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NOTICES. 



Members are informed that separate copies of each 'of the following Papers are on 
hand, and can be obtained by application to the Secretary at the prices annexed 

to each : 

s. d. 

Bowyer Family . . . , 10 

Surrey Etymologies. First Part "Wellington Hundred 26 

Abbott Family 20 

Duncumb Family 10 

Wyatt Family 26 

Cheam Church, &c 30 

Le Keux's Engraving of Horsleydown in 1590 16 

The Barker Deed 26 

Vol. II. of the Society's Collections, bound in cloth 60 

Vol.111. 10 

Vol. IV. 12 

Vol. V. 16 

Vol. V, Part 1 unbound 80 

Part 2 10 

Vol. VI 16 

Copies of the Chaldon Wall-Painting, on large paper 26 



BRASS-RUBBING. 

Arrangements have been made, under the sanction of the Council, for the purpose 
of facilitating the exchange, amongst members of the Society, of Rubbings of Monu- 
mental Brasses. 

Collectors, on forwarding their Lists of Duplicates to the Honorary Secretary, 
will be placed in communication with the Collectors desirous of exchanging. The 
Lists should state whether the Rubbings are good or rough, and with what material 
taken. 

Applications will receive priority according to date. 



SURREY 




RELATING TO THE 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF THE COUNTY. 



PUBLISHED BY 




VOL. VI. 



LONDON: 
u Muman ^r on3, for 
THE SURREY ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY, 
8, DANES INN, STRAND. 

MDCCCLXXIV. 




[The COUNCIL of the SURREY ARCH.EOLOGICAL SOCIETY desire it to be distinctly 
understood that they are not responsible for any statements or opinions expressed 
in the " COLLECTIONS " ; the Authors of the several Communications being alone 
accountable for the same.] 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VI. 



PAGE 

Report of Proceedings at Danes Inn, in July, 1871 ix 

at Cranleigh, in August, 1871 xii 

,, at Danes Inn, in June, 1872 xix 

at Charlwood, in July, 1873 xxii 

at Danes Inn, in June, 1873 xxii 

,, ai Wimbledon, in July, 1873 xxvi 

List of Members xxvii 

Societies in Union x.xxiii 

Contributions to Library xxxiii 

Additions to the Museum xxxiv 

Rules xxxv 

Form of Application for Admission of Members xxxvii 



1. On a Vicinal Road which formerly ran through the Parish of Ewhurst, 

Surrey, from the Stane Street at Rowhook towards the Old Town 
or Station at Farley, near Albury. By JAMES PARK HABBISON, 
Esq., M.A 1 

2. Alfold Church. By RALPH NEVILL, Esq., A.R.I.B.A 11 

3. Cranley. By Major HEALES, F.S.A 21 

4. On a Painting of St. Christopher in Newdigate Church, Surrey. By 

JOHN GREEN WALLER, Esq 57 

5. Limpsfield Church. By Major HEALES, F.S.A 70 

6. Surrey Etymologies. Tandridge Hundred. By GRANVILLE LEVESON- 

GOWER, Esq., F.S.A 78 

7. Notices of an Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Farthing Down, Coulsdon, Surrey. 

By JOHN WICKHAM FLOWER, Esq., F.G.S 109 

8. Account of a Roman Villa lately discovered at Beddington, Surrey . . . 118 

9. Notices of an Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Beddington, Surrey. By JOHN 

WICKHAM FLOWER, Esq 122 

10. Notice of a Hoard of Bronze Implements found at Beddington, Surrey. 

By JOHN WICKHAM FLOWER, Esq 125 

11. Surrey Etymologies. Tandridge Hundred. Part II. By GRANVILLE 

LEVESON-GOWER, Esq., F.S.A 127 

12. The Origin and Early History of the Family of Newdegate, so long as they 

remained connected with Surrey. By JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, F.S.A. 227 

13. Newdegate Church : its Rectors and Registers. By Major HEALES, F.S.A. 268 

14. Notes on the Figure of St. Christopher. By JOHN GEEEN WALLER, Esq. 293 

15. The Pilgrims' Way as it Passes through the Parishes of Godstone and 

Tandridge. By Sir GEORGE GILBERT SCOTT, R.A 301 

16. The Visitation of Surrey. By J. J. HOWARD, LL.D., F.S.A 305 

17. INDEX . , 331 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

1. Roman Eoad through Ewhurst 2 

2. Part of Coxland Farm Ewhurst 3 

3. View of Alfold Church 11 

4. Plan of ditto, and Sections of Details in ditto 12 

5. Interior of ditto 15 

6. Incised Marks in ditto 20 

7. View of Cranleigh Church 22 

8. Ground Plan of ditto 26 

9. Impost of North Transept Arch in ditto 26 

10. Section of West Doorway in ditto 27 

11. Section of Beam in ditto ' 29 

12. Sedilia and Part of Old Screen in ditto 29 

13. Head of Sedilia in ditto 30 

14. Brass of a Priest in ditto 34 

15. The Resurrection in ditto 36 

16. Brass of Robert Harding in ditto 37 

17. Engraving on the Bell in ditto 56 

18. Engraving of St. Christopher in Newdigate Church and a Window . . . 57 

19. A Silver Pin, Knife, Gold Bulla, Buckle and Beads found in other Graves 

adjacent to the Chief's Ill 

20. The Umbo of the Shield found in the Grave of an Anglo-Saxon Chief on 

Farthing Down 112 

21. A Drinking-cup found in ditto 113 

22. Ground Plan of a Roman Villa at Bed dington 118 

23. The Umbo of a Shield found in an Anglo-Saxon Graveyard at Beddington . 123 

24. Three Bronze Implements found at Beddington 125 

25. Seal of William de Nywdegate 233 

26. Gravestone in Newdegate Churchyard. , 244 

27. Seal of John Newdegate 245 

28. Seal of Thomas Newdegate 246 

29. View of Newdegate Church 268 

30. Ground Plan of ditto 272 

31. Section of Tower and Spire of ditto 278 

32. Panelling in Gallery-front 282, 287, 292 

33. Stained Glass Quarry at the Rectory 291 

34. Map showing the Pilgrims' Way 302 

35. Arms of Carique Clarke Feake Buckle Cherry Elyott Tumor 

Smyth Woodruff Pett Gainsford Cowper Vrricke Wright . . 306 



TO THE MEMBERS. 



IN presenting to the Members of the SURREY ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
the Sixth Volume of " Collections," the Council trust that it will 
be found of equal interest with those which have preceded it, both as 
regards the Papers which it contains, and the manner in which they 
have been treated. The completion of Part IT. has been unfortunately 
delayed owing to the death of the Secretary, Mr. E. V. AUSTIN. 

In addition to his loss, the Council have to deplore the death of two 
old and constant friends of the Society, Mr. J. WICKHAM FLOWER and 
Mr. J. GOUGH NICHOLS, F.S.A., the former so distinguished in the field 
of prehistoric archaeology, the latter no less so in matters of genealogical 
and historical inquiry. The present volume contains Papers by both 
these gentlemen, a fitting legacy from them to the Society in which 
they took so warm an interest. 

The Council desire to take this opportunity of impressing upon 
Members the importance of raising an Illustration Fund. From the 
nature of the Papers, it is specially important that they should be 
carefully and well illustrated ; and in these days of restless innovation, 
many an interesting feature may thus be preserved when the original 
has been destroyed by so-called restoration. 

An important object which this and kindred Societies have in view 
is to supplement the older County Histories by a close attention to 
the details of parochial history. This is generally to be gathered from 
the church and from the parish register ; and on parish churches this 
volume will be found to contain many interesting Papers. 

No further progress has been made since the last Report in establish- 
ing a County Museum. It is most desirable, from every point of view, 
that this County should have one, and the Council trust that no long 
time will elapse before it is established. The Society already possesses 



Vlll TO THE MEMBERS. 

* many interesting objects well worthy of exhibition, and if a Museum 
were in existence, it would doubtless receive considerable additions. 

The Council watched with much interest the introduction in Par- 
liament of Sir John Lubbock's Bill for the Preservation of National 
Monuments. Although it failed to become law, the Council believe that 
the discussion which it provoked will be productive of great advantage 
in calling public attention to the subject, and may ere long lead to some 
measure of the kind being passed. The demolition of the famous Roman 
earthworks at Dorchester must be felt by all archaeologists as a national 
misfortune, while in this County the threatened destruction of the 
so-called " Csesar's Camp " at Wimbledon is much to be deplored. 

The Annual Excursions that have taken place since the publication 
of Vol. V. have been thoroughly successful : they have shown that 
amid the inexhaustible beauties of nature which Surrey possesses, 
objects of antiquarian interest are not yet exhausted, while the cor- 
diality with which the Members have been everywhere received, is 
satisfactory evidence that the objects of the Society are generally 
appreciated. 



REPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. 



THE EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, in accordance with 
Rule XIII., to receive and consider the Report of the Council on the 
state of the Society, and to elect the officers for the ensuing twelve 
months, was held in the Council-room, Danes Inn, Strand, on Wednesday, 
the 19th of July, 1871. 

JOSHUA W. BUTTERWORTH, Esq., F.S.A., in the Chair. 

The Chairman having read the notice convening the meeting, requested 
the Honorary Secretary to read the following Annual Report : 

" A review of what the Society has accomplished in the last few years 
assures the Council that this, their Eighteenth Annual Report, will be 
favourably received by the members. They have succeeded, by the 
publication of the second part, in completing the fifth volunxe of their 
* Collections,' which they trust will be considered not inferior to the 
preceding, nor unworthy the attention of its readers. In it will be 
found an illustration of one of those works of art now very rare in 
this country. Mediaeval frescoes, or wall-paintings, seldom escaped the 
destroying hand of those engaged in the introduction of the Reformed 
religion. Fortunately, the interesting specimen in Chaldon Church was 
not obliterated, but only concealed from view by a covering of whitewash ; 
and the Council congratulate themselves on their successful efforts in 
restoring it, while the members are deeply indebted to the able pen of 
John Green Waller, Esq., for an elaborate paper on it, as well as on wall- 
paintings in general. Although this operation has proved a heavy tax 
on the finances, yet the Council are of opinion that the funds of the Society 
could not be more advantageously employed than in preserving a perfect 
record of so important an example of the religious art of our ancestors. 

" To Major Heales, F.S.A., and also to Granville Leveson-Gower, 
Esq., F.S.A., the Society is indebted for some of the illustrations in the 
volume. 

" The Annual Excursion to Nutfield and Bletchingley last year, con- 
cluding with the hospitable reception of the members and their friends 
at Pendell Court by George Macleay, E<q., C.M.G., was thoroughly 
appreciated by a numerous company. 

" Valuable publications by the Societies in Union continue to be 
received, by which the library of the Society is considerably increased. 
VOL. VI. b 



X REPORTS OP PROCEEDINGS. 

" The annexed Report of the Auditors, together with the statement 
of assets and liabilities, will exhibit the satisfactory condition of the 
affaire of the Society : 

" ' COMMITTEE ROOM, 8, DANES INN, 
" ' 2lst June, 1871. 

" ' To the COUNCIL of the SURREY ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 
" ' GENTLEMEN, 

" ' We, the undersigned Auditors of your Society, having examined 
the books of your Secretary, and compared the accounts with the 
vouchers, find the same to be correct. And we also wish to report that 
the books have been kept in a very satisfactory manner. 

(Signed) C. H. ELT, 

' GEO. CURLING, 

' GEORGE RUSSELL FRENCH.' " 



EEPOETS OF PROCEEDINGS. 



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xii REPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. 

It was moved, seconded, and unanimously carried, that this Report 
be adopted, printed, and circulated. 

The Patron, President, and Vice-Presidents were re-elected. 

The following eight members of Council, who went out by rotation, 
were re-elected, with a vote of thanks for their services. 

CHARLES BAILY, Esq. 

JOSEPH JACKSON HOWARD, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 

CUTHBERT JOHNSON, Esq. 

EDWARD BASIL JUPP, Esq., F.S.A. 

WILLIAM WILLMER POCOCK, Esq., F.R.I. B. A. 

HENRY RICHARDSON, Esq. 

SEYMOUR TEULON, Esq. 

EUSTACE ANDERSON, Esq. 

The Honorary Secretary was solicited to take office for another year, 
accompanied by the best thanks of the members for his eminent services 
during several past years ; to which Mr. Austin assented. 

The Auditors were re-elected, with a vote of thanks for their careful 
investigation of the accounts. 

John Green Waller, Esq., was elected an honorary member. 

It was suggested by one of the members that in future it would be 
desirable to have the Annual Excursion earlier in the year. It was 
observed that the month of August, though convenient to many, was 
not so to all, but, by having it, at least alternately, early and late in the 
year, mutual accommodation would be afforded. 

The Chairman undertook that the suggestion should receive the atten- 
tion of the Council. 

With a vote of thanks to the Chairman, the proceedings terminated. 



A GENERAL MEETING of the members was held on Thursday, the 3rd 
of August, 1871, at Cranleigh. 

The rendezvous was at Guildford station, from whence the members 
and their friends proceeded by the Guildford and Horsham line to 
Baynard's station, where carriages were in attendance to convey them 
to Rudgwick, a short interval being first allowed for the company to 
partake of refreshment. 

In Rudgwick Church, W. W. Pocock, Esq., F.R.I.B.A., explained 
the architectural design of the building and its history, reading also 
from the register several curious entries relative to the customs of the 
locality. 



EEPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. Xlll 

Alfold Church was next visited, and a paper, which will be found at 
page 1 1 of this volume, was read by Ralph Nevill, Esq. 

From thence the party proceeded to Cranleigh Church, in which Major 
Heales, F.S.A., read a paper, which is also printed at page 21. 

A move was then made to the Surrey County Schools. The company 
being assembled in the dining-hall, R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, Esq., F.R.S., 
read a deed of conveyance of the manor of Shere, dated in the first 
year of Henry VII. 's reign. 

HENRY FREDERICK NAPPER, Esq., of Loxwood, exhibited a Book of 
Precedents in Ecclesiastical and Civil Law, of which he gave the 
following account : 

" The book is a collection of civil law forms, and processes in use in 
the Spiritual Courts, and some other matters and documents connected 
with the practice of the civil law, with tables of fees payable on various 
occasions. Apparently it was a precedent-book of some registrar or 
official, or possibly a proctor connected with or practising in the 
diocese of Gloucester, as many of the documents it contains relate to 
that diocese, and others to the contiguous diocese of Bath and Wells. 
Among the places mentioned are Bitton, Brockwortb, Dean's Colne, 
Miserden, Standish, Uley, and Wheathill or Wheaten-hill : but other 
places are indicated only by initials, and that is almost throughout the 
case with regard to the names of persons. The dates extend from 1625 
throughout the seventeenth century, and some documents are as late as 
1713. There are indexes, but only to points of law, as usual in books of 
this nature. Many portions are well and plainly written ; but, as most 
of the forms are in Latin and abbreviated, others when ill written 
require considerable study to decipher. The handwriting includes all 
the varieties in use from the reign of Queen Elizabeth down to the 
engrossing hand of the modern law offices. 

" It is a small folio of more than 500 pages, bound in rough calf, and 
marked on the side and back Uber ft. 

"The history of its present ownership may be traced thus. My 
wife's eldest brother, Mr. John Heathfield Dendy, was a law student, 
very much devoted to his profession, and brought himself to an early 
grave by sheer hard study. He appears to have been also a lover of 
antiquities, for besides this book I find in his collection Camden's 
Britannia, and several other rare volumes, and the probability is, I 
think, that this book was picked up by him at some London book-stall. 
He died in the year 1829, and by his will left his books and MSS. to 
his father, who wrote his name in it, 'Arthur Dendy, 1830.' 

" Having thus given the best relation I can of the history of the book, 
I will proceed to read two extracts from it, which at the present time I 
believe to be of considerable importance, and therefore ought to be 
made publicly known. At p. 163 occurs ' Copia actus locationis 



XIV REPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Mensae Dominicce in Ecclesia S tj Gregorli Civitatis, London.' I give a 
translation. 

" Copy of the Act for placing the Lord's Table in the Church of 
St. Gregory, in the City of London. 

" * On which aforesaid day and place the Revd. Professors Dr. Winnifte 
and Dr. King, being the ordinaries of the place, first calling to mind 
the Apostle's word that in the church of God all things be done 
decently, and perceiving moreover how indecently, if not rather pro- 
fanely, around the Lord's Table (on which are accustomed to be 
consecrated the most holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of our 
Lord, and divine mysteries celebrated,) things were enacted in times 
past, as some persons were not ashamed to sit on it, others to write, 
others to transact there other and perhaps still viler matters of business, 
distinguishing nothing or little between the Lord's Table and a profane 
or convivial table ; therefore the said Revd. Professors, wishing to 
prevent so great evil, and desiring to preserve, as becomes Christians, 
the sanctity of that place undented decreed, appointed, and ordained, 
in manner following, to wit : That in future the said Lord's Table, 
extending lengthways from north to south, shall abut upon wholly and 
touch the east wall of the chancel of the said church, and that between 
the said wall and the said table none shall be able henceforth either 
to sit, stand, or kneel. Moreover, the said Revd. Professors ordained 
that the said table so (as aforesaid) placed, located, and affixed, be 
fenced around on all sides with a form or rails, 1 and set at a convenient 
distance to be marked out by the wardens of the said church, and to be 
separated from the remaining part of the said chancel. Lastly, they 
ordained that neither their commissary in the Ecclesiastical Courts, to 
be held by him in the said church, nor the parishioners in their 
meetings about parish and church matters, should thenceforth be able, 
dare, or presume to use in any manner the said Lord's Table, but that 
it should be reserved and appropriated only for the celebration of the 
most holy sacrament for the time to come.' 

"At p. 167 is entered the following extract from the Register of the 
Privy Council : 

" ' An Order by the King's most Excellent Ma tie and Privie 
Councell about the placing of the Communion Table of 
St. Gregories Church, London, and published in the said 
Church. 

" ' At Whitehall, the third of November, 1633. 



1 " ' Sccvmino seu tabulatis circumtexta secundum distantiam con- 
venientem et ab ceconomis seu gardianis dictse Ecclesise designandum 
undequaque inuniatur.' " 



Lo. Archbpp 

Lo. Keeper 

Lo. Trea r 

Lo. Privie Scale 

Lo. Duke of Lenox 

Lo. Highe Chamberlaine 

Er. of Marshall 

Lo. Chamb. 



REPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. XV 

" < Present : 
The King's most Excellent Ma tie . 

Er. of Bridgewater 



Er. of Carlisle 

Lo. Newburgh 

Lo. Cottington 

Mr. Tre 1 

Mr. Comptroller 

Mr. Secretary Cooke 

Mr. Secretary Windebancke 



" ' This day was debated before his Ma tie sitting in Counsell, the 
question and difference which grew about the removing of the Com- 
munion Table in St. Gregories Church neere the Cathedral Church of 
St. Paule, from the middle of the Chauncel to the upper end, there 
placed altarwise in such manner as it standeth in the said Cathedral 
and Mother Church (as allso in all other Cathedralls and in his Ma tie9 
own chapel) and as is consonant to the practice of approved antiquitie ; 
which removall and placing thereof in that sort was done by order of 
the Deane and Chapter of St. Paules (who are Ordinaries there) as was 
avowed before his Ma tie by Mr. Dr. King and Mr. Dr. Montford two of 
the Prebends there. Yet some few of the Parishioners (being but five 
in number) did complaine of this Act by Appeale to the Court of 
Arches, pretending that the Book of Comon Prayer & 82. Canon doe 
give permission to place the Comunion Table where it may stand with 
the most fitness and conveniencie. Now his Ma tie having heard a par- 
ticular relation made by the Counsell of both parties of all the carriage 
and proceedings in this cause, was pleased to declare his dislike of all 
Innovations and receding from auntient constitutions grounded upon 
just and warrantable reason, especially in matters concerning Eccle- 
siasticall orders and government, knowing how easily men are drawne 
to affect novelties, and how soon weake judgments may in such cases 
be overtaken and abused. And he was also pleased to observe that 
if those few parishioners might have their will, the difference hereby 
from the Cathedrall Mother Church, by which all other Churches de- 
pending thereon ought to be guided and directed, would be the more 
notorious, and give more subject of discourse and disputes that might 
be spared by reason of the nearness of St. Gregories standing close 
to the wall thereof. And likewise that for so much as concerneth the 
libertie given by the said Comon Prayer Book or Canon for placing 
the Communion Table in any Church or Chauncel with most con- 
con veniencie, that liberty is not so to be understoode as if it were left 
to the discretion of the parish, much lesse to the fancie of any particular 
humourous person : but to the judgment of the Ordinary to whose 
place and function it doth properly belong to give direction in that 
point for the thing itself and for the time when and how long as he 
may find cause. Upon which considerations his Ma tie declared himself 
that he well approved and confirmed the act of the said Ordinary ; 
And also gave comandment that if those few parishioners before 



REPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. 

mentioned doe proceed in their said appeale, then the Deane of the 
Arches who was then attending at the hearing of the cause shall 
confirm the said Order of the aforesaid Deane and Chapter. 

" ' Concordat cuin originali. 

" ' J. DlCKENSON.' 

" The reason why I think these entries ought to be made public now 
is that this case is referred to in the recent judgment in the Purchas 
case but there as an authority for a moveable table, whereas you 
will probably not have failed to come to the conclusion that it is quite 
the reverse, and is in fact an authority for a fixed table. It would be 
out of place to make any comment upon it here, for it might produce 
difference of opinion. But I may mention, as matter of history, that 
the Lord Archbishop mentioned in the King's order of 1633 was Laud, 
who was made Archbishop only three months before (in the preceding 
August), the first proceedings for the removal and inclosing round the 
table having probably commenced when he was Bishop of London, and 
perhaps at his instigation. 

" It would appear that before this the table was wholly unfenced. 
Therefore there could be no peculiar sanctity inside of communion rails 
when they did not exist. I would also point out that it does not follow 
because only five persons in the parish were found willing to indulge in 
the expensive luxury of a lawsuit with the Dean and Chapter, that 
therefore only five disapproved of the proceeding appealed against. 
On the contrary, there may have been five hundred, or the whole parish. 
But these five were probably well-to-do merchants or traders who were 
able and willing to incur some cost in defence of the Reformed religion. 
Associations and joint-stock companies for the express purpose of going 
to law were not then invented. And it would also appear that a spirit 
of legal resistance was then on foot, which soon afterwards, when illegal 
incroachments began to be made by the Crown, broke out into that 
active resistance which in the end led to most lamentable results. 

"As an illustration I may mention another contemporaneous instance. 
It does not follow because John Hampden was the only person found to 
resist in a legal way the arbitrary demand of Ship money, that therefore 
he was the only man who believed it illegal. On the contrary, there 
may have been, and probably were, thousands of the same opinion, but 
not willing, for a trifling amount, to incur a lawsuit with the Crown, 
with judges of doubtful integrity to decide their cases." 

Another document from the same volume; being the form of licensing 
a country Schoolmaster in the diocese of Bath and Wells, 1 will be read 



1 T., the initial with which the document begins, does not apply to 
any Bishop of Bath and Wells between Thomas Godwin, who died in 
1590, and Thomas Ken, consecrated in 1685. As the date 1625 occurs 
in the opposite page, this licence is probably to be referred to the reign 
of Elizabeth. 



REPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. XV11 

with interest, if only as a contrast to the more general measures taken 
in the present day for the promotion of education : 

" Licenlia ad erudiendos pueros (p. 120). 

" T. etc. dilecto nobis in Christo A. B. in Artibus Bacc leo salutem 
in Domino sempiternam. Cum nihil magis Reipublicse expediat quam 
ad discipulorum moderationem puerosque literis imbuendos viris 
exploratae eruditionis et integritatis adaptari, Tibi quern ad hujus- 
modi functionem tarn doctrina instructum tarn moribus idoneum com- 
perimus, Gramatices rudimenta et qusecumque ad Gramaticem spectare 
possint publice edocendi juxta instituta^ et leges hujus incliti regni 
Anglise, dummodo id munus sobrie et cum eorum fructu qui tibi 
tradentur, ad Dei opt. max. gloriam et Reipublicse commodum gesseris, 
per totam nostram Diocesim et Jux Beml B. et W. vel infra parochiam de 
B. diocesis predictse et non alibi tenore presentium facultatem specialem 
impertimur. In cujus rei, etc." 

A second Licence of the same class (p. 68) must be of the time of 
Archbishop Laud, the first prelate of the name of William that had 
occupied the see of Canterbury since the death of Warham in 1532. 

" Licenda ad erudiendos pueros in alphabeta et literis Anglicanis. 

"William, by the grace and providence of God, Lo. Archbpp. of 
Canty, Primate and Metropolitane of all England, to whom all Juris- 
diction Spirituall and Ecclesiasticall during our Metropoliticall 
Visitation doth of right belong and appertaine, To o r well-beloved in 
Christ, &c., sendeth Greeting in o r Lo. God everlasting. These are 
upon credible report and certificate in that behalfe made of yo r honest 
conversation, zeale in religion, and discretion, to license and authorize 
you th'aforesaid A. B. according to yo r talent and habilitie to exercise 
and keepe a Scoole w th in the said parish of W., for the teaching, 
trayning upp, and instruction of Children in writing and reading of the 
English tounge, and the Catechisme or Prymer in English, or some 
other godly English booke meete and necessary to be read unto young 
children at their first entrance to knowledge and understanding. Which 
o r Licence we will shall so long stand in force and effect as you shall 
soberly and honestly behave yo r selfe in the said function or office of a 
Scoolem r to the profit of such youth as shall be committed to yo r govern- 
ment, and as to us shall seeme good and expedient, and not longer nor 
otherwise. In witnes whereof wee have caused the scale, <fec." 

Soon after (in p. 70), there follows " A 1'ce to preach in the Metro- 
politicall Visitacion." It was addressed to the divine selected to preach 
in the cathedral church of Gloucester, and commences thus : " Mr. A. : 
My Lo. Archbpp. of Canty his Grace's Metropoliticall visitation is 



1 Jurisdictionem ? 
YOL. VI. C 



XV111 EEPOETS OF PROCEEDINGS. 

allreadie begunne w th in the diocess of Glouc r , and the meeting before o r 
said most Rev r end visitor, or such who shall supplie his place, is to be 
kept at Glouc r for some deaneries w th in this Dioces, on tuisday y e 9 of 
June next." This ascertains the year to be 1635, when the 9th of 
June was a Tuesday. 

JAMES PARK HARRISON, Esq., M.A., concluded the proceedings with 
a description of a Vicinal Road which passed through Ewhurst, which 
will be found, illustrated by maps, at page 1. 

Before leaving the Schools, a view of the Memorial Chapel attached 
thereto, was taken. The company then adjourned to the collation, 
which was provided in a nyirquee which Albert Napper, Esq., had 
kindly allowed to be pitched in a meadow adjoining his residence. 

JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq., F.S.A., occupied the Chair. The usual 
loyal toasts were proposed, together with " Success to the SURREY ARCHAEO- 
LOGICAL SOCIETY," " The Honorary Secretary," " The Chairman," and 
" The Ladies." A special train was in attendance at Cranleigh station 
to convey the company to Guildford, from whence they took trains or 
vehicles to their respective destinations, having spent an agreeable day 
of pleasure and instruction. 



REPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. XIX 

THE NINETEENTH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, in accordance with 
Rule XIII., to receive and consider the Report of the Council on the 
state of the Society, and to elect the officers for the ensuing year, -was 
held in the Council-room, Danes Inn, Strand, on Wednesday, the 19th 
of June, 1872. 

SEYMOUR TEULON, Esq., J. P., in the Chair. 

The Chairman having read the notice convening the meeting, requested 
the Honorary Secretary to read the following Annual Report : 

" The Council of the Surrey Archa3ological Society, in presenting the 
Nineteenth Annual Report to the members, have the satisfaction to 
reiterate their former announcements of continued progress. The first 
part of the sixth volume is in the press, and will, as they trust, be com- 
pleted and issued in a few weeks. It will contain, among other valuable 
contributions, an illustrated paper by John Wickham Flower, Esq., 
F.G.S., on the recent discoveries of Anglo-Saxon and Roman remains 
at Farthing Down. The Society has during the past year taken an 
important step in the establishment of a permanent museum. This 
has long been in contemplation, and its necessity has been frequently 
urged. The Council now congratulate the Society on its accomplish- 
ment, a very advantageous arrangement having been made with the 
Directors of the Literary and Scientific Institution of Croydon, by which 
ample accommodation has been provided for the reception of all anti- 
quities found in the county. It will be open at all convenient times for 
the inspection of the members of the Society, who are invited to increase 
the collection by contributing from their private stores, or from any 
discoveries that may arise. 

" It is with great pleasure the Council announce that they have 
received two very handsome donations. The first of rubbings of monu- 
mental brasses and inscriptions from Frederick Taylor Piggott, Esq., of 
Worthing. They are 350 in number, comprising some of the best in 
the country, besides several from the Continent. A small outlay was 
required to repair and mount them on rollers, a process the donor very 
kindly superintended. He has also supplied a catalogue of reference. 
The collection is deposited at Croydon, and may be examined at all 
convenient times. 

" Miss Shelley, daughter of the late John Shelley, Esq., of Linkfield 
Lane, Red Hill, who was for many years a member of this Society, and 
a diligent collector of the antiquities of the county, has, in pursuance of 
her father's expressed wish, presented to the Society his collection of 
flints, &c. This will also be deposited and arranged in the Museum 
at Croydon. 

" The excursion made last summer to Alfold and Cranleigh was nu- 
merously attended by the members and their friends, to whom the 
proceedings afforded much pleasure. 

" Donations of books and exchanges of publications with Societies in 
union continue to be received, by which the library is now attaining 
considerable proportions and value. 

VOL. VI. d 



XX REPORTS OP PROCEEDINGS. 

" The accounts of the Society have been audited, and the annexed 
Report and Balance-sheet will exhibit the satisfactory state of the affairs 
of the Society " : 

" Committee Koom, 8, Danes Inn, 7th May, 1872.' 
" To the Council of the Surrey Archzeological Society. 
u GENTLEMEN, 

"We, the undersigned, being the duly appointed auditors of 
your Society, have, in accordance with our duty, carefully examined 
the books of your Secretary, and, having compared the accounts and 
vouchers therewith, find the same to be correct. 

" We likewise desire to accord our extreme satisfaction with the 
exact and excellent manner in which the same have been kept. 

C. H. ELT. 
"GEO. CURLING." 

It was moved, seconded, and unanimously carried that this Report 
be adopted, printed, and circulated. 

The Patron, President, and Vice-Presidents were re-elected. 

The following eight members of Council, who went out by rotation, 
were re-elected : 

REGINALD BRAY, Esq., F.S.A. 

The Rev. ARTHUR CAZENOVE, M.A. 

The Right Hon. Viscount MIDLETON. 

THOMAS HART, Esq. 

SEYMOUR TEULON, Esq., J.P. 

J. R. DANIEL-TYSSEN, Esq., F.S.A. 

The Ven. Archdeacon UTTERTON, M.A. 

ROBERT A. C, GODWIN- AUSTEN, Esq., F.R.S. 

It was moved by the Chairman, and unanimously seconded, that tlie 
Honorary Secretary be invited to accept the office for another year, with 
the Society's best thanks for his past services. 

Mr. Austen consented 

George Russell French, Esq., having, on account of infirmity, declined 
to act as Auditor, Philip Capel Hanbury, Esq., was elected to fill the 
vacancy. George Curling, Esq., and Charles Elt, Esq., were re-elected, 
with a vote of thanks for their diligence in attending to the finances of 
the Society. A special vote of thanks was also given to Mr. French 
for his past services, accompanied by a regret that ill health should have 
been the cause of his retirement. 

Frederick Taylor Piggott, Esq., was elected an honorary member. 
With a vote of thanks to the Chairman, the proceedings terminated. 



REPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. 



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REPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. 

A GENERAL MEETING of the members was held on Thursday, the 4th 
of July, 1873, at Charlwood. 

The rendezvous was at the Dorking railway-station, from whence the 
party proceeded in carriages across the Holmwood to Newdigate Church, 
in which Major Heales, F.S.A., read a paper on the architecture of the 
edifice, which will be found at page 268 of this volume. John Gough 
Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., followed with a history of the families of New- 
digate, which is also printed at page 227 of this volume. A description 
of the wall-painting of St. Christopher, on the north side of the church, 
was then given by John Green Waller, Esq. The ancient parish chest, 
a spinning-wheel, and some iron brackets used in the last century by 
the villagers to hold the burning rushes for giving light instead of can- 
dles, were exhibited on the lawn of the Rectory, and explained by the 
Rev. L. Kennedy. Sir George Gilbert Scott made some observations 
on the structure of the massive wooden tower of the church. 

A drive of four miles brought the company to Charlwood Church. 
On the south wail of the nave is a wall-painting, which was described 
by the Rector. The subject is " Les trois vifs et les trois neufs." Sir 
George Gilbert Scott pointed out the beauties and chief architectural 
peculiarities of the interior of the church. An adjournment to the 
lawn of the Rectory was then made, and under the shade of wide- 
spreading trees, Granville Leveson-Gower, Esq., F.S.A., read a paper 
on the history of Charlwood, followed by John Wickham Flower, Esq., 
F.G.S., on the implements of the drift, illustrated by numerous beautiful 
specimens. 

In the school-rooms adjacent, the members were hospitably enter- 
tained by the Rev. Thomas Burningham, M.A. 

The usual toasts were drunk, and after an agreeable day's pleasure, 
all returned to their destinations highly gratified with the day's 
diversion. 



THE TWENTIETH ANNUAL GENEBAL MEETING, in accordance with 
Rule XIII., to receive and consider the Report of the Council on the 
state of the Society, and to elect the officers for the ensuing year, was 
held in the Council-room, Danes Inn, Strand, on Wednesday, the 18th 
of June, 1873. 

GRANVILLE LEVESON-GOWER, Esq., F.S.A., a Vice-President, in the 
Chair. 

The Chairman having read the notice convening the meeting, re- 
quested the Honorary Secretary to read the following Report : 

" In presenting the Twentieth Annual Report to the members of the 
Surrey Archaeological Society, the Council venture to anticipate for it 
the usual favourable reception. 



REPORTS OP PROCEEDINGS. XX111 

" For several successive years they have been able to publish an entire, 
or a half-volume of Collections, and they have now in the press the 
concluding part of the sixth volume of the same. 

" The annual excursion of last year, which was devoted to Newdigate 
and Charlwood, was pronounced by those who have long watched the 
progress of the Society, to have been one of the most successful meetings 
it has ever held, and the members desire to express their thanks to the 
Rev. Thomas Burningham, the rector, for the hospitable reception he 
gave them. The Council anticipate a no less interesting gathering at 
Merton in the ensuing month. 

" In all works on antiquities, illustrations are practically necessary to 
render[the subject intelligible to the readers ; and the increased expense 
of those given in the last two parts of the Society's Collections has 
this year rendered the liabilities to be in excess of some former years. 
To obviate this result, the Council very earnestly entreat members to 
contribute to a larger extent than they have hitherto done to the 
Illustration Fund. 

" It is with deep sorrow that the Council advert to the loss which 
they have sustained in the death of one of their oldest and most able 
colleagues. For many years past one of their most willing and most 
useful contributors has been the late Mr. Wickham Flower. His pro- 
found knowledge and experience of archaeological subjects, especially of 
those relating to pre-historic times, was of incalculable advantage to the 
Society ; whilst the readiness with which he undertook the investigation 
of any discovery in the county rendered it many important services. 
The recent establishment of a county museum at Croydon was mainly 
owing to his influence and exertions. 

"To Major Heales, F.S.A. ; the late John Wickham Flower, Esq., 
F.G.S. ; Ralph Nevill, Esq., A.R.I.B.A. ; and James Park Harrison, 
Esq., M.A., the Society is indebted for some of the illustrations in the 
last volume." 

REPORT OF THE AUDITORS. 

"Committee Room, 8, Danes Inn, llth June, 1873. 
" To the Council of the Surrey Archaeological Society. 

" We, the undersigned, being the duly appointed Auditors of the 
Society, have, as accords with our duty, carefully examined the books, 
accounts, and vouchers presented to us by your Secretary, and on com- 
parison, find that the accounts are minutely correct. 

" We again desire to express our entire satisfaction with the careful 
and exact method in which the books and accounts of the Society have 
been kept by the Secretary. 

" c H ELT 

GEO. CURLING. 

"PHILIP CAPEL II ANBURY/' 



XXIV REPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. 

It was moved, seconded, and carried that the Report be adopted, 
printed, and circulated. 

The Patron, President, and Vice-Presidents were re-elected. 

The following eight members of Council, who went out by rotation, 
were re-elected, with a vote of thanks for their efficient management of 
the affairs of the Society ; 

JOSHUA WILLIAM BUTTERWORTH, Esq., F.S.A. 
EDWARD V. AUSTEN, Esq., Hon. Sec. 
The Rev. JOHN CHANDLER, M.A. 
WILLIAM HENRY HART, Esq., F.S.A. 
Major HEALES, F.S.A. 
JOSEPH JACKSON HOWARD, Esq., LL.D. 
CUTHBERT JOHNSON, Esq. 
EDWARD BASIL JUPP, Esq., F.S.A. 

The Honorary Secretary was unanimously re-elected for the ensuing 
year, with a cordial vote of thanks for his efficient services. 

The three Auditors were re-elected. 

J. E. Gardner, Esq., was elected a member of the Council in lieu of 
John Wickham Flower, Esq., deceased. 

A vote of thanks to Granville Leveson-Gower, Esq., fur his efficient 
conduct in the ohair terminated the proceedings. 



REPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. 



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XXVI REPORTS OF PROCEEDINGS. 

A GENERAL MEETING of the members was held on Wednesday, the 
9th of July, 1873, at Wimbledon. 

The Wallington and Carshalton stations were the places of meeting, 
and from thence the company proceeded in carriages to Carshalton 
Church, where they were met by the Rev. W. A. Gator, the rector. 
Thomas Milbourne, Esq., commenced by reading a paper on the history 
and design of the church ; followed by John Green Waller, Esq., on the 
brasses and monuments in it. Having partaken of a little refreshment, 
they proceeded to Merton Church, of which the Rev. J. Erck is A-icar. 
Major Heales, F.S.A., read a paper on the history of Merton Abbey. 
Ralph Nevill, Esq., A.R.I.B.A., followed by describing the church, 
pointing out its architectural features, incorporating its history with a 
description of the monuments in the chancel. Caesar's Camp, on Wim- 
bledon Common, was next visited, on which Robert A. C. Godwin- 
Austen, Esq., F.R.S., read a paper. The visitors then proceeded, by 
invitation, to the residence of Henry William Peek, Esq., M.P. for 
Mid-Surrey. In the orangery on the lawn an elegant collation was pro- 
vided, the honourable member presiding, Mrs. Peek having joined the 
company. 

The usual toasta were proposed, and responded to. Twenty-one new 
members were elected ; and after enjoying walks among the beautiful 
flowers and shrubs of this elegant abode, the company reluctantly re- 
sumed their seats in the vehicles to convey them to their respective 
homes ; carrying with them reminiscences of one of the most successful 
excursions ever made by the Society. 



1873. 



Cation. 
His ROYAL HIGHNESS 

THE DUKE OF 
CAMBRIDGE, K.G. 



Tho ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. 
The Right Rev. BISHOP SUMNER, F.R.S. 
The Right Rev. LORD BP. OF WINCHESTER, 

D.D., F.S.A. 
The Right Hon. the EARL OF LOVELACE, 

F.R.S., Lord Lieut. 
The Right Hon. EARL PERCY. 
The Right Hon. VISCOUNT MIDLETON. 
The Right Hon. LORD MONSON. 
The Right Hon. LORD HYLTON. 
SIR WALTER ROCKLIFFE FARQUHAR, Bart. 
Major-General SIR HENRY C. RAWLINSON, 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Council. 




His GBACE 

THE DUKE OF 

BUCCLEUCH, K.G. 



The Right Hon. SIR WILLIAM BOVILL. 
GEORGE CUBITT, Esq., M.P. (Trustee). 

GRANVILLELEVESON-GOWERjEsq., F.S.A. 

JOHN LOCKE, Esq., M.P., Q.C. 

GUILDFORD ONSLOW, Esq., M.P. 

T. SOMERS COCKS, Esq. (Trea. and Trns.) 

WILLIAM JOHN EVELYN, Esq., F.S.A. 

THOMAS GRISSELL, Esq., F.S.A., M.R.S.L. 

JAMES MORE MOLYNEUX, Esq., F.S.A. 

EDWARD R. NORTHEY, Esq. 

HENRY W. PEEK, Esq., M.P. 

SIR RICHARD BAGGALLAY, Q.C., M.P. 



EUSTACE ANDERSON, Esq. 

R. A. GODWIN-AUSTEN, Esq.,F.R.S., F.G.S. 

EDWARD V. AUSTIN, Esq., M.R.C.S. 

CHARLES BAILY, Esq. 

REGINALD BRAY, Esq., F.S.A. 

JOSHUA W. BUTTERWORTH, Esq., F.S.A. 

Rev. A. CAZENOVE, M.A. 

Rev. JOHN CHANDLER, M.A. 

JOHN E. GARDNER, Esq. 

THOMAS HART, Esq. 

Major HEALES, F.S.A. 

WILLIAM HENRY HART, Esq., F.S.A. 



JOSEPH J. HOWARD, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 
CUTHBERT W. JOHNSON, Esq., F.R.S. 
E. BASIL JUPP, Esq., F.S.A. 
The Right Hon. VISCOUNT MIDLETON. 
JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq., F.S.A. 
W. W. POCOCK, Esq., B.A., F.R.I.B.A. 
Rev. J. WELLSTEAD S. POWELL, A.M. 
HENRY S. RICHARDSON, Esq. 
WILLIAM TAYLER, Esq., F.S.A. 
SEYMOUR TEULON, Esq. 
J. R. DANIEL-TYSSEN, Esq., F.S.A. 
The Ven. ARCHDEACON UTTEUTON, M.A. 



STmsnm. T. SOMERS COCKS, Esq., 43, Charing-cross. 

g. T. SOMERS COCKS, Esq. GEORGE CUBITT, Esq., M.P. 
$onorarn Sttrttarg. EDWARD V. AUSTIN, Esq., M.R.C.S. 
Uononrjj ^alitograpljct. WILLIAM HENRY HART, Esq., F.S.A. 

IJonorarn ^hotograpbtr. EDWIN DEBENHAM, Esq., Reigate. 

giubitors for 1873. G. CURLING, Esq. C. H. ELT, Esq. PHILIP CAPEL HANBURY, Esq. 
s. Messrs. COCKS, BIDDULPH, & Co., 43, Charing-cross. 

jStcretarics. 

W. R. HARWOOD, Esq., Mitcham. 
FREDERICK J. CHESTER, Esq., Nowington. 
GEORGE MORRISON, Esq., Reigate. 
WM. CHAPMAN, Esq., Richmond. 
T. MEADOWS CLARKE, Esq., Richmond. 
Rev. F. STATHAM, B.A., F.G.S., Walworsh. 



HJonorarn 

M. SHURLOCK, Esq., Chertsey. 
CHARLES HART, Esq., Dorking. 
RALPH NEVILL, Esq., Godalming. 
ROBERT OKE CLARK, Esq., Farnham. 
H. F. NAPPER, Esq., Guildford. 
FREDERICK GOULD, Esq., Kingston. 



W. P. IVATTS, Collector to the Society, 21, Wilton-square, Islington. 
THEOPHILUS POTTER, Bookbinder to the Society, 60, Tabernacle-walk, Finsbury, London. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



(Corrected to October, 1873.) 

(D) Those who have been Donors to the Funds or Collectors to the amount of 

Five Pounds and upwards. 
This * denotes Life Compounders. f Past Members of the Council. 



Abbott, Thomas, Esq., East Sheen. 
Abbott, Thomas, jun., Esq., London. 
Abbott, Mrs., East Sheen. 
Acworth, G. Brindley, Esq., Eochester. 
*Adams, Geo., Esq., Doctors' Commons. 
(D) Alexander, W. C., Esq., Hornsey. 
Anderson, Eustace, Esq., Mortlake. 
Anderson, Eustace, jun., Esq., Mortlako. 
Aston, William, Esq., London. 
Atkin, Edward, Esq., New-cross. 
Atkinson, Henry, Esq. , F. S. A. , Petersfield. 
Austen, Robt. A. C. Godwin-, Esq., F. R.S.. 

F.G.S.. Chil worth. 

Austin, E. V., Esq., M.R.C.S., Reigate. 
*Baggallay, Sir Richard, M.P., Q.C., 

London. 

Baily, C., Esq., Camberwell. 
Baker, Edward, Esq., London. 
Barkley, Charles, Esq., Croydon. 
*Barnard, Herbert, Esq., F.S. A., London. 
Barton, R. Carroll, Esq., Lambeth. 
*Bateman, J. F., Esq., Farnham. 
Bax, Alfred Ridley, Esq., Streatham. 
Baxter, Robert, Esq., Reigate. 
Bayford, Dr., Albury. 
Beaumont, F., Esq., Buckland. 
Beck, S. A., Esq., Cheam. 
Bennett, Rev. H. Leigh, M.A., Chertsey. 
Bevan, Rev. Earnest, Farnham. 
Biggerstaff, William, Esq., Holloway. 
Bircham, Mrs., Esher. 
Blake, Henry, Esq., Haslemere. 
Blore, Ed., Esq., F.S.A., F.R.S., London. 
Bohn, Henry G., Esq., Twickenham. 
Bolding, J. P., Esq., West Croydon. 
Bonnor, George, Esq., London. 
Borradaile, Rev. R. , Tandridge. 
Bovill, The Rt. Hon. Sir William, London. 
Brancker, Rev. Henry, M.A., Thursley. 
Brandon, Woodthorpe, Esq., Barnes. 
Bray, Reginald, Esq., F.S. A., Shore. 
*Bremner, Alex. Bramwell, Esq., London. 
Brewer, Richard, Esq., Richmond. 
*Bridger, E. Kynaston, Esq., Hampton. 
Bridges, Rev. A. H., M.A., Beddington. 
Briscoe, Rev. Dr., Nutfield. 
Broad, S. P., Esq., Reigate. 
*Brodrick, the Hon. G., Peper-harow. 
Brooke, F. C., Esq., Woodbridge. 
Brooks, Mrs., Epsom. 
Browne, Edward, Esq., Surbiton. 
*Buccleuch, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., 

F.R.S., F.L.S., Whitehall. 
Burdett, Lieut.-Col. Francis, Richmond. 
Burningham, Rev. Thomas, Charlwood. 
Burrell, James F., Esq., Frimley. 
Burt, Mrs., Dorking. 



Burton, J., Esq., Balham. 

(D) Butterworth, J. W., Esq., F.S.A., 

Clapham. 
"Canterbury, His Grace the Archbishop of, 

D.D., Lambeth Palace. 
Capron, John Rand, Esq., Guildford. 
*Cardale, J. Bate, Esq., Albury. 
Carless, Thomas, Esq., Richmond. 
Carpenter, Alfred, Esq., Croydon. 
Carter, R., Esq., Epsom. 
Cazenove, Rev. A., M.A., Reigate. 
Chaldecott, Arthur, Esq., Dorking. 
*Chambers, Arthur, Esq., Clapham. 
*Chambers, Edward, Esq., Clapham. 
Chandler, Rev. John, M.A., Witley. 
Chapman, Edwin, Esq., Wai worth. 
Chapman, Frederick, Esq., Banstead. 
Chapman, T. H., Esq., Upper Homerton. 
Chapman, William, Esq., Richmond. 
Chatfield, Charles, Esq., Croydon. 
Chester, Fred. James, Esq., London. 
Chester, Colonel J. L., Bermondsey. 
Clark, Dr., Dorking. 
Clarke, Thomas M., Esq., Richmond. 
Cleghorn, John, Esq., Islington. 
Clutton, John, Esq., Westminster. 
Glutton, Robert, Esq., Reigate. 
*Cock, Edward, Esq., Kingston. 
Cockburn, John, Esq., Richmond. 
*Cocks, Reginald T., Esq., Westminster. 
*Cocks, T. Somers, Esq., London. 
*Collambell, Charles, Esq., Lambeth. 
Combe, Captain B. Harvey, F.S. A., Battle. 
Congreve,|Rev. John/looting Graveney. 
Cooper, Robert, Esq. , London. 
Cooper, W. Durrant, Esq., F.S. A., London. 
*Cottenham, the Right Hon. the Earl of, 

Godstone. 

Coupland, A. N., Esq., Kensington. 
Cox, Herbert, Esq., Reigate. 
Cree, Thomas, Esq., Brixton. 
Cressingham, J., Esq., Carshalton. 
Crisp, R., Esq., Richmond. 
Crowdy, Rev. Anthony, Titsey. 
Crowley, Alfred, Esq., Croydon. 
Cubitt, George, Esq., M.P., Dorking. 
Cure, Mrs. Capel, Weybridge. 
*Curling, George, Esq. , Croydon. 
*Curzon, Hon. Sydney Roper, East Sheen. 
Cuthell, Andrew, Esq., London. 
Dalby, Dr., Kennington. 
*Daniel - Tyssen, J. R., Esq., F.S.A., 

Brighton. 

*Daniel-Tyssen, Amherst, Esq., Brighton. 
Danvers, Juland, Esq., Caterham. 
Davies, Thomas White, Esq., Barnes. 
Dcbenham, Edwin, Esq., Reigate. 



XXX 



LIST OP MEMBERS. 



De Cerjat, Rev. H. S., West Horsley. 
*Devas, Thomas, Esq., Wimbledon. 
Dingwell, Charles, Esq., Caterham. 
*Dobie, Alexander, Esq., London. 
*Dobson, Charles, Esq., Betchworth. 
Dodd, Henry, Esq., Hoxton. 
Doggett, E. (Jr., Esq., Bristol. 
Down, James Dundas, Esq., Dorking. 
Drew, George Henry, Esq., Bermondsey. 
Drew, Beriah, Esq., Streatham. 
Drummond, John, Esq., F.S.A., Croydon. 
Dunn, William, Esq., Peckham. 
Eedes, Robert, Esq., London. 
Elt, Charles Henry, Esq., Islington. 
Elyard, Samuel Herbert, Esq., Charlton. 
(D)*Evelyn, W. J., Esq., F.S.A., Dorking. 
Evelyn, Rev. Edmund, Dorking. 
*Farquhar, Sir Walter Rockliffe, Bart., 

Bookham. 

Farquhar, James, Esq. , Reigate. 
Faulconer, R. S., Esq., Wai worth. 
Felton, William, Esq., Nutfield. 
Ferrey, Benj., Esq., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., 

Bayswater. 
Featherston, John, jun., Esq., F.S.A., 

Birmingham. 

Few, Robert, Esq., Esher. 
Figgins, James, jun., Esq., London. 
Foster, Birket, Esq., Witley. 
Foster, John, Esq., Witley. 
Francis, George, Esq. , Abbot's Langley. 
French, G. R., Esq., London. 
*Freshfield, Edwin, Esq., F.S. A., Reigate. 
Frodsham, John Mill, Esq., Streatham. 
*Fuller, Francis, Esq., Westminster. 
Gammon, E. B., Esq., Lambeth. 
Gardner, J. E., Esq., St. John's Wood Park. 
Gascoyne, Somers, Esq., Richmond. 
George, Edward, Esq., Chaldon. 
Giberne, George, Esq., Epsom. 
Giles, T. F., Esq., Richmond. 
Gill, Thomas, Esq., Guildford. 
*Glyn, The Hon. Pascal, Epsom. 
Goldsmith, William, Esq., Streatham. 
Gooch, Rev. J., Reigate. 
Gordon, W. Macauley, Esq., Cambridge. 
Gosling, J. H., Esq., Richmond. 
Gould, Frederick, Esq., F.L.S., Kingston- 

upon-Thames. 
(D) * Gower, Granvillo Lcveson-, Esq.. 

F.S.A., Titsey. 

Gower, The Hon. Edward, M.P., London. 
Gower, Arthur Leveson-, Esq., London. 
Gray, Thomas, Esq., London. 
*Grissell, Thomas, Esq., F.S.A., M.R.S.L., 

Mickleham. 
Guildhall Library. 

*Gurney, Henry Edmund, Esq., Gatton. 
Hackett. Miss, Hackney. 
*Halkett, Rev. D. S., Little Bookham. 
Hammick, James, Esq., Sutton. 
Hammond, Charles, Esq., London. 
Hanbury, Philip Capel, Esq., Redhill. 
*Hanson, Samuel, Esq., Kilburn. 
Hare, Thos., Esq., Kingston-upon-Thames. 
Harrison, James P., Esq., M.A., Ewhurst. 
Hart, Charles, Esq., London. 
Hart, Thomas, Esq., Reigate. 



(D)Hart, W. H., Esq., F.S.A., Rosherville. 
Harwood, John, Esq., Mitcham. 

Harwood,W. R., Esq., Mitcham. 

Hawkes, George, Esq., Sutton. 

*Hawkins, Rohde, Esq. , Dorking. 

Hayton, John Daniel, Esq., Brixton. 

Haywood, Daniel, Esq., Clapham. 

Haywood, Samuel, Esq., Hampstead. 

(D)Heales, Major, F.S. A., Streatham. 

Heaton, William, Esq., Reigate. 

Helme, Thomas, Esq., Little Bookham 

*Hesketh, Robert, Esq., F.R.I.B.A., lied 
hill. 

Hewitt, Allen, Esq., London. 

Hills, Edward H., Esq., Richmond. 

Hingeston, Charles Hilton, Esq., London. 

*Hiscocks, A. J., Esq., Wands worth. 

Hiscoke, J. G., Esq., Richmond. 

Hoare, Rev. G., Godstone. 

Hodgson, Rev. J. G., M.A., Croydon. 

Hodson, Francis, Esq., London. 

Hooper, Edmund, Esq., Albury. 

Hooper, J. Kinnersley, Esq., Tooting. 

*Hope, Mrs., Dorking. 

Hopgood, James, Esq., Clapbam. 

*Hopkyns, D. D., Esq., Guildford. 

Home, Edgar, Esq., London. 

Home, Edward, Esq. .Reigate. 

*Hotham, Rev. H., M.A., Cambridge. 

Howard, Joseph Jackson, Esq., I.L.D., 
F.S.A., Blackheath. 

Howell, Charles, Esq., F.R.S., Fulham. 

Howick, George, Esq. , Wandsworth. 

Hudson, G. F., Esq., Epsom. 

Hudson, Robert, Esq., F.R.S., Clapham. 

Hull, Mrs., Godalming. 

Hulme, E. C., Esq., F.U.C.S., Guildford. 

Humbert, Rev. Lewis M., Chiddingfold. 

Hylton, The Right Hon. Lord, Merstham. 

Ibbs, R. G., Esq., Leatherhead. 

Ingle, William, Esq., Guildford. 

Jackson, William Gray, Esq., Southwark. 

James, Major Edward, R.E., Guildford. 

Jarvis, Henry, Esq., Newington. 

Jennings, John R., Esq., Reigate. 

Mohnson, Cuthbert W., Esq., F.R.S., 
Croydon. 

Johnson, Saffery W., Esq., Wimbledon. 

Mollands, W., Esq., Linfield. 

Jones, Charles Jenkin, Esq., Clapham. 

Jones, John, Esq., Richmond. 

Jones, Rev. Edward Rhys, Limpsfield. 

Jupp, E. B., Esq., F.S.A., Blackheatb. 

Kennedy, Rev. Lancelot S., Newdigate. 

t*Kent, Robert, Esq., M.A., Stan well. 

Kershaw, W. W., Esq., M.D., Kingston- 
upon-Thames. 

King, F. J., Esq., Reigate. 

Knight, J. H., Esq., Farnham. 

Lainson, Henry, Esq., Reigate. 

Lambert, Miss, London. 

Lambert, George, jun., Esq., London. 

Lambert, Henry, Esq., Blechingley, 

Lambert, Thomas, Esq., London. 

Lance, J. H., Esq., Dorking. 

Lashmar, Charles, Esq., M.D., F.G.S., 
Croydon. 

Lawrence, Lady Trevor, London. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



*Leaf, William, Esq., Streatham. 
Lees, John, Esq., Reigate. 
Legg, George. Esq., Lee. 
*Lennard, Colonel, Beckenham. 
Locke, John, Esq., M.P., Q.C., London. 
(D)*Lovelace, The Right Hon. the Earl of, 

Ripley. 

Lower, Edward W., Esq., Guildford. 
*Lytton Bulwer, Captain W. E. G., East 

Dereham. 
Macleay, George, Esq., C.M.G., Blech- 

ingley. 

*Mackensie, John H., Esq., Wallington. 
McRae, Robert, Esq. , Wandsworth. 
Malthus, Rev. Henry, M.A., Effingham. 
Martin, Richard, Esq., Caterham. 
Master, C. Hoskins, Esq., Godstone. 
Masters, J. R., Esq., London. 
Matheson, Archibald, Esq., Guildford. 
Matthews, Rer. Richard B., M.A., F.S.A., 

Shalford. 

Maudslay, Henry, Esq., C.E., London. 
May bank, John Thomas, Esq., Dorking, 
Mayo, Rev. Theodore, Dorking. 
M'Niven, Charles, Esq., Godstone. 
Mellersh, Frederick, Esq., Reigate. 
*Metoalfe, Walter C., Esq., Epping. 
Midleton, The Right Hon. Viscount, 

Peper-Harow. 

Milbourne, Thomas, Esq., London. 
Millar, John, Esq., Richmond, 
Mills, Alexander, Esq., Godalming. 
Mitchener, E. A., Esq., London. 
Molyneux, J. More, Esq., F.S. A., Guildford. 
Molyneux, Mrs., Guildford. 
Monson, The Right Hon. Lord, Lincoln. 
Moon, Rev. E. Graham, Leatherhead. 
Moon, John, Esq., London. 
Morland, Thomas, Esq., Reigate. 
Morrison, George, Esq., Reigate. 
Moysey, R.,Esq., Leytonstone. 
Murray, Mrs. R. H., Byfleet. 
Nash, William, Esq., Arundel. 
Neal, George, Esq., Merton. 
Nealds, John, Esq., Guildford. 
Nelson, C. C., Esq., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., 

London. 

Nevill, Ralph, Esq., London. 
Nevill, William, Esq., Godalming. 
*Newman, James Henry, Esq., Dorking. 
Newton, A. G., Esq., Richmond. 
Nichols, J. Gough, Esq., F.S.A., Dorking. 
Norris, James, Esq., Blechingley. 
Norris, Mrs., Blechingley. 
Northey, Edward R., Esq., Epsom. 
Noyce, George, Esq., Richmond. 
O'Flaherty, Rev. Theobald R., M.A., 

Dorking. 

Onslow, Mrs., Clandon. 
*0nslow, Guildford, Esq., M.P., Alresford. 
*0uvry, Frederic, Esq., London. 
Paine, Cornelius, jun., Esq., Kingston- 

upon-Thames. 

Paine, Mrs. J. M., Farnham. 
*Paine, William Dunkley, Esq., Reigate. 
Parbury, George, Esq., Caterham. 
Parker, C. G., Esq., Stoke Newington. 
Parkinson, J. H., Esq., East Sheen. 



Pearson, John L., Esq., London. 

*Peek, Henry W., Esq., M. P., Wimbledon. 

Peele, John Brandram, Esq., Chertsey. 

Penfold, J. W., Esq., Westminster. 

Pentelow, William, Esq., Richmond. 

*Percy, The Right Hon, Earl, Guildford. 

Phillips, Henry, Esq., Walworth, 

Phillips, Henry L., Esq., London, 

Phillips, Benjamin, Esq., London, 

Pilcher, H. D,, Esq., London. 

Pilcher, John Dendy, Esq., London. 

Pilcher, J. G., Esq., Egham. 

Pinckard, Mrs., Chiddingfold. 

Pitts, Miss, Mortlake, 

*Plowes, J. H., Esq., London. 

*Pocock, W. W., Esq., F.R.I.B.A., Guild- 
ford. 

*Pott, Arthur, Esq., Southwark. 

*Pott, William, Esq., Southwark. 

t Powell, Arthur, Esq., Dorking. 

Powell, Rev, J. W. S., M.A., Abinger, 

Price, Lieut. -Col. W., Richmond. 

Price, Charles W., Esq., Putney. 

Pugh, Thomas Bless, Esq., Clapham. 

Quare, Horace, Esq., Forest Hill. 

Randolph, Rev. J. H., Sanderstead. 

Ranyard, S., Esq.,Kingston-upon-Tbames. 

Raphael, Edward, Esq., Thames Ditton. 

Rate, L. M., Esq., Dorking. 

*Rawlinson, Major-General Sir Henry C., 
K.C.B, F.R.S., London. 

Richardson, Henry S., Esq., Greenwich. 

Richardson, James, Esq., Tunbridge Wells. 

Rickards, E. J., Esq., F.S.A., Leather- 
head. 

*Rigge, Henry, Esq., Coombe Hill. 

Roberts, T. A., Esq., Clapham Park. 

Roberts, Richard, Esq., Clapbam Park. 

Robertson, James, Esq., London. 

Robinson, Thomas L., Esq., Croydon. 

Rogers, Rev. E. H., Thames Ditton. 

Rogers, Edward Dresser, Esq., Southwark. 

Roots, Augustus, Esq., Westminster. 

fRoots, George, Esq., B. A., F.S. A., West- 
minster. 

*Rose, Col. Sir W. A., Upper Tooting. 

Roupell, Rev. Francis P., Walton. 

Russel, Mrs. E. S. , Streatham. 

Russell, George, Esq., Betchworth. 

Rymer, Samuel Lee, Esq., Croydon. 

Sachs, John, Esq., London. 

Sadler, James, Esq., Chiddingfold. 

St. Leonards, The Right Hon. the Lord, 
P.O., LL.D., Thames Ditton. 

Salwey, Colonel Henry, Egham. 

*+Sass, Henry William, Esq. 

Sandell, Richard, Esq., Brixton. 

Saunders, William Wilson, Esq., F.R.S., 
V.P.L.S., Reigate. 

Saunders, George, Esq., Reigate. 

Scott, Benjamin, Esq., F.R.S., Weybridge. 

Scott, Sir George Gilbert, F.S.A., God- 
stone. 

Searight, H., Esq., London. 

Sebastian, Louis, Esq., Merstham. 

Sharp, James, Esq., Southwark. 

Sharp, Samuel, Esq., Chilworth. 

Shelley, Miss F., Redhill. 



xxxn 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Shepherd, Rev. Henry, Chaldon. 

Sim, John C., Esq., Norbiton. 

Sim, Malcoiu O., Esq., Norbiton. 

Sim, Frederick W., Esq., Norbiton. 

Simmouds, John W., Esq., Lambeth. 

Simmonds, John, Esq., Godalming. 

Simpson, Henry, Esq., Southwark. 

Sims, Joseph, Esq., Richmond. 

Smallh'eld, J. S., Esq., London. 

Smee, Alfred, Esq., F.R.S., London. 

Since, Lieut. -General Walter, Reigate. 

Smith, Charles Joseph, Esq., Reigato. 

Smith, Arthur Talbot, Esq. East Sheen. 

*Smith, Henry Porter, Esq., F.S.A., 
East Sheen. 

Smith, George, Esq., Wands worth. 

*Smith, John, Esq., Dorking. 

Smith, John Henry, Esq., Croydon. 

Smith, Mrs. Newman, London. 

Smith, T. S., Esq., Wandsworth. 

Snell, Rev. W. Middleton, M.A., Cam- 
bridge. 

Snooke, William, Esq., Southwark. 

*Sprange, Augustus, Esq., Reigate. 

Squire, Miss, London. 

Steele, Joseph, Esq., Croydon. 

Stevens, J. J., Esq., Southwark. 

Stilwell, James J. R., Esq., Haslemere. 

Stock, Henry, Esq., Southwark. 

Sturmy, Herbert, Esq., Southwark. 

*Sumner, The Right Rev. Bishop, F.R.S., 
Farnham Castle. 

Sumner, Morton, Esq., Puttenham. 

Style, Arthur, Esq., Thames Ditton. 

Tayler, W., Esq., F.S.A., F.S.S., Barnes. 

Tebb, R., Esq., Brixton. 

*Teulon, Seymour, Esq., Limpsfield. 

Thorn, Alexander, Esq., Wandsworth. 

Tilleard, John, jun., Esq., Upper Tooting. 

Tringham, Rev. William, Busbridge. 

Tritton, Henry, Esq., Beddington. 

*Tritton, Rev. Robert, Morden. 



Turner, John, Esq., Wimbledon. 
*Twomlow, Lieut. -General, Guildford. 
Utterton, The Ven. Archdeacon, M.A., 

Farnham. 

Utting, R. B., Esq., Camden Town. 
Vanderpant, Francis, Esq.,Kingston-upon- 

Thames. 

*Van Voorst, John, Esq., F.L.S., London. 
Walmesloy, W. E., Esq., London. 
*Ward, Edward, Esq., Pentonville. 
*Ware, George, Esq., Southwark. 
Watney, John, Esq., Reigate. 
Watney, Frank, Esq., London. 
Webb, George Dillon, Esq., Putney. 
*Webb, Henry, Esq., Redhill. 
Webb, Mrs., Lee. 
Webb, Miss, Lee. 

Wellborne, Charles, Esq., Camborwell. 
Westall, Edward, Esq., Kensington. 
White, George, Esq., Epsom. 
*White, George F., Esq., Wandsworth. 
White, James, Esq., Dorking. 
Whitley. William, Esq., Guildford. 
Widnell, J. G., Esq., East Sheen. 
Wiffen, Miss Isaline, Reigate. 
*Wigan, James, Esq., Mortlake. 
Wigsell, Colonel, Croydon. 
Williams, Richard, Esq., Camber well 
* Wilson, Rev. F., East Horsley. 
*Wilson, Cornelius Lea, Esq., Beckenham. 
Wilson, James H., Esq., Brompton. 
*Wilson, S., Esq., Beckenham. 
Winchester, The Right Rev. Bishop of, 

D.D., F.S.A., London. 
Wix, William, Esq., Reigate. 
Wodsworth, Rev. G., Warlingham. 
Woodthorpe, Edmund, Esq., F.R.I.B.A., 

London. 

fWright, G. R., Esq., F.S. A., Barnes. 
Wyman, C. W. H., Esq., Highgate. 
*Yates, Richd., Esq., F.S. A., Beddington. 



flmte. 



Bigsby, Robert, Esq., LL.D., Peckham. 
Bloxam, Matthew Holbeohe, Esq., F.S. A., 

Rugby. 
Bruce, Rev. J. Collingwood, LL.D., F.S. A., 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Franks, Augustus W., Esq., M.A., F.S. A., 

British Museum. 
Graves, Rev. James, B.A., Stoneyford, 

Kilkenny, Ireland. 
Griffith, W.Pettit.Esq., F.S. A.,F.R.I.B. A., 

London. 

Hardy, Sir Thomas DuS'us, London. 
Hugo, Rev. Thomas, M. A., Hackney. 
James, Maj.-Gen. Sir H., Southampton. 



M'Dougall, Lieut. -Colonel, Sandhurst. 
Piggott, Francis T., Esq., Cambridge. 
Planche", J. R., Esq., College of Arms. 
Scharf, G., jun., Esq., F.S.A., London. 
Scrope, G. Poulctt, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S., 

Wilts. 
Smith, Charles Roach, Esq., F.S. A., 

Strood, Kent. 

Thorns, W. J., Esq., F.S.A., London. 
Timbs, John, Esq., F.S. A., Gray's-inn. 
Waller, John Green, Esq., London. 
Wright, Thomas, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 

Brompton. 



XXX111 



n 



1. THE SUSSEX ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

2. THE ESSES ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

3. THE SUFFOLK INSTITUTE OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

4. THE BUCKINGHAMSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

5. THE ROYAL HISTORICAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF IRELAND. 

6. THE LIVERPOOL ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

7. THE KENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

8. THE SOMERSETSHIRE AHCH.SOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

9. THE LONDON AND MIDDLESEX ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

10. THE EXETER DIOCESAN ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

11. THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 

12. THE HISTORIC SOCIETY OF LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE. 

13. THE ROYAL ARCHITECTURAL MUSEUM. 

14. THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

15. THE ROYAL INSTITUTION OF CORNWALL. 

16. THE MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, AMERICA. 

17. THE OXFORD ARCHITECTURAL AND HISTORIC SOCIETY. 

18. THE POWYS LAND CLUB. 

19. SOCIEDAD AHQUESLOGICA VALINCIANA. 



to 

The 23rd and 24th Sessions of the Liverpool Architectural Society. 

Presented ly the Society. 
Parts 1 to 12, Vol. II. 4th Series of the Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological 

Association of Ireland. Presented ly the Society. 

The East Anglian to April, 1871. Presented ly S. Tymms, Esq. 

The 2nd and 3rd Parts of Lapidarium Septentrionale. 

Presented ly the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The 12tb, 13th, and 14th numbers of the Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall. 

Presented ly tfie Institution. 

Parts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, Vol. V., of the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of 
London, Presented ly the Society. 

Vol. III. of the Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. 

Presented ly tiie Society, 

Annual Reports of the Minnesota Historical Society ; 
Geology and Minerals of Minnesota. By Colonel Charles Whittlesoy ; 
Statistics of Minnesota ; 

Parts 1, 2, and 3 of Vol. II. and Part 1 of Vol. III. of the Collections of the Minnesota 
Historical Society. Presented ly the Society. 

Ancient Rock Tombs at Malta ; 

Engraving and Description of an Anglo-Saxon Fibula discovered at Norton, Wiltshire. 

Presented ly Dr. Thumham. 

The 16th and 17th vols. of the Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and 
Natural History Society. Presented ly the Society. 

Reports of the Smithsonian Institution for 1667, 1868, and 1871. 



XXXIV ADDITIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 

The 17th vol. of tho Transactions of the Sussex Archaeological Society. 

Presented ly Major Ueales. 

Eleven Supplements of the Catalogue of the Library of the Corporation of London. 

Presented by t/ie Corporation. 

The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th vols. of the Powys-land Club. 

Presented ly the Montgomeryshire Historical Society. 

A Lecture delivered at the London Institution on Arms and Armour. By John Green 
Waller, Esq. Presented by the Author. 

The History of St. Osyth's Priory. By John Watney, Esq., F.S.A. 

Pretented by the Author. 

The 8th vol. of the Proceedings of the Kent Archisological Society. 

Presented ly the Society. 

The 3rd Part of 2nd vol. 2nd Series of the Transactions of the Exeter Diocesan Society. 

Presented ly Hie Society. 

Tho 5th No. of the 4th vol. of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology. 

Presented ly the Society. 

Parts 1, 2, 3, Vol. V., of the Essex Archaeological Society. Presented ly t/te Society. 

Parts 1, 2, 3, Vol. IV., of the Records of Buckinghamshire. 

Presented by the Bucks Archaeological Scciely. 

Vols. XXIII. and XXIV. of the Proceedings of the Sussex Archaeological Society. 

Presented ly the Society. 

Miscellaneous Pamphlets from 1839 to 1859, and Vols. I. and II. of a New Series of the 
Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. Presented by the Society. 

The 1st No. of the Liverpool Numismatic Society. Presented by the Society. 



taft 

Numerous Flint Implements, principally found near Reigate by the late John Shelley, 
Esq. Presented ly Miss F. Shelley. 

A Facsimile on canvas of the Wall-painting discovered in Chaldon Church. 

Drawn ly and presented ly John Green Waller, Esq. 

Numerous Rubbings of Monumental Brasses in the Abbeys and Churches in the Southern 
Counties of England. Presented by Francis Taylor Piggott, Esq. 

A Couteau de Chasse, found in digging the foundation of a warehouse in Morgan's Lane, 
near the river Thames. Presented ly J. G. Pilcher, Esq. 



EULES. 



I. The Society shall be called THE SUBRET ARCH^soLooiCAL SOCIETY. 

II. The objects of this Society shall be 

1. To collect and publish the best information on the Ancient Arts and Monuments 
of the County ; including Primeval Antiquities ; Architecture, Civil, Ecclesias- 
tical, and Military ; Sculpture ; Paintings on Walls, Wood, or Glass ; Civil 
History and Antiquities, comprising Manors, Manorial Rights, Privileges and 
Customs ; Heraldry and Genealogy ; Costume, Numismatics ; Ecclesiastical 
History and Endowments, and Charitable Foundations, Records, &c. ; and all 
other matters usually comprised under the head of Archaeology. 

2. To procure careful observation and preservation of antiquities discovered in the 
progress of works, such as Railways, Foundations of Buildings, &c. 

3. To encourage individuals or public bodies in making researches and excavations, 
and afford them suggestions and co-operation. 

4. To oppose and prevent, as far as may be practicable, any injuries with which 
Monuments of every description may from time to time be threatened ; and to 
collect accurate drawings, plans, and descriptions thereof. 

III. The subjects of all communications received, together with the names of the 
authors, shall be registered in a book kept for the purpose by the Honorary Secretary, 
which book shall be open to the inspection of the Members of the Society. 

IV. The Society shall consist of Members and Honorary Members. 

V. Each Member shall pay an Annual Subscription of Ten shillings, to be due on 
the 1st of January in each year, in advance, and an Entrance Fee of Ten Shillings, or 
5. 10*. in lieu thereof, as a composition for life. 

VI. All payments to be made to the Treasurer, to the account of the Society, at such 
Banking-house in the Metropolis as the Society may direct ; and no cheque shall be 
drawn except by order of the Council ; and every cheque shall be signed by two 
Members thereof and the Honorary Secretary. 

VII. The Subscriptions of Members shall entitle them to one copy of all publications 
issued by direction of the Council during their Membership ; and no publication shall be 
issued to Members whose Subscriptions are in arrear. 

VIII. Every person desirous of being admitted a Member must be proposed agreeably 
to the form annexed to these Rules ;* and this form must be subscribed by him and by 
a Member of the Society, and addressed to the Honorary Secretary, to be submitted to 
the Council, who will ballot for his election, one black ball in five to exclude. 

IX. Ladies desirous of becoming Members will be expected to conform to Rule VIII., 
so far as relates to their nomination, but will be admitted without ballot. 

X. Persons eminent for their works or scientific acquirements shall be eligible to be 
associated to the Society as Honorary Members, and be elected at a General Meeting ; 
and no person shall be nominated to this class without the sanction of the Council. 

XI. The Lord- Lieutenant of the County, all Members of the House of Peers residing 
in, or who are Landed Proprietors in the County ; also all Members of the House of 
Commons representing the County or its Boroughs ; the High Sheriff of the County for 
the time being, and such other persons as the Council may determine, shall be invited 
to become Vice-Presidents, if Members of the Society. 

* Copies of the form may be had from the Honorary Secretary. 

VOL. vi. e 



XXXVI EULES. 

XII. The affairs of the Society shall be conducted by a Council of Management, to 
consist of a President, Vice- Presidents, a Treasurer, an Honorary Secretary, and Twenty- 
four Members, eight of whom shall go out annually, by rotation, but be eligible for 
re-election. Three Members of the Council (exclusive of the Honorary Secretary) shall 
form a quorum. 

XIII. An Annual General Meeting shall be held in the month of June or July, at such 
times and places as the Council shall appoint, to receive and consider the Report of 
the Council on the state of the Society, and to elect the Officers for the ensuing twelve 
months. 

XIV. There shall be also such other General Meetings in each year for the reading of 
papers, and other business, to be held at such times and places as the Council may 
direct. 

XV. The Council may at any time call a Special General Meeting, and they shall at 
all times be bound to do so on the written requisition of Ten Members, specifying the 
nature of the business to be transacted. Notice of the time and place of such Meeting 
shall be sent to the Members at least fourteen days previously, mentioning the subject 
to be brought forward ; and no other subject shall be discussed at such Meeting. 

XVI. The Council shall meet for the transaction of business connected with the manage- 
ment of the Society once at least in every month ; that is to say, on the second Thursday 
in each month, or on such other days as the Council shall from time to time direct.* 

XVII. At every Meeting of the Society, or of the Council, the resolutions of the majority 
present shall be binding, and at such meetings the Chairman shall have a casting vote, 
independently of his vote as a Member of the Society or of the Council, as the case 
may be. 

XVIII. The Council shall be empowered to appoint Local Secretaries in such places in 
the County as may appear desirable. 

XIX. Honorary Members and Local Secretaries shall have all the privileges of Members, 
except that of voting. 

XX. The whole effects and property of the Society shall be under the control and 
management of the Council, who shall be at liberty to purchase books, casts, or other 
articles, or to exchange or dispose of duplicates thereof. 

XXI. The Council shall have the power of publishing such papers and engravings 
as may be deemed worthy of being printed, together with a Report of the Proceedings 
of the Society, to be issued in the form of an Annual Volume. 

XXII. The composition of each Life Member, less his entrance-fee, and so much of 
the surplus of the income as the Council may direct (after providing for the current 
expenses, printing the Annual Volume, &c.), shall be invested in Government Securities, f 
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ON A VICINAL ROAD WHICH FORMERLY RAN 
THROUGH THE PARISH OF EWHURST, 
SURREY, FROM THE STANE STREET AT 
ROWHOOK, TOWARDS THE OLD TOWN OR 
STATION AT FARLEY, NEAR ALBURY. 

BY JAMES PAEK HARRISON, ESQ., M.A. 



BESIDES the four great Roman roads through Eng- 
land, and their more important branches, it is well 
known that there were numerous vicinal ways, the 
memory and traces of which are fast disappearing, save 
where they have fortunately been laid down in maps, or 
described in county histories. 

I was informed some years ago by the rector of Ewhurst 
that one of these minor roads, according to local tradition, 
crossed a detached portion of the glebe near Garbridge on 
the Ewhurst and Cranleigh road. It was supposed to have 
been connected with the Stane Street ; but no steps were 
taken at the time to track its course, or ascertain its precise 
termini ; there was little beyond what appeared an uncer- 
tain tradition to lead one to suppose that the few stones 
which were seen in the sides of a ditch, for a length of 
about twenty-six feet, might not have once formed part 
of a disused farm-road ; there were no flints or pebbles, 
or anything else that could be considered distinctive ; 
and no Roman remains were known to exist either in the 
parish or for some miles around it. 

On making inquiry, however, in 1869, I learnt that 
flints and flint-like stones were frequently turned up by 

VOL. VI. B 



2 ON A VICINAL ROAD 

the plough and found in drains on adjoining farms ; and 
the further important fact was elicited, that an old labourer 
named Jenner, since dead, some years ago picked up part 
of an ancient way, on which oak-trees of a considerable 
size were growing, in Somersbury Wood, about a mile 
and a half from Garbridge (in the direction of the Stane 
Street), for the purpose of obtaining materials for the 
repair of the highway leading from Ewhurst to Rudg- 
wick ; and I was told by an old farmer, who had spent 
all his life in Ewhurst, that the road referred to passed 4 
near the site of some ancient glass-works in a clearing 
in the above-named wood, which, it appeared, is styled l( 
Glass-house Field in the " Tithe Apportion Book." l 

On drawing a line on the Ordnance Map of Surrey 
connecting this field in Somersbury with the glebe at 
Garbridge, it was found to point in the one direction to 
Rowhook, where I have since heard that there is a tra- 
dition that several Roman roads diverged, and in the 
other to Farley, the well-known Roman settlement near 
Albury. (See Plate I.) 

In the cultivated fields along the intermediate line of 
country, so far as search has been made, bleached flints,^ 
coast pebbles (the latter mostly at the Sussex end), and 
hard materials from the hills, are still to be found on the 
surface of the ground, though more or less scattered, and 
that sometimes over entire fields, owing to their having 
been harrowed about, and thrown by boys to a distance 
at rabbits or other animals. Were it not, then, for the 
circumstance that foundation materials are met with in 
drains and watercourses, it would have been difficult to fix 
on any but an approximate line for the road : as it is, its 
course from field to field in the parish of Ewhurst has, I 
believe, been accurately laid down by simply connecting 
the places, seldom far apart, where flints and hill-stones 
have been discovered beneath the surface by straight lines. 

Starting from Rowhook, the road in its course towards 
Somersbury and Garbridge passed near Leminge Lane 

1 It is supposed that the works were in operation in Queen Elizabeth's 
reign. There is no allusion to them in the county histories, and there 
are no remains of buildings, &c. 



PLATE. I 




^r&mle 



'roe*. 
Blackheath 



8SS % 

,, A . Heath 

Mayor-He,^ Hurtiood 

7"i_'i- rr ^ \\ 

fo- x 



W^A^/tTf/i, 

HM 

''WT'^v w , II 

z^^^ \ ^9wr 



Hjtscombe 

, 7,n- 




J?My 
Cafe. 



aid 



Lag**z<\ a 

\(( a 

^"9SSjjR0ttiL&i 



ydruy 
Vood, 

-nucks of PART OF g us SEX. 

'pmsjiJi R^ouJ-s> - 

Roads "- 




R ": MAN R, AE T H P : "GH E WHURS T. 
/Sca/le | inch to a mile. 



I 




PART OF COX LAND FARM. ' EV, 
Scale 25.3 inches- to a .mile. 



THEOUGH THE TAEISH OP EWHUEST, SUEEEY. 3 

and Berry Field, in the parish of Rudgwick, and then, 
skirting Ridge Farm, crossed the Furson Road into Hoi- 
beck Farm in Abinger, and thence into Hill-house Farm 
in Ewhurst. Here, after going in succession through 
several arable fields, and a wood called Barnfield Coppice, 
it passed near the east end of Heron Pond l into Mags 
Wood, where numerous ancient flints, in all respects like 
those which are found in ploughed fields through which 
the Stane Street formerly ran, are met with a foot or 
more beneath the surface of the ground. 

The road next traversed part of Somersbury "Wood, 
and crossed the Ewhurst Road into Coxland Woods, 
at a spot where there is a marked break, or return, in 
the hedge about sixty feet wide. (See a, Plate II.) The 
width of the stone road appears to have been here about 
twenty feet. It then passed out of the coppice by what 
appears to have been a causeway leading to a winding 
brook, over which it is to be supposed there was a 
bridge, though there are now no remains of one : it was 
probably of wood. (See b, Plate II.) 

This brook runs through an old meadow, formerly, 
perhaps, subject to inundations, but now five or six feet 
above the level of the stream, which has hollowed out a 
deep channel for itself in the clay. 

The road on the further or north side of the brook was 
also raised slightly above the general level of the meadow, 
and on removing portions of the turf appeared to have 
been less disturbed than at any other spot, though no 
pebbles or flints were noticed, only hard stones. 2 

The road next crossed two arable fields in which some 
wide rewes 3 have very recently been grubbed, and its 
exact course is in consequence clearly indicated by the 
abundance of hard stones which have been turned up 
where the road formerly passed, few or none being found 
on either side of its course. (See c, Plate II.) Owing 

1 Now drained, or rather reduced very much in size. 

2 Flints would have been required for the neighbouring glass-works. 
They were doubtless collected for this purpose when the road became 
disused. See note, p. 7. 

3 A local term = shaws. 

B2 



4 ON A VICINAL ROAD 

to the practice of collecting stones from the fields for sale 
to the highways, a year or two hence these traces, now 
so .distinct, will be altogether lost. 

The road then passed through Flatwood Field, where 
there are many flints, and across a small coppice and an 
arable field into Broom Plat, belonging to Old-house 
Farm. It then traversed an enclosure, now planted as a 
coppice, where, two years ago, several surface drains were 
formed, which cut the old road nearly at right angles. 

It next crossed a grass field into Old-house Woods, 
about two hundred yards to the right of the homestead, 
and thence through a corner of Buildings Farm into a 
pasture called Hatch Field, in Slythurst (or Sheds) Farm, 
where again flints and hard stones have been found in 
recently-formed drains, some afc a depth of sixteen or 
eighteen inches below the ground. No flints were found 
in the drains in any part of this field except along the 
line of road. 

From Slythurst it entered the Glebe near Garbridge, 
on the Cranleigh and Ewhurst highway, where attention 
was first called to it. 

Proceeding northwards, the road passed to the right of 
Canvil Wood, first through a meadow called Five Acres, 
and then across two rough pastures belonging to Coney- 
hurst Farm, where remains are found in drains and in 
open ditches. It then went along the west side of an 
arable field into some woods belonging to Wickhurst 
Farm, in Cranleigh, a short distance to the right of 
" Lemons " Barn. 

Owing to the thickness of the underwood and the un- 
evenness of the ground in these woods, it is difficult to 
decide whether the road ran through them in a straight 
line or not. 

On emerging, however, traces are again found in drains, 
more especially in an arable field called Eleven Acres ; and 
from this point it is said by the tenant of the farm to have 
gone across Horseblock Hollow towards Withersole Hill. 1 

Tradition here carries the road round the hill to the 

1 A field not far from hence, in Bowles Farm, is styled " Pontams " 
in the Cranleigh Tithe Apportion Book. A brook runs through it. 



THKOUGH THE PAEISH OF EWHUEST, SUEEET. 5 

left, through Jelly's Hollow, on to tlie waste, 1 over which, 
supposing it to have gone in a line with its previous 
course up to Withersole, it must have passed through 
some arable fields to the right of Pitt House, and then 
by the left of Mayor House to Farley Heath. 

From this ancient site there would doubtless have been 
communication with Guildford and the Ermine Street by 
Bradstone Brook and Lemmon 2 Bridge ; and with Farn- 
ham perhaps, by Somersbury (Chinthurst) Hill, Stone 
Bridge, and Hillborough ; and with Dorking by Stone 
Hill and Milton Street. 3 The general direction of the 
highway from Dorking as far as Wotton Hatch points to 
Farley Heath, and is considerably out of the course taken 
by the Dorking and Guildford Railway. 

On reviewing the names which are found on or near 
the line of road from Rowhook, e.g. Rudgewick, Berry 
Field, Leminge Lane, Ridge Farm, Holbeck, Somersbury 
(twice), Garbridge, Canvil Wood, Lemon's Barn, Wick- 
hurst, Bradstone Brook, Lemmon Bridge, all of them 
words not unfrequently met with along ancient roads, it 
was at once noticed that Leminge Lane, Lemon's Barn, 
and Lemmon Bridge, occurred at three distinct points. 
The word, however spelt, appears to be identical with 
the Latinized form " Lemanus," the name of the port 
formerly existing at the terminus of the branch road from 
Canterbury to the coast, near Lymn, in Kent. It can 
scarcely be doubted that the root is "lem," or "lim," 
a limb or branch ; a derivation which appears the more 
probable from the fact that there is a village called 
" Leming-Branch " at the present time on the road lead- 
ing from the great Roman Way to the north to Alnwick, 
where we have, apparently, both the Saxon word and its 
Latin or Norman equivalent. 

However this may be, Mr. Hodgson, in his " History 

1 My informant was an intelligent labourer named Lassam. He 
remembers to have heard old people speak of smugglers running their 
kegs along the " Roman Road " through Jelly's Hollow. 

2 So called in an old map of Surrey by Bowen, cir. 1720. It is now 
Shalford Bridge. 

3 There is also a " Broadstone " Farm at about an equal distance from 
Stane Street and the Leming Road. 



6 ON A VICINAL EOAD 

of Northumberland," expresses an opinion that "learn" 
and " leming " are words very commonly applied to 
ancient roads, or places situated near them ; e.g. Leming 
Lane in Yorkshire, and the High Leme and Low Leme 
districts adjoining the Roman road across the river Rede 
at Risingham. 1 

Manning and Bray also, in their " History of Surrey," 3 
agree with Dr. Gale and Mr. Denne in thinking it pro- 
bable that " the public way, or Leman," which terminated 
at Stangate, on the Thames, gave its name to the parish 
of Lambeth ; and Dr. Gale, in his " Commentary on the 
Itinerary of Antoninus," 3 considers that Lemington in 
Gloucestershire was so called from its situation on a foss 
way ; and also that the Lacus Lemanus derived its name 
from the Roman road that passed along its shores. 

