larkspur." 

Taking first the larger divisions of the human geo- 
graphy, we find Head, Body, and Limb, of which the 

1 Cf. Durden, Fr. Duredent [John Denrdent, Fine R.]. 



128 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

first has been already dealt with. Compounds of Head 
are Broadhead, Cockhead or Coxhead, Fairhead [Adam 
Beaufront, Close R.], Greathed, Lambshead [Agnes 
Lambesheved, Hund. R.], Leithead (little), Redhead, 
Ramshead, Whitehead, Weatherhead or W ether ed (sheep's 
head), all genuine nicknames. More often -head is 
reduced to -ett, 1 as in Blackett, Brockett [John Broke- 
sheved, 2 Close R.], Brownett, Bovett (AF. bof, Fr. 
bceuf), Bullett [William Bolesheved, Pat. R.], Cockett, 
Dovet [William Dowfhed, F. of Y. 1354], Duckett, 
Gossett [John Goosheved, Lib. Vit.], Hawkett [John 
Hawksheved, F. of Y.], Hogsett, Doggett [Roger 
Doggisheved, Yorks Fines, temp. John], Redit, 
Thickett, Strickett (stirk-head, Front-de-Bceuf), Perrett 
[Robert Pereheved, Hund. R.], and possibly Brasnett, 
from the " brazen head " used as a sign. With 
Roughead, Ruffhead, Rowed [William Ruhheved, 
Pat. R.] may be compared the Old French epic hero 
Guillaume Tete-d'Etoupes, tow-head, and the more 
modern Struwelpeter. With these go Redknap [cf. 
Robert Bealknappe, Glouc. Cart.}, Hartnupp, and 
Blacktop, Silvertop. Here may be also mentioned 
Petty [Hugh le Pete, Fine R.} 

" PeU, pild, hairlesse, bauld " (Cotg.). 

In some cases -head is substituted for the obsolete 
local -hide (of land), e.g. Half head* Fifehead, Fifett 
(see p. 2), while Redhead, Whitehead have absorbed 

1 This reduction to -ett also takes place when the -head is local, 
e.g. Aikett (oak), Bridgett, Ditchett, Grasett, Gravett, Puplett (poplar), 
Watrett (water), etc. For Smithett see p. 78. 

* Brock, a badger. 

8 Halfhide also exists ; cf . Half acre. It is interesting to notice 
the substitution of -head or -field for the obsolete -hide in the 



COMPOUNDS OF -BODY I2 g 

compounds in -hood l [William Redehod, Pat. R., 
Agnes \\ 7 ythod,-Hund. R.]. With these cf. Robert 
Blachod (Close R.), John Fairhode (City D.). 

The simple Body is hot a nickname, but a personal 
name, found also in French and Flemish, and derived 
from the OG. Bodo, which may be short for one of the 
many names in Bod-, command, or even for Baldwin. 
In compounds, -body has rather the sense of person, 
as in nobody, busibody, etc. Well-established examples 
are Freebody, Goodbody, Handsomebody, Lightbody 
(probably ME. lift, little), Pretty body, Truebody. In 
Peabody, Paybody, Peberdy, Pepperday, Pipperday,/ 
the first element may be the obsolete pea, pay, peacock 
(p. 194). The formation does not seem very natural, 
but cf. Reginald Pefot (Pipe R.) and Robert Levedi- 
bodi, i.e. lady body (IpM., Notts). Many obsolete 
compounds of -body occur in the Rolls. Jellicorse, an 
existing surname, may represent Gentilcors, or per- 
haps Jolicors, and Bewkers is Fr. Beaucors [Jehan 
Biaucors, Pachnio]. In the Pat. R. occurs the name 
of John Ordegorge. Gentilcors, i.e. John filthy throat 
handsome body, perhaps a man of good presence and 
foul vocabulary, but the double nickname is quite 
unique. 

Limb is for Lamb, either a nickname or short for . 

place-names Fifehead, Fifield. There are several such places in 
England, all earlier known as Five-hide 

" It is an interesting and curious fact that we owe to the five- 
hide unit such place-names as Fivehead, Somerset ; Fifehead, 
Dorset ; Fifield, Oxon ; Fifield and Fyfield, Wilts ; Fyfield, 
Hants ; and Fyfield, Essex all of them in Domesday ' Fifhide ' 
or ' Fifehide 'as well as Fyfield, Berks, which occurs in Domesday 
as ' Fivehide ' " (Round, Feudal England, p. 69). 

1 We have the opposite change in Robert Shevenehod (Hnnd. R.) 
and Adam Hudcrul, curly head (City C.). 



130 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

Lambert, the latter of which has sometimes become 
Limbert l [William Lembe or Lymbe, Lane. Inq. 
1310-33]. Lem records the intermediate stage. Of 
the same origin are Lomb, Lumb, so that this name 
has run through the five vowels. Joynt is an Irish 
Huguenot name, Fr. Lejoint, from the OF. joint, 
graceful, slim, etc. 

Skull, Scull is a Norse personal name [Ralph f . Scule, 
Close R..]. It means fox or the evil one. Face is 
aphetic for Boniface [Face le Ferrun, Pipe R.] and 
Pate is for Patrick. I have found no trace among 
modern surnames of Alexander Rodipat (Pat. R.) 
or Adam Rudipol (Fine R.). The simple Poll is for 
Paul, OF. Pol ; cf. Pollett, Poison. From noil, used 
both for head and nape of the neck, we have Hartnoll, 
common in Devon 

" If oon hadde be hard nollid, wondur if he hadde be giltles " 
(Wye. Ecclesiasticus, xvi. n). 

Forehead, Forrett is a true nickname [Roger Forheved, 
Close R.] and " brow " may appear in the compound 
Whybrow [Whitebrow the plasterer, F. of Y.]. The 
simple Brow is local, at the " brow " of the hill [Richard 
atte Bro, Pat. R.], though I find also Richard Surcil 

1 This thinning of the vowel in surnames is a phenomenon which 
has never, I believe, been dealt with by any phonetician, but there 
is no doubt of the tendency. An early example is Philip Bribisun 
(Hund. R.) for Brabazon, the man from Brabant. It is seen in the 
names Shellcross for Shallcross, Flinders for Flanders, Willacy for 
Wallasey, Shipster for Shapster, Pettinger for Pottinger, Plimmer for 
Plummer, Birrell for Burrell, Chiplinior Chaplin, and hundreds more. 
It has, of course, parallels in vulgar speech, the best-known example 
being the change from master to mister. Cf. also Jim for James, 
weskit for waistcoat, and Mr. Mantalini's demnition. I am inclined 
to think that Stringfellow, formerly Strengfellow, contains the 
northern Strung, strong. 



THE HAIR 131 

(Fine R.). Oxbrow, in spite of the Swedish Oxenstiern, 
is probably from Oxborough (Norf.), Spreadbrow from 
Spro thorough (Yorks), Albrow from Alburgh, Albury, 
Aldeburgh, etc., and Blackbrow from Blakeborough 
(Lane.), though it would be a very natural nickname. 
Hair is imitative for the nickname Hare [Philip le 
Hare, Pat. R.] and Hairlock is for Harlock, a variant of 
Horlock (hoar), often spelt Horlick. Other compounds 
of -lock are Blacklock or Blakelock, Whitlock, Blay- 
lock or Blellock, from the obsolete blae, blay, 1 an 
adjective meaning ash coloured, Proudlock [Thomas 
Purdelok, Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79], Silverlock, 
Gowanlock [Robert Guldelok, Pat. R.] ; but the suffix 
in these names may sometimes be -lake, which often 
becomes -lock, as in Fishlock. The commonest of these 
compounds, Whitlock, has three well-attested origins 
(i) white lock, (2) white lake [Williame atte Whyte- 
lak, Kirby's Quest, 1327], (3) the personal name 
Witlac, which occurs in DB. [Whitlac de Longo Vado, 
Fine R.]. Whitelark is an imitative spelling of one of 
these. We have compounds of -hair itself in Fairer, 
Farrar 8 [John Fayerher, Pat. R.], and in Harliss, the 
hairless, while Polyblank is of course Fr. poil blanc t 
white hair. To return to -lock, we have the puzzling 
Lovelock, which the NED. does not find as a common 
noun till 1592. This is not an insuperable objection, 
as I have frequently found words used as surnames 
three or four centuries earlier than their first dictionary 
record ; but it would perhaps be safer to regard John 
Lovelok (Pleas) and Walter Loveloker (Hund. R.) 
as belonging to the ME. lovelich, lovely, affectionate, 

1 Blay, Blee is also a surname, probably from complexion. 

8 In the nickname of Harold Harfager the elements are reversed. 



?32 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

of which the variant lovelok occurs in Piers Plowman. 
In fact, the name, which is fairly common in some 
parts of England, may have an alternative origin from 
ME. lovelaik, dalliance [John Lovelayk, Fine R.] ; 
cf. Laker (p. 122). Tress is short for Tristram. Red- 
mayne is local, of Redmain (Lane.), a place which is 
the usual origin of Redman, though this is no doubt 
also a nickname. Curll and Crisp, Cripps both mean 
curly in Middle English, but Curley is also a bird nick- 
name, the curlew [Richard Cur lue, IpM.], found more 
rarely as Kirlew. Absence of hair has given the native 
Bald, generally reduced to Ball, and the augmenta- 
tive Ballard. From Old French come Chaff e, Chave, 
Shave, Shafe, Shove, Shovel, Cavell, Caffyn, Coffin, 1 and 
sometimes even Cave. Two examples must suffice 
[Bartholomew le Chauf, Pat. R., John Cauvel, Pat. R.]. 
With these cf. Favell, tawny [Hugh Falvel, Pipe R., 
Thomas Fauvel, Fine R.], and Flavell, yellow-haired. 
A pretty name, which may refer to the hair or the 
complexion, is Nutbrown [John Notebroun, Close R.], 
with which cf. John Perbroun, i.e. pear brown (ib.). 

Nothing in one's appearance attracts the critical 
attention so readily as the nose, but, though there are 
many references in the Pipe R. to Moss cum Naso and 
his wife Duzelina, I do not know a single modern 
surname 2 derived from this feature, unless the legend- 
ary origin of the local Courtenay [Hugh de Courteney, 

1 This is the traditional etymology of Coffin, but I am not sure 
that this name, variant Coffin, which is found in Devon from the 
earliest times, is not rather connected with Cornish Couch and 
Welsh Cough, red. 

2 It is possible that some names in -ness, e.g. Hogness, are 
physical. But Thicknesse was a manor (Chesh. or Staff.). Neese 
(p. 245), Kneese may also refer to this feature. 



THE NOSE AND EYE 133 

Hund. RJ] has a tributary source of truth [William 
Curtnies, Pat. R.]. Peter le Noseless (Pat. R.) t Agnes 
Kattesnese (Hund. R.], Adam cum Naso (Leic. Bor. 
Rec.), and Roger Withenese (ib.) show that this feature 
did not escape the notice of our ancestors. Cammish, 
found as le Chammus (Notts, 1272), means flat-nosed, 
Fr. camus, but a number of names which appear to 
belong here, e.g. Cammis, Camis, Keemish, etc., may 
equally well be local, of Cambois (Northumb.). Beake, 
Bick are not nose-names, as they occur in Middle 
English with the definite article [William le Beke, 
Hund. R., Richard le Byke, Close R.], but I cannot 
explain them. Mariota Gosebeck (Hund. R.) is a very 
evident nickname. Cheek, Cheke is possibly a nick- 
name, but I have no evidence except a ME. Chericheke ; 
cf., however, Fr. Bajoue, baggy cheek. 

Eye in isolation is local (p. 125) and Eyett is its dim. 
But the compounds of the physical -eye are numerous 
and have not hitherto been recognized as such, e.g. 
Blackie [Roger Niger Oculus, Col. Gen.], Blowey, 
Brightey [John Claroil, Close R.], Brownie, Calvey, 
Dovey, Whitey, Birdseye, Goosey, Starey (ME. star, 
starling), Hawkey, Harkey l [Geoffrey Hawkseye, 
Lond. Wills, 1330], Litiley [cf. Andreas dictus Parvus 
Oculus, Pachnio], Silvery, Goldie, Goldney [Richard 
Geld en eye, Fine R.], Sheepy, Smalley, Wildey. Cf. 
with these William Sweteye (Hund. R.) and the 
medieval French names Brun-Eul, Blancus Oculus, 
Oculus Auri, quoted by Pachnio. German surnames 
in -auge are also numerous. An alternative origin 
from -ey, island, is possible for some of the above. 
Cf. Rowney, at the " rowan island " [Walter atte 

1 Cf. Harkins for Hawkins and Harker for Hawker. 



134 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

Roueneye, Hund. R.], Roffey, at the " rough island " 
[Amfrid de la Rogheye, ib.]. 

Bouch, Buche, Budge are Anglo-French names, 
" mouth " [Michael od (with) la Buche, Pat. R.]. For 
the form Budge cf. budge-at- court, Fr. bouche a cour, 
free victuals. This surname may sometimes have 
had an occupative origin, for William del Bouch, lay- 
brother of Furness Abbey (Pat. R.), was evidently 
employed in the provisioning part of the establish- 
ment. The English Mouth is also a modern surname, 
and Merrymouth is not uncommon in the Rolls [Adam 
Mirimouth, Pat. R.]. It is interesting to find Henry 
Millemuth (Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79) three cen- 
turies earlier than the first dictionary record of " mealy 
mouthed." Muzzleis, I think, an imitative alteration 
of the nickname Mustell, Mustol, from OF. musteile, 
mustoile, a weasel [Hugh Mustel, Close R., Custance 
Mustel, Hund. R.]. I doubt whether Chinn is gener- 
ally a nickname, though I have known it so used by 
modern schoolboys. In Simon Chyne (Ramsey Cart.} 
we have perhaps the shortened form of Chinulf [John 
Chinulf, Wore. Priory Reg.], AS. Coenwulf, bold wolf. 
Or Chinn may be from Men, a common nickname 
[John le Chen, Chart. R.], which would readily assume 
the imitative form, apart from the regular tendency 
of e to become i before n, as in ink, ME. enke, or the 
local surname 2nd, for " end." 

Tongue is, so far as my evidence goes, local, from a 
" tongue" of land [Benedict del Tunge, Pat. R.], or 
from one of the places specifically named Tonge, Tong. 
To the same source belongs Tongs. Gum is a variant 
of Gomme, ME. gume, a man [Geoffrey le Gom, Cor am 
Rege R. 1297], as i n bridegome, now perverted to bride- 



THE NECK I35 

groom. Whitear and Whittear are variants of Whittier, 
an occupative name, " white tawer," i.e. a kind of 
leather-dresser [Walter le Whytetawere, Pat. R.], 
whence also perhaps Whitehair. Boniface is a font- 
name, Bonifacius, though its use as the landlord's 
name in Farquhar's Beaux' Stratagem, and its natural 
fitness of sound, have combined to give it a sug- 
gestion of rubicund joviality. 

Gar gate, Gargett is from OF. gar gate, throat, gullet 
[Hugh Gargate, Pipe R.], a name earned in the same 
way as that of the mythical Grandgousier and no 
doubt present to the mind of the creator of Gargantua. 
Neck seems to be a true nickname [Isabel Necke, 
Fine R.] and is found in compounds, e.g. the historical 
Edith Swanneck, the less-known Agnes Cousdecine, 
col-de-cygne (Hund. R.), and Simon Chortneke (ib.). 
Robert Tunekes (Leic. Bor. Rec.) perhaps had what is 
now called a double chin. The existence of ME. 
Swanswire suggests that Swire (see p. 80) may also 
be a physical nickname. Here also may sometimes 
belong Halse, from ME. halse, neck [John Langhals, 
Close R.] and also Haddrell, Rather all [William Haterel, 
Pat. R.}, from ME. hattrel, the nape of the neck (also, 
the crown of the head), of Old French origin, but 
differently explained by Cotgrave 

" Hastereau, the throat piece, or fore-part of the neck (belike from 
the Walloones, by whom a mans throat, or neck, is thus tearmed)." 

This is a common word in Middle English (see Mr. 
Mayhew's note in the Prompt. Parv). It may be 
noted 'that the name, with many variants, seems to 
belong especially to Gloucestershire, while in the 
adjacent Monmouth we find Hatterell Hill, perhaps 
so named from its shape. 



136 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

The fairly common Beard [William cum Barba or 
od la Barbe, City D.], also spelt Beart, is curiously 
short of existing compounds, though it has no doubt 
contributed to Whitbread [Philip Wytberd, Pleas, 
Peter Whitbred or Whytberd, Cor am Rege R. 1297]. 
Blackbeard and Fairbeard exist, though rare, and in 
Blackbird, Silverbird, the original suffix is also prob- 
ably -beard [cf. William Barbedor, Pat. R.]. Thomas 
Dustiberd (Pat. R.) and Ralph Jolifberd (F. of Y.) are 
not now represented, nor, unfortunately, Ralph Barbe 
de Averil or Barba Aprilis, who was chaplain to Hugh 
Earl of Chester in the twelfth century. We may 
perhaps assume that he resembled Chaucer's franklin 

" Whit was his berd as is a dayeseye " (A. 332). 

The insignificance of the beard in our modern sur- 
names is in curious contrast with the place it occupies 
in history. The reader will at once think of the Lango- 
bards, Bluebeard, Charlemagne " a la barbe fleurie/' 
Sweyn . Forkbeard, Barbarossa, Graf Eberhard der 
Rauschbart, Blackbeard the pirate, etc. The German 
compounds of -bart are still numerous and fantastic. 
A possible English example is Massingberd [Richard 
Massyngberd, Close R., Line., 1329]. Lower says 

" A very old Lincolnshire family, dating from temp. Henry III. 
. . . the final syllable clearly having reference to the appendage of 
the masculine chin. The meaning of the other portion of the name 
is not so obvious, as no word resembling massing is found in early 
English or Anglo-Saxon. In some Teutonic dialects, however, that 
or a similar form means " brass," and hence Massingberd may 
signify Brazenbeard, with reference to the personal peculiarity. 
Inf. Rev. F. C. Massingberd, M.A." 

This is quite possibly a correct guess. There is an 
ON. messing, brass, still used in German, and found 



WHISKERS 137 

in Anglo-Saxon as mcesling, mceslen, while Lincolnshire 
is a chief habitat of Norse words. 

Whisker is merely an imitative spelling of the personal 
name Wiscard [Wischard Leidet, Pipe R.], repre- 
sented by Fr. Guiscard and Scottish Wishart, 1 but OF. 
gernon,* moustache, whiskers, has given us Garnon, 
Garnham [Adam as Gernons, Pipe R., William Bought, 
called Gernon, City D., William Blancgernun, Pat. R.]. 
Harold's scouts took the shaven Normans for priests 
until the king enlightened them 

' ' N'ont mie barbes ne guernons* 
Co dist Heraut, ' com nos avons ' " 

(Roman de Rou, 7133). 

In Grennan we have the Old French form grenon. ON. 
barthr,* beard, has also contributed to Barrett, and the 
same feature is incorporated in Skegg, though both 
reached England as personal names rather than nick- 
names. Sweyn Forkbeard is recorded in the AS. 
Chronicle as Svein Tjuguskegg. 

The rest of the human form divine will give us less 
trouble, as nicknames fasten most readily on visible 
parts and facial characteristics. Shoulders is an existing, 
though uncommon, surname [Hugh Schulder, Cor am 
RegeR. 1297]. ME. wambe, belly (cf. Scott's Wamba), 
a common name in the Middle Ages [Matthew a le 
Wambe, Leic. Bor. Rec.], still survives in Whitwam or 

1 John Wiseheart, Bishop of Glasgow (Pat. R.), is an obvious 
perversion. 

a This is of cognate origin with Swedish gren, branch, fork, common 
in names. The connection between this word and a Viking beard 
will be apparent to the reader who remembers Sweyn Forkbeard 
and the bold, bad whiskers of Admiral von Tirpitz. 

3 This word is found only in compounds. The Viking Barthr 
is called Baret in Old French records. 



138 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

Whitwham l ; and Whalebelly is a well-known Norfolk 
surname. Cf . Walter Alipanch (Hund. R.) and Sancho 
Panza. Back is probably not anatomical, though 
Petrus ad Dorsum is found in Old French, as it has 
three other well-authenticated origins : (i) local [John 
atte Back, Bardsley, 1327], (2) baptismal [Backa 
solus, Lib. Vit.], an Old French name of Germanic 
origin, whence also Bacon', (3) ME. bakke, bat (p. 24). 
It is, however, strange that we find no compounds of 
-back, corresponding to such medieval names as Cattes- 
bak and Longueeschine or OF. Maigredos. Thornback 
is no doubt from the fish. 

Side exists as a surname, but is local [William del 
Syde, F. of Y.], the word being used either of the 
edge of a wood, the side of a hill, or the bank of a 
river, in all of which senses it is common in compound 
surnames, e.g. Akenside (oak), Burnside, Greensides. 
In Half side the first element perhaps means half-way. 
Tinside is of course for Tyne-side, as Tinnett is 
for Tynehead [Richard del Tyndiheved, Lane. Inq. 
1310-33]. Ship sides is probably from a pasture 
(sheep). But undoubted nicknames are Heaviside, 
Ironside, and Whiteside [Robert Whytside, Fine R.], 
the last being also local [Richard de Whiteside, 
Close R.]. In my Romance of Names (p. 126) I 
have suggested that Handyside, Hendyside, may 
represent ME. hende side, gracious custom, but the 
variant Handasyde suggests a possible nickname of 
attitude, "hand at side," for a man fond of standing 
with arms akimbo ; cf. Guillelmus Escu - a - Col 

1 But perhaps local, AS. hwamm, corner ; cf . Alexander del 
Qwhom (Bp. Kellawe's Reg.}, where the initial Q- is north-country 
for W-, as in Quartan for Wharton, Quigley for Wigley, etc. 






THE HAND 139 

(Pachnio). The formation of Strongitharm is some- 
what similar. Silverside is local, from a spot in the 
Lake Country [John de Sylversyd, Preston Guild R. 
1397, Bardsley]. Hardrib seems to be a nickname, as 
also Broadribb, Brodribb, the latter no doubt sometimes v/ 
corrupted, as Bardsley suggests, from Bawdrip (Som.). 
Rump is a common name in Norfolk, and there are 
plenty of early examples from East Anglia [Robert 
Rumpe, Ramsey Cart., Roger Rompe, Pat. R., Suff., 
Casse Rumpe, Hund. R., Camb.]. It is probably 
short for Rumbold or some other personal name 
in Rym-, noble. Heintze derives the corresponding 
German Rumpf in the same way. But Fessey seems 
to represent Fr. fessu, explained by Cotgrave as 
" great buttockt." Richard le Fessu was butler to 
Edward II. (Pat. R.), and the change of form is 
normal ; cf . the vulgar pronunciation of nephew, 
value 

" In short, I firmly du believe 

In Humbug generally, 
Fer it's a thing thet I perceive 
To hev a solid vally " 

(Russell Lowell, The Pious Editor's Creed). 

Hand, Hands may be explained as rimed on Rand, 
Rands (Randolph), as Hob is on Robert and Hick on 
Richard, but nickname origin is also certain [Robert 
Asmains, Close R., Ralph cum Manibus, ib.]. White- 
hand exists, and Balmain means fair hand [John Bele- 
meyns, Pat. R.]. To the same origin must be some- 
times ascribed Main, Mayne. Cf. Fist (p. 127). Quater- 
main, Quarterman is also a nickname [Herbert Quatre- 
mains, Fine R.} ; cf. William Quaterpe (Pat. R.). The 
arm appears only in compounds [Armstrong, Strongi- 
ii 



140 



PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 



tharm]. We have also, through French, Firebrace, Fair- 
brass, Farbrace [Stephen Ferebraz, City A.], and Bradfer 
[Matthew Brazdefer, Ramsey Cart.]. This last has 
also given Bradford, just as Petti fer has sometimes 
become Petti ford. Is Stallibrass [William Stalipres, 
Pipe R.] a hybrid imitation of these with steel as its 
first component ? Such hybrids occur, e.g. the medieval 
name Maynstrang, a compromise between " hand 
strong " and " main forte." 

The common surname Legg is both baptismal and 
local [Nicholas f. Legge, Fine R., Pagan de la Leg, 
Kirby's Quest, 1327]. In the first case it is short for 
Ledger, Legard [Leggard de Aula, Hund. R.], AS. 
Leodgaer or Leodgeard ; in the second it is an archaic 
spelling of Leigh, Lea, a meadow. Here also belong 
Barleggs, barley meadows, and Whitelegg [Richard de 
Whiteleg, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], though Henry 
Whitshonk (Lane. Court R. 1323-4) suggests an 
alternative origin for the second. It is possible that 
there may have been a later formation from the " leg " 
used as a hosier's sign, but for this I have found no 
evidence. Leg, being a Norse word, may occur in the 
compound Sprackling, corruptly Spratling [Gervase f. 
Sprakcling, Feet of Fines], which Bjorkman identifies 
with the Old Norse nickname Sprakaleggr, of the 
creaking legs ; cf. Ger. Knack fuss. In Middle English 
the native shank seems to have been preferred in de- 
scriptive epithets [Walter Schanke, Pipe R.], hence 
Shanks, Crookshanks or Cruickshank, Sheepshanks, and 
the less common Ettershank, from dial, cddcr, ettcr, a 
thin rod used in fence making 

" Edder and stake 
Strong hedge to make " (Tusscr). 



THE LEG AND FOOT 141 

We also find compounds oijambe, e.g. Foljambe, Full- 
james [Thomas Folejambe, Hund R.~], while the still 
commoner Bellejambe [Adam Belejambe, Pat. R.] 
has been transformed into Belgian. Knee may refer 
to some geographical feature, like Ger. Knie, which 
Heintze derives from the same word used of a nook in 
a wood, but it may also come from Knaith (Line.), 
spelt Kneye in the Fine R. ; cf. Smee for Smeeth (p. 77). 
Kneebone, being a Cornish name, is best left alone. 
Shinn, Shine appears to be a personal name, occurring 
chiefly on the Welsh border, and hence probably Celtic. 
It may even be a thinned form (p. 130, n.) of Shone, 1 
Welsh for John. With Foot cf. Gregory cum Pede 
(Leic. BOY. Rec.) and Jean Aupie, Andreas ad Pedem 
(Pachnio). This has several compounds, Barfoot or 
Burfoot, Broadfoot, Lightfoot [Lyghtefote Nuncius, in 
the Towneley Play of Cczsar Augustus], Long foot, 
Proudfoot, White foot (cf. Blampied, Blampey), Crowfoot, 
Gray foot (gray, a badger), Pauncefote, Puddifoot. The 
last, also found as Puddephttt, Puttifoot, etc., is well 
attested as a nickname in Middle English, and belongs 
to a dial, adjective meaning thick or stumpy. Cf. 
Richard Pudito (Hund. R.), John Podipol (ib.), John 
Podihog (Lane. Court R. 1323-4) 

" He had club feet, and ... his nickname Poddy came from 
this peculiarity of his walk " (H. Armitage, Sorrelsykes). 

Puddifant, Puttifent means " chubby child " (see 
p. 247), unless it is merely a corruption of Buttivant 
(p. 256, n.). The obsolete, or apparently obsolete, com- 
pounds oi-foot are very numerous (see p. 144). With 
Pettifer, i.e. pied defer, cf. John Stclfot (City C.), Ralph 
Irenfot (Pat. R.), and with Pettigrew, pied de grue, cf. 

1 \Vith this cf. Cornish Chown [John Chone, Close R., Cornwall]. 



142 



PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 



Ger. Kranefuss. Heels generally belongs to AS. healh, a 
local term of doubtful meaning (see p. 62). But I have 
found Larkehele as a medieval name and also John 
dictus Talun (Archbp. Giffard's Reg. 1266-79). In 
the latter example talon may have its later meaning 
of claw rather than heel, but it is much older than any 
instance of talon, claw, in the NED. Anyhow, it is 
possibly the origin of Tallents. Toe, Toes are local 
(p- 5), but Prictoe is apparently a nickname from some 
physical peculiarity. 

Among internal organs we have Heart, Lung, Kidney, 
Giblett. The first, generally for the animal nickname 
Hart, may sometimes be genuine ; cf. Richard Quoer 
(Hund. R.) and Fr. Cceur ; but Lung is a variant of 
Long [Geoffrey le Lung, Hund. R.], Kidney is an 
.Irish name, and Giblett is a dim. of Gilbert. With 
Goodhart, Goodheart we may compare Bunker [William 
Boncuor, Fine R., Robert Finquoyr, Hund. R.]. 
Hartfree has a suggestion of the Restoration dramatists, 
; but is probably AS. Heardfrith. Bowell is a variant 
of Powell, Welsh ab Howel [Strael Aboel, Fine R., 
Glouc.], and Bowles is local, of Bouelles (Seine-Inf.) 
[Hugh de Boeles, Fine R.]. Brain, found chiefly on 
the Welsh border, is a Celtic name ; cf. Macbrain. 
Blood is a Welsh patronymic, ab Lloyd, which became 
Blood, Bloyd, Blud just as the simplex gave Flood, 
Floyd, Flud. The compounds Wildblood, Young- 
blood are temperamental rather than physical. They 
are perhaps really compounds of blood in its figurative 
sense of offspring, person ' 

" This Abel was a blissid blod " (Cursor Mundi, 1035). 

1 Cf . the similar use of Ger. Blitt " Ein junges Bint, a very youth " 
(Ludwig). Jungblut is a German surname. 



OBSOLETE PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 143 

Cf. the more modern " young blood," " wild young 
blood," used of a buck or gay spark. 

Bone is usually for Fr. le bon, but both Bones and 
Baines * may be taken literally [Simon Baynes, fine 
R., Muriel Bones, Chart. R.]. Compounds are Long- 
bones, Langbain* Cockbain, Smallbones, Rawbone, the 
obsolete Sorebones, and the existing Hollebon, Hollobone, 
hollow bone, 3 corresponding exactly to Ger. Holbein 
[Arnoldus dictns Holbein, 13 th century, Heintze]. Col- 
larbone is an imitative spelling of Colbourne, Allbones is 
from Alban, and Rathbone is, I think, local, from Rad- 
bourne (Derb.). It is a Cheshire name. Lower gives 
Skin as a surname. I have not met with it, but Purple 
may mean " clear skin," OF. pure pel [Roger Purpel, 
Pat. R.]. Earskin is of course for the local Erskine. 
Tear is for the Gaelic MacTear, son of the carpenter. 

Here are a few more, apparently obsolete, nick- 
names of this class. Although many of them are 
French in form, they all occur in England in the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries. Probably some of them still 
exist : Barheved (one origin of Barrett], Brokinheved, 
Flaxennehed, Hevyheved, Hundesheved, Kenidheyd 
(kennet, a small hound), Sleghtheved, Wysheved, 
Todheved (tod, a fox), Visdelu (wolf's face), Visdechat, 
Clenebodi, Hendibodi, Oyldebuf (ceil de bceuf), Grasen- 
leol (gras en I' ceil), Fatten eye, Mauregard or Maure- 

1 Bain is usually Scottish, equivalent to Bean, fair, but it is 
also a nickname from ME. bain, ready ; cf . Robert Unbayn, i.e 
the unready (F. of Y.). 

2 Here, and in some other compounds, bain perhaps means es- 
pecially leg; cf. Adam Coltbayn (Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79) 
In the Towneley Mysteries " langbain " is used for a sluggard. 

3 Holloman is a variant of Holliman, usually " holy man " 
[William Haliman, Pat. R.]. 



I 4 4 PHYSICAL NICKNAMES 

ward, Scutelmuth, Swetemouth, Widmuth, Dogmow, 
Belebuche, Quatrebuches, Treynez (three noses), 
Sharpberd, Stykberd, Tauntefer (dent de fer), Auburn- 
hor, Yalowehair, Blanchpeil (poll), Rugepeil, Beaupel, 
Curpel (court], Blakneyk, Longecoo (cou), Longto, 
Irento, Clenhond, Lefthand, Blanchemains,Malemayns, 
Tortemayns, Mainwrench (twisted ?), Beaubras, For- 
braz, Bukfot, Bulfot, Coufot, Doggefot, Gildenefot, 
Gosefot, Harefot, Hundesfot, Kaifot (kye, cow), Playfot 
(splay ?), Sikelfot, Sorefot, Fothot, Pedechen (pied de 
Men), Pedelever (lievre), Pettegris (grice, a pig), Pe 
de Argent, Hautepe, Brounbayn, Crokebayn, Brune- 
coste, Querdebeof (cceur), Corndebeof, Cormaleyn (cceur 
maliri), Curmegen (cceur mechantP), Catteskyn, Sanc- 
medle, Slytwombe, Richwombe (cf. Fr. Richepanse), 
Pesewombe, 1 Calvestayl, Wytebrech, Smalbehynd, 
Fayrarmful. 

1 Pause d, pois is an invective epithet applied to the English in a 
French patriotic song of the fifteenth century attributed to Olivier 
Basselin 

" Ne craignez point les batre, 
Ces godons (goddams), punches 4 pots ; 
Car ung de nous en vault quatre, 
Au moins en vault-il bien troys." 



CHAPTER VII 

COSTUME NICKNAMES 

1 ' Sir/ said Mr. Tupman, his face suffused with a crimson glow, 
' this is an insult/ ' Sir/ replied Mr. Pickwick in the same tone, 
' it is not half the insult to you that your appearance in my presence 
in a green velvet jacket with a two-inch tail would be to me ' " 
(Pickwick). 

HAVING examined man anatomically, we will now make 
a detailed exploration of his costume in peace and war. 
When a small boy assumes his first topper, he knows 
he must steel his heart against the salutation, " Ullo, 
'at," with which members of the outspoken classes will 
greet him, and a provincial tragedian, impersonating 
a picturesque brigand, has been encouraged from the 
gallery with " Go it, boots ! " The Middle Ages 
were equally attentive to the conspicuous in costume, 
and there is scarcely an article of attire l or an adjunct 
of equipment which has not given a surname, either 
in isolation, Halt, Hood, or accompanied by an adjec- 
tive, Curthose, Hardstaff. It need hardly be said that 
many names of this type have an alternative shop-sign 
origin [Thomas del Hat, Hund. R.]. The Tabard 
will occur at once to everyone, and Crowne is another 
obvious case. As an example of the way in which 

1 Space does not allow of describing the garments mentioned 
and their varied meanings in ME. Those interested should consult 
the NED. or Fairholt's Costume in England. 

J 45 



146 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

names have been taken from garments we may take 
the extreme case of Coverlid. It would seem incredible 
that anyone should be nicknamed from a counterpane 
or quilt, if we had not as evidence Matilda Cooptoria 
(Hund. R.)- 

"Hoc coopertorium, a coverlyd" (Voc.). 

From the head-gear we get Halt, Capp [Alward 
Capp, Pipe R.], Hood, Capron (Fr. chaperon), and the 
obsolete Capoce [Nicholas Capoce, Pat. R.} 

" Capuchon, a capuche ; a monk's cowle or hood " (Cotg.). 

The Middle English compounds of Hood seem to have 
been absorbed by those of Head (p. 129). Cowl, Cowell 
is usually a Manx name (see p. 319, n. i), but may some- 
times belong here. Toye is a dial, word for a close- 
fitting cap [Warm Toy, Hund. R.]. It now belongs to 
the north and is used several times by Scott. Feather 
may be an alteration of Father, once much commoner 
as a surname than now ; cf . Penny feather for Penne- 
father, 1 a miser [Justinian Panyfader, Archbp. Peck- 
ham's Let. 1279-92]. But John Fether (Bp. Kellawe's 
Reg. 1334) points to literal interpretation. Bonnett 
is generally of French origin, a derivative of bon 
(see p. 289). Among the many sources of Barrett must 
probably be reckoned OF. barrette, a biretta, so 
common in the expression " parler a la barrette" 

" Barrette, a cap, or bonnet." 

" Parler a sa barrette, to expostulate with him face to face ; to 
speake home, and to his teeth, unto him " (Cotg.). 



1 This has also become Pannifer, Pen/are. Cf. the rustic " gran- 
fer " for grandfather. The earliest NED. record for " penny- 
father " is 1549. 



NECK-WEAR I 47 

This word, which has given a French surname, may be 
responsible for Walter dictm Baret (Archbp. Giffard's 
Reg. 1266-79), but this may be the OF. and ME. 
bar at, guile, contention, etc., whence also Barter 

" Baratowre, pungnax (sic), rixosus " (Prompt. Parv.). 

To costume also occasionally belongs Chappell, OF. 
chapel (chapeau). The hatter is generally " le chap- 
elier " in the Rolls, whence Shapler. 1 With the Sussex 
name Quaife, from a Norman form of coif [Andrew 
Coyfe, Pat. R.], cf. Lucy la Queyfer, i.e. the coif-maker 
(ib.). Kercher, Kurcher, Kerchey are from kerchief in 
its original sense, couvre-chef 

" With this kerchere I kure thi face " (Coventry Mysteries). 

Neck-wear seems to be recorded in Collar, Ruff, 
Scarf, and Partlett, but none of these is genuine. 
Collar is an imitative spelling of Collier, a charcoal- 
burner. The ruff came after the surname period z and 
Ruff is simply a phonetic spelling of Rough ; cf. Tuff 
for Tough [Nicholas le Toghe, Hund. R.]. Ruff ell, 
Ruffles I take to be local, at the " rough heal " ; see 
p. 61, and cf. Roughley, Roughsedge. Scarf is an Old 
Norse word, still used in the Orkneys for the cor- 
morant or shag, and made into a personal name in 

1 It is strange that the name is not coihmoner. Hatter is equally 
rare. Sh- for Fr. ch- shows comparatively modern adoption. I 
take it that Shrapnel is a metathesis of the Fr. Charbonnel, Char- 
bonneau, " little coal," found in DB. as Carbonel. The inter- 
mediate Robert Sharpanel occurs in Cockersand Cart. 

* Hence the explanation I have given of Quitter in my Romance 
of Names (p. 171) is wrong. It is simply the queller, i.e. killer 
[Matthew le Queller, Archbp. Gray's Reg. 1225-54]. Also Keller 
[Simon le Keller, F. of Y.] 

" Crackers, facers, and chylderne quellers " (Cocke Lorelle). 



148 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

England [Hugh Scarf, piscator, 1 F. of Y., Henry Scharf, 
Hund. R., Line.]. A kind of ruff worn in Tudor times 
was called a partlet, perhaps from the name of Dame 
Partlet the hen in the Romance of Renard, but the 
surname must go back to the latter. 

Coate has got hopelessly mixed up with cote, cott, a 
dwelling, but we may assume that so common a 
word must have contributed to the ubiquitous 
Coates, while the existence of the Middle English 
nickname Turnecotel points to a dim. of the word 
as one origin of Cottle, Cuttle. Medlicott for " med- 
ley coat/' i.e. motley, seems to be certified by 
Peter Miparty (Fine R.), Fr. mi-parti corresponding 
exactly to " motley " ; but Body coat is an imitative 
spelling of Bodicote (Oxf.) Altogether this garment 
is rather disappointing, though there are probably 
some names in -cote, -cott, to which it has contri- 
buted. Lower gives Gaicoje, a name I have not met 
with. Mantell is as old as the Conquest [Tustin 
Mantel, DB.]. Freemantle is a place in Hants where 
Henry II. built a great castle. It is constantly referred 
to in the Pipe R. as Frigidum Mantellum, though I 
do not know the origin of the name. But the existence 
of the opposite chaud-manteau [Alice Caumantel, 
IpM.] suggests that Freemantle, formerly Freitmantel, 
may also be a nickname. Pilch is etymologically a 
" pelisse," or fur cloak 

" Pylch, pellicium, pellicia " (Prompt. Parv.). 

Tippett is a dim of the favourite Theobald (p. 40), or 

1 An appropriate nickname for a fisherman. Here is a more 
modern case " At 5, Commerce St., Buckle, on the i8th inst., 
William Cowie, ' Codlin,' fisherman, aged 79 years " (Banff shire 
Advertiser, Aug. 19, 1915). 



SURNAMES IN -LESS i 49 

may come straight from Fr. Thibaut. With the historic 
Curtmantle cf. William Curtepy (Pat. R.), who wore a 
short pea-jacket 

" Ful thredbare was his overeste courlepy " (Chauc. A. 290). 

OF. gonelle, a dim. of gown, is one origin ofGunnell. 
Geoffrey Grisegonelle was a Count of Anjou. W T illiam 
Sanzgunele (Pipe R.) belongs to an interesting type of 
name which, though not confined to the costume group, 
may be conveniently mentioned here. Existing names 
of this class are Bookless, Careless, corrupted to Carloss 
[cf. Robert Soroweles, Lond. Wills, 1319], Faultless 
[John Saunfaille, City D.], Hoodless, Landless, Lawless, 
Loveless, Peerless or Fearless, Lockless (cf, Harliss), 
Reckless or Reatchlous, all of which are obvious and to 
be taken literally. They can be authenticated from 
the Rolls and by foreign parallels, e.g. Fr. Sansterre 
(Landless or Lackland), Ger. Ohnesorg (Careless], etc. 
Wanless, sometimes perverted to Wanlace, Wanlass, 
Wandloss, is ME. wanles, hopeless, luckless. 1 Fairless 
is explained by Lower as a contraction of " fatherless " 
[William Faderles, Rievaulx Cart.], but perhaps comes 
rather from ME. fere, companion, equal, commonly 
coupled with peer in the expression " without feer or 
peer." It might even be for " fearless." Artless is an 
alteration of Arkless (p. 215), Ruglessisfor Ruggles, AS. 
Hrocwulf, rook wolf [William Roculf, Pat. RJ], Nickless 
may be for Nicholas, or for " neckless " [Simon 
Nekeles, Hund. R.], and Sharpless is for the local 
Sharpies (Lane.). Makeless, the matchless, does not 
seem to have survived [Gilbert Makeleys, Leic. BOY. 

1 Cf. Wanghope, from ME wanhope, despair, but, like all -hope 
names (p. 63), with a possible local explanation. 



150 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

Rec.], unless it is the origin of Maclise. Thewlis, 
Thewless l in modern dial, means sluggish, easy-going 

" He was a quiet, thewless, pleasantly conforming man " (Crockett). 

Cf. the obsolete John Blodles (Hund. R.), Peter le 
Noselese'(Pfl/. R.), William Tothelesse (Lane. Court R. 
1323-4), Thomas Berdless (Leic. Bor. Rec.). To the 
same group belong Santer [John Sansterre, Hund. R.] 
and possibly sometimes Sansom; cf. Fr. Sanselme, 
OF. sans-healme, helmetless. 

To return to garments, we have Cloake [Alicia Clok, 
Yorks Knights' Fees, 1303], Jack, Jackett, and Doublett. 
Jack and Jackett are of course usually baptismal, the 
ultimate origin being the same in any case. With 
Doublett cf. Alexander Purpoynt (Stow, 1373) 

" Pourpoynt, a doublet " (Cotg.). 

Jestico looks like a perversion of Fr. justaucorps, cor- 
rupted forms of which were common in Scotland 

" It's a sight fer sair een to see a gold-laced jeisticor in the Ha' 
garden " (Rob Roy, ch. vi.). 

Wimplewas a surname as late as the eighteenth century, 
so probably still exists, and " le Wimpler " is a very 
common entry in the Rolls. Cape and Cope are both 
sometimes from garments ; cf. Guillaume a la Chape 
(Pachnio) and Henry Scapelory, i.e. scapulary (Annal. 
Monast.) 

" Chappe, a churchmans cope ; also a judges hood " (Cotg.) 

but I fear that Waistcoat and Weskett must be regarded 
as corruptions of the local Westcott. Taber is for tabard 
[John Tabard, Lane. Court R. 1323-4], and of course 

1 The simple Thew is probably ME. theowe, slave, bondman. 



DETAILS OF ATTIRE 151 

has been confused with Tabor (p. 175). It was not 
necessarily a herald's dress, for it was worn by Chaucer's 
Plowman 

" In a tabard he rood upon a mere " (A. 541). 

Similarly Surplice is derived from the name of a gar- 
ment not originally limited to ecclesiastical use. We 
are told that Absalom the clerk wore a kirtle of light 
watchet 

" And therupon he hadde a gay surplys " (Chauc. A. 3323). 

Slavin [Robert Sclavyn, Fine R.} is from the name of a 
kind of cloak often mentioned in Middle English 

" His slaveyn was of the old schappe" (Richard the Redeless, iii. 236). 

It is supposed to have been a Slavonian garment and 
is explained by Cotgrave (s.v. esclavine) as a seaman's 
gown. Overall is local, the first element being ME. 
over, river bank, while the second may be " hall" or 
" heal" (p. 61). The sleeve seems to have survived 
only in Gildersleeve [Roger Gyldenesleve, Hund. R.] ; 
cf. William Grenescleve (Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285) 
and Roger sine Manica (Feet of Fines). We do not 
seem to have any name derived from the glove, except 
the dim. Gauntlett, though Pachnio has Robert aus 
Ganz and others. Mitten seems to be a genuine nick- 
name [Roger Mitayn, Pat. R.]. 

Belt has a compound Broadbelt [John Bradbelt, Pat. 
R.], chiefly found in the same county (Chesh.) as Brace- 
girdle. The first element of the latter is dubious, 
breeks or breast ? 

" Go and have to thee a lynyn bregirdil" (Wye. Jer. xiii. i). 
" A spousesse schal forgete hir brest girdil " (ib. ii. 32). 



152 



COSTUME NICKNAMES 



It gave the name of a trade [William Brigerdler, City 
B.]. With the above names cf. Adam Whitbelt (Pat. 
R.) and Henry Fairgirdle (Leic. Bor. Rec.). The 
obsolete name Tutegurdel suggests a very full habit of 
body. Buckle is generally local [Alexander de Boukhill, 
Fine R.], and Hornbuckle is perhaps, as suggested by 
Bardsley, a corruption of Arbuckle, which, in its turn, 
is for the local Harbottle (Northunlb.). In Yorkshire 
this is also found as Hardbattle. Hose 1 (cf . Raoul aus 
Reuses, Pachnio) has interchanged with House [Nicholas 
de la Hose, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], and the latter 
has generally prevailed. Thus Shorthouse * is com- 
moner than the original Shorthose [John Shor those, 
Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], Whitehouse has absorbed not 
only Whitehose [Galiot Wythose, Pat. R.], but also 
Whitehause, i.e. white-neck, which occurs in F. of Y., 
and Whitehorse, perhaps an innkeeper's name [Robert 
Whithors, Pat. R.]. The fairly common ME. Curthose 
[Robert Curthose, Hund. R.] is now almost lost in 
Curtis, 9 generally from le curteis, the courteous. The 
intermediate form appears as Curthoys. Gaiter, found 
also as Gater, Gayter, Gay tor, Geator, is either OF. 
gaiteor, a watchman, or an archaic and dialect form of 
Goater [Michael le Geytere, Hund. R.]. Probably 
both origins are represented 

" Custodes qui vocantur Gategeters " (Nott. Bor. Rec. 1279). 
" Whether I sail ete fleysse of bulles, or I sail drynke blode of 
gaytes " (Hampole's Psalter, xlix. 14). 



1 This word has a very wide range of meanings in Middle English, 
gaiter, stocking, greaves, breeches, etc. See NED. 

2 Hence also Shorter s, Shortus ; cf. Churchers, Smithers, etc. (p. 96). 

3 For this change cf. Mellis and other corruptions of -house 
(p. 96). 



FOOT-GEAR 153 

Stockings is local, at the stumps or forest clearing 
[Edmund del Stocking, Hund. R., John atte Stocken, 
Cust. Battle Abbey, 1283-1312]. Boot, like Fr. Bout, 
is a dim. of some Teutonic name in Bod-, command, 
and Button, Fr. Bonton, is a derivative. In spite of 
Caligula, I doubt whether Boot is ever a costume name. 
The apparently parallel cases of Startup and Buskin 
can be explained differently. A startup was a rough 
country boot or high-low (see NED. and Nares) 

" Payre of startoppes, houssettes " (Palsg.) ; 

but the word is formed in the same way as the sur- 
name, from " start up " [William Stirtup, Archbp. 
Gray's Reg. 1225-54]. We now say upstart, but cf. 

" That young startup hath all the glory of my overthrow " 

(Much Ado, i. 3). 

Buskin is merely a metathesis of buckskin, 1 which may 
have been applied to various garments [Richard de 
Gravde called Bokskyn, City D., Peter Buckskyn, 
Fine R., W r alter Buskyn, ib., Martin Peildecerf, Pat. R.]. 
It may even have been a nickname from the quality 
of the human cuticle. There is, however, nothing to 
prevent Messrs. Startup and Buskin from having been 
nicknamed from their style of footgear ; cf. Robert 
Heghscho (F. of Y.). Slipper is occupative, the sword- 
sharpener ; see NED., s.v. swordslyper. Clapskoe is a 
variant of the local Clapshaw, apparently the haw, or 
perhaps shaw, of Clapp, AS. Clapa. 

1 This is the origin of the common noun buskin. The NED. 
quotes (c. 1490), " My Lord paid to his cordwaner (shoemaker) 
for a payr bucskyns xviiid." The continental words suggested 
by the NED. for our buskin (first record, 1503) have no connection 
with the English word. 



154 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

There is a large group of colour nicknames which 
may also be referred to costume. Even Black, White, 
Grey, Brown may occasionally belong here, but though 
I have come across thousands of medieval Greens, 
they have all been local, "attegrene," " delagrene." 
Still, cf. Fr. Levert and Ger. Grim. Blankett, Blewitt or 
Bluett, Blunkett, Plunkett, 1 Russett, Scarlett are all used 
in Middle English, not only of colours, but of certain 
materials usually made in those colours ; in fact scarlet 
as a material is older than the same word applied to 
a colour. Bissell, Bissett are formed similarly from 
F. bis, dingy, and Violett [Violetus solus, Pipe R.] 
must surely belong to costume. With these names, 
which are abundantly exemplified in the Rolls and 
exist also in French, go Burr ell, Borrell, homespun, and 
hence, figuratively, simple, uneducated, and Ray, a 
striped cloth often mentioned in Middle English 

' ' When men with honest ray could holde them self content " 

(Barclay, Ship of Fools, 8). 

Lambswool also appears to describe costume, and 
Woolward, W collar d must sometimes represent ME. 
wulleward, clothed in wool 

" Faste, and go wolwarde, and wake, 
And thole hardnes for Goddes sake " 

(Hampole). 

Adjuncts of the costume are Staff, Clubb, Bur don, a 
pilgrim's staff, and Kidgell, Kiggel, Kitchell, Ketchell, 
ME. kycgel* a cudgel [Walter Kigel, Chart. R., Matilda 
Kiggel, Hund. R.]. These are all well recorded and 

1 Also local, from some place in Brittany [Alan de Plukenet, 
Plugenet, Plogenet, etc., Chart. R.]. Hence also Plucknett. 

2 Kidgel, cudgel, is still in dial, use (EDD.) 



ADJUNCTS OF COSTUME 155 

are supported as nicknames by Giles Machue (Pat. R.), 
a Norman form of Fr. massue, a club. With Staff cf. 
Tipstaff, 1 given by Lower as a surname, from " tipped 
staff," and the more familiar compounds Blackstaff, 
Hardstaff [cf. Adam Toghstaf, Pat. R.], Longstaff. 
Baston [Thomas Bastun, Pat. R.] is of similar origin 

" Baston, a staff, club, or cowlstaff. But in our statutes it signi- 
fies one of the Warden of the Fleets servants or officers, who attends 
the kings Court with a red staff, for taking such to ward as are com- 
mitted by the Court " (Blount). 

Trounson is for truncheon [Robert Trunchun, Hund. 
R.], but Blackrod, Whiter od, Greenrod, Grinrod, Bushrod 
are local, the second element being either road, or 
royd, a northern word for a clearing [Adam de Black- 
rod, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285]. Wand is probably an 
alteration of the nickname Want, meaning mole. 

In the case of names of this type, we must also 
consider the possibility of a grotesque physical re- 
semblance being suggested. One has heard of a tall 
lady being described as a " maypole." Leschallas, the 
vine-prop, is a common French surname, and Vinestock 
is found in England. Gadd comes from dial, gad, a 
long tapering stick, used figuratively of a lanky person 
[Joseph le Gad, Pat. R.]. In one of Maupassant's 
stories there is a bony forester called Nicholas Pichon 
Ait L'fichasse, with whom we may compare Robert 
Stilt (Ramsey Cart.) 

" Eschasses, stilts, or scatches to go on " (Cotg.). 

This seems to be the natural explanation of the German 
name Tischbein (table-leg). Clubb was used for a 

1 Tiptaft, Tiptojt is local, from some place in Normandy formerly 
called Tibetot, a Scandinavian name in -toft. It also survives as 
Tiptod. 
12 



156 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

rustic bumpkin [Geoffrey Clubbe, Leic. Bor. Rec.], 
while " bumpkin " itself is possibly from the Dutch for 
a tree-stump. Block, Blogg x is no doubt to be ex- 
plained in the same way [Benedict Blok, Exch. R.] 

" Ye are suche a calfe, suche an asse, such, a blocke " 

(Ralph Royster-Doyster, iii. 3). 

With this group of names goes Whipp, a nickname 
for a carter [Allan Wyppe, Hund. R., Roger Wyppe, 
Archbp. Romeyn's Reg. 1286-96] ; cf. William Whippe- 
stele, i.e. whiphandle (Pat. R.). Purse, Pouch, Pockett, 
Satchell are also to be taken literally, and Bernard 
Pouch, collector of customs 8 at Sandwich in the early 
fourteenth century (Fine R.), suggests to us how such 
names may have been acquired ; cf. William Baglite, 
i.e. little bag (Pat. R.). But Wallett, so far as my evi- 
dence goes, is an alteration of valet, a servant [Robert le 
Vallet or le Wallet, Close R.]. It is also local, for Wall- 
head (see p. 128). Porteous in Middle English means a 
breviary, but as the name (also Porteas, Portas, etc.) is 
essentially Scottish, it may come from the special use 
of the same word in Scottish law 

" Porteous . . . signifies ane catalogue, contenand the names of 
the persones indited to the justiceair, quhilk is given and delivered 
be the justice clerke to the crowner " (Skene). 

Budgett, Bowgett probably belongs to AS. Burgheard, 
usually Buchard in Middle English ; hence also 
Buckett. Trussell is doubtful, although Trousseau, a 
pack, is a common French surname. Troussel is 
frequently found in the Rolls, but it may be identical 

1 Cf. Blagg for Black, Jagg for Jack, Slagg for Slack. 

2 Cf. John de la Barre, collector of customs at Chichester, temp. 
Ed. I. (Fine Rolls). 



ORNAMENTS OF DRESS 157 

with the bird nickname Throssell, Thrussell. Bundle 
is probably local, of Bunhill, 1 and Pack is one of the 
many forms of the great Easter name Pascal [John 
f. Pake, Hund. R.]. 

Coming to purely ornamental adjuncts we have 
Ring [Robert Ring, Hund. R.] and Goldring [Richard 
Goldring, Yorks Knights' Fees, 1303]. Ribbans, a Nor- 
folk name, is no doubt the Flemish Rubens, which is 
a Frisian derivative of Rupert, Robert. Here also we 
may put the precious metals, Gold, Silver, Argent. Gold 
is usually a shortened form of one of the Anglo-Saxon 
names in Gold (p. 45) ; but it is also a nickname [John 
dictus Gold, Archbp. Peckham's Let. 1279-92, Thomas 
withe Gold, Pat. R.]. With the second example I 
should connect Wiegold ; cf. Wyberd * (with the beard?). 
Pur gold occurs in Blomefi eld's History of Norfolk as 
Puregold. Golden, Goulden, usually for the patronymic 
Golding, is also decorative [Henry le Guldene, Pat. R.]. 
Both this name and Fr. Dore were perhaps due to the 
colour of the hair. Silver may in some cases be reduced 
from the occupative " silver er " [William Sylvereour, 
F. of Y. 1416], but it is of quite common occurrence 
as an epithet, and Argent is a well-established name in 
both English and French. Jewell, found also as Joel, 
Joule, Joll, full, is a personal name of Old French 
origin [Judhel de Totenais, DB.]. It is found earlier 
as Judikel, and I fancy it springs from a metathesis 
of ON. Joketel, whence also Jekyll, Jickles, Giggle, 3 

1 Cf. Brindle (Lane.), formerly " burn-hill." 

2 The common AS. Wigbeorht would explain this more safely ; 
but Searle has no name corresponding to Wiegold. 

3 Hence the place-name Giggleswick. The usual view is that 
Judicael is Celtic. Perhaps two originals are present in the above 
group of names. 



158- COSTUME NICKNAMES 

and many other variants. The common surname 
Diamond is no doubt as a rule altered from Daymond, 
Dayment, AS. Dsegmund, day protection, but Dia- 
manda wife of John Coroner (Lond. Wills, 1348-9) 
shows that it was used as a fanciful font-name. 
Modern German has many jewel surnames, but they 
are usually Jewish and of quite recent adoption. Our 
Ruby, Rubey is local, of Roubaix [Hubert de Ruby, 
Cal. Gen.] 

" Le marchant de Ruby ne pouvoit vendre sa marchandisa audit 
pays de Flandres " (Deposition of Bernard de Vignolles, temp. 
Henry VII.). 

Pearl appears to be a nickname from the gem, but 
I have found no example sufficiently old to be conclu- 
sive. Beryl, Berrill occurs in the Rolls [Walter 
Beryl, Fine R.], but is probably an imitative form of 
the name Berald (p. 34), and Jasper is also baptismal, 
Fr. Gaspard, 1 the name of one of the three Wise Men 
from the East ; it has also given Gasper. Finally, 
Rainbow, usually an imitative spelling of OF. Reim- 
baud, corresponding to AS. Regenbeald, may also have 
been a nickname for a man who loved bright colours, 
for w r e have the parallel case of the Minnesinger 
Regenbogen, still a German surname. 

Having considered man in his civil attire, let us now 
examine him when armed for battle. Armour is for 
the occupative " armourer/' and has preserved the 
article in Larmor, Larmour [Manekyn Larmurer, 
City E.]. Harness is baptismal [Robert f. Hernis, 
Hund. R.], from an aspirated form of the Domesday 
Ernegis, Erneis, an Anglo-Saxon name in Earn-, eagle, 

1 It is a Persian name, meaning " treasurer." 



DEFENSIVE ARMOUR 159 

probably Earngisl, eagle hostage. But the existence 
of Fr. Beauharnais and Ger. Harnisch points also to a 
nickname, which is confirmed by William Duble Har- 
neys, saddler (City A.). Helm may be short for one 
of the Anglo-Saxon names in Helm-, such as Helmar, 
helmet famous, whence Helmers, and is also local 
(see p. 63) ; but Basnett is from the basin-shaped helmet 
which was the usual head defence of the medieval 
soldier 

" And a brasun basynet on his heed " (Wye. i Sam. xvii. 5). 

Cf . the German names Kesselhut and Ketelhod, the latter 
being the Low German form (kettle hat). William 
Salet (Exch. Cal.) took his name from the type of 
helmet which superseded the bascinet. Caplin, 
Chaplin sometimes represent OF. and ME. capeline, a 
mailed hood [cf. James Cape de Mayle, Pat. R.]. Haber- 
shon is from " habergeon " (2 Chron. xxvi. 14), a diminu- 
tive of hauberk [Simon Hauberk, Pat. R.]. This name 
is further corrupted to Habberjan, Habberjam, and 
Habbijams. The corresponding Ger. Panzer 8 is a 
fairly common name. This group was once much 
larger, but as the names for defensive armour became 
obsolete, the corresponding surnames died out or 
became corrupted beyond detection. William Wam- 
beis (Fine R.) and Roger Gaumbeis (IpM.) took their 
names from the gambeson, or wadded doublet, worn 
under the armour, perhaps the origin of Gamson. 
William Curbuill (Percy Cart.) wore armour of cuir- 

1 On the origin of salet, salade, a helmet, see my Romance of 
Words, p. 199. 

* Hence the gepanzerte Faust or " mailed fist." 



i6o COSTUME NICKNAMES 

bouilli, boiled leather, once highly esteemed for this 
purpose 

" Hise jambeux were of quyrboilly " (Chauc. B. 2065). 

This may survive in Corbally and Garbally. There are 
plenty of local Actons without invoking the medieval 
acton or auqueton (Fr. hoqueton) which was also worn 
under the armour, but the garment was important 
enough to give its name to a trade [Simon le Actoner, 
Pat. R.]. Both Shield [Roger Shelde, Pat. R.] and 
Buckler are sometimes to be included here ; but the 
latter is generally occupative, 1 the buckle-malger 
[George le Bukeler, Pat. R.]. Skew may represent 
OF. escu [John Escud, Pat. R.~\, as in Fortescue and 
Fr. Durescu. Cf. with these names Walter Talevaz 
(Salisbury Chart.) 

" Talevas, a large, massive, and old-fasioned targuet, having, in 
the bottome of it a pike, whereby, when need was, it was stuck into 
the ground " (Cotg.). 

Greaves has probably no connection with armour. It 
has three other well-established origins, viz. grieve, 
a land steward, ME. grcef, a quarry, excavation, and 
ME. greve, a grove. 

Among offensive weapons we have Sword, Sard 
[Syrich Swerd, Pat. R., William del Espeye, ib.~\, 
Spear, Spearpoint,* Dagger, Lance. The last is more 
usually short for Lancelot, but Longuelance, Lance- 
levee are common medieval names ; cf. also Fr. 
Lalance. Rapier is a variant of Raper, the northern 

1 In this class of names especially the reader must be reminded 
that many of them could be from shop-signs 

" Jelian Joly at sygne of the bokeler " (Cocke Lorelle). 
8 Is this rather a perversion of the local Pierrepoint, Pierpont ? 



