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Full text of "Surrey archaeological collections"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/surreyarchaeol01surr 



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SURREY 



git[([h^0l0jgipl (|0ll^ii0n», 



RELATING TO THE 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF THE COUNTY. 



PI' BUSHED BY 



t5#e Jburwg gjufjaological ^octrtj). 




VOL. I. 



LONDON: 

ijpublfcljco for flje ^octrty, bn 

LOVELL REEVE, 5, HENRIETTA STREET, 

COVENT GARDEN. 

MDCCCLVIII. 



[The Council of the Surrey Archaeological Society desire that it should 
be distinctly understood that they are not responsible for any statements or opinions 
expressed in the " Collections ;" the Authors of the several Communications being 
alone answerable for the same.] 



COX AND WYMAN, PRINTERS, GREAT QUEEN STREET, LONUON. 



CONTENTS. 



PAOE. 

Report of Proceedings at the Inaugural and other General Meetings of 
the Society during the years 1854 and 1855 : — 

1. Southwark * 

2. Kingston-upon-Thames xi 

3. Chertsey xvii 

4. Guildford xix 

5. Southwark xxv 

List of Contributions to the Library and Museum xxvii 

List of Members, and Rules xxxv 



1. — The Archeology of the County of Surrey. 

By the Rev. Octavius Freire Owen, M.A., F.S.A 1 

2. — The Religious Bearing of Archaeology upon Architecture and Art. 

By the Rev. John Jessopp, M.A 14 

3. — The Kingston Morasteen. 

By William Bell, Ph. D. and Hon. Member 27 

4. — The Warham Monument in Croydon Church. 

By George Steinman Steinman, Esq., F.S.A 57 

5. — Roman Road between Silchester and Staines. 

By Col. P. L. M'Dougall, Royal Military College, Sandhurst 61 

Memoranda relative to the same subject. By Mr. E. J. Lance . . 66 

6. — Ancient British Coins found in Surrey 69 

7. — Mural Paintings formerly existing in Lingfield Church. Letters 

addressed to the Honorary Secretary 71 

8. — Ancient British Barrow at Teddington 74 

9. — On the Anglo-Saxon Charters of Frifcwald, JElhed, and Edward 
the Confessor, to Chertsey Abbey. 

By Geo. R. Corner, Esq., F.S.A 77 

10.— Chertsey Abbey. By W. W. Pocock, Esq., B.A., F.R.I.B.A. . . 97 



VI CONTENTS. 

PACK. 

11. — Some Account of the Encaustic Tiles and Stone Coffins excavated 
on the Site of Chertsey Abbey in 1855. 

By W. W. Pocock, Esq., B. A., F.E.I.B. A 115 

12. — A Memoir of the Manor of Hatcham, co. Surrey. 

By W. H. Hart, Esq., F.S.A 122 

13.— On the History of Horselydown. By G. K. Corner, Esq., F.S.A. 156 

14. — A Collection of Wills of Persons resident in Surrey between the 

years 1497 and 1522. By Miss Bockett 180 

15. — A Collection of Ancient Wills, &c, relating to Southwark. 

By G. R. Corner, Esq., F.S.A 190 

16. — Notices of Cold Harbour, Croydon. 

By C. W. Johnson, Esq., F.R.S 203 

17. — On Monumental Brasses, with Special Notice of those at Stoke 

D'Abernon. By the Rev. C. Boutell, M.A 213 

IS. — Genealogical and Heraldic Memoranda relating to Surrey. 

Pedigrees of Digges of Reigate and Carew of Beddington. 
Copied from " The Visitacon of Surry, made A° 1623 by 
Samuell Thompson, Windsor Herauld, and Augusytne Vin- 
cent, Rougcroix, Marshalls and Deputies to Wm. Camden, 
Esq., Clarenceux King of Armes." 

Edited by W. H. Hart, Esq., F.S.A., and J. J. Howard, 

Esq., F.S.A 237 



Index -15 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAOE. 

Map of the Roman Road 61 

Ancieut British Coins found in Surrey 69 

Ditto ditto 70 

Mural Paintings in Lingfield Church (Four Plates) 72 

Ancient Weapon found in the Barrow at Teddington 74 

Stone Coffins excavated on Site of Chertsey Abbey 107 

Plan of Chertsey Abbey, showing Walls, &c, excavated in 1855 107 

Plan of Chertsey Abbey 108 

Seal of Abbot Medmenham 112 

Seal of Abbot Bartholomew 112 

The Conventual Seal 113 

Architectural Fragments, Chertsey Abbey 113 

Plan of South Transept, Chertsey Abbey, showing Position of Stone Coffins. . 114 

Sepulchral Slab found on the Site of Chertsey Abbey 114 

View of Horselydown in 1590 171 

Map of Horseye Downe, 1544 171 

Brass of Sir John D'Aubernoun, 1277 234 

Brass of Sir John D'Aubernoun, 1327 235 

Arms and Autograph — Digges of Reigate* 239 

Arms and Autograph — Carew of Beddington 242 

Arms of Throckmorton 242 



* This Engraving is contributed to the Society by Messrs. W. H. Hart and J. J. Howard. 



EEPOET OF PKOCEEDINGS 



INAUGURAL AND OTHER GENERAL MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY, 
DURING THE YEARS 1854 AND 1855. 

SOUTHWARK. 

The Inauguration of the Society took place in Southwark, on 
Wednesday, the 12th of May, 1854.* Two meetings were, on that day, 
held at the Bridge House Hotel, at both of which the Chair was taken 
by Henry Drummond, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., Vice-President. The first, a 
Morning Meeting, was limited to Members only, its object being the 
formal constitution of the Society and the Election of Office-bearers. 
The following Report was read : — 

The present being the first General Meeting of this Society, the 
Council take this opportunity of briefly stating the progress that has 
been made since its formation, and request the sanction of the Members at 
large to such steps as have been taken to insure its permanent welfare. 

Although less than a year has elapsed since the formation of this 
Society, it already numbers 365 Members ; and the increasing attention 
paid to Archaeological research justifies the belief, that when its utility 
becomes thoroughly known, a considerable addition may be confidently 
expected. 

"With regard to the state of our finances, as the balance-sheet will not 
be presented until the first Annual General Meeting, the Council beg to 
state that — 

The Capital of the Society consists of the Compo- 
sition of thirty-eight Life Members ... £190 
And the following Donations : — 

The Earl of Lovelace £15 

Robert Gosling, Esq. 15 10 

G. R. Smith, Esq 5 

35 10 



Making a Total of £225 10 

and the income of the Society derivable from the Annual Subscriptions 
of 327 Members, with the addition of interest on invested capital. 



* It will not, perhaps, be deemed out of place to mention that the Society was 
originated by Mr. George Bish Webb, the present Honorary Secretary, by whom the 
first Circular proposing its establishment was issued in August, 1852. No great 
progress was made until October, 1853, when the Provisional Committee (since become 
the Council) commenced their periodical Meetings. The kindness of Mr. Hesketh, 
in allowing these Meetings to be held at his private residence, deserves special 
mention. 



11 REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

The Council have to acknowledge the liberal donations of books, draw- 
ings, and prints, a list of which will be prepared and printed in the first 
annual volume of the Society's Transactions. 

The Rules for the regulation of the Society, which have been prepared 
with great care, are now submitted for sanction and confirmation. 

The Council beg to resign into the hands of the Society the trust 
reposed in them, and to express their willingness to resume their duties 
if re-elected. 

The Adoption of the Report was moved by 

J. C. W. Lever, Esq., M.D., seconded by Thomas Clark, Esq., and 
unanimously carried. 

The Proposed Rules were then read, revised, and adopted. 

The Office-bearers having been duly appointed, the Meeting adjourned 
to the evening. 



At Seven o'clock the Members and their friends, in number nearly 
two hundred, again assembled ; and the proceedings were commenced by 
the Chairman's delivery of the following Inaugural Address : — 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — I take it for granted that all who are now 
present are members of this Archaeological Society, or at least are 
interested in archaeological pursuits. This being our first meeting, it 
may affect our future proceedings — a great deal depends upon how we 
make a start. (Hear, hear.) I dare say you all remember a character 
in one of Eoote's farces, ridiculing this kind of thing, representing the 
parties as trying to get a complete collection of Tyburn-turnpike tickets. 
(A laugh.) There might be something to learn from that. If at the out- 
set you start with no higher object in view than picking up old coins, 
pieces of old iron, fragments of broken vases, and scraps of tiles, your 
researches will be exposed to great and deserved ridicule. If, on the 
other hand, your exertions be directed towards worthier and more 
extended objects — of which those relics may be made one of the instru- 
ments — you may be of considerable use — you may fill an important 
office, as I will endeavour to show. All great works of art — a great 
building, a great picture, or a great poem, — are made up of the grand 
design and the subsidiary details. Take any piece of art — say that you 
are painting a picture. Well, there is the great subject, the conception 
to be carried out, and there are the details. If you bestow your atten- 
tion, as an artist, entirely upon the details, you must make a bad picture ; 
if, on the other hand, you keep the details subsidiary to the grand 
plan or subject, you will make a good picture. If you, as members of 
this Society, are devoted to collecting pieces of broken pottery, or 
metal, or old coins, you will come to no good result — and you ought not 
to come to any good result. (Hear.) Now the first thing is one which is 
rather difficult to define, and that is " Antiquity." What do you mean 
by the state of being old ? What is old ? Ladies are never old, you 
know. (A laugh.) This reminds me that Horace relates a story. 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. Ill 

About 2,000 years ago this same inquiry arose, — " What is Old ?" A 
person was praising the poets of antiquity : he didn't like the modern 
poets at all — there wasn't one worth reading. Give him the old poets — 
there was something in them. " Well," replied Horace, " what do you 
call old 1 ? Will a man who has been dead 100 years do for you'?" 
" Oh ! yes, a hundred years will do very well." " What," again 
inquired Horace, " if he had only died ninety-nine years ago 1 " " Well, 
I won't stick about a year," was the reply. " Then," said Horace, " if 
you concede that, I shall take it away year by year till you have no 
antiquity at all." (A laugh.) It is just so with us ; we can't fix a 
standard of antiquity. No line can be drawn but what year after year 
might be conceded over it — and, in fact, everything is old that is of 
yesterday. You will increase the objects of this Society beyond all 
control, as well as beyond all practical utility, if you take in everything 
merely because it is old. Supposing what I hope will never happen 
— that the splendid fleet in the Baltic was lost in a storm — not an 
impossible event — and the Russians were to get out with their ships, 
come over, and burn London. The archaeologists, a couple of years hence, 
would pay the site of the town a visit, and commence digging among the 
ruins ; but it would not be the mere finding of the relics alone that 
would enable them to tx'ace out the habits and customs of the people 
who lived there. Merely digging among the remains of a Roman fortress 
and finding relics will not alone tell us of their mode of life. All these 
things are of value and useful to the well-instructed according to the 
associations with which they are connected, and the beai'ing which 
they have upon facts already known. The true purpose of such a 
Society as this is, to trace out, by means of a close comparison of relics 
with records, the habits of life, the manners, and the customs of people 
of a past age, illustrating and illuminating their mode of government, 
their form of religion, the state of their laws, and their artistic skill. 
In this respect such societies have an advantage which none others can 
present. (Cheers.) There is one thing that I must affirm, that in 
archaeology, as in many other things, the pursuit is much more gratify- 
ing than the possession. I have been a collector of minerals, old coins, 
and all sorts of things, all my life, and I can assure you that the plea- 
sure of collecting them was greater than possessing them. There is a 
striking illustration of this in what is called the old English sport of 
fox-hunting. Our sporting gentlemen go to a most enormous expense, 
run the hazard of breaking their necks every day, and when they have 
caught the object of their pursuit, it is a nasty stinking beast not worth 
having — (laughter), — thus showing the difference between the pleasure of 
pursuit and acquisition. I am sorry to say that there is no countiy in 
Europe that has taken such bad care of its historical possessions as 
Great Britain — as I will show very shortly. In Ii-eland there is no 
such thing, for a great number of years, as a parish register. Not a 
single register in proof of marriage, birth, or death is there to be found ; 
and in Scotland it is pretty much the same. One great reason, I 
believe, which is urged by the Scotch for this want is, that their 
public documents were taken away by the English Edward, and the 



IV REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

ship with these valuable records was lost coming to London. I 
don't believe there is one word of truth in that, — Edward III. did 
not care one straw for the very best and most valuable records 
that could be found throughout the length and breadth of the land. 
(A laugh.) So the Irish said, " It was the Danes that came over 
and took away our historical records, and afterwards the Cromwel- 
lians did the same." I don't believe a word of this. The Cromwellians 
have not been in existence for these 200 years, and the genealogical 
researches I refer to belong to a much more recent period. The fact is, 
you can't find any public document of the parentage of any one born in 
Ireland a hundred years ago. It would be something if we had the 
public records of Scotland since the time of Edward III., and of Ireland 
since Cromwell — for they woidd be very useful in portraying the habits 
and customs of the people ; but we cannot get them. Archaeological 
research was very much prevented in Scotland by the attorneys, who told 
the people not to let any documents be seen that were in their charter- 
chests, or they would lose their property ; the consequence was, that the 
very valuable documents in the charter-chests were not available, and 
we could get no knowledge of the manners and customs of the people 
through such direct agency. It is nothing but the want of such records 
which renders our history so incomplete. All our histories are nothing 
but compilations. You may take Hume, he is nothing but a compiler, 
and very inaccurate. I remember Mr. Bruce, one of the very first and 
ablest persons in the Record Office, stating that he had shown Mr. Hume 
some very valuable documents in connection with the history of the 
country, and he, on looking at them said, " I admit they are very inter- 
esting; but if I begin to read them, I shall have to write my history 
over again, for I am all wrong." (A laugh.) Of all histories I have been 
able to look into, I must say that the most correct I have met with is 
that of Dr. Lingard ; and the next to it is one — the " Pictorial History 
of England," I think they call it. In both of these they give references, 
and I have had occasion to search for and verify those references, and 
have found them correct. I am still speaking of them as compilations, 
which all our histories are. You, as an Archaeological Society, should 
endeavour to remedy this state of things. The great object of antiqua- 
rian research should be, to supply the want we now feel in regard to our 
history. We hear a great deal of the instruction of the million, about 
which everybody is mad nowadays. (A laugh.) Well, they can't take 
any but popular works, and are obliged to rely upon them, and therefore 
their knowledge is very superficial. They are obliged to take upon trust 
what Mr. Macaulay, Mr. M'Culloch, or Mr. Anybody-else says ; they 
have not time to ascertain if their statements be correct. They can't 
inquire into the matter, and therefore they imbibe a sort of passive 
knowledge — they must trust to the exertions of other people. (Hear.) 
The first persons who induced you to think on this subject, and to 
go to the foundation for your historical facts, were Dr. Chalmers 
and Mr. Riddell, a lawyer in Scotland. And in this country Sir 
Francis Palgrave has followed this movement up. He is a very agreeable 
writer, and has gone more extensively into this particular field of research 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. V 

than any other. And the Scotch are well following it up. There 
are the Bannatyne, Spalding, and Maitland Clubs, which have published 
some very handsome books, and I have here a sample of their works, if 
you would like to inspect them. They have a few. subscribers, and they 
select some points of historic value, publish a work upon it, and give a 
copy for the subscriptions. In Ireland, too, which is very rich in its 
antiquities and historical associations, a movement has been made. Mr. 
Petrie has published a work on the Round Towers of Ireland, — a 
subject about which some difficulty and mystery arose, but which he 
has settled in a very satisfactory manner. They have also taken to 
publish an account of some of their own antiquities. I have here a 
work called the " Annals of the Four Masters," — one volume, — though 
there are seven or eight, I believe. It is printed in double columns ; 
the original Gaelic is given on one side, and the English on the other. 
It is a journal kept by the heads of the monasteries, telling you just 
what passed day by day. It is not a thing to be read as a history — it 
is not very amusing — you may try a page or two, if you please ; but I 
don't think a perusal will repay any one who has not an especial object 
in the research. It tells you from the very earliest period the exact 
same history. It is nothing more, from beginning to end, than some 
savage, called a king, murdering some other savage, called by some 
other great name, by treachery and fraud. There are a great many 
other works of importance upon these subjects. The last Duke of 
Buckingham had a very valuable library ; a portion has gone into the 
British Museum, but there still remain a vast number of very valuable 
documents. It is very remarkable that during the French Revolution 
the French destroyed no public documents. They robbed all the 
monasteries, they robbed all the cathedrals, and robbed everybody else ; 
but they destroyed none of these papers. They transferred them to the 
Prefecture, — an office resembling, perhaps, that of the sheriff's officer 
in this country ; and one of the consequences of that was a fact 
which I will mention. A friend of mine, the Count de Crouy, when he 
went and settled in Hungary, asked to be made indigenate, that is, to 
be considered by the laws as a native. In support of his application, 
he produced every single document necessary to prove that he was a 
lineal descendant from Andrew II., King of Hungary at the time 
when the country round Grenoble belonged to Hungary. The reply 
was, " We can't grant you indigenate, for you have proved yourself 
indigenate''' I don't believe that that could have been done in any other 
country than France. (Hear.) There is also an admirable society in 
Normandy of this kind, who have published some works, such as the 
" Memorials of the Royal Society of Antiquaries in Normandy ;" " The 
Anglo-Norman Chronicles ;" and another, called, " Unedited Documents 
relating to the History of France ;" and also the " Chronicles of the 
Dukes of Normandy." The documents are interesting, as relating to 
the origin of the first families who came over to this country with 
William I. Mr. Staple ton, the brother of Lord Beaumont, has 
conferred considerable benefit by publishing the Pipe Rolls — or Rolls 
of the Exchequer in Normandy — as to the terms on which they 



vi Report of proceedings. 

held their land ; and this he did solely with reference to English 
history. The value of evei'y history depends upon its acciwacy, and 
these are the sort of records on which we can rely. The documents to 
which I have called your attention are those which you would do well 
to consider and follow in your pursuits as a Society. You know 
nothing of the internal family manners of the people from ordinary 
history. I will put this one question. If a man with 2,000£ has four 
sons, he would put one in the Army, one in the Navy, another in the 
Law, and another in the Church ; but what do you think he would 
have done with them in the reign of Henry III. or Edward II. 1 Now 
it was quite certain, unless there was a chance of becoming a bishop, or 
a fat prior, nobody in those days would go into the church. (A laugh.) 
As to the law, there was no such thing ; for they could not read or 
write. (Laughter.) What was the young gentleman to do, then ; for it 
was certain that he could not do without eating, and must have some 
clothes 1 (A laugh.) They generally gave him a small farm, where, 
if he was not ambitious, he would live the life of a peasant, feed his 
pigs in the adjoining woods, attire himself in a smock-frock, and so 
spend his days. But if he had a little ambition, he would pawn his 
farm to a Jew, in order to enable him to buy a suit of armour, — of all 
dress the most expensive, — and then bind himself to some great man as 
a sort of warlike apprentice, by what is called a bond of man-rent. I 
have here one or two of these bonds, which I will read : — 

"Sir John Nevill, 1415, eldest son of Earl Nevill, was hound to the 
Earl of Lancashire ; one of the bonds runs thus : — Ralph, son of Ralph, 
Lord of Raby, was retained by Lord Percy, by indenture, to serve him 
in peace and war for the term of his life. The terms of this indenture 
were to serve him in peace and war for the term of his life. The terms 
of this indenture were to serve him with twenty men-at-arms against 
all men except the king ; whereof five are to be knights, receiving \0l. 
sterling from out of his lordships of Topcliffe and Pokelington, as also 
robes for himself, with these knights, and all the rest ; and in time of 
war, to have diet for himself, his gentlemen, and six grooms, likewise 
hay, oats, shoes, and nails for fifty-nine horses, and wages for fifty-three 
inferior servants, with harness for his own body ; and when required to 
come to a tournament, then to have four knights with himself, and their 
attendants, likewise diet in his hall for them, for five grooms, with hay, 
oats, shoes, and nails for thirty horses, with thirty-two servants, as also 
harness for his own body. If he should be required to attend him in 
time of Parliament or otherwise, to come himself with six gentlemen 
and nine horses, having diet for three men in his hall, with hay, oats, 
shoes, and nails for the number of horses last specified, and wages 
for six servants." 

Now, you observe that two suits of harness are mentioned ; and the 
reason is this : gentlemen of that day, like those of the present, gene- 
rally got bigger round the waist as they got older ; and as you can't let 
out your armour, you are obliged to have a new suit, and that was the 
chief reason for the great expense which attended those wars. 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. Vll 

[Mr. Drummond then read a similar document, which he translated from 
the French as he went on, and added :] — You will find in these old family- 
histories a complete history of the times, as well as of the manner and 
customs of our ancestors. There is in the possession of the Bruce family 
a very interesting letter, written by the Earl of Elgin and Kincardine to 
his son, explaining the reasons inducing him to join the arms of Prince 
Charles of Scotland, in 1715. The letter apologizes to his son for the 
course he was about to take. The writer knew that if he failed, he 
should lose his title, and his estates would be forfeited ; still he felt it 
was due to his lawful sovereign. The letter is highly creditable to the 
writer, and gives us an insight into the strength of his sense of duty. 
(Cheers.) You are exceedingly rich in this county of Surrey in objects 
of archaeological research. I believe no county in England contains so 
many old palaces : there is Guildford, the oldest in the kingdom, I think 
— not excepting "Winchester ; and then you have Kingston (from the 
stone on which the kings used to be crowned), Richmond, and Kew. 
You have the abbeys of Bermondsey, of Lambeth, and of Newark. 
I believe you could not do a greater service to history than to obtain 
and publish the cartularies of Bermondsey Abbey. The publication of 
such documents in Scotland has thrown more light on history than any- 
thing else, and I know of no one possessing a greater knowledge of them 
than Mr. Stapleton. I have had occasion to write to him, asking a question, 
and he forwarded me, next day or so, two cartularies all copied out ; 
and wherever he got them I have no idea. Then there is the examina- 
tion of buildings, as at Esher, the palace of Cardinal Wolsey, Wimbledon, 
Sutton Place, and Losely — fine specimens of architecture. You are to 
consider what sort of a Society you will be, and having decided upon it, 
take care to carry out your object. Don't be deluded by pomp, and the 
desire to make a show, which entails great trouble and expense. (A laugh.) 
I can't see the utility of a grand array of names, — patron and vice-patron, 
president and vice-president. (A laugh.) The secretary's is the most 
important office, and you can do much better than merely meeting once 
a year and giving a flaming account of your proceedings. I have now 
pointed out what, in my opinion, is the way in which your industiy can 
be properly directed, and it is now in your hands to do as you may please. 
(Loud cheers.) 

The following Papers were read — : 

1. On the Religious and Moral Bearings of Archaeology upon Archi- 
tecture and Art. By the Rev. John Jessopp, M. A. 

2. Descriptive Notes attached to a Map of the Roman Road from 
Silchester to Staines, from a survey made by the Gentlemen Cadets of 
Sandhurst. Exhibited by permission of Colonel Prosser, Lieutenant- 
Governor. Memorandum on the Same, by Mr. E. J. Lance. 

3. Description of the Stock of a Cross-bow found on Bosworth Field, 
and exhibited to the Meeting. By William Tayler, Esq. 

[This interesting relic is of yew, elaborately carved, and in length 3 feet 
5 inches. In the Gentleman s Magazine, vol. liv., is an account of this 



Vlll REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

weapon, by Mr. Greene, of Lichfield, to whom it belonged. Mr. Tayler 
read this account to the meeting, and pointed out its inaccuracy in attri- 
buting the date of the bow to the time of Richard III., since the style 
of the carving cleax-ly indicated it to be that of at least a century 
later.] 

4. Mr. Hart, of Reigate, read the following description of Antiquities 
exhibited by him, and which were formerly in the collection of his rela- 
tive, the late Mr. Glover, of Reigate : — 

1. Two Fibulas found at Waldingham. Engraved in Manning and 

Bray's " Surrey," vol. ii. page 420. 

2. A Spur, found two feet below the surface, near Reigate Castle, 

in 1804. Engraved in Manning and Bray's "Surrey," vol. ii. 
page 420. 

3. Iron Spear of the time of Henry VI., found near the vicarage, 

Reigate, in 1808, on making the turnpike road from Croydon. 

4. Iron Spear found at Reigate. See Manning and Bray, vol. ii. 

p. 809 ; and Grose's " Military Antiquities," vol. ii. p. 258. 

5. Brass Spur of the time of Henry "VI., curiously engraved and 

pounced. Found near Reigate. 

6. Perforated Stone, supposed to have been used as a missile, by 

means of a thong passed through it ; or like the American 
sling-shot. Found, it is believed, in Surrey. 

7. Broken Bead, of amber-coloured glass, spotted with opaque white, 

probably of the early British period. Found in Surrey. 

8. Massive Bronze Armlet, and two broken-looped Objects of bronze, 

similar to a pair in the collection of the late Dr. Mantell, found 
on Hollingbury Hill, near Lewes. 

9. Grant, by John Earl of "Warren, of land at Brockham. 28 

Hen. III. 1244. 

10. Grant, by Isabella Countess of Warren. 1150. Engraved in 

Walker's " Earls of Surrey." 

11. Grant, by John Earl of Warren to his cook, of land at Flanch- 

ford, in Reigate. 

12. Grant, by John Duke of Norfolk, of Flanchford, in Reigate. 

He died 15 Edw. IV. 1470. 

13. Grant, by the Abbot of Hyde, of land in Sanderstead. 6 Hen. III. 

1222. 

14. Seal of Cardinal Pole to a commission issued by him to Law- 

rence Hussey, Doctor of Civil Law, who lived at Gatewick, in 
Surrey 1557. 

15. Correspondence with Fleetwood, Cromwell's General, as to the 

disposition of troops in Surrey ; and a Warrant for payment of 
money, under the hand of Cromwell. 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. IX 

Mr. Hart also exhibited a curious Hat, said to have been worn by 
Queen Elizabeth. With reference to this, the following extract from a 
letter by Mr. Albert Way, the distinguished antiquary, to whom the Hat 
had been submitted, was read by Mr. Hart : — 

" I believe I told you that Queen Elizabeth's Hat is made of ivory; the 
" thin slips are cut and platted with marvellous ingenuity. Some who 
" have seen it, imagined, as I did, that it was of some vegetable material, 
" perhaps some Indian rush or cane brought by one of the numerous 
" explorers of the period. But Mr. Quekett, of the College of Surgeons, 
" who solves all these questions with the microscope, ascertained that it is 
" certaiuly ivory. I see no cause to question the tradition which would 
" assign this curious Hat to the times of Elizabeth." 

The proceedings having terminated with a vote of thanks to the 
Chairman, the company spent some time in examining the Collection of 
Antiquities and Works of Art contributed for exhibition. Amongst these 
may be enumerated the following : — 

A large number of Riibbings from the Monumental Brasses in the 
churches of Surrey. Exhibited by the Misses Belt, Henry Chester, 
Esq., C. Calvert Corner, Esq., and Edward Richardson, Esq. 

Drawings of Four Mural Paintings, of a large size, discovered in Ling- 
field Church. Exhibited by Edward I' Anson, Esq., Architect. 

Sketches of similar Paintings, discovered in Beddington Church, were 
exhibited by the Rev. James Hamilton ; and one representing St. Thomas 
A'Beckett, found in Stoke D'Abernon Church, presented by the Rev. 
F. P. Phillips. 

Facsimile Drawing of a large Panoramic View of London, Westminster, 
and Southwark, by Van den Wyngrerde, 1543. The wiginal is in 
the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Panoramic View of London in 1647, by Hollar. 

Exhibited by George Gwilt, Esq., F.S.A. 

Water-colour Drawings of the Exterior and Interior of the Ancient 
Banqueting Hall of the Artillery Company in Southwark, erected 
in 1639; afterwards used as the workhouse of the parishes of 
St. Olave and St. John. 

Exhibited by Messrs. Snooke, Allen, and Stock. 

Drawing by Mr. H. P. Ashby, of the Old Church at Tooting, no longer 
existing. Remarkable as being the only church in Surrey with a 
round tower. Presented to the Society by S. H. Elyard, Esq. 

Drawings of Chessington Church, recently restored by Mr. Hesketh. 
Bronze Mortar found in Bermondsey. By Robert Hesketh; Esq. 

Map of the Roman Road from Silchester to Staines, passing through 
Surrey. By Colonel Prosser, Lieut. -Governor of Sandhurst. 

b 



X REPORT OP PROCEEDINGS. 

Architectural Fragments from Bermondsey Abbey, and a Collection of 
Drawings and Engravings of the same. By Henry Phillips, Esq. 

Antiquities found in Great Guildford-street, Southwark. 

By Arthur Newman, Esq. 

Specimens of Roman and Early British Pottery, Coins, Beads, &c, 
and two Spear-heads, found at Farley Heath, near Guildford ; and 

Commissions signed by Cromwell and Fairfax. 

By Martin Farquhar Tupper, Esq. 

Antiquities found at or near Mitcham, comprising Spear-heads, Knives, 

and part of a Shield ; and 
A Collection of Roman and English Silver Coins. 

By the Rev. James Hamilton. 

Photographs of Guildford Castle and Loseley House. 

By Henry Taylor, Esq. 

Various Ancient Deeds, with Seals attached, were exhibited by Mrs. 
Frederick Webb, E. M. Gibbs, Esq., and C. Tooke, Esq. 

The following Contributions were exhibited by George R. Corner, 

Esq., F.S.A. :— 

A Collection of " Greybeards " or " Bellarmines," of various sizes, found 
in Southwark. 

Terra Cotta Lamps, found in Upper Thames-street and in Southwark. 

A Bronze Figure from the Thames, at London Bridge. 

A Roman Key of Bronze, and a Bowl of Samian Ware, found in exca- 
vating for the foundations of Alderman Humphrey's warehouse, 
Tooley-street, opposite Fenning's Wharf. 

An Instrument for forging Papal Bulla?, time of Pius II., who died in 
1460. Found in the Thames, near London Bridge. 

A German Earthenware Mug, date 1597, -with Dancing Figux^es, and 
bearing the following Inscription upon the rim : — " Nicht soncler 
Gott" (Nothing without God). 

The Book of Esther and another Hebrew Manusci'ipt, on Rolls. 

The Address presented by the Borough of Southwark to King George III. 
on his Marriage, with the Signatures of the principal Inhabitants, 
given to Mr. Corner by James Anderton, Esq. 

The Rev. F. P. Phillips exhibited a beautifully carved Spanish Rosaiy of 
Box-wood, each Bead containing a Text from the Scriptures. Also 
a Model of the Font in Winchester Cathedral, and a Collection of 
Engraved Illustrations of Early Costume in France. 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 



KINGSTON -UPON -THAMES. 

The First Annual General Meeting was held at Kingston-upon- 
Thames, on Friday, the 30th June, 1854. The use of the Town Hall was 
kindly granted to the Society by Frederick Gould, Esq., the Mayor, whose 
friendly and zealous co-operation in making the requisite arrangements 
for the Meeting contributed greatly to its success, and merits our 
grateful acknowledgments. 

At one o'clock, about one hundred and fifty Members and Visitors 
having assembled, the Chair was taken by William John Evelyn, Esq., 
M.P., F.S.A., Vice-President, who addressed the Meeting as follows : — 

As we have a very great deal to do, I will not delay any longer stating 
in a few words the purposes and objects for which we are met here to-day. 
This is the first annual meeting of the Surrey Archaeological Society. 
It came into being on the 10th of May last, when it was publicly 
inaugurated. We are now assembled to hold the first General Meet- 
ing. By one of the Rules of the Society, we are to have one General 
Meeting yearly. You are aware that during the few past years several 
societies of this kind have been established in various parts of the 
kingdom ; but although the county of Surrey is so rich in the remains 
of antiquity, it is only recently, as I have stated, that this Society was 
formed ; and seeing what there is before us, it must be a matter of sur- 
prise that one of this character was not established before. (Hear, hear.) 
Although we have not long had an existence as an association, it is quite 
apparent that not only is it designed to do a great deal of good, but it is 
carrying out, in the most satisfactory manner, that design. (Cheers.) I 
need not dilate on the merits of antiquarian research, seeing that the 
character of this Meeting renders such a detail quite unnecessary. I 
apprehend that every one of us now present, with the other Members 
who belong to the Society, but do not happen to be present, feel a deep 
interest in the study of archaeology, and are convinced with me that it is 
both a useful and laudable pursuit. (Hear, hear.) There have been 
imputations cast upon societies like this, and some degree of ridicule has 
been thrown upon the objects which they have in view. Now this arises 
from a mistake existing in the minds of many as to what are the objects 
of antiquarian research, and what are its true purposes. It is not for the 
mere collection of the remains of antiquity or archaeological curiosities, 
— for this would only be an amusement, if attended with nothing else. 
The real merit of archaeology is, that it elucidates the history of the 
country ; and not only of this country, but of all those which may come 
within the scope of its investigations. (Cheers.) In England we are 
in rather a singular position as regards our historical writings. I need 
not relate in how many points our popular histories are defective; suffice 
it to say, that although we have many historical works in this country, 
the history of England, as such, has still to be written. (Hear, hear.) 
Most of the writings we now have, although given in language laying 
claim to some degree of eloquence and artistic style, are not only partial, 
but have been too little aided by those investigations and researches 



Xll REPORT OP PROCEEDINGS. 

which the Surrey Archaeological Society, with others, is formed to pro- 
mote; and therefore the details they give of the times to which they 
refer are incomplete and imperfect. There is one fact I may mention — 
which is almost a disgrace to us Englishmen, — that the best history of the 
reign of Charles I., a period so full of interest to us all, has been written 
by a Frenchman, M. Guizot. (Hear, hear.) Every one who has read that 
work will allow that it is the most impartial history of the period that 
has yet been written ; and it is not reflecting much credit upon English- 
men to say that one of our best historical works is written by a foreigner. 
(Hear, hear.) I cannot regard those researches as useless or unimportant 
which have for their object the investigation and preservation of the 
records of our forefathers, and improving our knowledge of them. The 
advantage of different persons being engaged in investigating the customs 
and habits of men living in past ages, and comparing the results of their 
labours, is to me so apparent that I feel I need not dilate upon it. I 
only wish that every county in England had its Archaeological Society. 
They have had a very excellent one in the neighbouring county of Sussex 
for some yeai's; and it is highly creditable to the parties who have promoted 
it, that one is now established in this county. I think the whole county 
of Surrey is highly indebted to those gentlemen who have commenced 
the present movement ; and I sincerely hope they will achieve that for this 
county which has been achieved for other counties by societies similar 
to this. (Hear.) The county of Surrey is very peculiar in some respects. 
While a part of it is as wild and rural as any county in England, the 
other portion includes two very large and important boroughs of the 
metropolis. Therefore we have an extensive and varied field to work 
upon. We have on the one hand the connected boroughs of Lambeth 
and Southwark, and on the other hand a very extended tract of country 
on which to pursue our investigations. With regard to our buildings, 
we have not many churches distinguished either for splendour or archi- 
tectural style ; but they are not to be despised on that account ; for if 
they possess no peculiar interest in themselves, they are, generally 
speaking, of great antiquity, many of them being supposed to have been 
built before the Conquest. (Hear.) I sometimes think that all architects 
might, with great advantage to themselves, become the students of 
archaeology; for by observing the character and style of the buildings 
they are called upon to restore, they would be better qualified to make 
that restoration ; however, a great improvement has taken place in this 
respect, and many of our architects now study the antiquity of the 
building they are called upon to repair or restore. Although we 
have not many ecclesiastical edifices of much splendour, I believe there 
is no county more rich in historical associations than Surrey. We have 
the two ancient towns of Guildford and Kingston, neither of which is 
unknown in history ; but they are both of them pregnant with interest- 
ing associations of by -gone times (hear, hear), most of which are so well 
known to you that I need not stay to point them out. There is another 
very peculiar feature of interest in antiquarian research, and that is, 
the number of races with which we are brought into contact. There is 
the ancient British, a people who afford most interesting points to study, 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. Xlll 

as having a strange mythology and very peculiar institutions. We 
must not completely look upon that race as barbarians, as their con- 
querors have taught us to do. The Romans, as great conquerors, always 
desired that the nations which they vanquished should become amalga- 
mated with them, so as to become a Roman province. If there was a 
race who clashed with their will in this respect, and would not blend 
with them, they endeavoured to exterminate that race ; a race more 
pliant and yielding they would mould according to their own way, give 
them their own institutions, and make them adopt Roman manners and 
Roman customs. But they could not subvert the habits and customs 
of the ancient British people, and so they called them barbarous ; but 
the fact is, that there was some learning among them, the Druids pos- 
sessing a considerable share of scientific knowledge. The Romans, when 
they departed, left many traces of wonderful works in this country — 
above all, the roads which they constructed are very remarkable, one of 
which runs through Surrey, connecting Loudon with the neighborhood 
of Arundel, going straight along by Ockley, and forming a conspicuous 
object from the top of Leith Hill. It would be a most interesting 
object if this Society — and I beg to recommend it to their notice — 
could engage in the work of tracing out the exact line of this road, as 
well as the Roman station of Noviomagus, the exact site of which has 
not been clearly ascertained, although supposed by many authorities to 
be at Croydon. It may have been left for this Society to effect that 
which has not yet been effected — to trace out this Roman road and 
station, which would be an honour to it. (Cheers.) I may mention, too, 
that there was a great battle fought in Surrey, — that of Ockley, — 
where the father of Alfred the Great defeated the Danes, who had burned 
the city of London, and were then going through Surrey towards the 
southern coast. The county history is also connected with the first 
invasion of Csesar. When that great man came over, he passed through 
Surrey and crossed the Thames. Antiquaries are not agreed as to the 
exact spot — whether at Kingston or Coway Stakes, near Chertsey. But 
although where he crossed it is not known, it is certain that he went on 
to St. Alban's (Verulamium), where there was an action with the 
Britons, whom he defeated, and whom he compelled to retreat. No doubt 
that was felt to be a great degradation ; but it is perhaps a still greater 
degradation to be deprived of its political existence, as St. Alban's has 
been by the Parliament (a laugh) ; and, no doubt, if the old British king 
had been alive now, he would have been more hurt at the disgrace thus 
tin-own vqion his town than he was at being vanquished by the Romans. 
(Cheers and laughter.) There is another interesting discovery to which 
I will call your attention. After all the labour which has been expended 
on the subject of Roman remains, and searching out the localities 
where that people established themselves, there have been discovered at 
Farley Heath, not far from Guildford, a variety of Roman coins and 
other relics, where no one had ever dreamed there was a Roman station 
■ — there was no record of it in history, and this discovery was the 
first intimation of it. The coins were spread over a period of Roman 
history from almost their first arrival here until they left our 



XIV REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

shores, having been called away to defend their own country against 
the attacks of Gothic adventurers who were then pouring into Italy. 
(Cheers.) We have now a most interesting investigation before us, 
and that is, to examine a mound — or, as it is called, a barrow — 
which is in this neighbourhood, permission to explore it having been 
given by the proprietor. It will be rather a long business excavating 
it, and we must not be surprised if we find nothing — because we can't 
be sure that, in a place so near London as this, the barrow has 
not before been exploited. I trust, however, we shall be enabled to 
discover something ; and from this [holding up a relic] which has 
just come from there, I have little doubt we shall have some success. 
The barrows, as you know, were places of sepulture ; and if we, the 
archaeologists, take upon ourselves to explore these places of the repose 
of the ancient dead, it is not from feelings of mere curiosity, but from a 
desire to increase the world's knowledge. It is told that one of the 
Queens of Babylon played a sort of practical joke on her descendants. 
She directed that when she was buried, there should be put over her 
grave, " Do not examine this place unless you are poor." Nobody 
ventured to examine the place until one of the sovereigns, being, as 
I suppose, " hard up " — as even kings sometimes are — (a laugh) — and 
thinking there were some hidden treasures, caused the sepulchre to 
be explored, but found nothing but a rebuke for his avarice. We 
shall not be accused of avarice in opening this place of burial, for it 
is not likely we shall find anything valuable excepting knowledge, 
which may prove useful as well as interesting ; and perhaps some 
remains of a British chief. (Hear, hear.) I will not detain you 
longer than to say that I feel highly gratified at having been requested 
to take the chair at this very important Meeting, although there are 
others who could have more efficiently performed its duties. (No, no.) 
There will now be some interesting papers read, which will be more 
worth listening to than my remarks — (no, no) — but I may say that I feel 
anxious to promote the welfare of this Society, and most earnestly desire 
its prosperity and success. (Cheers.) 

The Honorary Secretary read the Minutes of the Southwark Meeting, 
the Balance-sheet, and the following Report of the Council : — 

The Council beg to state that having, at the Inaugural Meeting so 
recently held, reported on the affairs of the Society, they have now but 
little to add. The number of Members has been increased by an acces- 
sion of nine, making a total of 374 ; of whom forty are life compounders. 
The Balance-sheet has been prepared, and is now presented. 

At the Meeting referred to, the Office-bearers having been appointed, 
the Council recommend that they be now re-elected for the ensuing 
twelve months. 

Several new Members were elected, and Mr. T. R. Bartrop was 
appointed Local Secretary for Chertsey. 

The following Papers were then read : — 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. XV 

1. On the Kingston Morasteen, or Coronation Stone, with Illustrations 

from Stone Monuments in this country, and those of various Conti- 
nental nations. By William Bell, Esq., Ph. Dr. 

2. On the History and Antiquities of Kingston. By Samuel Ranyard, 

Esq. 

3. On a curious Charter of William, second Earl of Warren and Surrey, 

whereby he granted lands in Southwark to the Monks of St. An- 
drew, Rochester, and which he conformed by placing his knife on 
the altar. By George R. Corner, Esq., F.S.A. 

4. On the Ancient Baptismal Fonts of England. By W. Petit Griffith, 

Esq., F.S.A. 

5. On the Mediaeval Court of the Crystal Palace. By the Rev. Charles 

Boutell, M.A. 

A vote of thanks to the Chairman was moved by Mr. Corner, and 
carried by acclamation. 

The Collection of Antiquarian Relics was then examined by the com- 
pany. It comprised numerous articles of interest, amongst which may 
be specified the following : — 

The Series of Chartei^s granted to Kingston by King John, Henry I., 
Henry III., Philip and Mary, Henry VIII., and Queen Elizabeth, 
conferring various privileges upon the town. 

A very Ancient Chest, about three feet long, with an arched top, covered 
with massive iron and furnished with three curious Locks, and 
mounted on castors. 

Carved Panelling from the old Town Hall. 

The Great Seal of Edward IV. and other Relics. Exhibited by the 
Corporation of Kingston. 

An Extensive Collection of Roman and Etruscan Pottery, Egyptian 
Mummies, and Household Gods, with various other Interesting 
Objects of Antiquity. Exhibited by Henry Christy, Esq. 

Missile Hatchets, Celts, Spear-heads, and Swords, found in the vicinity 
of Kingston. Described and illustrated in Biden's " History of 
Kingston " and in Brayley's " Surrey," vol. iii. 

Eight Ancient Keys, found in the blue clay under the foundation-stone 
of old London Bridge. 

A Coin of Marcia Severa, wife of the Emperor Phillipus, found in the 
bed of the Thames, at a great depth. 

Portion of a Rapier, supposed to have belonged to one of the party of 
Cavaliers routed at Surbiton by Colonel Pritty. Exhibited by 
William Roots, Esq., M.D., F.S.A. 

A Massive Gold Ring, bearing in the centre of the table the capital 
letter V, between the letters E D and D I ; above the letter V is 
the letter P, of smaller dimensions, having on the dexter side & 



XVI REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Molette, or Star of six rays, and on the sinister a Crescent or Half- 
moon ; a string of small Pearls surrounding the area or table. 
The Inscription is presumed to signify (Sigillum) Parvum Edwardi 
Domini Vasconia?, or the Signet-ring of King Edward the First, as 
Duke of Gascony. It was discovered at Mont de Marsan, in the 
department of the Landes, France. Exhibited by Philip B. Ains- 
lie, Esq., F.S.A. S. 

Mr. Ainslie has printed an account of this interesting relic, accom- 
panied by an engraving, and has dedicated it to the President and 
Members of this Society. 

Another Ancient Signet-ring, of great local interest, was exhibited by 
Samuel Eaynard, Esq. It is believed to have belonged to Richard 
Neville. Earl of Warwick, temp. Edward IV., who had a castle in 
Kingston. It was discovered in making excavations for the Assize 
Courts. The ring is of silver-gilt, and bears the Head of a Man, 
encircled by a fillet, and on the dexter side the letters WAR. It 
is more fully described, with an engraving, in Biden's " History of 
Kingston," p. 24. 

A magnificently Illustrated Copy of the Memoirs and Correspondence of 
the celebrated John Evelyn, in four volumes quarto, was exhibited 
by W. J. Evelyn, Esq., M.P., F.S.A. 

Two very Interesting Drawings, in water-colours, representing the 
Ancient Palaces formerly existing at Richmond and Oatlands. 
Exhibited by John Britton, Esq., Hon. Member. 

The Account-books of the Churchwardens of Kingston, commencing in 
1587, and containing many very curious Entries, were also exhi- 
bited. 

Many interesting contributions were also made by M. F. Tupper, Esq. ; 
Arthur Brown, Esq. ; E. Phillips, Esq. ; W. P. Griffith, Esq., F.S.A. ; 
T. R. Bartrop, Esq. ; Mr. Selfe ; Edward Jesse, Esq. ; W. B. Jones, 
Esq., and other kind friends of the Society. 

After partaking of a collation provided at the Griffin Hotel, the 
company proceeded to view the excavations which had been in progress 
during the day in Sandy-lane, Teddington. A large barrow, or tumulus, 
situated on the land attached to Udney House, and which had long 
been an object of curiosity to antiquaries, was opened by the kind per- 
mission of Charles D. Mackenzie, Esq., the owner of the jiroperty, and 
under the able direction of J. Y. Akerraan, Esq., various interesting 
relics were discovered. A detailed account of them is given at page 74. 
The operation was viewed by the members and visitors with considerable 
interest. 

The Collection of Antiquities was thrown open to Public Exhibition 
on Monday, the 3rd, and Tuesday, the 4th, of July. During those days 
nearly 2,000 persons visited this temporary Museum ; and such was the 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 



interest excited, that a third day was asked for ; but the Town Hall 
could not longer be spared. The cordial welcome and assistance given 
to the Society by the Corporation of Kingston, and by the inhabitants 
generally, contributed much to the success of this Meeting, and merit 
our warmest thanks. 



CHERTSEY. 

A General Meeting was held on Friday, April 27th, 1855, at the 
Town Hall, Chertsey. The Chair was taken by Colonel C. Bisse 
Challoner, Vice-President. After the usual routine business, including 
the Election of several New Members, the following Papers were read : — 

1. On Chertsey Abbey. By W. W. Pocock, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

2. Upon an Anglo-Saxon Grant of Land, by Alfred the Gi*eat, to Chert- 

sey Abbey. By George P». Corner, Esq., F.S.A. 

3. Description of Ornamental Tiles discovered on the Site of Chertsey 

Abbey. By the Rev. Charles Boutell, MA. 

The thanks of the Meeting having been cordially returned to the 
Chairman and to the Gentlemen who had read Papers, the proceedings 
terminated. 

Before separating, the company inspected the numerous Objects of 
Archaeological Interest contributed for exhibition. Amongst the more 
prominent of these were : — 

A large Collection of Architectural Fragments and the Encaustic Tiles 
recently discovered on the site of the Abbey. These tiles are of 
the thirteenth century, admirably executed, and presenting many 
spirited figures, single and in groiips, exhibiting the peculiarities 
of Costume, Armour, and "Weapons of the period ; and the orna- 
mental borders and patterns are of very elegant and varied 
design. The Tiles were, with scarce an exception, in fragments ; 
Mr. Shurlock, one of the Society's Local Secretaries, under whose 
directions the excavations were carried on, had with indefatiga- 
ble care prepared a series of faithful and elaborate Drawings, 
showing the Pavement complete. Illustrations of these remarkable 
and beautiful Tiles are in course of publication by Henry Shaw, 
Esq., F.S.A. , who has dedicated the work to our Society. 

A Series of Oak Carvings from Cardinal Wolsey's Palace, at Esher, 
representing the Armorial Bearings of the Bishops of Winchester. 
Exhibited by the Rev. Newton Spicer. 

Model of a Greek Tomb. Colonel Challoner. 

A Cabinet of Ancient Coins, Rings, Medals, and various Antiquities. 
Philip Barrington Ainslie, Esq. 



XV1U REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

The Gossip's, or Scold's Bridle, preserved in Walton Church, bearing the 
date 1633, and the following Inscription : — 

" Chester presents Walton with a bridle 
To curb women's tongues that talk too idle." 

The Rev. Charles Lushington. 

The Charter granted by Queen Elizabeth for holding a Market in 
Chertsey. Dated 8th February, 1598-9. 

A small but interesting Collection of Ancient Arms and Armour 
was arranged in a compartment of the room ; and on the walls were, 
besides numerous Rubbings of Brasses, Drawings, Bhotographs, and 
Prints, the following : — 

View of Walton Bridge, by Moonlight. An early specimen, by the late 
J. M. W. Turner, R.A. 

View of St. Catherine's Chapel, Guildford. By W. Russell, R.A. 

Several fine Water-colour Drawings of the Scenery about Egham and 
Windsor. By J. H. Le Keux, Esq. 

The company then proceeded to visit Cowley House, the residence of 
the Rev. J. C. Clark, who had most kindly given permission to inspect 
it. The ancient portion of this interesting building was the last 
dwelling-place of Abraham Cowley, the poet, who died here in 1667. 
The careful preservation of it is most honourable to the taste and good 
feeling of its present and late possessors. 

The site of the Abbey was also visited, by the obliging permission of 
Mr. Grumbridge, the owner, who had kindly allowed excavations to be 
made, under the direction of the Society's officers. The walls of the 
ancient edifice were pai-tially traced out ; and several Stone Coffins were 
discovered, besides the remarkable collection of Tiles, some Painted Glass, 
and various fragments of architectural ornament. 

At five o'clock a party of 120 sat down to a cold collation, served in a 
room adjoining the Town-hall. Colonel Challoner took the chair, and by 
the very efficient and agreeable manner in which he presided, this termina- 
tion of the day's proceedings was rendered most sociable and pleasant. 

The tempot-ary Museum, formed in the Town-hall, was left until the 
Monday following, when it was gratuitously thrown open to the inspec- 
tion of the inhabitants of Chertsey, and was viewed by very nearly 
1,000 persons. 

To the exertions made on this occasion by the Local Committee as 
well as the two indefatigable Local Secretaries, Messrs. Bartrop and 
Shurlock, the entire success of this agreeable Meeting was mainly due, 
and entitles those gentlemen to our best thanks. 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 



GUILDFORD. 



The Second Annual General Meeting was held at Guildford, on 
Thursday, the 28th June. 1855. The proceedings took place in the Public 
Hall, which had been engaged for the purpose. At twelve o'clock the 
Chair was taken by W. J. Evelyn, Esq., M.P., F.S.A., Vice-President. 

The Chairman, after recapitulating the previous Meetings of the 
Society, said that " it would appear presumptuous were he to attempt to 
address any lengthened details concerning the topography and antiqui- 
ties of Guildford to a Meeting chiefly composed of the inhabitants of 
the town. Nevertheless," he continued, " I should be entirely unworthy 
of inhabiting Surrey if I were not aware of the -general facts relating 
to this most eminent and interesting borough. (Applause.) We know 
that it is one of the most ancient in this country, and I think it can be 
proved to have been incorporated for a thousand years. We know 
the Anglo-Saxon tragedy which rendered it memorable in early times, 
previous to the Conquest. I will not go into the details of that 
tragedy, which you, doubtless, have read. Guildford has ancient char- 
ters, it has been incorporated for more than a thousand years, per- 
haps for GOO years it has been the county town, and I think it most 
fitting that a Meeting of the Surrey Archaeological Society should be 
held in the county town. (Applause.) I think it will be impossible 
for us to exhaust Guildford on this occasion, and am of opinion that 
we may hold future Meetings here with great profit to ourselves. 
(Applause.) Guildford is a town with an ancient castle memorable 
in history, with ancient churches, and local institutions that have 
lasted for centuries. JSTow it is objected to archaeology that it tends to 
cramp the mind, and check rather than develop the understanding. I 
cannot but think that this imputation is wrong, but I think it is founded, 
like most of these assertions, on some truth. (Hear, hear.) I think, 
perhaps, we are too apt to confine ourselves to mere material objects, 
and forget that the sole advantage accruing to research is the develop- 
ment of the life and manners of our ancestors. (Applause.) It is to 
no purpose to go about excavating unless we endeavour to realize to 
ourselves the state of society of which those objects ought to lead lis 
to form a clearer idea. I am one of those who advocate what may 
be called extreme views as to the rights and privileges of the 
English people, and value all our ancient institutions of local self- 
government ; and holding these opinions, and believing in our adhe- 
rence to those principles laid down in the Common Law of England, 
and which I think have been some times encroached upon, I think we 
shall be giving a practical value to our studies, and often enlighten our- 
selves as to the present times, and that many questions which have 
perplexed the politician and essayist may be solved by a consideration 
of the original meaning and purpose of an institution, and that more is 
often done by curbing the corruptions that have crept in, and restoring 
them to the original object, than by erecting a totally new system in their 
stead. (Applause.) 



XX REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

He concluded by calling upon the Honorary Secretary, who read 
the following Report of the Council : — 

The Council, in presenting their Annual Report, have much pleasure 
in stating the progress that has been made by the Society since the 
formation in May, 1854. Three General Meetings have been held at 
the following places, namely, at Southwark, Kingston-upon-Thames last 
year, and at Chertsey in the present ; upon which occasions Papers on 
various subjects of Local and General Antiquarian Interest, eleven in 
number, have been read, and a large number of Antiquities and Works 
of Art, chiefly connected with Surrey, have been exhibited, and oppor- 
tunities of viewing them gratuitously afforded to upwards of 4,000 
persons. Excavations, also, have been undertaken in the neighbour- 
hood of Kingston, and at Chertsey, when discoveries of considerable 
interest were made. 

The Council have to congratulate the Members upon the liberal 
donations received towards the formation of a Library and Museum. 
The former now consists of 63 volumes, many of the most valuable of 
which have been contributed by Dr. Roots, of Kingston ; in addition to 
which the Society now possess vai-ious manuscripts, 48 pamphlets, 
besides printed papers. We have also numerous drawings, topographical 
and other prints, rubbings of brasses, many of which have been pre- 
sented by Thomas R. Bartrop, our Local Secretary at Chertsey. To Cap- 
tain Oakes and Mr. Laing (Members) the Society is indebted for several 
valuable photographs. 

The Museum has received some important additions from the Com- 
mittee of the late Chertsey Literary and Scientific Institution, and other 
contributors. Mr. Joshua W. Butterworth, F.S.A., has just presented 
a most valuable collection of Roman and early English antiquities, con- 
sisting of glass, pottery, fibulae, and other bronzes, fragments of tesse- 
lated pavements and fresco painting, all of which are of extreme local 
interest, having been discovered in London and Southwark. 

The Council also received, some time since, an offer from Mr. Phillips, 
of Bermondsey, to present to the Society various fragments of the 
ancient abbey formerly existing there, collected by his late father and 
himself; but were compelled to postpone their acceptance of this prof- 
fered liberality owing to want of space for their reception. 

The Council having received a pi-oposition to the effect that the opera- 
tions of the Society may be advantageously extended to the county of 
Middlesex, in order to comprise within the sphere of a single institution 
the entire metropolis, and also to obtain a complete and careful investiga- 
tion of the archaeology of the principal metropolitan county, so fertile in 
objects of antiquity of every period from the Roman invasion, they have 
no hesitation in submitting the proposal to this Meeting, and of express- 
ing their cordial approval of the suggestion. 

On the 30th of June, 1854, when the first Annual Meeting of the 
Society was held at Kingston-upon-Thames, the total number of Mem- 
bers was 374, of whom 40 were Life Members ; while at the present 
time the number is 415 (56 being Life Members), showing, notwith- 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. XXI 

standing a loss of 28 Members by decease and retirement, owing to the 
war and other causes, the satisfactoiy increase of 16 Life and 25 Annual 
Members ; making a total gain of 41. 

The Council regret that so many Subscriptions remaining unpaid has 
prevented their commencing the publication of Transactions. It must 
be manifest that with so small a Subscription, it not only is essential for 
effecting the objects we have in view that a large number of Members 
be enrolled, but also that the Rule which provides for the payment in 
advance of Subscriptions should be adhered to ; whereas many of our 
Members continue in an-ear, notwithstanding repeated applications, 
which entail a large amount of useless trouble and expense, and tend 
greatly to obstruct the progress of the Society. 

The Council have much gratification in stating that friendly relations 
have been established with thirteen kindred Societies, and that in nearly 
every case the Committees, without waiting until the interchange of pub- 
lication's agreed upon could be effected, have pi'omptly and liberally for- 
warded to us copies of their Transactions. 

On the motion of the Chairman, the Report was unanimously adopted. 
The Balance-sheet was also read, and, with the Report, ordered to be 
printed for circulation amongst the Members, which has been done. 

The Rev. Charles Boutell then brought forward a proposition to 
the effect that the operation of the Society should be extended to the 
county of Middlesex. In a discussion which ensued, the motion was 
opposed by the Earl of Lovelace, Rev. J. Chandler, Mr. Godwin- Austen, 
Mr. H. L. Long, and supported by other Members. The adjournment 
of the question for a year was ultimately agreed to. 

Several new Members were elected, and the Office-bearers for the 
ensuing year appointed. 

A Paper, on the " Monumental Brasses of Surrey," was read by the 
Rev. Charles Boutell, M.A. 

The Chairman then called on Mr. Godwin-Austen to read his pro- 
mised Paper on " The Castle," but Mr. Austen suggested, that as the 
day was beautiful, and the foliage in the castle grounds would afford 
shade from the sun, it would be more desirable to repair thither. 

It being arranged that this proposal should be acted on, 
The Earl of Lovelace said — I rise to propose a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Evelyn, who has so readily come from a distance to preside over 
this Meeting. That he should evince his usual courtesy and ability 
in doing so was perhaps to be expected, but on this occasion the 
Meeting has especial cause to feel beholden to him for the address 
and tact which he has displayed in disposing of a difficult question, 
and preventing us from coming to a precipitate, and therefore indiscreet, 
vote on a subject whereon we were unprepared, and adopting a decision 
which must be fatal to the independence and prosperity of the Society. 
(Applause.) As I have not previously had an opportunity of attending the 
Meetings of this Society, I was anxious to avail myself of the present one 



XXU REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

to express my gratification at the progress it Las made, and my conviction 
of its utility. (Applause.) It is not merely for the notice and pre- 
servation of things that are merely old, nor even for inculcating their 
close imitation in the works of art in use at the present day, but in 
order that by studying and analyzing them we may impregnate our- 
selves with some of the principles that operated in the minds of the 
original artisans and designers of the various remains of antiquity, 
and thus improve our taste, that societies of this kind are valuable. 
(Applause.) The artists, sculptors, architects, and painters of ancient 
times put their mind into their works, and made them, so to speak, tell 
a certain stoiy. The execution is often rude, but the feeling and inter- 
est are obvious. I believe that this was the condition of the fine arts, 
that their first commencements, though timid and imperfect, were full of 
expression and sentiment j that after a time they attained a greater per- 
fection, in which the execution equalled conception, which was followed 
in most cases by a decline, in which the artistical feeling was superseded 
by the mechanical excellence of workmanship ; and our buildings, our 
statues, our paintings at last lost distinguishing and purpose-like 
expression, however successful they might be in copying and imitating. 
(Applause.) It is because I believe societies of this description, by 
setting us thinking and reasoning on these matters, will lead to the 
improvement of taste, that I conceive they are entitled to the support 
of the public. (Applause.) In conclusion, I think the Meeting ought 
to agree to a cordial vote of thanks to Mi\ Evelyn for his conduct this 
day in the Chair. (Loud applause.) 

The Chairman having returned thanks for the compUment, the Meet- 
ing separated. 

The Castle was then visited by the kind permission of W. Madox 
Blackwood, Esq., of Castle House, who had hospitably provided lun- 
cheon for the numerous party. 

Mr. R. Godwin-Austen delivered an able discourse upon the history 
of this ancient feudal edifice, and pointed out its vai'ious architectural 
features. 

The very interesting Church of St. Mary was next visited under the 
guidance of the Rev. Charles Boutell, who favoured the company with 
much valuable information upon its architecture and its peculiarities of 
construction. 

At five o'clock a party of about 120 ladies and gentlemen sat down 
to a cold collation, provided at the White Hart Hotel. Mr. Evelyn pre- 
sided, and in proposing " The Health of her Majesty the Queen," alluded 
to the loyalty of Guildford, observing, — I cannot but recall, in connec- 
tion with the subject of our present Meeting, some passages in the 
history of this borough. I remember reading, that during the impri- 
sonment of one of our Kings, who was afterwards executed, the inhabi- 
tants of Surrey met at Guildford, in public Meeting, and resolved to 
present a petition to the Legislature, praying that the King might be 
saved, and that peace might be restored to the country. I regret to 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. XXlll 

say that the body to which I belong refused to receive it ; but nothing 
daunted by the dangers which menaced them, the petitioners proceeded 
to Westminster to present it, and some of them were even massacred 
in their endeavours to do so. And I was sorry to read that on the 
restoration of the Stuarts their loyalty was but ill repaid, for the town 
of Guildford was compelled to surrender its Charter, and was not 
exempt from the fate which met other boroughs. We are happy in 
living at a period when such measures are impossible, and under a 
Sovereign we all respect, and whose health Englishmen are always 
happy to drink. (Applause.) 

Upon " The Health of the Earl of Lovelace, Lord-Lieutenant of the 
County," being proposed, his Lordship, after congi'atulating the Society 
on the progress it had made, and the welcome with which it had been 
received in Guildford, observed that — " Formerly a certain amount of 
ridicule was cast upon the lovers of antiquity, because their admiration 
of the memorials and relics of former times was indiscriminate and 
unreasoning ; but it is not so now. There is an advantage in people 
being set thinking, in their asking the reason why such forms are 
adopted, such contrivances resorted to as appear in the works of our 
forefathers. (Hear, hear.) The more those are studied, the more it will 
appear that the designers acted with purpose and feeling, and therefoi'e 
gave expression to that which proceeded from their hands. We have 
no right, then, to despise the old, for the moderns in matters of taste do 
not equal them. If this is not so ; if the artistic conceptions of the 
present day in any of the textile or hardware manufactures now pro- 
duced be satisfactory, why should there be this morbid appetite for new 
patterns and fashions in almost every branch of our manufactures, unless 
it be tacitly but universally acknowledged that they fail to be agreeable 
to the eye, or to satisfy the mind 1 We did not experience this deficiency 
in the memorials by which we were surrounded in the morning ; and 
however uncouth some of the dresses and ai-mour may have appeared, 
from our want of familiarity with them, assuredly both the favours and 
the ornaments by which they were distinguished were more refined than 
the habiliments of the present generation." 

Mr. H. La wes Long proposed " The Health of Mr. John Britton," who 
had favoured the Society with his presence, and who might justly be 
regarded as the Father of British Archaeology. 

Mr. Britton, in a speech of much vivacity and energy, acknowledged 
the compliment, concluding by expressing the hope that the younger 
Members around him might attain the ripe old age to which he had 
attained, and might, at the age of 84, be as happy as he then was. 

Before leaving the town, many of the visitors proceeded to view 
Abbot's Hospital, — over which they were conducted by Mr. George 
Russel, the Master, — and the Town Hall ; also the remarkable Crypt 
under the Angel Inn. 

In the evening a Conversazione was held in the Public Hall. The 
attendance was veiy numerous, and a better opportunity was afforded 



XXIV REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

for examining the temporary Museum than had been possible in the 
morning. The Collection comprised — 

An extensive series of Rubbings of Monumental Brasses, illustrating 
Mr. Boutell's Paper on the subject. 

The Drawings of the Chertsey Tile Pavement, before referred to. 

Mr. Shurlock kindly added, on this occasion, a Model, showing the 
Abbey Walls and the Stone Coffins. 

In the absence of Mr. Shurlock, these Discoveries were briefly 
described by the Rev. C. Boutell. 

The Mayor and Corporation of Guildford exhibited the various Charters 
of the Town ; also, their Ancient Maces, Cups, and other Muni- 
cipal appurtenances. 

Mr. J. More Molyneux, F.S.A., exhibited the far-famed Loseley Manu- 
scripts, in ten volumes, Folio, and other curious Documents, 
amongst which was an Advertisement of " A very rich lotterie 
" generall without any blanckes, enq^rynted at London, in Pater 
" Noster Rowe, by Henry Bynneman, anno 1567." 

Mr. Godwin -Austen exhibited a Collection of Ancient Arms and Armour, 
old Books and Documents ; and a very singular Iron Box, with 
elaborate and curious Lock. 

A Letter from the Czar of Muscovy to Charles II., with Seal attached, 
dated 1662. By W. J. Evelyn, Esq., M.P. 

The following curious Document was exhibited by R. Eager, Esq., 
and is recorded here as illustrative of the singular superstition to which 
it refers : — 

We whose names are subscribed Parishioners of y e Parish of Bramly 
in y e County of Surrey do hereby certify all whom it may concern that 
Richard Field Inhabitant of y e aforesaid Parish hath of late been very 
much troubled with several swellings about him, and recourse hath 
been had to Physicians for y e Cure of y e same but he can receive no 
benefit thereby ; and his distemper is judged by Doctors to be y e Evill- 
and therefore we doe hereby recommend y e said Richard Field as a fitt 
person to be touched by the Kingg Ma Ue for the same disease : 
And we do further certify that ll ^ e said person was never touched by 
his Ma*| e before for the said Distemper : In witness whereof we have 
hereunto sett our hands the Twentieth day of March 1676 and in the 
Nine and Twentieth year of h ^ s Ma ties Reign. 

John Reynoldson 
Vicar 

Roger Shenford ") ™ , , 
Nathaniell Morland ) Churchwardens. 

Lady Jervis exhibited two small Miniature Portraits of King Charles I. 
and his Queen Henrietta ; by a remarkable mechanical contrivance 
the Head-dresses and other Attire of the Royal Pair may be altered. 



REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. XXV 

A Massive Antique Key, formerly belonging to Old Trinity Church. 

By Mrs. Beloe. 

Boman Sepulchral Urn, Yase, Lamps, and Bottle, Earthen Stamp for wax, 
Bronze Celts, Leaves of the Bapyrus, &c. By C. B. Cayley, Esq. 

Ancient Coins, Seals, Tiles, Keys, &c., and two Singular Cannon-balls 
discovered in excavating for the Bailway, near Guildford. 

By Mr. John Nealds. 

A number of Ancient Coins, found pi'incipally in Fields adjacent to 
Guildford, were exhibited by the Misses Duncomb, Samuel Sharp, 
Esq., and B. Stedman, Esq. 

Mr. Webb, Hon. Sec, exhibited a Collection of Autographs of British 
Military and Naval Commanders, commencing with Howard, Earl 
of Nottingham, who defeated the Spanish Armada ; and comprising 
Letters and Documents of Sir John Hawkins, Monk, Duke of Al- 
bemarle, Lord Fairfax, Edward Russell, Earl of Orford, &c. 

The proceedings of the evening were much enlivened by the perform- 
ances of the fine band of the 2nd Royal Surrey Militia, which, by the 
kind permission of Colonel the Earl of Lovelace, attended both at the 
Dinner and the Conversazione. 

On Friday the 29th, Excursions were made to Sutton Blace, Newark 
Abbey, and to that fine old mansion Loseley House, and the interesting 
Church at Compton. 

During the succeeding day, the Collection of Antiquities and Works 
of Art was thrown open gratuitously to the public. Several hundreds 
of persons, chiefly inhabitants of the town, availed themselves of the 
privilege. The Rev. C. Boutell attended in the evening, and repeated 
his remarks upon the Chertsey Tiles and the Surrey Brasses, adding 
notices of the other objects of curiosity in the Exhibition. The band of 
the Militia was again in attendance. 

In concluding this Beport, it becomes a bounden duty to bear grate- 
ful testimony to the kind and hearty welcome with which the Society 
was received in Guildford, and to record the excellent services rendered 
by the Local Committee, as well as by our zealous and very active Local 
Secretary, Heury F. Napper, Esq. 



SOUTHWARK. 

A Special General Meeting was held in Southwark on the 30th 
of October, 1855. The use of the Branch School-room of St. Olave, in 
Magdalene-street, Tooley-street, was kindly granted on this occasion 
by the Warden of the School, John Ledger, Esq. The Chair was occu- 
pied by William Britchard, Esq., High Bailiff of Southwark, and 
Vice-Bresident of the Society.* 

* During the commencement of the proceedings, Mr. Pritchard not having arrived, 
the Chair was occupied by Robert Hesketh, Esq., Member of the Council. 

d 



XXVI REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

The object for which the Meeting had been convened, in accordance 
with the Rules, was the consideration of a proposal to withraw a portion 
(£75) of the invested capital, for the purpose of defraying the expense 
of publishing the first portion of the Transactions. It was explained 
that this step was rendered necessary by the neglect by many Members 
of the repeated applications for their Subscriptions. After a brief dis- 
cussion, the proposition was put and carried, with one dissentient. 

The following Paper was read : — 

Notices of Horseley Down. By George R. Corner, Esq., F.S. A. 

In illustration of this Paper, Mr. Corner exhibited a curious Drawing, 
representing a Fair held on Horsley Down, in 1599 ; it is copied 
from a painting in the collection of the Marquis of Salisbury, at 
Hatfield, presumed to be the production of George Hofnagle, a 
Flemish artist, in Queen Elizabeth's time. Also, a Map of Horsley 
Down, made in 1546. 

A Small Brass Figure, representing a Warrior in Roman Costume, found 
some years since in Guildford Castle, was exhibited by Colonel the 
Hon. M. E. Onslow, Vice-President. 

Thanks having been voted to Mr. Corner and to Mr. Ledger, the pro- 
ceedings terminated. Previous to leaving the building, Mr. Corner 
called attention to the newly erected Grammar School of St. Olave, 
designed by Messrs. Snooke, Allen, and Stock, and which, although 
modern, he considered well worthy of inspection. Accordingly, the 
Members proceeded to the building, over which they were conducted by 
Mr. Stock, to whom the chief credit of this very fine structure is due. 

At two o'clock a visit was paid to the ancient Church of St. Saviour. 
A Paper, by George Gwilt, Esq., F.S.A., descriptive of the architecture 
of the edifice, was read in the Vestry, by the Honorary Secretary. The 
Rev. Charles Boutell, Hon. Member, also gave an Historical Sketch of 
the Church ; and afterwards, in conjunction with Mr. Gwilt, pointed 
out to the party the more prominent and peculiar features of the build- 
ing, as well as the interesting Monuments it contains. 

Mr. Corner subsequently read, in the Vestry, some curious Wills of 
former inhabitants of South wark, communicated by Miss Julia Bockett, 
of Reading. The thanks of the Meeting were voted to that Lady, and 
to the High Bailiff, for his courteous and efficient performance of the 
duties of President, when the proceedings concluded. 

GEORGE BISH WEBB, 

Honorary Secretary. 
Council Room, 

6, Southampton Street, Covent Garden, 
16th April, 1856. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIBRARY AND MUSEUM. 



Aubrey's History of Surrey. 5 vols. 8vo. London, 1719. 
Allen's History of Surrey. 2 vols. 8vo. Large paper. London, 1831. 
Biden's History of Kingston. 8vo. Kingston, 1852. 
Antiquarian Researches. By the Donor. 4to. 1848. 
Steinman's History of Croydon. 1vol. 8vo. London, 1833. 
Sanimes' Britannia Antiqua Illustrata. 1 vol. Folio. 1676. 

Transactions of the Pakeontographical Society. 9 vols. 4to. London, 1848-1855. 

Presented by William Roots, Esq., M.D., F.S.A. 

Brayley and Britton's History of Surrey. 5 vols. 4to. Large paper. London, 1850. 

Presented by the Subscriptions of Dr. Roots, Sudlow 
Roots, Esq., William Wilson, Esq., C. Bridger, 
Esq., and the Hon. Secretary. 

The Monumental Brasses of England. By the Bev. Charles Boutell, M.A. Large 
paper. London, 1S49. Presented by the Author. 

The Authorship of the Letters of Junius Elucidated. By John Britton, F.S.A. 8vo. 

London, 1848. 
Appendix to Britton's Autobiography. 8vo. London, 1850. 

Memoirs of Brayley, Bartlett, and Willson. By John Britton, Esq. 12mo. 1855. 

Presented by the Author. 

Collection of Acts of Parliament relating to Ewell and Epsom Turnpike Roads. 
8vo. 1824. Presented by R. Hesketh, Esq. 

Catalogue of the Museum of London Antiquities, collected by Charles Roach Smith. 

Printed for Subscribers only. 8vo. London, 1854. 
Collation of Topographical Works relating to the County of Surrey. 
The History of Parish Registers in England. By J. S. Burn. 8vo. London, 1829. 
Collections of the Sussex Archaeological Society. Vol. II. 

Reports of the Northampton, York, and Lincoln Architectural Societies. Vol. III. 
Copse-Grove Hill. By the Rev. B. Broughton. 4to. London. 1S29. 
Robinson's Mickleham Church. Folio. Plates. 1834. 

Presented by Cliarles Bridger, Esq. 

Russell's History of Guildford. 8vo. Guildford, 1801. 

Account of Richmond Palace. Folio. Presented by Mr. John Gardner. 



XXV111 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

The Charters of Kingston-upon-Thames. By George Roots, of Lincoln's Inn. 8vo. 

London, 1797. 
The Etymology of Southwark. By Ralph Lindsay, Esq., F.S.A. 8vo. London, 

1839. Presented by Qeorge Roots, Esq., F.S.A. 

A Glance at the County of Surrey, and a Record of Farley Heath. By Martin 
Farquhar Tupper, Esq. 2 vols. 12mo. Guildford, 1849-1850. 

Presented by the Author. 

Strange and Wonderful News, being a True Account of the Great Harms done by the 
Violence of the late Thunder at Ashhurst in Kent, Bleachingley in Surrey, and 
at Kennington in the same County, &c. Small 4 to. London, 1674. 