The same learned antiquary says, with Mr. Hodgson, 
that the old word Leman and its modern adaptation 
Leming anciently signified a public way, and that the 
Roman road from Aldborough to Richmond (in Yorkshire) 
was in his time called Leming Lane. 

The frequent use of this and other names, not them- 
selves of Latin origin, in connection with acknowledged 
Roman ways, is illustrated by the terms " Watling," 
" Ermine," and " Ickenild," and the word " Stane" 
instead of the names by which those roads were called 
by the Romans. Looking, therefore, at the direction in 
which this ancient way through Ewhurst appears to have 
run, and the remarkable straightness of its course, even 
if there were a track through the forest in the direction 
of Farley previous to the occupation of this part of the 
country by the Romans, which is not improbable, still it 
cannot, I think, be doubted that the road was used and 
stoned by them. The distance whence flints and sea- 
pebbles must have been conveyed is in accordance with 
the known Roman practice of procuring wherever they 

1 Part II. vol. i. p. 164. 

2 Yol. iii. p. 461. In a note they say that the portion of the Roman 
Road between Borough-bridge and Catterick-bridge, in Yorkshire, was 
called Leming Lane. 

3 Com. Ant., p. 85. 



THEOUGH THE PAETSH OP EWHUEST, SUEEEY. 7 

could be obtained the hardest materials for metalling 
roads. Thus on the Stane Street near Ockley there is, 
or was until lately, a tradition that baskets of flints were 
handed along files of soldiers from the Sussex Downs ; 
and this, joined with the use of sea-pebbles, 1 would seem 
to show that the Stane Street was commenced and worked 
from the Sussex end, chalk-flints being procurable at 
Dorking, only seven miles distant, which, if the road had 
been open, would doubtless have been used. 

The only objection which has suggested itself as to the 
Ewhurst Road being a Roman way arises from the absence 
of any deep stone substratum along the line. But pre- 
cisely the same absence of any thickness of stone foun- 
dation is observable wherever the Stane Street crosses 
cultivated fields, e.g. between Ockley (Bucking Hill) and 
Dorking; and it was owing to the experience gained, 
when resident some years ago in that neighbourhood, 
that I am able to speak confidently as to the very similar 
character of the traces of the road through Ewhursfc. 
Considering, too, the necessity there would have been 
for removing the foundations when the ground was taken 
into cultivation, and the use that would be made of 
the materials for making or repairing other roads in a 
clay district, 2 joined with the fact that some stones are 
found all along the line up to the Sand-hills, I think there 
can be little doubt that it was a stoned road, though not so 
wide or deep a one as the neighbouring Stane Street. At 
the same time, if the Roman Way from Canterbury to the 
coast, and the " Leming Ways " in other parts of the 
country, could be shown to have been unstoned roads, 
certainly the derivation of the word from " lam," or 
sticky, would have been perfectly applicable to clay roads 
in the Weald of Sussex and Surrey. 

1 See Mr. Bray's account of the Stane Street in the Archceologia. 

2 Also when the glass-works were in operation in Somersbury Wood, 
which there is reason to conclude they were some time after the old 
road became disused, the distance from which flints and pebbles for 
the manufacture of glass would have had to be conveyed to Ewhurst, 
probably led to the flints being collected from the neighbouring fields 
for the use of these works. 



8 ON A VICINAL EOAD 

Perhaps twenty feet of stone in the middle or at the 
side of a wide green way would combine both meanings 
of the word ; the soft track, as in many parts of the 
country, and abroad at the present time, serving as a 
summer road when the seasons permitted of its being 
used. 

From "Withersole Hill to Farley, as I mentioned at the 
Cranleigh meeting, Captain E. James, R.B., who com- 
mands the Ordnance district in which the line of country 
between the Sand-hills and Farley is situated, has not 
been able to satisfy himself that there was any distinct 
road, the surface of the heath itself being stone and 
gravel. After surveying the ground, however, he came 
to the conclusion that there was a practicable route very 
much in the line in which the road is supposed to have 
run. The following extracts, from a letter which Captain 
James has written to me since the anniversary meeting, 
appear of so much interest and importance, coming from 
the pen of an engineer officer well qualified to speak 
on the subject, that I cannot do better than quote the 
principal portion of it : 

" The Weald of Sussex was the , Andreds Weald, and (with the 
adjoining clay district in Surrey) was probably never thoroughly 
settled by the Romans. It remained forest, and was occupied by the 
aboriginal inhabitants. The Romans, having advanced by the Thames, 
occupied with their outposts the line of old British works, facing 
southwards, on the sandstone hills, overlooking the Weald. These 
works were probably Crooksbury, Hillbury (Puttenham), Hascombe, 
Chinthurst 1 (Wonersh), Holmbury, Leith Hill, and Anstiebury. On 
the south of the Weald the Romans had established colonies at Chi- 
chester, Arundel, Shoreham, &c., and occupied the northern end of the 
South Downs with their outposts. 

" The next step was to connect Chichester with London, which was 
done by the Stane Street. This was a paved road, and formed a prin- 
cipal line of traffic, strong guards being posted along it, and settlements 
made on it. 

"At first the Stane Street formed the only means of communication 
from the neighbourhood of Chichester and Arundel, round by Dorking 
to Guildford and Farnham ; and I suppose that it continued to the 
last to be the line by which merchandise and heavy traffic was sent. 



1 Called also Somersbury. 



THROUGH THE PARISH OP EWHURST, SURREY. 

" But it was necessary to have shorter lines for the purpose of patrols 
and the passage of light troops. Such minor roads need not have been 
paved, except where marshy places had to be crossed. The road from 
Rowhook to Farley Heath was one of these minor ways. From Row- 
hook to the slope of the Sand-hills above Ewhurst is only six miles, a 
distance which could be patrolled easily, and which could be passed by 
bodies of troops in daylight. On arriving at the summit of the hill 
near Horse Block Hollow (near Withersole), a body marching would 
be safe from attack ; and by using St. Martha's Hill, which is in direct 
continuation of the road from Rowhook, and the most prominent point 
in the front distance (whether or not it had a station on the summit) as 
a landmark, a body of men would pass throiigh the centre of the settle- 
ment at Farley. 

" Similar roads might, perhaps, be looked for between Cocking and 
Haslemere, and also between Billingshurst and Hascomb. By traversing 
the Weald with such tracks, the aboriginal inhabitants living in the 
forest would the more easily be kept in subjection." 

Assuming the road through Ewhurst to have been 
merely a forest road, Captain James adds that there 
would be little probability of finding Roman relics along 
it. The Roman bricks in the walls of Rudgwick Church 
he thinks would be accounted for by that village being 
no great distance from the Stane Street. It is worth 
notice, however, that the usual " Coldliarbour" or Cara- 
vansera, 1 is found about two and a half miles from the 
vicinal road, in the direction ofVachery, near Cranleigh. 

Before concluding, I have pleasure in mentioning that 
Captain Le Poer Trench 2 has satisfied himself of the 
former existence of this old road ; and the sappers under 
his direction have in more than one place discovered 
remains which had escaped my notice. Captain Trench 
has supplied me with a tracing from the new Ordnance 
Map with the track of the road laid down upon it ; and 
it is from this tracing that the map of a portion of 
Coxland Farm (Plate II.) has been taken. It serves 
well as an illustration of the way in which the course 
of old roads may be recovered ; and I have selected it 
for that purpose with considerable satisfaction, because 

1 I borrow this explanation of the name from Mr. John Gough 
Nichols, a cold-kitchen. 

3 Captain the Hon. W. Le Poer Trench, R.E,, in command of the 
Dorking Ordnance Survey District. 



10 ON A VICINAL ROAD THROUGH EWHURST, SURREY. 

there had been some doubt on my mind whether the road 
went perfectly straight through Coxland. Very recently, 
however, some time after the sappers had left the neigh- 
bourhood, the "rewes," as stated previously, were grubbed 
in Lower Barn Field and Three- Acre Field, and the direc- 
tion of the road up to the brook clearly revealed. Another 
reason for choosing this portion of the route for illus- 
tration is the fact that it is the only part that has yet 
been met with where much of the foundation of the road 
remains entire. The scattered stones shown on the map, 
and the shaded part of the road, and the lettering, have 
been added by me to the Ordnance tracing. 



ALFOLD .CHURCH. 

BY RALPH NEVILL, ESQ., A.K.I.B.A. 



IN tracing the history of this Church I shall endeavour 
as much as possible to avoid repeating such details 
as may be readily found by the curious in these matters 
in the county history of Manning and Bray and other 
similar works, and shall merely quote therefrom as much 
as is necessary to render this sketch intelligible to the 
general reader. 

The living is a rectory, in the deanery of Stoke, valued 
in the taxation of Pope Nicholas, A.D. 1291, at 7. 6s. 8d., 
not a bad living for those times ; in the King's books, 
temp. Henry VIII., at 6. 11s. 3d. 

In 1845 the Church was restored under the present 
rector and patron, the Rev. Richard Sparkes, B.A., Mr. 
Woodyer being the architect. At that time there was 
no N. aisle ; there was a gallery at the west end and also 
a long cumbrous one along the S. side of nave, that 
quite blocked up the Church. 

It appears that when the old theatre at Guildford 
was altered, I believe about 1818, some enterprising 
carpenter of these parts bought up a quantity of the 
woodwork of the seats, and with the permission of the 
rector erected this gallery and sold the pews to residents 
in the neighbourhood. 

A reference to the plan will show the extent of new 
and old work. Of course every church that has been so 
thoroughly restored, though it doubtless gains in use- 
fulness, necessarily loses much of its archaeological 
interest, as one can never be sure what may not have 
disappeared. In this case, however, I think there is 



12 ALFOLD CHURCH. 

nothing but praise due to the careful manner in which 
old work has been respected ; it is unhappily not often 
that the archa3ologist can say as much. 

There is no mention in Domesday Book of any church 
here ; probably at that time the land was chiefly forest, 
the word Aldfold signifying " old fold," or enclosure for 
cattle. Dunsfold, Chiddingfold, Burningfold, Slinfold, 
Dimsfold are similar names in the neighbourhood. The 
name is spelt in various ways, a very common one being, 
as still commonly pronounced, " Awfold" ; it is so spelt on 
the cover of a Bible used in the church, and dated 1818. 

The earliest mention of a church is in the time of 
Henry III., in a charter of William Longespe, Earl of 
Salisbury, by which he gives the advowson of Aldfold, 
with the manor of Shalford, to John Fitz-Geffrey, who 
died in 1256. At the same time the same Fitz-Geffrey, 
who was son of Geffrey Fitz-Piers Earl of Essex by a 
second marriage, became possessed of the manor of 
Shiere. He and his family played a prominent part in 
the history of the next fifty years, his grandson being 
co-leader with Simon de Montfort of the army of the 
Barons at the battle of Lewes. Their history and that 
of the succeeding patrons of Aldfold, all men of con- 
sequence, may be found in Manning and Bray, under the 
heading of the Manor of Shiere Yachery. It is curious 
to find such a small out-of-the-way place in this manner 
connected with many of the noblest families in England 
and most stirring events that have happened here. I 
feel, however, that as their history more properly belongs 
to that of the manors mentioned, I must resist the 
temptation to do more than allude to it. As there was 
a church here before the time of the Fitz- Geffreys, I 
should give the date of the oldest part, which is an 
early example of the Early English style, as about 1200. 
Of this date are the S. arcade, the font, and portions of 
the walls. 

The sketch of the interior shows the character of these 
simple early arches ; the abacus of the capital has, I should 
think, been pared down to its present form ; it probably 
had originally some sort of necking mould. 



S.NICHOLAS 
L.FOL.D 



.ARCADE: P^CHANCEU 




ALFOLD CJ1UKCH. 13 

The base of the respond at the W. end is different 
from those of the other columns, being moulded and 
having spurs at the angles. This work, all in chalk, is 
similar to the early work in Godalming and other 
churches in the neighbourhood. 

The font has been scraped and renovated, I think 
unfortunately, as it is not part of the fabric and has 
nothing but its antiquity to recommend it. 

From the Geffreys the estates and advowson passed 
to the Butlers, of whom James was created, in 1328, Earl 
of Ormond. He married a daughter of Humphrey de 
Bohun Earl of Hereford and Essex, High Constable of 
England, who had married a daughter of Edward I. ; the 
family had therefore royal blood in their veins. 

They were at this time residing chiefly on their Surrey 
estates. Lady Joan, grandmother of James, died at La 
Vacherie, her dower house, and Edmund, his father, 
had obtained grants for a fair at Shiere and other con- 
cessions. James, the second Earl of Ormond, presented 
to the living from about 1340 to 1380 ; he was living at 
Shiere in 1379, and left directions in his will that if he 
died in England he should be buried in Shiere Church : 
he died in Ireland in 1380. After this time the Butlers 
were chiefly occupied in Ireland, many members of the 
family having been successively viceroys. From the 
year 1304 the list of rectors is, with a few gaps, complete : 
it may be found in Manning and Bray. 

In 1461, the 1st of Edward IV., James Earl of Ormond 
was attainted and beheaded, and his estates given to John 
Lord Audley, whose son James, having put himself at the 
head of the Cornish insurgents, was defeated at the 
battle of Blackheath, and put to death in 1497. The 
estates then passed to the famous Sir Reginald Bray, in 
whose family the advowson continued down to 1629, after 
which it passed through the hands of various owners, the 
chief of whom were the Strudwicks and Eliots, until it 
came into the possession of the present patron. 

I should ascribe the part of the Church next in date 
to the Early English, to the time of the second earl, 
that is about 1360. Of this, the Decorated period, is the 



14 ALFOLD CHURCH. 

N. arcade. At the time the Church was restored, no 
suspicion was entertained of the existence of these arches, 
as they were walled up and plastered over. During the 
progress of restoration, a workman employed in removing 
the whitewash from the walls laid bare part of the stone 
of one of the arches ; the rector, who was exercising a 
commendable supervision, watching for any frescoes that 
might be uncovered, caused the investigations to be con- 
tinued and the arches as now existing were ultimately 
laid bare. The proportions and mouldings of the arcade 
are in a simple way extremely good ; the material is stone, 
and the work is similar to that in Rudgwick Church, in 
the adjoining county. 

The chancel arch, which I should date only a few years 
later, is of chalk ; I think it probable that the material 
of an arch of the earliest date was worked up anew, and 
that the jambs which are plain and square, are the iden- 
tical jambs of the earlier arch. 

The mouldings being in a soft material, are rather 
more elaborate than those worked in the hard rough 
stone of the arcade. 

Of this date were probably the doorways, porches, 
windows, and piscina, which have, however, all been 
restored. 

The piscina is, I am told, a fac-simile of the original 
one ; little trace of the windows, except the jambs, was 
left; the east window was entirely destroyed and the 
space filled up with a wooden one of the churchwarden 
order. 

The wooden bell-turret, with its supports coming down 
inside the Church, is an interesting feature : a similar 
arrangement is occasionally to be found in all counties 
where timber is more abundant than stone. In Essex 
especially a great variety is to be found. 

In this neighbourhood an example precisely similar in 
mouldings and construction, is to be seen at Thursley, 
though there the belfry stands in the middle bay of the 
nave, giving the church internally a cruciform appear- 
ance. At Thursley there is an arrangement of longi- 
tudinal struts from the ordinary tie-beams, as it were, 




COWKLLS ANASTATIC PRESS, IPSWICH 



INTERIOR OF AtFOLD CHURCH. 

To face page 15. 



ALFOLD CHURCH. 15 

forming buttresses to the belfry, that is not, partly 
perhaps owing to the different arrangement, found at 
Alfold. It is a development of a plan adopted at Elstead, 
the neighbouring pariah. The belfry at Elstead is ruder 
and earlier, the construction being different : there is 
one like it at Dunsfold. Now the other work at Duns- 
fold is quite similar to that at Rudgwick; I should 
therefore conclude that the order of construction of 
the group was as follows : Elstead, Dunsfold, Thursley 
or Rudgwick, and lastly Alfold. 

The nave-roof is of the same date. There is a similar 
truss in the roof over the old inn at Chiddingfold, though 
there the king-post has a cap and base : it was a common 
form at this date. 

Several of the seats and portions of the screen are of 
this period, probably about 1400. When the Church 
was restored, Mr. Woodyer found the beam of the old 
screen cut into lengths and used to support the boughs 
of the ancient yew in the churchyard. The new seats 
were made to pattern of the old, and the tiles now in the 
chancel were also made after the pattern of one found 
during the restoration. 

The old woodwork used as a reredos has no connection 
with the Church. 

The Perpendicular window in S. wall of chancel and 
the recess opposite are, I conclude from the history of 
the patrons, not more than fifty years later ; though it is 
almost impossible in such simple work to fix an exact 
date. 

This recess, the arch of which is of the shape called 
Tudor, extends through the wall, though the outside is 
now bricked up ; there must therefore have been at one 
time a N. chapel, probably destroyed at the same time 
as the N. aisle. I think it probable the opening covered 
the slab of a tomb : there is one of an earlier date with 
brasses in a similar position at Witley. From the sides 
being on both inside and out unevenly splayed, it 
evidently also served as a squint or hagioscope for the 
N. aisle. There are two marks on one of the stones, of 
which I have said more in an appendix to this paper. 



16 



ALFOLD CHURCH. 



I may mention here, that on removing the whitewash, 
traces were found of a painting of the Crucifixion over 
the E. window, and of flower-pots with lilies and roses 
on the N. side of nave; these were so rude and frag- 
mentary that it was deemed advisable to cover them up 
again. 

I trust, however, the time is not far distant when the 
walls of our churches may be again, as they invariably 
were in olden time, radiant with glorious colour, and not, 
as now, finished in a mean and sordid style, that we 
should not for one moment tolerate in our dwelling- 
houses. 

In the belfry are three bells, all by the Eldridge family; 
the oldest and largest has the inscription, " Brainus 
Eldridg me fecit, 1625"; the second, "B. E. 1631. 
Gloria deo in excelsis," the initials and usual motto of the 
same Brian Eldridge; and the third, " W. E. 1714," 
the initials standing for William Eldridge. 

In the inventory of church goods taken in the reign 
of Edward VI. and published in vol. iv. of this Society's 
Collections, is the following entry : 

ALLFOLDE PARICHE CHURCHE. 



Imprimis iij belles hanginge in 

the steple waing xiij c. 
Item the saunce bell. 
Item two small bells. 



Item ij ollde coope. 

Item ij albes of lockeram and ij 

surplussis. 
Item j aullter cloth. 



All wiche is commyttid to the custody of George Steademan, John 
Hammon, Thomas Irelond, Robbart Jackeman, the vj th of October 
in the vj th year of the reign of owre Sovereign Lord. 



Item sollde of the former invitorie 
j challice of sillver waing viij 
ounces. 

Item sertyne rynges of sillver 
sollde for vij 8 the which money 
was bestowid in bowes and 
arrowes to serve the kinge. 

Item ij small belles ij candill- 



stickes and the holly watter 

stocke sollde for ij s iiij d . 
Item iij ollde banner cloothis 

solid for iiij d and distributid to 

the poore. 
Item in waxx solid amountinge 

to i s ix d . 



There is a small silver chalice belonging to the Church ; 
it was found by the rector in a battered condition, and 
restored by him. The hall-marks show the date 1577. 



ALFOLD CHUECH. 17 

There are no very ancient monuments, the oldest being 
1670, to some of the Didelsfolds, a family of yeomen still 
holding a good deal of land in the neighbourhood. At the 
E. end of the churchyard is a much-worn slab of Sussex 
marble, which is said to cover the grave of the last of the 
glass-manufacturers. There was originally what many 
think to have been an illicit factory carried on in the 
heart of Sidney Wood, where many fragments of glass 
have been since found. Aubrey, in his History of Surrey, 
mentions the graves of the French glass-men here, and 
Evelyn says that his father brought some over after the 
massacres in France, and settled them on his estates in 
Sussex, where they remained for many generations. 

The parish registers are of no great age ; that of 
burials dates from 1658 ; of marriages, 1659 ; of bap- 
tisms, 1661. On the title-page are the following curious 
entries : 

27. 1710 I gave a certificate to be touched for the Evil in these 

words : Surrey SS. These are to certify to whom it may concern, that 
James (son of Henry) Napper bearer hereof is a legal inhabitant of our 
parish of Alfold in the county of Surrey aforesaid and is supposed to 
have the disease commonly called the [King's] Evil and hath desired 
this our certificate accordingly. 

HENRY STRUDWICK, Rector. 

The following is not signed. 

2. May \ ( I gave certificates to Jane Puttock, 

4 V 1687 -j Henry Manfield, Elizabeth Saker, 
19. July j ( to be touched for the Evil. 

It would seem from the constant succession of 

patients, either that the first of those certified for were 

really cured by the sacred influence emanating from 

King James II., or else that they so enjoyed their trip to 

London that others were tempted to try the same remedy. 

The disease called by this name was scrofula, and up to 

1719 the office for the ceremony of touching appears in 

>ur Liturgy, though the ceremony had, I believe, long 

>efore that time ceased to be a religious rite ; the kings 

>f the house of Brunswick have never attempted the 

ure. 

In the churchyard stands an old yew-tree, probably 
VOL. vi. c 



18 ALFOLD CHUBCH. 

of pre-liistoric antiquity : it measures I believe 22 feet 
round at four feet from the ground, and is larger than 
the fine one at Dunsfold, though inferior to the almost 
unique tree at Hambledon. Close outside the churchyard 
are still to be seen the village stocks, and much that is 
curious and old-fashioned still survives in this out-of-the- 
way corner of the county. 

The two manors of Markwick and Monkton Hook, 
formerly belonging to Waverley Abbey, were partly in 
this parish. 

The manor of Alfold Park, dating from 1244, included 
among its possessors such names as Basset, Clifford, 
Gaynsford, Sir John JSTevil, Sir Anthony Brown, &c. The 
house has been destroyed. The manor of Great Wild wood 
dates from 1391. 

There is an old house standing in the village, known 
as Alfold House, that is a fair specimen of the smaller 
country houses of the beginning of the 16th century, or 
even earlier. 

On a door in the upper story are the remains of some 
of the coloured decoration, of which traces also exist on 
the beams and other woodwork of the hall. It consists 
of a rude pattern of flowers and leaves, drawn with a 
broad black outline aiid filled in with colour. 

It is so far interesting as tending to confirm what was 
doubtless the case, that the passion for exhibiting the 
natural grain of the wood is of comparatively modern 
date, and that our ancestors never hesitated to cover 
their oak with paint, providing it was in art form and 
they could afford it. It must be remembered, however, 
that their oak had not then the rich mellow colour that 
time has since given it. 

Alfold was in the route of the smuggling trade that 
at one time was so extensively carried on in this part of 
the country. Many of the farmhouses are said to possess 
large hiding-places, where the smugglers stowed away 
their goods. It was usual for the farmers, about the 
time a visit was expected, to leave ample provisions for 
a party in these places, and in return they would find in 
the morning a keg or two of spirits. 



ALFOLD CHURCH. 19 

In conclusion I must express my thanks for their 
kindness and courtesy in rendering me assistance in the 
preparation of this paper, to the rector, the Rev. Richard 
Sparkes, B.A., and to Mr. Woodyer, who was good enough 
to lend me the drawings made for the restoration of the 
Church. The drawings I have made will I hope give a 
sufficient idea of the character of the Church. 

APPENDIX. 

On a stone in the Perpendicular arch in N. side of 
chancel at Alfold are two curious marks, which I have 
shown on the accompanying illustration. 

It is seldom that any old building, however humble 
it may be, fails to render, when carefully examined, some 
vestige of antiquity bearing upon the habits and customs 
of the times. 

In collecting and recording such examples, archaeolo- 
gical societies are doing especially useful service, by pro- 
viding the materials which may sooner render possible 
a work, much to be desired, that shall, in explaining 
them, make us better acquainted with the minutia3 and 
details not only of the religious rites and beliefs, but also 
of the domestic lives of our ancestors. With all such 
smaller details we are yet most imperfectly acquainted, 
and no true archaeologist will underrate their value. 

Unfortunately with every restoration or destruction 
such relics of the past become more scarce. While the 
actual architecture, often intrinsically worth nothing at 
all, is carefully retained at great inconvenience, other 
smaller mementoes, often of far more real importance, 
which might easily be saved, are contemptuously and 
ruthlessly destroyed, and what is worse, generally with- 
out any record of them being preserved. 

It is to be hoped that when the proposed Museum of 
this Society is established, many objects now daily 
becoming more rare may be saved for our permanent 
instruction. 

The signification and origin of the marks mentioned 
above have, as far I can learn, yet to be settled by 

c2 



20 ALFOLD CHUECH. 

antiquarians. I do not intend to set up any theory of 
my own, but simply here to record their form and 
existence. Whether they are masons' marks or have a 
religious meaning, there is, not yet sufficient evidence to 
prove. 

Shown in the plate are also a variety of similar marks 
from Godalming Church. These are on the shafts of the 
columns on either side of the chancel, from three feet in 
height downwards. The centre shaft of S. aisle is 
especially rich in them, the commonest form being the 
simple cross formed by joining four dots. 

I should think there were at least fifty such crosses on 
this one column alone ; they are scattered about without 
any regard to order and are of all sizes, chiefly small. 

All drawings but that at the bottom corner represent 
the relative positions of the marks on the stones. 
They are mostly cut with mathematical precision, and 
were certainly not done by any but a practised hand. 
One of them evidently represents the ichthys, or sacred 
fish. 

It is suggested that they may have been originally 
filled with coloured material, but I do not think it likely. 
Those at Godalming have been till recently covered with 
whitewash ; I can find no present trace of colour, and no 
one would have been likely to pick out the colour from 
such a number. 

I should mention that at the time Major Heales, F.S.A., 
examined the Church, prior to writing his paper upon it, 
the columns were still covered with whitewash, as indeed 
the parts in the vestry still are: these marks were there- 
fore not visible to him. 

The material in both cases is chalk : very probably 
similar marks may be found in other chalk churches of 
the neighbourhood. 



AL ro to 












GODALMINQ 

rouu 





CEANLEY. 

BY MAJOR HE ALES, F.S.A. 



name of this place is written Cranlegh in Pope 
X Nicholas IX.'s Taxation in 1291. * Subsequently 
it has been very variously spelt, but perhaps more com- 
monly Cranley, until at a very recent date the extension 
of education has had the effect of changing the ortho- 
graphy; for it was found that letters addressed (with 
the imperfect legibility consequent upon writing but little 
or writing a great deal) to Cranley were frequently sent 
first to Crawley, and those for Orawley found their way 
to the post-office at Cranley ; and to obviate these incon- 
veniences a custom has been introduced of spelling the 
name Cranleigh. 

It was suggested by Salmon 2 that the name may have 
been derived from a heronry here, where the breed of 
herons or cranes was encouraged for the sake of hawking 
them ; for as there was a great water at Baynards, in 
the next parish, here might have been the grove where 
their nests were. Those who know how, with Salmon 
and topographers of his period, the barest similitude of 
sound was sufficient to suggest a derivation, will be 
aware how little reliance could be placed upon it in this 
instance, even if he had stated the fact authoritatively ; 
as it is, he merely puts it as a conjecture. 

Cranley was not a separate parish at the time of the 
Conquest, and is therefore not mentioned in the Domes- 
day Survey. At that time it was included in the Manor 
of Shere, but it must have become a distinct parish as 
early as 1244 (28 Henry III.), when, on the Thursday 

1 Taxation under Pope Nicholas IX., Record Office edition, p. 208. 
3 Salmon's Antiquities of Surrey, p. 122. 



22 CRANLEY. 

after St. Valentine, the advowson was granted, together 
with the Manor of Shere, by Eoger de Clere to John 
Friz-Geoffrey. 1 

Next is the mention of Robert de Cumbe, who was 
instituted as rector on 31st July, 1283, or perhaps only 
appointed as custos at that date. 2 From that time there 
is a silence until the important Taxation of Pope 
Nicholas IX., in 1291, 3 where the living is entered as 
being of the value of 21. 6s. 8d. per annum, the tenths 
being 2. 2s. 8d. 

The first rector of whom we have clear and certain 
information was David Ponteyne, who died in 1447, and 
was succeeded by John Normycote, instituted 27th 
October, 1447, on the presentation of James, Earl of 
Ormond, but who only enjoyed the benefice a short time ; 
for the right of presentation had been under dispute, 
and being at length decided to rest with Sir Thomas 
Clifford, the former appointment was found to be void, 
and Sir Thomas's nominee, John Kyrkeby, was instituted 
on the 20th July, 1448. 4 

The name of John Kyrkeby is not an uncommon one. 
There was a priest of this name who was presented to 
the rectory of Pentlow, in Essex, on 17th March, 1441, 
but resigned in the following year ; 5 and on the 21st 
June, 1442, was admitted to the sinecure rectory of 
Little Baddow, in the same county. In the following 
year, 1443, he became Dean of Booking ; on the 4th 
February, 1448, was presented to the prebend of Mora 
(St. Paul's), which he resigned probably about the latter 
end of 1450. The Dean of Booking was collated to St. 
Pancras, Soper Lane, London, on 21st November, 1450, 
but he apparently died before 29th January, 1454. 6 
Newcourt believes that it was one person who held these 
preferments, and it will be observed that they were 

1 Bray ley's History of Surrey, vol. i. pp. 169, 174. 

2 Manning and Bray's History of Surrey, vol. i. p. 543. 

3 Pope Nicholas IX 's Taxation, p. 208. 

4 Manning and Bray's History of Surrey, vol. i. p. 544. 

5 New-court's Repertorium, voL ii. p. 467. 
8 Ibid., vol. i. p. 179. 




rowy.ij.s ANASTATIC PRRSS, IPSWICH 



CRANLEY CHURCH. 



To face pagf. 22. 



CEANLEY. 23 

mostly consecutive. Pluralities were enjoyable at that 
period ; and it is therefore possible that it may be the 
same person as the rector of Cranley, who was instituted 
in 1448 and resigned in 1453. 

There was also a John Kyrkeby presented to the 
rectory of West Thurrock, Essex, 15th December, 1468, 
who resigned in the latter part of the year 1470 ; l and 
one who was presented on the 2nd September, 1475, to 
the rectory of Bulvan, Essex, but died previously to 7th 
September, 1483. 2 

No evidence shows whether these were all the same 
person, or divers. 

From this date there is preserved a tolerably regular 
succession of rectors, with the exception of an hiatus 
from 1507 to 1572. It may be noted that James Preston, 
D.D., who was instituted on 5th November, 1485, on the 
presentation of the king, resigned in 1489, with a 
pension assigned to him out of the issues of the rectory ; 3 
perhaps furnishing a precedent for the arrangement esta- 
blished by an Act of Parliament of last session, whereby 
incumbents incapacitated by permanent mental or bodily 
infirmity are enabled to retire with a pension. 4 Very 
likely William Preston, vicar of Crondall, Hants, may 
have been a brother of his. William, by his will dated 
30th September, 1488, left to his brothers, Mr. James 
Preston and Robert Preston, each 3. 6s. 8d. ; and to 
James vi. silver spoons " et unam murram " (i.e. a 
maser), and half the residue of his property. James, 
who was appointed one of the executors, did not act as 
such when the will was proved on 25th June, 1490, per- 
haps on account of age or infirmity. 5 

In the King's books 6 (1535) the Jiving is valued at 
20. 18s. l^d., and the yearly tenths were 2. Is. 9f d. 

From the time of the institution of Martin Tynie, or 

1 Newcourt, vol. ii. p. 591. 

2 Ibid., vol. ii. p. 107. 

3 Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. 544. 

4 34 & 35 Viet, cap. 44 (1871). 

5 Prerogative Registry, 35 Milles. 

6 Liber Hegis, p. 956. 



24 CUANLEY. 

Tynle, to the rectory of Cranley, on 24th November, 
1507, there are none registered, until that of John 
Hurlock, on 7th July, 1572 j 1 but I am enabled to 
supply the name of one of the clergy who held the living 
during a part of the interval. It is that of Anthonie 
Corkin, who describes himself as parson of Cranley in 
his will dated the 3rd October, 1560 ; he died soon 
afterwards, as his will was proved on the 22nd January 
following. 2 By the will, after the then usual bequest of 
his soul to God and expression of hope of salvation, he 
directs his body to be buried in the high chancel of 
Cranley. Amongst other things, he leaves to Lady 
Beare four bushels of wheat ; small legacies to all his 
godchildren bearing his name ; his best velvet " capp " 
(? cope) to the parson of Ewhurst (name not mentioned) ; 
various small legacies chiefly in loads of wood and 
cheeses, probably received in payment of tithes. To his 
son William Corkin xiij u vj 8 viij d . " to be paid to the said 
William when he cometh to thage of xxj. yeres " ; in 
default of which, one half to go to the poor and " thother 
half to the highe waies lyeinge w th in Cranley pishe." The 
residue is left to Robert Peers, who is directed to pay 
testator's debts and see his " bodie honestlie brought in 
earthe." 

It will be observed that he makes no mention of his 
wife or the mother of his son ; and the position of the 
clergy with regard to marriage about that period is suffi- 
ciently curious to be worth noting. 

The Act of 31st Henry VIII. , cap. 14 3 (A.D. 1539), 
declares that by the law of God a priest may not marry ; 
and the next year the Act 32 Henry VIII., cap. 10, re- 
peals the then existing laws by which a priest and 
woman living together, whether married or unmarried, 
were punishable with death, as being too severe, and 
enacts that they should each in future be liable to fines, 
and the priest to loss of benefice ; and each, for a third 
offence, imprisonment for life. 

1 Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. 545. 

2 Archdeaconry of Surrey, 222 Tully. 

3 Statutes at Large. 



CRANLEY. 25 

By the Act 2nd Edward VI., cap. 21 (A.D. 1548), all 
laws, canons, and constitutions prohibiting such marriages 
were declared to be utterly void, and the penalties (not 
already pronounced) to be no longer continued : it was 
supplemented in 1552 by the Act 5 & 6 Edward VI., 
cap. 12. 

This Act was repealed by the Act of 1st Mary, sess. 2, 
cap. 2, and not revived until 1603, by the Act 1st 
James I., cap. 25. Thus it would appear that during the 
interval of fifty years between 1553 and 1603 the mar- 
riage of the clergy was illegal, and certainly that the 
constitutions under Archbishop Stephen Langton in 
1222 l were in force, whereby it was ordered that any- 
thing left by beneficed clergymen by their wills to their 
concubines should be forfeited and converted to the use 
of the Church. Perhaps this is the reason why Anthonie 
Corkin leaves no legacy to the mother of his son. 

A somewhat singular arrangement was effected be- 
tween John Holt and Thomas Anyan, rectors, early in 
the sixteenth century. The former was instituted in 
1614, to the rectory of Cranley, and to the neighbouring 
rectory of Ewhurst, which latter he held till his death. 
In 1616 he was made a prebendary of Westminster, and 
in 1617 he took his degree of Doctor in Divinity. He 
resigned Cranley on 13th April, 1629, evidently with the 
certainty of being elected president of his college (Corpus 
Christi, Oxford), which took place on the 1st May fol- 
lowing, upon the resignation of Dr. Thomas Anyan, who 
succeeded him as rector of Cranley ; it being apparently 
a kind of exchange. Dr. Holt died on the 10th January, 
1630. Le Neve doubts whether he was buried at West- 
minster or in his college chapel. 2 Dr. Anyan had 
formerly for some time been chaplain to Lord Keeper 
Egerton, and in 1612 became chaplain to the king, and 
prebendary of Gloucester ; in 1614 was made president 
of Corpus Christi College, and took his degree of D.D. 

1 Johnson's Canons. 

3 A' Wood's Athence Oxonienses (ed. 1691), vol. i. p. 827 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti Ecclesice Anglicance, pp. 367, 495 ; Manning and Bray, vol. i. 
p. 544. 



26 CRANLEY. 

But he seems to have held what would now be called 
" advanced views," for Anthony a Wood describes him 
as " a fosterer of sedition and unfit to govern a college " ; 
probably the place became too warm for him, and led 
him to make the exchange of his presidentship for the 
retired rectory of Cranley. In 1632 he was made pre- 
bendary of Canterbury, where he died, and was buried 
in January following. 1 

One James Holt succeeded him in the rectory of 
Cranley, and he was followed by Michael Pike, to whom 
we refer later in speaking of his monument. 

During all this period we find no mention of the 
fabric of the church : for its history we must refer to 
the building itself. 

The church is dedicated in honour of St. Nicholas : 
its orientation is 5 north of east. 

A fragment of a building dating about the end of the 
twelfth century appears in the arch of the north tran- 
sept ; and on the opposite side the arch 
to the south transept is late in the Early 
English period. Beyond these we see no 
trace of any work previous to the Deco- 
rated style of about the middle of the four- 
teenth century, to which the whole of the 
rest of the church (with unimportant sub- 
sequent insertions) appears to belong. It 
suffered severely from a general " restora- 
tion " in 1845, a period rather early in 
tne true revival of Gothic architecture; 2 
and some minor alterations have recently 
been effected. . 

Cranley is a very good example of a Surrey church, 
and finer in dimensions than nine-tenths of those in the 
county. As shown by the ground plan, it consists of 
a western tower, nave and aisles, with south porch, 
transepts, chancel, and north vestry. 

The tower is large and massive, but not lofty. In its 

1 Le Neve, pp. 19, 495 ; Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. 544, note a. 

2 Criticised in the Eccksiologist (1846), vol. v. p. 86. 




1 



ff 




CRANLEY. 



27 




Section of West Doorway. 



west front is a good plain doorway, and over that a three- 
light window, with good tracery in the Decorated style, 
perhaps partly old and partly 
renewed, and appears to, be a 
genuine restoration. At the north- 
west angle is an irregular mass 
of masonry containing a newel 
staircase terminating at the ring- 
ing-floor, though it once went 
higher. The roof is pyramidal, 
a form which, from its frequent oc- 
currence in the adjoining county, 
is sometimes called a Sussex head, 
but is marked by the peculiarity 
of a gablet near the apex. 1 The tower contains a 
capital peal of six bells. At the time when the Church 
Inventory was made (6 Edw. VI.') there were four bells, 
of which the largest weighed seventeen cwt. ; 2 but none 
of them have survived to the present day. The oldest 
now remaining bears the inscription : 

PRAYS GOD 1599. A. W. 

with a blank disc larger than a crown, and an indistinct 
stamp ; the S is reversed. The next two have the date 
1638 and this legend : 

GLORIA DEO IN EXCELSIS F. F. R. T. 1638, 

with a fleur-de-lis between each word ; the 

N is reversed. The two bells are precisely 

alike except in size, and that one of them 

only bears the founder's initials, " B. E." 

Bryan Eldridge, of whose skill we have 

heretofore seen and heard many examples dating from 

1618 to 1661, though it is suggested there may in that 

1 This is noticeable in the view. 

3 Surrey Church Inventories, edited by J. R. Daniel-Tyssen, Esq., 
F.S.A. ; Collections of this Society, vol. iv. p. 38. 




28 CEANLET. 

period have been two successive bell-founders of the 
same name. 1 

The year of the Restoration marks the addition of a 
new bell which bears this inscription, having between 
each word, a rose : 2 

BRYANTS ELDRIDGE ME FECIT 1660. 

Next a donor records his gift : 

JAMES WHITEHEAD GAVE THIS BELL, 1709. 
W.E. FECIT, 

the initials being probably those of William Eldridge, 

the descendant of the long line of eminent bell-founders. 

And the last bears the name of a firm equally eminent 

at the present day, and of a fame more widely spread : 

G. MEARS & CO. FOUNDERS. LONDON. 1862. 

Passing from the tower through a lofty recessed arch, 
void of mouldings except a hood, and springing from 
semi-octagonal responds, we enter the nave. On either 
hand are two large arches, with circular pillars, and 
responds with octagonal caps quite spoilt, and square 
bases. The arches are recessed and chamfered, but the 
walls have been treated with a very thick coat of plaster 
terminating just short of the arches in a nebuly pattern 
having a fantastic effect. The nave roof appears modern 
with the exception of the tie-beams. The aisles contain 
no ancient features deserving remark. 

The easternmost pier on each side is somewhat massive 
and has in its inner face a niche with ogee-shaped head, 
flanked by pinnacles : doubt is thus raised whether the 
junction of nave and chancel was at this point, though 
there is a chancel arch at a point further east, being 
in fact at the eastern respond of the transept arches : 
these piers stand on rather a higher level than those to 
the west. 

1 Church Bells of Swsex, by Amherst Daniel-Tyssen, Esq., p. 32. 
3 Vide tailpiece to present article. 



CranUg 



VIEW OF SEDILIA. 




PART OF 
OLD 8Cl\EEfS 




CEANLEY. 



29 



The north transept was called the Vachery chapel, 
being the property of the family who possessed a 
mansion of that name lying to the south of the church 
and village of Oranley ; there is now only a farm-house 
near the foot of a large sheet of water. The south 
transept was called the Knoll chapel, 1 belonging to a 
house situated in a south-westerly direction from the 
church ; these transepts were formerly little more than 
ends, as it were, of the aisles, projecting only slightly ; a 
both of them have been lengthened, and now have 
compass roofs. A 
very good parclose 
formerly between the 
chancel and south 
transept has been re- 
moved further back, 
but remains unin- 
jured ; the parclose 
of the north transept 
was cut up and used 
in the manufacture 
of the present pul- 
pit. Formerly, the Section of Beam. 

window in the Knoll 

chapel contained some ancient stained glass, apparently 
the remains of a Jesse-tree, which was perfect in 1798 ; 
Manning and Bray state 3 in their work, published between 
1808 and 1814, that only some scraps remained, of which 
they mention in the centre a figure sitting, the head 
gone, and in the left hand a rose ; in the upper part the 
Crucifixion ; and, apparently in Lombardic letters (which 
Cracklow probably means when he terms them Saxon 
characters 4 ), the names of Josaphat, Ashur, Salomon, 
Ezechial, and Joathan. In a foot-note it is stated that 
a gallery had been lately made for schoolboys, without 




1 Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. 540. 

2 A plan is given in Cracklow's Surrey Churches, published in 1823. 

3 Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. 540. 
Cracklow, Churches of Surrey. 



30 



CEANLEY. 



any protection to the window, so that it would soon be 
destroyed. This prophecy was fulfilled. Brayley, whose 
book was published in 1841, 1 says that scarcely a vestige 
of the glass then remained. But some painted glass 
was removed by Lord Onslow to "West Clandon church. 2 
Probably it was here that there existed until a recent 
date, but unhappily exist no longer, some good examples 
of Decorated glazing. 3 

In the Vachery chapel, there remained in Manning's 
time effigies in stained glass of our Lord and the Blessed 
Virgin seated, and two angels censing. 4 

In the east wall is a quadrangular recess like an 
aumbry, which possibly was a piscina, but more probably 
a hagioscope. 

The chancel arch is recessed and chamfered, and the 
inner order rests on a semi-octagonal shaft, the capital 
of which (as indeed is general throughout the church) 
has been absolutely ruined by recutting, and that by an 
ignorant workman. There is no appearance of a rood- 
staircase. 

The chancel is spacious, though rather short for its 
width. On the south side are three sedilia on a level, 

trefoiled in the head and of 
very good Decorated work, 
though its mouldings have suf- 
fered, and the caps of the 
shafts (which latter are new, 
of Purbeck marble) have been 
barbarously treated. Manning 
speaks of twa lockers in the 
south wall, and holy- water basin 
projecting ; and over the Com- 
munion-table two others, simi- 
lar, but without basin (but these 
have a modern appearance). On the north side of the 




Head of Sedilia. 



1 Brayley, vol. i. p. 175. 

2 Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. 536. 

3 Glossary of Architecture, first edition (published in 1845), vol. i. 
p. 186. 

4 Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. 540. 



CRANLEY. 31 

chancel is the priest's doorway with a Decorated hood, 
but altered to a slightly Tudor form. The piscina is very 
broad and has a modern look : near it is a square aumbry. 
The windows are modern ; that at the east, of five lights 
with net tracery, was made in 1845, in substitution for 
one much smaller, and beneath it an arcading runs 
across the east wall. Manning says l that there were 
some remains of old glass in his time in the east window, 
of the Lamb, and two Katherine wheels, said to have 
been in connexion with the family of Harding of Knoll : 
there are none there now. 

In the notes to Brayley, 2 written subsequently to the 
"restoration" in 1845, it is stated that frescoes were 
discovered over the chancel arch and over the nave 
arcade ; these no longer exist. It appears also that there 
were then, and previously, 3 galleries at the west end 
of the nave and at each side (of that end, apparently), 
but these encumbrances have now happily disappeared. 

An organ-chamber has been built adjoining the north 
transept and side of chancel, and a polygonal vestry on 
the same side ; and the porch was rebuilt. 

Brayley 4 speaks of a plain old lectern which had been 
removed to the belfry, evidently supplanted by what 
The Ecdesiologist stigmatizes as a " poor eagle desk" : 
the old lectern has now disappeared altogether, as 
experience in such matters would anticipate. 

The present pulpit, as previously mentioned, is made 
up from materials obtained by a destruction of the north 
chantry parclose. 

The font stands adjoining the west side of the first 
pillar on the north nave arcade : it is octagonal and 
plain ; resting on a not large central and eight slender 
surrounding shafts, now devoid of caps, and a thin cable 
running round them for a base. 

Under orders issued at two different dates in the reign 
of King Edward VI., inventories of the goods of the 

1 Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. 540. 

2 Brayley, vol. i. p. 175. 

3 Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. 540 ; and Cracklow. 

4 Brayley, vol. i. p. 175. 



32 CEAKLEY. 

churches throughout the kingdom were made ; the later 
of those relating to Cranley has been preserved, and, 
ably edited by J. R. Daniel- Tyssen, Esq., F.S.A. (a 
member of this Society), has already been printed in our 
Collections. 1 It is therefore only necessary here to state 
its effect briefly, and refer the reader to the literal copy 
of the document itself. 

There were at the date of the return (the 16th of May, 
1552), a silver chalice, weighing 6 oz, ; a pyx, weighing 
2 oz. ; 4 bells, the largest weighing 17 cwt. ; 3 old copes, 
and 2 torches. There had been sold since the previous 
inventory, a cross of silver and gilt, weighing 14 lb., and 
a chalice of silver and gilt, weighing 10 ounces, which 
together had realized 23. 13s. 4d. : 3 vestments sold 
for 17s. ; a pair of brass censers, and a holy- water 
stock, fetching respectively 3d. and 5d. ; and a quantity 
of wax sold for 5s. 9d. 

In modern stained glass of a generally superior 
character, the church is rich ; and perhaps, for the sake 
of placing on record the present state of the church, 
it may be pardonable to occupy a small space in its 
description. 

The glass of the west window, in the tower, is a 
memorial to the late Hon. Mrs. Sapte, placed by her 
relations and friends in 1862. It contains representa- 
tions of our Lord in Glory (technically termed " a 
Majesty"), and illustrations of the Beatitudes in eight 
medallions. 

1. Poor in spirit. St. Mary Magdalene anointing the Saviour's 

feet. 

2. The meek. Moses in the Tabernacle. 

3. They that mourn. The Lord speaking to St. Mary Magdalene 

at the sepulchre. 

4. Hunger and thirst after righteousness. St. Mary Magdalene 

sitting at the Lord's feet. 

5. Merciful. The raising of Dorcas. 



1 Collections of this Society, vol. iv. p. 38. 

i 



C.EANLEY. 33 

6. Pure in heart. The presentation in the Temple. 

7. Peacemaker. St. Barnabas presenting St. Paul to the Apostles. 

8. Persecuted for righteousness' sake. The three children in the 

furnace. 

Above are angels with the scroll bearing, " Rejoice and 
be exceeding glad, for great is your reward in Heaven." 
In the north aisle is a window to the memory of 
John Ellery, who died in 1835, and Sarah his wife in 
1824 ; with figures of St. Luke and St. John. The east 
window of the same aisle commemorates Elizabeth, wife 
of Jacob Ellery, of Ridinghurst, who died in 1837, and 
their son, Augustus Evershed, who died in 1849 : in the 
one light are the Blessed Virgin and Infant Christ with 
orb and cross ; and in the other, both figures standing, 
the Holy Child somewhat older and carrying a cross. 

The west window of the south aisle is in memory of 
Elizabeth, widow of Samuel Healey ; she died in 1867 : 
in the centre the Resurrection ; and in the side lights the 
Blessed Virgin and Apostles in adoration. 

The great east window in the chancel contains a series 

of illustrations of the Healing of the Flesh, and their 

correlatives in the Healing of the Spirit, centring round 

the Crucifixion the next act of the Atonement ; and 

below is the figure of St. Nicholas, the patron of 

:he church, in accordance with the requirement of 

Uanon Law. 1 On the north side of the chancel is a 

vindow placed by the parish as a memorial of the Hon. 

Mrs. Sapte, who died on 31st May, 1862. Each light is 

n three compartments : in the one is St. Elizabeth of 

lungary, .carrying a basket, saluted by a pilgrim, and 

eeding the hungry with loaves from the basket ; in the 

ther light, in three scenes, she is ministering to a sick 

lan, carrying a bag of alms, and clothing the naked. 

On the opposite side of the chancel is a window to 
le memory of Edward Bradshaw, R.N., of Knowle, who 
ied in 1857 : it contains representations of St. Peter 

1 Constitutions of Archbishop Winchelsey, A.D. 1236 (Gibson's Codex. 
224). 

VOL. VI. D 



34 CBANLET. 

walking on the waves ; the miraculous draught of fishes ; 
the stilling of the sea ; and the calling of SS. Peter and 
Andrew. There is also another memorial to the Rev. S. 
M. Lowry.Guthrie, rector, by whose exertions the resto- 
ration was effected, and who died in 1848 : it contains 
figures of SS. Peter and Andrew. 

Cranley Church is singularly devoid of monuments, 
and the most important that it formerly possessed (and 
to which we shall presently advert) almost entirely dis- 
appeared in the " restoration " of 1845. Barbarians exist 
who prefer the substitution of a neat pavement of Minton's 
tiles to a varied floor of monumental slabs, and never 
give a thought to the robbery committed on the dead by 
the destruction of their memorials. 

The earliest monument here is a coffin-lid with a 
cross within a circle, and long stem, raised in relief; it 
probably dates early in the fourteenth century, and now 
lies broken in the churchyard to the south-east of the 
church : possibly it is the gravestone of the builder of 
the present church. 

Brayley mentions l a slab in the church-floor with this 
legend in Lombardic letters : 

Walter Knoll gyst ycy, Dieu de s'alme eit merci. 

Manning and Bray 2 also speak of it as being incised 
in black letter, in a marble slab in the body of the 
church. It no longer exists. 

An inscription on a brass plate formerly existing in 
the chancel, but lost before the publication of Manning 
and Bray's work, 3 commemorated William Sydeney, Esq., 
who died on the 8th October, 1449. 

Next is the brass of a priest, a demi-figure in eucha- 
ristic vestments ; the inscription is gone ; but, judging 
of the date from the style of engraving, it probably re- 
presents Richard Caryngton, who became rector of the 

1 Brayley, vol. i. p. 170. 

2 Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. 541. 
8 Ibid. 




MONUMENTAL BRASS. 
PROBABLY REPRESENTING RICHARD CARYNGTON, RECTOR, 

WHO DIED C. 1507, 
CRANLEY, SURREY. 



CEANLEY. 35 

parish, on the King's presentation, on the 10th October, 
1489, and probably died in 1507, as his successor was 
instituted on the 24th November in that year. Scrolls 
proceeding from his mouth, with the words, 1 

esto mihi peccatori : 
sana anima mea quia peccavi tibi. 

The style of execution is of about the average of that 
date, when engraving for monumental purposes was 
already in decadence. It lies on the chancel floor, on 
the south side, within the rails. 

We now come to the monument before alluded to. 
As described by Manning and Bray, it was 2 (for un- 
happily we must use the past tense) a low altar-tomb 
of marble on the north side of the chancel, on which 
were the effigies of a man and woman, and a child 
between them, all kneeling ; with a scroll issuing from 
each of their mouths. On that belonging to the man 
was inscribed (the words in brackets previously lost) 

[Have m'cy Jhesu in honor of] thy gloriovs resvrreccion. 

On the woman's : 

And grant vs the merite of thy bytter Passion. 

On the child's, 

Parentes accipe, et infantem, bone Xpe. 

And over it, according to a previous authority, St. 
John Baptist with a cross in his left hand, and other 
work partly broken ; but this probably meant what 
Manning and Bray describe as " on a separate plate 
ah ordinary piece of sculpture representing the Resur- 
rection." 

Over the man were the arms On a bend three mart- 
lets Harding. 

1 Ego dixi : Domine miserere mei : sana animam meam, quia peccavi 
tibi. (Psalm xiii. of the Vulgate, v. 4.) 

2 This description of the tomb is taken from Manning and Bray 
(vol. i. p. 541), published in 1804. 

D2 



<30 CRANLEY. 

There were various families of Harding the charges 
in whose arms were alike, but they differed in metal and 
tincture. Harding of London (perhaps this Harding) 
bore ar. on a bend sa., 3 martlets or ; to another Hard- 
ing of London there were granted in 1568, or, on a 
bend az., 3 martlets ar., a sinister canton of the 2nd, 
charged with a rose of the 1st, between 2 fleurs-de-lis 
of the 3rd : there were also Hardings of Newtowne, 
Wilts, and of Ireland. 1 

Beneath was this inscription, of which the part in 
italics is lost : 

f jjour CTjartte prag for tfje 3oub$ of Robert Hardyng late Alderman 
& Goldsmith of London and Agas his Wyffe inljoS botJ Jjcrt 
Ipcfl) fcfrpctt, llnfc fcepartpd tliys present lyfe the XVIII day of 
FebrvarYin the yere of_ovre Lord @ott iB CCCCC anti 5H for 
J^ofolpS and all xpen we pray you say Paternoster and Are. 



At the present time part of the inscription alone 
remains, apparently preserved because half of the slab 
was found of use in the paving of the chancel floor, 
where it lies against the east wall towards the north 
side. The altar-tomb has been utterly destroyed; not 
a fragment of the sculpture remains. A lithograph, 
probably full size, of the representation of the Resurrec- 
tion, is given in Hussey's Churches in Kent, Sussex, 
and Surrey, published in 1852 ; 2 the illustration on the 
opposite page is copied from it, but reduced to half-size. 3 

No doubt this barbarous destruction and robbery of 
the dead occurred at the time of the restoration of the 
church in 1845. There is a very similar brass engraving 
of the Eesurrection on the tomb of Richard Covert at 
Slaugham, Sussex, 1547, not many miles distant. 

1 Burke's General Armory. 

2 Churches in Kent, Sussex, and Surrey, mentioned in Domesday, by 
the Rev. Arthur Hussey, p. 325. He speaks of it as in the chancel, 
and (in error) as being accompanied by the Onslow arms. The monu- 
ment is also mentioned in Murray's Handbook for Surrey, published in 
1843, probably taking the information from Manning and Bray. 

3 I have been unable to meet with a rubbing from the brass ; and an 
advertisement in Notes and Queries, asking for the loan of one, produced 
no result. 



- 









jfc T "',,, 



CRANLEY. 



37 




BRASS. 



On the other side of the chancel in the floor is a shield, 
with merchant's mark and the 
initials " R. H.," which may very 
likely have belonged to this mo- 
nument. 

The Robert Harding who is 
commemorated by this monument 
was the son of Robert Harding, 
who in 1466-7 purchased the 
Manor of Knoll from Thomas Sly- 
field, of Great Bookham : his son 
William dying without male issue, 
it descended to his two daughters, 
Helen and Catherine : the latter of 
them married Richard Onslow, 

Esq., and the entire estate seems to have, in 1560-1, 
through the medium of trustees, passed to her for the 
use of her husband, self, and heirs male. 1 Thus appa- 
rently commenced the connection of the Onslow family 
with Cranley,from which place they subsequently received 
a title in the Peerage. 

Robert Harding was a member of the Goldsmiths' 
Company of London, of which he was elected warden in 
the years 1464, 1469, 1473, and 1477, and became master 
in 1489. 2 His name also appears with others, apparently 
in 1471, when there were deposited with the Company 
certain pownsons (? pouncings, or punches), by one 
Oliver Davy, in relation to a wager between him and 
White Johnson, Alicant strangioure goldsmyth, also of 
London, for a competition of skill, and which was de- 
cided by a mixed jury of the trade in 1466, in favour of 
Davy. 3 

It is somewhat singular that in 1501 there was a 
renter of the Goldsmiths' Company of the same name, 
and he was warden in the years 1503, 1504, and 1509, 
but appears never to have been master. Perhaps this was 

1 Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. 537, 

2 Books of the Goldsmiths' Company. I am indebted to the company 
for access to their records, whence these facts appear. 

3 Herbert's Twelve Great Livery Companies of London, vol. ii. p. 197. 



38 CEANLET. 

the nephew whom the testator mentions in his will. Our 
Robert Harding also attained civic honours, having been 
elected sheriff, by the mayor, on St. Matthew's Day (21st 
September), 1479 ; ' and he was alderman of the ward 
of Farringdon Without, but from what year does not 
appear : he is not described as such when master of the' 
Goldsmiths' Company, though a similar dignity was 
usually mentioned in the Records ; and he appears to 
have resigned the office in the year 1500 ; for in his will, 
dated 19th August, 1500, he describes himself as late 
alderman, and we find that a successor was elected in 
his place on 25th February, 1500-1. 2 

I have had the good fortune to find the Will of Robert 
Harding, which was proved in the Prerogative Court of 
Canterbury. 3 As was frequently the case in early days, 
it consists of two separate documents, bearing the same 
date. The first relates to personal property, and con- 
tains the appointment of executors ; and the second dis- 
poses of. the real estate. 4 They are both lengthy, and I 
shall extract those parts which relate to the funeral of 
the testator, and to Cranley, and shortly note the rest 
of their contents. 

The first document commences thus : 

In the name of God, Amen, the xix day of the Monyth of August in 
the yere of ou r (Lord, omitted at end of a line) a thowsand v c 
and in the xv yer of the reyne of kyng Henry the vii th . I 
Robert Harding the elder, Late Alderman and Citizen of Lon- 
don, being in my perfit mynd and in good memory and in good 
helth of body, lawde and preysing being to all mygthi god, 



1 Guildhall Records, Journal 9, fol. 224 b. 

2 Ibid., Journal 8, fol. 1766. 

8 Prerogative Registry, 5 Holgrave. 

4 Writers on the law of Wills draw a distinction between the two 
documents ; a Testament is characterized by its containing the appoint- 
ment of executors, which would be required for personalty only, while a 
Will deals with real estate. As an evidence of the change which has 
imperceptibly taken place in the law, it may be noted that for a long 
time past the Ecclesiastical Courts held (as the Court of Probate holds) 
that the jurisdiction for proof of Wills extended only to those cases where 
there was personal estate, and refused probate of Wills which disposed 
solely of realty, on the ground that they had no power to deal with 
them. 



CEANLEY. 39 

make ordeii and dispose this my present testament and last will 
of all and singler my goodys and Cattals mouabull and vnmoua- 
bull wich J now have or shalhave the day of my disseace aswell 
within the Cite of London as ells wher within the realme of 
Jnglond in maul and forme ensuing that is to say ffirst J 
bequeth and recommende my sowle vnto almithi god my maker 
and redem and to our blessid Lady the virgin seint mary and to 
all the holy company of hevyn, and my body honestly to be 
buried withowt pompe or pride within the pardon Churchyerd 
of the cathedral! church of Seint Poule of London, if so be that 
I dye within the seyde Cite (or) in a place conuenient ther, after 
the discrecion of my Executors underwriter! And if J die owt 
of the seyd Cite of London, than I wull that my body be buried 
in the parish church of Craneley in the Counte of SurrJ. 

All duties owing to the parson to be paid before all 
other things. 

The " seyd goodis, cattails, and dettys" to be divided 
into two " Egall parts " ; one "for Agas my wife, shee 
therwith to doo her owne free will and pleasure." From 
the other half are to be paid the charges and bequests 
following : 

ffirst J yeve and bequeth to the openyng of the gronde where hit 
shall fortune my body to be buried vi s . viij d . sterlinge. I wull 
that my Executors after ther best discrecions prouide and orden 
the day of my disseace, for torches honestly to bring my body on 
erth, and for my honest tapors to brel abowt my body and herse 
the time of my dirige and masse whan my sayd body shalbe 
buried, and at my monyth mynde with iiij tapers ; I wull that 
iiij pore men holde them. Item I yeve and bequeth to euy por 
man holding the seyd tapers and torches at my sayd buring and 
monyths mynde, viij d . All which torches so bi my sayd Exe- 
cutors puided and ordenyd at the time of my sayd burying, J wull 
that Jmmediatly after my mothis mynde, that they and euy of 
them be geven and distribut vnto por churches wheras moste 
nede shalbe by the discrecyon of my Executors. Jtem I yeue 
and biqueth to the hie altar of the parishe church of Cranley 
aforesayde for my tithes and oblacons by me negligently forgotyn 
or with drawen, in the discharge of my sowle vse viij d . 

Then to the church works of Saint Vedast 4, and 
of St. Mathew, Friday Street, and St. Nicholas Colde 
Abbey, each xl 8 . ; to the reparation of the church of 
Chelsham, Surrey, x s . ; and to the church works of 
Warlingham iij 8 . iiij d .; that the parishioners of the 
several churches may pray for his soul. 



40 CRANLEY. 

Jtem I geve and bequetli to the Reparacon of the parishechurch of 
Cranleygh aforesayd to the parishonf ther, the more specially to 
pray for my sowle, x s . And J wull that my sayd executors 
prouide and orden an honest prest of good name fame and con- 
uersacion to sing and sey his masse and other his diuine seruis 
within the parish church wher yt shall fortune my body to be 
beryd bi the space of iij yeris next ensuing my disseace. Jtem 
I geve and bequeth to the same prest for his salary & wagf yerly 
during y e same iij yerys x mark ster) . 

The Executors are directed to distribute among the 
poor prisoners in Newgate, Ludgate, and the two Counters, 
the King's Bench, the Marshalsea, the prison at Westmin- 
ster, and the " parson " of the Fleet iij u . vj 8 . viij d . 

To the most needy parishioners of St. Yedast xl 8 ., at 
the rate of 8 d . each. 

To the 4 persons that shall bear his body to the grave, 
if in London, iij s . iiij d ., but if in the country, xx d . each. 

To 40 poor householders of the town of Leiton bussard 
iiij d . each. 

To the relief of the " pore sike pepull being within 
the howse of owr blessid lady of bedlem with owt 
bishopisgate of London, x 8 ." 

Amongst the most needy in the town of Addington, x 8 . 

To provide for the day of decease & trentals of masses 
by the four orders of Friars in London, each x s . 

To the reparation of the chapel of Billington, Beds, x 8 u 

Jtem J geve and bequeth to euy maS and woman! being in necessite, 

that hath s'uyd me as comnant seruantis, vj s . viij d . 
Jtem J yeve and bequeth to euery prest and Clerke of that church 

wher yt shal fortune my body to be buried, being at my dirige 

and masse, xij d . 
To the Prior & conu*. of the charterhows beside londoS, for dirige & 

messe of requiem, xl s . 
To Agnes my suster, to pray for my sowle, xx s . and a new gowne 

after the discrecion of my seyd executors. 

It recites that two husbandmen in Buckinghamshire 
are bound to him for 40, payable in yearly instalments 
of xx s . ; of which he wills to his sister vj s . viij d . per 
annum. 

He leaves to the 5 poor houses of Lazars near London, 
v". each ; and to the marriage of 6 poor maidens each xx 8 . 



CRANLEY. 41 

He forgives E/oberfc Chantrey, Citizen and fishmonger of 
London, a debt of xl marks, and bequeaths to his daughter 
Agnes Chantrey iv u . vj s . viij d . to be delivered on the day 
of her marriage. 

Jtem J geve and bequeth towardys the reparacon and mending of the 
hie wayes which be in decayes and nowyfull to the pepull within 
the parishys of Chelshm, Croydon, and Craneleygh in Cownte of 
Surrey xx li. sterlinge, which I wull shalbe disposid within a yer 
next ensuing my disseace in such places as shall seme most need- 
full, as bi the aduice of my seyd executors shalbe aduised. 

To William Chamberleyn his servant, xl s . and one of 
his best gowns furred. 

Jtm I give and bequeth euery childe of Thomas Harding xl s ., to be 
deliuered to them at ther lawefull age, or the day of ther 
mariage. 

He then revokes former Wills, and bequeaths the resi- 
due to Agas his wife ; and he leaves to each of his exe- 
cutors for their trouble xx 8 . The clause containing the 
appointment of executors has been omitted in the will as 
entered in the register, and the original Will is lost. 

In his Testament and last Will he speaks of his manor, 
lands, tenements, &c., in Chesham, Warlingham, Adding- 
ton, Farley, Craneley, Shalford, Codham, and Chellysfeld, 
in the counties of Surrey and Kent. He directs that 
two crofts, which he had lately purchased, and were held 
to farm at vi s . viij d . per annum by John Clerk, otherwise 
called John Mouer, 1 and a cottage occupied by William 
Norton, be assured to the parson and churchwardens of 
Craneleygh, to dispose of the rents, 

towards the reparacon, sopportacion, and mayntenyng of the Jle 
callyd our lady Jle, within the parish church of Craneley afore- 
sayd, and to the entent that the parson ther for the time being and 
the parishon 3 . of the same parish pray the more specially for my 
sowle, my wins sowle, the sowlys of my father and mother, 
my children sowlis and all cristen sowlis, at all such timys as 
thei shall make ther devout prayers whithin the same church. 
And I wull & orden bi this my last will that iff the sayd Rentf 
profit^ and Revenies comyng and growing of the seyd Croftis, 



1 The earliest name on the parish register (dated 1566) is John 
More. 



42 CEANLEY. 

and Cotage, with the appurtenaunce, be not disposid to thentent 
abovesayd, Or yf y* the sayd parson and parishons for the time 
being have not my sowle and the sowlis aforesaid in remem- 
brance as is abovesaid, that all the seyd rentf, pfitf , and revenies 
comying and groing of the seyd ij croftis and cotage with the 
appurtenance, yerly be distributid and disposid toward the 
Repacons of the parish church of Euhurst in the sayd cownte of 
Surrey, to the entent that the Curatt and parishons of the same 
parish foreuermore pray the more specially for my sowle and the 
sowlis aforlsayd. 

Then follows a similar devise of lands in Codham and 
Chelfeld to the vicar and churchwardens of Chelsham, 
with a similar object, and in a like default, to go to the 
church of Codham, with a like intent. 

All his other lands he leaves to his wife Agas, for her 
natural life. And after her decease, 

I wull alt such feofff as ben sealid and enfeoffid of and in my maner 
of Knoll, with the appurtenance in the seid parish of Craneley 
or of any other my londis and tenement^ 1 with in the same parish, 
make or cause to be made a sufficient and sur estate as well of 
and in the same maner of knoll as of and in all other my londis 
and tenement^ w*. the appurtenance in the seyd parish of Crane- 
ley and Shalford, vnto my nevev Thomas Harding Citezen 
and Jremonger of London to have and to holde the forsaid 
manor, londis, tenements, and all & singler ther appurtenance in 
the said parish of Craneley, to the sayd Thomas Harding, to his 
Eyres and assignes foreuermore. 

And the rest of his estates (incontinent after the 
decease of his wife) to his nephew Robert Harding, the 
brother of the said Thomas Harding, his heirs and 
assigns for ever. 

In the Register there is a blank for the Probate Act, 
but the previous one bears date the 26th, and the next 
following the 15th March, 1504. The appointment of 
executors having also been omitted, we do not know who 
they were. 

The monument evidently formed one of a class espe- 
cially deserving of notice. It was not only a monument 
to commemorate the individual and his family, but it 
served also as a part of the church furniture, and thus 
recalls an interesting ecclesiastical ceremony, which has 
long since ceased in the English Church. It was what 



CRANLEY. 43 

was called an Easter Sepulchre, and served an important 
use in the ceremonies of that solemn period when the 
Church annually commemorates, on Good Friday, the 
Great Sacrifice of our Blessed Lord for the redemption 
of the world, and his entombment ; and, on the festival 
of Easter Day, rejoices in the remembrance of his 
resurrection. 

Two classes of ceremonies were anciently in use ; 
one, which was rather of a local than a general nature, 
somewhat resembled a mystery, or dramatic per- 
formance, analogous to that still performed at decennial 
intervals, and witnessed by so many of our countrymen 
this year (1871), at Ober Ammergau, in the Tyrol; the 
other, a strictly rubrical ceremony, such as (except in 
small points of detail) is still performed in the Roman 
Church. 

Full records of the first of these two classes have 
descended from as far back as the eighth century, at 
Poictiers, the ninth at Metz, the tenth as laid down by 
our own St. Dunstan, and others subsequently j 1 and 
they continued to be performed in some places, as at 
Narbonne and Bourges, almost to within times of 
living memory. Varying in different places, the general 
effect was the same. Premising that on Good Friday 
after mass, the reserved Host was not placed in the pyx 
over the altar, as at other times, but was removed out of 
sight to the place called the Easter Sepulchre, where 
it remained until Easter morn; 2 there was then, to a 
certain extent, a representation of the scene, though 
those engaged were not in costume, and the words were 
those of the Evangelists, chiefly relating to the visit of 
the three Maries to the tomb, the interview with the 
angel, and the joyful tidings of the resurrection. Its 
nature was in fact the precise parallel to an oratorio ; 
the scene being indicated in both cases by the same 

1 Concordia Sti Dunstani, ed. Reyner, p. 89, quoted in Migne's 
Encyclopedic, vol. cxxxvii. p. 493 ; also Martene, De Antiquis Ecclesice 
Ritibus, lib. iii. cap. xvi. ii. p. 141. 

2 Ducange, Glossarium, ed. 1736, vol. vi., s. v. Sepultura Crucifixi ; 
Coussemaker, Drdmes Liturgiques, p. 178, &c. 



44 CRANLEY. 

words, but in the one chiefly by dramatic art, and in the 
other expressing the emotion by the highest musical art. 

The other class of ceremonies in connection with the 
Easter Sepulchre was a regular ceremony laid down in 
the ordinal of our own Church, and guided by rubrics ; 
the Sarum rite as arranged by St. Osmund was that 
chiefly followed in England, and those of York, Hereford, 
Lincoln, and Bangor differed chiefly in points of detail ; 
and the Arbuthnofc Missal indicates that the practice in 
Scotland was similar ; so that in fact there was prac- 
tically but little variation in the missals of the whole of 
Great Britain. 1 Being, then, of such general use, some 
account of the ceremony may be deemed interesting, 
even to those who regard it solely in an acha3ological 
point of view. 

Upon Maundy Thursday (following the precise order 
laid down in the Sarum rite) three Hosts were conse- 
crated ; one for the mass of that day, another for Good 
Friday (upon which day there was no consecration), and 
the third for the sepulchre. 

After vespers on Good Friday, the pyx containing this 
third Host, together with the cross from the altar, was 
carried to the sepulchre by the priest and a cleric of the 
superior rank, both in surplices and with bare feet ; both 
kneeling, the priest commenced the Responsary " I am 
counted as one of them that go down into the pit ; I have 
been even as a man that hath no strength; free among 
the dead." Then rising, he commenced the Responsary, 
" Sepulto Domino," which the choir took up with the 
versicle, " Ne forte veniant discipuli ejus, et furentur 
eum, et dicant plebi surrexit a mortuis." The sepulchre 
being incensed and the door closed, the priest began 
the Antiphon, " In pace," and the choir continued " in 
idipsum." Then the priest gave the Antiphon, " In 
pace factus est," and the choir continued "locus ejus." 

1 See Missale ad usum insignis Ecclesie Sarum, 1527 and 1534, and 
a recent translation published by the Church Press Company ; Proces- 
sionale ad usum Sarum, Paris, 4to. 1528 ; Missale ad usum Celebris 
Ecclesie Helfordensis, Rouen, 1502 ; Arbuthnot Missal, Burntisland 
reprint. 



CRANLEY. 45 

Then the priest, " Caro mea," and the choir continued 
"requiescet in spe." This being finished and private 
prayers said, they all retired without any fixed order. 
From that time, says the rubric, there shall burn con- 
tinually one wax taper at the least, until the procession 
on Easter morn, being then only extinguished when the 
first Benedictus is sung. 

On Easter Day, before mass and before ringing the 
bells, all the lights in the church being lighted, the supe- 
rior clergy with cerofer and thurifers go to the sepulchre, 
and after censing, with great reverence the Host in the 
pyx is placed in the tabernacle and suspended as usual, 
and the cross is replaced on the altar. Then all the 
bells are rung together, and there is sung the anthein 
" Christus resurgens " and the versicle "Dicant nunc 
Judei," to which the choir respond "Alleluya, Alleluya." 

In some cathedrals in England, the Host appears to 
have been placed in a special article of plate, as at 
Durham, 1 where it is described as " a marvelous beautifull 
Image of Our Saviour, representing the Resurrection, 
with a crosse in his hand, in the breast whereof was 
enclosed in bright Christall the Holy Sacrament of the 
Altar, throughe the which Christall the Blessed Host 
was conspicuous to the behoulders." Apparently the 
representation of the resurrection was much after the 
same general design as the engraving on the brass at 
Cranley. At Lincoln 2 was a somewhat similar piece of 
plate for the same purpose, of silver and gilt, with a 
beryl in the breast, weighing in all 37 oz. And a 
similar image of silver gilt and enamelled, with a beryl 
in the breast, and weighing 95 oz., was bequeathed by 
Cardinal Beaufort to Wells Cathedral. 3 Several other 
instances might be given. 

All authorities agree that there should be one light at 
least continually burning whilst the Holy Sacrament 

1 Coisin MS., printed by the Surfcees Society, vol. xv. p. 10 ; and also 
in Davies's Rites of Durham, p. 22. 

2 Inventory of Jewels, Sfc. of Lincoln Cathedral, 1536 ; Dugdale's 
Monasticon, vol. vi. p. 1279. 

3 Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. ii. p. 280, note. 



46 CEANLEY. 

remained in the sepulchre, and a watch was kept in 
remembrance of the guard of Koman soldiers. There 
are innumerable records of this custom being followed 
from an early date, and parish accounts always 
contain entries of payments to the watchers. Thus at 
Bletchingley, in this county, in the accounts for the 
years 1546-52, l occur items of payment of 4d. or 8d. 
to John Brande for watching the sepulchre. In 1538, 
when Bishop Cromwell issued his Injunctions 2 forbidding 
the clergy to suffer any candles to be set before any 
image, exceptions were made of the light on the Rood- 
loft (where the Gospel was read), that before the Sacra- 
ment of the altar, and the light about the Sepulchre. 

The scene of these ceremonies was usually a framed 
wooden structure, annually put together for the occasion, 
and afterwards taken to pieces and stowed away till 
the next year, and it was hung with rich cloths of 
gold and colours. The earlier English parish accounts 
always contain entries of the expenses of this, which 
was technically called " making the sepulchre," varying 
according to the size and wealth of the church. At 
Seville, in Spain, 3 exists the grandest known ; it was 
designed in 1544, and subsequently added to tiH its 
dimensions are out of proportion even to the cathedral, 
the nave of which is 145 feet high : this is erected 
annually ; it was formerly lighted by 162 lamps and 722 
wax-candles, weighing several thousand pounds. 

But in some churches the structures were partly per- 
manent, consisting of a canopied high or altar tomb, 
serving as a nucleus for the temporary structure, and 
in the front was generally a sculpture in relief, repre- 
senting our Lord rising from the tomb and the soldiers 
watching ; such as those existing at Lincoln Cathedral, 
and at Heckington and Gosberton, Lincolnshire ; North- 
wold, Norfolk ; and Holcombe, Devon. 4 But towards 

1 Kempe's Loseley Manuscripts, pp. 164, 165. 
' 2 Collier's Church History, vol. ii. p. 150. 

3 Description, del Templo Catedral de Sevilla, pp. 153, 193. 

4 Engravings of several of these are given in Vetusta Monumenia, 
vol. iii. plates 31 and 32. 



CRANLEr. 47 

the latter part of the fifteenth century there arose a 
practice of erecting a tomb for the burial of the donor, 
with the object of also serving for the Easter sepulchre : 
of this many instances might be given ; such as those 
existing at Long Melford, Suffolk; Hurstmonceux, 
Sussex, 1 and Slaugham, Sussex ; but the majority were 
destroyed shortly after the Reformation, and those 
which survived are being gradually destroyed in the 
process of " church-restoration," as in the case of that 
at Stanwell, Middlesex, 2 which was destroyed a few 
years since, without the slightest pretence of any advan- 
tage to be gained from its removal ; and Narburgh, 
Norfolk, destroyed since Blomefield's time. 3 There is 
no doubt that the tomb of Robert Harding in Cranley 
Church was such an one. 

A few years since there was a meeting in the lecture- 
room of the South Kensington Museum, of architects 
and gentlemen interested in archseology, to protest 
against the destruction daily wrought in the eccle- 
siastical antiquities of France, under the specious 
pretence of restoration. The facts stated showed 
a barbaric recklessness, disgraceful to that country and 
to civilization ; but so many parallel cases occurring 
in this country were adduced, that the meeting, bearing 
in mind the old adage, that " those who live in glass 
houses should not throw stones," did not venture upon 
the protest proposed to have been sent to the French 
Government. 

The treatment of the subject is strictly a conventional 
arrangement, which was followed during many centuries, 
and of which an instance dating from the Carlovingian 
period occurs in the shrine of St. Albinus at Cologne, 4 
and hundreds of examples in sculpture and painting 
might easily be adduced. 

1 Engraved in Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. iv. p. 191. 

2 London and Middlesex Archceological Society's Collections, vol. v. 
p. 119. Engraved in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1793, vol. Ixiii p. 993. 

3 Blomefield's Norfolk, vol. vi. p. 1 62. 

* Engraved in Jameson and Eastlake's History of Our Lord, vol. ii. 
p. 264. 



48 CRANLEY. 

The ceremony described, continued in use till the 
time of King Edward VI., in whose second year (1549), 
Archbishop Cranmer inquires in his Visitation Articles, 1 
" Whether they had upon Good Friday last the Sepul- 
chres with their lights having the Sacrament within," 
and Bishop Ridley refers to them in his Visitation 
Articles in the following year. 2 It was revived during 
the reign of Queen Mary ; but between the years 1560 
and 1566 the sale or destruction of the sepulchre shows 
cessation of the ceremony. 3 

In the exterior face of the wall of the north aisle is 
set a slab incised, with an inflated and extremely long 
inscription in verse : from the effect of weather, it is not 
altogether very legible, but the date appears to be 1630. 

Other sepulchral memorials, happily of less importance 
or antiquity, but still valuable to all who are interested 
in archaeology and genealogy, and to all who reverence 
the dead, disappeared from Cranley Church when it 
was so neatly paved with tiles, at the fatal epoch of 
1845; and for particulars of them we must now look to 
the work of Manning and Bray. 4 The following may be 
noted here, 

1664. May 19 th . Sir Eichard Onslow, Bart, aged 63. 

1679. Aug 1 27 th . Dame Elizabeth Onslow his Widow, aged 78. 

1688. July 21 8t . Sir Arthur Onslow, Bart aged 67. 

It seems strange that the family should not have seen to 
their preservation. 

1682, September 20th. An oval tablet to the memory 
of Michael Pike, rector, and his wife Elizabeth, who 
died in 1670. He became rector in 1645, and styles 
himself " minister " in the register book -frequently up 
to 1665 ; no doubt he conformed at the Restoration, 
since he enjoyed the living for twenty-two years after- 

1 Sparrow's Collection of Articles, Injunctions, and Canons, p. 29. 

2 Ibid., p. 37. 

3 A full account of the nature and history of Easter sepulchres will 
be found in a paper, by the present writer, in the Archceologia, vol. xl. 
p. 263. 

4 Manning and Bray, vol. L pp. 541 and 424, note. 



CEANLEY. 49 

wards. He had a daughter born on the 2nd and 
baptized on the 29th April, 1660. 1 

Of the assistant clergy, we find that Thomas Arundell 
was curate for some time until the latter part of 
1626; his son Kichard was buried on 21st February, 
1619, and three other children were baptized; viz. 
Christopher on 25th December, 1620; Elizabeth, llth 
August, 1622 ; and Lydia, 24th October, 1625. 1 Richard 
Arundell, gentleman, no doubt a relative of his, was 
resident in the parish and had a son, Arthur, baptized 
llth August, 1639. 1 

Then we find the name of John Brewster as curate 
in the years 1631 to 1643 : probably he succeeded 
Arundell at the former date ; and we find the record 
of the baptisms of nine of his children, and burial of 
three between the 6th November, 1626, and 20th 
March, 1644. 

In 1680 appears the name of Couarte or Coverte as 
curate; probably he was a descendant of the family 
commemorated by the Resurrection-brass at Slaugham. 
And in the same century we find mention of Alexander 
Walker, curate, married on 12th August, 1692, to Ann 
Bachelor, of Guildford, widow. 2 

Several parish clerks' names appear in the registers. 
There was Brianne Kempe, of Highupfields, who was 
buried on the llth January, 1640, having survived his 
wife Alice only nine days. He was succeeded by (his 
son probably) John Kempe, who, apparently on the 
strength of the appointment, was married on 30th June 
following, to Ann Myhell. He was succeeded by the Par- 
liamentary Registrar, John Plawe, in 1653, who had a 
son born and baptized in May, 1664. 

Let us now examine the register books, from whence 
these particulars of the clergy and parish clerks have 
been extracted. 

The register begins at a tolerably early date, 1566, of 
which year there are four entries, and of the following 
year one entry, together occupying the first page ; but 

1 Parish Register Book. 2 Parish Registers. 

VOL. VI. E 



50 CEANLEY. 

our expectations are disappointed, when, upon turning 
over leaf, we find the next record dates in 1609. No 
doubt the explanation is, that the present volume was 
intended to be a transcript from the original record, and 
was commenced in obedience to the Canon of 1603 
(which ordered that all parish registers should be copied 
upon parchment, but unfortunately omitted to provide 
any remuneration for the clerkly labour) ; but in this 
instance that intention was not fulfilled. The original, 
though no longer to be found, was in existence till a 
comparatively recent date, for there is a note in the 
style of handwriting of the latter part of the last cen- 
tury, "vide in the other Booke." 

Even from the commencement of the present original 
records in 1609, they do not appear to have been very 
regularly entered, for there are but three entries in that 
year. From 1631 to June or July, 1643, the entries were 
evidently made by John Brewster, the curate, who, with 
the churchwardens, between the years 16321643, sign 
the foot of each page, in accordance with the directions 
contained in the canons. 

The baptisms recorded in the first volume contain 
scarcely anything more, worth noting, except entries 
relating to the Onslow family, to which we shall advert 
subsequently. 

The " Marigesses " in the same volume begin in 1609 
and end in 1648, and include the names of several 
Londoners, viz. 

William Merryman of Westminster in 1 623. 

Thomas Blackwell of Christ Church London, 1628. 

William Cooper of " y e pish of Allgate in y e King's Mineries," 1629. 

Philip Nevill, Stationer, of London, 1638. 

The register " for berennge " does not present any 
remarkable features. We note several cases of fatal 
epidemic in families perhaps fever ; as in 1633, a son 
of John Lukas was buried on the 5th August, a daughter 
on the following day, and on the 9th, John Lukas " him- 
selfe" ; and in 1640, a daughter of William Bernard, on 
12th November, a son llth January, Mary, wife of John 
Bernard, on 16th January, and John himself on the 27th. 



CEANLEY. 51 

The second book was begun by John Plawe, the 
registrar appointed by the Act of the Republican Par- 
liament in 1653, elected and chosen to be registrar of 
the parish, and sworn to the faithful performance of his 
office before Sir Richard Onslow, justice of the peace. 

And the entry runs in this form, which was continued 
down to 1665 : 

The Registering of Publications in this parish. 

Thomas Hatton and Ann Lathird weare Published according to a 
Late Act of Parliament Three severall Lords Dayes in their 
Parish Church of Cranley ; the days of Publishing are these, the 
twealth, the nineteenth, the sixe and twentieth, all of ffebruary 
in The yeare of our Lord 1653. 

The marriages were performed before justices of the 
peace, chiefly W. Pitson, John Westbrooke, or Sir 
Arthur Onslow, until 1657-8, and then generally before 
a minister. The names of the following appear : Michael 
Pieke (or Pike), Minister of this parish; Mr. Heigham, 
of Wotton, Wing of Ewhurst, Meade of Redgeweake 
(Rudgwick), Garde of Abinger, Tomson of Shalford, 
and Holland ; it was, however, most frequently Mr. Pike 
who officiated. The marriages of several men, without 
the women's names, are recorded in the next volume, 
as though they had been omitted by neglect. The 
officiating magistrates were Petson, Duncombe, West- 
brooke, Arthur Onslow, and Hussey. 

The next part of the volume is headed thus : 

The Registering of Deaths & Burials of all sorts of People 
in this Parish. 

On the 5th November, 1681, is added the mention 
of affidavit referring to the requirement by the Act of 
Parliament of evidence of burial in woollen only. Of the 
burials some seem to have been similarly omitted, and 
entered in the next volume. Other names of ministers 
are Eares of Abinger, and " Tomson, minister at 
Shalford Church." 

Baptisms seem to have been usual, and the dates of 
both birth and baptism are given. Apparently the same 



52 CEANLEY. 

registrar, John Plawe, continued in office till 1664 or 
1665 ; a child of his was baptized in May, 1664. 
Only two Anabaptists' children are noted : thus 

Dec. 1701. James Potter had a child born called by y e name of 

Eichard. 
Dec. 3, 1703. Jane Potter had a child born. 

Amongst the surnames it appears that More, or 
Mower, the earliest name in the register, is only lately 
extinct in the male line ; Stedman is still one of the com- 
monest ; Shorlocke, Tickner, Smallpiece, and Tanner 
continue common ; Manfield and Farley also exist ; and 
Mellersh, Lacar, Chittie, Coston, and Petoe, names 
common in this part of the county, may yet be found 
here. 1 Among unusual surnames occurring in the earlier 
entries may be mentioned, Richebell, Delfould, Benion, 
Slaterford, Didelffould, Grubgey, Mabanke, Querington, 
Winpenny, Marlin, Ed saw, and Clowser. 

The Christian names are very ordinary : Dammarus, 
Sarai, and Charite, occurring in 1650 and 1654, are the 
only ones indicating Puritanism. 

The occupations of persons mentioned in the registers 
are not usually stated until 1687, and then they are of 
no special mention, with the exception, that one is 
called a " Translator," i. e. a cobbler. 

In the second book there is a list of collections made 
in .the parish, beginning in 1658, of which we may note 
the following : 

1661. September the 8 day 1661. Collected in this pish for Phillip 
Dandull being by nation a turk ; the sume of foore shillings 

& a penny 4 1 

For the Churches of the Dukedome of Luthuania... 080 

Apriell the 9 th 1665. Collected for the burning of the Church 

of Weethyham in Sussex for & towards the repare of it, the sum 

of eight shillings 080 

1677. for relief of 30 distressed protestants of Hungary ... 081 

On 19 th Dec r 1670 is a long list of subscriptions for the redemption 

of Christian slaves amounting to the not inconsiderable sum 

of 1 . 13 12 4 



1 From the information of the Rev. J. H. Sapte, who has been the 
rector of the parish for the last twenty-four years. 



CEANLEY. 53 

In this account of the registers and their contents, we 
have purposely omitted to extract the entries relating 
to the Onslow family (who were the only family of high 
position and continuance in the parish), in order to place 
them together for the sake of convenience ; and to them 
we will now advert. 