OFFENSIVE ARMS 161 

form of the occupative Roper, and Brand, though it 
means sword, is a personal name (see p. 38). Ap- 
parent compounds of -lance, such as Hulance, Roy- 
lance, Sandelance, are merely accidental spellings of 
Hullins, dim. of Hugh, Rylands, Sandilands, both local ; 
cf. pence for " pennies," Simmance for Simmons, Pearce 
for Piers, etc. Pike may occasionally belong here, and 
Hallpike is perhaps for "half-pike" (but see p. 51). 
With Knife cf. Jehan Coutiau (Pachnio). Halbard, 
Halbert may be a weapon name, but the reader will 
remember Halbert Glendinning. As Dart is essentially 
a Devon name, it probably comes from the river * 
Dart. Brownbill, a common Cheshire name, is doubt- 
ful. There are no early records, and the oldest occur- 
rence of brownbill in the NED. is 1589. Of Brown- 
sword also I find no earlier example than John 
Brownswerd, 1561 (Bardsley), Randell Brownsworthe, 
1583 (ib.), so that it is impossible to say whether the 
name is local or represents the weapon. Still, as 
brown, in the sense of " burnished," is a regular 

1 In my Romance of Names (p. 114) I have put forward the view 
that river surnames are rare and doubtful. They are, however, 
more numerous than I thought, e.g. Henry atte Sture (Pat. R., 
Suffolk), Richard atte Stoure (Cor am Rege R., Essex), the river 
Stour dividing these two counties. Cf. also C alder, Tweed, Solway, 
Wharf, a Yorkshire name, Gilpin, a stream in Westmorland, 
whence also the imitative Giltpen. So also Churn, from a 
headstream of the Thames, whence also Churnside, Chermside, 
Chirnside, with which cf. Calderside, Deebanks, Creedybridge . Salli- 
banks may belong to Solway, but perhaps rather to AS. sealh, willow ; 
cf. Ewbanks (yew), Firbanks, etc. Allenwaters and Gillingwater 
are both existing surnames, the first reminiscent of a famous song, 
the second probably from Gilling Beck (Yorks). Dickens may 
have invented Tim Linkinwater's name, but " linking water," 
from the Scottish link, to trip along nimbly, is quite a possible 
formation. 



162 COSTUME NICKNAMES 

epithet of the sword in Middle English, I am inclined 
to think that the origin of the name is to be found in 
the " bonny brown sword " of ballad poetry ; cf. 
Richard Whitswerd (Close R.). 

Another name which may belong to this class is 
Glave, Cleaves, the latter very common in East 
Anglia. The word gleave, still used in dialect of a 
fish-spear, is the same as glaive, which in Middle 
English means both sword and spear, and in Old 
French almost always the latter. In Middle English 
the word has also the special meaning of a spear set 
up as the goal of a race and awarded as a prize to the 
winner, the origin, I suppose, of the name Winspear l 

" Certes thei rennen all, but oon of hem takith the gleyve " 
(Wyclif, Sermons). 
" Glayfe wynner, braveta " (Cath. Angl.). 

It seems very possible that a nickname could come 
from this practice, references to which are numerous 
in Middle English literature. Cf. Prizeman and the 
origin I have suggested for Popjoy (p. 201). In the 
same way Arrow may come from the silver arrow 
awarded to the successful archer [Ralph Arwe, City D.] ; 
cf. the obsolete Sharparrow. " Mangnall's Questions " 
are not very suggestive of medieval romance, but 
Robert Mangonell (Fine R.) undoubtedly took his 
name from the warlike engine with which he was an 
expert. That Spurr was a spurrier's sign is evident 
from the fact that Richard le Sporiere (City B.) is 
also called Richard Sporon (OF. esporon, a spur) ; cf. 
Thomas Esperun or Sporun (Pat. R.), whose name now 

1 Cf . also Winspur, Winsper, which may be the same, or may refer 
to winning one's spurs. 



OBSOLETE COSTUME NICKNAMES 163 

exists as Spearon, Sperring, Spurren. Cockspur was 
a London name as late as the eighteenth century, and 
no doubt still exists somewhere. 

Of the same type as the names mentioned in this 
chapter are the following which appear to be obsolete 
Whitebelt, Curtwallet, Brounsack, Pilchecurt (court), 
Ruggebag, Wydhos, Witheskirtes, Curtemanch, Grene- 
hode, Irenpurs, Penipurs, Smalpurs, Halebourse, Red- 
cal, Short ecal (see Caller, p. 119), Losgert, Blank- 
herneis, Straytstirop, Langboue, Longespeye, Curt- 
brand, Descosu (Fr. decousu, ragged), Smalygurd, a 
list which could be added to almost indefinitely. 



CHAPTER VIII 

MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

" Oh ! quand ce jour-la je parus dans la cour du college pendant 
la recreation, quel accueil ! 

' Pain de sucre ! pain de sucre ! ' s'ecrierent a la fois tous 
mes camarades " (ANATOLE FRANCE). 

BESIDES the numerous nicknames derived from a 
characteristic of physique or dress discussed in chap- 
ters vi. and vii., we have a large number of surnames 
which appear to be taken from tools and implements, 
household objects of all kinds, articles of food and 
drink, and even coins and numbers. Many of these 
are due to the imitative instinct, but the majority are 
perhaps what they appear to be, and their use as sur- 
names is due to the object in question having got to 
be regarded in some way as an inseparable adjunct of 
the individual. In Nelson's time the carpenter was 
called Chips and the purser Dips, while in Jellicoe's 
time the torpedo-lieutenant is known as Torps. When 
Smollett wanted names for three sea-dogs, Trunnion, 
Hatchway, and Pipes presented themselves naturally. 
We can imagine in the same way that the names 
Meteyard, Meatyard, Ellwand, Elrod were conferred 
upon early drapers who usually had such an imple- 
ment in hand, or even put it^ in the case of their 

164 



NAMES FROM WARES 165 

apprentices, to irregular but effective uses. Or the 
ancestor of the Ellwands may have been long and thin. 
Baskett * is generally derived from an ancestor who 
regularly carried, or had charge of, a basket. We 
have also the surname Maund, from the archaic and 
dialect maund, a large basket, and it may be assumed 
that Gilbert del Maunde, Serjeant of the almonry of 
St. Swithin, Winchester (Pat. R.), had charge of the 
alms-basket ; cf. Ernolph del Bracyn (Fr. brassin, a 
brewing vat), mentioned among the officials of a 
hospital in the Chart R. Some men were no doubt 
named after the commodities they dealt in. Every- 
one remembers that Dobbin's school-name was Figs, 
a delicate allusion to his father's grocery, and I have 
known schoolboys with the sobriquets Bricks and 
Balsam, the reference being in each case to the source 
of the family opulence. Hence such a name as 
Hardware, with which cf. Robert Smalware (Pipe R.). 
The following examples have a strong trade suggestion 
about them 

Alexander Fresharing, fishmonger . . (CityB.) 

Henry Graspeys (porpoise), fishmonger . (City D.) 

Pyke the fishmonger . . (F. of Y.) 

John Tupp, carnifex . . (#>.) 

Nicholas Wastal, cook . . (City C.) 

William Duble Harneys, saddler . . . (City A.) 

Why people should be named Nail or H or 'snail, 
Horsnell is hard to say, but the fact remains that 
these names exist and that they mean literally what 
they appear to mean [Ralph Nayl, Hund. R., William 
Horsnail, Close R.']. The corresponding Nagel and 

1 It is sometimes for Bassett, a dim. of Bass, i.e. has, low ; cf. 
casket from Fr. cassette. 



166 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

Hufnagel l are well established in Germany, and French 
even has Ferdasne (fer d'dne). Equally unaccount- 
able is Trivett, Trevitt [Ralph Trevot, Pat. R.], which 
is, however, guaranteed by Ger. Dreyfus and Augustine 
Tripoude [Archbp. Wickwane's Reg. 1279-84], for trivet 
and tripod are ultimately identical. No doubt some 
names of this type were sign-names. In the early 
Rolls this can be plainly seen [Hayn atte Cok, City E., 
Adam de la Rose, City B.~\, and, even at a later date, 
when the preposition has been dropped, the connection 
is often pretty obvious. Such entries as John Aguillun, 
i.e. goad (F. of Y.), John Whitehors, taverner (ib.), 
seem to point to a shop- sign as clearly as Whitebrow 
the plasterer (ib.) to the outward and visible sign of 
a calling. One has read of an American dentist who 
suspended a gigantic gilded tooth before his premises, 
and, as every tradesman had a sign in medieval 
England, we may suppose that the name Needle, 
Neild * 

" For thee fit weapons were 
Thy neeld and spindle, not a sword and spear " 

(Fairfax, Tasso, xx. 95) 

was acquired by a' tailor whose emblem was a needle 
of exaggerated dimensions 

" Moses, merchant tailor, at the needle " (Pasquin's Nightcap). 

Ballance is clearly of sign origin, for Ralph Belancer, 
i.e. scale-maker, who, according to Stow, was sheriff 
of London in 1316, is called in the French Chronicle of 

1 Heintze gives thirteen German surname compounds of -nagel, 
one of which, W acker nagel, is very familiar to students of German 
literature. 

8 This is also for Neil with excrescent -d, but neeld is still dialect 
for needle ; hence also Neelder for Needier. 



IMPLEMENTS X 6 7 

London Rauf la Balance. Crucifix is no doubt also a 
sign-name, and in Limmage, for Vintage, the article 
survives. See also Spun (p. 162). But such clear cases 
are not numerous, and it is impossible to say whether 
John Hunypot (Pat. R.) owed his name to the sign of his 
shop, to rotundity of person, to a mellifluous style of 
oratory, or was named ironically from a particularly 
vitriolic vocabulary. Equally mysterious is the origin 
of John Sadelbowe (Hund. R.), Roger Hayrape 1 (Pat. 
R.), Robert Butrekyde 2 (Hund. R.), and hundreds of 
other such names, with which we may compare such 
German 3 names as Birkenrut (birch rod), Windelband 
(swaddling clothes), etc. 

In this chapter I give a certain number of charac- 
teristic names of this class, pointing out as far as 
possible those that are genuine nicknames and those 
which most readily admit of an alternative explana- 
tion, and leaving it to the reader to decide how such 
odd names were originally acquired. 

Among names which are those of tools and imple- 
ments we have Auger, Axe, Chisell, Coulter, File, 
Funnell, Gimblett, Hammer, Hatchett, Last, Lathe, 

1 Perhaps from an elementary style of dress. The costume of 
Dancer, the famous miser, consisted for the most part " of hay-bands, 
which were swathed round his feet for boots and round his body for 
a coat." 

2 A butter-cask. The word is first recorded by the NED. three 
centuries later (1567). 

3 The comparison with grotesque German names must not, how- 
ever, be pushed too far, as a large number of these are only about a 
century old, having been forcibly conferred on such Jews as were 
not responsive to the pecuniary suggestions of those entrusted with 
the task of diffusing surnominal Kultur. Examples of such names 
are Dintenfass (inkstand), Quadratstein (square stone), Maschi- 
nendraht (machine wire), etc. 



168 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

Mallet, Mattock, Plow, Rake, Shackle, Shuttle, Wim- 
ble, Windlass. There are plenty more, but these 
will suffice as examples. Auger, also Augur, is a 
personal name identical with Fr. Augier, from OG. 
Adalgar, and hence a doublet of Alger, Elgar. Axe 
may be a metathesis of Ask, an archaic form of Ash ; 
cf. the vulgar pronunciation of the verb " ask" ; but 
it may very well go with Dagger, Sword, etc. (p. 160) ; 
cf. Robert Axe (Hund. R.), Ebrard Bradex, i.e. 
broad axe (Pipe R.), and Fr. Hachette. Our Hatchett 
probably has two origins. It is a normal reduction 
of Hatchard (p. 33, n.), but its connection with the 
implement is supported by Robert Coignee(Chart.R.) 

" Coignee, an hatchet, or axe " (Cotg.). 

With these cf . Twybell, from the name of a two-edged 
axe 

" Twybyl, ascia, bisacuta, biceps " (Prompt. Parv.). 

" Twyble, an instrument for carpentars, bernago " (Palsg ) 

Chisell is local, of Chiswell (Ess.), Coulter is occupative 
and equivalent to Coltard, Coulthard, 1 etc., the colt- 
herd. File, which occurs regularly in Kent in the com- 
pany of Fill, has a bewildering number of possible 
origins. It may be baptismal, for Philip or Felix 
[Adam f. Fille, Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 1301-60], or 
come from ME. file,* fellow, still in use in the Artful 
Dodger's time 

" At this point, the Dodger, with a show of being very par- 
ticular with a view to proceedings to be had thereafter, desired the 
jailer to communicate ' the names of them two files as was on the 
bench ' " (Oliver Twist, ch. xliii.). 



1 Said to exist also as Coldtart. 

1 There is also a ME. file, wench ; cf . Fr. Lafille. 



IMPLEMENTS 169 

Most probably of all it is simply Field or Fylde with 
the -d lost, as in Wiles from the local Wild [Robert de 
la Wile, Pipe R.] ; cf. the Lane. Files, for Fildes, also 
Upfill for Upfield, Butter fill, M or fill, etc. 

Funnell, a Sussex name, is for Furnell, found in 
the same county, and this is the very common Fr. 
Fournel, a dim. of four, an oven, furnace. This 
somehow suggests Tunnell, which is the AS. Tunweald 
[Henry Tonild, Pat. R.]. Gimblett is a dim. of Guil- 
laume with metathesis of m and I ; in fact, it is a 
doublet of Wilmot, which shows the same metathesis 
in Wimlott, Wimblett. Hammer is the Scandinavian 
hammer of Thor, occurring very commonly in local and 
personal names. It is also found as Hamar. Captain 
Hammer commanded the Danish ship which brought 
to England the bodies of the murdered crew of the 
E 13. Last would seem to come from a shoemaker's 
sign, but, if this were the case, we should expect to 
find it generally diff used, whereas it is purely a Suffolk 
name. The only clue I have found is John Alast 
(Hund. R., Line.), which may be for " at last." Lathe 
is Middle English for a barn [William de la Leythe, 
Archbp. Giffard's Reg. 1266-79]. Mallett is the regular 
reduction of Maillard, a French personal name from 
OG. Madalhart. It is probably also a dim. of Mai, 
i.e. Mary ; cf. Pallett. Mattock is generally an 
imitative form of Welsh Madoc, but may in some 
cases be from the tool. With Reginald Mattock 
(Coram Rege R. 1297) cf. John Pykoyse (Pat. R.)~ 

" Picquois, a pickax " (Cotg.). 

Pitchfork is a corruption of the local Pitchford (Salop). 



170 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

Plow was a common inn and shop sign [Roger de 
la Plow, Pat. R.] 

" Master Nicke, the silkman at the Plow " (Pasquin's Nightcap}. 

Hence perhaps also Plews, Plues. Rake is more 
probably local, from a dialect word for a rough path, 
pasture [Geoffry del Rakes, Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. It 
is more often found as Raikes, whence also Reeks, 
Rex. Cf. the compound Hollindrake, Hollingrake, 
from dialect hollin, holly. Shackle is a personal name 
[Robert Schakel, Cor am Rege R. 1297] which appears 
in some place-names, e.g. Shackleford, Schackleton ; 
but it was perhaps originally a Norse nickname, from 
ON. skokull, waggon pole, etc. Shuttle is probably 
also a personal name [Simon Shitel, Pat. R.], from 
AS. Sceotweald, as in Shuttleworth (but see p. 183). 
Wimble is for Wimbolt, AS. Winebeald, and Windlass, 
Windless should probably be added to the -less names 
on p. 149, for it seems to represent AS. wineleas, 
friendless; cf. Henry Frendles (Lane. Ass. R. 1176- 
1285). It might equally well be a phrase-name, " win 
lass" (seep. 263). 

The examples dealt with above mostly illustrate 
the fact that in names of this type we must always 
look out for imitative corruption, but in most of 
them the alternative literal meaning is not excluded. 
When a name is at all common it usually has 
more than one origin. For instance, Winch, which 
might have been put with the above, is derived 
from Winch (Norl), from the " winch " of a well 
or floodgate [Richard Attewynche, Pat. R.], and also 
from ME. wenche, a young woman, which dropped 
out of the surname list as the word degenerated in 



VESSELS AND VEHICLES 171 

meaning [Philip le Wenche, Fine R., William le 
Wenche, Pat. R.]. Cf. Maid, Maiden. 

A small group of surnames connected with sea- 
faring and the waterside belong rather to occupative 
names. Such are Barge, Bark, Boat, Catch or Ketch, 
Galley, Hoy, Shipp, Wherry. These are all genuine, 
though Shipp is also for "sheep"; and several of 
them are found occurring as surnames much earlier 
than the corresponding entries in the NED. Catch 
is the earlier form of Ketch [Henry de la Keche, City .]. 
Cf. such names as Cart and Wain. It is quite possible 
that Carratt, Carrett, Carritt, Carrott, all found in 
Lincolnshire, represent AF. carete [Nicholas de la 
Carete, Pat. R.] for Fr. charrette, charotte. At the 
risk of wearisome repetition, one must keep emphasizing 
the fact that the creation of surnames is due to un- 
changing human nature, and that their investigation re- 
quires common sense. There is nothing more natural 
than that a man should be nicknamed from the object 
most closely associated with his daily activity. Just 
as Gager, Gaiger is from the office of " gauger " [William 
le Gaugeour, gauger of wines in England, Ireland and 
Wales, Fine JR.], so Gage was a nickname for an official 
of the same class [Nicholas Gauge, troner 1 of wools 
in Lynn, Fine R.]. 

To consider all the cases in which people have been 
named from the commodities they dealt in would take 
up too much space, so a few illustrative examples must 
suffice. There can be no doubt that surnames were 

1 The official in charge of the tron, or weighing machine He was 
alsa called $. Poyser, Poyzer. Sir William Gage, of Suffolk, to whom 
we owe the greengage, had not wandered far from the home of this 
possible ancestor. 

13 



172 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

acquired in this way, for we even find the inclusive 
Chafer [Henry Chaffar, Pat. R.] 

" The chaff are, var. marchaundie, of the Jentiles " (Wye. 7s. 
xxiii. 2) 

and Marchandy, Marchandise both exist in French. I 
have found Clothes in Somerset, the home of the 
surname Clothier, in its older sense of cloth-worker. 
So also Cords and Ropes [Geoffrey Rope, Pat. R., 
Richard Cordel, ib.] are probably of trade origin, 
though they may have been nicknames for that 
busy medieval official, the hangman. Cordwent is 
simply " cordwain," * i.e. Cordovan leather [Lambert 
Cordewen, Hund. R.]. With the famous Hogsflesh we 
can compare Robert Pigesfles (City A.) and Johannes 
dictus Venesun (Archbp. Romeyn's Reg. 1286-96). 
The latter name, of which I have found several medieval 
examples, is no doubt absorbed by Vinson, Vincent. 

This brings us naturally to the large number of 
names connected with foods and drinks, most of 
which can be accepted as genuine, though it is a moot 
point how far they are due respectively to the fame of 
the purveyor or the predilections of the consumer. 
The odd and homely character of many names of this 
class is exemplified by Casembrood, the name of a 
famous Dutch admiral, which has a parallel in Geoffrey 

1 In a somewhat ambitious book on surnames published a few 
years ago we find the astounding statement that " Lord Teynham, 
being a Roper, must have drawn his family from one who was a 
' cord-wainer,' pacing hourly backwards and dealing out the hemp 
that was being spun and twisted, a monotonous toil from dawn to 
sunset, unenlightened by a glimpse of the future in which a descend- 
ant would wear the six pearls and have as crest a lion rampant 
bearing a ducal crown." Macaulay's schoolboy could have told 
the author that a cordwainer's interest in cords is only equalled by 
his enthusiasm for wains. 



ARTICLES OF FOOD 173 

Cheseandbrede (Yorks Knights' Fees, 1303). Besides 
well-known existing compounds of -bread we find in 
Middle English such names as John Barlibred (Pipe R.), 
Adam Cokinbred l (Leic. BOY. Rec.), Cicely Cromebred 
(Ramsey Cart.), John Drybred (Hund. R.), John 
Netpayn (Pat. R.), and William Halibred (Exch. R.), 
the latter still surviving as Hallowbread, Hollowbread. 
The French compounds of Pain- are equally numerous 

" M. Painleve, Minister of Instruction and Inventions, returned 
to Paris to-day from England " (Daily Telegraph, Feb. 25, 1916). 

Cf. Isabella Levanbrede (Yorks, 1379). To bread 
belongs also Bulteel [Agnes Buletel, Hund. R.], con- 
nected with OF. buleter (bluter), to bolt, sift 

" Bultel is the refuse of the meal, after it is dressed by the baker " 
(Blount). 

Crust is short for Christian as Trust is for Tristram, 
and Crumb is local, 2 of Croom [Adam de Crumb, 
Chart. R.]. Cake, Langcake, Longcake are all existing 
surnames; Matilda Havercake, i.e. oat-cake, occurs 
in the Hund. R. and Robert Wytecake in Archbp. 
Wickwanes Reg. (1279-84) ; cf. John Foace, of Rouen 
(Pat. R.) 

" Fouasse, a bunne, or cake, hastily baked " (Cotg.). 

Pancoucke, a famous French publisher of the eighteenth 
century, is simply the Dutch for pancake (pankoek), and 
our Pancutt is possibly an alteration of the same name. 
But Honeybun, Hunnybun are variants of the local 
Honeybourne. Another imitative name is Suet, for 
Seward, AS. Saeweard [John Suard, Fine R., John 
Suet, ib.]. 

1 For cocket bread ; see NED. 

8 It may be also a variant of Crump, a nickname meaning crooked. 



174 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

Leaving aside such obvious names as Pudding, 
Pottage, we will consider a few derived from obsolete 
words. Brewitt, Browett is OF. and ME. brouet, broth, 
v pottage, the ultimate origin of the Scottish brose [John 
Brouet, Pat. R.]. Fermidge, Firmage, Furmidge is 
AF. furmage (frontage), cheese. Haggas, now limited 
to Scotland, was a common word in Middle English 

" Hakkis, puddyngs, tucetum " (Prompt. Parv.}. 
" Haggas a podyng, caliette de mouton " (Palsg.). 

With these cf. John Blaksalt (Pat. R.), Henry Peper- 
wyte (City C.), John Blancbulli, i.e. white broth 
(Chart. R.) } Walter Jussel (Glouc. Cart.) 

" Jussellum, quidam cibus factus ex ovis et lacte, anglice Jussell " 
(Voc.). 

Sharlotte, which we now connect with apples, may 
be ME. charlet 

" Charlette, dyschmete, pepo " (Prompt. Parv.). 

Collop seems a very odd name, but the oldest example 
I have found [Thomas Colhoppe, Feet of Fines] is 
identical with the earliest recorded form of the common 
noun collop. Drink names are less numerous. We 
have Milk [William Mylk, F. of Y.], Beer (generally 
local, see p. 53), Goodale, Goodbeer, Coolbear, etc., 
and, in earlier times, W T illiam Surmelch (Pipe R.), 
Robert Rougevyn (Pat. R.), and a host of similar 
names. We even seem to have general terms for food 
and drink in Vivers or Veevers, V titles, 1 and Beveridge. 
The first I cannot prove 

" Vivres, victualls, acates " (Cotg.). 



1 This name, found in Devon, is more probably an imitative 
corruption of Vidal, from Vitalis, also a Devon surname. 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 175 

though it seems a natural nickname for a provision 
dealer or innkeeper 

" Amongst others, one Mother Mampudding (as they termed her) 
for many years kept this house, or a great part thereof, for victu- 
alling " (Stow) 

but Beveridge is amply attested [William Beverage, 
IpM., Walter Beverage, Hund. R.]. We may con-V 
elude this somewhat prosaic group of surnames with 
those of two contrasted medieval entertainers, William 
Coldbord (Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285) and Agnes Bone- 
table 1 (Pipe R.). 

Among musical instruments we find Bugle, Drum, 
Flute, Fidel or Fydell, Harp, Lute, Organ, Pipe, 
Timbrell, Tabor, and Trump. Not all of these are 
what they seem, though Robert Clarion (Close R. 
1246) and Marmaduke Clarionett, 1559, incline us to 
consider their claims favourably. ME. bugle, besides 
being short for " bugle- horn," meant wild ox 

" Oxe and sheep, and she geet, hert, capret, bugle " (Wye. 
Deut. xiv. 5). 

It was also the name of a plant, often confused with 
the bugloss 

" Buglosa, bugle" (Voc.) 

and, as the latter has given a surname, Buglass, our 
Bugle may go with the plant-names (ch. ix.). There 
is also a hamlet called Bugle in Cornwall. In the 
absence of early forms it is impossible to decide. But 
Bugler, first recorded by the NED. for 1840, can 

1 Cf. with these John le Caldeloverd (Hund. R.) and the existing 
name Bonhote, F. bon hole. 



176 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

hardly have been a HornUower. As the name belongs 
exclusively to Dorset, I guess that it comes from 
Bugley in that county. Mandlin is an alteration of 
Maudlin, i.e. Magdalen; cf. Manclark (p. 234). Drum 
and Drummer are probably both local, the former 
being a common Scotch and Irish place-name, mean- 
ing " ridge/' while the latter can easily have been 
corrupted from one of the innumerable spots beginning 
with the same syllable. Both drum and drummer are 
Tudor words in the NED., and I have found no early 
examples of their surname use. In Middle English 
the instrument was called " taber " [Richard le 
Taborer, Pat. R.], whence the occupative Tabrar, 
Taberer, Tabborah, while Taber, Tabor may be 
shortened from this 

" Taberes and tomblers " (Piers Plowm. A. ii. 79) 

or be simply the name of the instrument^jised as a 
nickname for the musician l [Suein Tabor, Pipe R.]. 
Tabrett is also found and Tambourin is a French name. 
The existence as surnames of Fidler or Vidler, 
Flutter, Harper, Luter, Piper, Trumper, all of which 
are well documented, is in favour of accepting 
Fidel, Flute, Harp, Lute, Pipe, Trump at their face 
value, but some of them have an alternative origin. 
Fidel is sometimes Fr. fiddle, faithful, Flute is 
rather an imitative form of Flewitt, AS. Flodweald 
[Fluold solus, Lib. Vit.~\, and Harp is a sign-name 
[Florencia atte Harpe, Bardsley, 1327]. Organ is a 
personal name [Organ Pipard, Testa de Nev.]. It 
has also become Orgies, by a natural corruption 

1 Cf. Fr. trompette, trumpeter, and our own " first violin." 



COINS i 77 

which occurs also in the case of the common noun 
of the same form 

" Orgies, tymbres, al maner gleo " (NED. i^th cent.). 

Pipe is generally local, for a pipe or water-conduit 
[Thomas atte Pipe, of Bristol, Pat. R.~\ ; cf. Conduct, 
Cundick. Timbrell l may be for Tumbrell, a name given 
to the official in charge of the tumbrel, " an instrument 
of punishment, the nature and operation of which 
in early times is uncertain ; from sixteenth century 
usually identified with the cucking-stool " (NED.). We 
may suppose that John Tumberel, collector of customs 
at Haverfordwest (Fine R.), worked this machine in 
his spare time. Probably Root is sometimes from 
the rote, the most famous of medieval instruments 
[Simon Rote, Hund. R.}, and William Sawtrey, the 
first Lollard martyr, took his name from the psaltery. 
In English, as in other languages, we find a certain 
number of surnames derived from coins, e.g. Farthing, 
Halfpenny, Penny, Shilling, also Shilling [John Eskel- 
ling, Pat. R.], Twopenny or Tippenny,* Besant, Ducat,* 
Duckett, or from sums of money. Pound is local, 
Guinea is an imitative spelling of the Irish Guiney, 
and Shekell is for Shackle (p. 170). Shillingsworth is 
local, the " worth," or homestead, of a man named 
Shilling. Cf. Shillingshaw, in which the second element 

1 See p. 130, n. Still, Robert Tymperon (Bp. Kellawe's Reg.) 
suggests an early form of " tambourine," used by Ben Jonson some 
centuries later, and Timperon is still a Cumberland name. 

8 Also Thic'kpenny, Moneypenny [William Manypeni, Pat. R.]. 
Limpenny is local, from Lympne (Kent). 

3 Shakespeare spelt the coin ducket, while ducat is a restored form. 
There is also a personal name Duckett, for Marmaduke, and another 
origin is " duck head " It is impossible to separate them. 



178 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 



may be sJiaw, a wood, or haw, an enclosure. The 
following medieval examples are instructive, though 
they do not tell us how the names were acquired 



Robert Alfmarck, now Allmark, Hall- 
mark ..... 

William Brodepeny 

Christiana Deudeners ; cf . Twopenny 

John Deumars .... 

Richard Dismars, now Dismore (cf. 
Sissmore for " sis-mars ") 

Roger Duzemars . . 

John Fivepeni . . . . 

Thomas Godespeny 

John Halfpound .... 

Thomas Mardargent 

John Nynpenyz .... 

Osbert Oitdeniers (huit denier s) 

Gerard Quatremarc 

Thomas Quatresoz 

Henry Quinzemars 

Richard Threeshillings . 

Edmund Trentemars 

Fulk Twelpenes . 

Geoffrey Twentemarc 

Cecily Treydeners .... 

Laurence Wytepens 



(Hund. R.) 
(Writs of ParL) 
(ib.) 
(City A.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(Fine R.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(Close R.) 

(City E.) 

(Fine R.) 

(Bp. Kellawe's Reg.) 

(Pipe R.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(City C.) 

(Close R.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(City A.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(ib.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(ib.) 



With the last of these cf. the well-known Dutch 
name Schimmelpeninck. One can only guess at the 
various ways in which certain sums became associated 
with certain individuals. We know that Uncle 
Pumblechook had an irritating way of alluding to 
Pip as " six penn'orth of ha'pence," and that David 
Balfour was also temporarily nicknamed by Lady 
Allardyce 

" ' O, so you're Saxpence \ ' she cried, with a very sneering 
manner. ' A braw gift, a bonny gentleman. And hae ye ony ither 
name and designation or -^ere ye bapteesed Saxpence ? ' ' 



NUMBERS 179 

The names in the above list seem to be nearly all 
extinct in England, though many of the same type 
are still found in France and Germany. But it seems 
likely that some of our number names are shortened 
from them. This can be seen in the case of Andrew 
Sixantwenti alias Vinte-sis-deners, i.e. twenty- six 
pence (Leic. Bor. Rec.). Thus the name Eighteen, 1 
well established at Reading, may be short for " eigh- 
teen pence." Another possibility is that it repre- 
sented the age of an ancestor ; cf. Robert Quinzanz 
(Chart. R.). Pachnio has many examples from medie- 
val Paris, e.g. Raoul iiij Deniers, Guillaume ix Deniers, 
Symon Quatuordecim, Jehan Quatre-Cenz, etc. In 
the last two examples the items may have been cows, 
sheep, etc. ; cf. Robertus Quatuor Bourn, Geffroi as 
ij Moutons (Pachnio). And there is a medieval Latin 
poem on a peasant known as Unusbos, a kind of Little 
Claus. 

Among existing names of this form are Two, Four, 
Six, Twelve, Twelves, Eighteen, Forty, most of which 
are susceptible of another explanation. Two may be 
short for Twoyearold (p. 250), but is more probably 
local, of Tew (Oxf.). Four has two clear origins, 
other than the numeral, viz. Fr. four, an oven [Hugh 
de la Four, Hund. R.], and the archaic fower, a 
scavenger [John le Fower, Fine R.]. Six is for Siggs, 
short for one of the Anglo-Saxon names in Sige 
[^Edric Sigge, Pipe R.]. Twelve is perhaps short for 
Twelftree or Twelvetrees, and Forty, Fordy is local 
[William de la Fortheye, Hund. R., Oxf.], apparently 
the island by the ford. In the Hund. R. are several 
examples from Oxfordshire, which is still the home of 

1 Cf. Fr. Dixneuf (Bottin). 



i8o MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

the name. Million is probably the Fr. Emilien, from 
Emile. Billion belongs to Bill (p. 38). It is found in 
Norfolk, sometimes also as Bullion. Milliard is an 
artificial spelling of Millar d [Robert le Milleward, 
Hund. RJ\. Unitt or Unite seems to be a Welsh name 
[Unieth the cutler, Glouc. Cart.], possibly from Welsh 
uniaith, monoglot, of one language, a man who could 
not, like most of the borderers, speak both Welsh and 
English. Among ordinals of English origin I have 
only come across Third, which may be short for 
Thirdborough, 1 the peace-ofhcer of a tithing, originally 
the head man of a frank-pledge or frithborh, from 
which latter word it is probably corrupted. In fact, 
the more correct Freeborough exists as a surname. 
But in French we find Prin,* Prime, Premier, Second, 
Thiers, Tierce, whence our own Prin, Prynne, Pring, 
Print, Prime, Primmer [Roger le Premier, Pat. R.~\, 
and Tyers, Terse [John Teis, Leic. Bor. Rec.~\. The 
curious Lancashire name Twiceaday, Twisaday means 
" twice a day " [John Twysontheday, Pat. R., Cumb. 
1410], but remains mysterious. 

Essentially connected with the individual are oath- 
names and other characteristic phrases. Here again 
we have sadly degenerated, and few of this type are 
now among us. We have Par doe, Pardy, etc., from 
pardieu, Mordue, Mordey, from mort-dieu, Dando or 
Daddow, for dent-dieu 3 [William Dandewe, Archbp. 
Romayn's Reg. 1286-96], and the rather Chadbandian 

1 With this cf. the synonymous name Headborough " I must go 
fetch the headborough " (Taming of the Shrew, i. 12). 

z Prin, prime are Old French forms from primus, still surviving 
in printemps, prime- abord, etc. The existence of .the name De la 
Pry me suggests an alternative origin for Prime. 

3 Or possibly from OF. Damnedieu, Dominus Deus. 



OATH-NAMES 



181 



Godbehere, Goodbehere [Geoffrey Godbeherinne, City B.]. 
Some of the following still exist in a disguised form 

William Adieu 1 . 
Robert Benedicite 
Walter Corsant (corps saint) 
Richard Coursedieu 2 . 
John Depardeu . 
Simon Deudamur 
Deudevize solus . 



. (Writs of ParL) 

. (Exch. R.) 

. (Hund. R.) 

. (Exch. R.) 

. (Close R.) 

. (Chart. R.) 

. (Lib. Vit.) 

Deulacresse Judaeus (Dieu I'accroisse) (Fine R.) 



Henry Deuleseit 
Deulebeneye f . Chere . 
Deulesaut (Dieu le sauve) Coc 
Deulaie (Dieu I' aide) f . Ely as 
Deusdedit, sixth Archbishop 

Canterbury 

Roger Deus-salvet-Dominas 3 
John Deutait . . 
Richus Deugard or Deuvusgard 
John Fadersoule . 
William Goddesbokes . 
Richard Godesname . . 
William Godespays 
Olive Goadbles . 
John Godsalve . . . 
Basilia Godsowele 
William Godthanke . 
William Gracias . 
Simon Halidom . 
William Helbogod 
John Heylheyl . 
Ralph Modersoule 
John Papedy (pape-Dieu) 
John Parfey 

William Placedeux (plaise Dieu) 
John Purdeu 



of 



(Hund. R.) 
(Fine R.) 
(Pat. R.) 
(Close R.) 



(DB.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(ib.) 

(Chesh. Chamb. Accts) 

(F- of Y.) 

(City B.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(Exch. Cal.) 

(Hund. R.) 

(ib.) 

(Bp. Kellawe's Reg.) 

(ib.) 

(Exch. R.) 

(City B.) 

(Close R.) 

(Bp. Kellawe's Reg.) 

(Pat. R.) 

(Lane. Inq.) 

(Hund. R.) 



1 Cf . Farewell [Richard Farewel, Hund. R.] 

8 For corps Dieu, or possibly a phrase-name (ch. xii.) for a 
man who had taken the advice given to Job by his wife. Cf. 
Adam Crusseking, i.e. curse-king (thirteenth century). 

3 With this early representative of " three cheers for the 
ladies" cf. Ger. Trauenlob, a Minnesinger and a cruiser. 



i82 MISCELLANEOUS ADJUNCT-NAMES 

It will be noticed that most of these are of French 
formation. Pardy, Pardoe, etc. are really distinct 
from Purdy, Purdue, etc., the first representing rather 
de par Dieu, i.e. de parte Dei, in God's name, as in 
modern French de par le roi, while Purdue is rather Fr. 
pour Dieu. Also the common Pardoe, Pardow has an 
alternative origin from OF. Pardou, for the personal 
name Pardolf (Bardolph). Deulaie (v.s.) may be the 
origin of Duly. Deugard has given Dugard. For 
Godsave see p. 316. Godsowele is one origin of 
Godsall, Goodsell, Outsell, and Modersoule has become 
Mothersole, Mothersill. Parfey is now Purefoy. 

Finally, we find in Middle English a number of 
nicknames evidently derived from the word or phrase 
which a man overworked. Most of us could quote 
similar cases within our own experience. Examples 
are 

Milo Ancoys, OF. ansois, rather . (Hund. R.) 

Robert Autresy, OF. autresi, also . (Pat. R.) 

Hugh Comment .... (Hund.R.) 

Michael Houyece, Ho yes ? . (IpM., Notts) 

Robert Jodiben, fe dis bien . . (Fine R.) 

William Jurdemayn, to-morrow ! . (Hund. R.) 
Hugh Oroendroyt, OF. orendroit, 

straightway .... (i$th century) 

Peter Ouy .... (Pipe R.) 

David Paraventure . . . (Pat. R.) 

Richard Pernegarde, prends garde . (Exch. R.) 

Pagan Purquey, pourquoi . . (Hund. R.) 
John Recuchun, " I must slumber 

again " . . (Fine R.) 

Ralph Sachebien .... (Ramsey Cart.) 

William Wibien, oui bien . . (Pleas) 

These are practically all of French formation, and I can- 
not with certainty identify any of them with existing 
surnames. They are inserted here for the satisfaction 



ODDITIES 183 

of students, as examples of the fantastic manner 
in which surnames can be formed, and as a caution 
against explaining everything odd as a " corruption." 
In the Nottingham Borough Records occurs the name 
of Elias Overandover. He may have been a man 
fond of wearisome iteration in speech, or with a 
penchant for turning somersaults, or of antique con- 
scientiousness in the performance of the common 
task 

" My godsire's name, I tell you, 
Was In-and-in Skittle, and a weaver he was, 
And it did fit his craft ; for so his shittle 
Went in and in still, this way and then that way " 

(Ben Jonson, Tale of a Tub, iv. 2). 



CHAPTER IX 

VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

" Bot. Your name, honest gentleman ! 
Peas. Peaseblossom. 

Bot. I pray you, commend me to Mistress Squash, your mother, 
and to Master Peascod, your father " 

(Midsummer Night's Dream). 

VEGETABLE surnames may have come into existence 
in various ways. Tree names are generally local, and 
there is probably no well-known English tree which 
has not contributed to the list. Most of these present 
no difficulty, but occasionally dialect forms have pre- 
vailed, e.g. Hamblock for hemlock. We also find the 
obsolete Beam l [Osborn Atebeame, Hund. R.] and its 
compound Nutbeam [John atte Notebem, ib.]. Local 
also are such considerable growths as Broom, Reed, 
Gorse, Furze, Fern, etc., with their compounds such 
as Thickbroom [Richard de Thickbrome, 2 Pleas.], 
Fearnside [Nicholas del Fernyside, Lane. Court R. 
1323-4], Redfern [William del Redferne, ib.]. We 
may perhaps also suppose that two contiguous Johns 
whose huts were overgrown with ivy and jessamine 

1 AS. beam, a tree. "Not found later than Anglo-Saxon" 
(NED.). But the above example shows that the word survived 
into the Middle English period. We still have the compound 
hornbeam and others which are less common. 

8 This was a manor near Lichfield. 

184 



CEREALS 185 

respectively may have been distinguished by the 
names Ivy, Ivey, and Jessemey, Jessiman. 

The above are simple cases, but there are also a great 
many surnames taken from the vegetable world which 
can only be regarded as nicknames created by the 
mysterious medieval folk-lore of which we unfortunately 
know so little. We still sometimes describe a person 
as a daisy, and, in our more subtle moments, even as a 
tulip or a peach, while the quite modern nut, or more 
elaborate filbert, perhaps represents a recurrence of a 
long-dormant instinct inherited from far-off ancestors. 
Among surnames of this type we find the names of 
plants, flowers, fruits, vegetables, and also minute 
products and parts of vegetation. Here, as always, 
French and German parallels are abundantly numerous; 
while in Latin we find Cicero, Fabius, Lentulus, 
Piso, etc. 

Plant itself is generally local [John de la Flaunt, 
of Rouen, Pat. R.] f from OF. plant, enclosure, planta- 
tion, but its occurrence in the Rolls without de [Robert 
Plante, Hund. R.] suggests that it was also a nick- 
name, from ME. plant used in a variety of senses, 
sprig, cudgel, young offspring (see NED.). We find 
all the important cereals, Corn, Wheat, Barley, Oats, 
Rye. The first seems to be genuine, perhaps for a 
peasant whose corn crops were particularly successful, 
or for one who lived among cornfields ; cf. Fr. Desbleds, 
OF. bled (ble). It has a compound Oldcorn, whence 
also Allcorn, with which cf. Johanna Gold corn (Cal. 
Gen.) and Robert Oldbene (Hund. R.). Wheat is 
more often one of the very numerous variants of 
the occupative Wait, a watchman ; but cf. the 
common Fr. Froment. Barley is a local name and 



186 VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

also a variant of Barlow, but Desorges is a French 
surname. Oates is generally the Old French nomina- 
tive of Odo, Otto [Otes de Houlond, City F.], from 
some German name in Od-, corresponding to AS. 
Ead-, but cf. Fr. Alavoine. Rye is generally local, but 
the corresponding Seigle is a common French surname. 
In each of these, therefore, a double origin is possible, 
while a local derivation is also not excluded. Maize 
is an imitative spelling of Mayes, from May, which 
has various origins (p. 248). Grain is usually a 
nickname, OF. grain, morose * [Dominus Johannes 
dictus le Greyne, Nott. Bor. Rec.]. Drage, Dredge, 
Drudge are dialect names for a mixed crop, especially 
of rye and wheat. From its more usual name, mestlyon, 
comes Maslin, though this has also another origin, from 
a Middle English personal name Mazelin, probably, 
like Fr. Massillon (p. 283), from Thomas [Mazelin de 
Rissebi, Hund. R.] 

" Metail, messling, or maslin \ wheat and rye mingled, sowed, 
and used together " (Cotg.). 

Millett is a dim. of Miles or Millicent. Hardmeat might 
be taken for a local " hard mead," the more so because 
Meat, Meates are for Mead, but William Hardmete 
(Hund. R.) shows it to be a nickname from the obso- 
lete hard-meat, used of corn and hay, as food for 
cattle, contrasted with grass. No doubt Greengrass 
has a similar origin. Grist is for Grice, with excrescent -t ; 

1 A very interesting chapter could be written on nicknames from 
Old French adjectives which have survived in England. Examples 
are Tardew, OF. tardieu (tardi/), used also as a name for the snail, 
Vesey, Vaisey, Voysey, etc., OF. envoisi, playful, AF. enveise [William 
le Enveyse, Hund. R.], Miskin, F. mesquin, paltry, etc. 



MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 

cf. Moist for Moyes, i.e. Moses, and Twist for Twiss 
(p. 82). Grice itself has two origins, Fr. gris, grey, 
and ME. grice, a pig. 

Among plants that have given surnames we notice 
that the odorous, pungent, and medicinal varieties 
predominate, probably because they lent themselves 
more readily to emblematic use. It is known that 
magical properties were ascribed to many of them. 
We have, among medicinal plants, Skirrett, Camamile, 
Tansey, Spurge, Staveacre, Bettany, Rue. The last 
two are doubtful. Bettany, found in Staffordshire 
along with Betteley, is probably from Betley in that 
county, and Rue, which runs parallel with Rew in Wilt- 
shire, may be AF. rew, street, Fr. rue. Still, both 
these plants have a good deal of folk-lore about them, 
e.g. according to Burton, the Emperor Augustus re- 
garded betony as efficacious for the expulsion of 
devils, while Shakespeare's allusions to rue, the herb 
of grace, are numerous. But, rather than attempt an 
explanation of each name in detail, I will refer the 
reader to that very charming lecturer, Perdita (Winter's 
Tale, iv. 4). Staveacre is for stavesacre, which, in 
spite of its English appearance, is almost pure Greek. 
It was an emetic and a remedy against vermin. With 
these go also Buglass (p. 175), and probably Sidwell, 
Sitwell [Thomas Sitwele, Pat. R.], from sedwall, once 
regularly coupled with ginger and other spices 

" And he hymself as sweete as is the roote 
Of lycorys, or any cetewale " 

(Chauc. A. 3206). 

Here generally belongs Ambrose, common as a medi- 
eval surname, but rather rare as a font-name [William 

14 



i88 VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

Ambroys, Hund'. R., Richard Ambrosie, ib.]. It was 
used of the wild sage 

" Ambrose an herbe, ache champestre " (Palsg.). 

And it is very likely that Alexander * or Saunders is 
often to be classed with it. This was a common 
name for the horse-parsley 

" Alysaundere, herbe, Macedonia" (Prompt. Parv.). 

For an example of saundres, coupled with brazill (p. 189), 
see the epigraph to ch. xii. 

I observe that Herr v. Wermuth is (Nov. 1915) 
Burgomaster of Berlin, and Wormwood is given as a 
surname by Camden, though I do not know if it now 
exists 

" Wermuth, ein bitter kraut, wormwood " (Ludwig, Germ. Diet. 
1716). 

Darnell, tares [William Dernel, Glouc. Cart.], was con- 
sidered to produce intoxication ; cf . its French name, 
ivraie. With Weeds cf. Fr. Malherbe, Malesherbes, and 
Ger. Unkraut. Balsam is local [Robert de Balsam, 
Hund. R.~\, of Balsham (Camb.), and the Yorkshire 
Balm is a corruption of Balne in that county. 

More associated with the kitchen are Mustard, Gar- 
lick, Ginger, Pepper, Parsley, Marjoram, Fennell, 
Savory, the last of which is an imitative spelling of 
Savary, Saffrey, etc. [Savaricus Clericus, Pipe R., 

1 Another source of this common surname is no doubt to be 
found in the romances of Alexander and their dramatic adaptations 
(p. 216). Speaking generally, when a surname seems to represent 
a font-name in its unaltered form, it has a subsidiary origin, e.g. 
Arnold, Harrold, Rowland are all sometimes local, from Arnold 
(Notts and Yorks), Harrold (Beds), and " roe-land " [Peter de 
Rolond, Pat. R.]. 



FLOWERS 189 

Savari de Duntrop, Fine R.]. I have even found it 
spelt Savoury. Sometimes such names may have 
been adopted in place of cumbrous trade-names, such 
as Thomas le Mustard er (City B.}, John Garleke- 
mongere (IpM.}. So also Brazil, Brazell may be from 
the vegetable dye which gave its name to a South 
American country and a medieval trade [Robert Brand, 
brasiler, Leic. BOY. Rec.]', cf. Adam Saffran (Pat. R.). 
Pepper may also be shortened from Pepperell, the 
latinized form, Piperellus (DB.), of Peverel, which does 
not, however, dissociate it from pepper. Pepperwell 
is a curious corruption of the above name. The OF. 
peyvre, peyvrier, very common in the Rolls [Paulin 
Peyvre, Chart. R., John le Peverer, Pat. R.], are now 
represented by Peever, Peffer. Fennell is undoubtedly 
from the plant, Fr. fenouil [William Feneyl, Pat. R.], 
though it has other possible origins. It was an 
emblem of flattery 

" Woman's weeds, fennel I mean for flatterers " 

(Greene, Upstart Courtier). 

Parsley might be a variant of Paslow (q.v.), but the 
corresponding Ger. Peter silje is found c. 1300. 

Flower-names, such as Jasmin, Lafleur, were often 
given to valets in French comedy, and later on were 
popular among soldiers, as in the case of Fanfan la 
Tulipe. Much further back we find the romantic 
story of Flore and Blancheflour and the German 
Dornroschen. The reader will naturally think of 
Chaucer's Prioress 

"And she was cleped madame Eglentyne" (Prol. 121). 

To begin with, we have Flower [ElyasFlur, Fine R.] t 



igo VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

Bloom [William Blome, Pat. R.], Blossom [Hugh 
Blosme, Hund. R.] 

'' The braunches ful of blosmes softe " 

(Chauc. Legend of Good Women, 143). 

With these cf. James Beauflour (Close R.}. Flower has 
an alternative origin from ME. floer, arrow- smith 
[John le Floer, Hund. R.]. The commonest of such 
names, Rose, has several origins. It is baptismal 
[Richard f. Rose, Hund. R.], from a name which may 
come from the flower or from Rosamond (p. 34), a 
sign-name [Adam de la Rose, City B., Adam atte Rose, 
City D.I, and is often imitative from the local Row 
or perhaps Wroe [William of the Rows, Northampt. 
BOY. Rec., Simon ithe Rose, Pat. R., Yorks.]. Lilley, 
Lilly is sometimes from the font-name Lilian, of 
doubtful origin [Geoffrey Lilion, Hund. R., Nicholas 
Lillie, ib.], and has specific local origins. It must 
also be a sign-name, though I have found no early 
example. The name Lilygreen, which has occurred in 
the casualty lists, is probably Swedish Liljegren (see 
p. 195). With James Popy (Hund. R.), still found as 
Poppy, cf. Thomas Coklico (Pat. R.) 

" Coquelicoq, the wild poppie, corne-rose, red corne-rose" (Cotg.). 

Fr. Pavot and Ger. Mohn, Mohnkopf are also well- 
established names. 

The latter, meaning " poppy head," suggests a short 
digression on the possibility of some names of this 
class having originated in a fanciful resemblance. I 
imagine that Mohnkopf 1 may have been applied to a 

1 The seventeenth-century German epigrammatist Logau uses it 
of an empty, sleepy head 

" Capito hat Kopfs genug, wenig aber hat er Sinnen ; 
Wie ein Mohnkopf lauter Schlaf, sonsten hat er nichts darinnen." 



FANCIFUL RESEMBLANCES 191 

bald-headed man, just as we find, conversely, the 
field poppy called in German dialect Glatzen (Glatze, 
a bald pate). We know that pill-garlic, i.e. peeled 
garlic, was used in the same way in English 

" Your pyllyd garleke bed 
Cowde hoccupy there no stede " 

(Skelton). 

So Onion, Onions, usually, as a Shropshire name, from 
the Welsh Any on, Ennion, Eynon, etc. (anian, nature, 
genius), is also a nickname [Roger Oygnouh, Lond. 
Wills, 1295]. Cf. Albert Chive (Pipe R.) and William 
Chiboulle (Chart. R.), the latter from ME. chibol, an 
onion, still in dialect use 

" Ciboule, a chiboll, or hollow leek " (Cotg.). 

The first Sweetapple [John Swetapple, Fine R.] may 
have been a cultivator of particularly choice fruit, but 
his name reminds me strongly of a schoolboy of my 
acquaintance whose unconsciously sardonic expression 
earned for him the name Sour Plum. Moss crop, an 
archaic name for the tufted club-rush, may have been 
suggested by the combination of a thin body and a 
shock head. 

To come back to flower-names, we have Daisy [Robert 
Dayeseye, Hund. R.], Primrose [Peter Premerole, 1 
Pat. R.], Marigold, Pimpernell, Columbine or Collingbine, 
while Dandely on, still found in America, 2 was a Kentish 
name up to the middle of the fifteenth century. 
Thomas Eglentyn and Peter Parvenk (periwinkle) 

1 This is the older form, the modern -rose being due to folk- 
etymology. 

8 But, like all American names, to be regarded with caution. 
See p. 9. 



192 VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

, occur in the Pat. R. Each of these no doubt has a 
\l tale to tell. Violet is probably a colour nickname 
(p. 154). Lavender, usually occupative, the Launder, 
or " washerman," may also occasionally be a nickname 
[John Lavender, taillur, Pat. R.]. Galliver, Gilliver 
are from ME. gilofre [Peter Gylofre, Leic. Bor. Rec.], 
now corrupted to gillyflower, 1 a flower emblematic of 
frailty. I fancy that this is due to association with 
Queen Guinevere, from whose name we get Junifer, 
Juniper. 2 The MDB. contains the name Rosontree, but 
the locality (Yorks) suggests a misprint for Rowntree 
(rowan tree, mountain ash). The first Woodbine was 
perhaps named from his clinging propensities, but 
we can hardly accept Tulip, the first mention of the 
flower by a Western European being about the middle 
of the sixteenth century (NED.). It is evidently an 
imitative spelling, but of what ? 

Fruit-names may also in some cases be local, e.g. 
Plumb may be for Plumtree, Pear for Peartree. But 
in Old French we often find them used with the definite 
article in such a way as to suggest a nickname, e.g. 
Raoul la Prune, Gautier la Poire (Pachnio), the latter 
individual perhaps having a head of the shape which 
earned the nickname Poire for the last legitimate king 
of France, and which suggested the medieval " pear 
head" (p. 128), now Perrett. These examples show 
that Pear, Pears is not always an imitative spelling 

1 The following extract (1683) is a good example of "preposterous" 
etymology " The July flower as they are more properly called, 
though vulgarly Gilliflower and Gillofer." This is like " June- 
eating " for jenneting. 

2 Junipher was still common as a font-name in Cornwall in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Bardsley). It is curious 
that in dialect the juniper is sometimes called the genifer (EDD.}. 



FRUITS 193 

of Fr. Pierre. So also in English we find William le 
Cheris ' (Leic. Bor. Rec.), who is perhaps the same 
person as William Chirecod (ib.), with whose name cf. 
Peascod (p. 196). But many apparent fruit-names are 
not genuine. Grapes may be from an inn-sign, but 
is more likely connected with Grepe (p. 61), Raisin is 
an imitative form of Ray son (p. 239), and Muscat 
is an alteration of Muskett, a nickname frorri the 
sparrow-hawk 

" Mouchet, a musket ; the tassell 2 of a sparhawke " (Cotg.). 

The oldest form of damson is damascene, from Damascus. 
Hence the name Damson is probably the " dame's 
son " [Geoffrey Dammesune, Pipe R.]. Pippin is Fr. 
Pepin, whence also the East Anglian Pepys [Richard 
Pepin or Pepis, Hund. R., Camb.], and, as a Somerset 
name, is altered from Phippen, dim. of Philip, which 
is common in the same county.- It may also be a 
fruit-name; cf. Costard (p. 194). Medlar is a nick- 
name [William le Mesler, 3 Hund. R.]. Filbert is 
simply the French name Philibert [Dominus Fylbard, 
Hund. R.], OG. Filuberht, very bright, whence the 
nut also probably takes its name. 4 Dewberry is local, 
of Dewsbury, spelt Deubire in 1202, but Mulberry, 

1 The older form of cherry, Fr. cerise. The -s has been lost 
through being taken as the sign of the plural, as in pea from pease. 
It is possible, however, that le Cheris may be the Old French nom. 
of chert, " the cherished." This -s does not appear much in Anglo- 
French, but there are other examples of it in the same record as 
the above. See Bew (p. 319). 

2 Hence the surnames Tassell, Tarsell, Taycell. The older form 
of the word was tiercel. See Romance of Names, p. 221. 

3 For the intrusion of -d- in our meddle from OF. mesler (meler] 
cf. Madle (p. 250), Idle (p. 64). 

4 See Romance of Words, p. 35. 



194 VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

Mulbry appears to be genuine. Orange is doubtful, 
for, though Richard Orenge (Archbp. Peckham's Lett. 
1279-92) points to a nickname, Orangia de Chercheyerd, 
who was hanged in 1307 (Cal. Gen.), suggests a fantastic 
personal name, which must apparently have been 
formed from that of the fruit. There is also the 
town of Orange (Vaucluse), but I have found no evi- 
dence to connect the name with it. The name Rasp- 
berry is found in East Anglia, and, although the NED. 
does not record the word till the seventeenth century, 
the name may be genuine, for French has both 
Framboise and Framboisier 

" Framboise, a raspis, hindberry, framboiseberry " (Cotg.). 

Mellon is Irish, I suppose for Malone, i.e. the tonsured 
servant of John. Costard is a very common Middle 
English nickname, perhaps for a round-headed man ; 
hence also Coster, Custer, Custard. 

A few kitchen-garden names have already been men- 
tioned, but the group is not large. Bean is usually 
Scottish, Gael, ban, white, whence Bain, but this will 
not account for the common Norfolk name B canes, 
occurring as Bene in the Hund. R. The bean seems 
to have been a favourite crop in East Anglia, e.g. in 
the Ramsey Cartulary there is mention of plots called 
Benecroft, Benedale, Benemede, Benehill, Bene- 
furlange ; cf. Barton-in-Fabis (Notts), Barton-in-the- 
Beans (Leic.) . I see no reason to doubt that Eustace 
Sparaguz (Fine R.) took his name from the most 
delicate of vegetables. Pease is also a vegetable 
name, but Pea, 1 Pee is for Peacock as Poe is for 

1 See p. 193, n. i. 



BOTANICAL DETAILS 195 

Pocock. From the same bird, AS. pawa, we have 
Paw, Pay, Pow, Poye 

" Gold, and sylver, and yver, and apis, and poos " (Wye. 
2 Chron. ix. 21). 

An apparently authentic nickname of the vegetable 
type is Neap, Neep [Henry le Nep, Hund. R.], which 
is Middle English for " turnip." It is seldom that 
so clear an instance is found in the Rolls. Cf. Ameline 
la Navete (Pachnio) 

" Navette, rapeseed ; also, as naveau." 

" Naveau blanc de jardin, the ordinary rape, or turnep " (Cotg.). 

The most curious of the vegetable surnames are 
those which are formed from botanical details, and 
here again I can make little attempt to explain their 
occurrence. Similar names are common in other 
languages, and Swedish especially has a very large 
number in -gren, branch, -quist, 1 twig, -Had, leaf. 
Twigg has parallels in Fr. Rameau and Ger. Zweig, 
the latter also having compounds, e.g. Mittenzweig, 
with the twig, and Sauberzweig, clean twig, the name of 
an officer mentioned (Daily Telegraph, Nov. 2, 1915) 
in connection with the murder of Nurse Cavell, and 
evidently, if there is anything in heredity, originally 
ironic. Both Spray and Sprigg are used in dialect of 
a lean, lanky person ; cf. p. 155. In English we have 
also Branch [Benjamin Branche, Hund. R.] occurring 
very commonly without de, though John de la 
Braunche (F. of Y. 1451) suggests local origin, or per- 

1 In the casualty lists (Jan. 19, 1916) occurs the name Apple quist, 
evidently of Swedish origin. 



ig6 VEGETABLE NICKNAMES 

haps a sign. Branch/lower is an alteration l of the nick- 
name Blanch flower. Bough is local [John atte Bough, 
Pat. R.], in the sense of Bow, arch, with which it is 
really identical. 2 Budd is an Anglo-Saxon personal 
name, short for Botolf or some such dithematic name, 
and Leaf is an imitative spelling of Leif, dear [John le 
Lef, Pat. R.] ; cf. Leveson, which, in the form Leofsunu 
(see Fr. Cherfils, p. 247), was already a personal name 
in Anglo-Saxon. With Ivy leaf cf . Ger. Kleeblatt, clover 
leaf, and Rosenblatt, whence, or perhaps through one 
of the Scandinavian languages, our Roseblade. Hoc- 
cleve is more probably a complete plant-name, AS. 
hoclef, mallow. Sapp is a nickname [William le Sap, 
Hund. R.]. In dialect it means a simpleton, cf. sap- 
head, sapskull, but its history is unwritten. 

Then we have fantastic names like Goldstraw, Pepper- 
corn, Barleycorn, the last-named once common as grain 
d'orge [William Greindeorge, Hund. R.], now Grandage, 
Graddige. Graindorge is still a common French surname. 
With Peascod [Henry Pesecod, Pat. R.], Pescott, Pease- 
good, Peskett, Bisgood (?), cf. Benskin (bean- skin) 
and Maddy Benestol (Hund. R.) whose name con- 
tains dial, stale, a stalk. But Podd, also Poad, Poat, 
is a nickname from ME. pode, a toad [John le Pod, 
Hund. R.]. I doubt whether Seed (see p. 73) belongs 
here, but Hempseed is an uncomplimentary nickname 

" Do, do, thou rogue ; do, thou hempseed " (2 Henry IV. II. i.) ; 

1 It could be explained as dissimilation, but there is a general 
tendency for /and r to interchange. See the forms of Berenger 
(p- 35)- Branchett is no doubt for Blanchett, a colour name, and Mr. 
Pett Ridge's less refined characters occasionally used " brasted " 
as an intensive epithet. 

2 It is only in English that this word, meaning something bent, 
is associated with trees. 



BOTANICAL DETAILS 197 

though the only time I have come across it was in 
connection with a gallant exploit in the War. Cf. 
Ger. Hanf Stengel, hemp-stalk. Our Hempenstall is 
one of the many variants of Heptonstall (Yorks). 
In Lillicrap, Lillycrop we seem to have the archaic 
crop, " head " of a plant, or tree, bunch of foliage, 
etc. ; cf. Mosscrop and Ger. Mohnkopf. Gower uses it 
in his version of the famous scene in which Tarquin 
strikes off the heads of the tallest plants 

" Anon he tok in honde a yerde 
And in the gardin as thei gon, 
The lilie croppes on and on, 
Wher that thei weren sprongen oute, 
He smot of, as thei stode aboute " 

(Cow/. Amant. vii. 4676). 

With the poetical Flowerdew, whence Flowerday, cf. 
Robert Honiedewe (Salisb. Chart.) and Ger. Morgenthau, 
morning dew. Maydew is for Matthew, and preserves 
the intermediate form between the original and Mayhew, 
Mayo, OF. Mahieu. Merridew, Merriday, Merredy 
are the Welsh Meredith [Mereduz de Beauveir, City D.]. 
They are further corrupted in Lancashire into Mctta- 
dew, Mellalieu, Mdlalue. 

In my Romance of Words (p. 196) I have mentioned 
Ferguson's conjecture as to the curious name Ivimey, 
Ivermee, Evamy, Efemey, 1 etc. I am afraid the pic- 
turesque derivation there suggested will not hold 
water. In City A. I find Peter Yvenes or Yvemeys, 
a Spanish immigrant. I do not know the origin of 
his name, but he looks like the true ancestor of the 
Ivimeys. 

1 The two last may represent Euphemia. 



CHAPTER X 

PAGEANT NAMES 

" II y avoit lors une dame, qui, pendant les jeux, avoit joue 
Conscience, et qui pour cela en eut le nom tout le temps de sa vie " 
(BEROALDE DE VERVILLE, Le Moyen de parvenir). 

IT has always been recognized by students of surname 
lore that our Prophets, Priests, and Kings generally 
owe their names to ancestors who had enacted such 
parts in medieval pageant l ; but this source of modern 
surnames is much more considerable than has usually 
been supposed. Grown people are almost as fond of 
" dressing up " as children, and in recent years we 
have seen a revival of the type of pastime once so 
dear to our ancestors and still popular on the con- 
tinent. Some twenty years ago the author was 
present at the elaborate display by which the Swiss 
celebrated the seventh centenary of their Republic. 
On that occasion it looked as though the whole able- 

1 The pageant was originally the scaffolding on which the players 
stood or acted. In the case of the shorter plays and smaller tableaux 
it was movable. In fact the cars of Lord Mayor's Show are its 
descendants " Every company had his pagient, which pagiants 
weare a high scafolde with two rowmes, a higher and a lower, upon 
four wheeles. In the lower they appareled themselves, and in the 
higher rowme they played, beinge all open on the tope, that all 
behoulders might heare and see them " (From a contemporary 
description of one of the last Chester performances). 