Presented by Frederick Hendricks, Esq. 

Rocque's Map of Surrey. 1762. Large folio. 

Strada's History of the Low-Countrey Warres, Englished by Sir R. Stapylton. 

London, 1667. 
Travels in Muscovy, Persia, and the East Indies. By M. Cornelius Le Bruyn. 

2 vols. Folio. London, 1737. 
Parthenissa, that most fam'd Romance. Composed by the Lord Broghill. 1 vol. 

Folio. London, 1676. 
Travels in France, Italy, &c, in the Years 1720, 21, and 22. By Edward Wright, Esq. 

1 vol. Quarto. London, 1730. 
Dugdale's New British Traveller. 1 vol. 4to. 

Presented by the Committee of the late Chertsey 
Literary and Scientific Society. 

Notes on some of the Antiquities of France, made in 1854. By Charles Roach Smith. 
8vo. London, 1855. Presented by the Author. 

Observations upon certain Roman Roads and Towns in the South of Britain. By 
H. Lawes Long, Esq. 8vo. Farnham, 1836. Presented by the Autlwr. 

History of the Art of Pottery in Liverpool. By Joseph Mayer, F.S.A. 8vo. 

Liverpool, 1855. 
Catalogue of Works of Art illustrative of the Buonaparte Family, in the Collection of 

John Mather, Esq. By Joseph Mayer, F.S.A. 8vo. Liverpool, 1855. 

Presented by the Author. 

Suggestions for a more Perfect and Beautiful Period of Gothic Architecture, than 
any preceding. By W. Petit Griffith, F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1855. 

Presented by the Author. 

Account of a Gold Ring, acquired at Monte de Marsan by Lieut. -General Ainslie, 
&c. By Philip B. Ainslie, Esq. Dedicated to the Surrey Archaeological Society. 

Presented by the Author. 

Remarks on the suggested Establishment of a National Order of Merit. By Robert 
Bigsby, LL.D. London, 1855. Presented by the Author. 

View of the British Authorities on English History. By William Bell, Ph. Dr. 

Presented by the Author. 

By-Laws of the Borough of Kingston-upon-Thames. 

Presented by Frederick Gould, Esq., Mayor. 



LIBRARY AND MUSEUM. XXIX 

A Short Account of the Free Grammar School of Saint Olave's and Saint John's, 
Southwark. By G. R. Corner, Esq., F.S.A. 4to. London, 1851. 

On the Custom of Borough English, as existing in the County of Sussex. By George 
R. Corner, Esq., F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1853. Presented by the Author. 

Notes of Antiquarian Researches in the Summer and Autumn of 1854. By John 
Yonge Akerman, Esq., Fellow and Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries. 4to. 
London, 1855. Presented by tJie Author. 

History and Antiquities of the Parochial Church of St. Saviour, Southwark. By the 

Rev. J. Nightingale. 4to. London, 1818. 
Antiquities of Stfrrey. By N. Salmon, LL.B. 8vo. London, 1736. 
Chertsey and its Neighbourhood. By Mrs. S. C. Hall. 8vo. 1854. 
History and Antiquities of St. Saviour, Southwark. By J. Concannen, Jun., and 

A. Morgan. 8vo. London, 1795. 
Memoirs of Edward Alleyn, Founder of Dulwich College. By J. Payne Collier, Esq., 

F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1841. 
Extracts from the Accounts of the Revels at Court in the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth 

and King James I. By Peter Cunningham. 8vo. London, 1842. 
Excursions in the County of Surrey. 8vo. London, 1821. 

Presented by the Honorary Secretary. 

Letters of Rusticus on the Natural History of Godalming. 8vo. London. 1849. 

Presented by Mrs. Henry Ely. 

Transactions of the Cambridge Camden Society. A Selection from the Papers read 
at the Ordinary Meetings in 1839-1841. 4to. Cambridge, 1841. 

Eight Annual Reports of the Ecclesiological (late Cambridge Camden) Society, and 
Eight Numbers of the Ecclesiologist (from Feb. 1855 to April 1856). 

Presented by the Ecclesiological Society. 

Transactions of the Ossianic Society for the Years 1853 and 1854. 2 vols. 8vo. 
Dublin, 1854-5. Presented by the Society. 

Sussex Archseological Collections. Vol. VI. 8vo. London, 1853. 

Presented by the Sussex Archaeological Society. 

Transactions of the Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society for 
1852. Vol. II. Part 1. And three parts of "Proceedings and Transactions," for 
January, March, and May, 1855. Presented by the Society. 

Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology. Vol. II. Nos. 1, 3, and 4. 

Presented by the Institute. 

Records of Buckinghamshire. Nos. 1 and 3. 

Presented by the Bucks Archaeological Society. 

Reports and Papers of the Architectural Societies of Northampton, York, Lincoln, 
and Worcester ; and of the Architectural and Archaeological Society of Bedford, 
during the Year 1854. 8vo. London, 1855. 

Presented by the Northampton Architectural Society. 

Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological Society during the Year 1853. 8vo. 
Taunton, 1854. Presented by the Society. 



XXX CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

Proceedings of the Liverpool Architectural and Archaeological Society. Vol. I. 1848 
to 1S50 ; and Vol. II. Part 1. 4to. Liverpool, 1852 and 1855. 

Presented by the Society. 

Annual Reports of the Warwickshire Archaeological Society for 1855 and 1856. 

Presented by the Society. 

Catalogue of the Architectural Museum in Canon Row, Westminster. 4to. London, 
1855. Presented by the Council. 

Bricks and Brick Buildings. By the Rev. Richard Gee, M.A. 

Presented by the St. Alban's Architectural and Archaeological Society. 

The Proceedings of the Essex Archaeological Society for the Years 1852, 1853, and 
1854. Parti. Vol. I. 8vo. 1855. Presented by the Society. 

A Plea for the Antiquity of Heraldry. By W. Smith Ellis, Esq. 8vo. London, 1853. 

Presented by the A uthor. 

An Account of the present deplorable state of the Ecclesiastical Courts of Record. 
By W. Downing Bruce, Esq., F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1854. 

Presented by the Author. 

A Letter on the Present Condition and Future Prospects of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of London. Addressed to the Earl Stanhope, President. By the Rev. 
Henry Christmas, M.A., F.R.S. 8vo. London, 1855. Presented by the Author. 

Dulwich College, or a Model for Free Grammar School Reformation, in a letter to 
Lord Palmerston. 8vo. 1855. Presented by S. Bannister, Esq. 

Journal de l'lmprimerie et de la Libraire en Belgique. Nos. 1 to 9. 8vo. Brus- 
sels, 1855. Presented by Messrs. Meline, Cans, and Co. 

Inventorium Sepulchrale : an Account of some Antiquities dug up in the County of 
Kent. By the Rev. Bryan Faussett. Edited by Charles Roach Smith. Coloured 
Plates and numerous Woodcuts. 4to. London, 1856. Printed for Subscribers 
only. 



MANUSCRIPTS. 

A List of the Justices of the Peace in the County of Surrey, 1760. By Sir Peter 

Thompson. 4to. 
Papers relating to Dulwich College. Folio. 
Document relating to the expense of maintaining Richmond Lodge for the quarter 

ending Christmas, 1750. Presented by Charles Bridger, Esq. 

Copy of a Deed relating to the Grammar School at Chertsey. Extracts from the 
Patent Rolls of Edward the Fourth, relating to Chertsey. 

Presented by the Committee of the late Chertsey 
Literary and Scientific Society. 

An Autograph Letter of William Bray, Esq., addressed to the late R. Corner, Esq., 
and dated May, 1813. George R. Corner, Esq., F.S.A. 



LIBRARY AND MUSEUM. 



jprfttoings, l|fltopg|5, tfjpstegs, Stt&Mnp. 



DRAWINGS. 

The Old Church, Tooting. By H. P. Ashby, Esq., Member. 

Presented by S. Herbert Elyard, Esq. 
Archbishop Abbot's Monument, Guildford. Presented by Mr. John Gardner. 

Old Houses at Dorking. Presented by Mr. John Cleghom. 

Ancient Fireplace at Croydon. Presented by Mr. G. F. Masterman. 

Pen-and-ink Sketch of Wall Painting, representing St. Thomas a Becket, dis- 
covered at Stoke d'Abernon Church. Presented by Rev. F. P. Phillips. 

Pencil Drawings by Miss Whitbourn, representing — 1. A Sacramental Flagon of the 
16th Century, found near Godalming ; 2. An Ancient Spoon found in the same 
locality ; 3. Ancient British Coins found in various parts of Surrey. (Engraved 
and described, at page 69.) Presented by R. Whitbourn, Jun., Esq., F.S.A. 

Pen-and-ink Sketches of the Old Church, Chertsey, taken down in 1 806, and of the 
Inscription upon the Curfew Bell. Drawn and presented by Miss Bartrop. 

Map of that portion of the Roman Road from Silchester to Staines which passes 
through Surrey ; reduced from the General Map. 

Drawn and presented by Colonel M'Dougall. 



PHOTOGRAPHS. 

Views of the Castle and of St. Catherine's Chapel, Guildford ; three Views of Ludlow 
Castle, and one of the Feathers Inn, Ludlow. 

Executed and presented by Thomas J. Laing, Esq. 

Two Views of the Excavations made on the Site of Chertsey Abbey, showing the 

stone coffins discovered there. 
Two Views of Guildford Castle, and one of St. Catherine's Chapel. 

Executed and presented by Captain Oahes. 
Representation of an Earthenware Vase discovered at Coldharbour, Blechingly. 

Presented by E. G. Pennington, Esq. 
View of the Coronation Stone, Kingston-on-Thames. 

Executed and presented by George Guyon, Esq. 



) ENGRAVINGS. 

A Collection of upwards of four hundred Views, Portraits, Maps, &c, illustrative of 
the County of Surrey. In a Portfolio. Presented by Charles Bridger, Esq. 

View of the interior of the Ancient Church of St. Saviour, Southwark. From a 
drawing by Miss Charlotte Weslake. Presented by Miss Weslake. 



XXX11 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

Portrait of William Bray, Esq., F.S.A., the Surrey Historian. Painted and engraved 

by John Linnell. 
View of Guildford in 1759, and a Large Map of ditto, 1739. 
Views of the Crypt of Hythe Church, Kent, and of Greenstead Church, Essex. 

Presented by Mr. John Gardner. 

Five Views of Guildford. Presented by Mr. John Nealds. 

Portrait of Richard Clark, Esq., Chamberlain of London. 

Presented by the Committee of Chertsey Literary 
and Scientific Society. 

Five Lithographs of Woodwork in St. Mary's Church, Leicester ; Font and Cover in 
St. Edward's Church, Cambridge ; and Interior and Exterior Views of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Cambridge. 

Presented by the Ecclesiological Society. 



RUBBINGS OF BRASSES. 

Thirty-four, mounted on linen : twenty-eight being from Churches in Surrey, four 
from London, one from Middlesex, and one from Lincolnshire. 

Presented by Thomas R. Bartrop, Esq. 

A Collection from various parts of England. Presented by C. Bridget, Esq. 

Two from Guildford. Presented by Mr. John Nealds. 

One from Isleworth. Presented by the Rev. R. B. Byam. 

Twenty Rubbings of Surrey Brasses. By Mr. Larby, of Godalming. 



The following is a List of the valuable Antiquities presented to the Society by 
Joshua W. Buttekworth, Esq., F.S.A.,' and which constitute the chief portion of 
our Collection : — 

Three Light-coloured Lagenae, with narrow necks and handles. 

Two Roman Ampullae and an Urn, found in Bermondsey. 

Large Earthenware Amphora with two handles, the upper part covered with a 
bright-green glaze. 

Four Small Pitcher-shaped Vessels, with narrow necks and handles. 

Three Elegant Vessels with handles, and a Vase of Red Earth. Found in Queen 
Street, Cheapside. 

Two Drinking- cups, with wide mouths and narrow feet, 6 inches high. 

A Straight-sided Cup, fluted, and another of red clay. 

Six Curious Drinking-cups, with handles at the feet, very narrow at the top and 
bottom. 

A Mortarium (bearing the name of the maker, vialla), 13 inches in diameter : imper- 
fect. Found in Trinity Lane. 



LIBRARY AND MUSEUM. XXX111 

Two Pipes, fitting into each other by a socket, for conveying water. Found in 

Blackfriars. 
A Hollow Flue-tile, 15 inches long, with scored pattern on two sides, for conveying 

heated air from the hypocaust to remote parts of a building. 
Two Hollow Bricks, 7 inches long, square at one end, and round at the other, with a 

hole, used for heating buildings. Found in Duck's-foot Lane and London Wall. 
Three Roman Bonding-tiles from Houses in London. 
A MoDile, or Necklace of 120 beads, used probably as an ornament for the neck of a 

horse. They are of opalized glass, and pentagonal. 
Twelve Black and White Beads. 

Fragments of Glass Vessels, Roman and Early English. Found in London. 
Eight Bronze Lares, of Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Cupids, and other Household 

Gods. 
Fourteen Fibulae ; some of rare form. 
Six Specimens of Tesselated Pavements of Red Tesserae, an inch square, which usually 

form the border of the finer and more ornamental floors. Found in Huggin 

Lane and Foster Lane, London. 
Six Specimens of Fresco Painting. From Roman buildings discovered in Old Fish- 
street Hill, and the site of the Royal Exchange, London. 
Eight Bellarmines of different sizes, one having the arms of Amsterdam. 
A curious Wooden Jug or Mether, cut out of a solid piece. 
Three Earthenware Pitchers. 
Three Earthenware Jugs of the 16th Century. 

Four fine Horns of the Indian Antelope, and Nine Stag-horns. Found in London. 
A quantity of Leaden Cloth-marks, bearing the various devices of Merchants in 

London. 
Five finely Irridescent Bottles of Various Forms. From St. Swithin's Lane, &c. 
A small Silver Chain and Cross, enamelled, set with minute diamonds. 
Two Bronze Heads from a Vase. 
A Small Mask. 
A Piece of Stamped Leather, bearing the word AMOK. 



Impression in wax of the Seal of Abbot's Hospital, Guildford. 

From Mr. George Russell, Master. 

Impression in wax of the Seals of the Mayor and Corporation of Guildford. 

Presented by F. H. Napper, Esq. 

Urn of Grey Pottery, discovered in a bed of gravel several feet from the surface, in 
excavating for the Chelsea Waterworks, near Kingston. 

A Bronze Brooch, circular in form, and bearing the following inscriptions : on one 
side, ave maeia gracia (plena) ; and on the other, iesus nazarenus. Probably 
of 15th Century. Found at the same time and in the same locality as the Urn. 

Presented by James Simpson, Jim., Esq. 

Fragment of Timber from the Old Church of St. Mary's, Lambeth. 

Presented by R. Raynham, Esq. 

A Shilling and a Sixpence of Queen Elizabeth's Reign. Found near Godalming. 

Presented by R. Whitbourn, Jim., Esq. 
e 



XXXIV CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIBRARY AND MUSEUM. 

Two Vessels in Grey Pottery, supposed to have been used as wine-rneasm-es. Found 

in excavating ground adjoining the West side of the Angel Inn, High" Street, 

Guildford. Presented by J. R. Stedman, Esq. 

The early Kings of England, after they became Earls of Anjou, had wine-stores 

in this town. Precepts to the Sheriffs of Surrey are still extant, directing that no 

wine should be sold within the Bailiwick of Surrey except from the King's Stores. 

A Series of Eighty Facsimiles of Corporate, Abbatial, and other Seals relating to 
the County, including those of the Earls of Surrey. 

Imjiression in wax of the Seal of Sir Thomas Bysshe, Knight, Lord of the Manor of 
Burstowe, Surrey, 1382, temp. Richard II. 

Presented by the Honorary Secretary. 

Nuremburg Counter. Found at Bagshot. Presented by C. R. Cayley, Esq. 

Stone Celt. Found at Coombe Hill, near Kingston. 

Presented by Arthur Brown, Esq. 

Terra-Cotta Ring. Found, with others, in Richmond Park. 

Presented by Edward Jesse, Esq. 

Seventeen Ancient English Coins. Found at various times between 1840 and 1852, 
on the site of the Archiepiscopal Palace, at Croydon. 

Presented by S. Lee Rymer, Esq. 
A Roman Brick from the Gaer, Brecknockshire. 
Four Specimens of Fossils. 
Key of Chertsey Abbey. 

Stirrup and Horse-shoe worn by Marlborough's Cavalry, 1708. * 
Fragment of a Skull and Bone. Found at Newark Abbey. 
A Shepherd's Leathern Bottle. 
A New Zealand Shield. 

Wooden Nut-Crackers from Almners Barns, Chertsey. 
A Piece of " The Royal George " in the form of a Book. 

A Stuffed Alligator. Presented by the Committee of the late Chertsey 

Literary and Scientific Society. 

Fragment of Bread taken from a Tomb in Alexandria, and supposed to be 2,000 
years old. Presented by Miss E. Webb. 

Two Bronze Medals. Commemorative of William Roscoe, and of the opening of 
St. George's Hall, Liverpool. Presented by Joseph Mayer, Esq., F.S.A. 

A New Zealand Spear and a Malay Spear. Presented by Mrs. Richard Webb. 

Sixty-eight Fragments of Encaustic Tiles from Chertsey Abbey. 

Fifty -four presented by S. C. Hall, Esq., F.S.A. 
five by Captain Calces, and nine by William 
Hawlces, Esq. 

Encaustic Tile from Weavers' Hall, Basinghall Street. 

Presented by J. Wickham Flower, Esq. 



Sitnxg ^rcj)it0l00Tntl j^tktg. 



For the Investigation of Subjects connected xoitli the History and 
Antiquities of the County of Surrey. 



PATRON. 
HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE, K.G. 

PRESIDENT. 
HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH, K.G., P.C., F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

The Right Hon. the EARL of LOVELACE, F.R.S., Lord Lieutenant o* 

the County. 

The Right Hon. the EARL of COTTENHAM, M.A. 

The Right Rev. the LORD BISHOP of WINCHESTER, D.D., F.R.S. 

The Right Hon. the LORD ABINGER, M.A. 

Major-General the Hon. SIR EDWARD CUST, K.C.H., F.R.S. 

Colonel the Hon. M. E. ONSLOW. 

SIR JOHN A. CATHCART, Bart. 

SIR WALTER ROCKLIFFE FARQUHAR, Bart. 

Vice-Admiral SIR CHARLES SULLIVAN, Bart. 

SIR W. G. HYLTON JOLLIFFE, Bart., M.P. 

Admiral SIR CHARLES NAPIER, M.P., K.C.B. 

Lieutenant- General SIR GEORGE POLLOCK, G.C.B. 

Colonel SIR HENRY C. 11AWLINSON, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

WILLIAM BOV1LL, Esq., M.P., Q.C. 

JOHN IVATT BRISCOE, Esq., M.P. 

HENRY DRUMMOND, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 

JOHN LOCKE, Esq., M.P., Q.C. 

WILLIAM ROUPELL, Esq., M.P. 

JOHN LABOUCHERE, Esq. 

JAMES BELL, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

Colonel C. BISSE CHALLONER. 

T. SOMERS COCKS, Jun., Esq. {Treasurer and Trustee). 

WILLIAM JOHN EVELYN, Esq., F.S.A. 

J. W. FRESHFIELD, Esq., F.R.S. {Trustee). 

ROBERT GOSLING, Esq. 

THOMAS GRISSELL, Esq., F.S.A., M.R.S.L. 

HENRY THOMAS HOPE, Esq. 

EDWARD R. NORTHEY, Esq. 

APSLEY PELLATT, Esq. 

WILLIAM PRITCHARD, Esq., High Bailiff of Southwark. 

WILLIAM ROOTS, Esq., M.D., F.S.A. 

GEORGE ROBERT SMITH, Esq. 

e2 



COUNCIL. 

R. A. C. GODWIN -AUSTEN, Esq., F.G.S., Chilworth Manor, Guildford. 

JOSHUA W. BUTTERWORTH, Esq., F.S.A., Upper Tooting. 

REV. R. BURGH BYAM, M.A., Vicar of Kew and Petersham. 

REV. JOHN CHANDLER, M.A., Vicar of Witley. 

JOHN WICKHAM FLOWER, Esq., Park Hill, Croydon. 

FREDERICK GOULD, Esq., F.L.S., Kingston-on-Thames. 

THOMAS HART, Esq., Reigate. 

WILLIAM HENRY HART, Esq., F.S.A., Strcatham. 

ROBERT HESKETH, Esq., F.R.I. B.A., 95, Wimpole Street. 

J. J. HOWARD, Esq., LL.B., F.S.A., Lee Road, Blackheath. 

REV. JOHN JESSOPP, M.A., Chaplain to H.M. the King of the Belgians-. 

&c, 9, Bengal Place, New Kent Road. 
CUTHBERT W. JOHNSON, Esq., F.R.S., Waldronhyrst, Croydon. 
ROBERT T. KENT, Esq., M.A., Alma Villa, Sydenham Road, Croydon. 
MARMADUKE ROBERT LANGDALE, Esq., F.R.A.S., F.R.B.S., Gower 

Street, Bedford Square, and Garston House, Godstone. 
RALPH LINDSAY, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Biggin Lodge, Norwood. 
HENRY LAWES LONG, Esq., Hampton Lodge, Farnham. 
J. BOWYER NICHOLS, Esq., F.S.A., F.L.S., M.R.S.L., 25, Parliament Street. 
REV. OCTAVIUS FREIRE OWEN, M.A., F.S.A., late Rector of Burstow, 

Surrogate and Domestic Chaplain to the Duke of Portland. 
REV. FREDERICK PARR PHILLIPS, M.A., Stoke D'Abernon. 
W. WILLMER POCOCK, Esq., B.A., F.R.I. B.A., Chertsey. 
REV. J. WELSTEAD S. POWELL, A.M., Rector of Abinger. 
CHARLES F. ROBINSON, Esq., Crown Office, Temple, and Effingham Lodge, 

Leatherhead. 
G. STEINMAN STEINMAN, Esq., F.S.A., Priory Lodge, Peckham. 
JOHN TANSWELL, Esq., Temple House, Nunhead. 
GEO. BISH WEBB, Esq., F.R.I.B.A., G, Southampton Street, Covent Garden. 

TREASURER. 
T. SOMERS COCKS, Jun., Esq., 43, Charing Cross. 

TRUSTEES. 
T. SOMERS COCKS, Jun., Esq. J. W. FRESHFIELD, Esq. 

HONORARY SECRETARY. 
G. BISH WEBB, Esq., F.R.I. B. A., 6, Southampton Street, Covent Garden. 

HONORARY PALEOGRAPHER. 
WILLIAM HENRY HART, Esq., F.S.A. 

AUDITORS FOR 1857-8. 
WILLIAM TAYLER, Esq. Mr. J. T. MAYBANK. 

BANKERS. 
Messrs. COCKS, BIDDULPH, & Co., 43, Charing Cross. 

HONORARY LOCAL SECRETARIES. 
Chertsey .^.. ,. _,-.. Thomas R. Bartrop, Esq., and M. Shurlock, Esq. 
Croydon T.^fl^^W S. Masterman, Esq. 

Dorking ••>^Pi^M|^J^ > RT ' Esc l- 

Egham •■*^6- Gborgb*WBeyward, Esq. 

Epsom -^fc George White, Esq. 

Farnham ^Robert Oke Clark, Esq. 

Frimley Mr. Edward J. Lance. 

Godalming R- Whitbourn, Esq., F.S.A. 

Guildford H. F. Napper, Esq., and H. T. Sissmore, Esq. 

Kingston Frederick Gould, Esq., and Samuel Ran YARD, Esq. 

Mitcham Mr. W. R. Harwood. 

Newington Frederick J. Chester, Esq. 

Nunhead T. P. Langmead, Esq. 

Reigate George Morrison, Jun., Esq. 

Richmond William Chapman, Esq. 

WALWORTn Rev. Francis F. Statham, B.A., F.G.S. 



Whi 0f fflttahtt*. 



;ijst a! ffiimbw 



£©*■ 



N.B. — This * denotes Life Compounders. 

| d) Those who have been Donors to the Funds or Collection, to the amount of Five 
Pounds and upwards. 

* Abinger, the Right Hon. the Lord, Abinger Hall, Dorking. 
Amherst, the Right Hon. the Earl, P.O., D.C.L., G.C.H., 66, Grosvenor- 

street, and Knole, Sevenoaks, Kent. 
Ade, George, Esq., 14, Manchester-square, and Southwark. 
Ainslie, Rev. George, M.A., 13, Park-street, Westminster. 
Ainslie, Philip Barrington, Esq., E.S.A., S., The Mount, Guildford. 
Aitken, James, Esq., Carshalton Park. 
Aitken, Rev. James, M.A., Carshalton Park. 
Andrews, Mr. Edward, 61, High-street, Guildford. 
Ashbee, Mr., Bedford-street, Covent-garden. 
Ashby, Harry Pollard, Esq., Merton. 
Aston, George, Esq., Holland-place, Clapham. 
Attfield, James, Esq., Kingston-upon-Thames. 
Austen, Robert A. C. Godwin-, Esq., F.G.S., Chilworth Manor, Guildford. 

* Btjccletjch, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., F.R.S., F.L.S., Montague 

House, Whitehall, and Richmond. 
Bacon, George P., Esq., Surrey Gazette Office, High-street, Lewes. 

* Baggallay, Richard, Esq., Treasurer to St. Thomas's Hospital, Southwark. 
Barber, Charles, Esq., Croydon. 

* Barnard, Herbert, Esq., F.S.A., 69, Portland-place, and Park-gate, Ham 

Common, Richmond. 
Baxter, William Edwin, Esq., Lewes, Sussex. 
Beaumont, J. A., Esq., Melrose Hall, Putney Heath. 

* Bell, James, Esq., M.P., F.R.I.B.A., 1, Devonshire-place, Portland-place. 
Bellinger, Alfred Lyons, Esq., 1, St. Ann's-lerrace, Brixton. 

Bennett, Rev. Henry Leigh, Thorpe House, Chert sey. 

Best, George, Esq., Eastbury House, Guildford. 

Biden, W. D., Esq., 25, Gresham-street, City, and Kingston upon-Thamet. 

Bidwell, Mr. John, Guildford. 

f 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Bid well, Mr. Samuel T., Chertsey. 

Blackwood, William Madox, Esq., Bother House, Rotherfield, Sussex. 

* Blake, Edward S. C, Esq., 2, Queen-square, Westminster . 
Blenkin, William, Esq., Woodlands, Addlestone. 
Borradaile, Charles, Esq., Upper Tooling. 

Bosworth, Thomas, Esq., 215, Regent-street. 

Bovill, William, Esq., Q.C., Worplesdon Lodge, near Guildford, and 20, 

Bedford -square. 
Bovill, Mrs., ditto. 

* Boyson, Ambrose, Esq., 28, Newington-place, Kennington. 

Bray, Eeginald, Esq., F.S.A., 57, Great Russell-street, and Shere, near 
Guildford. 

* Bremner, Alexander Bramwell, Esq., Petersham. 
(d) * Bridger, Charles, Esq. 

* Bridger, Edward Kynaston, Esq., 4, Princes-place, Kenning ton -road. 
Bruce, W. Downing, Esq., K.C.S., F.S.A., 9, Plowden-buildings, Temple. 
Bryant, Thomas, Esq., Montague-2)lace, Clapham. 

Burmester, Rev. Alfred, Bector of Mickleham. 

Burrell, Mr. Thomas H, Bridge house Hotel, Southward. 

(d) Butterworth, Joshua W., Esq., F.S.A., 7, Fleet-st., and Upper Tooting. 

Bjam, Rev. Richard Burgh, M.A., Vicar of Kew and Petersham. 

* Canterbury, His Grace the Archbishop of, D.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., 

Addington Park and Lambeth Palace. 
CoTTENHAir, the Right Hon. the Earl of, Tandridge Court, Godstone. 
Craniey, the Right Hon. the Lord Yiscount, 2, Eaton-place West. 

* Candy, Charles, Esq., Wellfield, Streatham. 

* Cape, Rev. Jonathan, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Croydon. 
Capel, Rev. George, M.A., Wallington. 

Capron, John Rand, Esq., Guildford. 

Carter, R., Esq., The Grove, Epsom. 

Cathcart, Sir John, Bart., Cooper's Hill, Egham. 

Cayley, C. R., Esq., Blaekwater, near Bagshot. 

Cerjat, Rev. Henry Sigismund, West Horsley Rectory. 

Chaffers, Frederick, Esq., Streatham Hill. 

* Challoner, Col.C. Bisse, Portnall Park, Virginia Water, Chertsey. 
Chandler, Rev. John, M.A., Rural Dean, Vicar of Witley. 
Chapman, Mr. Edwin, 5, Whitby-place, Walworth New Town. 
Chapman, William, Esq., Old Friars, Richmond. 

Chatfield, Charles, Esq., Croydon. 

Chester, Frederick James, Esq., 1, Church-row, Newingfoit Butts. 

Chester, Henry, jun., Esq., Church-row, Neivington. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Christmas, Rev. Hen., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., &c., late Minister 
of Verulam Chapel, Lambeth, 30, Manor-street, Clapham. 

* Christy, Henry, Esq., Kingston-upon-Thames. 
Christy, Thomas, Esq., Clapham. 

Christy, William Miller, Esq., Woodbines, Kingston-upon-Thames. 

Clark, Rev. John C, Cowley House, Chertsey. 

Clark, Thomas, Esq., Stoke house, Guildford. 

Clarke, Thomas Meadows, Esq., Richmond. 

Clement, Charles, Esq., Forest Hill, Sydenham. 

Clement, George Sydney, Esq., ditto. 

Clive, George, Esq., Sanderstead Court. 

Clutton, Robert, Esq., Harfswood, near Reigate. 

* Cock, Edward, Esq., St. Thomas-street, Southwark. 
Cocks, Reginald T., Esq., 43, Charing Cross. 

Cocks, T. Somers, jun., Esq., M.P., 15, Hereford-street. 

Compton, Joseph, Esq., Reigate. 

Cooke, John Ryde, Esq., Guildford. 

Cooper, W. Durrant, Esq., F.S.A., 81, Guild ford-street. 

Corner, Charles Calvert, Esq., Lee, Kent. 

Corner, George R., Esq., F.S.A., Tooley -street, Southwark. 

Corner, R. J., Esq., 4, Hare-court, Temple. 

Courage, John, Esq., Dulwich. 

Cous3maker, Lannoy Arthur, Esq., Westwood, Guildford. 

Cox, Abram, Esq., M.D., Kingston-upon-Thames. 

Cowie, Rev. Morgan, M.A., The Manor House, Stoke d'Abernon. 

Crawford, Rev. Charles John, D.D., Woodmansterne Rectory, near Epsom. 

Cree, Thomas, jun., Esq., Tulse Hill, Brixton. 

Cressingham, J., Esq., The Grove, Carshalton. 

Crosby, James, Esq., F.S.A., Harewood Lodge, Streatham. 

Crowley, Alfred, Esq., 63, High-street, Croydon. 

Cubitt, George, Esq., Dorking. 

Cunningham, Peter, Esq., F.S.A., Madeley -villas, Victoria-road, Kensington. 

Currie, Henry, Esq., West Horsley -place. 

Cust, Major-General the Hon. Sir Edward, K.C.H., F.R.S., Leasowe 

Castle, Cheshire, and Claremont. 
Cuthell, Andrew, Esq., Clapham Park. 

* Dotvne, the Right Hon. the Lord Yiscount, Bookham-grove, Leatherhead. 
Danby, Charles, Esq., Neath, South Wales. 

* Dobie, Alexander, Esq., 2, Lancaster-place, Strand. 
Dobinson, Joseph, Esq., Egham Lodge, Egham, 
Down, James Dundas, Esq., Dorking. 

/2 



LIST OF MEMBERS, 

Downs, Edwin, Esq., 2, St. Helena-terrace, Richmond, 

Drew, Beriab, Esq., Bermondsey, and Streatham. 

Druce, Randall, Esq., Weybridge Common. 

Drummond, Henry, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., Albury Park, Guildford, 

Drummond, John, Esq., E.S.A., Croydon. 

Ellesmeee, the Right Hon. the Earl of, P.O., F.S.A., Hatchford, Cobham. 

Eden, Thomas E., Esq., M.R.C.S., Beulah Hill, Norwood. 

Edgington, Benjamin, Esq., Lavender-hill, Baltersea, and Bridge-street, 

Southwark. 
Edwards, Edward, Esq., 76, Old Broad-street. 
Edwards, Mrs., 30, The Grove, Hammersmith. 
Ellis, Mr. Charles, Walhcote Cottage, Twickenham, and Richmond. 
Ellis, W. Smith, Esq., Hurstpierpcint, Sussex. 
Elyard, Samuel, Esq., J. P., Upper Tooting. 
Elyard, Samuel Herbert, Esq., Upper Tooting. 
Engstrom, George, Esq., Beddington. 
Evans, Jeremiah, Esq., St. John's Lodge, Clapham Rise. 
(d) * Evelyn, Wm. John, Esq ,M.P.,F.S.A., Wotton Park, near Dorking. 

Fairies, Rev. Septimus, Rector of Lurgashall, near Petworth, Sussex. 
Farmer, W. F. Gamul, Esq., Nonsuch Park, Cheam. 

* Farquhar, Sir Walter Rockliffe, Bart., 45, Grosvenor-sguare, and 

Polesdon Park. 
Field, Rev. Walter, M.A., F.S.A., Streatham. 

* Fisher, John Philip, Esq., Pebble Coombe, Walton-on-the-hill. 

* Fisher, Samuel, Esq., Merchant Taylors' Hall, London, and Montague- 

place, Clapham Road. 
Flower, John Wickham, Esq., Park Hill, Croydon. 
Fowler, Mrs., Rollestone Vicarage, near Newark, Notts. 
Francis, George, Esq., Kilter's Green, Abbot's Langley, Herts. 
Freakes, Mr. Thomas Tickner, Guildford. 

* Freshfield, James William, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., 6, Devonshire-place, 

Portland.place, and Moor-place, Betchworth. 
Fricker, Henry Robinson, Esq., A.R.I.B.A., 88, Great Tower-street, City. 
Frost, J., Esq., Norfolk Lodge, Teddingfon. 

Gadesden, James, Esq., Ewell Castle. 

Gardner, Mr. John, Guildford. 

Gardiner, Rev. Henry, M.A., Shalford, near Guildford. 

Gibbs, Edwin Mackio, Esq., 8, White' s-row, Whitechapel. 

Giberne, George, Esq., Epsom. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Girvan, John, Esq., Clapham Park. 

Godbold, Augustus, Esq., 56, Lombard-street, 

Godbold, Captain G. Barrington, Royal South Middlesex Militia, late of 

Westbrook-place, Godalming. 
Godefroy, John, Esq., Aden Cottage, Thorp Green, Chertsey. 
Godman, Joseph, Esq., Park Hatch, Godalming. 
(d) * Gosling, R., Esq., BotleysPark, Chertsey. 
Gosse, Henry, Esq , Epsom. 

* Gouger, Henry, Esq., Udney House, Teddington, Middlesex. 
Gough, Mr. W., 139, High-street, Croydon. 

Gould, Frederick, Esq., F.L.S., late Mayor of Kingston-upon-Thames. 
Gray, Henry A., Esq., Hibernia Chambers, Southivark, and Brompton. 
Grazebrook, Henry G., Esq., Chertsey. 

Greene, J. Greene Jones, Esq., M.A., the Temple, and Hall-place, near 
Guildford. 

* Grissell, Thomas, Esq., F.S.A., M.R.S.L., Norbury Park, Mickleham, 

and Kensington Palace Gardens. 

* Gurney, Henry Edmund, Esq., The Priory, Nuffield. 
Gurney, Samuel, jun., Esq., The Culvers, Carshalton. 
Gwilt, George, Esq., F.S.A., Union-street, Southwark. 
Gye, Mrs. Frederick, Springfield House, South Lambeth. 

* Hackblock, William, Esq., The Rock, Reigate. 

Hahn, J. Mellish K., Esq., A.R.I.B.A., The Orchard, Wandsworth. 

* Halkett, Rev. D. S., Little Bookham Rectory, Leatherhead. 
Hall, Mr3. Colonel, Chertsey. 

Hall, Samuel Carter, Esq., F.S.A., Fairfield, Addlestone,near Chertsey. 
Hallett, Charles W., Esq., Surbiton Lodge, Kingston-on-Thames. 
Hamilton, Rev. James, M.A., Rector of Beddington. 

* Hanson, Samuel, Esq., The Elms, Epsom. 
Harcourt, George, Esq., M.D., Chertsey. 
Harper, Edward Norton, Esq., Reigate. 

Harrison, Capt. F., South Bank, Surbiton, Kingston-upon-Thames. 

Harrison, Rev. J. N., Vicar of Reigate. 

Harrison, William, Esq., Market-place, Ripon, York. 

Hart, Thomas, Esq., Reigate. 

Hart, William Henry, Esq., F.S.A., Rolls House, Chancery -lane. 

Hartnell, Edward George, Esq., Field-place, Compton. 

Harwood, Mr. William R., Upper Milcham. 

Hatch, Rev. H. J., Wandsworth Common. 

Haydon, Samuel, Esq., Guildford. 

Hawkes, William, Esq., Edgbaston, Birmingham. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

* Hesketh, Robert, Esq., E.R.I.B. A., 95, Wimpole-street, Cavendish-square. 
Hill, Henry, Esq., Redholme, Richmond Hill. 

Ilingeston, Charles Hilton, Esq., 1, Alfred-place, New Road, Camberwell. 

Hiscocks, A. J., Esq., Wandsworth. 

Hockley, Joseph, Esq., The Rasivell, Hascombe, Godalming. 

Hodgson, Rev. John George, M.A., Vicar of Croydon, 

Hollingdale, Joseph, Esq., Kingston-upon-Thames. 

* Hope, Henry Thomas, Esq., The Deepdene, Dorking. 
Hooper, J. Kinnersley, Esq., The Avenue, Streatham. 
Hopkyns, D.D., Esq., Weycliffe St. Catherine, Guildford. 
Home, Edgar, Esq., 40, Parliament-street. 

* Hotham, Rev. Henry, Fellow of Trin. Coll., Cambridge, Silverlands, 

Chertsey. 
Howard, J. J., Esq., L.L.B., F.S.A., Lee Road, BlacJcheath. 
Howes, Rev. Charles, M.A., Fellow of Dulwich College. 
Hudson, Robert, Esq., F.R.S., Clapham Common. 
Hughes, Mrs., Kennington-lane, Vauxhall. 
Hull, Mrs., Taylor's Farm, Godalming. 
Humbert, Rev. L. M., M.A., St. Cross Hospital, Winchester. 
Humphery, John, Esq. (Alderman), Clapham Common. 

Impey, Francis, Esq., 12, Bedford-row, and Brixton. 
Ingle, William, Esq., Guildford. 

Jeevis, the Lady, St. Catherine's Terrace, Guildford. 

Jackson, William Gray, Esq., Dock head, Southwark. 

Jarvis, Henry, Esq., 29, Trinity-square, Newington. 

Jenkinson, Robert Henry, Esq., Norbiton Hall, Kingston upon-Thames. 

Jessopp, Rev. John, M.A., Chaplain to H.M. the King of the Belgians, 
and Morning Preacher to the Female Orphan Asylum, Lambeth 
East India United Service Club, St. James' s-square. 

Jollands, W., Esq., Euxshalls, Lind field, Sussex. 

Jolliffe, Sir William George Hylton, Bart., M.P., Merstham. 

Johnson, Cuthbert W., Esq., F.R.S., Waldronhyrst, Croydon. 

Jones, R. Minshull, Esq., 191, Tooley-street. 

Jones, Rev. Jenkin, M.A., Streatham. 

Jones, William Bcale, Esq., J .P ., Kingston-upon-Thames. 

Joyce, Rev. William Henry, The Vicarage, Dorking. 

Keen, William, Esq , Godalming. 

Kemmis, Thomas Arthur, Esq., Croham Hurst, Croydon. 

Kenipson, George Streater, Esq., Redholme, Queen's Road, Richmond. 

* Kent, Robert Thomas, Esq., M.A., Kingslon-vpon-Thames. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Kermock, Mr. Edwin, London-street, Kingston-upon-Thames. 

Kershaw, William Wey land, Esq., M.D., Kingston-upon-Thames. 

King, William, Esq., Town Cleric of Godalming. 

Kingsford, Edward, Esq., Sunbury. 

Knight, Thomas, Esq., 77, Chancery. lane, and Nelson-square, Blackfriars. 

Knowles, J. T., Esq., F.R.I.B.A., 1, Raymond-buildings, Grays-inn, end 

Clap ham Parle. 
Knowles, James, Esq., St. John's Road, Battersea Rise, Wandsworth. 

(d) * Lovelace, the Right Hon. the Earl of, F.R.S., Lord Lieutenant of 

the County, East Horsley Park, Ripley . 
La Coste, Thomas Blake, Esq., Chsrtsey. 
Laing, Thomas J., Esq., F.G-.S., 36, Jermyn-street. 
Lambert, William, Esq., River Side, Mortlake. 
Langdale, Marniaduke R., Esq , F.R.A.S..F.R.B.S., Gower-slreet, Bedford- 

square, and Garston House, Godstone. 
Lashmar, Charles, Esq., M.D., F.Gr.S., North End, Croydon, 
lie Keux, John H., Esq., 30, Argyle-street, New-road. 

* Leaf, William, Esq., Park Hill, Streatham. 
Ledger, John W., Esq., Potters Fields, Horsleydown. 
Leeks, E. F., Esq., F.L.S., 2, Royal Exchange Buildings, City. 
Legg, George, Esq., Duke-street, Southwark. 

Lempriere, Captaiu, R.A., Ewell. 

* Lever, John C. Y\ r ., Esq., M.D., Physician- Accoucheur to Guy's 

Hospital, Wellington-street, Southwark. 
Lindsay, Ralph, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Biggin Lodge, Norwood. 
Locke, John, Esq , 22, Chester-street, Grosvenor-p>lace. 
Long, Charles Edward, Esq., 8, Chapel street, Grosvenor- square. 
Long. Henry Lawes, Esq., Hampton Lodge, near Farnham. 
Long, Jeremiah, Esq., Union-street, Hackney-road. 
Lucas, Rev. William H, Milford. 
Lushington, Rev. Charles, Wallonon-Thames. 
Luttman Johnson, Rev. Henry, Binderton House, Chichester. 

Malthus, Rev. Henry, Effingham Vicarage. 

Mangles, Rev. Albert, Beech Hills, Woking. 

Martin, Peter, Esq., Reigale. 

Martin, Thomas, Esq., Reigate. 

Mason, Samuel, jun., Esq., Kingston-upon-Thames. 

Masterman, W. S., Esq., 15, Clifford's Inn, and Wellesley-road, Croydon. 

Matthews, Rev. Richard B., M.A., the Vicarage, Shalford. 

Maybank, Mr. John Thomas, Dorking. 

McNiven, Charles, Esq., Perry's Field, Godstone. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Heasor, Rev. Henry Paul, Vicar of Kingston-upon-Thames. 

Mellersh, Frederick, Esq., Reigate. 

Mitcalfe, Stephen Wright, Esq., Coomle Lodge, Croydon. 

Moline, Sparks, Esq., Godalming and Stoke Newington. 

Molyneux, James More, Esq., F.S.A., Loseley Park, Guildford. 

Moon, Mr. James, Kingston-upon-Thames. 

Moon, John, Esq., Reigate, and Welling Ion-street, Southwark. 

Morrison, George, Esq., Reigate. 

Muggeridge, Sir Henry, Alderman, Strealham Common. 

Murray, Rev. G-. W., Redhill, near Reigate. 

Nealds, Mr. John, Guildford. 

Nelson, Charles 0., Esq., Honorary Secretary to the Royal Institute of 

British Architects, 30, Hyde-park Gardens. 
Newman, Arthur, Esq., Duke-street, Southwark. 
Nicholl, Rev. J. R., M.A., Rector of Streatham. 

Nichols, John Bowyer, Esq., F.S.A., F.L.S., M.R.S.L., 25, Parliament -at. 
Nicholson, G. J., Esq., Waverley Alley, Farnham. 
Nicholson, James, Esq., Salmon's Cross, Reigate. 
Nightingale, James, Esq., Kingston-upon-Thames. 
Northey, Edward R., Esq., High Sheriff of the County, Woodcote, Epsom. 

* Oakes, Captain Geo. W., 13, Durham-terrace, Westlourne Park. 
Odell, Charles, Esq., The Elms, Streatham. 

O'Flaherty, Rev. Theobald R., Capel Parsoiiage, near Dorking. 

* Oldfield, Copner Francis, Esq., Bclgrave House, Wandsworlh-road. 

* Onslow, Colonel the Hon. Mainwaring EUerker, Woodlridge House, 

Guildford. 

* Ouvry, Frederic, Esq., Fellow and Treasurer of the Society of Antiquaries, 

29, Uj)per Gower-s/reet. 
Owen, Rev. Octavius Freire, M.A., F.S.A., Rector of Bursiow, Surrogate 
and Domestic Chaplain to the Duke of Portland. 

Paine, Cornelius, jun., Esq., Surliton-hill, Kingston-upon-Thames. 

Paine, John Mainwaring, Esq., Farnham. 

Papworth, John W., Esq., F.R.I.B.A., 14, Great Marllorough-street. 

Parson, C. A., Esq., Godalming. 

Payne, Mr. William, jun., Church-street, Bermondsey. 

Payne, William, Esq., High Steward of Southivark, Brunswick-square, and 

Tanfield Court, Temple. 
Peacock, Ed., Esq , The Manor Farm, Boftesford, near Brigg, Lincolnshire. 
Pearson, Rev. W. H., St. Xicho/os Rectory, Guildford. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Pellatt, Apbley, Eaq., M.P., Southwark. 

Perry, George, Esq., Charterhouse, and 24, Broad Green, Croydon. 
Pettigrew, W. H., Esq., Tooley -street. 
Phillips, Charles Thomas, Esq., Hampton Wick. 

Pliillips, Rev. Frederick Parr, M.A., Stoke D'Abernon, and 20, Montague- 
square, London. 
Piggott, Mr. Frederick, Richmond. 

Pilcher, Jeremiah, Esq., Russell-square, and Morgan lane, Suuthwark. 
Pilcher, Jeremiah Giles, Esq., 3, Percy-place, Clapham-road. 
Pittman, J. P., Esq., Surrey Herald Office, Warwick-square. 

* Pocock, \Y. Willmer, Esq , F.R.I.B.A., 10, Trevor-terrace, Knight sbridge. 
Pollard, George, Esq., Walworth. 

Pollard, J. Prince, Esq., 51, Upper John-street, Fitzroy -square. 

* Pollock, Lieut.-Gen. Sir George, G.C.B., Clapham Common. 
Porter, George, Esq., F.R.I B. A., Fort-place, Bermondsey. 

* Pott, Arthur, Esq., Bridge-street, Southwark. 

* Pott, "William, Esq., ditto. 

Powell, Rev. J. Welstead S., A.M., Rector of Abinger, and Rural Dean 

of South East Stoke. 
Price, George Peters, Esq., Surbiton Hill, Kingston-upon -Thames. 
Price, Lieut.- Col. William, Member of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta, 

Richmond. 
Pritchard, William, Esq., High Bailiff of Southwark, 22, Kensington 

Park Gardens West. 
Prodgers, Rev. Edwin, The Rectory, Ayot St. Peter's, Welwyn, Herts. 
Pulford, R., Esq., Ember Grove, Thames Ditton. 
Pyne, Charles Claude, Esq., Beech Cottage, Guildford. 

Randolph, Rev. George, Coulsdon Rectory, Croydon. 

* Randolph, Rev. J. H..M.A., F.G.S., Sanderslead Rectory, Croydon. 
Ranyard, Samuel, Esq., Kingston-upon- Thames. 

Raphael, Edward, Esq., Ditton Lodge. 

Rastrick, J. 17., Esq., Sayes Court, Addlestone. 

Rawson, Christopher, Esq., The Hurst, Walton-upon-Thames. 

Raynham, Richard, Esq., 2, Rectory Grove, Old Town, Clopham. 

Reeve, Mrs. Lovell, West Hill, Wandsworth. 

Reynell, George, Esq., Canbury, Kingston-upon- Thames. 

Richards, Rev. T. W., Puttenham. 

Richardson, Edward, Esq., 7, Melbury-terrace, Blandford-square. 

Richardson, George Gibson, Esq., Redhill, Reigate. 

Eidge, Frederick, Esq., Highlands, Framfeld, Sussex. 

Rigge, Henry, Esq., Kew. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

.Robertson, Henry, Esq., St. Atuie's Cottage, Chertsey. 
Robinson, C. F., Esq., 24, Wimpole-street , and Effingham Lodge. 
Robinson, G. M., Esq., Horselydown. 

Robinson, T. Fleming, Esq.,F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Gloucester-buildings, Walworth. 
Rogers, William, Esq., F.R.I B. A., Southern Lodge, North Brixton. 
Rogers, William H., Esq., 10, Carlisle-street, Soho, and Wimbledon. 
Roots, Augustus, Esq., 41, Inverness -road, Porchester-terrace, Bayswater. 
Roots, George, Esq., B.A., F.S.A., 1, Tanfleld-court, Temple, and Kingston- 

upon-Thames. 
Roots, Sudlow, Esq., F.R.C.S., F.L.S., Canbury House, Kingston-upon. 

Thames. 
(d) Roots, William, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., Surbiton, Kingston-upon-Thames. 
Roupell, Rev. Francis P., W "alt on-on-the -Hill. 
Russel, Mrs. E. S., Streatham. 
Rutter, James, Esq., The Glebelands, Mitcham. 
Rymer, Samuel Lee, Esq., North End, Croydon. 

St. Leonaed's, the Right Hon. the Lord, P.O., L.L.D., High Steward of 

Kingston-on-Thames, Boyle Farm, Thames Ditton. 
Salmon, Mr. Oscar, Wellesley Villas, Green Lanes, Tottenham. 
Salwey, Colonel Henry, Runnymede Park, Egham. 
Saubergne, Mr. Peter Lewis, Dorking. 

Scovell, George, Esq., 34, Grosvcnor -place, and Cotton's Wharf, Southward. 
Sells, Thomas Jenner, Esq., Guildford. 
Shand, George Long, Esq., Pickle Herring, Southwark. 
Sharp, Samuel, Esq., Chilworth, Guildford. 
Shearburn, William, Esq., Dorking. 
Shrubsole, William, Esq., Kingston-upon-Thames. 

* Sim, William, Esq., Coombe Wood, Kingston-upon-Thames. 
Simpson, Henry, Esq., 13, Wellington-street, Southwark. 
Simpson, James, jun., Esq., Westfield Lodge, Kingston-upon-Thames. 
Singer, Samuel Weller, Esq., F.S.A., Mickleham, near Dorking. 
Sissmore, Henry Tertian, Esq., High-street, Guildford. 

Slee, Robert, Esq., Parish-street, Soulhivark. 

* Smallpeice, William Haydon, Esq., Rydinghurst. 
Smith, Charles, Esq., Reigate. 

(d) * Smith, George Robert, Esq., Selsdon Park, near Croydon. 
Smith, Henry Porter, Esq., F.S.A., Sheen Mount, Upper East Sheen. 

* Smith, John Henry, Esq., Purley Lodge, Croydon. 
Smith, Joseph, Esq., 49, Long-acre, and Dulwich. 
Smith, J., Esq., The Woodlands, Stoke cTAbernon. 
Smith, Mr. J. Russell, Soho-square. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Smith, Newman, Esq., 2, Hyde Park-street, and Croydon Lodge. 

Snooke, William, Esq., Duke-street, Southwark. 

Sotheby, S. Leigh, Esq., The Woodlands, Norwood. 

Spicer, Rev. Newton, The Rectory, Byfleet. 

Spyers, Rev. Thomas, D.D., Weybridge. 

* Squire, Frederick, Esq., 1, Pall Mall East. 

Squire, Miss, 58, Gloucester-terrace, Hyde Park. 

Stainbank, R. Henry, Esq., The Cedars, Mitcham Common. 

Stapylton, Rev. William Chetwynd, Rector of Maldon-cum- Chessington. 

Stebbing, Rev. Henry, D.D., F.R.S., St. James's Parsonage, Hampstead-rd. 

Stedman, James, Esq., Mount Pleasant, Guildford. 

Steinman, G-. Steinman, Esq., F.S.A., Priory Lodge, Peckham. 

Stennett, William, Esq., Belle Vue, Reigate. 

Sterry, Henry, Esq., 7, Paragon, New Kent-road. 

Stevens, Mr. J. J., Darlington Works, Southwark Bridge-road. 

Stock, Henry, Esq., Duke-street, Southwark. 

Stow, W. Crawford, Esq., F.R.I.B.A., Camberwell. 

Street, William, Esq., The Retreat, Reigate. 

Sturmy, Herbert, Esq., 8, Wellington-street, Southwark. 

Sugden, Hon. and Rev. Arthur, Rector of Newdigate. 

Sullivan, Rear-Admiral Sir Charles, Bart., Ember Court, Thames Dillon. 

Sykes, Admiral, Englefield Green, Egham. 

Tapson, John, Esq., M.D., F.R.C.S., Clapham. 

Tayler, William, Esq., 17, Park-street, Grosvenor-square. 

Taylor, John E., Esq., Weybridge. 

Taylor, John Hollambey, Esq., Guildford. 

Taylor, Henry, Esq., Godalmmg. 

* Teulon, Seymour, Esq., Tenchley Park, Limpsfield. 
Thurnam, Edward, Esq., Reigate. 

Tilleard, John, jun., Esq., Upper Tooting. 

Tooke, Charles, Esq., Hurston Clays, near East Grinstead. 

Tritton, Henry, Esq., Beddington. 

* Tritton, Rev. Robert, Rural Dean of E well, Morden Rectory. 
Trower, Mrs., Unstead Wood, Godalming. 

Tupper, Martin Farquhar, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., Albury, near Guildford. 

Utting, R. B., Esq., 34, College-street North, Camden-town. 
Van Voorst, John, Esq., F.L.S., Paternoster-row. 

* Winchester, the Right Rer. the Lord Bishop of, D.D., F.R.S., &c. 

Farnham Castle. 



LIST OP MEMBERS. 

Wathek, the Lady Elizabeth, Shrub Hill, Dorking. 

Walter, William, jun., Esq., Kingsion-upon-Thames. 

Ware, George, Esq , Blackman-street, Suuthwark. 

Warren, Mr. Francis, 131, High-street, Croydon. 

Watson, Thomas Edward, Esq., Stoke House, Guildford. 

Webb, Miss, 8, Stanhope-terrace, Hyde Park Gardens. 

Webb, Francis Hughes, Esq., 21, Down-street, Piccadilly. 

Webb, Frederick C, Esq., C.E., 8, Chalcot- terrace, Regent's Park. 

Webb, Geo. Bish, Esq., F.R.I.B. A., 6, Southampton-street, Covent Garden. 

Webb, Mr, Henry, Manor House, North End, Croydon. 

Webb, Richard, Esq., 8, Northumberland-terrace, Regent's Park-road. 

Webb, Colonel Robert S., Milford House, Godalming. 

Westall, Edward, Esq., Croydon. 

White, George, Esq., Ashley House, Epsom. 

White, George, Esq., Guildford. 

White, Mr. James, Dorking. 

Wigan, Edward, Esq., Hibernia Chambers, Southwark. 

Wilkins, George, Esq., St. Nicholas, Guildford. 

Willaume, T. B. Tanqueray, Esq., Purley Lodge, Purley, Croydon. 

Williams, W. E., Esq., Times Assurance Office, Ludgate-hill. 

Wills, Mr. William, Kingston-upon-Thames. 

* Wilson, Cornelius Lea, Esq., Beckenham, Kent. 

* Wilson, Edward, Esq., Walton-on-Thames. 

* Wilson, Richard Lea, Esq., Streatham Common. 

* Wilson, Samuel, Esq., Alderman of Bridge-Ward-Without, Beckenham 

Kent. 

* Wilson, William, Esq., 8, Lansdowne-terrace, Kensington Park, and 

Mitcham. 
Wood, John, Esq., West Surrey Bank, Egham. 
Wood, Thomas Fowler, Esq., Cold Harbour, Blechingley. 
Woods, Charles John, Esq., Coroner for West Surrey, Godalming. 
Wyman, Charles, Esq., 13, Hunter-street, Brunswick-square. 

Yates, Richard, Esq., F.S.A., Beddington. 
Young, Thomas, Esq., The Grove, CamberweU. 



Sonorarg Members*. 

Axerman, John Yonge, Esq., Fellow and Secretary of the Society of 

Antiquaries, &c, Somerset House. 
Bell, William, Esq., Phil. D., 31, Burton-street, Burton Crescent. 
Bigsbt, Kobert, Esq., L.L.D., &c. &c, Ashhy-de-la-Zouche. 
Blaattw, William Henry, Esq., M.A., E.S.A., &c, Hon. Sec. to Sussex 

Archaeological Society, Beechlands, Ucklield. — 
Black, W. H., Esq., Rolls House, Chancery-lane. 
Boutell, Ret. Chables, M.A., Binfield House, South Lambeth. 
Bbitton, John, Esq., Burton-street, Tavistock- square. 
Beuce, Rev. J. Collingwood, L.L.D., E.S.A., &c. &c, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 
Coopeb, Chables Pubton, Esq., L.L.D., Q.C., F.R.S., F.S.A., Hon. 

M.R.S.L., 12, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, and Denton Court, 

near Canterbury. 
Ellis, Sib Henby, K.H., D.C.L., E.R.S., &c, Director of the Society of 

Antiquaries, late Principal Librarian, British Museum. 
Hardy, Thomas Dufftts, Esq., H.M.'s Record Office, Tower. 
Hawkins, Edwabd, Esq., F.R.S., E.S.A., Keeper of Antiquities, British 

Museum. 
Nichols, John Gough, Esq., F.S.A., 28, Upper Harley-street. 
Planche, J. R., Esq., Rouge Croix Pursuivant at Arms, Hon. See. British 

Archaeological Association, Heralds' College. 
Scbope, G. Potjlett, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S., &c, President of the 

Wiltshire Archaeological Society, Castle Combe, Chippenham. 
Smith, Charles Roach, Esq., F.S.A., Hon. Mem. R.S.L , &c. &c. &c, 

5, Liverpool-street, Finsbury. 
Thoms, W. J., Esq., F.S.A.. 26, Holywell-street, Westminster. 
Young, Sir Charles G-.,D.C.L.,F.S.A., Lond. and Edin., Garter Principal 
King of Arms, Heralds' College, Doctors Commons. 



£>ortetiesi in 2Unton. 



The Sussex Archaeological Society. 

The Essex Archaeological Society. 

The Suffolk Institute of Archeology. 

The Buckinghamshire Architectural and Archaeological 

Society. 
The Architectural Society of the Archdeaconry of 

Northampton. 
The Kilkenny Archaeological Society. 
The Ossianic Society. 

The Liverpool Architectural and Archaeological Society. 
The Ecclesiological (late Cambridge Camden) Society. 
The St. Alban's Architectural and Archaeological 

Society. 
The Irish Archaeological and Celtic Society. 
The Warwickshire Archaeological Society. 
The Somersetshire Archaeological Society. 
The London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. 
The Cambrian Institute. 



I. — The Society shall be called The Surrey ArchaEOLogicalSociety. 
II. — The objects of this Society shall be — 

1 . To collect and publish the best information on the Ancient Arts 
and Monuments of the County; including Primeval Antiquities; 
Architecture, Civil, Ecclesiastical, and Military; Sculpture; Paintings 
on Walls, Wood, or Glass ; Civil History and Antiquities, comprising 
Manors, Manorial Rights, Privileges and Customs ; Heraldry and 
Genealogy; Costume, Numismatics; Ecclesiastical History and En- 
dowments, and Charitable Foundations, Records, &c, and all other 
matters usually comprised under the head of Archaeology. 

2. To procure careful observation and preservation of antiquities 
discovered in the progress of works, such as Railways, Foundations 
of Buildings, &c. 



RULES. 

3. To encourage individuals or public bodies in making researches 
and excavations, and afford them suggestions and co-operation. 

4. To oppose and prevent, as far as may be practicable, any 
injuries with which Monuments of every description may, from time 
to time, be threatened ; and to collect accurate drawings, plans, and 
descriptions thereof. 

III. — The subjects of all communications received, together with the 
names of the authors, shall be registered in a book kept for the purpose 
by the Honorary Secretary, which book shall be open to the inspection of 
the Members of the Society. 

IV. — The Society shall consist of Members and Honorary Members. 

V. — Each Member shall pay an Annual Subscription of Ten Shillings, to 
be due on the 1st of January in each Year, in advance, or £5 in lieu 
thereof, as a Composition for Life; and on and after the 1st of January, 
1854, an entrance fee of Ten Shillings shall be paid by each New Member, 
whether Annual or Life Subscriber. 

VI. — All payments to be made to the Treasurer, to the account of the So- 
ciety, at such Banking-house in the Metropolis as the Society may direct ; 
and no cheque shall be drawn except by order of the Council ; and every 
cheque shall be signed by two Members thereof, and the Honorary Secretary. 

VII. — The Subscriptions of Members shall entitle them to one copy of all 
publications issued by direction of the Council during their Membership ; and 
no publication shall be issued to Members whose Subscriptions are in arrear. 

VIII. — Every person desirous of being admitted a Member, must be 
proposed agreeably to the form annexed to these Rules ;* and this form 
must be subscribed by him and by a Member of the Society, and addressed 
to the Honorary Secretary, to be submitted to the Council, who will ballot 
for his election, — one black ball in five to exclude. 

IX. — Ladies desirous of becoming Members will be expected to conform 
to Rule 8, so far as relates to their nomination, but will be admitted without 
ballot. 

X. — Persons eminent for their works or scientific acquirements shall be 
eligible to be associated to the Society as Honorary Members, and be 
elected at a General Meeting ; and no person shall be nominated to this 
class without the sanction of the Council. 

XI. — The Lord- Lieutenant of the County, all Members of the House of 
Peers residing in, or who are Landed Proprietors in the County; also all 
Members of the House of Commons representing the County or its 
Boroughs ; the High Sheriff of the County for the time being, and such 
other persons as the Council may determine, shall be invited to become 
Vice-Presidents, if Members of the Society. 

XII. — The affairs of the Society shall be conducted by a Council of 
Management, to consist of a President, Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, an 
Honorary Secretary, and Twenty-four Members, eight of whom shall go 

* Copies of the form may be had from the Secretaries. 



RULES. 

out annually, by rotation, but be eligible for re-election. Three Members 
of the Council (exclusive of Honorary Secretary) shall form a quorum. 

XIII. — An Annual General Meeting shall be held in the month of 
June, at such time and place as the Council shall appoint, to receive and 
consider the Report of the Council on the state of the Society, and to 
elect the Officers for the ensuing twelve months. 

XIV. — There shall be also such other General Meetings in each year 
for the reading of papers and other business, to be held at such times and 
places as the Council may direct. 

XV. — The Council may at any time call a Special General Meeting, 
and they shall at all times be bound to do so on the written requisition of 
Ten Members, specifying the nature of the business to be transacted. 
Notice of the time and place of such Meeting shall be sent to the Members 
at least fourteen days previously, mentioning the subject to be brought 
forward ; and no other subject shall be discussed at such Meeting. 

XVI. — The Council shall meet for the transaction of business connected 
with the management of the Society on the first Thursday in each Month. 

XVII. — At every Meeting of the Society, or of the Council, the resolu- 
tions of the majority present shall be binding, and at such Meetings the 
Chairman shall have a casting vote, independently of his vote as a Member 
of the Society or of the Council, as the case may be. 

XVIII. — The Council shall be empowered to appoint Local Secretaries 
in such places in the County as may appear desirable. 

XIX. — Honorary Members and Local Secretaries shall have all the 
privileges of Members except that of voting. 

XX. — The whole effects and property of the Society shall be under the 
control and management of the Council, who shall be at liberty to purchase 
books, casts, or other articles, or to exchange or dispose of duplicates thereof. 

XXI. — The Council shall have the power of publishing such papers 
and engravings as may be deemed worthy of being printed, together with 
a Report of the proceedings of the Society, to be issued in the form of an 
Annual Volume. 

XXII. — The composition of each Life Member, less his entrance-fee, 
and so much of the surplus of the income as the Council may direct (after 
providing for the current expenses, printing the Annual Volume, &c), shall 
be invested in Government Securities, as the Council may deem most ex- 
pedient ; the interest only to be available for the current disbursements ; 
and no portion shall bewithdrawn without the sanction of a General Meeting. 

XXIII. — Two Members shall be annually appointed to audit the accounts 
of the Society, and to report thereon at the General Annual Meeting. 

XXIV. — No religious or political discussions shall be permitted at 
Meetings of the Society, nor topics of a similar nature admitted in the 
Society's publications. 

XXV. — No change shall be made in the Rules of the Society except at a 
Special General Meeting. 



\xxxq €ttlluti&\\%. 



THE 

ARCHAEOLOGY OP THE COUNTY OE SUEIIEY. 

Bt the Rev. OCTAVIUS FREIRE OWEN, M.A., F.S.A. 



The observations of Dr. Johnson "that all that is 
really known of the ancient state of Britain is con- 
tained in a few pages," and " that we 
vious times upon can know no more than what the old 

re seoogy. wr iters have told us," proceeded from the 

apathy of his time, engendering dearth of archaeological 
information, and which it is the object of the present an- 
tiquarian spirit to supply. Indeed, its activity in this 
particular has come to be so generally recognised as 
to leave no ground for fear that any topic of historical 
research will be in future uninvestigated by the most 
searching scrutiny ; and although every antiquarian, 
if indulging in the Monkbarns spirit, as a gatherer 
of unconsidered trifles, may be subjected to the sneer of 
the pseudo-practical philosopher, yet daily discovery of 
the wealth of past record has elevated archaeology from 
a romantic theory to the dignity of an historical arbi- 

2. True value of trator. Nor is it unworthy of this dis- 
Archffioiogy. tinction when regarded in its legitimate 

point of view, and when its great objects are considered, 
to enlighten the mind as to the human future, by a 

B 



2 SURREY ARCHAEOLOGY. 

comparison of the present with the past. The footsteps 
of civilization, from their earliest faint trace upon 
the rugged and yet impressionable soil of the savage 
state to their perfected development in the polished 
empire, are to be ascertained, not from the confused 
medley of blended history, but, as individuals constitute 
the mass, from the archaeological analysis of personal 
domestic life. It is the habit of the house which attunes 
the temper of the nation, and the portraiture of its 
common daily existence gives us the truest index to the 
political changes of a people. If archaeology therefore 
be frittered away upon trivialities, it is to the oblivion 
of its high import as the enunciator of historical record; 
but its value can no more be impugned by its abuse, than 
sound scholarship be invalidated because of the preva- 
lence of pedantry. Commercial wealth, its progress 
through refinement, luxury, and eifeniinacy, to the 
final extinction of national greatness ; the improvement 
in arts and arms, the defence of the homestead against 
the fortress ; the recognition of plebeian liberty, the 
circumscription of feudal oppression, are cognizable from 
individual acumen exercised upon the sculptured urn 
and record of the dead ; so that the true patriot becomes 
of necessity the antiquarian, and if history be looked 
to as the summary of ancient facts, she must rely for 
evidence upon the corroboration of archaeology. 

No slight efficacy, however, is given to these pur- 
suits by the circumstance of antiquarian societies 
3. Modem So- resulting from individual taste, and not 
cieties - from legal enforcement. Whatever good 

(it is very little) human nature is inclined to do 
spontaneously, it will probably do best. Antiquarian 
research has been ever but slenderly patronized by 
Government, but gratifies its promoters by emanating 



SUlillEY ARCHAEOLOGY. 3 

from their own volition. And inasmuch as " tot 
homines quot sententiae," so where men combine for 
archaeological discovery, each, like a bee, selects his own 
flower, and not only thus is no spot unransacked in 
Time's garden, but accumulated wealth brought to the 
common store. To this healthful mental exercise, to 
this gratifying spontaneous combination, we attribute, 
as well as to a growing appreciation of their value, the 
rapid increase of archaeological societies in the kingdom, 
and the vast additional light poured, since their estab- 
lishment, upon the national history. After the more 
distant limbs of the kingdom have grown into new life, 
by a somewhat strange but gratifying anomaly the heart 
of the empire receives the arterial influence it should 
have primarily dispensed, and we are now assured of 
the popular establishment of an antiquarian associa- 
tion for London, to which our own society of Surrey stood 
the proud and willing sponsor. It is impossible to over- 

4. The London rate the value of the as yet undeveloped 
and Middlesex. annals contained in the metropolis alone. 
If Johnson's time was so barren of such record of 
common life, as that he was fain to commend Henry's 
history as the best civil, military, and religious narrative 
extant of Britain, how would he have exulted in the 
projected labours of a society which promises not to 
leave even London Stone "unturned," nor unmolested 
every cupboard in his own scene of motley association, 
Bolt-court, Fleet-street. 

Having then somewhat rescued Archaeology from the 
hitherto prevalent charges against it, we propose to 

5. Purport of the se ^ forth as a proper prefix to this first 
present paper. account of our proceedings as a society, 
the historical position of the county of Surrey, with 
some brief notices of an antiquarian character, intendk 



4 SURREY ARCHEOLOGY. 

to give a general chart, whereby each inquirer may 
shape his course, and develope such element of antiquity 
as he best may propose for general benefit. Our end 
will be attained if we impress any mind with the value 
of Surrey records in their bearing upon the history of 
the English people, of the vast treasury of ancient lore 
which this county especially contains. Our business is, 
in this respect, one of compilation ; the profit will result 
in the analysis by himself of the material submitted to 
each reader's mind ; but not only is this portion of our 
labour important, but it appeared to us inconsistent to 
publish the account of a society's proceedings, without 
describing the scene of its labours, and some appropriate 
subjects of their exhibition. 

According to Ptolemy, who, probably, is the most 
B _ , reliable authority, Surrey was inhabited 

6. Early history J J , 

of Surrey. The by the Regni, who occupied the portion 
of Britain south of the Atrebatii and 
Cantii. These Regni had joined the Belga3, who dis- 
possessed the aboriginal Britons long before Julius 
Csesar ; besides Surrey, they held also Sussex, and pro- 
bably the greater part of Hampshire. During the 400 
years of Roman occupation, four large cities were 
founded in the Regnian provinces, one of which called 
Noviomagus, generally supposed to have 
been built in Surrey, has afforded fertile 
topic of antiquarian investigation. Like Homer's birth- 
place, various towns compete for its site — old Croydon, 
Wallington, Guildford — until it has been carried out of. 
the county altogether, and deposited at Holwood Hill, in 
Kent. Woodcote, Carshalton, Beddington, Whaddon, 
all places abounding in Roman records, have severally 
claimed the original Noviomagus under the advocacy of 
Camden, Aubrey, Salmon, and others. As a slight 



SURREY ARCHAEOLOGY. 5 

specimen of the antiquarian supplies in the county, 
8. Roman sta- ^ e annex a short list of places regarded as 
tions, &c. Roman sites, and where coins and relics, 

of Roman and other periods, have been discovered. 

Albuiy. — The foundations of a Roman ternple : figure in ivoiy. 

Austerbury. — A camp near the Roman road, called " Stane-Street." 

Bagden, near TVesthunible. — Coins. 

Bagshot. — Roman pottery. 

Beddington. — Mural paintings, tracings. 

Bermondsey. — Roman vases, coins, <tc, found Sept. 1845. 

Brockham. — A small Merovingian gold coin. 

Chertsey. — Bronze Runic basin, pavement tiles. 

Chobham. — Roman coins. 

Coulsdon. — Ancient embankments. 

Coway Stakes. — Fine bronze sword. 

Croydon. — Frescoes lately discovered in the church. 

Egham. — Probably the Roman Bilrox. 

Farley Heath. — Roman relics. 

Farnham. — Perhaps the Yindomis of Antonine. 

Frimley. — Roman urn and coins. 

Gatton. — Yarious. 

Guildford. — Crypt, painted glass, crucifixes, ornaments. 

Hascomb. — A Roman camp. 

Hilbury. — Yarious . 

Holnrwood Hill. — Yarious. 

Kingston-upon-Thames. — Probably the Thamesa, urns, Roman -walls 

and coins, tiles, pottery, and weapons, ring with 1 1 bosses. 
Lambeth. — Keys, nutcrackers, &c. 
Lingfield. — Effigies in glazed tiles. 

Newark Priory, — Armorial esciitckeons of Limoges enamel. 
Nutfield. — Roman coins. 
Peckham. — A Roman glass urn, &c. 
Pendhill. — A Roman hypocaust. 
Puttenham. — Pottery. 
Reigate. — Polycrome altar-piece, antique intaglio, Roman flue tile, 

stone celt, Gaulish gold coin. 
Send. — Roman coins. 

Soutlnvark. — A tesselated pavement, coins, urn, &c. 
Surrey side, Thames. — A pomander of massive gold. 
Titsey. — Rings. 



G SURREY ARCHAEOLOGY. 

"Wellington. — 

Walton-on-the-Hill. — Tiles, buildings, a brass iEsculapius. 

Walton-on-the-Tharues. — Probably where the Britains opposed the 

Romans across the bed of the river at the posts called Coway 

Stakes. 
Wandsworth. — Bronze sword, spearhead, curved pin, bronze celt, 

ornaments for shields. 
Warlingham. — A Roman camp. 
Woodcote. — Old buildings, coins, urns, bricks, &c. 
Woodmansterne. — Glass painting. 

During the Saxon Heptarchy, Holinshed informs us 
m „ that " the first hattell fought between 

9. The Saxon " 

Heptarchy. Battle the Saxons one against another within 
this land, after their (the Saxons) first 
coming to the same," was that which took place at 
Wimbledon or Wibbandune, in Surrey, between CealwiD, 
king of the West Saxons, and Ethelbert, king of Kent, 
for the dignity of Bretwalda, or emperor of Britain. 
Subsequently, in the year 666, this part of England 
w r as ruled by Wulfere, king of Mercia; 

10 Wulfere 

and Erithwald, founder of the Benedictine 
abbey, at Chertsey, was described as his subregulus of 
Surrey. In 851, we find Ethelwulf and his son Ethel- 
n Battle of kalcl defending the kingdom against the 
Ockiey, a.d. 85i. j) aneSj w h ni they defeated at Ockley 
with immense slaughter ; but in 853, Wad^. or Huda, 
ealdorman of Surrey, together with Ealhere, earl of 

12. Frithwaid Kent, was routed by these barbarous 
and wada. marauders. Erithwald and Wada are 
alone recorded as exclusive governors of Surrey. 