The registers mention Richard Onslow, Esq., who 
was the grandson of Eobert Onslow, through whose 
marriage with Catharine Harding, the Manor of Knoll 
was acquired by the family. He was Attorney for the 
Duchy of Lancaster and of the Court of Wards ; Re- 
corder of London ; in the 8th Eliz., Solicitor-General 
and Speaker of the House of Commons. Richard, 
mentioned in the registers, became Sir Richard in 
1624 or 1625 ; he was knighted at Theobalds, on 2nd 
June, 1624; 1 and sat for the county of Surrey in three 
Parliaments of King Charles I., by whom he was em- 
ployed, in May, 1644, in the important siege of Basing 
House; in 1648 he was seized with the other members 
of the house then sitting. The register shows that he was 
a justice of the peace in 1653, and before him, as such, 
parish registrars were sworn-in here and at Godalming, 2 
and no doubt other neighbouring parishes. Though 
summoned in 1654 and 1656, he did not occupy his 
place ; notwithstanding which, on 20th December, 1657, 
a writ under the Great Seal, appointed him, with fifty- 
nine others, to take place in Parliament as Peers. He 
was subsequently elected member for Guildford. Debrett 
says he was made baronet in 1660 ; 3 but this scarcely 
accords with the statement of other writers, that his 
eldest son, Arthur, succeeded to a baronetcy (that of 
Sir Thomas Foot) at a subsequent date. He died on 
the 20th, and was buried on the 26th May, 1664, at 
Cranley; in the register he is described as of Arundell 
House, St. Clement's, London. Manning and Bray say 
that his tombstone (which, as mentioned, appears to have 



1 Collins's Peerage (Brydges's ed.), vol. v. p. 466. 

2 Collections of this Society, vol. iv. p. 207. 

3 Debrett's Peerage. 



54 CRANLEY. 

been destroyed at the restoration of this church in 1845), 
state that his death occurred on the 19th instead of the 
20th May, 1664, at the age of sixty-three. 1 

Sir Richard, as appears by the register, had seven 
sons and six daughters ; Arthur, the eldest, was, before 
he came of age, elected Member of Parliament for 
Bramber ; was a justice of the peace in 1653, and 
married, first, Rose, the daughter and heir of Nicholas 
Stoughton ; and second, Mary, the daughter and co- 
heir of Sir Thomas Foot, Bart., Sheriff of London in 
1646 and Lord Mayor in 1649. By a limitation of the 
baronetcy, it descended, on the death of Sir Thomas 
Foot, in 1687, to his son-in-law, who thus became Sir 
Arthur Onslow. 2 The latter died, as appeared by his 
destroyed tombstone, on the 21st July, 1688, aged sixty- 
seven. 8 

The register records the birth of Sir Arthur's son, 
Richard, on the 22nd or 23rd (both dates are given) 
June, 1654, and baptized on the 9th July following ; 
through him the family acquired a peerage. He became 
Speaker of the House of Commons on 16th Novem- 
ber, 1708, and Baron Onslow on 25th June, 1716. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry Tulse, a Lord 
Mayor of London, and died 5th December, 1717. 
His daughter Mary married Sir John Williams, who was 
a Lord Mayor. The titles of Earl of Onslow, co. Salop, 
and Viscount Cranley, co. Surrey, were conferred upon 
George, fourth Baron Onslow, 19th June, 1801. 4 

R/eturning to the first Sir Richard, we find in the 
register, records of his other children ; Arthur, being, 
as stated, the eldest, baptized 22nd May, 1624. 

2. Elizabeth, apparently the " Dame Lady Elizabeth " who was buried 

7 th August, 1630." 

3. Edward, baptized 11 th Oct r 1625, and buried 9 th Dec r following. 

4. Anne, baptized 1 st Nov r 1626. 



1 Other trifling errors of dates respecting the family also occur in 
Manning and Bray. 

2 Collins's Peerage (Brydges's ed.), vol. v. p. 471. 

3 Manning and Bray. 

4 Debrett. 



CRANLEY. 55 

5. Henry, baptized 4 th Dec' 1627. 1 

6. Mary, baptized 4 th Dec r 1628. 

7. John, baptized 31 st Jany 1629 (buried 4th February following 

M. and B.). 

8. Jane, baptized 1 st July, 1631. 

9. Kichard, baptized 28 th Oct r 1632 (married Mary, daughter of 

Sir Abraham Reynardson, Lord Mayor of London Manning 
and Bray). 

10. Thomas, baptized 24 th Nov' 1633. 

11. Dorothy, baptized 22 nd Feb. 1634 (probably the Mistress Dorothy 

Onslow who was buried 19th June 1642). 

12. Katherine, born 11 th Feb?, & baptized 10 th March 1635 ; and 

13. John, born 12 th Sept r & baptized 10 th Oct r 1638. 2 

Elizabeth, wife of a Richard Onslow, was buried 27th 
August, 1C 79 : had she been the relict of Sir Richard, 
as Manning supposes, her title would probably have been 
mentioned in the register. 

Beside Sir Richard and his descendants, we find 
mention of George, the son of John, who was born 
21st March, and baptized 14th April, 1628, and may 
probably have been the brother of Sir Richard. There 
was also a "Mr. Thomas Onslow, Esquier," who was 
buried 14th December, 1616; and a Mrs. Mary Onslow, 
who tin 24th April, 1626, married John Duncombe, of 
Aldburie, Esq., probably he who acted as justice of the 
peace in 1653 : they had a son, born 21st March, and 
baptized 14th April, 1628, by the name of George. 

Cranley is believed to have given his name to THOMAS 
CRANLEY, D.D., Fellow of Merton College, and Chancellor 
of the University of Oxford. In 1383 he was appointed 
by the Founder to be Warden of New College, being 
the first warden after the fellows had taken possession 
of the college ; he had been Warden of Winchester 
College from 1382 till 1385. He was afterwards Pre- 
bendary of Knaresborough, in the Cathedral Church of 
York, and Archbishop of Dublin ; and died in 1417, and 
was buried in New College Chapel, Oxford, where he -is 

1 Burke (Landed Gentry, p. 1022) says he was the second son; pro- 
bably an error, arising from the fact of Edward having lived scarcely 
two months. Henry was knighted 18th May, 1664, and founded the 
family of Onslow of Staughton, co. Huntingdon. 

2 Manning and Bray say he died in April, 1663, of small-pox. 



56 



CRANLEY. 



commemorated by a beautiful brass representing him in 
archiepiscopal vestments and standing beneath a rich 
canopy. 1 In Wood's time it lay before the high altar, 
but it is now in the ante-chapel. 

In conclusion, I wish to record my thanks to the 
rector, the Rev. J. H. Sapte, M.A., Honorary Canon of 
Winchester Cathedral, for affording every facility and 
assistance in the preparation of the present paper ; and 
my thanks and those of the Society are due to our 
member, Ralph Nevill, Esq., for his excellent and spirited 
anastatic drawings. 

1 Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, vol. ii. p. 51. Plate 23 is an 
excellent engraving of the brass. 




ON THE BELL DATED 1660. 



ON A PAINTING OF ST. CHRISTOPHER IN 
NEWDIGATE CHURCH, SURREY. 

j 

BY JOHN GREEN WALLER, ESQ. 



ON the north wall of the church of Newdigate are the 
remains of a figure of St. Christopher, unhappily 
much obliterated, and rendered still more obscure by the 
injudicious, though well-meant, use of an oil varnish. 
As all our wall-paintings of the middle ages are executed 
in tempera, they should never have applied to their 
surfaces any other preservative than size, and this 
only in a dilute state. They are very absorbent, and oil 
will sink in and darken the colours, and a varnish will 
both darken them and make the surface brittle and liable 
to scale off. 

The painting at Newdigate is generally well designed. 
Its execution displays considerable merit, being bold and 
vigorous in outline ; and it may be ascribed to the latter 
half of the fifteenth century. There is the usual mode of 
treatment, viz., a gigantic figure sustaining upon his 
right shoulder a small one of the youthful Christ, who, 
in his left hand, holds the emblem of sovereign power 
the orb surmounted by a cross ; his right in the attitude 
of benediction. The giant is wading across a stream, 
supporting himself by a ragged staff, like an uprooted 
tree. His head, bound about with kerchief or turban, is 
turned round and upwards towards Christ, and, in all 
good examples, an anxious expression is given to the 
features of the saint. Upon the shore, to which he is 
wending, a figure in the attire of monk or hermit is 
holding a lantern as a guide across the waters. In the 



58 ON A PAINTING OF ST. CHRISTOPHEE 

stream fish are shown disporting, and several ships are 
in this example, a device of the artist's to indicate a sea 
or water of great depth. It is a very usual convention. 
Beneath the knees the figure is entirely obliterated, as 
well as every other part of the composition, and would 
be seen by all who entered by the door through the south 
porch, the chief entrance for the congregation. 

Of all figures of saints introduced into our churches this 
was the most popular ; and still, upon the continent, a 
figure of St. Christopher of gigantic size, often sculp- 
tured out of wood, salutes the eye of the worshipper as 
he enters the church. In a compilation made by the 
authorities of the South Kensington Museum, the number 
of churches in England in which remains of paintings of 
this saint have been discovered, amount to twenty-eight. 
Of course, many have been utterly destroyed, as it was 
a very obnoxious figure to the Reformers ; but many may 
still remain concealed beneath the whitewash of our 
churches. I shall notice a few of those designs, which 
present to us illustrative details, and then show the 
bearing of legendary story upon the general subject. 
First, I shall take that which formerly existed in Croydon 
church, in this county, as it offers some special points 
for our consideration. 

This was discovered during repairs in 1846, and was 
the subject of remarks in the " Journal of the British 
Archaeological Association," 1 and also in that of the 
Archaeological Institute. 3 In neither, however, is it par- 
ticularly or completely elucidated, though in the latter 
there is an engraving which shows the character of the 
design. It was unhappily very much defaced. There 
was scarcely a single part quite complete ; but, neverthe- 
less, indications existed of details not frequently observed. 
The figure of St. Christopher was tolerably perfect ; but 
the lower part was concealed by panelling. He wore a 
deep-red tunic, and a green mantle waving in the wind. 
His ragged staff was imperfect, and of the figure ot 
Christ nothing but the feet remained. The hermit 

1 Vol. i. pp. 65, 66, 139. 2 Vol. ii. p. 267. 



IN XEWDIGATE CHURCH, SURREY. 59 

holding the lantern was the most complete part of the 
composition, and on the opposite side there was a castel- 
lated building, from a window of which appeared figures 
of a king and queen. These were very distinct, and are 
engraved in the "Archaeological Journal," vol. ii. p. 268, 
and were conjectured by some to be Edward III. and 
Philippa his queen. But this was quite an untenable 
view ; the king at least belongs to the legend. There 
were fragments of an angel playing upon a pipe, and of 
another upon a double tabor. This idea of an attendance 
of celestial harmony is by no means usual. There were 
also two scrolls with traces of inscriptions upon one, 

the words " Qui por " were visible, which was 

most likely a part of the ancient hymn, as given below ; 
and these two scrolls, which were on either side of the 
head of St. Christopher, were doubtless the two first lines 
of it : 

Sancte Christophore 

Qui portdsti Jesum Christum 

Per Mare rubrum, 

Nee franxisti crurum, 

Et hoc est non mirum 

Quia fuisti magnum virum. 

The painting belonged to the end of the fourteenth 
century. 

As I have previously stated, numerous examples of 
the subject have been discovered from time to time. 
Usually, they resemble each other very closely in plan 
and details. St. Christopher is always going from right 
to left, and I do not know of an instance to the contrary. 
His staff, like an uprooted tree, is often showing leaves 
at the top, and the hermit, fish, and ships are very 
general ; but the Croydon example is the only one 
which I have noted as giving us celestial minstrelsy. 

The fullest subject, and one which enters more com- 
pletely into the rest of the legendary story of the saint, 
making it thus the most remarkable example, is that 
discovered at SHORWELL, in the Isle of Wight, and which 
is engraved in the " Journal of the British Archaeo- 
logical Association," vol. iii. p. 85, with a memoir by Mr. 



60 ON A PAINTING OP ST. CHRISTOPHER 

Fairholfc. In this we have the figure of St. Christopher 
occupying the centre, and above, by the side of that 
of Christ, a scroll bearing these words, " Ego sum 
alpha et at (Omega)." On the strand which he has left, 
stands also his figure with pointed shoes and closely- 
fitting jerkin, a fashionable attire of the time (fourteenth 
century), yet holding the uprooted tree; and he is 
turning his head back, waving his right hand as if in 
parting. A little distance off is a crucifix, and still 
farther two figures on horseback, behind a hedge or 
perhaps a wood. There is a little figure sitting quietly 
fishing, which is not uncommon. The hermit and 
hermitage on the opposite side are in the distance. In 
the middle distance stands a king, and a man with drawn 
sword by his side ; and an arrow sticks in the king's 
right eye. This portion belongs to the subject of the 
martyrdom, which is represented in the foreground, where 
the Saint bound to a column is being shot with arrows. 
Many of these, however, glance upwards towards the 
king, and one has reached his right eye. In the legend 
it is stated, that on an attempt being made to put 
Christopher to death by arrows, one entered the eye of 
the king. All the incidents here given are close illus- 
trations of the popular legend, which I shall presently 
detail ; but such a complete rendering of it as this is 
so extremely unusual, that I cannot remember another 
like it. Though it does not embrace the whole of the 
story, it contains so much of it as to exhibit a full and 
popular account, ending with the martyrdom. 

Having thus given a general glance at some of the 
examples of this subject which have been discovered on 
the walls of our churches, I will now proceed to con- 
sider the legend. Perhaps, of all the stories which 
appear in the lives of the saints, there is scarcely one 
other which warrants so little credence. As a myth it 
presents itself as a typical form, showing how easy is 
such a growth from elements of the vaguest character. 
The commonest suggestion applied to all such, is fraud ; 
yet a closer inspection and more mature consideration, 
casting aside all prejudice, quite dispels such an idea. 



IN NEWDIGATE CHUECH, SURREY. 61 

Fraud demands art and a defined purpose ; here is cer- 
tainly neither. Recluses, who form, for the most part, 
our legendary writers, lived in a narrow world ; if not 
bounded entirely by the walls of their cloister, it did 
not go much beyond their order. They lived in an age 
when criticism was unknown ; when the ordinary opera- 
tions of nature were looked upon as special manifestations 
of divine energy ; when dreams were often interpreted 
as miraculous ; indeed, living a life of illusion as regards 
the physical and moral world about them. We have 
only to peruse the works of Ca3sarius of Heisterbach 1 
to be convinced of the truth of these remarks. He was 
certainly an honest and conscientious writer, never in- 
tending to deceive or to be otherwise than truthful. 
Many of his stories are no wonders at all ; many are so, 
merely by the halo he casts around them ; others he 
narrates from authorities he thinks correct, but does not 
vouch for. And so it certainly was with other writers 
of the same kind. A sacred narrative was the last 
thing they ever thought of calling in question, even in 
the smallest details. What had gone before was re- 
produced ; and a story, like a ball of snow, gathers as 
it rolls along. Thus it was that legends grew and 
multiplied ; and now I wiU consider specially that of 
St. Christopher, as it unconsciously unveils to us the 
mode of development rather more clearly than any other 
of its kind. My authority shall be the Legenda Aurea 
of Jacobus a Voragine. It thus begins : 

" Christopher before baptism was called reprobate, but afterwards was 
called Christopher, as bearing Christ on him. That is to say, he carried 
Christ in four modes upon his shoulders in carrying, in the body by 
maceration, in the mind by devotion, in the mouth by confession or 
preaching." 

This exordium is literally the key to the whole story. 
What is this but the life of a Christian converted ? 
Before he becomes Christian, he is reprobate, ignorant, 
but, by conversion, becomes one bearing Christ in his 

1 Vide his Dialogus Miraculorum. 



62 ON A PAINTING OF ST. CHRISTOPHER 

heart, and mind. So his name. Almost everything else 
which follows is built upon this. His great stature is 
but a means of indicating moral as well as physical 
strength, one long practised and known to art, especially 
when in its infancy. 

a 

" Christopher was a Canaan by race, of lofty stature, and terrible 
countenance : he measured twelve cubits in length. Whilst residing with 
a certain king, it came into his mind to find out who was the greatest 
prince of this world. He then went to a king esteemed by report to 
have no equal in dignity. The king received him, and he remained at 
his court. But the jester, who often sang before the king, frequently 
named the devil, and the king, who held the faith of Christ, whenever 
he heard it, made the sign of the cross upon his face. This Christopher 
observing, wondered what it meant, and asked of the king the reason, 
who was unwilling to tell him. Then Christopher told him if he did 
not, he would no longer remain with him. On this the king said, 'As 
often as I hear the name of devil, I make this sign, lest I should fall 
into his power, and he do me injury.' To whom Christopher said, ' If 
you fear the devil should hurt you, he must be stronger than you ; ' and 
he then left the court of the king in search of the devil as the greater 
prince. As he proceeded across a certain solitude, he met a great mul- 
titude of soldiers, out of whom one fierce and terrible came up to him, 
and demanded whither he went. He answered, ' I go to seek my lord 
the devil, whom I intend to be my lord.' At which he replied, ' I am 
he whom thou seekest.' Christopher rejoiced, and bound himself to 
perpetual service, and received him for his lord. As they proceeded 
together, they came to where a cross was erected on the common way. 
Presently the devil, seeing the cross, fled terrified back to the solitude. 
Christopher demanded the reason, which was given very reluctantly, and 
was told ' that a certain man named Christ was affixed to the cross, 
which sign when I see much alarms me, and I fly.' To this Christopher 
rejoined, ' Christ must therefore be greater and more powerful than thee, 
as his sign you fear so much. In vain, therefore, have I laboured, for as yet 
the greatest prince of the world I have not found. Now, then, it follows 
that I must leave thee and seek after Christ.' Then he, proceeding on 
his search, found a certain hermit, who preached Christ to him, and 
diligently instructed him in his faith. The hermit told him that the 
king he desired to serve required of him that he should frequently fast. 
Christopher asked if there were nothing else. The hermit rejoined, it 
was requisite to say many prayers. To which said Christopher, ' I know- 
not what profit such service only can be.' To whom the hermit : 
' Knowest thou not a certain river in which many crossing are in danger 
and perish ? ' He answered, ' I know it.' Then replied he, ' You are 
of lofty stature, and of great strength ; if by that river you live, and you 
carry over all to the King Christ, whom you desire to serve, it will be 
grateful, and I hope that there he may manifest himself to thee.' 
Christopher acceded to the hermit's teaching, and went and dwelt by 






IN NEWDIGATE CHURCH, SURREY. 63 

the river, having built himself a habitation, and thence he conveyed 
every one across. Many days had passed. Whilst he rested in his dwell- 
ing, he heard the voice of a child calling him, saying, ' Christopher, come 
out and carry me over.' Immediately he went out and found no one. 
Returning back he heard the same voice calling, but on again going out 
he saw no one. A third time he was called, and went out and found a 
child by the bank of the river, who asked Christopher to convey him 
across. So taking the child upon his shoulder, and his staff in his 
hand, he entered the river in order to cross over. And behold the waters 
of the river began by degrees to swell, and the boy to weigh like the 
heaviest lump of lead. The more he proceeded the more the waves 
increased, and the child more and more pressed upon his shoulder as 
an intolerable weight, so that Christopher was in great strait, and 
threatened with extreme peril. But scarcely had he got across the 
river, and placed the child upon the bank, than he said to him, ' In 
great peril, boy, hast thou placed me, for thoii hast weighed so, that if 
the whole world had been upon me it would not have been greater.' 
To whom the child, ' Wonder not, Christopher, for not only the 
whole world but him who created it hast thou borne upon thy shoulder, 
for I am Christ thy King whom in this office thou hast served. And 
that I say the truth, and can prove it, when thou Grossest back fix thy 
staff in the earth by thy dwelling, and in the morning thou wilt see it 
flower and in leaf.' Immediately he vanished from his sight." 

It will be at once seen that this is the incident on 
which the subject, so frequently discovered in our 
churches, is founded. Occasionally the staff is shown 
with leaves even as he is crossing the stream. This 
kind of license is common enough in legendary art, the 
intention being obviously to fill the subject with as much 
matter as possible connected with the story ; the unities 
being of very little importance. 

The situation in which the figure of St. Christopher 
is generally found in our churches, is that opposite the 
chief or common entrance, or at least in such a con- 
spicuous place as to be seen at once by every worshipper 
on entering. 1 Now the meaning of this, for it has a 
special meaning, will be found by examining into the 
popular ideas of the power of this Saint, which are 
expressed in several ancient Latin rhymes. One, for 

1 Sometimes a figure of St. Christopher is found externally. One was 
on a house at Treves. It seems to have been a very common practice 
in some parts of Germany, and especially so in Carinthia. MOLANUS, 
de Hist. SS. Imaginum, lib. iii. cap. xxvii. 



61 ON A PAINTING OF ST. CHEISTOPHEE 

instance, tells us that " so great are thy virtues, St. 
Christopher, that whoso sees thee in the morning will 
smile at night." 

" Christophore sancte, 
Virtutes sunt tibi tantoe, 
Qui te mane vident, 
Nocturne tempore rident." 

Also, " Whoever honours the form of St. Christopher, 
on that day will not die a bad death." l 

" Christophori sancti speciem quicunque tuetur, 
Ista nempe die non morte mala morietur." 

And, " Behold Christopher, afterwards thou art safe." 
" Christophorum videas ; postea tutus eas." 

Without question, then, the worship or honour paid 
to St. Christopher was very great with the common 
people. It cannot be doubted that the lastly quoted 
phrase expressed a desire, which the walls of our 
churches so often fulfilled, viz., of giving an opportunity 
of seeing so gracious a form. Let us remember also 
the yeoman in Chaucer's " Canterbury Pilgrimage" is 
described as wearing a St. Christopher. 

" A Cristofre he bare upon his brest of silver sheen." 

Perhaps this was as a charm against ill. 

But Erasmus has given us a whimsical dialogue in his 
" Colloquy of the Shipwreck," in. which a fellow makes 
the most extravagant vows to the Saint, which his 
fortunes are quite unable to fulfil, if he would only 
release him from his threatened peril. He offers to the 
figure of St. Christopher at Paris, " a mountain of wax " 
as big as that of the statue itself. 2 A neighbour of his 

1 Perhaps this means sudden death. 

2 This celebrated statue, to which Erasmus refers, was twenty-eight 
feet in height, and was fixed to the second pillar of the nave of Notre 
Dame, near the grand or western entrance. It originated in a vow made 
by Antoine des Essarts, chamberlain, councillor, and valet-carver to 
Charles VI., king of France (1413), when in prison, and in consequence 
of his miraculous deliverance at night, ascribed to Saint Christopher. 
It was destroyed at the Revolution. 



IN NEWDIGATE CHURCH, SUEEEY. 65 

hearing him, touched his arm, and reminded him, that if 
he sold all his goods by auction, he would be unable to 
pay for such an offering. The man answers in a low tone, 
as if in fear the Saint should hear him, " Hush, hush, 
you fool ! Believe me, I speak my mind ; let me only 
once touch land, and that waxen candle shall not do me 
much damage." The Naufragium is one of the best of 
the colloquies, and Erasmus very caustically satirizes 
those who, in the hour of danger, appeal only to popular 
objects of worship. 1 

The story of St. Christopher was treated by the 
Reformers as a mere parable, at best shadowing forth 
ideas rather than things. This is the view of it taken 
by Melancthon, and the whole legend is dismissed from 
any place in sober history. Even the Roman Catholic 
writers after the Reformation denounce the earlier part 
of it, that which is here quoted, and which belongs to 
our subject, as a fable, or interpret it in an allegorical 
sense. But they retain other portions quite as miracu- 
lous, and which have but little consistency without the 
rest of the legend ; such, for instance, as the budding of 
the staff, &c. 2 It is sufficient to say, that, of the his- 
torical portion, it may or may not have occurred, but it 
has little to separate it from what might have happened 
to many Christians in the days of persecution, and its 
narration is beyond our subject. I do not know whether 
any of the great masters of Italy have furnished a 
St. Christopher of the popular type. But on this side 
the Alps, Memling and Albert Durer, though belonging 
to very different sections in the school of art, have both 
given characteristic examples. But the noblest work in 
connection with this story is that series at Padua, painted 
by Andrea Mantegna, in the church of Santa Maria degl' 
Eremitani. These are fine frescoes, in a decaying state, 
forming a series of the Saint's history and martyrdom, 
but without any such incidents as have here been 

1 Erasmus alludes again to the superstitious honour paid to St. 
Christopher in his .Encomium Morice. Amsterdam! : Henricum Wet- 
stenium, 1685, pp. 65, 75. 

3 Vide Ribadineira, Surius, &c. 

VOL. VI. F 



66 ON A PAINTING OF ST. CHRISTOPHER 

detailed, belonging to the earlier part of the legend, 
except that of the arrow glancing into the king's eye, 
which is given in one of the subjects. 

One of the earliest of wood-engravings, 1 dated 1423, 2 
is a figure of St. Christopher of the usual type, and 
beneath it is a variation of one of the Latin distichs 
previously given ; viz. : 

" Christoferi faciem die quacunque tueris, 
HIS, nempe die morte mala non morieris." 

One instance occurs of a St. Christopher forming a 
brass, and examples have been found on signet rings, 
attesting the popularity of the Saint. 

The etymological composition of the name, which both 
in Greek and Latin signifies " Christ " and " to bear," 
at once expresses, perhaps, the whole truth belonging 
to this myth. And as this is by no means the only 
instance, but that in which principles are more clearly 
seen, the legend has a special interest, which would not 
otherwise belong to it. 

Subjoined is a list of those churches in which figures 
of Saint Christopher have been discovered painted upon 
the walls, taken from that previously referred to. 

Barkston Church, Lincolnshire. Assoc. Arch. Soc. Reports, ix. 23. 
Belton Church, Suffolk. Arch. Journal, xxi. 218. 
Canterbury Cathedral, Kent. Duncan's Canterbury, 47. 
Crostwight Church, Norfolk. "Norfolk Archceology, ii. 352. 
.Croydon Church, Surrey. Archaeological Journal, ii. 267. 
Cullumpton, Devonshire, Church of St. Andrew. Exeter Dloc. Archi- 
tect. Soc., iii. 264, 268. 
Ditteridge Church, Wilts. Archaeological Journal, xii. 195. 



1 Copied in Jackson's Treatise on Wood Engraving; also in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for August, 1839 ; and Agincourt's Histoire 
de I' Art, &c. 

2 The date on this is a subject of much dispute. It appears to read 
" Millesimo CCCC XX tercio " in Agincourt's copy. Without enter- 
ing into this question, which has been so much debated, I will venture 
to state that the style of the work more nearly resembles that found at 
the end of the fifteenth century. 



IN NEWDIGATE CHURCH, SURREY. 67 

Drayton Church, Norfolk. Norfolk Archceology, iii. 24. 
Feering Church, Essex. Brit. Arch. Association Journal, ii. 190. 
Fritton Church, Norfolk. Norfolk Archceology, iv. 345. 
Gawsworth Church, Cheshire. Norfolk Archceology, v. 222. 
Horley Church, Banbury, Oxfordshire. Archaeological Journal, 

xiii. 416. 
Melcombe Horsey Church, Dorsetshire. Archaeological Journal, iii. 

265. 

Norwich, St. Giles's Church. 

Norwich, St. Etheldred's Church. Norfolk Archceology, v. 120. 
Reading, Berkshire, Church of St. Lawrence. Civil Engineer and 

Architects' Journal, 1851, p. 195. 
Salisbury Cathedral, Wilts. Hungerford Chapel. Hoai-e, South 

Wiltshire, vi. 542. 

Shorwell, Isle of Wight. Brit. Arch. Association Journal, iii. 85. 
Somerford Keynes Church, Wilts. 
Stedham Church, Sussex. Sussex Arch. Coll., iv. 1. 
Stow Bardolph Church, Norfolk. Norfolk Archceology, iii. 136, 138. 
Watford Church, Herts. Brit. Arch. Association Journal, iv. 71. 
Wells Church, Norfolk. Norfolk Archceology, v. 84. 
Whimple Church, Devon. Trans, fixeter Dioc. Architect. Society, 

iv. 51. 

Wimbotsham, Norfolk. Norfolk Archceology, ii. 136. 
Winchester, St. John's Church. 
Winchester, St. Laurence's Church. Brit. Arch. Association Journal, 

x. 80 ; vi. 184. 
Witton Church, Norfolk. Norfolk Archceol. Coll., vi. 40. 

An example was also found at Hengrave, Suffolk, 
" Journ. of Brit. Arch. Association," i. 139. 

There is one, but much defaced, on a pier of the 
north side of the nave of St. Alban's Abbey church. 
In the church of West Wickham, Kent, on the 
borders of the two counties of Kent and Surrey, among 
some exceedingly interesting remains of painted glass, 
date about 1480, is a figure of St. Christopher. The 
head and expression is so well designed, that it will 
favourably compare with any of the figures among the 
boasted Pairford windows, whilst in precision of execu- 
tion, and even in style, it is certainly superior to the 
greater number in that series. I do not know of any 
example of St. Christopher strictly belonging to me- 
dieval art which is so good. In Knockmoy Abbey, 
Sligo, Ireland, an example has been found. It is re- 
corded in the " Archaeological Journal," xx. 180. In 

P2 



68 ON A PAINTING OF ST. CHEISTOPHER 

the interesting little church of Northolt, Middlesex, one 
was discovered about ten years ago, similarly situated to 
that at Newdigate ; it was unhappily destroyed against 
the wish of the rector, and was not recorded by any 
sketch or drawing. 

In the art of the Eastern Church St. Christopher does 
not seem to occupy so much regard, and I must express 
my opinion that the legend itself belongs entirely to the 
West. The saint, however, is acknowledged, and in the 
" Manuel d'Iconographie Chretienne," p. 325, published 
by M. Didron, the directions for painting him are simply 
as " young and unbearded." In a note he says : "In 
Greece Saint Christopher is ordinarily represented like 
an Egyptian divinity, with the head of a dog or wolf. I 
have several times asked for an explanation, and no one 
has ever been able to give it to me. The Greeks of to-day, 
less believing than their ancestors, destroy or mutilate 
this dog's head, as I have remarked on a fresco of Saint 
Laura at Athens." So that neither in the recent mode, 
nor in the convention of ancient use, do we recognize 
anything analogous to the art of the West. This dis- 
crepancy not only gives colour to the idea that the legend 
is not known to the Eastern Church, but also that it is 
not of very remote antiquity. It is possibly not much 
older than the eleventh or twelfth century; but St. Chris- 
topher is said to have suffered martyrdom under Decius 
in the third century. 

Since the above was written, an amended list of paint- 
ings has been put in progress by the authorities of South 
Kensington, in which an addition of nine more churches 
containing representations of St. Christopher are given. 
They are as under : 

Ampney Crucis Church, Gloucestershire. 

Bartlow Church, Cambridgeshire. 

Bloxham Church, Oxfordshire. 

Bradfield Combust Church, Suffolk. 

Bemburg Church, Cheshire. Archceological Journ., xxiv. 67. 

Chesham, Bucks. 

Cirencester, St. Katherine's Chapel. 

Headington, Oxfordshire. Proceedings Soc. Antiq., 2nd series, ii. 316. 

Preston, Suffolk. 



IN NEWDIGATE CHURCH, SUEEEY. 69 

Also in the " Journal of the Royal Institution of Corn- 
wall," No. xiii., April, 1872, is the description of one 
found in Ludgvan church, 1740, with a drawing by Dr. 
Borlase, accompanied by some observations by the same. 
These are full of fancies which do not require any atten- 
tion ; but the work itself appears, from the drawing which 
Dr. Borlase made of it, to have some curious points. 
First, the saint is not moving, as usual, towards the left, 
but towards the right. The hermit stands in front of his 
oratory, holding out a lantern from a pole ; and above is 
this legend on a scroll: "Miror res minima carnis sit 
cleris ademta." Another scroll above the figure of St. 
Christopher has, " Dux geres mentem, quia tu fers cuncta 
regentem." A serpent curls round the base of the staff, 
which one on the shore seems attempting to hook ; and 
there is also the fisherman. But the most curious part 
of the Ludgvan painting was its association with what 
appears to be the story of Reynard the Fox. A door 
separated the two compositions, over which was the ora- 
tory of the hermit ; but the subjects were, in a manner, 
connected together by birds flying about, a dog or otter 
carrying a fish in its mouth, and a hare or rabbit. On 
the opposite side of the door are trees ; on one an owl is 
seated, birds pecking at its eyes, and below the fox car- 
rying off a goose. On another tree he is caught and being 
hanged by the geese. This must have been an exceed- 
ingly rare instance of the fable of the Fox being introduced 
on the walls of a church, still more curious its being asso- 
ciated with the legend of St. Christopher. 

Fragments of a St. Christopher appear to have been 
found at My lor, in the same county, 1869. 



LIMPSFIELD CHURCH. 

BY MAJOR HEALES, F.S.A. 



rpHE Annual Excursion of this Society in 1865 included 
X a visit to Limpsfield Church. It was found to be a 
building which had previously suffered so much that doubt 
was felt by the Committee as to the desirability of halting 
there ; but it happened to fall in with the route which 
was fixed for other reasons, and an account of the church 
and its registers was subsequently published. 1 

During the summer of the past year (1871) consider- 
able works upon the building have been effected, and it 
has been, what in domestic phrase would be spoken of, 
as ""turned inside out." The result has afforded some 
additional information respecting the structure which it 
may be well to place before the Society by way of a brief 
supplement to the account of the church already pub- 
lished ; and it will not be without interest to note how 
far the account given proves to be correct when the 
building is seen stripped of the whole of the plaster with 
which the walls had been covered. 

The chancel was certainly somewhat later than the 
tower, nave, and aisle, which present the appearance 
of dating from the latter end of the twelfth century, 
while the chancel is distinctly of the Early English 
style. The difference of date was very manifest upon an 
examination of the masonry of the north-east angle of 
the tower, which runs up independently, while the wall 
of the chancel is built up against, and not completely 

1 Proceedings of this Society, vol. iv. p. 238. 



LIMPSFIELD CHURCH. 71 

bonded into it. There is always very great difficulty in 
determining the age of a wall, in consequence of the fact 
that windows and doors and the ornamental work to 
which we are enabled to attach a date were often inserted 
in earlier walls ; and sometimes, on the other hand, an 
early feature may be retained and rebuilt in a later wall, 
though this is very unusual in the case of anything but 
a Norman doorway, which seems to have been generally 
treated with exceptional favour. It is only when we see 
a bare wall which has been stripped of its plaster that we 
can, by an examination of the masonry, feel any absolute 
certainty of the comparative age of different parts of a 
building. 

In the north. wall of the tower was a plain flat soffited 
arch, built up at the time when visited by the Society, but 
now reopened to the chancel. The form of the arch, 
and the fact of its being cut straight through the wall, 
without even the edges chamfered, indicate a date of the 
earliest pointed architecture. In my previous account of 
the church there is mention of a doorway in the tower 
near the east end of the north wall, conjectured to have 
led, through the thickness of the wall, over the arch and 
to the Rood-loft. Its head is segmental-pointed, higher 
on one side than the other ; a form not unlikely to occur 
in a staircase doorway in a confined situation, or else in 
a hagioscope. When denuded of plaster, this, which had 
previously been supposed to be a doorway, appeared 
from the masonry to have been merely a recess. That 
it was not the entrance to stairs leading up to the Rood- 
loft is further indicated by the fact that the stripped wall 
showed no sign of any upper outlet. The height of this 
recess from the ground and its small dimensions, as 
well as the nature of the walling which the passage (had 
there been one) must have traversed, were circumstances 
adverse to the original conjecture. The hypothesis that 
it was a hagioscope is also untenable ; the appearance 
of the masonry, and the fact that in passing through the 
wall it would have cut through the chancel string-course 
which, however, is uninjured are together fatal. 

But what it really was is by no means easy to conjee- 



72 LIMPSFJELD CHUKCH. 

ture. It is improbable in the extreme that such a form 
of head would .have been chosen for a niche, unless on 
account of some special circumstances, of which there is 
here no indication. 

Within the walls of the tower were marks of a par- 
close or screen once crossing the western arch between 
the tower and aisle. The section of moulding, which by 
some oversight is labelled as being the section of cap 
of west respond, is the impost of this arch ; it runs 
straight through the wall, although the arch is recessed 
and widely chamfered. The section of base is correctly 
described as that of the west respond. 

The doorway in the east wall of the tower, which, I 
am informed, was cut about the year 1827 as an entrance 
to the vestry then built, is now plastered over, and the 
bench-table continued across it. I am also informed that 
the window previously in the east wall of the tower was 
removed and inserted in the vestry. 

The piscina in the south wall of the tower is extremely 
rude ; its head is an irregular flattened semi-ellipse ; it 
is spoken of in my former notes as being very late. 
Some persons suppose it to be of the original work of 
the tower, but it is impossible to say with certainty. 

In this side of the tower a window of two lights in the 
style of transition from Early English to Geometric has 
been substituted for the poor one with a brick mullion 
which had at some previous time been there inserted. 

The vestry which adjoined the chancel and tower was 
of no particular interest, and has been removed. 

In the south side of the chancel, the two lancets, 
placed (as will be seen on a reference to the anastatic 
sketch accompanying the original description of the 
church) at an unusually high level for a chancel of these 
dimensions, have been reopened. This became practi- 
cable in consequence of the removal of the vestry. The 
splay of their jambs was discovered to be painted, per- 
haps coevally. It is simply a division by red lines like 
stonework, and in the centre of each little compartment 
a dark green cinquefoil flower : it is well preserved. 

A very remarkable little window has been discovered 



LIMPSFIELD CHUECH. 73 

east of the piscina. It measures only 1 ft. 10 in. high by 
barely 4 in. wide in the clear, splayed equally on either 
side to a total width of 2 ft. 7 in., and ending on the east 
side within 2 in. of the face of the east wall. Its lancet 
head is cut in a single stone. The cill slopes downwards 
moderately to within 18 in. of the present floor, which, 
judging by the sedilium, is about 10 in. lower than the 
original level. The window-cill must, therefore, have 
been only about 8 in. from the floor. On the other 
hand, it must be noted that the base of the north door- 
way would appear to indicate no alteration of level, but 
the date of the doorway cannot positively be fixed. Any 
person on the exterior of the church must kneel or stoop 
very low in order to look through the window, arid 
would then command a view of the end of the altar. 
The window was glazed, and I could perceive no indi- 
cation whatever of a shutter. From this it seems to me 
conclusively that it was not one of the class of windows 
termed lychnoscope. 

Over the piscina, but not exactly over its head, is a 
rectangular recess 15^ in. wide X 12 high X 14 deep, 
but the back was probably filled in 4 in. with plaster. 
Its head is formed by the string-course. 

It was thought that the doorway west of the sedilium 
(as shown in the sketch), was not originally a doorwayj 
and it has been filled up. 

A most remarkable similarity to this side of the chancel 
occurs at Stowe Bardolph, Norfolk. There is first (from 
the west) a doorway 1 much like that at Limpsfield, but 
the head segmental-pointed. Next are three graduated 
sedilia, and then a very wide piscina, with segmental- 
pointed head. In continuation of the range is a widely- 
splayed lancet, apparently almost as small as that at 
Limpsfield ; it is however on a rather higher level, both 
at head and cill, than the piscina ; it is not so close to 
the face of the east wall, from which there may be a 
space of about 18 inches to the splay of the window. 
Over the piscina and part of the highest sedilium, is a 

1 Engraved in The Builder for 15th Dec., 1849. 



74 LIMPSFIELD CHURCH. 

large, broad lancet window. The date of the Stowe 
Bardolph chancel is not much later than that at Limps- 
field, and the general resemblance is striking : the level 
of the flooring has evidently been somewhat altered. 

The window in the east end of the chancel, as will be. 
seen on referring back to our view of the church, was of 
the latest Perpendicular date. Upon the removal of the 
plaster of that wall, features of considerable interest 
were discovered. Over the altar there had been a 
reredos, the precise design of which was not very 
clearly distinguishable ; there remained a stone framing 
about 7 ft. wide by 3 ft. 5 in. high, roughly filled in with 
brickwork, and in the chamfer of each jamb was a tre- 
foiled panel. On each side of the window beyond the 
splay, was a good-sized niche for a statue, below which, 
merely separated by a thin shelf of stone, it was carried 
down in the form of an aumbry. Below the level of the 
east window there are two recesses ; the one in the centre 
of the east wall, behind the altar itself, is segmental-headed 
and wider than high, measuring 1 ft. 7 in. high by 2 ft. 1 in. 
wide, and 1 ft. 5 in. deep, and has a rabbet for a door : 
it was probably a reliquary, though reliquaries are ex- 
tremely rare in English churches ; but examples may be 
found, such as the remarkable instance at Sompting, 
Sussex. The other recess is situated close to the south 
end of the east wall ; it is of the same form, 1 ft. 5 in. 
high by 1 ft. 11 in. wide, and 1 ft. 5 in. deep. It may 
possibly have served as a credence. 

When the plaster was stripped off the east wall, it was 
found that there remained on the outside the cills of 
three lancet windows, the outer jambs of the side ones, 
and part of their heads ; and on the inside, the inner 
jambs of the side ones. 

It therefore appeared clearly that there had originally 
been a triplet of lancets, subsequently removed to give 
place to the window and reredos to which we have 
adverted : the latter have been removed and a triplet of 
lancets substituted. The inner jambs mentioned were 
found to have been painted at three successive dates : 
the original Early English, the same as that now pre- 



LIMPSFIELD CHURCH. 75 

served on south windows of chancel ; over that a scroll 
painting about a century later ; and over that again a 
painting of pomegranates of Perpendicular date. The 
painting was not in good preservation, and when exposed 
to the weather by the removal of the covering of the 
roof and upper part of the east wall, the attempt to pre- 
serve it proved fruitless. 

Taken together, the whole east end formed, with the 
window, a reredos of very late Perpendicular date. Such 
examples in English parish churches are extremely un- 
common ; but a very fine one, also of Perpendicular date, 
though earlier, exists at Reigate, whereof such part of 
the tabernacle-work as projected had been cut away, the 
hollows filled up, and the whole covered with a level 
surface of plaster, perfectly concealing the work until 
nearly thirty years ago, when it was discovered and re- 
opened, and the original stonework cleaned, so that it 
now presents an excellent and interesting feature in that 
fine church. 

On the north side of the chancel it was discovered that 
what in the north chantry had the appearance of a 
blocked piscina, was a small doorway through the wall 
to the chancel very near the east end. The doorway in 
this very unusual position, is splayed outwards from the 
chancel, and the door itself was close to the chancel face 
of the wall, .and it opened outwards towards the chapel. 

Discoveries were also made in the chantry. In the 
east wall two jambs, similar to those found in the chancel, 
were discovered ; in consequence of which the subsequent 
late window, seen in our view, has been superseded by a 
triplet corresponding with that now in the chancel ; an 
unusual feature. Near the south end of the east wall is 
a rectangular aumbry with rabbet. Not far from the 
east end of the north wall, was discovered a doorway 
jamb. The two-light square-headed window near it, 
mentioned in our former notes, is early in the Perpen- 
dicular style. There was sufficient evidence to show 
that there had been originally three single lancets in the 
north wall. The buttress which was put to strengthen 
the wall blocked one, and the two-light window was 



76 LBirSFIELD CHURCH. 

probably substituted for the other, to give more light. 
The doorway in the north wall was very likely blocked 
at the same date. 

In the south aisle of the church, the discovery was 
made, beneath the two-light window, of a double lychno- 
scope, each wider than usual and nearly square ; the 
hinges remained. The class of window called lychno- 
scope almost invariably occurs in the chancel, or else, 
less commonly, near the east end of an aisle ; so that 
this is a very peculiar example. 

On the north side of the chancel arch was discovered a 
doorway with a four-centred head, probably early Tudor 
work. 

I am informed that when the north aisle was built 
(in 1852) steps were found in the thickness of the wall, 
which then formed the west wall of the chantry, but I 
am unable to ascertain anything further respecting them. 
As a conjecture I should suggest that the staircase lead- 
ing up to the Rood-loft may have run up here, in which 
case, the upper Rood doorway (on the south) may have 
been intended merely as a means of access, by way of 
the loft, to the upper part of the tower. There was no 
upper doorway on the north perceptible, but this part of 
the building seems to have had alterations made in it, 
as appears by the Perpendicular doorway north of the 
chancel arch. 

The facts thus ascertained, in consequence of the works 
of " restoration " effected in the past year, confirm what 
was previously stated respecting the earlier history of 
the building. The present nave, south aisle and tower 
at its end, are the oldest parts, being of the date of tran- 
sition from the round-arched to the pointed style ; the 
chancel and north chantry were Early English. An 
early Perpendicular window was inserted in the north 
wall of the chantry, and in the chancel the reredos and 
east window inserted at a later date. In 1852 the north 
arcade and aisle were built, the old chancel arch re- 
placed by that which now exists ; and when visited by 
the Society, the church generally had a modernized 
appearance. 



LIMPSPIELD CHUKCH. 77 

The gallery, which we mentioned as stretching across 
the west end of the -nave and north aisle and spoiling 
the effect of the large window, has now happily been 
removed. The font is moved to the north side of the 
west pillar, on the south side of the nave. 

The facts mentioned as having been ascertained by an 
examination of the masonry were noted in the autumn of 
1871. They are not all now observable in consequence 
of the interior walls having been re-plastered. 

Beneath the flooring in the chancel there was dis- 
covered a censer, which I have not been fortunate enough 
to see, but I am informed that it is of bronze, and dates 
from the twelfth century. It is, however, at present in 
the possession of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 
who intend to publish an engraving of it in their 
"Proceedings." 

The timber roofs have all been brought to light during 
the restoration. The nave roof is a fine example of the 
cradle-form. The triplet in the chantry is filled with 
glass by Clayton and Bell : open seats of oak have been 
substituted for the former high pews, and the floor has 
been laid with ornamental tiles. The works had been 
carried out with much care under the direction of Mr. 
J. L. Pearson, the architect. 

The upper windows in the tower have been restored 
with stone and lengthened to their original proportions, 
which had brick jambs. 



STJEEET ETYMOLOGIES, 

BY GRANVILLE LEVESON-GOWEK, ESQ., F.S.A. 



TANDRIDGE HUNDRED. Part I. 

BLETCHINGLEY. 

LETCHINGLEY ; Domesday Survey, Blachingelei ; 1 
J3 Charter cir. Edw. I., Blaschingel. 2 Derived probably 
from the clan or family of the Blascings, the suffix lea or 
ley being the open forest-glade. Compare Bletchington, 
in Oxfordshire ; Bleccingden, in Kent ; and Blachingdon, 
in Sussex ; and in Germany, Blochingen. 3 

CIVENTON, now Chivington, formerly the principal 
manor; Domesday Survey, Civentone. The " Ton," 
the enclosure or dwelling of the Cifings, the family 
whose name appears in Chevington, in Worcestershire ; 
Chevington, Suffolk ; and Chevigny and Chevincourt, in 
France ; 4 and possibly Chevening, in Kent. 

GAKSTON, a manor in the parish, giving name to a 
family living there temp. Hen. III. In Coulsdon is a place 
of the same name, Garston Hall, and in the Saxon Charters 
occurs "Pratumque quod Saxonice Garstun appellatur," 5 
referring to a place in Sussex. It is probably derived 
from gcers or grces, grass, and signifies the grass enclosure, 
or meadow. 6 

1 Manning and Bray, Hist. Surrey, vol. ii. p. 291. 

2 Id., vol. ii. p. 266 (Plate). 

3 Taylor, Words and Places, App., p. 500. 

4 Id., App., p. 501. 

5 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. cccl. 

6 Leo, Names of Places, p. 20 ; and Lower, Contributions to Literature, 
" Local Nomenclature," p. 33. 



SUKBEY ETYMOLOGIES. 79 

PENDELL, or PENDHILL, derived by Manning l from pen, 
a head, and dell, a dale. Taylor 3 refers it to the Celtic 
pen and the Saxon hill, two synonymous words, and 
cites Pendle Hill, in Lancashire ; Penhill, in Somerset- 
shire and Dumfries-shire. I am unwilling to accept 
either of these derivations ; in the first place, because 
(except in the case of river names) I do not believe 
that any Gaelic or Celtic forms of words are to be found 
in the county of Surrey, so purely Saxon a county ; and 
in the next place, it is inappropriate as a description of 
the place. There is no evidence that the range of hills, 
or any one of them, to the north of the house, was ever 
called Pendhill : the old residence to which the name 
belongs is situated in the valley some way from the foot 
of the chalk range. I think that its origin is to be 
referred to the Anglo-Saxon pyndan* to fence or enclose 
in. It would, therefore, be either peond lea, the enclosed 
forest glade, a name in every way applicable to it, as 
distinguished from the dense wooded valley by which 
it would be surrounded, or peond hull, the dwelling 
enclosed from the wood. From peond comes our word 
pound, and pinder a pound-keeper. 

HAM, a large farm, formerly a residence of note, lying 
by itself, and completely surrounded by the land of other 
parishes. This word, which is so common as a suffix, is 
not so often found alone. There is a Ham Farm in West 
Wickham. A farm in Westerham, temp. Elizabeth, was 
called Hames^; and the fortress of Ham, in Picardy, was 
where tho firot Napoleon was confined. It is here not 
the ham, or home, but ham, signifying an enclosure, " that 
which hems in," not very different from ton, or worth. 4 
" In the. country of the Angles, as well as here [in North 
Friesland]," says Outzen, " every enclosed place is called 
a hamm." 5 

1 Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 306. 

2 Words and Places, p. 212. 

3 Leo, Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 3. 

4 Taylor, Words and Places, pp. 123-4. 

'Glossary of^the Frisian Language, p. 113. See also Leo on Anglo- 
Saxon Names, pp. 38-41. 



80 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

STANGRAVE, an ancient manor, giving its name to a 
family. The word graft or grafe, says Leo, was applied 
to an estate in which the boundary-marks were buried in 
the ground. It may be the siane-grdf, or estate, marked 
with boundary-stones. 1 Graf, or graf, however, signifies 
also a pit, so that it is more probably the stone-pit. In 
J>a stan graffen is translated by the editor of Leo's work 
" in the stone-pits." Or, again, graf is like our word 
grove, and it may be the stony wood ; if so, it would be 
the same as Stony Shot, the name of a wood in Limps- 
field. There is a manc/r and place of the same name in 
the parish of Edenbridge, in Kent. 

BREWER STREET, an old line of road upon which 
stood the Manor House. It is spelt in a Court Roll 
of 1608 Brewhouse Street, and is probably a corruption 
of that. 

WARWICK WOLD, or WARWICK WOOD, may be the War or 
Wer-Wic, the enclosure in the marsh, a name which its 
situation would justify, inasmuch as it is at no great dis- 
tance from the marshy land which forms a continuation 
of Nutfield Marsh. In the Codex some land in Kent is 
mentioned, called " Wiwarawic," and there a marsh is 
specially spoken of. 3 We meet with the prefix war, from 
which our word weir is derived, in Ware, in Hertford- 
shire ; 4 Wareham, in Dorsetshire, &c. ; and wic, as Leo 
points out, 5 is connected with wdc, soft, and is to be 
distinguished from ivic, a village. 

BLACK BUSHES, the name of a coppice, is one of the 
many instances in which we find the designation black. 
In a Court Roll of the Manor of Bletchingley, of 1680, we 
find " Blacke Brooke " in the same part of the parish, 
and the name by which the land under the chalk hills, 
the Gait, is locally known, is the black lands. There is 
a field in Titsey called Blacklands, and in Crowhurst we 
meet with Black Grove. Black Down is the name of the 

1 Leo, Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 110. 

2 Id., p. 110. 

5 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart, cclxxxi. 

4 Taylor, Words and Places, p. 304. 

5 Leo, Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 98. 



SUREEY ETYMOLOGIES. 81 

high hill in Sussex beyond Haslemere, and there is Black- 
ham Common in Hartfield, Sussex. 

G-EEAT and LITTLE TILGATES, the name formerly of two 
commons on the west side of the parish towards Nut- 
field, and still retained. It is the same word which we 
meet with in Tilgate Forest, in Sussex ; and we find the 
same prefix in Tilburstow, in Godstone, and Tylmun- 
desden, a lost manor in the same parish ; but the mean- 
ing of it I cannot explain. 

MITCHENALLS, ah. MiTCHENHALL; probably a patronymic. 

BAEEFIELDS ; called Burrfields in the Survey of the 
Manor of 1680 : so called possibly from the burr, the 
local name of a species of stone. 

LITTLE PIGHTLE. This word is explained to be a small 
meadow or enclosure ; x but I think it implies that there 
was a homestead attached to it. We find a field of that 
name in Crowhurst, mentioned in a Court Koll of 1388, 2 
and the word is of constant occurrence. In the Anglo- 
Saxon Charters we have a place called " Pittelle," 8 and 
" Pyttellesford," in Somersetshire. 4 In the will of John 
Colet, Dean of St. Paul's, dated 1519, occurs this passage : 
" I will that my feoffees in those my said lands, tene- 
ments, reliefs, escheats, ' pighyts,' meadows," &c. In a 
Court Roll of the Manor of Titsey, 15 Eic. II., Robert 
Heyman holds one " pightell," and Pitch Funt, in Titsey, 
is a corruption of " Pitteles Funt," the spring at the 
Pightle. 

LONG SHOTT is perhaps the long wood. The Prior 
of Merton formerly possessed a messuage and lands in 
Horley called Longshott. Taylor derives it 5 from the 
word holt, German holz, a wood, which we find in 
Knockholt, and in a farm in "Warlingham, called Row- 
holtes, and transposed in the same way in Bagshot, 
Aldershot, Bramshot, in Stony Shot, the name of a 
wood, and "Winshot, the name of a hill in Limpsfield. 
A farm in Westerham, temp. Elizabeth, was called Shots, 

1 Halliwell, Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 

2 In my possession. 

3 Kemble, Codex Diplom., Cart. 984. 4 Id., Cart. 484. 
5 Words and Places, p. 360. 

VOL. VI. G 



82 SURBET ETYMOLOGIES. 

and the name occurs in several fields on a farm in 
Wandsworth. 

BOTEEAS HILL. The hill by Nutfield windmill ; so called 
in the Survey of 1680. I can suggest no derivation. 

FAENEHILL (Survey, 1680) is the fern hill. The suffix 
Fearn, or Fern, is of constant occurrence : we have it 
in Fearnlega, now Farley, in Surrey ; Farley Common, 
at Westerham ; Farley Heath, in Albury;.and Farley 
Heath, near Bramley ; besides the numerous Farn- 
boroughs. 

WOMAN'S LAND. There seems to have been in many 
places a piece of debatable ground not ascertained to 
belong either to one parish or another. The word occurs 
no less than eight times in the Anglo-Saxon Charters ; l 
and in a Court Roll of the Manor of Titsey, 8 Hen. IV., 
land is mentioned called " Woman's Land," between the 
domain of Lymnesfeld and Tytsey. In this case, it is 
land on the border of Nutfield parish. 

BAVINGTONS, a name still existing, must be referred to 
the family of the Babingas, whom we find in Babbingley, 
Norfolk, and Babington, Somersetshire, and in three 
places of the name of Babbingden, Babbinglond, and 
Babbingthorn in the Anglo-Saxon Charters. 2 

TUNBEIGGES FAEM (Survey, 1680), and still the name of 
certain lands, recalls the time when the castle and manor 
were the property of the family of de Tonbridge. Richard 
de Tonbridge was Lord of the Manor temp. Domesday 
Survey. 

KITCHIN CEOFT (Survey, 1680), a wood on the confines 
of Burstow. The name occurs frequently. There is a 
coppice of the same name in the north part of the parish, 
and on Cheverell's Farm, in Titsey, is a wood called 
Kitchin Croft, and one of the same name in Limpsfield, 
and a Kechin Field in Crowhurst, mentioned in an early 
Court Roll. I can give no explanation of its meaning. 

POUNDHILL, a wood on the hill immediately south of 
the railway line, still so called, and mentioned in the 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 61, 150, 233, 265, 420, 520, 570, 
1363. 2 j dfj cart. 187, 195, 685, 1222. 



SUEBEY ETYMOLOGIES. 83 

Survey of 1680, must be referred to the same root as 
Pendhill, 1 namely, peondan, to enclose. There is a 
Pound Wood on the confines of Crowhurst and Tandridge 
parishes, and a Poundhill to the north of Worth. 

WILMOTES LANE, a lane leading to Home. This name 
is probably that of some possessor of land in the place. 
We find a farm of the name in Lingfield. 

PENNOX HILL (Survey, 1680). I can give no derivation 
of this name, unless it be also a patronymic. I find in 
the " Testa de Nevill " a Nicholas de Pinnux holding three 
parts of a fee in Camber well. 

DAEBYS (Survey, 1680). Customary lands near God- 
stone Green. This is merely a patronymic. I find 
Derby one of the customary tenants of the manor. 

WHITEHILL (Survey, 1680). So called, no doubt, from 
its appearance, being one of the. chalk range. The many 
chalk lanes about the country are usually designated 
" White Lane." There are two lanes in Titsey so 
called. 

STYCHINS, or LE STYCHENS (Survey, 1680). There is 
some land still so called. In the Anglo-Saxon Charters 
we find a place called " Stichensece." 

TYLEE'S GEEEN. Now a small enclosure adjoining 
Godstone Green. It is from the Saxon tigel, a tile, or 
a vessel made of clay ; and Tyler's Green would be the 
Potter's Green. The Tuileries is simply the Potteries. 

COLD HAEBOPE, Great Cold Harbour (Survey, 1680). 
The name of a farm on a high point of the sand-ridge 
overlooking the Weald. I am disposed to agree with 
Mr. Flower, 3 in his opinion as to the origin of the name, 
which Dr. Leo had first suggested, 4 and the more so inas- 
much as the former has shown that it is not a very ancient 

1 See before, page 2. 2 Kemble, Codex Dip., Cart. 824. 

3 "Surrey Etymologies," Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. iii. pp. 242-4. 

4 Leo, Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 23. The editor remarks in the note 
that the numerous Cold Harbours are for the most part placed in shel- 
tered situations, a statement which is not at all borne out, as far as my 
experience goes. All the Cold Harbours that I know, with very few 
exceptions, are on high exposed ground. 

G2 



84 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

name. In the second Part of the Hundred of Tandridge, 
in noticing the name under Titsey Parish, I hope to be 
able to give a correct list of all the Cold Harbours in the 
county, noticing at the same time their situation. Besides 
those mentioned by Mr. Flower, and the one mentioned 
by Mr. Godwin- Austen 1 in Cranley, there is one between 
Maldon and Ewell, another near Leith Hill, and the name 
of one of the manors in Camber well was Cold Harbour, 
or Cold Alley. 2 In Sussex there is a Little Cold Harbor 
below Worth, and in Kent a Cold Harbor near Pens- 
hurst, and a Cold Harbor Farm between Brenchley and 
Lamberhurst. These punning names, says Leo, are at 
all times of rare occurrence ; 3 and no doubt, as regards 
Anglo-Saxon names, this remark is just ; but in the 
Middle Ages such names were very commonly given, and 
are so at the present time. A word in every respect 
cognate to Cold Harbour is " Hungry Haven," the name 
of a very poor field in an exposed situation on Botley 
Hill Farm, in the parish of Limpsfield. Other such names 
are Mount Misery, Starve Acre, Small Profits, Nevergood 
Wood, a wood in Home; Hunger Hill, between Rusper and 
Warnham, in Sussex ; and the numerous Long Bobbins, 
Black Bobbins, Red Robbins, which are popularly under- 
stood, whether rightly or wrongly, to mean the land that 
robs you. Star-naked for stark-naked is a common name 
for a field in Norfolk. 

NORTH and SOUTH PARK, the names now of two farms, 
one at the north and the other at the south end of 
the parish, recall the existence of two large parks, or 
enclosures, which formerly existed in Bletchingley. In 
an Extent of the Manor of Bletchingley, 35 Edw. I., 4 
mention is made of two parks, worth yearly, with the 
pannage, 7. In the Survey of 1680 it was presented 
"that the demeasnes of the Manor did heretofore consist 
of two Parkes, formerly called the little Parke and great 

1 " Surrey Etymologies," Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. v. part i. p. 12. 

2 Manning, Hist, of Surrey, vol. iii. p. 404. 

3 Leo, Anglo-Saxon Names of Places, p. 23. 

4 Chancery Inquis, P. M., 35 Edw. I., No. 47. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 85 

Parke, now called the North and South Parkes, but are 
now and have been for many years disparked and laid 
into several farms. North Parke is found to contain 
1135 acres and 22 perches, and South Parke 1681 acres 
and 8 perches." 

TYE COPSE. Tye is explained by Halliwell 1 to mean 
an extensive common pasture. We meet with it as a 
suffix in Brambletye, near East Grinstead ; Holtye, near 
Cowden, Kent ; and Eowtye, in Tatsfield. At Holtye 
there is a common, and Rowtye, although the name of a 
wood, is close by a piece of waste, and may formerly 
have been common land. Rowtye is also the name of a 

*/ 

wood in Addington, and the old name of Drover's Wood, 
in Limpsfield, was Tyes. 



HORNE. 

HORNE. Not mentioned in Domesday Survey; for- 
merly part of Bletchingley, but now a separate parish. 
In a charter of 2 Edw. III. it is spelt Hourne. In a 
charter of Cerbred, A.D. 852, is a place, probably in Rut- 
landshire, called Hornan. 2 We find Horns Hill at Rudg- 
wick, in Sussex ; Horns Acre in a part of Limpsfield 
Chart ; and the Horns is the name of a small enclosure 
, on Stafford's Wood, Limpsfield. Horn is the Saxon for 
a horn, and hence came to mean any projecting point or 
corner. I can suggest no better derivation than, that 
as it was formerly the projecting point or corner of 
Bletchingley parish, from this it acquired the name. 
Its situation, extending far south of Bletchingley, would 
justify such an appellation. 

HAEEOWSLEY, an old manor within the parish, written 
in old deeds Herewardslegh and Haroldyslegh. It is 
the ley of some Saxon possessor, either Hereward or 
Harold. 

THUNDEEFIELD COMMON. We find traces of the worship 

1 Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Woi'ds, in verbo. 

2 Kemble, Codex Dip., Cart, cclxvii. 



86 SUBBEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

of the Saxon god Thor, says Taylor, in the name of 
Thundersfield, in Surrey ; 1 two places called Thunders- 
leigh, in Essex, and one in Hants ; as well as Thund- 
ridge, in Herts, and Thunderhill, in Surrey. In the 
Saxon Charters, 3 a wood of the name of Thundersfield is 
mentioned at Sutton, in Surrey; and in another charter 3 
a place of the same name is given at Merstham. To the 
same source Thursley, a parish in the west of the county, 
is ascribed. A hill in Addington was formerly known as 
Thundring Hill. Kemble speaks of Thundersfield as one 
of the places where the gemot was held. 

BTSSHE COURT takes its name from the family of Byshe. 
In 1382 it was the property of Sir Thomas Byshe, of 
Burstow. 

EAST and WEST PAEK mark the sites (as at Bletchingley 
North and South Park) of two parks. On an inquisi- 
tion taken on the death of John de Wysham in 1334, it 
was found that he held a park in Home of 200 acres. 
These " parks," which are so common, come from the 
old Saxon pea/moc, parwg, and signify literally any place 
enclosed by a paling. They were originally large en- 
closures fenced in, but not, as we now understand the 
word, as the demesne attached to a residence. We have 
in Godstone parish Park Corner, near New Chapel, re- 
minding us of the park formerly attached to the manor 
of Hedge Court ; Old Park, in the same parish, a wood 
on the confines of Caterham ; Limpsfield Park, a farm in 
that parish ; Park Lane, in Titsey ; Farley Park, a large 
wood in that parish, and numerous others. 4 

HOENE COUBT. This is one of the many instances in 
which the appellation of " Court" attaches to the prin- 
cipal farmhouse in a parish. It is like " Place," a name 
very general in Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, but distin- 
guished from it in this way, that whereas " Place " is the 
principal residence, "Court" is usually either the farm 

1 Words and Places, p. 324. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., 363, 532. 3 Id., Cart. 413. 

4 In the Conveyance of Henden, in Kent, temp. Hen. VIII., is men- 
tion of a large park. See also " Surrey Etymologies," Surrey Arch. Coll., 
vol. v. part i. p. 12. . 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 87 

attached to the residence, and that went with the manor, 
or else a house in the village of secondary importance. 
Tandridge Court (now a principal residence, but formerly 
a farm), Oxted Court, Titsey Court, Chelsham Court, 
Upper and Nether Court (inWoldingham), Farley Court, 
Coulsdon Court, Chaldon Court all these are, or were, 
the principal farms in the parish. The term Court Lodge 
is very similar, though perhaps more strictly a Manor 
House. Caterham Court Lodge was the name of the 
house near the church ; Limpsfield Court Lodge, that 
of a farm appendant to the manor. The Courts for the 
manor were in former times probably held at these 
Court-houses, and many of them doubtless are so called 
from that cause. 1 

EOWBBECH is the rough beech-wood. The prefix TOW is 
met with in Row Tie, the name of a wood in Tatsfield 
parish; Rowholts, the name of a manor in Chelsham; 
Rowlands, in Limpsfield ; and in other places in the dis- 
trict. Rowfant, in the parish of Worth ; Rowhook, in 
Rudgwick ; and Rowland, in Lamberhurst, are other 
instances of the same suffix. Row is explained by Halli- 
well 2 to be an old word for rough, and he cites several 
passages in which it is so used. Mr. Godwin-Austen 
notices Rowley in Wbnersh. 3 

THE BREACHES LE BEEOHE, Rental, 1670. This word 
is explained by Stratmann 4 to be brdcha, a fallow field, 
and Halliwell 5 defines it as a plot of land preparing for 
another crop, and still used in this sense in Devon- 
shire. In an Extent of the manor of Limpsfield, made 
8 Hen. VI., a field is mentioned called le Breche, and 
Mr. Godwin- Austen notices the word under Ewhurst. 6 

DOWLANDS is possibly the dove lands a doive being an 
old English word for dove. 7 

1 In. Kent, however, many of the principal residences are called Court, 
e.g., Squerryes Court (in Westerham), Wickham Court, Sayes Court, &c. 

2 Halliwell, Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 

3 " Surrey Etymologies," Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. v. part i. p. 9. 

4 Dictionary of Old English, in verbo. 

5 Diet, of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo, 

6 " Surrey Etymologies," /Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. i. part i. p. 13. 

7 Diet, of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 



88 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

RIGHT, the name of a manor now lost. I can offer no 
explanation of it. 

HOOK STILE is the stile at the hoc, the heel or angle of 
the parish. This is the origin of the various Hook 
Woods we find. There is a place in Charlwood of that 
name, the residence formerly of the Sander family, and 
in Limpsfield, Hookwood or the Hook as it is popularly 
called is at the corner of that parish, where it joins 
Titsey. Mr. Godwin- Austen notices "Hook Street" 
under Alfold. 1 Hook is the name of a parish adjoining 
Thames Ditton and Kingston-on-Thames, Hook Farm 
in Dunsfold, Hook Green in Lamberhurst, Liphook 
in Hampshire, and Hocwold in Norfolk, are other 
instances of the word. At Amsterdam is a projection 
of land called the " Shrieger's Hoock," because at this 
point seamen embarked, and their friends were accus- 
tomed to lament or shriek at parting with them. 

TUDHAMS, the name of a farm, is probably a patronymic. 

PARADISE and OLD COAT are two of the punning class of 
names before alluded to. 2 

PUCKMIRE is suggestive of the deep clay of which the 
parish consists. Puck is old English for a sprite, 3 and 
occurs in Pook Hill, Rusper. 

LOSTLAND is like No-man's Land. Of Chithurst, als. 
Chitters, I can suggest no explanation. 

WHITEWOOD is probably from " waet," the wet wood, 
to which suffix some of the many Whitleys must be 
referred, though some are derived from "hwa3te," 
wheat. 

GOIflSTONE. 

GODSTONE. This place was originally known as 
Walkamsted, spelt in the Middle Ages Walkested, 
Wolkenestede, Wolkstede. It is mentioned in three of 
the Anglo-Saxon Charters. 4 Byrhtric (a Saxon) and 
CElfswith his wife, in 962, gave Wolkenestede to Wulf- 

1 " Surrey Etymologies," Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. v. part i. p. 14. 

3 See above, page 6. 3 See page 23. 

4 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 492, 593, 1242. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 89 

stan Ucca, and ten ploughlands at Stretton (in the 
parish) to the church of Wolnestede ; and Alfeah 
(965-975) bequeaths lands at Wolcnassstede. In 
Domesday it is written Wachelestede. Adhering to 
the original form of the word, it would seem to be 
derived from wolcn, a cloud, the genitive of which would 
be wolcnes, wolcnes-stede, the place of the cloud. This 
is not, I admit, a satisfactory explanation, and it may, 
like many others, be merely the name of a possessor. 

GODSTONE. The name by which the place is now, and 
has been long known, seems to have superseded the ori- 
ginal name after the formation of the high road from 
East Grinstead to Croydon, in the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth. The village after that time migrated from the 
church to its present position near the high road, and 
Godstone, Gatesden, or Coddesdon, formerly merely a 
hamlet, became the important place. In 30 Eliz., 1588, 
the place is mentioned as the Manor of Godston ; but 
as late as the year 1751, in the conveyance to Sir 
Kenrick Clayton, Bart., it is described as the Manor of 
Walkamsted, alias Godstone ; and it appears that in the 
Court Rolls it is still styled the Manor of "Walkamsted. 

CODESTON is, perhaps, the nearest in form to the 
present word. In the Anglo-Saxon Charters we meet 
with a place of the name of " Codestun," in Worcester- 
shire. 1 In a Charter of Richard le Forester, 2 dated 
Thursday before Palm Sunday, 16 Edw. I., he granted 
to Walter de "Coddestone" land called Stanbregglond, 
in the parish of Wolknestedene, and temp. Edw. II. we 
find a family of De Codestone, owners of the manors of 
Warlingham and Chelsham. Were it not for the remarks 
already made and the difficulty of admitting any Celtic 
roots, one would be disposed to refer the derivation to 
" coed," a wood, which Taylor 3 says we find in Cotswold, 
Catlow, and other places. The suffix is " stone," or 
" stane," some boundary-mark. 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 596, 660. 

2 Cart, penes J. Fetherston, F.S.A., Proceeding s of 'Society of 'Anti- 
quaries, March, 1868. 

3 Words and Places, p. 362. 



90 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

GATESDEN, which gave the name to a family of De 
Gatesden, is quite as likely to have been the origin of 
Godstone. It would signify the road or passage " gate " 
of the dene, or wooded valley, referring to the old Roman 
road or Stane Street which passes through this district of 
the parish. Taylor l says that the passes through lines 
of hill or cliff are frequently denoted by the root " gate." 
" Thus Reigate is a contraction of Bidgegate, the passage 
through the ridge of the North downs. Gatton is the 
town at the passage. Caterham and Godstone may pos- 
sibly be referred to the same root, as well as Gatcombe, 
in the Isle of Wight." The popular tradition that -the 
place is so called because a great part of the stone for 
the interior of Westminster Abbey was quarried here, 
may be classed among the many instances of the desire 
men have to assign a plausible meaning to names 2 
without stopping to inquire either into the accuracy of 
the tradition, or the antiquity of the name. 3 In this 
case, as far as I know, there is no record of the stone 
having been quarried here, but at Chaldon, and the 
name is Saxon, and therefore in use long anterior to 
the Middle Ages. Gatesden is referred by Leo to the 
goat. 

STRATTON, a residence in the parish, as also Stansted, 
marks the old road or street. Straettune is twice men- 
tioned by name in conjunction with Wolcnestede in the 
Anglo-Saxon Charters before referred to. 5 It is the 
" Ton " or dwelling on the " street " or road. 

LAGHAM. In the Middle Ages the residence of the 
St. Johns, having a moat, so Manning 6 tells us, enclosing 

1 Words and Places, p. 252 ; but at page 336 the same author, by an 
oversight, says that Godstone, in Surrey, like Godstow, near Oxford, 
and Godmundham, were probably pagan sites consecrated to Christian 
worship. This is rendered most improbable by the church having been 
always known as Walkamsted. 2 Id., p. 386. 

3 So Maidstone is popularly considered to be the maids' town, instead 
of, as it is in reality, the town on the Medway. 

4 Anglo-Saxon Names of Places, p. 13. 

5 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 492, 1242; and Taylor, Words and 
Places, p. 251. 

6 Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 323. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 91 

five or six acres. It is probably the laga-ham, or dwelling 
by the water. It is situated in a low, wet part of the 
parish. 

LEIGH PLACE, a principal residence in the parish, is 
the Meadow Place. Leigh is the name of a village near 
Tonbridge. 

HARDEN, written variously Merden and Muridene, is 
the Mearc, or Msere-dene, the boundary of the wooded 
valley, being situated at the point where the wooded 
valley ended and the open hill-country began. There 
are two places of the same name one near Pluckley, 
in Kent, and the other near Devizes, in Wilts, and the 
same prefix occurs in Merstham. In the Survey of 
Bletchingley, 1680, we find reference made to a " masre " 
stone in Copthorn, marked . with the letter B. Merrol 
Common, in Oxted, is spelt in the old deeds, Merehill, 
and is without doubt the " mere " or boundary-hill, 
being, as it is, on the confines of Limpsfield parish. 

NOBRIGHT, spelt also Norbrith or Noubrith. It is the 
Norfyrhft or " frith,' J or north wood. Close by is Nocote, 
which I suppose to be the North-cote* the North-cot, or 
cottage ; cote, as Leo points out, being originally a 
house of mud or of earth, with loam walls. A farm in 
Tatsfield, now known as Goddard's, is called in the 
Rental 1 of 1402 Nobright's tenement. 

HEDGE COURT and COVELINGLEY, a manor in the south 
part of the. parish, and partly in Home. The former 
is one of the many names of enclosures that we find 
Haga, Saxon, a hedge ; the Court being probably the 
place where the courts for the manor were held. 

COVELINGLEY. I can give no satisfactory derivation of 
this word. It would look, at first sight, like the name of 
a family the Couelings or Covelings. No such patro- 
nymic is, however, given either by Kemble or Taylor in 
their list. In an Inquisition of 1313, this district is 
mentioned by the name of Lindelegh, and in a deed of 
1366 we find a wood called Lynle. Supposing this to be 
the right orthography, it would seem to connect it with 

1 Leo, Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 55. 



92 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

" Lind," the linden, or lime-tree ; but it is more pro- 
bably "Lingley," and derived, as Lingfield, from the 
"ling" or heather, which is very abundant in this part 
of the parish. The prefix may be merely " Cow," which 
we find in Cowling and Cowden, in Kent, and many 
other places. 

FELLBRIDGE and FELLCOTJRT, originally written Felcote. 
A field, or feld, as Taylor points out, 1 is in its primary 
sense a place where the trees have been felled. Fell- 
bridge, then, is the bridge at the " clearing " of the 
wood ; Fellcote, the cottage at the " clearing." 

NEW CHAPEL. Manning 2 refers this name to the 
chapel which is mentioned in a conveyance of Hedge 
Court from Hugh Craan to Nicholas de Louvaine, in 
1366, and cites a farm called Chapel Farm not far off. 
This latter is an old name, and is, no doubt, to be 
referred to this source ; but the name of New Chapel 
is, I think, derived from a chapel built at this spot by 
Mr. James Evelyn in 1787. 

TILBURSTOW, the name of an open heath and fir planta- 
tion, as well as of a hill on the East Grinstead road. 
The latter part of the wood is probably the " bearo " or 
" byru stow," the enclosure of the wood. This word, 
written "beru" in Kemble's Charters, means a fruitful, 
productive wood, supplying mast for fattening pigs. 3 
Hence the origin of the name of the neighbouring parish 
of Burstow. There was formerly in this parish a manor 
of Tylmundesden, as appears by an Inquisition taken 
upon the death of John de Borewyk, in 1314, in 
which it was found that Hegge Court was held of the 
Manor of Tylmundesden. 4 We meet with the prefix 
Til, in Tilgate, before alluded to ; in Tilbersford and 
Tilmundshoo, in Sussex. 

THE RIPPS, a piece of common adjoining. The same 
name occurs in Limpsfield of a portion of the common. 
It has been erroneously derived from the Roman ripce. 

1 Words and Places, p. 160, and note. 

2 Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 332. 

- 3 Leo, Anglo-Saxon Names, pp. 103-105. 
4 Manning, Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 331. 



SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 93 

These old names are never Roman, and in the case of 
these two places the word would have no meaning. 
Taylor 1 says, " at Kipley, in Yorkshire, we have a 
founder, Hryp." Ripley, in Surrey, may probably be 
from the same root, and, for want of any better deriva- 
tion, I must ascribe the two names above to the same 
mythical personage. In two charters of Ethelbert, 
relating to lands in Kent, 2 we find mention of a wood 
called Bipp, or Khip, near Lyminge. North Repps and 
South Repps are parishes in Norfolk. 

ENTEEDEN. This is a local name, which I have not met 
with in any writings. It should probably be written 
" Enta " or " Anta," meaning the giant's dene. The 
names of fierce, fabulous creatures, says Leo, 3 are coupled 
with wild, dismal places. This spot would come under 
that category, being a deep glen, at the entrance of 
which are remains of earthworks, consisting of a bank 
and deep double ditch. In the Saxon Charters 4 we meet 
with " Enta die," the giant's ditch, and " Enta hlew," the 
giant's mound. 

WONHAM Wodnes-ham. We have a place of the 
same name, a manor in Betchworth parish. Names like 
these, says Mr. Kemble, 5 attest the general recognition 
and wide dispersion of Woden's influence. He derives 
Wanborough, near Guildford, Wonersh, and Woden Hill, 
on Bagshot Heath, from the same source. Wonston, in 
Hampshire, Wonstrow, in Somersetshire, together with 
the numerous "Wodnes die" of the Anglo-Saxon 
Charters, are all due to the same source. 

COMFORT'S PLACE is not, I think, as might appear at 
first sight, the comfortable place, but must be traced to 
a yeoman family of the name of Comporte, who were dis- 
persed over the neighbourhood, whom we meet with at a 
place of the same name near Hurst Green, in Oxted, and 
at Comforts, on Itchingwood Common, in Limpsfield. 

1 Words and Places, p. 313, note. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 86, 1003. 

3 Anglo-Saxon Names, pp. 7, 8. 

4 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., 743, 752, 1136.. 

5 Kemble, Saxons in England, vol. i. p. 343. 



94 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

BLINDLEY HEATH, the name of a common in the 
southern part of the parish. It is probably an old 
English name. A " blind" lane is a common expression 
in the district for a grass lane partially overgrown. 

WINDER'S HILL, a hill at the foot of Harden Park, 
where the present summer-house stands. I have no 
means of ascertaining whether it is an ancient name or 
not, and can give no explanation of it. 

FLOWER, or FLORE, a manor, and formerly a principal 
residence, now pulled down, and thrown into Rooks' 
Nest Park, can only be referred to the word "flower." 



LINGFIELD. 

LINGFIELD. In the will of Duke Alfred, a Saxon, 
cir. 871, Lingfield is mentioned four times in conjunction 
with Westerham, Sanderstead, Selsdon, Gatton, and 
many other places in the county. It is there written 
" Leangafelda " and " Laencanfelda." * The derivation I 
believe to be from "ling," the heather ; and such names 
as the Manor of Hethurst, Hilde Heath, Pakin's Heath, 
Felcote Heath, the Moor Farm, and Chartham, all within 
the parish, agree very well with this derivation. There 
is to this day a large tract of heather at Fellcourt, and 
the fact that so extensive a parish is not mentioned in 
Domesday Survey would lead one to suppose that it was 
at that time a vast tract of heath and moor, not pos- 
sessing a church, and very scantily inhabited. Before 
the enclosure in the early part of this century, there were 
1,420 acres of waste. 

FARTHING DALE, the name of a farm, must probably be 
referred to a clan of Farthings, or Feorthings, whom we 
meet with again in Farthing Down, in Coulsdon, and in 
Little Farthing Farm, in Rudgwick. 

PLAISTOW STREET. This is the name of the village 
street. We have Plaistow, in Essex. White, in his His- 
tory of Selborne, says, 2 " At the centre of the village, and 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat.) Cart. 317. 2 Page G. 



STTRKEY ETYMOLOGIES. 95 

near the church, is a square piece of ground, surrounded 
by houses, and vulgarly called the Plestor." With this 
description that at Lingfield singularly coincides. A piece 
of ground now forming part of the churchyard at Charl- 
wood is known as the Plestor. It was 20 feet by 130, 
and through it a path used to lead to the church. It was 
the property of the public, and used for games by the 
inhabitants. Plaistow Farm, near Capel, in this county ; 
Plaistow at Hayes, in Kent ; and Plaistow, near Shil- 
linglee, in Sussex, are all places of the same name. Play 
is a Somersetshire word for a country wake, and here, 
probably, the village fairs were held and plays performed. 

PEINKHAM, now Sterborough, the principal manor in 
the place, and known by the former name until 1342, 
when Keginald Lord Oobham had license to embattle 
his house at Prinkham, after which it went by the name 
of Sterborough. Prinkham, spelt in the Extent of the 
manor made in 5 Edw. II., 1312, 1 Prinkehamme, has 
the Saxon suffix ham ; but I can offer no suggestion as 
to the meaning of the first part of the word. Starborough 
would seem to have been adopted by the Cobhams, in con- 
sequence of the star being their badge, 2 a fact still com- 
memorated by the sign of the inn in the village, the " Star." 

BILLESHUEST, another Manor. It is the " hyrst " or 
wood of the Billings, and is possibly a contraction of 
BilliDgshurst, and points to the " Billings," the royal 
race of the Varini, whom we find in Billingshurst, near 
Horsham, Billingsgate, and other places. 3 

PADINDEN, PUTTENDEN, or PUTTENDENBUKY, another 
Manor, now a farm, with an old house. In Abinger we 
find a manor of the same name, spelt in Domesday 
Padendene, and called in the Middle Ages Paddington. 
In the Saxon Charters 4 we have a place called Pattan- 
dene in Hampshire, and Padingtune, now Paddington, 
in Middlesex, 5 Padenden, a farm in Goudhurst, in Kent, 

1 Chartulary of Battle Abbey, Miscellaneous Books of the Court of 
Augmentation, vol. Ivii. 

2 They bore for their arms, gules on a chevron or, 3 stars of 6 points sable. 

3 Taylor, Words and Places, p. 129. 

4 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 595. 5 Id., Cart. 1223. 



96 SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

Puttenden in Shipborne, and Paddingfold in Ewhurst. 
It may be derived from the family of the Psetings, whom 
Taylor 1 traces in Pattingham, in Shropshire and Stafford- 
shire, and Puddington, in Bedfordshire, Cheshire, and 
Devonshire. Bosworth, in his Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 
gives pada, a kite or raven, genitive padan ; and again in 
old English padda signifies a " toad." I am inclined, 
however, to think that the first of the three is the more 
probable derivation. 

BLOCKFIELU or SHOVELSTRODE (pronounced Shoster- 
wood), another Manor, and formerly the residence of a 
branch of the Gainsford family. We meet in the Saxon 
Charters 8 with Bloccan lea, now Blockley, in Worcester- 
shire. It may be a corruption of Blackfield, but is more 
probably, I think, derived from the old English word 
blok, a block, a trunk of a tree. 4 Of Shovelstrode I can 
offer no satisfactory derivation ; it has the appearance of 
being an old name. I find in the " Promptorium Parvu- 
lorum " " schovelerd," signifying a poplar, and the latter 
part of the word may be either from rode, a cross, or 
rood, a measure of land. 

FOED, alias La Ford, is one of the commonest suffixes 
that we meet with. It is found by itself in Ford, in 
Somersetshire, 5 and in three other places in the Anglo- 
Saxon Charters 6 not identified by Kemble. It is clearly 
derived from being the ford or passage of the stream. 

DOEMAN'S LAND, spelt in a deed of 1489, Dermannys- 
land. I suspect this word to be derived from the name 
of the possessor. In an Extent of the Manor of 
Prinkham, in 143 O, 7 I find the name of Richard Derman 
among the list of free tenants. 

DEUEE, a manor, the name and site of which is no 

1 Words and Places, Appendix, p. 509. 

2 Stratman, Dictionary of Old English, in verbo. 

3 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 278, 620. 

4 Stratman, Dictionary of Old English, in verbo ; Promptorium Parvu- 
lorum, p. 40. 

6 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 463, 816. 

6 Id., Cart. 267, 1335, 1351. 

7 Chartulary of Battle Abbey Miscellaneous ooks of the Court of 
Augmentation, vol. Ivi. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 97 

longer known. In March 28, 1386, Joan de Cheveninge 
had license for a chapel in the Manor of Deure, in 
Lyngefeld. It is a corruption of De Hevere. William 
de Hevere had a grant of free warren in Lingfield, 
9 Edw. I. So the Manor of Dowdales, in Chelsham, and 
Gamberwell is a corruption of De Uvedale's, or Uvedal's 
Manor. 

HAXTED, derived probably from ae, the oak, and 
synonymous with Oxted. In the Saxon Charters l we 
find a place called " Hacleah," probably Ockley, and in 
a survey of Bletchingley Manor, 1680, is a place called 
Hexted Corner. 

APSLEY TOWN. In a deed of 25 Eliz. a mansion called 
Apesselystowne is mentioned ; it is an old house, formerly 
the residence of the Bostock family. It is derived from 
Apse, the aspen, town being merely Tun, the enclosure. 
We find the Aspen in Apsleah, 2 Apshangra, 3 and other 
places. Apsley House, Hyde Park, is from the same 
source. 

LULLINGDEN recalls the family of the Lullingas, whom 
we meet with at Lulan treow, 4 Lullan setl, 5 and Lullinges 
treow 6 in the Anglo-Saxon Charters, at Lullingstone, in 
Kent, and Lullington, in Derbyshire and Somersetshire. 

CEARN. This name occurs also at Limpsfield, Cearn 
Bank being a part of the Chart there ; it is found also at 
Cerne Abbas, in Dorsetshire, and in Cearna Graf 7 and 
Cearninga Gemsere 8 in the Anglo-Saxon Charters. 
Cearningas is given by Kemble 9 as one of the patronymic 
names, which he believes to be those of ancient marks. 
Cearn is given by Bosworth in his Dictionary as " a 
pine," and this would suit very well with the character 
of the wood in this district. 

WRAY, al. RAY, the name of a bridge. Wray Common, 
in Reigate, is the same name, but I can give no explana- 
tion of it. 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 190. 

2 Id., Cart. 506, 1267. 3 Id., Cart. 1231. 4 Id., Cart. 18. 
5 Id., Cart. 652, 1065. 6 Id., Cart. 227. 

7 Id., Cart. 1221. 8 Id., Cart. 1212. 

9 Saxons in England, vol. i. Appendix A, p. 450. 
YOL.VI. H 



98 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

ARDING RUN, the name given to a portion of the 
brook on the road to Lingfield. Its origin may be re- 
ferred to the Ardings, the royal race of the Vandals, 
whom we find at Ardington, in Berkshire, and at 
Ardingley, near Cuckfield, in Sussex. 1 

HERMITS ; the dwelling of some old hermit. In 
Bletchingley we find a field called Hermit's Acre, 2 at 
Streatham the Hermitage, and again Anchor Hill, in 
Norfolk ; i.e. the hill of the anchorite. 

ST. PIERS ; the name of a farm. It is a mediaeval 
name, " Saint Pierre," and connected with the Collegiate 
Church of Lingfield, which was dedicated to St. Peter. 
Manning 3 mentions a field called Chapel Field, where it 
is said there was formerly a chapel dedicated to St. 
Margaret, an adjoining field being called St. Margaret's 
Field. 