198 



PROCESSIONS 199 

bodied population were parading in historic garb for 
the edification of the physically unfit and the chil- 
dren of the country. In medieval England no im- 
portant feast of the Church, no event in the life of the 
monarch, or, in the provinces, of the local magnate, 
no visit of a foreign dignitary, was allowed to pass 
without the accompaniment of something like a Lord 
Mayor's Show 

" One other show, in the year 1377, made by the citizens for dis- 
port of the young prince, Richard, son to the Black Prince, in the 
feast of Christmas, in this manner : On the Sunday before Candle- 
mas, in the night, one hundred and thirty citizens, disguised, and 
well horsed, in a mummery, with sound of trumpets, sackbuts, 
cornets, shalmes, and other minstrels, and innumerable torch lights 
of wax, rode from Newgate, through Cheape, over the bridge, through 
Southwarke, and so to Kennington, beside Lambhith, where the 
young prince remained with his mother, and the Duke of Lancaster 
his uncle. ... In the first rank did ride forty-eight in the likeness 
and habit of esquires, two and two together, clothed in red coats and 
gowns of say or sandal, with comely visors on their faces ; after them 
came riding forty-eight knights in the same livery of colour and stuff ; 
then followed one richly arrayed like an emperor ; and after him 
some distance, one stately attired like a pope, whom followed 
twenty-four cardinals, and after them eight or ten with black visors, 
not amiable, as if they had been legates from some foreign prince '' 
(Stow). 

There are possibly to-day people named Squire, 
Knight, Emperor l or Cayzer, Pope, Cardinall, Leggatt, 
whose ancestors figured in this particular procession. 
Two names of this class may be specially mentioned, 
the first, Count [Peter le Counte, Fine R.], because of 
its rarity, the second, Marquis, because, though so 
common in the north, it seems unrecorded except as a 
female font-name [Marchisa f. Warner, Yorks Fines, 

1 Still a surname in the nineteenth century, though I have not 
come across a living example. 



200 PAGEANT NAMES 

temp. John]. It is rather, odd to find the German 
equivalent recorded for the same county [William 
Margrayve, F. of Y.]. Lavicount is an example of the 
grammatical methods of Anglo-French. 

Such a procession as that described above was a 
very mild affair compared with some of the more 
scenic pageants which were enacted on great occa- 
sions 

" At certain distances, in places appointed for the purpose, the 
pageants were erected, which were temporary buildings representing 
castles, palaces, gardens, rocks or forests, as the occasion required, 
where nymphs, fauns, satyrs, gods, goddesses, angels and devils 
appeared in company with giants, savages, dragons, saints, knights, 
buffoons, and dwarfs, surrounded by minstrels and choristers ; the 
heathen mythology, the legends of chivalry and Christian divinity 
were ridiculously jumbled together without meaning " (Strutt). 

Then we have the popular games and representations 
associated with church festivals, the boy " Bishop," 
the " Pope " of Fools, the " Lord " of Misrule, the 
" Abbot " of Unreason, the bull-baitings, archery con- 
tests, joustings, running at the quintain, the May 
games with their Robin Hood pageants, the rough 
horseplay of the Hockday sports, of which the chief 
feature, the binding of men by women and vice-versa, 
perhaps survives in the names Tieman and Bindlass, 
Bindloss. It is quite possible that Peacock, Pocock, 
and Popjoy, Fob joy, Pobgee, Pope joy may have been 
in some cases nicknames conferred on successful 
athletes 

" In the year of Christ 1253, the 38th of Henry III., the youth- 
ful citizens, for an exercise of their activity, set forth a game to run 
at the quinten ; and whoever did best should have a peacock which 
they had prepared as a prize " (Stow). 



ARCHERY 201 

Shooting at the popinjay, a wooden figure of a parrot 
set up as a mark, is often mentioned, not only by 
English writers, but also by Rabelais. Of course these 
two names may also come from signs, or they may 
be nicknames due to some characteristic of the original 
bearer l ; but the following is suggestive 

" P ape gay, a parrot, or popingay ; also, a woodden parrot (set up 
on the top of a steeple, high tree, or pole) whereat there is, in many 
parts of France, a generall shooting once every yeare ; and an 
exemption for all that yeare, from la faille, obtained by him that 
strikes downe the right wing thereof, (who is therefore tearmed Le 
Chevalier ;) and by him that strikes downe the left wing, (who is 
tearmed Le Baron ;) and by him that strikes down the whole 
popingay (who for that dexteritie or good hap hath also the title of 
Roy du Papegay,) all the yeare following " (Cotg.). 

Most important of all, perhaps, from the surname 
point of view, is the medieval drama, with its long 
and detailed representations of the most important 
episodes from the Old and New Testaments and from 
the lives of the Saints. In these performances the 

1 The origin of bird nicknames would repay study. In some cases 
no doubt they were due to some external feature, but most of them 
are probably connected with the qualities, invariably bad, which 
folklore symbolised in certain birds. The Peacock personified vanity, 
the Woodcock, according to popular superstition, had no brains, the 
Capon and Daw were both fools, the Buzzard was a type of ignorance, 
and so on. Most interesting of all is the woodpecker, whose many 
dialect names (Speight, Speck, Pick, Rainbird, etc.) nearly all exist 
as surnames. Now the woodpecker, a retiring and inconspicuous 
bird, has none of the prominent characteristics which make Jay, 
Nightingale, Crane, Goose, etc., such natural nicknames. His place 
in the surname list is due to an unconsciously persisting myth which 
is perhaps older than Genesis and Olympus. See Rendel Harris, 
The Place of the Woodpecker in Religion (Contemporary Review, 
Feb. 1916). On the general characteristics which medieval folk- 
lore ascribed to various birds we get some light in Chaucer's Parlia- 
ment of Fowls and Skelton's Philip Sparrow. 



202 PAGEANT NAMES 

number of actors was often enormous, and the spec- 
tacle was prolonged for days or even weeks 

" The miracle plays in Chaucer's days were exhibited during the 
season of Lent, and sometimes a sequel of scripture histories was 
carried on for several days. In the reign of Richard II. the parish 
clerks of London put forth a play at Skinner's Wells, near Smith- 
field,' which continued three days. In the succeeding reign another 
play was acted at the same place and lasted eight days ; this drama 
began with the creation of the world and contained the greater part 
of the Old and New Testament. . . . Beelzebub seems to have been 
the principal comic actor, assisted by his merry troop of under- 
devils. . . . When the mysteries ceased to be played, the subjects 
for the drama were not taken from historical facts, but consisted of 
moral reasonings in praise of virtue and condemnation of vice, on 
which account they were called moralities. The dialogue was 
carried on by allegorical characters such as good doctrine, charity, 
faith, prudence, discretion, death, and the like, and their discourses 
were of a serious cast ; but the province of making the spectators 
merry descended from the devil in the mystery to the vice or iniquity 
of the morality, who usually personified some bad quality incident 
to human nature, as pride and lust" (Strutt). 

Now most of us have within our experience cases 
of nicknames conferred in connection with private 
theatricals and fancy-dress balls, and it is easy to 
believe that, at a period when the surname was not 
a fixed quantity, distinction in some piece of acting 
or buffoonery may have often earned for the per- 
former a sobriquet which stuck. I do not mean to 
say that all the names I am about to enumerate 
belong with certainty, or exclusively, to this class, but 
I think that in the case of most of them there is a 
strong presumption for such an origin. To go thor- 
oughly into the question would involve a close study 
of the medieval drama, 1 and a much more intimate 

1 See E. K. Chambers, The Medi&val Stage (Oxf. 1903). Some 
characteristic plays and extracts will be found in Pollard's English 
Miracle Plays, 6th ed. (Oxf. 1914). 



ALLEGORY AND DRAMA 203 

knowledge of the history of pageantry, than can be 
gleaned from the popular account of Strutt. The 
reader who cares to look through the long lists of 
dramatis persona in the Chester, Coventry, Towneley, 
and York plays, will see that there is hardly a name 
in this chapter which cannot be illustrated, or at 
least paralleled, from those collections. 

The whole question also has a psychological aspect. 
The rise of allegory and the flourishing of the drama 
are connected with the awakening consciousness of 
the people as a whole. It was a somewhat dull, prosaic 
awakening, showing itself in a realistic, bludgeon- 
wielding type of satire and a homely morality, and, 
from the surname point of view, in a striving after a 
name that meant something to its bearer. We see 
something of this spirit in the nomenclature adopted 
by Jack Straw and his followers. The following pro- 
clamation is contemporary with John Ball 

" John Schepe, some time St. Mary's priest of York, and now of 
Colchester, greeteth well John Nameless and John the Miller and 
John the Carter, and biddeth them that they beware of guile* in 
borough, and stand together in God's name, and biddeth Piers Plow- 
man go to his work, and chastise well Hob the Robber (Robert Hales, 
the Treasurer) and all his fellows, and no mo, and look that ye shape 
you to one head and no mo." 

And as late as the reign of Henry VII. rebellious 
peasants revived these old names which symbolized 
their condition in life and their aspirations 

" Taking Robyn of Riddesdale, Jack Straw, Thomolyn at Lath 1 
and Maister Mendall for their capteyns " (Letter of Henry VII.). 

To the same attitude of mind belong many of 
the phrase -names dealt with in ch. xiu, and their 

1 ME. lathe, a barn. 
15 



204 PAGEANT NAMES 

descent can be traced through the Elizabethans and 
the Restoration dramatists via Smollett and Fielding 
to the modern novelists. For even Dickens, sumptu- 
ous as is his collection of genuine surnames, occasion- 
ally descends to such stuff as Veneering and Verisopht 

" A curious essay might be written on the reasons why such 
names as Sir John Brute, Sir Tunbelly Clumsy, Sir Peter Teazle, Sir 
Anthony Absolute, Sir Lucius O'Trigger, Lord Foppington, Lord 
Rake, Colonel Bully, Lovewell, Heartfree, Gripe, Shark, and the 
rest were regarded as a matter of course in the 'comedy of manners.' 
. . . The fashion of label-names, if we may call them so, came down 
from the Elizabethans, who, again, borrowed it from the medieval 
moralities " (William Archer, Play-Making). 

The surnames which may with more br less cer- 
tainty be connected with medieval spectacles fall 
into several groups. Many Old Testament names 
such as Adam and Eve, Abel, David, Solomon or Salmon, 
Sampson, Jonas, 1 etc., no doubt sometimes belong here. 
Geoffrey Golias 8 or Gullias (Hund. R.) has modern 
representatives in Gullyes and Gully [William Golye, 
Hund. R.]. The form Golie is used by Wyclif. From 
ME. Goliard, a satiric poet or jester, popularly con- 
nected with Golias, we have Gullard [John Goliard, 
Close R., John le Golert, Derby Cart. 1353], of which 
Gullett is the regular reduction. I have seldom found 
Solomon as a medieval font-name, while William 
dictus Salamon (Lond. Wills, 1287) is a clear case 

1 Was the original Whalebelly a piece of realistic mechanism in a 
Jonah pageant ? One has heard of the pantomime actor who earned 
his bread as the left hind-leg of an elephant 

" In this same interlude, it doth befall 
That I, one Snout by name, present a wall " 

(Midsummer Night's Dream, v. i). 

a The Middle English form of Goliath, found also in Shakespeare. 



OLD TESTAMENT CHARACTERS 205 

of a nickname. Pharaoh, 1 Pharro is explained by 
Bardsley as a corruption of Farrow. It is more likely 
that the latter is corrupted from Pharaoh, a very 
spectacular personage ; but the Scotch surname Ptolomey 
evidently belongs to Bartholomew ; cf. Fr. Tholomie. 
A particularly interesting name is Absolom, not uncom- 
mon as a modern surname and with a number of dis- 
guised variants. We know from Chaucer that this 
was a nickname for a man with a fine head of hair 

"Now was ther of that chirche a parissh clerk, 
The which that was y-cleped A bsolon ; 
Crul was his heer and as the gold it shoon, 
And strouted as a fanne, large and brode " 

(Chauc. A. 3312). 

This became, by a common metathesis, Aspelon 
[Adam Absolon or Apsolon or Aspelon, City B.}, 
whence Aspenlon, Asplin. The local-looking Asp- 
land is the same name with spurious -d [John 
Apspelond, City E.~\ and Ashplant is an imitative 
spelling. 

A doubtful case is Pottiphar, explained by Bardsley 
as an imitative corruption of Petti fer (p. 141). It may 
be from an Old Testament play, for although Potiphar 
himself plays no part in history, we can hardly 
imagine that the medieval drama would omit to put 
his wife upon the scene, and for the audience she would 
be Mrs. Potiphar. Cf. James Dalileye (Close R.), 
who presumably played Delilah in another highly 
dramatic Biblical scene. 

But many names which might appear to belong to 
this class are deceptive. Shadrake is an alteration of 
the bird nickname Sheldrake, Ogg is not the King of 

1 Pharao Kircke was buried at Repton, Dec. i, 1602 



206 PAGEANT NAMES 

Bashan, but AS. Ocga or Ogga, shortened from some 
such name as O eg weald, AS. oga, terror, Leah is a 
form of the local Lea, and Rachell comes via Fr. Rachilde 
from OG. Raghild, for which see Regin and Hild 
in ch. ii. Some Welsh surnames, such as Jeremiah, 
Matthias, Mordecai, belong to the later name-creation 
with which the modern Welsh have replaced their 
Aps. Perhaps in some cases such names were substi- 
tuted for Welsh names of somewhat similar sound, just 
as Jeremiah was adopted in Ireland for Diarmid. This 
would seem to be the explanation of Enock, which is 
spelt Egenoc in the Gloucester Cartulary. The Suffolk 
name Balaam is an alteration of the local Baylham, 
from a village in that county, but Robert Balaam 
(Pat. R., Cornwall) suggests also a nickname. Jermy 
is not from Jeremy, but from Jermy n, 1 with which it 
runs parallel in Norfolk. Noah was an important 
character in the old drama and the popular form of 
the name was Noy, whence Noyes, Noyce. The Chester 
play of Noah's Flood ends with the lines 

" My blessinge, Noye, I geve thee heare, 
To thee, Noye, my servant deare ; 
For vengance shall no more appeare, 
And now fare well, my darlinge deare ! " 

Saul, Sawle, generally for Fr. Salle, Lasalle, is another 
possible case. This is necessarily guess-work, but it 
is noticeable that the Biblical names which occur 
commonly as surnames are invariably connected with 
those episodes in Old Testament history which were 

1 This is Fr. Germain, from Germanus, used as a personal name, 
but Gilbert le German (Pat. R.) and Jermany, Jar many point also 
to local origin. 



NEW TESTAMENT NAMES 207 

constantly dramatized for edification. I have seen 
somewhere, but failed to make a note of, a vaguely 
spelt ME. Nebuchadnezzar. 

From the New Testament we have Herod [Seman 
Herodes, Pat. R.] and Pillatt l [Alan Pilate, Pleas]. 
The character of Herod as a stage braggart was 
familiar to Shakespeare 

" I would have such a fellow whipped for o'erdoing Termagant; 
it out-herods Herod " (Hamlet, iii. 2). 

With this cf. Jordan Travagan (Lib. R,), for Terva- 
gant, the earlier form of Termagant. The following 
excerpt from the sums paid in 1490 to the Coventry 
smiths who acted the Passion reads oddly 

"Imprimis to God, ijs; item to Cayphas, iijs iiiid ; item to 
Heroude, iijs iiiid ; item to Pilatt is wyffe, ijs ; item to the devyll 
and to Judas, xviijd ; item to Petur and Malchus, xvjd ; item to 
Pilatte, iiijd." 

Several rather uncommon names of office, e.g. 
Governor and Commander [William le Comandur, 
Hund. R.], seem to be associated especially with the 
Passion Play. The most interesting is Poyner, i.e. 
" painer," or tormentor [John le Poynur, Hund. R.], 
which still survives, while Turmentur, of which I 
have found several medieval examples, has naturally 
dropped out of use. Officer, still a Nottingham sur- 
name, may be rather corrupted from the maker of 
" orphrey," or gold embroidery [John le Orfresour, 
Pat. R,~], though " officer," in the sense of servant, 

1 The very popular role of Pontius Pilate, one of the stock villains 
of medieval drama, may account for the large number of derivatives 
of Pontius in France, Pons, Ponsard, Poinson, etc., whence our 
names in Punch-, Pinch-. 



208 PAGEANT NAMES 

especially of the crown, is a common word in Middle 
English ; cf. Fitchell (p. no). Lathron, 1 corrupted 
into Leathern, Letheren, is an early form of Fr. lanon, 
thief, penitent or otherwise. In Fr. Lelerre we have 
the old nominative of the same word. Cf. Adam 
Maufetour, i.e. malefactor (IpM.). It is curious 
to find Christ as an existing surname, but it is no 
doubt from the font-name Christian. With Virgin 
and the latinized * Virgoe, Vergo goes Mildmay (p. 246), 
for " mild " was the traditional epithet of the Holy 
Virgin 

" Ave Maria ! maiden mild " (Lady of the Lake, in. 29). 

Goad is no doubt for God, which has also become 
Good ; cf. Goadbles (p. 181). Godson, though it 
obviously has other origins, is also to be taken liter- 
ally [Henry FizDeu, Chart. R.]. The naivete of the 
old drama is amazing. In the play of Cain and Abel, 
Cain, when admonished by the Almighty, addresses 
him scornfully as " Hob over the wall." 
Among the supers are Postle or Posthill, Martyr, and 

1 This is philologically interesting ; cf. Dainteth (p. 223). Latheron 
is still in dial, use as a term of contempt. The EDD. derives it 
from Fr. laideron, ugly person, but this is a comparatively modern 
word. 

2 The stage directions and, in the earliest examples, the dialogue, 
were in Latin. This will account for Pontifex, which may be either 
for Pope or for one of the high priests in the Passion play [Gilbert 
Pountife, Pat. R.]. Another purely Latin name is Coustos, but 
custos was once in general use as an English word, e.g. Berners, in 
the preface to his translation of Froissart, says that history has 
time as " her custos and kepar." Preater, Pretor, Prater may be 
for "praetor" or for "prater." With the latter origin may be 
compared such names as Whistler [Elias le Wistler, Glouc. Cart.] 
or the obsolete Geoffrey le Whiner (Pat. R.), Richard le Titteler, 
whisperer, tatler (Hund. R.), John Sternitour, sneezer (ib.). 



THE MYSTERIES 209 

Saint, Sant, Saunt, while Devill l [Osbert Diabolus, 
Pat. R.] has naturally survived less strongly than 
Angell [Edward le Angel, 2 Fine R.~\. There was more 
than one type of stage angel, hence the more definite 
Henry Angel-Dei (Hund. R.), and Fr. Bonnange. 
Seraphim still exists as a surname [Peter Serapin. 
Pat. R.~\. Pilgrim, with its odd variants Peagrim, 
Piggrem, Paragreen,* etc., may also belong here, also 
Armitt (hermit), with which we may compare not only 
Fr. Lermitte, but also Reclus. In all probability some 
of the favourite saints, such as Christopher and George, 
contributed to the surname list via the popular drama. 
The fact that the latter, a very rare medieval font- 
name, is so common a surname in its unaltered form, 
is an argument for nickname origin. Both were also 
favourite inn- signs.* 

With George goes naturally Dragon [William le 
Dragon, Hund. R.]. The name is found in French 
and the other Romance languages, and in the Close 
R. we find mention of a Spaniard with the pleasing 
name Demon Dragon. Griffin, usually a Welsh name 
related to Griffith, is also sometimes a nickname [John 

1 I read to-day (Nov. 20, 1915) that Herr Teufel is, appropriately 
enough, German press agent in Bale. Here may belong sometimes 
Dible, Dibble. The Prynce of Dybles is an important character in 
the play of Mary Magdalene. 

2 It is likely that Messenger, Massinger are also sometimes of 
dramatic origin, for there is a nuncius in most medieval plays, and his 
part is important. 

3 These may equally well come from Peregrine, which is etymo- 
logically the same word. 

* " From thence towards London Bridge, on the same side, be 
many fair inns, for recepit of travellers, by these signs, the Spurre, 
Christopher, Ball, Queene's Head, Tabarde, George, Hart, Kinge's 
Head, etc." (Stow). 



210 PAGEANT NAMES 

Griffon, Fine R.]. In the OF. Mystere de la Passion 
it is the nickname of a comic character whom Satan 
instructs in the use of dice. Although Paradise, Heaven, 
and Hell were realistically staged in the old drama, 
these surnames have another origin. Paradise is local, 
a pleasure-garden, especially that of a convent 

" There is (at Hampton Court) a parterre which they call Para- 
dise " (Evelyn, Diary). 

Heaven, a Bristol name, is generally for the Welsh 
Evan, and Hell l is simply a variant of Hill [William 
de la Helle, Chart. R.]. 

Surnames derived from ecclesiastical titles are 
generally too obvious to require explanation. 2 Bishop 
occurs as early as DB., but his superior does not seem 
to have survived, though arcevesque is common enough 
in the Rolls and Hue Archevesque was a Norman 
poet of the thirteenth century. Bishoprick is an 
abstract nickname to be compared with Office 

" His bishoprick, marg. office or charge, 9 let another take " 
(A.V. Acts, i. 20). 

With the still existing Archdeacon, Arcedeckne, cf. 
Roger le Archprest (Pleas.), who possibly enacted 
Annas or Caiaphas in the Passion Play. Rarer names 
of this type are Novice, Novis, Reverand, Curate 
[Henry Curete, Lane. Court R. 1323-4], Minchin. The 
latter is ME. minchen, a nun, a derivative of monk, 
regularly used, for instance, in the Cartulary of God- 

1 Hellcat is a perversion of Halkett (p. 61). 

2 It is curious to find William Hugh, pape, and Reginald le 
Ercevesqe charged together with murder at Exeter (Pat. R.). 

3 Is this the origin of the name Charge, or is this for Jarge ? Pre- 
bend is also a surname, but can Preferment be genuine ? 



THE CLERGY 211 

stow Nunnery. It is supposed to be the origin of 
Mincing Lane 

" A third lane out of Tower Street ... is called Mincheon Lane, 
so called of tenements there sometime pertaining to the Minchuns 
or nuns .of St. Helen's in Bishopsgate Street " (Stow). 

Labat, Labbett is a Huguenot name, representing Pro- 
venal abat, abbot, with the definite article. Ankrett, 
anchorite, still exists by the side of the simple Anker, 
Anchor, Annercaw 

" An anchor's cheer in prison be my scope " 

(Hamlet, iii. 2). 

To church office belongs also Reglar, Rigler, a member 
of a religious house, often contrasted with " secular " 
[Nicholas le Secular, IpM.~\ 

" Of seculer folke he can make reguter, and agayne of reguler 
seculer" (NED. 1528). 

Both Secular and the synonymous Temporall, Tem- 
prall still survive as rare surnames, while Regelous is 
a corruption of "religious" in its old sense of monk. 
Stroulger, Strowger, Strudger is perhaps a popular form 
of " astrologer," a nickname often applied in Middle 
English to the cock. 

A rather fascinating group of surnames is associated 
with the struggle between Christianity and Mahomet 
as represented in medieval romance. I have not 
found Christian or Pagan except as personal names, 
but the popular form Curson 

" As I am a cur sen man " 

(Marlowe, Faustus, iv. 6) 

was often a nickname J [Simon le Curson, Pat. R., 
1 Curson has also another origin. 



212 PAGEANT NAMES 

Walter le Hethen, ib.]. We cannot imagine that the 
latter was a professed heathen, for such views were 
not popular in the Middle Ages. He had no doubt 
played the part of a " paynim " in some dramatic 
performance. The same applies to John le Reneyie, 
the renegade (Nott. Court R. 1310). Similarly the 
common medieval names Hate-Christ and Shun- 
Christ [Hugh Hatecrist, Pipe R., William Shunecrist, 
Exch. R.] were probably borne by men who had 
enacted the role of an awful example in a morality. 
Cf. Thomas Corescros, curse-cross (Hund. R.). 

The legitimate heathen are, however, well repre- 
sented. The chief character on their side was 
naturally the Soldan of the Saracens, whence our 
Sowden, 1 Soden, Soltan. With Robert le Sowdene 
(Hund. R.) cf. John Saladin (ib.) 

" He that playeth the sowdayne is percase a sowter. Yet if one 
should . . . calle him by his owne name . . . one of his tormen- 
tors * might hap to breake his (one's) head " (Sir Thomas More). 

Here belong also such names as Turk, Tartar, Arabin, 
Larby, OF. I'Arabi [Ponce Araby, City A.], Moor, 
Morris, and Sarson, for it is hardly likely that John 
Saracenus, prebendary of Bridgnorth (Pat. R.), was 
a real live Saracen 

" I sey, ye solem Sarson, alle blake in your ble" 

(Skelton, Poems against Garnesche, i. 36). 

Blackmore, generally local, is also for " blackamoor " 
[Beatrix Blakamour, Mem. of Lond.]. Memmett, 
Memmott, Meymott, and probably Mammon, Mawman, 
represent the ME. Maumet, Maument, i.e. Mahomet 
[Ralph Maumet, Fine R.], whom our ancestors repre- 

1 Also a local name, from sow and dean ; cf. Sugden. 
9 See p. 207. 



DEMONS 213 

sented as a god or idol. He is regularly coupled with 
Tervagant (p. 207). Cf. also Peter Amiraill (Doc. 
III.) and Richard Babiloyne (Cor am Rege R. 1297), 
whose names may still survive in some unrecognizable 
form. Admiral, an extension of emir, was originally 
used of a Saracen chieftain, 1 and Lamiral is still a 
common French surname. The " Amiral of Babi- 
loyne " is often mentioned in old romance. 

Champion, Campion may have fought on either side, 
but the stock Christian protagonists were the douzepers, 
or twelve peers, sometimes confused with Charlemagne's 
Paladins. In English a new singular was formed and 
became a common nickname [Simon Duzeper, Close 
R., William Duzeper, Hund. R.], which survives as 
Dashper and Disper. Epithets often applied to the 
Saracens were OF. malfe and malfeu, representing a 
barbarous Latin male-fatus and male-fatutus 8 [Simon 
le Malfe, Pipe R., William Maufee, Pat. R.]. Hence 
our Morfey, Morphy, Morphew, the spelling of the 
latter having been influenced by the obsolete morphew, 
a leprous eruption. Malfe was also applied specifically 
to the devil, which brings us to surnames derived 
from supernatural beings. Poke, Pook [William le 
Puk, Kirby's Quest], and Puckle [William le Pokel, 
IpM.] are from our old friend Puck, an imp, used in 
Middle English of Satan 

" Fro the poukes poundfalde no maynprise may ous fecche 8 " 

(Piers Plowm. C. xix. 280). 
" The hell waine, the fier drake, the puckle, Tom Thombe, Hobb 



1 See my Romance of Words, p. 46. 

z Cf. the origin of Mallory, OF. maleure, Lat. male-augur atu& 
[AnketilMalore, Pat. R., Crispian Malure, Hund. R.]. 

8 This line contains three surnames Pook, Pen fold, Mainprice. 



214 PAGEANT NAMES 

gobblin . . . and such other bugs " (Scott, Discovery of Witchcraft, 
1584). 

Both names have another origin, for puke, pook was 
a woollen cloth of a special colour (cf . Burnett, Ray, etc., 
p. 154), and Puckle is also local [Robert de Pukehole, 
Cust. Battle Abbey]. This brings us, even geogra- 
phically, rather near " Pook's Hill." With Ghost > 
[Fabian le Gost, Ramsey Cart.] cf. Spirett, Spirit, the 
French name Lesprit and the twelfth- century chronicler 
Jourdain Fantosme. Warlock, Werlock, Worlock,* a 
Middle English name for the devil, and later for a 
wizard, is from AS. wcerloga, a traitor, more literally 
an early exponent of the " scrap of paper " theory. 
The suffix is cognate with Ger. liigen, to lie. 8 An 
essential figure in every pageant was the wodewose, 
AS. wuduwasa, faun, satyr, known in later times 
as the Woodhouse, Wodehouse.' The intermediate 
form was wodwysse (temp. Ed. III. ). Hence the names 
Woodiwiss, Widdiwiss, and perhaps Whitewish 

" Wodewose, silvanus, satirus " (Prompt. Paw.). 



1 James Ghost, bedstead maker, 5, Little Charlotte St., Black- 
riars Rd. (Lond. Dir. 1843). 

2 But warlock is also a dial, name for mustard, so that Nicholas 
Warloc (Hund. R.) may belong to the same group as Gar lick, Pepper, 
etc. (p. 188) 

" Mustard, or warloke, or senwyn, herbe, sinapis " (Prompt. Parv.). 

Warlow appears to be a true nickname. In the Towneley Mys- 
teries Pharaoh refers to Moses as " yond warlow with his wand." 

8 In Truelock, an abstract nickname, from ME. trenlac, fidelity, 
we have the same suffix as in " wedlock." 

4 It gave its name to "an ancient East Anglian family, Barons 
Wodehouse and Earls of Kimberley, the supporters of whose shield 
of arms are too wodewoses " (H. D. Ellis, Proceedings of the Suffolk 
Institute of Archeology and Natural History, xiv. 3). 



ROBIN HOOD 215 

Probably some names derive directly from the 
Robin Hood pageant 

" Bishop La timer relates that, going to preach at a certain church, 
he found it locked, because the inhabitants were all attending 
Robin Hood so he ' was faine to give place to Robin Hoode's 
men ' " (Strutt). 

On this see also Note 10 to Scott's Abbot. The char- 
acter of Friar Tuck would account for some of our 
Fryers, Freres, etc., and no doubt Littlejohn sometimes 
belongs to this group. Merriman may have been 
applied to a cheerful person, but was also the regular 
epithet for the followers of a knight or outlaw, 1 
especially in the phrase " Robin Hood and his Merry 
Men." It has also been altered to Merriment.* In 
the same way we may perhaps assume that Wiseman, 
besides its literal meaning, may have been one of the 
" wise men " of the East in the Candlemas pageant. 
Greenleaf was, according to Lower, also a character 
in the Robin Hood celebrations, and he quotes, from 
Fabian's Chronicle, mention of " a felow wych had 
renued many of Robyn Hodes pagentes, which named 
hymselfe Grenelef " (1502). Robert of the Lefgrene 
(Pat. R.) has some savour of the outlaw in his name. 
My lord is perhaps for may-lord, " a young man chosen 
to preside over the festivities of May-Day " (NED.), 
but Melady, which looks like may-lady, is for Melody, 
an Irish name. 

A few great names from antiquity may have figured 
in the pageants. One clear example seems to be 
Hercules, also found as Herkless, Arculus, Arkless, who, 
in the character of a swaggering bully, was quite 

1 Outlaw is still a Norfolk surname [Richard Utlawe, Huud. R.}. 
9 Still used in Suffolk of a comical person (EDD.) 



216 PAGEANT NAMES 

familiar to the Middle Ages. Both Chaucer and 
Shakespeare deprive him of the aspirate 

"My chief humour is for a tyrant: I could play Ercles rarely" 
(Midsummer Night's Dream, i. 2). 

Another name of somewhat similar character is 
Brettoner, Bmttner, a libel on the men of Brittany 

" A Brutiner, a braggere, a-bostede him also " (Piers Plowm. 
A. vii. 142). 

Cf. William le Tirant (Fine R.), and such names as 
Alexander and 'Ccesar which may obviously be some- 
times of dramatic origin. Cupitt, Cupiss, common in 
Derbyshire, may quite well be from Cupid [William 
Cupide, Leic. BOY. Rec. 1199]. But classical surnames, 
with a few exceptions, are not what they seem, e.g. 
Hector is local, " high tor " (p. 81), Cato is also local, 
at the " hoe " or " how " frequented by wild cats 
[Robert de Catho, Fine R.], and Kitto, which looks 
like its offspring, is a Cornish name, ultimately a dim. 
of the Welsh Griffith. Phoenix appears to be a nick- 
name. The word was common in Middle English in 
the sense of a paragon, and Finnis may sometimes 
represent its popular form fenice, OF. fenis 

"Hie phenix, a phenes " (Voc.). 

Finally, we come to the rather large group of sur- 
names taken from abstract qualities. To the Puritans 
we owe such baptismal names, generally female, as 
Faith, Hope, Charity, but this fashion came too late 
for surname purposes. The same tendency can be ob- 
served much further back in the history of names. We 
have such Greek names as Sophia, wisdom, Irene, 
peace, and many of the Teutonic names, which repre- 



ABSTRACT NAMES 217 

sent our oldest stratum, are formed from abstract 
ideas, e.g. the shortened Hugh is simply AS. hyge, 
mind. It is equally natural that medieval English- 
men should have nicknamed people by the names of 
the virtues and vices which they seemed to personify, 
and, as the epigraph of this chapter seems to show, 
there can be little doubt that such names were often 
acquired by those who had played abstract parts in 
the moralities. 

No doubt some of the existing surnames of this 
type are imitative corruptions, e.g. Choyce is for the 
font-name Joyce [William Choys, Pat. R.], Victory is 
probably an alteration of Vickery, an early form of 
Vicar, Honour is local, from the same word used of a 
special kind of fief (see p. 63). Element is for Elliman, 
which, in its turn, may represent the " man " of 
Ellis, or F. Allemand, which has generally become 
Allman', Emblem is an imitative spelling of Emblin 
(Emmeline); Memory or Membery is for Mowbray, 
from Montbrai (Manche), the origin also of Momerie, 
Mummery, Argument is probably from Aigremont, 
a common French place-name ; Drought and Troth are 
AS. thryth, might, an element in many Anglo-Saxon 
names; Courage is a hamlet in Berks, but still 
Courage is a French surname ; Foresight is the local 
Forsyth ; Zeal is a parish in Devon ; Trust is short for 
Trustrum, i.e. Tristram, and so on. Other examples 
of such imitative forms will be found scattered about 
in other chapters, but in none of the above, and 
similar, cases is the literal meaning absolutely barred. 

But, allowing for this incessant striving after a 
significant form, there remain a considerable number 
of abstract surnames which can be taken at their 



2i8 PAGEANT NAMES 

face value. Both Virtue and Vice are well-established 
surnames. Of the three cardinal virtues, Faith, Hope, 
Charily, Hope is generally local (see p. 81), and 
Charity has also a double origin. It is usually ab- 
stract [John Caritas, Leic. BOY. Rec., John Charite, 
Pat. R.], but Brother Miles of La Charite of the Priory 
of St. Andrew's, Northampton (Pat. JR.), points to 
charite in its Old French sense of hospice, refuge. 
Verity is a true abstract, found also in the popular 
forms Vardy, Varty. It is a common name in the 
West Riding. With Pride [Richard Pride, Fine R], 
naturally a favourite figure in edifying drama, we 
may compare Or gill, Fr. orgueil [Gerard Orgoyl, 
City D.]. Gentry formerly meant both high rank 
and good breeding. Chaucer says of the lion 

" Of his genterye 
Hym deyneth nat to wreke him on a flye " 

(Legend of Good Women, 394). 

See also Hamlet, ii. 2. Kindness has parallels in Fr. 
Bonte [cf. Nicholas Bonty, Close R.'} and our Goodship, 
but, being a Border name, it may be rather Mackinnis, 
with the common loss of the prefix. With Wonder 
cf. Marvell [Geoffrey Merveyle, Pat. R.~]. Speed and 
Goodspeed are genuine [Stephen Sped, Fine R., 
Ralph Godisped, Hund. R.}. Hazard 1 is perhaps 
usually baptismal, AS. ^scheard, whence also Has- 
sard, Hassett, but the existence of Chance, Luck, 
Ventur 2 [William Aventur, Hund. R.] shows that it 

1 For incorrect aspirate in Anglo-Saxon names, see p. 33, . i. 
Here we have also the influence of the abstract term. 

2 Venters, Ventress, Ventris are for " venturous," with just the 
same phonetic change as in the -house names (p. 96). Cf. Fr. 
Laventure and Laventureux. 



VICES 219 

may also be a nickname. Bad luck was responsible 
for the name of John Amesas (Hund. R.), who habitually 
made the lowest throw in dicing 

" I had rather be in this choice than throw ames-ace for my life " 
(All's Well, ii. 3). 

Craft is generally a variant of the local Croft, but the 
abstract Kraft is a German surname. Forfeitt had 
formerly the sense of wrong-doing [cf . Thomas Trespas, 
Hund. R.}. Profit is of course for the nickname Prophet 
(p. 198). Glew, Glue is an archaic form of glee [Agnes 
Glewe, Hund. R.~\ 

" Glu, or menstralsy, musica, armonia " (Prompt. Parv.). 

Vices and virtues are equally well represented. 
Trickery, a Devon name, has a parallel in Engayne, 
OF. engan, trickery, a very common name in the 
Rolls, starting with Richard Ingania (DB.). It seems 
to have become Engeham, now nearly absorbed by the 
local Ingham. With Greed [William Grede, Pipe JR.] 
cf. Greedy [Helya le Gredie, Leic. Bor. RecJ\. Tred- 
gett, or Trudgett, is ME. treget, jugglery, deceit [cf. 
Simon le Treget or, Hund. R.] 

" By my treget, I gadre and threste 
The gret tresour into my cheste " 

(Romaunt of the Rose, 1825). 

Fitton [Richard Fiton, Fine R.] is a common Middle 
English word for lying, deceit. Its origin is disputed, 
but the NED. regards derivation from fiction as 
inadmissible 

" Fytten, mensonge, menterie " (Palsg.). 

Boast had in Middle English the sense of boasting, 
vainglory [Robert dictus Bost, Archbp. Peckhams Let.}. 
16 * 



220 PAGEANT NAMES 

Cf. Galfridus Gloriosus 1 (Pipe R.) and John le Boster 
(Pat. R.). Bessemer, Bismire is ME. bismer, mockery 
[William Bessemere, Hund. R.], Ryott 2 [Philip Ryot, 
Close R.] once meant debauchery, riotous living, and 
I should guess that Surkett, Serkitt, Circuitt are related 
to OF. and ME. surquidie, arrogance 

" Presumpcioun ... is called surquidie " (Chauc. I. 403). 

More pleasant qualities are embodied in the names 
Worship [Thomas Worthshipp, Close R.], Thrift, cor- 
rupted to Frift, Sillence, Patience, Pennance, Pru- 
dence [Henry Prudence, Feet of Fines'], Goodhead, i.e. 
goodness, Comfort [William Cumfort, Hund. R.], with 
which cf. Sollas [Ralph Solaz, Northumb. Ass. R.'], 
Manship, Manchip, corresponding generally in Middle 
English to Lat. virtus, Friendship, Quaintance [John 
Cointance, Lib. R.~\, and Brotherhood 

"And ech of hem gan oother for tassure 
Of bretherhede whil that hir lyf may dure" 

(Chauc. B. 1231). 

This last name may be also local, of the same type as 
Monkhouse, Nunnery, etc. Holness might be a con- 
traction of Holderness (Yorks), but it is purely a 
Kentish name and no doubt for " holiness." 3 Welfare 
is certified by Ger. Wohlfart. Cf. Farewell, Farwell, 

1 An epithet quaintly applied to the Kaiser by that eminent 
humanist Ferdinand of Bulgaria. 

2 Revel is a font-name, very common in Old French and Middle 
English, possibly derived from Lat. rebellus. But the fact that the 
name is so common in Yorkshire points to an alternative origin from 
Rievaulx [Ivo de Rievalle, Lib. Vit.\ Cf. Revis (p. 82). 

8 Holyhead is doubtful. In Middle English it means " holiness," 
but I have found the name, also as Hollyhead, in the neighbour- 
hood of the Hollin- surnames, so it may be equivalent to Hollings- 
head, i.e. at the " holly head." 



ABSTRACT NAMES , 221 

and the parallel Ger. Lebwohl. With Service, Sarvis, 
and Fair service cf. Thomas Wrangeservis (Writs, of 
Part.). Lawty, Lewty, Luty is " lealty," OF. leaute 
[Thomas Leaute, Pat. R.~\. The French troops in 
Morocco are at present (Nov. 1915) commanded by 
General Lyautey, and the more anglicized form Loalday 
is an existing English surname 

"Thenne swar a bocher, ' By my leaute! 
Shalt thou ner mor the Kyng of Fraunce se.' " 

(Song on the Battle of Courtrai, temp. Ed. I.). 

The corresponding native name is Holdship, AS. 
holdscipe, loyalty. With Counsell [John Counseil 
City >.] we may compare Read, Reed, among the many 
origins of which must be included ME. rede, counsel 

"Reed, counsell, concilium" (Prompt. Parv.). 

Hence Goodread, Goodred, Goodered [Richard Goderede, 
F. of Y. 1465], and Meiklereid. In Middle English 
we find the less complimentary Robert Smalred (Pipe 
R.), Philip Lytylred (John of Gaunt' s Reg. 1372-6), 
and William Thynnewyt (Lane. Court. R. 1325). 

Instance meant in Middle English eager supplica- 
tion. Peace usually belongs to this group [William 
Pays, Fine R., Nicholas Pax, 1 Hund. R.], and Small- 

1 In one of the Chester plays " Death is personified, and a play 
on the Salutation is prefaced by a long prologue in heaven, in which 
the speakers are (besides Deus Pater and Deus Filius) Veritas, Mis- 
ericordia, Justitia, and Pax" (Pollard, English Miracle Plays). Here 
we have not only a plausible origin of the names Verity, Mercy or 
Marcy, Justice, Peace, but also an indication of the fact that Death is 
not always local, of Ath (Belgium). The name is quite common in 
Essex, where it is occasionally altered to Dearth. With Robert 
Death (Cust. Battle Abbey) cf. the common French surname Lamort, 
also found in England as Mort, and the famous Russo-German 
Todleben, death-life. Mortleman also suggests a dramatic personifi- 
cation of the uncertainty of human life. 



222 PAGEANT NAMES 

peace, Smallpeice, very common in Surrey, is its 
opposite. Hawisia Crist a pes (Nott. Bor. Rec.) was 
so named from her habitual ejaculation, which was 
probably not unconnected with the fact that her 
husband was Henry Lytilprud, i.e. " little worth," 
whence our Littleproud. 1 It contains the older form 
of the common ME. prow, profit, use, whence also in 
some cases the surname Prow 

" That shul been for youre hele and for youre prow " 

(Chauc. B. 4140). 

Nor is it likely that our name Heal is quite indepen- 
dent of the common ME. hele, health, salvation. 
Deeming appears to mean judgment 

" Ffor drede that they had of demyng therafter " 

(Richard the Redeless, ii. 94). 

With thiscf. Sentance, Sentence, and William Jugement 
(Wore. Priory Reg.). Flattery is a quality that lends 
itself readily to dramatic impersonation. Hardiment in 
Chaucer means courage, daring 

" Artow in Troye, and hast non hardiment 
To take a womman which that loveth thee ? " 

(Troilus and Criseyde, iv. 533). 

Travell retains the older meaning of travail, toil. 
Plenty was in the thirteenth century the name of a 
lady [Christina Plente, Hund. R.], and a ship called 
la Plentee is mentioned in the Pat. R. Skill also 
apparently belongs here [Walter Skil, Pat. R.] ; cf. 

1 The synonymous Petibon is found both in Middle English [John 
Petibon, Pat. R.] and in modern French. Littleproud may, however, 
have been a modest person like Robert Proudofnouth (Nott. Court R. 
1316), but Richard Smalprout (Hund. R.) supports the first explana- 
tion. 



ABSTRACT NAMES 223 

Slight, usually for " sleight " [Johannes dictus Slegh 
or Slegt, Bp. Kellawes RegJ\. Wisdom is derived 
by Lower from an estate in Devon, but it is 
always found without de [Hugh Wysdam, Hund. 
RJ\. The oldest meaning of Purchase is pursuit, 
pillage [Andrew Purchaz, Fine R.]. It is also one 
origin of Pur kiss [John Purkase, 1 Hund. R.], also 
Pirkiss, Porcas, Porkiss. In fact there is hardly a 
common abstract term which could conceivably be 
personified in an individual that does not exist as a 
modern surname ; and for most of these names 
medieval prototypes can be quoted. 8 

Physick and Dainteth, Dentith are of special interest. 
The former has generally been explained as an imitative 
corruption of the local Fishwick. This may be true in 
some cases, but " physic " is personified by Lang land 

" Phisik shal his furred hodes for his fode sele" 

(Piers Plowm. B. vi. 271) 

and Richard Physik (Malmesbury Abbey Reg.) certifies 
it as a nickname. Dainteth is an archaic form of 
Dainty. The latter, a Northants name, is generally 
local, of Daventry, or Daintry, in that county. But 
Dainteth [Agnes Deynteth, Nott. Bor. Rec.'} is OF. 
deintet, Lat. dignitat-em, and shows the transition of 
the final dental on its way to complete disappearance. 
The only existing word which preserves this inter- 
mediate sound is faith, OF. feid (foi), Lat. fid-em. 
The two names Nation and Sumption, Sumsion may 

1 This might, however, be ME. percase, perchance ; cf. Per- 
adventure (p. 182). 

2 Many which occur in the Rolls appear to be no longer repre- 
sented, e.g. Cuvenant, Damage, Purveance, Testimonie, Blithehait, 
the last apparently from an unrecorded ME. blith-hede, Bliss. 



224 



PAGEANT NAMES 



be for Incarnation and Assumption. 1 If so, they do 
not belong to this chapter, but to the group of names 
taken from church seasons, such as Christmas, Pente- 
cost, Middlemas, etc. But they may equally well be 
for " damnation " and " presumption." * A very 
possible pageant name is Welladvise, Wellavize, 
Willavise,* the " well advised " ; but dial, well-avized, 
comely, is related to visage ; cf. Uack-avized, swarthy. 
For the loss of the final -d, cf. Wellbelove, Wellbelow, 
for Wellbeloved. 

1 Asunci6n is a baptismal name in Spain. 

2 This loss of the first syllable is normal in dialect speech. It 
is just as natural that the north-country name Tinnion should be 
for Justinian [Justinian Penyfader, Archbishop Peckham's Reg. 
1279-92] as that King Constantine of Greece should be called Tino 
by his imperial brother-in-law. 

3 Bien-avise et Mal-avise is the title of an Old French morality 
play. 



CHAPTER XI 

SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

" ' This infant was called John Little,' quoth he, 

' Which name shall be changed anon. 
The words we'll transpose, and wherever he goes, 
His name shall be called Little- John' " 

(Old Ballad). 

A TYPE of surname which is very common in Middle 
English,and is still strongly represented intheDirectory, 
is that of which we may take Brownsmith, Littlejohn, 
Goodchild, Dawbarn as types, i.e. surnames formed by 
adding a qualifying word to an occupative name, a 
baptismal name, or a name indicating relationship. 
Brownsmith is the smith with the brown complexion, 
Littlejohn points to a small ancestor, 1 but probably 
also to one who had enacted the part of Little John 
in some Robin Hood play or procession, Goodchild is 
pretty obvious, and Dawbarn means the " bairn " of 
Daw, i.e. David. 

Compounds of this type are very much more 
numerous in French and German than in English (see 
chs. xiii, xiv), but we have a fairly large number of 

1 Of course nicknames often go by contraries, as is the case of the 
historical Little John himself. Snowball [Pavia Snowball, Fine R.] 
may have been applied to a swarthy person, as Bottle de neige is in 
France to a negro, and Goodchild may have obtained his sobriquet 
by indulging in parricide. A wall-eyed portress in Marguerite 
Andoux' Marie-Claire is called Beloeil. 

225 



226 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

them, some common, some rare, and many which have 
never been explained. Taking first the occupative class, 
we notice that these compounds occur chiefly in connec- 
tion with the true old English words which lack the 
later agential suffix -er. They are connected with the 
essential activities of life, and are thus distinguished 
from the more modern names which spring from the 
shopkeeper and the specialized craftsman. 1 These 
names are Wright, Smith, Hunt, Webb, Bond, the 
farmer, with its compound Husband, and Grieve or 
Reeve, the farm steward. To these we may add Hine, 
later Hind, Mann,* which often means simply the 
servant, Knight, originally also the servant, Herd, the 
herdsman, Day, the farm worker, Swain, knave, and 
Ladd. Nearly all of these are found in compounds, 
and those of Wright and Smith are fairly numerous, 
though insignificant when compared with the German 
compounds of Schmidt and Meyer (see p. 298). 
From Wright 8 we get, according to the nature of 

1 Names of the later type, if long and cumbersome, have generally 
been reduced or have disappeared. In one volume of the Nott. Bor. 
Pec. I find Richard le Boustringer, John, Breadseller, Hugh Last- 
maker, Walter Pouchmaker, Martin Tankardmaker, John Ham- 
barowman, i.e. hand-barrow man. We still have Bowmaker, Slay- 
maker, the maker of " slays " for looms, Millmaker, Shoemaker, the 
last two very rare, also Ashburner, Ironmonger, Stonehewer, whence 
Stanley, Whittier (see p. 135), and others which are easily recognised. 
Woodier, Woodger are for " wood-hewer." Shoemark, Slaymark 
appear to be for Shoemaker, Slaymaker. With the former cf. Ger. 
Schuhmach. It is possible that they go back to Anglo-Saxon forms 
of the type Hunt, Webb, etc., but the loss of -er, though rare, is 
not without example, for in the case of one family the occupative 
Ashburner has been shortened to Ashburn. 

* Cf. Humm [Gilbert le Homme, Pat. R., Geoffrey Homo, #>.]. 

8 Wraith, Wreath are perversions of Wright The intermediate 
Wraight is common in Kent. 



COMPOUNDS OF WRIGHT 227 

the occupation, the very obvious Boatwright or 
Botwright, Cartwright, Cheesewright, Plowright, Ship- 
wright, Sivewright, Wainwright, Wheelwright. Wood- 
wright may be the wright who lived in the wood (cf. 
Wildsmith, p. 228), but more probably the " mad " 
wright ; cf. Woodmason, and seep. 308. In Arkwright we 
have the dialect ark, a bin, meal-chest, and Tellwright 
is for tile- wright. William Basketwricte (Pat. R.), 
Thomas le Glasenwryth (Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 1301-60), 
have given way to Basketter and Glaisher, and I have 
found no descendants of Matthew le Glewryte (Pat. 
R.), Simon le Bordwryte (IpM.), or Richard le Hair- 
wright (Leic. BOY. Bee.). The personality of the 
Wright is expressed in Goodwright, Micklewright, 1 Old- 
Wright, Whitewright, and John Longus Faber (Writs of 
Part.). Allwright, Woolwright may be imitative spell- 
ings of the AS. Ealdric and Wulfric, but the first may 
equally well be for Oldwright, northern auld-, and the 
latter may mean a wool- worker. Goodwright (v.s.) 
may be AS. Godric, and Seawright is from AS. Saeric, 
or perhaps from the more common Sigeric ; cf. Sea- 
ward from Saeweard or Sigeweard. Aldritt may belong 
here or to Aldred, AS. Ealdred. Henwright is the Irish 
name Enright, Enraght, and Kenwright is for Kenrick, 
AS. Coenric. Many of the above names are some- 
times spelt -right instead of -wright. 

The technical compounds of Smith are curiously 
few. Blacksmith and Whitesmith are both said to 
exist by Lower, though I have not come across them, 
and Locksmith has generally yielded to Locker, Lockyer. 
With Brownsmith (p. 225) cf. Randolf Redsmith (Nott. 
Bor. Ree.). On the analogy of Plowright we should 

1 See note on Harrismith (p 228). 



228 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

expect Harrismith, 1 Harrowsmith to mean " harrow 
smith," but I expect they are perversions of Arrow- 
smith [John le Arewesmyth, Pat. R.'], which, in America, 
has become Arsmith. Greensmith is local, the smith 
on the green, 2 and Wildsmith, Wilesmith is the smith 
in the wild, rather a Forest Lovers sort of figure * ; cf. 
Shawsmith, Brooksmith. Specialists have given the 
names Shoesmith, Shear smith. Sixsmith may contain 
scythe, the earliest Anglo-Saxon form of which is 
sighthi, or more probably sickle [John Sykelsmith, 
IpM.~\. In Sucksmith, Shucksmith we have Fr. soc, a 
plough- share, whence ME. sock, suck, still in dial, use 

" Y e sucke of a plow, venter " [mistake for vomer ?] (Manip. Voc.). 

Grossmith is, I think, comparatively recent, and 
adapted from Ger. Grobschmied, blacksmith. Clock- 
smith, of which there are several examples in the 
Repton Register (1578-1670), appears to be extinct. 
Nasmyth, Nay smith, is explained by Lower as " nail 
smith," by Bardsley as " knife-smith." The fact 
that Knifesmythe was a medieval name, surviving 
into the sixteenth century as Knysmithe, is in 

1 A possible explanation of these names is Michael the Wright 
and Harry the Smith. Cf. Fr. Jeanroy, Goninfaure, and Ger. Schmidt- 
henner (Heinrich), Schmidtkunz (Conrad). But the only examples 
of such a formation I have found in English are Pascoewebb (p. 230) 
and Foster John (p. 242). Johncook is more probably for Johncock 
(p. 239), though literal interpretation is possible. Wat king is of 
course Watkin. 

2 Is Greenprice the Price who lived on the green or is it a barbarous 
hybrid Green-pres ? Fr. pre, whence Pray, is a common element in 
Middle English names [Henry de la Preye, Hund. R.], and is one 
source of Preece, Price. 

3 So Hollinpriest suggests a pious hermit among the hollies. It is 
found in Cheshire, where Hollin- names, such as Hollingshead, are 
numerous, but it is perhaps for " holy priest." 



HUNT AND HUNTER 229 

favour of the second derivation. Being a Scottish 
name, it inevitably has a legendary origin. Some 
prince or noble, fleeing from his enemies, took refuge 
in a shoeing forge and hastily donned the garb of a 
journeyman smith. The pursuers, of course, came to 
the same smithy to get one of their horses shod, and 
at once noticed the clumsiness of the smith's assistant. 
" You're nae smith " were the words that showed he 
was detected. Though led away captive, we may 
assume that he was released and had issue. Other- 
wise there could be no Nasmyths now ! Lower also 
gives Spearsmith and Bucksmith, which I have not 
met with. The latter is perhaps for " buckle- smith " 

" Bokell smythes leches and gold beters " 

(Cocke Lorelle). 

Grey smith, like Brownsmith, refers to personal appear- 
ance ; cf. Robert Greygroom (Fine R.). 

I do not know of any modern compounds of Hunt, 
and only one of the later Hunter, viz. Todhunter, i.e. 
fox- hunter, but in the Rolls we find Foxhunt, Boar- 
hunt, Wolfhunt. Hunt has flourished at the expense 
of Hunter by absorbing the nickname hund, hound 
[Henry le Hund, Pat. R.], and is also local, " of the 
hunt " ; cf. the still existing Delahunte. The office of 
Common Hunt to the City of London was not abolished 
till 1807. The corresponding OF. veneitr has given us 
Venom and Venner. Gravenor, though it has inter- 
changed with Grosvenor, is etymologically grand 
veneur [Richard le Grantvenor, Fine R.]. Hunt is 
one of the few occupative names of which the feminine 
form has also given a surname. 1 This is found as 

1 For a large number of obsolete nouns of this form, as also for 
words in -ster, see Trench, English Past and Present. 



230 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

Huntress, Huntriss [Agnes Venatrix, Hund. R.~\. The 
only other names of this type I have found are Pewtress, 
Vickress, and possibly Clarges [Juliana la Clergesse, 
Malmesbury Abbey Reg.]. Such names were once 
commoner, 1 e.g. in the Gloucester Cartulary occur 
Alice la Carteres, Alice la Horsmannes, Isabella le 
Prestes, Matilda le Piperes. 

Webb has, I think, only three compounds, Green- 
webb, who lived on the green (cf. Greensmith), Nor- 
webb, at the north end of the town, and Brookwebb 
(cf. Brooksmith) ; with these cf. John le Bothwebb 
(Malmesbury Abbey Reg.), i.e. the weaver who occu- 
pied a booth. Pascoewebb, Pascal the weaver, is an 
example of a formation which is commoner in French 
and German (see p. 228, n. i). Bond 8 gives New- 
bond, Newbound [Walter le Newebond, Hund. R.~\, and 
Blackbond, Blackband, while corresponding to Young- 
husband we find John Yongebonde (Chart. R.). 
Goodban, Goodbun, Goodband * may belong here or to 
Goodbairn. Willbond may be for " wild bond " [cf, 
Edwin Wildegrome, Pipe R.]. Lovibond, Loveband, 
Levibond seems to mean " the dear bond " [Nicholas 
Leveband, Hund. R.] ; cf. Loveday (q.v.). Lightbound 
is an alteration of the local Lightborne (Lane.). 

Grieve, with the imitative spelling Grief, has a com- 
pound Fairgrief, Fairgray. Forgreive is perhaps rather 
to be compared with Forman, a leader. Reeve is also 

1 We also have many names in -ster, originally used of trades 
especially practised by women, e.g. Brewster, Baxter, but this 
distinction was soon lost [Simon le Bakestere, Cal. Gen.]. 

2 Hence also Band, Bound, Bunt [Richard le Bande, IpM., Ger- 
vase le Bunt, Malmesbury Abbey Reg.]. 

8 Final -band may also stand for the local -bourne, -burn, e.g. 
Millband for " mill-burn," Chadband from Chatburn (Lane.). 



"THE SERVICE OF THE ANTIQUE WORLD" 231 

found as Reef. Its compounds are very numerous 
in Middle English, and it is strange that so few have 
survived. I find Oldreive [William le Oldereve, Pat. R.}, 
which, as a modern Devon surname, is neighboured by 
Oldrey (cf. Fairgray), and of course Sherriff (shire 
reeve), Shreeve, Shrive, a name less often due, perhaps, 
to official position than to a successful interpretation 
of the Sheriff of Nottingham in a Robin Hood pageant. 
The Scottish form Shirra also exists as a surname, 
and I suspect that Shearer, Sharer, a common name 
in Scotland, is sometimes of the same origin. * I can- 
not help thinking that Woodroffe, Woodruff, a plant 
nickname, owes something to the woodreeve, i.e. 
Woodward. But the apparent disappearance of the 
borough-reeve, dike-reeve, port-reeve, etc., is curious. 
Perhaps they were converted into Borrowman or 
Berryman, Dickman, and Portman, as the word reeve 
became archaic. 

From Hine we have Goodhind [John Godhine, 
Wore. Priory Reg.'}, a type of name [Richard Fidelis 
Serviens, Ramsey Cart.} once very common. With 
Goodlad, Goodlud, Goodlet, cf. the common French 
names Bonvillain, Bonvalet, and the extinct Robert 
le Godegrom (Hund. R.) and Richard le Lovegrom 
(Malmesbury Abbey Reg.). Lightlad z (little) and the 
synonymous Petivallet exist as English names. With 
Goodlass cf. Sotelass (sweet). Goddard is occasionally 
the " good herd" ; cf. Whiteheard, Whittard for " white 
herd." The prefix Bon- is common in the Rolls [Richard 

1 It is generally a sheep-shearer, and, in Northumbria, a reaper. 

2 The only compounds of " boy " appears to be Littteboy, Oddboy. 
Warboy is from Warboys (Camb.), and Mortiboy, Martiboy, found 
also as Mortiboy s, evidently comes from some " dead wood." 



232 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

Bonswan, Cor am Rege R. 1297] ; cf. Bon fellow for 
Goodfellow. To this class belongs Goodhugh, Goodhue, 
Goodhew, which I have previously explained 1 as for 
" good Hugh," an explanation which may in some 
cases be right, for the name is fairly common, and 
Hugh, which probably ranks sixth in popularity (after 
John, William, Thomas, Robert, Richard) among 
medieval font- names, may naturally have joined the 
Littlejohn, Goodwillie class [John Godehugh, Pat. R.}. 
But the real origin, from ME. hiwe, servant, jumps 
to the eyes [John Godhyue, Lane. Court R. 1323-4]. 
And the same word hiwe' is often the origin of the 
usually baptismal Hugh, Hew, Hewes, etc., just as 
hine is of Him, Hinds, etc. In fact, the two words, 
which are ultimately cognate, are used as equivalent 
in Middle English 

" He withalt non hewe, var. hyne, bus hyre overe even " 

(Piers Plowman, C. viii. 195). 

Thraleiepresents thrall, aserf[JohnleThryl, 2 Pa/. R.']. 
Goodchap is for Goodcheap, a nickname for a trades- 
man [Jordan Godchep, City A.}. Cf. Geoffrey Bon- 
mar che (City A.), whose name survives as Bomash 

" Bon marche, good cheap, dog cheap, a low rate, a reasonable 
price" (Cotg.). 

Goodgame, which Bardsley derives from the medieval 
Goodgroom, is, as the example [Walter Godgamen, 8 
Hund. R.] shows, an abstract nickname, "good 
sport," perhaps equivalent to F airplay. 
From Ladd we have the dim. Ladkin. The apparent 

1 Romance of Names, p. 60. 

2 Thrill in the Scottish form ; see NED. 
8 Gamen is the older form of game. 



COMPOUNDS OF DAY 233 

compound Sommerlat, Summerlad l is ON. Sumerlida, 
summer warrior, of very common occurrence in 
Anglo-Saxon records [Sumerlede, DB.] ; cf. William 
Sumersweyn (Ramsey Cart.) and Winter led (DB.), 
the latter a Viking of sterner stuff. 

The original meaning of "dey" was a " kneader," 
as in AS. hlafdige, loaf kneader, whence lady* It was 
then used of a woman servant, especially a dairy 
woman, and later of a farm-worker in general. Good- 
day is sometimes from this word ; cf. Goodhind, Good- 
hew. Faraday, Fereday, Ferriday has been explained 
as " travelling day," from ME. fere, to travel. 
The formation would be like that of Delveday (v.i.), 
but I have found no early examples. The Lincoln- 
shire name Tolliday or Tolladay is very puzzling. It 
may mean " Tolley the dey," or the " dey of Tolley " 
[cf. Godus Tholynwyf, 1397, Bardsley]. In Leic. Bor. 
Rec. occurs the name of Richard Tollidenoitt (AF. 
toille de noil, toil by night). Was the first Tolliday 
the opposite of this ? Or does the name represent 
" toil dey " ? Cf. William Delveday (City C.), William 
Plouday 3 (Hund. R.). The fairly common Loveday, 
though usually of similar origin to Holiday, Hockaday, 
must in some cases actually represent an archaic form 
of lady [Margot la Levedy, 4 Lane. Court R. 1323-4]. 
It may also be simply the dear servant ; cf. Richard 
le Lovegrom (Malmesbury Abbey Reg.). 

1 The development of this name suggests a possible etymology 
for lad, which the NED. regards as unsolved. 

2 Cf. the origin of lord, from AS. hlafweard, the " loaf ward." 

3 But Plough-day was also used for Plough Monday, the first 
Monday after Epiphany, so that the above example may belong to 
the same class as Holiday, Pentecost, etc. 