The kings of Wessex were crowned at Kingston, and 

13. coronation we learn that the first coronation there 
of we SS e X kings. wag fa^ f Edward I. or Elder, A.D. 900, 
the solemn ceremony being performed by Phlegm und, 
Archbishop of Canterbury. Previous to the Norman 



SUREEY ARCHAEOLOGY. 



invasion, the only other historical events connected 
with the county, are those which served as a pretext 
to William the Conqueror for a descent upon England, 
namely, the seizure and murder (after the death of 

14. Hardicanute, Harclicanute, the last Danish sovereign of 
a.d. io4i. England) of Prince Alfred, by Godwin, 
earl of Kent, to avenge which violence, William the 
Conqueror declared he would proceed against the English 
shores. The peculiar history of the county at this epoch 
merges in that of the state and kingdom. 

As to topical division, Alfred is supposed, by In- 
gulphus and William of Malmesbury, to have first 

15. Counties and parcelled out England in counties, and 
Hundreds. these latter into hundreds and tithings ; 
yet, during the Heptarchy, several counties were known 
by names correspondent with those they now bear ; thus, 
Surrey was Suth-regiona, or Sudergiona. The hundreds 
of Surrey are thus given in Domesday Book. 



The lands of the Bishop of Winchester, 


now 


• Farnham. 


Godelming ... 


j) 


Godalming. 


Blackheat Field 


.. 


.. 


3) 


Blackheath. 


Wochinges ... 


.. 




)> 


Woking. 


Godlei 




.. 


» 


Chertsey. 


Amele Bridge 


... 


... 


» 


Einley Bridge 


Copedorne, Fingehani 


... 


... 


» 


Copthorn. 


Wodeton 




.. 


» 


Dorking. 


Churchfelde ... 


.. 




}} 


Reygate. 


Tenrige 


.. 


.. 


;> 


Tandridge. 


Waleton 




.. 


}> 


Croydon. 


Chingestun ... 


.. 


.. 


55 


Kingston. 


Brixistun 




.. 


53 


Brixton. 



16. Manors. Of the Surrey manors, the Conqueror held 
fourteen himself in demesne. 



Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury 
Odo, Bishop of Baieux ... 



6 

25 



8 SURREY ARCHAEOLOGY. 

The Abbey of Chertsey ... ... ... ... 23 

Eichartl de Tollbridge (alias Fitzgilbert) ... 49 

William Fitzansulf ... ... ... ... 7 

St. Peter's Church, Westminster 5 

Walter Fitzother 5 

Of others recorded, two held four manors each ; three, 
three each ; eight, two each ; and twenty, one each. 

Prom its proximity to the metropolis, Surrey, as 
17. Historical might oe conceived, was the frequent 
incidents. scene of civil discord or political strife; 

and age after age has left upon its soil the impression 
of national disturbance, or has associated its towns, 
villages, and castles, with striking passages in English 
is. Runnimede, history. The signing of Magna Charta by 
June is, 1215. ^he waV ering King John, at Runnimede, 
near Staines, was preceded, it is said, by long councils 
amongst the insurgent barons, at E^eigate Castle, be- 
longing to William, earl of Warren and Surrey. A 

19. Reigate cavern under the castle court, is called 
Castle - the Barons' Cave, and we find that this 
same castle of Peigate, with those of Guildford and 
Parnhani, fell into the hands of Prince Lewis of Prance, 
who, in 1216, landed to assist the barons against the 
king. In 1217, they were surrendered to the Protector 

20. other for- Pembroke ; but, in 1264, the fortress of 
tresses. Kingston, with others, occupy prominent 
positions during the insurgency of Simon de Montfort. 

„ , , Southwark, itself a mine of history, is rife 

21. Southwark. ' y 

with the especial ravages of Wat lyler, 
in the reign of Richard II., in that of Edward IV., 
and during the insurrection of Sir Thomas Wyat, at 
the beginning of Queen Mary's reign, 1554. In the 
Loseley papers, it is recorded that twenty-six men and 



SURREY ARCHAEOLOGY. 9 

four women, of the counties of Surrey and Sussex, 
suffered for their adherence to the faith during the 
Marian persecution. 

In the civil wars, Kingston was repeatedly visited 

by both armies ; in October 1642, the earl of Essex 

occupied it with 3,000 men, and after 

22. Kingston. i , 

the battle of Edgehill, and an abortive 
attempt on "Windsor, Prince Rupert experienced a sharp 
skirmish in this neighbourhood. The spirit of the 
Surrey men also was conspicuous, in being the first to 
demand the restoration of the king ; and the insurrec- 
tion of Lord Villiers, at Kingston, was not put down 
without great effort. Though, since that period until 
the present, little of historical note is connected with 
the county, yet the above summary, brief as it is, 
will suffice to prove Surrey rich in materials for archaeo- 
logical display. 

Some curious details relative to population in Surrey, 
arise from examination of the Patent Rolls. Thus, 
in Edward II. (1322), 500 foot armed 
with haketons (jackets), basinets (skull- 
caps), gauntlets, &c, were levied upon Surrey and 
Sussex, exclusive of Chichester. In Henry VIII. (the 
thirty-sixth year of his reign), 80 archers and 320 bill- 
men were levied in Surrey alone ; and when Elizabeth's 
life was threatened by popish malevolents, 180 principal 
gentry united themselves in a voluntary association to 
defend her. In 1574-5, the musters were 6,000 able 
men, 1,800 armed men, and 96 demi-lances. The 
excessive charges in this county for horses, in the 
time of Elizabeth, caused a strong remonstrance ; the 
subsequent levies on the county are full of interesting 
evidence of its growing importance, as peculiarly 
the residence of the great metropolitan nobles. The 



10 SURREY ARCHEOLOGY. 

extent of Surrey from east to west is about 39^ miles, 
, _, . and its breadth 25i miles, the area being 

24. Extent. z ' & 

759 square miles or 485,760 acres ; its 
population, at the last census, was 683,082 ; and it has 
been well observed that, for its size, perhaps no other 
English county possesses so many seats of influential 
men. 

Very remarkable statistics are presented also in con- 
nection with its agricultural and commercial interests 

25 Man a, formerly. It appears to have been the 

first English district wherein clover was 
cultivated, which had been introduced by Sir Richard 
Weston, from Elanders, in 1 645 : more physical plants 
are grown in it than in any other county, and the 
abundance of its timber has given rise to remark- 
able government enactments relative to the forest and 
" bailiwick " of Surrey (temp. Hen. II.). Irrigation 
was practised here before the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, and the convenience of its streams 
tended to the frequent establishment of mills. Iron- 
ore also being discovered, several foundries existed here, 
as well as in the adjoining county, but have fallen into 
neglect ; fuller' s-earth is in great quantities, and the 
stone from Godstone, Merstham, Reigate, and Bletch- 
ingley, possesses invaluable qualities for the manu- 
facture of glass. Aubrey gives a curious account of the 
discovery of coal, and in Camden's time, pits of jet were 
discovered ; the sand near Tandridge and Reigate is 
unrivalled for purity and colour. In former times the 

26. Mineral springs at Epsom, Streatham, Kingston, 
Springs. Dorking, and other places in the county, 

obtained great note, but have fallen into disuse and out 
of fashion, from that cause which invariably ruins all 
medicinal repute, namely, facility of access. 



SURREY ARCHAEOLOGY. 11 

The lover of ecclesiastical architecture will, equally 
„, „ , . . , as the investigator of ancient customs, 

27. Ecclesiastical " . 

Edifices, St. Mary manorial residences, or castellated for- 
tresses, find in Surrey ample scope for 
his observation. Some of its conventual and sacred 
edifices vie with any in the kingdom for beauty and 
renown : — The Church of St. Mary Overie, rich in its 
lingering Norman relics, and in 

" names, 



Which unto time bequeath a name," — 

the resting place of the poets Gower, Fletcher, Mas- 
singer, — with the fading page of its early priory, and 
singular crypt, — placed in a neighbourhood, wherein 
each step we take is on past honoured 

28. Croydon. . _/ , ., .. , „ -r 

dust ; Croydon, " the mitred, as 1 may 
call it, irradiated not by the titles only, but by the 
charitable deeds and pious munificence of Chicheley, 
Grindall, Shelden, and Whitgift ; Guild- 
ford, whose church, caverns, castle, hos- 
pital, demand each a separate narrative replete with 
30. Palaces and archival interest : palaces, abbeys, and 
Manorial houses, manorial residences, crowd upon our 
survey, until 

" our hearts run o'er 

" With silent worship of the great of old." 

A host of associations awake at the mere enumeration 
of such residences as Beddington, Nonsuch, Lambeth, 
Loseley, Sutton, Sheen, fraught with the memory of the 

" Dead, but sceptred sovereigns, who rule 
Our spirits from their urns !" 

Inexhaustible materials lie before the judicious obser- 
vation of a society, whose zeal has already enabled it 
to welcome among its members many who stand pre- 



12 SURREY ARCHEOLOGY. 

eminent in the fame of sound archaeological research. 
So full is the county of interesting record, that a little 
systematic organization of local committees in connec- 
tion with the main Society, cannot fail materially to 
enrich our national annals by allowing individual taste 
to contribute to common knowledge. The history of 
ancient progresses, the Southwark mummings at the 
" Tabard," the hardly obsolete classic ceremony relative 
to betrothal at Ockley, the elucidation of Roman relics 
and Saxon manufactures, the collection and collation 
of MSS., the examination of pictorial relics, sacred 
emblems, genealogical archives; these, and a myriad 
other sources of national investigation, may be indi- 
vidually followed up by the properly organized com- 
bination of local committees. 

Surrey is the largest artery emanating from the 
great metropolitan heart, and may well be regarded as 
receiving the earliest pulsations, in all ages, of the 
influences which stirred the people. The study, there- 
fore, of such subjects as its topographical history pre- 
sents cannot fail to instruct whilst it entertains, and to 
contribute to moral as well as to intellectual excellence. 
For the past is a torch to the present ; biography is 
but the mirror of self-knowledge, and antiquity only our 
own footsteps in other shoes. All we have to do is to 
select our materials with judgment, and to pursue them 
with caution, gathering up the ravelled skein with care, 
and weaving with dexterity and sound knowledge a 
consistent tissue out of the torn and twisted fragments 
of old times ; since, to apply the striking words of the 
greatest contemporary poet,* though 

" Vanished is the ancient splendour, and before our dreamy eye 
"Wave these mingling shapes and figures, like a faded tapestry ; " 

* Longfellow. 



SURREY ARCHEOLOGY. 13 

Yet,— 

" Gathering from the pavement's crevice, as a floweret of the soil, 
The nobility of labour — the long pedigree of toil, 
Everywhere we see around us rise the wondrous world of art, — 
Fountains wrought with richest sculpture standing in the common 

mart, 
And above cathedral doorways, saints and bishops carved in stone, 
By a former age commissioned," stand " apostles to our own !" 



14 RELIGIOUS BEARING OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



II. 

THE RELIGIOUS BEARING OE ARCHEOLOGY 
UPON ARCHITECTURE AND ART. 

A PAPER READ BEFORE THE INAUGURAL MEETING OF THE SURREY ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
SOCIETY, AT THE BRIDGE-HOUSE HOTEL, SOUTHWARK, MAY 10, 1854. 

By the Rev. JOHN JESSOPP. 



When, some years ago, I was a student of the 
Middle Temple, and was picking up such an acquaintance 
with law as " eating terms" with that ancient and 
honourable society will impart, I recollect that it was 
among the traditions of the practice of the Bar, that, on 
all occasions, when a compliment or an honour was 
bestowed on the members of a particular circuit, it was 
the junior member of their mess who was required to 
acknowledge the one, or do homage for the other. The 
motive that influences that learned body herein, I take 
to be this, — that they are anxious to testify to an 
admiring world that in all things relating to the dignity 
and credit of their order, they can commit themselves as 
confidently to the zeal and ability of the youngest and 
most inexperienced amongst them, as they could to the 
learning and discretion of the oldest and most practised 
of their leaders. I presume that a similar conviction 
has influenced the Council of the Surrey Archaeological 
Society in having required me, the least qualified, and 
probably the most ignorant of their members, to deliver 
an address before you this night, upon subjects concerning 
which I have everything to learn, and nothing to impart. 



UPON ARCHITECTURE AND ART. 15 

I feel, however, that the subject will suffer no disparage- 
ment, among such partial judges as yourselves, in conse- 
quence of the inability of the essayist to do full justice to 
its merits ; but that you will accord full indulgence to 
the crudities of one who admits that he does not appear 
among you in the attitude of a teacher speaking with 
authority, but rather in that of an anxious inquirer after 
truth sitting at the feet of a learned and eloquent 
Gamaliel. 

Now, although archaeology is by no means confined to 
the architecture and antiquities which faith has raised 
and sanctified, and impiety profaned and scattered, 
though the rough hewn sarcophagus of our Saxon 
ancestors is as dear to the antiquary's heart as the most 
elaborately-chiselled tomb of the pseudo-martyr of the 
middle age; yet, as the study has of late years been 
gradually, but surely, raising itself to the dignity of a 
science having no insignificant influence upon practical 
results, I may be permitted to glance at one of these, 
which is the most important, and seek to show the 
Religious Bearing of Archeeology upon Architecture 
and Art. 

Now, I am sure you will all allow that, next to the 
works of God, nothing is so worthy of admiration in the 
world as those creations of man which have been sug- 
gested and inspired by the religious sentiment. Par- 
taking of the grandeur of their object — stamped, so to 
speak, with the imprint of the Deity to whom they have 
been consecrated — they bear about them a certain cha- 
racter of sublime elevation which recommends them to 
universal admiration. 

It is as impossible to remain insensible before a mag- 
nificent cathedral, or a picture by Raffaele, or a fresco 
by Michael Angelo, as it is when we are contemplating, 



16 RELIGIOUS BEARING OF ARCHEOLOGY 

in the calm twilight, some glorious and wide-spread 
scene of nature. In the latter case we recognise the 
creative and omnipotent hand of God; in the former, 
that of man, struggling to emancipate himself from the 
thraldom of his own weakness, and seeking to compen- 
sate by ideality for the mighty distance which separates 
his own from his Maker's works ! This constant ten- 
dency to bring ourselves nearer to the Deity by our 
works, to perpetuate this contest between mind and 
matter, constitutes man's whole existence; it is the 
drama of his life, his passion ; it is, in one single word, 
Art. For what, in fact, is art, but action spiritualized — 
action which calls into exercise all those higher faculties 
which harmonize, combine, and blend with the passive 
strength of nature ? 

Now, if considered in its highest point of view, Art 
may be said to partake of somewhat of the Divine 
nature ; is not this especially the case when its efforts 
are consecrated to the works of God ? And this prin- 
ciple, when applied particularly to ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture, is justified by the most abundant evidence. 
Nothing, indeed, is so grand as the monuments it has 
raised ; none of the other efforts of art have ever suc- 
ceeded in producing that wonderful combination of the 
ponderous with the graceful, the massive with the light, 
which, like everything that partakes of the sublime, 
astonishes, amazes, and yet delights. By the union of 
material and ideal beauty, of which it is the type, it 
satisfies the double craving of our twofold nature; it 
impresses our senses, at the same time that it elevates 
the mind. 

It is in this last exclusively moral influence that we 
recognise the characteristic feature of religious archi- 
tecture. Being the faithful expression of a feeling of 



UPON ARCHITECTURE AND ART. 17 

love and gratitude to the Divinity, it seeks, simulta- 
neously, to reflect and to inspire the sentiment to which 
it owes its origin. That spontaneous testimony, rendered 
by man to the Author of all things, was originally mani- 
fested by psalms and hymns ; but soon the song alone 
began to be insufficient — words demanded a substantial 
representative — the hymn assumed a shape of stone — 
the altar was erected on the summit of the mountain, 
on the margin of the river, or in the solitude of the 
forests ; the incense smoked beneath richly-sculptured 
roofs ; God at length had His temple, and religious 
architecture was erected ! 

It is not, however, to ecclesiology alone that the 
objects of this Society are directed, and if I appear to 
have given an undue prominence to this department of 
arch geological science, it is because it is the mother and 
the nurse of all the rest, and I conceive that it comes 
eminently within the scope of the operations of a body 
like ourselves to remark, amid the characteristic of 
grandeur which is peculiar to it, how completely re- 
ligious architecture has yielded to the influence of the 
times, places, and worships of which it was the outward 
manifestation. Morose and mysterious in India, it con- 
cealed, amid the caves of its subterranean temples, the 
arena of its incomprehensible pantheism. Gigantic, and 
no less enamoured of mystery, in Egypt, it seems anxious, 
by its pyramids, its obelisks, and its sphinxes, to defy 
alike the researches of science and the ravages of 
time. 

We see it beneath the blue sky of Greece, blossoming 
in all the graceful elegance of the smiling Hellenic my- 
thology, and displaying its beauties to the day, crowning 
every promontory with its flowered capitals, from the 
colonnades of Neptune's temple, on Mount Parnassus, to 

D 



18 RELIGIOUS BEARING OE ARCHAEOLOGY 

those of Minerva, beneath the verge of the Acropolis. 
And then, if, from the East, we pass homeward to the 
West, we shall discover that, although with ourselves, 
even Christian architecture possesses a type and character 
essentially original and distinct ; yet, still, that beneath 
this, too, are reproduced the features we have recognised 
elsewhere. 

Thus, in the light spire we perceive the obelisk of 
Egypt; the cave-temples of India, like the pyramids 
themselves, are reproduced in one gloomy crypt, those 
catacombs wherein repose in peace the bones of our 
ancestors, and the ashes of our martyred saints. Sculp- 
ture half destroyed, statues mutilated by the hand of 
man, or yielding to the decay of time, fantastic figures 
in every form of poetical grotesqueness, inscriptions 
scarcely legible, or of which the very allusion cannot be 
traced ; — all these present a vague and mysterious analogy 
to those hieroglyphics of the elder world, of which the 
eye curiously follows the sharp outlines without the 
mind being able to comprehend or guess at the hidden 
meaning. And it is one of the objects which archaeology 
promotes, to follow up these researches, to trace these 
resemblances, to deduce these analogies, and thereby to 
reconstruct, from the minutest and most unpromising 
fragments, faithful records of all that is grandest and 
loveliest and noblest in art. Eor it is with archaeology 
as with its kindred science geology; the triumphs of 
each are acquired by means of the analytic element 
carried to the highest point. And in alluding to geology, 
I speak also of that science which is not indeed the 
same, but yet which is seldom separated from it in 
study. I mean the study in which Cuvier attained such 
mastery and skill — the study of the remains of extinct 
races of animals, and the reconstruction of their scat- 



UPON ARCHITECTURE AND ART. 19 

tered bones, so as to afford, by analogy, no small pro- 
bability of an accurate estimate as to their structure, 
their size, and even their habits of life. And this recalls 
to my recollection a most striking discovery of a disciple 
of Cuvier with reference to one of those animals, which, 
so far as we know, human eye had never seen, and of 
which, in this instance, it happens that no vestige of the 
substance remains ; not one fragment of its bones, not a 
shred of its skin. 

Ask yourselves, then, for one moment, how was it 
possible to acquire any knowledge respecting it ? Does 
not this, at first sight, appear an almost impossible task ? 
Do not the difficulties in the way appear insuperable ? 
Yet these difficulties were overcome by the school of 
Cuvier ; and how ? "Why, by the footsteps which this 
animal, in his lifetime, had impressed upon the sand of 
the sea-shore. Those footsteps had become petrified in 
the course of years ; and from the examination of these, 
a follower of Cuvier was enabled to deduce— first, from 
the intervals between them, a calculation as to the size 
of the animal ; then, from the configuration of the steps, 
a calculation as to the order of animals to which it 
might have belonged, comparisons with other animals 
whose footsteps are the same, or similar ; and thus, with 
no other positive vestige remaining than these petrified 
footsteps on the shore, the pupil of Cuvier was enabled 
to construct — not as a vague theory, not as a mere guess, 
unsupported by experiment, but as the result of analy- 
tical reasoning, and of analogies in similar cases — a most 
probable system as to the size, the structure, nay, even 
the habits of the animal ! 

I say then that it is by the application of a similar 
process, by this careful exercise of the deductive facul- 
ties that the archaeologist arrives at similar results. 



20 RELIGIOUS BEARING OE ARCHAEOLOGY 

Show him but the fragment of some shattered arch, or 
conduct him to some secluded spot on the river's bank, 
where one gaunt buttress, and a few scattered stones are 
all that are left to testify to the omnipotence of ruin ; 
and from these scant materials alone he will conclude, 
with certainty, the age, the form, and the purposes of the 
fabric whose traces thus remain ; and as the grey moss 
lifts its hoary frond, and the fading inscription unveils 
its mysterious hieroglyphics, gradually every stone, 
every inscription, and every statue, exhibit to him their 
outline, and appealing to his heart with all the powerful 
associations of an immortal interest, become the objects 
of a new and most harmless idolatry ! It is enough for 
him that they have left but their petrified foot-prints on 
the sand ! 

I imagine there are few who would doubt that studies 
and pursuits of this kind must be a great source of 
improvement and of delight ; but I should wish to con- 
vince you of a fact no less certain, though I think less 
commonly acknowledged, that an acquaintance with this 
science may advantageously mingle with many details of 
our common life ; that it may lend zest to every enjoy- 
ment, and enable those who possess it to taste pleasure 
which those who are destitute of it can never know. 
Let me take so common and trivial an occurrence as a 
summer's holiday ; let me suppose a time when many 
amongst you, released for a time from your more active 
occupations, are able to enjoy a few weeks' or days' excur- 
sion ; and let us see whether, in this case, some taste for 
archaeological pursuits may not add greatly to the pleasure 
you would experience. 

The traveller passing rapidly, with all the speed that 
railroads now supply, through the plains of Lancashire, 
may stop short when he arrives at Penrith or at Car- 



UPON ARCHITECTURE AND ART. 21 

lisle, being anxious during his leisure to explore the 
lakes of Cumberland on the one side, or the range of the 
Cheviots on the other. If, then, he turns to the left, 
and winds his way to the lakes of Cumberland, and 
ascends the last hill above the lake of Derwentwater, and 
sees that fair prospect opened before him, he will, on the 
summit of that hill, find himself amongst the circle of 
Druids' stones. Now, to those who have not attended 
to any of the details of the Druids, as Caesar and Tacitus 
record them, and as so many modern writers may, if 
you will, make familiar to you — to those who therefore 
felt no interest in the Druids, the circle of those stones 
would seem nothing but a ring of moss-grown frag- 
ments of rock, and would be dismissed without a parting 
thought. 

But what pleasure would their contemplation afford to 
him who had imbued his mind, in some measure, with 
some of the strange traditions that relate to the rude 
faith of our forefathers ; and how much interest would 
he feel among those very stones in recalling some traces 
of their bloody rites or fantastic superstitions ! Can 
you doubt for a moment, which traveller, in this case, 
would enjoy the greater pleasure ? 

Or, on the other hand, had the traveller gone to the 
right, along the foot of the Cheviots, he would at nearly 
every step encounter the remains of the majestic Roman 
wall. There again, to any one who was indifferent to 
archaeological pursuits, these remains would seem only 
so many tufts of matted ivy, and so many heaps of 
cemented bricks. But he who knew something already, 
and might wish to know more, of the traces of that 
wonderful people who fortified an island as we would a 
town — who constructed works whose magnificence in 
ruin even now astonishes us — such a traveller would 



22 RELIGIOUS BEARING OF ARCHAEOLOGY 

find ever fresh delight in every trace and vestige of 
antiquity which presented itself; and while enjoying 
not less than his companion the other delights of the 
excursion, the fresh spring air, or the distant view, or 
the various objects on his way, he would have this great 
additional source of interest, which the person destitute 
of that information would be compelled to forego. 

Or let us descend to a lower sphere : let us not wander 
out of the circle of this very borough wherein we are 
now assembled, and it will be equally easy to show that 
archaeology is not a mere holiday-thing, to be assumed 
on some special occasion, but that it may mix and blend 
with the affairs of every-day life, with our hours of 
business and our moments of leisure — not only without 
interfering with our occupations, but also diminishing 
the monotony of our toil. Which, think you, will 
pursue his avocations with the more elastic spirit : he 
who passes through the streets of Southwark with no 
other emotions than those of gain, or he who, as he 
glances at the stately tower and crumbling glories of the 
neighbouring church, can recall the legend of the Perry- 
man Overs, and his daughter Mary, who founded a house 
of sisters in the place where the last part of that very 
Church St. Mary Overie now stands ; who, as he hastens 
through the defilement of Kent-street, can call to mind 
the fact that he is treading upon the very Roman road 
itself, whereby, 1,800 years ago, Caesar's legions marched 
into the metropolis ; who, as he passes the Talbot Inn, 
about midway between these two extremes, can recollect 
that this is the very identical " Tabard," that hostelrie 
where Chaucer tells us, in verses still fresh after near 
500 years have passed, he lay, 

" Redy to wenden on my pilgrimage 
To Canterbury, with devout courage ;" 



UPON ARCHITECTURE AND ART. 23 

who, if required to extend his walk a few yards further 
still, can forget the squalor of the notorious Lock's-fields, 
and the degeneracy of "Walworth, in the memory of 
those merry days when the stalwart youth of London, the 
sturdy bowmen of those romantic times, met together 
on those then verdant and shady spots to test their 
prowess at the Butts of Newington ! Surely, then, to be 
able to derive such pleasure from such sources, is one of 
the triumphs of the human mind ; and surely, even in 
its first elements and stages, the study of a science which 
produces these effects needs no apology, no justification, 
and no defence. 

Unimaginative minds may consider this love of the 
things of the past an exaggerated sentiment ; if, however, 
it be a passion, it is at least an innocent one; and 
without injuring one human being, it has done, and is 
still calculated to do, much good. Thanks to it, modern 
Vandalism has been compelled to suspend its ravages, 
and false taste its melancholy efforts at embellishment 
scarcely less disastrous. 

Better versed than heretofore in archaeological lore, 
the people of England comprehend that it is their 
mission to preserve the edifices as well as the faith of 
their forefathers; and thus they cheerfully second the 
efforts of authority, and the representations of science, 
to preserve or to restore all ancient time-honoured 
monuments. In this love of ancient things, whatever 
is mere fashion and caprice will pass away and be for- 
gotten ; but the substantial results, those master-pieces 
of art preserved from destruction, and those relics of 
other ages, which possess a priceless value, rescued from 
oblivion, will remain. Unlike men's virtues and their 
vices, the archaeologist's good deeds will live on brass ; 
his weaknesses be inscribed on water. 



24 RELIGIOUS BEARING OF ARCHAEOLOGY 

"While, however, the altar which archaeology has 
reared has received many worshipers, there have 
likewise sprung up around this new religion many 
sceptics. These latter, who seek in all things for the 
positive and the useful, will coldly ask of what import- 
ance is a moss-covered stone, a shattered column, or a 
headless statue. In their estimation, a bale of mer- 
chandise is preferable to a flowered capital ; and all the 
obelisks that lie scattered on the sands of Egypt are, in 
their eyes, less valuable than the marble chimney-pieces 
which adorn their rooms. 

This preference is excusable in those, indeed, who 
make industry their sole religion, but it will not hinder 
the ardent worshippers of art from preserving the 
purity of their faith. In the midst of those despised 
ruins, the imposing memorials of a bygone age, there is 
more than one lesson to be gathered. The philosopher 
submits his reason to the teaching of the past ; the poet 
nourishes his imagination by his recollections ; the 
artist studies the models which its earlier and purer 
traditions had created ; the historian verifies the specu- 
lations he conceives by the records it has left; and 
the religionist derives from its silent and impressive 
teaching an ever-recurring testimony to the vanity 
of all earthly things, which leads him to look up 
alone to Him, by Whom all things "were and are 
created." 

Let no one, then, exclaim against the inutility and 
folly of that which tends so greatly to elevate man's 
heart and soul ! No ; the sacred dust, the vene- 
rable ruin, the shattered urn, are not dumb to those 
who know how to inspire them with feeling and with 
speech. An eloquent voice speaks to them from those 
ruins, and upon walls, blackened by time, they recog- 



UPON ARCHITECTURE AND ART. 25 

nise, in living characters, the history of those who now 
repose beneath their shelter ; through the dark shadow 
of the night, that imparts a deeper blackness to the 
shattered heap, or roofless abbey, they can recognise 
the hero or the priest haunting the spots where his 
deeds of valour were performed, or his crown of mar- 
tyrdom endured. 

This, then, is the art which we are met together now, 
to foster and promote ; we would simply desire that pos- 
terity may long admire those noble remnants of anti- 
quity which yet survive, the monuments of those who 
have written a poem upon stone, without having in- 
scribed their names. All these men of genius, however 
much, apparently, strangers to the traditions of anti- 
quity, have no less preserved sacred the worship of art, 
and have thereby linked ancient to modern times. Like 
those mortals of whom the poet Lucretius speaks, who, 
running in a ring, pass one to the other the torch of 
life, so have these great artists passed from hand to hand 
(and that, too, often without being themselves aware, 
of it) the torch which was to illuminate age after age. 
By the rays which it yet projects we will contemplate 
their works. Studying the history of the past is no un- 
profitable way of occupying the present, and awaiting 
the future. And thus, while the voluntary toils of asso- 
ciated study shall nourish among us friendships, not like 
the slight alliances of idle pleasure, to vanish with the 
hour they gladdened, but to endure through life with the 
pursuit that fed them ; while the peaceful pride of such 
an institution as ours shall illumine the most troubled 
rapid of busy life with those consecrating gleams, which 
shall disclose, in every small mirror of smooth water 
which its eddies may circle, a steady reflection of some 
fair and peaceful image, preserving, amidst the im- 

E 



26 RELIGIOUS BEARING OF ARCHEOLOGY, ETC. 

pulses of earth, traces of the serenity of heaven; we 
may exult as the chariot of humanity flies onward, 
with safety in its speed; for we shall discover, like 
"Ezekiel of old, in prophetic vision, the spirit in its 
wheels ! 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 27 



III. 

THE KINGSTON MOKASTEEN. 

A PAPER READ BEFORE THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SURREY ARCH^OLOGICAL 
SOCIETY, HELD AT KINGSTON, JUNE 30, 1854 ; WITH ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

By WILLIAM BELL, Phil. Dr. and Honorary Member. 



The inauguration of the Royal Coronation Stone at 
Kingston, by which the inhabitants and contributors 
have done themselves so much honour, and our early 
history good service, induces me to offer a few remarks 
on its significance and early use, deduced from corre- 
sponding memorials in various and widely-distant coun- 
tries, and from the observances concerning those at very 
remote intervals, some of which survived till within a 
comparatively recent period. 

That stones must necessarily, in the earliest ages of 
society, have served as seats ; that some of a particular 
form, or in a peculiar situation, were gradually elected 
from the mass as the royal throne of princes and kings, 
whence, when the pontiff and kingly character were 
united, they were deemed holy, and afterwards shed the 
halo of their sanctity on everything around, or in contact 
with them, is but the natural and gradual march of the 
human intellect from things common to select — from 
select to sacred and divine. The meteor-stones that had 
been observed to fall from heaven — the Bethulia 1 — had 
an additional, perhaps to the savage mind an inevitable, 
cause of reverence, which in many cases, as in the Caaba 2 
of Mecca, or the misshapen fragment worshipped as a 



28 THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

deity at Edessa, 3 and transferred by Ileliogabalus to 
Rome with unbounded reverence and unlimited expense, 
received honours more than human — they became them- 
selves the deities : and when Sanconiathon teaches that 
the worship of these Bethulia was invented by Ccelus, he 
but personifies the visible heavens, and ascribes to the 
voluntary act of giving, a necessary operation of nature. 
So rooted did this practice become in the East, that the 
two ideas of stones and worship, or divinity, became 
almost identical. The Hebrews frequently used the terms 
as synonymous, when we find them giving the name of 
stone or rock to kings and princes — even to God himself, 
as the Rock of Israel, where the stone metaphor was 
intended to convey as much of sanctity as of security or 
endurance. But in Jacob's prophetic death-voice on the 
fates of his sons, the progenitors of the twelve tribes 
(Genesis xlix. 24), Joseph is called " the Shepherd and 
the Stone of Israel," in more direct and unmistakable 
allusion. 

Dating the practice from these Bethulia, on which it 
would have been impious to alter a line, or detach a 
particle from the surface, the greater sanctity of stones 
rude, and in their natural forms, before those tooled and 
fashioned by hands, most probably took its rise; and 
in pity to the weakness and prejudices of human 
nature, Jehovah himself was expressly particular and 
authoritative in denouncing the use of squared or sculp- 
tured stones for the pure altars of his worship (Deut. 
xxvii. 5) : " And thou shalt build the altar of the 
Lord thy God of whole stones : thou shalt not lift up 
iron upon them ;" or, according to the received version, 
" Thou shalt not lift up any iron tool upon them." 
And, concurrently (Exodus xx. 25), " And if thou wilt 
make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 29 

hewn stone ; for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou 
hast polluted it." And, certainly, the earliest practice of 
that nation was with deference to the precept (Joshua 
viii. 30 — 32) : " Then Joshua built an altar unto 
the Lord God of Israel in Mount Ebal, as Moses, the 
servant of the Lord, commanded the children of Israel, as 
it is written in the book of the law of Moses : an altar of 
whole stones, over which no man hath lift up any iron." 
The law of the twelve tables at E-ome had an injunction 
remarkably similar — Mogam ascid ne polito ; where the 
injunction, though only mentioning the funeral-pile, 
included all the component parts, of which the altars 
to the Lares and funereal gods were the principal ; and 
as these customs or laws were a bequest from the primeval 
Etruscans, it may be questioned whether the precept 
was older in Palestine or in Italy. 

That the original intention of placing stones was by 
designing them as objects to consecrate the place and 
make it holy, the earliest mention of them may prove. 
In Genesis xxviii., after Jacob had seen the glorious 
vision of the ladder, he exclaims, on awaking (v. 16, seq.), 
" Surely the Lord is in this place, and I knew it not ; 
and he was afraid, and said : How dreadful is this place : 
this is none other but the house of God, and this is the 
gate of heaven. And Jacob rose up early in the morning, 
and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and 
set it up for an altar, and poured oil upon the top of it. 
And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will be with 
me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give 
me bread to eat and raiment to put on, so that I come 
again to my father's house in peace, then shall the Lord 
be my God ; and this stone which I have set for a pillar 
shall be God's house." 4 

The transition was easy and natural from consecration 



30 THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

to the Deity to an inherent sanctity and sacredness which 
was intended to he reflected from these commemorative 
stones to the fictions or facts of which they had become 
the witnesses and the testimony ; and therefore circles 
or heaps of stones were put up in favourable localities 
wherever it was judged advisable to perpetuate the 
remembrance of deeds worthy of such record. The 
Scriptures, which are inestimable, even if only as 
the special records of the earliest history, detail these 
compacts and their evidences, in their account of the 
covenant entered into between Jacob and Laban 
(Genesis xxxi. 44) : " Now therefore come thou, let 
us make a covenant, I and thou ; and let it be for a 
witness between me and thee. And Jacob took a stone, 
and set it up for a pillar. And Jacob said unto his 
brethren, Gather stones; and they took stones, and 
made an heap : and they did eat there upon the heap." 
Now, the placing the stones in a circle does not appear 
clear from this description ; yet the next instance cited 
almost necessarily involves the stones being placed, if not 
round a common centre, at least in a symmetrical order : 
"And it came to pass, when all the people were clean passed 
over Jordan, that the Lord spake unto Joshua, saying, 
Take ye twelve men out of the people, out of every tribe 
a man ; and command ye them, saying, Take ye hence 
out of the place where the priests' feet stood firm, twelve 
stones ; and ye shall carry them over with you, and leave 
them in the lodging-place where ye shall lodge this night : 
that this may be a sign among you, that when your 
children ask their fathers in time to come, saying, What 
mean ye by these stones ? then shall ye answer them, 
That the waters of Jordan were cut ofT before the Ark of 
the Covenant of the Lord when it passed over Jordan. 
The waters of Jordan were cut off, and these stones shall 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 31 

be for a memorial unto the children of Israel for ever." 
Cairns, or monuments of the dead, were raised by piles 
of stones, loosely thrown over the body of the deceased, 
and increased by each passer-by adding another to the 
heap. Such a cairn is mentioned over the burial-place 
of the king of Ai, whom Joshua, when he sacked and 
burnt the city, " hanged upon a tree until eventide ;" and 
the practice has continued in the Alpine countries, where 
stones are plentiful, from these older periods to the pre- 
sent ; or where a cross upon a mound has Christianized, 
and marks the spot on which, to banditti, an avalanche, 
or other misfortune, a human being has fallen a victim. 
It is not solely in Holy Writ, nor on the plains and 
heights of Palestine, that evidences of similar prac- 
tices are to be found. All Europe is full of them ; and 
on the authority of the American journals, examples of 
rude stone circles, which in Europe would be called 
decidedly Druidical, are not wanting to increase the 
enigmatical conformities between the eastern and 
western hemispheres. The obelisks set up by the Incas 
in Peru (vide Aglio's plates), like the Devil's Arrows 
at Boroughbridge (vide Drake's "Eboracum"), or the 
French Chaise a Diable ("Bulletin Monumental," vol. x. 
p. 462), can but resemble Jacob's pillar of stone in 
material and purpose ; and round circles of stones can be 
matched in every quarter of the globe. 

As, however, it is a stone more immediately at home 
that I purpose to illustrate, I shall at present restrict 
myself, in its elucidation, to conformities and examples 
drawn from existing or described monuments in our 
western hemisphere, which may tend to give a better 
idea of the Kingstone, the reasons for its use, and the 
solemnities of which it was the frequent witness. Eor 
India, Sir B. Colt Hoaro, in his " Historv of Modern 



32 THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

South Wilts," vol. ii. p. 57, has figured examples, in three 
groups, of the Umbrella stones, exhibiting the forms 
of full cromlechs, or rather of trigliths, with converging 
jambs ; and Chardin, in his " Persian Travels," p. 371, 
mentions a remarkable one in that country. "Upon 
the left-hand side of the road are to be seen large 
circles of hewn stone" (I suppose he here means only 
hewn or dug from the quarry, not squared), " which 
the Persians affirm to be a great sign that the Chaous, 
making war in India, held a council in that place; 
it being the custom of these people that every officer 
that conies to the council brought with him a stone, 
to serve him as a chair. These Chaous were a sort 
of giant. What is most to be admired is, that the 
stones were so big that eight men can hardly move 
one ; and yet there is no place from whence they can be 
imagined to have been fetched, but from the nearest 
mountain, six leagues off." Passing on towards Europe, 
we have in Strahlenberg's " Travels," p. 367, the pyra- 
midical mausoleum of the Tartarian kings at Abakan, 
with four stones at its corners ; and the obelisk near 
Tombskoi (plate 5 A), to the best of Strahlenberg's recol- 
lection, about a foot thick, two feet broad, and sixteen 
feet high. Still nearer Europe, in Bell's " Travels in 
Circassia" (London, 1840), is the view of an ancient 
tomb in the valley of Ishat. In all this line, from 
beyond the Indus to the Don, we are only tracing the 
steps which Odin (perhaps merely a personification of 
civilization or humanity) is said to have taken in his 
migration from east to west. Snorro Sturleson, in his 
" Heimskringla und Ynglinga Saga," describes this 
journey, particularly from Asoph, more minutely than I 
will here transcribe ; but this traditional leading of the 
people by Odin will give one, and perhaps the strongest 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 33 

conformity, which induced Caesar, from agreement in 
attributes with the Roman Mercury, to give him the name 
of that deity, so as to be more readily intelligible to his 
countrymen, in the famous passage, "De Bello Gallico," 
lib. 2, chap. 15 : — " Deum maxime Mercurimn colunt ; 
hujus sunt plurima simulacra ; liunc omnium inventorem 
artium ferunt ; hunc viarum atque itinerum ducem." 
The end, however, of this long migration, is universally 
fixed in Sweden, as, indeed, also the end of the then 
known world ; and it is there we find the best examples 
of these stone circles, and their use and customs pre- 
served to comparatively modern dates, as well as chro- 
nicled with a minuteness which makes us cognizant, 
when aided with the auxiliary traditions above, and the 
correspondence of existing monuments elsewhere, of their 
primary destination. The principal Swedish circle is 
called the Morasteen, a name which I have applied as 
generic to your Kingston stone under consideration, for 
reasons subsequently stated. This Morasteen is situate 
about half a league from Old Obsola (hodie Upsala), 
and it is first described by Sturleson, in the passage of 
the " Heimskringla," as follows : — " Odin selected his 
residence near the Molar Lake, on the Ast, where it is 
called the Old Sigtuna (for us, Sigtunor), and erected 
there a huge temple and altars of sacrifice, according 
to the custom of the Asi; and to each of the twelve 
temple-overseers he gave a dwelling; and thus, as 
in Asia, so here in Upsala, sacrifices were offered to 
Odin and his twelve primates : they were called gods, 
and worshipped as such." Eor a description so old, 
its particularity is remarkable ; but the following, con- 
densed principally from Geijer's " History of Sweden," 
and Pontanus, will carry down the account to the latest 
period, and supply many omissions of the earliest author. 

F 



34 THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

" The Morasteen lies about one Swedish mile south-east 
of Upsala; and it is remarkable that here, in former 
times, the election of the Swedish kings took place. We 
have the first clear account of such an election in the 
case of Erick IX., or the Holy, which took place in 1397. 
The judges of the land met here, — twelve discreet and 
prudent men were elected by the consent of all present, — 
and their voice, and that of the judges, was considered 
that of the country." Such an assembly was called 
Mora-ting ; and in reference to the meaning of Ting, as 
court or place of judgment, we have only to refer to the 
modern names of Stor-thing and Odel-thing, for the 
upper and lower house of the Norwegian Parliament, or 
Ding-Gericht and Vehm-Geding, in Germany ; the two 
latter representing those dark and visionary tribunals 
which are regarded in England with unnecessary and 
exaggerated horrors, — as the Holy Vehme : these prove 
the continuance of the word in the Teutonic dialects, to 
which even that of Britain is not quite strange, as the 
supreme tribunal ; or, perhaps its mound of the Isle of 
Man is still called the Tingwald; 5 and the Hi-dings of 
Yorkshire thence derive their most probable meanings. 
The description continues : " When the choice was agreed 
upon, the king swore upon the Holy Book and reliques 
(when the religion had become Christian) the oath pre- 
scribed ; and so also swore the judges and the delegates ; 
that is, they swore at or upon the Mora ; and, as an old 
ordinance testifies, the king was immediately placed on 
it. Eor each new king they placed a stone close to it, 
with the date of his election graven upon it." The Mora- 
steen itself was a large round stone, which was raised a 
little from the soil : around it were twelve smaller stones, 
as in the ancient circles of doom (Domare ringuar). 
Some small stones, whose inscriptions are nearly oblite- 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 35 

rated, are all that now remain on the spot ; the large 
Morasteen not having been able to be found since the 
time of the first Gustaf, about 1620. The later authority 
I have cited with Geijer varies in so far as he states that 
the royal names were carved on the Morastone itself: — 
" Mosfuit antiquities, ut, per acta regum Suecice desig- 
nations, annus et dies inaugurations nomenque regis 
lapide qui Morasteen vulgo dictus, extra civitatem Ubsa- 
lensem ad unum milliare, in piano campo situs, incide- 
retur, ad perennem rei memoriam. In quo et super quern 
reges Suecice de novo electi statim post eorum electionem 
etiam consueverint ab antiquissimis temporibus sublunari 
et inthronesari ; ut loquitur notarii publici instrumentum, 
quod produxit Joh.Messenius Suecus in paraphrasi theatri 
nobilitatis Suecance." "Whether the cherished stone suf- 
fered the fate of the corresponding Scottish one at Scone, 6 
the palladium of the kingdom, which Edward brought 
to England, and which is now embedded in the coro- 
nation-chair of his successors, at Westminster, we can 
at present only imagine. The Calmar Union, under 
Margaret, the Semiramis of the North, formed a fusion 
of all three Scandinavian kingdoms ; and as the seat of 
empire was fixed at Copenhagen, we may conjecture that 
the outward symbols of the three monarchies would have 
all been united at the place chosen for her residence : 
transferred thither, with no ancient prestige to guard or 
perpetuate its recollections, it may easily have been over- 
looked, and lost, or removed, without attaining to the 
dignity of its Pictish brother. In the above method of 
election, we have many points in common with the pro- 
ceedings on the choice, or supposed choice, of a prince in 
almost the most southern parts of Germany, with some 
additional particulars which bring new features into the 
picture. In Karnthen (Carinthia), as long as it had its 



36 THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

independent dukes, and as long as even the fiction of an 
election was continued under the Austrian rule, an 
analogous ceremony was continued on the Zolfeld, a 
meadow not far from Clagenfurt, the capital, which has 
for the noblest ornament of its market-place, the large 
marble tazza, possibly constructed out of the Morastone 
there, as the still larger one now the principal ornament 
of the Schloss Garten before the museum at Berlin, was 
formed out of a Druidical stone, which, though at present 
22 feet in diameter, was one-third larger before the mani- 
pulation. The name of the Zolfeld would undoubtedly be 
more correctly written Solfeld {campus soils), analogous 
to the Campus Maii or Martis (Champ de Mars) of the 
Gauls, revived and burlesqued by Napoleon during the 
Hundred Days. The ceremony was as follows :— The ducal 
stool was an erection of stone, like the imperial chair at 
Hhense (of which more immediately). On this simple 
throne was seated a plain countryman, before whom the 
newly-elected prince was introduced, clothed in the 
peculiar peasant costume of the province, betwixt a lean 
and sorry ox and horse, followed by his nobles. In this 
attire he swore to observe the country's laws and privi- 
leges ; and then, and not before, could he put himself in 
the peasant's place, on the regal seat, and receive the 
homage of his subjects : this mockery of freedom was last 
played in 1551. The usages at the coronation of the em- 
perors of Germany as kings of Hungary bring the matter 
nearer to some of the observances at the same solemnity 
in Westminster Abbey. There, near the town of Pres- 
burg, and adjoining the Danube, is a field called the 
King's Field, and in it an artificial hill, with four 
entrances, and roads up to the summit, answering to the 
four cardinal points. Immediately after the coronation, 
the chosen king rides unattended up one of the ascents, 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 37 

and brandishes the sword, traditionally called that of 
St. Stephen, to the four quarters of the winds, to be 
shown to his subjects on every side, and to declare to 
them that he is willing to meet assailants against his 
country, from every quarter. The only part of the 
Anglican ritual in which this observance, and the ana- 
logous ones, of being placed on the stones and thrones 
in the other countries, is dimly shadowed out, consists in 
the direction in the Rubric. " The archbishop having 
placed the diadem of St. Edward on the royal brow, and 
given the orb and sceptre into his hands, is directed to 
show the monarch to the assembly, which here repre- 
sents the entire nation." (See the Oath of Allegiance, 
and the touching the crown by the senior peer of each 
rank.) 

It is to be lamented that Chardin, in his account 
above quoted, is not more particular in his description, 
particularly as to the number of stones in the circles he 
saw. They were, however, duodecimal, which, from 
the easy manner in which it was produced by the reite- 
ration of the earliest mystical number four times, or the 
double of the first perfect number (2 + 2 = 4) three times, 
was in all religions the favoured complement of priests, 
and thence of rulers. The twelve tribes of Israel may 
have been a fortuitous and happy agreement ; and the 
twelve Amschapands of Zoroaster are repeated in the 
twelve Cabiri of Greece. The most ancient liturgy of 
Italy, the Etrurian, was administered by twelve Luco- 
mani ; and no doubt of an equally primeval origin was the 
institution of Odin's twelve Diars (angels), or Drottnas 
(lords), as they are called by Sturleson, in the passage 
already cited for the twelve seats which surrounded the 
Upsala Morasteen. The fixing this rule of numbers had 
great influence on the legislation of our Saxon ancestors; 



38 THE KINGSTON MOEASTEEN. 

or brethren. In the Code of the Ripuarians,the duodecimal 
noun, and its multiples and divisions, form a principal 
feature ; for a contested matter of from 3 to 100 sous, 
six jurors were necessary ; for one from 100 to 200, 
twelve ; for 300, thirty-six ; and for the large amount 
of 600 sous, nothing less than 72 deciders was 
thought satisfactory. This number entered largely 
into the calculations of romance ; the twelve Paladins of 
Charlemagne, the twelve sons of Aymon ; and in our 
country, the twelve Knights of Arthur's Round Table, 
are but a few specimens, where even the ingenuity and 
finesse of fiction conformed itself to the popular nume- 
ration. If I did not feel that this part of my subject 
was running into exuberance, I might here, after Grimm 
and Lappenberg, show how this duodecimal numeration, 
in its divisions and multiples, had a remarkable influence 
in governing the Saxon annalists in fixing the dates of the 
Saxon events. That these uniformly occur in the reitera- 
tion of the multiples of four, must tend to cast serious 
doubt upon their general authenticity ; for nature, and 
the natural course of events, are too various and free to 
be confined by such artificial rules ; but fiction is con- 
tinually reproducing itself. If the reader take in hand 
the Anglo-Saxon annals, he will find the following 
remarkable coincidences, among many, to bear out the 
assertion. In the eighth year (4 x 2) after the arrival of 
the Germans,the Britons led four large armies, under four 
leaders, to Crawford, in Kent, against Hengist and Osc, 
his son. Eight years later, in 465, Hengist and Osc col- 
lected an unconquerable army, which was drawn up in 
twelve (3 x 4) noble lines, against the whole force of 
Britain. After eight years more, Hengist and Osc 
achieved a new victory over the Britons. On the fortieth 
(10 x 4) year after his arrival, and the sixteenth (4 x 4) 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 39 

after this battle, Hengist dies, and afterward Osc ruled 
twenty-four years (6x4), to the end of a cycle of 
eight times eight years from the first arrival of the 
Saxons in Britain. In the year 568 (71 x 8) Ethelbert 
is mentioned, as well as two immediate successors, 
who each ruled twenty-four (6 x 4) years. These are 
sufficient to prove the frequent introduction of the 
favourite unit, and to throw doubts on our earliest annals, 
for analogous reasons to those by which Sir Isaac 
Newton was first induced to suspect the authenticity of 
the first books of Livy and the oldest periods of Roman 
history ; an idea afterwards so satisfactorily followed up 
by Niebuhr. That, however, the first impulse of the 
inquiry did not originate with Sir Isaac Newton, or 
with Niebuhr, seems apparent from the following ex- 
tract from Spence's Anecdotes, published by J. W. 
Singer, London, 1820, p. 109 : — " The first four hundred 
years of the Roman history are supposed to have been 
fabulous, by Senator Buonaroti ; and he gives several 
good reasons for his opinion. He suspects that Borne 
in particular was built by the Greeks ; as Tarentum, 
Naples, and several other cities in Italy were." These 
instances are introduced in this place, to prove in our 
kingdom the prevalence of the duodecimal system ; and 
it will now remain to apply it to the aggregation of the 
stone circles remaining in Britain, as far as their 
imperfect preservation will permit. 

It seems, in the first place, most reasonable to admit 
that the great palladium of our laws and constitution — 
the trial by twelve jurors 7 — was the most enduring and 
important continuance in this ancient reverence of the 
duodecimal number of rulers and usages. The most 
perfect Druidical circle at present in Britain, and perhaps 
at the same time (possibly from this very circumstance), 



40 THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

also unique, is in Cumberland, near Keswick ; and its 
peculiarity consists in having, within a circle of fifty un- 
hewn stones, at its eastern end, an inclosure or sanctum, 
in the form of a parallelogram, formed by twelve stones, 
four at the west end, and four north and south, with one 
larger than the rest in the centre towards the east, 
which may fairly be considered to be the Mora- stone, 
with the twelve subordinate seats, as at Upsala, and the 
large circuit for the surrounding general assembly. 
Opportunities have not yet been afforded me for ex- 
amining the other stone circles of the kingdom with this 
view. But in his account of the Morasteen in Sweden, 
Camden mentions a similar one at St. Burien, in Corn- 
wall ; and another also may be found in Borlase's descrip- 
tion of that county ; and as these sacella, or such sanctum 
sanctorum, are the normal form in the remaining Druid- 
ical circles in Mecklenburg, and the marks of Branden- 
burg, we may infer that if our own were more perfect at 
Bollrich, in Oxfordshire ; at Stanton Drew, in Somerset- 
shire ; at Averbury ; perhaps even if Stonehenge itself 
were intact ; that this was the general ground- plan of all 
such places of Druidical assemblage and worship. This 
supposition granted, our Kingstone stone would be only 
one of a smaller circle of thirteen, surrounded by a larger 
outer girth of somewhat indefinite but frequent multiple 
of four. The Hollrich stones were originally 60 (4 by 15), 
and the Keswick ones, if rightly counted, and not 
including the two required to complete the sacellum, are 
48 (4 by 12). In Ireland, tradition at least has pre- 
served a perfect image of a Morasteen in superlative 
grandeur. I am not aware whether the existing remains 
are confirmatory. The principal circle of stones in the 
land of Erin was the Crum-Cruach, on a hill in Breferi, a 
district of the county of Cavan. Here was an obelisk, 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 41 

wholly covered with gold and silver, in the midst of a 
circle of twelve stones, which were only covered with 
brass, on which were carved figures. The old Irish, we 
are told, on the election of their Tanaists, used to deliver 
a wand to him whom they intended to raise to that dig- 
nity, he having previously ascended a high stone ; and 
as soon as he had received the wand, he descended, and 
turned himself round thrice forward and thrice backward. 
The inferior stones surrounding your own Mora-stone 
seem to have all vanished before the requirements of an 
increasing population, and the improvements in the con- 
struction of our dwellings. But a reverence deeply seated 
in the minds of the people must have kept the principal 
and kingly stone from profanation or destruction ; and 
the sacred purposes to which it was appropriated seem 
attested by tradition and history, 8 as it is thus amply 
confirmed by the reasons we can adduce from past ages, 
and by farther comparison with similar existing monu- 
ments near at hand. As these, as well as their im- 
mediate neighbourhood, are curious and continually 
illustrative, their explanation will be here not misplaced. 
The first of them which I adduce, is the famed London 
stone, the last fragment of which is now preserved within 
a stone pedestal, walled into the south side of St. S within' s 
Church, in 'Cannon-street. This stone has undergone 
many changes of situation, as I learn from a note in 
Thorn's edition of " Stowe's Chronicles," Lond. 1842, 
8vo. p. 84. It formerly stood on the opposite or south 
side of the street ; was in 1742 removed to the edge of 
the kerbstone on the north side ; and in 1798, incased, at 
the instance of Mr. Thomas Marden, printer, of Sher- 
burn-lane, by the parish officers, as it is now seen. Its 
fortune seems as various nearly as these migrations ; but 
the weight of Camden's opinion seems to have united all 

G 



42 THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

suffrages in looking upon it as a central milliarium, 
whence all the Roman itineraries were measured, as from 
a common starting-point. Without stopping at present 
to discuss various objections to such an assumption, and 
taking such a destination as admitted, there would be 
nothing incompatible with such purpose in supposing this 
stone, or at all events one on its place, to have been a 
primeval object of veneration to the people whom the 
Romans found in the island at their first invasion under 
Caesar. That the trunk-walled Burg of Cassivelaunus, 
and his Trinobantes proper, — -firmissina earum regionum 
civitas ("Cassar de Bello Gall." lib. v. c. 16), — should have 
been without such place of assemblage, required by their 
customs, social and political, and hallowed by its ancient 
prestige of sanctity, is inconsistent with history, particu- 
larly when we here meet with a stone whose memory has 
been kept alive in an under-current of tradition and 
veneration amongst the people till a very recent period. 
The tenacity with which the earliest impressions of reli- 
gious deference live in all ages, and all people, might 
assure us of the probability ; and an undoubted proof 
of its surviving to the age of our immortal dramatist, 
seems to me to be unequivocally found in his works, 
and will be carried down, if rightly understood now, 
to the latest posterity. Based, perhaps, upon a tra- 
dition or chronicle older than Holinshed, in the 
Second Part of " King Henry VI.," act iv., we have 
as scene 2, the following : — " London : Cannon- 
street. Enter Jack Cade and his followers. — He strikes 
his staff on London Stone — Now is Mortimer lord of 
this city, and here, sitting upon this stone, I charge and 
command that, of the city's cost, the pissing conduit run 
nothing but claret-wine the first year of our reign. And 
now henceforward it shall be treason for any that calls. 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 43 

me other than Lord Mortimer." Short as this speech 
is, coupled with the stage direction now, of striking the 
stone, it gives us all the usages we have heard of as to other 
Morasteens, and all the various indispensable requisites 
of a coronation. The sanctity of the place, the striking 
the stone, a burlesque of the regal defiances at Presburg, 
and still practised by the sovereign at the ceremony of 
dubbing a knight — which, as Pennant remarks, had 
been a customary way of taking possession — the being 
placed on the stone upon which his recognition as a 
prince and sovereign is to follow ; all are ample testi- 
monies of the intention. Stowe, in his Annals, produces 
many instances where this stone is mentioned in docu- 
ments as early as Athelstan, as a kind of landmark, 
and for " the payment, tendering, and making of debtors 
to their creditors at their appointed days and times, till 
of later times payments were more usually made at the 
font in Paul's Church, and now most commonly at the 
Royal Exchange." These would assure us of its sanc- 
tity, as temples were used by the Romans for many 
pecuniary transactions ; and as we here find them 
transferred to the interior of a Christian church, until 
the greater convenience of the continental bourse, 
introduced into Great Britain by Sir Thomas Gresham, 
carried them more appropriately to the secular edifices, 
as at Bristol, where old brass font-like tables still exist 
for the obsolete purpose of money -changing, in front of 
their new exchange, the very intent of which is indicated 
by its name. But we have direct evidence that the title 
of supreme magistrate of the City was taken from this 
stone. In the Rotuli Curiae Regies, edited by Sir P. 
Palgrave (1835, vol. i. p. 12), some conspirators are 
made to say, " Come what will, in London we will 
never have another king except our mayor, Henry 



M THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

Fitzailwin, of London Stone." This would more satis- 
factorily account for one of Stowe's attempts at giving 
the origin of the monument, according to some opinions. 
His words are : " Some, again, have imagined the 
same to be set up by one John or Thomas London- 
stone; " but the honest and acute chronicler very justly 
adds, " but more likely it is that *such men have mis- 
taken the name of the stone, than the stone of them ; " 
so that though very near the truth, he has not exactly 
ascertained it. He brings the facts of no person actually 
so named. The reasons he mentions are purely conjec- 
tures : he has mistaken evidently a consequence for a 
cause. 

Another London stone cannot here be passed over in 
silence, because its history and locality afford corroborative 
and illustrative proofs of the usages vindicated for the 
preceding one : I allude to the memorable relic at 
Staines, close to the Shire Ditch, where the counties of 
Middlesex and Buckingham meet, near Runniniede — the 
latter glorious in the annals of our constitutional liberties 
as the table and spot on which, in 1215, King John 
affixed his seal and signature to the Magna Charta, 
in the presence of his assembled prelates and nobles : a 
glorious revival of the Saxon Wittenagemote, no doubt 
on a locality originally dedicated to their meeting. The 
identical stone on which the precious parchment rested 
at the moment of superscription was itself suggestive of 
ancient freedom and pristine liberties, and may have 
been an ultimate cause of this early agitation for lost 
privileges. The very name of Staines reverts to us the 
ancient stone-circled space of primeval assemblies ; and 
that Itunnimede would serve to interpret a stone of 
assembly, we may learn from the meeting-stone for the 
imperial electors of Germany at Rhense, or Runnimede, 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 45 

of which we shall have occasion to speak shortly. The 
locality of the London stone, at the boundaries of two or 
more counties, is what frequently occurs in similar monu- 
ments. The Rollrich stones are pitched where the coun- 
ties of Oxford, Warwick, and Gloucester meet, as was 
the curious septagonal edifice of John 0' Groat's house ; 10 
— an heptagon, built when Scotland, the Orkneys, and 
Norway were under the same collective rule, and where 
the seven electors of Scotland, whom Sir F. Palgrave's 
industry has discovered, used to meet on any vacancy of 
the crown. Just so, the above-named heptagon at 
Hhense was situate on the boundaries of the three 
ecclesiastical electorates of Mainz, Koln, and Trier, where 
the seven German electors, upon similar occasions, met 
to discuss the affairs of the empire, and to give their 
votes at each successive choice of an emperor. 

I do not think that the near neighbourhood of Staines 
to Kingston would, by their proximity, offer any argu- 
ment against the antiquity of either. Each petty prince 
or state had, no doubt, a peculiar sanctified locality, 
which, like our parish churches or cathedrals, might 
frequently happen to be pitched at no corresponding nor 
uniform distance from its neighbour ; but it would not, 
perhaps, be too daring a guess to suppose that, as in the 
case of the Scone stone being brought to Windsor, the 
Morasteen of Upsala to Denmark, so, perhaps for some 
political or ecclesiastical reason, the Kingstone may have 
been removed from the original site on the Runnimede 
to the place to which it subsequently gave its name. 
Such appellations as Kingston, 11 and " ston" in general, 
should be carefully observed throughout the land, as 
they might be found connected with local traditions or 
customs, explanatory of their purpose, and corroborative 
of this and other monuments ; but care should be taken 



46 THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

to distinguish them from the various Kingstowns, 
though similarly pronounced : thus, Hull is rightly 
Kingstown-upon-Hull ; hut the name dates no earlier 
than Edward I., the great founder of its present im- 
portance, who, when he imparted the name to the town, 
also gave the corporation his own arms of three crowns, 
argent, on a field azure. But in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine (September 1, 1850, p. 380), is the mention of 
another Kingston in Berkshire, surnamed Bagpuze, 
which is evidently different from John of Brompton's 
Kingston, juxta Londinum, and which by this very 
addition of Bagpuze, almost unquestionably indicates a 
locality of similar purpose. I cannot at present go into 
the remarkable coincidence of this second name with the 
earliest and widest mythologies of northern Germany, 
for their complete discussion would lead me too far, and 
a slight mention would not be satisfactory ; there is, 
beside, sufficient evidence from the neighbouring locali- 
ties. At the time of Doomsday Book, Kingston Bag- 
puze was a town of some importance, more par- 
ticularly in the reign of Athelstan, 1 - chosen king by the 
Mercians in 925, who died at "Eearndun," amongst 
the Mercians, probably in "Berkshire;" also from the 
circumstance of King Alfred having had a town or 
fortress (beort) there; and secondly, the finding there 
numerous Saxon coins, and an immense quantity of 
metal belts. This latter circumstance is positive proof 
of an antiquity prior to that generally received at the 
beginning of the Anglo-Saxon era. The neighbourhood 
is also there of high antiquity. Wittenagemots were 
held at Haney and Shefford, which adjoin Kingston 
Bagpuze, and at Abingdon and Witney (Witan-ige), not 
far distant. To this may be added, in Berkshire also, 
and this neighbourhood : Poughley, the name of a monas- 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 47 

tery in ruins ; the Padwick Lanes and Paddington, or 
Potton, which a short search has enabled me to dis- 
cover, and a list redolent of the most ancient mythology, 
and which no doubt a stricter search awakened to the 
subject, would materially enlarge for every county in 
our island. The names all centre in Shakspeare's Puck, 
of whose mythology I have endeavoured to give an 
account in the first volume of a work I have published. 13 
This may at present suffice for determining the oldest 
rites and purpose of the Kingstone in Surrey ; and as the 
architect is often forced to collect from scattered relics 
of a building the form and outline of its various parts 
when perfect, so here, in ascertaining the ancient rites 
and ceremonies with which our fragment was connected, 
it was necessary to compare it, and the legends or memo- 
rials concerning it, with those of other countries and 
distant ages ; and it does not seem too bold an 
assumption, that it was originally a sacred Mora- 
steen, placed beside twelve others in a larger surround- 
ing circle of various multiples of twelve ; that it was 
peculiarly consecrated, and served as the inauguration- 
stone, or throne, at the election of a chief, perhaps an 
arch-Druid, or pontiff king, on which he was seated to 
receive the homage and acclamations of the multitude, 
at a period long previous to the invasion of Britain by 
the Roman arms, and which imagination may stretch 
to an era equivalent with the oldest of the Etruscan 
polities, perhaps as early as the very first immigra- 
tions of the aborigines who set their foot on the ver- 
dant isles of the West, migrating from the cradle of 
mankind, the plains of Shinaar, in the far East. The 
latest and most circumstantial account of this Mora- 
steen is contained in Mr. W. Chambers's " Tracings of 
the North of Europe," contained in his own Edinburgh 



48 THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

Journal, Feb. 6, 1850, p. 100. He says : " I left it 
[Upsala] on the ensuing* morning (Sept. 7), and at an 
early hour drove to a spot noted in the history of Sweden. 
In this country, it must be observed, the elective prin- 
ciple has always been, to some extent, maintained in 
connection with the monarchy. During the ages pre- 
ceding Gustavus Vasa, kings and administrators were 
frequently appointed by popular assemblies. These 
assemblies usually took place at a certain spot a few 
miles from Upsala. There the king, or administrator, 
standing on a stone, swore to observe the law of his 
kingdom towards his people. In the course of time these 
stones, inscribed with their respective histories, accumu- 
lated to a considerable number ; and at length, in 1770, 
Gustavus the Third built a small pavilion over them for 
their protection. To this pavilion, which bears the name 
of c The Morastenar,' I was driven in less than an hour. 
It stands on the wayside, under a hill, in a country 
otherwise undistinguished. I found the stones, all of 
them much worn, ranged along the floor, while an 
inscription round the ceiling detailed the names of the 
personages elected, with the dates of their elections, 
from Steen Kit, in the year 1060, to Steen Sture, in 
1512. It is curious, that both the kings of Scotland 
and the Lords of the Islands were, in ancient times, 
invested with sovereignty seated or standing upon a 
stone." The best view of them is an engraving in 
Dahlberg's " Suecia antiqua et hodierna," vol. i. — 
" Delineatio loci amoeni et antiquitatis venerabilis, ubi . 
veteres Sueci et Gothi reges suos eligebant, et in facti 
memoriam lapides incisos relinquebant, vulgo dicti 
Morasteen." 



THE KINGSTON MOEASTEEN. 40 



NOTES REFERRED TO. 

1 Bethulia, BairvXta. — This word is not found either in the classic 
Grecian or Latin authors, and yet its use may be traced in the quotation 
of Daraascius in Photius's Library, and in Hesychius, who deduces it 
from fiairr], pellis, because he thinks it took the name from the stone 
which Saturn devoured instead of Jupiter being enveloped in a skin. A 
more simple and pi'obable derivation is from the Hebrew no « house, 
and S« the Lord, the literal interpretation of Jacob's stone pillow. In this 
Bochart, Scaliger, Selden, and Bompart concur ; and it is not, therefore, 
to be wondered at that nations who boast the possession of such stones, 
claim them as the identical block which Jacob sanctified by pouring oil 
upon it, and giving its locality this designation. The Mahommedans, 
as one cause of their reverence of the Caaba, trace it back to this origin ; 
and so do the Irish and Scotch, for the stone now under the corona- 
tion-chair in Westminster Abbey, it being brought by some of the regal 
family of Jerusalem, after the first destruction of that city, and lodged 
within Tara's princely halls, whence it migrated with the Scoti, who 
took possession of Scotland, to Scone, till it was taken as a trophy by 
Edwai-d the First to his own capital. 

Some of these meteoric stones are met with of immense and almost 
incredible size. In the British Museum is a portion of one which fell 
at Otumbo, in Central America, estimated to have weighed fifteen tons, 
as described by Don Rubico de Cilis. This fragment weighs fourteen 
hundred pounds : but according to Southey, one fell at Durango which 
far surpassed even this enormous mass, as described by Gaspar de 
Villagra, in Historia de la Nueva Mejico. The common resource of igno- 
rance and fear, to deem everything uncommon, supernatural, is found 
equally active in undiscovered America as in the East. The Aztec tra- 
dition fabled that a demon appeared to two brothers who were leading 
a horde of ancient Mexicans in search of a new country : she told them 
to separate, and threw down the block of iron which she carried on her 
head, to be a boundary betwixt them. 

It is true, Humboldt's observations reduce this weight very consider- 
ably ; but even his authentic data of nineteen hundred myriogrammes 
leave sufficient room for the wonder and worship of an ignorant people. 
The soldiers of Cortez found on the Pyramid of Cholula a meteorite 
divinely worshipped as an immediate gift of the Sun, much the same as 
Sanconiathon tells us in the passage of the text, the BairvXia ' Xtdovc 
e/jL\pw%ovQ tirevor)(TE Qeoq Qvpavog. 

2 Caaba. — In Sale's Translation of the twenty-second chapter of the 
Koran (4to, London, 1734, p. 276) we find this expression : — " Call to 

H 



50 THE KINGSTON MOKASTEEN. 

mind when we gave the site of the house of the Kaaba for an abode to 
Abraham, saying, Do not associate anything with me, and cleanse my 
house from those who compass it, and who stand up and who bow 
down." The translator in a note seems to intimate that the future 
structure was shown to Abraham in a vision, though wilder legends 
make it a structure of Paradise taken up against the Deluge into 
heaven, and again let down in favour of the confiding patriarch. 

Its principal sanctity would, however, be undoubtedly derived from 
the stone, whose blackness indicates its meteoric origin, though Moslem 
tradition ascribed its colour to a cause that would eminently contribute 
to the perverseness of the faithful, and the necessity of pilgrimage. — 
Ibid. p. 117. 

" The celebrated black stone which is set in silver and fixed in the 
south-east corner of the Caaba, being that which looks towards Bafra, 
about 2^ cubits from the ground. — This stone is exceedingly respected 
by the Mahommedans, and is kissed by the pilgrims with great devo- 
tion. They fable that it is one of the precious stones of Paradise, and 
fell down to earth with Adam, and being taken up again, or otherwise 
preserved at the Deluge, the angel Gabriel brought it back to Abraham. 
It was at first whiter than milk, but grew black long since by the 
touches of so many wicked mortals ; as the superficies only is black." 

It is doubtful, however, whether this latter assertion rests upon any 
critical examination ; and the conformity of legend betwixt the Caaba 
as a building, and the stone, leaves little doubt as to their identity, or 
an early veneration of the stone by the Sabean votaries of Arabia prior 
to Mahommed. This it was prudent to conceal under the authoi'ity 
and sanctity of Abraham ; and the mighty Hobal (vide Sale's Koran, 
cap. 22, p. 276) was the presiding deity of the Pagan sanctuary, and the 
guardian of its worship. 

This conjecture, that the stone, rather than the building, was the more 
especial object of sanctity, is proved by the testimony of Codinus (edit. 
Lambec, Paris, p. 29) : — 

" Thesaurum Deum Arabes maxime colunt cujus simulacrum est 
lapis quadrangulus non figuratus, quatuor pedum altitudinem, duarum 
latitudinem, et unum profunditatem habens. Collocatum vero est supra 
basim inauratam. Huic sacrificiunt, sanguinemque victimae profundunt: 
hoc enim illis prolibamento est. Tota sedes ejusque parietes ex auro 
sunt, et pluritna illic offeruntur donaria. Habet ejus simulacrum 
colitque Petrse Arabise civitas." 

It is remarkable that in " Kosmos," Humboldt, whilst treating on 
meteoric stones, does not mention the Caaba. 

3 Ileliogabalus. — See Gibbon, cap. vi. — " The Sun was worshipped at 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 51 

Emesa under the name of Elagabulus, and under the form of a black 
conical stone, which it was universally believed had fallen from, heaven mi 
tliat sacred place. In a solemn procession through the streets of Rome, 
the way was strewed with gold dust ; the black stone, set in precious 
gems, was placed on a chariot drawn by six milk-white horses richly 
caparisoned. The pious emperor held the reins, and, supported by his 
ministers, moved slowly backwards, that he might perpetually enjoy the 
felicity of the divine presence. In a magnificent temple raised on the 
Palatine mount, the sacrifices of the god Elagabulus were celebrated 
with every circumstance of cost and solemnity. The richest wines, the 
most extraordinary victims, and the rarest aromatics, were profusely 
consumed on his altar. Around the altar a chorus of Syrian damsels 
performed their lascivious dances to the sound of barbarian music, 
whilst the gravest personages of the state and army, clothed in long 
Phoenician tunics, officiated in the meanest functions with affected zeal, 
and secret indignation. 

" To the temple, as to the common centre of religious worship, the 
imperial fanatic attempted to remove the Ancilia, the Palladium, and 
all the sacred pledges of the faith of Numa. A crowd of inferior deities 
attended in various stations the majesty of the^god of Emesa ; but his 
court was imperfect till a female of distinguished rank was admitted 
to his bed. Pallas had been first chosen for his consort ; but as it was 
dreaded her warlike terrors might affright the soft delicacy of the 
Syrian deity, the Moon, adored by the Africans under the name of 
Astarte, was deemed a more suitable companion for the Sun. Her 
image, with the rich offerings of her temple as a marriage-portion, was 
transported with solemn pomp from Carthage to Rome ; and the day of 
these mystic nuptials was a general festival in the capital and through- 
out the empire." 

4 This stone which I have set up for a pillar. — It must have been a 
very common practice amongst the Israelites to inaugurate their rulers 
at such stones. Their scanty annals give us some remarkable instances. 
Thus when Abimelech was made king (Judges ix. 6), it was " by the 
pillar which was in Sechem ; " and of Josiah it is said (2 Kings xxiii. 3), 
" And the king stood by a pillar, and made a covenant before the 
Lord j" and of Joash, when proclaimed king by Jehoida (2 Chronicles 
xxiii. 11), " And Jehoida and his sons anointed him, and said, God save 
the king. Now when Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and 
praising the king, she came to the people into the house of the Lord, 
and she looked, and behold the king stood at his pillar at the entering 
in, and the princes and the trumpets by the king, and all the people of 
the land rejoiced." 