WARE FARM, which is by the liver, is from the Saxon 
" wasr," in its original signification an enclosure, and 
then a fishpond, a wear. Ware Mill, at Godstone, is 
from the same root. 

LADY CROSS FARM recalls the existence of a cross in 
ancient times, dedicated to our Lady. Other instances 
of the like kind occur in Lady Lands in Horley, Lady's 
Hole under Marden Park, and on Botley Hill Farm in 
Limpsfield. 

THE GILDABLE ; a district in this parish so called. We 
find the same name in that of a farm at Limpsfield, and 
in a district in the parish of Home, for which a head- 
borough used to be appointed annually. It must have 
been the land which paid the gild or tribute, from the 
Saxon gildan, to pay. Guildable is defined by Johnson 
in his dictionary as " liable to tax." " By the discretion 
of the sheriffs and bailiff, and other ministers in places 
guildable." (Spelman, " Adm. Jur.") In the Custumal 
of Pevensey, copied about the middle of the fourteenth 
century, we read " In judgment of the Crown, if a man be 

1 Taylor, Words and Places, p. 128. 

2 Deed in temp. Hen. III., in possession of C. H. Master, Esq. 

3 Hist. ofSwrey, vol. ii. p. 339. 



SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 99 

condemned to death, and he be of the franchise, he shall 
be taken to the town bridge at high water, and drowned 
in the harbour ; but if he be of the geldable (i.e. liable 
to taxes, which the freemen were not), he shall be hung 
in the Lowy." 

CHARTHAM. There is a place in Kent called Great Chart, 
written in the Anglo-Saxon Charters 2 Certham and Certa- 
ham. The word chart is a common one throughout the dis- 
trict ; we find Limpsfield, Westerham, Brasted, and Seal 
Chart all within a short distance of one another. In these 
cases it applies to unenclosed ground, distinguished, how- 
ever, from a common by being covered with brushwood. In 
Limpsfield it formed a district called " Chart," for which 
a constable was chosen annually. In an Extent 3 of the 
Manor of Limpsfield, made 5 Edw. II., occurs the passage, 
" Et sunt ibidem in bosco qui vocatur la Chert ccccv acrae 
grossi bosci ; " and in another,* made 8 Hen. VI., a sepa- 
rate list of tenants is given under the head of " Chert." 
Taylor 5 says the hursts and charts were the denser por- 
tions of the forest, and that the latter word is identical 
with the German hart, signifying wood or forest, h and cli 
being interchangeable. The word is to a great extent 
local, i.e. confined to Surrey and Kent ; it is only applied, 
as far as I know, to woods which are parts of commons, 
and originally unenclosed. Cert-money is explained to be 
head-money or common fine paid yearly by the residents 
of the several manors to the lords thereof. 6 Mr. Godwin- 
Austen, 7 in mentioning the name under Ewhurst, refers 
the origin to a kind of stone locally known as chert; 
but this can hardly be maintained, unless we are sure 
that stone of the kind is to be found in all places of the 
like name. 

1 Lower, Contributions to Literature, p. 197. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 896. 

3 Chartulary of Battle Abbey, Miscellaneous Books of the Court of 
Augmentations, vol. Ivii. 4 Id., vol. Ivi. 

6 Words and Places, p. 360. 

6 Halliwell, Diet, of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 

7 " Surrey Etymologies," Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. v. part i. p. 13. 



H2 



100 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 



CROWHURST. 

CRO WHITEST. Not mentioned in Domesday Survey. 
There is a place of the same name near Battle, in 
Sussex, some land so called in Limpsfield, a farm called 
Crowhurst Farm at Kingsdown, in Kent, and Crowhurst 
Fields in East Grinstead parish. It is the crdiv, Anglo- 
Saxon, a crow, and " hyrst," wood. Crawley, in Sussex, 
may probably be referred to the same root, and Crow- 
boro' Warren, on Ashdown Forest. Manning, under 
Lingfield, mentions a manor called Crowham. 1 

CHELLOWS, or CHELLWYS, a manor, now a farm resi- 
dence, spelt in a deed of 1310 Chelewes, and again Chel- 
house. Ceosol, or Cesol, is given by Bosworth as the 
Saxon for a cottage, and this is probably the derivation. 

NEWLAND, another manor, partly in Tandridge. We 
find it in a deed of 1497 spelt Neulond. Taylor 3 has 
pointed out the number of villages in England that have 
this suffix, and we find many similar names of places in 
the Anglo-Saxon Charters (e. g. Newton, Newnham, &c.). 
Such a name as Newland may be of very great antiquity ; 
it would be given by the first cultivator of the land when 
he reclaimed it. We meet with it in Newlands Corner, 
the famous point of view on the road to Guildford, 
and in the name of a 'field on Pilgrim's Lodge Farm in 
Titsey. 

PYMPES. In a deed of 1316 we find Richard de Pympe, 
and in a rental of Crowhurst, 1402, we find a tenement 
called Pympe. I can offer no derivation of the word. 

WINTERSELL, a farmhouse in the parish, is Wintredes- 
sell, the house or dwelling of Wintred, some Saxon of 
note. In a charter of King Alfred, in a grant of lands 
to Chertsey, " the land of Wintredeshulle " is mentioned ; 
and Wintres dasn and Wintres hlsew are the names of two 
places in the Anglo-Saxon Charters. There is a house in 
Byfleet called " Winter sell," and a farm in that parish 

1 Manning, Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 348. 

2 Words and Places, p. 464. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 101 

called "Winter sells." One of the four manors into 
which Bramley is divided is Wintershull, alias Selhurst, 3 
and a farm between Bramley and Hascomb bears the 
name. In the Middle Ages the family of De Wintershull 
possessed considerable property in Surrey. William de 
Wintershull was steward of the king's house in the reign 
of Henry III. 

HOLBEAMS. This, if it be an old name, is the " Hole- 
Beam," the hollow post, or the post in the hollow. Hole, 
or hall, Leo 3 explains to mean a hollow ; and we find the 
same prefix in Holborn, Holwood in Kent, and numbers 
of other places mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Charters. 

GATLANDS are the gate-lands, the lands by the " gate " 
or road. So Gatton, the town on the road, and Eeigate, 
the ridge road, 4 and Gatwick, in Charlwood, and in Chip- 
stead, the wic, or dwelling by the road. 

AT-GROVE, the name of a manor now lost, retained 
possibly in a farm called Black Grove, mentioned in a 
conveyance of 1724. Graf is a wood; hence our word 
grove. 

CROWHURST PLACE, the old residence of the Gainsford 
family, affords one of the many instances of this name of 
the place being given to the principal residence in the 
parish. It is a distinctive appellation, peculiar to Kent, 
Surrey, and Sussex, and is being fast superseded by the 
meaningless substitute of "Park" and "Hall." Other 
examples are Bletchingley Place, Godstone Place, Titsey 
Place, and Brasted Place. 

CATERFORD BRIDGE. The name of the bridge over the 
stream just below the railway line. In a Court Roll of 
1396 mention is made of Cateringherst and Catering- 
forde, and in a Court Roll of 1624 we find Catterfeilde 
Bridge : it has now got corrupted into Cattlefield. To 
cater, in the language of the country, is to cross or cut a 
thing diagonally ; and this was the bridge that " catered " 

1 Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. i. p. 83, note. 

2 Manning, Hist, of /Surrey, vol. ii. p. 76. 

3 Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 80. 

4 Taylor, Words and Places, p. 252. 



102 SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

the stream. Halliwell, in his Dictionary, gives this sig- 
nification to the word " cater." 

The following names are from Court Rolls in my pos- 
session, dating from 1396 to 1800 : 

POUKHACCHE (Court Roll, 1400). Pouk is an old word 
for a devil or spirit, hence " puck ;' 51 Hacche, a low gate; 
so Kent Hatch, at the junction of the counties of Surrey 
and Kent on Limpsfield Chart. 

JOKAEESHAWE, al. JoKKESHAWE (ibid.), is a corruption of 
Jack's Haw. Among the list of tenants we find Johes- 
atte-hawe. A haw, or haugh, is a piece of flat ground 
near a river. 

BOALDESLOWE (ibid.), " via regia vocata Boaldeslowe." 
This word would seem to have something to do with 
" bold," a house or dwelling. 

SYNDEEFOED (ibid.). The " syndr," separate or secluded 
ford. "We find the prefix " Sunder" in several names of 
places in the Anglo-Saxon Charters; 2 e. g., Sunderland, 
Worcestershire ; Sunder and Sunderham, Wiltshire : on 
the other hand, it may be an error in spelling, and be one 
of the many Cinderfords which are said to denote the 
existence of ancient iron-works. " The scoriae of the 
disused iron-furnaces," says Mr. Lower, 3 " are called 
cinders. This appears not only from documents of ancient 
date, but from the designations of many localities in 
the iron district; as-Cinderford, Cinderhill, Cindersgill." 
Taylor 4 remarks that in the Forest of Dean are found 
Cinderhill and Cinderford, names derived from vast heaps 
of scoriae. I am not aware, however, that there are any 
traces of iron- works in this parish. 

HOGELOTESHACHE ? (Court Roll, 1402). 

RULLESHETHE ? (ibid.). 

NOKEWELCEOFTE (ibid., 1409). Noke is a nook or 
corner. 5 

1 See Halliwell, Archaic Diet., in verbo ; Stratman, Dictionary of Old 
English; and above, p. 10. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 329, 585, 586. 
8 Contributions to Literature, p. 87. 

4 Words and Places, p. 370. 

5 Halliwell, Diet, of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 103 

SMITHEATTE (ibid., 1506), connected possibly with the 
word smceih, smooth, which we find in Smeeth, in Kent. 

POKERSCROFT (ibid.). Derived frompow&,as Powkhacche. 

CHIRCHEWOST (ibid., 1508). "Wost is still the way in 
which an oast or oast-house is pronounced. It may be 
where the church ale was brewed. 

RYSHOTTE BARRES (ibid.) ? 

GEISTERIDEN. This is one of the numerous instances in 
which we meet with the suffix " riden." The prefix " rid," 
as has been pointed out by a writer in Notes and Queries, 1 
is from the Anglo-Saxon riddan, hreddan, to rid or clear 
away, and signifies an assart or forest grant. This Weald 
was all originally forest, and therefore the prevalence of 
the word is not to be wondered at. Besides meeting with 
it as " le Redone " and Benridings in a rental of Titsey 
of 1402, in Ridlands, the name of a farm in Limpsfield, 
and Bidlands in Albury, I have found " Riddens " as the 
name of a field in twelve instances upon seven farms, and 
I believe that there are very few farms in the district 
which have not a field of that name. I refer Riddlesdown 
to the same source, for in a deed of 1422 I find that the 
land adjoining it was called North Ridle, and near East 
Grinstead I find some land called Ridens. I shall endea- 
vour, under Ridland's Farm, in Limpsfield, to furnish a 
list of the various " ridens." 

HALLAND (ibid., 1535) is the " hal " or " hoi " land, the 
land in the hollow. 

HTLDFYLD (ibid.) is possibly from Anglo-Saxon hyld or 
hild, a battle, the battle-field. 

WYNCHESTON LANE (ibid.), a contraction, perhaps, of 
Winceles-tun, the enclosure in the corner. We meet 
with " wincel," a corner, in Winchcomb, Gloucester- 
shire, and Winchelsea. 

ROPKYNS, or RAPKYNS (ibid., 1540). A patronymic. 
In an early Court Roll of Titsey is a field of the same 
name. Thomas Rop-kyn was a resident in Bletchingley 
14 Hen. VIII. 

CROCKERESHAME (ibid., 1541), and mentioned in a rental 

i June, 1870, p. 561. 



104 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

of 1402. It is very like in form to Crockham, the name 
of a hill in Westerham parish, on the road to Edenbridge. 
" Crockere " is denned as a potter. 1 It is therefore the 
potter's house. l 

SUGHAM (ibid., 1549). Sug is given by Bosworth, in 
his Dictionary, as a sow. Leo 2 cites So wig as the only 
name of a place in which the word occurs. Sucga is also 
the name of a bird, the figpecker. 

BROKEN CROSSE LAND recalls the time when, as now in 
Roman Catholic countries, there were numerous wayside 
crosses. Brice-cross, a name still retained in Limpsfield, 
was the cross dedicated to St. Brice ; Finches Cross, 
Oxted, a place where three cross roads meet ; but it was 
at such places that these crosses would have been erected. 
The cross is the origin of Crouch, which is so often met 
with ; e. g., Crouch House, a farm in the parish of Eden- 
bridge ; Crouch Feld, a field in Titsey (Rental, 1402) ; 
Crouch Alders, in Oxted (Rental of Tandridge, 1670) ; 
and Crouch Wood, in Kent, near Scotney Castle. At 
Addlestone, in this county, is the famous " Crouch oak " 
under which Wickliffe is said to have preached. 

COITES, or GOITERS (ibid., 1618). So in Limpsfield we 
find a place called Coiting, or Quayting Croft : it is so 
called from the game of quoits. 

DWELLY. A name still in use, and an old name. I can 
give no explanation of it. 

There are four cottages in this parish called the Altar 
Cottages, and a field adjoining called the Altar Field. 
It is probable that in former times, under some bequest, 
the rents of them were devoted to the purposes of the high 
altar in the church. Such bequests were very common. 

TANDRIDGE. 

TANDRIDGE, which gives the name to the hundred, 
is spelt in Domesday " Tanrige." In a deed of Henry II. 
or Richard I. it is written Tenrige ; in a deed of 8 Edw. II. 
Tanrugge ; in 1576, Tanrige; and it is not until 1625 

1 Stratman, Dictionary of Old English, in verbo. 

2 Anglo-Saxon Names of Places. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 105 

that we find the d interpolated, and the place spelt as it 
is now. In the Anglo-Saxon Charters l we have a place 
exactly identical, " Tenrhic," suggested to be Tendridge, 
in Hants ; we have the same prefix in Tenham a and 
Tentun 3 of the Anglo-Saxon Charters, and in Tenby and 
Tenbury. Ten is the numeral ten, and Ridge is from 
Jirycg, a ridge (as in Rige-gate, Reigate), the ten ridges. 
Mr. Salmon, quoted by Manning, conjectures that it was 
originally called Stanrige, from the Stane Street which 
ran through Godstone passing near it. But of this 
spelling we find no evidence whatever. 

TILLINGDOWN, Domesday Tellingdone. This manor, at 
the time of Domesday Survey, was equal in extent to 
half the parish, and contained the church within its 
limits. Mr. Flower has pointed out, in his paper on 
" Surrey Etymologies," 4 that Tilling is not improbably 
a Saxon patronymic, denoting the district of the Tillings, 
or Terlings. Thus in Wotton there is a stream called 
the Tillingbourne ; in Sussex we meet with a place called 
Tillington, and in Essex with Tillingham. 

NEWLAND, a manor partly in this parish and partly in 
Crowhurst, so called in a deed temp. Edw. II., 5 has 
already been adverted to under Crowhurst. In an 
inquisition of 1554, lands of this manor are mentioned 
called " Motelands." This may have been the place 
where the mote or assembly for the hundred was held. 6 

THE PRIORY recalls the existence of a priory of Austin 
Canons, founded in the time of Richard I. 

ROOKSNEST and SOUTHLAND. The names of two resi- 
dences in the parish, so called in a valuation of the 
estates of the priory made in 1535 ; 7 the latter is very 
probably a Saxon name. In the same document a 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 606. 

2 Id., Cart. 1019, 1022. 3 Id., Cart. 483. 

4 " Surrey Etymologies," /Surrey Arch. Collections, vol. v. part i. p. 19. 

5 Manning, Hist, of Stvrrey, vol. ii. p. 366. 

6 A distinction must clearly be made between " moat," signifying a 
dwelling surrounded by a moat, and " mote," the meeting-place, which 
we find, in the Mote at Ightham, in Kent, and in the Mote, Maidstone. 

7 Manning, Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 375. 



106 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

field is mentioned called Drigefield, which, is the dry 
field, drig or dri being Anglo-Saxon for dry. 

The following names are from an old rental of Tan- 
dridge, cir. Edward III. : l 

STONEHAM, the ham, home, or dwelling of stone. 

LAGHAM PARK. This was probably in the lower part of 
the parish, adjoining Lagham, in Godstone. For origin 
of the name see under Godstone. 2 

FRITHLANDS. The "wood" lands. 3 In Tatsfield is a 
wood called the Frith, and Mr. Godwin- Austen refers to 
a wood of the name in Bramley. 4 

BUCKELOND. This is either the bdc-land, the land held 
by book or charter, land severed from the folcland and 
discharged from all services, 5 or it is the beech land, 
from boc, the beech-tree, which gives its name to Buck- 
inghamshire. We have a farm of the name of Bucklands 
in Tatsfield, and Buckland is a parish near Betchworth. 
There are nineteen parishes of this name in England. 
. NERES PARK ? 

HORELOND is perhaps from hor, lioru, dirty, the dirty 
land, which is possibly the origin of Horley. 

LE LEDELOND is probably the laud by the lade, or 
flowing stream. 6 

REDEBORNE is either the rdd, quick, or the read-bmne, 
the red burne or brook. We find the name in Redburne 
in Worcestershire, 7 and in Rodburne in Wiltshire. 8 

FOXESCROFTE gives us the fox ; REELOND, possibly the 
rceh, or roe-deer ; BEWLEYS, the bee, beoledfi ; CONYHOLES, 
the rabbit ; ROWLEY is the row, or rough field. 9 

1 In possession of Sir William Clayton, Bart. ; kindly lent me by 
C. Goodwyn, Esq. 

2 Page 13. 

8 For an account of this word see under Nobright, in Godstone ; and 
Leo, Anglo-Saxon Names of Places, p. 67. 

4 Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. v. part i. p. 7. 

5 Kemble, Saxons in England, vol. i. p. 301. 

6 Leo, Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 93. 

7 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 570. 

8 Id., Cart. 48, 103, 632, &c. 

9 Prompt. Parv. in verbo "rowghe;" and for other instances of this 
prefix see under Home, p. 9. 



SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 107 

The following names are from a rental of Tandridge 
Manor, 9 Heniy IV. : 1 

WATEEHALLE WELD, Waterhall weald, or wood. 

DEWLOND is probably Deofles-land, the devil's land, 
now preserved in the name of a field called the Devil's 
Hole. We find the same contraction in Dewlish, Dorset- 
shire, and Dawlish, Devonshire. 

Of " SALIENE-LOND," " VOZELYSLAND," " CUELYNGCEOFT," 
occurring in the same rental, I can give no explanation. 

A rental of the manor in 1670 2 contains many of those 
given above, and the following in addition : 

GEEAT SOUEE, or SOWEE. In a charter of Odo, son 
of William de Dammartin, temp. Eic. I., he bequeaths 
to Tandridge Priory all his stock of eattle at " Suwre." 
The word nearest in form to it is Sweora, Swora, or 
Sivura, Anglo-Saxon for a neck, the great neck of land. 
" Sweores holt" occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Charters. 3 

HOBBS. Now the name of a farm ; probably a patro- 
nymic. 

STOCKLAND, the land enclosed by a stoc or paling. 

EAWBONES. Still the name of a field. SHAWS. Now a 
farm of that name, and probably a patronymic. 

CHATT HILL, now CHATHILL. It is the same prefix which 
we find in Chatham. Taylor 4 refers the origin of Chat 
Moss to the Celtic coed, a wood. I am unwilling to admit 
any Celtic derivations. It may be Cat-hill, the wild cat, 
which we find in many places in the Saxon charters. In 
the will of Alfgar, cir. 958, occurs Catham, 5 possibly for 
Chatham. We have also in this parish Mousehill occur- 
ring in the rental of 1670, and still existing as a name. 

In a rental of 168 1, 6 we find Northe Hall given as the 
ancient name of Tandridge Priory; it is headed, " Qwyt- 
rents of the Pryory of Tanrydge, olim called Northe 
hall." It is the hall, or dwelling, in the northern part of 

1 In possession of Sir William Clayton, Bart. 

2 Penes eodem. 

3 Kemble, Codex. Diplomat., Cart. 77. 

4 Words and Places, p. 362. 

5 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 1222. 

6 In possession of Sir William Clayton, Bart. 



108 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

the parish, and would indicate that the priory was built 
on the site of an older habitation. 

PIPER'S WOOD is merely so called after the name of the 
occupier of the farm. 

LE BUTT, now the BATS, is one of the many instances 
in which we meet with this name : it is where the butts 
or targets stood, and marks the importance which our 
ancestors attached to the practice of archery. LE BUTTES, 
BUTCROFT, BUTRIDDEN, are the names of fields in Titsey 
mentioned in early Court Rolls, and the name is general 
in all parts of England. 






NOTICES OF AN ANGLO-SAXON CEMETERY 
AT FARTHING DOWN, COULSDON, SURREY. 

BY JOHN WICKHAM FLOWER, ESQ., F.G.S. 



IN the autumn of last year, with the permission of 
Edmund Byron, Esq., of Coulsdon Court, the Lord 
of the Manor, and in company with G. Leveson-Gower, 
Esq., F.S.A., and our secretary, Mr. Austin, I spent 
several days in examining the tumuli on Farthing 
Down, the most remarkable of which I now propose to 
describe. 

These tumuli are situate on a tract of down-land lying 
upon the chalk, which rises with a gentle slope from the 
southern extremity of Smitham-bottom to the entrance 
of the village of Chaldon, now so well known on account 
of the very remarkable wall-painting in the church, which 
was described by Mr. Waller in the last number of our 
Collections. 

The existence of this burial-place seems to have been 
known for a hundred years at least. In Manning and 
Bray's History of the county it is stated that one of what 
are there called barrows had been opened about forty 
years previously by some one who came from London, 
and that a perfect skeleton was found. 

The two largest mounds, one of which lies towards the 
northern extremity of the ground, and the other at the 
southern, and about half a mile apart, seem to have been 
the only ones that were then examined. Probably the 
result of the examination did not encourage further 
researches ; at all events, it is certain that while these 
two mounds had been disturbed at some time or other 



110 NOTICES OF AN ANGLO-SAXON CEMETERY 

the contents of those that we examined had never been 
displaced. 

The graves which we examined were sixteen in all, 
comprising two groups, about a quarter of a mile apart. 
They were all hewn in the chalk rock to the depth, from 
the original surface of the ground, of from 3 ft. to 3^ ft., 
and their presence was indicated by slight hillocks, 
rising seldom more than 1^ ft. above the ground, and 
resembling those little mounds in village church- 
yards, under which " the rude forefathers of the hamlet 
sleep." 

In every instance the skeletons were found extended 
at full length, with the heads placed towards the west, 
and the arms close to the sides ; no traces of cremation, 
or of any kind of funeral pottery, were met with ; every 
bone was found in its proper place and perfectly sound, 
except in three or four instances, in which possibly the 
rain may have reached the bones, or the skeleton was 
that of a child or young person. It was also observed 
that, with these few exceptions, not only was every tooth 
present in every jaw, but all the teeth were perfectly 
sound. 

One of the graves first examined contained two ske- 
letons, probably man and wife. They were placed so 
close to each other that the skulls almost touched ; but 
no traces of armour or of ornaments were found. An 
adjoining grave contained the skeleton of a young person, 
probably a girl : the bones were much decayed. Near 
the remains of the skull we found two small silver pins, 
the figure of one of which is given in Plate I. The 
workmanship of these is very good ; they are made to 
swell a little in the middle, in order to keep them fast in 
the cloth or other material in which they were placed, 
and the head is formed of a small coil of silver wire, 
through which the blunt end of the pin was passed, and 
was then flattened and made firm by one or more blows. 
The only other object here found was the blade of a 
small iron knife, with a rounded back, somewhat resem- 
bling in shape those which are now called WharnclifFe 
knives. 






Plate I. 



PIN, KING, KNIFE, ETC. 



To fuse page 111. 



AT FARTHING DOWN, COULSDON, SURREY. Ill 

In an adjoining grave, probably that of a woman, we 
found near the head the remains of a situla, or bucket. 
It is formed, as usual of wooden staves, bound together at 
the top and bottom by thin bands or hoops of bronze, 
half an inch wide, and the lower one being much thinner 
than the upper. Both are quite destitute of any kind of 
ornamentation ; the handle, which is riveted on to the 
upper bronze band, is of iron ; the staves, which, although 
in this as in the several instances presently to be men- 
tioned, much decayed, are found under the microscope 
to be of the wood of some coniferous tree. 

The several graves already noticed were situate towards 
the northern extremity of the ground. On a succeeding 
day we proceeded to examine the group lying south, and 
on higher ground. In the first grave that was opened 
we discovered lying near the skull a small gold build or. 
bracteat, of which a figure is given in Plate I. The 
edge is formed by a thin ring of gold, with crenated 
edges, welded on to the round plate and furnished with 
a small loop or ring for suspension. On -one face is the 
figure of a cross inclosed in a circle, both formed by a 
series of slight indentations, in some of which the remains 
of some kind of paste or enamel may be seen by the aid 
of a microscope. Probably some kind of ornament which 
has perished, or was not found, was attached by this 
cement to the bulla. The reverse is quite plain, and the 
whole seems to have been much worn by use. 

The next grave that was opened presented several 
objects of remarkable interest. It was about three feet 
and a half in depth, and contained the full-length skele- 
ton of a man of large stature. The femur and tibia 
together measured 3 ft. 2 in. in length ; from which, as 
Professor Rolleston informs me, we may conclude, that, 
when living, the man was 6 ft. 5 in. in height. Every 
bone was perfect, and found in its place, and the teeth 
were all quite sound, although a good deal worn down. 
Lying across the breast, and reaching from the right 
shoulder to the left knee, was a sword of iron, 3 ft. 
2 in. in length, 2 in. wide, and of considerable thickness. 
It is in very good condition and weighs 1 Ib. 14 oz. : 



112 NOTICES OP AN ANGLO-SAXON CEMETERY 

ifc appears to have been double-edged and pointed ; 
the strig, or iron portion of the hilt, is 5 in. long, and 
f in. wide. 

But the most remarkable object found with this inter- 
ment, was the boss or umbo of a shield (see Plate II.), 
placed on the right foot of the skeleton. It is of iron, 
7 in. high and 5 in diameter, and of a very unusual form ; 
indeed, as far as I have been able to discover, it is unique. 
It would seem that in the first instance a framework was 
constructed of six bars or laminae, of iron, f of an inch in 
width, welded together into a kind of projecting button 
at the top, and then bent out into a dome-shaped form. 
Each of these plates is depressed or forced out through 
its whole length in the middle, so as to form six vertical 
ribs on the outside, leaving a flange or rim on each side 
\ in. wide. The framework thus formed is held in its 
place and strengthened by a little cup, also of iron, an 
inch in diameter, and about \ inch deep, fixed on" the 
inside under the intersection of the plates. An iron or 
steel plate was then placed between each pair of ribs, and 
riveted to the flanges left on each side of them; thus 
presenting the figure of an hexagonal dome. The whole 
was then placed over, and riveted to, a second rim or 
circlet of iron of slightly less circumference. This is 
worked into a circular flange, which occurs about an 
inch below the lower margin of the dome- shaped frame, 
and the flange is then furnished with six bosses or studs, 
answering to the vertical ribs, each of them being per- 
forated, doubtless in order to allow the umbo to be 
attached to the hide or the wood of which the shield was 
formed. No traces of this were found ; but on lifting 
up the umbo, we found a short cylinder, or rather half- 
cylinder, of iron, resembling the longitudinal section of a 
gas-pipe. This corresponded with the diameter of the 
umbo, and was furnished at each end with a slight wing 
or projection, for the purpose of attaching it to the 
umbo ; and it can hardly be doubted that it was con- 
trived as a handle by which the shield could be firmly 
held. 

Although we made a long and careful search for the 




I* 1 



p 

1-1 
w 



o 



O 



V 




DRINKING CUP. 



Plate III. 



To face page 113. 



AT FAETHING DOWN, COULSDON, SUEEEY. 113 

dagger, which probably was buried with the other 
armour, we could find no trace of it ; but near the left 
shoulder we found the remains of a situla or bucket : the 
wood, of which some portions were in tolerably good 
condition, is of fir. The staves were bound together by 
iron hoops a good deal broken and corroded, and the 
handle was also of iron. 

The only other object found in this grave was a small 
bronze buckle, of very good workmanship, with an iron 
tongue (Plate I.). It was probably attached to the girdle 
or band to which the sword was suspended. 

On the same day on which -the grave last described 
was explored, we were so fortunate as to make another 
interesting discovery. In a grave a little to the north, 
we found a well-preserved skeleton, probably that of a 
lady, and near the left shoulder were the remains of the 
beautiful drinking- cup of which a figure is given in 
Plate III. It cannot be called a situla, since it is certain 
that it never had the handle which characterizes objects of 
that kind ; indeed it never had any handle. The staves 
are of wood, which, when examined under the microscope, 
is found to be of either oak or ash. They were bound 
together, both at the top and at the base, by bands of 
bronze, half an inch in width and very thin ; and these are 
strengthened by a second smaller band, which slightly 
overlaps the first and covers the edges of the staves. 
Both bands are attached to each other and to the wood, 
by three small bronze fillets, and these again are fast- 
ened by two small bronze nails, round-headed, which 
pass through the lower band into the wood. The 
smaller band that on the edge of the is cup quite plain, 
but the larger ones both that on the rim or lip and that 
at the base are gilt, and are ornamented in repousse 
work, with a design of admirable workmanship. It is a 
kind of Runic pattern, and represents a snake with very 
intricate convolutions. The rim of this beautiful cup is 
fortunately quite perfect and unbroken, the base is 
broken into three or four pieces, but all the pieces were 
found and preserved. 

The only other object found in this grave was a small 

VOL. VI. I 



114 NOTICES OF AN ANGLO-SAXON CEMETERY 

well-shaped knife of iron, of the same pattern as that 
already described (Plate I.). 

We next proceeded to open a small tumulus, in which 
we found the skeleton, very much decayed, of a young 
person, probably a boy. The only other object found in 
it was a socketed iron spear, 18 in. in length, and well 
formed : the wooden haft had perished. 

The only other grave that contained any object of 
interest was that, probably, of a young girl ; the first 
teeth had not all been shed. The head had been laid on 
a large flint stone, and near the jaw was a small iron 
buckle, of which the tongue was wanting, and six beads, 
two of them white, two yellow, one red, and one blue 
(see Plate I.). 

This concluded our explorations for the year. The 
bones were carefully reinterred in the graves in which 
they were found, with the exception of one skull, which 
was retained in order that it might be examined by Pro- 
fessor Rolleston. The sword, and umbo, and drinking- 
cup, and other objects, have, with the permission of 
Mr. Byron, been placed in the Museum of the SUREEY 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, lately established at Croydon. 

Although it is impossible to assign any precise date to 
these remains, yet from the position of the skeletons, 
with the feet placed towards the east, and the absence of 
any traces of burning, it seems tolerably certain that 
they are of the Christian or post- Augustine age, while 
from the absence of a vast number of objects of elaborate 
and artistic workmanship found in Kent, and on that 
account of a presumably much later date, they may 
perhaps be assigned to a very early period after the con- 
version of the Saxons to Christianity. 

The name of the place may perhaps in this, as in other 
instances, assist us at least in forming a conjecture on 
the subject. 

Coulsdon, the parish in which Farthing Down is 
situate, is undoubtedly the Cuthredesdune of the Anglo- 
Saxon charters. This name occurs in no less than four 
several charters, or confirmations of charters, of land in 



AT FARTHING DOWN, COULSDON, SURREY. 115 

Surrey to the Abbey of Chertsey, which are printed in 
Kemble's Codex Diplomaticus. In the index to this work 
the place thus designated is conjectured to be Cotherstone, 
Surrey ; but there is, however, now no such place as 
Cotherstone in Surrey ; nor is it likely that there ever 
was ; and this probably is one of the numerous errors 
which are met with in the index to the Codex. In all 
the charters in question, which range from 675 to 1062, 
Cuthredes-dune is placed in the same category with 
Merstham, Chaldon, Epsom, Ewell, Carshalton, Bedding- 
ton, and other villages which either immediately adjoin 
Coulsdon, or are near to it; and indeed, Whatindone 
(incorrectly given by Kemble as Wootton), one of the 
manors granted, is in Coulsdon parish. Besides this, 
we know that Coulsdon remained in the possession 
of the Abbey of Chertsey until 1538, when it was sold to 
the King. 

The earliest of the four charters in which this name 
occurs is one dated in 675, by which Frithewald, 
described as " Sub-regulus Provincice Surraniorum," in 
conjunction with Erkenwald, Bishop of London, granted 
to the Abbey, of which he was the founder, large pos- 
sessions in the county, and amongst them " XX mansas 
cum pascuis illic rite pertinentibus in Guthreds-dune" 

From the circumstance that the village, or, if not then 
a village, the hill or dune, was named after Cuthred, we 
may infer that he was a person of some importance. In 
the same way, Cwichelms-hlcewe (now known as Cuck- 
hamsley Hill, Berks) was in all probability so named 
from Cwichelm, King of the "West Saxons ; and many 
similar instances are met with elsewhere. Indeed, from 
the earliest times, and in all countries, men have been 
accustomed to " call their lands after their own names," 
as well as to commemorate persons of great importance 
by giving their names to those places in which they had 
dwelt, or in which they were buried. 

The only person of any eminence bearing the name 
of Cuthred prior to 675, of whom any mention is made 
in the chronicles of the time, was the son of Cwichelin 

i2 



116 NOTICES OP AN ANGLO-SAXON CEMETERY 

and grandson of Cynegils, the first Christian kings of 
Wessex. 

This Cuthred was baptized by Byrinus at Dorchester 
in 639, and having materially aided his uncle Cenwalch 
in the recovery of his dominions, in the year 648 was 
rewarded by him with the grant of a large portion of 
his lands ; the Saxon Chronicle says 3,000 hides, 
" by JEscesdune :" he died in 661. 

It is not impossible that Coulsdon and the surround- 
ing district may have formed part of this Cuthred' s pos- 
sessions, nor is it impossible that his name was given to 
the hill on which the graves were found, because he was 
buried there, and that the village or town may have 
acquired its name from that circumstance. It is true 
this hill has long been known as Farthing Down ; but that 
name, the meaning of which has not been discovered, 
may be of comparatively recent date. And if I may be 
allowed to add conjecture to conjecture, may we not 
regard it as possible, that he was interred in that grave 
in which the umbo and sword above described were 
found ? 

It may be presumed, from the paucity of graves at 
this spot there not being more than eight or ten, 
that it was the burial-place of the family and retainers 
of some Anglo-Saxon prince or chieftain, rather than 
the cemetery of a parish or district ; and when we take 
into account the beauty and unusual form of the drinking- 
cup, the singular and elaborate character of the shield, 
the presence of only one sword, and the iron situla (those 
met with elsewhere being, I believe, always of bronze), 
we are justified in concluding that the remains here in- 
terred were not those of obscure or ignoble persons. 
As Professor Rolleston has reminded me, burials with 
armour or insignia were early discontinued by Christian- 
ized populations, except in the case of distinguished per- 
sonages, ecclesiastical or temporal ; and Mr. Akerman 1 
has justly observed, that the comparative rarity of swords 

1 " Researches in a Cemetery of the Anglo-Saxon Period at Bright- 
hampton, Oxon," Archceologia, vol. xxx. p. viii. 



AT FAETHING DOWN, COTJLSDON, SUEEEY. 117 

in Anglo-Saxon graves is, in reality, referable to the fact 
that it was not the ordinary weapon of a man under the 
rank of a thane, as is apparent from Canute's law of 
heriots ; and in proof of this, he shows that out of a 
thousand graves which were examined at different places 
in Kent and Cambridgeshire, only nineteen were found 
to contain these emblems of superior rank. 



Note. Professor Eolleston having examined the skull found in this 
grave, informs me that it is a very remarkable one, evidently that of 
a strong, vigorous man, such as was Hengist or Horsa. It greatly 
resembles the skull of an Anglo-Saxon lady who was buried with a 
profusion of trinkets at Savre, a Kentish, and therefore Jutish cemetery. 



ACCOUNT OF A ROMAN VILLA LATELY DIS- 
COVERED AT BEDDINGTON, SURREY. 



following account of the remains of a Roman 
_ villa, lately discovered at Beddington, was com- 
municated to the Society of Antiquaries by John 
Addy, Esq., Stud. Inst. C. E., and by his permission is 
here republished : 

"Early in 1871, certain works in extension of the sewage irrigation 
system, for some years in operation under the Croydon Local Board of 
Health, were commenced upon lands, a portion of a farm of 170 acres, 
called the Park Farm, in Beddington, lying on the north side of the 
river Wandle, between Beddington Lane and Hackbridge railway 
station. 

" Early in February the workmen engaged in cutting one of the 
' carriers ' running east and west, for the conveyance of the sewage to 
the land, at a depth of two feet, came across a wall, which they removed, 
and fragments of red earthenware tiles about nine inches square were 
thrown out. This attracted the author's attention, but knowing that 
further excavations would have to be made on the same site, no addi- 
tional search was continued at that time. 

" On February 24th, in digging another carrier at right angles to 
the above, at a distance of fifty feet from the first discovery, many frag- 
ments of Roman pottery, chiefly of a coarse slate-coloured ware, were 
found. Several of these pieces were marked crossways with stripes, and 
upon being joined together as carefully as possible, proved to be an 
elegant vase, about nine inches high, and of a similar diameter. A piece 
of Samian ware, having a small pattern, was also picked up. Accom- 
panying these were also large quantities of bones of animals and birds, 
and a sheep's horn. These remains were about eighteen inches below 
the surface. 

" In continuation of this carrier the workmen cut across a detached 
chamber, and at a distance of two or three hundred feet further south, 
found three coins ^n three separate places. 








i 3 

I'S 




ACCOUNT OF A ROMAN VILLA AT BEDDINGTON. 119 

" 1. Commodus (second brass). Extremely corroded. 

" 2. Constantine period. 

Obv. Head to the right, of Rome or Constantinople. 
Rev. Victory. 

" 3. Constantine period. Constantius 1 (much worn). 

" It was apparent that we were on the site of Roman remains, and 
it was therefore determined to use every effort to prosecute the exca- 
vation. The walls cut through were evidently Roman, and valuable 
advice was given by E. L. Brock, Esq., who kindly visited the site. 
He gave his opinion that a Roman villa was about to be uncovered, 
and suggested that more extensive excavations should be made. 

" The site of these remains, and the surface of the ground for several 
hundred feet around, is considerably higher than that of the surrounding 
farm, the general character of which is that of a deposit of drift gravel, 
covered with surface mould, varying in depth from nine inches to two 
feet. 

" The walls of the house are about two feet below the surface, and 
the portions that have escaped the ravages of time stand from a height 
of six inches to twenty-one inches from the foundation. No artificial 
foundation was visible beneath the walls, which are placed upon the 
natural gravel-bed. The walls are composed of large flints and flat 
Roman bricks set in mortar. The bricks are from one and a half to 
two and a half inches in thickness, and ten inches square. The exterior 
walls are built solely of flints and mortar. The buildings extend east 
and west from the larger central chamber, the walls of which are more 
regular and thicker than any of the others j and probably this was the 
principal apartment of the building. 

" The internal dimensions of this chamber are sixteen feet by ten feet. 
At the north-western extremity there is an opening into a semicircular 
structure of about three feet six inches radius ; at the mouth of this 
recess are two piers or buttresses, which project forward from the 
interior line of walls ten inches. In this recess there were the remains of 
the columns of the hypocaust. A similar recess, only larger, was found at 
Uriconium : this, it may be remarked, was also on the northern side of 
the chamber. 

" At the north-eastern corner of the central chamber is a rectangular 
apartment annexed to, but apparently having no opening into it, at 
leaat at the level of the existing remains. This chamber conclusively 
shows that a hypocaust existed in this as in other Roman dwellings. It 
was most carefully excavated, and the supports for the floor above were 
clearly exposed. These supports are built up of the common Roman 
tiles, of red earthenware, varying in size from eight inches to 
eleven, square, and one and a half inches thick, which were laid in 
mortar. They were built here to the height of twelve inches from the 
foundation of the walls. The thickness of the exterior walls of this 
apartment is fifteen inches. 

" Immediately east of the central chamber, and at a distance from it 
of seven feet, is a building entirely detached, and unconnected by any 
wall with the main part of the villa. This building was unfortunate!) 



120 ACCOUNT OF A ROMAN VILLA 

cut through by the workmen. It was more perfect than any other 
portion ; perhaps its separation from the main building had preserved 
it from destruction. This chamber is ten feet in length by six feet 
in breadth. The western wall is of unusual thickness, being two feet 
three inches, the other walls being from eighteen to twenty-one inches 
across. The flooring is composed of red tiles, nine inches square, laid 
regularly in mortar to a depth of twelve inches. The interior walls are 
coated with a coarse plaster, composed of lime and powdered burnt 
clay, which presents the same appearance as the mortar beneath the 
tiles. 

" A series of outer and partition walls, of a much rougher construction, 
and less easily defined, are attached to the western part of the large 
chamber. Their relation was ascertained by careful examination. From 
all appearances, it is conjectured that they were offices attached to the 
dwelling. South of the thick wall abutting on the large chamber, a 
portion of pavement, five feet by one foot nine inches, composed of 
square tiles, appears to have been subjected to great heat whilst in its 
present position. They were found to be fragile when attempted to be 
removed, and had a dark appearance, as though they were calcined. 
Probably this was where the fire of the hypocaust was made. 

"Nothing like a tesselated pavement was met with, and from all 
appearances it was doubtless a dwelling of but moderate pretensions. 

" Large quantities of fragments of plaster from the walls were found 
in and around the building. They are of a white ground, marked with 
bands of various widths, from a quarter of an inch to two inches. The 
stripes are principally of a crimson colour, but pieces having sepia and 
pink stripes were picked up, and some fragments had traces of a yellow 
pigment. Corner pieces coloured red were also found, showing the 
angles where the lines joined. These fragments of plaster are formed of 
lime mixed with small pieces of bricks and flint. It is interesting to 
note that the colour on these fragments is apparently as fresh as if 
painted recently, although they have been subjected to the action of air 
and moisture for so many hundred years. 

" Large quantities of portions of the flue tiles were found in the 
interior of the larger chamber, some retaining the traces of fire very 
distinctly : they are scored in various patterns. 

" The space within the walls was a mass of debris, composed of made 
earth, soot, fragments of brick, tiles, pottery, and plaster from the walls. 

" The pieces of pottery were of various kinds : several pieces of Samian 
ware were met with, and others of a peculiar red ware, ornamented by 
the impression of a small marine shell on the still moist clay. 

" Two pieces, supposed to be Castor ware, are of a chocolate colour, 
embossed with white ornaments. 

" A bronze bead, about half an inch in diameter, was found in the 
interior of the large chamber. Two coins only were found in removing 
the earth from the buildings. 

" 1. Constantino period. 

Obv. Head of Rome, URBS ROMA. 

Rev. Romulus and Remus. Mint mark TR. 



LATELY DISCOVERED AT BEDDINGTON, SUREEY. 121 

" 2. A Saxon silver penny. 1 

Obv. J< UEDELSTAN HEX TO BE. Seven small pellets forming 

a rose. 

Rev. >J< EADMUND MO LEiGCE. Nine similar pellets. 
" Many oyster-shells and snail-shells were found amongst the debris, 
also the skull and bones of a dog, the lower jaw of an ox, or of some 
other large animal, with many bones of smaller animals and birds. A 
roof-tile, deeply indented with the impress of the foot of an animal, 
probably that of a sheep, was taken from the walls of the building. 

" A lump of mortar of the well-known Roman type was discerned 
by the writer at another spot on the farm, and upon excavation being 
made underneath, the foundation of a building, apparently about twenty 
feet square, was met with, accompanied with many fragments of large 
vessels or amphorae, but nothing worthy of note in addition. Th^se 
mains were so little attractive that no extensive search was made. 
" A coin of Claudius II. ] was picked up adjoining this building. 
" Two other coins were picked up in separate places on the farm. 
"1. Allectus. 

Obv. ALLECTVS. Head of Allectus to left. 
Rev. LAETITIA AUG. . Galley. 

Mint mark, probably indicating that it was struck at Colchester. 
" 2. A coin of Carausius ? " 

Mr. Addy having thus preserved a careful record of 
these discoveries, it was found indispensable to continue 
the irrigation works, and these interesting remains are 
now effectually hidden from sight. 

1 The obverse of this coin agrees precisely with that figured in Ruding's 
A nnals of the Coinage, PL 1 7, No. 1 9, except that in that specimen there 
are eight and not seven pellets. The moneyer Eadmund occurs on a coin 
of different type, ibid., Appendix, PL 28 (Aethelstan No. 2), and the 
contraction LEIGCE for Leicester on other pieces. 



NOTICES OF AN ANGLO-SAXON CEMETERY 
AT BEDDINGTON, SUREEY. 

BY JOHN WICKHAM FLOWER, ESQ., F.G.S. 



VERY shortly after the discovery of the remains of 
the Roman villa described in the preceding paper, 
Mr. Addy was so fortunate as to meet with some traces 
of an Anglo-Saxon burial-ground in the same field with 
the villa. The following particulars of this discovery 
were communicated by Mr. Addy to the Society of 
Antiquaries in the same memoir with the preceding 
account : 

" About 500 yards in a southerly direction from the villa, the work- 
men engaged in excavating surplus material on April 14th discovered 
the remains of a human skeleton ; adjacent to this an iron spear-head 
of superior workmanship was found, together with fragments of thin 
iron, which probably composed the boss of a shield, and an iron knife. 
All these articles are very much oxydized. A few feet further from 
the above skeleton, another was found, the excavation made for the 
grave being very distinct to a depth of about eighteen inches below 
the surface. 

" A most important discovery was made also on the same spot and on 
the same day, as a large sepulchral urn of dark ware, marked with pat- 
terns of considerable elegance, was found. The workmen, having received 
instructions, were fortunately very careful in using their picks, and 
although very brittle, on account of the moisture, the vase was removed 
almost entire. It is about nine inches in diameter, and of a similar 
height, and contained some fragments of bones mixed with earth. 
Another one of smaller size, adjoining, fell to pieces upon removal. On 
the same site, on the 24th April, a third urn of similar appearance, 
marked with patterns, but very much damaged, was found ; adjoining 
it were human bones. A few hours later, attention was again called to 
a fourth urn, of smaller size and more elegant proportions. It is about 
seven inches in height, and is ornamented with encircling lines and 



ANGLO-SAXON CEMETERY AT BEDDINGTON, SURREY. 123 

impressed ornaments. This vase stood upright in the ground, and 
when the writer arrived, its impress was visible at the depth of eighteen 
inches below the surface. In removing the earth from the interior, a 
fragment of bone was noticed. Adjacent to the above, another human 
skeleton was found accompanied by an iron dagger or knife. On the 
following day an urn, very much fractured, was exposed. It is of a 
similar make to those previously described." 

When Mr. Addy had discontinued his researches, the 
ground was further examined by A. Smee, Esq., F.E.S., 
and by myself. Mr. Smee's labours resulted in his 
finding one cinerary urn, very much damaged, and two 
human skeletons with the heads placed towards the west. 
The only other objects discovered by Mr. Addy were a 
blue glass bead, a bronze bracelet devoid of ornament, 
and some pieces of bronze, probably broken fibulso. 

My own discoveries during a week, in which I had 
several men at work, were confined to two skulls, much 
crushed ; four cinerary urns filled with burnt bones, one 
of them with markings much resembling those found on 
some British urns ; the iron umbo of a shield of the usual 




Anglo-Saxon form, of which a figure is here given, and 
four well-formed spear-heads and three daggers of iron, 
found in four several graves. 

The ground in which these remains were found occu- 
pies about half an acre, and is slightly raised above the 
level of the adjoining meadow. It is composed of river 
gravel, and as the river now flows at the distance of about 
fifty yards, it would seem that it has flowed in the same 
course for probably the last 1,400 years. 

From the entire absence in these graves of any jewel- 



]24 ANGLO-SAXON CEMETERY AT BEDDTNGTON, SURREY. 

lery or personal ornaments, except the small bead and 
the plain bronze bracelet, and from the fact that no sword 
was found, it seems reasonable to conclude that the 
persons here interred were not of any great wealth or 
importance, probably husbandmen or ceorls ; and from 
the fact that some of them were burned, and their ashes 
placed in urns, while others were not burned, but were 
placed with their heads lying towards the west, we may 
suppose that the cemetery was commenced in pre-Chris- 
tian times, and was continued in use after the people were 
converted from heathenism. As an Anglo-Saxon coin was 
found in the Roman villa, it seems not unlikely that it was 
taken possession of, after the Romans had abandoned it, 
by occupants of the same condition in life as those who 
first made it their dwelling-place. 






NOTICE OF A HOARD OF BRONZE IMPLE- 

MENTS FOUND AT BEDDINGTON, 

SURREY. 

BY JOHN WICKHAM FLOWER, ESQ., F.G.S. 



THE objects in bronze, of which figures are given in 
the accompanying plate, are part of a small collec- 
tion which was discovered three or four years since in 
Beddington Park, in preparing the ground for the foun- 
dation of a house nearly opposite the school-room : they 
are now in the possession of Dr. Strong, of Croydon. 

The total number of pieces found was thirteen ; viz., 
three ingots or lumps of bronze, one gouge, two broken 
spear-heads, one half of a mould for casting bronze 
celts, and six celts. They probably formed part of the 
stock in trade of some manufacturer of such implements, 
as, from the battered and broken condition of most of 
the pieces, it is clear that they, as well as the ingots, 
were intended for the melting-pot. 

The gouge (fig. 1) is socketed to receive a haft, or 
handle, of wood or bone. These implements are not very 
common, and the one here figured is a remarkably fine 
specimen, as perfect, indeed, as could be made at the 
present day from the same material. The celt, No. 2, is 
one of the usual types ; it is figured here, as being the 
most perfect that was found. The celt-mould is some- 
what broken, but it is perfect enough to show its design 
and character. It is evident, from these samples of their 
handiwork, that our remote predecessors possibly our 
ancestors were not quite so rude as we sometimes fancy. 



126 BRONZE IMPLEMENTS FOUND AT BEDDINGTON, SURREY. 

These implements were obviously of home manufacture, 
and those who made them must have been tolerably well 
skilled in the working of metals, bronze being compounded 
from two such different metals as copper and tin, which 
in the composition of all implements of this kind appear 
to have been mixed in due proportions. It is also evi- 
dent that a certain amount of commercial enterprise and 
activity must have been exhibited, as the implements are 
frequently found in localities very far distant from those 
in which the metals in question are obtainable. 

The discovery of these objects is locally interesting, as 
showing that the district was inhabited before the Roman 
invasion by those who had not yet learned the use of iron. 
As the clear waters of the Wandle probably induced some 
British tribe or family to settle on its banks, so probably 
the Romans found here a pleasant and convenient habi- 
tation, and after they had taken their departure the Saxon 
invaders took possession, and gave the place, probably 
for the first time, a distinctive name. Bedding^cw is 
evidently the town or dwelling-place of the Beedings, 
the tribe or family of Bede ; a name which is illustrious 
in English history as having been borne by our earliest, 
and learned historian, justly termed " the Venerable." 






SUKEET ETYMOLOGIES, 

BY GRANVILLE LEVESON-GOWER, ESQ., F.S.A. 



TANDRIDGE HUNDRED. Part II. 

OXTED. 

OXTED ; Anglo-Saxon Charter, Acustyde ; Domesday 
Survey, Acstede ; Deed of 27 Edward I., Okstede. 
The Anglo-Saxon Charters in which it is mentioned are 
one of ^Ethelberht, king of Wessex, A.D. 862 ; and another 
of ^Ethelred, A.D. 987. The first is a deed whereby JSthel- 
berht granted to his minister Dryghtwald ten carucates 
of land at Bromley, and the boundaries of the grant are 
minutely described. This charter contains so many names 
of places in the immediate neighbourhood which Mr. 
Kemble in his Index has not attempted to identify, that 
I think it well to transcribe it at length : l " These are 
the boundaries of the said land from the north from 
Kengley 3 to Langley, 3 Bromley Mark, and Lewisham, 4 
then from Langley to the Wonstock, 5 then from the Won- 
stock by Modingham Mark 6 to Kent Style, 7 then from 

1 Part of this charter is printed in An Account of Excavations at 
Keston, by Mr. George Corner, F.S.A., and he has identified several of 
the places. 

2 Ceddanleage, Kengley Bridge, is at Southend, between Lewisham 
and Bromley. 

3 Langley, in Beckenham. 4 Leofshema. 

5 The stump or post of Wodin. Mr. Corner suggests Stump Hill, 
between Southend and Beckenham. 

6 " Modingahema." Kemble conjectures Mottingham, but the name 
has disappeared. 

7 Cinta Stiogole. Probably, as Mr. Corner suggests, Kent Gate, on 
the borders of Wickham in Kent and Addington in Surrey. 

VOL. VI. K 



128 SUBREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

Kent Style by Modingham Mark to the Eagles Tree, 1 and 
from the Eagles Tree the hedge of the Cray Settlers 2 
from the east half divides it to Leasons 3 Dene ; then from 
Leasons Dene to the Gulf ; 4 then from the Gulf the hedge 
of the Cray Settlers to Six Slaughters ; B then from Six 
Slaughters to Farnborough 6 Mark : the Farnborough 
Mark divides it to Keston Mark ; 7 the Keston Mark 
divides it on the south towards the Watch Station ; 8 
then from the Watch Station Keston Mark to Wickham 
Mark ; then the West Mark 9 by Wickham Mark out to 
Beddlestead ; 10 then from Beddlestead to Oxted to Bee- 
ham (?) Mark n from Oxted to Kengley. Then belonging 
there to that land five denes 12 at the outwood, the name 
of this dene Broxham, 13 the name of the other dene Sang- 
ridge ? u Billanore 15 is the name of the third, then two 
denes at Glapfield." le 

Oxted is the Ac-stede, the place of the Oak, a name 
which must fitly have described it in ancient times, and 
is singularly applicable in the present day. " To this 

1 Earnes beame. 

2 Cregsetna. The settlers on the river Cray ; hence Crayford, Foot's 
Cray, St. Mary's Cray, &c. 

3 Liowsandene. Mr. Corner suggests Leaves Green, but I think it 
is more probably Leasons, the name of a wood in Cudham. 

4 Swelgende, a swallow or gulf. 

5 Sioxslihtre. 6 Fearnbiorginga. 

7 Cystaninga. The conversion of Cystaninga into Keston, says Mr. 
Corner, is elucidated by Domesday Book, in which the place is called 
Chestan, the ' ch ' being pronounced hard gives the modern name. 

8 Setle, the Station, indicating probably the Roman station at 
Keston. 

9 Westmearc. Probably Westmore Green in Tatsfield. 

10 Bipple styde. Beddlestead, a farm in Chelsham. 

11 Biohahhema. Mr. Corner suggests the word may mean the Bee 
inclosure or Apiary. See also Leo on Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 16. 

12 A certain allotment of woodland in the Weald. 

13 Brocesham, a farm between Edenbridge and "Westerham. 

14 Sanget hryg. Possibly Sundridge, as that parish runs down into 
the Weald. 

15 Billan ora. This name is lost, but we find it mentioned in Charter 
518 as part of the forest of Andred, and there described as close by 
Linhurst, which is the name of a farm near to Broxham. 

16 Gleppan felda. In Charter 518 this place is mentioned as part of 
Sbarnden, which is a large tract of wood in Edenbridge parish. 



SURBEY ETYMOLOGIES. 129 

gives countenance," says Salmon, 1 "the number of fat 
Hogs paid as Lord's Rent at the Survey, which were an 
hundred." 

BIRSTED, alias BIEESTED, a manor in Oxted, and for- 
merly part of the possessions of the Priory of Tandridge, 
is the ' bearo ' stede, the place of the wood which sup- 
plied mast for fattening pigs, another allusion to the 
wooded character of the place. Bersted is the name of 
a village near Maidstone, which occurs as Berhamstede 
in the Anglo-Saxon Charters, and South Berstead is a 
village in Sussex. 

BROADHAM, anciently written Brodeham, is another 
manor, and belonged formerly to the Abbey of Battle. 
It is the ' brad,' broad or large inclosure. The name oc- 
curs in the Anglo-Saxon Charters as Bradanham, in that 
of a place in Berkshire, Hampshire, and Worcestershire. 
Great and Little Broadham are the names of two meadows 
on Titsey Court Farm. Bradenes, alias Bradwyn's Crofts, 
occur as the names of fields at Titsey in a Court Roll of 
15 Ric. II. Brad, or Broad, is one of the commonest 
prefixes we meet with ; e.g., Bradbourne, Bradanstede, 
now Brasted, in Kent ; Broadmoor Yale, near Leith Hill, 
in Surrey ; and Broadwater, in Sussex. 

FOYLE, alias LA FOYLE, another manor, is spelt in a 
Deed of 36 Edw. III. Foyllye. It is possible that ' fylle,' 
the wild thyme, is the derivation of this word, places so 
often taking their name from natural productions. It is 
locally pronounced the File. Halliwell gives Foyle as a 
word for fallow-land. 

STOKETT'S, another manor, and a principal residence, 
giving name to a family of de la Stockette, or Stocket, 
whom we find living there, and represented by John de 
la Stockette in 12 Edw. III. Two members of the family, 
Katherine and Eleanor, were ladies of the household of 
Joan Lady Cobham, and are mentioned in her will. The 
former is buried in Lingfield Church, where there is a 
brass to her memory. It is clear that the place gave the 
name to the family, not the family to the place. The 

1 Antiquities of Surrey, p. 65. 
K2 



130 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

origin of it is the ' Stoc,' or inclosed place, which is 
the root of the numerous Stokes that we find all over 
England. 

BARROW GREEN, the principal residence in the parish, 
has been supposed to take its name from a barrow. " At 
Oxted," says Manning, 1 " is a very large barrow or 
tumulus, from which a capital house, called Barrow Green, 
takes its name ; " and in the Index he tells us that this 
barrow was thrown up by the Danes. A careful ex- 
amination of the so-called barrow, made under the direc- 
tion of the late Mr. J. Wickham Flower, has proved 
conclusively that it is nothing but a natural hill ; and, 
disagreeable as it is to upset long-cherished traditions, 
we must seek for the origin of the name from some other 
source, since it is not reasonable to imagine that any 
place would take its name from a supposed resemblance 
to a barrow. I do not find the name earlier than a Court 
Roll of 20 Edw. IV., where it occurs as " Barowes tene- 
ment," unless "Berewe," in a Court Roll of the 14th 
year of that king, be the same place. In a Rental of 
1568 it occurs as Barogrene, in a Survey of the Manor 
of 1576 as Barowe Grene, in a Rental of 1577 as Barow 
Grene, and in a Rental of about the same date as Barrowe- 
grene. The origin of it is not, I think, difficult to find. 
A district in the parish was called the Borough, or, as it 
is written in a Deed of 12 Ric. II., " The Bergh." Men- 
tion is there made of land at the Bergh lying between 
the common called the Bergh and land of Rauf at Bour ; 
and so Borough Green, which was the piece of waste in 
this district, became corrupted by an easy process into 
Barrow Green, and the singular conical-shaped hill at 
once gave plausibility to the idea of a barrow. 

HURST GREEN, a common in the parish, called in a Deed 
of 15 Edw. IV. le Herst, and in a Rental of 1577 Herste 
grene, and some land adjoining, Herstelond. It is from 
the ' hurst,' or wood, and points to the amount of wood- 
land formerly existing in the parish. Hurst Field is a 
field in Caterham, Hurst Green is the name of a place on 

1 Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 322. 



SUREEY ETYMOLOGIES. 131 

the high-road between Tonbridge Wells and Hastings, 
and there is a parish near Blackburn so called. 

MERLE, or MERROL COMMON, a common on the borders 
of Limpsfield parish, and standing high, is a corruption 
of Merehill,' the boundary hill. In a Court Roll of 
19 Edw. IV., and in a Deed of 3 Hen. VIII., I find it 
.written Merehill, and in the Survey of 1576, among 
the waste lands of Oxted it is described as the waste 
or common called Mearehill Common, containing 23 
acres. 

PERRYSFIELD, now a principal residence, was formerly 
a part of the demesnes of Stockett, and under the name 
of Perieslonds formed one of the three shares into which 
that property was divided 6 Hen. VIII. In a Court 
Roll of 14 Edw. IV. occurs Pyryesgrove, in one of 
19 Edw. IV. Perislond and Perisgrene, and in a Rental 
of 1577 Perryes. Isaac Taylor 1 says that the names of 
fruit-trees are very unfrequent, with the exception of the 
apple-tree ; but, notwithstanding this remark, I believe 
that the derivation of this word is to be sought for in 
' pirige,' the Anglo-Saxon for a pear-tree. Pears were 
no doubt cultivated as well as apples. We find a small 
farm in Godstone called the Pear-tree Farm, at which 
was an iron spring of great reputation. Purley, in San- 
derstead, anciently written Pirilea ; Pirbright and Pirford, 
in the hundred of Woking, in this county, formerly written 
Pirifrith and Piriford, are probably from the same source, 
and not, as Manning says, from the name of some ancient 
proprietor. Piri, Perie, or Pirie is old English for a 
pear-tree, and is used by Chaucer in his " Canterbury 
Tales:" 

" But for her lorde sche durste not done 
That sate benethe and pleyed hym merye 
Before the towre undur a ' perye.' " 

In the Survey of 1576 two fields are mentioned in Broad- 
ham, called the Peare Crofte and the Little Peare Crofte. 
On Addington Lodge Farm is a field of the same name. 
On Foyle Farm is a field called Pear-tree Field. Perry ^ 

1 Words and Places, p. 367. 



132 SUKEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

field is the name of- some land close to Maidstone ; and 
there are numerous places in the Anglo-Saxon Charters 
which have this prefix ; e. g. Pirigtun and Pyritun, now 
Piriton, in "Wiltshire ; and Pirigfleat, Purfleet, in Kent. 

GINCOCKS, the name of a farm in the parish, also one 
of the three shares into which Stockett was divided. We 
must at once discard the popular tradition which would 
ascribe it to the casks of gin brought hither by smug- 
glers. It is an old name variously written. In a Court 
Roll of 2 Hen. VI., Janecocks ; in one of 19 Edw. IV., 
Jenkoks ; in a View of Frank Pledge, 4 Hen. VIII., 
Gennecocks ; in a Deed of 6 Hen. VIII., Gyncockks ; 
and in a Rental of 1577, Gencocks. Some lands called 
Cokeslands and Coks Riden are constantly mentioned in 
all the early deeds, and in a Court Roll of 19 Edw. IV. 
" Cokeslands prope Jenkoks " occurs. Cokesland I take 
to be an owner's name, and to have been the land of a 
certain Coke or Cox, as in the Computus Roll of 
35 Edw. III. appears " firma terras quondam Cokes," and 
Jencocks to have been the possession of some member 
of that family ; and in support of this somewhat prosaic 
derivation I have the authority of the earliest ortho- 
graphy of the word, 2 Hen. VI., wherein it is spelt 
Janecocks. 

FOYLE RIDDEN, the name of a small farm, is the * Riden' 
or grubbed ground near the Foyle : it occurs as Follrid- 
ings in a Court Roll of 16 Eliz. In 36 Edw. III., in 
15 Edw. IV., and in 1577, we find a district called the 
Ryden or Ryddens, a tract of woodland doubtless which 
had been brought into cultivation. 

SUNT, a farm bordering upon Crowhurst parish, written 
Suns in some of the early deeds. In a Court Roll of 
1568, I meet with Merrells, alias Hunts, alias Scrivens, 
and in a Rental of 1577, Hunts, alias Sunts. It is clearly 
a possessor's name, although the final s is now lost. It is 
described in 1577 as consisting of 100 acres, and at the 
present time it is about 110, a remarkable instance of 
how little change it has undergone in three centuries. 

ALLEYLANDS, possibly connected with ' aller,' a name for 
the alder-tree, This land is situated near the brook. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 133 

In the upper part of the parish, on Flint-house Farm, is 
a field called Gorse Alley, mentioned in a deed of 1649 ; 
but this was probably a gorse field with alleys or road- 
ways cut in it. 

ROSELANDS, a name still preserved in Eose Farm. In 
a Court Roll of 14 Edw. IV. mention is made of " Rose- 
landstrete between Hall Hill and Brodeham." In a View 
of Frank Pledge of 4 Hen. VIII., land is named called 
Le Rose. In a deed of 1 & 2 Phil. & Mary, and in a 
Rental of 19 Eliz., it occurs as Roselands. It was very 
usual for lands to be held by the nominal rent of a rose, 
and this is probably the origin of the name. In a Deed 
of 18 Edw. III., John, son of Richard le Smith, covenants 
to pay yearly to Sir Robert de Stangrave, Kt., and Lady 
Johan, his wife, a rose at the feast of the Nativity of 
St. John Baptist for two pieces of meadow-land in Oxted ; 
and in a Court Roll of Tatsfield, 1641, Richard Hayward 
is said to hold Bassets-meade by rent of a red rose. 
Roses Field, on Broomlands Farm, in Titsey, may be 
named, perhaps, from the same cause ; and on Kingsland 
Farm, in Farley, are two places called Rose Field and 
Rose Shaw ; and on Goddard's Farm, in Tatsfield, Little 
and Great Rose Field. 

HALL FARM, HALL HILL. This farm, otherwise known 
as the Hall, was formerly part of the possessions of the 
Abbey of Battle, and went with the Manor of Broadham. 
It points to the existence of an old house or hall at this 
place. 1 

STONEHALL, now a principal residence, is a compara- 
tively modern name. It represents the ancient " Stone- 
hamme," the site of an old habitation, and mentioned in 
the Computus Roll of 35 Edw. III. The change to 
Stonehall is probably due to some former owner for 
whom the old Saxon name had no charm in comparison 
with the modern hall, and is one instance among many 
of the ruthless way in which old names are sacrificed to 
the vulgarism of modern taste. Aubrey mentions Stone- 
ham Lane as the name of a lane in Caterham. 

1 On the word ' Heal/ hall, see Leo, Anglo-Saxon Names, pp. 52-3* 



134 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

SNATTS, alias KNATTS, is a possessor's name. Snatt 
occurs in the parish register of Oxted in 1640, and in a 
Subsidy Koll of 15 Car. II. as Snet. I find also in the 
parish register of Limpsfield, in 1706, the name of 
Richard Snatt, and the greater part of this farm is in 
Limpsfield. In a Rental of Tatsfield, 1561, is some land 
called Snates, 

COLTSFORD MILL. In a Court Roll of 15 Edw. IV. this 
appears as le Collys atte Mille, in 19 Edw. IV. Colts at 
Mill, and in a deed of 29 Eliz. as Colesett Mill. I can 
give no explanation of the two latter. If the former, 
which is the name it now bears, is in reality the ancient 
form handed down by oral tradition (and local pronun- 
ciation will often afford the key to the meaning of a word 
which in written documents has become hopelessly cor- 
rupted 1 ), it will be the Colt's-ford. We find the names 
of animals in connection with fords in Oxford ; Hert- 
ford, the stag's-ford ; Swinford, the swine's-ford ; Gat- 
ford, the goat's-ford ; Horsford : and of birds also ; e.g., 
the eagle and the goose in Erningford 2 and Gosford. 
In the Computus Roll of Oxted Manor, 35 Edw. III., a 
field is mentioned called Goseforde, and in an Extent 
of Limpsfield Manor, 5 Edw. II., is a field of the same 
name. 

EARLS WOOD, GREAT and LITTLE ; spelt in a deed of 
conveyance of 1782 Eyeries Wood. We find the same 
name in Earlswood Common, near Red Hill. References, 
says Leo, 3 are very numerous to the customary and 
judicial modes of life and to the different national grades ; 
e. g., Thengles-ham, the dwelling of a prince ; Ceorlatun 
(Charlton), the village of peasants. Earls-wood is the 
wood of the eorl or earl, just as Charlwood, in the lower 
part of the County, still locally pronounced Chur-le-wood, 
is the ceorle's or peasant's wood. In a Court Roll of 
19 Edw. IV. mention is made of Lordeslands, near Earls 
Wood ; and in Tatsfield is a field called Lords Mead. 



1 The name of Cheverills, noticed Under Titsey, p. 63, affords a good 
instance of this. 

2 Cart. Ang.-Sax., p. 607. 3 Names of Places, p. 23. 






StfRBEY EI'YMOLOGIES. 135 

GIBBS BROOK, the name of the stream that divides Oxted 
and Crowhurst. It is an old name, and is met with in 
the following forms : In a Court Roll of 14 Edw. IV. 
occurs Gibbys Mede ; in a View of Frank Pledge of 
4 Henry VIII., Regia via vocat. Chepsbrooke ; in a Deed 
of 1 & 2 Phil. & Mary, Gippes Brooke. In a Survey of 
the Manor of Oxted, taken 19 Eliz., the boundaries are 
thus described : " South the river of Gippes, which parteth 
the Manor of Okested from Crowhurst, butteth all along 
the said Manor of Okested from Tanrige Meadow to 
Caterford Bridge." Gib is given by Halliwell l as a young 
gosling, but it seems to be merely a local word ; it is 
more probable that it must be classed with the large 
number of possessor's names, and points to the surname 
of an owner of land in that part of the parish. 

THE RIDGE WAY, in the grounds of Barrow Green, occurs 
in the Computus Roll of 35 Edw. III. as ' Rugweye ; ' 
in a Court Roll of 15G8, Rodgeways ; in a Rental of 
James L, Ridgeway. It is either the ridge-way or path 
on the high ground, ' rig ' or ' rugge ' being old English 
for a ridge, just as Reigate is from Rigegate, the ridge 
road, or else it is from ' rug,' rough. 

RYE WOOD. A wood under the chalk-hill mentioned 
in an account of the demesne lands of the Manor of 
Oxted, in 1576. It appears that one of the districts in 
the parish went by the name of the Rey, or the Rye. 
In a Deed in Latin, of 12 Ric. II., Reginald de Cobham 
grants to Geoffrey Stremond a cottage with a crofte 
of land at the Rey, abutting on the king's high strete, 
leading from the Reye towards the Bergh. In Court 
Rolls of 14 & 15 Edw. IV. mention is made of the 
highway called Rye, and of a district called La Rye, 
which occurs again in a Rental of 19 Eliz. and in one of 
James L, and in 1576 it is called Rye Boro. Rye, alias 
Raye Croft, is the name of a field near Oxted Church. 
This district included the village of Oxted, and appears 
to have lain round Oxted Church and Barrow Green, 
in the valley, and therefore it is difficult to explain the 

1 Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 



136 StJRREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

meaning of the word. Had it been the hill district, it 
might have been referred to Rei or Rige, a ridge ; as in 
Reigate, and in R jested and Ry elands, in Tatsfield. 

ROBIN'S GROVE, the name of a wood, partly in Oxted 
and partly in Tandridge, occurs in a Court Roll of 
20 Edw. IV. It might seem at first sight to be called 
after the bird, Keble's " sweet messenger of calm 
decay;" but the robin being found everywhere, it is 
hardly likely that any wood would be specially dedicated 
to him. Robbyn is given in the "Promptorium Parvu- 
lorum " as the old English for a robber; and it may well 
be that in the thicket of this grove in days of yore, 
some notorious highwayman lay concealed ready to 
exercise his calling upon unwary passengers along the 
Pilgrims' Way, which ran hard by. 1 Robin's Ham, 
below Tilburstow Hill, in the parish of Godstone, may 
possibly be referred to the same cause. I mentioned a 
field in Tandridge called Rawbones, a name given, I 
imagine, like Starveacre, to mark the poverty of the soil. 
The transition from Rawbones to Robins is a very easy 
one. 

SPITAL FIELDS. In the Survey of 1576 the Outer 
and Inner Spittlefields are mentioned, and between 
the two a " Turrett of Okes called Spittle Hill." A 
spittle or hospital was originally applied, says Halli- 
well, 2 to a lazar -house or receptacle for persons afflicted 
with leprosy, but afterwards to a hospital of any kind . 
The existence of leprosy in England is called to 
mind by the lychnoscopes or lepers' windows in our 
churches, of which an example may be seen in the 
chancel of Limpsfield church, and by such a name as 
Burton Lazars, a village in Leicestershire. Spitalfields, 
in London, took its name from the Priory and Hospital of 
St. Mary Spital, founded in the reign of Richard I. ; and 
these fields were doubtless named from some hospital 
or pest-house formerly standing there. The Computus 

1 Robin's Grove is still the home of another notorious class of robber. 
It is a more certain find for a fox than perhaps any cover in the 
country. 

2 Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, p. 785. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 137 

Roll of 36 Edw. III. mentions a field called Spitelhulle, 
the Spital Hill. 

LINCOLN'S LAND. This name, which occurs in an 
account of the demesne lands of Oxted dr. 1576, as 
the Outer and Inner field of Lincolnesland, Lincolnes- 
land Croft, and Lincolnsland Grove, still exists. It is 
the name of an owner, who appears to have possessed land 
both^in Titseyand Limpsfield. We meet in the former 
with Lincoln's Mead, in the latter with Lincolns. In 
the Parish Register of Limpsfield I find the name of 
Lincoln in 1561, and William Lincoln in a Court Roll of 
1582. 

CHALK-PIT WOOD. In the same document the Great 
and Little Chalk-pit Wood are mentioned. They are so 
called from being situated below the chalk-pit, which, 
from its great size, must have been worked from very 
early times. 

BARDOXE BLOCK. In the Survey of 19 Eliz. it is said, 
" North the Manor of Oxted boundeth on Bardoxe Block," 
in a note to which, Manning l says, that it was " a stone 
placed to assist a traveller in mounting his horse, after 
having quitted it to ascend or descend the very steep 
hill here. It was remaining not many years ago." The 
stone mentioned in the Survey was at the top of the 
hill. Whence it acquired the name of Bardoxe Block 
I cannot say. In an Extent of Limpsfield Manor, 
8 Hen. VI., land called Burdoux is mentioned. 

THE TYE. This was a tract of land near Stockhurst. 
In a Deed of 36 Edw. III. it occurs as the Tegh ; in 
Court Rolls of 15 Edw. IV. and 2 Hen. V. as Le Tye ; 
in Deeds of 6 Hen. VIII. and 19 Eliz. as Tye. I 
noticed the frequent occurrence of this word under 
Bletchingley. 3 In three of the deeds cited above, it 
13 mentioned in conjunction with the Ridons, or Ryden, 
and Chart, two other tracts of land in the same vicinity. 
These names have also been explained before. 3 In an 
Extent of Limpsfield Manor, 5 Edw. II., are many names 

1 Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 382. 

2 " Surrey Etymologies," ante, part i. p. 85. 

3 Id., pp. 26 and 22. 



138 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

with the suffix ' tegh ;' e. g. t Chalvetegh, Horsetegh, 
La Thegh. 

ABBOT'S HETHE and ABBOT'S DEANE recall the fact that 
the Abbots of Battle were, until the dissolution of the 
monasteries, lords of the manor of Broadham and 
owners of the Hall Farm. 

MESEMEDE (Computus, 35 Edw. III.) is probably the 
mossy meadow, from A.-S. ' meos,' moss. We find various 
places in the Anglo-Saxon Charters with this prefix ; 
e. g., Meosbroc, Meesbrook, Berkshire ; Meosden, Kent j 1 
Meosdun, Sussex. In a Court Eoll of 14 Edw. IV., a 
field in Oxted is mentioned, called Meseheld, i. e. the 
mossy slope, the word ' held ' being explained by 
Stratman to mean a slope or declivity. 2 And in an 
Extent of Limpsfield Manor, 8 Hen. VI., is a field called 
Maseden, and in a Rental of Tatsfield, of 1402, is a 
field called Mosecroft. 

AILSWELL, at. AYLESWELL (Survey, 1576). " The name 
of Eigil the hero-archer," says Taylor, 3 " is probably to 
be sought at Aylesbury, formerly ^Eglesbyrig, as well 
perhaps as at Aylesford, Aysworth, and Aylstone." 
Besides these places, we find in the Anglo-Saxon Charters, 
^Eglestona in Worcestershire, and ^Egeleswurth (Ayles- 
worth), Northamptonshire.* This, then, would be Eigiles- 
well, the well dedicated to Eigil. 

ARDYNG GROUNDS, mentioned in Court Rolls of 14 & 19 
Edw. IV., and occurring in the Survey of 1576 as 
Addingren, seems rather to bear out the* supposition 
expressed in a former paper 5 on the name of Arding 
Run, in Lingfield, of the settlement of the clan of the 
Ardings in the neighbourhood. 

ALDBERYES. A Court Roll of 1 Hen. VIII. speaks of 
three crofts called Aldberyes. This name, which we 
meet with in Albury, a parish near Guildford, and again 
at Merstham, as that of a manor there, is one of the 
many words in which the prefix ' eald ' (old) is found. 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat. Cart. Ang.-Sax., 1177, 114, 18. 

2 Dictionary of Old English, in verbo. 3 Words and Places, p. 328. 

4 Kemble, Codex Diplom. Cart. Ang.-Sax., Cart. 549 and 423. 

5 Ante, part i. p. 98. 



SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 139 

There is not, so far as I know, any earthwork or borough 
here, and it is probable that the termination is merely 
used in its primary sense of an inclosure or space 
walled in. 

AKDEEWE'S CROFT (Court Roll, 1 Hen. VIII. ; Andres, 
Survey, 1576; now Andrew's Wood), recalls the name 
of a former owner or occupier. Richard and William 
Andrews appear on a Subsidy Roll of Oxted, 14 
Henry VIII. 

BABBESWELL (Court Roll, 1 & 2 Ph. & Mary). In a 
Rental of Titsey, 1402, is a field called Babhurst. 
There are three places in the Saxon Charters 1 which are 
akin to the word, viz., Babbanbeorh, Babban fasling, and 
Babban med, but Mr. Kemble has not been able to 
identify them, and there is a place in Nottinghamshire 
called Babrooth. It is probably the name of some 
Anglo-Saxon owner. 

BAEKSTEDE (Court Roll, 6 Hen. VI.). This is a very 
common prefix, and occurs in Barkby and Barkestone 
(Leicestershire), Barkham (Berks), Barking (Essex and 
Suffolk), Barkstone and Barkwith (Lincoln), and other 
places ; and Berkshire is the bearroc or baroc-scyr. 
Halliwell 2 gives ' barken ' as a south country word for 
the yard of a house or farmyard. Barking Bottom is 
the name of a field in Warlingham. 

BOUEELOND (Court Roll, 2 Hen. V.), Bowerslonds (Id., 
20 Edw. IV.). In Crowhurst there is a small farm 
called Bowerland, and the lane leading to it is known 
as Bowerland Lane. 

BOWSHOT (Bowshotes Brook, Court Roll, 14 Edw. IV.), 
the name also of a wood in Crowhurst. This has 
reference to the practice of archery, 3 the final ' shot ' 
being explained to mean a wood. 4 Cockshot is the name 
of a hill between Reigate and Redhill. 

BEOMHULL (Court Roll, 38 Edw. III.), from ' brom,' 
A.-S., broom, and ' hull,' a hill. This, which occurs in 

1 Codex Diplomat. Cart. Ang.-Sax., Cart. 623, 262, 389. 

2 Diet, of A rchaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 

3 Ante, p. 108. 

4 Ante, p. 81. 



140 SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

Bromley and numerous other places, is a very common 
prefix. I shall have occasion to notice it more fully 
hereafter under Broomlands Farm, in the parish of 
Titsey. 

CHALVENCROFT (Court Roll, 12 Rich. II.) is the Ceal- 
fen-croft or Calves-croft, Ang.-Sax. ' cealf,' - a calf. 
Chaldon, in the Anglo-Saxon Charter Cealfdun, 1 and 
Chealfhill, Chealfaleah, and Cealfeswull, are other 
instances occurring in the Anglo-Saxon Charters. 3 
The number of names that take their origin from 
animals or birds is very large indeed. 3 Cowsland is 
still the name of some land in Oxted. It appears in a 
Court Roll of 14 Edw. IV. as Couslislands, and in one of 
19 Edw. IV. as Cowsleland. It is a contraction doubtless 
of Cowlees land. Cowcroft is the name of a field in 
Farley, and in a Court Roll of 20 Hen. VII. I find 
a field in Titsey called Cowlese, and on Cheverells 
Farm, in the same parish, are three fields called the 
Calflease. In an Extent of Limpsfield Manor of 
5 Edw. II. is land called Chalvetegh or Chalfitegh. 
Another name of the same kind in Oxted is Hare way. In 
a Court Roll of 20 Edw. IV. occurs " Regia via apud 
montem vocat. Harewaye." Leo 4 remarks of words of 
this class, " that the first component of the names of 
places has reference to matter of history, to an event, or 
to a local feature ; the historical occurrences, however, 
are often only such as befell the first settlers. A hare 
bounded across their path they noticed a tree on the 
spot, or some peculiarity of ground, and the word which 
thence arose bore such a signification." 

CHAPELL LANDS, at Brodham (Court Roll, 1568). This 
name possibly points to a chapel at one time standing 
there, or not improbably the rents of these lands were 
devoted to the sustentation of a chapel in the parish 
church under Ihe will of some owner. 

COLEACEE (Survey, 1576, and Rental, 36 Eliz.), written 

1 Codex Diplomat., Cart. 532. 

2 Id., Cart. 331, 436, 1202. 

3 See Lower, Cont. to Lit,, pp. 30-2. 

4 Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 1. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 141 

in an earlier document Cold-acre. This and such names 
as Colefeld, in this parish (Court Eoll, 25 Edw. III.) ; 
Cold-blows, that of a hill near Plaxtol, in Kent, tend 
to support the theory advanced as to Cold Harbour. 1 
Taylor 2 remarks that " Caltrop, Colton, Caldecote, and 
Cold Harbour, are all cold places, and the name of 
Mount Algidus may be paralleled by that of Coleridge." 

CRABBIS (Court Koll, 14 Edw. IV.), from the Anglo- 
Saxon { crabbe,' a crab, is one of the long list of names 
taking their origin from vegetable productions. Between 
Bletchingley and Outwood is a wood called Crabhill, 
and on Farley Court Farm a wood called Crab Wood, 
and three fields called Great, Upper, and Lower 
Crab-field. Appledore, Appledram, and the numerous 
Appletons, are from the apple-tree. 

COMFORT'S PLACE, a small farm near Hurst Green, has 
been alluded to before under Godstone, 3 as a possessor's 
name, and derived from the family of Comporte. I 
find in a list of the tenants of the manor, temp. Eliz., 
" Thomas Alfrey holdeth freely in right of Elizabeth his 
wife, daughter of Ambrose Comporde, three parcels of 
land in Eye Boro." 

CROTCHFYLD, alias CROTJCHEFELDS (Court Eoll, 19 Edw. 
IV. and 1568), Crutchefeilde (Eental, 19 Eliz.), must 
be added to the list of names derived from the custom 
of erecting crosses. In an Extent of Limpsfield Manor, 
5 Edw. II., is some land called Crouchelond, and in a 
Court Eoll of Titsey, 15 Rich. II., and a Eental of 1402, 
is a field called Crouchfield, alias Crochfeld. Croucheacre 
occurs in a Court Eoll of Warlingham, 20 Eliz. Finche's 
Cross, near Gincocks, I cannot explain, except it be 
from an owner's name. I find the place under this name 
in a Deed of 13 July, 16 Henry VIII. Finche's Cross 
is also the name of a field in Caterham. 

DAWNEY MEAD (Survey, 1576), written in the Com- 
putus Dueneye. Halliwell 4 gives Dawny as a word for 

1 Ante, part i. p. 84. 

2 Words and Places, p. 470. 

3 Ante, part i. p. 93. 

4 Archaic Diet,, in verbo. It is used in this sense in Herefordshire. 



142 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

damp, soft ; and, in the absence of any better explana- 
tion, I offer it, although I am not aware that the word 
is used in this part of the country in that sense. 

DEWELANDS (Survey, 1576). It is difficult to say why 
some land should be supposed to be more subject to the 
influence of dew than other ; but I can only derive this 
from the word dew, A.-S. e deaw.' In the Anglo-Saxon 
Charters 1 we meet with a place called Deawesbroc, 
Dewsbrook, Worcestershire. 

DODWATER MEAD (Court Roll, 1 & 2 Ph. & M.), a 
meadow near the brook by Gincocks, I take to be 
' dead water mead,' a name which still exists on the 
farm. 

FARNEDENE (Rental, 19 Eliz.) is an instance of the 
occurrence of the prefix 'fearn,' fern, alluded to in a 
former paper. 2 

FRANKMANNIS (Rental, Jac. I.) is the land of the frank 
or the freeman. 

GODWYN'S ERSH (Deed, 4 Hen. V.). The first part is 
the name of a possessor, whom we meet with again in 
Godwynesland, in an Extent of Limpsfield Manor, 5 
Edw. II. ' Ersh,' given by Halliwell 3 as the Kentish 
word for a stubble, is commonly used in that sense 
throughout the district, and pronounced * ash.' 

HANLE WOOD (Rental, 19 Eliz.). Derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon ' hean,' poor, or ' heah, heane,' high. 
There is a wood of the same name in Chelsham ; Henlee 
occurs in a Rental of Titsey, 1402 ; and Hoseland 
Wood in Limpsfield, anciently written Honesland, all of 
which I refer to the same source. Henley Hill is the 
name of a hill in Sussex, between Midhurst and Hasle- 
mere. There are as many as twenty-nine places in the 
Anglo-Saxon Charters commencing with the prefix 
6 hean,' and the same occurs in Handley, Dorsetshire ; 
Henley, Hants ; Henley-on-Thames ; Henley, Somerset- 
shire and Wiltshire ; Hanley, Worcestershire ; to which 
may be added Henley Wood, Yorkshire ; Henley, Suffolk, 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat. Cart. A.-S., Cart. 570. 

2 Ante, part i. p. 82. 

3 Arch. Dict.j in verbo. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 143 

and Henley-in-Arden, Warwickshire. On this suffix 
Taylor l says : " Names of bad omen are rare. From the 
Anglo-Saxon 'hean,' poor, we have Henlow, Hendon, 
and Henley." 

HOLLINDEN (Rental, 19 Eliz.) ; and in a Survey of the 
Manor of the same year, this is given as one of the 
boundaries of the manor on the north. It is the ' holan- 
dene,' or valley of the hollow, a name singularly descrip- 
tive of the shape of the ground immediately under the 
chalk-range. In the Anglo-Saxon Charters 2 is a place 
called Holan-dene, near Hoddington, in Hampshire, and 
another place of the same name near Ockwell, in Berk- 
shire. There are thirty-six places given in the charters 
commencing with the prefix ' hoi,' or ' holan.' 

HOAREMED (Survey, 19 Eliz.) may be compared with 
Horelond, alluded to under Tandridge 3 as being from 
'hor, horu,' dirty; and Hokelonds and Hokemed (Survey, 
1568) supply two more instances of the prevalence of 
the prefix * hoc ' or ' hook.' 4 

HORSTONE CROFT (Survey, 1576) may be taken to be 
the place where a boundary-stone was set up between an 
estate or a parish. Halliwell 5 says that " Hoar-stones 
are stones of memorial; stones marking divisions be- 
tween estates and parishes. They are still found in 
several parts of England, and are frequently mentioned 
in old cartularies." 6 Hoare's Oak is a place on the 
borders of Somersetshire and Devonshire. 

HOMEWOOD (Court Koll, 14 Edw. IV., et al). This 
word speaks for itself; it is the word of the horn, or 
hame, the home of the early settlers. In the Survey of 
the manor and various rentals, it is always spoken of 
as the Boro' of Homewood. It seems to have been in 
the southern part of the parish, and Eye Boro' in the 
northern. 

1 Words and Places, p. 470. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 783, 1171. 

3 " Surrey Etymologies," ante, p. 106. 