4 She was fined for selling bad ale, so she was really no lady. 



234 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

Knave, once common in compounds [William Gode- 
knave, IpM., Ascelin Wyteknave, Hund. R.], has not 
entirely disappeared. It still survives as Kneefe, Nave, 
usually absorbed by Neave, ME. neve, nephew, and in 
the compounds Balnave, servant of Baldwin, and 
Beatniff, servant of Beatrice. If Pecksniff is a real 
name, it means the servant of Peck. It is possible 
that in these names, as in, Attneave (Adam), the 
suffix is -neve, which would bring them into the group 
of kinship compounds (p. 245) ; but Stephen le Knef 
(Pat. R.) favours the first solution. 

AS. ceorl, churl, survives as Carle, with dim. Carlin, 1 
but I find no modern form of Aldceorl (Lib. Vit.). 
Swain, a Norse word for servant, is cognate with AS. 
Swan, with the same meaning. From it we have 
Goodswin, Goodswen, while Goldswain means the 
" swain " of a man named Gold. 2 Coxon and Boeson 
are very suggestive of coxswain and Boatswain. I find 
Boeson still in Kent, where it has an ancestor [John 
Botsweyn, Pat. R., Canterbury], but Coxon is rather 
Cock's son. Another name of this type is Dreng, 
Dring, which, like so many of this class, ranges from 
the poetic meaning of warrior to the prose meaning 
of servant. It has also given Thring, a variant 
used by Layamon. The Yorkshire name Kettlestring 
means the dring of Kettle. We also find compounds 
of a few very common exotic names, e.g. Clark, 
whence Beauclerk, Bunclark (bon clerc], and Manclark 3 
[Saegaer Malclerc, Pipe JR.]. From Fr. Mauclerc 

1 In the north this also means " old woman." 

2 A personal name Goldswegen is quite possible, but it is not given 
by Searle. 

3 For the change of I to n,ci.Muncaster (Cumb.),formerly Af wfcaster. 



COMPOUNDS OF KNIGHT 235 

we have Mockler, and, if Buckler were not already 
so well provided with ancestors, it could be simi- 
larly referred to Beauclerc. With the dim. Clarkin 
cf. Robert Peticlerc (City D.}. Similarly from Ward 
we have Pettiward [Roger Petygard, Pat. R.]. Mai- 
press is AF. mal prest, bad priest. Cf . Allpress (p. 287). 
Knight has a by-form Knevit, Knivet, apparently 
due to Norman treatment of the -gh- sound. Com- 
pounds of Knight are Hal/night and Roadnight, Rod- 
night, both usually without the -k-. The latter, 
AS. radcniht, was a tenant who held his land on 
condition of accompanying his lord as a mounted 
servitor. He was the same as a " knight-rider/' a 
title which survives as a London street, though not 
as a surname. Another name for the same rank 
was AS. r adman, whence Rodman. Midnight is 
simply a nickname [Henry Midnight, Pat. R.], per- 
haps for a man of gloomy temperament. 1 The cor- 
responding Neirnuit, latinized Nigra nox, is common 
in the Rolls [Richard Neyrnuyt, Pat. R.], and 
the contrasted Midday was a fourteenth-century 
nickname. Midy is found in French and Mitt- 
nacht in German. Half night [John le Halfknyght, 
Chanc. R.] seems to be unknown to the dictionaries. 
As ME. half man, coward, has also survived as 
Half man, Halman,* I take it that a "half-knight'* 
was a servitor of small efficiency ; cf. Richard 

1 Or he may have been a man of midnight activities, but I think 
the first suggestion more probable. Cf. the numerous -weathers in 
English and -wetters in German. We have Fairweather or Fare- 
weather, Merryweather, Manyweathers, an uncertain person, Allweather, 
and even Fonweather [William Foulweder, Ramsey Cart.]. 

2 Halman, Hallman is also occupative [William le Halleman, 
Nott. Court R. 1308]. Cf. Bowerman, Kitchingman, etc. 



236 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

Alfthein (Pleas). Which brings us naturally to 
Doubleday 

" In Sunderland live, in the same house, Mr. Doubleday and Miss 
Halfknight" (Notes and Queries, Aug. 30, 1873). 

I fancy that the Doubleday [Ranulf Dubleday, Fine R.] 
was not only a Goodday (p. 233), but actually as good 
as two. If this conjecture is right, Doubleday and 
Hal/night offered as strong a contrast in the thirteenth 
century as they apparently do in the twentieth. 
Doubleday may, however, be a fantastic formation of 
the same type as Twiceaday (p. 180), and as impossible 
cf explanation. 

Mann often means servant [Michael le Man, 
Hund. R., Henry le Man, City B.]. Its compounds are 
very numerous, and, though the -man in them does 
not always mean servant, it may be of interest to 
explain a certain number of them here. If we take 
the commonest, viz. Goodman, w T e can see that it has 
many possible origins (i) the AS. Godman [William 
f. Godemon, Lane. Inq. 1310-33], or Godmund, with 
the common substitution of -man for -mund, (2) the 
good " man," i.e. servant, (3) the " man " of Good, a 
common personal name (see p. 30), (4) the " good 
man," (5) the " goodman " of the house, i.e. the 
master. With this cf. Goodiff, Goodey, which repre- 
sents " goodwife," just as Hussey is occasionally from 
"housewife" [Richard Husewyf, Fine R.]. When 
-man is added to a personal name, it usually means 
servant of, e.g. Addyman, Harriman, Potman (Philpot), 
Human (Hugh), Monkman. Oilman, Wilman, Jacka- 
man may also represent the French dims. Guillemin, 
Wuillemin, Jacquemin. It is often local, generally 



COMPOUNDS OF MAN 237 

with a suggestion of occupation, e.g. Brickman (bridge), 
Houseman, Kitchingman, Yeatman (gate), Parkman, 
Smithy man, Meatman (mead), Moorman, Sellerman 
(cellar). With these go Chesterman, Penkethman, the 
only examples I know of -man added to a specific place- 
name, and both from the same county (Chesh.). 
Nyman is AS. neahmann ; cf. Neighbour. Sometimes 
-man is attached to the name of the commodity which 
the bearer produced or sold, e.g. Flaxman, W adman 
(woad), Honeyman [Gilbert le Honyman, Pat. R.]. In 
a large number of cases such names descend from 
personal names in -man or -mund, e.g. Ashman, 
Chilman, Osman, Rickman, Walkman [TEscman, Ceol- 
mund, Osmund, Ricman, Wealhman]. Cf. the numer- 
ous Greek names in -ander, Alexander, Lysander, 
etc. Pure nicknames of medieval origin are Bleak- 
man (pale), Hindman (ME. hende, courteous), Lyteman, 
Lilly man, Lutman (little), Proudman, Sly man or S lee- 
man. Juneman is a hybrid, from Fr. jeune, whence 
also June. Some of these compounds are decep- 
tive, e.g. Bestman is occupative, the " beast man " 
(cf. B ester, p. 114) ; so also C oilman, Pullman (foal), 
Cappleman (ME. capel, a nag), Palfreyman. Chess- 
man is for Cheeseman, and Beautyman or Booty- 
man, which Lower identifies with " bothie man/' 
from Sc. bothie, a hut, is possibly a nickname, equiva- 
lent to Bonnyman, though its formation would be 
unusual. Cf. Booty, which is certainly in some cases 
from "beauty" [William Beaute, Close R.]. I fancy 
that Middleman * is for " mickle man/' as Middleman 
is for Michaelmas. This ending is also substituted 

1 The same change has occurred in some local names in Middle- 
e.g. Middleditch may be for " mickle ditch." 



238 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

for the local -nham, e.g. Sweatman for Swettenham 
(Chesh.), T oilman for Tottenham (Middlesex), Twy- 
man for Twynam (Hants). In many of the commoner 
names of this type more than one origin has to be 
considered ; see Goodman (p. 236). 

The following Middle English examples show how 
words indicating servitude were tacked on to the 
names of employers 

William Dengaynesbaillif . . (Pat. R.) 

William Judde Knave . . (Chesh. Chamb. Accts.) 

Ralph Sweynesman . . . (Fine R.) 

Laurence Geffrey sman Stace, i.e. 
Lawrence the servant of Geof- 
frey Stace . . . . (City E.) 

Reginald le Personeman . . (Coram Rege R. 1297) 

Johannes-that-was-the-man-of-Crise (c. 1400) 

Roger le Priourespalfrayman . (Pat. R.) 

Henry le Meireserjaunte . . (Nott. Court R.) 

Richard Jonesserjant, i.e. John's 

servant .... (Pat. R.) 

John le Parssonesservante . . (Pleas.) 

Rolaundeservant solus . . (Pat. R.) 

Henry Jonesquier . . . (Pat. R.) 

Alan le Garzon water i.e. the 



garcon of Walter 
John othe Nonnes 
William del Freres 
Robert Drewescok 
Robert Godescoc 



(Pat. R.) 
(City B.) 
(F. of y. 
(Pat. R.) 
(Pat. R.) 



The last of these corresponds in meaning with the 
AS. Godescealc, 1 servant of God [William Godescal, 

1 This name suggests a parallel with those Celtic names with a 
prefix which originally meant servant, the second element being 
God, Christ, Mary, etc., or a saint's name. Such are the Scottish 
names in Gil-, i.e. " gilly," e.g. Gillies, servant of Jesus, which, when 
preceded by Mac-, becomes MacLeish. Scotch names in Mai-, 
mean " tonsured servant," Gaelic maol, bald. Hence Malise or 
Mellis, servant of Jesus, Malcolm, servant of Columba [Malcolumb f . 



-SON WITH OCCUPATIVE NAMES 239 

Pat. RJ\, for Cock, which has various origins as a 
surname, was once the familiar appellation for a 
servant. The boy in Gammer Gurton's Needle is 
always referred to by this name 

" My Gammer is so out of course, and frantyke all at ones, 
That Cocke, our boy, and I poor wench, have felt it in our 
bones." 

Some of the names ending in -cock may contain this 
meaning, e.g. Johncock may mean John's boy or John 
the boy. 

It is especially from the type of occupative names 
dealt with in the preceding pages that we find forma- 
tions in -son. Such are Smithson, Wrightson, Grayson 
(grieve's son), Rayson, Reason, 1 Raisin (reeve's son), 
Herdson, Hindson, Manson,* Day son, Ladson, Swain- 
son, Hewson, Clarkson. Other names of this type are 
Archer son, Cookson or Cuckson, Taylor son, Shepherd- 
son, Sargisson (sergeant), etc. Sardison is no doubt 
a corruption of the last name, as both are equally 
common in Lincolnshire. Surgison, like Surgerman, 
may belong to Sargent or Surgeon, the latter still a 
surname, though almost absorbed by the former. 

Waldefer, Archbp. Gray's Reg. 1225-54]. Jt is found also as Mil- 
in Milvain (Bean) and Macmillan, son of the bald gilly. In Ireland 
we have such names as M alone (John), and a great number in Mul-, 
while Mylecrist represents the Manx form. In Cospatrick, Cos- 
Patrick the prefix is cognate with Welsh gwas, man, whence the 
I"r. vassal. 

1 Reason is also an abstract nickname [Roger Raisoun, burgess in 
Parliament for St. Albans temp. Ed. II., Close R.~\. 

8 Manson is perhaps more usually for Magnusson, an Orkney 
and Shetland name. Magnus became a personal name in Scandi- 
navia owing to the fame of Charlemagne, Carolus Magnus. The 
Vikings took it to the northern islands, where it became a surname. 
In Ireland it has given MacMamts. 



240 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

Surgenor represents an obsolete elaboration of Surgeon. 
Woodison may be " son of the woodward." As for 
Crowdson, Crewdson, I believe it is the son of the 
Crowder or fiddler, a kind of cousin of Tom the Piper's 
son. It belongs to Lancashire, which is the home of 
this type of name ; cf. Adam le Harpersone (Lane. 
Court R. 1323-4), and Rutson, the latter the son of the 
Rutter, or fiddler. 

While on this subject, it should be noticed that 
many apparent -son names are really local. One may 
spend some time on Crowson and Strawson before dis- 
covering that they are local pronunciations of Croxton 
(Norf.) and Stroxton (Line.). So also Frogson is cor- 
rupted from Frodsham, Cawson from Causton, Musson 
sometimes from Muston, Wesson from Weston, Esson 
from Easton, Foxon from Foxton, and Brobson is a 
perversion of Brabazon, the man from Brabant. On 
the other hand, the Scottish Johnston is generally an 
improved version of Johnson (Macbain). 

Before leaving the subject of compound occupative 
names, there are a few deceptive or obsolete examples 
worth noting. Fairminer or Farminer is simply a 
corruption of Fairmaner, which may allude to the 
good manners of the original possessor, but is more 
likely local ; cf. Fr. Beaumanoir. Longmate, like Mate, 
contains mead. Fairbard is probably for Fairbeard, 
though the simple Bard is a thirteenth-century sur- 
name [William le Bard, Coram Rege R. 1297], i- e - much 
earlier than its recognition as a dictionary word. Its 
Scottish form is Baird, and the word has risen in the 
world 

" The Schireffe . . . sal punish sorners, over-lyars, maister-full 
beggars, fuilles, bairdes, vagaboundes " (Skene). 



COMPOUND ANIMAL NAMES 241 

In Goodearl the second element may be rather the 
personal name Earl [Stephen f. Erl, Ramsey Cart.] than 
the title, but cf. John Brounbaron (Pat. R.), John 
Folbaroun (ib.). Littlepage, Smallpage need no ex- 
planations, and Pennycook l or Pennycock is for the 
local Penicuik (Midlothian). 

Along with these may be mentioned a few compound 
animal nicknames such as Goodlamb, Whitelam, 
Wildgoose* Willgoss, Wildgust [Edric Wildegos, Feet 
of Fines], Graygoose, Wildrake, Hornram, Wildbore, 
Wilgress, dial, grice, pig [William Wildegris, IpM.], 
Duncalf [cf. Henry Dunfoul, Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 
1301-60], Metcalfe* (mead calf?). The Oxfordshire 
Fortmim is from Fr. fort anon [Nicholas Fortanon, 
Hund. R., Oxf.]. Names of this type were once 
much commoner. Cf. Gilbert Blakeram (Hund. R.), 
Thomas Bonrouncyn (Pat. R.), Gilbert Dayfoul (ib.). 
With the Wild- names cf. David Wildebuf (Hund. R.). 
In Wildman the first element is descriptive rather 
than local [cf. ^Edwin Wildegrome, Pipe R.~\, but 
Wilder is local, of the wilderne or wilderness [John 
atte Wilderne, Fine R.}. Machell, latinized as malus 

1 Pennycad, Pennycard are evidently from Fr. Penicaud. 

2 The fact that that Negoose, Negus belongs to Norfolk, which is 
the home of the " goose " names (Goose, Gooseman, Gozzard, Gazard, 
goose herd), suggests that it is also a compound of -goose. But in 
the same county I find Edgoose, which may possibly be a compound 
of -house (edge-house), from AS. ecg, corner, whence the name Egg. 
So Negus might be " atten-eg-house." Cf. Nash, Nye, etc. (p. 50). 

3 It has been suggested to me that this puzzling name, which, 
though so common in the north, seems to be quite undocumented, 
may have been an ironic substitution for Turnbull 1 

" Mr. Metcalfe ran off, upon meeting a cow, 
With pale Mr. Turnbull behind him." 



242 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

catulus, and Machin, Fr. Malchien, are uncompli- 
mentary compounds, but Machin has also other 
origins. Polecat [Thomas Polkat, Pat. R.~\ survives as 
Polliket. Weatherhogg, a Lincolnshire name, means in 
that county a male pig. 

Among surnames compounded from font-names 
John leads easily, as do Jean in French and Johann 
or Hans in German. In the latter language, with its 
love of compounds, we find something like a hundred 
names which contain Johann or its pet forms. From 
LG. Lutjens, little John, comes our Lutyens. In 
English we have Brownjohn, Goodjohn, Littlejohn, 
Micklejohn or Meiklejohn, Prettyjohn, Properjohn. 
With Foster John, i.e. John the Foster (see p. 119), cf. 
Pascoewebb (p. 230). With Upjohn, for Welsh ap 
John, cf. Uprichard. The fact that John was used, 
like Jack, almost as an equivalent of man or servant, 
will explain Durand le Bon Johan (Hund. R.), the 
origin perhaps of Bowgen, Budgen. Similarly Grud- 
geon seems to represent Fr. Grosjean and Pridgeon 
Fr. Preux '-Jean, while Spridgeon, Spurgeon may be 
the same name with the prefixed S- which we occa- 
sionally find in surnames. Rabjohn 8 may be Robert 
the servant, or perhaps Robert the son, of John, and 
Cample John may mean wry- mouthed John, from 
the Celtic word which has given Campbell. With 
Dunbobbin, Dunbabin, cf. the obsolete Brounrobyn 
(Lane. Inq. 1310-33). Goodrobert survives as Good- 

1 To this archaic Fr. adj., meaning doughty, we owe not only 
Proud, Prout, but also Prewse, Prowse, Prew, Prue, Prow, with the 
dim. Prewett, Pruett. 

2 Rabfohns is a Devon name, and the neighbouring Dorset is the 
home of Rabbetts, which comes, I suppose, from Robert, though it 
may represent Raybould, AS. Regenbeald [Richard f . Rabot, Pipe R.]. 



NAMES OF KINSHIP 243 

rop. With Goodwill, Goodwillie, cf. Hervey Pruguillun, 
i.e. Preux-Guillaume (Feet of Fines). But Goodwill 
may also be an abstract nickname ; cf. Fr. Bonvouloir. 
Gaukrodger l means clumsy Roger, but Gaybell is an 
imitative perversion of Gabriel. Other apparently 
obsolete names of this class are Dungenyn (Exch. 
R.), a hybrid from the English adj. dun and Fr. 
Jeannin, Jolifewille (Pleas), Dulhumphrey (Lower), 
Petinicol (Hund. R.), Halupetir (ib.), Dumbbardolf 
(ib.), Dummakin (ib.), Makin, whence Makins, Meakin, 
being a dim. of Matthew, and Dunpayn (Fine R.), 
from the very common Pain or Pagan. Walter 
Gobigrant (Leic. Bor. Rec.) seems to mean " big 
Goby," i.e. Godbold. The only modern parallel 
I know to this formation, with the adjective put 
second, is Wyattcouch, i.e. little Guy the red (Cornish), 
unless Elsegood is for " good Ellis, or Alice," and 
Drakeyoung for Drake junior. Cf. William le Loverd- 
newe, i.e. the new lord (IpM.). Goodbrand is a per- 
sonal name, Norse Gudbrand, and Littledyke, which 
looks so obvious, may be for " little Dick " [cf. Richard 
Litelhikke, 1385, Bardsley]. 

A good many surnames are formed by compounding 
terms indicating relationship. Now, excepting for a 
few interesting survivals, we use only -son or Fitz- t 
and, as early as the thirteenth century, we find such 
an illogical description as Margery le Prestesson 
(Pleas). The following medieval examples show a 
much greater variety 

Ricardus avunculus Wilhelmi (Pleas) 

John Nikbrother . . . (Derbyshire Charters) 



1 In F. of Y. 1685 it is spelt Corkroger 



244 



SOME COMPOUND NAMES 



Henry Huchild 

William Personcosin 

Adam Childesfader 

Robert Barnfader . 

John le Frer Win . 

William Makeseyre, i.e. heir of 

Mack . . 

Aernaldus frater Archidiaconi . 
William Jonesneve 
John Gener Adding 
William Richardesneveu 
Patrick William Stepsone 
William Gamelstepsone . 
Alicia Thepunderesstepdoghtre 
Alicia Armwif, i.e. wife of Orme 
Amabilla Folcwif, i.e. wife of 

Fulk . 
John Wilbarne, i.e. the " bairn " 

of Will . 

William Godesbarn l 
Adam Gibbarne 
William le Barnemawe, i.e. the 

brother-in-law of the bairn 
William Dobmagh . 
William Godesmagh 
William Hauwenmogh . . 
John Gibbemogh . 



(Hund. R.) 
(F. of Y.) 
(Pat. R.) 
(F. of Y. 1426) 
(Percy Cart.) 

(State Trials, Ed. I.) 

(Pipe R.) 

(Cor am Rege R. 1297) 

(Northumb. Ass. R. i^tk cent.) 

(Coram Rege R. 1297) 

(ib.) 

(Cal. Gen.) 

(c. 1400) 

(Hund.R.) 

(ib.) 

(Bardsley, 1379) 
(Pat. R.) 
(ib.) 

(Hund. R.) 
(Cockersand Cart.) 
(F. of Y.) 

(Lane. Inq. 1205-1307) 
(Lane. Court R. 1323-4) 



All the names of relationship have given surnames 
uncompounded, but usually with the addition of -s, 
e.g. Fathers, Fadder, Mothers, Sones, Soanes [Walter 
le Sone, Pat. R.], Fitz, Fice [Antony fice Greffown, 



1 No doubt a name assumed by some pious man. Cf. the AS. 
Godescalc, God's servant, once common, but now swallowed up by 
Godsall, Godsell. Curiously humble is Thomas Godesbest (Leic. 
Bor. Rec), a type of name by no means uncommon in the Middle 
Ages. Pachnio quotes Festu-Dieu, God's straw, and Tacon-Dieu, 
OF. tacon, a patch on a shoe. More assertive is William le Godes- 
halu, the saint of God (Nott. Court R. 1308), while Geoffrey Goddes- 
wynnyng (ib.) appears to mean God's gain. 



NAMES OF KINSHIP 245 

NED. c. 1435], Darter, Brothers, Br odder, 1 Godson 
(cf. Fr. Lefilleul), Frere, Uncles, Fames (ME. erne, 
uncle), Child, Fant, Faunt (Fr. enfant), Cousins, 
Cozens, and even Cozze, Nephew (rare), Neave (ME. 
neve, nephew), Neech, Neese,* Widdows, Gaffer or 
Gayfer 3 (grandfather 4 ), of which Gaff is perhaps 
the shortened form, Gammer (grandmother, as in 
Gammer Gurton's Needle), Belcher, Bowser, Bewsher, 
from OF. bel-sire, sometimes in the special sense of 
grandfather, Beldam, grandmother. With Bewsher 
cf. the opposite Malsher. Also Husband? Kinsman, 
Parent, Gossip, Comper [Roger le Comper, John of 
Gaunt 9 s Reg.] 

" Compere, a gossip " (Cotg.). 

With Comper goes Marrow, from archaic marrow, a 
companion, mate [John le Marwe or le Marewe, Leic. 
BOY. Rec.] 

" Marwe or felawe yn travayle, socius, compar " (Prompt. Pan;.). 

In one volume of the Fine R. we find John Darcy le 

1 This may be rather occupative, the " broiderer " [Richard le 
Broudeour, Bp. Kellawe's Reg.]. 

2 From OF. nies, the nom. of neveu [Walter le Neise, Hund. R.]. 
It is found in Middle English. See NED., s.v. niece, where, how- 
ever, the origin of the masculine word is not correctly explained. 
Neese may also be for " nose " (see p. 133). 

8 This is perhaps rather from Gainer, a very common name in Old 
French epic, and, as it is often applied to Saracen chiefs, perhaps 
the Eastern Giafar, vizier to Haroun-al-Raschid. It might also 
represent the northern form of Go-fair [James Gafaire, F. of Y.]. 
See also p. 253, n. i. 

4 The analogy of gossip, Fr. compare, Ger. Gevatter, all used in 
the familiar sense of our gaffer, suggests that gaffer, gammer may be 
rather for godfather, godmother. 

6 This usually means husbandman, master of the house, etc. 
See p. 226. 



246 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

Cosin, John Darcy le Frere, and John Darcy le Neveu, 
an example which shows how purely accidental is the 
possession of such surnames at the present day. 
Odam is ME. odam, son-in-law, cognate with Ger. 
Eidam, which now, like odam, is practically obsolete 
except as a surname 

" Octiatus, Danes' odame 
After theose hostes he came." 

(King Alexander, i4th cent.). 

Foad, Foat, Food, found chiefly in Kent, represent ME. 
fode, a child 1 [William le Fode, Cust. Battle Abbey}. 
For this word, really identical with food, see NED. 
Grandison is local, I suppose from Granson in Switzer- 
land [Otto de Granson or de Grandisono, Fine R.}, and 
Outerson is the son of Ughtred. Practically all the 
corresponding kinship surnames exist in French and' 
German, and there is even a Parisian named Peretmere 
(Bottin, 1907). 

Of the compounds formed from kinship names the 
most interesting are those illustrated by the five last 
examples in the list of medieval compounds given 
on pp. 243, 244. ME. maugh, really identical with 
May (q.v.), seems to have been used vaguely for any 
relative by marriage 

" Mow, housbandys sister or syster in law, glos " (Prompt. Parv.). 

In the north it usually means brother-in-law, in 
which sense it has given the names Maufe, Muff, 
Maw* But it also survives in several compounds, 
viz. Godsmark,* Hitchmough (corrupted to Hickmott) 

1 It also means a wife, a young man. 

2 For this name see also p. 67. 

3 It is also possible that this is an oath-name (p. 181), though a 
curious one, " by God's brother-in-law." In the Porkington MS. 
of the fifteenth century poem Mourning of the Hare we find " by 



NAMES OF KINSHIP 247 

from Richard, and especially Watmough, Whatmaugh, 
Whatmore, etc., from Walter. There are probably 
many more names of this class which still live in dis- 
guise, as the formation was once very common. 

From ME. barn, bairn, etc., we have Whiteborn, 
the complimentary Fairbairn, Goodbairn, Goodband, 
Goodbun, and the patronymics Dawbarn (David) and 
Giberne (Gilbert). Maybin is perhaps the bairn of 
May; but Huband was earlier Hubaud, AS. Hyge- 
beald. With Dearborn cf. Fr. Cherfils. Many names 
in -burn, e.g. Blackburn, Fairburn, Dayburn, may in 
some cases belong here. For Barnfather, Bairns- 
father, Ban father see p. 244. The simple barn is 
also one of the many origins of Barnes. With Fair- 
child, Goodchild, Littlechild, cf. Fauntleroy and Fillery, 
both meaning King's son (p. 18). Bonifant is bon 
enfant [Walter Bonenfant, Hund. JR.], i.e. Goodson, Good- 
child, and Bullivant, Pillivant include both this and bel 
enfant [Colin Belenfan, Close R.]. The opposite Mali- 
phant [Nicholas Maleffaunt, Pat. R., Alan Evilchild, 
Hund. R.] also exists. Richard Beaufaunt (Pat. R.) 
has perhaps contributed to Bevan or Biffen. The 
simplex exists as Fant, Faunt, Vant. With the obso- 
lete Folenfant cf . the surviving Sillifant, while Selibarn 
(F. of Y.) is perhaps still represented by Sillibourne, 
Silburn. The epithet silly was rather complimentary 
than otherwise, for it meant gentle, innocent ; cf. 
Roger Seliday (Pat. R.), Robert Selisaule (ib.). 

Fairbrother, Farebrother, Farbrother belongs to the 
old courteous style of address as in " fair sir/* " beau 

cokkes soule," euphemistic for "by Goddes soule" (p. 181). In 
the Cambridge MS. of the same poem this is replaced by "by 
cokkes mawe." 



248 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

sire," etc. With Alderson, usually " older son," cf. 
the common French surname Lame. With the simple 
Alder, Elder, cf. Younger, but both the former are also 
. tree-names. For some other surnames formed from 
comparatives see p. 104. 

The nickname sire [William le Syre, Fine R] sur- 
vives as Syer, 1 Syers, Surr, Sirr. Its compounds are 
Bonser* Bouncer, Mountsier, M oncer, Muncer [John 
Monsyre, Fine R.], Sweetsur [William Swetesyr, Pat. R.], 
Goodsir, whence also perhaps Goacher, Goucher, Dunsire, 
which I cannot explain, and those mentioned on p. 245. 
Cosher perhaps represents " coy sire" [Simon Coy sire, 
Hund. R.]. Maiden was used in Middle English of the 
unmarried of both sexes [John le Mayde, Pat. R., Ralph 
le May den, ib., William Pucele, ib.], but in compounds 
such as Chilmaid, Denmaid, Longmaid, Maidland, 
maid is for mead, a meadow. On the other hand, Mead 
often represents maid [John le Meide, Lond. Wills, 
1279]. May, a young man or maiden, has the familiar 
compound Mildmay [cf. Richard Dusemay, Pat. R], 
and the less common Whitmee [William Wytemey, 
Hund. R.] and Youngmay [Martin le Yungemey, ib.]. 
The simple May is also local, apparently from an 
obsolete variant of "mead" [William Attemay, Pat. R] ; 
cf. Smee for Smeed (p. 77). Burkmay, for " birk mead," 
suggests that Peachmay is possibly for "beech 3 mead." 

A few names which also suggest age and kinship 
may conclude the chapter. Such are Springall, Sprin- 
gate, Springett, Springhalt, the springald, young man 

1 Cf. Dame, Dames, though this may also be from an archaic 
spelling of the local Damm, Damms ; cf . Gape for Gapp. 

2 This is also the local pronunciation of Bonsall (Derby). 
8 Initial P- for B- is not uncommon in surnames. 



NAMES OF KINSHIP 249 

[Auger Espringaut, Pat. R., Julian Springald, Hund. R.], 
and Stripling, Stribling [Adam Stripling, Pat. R.]. 
But the first group may also belong to the warlike 
instrument which was called a springald ; cf . Mang- 
nall (p. 162) 

" And eke withynne the castell were 
Spryngoldes, gunnes, bows and archers " 

(Romaunt of the Rose, 4190). 

Damsell represents OF. damoisel, a young squire, rather 
than the fern. form. For Milsop, i.e. " milksop," 
see p. 268. Nursling, or Nutshalling, is a place in 
Hants. But John le Norrisone occurs in Nott. Court 
R., and the award of an honorary C.B. to Brigadier- 
General Nourrisson of the French Army has just 
been announced (Nov. 17, 1915) 

" Nourrisson, a nursling, nurse-child, or nursing child " (Cotg.). 

Suckling is a genuine nickname, but Baby is rather for 
Barbara, asjjofry is for Gabriel. With Twin, whence 
Twint, cf. Gemmel, OF. gemel, used by Wyclif of Jacob 
and Esau [Alan Gemellus, Pipe R., Richard Gemel, 
Fine R.]. The Gemmels of Scotland, the chief home 
of the name, perhaps have another origin. Fr. Besson, 
whence our Bisson, is a dialect word for twin. Man- 
kin, Miniken is for " manikin " [Stephen Manekin, 
Testa de Nev.]. Neame, usually for ME. erne, uncle 
[cf. Thomas Nuncle, Pat. R.], is also an Anglo-French 
form of Fr. nain, 1 dwarf [John le Neym, Pat. R.]. 
Male, Mayle, Maskelyne are simply what they appear 
to be [William le Male or Masculus, Percy Cart., Henry 
Maskelyn, Testa de Nev.], but Man full, a Notts name, 

1 Lenain is a common French surname. The corresponding 
English name is Murch 

" Murch, lytyl man, nanus " (Prompt. Parv.}. 



250 SOME COMPOUND NAMES 

is from Mansfield, 1 whence also the imitative Manifold. 
An interesting variant of Male is Madle, OF. mask, 
due to the Anglo-French practice of intercalating -d- 
between -si- as in meddle, OF. mesler, idle, OF. isle (see 
Idle, p. 64). Twoyearold is still a Lancashire surname 
and has a medieval parallel in Adam Fivewinterald. 

To the obsolete examples quoted in this chapter 
may be added the following Bonsquier, Childesfader 
(cf. Bairns father), Langebachelere, Belmeistre, Bel- 
verge, Bruncarl, Mamllastre (Fr. Maufildtre, the bad 
son-in-law), Hardimarchaunt, Lady chapman, Trewchap- 
man, Calveknave, Forsterknave, Rouknave, Smart- 
knave, Whiteknave, Bonserjant, Aldegrome, Greygrom, 
Litelgrom, Shepgrom, Bonswayn, Madsweyn, Litsweyn, 
Sikersweyn (sure), Yongswayn, Surewyne (friend), 
Porbarn, Petytmey, Donemay, Prodemay, Levemay, 
Levedame, Lefquene, Quenemay, Sotemay (sweet), 
Boncristien, Bonchevaler, Bonseygnur, Frankchivaler, 
Smalperson, Petitsire, Litilpage, Langeclerk, Schort- 
frend, Stalwortheman, Malvoisin, Malharpin (OF. 
harpin, a harper), Homedieu, Witwif, Blakshyreve, 
Countereve, Lithbond, Bedelking, Witebitele, Coper- 
kyng, Whiteking, Wodeking (mad), Jolyfray (AF. jolif 
rey), Wodeprest, Wytknyt, Godeboy, Jolifboie, Bliss- 
wen che, Joymeyde, Joyemaiden. The last three are 
probably disparaging ; cf. Fr. fille de joie. Animal 
compounds are Hogelomb, Tythinglomb, Maloysel, 
Maulovel (cf. Machell), Mallechat, Swethog, Wodegos, 
Wodemousse, Whytebull, Qwytgray (gray, a badger), 

1 The -s- in such names is quite optional ; cf . Wilford, Wilsford, 
Manbndge, Mansbridge, etc. For the change of -field, -fold to -full cf. 
Hatfull, Oakenfull, etc. Fairfoul, which looks like a fantastic nick- 
name, is probably for Fair field ; but see p. 319. 



OBSOLETE COMPOUNDS 251 

Jolicok, Whytkok, Yongkok, Wytkolt, Dunnebrid. 
Witfis, Stocns, Fresfis, Rotenheryng were probably 
nicknames for fishmongers. Wytecole may refer to 
Nicholas, but more likely to cabbage. More abstract 
compounds, which do not properly belong to this 
chapter, are Godestokne, Curtevalur, Tartcurteis, 
Petikorteis, Tutfait, Tutprest, Megersens, Moniword, 
Maucuvenant, Maucondut (maleconductus, cf. Mawditt), 
Mautalent, Scortrede, Littylrede, Smalchare, Stille- 
prud, Seldholi, Stranfers (strong fierce), Welikeing. 



18 



CHAPTER XII 

THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

" Johannes Shakespere, querens, optulit se versus Ricardum de 
Cotgrave, spicer, defendentem, de placito conventionis ; et queritur 
de eo quod dictus Ricardus, die Jovis proximo post festum Sancti 
Bartholomaei Apostoli, anno regni regis nunc xxx mo primo, vendidit 
eidem Johanni unum ' stik * de ' saundres ' pro ' brasill,' et 
manucepit quod fuit ' brasill/ et sic conventionem inter eos factam 
fregit, ad grave dampnum ipsius Johannis viginti solidorum, unde 
producit sectam " (Nottingham ^Borough Records, Nov. 8, 1357). 

THE above is, I believe, the earliest known occurrence 
of the most famous of all English names. This very 
interesting type of surname is found plentifully not 
only in English, but in all the related European lan- 
guages. 1 Many examples, both English and French, 
are quoted by Darmesteter in his treatise on compound 
words. Ritter gives about 150 French examples and 
Vilmar collected nearly 250 German instances. Some 
examples of such will be found in chapters xiii. and 
xiv. (pp. 288, 303). Among them occur names familiar 
to everybody, such as Fr. Boileau (Drinkwater) , 2 
Ger. Klopstock J (knock stick), and It. Frangipani, 

1 An interesting Danish example is Ole Lukoj'e, Olaf Shut-eye, a 
popular nickname for the dustman, recently adopted as a pseudonym 
by a brilliant English military writer. 

2 I do not know whether medieval wit was equal to naming a 
drunkard thus ironically, but the following entries are suggestive 
Margery Drynkewater, wife of Philip le Taverner (City E.}, Thomas 
Drinkewater, of Drinkewaterestaverne (Lond. Wills, 1328). 

3 Cf. our Swingewood and possibly Girdwood, ME. gird, to strike. 

252 



MODE OF FORMATION 253 

break bread, said to be due to the benevolence of that 
well-known Italian family. Generally such names are 
compounded of a verb in the imperative followed by 
its object, while less often the second component is 
an adverb, e.g. Golightly [William Galigtly, Pat. R.], 
also found as Galletly, Gellatly, with which we may 
compare John Gofayre l (Pat. R.) and John Joligate 
(ib.). Steptoe apparently has a similar meaning, 
though its formation is abnormal. 

Names of this type hardly appear in Domesday 
Book, though Taillefer, whence Telfer, Telford, Talfourd, 
Tolver, Tulliver,* is anterior to that compilation, but 
they swarm in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 
Of the many hundreds I have collected, only a small 
proportion seem to have survived, though probably 
many more live on in disguise. Many of the medieval 
examples are of quite unquotable coarseness, and point 
either to the great brutality or the great naivete of our 
ancestors. This method of formation is one of the 
most convenient and expressive that we have. There 
are hundreds of common nouns so formed, e.g. holdfast, 
makeshift, stopgap, holdall, turnkey, etc. As applied 
to persons they are nearly always disparaging, 3 e.g. 
cut-throat, ne'erdowell, swashbuckler, scapegrace, skin- 
flint, or are contemptuous substitutions for occupative 

1 This is perhaps one origin of Cover, Govier. Stow men- 
tions a Govere's Lane in the City, the earlier name of which was 
Gofayre Lane [John Gofaire, Lond. Wills, 1259-60, John Goveyre, 
ib. 1291]. 

2 I am told that It. Tagliaferro has adopted the form Tolver in the 
U.S. " Taillefer, the surname of the old Earls of Engoulesme ; so 
tearmed because William the second Earle thereof, clove with his 
sword, at one blow, an armed captain down to the stomack ! " 
(Cotg.). 

3 See Trench, English Past and Present, pp. 219 seq. 



254 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

titles, e.g. sawbones fora surgeon, or the dial, bangstraw 
for a thresher. 1 Warring theologians have always 
been great coiners of these phrase-names. Compli- 
mentary examples, such as Welcome (cf. Fr. Bienvenu, 
It. Benvenuto), Makepeace * [Gregory Makepais, Leic. 
Bor. Rec.], are exceptional. 

I fancy that this type of surname owes something 
to the vogue of allegory and allegorical drama in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. At any rate, 
such compounds have been beloved by allegorists from 
Langland to Bunyan. The latter's Standfast was a 
surname four centuries before the Pilgrim's Progress 
[William Stanfast, Fine R., Adam Standefast, IpM.], 
and I have also found his Saveall both as a medieval 
and twentieth-century name. Langland frequently 
personifies Dowell, Dobet, Dobest, the first of which 
may be one source of our Dowell, and he has many 
references to Saywell, who still figures in the rustic 
proverb " Say well is good, but Do well is better." 

This suggests a short digression on the ending 
-well in surnames. Many of these are of course local, 
well having its wider, older meaning, which includes 
fountain, stream, pool, etc. Some are from specific 
place-names, e.g. Bakewell, the name of a well-known 
advocate of cremation some years ago, Hopewell or 
Hopwell, Tidswell, all Derbyshire. Others, such as 
Cantwell [Gilbert de Kentewelle, Hund. R.], Tuckwell, 
Tugwell* are from spots which I cannot identify. 
Callwell, Cor dwell are among the many variants of 

1 Cf. Martin Betewete (Hund. R.) and Fr. Babied. 

z Cf . Alice Makehayt (Hund. R.). 

8 These may even be phrase-names. Tuckwell may have been a 
good "tucker" of cloth (cf. Tazewell, p. 256), and Tugwellma.y be 
from ME. tug, to wrestle. 



NAMES IN -WELL 255 

Cauldwell * (cold) . Glidewell is also local, from the gleed 
or glide, i.e. kite, to which we owe also Gledhill, Gleadle, 
Gledstanes, Gladstone. Others again are perversions, 
e.g. Caswell and Kidwell take us very far back in history, 
for they represent the Welsh names Caswallon and 
Cadwal, the former of which was latinized as Cassi- 
velaunus, just as Caradoc or Cradock was made into 
Caractacus. Kidwell or Kiddell is the Somerset form 
of Cadwal, which in Gloucestershire has become Caddell, 
Cadle. Caldwall, found in Hereford, is no doubt the 
same. Rouncewell is also historic, from Roncevaux 
[Ralph de Runcevill, Pat. R.]. It is also found as 
Rounsevel, Rounswell. Perhaps the name came rather 
from the alien priory of the name in London than 
from the Pyrenean pass. This priory became the 
brotherhood of Rouncival, which existed till the middle 
of the sixteenth century (Stow) . Ottewell, Otterwell a 
is a personal name [Otuel de Bosco, Fine R.] made 
famous by the medieval Romance of Otuel. It is 
a dim. of Odo, Otto, which, in its turn, is short for one 
of the Germanic names in Oth- [Otulph le Drivere, 
Pat. R.], whence Ott. See also Pepperwell (p. 189). 

But there still remain a few names in which -well is 
simply the adverb in composition with a preceding 
verb. Such are Eatwell [Robert Mangebien, Pipe R.], 
Fretwell, ME. fret, 3 to eat, devour, Lovewell, Meanwell, 
Treadwell or Tretwell [Richard Tredewelle, Pat. R.], 

1 Cf. Sortwell for " salt well." 

2 This may be local ; cf . Otterburn. 

3 This occurs in several Middle English names (p. 273). Robert 
Fretemon (Pat. R.) may have been an English Manesse (p. 303), but 
his name is perhaps from AS. Frithumund 

" Adam afterward ageines hus defence 
Frette of that fruit " 

(Piers Plowm., B. xviii. 194). 



256 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

and probably many more. Among them are a few 
trade descriptions, e.g. Thackwell for a good thatch er, 
and the Somerset Tazewell, Taswell for a good " teaser " 
of cloth. With the variant Toswill cf. Tozer, for 
" teaser." The corresponding French names in -bien 
and German names in -wohl are also fairly numerous. 

As has already been suggested, surnames of this 
class are generally disparaging. It is even likely that 
the historic Taillefer and the first Shakespeare, Shake- 
shaft or Shackshaft, and Shakelance were heroes of a 
somewhat obtrusive character. Examples of " fright- 
fulness " are uncomfortably numerous. We find 
an extraordinary number of Middle English names 
beginning with break-, burn-, kill-, pill- (skin), or with 
the corresponding Fr. brise-, brule-, ttte-, pele-. In fact 
French, or rather Anglo-French, predominates over 
Anglo-Saxon in names of this class. 1 We still have 
Breakspear, Braksper [William Brekespere, Ramsey 
Cart.] and the hybrid Brisbane [Thomas Briseban, ib.]. 
With the latter cf. Crakebone [John Crakebon, Lane. 
Court R. 1323-4], still an American name, though I have 
not come across it in England. Modern French has 
Brisemur, Brispot, and others which also occur com- 
monly in our Rolls. Burnhouse, Burness, Burniss 
[William Bernhus, 1 3th century] may sometimes be local, 
at the "burn house," but Burnand, Brennand, though 
they may have other origins, point to a public official 
[Simon Brenhand, Hund. R.]. Of the same craft was 

1 Sometimes we have both forms, e.g. Buttifant, Butterfant, Fr. 
boute-avant, push forward [Robert Boute-Avant, Pachnio], corre- 
sponds to the native Push firth. I only suggest as a gusss that Mank- 
telow, Mankletow, Mankelow may represent manque I'eau or manque 
de I'eau, a French version of Ralph Spare water (Pleas). 



" FRIGHTFULNESS " 257 

Henry Brendcheke (Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79). 
Criminals were still " burnt in the hand " in the 
eighteenth century. Cf. Haghand, for " hack hand," 
and possibly also Branfoot. In one of the Towneley 
Mysteries the " second tormentor " is called Spy 11- 
payn. The original Strangleman may have been 
official or amateur. In French we still find Bnde- 
bois and Brulefer, probably trade-names. 1 

Among kill names we find ME. Cullebol, Cullebolloc, 
Cullefincke, Cullehare, Cullehog, the last perhaps 
surviving as Kellogg. Cf. Fr. Tubetif, Tuvache. For 
the pill names, such as Pilecrowe, Pilecat, cf. the still 
existing Fr. Pellevillain, which has a parallel in a Middle 
English Fleybund (flay bond). Jean Poilevilain was 
master of the mint to Philip VI. of France, and a 
medieval bearer of the name had himself depicted on 
his seal dragging a " villain " by the hair. Cf. Butlin, 
Bucklin, contracted from boute-vilain, hustle the churl 
[Adam Buttevilein, FineR.], and the obsolete Butekarl 
(Feet of Fines). Of the same type is Fr. Ecorcheville 
(p. 288), found also in Middle English along with Es- 
corceberd, Escorchebuef, etc. These are only illustrative 
specimens of a type of name which is only too common 
in our records. In the list of presumably extinct 
phrase-names which forms an appendix to this chapter 
will be found further examples. 

Sometimes the phrase-name is merely descriptive 
of the bearer's occupation, e.g.Drawater. An interest- 

1 Marwood, though it can be explained locally, may also have 
been a nickname for an incompetent carpenter [William Marwod, 
F. of Y.]. Cf . the numerous French names in Gate- (p. 262) and our 
own Thumbwood, apparently from the archaic verb to " thumb," 
i.e. to handle clumsily 



258 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

ing example is the Derbyshire Copestake, applied to a 
woodcutter [Geoffrey Coupstak, F. of Y. 1295 ; cf. 
Geoffrey Cuttestuche, Glouc. Cart.]. This naturally 
becomes Copestick, and in Yorkshire Capstick. With 
this name cf. Hackblock and Hackwood. Boutflour, 
Bought/lower was a nickname for a miller, " bolt 
flour" [John Bulteflour, Bp. Kellawe's Reg. 1303], 
from the archaic bolt, to sift, 1 and in Boltwood, Bought- 
wood the second element is " woad," an important 
medieval commodity;' cf. Powncewayde (p. 275). 
Pilbeam was a barker of trees ; see Pillar (p. 118) 
and Beam (p. 184). In Ridland, Ridwood, Redwood we 
have the dialect rid, to clear, as in ridding ; cf . Simon 
Draneland (Hund. R., Camb.). Hamahard suggests a 
smith, " hammer hard," and has German parallels in 
Klopf hammer, Schwinghammer (p. 303), but it is more 
likely an alteration of Haimard (DB.), apparently a 
Norman form of Hagenheard (see p. 41). I have 
found no early example of Clinkscales, but I expect 
the ancestor was an energetic tradesman or money- 
changer. Cf. John Rattilbagge (Hund. R.). Tylecote 
appears to have been a tiler. In Spingarn the second 
element is a still existing form of " yarn." Doubtfire, 
for " dout fire," was perhaps in charge of a furnace, 
or he may have seen to the enforcing of the curfew. 
Cf. OF. Abat-Four and Tue-Four (Pachnio). John 
Adubbe-dent (Pipe R.) was an early dentist. With 
C^itbush cf. Tallboys, Fr. Taillebois. Tradition makes 
the first Fettiplace gentleman-usher to the Conqueror. 
The etymology of the name, AF. fete place, make 
room, points to some such office. The early examples 

1 Cf. the ME. name Boute-tourte [Guy Buteturte, Pipe R.]. 
Tourte was coarse bread made from inferior meal. 



NAMES IN LOVE 259 

are all from Oxfordshire, and Adam Feteplaz, Fete- 
place, Feteplece, a thirteenth-century Mayor >f Oxford, 
is mentioned repeatedly in the Rolls. 

But examples of this kind are not very numerous, 
and the great majority of phrase-names are descriptive 
of character, e.g. Lovejoy, Doolittle [JohnDolitel, Percy 
f Cart., John Faypew, City D.], habit, e.g. Drinkale, 
\ Drinkall [William Drinkale, 1 Pat. R.], Ridout, Rideout 
[cf. Adam Prikafeld, Pat. R., Robert Chevalchesol, 
i.e. ride alone, Pipe R., Geoffrey Wendut, Fine R.], 
or even gesture, e.g. Bendelow [cf. Arnold Stoupe- 
doun, Pat. R.]. The famous name Penderell appears 
to mean " hang ear " [Richard Pendoraile, Chart. R.], 
the opposite aspect being represented by John Kokear 
(Leic. Bor. Rec.). Similarly, the existing Luckup has 
a pendant in the obsolete Regardebas. 

The mention of Lovejoy reminds us that we have a 
large number of surnames of which love is the first or 
second element. These are not all as simple as they 
appear, e.g. Loveguard is for the AS. Leofgeard, while 
Laverock is an alteration of the dial, laverock, a lark 
[Richard Laveroke, Fine R.], whence also Laverack, 
Liverock (p. 130, n.}. Loveluck is for Lovelock (p. 131). 
Lovelady is a genuine phrase-name [cf. Simon Baise- 
belle, Fine R.] ; cruder are Toplady or Tiplady and 
Toplass, Topliss, for which see Othello, i. i. But the 
oldest forms of Lovelace, Loveless go to show that in 
this name the second element is not -lass, but -less 
(p. 149) . Compounds in which the second element -love, 

1 " Drink-ale " seems the natural solution ; cf. Fr. Boicervoise. 
But Drinkhall [Thomas Drynkhale, Hund. R.] suggests rather the 
phrase drinc heil, to which the answer was was heil (wassail). 
Drinkall might be also " drink all " ; cf. Gather all (p. 266), Wastall, 
" waste all (?) ". 



260 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

in its ordinary abstract meaning, is qualified by an 
adjective are Dearlove, Sweetlove, Tmelove, Newlove, 
Proudlove. Dearlove has an alternative origin from 
AS. Deorlaf, beloved remnant, of which Searle has 
several examples. Manlove, Menlove is abstract, from 
AS. mannlufe, philanthropy. Fullalove, Fullilove is, 
of course, " full of love/' commoner in the Rolls in 
the form Pleindamour, which still exists in Dorset 
as Blandamore. Waddilove is a phrase-name which 
seems very out of place * in the thirteenth century 
[John Wadeinlove, Hund. R.]. 

But, just as Love is often from AF. love,* a wolf [Alan 
le Love, Hund. R.], so many compounds in -love are 
phrase-names of an energetic character. Catchlove, Fr. 
Chasseloup, means wolf hunter [Alan Cacheleu, Pat. R.]. 
We also find in the Pat. R. Alan Cachehare, perhaps the 
same man as the above, and Walter Cachelevere, Fr. 
lievre, hare. Spendlove, Spendlow, Spenlow, Spindelow 
is OF. espand-louve [Robert Spendelove, Northumb. 
Ass. R. 1256-79, Jehan Spendelouve, Pachnio], which 
perhaps refers to disembowelling. 3 Pritlove, which 

1 In fact " wade in love " is so unlike anything medieval that I 
am inclined to guess that the first element may belong to ME. weden, 
to rage, and that the name may mean rather " furious wolf." See 
Catchlove and cf. Walter Wodelof (Pat. R.}, from the related ME. 
wode, mad. This seems to be now represented by Woolloff. 

* Lovell is usually its diminutive ; cf . Ger. Wolfing, Wulfing. In 
the medieval French romance of Guillaume d'Angleterre, one of the 
twin " babes in the wood," rescued from a wolf, is christened Lovel 
by his finders 

" Lovel por le lo 1'apelerent 
Que anmi le chemin troverent 
Qui Tail portoit parmi les rains : 
Einsi fut li los ses parrains." 

3 Pachnio's suggestion to read espance is negatived by the English 
form. 






NAMES IN -GOOD 2 6i 

looks like " pretty love," is also a Kultur name [Alex- 
ander Pricklove, Exch. R.] with a common phonetic 
corruption. Cf. Prickman. Cutlove l is paralleled 
by ME. Cutfox and other names of the same type 
(p. 272). In Marklove, whence also Marklow, Martlow, 
Martlew, we have the verb to " mark " in its common 
medieval sense of striking or aiming with a weapon 
or missile. Tmslove appears to contain ME. truss, to 
bind, also to pack up, as in Truscott (coat) ; cf. Packe- 
hare (p. 274). It is natural that the hated wolf should 
be selected for ill-treatment, and Roger Frangelupus 
(AUngdon Cart.}, though bad Latin, confirms both the 
etymologies proposed above and the general theory that 
the verb in these compounds was originally an im- 
perative. In local names, such as Lovecraft, Lovegrove, 
Loveland [Margery de la Lovelond, Pat. R.], it is at least 
possible that the first element also means wolf, and 
Wildlove is probably an animal nickname (seep. 241). 
The name Lovegood brings us to the problem of names 
in -good. Some of these, e.g. Thurgood, Osgood, Win- 
good, are simply Anglo-Saxon personal names con- 
taining the element god (see p. 30) ; but others are 
phrase-names of the Shakespeare type and the inter- 
pretation of the second component is doubtful. Bid- 
good, Bedgood [Hervey Budgod, Close R.] I take to 
mean " pray God " ; cf. Ger. Furchtegott. Lovegood 
might be for " love God " [Simon Lovegod, Fine R.], 
the opposite of Hatecrist (p. 212), or again for " love 
good/' equivalent to Henry Hatewrong (IpM.) ; but 
its use in Cocke Lorelle 

" Gregory Love good of Royston mayer " 

1 Cutwolf, which I have not found later than the sixteenth century, 
is rather the Anglo-Saxon personal name Cuthwulf [William 
Cuthewulf, IpM.}. 



262 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

suggests rather that good has here the sense of wealth, 
property, as in Gathergood and Scattergood [Robert 
Scatergod, Cocker sand Cart}. With the former cf. 
Sparegod (p. 275), and with the latter " Slyngethryfte 
fishmonger" (Cocke Lorelle). Habgood, Hobgood, 
Hapgood, Hopgood [William Hebbegod, Fine R.] may 
contain the obsolete hap, to seize 

" Happer, to hap, or catch ; to snatch, or grasp at " (Cotg.). 

But the antiquity and variants of the name point 
rather to ME. hap, hop, to cover, wrap up. Getgood 
sounds hopeful, but is really commercial. Dogood, 1 
with its northern variant Duguid, is a compli- 
mentary phrase-name ; cf. Faceben (p. 273). Whether 
Digweed is a southern attempt at the latter or a 
name for a gardener I cannot say. 

Some names which appear to belong to the Shake- 
speare class are due to imitative spelling. Tear all is 
for Terrell, i.e. Tyrrell, an Anglo-French form of AS, 
Thurweald, Catcheside is local (Catch erside, 2 Nor thumb.), 
Quickfall is for Wigfall (p. 70), Carvall is for Carvell, 
Carvill, from Cherville (Marne), Kilmaster is of course 
from Kilminster (Caithness), Marbrow from Marbury 
(Chesh.), Pillbrow from Pulborough (Suss.) or Pilsbury 
(Derb.). Wastall may be for Wastell (p. 165), but 
names in waste- were once common (p. 277) and French 
still has Gastebled, Gatble, Gastebois, Gatbois, and other 

1 Toogood may have been confused with this, but is really an 
adjectival nickname. In French we find Trodoux and Troplong. 
There is a fairly common Middle English name Tropisnel, Tropinel, 
OF. isnel, swift, still found in Somerset as Trapnell. With Toogood 
goes Sargood, from ME. sar, very, as in " sore afraid." Perhaps the 
original bearer of the name was " unco' guid." 

2 Hence Kitcherside ; see p. 130, n. 



TURN AND WIN 263 

names formed from gdter. Cf. also Waister [John le 
Wastour, Pat. R.]. Ticklepenny, according to Lower, 1 
is from a " place near Grimsby," but is remarkably 
like Ger. Kustenpfennig, kiss penny. Pinchback is 
for Pinchbeck (Line.) and Huntback for Huntbach 
(p. 53). Handover is for the local Andover, and 
Filpot, in spite of the corresponding Ger. Fullkrug, is 
probably for Philpot, i.e. little Philip. Stow adopts 
the Filpot spelling for the famous fourteenth-century 
Lord Mayor of London. Makeman is either the 
" man "of Mack or for AS. Maegenmund, and Putwain 
is one of the many variants of Fr. Poitevin, whence 
also Patvine, Potwin, Portwine, etc. 

Some verbs appear with notable frequency in these 
compounds. From turn we have Turribull [Robert 
Turnebul, Pat. R.], whence also Turnbill, Trumble, 
Tremble, and the less vigorous Turnpenny [Nicholas 
Turnepeny, Hund. R.]. With the former cf. William 
Turnebuk (Pat. R.), with the latter Richard Turnegold 
(ib.). French has several such names, including 
Tournemeule, probably a name for a hay-maker. From 
win we have Winbow, Winrose, Winspear, Winspur 
(p. 162), Winpenny, Wimpenny, Vimpany [William 
Winepeny Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 1301-60], with which 
we may compare Fr. Gagnedenier. If Windlass, Wind- 
less (p. 170) is " win lass," the -d- is intrusive, as also in 
Windram, a nickname for a successful athlete 

" Over-al, ther he cam, 
At wrastlyng he wolde have awey the ram " 

(Chauc A. 546). 



1 I fancy that some of Lower's " places " and " spots " were 
extempore efforts. The only suitable " place " in Lincolnshire that 
I can get news of is Ticklepenny's Lock, which was named from a 
man called Ticklepenny. 



264 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

John Winram was sub-prior of St. Andrews in 1550. 
In the F. of Y. we find " Winship the mariner," which 
suggests a competent pirate, but the surname is per- 
haps from AS. winescipe, friendship (p. 220). One of 
the most curious of the Win- compounds is the common 
Norfolk name Winearls, in which the second element is 
the dialect " earls, arles," earnest-money. With 
Waghorn, Wagstaff cf. Walter Waggespere (Lane. 
Ass. R. 1176-1285), while Waggett may sometimes 
be the equivalent of Ger. Schiiddekopf, shake-head 
(see p. 128). To the Shake- names may be added 
Shacklock [Hamo Shakeloc, Hund. R.], with which 
cf. John Werpeloc (Leic. Bor. Rec.), William Wrytheloc 
(Malmesbury Abbey Reg-), and Shakelady, Schacklady, 
with which cf. Robert Schaketrot (Lane. Court R. 
1323-4) 

" An old trot with ne'er a tooth in her head " 

(Shrew, i. 2), 

and John Daubedame (Leic. Bor. Rec.) 

" Dauber, to beat, swindge, lamme, canvasse throughly " 

(Cotg.). 

Of the Hack- names the most interesting is Hak- 
luyt. The DNB. describes the geographer as of a 
family long established in Herefordshire, probably of 
Dutch origin. The " Dutch " appears to be suggested 
by the second syllable. The name means " hack 
little," ME. lut, and the founder of the family was 
probably a woodcutter without enthusiasm [Peter 
Hakelut, IpM., Heref.]. Walter Hackelute or Hakelut 
or Hakelutel occurs repeatedly in thirteenth-century 
records of Hereford and Salop. 



PASS AND PIERCE 265 

There are also two rather large groups containing 
the verbs pass l and pierce. From the first come Passe- 
low, " cross water/' whence also Paslow, Par slow, 
Pasley, Pashley, Pashler 8 [Edmund Passelewe or Passe- 
ley e or Passhelye, Pat. R.], Passmore [Stephen Passe- 
mer, Fine R.], Passavant [Alan Passa vaunt, Lane. 
Ass. R. 1176-1285], contracted to Passant. In 
French we find Passelaigue,* Passerieu (OF. rieu, a 
stream), Passelac, Passepont, etc. With Passavant cf. 
the hybrid Startifant, Sturdevant, Sturtivant, in which 
the first element is ME. stert, to start. In the F. of Y. 
it is spelt Stirtavaunt. The Pierce- names are very 
curious, and it is hard to say exactly what the verb 
meant in these compounds. The much discussed Per- 
ceval, Percival is simply what it appears to be, viz. 
" pierce vale " Another hero of romance was Perce- 
forest. One origin of Percy, Pearcey, Pursey, etc. is 
perce-haie, pierce hedge [William Percehaye, Hund. R.]. 
Passifull and Passfield, which look like compounds of 
pass, are in all probability corruptions of Percival, 
and Purcifer, a Yorkshire name, shows the same slur- 
ring as in Brammer for the local Bramhall. Finally, 
Pershouse, Purshouse is " pierce house." Thirlway, 
Thirlaway contains the obsolete " thirl," to pierce, 
but the whole compound may be local, meaning 
a gap. 

Somewhat akin to this group are the French names 
in Tranche-, some of which, such as Trenchemer, 
Trenchelac are found also in Middle English. With 

1 The charger of the paladin Gerier was Passecerf (Chanson de 
Roland). 

z Cf. Brister for Bristow (p. 104). 

3 Aigue (aqua] is a southern form of eau', cf. Aigues-mortes. 



266 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

Tranchevent cf. Ger. Schneidewind and our Sherwin 
[Thomas Sherewynd, Fine R.], the latter the same type 
of man as William Windswift, mariner (F. of Y). We 
have other compounds of shear in Sherlock, Shurlock 
[Simon Skyrloc, Chart R.], and in Shargold, Shergold, 
perhaps a coin- clipper or a worker at the mint ' ; but 
Shearwood is local, of Sherwood. Another element 
which was once common is tread. We have still 
Tredwell, Tretwell, Treaddell, and Tredgold * [Walter 
Tredegold, Hund. R.], the last-named appearing also 
as Threadgold, Thridgould', cf. Threadgate, in which 
gate means street. In Middle English we find also 
Thomas Tredebalk (Chart. R.), Symon Tredhard 
(Yorks, 1379), and Richard Tradesalt (Rievaulx Cart.). 
Treadaway, Treadway is local [John de Treddewy, 
Exch. R.], from treadway, a thoroughfare, which was 
in use as late as the seventeenth century. 

Gather occurs in Gather good (p. 262), Gather cole,* 
Gather all. The last-named, of the type of Walter 
Pr en tout (Lond. Wills, 1340), still a French surname, 
and Godwin Givenout (Rievaulx Cart.), has also become 
Gather all,' with which cf. Catherwood for " gather 
wood," and Abraham Cathermonie (Rievaulx Cart). 
In the Pat. R. we find Nicholas Gadrewit, whose 
pursuit was wisdom rather than wealth. Tirebuck 

1 " The other (lane), corruptly called Sermon lane, for Shere- 
moniers' lane, for I find it by that name recorded in the fourteenth 
of Edward I. ... It may, therefore, be well supposed that lane 
to take name of Sheremonyars, such as cut and rounded the plates 
to be coined or stamped into sterling pence" (Stow). 

2 With this cf. Ger. Rosentreter, the trampler of roses. 

8 It is uncertain whether the second element means charcoal 
or cabbage [Robert Gaderkold, Pat. R.}. 

4 I think Cathedrall must be an imitative alteration of this. 



MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 267 

may be local, of Tarbock (Lane.), but the first element 
may be the obsolete tire, to tear, rend 

" I graunte wel that thou endurest wo 
As sharp as doth he, Ticius, in helle, 
Whos stomak foules tiren evere mo 
That highten voltoures, as bookes telle " 

(Troilus and Criseyde, i. 785). 