52 THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

It was a felicitous idea of Mr. J. H. Parker, F.A.S., of Oxford, in a 
paper read to the Architectural Society of that city in 1852, that 
Gilgal, Bethel, and Mizpeh were circles of stones for assembling the 
people at the regular circuits of the judges, similar to our assize-towns. 
He says the Hebrew word Gilgal (hihi) signifies literally a round 
stone, but in the opinion of Hebrew scholars may very well signify a 
circle of stones, and consequently be but the prototypes of Stonehenge, 
and the circle near Keswick, &c. The late periods to which assemblages 
Avei-e made within them in Britain and Brittany is also alluded to by 
Mr. Parker, referring to what Mr. Logan says of Crookem Tor, alias 
Parliament Arch, on Dartmoor, which has been used from time imme- 
morial as a court of justice until quite recently ; and seats are cut in 
the rock of the Tor for the judge and jury. At Pue Tor, near the 
village of Stamford Spunney, is a large square apartment hewn out 
of the rock, which seems to have been used for a similar purpose. 
Cambden, in mentioning the Swedish Morastone, says there is one at 
St. Buriens, in Cornwall, exactly similar. 

In Ireland, stone-pillar worship was widely extended, and continued 
to a very recent date, on which Sir J. Emmerson Tennent has an express 
treatise; this I lament* has not come under my notice. A very fine 
one, eight feet high, is called Olan's tomb, at Aghabullogue near Cork, and 
depicted in the " Dublin Penny Magazine " (vol. iii. p. 384), much vene- 
rated by the peasantry, but principally remarkable for an Ogham 
inscription at the junction of two sides, the angle serving as the 
branch line. This, if decipherable, might lead to important results. 
Others are mentioned in "Notes and Queries" (vol. viii. p. 413). — For 
England, the Devil's Arrows, at Boroughbridge, are well known ; less 
is one in Holderness, nearly overtopping the church close to which it 
stands : it has given its name of Rudstone to a village in Holderness. 
One of the most cui'ious will figure as a headpiece to a chapter of Mr. 
Hillier's valuable History of the Isle of Wight now in progress ; — it is 
called the Long Stone Chest. The village of Mottistone, close to which it 
stands, pi'oves its purposes and the antiquity of our ancient moot-halls, 
and of our language ; evidently the centre of a proe-Roinanic Wittena- 
gemote. 

a Ting-wald. — The most circumstantial account of this place, and the 
ceremonies connected with its judicature, is found in the Appendix to 
Douglas, Nenia Britannica, p. 172. 

6 Scottish stone at Scone. — The legends connected with this famous 
stone are too numerous and contradictory to be either related or 
reconciled. It is certainly known to have been the stone on 
which the Scottish kings were inaugurated at Scone, near Perth, 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 53 

like the Palladium of Rome, of which Ovid (Fasti, lib. vi. 382) 
writes, — 

" Imperium secum trans-ferret ilia loci ■" 

and it was therefore but a measure of policy which induced Edward I. 
to transfer "it to his own capital, when he fancied he had reduced 
Scotland to a province of his English kingdom. Richard III. used 
it at his coronation, as it is no doubt meant in the extract which 
Mr. J. G. Nichols gives in his Life of Edward V. (Gent. Mag., 
March, 1855, p. 256). "Nor was Richard unsupported by others 
of the pi-incipal nobility. His brother-in-law, the Duke of Suffolk, 
supported his claim ; and when he assumed the throne, by taking 
his seat upon the marble chair in Westminster, — a remarkable inci- 
dent, recorded by the continuator of the Chronicle of Croyland, — he 
was supported by the Duke of Suffolk, as well as by the new Duke of 
Norfolk, — one on either hand." Here the being seated on this stone 
seems anecessaiy, possibly the most important, portion of the ceremony, 
as in Jack Cade's proceeding, noted in the text, and equivalent to 
what was generally considered in mediaeval ages to attach to the pos- 
session of the regalia of each kingdom, or to the crown and mantle of 
St. Stephen in Hungary. Less fortuitous contingencies than this, on 
the accession of a Scottish prince to the English throne, have frequently 
had considerable effect on the temper of a people ; and James I. may 
have owed much of his undisturbed succession after Elizabeth to this 
common belief. But whether the following verses existed in Scotland 
previously to his accession, or whether but a subsequent adaptation to 
the event, I have not been able to discover : they are — 

" Ni fallat Fatum, Scoti hunc quocunque locatum, 
Inveuient lapidem, regnare tenentur ibidem." 

If Fates go right, where'er this stone is found, 
The Scots shall monarchs of that realm be crown'd. 

As her present most gracious Majesty can never divest herself, or her 
posterity, of her Scottish lineage through female descent, there can be 
therefore no doubt that the prophecy will never fail being accomplished. 

7 The trial by twelve jurymen. — Nicholson, Preface to Wilkins's A.S. 
Laws, p. 10 : — " D. H. Spelman ex adverso, duodecim virale judicium 
apud A. S. obtinuisse sat clarum putat ; idque ex lege R. Ethelredi apud 
Venktingum lata ; ut duodecim seniores Thani cum pr£eposit<x prodeuntes 
supra sacra quae ipsis in manus traduntur, jurabant se neminem inno- 
centem accusaturos, sonteni excusaturos." 

8 Attested by tradition and history. — The historical documents which 
fix the locality for the crowning the Anglo-Saxon kings at Kingston, in 



54 THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

Surrey, in preference to other places of the same name, are copious and 
convincing. In the Saxon Charters, edited by Mr. J. M. Kemble, it 
is mentioned, that in 838 a great council was held in the famous town 
of Kingston, in Surrey (No. 240). On a charter of King Edred (946) 
Kingstown is mentioned as the royal town where consecration is accus- 
tomed to be performed (No. 44) ; whilst a third charter, dated from " the 
royal town of Kingston," conveys numerous lands in Surrey (No. 363). 

The number of kings crowned here, as recorded by Speed, is nine ; 
two of which, however, are doubtful ; and the committee, therefore, in 
the railing which surrounds the stone, have laudably restricted its 
claims to the seven royal personages who indisputably received their 
inauguration on it. They are — 

924. Athelstan, by Archbishop Aldhelm. 

git Ed^' } hy Ar <* bish0 P 0tto - 
All three sons of Edward the Elder. 

959. Edgar. 

975. Edward the Martyr, his brother. 

978. Ethelred II., brother of Edward. 

1016. Edmund II. 
The two monarchs less certain are — 

900. Edward the Elder, son of Alfred ; and 

955. Edwy, the son of Edmund. 
But I see from a paragraph in the /Surrey Standard, at the time 
the stone was placed in its present position, that this modest number 
was not generally satisfactory : — " We canuot but wish, as some his- 
torians mention nine kings as being crowned in this town, that the 
greater number had been adopted, particularly as no mention is made 
by any historian of the spot where the two discarded kings were crowned. 
But although their names do not appear on the block of stone, a 
monument will be erected to the memory of those two ill-treated 
monarchs by an old inhabitant of the town, who has espoused the cause 
of the old kings most warmly." The intention seems never to have 
been carried into effect. 

9 Rltense means Ben- or Bun-au, a perfect translation of Bun-mead or 
meadow : au signifying in German any moist pasture or ground. 

10 John O'Groat's House. — No view of this curious building exists. 
The only account I have been able to collect on it is a ridiculous 
legend in the " Beauties of Scotland," vol. v. p. 83. The following notice 
of Bhense may, therefore, be more acceptable, as no doubt very simi- 
lar in purpose, if not in appearance : — ■ 

The K'dnigs Stuhl (King's chair, Thronus imperialis) was a stone 



THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 55 

building, about four English miles from Coblenz, close to the Rhine 
and the small town of Rhense, at which formerly the kings and emperors 
were proclaimed on their election. They next took the prescribed 
oath, and could then take their appointed seat, and confirm the privi- 
leges of the several states ; and they exercised their new sovereignty 
in dubbing some favourites as knights. The building was surrounded 
and shadowed by thick walnut-trees, and erected of squared stone in 
a heptagon, with seven arches, and is supported on nine pillars, one 
of which upholds the centre. These seven arches form openings, by 
which the interior may be entirely inspected, and support a vaulted 
roof, and are raised sixteen steps above the level of the ground : two 
towers on each side are either for defence or molestation ; and the entire 
circumference is about forty ells, its diameter about thirteen, and its 
height nine and a half. Within are seven stone seats, for the then 
seven electors ; the situation being chosen for its contiguity to the 
territories and residences of the three spiritual and the Palatine elector. 
The municipality of Rhense had some privileges, renewed in 1521, for 
keeping the building in repair. Three emperors — Henry VII., 1308 ; 
Charles VI., 1340 ; Ruprecht von der Pfalz, 1400 — owe their elevation, 
and the throne of Charlemagne, to an election on this spot ; and here 
also Wenceslaus was, at the general cry of indignation and abhorrence 
through the countiy, solemnly and justly deposed. Its open walls have 
echoed to many a hot debate amongst the princely voters : the important 
Chur- Verein was here discussed and decreed ; and of still greater pro- 
gress in the cause of social security was it when here was put an end 
to all the intestine wars and feudal broils throughout Germany, by the 
Landfrieden. So late as the latest decennium of the fifteenth century, 
Maximilian I. was induced to respect and keep up the charter by 
dubbing a knight within the building after his election at Frankfort, 
on the road to his coronation at Aachen. But the transference of the 
former ceremony to that free city lost Rhense its respect and the main- 
tenance due from the neighbouring towns ; it had crumbled almost to 
a ruin when the armies of revolutionaiy France approached the Rhine : 
their enmity of everything regal caused them to root up even the foun- 
dations, and, as much as in them lay, to destroy every trace of its pre- 
vious history and recollections. Luckily, representations and plans of 
the original building existed, with sufficient patriotism in the archaeo- 
logical body of a neighbouring town to collect funds to rebuild it in 1848, 
exactly according to the original plan ; and it was thought a fortunate 
conjuncture at the period, that the erection was ready for inauguration 
on the 18th May, 1848, the day of the opening of what was then hailed 
as the first great Parliament "fur ein freies vereimgtes Deutschland." 



56 THE KINGSTON MORASTEEN. 

The augury seems to have been bad, as thence date a more confirmed 
rule of autocracy, and a greater opposition of the different states than 
ever. 

It is not generally known, however, even in Germany, that this site 
of the King's Chair is not the original one. In Annalen filr nassau- 
ischen Alterthumskunde (zweiter Band, lltes Heft, p. 89), a previous 
locality is claimed for Erbenheim, near Wiesbaden, and Bodman's 
Eheingauische Alterthumer, p. 95, are quoted ; that it stood there in the 
open field in a very pertinently named King's hundred (Kuniges undra) ; 
and on and near it a celebrated diet of the empire was held in 1235. 
Rhense was built in the twelfth century, and after that the older locality 
fell into decay and was demolished, and the stones used to build a watch- 
house. 

11 Besides Kingston Bagpuze, the following English " Kingston s " 
deserve the study of the antiquary. 

Kingston Blount, a liberty within four miles of Tetsworth. 

Kingston Deverill, in the hundred of Mere. 

Kingston Leste, hundred of Shoreham, Berks. 

Kingston Seymour. 

Kingston Wenterbourne, Dorset, and six villages of the same name. 

Kingstone parish, seven miles W.S.W. of Hereford. 

Kingstone, in the also suggestive hundred of Kingshamford, Kent. 

Kingbury, formerly a royal mansion at Dunstable. 

At Wilton, in Wilts, it is said, in a description of the place as the 
chief seat of the British prince Caer Cnlon, we find that the spot where 
the electors chose him is still marked by a large stone in the warren. 

12 Athelstan. — It may be incidentally mentioned, that this perhaps 
common princely name amongst the Anglo-Saxons is itself highly sug- 
gestive of the holy stone on which they were inaugurated. 

13 Vide " Shakespeare's Buck and his Folk'slore, illustrated from the 
Superstitions of all Nations, but more especially from the earliest 
Religion and Rites of Northern Europe and the Wends," printed for the 
Author. 



THE WARHAM MONUMENT, ETC. * 57 



* IV. 

THE WARHAM MONUMENT IN CROYDON 
CHURCH. 

By GEORGE STEINMAN STEINMAN, Esq., F.S.A. 



Against the south wall of the Chantry of St. Nicholas, 
in Croydon Church, is a Monument erected to the 
memory — as the arms upon it testify — of a member of 
the Warham family. 

On 3rd September, 1478, one Thomas Warham, citizen 
and carpenter, of London, whose residence was at Croy- 
don, dated his will, and in it directed his body to be 
buried in the parish church of St. John the Baptist, at 
Croydon, in the Chapel of St. Nicholas, "before the 
ymage of our Lady of Pitie ; " and as the monument in 
question is without inscription, it has not unnaturally 
been assigned to him. 

His epitaph, as copied and carried down to us in one 
of the Ashmolean MSS. ran as follows : — " Hie jacet 
Thomas "Warham, civis et carpentarius London, et Mar- 
gareta Uxor ejus, qui quidem Thomas obiit 3 Augusti, 
1481." But the name of the wife appears from the 
citizen's will to have been Ellen. 

The Monument, however, was certainly not placed 
to the memory of this person, — who, it is important to 
observe, died without issue, — or to one of his humble 
station. It commemorates Hugh Warham, Esq., of 
Melsanger, in the parish of Church Oakley, county 
Hants, and of Haling, in Croydon, as we are now about 
to prove, by the identity of the arms, and by the appro- 

i 



58 4 THE WARHAM MONUMENT 

priation of the indents of the figures, removed, by sacri- 
legious hands, from it. 

That William War ham, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and his brothers, Nicholas and Hugh, were the first of 
their family whe bore arms, is, we believe, without much 
doubt. There is no evidence of the invention of the 
coat used by the archbishop ; before his time it is of the 
heraldic fancy of his age, and moreover the monument 
of his father and mother, at Church Oakley, is, and 
always has been, devoid of armorial ensigns. 

The arms of the archbishop are gules a fesse or, between 
a goat's head couped argent, attired of the second in chief, 
and three escellop shells, two and one of the third in base. 

The arms of Nicholas Warham, esq., of Malsanger, the 
same within a bordure engrailed or, the fesse diiferenced 
with a crescent azure. 

The arms of Hugh Warham, the same within a bordure 
argent, the fesse differenced with a mullet sable. 

The crest of the archbishop is unknown : that of 
Nicholas, on a wreath argent and purple, a dexter arm 
couped at the shoulder, the elbow flexed upwards, vested 
quarterly argent and azure, the hand grasping a sword 
point downwards, the hilt or, the scabbard sable, charged 
with three plates, each bearing a cross gules. The crest 
of Hugh, from what remains of it on his tomb, seems to 
have been the head of some animal, coloured brown, — 
very probably that of a goat. 

With respect to the monument in question. Inserted 
in the wall above it is a square stone, bearing in high 
relief and colour a shield, quarterly one and four, the 
arms of Hugh Warham, as above described ; two and 
three argent two bars gules ; helmet, full-faced and 
closed, argent adorned or surmounted by a wreath argent 
and gules, and the fragment of a crest. The colour of 



IN CROYDON CHURCH. 59 

the mantling is un distinguish able. The front of the 
tomb is divided into three quatrefoil panels, each con- 
taining a shield of arms ; centre, quarterly, as above ; 
dexter, Warham ; sinister, two bars. Over the tomb is 
an obtusely -pointed arch, surmounted by an elaborately- 
carved cornice ; and this is flanked by the shields of 
Warham and that of the two bars. The soffit of the arch 
is ornamented with tracery ; and at either side, and in the 
centre of the back of the recess, are niches, separated 
from each other by two square -headed panels. In the 
dexter of these are to be found the indents of a brass 
figure of a man, kneeling, with a label issuing from 
his mouth, and another from his hands. Above this 
indent are those of two kneeling figures, and between 
them, before one and behind the other, the indent of 
a faldstool. In the sinister panel is the indent of a 
kneeling female, with a label proceeding from her 
mouth ; and over her the indent of another female, in 
the same attitude. A brass fillet, containing the inscrip- 
tion, has been taken from the edge of the slab. 

The pedigree of Warham, recorded in the Herald's 
Visitation of Surrey, 1530, shows that Hugh Warham 
had, by Marian, daughter of Geoffrey Collis, his wife, 
two sons, Sir William, Richard, D.C.L., successively 
rector of Olapham (Sussex), Cheam (Surrey), and Tring 
(Herts) ; and one daughter, Agnes, the wife of Sir 
Anthony St. Leger, K.G., Lord Deputy of Ireland — the 
number of children called for by the brasses on the 
monument. He was living 1st March, 1536-7, when 
with William, his son and heir apparent, and describing 
himself of Malsanger, he conveyed the manor of Haling 
to the king ; and as his name does not appear among the 
burial entries in the church register of Croydon, dead 
before 2nd December, 153S. 



60 THE WARHAM MONUMENT, ETC. 

From the quartered shield, which we have already 
given a full description of, it would seem that the 
mother of Hugh was an heiress entited to bear arms, 
and we cannot but express a feeling of regret that they 
should be of that simple character which must render 
any attempt to affiliate her, by their assistance, if not 
wholly useless, very nearly so. Was she from Cheshire, 
and a Mainwaring ? 

The monument of Robert Warham, father of Hugh, is 
against the wall of the Malsanger aisle of Church 
Oakley church, and is composed of an altar-slab within 
an arched recess. On the slab are the brass effigies of a 
man in a gown, and a woman. Under the man, are the 
effigies of four sons ; and under the woman, are the 
indents of two daughters. The inscription is as under : — 

* Orate p. aiabs Roberti Warham, q obijt pmo die mee Octobris, 
Anno Dfii M°cccclxxxij°, et Elizabeth uxor ei°, que etia obijt 
eode anno Dili, xv° die Septebris, qui aiabus ppiciet De°. Amen." 

The church itself was evidently rebuilt by Archbishop 
"Warham. Above the door of the tower, in the centre, 
are his arms impaled by the see of Canterbury, having on 
their left the coat of Hugh Warham, and on their right 
the indent of a shield, which doubtless bore the arms of 
Nicholas Warham. On the lintel of the door runs the 
motto of the prelate, " avxilivm mevm a do no ;" whilst 
in the right spandril is a goat's head couped — the crest, 
as we suppose, of the said Hugh — and in the left a man's 
arm, as before described ; viz., the crest of the said 
Nicholas. 

With these particulars we conclude, confidently sub- 
mitting our reasons for thus appropriating the Warham 
monument in Croydon church to the consideration of the 
Society. 



/ 



flhtu 

OF A PORTION OF 

Til 1'OIAB IPiOAB 
SJL CHESTER TO STAINES, 

PASSING THROUGH SURREY. 
Illustrating tfu Paper en that subject In 
COLONEL MV DOUUALL. 




THE ROMAN ROAD, ETC. 61 



V. 

THE ROMAN ROAD BETWEEN SILCHESTER 
AND STAINES. 

By Lt.-Col. P. L. McDOUGALL, of the Eoyal Military College, Sandhurst. 

INTRODUCTORY TO CERTAIN NOTES UPON THE SUBJECT, READ AT THE 
INAUGURAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, MAY 10, 1854. 



The general subject of " Roads " is one well worthy 
the attentive study of all those inquiring minds which 
seek to trace back effects to their causes, they being 
among the most important means by which the civiliza- 
tion of mankind has been effected. 

At the present moment, when the nations of the earth 
are either armed or arming for battle, it is interesting to 
consider, that not only have roads been the great engine 
of civilization, through the medium of peaceful com- 
munication and by the arts of peace; but they have 
been so to a very great degree by facilitating conquest, 
and imbuing either the conquerors or the conquered 
with the superior civilization and refinement of those 
nations with which they have thereby been respectively 
brought in contact. 

Thus Greece, conquered by the arms of Rome, im- 
posed the yoke of her arts and literature on her sub- 
duers. And Rome, in conquering other countries, con- 
ferred upon them the advantages of her own civilization. 

Rome, the iron kingdom of prophecy, was the greatest 
military nation the world has ever seen : conquest was 
the breath of its nostrils. While the subject of military 
organization occupies almost exclusively the public atten- 



62 THE ROMAN ROAD BETWEEN 

tion, and while, as a part of it, the question of a short 
seven miles of road in a remote classical country excites 
so much discussion — the want of which has caused the 
voice of mourning to be heard in many an English 
home — it is interesting, and may be useful, to observe 
how perfect with respect to roads was the military 
organization of that great people whose foot-prints we 
are now tracing, and who left their mark so deeply on 
nearly all the countries of Europe as after the lapse of 
so many centuries to be still clearly discernible. 

The principle of Roman power was centralization. 
Sure and rapid communication from the centre to all 
the extremities of the empire, the means by which it 
acted. No sooner was a lodgment made in any country 
than it was joined to the great heart of the empire by 
highways ; along which, by means of military posts 
established at intervals, a safe and easy passage for the 
legions to or from the new conquest was secured. 

Whenever the grasp of those mighty warriors was laid 
on a country, that grasp was of iron. It was made effectual 
and permanent, and indeed could only have been so, 
by establishing within the conquered country a system 
of communication by roads branching from the centre 
of power to the limits of the conquest, provided with 
military camps and posts at intervals, and with cross- 
roads of communication between the main routes. It is 
to this policy that we owe the existence of the road 
(with many others in Britain) forming the subject of the 
notes which will be found further on. 

The ancient Romans are supposed to have made 14,000 
miles of road in Italy alone. 

Napoleon, the greatest military organizer of modern 
days, was not behind the Romans in this respect ; and, 
in proportion to the duration of his empire, he 



SILCHESTER AND STAINES. 63 

accomplished more than all the Appii and Plaminii of 
antiquity. 

In the New World, the system of roads which Pizarro 
found existing in Peru at the time of the conquest is 
very remarkable. Their number and excellence, as well 
as the elaborate arrangement of stages and post-houses, 
are described by Prescott the historian. 

The following notes were appended by Lieutenant 
Grey, 1 of the 83rd Regiment, and Lieutenant Lushing- 
ton, of the 9th Ptegiment, to the plan of a survey made 
by those officers of the Roman road between Silchester 
and StaineSc The accompanying plan is reduced from 
their plan. 

It may be premised that the absence of inscriptions 
which might have revealed the appellations bestowed by 
the Romans on the spots where their early residence in 
numbers is clearly indicated by relics, invests the par- 
ticular localities of those towns or stations which are 
enumerated in the Itineraries with uncertainty. 

Por instance, Silchester has been supposed by some to 
be the site of the ancient Yindonum ; by others, of 
Calleva ; while arguments have been adduced by others 
to show that Henley and Pleading are respectively on the 
site of Calleva. 

The evidence furnished by the Iter Antonini is un- 
satisfactory and conflicting; but the 12th and 15th 
Itinera strongly indicate Parnham as Yindonum ; and 
the 7th Iter, with equal apparent probability, points out 
Silchester as Calleva. It may be, perhaps, that the 
future discovery of other Ptoman roads may reconcile the 
discrepancies which appear to exist as to distance, in 
comparing the present known routes with the Itineraries. 

B. M. College, March, 1855. 

1 Now Sir C. G. Grey, K.CB., Governor of the Cape. 



64 THE ROMAN UOAD BETWEEN 



NOTES. 

The military road between Staines and Silchester is one of the most 
remarkable memorials of the Roman power in Britain ; it extended 
from London to Bath, and coincided with a portion of the Port-way from 
Norwich to Exetei-. From Silchester, the ancient " Calleva Attrebatum," 
situated at the intersection of several great roads, which have been 
frequently traversed by the Roman armies during their occupation of 
this country, the line now surveyed proceeds eastward through Strath- 
fieldsaye (the seat of the Duke of Wellington) in a right line along what 
is called the Park Lane, which is scarcely passable in the winter season. 
The precise spot at which it crossed the Blackwater river is uncertain, 
the line being interrupted by cultivated ground as far as Westcourt 
House (the residence of Mr. St. John), built, according to tradition, upon 
the road itself, whose direction is here marked by the avenue to the 
mansion. Some faint traces of the road again exist on the ground north- 
ward of Finchampstead church ; but on the eastern side of the heights 
its course is discovered extending in an unbroken line along a level 
country from thence to Easthampstead Plain, and bearing the fanciful 
name of the " Devil's Highway." The ascent of the road to this com- 
manding plateau can be distinctly observed by a deep fosse on one side ; 
but the rectilinear direction, which had been hitherto preserved, appears 
now to have been changed, in order to avoid a deep and marshy ravine, 
and the road bends northward, so as to pass by the head of the ravine, 
and afterwards regains its former direction, and thus crosses the plain. 
This part of the road runs through Wickham Bushes, which have long 
been remarkable for the quantity of antique pottery from time to time 
discovered there ; it is also in the immediate vicinity of the strong 
intrenchment usually called " Caesar's Camp," which crowns the summit 
of a height projecting from the plateau, and is strengthened on the side 
of the latter by a double parapet and ditch. 

The road descends from the plain on the eastern side, and proceeds 
towards Bagshot. At Duke's Hill, near this town, it forms an angle of 
about 25 degrees with the produced line of its oi'iginal direction, passes 
through a plantation, in which it can with difficulty be traced ; its 
existence here is, however, well known to the people of the country. ■ 
At about a mile from Duke's Hill the road crosses a marsh, where, 
having been raised to a considerable height, it is in some part3 very 
distinct. From this marsh it runs through a garden in the occupation of 
Mr. Hammond, and the substratum, which consists of excellent gravel, 
having been removed for the purpose of repairing the modern roads in 
the neighbourhood, the outline presents a remarkable appearance : from 



SILCHESTER ANT) STAINES. 65 

hence the road again enters some thick plantations, and for about half a 
mile can with difficulty be traced ; it afterwards runs over cultivated 
ground, and from thence to the Sunning Hill road is very conspicuous. 
In the immediate vicinity of the road at this spot there exist great 
quantities of Roman tiles, bricks, &c, which, from the land having, till 
within the last three years, been left in an uncultivated state, appear to 
have escaped observation. This part of the road is therefore deserving 
of minute inspection. From the Sunning Hill road it crosses some low 
meadow land, where it can only be discovered with great difficulty ; and 
about a mile further, at its entrance into Windsor Park, it is for some 
distance totally lost. There is, however, a portion left in excellent con- 
dition between that place of entrance and the point where its line of 
direction cuts Virginia Water ; it can also be distinguished in a spot 
between that portion and the water, where one of the Park rides runs 
for about 300 yards along it. The old labourers in the Park state, that 
this part of the ride having never required any repair, they had been led 
to conclude that it was formed on the surface of some old road. It must 
be observed that the part of the Virginia Water which is crossed by the 
direction of the Roman road is artificial, and has been excavated only 
within the last forty years. From this spot the direction passes through 
the inn-yard at Virginia Water, and it is said that a foundation of gravel 
was formerly discovered there. On the brow of the hill above Egham, 
and in the direction of the road, within the last few months, part of its 
substratum, the foundations of some buildings, together with a variety 
of Roman coins and other I'emains, have been discovered. 

The commanding nature of the ground about Egham, joined to the 
discoveiy of the remains, and the agreement of the distance from London 
with that which is stated in the Itinera, seem to point out this place as 
the site of the ancient Bibracte ; while the neighbouring part of the 
Thames may with equal probability be considered as the place of the 
station Ad Pontes. A chain of forts appears to have commanded the 
river between Staines and Chertsey. Three of these, of a square form, 
still exist near Penton Hook. 

Nearly in the continuation of the line from Duke's Hill to Egham lie 
the remains of the Roman road from London to Staines, which are men- 
tioned by Dr. Stukeley ; a portion of it near Ashford, on the Middlesex 
side of the river, was a few years since distinctly visible, but it is now 
wholly obliterated. 



66 THE ROMAN KOAD BETWEEN 



MEMORANDA RELATIVE TO THE SAME SUBJECT. 
By Mr. E. J. LANCE. 

REMARKS ON THE ROMAN ROAD FROM SILCHESTER (VINDONUM) IN HANTS, TO 
EGHAM (PONTES) IN SURREY. 



On the south-east of the ancient city of Silchester 
(whose walled inclosure may now be seen), at a distance 
of about fifteen miles, are the sites of two Roman en- 
campments, as if for legions; viz., near Alresford, at 
Bram-dean, there remain three large rooms of a Roman 
villa ; at Parnham there is another camp ; and lastly, 
near Crondall, the pavement of a villa. Near this may 
be seen two intrenched sites, probably for Roman 
cohorts, as outposts to the legion ; and the large encamp- 
ment on the hill has recently been purchased by Govern- 
ment, as a situation for a permanent camp for British 
troops. This is now partially occupied by Sappers in 
the surveying department, and forms the boundary 
between Surrey and Hants. 

At about seven miles on the Roman road from Sil- 
chester there are the remains of another intrenched 
camp, near Easthampstead, in Berkshire (see the map), 
as if for a legion. This is near the Sandhurst Military 
College, and also near the ground lately given by the 
lord of the manor for the erection of a college in honour 
of the Duke of Wellington. On the south of this point 
there is a large barrow, 50 yards in diameter and 12 feet 
high ; from this spot the legion sites of Parnham and 
Easthampstead might have been seen. 

Proceeding onwards to the passage of the Thames, 
and near the south-west corner of Windsor Park, is a spot 
where the statue of a Roman gladiator was discovered a 



SILCHESTER AND STAINES. 67 

few years ago, and now may be seen at Mr. Waterer's 
American Nursery at Bagshot. A Roman stone near 
Silchester may be seen, and another near Einchamp- 
stead, that are presumed to have marked the measure- 
ment of stadia. 

The black line on the side of the Roman road as 
mapped, denotes the situations where the aggeres or 
mounds may be found of the original site. 

With respect to the geology of the Roman road, it 
may be remarked that Silchester is situated on the 
" plastic-clay formation ; " the stone debris on the 
surface of which has been picked up about the inclo- 
sure, for not a flint-stone can be found for some distance 
around. The walls of the old city are built with flint, 
grouted with lime and sand, and bonded in a herring- 
bone manner, with an oolite stone at every three feet in 
height. The road passes across Strathfieldsaye Park, over 
the "London clay formation," and there soon reaches the 
extensive range of the " Bagshot sands," occupied prin- 
cipally by native heath (erica), much of which is in the 
same wild nature as when the Romans were here 1,600 
years ago. On this formation the road continues its 
undulatory and elevated direct course for many miles, 
bending only at " Duke's Hill," near Bagshot, until the 
vale of the Thames is reached, when a small part of 
the "^London clay formation" is again passed near 
Egham. 

Roman coins, pottery, and fragments of Roman tiles, 
have been discovered in various parts of this line, and 
are in the hands of Mr. Barton, tenant of Silchester 
Inclosure ; a good collection of gold, silver, and copper 
coin, may be seen, with also spear-heads, bucklers, and 
horse-gear, picked up at various periods. The site of 
the Roman bath, with a lead pipe (not soldered), also 



68 THE ROMAN ROAD, ETC. 

the remains of the amphitheatre, may be well traced by 
the mounds of earth ; and many other earthworks may 
be also perceived. 

Silchester is reached by railway, and is about six miles 
from Basingstoke. 



ANCIENT BRITISH COINS FOUND IN SURREY. 69 



VI. 

ANCIENT BRITISH COINS FOUND IN SURREY. 



The eleven coins engraved in the accompanying plate 
claim the attention of the Surrey Archaeological Society 
on the ground tliat nearlv all of them have been dis- 
covered within the limits of the county. The first seven 
were found on Earley Heath, a locality in which many 
interesting relics have been brought to light. No. 8 is 
stated to have been found on Croydon Downs ; No. 9 in 
Hampshire, on the borders of Surrey ; No. 10 at Leather- 
head, and No. 11 at Godalming. 

No. 1 (by mistake represented upside down) resembles 
several of those found by a peasant boy near Albury 
in the year 1848, and described and engraved in the 
" Numismatic Chronicle," vol. xi. p. 92. The type was 
already known to Numismatists, but these are the 
first records of their place of finding, a matter of 
great weight and significance in any attempt to appro- 
priate ancient British coins. There appears to be little 
doubt that these coins may at least be assigned to the 
southern counties of England, and their proper location 
is perhaps the district in which examples have hitherto 
been discovered. It is not easy to describe the type, 
which bears no analogy to that of any other ancient 
British coin. 

No. 2, from its resemblance to other types found in 
the south of England, may probably be ascribed to the 
district of Britain comprised within the counties of 
Surrey, Hants, and Middlesex. 



70 ANCIENT BRITISH COINS FOUND IN SURREY. 

Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, are types assimilating to those of 
coins more frequently discovered in Essex, Herts, and 
westward as far as Wallingford and Abingdon, in Berk- 
shire. They are undoubtedly the result of successive 
copies of pieces of better execution, until the original 
devices — a horse and a laureated head — are corrupted 
almost beyond identification. A reference to Buding's 
first and second plate of British coins, and to the various 
volumes of the " Numismatic Chronicle," will make this 
apparent. 

Nos. 8 and 9 may be also compared with the first 
plate of Buding, particularly with figures 4 and 9, the 
former being struck on one side only. 

Nos. 10 and 11 are types which have been discovered, 
at various times, in different and widely- distant parts of 
England. To whatever country they may be assigned, 
it is evident that they are barbarous copies of the 
Gaulish coins of better execution, engraved in Buding's 
second plate, Nos. 22 — 25. 

All these pieces being uninscribed increases the diffi- 
culty of their appropriation ; but they are doubtless 
examples of the ancient currency of Britain, and not 
tokens or talismans, as has been supposed by some 
writers ; among others, by Davies, who, in his work on 
the Mythology of the Ancient Druids, has indulged in 
the wildest conjecture regarding the origin of pieces 
which are now universally allowed to have been the 
first attempts of our primitive forefathers at a coinage 
of their own. These coins belong to the collection of 
Mr. B. Whitbourn, of Godalming. 



MURAL PAINTINGS, ETC. 71 



VII. 

MURAL PAINTINGS FORMERLY EXISTING 
IN LINGEIELD CHURCH. 

LETTERS ADDRESSED TO THE HONORARY SECRETARY. 



No. I.— From EDWARD I ANSON, Esq., Architect. 

My dear Sir, — In sending you the tracings of some 
mural paintings from the fine church of Lingfield, in 
Surrey, I regret that my very limited knowledge of 
archaeology does not enable me to offer any observa- 
tions of interest. 

All I can record is, that in the year 1845 I was 
employed on the partial restoration of the fabric, when 
the roof, the walls, and the decayed tracery and glazing 
of some of the windows were restored and repaired under 
my professional superintendence. 

The church was built in the reign of Henry VI., and 
being a collegiate church, is much beyond the usual size 
of parish churches in this part of England : it is all of 
the same period, and consists of a nave and two aisles, 
with a tower on the south side ; and contains in the 
interior several fine tombs and brasses. 

In restoring the plastering on the walls, I found in 
all parts of the church traces of mural decoration, and 
evidently of two or three distinct periods, overlying 
each other, the more recent consisting of texts of Scrip- 
ture surrounded by scroll borders, so far as I could 
judge, not earlier than the end of the seventeenth century; 
but they were nearly all mere fragments, and the only 
examples which appeared to me of interest, were those 



72 MURAL PAINTINGS FORMERLY EXISTING 

of which I sent you the original tracings made on the 
spot, and of which you have engraved the figures. 
These were all situate on the wall of the north aisle. 
The figures are above half life-size. 

In Nos. 1 and 2 the cloak is of a red colour, and the 
collar blue. No. 3 has also a red cloak, and part of the 
dress is red; the figure of the angel (No. 4) is also 
shaded with light red, and the other colouring, except 
the flesh-tints, is made out with a brown shading. 

Besides these figures, I traced a very elegant diaper 
pattern with a flowered margin, which appears to have 
covered a considerable wall- space ; and I believe, from 
what I observed, that formerly the greater portion of 
the walls of this church were covered with similar 
decorations. 

I am, my dear Sir, 

Faithfully yours, 

Edward I' Anson. 

Clapham, April 11th, 1S5G. 



No. II.— From ALBERT WAY, Esq., F.S.A., etc. 

My dear Sir, — I should be glad if I had the occa- 
sion to offer you any information available for your 
purpose, but I am afraid I can only tell you what 
you must already be aware of, that the saint with the 
anchor is St. Clement, pope and martyr : the anchor 
with the cross bar is a form more familiar to us, but 
the form with a ring only is by no means unusual : the 
triple-barred cross is also commonly assigned to the 
pope, and even to an archbishop, although the double- 
barred cross is more familiar to us. The saint probably 
has a tiara on his head, and there is a curved line on 




; RMEE.LT EXISTING IX LTXGFIEI.13 CHURCH. 




m 



MURAL FAINTINGS FORMERLY EXISTING IN LINGFIELD CHOBCH. 
No. 4. 



IN LINGFIELD CHURCH. 73 

its left side, which doubtless, on examination of the 
original, would prove to be part of the outline of the 
nimbus : it gives the saint the appearance now of wear- 
ing a turban. The mitre, however, sometimes takes 
place of the tiara. Thus, at Westhall, on the rood- 
screen, St. Clement appears with the mitre ; at Denton, 
with the tiara ; and in both instances he bears the triple 
cross; but at Houghton-le-Dale he appears with the 
double-barred cross. 

On such subjects, which must often present them- 
selves to you, I cannot recommend you a more useful 
hand-book than the Hev. Dr. Husenbeth's " Emblems of 
Saints." 

I do not know of any negro bishop amongst the 
saints : there are several black saints, but not of epis- 
copal character. In mural paintings I think I have 
noticed, where mineral red had been used, the colour 
has sometimes become black, and that may have been 
the case in the present instance. 

The other figures may be St. Michael weighing souls 
in the balance, and St. Margaret ; but they are too im- 
perfect to hazard more than a conjecture on their 
intention. 

I remain, 

Yours very faithfully, 

Albert Way. 

Wonham, E.EIGATE, April 14, 1856. 



74 ANCIENT BRITISH BARROW 



VIII. 

ANCIENT BRITISH BABROW AT 
TEDDINGTON. 



This Barrow was opened under the direction and 
superintendence of Mr. Akerman, Secretary of the 
Society of Antiquaries, during a meeting of the Surrey 
Archaeological Society, held at Kingston-on-Thames, on 
the 30th June, 1854. It is situated on some ploughed 
land, long known as " Barrow Field," on the right hand 
of the carriage-road called " Sandy-lane," leading from 
Hampton Wick to Bushey. A portion of this tumulus 
was removed when the road was widened about twenty 
years since ; but there is no record of any relics having 
been then discovered. 

There were, as usual, many traditions — some of them 
wild enough — respecting the spot. The country people 
had a story that a man and his horse were buried 
beneath the mound ; and many of the better educated 
believed that it covered the remains of numerous victims 
of the plague in the seventeenth century. This last 
notion had so possessed the mind of a late royal per- 
sonage then residing at Bushey, that a contemplated 
opening of the Barrow some years since was positively 
interdicted ! 

This mound had clearly been previously assailed ; 
doubtless by treasure-seekers, who, finding their re- 
searches opposed by a compact mass of sand, had 
desisted after cutting into the south side, and digging 
into the apex; in which latter assault they appear 




ANCIENT WEAPON DISCOVERED IN A TUMULUS .AT TEDDINGTON. 
Bronze — length. ' in.; breadth, ?h :u. 



AT TEDDINGTON. 75 

to have dislodged and broken to pieces a fine mortuary 
urn. 

Thus mutilated, the Barrow afforded but slight en- 
couragement to the explorers : it was, however, resolved 
to excavate it to its base. In its imperfect state, its 
altitude was about twelve feet ; its breadth from north 
to south fifty-two feet, and from east to west ninety-six 
feet. These measurements show how much had been 
removed when the road was widened. 

The exploration commenced by the opening of a 
trench eight feet wide, but the presence of bricks and 
tiles, carelessly thrown in by former investigators, dis- 
couraged further excavation in that direction ; accord- 
ingly, a trench of the same width was opened on the 
south side. After several hours' work, the labourers 
reached the centre of the floor, which was plainly indi- 
cated by the sand being burnt to a brick-colour. Traces 
of charcoal were now apparent, and after a few minutes' 
careful examination and removal of these indications, a 
small heap of calcined human bones was discovered. 
Upon these was laid the dagger-blade represented in 
the accompanying plate. 

No traces of an urn, nor of any other object, except 
a few chippings of flint, were observed. Fragments of 
the like character are found in primeval tumuli, and 
may have been used by the tribe which assisted at these 
obsequies. 

This Barrow was formed entirely of the surrounding 
soil, consisting chiefly of a compact sand, and was sin- 
gularly free from large flints and stones. Nor was the 
heap of bones protected by a covering of stones, or by 
soil differing from that oT the mound. 

Further excavations on the following day brought to 
light the fragments of the large urn already spoken of, 



76 ANCIENT BRITISH BARROW AT TEDDINGTON. 

and a flint hatchet-head, or celt ; also the bones of an 
adult, superficially buried ; but these had no connection 
with the interment already described, which was doubt- 
less that over which the mound was first raised. 

The bronze dagger-blade, if not belonging to the very 
earliest period, must yet be referred to a very remote 
age ; and the individual whose obsequies had thus been 
celebrated by the rite of cremation, was probably a 
person of some rank and consideration among the 
primeval inhabitants of the southern district of Britain, 
long previous to the advent of Caesar. 

Mr. Quekett, of the Royal College of Surgeons, has 
inspected the calcined bones, which he states are those 
of an adult. He has detected among them portions of 
the cranium, portions of the upper and lower maxilla, 
the fang of an incisor tooth, and a fragment of a 
phalangal bone of a finger. The whole had been re- 
duced by great heat, and with free access of air during 
combustion. 

The dagger may be compared with the examples 
figured in xlkerman's " Archaeological Index," Plate V. 
Nos. 40, 41, 42. The handle, of bone, wood, or horn, 
has perished ; but traces of its form are yet observable 
on the blade. It is represented in the plate of two-thirds 
the actual size. 



ON THE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS, ETC. 77 



IX. 

ON THE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS OE ERID- 
WALD, iELERED, AND EDWARD THE CON- 
EESSOR, TO CHERTSEY ABBEY. 

By G. R. COKNER, Esq., F.S.A. 



Much valuable and interesting local information may- 
be obtained from the Anglo-Saxon grants of lands, of 
which a large collection, called " Codex Diplomaticus 
Mvi Saxonici," edited by that erudite Anglo-Saxon 
scholar J. M. Kemble, Esq., was published by the 
English Historical Society between 1839 and 1848. 

These grants generally contain very precise descriptions 
of the boundaries of the lands granted ; and it is at 
least curious to trace those boundaries after the lapse of 
a thousand years, on a modern map, and to remark how 
many of the ancient landmarks are still remaining in 
the names of places, farms, hills, valleys, mounds, roads, 
rivers, streams, trees, stones, and other remarkable 
objects, which in all ages have been used to point out 
the extent of landed possessions and jurisdictions. 

Mr. Kemble, in his preface to the third volume of the 
" Codex," says : — " In general, certain well-defined 
natural objects, as a hill, a stream, or a remarkable tree, 
furnished the points by which the boundary-line was 
directed ; when these were wanting, a hedge, a ditch, a 
pit or well, or the mound of an ancient warrior, served 
the purpose ; even posts of wood and stone appear to 
have been common ; and upon many of these it is pro- 



78 ON THE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS 

bable that inscriptions were found. It may safely be 
assumed that originally these boundaries were under 
the protection of W6den ; and various traces of his 
influence yet remain." 1 

Nor was this feeling peculiar to the pagan Saxons. 
" Terminalis " was a surname of Jupiter, because he 
presided over the boundaries of lands, until the worship 
of the god " Terminus " was introduced by Numa, who 
persuaded his subjects that the limits of their lands and 
estates were under the immediate inspection of Heaven. 
The temple of Terminus was on the Tarpeian llock, and 
he was represented at first, with a large square stone, 
but afterwards with a human head, without feet or arms, 
to intimate that he never moved, wherever he might be 
placed. In his honour annual feasts, called Terminalia, 
were held at Borne, in the month of February, when it 
was usual for the peasants to assemble near the principal 
landmarks which separated their fields, and after they 
had crowned them with garlands and flowers, to make 
libations of milk and wine, and to sacrifice a lamb or a 
young pig, and to sprinkle the landmark with the blood 
of the victim, or sometimes with pure oil. 2 

The sacred character of landmarks is also recognised 
in Holy Writ — 

" Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark, 
which they of old time have set in thine inheritance, 
which thou shalt inherit in the land that the Lord thy 
God giveth thee to possess it." (Deut. xix. 14.) 

1 Kemble's Codex Diplom. JEv. Sax., vol. iii. pref. p. viii. 

2 The custom still existing, of a periodical perambulation of the 
boundaries of parishes, is a relic of a similar ancient practice in this 
country, although the libations are now reserved for the parish dinner 
after the fatigues of the day ; and instead of sacrificing a lamb or a 
young pig, some luckless boy is bumped to make him remember the 
boundary-mark. 



TO CHERTSEY ABBEY. 79 

" Cursed be he that reoioveth his neighbour's land- 
mark." (Deut. xxvii. 17. Commination.) 

Some remarkable instances of minute descriptions of 
landmarks are afforded by the grants of ErrSwald, King 
iElfred (the Great, or, as he is called in one of the charters, 
the wise king), and Edward the Confessor, to Chertsey 
Abbey. 

The charters of FrrSwald and iElfred are without dates, 
but EriSwald's charter is placed by Mr. Manning in a.d. 
GGG, Z and by Mr. Kemble before 675. The grant by 
Kiug iElfred is placed by Mr. Kemble between two 
grants, dated respectively 889 and 891, and that of King 
Edward the Confessor in 1062. 

The charters are in Latin, but the descriptions of the 
land-limits are (as usual) in the Anglo-Saxon language. 

The boundaries of Chertsey and Thorpe, as set forth in 
the Charter of King iElfred, comprehend the manors of 
Crocford and Woodham, which the boundary as described 
in the Charter of ErrSwald omits; but in the last- 
mentioned charter the boundaries of Egham aud Chob- 
ham are given, which are not contained in iElfred' s grant. 

These charters were printed in the " Monasticon," 4 
and in the " Codex Diplomaticus," from a MS. in the 
Cottonian Library at the British Museum, written, as 
supposed, about the time of King Stephen ; and the 
English or Anglo-Saxon is very corrupt ; which increases 
the difficulty of rendering it into modern English, and 
will, I trust, afford an apology for the numerous imper- 
fections of the following notes. 

My scanty knowledge of the modern local names has 
been derived chiefly from three maps of the county of 

3 Manning and Bray, Hist. Surrey, vol. iii. p. 208. 

4 Monasticon Anglicanum, by Caley, Ellis, and Bandinell, vol. i. p. 42G. 
Begin. Abb. de Chertsey, MS. Cotton, Vitell. A. 13, fo. 19 b. 



80 ON THE ANGLO-SAXON CHATITERS 

Surrey ; viz. that by B,ocque in 1762, Greenwood's map of 
Surrey, and the Ordnance Survey ; but I have received 
valuable assistance from the Rev. J. C. Clark, of Chertsey, 
and other gentlemen, to whom I beg to express my 
thanks. 

By the first of these charters, FrrSwald, Subregulus 
or Viceroy of the province of Surrey under Wlfare, King 
of Mercia, 5 gave, granted, and transferred for augmenta- 
tion of the monastery, which was first established under 
King Egbert, and called " Cirotesege " (Chertsey), the 
land of two hundred inhabitants, for support of the 
same monastery, and five mansions or dwellings in the 
place called Dorp (Thorpe). And he not only gave and 
confirmed the land, but he delivered himself and his only 
in obedience to Erkenwald the abbot ; G and the land 
comprised altogether three hundred inhabitants. And, 
moreover, near the river which is called Thames, 
extending from the bank of the river to the limit which 
is called " the Old Posse," that is, " Eullingadich," and 
in other part of the same, from the bank of the river to 
the other extremity of the said province which is called 
" Sunninges " (Sunning). There were also belonging to 
the same land, ten inhabitants near the port of London, 
where ships resort, on the south side, near the public way. 7 

5 Wlfare, or Wulfhere, was king of Mercia from a.b. 659 to 675. 

6 Erkenwald was a son of Offa, king of the East Saxons, and was 
abbot of Chertsey from 666 to 675, when he was elected bishop of 
London, and retained that see till his death in 685. He was buried at 
St. Paul's, and was afterwards canonized as St. Erkenwald. — See Weever's 
Funeral Monuments, p. 358. 

7 Probably in Southwark, in which place a harbour where ships 
resorted is mentioned in Domesday Book. 

It does not apbear from any other document that the abbey had 
lands in Windlesham. In Manning and Bray's " Surrey," it is suggested 
that Hunewal 'sham is Hersham, in Walton-on-Thames. I do not 
know what Bishop this was. 



TO CHERTSEY AKBET. 81 

There were, however, divers names of the same lands 
aforesaid; to wit, — " Cirotesegt " (Chertsey), "Dorp" 
(Thorpe), "Egcham" (Egharn), " Chebeham " (Chob- 
ham), "Getinges" (Totinges or Tooting?), "Muleseg" 
(Moulsey), "Wodeham" (Woodham), " Hunnewal- 
desham " (Windlesham), as far as the limit aforesaid. 
All which he gave and confirmed to Erkenwald, and for 
erecting the monastery, that he (the abbot) and his 
successors might intercede for the soul of the donor ; 
with all fields, woods, meadows, pastures, and rivers, 
and all other things of right belonging to the monas- 
tery of St. Peter, chief of the Apostles, at " Cero- 
tesegt." And if any one should attempt anything 
against that his donation, let him be separated from all 
Christian society, and deprived of participation in the 
kingdom of heaven. 

The charter is attested as follows : — " And I ErrSwald, 
who am the donor (together with Erkenwald the abbot), 
for ignorance of letters have made the sign of the 
cross >J<." 

The following witnesses also attested the grant by the 
sign of the cross ; viz. Eri'Swric ►£«, Ebbe ^, Egwald >J<, 
Badwald ►£<, Ceadde >J<. Likewise Humfrey >J<, the 
bishop, at the request of Abbot Erkenwald, subscribed 
with his own hand >J<. And these are the Subreguli, 
who all subscribed their marks beneath ; viz. ErrSe- 
wold >J<, Osric ^, Wigherd >J<, iEthelwold >J<. 

And that this donation might be firmly and strongly 
established, this charter was confirmed by Wlfare, 
King of the Mercians, and even he placed his 
hand upon the altar, in the town which is called 
Thame, and with his hand subscribed the sign of the 
cross >J<. 

These things were done near the town of ErrSuuald, 

M 



82 ON THE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS 

near the aforesaid fosse of " Fullingadich," about the 
kalends of March. 

Then follows the description of the boundary of the 
lands granted by the charter. 

This is the five-hide book 8 to " Cerotese<?e " and to 
" Dorpe," which King FrrSewald gave to Christ, and 
St. Peter, and Abbot Erkenwald, in full freedom in all 
things within the prescribed landmarks which be 
written in this book. 

This is the landmark to " Cerotesege," and to 
"Dorpe;" that is, first from " Waiemufte " 9 up 
endlong " Weie " 10 to " Waigebrugge ; " u from " Waige- 
brugge " within the old mill-stream, midward of the 
stream to the old " Herestrrete ; " u and along the 
" Strait" to " Woburnbrugge," 13 and along the stream 
to the great " Withig ;" u from the great Withy, along 
the stream to the pool above " Crocford ; " from the 
head of the pool straight on to an alder; from the 
alder straight on by " Wertwallen " 15 to the " Here- 
strate," and along the road to " Curtenstapele ; " 1G 
from Curtenstapele along the road to the " Hore 
Thorn." 

In the Charter of King Alfred, the boundary is 

8 The Book of the Five Hides of Land. 

9 From the mouth of the Wey, where it flows into the Thames. 

10 Up along the Wey : the charter of ,/Elfred says up midstream . 

11 Weybridge. 

12 The old military way or high road. 

13 Wohurnbridge. 

14 Withy, or Willow. 

15 Wertwallen, the foot of a hill covered with trees or shrubs. — Kem- 
ble's Glossary, in preface to vol. iii. of Codex, p. xliii. 

16 Curtenstapele (the Gaol post ?) ; Cwerten, A.S. a prison, and stapelc, 
a prop or support, an upright post. — Kemble. 



TO CHERTSEY ABBEY. 83 

described as going from "Weybridge southward, up 
midstream, to " Boggesley," 17 from " Boggesley " to 
" "Wudham " 1S suSrihte (southward) into "Hale- 
wick," 19 and so forth, between the land of Halewick 
and the land of " Wintredesliulle," -° westerly, to " Full- 
brook," ~ l it goeth between " Eecingelye " 23 and the 
" uerg$e ; 23 and so forthright to the " hore-stone ; " u 

17 I should take this to be Bowsley ; but we are now going up the 
Wey, and Bowsley is too far off. 

18 This should be "Woodhani, but the situation does not agree, if the 
next is right. 

19 Halewick, is Holywick or Hollick farm. 

20 "Wintredesliulle is "Wintred's-hill (whoever he might have been). 
There is a house in Byfleet called " Wintersell," which was part of the 
Oatlands estate sold in 1846, and a farm in the parish of Byfleet called 
'•' Wintersells." There was a William de Wintreshulle, who was steward 
of the King's house, regn. Henry III. — (Pat. Rolls, 55 Henry III.) 

21 Fullbrook I take to be the " Fullingadich " mentioned in the 
Charter of Friouwald, near to which was his town, or tun, that is, his 
inclosed dwelling, or homestead. Mr. Clark informs me that there is 
now a bridge called " Fullbridge " at a spot where the Shere water-pond 
became contracted ; and it would seem that what was anciently called 
Fullbrook, was afterwards called Shere water. This pond was drained 
and planted about 40 years ago. 

22 Fecingelye, Mr. Clark thinks, may be Aningsley ; but he has since 
informed me that there is a name of a place something like Fecingelye 
not far from the Hermitage in Horsell. 

23 The tilled land. 

24 A Hoai'-stone is generally an ancient erect stone pillar, rude, 
unsculptured, and rough as from the quarry, and called a hoar-stone 
from its age and whiteness ; the adjective being the same that we apply 
to a gray or hoary head, — a hoar-frost, <fcc. They were usually set up as 
memorials of some remarkable event (as Jacob set up a stone in Bethel 
as a memorial of his dream), or to mark the buriahplace of some famous 
chieftain. In the 25th vol. of "A rchseologia " there is a long and interest- 
ing paper on hoar-stones by .Mr. Hamper, who has employed a great 
deal of research on the subject, and gives a long list of hoar-stones in 
various parts of this kingdom ; among which he notices that which is 
referred to in the charter before its. He considers them nothing more 



84 ON THE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS 

and from the hore-stone into the " Dcrneford ; " 25 and 
so forth, westrigte (westward), endlong streme into the 
more at " Estwode's end ; " 26 and so up between 
Estwode and " Otershaghe," 27 to the " Hore Thorn." 28 

than landmarks, deriving their name from Harz (Armoric), a bound or 
limit ; as, Men liars, a bound-stone. There was formerly at Pentecost, 
in Chobham, a white cross ; but that is at some distance from our 
boundary, if it be, as I suppose, the same that I find in the maps as 
Pancras or Paucrets farm ; and I should rather suppose the hoar-stone 
to have been at the angle formed by the boundary of the parish of 
Chertsey, at the Canal on Woking Common. 

25 Durnford, where there is now a bridge over the Bourn, on the road 
between Ottershaw Park and Oimensley or Anningsley farm. 

26 The more or marsh at Eastwood's End must have been at the west 
side of Ottershaw. 

27 The Otter's house, which is plain enough, and proves the great 
antiquity of the name of that seat. 

28 The old white thorn. There is nothing more beautiful in nature 
than a fine old white-thorn tree in full blossom; and those who are aware 
of the great age to which the thorn- tree attains, will not be surprised 
that such trees should have been selected as landmarks. The age of the 
hawthorn extends to 100 or 200 years. At Cawder Castle there is one 
which is said to be be coeval with the building, the date of which is 1450 
to 1500. There is a thorn-tree at Studley, near Ripon, Yorkshire, 43 feet 
high ; its trunk is 4 feet in diameter, the diameter of its head being 43 feet. 
— (Loudon's Arboretum, vol. ii. p. 840.) Old thorn-trees were particularly 
cherished by our Saxon forefathers, and even in these days, when land is 
cleared of underwood, immunity is given to thorns and hollies. — (Aker- 
man's Spi'ing Tide.) In the South of Ireland, Mr. Crofton Croker tells 
us, " Old and solitary thorns are regarded with reverence by the 
peasantry, and considered as sacred to the revels of the fairy sprites, 
whose vengeance follows their removal." Piers Plowman tells us in his 
olden English, — 

" And thanne met ich whith a Man on Midlents Soneday as hor as 
an hawethorne." — (Piers Plowman, p. 314.) Chaucer, in his "Court of 
Love," makes all his Court to go forth on May-day to fetch the flowers 
fresh, and branche and bloome, and 

" Marke the faire blooming of the hawthorne tree, 

" AVho finely clothed in a robe of white, 

" Fills full the wanton eye with May's delight." 



TO CHEETSEY ABBEY. 85 

From the Hore Thorn the boundary is similar in both 
the charters, and it goes from the Hore Thorn to "eccan 
triewe ; " 29 and from the eccan triewe to the " Threm 
Burgh en ; " 30 from the Threm Burghen unto the 
"Sihtran" (" SiSren," or " Shightren ") ; 31 from the 
SrSren into " Merchebrook ; " 33 from Merchebrook to 
" Exleafes burn " 33 (or, as in Alfred's grant, Exleapes 
burn) ; from Exleafes burn to the " Hare (or Hore) 

See also in Shakespeare's King Henry "VI. Part 3, Act 2, Sc. 5 : — 
" Gives not the hawthorn bush a sweeter shade 
" To shepherds looking on their silly sheep 
" Than doth a rich embroidered canopy 
"To kings that fear their subjects' treachery." 

And in Goldsmith's Deserted Village, — 

" The hawthorn bush, with seats beneath the shade 
" For talking age and whispering lovers made." 

The situation of the " Hore Thorn" may be looked for at the angle 
formed by the parish boundary, near Stanner's-hill farm. 

29 An oak-tree, probably at Long Cross. 

30 The Threm Burghen are undoubtedly the three v ry remarkable 
large barrows which are called three bury hills, and are close to the 
house of Mr. Pocock, a member of the Surrey Archaeological Society. 
I am not aware if these fine barrows have ever been explored, and if 
not, I trust the day is not far distant when, with the permission of the 
owner, they may be opened by the Society ; from which, results equal to 
those from the late Mr. Gage Rokewood's examination of the Bartlow 
Hills, in Essex, may be expected. 

31 This may mean the Tree of Victory, or merely a hollow tree. 
" Sige tren" would give us the former signification, and the neighbour- 
ing barrows may cover the mighty dead ; but " Sihtra," or " Siohtra," is 
a wooden pipe, made of the trunk of a tree, hollowed or bored for 
the purpose. In a note to the " Monasticon," it is supposed perhaps to 
be a tree so called ; but I think it must mean the stream which runs by 
Lyne Grove, and where the boundaries of Chertsey, Thorp, and Egham 
meet. 

32 Mr. Clark informs me there is a Marshbrook near Lyne Grove. 

33 Exleafes burn was probably one of the streams forming the Oxley 
river. Mr. Clark says it was perhaps at Trumps Mill, where there is a 
stream with a rapid fall. 



86 ON THE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS 

Mapledure ; 3i from the Hore Mapledure to the " thrum 
treowen ; " 35 from the thrum treowen along " Depen- 
brokes " 3G on right to " Wealagate " 37 (or Wealegate) ; 
from Wealagate to " Shirenpol ; " 3S from Shirenpol to 
" Eulbrook ;" 39 from Fulbrook to the " Blake Wig ; " w 
and from the Blaken WiSig on right to "Wealeshythe," 41 
and along the Thames on the other side " Mixtenham," 4 " 
in the stream between "Burghege" 13 and Mixtenham; 
and along the water to " Neteleyge ; " u from the eyot 

34 The old maple-tree. 

35 The three trees, perhaps on Thorpe Green. 

30 A watercourse still called Deepenbrook, separating Thorpe from 
Egham. 

37 " Wealh" A.S. a stranger, foreigner ; Welsh, Wealh also signifies a 
slave or servant, and was applied by the Saxons to such of the British 
inhabitants as remained on the soil. Wealagate may therefore mean 
the Strangers', or the British, or Welsh road. 

33 This cannot be the large piece of water formerly on Woodham 
Heath, called Shircwater, or Shirepond; for that is too far back upon the 
boundary-line to the eastward : the name would lead us to suppose it to 
have been a piece of water on the border of the county, perhaps the 
original of the lake now called Virginia AVater; but that is on the oppo- 
site side of Egham parish. Mr. Clark suggests that a hollow basin- 
shaped piece of land near Thorpe Leigh, which has some appearance of 
having formerly been a pool, and where the water is still very deep in 
flood-time, may mark the site of the Shirenpol. 

39 Mr. Clark says he could not hear of Fulbrook in this quarter, but 
there is a considerable depth of water here, separating Thorpe and 
Egham. 

40 The black willow-tree. 

41 See note 38. Mr. Clark says he cannot find that Wealeshithe, or 
Wallshithe, is known now by that name. It is evidently on the 
boundary of Thorpe and Egham, at the Thames, and there is at that spot 
a sort of haven or hithe, and a little island called " Truss's Island." 

42 Maxtenham in the old plan of Chcrtsey Abbey lands, in Manning 
and Bray's Surrey, and still called Mixenham or Mixnam. 

43 Laleham Burway, of which it would be superfluous to say more 
than to refer to any published account of Chertsey. 

44 Mr. Clark informs me that there is an eyot now called Nettle 
Eyot, in the Thames. 



TO CHERTSEY ABBEY. 87 

along the Thames abutting on " Oxlake Eord ; " 45 and 
along the Thames to " Boresborough ; " 4G and so forth 
along the Thames to " Hamenege ; " 47 and so forth along 
the stream by " Northenhamenyge ; " 47 and so forth along 
the Thames, by mid-stream again to " Waiemouth." 

The boundaries, as described in the charters of Erift- 
wald and iElfred, correspond with each other from the 
Hore thorn to Weymouth. But ErrSwald's charter 
goes on to say : — 

Thus there are many of the islets which belong to 
Chertsey and to Thorpe ; that is to say, there are eight, 
more or less, and seven pastures, which are all between 
"Weales Hyth and "Weymouth. 

[Another landmark we shall find hereafterward, that 
was in iElfred the wise king's day, to Cherte.] 4S 

These be the land marks of the fifteen-hide land in 
Egeham. This beeth the land mark at Egeham ; that 
is, first at the Shigtren above Halsham, 49 and so forth- 
right to the threm burghen ; 49 from the Burghs to 
Eccantriwe ; 49 forthright extending to the south end of 

45 Oxlake is found in the old map of the abbey domain in Manning 
and Bray's Surrey. 

46 Near Chertsey bridge is a piece of land called " Boseyte," which is 
part of Chertsey parish, and in Surrey, although on the Middlesex side 
of the river. Mr. Bray mentions it as an instance of the river having, 
in some places, altered its current. It is shown on the old plan of the 
abbey lands, in Manning and Bray's Surrey, and is there on the same 
side of the river as Mixtenhatn. Boseyte was probably the Bores- 
borough of the charter. 

47 There are two islands in the Thames, opposite to Ham (in 
Chertsey), which are called the Ham eyots, and are doubtless the 
eyots indicated in the charter as Hameneye and Northenhameneye, one 
of which is in a bend of the river running north and south, and above 
stream from the other island, which is in a bend running from west to east. 

[ 4S ] This appears to have been a subsequent interpolation in the copy 
of the charter. 

49 The Shigtren or Siohtren, the Threm Burghen, and the Eccantriwe, 
are all on the boundary of Chertsey. 



88 ON TEE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS 

Sire Giffrens heath de la Croix ; 50 from the heath forth- 
right almost to the further end of Herdies, 51 and so 
forth through the " Thorny hill " 52 to Hertleys, 53 nether 
end of the " Menechene llude ; " 54 from the Rude down 
right a way on the west side " Poddenhall " 55 almost to 
" WinebrigS ; " 5G from WinebrigS westerly to a way that 
goeth to Winchester, 57 that is called " Shrubbestede ; " 58 
between the Shrubbes and Winebright ; going adown 
northward under the Park Gate (or road), and so forth 
from the gate going along by the Park's hedge 59 to the 

50 The heath of Sir Geoffrey de la Croix ! Sir Geoffrey probably held 
a knight's fee in Egham of the abbot. The Norman name of this knight 
sti'engthens the opinion that this description of the boundary was made 
subsequently to the Norman conquest. 

51 Herdies or Hardies. 

52 The Thorny Hill must have been the south part of Shrubs Hill. 

53 Hertleys must have been where Broomhall Hut now is. 

54 The Minchin's Rood, or Nun's Rood, a cross which probably stood 
on the hill called " Mincing Ride," near Broomhall Hut, on Chobham 
Heath, between an old intrenchment and the high road to Winchester. 
The name is doubtless derived from its having belonged to the Benedic- 
tine Nunnery of Broomhall, in Sunning Hill, Berks, which escheated to 
the Crown in 13th Henry VIII., and was granted by that monarch, at 
the instance of Bishop Fisher, to St. John's College, Cambridge, in the 
following year. This nunnery is said by Speed and Burton to have been 
founded by Edward the Black Prince ; but this charter shows it to have 
had a much earlier foundation, if, as it seems reasonable to suppose, the 
place was called "The Nun's Rood" as eaidy as the date of this charter, 
that is, previous to a.d. G75, or even as early as the description of the 
boundary is supposed to have been written ; viz., about the reign of 
Stephen. Mincing Lane, in London, was so called from tenements there, 
some time pertaining to the Minchins or Nuns of St. Helen's, in 
Bishopsgate-street. — Stow's Survey of London, p. 50. 

55 Potnall Warren. 56 Winebridge. 
07 The high road to Winchester. 58 Shrubs Hill. 

59 The park-gate and the park's hedge must, I think, have been the 
gate and fence of the park of Old Windsor, where the Anglo-Saxon kings 
had a seat until the reign of King Edward the Confessor, who gave it to 
St. Peter's, Westminster. 



TO CHERTSEY ABBEY. 89 

new hedge ; from the hedge along the "Frithesbrook" 60 
to the " hore sepeldure ; " from the hore sepeldure to 
the " Knepp ; " 61 by the " Quelmes ; " 62 from the 
Quelmes under the " Stonie held," G3 and so going down 
by " Tigelbeddeburn ; " C1 clown to that eyte that stands 
in the Thames at " Lodders lake ; " 65 and so forth along 
Thames by midstream to " Glenthu'Se ; " 6G from Glen- 
thnSe by midstream along Thames to the HnSe (Hythe) 
before " Negen Stone ; " C7 from the Hythe along Thames 
by midstream down to " Nippenhale ; " 68 from Nippen- 

60 Frithesbrook I cannot identify. A note in the " Monasticon " 
says, " A stream where peace was made." 

61 The Knepp 1 

62 The Quelmes signifies the place of execution : this was, I pre- 
sume, a farm called in old maps Gallows Farm, although not now 
acknowledged by that name, as I found on inquiry. I also find on 
the maps Hangmore Hill close by. 

63 The Stonie Held was perhaps a sandstone quarry westward of 
Gallows Farm. 

64 Tigelbeddeburn, or Tilebed Burn, must have been a brook which 
runs down a ravine through the grounds of Cooper's Hill to the Thames, 
which it enters at the west side of Leatherlake House, being the 
boundary of the counties of Surrey and Berks. 

65 Lodderslake is now called Leatherlake, being an expanse of water 
in the Thames ; and the eyte that stands in the Thames at Lodderslake 
is the far-famed Magna Charta Island, or another eyot a little above it 
and opposite to Leatherlake House. 

66 Glenthythe I have been able to identify most satisfactorily as a 
creek or inlet from the river to the entrance to Egham racecourse. The 
place is still called Glanthay. 

67 The hythe before Negen Stone must, I think, be Egham Hythe, 
opposite to Staines. Nigen means nine ; and it is very pi*obable that 
there was a circle of nine stones there before the town of Staines was 
built, or the corporation of London had any jurisdiction in this part of 
the river. The name of Staines, in the plural, rather favours this con- 
jecture. 

68 Nippenhale — Nippingale in Mr. Kemble's Index to the Codex 
Diplomaticus. There are some meadows by Savery's Weir much 
frequented by sportsmen for wild ducks, &c, called by some such name. 

N 



90 ON THE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS 

hale to " Wheleshufte ; " G<J from WheleshuSe over right 
to the " Black WiSege ; " 70 from the WiSege into " Ful- 
brook ; " 70 from Eulbrook into " Sirepol ; " 70 from Sire- 
pol into " Whelegate ; " 70 from Whelegate over right 
into " Depenbrok ; " 70 from Depenbrok to the threm 
treowen ; 7U from the threm treowen to the hore maple- 
dnre ; 70 from the hore mapledure to " Exlepesbnrn ; " 70 
from the burn into Merchebroke ; 70 from the Merche- 
broke to the Shigtren above Halsham. 70 

These be the landmarks to " Chabbeham" (Chob- 
ham) ; that is, first, on the Oak Tree ; from the Oak 
Tree along the road to the Hore Thorn ; from the Hore 
Thorn to " Wihsan leage ; " 71 from Wihsan leage to 
" Woburnen ; " 73 along the burn to " Wapshete ; " 7:5 
from Wapshete to " Mimbrugge ; " 7t from Mimbrugge 

I have heard it is corrupted into " Nipnose." Abbot Adam (120G 
to 1223) assigned the profits of the weir near Nipenhale (Savery's 
Weir) towards his Anniversary. — Monasticon, vol. v. p. 423, note ; MS. 
Vitellius, A. xiii. 

69 Wheleshythe, which we may recollect was the northern boundary 
on the Thames, of Thorpe. 

70 The Black Withy, Fulbrook, Shirepool, Whelegate, Depenbrook, 
the Three Trees, the Hore Maple-tree, Exleafsburn, Merchebrook, and 
the Shigtren, are all on the boundary of Thorpe, as before described. 

71 Wisan Leage, a field of plants, or — the field of the wise meu, leaders, 
or chiefs. 

72 Woburnen, in the Bourne Sti'eeme. 

73 Mr. Kemble says Wapshot, Surrey. I know not if there be 
a place so called ; but the name reminds us of the family of the same 
name, who are said to have been settled in this locality before the 
Norman conquest, and I understand are not yet extinct. Almner's 
Barn, which they occupied for so many centuries, is near St. Ann's 
Hill, at Chertsey ; but they may have come from Chobham, and have 
taken their name from this place ; but if the place were named from them, 
it proves the very great antiquity of the family in this neighbourhood. 
Wapshete seems to correspond with the now-called Bonsey's Farm. 

74 Mimbridge is still the name of a bridge on the road to Horsell, and 
near it is a stone which is one of the boundaries of the parish of Chobham. 



TO CHERTSEY ABBEY. 91 

to "WiSiless hete ; " 75 from Wifeless liete to the hedge at 
" Mimfeldd ; " 76 thence from Mimfelde to the great 
Withy; from the Withy to "Wuhurst ride;" 77 from 
the Ride to " SiSwode hagan," 78 and along the hedge 
to " FySeke mere ; " 79 from Fytheke mere to " Hasul- 
hurst ; " &0 from Hasulhurst right over the field to 
M Cusceteshagen ; " 81 so by the hedge to " Cumore ; " s3 
from Cumore to the " Standing stone ; " 83 from the 
Standing stone up right to " Ruggestrate," 84 then into 
"WySeke mere;" 85 from WySeke mere to " Burchs- 
lede ; " 85 from Burchslede to " Eggelfusbrugge ; " 8G from 
the bridge to " Cytereneforcl ; " 87 from Cytereneford to 

75 Witheless Heath I cannot identify. 

76 Nor Mimfeld ; they must both have been on the south side of 
Chobham. 

77 Wuhurst Ride also requires explanation. 

78 John de Rutherwyk, abbot (1307 to 134G), planted and inclosed 
a wood called South Grove in Chobham. — Monasticon, vol. v. p. 424, 
note j MS. Vitell. 

79 Fytheke Mere seems to correspond in situation with a pond at the 
bottom of Bisley Green. 

89 There is a field called Hasulhurst, on the confines, I believe, of 
"VVindlesham and Chobham parishes, not far from the road between 
Guildford and Bagshot. 

81 The Dove's hedge. 

82 There is a place called Cowmoor in Pirbright parish. 

83 There is a spot called the Standing Stone, near where the bounda- 
ries of Chobham, Pirbright, and Frimley parishes join each other ; the 
stone is now gone, and a bound-mark left in the place. 

84 Mr. Clark suggests that Ruggestrate may be Blackstone-lane. 

85 "Wytheke Mere, Whitmore Pond, or Light Waterpond. Burcheslede 
may mean an opeu country with birch-trees. 

86 Abbot Adam assigned the profits of a purpesture (probably an 
inclosure from the common), which Ewlfus de Forda held in Chobham, 
towards his Anniversary. Probably Ewlfus, or Eggelfus of the Ford, 
built a bridge instead of the ford. — Monasticon, vol. v. p. 423, note ; 
MS. Vitell. A. xiii. fo. 81 b. 

87 Cytereneford I cannot identify. 



92 ON THE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS 

" Wipesdone ; " 88 from the Done (liill) and along the 
road to " Hertley ; " 89 from Hertley again to the Oak 
Tree. 

The bounds contain four mansas. 90 

I have already acknowledged my obligations to the 
Rev. J. 0. Clark, of Chertsey, for kind and valuable infor- 
mation and assistance. I have also to express my thanks 
to the Rev. S. J. Jerram, of Chobham, for useful infor- 
mation respecting the boundaries of that parish, and to 
Mr. Thomas R. Bartrop, of Chertsey, and to John Yonge 
Akerman, Esq., Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, 
who accompanied me on a pedestrian excursion to iden- 
tify some of the boundary-marks, and who has given me 
his able assistance in rendering the more difficult parts 
of the Anglo-Saxon charter into modern English. 



FKIDUUALD OF SURREY, before 675. 