4 Id., p. 88. 

5 Diet, of ArcJiaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 

6 For a long and exhaustive paper on the subject of these ' Hoar- 
stones,' see Archceologia, vol. xxv. pp. 24-GO. 

VOL. VI. L 



144 SUEKEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

HODERSLANE (Court Roll, 15 Edw. IV.), Hodersbrook 
(View of Frank Pledge, 4 Hen. VIII.), Hoders and 
Huderste (Survey, 1576). This, which has now been cor- 
rupted into Woodhurst, and is a residence in the parish, 
rnay be a possessor's name, but I am inclined to derive 
it from hid, hud, or hyd, the Anglo-Saxon measure of a 
hide, and hurst, a wood. The actual quantity of a hide 
has been very variously estimated, and Kemble 1 has 
devoted a chapter of his work to the discussion of the 
subject. If we may consider, with him, that it was 
about 33 acres, it is easy to imagine that there might 
have been formerly a wood of this size here. There is, 
to this day, one near the brook between Oxted and 
Limpsfield (to which, I suppose, the name of Hoders- 
brook to be applied), and some land, that was evidently 
formerly woodland, has been grubbed. The View of 
Frank Pledge speaks of " Eegia via vocata Hoders- 
brooke." This, I presume, to be the road leading from 
the confines of the parish towards Broadham. Hidhirst 
is the name of a place in Sussex, near Bognor, given in 
the Anglo-Saxon Charters; 2 and several others occur 
with the same prefix. It is close to the district called 
formerly the Herst, and now retained in Hurst Green. 

HOGTROUGH LANE (Survey, 1576). The lane leading 
up the hill at the back of Barrow-Green House ; it con- 
tinued to deserve the name until about two years ago. 
The miserable state of the roads and lanes formed a 
constant source of complaint at the Courts Leet in the 
Middle Ages, and to bequeath sums of money by will for 
the reparation of the highways was considered a meri- 
torious act. Their condition formed the subject of many 
jesting names, such as this. Feather-bed Lane and 
Honey-pot Lane are the names of two lanes in Limps- 
field. Hogtrough Field is a field in Caterham. 

ILY WOOD (Court Roll, 5 Edw. IV.), Illyewood Gate 
(Court Roll, 16 Eliz.). In the Anglo-Saxon Charter 3 a 
place is given, called Illanleah or Illaleh, said by Kemble 

1 Saxons in England, vol. i. chap. iv. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 432. 

3 Id., Cart. 715. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 145 

to be in Kent ; but it is described as in the kingdom of 
the East Anglians, and occurs with Barking and Hadley, 
and is manifestly in Essex. I can suggest no satis- 
factory derivation. In Woldingham are two fields, called 
Isle Hole and Isle Bank. 

LEMED (Computus, 35 Edw. III.) is explained by a 
deed of the following year, in which it appears as Leo 
meade; Anglo-Saxon leah, our word lea, still common 
in poetry. It is very usual as a suffix, and appears as a 
prefix in Leighton. 

LOVEKYNELOND (Computus, 35 Edw. III.). This is one 
of the names of good omen, indicating, probably, a piece 
of good land on which cattle throve. In an Extent of 
Limpsfield, 8 Hen. VI., is a field, which is called Good- 
lukkes. The number of names of bad import have been 
pointed out in a former paper. 1 

MALYNSLONDS (Court Roll, 14 Edw. IV. and 1568) ; 
Mallingstones, in the tithing of Homewood (Court Roll, 
1 Hen. VI.) ; Malingston (16 Edw. IV.) ; Mallingscroft, 
on Ledger's Farm, Chelsham. The Mallingas is a name 
given by Kemble 3 as one of the marks or tribal names. 
We find it in Mailing in Kent, and it is possible that 
this name is from the same source. 

THE MAELES (Survey, 1576). In Tatsfield there was 
formerly a wood, called the Marie Wood, 40 acres, 
written Moreleswode in the Rental of 1402. This marks 
the constant practice in former times of marling land, or 
dressing it with clay dug from pits. The name is of 
frequent occurrence, and the numerous large pits, now 
ponds, are evidence of the same thing. The word is 
used by Chaucer in his " Canterbury Tales." 3 

" He walked in the feldes for to prie 
Upon the Sterres, what ther shnld befalle 
Til he was in a ' marlepit ' yfalle." 

Of the antiquity of the custom, we have evidence from a 
passage in Lambarde's Perambulation of Kent/ in which 

1 Ante, part L p. 84. 

2 Saxons in England, vol. i. App. A, p. 469. 

8 Canterbury Tales, 3460. 4 Edition 1596, p. 445. 

L 2 



146 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

he says, speaking of the old chalk caves at Crayforde : 
" In the opinion of the inhabitants, these were in former 
times digged as well for the use of the chalk towardes 
building as for to ' marie ' or amend their arable lands 
therewith." Maries is the name of some land at Newde- 
gate, mentioned in an Inquisition post mortem, 1576 ; 
Jacob's Marie, that of a field on Marsh-Green Farm, 
Edenbridge. 

MOTTECROFTE (Rental, 19 Eliz.) is probably another 
instance of the word ' mote,' or meeting-place, alluded 
to under Motelands, in Tandridge. 1 

MELSTRETE (Court Eoll, 9 Hen. V. and 2 Hen. VI.) is 
probably the road by the mill ; so kiln is locally pro- 
nounced kell, and pit, pet. We find the prefix mel in 
Melton, Melbury, and other places. Melbury Pool is a 
place in Chelsham. 

MOEANT'S GATE (Deed, 5 Edw. IV.). This is apparently 
derived from the name of a possessor, the gate being pro- 
bably a gate across the road near his land ; so we have 
Kent Gate on the confines of Surrey and Kent, at Wick- 
ham. These gates across high roads are still common in 
many parts of the Weald of Sussex and Kent, and were 
formerly universal. There was a knightly family of 
Morant seated in Kent, one of whom, Sir Thomas 
Morant, was of Morant' s Court, in Chevening, temp. 
Edw. III. Madams Court, and Madams Court Hill, on 
the road from Sevenoaks to London, is a corruption of 
Morant's Court. In an Extent of the manor of Limps- 
field of 8 Hen. VI., two crofts of land are mentioned, 
called ' Morauntescroftes,' and among the farm tenants 
is John Moraunt ; and his name appears as a tenant in 
an Extent of the manor of Broadham, in Oxted, of the 
same year. 

NETHERLONDS (Rental, 1568), from the Anglo-Saxon 
NySera, NeoSera, the nether or lower lands. This prefix 
occurs in NeoSerehama, Netherham, and Neo'Seretun, 
Netherton (Worcestershire), Nyfteran Stanford, and 
Ny'Serantun, not identified, mentioned in the charters. 2 

1 " Surrey Etymologies," ante, p. 105. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 764, 139, 1301, 1296. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 147 

The Netherlands are the low-lying lands, and in this 
country the prefix occurs in JSTetherfield, near Battle ; in 
Netheravon and Netherhampton, Wilts ; in Netherby 
and Netherwick, Cumberland, and various other 
places. 

NOTTINGHAMES, at. NETTiNGHAMEs (Rental, 1568, and 
Survey, 19 Eliz.). This is a possessor's name; Thomas 
Nettyngham appears on a Subsidy Roll of Oxted, 14 
Hen. VIII. 

POPESLANE, al. POPESLAND LANE/ a name still existing, 
occurs as early as in Court Rolls of 7 and 21 Hen. VII., 
and Popesland and Popismede in a Hental of 19 Eliz. It 
is a possessor's name. 

POWDER DICKS, the name of a small wood on Gincock's 
Farm. I don't find it in any of the early deeds. Halli- 
well 1 gives " Pow-dike, a dike made in the fens for 
carrying off the waters ; " and as this is in the lower 
part of the farm, near some flowing meadows, it seems 
not improbable that this is the origin of the name. 

POWKEBROOKE (Court Roll, 14 Edw. IV.) is an in- 
stance of the prefix 'pouk,' alluded to in a former 
paper under Home and Crowhurst. 2 In a note to the 
Journal of Timothy Burrell, Esq., 3 Mr. Blencowe says : 
" There are many farms and closes in Sussex which owe 
their names to having been the reputed haunts of fairies, 
such as Pookryde, Pookbourne, Pookhole, Pookcroft." 
Pookhole is a name of a field in the Manor of Otteham, 
in Hailsham, and one of the local names in the Chronicle 
of Battle Abbey. 4 

PILLORIE CROFT (Rental, 1576). This is described as 
being in Rye Borough ; and as that included the village 
of Oxted, it was probably close to it, and took its name 
from the pillory being set up there. In the Sussex 
Arch. Collection 5 is a sketch of a pillory, which still 

1 Diet, of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 

2 Ante, part i. pp. 88, 102. 

3 Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. iii. p. 124. 

4 Id., vol. v. p. 174, and Chronicles of Battle Abbey, M. A. Lower, 
p. 15. 

5 Vol. ix. p. 361, et sequent., where a full description is given of the 
construction of it. 



148 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

exists in Rye Church. " Throughout the Middle Ages it 
was in use (says Mr. Lower) in all corporate towns for 
the punishment of men who broke the assize of bread 
and beer, and committed such-like small acts of injustice 
against the common weal." These presentments were 
very common at the Courts Leet of manors, and pro- 
bably the punishment was employed in other places 
besides corporate towns. We find it generally asso- 
ciated with the cucking-stool, which was used in the 
punishment of women. In a presentment on the Rolls 
of Seaford, 37 Eliz., the jury present that the pillory, 
cucking-stool, and the butts are in a state of decay, and 
the same complaint is made in subsequent years. In a 
Rental of Oxted of 4 Hen. IV., the Manor is said to be 
held of the King, with a court from three weeks to three 
weeks, view of frank pledge, free warren of the Old Park, 
infangthef, outfangthef, pillory, cucking-stool, soc and sac, 
&c. We find from Maitland, 1 that in Cornhill was placed 
a pillory, for the punishment of bakers offending in the 
assize of bread ; for millers stealing of corn at the mill, 
and for scolds and other offenders ; and that in the year 
1468 divers persons, being common jurors, such as at 
assizes were forsworn for rewards or favour of parties, 
were judged to ride from Newgate to the pillory in 
Cornhill with mitres of paper on their heads, there to 
stand, and from thence again to Newgate. 

RE MBOLDE SHORE (Deed, 18 Edw. III.). I derive this 
word from Rumbald, a proper name; i.e. Rumbald's 
{ mor ' or ' mere,' a pool or pond. And this its situ- 
ation would justify, for the deed describes it as lying 
by the river separating Limpsfield and Oxted. In the 
Anglo-Saxon Charters a place is given in Buckingham- 
shire, Rumboldes-den, 3 and in Worcestershire, Rum- 
woldes-mdr. 3 Rombald's Moor is the spot just fixed 
upon for the site of a large military camp. The prefix 

1 Hist, of London, vol. ii. p. 903, In Long Ago, of Sept., 1873, is a 
full account of the pillory, and the nature of the punishment, with 
several representations of it from early manuscripts. 

3 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 449 (so Index, but the reference 
is wrong). 8 Id., Cart. 308. 



SUBSET ETYMOLOGIES. 149 

' Rom ' or ' Rum,' which occurs in Romsey, Hants, and 
in Romney, Kent, and various other places, may be 
from ' rum,' A.-S., roomy, spacious. Taylor 1 derives 
the latter from ' ruimne,' the Gaelic for a marsh ; but 
certainly the { Rdm-ea,' or wide water, would as accu- 
rately describe this large tract, which was formerly 
overflowed by the tide. Mr. Edmunds refers the name 
to St. Rumbold, and cites Rumbold's Wick, near 
Chichester, Sussex. 

ROKESLONDS (Court Roll, 14 Edw. IV.), from A.-S. 
' hrdc,' a rook. The prefix occurs in three places given in 
the Charters 2 Hrocanleah (Rookley, Berks), Hrocastoc 
(Rookstock), and Hrocaswyll (Rookswell, Devon). Rooks- 
bury is the seat of J. C. Gamier, Esq., near Wickham, 
in Hampshire. It compares with Crowhurst, Rooksnest 
in Tandridge, and numerous other places into which the 
names of birds enter. 3 

SAXPATS GATE. This is a possessor's name. The 
family of Saxby are a very ancient one in the place, and 
are, or were until lately, owners of property therein. 
In a Court Roll of 6 Hen. V., I find that John Saxpays 
is a tenant of the manor, having married the daughter 
and heir of William Benet ; and in 8 Henry VIII. 
Richard Saxper appears on the Rolls. It is also a 
Sussex name. John Saxbies is one of the witnesses to 
an Extent of the Forest of Ashdowne, made 14th 
April, 1576 ; and in the Registers of Maresfield, where 
it is of frequent occurrence, it is variously written Saxby, 
Saxpies, Saxbyes. 4 

SAWNEY MEAD (Note of demesne lands, dr. 1576) is 
perhaps from the A.-S. ' sauene,' ' sauine,' the savine, a 
species of juniper. 

SEDECAPPYS (Court Roll, 14 Edw. IV.), Sodcops (Deed, 
7 Hen. VIII.). The latter part of the word is appa- 
rently copse, or coppice. Sidcup, near Foots Cray, in 
Kent, approaches very nearly to it in form. 

1 Words and Places, p. 349. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 1221, 371, 272, 

3 See Lower, Cont. to Lit., p. 31. 

4 Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. xiv. pp. 44, 150. 



150 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

SHEAEE-LEYS, SHTRLESE, and SHIRLEYS (35 Edw. III. and 
1576). This I derive from the A.-S. ' sceran,' to cut. 
Compare Shirley, near Croydon, possibly from the same 
root; and Long Sherlow, a field in Warlingham. In 
the majority of cases, where this prefix occurs, it is 
* scire,' * scyr,' a county. Scireburne, Sherburn, the 
county brook; Scire-mere, the shire-mark, or county 
boundary. 

SILKHAM, al. THE SILK'S HAME (Survey, 1576). A field 
of seventeen acres, adjoining Chalk-pit Wood, and a 
name still in use. I am not able to give any satisfactory 
explanation of it, but mention it, because, in the Anglo- 
Saxon Charters we find a place in Hants of the same 
name, Sioluc-ham. 1 If Latin roots were admissible, 
' silex,' a flint, would be a plausible derivation. 

SKETEHACCHE (Court Roll, 5 Edw. IV.). Presentment 
that a bridge at Sketehacche, in the tithing of Stone- 
hurst, was broken. Der. : Sceatt, Scostt, a division 
or corner ; and this, being by the brook, was probably 
a parish boundary. On the word hatch, Taylor 2 re- 
marks, that it is a hitch-gate and a common suffix in 
the neighbourhood of ancient forests; e.g., Colney- 
hatch, Westhatch. If the derivation suggested of the 
prefix be correct, we meet with it in the name of a place 
in Hants, called in the A.-S. Charters Sceattele*ah. 8 

SOGEAMS (Court Roll, 18 Ric. II.) is to be compared 
with a field of the same name, mentioned under Crow- 
hurst.* 

SOMERBERYES (Court Roll, 15 Edw. IV.). Der. : Sumer, 
summer ; Bearo, pasture for swine, the place of 
summer pasture for hogs. In the A.-S. Charters we 
meet five times with Denbaero, 5 the pasture in the dene 
or wooded valley, and Wealdbasro, 6 the pasture in the 
wood. This pannage for swine was of great value in 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 673. 

2 Words and Places, p. 484. 

3 Kemble, Codex Dip., Cart. 342. 

4 Ante, part i. p. 104. 

* Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 114, 160, 179, 198, 239. 
8 Id., 162. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 151 

those days. The Domesday Survey states that the woods 
in Oxted yielded yearly 100 fat hogs ; those of Limps- 
field 150. The prefix Somer, or Sumer, occurs fre- 
quently ; e.g., Somerset, Somerton, Somerleyton, &c., 
Somerset Lane and Somerset Farm, near Peper Harow, 
and Sommersbury Wood in Ewhurst, in this county. 

SWIERS (Rental, 19 Eliz.). " One meese, called Swiers, 
and three parcels of land thereto belonging, containing 
nine acres." It is derived, I think, from the Anglo-Saxon 
svverra, or swora, a neck, as suggested under Tandridge. 1 
The word * Swire ' is given by Halliwell 3 as meaning 
the neck. There are two places in the A.-S. Char- 
ters of like name Sueire (Swyre, Dorset) and Suiran 
(Swyre, Hants). In a Rental of the Manor of Titsey, 
1402, is a field called ' Swirefelde,' and in an Extent of 
the Manor of Limpsfield (5 Edw. II.) one called ' La 
Swere.' Swereslond (Court Roll of Titsey, 1391). In 
Capel parish, on the borders of Leigh, is a farm called 
Swire's Farm. 

VYNCHESLO (Visus F. P., 14 Edw. IV.). Compare 
Wincheston Lane under Crowhurst, 3 and in the Anglo- 
Saxon Charters, Winceburne, Winchbourn, and Win- 
cawell, Dorset ; Wincendun, Winchdon, Oxon. ; and 
Wincesburug, Somerset. The termination * lo ' is applied 
to a slope of ground. 

WARDINS (Rental, dr. 1605). There are two places in 
the Anglo-Saxon Charters almost identical, Wearddun 
(Warden, Kent), and Werdun (Warndon,Worcestershire). 
It is probably from the Anglo-Saxon ( wer,' or ' wser,' an 
inclosure, the inclosure on the down or hill. The prefix 
' wer ' or * wser,' enters into numbers of places, and was 
noticed under Warwick Wood 4 in Bletchingley. 

ASHBY FIELD, on Whitehouse Farm, is either the 
field by the ash-tree, or is so called from an owner or 
occupier of that name. 

TEYNTPIELD (Court Roll, 14 Edw. IV.). A field of the 

1 Ante, part i. p. 107. 

2 Diet, of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 

3 Ante, part i. p. 103. 

4 Ante, p. 80. 



152 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

same name in Croydon was noticed by Mr. Flower, 1 but 
no derivation suggested. Taint is given by Halliwell 
" as a large protuberance at the top of a pollard tree." 
The practice of pollarding trees was very common in the 
Middle Ages. We find pollards constantly mentioned as 
boundary -marks, or giving names to fields or woods ; 
e.g., Pollard Oak, Pollard's Wood. Teyntsfield is the 
name of a place near Bristol. 

GRESHAM MEAD, a field near Broadham Green, records 
the possession by the Gresham family of the Manor of 
Broadham and the Hall Farm. The Manor of Broad- 
ham remained in the hands of that family from 1539 
until 1718, and they did not part with all their interest 
in the Hall Farm until the close of the last century. 

The following list is of names which are derived from 
former owners : 

ALLENLONDS (Survey, 19 Eliz.). Ellinor Allyne, one 
of the tenants of the manor. 

DABERONS. John Dabrun, witness to a charter of 
release of the Manor of Oxted, 27 Edw. I. 

DANEMED (Survey, temp. Eliz.). Robert Dane, tenant. 

GILDENS. Thomas Gilden, tenant (Deed, 4 Hen. V.). 

HEREWARDS, probably Hay wards. The name of Hay- 
ward appears in a Court Roll of 25 Edw. III., and they 
were a yeoman family of some importance. 

HOMMANDS (Survey, 19 Eliz.). Richard Hommand, 
tenant. 

KNIGHETES (Deed, 1 Edw. V.) Thomas Knight, ar- 



miger. 



MAYNESFIELD (1 & 2 Ph. & Mary). Henry Mahen, 
tenant. (Extent of Manor of Broadham, 5 Edw. II.) 

SALMANS CROFT (1 Ric. II.). The family of Saleman 
owned lands at Caterham, temp. Edw. III. 

SOHENLESLAND. Martin Schenche, or Schenke, married 
Clarice, the second daughter and heir of Roland de 
Acstede, temp. Edw. II. 

SHOTTS (Rental, 1568). Richard Shot, one of the 
tenants at a court held 14 Edw. IV. 

1 Surrey Arch. Coll, vol. iii. p. 251. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 153 

STRAMONS (Court Roll, Jac. I.). Grant from Reginald 
de Cobham to Geoffrey Stremond of one cottage, with 
a croft of land at the Rey in Oxted, date May, 2 
Ric. II. 

SEVYERSTRETE (Court Roll, 9 Hen. V.). The names of 
John and William Sevier appear on a Court Roll of 
3 Edw. IY. In a Rental of Titsey, 1402, is a field called 
Severescroft. 

SCRIVENS (Rental, 1568). Eustach Scriveyn appears 
as a tenant of the adjoining manor of Limpsfield, in the 
Extent of 8 Hen. VI. , and Nicholas Skryveyn, in a 
Rental of Titsey, 1402. Mr. Flower 1 mentions a field 
called Skrevens in Croydon. 

The following are probably from possessors, though 
their names do not appear on the Court Rolls, or else- 
where : 

ARMOURSLAND (Rental renewed, temp. Eliz.). 

BARNARDS, al. BECKETTS BARNARDS (1576). 

BUGLES, al. BIGLES (Survey, 1576). 

BUCKERELLS (Rental, 1568). 

CLEMENTSDENE (Computus, 35 Edw. III.). 

CULLEBOLESLOND (35 Edw. III.). King's highway at 
Kilballs (Court Roll, 37 Edw. III.); Kilboles Brook 
(20 Edw. IY.) ; Kelboles (Rental, temp. Eliz.). 

DEKESLAND (1576). 

TENNERS (Rental, temp. Jac. I.). 

HARBERS (1568). ^ Yv t? ? 

JOLYFESMED (Computus, 35 Edw. III.). o]] 

LACYES MEAD (36 Edw. III.). 

STRUDERS (1576). 

SPARKS HOUSE (19 Edw. IY.). 

"WORMERSLAND (36 Eliz.). 

The following is a list of names of which I can give no 
satisfactory derivation : 

BICKE, al. BITTE MEAD (Survey, 1576). 
CHANCEY CROFT (Court Roll, 15 Edw. IY.). 
CORDIS (1568). 

1 Surrey Arch. Coll.) vol. iii. p. 253; 



154 StfRREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

ERTHIGOES (Deed, 1649). 

GLTWOODS (Court Roll, 14 Edw. IV.). 

GEENE EYSEE (Court Roll, 15 Edw. IV.). 

HYKEDES (36 Edw. III.). 

INHOMES (17 Hen. VIII.) - 

JACKELYNGEFELDS (15 Edw. IV.). 
^ ^MACKEEELL CsoFT (Rental, temp. Jac. I.). 

NATYES, al. NATCHES (1568 and 1577). 

PEAKE MEAD. Name still in use. 

PAPSOMES (1576). 

PETEPEND (36 Edw. III.). 

SCALLIDEYDEN (15 Edw. IV.). Compare SCALLEDFJELD 
(Court Roll, Warlingham, 1717-1745); and Scald Hill, 
the name of a field in Caterham. 

THE SCUTELL (19 Eliz.). 

THINCHAMES, alias THE INCHAMES (1576). 

THYNNANS (1576). 

WECHE, or LE WECHE (Rental, temp. Jac. I.). 

"WOMBLANDS (18 Ric. II.). 

WYSDOMFIELD (37 Edw. III. and 19 Edw. IV.). 



LIMPSFIELD. 

LIMPSFIELD. Domesday Survey, Limenesfeld ; Ex- 
tent of the Manor, 5 Edw. II., Lymenesfeld; temp. Eliz., 
Lymesfeld ; 1685, Lympsfield and Limpsfield. We must 
dismiss the plausible derivation which would assign to it 
a Latin origin ; i.e. ' ager in limine,' the field on the 
borders of Surrey (the parish marching on the county of 
Kent throughout its eastern boundary) ; it is inconsistent 
with the opinion before expressed, 1 and exceedingly 
unlikely that in a district where everything is purely 
Saxon, one place alone, and that one not of great im- 
portance, should have a Latin name. A Latin prefix 
with a Saxon suffix is, I think, fatal to the notion, 
even if other arguments were wanting. 2 To give the 

1 Ante, part i. p. 92. 

3 Chesterfield, which might at first sight seem to be so compounded, 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 155 

right derivation is not so easy. J. P. Harrison, Esq., 
in a paper on a Vicinal Road in the parish of 
Ewhurst, 1 mentions that along the line of it occur 
these names Leminge Lane, Lemon's Barn, and 
Lemmon Bridge; and he cites the opinion of Mr. 
Hodgson, in his " History of. Northumberland," "that 
' learn ' and ' leming ' are words very commonly applied 
to ancient roads or places situated near them." He 
says further, that Manning, in his " History of Surrey," 
agrees with Dr. Gale and Mr. Denne in thinking it pro- 
bable that the public way or ' leman ' which terminated 
at Stangate, on the Thames, gave its name to Lambeth. 
On this supposition, Limpsfield, or Lemanesfeld, as it is 
sometimes written, might have taken its name from the 
fact that the line of ancient road, 3 called in the Middle 
Ages the Pilgrim's Way, traversed it from east to west. 
In the adjoining parish of Titsey, immediately on the con- 
fines of Limpsfield, is some land called Lemaneslond 
(Rental of Titsey, 1402). The objections to this deriva- 
tion are, 1st, that the word Leming seems ordinarily to 
occur in connection with Roman roads ; and 2nd, that 
the Pilgrim's Way did not pass through the village, but 
considerably to the north of it. Supposing it to be 
Lemanesfeld, it is easy to see how the transcriber of 
Domesday would have given it the Latinized form of 
Liminesfeld. 4 Lympstone, near Exeter, and Lympsham, 
near Bridge water Bay, have apparently the same prefix. 
BRAMSELLE (Domesday Survey : " Bramselle belonged 
to this manor in the time of King Edward, as the men 
of the hundred say"). This place cannot now be iden- 
tified. The derivation would be ' bremel ' or ' bramel,' 

is not so in reality, for the Latin word castrum had come to be adopted 
generally, and appeared in the Anglo-Saxon form of 'ceaster.' 

1 Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. iii. pp. 5, 6. 

2 Id., vol. iii. p. 46, and note. 

3 I do not by this remark intend to imply that the ' Pilgrim's Way ' 
is a Roman road. I think that it is in all probability an ancient 
British track, as I before remarked (Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. iv. p. 217). 

4 Leniman is a Saxon word, used for a gallant or mistress, and occurs 
in Chaucer and Gower ; so Lemanesfeld might be the land conferred 
by some Saxon on his mistress. 



156 SUBKEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

A.-S. for bramble, which occurs as a prefix in so many 
names ; e.g., Brambletye, near East Grinstead ; Bramley 
Wolf, a meadow in Titsey, and * sele, sel/ a dwelling, 
which we meet with in Selesdune Selsdon, and Selhurst, 
Croydon. 1 ' Sele ' is the dwelling of the wealthy, as 
distinguished from ' cote,' the cottage. 2 

HOOKWOOD, the principal residence in the place. It is not 
an old name in its present form ; itis locally called the Hook, 
and occurs as 'La Hoke' in an Extent of the Manor, 5 Edw. 
II., " Pastura vocata ' la Hoke.' " The lane leading to it is 
called, in an early Court Roll of the Manor of Titsey, 
Hokstrete. Nomanshoke is a field at this point, men- 
tioned in a Court Roll of Titsey, 1525, and Clayhouk Croft 
is a name of a field in that parish mentioned in a Rental 
of 1402. Little and Great Hook are two fields at Tre- 
vereux, as also Hocfield, Hocmeade, and Nicholhooke. 
In an early Deed relating to Caterham mention is made 
of eleven acres in the valley below * Hoca,' now per- 
petuated in Hook-arm. I have already pointed out 8 
the meaning of this name as implying the place at the 
' hoc ' or corner of the parish. The old name for the 
residence was Beckett's or Hare Hill, as appears by the 
Deeds. Beckett's is doubtless from a possessor, the name 
appearing in the Parish Register in 1561. Harehull, as 
it is there written, occurs in an Extent of the Manor, 
8 Hen. VI., and is derived from the hare, and may com- 
pare with Harewey, in Oxted. 4 It is a dry, sandy bank, 
singularly suited to hares. 

NEW HALL recalls the existence of a large manor-house 
at that spot, the residence of the Gresham family, the 
only tra6es of which now remaining are some of the old 
walls : the foundations may be seen in a dry summer. 
There is no record of the date of its building. It was 
probably erected by the Greshams after they became 
possessed of the manor in 1539, and may have occupied 
the site of the ' capital messuage ' of the Abbots of 

1 /Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. iii. pp. 248-9. 

2 Leo, Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 54. 

3 Ante, part i. p. 88. 

4 Vide ante, p. HO. 



SUKREY ETYMOLOGIES. 157 

Battle, the former lords of the manor, mentioned in 
the Extent of 5 Edw. II. Sir Thomas Gresham lived 
there dr. 1600, and died there 1st July, 1630. In the 
marriage settlement of Edward Gresham, son of Sir 
Marmaduke Gresham, Bart., in 1671, it is described as 
the Mansion House called Newhall, and a power is re- 
served for Sir Marmaduke Gresham to hold his courts 
for the Manor of Limpsfield at the Mansion House called 
Newhall, as hath been formerly used and accustomed. 
In a Hearth-tax Return of 1663, it is returned at twenty 
chimneys, which implies a house of considerable size; 
and in Symme's " Collections for Surrey " 1 1 find, " Nere 
unto the street of Limpsfield is a proper house of Sir 
Thomas Gresham, K 1 , nearly allied to the Founder of 
the Exchange. He late inhabiting the Manour of New 
Hall, in Limpsfield, was the son of W m Gresham, of 
Titsey, Esq." New Place is the name of a good house 
in Lingfield of the Jacobean period, formerly larger, 
but now in part pulled down and made into a farm- 
house. 2 

TENOHLEYS, formerly an old moated house of some 
size, now a farm-house, and considerably reduced, was 
the residence of the Homden family, one of whom, Sir 
Thomas Homden, was knighted in the reign of James I. 
It is properly applied to the old house near Itchingwood 
Common, not to that which now goes by the name of 
Tenchleys Park. In a Court Koll of Limpsfield, 29 Eliz., 
I find it written " Tenchleys " and " Kentsleys, alias 
Tenchleys." In the Extent of the Manor, 2 Hen. VI., 
John Tyntesle appears as one of the tenants ; so that it 
seems probable that it is a possessor's name. It is also 
written Fensleys,the derivation of which would be from the 
fenny or marshy ground which surrounded the old house. 

TEEVEEEUX. The orthography of this place is very 
various : 33 Hen. VIII., Trivyrocks ; 36 Hen. VIII., 
Trivyrock; 4 Ph. & M., Treurokes ; 23 Eliz., Treve- 
rocks; 1626, Trewrock ; 1637, Treverook, Treverox ; 
1644, Tyverox; 1648, Treverock; 1714, Treveruex ; 

1 Add. MSS. British Museum, 6167. 

2 Visited by the Surrey Arch. Soc. in 1862. 



158 STTBTIEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

1745, Treverux; 1788, Trevereux. It is commonly 
supposed that the name was derived from some Norman- 
French possessor, but of this there is no record ; and it 
will be seen that the present spelling of the word, which 
gives it a French appearance, is of recent origin, while 
all the earlier documents give ' rock ' as the termination. 
The prefix I cannot explain ; the suffix is explained by 
the rocky nature of the soil in the upper part of the 
land. In the Extent of 2 Hen. VI., Thomas Treverak 
is a tenant of the manor; and in a Court Roll of 
31 Hen. VIII. Thomas Trivyrock appears ; it may there- 
fore be a possessor's name ; but I think it more probable 
that the persons above mentioned took their name from 
the place. It has been suggested to me that it is a per- 
sonal name, originally of Cornish origin. Trevarrick is 
the name of a village in that county. 

ITCHINGWOOD COMMON. This is probably the same 
place which occurs in the Extent of 5 Edw. II. as 
Ethenewood. It is there described as a wood of sixty- 
five acres at Skymmanye (a district in that part of the 
parish), and, as its name implies, it was formerly wood 
ground, though now entirely pasture. Its present 
acreage (fifty-six acres) tallies very well with its ancient 
description, as, no doubt, certain inclosures have taken 
place since that time. In a Deed of 1767 it is called 
Haling Wood, and locally sometimes Eastwood. Although 
I do not find Itchingwood in the earliest documents which 
I possess, there can be no doubt that it is an ancient 
name, and one of the tribal or clan names. The Iccingas 
are given by Kemble 1 among the marks inferred from local 
names. From them we have Itchingfield, near Horsham, 
Sussex, and Itchington, in Gloucestershire and Warwick- 
shire, and possibly Etchingham, Kent, and Etchinghill, 
on Cannock Chase. 

ETHENEWOOD would be from the A.-S. ' eten,' ' etan,' 
a giant, the root probably of ' Ethandun' (Edington, 
Wilts), mentioned in the A.-S. Charters. 2 The names 
of fairies and monsters enter very largely into Anglo- 

1 Saxons in England, vol. i. A pp. A, p. 468. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 314, 465, 1067. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 159 

Saxon names. I have suggested the same derivation 
for Enterden, in Godstone. 1 The Puckmires, Puckwells, 
&c., belong to the same category ; and Devules Meadow 
(Rental of Tatsfield, 1561) is apposite. 

HALING WOOD would, in all probability, be another 
tribal name from the clan or family of the Hallingas, 
whom we meet with at Hailing, Kent, Haling Park, 
Croydon, 2 and Halyngbury, mentioned in a Deed of 
1527, as a place in Caterham. 

STAFFORD'S WOOD, anciently written Staf hurst, and 
still so pronounced locally. Extent, 5 Edw. II., Staf- 
herstwode; ditto, 2 Hen. VI., Staffirsteswode ; Deed 
1750, Stafforst Wood. It is from the Anglo-Saxon 
' sta3f, 5 a staff; and 'hurst,' a wood. The same prefix 
occurs in Stafford, originally Stsef-ford ; Staveley, Derby ; 
and Staverton, i.e. Staf-ford-tun, Devon. 3 

LIMPSFIELD LODGE, the name of a farm, is one of the 
many instances in which we find Lodge. Loge is an 
Anglo-Norman word for a dwelling, from the French 
' loger.' In a Deed of 1750 it is called the Court 
Lodge. 

LIMPSFJELD PARK, the name of a farm. It derives 
its name from the park attached to New Hall. It is 
mentioned in a Deed of 1671 . Park Mead, on this farm, 
is from the same source. 

BALLARDS. (Extent, 5 Edw. II. and 2 Hen. VI., Bal- 
lardesland.) There is a wood of the same name in 
Addington parish. As I find William Ballard among 
the tenants, 5 Edw. II., I suppose it is a possessor's 
name. In the Church of Merstham is, or was, a brass 
to the memory of John Ballard and Margaret his wife, 
date 1463. Ballard Down Foreland is on the Dorset- 
shire coast. Cape Ballard is a cape of Newfoundland, 
and Ballards Point a cape on the west coast of Ireland 
co. Clare. 

1 Ante, part i. p. 93. 

2 See Mr. Flower's remarks, Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. iii. p. 246. 

3 A Stafford is a local word in Gloucestershire for a rough piece of 
ground covered with thorns and bushes. In Willianistrip Park, Fair- 
ford, is a piece of ground so called. 

VOL. VI. M 



160 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

BOLTHOEST, al. BOLTERSALL, a?. WALTERS, is the ' Bold ' or 
' Bolt,' the dwelling by the ' hurst ' or wood. There is 
to this day a wood immediately at the back of the house, 
and, being in the wealden part of the parish, it was 
doubtless at one time surrounded by wood. 

GRANTS, a farm of that name. It occurs in the 
Extent of 2 Hen. VI. as Grauntz. It may be a possessor's 
name, as we find in the Extent of 2 Hen. VI. the name 
of Roger Graunt ; but, from its proximity to the waste 
land at Itchingwood Common, it is not improbable that 
it was originally a grant of a portion of the waste, and 
thence derived its name. 

DOGGETTS, now corrupted into Doghurst, is a possessor's 
name. John Doget occurs as one of the tenants in the 
Extent of 2 Hen. VI., and the name is met with in the 
early rolls of Oxted. 

STOCKENDEN, an ancient dwelling-house, now a farm, 
and much reduced in size. It gave the name to a family 
of De Stalkynden, or Stawynden, one of whom, Roger 
Stalkynden, is mentioned in a Deed of 1384 relating to 
Foyle, and in a Deed of 13G7 relating to Tatsfield, in 
which he is called Roger de Stanyngdenn. John de 
Steneghendene is mentioned in the Extent of 5 Edw. II. 
Kemble gives Stocingas as one of the tribal names, 
occurring in Stocking, Herts, Stockingford, co. "War- 
wick, and Stockingham, co. Devon, from which, 
perhaps, it derives its name. f Stoc ' is also A.-S. for 
a stem, or log of a tree ; and in Crowhurst is a farm 
called Stocklands. The place is very often written Stork - 
enden ; and, if this orthography be correct, it would be 
derived from ' store,' a stork. Its situation in somewhat 
low, marshy ground, with large woods adjoining, would 
suit very well with this derivation. In a Rental of 
Titsey, 1402, a field is mentioned, called " le Bromfeld 
nuper Stawynden." 

THE MOAT FARM, so called from the moat with which, 
until quite recently, it was surrounded. There is a farm 
of the same name in Lingfield. Many of the old houses 
in the district were originally moated. Tenchleys and 
Stockenden both were so. At Lagham the moat incloses 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 161 

a very large space of ground. Chevington Farm, in 
Bletchingley,was moated. Crowhurst Place has a very large 
moat ; and in a field called Butler's Garden, on the farm 
adjoining Rooks' Nest, are distinct traces of a moat, 
although all tradition of any dwelling-house there is lost. 
There are the remains of a moat in a field to the right 
of the high road, leading from Bletchingley to God- 
stone, nearly opposite the Ivy-house Farm. Parish 
Register, Limpsfield, 1622, 26th November : " Buried a 
young daughter of Philip Casinghurst, of the Moate." 

BRILLS, the name of a farm, probably a possessor's 
name. 

PEIVETTS, a possessor's name. In the Parish Register 
of Limpsfield, 1728, occurs the name of Prevet. 

BLACK ROBINS, the name of a farm, called, in a Deed 
of 1685, Long Robyns, or Robbins, and, 1781, Black 
Robbins, and in the Extent of 8 Hen. VI., Broun- 
robyns. I have already 1 alluded to the popular theory, 
that these names with * Robbin ' are so called from the 
poverty of the soil, and in this case (' Starveacre ' is 
the name of a field on the farm) the name would 
apply. Hungry Haven, on Great Brown's Farm, is not 
far off. 

BUTCHER'S WOOD BANK, another name for this farm, 
and for the bank of wood opposite. It is so called, thus 
runs the local tradition, from the fact that one Wood, a 
butcher in Limpsfield, and owner of this farm, was 
murdered at this spot, and that his body was thrown 
into the limekiln and burnt. This story must have some 
foundation, and it is curious, in referring to the old 
deeds, to find that, about the year 1685, the inheritance 
in fee of these premises, called Long Robyns, escheated 
to Sir Marmaduke Gresham, Bart., then lord of the 
manor, upon the attainder of Thomas Wood, late of 
Lympsfield, butcher, deceased. The name of Butcher 
occurs in the Parish Register as far back as 1560, and 
possibly it is derived thence. 

PARTRIDGE FARM, alias BENNETTS. Both names are from 

1 Ante, pai-t i. p. 84. 
M 2 



162 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

owners or occujMers; the former dates from the time of 
5 Edw. II., when we find William Partrich among the 
tenants, and are able to identify the farm by the fact that 
it is there said that he pays a rent of 4d . yearly for a right 
of exit on to Stafhurst Wood ; and in the Extent of 
8 Hen. VI., John Partrich holds a messuage and 16 
acres of land near Staffirsteswode. The name of Part- 
ridge Farm occurs on a tombstone in Limpsfield church- 
yard of the beginning of this century, but it is now 
generally known as Bennett's. The name of William 
Benet occurs in the Extent of 8 Hen. VI. 

WHITEHOUSE FARM, alias STACYES. The latter is the 
ancient name, and is derived from the family of Stacey, 
who are still to be met with in these parts. In the 
Survey of Oxted Manor of 19 Eliz., " Stacie his Farm " 
is mentioned as one of the boundaries : the bounds of 
Limpsfield aud Oxted manors meet on this farm. Stacey 
occurs in the Parish Register, 1569, and in a Court Roll 
of Titsey, 15 Ric. II., is a field called Staciescrofte. 

GRUBBS, alias MOUSES, a possessor's name. John 
Grubbe appears as a tenant in the Extent of 8 Hen. VI., 
among others, holding land at Stafford's Wood, near 
which this is situated. Mouses appears as Musherte in 
the Extent of 6 Edw. II., and as Mousherstisfeld in that 
of 8 Hen. VI., in which we find the names of John 
Mousherst and Gilbert Mous, holding a toft and a garden 
at Stafford's Wood ; and in a Court Roll of Oxted, of 
14 Edw. IV. we find a field called Mouseherst. 

PLUM PARK, a small field lying by itself in the 
middle of Stafford's Wood, charged, under the will of 
John Wood, in 1710, with an annuity of 10s. to the poor 
of Limpsfield, to buy thirty loaves of good bread at 4d. 
the loaf, to be distributed to thirty poor people of the 
parish, at the discretion of the churchwardens and over- 
seers ; to be given and distributed at the church porch 
upon every Good Friday in the forenoon. The name 
does not appear in the early records, but probably it is 
an ancient name, and a very old inclosure. The word 
' pluma,' A.-S., a plum or plum-tree, enters into the 
names of several places. There is a place in Kent, 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 163 

mentioned in the A.-S. Charters, 1 singularly like it in 
form, ' Plumwearding pearrocas,' i.e. the park or in- 
closure of the plumward, or keeper of the plum-trees. 
In the same charters are Plumhyrcg (Plumridge, in 
Worcester), Plumleah (Plumley, Berks), and Plumstead, 
Kent and Essex. Plum Park is the inclosure of the 
plum-trees, and affords a good instance of the primary 
signification of the word ' parrog,' or * pearroc,' park ; 
namely, an inclosure. 3 Crabbett Wood, on Grant's 
Farm, is of a kindred origin, being derived from ' crabba,' 
A.-S., a crab-tree ; as also Apeltun, a field in Caterham. 
The present occupier understands it, from its being a 
solitary inclosure in the middle of the waste, in the sense 
of a plum taken out of the pudding. 

STEWARD'S LAND. Two fields lying by themselves at 
Stafford's Wood, and doubtless inclosed at some time 
from the waste. They may have originally been allotted 
to some steward of the manor. Steward is said to be 
derived from ' stoweweard,' the keeper of the dwelling- 
place. 

THE HORNS, a cottage and inclosure on Stafford's 
Wood. In the Chart is a piece of ground adjoining the 
boundary of Westerham, called Horns Acre. In the 
Extent of 5 Edw. II. six acres of wood are mentioned in 
Hornesland, and in that of 8 Hen. VI. Horneslond 
occurs. This latter place is not identified, but it is 
somewhere in the district called Chart. I believe the 
derivation to be from ' horn,' a corner. 3 The Horns is 
at the corner of Stafford's Wood, and Horns Acre is in 
a corner of the Chart. It is remarkable that the Horns 
is now in part the property of Richard Heath, and 
occupied by him ; and that in the Extent of 8 Hen. VI., 
John atte Hethe appears as tenant of Horneslond. I 
am informed that there was a public-house at this spot, 
by the sign of the Horns. 

BIRCHIN HALL, another name for the Horns, men- 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 204, 670, 1216, 562. 
3 See ante, part i. p. 86, and note. 
3 See ante, p. 85. 



164 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

tioned in a Deed of 1727. It is from 'beorc,' A.-S., 
a birch-tree, and ' hall,' a house. It was a noted 
resort for smugglers. In Chelsham is a field called 
Birch Hall. 

VINTELLS, alias LENTILS, a small farm. I can suggest 
no derivation for this name. 

HIGH RIDGE, so called from its situation on the high 
ground adjoining Merle Common. 

HIGH LANDS, alias ROWLANDS, are the high, otherwise 
the ' row,' or rough lands. A croft near Stafford's 
Wood, of nine acres and a half, called Hegheland, 
is mentioned in the Extent of 5 Edw. II. ; and in 
that of 8 Hen. VI. occurs Heyelondeshaghe, Highlands- 
hawe. 

NEWINGTONS. Probably a possessor's name. 

BATTERELLS, alias RED LANE FARM. It occurs in the 
Extent of 8 Hen. VI. as Baterellslond, and in a Court 
Roll of Oxted of 19 Edw. IV., to which parish it adjoins, 
Baterellys, and in a conveyance of 1745, as Batterhill. 
It does not appear to be a possessor's name, and admits 
of no satisfactory explanation. 

HOLLAND, the name of an old dwelling, now re- 
moved, but retained in Holland Lane, is probably from 
' hoi,' a hole or hollow, the land in the hollow. In a 
Court Roll of Titsey, 26 Hen. VIII., some land is men- 
tioned, called Hallond. 

THE ROCKS, alias BRIOES (Rental of Oxted, 19 Eliz., 
the Roicks). The first name is from the character of 
the soil, which is of a sandy, rocky nature. Will atte 
Rokke is the name of one of the tenants in the Extent of 
5 Edw. II. ; the second is a possessor's name. Henry 
Brice appears on the Homage in 5 Edw. II., and in the 
Extent of 8 Hen. VI. there is one of the same name. In 
the same Extent some land is mentioned, called Brices- 
lond, and again Brisinxcroft. It is difficult to distinguish 
which land is part of the Rocks, and which is at a place 
still called Brice Cross. The origin of Brice Cross is 
from the saint St. Brice, to whom a cross was probably 
dedicated at that spot. His festival was on November 
13th, on which day, in 1002, the Danes in England were 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 165 

massacred. Brixton, 1 in this county, originally written 
Brices-tane, is perhaps from the same saint; Brize 
Norton, Brices Norton, Oxfordshire, and, probably, 
Brislington, Somerset. 

BIDLANDS, called Bidding's Farm in a Deed of 1712. I 
have already explained 2 that the prefix ' rid ' means 
ground cleared or grubbed. This farm bears every 
appearance of having been formerly part of the common 
or waste, which at this part is covered with scrubs and 
bushes, and was an ' assart ' or grant of forest land. 
This word, { assart,' Latinized, occurs in the Extent of 
5 Edw. II., speaking of a grove on the Down of 33 acres. 
It is said to be " de subbosco debili quia totum fere 
spine et tribuli et sic vix valet inde nunc per annum 
xii d Et si praadicta grava fuerit * assartata,' pastura 
valeret in eadem per annum 5 s 6 d ." I append here a 
list of the instances in which I have met with the word 
' Kiddens.' It is interesting, as showing to what an extent 
grubbing and clearing was carried on, and how entirely 
the Weald or Wood was one vast forest. From the 
Extent of 5 Edw. II. we have Chert-reden, Osegodes- 
reden, La Bedene. From the Extent of 8 Hen. VI., 
Hoosgoodredne, Parisesriden, Le Bednes. Extent of 
Broadham, 5 Edw. II., Beden. Court Boll, Oxted, 15 
Edw. IV., Byden, Scallidryden ; 19 Edw. IV., Coks- 
riden ; Court Bolls, Titsey, 1395 1700, Brendredene, 
Le Budene, Bydon ; Bental, Tatsfield, 1561, Great, 
Little, and But Biden ; Court Boll, Warlingham, 4 & 5 
Ph. & Mary, Bidon ; Court Boll, Borough of Lang- 
hurst, Limpsfield, 35 Eliz., Bydons ; Court Boll, Fel- 
court, Lingfield, Stockeridden ; Court Boll, Westerham, 
1649, Southriddens Coppice and the Biddens. 

Cheverell's Farm, Titsey, Benridings. 

Beddlestead Farm, Titsey and Chelsham, Great and 
Little Biddens. 

1 Taylor, Words and Places, pp. 254 and 380, following Salmon 
(Antiq. of Surrey, p. 3) derives Brixton from Brigges-stan, a bridge, 
but this is not probable, as the ancient spelling is Bricestane, or Brixi^ 
stane. Manning derives it from a pillar or stone, set up by one Brixi, a 
Saxon, who owned land in Surrey, temp. Domesday Survey, 

- Ante, part i. p. 103. 



166 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

Tatsfield Court Farm, Riddens, But Ridden, Great 
But Ridden, Chalk-ridden. 

Warlingham, The Ridings, and Button Ridden 
(Court Roll, 1745). Chelsham, Scott's Hall Farm, 
Riddens. 

Limpsfield Lodge Farm, the Riddens. 

Crouch House Farm, Edenbridge, Great, Little, and 
High Riddens. 

Oxted, Foyle Riddens and the Riddens. 

This makes more than thirty instances within a very 
small compass. 1 

John Rodelond occurs in the Extent of 8 Hen. VI. as 
one of the tenants, taking his name, doubtless, from the 
place. 

LOCKHURST, a corruption of Lockyers, occurs as 
Lokiereslond (Extent, 5 Edw. II.) ; Lockyerslond and 
Lockyersden (Extent, 8 Hen. VI.) ; Lockearsland (12 
Anne). It is probably a possessor's name, though the 
name does not occur in the early Extents of the Manor. 

HEADLANDS, immediately adjoining the common or 
heath, is properly Hethlonds, and is so written in the 
Extent of 8 Hen. VI. 

LOMBARDENS, alias LUMBARDINGS, a small farm. There 
is a wood of the same name on Chelsham Court Farm, 
in Chelsham, and Great and Little Lumbardens are the 
names of two fields adjoining it on Beddlested Farm. It 
is suggested by Mr. Edmunds 3 that these words are 
derived from ' Lamba,' the name of a chief (or clan) ; and 
he cites Lamb-hithe, Lambeth ; Lamberhurst, Kent ; 
and Lambourn, Berkshire, in support of this opinion. 

CROWHURST, mentioned in a Deed of 1720, is not, I 
think, like the parish of Crowhurst, the Crow's-wood, 
but a possessor's name. Robert Crowhurst appears in 
the Extent of 8 Hen. VI., and there is still a family of 
this name living in the parish. The Deed above cited 

1 Among some property lately advertised for sale in Godalining and 
Chiddingfold were 1 1 acres of land called ' The Biddings/ Rydon is 
the name of a place near Watchet, Somersetshire, and also of a parish 
in Norfolk. 

2 Traces oj History in the Names of Places, p 238. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 167 

describes it as a field of three acres, abutting to the 
common. 

MOOR HOUSE appears as Morelond in the Extent of 
8 Hen. VI., and in the Parish Register as Moorhouse 
and the Moor. It is so called from its situation at the 
edge of the moor or common. 

FASTENS, or FASTINGS, is probably a possessor's name, 
but I can give no authority in support of it, and I do 
not find the name in any early deeds. 

VICAR'S HAW, written also Vigor's, Wickers, and 
Vigorous in the Extent of 8 Hen. VI., which latter I 
take to be a corruption of Vigor's House. Vicar's Haw 
is not, I think, in any way to be connected with our 
word * Vicar,' nor like the Vicar's Oak in Norwood, 
referred to by Mr. Flower. 1 I think it is from some 
person of the name of Vicker or Vigor. Haw, according 
to Leo, 3 may be rendered ' view ; ' and if this be correct, 
it would in this case be singularly applicable, the view 
from this spot being one of the finest and most extensive 
in the whole district. Taylor 3 interprets Haw to mean 
a place where trees have been hewn, and almost synony- 
mous with field. Watts Haw is the name of some land 
on the side of Pain's Hill in this parish, commanding 
a distant view over the Weald ; and Clerkeshagh, 
Bernehagh, Calipreshawe, Chertehagh, all occur in the 
Extent of 8 Hen. VI. 

CHARTLAND. Mentioned in the Extent of 5 Edw. II., 
and described there as consisting of 27^ acres in two 
fields, worth per acre 6d. In the Deed of Conveyance 
from Sir Charles Gresham, Bart., to the trustees of 
Archbishop Tenison, to whose Charity the farm still 
belongs, it is described as eight parcels of land, called 
Chart Lands and Chart Haws. The name is derived 
from its having originally, no doubt, formed part of 
the Chart, to which it adjoins, and having been in- 
closed from it : which Cherteriden, mentioned also in 
5 Edw. II., would seem to imply. The occurrence of haw 

1 Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. iii. p. 245. 

2 Names of Places, p. 115. 

3 Words and Places, p. 480. 



168 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

here would apply, as in the last instance, to a fine point 
of view. 

THE CEARN, alias CEARN BANK. The local pronuncia- 
tion is Saine, and in a Kental of the Manor of Lang- 
hurst, 1671, occurs Saines Field. In noticing the same 
name under Lingfield, 1 I suggested that possibly it was 
derived from ' cearn,' A.-S., a pine. Taylor, 2 however, 
remarks that in no single instance in the charters do we 
meet with a name implying the existence of any kind of 
pine or fir, a circumstance corroborating the assertion 
of Ca3sar, that there was no fir found in Britain ; so that 
it is more probably a tribal name, from the tribe or clan 
of the Cearningas. 

THE GROVE, a portion of Limpsfield Common. In a 
Court Eoll of Titsey, 15 Ric. II., and a Rental of 
1402, is a place called ' Le Grove.' It is from 'graf,' a 
wood. 

LANGHURST, anciently called the Borough of Langhurst, 
for which a headborough used to be chosen at the Sheriff's 
tourn for the hundred, is a separate manor. It went 
with the manors of Sanderatead and Felcourt, in Ling- 
field, and formed part of the possessions of the Abbey of 
Hide. It was granted at the dissolution, Feb. 6, 1539, 
to Sir John Gresham, Kt., by whose descendant, Sir 
Richard Gresham, Kt., it was sold to John Ownstead in 
1591, and is now held by the owner of Trevereux. Courts 
are no longer held : the last was held in 1788. It is the 
Lang-hyrst, or long wood. Being in the Weald district, 
it was originally no doubt wood, and the prefix describes 
its shape, which is a long narrow strip on the eastern 
border of the parish. Starting on the north somewhere 
below Limpsfield Common, it runs to Edenbridge parish 
on the south, being bounded on the east by the brook 
which parts Kent and Surrey, and on the west from the 
Manor of Limpsfield by a small tributary stream which 
joins the main brook on Batchelor's Farm. Robert de 
Langenherst appears in the Extent of 5 Edw. II. It 
includes within it the following farms and places : 

1 Ante, p. 97. 

2 Words and Places, p. 367. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 169 

TREVEREUX, mentioned above. 

COULDEN, or COULDEN s, a farm belonging to Arch- 
bishop Tenison's Charity at Croydon. It is mentioned 
in a Court Eoll of 1626, and is a possessor's name, 
as I find in the Parish Register of 1583 the name of 
Coldin. 

GUILDAELES. The name has been already explained 
under Lingfield. 1 It is here not only the farm of that 
name, which is mentioned in a Court Roll of 1694 as a 
messuage and lands containing 40 acres, called Geldables 
(the farm which now bears the name is 38 acres), but 
also a district, for in the same Court Roll we find Sir 
William Hoskyns, Kt., holding 160 acres of land called 
Batchelers, lying in a place called the Geldables, and 
William Fuller holding 8 acres and 15 acres respectively 
in the same. The actual limits of it it is impossible to 
ascertain, or what was the nature of the tribute to which 
it was assessed. In a Rental of Chelsham, 1568, is a 
field called Gildenefild. 

BATCHELOR'S FARM, a possessor's name. It occurs in 
a Court Roll of 3 Hen. VIII. as Batchellers, and in the 
Parish Register in 1592 occurs the name of Batcheller, 
which as Batchelor still exists in the parish. 

MONKS, also a possessor's name, and not, as might 
appear, the property of any monastic body. The name 
of Monke appears in the Parish Register in 1634, and 
still remains in the district. There is a small farm in 
Tatsfield of the same name. 

CAPERS, a small farm. In a Court Roll of 33 Eliz. a 
meadow is mentioned called Capersland, and in one of 
31 Hen. VIII. occurs Chappersland, neither of which 
admits of any satisfactory explanation. In an earlier Roll, 
viz. 5 Hen. VIII. , a toft and 40 acres of land is men- 
tioned, called Cowperslond, which appears again as Cowps, 
and the late tenant John Cowper. This far exceeds the 
present size of the farm, and it is not easy to see why 
Cowpers should become altered into Capers ; but I offer 
it as the only suggestion I can give. 

1 Ante, p. 98. 



170 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

The following are all names mentioned in the Court 
Rolls of the Manor of Langhurst : l 

LB HURSTE (Court Roll, 1644), now the Hurst, i. e. the 
wood, may be compared with the same name at Oxted, 
and confirms the supposition that Langhurst was once 
chiefly or entirely wood-land. 

SWAINSLAND. Swaynesland (Court Roll, 27 Hen. VIII.), 
Swainesland (id., 1626), Swaynes-barres, now known as 
Swainsland Barn, is from the Anglo-Saxon * swan,' a 
swain or herdsman. The prefix ' swan,' which enters 
into many place-names, is sometimes from the bird the 
swan ; but in this case, and in that of a place in Kent, 
* Swanadionu,' Swanden, mentioned in the Charters, 2 
the first syllable being long, shows it to refer to a swain. 
These bars in old days were very common. Aubrey, 
under Warlingham, says, " Between the way from hence 
to the road from Croydon to Coulsdon is an old groat 
Bar, as also two Barrs more in Croydon road." 

LE CLEEVELANDS. Cleves, Clebyland, Cliveland, Cleve 
Platt (Court Rolls, 1646, 16 Hen. VIII., 31 Hen. VIII.) ; 
Clethesland, Chelsham (Rental, 1568), perhaps the same. 
Cleeve, Cleve, Clive, or Cliff, is given by Mr. Edmunds 3 
as a steep bank, and occurs in various places of the 
name of Cliff, Clifton, &c. If so, it is synonymous with 
the banky fields which are so numerous in the district. 
Halliwell gives Cleve, A.-S., a dwelling. 

GARLANDS, alias GAYLANDS (1648), are the gay or 
forward lands. To say that wheat or other corn is 
looking gay is a common expression in the district to 
mean forward. 

STONE YSHOTT, alias STONE YSHOUTE. (19th Oct., 13 Hen. 
VIII., Robert Heath is presented for cutting two oaks 
at Stoneyshowte.) If Taylor's 4 explanation of * shot ' 
be the correct one, i. e. a wood, although it is far from 
satisfactory, this would mean the Stony- wood ; and so 

1 Kindly lent me for inspection by H. Cox, Esq., of Trevereux, the 
present lord. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 364. 

3 Traces of History in the Names of Places, p. 189. 

4 Words and Places, p. 360. 



SURftEY ETYMOLOGIES. 171 

far as this particular place is concerned it is a correct 
appellation. It is a wood, and the soil is what is locally 
called ' chavocky,' a mixture of clay and stone. There 
are two other places mentioned in these Rolls which 
terminate in { shot,' viz. Cockshot Field and Cockshot 
Mead; Hebher, alias Hibershott Croft, and Hithershot 
Field. The first would be from the bird the cock, the 
second is the hither or further field. Cockshot Hill is 
the name of a hill between Reigate and Redhill, and 
of a wood in Caterham. The word occurring in connec- 
tion with field, mead, &c., makes Taylor's explanation 
very doubtful. Mr. Flavell Edmunds 1 explains ' shot ' to 
be from ' sceotan,' to shoot, indicating an offshoot from 
a larger hill or range of hills ; and, as far as orthography 
goes, his explanation appears the most probable, for it is 
difficult to see how ' holz,' German, a wood, English holt, 
became corrupted into shot, and to account for the appear- 
ance of the letter t. At the same time, although this mean- 
ing of offshoot would apply in a great many cases, in 
others, as in Aldershot, it certainly would not, for the 
alder does not grow on the hills. The same writer 
gives Cockshott, Yorkshire, and Cockshutt, Hereford, 
and explains them to mean a little shoot or spur. 
Cock, he says, means little, but on what authority I do 
not know, for I cannot find the word given in that 
sense ; and where it does occur as a prefix, it is no 
doubt like the Gosfords, Henleys, &c., from the bird. 
Winshot is the name of the hill leading off the common 
to Hookwood, and may be from e winces-shott,' the spur 
of the hill in the ' wincel,' the nook or angle ; or possibly 
it is from ' whin,' the furze or gorse, which grows very 
abundantly there. 

WIMBLES, alias WYMBLES (Court Rolls, 31 Hen. VIII. 
and 33 Eliz.). It is described as three crofts, a mes- 
suage, and a garden. In the Anglo-Saxon Charters 2 is 
a place in Middlesex called Wemba-lea. Wimble-bent is 
given by Halliwell 3 as the name of a long, tall grass ; 

1 Traces of History in the Names of Places, p. 282, Vocabulary. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 220. 

3 Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 



172 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

and, again, wimble is a word still in use for an auger ; 
but neither of these seem very probable derivations. 

NICHOLHOOKE (Court Roll, 1626) is another of the many 
' hooks,' or corners. The first part of the name is per- 
, .; haps connected with St. Nicholas. 

PUBLETTS, alias PTJPLETTS. Publett Barne (Court Eolls, 
1646, 2 Edw. VI., and 33 Eliz.) is an owner's name, and 
the name existed in the parish not long ago. In Farley 
parish is a wood called Puplet Wood. 

^OLLAM'S LAND is from a family of that name, who 
appeaTTas' tenants in 1648 and 1671. 

PRIDDLES. I can give no explanation of this name. 

The following are names of woods, hills, and other 
places in the parish which are in use at this day : 

DETILLENS, the name of an old house in the village, 
is from the family of Detillen, probably a French 
refugee family, who possessed it at the end of the last 
century. 

PEBBLE BALL HILL. (Deed, 1712 and 1723, Pribble Ball 
Hill; 1792, Pebble Hill; in an old map of Limpsfield, 
Triple Bowl Hill.) On the top of this hill, on the common, 
was the bowling-green, and therefore I suppose the 
name is in some way connected with the game of bowls. 
Bowling Alley is the name of a field in Chelsham. 

RIPS HILL and the RIPS COMMON, on the road to Wester- 
ham. I have already pointed out, 1 under a place of the 
same name in Godstone, that the commonly-accepted 
derivation of ' ripse ' is erroneous, and have suggested 
the mythical Hryp or Hreopa. Mr. Edmunds 3 cites a 
place in Kent, Hreoplege, now Ripple. 

PAIN'S HILL is from the name of a man. I find Richard 
Peyn mentioned in the Extent of 5 Edw. II. as formerly 
holding some land. In the Extent of 8 Hen. VI. some 
land is spoken of called Payneslonde, and two crofts of 
land containing 10 acres, and a messuage formerly of 
Nicholas Payn, are mentioned. Paynesfield is the name 
of a wood in Oxted, on the borders of Limpsfield. Paines- 

1 Ante, part i. p. 93. 

2 Traces of History in the Names of Places, p. 274. 



SUUEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 173 

lond occurs in a Rental of Tatsfield of 1402. Painesfield 
Coppice is in Tatsfield, and mentioned in a Rental of that 
manor of 1561, and land called Painesfild occurs in a 
Rental of Chelsham, 1568. John Payne appears in a 
Court Roll of Titsey, 15 Ric. II., and only a few years 
ago an old inhabitant of that name was buried in that 
parish. Pain's Hill is also the name of a hill near 
Cobham. 

POLLARDS WOOD HILL is the hill leading to Pollards 
Wood. Pollardeswode occurs in the Extent of 8 Hen. VI. 
It took its name from some old pollard tree or trees. 

DEOVEES' WOOD, anciently called Tyes 3 takes its name 
from the old green lane running by it, formerly much 
used by cattle- drovers, and called locally Drove's Lane. 
In the Extent of 8 Hen. VI. occur Dryvereslond and 
Dryvers. 

PAEISH CEOFT WOOD, not, as might at first appear, 
from being, or having been, parish land, for of this there 
is no trace. Among the names of those on the Survey 
in the Extent of 5 Edw. II. is William Paris, knight; in 
the same Extent we find Parishawe, Parisland, and in 
that of 8 Hen. VI. Parisesreden and Parysbrooke, the 
latter probably being the brook running across Itching- 
wood Common. It is therefore Parises-croft or Paris' 
Croft. The name of William Parys also occurs in an 
Exchequer Lay Subsidy of 6 Edw. III. 

THE RACK PLATS, a part of the above wood. A plat is 
a flat piece of ground, explained in the " Promptorium " 
as synonymous with plane. One of the meanings given 
by Halliwell to ' rack ' 2 is a narrow path or track. In 
this case the designation would apply very well. It is 
a flat piece of ground through which the cartway 
passes from Itchingwood Common to the cultivated 
land beyond. A field in Caterham is called Mil 
Platt, and Platts Bottom is a place there. The Plats 
is the name of a field on Marsh-Green Farm, Eden- 
bridge. 

COLLESTEES WOOD, mentioned in the Court Rolls of the 

1 Prompt. Parv., in verbo. 

2 Dictionary of ArcJiaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 



174 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

Boro' of Langhurst. In the Extent of 8 Hen. VI. 
is a croft called Coliestren, and being in juxtaposition 
with Clenchelands, the name of lands adjoining, there 
is no doubt it is the same place. It is probably derived 
from some owner. 

HOSELAND, alias HONESLAND WOOD, is, I believe, from 
' hean,' high or poor, as I have already noticed under 
Hanle Wood, in Oxted. 1 The character of the wood 
amply justifies the designation of poor. 

GALLEYS WOOD, alias GALLEY LANDS, I conceive to be 
from * gale,' A.-S., a nightingale. The district abounds 
with them, and I am writing this within a few hours of 
listening to a chorus of them in this very wood. The 
Gally-bird is a name for the woodpecker, so, perhaps, 
he may share with the former the distinction of having 
given the name to this wood. Such places often take 
their name from gallows having been erected there ; 
but of this there is no local tradition. 

KELL COPPICE, on Batchelor's Farm. So called from 
a limekiln at the end of it ; kill or kell being the local 
pronunciation for a kiln. 

CRONKLAKDS (Cronksland, Deed, 12 Anne). This is a 
possessor's name. Thomas Cronge appears among the 
tenants in the Extent of 8 Hen. VI., and the name 
appears as Cronke in the Parish Register in 1543. It 
still exists in the neighbourhood. 

LOAM-PIT WOOD, so called from a large pit in it, from 
which probably clay was dug for the manufacture of 
pottery. In the Middle Ages there was a considerable 
manufacture of pottery in Limpsfield, as appears by 
large refuse-heaps, two of which were on land adjoining 
this wood. The fact is further confirmed by the Extent 
of 5 Edw. VI., which mentions Roger and Geoffrey, the 
potter; and in that of 8 Hen. VI., in which 'Potters ' 
occurs as the name of a cottage. 

THE BIRCHES. Numbers of woods bear the name, the 
birch being one of the indigenous trees in this country. 
It occurs in various places in the A.-S. Charters ; e.g., 

1 Supra, p. 142. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 175 

Beorc-liam, Beorc-lea, Berkeley, &c. In the Extent of 
8 Hen. VI. a place is mentioned, called ' le Byrchet,' in 
Pollard's Wood. On the Manor Farm, Farley, is some 
woodland called Birchin Shaw. 

LAKE STREET. This word street always denotes an old 
line of road, and very frequently a Roman road. The 
Saxons, says Taylor, 1 were not road-makers ; they even 
borrowed their name for a road from the Latin language. 
The Roman ' strata ' became the Saxon street. There 
was an old track here leading from the high road across 
Lake Street Green and over Watt's Hill to the Chart ; 
whence the name street. Lake I imagine to be derived 
from its swampy position, a great part of the road being 
ordinarily under water. In the Extent of 5 Edw. II. 
Thomas atte Lak is mentioned ; and in that of 8 Hen. 
VI. a place, called Le Lake, alias La Lak. Lac, Laca, 
A.-S., is not necessarily a lake, as we understand it, a 
large piece of water, but a pool. In the " Promptorium 
Parvulorum " lake is explained as ' stondyng watur,' 
a fit description of this place. Lagham, in Godstone, 
I refer to the same source. 2 In a Court Roll of Titsey, 
26 Hen. VIII., is a meadow near the brook, called 
Lakesmede. 

GRUB STREET, the name of another old line of road, 
leading formerly from Limpsfield Common to Titsey. 
One is reminded of a street of the same name in London, 
though the origin of the one and the other is very dif- 
ferent. The latter was so called from its mean, dirty 
appearance ; the former is either a possessor's name, 
from John Grubb, mentioned in the Extent of 8 Hen. VI., 
and who, as stated before, has left his name in Grubb's 
Farm, 3 or it is the grubbed street, the road made by 
grubbing wood and trees. Other instances of street are 
French Street and Well Street, in Westerham; Old 
Strete (Court Roll of Oxted, 1 Hen. VI.) ; Roseland 
St'rete, in Oxted; highway called East Strete (Court 
Roll, Warlingham, 3 Edw. VI.) ; Heavenstrete (Rental 

1 Words and Places, p. 250. 

2 Ante, part i. p. 90. 

3 Ante, p. 35. 
VOL. VI. N 



176 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

of Chelsham, 1578); Oldstret (Court Roll, Titsey, 1 
Hen. VIII.) ; South Street, Cudham. 

WOLF'S Kow and WOLF'S WOOD are from a former pos- 
sessor of that name. I meet with Wolfe in the Parish 
Register in 1565, 

DIPSON BOTTOM, spelt in an old map Diptin Bottom, 
is where the road dips and then suddenly rises 
again. 

KENT HATCH, mentioned in a Court Roll of Wester- 
ham of 1663, is where the parishes of Limpsfield and 
Westerham and the counties of Kent and Surrey meet. 
At this place stood formerly, no doubt, a 'hatch,' or 
hitch gate. On the high road between Lynmouth and 
Porlock stands a gate called County Gate, on the con- 
fines of Devonshire and Somersetshire. Hogelotes-hache 
occurs in the old Court Rolls of Titsey. 

WHITE MARE, the name of a large pond on Limps- 
field Common, is from the A.-S. ' mere,' a pool ; white is 
probably a corruption of ' waet,' A.-S., wet. I remember 
seeing a place of the same name in Wales, advertised as 
a meet of Sir Watkin Wynne's hounds. 

CHAMPIONS, or CHAMPION'S PITS, the name of a cluster 
of cottages on the common, and of the waste adjoining, 
which has been all dug over for stone, but the pits have 
long been disused. It may possibly be from an owner's 
name, but more probably, I think, records the deeds of 
some hero of former days, whether champion archer or 
wrestler. 

SHAGS POND. A shack-hole is given by Halliwell l as 
a hollow in the ground which receives the surface-water. 
I never heard the word used in that sense in this dis- 
trict, but it exactly describes the position of this pond, 
which is at the foot of a steep hill. In a Rental of 
Chelsham, 1568, is a field called Shagardene. 

ALFONESMEDE (Extent, 5 Edw. II.), I take to be^a 
corruption of Elfinesmede. In the same Extent we 
have a place called Eylfynescroft. It is from the A.-S. 
' elfe,' an elf or fairy, and is one of the many names 

1 Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES, 177 

derived from mythology : other like names are Elfenden, 
Elvaston. 1 

BET-LES-HAM (id.), described there as afield of thirteen 
acres, now fourteen acres, pronounced Beetles-ham, is a 
field on Limpsfield Park Farm, spelt also Bedlesham 
and Pedlesham. ' Betl,' genitive ' betles,' is A.-S. for a 
beetle. Scarcely any animal, or even insect, was too 
insignificant to enter into Anglo-Saxon nomenclature, as 
may be seen from Lechford and Lechmere, derived from 
the leech. 3 

BUSARDESLAND (id.) is from the busard or buzzard, 
which Mr. Yarrell 8 says is one of the most common of 
the larger hawks which inhabit the wooded districts 
of this country. The very large woods in this parish 
would have been congenial to them. Leighton Buzzard 
is not, says Taylor, 4 from this bird, but a corruption of 
Leighton Beaudesert. 

CLENCHESLAND (id.), Clencheslond (Extent, 8 Hen. 
VI.), now Clenchlands, or Clenches, described in the 
Extent of 5 Edw. II. as 36 J acres, now 40 acres, 
showing how little variation there is in the quan- 
tities between that time and the present day. It may 
be an owner's name, though the name does not occur 
in the early Deeds. I can offer no other explanation 
for it. 

ELDEHAWE (id.) is from the A.-S. ' eald,' old. Ther^ 
ire various places in the A.-S. Charters with the prefix ; 
riz., Ealdenham, Aldenham, Ealdanleah, Ealdanhahl, &c. 

ELLIOTES-GRAVE (id.), a possessor's name. The name 

loes not occur in the early records, but in the church 

3 a small brass, " To George Elyott, died 1644, 

Troom of the Privie Chamber of the Queen." He may 

ave belonged to an old family of the name in the place. 

1 See Lower, Cont. to Z/it., p. 29. 

2 Halliwell, Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, explains 
Betle,' soft, fitted for cultivation, a term applied to land North 
untry word. The word in this sense being a north country word, 
e should be hardly justified in accepting it as the derivation of this 
.me. 

3 British Birds, vol. i. p. 77. 
* Words and Places, p. 390. 

N 2 



178 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

t Grave ' or ' graf/ a wood or grove, is retained in the 
name of a part of the common called the Grove. 

BASTOVENYE (id.). In the same Extent are mentioned 
Middleovenye and Westovenye, and in an old Court 
Roll of Oxted occurs Oveneye. They were three dis- 
tricts on the hill, containing respectively 38, 61, and 60 
acres. It is clear that from very early times, judging 
from the large size of the chalk-pits and the quantity of 
refuse that has been wheeled out, that there were lime- 
kilns at various places along the hills. It appears to 
me probable that these places were named from the 
ovens or kilns. ' Ofen ' is A.-S. for an oven or furnace. 
On Chelsham Court Farm are two fields called Oven- 
holes Bottom and Ovenholes Top. 

FULEMEDE (id.). Compare also Fulegrove, in Prink- 
ham, Lingfield, mentioned in the same Extent, and 
Fowlway, the name of a field in Warlingham. It is ex- 
plained to be from the A.-S. 'ful,' foul or dirty. In the 
Anglo-Saxon Charters l a place is mentioned in Surrey 
called Fulebrdc, Fulbrook ; and Fulham, Middlesex, and 
various other places, are referred to the same root ; 2 but, 
according to Lower, they are from e fugel,' A.-S. for a 
bird ; whence our word fowl. 

GAMELYNGDENE (id., and Extent, 8 Hen.VL, Rental 
of Titsey, 1402). There was a grange at Gamelyngdene, 
temp. Edw. II. It was in the northern part of the parish. 
The Gamelingas are given by Kemble 3 among the { mark ' 
names, from which he derives Gamlingay (Camb.) and 
Gembling (York.). Other places are Gamble-by and 
G amelsthorp ; 4 and in the A.-S. Charters 5 a place 
in Kent, called Gamelanwyrth. To the same source, 
therefore, this word must be referred. 

GELDENEWODE (id.) is for Geldan or Gildan-wood, the 
wood that paid the gild or tribute, like the name of 
Guildable, before mentioned, but not the same place, as 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 987. 

2 Edmunds' Traces of History in the Names of Places, p. 210. 

3 Saxons in England, vol. i. p. 464. 

4 Edmunds' Traces of Hist., p. 212. 

5 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 407. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 179 

that was within another manor, that of Langhurst. In 
Caterham is a field called Upper Gilsden. 

GREGORIESFELD and GREGORIESDENE (id.), land on the 
hill, the name probably of some possessor, who does not 
appear in any of the early Deeds. 

HAMO NETTESLAND (id.). 'Neat' is A.-S. for cattle, 
which we find, says Taylor, 1 at Nutford and Netley. 
Nutfield in this county is probably from the same source. 
Bosworth, in his Dictionary, gives neat-land to mean 
land let or rented : if this be correct, Hamo Nettesland 
is the land rented by one Hamo. 

HALEMANNESLOND (id.) is possibly from c hsela,' a hero, 
assumed also as a man's name. Mr. Edmunds 2 cites 
Hail-weston, Hailes (Glouc.), Halesowen (Wore.), Heal- 
haugh (Yorkshire), &c. 

IMPETONESLAND (id.), Intonesland (Extent, 8 Hen. 
VI.), a field of 36 acres 3 roods. In the Codex 3 a place 
is given in Cambridgeshire called Impintun (Impington), 
which Kemble 4 refers to the family of Impingas, and 
this, in default of anything better, is the only explana- 
tion I can offer. 

JUNONIE (id. t and Extent, 8 Hen. VI.), the name of 
a wood, 22^ acres, and of a field also, the former being 
near Itchingwood Common, the latter on the hill. It is 
a very remarkable name : ' avis Junonia ' is used by 
Ovid for a peacock, and I can only suggest that it is a 
piece of monkish Latin ; but the name occurring in two 
different parts of the parish is strange. Peacock's Mead, 
a meadow in Titsey, and Po Shaw, at Trevereux, 
' poY A.-S., a peacock, are perhaps synonymous. 

LUNTESFORD (id.), a croft of 3 acres, at a place pro- 
bably where the stream could be forded. I cannot explain 
the prefix. 

OTYNDENE (id.), a name still preserved in that of a 
leld on Grant's Farm. In the Anglo-Saxon Charters 5 

1 Words and Places, p. 468. 
8 Traces of Hist., p. 221. 

3 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 907. 

4 Saxons in England, vol. i. p. 467. 

5 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 230, 1093, 198, 409, 179, 



180 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

are places called Ottanforda, now Otford, Otanhyrst, 
Kent, and Otansihtre. The terminations of ' dene ' and 
' hyrst ' following this prefix make it impossible to con- 
nect it with ' ote-otyn,' the corn, oats. Taylor 1 would 
explain Otford to be at the ford, ' quasi at-ford.' 

OSEGODESEIDEN (id.), Hoosgoodredne (Extent, 8 Hen. 
VI.), records the clearing made by some Saxon of 
the name of Osgood. The same name appears in 
Osgotbi (Osgodby), Lincoln, mentioned in the A.-S. 
Charters. 2 

PASSEMERESEELD (id., and Extent, 8 Hen. VI.) is a 
possessor's name. Roger Passemer appears as a tenant 
in the Extent of 5 Edw. II. Mr. Flower 3 mentions a 
place of the name of Passemores in Croydon. 

PEESTESMEDE (id.), Prestelande and Prestescrofb (Ex- 
tent, 8 Hen. VI.) , land probably belonging to the 
Church. Priesthill is the name of a field in the village 
at the back of the Forge, late part of the glebe. In the 
A.-S. Charters 4 are Prestesmed (Worces.), Prestemere 
(Wilts), Prestegraf, &c. 

QUAERERE. The existence of stone quarries is as old 
as Domesday Book. " There are two stone quarries," 
says that Survey, " value 2s. and three hawks' nests in 
the woods." Ralph de la Quarrere occurs in a Subsidy 
Roll of 26 Hen. III. Gilbert atte Quarrere is one of the 
jurors named in the Extent of 5 Edw. II. The mention 
of his name and that of John atte Pette, and that of 
William atte Quarre, and John atte Pette in the Extent 
of 8 Hen. VI., shows that the quarries continued in use in 
the Middle Ages. It is rather singular, however, that 
in the construction of so many of the churches in the 
district, the soft chalk-stone or chinch is used, and not 
the native sandstone. 

RUSESLAND (id.) is from the A.-S. 'rise' or c rusche,' 
a rush, which we find as a prefix in Ruscomb (Berks), 
Rushden (Herts) , and in Rushbroc, Rushbrook (Oxford) ; 

1 Words and Places, pp. 384 and 463. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 908, 984. 

3 Surrey Arch. Cott., vol. iii. p. 253. 

4 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 61, 329, 984. 



SURBEY ETYMOLOGIES. 181 

and Russeleah, Rushley (Somerset), mentioned in the 
A.-S. Charters. 1 

STROTEFELD (id.) (Gilbert de Strotefeld), now the 
Streatfields, a field on Broomland's Farm, mostly in 
Titsey, is so named from its proximity to Grub Street. 
It is the Street-field, or field by the road. 

SKYMANNYE SLYKEMANNYE (id.), a district near It- 
chingwood Common, where, temp. Edw. II., there was a 
grange, and now preserved in Slickendens, the name of 
a wood upon Grant's Farm. The suffix in both cases is 
' ea ' or ' eye,' water. Perhaps the first may be con- 
nected with the A.-S. c sciman,' to shine or glitter, 
and the second with * slik,' the A.-S. and old English 
for smooth ; whence our word ' sleek ' as applied to 
anything smooth. 

SWALEWECLIVE (id.), a field of 16 acres, from Ang.- 
Sax. * swalewe,' a swallow, and ' cleve ' or ' clif,' a 
steep bank. We find a place of the same name in Wilts, 
mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Charters. 2 ' Swealewan- 
cliff,' Swallowcliff ; and besides, ' Suueealuue,' Swallow- 
river ; ' Swealewanhlyp,' Swallowleap (Hants) ; Sweal- 
wanthorn. 

The following ^are from the Extent of 8 Hen. VI. 

LE COMBE. A comb is explained by Bosworth in his 
Dictionary, to be " a low place inclosed with hills, a 
valley." It may probably be rendered by our word dell 
or dingle. Taylor, 3 with much probability, says that 
it is the Saxonized form of the Celtic * cwm,' which is 
frequent in Wales, where it denotes a cup-shaped de* 
pression in the hills. Leo, 4 however, states that there 
is no connection between the two ; that it is derived from 
the Anglo-Saxon verb ' cimban,' to join, and that its 
original meaning is confined to a sheet of water, and 
that it afterwards acquired the signification of a valley 
formed like a trough or water-course. Mr* Edmunds 5 

1 Kemble, CodeOs Diplomat., Cart. 709, 577. 

2 Id., Cart. 387, 1176, 199, 739, 1038, 1122. 

3 Words and Places, p. 226. * Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 82. 
5 Traces of History in the Names of Places, p. 89. 



182 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

asserts that Surrey has no combes ; in which he is in 
error. Addiscombe, Combe, Farncombe, Hascomb, 
Combe Brabes, a manor in Godalming, Combe Bottom, 
near Albury, Combe Farm, Chiddingfold, and Combe 
Wood, Wimbledon, are names which suggest themselves 
at once ; besides Compton, and locally, Estcombe, men- 
tioned in a Eental of Titsey, 1402, and Aynscombe, a 
tenement and 40 acres of land in Warlingham, given in a 
Court Eoll of 2 Eliz., and Uttercumbe, Bramley Coomb, 
and Upper and Lower Aldercoornb, fields in Caterham. 

EGELYNDENE. Kemble 1 gives the Eglingas as one of 
the mark names found at Eglingham, in Northumberland ; 
and Mr. Edmunds 3 refers Eg-dean, Sussex ; Eggesford, 
Egmont, &c., to * Egga,' the owner's name. This word 
is doubtless from one of the two roots. 

FLORECOTE LOND, a pretty name, signifying the land 
by the cottage of flowers. Flore is given by Halliwell 
as an ancient form for flower. 3 I have noticed the place 
called Flore under Godstone. 4 

FOUREHERNE. Herne is given by Halliwell as A.-S. 
for a corner, still applied to a nook of land. In this 
place three fields are spoken of at Fowreherne. On 
Tatsfield Court Farm are some fields called Clerks Herne. 

L/E-GoRE. In Warlingham is a field called Goores, 
mentioned in a Court Roll of 2 Eliz. Halliwell says that 
the word * gore ' is explained by Kennett in his Glossary, 
as a small narrow slip of ground. In Caterham is a 
field called Edmond's Gore. 

JACOBES. Some land at the back of the windmill is 
still so called, and it is curious to note that Jacobus atte 
Melle is mentioned in this Extent. He was the miller 
of that day, and from him the land got its name. 

KNOKKES, the same word probably which occurs as 
a prefix in Knockholt. Mr. Edmunds 5 refers the word 
to the shape of a hill, and cites Knockin (Salop), and 
Knook (Wilts). 

1 Saxons in England, vol. i p. 463. 2 Traces of Hist., p. 203. 

3 Diet, of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 

4 Ante, part i. p. 94. 

6 Traces of Hist., p. 237. 



SUREEY ETYMOLOGIES. 183 

LOVEDAYSLOND. A loveday was a day appointed for the 
settlement of differences by arbitration. This land may 
have been the subject of litigation, and the difference 
in respect to it having been settled in this way, it may 
thence have acquired the name. 

PERSTEDE, from A.-S. ' pere,' ' peru,' a pear ; the 
same prefix as in Perry sfield, Oxted. In this Extent 
we meet with a field called Perie Croft. In a Kental of 
Tatsfield of 1561, occurs Perhams. Pear-tree Field is 
the name of a field on Coulden's Farm in this parish. 
In the A.-S. Charters 1 are two places called Perham 
and Perhamstede. 

STEYNGHOUS, the dwelling of Roger Stalkynden, and 
probably what is now Stockenden's Farm. It is possibly 
a corruption of ' stanen-house,' the stone-house. This 
was a house of some importance formerly, and the old 
part is built of stone. 

VYNEACEE. This is one of the many names of places 
which point to the cultivation of the vine in England ; 
and in many parishes there is still a field called the 
Vineyard. In a Rental of Titsey, 1402, is a meadow 
called Fynyerde; mentioned also in a Court Roll of 
15 Ric. II. Among the Surrenden Charters there was a 
Roll of Accounts of the Abbey of St. Augustine's, 
Canterbury, of the early part of Edward III.'s reign, 
headed "Expense in Vineis," giving the salary of the 
keeper of the vineyard and the different processes of 
cultivation. 2 "Vineyards," says the Rev. Edward Turner, 3 
" were common in this country at this early period. 
Almost every convent possessed one or more. The 
Bishop of Rochester's vineyard at Rochester was very 
extensive, and the monks of the Priory of St. Andrew, 
in the same city, had a large plantation of vines, which 
is called to this day ' The Vinesfield.' ' The Abbots of 
Battle had extensive vineyards in Battle, and in 1365 
the receipt of moneys from " the Wyneyarde of the 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 824, 1223, 10H. 

2 Archceologia Cantiana, vol. ii. p. 226. 

3 Paper on " Battle Abbey," Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. xvii. p. 32, and 
note. 



184 SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

Rectory of Hawkherste " occurs as an item. The Vine- 
yard and the Vineyard Rocks are names remaining at 
Buxted, in Sussex ; l and in an early deed, relating to the 
Priory of Pynham, Sussex, Peter Fitzansell gives to the 
Church a garden and croft in Warne-camp, called the 
' Vineyard.' 3 Vines may yet be seen on the walls of 
many of the old cottages in this district. 3 

These, from the same Extent, are from the names of 
owners or occupiers. 

ALWYNESCEOFT. Thomas Ailwyne appears in the Ex- 
tent of 5 Edw. II. as a tenant ; a name still existing in 
the neighbourhood. 

BOGESELLE. John Bokesell appears in this Extent. 

DOBEENOTE CEOFT. 

GLOVEESHOUS. Thomas Glover, a tenant in this Ex- 
tent. 

GEFFEEYSHULLE. Geoffrey the potter occurs in the 
Extent of 5 Edw. II. 

HENNEEOENE. "William Hennehorne, a tenant, 8 
Hen. VI. 

MALCOTESHOUS. John Malcotes (id.). 

MlTOHELOTES-CEOFT. 

STEEEES. Matilda Sterre, tenant, 8 Hen. VI. The 
name of Steer is still one of the most common in 
Limpsfield. 

VAEDONS. 

WILMOTELONDE. Other instances of this name were 
mentioned under Bletchingley. 4 

Of the following, from the same Extent, I can give no 
explanation : 

Calipreshawe, Gonnore, Groboresland, Halideyes, 
Hykett, Knokkes, Plomaer, Tymoyns. 

The following names are from the Tithe Survey and 
from Deeds, and are names of fields still in use : 

1 Paper on "Battle Abbey," Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. xii. p. 13. 

2 Id., vol. xi. p, 103. 

3 For a controversy on this subject see Archceologia, vol. i. 344 ; 
iii. 53-67. Gent. Mag., 1775, p. 513. Manning, Hist, of Surrey, ii. 537. 