This etymology is supported by William Randekide 
(Leic. BOY. Rec.) and the Lancashire Tyrer [Henry le 
Tyrer, Bp. Kellawe's Reg.], formerly also Tyre-hare, 
though this latter may perhaps refer to a blameless 
hairdresser. 

Knatchbull may have been applied to a butcher, or 
perhaps to some medieval Milo of Crotona ; cf. John 
Felox (i3th century) 

" With a great clubbe (Commodus) knatched them all on the hed " 
(NED. 1579). 

Benbow, Benbough, Bebbow are for " bend-bow " [Wil- 
liam Bendebowe, City F.]. Robin Hood's follower 
Scathelock is still found as Scadlock, Shadlock, Shatlock, 
Shedlock, Shotlock, Shackcloth, though the compound 
can hardly be said to make sense. Evidently Shack- 
lock has contributed also to this group. There are a 
considerable number of medieval names in -lock ; see 
p. 264. Rackstraw, Raickstraw, Rextrew, Rockstro is 
occupative, "rake straw"; cf. Ralph Frapaile, i.e. 
fmppe-paille (Pat. R.), a thresher, and see "bang- 
straw" in the EDD. Prindeville was a successful 
soldier, Fr. prend mile. Parlby is altered from the 
once common parle bien [John Parlebien, Pat. R.] 
and Chantler is for the still commoner chante clair 
[Roger Chauntecler or Chaunteler, Pat. R.]. Cash- 

19 



268 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

man is for " catch man " [Mabel Cacheman, Pat. R.]. 
Shadbolt, Shotbolt may be for " shoot bolt" (cf. 
Benbow, p. 267), or the first element may be a past 
participle and the whole compound have been ap- 
plied to one who had shot his bolt ; cf . the common 
Middle English name Lancelevee. Hurlbatt is doubt- 
ful, for Matthew Herlebaut (Pat. R.) looks like a 
personal name. Still, John Hurlebadde (Pat. R.) and 
Thomas Draghebat * (ib.) tend to authenticate it as 
a phrase-name. Plantrose [John Plaunterose, Hund. 
R.] and Pluckrose [Alan Pluckrose, ib.] still exist and 
have plenty of medieval support ; cf . Simon Schakerose 
(Pat. R.), Peter Porterose (ib.), Andrew Plantefene * 
(Leic. Bor. Rec.), Elyas Plan tefo lye (Fine R.). Pluck- 
rose has a parallel in Culpepper * [Thomas Cullepeper 
or Colepepyr, Pat. R.], with which cf. Richard Culle- 
bene (Hund. R.). 

Among examples in which the second element is 
adverbial we find, besides the quaint Gotobed or Gotbed, 
such names as Rushout (cf. Rideout, p. 259) and Rusha- 
way, the latter perhaps a conscientious objector, like 
Robert Torne-en-Fuie (Pachnio). Fulloway may be 
for " follow way," as Followfast is found in the four- 
teenth century, and Standeven, Standaloft both seem 
to belong here also. Pickavant, altered to Pickavance, 
Pickance, Pickervance is Fr. pique-avant, spur forward. 

Subject and verb are inverted in Hornblow, Horni- 
blow, Orneblow, and possibly in Milsopp, Mellsop 

1 This seems to be the native equivalent of Trailbaston, a term 
first applied to a class of malefactors. On the interesting develop- 
ment of this compound into a legal term see NED. 

2 Fr. Join, hay, Lat. f&num. 

3 There is just a possibility that this means " black pepper " ; 
cf. Thomas Piperwyt (Cust. Battle Abbey) and John Blaksalt (Pat. R.) 



MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 269 

[Roger Melkesopp, Hund. R.]. The latter may mean 
what is sopped in milk, but, as applied to a baby, or 
to a spiritless person, it may be rather one who sups 
milk 

" Hay 11, lytyll tyn mop, rewarder of mede ! 
Hayll, bot oone drop of grace at my nede! 
Hay 11 lytyl mylk sop I hay 11, David sede I " 

(Towneley Mysteries). 

Similar inversions are found in Middle English, as in 
the pleasing John Coutorment (Pat. R.). The original 
Overthrow was perhaps a skilled wrestler ; cf. Henry 
Overdo (Close R. temp. Ed. IV.). John Lyngeteill, 
tailor (F. of Y.), may be for taille-linge, or the second 
element may be toile, cloth. 

It excites no surprise that so many of these names 
have disappeared. They are, as this chapter shows, 
and as will be seen still more clearly from the list on 
pp. 270-7, nearly always contemptuous. Also they are 
often cumbersome, so that even so complimentary a 
name as that of Jehan Qui de riens ne s'esmoie(Pachnio), 
i.e. John Dreadnought, had a very poor chance of 
surviving. Occasionally such names have been ab- 
sorbed by others. There can, for instance, be little 
doubt that some of our Penfolds * represent the occupa- 
tive " pen-fowl " [Henry Pynfoule, Pat. R.], an official 
who has become more usually Catchpole (Fr. chasse- 
poule). Walkimhaw, Wakenshaw has a local look, 
but the existence of Rangecroft suggests that it may be 
simply " walk in shaw," perhaps a forest ranger 

" Walkers, seeme to be those that are otherwise called foresters. 
Crompton in his Jurisdictions, fol. 154, hath these words in effect: 
There bee foresters assigned by the King, which be walkers within 
a certain space assigned them to looke unto" (Cowel). 

i This has several variants, e.g. Pennifold, Pinfold, Pinfield. 



270 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 

Hence perhaps also Walkland. Or the name may 
have been applied to a forest outlaw. Cf. Jourdain 
Saill-du-Bois (Pachnio), Hugo Saildebroil * (ib.), found 
also in Middle English as Saudebroyl, both of whom 
probably obtained their sobriquets by their unwelcome 
sorties from the woods that bordered the medieval 
highway. Walklate is as natural a nickname as " toil 
by night" (see p. 233). Other names of the same 
type, some not easy to interpret, are Wakelam* 
(cf. Esveillechien, p. 273), Shearhod (hood), Stabback, 
Settatree, Makemead [Gregory Makemete, Pat. R.], 
Lockbane, Saltonstall (cf. mountebank and saltimbanque). 
The obsolete names in the following list all come 
from the same sources as those which are quoted 
throughout this book. To save space I have omitted 
the baptismal names and references. Some of them 
no doubt still exist in a corrupted form and perhaps 
others are wrongly included here. A few, which I cannot 
interpret, may amuse the leisure of some of my readers. 
It will be noticed that Anglo-French prevails over the 
native element, while there are a few hybrids. Many 
are evidently trade descriptions, but the majority 
allude to some habit, or even some isolated act, on the 
part of the original bearer. 

Baillebien (OF. bailler, to give. Baysers 

Cf. F. Baillehart [halter], Besecu 

Baillehache [axe], whence Bail- Banesthef (banish thief) 

hache) Banthane (cf. Crusseking, but 

Baisedame (cf. Lovelady) Banfather is for Bairnsfather, 

Bayseboll (one who loved the p. 244) 

bowl) Barreduk (cf. Facehen) 

1 See Brewill (p. 55). 

2 The rather vigorous-looking Wakem and Whackum are for the 
local Wakeham. 



OBSOLETE NICKNAMES 



271 



Beivin (boi-viri), a very common 
Middle English name, still 
found as Bevin) 

Berebred 

Berhors 

Beritawey (with the bear- names 
cf. those in port-) 

Berewater 

Bereswerd 

Bernereve 

Brenecote 

Brengest 

Brendhers (horse ?) 

Bryndboys (in these five names 
we have Middle English forms 
of burn) 

Betewater 

Byggeharme (ME. big, to build, 
contrive) 

Bindethef 

Bindewinter 

Bitebere 

Bytewant (ME. want, a mole ; 
cf. Moulbayt) 

Blouhorn 

Boteturte (see p. 258, n. 3) 

Brekbek 

Brekedisshe 

Brekedure (door) 

Brechedure 

Brechehert 

Brekemast 

Brekpot 

Brekerop (cf. Crakestreng) 

Brekstaf 

Bridebek (cf. Bridoye, the judge 
in Rabelais. Geese werebridled 
by passing a feather through 
the orifices of the beak to 
prevent them from straying 
through hedges. Hence " oison 
bride, a sot, asse, gull, ninnie, 
noddie " Cotg.). 



Brysbank 

Brisbon (bone) 

Brisecoc 

Briscop (cup) 

Brisefer 

Briselaunce 

Brisemustier (OF. moustier, 

monastery) 
Brisepot 
Bristimbre 
Brusebar 
Brusekaillou 
Bruselance 
Brusepot 
Bukelboots 
Bukepot (ME. buck, to wash, 

clean, as in buck-basket) 
Buskeleche 



Cachefis 

Cacchefrensh 

Cachehors 

Cachemaille (Fr. maille, a small 
coin ; cf. Pinsemaille. Cache- 
maille is an existing English 
name, no doubt Huguenot) 

Cachemay (ME. may, a maiden ; 
? cf. Bindlass, p. 200) 

Cachepot (cf. Fr. Chassepot, 
p. 289) 

Cachevache (cf. names in Chase- 
Cake-, Kach-) 

Cakedan (Fr. daim, a deer) 

Cakerowe 

Castepac 

Chaceporc 

Chasehare 

Chasemuine (Fr. moine, a monk) 

Chanteben 

Chauntemerle (Fr. merle, a black- 
bird ; but Chantemerle is a 
common French place-name) 



272 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 



Chantemesse 

Charthecrawe 

Chaucebuef, Causebuf 

Caucepe 

Causseben (Fr. chausser, to shoe) 

Chipawey 

Chopfox 

Clevegris (ME. gris, a pig) 

Clevehog (these two names are 
sometimes misprinted Clene- 
in the Hund R. Cf. the names 
in Tranche-, Trenche-} 

Clocoppe (ME. clock, to hobble, 
Fr. docker. Cf. Startup [p. 153] 
and trollop, Trollope, from 
ME. troll, to saunter, prowl) 

Cnaplok 

Cokechinne 

Countefoghel (before they were 
hatched ?) 

Coupchesne 

Coupeforge (? a mistake for 
Coupegorge) 

Copefranceis 

Copegray (dial, gray, a badger) 

Coupne (coupe-nez) 

Coursedieu (cf. Crusseking) 

Crakpot 

Crakesheld 

Crakestreng (cf . Brekerop. 
" Baboin, a crack-rope, wag- 
halter, unhappy rogue, 
wretchlesse villaine," Cotg.) 

Crevecuor (hence Crawcour and 
sometimes Croker. Cf . Breche- 
hert. But the name is local ; 
there are four Crevecceurs in 
France) 

Crollebois, Corlebois (OF. croller, 
to shake ; cf . Curlevache) 

Crusseking (curse) 

Cuethemarket (know the mar- 
ket ?) 



Cullebene (cf. Peckebene) 

Cullebere ("kill bear" or Pick- 
barlik ?) 

Cullefinch 

Cullehare 

Culletoppe (Fr. taupe, a mole. 
For cull, to kill, see also p. 257) 

Curairs 

Curedame 

Curlevache 

Cuttecope 

Cutfox 

Cuthog 

Cuttepope 

Cutsweyn 

Cuthup 

Cutwesyll (this may be for wea- 
sel, but is more probably a 
perversion of weasand, throat) 



Dyngbel 

Dyngesande (ME. ding, to 

pound, crush) 
Dragebrech 
Dreghorn 
Drawespe 
Drawlace 

Drawespere, Draespere 
Draweswerd 
Draneck (not from draw, but 

from thraw, twisted, a northern 

form of throw, so it does not 

really belong to this group. 

Thrawnecked is still in dial. 

use) 

Drounepak 
Dringkedregges 
Drynkpany (possibly belongs 

elsewhere. Drinkpenny was 

used in the same sense as Fr. 

pourboire and Ger. Trinkgeld. 

Cf. Virgil Godspeny, Pat. R., 



OBSOLETE NICKNAMES 



273 



and the existing French name 
Potdevin, from pot-de-vin, a 
present made in concluding a 
bargain, etc. Hansell also no 
doubt has sometimes a similar 
origin) 
v Drynkestor 

Dubedent (see p. 258) 

Duleram 

Dunpurs (perhaps for " don 
purse." But it may mean 
"brown purse"; cf. Irenpurs 
[p. 163] and Alexander Hari- 
pok, i.e. hairy pouch, F. of Y.) 

Enganevielle (OF. enganer, to 

trick, deceive) 
Esveillechien 
Etebred 
Et[h]ebutter 
Etelof 
Etemete 

Faceben (Dogood) 

Facehen (one who could " say 
boh to a goose." But a line 
in Cocke Lorelle suggests that 
there was a verb face, meaning 
to ill-treat, whence Facer 
" Crakers, facers, and chyl- 
derne quellers ") 

Falleninwolle (? well) 

Felebesche (cf. Coupchesne) 

Fernon (a ME. Dreadnought) 

Ferewyff 

Fiercop (OF. fier-coup, strike 
blow) 

Findesilver 

Forthwynde (probably for wend, 
cf. Wendut, Gangeof, Rideout] 

Fretecok 

Freteheved 



Fretelof 

Fretemette (cf. the names in 

Ete- and see p. 255) 
Froisselewe (cf. Betewater) 
Fulsalt (Fr. fouler, to tread) 
Futladame 



Gangeof 

Gaderpenye 

Gardleberd 

Gastehuse 

Gatteprest (cf. the names in 

Waste-} 
Gerdelaf 
Ginful (? trap fowl; cf. Pynfoule, 

p. 269) 
Girdethewode (see Girdwood, 

p. 251, M.S. But it may be for 

" guard the wood ") 
Gnawebon 
Gnawepeny 
Gobefore 
Godsendus 
Gointhewynd 
Gratefige (Fr. gratte figue ; cf. 

Squarcefige) 
Grindlas 

Grindelove (see p. 260) 
Gripchese 

Guanaben (Fr. gagne-bien) 
Gurdepack 
Gyrdecope, Gyrdinthecope 



Hackebon 

Hachchebutere (cf. Avice la Bu- 

terkervere, Close R.) 
Hakkefot 
Hackenose 
Hacsmal 
Hactare 
Haldelond 



274 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 



Halskyng (ME. halse, to em- 
brace) 

Hatekarle (cf. Ger.Bauernfeind) 

Hatet[h]rift 

Hauntewak (wake, now used 
only of a funeral feast, for- 
merly meant a " revelling o' 
nights") 

Heldhare (ME. helden, to hold, 
keep) 

Hykepin 

Hoppeschort 

Hotgo 

Hundecrist (cf . Hatecrist, Shone- 
crist, p. 212) 

Hurtequart (a drinker's name ; 
cf. the archaic expression 
* " crushing a quart ") 

Hurtevent (cf. Tranchevent, 
Sherwin, p. 266. It is also a 
French place-name, no doubt 
meaning " face wind," Mod. 
Fr. heurter, to encounter 
roughly) 



Kacheboye (see names in Cache-, 

Chase-, Cake-) 
Kachelewe 
Kachepeny 
Keekhorn 
Kembelof (apparently " comb 

wolf " ; cf. unkempt) 
Kepecat 
Kepegest 
Kepeharm 



Lacklove 

Lapewater 

Laughwell 

Lenealday 

Levetoday 



Lievelance 

Liggescheld 

Lockeburs, Locenpurs 

Locout (probably " look out ") 

Lulleman 



Makebeverege 

Makeblisse 

Makeblythe 

Makefair 

Makehayt 

Make joy 

Makesayle 

Mangebacun 

Mangefer 

Mangehaste (OF. haste, a spit; cf. 

Taillehast) 
Mangevileyn 
Marewater 
Mendfaute 
Metlefrein 

Moulbayt (cf. Bytewant) 
Mucedent (OF. mucier, to hide, 

cover up ; cf. Adubbe-dent, 

P- 258) 



Ottespur 



Pailcerf (skin stag, or perhaps 
for " poil de cerf") 

Paynlow (torture wolf) 

Pakharneys (cf. Trusseharneys 
In the Towneley Mysteries 
Cain's horse-boy is called 
Pike-harneis, probably the 
same name) 

Parchehare 

Parlefrens 

Passlewelle 

Passeflabere (a nickname applied 



OBSOLETE NICKNAMES 



275 



in Annal. Monast. to Ranulf 
Flambard, whose name sur- 
vives as Flambert. It appar- 
ently plays on his name and 
suggests handing on the torch) 

Peckebene 

Peckechese 

Peckewether 

Percesoil, Percesuil (also mis- 
printed Percefoil) 

Percevent 

Pichepappe (apparently the 
same as Fr. Piepape, and of 
the same type as Crusseking, 
Shonecrist, etc., but I cannot 
explain the first syllable) 

Pickbarlik 

Pikebone 

Pikechin 

Pikhorn 

Pikemumele (? Fr. mamelle) 

Pikewastel 

Pylcok 

Pillegos (cf. Jehan Escorche- 
Rainne, skin-frog, Pachnio) 

Pillemyl (mule) 

Pilemus (mouse) 

Pinchehaste 

Pinsemaille (" Pinse-maille, a 
pinch peny, scrape-good, nig- 
ard, miser, peniefather/'Cotg.) 

Pinchepeny 

Pinchshu 

Pineferding 

Pirnetote (see Prentout, p. 266) 

Playscefonte 

Polprest (an ecclesiastical hair- 
dresser) 

Portebryf 

Portegoie, Portejoie 

Porterob 

Portesoyl (cf. the names in Bere- 
and the existing French sur- 



names Portebois, Portefaix, 

Portelance, Portenseigne) 
Pouchmete 
Pownsewayd (a " pouncer," or 

pulverizer, of woad. Cf. 

Wader, p. 120) 
Prikeavant (an alteration of 

Pickavant, p. 268) 
Prikehering 
Prikehors 
Prikeskin 
Pullebrid (here pull is equivalent 

to pill ; see p. 257) 
Pulegos 
Pulhare 
/ 

Rennaway 

Reulebon (AF. reule-bien, rule 

well) 

Rerepaunch 
Ringebelle 
Rivegut 
Robechild 
Rollevilain 
Romefare (a pilgrim to Rome) 

Sachevin (OF. sachier, to draw. 
It may, however, be an al- 
teration of the French sur- 
name Sacavin, from " sac a 
vin, a drunken gulch, or gor- 
belly ; a great wine-drinker " 
Cotg.) 

Sacquespee (cf . Draweswerd. 
This name, common in our 
Rolls, has perhaps been ab- 
sorbed by Saxby, It is still 
found in France as Sacquepe) 

Sailleben 

Schapacape, Shapeakap, 
Shappecape (a tailor ?) 

Schitebroch 



276 THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE OF SURNAME 



Scorchevileyn 

Scrapetrough (the name of a 
miller in F. of Y.) 

Scrothose 

Scubledekne 

Sefare 

Serveladi 

Shakeshethe 

Shavetail 

Skillehare 

Sletlame 

Sparegod 

Spekelitel 

Spelkelesing (a mistake for 
" speak leasing ") 

Spikefis 

Spilblod 

Spillecause 

Spillecok 

Spilcorn 

Spilfot 

Spiking 

Spilewyn 

Spitewinch (wench) 

Sprenhose, Sprenghoese (ME. 
sprenge, to scatter. Cf. Waste- 
bus, Bernhus) 

Springemare, Springemer 

Spurecat ' 

Spirecoc 

Spirhard 

Spirewhit 

Spongeboll 

Spurnestan 

Spurneturtoys 

Squarsefige 

Stalebond 

Stelecat 

Stepwrong 

Stikeman 

Strecketayle 

Strokehose 

Sturpot 



Supewortes 
Swetinbedde 



Taillebosc 

Taillehast 

Taylemayle 

TaiUepetit (cf. Hacsmal) 

Tamehorn 

Tendhogge 

Thurlewynd (synonymous with 
Percevent) 

Tyreboys 

Tirelitel 

Tireavant 

Tosseman 

Totepeny (an early example of 
tout, in its original sense of 
looking out, watching for) 

Tracepurcel 

Tradesalt 

Tredepel 

Tredlef 

Tredewater 

Trenchebof 

Trenchelake 

Trenchemer 

Trenchmore 

Trenchepin (Fr. pain ?) 

Trenchesey 

Trenchesoil 

Trenchevent, Trinchevent 

Trendelove, Trendeluwe (ME. 
trend, to turn. The second 
syllable means wolf. Cf . Turn- 
bull, Turnbuck) 

Trotemenil (for Fr. trotte-menu, 
used of a tripping gait) 

Trussebut 

Trusseharneys (" His gilly-trush- 
harnish, to carry his knap- 
sack," Waver ley, ch. xvi) 

Trussemulle 



OBSOLETE NICKNAMES 



277 



Trussevilain 

Tukbacon 

Turnecotele 

Tornemantel (in these the first 

syllable might be the adj. 

torn) 

Turnepet 
Turnetrave (trave, a dial, word 

for a shock of corn ; cf . Fr. 

Tournemeule) 



Vatost 



Wagetail 

Waynpayn (a Picard form of Fr. 

Gagnepain) 
Waytecake (a gamekeeper, 



wayte, to guard, and cake, 
variant of chasse ; cf . Cakedan) 

Wakewo 

Wantemylk 

Wardebien 

Wasthose, Wasthus 

Wastepayn 

Wastepeny 

Waveloc 

Wendut, Wyndout 

Wetebedde 

Whirlepeni 

Whirlepipyn 

Widfare 

Winnelove 

Wynneyene (again) 

Wipetail 

Wryngetayl, Wrangtayle 

Wrytheloc 



CHAPTER XIII 

FRENCH SURNAMES 

" As to bravery, foolish, inexperienced people of every nation 
always think that their own soldiers are braver than any others. 
But when one has seen as much as I have done, one understands 
that there is no very marked difference, and that although nations 
differ very much in discipline, they are all equally brave except 
that the French have rather more courage than the rest " (Brigadier 
Gerard). 

SOON after the beginning of the war I read, in a usually 
well-informed periodical, that General JofTre was of 
humble extraction, and owed his name to an immediate 
ancestor, who, pursuing the calling of an itinerant 
dealer, was wont to commence his remarks with the 
words J'offref This statement, whatever may be 
thought of it philologically, seems at any rate to 
indicate some interest in the onomatology of our gallant 
allies. French names, like our own, have a history 
that can be traced, and are formed on a system which 
can be easily illustrated. From about the eleventh 
century, when the surname (i.e. super name) began to 
be added to the simple appellation which satisfied our 
remoter ancestors, down to about the middle of the 
fourteenth century, when names became hereditary 
instead of changing with the individual, surnames 
have been formed in four ways only. They are 
baptismal, from the name of the father or mother, e.g. 

278 



CLASSES OF SURNAMES 279 

Lamartine, Clemenceau (little Clement) ; local, from 
place of birth or residence, e.g. Dupont (Bridge), Dupre 
(Mead), Lallemand (Allman) ; occupative, from trade 
or office, e.g. Boucher (Butcher), Serrurier (Lockyer), 
Lemattre (Master) ; or descriptive, from some peculi- 
arity of appearance, character, costume, habits, etc., 
e.g. Legrand (Grant) Lebon (Boon), Beauharnais (fine 
armour) Boileau (Drinkwater). Thus, corresponding 
to our Messrs. Williams, Mills, Baker, Small, we find 
in France Messieurs Guillaume, Desmoulins, Boulanger, 
Lepetit. Not only so, but, as our language is a 
mixture of English and French and a large proportion 
of our population was bilingual during the period in 
which our surnames took form, most common French 
surnames are found also in this country, so that the 
four mentioned above not only translate the given 
English equivalents, but also flourish among us as 
Gilham, Mullins, Bullinger, and Pettitt, with, of course, 
many variant spellings. 

With a fair knowledge of modern French, which, 
judging from the published versions of the French 
despatches, is somewhat to seek in high places, and some 
tincture of the older forms of the language, it is possible 
to ascertain the meaning and origin of nine-tenths of 
the names in the Paris Directory. But the tenth 
name, or perhaps, in the case of a very well equipped 
student, the twentieth name, is often a teaser, the diffi- 
culties to be overcome being sometimes greater, some- 
times less, than those encountered in the study of 
English surnames. Speaking generally, these diffi- 
culties are of a special nature resulting from the char- 
acter and genius of the language. 

The misleading aspect of a name, due to erratic 



280 FRENCH SURNAMES 

spelling, is a common phenomenon in both languages, 
but the French practice of omitting the final consonant 
in pronunciation often leads to an orthographic sub- 
stitution of a specially baffling character. Dumounez 
suggests nothing, but if we replace the final -z by -r 
we get at once the dialect mourier, a bramble, and the 
name is then as simple as Dubuisson (Bush) or Delarbre 
(Tree). Montegut is obviously Montaigu, the pointed 
hill (Peake), Darboy is for d'Arbois, from a place in 
the Jura, and Duclaux is simply Duclos (Close). The 
well-known name Hanotaux is for Hanotot, formed 
from Jean by the most puzzling process in which the 
language indulges thus, Jehan, Han, Hanoi, Hanotot. 
A phonetic spelling gives Leclair for Leclerc (Clark), 
Lemerre for Lemaire (Mayor), Chantavoine for champ 
d'avoine, oat field, while Ozanne disguises the more 
homely Auxdnes, a nickname of a type not uncommon 
in French and meaning either an ass-driver or a dealer 
in those quadrupeds. Similarly we find Ozenfant for 
Auxenfants, corresponding to the Mr. Quiverful of 
Trollope and the old-fashioned comic papers. In 
Lailavoix is hidden OF. lez la voie (Bytheway) with 
the obsolete preposition lez (Lat. latus) which survives 
in Plessis-les-Tours, and possibly in such English 
place-names as Chester-le-Street. 

We have also, as in English, to consider dialect 
peculiarities. Lat. faber, a smith or wright, gives in 
the north Fevre, Lefevre, but in the south Fabre and 
Faure, along with other variants and intermediate 
forms. La Chaussee (Cawsey, Cosway) is in Provencal 
La Caussade, and Salc&de, drawn and quartered in 1582, 
was a southerner who in the north would have been 
Saussaye, willow-grove (Lat. salicetum). Canrobert, 



DIALECT AND ARCHAIC FORMS 281 

corresponding to such an English name as Robertshaw, 
contains the Normand-Picard word for champ, the 
normal form of which is preserved in Changarnier, 
Warner's field. With the latter goes the heroic Chandos 
(Bon en eld). The famous actor Lekain had a name 
which is a variant of Lequien, a dialect form of Lechien. 
Belloc is the southern form of Beaulieu, Castelnau of 
Chdteauneuf. Corday is dialect for Cordier (Corder, 
Roper), Boileau is found also as Boilaive, Boileve, 
Boylesve, and Taine is an archaic or local pronunciation 
of Toine, for A ntoine. So also we have archaic spellings 
in Langlois, as common a name in France as French 
and Francis are in England, Picquart, the Picard 
(Pickard), and Lescure, i.e. I'ecuyer (Squire). In fact, 
while some names gradually change their sound and 
spelling in conformity with those of the words from 
which they are derived, others, and perhaps the 
majority, preserve archaic forms which aff ect their 
pronunciation and disguise their origin. A tadpole 
is called in French tetard, while in Old French a man 
with a big head was nicknamed Testard, a name which 
is still common by the side of Tetard. Many of 
the variations which occur are due to the date of 
adoption. A name acquired in the twelfth century 
will not have the same form as one that dates from the 
fifteenth, e.g. the nickname Rey (King) is older than 
Leroy, and Levesque is obviously anterior to Leveque 
(Bishop, Levick). Souvestre represents the Old French 
form of Silvester, of which Silvestre is a modern restored 
spelling. 

Taking in order the four classes of names, baptismal, 
local, occupative, descriptive, it is interesting to 
notice the resemblances and differences in the methods 



282 FRENCH SURNAMES 

by which surnames are created and multiplied in the 
two languages. We have in English more than a 
dozen names derived from William, without taking 
into account those with an initial G (Gill, Gillott, 
Gilkes, etc.) which belong to the French form Guil- 
laume. Williams, Williamson are English formations 
to which French has no exact parallel, and, although 
the prefix in Fitzwilliam is the French word fils, French 
surnames of this type are very rare. But we also 
shorten William to Will and create by diminutive 
suffixes Willy, Willett, Willing, Wilcocks, Wilkin, 
Wilkes, etc. French proceeds in the same way, but 
with much greater freedom, e.g. Guillaumet, Guillaumin, 
Guillaumot, Guillaumy, Guille, Guillemain, Guillemard, 
Guillemat, Guillemaud, Guillemeau, Guillemenot, Guille- 
min, Guillemineau, Guillemot, Guillermin, Guillet, Guil- 
liet, Guillon, Guillot, Guillotin, Guillon, Guilmet, Guilmin, 
and a few dozen more, 1 piling one diminutive suffix 
on to another ad infinitum. Shortened forms such as 
J off re from Joffroy (Jeffrey), Foch from Fochier, Fouche 
(Fulcher) are easy to recognize, and the addition of 
suffixes, as in Joffrin, Geoffrin, Joffron, Joffren&t, 
presents no difficulty. 

So far things are simple. But the tendency of 
French, with its stress on the last syllable, is more 
often in the direction of the decapitation of a name, 
as in our Bert for Herbert. Simple examples are Colas 
for Nicolas, Nisard for Denisard, Bastien for Sebastien, 
Jamin for Benjamin, Stophe, Stofflet for Christophe. 
But after this decapitation there generally begins a 
chain of names which is very difficult to trace, e.g. 

1 Including dialect forms in W and V-, e.g. Wuillemin, Wilmotte, 
Villemain, etc. 



DERIVATIVES OF FONT-NAMES 283 

from Thomas we get Mas, Masse, 1 M asset, Massenet, 
Massillon, and eventually, by a new decapitation, 
Sillon, which only preserves the final letter of the 
original name. So from Garaud (Jerrold) we have 
Raud, Rod, Rodin, and from Bernard come not only 
Bernardin, Bernadot, Bernadotte, but also Nadaud, 
Nadot, while these may go on to Daudet, Dottin, etc. 
This is a game to which there is no limit, and, as names 
can be dealt with both head and tail, it is often im- 
possible to decide how a series has begun. Such a 
name as Bert, with its Berthon, Berthollet, Bertilleau, 
etc., may be from the first syllable of Bertrand, Berthe- 
lemy (Bartholomew), etc., or from the final of Albert, 
Hubert, etc. Similarly Nicot may belong to Nicolas 
or Janicot, the latter name a diminutive of Jean, 
and possibly the origin of our Jellicoe, Garot may 
represent Garaud (Jerrold) or Mar gar ot (Margetts, 
Meggitt), Filon may come from Philippe or Theophile. 
This love of derivatives is especially characteristic of 
French onomatology, while in English the practice 
exists, though in a much more restricted degree, e.g. 
Philip, Philpot, Pott, Potkins. On the other hand, 
French has not our trick of riming names (Dick, Hick, 
from Richard, Dob, Hob, from Robert). 

Hence the French surname groups of baptismal 
origin are much larger than ours. Jean and fitienne 
(Stephen) are said to have each more than one hundred 
derivatives, while Pierre has about two hundred. It 
will be noticed that these most popular font-names 
are all Biblical. So also the Easter name Pascal 
has a large number of derivatives, e.g. Pasquin, Pdquin, 
Pasquet, Pasquier, etc., and, among female names, 

1 Masse is also for Matthew. 
20 



284 FRENCH SURNAMES 

the great saints such as Marie, Catherine, Marguerite, 
head the list, e.g. Mariette, Mariotte, Riotte, 1 Marat, 
Marot ; Catinat, Cathelineau, Linel ; Mar got, Margoton, 
Got, etc. The relative popularity in France of Biblical 
and Teutonic font-names has varied in the past. Before 
the Frankish conquest practically all the saints and 
martyrs * of Gaul have Greco-Latin names, though a 
few of Teutonic origin appear by the fifth century. 
By the eighth century the latter are in a majority, 
and by the twelfth the Greco-Latin names are swamped 
by the new-comers. In modern France these once so 
popular names, Beranger, Fouquier, Gamier, Gautier, 
Lambert, Oger, Regnard, etc., all of which have also 
given English surnames, have mostly fallen out of use, 
though very common as surnames. A few, such as 
Char les,Edouard, Henri, Louis, Robert, are still popular, 
but, speaking generally, French parents have gone back 
for the names of their children to the Bible and the 
Greco-Latin martyrology, e.g. Jean, Thomas, Philippe, 
Pierre ; Alexandre, Eugene, Theophile, Victor, etc. 

French surnames of baptismal origin are occasionally 
accompanied by the article, Landrieux, Lasimonne, 
and also by the preposition de and a, Demichel, Duber- 
trand, Aladenise. These compounds had possessive 
force, just as in modern rustic French " 1'enfant a la 
Martine " means Marline's child. Such surnames 
formed from female names do not as a rule point to 
illegitimacy, but rather to the importance of the mother 
in the French family. Martin's wife was called La 

1 This may be equally well an abstract nickname ; cf . Ryott 
(p. 220). 

2 It should be remembered that French Christian names are usually 
taken from the Calendar, the name given being that of the saint on 
whose feast the child is born. 






LOCAL NAMES 285 

Marline and ruled the roost. Another peculiarity of 
French surnames of this class is the frequency with 
which they are qualified by an adjective. In English 
we have as a rule only compounds of John, e.g. Little- 
john, Meiklejohn, Prettyjohn, etc., with an occasional 
Goodwillie or Gawkroger (see p. 242), but in French 
most common font-names are thus used. On his 
last visit to England President Poincare was accom- 
panied by Captain Grandclement. Cf. Bonbernat 
(Bernard), Beaujean, Grandcolas (Nicolas), Petitperrin 
(Pierre), Maugirard (Gerard), Grosclaude. Sometimes 
the article is also used, e.g. Lepetitdidier, from one of 
the few French names (Desiderius) which have never 
flourished in England. In France this name has been 
prolific, e.g. Didon, Didot, Diderot, etc. 

French surnames of local origin may, like their 
English companions, range in order from a country 
to a plant, e.g. Despagne (Spain), Lenormand (Norman), 
Damiens (Amyas), Dupuis (Wells), Lacroix (Cross, 
Crouch), Delpierre (Stone), Lepine (Thorn e), Despois 
(Pease), but, while our names have, except in a few 
cases such as Atterbury, Bythesea, Delahunte (pp. 48- 
52), shed both preposition and article, French more 
often keeps both. So we find Croix, Lacroix, Delacroix, 
Salle, Lasalle, Delasalle, whence sometimes our Sale. 
With names of towns beginning with a vowel de is 
commonly prefixed, e.g. Davignon, Davranche. More- 
over, every French town has a corresponding adjective, 
a privilege accorded in this country only to the capital. 
So Bourgeois, besides being a descriptive name (Burgess), 
may mean the man from Bourges, while Boulnois, also 
well established in England, indicates an inhabitant 
of Boulogne. 



286 FRENCH SURNAMES 

More interesting than names taken from specific 
places are those derived from common names, the 
majority of which belong, like our Clough, Hay, Shaw, 
Croft, etc., to the archaic and provincial vocabulary. 
To-day (Oct. 13, 1915) we read that Admiral de 
Lapeyrere has been succeeded by Admiral du Fournet. 
The first represents perriere, a stone quarry, whence our 
Ferrers, the second is a diminutive of four, an oven. 
The importance of the public oven in medieval France 
is attested by the frequent occurrence of the surname 
Dufour. In Dussault we have Old French sault, a 
marsh, wood, in Dumas a southern word for a " manse " 
or homestead, in Dumesnil (Meynell) a diminutive of 
the same word. Lapommeraye, equivalent to our 
Appleyard, has given us Pomeroy. Duplessis comes 
from the " pleached " enclosure which, as Scott reminds 
us in the first chapter of Quentin Durward, has given 
a name to so many French villages. In Dubailleul 
we have an Old French word for a fort or " bailey," 
and the origin of a luckless royal name (Balliol). Des- 
preaux, of the meadows, a name assumed by Boileau, 
has given us Diprose, while the common Ferte, Laferte 
is an Old French name for a fortress, Latin firmitas. 
In Duquesne we have the Norman form of chene, 
an oak, and Dupuy contains what was once the 
regular French name for a hill. This word is the 
origin of our " pew." In fact Dupuy has become 
Depew in America. Delcasse probably means " of the 
hut " ; Blois del Casset was a Knight of the Round 
Table. Pertuis, hole, is well established in England 
as Pertwee, and the well-known Maupertuis, the name 
of Renard's den in the old romance, has a parallel in 
William Foulhole (Nott. Court R. 1308). 



OCCUPATIVE NAMES 287 



When we come to occupative names, we are again 
confronted by crowds of diminutives. Corresponding 
to our Shepherd we find not only Berger, Leberger, 
Labergere, but also Bergerat, Berger et, Bergeron, Bergerot, 
to quote only the most frequent variants, while Boucher 
gives us Boucharin, Bouchereau, Boucheron, Bouchet, 
etc., and of course Leboucher and Labouchere. In a 
recent casualty list occurred the Canadian names 
Dansereau and Mercereau. We have no native English 
parallel to such names, though Cantrell, Chantrell, 
derived from French Chantereau, Chanterelle, is not 
uncommon. 

Corresponding to our names like Monks, Parsons, 
Reeves, which meant originally the monk's servant, 
the parson's son, etc., we find a number of French 
occupative names preceded by de or d, e.g. Dufaure, 
Augagneur. The word gagneur, contained in the name 
of the late French Minister of Marine, was used in Old 
French for any thriving worker. With this formation 
we may compare Aupretre, the origin of our A llpress, 
which was in 1273 spelt Alprest (Hund. R.). In 1235 
Jordan le fiz Alprestre, i.e. Jordan the priest's son, 
was lodged in Nottingham gaol on an accusation of 
homicide (Pat. R.). Cf. Malpress (p. 235). 

Many of our occupative names represent obsolete 
trades and callings, e.g. Fletcher, the arrow-maker, 
Frobisher, the furbisher of armour, Catchpole, the 
constable. So also we find among common French 
surnames Flechier, Laumonier (almoner, Amner), 
Verdier (forester, Varder), Larmurier (Armour), Lar- 
balestier (Arblaster, Alabaster). Or names are taken 
from archaic and dialect names for occupations, e.g. 
Meissonnier, the harvester (cf. our Mawer), Sabatier, 



288 FRENCH SURNAMES 

the southern form of savetier, a cobbler, Lesueur, the 
shoemaker (Sutor), Molinier, the miller (Mulliner), 
Pellissier, the maker of fur cloaks (Pilcher), Lequeux, 
the cook, Perron, the smith (Fearon), Grangier, 
the farmer (Granger), Lemire, the physician (Myer), 
Marillier, the churchwarden, Perrier, the quarry man, 
Teissier, the weaver, and many more. 

On French nicknames, as on English, a very big 
book could be written. There is no name of bird or 
beast, no epithet, complimentary or spiteful, but 
usually the latter, which has not been used to form a 
surname. Some are of incredibly fantastic formation, 
others of unquotable grossness. Here I will only 
mention some which are connected with famous men, 
or which are of special interest at the present moment. 
To begin with, President Poincare's name means 
" square fist," an honest sort of weapon, which is at an 
initial disadvantage against the mailed, or knuckle- 
duster, variety. By an odd coincidence two of General 
Joffre's ablest lieutenants, Maud'huy and Maunoury, 
bear ancient nicknames of identical meaning. Maud'huy 
is an artificial spelling of the common name Mauduit. 
William Mauduit was Chamberlain to the Conqueror 
and founded the Mawditt family. The name is 
derived from Lat. male doctus, ill taught, by which 
it is commonly rendered in medieval documents. 
Maunoury is from mal-nourri, where nourri has its 
Old French sense of reared, educated. 1 The opposite 
Biennourry also exists and corresponds to the well- 
known German name Wolzogen (woJil erzogen). The 
name Ecorcheville has also won honour in the war. 

1 It may also have the modern meaning ; cf . William Wellefedd 
(F. of Y. 1397). 



NICKNAMES 289 

It is a mild alteration of the medieval E scorch evieille, 
skin old woman, a very brutal nickname, with numerous 
parallels in French and English (seep. 256). Cf. the 
existing surname Pellevillain, flay serf (p. 257). Names 
formed in this way from a verb are very common in both 
languages. Cf. French Chasseloup, hunt wolf, whence 
our deceptive Catchlove, Chassepot, not the pot-hunter, 
but the seeker after gratuitous meals, Gardebois, the 
" woodward," Fatout (fac-totum), or our own Shake- 
speare, Golightly, Doolittle, etc. 

The simpler kinds of nicknames formed directly 
from adjectives or nouns are generally accompanied 
by the article, e.g. Lebas (Bass), Lebel (Bell), Lerouge 
(Rudge), Larousse (Rouse), Laigle (Eagle), Leveau 
(Veal), Lesturgeon (Sturgeon). When an adjective 
and noun are combined, the article is more often 
omitted, e.g. Bonvallet (Goodhind), Petigas (Littleboy), 
Blanchemain (Whitehand), though it is also found in 
such names, e.g. Lepetitcorps (Lightbody). Adjective 
nicknames also form innumerable derivatives. In 
English we have the name Jolly and its older form 
Joliffe. French has Joly, Joliot, Jolivard, Jolivaud, 
J olivet, etc., while the derivations of Bon, such as 
Bonnard, Bonnet, Bonneau, Bonnel, Bonneteau, etc., 
run into dozens. This applies also to a less extent to 
names derived from animals. Corresponding to our 
Bull, Bullock, we have not only French Lebceuf, but also 
Bouvet, Bouvot, Bouvelet, Bouvard, Bouveau, though 
some of these may also be formed from the occupative 
name Bouvier (Buller). 

To sum up, French surnames are very like English, 
the chief points of difference being the retention of 
prepositions and the article, the common decapitation 



290 FRENCH SURNAMES 

of baptismal names, and the extraordinary power of 
multiplication by means of diminutive suffixes. There 
is also hardly a well-established French name which 
is not found in England, whether it " came over with 
the Conqueror," was imported during the Middle Ages, 
at the Huguenot migration, or in quite recent times. 
And, generally speaking, the earlier its introduction, 
the greater will be its divergence from the modern 
French form and the difficulty of establishing then- 
identity. 

Those interested in this harmless amusement will 
find pastime, and perhaps some profit, in analysing 
any group of well-known French names. If we take, 
for instance, the chief writers associated with the 
golden age of French literature, viz. Descartes, Pascal, 
Malebranche, Corneille, Racine, Moliere, La Fontaine, 
Bossuet, Bourdaloue, La Bruyere, La Rochefoucauld, 
and the already explained Boileau and Massillon, we 
shall find that they can all be assigned, though in some 
cases conjecturally, to one of the four groups. Pascal 
is a baptismal name associated with the Easter festival, 
and Corneille is probably from Cornelius, though it 
may be a nickname (Crowe). Obvious local names 
are La Fontaine and La Bruybre (Moore), while La 
Rochefoucauld is from the rock fortress of Foucauld, 1 
the old Teutonic Folcwald, or ruler of the people. 
Descartes is probably local, from OF. quarte, a certain 
area in the outskirts of a town, and Bourdaloue looks 
like a corruption of bord de I'eau (Bywater). Racine 
is much commoner in France than the corresponding 
Root in England. Moliere, the name adopted by 

1 " The French submarine Foucault sank an Austrian cruiser in 
the neighbourhood of Cattaro " (Reuter, Jan. 15, 1916). 



NICKNAMES 291 

Jean-Bap tiste Poquelin, is Old French for a quarry 
from which mill- stones are obtained. Malebranche 
is an uncomplimentary nickname of the same type as 
Malherbe or the Italian Malaspina, and Bossuet means 
the little hunchback. 



CHAPTER XIV 

GERMAN SURNAMES 

" Ca obeit magnifiquement, surtout aux ordres appuy6s de coups 
de bottes " (CLAUDE FARRERE). 

GERMAN surnames, like English and French, are of 
four origins. They may be baptismal, local, occupa- 
tive, or nicknames. Taking as examples four names 
famous in literature, Goethe, like his hero Goetz, is an 
abbreviation of one of the numerous Old German names 
in God, e.g. Gottfried (Godfrey, Jeffrey), Gotthardt 
(Goddard), etc., Hans Sachs was of Saxon descent, 
the ancestors of Schopenhauer were "hewers" of 
" scoops," and Schiller is a Swabian form of Schieler, 1 
squinter. As is natural in the case of a language so 
closely allied to our own, many German names, in fact 
the great majority, not only correspond in meaning 
but also in form with English names. If Herr von 
Bethmann-Hollweg were an Englishman, he would 
be Mr. Bateman-Holloway. Similarly, the famous 
general whose name is borne by the elusive Goeben 
would have been in English Gubbins, both names going 
back by devious ways to Gottbrecht,God bright (Godber). 
Of the four classes of surnames the oldest is that 

1 Cf. our Skeel, originally a Norse nickname, the squinter [Sceal 
f . Colbain, Lib. Vit.} 

292 



SHORTENED FONT-NAMES 293 

which is composed of baptismal names, sometimes 
surviving in full, but generally made almost unrecog- 
nizable by all manner of abridgement, mutilation, and 
dialect variation. The correspondence of these Teutonic 
dithematic names with those of Greece has already 
been noticed (p. 27). Other examples are Dietrich, 
people powerful, i.e. Demosthenes, Ludwig, glorious 
fight, i.e. Clytomachus, Vilmar, greatly famous, i.e. 
Pericles, Conrad, bold counsel, i.e. Thrasybulus. In 
process of time these musical names of heroic meaning, 
such as Eberhard, boar strong (Everett), Gunther, battle 
army (Gunter), Megenhard, might strong (Maynard), 
Hubrecht, bright counsel (Hubbard), Romheld, fame ruling 
(Rumbold), etc., have often been reduced to cacopho- 
nous monosyllables distinguished by great economy of 
vowels. Still, unattractive as their present form may 
be, these names belong to the oldest period of the race, 
and Bugge, Bopp, Dietz, Dankl, and Kluck have as 
much right to look down on most of their polysyllabic 
neighbours as our own Bugg, Bubb, etc., on such up- 
starts as Napier, Pomeroy, Percy, and Somerset, for 
are they not the modern representatives of the heroic 
Burghart, castle strong, Bodebrecht, rule bright, Dietrich, 
people mighty, Dankwart, reward guardian, and Chlodo- 
wig, 1 glorious victory ? 

Dankl, the Austrian general, and the redoubtable 
Kluck illustrate the two chief ways of forming 
diminutives of German names, the essential element of 
such diminutives being / in the south and k in the north. 
Other examples zreBebel (Badbrecht), Handel(Ha.ndolf), 
Hebbel (Hadubrecht), Ranke (Randolf), Tieck (Theo- 
bald), etc. Another very common ending is z, or sch, 

1 Hence Ludwig, Clovis, Louis. 



294 GERMAN SURNAMES 

and often these elements are combined in one and the 
same name. This appears in the names of the two 
teachers of modern Germany, Nietzsche and Treitschke. 
I have seen it stated that both these sages were of 
Slavonic origin, their names being quoted in support 
of the statement. Without knowing anything of their 
genealogy, I have no hesitation in stating their names 
to be pure German. It is not unfitting that the crazy 
degenerate who loathed his own nation and succeeded 
in sending it mad should have a name which is the 
diminutive oiNeid, envy, the first element in Niedhardt, 
envy strong, while Treitschke goes back also appro- 
priately to Drudi or Thrudr, one of the Walkyries, or 
" death choosers." 

The third of the illustrious trio, Bernhardi, belongs 
to a different group, and incidentally, the regular 
collocation of his name with those of a madman of genius 
and of a considerable scholar must surprise even him- 
self. When the full baptismal name becomes a sur- 
name in German, it usually does so in an unaltered 
form. Genitives such as Peters and patronymics such 
as Mendelssohn (son of Immanuel), Mackensen (son of 
Mack), are not common, and are usually of Low German 
origin. Thus we generally find simply Arnold, Hilde- 
brand, Oswald, etc. But in a large number of cases a 
latinized form of the genitive occurs, so that Bern- 
hardi, which I have seen explained as Italian, is a 
survival of some such name as Johannes films Bern- 
hardi ; cf . such names as Bartholdy, Henrici, Jacoby, 
Matthaei, Nicolai, etc. 

In the case of the non-German names which came 
in with Christianity, as often as not the last syllable 
has survived instead of the first, e.g. Hans from 



LOCAL NAMES 295 

Johannes, Klaus from Nicolaus, Mobius from Bartholo- 
maeus, Bastel from Sebastian, Grethe from Margarete, 
and these shortened forms lend themselves to further 
endless variations. Hans, like our John, is so common 
as to need qualification. I once lived in Switzerland 
in a house which contained three of the name, who for 
purposes of distinction were known as Johannes, 
Hans, and Hensli. So, corresponding to our Mickle- 
john, Littlejohn, etc. (p. 242), we find in German not 
only Aldejohann, Jungjohann, Grossjohann, Lutjens, 
etc., but also Langhans, Kleinhans, Guthans, Schwarz- 
hans, and many more. But this subject is endless, and 
space only allows of the above brief indications. 

Names of local origin may range from an empire to 
a tree, and may be either nouns or adjectives, e.g. 
Oestreich, Preuss, Schottldnder, Polack, Czech, Elsdsser, 
Hess, Flemming, Bremer (from Bremen), Kammerich 
(Cambrai), Backhaus l (Backhouse), Fichte (fir), Beer- 
bohm (Low German for pear-tree), Grunewald (Green- 
wood), Kreuz (Cross), Eck (Corner), etc. More often 
than in English such names are accompanied by the 
endings -er and -mann (cf. our Bridger, Bridgman), 
hence Berger (Mountain), Brunner (Fountain), Kappler 
(Chappell), Heinemann (Grove), Winckelmann (Corner), 
Hoffmann (Stead), etc. 

It is probable that the majority of modern German 
surnames are of local origin, easily recognized by such 
characteristic endings as -au, originally island, now 
wet meadow- land, as in Gneisenau ; -horst, wood (Hurst), 
as in Scharnhorst ; -ow, a Slavonic ending often con- 
fused with -au, as in Bulow, Jagow ; -itz, also Slavonic, 

1 It means " bake-house," while our Backhouse, Bacchus is both 
for " bake " and " back." 



296 GERMAN SURNAMES 

as in Tirpitz-, -bruck, bridge, as in Delbruck; -stein, 
stone, as in Bieber stein ; -hain, hedge, grove (Hayne), as 
in Falkenhayn ; -dorf, village (Thorp), as in Bernstorff ; 
-burg, castle (Burrough), as in Dernburg, Hindenburg; 
-rent, clearing (Royd), as in Kalckreut; -berg, mountain 
(Barrow), as in Gutenberg, and many others. But the 
study of these names belongs to topography. As in 
the corresponding English names we come across many 
obsolete and dialect words, such as Kamp or Kampf, 
an early loan from Lat. campus, whence Rennenkampf, 
race-course, a German name borne by a Russian 
general, and Kuhl, pool, so that Baron Kuhlmann, 
late of London, is a German Pullman. In many 
cases surnames of local origin are still preceded by 
prepositions and the article (for English examples 
see pp. 49-52), e.g.Anderbrugg, Vorderbrugg, Ingenohl, 1 
a corruption of in dem Ohl, a dialect name for a 
tract of good agricultural land, Biedenweg (Bythe- 
way), Vorbusch, Zumbusch, von der Heyde (Heath), 
von der Tann (Pine), LG. ter Meer (Bythesea), etc. 

This brings us to the question of von, so grievously 
misused by writers on the war, some of whom ought 
to know better. This preposition simply means 
"of" and was originally put with nearly all local 
surnames. It is still so used in some parts of Switzer- 
land, where I have had my boots mended and my 
shirts washed by vons dating back to the Middle Ages. 
It gradually dropped, like the del, de la, etc., which we 
find in our own medieval Rolls ; but, corresponding 
to our own Delmar, Delafield, Delamoor, etc. (p. 51), 
we find a few survivals, such as von der Tann, von der 

1 Admiral von Ingenohl was succeeded by Admiral von Pohl 
(Pool) 



THE PREFIX VON 297' 

Goltz, 1 von der Heyde, etc., in which the retention is 
generally due to the ennobling of these families. As 
von came to be recognized as the nobiliary prefix, it 
got added to names of all descriptions. For instance, 
the name of Lieutenant von Forstner, renowned for his 
epic onslaught on the lame cobbler of Saverne, merely 
means Forster (forester), and Colonel von Renter, who 
commanded the regiment involved, has one of the 
commonest of German names, meaning a " clearer of 
land," related to Bair^, Wernigefo^, the Rutli, etc. 
So we find von Schmidt, von Kleinschmitt, von Muller, 
von Zimmermann (Carpenter), von Kettler (Tinker), 
von Bernhardi, von Kluck, von Moltke, the last name 
being a diminutive of the same class as Kluck, possibly 
from Matilda ; cf . our Mault, Mould. 

Now it is curious that we English, who never dream 
of saying von Bismarck, which would be excusable 
in the case of a territorial name (the bishop's mark or 
frontier), will insist on von Moltke, von Kluck, etc., 
which, in German, is a vulgarism only committed by 
the sort of people who in English address letters to 
" Mr. Smith, Esquire," or refer to a clergyman as 
" the Rev. Jones." Of course when the full title is 
given, the von is used, e.g. General von Kluck, Herr 
von Jagow, but otherwise it should always be omitted. 
The exception is a name like von der Tann, including 
the article, where the von is original and logical. The 
Germans have a cruiser called the von der Tann, but 

1 I can find no trace in Old German of this word used as a topo- 
graphical term, but in a MS. of the year 1500 dealing with a grant 
of land I have found the word Goltzweg. Professor Fiedler, of 
Oxford, ingeniously suggests to me that this may be MHG. golze, 
pair of breeches (Lat. calcea), applied to a fork in the road. 



298 GERMAN SURNAMES 

the Gpeisenau, Scharnhorst, Moltke, and Blilcher 
appear, or did when this chapter was written, without 
the particle. 

Many corresponding Dutch names in van are well 
established in England, e.g. the obvious Vandam, 
Vandervelde, Vandersteen, while the more aristocratic 
Vansittart is from the Netherland town Sittard. Some- 
times it combines with the article to produce the prefix 
Ver- as in Vereker (acre), Verschoyle (schuyl, shelter). 

Occupative names are in German more numerous 
than in English. This is due to the national tendency 
to elaborateness of description and differentiation. 
We are generally satisfied with the simple -er, but, 
corresponding to our Baker, we find in German not 
only Becker or Beck, but also Kuchenbccker (cake), 
Weichbecker (soft), Pfannebecker (pan), Semmelbecker 
(simnel), Weissbecker (white), and many others. So 
also the German compounds of Schmidt far exceed in 
number those of Smith. We find, among others, 
Blechschmidt (tin), Kupferschmied (copper), Silber- 
schmidt, Stahlschmidt, Hackenschmidt (hoe), Hufschmidt 
(Shoesmith), Schaarschmidt (Shearsmith), Sichel- 
schmidt, Dorfschmidt, Rosenschmidt (at the sign of the 
Rose), and about twenty more. But the commonest 
of all such elements is Meyer, farmer, the compounds 
of which number some hundreds. 

Also we find a great number of names in -macher, 1 
e.g. Radermacher (Wheeler), Sattelmacher (Sadler), 
Schleier macher (veil), Wannemacher (bath) ; in -giesser, 

1 Names of this type were once much commoner in English (see 
p. 226, n. i). They have generally been simplified, e.g. Robert le Jese- 
maker (Hund. R.) is now represented by Jesser. Dutch generally 
adds -s to occupative names, e.g. Raemakers (Wheeler). 



OCCUPATIVE NAMES 299 

founder, e.g. Kannengiesser, Potgieter ; in -binder, e.g. 
Biesenbdnder (besom), Fassbender (cask), now appearing 
in the London Directory in the proverbial form Fast- 
binder, Buchbinder, Burstenbinder (brush) ; in -Schneider, 
cutter, tailor, e.g. Brettschneider (board), Riemen- 
schneider (thong), Steinschneider ; in -hauer, hewer, 
e.g. Steinhauer (Stanier), Fleischhauer (Flesher), Holz- 
hauer; in -brenner, e.g. Aschenbrenner (Ashburner), 
Kalckbrenner ; in -schldger, striker, e.g. Kesselschldger , 
Lautenschldger (lute) ; in -meister, e.g. Sutermeister 
(Lat. sutor), Backmeister (bake), Werckmeister (Fore- 
man) ; and in -mann, e.g. Sudermann (Lat. sutor), 
Schumann. The obsolete worthe, wright, survives in 
both Schubert and Schuchardt. To these may be added 
a few other odd compounds, such as Biengrdber, one 
who digs out wild bees, Gildemeister , guild master, 
Furbringer, " fore-bringer," i.e. attorney, Schwerdt- 
feger, sword polisher (Frobisher), Seidensticker, silk 
embroiderer, Saltsieder, salt boiler, Mussotter, jam 
boiler, Weissgerber, white tawer (Whittier), Leim- 
kuhler, glue cooler. As in England, some of the com- 
moner surnames of this class are from words now obso- 
lete, or refer to obsolete trades, such as Schroder, 
Schroter, Schroer, tailor (shredder), Kurschner, maker 
of pelisses (Pilcher), Kriiger, innkeeper, etc. 

Forming a transition from the occupative surname 
to the nickname, we have those names which are 
indicative of rank, office, etc., and which are seldom 
to be taken literally. 1 We find the same series in 
German as in other European languages, viz. among 
titles, Kaiser, Konig, Furst and Prinz, Herzog, with its 
Low German form Hartog, Graff (Markgraff, Landgraff), 

1 See chap. x. 
21 



300 GERMAN SURNAMES 

Ritter, Junker. Of a more official character are Kanzler 
(Chancellor), Richter (Judge), Probst (Provost), Vogt 
(Lat. vocatus), corresponding to our Bailey, Marschall, 
Hauptmann, Faehndrich (ensign) , Bur germeister. Among 
ecclesiastical nicknames are Papst, Bischoff, Abt, 
Pfaff, Monch, Roster (Sexton). Such names as Arm- 
bruster (Arblaster), Schiitz (Archer), Bartenwerffer, 
axe-thrower, may have been of occupative origin or 
nicknames due to the skill of their original owners. 
Some interesting surnames are of domestic origin. 
Such is Knecht, which has gone down in the world as its 
English cognate, Knight, has gone up, with its com- 
pounds, Gutknecht (Goodhind) and Liebknecht. Other 
names of this class are the very common Koch, Schenk, 
butler, " skinker," Hofmeister, steward, head- servant, 
Schatzmann, treasurer, Wackier, watchman (Waite), 
with its compound Saalwdchter (Hallward). 

It is possible within the limits of a chapter to give 
only brief indications for nicknames, in many ways 
the most interesting of all surnames. In German we 
find the equivalents of all our own common surnames 
of this class, together with a number of examples of 
a grotesqueness rare in modern English. The exist- 
ence of this latter class is partly due to the fact that 
German surnames, at least in some provinces, became 
hereditary at a much later date than in England, so 
that local wit has had less wear and tear to endure, 
and also to the fact that absurd names were often 
conferred forcibly on the Jews as late as the beginning 
of the nineteenth century. These latter I leave out 
of account. All the ordinary adjectives occur, e.g. 
Gross, Klein, Lang, Kurtz, Schwarz, Weiss, Roth, Griin, 
Hubsch (Pretty), Hesslich (ugly), Freeh, bold (Freake), 



NICKNAMES 301 

Frey, Kahl, bald (Callow), Kluge (Wise), Liebe (Leif), 
Ehrlich, honest, Frohlich (Merry), Wunderlich, 1 etc. 
The article which once accompanied these names has 
often survived in the Low German forms, e.g. de Witt 
(White), Devrient (Friend), de Beer (Bear), de Hoogh 
(High), etc. Most names of relationship also occur, e.g. 
Vater, Kind, Susskind, Liebeskind (Leif child), with the 
compound Kindesvater (Barnfather), Vetter (Cousins), 
Neef (Neave), Brdutigam, Ohm (Eames), Wittwer. 

Compounds descriptive of appearance are Breitkopf 
(Broadhead), Grosskopf (Greathead), Krauskopf, 
Kraushaar (Crisp), Gelhaar (Fairfax), Schwartzkopf* 
(Blackett), Widderkop (Ramshead, Weatherhead), and 
similar compounds of the alternative Haupt, such as 
Breithaupt, etc. ; Bar fuss (Barfoot), Katzfuss, Breitfuss 
(Broadfoot), Leichtfuss (Lightfoot), Langbein (Lang- 
bain), Krummbein (Cruikshank), Rehbein, roe leg (cf. 
Sheepshanks), Holbein (hollow), Gansauge, goose-eye, 
Dunnebacke, thin cheek, Dickhaut, thick hide, Harnack, 
obstinate (hard neck). Sometimes the physical feature 
is emphasized without an accompanying adjective, e.g. 
Haupt, Kopf (Head), Faust (Fist), Zahn (Tooth). From 
costume come Mantel, Weissmantel, Ledderhose* Lein- 
hos, Beckenhube (Basnett), Rothermel, red sleeve, Panzer, 
hauberk (Habershon), and many others. 

Birds, beasts, and fishes are well represented, especi- 
ally birds, e.g. Adler (Eagle), Geyer, vulture, Fink, 
Strauss, ostrich, Storch, Pfau (Peacock), Elster (Pye), 

1 Cf. Nicholas le Merveleus (Pat. R.). 

* It is curious that the Germans use the Schwartzkopff torpedo 
and we the Whitehead. 

3 Cf. John Letherhose (Hund R.}, Richard Goldhose (ib.}, and the 
famous Ragnar Lodbrog, hairy breeches. 



302 GERMAN SURNAMES 

Falcke, Habicht (whence Habsburg), Halm (Cock), 
Rebhuhn (Partridge), Specht, wood-pecker (Speight), 
Taube, though this last, like Taubmann, may belong to 
taub, deaf, Wildegans (Wildgoss), etc. These, like the 
corresponding English surnames, were sometimes 
taken from the signs of houses. The same applies to 
animal nicknames such as Lowe, Wolff, Fuchs, LG. 
Voss, Hase (Hare), Eichhorn (Squirrel), Hirsch (Hart), 
Kalb, Schaff, etc. Among fish-names may be mentioned 
Hecht (Pike), Kaulbars (Perch), Stock fisch, Krebs 
(Crabbe), but these names are, for obvious reasons, 
less numerous than those of birds and quadrupeds. 

The two smallest classes of nicknames are those 
connected with coins and exclamations, represented in 
English by such names as Penny (p. 177) and Pardoe 
(p. 182). Both classes exist in German, e.g. Hundert- 
mark (cf. Mrs. Centlivre), Pfundheller, Weisspfennig, 
Schilling, Funf schilling, Fun/stuck, and Gottbehut, God 
forbid, Gotthelf, Gottwaltz, God rule it. With these may 
be mentioned a number of abstract nouns which 
probably became surnames at the period of the pre- 
dominance of allegory (see p. 217), such as Freude 
(Joy), Gluck (Luck), Dienst (Service), Andacht (Wor- 
ship), Wohlfart (Welfare), etc. 