>i* In nomine Domini Saluatoris Ihesu Christi ! Hanc donationem 
ego FriSeuualdus iuris mei ad libertatem uniuscniusque rei concedo. 
Quotienscunque aliqua pro opere pietatis membris Christi impendimus, 
nostra? animse prodesse credimus, quia sua illi reddimus et nostra non 
largimur. Qua de re ego FriSuuaklus, prouinciaa Surrianorum subregu- 
lus regis Wlfarii Mercianorum, propria uoluntate, sana mente integroque 
consilio, a prsesente die dono, concedo, transfero, et de meo iure in tuum 
transcribo terram ad augendum monasterium quod primo sub rege 
Egberto constructum est, manentium ducentos ad roboranclum idem 
monasterium quod Cirotesege nuncupatur, et quinque mansas in loco 
qui dicitur Dorp : non solum terram do, sed confirmo et meipsum et 
unicum filium meum in obedientiam Erkenuualdi abbatis trado, et est 
terra inter totum coniuncta manentivim ti-escentorum ; et insuper iuxta 
flumen quod uocatur Damis tota coniuncta simul riparia? fluminis usque 



88 Wipesdune is, perhaps, Ribsdown, which forms one of the bounda- 
aries of the parish of Chobham, and called in a Perambulation in 1595, 
Rippsdown. 

89 Hertleys, at Broomhall Hut, 90 Farms. 



TO CHERTSEY ABBEY. 93 

ad terminum qui dicitur antiqua fossa, id est Fullingadich ; in alia parte 
iterum eiusdem fluminis idpae usque ad terminuui alterius prouinciae 
quae appellatur Sunninges. Est tamen de eadem terra pars semota 
manentium decern iuxta portum Londoniae ubi uaues applicant super 
idem fluinen in meridiana parte iuxta uiam publicam. Sunt tamen 
diuersa nomina de ipsa eadem terra supradicta, scilicet Cirotesegt, Dorp, 
Egcham, Chebeliam, Getinges, Muleseg, Wodeham, Huneuualdesbam, 
usque ad terminum supradictum, dono tibi Erkenuualdo et ad monas- 
terium construendum, et confirmo, ut tarn tu quam posteri tui, pro 
animse rneae remedio intercedere debeatis, cum campis, siluis, pratis, 
pascuis, et fluminibus, et omnibus aliis rebus ad monasterium sancti 
Petri, apostolorum principis, de Cerotesegt rite pertinentibus. Omnia 
igitur in circuita ad praedictuin monasterium pertinentia quemadmodum 
a me donata sunt et concessa et confirinata teneatis et possideatis, et 
quodcunque uolueritis de eisdem terris facere, tarn tu quam posteri tui, 
liberam licentiam habeatis, nunquam me, ullo tempore, haeredeque meo 
contra hanc donationis nieae cartulam esse uenturis. Quod si quis con- 
tra hanc donationem meam et confirniationeni uenire temptauerit, sit 
hie separatus ab omni societate Christiana et a ccelestis regni participa- 
tione priuetur. Et ut hasc cartula donationis mese et confirmationis sit 
firma, stabilis, et inconcussa, testes ut subscriberent rogaui quorum 
nomina infra sunt annexa. 

Et ego FriSeuualdus, qui donator sum, una cum Erkenuualdo abbate, 
signum sancta? crucis + pro ignorautia literarum expressi. Signum 
manus FriSurici testis + . Signum manus Ebbi testis + . Signum manus 
Eguualdi testis -f. Signum manus Baduualdi testis -f-. Signum 
manus Ceaddi testis +• Similiter Humfridus episcopus rogatus ab 
abbate Erkenuualdo manu propria subscripsit +. Et isti sunt subreguli 
qui omnes sub signo suo subscripserunt. Signum manus FriSeuuoldi 
testis +. Signum manus Osrici testis -f. Signum manus 
Wigherdi testis + . Signum manus ^ESeluuoldi testis -f . 

Et ut firma sit haec donatio et confirmatio stabilis, a Wlfario rege 
Mercianorum confirmata est haec cartula ; nam et super altare posuit 
manum suam, in uilla quae uocatur Damn, et manu sua signo sanctae 
crucis subscripsit +. Acta sunt hsec iuxta uillam FriSeuuoldi iuxta 
supradictam fossatam Fullingadich circa kalendas Marcias. 

Dis is Care uiuen hicla boc to Cerotesege and to Doi'pe, Se Frioeuuold 
king ybehte Criste and seinte Petre and Erkenuuolde abbude, to fullen 
friedome ]'urg alle Jnng sua se Se londgimere hit bicluppe'5 Se on Sisser 
bok iwrite biez. Dys is Se landegemere to Cerotesege and to Dorpe ; 
fiat is, erest on Waiemii.Se ; up endlonge Waie to Waigebrugge ; of 



94 OX THE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS 

Waigebrugge innan Se selde niuledich ; niideuuerde of Sere dicli on Sere 
ealde berestrset ; andlange strset on Woburnebrugge ; andlang burne 
on Sene grete wiSig ; of Sane grete wiSig endlonge burne in Sane pol 
buve Crocford ; of Ses poles heuede on gerigte to Sane ellene ; of Sane 
ellene on gerigte a be wertuualen on Se herestrate ; andlange striite to 
cm*ten stapele ; of curten stapele eandlonge strate to Sene hore pome ; 
of San ))orne to Eccan treuue ; of Eccan treouue to Sen Jn-em burgben ; 
of San jn'uin beorghen into Se sihtran ; of San siSren into inerchebroke ; 
of inerchebroke on Exlsepes burnen ; of Exlsepes burne to Sene hare 
mapeldure ; of Sene bore mapeldure to Sen Jn-uni treouuen ; of Sam 
prem treouuen andlange depenbrokes on geribte to Wealagate ; of 
Wealagate on sbiren pol ; of sbiren pole on fiilan broc ; of fulen broke 
t6 6an blake wiSig ; of San blaken wiSig on geribte to Weales hiiSe ; 
andlange Temese on oSere halve Mixtenhaniines in Sere ea betweone 
Burghege and Mixtenhara ; andlange Ses weteres to Netelyge ; of San 
ege andlange Temese abiiten Oxelake ; forS andlange Temese to Bores- 
burghe ; and sua forS endlange Temese to Hamenege ; and sua forS 
andlange stremes be norSen Hamenyge ; and sua forS andlange Temese 
be hseluen stremes, eft on WaiemuSe. Diis feale synden Sere ygetta Se 
liggeS into Cherteseye and to Dorpe ; Sat synden. viii. leassen and 
maren, and vii. werbsere Sa synden ealle betweonen Weales huSe and 
WaiemuSe. An 6Ser landimere me shal uinde hereftervvard Sat wses 
igon albiiten bi .iElfredes Se wise kinges daie to Cberte. Dis bet Se 
landimere of Se uiftene hide lond in Egebam. Dis bet Se landimere set 
Egeham ; Sat is, serest at en shigtren bouen Halsam ; and swa forSrigte 
to Se J»rem burgben ; fram Ses burges to Eccan triwe ; forSrigte strech- 
clrinde to Se siiSenSe of sire Giffreus heSe de la croix ; fram Se heSe forS- 
rigte to herdeies ourende almest ; and swa forS Jmrg Sere J>orni hulle to 
Hertleys nuSer ende of Se menecbene rude ; fram Se rude diinrigte bi 
one weie an westhalf Boddenhale to WinebrigS almest ; fram WinebrigS 
westrigte to one weie Set geS to Winchestre, Sat is ihoten Sbrubbes- 
hedde ; bitwiene Se shrubbes and Winebrigt goinde adiin norSrigte 
binuSe Sa parkes gate ; and sua forS fram Se gate goinde bi Se parkes 
heige to Herpesford to Sere mulle ; fram Sere mulle goinde forS bi Se 
parkes heige to Sset niwe hechche ; fram Se hechche endlonge Ses friSes- 
broke to Sere hore sepeldure ; fram Sere bore sepeldure to Se kneppe bi 
Se quelmes ; fram Se quelmes binuSe Sere stonie helde ; and sua goinde 
adun bi tigelbeddeburne adtin ilpe Sat eigt Se stant in Sere Temes set 
Lodderelake ; and sua forSe endlange Temese bi mid streme to Glen- 
thuSe ; fram GlenthuSe bi mid streme endlonge Temese to Sare hiiSe 
afornegene stone ; fram Sare huthe endlonge Temese bi midstreme dun 



TO CHERTSEY ABBEY. 95 

to Nippenhale ; frarn Nippenhale to Wheles huSe ; fram Wheles huSe 
ofer rigte in Sene blake wiSige ; of Se wiSige into fule brok ; of fiile brok 
into sirepol ; of sirepol into Whelegate ; of Whelegate ofer rigte into 
depenbrok ; of depenbrok to Se ];rem triwen ; of Se pi'em triuuen to Se 
hore mapuldure ; of Siire hore mapuldure to Exlepes burne ; of Sere 
burne into merebebroke ; of Sene merchebroke to San sbigtren bouen 
Halsani. Dis bet Se londimere into Chabbeham. Dat is, arest on Eccan 
triuue ; of Eccan triwe andlange strete to Se hore porne ; of Se bore 
Jiorne to wihsan leage ; of wihsan legbe to Woburnen ; andlange burnen 
1 6 Wopshete ; of Wopshete to Mirnbrugge ; of Mimbrugge to WiSeless- 
bete ; of WiSelesshete to Se bagan set Mimfelda ; sua of Mimfelde to 
Sure greten wich ; of Sere wich to Wuhurste riSe ; of Sere riSe to 
SiSuudde bagan ; andlange bagan to f bySeke mere ; of fhySeke mere to 
Hasulkurst ; of Hasulhurst forS rigte ofer Sane feld to Cuscetes hagen ; 
sua bi San hagan to Cumoi*e ; of Ciiinore to Se stondind stone ; of Se 
stone tiprigte to ruggestrate dun into wbiSeke mere ; fram wySeke mere 
to burcbsblede ; fram burchshlede to Eggelfus brugge ; of Sere brugge 
to cyterene forde ; of cyteren forde to wipsedone ; of Sere Sone and- 
lange strate to Hertlye ; of Hertlye eft on Eccan triuue. 

Expliciunt limitationes quatuor maneriorum. — Codex Diplomat. 
^Evi Saxonici, op a - J. M. Kemble, No. DCCCCLXXXII. torn. v. p. 15. 



CHARTER OF ALFRED OF WESSEX, cir. 890. 

>J< Regnante seternaliter Rege omnium sseculorum Domino et Salua- 
tore nostro Ibesu Christo ! Orbita labentis sseculi cotidiano deficit 
occasu. Hoc quoque indicio fideles qtdque oppido commonentur, quo 
bonorum operum exempla perfecte sectantes in patrum beniuolentise 
proficiendo successu, temporalium uicissitudine bonorum perpetua et 
incommutabilia l'egni ccelorum mereantur adipisci gaudia. Quapropter 
ego iElfredus, fauente Omnipotentis Dei dementia, Rex Anglorum, 
creterarumque pi'ouinciaruin in circuitu persistentium rector ac gubernator 
gentium, quandam partem telluris in qua monasterium quod sub 
nomine Sanctse Trinitatis et Beati Petri Apostolorum Principis constat 
bonore dedicatum esse, atque fundatum, et constructum, scilicet locum 
qui famoso onomate apud Anglos nuncupatur Ceroteseg, id est Cirotis 
insula, et v. mansas apud Thorp, cum omnibus appendiciis illuc rite 
pertinentibus ; scilicet Getinges, Huneuualdesbam, et Wudeharo, ad 
sustentationem illius monasterii et omnium illuc unanimiter Deo serui- 
entium, libenti animo concedo et confirmo ; ut illi ibi degentes pro meis 
non desistant interuenire peccaminibus atque offensionibus meis innu- 



96 ON THE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS, ETC. 

mens. Sit autera supradicta tellus ut taxauiinus cum uniuersis qua? ritei 
ad se pertinent, nidelicet campis, siluis, pratis, pascuis, stagnis et riuuli, 
libera et inconcussa, et ab omni seruitutis iugo stabilis, firma, et 
exinanita. Si quis autem diabolica illectus cupiditate huius mei decreti 
diffinitionem et confirmationem irritam fecerit, sciat se in treniendo 
iudicio rationem redditurum, et ultricibus auerni flammis cum anti- 
christo et eius fautoribus semper arsurum, ibique seternaliter mansurum, 
nisi in hac uita satis digne poenituerit. 

Hiis igitur limitibus tellus prasfata giratur, etc. 

Dis is Se landimere to Certeseye and to Dorpe. Dat is arrest on 
Waie miiSe ; up endlonge Waie to Waibrugge to midstreme ; of 
Waibrugge suSuuard to Boggeslye ; of Boggeslye by midstreme to 
Wudeham ; of Wudeham suSrihte into Haleuuik ; bi midstreme ; 
and so forS bituuene Se londe of Haleuuik and Se londe of Wyn- 
tredesbulle westrigte ; and so forS westrigte in fule brok Se geS 
bitwene Fecingelye and Se uergSe ; and so forSrigte to Se hore stone ; and 
fram Se hore stone into Se derne forde ; and so forS westrigte endlonge 
strerne into Se more set Estuuodes ende ; and so up betuuene Estuuode 
and Otersbaglie on Se hore J>orne ; of Se bore porne to eccan treiuue ; 
of eccan treouue to Se )>rem burghen ; of Se ]>rem burghen into Se 
sbigtren ; of Se shigtren into mercbe broke ; of mercbe broke on 
exlaefes burne ; of exleafes burne to Sene hore mapeldure ; of Se hoi'e 
mapeldure to Se ]>reni treouuen ; of Se ]>rem treouuen endlange clepe 
broke rigt to wealegate ; of wealegate on shyre pol ; of shyre pol rigt 
to fule brok ; of fule brok to Se blake witghe ; of Se wiSeghe forSrigte 
to weales hiiSe andlange Temese an oSere halve mixtenham. in Sere ac 
betuuene burgheyge and mixtenham ; enloDge Se wastere rigt to neatel 
eyghe ; of Sen eyge endlonge Temese abtite oxelake ; and so forS endlange 
Temese to boresburghe ; and so forS endlange Temese rigt to hameii 
eyge ; and sua forS endlange streme rigt be norSen hamen eyghe ; and 
sua forS endlange Temese be healve streme ; eft on WayenmSe. — Codex 
Diplom. JEvi Saxonici, op a - J. M. Kenible, No. CCCXVIII. torn. ii. 
and iii. App. p. 401. 



CHEBTSEY ABBEY. 97 



X. 

CHERTSEY ABBEY. 

By W. W. POCOCK, Esq., B.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

READ AT THE GENERAL MEETING OP THE SOCIETY HELD IN THE TOWN-HALL, 
CHERTSEY, APRIL 27TH, 1855. 



Although situated close to the Roman, or more 
probably, the ancient British, road that crossed the river 
Thames, certainly at no great distance from Laleham, 
we search in vain for any mention of Chertsey, earlier 
than the seventh century, at which time, as we learn 
from Bede, a monastery was erected on " Ceroti Insula." 
Even he makes no mention of either town or village 
adjacent, but speaks of the site of the new establishment 
as an island, this being the most distinctive mark he 
could affix to the locality. Erom this we are led to 
conclude that the monastery, so called, was anterior to 
the town to which it gave rise, and which still survives, 
after its original, for many ages one of the largest and 
proudest establishments of the kind, has long ceased 
to shed its benign influence, or exercise its lordly sway, 
over the surrounding neighbourhood. 

In Domesday Book the name is spelt Certesyg (with 
the final g), but on the conventual seal used in the reign 
of Henry VIII. the form of Ceretis iEdis is retained 
(see cut at page 114). The Anglo-Saxon original was 
evidently the name in common vogue, and is in Chertsey 
handed down, with singularly little variation in euphony, 
from the period of the Norman register. 

o 



98 CHERTSEY ABBEY. 

The fact of the site of the ahbey being an island, has 
puzzled more wise heads than one. Aubrey, followed by 
Salmon, seems to think that, prior to the formation of 
the causeway from Staines to Egham, Thorpe and the 
present locality of Chertsey, were both under water, and 
he adds that the streets of Chertsey, were " all raised by 
the ruins of the abbey," much above their natural level; 
and the abbey having been suppressed not more than 
136 years when he wrote (1673), and the buildings pro- 
bably, not having been entirely destroyed till some time 
after the suppression, he had far better means of ascer- 
taining the use made of the rubbish, than we have now, 
unless by means of excavations on an extensive scale. 
This supposition is borne out, to some extent by Camden, 
who says that what Bede called an island, in his (Cam- 
den's) time (1600) " scarcely made a peninsula, except in 
winter." It is not unlikely that the tide of the Thames, so 
far from its mouth as Chertsey, may be lower than it was 
1200 years ago, and that the land near it may have been 
somewhat raised by continual deposits, during so long 
an interval, left by receding tides. Or possibly after the 
destruction of the edifice by the Danes, who doubtless 
made the Thames their high road, a broad mote too 
shallow for the draught of their vessels, was considered 
so good an auxiliary in defence, as to cause its original 
course, on the south or land side of the monastery, to be 
diverted to its present position (where it is known as the 
Abbey Biver), on the north or river side of the supposed 
site of the conventual buildings of later dates. Or it 
may be, the original building was in what are now the 
Meads, which are indeed an island formed by the Abbey 
Biver, and in which tradition still points to certain 
irregularities of ground, as connected with the abbey. 

But I shall presently, have to show that I prefer 



CHEUTSEY ABBEY. 99 

another solution, to any of these — one which points out 
that Mr. Grumbridge's house, Mr. Lacoste's barn and 
farm-yard, with all the supposed remains of the abbey, 
are even now in an island, which was, I feel persuaded, 
more fully marked in ancient times. 

This Ceroti Insula, with Surrey, of which it formed a 
portion, was, in the seventh century, a part or depend- 
ence of the kingdom of Mercia, or Mid Angles, which 
was converted to Christianity about the middle of that 
century, through the marriage of the son and heir 
of Penda, king of Mercia, to the daughter of Oswald, 
the zealous Christian king of Northumbria. It was 
about this time that parishes, as we now understand 
the word, were first formed in England. At first, 
each kingdom formed but one parish, which again was 
divided into what we should now call dioceses, the 
cathedral being for a time the only church, the bishop 
sending his priests travelling about the country, to in- 
struct the people and administer the rites of Christianity. 
Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, towards the close 
of the seventh century, was the great instrument of 
accomplishing the formation of parishes, to which the 
influence his great talents and learning gave him, con- 
tributed not a little. This was effected in great part, 
by inducing the great proprietors, to erect and endow 
churches, of which they retained the patronage. 

Such seems to have been the origin of Chertsey 
Abbey. It appears from documents, purporting to be 
the deeds of foundation, that, in 666, Erithwold, petty 
king of the Surreians under Wulpher, king of Mercia, 
built the monastery in conjunction with Erkenwall, 
afterwards bishop of London ; which means, no doubt, 
that Erithwold built a church of which Erkenwall was 
appointed the incumbent, and that to this church was 



100 CHERTSEY ABBEY. 

attached, at most, accommodation for the itinerant 
priests who circulated through the district. Monas- 
teries, as we now understand the term, were not erected 
in England till the reign of Edgar, in the tenth cen- 
tury, when Dunstan introduced monachism as a system, 
and erected the first monastery at Glastonhury. 

The original building at Chertsey, was probably, a 
simple structure after the type adopted by the monks 
of Iona, under whose instruction Northumbria had 
been Christianized, and from whom Diuma, first prelate 
of Mercia, received consecration. The Cathedral of 
Northumbria, built in the Island of Landisfarn, was a 
wooden structure covered with reeds, and Chertsey 
was probably the same. This supposition will not be 
weakened by the reflection that, like his northern 
predecessors, Erkenwall chose an island for his site, 
somewhat in imitation of their original seat, the island 
of Iona. 

The Abbey seems to have received the bounty of 
several of the Saxon kings, not excepting Alfred. 

During the incursions of the Danes in the ninth 
century, Chertsey suffered in common with similar 
establishments ; from which, we may safely conclude, 
that at this comparatively early period of its existence, 
it already had the reputation of having accumulated 
considerable property of a portable character, as plunder 
was the main object of these marauders; or else we 
may suppose that the monastery, had become the asylum 
for the persons, or the property of the people around. 
At this time the monks, to the number of ninety, were 
slaughtered, and the buildings burnt, — no difficult 
matter, if constructed of the materials indicated. 

In 964 the monastery was rebuilt by Edgar, and by 
him assigned to the Benedictines, under the influence of 



CHERTSEY ABBEY. 101 

Dunstan, who had assumed the habit of that order, and 
was now archbishop of Canterbury. It is impossible to say 
with certainty, whether any of the few remains that now 
exist, belong to this edifice ; but, from the small portions 
of sculpture that I have seen (vide pp. 113-114), I am 
disposed to attribute them rather, to the next building in 
the order of succession, which was begun to be erected in 
1110, under the Abbot Hugh of Winchester, a relation of 
King Stephen de Blois. The mouldings are better cut, 
and the carving is more profuse, than would have existed 
in a building of so early a date as 964. To which I may 
add, that the use of polished Purbec marble for shafts, 
of which there are more than one example, was not, so 
far as I know, introduced at so early a period. And if 
I am right in concluding, as I think I am, that the 
stone for the exterior was from Caen or its neigh- 
bourhood, this will undoubtedly point us to a period 
subsequent to the Norman Conquest. And as we have 
no evidence, of any very extensive buildings, having 
been erected here long after that period, I think we 
shall not be far wrong, in assuming the style of that day, 
as the general style of the edifice. To this, however, 
I will revert presently. 

The parish of Chertsey, whenever originally formed, 
seems to have comprised, at least, all that now consti- 
tutes the parishes of Chertsey, Thorpe, Egham, and 
Chobham, and in all probability the whole of Surrey as 
it then was, or, at all events, all the country bounded 
by the Hog's-back and the Wye, the whole of which, as 
late as 1673, was a king's chace, not afforested, but 
under the jurisdiction of the honour and Castle of 
Windsor, the whole or greater part having come to the 
crown, probably, on the dissolution of the Abbey. 
Egham and Chobham were both chapelries of Chertsey 



102 CHERTSEY ABBEY. 

until the time of Edward I., and Thorpe to a still later 
period. "Within these limits the Abbey had large pos- 
sessions, not only of manors and livings, but lands and 
rents of various kinds. Thus, from the manor of Egham 
the abbot received annually 50 fat, and 24 lean hogs, 
and from Chobham no less than 150 — all in that sleek 
condition which promised the monks speedy opportunities 
of enjoyment. Another manor supplied them with 325 
eels every year, and Petersham, near Richmond, with 
no less than 1,000 eels, and 1,000 lampreys. 

Nor were their possessions confined to narrow limits, 
but extended to no less than twenty-five manors, mostly 
in the county of Surrey, and even to London and South 
Wales ; so that, about the time of the dissolution of the 
monasteries, the annual revenue of the abbey was little 
short of £660 per annum, — or, according to Speed, 
£744 18s. Gel, equivalent to about £13,000 or £15,000 
per annum of our present money. No wonder that 
establishments so rich, and which had already become 
obnoxious to bluff King Harry, should excite his long- 
ing — and with him to long was to have. He seems to 
have experimented with the monks of Chertsey, before 
demanding a surrender ; for he bought of them the 
manor of Chobham, doubtless at no very large price, 
the abbot preferring to part with a single manor, rather 
than allow his own precious person, to become a pendant 
to his church steeple. 

This ornament to a throne, knew how to adapt his 
conduct and his speech to the occasion. When appre- 
hensive that the Commons, would not pass his bill for 
the dissolution, he is related to have sent for them, and 
said, " I hear that my bill will not pass ; but I will have 
it pass, or I will have some of your heads ; " an argu- 
ment am ad hominem that must have been irresistible, 



CHERTSEY ABBEY. 103 

considering the fidelity with which he kept such pro- 
mises. * But how does he change his tone when " my 
bill " had passed ! " I cannot a little rejoice," quoth he, 
" when I consider the perfect trust and confidence which 
you have in me, in my doings, and just proceedings ; for 
you, without my desire and request, have committed to 
my order and disposition all chauntries, colleges, and 
hospitals, and other places specified in a certain Act, 
firmly trusting that I shall order them to the glory of 
God, and the profit of the commonwealth." One knows 
not which to admire most, the magnanimity with which 
he undertakes so heavy a responsibility, or the fidelity 
with which he executes his trust ! Surely, much as we 
may rejoice in the results of the English Reformation, 
we have no reason to be proud of the auspices, under 
which it was inaugurated. 

In point of rank, Chertsey Abbey was among the 
mitred abbeys, so called from their superiors wearing 
mitres, in token of episcopal authority within their own 
peculiar ; and the abbot of Chertsey held of the Crown, 
as a military tenant, by barony. But there is reason to 
doubt whether he had a seat, at any time, as a lord of 
Parliament. He had exclusive civil jurisdiction within 
the hundred of Godley (probably thence so called), 
granted to him by Edward the Confessor, and confirmed 
by the two Williams, two Henrys, Richard, and John, 
together with the right of keeping dogs for hunting 
hares and foxes, a privilege carefully guarded by those 
lovers of the chase, the Norman kings. To the abbey 
also, belonged the privileges and profits arising from the 
holding of the two ancient fairs of Chertsey. 

In the year 1537, the abbey and its possessions were 
surrendered to Henry, with the same willingness, no 
doubt, and under the same stipulations, as the Commons 



104 CHERTSEY ABBEY. 

had passed the requisite bill ! And so speedy was its 
destruction, that in 1763, when Aubrey visited tlte spot, 
scarcely anything of the old buildings remained, except 
the out-walls about it. This destruction was hastened, 
or completed by the erection of a " fair house," out of 
the ruins, by Sir Nicholas Carew, master of the buck- 
hounds to Charles II., which, after passing to various 
owners of motley hue, was pulled down about 1810, 
and the materials sold and dispersed. 

The only historical incidents of any interest, connected 
with the abbey, that I have been able to trace, are the 
burial there of King Henry VI., of unhappy memory, 
after his murder in the Tower of London; and the 
subsequent removal of his remains to Windsor by 
Henry VII. On the former occasion the body was 
brought by water, with but small pomp, at an expense 
amounting to £24. 14s. 5^cZ., for conveying and attend- 
ing the body from the Tower to St. Paul's Cathedral, 
and thence to Chertsey, including wax, linen, spices, 
and other ordinary expenses ; and £8. 12s. 3d. for 
obsequies and masses at London as well as at Chertsey 
aforesaid. Of his removal, Camden remarks that 
Henry VII. " was such an admirer of his (Henry VI. 's) 
religion and virtue, that he applied to Pope Julius to 
have him put in the calendar of saints. And this cer- 
tainly had been done," he adds, " if the pope's avarice 
had not stood in the way ; who demanded too large a 
sum for the king's apotheosis or canonization, which 
would have made it look as if that honour had not been 
paid so much to the sanctity of the prince as to the 
gold." He might have added that, Henry was as good 
a judge of the value of money, as the pious Pope Julius. 

Of the exact position and arrangement of the con- 
ventual buildings, it is impossible to speak with any 



CIIERTSEY ABBEY. 105 

degree of certainty. Though considerable remains of 
foundations have been discovered, they still are but 
limited, when compared with the probable extent of the 
abbey ; and they are so completely denuded of all archi- 
tectural features (except some loose fragments of sculp- 
ture), that no clue is afforded as to the use of each wall, 
not even as to which was the internal or external face of 
it, beyond what the collocation, judging from the analogy 
of other establishments, may suggest. 

In each convent, of course, the church formed the 
most conspicuous feature ; in plan it was usually 
cruciform, with a central tower and western entrance. 
To the north or south of the nave, lay the principal 
court, surrounded on one, two, three, or all four 
sides, by a groined ambulatory or cloister, giving access 
to the chapter-house on the east, the monks dor- 
mitory on the west, and on the side opposite to the 
church the refectory with its kitchens. A locutorium 
or parlour, the scriptorium, lavatorium, and other 
smaller apartments, filled up the intervals. Generally, 
attached to some portion of these buildings was the 
abbot's or prior's lodging, including a private chapel. 
Another range of buildings was allotted to the recep- 
tion of visitors of importance, whilst others of an inferior 
grade, with those who sought charitable relief, were ac- 
commodated in other apartments, commonly provided in 
connection with one of the gate-houses. An infirmary, 
sometimes a complete establishment, with chapel, 
cloisters, dormitory, and refectory — and perhaps a range 
of farm-buildings, together with bakeries, breweries, and 
other offices of this character — completed the whole. 

These were surrounded by a strong and high wall or 
a moat, or by both, having one or more entrances, of 
which the principal was a large erection, as already inti- 

p 



106 CHERTSEY ABBEY. 

mated. The principal gate-house at Chertsey is said to 
have had a chapel over it, which was not by any means 
an uncommon appendage. This I believe to have stood 
opposite the end of Guilford- street, on or near the site of 
the present church, which (or rather its predecessor) 
was, I conclude, erected shortly after the suppression of 
the monastery, and evidently out of its ruins, close to, if 
not on, the actual spot where stood the chapel dedicated 
to All Saints, which we know existed, and to which, on 
ordinary occasions, the townspeople had been accustomed 
to resort. 

In the map attached to an old record, called the 
Exchequer Leiger (see plate annexed), are shown two 
mills, one on the abbey river, and the other nearer to 
the church. This latter one, I imagine, stood where 
(in the direction of A.*) there are still the remains of 
some old foundations, between which runs a stream now 
arched over, and continuing under or near the Town- 
hall across London-street, and so to the Bourne. This, 
I conclude, is the ancient river of Redewynd, a ferry 
over which was granted by Edward III. (in 1343) to 
W. Allegar. This ferry appears to have been in London- 
street, which in the map above alluded to has the name 
of Redewynd attached to it ; and if (as is probable) the 
Redewynd continued on the east of Guilford-street down 
into the Bourne as it now does, but on a larger scale, 
we have a reason for the formation and location of that 
approach to the abbey-gate, from the country in which a 
large portion of its possessions lay. Whatever its pre- 
sent origin, this stream apparently once was connected 
with the Thames, and thus completed the insular 
character of the site of the abbey, as described by Bede. 
To have turned a mill, the Redewynd would probably 

•' Vide the Plans. 



onerRG'seru Amm 



£a*?t 




■ ■*** .~-?*r% '^trcKi 1 *^&*Ojx>a*-. - 



7%£ Dark Tint shorn ihe ■ overca , , , 

I ■ ■ , modern ertctioTU. 
Tke Outiuirs, tfte restorations suggested.. 



/00 90 SO 70 60 ft *0 50 20 10 



. rtdrcrd$t Covwt Garden. 



CHERTSEY ABBEY. 107 

be large enough to require a ferry. But should it be 
concluded that the foundations to which I allude, are not 
those of a mill, then doubtless they are of a bridge 
which gave access to the abbey-close, at that spot ; and 
if so, it must have been no mean stream, that required 
such a bridge to span it. 

More to the north-east we come upon the exca- 
vations lately made, indicated by the dark tint in 
the plan, the most remarkable feature of which, is the 
discovery of several stone coffins with their original 
tenants. This would indicate that the spot where they 
were found, was a portion of the church or the chapter- 
house. I am inclined to consider this as the south 
transept of the church, which I imagine was divided 
into two aisles of equal, or nearly equal, width, as 
immediately south of these coffins, on what would then 
be the external face of the south transept (at B), is the 
only fairly-worked stone that I have seen in situ, and 
this appears to be the base of a buttress four feet wide 
by a projection of about one foot. 

To the north of this, and at a distance of some sixty 
feet, has been traced a wall running east and west for 
several hundred feet, the foundations of which are as 
much as eight feet wide. This I take to be the south 
wall of the nave and choir ; and eighty feet more to 
the north is the extreme boundary-wall of Mr. Gram- 
bridge's garden. The foundations of this wall areteaid 
to be very deep, and though the wall itself is a modern 
erection, I conjecture it to have been placed upon the 
old foundations of the north wall of the church. If so, 
we must look on the north of it for remains of the north 
transept. In the lower part of the wall, dividing the 
inner from the outer garden, are at least two masses of 
masonry (C and D) that appear older than the rest of 



108 CHERTSEY ABBEY. 

the wall ; these may possibly be remains of the south 
range of the internal columns of the nave, and would 
determine the main dimensions of the church. Directly 
east of the axis thus found, and at a distance of 80 to 
100 feet from what I suppose to have been the transept, 
remains of a circular tower are reported to have been 
discovered some years ago. This may be an apsidal end 
to the presbytery, and if so, I should not be far wrong 
in the appropriation I have assigned to the foundations 
that have been found. Near (at or near E) was disco- 
vered, in what I presume to have been the south wall 
of the choir, a portion of " a stone sink or basin of 
circular form, 18 or 20 inches in diameter, with a 
portion of lead pipe attached." This looks very much 
like the description of a piscina, and as fragments of the 
same pipe were found, running nearly the whole length 
of what apparently, was the south wall of the nave 
(G, G, G), and on the north side of it, I conclude that 
it must have been on the inside of the building, or so 
expensive a drain would not have been employed. The 
reason for leading the water in that direction, cannot 
now be determined. To the south of the part last 
alluded to, were several walls, in one of which (H) were 
found two steps much worn, and in the south wall of 
the apartment to which these steps ascended, was what 
appeared to have been a fire-place (I), though it was 
not clear on which side of the wall the room to which it 
belonged had been built. I would therefore attribute it 
to the room toward the south, and assume that to have 
been the abbot's kitchen, the intermediate rooms being 
either chapels or vestment-rooms. I am not prepared 
to produce any authority for placing the kitchen so 
near the choir ; but the abbot's or prior's lodgings were 
frequently to the east of the chapter-house. At Poun- 



fk 














CHERTSEY ABBEY. 109 

tain's Abbey, and Eivaulx's such was the case, as also at 
Durham, Hereford, and elsewhere. At Buildwas, in 
Shropshire, the cloister being on the north of the nave, 
the abbot's lodge is to the north-east, and still remains 
as a dwelling. At Canterbury, where also the cloister 
is to the north, there are remains of very extensive 
buildings in that direction, some of which actually 
adjoin the chapels annexed to the choir and presbytery. 

In the position thus assumed for the abbot's lodgings, 
I am informed that the soil and its crops, or rather 
want of crops, indicate considerable remains at no great 
depth below the surface ; and on the spot where, accord- 
ing to my supposition, the dormitory stood, Abbey- 
house was subsequently erected, but in what direction 
the front of it was I have never heard. Dr. Stukeley, 
who visited it in 1752, writes, "Of that noble and 
splendid pile [the Abbey], which took up four acres of 
ground, and looked like a town, nothing remains ; 
scarcely a little of the outward wall of the precinctus." 
He then proceeds to describe the position of the church, 
though upon what authority he does not say. " The 
gardener carried me," says the doctor, " through a court 
on the right-hand side of the house, where, at the 
entrance to the kitchen-garden, stood the church of the 
Abbey — I doubt not, splendid enough. The west front 
and tower-steeple was by the door and outward wall, 
looking toward the town and entrance to the Abbey.'* 
These would lead to the conclusion of, the entrance 
being towards the south-west of the church, as I have 
supposed. He speaks of the terraces on the back-front 
of the house, and I conclude that the north wall of 
Mr. Grumbridge's garden formed the boundary of the 
terrace, and consequently, that the court he alludes to, 
was on the east of the house, possibly some remnants 



110 C1IE11TSEY ABBEY. 

of the cloisters, which, he says, were on the south of the 
church, and would, as he stood with his hack to the town, 
be on the right hand of the house. " The garden," 
[probably pleasure garden as well as kitchen], he says, 
"takes up the whole church and cloisters;" and as 
Mr. Lacoste's barn was no doubt standing in the 
doctor's time, and the moat still remains to the east- 
ward, I think I cannot be far wrong in the general 
disposition I have adopted, though, confessedly, only 
worthy of reception as a probable conjecture. 

But to return, — Erom the supposed fireplace before 
mentioned ran a cavity in a horizontal direction along 
the centre of the wall, westward, supposed by those who 
saw it to have been a flue, the more so as considerable 
remains of charcoal were found in it. I am more disposed 
to consider that this was the place of a beam of timber, 
which, becoming ignited, had burnt out, and left the 
charcoal and ashes remaining. This also makes me doubt 
the correctness of the supposition that the supposed fire- 
place was indeed such, though the hearthstone appeared 
much worn and reduced by the action of fire. I am 
more inclined to conclude it was a mere recess, which 
the destroyers of the abbey found convenient for light- 
ing their fire in, for the purpose of melting the lead 
stripped from the roofs. At Fountain's, fires were 
made in many places for this purpose, and there are 
records still showing that the lead, was there melted into 
pigs before removal. An inhabitant of Yorkshire at the 
time of the suppression, or shortly after, has left a very 
affecting account of his trouble at seeing the devastation 
committed, especially at Roche xlbbey, near which he 
dwelt. In a curious letter, published by Sir Henry Ellis, 
the writer says, — 

" It would have made a heart of flint to have melted and wept to have 

% 



CHERTSEY ABBEY. Ill 

seen the breaking-up of the house, and their sorrowful departing, and the 
sudden spoil that fell the same day of their departure from the house. 
And every person had everything good-cheap, except the poor monks, 
friars, and nuns, that had no money to bestow of anything, as it appeared 
by the suppression of an abbey hard by me, called the Roche Abbey, a 
house of white monks, a veiy fair-builded house, all of freestone, and 
every house vaulted with freestone, and covered with lead (as the abbeys 
was in England, as well as the churches be). Some," he continues, " took 
the service-books that bed in the church, and laid them upon their waine- 
coppes to piece the same ; some took windows of the hayleith and hid 
them in their hay ; and likewise they did of many other things ; for 
some pulled forth the iron hooks out of the walls that bought none, when 
the yeomen and gentlemen of the country had bought the timber of the 
church. For the church was the first thing that was put to the spoil ; 
and then the abbot's lodging, dorter and frater, with the cloister, and all 
the buildings thereabout within the abbey-walls. It would have pitied 
any heart to see what tearing up of the lead there was, and plucking up 
of boards, and throwing down of the spars ; and when the lead was torn 
off and cast down into the church, and the tombs in the church all 
broken, and all things of price either spoiled, carped away, or defaced to 
the uttermost." 

" The persons that cast the lead into fodders plucked up all the seats 
in the choir, wherein the monks sat when they said service, which were 
like to the seats in minsters, and burned them, and melted the leadthere- 
withall, although there was wood plenty within a flight-shot of them, for 
the abbey stood among the woods and the rocks of stone, in which rocks 
was pewter vessels found, that was conveyed away and there hid ; so that 
every person bent himself to filch and spoil what he would. Yea, even 
such persons were content to spoil them that seemed not two days before 
to allow their religion, and do great worship and reverence at their 
mattins, masses, and other service, and all other their doings, which is a 
strange thing to say, that they could this day think it to be the house of 
God, and the next day the house of the devil ; or else they would not 
have been so ready to have spoiled it." 

He adds, his father, who bought the timber of part of the church, and the 
steeple and bell-frame (" in the which steeple hung viij yea ix bells," which 
" I did see hang there myself more than a year after the suppression"), and 
"thought well of the religious persons and of the rebgion then used," 
excused his participation in the spoil by arguing, " Might not I, as well 
as others, have some profit in the spoil of the abbey 1 for I did see all 
would away, and therefore I did as others did. And thus much," the 
writer adds, " upon my own knowledge touching the fall of the said 
Roche Abbey."— MS. Cole, vol. vii. Ellis, III. iii. 35. 



112 CHERTSEY ABBEY. 

This process — of which there are indications here — will 
readily account for the almost entire disappearance of 
any remains of the abbey of Chertsey, hastened, pos- 
sibly, by the removal of the monks to Bisham in Berk- 
shire, as they would endeavour to carry with them 
whatever was most valuable and portable ; and the 
erection of the house for Sir Nicholas Carew, would 
complete the demolition of anything, that previous 
hands had left. 

If we have little beyond analogy to guide us in deter- 
mining the exact position of the monastic buildings, we 
have still less to assist us in arriving at any definite idea 
of their appearance. 

In the annexed woodcuts, it may be seen that a repre- 
sentation of a building, occurs at the head of the seal of 
John de Medmenham, abbot of Chertsey about 1261, 
and a similar representation from the seal of his suc- 
cessor, Bartholomew of Winchester. Between these 
there appears this similarity, that they consist of three 
principal parts, finished with three gables ; at the same 
time they are so far dissimilar, as to preclude the idea of 
the latter being copied from the former. I therefore, 
imagine them to have been meant for representations of 
the abbey church, though differently treated, both as to 
point of sight and conventional expression. I take the 
former one to be a view of the west front, with the two 
transept ends brought round so as to be both repre- 
sented. This will give three large openings in the front, 
suggesting a resemblance to Peterborough Cathedral, 
and two in each transept, corresponding with what I have 
supposed to be the internal division of the south transept. 
At the angles of the west front are two large objects 
resembling horns, which I take to be conventional 
representations of purfled or crocketed pinnacles, each 




CHERT8EY ABBEY 
SEAL OF ABBOT MEDMENKAM. 




CHERTS EY A33ET. 
SEAL OF ABBOT BARTHOLOMEW 




CHERTSET AB33Y. 
THE CONVENTUAL SEAL. 



CHERTSEY ABBEY. 113 

gable being finished with a finial, and the wall pierced 
with a conventionalism for a rose window of some 
description. 

The later seal shows but two openings in the central 
compartment, which I therefore conclude to be the 
transept, giving still three openings for the west and 
east ends. 

The conventual seal attached to the deed of surrender, 
is shown by the third woodcut, and from this we may 
gather, that there was a western porch and a central 
tower and spire, as also a transept north and south, and 
some square turret or buttress running up the angles of 
the west front. The arrangement of the roofs in this 
seal I will not attempt to explain, but in the others the 
roofs are evidently sharply pointed ones. 

Now Hugh of Winchester, a relative of Stephen de 
Blois, afterwards king, began a new abbey in 1110, and 
if we conclude that additions were made to his works by 
his immediate successors, the whole might well be com- 
plete and in good order in 1261, when the first of the 
said seals would be engraved. This directs us to a date 
not far different from that of Peterborough Cathedral, 
which was erected at various periods ranging from 1117 
to 1220, the western front being the latest part added, 
of course excepting the presbytery, galilee, and inser- 
tions. 

The foundations which have been discovered, were lying 
at a depth of five or six feet from the present surface ; 
this has apparently been raised three or four feet by the 
debris of the old buildings, the soil for the whole of that 
depth, being composed almost entirely, of old mortar and 
fragments of freestone and flints. The illustration re- 
presents fragments of sculpture discovered and still pre- 
served ; 1 and 2 are capitals of shafts in Purbeck marble, 

Q 



114 CHERTSET ABBEY. 

and 8, a base of the same material : 3 and 4 are jamb- 
stones, having the dog-tooth and nail-head mouldings 
well denned ; 5, an arch stone with the Norman chev- 
ron ; 7, a corresponding springing stone for two arches ; 
and 6 also an arch stone exhibiting the nail-head orna- 
ment. All these five are of a greenish freestone, resem- 
bling Reigate stone. The woodcut annexed shows an 
inscription found on the same site. 

These, with the tiles and coffins, and the few 
foundations indicated by the dark tint on the plan, 
are all the remains yet brought to light, of this once 
lordly and magnificent establishment. Three centuries 
have more than sufficed to dissipate and destroy, what it 
had taken nearly nine, to collect and consolidate. We 
do not find the monks or abbey of Chertsey, making 
much figure in history either good or bad ; and whether 
they had completed, or failed to fulfil, the purposes 
intended by the Great Ruler of destinies ; or what may 
have been its sin other than its wealth ; or whether the 
delinquences of other similar institutions, caused the 
innocent to be involved in the common ruin; it was 
given over to a sudden and complete destruction. 
Suggestive as the subject is, I forbear to enter upon 
the train of reflection to which the catastrophe of 
Chertsey Abbey would naturally lead ; and I conclude 
with the expression of a hope that further excavations 
may yet bring to light more, and more interesting re- 
mains of the buildings of this once magnificent estab- 
lishment. 



Zmewuuj ■po*tfion of Loftuw ooo Gni<xxu*IXc enied. 




EAST 



JMe* *J)*neer*UZd.,22J l Kl6 m iS! r G»vritGanieTl.. 




CHEETSET ABBEY. 
FRAGMENT OF A SEPULCHRAL SLAB 



ENCAUSTIC TILES, ETC. CHERTSEY ABBEY. 115 



XI. 

SOME ACCOUNT OP THE ENCAUSTIC TILES 
AND STONE COEEINS EXCAVATED ON THE 
SITE OE CHERTSEY ABBEY IN 1855. 

By W. W. POCOCK, Esq., B.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

ASSISTED BY NOTES CONTRIBUTED BY M. SHURLOCK, ESQ., LOCAL HONORARY 
SECRETARY FOR CHERTSEY. 



In the course of the excavations undertaken by the 
present owner of the site of Chertsey Abbey, the work- 
men met with portions of ornamental encaustic tiles, the 
body being of red or black clay, varying in tone in 
different examples, and the relief formed by a buff- 
coloured clay burnt into a depressed cavity. Upon 
arriving at about the same level as the lowest fair ma- 
sonry of the exterior, and in the part of the building 
supposed, in the plan attached to the preceding Paper, 
to have formed the south transept of the church, a con- 
siderable quantity of these fragments was found, in a 
loose and confused mass resting on a stratum of con- 
crete, though it was not possible to say whether they 
had ever been bedded upon it. Pains had apparently 
been taken to destroy the designs ; unless we prefer the 
conclusion that, upon the destruction of the pavement or 
other work of which these fragments were the elements, 
the unbroken tiles, and those that could be refitted, 
were carefully selected and removed, and the obviously 
useless portions only left behind. The former notion 
seems, in great part, negatived by the absolute impos- 



116 ENCAUSTIC TILES, ETC. CHEBTSEY ABBEY. 

sibility of adjusting the broken parts; for whilst the 
same portions of the design occurred repeatedly, others 
were altogether wanting ; or where the various parts of 
a design could be traced, they had to be deduced from 
fragments, not of one, but of many different tiles, the 
remaining portions of which could not be found. 

The forms of the tiles vary, but are mostly square or 
circular, or combinations of these two figures ; but of 
the designs, by far the greater part are circular, con- 
sisting of medallions occupying a single rectangular or 
round tile, or else four tiles, constituting together the 
square or circular form. These larger circles have appa- 
rently been surrounded by inscriptions, portions of many 
of which still remain. The centres are mostly figures 
or groups, such as, a harper in a boat on the water, 
grotesques, the signs of the zodiac, a king or ecclesi- 
astic seated and holding a sceptre or crozier, warriors 
or knights on horse or on foot, and the like ; and the 
spandrils or spaces between these circles are filled with 
foliage and arabesques of elaborate and elegant design. 
The drawing is remarkably spirited, the proportions and 
outlines good, and considerable skill manifested in 
giving the effect of light and shade. 

One portion of the tiles appear designed to stand 
vertically, and probably formed a reredos or other wall 
ornament ; they represent a series of niches flanked by 
panelled buttresses and crocketed pinnacles, surmounted 
by foliated canopies, in which the ogee arch occurs. 
The design of each niche occupies one tile in width and 
four in height ; one is filled by an archbishop, another 
by a queen with a sceptre in her right, and a squirrel in 
her left hand, and the third by a king, having in his 
right hand an oak or olive branch, and a figure under 
his feet whom he seems to be crushing to the earth ; 



ENCAUSTIC TILES, ETC. CHEHTSEY ABBEY. 117 

portions of a similar figure under the archbishop's feet 
can be traced, but the corresponding tile for the queen's 
compartment is wanting. The king's canopy contains 
a hare and a dog, at the lower corners, and the full 
moon and a star or sun above. Nearly the same sym- 
bols appear in the archbishop's canopy, but a rugged 
cross supplies the places of the hare and dog. The whole 
has evidently some undiscovered significance. 

Other tiles were designed for borders of geometric or 
flowing patterns, and others again were plain, but of 
various shapes and sizes, forming indeed a never-ending 
diversity ; but no clue remains for determining the gene- 
ral arrangements. Illustrations of many of these very 
beautiful and interesting remains, have been published 
by Mr. Shaw, F.S.A., whose work on the " Tile Pave- 
ments from Chertsey Abbey," the curious will do well 
to consult. 

At no great depth below the concrete, alluded to as 
existing under the broken tiles, the workmen struck upon 
a slab of Purbeck marble, which proved to be the lid of 
a coffin hewn out of a single block of similar material, 
with a hole bored through the bottom. The entire length 
of this was 6 feet 7 inches by a width of 2 feet 3^ inches 
at the head, and 1 foot 2 inches at the foot and 11-J- inches 
deep exclusive of the lid. The interior was hollowed to 
the depth of 9 inches, leaving the sides 2^ inches thick, 
the place for the head being irregularly shaped so as to 
accurately accord with a deformity in the neck of the 
occupant proved by the vertebrae. These, together with 
the whole of the skeleton, were found as complete as 
when originally deposited, but a waist-buckle was the 
only vestige of apparel that could be traced. Of the lid 
only about one third, the middle portion, remained ; the 
centre of this was occupied by a beaded fillet, from which 



118 ENCAUSTIC TILES, ETC. CHEETSEY ABBEY. 

sprang, on either side, a tendril and foliage, consisting of 
three lobes or trefoils of early English character. 

At two feet nine inches to the south of this, and six 
inches lower in the ground, was found another coffin, of 
Caen or other similar stone, 1 foot 3^ inches deep exter- 
nally, and internally 6 feet 6 inches long, 2 feet wide 
at the shoulders, and 12^ inches deep, two holes being 
bored through the bottom. This was also shaped to 
receive the head, the walls of the sides being left 4 inches 
thick. The lid was entire, and consisted of one huge and 
rough slab of a material similar to the coffin itself. The 
skeleton, which was of large proportions, was entire and 
undisturbed. As in the previous case, a waist-buckle of 
bronze was the only evidence of any apparel. 

At a further depth of about eight inches, and six feet 
to the west of the Purbeck marble one, was discovered a 
grave or tomb, formed of fourteen roughly hewn pieces of 
chalk, of which three formed the head, five the one side 
and six the other, the foot-stone being altogether want- 
ing. The extreme internal dimensions were 6 feet 1 inch 
in length by 1 foot 6 inches wide and 11 inches deep. 
This skeleton was also entire, though no trace of any lid 
or covering, or of any clothing could be found. The soil 
formed the floor of this, as of all the other coffins not 
hewn out of solid stone. 

A little to the south and west of this, was another one 
of an oolitic stone, and corresponding most closely to 
the second one described above. 

At a similar distance to the north and west, was ano- 
ther grave of roughly hewn chalk-stones, enclosing a 
leaden coffin composed of two sheets folded together, 
and nailed about a wooden shell which had entirely 
gone to decay ; contrary to the general rule, the bones 
composing this skeleton were in a state of confusion. 



ENCAUSTIC TILES, ETC. CHERTSEY ABBEY. 119 

On the centre of the top of the leaden coffin, was nailed 
a Maltese cross cut out of lead, but no inscription was 
discoverable. The whole was covered with mortar. 

Almost touching the north face of the foundations of 
the supposed south wall of the transept, at three feet 
from the second coffin described above, and two feet six 
inches deeper in the soil, was discovered what was in 
many respects, the most singular of all the tombs, espe- 
cially on account of its dimensions. These were, inter- 
nally, 6 feet 6 inches in length, and 2 feet 6 inches in 
width, and the depth nearly 2 feet. The sides, internally 
slightly concave in the direction of the length, were 
composed of roughly hewn chalk stones, and the whole 
was covered by five slabs of unequal size, cemented toge- 
ther. A recess was formed for the head, and a slab 
placed obliquely to receive it, and the inner faces of the 
head and foot stones, were ornamented by plain crosses in 
slender relief, occupying nearly the whole surface, that 
at the foot being a regular Greek cross, and the other a 
Latin one, the arms increasing somewhat in width 
towards the extremities, and the lower one terminating 
with a protuberance resembling a tenon. The bones 
were unusually large, and in a confused state, partially 
imbedded in a wet loam, so as to suggest the idea of their 
having been floated by water finding access to the inte- 
rior. No remains of clothing or metal of any kind, 
could be detected, though every care was taken to 
discover whatever might exist. 

Eive other coffins without lids, and all formed of 
loose blocks of chalk or stone, were found immediately 
contiguous to those already described : in one, the recess 
for the head was formed of a single block hollowed out ; 
in another occurred a stone having some mouldings and 
carving, apparently of the early English or transitional 



120 ENCAUSTIC TILES, ETC. CHERTSEY ABBEY. 

character ; and the feet of the occupant of a third, had 
rested upon an encaustic tile decorated with a griffin in 
very good style. The walls of these two had been 
levelled up, with tiles exactly resembling our plain roof- 
ing tiles, with the two holes for the pegs, set in mortar 
as though to receive a lid or covering, but none such 
could be traced. Indeed, the whole of the uncovered 
coffins were filled with soil, if not concrete ; and yet the 
bones were perfectly undisturbed, the ribs retained their 
rotundity, the feet bones their vertical position, and the 
hands and other portions their exact places and rela- 
tions ; leaaing almost irresistibly, to the conclusion that 
the soil was compacted around the corpse, before decom- 
position had ensued. 

Immediately under and between the coffins were the 
remains of many skeletons, and though no other evi- 
dence of coffins remained, the frequent occurrence of a 
black substance, might be considered to prove, that the 
sepulture took place in wood. 

The whole of the skeletons that were not disturbed, 
lay on their backs, with their feet to the east, their arms 
and hands not crossed or joined, but lying straight by 
their sides ; the bones were sound and firm, except those 
without coffins, which soon crumbled into dust. 

Excepting the small portions of sculpture already 
enumerated, nothing whatever was found to assist in 
determining the dates, or in otherwise identifying the 
interments : and therefore without indulging in vain 
speculations, I content myself with recording the above 
facts, simply adding, that we are mainly indebted to 
the persevering diligence and untiring watchfulness of 
Mr. Shurlock, for the discovery of these interesting 
remains, and the preservation of the details here enume- 
rated. 



ENCAUSTIC TILES, ETC. CHERTSEY ABBEY. 121 

Common justice however, both to amateur and artist, 
requires me to invite attention to the beautifully en- 
graved representation of the excavations by which this 
volume is embellished ; and which Mr. Le Keux has exe- 
cuted, from the even more beautiful photographs, taken 
by Captain Oakes, and by him handsomely presented to 
the Society. 



R 



122 MANOR OF HATCHAM. 



XII. 

A MEMOIR OP THE MANOR OE HATCHAM 
IN THE COUNTY OE SURREY. 

By WILLIAM HENRY HART, Esq., F.S.A. 

BEAD AT THE GENERAL MEETING HELD IN LAMBETH PALACE 31ST OCTOBER, 1856. 



Hatcham is thus described in Domesday Survey : — 

" In Brixistan Hunclredo. 
" Episcopus Lisoiensis tenet de Episcopo Hacheham. Brixi tenuit de 
Rege Edwardo. Tunc et modo se defendit pro iij Lidis. Terra est iij 
carrucatarum. Ibi sunt ix villani, et ij bordarii, cum iij carrucatis, et 
ibi vj acrre prati. Silva iij porcis. Tempore Regis Edwardi et postea 
et modo valet xl solidos." 

This gives as the first owner of the manor Brixi, from 
whom Brixi' s stone, afterwards corrupted into Brixton, 
not far from Hatcham took its name. 

At the time of the survey, Hatcham was held by the 
Bishop of Lisieux under Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, but on 
the disgrace of the latter it reverted to the crown, and 
afterwards came to form part of the Barony of Maminot, 
under the following circumstances : — 

Gilbert de Maminot, one of William the Conqueror's 
chief captains and favourites, was one of those eight 
barons whom John de Eienes associated with himself 
for guarding Dover Castle. Eor that service consider- 
able lands were given by the king to John de Eienes, 
who divided them between himself and the other barons, 
and bound each of them, by the tenure of their lands, 
to maintain a certain number of soldiers continually for 
the defence of the castle. 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 123 

The share which fell to Gilbert de Maminot under 
this arrangement consisted of twenty-four knight's fees, 
of which fees Hatcham formed one. 

The superior interest in the manor soon afterwards 
came to the Say family, lords of Deptford, and there 
remained till the reign of Richard the Second, when, in 
Trinity Term, in the nineteenth year of the reign of that 
monarch, a fine was levied, entailing the manor upon 
Sir William Heron and Elizabeth his wife (the represen- 
tatives of the Say family) and the heirs of their bodies, 
with remainder to her right heirs for ever. 

15th May, 2 Henry IV. [1401], Matilda, relict of 
Thomas Bosenho, and daughter and one of the heirs of 
Thomas de Aldon, released unto Sir William Heron all 
her right and interest in this manor. 1 

Elizabeth, wife of Sir William Heron, died 23 Rich- 
ard II., leaving her husband surviving ; he died without 
issue 30th October, 6 Henry IV. [1404], and by an 
inquisition taken thereupon it was found that he died 
seized of two knights' fees in Hecchesham and Bertyng- 
herst, and which, on his death, were taken into the 
king's hands. Value of each fee 100 shillings. 2 

The paramount interest in the manor of Hatcham, 
after remaining with the family of the Says thus far, 
then became vested in the crown. I will therefore pro- 
ceed to the consideration of the mesne interest, or that 
which was held by the inferior tenants under the lords 
paramount. 

In the time of Henry II. Gilbert de Hachesham 
resided there, and the manor afterwards belonged to 
James de Vabadune and Roger de Bavent. 

In the " Testa de Nevill " it is returned that two 

1 Close Eoll ; 2 Henry IV., part 2, memb. 19. d. 

2 Inq. post mortem, 6 Henry IV. ; n° 21. 



124 MANOR OP HATCHAM. 

knights' fees in Hachesham and Camerwell were held of 
Humfrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, by William de 
Say and the heirs of Richard de Vabadune. This, how- 
ever, is incorrect to a certain extent; the lordship of 
Hnmfrey de Bohun was confined to Camberwell, and 
did not include Hatcham; moreover, William de Say 
held directly from the king, not from Humfrey de 
Bohun. 

By a fine levied in the eighteenth year of Henry III., 
Robert de Retherhee and Agnes his wife, in considera- 
tion of seven silver marks, granted to William, son of 
Benedict, and his heirs for ever, five acres of meadow in 
Hachesham ; rendering annually half a pound of cummin 
and one penny within fifteen days of Easter. 

By another fine levied in Trinity Term, 31 Henry III., 
Avicia, formerly the wife of James the Goldsmith, 
granted to Laurence, son of William, one third part 
of ten acres of land in Betherhethe and Hechesham, 
being her dower of the freehold which belonged to her 
husband in those villages ; and in consideration of that 
fine the said Laurence granted to Avicia a rent of one 
mark issuing out of a tenement in London, held of Lau- 
rence by Bobert de Herefeld, to be received by her 
yearly during her life ; and after her decease the rent 
was to revert to Laurence and his heirs for ever. 

By a deed dated on the feast of St. James, 52 Henry 
III. [1268], and made between Adam de Strattone, clerk, 
of the one part, and Thomas de Heyham and Isabella 
his wife of the other part, the said Adam granted and 
demised to the said Thomas and Isabella, and to the 
heirs of Thomas, in fee farm, one messuage and all the 
lands and tenements which he possessed in the villages 
of Betherheth, Bermundeseye, Carnerwell, and Hache- 
sham, which formerly belonged to Sarah, daughter of 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 125 

Henry of London, to be holden of the said Adam and 
his heirs, rendering yearly ten marks at Michaelmas 
for all services. And, moreover, the said Thomas and 
Isabella covenanted to sustain the houses, garden, and 
everything belonging to the said lands and tenements, 
without waste or destruction, in the same state in 
which they received them, or in a better, and also 
all the embankment against the Thames belon^ins; 
to the said lands and tenements at their own expense ; 
so that, in default thereof, neither the said Adam or his 
heirs should suffer any diminution in the said rent of ten. 
marks, or the tenants in Rotherhithe or their neigh- 
bours suffer any loss or damage ; to the faithful perform- 
ance of all which the said Thomas and Isabella, for them- 
selves and the heirs of the said Thomas, bound all their 
goods, movable and immovable, present and to come, and 
also all their lands ; and they granted to the said Adam, 
and his heirs or assigns, power to enter upon the said 
lands and tenements to distrain in case of any breach in 
this agreement. And if the water of the Thames should 
overflow and break through the wall belonging to the 
Prior of Bermundeseye, or any other wall not so well 
sustained, and submerge wholly or in part the said land 
at Retherheth, so that Thomas and Isabella, or the heirs 
of Thomas, could receive none of the profits thereof, it 
was agreed that the rent should decrease in proportion 
to the land they might lose, to be estimated by a jury of 
good and lawful men, unless Thomas and Isabella, or 
the heirs of Thomas, could recover by law against those 
the insecurity of whose walls had occasioned damage. 
And it was also agreed that if the said Thomas and 
Isabella could enfeoff Adam of certain lands in the 
parish of Bysseye within the year next following, then 
the said Adam would enfeoff the said Thomas and Isa- 



126 MANOR OP HATCHAM. 

bella of all the said lands and tenements which he held 
in Betherheth, Bernmndeseye, Kamerwell, and Hache- 
sham, to hold unto Thomas and Isabella, and the heirs 
of Thomas, by the service of one penny. 3 

Prom proceedings in 22 Edvv. II. it appears that 
Adam de Stratton had been guilty of certain transgres- 
sions, in consequence of which all his lands were for- 
feited and seized into the king's hands, but for some 
reason the lands granted to Thomas de Hecham and his 
wife were not included in this seizure ; whereupon the 
sheriff of Surrey was commanded to seize them without 
delay and keep them in safe custody, so that he might 
answer at the Exchequer concerning the issues. And 
he was ordered to make a return to the Lord Treasurer 
and the Barons of the Exchequer, at Easter 22 Edw. II., 
what lands and tenements were, on that occasion, taken 
into the king's hands, and their value ; at which day the 
sheriff returned that these lands consisted of forty-two 
acres, annual value of each acre 12c?. ; and fourteen 
acres of meadow, annual value of each acre 3s. ; and 
rents of assize 24s. yearly. Total value 108s. per annum. 
Afterwards came to the Exchequer Philip Burnel, who 
claimed to hold these lands, and demanded that they 
should be replevied unto him, which was accordingly 
done until the Monday next after the Eeast of the Ascen- 
sion, when he was to appear and satisfy unto the king 
the transgression which he had committed in concealing 
from him the said rents, and to answer to the king as 
well for the said rent as for the arrears from the time 
when the said Adam first incurred the forfeiture of 
his goods and chattels. Philip Burnel failed in appear- 
ing at the time prescribed, wherefore it was adjudged 

3 From the miscellaneous deeds in the Chapter House, Westminster. 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 127 

that these lands should be again taken into the king's 
hands, and the sheriff was, on the 4th June, ordered to 
seize them and keep them in safe custody, and to 
attach Philip Burnel by his body to answer within 
eight days of St. John the Baptist ; but before that time 
he died, and the king retained possession of these 
lands. 4 

In 13 Edw. I. the king granted to Adam de Bavent 
his charter of free warren over all his demesne lands in 
Kacchesham, but in the same year Bavent alienated a 
part of his estate to Gregory de Rokesley, which after- 
wards came into the hands of the Burnells, and was 
called Little Hatcham ; what he retained was called the 
manor of Hachesham Bavent, now corrupted into Hat- 
cham Barnes, and with the history of this manor we 
will first proceed, as it is the larger and more impor- 
tant of the two. 

• Adam de Bavent was summoned to Parliament from 
6 to 15 Edw. I., and died about 21 Edw. I., leaving 
Hoger, his son and heir, who was then under age, 
whereupon William de Say, as lord of the fee, became 
entitled to the custody of the person and lands of the 
heir; but it being supposed that Boger held of the 
crown in capite, and not of Lord Say, a writ, dated the 
5th December, 21 Edw. I. [1292], was issued directing 
the escheator to seize the lands into the king's hands. 5 

Thereupon William de Say, in Michaelmas Term, 
22 Edw. I., came before the treasurer and barons of the 
Exchequer, and demanded that the custody should be 
restored to him, asserting that it belonged to him and 
not to the king, because that Adam de Bavent held of 
him in capite three knight's fees, one of which was in 

4 Lord Treasurer's Memoranda Roll, 21 and 22 Edw. I. niemb. 47. 

5 Fine Roll, 21 Edw. I. memb. 26. 



128 MANOR OF HATCHAM. 

Hachesliam, and nothing of the king by which the 
custody of the lands or of the heir of Adam could pertain 
to the king. And the treasurer and barons answered 
that having examined the rolls and memoranda of the 
Exchequer, it was found that one Richard de Vabadune, 
whose daughter and heir, Sarra de Vabadune by name, 
was married to Roger de Bavent, father of the said 
Adam (of which Roger and Sarra the said Adam de 
Bavent, was son and heir), held one fee of the king in 
capite ut de corona in Hachesliam, in the county of 
Surrey, and the said custody therefore belonged to the 
king, the tenure by which Adam held of William de Say 
or of any other person in whatever manner notwith- 
standing. And William de Say said that Adam de 
Bavent held of him in capite by knight's service, and 
that the ancestors of William were seized of the custody 
of the lands and the heirs, the relief, marriage, and 
homage of all the ancestors of Adam from time imme- 
morial ; and in like manner the same William in his 
time was seized of the homage of the said Adam and of 
the said custody until he was now newly deprived by 
the king; and that the king, or his ancestors, never 
were seized of the custody, marriage, &c. of Adam or 
his ancestors ; wherefore he demanded that the custody 
should be restored to him as before. And he prayed 
that the treasurer and barons would attempt nothing in 
this behalf to his prejudice, nor would proceed against 
him to judgment, but would leave the matter in its 
present condition till the parliament after Michael- 
mas in the same year ; that then, before the king and 
his council, the right of the said William being more 
fully examined, there should be done to him in the pre- 
mises what of right ought to be done. And a day being 
given him at the said parliament, at which the matter 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 129 

being fully treated, and his right in that behalf being 
shown and being examined by the king and council, 
it was told him that he must go to the receipt of the 
Exchequer, where justice would be done him in that 
behalf. Whereupon a bill was directed to the Exche- 
quer by William de Say, who appeared in person before 
the treasurer and barons of the Exchequer and the 
justices of the Bench, and they, after hearing his reasons, 
and examining the rolls and memoranda of the Exche- 
quer, declared that the king was entitled to the custody, 
notwithstanding the seisin of William de Say or any of 
his ancestors ; thus confirming their former decision. 

Immediately after Adam de Bavent's death, the cus- 
tody of Hatcham Barnes was given to Master William 
de Wymundham until the lawful age of Roger de 
Bavent, but was taken again into the king's hands for 
debts owing by Wymundham. It was then granted to 
William de Hamelton, to hold during the king's plea- 
sure, rendering annually 595. ^\d. in part payment of 
such debts. The accounts relative to the manor from 
the time it came to Hamelton' s hands, until Roger 
obtained livery, are all entered on the Pipe E-olls of the 
period. 

A portion of Hatcham Barnes came into possession of 
John Abel at some time previous to 23 Edw. I., for, on 
the 16th April in that year, he had a grant of free 
warren over all his demesne lands of Hacheham and 
Camerwelle. 7 

He died on Monday after the feast of the Nativity of 
the Blessed Virgin, 16 Edw. II. [1322], and by an 
inquisition taken the same year, it was found that he 
died seized of one messuage, with a garden, at Seiches- 

6 Lord Treasurer's Memoranda Roll, 21 & 22 Edw. I. memb. 16, d. 

7 Charter Roll, 23 Edw. I. n° 21. 

S 



130 MANOR OF IIATCHAM. 

ham, held of Roger de Bavent, by fealty and the service 
of 13c?. a year ; value of the messuage 3s. 4<d. He also 
held of the heirs of Robert Maunsel six acres of land 
by fealty and the service of 3s. per annum, which is near 
the true value. He also held of the heirs of Richard 
Aleyn four acres of land by fealty and the service of 
13d. per annum; yearly value beyond the services Sd. 
Richard Abel was his son and heir ; at that time aged 
31. 8 

In Michaelmas Term, 29 Edw. I., 9 Roger de Bavent 
came before the justices of the King's Bench to prove 
that he had attained his majority, and to pray for de- 
livery of his lands, which, on the 27th October in the 
same year, upon doing his homage, he obtained. 10 

30 Edw. I., Roger de Bavent petitioned the king for 
remedy against a sum of £30, arrears of castle-guard 
rent, demanded of him for the manors of Brandeston 
(in Suffolk) and Hachesharn, by the warden of Dover ; 
being the rent for the period during which those manors 
were in the custody of the king, at the rate of ten 
shillings for every three weeks; 11 and by a writ dated the 
10th August in the same year, the king commanded 
Robert de Burghersh, constable of Dover Castle, to 
permit Roger de Bavent to go free of this demand. 12 

William de Say died in 23 Edw. I., immediately fol- 
lowing the proceedings concerning the custody of Roger 
de Bavent; but the dispute was revived by his son 
Geoffrey, who, in 35 Edw. I., preferred a petition to the 
king and council, in which he stated that Adam de Bavent 

8 Inq. post mortem ; 16 Edw. II. n° 41. 

9 Coram Rege Roll, 29 Edw. I. memb. 26. 

10 Close Roll, 29 Edw. I. memb. 2. 

11 Rolls of Parliament, vol. i. page 157. 
18 Close Roll, 30 Edw. 1. memb. 8. 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 131 

and his ancestors held of him and his ancestors two 
knights' fees, one of which was situate in ITaccesham, 
in the county of Surrey, and by reason of that tenure 
his ancestors did always, until then, have the custody 
and marriage of every ancestor of Adam who was under 
age, and relief of those who attained their full age after 
the death of their ancestor; and reciting the judgment 
of the Court of Exchequer against his father, William 
de Say, he says that he is ready to prove that Adam de 
Bavent held nothing of the king in Hacchesham, nor in 
any other place, tit de corona; but of Geoffrey and his an- 
cestors he held a knight's fee inHecchesham,in the county 
of Surrey, of the barony of Maminot, which barony 
Geoffrey holds, and his ancestors held of the king by the 
service of guarding Dover Castle ; and upon this he 
appealed to the books or rolls of the Exchequer, and to 
the testimony of the warden of Dover Castle, and prayed 
the king and council that they would command the lord 
treasurer and the barons of the Exchequer to cause the 
rolls and books of the Exchequer to be examined ; and 
if, upon inspection, they should discover any error, that 
then the judgment should be revoked and annulled by 
them, and the custody be restored to him, with all its 
issues from the time when the king seized it. It was 
answered that the question should be reconsidered, and if 
any error were found, that it should be corrected and 
amended." 

By a fine levied in Easter Term, 7 Edw. II., William 
de Depyng and Ismania his wife, and Nicholas Donnom, 
in consideration of a sparrow-hawk, granted to Richard 
de Dunle and his heirs for ever, one messuage, twenty 
acres of land, and 6s. Sd. rents, in Rutherhuth and 
Hacchesham. 

13 Rolls of Parliament, vol. i. page 202. 



132 MANOR OF HATCHAM. 

By a fine levied the 25th June, 7 Edw. II., Richard 
le Longe, of Wormele, and Emma his wife, in consi- 
deration of one sparrow-hawk, granted to Thomas Atte 
Grene, of Bermundeseye, and his heirs for ever, one 
messuage, eleven acres of land, and two acres of mea- 
dow in Hacchesham. 

By a fine levied in Easter Term, 11 Edw. II., John 
de Ritlyng and Cristiana his wife, in consideration of ten 
silver marks, granted to Roger Husebond, of London, 
and his heirs for ever, three acres of land in Hachesham. 

By a fine levied in Michaelmas Term, 11 Edw. II., 
William de Derham and Alice his wife granted to 
William de Pyncebek and his heirs for ever ten acres 
of land, 18c/. rents, and one moiety of a messuage in 
Hacchesham. 

By a fine levied in Trinity Term, 12 Edw. II., 
Roger de Munketon granted to John de Merkyngfeld, 
clerk, for his life, four messuages, two tofts, one gar- 
den, forty-two acres of land, three acres of meadow, and 
lis. 6cl. rents, with the appurtenances in Neweton, 
Waleworth, Suthwerk, and Hachham; and after his 
decease, then to Laurence de Merkyngfeld and the heirs 
of his body ; and in case of his death without issue, then 
to Lannallus de Merkyngfeld and the heirs of his 
body ; with remainder to Roaldus de Merkyngfeld and 
the heirs of his body; remainder to Andrew de Mer- 
kyngfeld and the heirs of his body; and with the 
ultimate remainder to John de Stynetton and his heirs 
for ever. 

These were all inferior tenants under Roger de Bavent. 
About this time William de Bliburgh, who was keeper 
of the king's wardrobe, held a small quantity of land in 
llatcham Barnes. By an inquisition taken upon his 
death, 6 Edw. II., it was found that he held of Roger 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 133 

Bavent, at Hachesham, five acres of land, but by what 
service the jurors were ignorant ; annual value ten shil- 
lings. Agnes, the wife of Richard de Dunleghe, at that 
time thirty-one years of age, was his next heir. 14 

By a fine levied on the day after the Purification, 
5 Edw. III., Nicholas de Besseford granted to Thomas 
de Betoigne and Joan his wife, and the heirs of their 
bodies, two messuages, forty-six acres of land, and two 
acres of meadow, in Camerwell, Pekham, and Haches- 
ham ; and in case of their death without such issue, 
then to the right heirs of Thomas for ever. 

By a fine levied in Trinity Term, 13 Edw. III., Wil- 
liam Maddele and Matilda his wife, in consideration of 
twenty silver marks, granted to Maurice Turgis, citizen 
and draper of London, and Katherine his wife, and to 
the heirs of Maurice, one messuage, twenty acres and a 
half of land, seven acres of meadow, and 3s. Id. rents, 
in Hachcsham. 

By another fine levied in the same term, Laurence 
Sely, citizen and leatherdresser of London, and Agnes 
his wife, in consideration of twenty silver marks, granted 
to the same Maurice Turgis and Katherine his wife, and 
to the heirs of Maurice, one messuage, seven acres of 
land, one acre of meadow, and IScL rents, in Hachesham. 

By a lease dated on Monday after the Purification, 
1343, Roger de Bavent granted his manor of Hachesham 
to Robert de Burton, canon of Chichester, for seven 
years. 15 

On the 1st July, 18 Edw. III. [1344], Roger de Bavent 
granted, among many other manors, all his lands and te- 
nements, with their appurtenances, in Hacchesham to the 

14 Inq. post mortem, 6 Edw. II. n° 17. 

I& Close Roll, 17 Edw. III. part 1, menib. 24, d. 