4 Ante, p. 83. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 185 

BARRCKOFT (Deed, 12 Anne). Possibly from the A.-S. 
' bar,' a boar. Barfield is the name of a field on Botley 
Hill Farm. 

HIGHE A NOWRE (Visus F. P., 22 Eliz.), a portion of 
the waste near Pebble Hill. This word ' Nower ' occurs 
in a Rental of Titsey of 1402. " De Ricardo Woddene 
pro medietate del Noure " La Noure in a Court Roll of 
Titsey, 15 Ric. II. The Nower was the name of a wood 
in Tatsfield, lately grubbed up, and it is also the name 
of a hanging-wood at a very steep part of the chalk- 
range in Brasted. In Chelsham also is a hill called 
Nore-hill. Compare also the Nore on the Thames off 
Sheerness, and Black Nore, a cape in Somersetshire, at 
the mouth of the Severn. It may be connected with 
' nor,' the north. 

JOAN AT WELL, the name of a field, is nothing more 
than Joan atte Well's, who appears on the Extent of 
8 Hen. VI. " John Deraunt tenet terras nuper Johanne 
atte Well." The family of Atwell were owners of what 
is now called Chartwell, in Westerham, anciently Well 
Street, and were a yeoman family of some considera- 
tion. 

KITOHIN CROFT (Deed, 12 Anne). I noticed the fre- 
quent occurrence of this name under Bletchingley. 1 To 
the list there given may be added Kitchen Mead, Cater- 
ham ; Kitchen Field, on Park Farm, Limpsfield ; Kitchen 
Mead, Tenchleys and Stockenden Farms ; Kitchen Field, 
Foyle Farm, Oxted. In these latter cases it is the field 
at the back of the house, which explains it ; but in many 
instances it is found far removed from the dwelling. 

PADBROOK, a meadow at the back of Limpsfield village, 
near the Oxted road. The prefix is from ' pad ' or * paoth,' 
A.-S. for a path; but as it is nowhere near the brook, it 
is difficult to account for the suffix. 

PUDDING CROFT (Deed, 1667). The same name occurs 
in a Rental of Tatsfield of 1561, and possibly as Putcroft 
in a Rental of that manor of 1402. I think that it is 
identical with Padingden and other like names, men- 

1 Ante, p* 82. 



186 SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

tioned under Lingfield. 1 The Podingas is given by 
Kemble as one of the mark or tribal names. 

RODNEY MEAD recalls the Rodney, the sign of a public- 
house, now vulgarized into the Coach and Horses. 
" Admiral Rodney," says Hotten, 2 " seems to have 
obtained a larger share of popularity than Nelson 
himself." 

SHAVING CEOFT (Deed, 1667). Halliwell gives 'shaving' 
to mean anything very small. 

TONBEIDGE ACEE (Deed, 1667), the field, probably 
near the bridge, which crossed the stream ; ton, or 
tun, originally meaning an inclosure. Town is very com- 
monly used in old deeds for a village. The Town Farm 
in Oxted is the farm close to the village ; Townland 
Pond, the pond near the village ; similarly Town Pond, 
Godstone. 

POSTLANDS, alias POSTENS, land near Hookwood, but 
part of a different property, the bounds of which were 
probably indicated by posts. 

MILL MEADOW, a field on Limpsfield Park Farm, 
probably recalls one of the two water-mills mentioned in 
the Extent of 5 Edw. II. There are traces of a mill-dam 
here, but it has long been disused. 

NUTTON CEOFT, a field on Ridland's Farm, is pro- 
bably from ' nuote,' ' notu,' the nut. 

NEWBEEEY FIELD, Bolthurst Farm, is the 'niwe,' or 
new ; ' bera, 5 or ' bearo,' swine-pasture ; some land in- 
closed after the rest for this purpose. 

STONE'S WOOD and STONE'S FIELD, on the same farm, are 
not the stony wood and field, but take their name from 
an owner or occupier of this name. Stone is not an un- 
common name in the district. 

THE PLECKS, Doghurst Farm. Halliwell explains this 
Word to mean a plat of ground, a small inclosure. On 
Pilgrim's Lodge Farm, in Titsey, is a field called the 
Hog Plecks. 

SANDEESTEAD FIELD. This may be, like the parish of 

1 Ante, p. 95. 

2 J. C. Hotten, History of Sign-boards, p. 57. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 187 

that name mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Charters, 1 the 
sandy place, or it is an owner's name Sanders'-stede. 
Sanders is not an uncommon name in the district. 

TOTFIELD, Brill's Farm. There are various places in 
the A.-S. Charters 2 with the prefix Tot ; e.g., Totenbergh, 
Totborough (Dorset) ; Totancumbe, Totcomb (Berks) ; 
Totham (Essex) ; Totleah, Totleigh (Wilts). Places called 
Tot-hill, Toot-hill, or Tooter-hill, says Taylor, 3 are very 
numerous, and may possibly have been seats of Celtic 
worship. Near Vachery, in Cranleigh, is a wood called 
Tothill Wood. Halliwell gives ' tot ' to mean a tuft or a 
bush. In the " Promptoriun Parvulorum " it is explained 
to mean land commanding a large prospect ; but in this 
instance it would not apply, as the land is flat and in 
the Weald. Totnes, co. Devon, stands on the slope of a 
hill above the river Dart, and takes its name probably 
from the same root. 

DENCHEE FIELD (id.). This name occurs in that of a 
field at Trevereux, Denshire Field, and on Stockenden 
Farm, and at Barrow Green, and on Cowsland Farm in 
Oxted, as also in Densher's Corner, Caterham. I find a 
William Drencher in a Court Roll of Limpsfield of 1582 ; 
so possibly it is an owner's name, though, as it occurs 
as the name of a single field on so many separate farms, 
it would seem more likely that it has some special 
meaning. 

BATTLE CROFT, Monk's Farm. These names are gene- 
rally considered to point to the scene of some encounter. 
Taylor 4 enumerates several which have been the fields of 
famous battles, but he remarks, at the same time, that 
local names often conserve the memory of forgotten 
contests of which no other memorial remains. This 
may be the case in the present instance. 

PIPER'S CEOPT (id.). This name occurs on Beddlestead 
Farm, Chelsham, Foyle Farm and Barrow Green Farm, 
Oxted Piper's Field. In the Extent of 8 Hen. VI. the 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 317. 

2 Id., Cart. 447, 1069, 1151, 685, 23, 460. 
8 Words and Places, p. 326. 

4 Id., pp. 299-305. 



188 SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

name of Thomas Pypherst occurs, and the name of Piper 
still remains in the district, so that possibly it is derived 
from that source. 

KETTLE-DRUM WOOD, Trevereux, recalls some event, 
the remembrance of which is now lost. 

GREAT GUN BUTTS, Tenchleys. The keeping up the 
' butts ' in a parish was the constant subject of inquiry 
at Courts Leet. In a Court Roll of Sanderstead, 37 Eliz., 
is a field called Le Butt ; a field in Titsey is mentioned 
in a Court Roll of 1655, called Butcroft, and in Caterham 
is a field called Butts Field. 

SLIPES (id.). The " Promptorium " gives 'slype' as 
identical with slime, mud ; so this is possibly the muddy 
ground. Slipe has another meaning given by Halliwell, 
namely, to uncover the roof of a building ; in which case 
it would be the place on which some old roofless build- 
ing stood. 

INGLBT, GREAT, FURTHER, and LITTLE INGLE Y LAND 
(id.). " Where ' ing ' forms the root of a word, it means 
a meadow," says Mr. Edmunds; 1 " e.g. Ingham, three 
places, Ing-grove (York)." In the A.-S. Charters 2 we 
find Ingham (Herts), and Ingethorp, Ingthorpe (Rut- 
land). It is somewhat of tautology to say Ingley. 

SYBBEACRE (Court Roll, 1582). < Sibbe ' or ' sib,' is 
A.-S. for goodwill, amity; and in the A.-S. Charters 3 
are three places with this derivative, Sibbe-stapele 
(Worces.), Sibbeslea, Sibbeswey (Hants). It may perhaps 
be explained to be land given as a peace-offering, or in 
token of goodwill. Mr. Edmunds 4 treats it as a man's 
name, ' Sib,' shortened from Sigbert, and cites Sibber- 
toft, Sibbertwold, Sibthorp, &c. 

HELLINGDENE (id.) is from the tribe or clan of the 
Hellingas, whom we find at Hellingly (Sussex) ; Helling- 
bury (Essex) ; Hellinghill (Northumberland) ; and in 
Hellingh, a place mentioned in the A.-S. Charters. 5 

1 Traces of History in Names of Places, p. 231. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 950, 984. 

3 Id., Cart. 209, 1094, 595. 

4 Traces of History in Names of Places, p. 282. 
& Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 809, 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 189 

ELGATE OAK, on Whitehouse Farm. Taylor 1 says, 
" we find the name of ^Elle at Elstead in Sussex, and 
Elstead in Surrey ; " and to this name, perhaps, the 
present word may be referred. 

The following, which I append, is a list of names still 
in use, but for which I can give no explanation : 

LONG QUAKERS, EOLLS ORCHARD, TOWREY FIELD (Brills). 

SAINS FIELD (Trevereux). 

UPPER, LOWER, and FURTHER DORRANTS (Stockenden). 

LANKEYS MEAD (Rocks). 

GUTTER LOGS (Redlane). 



T I T S E Y. 

TITSEY. A.-S. Charters, Tydiceseg; 3 Domesday, 
Ticesei ; Rental, 1402, Ticheseye ; Tyttesey and Tytsey, 
Court Rolls temp. Hen. VIII. The final syllable ' ea ' 
or ' eye ' is the Saxon for water, a termination which it 
derives from the stream which rises in the garden at 
Titsey Place, and which is one of the sources of the 
Medway. Mr. Lower 3 cites Titsey as an instance of 
the occurrence of ' Tit,' the legendary Saxon fairy, an 
explanation which would be satisfactory if Titsey were 
the ancient form of the word. Looking at the earliest 
spelling of the word, which in all cases must be the 
surest guide, I can only suppose that the first pos- 
sessor was one ' Tydic,' the regular genitive of which 
would be * Tydices,' and that Titsey, Tydiceseg, is 
Tydic's water. One is loth, of course, to disestablish 
the charming fairy and the poetical associations that 
surround her, and to set up in her place a plain prosaic 
Saxon owner, with a name so little euphonious as 
Tydic. 

PILGRIMS' LODGE. 4 This farm takes its name from its 

1 Words and Places, p. 311. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 492. 

3 Contributions to Literature, p. 29. 

4 See a notice of this farm, Historical Memorials of Canterbury, 
Appendix, note D, p. 258, 



190 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

situation on the Pilgrim's Way, and possibly in former 
times it was a halting-place on the road. Neither this 
name nor that of the Pilgrim's Way occurs in any of 
the old Deeds relating to the parish ; the latter, in a 
Court Eoll of 1667, is called Eastfield Lane ; and le Est- 
gate in a Roll of 22 Hen. VII. is perhaps the same, 
* gate ' being Saxon for a road. 

CHEVERILLS FARM. In an old Deed, Firma de Chi- 
valer ; Chivalers, Rental, 1402. The local pronunciation 
of Chifflers retains the meaning of the name, which has 
been lost in the modern spelling. It is derived from 
Chivaler, a knight, and doubtless constituted one of the 
two knight's fees of which the manor of Titsey con- 
sisted. There is a place of the same name in Wiltshire. 

BOTLEY HILL FARM. So called from its situation at the 
top of the hill of that name. In the Extent of Limps- 
field Manor, 5 Edw. II., Bottelegh is spoken of as a 
district, and the name of Roger de Botleye occurs. In 
that of 8 Hen. VI. some land is mentioned, called Botel- 
lond. In the Rental of Titsey, 1402, three crofts and two 
gardens, " apud Bottele," are spoken of. "Upon the hill 
of Bottelegh " occurs in a Deed of 47 Edw. III., relating 
to Oxted. From very early times, as appears by the 
Inquisition upon the death of Thomas de Ticheseye in 
1297, there was a capital messuage or manor-house at 
Titsey ; and as there is reason to suppose that this was 
close to the old church and at the foot of Botley Hill, 
I derive 'it from the A.-S. ' botl,' a house, the hill of the 
mansion-house. Botley is the name of a place in Hamp- 
shire, not far from Southampton. Camden, 1 quoted by 
Taylor, 2 mentions a hill in Chelsham called Botle or 
Battle Hill, with a Roman camp upon it ; but if ever 
there was a place of this name, it is not known now. 
Newbottle (Durham) and Bootle (Lancashire) are from 
this word ' botel,' a dwelling or mansion. 

KING'S BANK, the name for a part of this farm, on which 
is a field called King's Corner. In many cases, e.g. 
Kingston, this prefix denotes a royal residence ; but 

1 Cough's Camden, vol. i. p. 103. 

2 Words and Places, p. 204. 



SUEEBY ETYMOLOGIES. 191 

there are numerous instances in which the word occurs 
in the name of a field or wood, and possibly these were 
in ancient times royal hunting-grounds. The A.-S. 
Charters 1 are full of them. Cyngeswic, Kingswick 
(Sussex); Cyningesdun, Kingsdown (Kent); Kingeswudu, 
Kingswood (Somerset). In this neighbourhood we have 
King's Coppice, on Bolthurst Farm, Limpsfield ; Kings- 
wood, Sanderstead ; and Kingswood Warren, near 
Epsom ; King's Field and Shaw, on Upper Court Lodge 
Farm, Woldingham ; and Kingsland Farm, the name 
of a farm in Farley parish. Kingshold is the name of a 
part of Warlingham Common. 

LONESOME LODGE, another name for this farm, in 
allusion to its lonely situation, is of the same class as 
Cold Harbour, Mount Misery, &c. In addition to 
those already noticed, 2 I have met with a place 
called Hungry Bottom, near the Oaks, Banstead. A 
Court Roll of Limpsfield, of 1582, speaks of two acres 
of land near { Heaven,' called Bothelle Land. This is 
not the agreeable situation which might at first be sup- 
posed, but near Hungry Haven, the name of a field on 
this farm. 

PITCH FUNT, formerly a small farm, now some cottages 
and a homestead. It appears in the Rental of 1402 
as Pichesfunte ; in a Court Roll of 20 Hen. VII. as 
Pychezfount; and in 1391 as Pychefronte. The latter 
part of the word is from the fount, or spring, which 
rises at the foot of the hill near it. Mr. Edmunds 3 says 
that Pitch, Pytch, means a small hill ; and cites Pitchcot 
(Bucks), and Pytchley (Northants) ; but this will not 
suit the situation here. I am inclined to think that it 
is a contraction of Pightelles-funt, the spring by the 
* pightle,' as in the Rental of 1402 a ' pightell ' at 
Pichesfunte is spoken of. This word, before explained* 
to mean a small meadow, is met with in a Court Roll 
of Titsey of 15 Ric. II., where Robert Heyman is said 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 18, 1049, 408. 

2 Ante, p. 84. 

3 Traces of History in the Names of Places, p. 266. 

4 Ante, p. 81. 

VOL. VI. 



192 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

to hold c one Pightell ;' spoken of again in 1391 as ' le 
Pightell;' and in a Deed of 16 Eliz., relating to lands 
at Earlstonham, Suffolk, occurs "one pightell con- 
teyninge m acreware and in rodes of londe." Half-moon 
Pightle, in Caterham, an existing name, is the small 
inclosure attached to the Half-moon. Inn. 

BEOOMLANDS, the name of a farm. ' Brom,' the 
broom, is one of the commonest prefixes in local names ; 
it occurs in fourteen different places in the A.-S. Char- 
ters, and in many places besides, not mentioned there. 
The soil on a great part of the farm is of a light, sandy 
character, in which the broom would flourish. In a 
Rental of Titsey, 1402, is ' le Bromfeld,' still the name of 
a field on this farm, and land called the Roughebrom- 
feld and Bromfeldeshawe. In a Court Roll of Titsey, 
15 Ric. II., a place is mentioned called e le Brome,' 
which is probably the field in Chelsham, still so called. 
In a Court Roll of 4 Hen. IV. it is again mentioned as 
' Bromfeldeshawe ' and ' Bromfelde.' In the Extent 
of Broadham Manor, 8 Hen. VI., is a field called Brom- 
feld ; and on Kingsland Farm, in Farley, is a field of the 
same name. Broomhall Mead is a field in Caterham. 

WALKLANDS is a corruption of "Wakelin's-land. Thomas 
Wakelin appears as owner in 1768. 

BARTON SHAW, a small wood, now grubbed. This 
appears as ' le Bertones * in a Court Roll of Titsey of 
8 Hen. IV., and can be identified as the same spot by 
the mention of the stream flowing by it. On Titsey 
Court Farm is a field called Barton's Mead. " In many 
parts of England," says Taylor, 1 " the rickyard is called 
the * barton,' that is, the inclosure for the ' bear,' or 
crop, that the land yields." There are, he says, some 
sixty villages in England of this name. 

PITCHERS WOOD and PITCHERS CROFT. The latter is 
written, in a Deed of 1616, Pitcherst. The latter part 
is the ' hurst,' or wood ; the former * pit,' a pit. Pits- 
hurst would easily be corrupted into Pitchers. 

SOUTH GREEN (Court Roll, 1667), Suth Green (26 

1 Words and Places, p. 120. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 193 

Hen. VIII.) , locally pronounced Sow Green, and so 
written in a Court Roll of 1679. Formerly an open 
green, and so called from being at the southern part of 
the parish. South is frequently pronounced ' sow,' as 
in Sow-wester for Southwester. The Crook, a name of 
part of this green, appears probably in a Court Roll of 
1525, as * Crokedakar.' Crooksacre is the name of a 
field on Pilgrims' Lodge Farm, and Coney Crook and 
Crook Moon the names of two fields in Chelsham. 

LEMANSLAND, Lemaneslond (Rental, 1402), Lemandes- 
lond (Court Roll, 1525), has been already noticed under 
Limpsfield. 1 I refer to it here because in the latter 
Court Roll it is mentioned in proximity to " regia via 
inter Crokedakar et les quatuor acras," which would 
tend to strengthen the derivation suggested, viz., from 
' leman,' a road. 

GREAT and LITTLE TAGHURST. In the Rental of 1402, 
and a Court Roll of 15 Ric. II., occur Tigeresfelde and 
Tygeresmede; and in a Court Roll of 1391, Tigeres- 
londe. Teggers, mentioned in a Court Roll of 26 Hen. 
VIII., is doubtless the same place. Walter Tagge 
appears in a Roll of 1391 as a tenant of the manor, and 
therefore I have no doubt that the modern Taghurst is 
a corruption of Taggers, i.e. Tagge' s-land, and very 
possibly Tiger was another spelling of the same sur- 
name. 

SWARF MEAD is probably from ' sweard,' sward, or 
grass, to which root Mr. Edmunds 2 refers Swarderton 
(Norfolk), Swarraton (Hants), and Swerford (Oxford). 

BREWHOUSE, alias BREWER'S MEAD. It is possible that 
formerly there was a brewhouse here; it joins down 
to the stream ; so in Bletchingley, Brewers', alias Brew- 
house Street. 

LINCOLN'S MEAD. This is a possessor's name. Robert 
Lincolne is presented at a court, held 1 Hen. IV., for 
erecting a gate between the domain of Limpsfield and 
Titsey. A man of the same name appears in a Court 
Roll/27 Hen. VIII. 

1 Ante, p. 154. 

2 Traces of History in the Names of Places, p. 291. 

o 2 



194 SURBEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

MOUNT NODDY, the name of a field on Broomlands 
Farm, of one on Wet Wood Farm, Tatsfield, and also of 
one on Botley Hill Farm, called, in the latter instance, 
also Mount North, of which, perhaps, it is a corrup- 
tion. In both these cases it is high ground facing the 
north. 

WORMER'S CROFT. Wolmescroft (Rental, 1402) ; 
Wormescroft (Court Roll, 22 Hen. VII. and 24 Eliz.) ; 
Wormerscroft (id., 29 Hen. VIII.) ; Wolnes, 1578. In 
the Extent of Limpsfield, 8 Hen. VI., is a field of the 
same name, and also one in Oxted, mentioned in a 
Survey of 36 Eliz. I derive it from the A.-S. f wyrm,' 
* worm,' a worm, or any snake or reptile. Worms Heath, 
a common in Chelsham, is probably from the same 
source. In the A.-S. Charters l is a place called Wormes- 
leah-wel. 

BURNT OAKS, a field adjoining Titsey Wood, and 
possibly at one time forming part of it, recalls some con- 
flagration now forgotten. On the road between Sid- 
mouth and Sidbury, co. Devon, is a place of the same 
name. The Brenderede and Brendredone, mentioned 
in a Court Roll of Titsey of 15 Ric. II., are no doubt the 
clearance made by burning. In Caterham is a field 
called Burntwood. Burntwood is a parish in Lichfield, 
and Brentwood (Essex) is possibly synonymous. Burnt 
Stump is the name of a field on Scott's Hall Farm, 
Chelsham. 

BANISTER'S PIECE is an owner's name. Richard Ban- 
ister is one of the jurors at a court held 26 Hen. VIII. 

DOD'S MEAD, Dod's Lane, are the like. William Dodd 
appears on the same roll, and the name is found in this 
parish in 1727. 

STRATTON'S MEAD, the like. There is a stone in the 
churchyard to one of that name, who died in 1773. 

BRAMLEY WOLF, Great and Little, the names of two 
meadows, and a small shaw, may possibly date from the 
time when wolves infested the large woods in the district. 
It seems difficult in any other way to account for the 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 406. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 195 

word. The wolf has left his name in numerous places ; 
e.g., Wolfridge (Somerset), Wulfhill (Wilts), &c. 

POP-GUN FIELD and SHAW recall, perhaps, the bar- 
barous times, not long ago, when man-traps and spring- 
guns were set for trespassers. 

FLAX MEAD records, I suppose, the cultivation of flax, 
which was formerly, and still continues to be, grown in 
parts of England. Leo derives such places as Linleah, 
Lincumb, Linland, Lintun, from ' lin,' flax. 1 

DUTNALLS, the name of a shaw in the park, now 
grubbed, is probably an owner's name, though the name 
does not appear. Darknoll was the name of a rector 
of Titsey in the 17th century, and possibly it may be for 
Darknolls. Durtnall is a name in the neighbourhood. 

CHURCH WOOD, the name of a wood on Pilgrim's 
Lodge Farm. It is not in proximity to the present, nor 
was it near the ancient church ; neither is there any 
reason for supposing that it was ever church property. 
The legend in the parish, continued to the present time, 
is that an attempt was made to build a church at this 
place, but that what was built by day was pulled down 
by the evil spirits at night. 2 This was told me by an 
old inhabitant of the place, who stated that his father 
had come across foundations in ploughing in the field 
adjoining. The truth of this latter assertion I have not 
been able to verify; but it is difficult to account for the 
name unless we believe so much of the legend as would 
imply either an existing or contemplated church at this 
spot. The Saxon Church mentioned in Domesday Book 
may have been here, or a church may have been com- 
menced at this place, and for some reason abandoned. 

HORSLEY MEAD, so called from the horse. In this 
field there is a stone just showing above the ground, 
which a former tenant of the land endeavoured to move. 

1 The proximity of this field to the Roman villa might suggest a 
plausible derivation from Flaccus, quasi terra Flacci. 

2 In Notes and Queries, 4th S. xii. 245, an almost identical legend is 
related of St. Matthew's Church, Walsall. Similar traditions exist as 
to Win-wick Church, Lancashire, and Little Marlow Church, Bucks. 
(Notes and Queries, vol. v. and 4th S. xii. 295.) 



196 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

He employed eight horses to no purpose, and desisted 
from the attempt. It is probable that this stone is a 
Saxon ' mere,' or boundary-stone. Other instances of 
the prefix horse are Horscrofts, Limpsfield (Extent, 
5 Edw. II. and Henry VI.).; Horscroft, Tatsfield 
(Rental, 1402 and 1571) ; Great and Little Horsley 
Down, in Chelsham ; Horsley, Surrey ; and Horseleah, 
now Hursley, Hants. Horsleah and Horsleahden are 
instances of the same name from the A.-S. Charters. 1 

GREEN WAMP, alias THE WAMPS, a field on Pilgrim's 
Lodge Farm, for which I can suggest no derivation. 
On Red House Farm, in Tatsfield, are two fields called 
Great and Little Wampy Isles. 

LEIGH'S CROFT, from a former owner. William Leigh 
appears on the Court Rolls as a tenant. "William 
Leigh, an auntient housekeeper, buried Oct. 1627 >; 
(Titsey Par. Register). 

CULVER'S FIELD (Court Roll, 1655). 'Culfre,' or 
'culufre,' is A.-S. for a dove, and the wood-pigeon, 
says Halliwell, 2 is still called a culver in Devonshire. 
In the A.-S. Charters is a place written Culfranmere, 
now Culvermere (Worces.), and on Doghurst Farm, 
Limpsfield, are two fields called Great and Little Culvers. 

GREAT and LITTLE VARNAGE (Deed, 1697) ; Farnehegge 
(1521). The early spelling explains the word as meaning 
the * fearn,' ' hege,' or hedge or inclosure, where the fern 
grew. In an old deed the word is corrupted into Barnish. 
In the Rental of 1402 is a field called * le Fernecroft.' 

WHITE DEAN (Rental, 1402), the white valley, from 
the chalky nature of the soil. On Cheverell's Farm is a 
field called White Bottom, and on the Lower Court 
Lodge Farm, Woldingham, one called White Banks ; as 
also on Ledger's Farm, Chelsham. White Leaf is a name 
in Warlingham. In a Court Roll of Warlingham, 20 Eliz., 
a messuage and 32 acres of land are mentioned, called 
* Whitmylke and Egge.' So the White Lane is the lane 
leading up the Chalk Hill in Titsey. 

PHILIPSTHORN, Philippsheld (Court Roll, 15 Ric. II.) ; 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 317, 958, 180, 896, 1235. 

2 Diet, of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 197 

Jack's Croft, Jakyshaghe, Jakislond (Court Roll, 391) ; 
Jakkeshawe (Court Roll, 15 Ric. II., and Rental, 1402). 
Adam's Croft is a cluster of names all together, called 
from the Christian names of former owners, a custom 
somewhat uncommon. Jack's Bridge is the name of a 
bridge over the river in Lingfield, and in Tatsfield, 
Alissefeld occurs in a Rental of 1402, Alisecroft in one 
of 1561, and Alice Dean, on Cheverell's Farm, in 1616. 

NAPKIN'S GREEN, a possessor's name. "William Nap- 
kin appears in the Parish Register of Titsey in 1616. 

UPPER and LOWER LADY LANDS. This name, possibly 
commemorative of ' Our Lady,' has been noticed before. 1 
A close near the old Manor-house at Titsey was called 
Lady's Mead. 

PARK LANE, the name of the road leading from 
Botley Hill to Woldingham, ran by the old Park of 
Titsey Place, which tradition says extended into Chel- 
sham. So Park Field, adjoining, called le Parkfelde 
in a Court Roll of 10 Hen. IY. ; Parkgatmede, Rental, 
1402, the meadow by the park gate. 

GREEN HILL, the name of a wood on Botley Hill Farm, 
and a common name. Afield on Tatsfield Park Farm 
and a meadow on Broomland's Farm are so called, and 
the field immediately at the back of Titsey Church (Court 
Roll, 1667). In the A.-S. Charters 2 is a place called 
Grenhill ; Green Street Green, two places in Kent. 

HARTUM'S CROSSE records another of the wayside 
crosses. In a Court Roll of Oxted, 4 Hen. VIII., the 
Prior of Tandridge is presented for an encroachment, 
"in eo quod posuit crucem infra dominium istud." 

HOGGETY HOLE, the name of two of the steepest 
hollows in Titsey Plantation, is possibly a corruption of 
Hoc-gate, the gate in the hoc or corner, or it may be 
connected with hogget, the name for a yearling sheep. 
On Sline's Farm, Chelsham, is a place called Hoggart's 
Hole; and in the A.-S. Charters 3 is a place called 
' Hocgetwisle.' 

1 Ante, p. 98. 

2 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 461. 

3 Id., Cart. 688. 



198 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

COLD HARBOUR. I append the height of various Cold 
Harbours in this and the adjoining counties, taken 
from the last Ordnance Survey, 1 as tending to confirm 
the supposition that they are generally, though not uni- 
versally, so called from their high and exposed situation. 

Cold Harbour, Titsey, height above sea-level 847*3 ft. 
Id.,Bletchingley,400. M,Lmgfield,157'2. Id.,Croydon, 
160. Id., Camberwell, 42. Id., Chobham, 193'4. Id., 
Cranleigh, 199. Id., Ewell, 1727. Id., Dorking, 745. 
Id., Kingston, 28. Id., Wisley, 100. Surrey. Id., Iden, 
Sussex, 37. Id., Penshurst, 300. Id., Brenchley, 234. 
Id., Tonbridge, 224. Id., Bridge, 229. Ditton, 38. Isle 
of Grain, 16. Hoo, 104. I wade, 15. Lamberhurst, 200. 
Maidstone, 200. Stansted, 600. Wye, 360. Kent. 

The following are names from the old Court Rolls, 
and from a Rental of 1402, which are no longer in 
use : 

BEUEEE DE TICHESEY (Court Roll, 1391), Titsey Heath : 
* bruere ' is the old Norman-French for heath. This name 
is now changed into Titsey Bushes, but is no longer 
common land. 

BYSOLOWESBEOKE (Court Roll, 26 Hen. VIII.), the name 
of the stream at the point where the parishes of Limps- 
field and Titsey meet. I can give no explanation of the 
word. 

BEOCHEFYLD (Court Roll, 29 Hen. VIII.) is another 
instance of the word ( bracha,' a fallow, noticed before 
under Home. 2 In a Rental of Tatsfield, 1561, two fields 
are mentioned, called Great and Little Breachelond, and 
in Chelsham are fields called Breach Crook and Lower 
and Middle Breach. Le Broach occurs in a Court Roll 
of Chelsham, 42 Eliz., and the Breeches Field is the 
name of a field on Doghurst Farm, Limpsfield. 

1 These details have been furnished me by the kindness of Col. 
Cameron, C.B., to whom. I am indebted for supplying me with many 
additions to my list of Cold Harbours. In addition to these is a Cold 
Harbour Lane, leading from Bessels Green to Montreal Park, Kent; I 
have lately met with a Cold Harbour Farm at Newton St. Gyres, co. 
Devon, and one at Hollowcombe Moor, near Chulmleigh, in the same 
county. There is also a Cold Harbour near Glastonbury. 

3 Ante, part i. p. 8. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

BURLESDOTTNE (Court Roll, 15 Ric. II., and Rental, 1402) ; 
in the Extent of Limpsfield, 8 Hen. VI., Berle. In Chel 
sham is a wood called Burley Grove. Bosworth l gives 
'byrl,' or 'burl,' as A.-S. for a butler or steward; but 
this derivation does not seein probable. I think it not 
impossible that it is a contraction of Birielles Dun, the 
hill of the burial-place. This word beryel is, as pointed 
out in the "Promptorium Parvulorum," in its more an- 
cient sense, the place, and not the act of burial ; it often 
occurs in the Wicliffite version of the Bible in this sense. 
If there were any known barrows on these hills, that 
fact would greatly strengthen this supposition, but in 
the Rental of 1402, in close contiguity with Burlesdoune, 
a place is mentioned, * quondam Canapes,' and in the 
Survey of Oxted, of 1577, the boundary is said to run 
to the lands of Mr. Udall, called Campis ; this place being 
on the adjoining hills in the parish of Woldingham. On 
the Upper Court Lodge Farm there, two fibulae, 2 arrow- 
heads, and celts have been found, clearly indicating 
some barrow there, the existence of which is confirmed 
by the names of two fields, the Great and Little Barrow 
Leys. 

BERNE (Rental, 1402) ; Bernehagh (Extent of Limps- 
field, 8 Hen. VI.) ; John atte Berne, Stephen atte 
Berne (Court Roll, 15 Ric. II.). In the A.-S. Charters 3 
are places called Berne and Bernewell, now Barnwell 
St. Andrew's, Northants. ' Berne,' f bere-8Drn,' is A.-S. for 
a barn, i. e. the ' aern,' or place of the ' bere ' or corn, 
from which root Mr. Salmon derives the name of Barnes. 
Barn Field is a most common name. The greater part of 
this hill land seems to have been down. In the Rental of 
Oxted, 19 Eliz., Mr. Udal is charged for his hilly and 
downe land, and in the early Court Rolls of Titsey we 
meet with Longedowne, Lytelldowne, Lusteddowne, &c. ; 
on Upper Court Lodge Farm, Woldingham, Great and 
Little Down, Great and Little Farthing Down. 

1 Anglo-Saxon Diet., in verbo. 

2 Engraved in Manning and Bray's Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 420. 
See also p. 416. 

3 Kemble, Codex Diplomat*, Cart. 1127, 984. 



200 StfRREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

CARPENTERS, formerly a copyhold, and constantly 
mentioned in the Court Rolls, is a possessor's name. 
Richard Carpenter appears as a tenant in the Rental of 
1402. 

CLAPSHO, " a meadow called Clapsho " (Court Roll, 
15 Ric. II.), mentioned also in the Rental of 1402. I 
can suggest no derivation for it. 

CAVERSFIELD (Court Roll, 35 Hen. VIII.). Bosworth 
explains Cafertun as an inclosure before a house. Mr. 
Edmunds 1 makes Caver synonymous with 'gafr,' a 
goat, and cites Caversham, Kent, &c. Caversham is also 
the name of a place near Reading. 

COPPEDHAWE (Rental, 1402), the haugh or high 
ground at the cop or cap, the summit of the hill. In 
Chelsham is a field called Coppendree (Court Roll, 39 Eliz.). 
Copthorn is a place below Home, and the Hundred 
of Copthorne is that which includes Banstead, Epsom, 
&c. Manning 3 says of the hundred, " that it received 
its name probably from some thorn, remarkable for the 
size of its head, or its situation on some considerable 
eminence, both which are expressed in the Saxon word 
* cop ' or ' cope.' ' Le-Hawe is the name of a field in 
Titsey, mentioned in this Rental and in a Court Roll of 
1402. 

ERLSGARDYN LE (Rental, 1402). The De Clares, 
Earls of Gloucester, were Lords of the Manor at this 
time. In 24 Edw. I., 1296, it was found that Earl 
Gilbert died seized of a manor in Tichesey, a capital 
messuage, ' gardens,' &c. This doubtless was the gar- 
den attached to the chief house. 

FRENCHEVILES (id.), apparently a Norman-French 
name, but its origin or meaning is not clear. In War- 
lingham is a place called Frenches (Court Roll, 1 Mary), 
and the termination occurs in Moreviles, a place men- 
tioned in the Rental of Tatsfield, 1561. 

HYCKELINGHOLE (Court Roll, 6 Hen. IV.), HYKKESCROPT 
(id., 21 Hen. VII.). The Hicelingas is one of the tribal 

1 Traces of History in the Names of Places, p. 186. 

2 Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 580. 



StTEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 201 

names given by Kemble. 1 Hickling is a place in Norfolk 
mentioned in the A.-S. Charters. 2 Mr. Edmunds' 3 deri- 
vation from ' Hicks,' a personal name, and lenland, corn- 
land, seems very improbable. 

JOYNOTOEESLAND (Court Roll, 15 Ric. II.), land charged 
with a widow's portion, or assigned to her in jointure. 
In 1314 we find that ten marcs were paid out of the 
manor of Titsey and that of Ashmere, co. Dorset, to 
Biblisse, late wife of Hamo de Yaloines, for her thirds in 
the same. 4 This may possibly have been the very land 
so charged. 

LA LYNOHE (Court Roll, 15 Rich. II., and Rental, 
1402). In Chelsham are two fields, called Linch and 
Linch Bottom. Halliwell explains the word, in Kentish 
dialect, to mean " A balk of land, any bank or boundary 
for the division of land. Also called lincher and linchet. " 
I have never heard the word used in this district. 

LYTYLWOWES (Court Roll, 20 Hen. VII.), a croft called 
Lytylwowes. "Wo we is given by Halliwell, and also in the 
" Promptorium," as A.-S. for a wall. The former quotes 
from Gower, MS. Bodleian 294. 

" That ther was nothing hem bitweene 
But wow to wow and wal to wal." 

MEEWYNESLOND, Merwynescroft (Court Roll, 15 Ric. II. 
and Rental, 1402). From Merewin or Mervyn, the name 
of some owner. 

MOBYNGES and MOBYNGESOBOFTES (Court Roll, 4 Hen. 
IV. and 20 Hen. VII.), are possessors' names. William 
Moryng appears in the Rental of 1402. 

MAENESLOND (Court Roll, 1391). Marn is another 
form of f morn,' A.-S., morning ; but its meaning in con- 
nection with land it is difficult to see. 

NOLAND (Court Roll, 15 Ric. II.); Nomansland (Court 
Roll, 20 Hen. VII. and 27 Hen. VIII.) ; Nomanshoke 

1 Saxons in England, vol. i. p. 452. 

2 Codex Diplomat., Cart. 971. 

3 Traces of History, p. 226 = 

4 Escheat, 8 Edw. II., No. 68. 



202 StfRRDY ETYMOLOGIES. 

(Court Roll, 1525). This name has been noticed before. 1 
Mr. Edmunds 2 explains it to mean a settlement, or 
clearance on a waste, and refers to the name in Berk- 
shire and other counties. I incline to the opinion, before 
expressed, that it is a piece of debatable ground, not 
ascertained to belong to one parish or another. In this 
case it was land on the border of Limpsfield. On the 
Lower Court Lodge Farm, Woldingham, are two fields, 
called ISTomans and 20-acre Nomans, and in Warlingham 
one called Nomans-bush. 

PRIOR'S CROFT (Court Roll, 1623 and 1715). There 
was no land in this parish which belonged to any priory, 
and I cannot explain how this field came to have the 
name. 

POTEKYNSCROFT (Rental, 1402) ? 

RERDHDLL (id.) ? 

SOULEMEADE, SoULECROFTE (Court Roll, 15 RlC. II.). 

Mr. Edmunds 3 would derive places with this prefix from 
' salh,' a willow, and cites Soulbury (Bucks), Souldern 
(Oxford). These two fields are described as ' subtus 
montem,' under the hill, and may have been near the 
brook. 

SHILCROFT (Court Roll, 22 Hen. VII.) is a contraction, 
I believe, of Shulleyescroft, which appears in the Rental 
of 1402, and is a possessor's name. 

TRENCHEMLEZ (Court Roll, 15 Ric. II.) ? 

WIPUTTESFELDE (Court Roll, 15 Ric. II., and Rental, 
1402) ? 

WICHERES LU (Court Roll, 15 Ric. II.) ? 

WHYPELLESDEN (Court Roll, 20 Hen. VII.). Possibly 
for Wiflesden, on which Mr. Lower 4 remarks : " "We 
cannot agree with Dr. Leo in assigning the numerous 
names in the charters, beginning with 'wifl,' to the 
weevil (curculio granarius) of our barns. It is doubtless 
the name of an early proprietor." 

YERLESHAWE (Court Roll, 20 Hen. VII.), "lhawy 

1 Ante, p. 82. 

2 Traces of Hist, in the Names of Places, p. 257. 

3 Id., p. 286. 

4 Contributions to Literature, p. 32. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 203 

apud Yerleshawe." I can find no such word as e yerl ; ' it 
is possibly the Earl's Hawe, the 'y' being an inter- 
polation. 



TATSFIELD. 

TATSFIELD. Domesday Survey, Tatelefelle ; Deed, 
1367, Tatlesfelde, Tatlefelde; Rental, 5 Eliz., Tattisfeild; 
1639, Tatsfield. Mr. Edmunds 1 cites Tatsfield, amongst 
other places, which he says are derived from * teothen,' a 
tenth or tithing, i.e. a group of ten farms. I am not at 
all disposed to adopt this derivation, because, in the 
first place, I doubt whether it would be an accurate 
description of all or any of the places he enumerates, 
and, in the second place, no one parish more than 
another would constitute a tithing. A tithing was a 
subdivision of a hundred, consisting originally, no doubt, 
of ten families, with an officer or tithing-man for each 
tithing, and subsequently representing a territorial 
division. Looking at the fact that the Church is placed 
on the crest of the hill, that the old Manor-house, pulled 
down about the end of the last century, and the Rectory, 
were all grouped together near the same spot ; that the 
early settlement was evidently on the hill, and that this 
hill, commanding a most extensive view over the sur- 
rounding country on every side, is pre-eminently a tote- 
hylle, or look-out place, I suggest as the derivation 
' Totehylle-felde.' I am aware that the first vowel is 
always ' a,' not ' o ; ' but the transcriber of Domesday 
might easily have altered Tothillfelde into Tatelefelle ; at 
any rate, the change is not impossible. Mr. Albert "Way 
has a long and interesting note on the word Totehylle in 
the " Promptorium Parvulorum." The A.-S. c totian,' to 
stand up like a horn, is said to be the root of the word ; 
to { tote,' in old English, signifying to look out. I have 
noticed the word under Totfield, on Brill's Farm, in 
Limpsfield. No other interpretation suggests itself, 

1 Traces of History, p. 294. 



204 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

unless to class it with the numerous possessors' names ; 
but besides Tatele not having the appearance of a Saxon 
owner's name, the earliest form of the word, i.e. in 
Domesday Survey, has no possessive ' s.' 

WESTMOEE GEEEN, a Common. It is probably the 
place mentioned in two of the A.-S. Charters 1 as ' West- 
mearc,' as it occurs in close proximity to Bipplestyde, 
i. e. Beddlested, a place not far distant. It lies very 
near the boundary of Kent and Surrey, and, assuming 
that what is now cultivated land was formerly part of 
the waste, it would denote the boundary-mark at the 
western extremity of Kent, just as Westerham, the 
adjoining parish, is the westernmost village. 

CLACKET, CLACKET GEEEN, a corruption of Clay-gate or 
the Clay-road. An old line of road runs in the direction 
of "Westerham, well-nigh impassable in winter from the 
clayey nature of the soil. In a Court Boll of 1641 it is 
called Cleygate, and in the Eental of 1402, among the 
tenants of the adjoining manor of Titsey, appears Gilbert 
atte Cleygate. In the A.-S. Charters 2 is a place called 
Cleygat, Clagget (Wilts), and Cleigat, not identified, 
somewhere, probably, in Essex. Cleygate, written in 
Domesday Survey Claigate, is a manor in Thames Ditton. 

SALCOTTS, alias CALCOTTS, once (says Manning) a 
capital mansion, has now been corrupted into Colegates, 
or Cold Court. The first name is probably from Sele- 
court, the court of the mansion; the second is syno- 
nymous with its present name of Cold Court, an 
appellation abundantly justified by its situation. It 
appears as Colegates in 1561. 

GODDAEDS (Rental, 1561). In the Rental of 1402, 
Walter Godard appears as tenant of a messuage and 
24 acres, called Nobrighte's tenement ; and this was the 
ancient name of this farm. John Godard is also men- 
tioned in the same Rental. 

TATSFIELD PAEK, the name of a farm, and also of a 
wood, occurs in the Rental of 1402, where Thomas 
Oberd is charged "pro pastura parci de Tattelesfelde." 

1 Kemble, Codex, Cart. 287, 657. 

2 Id., 460, 824. 



SURBEY ETYMOLOGIES. 205 

It is another of the many parks we find in the district. 
Compare Old Park, the name of a wood in Caterham. 

LUSTED, a farm, of which the house and buildings are 
in Kent, but some of the land in this parish ; mentioned 
in the Eental of 1402 as Lovestedesdoune ; Lousted- 
doune (Eental, 1561). It is one of the names of good 
omen, such as Lovekyneslond, mentioned before. 

WET WOOD, now changed to West Wood, is, as its 
name implies, very wet land. It is written Whetwood, 
and Whetwood gille in the Eental of 1561. There was 
formerly much more woodland on this farm. 

LUDBUEYS, Great and Little Ludburye (Eental, 1561), 
Ludberries (Court Eoll, 1641), is an owner's name. In 
the Eental of 1402 John Lottebury appears, some 
denizen of Lothbury, in London, who owned this land. 

THE THEIFT, the name of a sandy warren, now a 
larch plantation. It occurs in the Eental of 1561 as 
' Frethe,' and, in a Deed of 1643, as the Frith. In Farley 
is a wood called Frith Wood ; in Lingfield a farm called 
Frith Farm ; in Warlingham a field called Thrift Field ; 
and in the Eental of Titsey, 1402, a place called Oxene- 
frith. Leo 1 says, "I am uncertain how to explain this 
word with precision. We have the choice of referring 
it to the German ' farh,' porcus ; to the Anglo-Saxon 
' fearh,' porcellus, or to f furh,' a furrow. It either 
denotes woodland yielding mast for swine, or, again 
(and it is in every respect the most probable), it relates 
to c furh,' furrow, and signifies a break in a forest, or a 
clear place, in or near a wood surrounded by a fosse or 
furrow. The Welsh word Fridd, or Frith, denotes a 
forest, a plantation, a tract of ground inclosed from the 
mountains, a sheep-walk." Kemble 2 cites Charter 207, 
a charter of Coennulf, 814 A.D., in which the word 
occurs as ' firhde,' and 595, one of Eadgar, 976 A.D., in 
which it is written ' fyrhfte.' He says, " In the district 
of Craven, frith is used for a forest plantation or wood- 
land, a tract inclosed from the mountain." Halliwell 3 

1 Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 67. 

2 Codex Diplomat., vol. iii. cart. xxv. 

3 Diet, of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 



206 SUBfiEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

says " a hedge or coppice." " The fels are understood 
the mountains, vallyes, and pastures with corne ; the 
frythes betoken the springs and coppyses." (George 
Turberville, " The Bookes of Venerie," p. 114 (1575).) 
Drayton defines it as a high wood. Some writers ex- 
plain it to mean all hedge-wood except thorns, a sense 
still used in the provinces, and it occurs in the local 
glossaries with the following meanings: Unused pasture- 
land ; a field taken from a wood ; young underwood ; 
brushwood. Many woods in Kent are still called Friths. 
In one of the charters 1 is a place called FyrSestrget. 
Frith or ' writh ' is given in a Vocabulary of Provincial 
Words in Devonshire as meaning t underwood.' 

ROWTIE, the name of a wood. It has been noticed 
under Bletchingley. 2 I mention it again to instance a 
field of the same name in Caterham. Roughheath is a 
name occurring in the Rental of 1561, as also a field 
called Eowfield. 

CUSITTS, alias CUPIDS, alias KIPPERS COPSE, CUPID 
MEAD. Possibly an owner's name, though no name of 
the kind appears in any of the early Deeds. 

CRUNDEL. Crundales (Rental, 1402) ; Grundalls (1561). 
This word occurs in thirteen of the A.-S. Charters. 
Kemble 3 says : " This obscure word seems to denote 
a sort of watercourse, a meadow through which a stream 
flows." Leo 4 says : "A crundel or crundwel is a spring 
or well, with its cistern, trough, or reservoir, to receive 
the water." There are two fields, called the East and 
West Well Field, which in all probability mark the site 
of the old name of Crundwel. 5 

DORE FIELD. Upper and Lower Dore Field ; Dore 
Wood, on Lusted Farm, mentioned in the Rental of 
1402 ; Darefeild (Rental, 1561). From the A.-S. 

1 Kemble, Codex, Cart. 1368. 

2 Ante, p. 85. 

3 Codex, vol. iii. p. 21. 

4 Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 95. 

5 In "Memorials of a Quiet Life," vol. i. p. 285, Mr. Hare speaks of 
Anna's ' Crumble ' as one of the ancient boundaries of Alton parish ; 
" Crumble," he says, "being a small round pool for beasts to drink out 
of." The word ' crundel ' is clearly intended here. 



SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 207 

' dor,' which, as Kemble l explains, is not a door, but a 
gate. 

EYSTED LANE, EYLANDS, RYECROFT. This name is applied 
to the road leading from Westerham over the ridge of 
the hill. I derive it, as Reigate, from c rige,' a ridge ; 
the Rysted being the homestead on the hill, and Rylands, 
a name still in use, is that of a field adjoining it. Rye- 
croft and Ryefeilde, in the Rental of 1561, may be from 
f rye,' the corn. The latter was in the lower part of the 
parish. Little and Lower Rickets Hill on Cold Court 
Farm, are connected with the same word ' hrycg,' or 
' hric,' a ridge, and possibly Rag Hill, on Tatsfield Park 
Farm. 

POULTER'S FIELD, GREAT and LITTLE, on Cold Court 
Farm. Poulter is a poulterer. This form of the word, 
says Halliwell, occurs in Hollyband's Dictionaire, 
1593. The rearing of poultry is attested by the nume- 
rous places into which the prefix cock and hen enter. 

NONSUCH FIELD, one of the names of good omen, in 
contradistinction to such names as Barebarn Bottom, in 
Warlingham. Hoefhagle's print of Nonsuch Palace, 
near Cheam, dated 1582, defines it as " Hoc est, nusquam 
simile." Nonsuch is a field-name in the parish of Kird- 
ford, Sussex. 

LITTLE CHURCH BRAKE, a field on Lusted Farm. 
Kennett, MS. Lansdowne, defines brake as a small plat 
or parcel of bushes growing by themselves. In Palmer's 
" Devonshire Glossary" it is explained as " spinetum, a 
bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood." A 
place near Broadway, co. Worcester, filled with haw- 
thorn bushes and short underwood, is still called the 
Brakes. 2 Why called Church Brake I cannot say, as it is 
not anywhere near the church. Chessebrake is the name 
of a field, from the Rental of 1561. 

HEYS, UPPER HEYS, the name of a farm, is from ' haga,' 
a hedge or inclosure. Simon atte Hacche occurs in 
the Rental of 1402. " A haigh, or hay," says Taylor, 3 

1 Codex, vol. iii. part xxiii. 

2 Halliwell, Diet, of Archaic and Provincial Words, in verbo. 

3 Words and Places, p. 122. 
VOL. VI. P 



208 SUBUEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

" is a place surrounded by a hedge, and appears to liave 
been usually an inclosure for the purposes of the chase. 
We find it in Haye Park, at Knaresborough, and Horse- 
hay, near Colebrook Dale." Hayes, near Bromley, in 
Kent, is probably from the same root. 

BARROWS LAND, a field on Tatsfield Court, on the 
side hill ; whether so called originally from any barrow 
cannot now be ascertained. On Chelsham Court Farm 
is a field called Barrows Blocks. These names may be 
from ' bearo ' or ' beru,' the land producing mast for 
swine. 

ALLENSFIELD (Red-house Farm) occurs in the Rental of 
1402 as Alayneslond. It may be from Alan Lambard, 
whom we find as a trustee of the manor in 1367, and 
who has left his name in Lambardescrofte, mentioned in 
the Rentals of 1402 and 1561. 

The following names are from the Rentals of 1402 
and 1561, and from Court Rolls : 

CODECROFT (1561) ? Conf. Codestone. 

CLA.PFIELD GROVE (id.), possibly an owner's name, 
Clappa, as in Clapham, Surrey, and Beds. " Firma de 
Clappefeldes," Rental, 1402. Conf. Clapsho, Titsey, 1402. 

CAPLINS HARTH or HEATH (id,), probably from ' Capel- 
lanus,' a word used formerly, not in the restricted sense 
now applied to chaplain, but for the person who served 
a church. 

DRAPERESCROPT (1402), DRAPERSCROFT (1561), a pos- 
sessor's name. 

DOUSECROFT (id.) ? 

HEVEDLONDS (id.), A.-S. 'heafod,' a head. Heved- 
lond is given by Halliwell from the Arundel MS. as a 
headland. The name is a very common field-name : in 
Titsey we find Upper and Lower Headlands Nick. 

HONGGYNGEFELDE (Rental, 1402 and 1561) is the field 
on the slope or hanging of the hill. The Hanging 
Woods and Hangers are constantly met with in the hill 
district. 

HAGGESCROFTE (1402), HAGGERSCROFTE (1561) ? 

HAMERESHAWE (id.). ' Hamer ' is A.-S. for a hammer, 
but it is difficult to attach any meaning to it in con- 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 209 

nection with the name of a place. Haw appears in a 
field called Hawdene (Rental, 1561). 

KYSETTESLOND (1402), KISSETESMBAD and GROVE (1561) ? 

LITHING (1561). " A croft of land called Lithing " ? 

SWONESCROITE (1561). John, Henry, and Thomas 
Swone appear as tenants in the Rental of 1402. 

STAARLESTEMENT(1402), STARELESTENEMENT(1561). Stare 

is given by Halliwell and in the " Promp. Parv." as sedge- 
grass. This may, therefore, mean the sedge-grass 
meadow. The word is not used in this sense in the dis- 
trict at the present time. 

WODEWEDEELE (1402), WiDOWDELE (1561). Wodewe 
is given by Halliwell as an old form of the word widow. 
This, therefore, is the Widow Dale's Land. Geoffrey 
Dale appears in the Kental of Titsey of 1402 as a tenant 
of land called Daaleslond. 



FARLEY. 

FARLEY. Charter of Duke Alfred, 871-889, Fearn- 
lege ; l Domesday Survey, Ferlega; Deed, 1279, Farne- 
legh. It is the Fearn-lea or Ferny-lea. Ferny Field is 
the name of a field in the parish. There are no less than 
eight places in the A.-S. Charters called Farnleah, in 
Dorset, Hants, Kent, Surrey, Somerset, Staffordshire, 
Worcestershire, and one not identified ; besides numerous 
other places which have the same prefix. 

CLIPPERS FIELD. Mr. Edmunds 2 gives Clippes and Clips 
as an owner's name, and cites Clippersby and Clipston. 
Clipper, says Halliwell, is a north country word for a 
sheep-shearer. 

FLOOD FIELD, FLOOD SHAW. This must record some 
sudden flooding by a heavy storm, for Farley being a 
parish on the hill, there is no river or stream. 

HATOHINGTON BOTTOM, Hatchington Shaw, on Adding- 
ton Lodge Farm. This is apparently a tribal name. 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 317. 

2 Traces of History in the Names of Places, p. 189. 

p 2 



210 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

Kemble 1 gives the Haecingas, whom we find at Hack- 
ington, in Kent. 

FRULAND WOOD is, I think, from the Saxon * freo,' free, 
the free land. 

HAG CROFT is probably from * haga,' a hedge, the croft 
inclosed by a hedge. On the Manor Farm are fields called 
Lower and Upper Haglers, possibly from ' haga-lea,' the 
meadow inclosed by a hedge. 

WITTLY CLOSE. There are two fields of this name, one 
on Little Farleigh Farm, the other on the Manor Farm ; 
it is from the A.-S. ' wset,' wet ; hence Witley, in Surrey, 
and other places of the same name. 2 

LITTLE NOCK SHAW. ' Nok,' or c noke,' is a nook or 
corner. It is also used for ' oak,' as in the lines quoted 
by Halliwell : 

" Ther may no man stonde hys stroke, 
Thogh he were as stronge as an ' noke.' " 

MS. Cantab. 

Knockholt, otherwise written Ockholt, is probably from 
one of these two roots. 

FARLEY PARK, now a wood, is another instance of the 
park which formerly existed in almost every manor. 
Manning 3 tells us that in 7 Edw. I., 1279, the master 
and scholars of Merton claimed a park in Farnelegh from 
the Conquest, and in a note he adds, this must mean that 
it was an ancient park, for the " master and scholars had 
been possessed of it but a few years." 

HAWK'S. HILL. In the A.-S. Charters 4 is a place, Hafoc- 
hyl, now Hawkhill (Somerset), and no less than twenty- 
six places occur with the same prefix. South Hawke Lane 
occurs in Woldingham. The Domesday Survey of Limps- 
field mentions three hawks' nests in the wood. 

IVY DEAN is probably a corruption of Iwes-dean, the 
Yew-tree Dean. There are numerous fields called Yew- 
tree Field, and lines of these trees in the hedgerows are 

1 Saxons in England, vol. i. p. 465. 

2 Mr. Edmunds (Traces of History, p. 315) derives these places from 
' hwit,' white, a derivation which seems improbable. 

3 Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 412. 

4 Kemble, CWes,..Cart. 461. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 2ll 

very common, planted possibly to supply wood for bows. 
Yew-tree Field is a field in the parish of Caterham. 

GOSSHAW. Goss, the common pronunciation of gorse, 
or furze, so given by Halliwell. This word enters into 
the names of a good many fields. On Flint-house Farm, 
Oxted, two fields are mentioned in a deed of 1649 called 
Gorse Alley and Erthigors. On Colegate's Farm, Tats- 
field, is a field called Great Gorsey Down, and on God- 
dard's Farm, in the same parish, one called Gorsey 
Down. Tinker's Goss is a field in Caterham, and also 
Shirley Goss. 

For WEB FIELD and HEMPERS I can give no explanation. 

WOLDINGHAM. 

WOLDINGHAM. One of the smallest parishes in 
Surrey, consisting of but 667 acres, not mentioned, I 
think, in Domesday ; for Wallingham, which Manning l 
considers to be this place, I take to be Warlingham, 
locally pronounced Wallingham at this day. Wolding- 
ham is the home or settlement of the Wealdingas, or 
dwellers on the wold, who are given by Kemble, 2 in his 
list of the Mark names, and whom we find again at 
Waldingfield (Suffolk), spelt in the A.-S. Charters Weald- 
ingafeld. 3 

THE UPPER and LOWER COURT LODGE are the names of 
the two farms into which the parish is divided. There are 
few parishes in the district which have not a Court or 
Court Lodge, Farm. The name has been before alluded 
to 4 under Home. 

LOWER and MIDDLE HOLLINGTON. This occurs in the 
Survey of Oxted, of 19 Eliz., as Hollinden, 5 and in the 
Extent of Limpsfield, 8 Hen. VI., as Holyndene. In its 
present form it would seem to be from the tribe of the 
Holingas, whom we find in Hollingbourn (Kent), Hol- 

1 Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 416. 

2 Saxons in England, vol. i. p. 476. 

3 Kemble, Codex, Cart. 685, 931. 

4 Ante, part i. p. 86. 

5 See ante, p. 143, 



212 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

lingdon (Bucks), Hollington (Derby, Staffordshire, Sussex), 
or else it is ' holan-dene,' the wooded glen in the hollow. 
Holanden occurs in four of the A.-S. Charters. 1 

WHISTLERS WOOD, Whisley Wood (Rental of Oxted, 19 
Eliz.), spelt in the early Deeds Wisselegh ; and a place 
is named called Wisseleghdene. Mr. Edmunds 3 derives 
this prefix from * waes,' moist, and cites Wisbeach, Wis- 
borough, Wisley, &c. There are two places in the A.-S. 
Charters 3 of the same name, Wisleah, Wisley (Berks), 
and TTuiscelea, Wisley (Worcestershire). 

GREAT WHISTLE ASH, the name of a field ; but whether 
it has any connection or not with the preceding name 
I cannot say. 

FARTHING DOWN, GREAT and LITTLE. This is another 
instance of the tribal name of the Farthings or Feor- 
things, noticed before under Lingfield. 4 

MILL HILL and MILL FIELD indicate the existence of a 
mill at this spot. In a lease of the Nether Court Lodge 
Farm 9 Ric. II., 1386, in my possession, this field is 
mentioned as the Mullfield. 

TROTTESCROFT (Deed, 1386), probably a possessor's 
name. In the A.-S. Charters 5 is a place called Trottes- 
clib, now Trotterscliff, Kent. 

KEMYNGEDENE, mentioned in a Rental of Oxted, 19 
Eliz., is from, the clan or family of the Kemyngas. 

PARRETTS, UPPER and LOWER, LONG and GREAT, and 
SIDE HILL PARRETTS, and WINDER, are names for which I 
can give no explanation. 



CHELSHAM. 

CHELSHAM. Domesday Survey, Celesham and Chales- 
ham. The name is derived from * ceosel,' A.-S. for a 
pebble; English, c chessil. J This word is confined, I 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 381, 382, 783, 1171. 

2 Traces of History in the Names of Places, p. 315. 

3 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart, 1254, 105. 

4 Ante, part i. p. 94. 

5 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 152. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 213 

believe, in its meaning to round water-worn pebbles, such 
as are found in abundance on Worms Heath in this 
parish. 1 The Chesil Bank in Dorsetshire is the sea-bank 
of pebbles or shingles. Chiselhampton Oxon, Chisel- 
hurst and Chelsfield, in Kent, are possibly from the 
same root ; and in the A.-S. Charters 2 is a place called 
Celeshel. Mr. Edmunds 3 is, I believe, wrong in saying 
that the word means a sand-bank ; nor do I think that 
the places he cites, viz. Chiswick, Chessington, &c., will 
agree with this derivation. In this parish are two fields 
into which the same prefix enters, viz. Chelsterne and 
Chelmere ; and Stone Chissell is the name of another 
field. Chelsham Mead, near Broadham Green, Oxted, 
mentioned in a Deed of 7 Hen. VIII., and Chelesham 
Mead and Cheleshamfelde in one of 3 Hie. II., are pro- 
bably named from the De Chelsham family, one of whom, 
Reginald de Chelsham, is mentioned in an early Deed 
relating to Oxted. Chelsea is Chesil-eye, the shingly 
island. 4 In Edenbridge parish is a farm called Chissel 
Hall. 

CHELSHAM WATVYLES, one of the ancient manors, is so 
called from Robert de Watevile, owner of the manor 
temp. Domesday Survey, in which family it remained 
till the reign of Edw. II. The name was preserved in 
a wood called Watvyles Wood, so named in a map of 
1682. 

CHELSHAM COURT, another manor, now the principal 
farm in the parish, is another of the many Courts. War- 
lingham Court is a farm in that parish. 

FAIRCHILDS, the name of a principal residence, so 
called from John Fairchild, to whom one William 
Lettewe granted half an acre of land by Deed, dated 
16 Edw. II., 1323. But I think it by no means impro- 
bable that the name Fairchild is simply the English 

1 The soil on Worms Heath, says Manning (Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. 
p t 422), is very poor, full of round pebbles, perfectly smooth, like thoso 
on the seashore. 

2 Keinble, Codex, Cart. 907. 

3 Traces of History, p. 188. 'Kiesel' is the German word for a 
flint. 

* Taylor, Words and Ptacis, pp. 280 and 3-i8. 



214 SURREY ETYMOLOGTES. 

rendering of Vachele ; that the first occupiers, or owners, 
called themselves De Vachele, from the name of the 
place, and the change from that to Fairchild is a very 
easy one. In a Rental of Chelsham of 1568 the place 
appears under an extraordinary alias, " Fairechild, other- 
wise called Blackeborne." 

FICKLES HOLE, Veckelesholes Water, (Deed, 16 Edw. 
II.), Fekilshild (Rental, 1568). The prefix of this 
word I believe to be a corruption of the Norman-French 
word ' vache,' and that the place was originally Vachele, 
i.e. the Cow Meadow. Vaccary or Vachery is a dairy 
farm, a name which occurs at Vaccary, in Or anley parish. 
The Hole has reference either to the pond of water, or 
is from ' hoi,' a hollow. The Manor-house, which Man- 
ning l says was an ancient house, with a large wainscoted 
hall, and was pulled down before he wrote, was at Fair- 
childs, to which Fickleshole adjoins ; and here may have 
been the dairy-farm of the Lord of the Manor. 

LEDGERS, formerly a farm, now a principal residence, 
is merely a possessor's name. It appears as Leggers 
in a Court Roll of 37 Hen. VI., and Loggers in the 
Rental of 1568. Richard Leggers is a tenant in an early 
Rental, circ. Edw. II. This place has of late years been 
named ' The Ledgers,' without any regard to its origin. 

DOWDALES, another manor. It is so called from the 
family of De Uvedale, who were Lords of the Manor of 
Chelsham from the time of Edw. III. until 1673. 

SCOTT'S HALL. In the Rental of 1568 Mr. Scott appears 
as a tenant, and Sir Peter Scott, Knight, was living temp. 
Charles I. 

BEDDLESTEAD, Anglo-Saxon Charter, 3 Bipplestyde ; 
Bednestede (Rental of Titsey, 1402) ; Benstede (Rental, 
1568). Bedlesborough was a tithing in the parish, for 
which a headborough was appointed at the Sheriff's 
Tourn. Bettesengre is a place in Kent (? Bettshanger), 
mentioned in a Fine of 10 Ric. I. I have adverted to 
Betlesham, the name of a field in Limpsfield, 3 but can 

1 Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 425i 
L - Kemble, Codex, Cart. 287, 657. 

3 Supra, p. 177. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 215 

suggest no explanation of this word in its earliest form 
of Bipplestyde. 

SLINES, alias SLINES OAKS, occurs as Slynes in the 
Rental of 1568, and in a Court Roll of 1657. It does not 
seem like an owner's name, and I can give no meaning 
for it. 

LOCKSHIRE. Manning * says, that in Henley "Wood is 
a piece of ground moated round, as if there had been a 
mansion within it, and also the remains of a well. It is 
called Lockshires Moat ; and there is a tradition that 
this was the residence of a Sir John Lockshire. The 
name is still retained in Lockshire Shaw. 

RANSCOMBE, alias RAYNSCOMBE, Rainescombe (Rental, 
1568). The name of a copyhold of the manor*. ' Ran,' 
or ' Rann,' is given by Bosworth in his dictionary as a 
deer. The same name occurs in Rancum, Rancomb 
(Devon), in the A.-S. Charters. 3 

UPPER and LOWER MONS. The Latin 'Mons' is applied 
in the early documents to the range of chalk-hills. In 
the Extent of Limpsfield Manor, 5 Edw. II., the lands on 
the hill are described as ' super montem.' The Mount 
is a high point on Limpsfield Common, and the Mount 
Fields are very numerous ; e.g. The Mount, Caterham. 

HUNTINGSHARE, HUNTINGDON HILL, are names which 
explain themselves. * Hunta,' the hunter, is a common 
prefix in place-names in the A.-S. Charters ; and be- 
sides the county of Huntingdon, we find places of that 
name in Leicestershire, Hampshire, and Herefordshire. 

BUG HILL, possibly from * bug,' a goblin or spectre, 2 
a word used in this sense by Spenser, Shakespeare, and 
other writers ; whence bugbear. The association of hills, 
streams, &c., with mysterious beings, elves, goblins, and 
the like, is very common in local nomenclature. This 
name may be a contraction of burgh hill, the fortified 
hill. Manning 4 mentions a place called the Camp, and 
says " that on Bottle Hill (perhaps Battle Hill), in the 

1 Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 424. 

2 Kemble, Codex, Cart. 373. 

3 See Prompt. Parvul., in verbo. 

4 Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p 422. Salmon, Antiquities of Surrey, p. 63. 



216 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

road into Kent, is a piece of ground sometimes called a 
camp, oblong and single ditched." This Bottle Hill 
rests upon the authority of Camden j 1 but no such name 
is now known, and there is apparently a confusion 
between it and Botley Hill in Titsey. 

HALLILEW, the name of the hill adjoining Slines, is 
probably the ' hali ' or ' halig hlaw,' the holy mound. It 
may have been the scene of some sacred rites in early 
times. Adjoining it, on Worms Heath, are a number of 
large pits from 10 to 20 yards in diameter, and from 
6 to 20 feet in depth. A writer in Murray's Hand- 
book 2 says "that they are traditionally said to have 
been used as hiding-places during the Danish ravages ; 
but their* real purpose is very uncertain." Without 
giving any credit to this theory, they are, without 
doubt, very ancient and worthy of notice. 

COTTERSLAND. Cotter and Cottier are old English 
words for cottager ; the latter occurs in " Piers Plough- 
man." Cottishall is a field in Warlingliam. 

VARLEY, now WORLEY BOTTOM ? 

GREAT and LITTLE LUNCH. On Stonehall Farm, Oxted, 
is a wood called Lunch Wood, and in Caterham, fields 
called Lunch, Further Lunch, and Lunch Tupwood. Its 
meaning I cannot ascertain ; it is possibly synonymous 
with Lynch, mentioned under Titsey. 3 

MELBURY POOL. The prefix ' Mel,' which occurs in 
Melton and other places, is said to be for ' mil,' a mill. 
This would be the pool at the inclosure of the mill. It 
is a name one would expect to find applied to a water- 
mill : in this case it could only have been a windmill, 
with a pool or pond adjoining. 

DEADMAN'S BANK. There are one or two places of 
this name in the district : they recall the murder or 
death of some one there. 

GAMMER FIELD. ' Gammer ' is a word for an old wife 
or grandmother (grande-mere) : it is so explained by 
Halliwell. Dame's Piece, Caterham, is analogous. 



1 Gougli's Camden, voL i. p. 256. 

2 Handbook, Surrey and Hants, p. 2l. 
8 Supra, p. 201. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 217 

HARLEY BOTTOM is from ' hara,' the hare, as in Hare- 
way, the name of a lane in Oxted ; Harefield (Middlesex) , 
Harleyford (Bucks). 

HOLTS WOOD, 16- Acre Holts, 11-Acre Holts, is 
synonymous with the German ' holz,' a wood. The 
term, says Halliwell, is still in use for a small planta- 
tion, and appears in early times to have been applied to 
a forest of small extent. Brockett says it is a peaked 
hill covered with wood ; Howell, a hoult or grove of 
trees about a house. Alice Holt was the name of a 
forest near Wickham, in Hampshire; Knock-holt, a 
wood near Tenterden, in Kent, and also a parish in the 
same county. 1 

LUGHURST, NlDRILS, MEAZLES, BOGRAMS, MlNIM LANE, 

SAPLEYJ alias TAPLEY, and HEISHIRE, are names still in 
existence, of which I can give no explanation. 

The following are from a Rental of 1568, and from 
Court Rolls : 

ALLGARISFELDE, probably a possessor's name. Algar was 
king of Mercia in the llth century, and the name was 
likely to be adopted by others. Algarkirk, in Lincoln- 
shire, mentioned in the A.-S. Charters, 3 is said to have 
been erected on the spot where he was killed. 

APACSYMOS FIELD (Court Roll, Edw. IV.), a very re- 
markable name, sounding like a Greek word. I can 
suggest no derivation for it. 

BARDOLFE'S COURT, so called, doubtless, from the 
Bardolf family, who were Lords of the Manor of 
Addington, a parish adjoining Chelshani. It came to 
them by the marriage of Hugh Bardolf, temp. Edw. I., 
with Isabel, daughter and heir of Robert de Aguilon, 
and continued in their possession until 2 Ric. II., 1379, 
when William Bardolf had license to alienate it to 
William Walcote. 3 

BEWKE ? "common field called Bewke" (Court Roll, 
42 Eliz.). 

COCKEMER, COKKESLOND. The prefix is from the bird 

1 For more of this word see Prorhpt. ParVuL, in verbo. 

2 Kemble, Codex, Cart. 233, &c. 

3 Manning, Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 559. 



218 StJRREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

the cock, the mer being some old boundary-mark. 
CROWSEHOLT, in the same Rental, 1568, is the Crows- 
wood. 

CHARESEBROME (1568). Broom Lodge is the name of a 
farm, and le Brome that of a field in Chelsham. Of the 
former part of the word I can offer no explanation. 

CONGHERST (1568) is probably a contraction of Co- 
nigherst. Conig is an old English word for a rabbit ; 
Conighurst, the rabbit wood. There is a field in the 
parish still called Coney Oak. 

HEVENSTRETE (1568), a tenement and land called 
Hevenstrete. The name occurs in the A.-S. Charters 1 
in Heofentill, Heventill (Warwick) ; Heofenfeld, Hefen- 
feld (Northumb.). We meet with the converse in Hell- 
ditch, near Godalming; in Devules Meadow, Tatsfield 
(Rental, 1561) ; and in the Devil of Kent, Westerham. 

HASELERS, HALERS (1568), now Hazlehatch, is from the 
hazel, which forms the root of no less than twenty- four 
place-names in the A.-S. Charters. 

HEROWDES GROVE is, I believe, a corruption of Here- 
ward or Hay ward's grove. The hey ward was the 
keeper of cattle in a common field, says Mr. Albert 
Way, 2 who prevented trespass on the cultivated ground ; 
he was synonymous with the tithing-man or decen- 
narius, who was regularly sworn at the court. Ori- 
ginally, no doubt, holders of this office, the family of 
Hayward came to be one of some importance in this and 
the adjoining parishes. Richard Hayward purchased 
Fickles Hole, Chesham, in 1587, and died possessed of 
it in 1608, together with lands in Godstone, Oxted, 
Tandridge, Limpsfield, Lingfield, Crowhurst, Farley, and 
Croydon. 

HONTDOCKE GROVE ? (1568). 

PRICHESTE CROFTE? (id.). 

POCKETS ? (id., and Court Roll, 1677). 

ROUGHELDES (1568) is Rowholts, a manor and farm in 
the parish; i. e. t the row holt, or roughwood. 

REPCLESFELD? (1568). 

1 Kemble, Codex, Cart. 55. 

2 Prompt. Parwd., in verbo. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 219 

SAUGHELLS ? (id.). 

SNAPECROFT (id.). In the A.-S. Charters 1 is a place 
called Snap, Snape (Berks), and Snapwell (Camb.) ; and 
Mr. Edmunds cites another place called Snape, in 
Suffolk. 

WATERSTAPLE. Staple Field is the name of a field in 
Farley. Mr. Edmunds 2 derives these places from 
f stapul,' a stake, and says that they were the sites of 
markets. 

NETTLESTED GREEN. This may be derived from the 
A.-S. ' netl,' a nettle, or possibly it is connected with 
* nyten,' cattle. In the A.-S. Charters are eight places 
with this prefix. There is a place called Nettlestead, 
near Maidstone, and one of the same name near 
Ipswich. Nettlebed is in Oxfordshire, between Henley 
and "Wallingford. 

WARLINGHAM. 

WARLINGHAM. Domesday Survey, Wallingham ; Deed, 
1154, Warlington ; 1158, Warlingham. The name is 
derived from the clan of Wearlingas, who are given by 
Kemble 3 in his list of the marks. 

CREUSE, CREWES COMMON, "Manerium de Crewes " 
(Court Roll, 2 Phil. & Mary). This place takes its name 
from the family of Carew. Sir Richard Willoughby, 
says Manning, 4 demised this manor by deed, dated 1360, 
to Nicholas de Carew, whose daughter Lucia he had 
married. 

WESTHALL, a manor in the parish given by Odo de 
Dammartin, temp. Ric. I., to the Priory of Tandridge. 
The name occurs in a Court Roll of 25 Eliz., and is still 
retained in Westhall Wood. It is in the western part of 
the parish, where formerly, no doubt, was an old manor- 
house or hall. 

1 Kemble, Codex, Cart. 1249, 809. 

2 Traces of History, p. 288. 

3 Saxons in England, vol. i. p. 476. Warlingham is cited, but stated 
by error to be in Sussex. 

4 History of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 428. 



220 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES, 

HAMSEY GREEX, the name of part of the old common. 
There is a large pond near a homestead there, and I 
think the derivation is from ' name's ea,' the water of the 
home or dwelling. Hamsey is the name of a parish near 
Lewes. Hamslond occurs in a Rental of Chelsham of 
1568. 

AYNSCOMBES, a copyhold tenement and 40 acres of 
land, mentioned in a Court Roll of 37 Henry VIII. and 
subsequent Rolls. Probably the name of an early owner. 
Mr. Edmunds 1 gives the following explanation of ' ayn,' 
i.e., from ' ey,' water, from which he derives Aynhoe 
(Northants). 

SUCCOMB FIELD, another of the many ' combs ' or 
dingles in this district. The prefix may be from ' soc,' the 
land held in socage tenure. Mr. Edmunds 2 so explains 
Suckley (Worces.), &c., but it is more probably Suth- 
combe, the South Comb. 

GREAT and LITTLE ROUND BERRY ; Stone Berry, Chel- 
sham ; Berry Field Shaw, Caterham. The word ' Berry ' 
is the A.-S. ' Byrig,' German ' Berg,' in its primary 
signification a hill. 

GREAT KNOWL HILL, Knollwood (Court Roll, 2 Edw. 
VI.). This word Halliwell explains as a little round 
hill, in which sense, says Mr. Edmunds, 8 it is very 
common in Yorkshire. It is from the A.-S. 'cnoll,' a 
hill. Knole is a place in Cranley, situated on a rising 
ground. In a Deed of 6 Edw. IV., a messuage is men- 
tioned lying at ' the Knolle ' in Egham, and in the 
same Deed occur Egham Knolle, and Knollehyll. 

Row. This word occurs five times in this parish, and 
twelve times in the adjoining parish of Chelsham, as a 
field-name ; besides which, in describing the lands, the 
measurement of the fields is given, and then that of ' the 
rough ' adjoining. Row, as was before noticed, means 
rough, and the constant occurrence of the word gives 
an insight into the condition of the land on these 
hills in former times. If I am right in supposing that 

1 Traces of History, p. 168. 

2 Id., p. 290. 3 Id., p. 237. 



SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 221 

Wallingeham, in Domesday Survey, refers to this parish, 
not to Woldingham, its annual value is there given at 4, 
a very small sum, indicative of the state of cultivation. 
Row Dow is the somewhat uneuphonious name of a wood 
in Kent. 

How BANK. How or Ho, is a hill. Great and Little 
How are the names of two fields in Chelsham, and the 
same suffix occurs in Clapsho, mentioned in the Rental 
of Titsey of 1402. 

SEARCH WOOD recalls some event, the recollection of 
which is lost, possibly the surprise of a party of smug- 
glers, who abounded in this district, who are brought 
to mind by a place in Chelsham called ' Pack way.' 

MEDLEY SHAW. This is the land laid down to meadow. In 
the Anglo-Saxon Charters 1 is a place called Medle*ah, Wilts. 

FILLETTS. Mentioned in a Court Roll of 1561 ? 

RAYSONS, REISONS. Court Roll, 10 Eliz. ? 

Of HOBBETTS Or HOPPETTS, MlMBLES, MARMIMS MAPLES, 

and PEPPER FIELD, I can give no explanation : they are 
names still in use. 

The following are names from the old Court Rolls : 

ALLAHDI. There was a distinguished family of the 
name of Alard, to whom there are two monuments in 
Winchelsea Church, but there is no record of any owner 
of property of that name in Warlingham. 

BLANCHFIELDE CROFT, alias BLANGFIELDE CROFT. Blanc 
is given by Bosworth in his Dictionary, and also by 
Stratmann, for white, or else it is the Norman-French 
word 'blanche.' 

DOWNE AMOTTS ? 

HEBLOKE. The suffix ' loc,' says Leo, 3 is derived from 
the verb 'locan,' to lock or close in, in which sense Mr. 
Edmunds 3 also explains it. The prefix c heb,' in the 
Hebureahg of the A.-S. Charters, 4 becomes Highbury; 
if so, then this would be the inclosure on the height. 

1 Kemble, Codex Diplomat., Cart. 460. 

2 Anglo-Saxon Names, p. 115. 

3 Traces of History, p. 244. 

4 Kemble, Codex, Cart. 40. 



222 SUBBEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

LACYES, a possessor's name ; but the name does not 
appear on the Rolls. 

CHANTRY, CHANTREY HILL. This name would seem to 
imply that this land was charged with the payment of a 
priest to sing mass under the bequest of some founder. 
I am not aware whether there was a chantry in the 
church of Warlingham. 



CATEEHAM. 

CATEKEAM. Not mentioned in Domesday by 
name, but conjectured by Manning 1 to be a place there 
spoken of as Azors Manor ; spelt in early deeds some- 
times Katerham. Taylor 3 suggests two derivations of 
the name, one as being connected with f gate/ a road, 
like Keigate and Gatton ; the other from the Celtic word 
{ cath,' battle. The first seems a very unlikely trans- 
position of letters ; the G being retained in Gatton and 
Godstone, it is not probable that it would be changed 
into C in this place ; the second must be rejected alto- 
gether, as being a Celtic word, which in this district is 
inadmissible. Neither can I agree with Mr. Flower 3 in 
referring it to { castrum,' a camp. He remarks that he 
knows of no instance in which Castrum becomes Cater. 
It is, I believe, invariably Caster or Chester. Mr. 
Edmunds' 4 derivation from ' cat,' the wild cat, seems to 
me more probable, though, where that occurs as a prefix, 
it is generally in such a form as Catsfield (Sussex), Cat- 
thorp (Leicester). I am inclined to class it among 
the tribal names, and believe it to be a contraction of 
Cateringasham, the abode of the Caterings or Ketter- 
ings, possibly the same clan whom we meet with at 
Kettering (Northants). The modern and objectionable 
pronunciation Caterham with the ' a ' long, dates from 
the opening of the railway and the erection of villas. 

1 Manning and Bray, Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 434. 

2 Words and Places, pp. 252, 304. 

3 Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. v. p. 184. 

4 Traces of History, p. 185. 



SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 223 

WAE' COPPICE. This, which Taylor adduces in support 
of his derivation from ' cath,' a battle, has been noticed 
at some length by Mr. Flower ; l and in his view, that it 
has nothing to do with war, I entirely agree. Such 
names as Battle Hill, Slaughterford, point to engage- 
ments which have taken place there ; but war is a word 
used in a general sense, and could not be restricted 
within the limits of a field or a copse. Mr. Flower 
suggests Warwick, and gives as his reason the proximity 
of Warwick Wold. It may be so, but I think that 
' wer ' or { wer,' A.-S. for an inclosure, is the more pro- 
bable explanation. 

CAEDINAL'S CAP, given by Manning as the name of the 
camp on Whitehill, so called, I believe, from the shape 
of the hill, which, at a distance, has somewhat the 
appearance of a round cap. 

STANSTEAD, STANSTEAD HEATH, mark the old line of the 
Stane Street, which passed out of Sussex through 
Godstone by Stretton, and over this common. Gaters, 
in this parish (Pal. 19 Hen. VIII.), is another allusion 
to this road. 

POEKELE (Deed, dr. Hen. III.), a name preserved in 
Portley Dean, Port Field, and Port Mead. I can suggest 
no meaning for this name. 

FEIEEN, or FEYEEX, a farm partly in this parish and 
partly in Chaldon, held of the Manor of Caterham, 
where is still a field called Great Fryern Field, and a 
wood called Fryern Wood. These places are so called, 
says Mr. Edmunds, 3 from having belonged to friars ; e.g., 
Fryern Barnet (Middlesex). The Abbey of Waltham 
owned the manor before the dissolution, and St. 
Thomas's Hospital had property in the parish ; so that 
the name probably owes its origin to this source. 
Abbotts, a field here, is either from Waltham Abbey or 
Chertsey Abbey, both of which had lands in the parish. 

UPWOOD, written Upwode, 1527 ; now Tupwood. This 
latter is a contraction of The Up wood ; i.e. the wood on 

1 Surrey Arch. Coll, vol. v. p. 183. 

2 Traces of History, p. 210. 

VOL. VI. Q 



224 SUEEEY ETYMOLOGIES. 

the upper or high ground. In the A.-S. Charters l is a 
place in Huntingdon, Upwudn ; now Upwood. There 
are no less than forty-two places called Upton. 

SALMONS, a manor, or reputed manor and a principal 
farm-house, owes its name to the family of Saleman, one 
of whom, Roger Saleman, died seized of it, 16 Edw. III., 
1343, and Thomas Salman was owner in 3 Hen. V. 
Salmons, a large farm in Penshurst, Kent, is probably 
named from the same family. 

HOLBOEN HILL records a natural phenomenon which 
occurs in this parish from time to time, at intervals of 
about seven years ; i. e. the breaking out of a stream, 
which goes by the name of the ' Bourn,' and flows 
through the fields by Caterham Railway Junction into 
Croydon. Aubrey 3 mentions it, but, by some confusion, 
under Crowhurst parish, instead of Warlingham, which 
is clearly intended, as he says that it rises in a grove of 
yew-trees within the manor of Westhall, in Warlingham. 
It is popularly supposed to be the forerunner of some 
remarkable event. " It rises," says Aubrey, " upon the 
approach of some remarkable alteration in Church or 
State. It began to run a little before Christmas, and 
ceased about the end of May, at that most glorious sera 
of English liberty, the year 1660. In 1665 it preceded 
the Plague in London, and the Revolution in 1688." 
Under Caterham, the same writer notices it as a 
1 Bourn.' " Nailburn," says Halliwell, " is a kind of 
temporary brook or intermittent land- spring, very irre- 
gular in its visitation and duration. There are several 
Nailburns in Kent. Darkworth Chronicle, p. 24, men- 
tions one ' byside Canturbury called Naylborne,' which 
seems to be one below Barham Downs." This Holborn 
Hill is the Hoi-Bourne, or rivulet in the hollow ; 
' bourn ' being A.-S. for a stream. It is situated not 
far from the spot where it breaks out. 

RIDING. Under Ridlands, in Limpsfield, I gave nume- 
rous instances of this word in the form of riddens. There 



1 Kemble, Codex, Cart. 581, 809. 

2 Hist, of Surrey, vol. iii. p. 47, 



SUEREY ETYMOLOGIES. 225 

are so many in this place that they deserve a separate 
notice. The constant occurrence of the word would 
justify the inference, of which proofs are not wanting, 
that the greater part of this parish was at one time 
waste or common land. The following is a list : Dan- 
riding (perhaps Dene-riding), Magriding, Magriding 
Slip, Fullriding, Longriding, Furtherriding, North and 
South Stoneriding, Harriett Eiding. All these I take 
to be from ' hrid,' the assart or cleared ground. Mr. 
Edmunds 1 states that Riding in the sense of a division 
of land is not used in any other county but Yorkshire. 

HAEESTONE, HAEE STONE Valley, is derived more probably, 
I think, from Hoar-stone, some boundary- stone, a word 
noticed before under Oxted, 2 than from ' hara,' the hare, 
as it is difficult to see any connection between a hare and 
a stone. 

BOBBINS CLOSE, BOBBINGEES. The Bobbingas are given 
by Kemble 3 among the ' mark ' names. Bobbing (Kent), 
Bobbington (Salop, Staffordshire), Bobinger (Essex), are 
cited by him. Bobingseata is mentioned in the Charters, 4 
a place in Kent. 

NINHAMS MEADOWS. I can give no meaning to this 
prefix. In the adjoining parish of Coulsdon is a place 
called Nimwood or Ninwood. 

THE LUCKINGS. In Oxted, in the Survey of 1576, are 
places called Luckings Garden, Rough Luckings Garden, 
and Luckings Croft. Possibly from the clan of the 
Lockingas, whom we find at Locking (Somerset), Lock- 
inge (Berks), Lockington (York). 

FOSTEE DOWN. Halliwell gives ' Foster ' as an old 
word for Forester ; and in the " Prompt. Parvul." we find 
it as ' Forstere ' or ' Fostere.' 

ROWEDES is a possessor's name. The Rowed family 
were owners of Caterham Court about the end of the last 
century. 

WHITE NOBBS, the name of one of the chalk hills. 

1 Traces of History, p. 274. 

2 Supra, p. 143. 

3 Saxons in England, vol. i. p. 458. 

4 Kemble, Codex, Cart. 175. 

ct 2 



226 SURREY ETYMOLOGIES. 

* Nob * signifies a head or crest. White Hill is the name 
of the hill on the summit of which is the camp. 

CHILTERS, possibly from ' chil ' or ' ceald,' cold. Mr. 
Edmunds 1 gives it this meaning, and cites Chilham, 
Chiltern. 

The following are probably derived from the names of 
owners or occupiers : 

COLLIER'S DOWN, COLLIER'S CROFT, KEMP'S HILL, WOOL- 
HAM'S BANK, BULLEN'S FIELD, WHITTENTON'S, JASON'S, alias 
JEYSON'S HILL, NAP'S PIECE. 

Of the following I can give no explanation : 

BANNANS, GREAT SCROUCHES, TAUNTON MEAD, PJZZAMS 
BANK, LUDFIELD, UPPER BEADON, GALIERE. 