All the seasons are represented, viz. Fmhling or Lenz, 
Sommer, Herbst (Harvest), and Winter, also most of the 
days of the week, the commonest being Sonntag and 
Freytag, and the feasts of the church, e.g. Ostertag, 
Pfingst (Pentecost), Weihnacht (Christmas). Then we 
have descriptive compounds such as Wolzogen, well- 
bred, Ansorg, Ohnesorg, Kleinsorg (Careless), Juden- 
feind, Jew-hater, Burenfeind, peasant-hater, Siissen- 
guth, sweet and good (cf. Peter Richeangod, Pat. R.) ; 



THE SHAKESPEARE TYPE 303 

some names taken from the vegetable world, e.g. 
Knobloch (Gar lick), Wermuth (Wormwood), Rubsamen, 
rape-seed, Stroh (Straw), Erbsmehl, pea-meal, Gersten- 
korn (Barleycorn), etc. ; and quite a number dealing 
with articles of food, usually preceded by an adjec- 
tive, e.g. Siissmilch, Sauerbrei (broth), and especially 
the numerous compounds of Brot and Bier, such as 
Weissbrodt(WhiibTea.d), Casembrood, cheese and bread, 
Roggenbrod (rye), Truckenbrod (dry), etc., and Gutbier, 
Bosbier, Sauerbier, Zuckerbier, etc., most of which have 
English parallels. 

Lastly, we have the large group of phrase-names, con- 
sisting of a verb followed by a noun or an adverb, such 
as our Shakespeare and Golightly (ch. xii). There 
are probably several hundreds of these in German, 
almost all of which can be paralleled by modern English 
names, or by others which, though recorded in our 
Rolls, are now obsolete. Some of these are warlike, 
e.g. Schuttespeer (Shakespeare), Haueisen (Taillefer), 
Hauenschild, Zuckschwerdt, draw sword, 1 occasionally 
with the verb following, as in Eisenbeiss (Mangefer), 
Manesse, man-eater, ogre. Sporleder, spur leather, 
was probably a Hotspur, Rumschottel* clear dish, a 
glutton, Irrgang a wanderer, Liesegang a Golightly. 
Regedanz, start dance, and Liebetanz explain themselves. 
Puttkamer, clean room, was a Chamberlain. Common 
surnames belonging to this class are Klinkhammer, 
Pochhammer and Schwinghammer, Schnapauff, snap up, 
Schlagentweit, strike into the distance, Fullgrabe, fill 
ditch, Fullkntg (Filpot), Macheprang, make show, 
Kiesewetter, discern weather, Kerruth, turn out, Hebe- 

1 Cf. Henry Draweswerd (Hund. R.) 

2 Cf. Terricus Wide-escuele, i.e. vide-ecuelle (Pachnio). 



304 GERMAN SURNAMES 

streit, start quarrel (cf. p. 254, n. 2), Habenicht, have 
nought, Furchtenicht, fear nought, Findeisen, find iron, 
SMuckebier, swallow beer, Schmeckebier, taste beer, 
Trinkwasser (Drinkwater), etc. With these cf. the 
obsolete English examples on pp. 270-7. 

In conclusion, it may be said that there is simply 
no limit to the eccentricity of nicknames, though their 
interpretation is often a matter of conjecture. The 
German name Alleweldt, 1 all the world, has Middle 
English parallels Tutlemund and Altheworld. It is 
hard to see why a man should be nicknamed Lindequist, 
lime twig (originally Swedish), but this well-known 
German name is surpassed in minuteness by the French 
name Brindejonc. The names mentioned in this chapter 
all come, with the exception of a few of special interest 
at the present moment, from a recent German navy 
list, and are in no way to be regarded as peculiar or 
exceptional. 2 A few other miscellaneous examples 
from the same source are Rohwedder (Fouweather, 
p. 235, n. i), Trurnit, grieve not, Mdgdefrau, maid wife, 
Ehrenkonig, honour the King, Vogelgesang, Morgenrot 
(Dawn), Krdnzlin (Garland), Hufnagel (Horsnail), 
Buttersack (see p. 167), Luchterhand, left hand, 8 Neunzig 
(see p. 179), Hochgeschurz, high kilted, Handewerk, 
Gutjahr (Goodyear), Hunerfurst, prince of Huns, Teufel 

1 In Middle High German this phrase seems to have been used 
as an exclamation of joy and wonder. Walther von der Vogelweide, 
when after long waiting he received a fief from the Kaiser of his day 
(1220), commenced his hymn of thanks with the line 

" Ich han min lehen, al die werlt ! ich han min lehen." 

* Most of them enjoy the hospitality of the London Commercial 
Directory (1913). 

8 Cf . Sinister, OF. senestre, left-handed, awkward [Simon Senestre, 
of Dieppe, Close R.}. Lefthand is a ME. name. 



LATINISMS AND GRECISMS 305 

and its compound Manteuffel, man devil, the latter 
an honourable name in German military history before 
the destruction of Lou vain. 

At the period of the Renaissance it was a very usual 
practice for men of learning to latinize or hellenize 
their names. The case of Melanchthon (Greek for 
Schwarzerd) will occur to the reader. We have a few 
examples in English, e.g. Torrens (Brook), Pontifex 
(Pope), Sutor, shoemaker, etc. Such names are much 
commoner in German. Well-known examples are 
Neander (Neumann), Sarkander (Fleischmann), Tre- 
viranus (of Trier), Curtius (Kurz), Vulpius (Fuchs), 
Fabricius (Schmidt), Pistorius (Becker), Avenarius 
(Habermann), Textor (Weber), Sartorius (Schneider). 
There is actually a Gygas in the list from which I have 
compiled this chapter. Even the Brown, Jones, and 
Robinson of Germany, viz. Miiller, Meyer, and Schultz, 
sometimes appear glorified as Molinari, Agricola, and 
Prdtorius, and there is a contemporary Prussian 
court chaplain Dryander whose ancestors were named 
Eichmann. 



CHAPTER XV 

DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

" En histoire, il faut se r6soudre a beaucoup ignorer " 

(ANATOLE FRANCE). 

AN esteemed correspondent writes to the author that, 
owing to the many and various side-possibilities in 
etymology, he is inclined to think that the origins 
of most surnames are mere guesses, and that the whole 
study can only be regarded as a game or an amusement. 
He seems to me both right and wrong. It is perfectly 
easy to show, by irrefutable evidence, the derivation 
of the great majority of surnames, but it is at the 
same time impossible to say to the individual, " Your 
name comes from so-and-so," unless that individual 
has a pedigree dating back to the Middle Ages. To 
take a simple example, there can be no doubt as to 
the origin of the three names Cordery, rope-walk 
[John de la Corderie, Cal. Gen.], Cordurey, king's heart 
[Hugh Queorderey, Fine R.], Cowdery, Fr. coudraie, 
hazel copse [William de la Coudray, ib.]. But to any- 
one familiar with medieval orthography it is quite 
certain that these three names have been commonly 
confused, especially when borne by the peasant class, and 
there are modern variants such as Caudery, Cordaray, 

306 



SUBSIDIARY SOURCES OF SIMPLE NAMES 307 

Cowderoy, which one would be shy of assigning definitely 
to either of the three etymons. Hence we may say 
that, in the matter of the individual name, etymological 
certainty is possible, while genealogical certainty is 
problematical. Moreover, there are many common 
names which have several well-attested etymologies, 
and others that have a subsidiary origin which would 
never occur to superficial observation. 

What, for instance, could be simpler than Butcher, 
Child, Cross, Harrison, Nicholl, Stone, Wills, and 
Wood ? Yet each of these has been reinforced from 
sources only known to the scientific explorer. Butcher 
has nearly absorbed Butchart, a common Middle English 
font-name, which comes to us via Old French from 
OG. Burghart, castle strong. This would become 
Butcher as inevitably as Punchard, 1 Fr. Ponsard [Simon 
Ponzard, Fine R.], has given Puncher. Child is occa- 
sionally local [Margery atte Child, Pat. R., Suss., 
Thomas Attechild, Hund. R., Kent]. This is the 
Norse keld, a spring, as in Salkeld, whence Sawkill, 
which in the south took the form <f child." Hence also 
Honey child* from a spot in Romney Marsh. Cross, 
usually local, is also a nickname [Robert le Cros, IpM.], 

1 Hence also Pinkhard or Pinkett (cf. Everard, Everett) and 
Pinker. Cf. Pinkerton from Pontchardon (Orne) [William de 
Pontcardun, Fine R.~\, see p. 130 n. 

* Apparently " honey spring." There are a good many names in 
Honey-, some from specific place-names, e.g. Honeybourne (Honeybun, 
Hunnyburi), Honey church, Honeycomb, and others, e.g. Honey sett, 
Honeywell, Honeywood, which correspond to no known locality. I 
have a suspicion that in some cases this Honey- is an alteration of the 
much more natural Holy-, a phonetic change common in both place- 
names and surnames. The EDD. gives " Honeyfathers ! " as an 
expression of surprise used in Yorkshire, and explains it as " sweet 
saints." Is it not rather " holy saints " ? 



308 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

an alteration of Fr. gros. 1 Harrison has swallowed up 
the medieval nickname herisson, hedge-hog [William 
Herizun, Testa de Nev.]. Hence also Hear son, while 
Harsum, Hearsom, Hersom may belong here or to the 
ME. hearsum, ready to hear, obedient. By an odd 
metathesis the Normans transformed Lincoln into 
Nicol,of very common occurrence in medieval chronicles, 
hence Nicholl, Nicoll is often local [Alured de Nicol, 
Close R., Thomas de Nichole, Hund. R.]. Stone, 
usually local, is sometimes short for one of the Anglo- 
Saxon names in Stan-, such as Stancytel, Stangrim, 
Stanheard, etc. [Robert Ston, Ramsey Cart.]. This 
applies also of course to Stanes, Staines. Wills is 
sometimes a variant of Wells [John atte Wille, Pat. R.]. 
Hence Atwill, Honey will, Twills (p. 50). Wood is 
often a nickname from the obsolete wood, mad [Peter 
le Wod, Pat. R., Robert le Wode, Close R.] ; cf. Robert 
le Madde (Lane. Court R. 1323-4), Ralph Badintheheved 
(Hund. R.). This is also one origin of Woodman-, 
cf. Alexander Wodeclerc (Close R.), i.e. the crazy 
priest, and Walter Wodeprest (Malmesbury Abbey 
Reg.). Wallis, Welch, etc. may occasionally mean 
French, as the early Norman settlers before the Con- 
quest were called walisc by the English (see Romance 
of Words, p. 151). Even the ubiquitous and simple 
Smith is sometimes local, of the smeeth, or plain (see 
Athersmith, p. 50), and is also a nickname, the 
" smooth " [Philip le Smethe, Hund. R.]. Cf. Smeath- 
man. It need hardly be said that some Thompsons 
come from Thompson (Norf.), an example of 's ton 

1 Hence also the adj. coarse, earliest form COYS, a metathesis of 
cros. Every shade of meaning in which coarse is employed has a 
parallel in gross and Fr. gros. 



MANY ORIGINS OF ONE NAME 309 

becoming -son (see p. 240), while others represent the 
baptismal dims. Thomasin, Thomasine [Bartholomew 
Thomasyn, City F.]. 

These examples show sufficiently that even the 
simplest and commonest surnames are sometimes less 
simple than they look. But in some cases the multi- 
plicity or choice of origins is quite obvious. The 
common name Burnett may be (i) baptismal, for Bur- 
nard, Bernard, AS. Beornheard, (2) a nickname, dim. 
of brown, or from the material called burnet (see p. 154), 
(3) a nickname, "brown head" (see p. 128), (4) local, 
at the " burn head," cf. Beckett, (5) local, at the " burn 
gate" (see p. 91). It has also interchanged freely 
with Barnett, which is generally of identical origin. 
The rather less common Burnell may be for Beorn weald 
[Simon Bernald, Pat. R.], Beornhild [Geoff rey Burnild, 
Hund. R.], Beornwulf [Geoffrey Burnolf, Fine R.], 
from "burn hill" [Richard de Burnhul, Pat. R.], or 
it may be a nickname from " brown " [Burnellus 
Venator, Doc. III.], in which sense it is used indiffer- 
ently with the preceding name [Alan Burnell or Burnet, 
Pat. R.]. Probably in the case of these two names all 
the origins indicated are represented by the existing 
surname. But, if we take the rather uncommon Burret, 
we find that the possible etymologies are hardly less 
numerous. Is it, for instance, for Burrard, from an 
Anglo-Saxon name in Burg-, such as Burgweard, Burg- 
heard, Burgweald, all well attested in the Rolls, or for 
" boar head " [Robert Burheved, Fine R.], or for the 
" bower head " [Walter de la Burethe, Hund. R.] ? 
In the case of so uncommon a name it is probable that 
one only of these prototypes is represented. 

There are, however, many well-diffused names which, 



310 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

like Burnett, have several clear origins. Such is Low, 
generally local, at the " low," 1 or mound [Ralph de la 
Lowe, Hund. R.], probably also at the " lough/' and 
also a nickname, the wolf [William le Lou, City B.] . The 
existence of High and Bass shows that the entry " le 
lowe " is often for the English adjective, and Low is 
also one of the shortened forms of Lawrence ; hence 
Lowson. Drew is from the name Drogo, OF. Dru, of 
uncertain origin [Drogo f. Ponz, DB.], and is also a 
nickname from OF. dru, which has two meanings, viz. 
" lover " and " sturdy " [John le Dreu, Hund. R.]. It 
is occasionally an aphetic form of Andrew. Druce is 
the same as the above, from OF. Drues, the nom. 
case of the name Drogo, or for the patronymic Drews. 
It is also local, of Dreux (Eure-et-Loire), in which case 
it may represent the name of the town [Herman de 
Drewes, DB.] or the adjective formed from it [Hugh 
le Drueis, Close R.]. 

Angell and Angle [Robert en le Aungle, Fine R.] 
have been confused, to the advantage of the former, 
which is both a pageant nickname (see p. 209) and a 
personal name [Angel Clericus, Malmesbury Abbey 
Reg.]. But these names also represent a contracted 
form of the Norse Ankettle [Henry Angetil or Angel, 
Pat. R] ; cf. the contractions of Thurkettle (p. 31). 
Wynn has three origins, Welsh gwyn, white, fair, AS. 
wine, friend, or the same word as an element in such 
personal names as Winfrey, Winward, etc. (p. 43). Hogg 
is a nickname [Alice le Hog, Hund. R.], B. variant of 
Hough? i.e. hill [Richard del Hog, Writs of Parl.], a 

1 In the north Law. 

2 Cf. Cape la Hogue and the hillock called Hooghe at the point 
of the famous Ypres salient. 



ALTERNATION OF G- AND W- 311 

variant of Hugh or How [Hogge the neldere, Piers 
Plowm., variant readings, Hugh the nedelere, Houwe 
the neldere 1 ]. Ware is local, for Weir, also from AS. 
war a, a common Domesday word used for an out- 
lying part of a manor, 2 and is a nickname, the " ware/' 
or wary [Adam le War, Feet of Fines] 

" A Sergeant of the Lawe, war and wys " (Chauc. A. 309). 

There is also no reason why it should not come from 
ware, merchandise. Marchandise is a fairly common 
French surname and is found also in our records [Ralph 
Marchaundise, Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-78]. 

The above are simple cases which require no philo- 
logical knowledge. Less obvious is the double origin 
of the series Gale, Gales, Gall, Gaul, Gallon. The first 
is from " gaol " and the second from Wales, Fr. Galles, 
but all are also baptismal [John Gale, Pleas, Thomas 
Galyen, ib.], from an OF. Gal, Galon, which is OG. 
Walo, short for some name such as Walter. Both the 
G- and W- forms are found in Old French [Galo or 
Walo, Bishop of Paris, Ramsey Cart.]. Thus the above 
series of names are sometimes identical with Wale, 
Wales, Wall, Waule, W alien [Richard f . Wale or Wales, 
Pipe R.]. Gales has a further possible origin, of 
Galicia [Piers Galicien, Exch. R., John de Galiz, ib.] 

" Of tydynges in Wales 
And of Sainct James in Gales " 

(Skelton, Elynour Rummyng, 354). 

Similar cases are Gass, Gash, Gaze, Gasson 8 [Robert 

1 See p. 166. 

2 See Round, Feudal England, pp. 115-7. 

3 The forms in -on are the Old French accusative. 



3 i2 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

Gace, 1 Pat. R.] for Wace, Wass, Wash, Wason. They 
come from OG. Waso, which belongs to the adj. 
hwas, sharp [Walter Wasce, Feet of Fines, Richard 
Wason, IpM.]. Forms of this adjective are still in 
English dial, use, and the name Wass is consequently 
also a nickname [Henry le Was, IpM.]. Finally, like 
Wash, it is local, from ME. wase, ooze, pool, whence 
specifically the Wash [Richard atte Wase, Hund. R., 
Norf.]. So also Gate, Gates may be identical with 
Waite, i.e. watchman, from the OF. gaite [Adam le Gayt 
or de la Geyte, Exch. R.]. 

Less complicated are the four origins of Perry, (i) for 
Peter or Pierre, (2) for Peregrine, (3) for Welsh Parry, 
i.e. ap Harry, (4) local, at the pear-tree, ME. pirie, 
whence also Pirie, Pury [Alexander atte Pery, City F. t 
Richard de la Pirie, Hund R.] 

" And thus I lete hym sitte upon the pyrie, 
And Januarie and May romynge myrie " 

(Chauc. E. 2217). 

There is scarcely a common surname, except those 
of easily understood frequency, like Baker, Green, 
Field, etc., which could not be dealt with in the same 
way, and, at the risk of wearying the reader, I will give 
a few more examples. Garland is certified as a nick- 
name by the synonymous Ger. Krantz, Krdnzl. 
It may have been taken from the sign of an inn 

" The Garland in Little East Cheape, sometime a brewhouse " 
(Stow). 

In the north it runs parallel with Gartland, i.e. the 
" garth land." It was also a personal name [Bartholo- 

1 Menage refers to Wace the chronicler as Gasse. Swash is the 
same name with prefixed S- [Guacio or Swacio de Limeriis, Salisb. 
Cart.]. 



NAMES IN HAN- 313 

mew f. Gerland, Pipe R.], perhaps originally a nick- 
name from OF. grailler, to cry hoarsely, croak, etc., 
which would explain its use as a dog's name in Chaucer. 
Cf. also Richard James called Greylond (Lond. Wills). 
The commonest source of Ray is probably OF. rei, a 
king. It is also for Rae, the northern form of the 
animal nickname Roe, and we cannot doubt that it is 
often for the local Wray (p. 84) and Ree (p. 71), and is 
also a costume nickname (p. 154). Swan is a nickname 
[Hugh le Swon, Hund. R., Walter le Cigne, Close R.]. 
It also represents AS. swan, herdsman, which we have 
replaced by the Norse cognate swain. This word, 
in its poetic sense of warrior, was an element in 
personal names [Swan f. Robert, Fine R.]. Finally, 
Henry atte Swan, of St. Osith, keeper of Queenhithe 
and collector of murage in London (Pat. R. 1319), 
was perhaps the owner of the hostelry which gave its 
name to Old Swan Pier. 

March is local, at the " march," or boundary, besides 
of course coming specifically from March (Camb.) or La 
Marche in France [Richard de la Marche, hermit of 
Charing, Pat. R.]. It has also been confused with 
Marsh, which has got the better of the exchanges [John 
atte Marche or Mersshe, City E.], and is a variant of 
the font-name Mark [March Draper, City A., Mark le 
Draper, City C.]. Hann, Hancock, Hankin, Hanson 
are rightly connected by Bardsley with Flemish forms 
of John. Camden, with equal correctness, says that 
Hann is for Rann (Randolph) ; cf. Hob from Robert, 
Hick from Richard. But Hanne or Henry of Leverpol 
(Lane. Inq. 1310-33) shows a third, and perhaps chief, 
origin. The harassed reader will be tempted to conclude 
that any name can come from anything, nor will he be 



314 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

far wrong. I was lately asked whether Dobson waJ 
derived from the French place-name Aubusson. TherJ 
is no reason why it should not be, if it can be shown 
that any d'Aubussons ever settled in England. But] 
Robert is a safer etymon. 

In the case of a great number of names we observJ 
a simple double origin, without being able to regarJ 
either as predominant. Such are Agate, " atte gatei' 
or Agatha, Rudge, Fr. rouge or dial, nidge, a ridgqj, 
Wild, " le wild " or " atte wilde," Coy, of Quy (CambJ 
[John de Coye, 1 Pat. R., Camb.] or the " coy " [Walt M 
le Coye, Pat. R.]. Agnew comes from Agneaux (ManchJ 
[John de Aygneaus, Chart. R.] and is a nickname, Fij. 
agneau [Richard Agnel, Pat. R.}; cf. the commoii 
French surnames Lagneau, Lagnel, Laignel, Laignelem 
etc. Vale is local and also from Fr. veille , watch, whijfl 
Veal is both OF. le viel, the old [Adam le Viel, Lib. RM 
and le vel, the calf [Richard le Vel, City B.], and if 
course Vale and Veal are themselves now hopelessrjl 
mixed up. 

The above are simple examples in which the double 
origin appears on the surface, but there are others less 
obvious. Gower is sometimes from the Glamorgan 
district so named [William de Goar, Pleas'], but morJ 
often from a personal name Gohier [Goher de Alnetoj 
Chart. JR.], which comes through Old French from OGJ 
Godehar ; it is thus a doublet of the native Goodia, 
Goodair, etc., AS. Godhere. The name has a possible 
third derivation from a shortened form of OF. goherier, 
a harness maker [Ernald le Goher, Close R^. With 
Gower may be mentioned Power, generally the " poor,*! 

1 He seems to have been an important person. I find him also 
as de Quoye and de Queye. 



DOUBLE ORIGINS 315 

but also from OF. Pokier, a Picard [Randulf Puherius, 
Pipe R., Roger le Poher, Fine R.]. Tyson is explained 
by Bardsley as a form of Dyson, 1 from Dionysius or 
Diana, and, when we note the swarms of Tysons 
who, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, 
confront the innumerable Dysons of the West Riding, 
there can be no doubt that this is correct. But the 
first Tyson on record was Gilbert Tison (DB.), who 
came over with the Conqueror 

" Gysbright Tysoun fut le primer des Tysouns " (Percy Cart.). 

His name was no doubt a nickname from Fr. tison, 
a firebrand ; cf. our Carbonnel and Fr. Charbonneau.* 
Mould, Mold, Moule are old forms of Maude. Stow 
mentions Henry Fitzwarin and "Dame Molde his 
wife," the parents of Lady Richard Whittington. But 
these names also represent dialect forms of the animal 
nickname Mole 

" Paid the mould catcher, 2 " (Nott. Bor. Rec. 1724). 

Bruton is local (Som.) and also for le Breton [John 
le Brutun, Hund. R.] ; cf. Bruttner (p. 216). Gibbons, 
usually from Gilbert or Gib, comes sometimes from 
Gobion (Gubbins), an Old French name belonging to 

1 The change is common ; cf . Tennyson and Denison, both from 
Dionysius (Denis) . The Welsh Denbigh and Tenby both represent 
the " Dane bye." 

2 Our Littlecole is doubtful. It may be formed like Fr. Petinicol. 
The Normans inherited from their Scandinavian ancestors a love 
of trivial and crude nicknames, and some of the proudest names in 
English history are of undignified origin, e.g. Marmion, now found 
also as Marmon, Marment, is OF. marmion, equivalent to modern 
marmot, monkey, brat. There is another OF. marmion, supposed 
to mean " marmot," but it is of no great antiquity and would not of 
course be a Norman name. 

22 






3i6 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

OG. Godbrecht. This is found as Norman Gubii 
[Richard Gubiun or Gibiun, Pleas] ; cf. ribbon, rubai 
Similarly Higgins belongs perhaps as much to Hugj 
as to Hick (Richard) . Gainer, Gaynor, Ganner iaT~ 
cupative (see Augagneur, p. 287), and is also a varianj 
form of Guinevere 

" And Dame Gaynour, his quene, 
Was somewhat wanton, I wene " 

(Skelton, Phyllyp Sparowe, 636). 

Geary, Jeary is short for one of the Anglo-Saxon nam< 
in Gar-, or from one of the cognate Old French namei 
As Geri it was the name of one of the paladins. It ij 
occasionally a nickname [John le Gery, Hund. RJ]\ 
from an obsolete adjective meaning uncertain, change 
able 

" Right so kan geery Venus overcaste 
The hertes of hir folk ; right as hir day 
Is gereful, right so chaungeth she array " 

(Chauc. A. 1535). 

Sometimes we find that an extremely rare name hai 
more than one legitimate claimant. The name Godsam 
reached the author from a regimental mess, where thl 
bearer was known as the " national anthem." This 
interesting surname, found also as Godsiff, represent 
the Middle English phrase " o' God's half/' properrd 
" on God's behalf/' but generally used as a kindfj 
exclamation. In one of the Chester Plays Noah 
to his wife 



" Wiffe, come in ! why standes thou their ? 
Thou art ever frowarde, I dare well sweare. 
Come in, one. Codes halfe \ tyme it were, 
For fear leste that we drowne." 



Thomas Agodshalf, whose name is latinized as depat 



RARE NAMES 317 

Dei, l married a sister of Becket, Walter a Godeshalf lived 
in Sussex in the thirteenth century (Cust. Battle Abbey), 
de Godeshalf and Godsalve are found among the 
Freemen of York, Thomas Godsalve, whose portrait 
by Holbein can be seen at Dresden, was Registrar of 
the Consistory Court of Norwich in the sixteenth 
century, Godsawfe is found in Notts in the seventeenth 
century, and in fact the name is well attested in various 
parts of England up to comparatively recent times, 
and very likely still flourishes in some remote spot. 
Nothing would seem clearer than that this should be 
the origin of Godsave. But, on the other hand, it may 
be simply " God save " ; cf. the many names of that 
type given on p. 181, some of which were even used as 
font-names [Deulesalt 2 f. Jacob, Pipe R.] nearly five 
centuries before the Puritan eccentricities. Chaucer, 
which still exists as Chauser, is usually said to come 
from OF. chauceor, a maker of leathern hose, very 
common in the Rolls, and Baldwin le Chaucer de Cord- 
wanerstrete 8 (City B.) seems conclusive. But the 
modern Chauser may equally well represent the ME. 
chauffe-cire, heat wax, a name for a Chancery official 
[Ellis le Chaufesire, Pat. R.]. See NED., s.v. chaff-wax, 
and Ducange, calefactor cera 

" Chauffe-cire, a chafe-wax, in the Chancerie " (Cotg.). 

It could also quite well represent a "chalicer." 

Anger is a personal name, Fr. Angier, OG. Ansgar 
(p. 30) [Ansger solus, DB.]. It is also derived from 

1 See Depardeu (p. 181). Probably some of our Par dews are 
simply French versions of Godsave. 
z Diotisalvi is an Italian name. 
3 For cordwainer see p. 172 



3i8 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

Angers, whence also Ainger, while it can hardly be 
excluded from the great class of abstract nicknames 
(pp. 216-224) ; cf. Ger. Zorn. Bottle seems to be a rare 
name, but, in addition to ME. botel, a building, house, 
it has ancestors in the shape of Anglo-Saxon names in 
Bod- [Botild or BotilHod, Hund. R., Robert Buthewlf, 1 
Chart. R.]. Bellasis is local [Robert de Beleassise, 
F. of Y.], from Bellasis (Northumb.) or Bellasize 
(Yorks), both of French formation 8 ; but there is a 
font-name Belle-assez, fair enough [Beleassez Judaea, 
Pipe R.], which is not uncommon in Middle English 
and would give the same result. With this cf. Good- 
enough, Goodnow [William Godynogh, Pat. R.], White- 
now, Oldknow, Thomas Fairynowe (Pat. R.), Richard 
Langynou (Fine R.), and even Woodnough, i.e. mad 
enough (p. 308). Lew, already explained (p. 66) as 
local, is also a variant of Low, wolf (p. 310). The 
full Leleu is still found in Devon. Nothard may be 
the " neat-herd " [Nicholas le Noutehird, F. of Y.] or 
the AS. Notheard, valour strong. Fear has alternative 
origins from ME. fer, fierce, proud (Fr. fier), and fere, 
a companion, as in Play fair, and of course has been 
confused with Fair. 

Stut field is authentically derived from fitoutteville 
(Seine-Inl), with the regular substitution of -field for 
-mile [Helewin de Estuteville, Fine R.], but it can also 
be for " stot-field," from ME. stot, a nag, bullock 
[John de Stotfold, Chart. R.]. Trist is short for Tris- 
tram and alternatively local, at the " tryst " [Peter 
atte Treste, Hund. R.], the earliest meaning of which 
is connected with hunting. Cue is the cook, ME. 

1 Botolph, whence Boston, Botolf's town. 

2 Cf. Belsize, London. 



UNSUSPECTED SOURCES 319 

le keu, from Old French, but there is a Sc. McCue, for 
MacHugh, which would inevitably become Cue l in 
England. Suddard is a dialect form of the local 
Southward and a Scotch form of Fr. soudard, a soldier. 
Bew is usually Welsh ap Hugh (Pugh), but also a French 
nickname representing a later form than the more 
common Bell [Peter le Beus, 8 Leic. Bor. Rec.]. Uzzell 
probably represents both AS. Osweald and OF. oisel 
(oiseau), whence also Lazell, Layzell, Fr. Loisel. The 
antithetic Fair foul might be for " fair fowl," for " fear- 
ful," or for " fair field," each derivation being legitimate 
and easily paralleled, but it may also have its face 
value, as a nickname applied to a man of contrasts ; 
cf. Roger Fulfayr (Hund. R.), who may, however, have 
been " full fair." 

Finally, we have the case of a name of obvious and 
certain origin which has an unexpected subsidiary 
source. Some striking examples were given at the 
beginning of the chapter. Hull and Pool are evidently 
local, the former being a variant of ' ' hill ' ' 

" On a May morwenyng on Malverne hulles " 

(Piers Plowm. C. i. 6). 

But Hull was a common font-name in Lancashire 
[Adam f. Hul, Lane. Inq. 1310-33, Hull f. Robert, ib.], 
hence Fitzhull. No doubt it is for Hulbert, an Old 
French name cognate with AS. Holdbeorht, gracious 
bright. Pool is a common Anglo-French spelling 
of Paul, whence also Poll, Pollett, sometimes Powell 
and generally Powles. Arundell, Arndell, Arran- 

1 This is a common phenomenon, the aphetic name usually keep- 
ing the final -c of Mac, e.g. Cawley, Callister, dish, etc. So also we 
find Carty for the Irish Macarthy, while Casement is for Mac-Esmond. 

2 This -5 is the OF. nominative. 



320 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

dale are obviously from Arundell (Suss.), but Osbert 
Arundel * (Rievaulx Cart. c. 1140) was named from 
OF. arondel, a swallow. Beaver, Beevor, etc. show 
the usual pronunciation of Belvoir (Leic.) and have no 
connection with an animal which was extinct in 
England long before the surname period. But John le 
Bevere (Fine R.), like Geoffrey le Buver (Close R.) t 
was a thirsty soul, though not necessarily to be classed 
with William Aydrunken (Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79). 
Bourne is generally local, from Fr. borne, a boundary, 
no doubt often confused with burn. It is also a nick- 
name, the one-eyed * [Walter le Borne, Pipe R., Peter 
Monoculus, Exch. R.], still common in France as 
Leborgne. 

Other examples of reinforced local names are Tower, 
sometimes the " tawer," leather dresser [Gilbert le 
Tower, Hund. R.], and My ear? OF. mire, the physician 

" Je sui malade a mort, si requier vostre aie, 
Que my ere ne me puet aidier par sa clergie " 

(OF. poem, .i4th cent.). 

Buxton is occasionally a personal name [Ailric Bucstan, 
Pipe R.], of the same type as Wulfstan. Venn, usually 
for the local Fenn [Nicholas Dibbe of la Venne, IpM., 

1 It is exceptional to find bird nicknames preceded by the article. 

* The vowel change is regular ; cf . beef, people, retrieve, etc. Or 
rather, in this case, we have kept the original vowel, the French 
u being due to lalialization. 

3 The earliest meaning was probably " squinting." Hence 
Leborgne may be rather Strabo than Codes. 

4 Myer, Myers is generally local, at the " mire," and in modern 
times often stands for Ger. Meyer. OF. mire, a doctor, perhaps 
became a popular nickname in connection with the quack doctor of 
the medieval drama. It is a very common entry (mire, meir, meyre), 
and has evidently been confused with Mair, Mayor. In fact it is 
likely that many of the latter spring from mire. It is hardly neces- 
sary to say that the local Mears (p. 68) is also implicated. 



REINFORCED BAPTISMAL NAMES 321 

Som.] is also baptismal, probably for Vincent [William 
f. Venne, Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. Over is ME. overe, 
bank, sea-shore, whence several English place-names. 
In Middle English it seems to be used chiefly as a 
rime for Dover. The surname Over, whence also Owers, 
is also occupative, from OF. ovier, an egg-merchant 
[Thurstan le Over or Ovarius or Owarius, Leic. Bor. 
Rec.]. 

The above are examples of local surnames which 
have other subsidiary origins. Baptismal surnames 
have been similarly reinforced from other sources. 
Even the simple Adam is sometimes local, " atte dam " ; 
cf. Agate, Adeane, etc. Willis has encroached on 
Willows [Andrew in le Wylies, Percy Cart.]. I have 
already suggested (p. 232) that Hugh may sometimes 
represent AS. hiwa, a servant. It is also, like Hogg, 
a variant of the local Hough [William del Hughe, 
F. of y.]. In fact Hugh, Hough, How, Hogg are so 
mixed up that a small chapter would be required to 
elucidate their history. Hitch, usually for Richard, is 
occasionally local [Richard Attehiche, Hund. R.], 
probably a variant of "hatch" or "hutch." The 
derivative Hitcheon, from Fr. Huchon (Hutchin), dim. 
of Hugh, suggests that the Hitch- group, like the 
Hig- group, belongs to Hugh as well as Richard. Bellis, 
having its home in North Wales, is clearly ab Ellis, 
but it is also a variant of Bellhouse (see p. 96). Bryan 
and Bryanson are both occasionally local, from Brienne, 
a common French place-name [Guy de Briane, Fine R.] t 
and Brian on [Bartholomew de Brianzun, ib."\. Neale, 
which represents the font-name Nigel and also the Norse 
Niel, i.e. Nicholas, is sometimes derived from Nesle 
(Somme) . The merchants of Amyas (Amiens), Neal and 



322 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

Corby, all now in the department of Somme, are often 
mentioned in City records and appear to have enjoyed 
special privileges. It is only natural that each town 
should have given an English surname. Catlin, whence 
also Galling, is usually from Catherine [William Cateline 
or Katelyn, Fine R.], and may even be a dim. of the 
Norse Kettle [Ketelinus le Fevre, Coram Rege R. 1297] ; 
but it also records stray Catalans, i.e. incomers from 
Catalonia [Arnold Catellan, Pat. R., John de Cateloyne 
or Catelyne, ib.] . Everett, besides representing Everard, 
AS. Eoforheard, almost certainly means " boar head " ; 
cf. Bullett and the other examples on p. 128. 

Here it may be noted that personal names in -ett, -itt 
are not always to be regarded as dims. In Tamsett 
we have merely the French dim. ending -et (Thomas-et), 
but in Hewett, Howill, Willelt, and many other names, 
the ending may be the usual reduction of -ard, so that 
they would be from Reward, Howard? Willard, rather 
than from the Hugh and Will which represent a first 
syllable shared by these names with other Anglo- 
Saxon names. 

An occupative name may also conceal one of the 
other classes. Metier, usually the "miller" 2 

" Monde the mulnere, var. mellere, and moni mo " 
(Piers Plowm. A. ii. 80) 



1 Howard has several origins, but the identity, as personal names, 
of the shortened How and Hew suggests that its chief origin is Fr. 
Huard, OG. Hugihart. Searle has neither Hygeheard nor Hyge- 
weard, but such names must have existed. 

2 It is interesting to note that, according to the NED., miller, 
meller, milner, mulliner are not ound before the fourteenth century. 
They are all, however, common as thirteenth-century surnames. 
The Anglo-Saxon term was mylenweard (Millward, Millar d}, really 
the official in charge of the lord's mill. In the Pat. R. occurs William 
le Wyndmylneward. 



REINFORCED OCCUPATIVE NAMES 323 

is also the " better " [John le Meillur, Chart. R.] ; cf. 
Fr. Meilleur, Ger. Besser, and our own Better [John le 
Bettre, Pat. R.]. Biddle, Bittle is not only for AS. 
by del, the beadle, but, its home being Gloucestershire, 
represents Welsh ab Ithel (whence Bethell, Bithell, 
etc.), the simplex being found in Wiltshire as Iddols. 
Ryder is obviously occupative, but the home of the 
name is North Wales, a country singularly unsuitgd 
for cavalry. Hence ifc must often be from a Welsh 
personal name [Mereduc f. Reder, Pat. R.]. Mawer, 
a " mower " [Thomas le Mawer e, Pat. R.], is in East 
Anglia a variant of the dial, mawther, a girl, in fact 
this is probably the usual origin of the name, which 
belongs chiefly to Lincolnshire 

" The old Mawther biled 'em, she did. Mrs. Gummidge biled 
'em " (David Copperfield, ch. vii.). 

Very common names such as Carter, Cooper, Tucker, 
easily swallow up uncommon names which have ceased 
to be understood. In Carter is almost lost Charter, 
which itself may have various origins, including that of 
Carthusian monk [Philip le Chartrar or le Carter or 
de Chartraas, 1 Salisb. Cart.]. Cooper, Couper, Cowper 
includes not only " cupper," but also Du. hooper, a 
merchant, lit. buyer, which we still have in horse-coper ; 
and the not uncommon Toutcoeur, all heart [Geoffrey 
Tutquor, Royal Let. Hen. III. 1216-35, William Tut- 
quere, F. of Y.] has been lost in Tucker. 

Even the obvious nickname has often a secondary 
source. I will take three examples only. Bird is 
from ME. brid, properly a young bird, 2 and used later 

1 Fr. Chartreuse, Eng. Charterhouse. 

8 For bird in general fowl was used, as in the Bible. 



324 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

of the young of other animals and even of children. 
In the fourteenth century it is used for maiden, by 
confusion with ME. burde, berde, and possibly also with 
bride, so that these words must also be considered 
in tracing the pedigree of the Birds 

" Thir breeks o' mine, my only pair, 
That ance were plush, o' guid blue hair, 
I wad hae gien them off my hurdies 
For ae blink o' the bom* burdies ! " 

(Tarn o'Shanter). 

Ruddick, found also as Rodick, Riddick, Reddick, etc., 
is an Anglo-Saxon dim. of the name Rudd, i.e. red, and 
in dialect is a name for the robin 

" The tame ruddok and the coward kyte " 

(Chauc. Parl. of Foules, 349). 

But Robert del Rowdick (Leic. Bor. Rec.}, whose name 
is clearly local, may have been the ancestor of some 
of the Ruddicks. Cox is one of our commonest sur- 
names, and represents Cocks, the simple Cock being of 
at least four origins, none of which will very well 
account for David atte Kokes (Hund. R., Norf.) and 
John del Cogges (Chesh. Chamb. Accts.). Apparently 
these names refer to the boat called a " cog " or " cock." 
For similar names see p. 171. The use of the plural is 
unusual, but cf . Hoyes, a common Lincolnshire surname, 
and Bates, sometimes an archaic northern form of 
" boat " [Adam del Bate, IpM.]. 

I had intended to have included in this volume 
a chapter on imitative name-forms, of which examples 
are to be found on almost every page of the book. But 
the subject is so vague and endless and so unsuited 
for methodical treatment that I will only mention a 



IMITATIVE SPELLINGS 325 

few characteristic instances. The natural tendency 
is to strive at giving meaning to the unintelligible and, 
among a number of accidental variants, to prefer that 
which suggests something significant, however remote 
this may be from the real sense of the name. But the 
reader whose patience has held out so far will have 
come to see that surnames are often of such bizarre 
and unexpected origin, that one must exercise great 
caution in arbitrarily describing the unusual as imita- 
tive. Bardsley regards Tortoiseshell as an imitative 
form of the local Tattershall. The habitat of the name 
(Staffordshire) does not favour this, and there is no 
reason why it should not be a nickname, probably of 
costume, just as we have tortoiseshell cats and butter- 
flies. The tortoise was well known to our ancestors, 
and has given the existing names Tortiss, Tortise, the 
latter occurring in Norfolk, where the Promptorium 
Parvulorum was compiled 

" Tortuce, a beeste, tortuta " (Prompt. Parv.). 

Beetle may be an alteration of Beadle, but we have a 
number of well-authenticated insect nicknames, e.g. 
Ampt, Emmett, 1 Furmy, all meaning ant, Bee, Coachafer, 
Flay or Fly, Hornett, Wasp, etc., and Robert Scarbode 
(IpM.) certifies Beetle as a nickname 

" Escarbot, the blacke flie called, a beetle " (Cotg.). 

There are, of course, some cases in which we may 
legitimately infer imitative origin even without docu- 
mentary evidence. When, in the roll of a regiment 
largely composed of Irishmen, we find King seller, 
Flirty and Caverner, we need not hesitate to recognize 

1 Usually a dim. of Emma. 



326 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

the fine old Irish names Kinsella, Flaherty and Kava- 
nagh. Coldbreath, Cowhorn and Laughland may be 
similarly accepted as for the Scottish Galbraith, Colqu- 
houn and Lachlan, while Cossack is the Irish Cusack. 
The Welsh Rhys, Rees is very common in England as 
Rice and occasionally as Race. Stow tells us that in 
1531 Sir Rice Grifith was beheaded on Tower Hill, 
and I have come across Race Alisaundre in a monastery 
cartulary near the Welsh Border. Another origin of 
Race is Fr. ras [John le Ras, Hund. R.] 

" Ras, shaven, cleane shaven " (Cotg.). 

Straight l is perhaps merely a variant of Street [Ralph 
del Strate or atte Strete, Close R.]. 

Sometimes a name, without being imitative, suggests 
something quite remote from its meaning. Lugger is 
AS. Hlothgar, famous spear. It cannot be of the same 
origin as Galley, Barge, etc. (p. 171), for, according to all 
nautical authorities, the name of the craft dates from 
the eighteenth century. Pinion is one of the many 
names from Welsh ap Eynon ; cf. Binyon, Bennion, 
etc. Pamphlett is a dim. of the name Pamphile [John 
Panfelot, Pat. R.]. Cf. the derivation of the common 
noun pamphlet, from Pamphilet, "a familiar name of 
the twelfth-century amatory poem or comedy called 
Pamphilus, seu de amove, a highly popular opuscule 
in the thirteenth century " (NED.) . With the Eastern- 
looking Durbar, Doorbar, AS. Thurbeorht, cf. Sirdar 
(p. 120). In Icemonger is preserved AS. isen, iron. 

The locality in which an imitative name is found 
often furnishes a clue to its origin. Examples are 
Blackcow, of Blackball (Lane.), and Muse, a York- 

1 The -g- of straight, for strait, OF. estreit (etroit), is not original. 



IMITATIVE SPELLINGS 327 

shire name, of Meaux in that county. So also Doubt, 
Doubting are found in Somerset with Dowd, Dowding, 
these probably from David. In Bucks Coughtrey is 
found side by side with Cowdery (p. 306), while in 
Lincolnshire Cushion occurs as a variant of Gushing. 
Names that have wandered far from their homes can 
often be traced back thither through a series of forms. 
To those mentioned on p. 88 may be added Counter- 
patch, a London version of Comberbach (Chesh.), of 
which Cumberpatch is an intermediate form, Kingrose 
for Kinross, and Roseworm for the much prettier 
Cornish Rosewarne. 

Names of baptismal origin get perverted if unfamiliar. 
Williams does not change, but Paton, no longer recog- 
nized as a dim. of Patrick, is altered to Patten, Pattern, 
Patent. Any form, whatever absurdity it suggests, is 
preferred to the unintelligible. Thus Mahood, from 
Maheut, the Old French form of Matilda, sometimes 
becomes Mawhood, and Dawtrey, i.e. de Hauterive, 
is spelt Daughtery. Liptrapp is a perversion of Liptrott, 
an early German immigrant, Liebetraut, " Dear love," 
probably a Huguenot name. Loyal and Royal are 
doubtful. Though quite possible nicknames, they 
are perhaps rather for Lyle, Ryle, or Lyall, Ryall. The 
first two are local and the second two baptismal, 
though they have of course been confused. Lyall is 
for Lyulph, representing an Old Danish Lithwulf [Liolf 
f. Liolf, Fine R.], and Ryall is for Riulf [Henry f. Riolf, 
Lib. R.], AS. Ricwulf. 

One result of imitative spelling is that we find 
many names suggesting adverbs, conjunctions and 
interjections, or even parts of verbs. These are 
generally pretty simple, e.g. Whileis for Wile (see p. 83), 



328 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

Whence is at the " wence," i.e. the cross-roads. This 
is simply the plural of went, a way [John del Wente, 
Pat. R.]. Where is for Ware (p. 311) and the second 
element of Whereat is yate, a gate (see p. 91) . In con- 
nection with these names it may be noted that initial 
Wh- is often artificial, e.g. Whatkins, Whisker (p. "137), 
Whybird, AS. Wigbeorht, etc. Heigho is for Hay hoe, 
at the " high hoe." Would is of course for Wood ; cf. 
Wouldhave (p. 59). Goe, very common in Lincoln- 
shire, where it is neighboured by Goy, is local, from 
one of many places in France called Gouy [Hugh de 
Goe or de Goy, Close R.]. 

Most collectors of odd surnames have been attracted 
by the great class of names in -ing. A curious little 
book * now before me has a list of 150 such names, and 
this list could easily be doubled. It is probable that 
hardly any * of these names are really present parti- 
ciples. We might nickname a man " Dancing Jimmy," 
but, for surname purposes, he would become " Jimmy 
the Dancer." A great many of these -ing names are 
Anglo-Saxon patronymics, e.g. Billing, Golding, etc., 
and some may be formed from local names and mean 
inhabitant. In the Abingdon Cartulary are mentioned 
the Beorhtfeldingas, Lamburningas, Winterburn- 
ingas, Cnottingas, Horningas, who inhabited the 
" bright field," " lang burn," etc. ; but it is uncertain 
how far this formation survived into the surname 
period. Perhaps the majority of these names are due 
to the vulgar tendency to add final -g after -n, as in 
" kitching." Here belong Panting, Painting, for 

1 C. L. Lordan, Of Certain English Surnames and their Occasional 
Odd Phases when seen in Groups (London and Romsey, n.d.). 
* But see Leeming (p. 89, n. 2). 



PRESENT PARTICIPLES 329 

Pantin, Panton, a dim. of Pantolf * [William Pauntolf, 
Lib R., William Paunton, ib.]. Going is the French 
name Gouin [John Gowyn, Pat. R.], Howling is a 
double dim. of How or Hugh ; cf. Fr. Huelin, Hulin. 
Wearing and Warring are for War in, a common Old 
French name (Gue"rin) which usually gives Warren. 
Dusting is a form of Thurstan [William Dusteyn, 
IpM.] and is also found in the shortened form Dust. 
Fearing is for Fear on, OF. feron, a smith, and Basting 
is a perversion of Bastin, i.e. Sebastian. And so ad 
infinitum. It is possible that in a few cases the origin 
of an -ing name may be an abstract noun ; see Deeming 
(p. 222) ; while many of them are local compounds of ing, 
a meadow (p. 64). 

But we have a few surnames derived from French 
present participles used as nicknames. Such are 
Currant [Beatrice Corant, Ramsey CartJ\, Mor daunt 
[Robert le Mordaunt, Hund. R.], Mor ant or Murrant 
[John le Moraunt, Cor am Rege R. 1297, Amicia le 
Murant, Close R.]. The latter name is more likely 
aphetic for OF. demorant (demeurant) than for mourant. 
Cf. Hugh le Demurant (Pipe R.), Johanna la Manaunte 
(Testa de Nev.), Alexander Sujournant (Glouc. Cart.). 
These examples seem to show that Remnant, like the 
common noun remnant, represents the Old French 
present participle remanant. Many more names of 
this type occur in the Rolls, e.g. Penaunt, Poygnaunt, 
Saillaunt, Trenchaunt, Taylant, Erraunt, etc., and 
probably some of these are still in existence. 

The examples in this chapter are taken almost at 

1 Of Old French introduction, from OG. Bandwolf, banner wolf, 
which does not appear to be found in Anglo-Saxon. It is fairly 
common in the Rolls. 



330 DIVERGENT ORIGINS OF SURNAMES 

random and most pages of the London Directory 
would yield similar results. The reader will, I think, 
conclude that a real Dictionary of English Surnames 
would be rather a big book, and that compilations 
which dispense with evidence are not to be taken 
seriously. 



INDEX 



This index contains, with a very few doubtful cases, only names which 
were in existence as late as the nineteenth century. Foreign names are 
printed in italics. It will be sometimes found that more than one origin is 
indicated for the same name. 



A'barrow, 50 
Abbott, 200 
Abear, 50 
Abel, 204 
Absolom, 205 
Abt, 300 
A' Burrow, 50 
Acock, 57 
Acton, 1 60 
Adam, 204, 321 
Adams, 16 
Adcock, 57 
Addle, 36 
Addyman, 236 
Adger, 42 
Adlard, 43 
Adler, 301 
Admer, 42 
Ads.ead, 74 
Adshead, 74 
Affery, 32 
Affray, 32 
Agate, 314 
Ager, 42 
Agnew, 314 
Agricola, 305 
Agutter, 50 
Ahearn, 50 
Aikett, 128, n. i 
Ainger, 318 
Akenside, 138 
Alabone, 51 
Aladenise, 284 
Alavoine, 186 
Albrow, 131 
Alcott, 92 
Aldejohann, 295 
Alder, 248 
Alderson, 248 
Aldhouse, 96 

23 



Aldis, 96 
Aldous, 96 
Aldred, 42, 227 
Aldritt, 42, 227 
Aldus, 96 
Aldwy, 44 
Alefounder, 114 
Alehouse, 96 
Alexander, 188, 216 
Alflatt, 32 
Algar, i~68 
Algate, 50 
Alkin, 32 
Allabyrne, 51 
Allard, 43 
Allbones, 143 
Allcard, 32 
Allchin, 32 
Allchurch, 50 
Allcorn, 185 
Allday, 42 
Alldread, 42 
Allenwaters, 161, . 
Alleweldt, 304 
Allfree, 32 
Allgood, 1 6 
Allhusen, 51 
Allibon, 51 
Alliott, 32 
Allman, 217 
Allmark, 178 
Allpass, 50 
Allpike, 50 
Allpress, 287 
Alltoft, 51 
Allweather, 235, n. 
Allwright, 227 
Almond, 39 
Alner, in 
Alphege, n 

331 



Alsop, 63 
Altree, 51 
Alwin, 32 
Ambery, 106 
Ambler, 122 
Ambrey, 106 
Ambrose, 187 
Amery, 41 
Amner, 105, 106 
Amory, 41 
Ampt, 325 
Amyas, 103, n. 2 
Anchor, 211 
Andacht, 302 
Anderbrugg, 296 
Angell, 209, 310 
Anger, 317 
Angle, 310 
Angot, 30 
Anker, 211 
Ankettle, 30 
Ankrett, 211 
Annercaw, 211 
Anquetil, 30 
Ansell, 31 
Ansorg, 302 
Anster, 86 
Ansterberry, 86, . i 
Anthistle, 82 
Anyon, 191 
Applequist, 195, . 
Arab in, 212 
Aram, 86 
Arber, 107 
Arbuckle, 152 
Arcedeckne, 210 
Archdeacon, 210 
Archer, 4 
Archerson, 239 
Arculus, 215 



332 



INDEX 



Argent, 157 


Attack, 49 


Bakewell, 254 


Argles, 36 


Attenbarrow, 49 


Balaam, 206 


Argument, 217 


Attenborough, 50 


Bald, 132 


Aris, 103, n. 2 


Atterbury, 50 


Balder, 43 


Arkcoll, 36 


Attewell, 49 


Bale, 53 


Arkell, 36 


Attick, 49 


Ball, 53, 132 


Arkle, 36 


Attneave, 234 


Ballance, 166 


Arkless, 149, 215 


Attock, 49 


Ballard, 132 


Arkwright, 227 


Attoe, 49 


Ballinger, 35 


Armbruster, 300 


Attread, 49 


Ballister, 121 


Armes, 125 


Attreall, 50 


Balm, 1 88 


Armitt, 209 


Attride, 49 


Balmain, 139 


Armour, 158 


Attrie, 49 


Balnave, 234 


Armshaw, 125 


Attrill, 49 


Balsam, 188 


Armstrong, 139 


Attru, 49 


Balster, 121 


Arnall, 36 


Attwooll, 49 


Band, 230, w. 2 


Arnaud, 9 


At will, 308 


Banfather, 247 


Arndell, 319 


Atwood, 49 


Bannister, 121 


Arnold, 36, 188, . 


Atyeo, 49 


Bantick, 94 


Arrand, 36 


Aubrey, 32 


Bantock, 94 


Arrandale, 319 


Aucutt, 92 


Bard, 240 


Arrow, 162 


Aucher, 32 


Barfi, 53 


Arrowsmith, 228 


Augagneur, 287 


Barfoot, 141 


Arsmith, 228 


Auger, 1 68 


Bar fuss, 301 


Arthur, 36 


Augier, 168 


Barge, 171 


Artless, 149 


Augur, 1 68 


Bargh, 53 


Arum, 86 


Aupretre, 287 


Bark, 171 


Arundell, 319 


Authors, 36 


Barkhouse, 96 


Aschenbrenner, 299 


Auxdnes, 280 


Barkis, 98 


Ashburn, 226, n. i 


Auxenfants, 280 


Barleggs, 140 


Ashburner, 226, n. i 


Avann, 50 


Barley, 185 


Asher, 102 


Avenarius, 305 


Barleycorn, 124, 196 


Ashkettle, 30 


Avery, 32 


Barnacle, 89 


Ashmall, 68 


Awdas, 96 


Barnard, 34 


Ashman, 237 


Awdrey, 29 


Barnes, 247 


Ashmole, 68 


Axworthy, 86, n. 2 


Barnett, 34, 309 


Ashpital, 107 


Aylmer, 32 


Barnfather, 247 


Ashplant, 205 


Ay 1 ward, 32, 43 


Barnish, 34 


Ashwin, 38 


Aymer, 32 


Barnwell, 34 


Ask, 1 68 




Barr, 56 


Asker, 102 


Baby, 249 


Barraclough, 88 


Askell, 30 


Bacchus, 295, . 


Barrass, 98 


Aspenlon, 205 


Bache, 53 


Barrell, 125 


Aspland, 205 


Back, 24, 138 


Barrett, 34, 137, 143. 


Asplin, 205 


Backhaus, 295 


146 


Asquith, 84 


Backhouse, 295, n. 


Barringer, 35 


Asser, 102 


Backmeister, 299 


Barrowcliff, 88 


Astell, 30 


Backshall, 88 


Bartenwerffer, 300 


Atcock, 57 


Badgery, 86 


Barter, 147 


Athawes, 49 


Badrick, 37 


Barth, 53 


Atheis, 49 


Bage, 53 


Bartholdy, 294 


Atherall, 50 


Bailhache, 270 


Barton, 60 


Athersmith, 50 


Baillehache, 270 


Bartram, 38 


Athersuch, 50 


Bailward, 53 


Baskett, 124, 165 


Athews, 49 


Bain, 143, n. i, 194 


Basketter, 115, 227 


Athoke, 49 


Baines, 143 


Baskwell, 90 


Athow, 49 


Baird, 240 


Basnett, 159 


Atkey, 49 


Bairnsfather, 247 


Bastel, 295 


Ato, 49 


Bajoue, 133 


Baster, 105 



INDEX 



333 



Bastien, 282 


Belloc, 281 


Bew, 319 


Bastin, 329 


Bellows, 96 


Bewkers, 129 


Basting, 329 


Bellringer, 102, n. 


Bewsher, 245 


Batch, 53 


Belt, 124 


Bezuidenhout, 49 


Bateman, 24, n. 


Bemrose, 85 


Bias, 51, n. 2 


Bates, 324 


Bemroose, 85 


Bicheno, 88 


Bathos, 19 


Benbough, 267 


Bick, 133 


Bathurst. 19 


Benbow, 267 


Bickerstaff, 2 


Batt, 24 


Bend, 54 


Bickersteth, 2 


Batters, 37 
Baxter, 230, n. i 


Bendelow, 259 
Benjafield, 21 


Bidaway, 51 
Biddis, 97 


Bay, 53 


Benninger, 35 


Biddle, 323 


Baylas, 98 


Bennion, 326 


Bidgood, 261 


Bayles, 53 


Benrose, 85 


Bidlake, 52 


Bayliss, 98 


Benskin, 196 


Bidmead, 52 


Bays, 53 


Bent, 54 


Bieberstein, 296 


Beake, 133 


Benvenuto, 254 


Biedenweg, 296 


Beam, 184 


Bere, 53 


Biengrdber, 299 


Bean, 143, w. i, 194 


Berecloth, 88 


Biennourry, 288 


Beanes, 194 


Berenger, 34 


Bienvenu, 254 


Bear, 53 


Berger, 287, 295 


Biesenbdnder, 299 


Bearblock, 69, n. 


Bergerat, 287 


Biffen, 247 


Beard, 136 


Bergeret, 287 


Biller, 114 


Bearder, 104 


Bergeron, 287 


Billett, 125 


Bearpark, 69, n. 


Bergerot, 287 


Billiald, 38 


Beart, 136 


Berkenshaw, 88 


Billiard, 38, 125 


Beatniff, 234 


Bernadot, 283 


Billing, 328 


Beauclerk, 234 


Bernadotte, 283 


Billion, 38, 1 80 


Beauharnais, 159, 279 


Bernal, 34 


Billows, 96 


Beau jean, 285 


Bernardin, 283 


Binder, 117 


Beaulieu, 281 


Berner, 34, 113 


Bindlass, 200 


Beaumanoir, 240 


Bernhardi, 34, 294 


Bindloss, 200 


Beaurepaire, 69, n. i 


Bernstorff, 296 


Binks, 54 


Beautyinan, 237 


Berrill, 158 


Bin yon, 326 


Beaver, 320 


Berringer, 35 


Birchenough, 88 


Bebbow, 267 


Berrycloth, 88 


Bircher, 121 


Bebel, 293 


Berryman, 231 


Bircumshaw, 88 


Beck, 298 


Bert, 283 


Bird, 323 


Beckenhube, 301 


Bertenshaw, 88 


Birdseye, 133 


Becker, 298 


Berthollet, 283 


Birdwhistle, 82 


Beddis, 97 


Berthon, 283 


Birkenrut, 167 


Bedgood, 261 


Bertilleau, 283 


Birkenshaw, 88 


Bee, 325 


Bertram, 36 


Birkett, 88 


Beeching, 65 


Bertrand, 38 


Birkhead, 88 


Beechner, 88 


Beryl, 158 


Birkway, 100 


Beemaster, 68 


Besant, 177 


Birrell, 130, n. 


Beer, 53, 124, 174 


Bessemer, 220 


Birtenshaw, 88 


Beerbohm, 295 


Besser, 323 


Birtwhistle, 82 


Beetle, 325 


Besson, 249 


Bischoff, 300 


Beevor, 320 


Bester, 114 


Bisgood, 196 


Behagg, 52 


Bestman, 237 


Bishop, 200, 210 


Behrens, 34 


Bethell, 323 


Bishoprick, 210 


Belcher, 245 


Bethmann-Hollweg, 292 


Bismarck, 297 


Beldam, 245 


Bethune, 103, n. 2 


Bismire, 220 


Belfitt, 91 


Bettany, 187 


Bissell, 154 


Bellasis, 318 


Better, 323 


Bissett, 154 


Bellhanger, 35 


Bevan, 247 


Bisson, 249 


Bellinger, 35 


Beveridge, 174 


Bithell, 323 


Bellis, 321 


Bevin, 271 


Bithray, 85 



334 



INDEX 



Bitmead, 52 


Boakes, 54 


Bossuet, 291 


Bittle, 323 


Boaler, 117 


Botherway, 37 


Black, 154 


Boam, 54 


Both way, 37 


Blackall, 62 


Boast, 219 


Bottle, 318 


Blackband, 230 


Boat, 171 


Botwright, 227 


Blackboard, 136 


Boatswain, 234 


Bouch, 134 


Blackbird, 136 
Blackbond, 230 


Boatwright, 227 
Bodin, 55 


Boucharin, 287 
Boucher, 279, 287 


Blackbrow, 131 


Body, 127, 129 


Bouchereau, 287 


Blackburn, 247 


Bodycoat, 148 


Boucheron, 287 


Blackcow, 326 


Boeson, 234 


Bouchet, 287 


Blackett, 128 


Boggers, 97 


Bough, 196 


Blackball, 62 


Boggis, 97 


Boughtflower, 258 


Blackie, 133 


Boicervoise, 259, n. 


Boughtwood, 258 


Blackleach, 65 


Boilaive, 281 


Boulanger, 279 


Blackledge, 65 


Boileau, 252, 279 


Boulnois, 285 


Blacklock, 131 


Boittve, 281 


Bouncer, 248 


Blackmore, 212 


Bolister, 121 


Bound, 230, n. 2 


Blackrod, 135 


Bolster, 121 


Bourdaloue, 290 


Blackshields, 75 


Boltwood, 258 


Bourgeois, 285 


Blackshire, 88 


Bomash, 232 


Bourne, 320 


Blacksmith, 227 


Bon, 289 


Bout, 153 


Blacktop, 128 


Bonbernat, 285 


Boutflour, 258 


Blagg, 156, n. i 


Bond, 226 


Bouton, 153 


Blakelock, 131 


Bone, 143 


Bouvard, 289 


Blampey, 141 


Bones, 143 


Bouveau, 289 


Blampied, 141 


Bonest, 97 


Bouvelet, 289 


Blanchemain, 289 


Bonfellow, 232 


Bouvet, 289 


Blanchett, 196, n. i 


Bonhote, 175, n. 


Bouvier, 289 


Blanchflower, 196 


Boniface, 135 


Bouvot, 289 


Blandamore, 260 


Bonifant, 247 


Bovett, 128 


Blankett, 155 


Bonnange, 209 


Bowater, 52 


Blay, 131, n. 