134 MANOR OF HATCHAM. 

king, 16 who, on the 3rd July in the same year, appointed 
"William de Kelleseye to receive seisin of the same lands. 17 
On the 23rd September following, the king granted to 
William de Kelleseye and William Balle the custody of 
the same lands during the royal pleasure ; 18 and the next 
year, on the 3rd April, is was transferred to William de 
Kaynes. 19 

Roger de Bavent being at this time indebted to Wil- 
liam de Carleton in the sum of £80 upon a " chevancie," 
the king, on the 25th June, 19 Edw. III. [1345], in 
order to reimburse Carleton, granted to him the manor 
of Hachesham, to hold to him, his heirs, executors, 
and assigns, with the corn, hay, and grass growing 
thereon, unto Michaelmas next, and from that time 
for two years, in full satisfaction of the £80 ; that is, 
valuing the manor at £40 up to Michaelmas, and at 
£20 for each of the following years. 20 

This debt, however, would appear to have been soon 
afterwards satisfied; for, on the 18th May, 1346, the 
manor was granted by the king to Roger de Bavent, to 
hold for his life, free from the payment of any rent or 
service. 21 

By a fine levied in Trinity Term, 24 Edw. III., John 
Pynselegle and Katherine his wife, in consideration of 
one hundred silver marks, granted to John Adam de 
Luk, citizen of London, and Katherine his wife, and the 
heirs of their bodies, one messuage, seven shops, ninety- 
two acres of land, eleven acres and a half of meadow, 

16 Close Roll, 18 Edw. III. part 2, memb. 22, d. 

17 Patent Roll, 18 Edw. III. part 2, memb. 30. 

18 Originalia Roll, 18 Edw. III. memb. 12. 
)9 Originalia Roll, 19 Edw. III. memb. 3. 

20 Patent Roll, 19 Edw. III. part 1, memb. 3. 
- 1 Patent Roll, 20 Edw. III. part 1, memb. 2. 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 185 

thirteen acres of pasture, three acres and a half of wood, 
and 5s. 5c?. rents, in Hacchesham ; and in case of their 
death without such issue, then to Guelph Adam de Luk 
and the heirs of his body; with remainder to James 
Passhoney and the heirs of his body ; and with ultimate 
remainder to the right heirs of John Adam de Luk. 

By another fine levied in Trinity Term, 25 Edw. III., 
Thomas Brown and Margery his wife granted unto John 
Adam de Luk and his wife, and to the heirs of John 
for ever, eighty seven acres of land, twenty acres of 
meadow, and 22s. 9d. rents, in Hacchesham, Camerwell, 
and Pecham. 

The manor was next in possession of John de Wyn- 
wyk, William de Thorpe, and William de Peck. 

In 29 Edw. III. a reversionary grant of Hatcham 
Barnes was made by the king to the prioress and con- 
vent of Dartford, and on the 12th October, 1361, Alice, 
the widow of Roger Bavent, released to the king, and 
also to the prioress and convent of Dartford, her right 
to this and many other lands." 2 

John de Wynwyk died 20th June, 1360 ; William de 
Thorpe on the 27th May, 1361 ; and William de Peck on 
the 20th September, 1363 ; and by an inquisition taken 
at Southwark on the 28th June, 1366, it was found that 
they held the manor of Hatcham at the time of their 
respective deaths, by royal grant, together with the 
knights' fees and church patronage belonging to the 
said manor ; and that they held forty shillings rents at 
Pitfold, in the county of Surrey, which rents were parcel 
of the manor of Hacchesham ; and that the said manor 
was held of the king in capite as of the castle of Dover, 
rendering for the same ten shillings every thirty-two 

22 Close Roll, 36 Edw. III. memb. 4.°. and 4S. 



136 MANOR OF HATCHAM. 

weeks for all services ; annual value of the whole manor 
£13. 6s. 8d. And it was further found by the same 
inquisition, that Thomas Vaghan, deceased, at the time 
of his death held in his demesne as of fee, one messuage 
and nine acres of land, with the appurtenances, in Hac- 
chesham, as parcel of the manor called Coldeherbergh 
in Hachesham, holden of the manor of Hachesham by 
the service of fourteen pence paid at the aforesaid manor ; 
annual value 6s. Sd. And the aforesaid tenements were 
taken into the king's hands after the death of Thomas 
Vaghan, two third-parts whereof remained in the king's 
hands by reason of the minority of Hamo, the son and 
heir ; the other third-part being assigned to Alesia, the 
widow of Sir Thomas, for her dower. 33 

John Abel (a descendant of Bichard Abel before 
mentioned) dying without heirs, his lands in Hatcham 
escheated to the prioress of Dartford, and a writ was 
issued to the sheriff commanding him to deliver them to 
the prioress. 24 

By a fine levied Trinity Term, 44 Edw. III., John 
Eolevill and Mary his wife, in consideration of one hun- 
dred silver marks, granted to William de Walleworth, 
citizen of London, and Margaret his wife, and to the 
heirs of "William de Walleworth, two messuages, sixty 
acres of land, and sixteen acres of meadow, in Hacches- 
ham and Peccham. 

By an inquisition taken at Southwark on the 25th 
October, 43 Edw. III. [1369], it was found that John 
the son of John Adam, deceased, at his death, held in his 
demesne, as of fee of the prioress of Dartford monastery, 
the demesnes of the manor of Ilaccesham ; one messuage 
worth nothing beyond reprises, one garden and one dove- 

23 Inq. post mortem, 40 Edw. III. (first numbers), n° 40. 

24 Close Roll, 43 Edw. TIF. memfo. C. 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 137 

house, worth per annum 40c?. ; also nine acres of land, 
worth per annum 3s., held of the said prioress ; also six- 
teen acres of land in Ombraifeld of the said prioress, worth 
per annum 5s. 4c/. ; also in a certain field called Cokes- 
croft, ten acres of land of the prior of Tounbrige, lying 
between the wood belonging to Lord Say on the south 
side and the highway on the north side, worth per 
annum 10c/. ; also seven acres of land in a croft, called 
Absolon Crofte, of the said prioress, worth per annum 
3s. 4<d. ; also in Absolon Crofte five acres of wood, worth 
per annum 40c/. and no more, because there was nothing 
but brambles and thorns ; all which were held of the said 
prioress by knight's service, rendering yearly 8s. ll^d. 
at the feasts of Easter and St. Martin by equal portions, 
and at the feast of the birth of our Lord one cock and 
two hens, and at Easter thirty eggs. 

By the terms of the service he was also to find a man 
to * * for one day, or pay 2d. ; and also to find a 
man to stack the lord's hay, or pay Id. ; and to plough 
for a day, and to carry the hay if he have a cart ; and if 
he refused to help the reaper during that time, he was to 

pay One quarter of malt a year, and have by the day 

f or * * * * * * * * * 

performing suit at the court of the said prioress for the 
said manor from three weeks to three weeks. He held 
also two acres of land in a croft called Brino-choscroft 
worth per annum 8c/., held of the lord, Nicholas Burnel, 
by the service of 2s. Id. per annum and suit of court to 
Hacchesham. He also held at Ilacchesham one cottage 
and one acre of meadow, which formerly belonged to 
William Shrevesbury, worth per annum 2s., held of 
the said prioress by knight's service, and paying 20c/. 
per annum. He also held of the same prioress by service 
as before, one messuage, one garden, and two acres of 

T 



138 MANOR OF HATCHAM. 

arable land adjoining, in a croft called Bonnescroft, 
worth per annum 2s. ; also three acres of arable land 
which were formerly pasture, lying in a certain croft 
called the Lordescroft, worth per annum os. ; also half an 
acre of arable land called Briclescroft, worth per annum 
Id. ; also one cottage and garden formerly belonging to 
William Wallis, worth per annum 6d. ; all which were 
held of the said prioress by knight's service, and ren- 
dering per annum 2s., at the feasts of Easter and St. 
Martin by equal portions. He also held in a place 

called S eight acres of land, worth per acre M., 

and five acres and three roods of meadow, worth per 
acre 2s., held of William de Say by the service of six- 
pence per annum at his manor of Westgrenewych. 25 

This inquisition is exceedingly defaced and illegible, 
which will account for the occasional blanks I have been 
obliged to leave. 

17th August, 30 Henry VIII. [1538], the abbess and 
convent of Dartford, by an indenture under the seal of 
the monastery, granted a lease of the manor to William 
Appaire, from Michaelmas, 1539, for forty-one years, at 
the annual rent of £25. ~ G 

On the general suppression of monasteries, the manor 
reverted to the crown, and by letters patent, dated 27th 
February, 2 & 3 Philip and Mary [1556], the demesnes 
and manor of Hatchambarnes were, among many other 
lands, granted to Anne, Duchess of Somerset, widow of 
Edward, Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector of England, 
in full satisfaction and recompense of her dower in her 
husband's lands, of which she had been deprived by 
reason of their forfeiture to the crown on his attainder : 

25 Inq. post mortem, 43 Edw. III., part 1, n° 9. 

26 I have not been able to discover the original of this lease, but it is 
frequently recited in subsequent documents. 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 139 

to hold unto the duchess and her assigns for the term of 
her natural life, to be held as of the manor of Estgrene- 
wiche in the county of Kent, by fealty only for all rents, 
services, and demands whatever. 27 

By an indenture dated the 30th November, 28 Eliz., 
she assigned the manor to Walter Cope, and he, by 
indenture dated the 9th March in the following year, 
surrendered it to the queen. 

The next proprietor of the manor was Walter Haddon. 
On the 10th March, 12 Eliz. [1570], letters patent were 
made out whereby the manor, excepting all woods, 
underwoods, &c, was granted to Haddon, to commence 
after the expiration of Appaire's lease, and also after the 
death of the Duchess of Somerset, for the term of thirty 
years, at the annual rent of £25. 28 

Walter Haddon died 21st January, 1571-2, and his 
widow Anne then succeeded to the manor by virtue of 
his will ; she afterwards became the wife of Sir Henry 
Cobham, who died leaving her surviving. 

By letters patent dated the 19th September, 42 Eliz. 
[1600], the manor, excepting all woods, underwoods, 
&c, was granted to Anne Broke Lady Cobham, widow 
of Sir Henry Cobham, for the term of twenty-one years, 
to commence from the expiration of Haddon's lease, at 
the annual rent of £25. 29 Thus she possessed two terms 
in the manor, one of thirty years granted to her former 
husband Haddon, and the other of twenty-one years 
granted to herself. 

6th March, 43 Eliz. [1601], she assigned the term of 
twenty-one years to Sir John Brooke, alias Cobham, her 



27 Patent Roll, 2 and 3 P. and M., part 8, memb. 22. 

28 Patent Boll, 12 Eliz., part 8, memb. 21. 

29 Patent Roll, 42 Eliz., part 29, memb. 21. 



140 MANOR OF HATCHAM. 

son, who was also in possession of the other term of 
thirty years. 

By an indenture dated the 21st June, 44 Eliz. [1602], 
made between Sir John Brook, alias Cobham, of the first 
part, Anne Redman, widow, late the wife and sole exe- 
cutrix of the last will and testament of Thomas Redman, 
esquire, deceased, of the second part, and Edward Mil- 
ner, of Carebeale, in the parish of Antoney, in the county 
of Cornwall, gentleman, of the third part, the manor of 
Hatcham Barnes was assigned by Sir John Brook to 
Milner upon various trusts for Sir John Brook and Anne 
Redman, his intended wife, with a power of revocation, 
which power was, by a deed, dated the 24th November, 
11 James I. [1613], exercised, 30 declaring that the 
manor should from thenceforth be to the only use of Sir 
John Brooke, his executors, administrators, and assigns. 

The woods excepted out of the preceding leases of the 
manor, and which comprise all that part of Hatcham 
Barnes lying on the south side of the high road, were 
kept in possession of the crown until the twenty-ninth 
year of Elizabeth, when, by letters patent dated 17th 
March, they were leased to John Cadye. 31 

By letters patent dated the 26th November, 7 James I., 
[1609], the manor was granted to George Salter and 
John Williams by the description of the manor of Hat- 
cham Barnes, and the lands, &c, in West Greenwich and 
Lewisham, in the counties of Kent and Surrey, with the 
perquisites of courts formerly part of the possessions of 
the monastery of Dertford, in Kent, and theretofore de- 
mised under the yearly rent of £36. 2s. M., and eleven 
cartloads of faggots yearly to be delivered. 32 

30 Inrollecl in Common Pleas. 

31 Patent Roll, 29 Eliz., part 1G, mcnib. 38. 

32 Patent Roll, 7 James I., part 34. 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. Ill 

By an indenture dated the 14th March, 9 James I. 
[1612], and made between George Salter and John Wil- 
liams of the one part, and Peter Vanlore, of London, 
esquire, and William Blake, of London, gentleman, of 
the other part ; Salter and Williams bargained and sold 
to Vanlore and Blake, their heirs and assigns, the manor 
of Kacliambarnes, to hold unto and to the use of Vanlore 
and Blake, their heirs and assigns for ever. 33 

By an indenture dated the 6th April, 10 James I. 
[1612], made between Vanlore and Blake of the one 
part, and Cristofer Brooke, of Lincoln's Inn, esquire, 
and William Hakewill, of Lincoln's Inn, gentleman, of 
the other part ; Vanlore and Blake, in consideration of 
£2,050, bargained and sold to Brooke and Hakewill, their 
heirs and assigns for ever, the manor of Hachambarnes^ 

By an indenture dated the 1st November, 11 James L, 
[1613], and made between Sir John Brooke, alias Cob- 
ham, of the Strand, in the county of Middlesex, knight, 
Christopher Brooke, and William Hakewill of the one 
part, and Sir John Garrard and Sir Thomas Lowe, 
knights, and aldermen of London, Robert Omey, and 
Martin Bond, citizens and haberdashers of London, of 
the other part ; Sir John Brooke, Christopher Brooke, 
and Hakewill, in consideration of £4,380 paid to Sir 
John, bargained and sold to Garrard, Lowe, Omey, and 
Bond, their heirs and assigns for ever — 

"All that the mannor of Hachambarnes in the parishes of Westgreen- 
wich and Lewsharo, in the counties of Kent and Surrey, with all and 
every, the rights, members, and appurtenaunces thereof ; and all lands, 
tenements, rents, and hereditaments whatsoever, in the said counties of 
Kent and Surrey, called or knowne by the name of the mannor of 
Hachambarnes (except as hereafter in these presents is excepted). And 
all those severall parcels of lands and grounds hereafter particulerly men- 

38 Close Roll, 10 James I., part 20. 
y4 Close Roll, 10 James I., part 24. 



142 MANOR OF HATCH AM. 

cioned, with their and every of their appurtenaunces, scituate, lying, and 
being in the said parrishes and counties, or some or one of them : That 
is to say, one close or parcell of ground commonlie called East Odefeild, 
contayning by estimacion two and twentie acres, be it more or lesse ; 
one other close or parcell of ground, as the same is nowe inclosed, com- 
monly called South Odefeild, conteyning by estimacion twelve acres 
and a halfF, be it more or lesse ; two closes or parcells of ground adjoyning 
together, the one called fowerteene acres, and thother ffifteene acres, both 
of them conteyning by estimacion nyne and twenty acres and a halff, be 
they more or lesse ; one other close or parcell of meadowe ground, com- 
monly called Crabtree Meade, conteyning by estimacion sixe acres, be 
it more or lesse ; all which nowe are, or late were, in the occupacion or 
holding of Richard Nettles Butcher or his assignes ; one other parcell 
of land commonly called twelve acres, adjoyning upon the foresaid parcell 
of ground, called Crabtree Meade, conteyning by estimacion twelve acres, 
be it more or lesse ; all those meadowe or pasture groundes now devided 
into three severall closes, commonlie called the Alders and Horsclose, or 
by both or one of those names, conteyning by estimacion one and twentie 
acres, be it more or lesse ; one lane leading from the said closes called 
the Alders, to the said parcell of land called the Twelve Acres, which 
parcells last mencioned nowe are, or late were, in the occupacion or 
holding of Thomas Large or his assignes ; one close or parcell of ground 

called foiu*e acrefeild, nowe, or late in the occupacion of Palmer 

or his assignes, conteyning by estimacion one and twentie acres and a 
halfe, be it more or lesse, lying and adjoyning to the north syde of parte 
of the foresaide ground called the Alders; one close or parcell of ground 
called Rushey Close, conteyning by estimacion sixe acres and a half, 
be it more or lesse ; one other parcell of meadowe ground as the 
same is nowe inclosed, conteyning by estimacion two acres, be it more 
or lesse, and lying betwixt the howse of the said mannor and the aforesaide 
feild called Odefeild, which two last parcells nowe are, or late were, in 
the possession or holding of Richard Cooke or his assignes ; and also 
one parcell of marish ground commonly called the Twentie Acres, con- 
teyning by estimacion one and twentie acres, be it more or lesse, nowe 
or late in the holding or occupacion of Henry Fesey or his assignes ; and 
all that close or parcell of meadow or pasture ground, nowe or late in 
the occupacion of Marke Bannester or his assignes, conteyning by esti- 
macion fyve acres, be it more or lesse, adjoyning to the south syde of 
part of the foresaid ground called the Alders, and abutteth uppon the 
highway there, leading to Debtford towards the south ; except and 
alwaies reserved out of this present graunt, bargaine, and sale, all those 
meadowes, pastures, woods, landes, and groundes, with all and singuler 
their appurlcmuince.s parcell of the said mannor and premises, which lye 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 143 

and be on the south syde of the highway which leadeth from the cittie 
of London to Debtford, in the said countie of Kent ; and all those one 
and foi'ty acres, be it more or lesse, of land, meadowe, and pasture, with 
the messuage or tenement lately built thereuppon, which lye together at 
the corner or meeting of the two highwayes there, thone of them leading 
from London to Debtford aforesaide, and thother leading from Peckham 
to the said towne of Debtford ; and which are scituate and being on the 
south-west syde of the said highwaye which leadeth from London to 
Debtford aforesaide :" 

To hold imto and to the use of Garrard, Lowe, Offley, 
and Bond, their heirs and assigns for ever. 35 

In this deed is mentioned a lease to John Daveis, 
citizen and haberdasher of London, of the whole manor 
for twenty-one years, at the yearly rent of £200. 

Part only of the manor, it will be observed, was con- 
veyed by this deed, the remaining part, exclusive of the 
messuage and the one and forty acres mentioned in the 
exception as lying at the corner of the two highways, 
and which afterwards came into possession of the Po- 
meroy family, was, by indenture of bargain and sale, 
dated 1st April, 1614, in consideration of £2,800, con- 
veyed by Sir John Brooke and the others to Garrard, 
Lowe, Offley, and Bond, by the description of — 

" All that messuage or tenement, and all those severall parcells of lands 
and grounds hereafter particularlie mencioned, with their and everie of 
their appui'tenaunces, scituate, lying, and being in the parishes of West- 
greenwich alias Deptford, and Lewsham, or one of them, in the counties 
of Kent and Surrey, or one of them ; and now or late parcell of, and 
belonging to, the mannor of Hacham Barnes, in the parishes and counties 
aforesaid, and doe lie and be on the south side of the highe waye there, 
which leadeth from Peckham to Deptford ; that is to say, all that 
messuage or tenement now, or late in the tenure or occupacion of 
Margerie Pundell or her assignes, and all houses, outhouses, edifices, 
buildings, barnes, stables, orchards, gardens, and hereditaments, with the 
appurtenaunces to the said messuage or tenement belonging or in anie 
wise apperteyning ; and also all that parcell of land, arrable or pasture, 
conteyning by estimaciou eight acres, be it more or lesse, with the appur- 

35 Close Roll, 11 James I., part 15, n° 42. 



144 MANOR OF HATCHAM. 

tenaunces, now or late in the tenure or occupacion of the said Margerie 
Rundell, and adjoyning to the said messuage or tenement ; and also all 
that parcell of land now or late being woodland, conteyning by estimacion 
six acres, be the same more or lesse, with the appurtenaunces, now or late 
also in the tenure or occupacion of the said Margerie or her assigns, and 
adjoyning to the said other parcell of land before mencioned on the 
south side thereof ; one other close or parcell of land, meadow, or pasture, 
commonly called Brake Close, conteyning by estimacion sixe acres and 
three roodes, be it more or lesse, now or late in the tenure or occupacion 
of William Shepley or his assigns ; one other close or parcell of meadowe 
or pasture ground, commonly called Colliers Close, conteyning by esti- 
macion six acres, be it more or lesse ; one other close or parcell of 
ground adjoyning thereunto on the south side thereof, commonly called 
Little Hacham Hill, conteyning by estimacion nyne acres, be it more 
or lesse, which said two closes called Colliers Close and Little Hacham 
Hill now or late were in the tenure or occupacion of "William Deare or 
his assigns ; one close or parcell of meadow or pasture ground, con- 
teyning by estimacion tenn acres and three roodes, be it more or lesse, 
called or knowne by the name of the Wynter Pasture, or by what other 
name or names ; one close or parcell of meadowe or pasture ground 
adjoyning to the same, conteyning by estimacion three acres and one 
roode, be it more or lesse, called or knowne by the name of Three Acre 
Close, or by what other name or names, both which closes or parcells of 
ground now or late were in the tenure or occupacion of Symon Rawlins 
and William Wingrave, or one of them, their or one of their assignee or 
assignes ; one other close or parcell of ground, called or knowne by the 
name or names of Maunsford Close, or by what other name or names, 
now or late in the holding or occupacion of Mark Bannester or his 
assignes, and conteyning by estimacion five acres, be it more or lesse, 
lying on the south side of the said close called the Winter Pasture ; one 
other close or parcell of arrable or pasture ground, commonly called or 
knowne by the name of Mowlands, or by what other name or names, 
conteyning by estimacion seaven acres, be it more or lesse, now or late 
in the tenure or occupacion of Robert Warner or his assignes ; and also 
all that great wood, woodland, and ground, called or knowne by the 
name of Hacham Great Wood, or The Great Wood, or by what other 
name or names, conteyning by estimacion fourescore acres, be it more 
or lesse, now in the occupacion of the said Sir John Brooke or his 
assignes, the north part whereof abbutteth ujipon the severall closes or 
parcells of ground before mencioned ; one other close or parcell of ground, 
commonly called Great Hacham Hill, conteyning by estimacion seaven- 
teene acres and a halfe, be it more or lesse ; one other close or parcell of 
ground, commonly called Hacham Fieldes, conteyning by estimacion 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 145 

nyneteene acres and a halfe, be it more or lesse ; which said two closes 
called Great Hachain Hill and Hacham Field doe lie and adjoyne to the 
south side of the said gi'eat wood, and are now in the occupacion of the 
said Sir John Brooke or his assignes ; all that parcell of ground now or 
late being woodground, with the ground and soile of the same, called or 
knowne by the name of Kents Wood, conteyning by estimacion one and 
thirtie acres, be it more or lesse, now or late in the severall tenures or 
occupacions of Richard Clarke, Roger Bradfield, William Stubbs, and John 
Ewen, or some or one of them, their or some or one of their assignee or 
assignes; and all those two closes or parcells of meadow or pasture ground 
called Kents Land, or by what other name or names, the one of them 
conteyning by estimacion eight acres, be it more or lesse, now or late 
in the occupacion of the foresaid Richard Clarke, and the other, con- 
teyning by estimacion seaven acres, be it more or lesse, now or late in 
the occupacion of Humfrey Hay ward, and doe lie and adjoyne together 
at the south end or side of the said wood called Kentes Wood." 

To hold unto and to the use of Garrard, Lowe, Offley, 
and Bond, their heirs and assigns for ever. 36 

In the year 1665, and for a short time following, the 
manor was the residence of Thomas Pepys, cousin to our 
old friend Samuel Pepys, of gossiping memory ; and on 
reference to the diary of the latter we find the following 
notices of Thomas Pepys and his Hatcham residence : — 

May 12, 1665. " After dinner comes my cozen, Thomas Pepys, of 
Hatchamr 

May 1, 1666. " At noon, my cozen Thomas Pepys did come to me, 
to consult about the business of his being a justice of the peace, which he 
is much against ; and, among other reasons, tells me, as a confidant, that 
he is not free to exercise punishment according to the Act against Quakers 
and other people, for religion. Nor do he understand Latin, and so is 
not capable of the place as formerly, now all warrants do run in Latin. 
Nor he in Kent, though he be of Deptford parish, his house standing in 
Surrey." 

June 29, 1667. "My cozen, Thomas Pepys, of Hatcham, come to 
see me." 

May 1, 1668. " Met my cozen, Thomas Pepys, of Deptford, and 
took some turns with him." 

Prom this period there will be no necessity to follow 

36 Close Roll, 12 James I., part 1, n° 2. 
TT 



146 MANOR OF HATCHAM. 

the history of the manor of Hatchani Barnes ; it became 
vested in its present owners, the Haberdashers' Com- 
pany, as trustees of the charitable bequests under the 
will of Mr. Jones, and there are no new features of 
interest that I can lay before my readers : I will there- 
fore proceed with the manor of Little Hatcham, which, 
it will be recollected, was divided from Hatcham Barnes. 

In 13 Edw. I. Adam de Bavent alienated a part of 
his estate to Gregory de Rokesley, who in the same year 
obtained a faculty from the abbot and convent of Begham 
for his oratory, which he had built for the use of himself 
and family at Hechesham, in their parish of West Green- 
wich. 37 

We have thus the origin of the manor of Little 
Hatcham. 

Erom an intimate acquaintance with this neighbour- 
hood, and the extent and boundaries of the various 
manors, I am enabled, even at this distant period, to 
point out with tolerable precision the spot where Gre- 
gory de B,okesley's residence must have stood; and as he 
was a notable individual of his time, having been several 
times Lord Mayor of London, it may not be uninterest- 
ing to pause here awhile, while I offer a remark on this 
point. The manor of Little Hatcham abuts, as it always 
has done, on the high road (i. e. the Old Kent Road), 
and Bokesley's residence would naturally be placed on 
this part of the estate ; the simple point is therefore to 
show the extent of this abuttal, and we shall then have 
a fair idea of the position of his house. The traveller 

37 The church of Saint Nicholas, "Westgreenwich (i.e. Deptford), at 
that time the parish church of Hatcham, then belonged to the prior 
and monks of Begham, having been given to them by Geoffrey de Saye 
and Alice his wife, and confirmed by a grant of their son Geoffrey. — 
Dugdale, Mon. Angl., vol. vi. p. 913. 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 147 

from London, as he crosses the boundary between the 
parishes of Camberwell and Deptford, will observe on 
the left a large elm-tree at the corner of a lane ; this 
denotes the commencement of the manor of Little 
Hatcham ; then, if he continue a short distance farther, 
he will observe the boundary-post of the Haberdashers' 
Company's estate, which is the other manor of Hatcham 
Barnes ; and it is between this tree and boundary-post 
that the residence of Gregory de Rokesley must have 
stood. 

This spot is at present occupied by a row of irregu- 
larly built houses, known as St. James's Place, which 
will be immediately recognized by those acquainted with 
the locality. It can scarcely be conceived what was the 
particular temptation which led Rokesley to take up his 
abode here, for at that period the roads and means of 
access from London were in a very indifferent state ; and 
it appears that shortly after Rokesley's death the manor 
was frequently inundated by the overflowing of the river 
Thames. It has even at the present day always been 
accounted a marshy and swampy locality. 

Gregory de Rokesley died 20 Edw. L, leaving Roger 
de Rislepe his nephew and heir ; and, by an inquisition 
taken upon his death, it was found that he held at 
Hachesham of Adam de Bavent, in capite, one messuage 
and fifty-four acres of arable land, and five acres of 
meadow, by suit of court to the hundred of Brixton, and 
he owed to the ward of Dover Castle 7s. 6d. per annum. 
Annual value of the messuage and garden 5s., each acre 
of arable 10(7., and each acre of meadow 2s. ; also rents 
of assize 6s. 6cl. a year. He held also of Henry de Alneto 
five acres of arable land by the annual service of Id., 
annual value Sd. per acre. He held also of Robert 
Mauncer six acres of arable land by the service of 8d. a 



148 MANOR OF HATCH AM. 

year, annual value Sd. per acre. He held also of the 
master of St. Thomas's Hospital, Southwark, six acres 
of mealow by the service of 2d. a year, annual value 
18d. per acre. 3s 

Roger Russlep, his nephew and heir, succeeded to 
these estates, and soon afterwards sold them to Robert 
Burnel, Bishop of Bath and Wells. 

By a fine levied in Trinity Term, 18 Edw. I., Thomas, 
son of Thomas de Heygham, in consideration of £20 
sterling, granted to Robert, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
one messuage, twenty acres of land, ten acres of mea- 
dow, and 105. rent in Retherheth, Camberwell, and 
Hacchesham. The bishop died at Berwick-on-Tweed on 
the 25th December, 1292, and by an inquisition taken 
at Southwark 21 Edw. I. [1293] it was found that he 
died seized of a capital messuage, garden, and fish- 
pond, at Hacchesham, annual value 5$. ; fifty -five acres 
of land, annual value 55s.; thirty-two acres, annual 
value 10s. 8d. ; twelve acres of meadow, annual value 
36s. ; four acres of several pasture, annual value 4s. ; 
two acres of marsh, annual value 2s. ; rents of assize of 
free tenants, 7s. M. per annum; and a cock and a 
hen, worth 2\d. ; annual value of the whole manor 
£6. 0s. 2^d. This manor paid 7s. 6d. a year to the 
court of Hacchesham Bavant ; and it owed suit to the 
king's hundred of Brixistan, from three weeks to three 
weeks, with two of the tenants, and suit of court to 
Hacchesham Bavant, from three weeks to three weeks ; 
so that the clear annual value of the whole manor was 
£5. 12s. §\d. The inquisition states that Robert 
Burnel bought this manor of Ptoger Russlep, for his 
own life, to hold of the said Roger ; but it goes on to 
say, that Philip Burnel was his nephew and heir, so 

38 Inq, post mortem, 20 Edw. I., n° 29. 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 149 

that it must have been limited over to him after the 
bishop's death. 39 

Philip Burnel succeeded to his uncle's estates, but 
did not long survive him. He died 22 Edw. I., leaving 
by Maud his wife, daughter of Richard Earl of Arundel, 
Edward his son and heir, seven years of age. 

By an inquisition taken on the death of Philip Burnel, 
in 22 Edw. I., it was found that he held at Katchesliam y 
in his demesne as of fee, one messuage, with a garden 
and fishpond, annual value 5s. ; fifty-five acres of land, 
value 55s. ; thirty-two acres of land, 10s. Sd. ; twelve 
acres of meadow, 36s. ; four acres of several pasture, 
value 4s. ; two acres of marsh, value 2s. ; rents of assize 
of free tenants, 7s. 4c?.; a cock and a hen, value 2\d. ; 
annual value of the whole manor, £6. 0s. 1\d. It was 
held of the heirs of Adam de Bavent, by the service of 
7s. 6d. a year, and owed suit to the court of Hatchesham 
Bavant, from three weeks to three weeks ; it also owed 
suit to the hundred of Brixton, from three weeks to 
three weeks, with two tenants ; clear value of the manor 
after all deductions £5. 12s. 8d. w 

15th September 22 Edw. I. [1294], all the lands and 
tenements which belonged to Philip Burnel in Hackesham, 
and which were extended at 112s. 8Jd., per annum, were, 
with many other lands in other counties, assigned to 
Matilda, the widow of Philip Burnel, for her dower. 41 
Edward Burnel, the heir, being under age at the time 
of his father's death, the custody of his person and lands 
was given to John de Drokenesford, Bishop of Bath and 
Wells. 

Soon after this, the waters of the Thames broke 

39 Inq. post mortem, 21 Edw. I., n° 50. 

40 Inq. post mortem. 

41 Close Roll, 23 Edw. I., memb. 9, d. 



150 MANOR OF HATCHAM. 

through their embankments and inundated a great part 
of the manor of Little Hatcham; whereupon it was 
agreed by the king and his council that John de 
Drokenesford should keep the water within its proper 
embankments, and in recompense thereof, he should 
have all the drowned lands he could reclaim for the 
term of seven years. 

In 8 Edw. II. Edward Burnel laid a petition before 
the king and his council, complaining that the bishop 
had retained the lands three years after the expiration 
of the seven years, and that he had also, under colour of 
his agreement, appropriated forty acres of land and 
meadow of the said manor which never were inundated ; 
but the council answered that the petitioner might have 
his remedy against the bishop at the common law. 42 
He died without issue 23rd August, 9 Edw. II. [1315] > 
leaving Matilda his sister and heiress and Alice his 
wife him surviving. 

Matilda, who succeeded to her brother's estates, was 
then the wife of John Lord Lovel of Tichmarsh ; he died 
8 Edw. II., and she afterwards became the wife of 
John de Handlo, who succeeded to all the estates of 
Edward Burnel. 

By a fine levied in Hilary Term, 14 Edw. II., John de 
Handlo and Matilda his wife granted to Richard la 
Veille, for his life, one toft, sixty acres of land, seven 
acres of meadow, and 8s. rents in Hachesham ; rendering 
annually two silver marks, one at Easter and the other 
at Michaelmas. 

By a fine levied 5 Edw. III. the manor of Hacchesliam 
was settled upon John de Handlo and Matilda his wife 
and the heirs male of their bodies; and in default of such 
issue, to Johanna, Elizabeth, and Margery, daughters of 

42 Rolls of Parliament, vol. i. p. 331. 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 151 

the said Matilda; and after their decease, then to John the 
son of John Lovel and the heirs male of his body; and in 
default thereof, then to the right heirs of Matilda for ever. 
John de Handlo had issue by Matilda, two sons, Richard 
and Nicholas, of whom Richard died in his father's life- 
time. This circumstance would appear to have altered 
John de Handlo's intentions with regard to settling his 
property, for in 14 Edw. III. another fine was levied, by 
which this manor was settled upon him for life; and after 
his decease, then to Nicholas and his heirs, without any 
remainders over. 

John de Handlo died on the 5th August, 20 Edw. III. 
[1346], leaving Nicholas Burnell his son and heir, who was 
twenty-three years of age and upwards, him surviving ; 
and by an inquisition taken at Kingston-upon-Thames, 
10th October in the same year, it was found that John 
de Handlo at the time of his death held certain tenements 
in HacchesJiam according to the terms of the last named 
fine : and it was found that the said tenements were held 
of Geoffrey de Say by the service of one quarter of a 
knight's fee, rendering five shillings every thirty-two 
weeks to the guard of Dover Castle. And it was found 
that there was at HacchesJiam a capital messuage worth 
nothing, beyond reprises ; and that there were seventy 
acres of arable land worth per annum 23s. M. when well 
cultivated and sown, and that year it was sown before 
the death of John Handlo ; but when the land was not 
cultivated or sown, then it was worth 2d. per acre as 
pasture-land. There were also seven acres of meadow 
worth per annum 7 s., and no more, because the meadow 
lay in a certain marsh which was frequently inundated 
and the hay carried away ; and also rents of assize of free 
tenants, five shillings per annum 43 . 

43 Inq. post mortem, 20 Edw. III. (first number), n°51. 



152 MANOR OF HATCHAM. 

Nicholas Burnell then succeeded to the manor. He 
died 19th January, 6 Rich. II. [1383], leaving Sir Hugh 
Burnell, his son and heir, thirty-six years of age ; and by 
an inquisition taken in the same year it was found that 
Nicholas Burnell died seized of 36s. 4<$. rents of assize in 
Hachesham, which rents formerly belonged to the 
manor of Hachesham held of Geoffrey de Say. ** 

Sir Hugh Burnell then succeeded to this estate. He 
married Joyce the daughter of John Botetourt, grand- 
child and heir to Sir John Botetourt, knight. Edward 
Burnell was his son and heir apparent, but he died in his 
father's lifetime, and in 4 Hen. V. Sir Hugh Burnell 
entered into articles of agreement with Sir Walter 
Hungerford, knight, (through the king's mediation by 
letters) for the marriage of Margery, one of the daughters 
and heirs of Edward Burnell, unto Edmund Hungerford, 
son of Sir Walter ; and thereupon by a fine settled the 
manor of Hatcham in the following manner : — that after 
the death of Sir Hugh Burnell it should remain to Sir 
Walter Hungerford, Edmund his son, and Margery, 
to hold unto them and the heirs of the said Edmund and 
Margery lawfully to be begotten for ever. And in case 
of their death without such issue, then to the right heirs 
of Sir Hugh Burnell for ever. 

Sir Hugh died 27th November, 8 Hen. V. [1420], and 
by an inquisition taken thereupon it was found that at 
the time of his death he held the manor of Hachesham 
according to the terms of the above-mentioned fine, and 
that this manor was held of the Prior of Wormele, but 
by what service the jurors were ignorant, and was 
worth per annum, in all its issues beyond reprises, ten 
marks. Margery Burnell was eleven years of age at the 
time of Sir Hugh's death. 45 

44 Inq. post mortem. 45 Inq. post mortem, 8 Hen. V., n° 110. 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 153 

The manor then came into possession of the Hunger- 
fords, and continued with that family until the thirty- 
second year of Henry VIII., when it was granted by Sir 
Anthony Hungerford to Andrew Eraunces and Margaret 
his wife, as appears by a fine levied in Michaelmas Term 
in that year. 

Hilary Term 4 and 5 Philip and Mary, a fine was 
levied between Thomas Hoo and John Heyworth of the 
manor of Hatcheham. 

The next owner of the manor that I meet with is 
Nicholas Brockett of "Whethampsted, in Hertford- 
shire. 

By an indenture dated the 1st June, 7 Eliz. [1565], 
Nicholas Brockett and Margaret his wife, in consideration 
of £241. 10s., bargained and sold to William Edwardes, 
citizen and leatherseller of London, his heirs and 
assigns, this manor by the description of 

" All that their mannor of Lytle Hatcheham, with thappurtenaunces, 
in the county of Surrey; and all that their mannor of Lytle Hatcheham, 
with thappurtenaunces, extending, lyeing, and being in the county of 
Surrey aforesaid, and in the countye of Kent, or in either of the said 
countayes ; and foure acres of lande, thirty acres and a halfe of meadowe 
and pasture or thereabouts, and one acre of wood ; whiche lande, mea- 
dowe, and wood conteyne in the whole by estymacion thirty-five acres 
and a haulfe, whether the same bee more or lesse, sett, lyeing, and being 
in the townes, parishes, or fields of Hatcheham, Peckham, Westgrene- 
wiche, and Camerwell, in the said counties of Surrey and Kent, now in 
the severall teanures and occupacions of the said William Edwardes and 
one Elizabeth Ardeyne, widowe ;" 

and also all and singular those manors, &c, conveyed 
in remainder to Brockett and wife by the fine levied 
between Hoo and Heyworth. The manor and premises 
are convenanted by Brockett to be of the clear yearly 
rent of six pounds above all charges and reprisals. There 
is also mentioned a lease to Edwardes of the manor, 

x 



154 MANOR OF HATCHAM. 

dated the 13th February, 4 and 5 Philip and Mary 
[1558], for 41 years. 46 

Out of this transaction arose a question on account of 
Edwardes being supposed to hold this manor of the Crown 
in capite, in which case a royal license of alienation 
would have been necessary, and in the eighth year of 
this reign this question was accordingly tried before the 
Barons of the Court of Exchequer, when judgment was 
given in Edwardes' s favour. 47 

By an indenture dated the 20th June, 10 Eliz. [1568], 
Edwardes mortgaged this manor for £300 to Nicholas 
Toke, 48 by whom it was afterwards granted to Walter 
Mayne; he on the 1st April, 1577, conveyed it to 
Thomas Westwraye, 49 who in 44 Eliz. granted it to John 
Edwardes, William Edwardes's heir. 

The next owner was Randolph Crew, a merchant of 
London ; and it was during the time which he held it 
that the disputed question as to whether Hatcham lay 
in Surrey or Kent was finally settled. This decision 
arose out of the levy of ship-money by Charles I. In 
the course of this taxation Mr. Crew was rated in both 
counties for the manor of Little Hatcham, whereupon he 
petitioned the Lords of the Council for redress, and they 
sent the following letter to the judges of assize for Kent 
and Surrey : — 

" A Letter to the Judges of Assize for the County of Kent and Surrey. 
" Wee send you heere eneloascd a peticon presented by Randolph 
Crew, of London, mercht., who being seized of the manner of Hat- 
cham bordering upon the county of Kent, but dubtfull whether the 
said manner properly lyeth within the county of Kent or the county of 
Surry, wberby the two sheriffs of the said counties have charged the 

4G Close Roll, 7 Eliz. part 23. 

47 Lord Treasurer's Memoranda Roll, Hilary, 8 Eliz., m. 33. 

48 Inrolled in Common Pleas, 10 Eliz., Trinity, roll 8. 
Vi Close Roll, 19 Eliz., p. 15. 



MANOR OF HATCHAM. 155 

said manner as lyable to either for the busines of shipping, as you may 
perceive more perticulerly by the said peticon, forasmuch as the peticoner 
hath (as by certificat appeares) payd towards the said service in the 
county of Surry, where hee hath formerly payd all personall duties, and 
for that it is not intended that any one shall bee so unequally dealt 
withall as to pay twice for one and the same thing at one time ; Wee 
doe therefore heerby pray you, the judges of assize for the said counties of 
Kent and Surry, perticulerly and carefully to examin the busines, and 
settle such a finall order, not onely in this perticuler, but also in all other 
publique assesm ts and rates as his m ts service receive no preju- 
dice, and the peticoner know for the future how to conforme hiinselfe 
for such payments, and soe, &c. 

" Dated at Whithall, the last of December, 1635. 

" (Signed) Lo: Keeper. Mr. Compt r 

" Ea: of Dorset. Mr. D. Ciiamb 1 : 

" Ea: of Salisbury. Mr. Loe Coke. 

" Kn : Vilmot. Mr. Sec. Windbank." 

In pursuance of this letter the judges entered into an 
investigation of the matter, and at last came to the con- 
clusion that the manor was entirely in Surrey. 

The following is their certificate : — 

" The true copie of a certificat made by the judges of assizes to the 
lords of the councell for the settleing of the manor of Hatcham in the 
county of Surry. 
"According to your lordships' letters of the last of December last, 
and the peticon of Randolphe Crewe sent us therewithall, we at several 
dayes perticulerly, carefully, and att large, in the presence of the peti- 
coner and of divers inhabittants of Debtford, in the county of Kent, who 
opposed him, considered the witnesses evidence and proofes of either 
side, and are fully satisfied that the peticoner's manner of Hatcham doth 
lye in the county of Surrey and not in the county of Kent, and ought 
to be taxed to the busines of the shipping in and with the county of 
Surrey and not with Kent ; all which wee humbly leave to your lord- 
ships' wisdoms. Vltimo Maij, 1636. 

" Fr. Crawley. 
" Eic. Weston." 



156 HISTORY OF IIORSELYDOWN. 



XIII. 

ON THE HISTORY OP HORSELYDOWN. 

By G. R. CORNER, Esq., F.S.A. 

A PAPER READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY AT A MEETING HELD AT HORSELYDOWN IN 
SOUTHWARK, Oct. 30, 1855. 



I doubt not that when the notice of a meeting of the 
Surrey Archaeological Society to be held at Horsely- 
down was received by the members, it elicited a very 
general inquiry of — Where is Horselydown ? where can it 
be situate ? in what part of the undiscovered regions of 
the metropolis does it exist ? is it inhabited ? if so, are 
the inhabitants civilized ? and what description of 
persons can possibly reside in such a place as Horsely- 
down ? But by reference to a map of the metropolis, it 
will be discovered that Horselydown is a part of the 
borough of Southwark, situate near the bank of the river 
Thames, about half a mile eastward of London Bridge, 
from which it is approached by St. Olave's or Tooley 
Street : and as but very scanty and imperfect notices of 
this terra incognita are found in any local history or 
topographical work, I will attempt to give some account 
of it. 

It is difficult to imagine that a neighbourhood now so 
crowded with wharfs and warehouses, granaries and 
factories, mills, breweries, and places of business of 
all kinds, and where the busy hum of men at work 
like bees in a hive is incessant, can have been, not 
many centuries since, a region of pleasant fields and 



HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 157 

meadows, pastures for sheep and cattle, with gardens, 
houses, shady lanes where lovers might wander (not 
unseen), clear streams with stately swans, and cool 
walks by the river-side. Yet such was the case, and 
the way from London Bridge to Horselydown was occu- 
pied by the mansions of men of mark and consequence, 
dignitaries of the church, men of military renown, and 
wealthy citizens. 

First, in St. Olave's Street, opposite to the church, 
was the inn or London residence of the Prior of Lewes, 
of which an account will be found in the "Archseologia," 
vol. xxiii., p. 299, and in vol. xxv., p. 604. 

The Norman stone building described by Mr. Gage 
Rokewood in vol. xxiii., was not, however, the inn of the 
Prior of Lewes, but it had probably been originally the 
mansion or manor-house of the Earls of Warren and 
Surrey, who possessed the guildable manor or town of 
Southwark ; and afterwards a gate-house or prison, with 
a house adjoining for the residence of the bailiffs of 
Southwark. Subsequently it belonged to a religious 
guild or fraternity in St. Olave's church, called "The 
Brotherhood of Jesus," and was then known as " Jesus 
House." After the suppression of such guilds, it came 
into the hands of the parishioners of St. Olave's, and 
was converted into a vestry hall and grammar school ; 
for which purpose it was used until it was demolished, in 
1831, for making the approaches to London Bridge. 

The Norman stone building described by Mr. C. E. 
Gwilt in "Archseologia," vol. xxv., situate in Walnut-tree 
Court, Carter Lane, was undoubtedly part of the house 
of the Prior of Lewes, which is mentioned in ancient 
records as situate in Carter Lane, and adjoined to Jesus 
House on the west. 

Stow says that the house which pertained to the 



158 HISTORY OF HORSELTDOWN. 

Prior of Lewes, and was his lodging when he came to 
town, was then a common hostelry for travellers, and 
had to sign, "The Walnut Tree." 

A little further eastward, in Crown Court, Glean 
Alley, when the Greenwich Railway was heing erected, 
there were discovered some extensive groined brick 
vaults, of handsome construction and ancient date : 
they evidently formed the basement or substructure of 
some important mansion ; and it is not improbable that 
the Duke of Burgundy, or his ambassador, had his 
residence here, about the reign of King Edward IV. ; 
as on or about this spot was a place called " The 
Burgundy" or " Petty Burgundy." 

Adjoining to St. Olave's Church on the east side, 
where Chamberlain's Wharf now stands, was the house 
of the Abbots of St. Augustine's at Canterbury. 

It was purchased by the abbot and convent in 1215, 
of Reginald de Cornhill, sheriff of Kent, for six-score 
marks, towards raising the sum of 3,000 marks, which 
he was compelled to pay to King John for his ransom, 
after having been taken prisoner at Rochester Castle. 
After the dissolution of the monasteries, it became the 
property, and perhaps the residence, of Sir Anthony 
St. Leger, Knight of the Garter, Deputy in Ireland to 
King Henry VIII., and ancestor of the Viscounts Donc- 
raile. He was actively employed in the dissolution of the 
monasteries, and obtained a grant of the inn in the 
parish of St. Olave belonging to the Abbot of St. 
Augustine's. He gave to St. Olave's Church a vest- 
ment of cloth of gold, wrought with red velvet, with 
the garter and his arms upon the back, with all the 
apparel thereunto belonging. 1 

1 " Gentleman's Mag." May 1837. The arms of Sir Anthony St. 
Leger were azure, frctty argent, a chief, or. 



HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 159 

Next to the Abbot of St. Augustine's was the Bridge 
House, and a little further eastward was the house of the 
Abbot of Battle, in Sussex, with pleasant gardens, and a 
clear stream (now a black and fetid sewer) flowing down 
Mill Lane and turning the abbot's mill at Battle Bridge 
Stairs. 

On this stream were swans, and it flowed under a 
bridge (over which the road was continued to Bermond- 
sey and Horselydown), from the " Manor of the Maze," 
the seat of Sir William Burcestre or Bourchier, who died 
there in 1407, 2 and Sir John Burcestre, who died there 
in 1466, and was buried at St. Olave's. This manor was 
afterwards the estate of Sir B,oger Copley, of Gatton, 
Surrey, and came to the family of Weston, of Sutton 
Place, Surrey, from whom Weston Street derives its 
name ; and the streets called Great and Little Maze Pond 
still keep in remembrance the ancient name of the 
manor. 

Prom the corner of Bermondsey Street to Horselydown 
was formerly called Horsleydown Lane, and here, on the 
west side of Stoney Lane (which, by the way, was once a 
Etonian road leading to the trajectus, or ferry, over the 
river to the Tower, — as Stoney Street, in St. Saviour's, was 
a similar Boman road leading to the ferry to Dowgate), 
was the mansion of Sir John Pastolfe ; not Shakspeare's 
" lean Jack " Palstaff, but a gallant soldier and man of 
education (which was rare in his days), who distin- 
guished himself in the reigns of Henry IV.,V., and VI., 
Kings of England. He fought at Agincourt, and else- 
where in Prance, and was governor of Normandy. He 



2 In 2 Hen. VI., 1422, Elizabeth, wife of John de Clynton, Knt., 
died seized of a messuage, &c, as of the manor called " The Mase," in 
Southwark. 



160 HISTORY OF HOESELYDOWN. 

died at his castle of Caistor, in Norfolk, in 1460, at the 
age of 81 years. 

During the insurrection of Jack Cade, in 1450, Sir 
John Fastolfe furnished his place in Southwark with the 
old soldiers of Normandy, and habiliments of war, to 
defend himself against the rebels ; but having sent an 
emissary to them at Blackheath, the man was taken 
prisoner, and narrowly escaped execution as a spy. They 
brought him however with them into Southwark, and 
sent him to Sir John, whom he advised to put away all 
his habiliments of war and the old soldiers; and so he did, 
and went himself to the Tower with all his household. 
He was, however, in danger from both parties, for Jack 
Cade would have burned his house, and he was likely 
to be impeached for treason for retiring to the Tower, 
instead of resisting and attacking the rebels, which 
probably he had not force enough to attempt, they 
having entire possession of the borough. 3 

Sir John Eastolfe died possessed of one capital mes- 
suage, two water-mills, four messuages called "Bere- 
houses," seven gardens, twenty messuages called " Fret- 
renters," twenty-two messuages called "Smale-renters;" 
two messuages, called " Crouch-houses," and one mes- 
suage called " Herteshorn," in the parish of St. Olave, 
Southwark ; and one messuage in the parish of St. 
Mary Magdalen (now part of St. Saviour's), called 
"TheBoreshead." 4 

In the reign of King Edward VI., Fastolf Place be- 
longed to Sir Thomas Cockaigne, of Ashborne, Derby- 
shire, who granted a lease of it, with the gardens, wharf, 

3 A letter of John Booking to John Paston, Esq., dated 7th June 
1456, was written from this place which is therein called " Horsleigh- 
done." 

4 Inquisitiones post mortem, 38 <fc 39 Hen. VI., No. 48. 



HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 161 

and appurtenances, dated 24th January, 4 Edward VI., 
to Richard Marryatt, citizen and cloth worker of London, 
for forty years. 

Vassal Webling, or Weblink, of Barking, Essex, a 
Elemish emigrant, who had been a brewer in St. Olave's, 
Southwark, died seized of "Eastolff Place," with 103 
messuages and two wharfs in the parish of St. Olave, 
Southwark ; and by his will, dated the 30th October, 
8 James I., he gave £4 a year thereout for the mainte- 
nance of the free school of St. Olave's, and 10-s. to some 
learned preacher for an annual sermon. He was 
suceeded by his son, Nicholas Webling. The greater 
part of this estate now belongs to Earl Romney. 

Eurther east and nearly opposite to the Tower of Lon- 
don was "The Rosary." This belonged to the family of 
Dunlegh, who appear to have been of some consequence 
in Southwark at an early period. Richard Dunlegh was 
returned to the parliament held at York, 26 Edward I., 
as one of the representatives of the borough of South- 
wark. 

Henry le Dunlegh was returned to the next parlia- 
ment, held at Lincoln, 28 Edward I., as one of the 
representatives of the said borough. 

In 4 Edward III., A.D. 1330, Agnes de Dunlegh 
petitioned the King in Parliament, that whereas the 
King's father purchased of the tenants of the said Agnes 
three messuages and five tofts, with the appurtenances, 
in Southwark, in a place called the Rosary, opposite the 
Tower, which were held of the said Agnes by the services 
thereof and six shillings per annum, and of making and 
keeping the walls against the water of the Thames, each 
place its own portion ; which service and reparation of 
the said walls the late king performed during all his 
time ; and because the danger was so great of the said 

Y 



162 HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 

walls by which the country was likely to be overflowed, 
she prayed that the said walls should be immediately 
repaired, and the rent in arrear paid. 

Answer, that the petition be referred to the Treasurer 
and Barons of the Exchequer to inquire and cause the 
said place to be repaired. — (Rot. Pari., vol. i., p. 36). 

The Rosary and the estate of the Dunleghs, at Horsely- 
down were afterwards the property of a family named 
Olyver, and of Henry Yevele, mason. 

29th January, 21 Richard II., Robert Wotton, of the 
county of Surrey, and Johanna his wife (who was relict 
of John Olyver of Croydon), Robert Olyver, and William 
Olyver, clerk, sons of the said John Olyver, demised to 
Stephen Bartillot, citizen and scrivener of London, one 
messuage, with two mills and certain gardens and mea- 
dow adjoining, as enclosed with ditches, in the parish of 
St. Olave, Southwark, together with one annual rent of 
30^. , to be received from a certain croft of pasture called 
Dunleys-field, lying on the south part of Horsleighdowne, 
in the parish of St. Olave aforesaid, which said croft, 
Thomas Felawe lately held of the said Robert Wotton and 
Joan his wife, for the term of the life of the said Joan ; 
and also the reversion of the said croft, when it should 
happen, after the decease of the said Joan : and another 
annual rent of four shillings, to be received for a certain 
garden lying adjoining to Horsleighdowne on the west 
and adjoining to tenements formerly of Henry Yevele : 
to hold the said demised premises to the said Stephen 
Bartillot his heirs and assigns for the term of one bun- 
dred years. 

On the death of Stephen Bartillot, he appointed John 
Sirre, Robert Sharshull, Alexander Bartillot, and 
William Combys executors of his will; of whom 
William Combys survived the others, and in 19 



HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 163 

Henry VI. the said William Oliver, clerk, by deed 
enrolled in Chancery, confirmed to him the then residue 
of the term of one hundred years, having about fifty-six 
years to run. 5 

6th June, 25 Henry VI., William Burgh, gentle- 
man, son and heir of John Burgh, deceased, and 
Katherine his wife, by deed enrolled in Chancery, re- 
leased to Sir John Eastolf, Sir Henry Ingios, and Richard. 
Wallere, Esq., all his right, title, claim and demand in 
all those messuages, lands, and tenements, rents and 
services, water-mills, gardens, and ditches, with all their 
appurtenances, which were of Henry Yevele, mason, in 
the parish of St. Olave, Southwark, in the county of 
Surrey, and which the said Sir John Eastolf and the 
others above mentioned, with one John Wynter, Esq., 
deceased, lately had by the gift and feoffment of the said 
Katherine, mother of the said William Burgh. 

By another deed of the same date, William Burgh also 
released to Sir John Eastolf, and the other persons before 
named, all that messuage, with the gardens adjoining 
and all their appurtenances, in the parish of St. Olave, 
Southwark, in the county of Surrey, situate between the 
way leading from " Batailbrigg" towards " Horsleigh- 
downe" on the north part, and a tenement of William 
Bedstone on the south part, and extending from the sewer 
leading from Batailbrigg to Bermondsey towards the 
west, and to the mill-stream of Henry Yevele towards 
the east. 6 

This property having been purchased by Sir John 
Eastolfe, he on the 7th July [1448], made Master 
Robert Pepys, clerk, and others, his attornies, to deliver 
seizin to his feoffees John (Cardinal) Archbishop of 

5 Close Eoll, 19 Hen. VI, m. 10 in dorso. 

6 Close Roll, 25 Hen. VI., in. 9 d. 



164 HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 

York, and others, of [inter alia) his manor or messuage, 
in St. Olave's Parish, in Southwark, near Horselydown, 
formerly Henry Yevele's, 7 and seven messuages and 
twenty-five land, called Dunley's, in that parish. 

Still further eastward, on the bank of the river, was a 
house, with a mill and other property, formerly belong- 
ing to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, 
who had a manor or liberty there called the Liberty of 
St. John of Jerusalem. In a return to a writ directed 
to the king's escheator in 7 Edw. III., it was certified 
that the Prior of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem 
held, in the first year of King Edward I., three water- 
mills, three acres of land, one acre of meadow, and 
twenty acres of pasture, at Horsedowne, in Southwark, 
which Erancis de Bachenie then held for the term of his 
life, on the demise of Brother Thomas le Archer, late 
prior, and which anciently belonged to the aforesaid 
hospital. Courts were held for this manor down to a 
period comparatively recent. Messrs. Courage's brewery 
stands on the site of the mill and manor-house, and in a 
lease from Sir William Abdy to Mr. Donaldson, dated 
in 1803, there was an exception of the hall of the mill- 
house, court-house, or manor-house, to hold a court 
once or oftener in every year. 

In a survey of the estates of the Hospital of St. John of 
Jerusalem by Prior Philip de Thame, in A.D. 1338, pub- 
lished by the Hev. Lambert Larking, E.S.A., being one 
of the recently published works of the Camden Society, 
it is stated that there are in Sutwerck two water-mills, 
one separate pasture, and three small pieces of meadow ; 
and that the whole were demised to Hawise de Swal- 
clive, for the term of her life, without rent, for her 

7 Heniy Yevele was freemason to King Edward III. He was buried 
at St. Magnus', London Bridge. — Stovfs Survey of London. 



HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 165 

pension of £20, granted by Brother Thomas 1' Archer, 
and to pay the rent to the Prior of St. Saviour of 
Bermondsey, and that it was only worth beyond those 
payments twenty marks. 

23rd June, 1505, Sir Thomas Docwra, Prior of the 
Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England, and his 
brethren, knights of the same hospital, demised to 
Ralph Bothomley of Horsadowne, yeoman, " their water 
myln called, St. John's Myln, situate at Horsadowne in 
the county of Surrey, with all the meadows and pastures, 
housings and appurtenances, thereunto belonging, for the 
term of forty years, from St. John's Day then last, at the 
yearly rent of £8." 

And by another lease, dated 11th January, 1514, the 
prior and his brethren demised to the said Balph 
Bothomley, " their water my lie situated at Horseadown 
in the countie of Surrey, with all the meadows and 
pastures, ponds, banks, waters and courses of water, and 
all howsings to the same appertaining, with the highway 
leading from the said my lie into Horseadowne aforesaid, 
that is to wyte, from the lowe water mark of the rever 
Thamys up into Horseadowne ; and also all that their 
common in Horseadowne for his cattle, which common 
conteyneth seven acres of ground, little more or less, 
that is to wite, from the said lane end called Saint John's 
Lane, over Horsdowne, unto the lane end leading to 
another lane called Pivefoot Lane [now Bussell Street], 
which seven acres of pasture, more or less, belongeth 
only to the said Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem; and 
also common for his cattle upon the residue of the whole 
common of Horseadowne, and free course to and from 
the aforesaid common, with all manner his carriages, 
without any letting or interruption of any man, person, 
or persons : And over and above that, the said prior 



166 HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 

and bretheren granted and let to the said Ralph Bothom- 
ley, all that one half of their dok called Seynt Savour's 
Dok, that is to wyte, from the upper part of the same 
dok to the lowe water marke of the rever of Thamys ; 
and also all that their pightell of land, conteyning 3 
roddes, little more or less, lying betwene the lane called 
Pyvefoot Lane on the north part, and a close of land 
pertaining unto Robert Preston, of London, goldsmith, 
on the south part : To hold the same from the feast 
day of St. John the Baptist then last, for 32 years, at 
the yearly rent of £8." 8 

At the time of the dissolution of the monasteries, 
St. John's Mill was in the tenure of Hugh Eglesfield, 
by virtue of a lease granted by the Prior of St. John's to 
Christopher Craven, for sixty years from Midsummer, 
23 Henry VIII., at the yearly rent of £8. It was sold by 
King Henry VIII., in the thirty-sixth year of his reign, 
to John Eyre. The estate has for many years belonged 
to the family of Sir William Abdy, Bart., having come 
to them from the families of Gainsford and Thomas, 
whose names are commemorated in Gainsford Street and 
Thomas Street. 

Shad Thames is a narrow street, running along the 
waterside, through the ancient liberty of St. John, from 
Pickle Herring to Dockhead. Por the name of this 
street I cannot assign a more reasonable explanation 
than that it may be a corruption or abbreviation of 
St. John at Thames ; unless it be thought a more likely 
presumption that the place took its singular name from 
the quantities of shad-fish formerly caught in the river 
at this spot. My friend W. W. Landell, Esq., informed 
me that his mother recollected in her youth the shad- 

s Cotton M.S. Claudius, E. vi. 



HISTORY OF IIORSELYDOWN. 1G7 

fish, caught in great numbers in the Thames off Horsely- 
down, being cried about the streets, as herrings, mackerel, 
and sprats now are. 

But it is now high time to come to Ilorselydown itself, 
which is not so called, according to the vulgar tradition, 
on account of King John's horse stumbling on the field ; 
but the fact is, that it was a large field or down used by 
the neighbouring inhabitants for pasturing their horses 
and cattle, and was called Horsedown or Horseydown. 

Horseydown was part of the possessions of the Abbey 
of Bermondsey and is within the lordship or manor of 
Southwark, formerly belonging to that abbey, and was 
surrendered by Abbot Parfew to King Henry VIII., 
with the other possessions of the abbey, in 1537. 

This manor is now called the Great Liberty Manor, 
and is one of the three manors of Southwark belonging 
to the corporation of London ; King Edward VI. having 
granted this manor, with the manor or lordship of 
Southwark (now called the King's Manor, and formerly 
belonging to the see of Canterbury), to the city of 
London, by charter (1 Eclw. VI.). 

Horseydown was probably the common of the Great 
Liberty Manor : but there were two acres of land, part 
of " Horseydown Common," which were within the 
manor of Bermondsey, and which were sold by King 
Henry VIII., in the thirty-sixth year of his reign, to 
Walter Hendly, Esq. That piece of land is in the 
parish of Bermondsey, and lies on the west side of 
Church Street, and between Artillery Street and Russell 
Street (formerly called Eivefoot Lane). 

After the surrender to King Henry VIII., Horsey- 
down became the property of Sir Boger Copley, of 
Gatton, Surrey, and the Maze in Southwark ; of whom 
it was purchased by Adam Beston, Henry Goodyere, 



168 HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 

and Hugh Eglisfeilde, three inhabitants of the parish of 
St. Olave, Southwark, and was assured to them by a 
fine levied to them by Sir Roger Copley, and Dame 
Elizabeth his wife, in Easter Term, 36 Henry VIII. 

The parish of St. Olave came into possession of 
Horseydown in 1552, under a lease which the said 
Hugh Eglisfeild had purchased of one Robert Warren, 
and which the parish purchased of him, for twenty pounds 
and twelve pence (the sum he had paid to Warren for it), 
and the grazing of two kine in Horsedown for his life. 9 

A free grammar school was founded by the parishion- 
ers of St. Olave's, Southwark, in 1561, and was incor- 
porated by charter of Queen Elizabeth, dated 26 July, 
1571. 10 

The original endowment of the school was £8 per 
annum, which had been bequeathed by Henry Leke, of 
the parish of St. Olave, brewer (who is justly entitled to 
the credit of having caused this school to be founded), 
by his will, dated 12th March, 2 Eliz., towards the 
foundation of a grammar school in St. Olave's ; but if no 
such school were established there within two years 
from his death, then he gave it to St. Saviour's Gram- 
mar School. 11 

On the 22nd July, 1561, it was resolved by the vestry 
of St. Olave's, that the churchwardens should receive of 
Mr. Leke's executors the money given towards the 
erection of a free school, and should prepare a school 
and provide a schoolmaster. And on the 4th May, 1579, 
it was resolved by the vestry, that Thomas Batte, 
William Willson, Oliff Burr, Thomas Harper, Bye 

9 Minutes of Vestry, 5 March, 1552. 

10 See a short History of this School in the Gentleman's Mag., New- 
Series, vol. v., pp. 15 and 137. 

11 Collectanea Topog. et Geneal., vol. v., p. 48. 



HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 169 

Denman, and Eye Pinfold, should take order with 
Mr. Goodyer and Mr. Eggelfeld, to pass over Horsey- 
down to the use of the school. 

Mr. Beston and Mr. Goodyer having died in the life- 
time of Hugh Eglisfeild, the freehold of Horseydown 
became vested solely in the latter as the surviving joint 
tenant, and descended to his son, Christopher Eglisfeild, 
of Gray's Inn, gentleman, who, by deed dated 29th 
December, 1581, conveyed Horseydown to the Gover- 
nors of St. Olave's Grammar School, to whom it still 
belongs ; and it is one of the remarkable instances of the 
enormous increase in the value of property in the metro- 
polis, that this piece of land, which was then let to farm 
to one Alderton, who collected the weekly payments for 
pasturage, and paid for it a rental of £6 per annum, now 
produces to the governors for the use of the school an 
annual income exceeding £3,000. 

In Hilary Term, 26 Eliz., an information was filed 
in the Exchequer by the Attorney- General, against 
John Byrde and John Selbye, churchwardens of St. 
Olave's, and Ptobert Bowghier, for intrusion into the 
Queen's land at Horseydown, which was stated in the 
information to have been part of the possessions of the 
late dissolved monastery of Bermondsey. The defend- 
ants pleaded the title of the governors through Sir 
Roger Copley's fine to Beston, Goodyer, and Eglisfeild, 
and the conveyance to the governors of the school from 
Christopher Eglisfeild as heir of Hugh ; and that they, 
the churchwardens, were in possession as bailiffs to and 
on behalf of the governors. The plea was satisfactory 
and the proceedings were discontinued. 12 

By a feoffment, dated 19th January, 1586, Hugh 

12 Exchequer Rolls, Hil., 26 Eliz., Roll 137. 
Z 



170 HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 

Goodear, in consideration of £4, released and confirmed 
Horselydown to the Governors of the Grammar School. 
The following extract from the churchwardens' accounts 
relating to these transactions is rather curious : — 

" Expence about the sute of Horseydowne as followeth : — 

It'm botekier to the Temple to our Counsellor - - viiu/. 

It'm pd Mr. Foster for his fee - - - - - xs. 

It'm pd Mr. Cowper for his fee the same tyme - - xs. 

It'm to search in the Courte of Augmentacion for the 

Surveay of the Abbey of Bermondsey - iis. 

It'm to the Sherieff for copie of the names of ye Jurie - vie/. 

It'm spent the 19 day of Nov. at breckfaste upon or 

lawyer -------- Us. \d. 

It'm the 22 day of Novr to or Counsellor - - - xs. 

It'm paid the 12 day of December to Mr. Danbey for 

the exemplyficacion of the verdict - - - Liis. 

It'm the 25th of January, we went to talke with Mr. 
Goodyer, and he appointed us to meet at the Tem- 
pell with our Counsell and his, and so we went to 
Westminster up and downe and to the Tempell and 
home --------- xs. \md. 

It'm pd Mr. Cowper or Counseylour - xxs. 

It'm to Mr. Hitchecoke, Counseylour for Mr. Goodyer, 
to see the deade sealed, and for helpinge us to make 
a deade -------- xs. 

It'm P'd Mr. Goodyer to seale or feoffment - - injli. 

It'm Expended in takinge possession of the Downe the 
27th daye of Januarye, 1586, upon loves of bread for 
boys --------- xiicZ. 

It'm for a dynner the same day in Fyshe Streate, for 
certayne of the P'ishe 

The parish butts were on Horsey down. In Hilary 
Term, 5 Edw. VI., an information had been filed in the 
Exchequer by William Martin, of London, fletcher, 
against Hugh Eglefeld and Geoffrey Wolfe, church- 
wardens, for not having butts for the exercise of archery 
in the said parish of St. Olave, pursuant to the statute of 
33 Henry VIII. ; in consequence of which proceedings 
the butts were soon afterwards erected on Horseydown. 






... ■: '.,;«' 




, ^ffio-^.AAotoainJtJud, <y.2fi*l&. 



' 







Ite/onac'ru: -JtHt/ftj, . 






HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 171 

The Marquis of Salisbury possesses, at Hatfield, a 
very remarkable picture, which has been supposed to have 
been painted by the celebrated Holbein, but is really the 
work of George Hofnagle, a Flemish artist in Queen 
Elizabeth's time. There is a copy of this picture in the 
library of the Society of Antiquaries, for whom it was 
made by Mr. Grignon, and it is a copy of that drawing 
I now place before you. The drawing has a date (evi- 
dently copied from the picture) of 1590 ; but, without 
that indication, the costume of the figures, which is of 
the period of Elizabeth, is sufficient to show that the 
picture cannot be the work of Holbein, who died in 
1554. The picture represents a fair or festival, which, 
from the position of the Tower of London in the back- 
ground, appears to have been held at Horselydown. 

In the catalogue of the pictures at Hatfield (in " Beau- 
ties of England and Wales," Herts, p. 278), the picture 
is said to represent King Henry VIII. and his Queen 
Anne Boleyn at a country wake or fair, at some place in 
Surrey, within sight of the Tower of London. 

That the locality of the scene is Horselydown, or as it 
was then called Horseydown or Horsedown, several cir- 
cumstances, in addition to its situation with respect to 
the river Thames and the Tower of London, concur to 
show. 

I am enabled, by permission of the warden and go- 
vernors of Queen Elizabeth's Eree Grammar School of 
St. Olave's and St. John's, South wark, to illustrate and 
explain this curious picture by a map of Horseydown, 
dated A.D. 1544, which is now before you. 

Although this plan bears the date of 1544, I think it- 
must have been made, or added to, some years later ; for 
it shows the churchyard, which was not made until the 
year 1587, and is now called " The Old Churchyard." 



172 HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 

On the left side of it is " Bermondsey House," of 
which I can only suppose that it was a house formerly 
belonging to the Abbey of Bermondsey. 

Next is a piece of ground marked with the name of 
" Mr. Weldon," and next to that two houses and a gar- 
den marked as "Mr. Canclish his garden." 

Candish, otherwise Cavendish's Bents, is now Mark 
Brown's wharf, Goulding's and Davis's wharfs, and 
Potter's Fields. 

Then follows the " Whitsters " (bleachers) Ground and 
two gardens, on which St. Olave's new grammar school, 
Mr. Ledger's house and premises, and Hartley's wharf 
now stand, which bring us to Horselydown Lane ; on the 
east side of which is "The Knights House" (i.e. the 
house of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem), since 
known as the manor-house, now Messrs. Courage's 
brewery ; and on the river-side "St. John of Jerusalem's 
Mill." Eastward of the Knights House, on the plan, 
is an orchard, a garden, the " Washers Field," and the 
" Whitsters Field," which comes up to St. Saviour's dock, 
leaving onlv a road between them and the water, and 
there are no buildings shown on the water side of that 
road from Bermondsey House to Dockhead. 

On the other side of Horsey down, we have " Jacobs 
Garden," and a field on the east side of " Booper Lane " 
(now Church Street), and on the west side, " Newman's 
House" (where Messrs. Slee and Payne's premises now 
are) and part of Bermondsey Parish, and " Glene his 
Bents," which is where Barnham Street (formerly Dog 
and Bear Yard), College Street, Magdalen Street and 
Circus, and Grieveson's Bents now are. 

At the Dockhead is a field called " Ould Thompsons 
Field," and near it a large house called "The Her- 
mitage." 



HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 173 

The centre of the plan shows a large open space, now 
occupied by the diverging streets called Queen Eliza- 
beth Street, Pree-school Street, and Pair Street ; and on 
the south side of the last-named street now stand the 
church and rectory-house of St. John, Horsleydown, 
and the union workhouse in Parish Street. 

I do not know if South wark fair were ever held on 
Horseydown, but it is worthy of observation, that when 
the down came to be built on, about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, the principal street across it from 
west to east, and in the line of foreground represented 
in the picture, was and is to the present day called Pair 
Street; and a street or lane of houses running from 
north to south, near to Dockhead, is called Three Oak 
Lane, traditionally from three oaks formerly standing 
there. The tree-o'ershadowed hostlery where the feast 
is being prepared, in the picture, may indicate this 
spot. 

In Evelyn's time, however (Diary, 13th Sept. 1660), 
the fair appears to have been held at St. Margaret's Hill, 
in the borough, for he calls it St. Margaret's fair ; and 
it continued to be held between St. Margaret's Hill and 
St. George's Church until the fair was suppressed by 
order of the Court of Common Council in 1762. 

The portly figure in the centre foreground, with a red 
beard and a Spanish hat, must have occasioned the idea 
of its being a representation of King Henry VIII. ; but 
the general costume of the figure is later than his reign, 
and the date on the picture shows the period of the 
scene to have been towards the end of Queen Elizabeth's 
reign. 

The principal figures seem to me rather to represent 
some of the grave burgesses and young gallants of 
Southwark, with their wives and families, assembled on 



174 HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 

Horseydown on some festive occasion, to enjoy a fete 
champetre on some bright clay in summer. 

The principal figure is evidently a man of worship, for 
whom and his company a feast is preparing in the 
kitchen of the hostelry, while the table is laid in the 
adjoining apartment, which is decorated with boughs 
and gaily coloured ribbons. 

It may be Henry Leke, son of the founder of the 
school, who succeeded his father as a brewer here, or 
Vassal Webling, who, as well as Leke the elder, was a 
Fleming and a brewer, both of them having come into 
this country from the Netherlands, with thousands of 
their country people, to avoid the persecution of the 
Protestants under the Duke of Alva. 

These Flemings settled in great numbers in the parish 
of St. Olave, Southwark, which comprised Horseydown, 
and from them a churchyard nearly opposite to St. 
Olave' s Church was called " The Flemish Churchyard." 