1 Traces of History, p. 188. 



( 227 ) 



THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY OF THE 
FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE, SO LONG AS 
THEY REMAINED CONNECTED WITH 
SURREY. 

BY JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, F.S.A. 

(Read at Newdegate, kth July t 1872.) 



ON this occasion of our visit to the parish of Newde- 
gate, I have undertaken to offer to the Society 
some account of the ancient family which derived its 
name from this place, and which in the course of cen- 
turies has produced several persons of considerable 
distinction. 

It has not been altogether a Surrey family, having 
arrived at greater importance in its junior branches, 
which have been seated at Hare field, in Middlesex, and 
Arbury, in Warwickshire ; but it was not until the reign 
of Charles I. that it finally lost its connection with this 
spot. 

From the year 1677 until 1806 the Warwickshire 
family enjoyed the dignity of a Baronet, and conse- 
quently its genealogy will be found in the larger 
baronetages, but certainly stated with great inaccuracy 
in regard to the earlier generations ; and, although Mr. 
Bray has give a pedigree in his " History of Surrey," 1 
it is by no means satisfactory. Our county historian, 
however, is not a party to the much more censurable 
because fictitious account, which will be found pre- 
facing the genealogy of the Newdigates in the current 

i Vol. ii. p. 173. 



228 THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY 

edition of Burke's "History of the Landed Gentry." 
The passages to which I allude are these : 

This family possessed, from time immemorial to the beginning of the 
reign of Charles I., the manor and lands of Newdegate, co. Surrey ; 
and, from many ancient records, it appears that the name was written 
Variously, Niwudegate, Niwodegate, Newedigate, Niudegate, Neudegate, 
originally perhaps from Saxony, and of the city of Nieuweide, upon the 
Rhine. ' The intermarriages of the family before that of Malmains are 
set forth in an illuminated pedigree, first taken by Henry Lillie, Rouge 
Croix, 1610 ; by Sir William Dugdale, Garter King of Arms, 1684; and 
lastly by Gregory King, Lancaster Herald, 1691, with the arms em- 
blazoned thus ; Newdegate and Warren, Newdegate and Pugeys, 
Newdegate and Mountfitchet, Newdegate and Roan, Newdegate and 
Sudeley, Newdegate and Ashburnham, Newdegate and Wintershull, 
Newdegate and Clare, Newdegate and Chenduit, Newdegate and 
Malmains, from which a regular descent commences for twenty-two 
generations. 

I view these passages of the last edition of the 
"History of the Landed Gentry." with the greater 
regret, because I find they are introduced therein for 
the first time, not having appeared in previous editions ; 
whilst, generally speaking, there has been a judicious 
retrenchment of many offensive redundancies which for- 
merly "impaired the value of Sir Bernard Burke's very 
laborious and useful compilation. 

The errors and absurdities now prefixed to the pedi- 
gree of Newdegate are manifold. In the first place it 
is an error to say that the family possessed from" time 
immemorial the manor of Newdegate ; that, as we shall 
presently see, was not the fact. 

Next, on the heels of that misstatement, comes the 
absurd suggestion that, instead of taking their name 
from this spot, they brought it hither from the city of 
Nieuwied, on the Rhine. I need not stop to combat 
this. 

But then follows a string of what are called inter- 
marriages with distinguished or high-sounding names, 
as set forth in an illuminated pedigree made by Henry 
Lillie, Rouge Croix, and recognized by other more 
eminent professional names of the 17th century; 
whereby, during ten generations, the Newdegates are 
alleged to have taken wives from the families of Warren, 



OF THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 220 

Pugeys, Mountfitchet, Roan, Sudeley, Ashburnham, 
Wintershull, Clare, Chenduit, and Malmains ; every 
item of which, except the last, I have no hesitation in 
denouncing as mere fabrication, the fabulous concoction 
of a period when the professional heralds condescended 
to make lying genealogies, and thus brought upon them- 
selves and their science that disrepute and that contempt 
from which it has never entirely recovered, although in 
honest and sagacious hands it is one of the most efficient 
handmaids of history, and may properly and reasonably 
be regarded, as it was of old, one of the most becoming 
studies of every true Gentleman. 

There is still one further allegation in Burke demand- 
ing some remark. Its precise meaning I do not exactly 
comprehend, but it states in so many words that subse- 
quently to the ten grand intermarriages that have been 
recapitulated, " a regular descent commences for twenty- 
two generations." Now, these twenty-two generations, 
in addition to the ten, can scarcely be all in Master 
Lillie's illuminated pedigree ; but even if the meaning 
is that they bring down the family to the present day, 
such an assertion rather overshoots its mark, for a total 
of thirty- two generations would carry us back from the 
present time for ten centuries and a half, that is, to 
about the year of our Lord 800, a period somewhat too 
early for the Norman names of Warren, Pugeys, Mount- 
fitchet, and the rest. 1 

1 The Newdegates have adopted the following quarterings : 2. Mai 
mains ; 3. Echingham ; 4. Swanland ; 5. Bachworth ; 6. Samford ; 7. de 
Leyre ; 8. Rokesley; 9. Knolles; 10. Young; 11. Neville of Raby; 
12. Neville (ancient); 13. Bulmer; 14. Inglebert; 15. Mablethorpe; 
16. Hilton; 17. Burden; 18. Cresacre; and 19. Cradock : as displayed 
in a brass plate on the monument of Anthony Newdegate, auditor of 
the Court of Surveyors (ob. 1568), in Hawnes church, co. Bedford; but 
where numbers 7, 10, 13, and 15 have been scratched through, as if 
incorrect. (See these quarterings described particularly in Collectanea 
Topogr. et Geneal., vol. iii. p. 402.) At Harefield, co. Middlesex, on the 
monument of Sir John Newdegate (ob. 1610), the quarterings are 
2. Malmains; 3. Swanland; 4. Bachesworth; 5. Echingham; 6. Knolles; 
7. Neville ; 8. Hilton ; 9. Cave. Whilst on that of John Newdegate, 
Esq., his son and heir (ob. 1642), there were twenty quarterings, thus 
marshalled: 1. Newdegate; 2. Malmains; 3. Echingham; 4. S \van- 



230 THE ORIGIN AND EAELY HISTORY 

I have been surprised to find that Bray, in his pedi- 
gree of Newdegate, ignores not merely that contained in 
the baronetages, but two others, which may claim to be 
of some authority ; viz., 1. that which was inserted in 
the Heralds' " Visitation of Surrey in 1623 ;" 1 and 
2. that printed in the "History of Surrey" of his pre- 
decessor Aubrey ; 2 to each of which I shall have some 
regard in the ensuing observations. Bray's pedigree is 
professedly from ancient charters, but, being destitute 
of dates, and unaccompanied by the evidence upon 
which it was founded, is of less value than it might 
have been. 3 All these three pedigrees present great 
variations, showing that the descent of the family is 
really by no means clearly ascertained. 

The first point that may be at once determined is, 
that all the Newdegates have derived their name from 
this place, for the local name does not occur elsewhere. 
Nor is this place itself named in the Domesday Survey, 
when it is supposed to have formed part of the great 
manor of Churchfelle, subsequently called Reigate. 4 The 
earliest documents in which the name occurs are charters 
relating to the advowson of the church or chapel, for a 

land; 5. Bachesworth ; 6. Samford; 7. Rokesley; 8. Knolles; 9. 
Neville of Raby; 10. Neville (ancient); 11. Buhner; 12. Inglebert; 
13. Hilton; 14. Burden; 15. Cresacre; 16. Cradock; 17. Cave; 
18. Bromflete; 19. Genell; 20. Cliffe. (Lysons, Middlesex Parishes, 
1800, pp. 113-4.) 

In the Surrey Visitation, Harl. MS. 5830, the quarterings are 1. and 
12. Newdegate; 2. Malmains ; 3. Echingham; 4. Swanland; 5. Bach- 
worth; 6. Samford ; 7. de Leyre; 8. Knolles; 9. Neville of Raby; 
10. Neville (ancient); 11. Inglebert. Crest, a fleur-de-lis. 

1 Harl MS. 5830, fol. 786 (51 b). 

2 Aubrey derives his pedigree from one begun by Henry Lillie, 
Rouge Croix, in 1610, carried on by Sir William Dugdale, and 
finished by Gregory King, down to the year 1691, in the possession of 
Sir Richard Newdigate, of Harefield, Bart. 

3 It is given with the admission that " the early deeds do not explain 
the descents so clearly as to ascertain them with certainty, though they 
show the family possessed of land at their several dates." 

4 The Domesday manor of Cherchefelle is supposed to have included 
the present parishes of Leigh, Newdegate, Charlwood, Horley, and 
Burstow, none of which are separately mentioned, nor reducible to any 
other article. Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. 272. 



OP THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 231 

"chapel" it is designated in the reign of Henry I., 1 
which shows the comparatively late formation of the 
parish. It was a chapel built in the Weald, like that 
of the adjoining parochial district, which still retains its 
pristine name of Capel. 

Our county historians describe three manors in this 
parish, those of Newdegate, Cudworth, and Weeklands, 
besides the estate of Mershland or Mereland, belonging 
to Trinity College in Cambridge, which also is termed 
a manor in the Inquisition of 1576, hereafter cited. 

The principal manor is presumed to have belonged to 
the early Earls of Warren, because the chapel or church 
of Newdegate was given by Earl Hamelin, in the reign 
of Henry I., to the Priory of St. Mary Overy, in South- 
wark. Subsequently, in 21 Edw. I., John de Montfort 
had a grant of free warren here ; and the descent of the 
manor is traced in that family and in that of the Beau- 
champs, Earls of Warwick, until it devolved to the 
Nevilles, Lord Abergavenny. 

The first Newdegates were evidently the tenants of 
these superior lords. There is no doubt that the family 
of Newdigate, which was advanced to a Baronetcy in 
1677, being then seated at Arbury, in Warwickshire, 
was descended from the old residents of this spot, because 
many ancient deeds relating to this parish and neigh- 
bourhood were handed down in the archives at Arbury, 
and their substance communicated by Sir Richard New- 
digate, who died in 1727, to Wotton, the author of 
the Baronetage published in 1741, and printed in his 
vol. iv. p. 618. 3 

Some of these documents are earlier than the period 
when it became usual to append dates to charters ; and 
One of them shows the wife of a certain Richard Newde- 
gate to have been Alice daughter of Walter of Horley 3 
(a neighbouring parish), for all the land which Walter 
of Horley had given the said Richard with Alice his 

1 See the charter of Hamelin Earl Warren, printed in Major Heales' 
paper, post, p. 270. 

2 See the abstract of them in the Appendix in this paper hereafter. 

3 Misprinted Horsea in Bray's Pedigree of Newdegate, vol. ii. p. 173. 



232 THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY 

daughter, in free marriage, was confirmed by William de 
Longo Ponte, that is, Longbridge, in the parish of 
Horley. 1 

A charter of the reign of Henry III. is from Mabilia 
de la Bere, of Newdegate, who, in her free widowhood, 
confirms to John Newdegate two fields in Newdegate, 
called Southheye and Northheye, which he had bought 
of Norman de la Bere her husband. Now, this appa- 
rently grand name of De la Bere is, I believe, purely 
local ; for, in another of these charters, Gilbert Wyte- 
crofte, of Charlewode, grants to William Newdegate all 
his land called the Berland, in the parish of Newdegate. 

Again, in the reign of Edward III., John de Mont- 
fort, then Lord of the Manor of Newdegate, leases all 
his wood in Berland, in the parish of Newdegate, to 
William Newdegate, for two years from the Feast of 
Easter, together with free ingress and egress, for the 
sum of 20 sterling. 

The meaning of la 'Bere is probably derived from 
those places which are termed beru in the Anglo- 
Saxon Charters, 2 where there was abundant food for the 
swine, which formed the chief live-stock of the early 
inhabitants of forest countries. 3 

Another of the same ancient documents is interesting, 
as furnishing the original name of an estate, which is 
now the site of one of the most beautiful residences in 

1 There was a family which took its name from this place. In 1304 
John atte Longebrugge, son of John atte Longebrugge, is party to a 
grant of 16d. rent, arising from the capital messuage of William de 
Enggelonde, near the church at Horley : dated at Cherlode (i. e. 
Cbarlwood), on Sunday next after the feast of the Apostles Philip and 
James, 23 Edw. I. Deed in the possession of Thomas Hart, Esq., of 
Dorking, 1873. 

2 See Anglo-Saxon Names, by Leo, edited by Williams, p. 103 ; 
Kemble, Codex Diplomat., vol. iii. 

3 Bere is a well-known old term for barley; but barley was not suited 
to the soil of this country. Aubrey remarks : " The Weald or Wyld 
hereabouts bears excellent oats. In one year I observed them five or 
six feet high, and of this commodity the tenants chiefly make their 
rents ; but this soil bears barley ill, as not agreeing with it. Dacus 
sylvestris [i.e. Daucus sylvestris, or the wild carrot] grows very plenti- 
fully hereabouts and in Kent, and is frequently infused in their ale." 
History of Surrey, \inder " Newdigate," vol. iv. p. 268. 



OP THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 233 

this vicinity. In the 17th of Edward I. Thomas de la 
Lynde assigns William Newdegate and others to sell a 
hundred loads of timber in his wood of Lynde. This 
family was of knightly degree in the reign of Edward II., 
when Sir Walter de la Linde bore for arms, Argent, a 
cross engrailed gules. 

Now, although this is not the only instance of the 
word Lynde as the name of a locality, and though it 
enters into the composition of several more, such as the 
town of Lyndhurst, in Hampshire, and the less distant 
parish of Lindfield, in Sussex, I am sorry to say I cannot 
speak satisfactorily of its meaning. Mr. Lower, in his 
"History of Sussex," suggests that the name of Lind- 
field is derived from the linden or lime-tree ; but with 
that etymology I do not at all agree. La Lynde was 
evidently descriptive of the land itself, and the name 
still exists here under the form of Lyne, dropping the 
d. Lyne, which is chiefly in this parish and partly in 
that of Capel, was purchased in 1799 by the late James 
Shudi Broadwood, Esq., who served as Sheriff of Surrey 
in 1835, and erected the present handsome mansion, 01 
which a view is given in Brayley's " History of Surrey." 
The modern stained glass in that window (one of the 
windows of Newdegate Church) represents the armorial 
bearings of the Broadwood family. But to return to the 
Newdegates. 

Gradually these resident occupiers of the Wealdan 
Forest became men of opulence and importance, and the 
reign of Edward III. may be assigned as 
the date of their first emerging into distinc- 
tion. It is remarkable and significant that 
before that period the name of Newdegate 
3oes not occur in any ancient roll of arms. 
iVhen the coat of De la Lynde is recorded 
n the reign of Edward II., there is no coat 
ecorded for Newdegate. In the year 1328 
he seal of William de Nywdegate is not 
rmorial, but its device is one appropriate 
3 this oak-covered district, being, appa- 
9iitly, a cross composed, of four acorns. 




234 THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY 

All the grand alliances attributed to this family in 
Lillie's pedigree are quite visionary until we come to 
the last name that of Malmains. This was the alliance 
which at length raised these denizens of the Weald into 
the rank of nobility. 

Nicholas de Malesmaines 1 was lord of the neighbouring 
manor of Ockley, and at his death, in 33 Edw. III., he 
left five daughters his coheirs Beatrix, married to Sir 
Otho de Grandison ; Petronilla, to Sir Thomas de St. 
Omer ; 3 Catharine, to Sir Henry de Newdegate ; Eliza- 
beth and Joan, unmarried. 

Now, Otho de Grandison, who married one of these 
coheirs of Malmains, was younger brother to Peter de 
Grandison, a Baron of Parliament in the reign of 
Edward III., and to John de Grandison, Bishop of 
Exeter; and he was father of Sir Thomas de Grandison, 3 
whose name occupies the fiftieth place in the roll of the 
Knights of the Garter. Thus the Newdegates, in the 
reign of Edward III., became allied to many persons of 
high distinction. 

From this marriage the Newdegates acquired certain 
lands at Ockley, where John de Newdegate presented to 
the church in 1386, and Amicia de Newdegate in 1407. 

In 1360 (34 Edw. III.) William de Newdegate was 
one of the two men of substance who were returned to 
Parliament as Knights for Surrey, his colleague being 
Nicholas Carreu. This was a period when parliaments 

1 Nicholas was a Christian name of earlier date in the Norman race 
of Males-es-mains. (See Stapleton's Rolls of the Norman Exchequer^ 
vol. ii. pp. xlvii et seq.) In the Roll of Arms temp. Edw. II. there 
occurs, under the county of Kent, " Sire Nicholas Malemeins de argent 
a une bende engrele de pourpre." In the Roll temp, Edw. III. (edit. 
Nicolas), p. 35, we find, in sequence, " Malemaynes port d'argent a une 
bend engrele de purpre. Monsire Roigate d'argent a une bend engrele 
d'asur." " Monsire Roigate " must Surely have been a knight taking 
his name from the neighbouring castle of Reygate ? 

2 Misstated as "St. Maur" in Manning and Bray, vol. ii. p. 162. 
Even this genuine alliance of Newdigate and Malmains is perverted 
from the truth in the Baronetages, as it is put up into the reign of 
Edward I. 

3 A memoir of Sir Thomas Grandison will be found in Beltz's 
Jfemorials of the Order of the Garter, p. 176. 



OP THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 235 

were annual, and it was not customary, at least in this 
county, to return the same persons to successive parlia- 
ments. William de Newdegate was again knight of the 
shire in 37 Edw. III., with Gilbert de Ledrede, i. e. 
Letherhed ; in 4G Edw. III. with William de Cobeham ; 
and in 50 Edw. III. with Robert de Loxele. 1 He does 
not appear to have been actually of knightly rank. In 
42 Edw. III. (1368) he was appointed by patent, to- 
gether with John Lovekin, William Tauke, and others, 
to repair the walls of the river Thames, from Danyel's 
Wall, in Surrey, to Reddisbourne, in Kent. In 45 Edw. 
III. he served as Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex ; and this 
was the only time that Surrey had a sheriff of this name. 
In 47 Edw. III. (1373) he was appointed steward of the 
royal manor of Bansted in this county, during the 
king's pleasure, at the accustomed fee : 

De Senescallo Manerii de Banstede constitute. Rex dilecto sibi 
Willielmo de Neudegate salutem. Sciatis quod assignavimus et con- 
stituimus vos Senescallum nostrum Manerii nostri de Banstede ad curias 
nostras ejusdem Manerii prout moris est tenendum quamdiu nobis 
placuerit, percipiendo in officio illo feodum consuetum. Et ideo vobis 
mandamus quod circa premissa diligenter intendatis et ea facietis et 
exeqnamini in forma predicta. Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium 
primo die Augusti. Per ipsum Regem. (Rot. Pat. 47 Edw. III., 
pars 2, m. 30.) 

In the 10th of Richard II. (1386-7) John de Newde- 
gate served as one of the knighfs of the shire. 

Now, as I have stated already, the pedigree of the 
family has, in its early generations, been by no means 
clearly made out in any of the successive attempts 
already recounted; but we have some information fur- 
nished towards it in a charter, by which, in the 27th 
Edw. III., John de Newdegate gave to Thomas, his 
youngest son, for life, a tenement named Hallond, the re- 
mainder to his second son John, for life ; the remainder 
to William, his eldest son, his heirs and assigns, for ever. 

It is assumed in the "Baronetage," rather than proved, 
that the subsequent Newdegates of this place descended 
from William, the eldest of these three brothers, and the 

1 Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. Iv, 



236 THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY 

Newdegates of Middlesex and Warwickshire from John, 
the second brother. This Sir John Newdegate, it is as- 
serted, served in the wars of France under Edward III. ; 
received the honour of knighthood, and had a fleur- 
de-lis given him for his crest. For the accuracy of 
these romantic statements I will not answer ; it is, how- 
ever, more certain that he established the family at 
Harefield, in Middlesex, having married Joanna, sister 
and co-heiress of William de Swanland, of that place, 
whose arms were Gules, three swans argent, and his 
crest a swan, collared and chained. 

In the Abstracts of Wills which are appended to this 
memoir it will be seen that in several respects the 
Newdegates of Harefield maintained their relationship 
towards the county of Surrey; and from some cause, 
not readily explained, John Newdegate, Esq., in the 
fourth generation of the lords of Harefield, was buried 
in the church of Merstham. Of his having any connec- 
tion with that parish, nothing is stated by our county 
historians ; and this circumstance of his burial there 
suggests the possibility that he may have died on a 
journey, when riding either to or from a visit to his 
cousins at Newdegate. The inscription 1 on his grave- 
stone is : 

%ic izttt $>o\)~t3 f^fottcsate armtger nup fcnS to f^rfcttr m Com iHtott 
qf obut XXI "oit nuns! dTriruaru fl Urn M CCCC 
LXXXXVIII T; a? rtgni rtgl $emT) VII. XIII cut; aie 
pptctet? KM . 

Above is a shield of Newdegate, and one of Swanland, 
the family from which Harefield was inherited. 

It is noteworthy that the date of his death is deficient 
in the family pedigree in the " Baronetage." His mother, 
the wife of William Newdegate of Harefield, was a 
Surrey woman, the daughter of John Bowet, Esq. ; she 
died in 1444, and was buried at Harefield. His own 
wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Young, one of 
the justices of the Common Pleas, and by her he was 

1 Imperfectly printed in Manning and Bray, ii. 262: "Shield of 
arms gone." The shields may have been concealed from view, but they 
are not " gone." 



OF THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 237 

father of John Newdegate, who was made a serjeant-at- 
law in 2 Hen. VIII., and materially advanced the 
fortunes of the family. He eventually became King's 
Serjeant; and there is a sepulchral brass at Harefield 
representing him in his official costume, accompanied by 
his wife, who was a Neville, of Sutton, in Lincolnshire. 
Their children were memorable, in that age of trial, for 
their attachment to the ancient faith ; for two of his 
sons were knights hospitallers of St. John ; another, a 
Carthusian monk, suffered capital punishment for his 
opposition to the King's supremacy ; one daughter was 
a nun at Syon, another at Holywell in Middlesex, and a 
third was Jane, wife of Sir Robert Dormer, the grand- 
mother of Robert first Lord Dormer, and of Jane, 
Duchess of Feria, one of the favourite attendants of 
Queen Mary. 

In the next generation the younger sons were also 
remarkable. George became a monk at. Chertsey ; but 
Anthony, having probably embraced contrary religious 
views, was one of the auditors of the court erected by 
King Henry VIII. for surveying the lands acquired by 
the King from the monasteries and by his numerous 
exchanges throughout the country ; and this Anthony 
founded a family at Hawnes, in Bedfordshire ; whilst 
Francis Newdigate, another brother, having been one of 
the gentlemen ushers of the household of the Protector 
Somerset, subsequently married the Duchess dowager, 
Anne, daughter of Sir Edward Stanhope. 1 

John, the eldest brother of this generation, in 1585 
exchanged the manor of Harefield for that of Arbury, in 
Warwickshire, where a fair mansion had recently been 
erected, on the site of a religious house, by Sir Edmond 
Anderson, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. After 
this, the principal seat of the Newdegates was at Arbury, 
which still remains in the name ; but Harefield was also 
re-acquired, by purchase, by Sir Richard JSTewdigate, a 

1 See his epitaph (ob. 1568) at Hawues, in Collectanea Topogr. 
it Geneal., iii. 86 ; but for " Anthonius Newdegate, Arm., supervise 
'erraru quondam regis Henrici Octavi dum steterit Auditorurn unius," 
vhoujd be read " Ciu-ie Supervisoru," &c. 



238 THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY 

serjeant-at-law, who had honestly and independently 
served during the Protectorate, first as a Justice of the 
Common Bench, and subsequently as Chief Justice of the 
Upper Bench, and in 1677 was created a Baronet by King 
Charles II. After this, the alliances of the family were 
of the first distinction, and are accurately recited in the 
"Baronetage." They have a fine series of monuments 
at Harefield, of one of which, a reclining figure of Mary 
Lady Newdigate, by Grinling Gibbons, there is an en- 
graving in Lysons' "Middlesex Parishes." Her hus- 
band, Sir Richard Newdigate, the second Baronet, was 
member for Warwickshire in the reign of Charles II. 
The fifth Baronet, Sir Roger Newdigate, after having 
been knight of the shire for Middlesex, sat for thirty 
years as one of the burgesses for the University of 
Oxford, and has left his name to be perpetually remem- 
bered there as the founder of the Newdigate prize poem. 
Sir Roger died in 1806, in the ninety-seventh year of his 
age, when the baronetcy expired, and the family, so far 
as I am aware, became entirely extinct in the male line. 
Francis, a younger son of the second Baronet, had a son, 
Francis, who died without issue, and a daughter, Mili- 
cent, married to William Parker, Esq., of Salford Prior's, 
in Warwickshire ; and her son, Francis Parker, of Kirk 
Hallam, in Derbyshire, assumed the name and arms of 
Newdigate, in compliance with the will of his maternal 
uncle, Francis Newdigate, Esq. The name had now for 
some generations been usually spelt Newdigate ; but old 
Sir Roger was very desirous to restore the ancient ortho- 
graphy Newdegate; therefore, when he left directions that 
the name should be assumed by another of his cousins of 
the Parker family, care was taken that that spelling should 
be adopted. 

It was the present member for North Warwickshire's 
father, Charles Newdigate Parker, Esq., who took the 
name and arms of Newdegate only, instead of Parker ; 
but both he and his present son have borne also the bap- 
tismal name of Newdt'gate, and therefore it is that their 
names appear as Charles Newdigate Newdegate. The 
family of Kirk Hallam, on the contrary, now resident at 



OF THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 239 

Byrkley Lodge, near Burton-on-Trent, in Staffordshire, 
keep to the spelling of the last century, Newdigate. 

Before we return to the main line of the family at 
Newdegate, it may here be noticed that a member of the 
Harefield family was for some time resident in Surrey, 
in possession of the manor of Little Ashted. It was an 
estate which had belonged to Merton Abbey, and was 
granted by Queen Mary to Anne, Duchess of Somerset. 
In the year 1578 the name of Eobert Newdegate occurs 
as receiving (with A.rthur Fountain) a grant, or lease, 
of Little Ashted from the Crown, 1 and immediately con- 
veying it to his brother Francis, the Duchess's husband. 
Subsequently Henry Newdegate, Esq., was lord of this 
manor, a great-nephew of Francis and Robert, and a 
younger son of John Newdegate, Esq., of Arbury, co. 
Warwick, by his second wife, Mary Smyth. 2 His monu- 
ment, still remaining at Little Ashted, records him to 
have maintained great hospitality there. Possibly his 
housekeeping embarrassed him ; for, many years before 
his death, it is said in 1603, he suffered a recovery, 
and, with John Newdegate, his brother, conveyed this 
estate to George Cole, Esq., of Petersham. 3 His epi- 
taph 4 is as follows, on "a reddish marble tablet," 
bearing the arms of Newdigate, with a crescent for dif- 
ference : 

HENRICI NEWDIGATE Arm. quondam hujus Manerii Dom. Filii 

1 In 20 Eliz., Robert Newdigate, of Hawnes, co. Bedford, Esq., 
and Arthur Fountayne, of Salle, co. Norfolk, gentleman, were joint 
grantees of the lordship or manor of Paris Garden, in the parish of 
Christ Church, Southwark. (See Manning and Bray, iii. 631.) 

2 Visitation of Warwickshire, 1682. This John Newdegate (the 
father) dying in London, was buried away from home, and his death is 
consequently unrecorded in the Baronetage. It has appeared in a 
recent work : " John Nidigate, esquire, of Arburie, co. Warwick, 
buried 26 Feb. 1591." (Milbourn's History of St. Mildred's in the 
Poultry, p. 34.) The Baronetage places his birth in 1541. 

3 Manning and Bray, ii. 630 (and Aubrey's Surrey, vol. ii. p. 247). 

4 Ibid. p. 633. An imperfect copy of this epitaph is given in Wotton's 
Baronetage, 1741, iv. 622, but the place of its existence is left a blank. 
It is there stated that this Henry " seated himself at Hampton, in coin. 
Middlesex." Not improbably Hampton is an error for Ashted. Lysons 
mentions no Newdegate under Hampton. 

VOL. VI. R 



240 THE ORIGIN AND EAELY IIISTOEY 

secundo geniti Johannis Newdigate de Harfeild in com. Mid. 
armig. et fratris Johannis Newdigate de Arbury in com. Warw. 
Militis. Qui quidem Henricus magnam Hospital itatem tenuit, 
sed (Mariam Haselrig viduam moestissimam relinquens,) Improlis 
ob. An. ^Etatis suaj 48. Et hie sepultus fuit 16 Maij 1629. 

It was not until 1635 that a commission issued for 
administration to his effects. 1 

From the pedigree of Poyntz it would seem that, 
anterior to the Newdegates of whom we have now been 
speaking, there were heiresses of a certain Thomas New- 
degate, one of whom 2 was married to William Poyntz, of 
Eeigate, (son of John Poyntz and Catherine, daughter of 
Sir Matthew Browne, of Betchworth), and was grand- 
mother of Newdegate Poyntz (A.I). 1643), from whom 
the distinguished family of Poyntz, of Midgeham, co. 
Berks, and Cowdrey, co. Sussex, have descended. New- 
degate Poyntz marked Sarah, daughter of Newde- 
gate Foxley, of Harringworth, co. Northampton. (Ibid., 
p. 286.) 

The history of the main line of this family, which 
continued at Newdegate for two centuries after the 
alleged separation of the more eminent junior branch 
in the reign of Edward III., is not distinguished by 
many remarkable or interesting circumstances. Still 
it is a part of the history of this place and district, 
and on that account claims to be traced and recorded. 
The Newdegates of Newdegate produced no more 
sheriffs, no more members of parliament, nor did they 
make any important marriages. None of them were 
knights. The head of the family, who made his will in 
1516, styles himself only as gentleman. 

The inquisition 3 taken upon the death of Thomas 

1 Henry Newdegate, late of Ashted, co. Surrey, gentleman. Commis- 
sion to Thomas Hunt, of Gray's Inn, issued last day of July, 1635. 
Surrey Administrations, H.M. Court of Prob., 114 b. 

2 " Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of Thomas Newdigate, of New- 
degate, co. Surrey." Dallaway's Rape of Chichester, p. 285. 

3 I have to acknowledge my obligation to the Rev. T. R. O'fflahertie, 
Vicar of Capel, for the use of a copy of this inquisition. It is extant 
both in the Escheator's Inquisitions for Surrey and Sussex, 18 Eliz. ; 
and in the Chancery Inquisitions, 1 9 Eliz. 



OP THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 241 

Nudigate, Esq., of Nudigate, in the 18th Eliz. (1576), 
is a document of much importance, not only for its 
description of the property of the family at that period, 
but also for some remarkable circumstances in relation 
to the family itself. It shows that the deceased had 
been seized in his demesne as of fee, of 

1. The site of the manor of Nudigate, 200 acres of 
land, pasture, and wood adjoining, with their appur- 
tenances in Nudigate and Charlewood, the particulars 
of which are thus described : - 

A messuage, 60 acr. of land, meadow and pasture called Beare lande ; 
a water mill ; a cottage with a garden called Pollarde garden ; 
64 acr. of land, pasture and meadow called Southland and 
Maries ; 24 acr. of pasture and arable land called Stiideland : 
7 acr. called Kymers meadowe ; and 3 acr. called Hales, all in 
Nudigate. 

A messuage 8 acr. of meadow and pasture called Nudigate's Croftes ; 
60 acr. of land, meadow and pasture called Woodeland, in 
Charlewood. 

Eight acres of land in Rowspere, co. Sussex, in the occupation of 
Robert Mathewe. 

Also, in reversion, after the death of Pernell Messe of Blakeslye, co. 
Northampton, these other parcels of land in Nudigate : 34 
acres of meadow and pasture called Clarkes land ; 35 acr. of 
land, meadow, pasture, and wood, called Borley land ; 8 acr. of 
pasture and wood called Bachelers; and 16s. 2d. of rent. 1 

All these premises constituted the manor of Nudigate, 
which was held of Sir Henry Neville, Lord Abergavenny, 
as of his manor of East Betchworth, in free socage; viz., 
by the rent of 3s. a year and fealty for all services ; and 
it was worth per annum twenty marks, or 13. 6s. 8d. 

2. A messuage, 50 acres of land, meadow and pasture, 
in Nudigate, called Rolfe and Henmer, held of the master 

1 These are described in the will as " all my quit and fre rentes 
issuing out of certain parcelles of lande lyinge in Nudigate, Horleye, 
and Rowspere ; viz. out of Haselhurst, Horley, xvjd. ; out of Fowles 
vijd. ; out of Mr. Lighes, South lande, iiijs. ; out -of Little Gilden, xjd. ; 
out of the Horsey lande, iijs. ; out of Pytters, xiiijd. ; out of Dennerst, 
xijd. ; out of Gottwycke house and a croft lying thereto, xijd. ; out of 
Moses howse garden and gates viijd. ; and out of a certain land lying 
by Horlye mylle ijs. vid." To these was added a tenement standing in 
Horsham town with two gardens and a yerde, value not stated, 

R 2 



242 THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY 

and scholars of Trinity College in Cambridge, as of 
their manor of Marlande, in free socage ; rent 7s. 6d. ; 
annual value 36s. 

3. A messuage, 33 acres of land, meadow and pasture, 
&c., in Nudigate, called Cockman's. (The tenure and 
value of this is not afterwards stated, it being, as will 
be seen, already settled on Walter Newdigate.) 

4. The reversion, after the death of Parnell Massey, 
of a messuage, 80 acres of pasture, meadow, and wood, 
called Seman's and Ralford, in Capell ; held of Thomas 
Borde and Edward Willet, as of their manor of Grenes, 
in free socage ; rent 16tL ; annual value 20s. 

5. The reversion, after the death of Parnell Massey, 
of 20 acres of land, pasture and wood, called the Hurst, 
in Capell ; held of Philip Earl of Surrey, Henry Earl 
of Derby, and Sir Henry Neville knight, Lord Aber- 
gavenny, as of their manor of Dorking, in free socage ; 
rent 6d. ; annual value 6s. 8d. 

6. The reversion, after the death of Parnell Massey, 
of 20 acres of land and pasture, called Deane-land, in 
Nudigate, held of Nicholas Bowet as of his manor of 
Cudworth, in free socage ; rent 5s. ; annual value 10s. 

On the 19th January, 1576 (within six weeks of his 
death) the deceased had granted a deed of feoffment of 
all his lands ; and on the 20th February he had made 
his last will and testament, both of which documents 
are recited at length in the Inquisition. 

By the former he vested in Henry Mich ell and John 
Fuller, of Eowspere, yeomen, his manor of Nudigate, 
and all other his lands, &c., in Nudigate, Charlewood, 
Capell, and Ruspere, making Henry Stanton, of Capell, 
yeoman, his attorney, to give them possession ; and by 
a schedule annexed the uses were declared to be 1. to 
stand seized of the messuage called Cockman's to the 
use of Walter Nudigate his son, and the heirs of his 
body, and for lack of such heirs to the use of Agnes 
Eyer and Venyshe Newdigate, daughters of the said 
Thomas; 2. to stand seized of the manor, mill, and 
residue of all other the messuages, &c., to the use of the 
said Thomas during his natural life, and after his decease 



OP THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 243 

to the only use of Agnes, Ms wife, during her life, and 
then to his son or daughters, as in the preceding clause. 

By his will l he left to his wife, together with these 
estates, permission "to fell and take sufficient tymber 
for the necessary buylding, repayring, and supporting of 
the said howses as occasion serves, and lykewise suffi- 
cient hedge-boote, fyre-boote, plough-boote, and waine- 
boote for her own occupying and spending there," with- 
out wilful waste, &c. ; also " the howse which I nowe 
dwelle in called Nudigate Place," with these " standeres 
and storryers," which she was to leave standing and 
remaining at her death ; viz. "two greate long spittes ; 
three tables in the hall, with three formes ; all the seal- 
ings in the howse ; and all the portalls, glasse, and 
glasse windows, and all the benches within the same 
howse beinge and to the same howse belonginge ; and 
one joyned bedsted with all things therunto belonginge 
as yt now standeth in the chamber at the lower ende of 
the hall, and also one other joyned bedsted, now stand- 
ing in the Old Parlor." 

The next clause of the will is especially remarkable. 
It is " that Thomas my sonne shall have allowed him of 
my sonne Walter his chamber, his meate, drinke, and 
apparell resonable and sufficient, and fortie shillings 
yerelye, to be paid him quarterlie ; " or if he should 
refuse that provision, then ten pounds yearly. Either 
payment was secured upon the testator's lands in Nudi- 
gate called Sowthelande and Maries ; but no reason 
whatever is assigned for this treatment of his elder son, 
who, by the deed of feoffinent and by the will, was thus 
disinherited. 

The jurors, notwithstanding, returned, in due course 
of law, that Thomas Nudigate was the son and heir of 
the deceased Thomas, whose death occurred on the 7th 
March, and that he was of the age of thirty years and 
more. The inquisition was taken at Guldeford on the 
7th December in the same year, the names of the jurors 
being William Seygare, Richard Smithe, John Love- 

1 Of the will a fuller abstract will be found hereafter, p. 263. 



244 



THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY 



land, John Eussell, Henry Clyfton, Thomas Coxe, 
William Underwood, Robert Seigare, Nicholas Gadd, 
Henry Butt, Eichard Jellye, John Bexe, John Waltham, 
Thomas Farley of Wonershe, Thomas Allen, and 
Thomas Crosse. 

We are here presented with an evident case of disin- 
heritance, but its reason is left to conjecture. The 
probability appears to be that Thomas, the eldest son, 
was afflicted with imbecility. 

Walter Newdegate appears as the head of the family 
in 1588, when he contributed 25 towards the defence 
of the country from the threatened invasion of the 
Spanish Armada, and he was buried at Newdegate on 
the 10th of August, 1590. It was probably the dis- 
inherited brother who was buried on the 22nd November, 
1611, as " Thomas Newdegate, senior, gentleman." 

" Thomas Newdegate, Esquire," who was buried 
February 24th, 1611-12, was probably the son and heir 
of Walter. 




A gravestone, now lying in the very centre of Newde- 
gate Church, despoiled of a brass, which represented the 
deceased in armour, probably marks the grave of William 
de Newdegate, often knight of the shire, and subse- 
quently sheriff, who died about the year 1400. It still 
retains two shields of arms, which are not very readily 
deciphered, for their surface is not of ordinary brass or 
laten, but they have been run in with lead, and were no 
doubt formerly enamelled or painted, to represent the 
armorial coat of Newdegate, which is usually blazoned 



OF THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 245 

as Gules, three lion's jambs erased argent. 1 Both 
shields are alike, without any impalement. 

The armorial coat, which is in the opposite window, 2 
is probably of still earlier date. It has been turned 
inside out, and the lion's legs face the sinister instead 
of the dexter side. The border in which it is set is of 
very beautiful design, though now in some degree muti- 
lated. The canopies above are of later date, and 
evidently coeval with the window itself, which may be 
placed at about the commencement of the 
sixteenth century. Therefore we may pre- 
sume that the arms of the Newdegates have 
been preserved from an earlier window, 
and possibly removed from another part of 
the church. 3 

I may here remark that I have not met 
with any other example of the arms of 
the earlier Newdegates than that grave- 
stone and that window. No ancient seal 
bearing their arms has been discovered ; 
but the seal of John Newdegate, in 1424, 
presents the device of a single paw, and whether really 

1 Manning and Bray. 

2 See engraving at p. 233 of this volume. 

3 The Heralds' Visitation of 1623 gives the following account of the 
armorial glass then remaining in the windows : 

" In the parish Church of Newdegate, in Surr., taken the sixteenth 
of December, Anno Domini 1623." 

1. "Warren, Cheeky. "This coate of "Warren six severall tymes." 

2. Clare, Or, three chevronels gules. 

3. Newdegate, three lion's jambs. 

4. Quarterly, Warren and Arundel, Grules, a lion rampant or. 

5. Segrave, Azure, three garbs argent. 

6. De la Poyle, Argent, a saltire gules, a bordure sable bezantee. 

" In the Chappell of Codford in Surr : taken the same tyme." 

1. Segrave, and 2. De la Poyle, repeated. 

This "Chappell of Codford" (Cudworth) must either mean the .south 
aisle of Newdegate church, or a chapel in the manor-house at Cudworth 
but no notice has occurred of that manor-house having a chapel of its own. 

Aubrey's account of the glass is more imperfect ; but he says that 
in the east window were " three sharp escocheons of Warren, and the 
same in the south window." By " sharp," we may presume he meant 
acutely pointed, and consequently very ancient. 




246 



THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY 




a lion's paw, when first adopted, may be doubtful. I am 
informed that there is a legendary story in the Newde- 
gate family that the paws allude to wolves exterminated 
in the forest. 1 

In 1496, another Thomas Newdegate, instead of 
armorial bearings, seals with a 
Rebus of his name, which is formed 
of the letters N U, in the old black 
letter, at top, and a capital letter D, 
with a gate. 

Whether there were formerly any 
other sepulchral memorials to the 
Newdegates in this church there is 
no record to tell. The slabs of 
Sussex marble in the pavement 
marking graves are numerous in 
all directions, including the belfry ; 
but so completely are they worn 
or decayed, that, with two excep- 
tions, 3 they retain no signs either 

of having been formerly inlaid with brass plates, or of 
bearing inscriptions. 

But there still remains a remarkable fact to be told 
with regard to the interments of the Newdegates. It 
appears that up to the period of the Reformation they 
possessed a separate sepulchral chapel, which was situ- 
ated somewhere in the churchyard, but upon what spot 
is now entirely unknown. It existed before 1482, in 
which year Thomas Newdegate, by his will, directed his 
body to be buried in the Chapel of St. Margaret of 
Newdegate, leaving at the same time the sum of xij d< to 
the high altar of the Church of St. Peter of Newdegate. 
In like manner, Thomas his son, in the year 1516, 
desired to be buried in the Chapel of St. Margaret of 

1 As blasoned by the heralds, the arms of Newdegate are Gules, 
three lion's jambs erased argent. Crest, a fleur-de-lis argent. (Visita- 
tion of Warwickshire, 1682.) Aubrey, vol. ii. p. 247, misnames them 
as bear's paws ; an error followed in Manning and Bray, ii. 175 ; after- 
wards, vol. iv. p. 262, as " three eagle's claws erased from the knee 

3 Noticed by Major Heales in his paper on the church. 



OP THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 247 

Newdegate, directing his obit to be observed there for 
twenty years. 

And the next Thomas, in the year 1521, made the 
like request ; and in his will the chapel is particularly 
described as being in the churchyard of Newdigate. 
Aubrey was told of this chapel, and mentions l that after 
it was pulled down " the tradition was, this family soon 
after began to decay." He says it gave place to the 
building of a farm-house ; but, as it stood in the church- 
yard, that could not be literally the case. Its materials 
may have been used for that -purpose. Not impossibly 
it was built of oak only, like the extraordinary belfry. 

It is reasonable to conclude that after the suppression 
of chantries its removal shortly followed. It was evi- 
dently gone in 1576, when the then head of the family, 
Thomas Newdegate, Esq. (in his will already quoted), 
desired to be buried in the parish church, " in the middle 
pavement, before the glass window where the Newde- 
gates' arms are set ;" that is to say, under or near the 
gravestone upon which his ancestor was, or had been, 
represented in brass plate. 

Thomas Newdegate, Esq., who died in 1612, is 
stated to have died seized of the manor of Newdegate, 
which he left to his nephew, West Newdegate ; but it 
finally came to his own daughters, as co-heiresses, by 
the elder and survivor of whom, Mary, wife of William 
Steper, the whole estate was sold in the year 1636 to 
Mr. John Budgen. 

The particulars are thus related by Mr. Bray 
(ii. 172). Although the last Thomas Newdegate 
died in 1612, " the inquisition on his death was not 
taken until 26th November, 1619, when it was found that 
he died 22nd November, 1612, seized of the manor of 
Newdegate and divers lands there, and in Charlewood, 
Horley, and Capel, leaving Mary and Anne, his daughters 
and co-heirs, the former of the age of tenj the latter of 
five (at the time of his death). In 17 James I., 1620, 
their wardship was granted to Henry Darell, Esq., and 

1 History of Surrey. 



248 THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY 

Mary his wife, their mother. Mary, the elder daughter, 
married William Steper ; l Anne married William 
Smythieman. The latter died without issue ; and in the 
inquisition it was found that she died seized of a moiety 
of the manor and lands, and that Mary was her sister 
and heir. She afterwards sued out livery [of the ex- 
penses of which Bray, in a note, appends a very curious 
account]. It should seem from these circumstances that 
the devise to West Newdegate was not considered valid. 
However this may be, West Newdegate joined with 
Steper and wife in a sale to Mr. John Budgen in 1636." 

In the " Companion from London to Brighthelmston," 
by J. Edwards, Topographer, 4to., 1801, Newdegate is 
described as " situated in an exceedingly dirty country, 
the soil being a strong clay, which, with the least rain, 
dissolves and becomes intolerably dirty." Edwards also 
states that in the Five Bells public-house, opposite the 
church, he had seen " a good old painting of Sir Roger 
Newdigate, who once lived in Newdigate Place." This 
might have been really a portrait of one of the Newde- 
gate family (though not "Sir Roger") lingering about 
its old home. 

NEWDEGATE PLACE, the ancient mansion of the New- 
degates, stood at the distance of about three-quarters of 
a mile to the south of the church, and, in fact, is still 
standing. I entertain little doubt that it was originally 
surrounded by a moat, as was usual with the old manor- 
houses in this district ; although there is now no very 
apparent evidence of that circumstance, except in there 
being several ponds near the house. Bray describes it 
as having consisted of a quadrangle and a court in the 
middle ; and it remained entire for about a century and 
a half after the JSTewdegates had quitted it. Its pos- 
sessors, the family of Budgen, alternated their residence 

1 " This last person, William Steper, personated one of the same name 
and of a considerable estate and family in Yorkshire, and managed his 
scheme with so much art that he married the heiress of this family, 
and so made himself master of this estate." This is an anecdote added 
by Aubrey ; but it is suppressed by Manning and Bray, perhaps from 
regarding it as untrue. 



OF THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 249 

between this village and the town of Dorking ; and their 
pedigree is given by Bray under this parish. Thomas 
Budgen, Esq., was member for Surrey in the last two 
parliaments of George II. His grandson, John Smith 
Budgen, Esq., of Twickenham, sold Newdegate Place in 
the year 1807 to the Duke of Norfolk, having some 
twenty years before reduced its dimensions to those of 
an ordinary farm-house. 

The old manor-house of CUDWORTH, in the parish of 
Newdegate, though now a farm-house in a state of con- 
siderable dilapidation and decay, still retains more of 
its original character than Newdegate Place ; its moat 
being complete, a staircase, with handsome balusters, 
and most of its apartments. The capacious chimney in 
the principal sitting-room has still its old iron dogs and 
fire-back, rudely ornamented with the royal arms. 1 
Altogether it will repay the trouble of a visit to those 
who take an interest in the domestic arrangements of 
our forefathers. 

Cudworth belonged for a time to the Newdegate 
family, and was sold by them in the year 1636 to one of 
the Edes, 3 a family long resident in the parish, but the 
line of whose descent has not been traced. 3 In 1775 it 
was sold by Mr. Ede to Lee Steere, Esq. 4 

Another place of historical interest in the parish of 
Newdegate is the ancient park of I WOOD, or EWOOD. This 
appears to have been an inclosure in the forest country 
made at an early date, and which in ancient times 
belonged to the Earls of Warren and Arundel. It was 

1 France and England quarterly ; both supporters lions guardant. 
Motto, " HONE SOVT QVEY MAL Y PENSE." (Its age will be probably 
anterior to the accession of James I.) 

2 Manning and Bray, ii. 175. 

3 The Edes were very numerous, and the parish registers of Newde- 
gate are full of the name. Bray's pedigree of Budgen shows three 
marriages of Edes with that family. Mary (Ede), widow of James 
Budgen, was married to Richard Morton, of Ewood Park (see p. 251). 
James Ede, Esq., of Cudworth. who died July 13, 1722, aged 43, and 
Mary his wife, who died August 22, 1716, aged 35, were buried in 
Rusper church. Cartwright's Rape of Br amber, p. 380. 

* Manning and Bray, ut supra. 



250 THE ORIGIN AND EAELY HISTORY 

the scene of an old iron-work, probably one of the 
nearest to London in this quarter. 1 In 1553 Sir Henry 
Neville, Lord Abergavenny (to whom it had descended 
by inheritance from the Earls of Arundel), conveyed all 
his messuages, lands, and rough ground, commonly 
called Iwood, otherwise the Park of Iwood, in Newde- 
gate, and all the buildings, iron-works, and offices 
within the same, and the view of frankpledge of the 
inhabitants and residents which now or hereafter shall 
be within the same, to George and Christopher Darell. 3 
(Glaus. 7 Edw. VL, p. 1.) 

That these iron-works were still upheld at the begin- 
ning of Elizabeth's reign, appears from the Act of 
1 Eliz., cap. 15, Timber not to be felled to make coals 
for iron- works, but the Act not to extend to Charlewood, 
Newdegate, and Leigh. (Manning and Bray, vol. iii. 
Appendix, p. iv.) For the iron-works of Charlewood see 
also Manning and Bray. 

Aubrey contemplates Ewood from a considerable 
distance ; that is, from the camp on Homesbury Hill : 
" Full east from this camp (he says) in the Wyld is a 
large pond, called Eaglewood Pond, in the parish of 
Nudigate, of about 20 or 30 acres " (iv. 172). 

And the following description of it, by a county 
historian not long after him, has not, I believe, been 
hitherto printed. It represents the iron-mill converted 
into one for corn : 

" In this parish is Iwood, Ey wood, or Ewood, which, according to 
the name, is a woody place ; where sometymes dwelt Henry Dorell, or 
Darell, gent. It is an auntient mansion and faire demeasnes. There 
is a good fishpond nigh the house, upon the bay whereof standeth a 
corne mill. This did auntiently belong to the Warrens, Earles of 
Surrey, who kept the same for their pleasure in hunting, hawking, and 



1 In Britannia, JDepicta, or Ogilby Improv'd, a Road-Book by Eman. 
Bo wen, Engraver, 1720, there are "iron-mills" shown to the right of 
the twenty-second milestone between Cobhani and Ripley, on the high 
road from London to Portsmouth (p. 72). 

2 The Darells became connected by marriage with the Newdegate 
family (see the pedigree), and a " Mr. George Darrell " was buried at 
Newdegate so late as May 26, 1620. 



OF THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 251 

fishing." (Collections for the History of Surrey, by Richard Symmes, 
Town Clerk of Guildford, 1670-80, now the Addit. MS. Brit. Mus. 
6167.) 

In the time of William III. the house and half the 
park of Ewood belonged to Dr. Morton, a physician. 1 
He left a son of the same profession, who, with Richard, 
his son and heir-apparent, suffered a recovery in 1725, 
and settled it as a jointure on Fazeby Morton, 2 the wife 
of Richard, the son. The son was a barrister, and 
having outlived his first wife, in 1736 settled it, on his 
marriage with a second wife, Mary, widow of James 
Budgen, of Cudworth. He was then called of Ewood ; 
and having six daughters, by his will, dated 4th De- 
cember, 1767, he directed this estate to be sold. 3 It was 
accordingly sold to Thomas Grimstead, Esq., of London, 
who died about 1782, 4 leaving Joseph Valentine Grim- 

1 A memorandum in the Parish Register regarding the churchyard 
fence, which is maintained in divisions called " Marks," contains this 
passage : " Ewood being divided, the farm called Chitty repairs one-half 
and Mr. Morton's farm the other half 37 feet." Joseph Chitty, gent., 
was buried at Newdegate Jan. 25, 1767. Henry Chitty and Margaret 
Holland were mai-ried July 5, 1666. 

2 The second marriage of this lady was as follows : " 1 750, Oct. 22. 
Drew Walter of Rygate, and Fasby Morton, of this parish, were 
married with Licence." (Par. Reg. Newdegate.) Is Fasby a modi- 
fication of Thisbe ? 

3 In the south or Cudworth aisle of Newdegate church is a marble 
tablet in memory of Richard Morton, Esq., of Ewood, who died Oct. 25, 
1768, aged 67 ; and of his wife Mary, buried in the same place, May 4, 
1778, in her 73cd year; erected by Sarah Crowiher, her daughter. 
There is the following entry in the Parish Register : 

"1768. Richard Morton,Esq., ob. 23 October; sep. 1 November. 
" N.B. O Cecidit vir sagax ! 

"DAVID CAMPBEL, Rector. 

DAN 1 EVANS, Curate." 

And in another page : " Received of Mr. Morton the sum of five 
guineas for a Vault under Cudworth Seat in the Church, after some 
dispute about its being due, by me DAN. EVANS, August 21 st , 1769." 
On Mrs. Morton's funeral the Rev. George Allen, then Rector, 
received a fee of two guineas. 

4 In the Gentleman's Magazine, 1777, occurs, as dying Sept. 27, 
James Grimstead, Esq., formerly agent victualler for Gibraltar; and 
again, in 1782, Sep. 24, as dying at Putney, James Grimstead, Esq., 
formerly an agent victualler for Gibraltar and Minorca. The latter, 
probably, should be Thomas, the person named by Mr. Bray. 



252 THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY 

stead, Esq., his son and heir, of whom it was purchased by 
the Duke of Norfolk in 1786, who in the same year also 
acquired, by purchase, the manor of Shelwood, in the 
adjoining parish of Leigh. "Thus (remarks Bray) the 
manors of Newdegate and Shelwood and Iwood Park, all 
formerly possessions of the Earls of Warren, Surrey, and 
Arundel, having been separated for centuries, and having 
passed through several hands, became again united in 
the heir male and descendant of those noble families, the 
present Duke of Norfolk, who, having inherited from 
them three-fourths of the manor and demesne of Dorking, 
and purchased the other fourth, and having purchased 
many contiguous lands (among which was the adjoining 
estate of Henfold in 1806), he planned, and in 1807 
began erecting a mansion adjoining to Iwood, on the 
brow of an eminence commanding a delightful prospect 
of the park and water, and of the beautiful wooded 
heights of Dorking and the neighbouring country. His 
Grace intends it as an occasional residence for himself 
and successors, being nearly at an equal distance from 
the metropolis and Arundel Castle. 1 A plan of it is, by 
his Grace's munificence, given to this work. His Grace's 
attention to that most useful as well as delightful 
employment of planting has been shown in the magni- 
ficent specimens given at and about Arundel. Here 

1 In this passage Bray does not advert to another circumstance that 
had a material relationship to the Duke's project. His ancestors for 
three generations had been seated at Depedene, in Dorking, the 
beautiful spot which was first rendered remarkable by the taste of 
his great-grandfather, the Hon. Charles Howard (younger brother to 
the sixth Duke) ; and it was after making the greater part of the 
purchases described by Mr. Bray that the Duke sold Depedene. The 
heads of this branch of the Howard family were usually buried in 
Dorking Church; viz. 

1695, Nov. 7. Mary, wife of Hon. Charles Howard. 

1713, March 31. The Hon. Charles Howard. 

1720, June 10. Charles Howard, Esq. 

1747, Oct. 2. Mary his widow. 

1786, August 31. Charles tenth Duke of Norfolk. 

(His wife Catherine was buried at Arundel.) 

1768, May 28. Mary- Anne, first wife of Charles afterwards eleventh 
Duke. 

1815, Dec. 16, Charles eleventh Duke of Norfolk. 



OP THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 253 

Nature is so liberal in the growth of trees, that little 
more is necessary than to preserve what she so freely 
bestows." 

It is remembered that this mansion was sufficiently 
finished, shortly before the Duke's death, for a house- 
warming to take place, to which high and low were 
invited; and there is an aged labourer, still living at 
Holmwood and in my employ, who remembers being 
one of those who went and partook of his Grace's ale upon 
that occasion. 1 But it is very remarkable that the plan 
of the mansion, which was to be given by his Grace to 
the " History of Surrey," did not eventually appear in 
that work. The Duke's death intervened in 1815, and 
after that event the house was dismantled, and in great 
measure pulled down. I am informed that some of the 
materials were removed to Arundel. 

I one day, as I was walking through the woods, un- 
expectedly came upon its ruins, of which I had not 
before been informed. They stood, as Bray describes, 
on rising ground, looking towards the range of dovm 
extending from Dorking to Eeigate ; a road through the 
woods from the house at Henfold leading directly to 
them. But when I was at the spot, the growth of the 
trees had veiled the prospect. There was still a con- 
siderable block of building faced with stone, 2 and ex- 
hibiting, some plain empty niches, reminding me of the 
unfinished rear of the house at Gatton. Though so 
modern a ruin, it was somewhat picturesque, and it was, 
I confess with regret, that I found it had been removed, 
and the materials carried away in the early part of last 
year (1871). But it is, perhaps, still more remarkable 
that the large pond which formerly existed at Ewood, 
and upon which the Duke reckoned as a desirable 

1 Among the traditional recollections of the old Duke are, that he 
generally travelled about this country in a carriage drawn by four long- 
tailed black horses. In his earlier days he was fond of driving four-in- 
hand, and was usually accompanied by a black foot-boy. 

2 Bray ley (History of Surrey, iv. 289) says : "It was constructed of 
the limestone called Sussex marble, obtained from the quarries at 
Charlewood." It was limestone, I believe, and from Charlewood, biit 
a different stone from the Sussex marble. 



254 THE OEIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY 

feature of his landscape, has also entirely disappeared. 
Bray (p. 174) describes Ewood as " a park of about 600 
acres, including a piece of water flowing 60 acres." 
Ewood Pond may be seen properly laid down in the 
Ordnance map, engraved forty years ago ; but it had 
been drained before the publication of Brayley's "History 
of Surrey " in 1840. 1 The massive wall of stone, which 
bounded the pond to the north, and the opening through 
it for the mill-race, as well as another for excess of 
water, are still to be seen, together with a grand old 
oak in a state of demi-ruin. There is still a farm-house 
near at hand, which has a picturesque old chimney- 
stack ; and it is probably the remaining portion 2 of 
what Edwards calls " a large farm-house, belonging to 
the Duke of Norfolk." 

I have added these local notes to my account of the 
Newdegate family, thinking they possess some interest, 
and I will make only a very few further remarks in 
regard to the etymology of the local name. I believe it 

1 Edwards, in 1801, speaks of "Ewe-wood Pond, which is said to 
flow an hundred acres, and is famous for fish." This measurement 
seems to be followed by Bray ley : " There was formerly a pond at 
Ewood, which covered upwards of one hundred acres of ground ; but 
this has been drained." (Vol. i. p. 189.) For its extent, Bray's 
account is probably more reliable. 

2 Ewood is often named in a book called The Howard Papers, by 
H. Kent Staple Causton, an octavo volume, bearing no date on its 
title-page, but at the close of the introduction, " Nov. 5, 1862." It 
was compiled chiefly from the papers of Mr. Walter Howard, a gentle- 
man who claimed to be a cousin of the Duke of Norfolk, as shown in 
various pedigrees included in the book. The Duke at one time assisted 
him; and "on the 21st December, 1795, he was taken down to 
Ewood, and by the Duke's steward, Mr. Seymour, established there on 
a small property the Duke appears to have purchased a few years 
before" (p. 437). Afterwards he was dispossessed, and the house (he 
says) pulled down. His subsequent conduct betrayed insanity. " I 
have," he stated in an appeal to the House of Lords, May 30, 1806, 
"a just right to charge the Duke of Norfolk of withholding from me 
the estate of Ewood, of which he gave me possession, now in the occu- 
pation of two persons named Burbury and Wilton, and held by them 
in the Duke's name. When my wife and myself were taken down to 
Ewood estate, and placed in possession of it as my own," &c. <kc. 
(p. 439). The same statements are frequently repeated in this extra- 
ordinary book. (See its Index, and particularly p. 621.) 



OF THE FAMILY OF NEWDEGATE. 255 

is generally allowed that the usual meaning of gate in 
this neighbourhood is a way or road, 1 notwithstanding 
that Thomas Newdegate, on his seal, chose to represent 
a gate of entrance as part of his rebus. Now, in the 
name ISTew-wood-gate, the epithet new must apply to the 
gate ; for, when all was forest, a new wood was a name not 
likely to arise. 3 At some very early date, therefore, a 
new road was here made through the woodland country, 
the only previous road having been that of the Roman 
period, shown in the Ordnance map, ascending from 
Dorking by the steep ridge of the Redlands, and passing 
by Ansteybury camp to the Stane Street at Ockley. 

At that primeval date the high road from Dorking to 
Horsham, traversed in the last and present centuries by 
many of the Brighton and Worthing coaches, would not 
exist at all. 3 The Holmwood was entirely a dreary 
swamp, but presenting to view one or more prominent 
hills ; for such is the original meaning of holme, a 
mound of green pasture in the midst of a river, or in a 
marshy district. 

1 The various places in this district, in the names of which gate 
takes part, are noticed in Manning and Bray, i. 271 ; viz., Gatewick 
in Charlewood ; Newdegate, Gadbrook ; Reygate, Gatton, and Gatewick 
in Chipsted. 

2 A totally different suggestion has been made to me, that the 
parish was named after the Ewood, or Iw-wood, through or by which 
the gate or road passed. Such derivation might be fortified by the 
parallel cases of Knockholt, from Oak-holt, or oaken-holt, and by our 
familiar word nook for an hoJce or hooke (i.e. a corner), in both which 
instances an initial N has accrued. So ambiguous and embarrassing are 
the diversities of etymology. 

3 In Bowen's Road-Book (1720), already mentioned in p. 250, the 
road from Dorking to Horsham is not represented, but the road to 
Arundel is shown running over " Cold Harbor Hill " to " the Causway " 
at " Stone Street," and so crossing " Oke Flu." up " Oakwood Hill," 
along " Honey Lane," to the thirty-fourth milestone from London (p. 9). 



VOL. VI. 



256 APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX, 



CHARTERS AND ABSTRACTS OF CHARTERS RELATING 
TO NEWDEGATE AND THE NEWDEGATES. 

THE following charters and extracts of charters are collected from 
various sources. A portion of the muniments of the family having 
been carried into Warwickshire, particulars of some of the early 
charters were communicated by Sir Richard Newdigate, the third 
Baronet (who died in 1727) to Wotton, the genealogical bookseller, 
and published by him in his " Baronetage " of 1741. These are in the 
following pages marked Bar. Others, having remained with the title- 
<leeds of Newdegate, passed into the hands of the Budgen family, and 
were seen by Mr. Bray, but the only purpose to which he applied them 
was to form the uncertain pedigree already referred to ; for the few 
charters that he notices (ii. 171) are really some of those which had 
appeared in the "Baronetage." It was probably some of Mr. Budgen's 
charters that were preserved by Mr. Ambrose Glover, F.S.A., solicitor, 
of Reigate, and are now in the possession of his grandson and successor, 
Mr. Thomas Hart, of the same place. Some of these were noticed by 
Bray, under the parish of Wotton, and others by the Rev. Edmund 
Cartwright, in his " History of the Rape of Bramber," under the parish 
of Rusper. Mi\ Hart has done me the favour to open the collection 
to my inspection, and those which I have examined are marked Orig. 
in the following pages. A few that I have not found are marked Bray 
and Cartw. J. G. N. 

William Young gives, for homage and service, half a yard of land to 
Richard Newdegate. s. d. Ba/r. 

William Tessardus to the same Richard Newdegate, regarding lands in 
the parish of Newdegate, which his father (John de Newdegate) 
had held, s, d. Bar. 

William de Longo Ponte 1 grants to the same Richard Newdegate all 
that land which Walter de Horley 2 gave the said Richard, with 
Alice his daughter, in free marriage. Bar. 

1 i.e. Longbridge, in the parish of Horley : see Manning and Bray, 
iii. 187. 

2 Bray, in his Pedigree of Newdegate, has this name Horsea, instead 
of Horley, and he places the marriage at too late a date, marrying Alice 
to Richard Newdegate living in 1318. 



APPENDIX. 257 

% ' 

Richard son of Roger le Bald, conveying to John Newdegate xx acres 
of land in Newdegate, called Lamputt's Fields. Bar. 

Mabilia de la Bere, of Newdegate, in her pure widowhood, confirms to 
John Newdegate two fields in Newdegate, called Southheye and 
Northheye, which John had bought of Normannus de la Bere, her 
husband. (Temp. Hen. III.) Bar. 

Henry Kymer and "William Eylaff grant lands in Newdegate and 
Charlewode to William Newdegate. Bar. 

1289. Thomas de la Lynde assigns William Newdegate and others to 
sell a hundred loads of timber in his wood of Lynde. (17 Edw. I.) 
Bar. 

Gilbert Wytecrofte, of the parish of Cherlewode, grants to William 
Newdegate all his land called the Berland, in the parish of New- 
degate. Bar. 

John Egelaf grants lands to William Newdegate, in the reign of King 
Edward, son of King Edward (i.e. Edw. II.). Bar. 

Reginald ate Wytecrofte grants to William Newdegate a croft in 
Newdegate, known as Edwardscroffc. Bar. 

1319. John de la Bere grants to Simon le Bedel and Felice his wife, 
and the heirs of their bodies, all his lands, rents, and services in 
Cherlewode and Newdegate. Witnesses John de Wakehurst, 
John de Cherlewode, Walter de la Hoke, Peter Jordan, John 
Edolf, Walter le Wyggepole, John Randolf, and others. Dated 
at 12 Edw. II. Seal, a fleur-de-lis, S. IOHIS ATE BERE (en- 
graved in Manning and Bray, vol. iii. p. 109). I quote this charter 
from Bray, vol. ii. p. 195 (not having met with the original my- 
self). Bray there connects it with the family of Bures, which 
possessed a manor in the parish of Horley ; but that family was 
evidently wholly distinct from the family of de le Bere, or atte 
Bere. 

1328. Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Willielmus de Neudegate 
dedi concessi et hac present! carta mea confirmavi Ricardo de 
Neudegate filio meo totum tenementum meum quod emi de 
Reginaldo ate Whitecrofte et totam terram cum boscis et omnibus 
pertinentiis suis quam emi de domino Joha,nne de Ifelde et 
redditum sexdecim denariorum percipiendum annuatim de Johanne 
Rolf pro terra quam tenet de la Wodeland cum releviis et omnibus 
suis pertinentiis parochie de Cherlewode Habendum et tenendum 
totum predictum tenementum et totam terram predictam et 
redditum cum omnibus suis pertinentiis predicto Ricardo et 
heredibus suis de cor pore suo legitime procreatis libere quiete bene 
et in pace imperpetuum de capital! domino feodi illius per servicia 
inde debita et de jure consueta. Et si quod absit contingat 
quod dictus Ricardus obierit sine herede de corpore suo legitime 
procreate ex tune omnia predicta tenementa cum omnibus suis 
pertinentiis michi seu heredibus meis plenarie revertatur \sic\. Et 
ego dictus Willielmus et heredes mei omnia supra dicta tenementa 

s 2 



258 APPENDIX. 

cum suis pertinentiis predicto Ricardo et heredibus suis de corpore 
suo legitime procreatis contra onines warantizabimus gentes in 
perpetuum. In cujus rei testimonium huic present! carte sigillum 
meum apposui. Hiis testibus, Johanne de Cherlewode, Waltero 
ate Hoke, "Waltero de Wygepole, Willielmo Fabro, Johanne le 
Werhte, Johanne de Gotewike, Johanne Rolf, et multis aliis. 
Datum apud Neudegate die dominica proxima post festum sancti 
Michaelis Archangeli, anno regni regis Edwardi tercii a conquestu 
secundo. Orig. 

Small oval seal, a four-leaved flower : S. WILL'I DE 
NYWDEGATE (as engraved in p. 233). 

1329. Richard de Neudegate (by an indenture) grants to his father, 
William de Neudegate, all his tenements in Cherlewode for the 
term of his own life namely, those which he before had of his 
father's gift, called Wodelond, to be held by the service of one 
rose yearly, at the feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist. 
Dated on Sunday next after the feast of the Epiphany, 2 Edw. III. 
Witn. John de Cherlewode, William de Neudegate junior, John 
Wodenmn, John Edolf. John Rolf, and others. (Seal lost.) Oriy. 

1333. John de Neyudegate grants to his son Thomas a tenement called 
Le Hullond, in Gumesulve, for life; remainder to his brother 
John for life ; remainder to William, brother of Thomas and John. 
Dated at Polyngefeld on Tuesday after the feast of St. John ante 
portam Latinam (6th May), 7 Edw. III. Communicated by the 
Rev. T. R. O'fflahertie. 

1336. Mabilla, widow of Walter Sawe, grants to Peter de Gotewyke, 
and his heirs and assigns, one garden in the parish of Cherlewode, 
in length between the land of Richard le Smythe on the north, 
and the wood of the lord prior of Christ's church, Canterbury, on 
the south, in breadth between the land of the said Richard on the 
east, and the wood of the said lord prior on the west. Wit- 
nesses John de Wakehurst, John de Cherlewode, Peter Jordan, 
John Edolfe, William Godefroi, Walter de Wiggepole, Richard 
atte Hale, and others. Dated at Cherlewode on Sunday after the 
feast of the apostles Peter and Paul, 10 Edw. III. (Seal lost.) 
Orig. 

1353. William de Neudegate held certain lands and tenements in 
Gomshall of John Pally, by the annual rent of four shillings, 
threepence, and half a pound of pepper. By the following charter 
he was released to the extent of two shillings, threepence, and the 
half-pound of pepper leaving a rent of two shillings still due : 

Omnibus ad quos presens scriptum pervenerit Johannes Pally salutem 
in Domino. Cum Willielmus de Neudegate michi annuatim 
reddere solebat quatuor solidos tres denarios et dimidiam libram 
piperis de terris et tenementis que de me tenuit in Gumshelue 
Noveritis me remisisse relaxasse et penitus de me et heredibus 
meis in perpetuum quietum clamasse predicto Willielmo heredibus 
et assignatis suis totum jus et clamexim quod habui vel aliquo 



APPENDIX. 250 

modo habere potui in. duabus solidatis tribus denariis et dimidia 
libra piperis predict! annualis redditus. Ita quod nee ego predictus 
Johannes nee heredes mei nee aliquis alius nomine nostro in pre- 
dictis duabus solidatis tribus denariis et dimidia libra piperis 
annualis redditus aliquid juris vel clamei de cetero exigere aut 
vendicare poterimus in futurum. Et ego predictus Johannes et 
heredes mei predictas duas solidatas tres denarios et dimidiam 
libram piperis annualis redditus predicto Willielmo heredibus et 
assignatis suis contra omnes gentes warantizabimus in perpetuum. 
In cujus rei testmonium huic scripto quieteclamancie sigillum 
meum apposui. Hiis testibus, Ricardo de Somerbury, Johanne de 
Redyngershe, Waltero de Pynkehurst, Ada Walays, Willielmo 
de Pynkehurst, Thoma de Frenshe, Adam atte Plesshette, et aliis. 
Datum apud Polyngfold die Veneris in festo Cathedrae sancti Petri 
anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii post conquestum vicesimo 
septimo. (Seal lost.) 
Ancient indorsement, Gomeschulfe. Orig. 

1353. John Newdegate gives to Thomas, his (youngest) son, his tene- 
ment called Hallond, for his life ; remainder to John his brother, 
for life ; remainder to William, the eldest brother, his heirs and 
assigns, for ever. (27 Edw. III.) Bar. 

John de Montfort (lord of the manor of Newdegate) leases all his 
wood in Berland, in the parish of Newdegate, to William Newde- 
gate, for two years from the feast of Easter, for 20 sterling, 
together with free ingress and egress. (Temp. Edw. III.) Bar. 

1359. Simon le Rolff, son of Adam Rolff, grants to William de Newde- 
gate, Amicia his wife, and John their son, and their heirs, four 
fields in Charlewode and Newdegate. (33 Edw. III.) Bar. 

Simon le Rolff to the same parties grants a garden in the parish of 
Rowesparr, and a croft in Newdegate. Bar. 

1364. Richard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, grants to William de 
Newdegate a croft of land in Newdegate, in exchange for 2| acr. 
1 r. 15 p. which the Earl had of the same William, and inclosed 
in his park of Iwode. Bray, iii. 174. 

1376. Final concord in the King's court at Westminster, in Hilary 
term (50 Edw. III.), between William de Neudegate, quer., and 
Simon Ingram, of London, draper, and Celeia 1 his wife, deforc., of 
two messuages and 45 acres of land in Rousparre and Ifelde. Con- 
sideration, 100 marks of silver. Orig. 

1420. Robert Nudegate, of Cressalton (now Carshalton), in Surrey) 
grants to John Gylbert and William Grene all those lands, &c., 
called Gotewyke, lying in the parish of Rowsparre, in the county 
of Sussex, which he lately had of the feoffment of Amicia late 
wife of William Nudegate ; also those he had of the feoffment of 



Not Cecilia, as printed in Cartwright's Rape of Bramler, p. 374, 



260 APPENDIX. 

John Brymmesgrove clerk, John Hadresham, John Ashurst, and 
Thomas Hayton, in the vill or parish of Charlewode. Witn. 
Henry Frensshe, John Spycer, Thomas Saundre, Thomas Wryght, 
William Frensshe, and others. Dated on Sunday next after the 
feast of St. Bartholomew, 8 Hen. Y. (Seal lost.) 1 Orig. 

1424. John Newdegate of Newdegate grants to John Bartelot junior 
and Robert Nytembre all his lands, &c., in the parish of Rowes- 
parre called Westgotewyke (an enfeoffrnent). Witnesses Thorn as 
Bartelot, William Frensshe, Richard Rediforde, Richard Brode, 
William Duke, and others. Dated at Rowsparre, on Sunday next 
before the feast of St. Margaret the Virgin (Sept. 2), 3 Hen. VI. 
(To this deed remains attached a seal impressed from a signet-ring 
of the jamb erased, as engraved in p. 119.) Orig. 

1425. John Newdegate, Esq., lord of Westland in Wotton, devises 
that manor to John Shepherd for 21 years, at the rent of 13s. 4d. 
(3 Hen. VI.) Bray, ii. 153. 

1482. William Newdegate, Esq., sells "all his okys tree " growing on 
his land in Wotton called the West Land, for 18 marks. (14 Edw. 
IV.) Bray, ii. 153. 

1494. John Newdegate the elder, of Craw ley, in Sussex, Esq., conveys 
the Manor of Westlond to Rauf Legh and Edmund Deny. 
(22 Aug., 9 Hen. VII). Bray, ii. 153. 

1497. Thomas Nudegat, of Nudegat, gentleman, by indenture grants to 
John Squyer, of Rouspar, one croft of three acres at Gotwykes- 
grene, in the parish of Rouspar, lying between the king's highway 
leading from the park of Iwode towards Horsham, and the land 
called Cokeman's on the north and west, and the land called 
Gotewyke on the east and south, which had descended to him by 
inheritance after the death of Thomas Nudegat, his father ; to be 
held for ever at the rent of 12d. Dated 20 March, 1 Hen. VII. 
(Seal, the rebus of NuD^ate, engraved in p. 246.) Orig. 

! 

1 Cartwright (Rape of JBramber, p. 374) states that "Robert 
Newdegate, of Crescalton, in Surrey, granted to John Gylbard and 
William Grove all his lands called Gatwyk, in Rousparre, which came 
to him by feofment of Anne, late wife of William Newdegate. Dated 
2 Hen. V. (1415)." Cartwright's abstracts are so full of errors, that this 
(including the date) is probably altogether an incorrect version of the 
deed of 1420, which he does not otherwise notice. In all the old 
charters the present Gatwick is written Gotewyke. 



APPENDIX. 261 



WILLS OF THE NEWDEGATE FAMILY. 

AMONG the charters of the Newdegates which Mr. Bray saw in the 
possession of Mr. Budgen, was "a complete series of their wills 
from 1377 to 1612." It is much to be regretted that he did not take 
fuller notes from these documents, as copies of only three of them have 
hitherto been found on the registries of Probate. Of the others, 
Mr. Bray's notes are now repeated. And some other wills are added 
from the register of the Archdeacon of Surrey. 

1377. The first in the series seen by Mr. Bray was that of William 
Newdegate ; but he merely mentions it in his pedigree as being 
dated in 1377. 

1482. Thomas Newdegate, of Newdegate, directs his body to be buried 
in the chapel of St. Margaret of Newdegate. Gives xij d to the 
mother church of Winchester, and xij d to the high altar of the 
church of St. Peter the Apostle of Newdegate. To Alice his 
wife one-third of his goods. 

1489. Alice (widow of the preceding) gives vj s viij d for a Missall to the 
church of Newdegate ; vij d for a torch, and vij d for repair of the 
bells. 

1516, May 26. Thomas Newdegate, of Newdegate, gentleman to be 
buried in the chapel of Seynt Margaret in the said parish. To the 
high altar of the same church xij d ; to the mother church of 
Winchester vj d ; to our Lady branche, xij d Alice his wife 
executrix. Feoffees Henry Lacheford, Thomas White, Walter 
White, John Styler, John Jourdayn, Ellys Nalderett, and Robert 
Wryght. An obit for his soul to be held in the chapel of Seynt 
Margaret yearly for twenty years, with the profits and issues of a 
certain medowe called the Kymbers medowe, in the parish of N. 
Alice his wife to have his " place " and all his lands in the 
parishes of Newdegate and Charlewode, lying on the west side of 
the stream ronnyng from Rowchalforde to the beme londe and a 
felde called the Mylfelde. Richard, his son, to have the house and 
the lands called the Clerkeslond, and two crofts thereto called 
Rykmans croftes, and his lands called Seamans and Hurst, in the 
parish of Charlwode, to him and his heirs and assigns. John, his 
son, to have the londe called the Denelonde, with a garden and a 
croft called Bachellers, and a londe called Horsey, to him and his 
heirs and assigns. Richard to have xxvj 8 viij d a year during the 
years of Richard Bysshopp, to be paid of the londes called the 
Southlonde and the Maries. Feoffees to hold lands to his eldest 
son after his mother's death, with remainder, failing his issue, to 
Richard and to John. Witnesses Sir Mathewe Bell, Thomas 
Wright, and Ellis Naldrette, with other moo. Proved 15 March, 
1516. Archdeac. of Surrey, Malhewe 110. 



262 APPENDIX. 

1521. Thomas Newdegate directs his body to be buried in the same 
chapel, which he describes as being in the churchyard of Newde- 
gate, and to have an obit for ten years ; five priests yearly every 
time to sing or say five masses for the souls of Thomas his father, 
and of all his friends, for which each should have sixpence. 
Bray. 

1533, Feb. 21. Alice Newdygate, wydow, of the parish of Newdegate. 
To be buried in the chapell of Seynt Margaret by my husband, 
on the south side of him. To the high altar iiij d ; to the mother 
church of Winchester ij d ; to our Lady's braunche xij d . To my 
son Richard half a dossen of pewter vessell, a table cloth, and a 
towell. To my daughter Anne a whyte teaster of my bed, a 
towell, a kettell of brasse, and half a dossen of pewter vessell. To 
Thomas N. ij. spytts, ij. chestes, half a dozen of pewter vessell, and 
the hangyng close [sic, qu. closet ?] in the parlor. Residue to 
daughter Anne, who is made sole executrix. Sir Mathe Bell to 
be my overseer, and to have for his labour a table cloth. Wit- 
nesses, Edward Bowett, Rychard Chelson, with other moo. 
Proved 27 Mar. 1534. Arc fid. Surrey. 

1545, June 18. John Newdegate, esquyer, 1 son and heir of John N., 
late Serjeant at law. To be buried at Harfilde. Names his son 
Thomas, wife Anne, son John [the eldest], son Francis, son 
Nicholas, son Robert, and son Anthony. To Pernell, my cosenn 
Richard Newdegate's wife, xx s . To John Frogg iiij. li. Daughter 
Gardyner ; son George. Witnesses, his son John, Richard 
Newdegate, Nicholas, George, and Robert N. (probably his sons), 
Johanne Osborne, Johanne Hamond, and others. Proved 
29 Jan. same year (1545-6). Register of Thirlby, Bishop of 
Westminster, 77 b. 

1545, Sept. 3. Richard Newdygate, of Herfelde, co. Middlesex, gentle- 
man. To the high altar of Herfelde iij s iiij d ; toward the 
building of the steeple of the parish church of Herfield 
vj li. xiij 3 iiij d ; to John Ladie, curate there, to pray for my 
soul, viij 8 ; to the highway between Hartield and Uxbridge 
iij li. vj s viij d ; to the poor of Harefield xl a . " I will that there 
shalbe distrybuted emonge the poore people househoulders within 
the parysh of Newdygate wheere as I was borne Fourtie shelinges." 
To Johanne N., dau. of William N. deceased, vj u xiij 8 iiij d , to be 
delivered on the day of her marriage. To Robert N. xx s . To 
Ellne Nalwood iiij. li. To Edward Bowett, my nevey, xl 3 , one of 
my gowns, and a jacket of black chainblet. To Thomas N., my 
brother's son, a dosenne of silver spoones w th acornes, to hym to 



1 This will, which, with the following, is derived from a recently- 
discovered register of Bishop Thirl by, I insert, though it belongs to the 
Harefield family, and does not mention Newdegate, because it will be 
seen that the " cosenn Richard Newdegate," named by the testator, is 
the same person who, dying very shortly after, made the next will. 



APPENDIX. 263 

be delivered ymediatlie after the deceasse of Parnell now my wife. 
To John Horton, alias Tailor, xx s . " As to the disposicion of all 
and singuler my landes and tenementes, rentes, reversions, and 
services sett, lyenge, and beinge in the parishes of Newdigate and 
Capell, in the countie of Surrey or elles wheare within the same 
countie," first to Parnell his wife, for her life, and to Thomas N., 
his brother's son, his heirs and assigns, for ever, to pay to Edward 
Bowett and to Jane his wife, my sister, vj 11 viij 3 iiij d . To 
Amphillis N., dau. of Sebastian N., on the day of her marriage, 
xx li. ; if she die, to be bestowed in roads within the same parish 
[probably Harefield] leading to London. Proved 10 Nov. same 
year. Register of Thirlby, Bishop of Westminster, 9 b. 

1576. Feb. 20 (13 Eliz.). Thomas Newdygate, of Newdegate, 
esquyer. To be buried in the parish church of N., in the middle 
pavement before the glas wyndow in the same church where the 
Newdegates armes are set. To be distributed to the poer people 
of Newdegate at his burial x 3 . To Agnes his wife his house in 
N. in which he dwells, called Nudigate Place, and all his lands 
called the Woodlands, lying on the west side of the river or brook 
there called the Rythe, from Rowchawfolde to the bemeland, in 
Newdygate and Charlewode, to hold during her natural life, in 
consideration and full recompense of her jointure and dower. To 
his wife the water mill on the said river, and the Myllfylde on the 
east side of the same ; his messuage called Rolfes and Hennies, in 
N., which he purchased of John Kempe. [Here follow other 
passages already given in p. 243.] To his son Walter all his lands 
and tenements, called the Berelande, Strydeland, Sou thlande, Maries; 
three crofts and a tenement in Charlewode called Newdygates 
crofts ; Edgelowfelde, in the parish of Rowspar ; a medow plot 
lying by Gotwycke house, now in tenure of Robert Mathewe ; a 
garden plot called Pollards garden, Kymers meade, and a close 
lying by Hales howse, within the parishes of Nudigate, Charlewode, 
and Rowspar. If he decease without issue, then to testator's 
daughters Agnes and Venyse Newdygate, equally to be divided 
between them, and so to remayne to theyre heirs for ever. Also to 
Walter reversion of lands in the tenure of Parnell Mersey wydow, 
known as Clarkes lande, Horsey lande, Deanelande, Bachylers, 
Ratfold, and Hurst, in the parishes of Newdygate and Capell, with 
the same remainder as before. Also to his son Walter the tenement 
called Cockman's, which he purchased of one John Wrighte, 
remainder to daughters as before. Executors to pay within a year 
after the death of Johanne Saunder wydow, mother to John 
Wright, xxx. li. in full satisfaction of the purchase of tenement called 
Cockman's. And lastly I geve, wyll and bequethe unto the said 
Walter all the xij sylver spones which were wylled unto me by 
Richard N., myne uncle deceased. Residue wholly to his wife 
Agnes, whom he makes sole executrix ; and his welbeloved fryndes 
Mr." Edmund Saunders esquire and Thomas Eyer the younger 
gent, to be overseers, with a legacy of xx s apiece, besides their 



264 APPENDIX. 

reasonable expenses. Made in the presence of Thomas Eyer, 
William Saxbye, Rychard Mathewe, and John Kemp, Robert 
Butler, John Gardener, and other. [The word other in erased, and 
the name added of John Morgan, pson of Nudygate.] Proved 
7 April, 1576. (Original paper copy, Surrey Archdeaconry, 
compared with the copy inserted in the Inquisition as mentioned 
in p. 242). 

1590. "Walter Newdegate. The date only of his will is mentioned by 
Mr. Bray. 

1612. Thomas Newdigate, of Newdigate, esquire, to be buried in the 
parish church of Newdigate. To the poor of Newdigate 40 3 upon 
his burial. To West Newdigate, his loving nephew, eldest son of 
his brother Richard Newdigate, all his lands in Newdigate, Capell, 
Rusper, Charlwood, or elsewhere in England. To his welbeloved 
brother Richard Newdigate 100 1 . To his sister Elizabeth 
Fitch 100 1 . To his sister Mary Boulton 30 1 . To Richard de la 
Chambers, of Cambridge, gentleman, at the request of my mother 
Hatcher, 100'. To my eldest daughter Mary Newdigate 1000 1 , 
to my daughter Anne Newdigate 1000 1 , to be paid at their mar- 
riages or attaining 21. To my nephew Richard Newdigate, second 
son of my brother Richard, 2 O 1 at 21. To my niece Elizabeth, 
daughter of my said brother, 20 1 at marriage or 21. To my loving 
mother Jane Hatcher five marks in money, to buy a ring. To my 
godchild Thomas Monchaster 30 s for a ring. To William Symones 
my servant, 20 3 . My brother in law Mr. John Chesterton, and 
my sister Anne, his wife, and my loving kinsman George Elliot, 
gentleman, to have the tuition and governance of my two daughters, 
"to bring them upp in learning and good educacion," with an 
allowance of 20 1 yearly. West Newdigate to be full and sole 
executor. John Chesterton and George Elliot overseers, with a 
ring of 20 s value to each. To my kinsman Thomas Elliot one 
other ring of 20 8 . Witnesses, Thomas Elliot and Jane Hatcher. 

Codicil. West Newdigate not to enter into landes until 21, but 
profits to be retained by Chesterton and Elliot ; they also to have 
charge of his education as of the daughter. 

Proved 12 March, 1612. Will and codicil delivered in the 
Court of Wards, 2 Feb. 1618. (H.M. Court of Probate, Capel 26.) 

1635. Administration of the property of Henry Newdegate, late of 
Ashted, co. Surrey, gent. Commission to Thomas Hunt, of Gray's 
Inn, issued last day of July, 1635. (Surrey Administrations, 
A. 114 b.) 