Bonnard, 289 


Bowell, 142 


Blaylock, 131 


Bonneau, 2 89 


Bowerman, 235, . 2 


Bleakledge, 65 


Bonnet, 289 


Bowgen, 242 


Bleakman, 237 


Bonnet, 289 


Bowgett, 156 


Blechschmidt, 298 


Bonneteau, 289 


Bowler, 117 


Blee, 131, n. 


Bonnett, 146 


Bowles, 142 


Blellock, 131 


Bonnyman, 237 


Bowmaker, 226, . i 


Blenkarne, 88 


Bonser, 248 


Bowpitt, 69 


Blenkin, 88 


Bonte, 218 


Bowring, 65 


Blenkiron, 88 
Blewitt, 154 


Bonus, 97 
Bonvallet, 289 


Bowser, 245 
Boxer, 123 


Blinkhorn, 88 


Bonvouloir, 245 


Boyeatt, 91 


Bliss, 223, n. 2 


Boobyer, 54 


Boylesve, 281 


Block, 156 


Booer, 120 


Brabazon, 130, n., 240 


Blogg, 156 


Bookless, 149 


Bracegirdle, 151 


Blood, 142 


Boosey, 54 


Bracer, 113 


Bloom, 190 


Boot, 153 


Bracher, 113 


Bloomfield, 90 


Booty, 237 


Brack, 54 


Blossom, 190 


Bootyman, 237 


Brackner, 113 


Blowey, 133 


Bopp, 293 


Bradfer, 140 


Bloyd, 142 


Borer, 116 


Bradford, 140 


Blud, 142 


Borrell, 154 


Bradshaw, 13 


Bluett, 154 


Borrowman, 231 


Braidwood, 83 


Blunderfield, 90 


Borstall, 54 


Brain, 142 


Blunkett, 154 


Bosbier, 303 


Braksper, 256 


Boag, 54 


Bosomworth, 21 


Brammer, 265 


Boak, 54 


Boss, 54 


Branch, 195 



INDEX 



335 



Branchett, 196, n. i 


Brister, 104 


Buckmaster, 68 


Branchflower, 196 


Britcher, ii5,"n. i 


Buckoke, 95 


Brand, 38, 161 


Britland, 99 


Buckpit, 69 


Branfoot, 257 


Brittle, 40 


Bucksmith, 229 


Bransom, 20 


Brixey, 38 


Budd, 196 


Branwhite, 88 


Broadbelt, 124, 151 


Budden, 55 


Brasnett, 128 


Broadbent, 54 


Budge, 134 


Brdutigam, 301 


Broadfoot, 141 


Budgen, 242 


Bray, 21 


Broadhead, 124, 128 


Budgett, 156 


Brazell, 189 


Broadribb, 139 


Bugge, 293 


Brazier, 113 


Brobson, 240 


Buggins, 55 


Brazil, 189 


Brockett, 128 


Buglass, 175, 187 


Breach, 54 


Brockis, 97 


Bugle, 175 


Breakspear, 256 


Brodder, 245 


Bugler, 175 


Breeks, 54 


Brodribb, 139 


Buist, 55 


Breffit, 91 


Brokenshire, 88 


Bulcock, 92 


Breitfuss, 301 


Brolly, 55 


Bullas, 97 


Breithaupt, 301 


Brond, 38 


Bullett, 128 


Breitkopf, 301 


Brookhouse, 97 


Bullinger, 15, in, 279 


Bremer, 295 


Brooksmith, 228 


Bullion, 1 80 


Brend, 55 


Brookwebb, 230 


Bullivant, 247 


Brennand, 256 
Brent, 55 


Broom, 184 
Broster, 121 


Bullpitt, 69 
Bullwinkle, 85 


Bretonner, 216 


Brotherhood, 220 


Billow, 295 


Brettle, 40 


Brothers, 245 


Bulteel, 173 


Brettschneider, 299 
Brevetor, no 


Brow, 130 
Browell, 55 


Bumbey, 55 
Bunclark, 234 


Brevitt, no, n. 2 


Browett, 174 


Bundle, 157 


Brewill, 55 


Brown, 154 


Bunker, 142 


Brewis, 97 


Brownbill, 161 


Bunt, 230, n. 2 


Brewitt, 174 


Brownett, 128 


Burchard, 39 


Brewster, 230, n. i 


Brownie, 133 


Burchett, 39 


Brick, 112, n. 2 
Brickdale, 112, n. 2 


Brown John, 242 
Brownsmith, 225 


Burdas, 96 
Burder, 117 


Bricker, 112, n. 2 


Browns word, 161 


Burdis, 96 


Brickett, 88, 112, n. 2 


Bruce, 13 


Bur don, 154 


Brickland, 112, n. 2 


Bruckshaw, 88 


Burdus, 96 


Brickman, 237 


Brudenell, 62 


Burenfeind, 302 


Brickmaster, 112 
Brickstock, 112, . 2 


Bru^l, 55 
Brulebois, 257 


Burfoot, 141 
Burgermeister, 300 


Brickwood, 112, n. 2. 


Brulefer, 257 


Burgoyne, 103, n. 2 


Briddock, 94 


Brumfit, 91 


Burkenshaw, 88 


Brideoke, 94 


B runner, 295 


Burkmay, 248 


Bridger, 112 


Brush, 55 


Burler, 115, n. 2 


Bridges, 71, n. 


Brushett, 55 


Burls, 71, n. 


Bridgett, 128, n. i 


Bruton, 315 


Burnage, 34 


Bridgman, 112 


Bruttner, 216, 315 


Burnand, 256 


Briggenshaw, 88 


Bryan, 321 


Burnard, 34 


Brighteve, 43 


Bryanson, 321 


Burnell, 34, 309 


Brightey, 133 


Bubear, 54 


Burness, 256 


Brightman, 43 


Buchbinder, 299 


Burnett, 34, 309 


Brightmore, 43 


Buche, 134 


Burnhouse, 256 


Brimmer, 43 


Buck, 56 


Burnip, 63 


Brind, 55 


Buckaway, 100 


Burnish, 34 


Brindejonc, 304 


Buckett, 156 


Burniss, 256 


Brisbane, 256 


Buckland, 99 


Burnouf, 36 


Brisemur, 256 


Buckle, 152 


Burnstone, 34 


Brisker, 104 


Buckler, 1 60, 235 


Burnyeatt, 91 


Brispot, 256 


Bucklin, 257 


Burpitt, 69 



336 



INDEX 



Burrell, 154 


Camis, 133 


Cathelineau, 284 


Burret, 309 


Cammidge, 66, n. 


Catherall, 266 


Burrows, 98 


Cammis, 133 


Catherwood, 266 


Burrus, 98 


Cammish, 133 


Catinat, 284 


Burst, 55 


Campion, 213 


Catlin, 322 


Burstall, 54 


Cample John, 242 


Cato, 216 


Burstenbinder, 299 


Candeland, 100 


Cator, 120 


Burton, 60 


Canrobert, 280 


Cattermole, 68 


Burtonshaw, 88 


Cantrell, 287 


Cattle, 39 


Bushrod, 155 
Buskin, 153 


Cantwell, 254 
Cape, 150 


Caudery, 306 
Cauldwell, 254 


Bustin, 86 


Caplin, 159 


Cave, 132 


Butchart, 307 


Capon, 201, n. 


Cavell, 132 


Butcher, in, 307 


Capp, 146 


Caverner, 325 


Butler, 105 


Cappleman, 237 


Cawcutt, 92 


Butlin, 257 
Butt, 56 


Capron, 15, 146 
Capstick, 258 


Cawley, 319, n. i 
Cawsey, 69 


Butterfill, 169 


Carass, 97 


Cawson, 240 


Butterfant, 256 


Carbonnel, 315 


Cawthra, 84 


Buttersack, 304 


Cardinall, 199 


Cawthry, 84 


Buttery, 106 


Careless, 149 


Cayzer, 199 


Buttifant, 256, n. 


Caress, 97 


Cemery, 87 


Button, 153 


Carker, 112 


Chadband, 230, n. 3 


Buttonshaw, 88 


Carle, 234 


Chaff, 132 


Buttress, 98 


Carlin, 234 


Chaffer, 172 


Buxton, 320 
Buzzard, 201, n. 


Carloss, 149 
Carlton, n, n. 


Chalk, 58 
Challen, 103, n. 2 


Byas, 51, . 2 


Carnell, 108 


Chamberlain, 105 


Bycroft, 51 


Carr, 58 


Chambers, 105 


Byers, 51, n. 2, 54 


Carratt, 171 


Champion, 213 


Byford, 51 


Carrett, 171 


Champneys, 103, n. 2 


Bygott, 51 


Carrier, 112 


Chance, 218 


Bygrave, 51 


Carritt, 171 


Chandos, 281 


Bygreaves, 51 


Carrodus, 88 


Changarnier, 281 


Eying, 51 


Carrott, 171 


Chantavoine, 280 


Bysouth, 51 


Carroway, 100 


Chanter eau, 287 


Bythesea, 51 


Carruthers, 88 


Chanterelle, 287 


Bytheway, 51 


Cart, 171 


Chantler, 267 


Bywater, 51 


Carter, 323 


Chantrell, 287 




Cartledge, 65 


Chantrey, 109 


Cachemaille, 271 


Cartlick, 65 


Chantry, 109 


Caddell, 255 


Cartwright, 227 


Chaplin, 159 


Cadle, 255 
Caesar, 216 


Carty, 319, n. i 
Carus, 97 


Chappell, 147 
Charbonneau, 147, n. i, 


Caffyn, 132 


Car vail, 262 


315 


Cage, 56 


Carvell, 262 


Charbonnel, 147, n. i 


Cake, 114, n. i, 124,173 


Carver, 105 


Chare, 74 


Calcott, 92 
Caldecote, 92 


Carvill, 262 
Casembrood, 172, 303 


Charge, 210, n. 3 
Charity, 218 


Calder, 161, n. 


Casement, 319, . i 


Charker, 112 


Calderside, 161, n. 


Cashman, 267 


Charnell, 109 


Caldwall, 255 


Castelnau, 281 


Charrier, 112 


Caller, 119 


Caswell, 255 


Charteris, 97 


Callister, 319, n. i 


Catch, 171 


Charters, 96 


Callow, 56 


Catcheside, 262 


Chasseloup, 260, 289 


Callwell, 254 


Catchlove, 260 


Chassepot, 289 


Calvey, 133 


Catchpole, 269 


Chdteauneuf, 281 


Camamile, 187 


Cater, 120 


Chaucer, 317 


Cambrey, 103, n. 2 


Cathedrall, 266, n. 4 


Chauser, 317 



INDEX 



337 



Chave, 132 


CUmenceau, 279 


Coppack, 94 


Chaytor, 120 


Clench, 56 


Copper, 119 


Cheales, 71, n. 


Clinch, 56 


Coppock, 94 


Cheap, 74, . 
Cheater, 120 


Clinkscales, 258 
Clish, 319, n. i 


Copus 98 
Corbally, 160 


Checker, no 


Cloake, 150 


Cor day, 281 


Checkland, 100 


Clodd, 57 


Corderay, 306 


Checklin, 100 


Clothes, 172 


Cordery, 306 


Cheek, 133 


Clothier, 172 


Cordier, 281 


Cheeper, 116 


Cloud, 57 


Cords, 172 


Cheers, 74 


Clout, 57 


Cordurey, 306 


Cheesewright, 227 


Clown, 89 


Cordwell, 254 


Cheke, 133 


Clubb, 154, 155 


Cordwent, 172 


Chequer, no 


Clunn, 57 


Corkitt, 92 


Cherfils, 196, 247 


Clyne, 57 


Cormell, 66, n. 


Chermside, 161, n. 


Coachafer, 325 


Corn, 185 


Chessman, 237 


Coate, 148 


Corneille, 290 


Chesterman, 237 


Cobbett, 43 


Cosher, 248 


Chettle, 39 


Cobbold, 43 


Cosier, 115 


Cheyne, 56 
Chilcock, 92 


Cock, 57, 239, 324 
Cockbain, 143 


Cospatrick, 238, n. 
Cossack, 326 


Child, 245, 307 


Cockett, 128 


Costard, 194 


Childerhouse, 96 


Cockhead, 128 


Coster, 194 


Children, 96 
Chilmaid, 248 


Cocks, 324 
Cockshoot, 57 


Cosway, 69 
Cottis, 97 


Chilman, 237 


Cockshott, 57 


Cottle, 43, 148 


Chilvers, 39 


Cockspur, 163 


Couch, 132, . i 


Chinn, 134 


Coffin, 132 


Coughtrey, 327 


Chiplin, 130, n. 


Colas, 282 


Coultas, 97 


Chipper, 116 


Colbrain, 38 


Coulter, 1 68 


Chirnside, 161, . 


Coldbreath, 326 


Coulthard, 168 


Chisell, 1 68 


Coldicott, 92 


Coultish, 97 


Choak, 56 


Coldtart, 168, . i 


Counsell, 221 


Cholmondeley, 14, n. 


Coleman, n, n. 


Count, 199 


Chown, 141, n. 


Collar, 147 


Counter, 115 


Choyce, 217 


Collarbone, 143 


Counterpatch, 327 


Christ, 208 


Colledge, 95 


Couper, 323 


Christian, 211 


Collingbine, 191 


Courage, 217 


Christopher, 209 


Collinssplatt, 78 


Courtenay, 132 


Chuck, 56 


Collop, 174 


Cousins, 245 


Chugg, 56 
Church, 47 


Coltard, 168 
Coltman, 237 


Coustos, 208, n. 2 
Coverlid, 146 


Churchers, 96 


Columbine, 191 


Cowderoy, 307 


Churn, 161, n. 


Colvin, n 


Cowdery, 306 


Churnside, 161, . 


Comer, 119 


Cowell, 146 


Cinnamond, 87 


Comfort, 220 


Cowhorn, 326 


Circuitt, 220 


Commander, 207 


Cowl, 146 


Circus, 98 


Comper, 245 


Cowmeadow, 85 


Claggitt, 91 


Conduct, 177 


Cowper, 323 


Clampitt, 69 


Conrad, 293 


Cowtas, 97 


Clapshaw, 153 


Conybeare, 54 


Cox, 16, 324 


Clapshoe, 153 


Cook, 15, 105 


Coxhead, 128 


Clarges, 230 


Cookson, 239 


Coxon, 234 


Clarkin, 235 


Coolbeer, 174 


Coy, 314 


Clarkson, 239 


Cooper, 323 


Cozens, 245 


Clarvis, 83 


Cope, 150 


Cozze, 245 


Clay, 58 


Copestake, 258 


Cracknell, 114, n. i 


Cleall, 62 


Copestick, 258 


Cradle, 57 


Cleggett, .91 


Copner, 122 


Cradock, 7 



333 



INDEX 



Crafer, 104 


Curtain, 57 


David, 204 


Craft, 219 


Curthose, 145, 152 


Davignon, 285 


Crakbone, 256 


Curthoys, 152 


Davranche, 285 


Crane, 201, w. 


Curtis, 152 


Daw. 201, n. 


Crankhorn, 35, n. 


Curtius, 305 


Dawbarn, 225, 247 


Crankshaw, 35, n. 


Curtler, 118 


Dawtrey, 327 


Crannis, 98 


Gushing, 106 


Day, 41, 226 


Crapper, 114 


Cushion, 106, 327 


Daybell, 43 


Crawcour, 272 


Custard, 194 


Dayburn, 247 


Creaser, 104 


Custer, 194 


Dayman, 41 


Creazer, 104 


Cutbush, 258 


Dayment, 158 


Creedybridge, 161, . 


Cutcliff, 21 


Daymond, 41, 158 


Crenk-, 35, n. 


Cutlove, 261 


Dayson, 239 


Crennell, 108 


Cuttell, 43 


Dayus, 98 


Crewdson, 240 


Cuttle, 148 


Deal, 57 


Crink-, 35, n. 


Czech, 295 


Dealbridge, 51 


Cripps, 20, 132 




Deal chamber, 51 


Crisp, 20, 132 


Dabell, 43 


Dearborn, 247 


Croft, 219 


Dack, 41 


Dearlove, 260 


Croix, 285 


Daddow, 180 


Dearth, 221, n. 


Croker, 272 


Dagger, 160 


Death, 221, n. 


Cromack, 94 


Daggett, 41 


de Beer, 301 


Cronk-, 35, n. 


Dainteth, 223 


De Broglie, 55 


Crook, 63 


Dainty, 223 


Debutt, 40 


Crookshanks, 124, 140 


Daish, 51 


Deebanks, 161, n. 


Cross, 307 


Daisy, 191 


Deeble, 40 


Croswell, 73 


Dale, 58 


Deeming, 222 


Crothers, 88 


Dallamore, 51 


de Hoogh, 301 


Crowdace, 88 


Dallas, 97 


Delabroui>se, 55 


Crowdson, 240 


Dallicoat, 51 


Delacroix, 285 


Crowfoot, 141 


Dallicott, 51 


Delahunt, 51, 229 


Crowne, 145 


Dally waters, 51 


Delapeyrere, 286 


Crowson, 240 


Damant, 41 


De la Pryme, 180, n. 2 


Crucifix, 167 


Dame, 248, n. i 


Delarbre, 280 


Cruddas, 88 


Darner, 41 


Delarey, 72 


Cruickshank, 140 


Dames, 248, n. i 


Delasalle, 285 


Crum, 57 


Damiens, 285 


Delbridge, 51 


Crumb, 173 


Damm, 248, n. i 


Delbriick, 296 


Crummock, 94 


Damms, 248, n. i 


Delcasse, 286 


Crump, 57 


Damsell, 249 


Delderfield, 51 


Crundall, 57 


Damson, 193 


Delf, 58 


Crundle, 57 


Dancer, 118 


Delhay, 51 


Crunk-, 35, n. 


Danckwerts, 42 


Delhuary, 106 


Crust, 173 


Dando, 180 


Dellaway, 51 


Cubitt, 43 


Dankl, 293 


Dellew, 51 


Cuckson, 239 


Dansereau, 287 


Dellow, 51 


Cudlipp, 21 


Danvers, 51 


Delph, 58 


Cue, 318 


Darboy, 280 


Del pier re, 285 


Culpepper, 268 
Cumberpatch, 327 


Darcy, 51 
Darey, 108 


Delves, 58 
Demichel, 284 


Cundick, 177 


Darnell, 188 


Denis, 10 


Cupiss, 216 


Dart, 245 


Denisard, 10 


Cupitt, 216 


Darter, 161 


Denison, 315, n. i 


Cupper, 119 


Dash, 51 


Denmaid, 248 


Curate, 210 


Dashper, 213 


Dennis, 14 


Curie, 132 


Dashwood, 51 


Dent, 127 


Curley, 132 


Daudet, 283 


Dentith, 223 


Currant, 329 


Daughtery, 327 


Depew, 286 


Curson, 211 


D avers, 51 


Depledge, 65 



INDEX 



339 



Dernburg, 296 


Dogood, 262 


Dubailleul, 286 


Derrick, 40 


Dole, 57 


Duberley, 51 


Derry, 40 


Dolittle, 22 


Dubertrand, 284 


Desbleds, 185 


Dolloway, 51 


Du Boulay, 51 


Desbrosses, 55 


Dollymore, 51 


Dubreuil, 55 


Descartes, 2 90 


Domesday, 109 


Dubuisson, 280 


Desmasures, 104 


Doolittle, 259 


Ducat, 177 


Desmoulins, 279 


Doorbar, 326 


Ducker, 102 


Desorges, 186 


Doowra, 84 


Duckering, 103 


Despagne, 285 


Dore, 157 


Duckers, 96 


Despots, 285 


Dorfschmidt, 298 


Duckett, 128, 177 


Despreaux, 286 


Dorrell, 44 


Duckhouse, 96 


Dethridge, 40 


Dorsey, 51 


Duclaux, 280 


Deutsch, 64, n. 2 


Dot, 10 


Duclos, 280 


Devill, 209 


Dottin, 10, 283 


Duell, 58 


Devlin, 22, n. 


Doubleday, 236 


Dufaure, 287 


Devrient, 201 


Doublett, 150 


Dufour, 286 


Dewberry, 193 


Doubt, 327 


Du Fournet, 286 


Dewell, 58 


Doubtfire, 258 


Dugard, 182 


de Witt, 301 


Doubting, 327 


Dugort, 6 1 


Dewsnap, 78 


Doust, 58 


Duguid, 262 


Dewsnip, 78 


Doutrepont, 49 


Duly, 182 


Diamond, 41, 158 


Dovet, 128 


Dumas, 286 


Diaper, 103 


Dovey, 133 


Dumesnil, 286 


Dibb, 58 


Dowd, 327 


Dumouriez, 280 


Dibble, 58, 209, n. i 


Dowding, 327 


Dumphrey, 39 


Dible, 209, n. i 


Dowell, 58, 254 


Dumpress, 39 


Dickhaut, 301 


Dowey, 103, n. 2 


Dumsday, 109 


Dickman, 231 


Dowle, 58 


Dunbabin, 242 


Didcock, 92 


Downhard, 52 


Dunbobbin, 242 


Diderot, 285 


Downton, 52 


Duncalf, 241 


Didon, 285 


Downward, 52 


Dunnaker, 93 


Didot, 285 


Drage, 186 


Diinnebacke, 301 


Dienst, 302 


Dragon, 209 


Dunnett, 87, n. 3 


Dietrich, 293 


Drain, 58 


Dunphie, 107 


D/0te, 293 


Drakers, 96 


Dunsire, 248 


Digweed, 262 


Drakeyoung, 243 


Dunt, 58 


Dillamore, 51 


Drane, 58 


Dupleix, 70 


Dillicar, 58 


Drawater, 257 


Duplessis, 286 


Dillistones, 51 


Drawbridge, 106 


Duplex, 70 


Dilloway, 51 


Drawer, 116 


Duplock, 70 


Dingle, 40 


Dredge, 186 


Dupont, 279 


Dintenfass, 167, n. 3 


Dreng, 234 


Duppery, 51 


Diotisalvi, 317, w. 2 


Dresser, 116 


Dupre, 51, 279 


Diplock, 70 


Drew, 310 


Dupree, 51 


Dipper, 103 


Drews, 310 


Dupuis, 285 


Dipple, 40 


Dreyfus, 166 


Dupuy, 286 


Diprose, 286 


Dring, 234 


Duquesne, 286 


Disher, 117 


Drinkale, 259 


Durbar, 326 


Dishman, 117 


Drinkall, 259 


Durden, 127, n. 


Dismore, 178 


Drinkhall, 259, 


Duredent, 127, n. 


Disper, 215 


Drinkwater, 252 


Durescu, 160 


Ditcheatt, 91 


Dron, 58 


Durose, 85 


Ditchett, 91, n., 128, n. i 


Drought, 217 


Durrell, 44 


Diver, 102 


Druce, 310 


Dussault, 286 


Dixneuf, 179, n. 


Drudge, 186 


Dust, 329 


Dobson, 314 


Drum, 176 


Dusting, 329 


Docker, 103 


Drummer, 176 


Dutoit, 108 


Doggett, 128 


Dryander, 305 


Dwerryhouse, 98 



340 



INDEX 



Dwight, 89 


Elvish, 32 


Fairgray, 230 


Dyas, 96 


Elwall, 32 


Fairgrief, 230 


Dyball, 40 


Elwin, 32 


Fairhead, 128 


Dyhouse, 96 


Emblem, 217 


Fairless, 149 


Dyson, 315 


Emblin, 217 


Fairman, 38 


Dyter, 115 


Emery, 41 


Fairmaner, 240 




Emmett, 325 


Fairminer, 240 


Eachard, 38 
Ealand, 59 


Emperor, 199 
Enderwick, 52 


Fairplay, 232 
Fairservice, 221 


Bales, 62 


Engeham, 219 


Fairweather, 235, . i 


Eames, 245 


England, 64 


Faith, 218 


Earl, 241 


Engleheart, 31 


Fakes, 45 


Earp, 44 


English, 64, n. 2 


Falcke, 302 


Earskin, 143 


Ennion, 7, 191 


Falcon, 45, n. 


Earthy, 36 


Ennis, 64 


Falconas, 97 


Eastaway, 70, 76, n. 


Enock, 206 


Falgate, 91 


Eastland, 99 


Enslin, 31 


Falkenhayn, 296 


Eastwood, 90 


Enticknap, 21 


Falkous, 97 


Eat well, 255 


Enys, 64 


Fall, 59 


Eaves, 59 


Erbsmehl, 303 


Fann, 59, 107 


Eberhard, 293 


Erwin, 35 


Fanner, 59 


Eberlin, 35 


Escreet, 87 


Fant, 245, 247 


Ebers, 35 


Essery, 86, n. 2 


Faraday, 233 


Eborn, 75, 


Esson, 240 


Faraway, 100 


Eck, 295 
Ecorcheville, 257, 288 


Ethawes, 50 
Ettershank, 140 


Farbrace, 140 
Farbrother, 247 


Edicker, 44 


Evamy, 197 


Fardell, 59 


Edmead, 50 


Eve, 204 


Farebrother, 247 


Eeles, 62 


Everard, 34, 35 


Fareweather, 235, n. i 


Efemey, 197 


Everett, 35, 95, 322 


Farewell, 181, n. i, 220 


Ehrenkonig, 304 


Everwin, 35 


Farman, 38 


Ehrlich, 301 


Ewart, ii 


Farmery, 107 


Eichhorn, 302 


Ewbank, 161, n. 


Farminer, 240 


Eidam, 246 


Ewer, 105 


Farmmedows, 85 


Eighteen, 179 


Expence, 106 


Farndell, 59 


Eisenbeiss, 303 


Eye, 125, 133 


Farnorth, 89 


Eland, 59 


Eyett, 133 


Farraker, 93 


Elborn, 75, n. 


Eynon, 191 


Farrar, 131 


Elcock, 92 




Farrimoncl, 39 


Elder, 248 


Faber, 15 


Farrow, 205 


Element, 217 


Fabre, 280 


Farthing, 38, 59, 177 


Elfleet, 32 


Fabricius, 305 


Farwell, 220 


Elflitt, 32 


Face, 130 


Fassbcnder, 299 


Elgar, 1 68 


Facer, 273 


Fathers, 146, 244 


Ellicock, 92 


Facon, 45, n. 


Fatout, 289 


Ellicott, 92 


Fadder, 244 


Faultless, 149 


Elliman, 217 


Faehndrick, 300 


Faunt, 245, 247 


Ellwand, 164 


Faggetter, 115 


Fauntleroy, 247 


Eliway, 37 


Fairbairn, 247 


Faure, 280 


Elnough, 32 


Fairbard, 240 


~Paust, 127, 301 


Elphick, ii 


Fairbeard, 136, 240 


Fa veil, 132 


Elrod, 164 


Fair brass, 140 


Fawcus, 97 


Elsdsser, 295 


Fairbrother, 247 


Fawkes, 45, n. 


Elsegood, 243 


Fairburn, 247 


Fazakerley, 20 


Elster, 301 


Fairchild, 247 


Feakes, 45, n. 


Elston, 32 


Faircloth, 88 


Fear, 318 


Elver, 32 


Fairer, 131 


Fearing, 329 


Elvidge, 32 


Fairest, 95 


Fearnside, 184 


Elvin, ii 


Fairfoul, 250, n., 319 


Fearon, 329 



INDEX 



Feast, 127 


Flattery, 222 


Forse, 60 


Feather, 146 


Plavell, 132 


Forss, 60 


Featherstonehaugh, 62 


Flawn, 114, . i 


Forstner, 297 


Feggs, 45, n. 


Flaxman, 237 


Fortescue, 160 


Felgate, 91 


Flay, 325 


Fortnum, 241 


Felthouse, 96 


Flear, 112 


Forty, 179 


Fenbough, 86 


Flechier, 287 


Forward, 52 


Fennell, 188, 189 


Flecker, 112 


Fosdike, 60 


Penning, 65 


Fleischhauer, 299 


Foskett, 91 


Ferdasne, 1 66 


Fleming, 103, n. 2 


Foss, 60 


Fereday, 233 


F lemming, 295 


Fossey, 63 


Ferler, 114 


Flesher, in 


Fostall, 60 


Fermidge, 174 


Fletcher, in 


Foster, 119 


Fern, 184 


Flewitt, 176 


Foster john,2 2 8 n. i, 242 


Ferriday, 233 


Flicker, 112 


Foucault, 290 


Ferron, 288 


Flinders, 130, n. 


Foucht, 282 


Fertt, 286 


Flirty, 325 


Foulkes, 45 


Fessey, 139 


Flood, 142 


Four, 179 


Fettiplace, 258 


Flook, 45 


Fouracre, 93 


Fhire, 280 


Flower, 189 


Fourreau, 73 


Fewkes, 45 


Flowerday, 197 


Fournel, 169 


Fewster, 119 


Flowerdew, 197 


Fouweather, 235, n. i 


Fice, 244 


Floyd, 142 


Fower, 114 


Fichte, 295 


Fluck, 45 


Foweraker, 93 


Fiddian, 39 


Flud, 142 


Fowkes, 45 


Fidel, 176 


Fluke, 45 


Foxon, 240 


Fiddy, 39 


Flute, 176 


Foyle, 60 


Fiddyment, 39 


Flutter, 176 


Foyster, 119 


Fidler, 176 


Flux, 45 


Framboise, 194 


Fielding, 65 


Flv, 325 


Framboisier, 1 94 


Fifehead, 2, 128 


Fo'ad, 246 


France, 64, n. 2 


Fifett, 2, 128 


Foakes, 45 


Frangipani, 252 


Fifoot, 91 


Foat, 246 


Frankland, 99 


Filbert, 193 


Foch, 46, 282 


Frary, 109 


File, 1 68 


Fochier, 2 82 


Frater, 107 


Files, 169 


Fogg, 45 


Frazer, 39 


Fill, 1 68 


Foister, 119 


Freeh, 300 


Fillery, 18, 247 


Foljambe, 141 


Freebody, 129 


Filon, 283 


Folgate, 91 


Freeborn, 44 


Filpot, 263 


Folk, 45 


Freeborough, 180 


Finbow, 86 


Folkard, 27, 40 


Freeguard, 41 


Findeisen, 304 


Folker, 38, 45 


Freeland, 99 


Fink, 301 


Folkes, 45 


Freelove, 29, 39 


Finnis, 97, 216 


Food, 246 


Freeman, 42 


Firbank, 161, n. 


Fooks, 45 


Freemantle, 148 


Firebrace, 140 


Foot, 125, n. i, 141 


Freemont, 29 


Fireman, 38 


Force, 60 


Freestone, 39 


Firmage, 174 


Fordy, 179 


Frere, 215, 245 


Fish wick, 223 


Forehead, 130 


Freshney, 87 


Fist, 127 


Foresight, 217 


Fret well, 255 


Fitchell, no 


Forfeitt, 219 


Freude, 302 


Fitton, 219 


Forget, 91 


Frew, 46 


Fitz, 244 


Forgrieve, 230 


Frewin, 46 


Fitzackerley, 20 


Forkett, 91 


Frey, 301 


Fitzhull, 319 


Forman, 230 


Freytag, 302 


Flambert, 275 


Forrestal, 60 


Friary, 109 


Flather, 114 
Flatman, 60 


Forresthill, 85 
Forrett, 130 


Fricker, 39, 102 
Friendship, 220 


Flatt, 59 


Forsdike, 60 


Frift, 220 



342 



INDEX 



Fright, 60 


Gaicote, 148 


Frizell, 39 


Gaiger, 171 


Frogson, 240 


Gainer, ^Jer" 


Frohlich, 301 


Gaiter, 125, 152 


Froissart, 40 


Gale, 311 


Froment, 185 


Gales, 311 


Frostick, 60 


Gall, 311 


Frow, 46 


Gallantree, 60 


Froysell, 39 


Gallery, 108 


Fruen, 46 


Galletly, 253 


Fruhling, 302 


Galley, 171 


Frushard, 40 


Galliver, 192 


Frusher, 40 


Gallon, 311 


Fryer, 215 


Gamage, 66, n. 


Fuchs, 302 


Gambray, 103, n. 2 


Fudge, 45 


Gamson, 159 


Fudger, 45 


Ganner, 316 


Fuge, 45 


Gansauge, 301 


Fuggle, 79 


Gape, 248, n. i 


Fuke, 45 


Gapp, 284, n. i 


Fulcher, 38, 45 


Garaud, 283 


Fulk, 45 


Garb ally, 160 


Fulker, 38, 45 


Gardebois, 289 


Fullalove, 260 


Gargate, 135 


Fiillgrabe, 303 


Gargett, 135 


Fullilove, 260 


Garland, 312 


Full james, 141 


Garlick, 124, 188 


Fullkrug, 263, 303 


Garnham, 137 


Fullman, 237 


Garnon, 137 


Fulloway, 268 


Garot, 283 


Fulloon, 114 


Garrett, 21, 108 


Fun/schilling, 302 


Garrod, 21 


Filnfstuck, 302 


Garrood, 21 


Funnell, 169 


Garroway, 100 


Fiirbringer, 299 


Garston, 60 


Fiirchtegott, 261 


. Gartland, 312 


Furchtenicht, 304 


Gartrude, 29 


Furler, 114 


Garvin, 38 


Furmidge, 174 


Garwood, 21 


Furmy, 325 


Gash, 311 


Furnace, 108 


Gasper, 158 


Furnell, 169 


Gass, 311 


Furness, 108 


Gasson, 311 


Furnish, 108 


Gastebled, 262 


Furrell, 73 


Gastebois, 262 


Ftirst, 299 


Gatbtt, 262 


Furze, 184 


Gate, 91, 312 


Fuster, 119 


Gater, 152 


Futcher, 38, 45 


Gates, 312 


Fylde, 169 


Gatherall, 266 




Gathercole, 266 


Gaby, 249 


Gatherer, 116 


Gadd, 155 


Gathergood, 262 


Gaff, 245 


Gatling, 322 


Gaffer, 245 


Gaukrodger, 243 


Gage, 171, n. 


Gaul, 311 


Gager, 171 


Gaunt, 21 


Gagnedenier, 263 


Gauntlett, 151 


Gagnepain, 277 


Gawler, in 



Gaybell, 243 
Gayfer, 245 
Gaynor, 316 
Gayter, 152 
Gay tor, 152 
Gazard, 241, . 2 
Gaze, 311 
Geary, 316 
Geator, 152 
Gebhardt, 44 
Gelhaar, 301 
Gellatly, 253 
Gellibrand, 39 
Gemmell, 249 
Gennery, 108 
Genower, 108 
Gentleman, 105 
Gentry, 218 
George, 209 
Germain, 206, n. 
Gerstenkorn, 303 
Gessler, 43 
Getgood, 262 
Geyer, 301 
Ghost, 214 
Gibbons, 315 
Giberne, 247 
Giblett, 142 
Giffard, 44 
Giggle, 157 
Gilbert, 43 
Gildemeister, 299 
Gildersleeve, 151 
Gilham, 279 
Gillies, 238, n. 
Gillibrand, 39 
Gillingwater, 161, * 
Gilliver, 192 
Gilman, 236 
Gilpin, 161, n. 
Gilstrap, 95 
Giltpen, 161, n. 
Gimblett, 169 
Ginger, 188 
Ginnery, 108 
Giotto, 30 

Girdwood, 252, n. 3 
Gladstone, 255 
Gladwin, 43 
Glaisher, 227 
Glave, 162 
Gleadle, 255 
Gleaves, 162 
Gledhill, 255 
Gledstanes, 255 
Glew, 219 
Glidewell, 255 
Gluck, 302 
Glue, 219 



INDEX 



GneisenaUj 295 
Goacher, 248 


Goodday, 233 
Goodearl, 241 


Goad, 208 


Goodenough, 318 


Gobb, 30 


Goodered, 221 


Gobbett, 30 


Goodey, 236 


Gobby, 30 


Goodfellow, 232 


Gobert, 30 


Goodgame, 232 


Goble, 30 


Goodhart, 142 


Godbehere, 181 


Goodheart, 142 


Godbolt, 30 
Goddard, 231 
Godsall, 21, 182, 244, n. 


Goodhead, 220 
Goodhew, 232 
Goodhind, 231 


Godsave, 316 


Goodhue, 232 


Godsell, 21, 42 


Goodhugh, 232 


Godsiff, 316 


Goodier, 314 


Godsmark, 246 


Goodiff, 236 


Godson, 208, 245 


Goodjohn, 242 


Godwin, 27 


Goodlad, 231 


Goe, 328 


Goodlamb, 241 


Goeben, 292 


Goodland, 99 


Goethe, 30, 292 


Goodlass, 231 


Goetz, 292 
Goffin, 132, n. i 


Goodlet, 231 
Goodlud, 231 


Going, 329 


Goodman, 236 


Gold, 46, 157 


Goodnow, 318 


Golden, 157 


Goodread, 221 


Goldhawk, 45 


Goodred, 221 


Goldicott, 92 


Goodrich, 30 


Golding, 157, 328 


Goodrop, 242 


Goldmore, 45 


Goodrum, 37 


Goldney, 133 


Goodsall, 182 


Goldring, 157 


Goodsir, 248 


Goldspring, 78 


Goodship, 218 


Goldstraw, 196 


Goodson, 247 


Goldstone, 41 


Goodspeed, 218 


Goldswain, 234 


Goodswen, 234 


Goldwin, 27, 45 


Goodswin, 234 


Golfter, 35 


Goodway, 37 


Golightly, 253 


Goodwill, 243 


Gombert, 43 


Goodwillie, 243 


Gomme, 134 


Goodwin, 30 


Gompertz, 43 


Goodwright, 227 


Gondibert, 43 


Goose, 201, n., 241, n. 2 


Goninfaure, 228, n. i 


Gooseman, 241, n. 2 


Good, 30 


Goosey, 133 


Goodair, 314 


Gorse, 184 


Goodale, 174 


Gorstidge, 90 


Goodbairn, 230, 247 


Gorsuch, 90 


Goodban, 230 


Gort, 61 


Goodband, 230, 247 


Gospatrick, 238, n. 


Goodbeer, 124, 174 


Gossage, 90 


Goodbehere, 181 


Gossett, 128 


Goodbody, 129 
Goodbrand, 243 


Gossip, 119, 245 
Gostick, 90 


Goodbun, 230, 247 


Gostige, 90 


Goodchap, 232 


Got, 284 


Goodcheap, 232 


Gotbed, 268 


Goodchild, 225, 225, n., 


Gotobed, 268 


247 


Gott, 50 



343 

Gottbehiit, 302 

Gotthel/, 302 
Gotts chalk, 42 
Gottwaltz, 302 
Goucher, 248 
Gough, 132, n, i 
Goulden, 157 
Gover, 98, 253, n. i 
Governor, 207 
Govier, 98 
Govis, 98 
Gower, 314 
Gowler, in 
Goy, 328 

Gozzard, 241, n. 2 
Graddige, 196 
Graff, 299 
Grain, 156 
Graindorge, 196 
Grandage, 196 
Grandclement, 285 
Grandcolas, 285 
Grandison, 246 
Grangier, 288 
Grape, 61 
Grapes, 193 
Grasett, 128, n. i 
Grasmeder, 114 
Gratton, 60 
Gravenor, 229 
Gravett, 128, n. i 
Grayfoot, 141 
Grayson, 239 
Greatbatch, 53 
Greathed, 128 
Greaves, 160 
Greed, 219 
Greedy, 219 
Green, 16, 154 
Greenacre, 76, n. 
Greenall, 62, 76, n. 
Greenaway, 70, 76, n. 
Greenberry, 76, . 
Greener, 104, n. 2 
Greenfield, 76, n. 
Greengrass, 76, ., 186 
Greenhalgh, 61, 76, n. 
Greenhall, 62, 76, n. 
Greenhead, 76, n. 
Greenhill, 76, n. 
Greenhorn, 76, ., 89, 

n. 2 

Greenhough, 76, . 
Greenhouse, 76, n. 
Greening, 65, 76, n. 
Greenist, 76, . i, 95 
Greenland, 76, w. 
Greenlaw, 76, . 
Greenleaf, 215 



344 



INDEX 



Greenlees, 76, n. 


Guest, 102 


Half acre, 93 


Greenoak, 94 


Guill-, 282 


Half head, 128 


Gieenop, 76, n. 


Guillaume, 279 


Half hide, 128, n. 3 


Greenprice, 228, n. i 


Guinea, 177 


Half night, 235 


Greenrod, 76, n., 155 


Guiscard, 137 


Halfpenny, 17" 


Greenrovd, 76, n. 


Gullard, 204 


Halfside, 138 


Gieensall, 73, 76, 


Gullett, 204 


Haliburton, 60 


Greenshields, 75, 76, n. 


Gulliver, 35 


Halkett, 62 


Greensides, 76, n., 138 


Gully, 204 


Hallas, 97 


Greensill, 76, n. 


Gullyes, 204 


Halleck, 62 


Greensmith, 228 


Gum, 134 


Hallett, 62 


Greenstock, 76, n. 


Gumbrell, 44 


Hallman, 235, n. 2 


Greenup, 73, 76, w. 


Gumpert, 43 


Hallmark, 178 


Greenward, 76, . 


Gunnell, 36, . i, 37, 


Hallowbread, 173 


Greenwebb, 230 


149 


Hallows, 6 1 


Greenwell, 76, n. 


Gunther, 293 


Hallpike, 51, 161 


Greenwood, 76, n. 


Gunwin, 37 


Halman, 235 


Greep, 61 


Guntrip, 95 


Halse, 135 


Grenfell, 76, n. 


Guster, 105 


Halsey, 32 


Grennan, 137 


Gutbier, 303 


Hamahard, 258 


Grethe, 295 


Gutenberg, 296 


Hamar, 169 


Grew, 92 


Guthans, 295 


Hamblock, 184 


Grewcock, 91 


Guthrum, 37 


Hames, 61 


Grey, 154 


Gutjahr, 305 


Hammer, 169 


Greysmith, 229 


Gutknecht, 300 


Hammond, 41 


Grice, 185 


Outsell, 42, 182 


Hamper, 125 


Grief, 230 


Guyer, 112 


Hamon, 41 


Grieve, 226 


Gwyer, 112 


Han, 10, 280 


Griffin, 209 


Gyer, 112 


Hamshar, 75, 88 


Grimble, 40, 44 


Gygas, 305 


Hancock, 313 


Grimmett, 44, n. i 




Hand, 139 


Grimshaw, 76, n. 
Grinrod, 76, n., 155 


Habberjam, 159 
Habberjan, 159 


Handasyde, 138 
Handel, 293 


Grinter, 81 


Habbijams, 159 


Handewerk, 304 


Grist, 1 86 


Habenicht, 304 


Handover, 263 


Gristock, 76, n. 


Habershon, 159 


Hands, 139 


Grobschrnied, 228 


Habgood, 262 


Handsomebody, 129 


Grocott, 91 


Habicht, 302 


Handyside, 138 


Groocock, 91 


Hachette, 168 


Hanfstaengl, 197 


Groom, 105 


Hackblock, 258 


Hanger, 61 


Grosclaude, 285 


Hackenschmidt, 298 


Hankin, 313 


Gr os jean, 242 


Hackwood, 258 


Hann, 313 


Gross, 300 


Hadaway, 37 


Hanotaux, 10, 280 


Grossjohann, 295 


Haddrell, 135 


Hanoi, 10, 280 


Grosskopf, 301 


Hadwin, 37 


Hanotot, 10, 280 


Grossmith, 228 


Hagen, 41 


Hans, 294 


Grosvenor, 229 


Haggas, 174 


Hansard, 33, n. 


Groucott, 91 


Haghand, 257 


Hansell, 31, 33, n., 273 


Ground, 61 


Hahn, 302 


Hansom, 20 


Grounds, 61 


Haimes, 61 


Hanson, 313 


Groundwater, 85 


Hain, 41 


Hap good, 262 


Growcock, 91 


Haines, 41 


Harbord, 44 


Growcott, 91 


Hair, 131 


Harbour, 107 


Grudgeon, 242 


H airlock, 131 


Hard, 61 


Grummett, 44, n. i 


Hakluyt, 264 


Hardacre, 92 


Grun, 154, 300 


Halbard, 161 


Hardaker, 92 


Grundy, 61 


Halbert, 161 


Hardbattle, 152 


Griinewald, 295 


Haldane, 44 


Harder, 61 


Gubbins, 315 


Hale, 62 


Hardicker, 92 



INDEX 



345 



Hardiment, 222 


Hayhoe, 328 


Hew, 232 


Hardman, 42 


Haynes, 41 


Hewes, 232 


Hardrib, 139 


Hayter, 81 


Hewett, 322 


Hardmeat, 186 


Hay tor, 81 


Hewish, 84 


Hards, 61 


Hay wood, 112, n. 2 


Hewlings, 42 


Hardstaff, 145, 155 


Hazard, 218 


Hewson, 239 


Hardware, 165 
Hargood, 38 


Head, 124, 125 
Headborough, 180, n. i 


Hibbert, 42 
Hickmott, 246 


Harkaway, 100 


Headland, 99 


Hide, 63 


Harker, 97, 133, n. 


Headrigg, 99 


Hig-, 321 


Harkey, 133 


Heal, 62, 222 


Higgins, 316 


Harkiris, 133, n. 


Heald, 62 


Hildick, 37 


Harkus, 97 


Hearn, 62, n. 2 


Hilditch, 37 


Harliss, 131 


Hearsom, 308 


Hilger, 37 


Harlock, 131 


Hearson, 308 


Hill, 47 


Harman, 28 


Heart, 142 


Hilldrop, 95 


Harnack, 301 


Heath, 62 


Killers, 97 


Harness, 158 


Heathcock, 92 


Hilly ar, 37 


Harnisch, 159 


Heaven, 210 


Hind, 226 


Harp, 176 


Heaviside, 138 


Hindenburg, 296 


Harper, 176 


Hebbel, 293 


Hinder, 104 


Harrap, 63 


Hebestreit, 304 


Hindhaugh, 52 


Harraway, 37 


Hecht, 302 


Hindman, 237 


Harriman, 236 


Heckler, 115 


Hindmarsh, 52 


Harrismith, 228 


Hector, 81, 216 


Hinds, 232 


Harrison, 308 


Heels, 142 


Hindson, 239 


Harrold, 188, n. 


Heigho, 328 


Hine, 226, 232 


Harrowsmith, 228 


Heinemann, 295 


Hirsch, 302 


Harsnip, 78 


Hell, 210 


Hitch, 321 


Harsum, 308 


Hellcat, 210, n. i 


Hitch-, 321 


Hartfree, 142 


Helm, 63, 159 


Hitcheon, 321 


Hartnoll, 130 


Helmer, 38, 159 


Hitchmough, 246 


Hartnupp, 128 


Helms, 63 


Hoad, 63 


Hartog, 299 
Hartshorn, 64, 89 


Hempenstall, 197 
Hempseed, 124, 196 


Hoath, 63 
Hobart, 42 


Hase, 302 


Hendyside, 138 


Hobgood, 262 


Haskell, 30, 33, n. 


Henfrey, 41 


Hobman, 40 


Hasluck, 33, n. 


Henrici, 294 


Hochgeschiirz, 304 


Hassard, 218 


Hensher, 104 


Hockenhall, 87 


Hassett, 218 


Henwright, 227 


Hoffmann, 295 


Hatchard, 33, n. 


Herapath, 63 


Hofmeister, 300 


Hatchett, 168 


Herbage, 107 


Hogg, 310 


Hatfull, 250, n. 


Herbert, 44 


Hogness, 132, n. 2 


Hathaway, 37 


Herbst, 302 


Hogsett, 128 


Hatherall, 135 


Hercules, 215 


Hogsflesh, 172 


Hatred, 37 


Herd, 226 


Holbein, 301 


Hatt, 145, 146 


Herdson, 239 


Holdship, 221 


Hatter, 147, n. i 


Herepath, 63 


Hollas, 97 


Hatto, 47 


Herkless, 215 


Hollebon, 143 


Haueisen, 303 


Herod, 207 


Hollier, 102 


Hauenschild, 303 


Herrick, 29 


Holliman, 143, n. 3 


Haugh, 61 


Hersom, 308 


Hollindrake, 170 


Haupt, 126, 301 


Herwegh, 63 


Hollingrake, 170 


Hauptmann, 300 


HfYzog, 299 


Hollingshead, 220, n. 3 


Hawke, 62 


Heseltine, 31 


Hollinpriest, 228, n. 3 


Hawkes, 62 


Hesmondhalgh, 61 


Hollobone, 143 


Hawkett, 128 


Hcss, 295 


Holloman, 143, n. 3 


Hawkey, 133 


Hcsslich, 300 


Hollowbread, 173 


Hawkins, 32 


Hever, 103 


Hollyhead, 220, n. 3 






346 



INDEX 



Hollyoak, 94 


Hubble, 


40 


Inglett, ?i 


Holm wood, 91 


Hubert, 


42 


Inglis, 64, n. 2 


Holness, 220 


Hubrecht. 293 


Ingold, 45 


Holyhead, 220, n. 3 


Hiibsch, 


300 


Ingoll, 31 


Holyoak, 94 


Hucks, 63 


Instance, 221 


Holzhauer, 299 


Huelin, 329 


tremonger, 4 


Honeyball, 33 


Huff, 62 




Ironmonger, 226, . 


Honeybourne, 307, n. 2 


Hufnagel, 166, 304 


Ironside, 138 


Honeybun, 173, 307, 


Huf schmidt, 298 


Irrgang, 303 


n. 2 


Huggins 


42 


trwin, 35 


Honeychild, 307, n. 2 


Hugh, 42, 217, 232 


Isbister, 55 


Honeychurch, 307, n. 2 


Hughes, 


7, 321 Ivermee, 197 


Honeycomb, 307, n, 2 


Huish, 84 


[vey, 185 


Honeyman, 237 


Hulance 


161 Ivimey, 197 


Honeysett, 74, 307, n. 2 


Hulbert, 


319 Ivor, 31 


Honeywell, 307, n. 2 


Hulin, 329 Ivy, 185 


Honeywill, 308 


Hulk, 64 Ivyleaf, 196 


Honeywood, 307, n. 2 


Hull, 319 


Honnor, 63 


Hullett, 


42 


[ack, 150 


Honour, 63, 217 


Hullins, 


161 


[ackaman, 236 


Hood, 15, 145, 146 


Hullyer, 


102 


[ackett, 150 


Hoodless, 149 


Human, 


236 


[ackman, 40 


Hook, 63 


Humbert 


33 


[ackways, 100 


Hope, 63, 218 


Humboldt, 33 Jacoby, 294 


Hopewell, 254 


Humm, 226, n. 2 Jagg, 156, n. i 


Hopgood, 262 


Humperdinck, 33 Jagow, 295 


Hopper, 118 


Humphrey, 33 Jakobsen, 7, n. 


Hopwell, 254 


Hun, 173 Jamin, 282 


H or lick, 131 


Hundertmark, 302 Janders, 97 


Horlock, 131 


Hunerftirst, 305 Janicot, 283 


Horn, 62, n. 2., 64 


Hunnybun, 307, n. 2 January, 108, n. 


Hornblow, 268 


Hunt, 226, 229 Janways, 100 


Hornblower, 176 


Huntbach, 53 Jarmany, 206, . 


Hornbuckle, 152 


Huntback, 263 Jarvis, 83 


Hornett, 325 


Huntress, 230 Jasper, 158 


Horniblow, 268 


Huntriss 


, 230 Jay, 201, n. 


Horsegood, 30 


Hurlbatt 


, 268 Jeanroy, 228, n. i 


Horsfall, 59 


Hurn, 62 


, n. 2 Jeary, 316 


Horsfield, 59, n. 


Hurst, 47, 95 Jekyll, 157 


Horsnaill, 165 


Husband, 226, 245 Jellicoe, 283 


Horsnell, 165 


Hush, 106 Jellicorse, 129 


Hose, 152 


Husher, 


106 


enner, 108 


Hosegood, 30 


Hussey, 236 


ennerway, 100 


Hosmer, 33, n. 






ennins, 5 


Hough, 62, 310 


Icemonger, 326 


eremiah, 206 


House, 47 


Iddols, 323 


ermany, 206, n. 


Household, 105 


Idle, 64 




ermy, 206 


Houseman, 237 


Ilett, 64 




ermyn, 206 


How, 62 


Imray, 41 


essemay, 185 


Howard, 322, n. i 


Imrie, 41 


'esser, 298, n. 


Howchin, 42 


Ince, 64 




'essiman, 185 


Howell, 1 8, n. i 


Inch, 64 




'ester, 105 


Howitt, 322 


Ind, 134 




estico, 150 


Howling, 329 


Inderwick, 52 


eudwin, 27, 45 


Hoy, 171 


Ing, 64 




ewell, 157 


Hoyes, 324 


Ingenohl, 


296 


ewers, 96 


Huard, 322, n. I 


Ingham, 


219 


ewster, 113 


Huband, 247 


Ingle, 45 




ickles, 157 


Hubbard, 42 


Inglebright, 31 


oel, 157 



INDEX 



347 



foffre, 282 
Joffrenot, 282 
J off tin, 282 


Kercher, 147 
Kerchey, 147 
Kerfoot. 91 


Knack fuss, 140 
Knaggs, 65 
Knatchbull, 267 


Joffron, 282 


Kerr, 58 


Knecht, 300 


foffroy, 282 


Kerruth, 303 


Knee, 141 


ohncock, 239 


Kesselhut, 159 


Kneefe, 234 


^ohncook, 223, . 


K ess els chid ger, 299 


Kneebone, 141 


ohnson, 14, n. i 


Ketch, 171 


Kneese, 132, n. 2 


ohnston, 240 


Ketchel, 154 


Knell, 65 


Joliot, 289 


Ketelhod, 159 


Knevit, 235 


folivard, 289 


Kettle, 39 


Knie, 141 


^olivaud, 289 


Kettleburn, 39 


Knife, 161 


r olivet, 289 


Kettler, 297 


Knight, 199, 226 


Foil, 157 


Kettlestring, 234 


Knill, 65 


r oJy, 289 


Kew, 15, n. 


Knipe, 65 


'onas, 204 


Keyhoe, 87 


Knivett, 235 


ones, 7 


Kibblewhite, 89 


Knobloch, 303 


oseland, too 


Kiddell, 255 


Koch, 300 


T oubert, 30 


Kidgell, 154 


Konig, 299 


oule, 157 


Kidney, 142 


Kopf, 126, 301 


oyce, 6 1 


Kid we 11, 255 


Koster, 300 


oynt, 130 


Kiese;vetter, 303 


Kraft, 219 


udd, 20 


Kiggel, 154 


Kranefuss, 142 


r udenfeind, 302 


Kilmaster, 68, 262 


Krdnzlin, 304 


udson, 20 


Kilmister, 68 


Kraushaar, 301 


ull, 157 


Kilvert, 39 


Krauskopf, 301 


une, 237 


Kind, 301 


Krebs, 302 


uneman, 237 


Kindesvater, 301 


Kreuz, 295 


ungblut, 142, n. 


Kindness, 218 


Kriiger, 299 


r ungjohann, 295 
unifer, 192 


Kindred, 43 
King, 198 


Krummbein, 301 
Kuchenbecker, 298 


uniper, 192 


Kingrose, 327 


Kuhlmann, 296 


r unker, 300 


Kingseller, 325 


K up fer schmidt, 298 


uster, 113 


Kinnell, 36, 44 


Kurcher, 147 


ustice, 221, n. 


Kinsey, 44 


Kiirschner, 299 


ustums, 20 


Kinsman, 245 


Kurtz, 300 


utson, 20 


Kirbyshire, 88 


Kustenpfennig, 263 


utsum, 20 


Kirlew, 132 






Kirtland, 88, n. 


Labat, 211 


tahl, 301 


Kirtler, 118 


Labbett, 211 


Raiser, 299 


Kitchell, 154 


Labergere, 287 


(alb, 302 


Kitchen, 47, 106 


Labouchere, 187 


talckbrenner, 299 


Kitcherside, 262, n. 2 


La Bruyere, 2 90 


Zalckreut, 296 


Kitchingman, 235, n. 2, 


La Caussade, 280 


tamtnerich, 295 


237 


La Chauss6e, 280 


'ampf, 296 


Kittermaster, 68 


Lackland, 149 


'annengiesser, 299 


Kittle, 39 


Lacroix, 285 


'anzler, 300 


Kittler, 114 


Ladd, 226 


happier, 295 


Kitto, 216 


Ladkin, 232 


"aulbars, 302 


Klaus, 295 


Ladson, 239 


leeler, 114 


Kleeblatt, 196- 


Lafenestre, 96 


[eemish, 133 


Klein, 300 


Laferte, 286 


[eller, 147, n. 2 


Kleinhans, 295 


Lafille, 1 6 8, w. 2 


lellogg, 257 


Kleinschmitt, 297 


La Fontaine, 290 


lembery, 103, . 2 


Kleinsorg, 302 


Lagneau, 314 


lennard, 39 
.ennaway, 37 


Klinkhammer, 303 
Klopstock, 252 


Lagnel, 314 
Laidler, 104 


.enward, 39 


Kluck, 293, 297 


Laigle, 289 


enwright, 227 


Kluge, 301 


Laignel, 314 


24 







348 



INDEX 



Laignelet, 314 


Lavicount, 200 


Lailavoix, 280 


Lawless, 149 


Lain 6, 248 


Lawman, 40 


Laker, 121 


Lawty, 221 


Lalance, 160 


Layzell, 319 


Lallemand, 279 
Lamartine, 279, 284 


Lazell, 319 
Lazenby, 15 


Lamb, 35, w. 


Lea, 140 


Lambert, 41 


Leach, 65 


Lambshead, 128 


Leaf, 196 


Lambs wool, 154 


Leah, 206 


Lamiral, 213 


Leaper, 118 


Lamort, 221, w. 


Leapingwell, 85 


Lampet, 69 


Leathern, 208 


Lampitt, 69 


Lebas, 289 


Lamputt, 69 


Lebel, 289 


Lance, 160 


Leberger, 287 


Landgraff, 299 


Lebceuf, 289 


Landless, 149 
Landrieux, 284 


Lebon, 279 
Leborgne, 320 


Landry, 108 


Leboucher, 2 87 


Landseer, 74 


Lebwohl, 221 


Lang, 35, n. 


Lechien, 281 


Lang, 300 


Leclair, 280 


Langabeer, 54 


Leclerc, 280 


Langbain, 143 


Ledderhose, 301 


Langbein, 301 


Ledger, 40, 140 


Langcake, 173 


Leech, 65 


Langhans, 295 


Leeming, 89, n. 2 


Langhorne, 64, 89, . 2 


Leese, 66 


Langlois, 281 


Lefevre, 280 


Lankshear, 75, 88 


Leftlleul, 245 


Lapommeraye, 286 


Legard, 140 


Larbalestier, 287 


Legg, 140 


Larby, 212 


Leggatt, 199 


Larmor, 158 


Leggett, 21 


Larmour, 158 


Leggott, 21 


Larmurier, 287 


Legood, 21 


Larochefoucauld, 290 


Legrand, 279 


Larousse, 289 


Legwood, 21 


Lart, 65 


Leichtfuss, 301 


Larter, 65 


Leif, 196 


Lasalle, 285 


Leigh, 140 


Lascelles, 66, . 2 


Leighton, 60 


Lasimmone, 284 


Leimkiihler, 299 


Last, 169 


Leinhos, 301 


Lathe, 169 


Leithead, 128 


Lathron, 208 


Lejoint, 130 


Latter, 120 


Lekain, 281 


Laumonier, 287 


Lelerre, 208 


Launder, 192 


Leleu, 318 


Laundry, 108 


Lemaire, 280 


Laundy, 107 


Lemaitre, 279 


Lautenschldger, 299 


Lemerre, 280 


Lavender, 192 


Lemire, 288 


Laventure, 218, n. 2 


Lemm, 35, n., 130 


Laventureux, 218, n. 2 


Lenain, 249, w. 


Laver, 103 


Leng, 35, . 


Laverack, 259 


Lenormand, 285 



Lenz, 302 
Leonard, 33 
Lepetit, 279 
Lepetitcorps, 289 
Lepetitdidier, 285 
Lepine, 285 
Leplongeon, 103 
Lequeux, 288 
Lequien, 281 
Lermitte, 209 
Lerouge, 289 
Leroy, 281 
Leschallas, 155 
Lescure, 281 
Le Seilleur, 118, w. i 
Lesprit, 214 
Lessons, 66 
Lestoile, 80 
Lesturgeon, 289 
Lesueur, 288 
Letheren, 208 
Leveau, 289 
L6v&que, 281 
Leveridge, 44 
Levert, 154 
Leveson, 196 
Levesque, 281 
Levibond, 230 
Lew, 66, 318 
Lewer, 106 
Lewin, n 
Lewry, 106 
Lewtas, 98 
Lewty, 221 
Liberty, 66 
Licence, 66 
Liddiatt, 67 
Lidgate, 67 
Lidgett, 67 
Liebe, 301 
Liebknecht, 300 
Liebeskind, 301 
Liebetanz, 303 
Liesegang, 303 
Lightbody, 129 
Lightbound, 230 
Lightfoot, 141 
Lightlad, 231 
Lightollers, 93 
Lightowler, 93 
Lilienskjold, 75 
Lilley, 190 
Lillicrap, 197 
Lilly, 124, 190 
Lillycrop, 197 
Lillyman, 237 
Lillywhite, 124 
Lilygreen, 190 
Limb, 35, n., 127, 129 



INDEX 



Limbert, 130 


Love grove, 261 


Lirnmage, 167 


Loveguard, 259 


Limpenny, 177, n. 2 


Lovejoy, 259 


Lindeqmst, 304 


Lovelace, 259 


Lin el, 284 


Lovelady, 259 


Linfoot, 91 


Loveland, 261 


Ling, 35, n., 66 


Loveless, 149, 259 


Link, 66 


Lovell, 260, n. 2 


Linkin, 87 


Lovelock, 131 


Linkinwater, 161, n. 


Loveluck, 259 


Lippett, 67 


Lover, 122 


Lippiatt, 67 


Loveridge, 44 


Liptrapp, 327 
Liptrott, 327 


Lover ock, 259 
Loverseed, 74 


Lipyeat, 67 


Lovesey, 44 


List, 67 


Love well, 255 


Littleboy, 231 


Lovibond, 230 


Littlechild, 247 


Low, 310 


Littlecole, 315, n. 2 


Lowas, 97 


Littledyke, 243 


Lowe, 302 


Littlejohn, 215, 225, 


Lower, 106 


242 


Lowis, 97 


Littlepage, 241 


Lowson, 310 


Littleproud, 222 
Littler, 86 


Loyal, 327 
Luchterhand, 304 


Littley, 133 


Luck, 218 


Li verse ed, 74 


Luckup, 259 


Livery, 44 


Ludwig, 44, 293 


Livesey, 44 


Luffery, 44 


Loakes, 67 


Lugger, 326 


Loalday, 221 


Lumb, 35, ., no 


Loane, 67 


Lung, 142 


Lockbane, 270 


Lury, 10 6 


Locker, 227 


Lush, 106 


Lockless, 149 


Lusher, 106 


Locksmith, 227 


Luther, 44 


Lockyer, 227 


Luter, 176 


Lofficiaux, no, n. i 


Lilt jens, 242, 295 


Loftus, 97 


Lutman, 237 


Lois el, 319 


Luty, 221, 242 


Lomb, 35, ., 130 
Lone, 67 


Lutyens, 242 
Lyall, 327 


Long, 35, n. 