Vassal Webling or Weblincke dwelt hard by Horsey- 
down, having become possessed of the house of Sir John 
Fastolfe, called Fastolf Place. Webling was a man of 
some consequence, and bore for his arms azure, a saltire 
flory, and in chief a griffin passant. 

Or it may be Richard Hutton, armourer, and an 
alderman of London, who represented Southwark in 
Parliament from 27 to 39 Elizabeth, an inhabitant 
of St. Olave's. Whoever it is, he appears to be a man in 
the prime of life, and he is accompanied by a comely 
dame, probably his wife, and by two elderly women, and 
followed by a boy and girl with a greyhound, a servant 
carrying an infant, and a serving man with sword and 
buckler. Near them is a yeoman of her majesty's 
guard, with the queen's arms on his breast. 

The citizen in his long furred gowD, accompanied by a 



HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 175 

smartly dressed female, crossing behind the principal 
party, is worthy of notice. The gay trio behind them are 
also remarkable objects in the picture. 

The minister accompanying a lady is probably Thomas 
Marten, M. A., parson of the parish. The hawking party 
behind shows that the neighbourhood of Southwark was 
at that period sufficiently open for the enjoyment of the 
sport. The flagstaff or maypole in the left background 
is also noticeable, as well as the unfinished vessel under 
a shed at the river- side, and the unfortunate individual 
in the stocks. 

Two young women and two serving men are bearing 
large brass dishes for the coming feast, while in the right 
foreground a party of five are dancing to the minstrelsy 
of three musicians seated under a tree. A party is ap- 
proaching from the right headed by another minister, 
who may be Mr. Bond, minister of the parish, and one of 
the first governors nominated in the charter. I cannot 
help thinking, however, that it is probable it may repre- 
sent a much more noted man; namely, the celebrated 
Robert Browne, a puritan minister and founder of the 
sect of Separatists, sometimes called Brownists, who was 
schoolmaster of St. Olave's Grammar School from 1586 
till 1591. 

He was connected by family ties with Lord Burleigh, 
who protected him in the various difficulties and dangers 
into which he was frequently led by his ardent zeal ; and 
that circumstance may account for this picture being 
preserved at Hatfield, which was built by Robert Cecil 
Earl of Salisbury, second son of Lord Burleigh. 

Behind the musicians are two figures which deserve 
some attention. It has been suggested that the appear- 
ance of the foremost is much that of the portraits of the 
immortal Bard, and the head behind him is not unlike 



176 HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWX. 

those of Ben Jon son. Nor would there be any impro- 
bability in the idea of Shakspeare and Jonson being pre- 
sent at such a fete, as Shakspeare lived at St. Saviour's, 
and is very likely to have been invited to a festival in 
the adjoining parish; but the date of the picture is some- 
what too early to be consistent with that notion. 

Of the churchlike-looking building with a tower, at 
the right of the picture, I cannot give any account, 
unless it be " The Hermitage," marked on the plan. Of 
that place, however, I have not been able to learn any- 
thing, except that in the account of the churchwardens 
of St. Olave's, in 1615, they account for having received 
£13 of Mr. Jarvice Partridge, an attorney for Mr. 
Anthony Thomas and Mr. Arundale, for charges re- 
covered against them in the suit between them and the 
governors of the grammar school, for the way from 
Crucifix Lane over Horsadown, unto the "Hermitage 
House," being Mr. Anthony Thomas's land, commonly 
called Westrame's Rents. Its situation was, as will be 
seen by the plan, near the head of St. Saviour's Dock, 
so called from the Abbey of St. Saviour, Bermondsey, to 
which the stream was formerly navigable for barges and 
boats ; and as Mr. Anthony Thomas was the successor of 
the Knights of St. John, the hermitage, which stood on 
his land, had most probably in former times belonged to 
the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem ; and it was no un- 
common thing for such hermitages to have chapels 
attached to them, as at Highgate, where the hermit was 
authorized by a royal grant of King Edward III. to take 
a toll for repairing the road. The hermitage at High- 
gate, which had a tower, became a chapel for the 
devotions of the inhabitants. 13 

13 Hermitages were generally founded by an individual upon the 
ground of some religious house, who, after the death of the first hermit, 



HISTORY OF IIORSELYOOWN. 177 

At the entrance to Horsedown from Tooley Street, or, 
as it was formerly called, Horsclydown Lane, there was a 
gate, as appearing on the plan ; showing that there was 
then no public road across the down from St. Olave's 
Street to Doekhead, but the way was down Bermondsey 
Street and Crucifix Lane. 

By the kindness of Mrs. Allen, widow of my late 
esteemed friend George Allen, Esq., architect, and of 
Messrs. Snooke and Stock, his professional successors, I 
am enabled to exhibit two drawings, representing the 
exterior and interior of the old Artillery Hall of the 
Southwark trained bands, which was erected on Horsey- 
down in the unhappy reign of King Charles I. 

This building, which stood on the site of the present 
workhouse, in Parish Street, was pulled down about 
twenty years since. It was erected in 1639, as appears 
from a date on the keystone of the portal, and also over 
the windows on each side of it. 

The governors of the grammar school, on the 17th of 
June, 1633, granted a lease to Cornelius Cooke, and others, 
of a piece of ground forming part of Horseydown, and 
enclosed with a brick wall, to be employed for a martial 
yard, in which the Artillery Hall was built. 

In 1665 the governors granted a lease to the church- 
wardens of part of the martial yard, for 500 years, for a 
burial-ground ; but they reserved all the ground whereoD 
the artillery-house then stood, and all the herbage of the 
ground, and also liberty for the militia or trained bands 

collated a successor ; and as those persons devoted themselves to some 
act of charity, it does not appear so extraordinary that we find hermits 
living upon bridges, and by the sides of roads, and being toll-gatherers, 
as numerous records indubitably prove. — Tomlins 1 Yseldon, p. 35. 

The Hermit of Horseydown, or Doekhead, perhaps received a toll for 
keeping in repair the road across the Bermondsey Marshes from South- 
wark towards Rotherhithe and Deptford. 

2 A 



178 HISTORY OF HORSELYDOWN. 

of the borough of South wark, and also his Majesty's 
military forces, to muster and exercise arms upon the 
said ground. The election for Southwark was held at 
the Artillery Hall in 1680; and at the following sessions, 
then held at the Bridge House, Slingsby Bethel, Esq., 
Sheriff of London, who had been a losing candidate at 
the election, was indicted for and convicted of an assault 
on Robert Mason, a waterman from Lambeth, who was 
standing on the steps of the hall, with others, and 
obstructing Mr. Bethel's friends. Mr. Bethel was fined 
five marks. 

In the year 1725 the Artillery Hall was converted into 
a workhouse for the parish. 

In 1736 the parish church of St. John, Horsleydown 
(one of the fifty new churches built under the provisions 
of the Act of Queen Anne, commonly called Queen 
Anne's Churches), was built on part of the martial yard ; 
and, in pursuance of the act for establishing the new 
parish of St. John (which was taken out of St. Olave's), 
the workhouse was divided between the parishes of St. 
Olave and St. John. 

The drawings, which were made under the direction 
of the late Mr. G. Allen daring the demolition of the 
building, are careful restorations of the old structure ; 
and as they may be engraved or lithographed for our 
proceedings, I omit any verbal description of them, 
especially as these notices have already extended to so 
unreasonable a. length, that I fear they must have tried 
the patience of my hearers. 14 

G. R, C. 

14 As the drawings are not engraved, our Honorary Secretary, Mr. 
George Bish Webb, lias favoured me with the following description of 
the building from the drawings : — 

The building was in the form of a parallelogram, having on one of 



HISTORY OF KORSELYDOWN. 179 

its longer sides two slightly projecting wings. The walls were of red 
brick, and the roof, of high pitch, was terminated at both ends by an 
ornamental gable with moulded stone capping. 

The principal entrance was in the centre of the space between the 
wings, and was composed of a wide arched doorway between pilasters, 
surmounted by a pediment, in the tympanum of which was a shield of 
arms carved in stone. On either side of the doorway, and in each of the 
wings, was a lofty window of three lights, the central light being 
arched. The architraves of the windows, the pilasters, and the quoins 
were rusticated in brickwork. Another doorway is shown in the gable 
end with two windows on either side, and a range of five windows 
above. A cornice in brickwork ran round the building, which was also 
decorated with raised and sunk panels in the same material. 

The chief feature in the interior was the fine open-timbered roof, formed 
by a series of trusses, each consisting of hammer-beams supported by 
curved brackets springing from stone corbels, similar brackets connecting 
the hammer-beams with the tie-beams. The beams were ornamented with 
mouldings and carved pendants. The walls were panelled to a consider- 
able height, the panelling being surmounted by a cornice, and at the 
head of each panel was a shield of arms in relief. The side of the hall 
facing the entrance was lighted by a series of lofty arched windows, and 
the end shown in the drawing by a wide window of three lights, set in 
an arched recess surrounded by a broad rusticated architrave in stone. 



180 COLLECTION OF WILLS. 



XIV. 

A COLLECTION OE WILLS OE PERSONS RESI- 
DENT IN SURREY BETWEEN THE YEARS 
1197 and 1522. 

COMMUNICATED BY MISS JULIA R. BOCKETT. 



Many years ago Miss Bockett's grandfather, Mr. 
Bradney, of Ham, found some wills in a chest in King- 
ston Church, Surrey. He copied several, one of which 
Miss Bockett sent to " Notes and Queries " from whoso 
pages the first of the following wills is transcribed. 

" The Will of Richard Knyvet, Luter, tempore Hen. VII. 

" In the name of God, Amen. The viii th day of the 
moneth of Aprill, theyere of our Lord God 1497, and in 
the xii th yere of the regne of Kyng Henry the Vllth. 
I, Richard Knyvet, of South werk in the countie of Surr', 
luter, beying in holl mynd and clere memory, thanked 
be our Lord God, make and ordeyn this my testament 
and last will in maner ensuyng. Eirst, I bequeth my 
sowll to Almighty God, my Maker and Savyour, and to 
the glorious Vergeyn, our Laclye Seynt Mary, his blesset 
Moder, and to all the holy company of hevyn, and my 
body to be buryed in the church hawe of my parysh 
church of Seynt Mary Magdalene, in Southwerk before- 
said, in such place or buryell that the cross there shall 
stand on the right syde of my burying. Item, I bequeth 
to the high awter of the said church for my oll'eryngs 
forgotten mid. Item, I bequeth to Willm Wath my 



COLLECTION OF WILLS. 181 

servant my hanger and my dager with all that longeth to 
theym, my whyt fustian doblet, a lute and the case 
thereto. Item, I bequeth to the comon box of the 
brethered of Seynt Antony xiid. The residew of all my 
goods not bequethed, after that my debts ben payed, my 
burying made, and this my will fulfylled, I bequeth holy 
unto Mawde my wife, therewith to do and dyspose at 
her own free will. And of this my testament I make 
and ordeyn the said Maude my hole executrix. In wit- 
ness whereof hereto I have set my seall. Written the 
clay and yer' aforesaid. These witnesses, Syr Hugh 
Newton, prest, and William Camp, notary." 

The following have since been communicated by Miss 
Bockett to the Surrey Archaeological Society, through 
Mr. Corner : — 

The Will of Alice Nicoll, Widow, of Kingston, 12th July, 1515. 

" In the Name of God, Amen. The 12th day of the 
moneth of July, the yere of our Lorde God 1515. I, 
Alice Nicoll, of Kyngston upon Theniys, in the countie 
of Suit', within the diocese of Winchester, calling to my 
remembrance the unstedfastness of this present transi- 
tory life, knowying the day of my departing from the 
same fast corny ng, and not beyng in rediness nor pro- 
vided for the same, according to the good and laudable 
custome amongste every gode Cristen man and woman 
used, and now beyng in perfect memory & stedfast mind, 
laud be Almighty God, make, orcleyne, & devyse this my 
present testament & last will concerning my goods and 
catells moveables, after the forme as followeth. First, I 
bequeth my soule to Almyghty God, my Maker and 
llediemer, and to his blessed Mother our Lady Seynt 
Mary, and to all the celestial company of Hevyn, and 
my body to be burid in the churchyarde of Alhalowes, 



182 COLLECTION OE WILLS. 

in the said Kyngston, beside my husband. Also I 
bequeth to the high altar of the same church for my 
tythes or offeryngs not done or negligently forgotton or 
withdrawn, in discharging of my conscience, 12c/. Also 
I bequeath to the moder church of Winchester M. Also 
I bequeth to the light in our Lady chapell 21b. of wax 
for a tapier. Also I bequeth to the light of the iii Kyngs 
of Colyn, within the said church of Kyngston, a lb. of 
wex for a tapier. Also I bequeth to the light of St. 
Anne a tapier of a pound of wex. Also I bequeth to 
the light of our Lady of Pity 2 pounds of wax for to 
make a tapier. Also I bequeth to the ymage of Seynt 
Sonday v pound of wax for a tapier, to burne every 
Sonday in service time as long as it will endure. Also 
I bequeth to the said church of Kyngston a tuell of 
playne clothe for the behove of the church. Also I 
will that there be seede for my soul and all Christian 
souls, in the chapell of Skaly Celi l at Westmynster v 
masses of the v wounds of our Lord God. Also I 
bequeth to Jone Northrygge two new silver spoons, 
two pair of sheets, two dyaper napkins, two platters, 
4 dishes, two saucers, my red harvest gurdill, my large 
brasse pott, and two bell candlesticks. Also I bequeth 
to Agnes Berell two silver spoons of the new sorte, a 
pair of shetes, a dyaper napkin, a platter, two pewter 
dishes, a sawser, a bell candlestick, a feather bed, a new 
bolster, a pair of blankets, a coverlid, a grete pott with 

1 In the Conventual Church of the Augustine Friars or Eremites at 
Norwich, the place of the greatest profit was the chapel of our Lady, called 
Scala Cceli, to which pilgrims were continually resorting, and making 
their offerings there, on account of the many pardons and indulgences 
granted by the Pope to that chapel, being the only chapel (except that 
of the same name at Westminster, and another of our Lady at St. 
Botolpb's Church, at Boston) which enjoyed equally extensive privileges 
with the chapel of Scala Cceli at Rome. 



COLLECTION OF WILLS. 183 

a brokyn legge, a harvest gurdill with a murrey course 
and a posnet. Item, I bequeth to Isabell Nicoll my 
table standing in the hall. Also I bequeth to Alice 
Kemp a pair of sheets, a pewter platter, a pewter dishe, 
a sawcer, my best gown, & my best beyds. Also to 
Harry Mademor, my servant, 3s. M. Also to Mawde 
Call my best smocke and a good kerchef. Also I 
bequeath to every of my godchildren 4cZ. The residue of 
all, my detts paide and this my testament and last will 
fulfilled, I give and bequeth to my iii daughters. And 
I ordain for my executors, Harry Nicoll and Harrye 
Northrege, they to dispose for the welth of my soule as 
they shall think most best God to please, and every of 
them to have for his labor 3s. 4d These witness, 
John Dering, curate, William Morer, Thos Jestelyn, 
with other mo'." 



The Will of John Bannoh, Mynstrell, 22nd November, 1514. 

" In Nomine Dei, Amen. Be it knowne to all men by 
this present writyng, that I, John Bannok, mynstrell, 
make my will, with a hole mynde unto God and to the 
world, the 22nd day of Novembre, and in the yere of the 
reigne of Kyng Harry the Vlllth the iiii tl1 yere. The 
first part, I bequeth my soule unto God and to our 
Blessed Lady, and to all the holy company of Hevyn ; 
the seconde pt, I bequeth my body to be buried in the 
holy grave, where as my last mynde is for to be burid ; 
the iii d pt, I make my wife my hole executrix, and she for 
to fulfill my will, and for to receyve my detts, and she 
for to pay my detts, and my gode Maist 1 , William Brown, 
merchant of the stapell, for to be overseer, for to se my 
will fulfilled, and he for to have for his labor, vis. vim/. 
Also I bequeth to the brotherhocl of Mynstrelles of 



184 COLLECTION OF WILLS. 

our Lady & Seynt Antony in London iiis. iiiir/. Also 
I bequeth to the high awter where as I am buried 3s. 4d. 
Also I bequeth to my father & to my mother xs. Also 
I bequeth to my child William all my reyment, and all 
my other thyngs I comyt unto my wife. In witncs 
hereof I, the saide John, hath writ this will with my 
hand. Gevyn the day ut supr' Anno 1514." 



The Will of Gyffray Gough, Yeoman of the Guard to King Henry VIII., 
dated 1th October, 1520. 

" In Dei Nomine, Amen. The 7 day of October, in the 
year of our Lord God 1520, in the 12th yere of the reign 
of Kyng Henry the Vlllth. I, Gyffray Gough, of St. 
Mary Magdalene Overy parishe, in Southwerk, in the 
county of Surry, on of the yeomen of the gards unto 
our sovereign lord the Kyng, have ordeyned and made 
this my last will, in this wise & form folowyng. First, 
I bequeth my soul to Almighty God & to our Blessed 
Lady Virgene Mary, Quene of Hevyn, and to all the 
holy seynts and blessed company of Hevyn, and my 
body to be buried in erth at my pew dore, within our 
Lady chapell, of my parish church of Mary Magdalene 
aforesaid. And I bequeth unto the blessed and holy 
sacrament of the his;h awter within the same church 4c/. 
Item, I bequeth unto the broderhood of St. Catryne in 
the same church viiic/. Item, I bequeth to the same 
church, for brikying of the grounde where my body 
shall ly, vis. viiie/. The residue of all my goods and 
chattels movable and unmovable, dettes, and other my 
detts for my months wages, be it more or less, remayn- 
ing in the Kyngs hands, and vis. viiicZ. in the hands of 
my felow Hoger Whitton, usher of the Kyngs chamber, 
and vis. viiidL owing to me by my felow John A'Morgan, 



COLLECTION OF WILLS. 185 

and xiid owing me by Efilypp of the Wodyard, grome 
of the Ivyng's hall, lent hym in redy money out of my 
purse; all these my goods and detts, in whose hands 
some ever they be, or can be found, or known, and other 
vis. viiid. owyng me by Alice Brown, the wife somtyme 
of Bryan Swynbank of the iii Crownes in Southwerk, 
for a lode of hay, I give and bequeth them all unto 
Catryn my wife, and Elizabeth my daughter part 
thereof when she cometh to her marriage (at the dyscre- 
tion of her mother) ; and if the said Elizabeth my 
daughter fortune to dye before she come to her day of 
marriage, then I will the same Elizabeth my daughter's 
part be disposed for my soule and all Cristene soules. 
And to the performyng of this my will I have ordeyned 
and made Catryn my wife and Elizabeth my daughter 
my executors, to se my body honestly burid and done for 
after my deceyse. And I have ordeyned my frende 
William Molynes to be my overseer. And I bequeth 
hym for his labor my russet gown furred with ffox. In 
witnes of this my last will beyng present John Dover, 

baker, William Molynes, the Kyngs sporyer, 

William Vynkn, Thomas Bramefeld, and other, the day 
& yeare aboveseide." 



The Will of Robert Sutton, of Ham, dated 20th November, 1522. 

" In the Name of God, Amen. The 20 day of the 
month of November, the year of our Lord 1522. I, 
Robert Sutton, of Ham, within the parish of Kyngston 
upon Themys, in the county of Surry, within the diocese 
of Winchester, being in good mind, lett, make, and 
ordain this my present testament and last will, in 
manner & form as followeth. Eirst, I bequeath my 
soul to Almighty God, my Maker and Redeemer, to his 

2 B 



186 COLLECTION OF WILLS. 

blessed Moder our Lady Scynt Mary, and to all the 
celestial company of Hevyn, & my body to buried in 
the church yerde of Alhallowys y Kyngston aforesaid. 
Also I bequeath to the mother church of "Winchester 4<d. 
Item, I bequeth to the high altar of the said church of 
Kyngston, for my tithes or offerings negligently forgot- 
ton or withdrawn, in discharging of my conscience, IQd. 
Item, I bequeath to the reparation of every other altar 
within the said Church of Kyngston 4<d. Item, to every 
of my godchildren being alive 4<d. Item, I will that 
my diaper table cloth to be cut in the middle, and the 
one half to be delivered to Petersham Chapel, for an 
altar cloth, & the other half to Stretham Church. Item, 
I will that all my corn being in my barne be divided by 
even portions betwen Thomas Sutton, John Staford, 
Richard Aden, and Alice Lydgold. Item, I bequeth 
to Thomas Sutton a nokbed & 3 pair of sheets. Item, 
I bequeth to Agnes Sutton, the wife of Thomas Sutton, 
all my shepe and xxs. of money. Item, I bequeath to 
Isabell Garatt 20s., and if she decease before she be 
maryed, to remayn to the next of her kin. Item, I 
bequeth Abrey Lidgold, my goddaughter, 20s., and if 
she decesse before she be maryed, to remayne to the 
next of her kin. The residue of all my goods & catells 
not bequeathed, my sepulture made & content & this 
my present will fulfilled, I gyffe and bequeth to John 
Sutton, my cosyn, he to dispose for my soul as he shall 
thinke most best God to please. And I will that Richard 
Chapman & Richard Fowler be overseers, they to have 
every of them for their labour 10s., & their reasonable 
expensis. — Witness, Henry Bird, John Atwell, of Hitche, 
Henry Parkyn, with many other mo'." 



COLLECTION OF WILLS. 187 

Tfte Will of Harry Lutman, of Kyngston, dated 21a'Z February, 1522. 

" In the Name of God, Amen. The 21st day of 
February, the yere of our Lord God m fivehundreth 
xxii. I, Harry Lutman, of the parish of Kyngston 
upon Thamys, hole of mynde & of gode memory, make 
this my last will as in manner folowith. First, I 
bequeth my soule to Almighty God, my body to be 
burid in the church yarde of Alhalowes, of Kyngston 
aforesaid. Item, I bequeth to the high altar 12c?., to 
the cathedral church of Winchester 2d. Item, I be- 
queth to Robert my son a bullok. Item, to Isabell my 
daughter a bullok. Item, to William my son a bullok. 
Item, to Agnes my daughter a bullok. Item, to Alice 
my daughter a bullok. Item, to Sance my daughter a 
bullok. The residue of all my goods not bequethed, 
I bequeth to Margaret Lutman my wife, who I make 
my executrix. Witness of this my last will — Syr William 
Huntter, curat, Thomas Jestlyn, & other mo'. Writyn 
at Kyngston the day & the date ut supr'." 



The Will of William Smyth, of Ham, dated 29th August, 14 Henry VIII. 

" In the Name of God, Amen. The yere of our Lord 
God a thousand five, hundred and twenty two, the 29th 
day of August, the 14th year of the reigne of Kyng 
Henry the Vlllth. I, William Smyth, of Ham, in 
the parish of Kyngston upon Thames, in the countie of 
Surry, husbandman, being in good mind and hole 
memory, make and ordeyn this my last will and testa- 
ment in manner and form following. First, I bequeath 
my soul unto Almighty God, and to our blessed Lady 
the Virgin, and unto all the holy company of Hevyn, 
and my body to be burid in the churche yerde of All 
Hallows, of Kyngston afores d , where my father and 



188 COLLECTION OF WILLS. 

mother being buryed, when it shall please Almighty 
God to take me unto • his marcye. Also I bequeath 
unto the mother church of Winchester vie/. Item, I 
give and bequath unto the high altar of Kyngston, for 
my. tithe and oblations forgotten, 12c/. Also I give and 
bequeath unto the holy Rode of Cumfort a taper of a 
pound of wex. Also I gyff and bequethe unto the light 
of the Blessed Trinyte Qd. Also I give and bequeath 
unto the bason lights of Kyngston M. Also I give and 
bequeath unto the building of the Rode loft 12c/. Also 
I give and bequeath unto Jone, my daughter, to her 
marriage, v marks in money or money worth. Also 
I give and bequeath unto Sence, my youngest daughter, 
to her marriage, x marks. And as touching the dis- 
position of my londs and tenements, set and lying in 
the parish off Kyngston afores d , hereafter folowing. 
First, I will that Agnes my wife have all my lands and 
tenem ts , with all appurts, sett and lying in the parish 
of Kyngston afores d , to have and to hold for the terme 
of her liffe; and after her decease, I will that John 
Smyth, my son, shall have my tenement which I dwell 
in, with all the lands unto the said tenement belonging, 
to have and to hold unto the said John Smyth, my son, 
and to his heirs for evermore. Also I will that Robert 
Smyth, my son, have my tenement called Prymys, with 
all the lands unto the said tenement belonging, to have 
& to hold unto the said Robert, and unto the heirs of 
his body lawfully begotten, for evermore; and if it 
happen the said Robert to die without heirs of his body 
lawfully begotten, then I will that the said tenement & 
lands do remain unto Thomas, my son, for evermore. 
Also I will that Raffe, my son, have my tenement called 
Lambards, with all the lands unto the said tenement 
belonging, to have and to hold unto the said Raffe and 



COLLECTION OF WILLS. 189 

to his heires for ever. And also I will that Agnes my 
wife have my Hemestale Ground, 2 sometime Deodall, 
with the lands unto the said Hemstales belonging, to 
have and to hold unto the said Agnes & her heirs for 
evermore. All other my goods & catell not bequeathed, 
after my debts paid, I give and bequeath unto Agnes, 
my wife, to distribute as she think best, which Agnes 
I make & ordeyn my executrix, and John Pynchester, 
and John my son, overseers of this my last will and 
testament. These witness, John Hunt, Thomas Clarke, 
John Pynchester, Thomas Alyn, William Mychell, & 
John Smyth, & many other mo'." 

2 Homestall ground. (?) 



190 ANCIENT WILLS, ETC., SOUTHWAEK. 



XV. 

A COLLECTION OP ANCIENT WILLS, &c, 
RELATING TO SOUTHWARK. 

By G. E. COENER, Esq., F.S.A. 



3, Paragon, New Kent road, 

30th October, 1855. 
DEAR SIR, 

Thinking as I do that one of the most useful 
objects of local Archaeological Societies is to afford a 
fitting and convenient repository for documents relating 
to the history of the county or of its inhabitants, and 
that the wills of bygone inhabitants, owners of lands 
and tenements, and even of those who held no lands and 
tenements, afford very valuable materials for local his- 
tory and genealogy, and most interesting illustrations 
of the habits, manners, and customs of former times, I 
send you, in addition to the copies of wills communi- 
cated by Miss Bocket, a collection of ancient wills and 
documents relating to Southwark, which, if the council 
shall agree with me in the views above expressed, may 
be an acceptable and useful addition to the transactions 
of the Society. 

I remain, dear Sir, yours faithfully, 

GEO. R. CORNEIl. 
G. Bish Webb, Esq., 

Hon. Secretary Surrey Archceological Society. 



A.D. 1082, 16 Will. L— Alwin Chill, citizen of 



ANCIENT WILLS, ETC., SOUTHWARK. 191 

London, founder of the monastery of St. Saviour, 
Bermondsey, with the king's licence gave to the monks 
of that monastery certain rents in the city of London, 
before King "William II. gave them the manor of Ber- 
mondsey, and thereby induced other donations, temporal 
as well as spiritual, to be given to the same. 

Register of Bermondsey Abbey. 



A.D. 1096, 9 Will. II— Peter oe St. Olave's gave 
the land of Hoddesdon 1 to the Monks of Bermondsey, 
which gift was confirmed by King William II. and King 
Henry I. 

Amiales Abbatice Sancti Salvatoris de Bermundsei, Harl. MS. 



A.D. 1122. — Thomas Arderne and Thomas his son 
gave to the Priory of Bermondsey the advowson of the 
Church of St. George, Southwark. 



Richard de Boterwick by deed poll gave to God 
and Saint Mary and the blessed Thomas the Martyr, 
and to the works of London Bridge, Ss. quit rent, which 
Robert de Bareuill, his uncle, annually paid out of a 
certain messuage called the Grange, in the parish of 
St. Olave, Southwark. Witnesses, Serlon Mercer and 
William Almain, then procurators of the bridge ; Robert, 
chaplain of the said bridge ; Walter de Polcham, &c. 



A.D. 1378.— On Tuesday next after the feast of St. 
Edmond the king (20th Nov.) 1378, John Mockyng, of 

1 Sic in MS., but query if not Horsedon 1 



192 ANCIENT WILLS, ETC., SOUTHWARK. 

Southwark (probably a relation of Nicholas Mockyng, 
who was instituted to the rectory of Saint Olave's 11th 
July, 1374) by his will of that date gave to the high 
altar of Saint Olave's 6s. 8d., to the church for his burial 
6s. 8d., to the light of St. Mary 3s. 4<d., to each chaplain 
there 12d., to the under clerk 8c/., to the fabrick of the 
church 13s. 4<1, to the light of the holy cross 3s. 4d, to 
the light of St. Nicholas 12d., to the master clerk 12cZ., 
with provision for two chaplains to say mass in the said 
church for his soul for one year after his death and then 
for one to say it for six years. 

Register of Bishop of Winton Wichham, ii. 'p. 3,fol. 177a. 
Manning and Bray's Surrey. 



A.D. 1407. — William Burcestre, Knt., by his will, 
dated at Southwark, in the parish of Saint Olave, the 
last day of July A.D. 1407, 8 Henry IV., desired to 
be buried in the Abbey of the Minoresses of St. Clare 
without, Aldgate, London. He willed that his feoffees, 
Hichard Wakehurst and Richard Ayland, and Dns. Thos. 
Sakevyle, and all others who were enfeoffed of his lands, 
should permit his wife Margaret to receive the rents and 
profits of his manor of Burwash for her life, and after 
her decease that his feoffees should enfeoff his son, John 
Burcestre, therein, to hold to him and the heirs of his 
body for ever ; and in default of such heirs, he willed that 
they should enfeoff his daughter Williama (or William- 
ana), in the same manor, to hold to her and the heirs of 
her body for ever; and for want of such heirs, he 
directed the same to be sold. 

He disposed of his manor of Sumerden in like manner, 
and made a similar disposition of all that his manor of 
the Maze, and his mills and quit rents in Southwark, 



ANCIEXT WILLS, ETC., SOTTTHWAMv. 193 

London ; and in Havering, his manors of Ewell," Lesene, 
and Steers, and all his tenements and rents at the Con- 
duit, London. 

He left to his son John all his arms, swords, daggers, 
and other furniture of war ; to the high altar of the 
parish church of St. Olave, South wark, he left 20s. ; to 
the fabric of the same church 40s. ; to the use of the 
rector and the parishioners of the said church of St. 
Olave, in the same church, for ever, an antiphoner to 
pray for his soul and the souls of all his benefactors. He 
left to the said Dns. Thos. Sakevyle a cup called swaged 
cuppe with silver cover; to said Bichard Wakehurst 
a silver cup with cover of silver; to Mary Bedhogh 40s.; 
to William Hale 40s.; to John Cok 40s.; to John 
Wandon 5 marks ; to Henry Bret 13s. 4>d. ; to Thos. 
Bret 20s. ; to Thomas Stoneham 20s. ; to Alianore 
Stratton 20s. ; to Thomas de Coquinia 13s. 4c?. ; to 
"Willm. de Colegne 6s. Sd.; to Edward Brandon 13s. 4c/.; 
to John Wycking 6s. &d. ; to Thomas Prowde, his servant, 
20s. and a green coat duplicat cu cavde ; to the wife of 
said Thomas Prowde a gown vlod (?) furr. 

He appointed said Richard Wakehurst and Bichard 
Ayland executors, and Dour 5 William Genow, rector of 
St. Edward's in Lombard Street, supervisor ; and he gave 
said William Genow 40s. for his pains, and his silver cup 
with his arms. 

Prerog. Office. 



A.D. 1408. — John Gow t eh, Esq. (the poet), by his 
will, dated within the Priory of the Blessed Mary Overy 
in South wark, on the feast of the Assumption, A.D. 1408, 

2 This was the manor of Ewel, alias Tylefeouse, in Stepney, Mid- 
dlesex. 

2 c 



194 ANCIENT WILLS, ETC., SOUTHWARK. 

{inter alia) left to the four parish churches iu South- 
wark, viz., St. Margaret's, St. George's, St. Olave's, and 
St. Mary Magdalene near Berrnondsey, each of them 
severally 13s. 4d. for the adornment and lighting the 
same churches ; and to each parish priest or rector in the 
cure of the same for the time being, resident and serving 
the church, 6s. 8cl., to sing and pray for his soul. 

Gent's Mag., 1835 ; Todd's Illustrations of Gower and Chaucer, 
87 — 90 / and Gouglis Sepid. Mons., ii. 25. 



A.D. 1424. — Nicholas Mockyng, Master of the 
College of St. Lawrence, Pountney, by his will of this 
date, directs his obit to be celebrated in the church of 
St. Olave, Southwark, for two years after his death, and 



gives to the fabric of the said church 13s. 4eZ. 



Prerog. Office. 



A.D. 1428. — Thomas Mockyng, clerk, son of Thomas 
Mockyng, citizen and baker of London ; his will in 

Prerog. Office. 

24ith April, 1429. — Robert Mokkyng, citizen and 
vintner of London, by his will of this date, willed that 
Thos. E,olf, William Daventry, Egbert Aubury, and 
Thomas Cok, feoffees of his messuages or tenements in 
Southwark — to wit, an inn or tenement called the White 
Horse ; a tenement called the Castle ; a house with two 
shops, which John Dekene held and inhabited ; a tene- 
ment held and occupied by Ptobert Levelyng Bocher ; a 
mansion which Thomas Burgh held, near the church of 
St. Olave — should be sold ; and out of the proceeds he 
gave 20 marks yearly for his obit in St. Olave's church 
for 20 years, and the residue for works of charity. He 



ANCIENT WILLS, ETC., SOUTHWARK. 195 

also devised a messuage or tenement called the Dolfyn, 
and a brewhouse called the Bere, with a tavern thereto 
belonging, in the parishes of St. Mary Magdalen and 
St. Olave. 

1th Aug. 1466, 6 Edw. IV. — William Wykes, of 
Southwark, 3 by will recommends his soul to Almighty 
God and his Saviour, and the Blessed Virgin Mary, his 
mother, and to all the saints, and his body to be buried 
in the churchyard of St. Olave's, next to the place where 
his father lay. And he gives to the altar of the same 
church, for his tithes and offerings forgotten or by negli- 
gence detained, for the discharge of his soul, xl. Also 
he gives to the brotherhood or order of St. Anthony in 
London xl. ; and to the brotherhood of the Blessed Mary 
of the Church of St. Paul, London, xl., with several 
other like bequests. 

A. D. 1466. — In the Name of God, Amen. The xxvj th 
day of October, the year of our Lord God, mcccclxvj and 
the vj year of the reign of King Edward the iiij 11 '. 4 
I John Burcestre, Knight, whole in mind and in good 
memory being, make, ordain, and dispose this my pre- 
sent testament of my last will, in this manner wise. 
First, I bequeath and recommend my soul to Almighty 

3 William Wykes is one of the correspondents in the Paston Letters. 
He was probably a steward or retainer of Sir John Fastolfe at his 
house in St. Olave's, Southwark. 

4 Sir John Burcestre, Burghchester, or Burcettor, was of the same 
family as Cardinal Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury. He 
possessed the manor of the Maze, in the parish of St. Olave, South- 
wark, in which parish was also the London residence of Sir John 
Fastolfe. Sir John Burceter is mentioned in one of the Paston Letters 
by Thos. Playters, dated London, 8th April, 1461, as having given him 
some intelligence. 



190 ANCIENT WILLS, ETC., SOTJTHWAKK. 

God, my Creator and Saviour, and to our Blessed Lady 
the Virgin, his mother, and to all Holy Saints in 
Heaven, and my body to be buried in the wall beside 
the Holy King, Saint Olave, 5 in Southwark, in the 
county of Surrey. Item, I Avill that after my burying 
as soon as Elizabeth, my wife, conveniently may, that 
all my debts which I owe be fully paid. Item, I be- 
queath to the high altar of the said Church of Saint 
Olave for my tithes and offerings forgotton or by negli- 
gence witholden, in discharge of my soul, xiijs. mjd. di. 
Item, I will that an honest priest be found of my goods, 
for to sing at the altar of Saint John, in the said Church 
of Saint Olave, by x years next following after my 
decease, for my soule and for the souls of my father 
and mother, for all my friends' souls, and for all Christian 
souls. Item, I will that x marks of money be observed 
and employed to and for my obite, to be kept by x years, 
solemnly to be done in the said Church of Saint Olave, 
for my soul and all the souls abovesaid, with Placebo, 
Dirige, and Mass of Requiem. Item, I will and bequeath 
that after the death of my said wife the ladies of the 
Minories, besides London, where my father lietli buried, 
have my blue vestement. Item, I give and bequeath to 
serve and be set upon the high altar of the said Church 
of St. Olave, in festfull days, ij little basons of silver 
with the arms of Burghcrsh. 5 Item, I will that every of 

5 There was an image or statue of St. Olave in the church which was 
removed or destroyed at the Reformation, and restored in the reign of 
Queen Mary, as appears from the following extracts from the church- 
wardens' accounts from 1556 to 1558: — "Item, paid to John Carowe for 
making a septor and an axe for St. Towle (Tooley, or Olave), iijs. 'riijd. 
Item, payd to Modyn for Saint Olyff, xxxs. Item, payd more for a 
<!<'ii r when we set him up, us. viijrf." 

6 These notices of the arms and church of Burghcrsh arc rcmavkahle, 
particularly as they appear to refer to an alliance which took place a 



ANCIENT WILLS, ETC., SOUTEWARK. 197 

my servants be rewarded by the discretion of my said 
wife, after the quantity of their service. Item, I be- 
queath to the Brotherhood of St. Nicholas, clerks, in 
London, vjs. iiijc/. Item, I will that after the decease of 
the said Elizabeth my wife, my white vestment with 
garters, and a chalice, be delivered to the Church of 
Burghersh. Item, I bequeath to the use of the Church 
of Saint Olave aforesaid a vestment of black velvet, 
with the apparel, ij curtains, and 1 frontcll of the same, 
to be delivered to the same church of St. Olave inconti- 
nently after the decease of my said wife, and to serve 
for my obite there. Item, I bequeath to the Brother- 
hood of Our Lady in the same Church of Saint Olave, 
to pray specially for my soul, vjs. viijd Item, I bequeath 
to the sisterhood of Saint Anne in the same Church 
vjs. viijd The residue of all my goods, debts, and 
chattels, moveable and immoveable, wheresoever they 
be after my debts plenary paid and this my present 
testament fully fulfilled, I bequeath freely and wholly to 
the foresaid Elizabeth my wife, to dispose after her own 
free will, willing and desiring her to do for my soul as 
she would I should do for her soul in like case, which 
Elizabeth my wife I make my sole executrix of this my 
present testament. In witness whereof, to this my pre- 
sent testament I have put my seal in presence of John 
Bennet, Thos. Hoy, John White, Thomas Hoddesdon, 
and Thome Auery, the day and year abovesaid. 

Proved and Administration granted to the Widow, 27th Nov., 14G6. — 

Prerog. C. of Canterbury. 

century before. Margaret, sister of Sir Bartholomew de Badlesmere ? 
was married — 1st, to Pichard ; 2nd, to Bartholomew Lord Bur- 
ghersh, one of the founders of the Order of the Garter, who died without 
issue by her, April 4, 1369 ; 3rd, to William de Burcestre. She died in 
13'J3, leaving William Pichard her son and heir. — CI. 30, Exe. 17 Pich. II. 
j\ t o. 3 ; Btltz Memorials of the Garter, i>. 47. 



198 ANCIENT WILLS, ETC., SOUTHWARK. 

Master Robert Rogers, leatherseller, a bachelor, 
gave, among many other charitable gifts, to St. George's 
Parish in Southwark, St. Sepulchre's, St. Olave's beyond 
the Bridge, St. Giles' without Cripplegate, and St. Leo- 
nard's in Shoreditch, to buy coals for the poor in each 
parish, £30 apiece. 

And for relief of the poor in sundry parishes without 
the walls, as Newgate, Cripplegate, Bishopgate, and the 
parish of St. George in Southwark, unto every one of 
them he gave £26. 13s. M. 

Stow's London. 



A.D. 1503. — John Webster, of St. Margaret's, 
Southwark, by his will, dated the last of February, 
1503, orders his body to be buried in the Church of 
St. Margaret, a trental of masses to be sung on the day 
of his burial ; bequeaths his lands in Barwey in the 
parish of Laham and Streteham, Co. Cambridge, to 
Agnes his wife during life, and then to Robert his son 
for ever ; constitutes Agnes, his wife, and her father, 
Hugh llenkyn of the town of Cambridge, his executors. 
Probate dated 24th April, 1504. 

Battle Abbey Deeds, penes Sir Thos. Phillips. 



A.D. 1517.— Peter Maton, of the parish of St. Olave 
the king in Southwark, by his will dated in this year, 
gave to the Abbot of Battle and his successors, his 
greatest brass pot, belonging to his house, to remain in 
the abbot's house (which was in the parish of St. Olave). 
He gave to the abbot and convent 20s., to be equally 
divided among them, to pray for his soul ; and to the 
fraternity kept by all the parish clerks in London to 
the honor of St. Nicholas, 20c/. 

Manning and Brays Surrey. 



ANCIENT WILLS, ETC., SOUTHWARK. 199 

A.D. 1543. — Johes Alynson. In the name of God, 
Amen. In the yere of or Lord God, mcccccxliii, and 
in the reygne of our sovrayne lorde Kinge Henry VIII., 
by the grace of God, Kinge of Englonde, Prance, and 
Irelonde, defendor of the Pay the, and in erth under 
God supreme head of the Church of Englonde and 
Irelonde, the xxxv th . The xxiii rd daye of Maye, in the 
yere aforsayde, I John Alynson, cyttyszen and harbor 
surgen of London, being hole in body and of pfect 
monde and remembronce, thanks be given to Almighty 
God, do make this my laste will and testament in 
manner and forme followyng and in renounsyng of all 
other willes and testaments afore made ; I bequeathe 
my sole unto Almighty God and to the Blessed Virgin 
our Lady Saynte Mary, and to all the holy companye 
in heven, and my body to be buried w l in the church 
of Saynte Owlyffe, in Southwerke, as nere as may be 
to the grave of Agnes my late wyfe deceased. Itim, I 
bequeathe to the highe alter of the same church, for 
tythes negligently forgotten or w^olden, yf any suche 
be, in dischargyng of my consyance, xijd Itim, I 
bequeathe to evry of my god-chyldren xij<l, if they_com 
for yt. Itim, I wyll that at the day of my_deptng, 
there be given to xiij pore peopl win the pish afore- 
named there inhabitying in almes, xiijd. in redye 
money, to praye for my soulle and all christen soulls. 
Also, I wyll that there be given to the company of the 
barbors, before my months mynde, iijs. iiijcZ. to make 
them a recreasyon. Itim, I bequeathe to x pore hows- 
holders inhabityng w^ the pysh of Saynte Awlyffe, to 
any of them iiijcZ. Itim, I bequeathe to Plene Wool- 
verston, my wyffes daughter, a fether-bed with the 
bedsted with all other thynges thereto bolongiug, when 
she come to her maryage, at the discression of Joyan 
my wyfe. 



200 ANCIENT WILLS, ETC., SOUTHWARK. 

A.D. 1544. — Richard Mynar. In the name of God, 
Amen. The xx day of the monthe of Maye in the yere, 
of oure Lord God, mvxliiii. I Richard Mynar of the 
Pyshe of Saynte Olave in Soutlrwarke, hole of mynd and 
of good remembrance, thankyed be God, make my 
testament, conteyning my last will in this maner and 
forme folowing : Pyrst, I bequethe my sowle unto All- 
mightie God, our Lady Saynte Mari, and all the Holy 
company of heaven, my body to be buryed in the 
churche yarde of Saynte Olave beforenamyd. Itim, I 
give and bequeathe to Agnes my wyffe, all my goods, 
movable and unmovable, whom I make and ordyayne 
my executrice, to pay my debts, and to dyspose for the 
welthe of my sowle as she shall thynke moste beste. 
Wytnes, S r John Peerse, curate; Rychard Shepherd, 

Thomas , wyth others, the day of the monyth 

and yere of oure Lord above wrytten. 



A.D. 1543. — Thomas Colstone. In the name of 
God, Amen. The second daye of the monythe of 
September, in the yere of oure Lord God a. m c v c xliij. 
I Thomas Colstone of Saint Olave in Southwarke, hole 
of mynde and good remembrance, thankyd be all God, 
make my testament, conteyning my wylle in this man' 
and forme folowynge : Pyrst, I bequeathe my sowle 
unto Almighty God, our Lady Saynte Mari, and all 
the Holye companye in Heaven, my body to be burriede 
in the church yard of Sainte Olave beforenamed. Itim, 
I bequeathe to the hye alter within the foresaid church, 
viijc/. Itim, I bequeathe to our Ladys awter i\\yl,. 
Itim, I bequethe to Sainte Clements w'in the forsad 
churche iiijc/. The residue of all my goods not given 
n other bequest, I give to Elisabeth my wyffe, to nuryehc 



ANCIENT WILLS, ETC., SOUTHWARK. 201 

and kepe my chyldrene, whome I make and ordeayne 
my executrix, to pay my debts, and to dispose for the 
wealth of my sowle as she shall thynke most best. 
Wytnes, S r John Peerse, prist, for the time curat; 
Nicholas Orrel, prist; Richard Shippard, with many 
more, the day of the monthe and yere of our Lord God 
above wrytten. 

A.D. 1560. — Henry Leeke, of Southwark, beer- 
brewer, by his will dated 12th March, 2 Eliz. (1560), 
gave out of the rents and profits of certain houses and 
tenements within the precincts of St. Martin' s-le-Grand, 
which he held by lease from the Dean and Chapter of 
Westminster, £20 a year, during the term of the said 
lease, to be applied as follows : — To the poor of St. 
Olave's, St. George's, St. Saviour's, and St. Mary Mag- 
dalen, £5 ; towards the maintenance of a free school in 
St. Saviour's parish, £8 ; but if, within two years of his 
death a free school should be built and established in 
St. Olave's parish, then he gave the same £8 per annum 
towards the same ; to the poor of the city of London, 
£5 ; to the preacher for a sermon at St. Olave's, when 
the money should be distributed, 6s. 8cl. ; to the parson 
of St. Olave's seeing the same performed, 6s. Sd. ; and 
to the churchwardens of St. Olave's, for their pains in 
distributing his legacy, £1. 6s. 8d. 

Proved in Prerog. Court of Canterbury, 23rd Ayyril, 1560. 



Henry Leeke, citizen and clothworker of London, 
son of the late-named Henry Leeke, who survived his 
father only three years, by his will dated 16th Septem- 
ber, 1563, desired to be buried in the church of St. 
Olyve's, Southwerke, of which he was a parishioner; and 

2 D 



202 ANCIENT WILLS, ETC., SOUTHWARK. 

he gave to the poor of this parish £10, to be distributed 
at the discretion of his executrix (his wife, Alice) and his 
overseers. 

Ex Registro Cur. Prerog. Cant. 



Master Sampson's Will. — Item, I give and be- 
queath these annuities ensuing, to be issuing out of 
certain tenements of mine, viz. (inter alia), twenty 
shillings yearly, for ever, to the churchwardens of 
St. Olave's, in Southwark, for the use of the poor of 
the parish. Dated 16th September, 1659. 

State's London. 



COLD HARBOUR, CROYDON. 203 



XVI. 
NOTICES OF COLD HARBOUR, CROYDON. 

By CUTHBERT WILLIAM JOHNSON, Esq., F.R.S. 

READ AT THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING HELD AT CROYDON, JUNE 12TH, 1856. 



Although an examination of this district and its 
immediate vicinity, may lead to the discovery of but few 
traces of the ancient inhabitants of the neighbourhood, 
and their pagan priesthood, and those indications are 
chiefly to be found in the names of places, many of 
which have, in the lapse of time, become exceedingly 
corrupted ; still these indicia, scanty as they are, 
appear to be of sufficient importance to render them 
worthy the notice of the archaeologist. 

Before proceeding to trace out these footprints of a 
bygone race, it may be useful to consider the pro- 
bable state of the district before it was inhabited by 
man, and what were the reasons likely to induce some 
of the first settlers, who migrated into Surrey from the 
continent, to select this place as the site of those two or 
three rude huts which, slowly increasing in number, at 
length became a village, and then grew into a town. 
First, then, as to the appearance of the district in its 
uninhabited state, when the bear and the wolf wandered 
unmolested by man, around the sources of the Wandel. 

The town of Croydon is situate on the verge of the 
great basin of the London clay; a formation which 
constitutes the soil of almost all that portion of the 



204 COLD HARBOUR, CROYDON. 

county which lies to the north of the Wandel river. A 
narrow belt of the plastic clay formation is found 
running parallel with the margin of the London clay, 
usually about a mile or less in width ; and adjoining to 
and running parallel with this we find the northern 
extremity or verge of the range of chalk wolds or downs 
known as the North Downs. These clay formations 
would be, in their primeval state, thickly tenanted by 
the oak, the hazel, the ash, and the birch ; in fact, we 
learn that even in historic times a dense forest covered 
the north of Surrey. Small portions of that great wood 
yet remain. The sites of Norwood and Forest Hill, it is 
true, now almost as little remind us of a forest that once 
existed there — the great north wood of our county — as 
Woodside (close by this town), which still retains the 
name, when the once adjacent forest has long since 
disappeared. We are well assured, then, that in former 
days this great wood densely covered the land between 
the Wandel and the Thames, that its trees crowded the 
fertile soil of the plastic clay in which the springs of the 
Wandel rise, and that this wood, not far from the south 
of our town, would cease to extend itself, since the chalk 
which there commences will not support the oak or 
other woodland trees ; the furze and other indigenous 
bushes would rather be its tenants. If any trees were 
thinly scattered on the chalk downs, they would probably 
be the birch or the beech. 

It was through such a comparatively open country 
that, after landing on the southern or eastern shores of 
our island, the first families who migrated into Surrey 
would penetrate over our chalk downs to the borders of 
that dense and wild wood to which I have alluded. 
And could the members of a wandering tribe be likely 
to find a more attractive site for their habitations than 



COLD HARBOUR, CROYDON. 205 

was then presented to them ? Here were to be found 
excellent water, wood and reeds for their huts, and for 
fuel, cover for their game, on which they would at 
first subsist, an open chalk country behind them, and, 
when they began to have herds and flocks, and arable 
lands, the rich diluvial soils of our valley and its slopes 
for their subsistence. 

With such natural advantages, we may perhaps safely 
conclude that from the earliest periods when man occu- 
pied our island, around the head-springs of our river at 
Croydon were placed some of the dwelling-places of the 
natives. These aborigines would soon give simple names 
to the objects around them; some of which, I believe, they 
yet retain. The well-drained land on which the " old 
town" of Croydon is placed would then have abounded 
with a chain of pools and irregularly filled water-channels. 
Now, within a few yards of those old channels we have 
certain names which seem to refer to these waters, such 
as Tain-field (which comes, I take it, from the Celtic word 
tain, water, sm&feld, a field) and Duppa, or rather Dub- 
bers Hill (perhaps from the Celtic word clubadh, a pond 
or pool). Coomb Lane leads from these through a little 
valley ; now cym, in old British, signifies a low situation 
or valley. 

Then came the period when the increase of the popu- 
lation caused not only the formation of track-ways or 
roads, 1 but brought into this neighbourhood the pagan 
priesthood, the first races of whom are perchance utterly 
forgotten ; then came the Druids and their mystic reli- 
gious ceremonies, and then would soon arise the pagan 
temples — rude erections, of whose faint, yet pretty distinct 

1 One cause of principal roads being made from the sea-coast to 
London in the direction of Croydon, might be that they thus rounded 
the head-springs of the Wandel and their attendant swamps. 



206 COLD HARBOUR, CROYDON. 

traces, still existing in the local names within a few hun- 
dred yards not only of each other, but of Croydon, we 
have next to inquire. 

In our pilgrimage from this town to Beddington, as 
soon as we are well out of modern Croydon, we shall 
find ourselves in the hamlet of Waddon, once known, 
and marked in the old maps of Surrey, as Wodden or 
"Woden. The name would here suggest that in its neigh- 
bourhood probably once stood a temple or idol of the 
great God of the northern men ; that here were located, 
among their woods of oak and near to copious springs, the 
Anglo-Saxon, the Druidical, or a still earlier priesthood. 
That such was the case, let me remark, before we pro- 
ceed to other indications of their former presence in the 
neighbourhood, the very name of the Wandel, which 
flows through Waddon, also seems to suggest. We may 
test, and perhaps render this pretty probable, by tracing 
the etymology of the similar name of JFcmdsdjke, or 
Wansditch, one of the great works of the early Britons, 
which extends across the county of Wilts. Now, when 
we find it is the opinion of most antiquarians that this 
great way or ditch derived its name from an adjacent 
temple of Woden, shall we not be justified in deeming it 
as probable, that our Wandel is also a corruption of 
Woden, and perhaps of dal, the old Saxon word for a dell 
or little valley ? Camden, speaking of the Wansdyke, 
indeed remarks (Britannia, by Gibson, p. 84) : " The 
natives have the tradition that it was made by the devil 
on a Wednesday (or Wodensday) ; the Saxons termed it 
lUobenej-bic, that is Woden's or Mercury's Ditch, the 
village of Wodensburge [Camden adds] is near this 
dyke." 

We may perhaps fairly then regard it as probable 
that close to the west or south-western side of the 



COLD HARBOUR, CROYDON. 207 

modern town of Croydon once stood some great idol 
or temple sacred to Woden, that religious rites were 
there performed, and that to some of these ceremonies 
were devoted adjacent woods and meads, the site of 
which may be indicated by the name of Haling, a 
manor which is hardly half a mile from either Waddon 
or Croydon, and whose name is derived by Ducarel from 
the old Saxon word for sanctus, which is hahj (from 
whence also comes the old English word All Hallows, 
for All Saints) ; and he deems it not unlikely that the 
words lialig and inge may mean "holy meadow" (DucareFs 
Croydon, p. 73) ; for in the names of places, as Gibson 
remarks in his "Camden," inge signifies a meadow, from 
the Saxon ing, of the same import : and it may be 
worthy of notice, that from the very unusual names of 
two of the fields at Haling (Great and Little Rangers), 
we might conclude that circular stones, or earthworks, 
connected with Druidical ceremonies, once existed here ; 
" Ranger" being derived from the old British rlienge, 
which comes from the German ring, a circle. 

Now, in the interval between Waddon and Haling, 
short as is the distance, yet in that half-mile we pass a 
little group of two or three houses known as " Cold 
Harbour" — a place, like almost all the other Cold Har- 
bours (and they are many) dotted over England, of very 
remote antiquity; but whether it was originally the site 
of a military or religious station, or the place of meeting 
for the old British bards, antiquarians are not exactly 
agreed ; they all, however, seem to incline to the conclu- 
sions that the name of Cold Harbour is a gross corruption, 
and that it marks the site of the transactions of very 
early ages. The word Cold, as Sir U. Colt Hoare remarks 
in his " History of Ancient Wiltshire" {Stinton Station, 
jp. 40), ils frequently prefixed to the names of places, as 



208 COLD HARBOUR, CROYDON. 

" Cold Arbour," " Cold Kitchen Hill," &c, and is pro- 
bably a corruption of the Celtic word col, signifying a 
head or chief; Kitchen he deems to be a corruption of 
the Celtic word crech and crechin, a hill or summit ; so 
that Col Crechin, or the chief summit, has been angli- 
cized into the "Cold Kitchen Hill" of modern "Wiltshire. 

Before I proceed with these imperfect glances, let us 
inquire into the origin of the word Harbour. This word, 
according to Todd, seems to be derived from the Saxon 
henebenga, a military station, a lodging for soldiers. 3 So 
that from these readings we might conclude that Cold 
Harbour is a corruption of col and henebepga, or a chief 
military lodging or resting-place. Such an explanation is 
apparently supported by the fact that these Cold Har- 
bours are commonly found in the immediate vicinity of 
old British trackways, or the Boraan roads which were 
often raised on the ancient ways of the Britons — roads 
portions of which, we shall presently see, may yet be 
traced in the neighbourhood of Croydon. As a resting 
or halting place for soldiers our Cold Harbour would 
possess the considerable advantage of being close to 
one of the chief springs of the Wandel, that at Waddon 
Court. 

The name of Cole, or Cold Harbour, remarks Mr. 
Arthur Taylor (when speaking of the Cold Harbour 
near Thames Street 3 ), is known to be remarkably sug- 
gestive and significant in its general connection with 
ancient military works, and its occurrence here would 

2 Herb&rge in French ; herberg, Dutch ; albergo in Italian. From 
this usage of the word, adds Todd, which obtained among the Germans 
also, the sense of it as an inn, or lodging for any persons, was adopted 
into several languages. 

3 In a conveyance of the reign of Edward III. called " Colde Her- 
berffhe." 



COLD HARBOUR, CROYDOX. 209 

seem to point out this spot as one marked by something 
more conspicuous, or more durable, than lines of encamp- 
ment. (Archceologia, vol. 31, p. 120.) 

That something Admiral Smythe (Ibid. p. 128) is 
inclined to believe to be a mere vestige of the once 
almost universal Ophite 4 "Worship, the accurate his- 
tory of which still continues to be a desideratum in 
archaeology. 

I do not feel inclined to do more than refer to the 
Arbour Lows of Derbyshire as having some possible con- 
nection with our Cold Harbours. Thus, near Middleton 
is to be found, says Davies in his "Derbyshire" (p. 581), 
one of the most remarkable of our county's monu- 
ments of antiquity ; this is the Arbe-lous or Arbor-lows, 5 
a circle of stones within which the ancient British bards 
were accustomed to hold their assemblies. Supposing 
that there was a connection between these, then Col- 
Arbor-lows might intend a chief place at which, near to 
some raised mound or monument, the ancient bards of 
the Cymri, in remote ages, held their meetings ; 6 and if 
so, then we have here, within a very few hundred yards 
of each other, three names probably indicating the 

4 The worship of the serpent (Coluber) was common to the ancient 
Scandinavians and other nations. Pliny, when speaking of the Druids, 
alludes to their stories and charlatanery about the serpent's egg. — 
(Lib. xxix. cap. 3.) 

5 Lovjc, loe, comes from the hleap, or hill ; heap, or barrow ; and so the 
Gothic hlaiw is a monument or barrow. — (Gibson's Camden.) — Todd.. 

6 Mr. Pegge (Archaiologia, vol. vii. p. 140), in speaking of the ancient 
British " Lows," and especially of the " Arbour Lows," near Bakewell, 
alludes to the Arbour-Low-close, near Okeover, in Staffordshire (Plott's 
Staffordshire, p. 404). Pegge thinks that the name is derived from the 
British word career, a hero, and low, a mount or tumulus, and he concludes 
(Ibid. p. 147) that the monument in question must either be a sepulchre 
or a temple, and that the probability is that Arbour-Lows must have 
been a temple — a holy enclosure, not to be profaned or defiled. 

2 E 



210 COLD HARBOUR, CROYDON. 

former presence of heathen worship ; viz., Woden, Col 
Arbour, and Halige. 7 

Some writers have contended that " Cold Harbour" 
merely means a very cold place, or harbour against the 
cold in the exposed places in which they are often found. 
There are several objections to this explanation, such as 
that the name occurs in sheltered situations, as in "Cold 
Herberge" in London, and that the name is too common, 
too widely dispersed throughout the island, and that 
it is found even on the continent. A writer in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for May 1856 has perhaps said 
all that can be urged in favour of the literal interpre- 
tation. 

But that it is an error to conclude that " Cold Har- 
bours" are always in cold or exposed situations, was not 
long since remarked by Mr. Benjamin Williams, 1F.SA., 
in a letter read before the Antiquarian Society, January 
16, 1851, in further illustration of the etymology of 
Cold Herbergh or Harbour. In corroboration of this, 
he observes, that according to Ihre's Dictionarium Suio- 
Gothicum there is, or rather was, the Swedish word kol 
signifying fire, the very opposite of cool ; in that sense, 
however, there are various dialects of Germany and the 
North in which the word kol is used as denoting heat. 

The name of " Cold Herberghe," I find, is known in 
Germany. In an ancient itinerary between Aix-la- 
Chapelle and Treves (starting from the former place), 
the name thus occurs : — 

7 The Druid order of priesthood was divided into three essential 
classes : — viz., the Bardd Braint, peculiarly the ruling order ; Dervndd 
(hence our word Druid), or religious functionary ; and the Ovydd, or 
literary and scientific order. The principal doctrines of the order were 
— the belief in one God, the creator and governor of the universe, 
universal peace and good will. — {Owen's Llywarch Hen, quoted by 
Davis in his Derbyshire, p. 583.) 



COLD HARBOUR, CROYDON. 211 

" Ad S. Corneliam ... ... i mil. 

Boryng \ „ 

Busteyne ... ... ii „ 

Cald Herberge . . . ... dim.mil." 

The same place appears in the map given in Murray's 
Handbook of Belgium under the orthography of Kalten- 
herberg. 

But let me not omit to note the existence of that old 
trackway which passes in a southerly direction by Cold 
Arbour, and which, in all reasonable probability, the 
early Britons made, and their Boman and Saxon con- 
querors afterwards used. If we wend our way up this 
lane from Cold Harbour, we soon arrive at the com- 
mencement of that portion of it where it is considerably 
sunk below the surface of the adjacent ground, and 
when we are nearly arrived at Beggar's Bush it joins the 
" Mear Bank," or ancient raised ridge, now dividing 
the parishes of Croydon and Beddington ; here, there is 
little doubt, were placed the old Saxon mear or mark- 
stones, once commonly set up to mark boundaries. 
Thence, descending the hill to Poxley gate, this old 
road (which from a remote period has here formed 
the boundary of Croydon and Beddington parishes 8 ) 
leads the way to the remains of other ancient track- 
ways, dykes, and banks. The ancient British Ermyn 
Street, in fact, appears to have extended in this direc- 
tion from Pevensey on the Sussex coast, passing near 
Croydon, to London. The " Stane Street " of the 
Romans, which extended from Chichester to London, 
passed through Coulsdon. At the entrance of Ear- 

8 The very fact of this road forming the parish boundary would indi- 
cate its antiquity. Since we may fairly conclude that this way was in 
existence when, in A.D. 636, parishes are said to have been first formed 
by Archbishop Honorius. 



212 COLD HARBOUR, CROYDON. 

thing Down are traces of three dykes ; on the hill 
ascending from Smithani Bottom are several small 
barrows ; on the top of Riddlesdown, jnst beyond the 
sheep-pond, on the right-hand side as we proceed 
from Purley oaks, are the remains of two ancient 
banks and double ditches ; the direction of these 
points to the similar works at the entrance of Hoolley 
Lane from Smitham Bottom. (Manning's Surrey, vol. ii. 
p. 448.) Our Cold Harbour Lane, too, leads towards 
"The Oaks," at Woodcote, a place which disputes with 
Croydon for the site of Noviomagus, the chief city, 
according to Camden, of the Regni. 

Prom a retrospect, then, of the natural temptations 
which this district would assuredly offer to the early 
visitors of our island, we should anticipate that it 
would be selected by them for the site of their habi- 
tations ; and when we consider the number of places 
around the town with names of apparently Celtic 
origin, we may perhaps fairly conclude, that here 
dwelt, from the earliest periods when mankind in- 
habited our country, a well-placed population and a 
numerous and influential pagan priesthood. The mere 
faint "casts" (as the geologists would say) of their 
foot-prints I have endeavoured to detect, with the 
hope that my imperfect attempts will excite my hearers 
to extended inquiries, and to far more satisfactory 
results. 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 213 



XVII. 

ON MONUMENTAL BRASSES, WITH SPECIAL 
NOTICE OE THOSE AT STOKE D'ABERNON. 

By THE EEV. CHAELES BOUTELL, MA. 

BEAD AT THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING HELD AT GUILDFORD 28TH JUNE, 1855. 



The special objects for which institutions such as our 
Surrey Archaeological Society are formed, may, I think, 
be assigned to one or the other of these two divisions ; 
first, the wider diffusion of a taste for archaeological 
pursuits, studies, and researches, together with a just 
appreciation of their true character and bearing ; and 
secondly, the application of a comprehensive and con- 
centrated system to the practical treatment of archaeo- 
logy within the range of a certain locality. It would 
seem that the importance of the former of these objects 
is scarcely estimated aright by some who are them- 
selves already masters in the science of archaeology; 
and hence it occurs that the aid and co-operation of 
such learned and accomplished archaeologists is not 
always accorded to the country societies, either so 
readily or so zealously as might be expected as well as 
desired. Were they to reflect upon the value to the 
cause of archaeology of a wide-spread taste for those 
pursuits which are grouped together under this general 
title, I cannot but consider that our most eminent 
archaeologists would regard archaeological societies as 
possessing peculiar claims upon them for the readiest 



214 MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

and most strenuous support, inasmuch as they are 
unquestionably calculated, in a pre-eminent degree, to 
attract attention, and to excite interest where, without 
their agency, archaeology would have remained without 
notice or regard, if not actually unknown. The claim 
which societies such as ours may advance for support, 
in their capacity for developing the archaeology of 
particular districts, for organizing and imparting a 
definite system to research and investigation, and for 
giving a fresh impulse to advance archaeological science, 
it is beside my present purpose to urge ; I do, however, 
venture to introduce the subject which has been in- 
trusted to me on this occasion, with a passing remark 
upon the worthiness of these institutions as the means 
for strengthening archaeology, both by very considerably 
increasing the number of archaeologists throughout the 
length and breadth of the land, and also by removing 
those vulgar and unjust prejudices which would define an 
archaeologist as a sort of would-be scientific dustman, 
whose elaborately erudite trifling is as worthless in itself, 
as it is repulsive to all but the high-dried brethren of 
his craft. With those who take an active part in the 
establishment and the subsequent administration of 
archaeological societies, the importance of winning fresh 
adherents to archaeology is well understood and duly 
appreciated. They estimate aright the results of elabo- 
rate research, and they regard with mingled sentiments 
of admiration and gratitude the attainments of illus- 
trious individuals ; still they feel that the great lessons 
which the past has written from age to age on those 
diversified memorials which each age enshrines in the 
sanctuary of its own memory, and treasures up for those 
who should come after, as the visible and tangible ex- 
pressions of its own (once living) presence amongst the 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 215 

generations of mankind — the promoters of archaeolo- 
gical institutions feel that these lessons can never be 
comprehended in the fulness of their meaning, nor 
estimated in the due preciousness of their value, without 
a well-nigh universal recognition of their existence, and 
a scarcely less widely extended inquiry into, and sym- 
pathy with, their teachings. They have learned to 
regard history as depending for its true value, because 
depending for its vital essence — truth, upon historical 
memorials, and, therefore, they are archaeologists them- 
selves. They are also conscious that archaeology cannot 
be fully developed, or rightly appreciated, while its 
study is restricted to a comparatively few ; and there- 
fore they seek to enlist fresh recruits into their ranks. 
Now, in order to obtain these recruits in large numbers, 
and of a character calculated to do honour to the service, 
it appears to be essential that, in connection with other 
and higher matters, an archa3ological society should 
(from time to time, and more particularly at an early 
period of its career) set forth before its members and 
friends, certain elementary branches of archaeological 
study, and should treat them in a popular manner. 
This is the opinion entertained by our council, and, 
accordingly, I am honoured with their permission to 
introduce, on the occasion of this present meeting, some 
remarks upon a subject already enjoying a wide popu- 
larity amongst the younger, as well as with more 
experienced, archaeologists, and also specially calculated 
considerably to extend their numbers. Moreover, I am 
authorized to preface a careful description of the brasses 
of Surrey and an inquiry into their historical and bio- 
graphical associations, with some general observations 
upon these equally curious, interesting, and instructive 
memorials. In carrying out this plan, I propose now to 



216 MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

request your attention to the first portion of these 
general observations, and also to the commencement of 
those particular notices of individual brasses which I 
hope to be enabled, on subsequent occasions, to extend 
to every individual brass which time has spared to the 
county of Surrey. It will be ^ understood, that by the 
term "Brass," or "Monumental Brass," is implied a 
commemorative memorial of some person or persons, 
engraven either upon a rectangular plate of metal, or 
upon several pieces of similar metal cut out to corre- 
spond with the main outlines of the design, the incised 
metal being, in both cases, let into a marble or stone 
slab, so placed as to form a part of the pavement of a 
church, or occasionally elevated upon an altar-tomb. 
The occasional deviation from the last condition which 
led, at a late period, to brasses being affixed to the walls 
of churches, must be regarded as both an exceptional 
and an inconsistent usage. We are able to show that 
these brasses were in use, as well in England as on the 
continent, very early in the 13th century ; and it seems 
to be probable that, with the advance of that century, 
they were in (at least comparatively) general use. Thus, 
these incised monumental plates were produced in con- 
siderable numbers, and they also attained to a high 
degree of perfection more than two centuries before the 
discovery by the Florentine goldsmith, Maso Finiguerra 
(A.D. 1460), of the art of engraving plates of metal 
for the purpose of producing facsimile copies by means 
of impression. The same remark applies to the delicate 
and beautiful works in true line engraving, executed by 
artists who flourished at a far earlier period, for the 
decoration of the metallic hand-mirrors used by the 
ladies of ancient P^ome. In searching for the origin of 
commemorative works of this class amongst the monu- 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 217 

mental memorials in use at a still earlier period, we are 
led to trace the introduction of the engraven metallic 
plates, in the first instance, to the enamels of the con- 
tinental artists of the 12th century; those enamels 
having been themselves introduced, apparently, through 
Venice, from Byzantium into Europe ; while the greater 
durability of the metal, and its superior beauty also to 
incised monumental slabs, would insure its favourable 
reception and extended adoption. The monuments in 
use in our own country anterior to the introduction of 
brasses, which now claim our first regard, were upright 
crosses, adorned with various rude devices of interlaced 
work, sometimes intermingled with figures of animals. 
Contemporary with these crosses were small stone 
tablets, bearing Runic characters. Plat slabs, of larger 
dimensions, appear to have been also in use at the same 
period. On all these the devices and letters were pro- 
duced, either by cutting lines into the stone, that is by 
incising or engraving them, or by removing the adjoin- 
ing portions of the face of the stone, and so leaving the 
designs and inscriptions themselves in quasi-relief. The 
great Christian symbol, the cross, appears incised upon 
some of the earliest slabs. Somewhat later, the cross, 
with its accompanying ornaments, was worked in a 
true, but still a low relief ; and now the actual lid of the 
stone coffin became, in many instances, the monumen- 
tal memorial ; on other occasions, the large rectangular 
slab was still retained. Shortly after the Norman con- 
quest, monumental inscriptions fell into disuse, if we 
may judge from the scarcity of examples ; and about the 
commencement of the 12th century we find the first 
traces of attempts to give a representation of the person 
of the deceased, either upon the lid of his stone coffin 
or on a sepulchral slab. These early effigies, though 

2 F 



218 MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

sometimes incised, were generally produced in low 
relief, and the desired effect was not unfrequently 
obtained by such cutting away of parts of the surface 
of the slab as caused the representation to appear 
rather sunk in the stone than raised above it. As, in 
process of time, monumental art steadily advanced, and 
effigies in full relief were produced by artists of no mean 
capacity, so it became apparent, from the inconvenience 
and obstruction necessarily attendant upon the intro- 
duction of numerous monuments which would require 
to be raised above the pavement of churches, that, as a 
general rule, designs for monumental memorials should 
be expressed upon flat slabs of marble or stone ; thus, 
while in comparatively rare instances the altar-tomb 
with its sculptured effigy continued in use, in the great 
majority of cases the coped coffin-lid gave way to the 
flat slab ; and thus also both the monumental cross and 
the effigy came to be depicted by incised lines, instead 
of being executed in relief. Such incised stones would 
also possess the recommendation of being obtainable at 
far less cost than similar memorials wrought by the 
sculptor's chisel, and, at the same time, the designs thus 
engraved might (so far as the outline process would 
admit) be identical with those adopted in more costly 
and elaborately wrought productions. 

Still, these incised monuments were exposed to one 
most serious objection; that is, of being surely and 
specially injured, if not actually obliterated, through 
the contant attrition to which, from their position, they 
would necessarily be subjected. This objection would not 
attach to monumental brasses, such being the hardness 
and consequent durability of the plates prepared for their 
manufacture that many of the earliest examples of these 
memorials yet in existence are still as essentially perfect 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 219 

as when first laid down. Brasses, accordingly, when 
once established in use, continued in favour for the 
purpose of monumental commemoration until the close 
of the era of the Renaissance. 

In our own country, very considerable numbers of 
brasses yet remain, many of them being in a state of 
preservation truly wonderful, when their age and the 
perils to which they have been exposed are taken into 
consideration; while others exhibit the effect of every 
variety of injury. Besides the brasses still in existence, 
a vast series of despoiled stones, from which the original 
brasses have been torn, give a sad testimony both to the 
extensive adoption of these memorials at one period, and 
to the sacrilegious violence and spoliation to which they 
were subjected at another. On the Continent but few 
brasses have escaped, and these are chiefly to be found 
in the churches of Belgium and of certain parts of 
Germany. 1 

A degree of interest, second only to that which is 
claimed by the brasses themselves, is attached to the 
slabs which have been despoiled of their brasses. They 
will frequently repay attentive study, as they, unless 
mutilated, represent the composition of the lost brass 
with the utmost fidelity, and in many instances supply 
us with examples of designs of which there are no known 
existing specimens ; and it is not uncommon for us thus 
to learn that brasses have been lost which were probably 
finer and more interesting than even the most splendid 
which yet remain. Such despoiled slabs thickly stud 
our larger and more important churches, and may also 
be found in almost every church in which the ignorant 



1 Kereut researches have discovered a large number of Brasses in 
Belgium and Northern Germany. 



220 MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

and injudicious restorer has not busied himself to sub- 
stitute new pavements for old. 

1 pass on now to observe that the use of incised slabs 
was not discontinued subsequently to the introduction 
of the engraven plates or "brasses," and particularly in 
those districts where marble and stone were most abund- 
ant ; on the contrary, the two classes of flat memorials 
continued in use together, and contemporary examples of 
both exhibit many features in common ; the distinguish- 
ing characteristic of the brasses being, in most cases, 
their higher degree of artistic merit. In both the brass 
and the incised slab the engraven lines were filled in 
with a species of mastic, generally black, but in some 
instances of various colours. Colour was also introduced 
into many brasses by means of enamel. 