A register of the Archdeacon of Surrey, now preserved in H.M. Court 
of Probate, furnishes the following will of an inhabitant of 
Newdegate, at once simple and characteristic of the period of its 
composition : 

" In Dei nomine Amen, xij die mensis Decembris A Do* 
M cccc lxxxv to . Ego Johannes Vernest compos mentis eger tamen 
in corpore condo testamentum meum in hunc modum. In primis 






APPENDIX. 265 

lego animam meam Deo Omnipotent! creator! meo beateque Marie 
et omnibus sanctis suis, corpusque meum ed sepeliendum in 
cimiterio Ecclesie parochialis de Nudegate. Item lego matri 
ecclesie sancti Swithuni Winton ij d . Item lego summe altari dicte 
ecclesie parochialis de Nudegate xij d . Residuum vero bonorum 
meorum post debita mea soluta et hujusmodi testament! mei 
completationem, do et lego Johanne uxori mee ut ipsa disponat 
pro anima mea prout ei melius videbit expediri. Item constituo 
et ordino Robertum Fougalle supervisorem hujusmodi testamenti. 
In cujus rei testimonium, &c. Presentibus tune ibidem Thoma 
Nudegate et Roberto Haselhurst et aliis. Datum apud Nudegate 
die et A supradictis. 

" 26 die mensis Januarii A D 1 Milessimo cccc lxxx mo v to 
probatum fuit hoc suprascriptum testamentum coram offic. Surr., 
&c. Commissaque fuit administracio &c. executori in eodem 
nominate et admiss. per eandem. Et hec acquietand." 
(Register of Archdeacon of Surrey, Sprage 25.) 

The will of William Manne, of Newdegate, dated 20 April, 1489, is 
framed very much in the same terms. He leaves his body to be 
buried in the cemetery of the Blessed Peter and Paul of the church 
of Newdegate ; to the mother church of Winchester iiij d ; to the' 
high altar of the church of Newdegate unam vestem depictam, 
priced at iij s iiij d ; to the altar of the blessed Mary a lithiamen, 
. priced at xvj d ; to the church of Capelle, xx d ; to the church of 
Rousepar, xx d . To Thomas, his eldest son, a cow and a steer of 
two years; to Joan his daughter, Robert, Richard, and John, 
his sons, and Alice his daughter, to each a cow and a steer. 
Residue to Jane his wife. Executors, his wife and Thomas 
Charlewode; to the latter of whom he gives vj s viij a . Witnesses 
Robert Hasulhurst, Henry Manne, James Pancras, and others. 
(Sprage 96.) 



ENTRIES IN THE PARISH REGISTER. 

THE Parish Register of Newdegate commences for Burials in 1559, for 
Baptisms in 1560, and for Marriages in 1565. It is remarkable that it 
contains no marriages of the daughters of the Newdigate family, and the 
only marriage connected with them is that of the widow of Mr. Walter 
Newdigate in 1591. According to Bray's pedigree (and the will of their 
brother in 1612), Mary, Anne, and Elizabeth, the daughters of Mr. 
Walter Newdigate, baptized in 1579, 1584, and 1587, were married 
respectively to husbands of the names of Boulton, Chesterton, and Fitch: 
they must have gone to some other church for their weddings. But a 
child of the first was apparently baptized at Newdigate in 1607. 

1560. nines Newdigat, doughter of Thomas Newdigat, christined the 
.4. daie of November. 1 



The lady named Venyse Newdigate in her father's will. Her actual 



2(36 APPENDIX. 

1567. The v th daie of Aprill was Buried George Newdigat, son of 
Thomas Newdigat, gent. 
Mr. Richard Bo wet, buried the second of February [1567-8]. 

1577. John Newdigat, sonne of Walter Newdigat, was Baptized the 
3 rd daie of November. 

1579. Maria Newdigat, daughter of "Walter Newdigat, gent., was 
Baptized y e 2 d daie of Aprill. l 

1580. John Newdigat, sonne of M r Walter Newdigat, was Buried 
the 14 th day of May, 1580. 

1581. Thomas Newdigate, the sonne of Walter Newdigate, gent., was 
baptized at Dorking the six and twentieth day of March. 2 

1582. Richard Newdigate, sonne of Walter Newdigate, gent, was 
baptized the 24 th day of Januarie. 

1583. Agnes Newdigat was Buried y e 13 th of June. 3 

1584. Anne Newdigate, daughter of Walter Newdigate, gent., was 
baptized the one and twentieth day of March. 

1587. Elizabeth Newdigate, the daughter of Walter Newdegate, was 
Baptised the 12 th daie of June. 

1589. Item the 29 th day of March, J. 'Newdigat, The sonne of M r 
Walter Newdigat, was still borne and Buried the same day. 

1590. M r Walter Newdigat was Buried The 10 th day of August, 1590. 

15912. John Hatcher, gene r . ) j KM, r T 

T -NT j- 1 -r j f were married y e 5 th of January. 
Jane Newdigate, Wydowe J 

1607. West Newdigat, sonne of Richard Newdigat, gent., was Baptized 



name (we may presume) was Venetia. Bray in his pedigree names her 
tinice, giving her for a husband Thomas Elliott. There are Eliots in 
the Newdegate register ; and Blanch, wife of Thomas Eliot, was 
buried 12 Feb. 1597-8. But the husband of Venyse was probably of 
gentle birth. In a mansion at Godalming, belonging to the Elliot 
family, on a chimneypiece were the arms of Elliot, Argent, a fess or, 
with a crescent for difference; impaling Newdegate. Manning and 
Bray, i. 648. 

1 Thomas Bolton, gentleman (see under the year 1607), was not 
improbably the husband of Mary Newdigate, baptized in 1579, who 
married a Bolton. He may have been a native of Newdegate, as 
" Thomas Bolten, sonne of Richard Bolten," was baptized there 23 Feb., 
1578-9, not many weeks before Mary Newdigate. The baptisms of 
other children of Richard Bolton occur John in 1581, Margaret in 
1584, and Alice in 1585. Also Joane, daughter of John Bolton, in 
1580. 

2 This baptism is also duly registered at Dorking, but I have searched 
the register of that parish without finding other Newdigates. 

3 The widow of Thomas Newdigate, who died in 1556 (see p. 263). 



APPENDIX. 257 

the 23 rd day of June, 1607, in the parish church of Arlington, in 
the county of Sussex. 

1607. Anne Bolton, daughter of Thomas Bolton, gene 1 ', was Baptized 
the 19 th day of Julye, 1607. 

1608. Marye Newdigat, daughter of Thomas Newdigat (generosi 
inserted) was Baptized 15 th day of September, 1608. 1 

1609. Richard Newdigat, sonne of Richard Newdigate, gene r , was 
Baptized the 29 th day of Novernb' 1 , 1609. 

1611. Margareta filia 'Thomee Newdigate Armigeri nata nono die 
Septembris baptizata fuit sexto die Octobris Anno Dom. 1611. 

- Thomas Newdigate sen: gentle' was buried Novemb. 22. 

- Margaret, y e daughter of Thomas Newdigate, Esq or , was buried at 
Dork in ge Decemb. 14. 

1612. Thomas Newdigate, Esq 01 ', was buried februa: 24. 

1612-13. Anne, the daughter of Thomas Newdigate, Esquior, was 
baptized Janua : 17. 2 

1614. Frauncis, the daughter of Richard Newdigate, Gent: was 
baptized April 17. 

- Frauncis, y e daughter of Richard Newdegate, Gent: buried 
April 20. 

1616. Margaret, the wife of Henrie Dorrell, Esq or , was buried August, 



1618. Mr. Henrie Darrell Esq or was buried July 18. 4 

- Henrie, the sonne of Richard Newdigate, Gent : was baptized 
Septemb: 2. 

1620. Mr. George Dorrell was buried May 26. 

- Mr. Richard Newdigate, Gent', was buried Martij 3 [1620-1]. 

1621. John Hatcher, Gent', 4 was buried Janua: 24. 
1627. Francis Hatcher, of Ashted, was buried Jun' 12. 
1631. M ris Jane Hatcher, Widdow, was buried April 2. 5 



1 Afterwards the wife of William Steper. Bray. 

2 Afterwards the wife of William Siny tinman. Bray. 

3 Henry Darrell, Esq., had become the second husband of 
Margaret, the widow of Thomas Newdigate, Esq., who died in Feb. 
1612-13. 

4 John Hatcher, gentleman, was the second husband of the former 
widow Newdigate. See the marriage under 1591-2. 

5 The widow, first of Walter Newdigate, gent., and afterwards of 
John Hatcher, gent. 



268 NBWDEGATE CHURCH: 




NEWDEGATE CHURCH : ITS EECTORS AND 
REGISTERS. 

By MAJOR HEALES, F.S.A. 



OF the origin of the name of Newdegate I am not 
aware that any probable derivation has been sug- 
gested : even its exact topographical situation seems to 
have been formerly doubtful ; that is to say, as to what 
subdivision of the county it was to be found in, though 
it is now settled that one part of the parish, called " The 
Hamlet," is in the Hundred of Reigate, and the rest is in 
the Hundred of Copthorne and Effingham : l and even 
the geographical boundaries of the parish were unsettled 
until a comparatively recent period ; for we find, at the 
end of the Parish Register Book, an entry made in the 
year 1634, by a cautious rector, to prevent any such 
questions or any rights being compromised by his ad- 
mitting a parishioner to receive the Holy Sacrament at 
Easter in his church. It runs thus : 

An. Dom. 1634. Mart. 12. 

Be it known to all men by these p'sents That I John Butcher 
dwellinge in a certain tenement of w eh Question hath bene made 
many yeeres whether it lie L in Charlewood or Newdegate, f is 
not yet decided, upon graunt leave given me f to my familie 
* * f to receyve y e Sacrament at Easter next for this one 
time at y e parish Church of Newdigate y* y e same may not be 
pjudiciall to y e parish of Newdegate for y e time to come f 
do confesse y* I have y e said libertie for this time by leave ; ^ 

1 Manning and Bray, vol. ii. p. 1G9. 




CHURCH OF S. PETER, NEWDIGATE FROM S.W. 



ITS RECTORS AND REGISTERS. 269 

in witnesse hereof I have hereunto set mine hand y e day <fe yeere 
above written. 

JOHN BUTCHER 



Witnesse at y e signing hereof 
JOHN WILLET 



his 



marke. 



his marke. 

WILLIAM BATCHELOUR 
his /]/\ marke. 

Then follows another note in continuation ; signed and 
attested as before : 

e 

Also y e said Ch r Butcher desired leave for himselfe familie to come 
to y e Sacrament at Whitsontide, 1636. 

There is a similar memorandum to prevent the parish 
from being compromised or prejudiced by leave given 
for the two next Communions from April 16, 1641 the 
rubrical minimum of three per annum being probably 
borne in mind. And in the Burial Register is an entry 
that " John Butcher of Charlewood (as it hath been 
accounted for many yeeres) by leave was buried April 
19, 1643 ; " and still earlier certain additions to the 
usual form of entry appear to have been made with the 
same object. 

1626. Marie the daughter of M r - William Young of Hurfold was by 

leave baptized Jun : 28. 

John the sonne of Robert Taylour of Capell was by leave 
baptized Februa. 9. 

And some subsequently in similar words. 

In grants made by King Henry VIII., the parish is 
called Newdygate in le Wylde, or le Welde, 1 i.e. the 
Weald. 

Our subject, however, is the Church, and not the 
parish or manor ; but the Register Book has occasioned 
this reference to the boundary question. 

Newdegate is not mentioned in the Domesday survey, 
probably because it pertained to the Manor of Cherche- 
felle (Reigate). 1 At what date it became a parish does 

1 Augmentation Office ; Grants 34 Henry VIII. 



270 NEWDEGATE CHURCH ! 

not appear, but towards the end of the 12th century the 
Rectory appears to have been given to the Priory of 
St. Mary Overee, Southwark, by Hamelin Earl Warren, 
or probably was granted by his predecessors and con- 
firmed by him. This fact we learn from the following 
document, 3 of which the original is still preserved in 
the British Museum. 

Carta H. Com. Waren, Monachis de Sewrei, de capella de Nudigate. 



Comes Wareme Roberto Archidiacowo Surrete 3 p. decano 
Mando vobis atqwe precor quatenws dimittatis priorem 
3 canonicos sancte marie de Suwerch in pace tenere elemosinaw 
meara 3 Ancessoraw meorwra scilicet capellam de niudegat 3 
priori interdico ne in placituw iwgrecfo'retwr sine me, qwia 
predictam elemosinaw eis garentizare debeo. 

Hamelin was a natural son of Geoffrey, Earl of Anjou, 
and in 1163 married Isabel, only daughter of the second 
William Earl Warren, whereby he acquired that dignity 
and its estates. He died in 1210, having survived his 
wife, who died in 1199. 3 

It will be observed that the document is addressed to 
R. the Archdeacon, and P. the Dean, not by their names, 
but only by initial of each name. Robert was the name 
of the Archdeacon of Surrey from about 1130 to 1171. 4 
A comparison of these dates fixes that of the docu- 
ment as between the years 1163 and 1171. But a diffi- 
culty arises from the fact of its being also addressed to 
P. the Dean, inasmuch as Winchester was a Priory 
Church, and had no dean until after the dissolution of 
the Priory, which occurred in 1538 ; and in the following 
year the King granted a charter establishing a new 
chapter and society, consisting of a dean and twelve 
prebendaries. 5 On the other hand, the document itself 
has every appearance of genuineness. Mr. Nichols sug- 
gests that by "the Dean" may be meant the Rural 

1 Brayley, Hist, of Surrey, vol. iv. p. 287. 

2 Cotton MSS., Nero III., fol. 181. 

3 Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i. p. 76. 

4 Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. i. p. 703. 

5 Le Neve, p. 288. 



ITS EECTOES AND REGISTERS. 271 

Dean, expected to comply with the requisitions of the 
Charter if the Archdeacon were absent. He is also of 
opinion that most of the neighbouring churches in the 
Forest or "Weald district were secondary, or chapels to 
Cherchefelle (afterwards called Reigate), such as Capel, 
which still retains that name, and were given with it to 
the Church of St. Mary of Southwark by Earl William, 
son of Earl Warren, in 1106, and also by another deed 
by the same Earl, with the Countess Isabella his wife, 
together with the churches of Betchworth and Leigh ; 
subsequently confirmed by Earl Hamelin. And further, 
that from the expressions " elemosinam meam," " et 
ancessorum meorum," it appears probable that this 
" chapel " was considered to be appurtenant to the 
Church of Reigate, and so included in the former 
charters. The necessity for, or object attained by 
charters of confirmation, is often not apparent. 

The deed is written in the handwriting of the period, 
in five lines, on a slip of parchment measuring 5^ by If 
inches, and it is endorsed in the same writing : 

Karta hamelini comitis de Warenme de capella de neudegc^. 

And no doubt of its authenticity occurred to Madox, 
who copied the document in his Formulare. 1 

The living is mentioned in the Taxation under Pope 
Nicholas IX. in 1291, when it was valued at 8, and 
the tithe was consequently sixteen shillings. 2 

THE CHURCH. 

The Church is dedicated in honour of St. Peter. 
The Orientation is 8^ degrees N. of E. : theoretically it 
would be either, for St. Peter's day, June 29th, 39 45' 
N. of E. ; or for St. Peter ad Vincula, August 1st, 
20 30' N. of E. 

There is a mention of the Church in 1482, in the will 
of Thomas Newdegate, 3 who leaves 12d. to the High 

1 Madox, Formulare, No. IX. p. 49. 

2 Taxation of Pope Nicholas IX., Record Office ed., p. 208. 

3 Manning and Bray, vol. ii. p. 172. Query, Where is the Will? | 
VOL. VI. T 



272 NEWDEGATE CHUBCH : 

Altar ; and in the King's Books, dated 1535, 1 the living 
is valued at 8. 18s. 4d.; the tithes, consequently, being 
17s. lOd. 

In ecclesiastical edifices of large dimensions, we very 
frequently find a variety of styles of architecture ; but, 
in one so small and unpretending as this, we do not 
expect to meet with a series of examples illustrative 
of the several periods into which it is customary, for 
the sake of convenient classification, to divide Gothic 
architecture. 

By the accompanying ground-plan, it will be seen that 
the Church consists of a nave and chancel ; a south aisle, 
the end of which has been used as a chantry; a vestry 
and south porch towards the west end of the aisle ; and a 
timber framework tower at the west end of the nave. 2 

The internal dimensions are as follows : 

Tower 17-5 x 21-6 

West wall 3-2 

Nave 37-2 x 17-9 

Aisle 39-4 x 7'3 

Chancel 26-0 x 13-10 

Extreme internal dimensions ... ... ... ...739 x 27'9 

The earliest part, so far as can be seen, is the chancel, 
which dates from towards the latter part of the twelfth 
century. At the east end is a triplet of detached lancets, 
that in the centre being the largest ; all widely splayed 
and perfectly plain: in each side- wall is a similar single 
lancet. It is not very easy to say whether their heads are 
round or pointed ; but such a doubt not uncommonly 
arises in respect to windows of the period of transition 
from the Round-arched or Norman, to the Early English 
or Pointed style. These, however, rather appear to be 
round, and may date a little earlier than the transition 
period. They present no other feature by which their 
date can more certainly be fixed. The arch between 
chancel and nave is also semicircular -headed, but 

1 Liber Regis, p. 957. 

3 There is a fair north-west view of the church in Cracklow's Surrey 
Churches. 



i 




ITS RECTORS AND REGISTERS. 



273 



stretches across the entire width of the chancel, and has 
no imposts : probably it has been altered. 

Nearly a century later an alteration was made in the 
original work by the construction of a priest's door, and 




WINDOW IN SOUTH SIDE OF CHANCEL. 

Scale one-twenty -fowrth. 

a window adjoining it, on the south side of the chancel. 
The doorway is perfectly plain. The window consists of 
two plain lancets, and a circle between 
their heads, not in any way connected 
with them, except by position an 
example of nascent tracery. 

The next style of architecture is 
illustrated by a window at the east 
end of the aisle, and a piscina in the 
wall adjoining. These are very ele- 
gant specimens of the complete Deco- 
rated style. The window is composed 
of two ogee-headed lights, cinque- PISCINA IN AISLE. 
foiled, and without any tracery; so Scale one-sixteentn. 
that on the exterior they might be described as twin 

T 2 




274 



KEWDEGATE CHURCH : 



lancets, rather than one window. This part of the 
building is called the Cud worth Chapel, and belongs to 
the owners of the manor of Cud worth, which is situated 
about two miles to the east of the Church. 

An arch has been dug out of the base of the wall forming 
the east end of the nave arcade and the south pier of the 
chancel arch j 1 at what period in, or subsequent to the 
fourteenth century, it is difficult to determine. But a 
more unwise step, and one more directly tending to the 
destruction of the fabric, could scarcely be devised. It 
leaves the upper part of that important portion of the 
structure resting chiefly on a weak 
arch, and, were not the walls very 
massively constructed, they must have 
given way. The object of this ill- 
advised alteration was to open up a 
complete view of the east end of the 
chancel from the Cudworth Chapel, 
through the means of a hagioscope. 

On the south side of the nave, 
opening to the aisle, are two arches 
of late Perpendicular date ; but there 
seems fair ground for supposing that 
there may have been an original south 
aisle. The central pillar is circular 
and very massive, such as one might 
expect to find in a building dating 
from transition to, or quite Early 
English. Its capital, with late mould- 
ings, is an awkwardly-fitting octagon ; 
and, in the responds, it will be noted 
that they are semi-octagonal, with 
caps clumsily adapted to recessed 
arches. In the shaft of the circular 

Cap and base of Nave .,, , , n , 

Respond. pillar are incised, a number or marks 

of a similar character to those at 

Alfold and Godalming, which are shown by Mr. Nevill, 

in an illustration of his paper upon the former of these 





1 See ground plan. 



ITS KECTOES AND REGISTERS. 



275 



churches at p. 20 of the present volume. Examples 
of such marks occur in various other localities, as at 
Dunstable Priory, Bedfordshire. 



MARKS CUT IN WEST PIER OP NAVE. 




The four upper marks are reduced one-Half; the other two are one-third the size 
of the originals. 

On the opposite wall of the nave (there being no north 
aisle) is a late three-light window, 1 good of its date, 
with portions of stained glass of the same period, from 
which we can gather that there was in each of the prin- 
cipal lights a large single figure under a canopy, a por- 
tion of the tabernacle- work of which remains ; and in 
the upper subsidiary lights are two angels censing, still 

1 See Plate in illustration of Mr. Waller's Paper on the "Wall- 
painting of St. Christopher," facing p. 57 of tho present volume. 



276 



NEWDEGATE CHURCH : 



nearly perfect ; the rest is made up with fragments of 
earlier date of bordure patterns, and also comprising a 
coat of arms of the Newdegate family, and some good 
quarries. 1 The arms and some other parts are clumsily 
reset, with the wrong face outwards. 



STAINED GLASS IN NAVE WINDOW. 





One-lialj scale. 



One-half scale. 

Aubrey, 2 whose work was 
published in 1719, speaks of 
three eagle's claws, in mis- 
take for the Newdegate three 
lion's gambs. He also states 
that in the east window of 
the chancel were three sharp 
escutcheons of the Warren 
arms, and the same in a 
south window ; and in an- 
other south window three 
chevronels gu., Clare and Tunbridge. Manning and 
Bray 3 (published c. 1809) mention several other coats 
as then remaining. Now, there is .but that mentioned, 
of the Newdegates. We are thus enabled to trace the 
destruction of antiquities arising from simple neglect. 

The window-cills are stencilled with alternate fleurs- 
de-lis and roses, in a simple but effective diaper. The 
ornament at the head of the present Paper is one of the 
fleurs-de-lis. 

On the wall, a little to the west of this window, and 
nearty facing the south or principal entrance to the 

1 One of these is repi-esented in Franks' volume on Quarries, pi. 35* 
3 Aubrey's History of Surrey, vol. iv. p. 263. 
3 Manning and Bray, vol. ii. p. 177. 



ITS RECTORS AND REGISTERS. 



277 



church, is the large wall-painting of St. Christopher, so 
excellently described and illustrated by Mr. Waller. 1 



STAINED GLASS IN NAVE WINDOW. 




One-half scale. 

Of the Perpendicular period is the nave roof, with tie- 
beams, though wanting any definite indication of precise 
date. 

The side- walls of the nave are returned at the west 
end ; but what may have been the original design cannot 
be ascertained. The inner faces of the responds, or what 
would be the jambs of a tower-arch, are rough and 
imperfect, and in the centre of each is a slab of timber 
20 inches wide by 9J thick, which may (perhaps) have 
supported a timber tower-arch. They are probably 
earlier than the present tower, with which they are not 
in any way connected. 

1 See Mr. Waller's Paper on the " Wall-painting of St. Christopher,*' 
and with an illustration, p. 57 of the present volume. 



278 SEWDEGATB CHURCH : 

The tower, placed at the west end of the nave, is built 
of timber, and supplies an admirable example of framing. 
The acceptance, for building, of material readily available, 
instead of sending to obtain it from a distance, is a cha- 
racteristic of mediaeval builders, and especially advan- 
tageous where it happened that the material at hand 
was that with which the local workmen were best 
acquainted. Thus in this district, abounding with 
magnificent timber but very deficient in good building- 
stone, timber, exclusively, was, as in this instance, 
applied to the construction of the tower. The same 
cause led to the building of similar towers in part of 
the county of Essex, 1 and less frequently in certain other 
localities ; whilst in some counties destitute of forest, 
nothing but stone was used. 

The tower of Newdegate Church consists of three 
square stories, surmounted by an octagonal spire, and 
having an aisle running round the ground-story, and 
practically serving as buttressing. The total height of 
the tower and spire is about 60 feet. The four great 
timbers on which the tower rests are 17 inches square, 
and stand upon slabs of wood placed upon the ground. 
The arrangement of the framing, as Avill be seen from 
Mr. NevilPs excellent drawing, is very ingeniously con- 
trived and admirably executed, the best proof of which 
is furnished by the fact that the whole structure is still, 
notwithstanding the great strain necessarily caused by 
frequent ringing of the peal of five bells, as firm and 
substantial as when erected, probably nearly 400 years 
ago. The flooring, only, of the upper stories has been 
allowed to decay. 

The bells are mentioned in the will of Alice, widow of 
Thomas Newdegate, dated in 1489/ by which she left 

1 Such as Margaretting, Stock, and Blackmore, which, though all 
differing, bear a strong family resemblance to that of Newdegate. One 
at Mountnessing is built up from within the church, as at Alford, in 
this county. See Essex Arch&ological Society's Transactions, vol. iv. 
pp. 95-108. 

2 Manning and Bray, vol. ii. p. 171 : where the will was proved is 
not 1 stated; 



Mo do. en I owersi Opire 

O. Peer's Cburcf) 
NEWD i G AT 




ITS RECTORS AND REGISTERS. 279 

12d. for the repair of the bells, besides the bequest of a 
missal to the Church. In the inventory of church goods 
in 1553, 1 there are mentioned four bells in the steeple 
and a sacring bell. Manning and Bray speak of five 
bells, one of which had been some time broken. Their 
work was published c. 1809, but probably their notes of 
the Church were taken some time previously, for the six 
bells now in the steeple bear an inscription, stating that 
they were cast by Hears in 1805 ; though, on the other 
hand, it is just possible that the bells may have been 
cast previously to their being required for this Church. 

Following the history of the Church, we learn from 
an entry at the end of the Register-book by " George 
Steere, parson of Newdigate " (a good old term), that 
the chancel was ceiled at his charges in 1614. Also that 

The pulpit was made set up in y e place where it now standeth 
An : Dom : 1626 T, The Church was seeled trimed An : Dom : 
1627 by y e beneuolence of well disposed people. 

The pulpit is, no doubt, that which still remains in 
the north-east angle of the nave. 

The gallery, which covers the west end of the nave, 
bears on its front the inscription : 

THIS GALLERIE WAS BVILDED BY HENHY NICHOLSON 
GENT. ANNO DOM. 




and there is a corroborative entry in the Register - 

The gallerie at y e west-ende of y e Church was builded furnished 
with seates An : Dom : 1627 at y e costes of M>- Henrie Nicholson 
Gent. 

The gallery is a fair specimen of the date. Its removal 
aas lately been suggested ; but although galleries, gene- 
'ally, are objectionable, there may be doubt whether this 
me might not well be retained, even for its own sake, 
,nd without considering other alterations, much more 
erious, archseologically, which might be involved. Ex- 

1 " Church Inventories," edited by Mr. Tyssen, in the Collections of 
us Society, vol. iv. p. 175. 



280 NEWDEGATE CHUECH : 

amples of the carving in front of the gallery are given 
in the woodcuts at the end of the sections relating 
to the Church, the Eectors, and the Registers. 

Evidently occasioned by the alterations which Mr. 
Steere has recorded was another, which he enters thus : 

The two new windowes y e one against y e pulpit, y e other against y e 
gallerie were set up An . Dom : 1627 at y e charges of y e In- 
habitants C others together vsing land in y e parish. 

GEORGE STEERE, Parson. 
EDMUND WALTER EDWARD GARDENER, Churchwardens. 

These are plain dormer, or garret windows of no par- 
ticular character. 

The Communion-table may be of about this date. It 
is perfectly plain, nearly square, and very small. 

The porch and vestry, built of brick early in the 
eighteenth century, are as plain and unpretending as 
possible. The font, very likely, may be of the same 
date, and is only fit for a sundial- stand. 

In the vestry is an old chest hollowed (like Robinson 
Crusoe's canoe) out of a solid log ; probably, it is not of 
very high antiquity, but it aftbrds no means of deter- 
mining its date. 

Finally, something was done towards improving the 
appearance of the building by a curate in charge, who 
wrote in the Register-book that 

The parish church was repaired f partly restored A.D. 1859-60 by 

SAM L . M. MAYHEW, Curate. 

But this step appears not to have met with the approval 
of the Rector, who, upon his return (as we may suppose), 
makes the further note, 

by his own authority, i.e. without f contrary to the sanction of 
the churchwardens, 

ARTHUR LEYDON, Hector. 

The work referred to seems to have been chiefly the 
filling of several of the windows with pattern-glass, in 
small panes of very various designs, but so ingeniously 
arranged that the general effect is bright, and not 
unsuccessful. 



ITS RECT011S AND REGISTERS. 281 

The inventory of the Church goods, taken on the 17th 
May, 1553, being the seventh year of King Edward VI., 1 
states that there were delivered to the wardens (Richard 
Misbroke and Edmond Tydi) a chalice weighing 7-J- oz., 
and a cope of crimson damask for the Communion-table. 
There remained in charge of the Commissioners to the 
king's use, four bells in the steeple and a sacring bell. 
There had been previously sold copper gilt, weighing 
3J lb., for 20d., and 11 Ib. of brass and latten for 
22d. All the rest of the ornaments were sold for 10s. 
There was received, in ready money to the king's use, 
30s. 10d., and also twelve rings of silver, weighing 
If oz. The more one looks to these inventories, the 
more one is struck with the miserable meanness of these 
sacrilegious transactions. 

But, one sepulchral nlemorial of any great antiquity 
remains : it is the matrix of the brass of a medium-sized 
military effigy of the Camail period, and the slab, still 
containing a shield with the Newdegate arms, lies in the 
centre of the nave floor. Very likely the brass was reft 
from its slab and included in the 11 lb. weight of brass 
and latteii sold by the Commissioners at 2d. a pound. 

There is in the chancel floor, near the priest's door, a 
little brass plate with this inscription, headed by a skull 
and cross-bones : 

HERE LIETH Y E BODY OF JOANE DAVGHTER OP THOMAS SMALLPEECE 
& LATE Y E WIFE OF GEORGE SlEERE PARSON OF THIS PARISH. 
SHEE DIED DEC. 7. AN. DOM. 1634 & EXPECTETH A BLESSED 
RESVRECTION. 

Her burial, on the 10th December, is recorded in the 
Register-book. 

Towards the south-west of the nave pavement, under 
a stove, is a slab, which, from the few letters still legible, 
is evidently the memorial mentioned by Aubrey 2 as a 
rough, free gravestone at the west end, with the inscrip- 

1 "Church Inventories," Surrey Archaeological Collection*, vol. iv ; 
>. 175. 

2 Aubrey, vol. iv. p. 264. 



282 NEWDEGATE CHUECH : 

tion in capitals (i. e. Roman letters) " Thomas Budgen 
obiit primo die Septembris 167l " l 




PANELLING IN GALLERY- FRONT. 

THE RECTORS. 

The early Rectors of Newdegate do not seem to have 
won for themselves any special position ; but we may 
fairly conclude that, confined to their own secluded 
sphere of usefulness, their duty was usefully performed. 
The Parish Register furnishes a testimonial, in the fact 
of its containing very few records of immorality. 

The earliest Rector of whom we find mention was one 
Matthew Bell, who was instituted as Rector in 1313. 

On the 19th March, 1488-9, William Goldesmyth was 
instituted to the Rectory; and on the 17th October fol- 
lowing a clerk of the same name was instituted to the 
Rectory of St. Benet Sherehog, London, 2 and both 
livings being in the presentation of the Priory and 
Convent of St. Mary Overee, we may fairly conclude 
that it was the same individual who received the two 
appointments. 

"We may next refer to a second Matthew Bell, who 
was instituted to this living on 25th October, 1507. He 
appears to have been active and popular, for we find his 
name mentioned in the Wills of several of his parish- 
ioners. He was a witness to the Will of Thomas Newde- 
gate in 1516 ; 3 to that of Thomas Symonds in 1520 ; 4 to 

1 John and William Budgen, Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
were trustees under the will, dated in 1661, of George Steere, the 
Rector, and the former was an attesting witness to a codicil in the 
following year. 

2 Newcourt's Repertorium, vol. i. p. 304. 

8 ArcMeaconry of Surrey, p. 110, Matthewe. 4 Ibid., 141, do. 



ITS RECTORS AND REGISTERS. 283 

the Will of J. Wallar in the following year; 1 and to that 
of Richard Bell in 1533. 3 In the same year he was 
appointed overseer of the Will of Alice Newdegate. 3 

From the Register it appears that John Morgan, 
parson of Newdegate, was buried on 30th July, 1576, 
which supplies a new name to the list of Rectors, for the 
Bishops' Register of institutions mentions none between 
Henry George, 8th May, 1554, and "William Lawe, 9th 
August, 1576. The latter was buried, as appears by the 
Parish Register, on the 8th January, 1593, and his wife 
(so described, not widow) was buried 16th February, 
1598. 

The only other Rector, within the period of archaeology, 
of whom we find any mention worth recording here, is 
George Steere. It appears, by a letter of his own, 4 he 
was admitted Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 
June, 1599 ; by the Bishop's Registers, that he was in- 
stituted Rector of Newdegate 20th March, 1609-10 ; 
and by the Burial Register it appears that he was buried 
at Newdegate on 15th January, 1662 : therefore, sup- 
posing he obtained his Fellowship at the early age of 
twenty-two, he must have attained the age of eighty- 
four years at the time of his decease. It may be re- 
marked that one Bonwicke was Rector here in 1660 ; 
so that Steere may have resigned in consequence of old 
age ; but the Bishop's Registers, from 1643 to 1664, are 
wanting ; and, in fact, there would have been no eccle- 
siastically legal presentation after about the year 1643, 
until the restoration of Church and King in 1660. 

George Steere was a liberal benefactor to the parish. 
His will, which is very lengthy and written with his own 
hand, is dated 1st November, 1661, and commences 
with a pious expression of faith and hope. He describes 
himself as being " of indifferent good health of body, 
and of sound mind and perfect remembrance," for which 
he gives most humble and hearty thanks and praise. 
He leaves to the parish of Newdegate, for ever, a school- 

1 Archdeaconry of Surrey, p. 161, Matthewe. 

2 Ibid., 69, Herts. 3 Ibid., 75, do. 
4 Manning and Bray, vol. ii. p. 178. 



248 NEWDEGATE CHURCH: 

house which he had built upon part of his land, called 
" Clarks," " for the teaching of younge persons at and 
in the said schoolhouse, and not for a place of habitation 
for any persons or person," and to be maintained by the 
parish for such use ; and he charges his other lands 
with an "annual payment of 6. 3 3s. 4d. for " the 
catechizing, teaching, and instruction in reading, write- 
ing and other good Learning, from time to time, succes- 
sively, for ever, of foure young persons borne in the said 
parish, sonnes of godly poore parents, and that free 
from any other demands for such their teaching and 
instruction." By some transposition of investment, the 
endowment now amounts to 15 per annum, and eighteen 
boys are taught. 

The testator left four messuages in the town of Lewes, 
to the inhabitants of that town for ever (charged with 
some small life annuities) for the maintenance and educa- 
tion of a fit person, the son of poor godly parents in or 
near the town (" especially the sonne of a godly poore 
minister who hath truly laboured and endeavoured to 
winne soules "), at Cambridge or Oxford for four years, 
and others in succession in perpetuity ; the choice to be 
made by the chief officers, and four others of the most 
able inhabitants. 

He further charges his messuages and lands, called 
Blackbrookeland and Scharnehooke, at Dorking, with 
10 per annum in perpetuity, for the maintenance of 
one young person at Trinity College, Cambridge, the 
choice, upon examination, to rest with the ministers for 
the time being, of Eusper, Ockley, Newdegate, and 
Dorking, selecting a candidate in Newdegate in prefer- 
ence ; and, if none there suitable, then some one within 
a compass of fifteen miles round. 

After a number of small legacies, he leaves the whole 
residue of his property to his wife. By a codicil, made 
very shortly before his death, he wishes that his 
" loving friend, Mr. Jonathan Westwood, of Capell, to 
have the teaching of the school at Newdegate, and the 
Stypent." 

The Will and codicil were proved 19th August, 1662, 



ITS RECTORS AND REGISTERS. 285 

by Sarah, the widow, the sole executrix ; and according 
to his express wish they were, after registration and col- 
lation by the registrar and a notary public, returned to 
her. 1 

In describing the boundary of " Clarks," there is men- 
tion of its abutting on one side upon land belonging to 
Trinity College, Cambridge. This was evidently a pasture 
called " Moreland," or a tenement called " Horslande," 
with an inclosure of sixty acres, granted for a long term 
by the King to Sir Edward Aston, knight, 2 and by him 
conveyed to the College ; 3 the payment of xxvj 3 j d , com- 
position, appears in the following year's " Ministers' 
Accounts." 4 

Joane, the rector's wife, was the daughter of Thomas 
Smallpeece, and the marriage was celebrated in the 
church of St. Saviour's, Southwark, on 17th April, 1611. 
She died 7th December, 1634, as appears by a small in- 
scription in brass in the chancel floor, near the priest's 
doorway ; and was buried on the 10th December, 
as we learn from the Parish Register, which also informs 
us that on the 13th May, 1639, the Rector consoled him- 
self by a marriage with Sarah, widow of John Bristow, 
late Rector of Charlwood : the ceremony took place at 
the church of Lindfield, Sussex. 

John Bonwicke, who succeeded Steere, was Rector in 
1 6GO. He made this note in the Register-book : 

1661. My Bro. Benjamin Bonwick of Reigate Gent. Marie Relict 
of W m Woodman of y e same pish were married May 9 1661. 

He also notes the birth, at Betchworth Castle, on the 
7th, and baptism on the llth September, 1661, of Phi- 
lippa, daughter of George Bonwicke, Esq., and the Lady 
Elizabeth, his wife. He was instituted to Mickleham 
Rectory on 23rd June, 1669, 5 which he held for twenty- 
nine years, and died 3rd November, 1698, being on the 
same day of the year as that of his birth seventy-six 

1 Prerogative Court, 104 Laud, 34 Hen. VI IT. 

2 Augmentation Office, Land Revenue Grants. 3 Id. 

4 Land Revenue, Ministers' Accounts, 35 Hen. VIII., 757. 
'' Manning and Bray, vol. ii. p. 661. 



280 NEWDEGATE CHURCH: 

years previously, and is commemorated by a gravestone 
there. Whether he resigned Newdegate on receiving 
the fresh appointment does no clearly appear. He had a 
daughter named Philippa, baptized on 1st August, 
1662, and a son, named Augustine, baptized 4th January, 
1665. 

The early entries in the Register-book up to 1580-1 
are signed by William Faggar, Curate, jointly with the 
churchwardens. One of the entries refers to the burial 
of Edward Hill, minister, on 30th July, 1627. 

The notes of collections in 1670 are signed at the foot 
by John Salt, Curate, Cler 3 - ; 1675 and 1679, Edward 
Richards ; 1682, Richard Digweed, Cler"', who also makes 
this curious entry : 

Charles Sonn of Robert Harden was baptized March y e 17 th IGSf 
Richard Digweed then Curate and wittness to y e said Charles 
with. Joh : Mersh Churchwarden and M rs Crudon midwife. 
Annoq} Domini 168|. 

1688, Isaac Edge, Curate ; 1690, F. Caryll, Curate ; 
1690-1, William Colbron, Curate, whose son John, by 
his wife Jane, we learn from the Register, was buried in 
March, 1699. 

There is an entry in 1692, of the birth on the 18th 
April, and baptism on the 3rd May, of Elizabeth, daughter 
of William Colbron, Curate, and Jane, his wife; in 1693, 
of the birth on 2nd, and baptism on 27th February, of 
their daughter Rhoda; and on 28th February, 1695, 
of the birth of their son John, who, we subsequently 
learn, was buried on the 31st March, 1699. 

From the Wills of some of the Newdegate family, re- 
ferred to in Manning and Bray, 1 it appears that there 
was anciently a chapel dedicated to St. Margaret, in the 
churchyard of Newdegate. Thomas Newdegate, in 
1482, desires to be buried in this chapel ; and it is men- 
tioned in the Wills of his son and grandson, both named 
Thomas, and under the dates 1516 and 1520 respect- 

1 Manning and Bray, vol. ii. pp. 172 and 176. The work omits to 
state where these Wills are preserved, and they are not to be met with in 
the Ecclesiastical registries. 



ITS SECTORS AND REGISTERS. 



287 



ively. The expression "in the churchyard," could 
scarcely be construed by the loosest ordinary interpre- 
tation to mean a chapel forming part of the church ; and 
the chapel which formed the east end of the aisle be- 
longed not to the Newdegate family, but to the owners 
of Cudworth. Aubrey, whose work was published in 
1719, says, in a sort of general way, 1 that it was pulled 
down by one of the family; and Salmon, in 1736, says 
the same. 2 The chantry rolls and account of sales at 
the time of the Reformation, contain no mention of such 
a chapel or chantry, so that its destruction probably 
occurred before that period. 



XX JT X X 




PANELLING IN GALLERY-FRONT, 



THE REGISTERS. 

We now turn to the Register-books. The first volume 
contains the record of burials beginning in 1559, bap- 
tisms in 1560, and marriages in 1565, as it were, revers- 
ing the usual order of events ; but it is evidently a 
transcript, as usual, made from the more or less imper- 
fect remains of the earlier entries, and seems to have 
been written in the year 1607, as the volume is endorsed 
with that date and the names of the churchwardens ; it 
was probably written by William Faggar, who, with 
them, signs at the foot of the two first pages, as though 



1 Aubrey, vol. iv. p. 262. 
VOL. VI. 



Salmon, p. 74. 



V 



288 NEWDEGATE CHURCH I 

in verification of their correctness as copies. It is evi- 
dently imperfect, for of baptisms in the first year there 
are but two; and in the years 1563 and 1564 it states 
"nothing found." There is but one marriage recorded 
in the first year, but two in 1566, and only seven in the 
next nine years. It states that four pages, containing 
the record of such events in 1580 and 1581, were tran- 
scribed from an ancient writing in 1612 ; and as to the 
years 1593, 1595, 1597, and 1598, "no weddings;" 
but perhaps none were solemnized, as we find explicitly 
stated in some subsequent years ; e.g., " No marriage 
solemnized in this Parish Church in y e yere of our L d 
God 1662 ;" and the same is recorded of the year 
1705. 

As is so usually the case, the Register itself is not 
much more than a bare record of names and dates ; and 
the names being, with the exception of the Newdegates, 
and perhaps one may add, the Budgens, those of persons 
undistinguished, and, indeed, unknown, except in their 
own neighbourhood and at their own period, the 
Register does not need any very lengthy notice. There 
is no indication of the ecclesiastical system being over- 
whelmed by the Puritans at the time of the Common- 
wealth ; no Civil Registrar appears to have been 
appointed, nor is there any mention of the publication 
of marriages, or their celebration before a magistrate ; 
but in one case, in 1653, it mentions the presence of the 
parents of both parties, thus : 

1653. Henrie Steere of Newdigate C Elizabeth Lucas of Micklam 
were marled Jul. 13, 1653, y e parents of both Parties being 
present at their marriage giving their consent. 

There are but few Christian names indicating a Puritan 
tendency, such as Christian, Bethsabe, Moyses, Ephraim, 
Grace, Sullamon, and Erasmus, which do occur; of 
uncommon Christian names may be noted, Adriane, 
Connias, and Freweson or Frusan, all females ; and 
Hendry (not infrequent), and Walsingham (in four dif- 
ferent families between 1580 and 1602), males. The 
name Christopher is quite unusually frequent in the 



ITS RECTORS AND REGISTERS. '289 

latter half of the seventeenth century; and one can 
scarcely fail to connect it with the painting which 
formed so prominent a decoration of the Church. 

Newdegate appears to have been a favourite place at 
which to be married. In the last quarter of the seven- 
teenth century (at which time it was here very usual to 
add the parish of the bridegroom and bride) weddings of 
persons, neither of whom were residents in this parish, 
were frequent. 

The loyalty of John Bonwick (then Kector) crops out 
in a note of the coronation : 

Annoqfc Regis sereniss. Caroli 3 d1 , 12 mo King Charles y e Second was 
Crown'd at "Westminsf Die Ss Georgii, Aprilis 23 Anno dni 
1661 ; whom God graunt long to reigne. 

One would think he felt a relief to indulge in the learned 
tongue without fearing a cry from some Koundhead suc- 
cessor of Cade: 1 

Away with him, away with him ! he speaks Latin. 

The entries relating to rectors and curates we have 
already adverted to. 

There are, of course, a series of entries relating to 
members of the ISTewdegate family, beginning with the 
baptism of Ffines, daughter of Thomas Newdigat, in 
November, 1560 (which is the second entry in the book), 
and to which Mr. Nichols refers in his Paper upon the 
Newdegate family (ante, p. 265) : many of these entries 
have been traced over with ink for the sake of pre- 
servation where the writing was becoming faint. 

Beside that family and the Budgens, there is but one 
entry relating to any person bearing a title, and that 
owes its position to personal friendship. The entry is 
as follows : 

Margaret Daughter of my mo. hond. Friends Benefact. Colonell 
Adam Browne y e Lady Philippa his wife was Borne att 
Betch worth Castle Dec" 3 18 Baptized theere (in Test. S cti 
Steph 1 Protomart is ) 26 Decembris Anno dni 1661. 

Jon 3 . BONWICKE. 



1 2nd part Henry VI., act iv. scene 7. 

u 2 



290 " KEWDEGATE CHURCH I 

Sir Adam Browne, of Betchworth, Bart., 1 was member 
of Parliament for Surrey ; his wife was the daughter of 
Sir John Cooper, of Wimbourn, Dorset, Bart. They 
had one son, who died unmarried in 1688, and an only 
daughter and heiress. On the death of Sir Adam in 
1690, the baronetcy became extinct. Lady Browne 
survived, and died 20th May, 1701, aged 77, and 
is commemorated by an inscription in Mickleham 
Church. 2 

Of the surnames, a larger proportion than usual are 
uncommon such as Ashefold, Bozyer or Bosier, Broum- 
field, Catland, Chownings, Cypress, Dill, Drakeford, 
Edome, Gryffin, Harryden, Hichest, Isemonger, Jakman, 
Kewington, Labye, Lowedell, Machin, Palucke, Richbell, 
Ridams or Rodams, Smallpeece, Velvecke, Wiggles worth, 
and Yarner ; but all of these are now extinct in the 
parish ; and a less number which remain in the parish 
or neighbouring district such as Burstow, Elliot, 
Evered, Larken, Naldret or ISIalder, Napper, Quidding- 
ton, Snelling, Worsfield, and Woody er. 3 Bristow or 
Burstow, Misbroke, and some others, are simply names 
of neighbouring localities. 

Of nonconformists there are extremely few noted. In 
1696 is the entry of birth on 8th July of a female child 
of Robert Ede, a dissenter ; on 28th November in the 
following year, of a male child of Thomas Houndsom, a 
Quaker ; and in 1701 is noted the burial, at Reigate, of 
the same Thomas Houndsom, Quaker. In the same 
year it states that Henry Wheeler, labourer, a Quaker, 
died here, and was buried at Capel. 

In 1660 is recorded the marriage of Robert Tailour, 
aged 72 years, with Agnes Foster, aged 70. 

Among the miscellaneous memoranda at the end of 
the book, such as those relating to the alterations in the 
Church, and to the boundary question, we may add the 
list of collections so frequently thus preserved. Thus, 

1 His name does not appear in the Army Lists of the Roundheads 
and Cavaliers in 1 642, edited by Mr. Peacock. 

2 Manning and Bray, vol. ii. p. 661. 

8 I am indebted to the Rector for this information. 



ITS RECTORS AND REGISTERS. 291 

in 1670, there was collected 5. 10s. lOd. " upon a Brief 
for y e redemption of a great number of Slaves taken 
by Turkish Pirates." In 1686 was a collection for 
French Protestants; and in 1691 one for Irish Protest- 
ants, produced eight shillings. Most usually, however, 
the collections were for the benefit of sufferers by fire 
(there were then no insurance companies), and for the 
repair of churches. A house-to-house collection for 
the town of New Alresford, Hants, in 1690, realized 
1. 9s. 9d. From 1691 there is no entry until 1857, 
when a collection for the benefit of the sufferers by the 
Indian Mutiny produced 1. 7s. 7d. 

There is also a note that George . . . . , of the parish 
of Newdegate, single man, in the service of Mrs. Glover, 
"wanting y e feare of God," "did hang himself in her 
barne." 

The Eectory House is a small, low building, situated 
to the eastward of the Church ; on one of its beams is 
cut AN DO 1619 SEP 10 ; and a quarry in the window is 
represented below. 




STAINED GLASS QUARRY AT THE RECTORY. 

One-third scale. 

In conclusion, I have to acknowledge with best thanks 
the kind courtesy of the Rev. Lancelot S.* Kennedy, 



292 



NEWDEGATE CHURCH. 



M.A., the Eector, by whom every facility and assist- 
ance have been rendered. The Society is again indebted 
to Ralph Nevill, Esq., for the anastatic drawings with 
which this Paper is illustrated; viz., the picturesque 
exterior view of the Church and the elaborately pre- 
pared sections and plans of the timber tower. 




PANELLING IN GALLERY-FRONT. 



NOTES ON THE FIGURE OF ST. CHRISTOPHER. 293 



NOTES ON THE FIGURE OF ST. CHRISTOPHER. 
BY JOHN GREEN WALLER, ESQ. 



SINCE the publication of my paper upon the wall- 
painting of St. Christopher at Newdigate Church, 
several notes have been forwarded to me by Major 
Heales, F.S.A., and I have considered, that some 
additional remarks, embodying these may not be un- 
acceptable. 

At page 59, I had stated my impression, that these 
figures were generally shown as moving from right to 
left, and I could only produce one example, that at 
Ludgvan, to the contrary. But I find another in- 
stance at Gawsworth, in Cheshire; and it may be 
that the rule was, that if the painting was executed 
upon the north wall, as mostly the case, it would be as 
stated, but if on the south, it would be reversed ; the 
reason doubtless being that the Saint was invariably 
represented as moving towards the east, i.e., the altar ; 
an arrangement which would be agreeable to the spirit 
of the story. 

I had mentioned that the figures were frequently in 
sculpture, and of wood; but, nevertheless, there is no doubt 
but that paintings on the wall were the most common. 
The notable example, formerly at Notre Dame, Paris, 
alluded to by Erasmus, I have already spoken of. There 
is one of wood still extant at Avenieres, adjoining Laval, 
in France, placed against the pillar on the north side of 
the nave, and about 10 feet in height; date early in the 
fifteenth century. Also, in the Church of Santa Maria 
del Orto, otherwise S. Cristofero, at Venice, is one 
occupying a niche at the back of the apse immediately 



294 NOTES ON THE 

behind the altar. In this instance, however, the posi- 
tion in which it is placed is not for the ready and 
general veneration of the people, but rather on account 
of the church being in part dedicated to the Saint. 
Either in France, or in Belgium, I have seen a large 
painted wooden figure of St. Christopher in low relief, 
but I regret to say I have not found my notes which 
would give the locality. Large statues of St. Christopher 
exist at the Cathedral of Auxerre, France, and also in 
that of Erfurt, in Germany ; but of what material I am 
unable to state, but possibly of wood. Another, remark- 
able for its being stated to be of the actual size of the 
Saint, calculated from some of his bones brought to 
England in 1470, is in the Church of S. Maria della 
Pieta, at Venice. 1 In the Cathedral of Minister, in 
Westphalia, is a stone statue of the Saint fixed at the 
north-east angle of the transept. It is not of early date, 
possibly of the first quarter of the seventeenth century. 
The staff here given is a mere wand, foliated at the 
apex. This reduction of the usual size and character of 
the ragged staff may be occasionally found in early 
examples, as, for instance, at Fritton, in Suffolk. 

There is a painting of St. Christopher, associated with 
the figure of St. George, by Roger de Bruges, which is 
so far worthy of remark, that this latter saint was 
another popular one, especially in England, being its 
patron. One of the most common subjects of our wall- 
paintings is of St. George conquering the Dragon : a 
very rude example was recently found at Finchley, Mid- 
dlesex ; and one at Dartford, Kent, is well known. The 
legend is of a similar class to that of St. Christopher, 
being clearly mythical, and the result of teaching by 
apologue and symbols. One of the latest instances of 
the subject of St. Christopher is that by Rubens, at 
Antwerp Cathedral, a curious commentary, among 
others, of the force of popular views long after dis- 
credit has been thrown upon them. For both Roman 
Catholic writers, as well as those of the Reformation, 

1 Dictionnaire critique des Reliques et des Images. Par J. A. S. Collin 
tie Plancy. 8vo. Paris, 1821, vol. i. p. 146. 



FIGURE OP ST. CHRISTOPHER. 295 

equally disallow the legend of St. Christopher, though, 
as I have before remarked, with some reservation. 

Among the Italian painters, Mr. Jameson mentions 
that Pollajuolo painted a gigantic figure of St. Christo- 
pher about 20 feet in height on the facade of the 
Church of San Miniato fra le Torre, at Florence, which 
served during many years as a model of form to the 
artists of his school. Michael Angelo copied it several 
times : it exists no longer. A St. Christopher, 32 feet 
high, was painted at Seville by Matteo Perez de Alesis, 
A.D. 1584. 1 A very interesting fresco, by Garofalo, was 
exhibited at the recent ceremony of opening the Guild- 
hall Library. 

In the south aisle of Headington Church, Oxfordshire, 
a mere fragment of a St. Christopher was found, toge- 
ther with a series of subjects from Scripture. Only the 
upper part was sufficiently preserved to show details ; 
yet here was a divergence from the usual type, which 
makes it interesting in a history of the subject. The 
figure of Christ is upheld by the left arm, and the Saint 
wears a cap of a somewhat academical character, as 
seen in our monuments of canons, and other dignitaries 
of the Church. This example explains a passage from, 
one of our records, quoted by Horace Walpole, in his 
Anecdotes of Painting ; and it may be, that early ex- 
amples do not represent the figure of Christ upon the 
shoulder of the Saint, according to our usual expe- 
riences. The record in question is from the Close Rolls, 
1248, and is a precept to the sheriff of Southampton, 
" that he should cause to be painted in the Chapel of 
our Queen at Winchester, upon the gable towards the 
west, the figure of St. Christopher, as elsewhere it is 
painted : he shall bear Christ in his arms." An earlier 
record is also quoted respecting some decorations in 
the Church of St. Peter, in the Tower of London, when, 
after describing the re-colouring of certain images, it 

1 Sacred and Legendary Art, vol. ii. p. 443. 

2 " Prsecipimus tibi quod de exitibus comitatus tui depingi facias in 
capella reginse nostrse apud Wintoniam super gabulum versus occideiitem 
ioiaginem Chris toferi, sicut alibi depingitur." 



296 NOTES ON THE 

proceeds : " that a certain figure of St. Christopher, 
holding and bearing Jesus, should be painted in the 
aforesaid Church where best and most fitly it can be 
done." 1 The last clause probably meant in such a 
place where it could be best seen. 

The distich given at p. 64 is often varied verbally, 
but not so as to alter its intention. Certainly the most 
curious of these is that found upon a bell in Shapwick 
Church, Dorset, by the Kev. J. J. Kaven, of Great 
Yarmouth : 

" Illo nempe die nullo languore gravetur 
Xtofori Sci catnpanam quicunque tuetur." 

The efficacy of honouring the Saint is here even trans- 
ferred to his bell. The labourer in the fields, hearing 
the sound of the bell of St. Christopher, would not faint 
during his toil. Such is the inference. 

The Rev. Lee Warner has kindly given me from 
memory the following lines in English, which accom- 
panied a figure of St. Christopher in the Church of 
Sedgeford, Norfolk, date about the end of the fourteenth 
century. He does not vouch for absolute verbal accu- 
racy, nor orthography, but that it is substantially 
correct; being in the vernacular makes it especially 
interesting : 

" Wyth all thys world in hand, 
Thy dry staff withouten let, 
Shall beren leavis in land, 
Where thou it set." 

The references to the legend will at once be seen, for 
wherever we get the figure of St. Christopher, there 
will be, in some fashion or other, the leaf-bearing staff. 
In the Minister example this is made particularly pro- 
minent. 

In Horley Church, near Banbury, Oxfordshire, an 
example was found in which the staff was represented 

1 " Quandam imaginem de Sancto Christofero tenentein et portantem 
Jesum, ubi melius et decentius fieri potest, et depingi in prsedicta 
ecclesia." 



FIGURE OP ST. CHRISTOPHER. 297 

as breaking in twain under the superincumbent weight, 
and on a scroll from the mouth of the saint these words 
were deciphered : 

11 What art thou that art so he(vy) ] 
Bar I never so hevy thynge." 

The Saviour makes reply, 

" Yef I be hevy no wunder nys, 
For I am the Kynge of blys." 

These lines are similar to some in Latin at Stoke 
Bardolph, Norfolk, viz. : 

" Parve Puer, quis tu, graviorem non tolleravi, 
Non mirans sis tu, nam sum qui cuncta creavi." 

This breaking of the staff is altogether new to me ; it is 
not according to the legend, and was possibly an original 
idea of the artist, a rare occurrence. The work must 
have been late in the fifteenth century. 

In the will of William Philpot, of Godmersham, 1474, 
is a reference to the existence of a figure of St. Chris- 
topher in Elmstead Church; the will directing that 
certain seats should be made from the place where St. 
Christopher was painted, as far as the angle of the stone 
wall on the northern side of the same church. The 
painting exists no longer, but some of the seats remain. 1 
Also in the will of Richard Shore, citizen and Alderman 
of Farringdon Without, and Sheriff in 1505, dated 
August, 1510, is another reference: "I bequeth 
toward the making of a porche to the pisshe church of 
seynt Mildrede in the Pultry of London xvli. sterl., and 
I will that on either side of the sam porche of seynt 
Mildrede churche shalbe made an ymage of seynt Cris- 
tofer in stone embossid." (Milbourn's " History of St. 
Mildred's, Poultry," p. 12). Here we have a carved 
figure in stone, as in examples previously given. 

1 " Volo q d fabricant 1 ' de novo scabella voc r le Pewes in eadm ecclia de 
Elmysted sumptib) suis_vid3 illud spacfh a loco ubi scus Xpoforus 
pingitur usqf ad angulu muri lapidei ex parti boreali ejusd} ecctt." 
HEALES' History and Law of Church Seats, vol. i. p. 53. 



298 NOTES ON THE 

The Saint was popular with guilds and fraternities. 
In Lambeth Church was a brotherhood under his patron- 
age. 1 The description of the yeoman by Chaucer, already 
mentioned (p. 64), suggests the probability of his having 
been a member of such an association. Amongst the 
valuable collection of silver plate in the museum of the 
late Lord Londesborough were three finely-designed 
covered cups ; one dated 1593 ; another similar in cha- 
racter may be assigned to the same period ; and the 
third dated 1676. They all belonged to a fraternity of 
Arquebussiers at Gorichem-on-the-Waal, and each of 
them is surmounted by a figure of St. Christopher of the 
ancient type. 2 Chaucer's yeoman was an archer ; the 
arquebussier was his successor in the history of arms ; 
and doubtless, in both cases, the charm of St. Christo- 
pher's protection originated the custom. Representa- 
tions have occasionally been found upon chalices in 
enamelled work as late as the seventeenth century, but 
I should scarcely think this by any means common or of 
any ancient use. 

Besides the example on the brass at Wyke, Hants, to 
William Complyn, which I have already mentioned, there 
are two others, registered in Mr. Haines's manual, at 
Morley Church, Derbyshire, which contain accessory 
figures of St. Christopher ; viz., one to John Stathum, 
Esq., 1444; the other to Sir Thomas Stathum, 1470. 
Possibly other instances of the figure as an accessory to 
a monument might be found either at home or abroad, 
as in an example in the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
date 1534. 

Mr. H. L. Phillips, a member of the Surrey Archaeo- 
logical Society, has communicated a few interesting facts, 
from which the following passages are extracted. He 
says : " In 1860 there stood near the parish church in 
Bermondsey Street, an old wooden public-house, which, 
besides informing the public that it was a ' House of 
Call for Scotch Bakers,' had for its sign ' the Fox and 



1 Tanswell'rf History of Lambeth, pp. 110-114. 

2 Engraved in Fairholt's Catalogue, 1850, plate xvii, 



FIGURE OF ST. CHRISTOPHER. 299 

Goose.' This house, about this date, was pulled down, 
and some very curious old stones were then found 
among the foundations ; and a new house, bearing the 
same sign, now stands on its site. In 1864 the next 
house was pulled down to make room for the tin manu- 
factory of Messrs. Perkins ; and, among some old spoons, 
keys, and knives, was found a gold signet-ring, with the 
figure of St. Christopher upon it, now in the posses- 
sion of Richard Perkins, Esq." 

Hughson, in his " History of London," published in 
1805, in describing Bermondsey Street, says : " Here 
is a very old inn, called Christopher's Inn, on which 
is a rude emblem of St. Christopher. Christopher 
(vulgarly Crucifix) Lane leads to Snow's Fields." This 
inn has passed away, and even its very site is un- 
known. 

I give the above notes as very curious and interest- 
ing. The signs of these old inns, " The Fox and Goose," 
" St. Christopher," and another of the " Holy Lamb," 
which Mr. Phillips mentions that he found in an old 
lease, all bespeak a time which has passed away. It is 
not at all uncommon to find traces of this ancient apo- 
logue of the Fox and Goose in our old towns, 1 but 
there is really no connection between it and the legend 
of St. Christopher, as the painting formerly at Ludgvan 2 
might suggest. Since writing the above, another ex- 
ample has been found at Henstridge Ash, in Somerset- 
shire. " The picture occupies a space of 8 ft. by 9 ft. 
din., and exhibits a gigantic figure of St. Christopher, 
bearing on his shoulder a small figure of the Saviour, 
whose hand is raised in the act of blessing. The feet of 
St. Christopher are in water, and around them are 
fishes. In the background are a windmill, a packhorse 
laden with corn, and a dog, with a man carrying on his 
head a sack. There is also a lofty rock, surmounted by 
a church, and on a projecting ledge stands a monk with 

1 At the corner of an old timber house of the fifteenth century at 
Ipswich is an excellent example representing the Fox preaching. 

2 Engraved at p. 50 of the Journal of the Royal Institution of Corn- 
wall, No. xiii. April, 1872. 



300 NOTES ON THE FIGURE OF ST. CHRISTOPHER. 

girdle and rosary, holding out over the water a lantern 
hung to the end of a stick. The whole picture is sur- 
rounded by a border of lotus-leaves." (uhurnh Review, 
June 21, 1873.) Some of the above details are unusual. 
It is a curious coincidence of the discovery of the 
ring as above stated, close to the old inn, but nothing 
more can be said of it. Many more singular facts might 
probably be found in illustration of the worship of St. 
Christopher, if time permitted extensive research. 



THE HLGKIMS 5 WAY. 301 



THE PILGRIMS' WAY AS IT PASSES THROUGH 
THE PARISHES OF GODSTONE AND TAN- 
BRIDGE. 

BY SIR GEORGE GILBERT SCOTT, R.A., F.A.S. 



HAYING lived for three years at the foot of the 
chalk hills in the parish of Tandridge, in Surrey, 
my interest was excited by the uncertainty which existed 
as to the course taken by the Pilgrims' Way through that 
parish and the parish of Godstone, and I was led to 
devote a little of my leisure time to its investigation. 

The true course was known to the westward, where it 
crosses the back of what is called " White Hill," and to 
the east, where it crosses Titsey Park, and a little distance 
to the westward of it ; but the intervening space, of some 
four miles, seemed uncertain; and as the conjectural 
course laid down by the ordnance survey passes mainly 
through slippery Gait clay, it struck me as hardly likely 
to be correct ; the object in carrying the road along the 
escarpment of the chalk apparently being to keep it on 
firm and dry ground. 

It is clear, however, that the old way varied much in 
its level ; for, while the known positions on White Hill 
are on the top of the Downs, those in Titsey Park are 
at their foot ; both, however, are on the Chalk or Fire- 
stone. 

This length of the escarpment is somewhat peculiar, 
owing to the frequent promontories and recesses which 
vary its line ; and these irregularities must have caused 
some perplexity in arranging, in old times, the line of 



302 THE PILGRIMS' WAY AS IT PASSES 

the road ; for, if it followed round the hills at any given 
level, it would have become exceedingly circuitous. 

We know that at Titsey it was at the foot of the hills, 
and for some distance to the westward the face of the 
hills is so steep as to be, to say the least, inconvenient 
for it to ascend them. The line I have adopted from 
varied evidence, continues at the lower level till it 
approaches the promontory formed by Tandridge Hill, 
which it gradually ascends, though not to its full height. 
After crossing this hill, it descends into the deep recess 
which divides this promontory from Godstone Hill, and, 
in winding round its sinuosities, ascends the last-named 
hill almost at its back, in the depression leading to 
the Caterham Valley ; and, passing across the promon- 
tory formed by Godstone Hill comes out again to the 
front just beyond it westward, and a little further on 
joins the portion of the way which is well known in or 
near War Coppice, close to the camp (or other ancient 
earthwork) in that wood, passing on from thence at the 
back of White Hill, near the Harrow Inn. 

In some parts of this course the road is readily traced ; 
in one, it is cut through by a vast chalk-pit; in another 
it is still used as a road ; but, in others again, all traces 
of it have vanished, though the peasants tell you with- 
out hesitation that it passed that way. I have, in the 
accompanying map, marked the course which I think the 
road took, and will now give the arguments and evidences 
on which I have founded my opinion. 

In sketching (in red lines) the imagined course of the 
Pilgrims' Way, I have adopted that already shown in the 
ordnance survey from the west of Map to A, and from 
K to east of Map. Of the former, I had obtained inde- 
pendent evidence from Willey Farm to A, and of the 
latter, I had independently arrived at (about) the point 
K. From A to K I have ventured to adopt a different 
line. My grounds are as follows: I was made acquainted 
by Mr. Ca3sar Winter, who works the sand-quarry in 
Godstone village, with a man who professed to know 



THROUGH GODSTONE AND TANDEIDGE. 303 

the true course of the road. By him (or by both) I was 
assured that the Pilgrims' Road passed through the 
grounds of Woodland House, but had been obliterated 
when those grounds were laid out. He walked with me 
through Upwood Scrubs to the brow of hill at E, near 
which he began to point out the road in patches, but 
intersected by chalk-pits, especially across the ploughed 
field from A to chalk-pit B, and also from C to D. I 
afterwards thought I traced it from D to E, through the 
copse. The same man (corroborated afterwards by a 
man who works in chalk-pit above Godstone quarry) 1 
assured me that the existing road up the opposite slope 
of Tandridge Hill, from G to H, was a part of it ; and 
that in the interval it passed somewhere beneath Winder's 
Hill. 2 Another wholly independent witness told me that 
it emerged from Upwood Scrubs, near F. 

Here I must leave my witnesses, and take a course of 
my own ; for they took it for granted that, on reaching 
the wood on Tandridge Hill, at H, the road continued, 
as at present, round the back of the wood. This struck 
me as impossible, as it would lead so high in the hill as 
to seem inconsistent with its descending again to Titsey 
Park. I was at the time too unwell to go up this hill, 
but, after viewing it often from below, I told my son 
(who had investigated the matter with me) that I 
was sure he would find a trace of the road through 
the wood from H. He explored this, and to our great 
interest found the clear line of the old road, with its 
hedge-row trees remaining, but its course grown over 
with bushes, from H to I ; the latter point being just 
above "The Dell," at the side of Tandridge Hill Lane. 
Nothing can be clearer than this line of road, though too 
thickly overgrown to allow of one's walking actually 
along it : there is a modern path just above it, from 



1 I think his name is Atkins ; he lives in one of the cottages near 
Quarry Farm. 

2 The course below Winder's Hill to F is obscure, and it is possible 
hat it may have avoided the deep dell to the west of that hill. 

VOL. VI. X 



304 THE PILGRIMS' WAY. 

which it is readily seen all along. 1 From I the course is 
less marked, yet there seems some indication of a line of 
possible road leading across the fields, &c., towards K, 
where I believe indications are known to exist. 



1 I think no one who would take the trouble to follow this old road 
through the wood cun tail of arriving at the same conclusion : to myself 
it was the more convincing, as I had, before finding it to exist, couie to 
the conclusion that it must be there. 



$isiiar0tt 0f Sitrrjj, 



MADE A 1623 BY SAMUELL THOMPSON, WINDSOR HERAULD, 

AND 

AUGUSTYNE VINCENT, EOUGCEOIX, 
Marshalls and Deputies to Wm. Camden, Esq., Clarenceux King-of-Armes. 



EDITED BY 

JOSEPH JACKSON HOWARD, LL.D., F.S. 



Cariqut. 




These 4 Coates confirmed and the Creast graunted by Robert Cooke Clarencieux 
to Richard Carique of Barton on the Hill, in j e county of Glouc. gen: sonne and 
heire to Richard Carique of Tewxbery, in y e county of Glouc., gent., and of Mary 
his wife, y e daught: of Anthony Harecourt, of Leicestershire. Dat 25 Jan. 
a 1588, et 31 Elizabeths. 



Ric'us Carique de = 
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juris civilis 

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The Armes and Creasfc were ratified and confirmed to bee auncient Armes and 
Crest appertayning to the Buckles as appeareth by a Pattent given to S r Cuthbert 
Buckle K* Lord Mayor of London, by Robert Cooke alias Clarenceux King of 
Armes, under his hand and seale 29 January a 1579.. 






Christopherus Buckle of 
Burgh in Westmoreland 



S r Cuthbert Buckle 

Lord Mayor of 

London 



S r Christopher Buckle 

of Bansted in com 

Surr; 



Judith 11 

years old 

1623 



Elizabeth da: to 
Marston of Sussex 



= Katherine da: of 

Sir Martin 

Barnham of Kent 

Knight 



Francis 

6 yeares 

old ann: 1623 



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Richard u 8 Turner de 


= Elizabetha filia . . . 




Wastminater in com 


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Midd: 


Leicest: 




rtus 2 Johannes Hiero 


nomu.i = Alic'a Eliz 


tbetLa 


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ethae 1623 


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in com 








Kantii 




1 1 





RJCU8 

Tumor 

films et 

hares 

tetat: 30 

annor: 

1623 



Robertas Franciscus Katherina 



VOL. VI. 



Thomas Smyth 

de Layham in 

Suff : filius et 

bseres 



Thomas Smyth = Johanna filia Ed'ri 



de Layham in 
com Suff. 



Downes de Col- 
chester in Ess 



Joh'es Smyth de = Maria filia Will'i 



Sudbury in 
com : Suff : 



Siday de Layham 
in Suff: 



Eliza : filia Tho : Ball = Rob'tus Smyth de Burgo = Elizabeth filia Oliphi 

de Hadley in com de Southwerk ar : justi- Barre de Southwerk 

Suff: relicta Oliveri ciar : ad pacem et de medio relict Joh'is Bird de 

Ailwood Templo Lond : 1623 Southwerke 



a 



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Or 




Given by Thomas Wryothesley al's Garter and Thomas Benolt al's Clarenc' King 
of Armes to John Pett of London gent 9 September 1519 11 H 8. 



Joh'es Pett de London cui Brigitta 
Garter et Clarenc : a 11 
H 8 concessit hsec arma 



Franciscus Pett de Nasing = Maria filia Gifford de Claydon 



in com. Essex 


in com. Buck. 


1 
Rad'us Pett = 


Mabilia 


Georgius 


Henricus = Anna 


II II 
Maria Vrsula 


de Alder- 


filia 


Pett de 


Pett de relicta 


vx: vxor Grey 


bury in com 


Bowett 


London 


Wallworth Martyn 


Roberti de 


Oxon filius 


de coin 


jurisperit' 


in com 


Browne de London 


et hseres 


Leic. 


duxit 


Surr : a 


Watham 


s.p. 




filiara . . 


1623 


in com Eliza : 






Colmaa 




Essex uxor Joh'is 






de co ; 




Cooper de 






Wilts 




Brigitta Comit : 






=a 




vxor Rici Somersetsh 






1 




Brisco 



Mabilia filia et fiEeres 

nupta Johanni Boteler de 

Apeltree in co North : 



(Samsforfc. 





s b a to o 

I gases 5 

w " 8 



i .5 
o M 



II 



Ric'us Gainsfor 
nuper de Block 
feildeincoSurr 
Ob 1483 1 R38.p 
Sep : in ecclise 
sc'i Marti Otgar 
in London. 






Aminab Cowper = Dorothey da: and coheire 



de London 



of Godhelpe of 
Cobham in com Surrey 



Susanne = Godhelpe Cowper = Susan da. of 


da: of 


de Cobbam in 


Henry Best of 


Aske in 


com Surr: son and 


Middleton on 


com 


heire a 1623 


com Yorke vxor 2 


Yorke 






vx. 1 






Godl 


elpe Henry C 


owper 


Cowper 2 son 


sons and heire 2 years old 


1623 



Ifcdtkt. 




Joh'es Vrricke de Wittensto.w = Maria'filia Edw'i Marston 
in com Salop: de com Salop : 



Tho: Vrrick = 
de Ashford 
in com Kant, 
vbi sepultus 
jacet. 


= Joh'a filia Joh'es Vrrick de = 
Xpoferi Leedes Westonstow in 
de Ashford in com Salop : et de 
Kant. London 


Jana renupta Margarelt 
Will'i Jaggard s.p. 
de London 
Tipographo 


1 
Joh'es Vrrick de South- = Jana filia Thomse Cure 
werk in com Surr: de Southwark relicta 
filius et hseres jam Hugonis Brooker de 
superstes a 1623 Southwerk 


Maria vxor Will'i Barnard 
de Otford in Kent renupta 
JoVi Sherman de London 




Kenelmus Wright '= Margareta filia 



de Kerapton in 
com Gloucest. 



WottoH de 

Kemberton. 



Kob'tus = 
Wright 
de 
Kemb'ton 
films et 
lucres. 


= Jocosa Rich'us Wright = Clar a 
filia de Burgo de filia 
Gay de Southwerk Will'i 
Kemberton in co Newcome 
Surr. de Exeter 
in com 
Devon. 



filias duoe 



Joh'nes Wright 

de Kemberton 

a 1623. 



331 



INDEX TO VOL. VI. 



A. 

Abbot's Hethe and Abbot's Deane, 

etymology of, 138 

Addy, J., on a Roman villa at Bedding- 
ton, 118 

Ail swell, etymology of, 138 
Aldberyes, etymology of, 138 
Alfold, account of the village of, 18 
Alfold, ancient possessors of the manor 

and advowson, 13 

Alfold Church, history of, 11 ; restora- 
tion, ib ; early work in, 12 ; character 
of architecture, ib ; bell-turret of, 14 ; 
bells in ditto, 16 ; wall-painting in, ib ; 
inventory of church goods, ib ; monu- 
ments in, 17 ; parish registers, ib ; 
account of the village, 18; incised 
marks on an arch in the church, 19 
Alfold, etymology of, 12 
Alleylands, etymology of, 132 
Andrewe's Croft, etymology of, 139 
Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Beddington, 

122 
Anglo. Saxon Cemetery at Farthing 

Down, 109 

Annual meeting at Cranleigh, xii 
,, at Charlwood, xxii 
at Wimbledon, xxvi 
Apsley Town, etymology of, 97 
Arding Bun, etymology of, 98 
Ardyng Grounds, etymology of, 138 
Ashby Field, etymology of, 151 
At-Grove, etymology of, 101 



B. 



Babbeswell, etymology of, 139 
Bardoxe Block, etymology of, 137 
Barkestede, etymology of, 139 
Barrfields, etymology of, 81 
Barrow Green, etymology of, 130 
Bats, the, etymology of, 108 
Bavingtons, etymology of, 82 
Beddington, Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at, 

122 
Beddington, bronze implements found at, 

125 
Beddington, Roman villa at, 118 



Billeshurst, etymology of, 95 
Birsted, etymology of, 129 
Black Bushes, etymology of, 80 
Bletchingley, etymology of, 78 
Blindley Heath, etymology of, 94 
Blockfield, etymology of, 96 
Boaldeslowe, etymology of, 102 
Bolthurst, etymology of, 160 
Boteras Hill, etymology of, 82 
Bowshot, etymology of, 139 
Breaches, the, etymology of, 87 
Brewer Street, etymology of, 80 
Broadham, etymology of, 129 
Broken Cross Land, etymology of, 104 
Bronze implements found at Beddington, 

125 

Broomhull, etymology of, 139 
Buckelond, etymology of, 106 
Buckle, arms of, 312 
Bysshe Court, etymology of, 86 



0, 



Carique, arms and pedigree of, 306 
Caterford Bridge, etymology of, 101 
Caterham, etymology of, 222 
Cearn, etymology of, 97 
Chalk-pit Wood, etymology of. 1 37 
Chalvencroft, etymology of, 140 
Chapell Lands, etymology of, 140 
Charlwood, visit to, xxii 
Chartham, etymology of, 99 
Chartland, etymology of, 167 
Chathill, etymology of, 107 
Chellows, etymology of, 100 
Chelsham, etymology of, 212 
Cherry, arms and pedigree of, 314 
Chirchewost, etymology of, 103 
Chivington, etymology of, 78 
Clarke, arms and pedigree of, 308 
Codeston, etymology of, 89 
Coites, etymology of, 104 
Cold Harbour, etymology of, 83 
Coleacre, etymology of, 140 
Coltsford Mill, etymology of, 134 
Comfort's Place, etymology of, 93, 141 
Conlsdon, Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at, 109 
Covelingley, etymology of, 91 



SURREY COLLECTIONS, 



Cowper, arms and pedigree of, 328 

Crabbis, etymology of, 141 

Cranloy, account of the parish of, 22 ; 
rectors of, 23 ; dedication of church, 
26 ; restoration of ditto, il> ; descrip- 
tion, 26, et seq. ; the Vachery chapel 
in, 29 ; inventory of goods in, 30 ; 
memorial windows, ib ; monuments 
and brasses, 34 ; will of Eobcrt Hard- 
ing, 38 ; ancient religious ceremonies, 
43 et seq. ; parish registers, 49 

Cranley, Thomas, 55 

Cranley, visit to, xii 

Crockereshame, etymology o r , 103 

Crotchfyld, etymology of, 141 

Crowhnrst, etymology of, 100 

Crowhurst Place, etymology of, 101 

D. 

Darby's, etymology of, 83 
Dawney Mead, etymology of, 1 11 
Deure, etymology of, 96 
Dewlond, etymology of, 107 
Dewelands, etymology of, 142 
Dod water Mead, etymology of, 142 
Dowlands, etymology of, 87 
Dnnsfold church, 15 
Dwelly, etymology of, 104 

E. 

Earls Wood, etymology of, 134 
Elstead church, belfry of, 15 
Elyott, arms and pedigree of, 316 
Enterden, etymology of, 93 
Ethenewood, etymology of, 158 
Ewhurst, ancient vicinal road through, 1 



F. 



Farley, etymology of, 209 
Farnedene, etymology of, 142 
Farnehill, etymology of, 82 
Farthing Dale, etymology of, 94 
Farthing Down, Anglo-Saxon Cemetery 

at, 109 

Feake, arms and pedigree of, 310 
Fellbridge and Fellcourt, etymology of, 

02 
Flower, J. W., on an Anglo - Saxon 

Cemetery at Beddington, 122 
Flower, J. W., on an Anglo-Saxon 

Cemetery at Farthing Down, 109 
Blower, J. W., on a hoard of bronze 

implements found at Beddington, 125 
Flower, or Flore, etymology of, 94 
Ford, etymology of, 96 
Foxescrofte, etymology of, 106 
Foyle, etymology of, 129 



Foyle Ridden, etymology of, 132 
Frankmannis, etymology of, 142 
Frithlands, etymology of, 106 

G. 

Gainsford, arms and pedigree of. 326 
Garston, etymology of, 78 
Gatesden, etymology of, 90 
Gatlands, etymology of, 101 
Geisteriden, etymology of, 103 
Gibbs Brook, etymology of, 135 
Gildable, the, etymology of, 98 
Gincock's, etymology of, 132 
Godalming church, incised marks in, 16 
God stone, etymology of, 88 
Godstone, the Pilgrim's Way through, 

301 

Godwyns Ersh, etymology of, 142 
Great Souer, or Sower, etymology of, 107 
Gresham Mead, etymology of, 152 
Grub Street, etymology of, 175 

H. 

Haling Wood, etymology of, 159 

Halland, etymology of, 103 

Ham, etymology of, 79 

Hanle Wood, etymology of, 142 

Harding, Robert, will of, 38 

Harrison, J. P., on a vicinal road through 

Ewhurst, 1 

Harrowsley, etymology of, 85 
Haxted, etymology of, 97 
Headlands, etymology of, 166 
Heales, Major, on the parish of Cranley, 

21 
Heales, Major, on the rectors and 

registers of Newdegate, 268 
Hedge Court, etymology of, 91 
Hermits, etymology of, 98 
Hoaremed, etymology of, 143 
If obbs, etymology of, 107 
lloderslane, etymology of, 144 
Hogtrough Lane, etymology of, 144 
Holbeams, etymology of, 101 
Hollinden, etymology of, 143 
Homewood, etymology of, 143 
Hook Stile, etymology of, 88 
Hookwood, etymology of, 156 
Horelond, etymology of, 10i5 
Home, etymology of, 85 
Home Court, etymology of, 86 
Llorstone Croft, etymology of, 143 
Burst Green, etymology of, 130 
Hyldfyld, etymology of, 103 

I. 

ly Wood, etymology of, 144 
itchingwood Common, etymology of, 158 



INDEX. 



333 



j. 

Jokareshawe, etymology of, 102 

K. 

Kitchen Croft, etymology of, 82 

L. 

Lady Cross Farm, etymology of, 98 

Lagham, etymology of, 90 

Lagham Park, etymology of, 106 

Lake Street, etymology of, 175 

Langhurst, etymology of, 168 

Le Ledelond, etymology of, 106 

Leigh Place, etymology of, 91 

Lemed, etymology of, 145 

Leveson - Gower, G., Esq., on Surrey 

Etymologies, 78, 127 
Limpsfield church, description of, 70; 

discoveries of early work in, 74, et seq. 
Limpsfield, etymology of, 154 
Lincoln's Land, etymology of, 137 
Lingfield, etymology of, 94 
Lockhurst, etymology of, 168 
Lombardens, etymology of, 168 
Long Shott, etymology of, 81 
Lost/land, etymology of, 88 
Lovekynelond, etymology of, 1-15 
Lullingden, etymology of, 97 

M. 

Malynslonds, etymology of, 145 
Marden, etymology of, 91 
Maries, the, etymology of, 145 
Marriage of priests, Acts prohibiting the, 

25 

Melstrete, etymology of, 146 
Merle, or Merrol Common, etymology of, 

131 

Mesemede, etymology of, 138 
Mitchenalls, etymology of, 81 
Morant's Gate, etymology of, 146 
Mottecrofte, etymology of, 146 

N. 

Netherlonds, etymology of, 146 

New Chapel, etymology of, 92 

Newdegate church, dedication of, 271 ; 
description of, 272 ; incised marks, 
275; stained glass, 276; tower, 278; 
curious chest, 280 ; inventory of church 
goods, 281 ; ancient sepulchral 
memorial, il ; rectors, 282 et seq. ; 
registers, 287, et seq. 
Newdegate church, its rectors and 

registers, 268 

Tewdegate church, wall-painting in, 57, 
293 



Newdegate, the family of, 227 j wills of, 

261, et seq. 

Newdegate, the parish register of, 265 
New Hall, etymology of, 156 
Newland, etymology of, 100 
Nichols, J. G., on the family of, 227 
Nobright, etymology of, 91 
Nokewelcrofte, etymology of, 102 
Noman's Land, etymology of, 82 
Northe Hall, etymology of, 107 
Nottinghames, etymology of, 147 

0. 

Old Coat, etymology of, 88 
Oxted, etymology of, 127 

P. 

Padinden, or Puttendenbury, etymology 

of, 95 

Pain's Hill, etymology of, 172 
Paradise, etymology of, 88 
Park, North and South, etymology of, 84 
Park, East and West, etymology of, 86 
Pastens, etymology of, 167 
Pendell, etymology of, 79 
Pennox Hill, etymology of, 83 
Perry sfield, etymology of, 131 
Pett, arms and pedigree of, 324 
Pightle Little, etymology of, 81 
Pillorie Croft, etymology of, 147 
Piper's Wood, etymology of, 108 
Plaistow Street, etymology of, 94 
Pokerscroft, etymology of, 103 
Popeslane, etymology of, 147 
Ponkhacche, etymology of, 102 
Poundhill, etymology of, 82 
Powder Dicks, etymology of, 147 
Powkebrooke, etymology of, 147 
Precedents in Ecclesiastical and Civil 

Law, xiii 

Prinkham, etymology of, 95 
Priory, the, etymology of, 105 
Proceedings of the Society in 1871, ix 
in 1872, xix 

in 1873, xxii 

Puckmire, etymoloay of, 88 
Pympes, etymology of, 100 

R. 

Rawbones, etymology of, 107 
Redeborne, etymology of, 106 
Remboldesmore, etymology of, 148 
Ridlands, etymology of, 165 
Ridgeway, the, etymology of, 135 
Ripps, the, etymology of, 92 
Robin's Grove, etymologv of, 136 
Rokeslonds, etymology of, 149 



334 



SUBKEY COLLECTIONS. 



Eoman villa at Beddington, 118 
Rooksnest, etymology of, 105 
Ropkyns, etymology of, 103 
Roselands, etymology of, 133 
Rowbeech, etymology of, 87 
Rudgwick church, 15 
Rye Wood, etymology of, 135 

S. 

St. Christopher, wall paintings of, 57, 

293 

St. Piers, etymology of, 98 
Sawney Mead, etymology of, 149 
Saxpays Gate, etymology of, 149 
Scott, Sir G. G., on the Pilgrims' Way 

through Godstone and Tandridge, 301 
Sedecappys, etymology of, 149 
Sheare-leys, etymology of, 150 
Shovel strode, etymology of, 96 
Silkham, etymology of, 150 
Sketehacche, etymology of, 150 
Smitheatte, etymology of, 103 
Smyth, arms and pedigree of, 320 
Snatts, etymology of, 134 
Soghams, etymologyof, 150 
Somerberyes, etymology of, 150 
Southlands, etymology of, 105 
Spital Fields, etymology of, 136 
Stafford^ Wood, etymology of, 159 
Stangrave, etymology of, 80 
Sterborongh, etymology of, 95 
Stockenden, etymology of, 160 
Stockland, etymology of, 107 
Stokett's, etymology of 129 
Stonehall, etymology of, 133 
Stoneham, etymology of, 106 
Stoneyshott, etymology of, 170 
Stratton, etymology of, 90 
Stychins, etymology of, 83 
Sugham, etymology of, 104 
Surrey Etymologies, 78, 127 
Swainsland, etymology of, 170 
Swiers, etymology of, 151 
Synderford, etymology of, 102 

T. 
Tanbridge, etymology of, 104 



Tandridge, the Pilgrim's Way through, 

801 

Tatsfield, etymology of, 203 
Tenchleys, etymology of, 157 
Teyntheld, etymology of, 151 
Thunderfield Common, etymology of, 85 
Thnrsley church, belfry of, 14 
Tilburstow, etymology of, 92 
Tilgates, Great and Little, etymology of, 

81 

Tillingdowne, etymology of, 105 
Titsey, etymology of, 189 
Trevereux, etymology of, 157 
Tndhams, etymology of, 88 
Tnnbrigges Farm, etymology of, 82 
Tumor, arms and pedigree of, 318 
Tye Copse, etymology of, 85 
Tye, the, etymology of, 137 
Tyler's Green, etymology of, 83 

V. 

Vrrick, arms and pedigree of, 329 
Vyncheslc, etymology of, 151 

W. 

Waller, J. G., on a wall - painting in 

Newdegate church, 57, 2:93 
Warding, etymology of, 151 
Ware Farm, etymology of, 98 
Warlingharp, etymology of, 219 
Warwick Wold, etymology of, 80 
Waterhalle Weld, etymology of, 107 
Whitehill, etymology of, 83 
Whitewood, etymology of, 88 
Wilmotes Lane, etymology of, 83 
Wimbledon, visit to, xxvi 
Wimbles, etymology of, 171 
Winder's Hill, etymology of, 94 
Wintersell, etymology of, 100 
Woldingham, etymology of, 211 
Wonham, etymology of, 93 
Woodruff, arms and pedigree of, 322 
Wray, etymology of, 97 
Wright, arms and pedigree of, 330 
Wyncheston Lane, etymology of, 103. 



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