Lyautey, 221 


Longbones, 143 


Lyde, 67 


Longcake, 173 


Lydiate, 67 


Longfoot, 141 


Lyle, 103, . 2, 327 


Longmaid, 248 


Lynch, 66 


Longmate, 240 


Lysons, 66 


Longstaff, 124 


Lyteman, 237 


Loop, 67 


Lyth, 67 


Lord, 200 




Loring, 103, . 2 




Lothair, 44 


Maber, 40 


Louis, 44 


Macbrain, 142 


Love, 260 


MacCorquodale, 31 


Loveband, 230 


Macer, in 


Lovecraft, 261 


Machell, 241 


Loveday, 230, 233 


Macheprang, 303 


Love good, 261 


Machin, 242 



349 

Mackensen, 294 
MacLeish, 238, n. 2 
Maclise, 150 
MacManus, 239, n. 2 
MacMillan, 238, n. 
Mactear, 143 
Madle, 250 
Mdgdefrau, 304 
Magnus, 239, w. 2 
Magnusson, 239, . 2 
Mahood, 327 
Maiden, 248 
Maidland, 248 
Mailer, 104 
Main, 46, 139 
Mainpidge, 20 
Mainprice, 20, 213, n. 3 
Mair, 320, n. 4 
Maize, 186- 
Major, 40 
Makeman, 263 
Makemead, 270 
Makepeace, 254 
Malabar, 40 
Malaspina, 291 
Malchien, 242 
Malcolm, 238, n. 
Male, 249 
Malebranche, 291 
Malesherbes, 188 
Malherbe, 188, 291 
Maliphant, 247 
Malise, 238, n. 
Mallett, 169 
Mallory, 213 
Malone, 104, 238, . 
Malpress, 235 
Malsher, 245 
Malthus, 97 
Maltravers, 19 
Mammon, 212 
Mamprize, 20 
Manbridge, 250, n. 
Manchip, 220 
Manclark, 234 
Mandlin, 176 
Manesse, 303 
Manfred, 29 
Manfull, 249 
Mangnall, 162 
Manifold, 250 
Mankelow, 256, . 
Mankin, 249 
Manktelow, 256, n. 
Manlove, 260 
Mann, 226, 236 
Mansbridge, 250, n. 
Manship, 220 
Manson, 239 



350 



INDEX 



Mantel, 301 
Mantell, 124, 148 
Manteuffel, 305 
Many weathers, 235, n.i 
Marat, 284 
Marbrow, 262 
March, 68, 313 
Marchandise, 172, 311 
Marchandy, 172 
Marcy, 221, n. 
Mar got, 284 
Margoton, 284 
Mariette, 284 
Marigold, 191 
Marillier, 288 
Mariotte, 284 
Marjoram, 188 
Mark, 68 
Markgraff, 299 
Markland, 99 
Marklove, 261 
Marklow, 261 
Marler, 115 
Marment, 315, n. 2 
Marmion, 19, 315, n. 2 
Marmon, 315, n. 2 
Marot, 2 84 
Marquis, 199 
Marr, 68 
Marrow, 245 
Marrs, 68 
Marschall, 300 
Marsh, 313 

Marshall, 105, 106, . 
Marshallsay, 106 
Marshalsea, 106 
Marston, 68 
Mart, 85, n. 
Marthouse, 85 
Martiboy, 231, n. 2 
Martlew, 261 
Martlow, 261 
Martyr, 208 
Marvell, 218 
Marwood,- 257, n. 
Mas, 283 
Maschinendraht, 167, 

n. 3 

Mascord, 107 
Maskelyne, 249 
Maslin, 186 
Masst, 283 
Massenet, 283 
M asset, 283 
Massillon, 186, 283 
Massingberd, 136 
Massinger, 209, . 2 
Master, 68 
Masters, 68 



Mate, 240 


Mellon, 194 


Mater, 107, n. i 


Mellsop, 268 


Mather, 107, n. i 


Melody, 215 


Matthaei, 294 


Membery, 217 


Matthias, 206 


Memmett, 212 


Mattock, 169 


Memmott, 212 


Maubert, 40 


Memory, 217 


Mauclerc, 234 


Mempriss, 20 


Maud'huy, 288 


Manage, 105 


Maudling, no 


Mendary, no 


Mauduit, 288 


Mendelssohn, 294 


Maufe, 68, 246 


Menlove, 260 


Maufildtre, 250 


Mercer eau, 287 


Mauger, 40 


Mercy, 221, n. 


Maugirard, 285 


Merredy, 197 


Mault, 297 


Merriday, 197 


Maund, 165 


Merridew, 197 


Maunoury, 288 


Merriman, 215 


Maupertuis, 286 


Merriment, 215 


Maw, 67, 246 


Merryweather,235, n. i 


Mawditt, 288 


Mesher, 104 


Mawer, 17, 323 


Messenger, 209, . 2 


Mawhood, 327 


Metcalfe, 241 


Mawman, 212 


Meteyard, 164 


May, 246, 248 


Mewis, 98 


Maybin, 247 


Meyer, 298, 305 


May dew, 197 


Meyler, 104 


Mayes, 186 


Meymott, 212 


Mayhew, 197 


Meynell, 42 


Mayle, 249 


Miall, 103, n. 2 


Maynard, 28, 46 


Michaelwaite, 88 


Mayne, 46, 139 
Mayo, 197 


Micklejohn, 242 
Micklewright, 227 


Mayor, 320, n. 4 


Middleage, 95 


Mead, 248 


Middleditch, 237, n.i 


Meader, 114 


Middleman, 237 


Meadows, 96 


Middlemass, 237 


Meadus, 96 


Middlemiss, 97 


Meals, 68 


Middlemist, 97 


Mean well, 255 


Middleweek, 95 


Mears, 68, 320, n, 4 


Midgall, 62 


Measure, 104 


Midnight, 235 


Meat, 1 86 


Midy, 235 


Meatman, 237 


Miggles, 103, n. 2 


Meatyard, 164 


Mighill, 103, n. 2 


Medlar, 193 


Mildmay, 208, 248 


Medlicott, 148 


Miles, 103, n. 2 


Megenhard, 293 


Milk, 174 


Meiklejohn, 242 


Millard, 180, 322, . 2 


Meiklereid, 221 


Millband, 230, n. 3 


Meilleur, 323 


Millett, 1 86 


Meissonnier, 287 


Millhouse, 97 


Melady, 215 


Milliard, 180 


Melladew, 197 


Milliner, 119 


Mellalieu, 197 


Million, 1 80 


Mellalue, 197 


Millist, 97 


Meller, 322 


Millmaker, 226, n. i 


Mellers, 97 


Millward, 322, n. 2 


Mellis, 97, 238, . j 


Milner, 119 



INDEX 



351 



Milsopp, 249, 268 


Mosscrop, 191 


Neame, 249 


Milvain, 238, n. 


Mossendew, 109 


Neander, 305 


Mimpress, 20 
Minchin, 210 


Mothers, 244 
Mothersole, 182 


Neap, 195 
Neathway, 52 


Mingay, 68 


Mothersill, 182 


Neave, 245 


Miuiken, 249 


Mould, 297, 315 


Neck, 135 


Minister, 68 


Moule, 315 


Neech, 245 


Minster, 68 


Mountjoy, 68 


Needle, 166 


Minstrell, 115 


Mountsier, 248 


Needier, 166, n. z 


Miskin, 186, n. 


Mouth, 134 


Neef, 301 


Mister, 68 


Mowbrav, 217 


Neelder, 166, n, z 


Mitten, 151 


Mudd, 58 


Neep, 195 


Mittenzweig, 195 


Mudge, 68 


Neese, 132, n. 2, 245 


Mittnacht, 235 


Muff, 68, 246 


Negoose, 241, n. z 


Mobius, 295 


Muirhead, 126 


Negus, 241, n. 2 


Mockler, 235 


Mulberry, 193 


Neighbour, 237 


Mohn, 190 


Mulbry, 194 


Neild, 62, 1 66 


Mohnkopf, 190 


Muller, 297, 305 


Nendick, 50 


Moist, 187 


Mulliner, 119 


Nephew, 245 


Mold, 315 


Mullins, 279 


Ness, 69 


Mole, 315 


Mummery, 217 


Netherwood, 52 


Molitre, 290 


Munchay, 68 


Neunzig, 304 


Molinari, 305 


Muncer, 248 


Newball, 53 


Molinier, 288 


Mungay, 68 


Newbold, 53 


Molthe, 297 


Murch, 249, n. 


Newbond, 230 


Momerie, 217 


Murcott, 92 


Newbound, 230 


Moncer, 248 


Murfitt, 91 


Newcome, 120 


Monch, 300 


Murrant, 329 


Newhouse, 96 


Monement, no 


Muscat, 193 


Newis, 97 


Moneypenny, 177, n. 2 


Muse, 326 


Newlove, 260 


Monkhouse, 220 


Muskett, 193 


Nicholl, 308 


Monkman, 236 


Musselwhite, 89 


Nickless, 149 


Monnery, no 


Musson, 240 


Nicolai, 294 


Montaigu, 280 


Mussotter, 299 


Nicoll, 308 


Montegut, 280 


Mustard, 124, 188 


fticot, 283 


Montgolfier, 35 


Mustell, 134 


Niedhardt, 294 


Monument, 85, 110 


Mustol, 134 


Nietzsche, 294 


Moor, 212 


Muzzell, 134 


Nightingale, 22, 201, w. 


Moorcock, 92 


Myer, 320 


Niles, 50 


Moorman, 237 


Myers, 320, . 4 


Nipper, 120 


Morant, 329 


Myhill, 103, n. 2 


Nisard, 10, 282 


Mordaunt, 329 


Mylecrist, 238, n. 


Noah, 206 


Mordecai, 206 


Mylord, 215 


Noakes, 50 


Mordey, 180 




Nodier, 42 


Mordue, 180 


Nadaud, 283' 


Nolle, 9 


Morehen, 92 


Nadot, 283 


Noon, 103, n. z 


Morfey, 213 


Nagel, 165 


Norchard, 50 


Morfill, 169 


Nail, 165 


Nordenskjold, 75 


Morfitt, 91 


Nail, 50 


Norkett, 91 


Morgenrot, 304 


Narraway, 100 


Norland, 99 


Morgenthau, 197 


Nash, 50 


Norman, 42 


Morphew, 213 


Nasmyth, 228 


Normansell, 73 


Morphy, 213 


Nation, 223 


Norwebb, 230 


Morris, 212 


Naud, 9 


Norwood, 90 


Morrow, 85 


Naudot, 9 


Nothard, 16, 318 


Mort, 221, n. 


Nave, 234 


Notker, 42 


Mortiboy, 231, n. z 


Nayland, 50 


Nourrisson, 249 


Mortitaoys, 231, . 2 


Naysmith, 228 


Novice, 210 


Mortleman, 221, . 


Neale, 62, 321 


No vis, 210 



352 



INDEX 



Noy, 206 


Orwin, 35 


Parkman, 237 


Noyce, 206 


Osborn, 31 


Parlby, 267 


Noyes, 206 


Osgood, 30, 261 


Parlour, 108 


Nunnery, 220 


Osman, 31, 237 


Parnell, 14 


Nunniss, 97 


Osmond, 31 


Parsley, 188, 189 


Nunweek, 95 


Ostertag, 302 


Parslow, 265 


Nurse, 119 


Oswald, 3 1 


Partlett, 147 


Nursery, 106 


Ott, 255 


Partner, 120 


Nursling, 249 


Otterwell, 255 


Pascal, 290 


Nutbeam, 184 


Ottewell, 255 


Pascoewebb, 228, n. i 


Nutbrown, 132 


Ottoway, 37 


230, 242 


Nutter, 42 


Otway, 37 


Pashler, 265 


Nyland, 50 


Oughtred, 43 


Pashley, 265 


Nyman, 237 


Outerson, 246 


Pasley, 265 




Outlaw, 115, 215, n. i 


Paslow, 265 


Oakenfull, 250, n. 


Outright, 43 


Pasquet, 283 


Gates, 1 86 


Over, 321 


Pasquier, 283 


Oats, 185 


Overall, 151 


Pasquin, 283 


Odam, 246 


Overthrow, 269 


Passant, 265 


Oddboy, 231, n. 2 


Overy, 71 


Passavant, 265 


Odgers, 38 


Owers, 321 


Passelac, 265 


Oestreich, 295 


Oxbrow, 131 


Passelaigue, 265 


Office, 210 


Oxenstiern, 131 


Passepont, 265 


Officer, 207 


Ozanne, 280 


Passerieu, 265 


Ogg, 205 


Ozenfant, 280 


Passfield, 265 


Ohm, 301 


Ozierbrook, 85 


Passifull, 265 


Ohnesorg, 149, 302 




Passmore, 265 


Oldacre, 92 


Pabst, 300 


Paster, in 


Oldcorn, 185 


Pack, 157 


Paston, 19 


Oldershaw, 93 


Pagan, 211 


Pate, 130 


Oldknow, 318 


Page, 105 


Patent, 327 


Oldmixon, 85 


Painlev6, 173 


Pater, 107, n. i 


Oldreive, 231 


Painting, 328 


Patience, 220 


Oldrey, 231 


Palfreyman, 237 


Paton, 327 


Oldwright, 227 


Pallant, 69 


Patten, 327 


Oliffe, 42 


Pallett, 169 


Pattern, 327 


Oliver, 42, n. i 


Pament, 69 


Patvine, 263 


Olland, 99 


Pamflett, 326 


Pauncefote, 141 


Ollerhead, 93 


Pammant, 69 


Pavot, 190 


Ollerenshaw, 95 


Pancoucke, 173 


Paw, 195 


Oilier, 115 


Pancutt, 173 


Pay, 195 


Olsen, 7, n. 


Pannifer, 146, n. 


Paybody, 129 


Onion, 191 


Panter, 105 


Pea, 194 


Onions, 191 


Panther, 106 


Peabody, 129 


Oram, 46 


Pantin, 329 


Peace, 221 


Orange, 194 


Panting, 328 


Peacher, in 


Ord, 38 


Panton, 329 


Peachmay, 248 


Ordway, 58 


Pantrey, 106 


Peacock, 92, 200, 201, n. 


Organ, 176 


Panzer, 159, 301 


Peagrim, 209 


Organer, 115 


Pdquin, 283 


Pear, 192 


Orgar, 38 


Paradise, 210 


Pearce, 161 


Orgill, 218 


Paragreen, 209 


Pearcey, 265 


Orgies, 176 


Par amor, 122 


Pearl, 156 


Orlebar, 87 


Pardew, 317, n. i 


Pearless, 149 


Orme, 37 


Pardner, 120 


Pears, 192 


Ormeshire, 76 


Pardoe, 180 


Peartree, 192 


Orneblow, 268 


Pardy, 180, 182 


Peascod, 196 


Orpe, 44 


Parent, 245 


Pease, 194 


Orpen, 44 


Parkers, 96 


Peasegood, 196 



INDEX 



353 



Peberdy, 129 


Pettiford, 140 


Pinker, 307, n. i 


Peckover, 5 


Pettigrew, 141 


Pinkerton, 307, n. i 


Pecksniff, 234 


Pettinger, 130, n. 


Pinkett, 307, n. i 


Pee, 194 


Pettitt, 279 


Pinkhard, 307, n. i 


Peerless, 149 


Pettiward, 235 


Pipe, 177 


Peever, 189 


Pettus, 98 


Piper, 176 


Peffer, 189 


Peverall, 19, 189 


Pipperday, 129 


Pellevillain, 2^7, 289 


Pewtress, 230 


Pippin, 193 


Pellissier, 288 


Pfaff, 300 


Pirie, 312 


Pelly, 128 


Pfannebecker, 298 


Pirkiss, 223 


Fender, 97 


Pfau, 301 


Pis tor, in, n. 2 


Penderell, 259 


Pfingst, 302 


Pistorius, 305 


Pendriss, 97 


Pfundheller, 302 


Pitchfork, 169 


Pendrous, 97 


Pharaoh, 205 


Pitt, 69 


Penfare, 146, n. 


Pharro, 205 


Plaice, 70 


Penfold, 213, n. 3, 269 


Phethean, 39 


Place, 70 


Penkethman, 237 


Phizacklea, 20 


Plank, 70 


Pennance, 220 


Phizakarley, 20 


Plant, 185 


Pennefather, 146 


Philpot, 125 


Plantrose, 268 


Pennifold, 269, n. 


Phippen, 193 


Plasked, 70 


Penny, 177 


Phcenix, 216 


Plaskett, 70 


.Pennycad, 241, n. i 
Penny card, 241, n. i 


Physick, 223 
Phythian, 39 


Platt, 70 
Playfair, 318 


Pennycock, 241 


Pick, 201, n. 


Play foot, 91 


Penny cook, 241 


Pickance, 268 


Pleass, 70 


Pennyfeather, 146 


Pickard, 103, n. 2 


Plenty, 222 


Pepler, 104 


Pickavance, 268 


Plessis, 70 


Pepper, 188, 189 


Pickavant, 268 


Plews, 170 


Peppercorn, 196 


Pickernell, in 


Plimmer, 130, n. 


Pegperday, 129 


Pickervance, 268 


Plott, 70 


Pepperell, 189 


Pickles, 69 


Plow, 170 


Pepperwe'll, 189 


Picquart, 281 


Plowman, 17 


Pepys, 193 


Pictor, 8 1 


Plowright, 227 


Perceval, 265 


Piepape, 275 


Pluck, 70 


Percival, 265 


Piggrem, 209 


Plucknett, 154, n. i 


Percy, 265 


Pighills, 69 


Pluckrose, 268 


Peretme're, 246 


Pightling, 69 


Plues, 170 


Ferrers, 286 


Pike, 161 


Plumb, 192 


Perrett, 128, 192 


Pilbeam, 258 


Plumtree, 192 


Perrier, 288 


Pilch, 148 


Plunkett, 154 


Perry, 312 


Pile, 69 


Flyer, 120 


Pershouse, 265 


Pilgrim, 209 


Poad, 196 


Pertuis, 286 


Pill, 69 


Poat, 196 


Pertwee, 286 


Pillar, 117 


Pobgee, 200 


Pescott, 196 


Pillatt, 207 


Fob joy, 200 


Peskett, 196 


Pillaway, 69 


Pochhammer, 303 


Pester, in 


Pillbrow, 262 


Pockett, 156 


Pesterfield, 90 


Filler, 117 


Pocock, 200 


Petcher, in 


Pillinger, in 


Podd, 196 


Peters, 294 


Pillivant, 247 


Foe, 194 


Petersen, 7, n. 


Pillman, 69 


Pohl, 296, n. 


Peter silje, 189 


Pimpernell, 191 


Poincare, 127, 288 


Petibon, 222 


Pinch, 207, n. 


Poinson, 207, n. 


Petigas, 289 


Pinchback, 263 


Poitevin, 263 


Petinicol, 315, n. 2 


Finder, 97 


Poke, 213 


Petitperrin, 285 


Pinfield, 269, n. 


Polack, 295 


Petivallet, 213 


Pinfold, 269, n. 


Poll, 130, 319 


Pett, 69, 98 


Pinion, 326 


Pollett, 130, 319 


Pettifer, 140, 141 


Pink, in, n. i 


Pollikett, 242 



354 



INDEX 



Poison, 130 


Preacher, 115 


Pullinger, in 


Polyblank, 131 


Preater, 208, n. 2 


Punch, 207, n. 


Pons, 207, n. 


Preece, 228, n. 2 


Punchard, 307 


Ponsard, 207, . 


Preferment, 210, n. 3 


Puncher, 307 


Ponsonby, n, . 


Premier, 180 


Punshon, n, . 


Pontifex, 208, n. 2, 305 


Prendergast, 4 


Punt, 112, n. i 


Pook, 213 


Prentice, 4, 17 


Punter, 112 


Pool, 319 


Prentout, 275 


Punyer, 113 


Poole, 307 


Pretor, 208, n. 2 


Puplett, 128, n. i 


Pooler, 120 


Prettybody, 129 


Purchase, 223 


Pope, 199, 200 


Prettyjohn, 242 


Purcifer, 265 


Popejoy, 200 


Preuss, 295 


Purdue, 182 


Popjoy, 200 


Prew, 242, n. i 


Purdy, 182 


Poppy, 190 


Prewett, 242, n. i 


Purefoy, 182 


Porcas, 223 


Prewse, 242, n. i 


Purgold, 157 


Porkiss, 223 


Price, 228, n. 2 


Purkiss, 223 


Portas, 156 


Prickman, 261 


Purple, 143 


Porteas, 156 


Prictoe, 142 


Purse, 156 


Portebois, 275 


Pride, 218 


Purser, 120 


Porteous, 96, n. 2, 156 


Pridgeon, 242 


Pursey, 265 


Portefaix, 275 


Priest, 198 


Purshouse, 265 


Portelance, 275 


Priestner, 104 


Pury, 312 


Portenseigne, 275 


Prime, 180 


Pushfirth, 256, n. 


Porter, 16, 105, 117 


Primmer, 180 


Putt, 69 


Portess, 96 


Primrose, 191 


Puttifent, 141 


Porterhouse, 97 


Prin, i 80 


Puttifoot, 141 


Porthouse, 96 


Prindeville, 267 


Puttkammer, 303 


Portman, 231 


Pring, 1 80 


Putwain, 263 


Portwine, 263 


Print, 1 80 


Pyle, 69 


Poskitt, 91 


Printemps, 79 




Posselwhite, 89 


Prinz, 299 




Postans, 109 


Pritlove, 260 


Quadratstein, 167, n. 3 


Posthill, 208 


Prizeman, 162 


Quaife, 147 


Postle, 208 


Probst, 300 


Quaintance, 220 


Potdevin, 273 


Profit, 219 


Quarrier, 58, n. 


Potgieter, 299 


Pronger, 115 


Quarterman, 139 


Potman, 236 


Properjohn, 242 


Quarton, 70, 138, n. 


Pott, 125 


Prophet, 198 


Quatermain, 139 


Pottage, 174 


Prothero, 29 


Quick, 70 


Pottiphar, 205 


Proud, 242, . i 


Quickfall, 70, 262 


Potwin, 2 63 


Proudfoot, 141 


Quigley, 138, n. 


Pouch, 156 


Proudlove, 260 


Quiller, 147, n. 2 


Poucher, 120 


Proudman, 237 




Poulter, 1 6 


Prout, 242, n. i 




Pound, 177 


Prow, 222, 242, . i 


Rabbetts, 242, n. 2 


Pounder, 97 


Prowse, 242, n. i 


Rabjohns, 242 


Powe, 195 


Prudence, 220 


Race, 326 


Powell, 1 8, n. i, 319 


Prue, 242, n. i 


Rachell, 206 


Power, 314 


Pruett, 242, n. i 


Rachilde, 206 


Powles, 319 


Prynne, 180 


Racine, 290 


Powncer, 120 


Prytherick, 29 


Racks traw, 267 


Powner, 104 


Ptolomey, 205 


Raddle, 36 


Poye, 195 


Puckle, 213 


Radermacher, 298 


Poyner, 207 


Puddephatt, 141 


Rae, 313 


Poyser, 171 


Puddifant, 141 


Raemakers, 298, . 


Poyzer, 171 


Puddifoot, 141 


Raickstraw, 267 


Prater, 208, n. 2 


Pudding, 174 


Raikes, 170 


Prdtorius, 305 


Pugh, 319 


Rainbird, 201, . 


Pray, 228, n. 2 


Puller, 120 


Rainbow, 158 



INDEX 



355 



Raine, 45, 70 


Redit, 128 


Ridland, 258 


Raines, 45, 70 


Redman, 132 


Ridout, 259 


Raisin, 193, 239 


Redmayne, 132 


Ridwood, 258 


Rake, 170 


Redrup, 95 


Riemenschneider, 299 


Ralph, 36, 42 
Raineau, 195 


Redway, 37 
Redwood, 258 


Riggall, 44 
Rigmaiden, 2 


Ramshead, 128 


Ree, 72 


Rigler, 211 


Ramshire, 36 


Reed, 184, 221 


Rind, 72 


Ramsker, 36 


Reef, 231 


Rinder, 115 


Ramus, 97 


Reeks, 170 


Ring, 157 


Ranacre, 93 


Rees, 71 


Ringer, 102 


Rand, 139 


Reeve, 226 


Ringrow, 85 


Randall, 38 


Regedanz, 303 


Ringrose, 85 


Randle, 41, n. 
Rands, 139 


Regelous, 211 
Regenbogen, 158 


Ringshall, 88 
Riotte, 284 


Rangecroft, 269 


Regester, in 


Ripper, 120 


Ranigar, 93 


Reglar, 211 


Risk, 72 


Ranke, 293 


Regnier, 44 


Rissbrook, 72 


Rankill, 36 


Rehbein, 301 


Ritter, 300 


Rann, 313 


Relf, 36, 42 


Rivis, 83 . 


Raoul, 36 


Remnant, 329 


Rix, 72 


Raper, 160 
Rapier, 160 


Renard, 44 
Renaud, 44 


Roadnight, 235 
Roath, 73 


Raspberry, 194 


Render, 115 


Rocks tro, 267 


Rathbone, 143 
Rattle, 36 


Rendle, 38 
Rennenkampf, 296 


Rodaway, 100 
Rod, 285 


Raud, 283 


Renouf, 36 


Roddis, 73, 97 


Raven, 36 


Renyard, 44 


Roderick, 29 


Ravenhill, 36 


Retter, 115 


Rodick, 324 


Ravening, 65 


Reuter, 297 


Rodin, 283 


Ravenshear, 36 


Revel, 220, n. 2 


Rodman, 235 


Raw, 42 
Rawbone, 143 


Reverand, 210 
Revere, 122 


Rodnight, 235 
Rodwell, 73 


Rawkins, 10 


Revis, 83 


Roff, 42, n. 2 


Rawle, 10, 42 


Rew, 72 


Roffey, 134 


Rawlin, 42 


Rex, 170 


Roggenbrod, 303 


Rawlins, 10 


Rextrew, 267 


Rohwedder, 304 


Ray, 154, 313 


Rey, 281 


Rolfe, 42, n. 2 


Raybould, 45 


Reynard, 44 


Romheld, 293 


Rayer, 116 


Reynolds, 14, 44 


Rood, 73 


Rayne, 70 


Rhind, 72 


Roodhouse, 73 


Rayner, 44 


Rhine, 72 


Roof, 10 8 


Raynes, 70 


Rhymes, 71, . 


Root, 177 


Ray son, 239 


Ribbans, 157 


Ropes, 172 


Reacher, 29 


Rice, 326 


Rosamond, 34 


Read, 221 


Richards, 16 


Rose, 84, 190 


Reames, 103, n. 2 


Richbell, 44 


Roseblade, 196 


Reason, 239 


Richepanse, 144 


Roseman, 34 


Reatchlous, 149 


Richer, 29 


Rosenblatt, 196 


Rebhuhn, 302 


Richter, 300 


Rosenschmidt, 298 


Reckless, 149 


Rickard, 44 


Rosentreter, 266, n. 2 


Reclus, 209 


Rickman, 237 


Roseworm, 327 


Record, 44 


Rickwood, 44 


Roskill, 33 


Redknap, 128 


Riddick, 324 


Rosontree, 192 


Reddaway, 37 


Ridding, 72 


Roster, 86 


Reddick, 324 


Riddy, 72 


Roth, 300 


Redfern, 184 


Ridehalgh, 61 


Rothera, 84 


Redhead, 128 


Rideout, 259 


Rothermel, 301 


Redhough, 62 


Riding, 72 


Rough, 147 



356 



INDEX 



Roughead, 128 


Saalwdchtcr, 300 


Savigar, 87 


Roughley, 147 


Sabatier, 287 


Savory, 41, 188 


Roughsedge, 147 


Sacavin, 275 


Savoury, 189 


Rouhorn, 89, n. 2 


Sachs, 292 


Sawbridge, 87, n. 4 


Rouncewell, 255 


Sacquepe, 275 


Sawle, 206 


Rounseval, 255 


Saffery, 41, 188 


Sawkill, 307 


Rounswell, 255 


Sagar, 41 


Saxby, 275 


Routh, 73 


Saint, 209 


Saxty, 107 


Routledge, 21 


Sainthouse, 96 


Sayce, 72, n. i 


Row, 190- 


Salt, 74 


Sayer, 74 


Rowat, 91 


Salcede, 280 


Sayers, 41 


Rowe, 84 


Sale, 73, 285 


Sayle, 73 


Rowed, 128 


Salier, 118, n. i 


Saylor, 118 


Rowell, 86 


Salle, 285 


Say well, 254 


Rower, 112 


Sallibanks, 161, n. 


Scadlock, 267 


Rowland, 188, w. 


Sallis, 73 


Scales, 75 


Rowney, 133 


Sallows, 73 


Scambler, 122 


Rowntree, 192 


Salmon, 204 


Scare, 74 


Royal, 327 


Salter, 118 


Scarf, 147 


Roylance, 161 


Salterne, 73 


Scarlett, 154 


Royle, 79 


Salters, 96 


Scattergood, 262 


Rubens, 157 


Saltonstall, 270 


Schaar schmidt, 298 


Rubey, 158 


Saltsieder, 299 


Schaff, 302 


Rubsamen, 303 


Salway, 100 


Scharnhorst, 295 


Ruby, 158 


Sampson, 204 


Schatzmann, 300 


Rudd, 324 


Samways, 100 


Schenk, 300 


Ruddick, 324 


Sandelance, 161 


Schiller, 292 


Rude, 73 


Sandilands, 161 


Schilling, 302 


Rudge, 314 


Sanselme, 150 


Schimmelpeninck, 1 78 


Rue, 72, 187 


Sansom, 20, 150 


Schlagentweit, 303 


Ruff, 147 


Sansterre, 149 


Schleiermacher, 298 


Ruffell, 147 


Sant, 209 


Schluckebier, 304 


Ruffhead, 128 


Santer, 150 


Schmeckebier, 304 


Ruffles, 147 


Santler, 87 


Schmidt, 297 


Ruggles, 149 


Sapp, 196 


Schmidthenner, 228, n. i 


Rugless, 149 


Sapsworth, 87 


Schmidtkunz, 228, n. i 


Rule, 73 
RumbeTow, 101 


Sard, 10 
Sard, 1 60 


Schnapauff, 303 
Schneidewind, 266 


Rumfitt, 91 


Sardison, 239 


Schofield, 65 


Rumschottel, 303 


Sardou, 10 


Schoolcraft, 65 


Rump, 139 


Sargisson, 239 


Schooling, 65 


Rumpff, 139 


Sargood, 262, n. i 


Schopenhauer, 292 


Runacres, 93 


Sarkander, 305 


Schottldnder, 295 


Run die, 38, 41, n. 


Sarson, 212 


Schroder, 299 


Ruse, 84, n. 2 


Sarter, 115 


Schroer, 299 


Rushaway, 268 


Sartorius, 305 


Schroter, 299 


Rushout, 268 


Sarvant, 105 


Schubert, 299 


Ruskin, 34 


Sarvis, 221 


Schuchardt, 299 


Russell, 34 


Satchell, 156 


Schuddekopf, 264 


Russett, 154 


Sattelmacher, 298 


Schultz, 305 


Rutson, 240 


Sauberzweig, 195 


Schumach, 226, n. i 


Rutter, 240 


Sauerbier, 303 


Schumann, 299 


Ryall, 327 


Sauerbrei, 303 


Schuttespeer, 303 


Ryder, 323 


Saul, 206 


Schiitz, 300 


Rye, 185, 1 86 


Saunders, 188 


Schwartzhans, 295 


Rylands, 161 


Saunt, 209 


Schwartzkopf, 301 


Ryle, 327 


Saussaye, 280 


Schwarz, 300 


Ryott, 220 


Savary, 188 


Schwerdtfeger, 299 


Ryrie, 29 


Saveall, 254 


Schwinghammer, 303 



INDEX 



357 



Scotcher, m 


Shacklock, 264 


Shine, 141 


Scotter, 104 


Shackshaft, 256 


Shingler, 120, n. 


Scrimger, 112 


Shadbolt, 268 


Shinn, 141 


Scriminger, 112 


Shade, 74 


Ship-, 75 


Scrimshaw, 88 


Shadlock, 267 


Shipp, 171 


Scrimygeour, 112 


Shadrake, 205 


Shippen, 75 


Scull, 130 


Shafe, 132 


Shipsides, 75, 138 


Sculler, 105 


Shakelady, 264 


Shipster, 130, n. 


Seagram, 41 


Shakelance, 256 


Shipwash, 75 


Seagrim, 41 


Shakeshaft, 4, 256 


Shipway, 75 


Seal, 73 


Shakespeare, 4, 252, 


Shipwright, 227 


Sealer, 116 


256 


Shire, 75 


Seamark, 87, n. i 


Shanks, 124, 140 


Shirr a, 231 


Search, 38 


Shapler, 147 


Shirt, 74 


Sears, 41 


Shard, 74 


Shitler, 115 


Seath, 73 


Sharer, 231 


Shoemaker, 226, . i 


Seaward, 227 


Shargold, 266 


Shoemark, 226, n. i 


Seawright, 41, 227 


Sharland, 74 


Shoesmith, 228 


Sebert, 27 


Sharlotte, 174 


Shone, 141 


Sebright, 27 


Sharpless, 149 


Shooter, 122 


Second, 180 


Sharrocks, 94 


Shorrock, 94 


Secret, 38 


Shatlock, 267 


Shorters, 152, n. 2 


Secular, 211 


Shave, 132 


Shorthose, 22, 152 


Seear, 74 


Shaw, 47 


Shorthouse, 152 


Seed, 73, 196 


Shawsmith, 228 


Shortus, 152, n. 2 


Seedhouse, 96 


Shead, 74 


Shotbolt, 268 


Seidensticker, 299 


Shear, 74, 75 


Shotlock, 267 


Seigle, 1 86 


Sheard, 74 


Shoulders, 137 


Seiler, 118, n. i 


Shearer, 231 


Shove, 132 


Selden, 74 


Shearhod, 270 


Shovel, 132 


Seldom, 74 


Shears, 74, 75, 76 


Shrapnel, 147, n. i 


Seldon, 74 


Shearsmith, 228 


Shreeve, 231 


Sell, 74 


Shearwood, 266 


Shrive, 231 


Sellar, 118 


Sheat, 73 


Shrosbree, 87 


Seller, 118 


Sheath, 73 


Shucksmith, 228 


Sellerman, 237 


Sheather, 114 


Shurlock, 266 


Selway, 100 


Shebear, 54 


Shurmer, 112 


Semmelbecker, 298 


Shed, 74 


Shurrock, 94 


Seneschal, 105 


Shedlock, 267 


Shuter, 122 


Sennett, 38 


Sheepshanks, 140 


Shutler, 115 


Sensicall, 105 


Sheepwash, 75 


Shuttle, 170 


Senskell, 105 


Sheepy, 133 


Sibary, 38 


Sentance, 222 


Shekell, 177 


Sibbald, 38 


Sentence, 222 


Sheldrake, 205 


Siborne, 34 


Seraphim, 20$ 


Shellcross, 130, . 


Sibree, 38 


Serkitt, 220 


Shepherdson, 239 


Sich, 76 


Serrurier, 279 


Shergold, 266 


Sichelschmidt, 298 


Service, 221 


Sherlock, 266 


Side, 138 


Sessions, 103, n. 2 


Shermer, 112 


Sidwell, 187 


Seth, 73 


Sherriff, 231 


Silberschmidt, 298 


Settatree, 270 


Sherwin, 266 


Silburn, 247 


Setter, 113 


Shiel, 75 


Silito, 5 


Seward, 173 


Shield, 1 60 


Sillence, 220 


Sewer, 105 


Shields, 75 


Sillibourne, 247 


S.exty, 107 


Shillibeer, 54 


Sillifant, 247 


Seys, 72, n. i 


Shilling, 177 


Sillon, 283 


Shackcloth, 267 


Shillingshaw, 177 


Silver, 157 


Shacklady, 264 


Shillingsworth, 177 


Silverbird, 136 


Shackle, 170 


Shillito, 5 


Silverside, 139 



358 



INDEX 



Silvertop, 128 


Smallpeace, 221 


Spence, 106 


Silvery, 133 


Smallpeice, 222 


Spencer, 14, n. J 


Silvestre, 281 


Smead, 77 


Spendlove, 260 


Simister, 121, n. 


Smeathers, 96 


Spenlow, 260 


Simmance, 161 


Smeathman, 78, 308 


Sperring, 163 


Simmonds, 39, n. 2 


Smedes, 77 


Spicknell, in 


Simner, 121, n. 


Smedley, 77 


Spickernell, in 


Sinister, 304, n. 3 


Smee, 78 


Spindelow, 260 


Sinnamon, 87 


Smeed, 77 


Spindler, 115 


Sinnocks, 95 


Smeeth, 77 


Spingarn, 258 


Sinnott, 38 


Smidmore, 77 


Spink, in, n. I 


Sirdar, 120 


Smiles, 87, n. i 


Spire, 122 


Sirr, 248 


Smirk, 87, n. i 


Spirett, 214 


Sissmore, 178 


Smith, 226, 308 


Spirit, 214 


Sitch, 76 


Smithers, 96 


Spittle, 107 


Sitwell, 187 


Smithett, 78 


Splatt, 78 


Sivewright, 227 


Smithson, 239 


Spon, 78 


Six, 179 


Smithyman, 237 


Spong, 78 


Sixsmith, 228 


Smy, 78 


Sporleder, 303 


Sizer, in 


Snaith, 78 


Spouncer, 122 


Skeel, 292, n. 


Snake, 95 


Sprackling, 140 


Skeemer, 105 


Snape, 78 


Spratling, 140 


Skeer, 74 


Snead, 78 


Spray, 195 


Skegg, 137 


Snee, 78 


Spreadbrow, 131 


Skew, 1 60 


Sneezum, 86 


Spridgeon, 242 


Skill, 222 


Snelgar, 44 


Sprigg, 195 


Skiller, 105 


Snepp, 78 


Spring, 78 


Skilling, 177 


Snodgrass, 78 


Springall, 248 


Skin, 143 


Snook, 95 


Springate, 248 


Skipper, 118 


Snooks, 95 


Springett, 248 


Skippon, 75 


Snowball, 225, n. 


Sprinehall, 248 


Skippings, 75 


Snusher, 104 


Spun, 78 


Skirmer, 112 


Soanes, 244 


Spurge, 187 


Skirrett, 187 


Soden, 212 


Spurgeon, 242 


Skrimshire, 88 


Sollas, 220 


Spurr, 162 


Skull, 130 


Seller, 109 


Spurren, 163 


Skurmer, 112 


Solomon, 204 


Spurway, 100 


Slade, 76 


Soltan, 212 


Spyer, 122 


Slagg, 156, n. i 


Solway, 161, n. 


Squiller, 105 


Slape, 77 


Sommer, 302 


Squire, 105, 199 


Slate, 76 


Sommerlat, 233 


Stabback, 270 


Slavin, 151 


Sones, 244 


Staff, 79, 124, 154 


Slay, 77 


Sonntag, 302 


Stahlschmidt, 298 


Slaymaker, 226, n. i 


Sortwell, 255, n. i 


Staight, 79 


Slaymark, 226, n. i 


Sotcher, 112 


Staines, 308 


Sleath, 76 


Sotelass, 231 


Staite, 79 


Slee, 77 


Southland, 99 


Stallibrass, 140 


Sleeman, 237 


Southward, 52 


Stallwood, 91 


Slight, 223 


Southwood, 90 


Stamer, 114 


Slipp, 77 


Souvestre, 281 


Stammers, 41 


Slipper, 153 


Sowden, 212 


Standaloft, 268 


Slocock, 92 


Spear, 160 


Standeven, 268 


Sloggett, 91 


Spearon, 163 


Standfast, 254 


Sluggett, 91 


Spearpoint, 160 


Stanes, 308 


Slyman, 237 


Spearsmith, 229 


Stanier, 226, n. i 


Smallbones, 143 


Specht, 302 


Stanley, 16 


Smalley, 133 


Speck, 201, M. 


Stannard, 44 


Smallhorn, 64 


Speed, 218 


Stannas, 96 


Smallpage, 241 


Speight, 201, n. 


Stanner, 104 



Stannis, 96 
Stannus, 96 
Staple, 79 
Staples, 79 
Starey, 133 
Start, 80 
Startifant, 265 
Startin, 86 
Startup, 153 
State, 79 
Stathers, 96 
Staveacre, 187 
Staveley, 87 
Stay, 79 

Steadmances, 71, . 
Steckles, 79 
Steggall, 79 
Steggles, 79 
Steinhauer, 299 
Steinschneider, 299 
Stent, 79 
Steptoe, 253 
Steriker, 93 
Steward, 105 
Stickings, 79 
Stickler, 115 
Stickles, 79 
Stigand, 79 
Stiggants, 79 
Stiggins, 79 
Stiggles, 79 
Stile, 79 
Still, 79 
Stillman, 79 
Stirrup, 89 
Stirzaker, 93 
Stitch, 80 
Stockfisch, 303 
Stockings, 153 

stoffla, 282 

Stone, 308 
Stoneage, 95 
Stonehewer, 226, n. i 
Stoop, 80 
Stopes, 80 
Stophe, 282 
Stopher, 104 
Stopper, 104 
Stopps, 80 
Storch, 301 
Storer, 105 
Storrar, 105 
Stoyle, 79 
Straight, 326 
Strange, 120 
Strangleman, 257 
Strauss, 301 
Strawbridge, 89 
Strawson, 240 



INDEX 

Stribling, 249 
Strickett, 128 
Stringfellow, 130, n. 
Stripling, 249 
Stroh, 303 
Strongitharm, 139 
Stroulger, 211 
Strowbridge, 89 
Strowger, 211 
Strudger, 211 
Stuckey, 87 
Studd, 80 
Stumbles, 41 
Sturdevant, 265 
Sturgess, 43 
Sturt, 80 
Sturtivant, 265 
Sturzaker, 93 
Stutfield, 318 
Styance, 79 
Styants, 79 
Styer, 115 
Styche, 80 
Styles, 79 
Such, 50 
Suckling, 249 
Sucksmith, 228 
Suddard, 319 
Sudermann, 299 
Sueter, 122 
Suett, 173 
Summer, 75, ., 79 
Summerhayes, 75, n. 
Summerlad, 233 
Summerscales, 75 
Summersgill, 75 
Summerskill, 75 
Sumner, 121, n. 
Sumpster, 121 
Sumption, 223 
Sumsion, 223 
Surch, 38 

Surgenor, 65, ., 240 
Surgeon, 65, n,, 239 
Surgerman, 239 
Surgison, 239 
Surkett, 220 
Surplice, 151 
SUIT, 248 
Surtees, 49, n. i 
Siissenguth, 302 
Susskind, 301 
Sussmilch, 303 
Sutermeister, 299 
Suthers, 97 
Sutor, 305 
Swain, 42, 226, 234 
Swainson, 239 
Swale, 80 



359 

Swan, 37, 42, 234, 313 
Swannell, 37 
Swash, 312, n. 
Swears, 80 
Sweatman, 238 
Sweetapple, 191 
Sweetlove, 260 
Sweetsur, 248 
Swell, 80 
Swindler, 120 
Swingewood, 252, n. 3 
Swingler, 120 
Swire, 80, 135 
Sword, 1 60 
Syer, 248 
Syers, 248 
Sykes, 76 
Symonds, 39, n. 2 
Syrett, 38 

Tabborah, 176 
Taber, 150, 176 
Taberer, 176 
Tabernacle, no 
Tabor, 151, 176 
Tabrar, 176 
Tabrett, 176 
Tagliaferro, 253, n. 2 
Taillebois, 258 
Taillefer, 256 
Taine, 281 
Tait, 126 
Talfourd, 253 
Tallboys, 258 
Tallents, 142 
Tambourin, 176 
Tamsett, 322 
Tancred, 42, 125 
Tankard, 42, 125 
Tansey, 187 
Taphouse, 96 
Tarbath, 32 
Tarbox, 71, n. 
Tarbun, 32 
Tardew, 186, n'. 
Tarn, 60 
Tarnsitt, 80 
Tarsell, 193, n, 2 
Tart, 80 
Tartar, 212 
Tash, 50 
Tassell, 193, n. 2 
Taswell, 256 
Tate, 126 
Taube, 302 
Taubmann, 302 
Taw, 50 
Tawyer, 81 
Taycell, 193, n. 2 



3 6o 



INDEX 



Taylorson, 239 


Thoyts, 89 


Tolliday, 233 


Tazewell, 256 


Thrale, 232 


Tolputt, no 


Teacher, 115 


Threadgold, 269 


Tolver, 253 


Tear, 143 


Thridgould, 266 


Tongs, 134 


Tear all, 262 


Thrift, 220 


Tongue, 134 


Tebbutt, 40 


Thring, 234 


Toogood, 262, n. i 


Tee, 82 


Throssell, 157 


Tooth, 127 


Teed, 40 


Thrussell, 157 


Toplady, 259 


Teissier, 288 


Thumbwood, 257, 


Toplass, 259 


Telfer, 253 
Telford, 253 


Thurgar, 31 
Thurgell, 31, 43 


Topliss, 259 
Torr, 8 1 


Tellwright, 227 


Thurgood, 261 


Torrens, 305 


Temporall, 211 


Thurkell, 21 


Tortise, 325 


Temprall, 211 


Thurkettle, 31 


Tortiss, 325 


Tennyson, 315, n. i 


Thurtle, 31 


Tortoiseshell, 325 


Terrell, 262 


Thwaite, 47, 89 


Toswill, 256 


Terry, 40 


Tibbets, 10 


Tottman, 238 


Terse, 180 


Tibbies, 10, 40 


Tough, 147 


Tcstard, 281 


Tibbs, 10 


Tournemeule, 263 


Ttte, 126 


Ticklepenny, 263 


Tower, 320 


Tetard, 281 
Teufel, 209, n. i, 305 


Tickler, 79 
Tidbald, 40 


Toye, 146 
Tozer, 256 


Tewer, 81 


Tidball, 40 


Traherne, 7 


Textor, 305 


Tidboald, 40 


Tranchevent, 266 


Tey, 82 


Tidswell, 254 


Trapnell, 262, n. i 


Thacker, 81, 114 


Tieck, 293 


Trask, 87 


Thackeray, 84 


Tieman, 200 


Travell, 222 


Thackster, 81 


Tierce, 180 


Treacher, 120 


Thackwell, 256 


Tiffen, 14 


Treadaway, 266 


Thackwray, 84 


Tighe, 82 


Treaddell, 266 


Thake, 81 


Timberlake, 87 


Treadway, 266 


Thay, 81 


Timblick, 87 


Treadwell, 255 


Theak, 81 


Timbrell, 177 


Tredgett, 219 


Theaker, 81, 114 


Timperon, 177, n. i 


Tredgold, 266 


Theed, 40 


Tingle, 40 


Tredwell, 266 


Theobald, 40 


Tinnett, 138 


Treitschke, 294 


Thew, 150, n. 


Tinnion, 224, n. 2 


Tremble, 263 


Thewless, 150 


Tinside, 138 


Tress, 132 


Thewlis, 150 


Tiplady, 259 


Tretwell, 255, 266 


They, 81 
Thickbroom, 184 


Tippenny, 177 
Tippett, 148 


Trevett, 166 
Trew, 8 1 


Thickett, 128 


Tipple, 40 


Tricker, 120 


Thicknesse, 132, n. 2 


Tipstaff, 135 


Trickery, 219 


Thickpenny, 177, . 2 


Tiptaft, 155, n. 


Trill, 50 


Thiers, 180 


Tiptod, 155, . 


Trinkwasser, 304 


Third, 180 


Tiptoft, 155, n. 


Triphook, 94 


Thirdborough, 180 


Tirebuck, 266 


Trippick, 94 


Thirkell, 31 


Tirpitz, 295 


Trist, 318 


Thirkettle, 31 


Tischbein, 155 


Tristram, 32 


Thirkhill, 31 


Todhunter, 229 


Trivett, 166 


Thirlaway, 265 


Todkill, 43 


Trodden, 50 


Thirlway, 265 


Todleben, 221, n. 


Trodoux, 262, n. i 


Thistlethwaite, 89 


Todrick, 40 


Trollope, 272 


Thoday, 63 


Toe, 50, 142 


Trood, 50, 73 


Tholomie, 205 


Toes, 50, 142 


Troplong, 262, n. i 


Thompson, 3, 308 


Tofield, 82 


Troth, 217 


Thorburn, 34 


Toine, 281 


Trouncer, 123 


Thornback, 138 


Tolladay, 233 


Trounson, 155 


Thornell, 62 


Tollfree, 31 


Trousseau, 156 



INDEX 



361 



Trow, 8 1 


Twills, 308 


Vansittart, 298 


Truckenbrod, 303 


Twin, 249 


Vant, 247 


Trudgett, 219 


Twint, 249 


Varder, 113 


Truebody, 129 


Twisadav, 180 


Vardon, 103, n. 2 


Truefitt, 99 


Twiss, 82 


Vardy, 218 


Trueland, 99 


Twissell, 82 


Varge, 82 


Truelock, 214, . 3 


Twist, 187 


Varndell, 59 


Truelove, 260 


Twitchell, 82 


Varnish, 108 


Trumble, 263 


Twitchen, 82 


Varty, 218 


Trumper, 176 


Twitchings, 82 


Vater, 301 


Trumpeter, 115 


Twite, 89 


Vaulkhard, 40 


Trurnit, 304 


Twizel, 82 


Vauquelin, 44 


Truscott, 261 


Two, 179 


Vaux, 45, n. 


Truslove, 261 


Twopenny, 177 


Veal, 314 


Trussell, 156 


Twoyearold, 250 


Veevers, 174 


Trust, 173, 217 


Twybell, 168 


Venn, 320 


Trustrum, 217 


Twyer, 81 


Venner, 229 


Tubb, 125 


Twyman, 238 


Venour, 229 


Tubeuf, 257 


Tye, 82 


Venters, 218, n. 2 


Tucker, 323 


Tyers, 180 


Ventress, 218, n. 2 


Tuckwell, 254 


Tylecote, 258 


Ventris, 218, n. 2 


Tudball, 40 


Tyrer, 267 


Ventur, 218 


Tudway, 63 


Tyrrell, 262 


Verdier, 287 


Tuer, 8 1 


Tyrwhitt, 87 


Vereker, 298 


Tuff, 147 


Tyson, 315 


Verge, 82 


Tuffery, 31 




Vergo, 208 


Tuffield, 62 


Uff, 35 


Verity, 218, 221, n. 


Tuffill, 82 


Uffendell, 35 


Vermuth, 188 


Tugwell, 254 


Ulph, 35 


Verschoyle, 298 


Tulip, 192 


Uncles, 245 


Vesey, 186, n. 


Tulliver, 253 


Underbill, 52 


Vester, 107 


Tumbrell, 177 


Undery, 71 


Vestey, 107 


Tunnell, 169 


Undrell, 52 


Vetter, 301 


Turbert, 31 


Unite, 1 80 


Vicar, 217 


Turbott, 31 


Unitt, 1 80 


Vice, 218 


Turfery, 31 


Unkraut, 188 


Vickerstaff, 90 


Turgis, 31, 43 


Unthank, 89 


Vickery, 217 


Turgoose, 31 


Unwin, 43 


Vickress, 230 


Turk, 212 


Upcher, 88 


Victory, 217 


Turketine, 31 


Upfield, 52 


Vidal, 174, n. 


Turnbill, 263 


Upfill, 52, 169 


Vidler, 176 


Turnbull, 263 


Upfold, 52 


Vigers, 87, n. 2 


Turnpenny, 263 


Upjohn, 242 


Vigors, 87, n. 2 


Turpin, 31 


Uprichard, 242 


VUmar, 293 


Turtle, 31 


Upshall, 88 


Vimpany, 263 


Tustain, 31 


Upton, 52 


Vinegar, 43 


Tustin, 31 


Upward, 52 


Vinestock, 155 


Tutin, 32 


Urwin, 3 5 


Vinson, 172 


Tuttle, 31 


Usher, 105 


Violett, 154, 192 


Tuttlebee, 31 


Uzzell, 319 


Virgin, 208 


Tuvache, 257 




Virgoe, 208 


Twait, 89 


Vaisey, 186, . 


"Virtue, 218 


Tweed, 161, n. 


Vale, 314 


Vittles, 174 


Twelftree, 179 


Vandam, 298 


Vivers, 174 


Twells, 50 


Vanderdecken, 108 


Vize, 83 


Twelve, 179 


Vandersteen, 298 


Vizer, in 


Twelve trees, 179 


Vandervelde, 298 


Vizor, in 


Twiceaday, 180 


Vann, 59, 107 


Voase, 82 


Twigg, 195 


Vanner, 59 


Voce, 82 



362 



INDEX 



Vogelgesang, 304 


Walwin, 40 


Vogt, 300 


Wand, 155 


Voice, 82 


Wandless, 149 


Yokes, 45 


Wanghope, 149, n. 


Volker, 45 


Wanlace, 149 


Volkes, 45 


Wanlass, 149 


von, 296 


Wanless, 149 


von der Goltz, 296, 297 


Wannemacher, 298 


von der Heyde, 296, 297 


Want, 155 


von der Tann, 296, 297 


Waraker, 93 


Vorbusch, 296 


Warboy, 231, . 2 


Vorderbrugg, 296 


Wardhaugh, 62 


Vose, 82 


Wardlaw, 62 


Voss, 302 


Wardle, 62 


Vowler, 107, n. 2 


Wardlow, 62 


Voysey, 186, . 


Wardrop, 95 


Vulpius, 305 


Ware, ,311 ^^ 


Vyse, 83 


Warlock, 214 




Warlow, 214, n. 2 




Warren, 329 


Wace, 312 


Warring, 329 


Wdckter, 300 


Warwicker, 93 


Wackernagel, 166, n. i 


Wash, 312 


Waddicar, 93 


Wason, 312 


Waddicker, 93 


Wasp, 325 


Waddilove, 260 


Wass, 312 


Wademan, 121 


Wastall, 262 


Wader, 120 


Wastell, 114, n. i 


Wadman, 121, 237 


Waterfall, 59 


Waggett, 264 


Watering, 65 


Waghorn, 264 


Wath, 83 


Wagstaff, 264 
Wain, 171 


Wathe, 83 
Watking, 228, . i 


Wainwright, 227 


Watmough, 247 


Waister, 263 


Watrett, 128, . i 


Waistcoat, 150 


Waud, 83 


Wait, 185 


Waule, 311 


Waite, 312 


Wawn, 83 


Waiter, 105 


Waygood, 37 


Wakelam, 270 


Waylatt, 83 


Wakeling, 44 


Waylett, 83 


Wakem, 270, n. 2 


Waymark, 37, 41 


Wakenshaw, 269 


Waythe, 83 


Waldo, 43 


Weale, 83 


Wale, 3" 


Wearing, 329 


Wales, 311 


Weatherhead, 128 


Walkinshaw, 269 


Weatherhogg, 242 


Walkland, 270 


Webb, 226 


Walklate, 270 


Weeds, 188 


Walkling, 44 


Weichbecker, 298 


Walkman, 237 


Weihnacht, 302 


Wall, 311 


Weiss, 300 


Wallen, 40, 311 


Weissbecker, 299 


Wallet, 156 


Weissbrodt, 303 


Wallis, 308 


Weiss gerber, 299 


Wallraven, 36 


W eissmantel, 301 


Walne, 83 


Weisspfennig, 302 


Walthew, 43 


Welch, 308 


Waltho, 43 


Welcome, 254 



Weld, 83 
Welfare, 220 
Welfitt, 91 
Welladvise, 224 
Wellavize, 224 
Wellbelove, 225 
Wellbeloved, 225 
Wellbelow, 225 
Werckmeister, 299 
Werlock, 214 
Wermuth, 303 
Weskett, 150 
Wesson, 240 
Westaway, 76, n. 
Westland, 99 
Westrope, 95 
Westwood, 90 
Wethered, 128 
Wet wan, 84 
Whackum, 270, n. 2 
Whalebelly, 138, 204, 

n. i 

Wham, 83 
Whan, 83 
Wharf e, 161, n. 
Whatkins, 328 
Whatmaugh, 247 
Whatmore, 247 
Whatrup, 95 
Whattler, 114, n. 2 
Wheat, 124, 185 
Wheelwright, 227 
Whence, 328 
Where, 328 
Whereat, 328 
Wherry, 171 
Whiddett, 91 
While, 327 
Whinray, 84 
Whipp, 156 
Whish, 84 
Whisker, 137, 328 
Whitbread, 136 
Whitcher, 106 
White, 154 
Whitear, 135 
Whiteaves, 59 
Whiteborn, 247 
Whitefoot, 141 
Whitehair, 135 
Whitehall, 62 
Whitehand, 139 
Whitehead, 15, 22, 128 
Whiteheard, 231 
Whitehorn, 64, 89, n. 2 
Whitehouse, 96, 152 
Whitelam, 241 
Whitelark, 131 
Whitelegg, 140 



INDEX 



363 



Whitenow, 318 


Willett, 322 


With, 84 


Whiteoak, 94 


Willgoss, 241 


Witherow, 85 


Whiterod, 155 


Willis, 321 


Withinshaw, 52 


Whiteside, 138 


Wills, 308 


Wittwer, 301 


Whitesmith, 227 


Willsher, 88 


Wodehouse, 214 


Whitewhite, 89 


Wilman, 236 


Wohlfart, 220, 302 


Whitewish, 214 


Wilmot, 169 


Wolfe, 35 


Whitewright, 227 


Wilsford, 250, n. 


Wolfendale, 35 


Whitey, 133 


Wilshaw, 88 


Wolff, 302 


Whitlock, 131 


Wimble, 40, 170 


Wolfing,25o,n.2 


Whitmee, 248 


Wimblett, 169 


Wolfram, 36 


Whitseed, 74 


Wimbolt, 170 


Wolstencroft, 35 


Whittaker, 93 


Wimlott, 169 


Wolstenholme, 35 


Whittard, 231 


Wimpenny, 263 


Wolzogen, 288, 302 


Whittear, 135 


Wimple, 150 


Wonder, 218 


Whittick, 94 


Wimpress, 107 


Wong, 84 


Whittier, 135, 226, n. i 


Winbolt, 43 


Wood, 47, 308 


Whittock, 94 


Winbow, 263 


Woodage, 95 


Whittrick, 43 


Wincer, 89 


Woodbine, 192 


Whit warn, 137 


Winch, 170 


Woodcock, 201, n. 


Whitwham, 138 


Winckelmann, 295 


Woodfall, 59 


Wholehouse, 97 


Windeatt, 91 


Woodfin, 84 


Whybird, 38, 328 


Windelband, 167 


Woodfine, 84 


Whyborn, 34, 38 


Windlass, 170, 263 


Woodger, 226, n. i 


Whybrow, 130 


Windless, 170, 263 


Woodhead, 126 


Wickfield, 70 


Windows, 96 


Woodhouse, 214 


Widdeatt, 91 


Win dram, 263 


Woodier, 226, n. i 


Widderkop, 301 


Windus, 96 


Woodison, 240 


Widdiwiss, 214 


Winearls, 264 


Woodiwiss, 214 


Widdows, 245 


Winfarthing, 89 


Woodman, 308 


Widger, 43 


Winfrey, 310 


Woodmason, 227 


Widgery, 86, n. a 


Wingood, 30, 261 


Woodnough, 318 


Wiegold, 157 


Winks, 46 


Woodrofife, 231 


Wigfall, 70 


Winnery, 84 


Woodrow, 85 


Wigg, 46 


Winpenny, 263 


Woodruff, 231 


Wilberforce, 60 


Winrose, 263 


Woodward, 231 


Wilbur, 39 


Winship, 264 


Woodwright, 227 


Wild, 83 


Winspear, 162, 263 


Woof, 35 


Wildash, 83 


Winsper, 162, f. 


Woolcock, 92 


Wildblood, 142 


Winspur, 162, n., 263 


Woolfrey, 35 


Wildbore, 241 


Winter, 75, n., 79 


Woolfries, 35 


Wildegans, 302 


Winter, 302 


Woolgar, 35 


Wilder, 241 


Winterage, 95 


Woolhouse, 96 


Wildey, 133 


Winterbottom, 75, n. 


Woollard, 154 


Wildgoose, 241 


Winterburn, 75, . 


Woollen, 35 


Wildgust, 241 
Wilding, 65 


Winter flood, 75, . 
Winterford, 75, n. 


Woolley, 35 
Woolloff, 260, n. i 


Wildish, 83 


Winterscale, 75 


Woolnough, 35 


Wildlove, 261 


Wintersgill, 75 


Woolven, 35 


Wildman, 241 


Winthrop, 95 


Woolward, 154 


Wildrake, 241 
Wildsmith, 228 


Winward, 310 
Wiper, 103 


Woolwright, 127 
Woor, 122 


Wiles, 83, 169 


Wire, 112 


Worlock, 214 


Wilesmith, 228 


Wiscard, 137 


Wormald, 37 


Wilford, 250, n. 


Wisdom, 223 


Worms, 46 


Wilgress, 241 


Wiseman, 215 


Wormwood, 188 


Willacy, 140 ft. 


Wish, 84 


Worship, 220 


Willavise, 224 


Wishart, 137 


Wortos, 98 


Willbond, 230 


Witcher, 106 


Would, 328 



364 

Wouldhave, 59 
Wraight, 226, n. 3 
Wraith, 226, n. 3 
Wray, 84 
Wreath, 226, n. 3 
Wright. 226 
Wrightson, 239 
Wroe, 84, 190 
Wiilfing, 260, n. 2 
W under lich, 301 
Wyartt, 19 
Wyattcouch, 243 
Wyberd, 157 
Wyburn, 38 
Wyer, 113 



INDEX 

Wyman 3 7 
Wymark, 41 
Wyndham, 86 
Wynn, 310 
Wypers, 103 
Wythe, 84 

Yalland, 99 
Yarker, 123 
Yarwood, 21 
Yate, 91 
Yeatman, 237 
Yelland, 99 
Yeoman, 105 
Yolland, 99 



Yorker, 123 
Youngblood, 142 
Younger, 248 
Younghusband, 230 
Youngmay, 248 

Zahn, 301 
Zeal, 73, 217 
Zimmermann, 297 
Zorn, 318 
Zouch, 50 
Zuckerbier, 303 
Zuckschwerdt, 303 
Zumbusch, 49, 296 
Zweig, 195 



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