The brass plate originally denominated " latten " was 
a compound somewhat resembling the brass now in use 
amongst ourselves, but more costly and far more durable 
than that alloy. It appears to have been manufactured 
exclusively on the Continent previously to the middle 
of the 16th century, and from thence imported into 
this country. Although the "plate" itself was not made 
at home until long after the decline of brasses as works 
of art, yet we have every reason for believing that almost 
all the brasses laid down in English churches were the 
work of native artists, and probably even in the few 
instances in which the designs are certainly Erench or 
Flemish the actual engravers may have been English- 
men. 2 This brings me to the consideration of the 

2 Flemish brasses are best distinguished by the execution. The lines 
are broader, cut with flat chisel-shaped gravers, and not generally so 
deep as those of England. The Flemish brasses at Ipswich and All- 
hallows, Barking, London, have errors in the heraldry which would 
not have occurred if they had been executed in England. 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 221 

designs generally adopted in brasses, and also of certain 
peculiarities in their treatment and execution which at 
once determine and facilitate their classification. 

The first great distinction to be observed in the matter 
of design may be considered to have been ruled by the 
two general varieties of form in which the plate was 
used. In the first of these varieties, the brasses were 
worked in one unbroken plate of metal, or in several 
plates so united as to present the appearance of one 
unbroken metallic surface. This was the Flemish prac- 
tice, and in brasses of this variety the design (derived 
apparently, like the form of the plate, from the enamelled 
tablets of Limoges) exhibits the effigy under a canopy 
elaborately enriched with tabernacle work, and with 
figures of saints and other personages in niches; the 
composition being surrounded by an inscription, and 
beyond that by an ornamental border. The background 
was covered with a rich diaper, which was (generally) 
continued between the shafts of the canopy and the 
inscription, thus imparting to the aanopy and to the 
effigy beneath it the appearance of having been cut out 
in metal and laid upon a carpet of gorgeous richness. 
This arrangement accords exactly with the altar-tomb 
and its effigy sculptured in relief. 

Five brasses of this class yet remain in our churches — 
at St. Alban's, Lynn, Newark, and Topcliffe — which may 
be assigned to the same artist, whose hand may also be 
traced in the fine relics preserved in the Church of St. 
Sauveur, at Bruges. A fragment of a sixth great work, 
by the same masterly hand, is in the British Museum ; 
it is, in my opinion, the finest specimen of these engraven 
memorials in existence, and I am much disposed to con- 
sider, that it may be the remains of the companion work 
to the brass of Abbot Delamere which once covered the 



222 MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

remains of his predecessor in the abbacy of St. Alban's, 
at the foot of the altar-steps in the abbey church. 

Other Flemish brasses may also be seen (their dates 
varying from A.D. 1370 to 1535) at Aveley (Essex), 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, Ipswich, in the Church of All- 
hallows, Barking (in London), and at Fulham on the 
Thames. 

The second variety in the form of brasses differs from 
the Flemish in this respect, that here the effigy or cross, 
the canopy, shield of arms, inscriptions, and other devices, 
are each engraven on a separate piece of metal, cut out 
to correspond with the outline of the several details; each 
piece being also placed in a distinct matrix, or indent, 
of a form corresponding with its own, sunk in the face 
of the marble or stone slab, which thus became the field 
or background of the entire work. This is the method 
which was adopted by the English artists in the brasses 
which they produced, and it is unquestionably superior 
to the Elemish system. In these Flemish works, how- 
ever wonderful as productions of the graving-tool, the 
eye is confused by the large and profusely ornamented 
surface presented to it at one view ; whereas the brasses 
of England, by their arrangement, preserve clearly the 
distinctness of the several parts, while the canopy and 
surrounding marginal inscription sustain the unity of the 
design. I must add that the slab itself to which the 
brass plates are affixed contributes in no slight degree to 
the unity and completeness of the work as a composition. 
Accordingly, in taking rubbings, or in making drawings 
or engravings, the slab should always be included. 

A few other brasses yet preserved in England are 
evidently of foreign workmanship, or at least of foreign 
design, notwithstanding that they are destitute of back- 
grounds. Such brasses are at \Ycnsley, Yorkshire, and 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 223 

North Mimms, Herts ; they both belong to ecclesiastics, 
and are both Flemish. Also at Minster and Hors- 
monden, Kent ; at Elsyng, Norfolk ; Horseheath, Cam- 
bridge ; at Ockham, Surrey ; and at Trotton in Sussex, 
(date 1310) ; all of which are to be attributed to 
French artists. And, on the other hand, there is a brass 
at Constance cathedral to Robert Halluni, Bishop of 
Salisbury, who died while attending the council held 
at that city, A.D. 1416, which is of English design, 
and there is a tradition that it was sent thither from 
England. 

Before the introduction of brasses, the designs which 
we have good reason for supposing to have been preva- 
lent upon incised slabs were crosses with (in some 
instances) marginal inscriptions. Effigies appear to have 
been less common. There was also a singularly inter- 
esting class of designs which obtained very generally 
in incised slabs, but which we do not find to have been 
adopted in more than a few instances by the engravers 
of brasses ; these designs exhibit, with the monumental 
cross, and sometimes with the inscription also, a device 
indicative of the profession or occupation of the deceased, 
such as a pastoral staff for a bishop or abbot, a chalice 
for a priest, a sword for a warrior, &c. 

The earliest brasses appear to have been inscriptions, 
or inscriptions and crosses. In these memorials the 
inscription was set about the four sides of the slab 
near the margin ; each letter was cut out of the metal 
and fixed in a hollow for its reception, and the rows 
of letters were (but not in the earliest examples) en- 
closed within narrow strips or fillets of metal forming 
borders to them. During the 13th and 14th centuries 
we find that an attempt was made to combine the cross 
and the e^igy upon the same monument and in the 



224 MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

same design. Parts of the figure were sometimes intro- 
duced into these compositions ; hence, apparently, may- 
be derived the demi-figures so common in brasses. Prom 
these curious and interesting slabs, also, crosses were 
introduced into brasses having open floriated heads and 
inclosing figures or parts of figures. Crosses were also 
engraved without any open floriated heads, as in the 
fine and interesting examples at Iiigham Perrers 
(Chichele Brass, A.D. 1400), and at Beddington, 
Surrey, to Margaret Oliver, A.D. 1425. 

The custom of placing effigies or semi-effigies within 
or upon crosses, and also above them, led to the 
adoption of bracket brasses, in which the figure was 
placed upon a bracket and generally covered with a 
canopy. 

The effigies represented in brasses comprise an 
almost uninterrupted series of figures of ladies, men in 
armour of various ranks, and civilians, from the time 
of Edward II. and Edward III. till the Reformation. 
The number of these figures is very considerable, and 
they are widely scattered through different districts, 
affording abundant facilities for reference, comparison, 
and illustration. They exhibit and illustrate with 
admirable exactness the changes in armour and cos- 
tume which were introduced and discarded during that 
long and eventful period. They exemplify the feelings, 
tastes, and usages of our ancestors in almost every 
department of social and political life in those days, 
from generation to generation. They furnish a graphic 
chapter in the rise, development, and decline of art. 
I need scarcely add that they supply to the historian, 
the politician, the artist, the herald, and the topo- 
grapher of our own times, information at once valuable, 
interesting, and instructive. 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 225 

The brasses of ecclesiastics which yet exist give us 
examples of every variety in the habits of the hierar- 
chy, down to the year 1554 (2 Mary), and on to 1611 
(7 Charles I.). In addition to archbishops, bishops and 
abbots, priors and abbesses are also represented in 
brasses, though at a late period only ; and in addition 
to these, commencing early in the second half of the 
14th century, there is a long series of engraven effigies 
of priests in eucharistic, processional, and academic 
habits. The modifications of form and adjustment 
introduced into some of the clerical vestments, together 
with the varieties in their ornamentation, are well shown 
in these brasses, which are also, in many instances, 
indicative of the tone of feeling prevalent at the time. 

The brasses of ladies and civilians (which commence at 
about the same period with those of ecclesiastics) exhibit 
abundant varieties in costume. These are all, without 
doubt, truthful examples of the dresses and ornaments 
actually worn. Prom other sources (illuminated MSS., 
&c.) we learn, that during the 14th and 15th centuries the 
dresses of both sexes were not only continually changing 
in their fashion, but that they were various and fan- 
tastic in the extreme. On the brasses the extravagances 
of fashion almost universally appear, with the very best 
taste, chastened, and the more outrageous forms are 
curtailed and simplified ; or, rather, such forms are 
omitted, while the comparatively simpler styles are re- 
tained and exhibited. A marked similarity between the 
general effect of the costume of the two sexes is 
observable : the knightly coif of mail was emulated in 
the wimple of the high-born dame ; both knight and 
lady wore the flowing mantle ; the ladies delighted to 
have their dresses covered with heraldic adornments, 
and strange to our eyes (if not to their own) they 

2 G 



226 MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

would have looked thus emblazoned, 3 as in the instance 
of Lady Tiptoft, whose brass at Enfield shows her in a 
mantle having three great lions passant on one half 
of it, and on the other another lion rampant, at least 
as large as his three neighbours. The merchant and 
his lady wore the same flowing tunic; the knightly 
belt, both in form and adjustment, was closely imitated 
in the more delicate cinctures which encircled the ladies' 
waists. In addition to the long array of brasses of 
ladies and of merchants of various callings, there are 
also brasses of judges, from which we learn that in the 
15th century the civilian's sword (anelace) was worn 
with the judicial coif and ermine ; and there are brasses 
of Serjeants learned in the law with coif and bands, of 
notaries with inkhorn and penner, and of crown-keepers 
and yeomen of the guard to the sovereign ; of yeomen, 
and others. 

The armour represented in brasses commences with 
the mail suit worn in the time of the first Edward, and 
furnishes examples of almost every change and modifi- 
cation in the panoply worn by the chivalry of England. 
Six brasses exemplify this style of armour ; of these, the 
brasses at Trumpington and Chartham are unfinished, 
those at Croft and Buslingthorpe are half-figures ; the 
Acton brass to Sir H. de Bures is singularly fine, and 
its preservation is actually wonderful. Of the sixth, 
the earliest of the group, I shall have presently to 
speak more particularly ; this is the brass of Sir John 
D'Aubernoun. 

Erom the unmixed mail we are carried on to the first 
decided addition of defences of plate or perhaps of pre- 
pared leather (cuirbouilli). During the next succeeding 

3 These dresses were doubtless for state occasions only. The legal 
term " feme coverte " is derived from this usage. 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 227 

period, the earlier years of Edward III., we have but a 
few examples : one of these, however, though much worn 
and mutilated, is a splendid work of art, and in the 
matter of armour and arms a little arsenal of itself ; 
this is the brass to Sir H. Hastings, at Elsyng, which is 
also equally valuable from its architectural and heraldic 
accessories. Here is one of the earliest known quar- 
tered coats of arms — the royal arms on the jupon of 
Edward III. himself, who appears in a compartment 
of the canopy. I may add that the sub-canopies of these 
compartments of the principal canopy afford admirable 
hints for designs for stained glass. 

Examples increase as the reign of Edward III. 
advances, and they abound during those of his un- 
fortunate grandson and of Henry IV. The camail was 
universal. To this martial appendage the gorget of 
steel succeeded under Henry V., and thus the armour 
became of unmixed plate. 

Every plate that, in process of time, was added in 
hopes of strengthening the defensive equipment against 
the shock of the charge either in the lists or in the 
field, and every fresh device for giving increased freedom 
to the sword-arm of the knight without detracting from 
its security, are found to have been carefully rendered 
on the brasses of the 15th century. The decadence of 
armour is also fully illustrated in the later brasses, which 
themselves give evident proof of an art rapidly declining. 

The full value of the representation of armour given 
in brasses cannot, perhaps, be adequately appreciated, 
without instituting a comparison between these engraven 
figures and the actual relics of armour preserved in the 
Tower and other amouries. A comparison between 
the designs of brasses and those of sculptured effigies, 
seals, illuminations, and stained glass, will also tend 



228 MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

greatly to enhance our opinion of the value of these 
engravings. 

As a matter of course, all these figures supply us with 
illustrations for a national history — illustrations of the 
people of England drawn in their own times, therefore 
of peculiar interest and value. No less admirably do 
they illustrate our great national writers in other depart- 
ments of literature. How very valuable in this respect, 
for example, are the brasses of Alianore de Bohun, 
Duchess of Gloucester, of Lord Berkely, and Sir Wil- 
liam Bagot, all characters in our great dramatist's 
" Richard II. ;" also the brass of the standard-bearer 
to that unfortunate prince, Sir S. de Eelbrigge, Knight 
of the Garter, who appears with the royal banner by his 
side, and who married a maid of honour to Anne of 
Bohemia, the queen. Then there is Lord Camoys, also 
a Knight of the Garter, who led the left wing at Agin- 
court ; and Sir Anthony Grey (brother of Lord Grey of 
Groby, the first husband of Elizabeth Woodville after- 
wards Queen of Edward IV.) who, with his brother, fell 
at the battle of Bernard's Heath, near St. Alban's, 
Eebruary 17th, 1480 ; and, still later, at Hever is the 
brass to Sir T. Bullen, the father of the ill-fated mother 
of Queen Elizabeth ; while at Blickling, another Anne 
Bullen, aunt to the queen, is represented in a brass. I 
might with ease extend very considerably this historic 
series, but I must be content to specify only one other 
example — a brass of poetic interest, the memorial of 
Thomas, son of Geoffrey Chaucer, at Ewelme. 

Leaving for some future occasion a sketch of the 
general character of the inscriptions introduced into 
brasses, of their heraldry and symbolic devices, the 
attitudes of their effigies, and their accompanying 
accessories, including some observations upon the cross- 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 229 

legged attitude in certain military effigies, which has 
attracted so much attention and led to such unfounded 
theories; leaving also the canopies, architecture, and 
other accessories, and the cost of their production, — I 
proceed to remark, that the earlier examples of these 
engraven monuments you will find to be the best as 
works of art : the plates are of harder metal, thicker, and 
in all respects better prepared ; the designs are dis- 
tinguished by a simplicity, breadth, and boldness, which 
gradually disappeared in process of time ; the art work- 
manship is firmer than in later brasses, more expressive, 
more artistic. The true power and capacity of outline 
were thoroughly understood by the earlier brass- 
engravers. 

The same may be said with reference to the brasses 
which prevailed in particular districts. In all cases, 
however, fidelity of representation was rigidly observed. 
To personal portraiture, as we now understand the term, 
these artists paid but little regard ; they seem, indeed, to 
have considered it unnecessary to impart to the counte- 
nances of their figures more than the distinctive charac- 
teristics of sex, and of youth or age, as the case might 
be. The figures themselves varied in size, from the full 
proportion of life to 18 or 15 inches ; but the costume 
and armour of the time in which the brass was engraved 
were always the costume and armour indicated on the 
brass. And since, as a general rule, the brasses were 
engraved and laid down immediately after the decease 
of the person represented, the date of the brass and of 
the commemorative inscription may usually be regarded 
as identical. Exceptions to this rule will be observed by 
the student of brasses ; they arise chiefly from a habit 
which prevailed with some persons (and more particu- 
larly amongst ecclesiastics) of having their brasses 



230 MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

prepared during their lifetime and under their own 
directions. In these cases, even the inscriptions were 
written and engraved, blanks being left for the actual 
dates. The blanks generally remain, since too often 
none were found who cared to fill them up. In other 
instances, a brass may have been laid down to comme- 
morate a person then long deceased ; or an early brass 
may have been appropriated afresh at a subsequent 
period, and, with a fresh inscription, laid down as the 
portraiture and memorial of some person of a more 
modern age. (And here, in a parenthesis, I would 
observe, that not the least remarkable circumstance 
brought to light by the study of the monumental 
memorials of the middle ages, is the readiness with 
which the very men who were most anxious to provide 
monuments for themselves treated the monuments of 
others with disrespect, and even removed or appropriated 
them to their own purposes.) On the death of either a 
husband or wife, the survivor, in placing a brass to the 
memory of the lost one, usually had the figures of both 
represented, and the inscription written in the plural 
number, blanks being left for the date of the survivor's 
decease. In these brasses, if two dates appear, the brass 
itself is almost always of the earlier date. I say almost 
always, because in rare instances the brass to both 
husband and wife, with figures of both sexes, was laid 
down at the decease of the survivor. While speaking of 
the brasses to husband and wife, I may add that such 
effigies are occasionally to be seen hand in hand, and 
that, when in this attitude, they generally, if not always, 
denote a memorial placed by a widow to her departed 
lord. Of brasses of this kind, I may mention examples 
at Berkhampstead, A.D. 1356 ; Chrishall, 1370 ; South- 
acre, 1384; Dartmouth, 1103 (where Sir J. Hanley 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 231 

appears between his two wives, holding the second 
spouse by the hand, his right hand resting upon the 
sword-hilt), and Trotton; 1424. Sculptured effigies are 
also thus represented ; as remarkable examples, I may- 
mention the effigies of Richard II. and his queen. My 
no less judicious than talented and accomplished friend 
Mr. E. Richardson discovered that this was the original 
attitude of the group from a close examination of the 
mutilated figures in Westminster Abbey ; and having 
obtained corroborative proof of the correctness of his 
conjecture, he restored the cast of this fine monument in 
the Crystal Palace in accordance with the original design. 
There is one brass, and it is in every respect one of the 
finest in existence, which appears to be a solitary excep- 
tion, commonly considered to be necessary for establish- 
ing a general rule. In this case, I refer to the rule 
already set forth that the costume of the period in which 
the brass was executed was represented on the engraven 
effigies. This is the memorial of Sir R. de Swynborne 
and his son, Sir T. de Swynborne, at Little Horkesley. 
The father and son severally died A.D. 1391 and A.D. 
1412 ; and the brass (executed in 1412) represents the 
two knights each in the armour of his own time ; and as 
an important change in armour was introduced in the 
interval between these two dates, the two effigies exhibit 
some points in marked contrast. Each of these effigies 
is surmounted by a triple canopy of the utmost grace 
and beauty, and the entire work, which rests on an altar- 
tomb, is in a rare condition of preservation. 

The earliest example of a brass of which we have any 
record, was in the church of St. Paul at Bedford, to 
Earl Simon de Beauchamp, who died before A.D. 1208 ; 
this memorial, now long lost, consisted of a border 
inscription, with probably a cross. The earliest brass of 



232 MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

which the design has heen preserved hy means of an 
engraving was in France, and commemorated Philip 
and John, the two sons of Louis VIII., who reigned 
from A.D. 1223 to 1226 ; and the earliest brass known 
to be still in existence, 4 is the bold and martial effigy of 
Sir John d'Aubernoun, which is preserved in the church 
of Stoke d'Abernon, in this county of Surrey; with 
this brass, accordingly, I commence my proposed de- 
scriptive notices of " The Monumental Brasses of 
Surrey." 

This brass, when in its original state of completeness, 
consisted of the armed effigy of the knight, two small 
shields of arms, one on either side, a little above his 
head, and an inscription in Norman-French, which 
formed a border to the entire composition. This de- 
scription was written in single Lombardic, or Uncial 
capitals, according to the usage of the time, with stops 
between each word, and a cross at its commencement ; 
the letters were also inclosed within two narrow fillets 
of the metal. The brass-work of this inscription is 
entirely lost ; the time-worn stone, however, still shows 
that it was thus expressed, ^ 81 R6 : IOHN : DAV- 
BGRNOVN : CHIVAL6R : GIST : ICY : DeV : DG : SA: 
ALMe : GYT : M6RCY : and that it commenced in the 
centre of the stone at its head. Of the two small 
shields, that on the sinister side of the slab is lost ; the 
dexter shield remains, and it is charged with the arms 
of d'Aubernoun, Azure, a chevron or. This effigy has 
been preserved with scarcely any injury throughout the 
long period that has passed away since the time of 
Edward I. It represents the knight as armed in a 
complete suit of mail (chain-armour). The body is 

4 There are early brasses in Belgium, and one bearing the date of 
1279 is at Hildesheim, in Germany. 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 233 

covered with a sleeved hauberk, a coif is drawn over 
the head, and the lower limbs and feet are guarded by 
chausses of the same flexible and inwoven defence. 
The genouillieres, or knee-plates, are possibly of pre- 
pared leather. There is a lion at his feet, and he is not, 
as in many other instances, represented as cross-legged ; 
his attitude is that of repose. Mr. Waller's remarks on 
this are to the following effect : — " Considered as a 
work of art, it will be found that the figure is ill-pro- 
portioned, but the arrangement of the drapery judi- 
ciously contrived ; whilst, as a production of the burin, 
this brass is not excelled by any subsequent example ; 
each link of the mail is distinctly represented, and the 
mere work of graving up so large a surface must have 
cost many weeks of patient labour." This name of 
d'Aubernon appears to have been derived from the 
river Aube, in Picardy, Champagne, and Burgundy. 
Roger d'Aubernon came over with the Conqueror, and 
appears in Doomsday as settled in Surrey, under 
Richard de Tonbridge, Earl of Clare. He held the 
manors of Molesham and Aldbury, and others in Stoke 
and Eetcham, but he established his residence at Stoke. 
This baron also possessed various other estates in other 
parts of the kingdom, especially in Bedfordshire and 
Devonshire. Several of his descendants are mentioned, 
and Walter d'Aubernon bore arms against King John. 
The first of this family, named John, died before 1279, 
the 7th, that is, of Edward I., leaving a son, another 
John, who died 1327 ; his son was also John, and his 
son William, who died in 1358 without male issue, after 
which the representation of the family became vested in 
the female line. There are three stones commemorative 
of members of this family in the chancel, all to Johns ; 
but these are easily distinguished, and to each a period 

2 H 



23 i MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

may be assigned. With reference to our Sir John 
d'Aubernon: at the death of his father, Gilbert, in 
1236, he was a minor, but not far from his majority. 
In 1264, he was sheriff of Surrey and Sussex, so that 
you see there was a union in early times between 
Surrey and other counties. In 1266 he was sheriff 
again of the two counties, and after that period he is 
not mentioned in any public document. The son, 
however, appears, and is known in 1278, because in" 
that year he was summoned to pay a fine on entering 
on his property; consequently, therefore, the inference 
is, that his father died previous to that period. Hence 
we assign to the brass the date of 1277. I have said the 
state of society is well illustrated by an inquiry into the 
circumstances connected with the career of this indi- 
vidual. There is preserved an account of the remark- 
able suit instituted against Sir John, the sheriff of 
Sussex and Surrey, in the year 1269, the 49th of 
Henry III. It appears that in 1265 William Hod, 
of Normandy, shipped to Portsmouth ten hogsheads 
of woad. These were seized, immediately on their 
landing, by robbers who infested the neighbourhood of 
Portsmouth in those days, and carried them off to 
Guildford; William Hod, of Normandy, overtook the 
robbers, regained his property, and lodged it for safe 
keeping in the castle. Then one Nicholas Picard and 
others from Normandy appear, and demand the property, 
that it should be given up to them in the name of one 
Stephen Buckerel and others. If there were any demur, 
he threatened to destroy by fire the whole town of 
Guildford, with its church, chapel, and neighbourhood, 
on the morrow. Nicholas, the under-sheriff, who appears 
to have resided there, and had property, and what he 
esteemed more than his property, his wife and family 




DEL £~ Jc. 



BRASS OF SIR JOHN DAUEERNOUN, 
Stoke D'Abernon Church, Surrey, A.D 1277. 





I FOOT 

BRASS OF SIR JOHN D'AUBERNODN , 

Stoke D'Abernon Church Surrey. A D. 1327. 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 235 

living at Ditton not far off, gave up the property, which, 
was at once carried off from the castle of Guildford. It 
was in consequence of this transaction that the original 
merchant brought an action against the sheriff of the 
county, the sheriff of course being responsible for the 
deeds of his representative, and he was fined in the full 
sum of 120 marks. It appears there were some circum- 
stances connected with this matter which made it a 
mere question of disputed property. After all, the trans- 
action is very questionable. I may remark, how strange 
does this mode of settling disputes appear to us. How 
strange that the sheriff of a county so near the metropo- 
lis, should have been unable to raise a sufficient number 
of persons to prevent so gross an outrage. Prom the 
first Sir John, I pass to his son, the second of that name, 
who died in 1327. The original brass of this second Sir 
John D'Aubernon is even more interesting, in certain 
respects, than that of his father, inasmuch as there are 
several others which present the same features as the 
brass of the first Sir John ; whereas of the second there 
are but very few indeed. In very many places in this 
county of Surrey there are other brasses, all of which 
deserve some degree of attention, as all of them are 
interesting, and, indeed, all are valuable. The most 
important are at Kingston (Skene), Beddington (Carews), 
Crowhurst (Gaynesford), Ditton, Horley, East Horsley 
(the remarkable brass of Bishop Boothe), Lingfield (Sir 
Reginald de Cobham), Merstham (Elmebry gge), Shere, 
Cranley, and many other places. 



'iTt 



(llematojjkal # P^raibk lltemoraatm 



RELATING TO 



THE COUNTY OF SURREY. 



2 i 





W2ZZC 




v&r&siz £>?#&&? 



gigjgps of IJLeipie. 



Joh'es Fineux, miles, 

Capitalis Justiciarius 

Anglise. 



. . . . filia et cohser. Will'i 
Apnlderteild, de Linsted. 



Philippa, filia Joh' is 

Engham, de Chart, 

in Kent, uxor 2. 



Jacobus Digges, de 

Digges-Court, in 

Parocliia de Berham, 

in Kent, Ar. 



Leonardus Digges, 

filius secundo 

genitus. 



Thomas Digges, de 
Berham, in Kent. 



Dudleyus Digges, de 
Cbilham, in co. Kane. 



Sara, soror Tho. 
Wilford, militis. 



Anna, filia 
Warhami St. 
Leger, militis. 



Maria, filia setate 

minima et collar. 

Thomae Kempe, 

militis. 



Mildreda, filia Joh'is 
Fineux, militis, et 
coheres matris. 



Johannes Digges, 
de Digges Court. 



Mildreda, filia 

Johannis Scot, 

militis. 



Will' us Digges, de 

Digges Court, in 

Barham, fil. et hares. 



. ... filia 
Broke. 



Christopherus Digges, 
de Digges Place, in 
Barham, in co. Kane. 



.omas, 
hannes, 2. 
ldleyus, 3. 



1 . Anna. Elizabetha. 



Thomas Digges, 
de Digges Place, 
in com. Kane, 
filius et haeres. 



Margareta, filia 

Joh'is Parker, 

militis, filij 

Archiep'i 

Cantuarien'. 



Christopherus 
Digges. 



Edwardus. 
Reginaldus. 
Johannes. 



Dorothea. 



Thomas Posthumus Digges, 

de Rigate, in com. Surr., 

armiger, filius et hares, 

1623. 



Maria, fil. 

Henrici Drake, 

de Frenches, in 

Rigate, in com. 

Surrey. 



Elizabetha, ux. Jacobi 
Morley, de London. 



Joh'es Digges, filius et heres, 
baptizatus 3° die April' 1623. 



Margareta. 



Thomas. 
Maria. 



Caxefo of 



Joh'es Throckmorton, 
a° 13 Ed. III. 



Agnes, filia et hsrea 
Ric'i Abberbury, de 
com : Oxon : militia. 



Tho : Throckmorton, de 

Throckmorton, in p'ochia 

de Fladbury, in com : 

Wigorn, a° 17 Ric. II. 



Agnes, fil. et hser. 
Besford. 



Joh'es Throckmorton, 

Subthesaurarius 
Angliae t'p'e. Hen. V. 



= Alianora, fil. et 
cohaeres Guidonis 
Spiney, de Coughton, 
in co. Warr. 



Rob'tus Olney, miles, 
duxit Goditham, 

fil. et cohser. 
Will'mi Bosom. 



Tho : Throckmorton, 
de Coughton. 



: Margareta, filia et 
coheres Rob'ti Olney, 
de Weston. 



Rob'tus Throckmorton, de 

Coughton, miles, 

obijt 24 Hen. VII. 



Katherina, filia Will'i 

Marow, Aldermanni 

London. 



Georgius Throckmorton, de = Katherina, filia Nicholai 



Coughton, in com. Warr., 
miles. 



Vaux, de Harwedon, 
et hferes matris. 



Rob'tus Throckmorton, 

de Coughton, in com. 

Warr., miles. 



Muriella, 

filia 
Baronis 
Berkeley. 



Tho. Throckmorton, 

de Coughton, qui vixit 

a° 1602, 



Clemens Nicholaus Throckmorton, = Anna, soror 3 et 



Throckmorton, de 

Haseley, de quo 

vide visitaco'em 

com : Warwici. 



de Pauelespery, in 
com. Northton, miles. 



una hseredum 
Francisci Carew, 

de Bedington, 

in com. Surrise, 

militis. 



itWmQkan, 



Nicholaus Carew, de == Lucia 
Beddington, fil. et 
hseres, a" 2 Hen. V. 



Nicholaus Carew, de = 
Bedington, obijt 
4 Sept. a° 11 Hen. VI. I 



Nicholaus Carew, de = 
Bedington Ar., 
obijt a° 6 Ed. IV. 



Jacobus Carew, de = Margareta. 
Bedington. 



Rich'us Carew, de Bedington, = 
miles, Vicecomes Surrise, 
a" 17 Hen. VII. 



Nicholaus Carew, de Bedington, miles, == Elizabetha, filia 



ordinis Garterij, a° 12 Hen. VIII., 
Locumtenens Calisise, decollatus. 



Thomse Brian, 
jilitis. 



Franciscus Carew, 

de Beddington, 

miles, obijt ccelebs, 

a° 1607, s. p. 



Elizabetha, 1 soror 
et cohaer., uxor 
Hall. 



Maria, soror 2, ux. 

Arthuri Darcy, 

militis. 



Isabella, soror 

quarta et 

cohseres, uxor 

Will'i Sanders, 

de Ewell, in 

Surr. Ar. 



Arthurus Throckmorton, 

de Pauelespery, in 

com. Northton, miles, 

a° 1623 duxit 



Nicholaus Throckmorton, vulgariter 
Carew ratione adoptionis, miles, de 
Beddington, in Surrey, 1623 duxit 

in 2 uxorem, Susanna, filiam 

Bright, de St. Edmundesbury, in 

Suff., relictam Butler, de 

London, mercatnris. 



Maria, filia Elizabetha, 

Georgii More, de uxor Walteri 

Loseley, in com. Raleigh, 

Surrey, mil. militis. 



Thomas, Susanna. Franciscus Carew, Nicholaus 2. Maria. Elizabetha, uxor Anna Maria, 

ob. in filius et hser. Georgius 3. Jacobi Pointz, de s. p. 

infantia, apparens, setatis EdmundusL ITppenden, in Essex, 

8. p. 20 annorum. Oliffus 5. mil., s. p. 




THROCKMORTON". 



243 



V* The Council, having resolved to print in their " Collections " original 
Pedigrees, Grants of Arms, Notices of Ancient Seals, and other Genealogical and 
Heraldic matters tending to illustrate the Descent and Alliances of Surrey Families, 
specially invite the co-operation of all persons possessing original documents of 
Genealogical and Heraldic interest, and who would kindly permit the use of 
them. 



INDEX TO VOL. I. 



A. 

Abbot of Battle, his residence at Horsely- 

down, 159 
Abbots of St. Augustine's, the house of, 

adjoining St. Olave's Church, 158 
Abdy, Sir Wm., family of, at Horselydown, 

166 
Abel, John, grant of free warren to, 129 ; 

escheatnient of his lands, 136 
Adam, Abbot, of Chertsey Abbey, 91 n. 
Adam, John, his possessions in the manor 

of Hatcham, 136, 137 
Adam de Bavent, grant of land to, 127 ; 

summoned to Parliament, ib. 
Adam de Strattone, grant of land made by, 

124 ; his lands forfeited, 126 
Alfred, Anglo-Saxon charter of, granted to 

Chertsey Abbey, 79, 82, 95 
Ainslie, Mr., his account of a gold ring, xvi. 
Alfred, the first king who parcelled the 

kingdom into counties, hundreds, &c, 7 
Alianore de Bohun, monumental brass of, 

228 
Allhallows Church, Barking, Flemish 

brasses in, 222 
Almner's Barn, locality of, 90 n. 
Alynson, John, will of, 199 
Anglo-Saxon annals, notices of the, 38 
Anglo-Saxon kings crowned at Kingston, 

53, 54 
Anglo-Saxons, ancient charters of the, 77 

et seq. ; landmarks of the, 77, 78 
Anne, duchess of Somerset, the manor of 

Hatchambarnes granted to, 138 
Anthony St. Leger, Sir, proprietor of 

Horselydown, 158 
Antiquities exhibited by Mr. Hart, viii. ; 

collection of, contributed for exhibition, 

ix., xv., xvii., xxiv. 
Appaire, Wm., lessee of the manor of 

Hatcham, 138 
Arbour Lows, of Derbyshire, notices of 

the, 209 and n. 
Archaeological societies, their objects and 

importance, 213, 214 
Archeology, real objects of, xi., xii. ; of the 

county of Surrey, 1 et seq.; apathy of 



previous times upon, 1; true value of, 
ib. ; societies for the promotion of, 2, 3 ; 
religious bearing of, upon architecture 
and art, 14 et seq.; promotion of the 
study of, through the means of learned 
societies, 214 et seq. 

Architecture, religious bearing of archae- 
ology upon, 14 

Arderne, Thomas, gift to Priory of Ber- 
mondsey, 191 

Armour, represented in monumental brasses, 
226; its decadence illustrated thereby, 
227; value of the representations of, 
ib. ; of Sir John d'Aubernoun, 233 

Arms, coat of, first chartered on monu- 
mental brasses, 227 

Arms and armour, exhibition of ancient, 
xviii. 

Art, religious bearing of archaeology upon, 
14 

Artillery Hall of the Southwark trained 
bands, 177 ; converted into a work- 
house, 178 ; Mr. Webb's description of 
the, 178, 179 

Athelstan, notices of, 46, 56 

Austen, Mr. R. G., his paper on Guildford 
Castle, xxii. 

Autographs, collection of, xxv. 

Aveley Church, Essex, Flemish brasses in, 
222 

B. 

Bagot, Sir Wm., monumental brass of, 228 

Bannok, John, will of, 183 

Barrow, ancient British, excavated at Ted- 
dington, xvi., 74 

Bartholomew of Winchester, abbot of Chert- 
sey, 112 

Bartillot, Stephen, of Horselydown, 162 

Bartrop, Mr. T. R., the society's local 
secretary for Chertsey, xiv., xx. 

Batailbrigg, of Southwark, 163 

Bavent, family of, connected with the manor 
of Hatcham, 123 et seq. 

Beauchamp, Earl Simon de, monumental 
brass of, 231 

Beddington, Surrey, monumental brass at, 
235 ; family of Carew of, 240 



2 K 



246 



SURREY COLLECTIONS. 



Bell, Dr. W., paper read by, xv. 

Benedictines, Chertsey Abbey assigned to, 
100 

Berkeley, Lord, monumental brass of, 228 

Bermondsey Abbey, vii. ; grants to the 
monks of, 191 

Bermondsey House, Southwark, 172 

Bermondsey Street, Horselydown, 159 

Bethel, Slingsby, of Southwark, 178 

Bethulia, ancient worship of the, 27 ; its 
etymology and origin, 49 

Blackwood, Mr. W. M., xxii. 

Bockett, Miss Julia R., her collection of 
wills, 180 

Boseyte, locality of, 87 n. 

Bothomley, Ralph, of Horselydown, 165 

Boutell, Rev. C, papers read by, xv., xvii. ; 
his account of monumental brasses, 213 
—235 

Bracket brasses, use of, in monuments, 224 

Brasses, monumental slabs deprived of 
them, 219; the plate originally deno- 
minated " latten," 220 ; Flemish ex- 
amples of, 220 n., 221. (See Monu- 
mental Brasses.) 

British barrow and ancient weapon found 
at Teddington, 74, 75 

Britons, their ancient characteristics, xiii. ; 
invaded by the Romans, ib. 

Britton, Mr. John, xxiii. 

Brixton, origin of the name, 122 

Brockett, Nicholas, possessor of the manor 
of Hatcham, 153 ; his deed of assign- 
ment, ib. 

Brooke, Sir John, manor of Hatcham 
granted to, 140 

Brooke, Cristofer, manor of Hatcham 
granted to, 141 

Broomhall, nunnery of, 88 n. 

Buckerel, Stephen, 234 

Bullen, Sir T., monumental brass of, 228 

Burcestre, John, will of, 195 

Burcestre, Win., will of, 192 

Bures, Sir R. de, monumental brass of, 226 

Burgh, Wm., of Horselydown, 163 

Burgundy, Petty, its situation, 158 

Burnel, Philip, his claims to land in Hat- 
cham, 144; possessions of, 149; succeeded 
by bis son Edward, ib. 

Burnell, family of, possess the manor of 
Hatcham, 152 

Butterworth, Mr. J. W., his contributions,xx. 

Butts, parish, erected in Horselydown, 170 



Caaba of Mecca, worship of the, 27 ; his- 
tory of the, 19, 50 
Cadye, John, 14-0 
Cairns, raising of, 31 



Calleva, ancient site of, 63 

C'almar Union, the, 35 

Camail, its adoption on'rnonumental brasses, 
227 

Camoys, Lord, monumental brass of, 228 

Carew, of Beddington, pedigree of, 240 

Cavendish's Rents, in Southwark, 172 

Cealwin, king of the West Saxons, 6 

Ceroti Insula, ancient monastery of, 97, 99 

Challoner, Col., C.B., vice-president of the 
society, xviii. 

Chaous, traditional notices of the, 32 

Charles I., portrait of, exhibited, xxiv. 

Charters, Anglo-Saxon, granted to Chertsey 
Abbey, 77, 92 

Chaucer, Thomas, monumental brass of, 228 

Chertsey, meeting of the society at, xvii., 
77, 97, 115 ; ancient boundaries of, 79, 
82, 101. 

Chertsey Abbey, ancient fragments disco- 
vered on the site of, xvii. ; visit to the 
site of, xviii. ; Anglo-Saxon charters 
granted to, 77, 92 ; lands anciently at- 
tached to, 80, 81, 82, 83; its ancient 
boundaries, 84, 85 ; early origin and 
history of, 97 et seq. ; the ancient " Ce- 
roti Insula," 99 ; rebuilt by King Edgar, 
and assigned to the Benedictines, 100; 
its extensive possessions and privileges, 
102 ; one of the mitred abbeys, 103 ; his- 
torical incidents connected with, 104; 
its conventual buildings, 104 et seq. ; its 
architectural formation, 112, 113 ; its 
foundations, 113; the completeness of its 
destruction, 114; encaustic tiles and stone 
coffins excavated on its site, 115 et seq. 

Child, Alwin, his bequest to the monastery 
of St. Saviour, Bermondsey, 191 

Church architecture, archajological features 
of, 18 

Churches, early formation of, 99; contain- 
ing monumental brasses, 220 — 223 

Civilians, monumental brasses of, 225 

Clark, Rev. J. C, xviii. 80, 92 

Cobham, Lady Anne Broke, manor of 
Hatcham granted to, 139 

Cobham, Sir Reginald de, monumental 
brass of, 235 

Cockaigne, Sir T., 160 

Coffins, stone, excavations of, 115 et seq. 

Coins, ancient British, found in Surrey j 69 

Cold Harbour, Croydon, notices of, 203 et 
seq. ; etymology of, 207, 208 

Colstone, Thos., bequest of, 200 

Compton Church, visit to, xxv. 

Convents of Chertsey Abbey, 105 

Cooke, Cornelius, lease of St. Olave's 
Grammar-school granted to, 177 

Cope, Walter, manor of Hatcham granted 
to, 139 



INDE^X. 



247 



Copley, Sir Roger, proprietor of Horsely- 
down, 167, 168 

Corner, Mr. G. R., papers read by, xv., xvii.; 
his essay on Anglo-Saxon charters granted 
to Chertsey Abbey, 77 ; his History of 
Horselydown, 156; his collection of an- 
cient wills, &c, relating to Southwark, 
190 et seq. 

Coronation-stone at Kingston, 27 

Coronations, ancient, historical notices of, 36 

Costume of the period of monumental 
brasses represented, 231 

Counties, division of, by Alfred, 7 

Cowley House, Chertsey, visit to, xviii. 

Cowmoor, locality of, 91 n. 

Cranley, Surrey, monumental brass at, 235 

Crew, Randolph, manor of Hatcham con- 
veyed to, 154 ; his petition against the 
rating of the manor, ib. 

Cromlechs, remains of, 32 

Crossbow found on Bosworth Field, vii. 

Crosses, monumental, in early use, 217 ; 
on brasses, 222, 223 ; with floriated 
heads, 224 

Crouy, Count de, anecdotes of, v. 

Crowhurst, Surrey, monumental brass at,235 

Croydon, historical notices of, 11 ; meeting 
of the society at, 203 ; notices of, ib. ; 
early history of, 204 ; antiquities of, 207, 
211 ; its early importance, 212 

Croydon Church, Warham monument in, 
57 et seq.; notices of, 60 

Cuvier, his geological discoveries, 18 

D. 

Dagger, ancient, found at Teddington, 75 
Danes, conflicts with the, 6; their incursions, 

100 
D'Aubernoun, Sir John, ancient monu- 
mental brass of, 226 ; the earliest one 
known to be in existence, 232 ; pre- 
served in the church of Stoke d'Abernon 
in Surrey, ib. ; description of the monu- 
ment, 232—235; Norman- French in- 
scription on the, 232 ; genealogical and 
biographical notices of Sir John, 233, 
234; his descendants, ib.; a remarkable 
suit against, 234; monumental brass of 
his son of the same name, 235 
Daveis, John, lease of the manor of Hatch- 
am granted to, 143 
Deeds and grants, ancient, relating to South- 
wark, 190 et seq. (see Wills) 
Designs adopted in monumental brasses, 

221, 222 
Digges, of Reigate, pedigree of, 239 
Ditton, Surrey, monumental brass at, 235 
Diuma, first prelate of Mercia, 100 
Docwra, Sir T., prior of the hospital of St. 
John of Jerusalem, 165 



Drawings contributed to the society, xxxi. 

Druidical circles, 40 

Druids, remains of the, 21 ; three orders of, 
210 n. 

Drummond, Mr. Henry, vice-president of 
the society, i.; his inaugural address, ii. 

Dunleigh, family of, in Horselydown, 161, 
162 

Dunstan, St., erects the first monastery at 
Glastonbury, 100; archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 101 

Duodecimal numeration, its influence in 
governing the Saxon annalists, 38 

Durnford, locality of, 84 n. 



E. 

Ecclesiastics, monumental brasses of, 225 
Edessa, the misshapen deity of, 28; its 

history, 51 
Edgar, King, founder of the Benedictines' 

abbey at Chertsey, 100 
Edward the Elder, the first Saxon king 

crowned at Kingston, 6 
Edward I. of England, transfers the Scottish 

stone at Scone to England, 53 
Edwardes, Win., manor of Hatcham con- 
veyed to, 153 
Effigies, &c, on monumental brasses, 222 

— 224; costume of the period repre- 
sented, 231 ; of Sir John d'Aubernoun, 

232 
Eglesfield, Hugh, of Horselydown, 166 ; 

death of, 169 
Elagabalus, worship of, 51 
Emesa, sacred stone of, 28, 51 
Enamel, colour introduced into brasses by 

means of, 220 
Enamels of the twelfth century, 217 
Encaustic tiles excavated on the site of 

Chertsey Abbey, 115 et seq. 
Engraving on metals, invention of, 216 
Engravings contributed to the society, 

xxxi. 
Erich IX. of Sweden, election of, 34 
Frkenwald, abbot of Chertsey, 80, 81 ; 

afterwards bishop of London, 99, 100 
Erinyn Street, extending near Croydon, 211 
Ethelbert, king of Kent, 6 
Evelyn, Mr. W. J., vice-president of the 

society, xi. ; his address at Kingston, ib. ; 

his addresses at Guildford, xix., xxii. ; 

vote of thanks to, xxi. 
Evil, touching for the, xxiv. 
Excleafe's Burn, locality of, 85 n. 

F. 

Farley Heath, Roman relics discovered 
at, xiii. 



248 



SURREY COLLECTIONS. 



Fastolfe, Sir John, mansion of, 159; no- 
tices of, 159, 160 ; bis possessions in 
Horselydown, 160 

Fecingelye, locality of, 83 n, 

Felawe, Thomas, of Horselydown, 162 

Felbrigge, Sir S. de, monumental brass of, 
228 

Field, Richard, curious document respect- 
ing, xxiv. 

Finances of the Society, state of the, i. 

Finiguerra, Maso, the inventor of metallic 
engravings, 216 

Flemings, settlement of, in St. Olave's, 174 

Flemish monumental brasses, 220 n., 221 ; 
specimens yet remaining in churches, 
221, 222; a fragment in the British 
Museum, 221 

FriSwald, Anglo-Saxon charter of, granted 
to Chertsey Abbey, 79, 88, 92 

Frithwold, king of the Surreians, the 
founder of Chertsey Abbey, 99 

Fulham Church, Flemish brasses in, 222 

Fullbrook, locality of, 83, 86 notes 

Fytheke Mere, locality of, 91 n. 



G. 

Gainsford, family of, Horselydown, 166 

Geoffrey de la Croix, Sir, the heath of, 88 
and n. 

Geology, Cuvier's discoveries in, 18 

Gilbert de Hachesham, 123 

Gilbert de Maminot, the Norman baron, 122 

Gilgal, meaning of, 52 

Glenthythe, locality of, 89 n. 

Goodear, Hugh, releases Horselydown to 
the governors of St. Olave's Grammar- 
school, 170. 

Gorget, its adoption on monumental brasses, 
227 

Gough, Gyffray, will of, 184 

Gould, Mr. P., mayor of Kingston, xi. 

Gower, John, will of, 193 

Gregory de Rakesley, 127 ; his residence at 
Little Hatcham, 146 ; his death, 147 

Grey, Sir A., monumental brass of, 228 

Griffith, Mr. W. P., paper read by, xv. 

Guildford, palace of, vii. ; antiquities of, xii.; 
meeting of the Society at, xix., 213 ,• an- 
tiquities of, xix.; visits to the antiquities 
of, xxii., xxiii., xxv. ; conversazione at, 
xxiii. ; hospitable reception at, xxv.; his- 
torical notices of, 11 

H. 

Haddon, Walter, manor of Hatcham 

granted to, 139 
Hakewill, Wm., manor of Hatcham granted 

to, 141 



Haling, manor of, 207 

Ham eyots, locality of the, 87 

Hanley, Sir J., monumental brass of, 230, 231 

Hart, Mr. T., his exhibition of antiquities, 
viii. 

Hart, Mr. W. H., his memoir of the manor 
of Hatcham, 122 

Hastings, Sir H., monumental brass of, at 
Elsyng, 227 

Hasulhurst, field of, 91 n. 

Hat worn by Queen Elizabeth, ix. 

Hatcham, manor of, in Surrey, memoir of, 
122 et seq.; different possessors of the, 
129 et seq. ; after the dissolution of the 
abbey, 138 et seq. ; copy of the deeds of 
sale to Garrard, Lowe, Offley, and Bond, 
141, 143 ; became vested in the Haber- 
dashers' Company, 146 

Hatcham, Little, origin and history of, 146 
et seq. ; decision as to its being situated 
in Surrey, 154, 155 

Hatfield, pictures at, 171 

Hawthorns, reverence for, 84, 85 n. 

Heliogabalus removes the sacred stone of 
Edessa to Rome, 28, 51 

Henry VIII., his arbitrary proceedings for 
dissolving the monasteries, 102, 103 

Hermitages, 176 and n. 

Heron, Sir William, 123 

History, national, illustrated by monu- 
mental brasses, 228 

Hoar-stones, account of, 83 n. 

Hod, William, of Normandy, his remarkable 
suit against Sir J. d'Aubernoun, 234 

Hore-thorn, one of the boundaries of Chert- 
sey Abbey, 84, 85 

Horselydown, history of, 156 et seq.; its 
locality, 156; meetings of the society at, 
156, 213; different proprietors of, 160 
et seq. ; origin of the name, 167 ; one of 
the three manors of Southwark, ib. ; pic- 
ture of, 171 ; map of, ib. ; the different 
localities of, 172, 173 

Horsley, East, monumental brass at, 235 

Hugh of Winchester, 113 

Humfrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, 124 

Hundreds, division of, by Alfred, 7 ; those 
of Surrey, as given in Domesday, ib. 

Hungerford, family of, possess the manor 
of Hatcham, 153 

Husband and wife, monumental brasses to, 
230, 231 

Husebond, Roger, grant of land to, 132 

Hutton, Richard, of St. Olave's, Southwark, 
174 

I. 

I'Anson, Mr. E., his account of mural 
paintings formerly existing in Lingfield 
Church, 71 



INDEX. 



249 



Inaugural address to the society, ii. 
Incas of Peru, obelisks of the, 31 
Inscriptions on monumental brasses, 223 
Ipswich, Flemish brasses to be seen at, 222 
Ireland, stone-pillar worship in, 52 
Isabella de Heyham, 124, 125 
Italy, roads in, 62 



Jacob and the sacred stones, 29, 30 ; history 

of the, 51 
Jacob's Garden, Horselydown, 172 
James de Vabadune, 123 
Jessopp, Rev. J., paper read by, vii. ; his 

essay on the religious bearing of archai- 

ology upon architecture and art, 14 et 

seq. 
Jesus House, its situation, 157 
John, king of France, monumental brass of, 

232 
John Adam de Luk, grant of land to, 135 
John de Drokenesford, bishop, 149 ; grant 

to, 150 
John de Fienes, the Norman baron, 122 
John de Handlo, possessions of, 150 ; death 

of, 151 
John de Medmenham, abbot of Chertsey, 

112 
John de Merkyngfeld, grant of lands to, 

132 
John de Wynwyk, possessor of the manor 

of Hatcham, 135 
John o' Groat's House, 45, 54 
Johnson, Mr. C. W., his notices of Cold 

Harbour, Croydon, 203 
Julius Caesar, his invasion of Britain, xiii. 
Jurymen, trial by twelve, 53 



K 

Kemble, Mr. J. M., his collection of Anglo- 
Saxon grants of land, 77, 78 

Kew Palace, vii. 

Kingston, Surrey, palace of, vii. ; meeting 
of the society at, xi., 27 ; antiquities of, 
xii. ; charters granted to, xv. ; exhibition 
of antiquities at, xvi. ; the kings of 
Wessex crowned at, 6 ; historical notices 
of, 8, 9 ; royal coronation-stone at, 27 
general prevalence of the name, 46, 56 
Anglo-Saxon kings crowned at, 53, 54 
monumental brass at, 235 

Kingston Bagpuse, town of, 46, 56 

Kingston Morasteen, Dr. Bell's paper on, 
27 et seq. 

Knyvet, Richard, will of, 180 

Konigs Stuhl, near Rhense, 55 



Ladies, monumental brasses of, 225 

Lambeth Palace, meeting of the society at, 
122 

Lance, Mr. E. J., paper read by, vii. ; his 
memoranda relative to the Roman road 
between Silchester and Staines, 66 

Landmarks of the Anglo-Saxons, 77; of the 
Romans and Jews, 78; of Chertsey Abbey, 
82, 94, 96 

Lands, Anglo-Saxon grants of, 77 

" Latten," the original name of a monu- 
mental brass plate, 220 

Leke, or Leeke, Henry, founder of St. 
Olave's Grammar-school, 168 ; bequests 
of himself and son, 201 

Lever, Dr. J. C. W., ii. 

Lewes, prior of, his residence, 157, 158 

Library of the society, contributions to the, 
xx., xxvii. 

Lingfield Church, Surrey, mural paintings 
formerly existing in, 71, 72 ; monumen- 
tal brass at, 235 

Literature, national, illustrated by monu- 
mental brasses, 228 

Lodderslake, locality of, 89 n. 

London Stone, 42, 44, 45 

Loseley Manuscripts exhibited, xxiv. 

Loseley House, visit to, xxv. 

Lovelace, Earl of, his address, xxi., xxiii. 

Lutman, Harry, will of, 187 

Lynn Church, Flemish brasses in, 221 

M. 

M'Dougall, Col. P. L., his papers on the 
Roman road between Silchester and 
Staines, 61 

Magna Charta, signing of, 8, 44 

Manorial houses of Surrey, 11 

Manors of Surrey, 7 

Mansas contained in the boundaries of 
Chertsey Abbey, 92 

Manuscripts contributed to the library of 
the society, xxx. 

Marry att, Richard, 161 

Matilda, wife of John Lord Lovel, and 
afterwards of John de Handlo, succeeds 
to the estates of her brother, 150 

Maton, Peter, will of, 198 

Maze, manor of the, in Horselydown, 159 

Meetings of the society, and readings of 
papers : at Southwark, i., ii., vii., xxv., 
14, 61 ; at Kingston, xi., 27 ; at Chertsey, 
xvii., 77, 97, 115 ; at Guildford, xix., 
213; at Lambeth Palace, 122; at 
Horselydown, in Southwark, 156 ; at 
Croydon, 203 

Members of the society, xiv. ; increase of, 
xx. ; list of, xxxvii., xlix. 



250 



SURREY COLLECTIONS. 



Merkyngfield, family of, grant of lands to, 
132 

Merstham, Surrey, monumental brass at, 235 

Meteoric stones, notices of, 49 

Mimbridge, locality of, 90 n. 

Mimfield, locality of, 91 n. 

Minchin's Road, locality and description of, 
88 n. 

Mixtenbain, locality of, 86 n. 

Mockyng, John, Mill of, 191; Nicholas, 
Thomas, and Robert, wills of, 194 

Monasteries, first establishment of, 100 ; 
dissolution of, 102 

Monumental brasses, historical and descrip- 
tive notices of, 213 et seq. ; explanation 
of the term, 216 ; in use very early in 
the thirteenth century, ib. ; monuments 
in use anterior to the introduction of 
brasses, 217; numbers of them still in ex- 
istence in our own country, 219 ; designs 
generally adopted in, 221, 222 ; Flemish 
ones yet remaining in our churches, 220, 
221, 222 ; designs of, with the effigy, 
canopy, and other devices, 222 ; examples 
of foreign workmanship, 222, 223 ; with 
inscriptions and crosses, 223; use of 
bracket brasses, 224 ; effigies represented 
in, ib. ; of ecclesiastics, 225 ; of ladies 
and civilians, ib. ; armour represented in, 
226, 227 ; figures thereon represented 
illustrative of our national and literary 
history, 228 ; the earlier examples the 
best as works of art, 229 ; the design and 
methods of executing, 229, 230 ; brasses 
to husband and wife, 230, 231 ; costume 
of the period represented, 231 ; earliest 
examples of, at Bedford, ib. ; brass of Sir 
John d'Aubernoun, the earliest one 
known to be in existence, 232; those of 
Surrey to be noticed, ib. 

Morasteen, the Kingston, Dr. Bell's paper 
read on the, 27 et seq.; the principal 
Swedish circle, 33, 48 

Museum of the society, contributions to 
the, xx., xxvii., xxxii. 

Mynar, Richard, will of, 200 



N. 

NeGEH Stone, locality of, 89 n. 
Neteleyge, locality of, 86 n. 
Nevill, Sir John, his bond of indenture, vi. 
Newark Abbey, vii. 

Newark Church, Flemish brasses in, 221 
Newcastle-ou-Tyne, Flemish brasses to be 
seen at, 222 

Xicoll, Alice, will of, 181 

Nippenhale, locality of, 89 n. 
Noviomagus, Roman station of, xiii.; the 
ancient city of, 4 



O. 

Oak carvings from Cardinal Wolsey's 

palace, exhibited, xvii. 
Ockley, battle of, xiii ., 6. 
Odin, mythological notices of, 32, 33 
Odo, bishop of Bayeux, 122 
" Old Fosse," limit of the, 80 
Olyver, family of, 162 
Ottershaw, locality of, 84 notes 



Padwick Lanes, 47 

Paintings, mural, formerly existing in 

Lingfield Church, 71, 72 
Palaces of Surrey, 11 
Papers read to the society, vii., xv., xvii., 

xxvi., 1, 14, 27, 57, 61, 71, 74, 77, 97, 

122, 156, 180, 190, 203, 213. (See 

Meetings.) 
Parish boundaries, custom of perambulating, 

78 n. 
Pedigrees, of Digges, 239 ; of Carew, 240 
Penda, king of Mercia, 99 
Pepys, Thomas, resident at the manor of 

Hatcham, 145 
Peru, roads in, 63 
Peter of St. Olave's, his grant to the priory 

of Bermondsey, 191 
Philip, king of France, monumental brass 

of, 232 
Phillips, Mr., his proffered contributions to 

the society, xx. 
Photographs contributed to the society, 

xxxi. 
Picard, Nicholas, of Normandy, his seizure 

of the property of William Hod, 234 
Plate armour on monumental brasses, 226 
Pocock, Mr. W. W., paper read by, xvii. ; 

his paper on Chertsey Abbey, 97 et seq. ; 

his account of the excavations on the 

site of Chertsey Abbey, 115 et seq. 
Poughley, monastery of, 46 
Pritchard, Mr. William, vice-president of 

society, xxv. 
Proceedings of the society during the years 

1854 and 1855, i. — xxvi. ; in Southwark, 

i., xxv. ; at Kingston-upon-Thames, xi.; 

at Chertsey, xvii. ; at Guildford, xix. 

(See Meetings and Papers read.) 
Puck, of Shakspeare, his mythological 

origin, 47, 56 

Q. 

Quelmes, the, explanation of, 89 n. 

R. 

Ranyard. Mr. S., paper read by, xv. 
Redewynd, the ancient river of, 106 
Reginald de Cornhill, ransom paid for, 158 



INDEX. 



251 



Regni, the ancient inhabitants of Surrey, 4 

Reigate Castle, historical notices of, 8 

Reigate, pedigree of the family of Digges 
of, 239 

Reports of the society's proceedings, i. — 
xix. (See Meetings.) 

Retherhethe, grant of land in, 124, 125 

Rhense, meeting-stone at, for the imperial 
electors of Germany, 44, 45, 54, 55 

Richard II. and his queen, monumental 
effigies of, 231 

Richard de Boterwick, bequest of, 191 

Richard de Dunle, grant to, 131 

Richmond, palace of, vii. 

Ring, an ancient signet one, of the Earl of 
Warwick, xv. ; of massive gold, dis- 
covered at Mont de Marsan, xvi. 

Rissuarians, code of the, 38 

Roads, the means of human civilization, 61 
et seq. 

Robert, bishop of Bath and Wells, pos- 
sessions of, 148 

Robert de Burton, grant of land to, 133 

Robert de Retherhee, 124 

Roche Abbey, dissolution and destruction 
of, 110, 111 

Roger de Bavent, 123 ; connected with the 
manor of Hatcham, 130 

Roger de Rislepe, owner of Little Hatcham, 
147, 148 

Rogers, Robert, bequest of, 198 

Rollrich stones, 45 

Roman roads, xiii. ; Col. M'Dougall on the 
Roman road between Silchester and 
Staines, 61 et seq. ; this road one of the 
most remarkable memorials of the Roman 
power in Britain, 64; memoranda re- 
lative to the Roman road from Silchester, 
66 ; its geology, 67 ; ancient remains 
found on its site, ib. 

Roman stations in Surrey, 5 

Rome, her conquests and civilizing in- 
fluence, 61, 62 ; centralization the prin- 
ciple of her power, 62 ; her formation of 
roads, ib. 

Roots, Dr., his contributions to the society, 
xx. 

Rosary, the, in Horselydown, 161 

Rubbings of brasses contributed to the 
society, xxxii. 

Rules of the society, xl. 

Runnimede, signing of Magna Charta at, 
8 ; stone of, 44 

Rutherwyk, John de, abbot of Chertsey, 
91 n. 

S. 

St. Alban's Church, Flemish brasses in, 

221 
St. John's Church, Horselydown, 178 



St. John of Jerusalem, liberty of, in Horse- 
lydown, 164 ; property belonging to the 
knights of, 164, 165 

St. Mary Overie, church of, 11 

St. Olave's, Southwark, grammar-school of, 
xxvi., 168 — 170 ; parish of, 168 ; curious 
particulars respecting the grammar- 
school, 170; different localities of, 172 
et seq. 

St. Olave's Street, its situation, 157 

St. Sauveur's Church, at Bruges, Flemish 
brasses in, 221 

St. Savioiu-'s Church, Southwark, visit to, 
xxvi. 

St. Swithin's Church, London, ancient stone 
at, 41 

Salter, George, manor of Hatcham granted 
to, 140 

Sampson, Master, bequest of, 202 

Saxon Heptarchy, period of the, 6 

Say, family of, connected with the manor 
of Hatcham, 123 et seq. 

Scone, Scottish stone at, 35 ; legends con- 
nected with, 52 

Serpent, ancient worship of the, 209 and n. 

Shad-Thames Street, Horselydown, 166 

Shere, Surrey, monumental brass at, 235 

Shigtren, one of the boundaries of Chertsey 
Abbey, 37 and n. 

Shirenpol, locality of, 86 and n. 

Shurlock, Mr. M., his notes on results of 
excavations at Chertsey, 115 ; credit due 
to, 120 

Silchester, Roman road from, towards 
Staines, 61, 64 ; ancient site of, 63 ; 
memoranda relating to, 66 ; its situation, 
68 

Si<5ren, explanation of, 85 n. 

Skeletons, remains of, found on the site of 
Chertsey Abbey, 120 

Slabs, monumental, in early use, 217; some 
of them despoiled of their brasses, 219 ; 
use of incised ones, 220 

Smyth, Wm., wiU of, 187 

Societies in union with the Surrey Archaeo- 
logical Society, xl. 

Southwark, inauguration of the society in, 
i.; meetings of the society at, i., ii., vii., 
xxv., 14, 61 ; antiquities of, xxvi.; histo- 
rical notices of, 8 ; collection of ancient 
wills, &c, relating to, 190 et seq. 

Staines, stone of Runnimede at, 44, 45 ; 
Roman road from, towards Silchester, 61, 
64 ; memoranda relating to, 66 

Standing Stone, the name of a parish 
boundary, 91 n. 

Stane Street of the Romans, 21 

Steinman, Mr. G. S., on the Warham monu- 
ment in Croydon Church, 57 et seq. 

Stoke d'Abernon, monumental brasses at,213 



252 



SURREY COLLECTIONS. 



Stone of Rurmimede, 44 

Stone circles, 40 et seq. 

Stone coffins, excavated on the site of 
Chertsey Abbey, 115 et seq.; used as 
monumental memorials, 217 

Stone-pillar worship, in Ireland, 52 

Stones anciently used for coronation and 
religious purposes, 27 et seq. ; the stone 
of Jacob, 29, 51 

Stoney Street, Horselydown, 159 

Stonie Held, locality of, 89 n. 

" Sunninges," limits of the, 80 

Surrey, county of, rich in objects of archae- 
ological research, vii. ; its local charac- 
teristics, xii. ; on the archasology of, 1 et 
seq. ; early history of, 4 ; sites of 
Roman stations in, 5; historical events 
of, 6, 8, 9 j the hundreds of, 7 ; its 
manors, ib. ; its population, 10; its 
manufactures, ib. ; its mineral springs, 
ib. ; its ecclesiastical edifices, palaces, 
&c, 11 ; full of historical records, 12 ; 
the largest artery emanating from the 
metropolis, ib. ; ancient British coins 
found in, 69 ; wills of persons resident 
in, between the years 1497 and 1522, 
180 et seq. ; its monumental brasses 
hereafter to be noticed, 232; monu- 
mental brasses in, 235 

Surrey Archaeological Society, its in- 
auguration in Southwark, i. et seq. ; 
originated by Mr. G. B. Webb, i. n. ; 
its meetings and proceedings : at South- 
wark, i., ii., vii., xxv., 14, 61 ; at King- 
ston, xi., 27 ; at Chertsey, xvii., 77, 97, 
115 ; at Guildford, xix., 213 ; its library 
and museum, xx., xxvii. ; its list of 
members, xxxvii. ; its rules, 1. ; its col- 
lections and contributions,^ et seq. ; its 
successful progress, xx. ; societies in 
union with the, xlix. ; special objects for 
which it is formed, 3, 213 ; its meetings 
at Lambeth Palace, 122; at Horsely- 
down, 156 ; at Croydon, 203 

Sutton, Robert, will of, 185 

Sweden, ancient mythology of, 33 ; election 
of their kings in early times, 34 ; elective 
principle of, 48 ; the Morasteen in, ib. 

Swynborne, Sir R. de, and his son, monu- 
mental brasses of, 231 



T. 

Tabard Hostelrie, 22 
Tayler, W., paper read by, vii. 
Teddington, barrow excavated at, xvi. 
" Terminus," ancient worship of, 78 
Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, pro- 
motes the formation of churches, 99 
Thomas, family of, in Horselydown, 166 



Thomas Atte Grene, grant of land to, 132 
Thomas de Betoigne, grant of land to, 133 
Thomas de Heyham, grant of land to, 124, 

125 
Thorn-trees, antiquity of, and reverence for, 

84, 85 notes 
Thorpe, ancient boundaries of, 79; topo- 
graphical boundaries of, 90 n. 
Threm Burghen, one of the boundaries of 

Chertsey Abbey, 85 n. 
Throckmorton, pedigree of the family of, 

240 
Tigelbeddeburn, locality of, 89 n. 
Tiles, encaustic, discovered on the site of 

Chertsey Abbey, xvii.; excavations of, 

115 et seq. 
Ting, meaning of, 34 
Tingwald, mound of, 34, 52 
Tiptoft, Lady, monumental brass of, 226 
Topcliffe Church, Flemish brasses in, 221 
Turgis, Maurice, grants of land to, 133 
Twelve, ancient importance of the number, 

38 ; trial by twelve jurymen, 53 



Vabadune, family of, connected with the 
manor of Hatcham, 123 et seq. 

Vaghan, Thomas, 136 

Vanlore and Blake, manor of Hatcham 
granted to, 141 

Vindonum, ancient site of, 63 

W. 

Wada, Ealdorman of Surrey, 6 

Waddon, hamlet of, 206 ; its derivation, ib. 

Wandel, the river, its derivation, 206 

Wapshote, locality of, 90 n. 

Warham family, history of the, 57 et seq. ; 
their pedigree, 59 ; monument in Croy- 
don Church, 57 et seq. 

Way, Mr. Albert, his letter upon mural 
paintings formerly existing in Lingfield 
Church, 72 

Wealeshythe, locality of, 86 n. 

Wealh, explanation of, 86 n. *► 

Webb, Mr. G. B., the originator of the 
society, i. n. ; exhibits a collection of 
autographs, xxv. ; his description of the 
Artillery Hall, Southwark, 178, 179 

Webling, Vassal, his property in Horsely- 
down, 161, 174 

Webster, John, will of, 198 

Wessex kings, crowned at Kingston, 6 

Wheleshythe, locality of, 90 n. 

Whitster's Ground, Southwark, 172 

William de Bliburgh, held,, a quantity of 
land in Hatcham, 132 

William de Carleton, grant to him of the 
manor of Hachesham, 134 



INDEX. 



253 



William the Conqueror, his invasion of 
England, 7 

William de Hamelton, manor of Hateham 
granted to, 129 

William de Kaynes, grant of land to, 133 

William de Peck, possessor of the manor 
of Hateham, 135 

William de Pyncehek, grant of land to, 132 

William de Thorpe, possessor of the manor 
of Hateham, 135 

William de Walleworth, grant of land to, 
136 

Wilham de Wymundham, holds Hateham 
Barnes in custody, 129 

Williams, John, manor of Hateham granted 
to, 140 

Wills and deeds of persons resident in 
Surrey, 180 et seq ; of Richard Knyvet, 
180 ; 'of Alice Xicoll, 181 ; of John Ban- 
nok, 183; of Gyfl'ray Gough, 184; of 
Rohert Sutton, 185 ; of Harry Lutman, 
187; of Wm. Smyth, 187; collection 
of, relating to Southwark, 190 et seq. ; 
of Alwin Child, 190; of Peter of St. 
Olave's, Thomas Arderne, Richard de 
Boterwick, and John Mokyng, 191; of 
Wilham Burcestre, 192 ; of John Gower, 



193; of Nicholas, Thomas, and Robert 
Mockyng, 194; of William Wykes and 
John Burcestre, 195 ; of Robert Rogers, 
John Webster, and Peter Maton, 198; 
of John Alynson, 199; of Richard 
Mynar and Thomas Colstone, 200; of 
Henry Leke, or Leeke, and son, 201 ; of 
Master Sampson, 202 

Wimbledon, battle of, 6 

Wintredeshulle, locality of, 83 n. 

Wipesdane, a parish boundary of Chobham, 
92 n. 

Wittenagemots, holding of, 46 

Wlfare, king of Mercia, 80, 81 

Woden, worship of, at Croydon, 206 ; temple 
of, 207 

Woodcote, ancient importance of, 212 

Wotton, family of, in Horselydown, 162 

Wulfere, king of Mercia, 6 

Wykes, William bequests of, 195 

T. 

Yeyele, Henry, of Horselydown, 162, 163 

Z. 

Xalfield, coronation ceremony on the, 36 



END OE VOL. I. 



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Genera nearly completed 



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VOLUTA '" 1 § 



8 



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Dairy Farming. 

The Rearing and Feeding of Dairy Stock, and the Management of their 
Produce. By Ruricola. 

Crown 8vo, price 5s. 



67. 
Piscarius. 

TJie Artificial Production of Fish. 

By Piscarius. Third Edition. 

Price Is. 



INTERESTING NOVELTY. 



Iii One Volume., 450 pages, 20 Photo-Stereographs, price 21,?., 

TENERIFFE, 

AN ASTEONOMEE'S EXPEBIMENT; 

OR, 

Specialities of a Residence above the Clouds. 

By C. PIAZZI SMYTH, F.R.SS.L. and E, E.R.A.S., 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ACADEMIES OF SCIENCE IN MUNICH AND PALERMO 

PROFESSOR OF PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH 

AND HER MAJESTY'S ASTRONOMER FOR SCOTLAND. 



The object proposed in this Experiment was to ascertain how far astronomical obser- 
vations can be improved, by eliminating the lower part of the atmosphere. For the 
accomplishment of this, purpose, a large equatorial telescope and other apparatus were 
conveyed in Mr. Stephenson's yacht Titania to Teneriffe, in June and July, 1 856. There, 
with the approval of the Spanish authorities, the instruments were carried up the vol- 
canic flanks of the mountain, to vertical heights of 8900 and 10,700 feet, and were ob- 
served with therefrom during two months. 

During this period many interesting photo-stereographs were taken by Professor 
Smyth, at different points of the ascent, and they have been printed, with great success, 
under the superintendence of James Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S., for the illustration of the 
book. Correctness is thus ensured ; and if the reader wishes to enjoy the effects either 
of solidity or of distance, effects which are the cynosures of all the great painters, he 
has only to combine the two photographs stereoscopically, and those bewitching quali- 
ties are produced. Stereographs have not hitherto been bound up, as plates, in a vo- 
lume ; yet that will be found a most convepient way of keeping them, not incompatible 
with the use of the ordinary stereoscope, open below, and well adapted for a new form 
of the instrument, The Book Stereoscope, constructed to fold up in a case like a map, 
without detriment to its stereoscopic action. 

last of Photo- Stereographs. 

1. Culminating Point of the Peak of Teneriffe, 12,198 feet high, showing the Interior 
of the Terminal Crater of the Mountain. — 2. Volcanic " Blowing-cone" in Orotava, on 
the Northern Coast of Teneriffe. — 3. Peak of Teneriffe from Orotava, on the Northern 
coast. — 1. Tent Scene on Mount Guajara, 8903 feet high. — 5. Sheepshanks Telescope 
first erected on Mount Guajara ; the Peak of Teneriffe in the distance. — 6. Cliff and 
Floor of the Great Crater, 8 miles in diameter and 7000 feet above the Sea, under Mount 
Guajara. — "• Second Mate of Yacht observing Radiation Thermometers on Mount 
Guajara. — 8. Trachyte Blocks on Guajara. — 9- Breakdown in an Obsidian Lava Stream, 
on the Peak of Teneriffe, at the altitude of 10,6/0 feet. — 10. Specimen of the Malpays 
of Black Lava, near Alta Vista. — 1 1. Close View of Alta Vista Observing Station, from 
the East, altitude 10,702 feet. — 12. Alta Vista Observatory, from the Northern Lava 
Hidge. — 13. Entrance to the Ice-Cavern, in the Malpays of the Peak of Teneriffe, at the 
height of 11,040 feet. — 11. Euphorbia Canadensis on the Sea-Coast of Orotava. — 15. 
Young Dragon-trees and Date-Palm in a Cactus-Garden near Orotava. — 16. Young 
Dragon-trees (Dracaena Draco) near Orotava. — 17- Dragon-tree Walk at Palazzo near 
\a.~ 18. Cochmcal Gatherers at Orotava.— 19. The "Great Dragon-tree' 1 at the 
Villa de Orotava. — 20. Trunk of the Great Dragon-tree. 



" The special interest of this work lies in the fact that it supplies the lirst example oi 
the application of the principle of the stereoscope to book-illustration A neat little 
folding stereoscope, called the Book-Stereoscope, accompanies the volume, and may 
stand beside it on the book-shelf, not occupying more space than a pamphlet. When 
opened for use, the Book-Sterereoscope is exceedingly light, and can, with the most 
perfect ease and comfort to the person using it, be applied over the pair of stereoscopic 
photographs which form eacli illustration. There are twenty of such illustrations, 
which would cot more than the price of the work which contains them, if sold in the 
ordinary way as stereoscopic slides. A more interesting scries no dealer in these wares 
could produce; nearly all the pictures have been taken at heights of from seven to 
twelve thousand feet above the level of the sen, arid no the lower ground we arc shown 
a dragon tree walk, a cactus garden, cochineal-gatherers at work, and other scenes 
i before realized in this manner to eyes in Kngland. The scientific results of the 
expedition have been communicated to the Royal Society. The details interesting to 
the public — and Professor Piazzi Smyth is by no means a Dryasdust in science — appear 
en the volume before us. and deserve a cordial w( l< Examines. 



The Hunk, price 21s., mid the Stereoscope, price :..,.(>,/, may lie ordered of any 
Bookseller, eiiher separately m together 



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